Skip to main content

Full text of "Stewarts of Appin"

See other formats

Go ^-^ 

92b. 2 





3 1833 01431 9070 ^ 




^^/-/s EDINBURGH: 




THE origin and early genealogy of the House of Stewart have en- 
gaged the attention and labours of numerous archaeologists. 
The position occupied by the family in Scotland, and their relations 
with the throne, have connected them closely with the recorded history, 
as well as with the traditions of the country. The genealogists of the 
last century had no difficulty in tracing with accuracy, and with the 
support of deeds and charters of the kings of Scotland, their descent 
from Alan, father of Walter the first High Steward of Scotland under 
King David I., who reigned 1 124 to 1 153. But the researches of later 
antiquaries have not only brought to light proofs of their having been 
seated in Norfolk in 1 100, and in Shropshire a few years later, but have 
also demonstrated the probability of the correctness of the traditional 
and generally received accounts of their Celtic descent. 

Where records exist the task is easy, but it becomes more difficult 
when we reach the period where charters end, and tradition begins. 
But to reject, as absolutely unworthy of credit, all history or tradition 
which cannot be established by conclusive or documentary proof, would 
be to efface almost entirely the early annals of our country, for such 
proof it is impossible, in most instances, to obtain ; and we should thus 
leave unaccounted for the many monuments of the piety and patriotism 
of our ancestors, and should consequently rob them of the credit which 
is justly due to their valour and to their zeal for religion. Thus for in- 
stance, Christian temples were built and the Danes were expelled from 


Scotland. Are lona and Loncarty to be regarded but as names, not as 
realities ? Should we not, instead of disregarding the traditions and 
memorials of the past, do all in our power to preserve them, until 
further researches shall enable the enquirer to discover the exact truth ? 
In this view, the reader shall be presented with such information and 
particulars regarding the early history of the House of Stewart as can be 
collected from the most approved authorities, and it will be for himself 
to determine the value to be placed on their testimony. 

Among the various authorities from which this account has been 
compiled, are Fordun's History, WInton's Chronicles, Barbour's Bruce, 
Blind Harry's Wallace, Holinshed's Chronicles, Buchanan's History of 
Scotland, Sir James Dalrymple's Historical Collection, Sir David 
Dalrymple's Annals, Camden's Britannia, Crawfurd's History of the 
Stewarts, Abercromby's History, Anderson's Royal Genealogies, 
Simson's History of the Stewarts, Sir Robert Douglas' Peerage, 
Duncan Stewart's Genealogy of the Stewarts, Andrew Stuart's 
Genealogy of the Stewarts, Sir Henry Steuart's reply to Andrew 
Stuart, Brown's Genealogical Tree of the Royal Family of Stewart, 
Nisbet's Heraldry, Drummond of Hawthornden's History, Eyton's 
Antiquities of Shropshire, and his Account of the Origin and Early 
History of the Houses of FItzalan and Stuart, Corbet Anderson's 
Antiquities of Shropshire, Chalmers' Caledonia, Gordon's Monasticon, 
Origines Parochiales Scotiae, Lives of the Lindsays, Reports of the 
Royal Commission on Historical Manuscripts, Font's Cunlnghame, 
Eraser's Earls of Southesk, The Black Book of Taymouth, 
Burke's Genealogy of the Princes of North Wales, Burke's Armoury, 
Macaulay's History, Skene's Highlanders and Celtic Scotland, MSS. in 
the British Museum, Historical MSS. in the Register House, Edinburgh, 
and various Histories of the Highlands, and family papers. 

The descent of the ancestors of the Stewarts from King Fergus 
L, whose reign began B.C. 330, and who was the contemporary of 


Alexander the Great, and Darius the Mede, King of Persia, is traced 
by various historians and genealogists through thirty-five generations 
of kings, down to 

Ethus, who succeeded his brother, Constantine II., a.d. 875. At 
this point the descent of the progenitors of the Stewarts diverges from 
that of the Crown, into the Hne of Doir, second son of Ethus. But on 
the death of King David II. in 1371, the representation of the main 
hne devolved upon his nephew, Robert II., the descendant and repre- 
sentative of Doir. 

Doir, second son of Ethus, was Maormor of Lochaber, and married 
Osfleda, daughter of Osbert, King of Northumberland. Died 936. 

Murdoch, son of Doir, married Helen, or Dervegil, daughter of 
Hugh, said to be the ancestor of the Douglasses. He died 959. 

Farquhard, son of Doir, Maormor of Lochaber, married Idua, 
daughter of Eric of Norway, and was killed at Loncarty in 980. 

Kenneth, son of Farquhard, Maormor of Lochaber, married 
Dunclina, daughter of King Kenneth III. Died 1030. 

Bancho, son of Kenneth, Maormor of Lochaber, General of the 
army with Macbeth, Governor of the Western Isles under King 
Duncan I. Simson and other Historians say he was a Chief Officer of 
the Crown, and employed as Steward in gathering in the Royal 
revenues. He defeated Sueno, King of Norway, who had landed an 
army at Kinghorn in Fife, and also the forces of Canute, King of 
Denmark, near Teith. He married Maud, grand daughter of Garede, 
Thane or Maormor of Atholl, and was murdered, with his three eldest 
sons, by Macbeth about 1050. 

Fleance, son of Bancho. Of him we read in Buchanan's History, 
that on the murder of his father and brothers, he escaped " secretly to 
Wales;" and in Corbet Anderson's Early History and Antiquities of 
Shropshire, that when Macbeth, King of Scotland, " sought about the 
year 1050, to secure the succession in his own line, by putting to death, 
and confiscating the estates of those whom he suspected of plotting the 


restoration of Malcolm Canmore, amongst those who fled from his 
reach was Fleance, son of Banquo, the murdered Thane of Lochaber. 
He fled to the Prince of North Wales, Gryffyth ap Lewellyn, with 
whose daughter Guenta being enamoured, the Welsh Princess bore to 
Fleance a son Alan." Gryffyth ap Lewellyn was originally the Prince 
of Powys, of which principality Shropshire formed part. He conquered 
North Wales, and married Alditha (whose second husband was Harold, 
slain at Hastings), daughter of Algus the Saxon Earl of Mercia, by 
whom he had the above mentioned daughter Guenta. Of the same 
family was Meredith ap Bleddyn, whose estates in Shropshire Alan, 
filius Flaaldi or Fleanchi, afterwards received ; and a lineal descendant 
of the family, twelve generations later, was the renowned Owen Glen- 
dower, in assisting whom. Sir Robert Stewart of Durrisdeer, elder son 
of Sir Robert Stewart of Schanbothy, was killed at the battle of 
Shrewsbury in 1403. 

Ralph Holinshed, in his Chronicles, written a.d. 1577, says, that on 
account of their consanguinity with the murdered Duncan, " Macbeth 
devised to slea Banquo and his soune. It chanced through the benefit 
of the dark night that though the father was slain, the son yet, by the 
help of Almighty God reserving him to better fortune, escaped that 
danger, and to avoid further peril fled into Wales." 

All genealogists concur in saying that Jean, daughter and heiress 
of Angus Macrory, or M'Roderick, Lord of Bute, who was married to 
Alexander, fourth High Steward, was of her husband's blood and 
family. The relationship is acknowledged even by those genealogists, 
who reject the descent from Fleance, as not being proved by direct 
documentary evidence. It is almost certain she was not a descendant 
of her husband's family after their return to Scotland, but Duncan 
Stewart, M.A. (1739), says Kenneth, father of Banquo, had a daughter, 
Gunora, married to Malcolm Macrorie of Bute, and it does not appear 
how Jean, heiress of Bute, and her husband could be connected in any 
other way. 


Of Flaaldus or Fleanchus we know little, except by tradition. 
His name appears to have been variously spelled ; he is called Fladald 
in various charters to his son. Dugdale gives his name as Flathald. 
Leland calls his son Alan Fleilsone, and in the Fitzwarine Chronicle he 
is named Alan Fitz Flaen. In 1275 the Norfolk jurors spoke of the 
father of Alan as " a certain knight called Flancus." There are many 
circumstances in the history of Alan, and his son Walter, which point 
to their connection with Wales. Alan was undoubtedly a man of high 
position, but neither in the Domesday Book, the Roll of Battle Abbey, 
nor in any notice of those who accompanied William the Conqueror 
from Normandy, is his name or his father's included. 

Camden says Fleance was murdered on account of the favour 
with which he, a stranger, was looked upon by the Prince, about the 
year 1060, leaving one son, Alan. 

Alan, born about a.d. 1050. In consequence of a quarrel at the 
Welsh Court, about 1067, Alan returned to his father's native country 
of Scotland, at a time when Edgar Atheling, with his mother and two 
sisters, had left England, and had placed themselves under the protec- 
tion of Malcolm III., who soon after married Margaret, the elder of 
the two princesses. Alan rapidly distinguished himself in the service 
of Malcolm, and he also served in the Crusade of 1096-9. Robert 
Stewarde, last Prior and first Dean of Ely, says " he performed great 
things in the Holy Land under the standard of Godfrey of Bouillon." 
In 1 100 he seems to have gone to England in the suite of the Princess 
Matilda, who, on the i ith November in that year, became the wife of 
Henry I. Having been formerly distinguished as a servant of King 
Malcolm, and more recently as a Crusader, Alan seems to have been 
retained in the service of Henry I. on account of capabilities which, at 
that period of his reign, were so much needed by the King. The 
learned Eyton, whom we have quoted above, and who has examined 
with the utmost attention and critical research the legends and records 
relating to the " Origin and early History of the Houses of Fitzalan 


and Stuart," as well as the " Antiquities and Archaeological History of 
Shropshire," relates how Henry I., as a means of strengthening his 
hold on the English sceptre, to which his title was doubtful, selected as 
his principal counsellors a small but able band of chieftains, preferring 
foreigners to Normans ; " such," he says, " in Shropshire were Warin de 
Metz, a Lorrainer, the three Peverels, and greatest of all, Alan, son of 

It has been indeed contended, though we do not admit the conten- 
tion, that the father of Alan was of Breton origin. Main, son of 
Theon, granted (1040-66) to the Cell or Priory of Combourg, dependent 
on the Abbey of Marmoutier, his rights in the church of Guguen, on 
the restoration to health of his sons Hamon and Walter. It has been 
conjectured that Walter was the father of 

I. Fledald, who had issue — 

1 . Alan, Seneschal of the Church of Dol ; transferred, between 

1076 and 1081, his rights within the vill of Mezuoit, to 
the new church of St Florent at Dol ; gave, before 1084, 
by the name of Alan Fitz-Floaud, all his rights in the 
church of Guguen to the monks of Marmoutier ; went to 
the Crusades 1096 (Ordericus Vitalis). D. s.p. The 
town of Dol was formerly of considerable strength, and 
it has been thought that it may have been the siege of 
this place, in 1076, which introduced the brothers to the 
notice of William the Conqueror. 

2. Fledald, who succeeded his brother Alan. 

3. Riwallon, a monk of St Florent at Saumur. 

II. Fledald, consents, 1076-81, to his brother Alan's grant to St 
Florent at Dol ; probably dead before i loi, as there is evidence in one 
of Henry I.'s charters of 3d September in that year, that his son Alan 
was then in possession of the Norfolk fief, leaving issue, a son — 

III. Alan, witnesses two charters of Henry I. at Windsor, 3d 
September iioi ; 1 100-5 Sherift' of Shropshire; was one of those in 


whose "seeing and hearing" Henry I. confirmed at York, to the 
monks of Marmoutier, the donation of Ralph Paynel. By his wife 
Avelina, he left issue — 

1. Jordan, mentioned in the Pipe Roll of 1130; died before 

1 147, leaving issue — 

Alan. Alan Fitz Jordan Fitz Alan inherited the 
Britanny estates; confirmed, 1154-61, his grand- 
father's grant to Marmoutier ; founded the Abbey 
of St Mary of Tronchet, near Dol, before 1147. 
(Gallia Christiania, vol. xiv.) 

2. William, called " Juvenis" by Ordericus in 1138 ; inherited 

the English estates ; ancestor of the Fitz-Alans. 
I 3. Walter, Steward of Scotland ; ancestor of the Stewarts. 

The chartulary of St Florent, near Saumur, containing these 
grants, has not yet been published, but Lobineau's transcription of them 
has been taken as correct. 

The similarity of the family names is, no doubt, extremely strik- 
ing, but it cannot be held to be conclusive evidence until the connection 
of this Breton family with England is proved. Conclusions from such 
premisses, when unsupported by connecting evidence, would be, in the 
great majority of cases, erroneous. For instance, we find from the 
chartulary of St Peter of Chartres, that a Walter Fitz-Fleald or Fledald 
held a considerable fief near Boisville, under Walter de Alneto, which 
he had acquired with his wife Fredesindis, and that he was a great 
benefactor to the abbey. Here also, the similarity of family names is 
remarkable, but any broad deductions drawn from such an occurrence 
are unwarrantable. Indeed, some positive and not merely inferential 
proof seems necessary before we can reject a tradition so long and so 
firmly rooted as that of the Celtic descent of Fleance. But these two 
theories, apparently so widely divergent, might, perhaps, be reconciled 
by the supposition — if we felt disposed to adopt this method of supple- 
menting our genealogical information — that Fleance fled from the 

Welsh Court to the kindred country of Britanny, whither the know- 
ledge of the language acquired in Wales might be one of the reasons 
for his flight, and where he subsequently married ; his Scottish name, 
Fleance, being changed into a name more in harmony with the nomen- 
clature of his adopted country. Indeed Duncan Stewart records at 
considerable length the tradition then universally believed of the flight 
to Britanny, and the subsequent marriage there ; but in his account these 
incidents belong to the history of Fleance's son, not to that of Fleance 
himself, a mistake the explanation of which will be found at p. i6. 

The first recorded mention of Alan in England belongs to iioi. 
On September 3d of that year the King held a great Court at Windsor, 
and a charter then granted to Herbert, Bishop of Norwich, is signed 
by witnesses, " illustrious of England, ecclesiastical and secular," the list 
being headed by the name of Queen Matilda, and followed, among 
others, by that of Alan, which occupies a high position on the roll, 
standing before those of Gilbert and Roger Fitz-Richard, Robert 
Malet, and Herbert, the King's chamberlain (Monasticon, iv. 17, v.) 

Another charter, by which Herbert, Bishop of Norwich, founded 
the Cathedral Priory of his see, passed on the same occasion, and was 
attested by nearly the same witnesses as the first, including the King 
and Queen and Alan Fitz-Flaald. This charter confirms the " Church 
of Langham, which had been Alan's, and his (Alan's) tithes." Now 
Langham was afterwards a recognized portion of Fitz-Alan's Honour 
of Mileham, from which it was not far distant. We see from the 
Hundred Rolls (i. 434) that the tenure of this fief was made a subject 
of report by a provincial jury in 1275. The jurors of the hundred of 
Launditch, in Norfolk, said that " Melam (Mileham), with its appur- 
tenances, was in the hands of William the Bastard at the Conquest, 
and the said king gave the said manor to a certain knight, who was 
called Flancus," etc. But these gentlemen, in their wish to record the 
Norfolk tradition, and to designate the father of Fitz-Flaad, proceed to 
adulterate this probable approach to etymological correctness with a 


great historical inaccuracy, for they add, "who came with the said 
King into England," etc. Of such a Norman knight, however, there 
is nowhere, as has been before observed, any trace whatever to be 
found. Summarily, then, we conclude that Alan Fitz-Flaald had 
acquired a part of his Norfolk fief before September iioi, and had 
already granted a church and tithes therein towards the endowment of 
Norwich Priory. Henry I. also gave Alan the manor of Eaton, which 
he transferred to Norwich Priory, apparently before November 1 109, 
as that was the date on which the king promised a confirmatory charter 
" when Alan shall come to my court." 

Alan made a further grant of land, his wife Adelina being a party 
to the charter, to the Priory of Castle Acre, a Cluniac house on the 
western boundary of his honour of Mileham. He was also a benefactor 
(as were his son and grandson) to the Cell of St Peter, at Sele in Sussex. 

Passing now to the connection of Alan with Shropshire, we find 
that Warin, the first Sheriff of Shropshire, was dead at the time of 
Domesday, 1085-6, leaving, by his marriage with Ameria, the niece of 
Earl Roger de Montgomery, an infant son Hugh. Ameria was re- 
married to Rainald de Ballol, and Rainald, either in right of his wife, 
or as guardian of Warin's heir, held the Shrievalty and the lands of 
Warin, both of which he ceded to Hugh on the latter's attaining a 
sufficient age. Hugh, however, died without issue, and the Shrievalty 
and attached barony reverted to the Crown, and we read (Monasticon, 
III. 519, col. a), " Alanus filius Fladaldi honorem Vicecomitis Warini 
post filium ejus suscepit." From these words has arisen the unwarranted 
assumption that Alan acquired his Shropshire fief by marrying a sup- 
posed daughter and eventual heir of Warin, but there is no confirmation 
whatever of such a marriage. 

It appears, therefore, that Alan received by a new investiture, and 
by grant of Henry I., the whole " Honour of the Sheriff of Shropshire," 
which lay chiefly in Shropshire, but which included also the lands of 
Wolston and Stretton super Dunesmore in Warwickshire, certain manors 

in Staffordshire, and Arundel in Sussex. In 1109, on the occasion of 
the visit of Henry I. to Shropshire, Alan's name appears as attesting a 
judicial decision of Richard de Belmeis, Bishop of London, regarding 
some right of Shrewsbury Abbey, and to the same Abbey and at the 
same time, Alan Fitz-Fladald, with ready devotion, conceded all things 
which had been bestowed by his predecessors or by his barons, whether 
in his time or previously. 

In summing up the evidence which he had so laboriously collected, 
of which the preceding is only an abstract, Eyton remarks that the 
change from Fleanchus to Flaaldus is not very great, when we compare 
it with other instances, when a foreign name had to be accommodated 
to the English ear. It might have been added that Fleance's change 
of country may also have involved a partial change of name. The 
opinions of Eyton are also shared by Corbet Anderson, who says, 
" Meanwhile, Hugh, son of Warine, having deceased without issue, 
Alan Fitz Flaald received, by grant, from Henry I., a.d. 1102, the 
honour of the Sheriff of Shropshire. It is a question who the new lord 
of Upton Magna was, but that Alan Fitz Flaald was progenitor of the 
Royal House of Stewart is beyond a doubt." The passage previously 
quoted as to the identity of Fleanchus with Flaaldus follows, and 
Anderson thus continues, " The change from Fleanchus to Flaaldus is 
certainly not very great, especially when we bear in mind that the nomen- 
clature of that period was far from fixed. According to this, then, Alan 
Fitz Flaald was grandson of Gryffyth ap Lewellyn, Prince of North 
Wales. Now, as Gryffyth married Alditha, daughter of Algus, King 
of Mercia, by whom he had Guenta, it follows that Alan Fitz Flaald, 
legitimate or illegitimate, was the great-grandson of the Saxon Earl of 
Mercia. Henry I., be it remembered, married a Scoto-Saxon princess ; 
therefore, in giving Alan Fitz Flaald the specific fief of the Sheriff of 
Shropshire, he may be supposed to have been actuated by a variety of 
motives. In the first place, he (Henry I.) was planting in the very van 
of border warfare, a chieftain who sprang from the native princes of 

North Wales. Secondly, descending, as Alan did, from the Saxon Earl 
of Mercia, Henry I. acted in accordance with his well-known policy of 
conciliating the English. Again he, who now became lord of Upton 
Magna, represented a house illustrious in that land of Scots, where 
Henry I. had married his queen." 

It is certainly noteworthy that " Flathail," which, in its spelling, is 
almost identical with the Flathald of Dugdale, and in its pronunciation 
(Fla-al) so closely resembles Flaald, signifies in the Gaelic language 
"princely." Without attaching undue weight to phonetic etymologies, 
it is impossible to avoid remarking how appropriately this epithet would 
describe, in an age where names were so commonly derived from per- 
sonal characteristics, the youthful stranger, whose appearance and 
demeanour procured for him, as Holinshed so quaintly narrates, such 
signal favour in the eyes of the Welsh princess. In the Welsh the 
cognate word is "gwlad," pronounced flad, which also bears what seems 
to be a very significant resemblance to Flaald, the Flaaldus of the 
charters quoted. 

Chalmers, in his "Caledonia," says, "Alan was undoubtedly a person 
of great consequence at the accession of Henry I. He was a frequent 
witness to the king's charters, along with other eminent personages of that 
splendid Court." Besides witnessing the above-mentioned charters of 3d 
September iioi, "he was a witness to a charter of Henry I., together 
with Matilda, his queen, the daughter of Malcolm Canmore, and other 
personages of the highest rank, dated the iSth September iioi, which 
charter was engraved in 1728, from the original in the possession of 
Matthew Howard, the Lord of the Manor of Thorp, near Norwich. 
He also witnessed another charter of Henry I. at Canterbury, and one 
of Willian Peverel to the Church of St Peter at Shrewsbury. Alan 
subscribed all these charters, ' Ego, Alanus Flaaldi filius.' " 

He married between 11 00 and 1105 Adelina, called also Avelina 
and Adeliza, daughter of Ernulph de Hesding, half-sister, and in her 
issue co-heir of Ernulph de Hesding the second, who, for his brave de- 


fence of Shrewsbury in 1 138, was so mercilessly put to death by Stephen. 
The various fees in Gloucestershire, Wiltshire, and elsewhere, which 
formed the Domesday Barony of Ernulph de Hesding, were found in 
1 165 to be divided among coparceners, a third being vested in the 
representatives of Alan Fitz Flaald. 
They had four sons : — 

I. William. In 1 126, at the time when William was entering 
upon manhood, the Earldom of Shrewsbury had continued 
in the crown for twenty-four years ; and Henry I., having 
then convened an assembly of his prelates and barons at 
London during the feast of Christmas, gave the county of 
Salopesbury, says William of Malmesbury (Hist. Novell, 
lib. I., sub. init.), to his second wife, Adelais, daughter of 
the Duke of Louvain. The Queen appointed for her 
viscount or sheriff, William Fitzalan, " a baron not inferior 
to earls," in the estimate of a contemporary writer (Gesta 
Regis Stephani, 356). William married first Christiana, 
niece of Robert, the consul. Earl of Gloucester. She 
died in 1153, leaving one son, Alan, who died in infancy, 
and was buried at Haughmond. William married, 
secondly, Isabel, daughter and sole heiress of Helias de 
Say, Lord of Clun. Their son, William Fitz- Alan (II), 
born about 1 154, married the daughter of Hugh de Lacy 
of Ewyas, and died June 121 1, having had issue, William 
(who died 12 16, s.p.), and John Fitz-Alan. John, who 
died about June 1240, married first, Isabel de Albini, in 
her issue co-heir of the Earls of Arundel. Their great- 
grandson, Richard Fitz-Alan, born 3d February 1267, 
succeeded to the Earldom of Arundel, and changed his 
residence from Shropshire to Sussex. The escheat rolls 
of Henry V. show that Thomas, Earl of Arundel, who 
died without issue, possessed, among other great estates. 

Oswestrie, the original seat of Alan, and Clune Castle, 
the demesne of William, the son of Alan. The Earl- 
dom of Arundel, with the baronies of Fitz-Alan, Clun, 
Oswaldestrie, and Maltravers, became merged in 1556 in 
the Dukedom of Norfolk by the marriage of Mary, 
daughter and eventual heir of Henry Fitz-Alan, Earl of 
Arundel, with Thomas, fourth Duke of Norfolk, who 
was beheaded in 1572 for his adherence to the cause of 
Mary, Queen of Scots. The earldom (a feudal honour, 
as adjudged in Parliament, 8th July 1433, eleventh Henry 
VI.), is held by possession of Arundel Castle only, with- 
out any creation, and also by summons to Parliament, 
1 6th June 1580. 

Walter, afterwards High Steward of Scotland. 

Jordan, occurs 11 29 and 11 30, as in possession of lands 
granted to him in Lincolnshire. He must have died 
before 1 147, and his line appears to have become extinct 
in the person of his son, Alan Fitz-Jordan Fitz-Alan, 
who was a benefactor of the Cell of St Peter at Sele, in 
Sussex, belonging to the Abbey of St Florand, in Anjou. 

Simon, who accompanied Walter to Scotland, and witnessed 
his charter to the Abbey of Paisley about 1 1 60, signing 
as " Frater Walteri, filii Alani, dapiferi." Simon had a 
son, Robert, who is designed in the chartulary of Paisley 
nephew of Walter, the High Steward, and from him the 
Earls of Kilmarnock were descended. To this Robert, 
the name of Boyt or Boyd was given, derived from the 
Gaelic word " Boidh," signifying fair or yellow. William, 
fourth and last Earl of Kilmarnock, joined Prince 
Charles in 1745, and was executed on Tower Hill on 
the 1 8th August 1746, when the earldom ceased, but his 
son, James, succeeded his grand-aunt, the Countess 


Mary, in the Earldom of Errol. The armorial shield of 
the Kilmarnock family bore the fess chequd. 

Also, a daughter, Sibil, married in or before 1132 to Roger de 
Freville. Alan died about 11 14, and was succeeded in his Shropshire 
fief by his eldest son, William. 

Walter, the second son of Alan Fitz-Flaald, together with the rest 
of his family, took an active part on behalf of the Empress Maude, the 
niece of King David I. of Scotland, in her conflict with Stephen for the 
English crown. Hume notices William Fitz-Alan as a powerful par- 
tisan on the side of Maude. Chalmers, in his " Caledonia," writes as fol- 
lows : — "Walter, the son of Alan, undoubtedly obtained from David I., 
and from his successor, Malcolm IV., great possessions, a high office, 
and extensive patronage. And it may be reasonably asked by what 
influence he could acquire from two kings so much opulence and such an 
office ? David I. was a strenuous supporter of the claims of his niece, 
the Empress Maude, in her severe contest with Stephen. William, 
the brother of Walter, influenced by the Earl of Gloucester, the natural 
son of Henry I., and the powerful partisan of his sister, the Empress, 
seized Shrewsbury in September 1139, and held it for her interest. 
Walter attended her, with King David, at the siege of Winchester in 
1 141, where they were overpowered by the London citizens, and 
obliged to flee. Such, then, were the bonds of connection between 
David I. and the sons of Alan, who were also favoured by the Earl of 
Gloucester. It was, probably, on that occasion that Walter accom- 
panied David into Scotland. William, the son of Alan, adhered 
steadily to the Empress, and was rewarded by Henry II. for his attach- 
ment. Thus Walter, the son of Alan, could not have had more power- 
ful protectors than the Earl of Gloucester with David I., and Henry II. 
with Malcolm IV." Chalmers might also have included, among other 
reasons for David's favour for Walter, that it was well known to both 
that they were already allied in blood. William, the elder brother, as 
heir to his father, was amply provided for ; but Weaker, though not 


without lands, would only have a younger son's portion. Mr W. 
Fraser says that, before going to Scotland, Walter had lands in 
appanage, being the provision made for him as younger son, at Os- 
westrie, of the Fitz-Alan fief or barony, adjoining the lands of the 
Priory of Wenlock. In his " Stewartiana," Mr Riddell quotes an inqui- 
sition, made in 1185, by Galfrid Fitz-Stephen, into all previous grants 
in favour of the Knight-Templars, where we find " Apud Carditonam 
ex dono Willielmi filii Alani tota villa de Carditona et Huchmerse, ex 
dimidia villa de Chatterville et confirmatione domini regis. . . . Adam 
Albus pro dimidia virgata XL eli. Apud Covetone ex dono Walteri 
filii Alani Robertus et Hanno filius pro i virgata Vs." Mr Riddell 
calls this a "clinching proof" of the first High Steward's connection 
with Shropshire. " Carditona " is Cardington in Shropshire, lying in 
Oswestry Hundred, and in the vicarage of Wenlock. " Coveton " is 
Cotton in Shropshire, also in Oswestry Hundred, and in the old 
writings of the place is styled Coveton. The " Liber Niger Saccarii " 
contains a list of English fiefs from 1 100 to 11 54, in the reign of Henry 
L, and among the vassals of " Willielmi filii Alani " there is mentioned 
" Walterus filius Alani," as holding " feodum 11 militum." It appears, 
also, from the Harleian MS. in the British Museum, that William, pro- 
bably between 1155 and 11 60, "invested" his brother in his Sussex 
manor of Stoke, and " this feoffment must have been over and above 
those two knights' fees of new feoffment, which, in 1165, Walter Fitz- 
Alan is said to have held in the barony of his nephew. Walter had 
revisited England at his brother's restoration in 1 155, after the accession 
of Henry II." 

Holinshed writes : — " Walter proved a man of greater courage and 
valiance than any other had been commonly found, and there reigned 
in him a certain stoutness of stomach ready to attempt high enter- 

Walter was appointed, by David I., High Steward of Scotland, and 
was the first to hold that great ofiice, the chief, under the king, in the 

monarchy. Down to the beginning of the present century, Brown 
and other genealogists were of opinion that two members of the House 
of Stewart, Walter and Alan, held that office before " Walterus filius 
Alani." Pinkerton, about 1775, pointed out the probability that the 
origin of the family, and that of the noble English race of Fitz-Alan 
would probably be found to be identical, and this was followed up, as 
we have seen, by Chalmers. " Walterus filius Alani " could not have 
been the son of Fleanchus ; and the older genealogists, searching for 
members of the family to fill the blank space of time, found one man, 
Alan or Alden, who witnessed charters of Gospatrick, Earl of Nor- 
thumberland — afterwards, from 1146 to 1166, Earl of Dunbar, — to 
the religious houses at Durham and Melros. This Alden designed 
himself " Alden Dapifer," and he was supposed to be the father of 
" Walterus filius Alani." As a Walter was manifestly first High 
Steward, they were compelled to interpolate another Walter, as father 
of Alan or Alden. Duncan Stewart, M.A., in his " History of the 
Stewarts," published in 1739, was evidently puzzled with this Alden, 
and thought he might be Steward or " Dapifer " to Gospatric, and later 
investigations show that he was right. A little later. Sir David Dal- 
rymple, in his " Annals," declared that Walter, who lived in the reigns 
of David I. and Malcolm IV., was, indeed, Steward of Scotland; but 
that there was at that time no authentic knowledge of the family 
previous to him. 

The proofs, besides those already quoted, that Walter, the first 
High Steward of Scotland, was brother to William Fitz-Alan, seem 
ample. As witness to the charters of David I., and in his own, he 
always subscribed himself "Walterus filius Alani." He founded, about 
1 160, the Abbey of Paisley for monks of the Cluniac order of Reformed 
Benedictines, whom he brought from Wenlock in Shropshire. The 
first actual settlement of the monks was at the Inch of Renfrew, in the 
neighbourhood of the residence of the founder, the church being dedi- 
cated to St Mary and St James. It has, indeed, been supposed that 


the original intention of the Steward was that they should be per- 
manently seated there, but the terms of the charter seem to make it 
more probable that it was not proposed that their settlement on the 
Isle should be other than temporary, and merely until the house at 
Paisley should be ready for their reception. The first grant was that 
of " the church of Passelet, with two ploughs of land," followed by the 
confirmation of Walter's charter to the monks of St Milburga of 
Wenlock, of this grant on the Inch or Isle of Renfrew. While the 
monks were still seated on this island, they received from Walter a 
further grant, confirmed by Malcolm IV., of various lands in Roxburgh- 
shire, Haddingtonshire, and Renfrewshire. A few years after their 
settlement on the Inch of Renfrew, the monks removed to Paisley, 
where their house was still more munificently endowed, the Inch of 
Renfrew being subsequently resigned to the grandson of the founder 
for certain other lands. The charter to the monastery is in Latin, and 
the following is a translation of the preamble : — " Be it known to all 
present and to come, that I, Walter, the son of Alan, High Steward to 
the King of Scotland, for the soul of King David, King Henry, and 
Earl Henry, and also for the soul of King Malcolm, and of myself, and 
of my wife and heirs, and also for the souls of my ancestors and bene- 
factors, for the honour of God and of the blessed Virgin Mary, erect a 
certain house of religion below my land of Paisley (of the order of the 
brotherhood of Wenlock), viz., according to the order of Clugny, with 
the concurrent consent of the convent of Wenlock, and for the erecting 
of that house I have thirteen of the brotherhood of Wenlock," etc. 
The Earl Henry was the only son of David I., and King Henry was 
the King of England, to whom we have seen the family of Fitz-Alan 
was so much indebted. The connection of the Fitz-Alans with Clune 
and Wenlock has been already fully noticed. The monastery of 
Wenlock was founded by Roger de Montgomery, Earl of Shrewsbury. 
Among those who accompanied Walter from Shropshire was "Robert de 
Mundegumbri," on whomWalter bestowed the manor of Eglisham,granted 

to him by David I., and it was until very recently held by the Earl of 
Eglinton, the representative of the family of Montgomerie in Scotland. 
The Melros Chronicle says, that in 1169 " Humbardus Prior de 
Weneloc adduxit conventum apud Passelet, qui est juxta Renfriew." 
Among other witnesses formerly connected, like the founder, with 
Shropshire, are Robert de Mundegumbri, Robert, Geoffrey, and Walter 
de Costentin, Richard Wall:, Robert de Nesse, Alan the grantor's son, 
and Alexander de Hasting. By the chartulary of Paisley it appears that 
Walter gave Humbard for his services some lands and right of herring 
fishing in Clydesdale, but that he afterwards gave in exchange for them 
some land in the south-west of Sussex, where Walter possessed other 

In 1334 John Baliol having been put, by the help of Edward III., 
in temporary occupation of the Scottish throne, confiscated the whole 
possessions of Robert Stewart, son of Walter Stewart and Marjory 
Bruce, the High Steward. In 1335 Richard Fitzalan, Earl of Arundel, 
who had accompanied Edward III. into Scotland, claimed the forfeited 
office as his by hereditary right, and sold it to Edward for 1000 merks. 
The claim was, of course, illusory, as Richard Fitzalan could have no 
shadow of right to the office till all the descendants of Walter, first 
Steward, were extinct ; and though it was only made to give Edward 
a pretence for interfering further in Scottish affairs, it shows the con- 
nection at that time recognised as existing between the families. 
Edward obtained from Baliol, in 1340, a confirmation of this trans- 
action, a record of which is still extant in the English Crown Archives. 
The charter given by Walter to the monastery of Paisley was 
signed a.d. 1160, at Fotheringhay Castle in Northamptonshire, a manor 
inherited by Malcolm IV., along with the earldom of Huntingdon. 
Malcolm was there at that time, doing homage for his English lands to 
Henry II., who was then at Wodstoke, not far distant from Malcolm's 
castle of Fotheringhay, which was destined to be the place of the im- 
prisonment and execution, rather more than four hundred years later, 


of his unhappy descendant Queen Mary, in 1587. The monastery 
was dedicated generally to God and the blessed Virgin, and, in par- 
ticular, to St James, St Milburga, and St Mirin, and it eventually 
numbered under its patronage thirty-one churches, as appears from its 
chartulary, which comes down to 1548. The foundation was confirmed 
by King William the Lion, and also by Pope Innocent III., and by 
Stephen, abbot of the parent house of Cluny in Burgundy. On the seal 
of the abbey is, says Laing, " a figure of St James with pilgrim's staff 
and scrip, at each side a shield, the dexter bearing a fess chequ6 for 
Stewart, the sinister a saltire cantoned with four roses for Lennox," 
the great Lords of Lennox and the Isles being also munificent benefac- 
tors of the Abbey. It was one of the four holy places in Scotland to 
which pilgrimages were made, the others being Scone, Dundee, and 

Dr Lees, in his history of the Abbey of Paisley, says that St 
James was peculiarly the patron saint of the Stewarts, and that St Mil- 
burga was the founder and the patron saint of Wenlock, the oldest and 
the most wealthy of the religious houses of Shropshire. St Milburga 
was daughter of Merewald, the Christian founder of Leominster Priory, 
and granddaughter of Penda, last Saxon pagan king of Mercia. St 
Mirin was a Celtic Saint, a pupil of St Cougal, Abbot of Bangor, and 
the friend and frequent visitor of St Columba at lona. St Mirin's 
name is frequently found in Scots Kalendars, and he is distinguished 
as the first preacher of Christianity to the natives of Clydesdale. Dr 
Lees and others, who hold that Walter was of Norman lineage, express 
surprise that he should have selected a Saxon and a Celtic saint as 
patrons of his munificently endowed Church at Paisley ; but his own 
Celtic and Saxon descent fully account for the choice, which, indeed, 
could otherwise hardly be explained. 

Malcolm IV. confirmed the grants of land which David I. had made 
to Walter, and also that of the office of High Steward, making it heredi- 
tary in his family. The following is the translation of the charter, as 


given by Crawford : — " Malcolm, King of Scots, to the bishops, abbots, 
barons, justices, sheriffs, provosts, officers, and all good men, clergy, 
laity, French and English, Scots, and inhabitants of Galloway, through 
all his dominions, both present and to come, greeting. Be it known to 
all men that before I took up arms, I granted, and have by this, my 
charter, confirmed in hereditary succession to Walter, the son of Alan, 
my high Steward, and to his heirs in fee farm and inheritance, my High 
Stewardship to be held by him and his heirs as well and fully as King 
David granted him his High Stewardship. I further confirm the grant 
which King David, my grandfather, gave him, namely, of the lands of 
Renfrew, Paisley, Pollok, Tullok, Cathcart, Le Drep, Eglisham, Loch- 
winnoch and Innerwick, Inchinan, Hastenden, Legerwood, and Birchen- 
side, with all the pertinents of these lands, and in every burgh and 
regality to me belonging, one full toft, and with every toft twenty acres 
of land for his entertainment therein, and for giving me and my heirs 
for that fee farm, the service of five soldiers (' milites,' which should be 
more properly translated knights). 

" At the castle of Roxburgh, on the feast of St John the Baptist, 
in the fifth year of our reign (24th June 11 57), before the witnesses, 
Ernest, Bishop of St Andrews ; Herbert, Bishop of Glasgow ; John, 
Abbot of Kelkow (Kelso) ; William, Abbot of Melros ; Walter, the 
Chamberlain ; William and David, brothers of the King ; Earl Gos- 
patrick. Earl Duncan, Richard de Moreville, Gilbert de Umphraville, 
Robert de Brus, Randolph de Sulis, Philip de Colville, William de 
Somerville, Hugo Riddel, David Olifard, Walden, son of Earl Gos- 
patric ; William de Moreville, Baldwin de la Mar, Lyulph, son of 

A copy of the above charter, in Latin, is among the Harleian MS., 
in the British Museum, on folio 45, in the handwriting of Sir James 
Balfour, where it also appears (folio 44) that this had been taken from 
a manuscript of the handwriting of Sir John Skene, Clerk- Register of 
Scotland, who had copied it from the original. 


Walter witnessed many charters of King David — one of a grant to 
Melros Abbey, passed in June 1142, at Ercheldon ; one in favour of 
May Priory, dated at Kyngor ; and also of a charter in favour of the 
Church at Glasgow, together with Willielmus Cuming, Cancellarius, 
Hugo de Morevilla, Ferg. de Galweia, Hugh Breton, and others. He 
also witnessed a charter of Prince Henry of Scotland, " Henricus Comes," 
to Holm Cultram, which must have passed after the foundation of that 
house in January 1 1 50, and before the death of the Prince in May or June 

There is also a charter in the Scots College at Paris of a grant by 
" Henricus Comes," in favour of the Church of St John of the Castle of 
Roxburgh, signed at Traquair, without date, which is witnessed by 
Walter. He was also witness to a charter by Ricardus de Moreville, 
Constabularius Regni Scotise, granted about 1 1 70. The De Morevilles, 
from Burgh, in Cumberland, were very powerful in Scotland under 
David I., Malcolm IV., and William the Lion. They held hereditarily 
the office of High Constable, founded the Abbey of Dryburgh, and 
almost certainly that of Kilwinning, and they were also great benefac- 
tors of Melros Abbey. The male line ended in 11 96 in the person of 
William. He died s.p., and his sister, Elena, marrying Roland, Lord of 
Galloway, carried to her husband the high offices and large estates of the 
De Morevilles. Through the marriage of Robert de Brus, great-great- 
great-grandfather of King Robert the Bruce, with the heiress of Gallo- 
way and Annandale, these powerful Celtic Lords of Galloway, which 
then comprehended not only the Shire of Wigton and the Stewartry of 
Kirkcudbright, but also a portion of Dumfries-shire and a large part of 
Ayrshire, were the ancestors, on the maternal side, of the Stewart Kings. 
In the charter by Malcolm IV., Walter is termed " Senescallus," and 
he signed himself at different times " Dapifer " and " Senescallus." 
Duncan Stewart says the derivation of Senescallus is from two old 
German words, " Senes," signifying old, principal, or chief, and " Scale," 
a servant ; in the Gaelic, the cognate words are " Sean " and " Sgalag," 


having the same meaning. He also derives the name of Stewart from two 
Saxon words, "Sti," a house, and "Ward" or "Wart," a guardian or keeper. 

In Douglas's Peerage, we find Ducange's description, of the office 
of Senescallus as follows : — " Senescallus (Steward), said to be derived 
from Sennen, a herd, and Schalc, a servant, was the first ofiice under 
the crown ; he was not only chief of the household, but his power, from 
the confidence acquired by that station, extended to the collection and 
management of the revenue, to the administration of justice, and even 
to the chief direction in war. It being found in France a power too 
vast for a subject, the power was there subdivided." 

Sir Henry Steuart, of Allanton, in his letter to Andrew Stuart, 
M.P., in refutation of some statements made by the latter in his "Genea- 
logy of the Stewarts," gives the following explanation of the variety 
of ways in which the name has, in later days, been spelled. " I shall 
here," he says, "take an opportunity of accounting for the various 
manners in which the name of Stewart is written. Surnames, accord- 
ing to the best accounts, were invented by the Normans in the Twelfth 
Century. About the beginning of the Thirteenth, they were intro- 
duced into this island ; and Walter, the fifth Lord High Steward 
of Scotland, who died about a.d. 1241, was the first who settled the 
name of Stewart on his posterity. Being obviously derived from the 
office, Stewart is, beyond question, the most ancient and the most proper 
orthography. But different races, in process of time, have found it con- 
venient to alter it, either in order to mark their own particular descent 
or to distinguish them from others of the same origin. Accordingly, 
we find that Stewart, Steuart, and Stuart, have been common among 
numbers. The long and intimate connection between Scodand and 
France appears to have given rise to the idea of discarding the w from 
the word, and writing Stuart instead of Stewart ; as the French, who 
are without the ' w ' in their alphabet, first set the example. The prac- 
tice, it is supposed, first originated with Sir John Stewart, of Darnley, 
soon after the notable campaigns which he served in France, in the 


beginning of the Fifteenth Century. But it has been most generally, 
and most erroneously, applied to the Royal Family by historians. 

Queen Mary, from a natural partiality to the French manners, 
also contributed to bring this innovation into fashion. But King James 
VI., her son, condemned the alteration from the former orthography, by 
introducing, in several of his charters and letters patent, clauses tending 
to restore the latter. The rule seems to be that when the name in 
general is written, it should certainly be Stewart ; the office Steward, and 
in the case of particular families, that mode of orthography ought to be 
followed, which they themselves have long been in the habit of using." 
Walter is said to have defeated Somerled, Thane of Argyll, and 
ancestor of the Macdonalds, the MacDougalls, and the various other 
branches of the family of the Lords of the Isles, in an attempt to 
ravage the Barony of Renfrew, a.d. 1164 (according to Sir James Bal- 
four, in 1 161), when Somerled's son Gillecolane was killed. Sir Robert 
Douglas says both Somerled and his son were killed. 

In addition to his munificent gifts to the Abbey of Paisley, Walter 
was a benefactor to Kelso, a monastery of the Cistercian order founded 
by King David I., Dunfermline, founded by Malcolm III., Cupar, and 
Melros. To Kelso he gave lands near Roxburgh, an acre in Molle, 
and two parcels of land in Renfrew ; to Dunfermline he gave a toft in 
his burgh of Renfrew, another in Innerkeithing, and on the day that 
King Malcolm was buried twenty-four acres lying in the bounds of the 
burgh. To Melrose he gave, about 11 70, the lands of Edmunstune 
and Machline, and those of the Shiels on the north side of the river 
Ayr, with fishings, and one carucate of laboured land, bounded by 
Duveglass, Lesmahago, and Glengevel. His charter to Melros is yet in 
existence, and a representation of his seal attached thereto is given in 
the Plate on the preceding page (fig. i). For this valuable and interest- 
ing addition to this work the authors are indebted to the courtesy of 
the Duke of Buccleuch and Queensberry, who permitted an impression 
— from which the plates in this volume have been reproduced — to be 


taken from the original plate engraved for the Liber de Melros, his 
Grace's contribution to the Bannatyne Club. Mr Henry Laing, whose 
descriptions of these and subsequent seals are quoted, says : — " This is 
rudely executed, and much defaced, yet it is extremely interesting, as 
being probably the earliest seal in existence of this great family. The 
design is an armed knight on horseback at full speed, a lance with pen- 
non, couched in his right hand, and a shield on his left arm. sigillum 
WALTERi FiLii ALANi DAPiFERi REG." The counterseal (fig. i) is "equally 
interesting. Unfortunately, the Impression is very imperfect ; but it 
has evidently been an antique gem, in a broad setting, on which was 
cut the inscription, now illegible. The design seems to be a warrior 
with a spear in his right hand, leaning against a pillar, and with his left 
hand holding his horse. These seals afford a presumption that as yet 
the family used no coat armour." The witnesses to the charter are 
Alan, the grantor's son, Robert de Montegumeri, Walter Costetin, 
Richard Wallensis, and Adam de Newtun. 

Walter married Eschina, sister of Alan, fifth Earl of Athole (in 
right of his wife, eldest granddaughter of Henry, fourth Earl of Athole), 
and daughter of Thomas de Londoniis, who had been appointed by 
William the Lion " Hostiarius," or Door ward, an office which became 
hereditary in the family, and from which they assumed the surname of 
Durward. Thomas was son of Malcolm de Londiniis, who received 
from Malcolm IV. the lands of Lundin in Forfarshire, when his brother 
Philip obtained from the same monarch the barony also called Lundin, 
near Largo, in Fife. Eschina was the widow of Henry de Molla, and 
brought to her second husband the baronies of Molla and Huntlaw 
in Teviotdale, Roxburghshire. Gordon says, in his " Monasticon," 
" Eschina de Londiniis, the wife of Henry of Molle, gave to Kelso a 
confirmatory charter in 1 185, to the convent, of the church of Molle, its 
lands and liberties." In her charter, circa a.d. 1190, in favour of the 
Abbey of Kelso, the grant is made for the souls of her " lords," Walter 
the Steward and Henry of Molle. These estates of Molla and Hunt- 


law remained in the family of Stewart for many generations, as King 
Robert III. erected all the lands of the Stewart of Scotland, which 
were either in the Baronies of Renfrew, or in Kyle Stewart in Ayrshire, 
as well as also their lands of Molla, Huntlaw, and Hassendean in Rox- 
burghshire, and the lands of Orde in the shire of Peebles, into a Rega- 
lity " in honorem Dei, Beatse Virginis Maris, et Beato Jacobo Apos- 
tolo, et Sancto Mirino Confessori, pro salute animae suae, et animarum 
antecessorum Regum, Senescallorum Scotiae." The chartulary of 
Paisley shows that Eschina granted to the prior and monks of Paisley 
a carucate, or one hundred acres of land, with pasturage for fifty oxen, 
for the welfare of the souls of the Kings of Scotland and England, 
Walter her husband, herself, her son Alan, and Margaret, her daughter, 
who died unmarried, and was buried at Paisley. Among the witnesses 
to this charter are her husband, " Walterus filius Alani," described as 
" Dominus meus," and " Alanus filius ejus." 

The last grant of Walter to his church at Paisley is that of an 
annual payment of two chalders of meal for the support of a monk to 
pray for the soul of Robert de Brus, showing an early connection be- 
tween the houses of Stewart and Bruce, a relation which became more 
close in later years. Ramsay says that towards the close of his life 
Walter assumed the monastic habit, and passed the evening of his days 
within the hallowed precincts of the Abbey of Melrose, where he died 
in 1 177. In the Chronicle of Melros there is the following record of 
his death: "Anno Domini 1 1 77 obiit Walterus, filius Alani, Dapifer 
Regis Scotise, qui fundavit Pasleto, cujus beata anima vivit in gloria," 
Fordun says he died in 11 78, but the different periods from which, in 
those days, the commencement of the year was computed, often caused 
such discrepancies in dates. Walter was buried at Paisley, which con- 
tinued to be the burying place of the Stewarts till they ascended the 
throne ; indeed, after their accession, it was occasionally employed as 
their place of sepulture. 

Alan, son and heir of Walter, succeeded his father in 1 177, as 



High Steward of Scotland under King William the Lion, who had 
been crowned, on the death of his brother Malcolm, on the 24th De- 
cember 1165. Alan accompanied Philip II., King of France, Richard 
Coeur de Lion, and David Earl of Huntingdon, in the third Crusade, 
against Saladin, about 1191. On his return from Palestine he led an 
army against rebels in the north of Scotland, under Harold, Earl of 
Caithness and Orkney, whose son Roderick he killed in battle with his 
own hand. The rebels were defeated, and the southern part of Harold's 
lands given to Hugh Freskin, grandson of Freskin the Fleming, and 
progenitor of the Dukes of Sutherland. 

Alan gave the patronage of the church of Kingarf, in the isle of 
Bute, with the tithes of all the churches and chapels within that island, 
to the monastery of Paisley. To the Abbey of Melros he gave a pas- 
turage on the west side of the river Leader, the lands of Baremor and 
Godeneth, as well as those of Monabroc in Strathgrief, with an annuity 
of five merks, which had been payable to him out of the lands 
of Mauchlyn by the monks of Melros ; and also an annual sum from 
his lands of Thirlstane in Lauderdale to buy wax candles for the altar 
of St Mary at Melros. He gave to Cupar a toft in his burgh of 
Renfrew, and the liberty of a net for fishing salmon in the Clyde ; and 
to Kelso many lands lying in his barony of Inverwick. He also 
granted, apparently in early life, and in confirmation of his father's pre- 
vious gift, the church of Mauchline, and his lands of Mauchline, to 
Melros Abbey, together with the pasturage of his forests as far as the 
marches of Duneglas and Lesmahago, and Glengarvil. An engraving 
of the seal attached to this charter will be found at p. 23 (fig. 3). "It 
is," says Laing, " much defaced. An armed knight on horseback, a 
sword in his right hand, and a shield on his left arm. The inscription 
is indistinct, but the following may be read — ' s alain . fi . watir . 
L . Fi . AL . SENESCHALL . RE . SCO,' which may be ' Sigillum Alain le 
Fitz Watir le Fjtz Alain Senescalli Regis Scotiae.' " The witnesses to 
this deed are Reginald de Hasting, William de Lindesei, Walter de 


Constentin, Adam de Neueton. The same Alan, renouncing at a 
later period his claim to certain lands in Blenselei — probably Blainsli 
in Lauderdale — in favour of Melrose Abbey, sealed his charter with a 
seal, a representation of which is given at page 23 (fig. 2). It is " of a 
similar design, but in a much improved style of art. The remains of a 
fess chequ6 is quite apparent upon the shield, and is perhaps the 
earliest instance of this well-known bearing of the Stewart family — 
siGiLL . ALANi FiLii WALTERi." Alan also gave to the Abbey of Cam- 
bus Kenneth a full toft in the Burgh of Renfrew, and one fishing in 
the water of the same village. 

Alan was witness to a charter by William the Lion, confirming an 
agreement between the Bishop of Glasgow and Robert de Brus, concern- 
ing certain churches in Annandale, signing as " Alanus Dapifer." In the 
chartulary of the Bishopric of Glasgow, preserved at the Scots College 
at Paris, there is a convention between the Bishop of Glasgow and 
Roger de Vallens, as to the church of Kilbride, which was signed in 
presence of "His testibus, Domino Rege ; Comite Patricio; Roberto 
Capellano ; Hug. Clerico ; Ric de Moreville, Const. Regis ; Alano 
Dapifero Regis ; Philippo de Vallen ; Adamo filio Gilberti ; Waltero 
de Berkely, Cam. Regis." 

Alan married Eve, daughter of Suan, the son of Thor, Lord of 
Tippermuir and Tranent, a person of great account at that time. Suan 
was a benefactor of Scone Abbey, as appears from a confirmation by 
Walter Stewart, his grandson ; he also gave to the Abbey of Holyrood 
all right he had in the church of " Trevernent," its lands, pastures, and 
tithes. Alan gave a donation of land to the Canons of St Andrews, 
for the salvation of the souls of the Kings David and Malcolm, of his 
father's, of his own, and of that of his wife Eve. Simson says he 
married a second wife, Alesta, daughter of Morgund, Earl of Mar. 
Alan died in 1204, and was buried before the high altar at Paisley, 
leaving two sons — 

I. Walter, who succeeded him. 

2. David, who, as appears from Rymer's Fcedera, was one of the 
guarantors in 12 19, that Alexander II., King of Scotland, should 
marry Joan, eldest daughter of John, King of England, if her hand 
could be obtained, and if not, that he should marry her sister Isabella. 
There is no record of any descendants of David, and he had escaped the 
notice of genealogists till he was pointed out by Sir David Dalrymple. 

Walter, designed of Dundonald in Ayrshire, succeeded his father 
in 1 204, and was the first who took the name of Stewart as a surname, 
and transmitted it to his posterity ; the appellation having been pre- 
viously official, and confined to the holder of the office. Chalmers says 
the manor and parish of Dundonald belonged to Walter the first High 
Steward, who held the whole of the northern half of Kyle in the begin- 
ning of the reign of William the Lion ; it was, however, his grandson 
Walter who was first styled of Dundonald. Dundonald Castle is about 
four miles south-west of Kilmarnock, and is most picturesquely situated 
on the summit of a detached and almost precipitous green " dun," or 
conical hill, commanding an extensive view of the Stewart lands on 
the north, east, and south-east, and of Cantyre and Knapdale in Argyll- 
shire, with the islands of Bute and Arran on the north-west and west. 
"It must have been a place of great strength prior to the introduction of 
artillery. The building is not extensive, the area on which it stands being 
circumscribed. It bears, however, unequivocal evidence of having been 
one of the most magnificent strongholds of the age. Besides the massive 
oblong tower — at least three spacious stories in height — the remains of 
the court-yard and some interior structures still exist. The arch over 
the ground floor is in good preservation, as well as some of the outer 
walls, particularly the north-west, but the stair is almost entirely gone." 
The original castle on the Dun was, it is supposed, built by some 
Donald, not improbably one of the ancient Scots kings, and was in all 
likelihood added to, and occupied occasionally as a residence by Walter, 
first High Steward, after he had made over to the monks, on the 
foundation of the monastery about 1 1 60, the dwelling on the rock at 


Paisley where his hall was founded, "ubi aula mea erat fundata." It 
seems, however, to have been added to more than once, for in addition 
to the fess cheque of the Stewarts, the lion of Scotland appears on 
various parts of the building. As the principal castle of the Stewarts 
in their extensive barony, or rather principality of Kyle Stewart, it 
continued their chief seat in Ayrshire for about two hundred years, 
though they had other smaller castles in the district which were either 
their occasional residences or were occupied by their vassals. Among 
these were, in the Lordship of Stewarton, " Steuartetoune Castell," now 
forming part of the modern mansion of Lainshaw, described by Pont 
as " a stronge old Dounijon, the ancient inheritance of the predecessors 
of our Scotts Kings ;" and, in Strath-grief or Renfrewshire, the manor- 
place of Blackhall, to which a chapel was attached, the fortalice of 
Raiss, and Renfrew Castle, which will be noticed hereafter. 

King Robert II., as appears from various charters, dated at Dun- 
donald, resided there, at least occasionally, during the earlier part of 
his reign, and from 1388 — when, enfeebled by age, and deeply affected 
by the death of his son-in-law James, Earl of Douglas, at the battle of 
Otterburn, he practically transferred the reins of government to his 
second son, the Earl of Fife — he lived there till his death in 1390. 

" The second Robert of Scotland Kyng 
As God purwaid maid endying 
At Downdownald in his countrie 
Of a schort sickness thare deyd he." — Wyiitnn. 

Robert III. also inhabited the castle for some time after his father's 
death, and it is asserted by several authors that he died there. It con- 
tinued to be occasionally visited by the kings of Scotland until 1468, 
when James III. conferred it, with other extensive estates, on Thomas 
Boyd, Earl of Arran, on his marriage with his Majesty's eldest sister, 
the Princess Mary ; but on the fall of the family of Boyd, and the for- 
feiture of their estates in the following year, it returned into the posses- 
sion of the Crown. In 1482, James III. granted the custody of the 


castle, with the dominical lands, to Alan, first Lord Cathcart. In 1527, 
James V. granted a confirmatory charter of the castle and estate to 
William Wallace, probably a cadet of the family of Craigie, in the pos- 
session of whose descendants it remained till 1638, when it was sold to 
Sir William Cochrane, of Cowden, the ancestor of the Earls of Dun- 
donald. In 1726, the estate passed, by purchase, to the Eglinton 
family, with whom it still continues ; the castle only, with the surrounding 
seven or eight acres of land, remaining the property of the Cochranes. 

Walter was witness to a charter by William the Lion, granted at 
Dumfries, but without date, to which the witnesses were — Ricardus de 
Moreville, Walterus filius Alani Dapifer, Walterus Olifar, Robertus 
de Quinci, Willielmus de Veteri Ponte. The last designation appears 
frequently afterwards in Scots and English charters, and was contracted 
as a surname into Vipont. The family had extensive possessions in 
Roxburghshire, and Alan de Vipont held the castle of Lochleven for 
King David II., after the "battle of Halidonhill. The family of De 
Quinci was a very powerful one, both in Scotland and England, in the 
1 2th and 13th centuries. Robert de Quinci came to Scotland in the 
reign of William the Lion, and got Leuchars, in Fife, by his marriage 
with Arabella, daughter of Nes. His grandson, Roger, who held, 
besides his Scottish barony, the Earldom of Winchester, in England, 
married Elena, eldest daughter of Alan, Lord of Galloway ; and, on 
Alan's death in 1234, not only shared the extensive estates of his 
father-in-law, but also succeeded to the high office of Constable of Scot- 
land, which had descended to the Lords of Galloway from the marriage 
of Alan with Elena, sister of William, the last of the De Morevilles. 
The office and Scots estates were forfeited during the wars of the 

There is a charter, with the Great Seal of Scotland attached, in 
the Scots College at Paris, granted by Alexander II. in favour of the 
Church at Glasgow, dated at Ayr, on the 8th May 1223. The first 
witness is " Walterus filius Alani Senescallus," and the names after his 

are Walterus Olifard, Roderick Capellanus, Ingelram de Ballol, Henri- 
cus de Baliol, Henricus de Stivel, Joannis de Macaswell, Reginaldus de 
Crawfurd, Vice Comes de Ar, Walterus Bisset. The family of Bisset 
were at this time of importance in the districts now chiefly occupied by 
the Frasers, but shortly afterwards the heads of the family were out- 
lawed on account of their share in the assassination of the young Earl of 
Atholl, son of Thomas of Galloway. 

Walter's earliest benefaction to the Church appears to have been a 
grant, between 1207 and 12 14, of an annual rent of three merks to the 
Convent of Syxle. His confirmation to Melros Abbey assures four 
carucates of land at Edmunstune, as granted by Walter Fitz-Alan, his 
grandfather. His seal, p. 23, fig. 4, bears an armed knight on horse- 
back, a drawn sword in his right hand, and on his left arm a shield 
bearing " a fess chequ^, sigill walteri filii alani." His privy seal, 
p. 23, fig. 5, appended to a charter of the lands of Molle, in excam- 
bion for the lands of Freretun, to the Abbey of Melros, bears simply a 
fess cheque. He also, as Seneschal, attests the deed, signed at York on 
i8th June 122 1, whereby Alexander II. of Scotland fixed the dower of 
the English Princess Johanna. About 1223, Walter granted a charter 
in favour of the Church of Glasgow, in which he describes himself as 
" Dapifer Regis Scotise," showing, as pointed out by Ducange, that 
Dapifer and Senescallus were names of the same office. Alexander II. 
granted a charter, now in the Scots College at Paris, also in favour 
of the Church at Glasgow, dated 8th February 1237, to which the 
witnesses were Walterus filius Alani, Justiciar Scotiae, Walter Cumyn, 
Comes de Menteth, Walterus Olifard, Alan Hostier (Hostiarius or 
Doorward), Walterus Bysset, Roger Avenel, David Marscal. By this 
it appears that Walter had, previous to 1237, been appointed Justiciary 
of Scotland ; and Sir Robert Douglas and Duncan Stewart say that 
the appointment was made at St Andrews on the 24th August 1230. 
In September 1237, he was one of the commissioners named by Alex- 
ander II. to swear to the observance of the peace agreed upon with Henry 


III. In Winton's Chronicle, it is said that after the death of Alexan- 
der's first wife, the Princess Joan of England, Walter was sent in 1238 
as ambassador to France, to negotiate a marriage for King Alexander 
with Mary, daughter of Ingerlam, Lord of Coucy, and that he accom- 
panied her to Scotland. Abercromby says that Walter went with a 
command to Palestine, in the Sixth Crusade of 1228-40, and that after 
his return he defeated a rebellion raised by Thomas Mac-du-Allan in 

About this time the Pope's usurpation of the right of patronage of 
monasteries caused the pious benefactors of the Church to erect colle- 
giate churches and chapelries, the patronage of which was reserved by 
ecclesiastical canon, to the founders and their heirs. Walter founded a 
religious house of this kind, of the Gilbertine order, at Dalmulin, in 
Kyle, about two miles east of Ayr, endowing it with various lands and 
tithes, among others, with the church of Dundonald and its two chapels 
of Richardstoun and Crossby. When the Dalmulin house was given up 
in 1238, Walter granted the church of Dundonald with its two chapels 
to the monks of Paisley, and also at the same time the church of San- 
quhar, as well as that of Auchinleck, with all its pertinents. He also 
gave donations to the Abbeys of Kelso and Balmerino, confirmed his 
father's charter of Mauchline, and also that of his grandfather, Suan, of 
lands to the Abbey of Scone. He further, according to Crawford, gave 
an annuity of six chalders of meal for the support of a priest of Melros, 
to say mass for the benefit of the soul of Robert de Brus, Lord of 

The following is quoted from Nisbet's Heraldry. " Walter, High 
Steward in the reign of Alexander II., appended his seal to a charter 
confirming grants of lands upon the Water of Ayr to the monks of Mel- 
ros. The seal has a man on horseback, in a coat of mail, brandishing 
a sword with his right hand, and on his left arm a shield with a fesse 
cheque of three tracts, and above his head a helmet, with a wreath also 
cheque. The fesse is a belt across the shield, and meant to signify a 


knight's belt. The term cheque in heraldry is said of the field, or any 
other charge or figure filled up with square pieces alternately of differ- 
ent tinctures ; which pieces Monsieur Baron will have to represent in 
armouries, battalions, and squadrons of soldiers, and are a fit bearing 
for chief commanders of armies, as those of the antient family of Stew- 
art, who long before they ascended the throne, were commanders in 
chief of armies under our antient kings, and Lord High Stewards of 
Scotland, and were in use always to carry for their paternal ensign, or, 
a fesse chequd, azure and argent." 

Duncan Stewart, quoting Sir James Balfour, says : " The fesse 
cheque was assumed by the Stewarts, perhaps because the fesse repre- 
sents a military belt, and the fesse cheque represents battalions and 
squares of soldiers ; because the Stewart of Scotland had command of 
the King's armies. Likewise the fesse cheque represents the chess- 
boards, which, of old, accomptants in the King's office of Exchequer 
did make use of in calculating their accompts. Whence, probably, the 
Exchequer had its name, and which office was under the High Stew- 
art. The seal of Walter, son of Alan, Lord High Stewart, carried a 
fesse cheque very probably upon this account." 

Walter married Beatrix, daughter of Gilchrist, third Earl of 
Angus. Noble, in his history of the Stewarts, says that the mother of 
Beatrix was Marjory, sister of Malcolm IV. and William the Lion. 
Walter died in 1 246, leaving issue — 

1. Alexander, his successor. 

2. John, killed at Damietta in Egypt. Noble says he accom- 
panied his brother Alexander in the seventh Crusade, led by Saint 
Lewis, King of France, 

3. Walter, called Bailloch, or the freckled ; designed in a charter of 
1248, " Walterus filius Walteri Senescalli ; " and in charters of 1261 and 
1263, "Walterus Senescallus, comes de Menteth." He accompanied his 
brothers to the seventh Crusade in 1 248, and distinguished himself at 
the battle of Largs in 1263. He witnessed the marriage contract of 


the Princess Margaret with King Eric of Norway in 1281, and, with 
his Countess, accompanied the Princess to that country. In the parlia- 
ment of 1283, he swore allegiance to the Maiden of Norway in the 
event of the death of Alexander III. In 1292 he was one of the 
auditors, on the part of Bruce, in the competition for the crown. Dun- 
can Stewart says that he took part in the invasions of England in 1295 
and 1296, and that having surrendered after the battle of Dunbar on 
honourable conditions, he was, notwithstanding, put to death in the 
76th year of his age. He married the younger daughter of 
Mauritius, third Earl of Menteth, and in her right succeeded as fifth 
earl, on the death of Walter Cumyn, fourth earl, in right of his wife, the 
elder sister. Walter Cumyn died suddenly in 1258, and his widow 
somewhat precipitately married Sir John Russell, an English knight. 
Sir John and his wife were both imprisoned on suspicion of having 
poisoned her first husband, but were afterwards permitted to leave the 
kingdom. Sir Walter Stewart thereupon laid claim to the earldom, 
and obtained it by favour of the estates of the realm. His male issue 
failing, the title was carried by his granddaughter Mary to Sir John 
Graham, and by their daughter Margaret's marriage with Robert, first 
Duke of Albany, third son of Robert II., it passed again to the line of 
the Stewarts ; but on the execution of Duke Murdoch in 1425, it was 
forfeited and vested in the Crown. Walter was a benefactor of the 
abbey of Kilwinning, conferring on it the patronage of the parish 
church of St Charmaig and chapel of St Mary in Knapdale, St Michael 
in Inverlussa, together with the lands in Riventos annexed to the said 
church. He also confirmed to the monks of Paisley the grants of Duf- 
gall the son of Syfyn regarding the church of St Colmanel with its 
penny land, and the chapel near the castle of Schypinche, or Skipness. 

4. William, mentioned in some charters, of whose issue there is 
no account. 

Also three daughters : 

I. Beatrix, married to Maldwin, third Earl of Lennox, great- 


grandson of Arkyll, the Saxon lord of several baronies In Yorkshire 
and Northumberland, who, after several insurrections against William 
the Conqueror, fled to Scotland, where he received from Malcolm Can- 
more the district in the counties of Dumbarton and Stirling called the 
Lennox. Her great-granddaughter, Margaret, married Walter de Fas- 
lane, who became Earl of Lennox. He is thought to have been a 
descendant of one of the Stewards of Scotland, and his seal, attached 
to a charter, certainly bore the fess chequ^. In reference to the charter 
granted to Walter de Faslane, Sir David Dalrymple, Lord Hailes, 
says that words cannot express more strongly the notion of those times 
that the possession of the " Comitatus " conferred the title of " Comes." 
Their granddaughter. Lady Elizabeth, married in 1392 Sir John Stew- 
art of Dernely, a descendant of Sir John Stewart of Bonkyl, and thus 
the title of Lennox came into that family. 

2. Christian, married to Patrick, sixth Earl of Dunbar. Lord 
Hailes calls him the most powerful baron of the southern districts 
of Scodand. He held the first rank among the twenty-four barons who 
guaranteed the treaty of peace with England in 1244. He died at the 
siege of Damietta in 1248. J ^30o''i!2 

3. Margaret, married to Niel de Galloway, second Earl of Car- 
rick ; by whom she had a daughter, Margaret, Countess of Carrick in 
her own right, who, after the death of her first husband Adam de Kil- 
conquhar in the Holy Land at the beginning of the eighth and last 
Crusade, married, under well known romantic circumstances, in 1271, 
Robert de Brus, Lord of Annandale and Cleveland, the eldest son of 
the Competitor, and by him became the mother of Robert the Bruce, 
afterwards King of Scotland. 

Alexander, designed of Dundonald, eldest son of Walter, succeeded 
his father in 1246. He bound himself, under a penalty of 1000 merks, 
to serve, along with the Earl of Angus, under Louis IX. of France, 
for two years against the Saracens ; and accordingly, as narrated by 
Abercromby, attended St Lewis, King of France, to the seventh 


Crusade in 1 248, becoming, at the death of his brother-in-law, the Earl 
of Dunbar, commander of the Scots contingent. In 1255 he was one 
of the council of Alexander III., then under age, and also one of the 
Regents of the kingdom. Alexander the Stewart, together with Pat- 
rick Earl of March, Malise Earl of Stratherne, Niel Earl of Carrick, 
Robert de Brus, and Alan Dureward (a descendant of Thomas de 
Londoniis), opposed the schemes of the Cumyns, Robert de Ros, 
and John de Baliol. When Alexander III., King of Scotland, 
went to England with his queen, Margaret, daughter of Henry III. 
of England, he stipulated that, if he should die there, their child, 
then expected, should be intrusted to the care of Alexander the 

At the defeat of the Norwegians at Largs in 1263, the High 
Steward commanded the right wing of the Scots, and having routed 
those opposed to him, he wheeled his division, in military phrase, to 
the left about, and attacked the enemy in reverse, disengaging the 
sovereign, who was surrounded. Boece records of Alexander at Largs, 
" Incontinent, Alexander Stewart of Paisley came with a bachement of 
fresche men to the Middleward, quhair King Alexander was fechtand 
against King Acho with uncertain victory, and the Danes seand this 
Alexander cum, gaif bakkis." The Stewart was ordered to pursue the 
enemy to the Hebrides, which he re-annexed to the Crown. He then, 
according to some accounts, invaded the Isle of Man, and compelled 
Magnus, son of Olave, to come to Dumfries to do homage to 
King Alexander, and to become bound to furnish five gallies of 
twenty-four oars, and five of twelve oars, for the service of the Scottish 

On the 30th November 1263, Alexander the Stewart got from 
King Alexander a charter of the Barony of Garlies, in the Stewartry of 
Kirkcudbright, which was then included in Dumfriesshire, and he after- 
wards conferred this barony on Sir John Stewart de Bonkyl, his second 
son. Alexander's seal, appended to a charter by him of lands and 



pastures of Machline and Carentabel, in Kyle, to the Abbey of Melros, 

is, says Laing, " unfortunately but 
the fragment of a remarkably fine 
seal. The design, admirably ex- 
ecuted, is a knight on horseback at 
full speed, armed with a lance 
couched in his right hand, and on 
his left arm a shield bearing the fess 
chequd, which seems to be repeated 
on the breast leather of the horse. 
Only the following letters of the 
inscription remain . . . . ' nescalli 
RE ' . . ." The counter-seal bore 
" a fess cheque. All that remains of the inscription are the letters 
' XANDRi FiLii ' ; it is most likely the inscriptions on both seals were the 
same, and have been 'sigillum alexandri filii walteri senescalei 


At Roxburgh, on the 25th July 1281, on the final agreement as to 
the terms of the matrimonial contract between Margaret, daughter of 
Alexander III., and Eric King of Norway, Alexander the Stewart was 
one of the great nobles who became bound for the fulfilment of the 
articles agreed upon by the King of Scotland. He gave many charters, 
chiefly confirming those of his predecessors. In particular, in 1266, in 
presence of King Alexander and many noble witnesses, he gave a new 
grant to the abbot and monks of Melros, ratifying to them the lands 
of which they were already possessed, and granting them many excep- 
tions and privileges. In this charter he is designed " Alexander 
Senescallus Scotiae, filius Walteri Senescalli." It is recorded in the 
Chartulary of Paisley that he made a pilgrimage to the shrine of his 
patron saint, Saint James, at Compostella in Spain, the abbot and monks 
of Paisley assembling with great pomp to give him their blessing on his 
departure. Alexander married Jean, daughter and heiress of James, son 


of Angus M'Rorie or M'Roderick, Lord of Bute, "of his own family," 
a relationship to which the attention of the reader has been above drawn. 
The M'Rories were descended from Roderick, son of Somerled, Lord of 
the Isles. He died in 1283, and was buried at Paisley, leaving issue — 

1. James, his successor. 

2. Sir John Stewart of Bonkyl, ancestor of the Stewarts of 
Angus, Galloway, Blantyre, Atholl, Lorn, Appin, Buchan, and others. 

3. Elizabeth, married to Sir William de Douglas, Lord of Lugton, 
ancestor of the Earls of Morton. Sir William was uncle of the good 
Sir James. 

Before tracing the descent of the Stewarts of Appin from Sir John Stewart de Bonkyl, 
a short sketch of the history of the main line of the House to the accession of Robert 
Stewart to the throne of Scotland in 137 1, will be given. Less than a hundred years 
afterwards one of the descendants of this main line, Margaret, daughter of the Duke of 
Albany, was grandmother of Dugall, first of Appin, by her marriage with Robert Stewart, 
Lord of Lorn. 

James, the eldest son of Alexander Stewart of Dundonald, was bom in 1243, and 
succeeded his father in 1283. He was one of the six Regents of Scotland during Queen 
Margaret's absence after the death of her grandfather Alexander IH. ; the others being 
Duncan, Earl of Fife ; Alexander Comyn, Earl of Buchan, Constable and Justiciary of 
Scotland ; Fraser, Bishop of St Andrews ; Wishart, Bishop of Glasgow; and John Comyn, 
Lord of Badenoch. In that capacity he was addressed, on 1 4th October 1 2 86, by the Abbot 
of Aberbrothoc, respecting property in that abbacy, and on the nth November of the same 
year, he subscribed a remonstrance with the King of England, on the harsh conduct of the 
King's Escheator on the north of the Trent. His name also appears very frequently in the 
public documents of the period, still preserved in the Register House in Edinburgh, autho- 
rising the payment of the customary fees to various knights, and in all these he gives the 
confirmatory signature at the end. His name appears, on 20th September 1286, as the 
signatory of a bond between certain nobles of Scotland and England for mutual defence, 
including Patrick, Seventh Earl of Dunbar, and his sons Patrick, John, and Alexander ; 
Walter, Earl of Menteith ; Robert de Brus, Lord of Annandale, and Robert and Richard 
his sons ; James, Seneschal of Scodand, and his brother John. The Chamberlain Rolls 
show that he was Vicecomes de Air before 1289. In that year the management of the king- 
dom was entrusted to him, while his colleagues went to England to treat with Edward I. 
and the ambassadors of the King of Nor\vay, about the affairs of the young Queen of 


Scotland In 1294 he granted to the Monastery of Paisley the privilege of a herring- 
fishing in the Clyde. In 1296 he signed the Ragman Roll, a document deriving its name 
from Ragimunde, a papal legate in Scotland, which contains the instruments of homage 
and fealty to Edward I., sworn to by the nobility and clergy of Scotland ; but in the year 
following, he and his brother John associated themselves with Wallace for the defence of 
the kingdom. The dissensions of the party, however, induced James, Sir Alexander de 
Lindsay of Crawford, and Robert de Brus, to submit to Edward I. at Ayr, James, never- 
theless, sending his Brandanes, under his brother John's command, to the battle of 
Falkirk, on 22d July 1289. Winton writes — 

" Thare Ihon Stewart a' pon fute, 
Wyth hym the Brandanes thare of Bute." 

And Holinshed— " There were slain Sir John Stewart with his Brandanes, for so they 
name them that are taken to warre furth of the Stewartes lands." 

In 1307 the English burned a part of the monastery of Paisley. To the perpetration 
of this sacrilegious act against the peculiar religious foundation of the Stewarts, they were 
doubtless provoked by the prominent and heroic part taken by Sir John Stewart of 
Bonkill, and by a feeling of revenge against James, the High Steward, who, after he had 
for a time yielded a compulsory obedience to Edward I., latterly became one of the 
most zealous and powerful supporters of Bruce in his protracted struggle for national 

James appears to have frequently, if not principally, resided at Renfrew Castle, which 
probably had been originally an old dwelling of the Kings of Scotland. It stood on a 
rising ground between the Cross and the Ferry in the King's Inch. "Here," says 
Crawford, " the Lord High Stewart of Scotland had a castle, the chief manour of this fair 
barony ; for this I have seen a charter granted by James, High Stewart of Scotland 
(grandfather to King Robert II.), to Stephen, ancestor of the family of Hall of Fulbar, 
the charter being given ' apud manerium nostrum de Renfrew.' This castle," continues 
Crawford, "was situate upon a pretty, rising ground, called Castlehill, upon the brink of 
the river of Clyde ; from whence there has been a very agreeable prospect of the country, 
many miles distant every way, and surrounded with a large and deep fossie." Ramsay tells 
us that the castle continued to be one of the principal residences of the Stewarts as long 
as they continued in the relation of subjects. Even after Robert II. ascended the throne, 
he occasionally resided there, as some of his charters show. It would also appear that 
James IV. visited Renfrew Casde, for a deed by him bears to have been executed there. 

The seal of James, fifth High Steward, appended to a remittance in favour of the 
abbey of Melros of ten shillings from lands in the barony of Inverwick, is " but a mere 
fragment. The design is similar to the seal of his father, and it has evidently been a well 


executed seal. The inscription is lost, except the letters i se ." The counterseal bears 
" a fess cheque. The shield, of an elegant form, has been surrounded with beautiful 
tracery. The inscription is lost except the letters esca, but was probably the same as 
that on the seal of his father, except the difference of names." 

He died on i6th July 1309, and was buried among his ancestors in the abbey of 
Paisley, to which he had confirmed, in 1294, all previous donations by his predecessors. 
He married Cecilia, daughter of Patrick, ninth Earl of Dunbar, and had issue — 

1. Andrew, who predeceased his father. 

2. Walter, his successor. 

3. John, killed at the battle of Dundalk, 5th October 131S. 

4. Sir James, of Durrisdeer. 

Also a daughter, Egidia, married to Sir Alexander de Meyners or Menzies. They 
got a charier from Robert I. of the lands of Durrisdeer, afterwards resigned to her brother 

Walter, who succeeded his father, was bom in 1293. The first mention of him in 
history is when the Scottish army was assembled at Torwood, the day before the battle of 
Bannockburn, on 25th June 1314, when Walter brought up a large body of men from his 
extensive territories in Ayrshire, Renfrewshire, and Bute. Barbour says — 

" Walter, Stewart of Scotland, syne, 
That then was but a beardless hyne. 
Came with a rout of noble men, 
That might by countenance be ken." 

In the marshalling of the Scottish army, the command of the first division was given 
to Thomas Randolph, Earl of Murray ; that of the second to Edward Bruce, the king's 
brother ; that of the third to Walter, the young Stewart, though then only twenty-one years 
of age, and to his kinsman, Sir James Douglas ; the king in person commanding the 
fourth division, which was in reserve. 

" And syne the third battle they gave 
To Walter Stewart for to lead. 
And to Douglas doughty of deed. 
They were cousins in near degree. — Barbour. 

Young Walter Stewart was knighted after the battle, 

" The king maid Walter Stewart knycht, 
And James of Dowglas, that wes wycht," 

says Barbour. He was subsequently sent to receive, on the borders of England, Elizabeth, 
wife of King Robert, and their daughter, Marjory, to whom Walter was married the next 
year, 1315. In 13 16, when King Robert went over to Ireland to aid his brother Edward, 
he appointed Sir Walter Stewart and Sir James Douglas governors of Scotland during his 


absence. On Shrove Tuesday of that year, tradition says, the Lady Marjory was unfor- 
tunately thrown from her horse when returning from Paisley to Renfrew Castle, and her 
unborn son, afterwards Robert IL, is said to have been extracted by the Cassarian opera- 
tion, in the process of which he got a cut in the eye, which gave him afterwards the name 
of King " Blear-eye." Fordun says Robert was born in the natural course, and that Mar- 
jory died two days after his birth. Dr Lees relates that a stone pillar marked the spot 
where Marjory fell from her horse, but that, when last seen, it formed a lintel in a farm- 
house, and that the stones of the pedestal had been taken for repairing stone walls. In 
Gordon's Monasticon, it is stated that the death of Marjory Bruce was occasioned by a 
fall from her horse, in March 131 6, while hunting at the Knock, between Paisley and the 
castle of Renfrew, the principal seat of her husband, Walter, the Great Steward of Scot- 
land, and that Robert IL " was cuttit out of his mother's womb by Sir John Forrester of 

For the welfare of his wife's soul, Walter gave, in 1318, the patronage of the church 
at Largs, with the tithes thereto belonging, to the monks of Paisley. He also granted 
to the monks of Dryburgh the patronage of the church of Maxton, in Roxburghshire, 
and subsequently the church itself, with the glebe, to which he added four acres in 

At a convention of the Scots nobles, held at Ayr on the 26th April 1313, the succes- 
sion to the Crown, in the event of Robert I. dying without male issue, was settled on Edward 
Bruce ; but, after the death of the latter at the battle of Dundalk in 13 18, another parlia- 
ment met at Scone on the 3d December in that year, to make a new settlement. It was 
there enacted that Robert, the son of Walter Stewart and Marjory Bruce, then called John, 
should, failing issue of Robert I., succeed to the throne. Walter got by his marriage, in 
addition to his great patrimonial possessions, the lands of Bathgate, Rathoe, Riccardtoun, 
Bams, Brome, Bonnington, Kinalach, Gallowhill, Wermes, Emygaith, and the rents of the 
Carse of Stirling. About 1320, he also got grants of the lands of Nisbet, Langnewton, 
Maxtoun, and Cavertoun, forfeited by Sir John de Soulis; and Eckford, Kelly, and 
Methven, forfeited by Sir Roger Moubray. 

Sir Walter Stewart was made governor of Berwick — an appointment which he retained 
till his death — after it was taken by the Scots in 1318 ; and he distinguished himself by 
the signal bravery with which, in the following year, he successfully defended the town 
with his own kindred and vassals against a large English army, led by Edward II. in per- 
son, a brilliant sally made by Walter leading to the final raising of the siege. In 1320, he 
appears as a signatory of the celebrated letter to the Pope from the Scottish barons, 
assembled at Arbroath. Laing says that "no seal of Walter has yet been met with. There 
was one appended to the letter of the Scottish barons to the Pope, a.d. 1320, but it has 
been for a long time lost from that instrument. Could it be here inserted, it would present 


(in connection with the great seals after their accession to the throne) an unbroken succes- 
sion of this great family for nearly five centuries." 

In 1322, in an enterprise to seize Edward 11. at Byland Abbey, near Melton in York- 
shire, Sir Walter, with Douglas and Randolph at the head of five hundred horsemen, pur- 
sued the English king to the gates of York, and, in the spirit of chivalry, remained 
there till evening, waiting for the enemy to come forth and give battle. 

" Stewart Waltre, that gret bounte 
Set ay on hey chewalry 
"With fyve hundred in cumpany 
Till Yorkis yettis the chass gan ma 
And thar sum of thair men gan sla 
And abade thar quhill ner the nycht 
To see gif ony wald ische to iychi."— Barbour. 

Walter died on the 9th of April 1326 ; 

" As gude Crystyn the gat he gan." 
Crawford says "at Bathcate in 1328," — Bathgate Castle, curiously situated in the midst 
of a bog, being one of his chief residences — and was solemnly interred at Paisley. 

" When long time they their Dale had made. 
The Corps to Paisley have they had. 
And there with great solemnity 
And with great Dule, eirded was he." — Barbour. 

Lord Hailes remarks, " Had he lived, he might have equalled Randolph and Douglas, 
but his course of glory was short." 

Walter is said by Simson, and by Sir Robert Douglas, to have been three times mar- 
ried. First, to Alice, daughter of Sir John Erskine, of Erskine, by whom he had a 
daughter, Jean, who was the second wife of Hugh, fifth Earl of Rossj secondly, to 
Marjory Bruce, mother of Robert II. ; and, thirdly, to Isabel, sister to the gallant Sir 
John Grahame, of Abercom, by whom he is said to have had a son, Sir John Stewart, of 
Railstoun. This Sir John Stewart had a son, who died without issue, and a daughter, who 
was married to Sir William Graham, of Kincardine, by whom she was mother of Patrick 
Graham, afterwards Earl of Stratherne. Walter, the High Steward, had also, by Isabel 
Grahame, a daughter, Egidia, who was married— first, by Papal dispensation, dated at 
Avignon, nth April 1346, to her cousin, Sir James Lindsay, of Crawford; secondly, to 
Sir Hew Eglintoun, of Eglintoun and Ardrossan ; and, thirdly, to Sir James Douglas, of 
Dalkeith, ancestor of the Earls of Morton, and had issue by all three. Her daughter, by 
Sir Hew Eglintoun, carried the succession to the lordships of Eglinton and Ardrossan to 
her husband. Sir John Montgomerie, of Eaglesham, the predecessor of the Earls of 


Robert, High Steward of Scotland, bom 13 16, was declared heir-presumptive to the 
throne in 13 18, but the birth of a son to King David Bruce in 1326 interrupted his pro- 
spects for a time. He had inherited from his grandfather large estates in Kintyre. He 
succeeded his father, Walter, when he was ten years old ; and when only seventeen, 
fought at the battle of Halidonhill on 13th July 1333. The result of that disastrous day 
was to give possession of nearly the whole of the kingdom to Balliol, who declared all 
Robert's estates forfeited, and conferred them in the following year upon David de Strath- 
bogie, twelfth Earl of AthoU, nephew of John Cumyn, of Badenoch ; and it was at this 
time, as has been before mentioned, that William Fitz-Alan, Earl of Arundel, laid claim 
to the Stewardship, and sold it to Edward III. for 1000 merks. Robert, once the most 
opulent noble in Scotland, had now nothing left but his valour and enterprise. He lay 
concealed in Bute for some months, but, gradually collecting a body of men, he recaptured 
his own castle of Dunoon ; and his cousin, Colin Campbell, son of Sir Neil Campbell, of 
Lochow, by Mary, sister of King Robert Bruce, bringing some Highlandmen to his assis- 
tance, he took possession of his paternal estates in Renfrewshire, and was the first to raise 
in the field the standard of Scottish independence, after the overwhelming defeat of Hali- 
donhill. Fordun says he was there joined by William Carnithers and a band of " honest 
men and proved Scotsmen " from Annandale. 

Fordun describes Robert in Latin, of which the following may be taken as a transla- 
tion : — " He was a comely youth, tall and robust, modest, liberal, gay, and courteous ; 
and for the sweetness of his disposition, beloved by all true hearted Scotsmen." 

In the History of Dumbartonshire we find the following account of the events of 
i333"4 : — " In the exercise of that power with which he considered himself invested, 
Balliol conferred upon the Earl of Atholl the extensive possessions of Robert the Stewart 
of Scotland, grandson of Robert Bruce. This young baron, stript of his patrimony, and 
closely pursued by the enemies of his house, lay concealed on his paternal estate (the 
island of Bute) for about a twelvemonth, after the defeat of Halidon Hill. With a skill 
and determination far beyond his years (he was only 18), he organised a plan for escaping 
to the castle of Dumbarton. Confiding his scheme to two faithful vassals of the family 
named Gibson and Heriot, they brought a boat to a convenient spot on the shore late in 
the evening, and accompanied by a page and two staunch friends, the Stewart was con- 
veyed to a point on the Cowall shore, where horses were in readiness to convey the party 
to Dumbarton. . . . Robert the Stewart did not long remain inactive in the district where 
he now found himself; gathering together such friends of his house as were willing to 
risk their lives in his cause, he, along with Sir Colin Campbell of Lochow, attacked and 
destroyed the castle of Dunoon, and put many of its defenders to the sword. The news 
of this success was not long in reaching his retainers in Bute, who, mustering in great 
force, captured de Lyle, the English Governor, and put him to death. Bearing his head 


in savage triumph along with them, the Stewart's vassals, or, as Wynton calls them, the 
Brandanes of Bute, soon after left the island and joined their master in the neighbourhood 
of Dumbarton. In the same year, 1334, an assembly of the Scottish nobles was held, in 
which the young Stewart and the Earl of Moray were elected joint regents on behalf of 
David, then an exile in France." 

In 1338 the Earl of Moray being prisoner in England, and Sir John Moray of 
Bothwell dead, Robert Stewart was acknowledged sole Regent, and gradually expelled the 
English from Edinburgh, and from all the towns north of the Forth. 

In 1341 King David II. returned to Scotland, and assumed the government. At 
the battle of Durham, in 1346, Robert Stewart and Patrick, ninth Earl of Dunbar and 
March, commanded the left wing, and brought off the remains of the Scots army from that 
illstarred field. Robert was elected Regent of the kingdom during King David's eleven 
years' imprisonment in England, under the title of " Robertus Senescallus Scotiae locum 
tenens Serenissimi Principis David." 

When David was ransomed in 1357, it was agreed that twenty young Scots nobles 
should be given as hostages, and amongst these was the eldest son of the Stewart. In 
1359 the king conferred upon Robert the Earldom of Strathern. 

King David II. died on the 22d February 137 1, and on the 26th March 1371 his 
nephew, Robert Stewart, was crowned King of Scotland at Scone. At his coronation a 
solemn Act was passed, reciting the Act passed at Scone in the time of Robert I., and 
fixing the succession on his eldest son, John " Comes de Carrick et Senescallus Scotiae." 
On succeeding to the throne he changed his name to Robert, a name beloved by the Scots, 
who considered John, from the e.xamples of King John of England and John Baliol, a 
name of ill omen for a king. 

The narrative will now return to Sir John Stewart de Bonkyl, second son of Alex- 
ander, High Steward of Scotland, and ancestor of the Stewarts of Appin. 


SIR JOHN STEWART, who received from his father the barony 
of GarKes, but who was commonly designed of Bonkyl, in Ber- 
wickshire, is thus described in Nisbet's Heraldry: " Sir John Stewart 
of Bonkyl, second son of Alexander, High Steward of Scotland, born in 
the year 1246. He married Margaret, daughter of Sir Alexander 
Bonkyl of that Ilk. She bore him several sons, heads of great families 
of the name of Stewart, which families were known by the fess chequd, 
and bend and buckles, the figures which Sir John carried in right of his 
wife ; viz., or, a fess cheque, surmounted of a bend, gules, charged 
with three buckles of the first for Bonkyl." A facsimile of the coat of 
arms of " Stewart of Bonkylle " taken from the ancient heraldic manu- 
script emblazoned by Sir David Lyndsay of the Mount, Lyon King at 
Arms in the reign of James V., a.d. T542, is given upon the preceding 
page. Holinshed writes : " The said Alexander Stewart, son of Alan, 
had divers sons ; one of whom, John, married the heiress of Bonkyl, a 
virgine of great beauties." Alexander de Bonekil is mentioned, on 
28th November 1292, in the list of exemptions from Common Sum- 
mons to Common Pleas, in the County of Northumberland and Liberty 
of Tynedale, together with the King of Scotland, the Abbot of Kelso, 
Patrick Earl of Dunbar and March, and Thomas of Clerehill. 

Sir John Stewart's name appears in the bond, previously quoted at 
page 38, wherein the Earls of Gloucester and Ulster, and other 
nobles, James " Senescallus Scotise," and John, his brother, agree to 
stand by each other in all questions, saving their allegiance to their 
respective sovereigns. This contract is dated at Turnberry in Carrick, 
20th September 1286. In the competition between Bruce and Baliol 
for the Scottish throne in 1292, the auditors for Bruce were Walter 


Earl of Menteith, Malcolm Earl of Lennox, James the High Stewart, 
John Stewart his brother, Alexander de Bonkyl, Thomas de Bonkyl, 
the Bishops of Glasgow and Dunkeld, and the Abbots of Melros and 
Jedworth. Of the 1600 or 1700 names in the Ragman Roll, the first 
is that of James, Seneschal of Scotland, and next to it is that of John 
Stewart his brother, followed by those of Alexander Earl of Menteth, 
and Alexander de Bonkyl. The seals of James the High Steward, and 
of Sir John his brother, are preserved in the Chapter House, West- 
minster. That of James is much smaller, and in better preservation, 
than the seal engraved and described at page 23. It bears " a fess 
chequd, the shield surrounded with tracery, secreto 
jACOBi SENESCALLi scociE." That of Sir John bears 
" a fess cheque surmounted with a bend, s' johannis 


On Candlemas day 1296, John Stewart "for the 
health of his own soul and all his ancestors and suc- 
cessors, and for the health of Margaret his wife and his children, 
gives to Melroes and to the canons thereof" two pounds of wax to 
light at the tomb of St Waldare, to be paid yearly at the fairs of 
Roxburgh ; and among the witnesses is James, Seneschal of Scotland, 
" brother of the granter." 

When King Edward I. of England again invaded Scotland in 
1298, Sir John Stewart joined Wallace previous to the battle of 
Falkirk on the 22d July. Lord Hailes says of the leaders : " They 
whose names are recorded were John Comyn of Badenoch, the 
younger ; Sir John Stewart of Bonkyl, brother to the Stewart ; Sir 
John Graham of Abercorn ; and Macduff, granduncle of the young 
Earl of Fife." 

" Ye gud Stewart yon till array is gane, 
Ye field he tuk, as braw and worthy knycht," 

says Blind Harry. Sir John Stewart — who, in the absence of his elder 
brother James, was in command of the whole united body of the vas- 


sals and military tenants of the House of Stewart — contended with 
Wallace and Comyn for the place of honour in the line of battle ; and 
in the dissension which unhappily ensued upon this rivalry, Sir John 
and his division of 10,000 men were overwhelmed by the English. 
Hemmingford gives an account of his death in Latin, which may be 
thus translated : " Among whom was the brother of the Seneschal of 
Scotland, who, when giving commands to the archers from the forest of 
Selkirk, was accidentally thrown from his horse and slain. The archers 
stood around him and were overpowered, men who were of tall stature 
and of elegant form." The monument to Sir John Stewart at Falkirk 
is a plain slab, with the inscription, " Here lies a Scottish hero, Sir 
John Stewart, killed at the battle of Falkirk, 22 July 1298," with a cross 


" Quhen Wallace saw zis nobile worthi deid. 
Held up hys handys with humyll prayer prest," 

is Blind Harry's touching lament for his fall. 

In an inquisition taken at Carlisle by Edward I., a jury de- 
clared that the deceased Alexander de Bonkyl had possessed the 
manor of Ulnedale, in Cumberland, with the pertinents of Thomas de 
Lucy, and that the said manor was escheated to the King, as Margaret, 
daughter and heir of the said Sir Alexander, residing in Scotland with 
the enemies of their sovereign lord, Edward, King of England. 

There are many proofs in records that this Sir John Stewart mar- 
ried the daughter and heiress of Sir Alexander of Bonkyl, or Bonckhill, 
as the name was afterwards spelled, and that he was killed in 1298; 
but it appears that his father - in - law did not die till about 1 300. 
Thus Sir John was not universally styled de Bonkyl by contemporary 
writers, but in Barbour and other authorities his son Sir Alexander 
Stewart was so called. 

" For off Bonkle the Lord thar was, 
Alysander Stewart hat he." — Barbour. 

In another inquisition, taken at Ulnedale, a jury declared that 


Alexander le Seneschal was seized as of fee of the manor of Ulnedale, 
and that he had departed from the fealty due by him to his sovereign 
Lord and King, then Edward II. 

Sir John Stewart, killed at Falkirk, a.d. 1298, left by his wife Mar- 
garet a large family, upon each and all of whom, no doubt in recogni- 
tion of their father's distinguished services, Robert the Bruce bestowed 
the most signal marks of favour, in the grant of honours and lands. 

I. Sir Alexander Stewart of Bonkyl. We read in the family record of the Bruces 
and the Comyns that " in 1308, Sir Thomas Randolph, the king's nephew, and Alexander 
Stewart of Bonkyl, then in the interest of England, but afterwards the most trusty adher- 
ents of the Bruce, were taken prisoners by Sir James Douglas, who treated them with 
great kindness, and soon after made their peace with the king." Sir Alexander left a son, 
Sir John Stewart of Bonkyl, created by King Robert L, in 1327, Earl of Angus on the 
failure of the lines of Comyn and Umfraville ; and a daughter, Isabel, who married, ist, 
Donald twelfth Earl of Mar, and, 2ndly, after her first husband's death at Dupplin in 
1332, her cousin, John Randolph, third Earl of Moray, who fell at Durham in 1346. Sir 
John Stewart is designed Earl of Angus, Lord Bonkyll and Abernethy, in the charter of 
the lands of Blainerne which he inherited through his wife Margaret, daughter of Sir 
Alexander Abernethy. He died in 1331, leaving, besides two daughters, one son Thomas, 
second Earl of Angus, who, by his wife Margaret, daughter of Sir William Sinclair of 
Roslin, had issue Thomas, third Earl of Angus, who married Margaret, daughter and 
co-heir of Donald twelfth Earl of Mar, a marriage of which there was no issue. Conse- 
quently, upon the death of the third Earl in 1377, the estate and honours devolved upon 
the son of his elder sister Margaret, who had married, first, Thomas thirteenth Earl of 
Mar (without issue), and, secondly, William first Earl of Douglas, to whom she was third 
wife, and by whom she had a son George, who, as Earl William's second son, succeeded 
to his mother's title as fourth Earl of Angus, being the first Earl of Angus of the Douglas 
family. I'he estates of Bonkyl, — now called Bonkle, and lying in the united parishes of 
Reston and Bunkle, near Dunse — the Abernethy estates, and others, passed with the titles 
to the Douglasses. These honours were subsequently restricted to heirs-male, and are 
now vested in the Duke of Hamilton, the head of the family of Douglas, who, as Earl 
of Angus and Lord Abernethy, and representative in the male line of George fourth Earl 
of Angus, now quarters with his paternal coat the fesse chequ^ and buckles of Stewart 
of Bonkyl. These bearings also appear on the shield of the Duke of Buccleuch, from 
the marriage, about 1565, of Sir Walter Scott of Branxholm and Buccleuch with Lady 
Margaret Douglas, daughter of David seventh Earl of Angus. 


2. Sir Alan Stewart of Dreghorn, in Ayrshire, who got from King Robert I. a charter 
of the lands of " Dregerum, que fuerunt Johannis de Baliolo, Willielmi de Ferrariis, et 
Allani la Suce," which continued in the possession of his descendants till 1520. These 
lands, as also those of Perceton and Warwickhill, bestowed on Sir Alan's younger brother. 
Sir James, formed part of the great barony of Cunninghame, which had passed, as has been 
above mentioned, by the marriage of the heiress of the De Morvilles, into the possession 
of the Lords of Galloway, and again in the same manner into that of Roger de Quinci, 
Earl of Winchester. Two of the daughters of the latter marrying, respectively, AVilliam de 
Ferrars, Earl of Derby, and Alan de la Zuche, brought to their husbands large possessions 
in Cunninghame, which were after^vards forfeited in consequence of the adherence of their 
possessors to the cause of Baliol. Sir Alan Stewart fell at the battle of Halidon Hill, in 
1333. From him are sprung the Lords of Damley and d'Aubigny, the Earls and Dukes 
of Lennox, the Earls of Galloway, and their cadets, amongst whom are the Stuarts of 
Castlemilk. This latter family resided at their seat of Castlemilk, in Dumfriesshire, from 
1387 to 1579, when they sold that estate to John, Lord Maxwell, removing to their pro- 
perty at Cassiltoun in Lanarkshire, which they named Castlemilk, so as to retain their 
ancient designation. Sir Alan's great-grandson married Marion Stewart, heiress of Dal- 
swinton, in Dumfriesshire, and of Garlies, now in the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright, but which 
then formed part of the county of Dumfries, and after this marriage there descended from 
the main line of Garlies or Galloway, the Lords of Blantyre and Blessington, and the 
Stewarts of Barclay, Physgill, and Castle Stewart. 

Henry, Lord Damley, eldest surviving son of Matthew, Earl of Lennox, the eighth 
in descent from Sir Alan, married Mary Queen of Scotland, in July 1565, and their last 
descendant in the male line, Prince Henry Benedict Maria Clement, Cardinal York, 
younger brother of Prince Charles Edward, died at Rome, in June 1807, in the 83d year 
of his age. Charles, second surviving son of Matthew, Earl of Lennox, was created Earl 
by King James VI., but the peerage eventually went into the family of John, Lord 
d'Aubigny, brother of Matthew, whose son was raised to the rank of Duke of Lennox, and 
on the death of the last heir-male of the family, the honours of this illustrious house 
reverted to King Charles IL, as nearest heir-male, and His Majesty conferred them upon 
his natural son, Charles Lenox, whose descendant is Duke of Richmond, Lennox, and 
Gordon. The Royal family of Stewart, the senior branch of Bonkyl, and the Houses of 
Damley, d'Aubigny, and Lennox, being all extinct in the male line, the Earl of 
Galloway is now the representative, in the male line of descent, of the High Stewards of 

3. Sir Walter Stewart of Dalswinton got a charter of the lands of Dalswinton 
from King Robert I., and of the Barony of Garlies from his nephew, John Randolph, 
third Earl of Moray. His great-granddaughter, Marion, was married, as above mentioned, 




in 1396, to John, great-grandson of Sir Alan, carrying with her as her portion, the estates 
of Dalswinton and Garlies. 

4. Sir James Stewart of Perston and Warwickhill in Cunninghame, got a charter 
of these lands from King Robert I. From Sir James are descended the Stewarts, Earls 
of Buchan, Atholl, and Traquair, the Lords of Lorn, now represented by the Stewarts of 
Appin, the Stewarts of Grandtully, Rosyth, Kinnaird, etc. 

5. Sir John Stewart of Daldon was one of the principal persons who landed at 
Carrickfergus, on 25th May 13 15, with Edward Bruce, when, in command of an army of 
6000 men, he made his brilliant but fruitless attempt to aid the Irish of Ulster to throw 
off the English yoke. " And Schyr Ihone Stewart went alsua," says Barbour. He is also 
mentioned in Fordun's Scotichronicon, and was killed at the battle of Halidon Hill, 
apparently leaving no issue. 

6. Sir Robert Stewart of Dalduie in Lanarkshire. He, too, accompanied Edward 
Bruce to Ireland, and was at the concluding battle of Dundalk, on 5th October 1318. 
According to Sir Henry Steuart, " his grandson, Sir Alan obtained the lands of Allantoun, 
in Lanarkshire, and from him have sprung the Steuarts of Allanton and their various 
descendants, viz., those of Kirkfield and Coltness, Goodtrees, Westshield, Collemie, 
Westbams, AUanbank, and Mitcham, as also the Steuarts of Hartwood, Carbarns," etc. 

7. Sir Hugh Stewart, who is said, in Holinshed's Chronicles, to have accompanied 
Edward Bruce to Ireland, and to have died without issue. 

Sir John Stewart of Bonkyl had also a daughter, Isabel, married to Thomas Randolph, 
first Earl of Moray, to whom she brought the barony of Garlies as her portion. This 
barony was afterwards transferred by John, Earl of Moray, to his uncle. Sir Walter Stewart 
of Dalswinton. 

Sir James Stewart, fourth son of Sir John Stewart of Bonkyl, and 
ancestor of the Stewarts of Appin, had a charter from King Robert Bruce 
of the lands of Peristoun and Warwickhill, in the district of Cuninghame 
in Ayrshire. The charter is to " dilecto et fideli Jacobo Stewart filio 
quondam domini Johannis Stewart terrarum Preston et Warwickhill infra 
baroniam de Cunningham." Sir James was present at the battle of 
Bannockburn in 13 14, on which occasion, says Sir D. Dalrymple, the 
second body of the Scots army was commanded by the youthful Steward 
of Scotland, under the inspection of his uncle. Sir James Stewart of 
Rosyth. It has, however, been elsewhere pointed out that Sir James 
was not his uncle, but his father's first cousin. He was killed at Hallidon 

Hill on 19th July 1333, with his brothers Sir Alan and Sir John Stewart. 
Fordun, in recounting the most distinguished persons killed at this 
battle, begins thus, " Nomina nobillum occisorum ex parte Regis David 
sunt hsc ; tres incliti fratres vizt. Jacobus Joannes et Alanus Stewart." 
Winton, in his Chronicle, mentions, James, John, and Alan Stewart as 
killed at the battle of Hallidon Hill, and positively states that they 
were brothers. Bellenden, in his translation of Boethius, writes thus, 
" In the third battal was the Douglas, Governor, having with him 
James, John, and Alan Stewart," and in his account of the slain says, 
" Thir are the principal men that were slain, Archibald Douglas, 
Governor, John Stewart, James Stewart, and Alan Stewart." 

Lord Hailes in his Annals, in a note at the end of his remarks on 
the battle of Hallidon Hill, points out that, " At Hallidon two Stewarts 
fought, the one Alan of Dreghorn, the paternal ancestor of Charles I., 
and the other James, his brother, the maternal ancestor of Oliver 
Cromwell." Oliver's mother was descended from the Stewarts of Ely. 
Robert Stewart, last Prior of Ely, writing his own genealogy in Queen 
Mary's time, claimed to be descended from Andrew, son of Alexander, 
High Stewart, who, he says, fought a duel with a Baliol, and having 
broken his sword, snatched up a club, with which he so beat his 
antagonist, that Baliol would have been killed if help had not been given 
him. Hence these Stewarts carry a knotty baton in their arms. Lord 
Hailes was of opinion that they came from Sir James Stewart of 
Perstoun, through the Rosyth family. 

In the disorganisation which prevailed in Scotland after the defeat 
of Halidon Hill, many contemporary records were destroyed or lost, 
and the name of Sir James Stewart's wife has not been preserved. He 
left legitimate issue, three sons and one daughter. 

I. Sir John Stewart, designed of Perston in a charter of 1356. 
He had a charter in that year, from King David II., of the barony of 
Kelly, in Forfarshire, and a confirmation from King Robert III. of the 
same barony in 1384. He also occurs as a witness in a confirmatory 


charter by King David II. of lands to the abbey of Kilwinning. He 
left one daughter, married to Sir William Douglas, designed in 1391 
" Dominus de Peirston." Sir William left three daughters, all great 
heiresses, the eldest being married to Blair of Adamton, the second to 
Crawfurd of Thirdpart, and the youngest, whose portion consisted of 
Perceton and Warwick Hill, to Robert Berkeley, ancestor of the Bar- 
clays, now baronets of Perceton. 

2. Sir Alan Stewart, of Ochiltree, or Ugiltree, in Ayrshire, who, 
in a charter in 1377 making over the barony of Longnewton to Sir 
Henry Douglas, of Lugton, his relative, describes himself as " Alanus 
filius quondam Jacobi Stewart." He occurs again, together with his 
son John — with whom his line seems to have ended — in another obliga- 
tion to Sir Henry Douglas, regarding the lands of Longniddry. Their 
seals are thus described by Laing. Sir Alan's is " Couch6 a fess chequ6 
surmounted with a bend, charged with three buckles, crest on a helmet, 
a horse's head issuing from a coronet. Supporters, two lions sejant, 
gardant, coue." Of his son's, Laing says, " This a fine seal, in excellent 
preservation. The design is precisely the same as that on his father's 
seal, with the addition of a label of three points as a difference." 

3. Sir Robert Stewart, of Schanbothy, in the county of Clack- 
mannan, upon whose descendants the representation of the male line of 
Peirstoun thus devolved, and ancestor of the Stewarts of Appin. 

Sir Robert Stewart, of Schanbothy, designed "of Innermeath," 
in his brother Alan's charter in 1377, to which he was a witness. Sir 
Robert had a charter of the lands of Schanbothy from his cousin, 
Thomas de Moravia, Lord of Bothwell, which was confirmed by David 
II. He also had a grant, dated 23d March 1362, from David II., of 
the lands of Motherwell and Dalzell, in Lanarkshire, which had been 
forfeited by Sir Robert de la Val ; a charter of Innermeath, now Inver- 
may, in Perthshire, in the same year ; and also a charter of half the 
lands of Redcastle, in Forfarshire. The feudal or baronial residence 
of Redcastle, one of the oldest castellated ruins in Angus, is situated 


at the influx of the river Lunan into the German Ocean, on an 
almost perpendicular eminence on the edge of the sea. It was built 
by William the Lion, and used by him as a hunting seat, and sub- 
sequently became the property of Walter de Berkeley, Chamberlain of 
Scotland, whose daughter married Ingelram de Baliol, Lord of Barnard 
Castle, the first of that name in Scotland. Redcastle passed to their 
eldest son, Henry, whose son, John, by his marriage with Devorgilla, 
eldest daughter and co-heiress of Allan, Lord of Galloway, was John de 
Balliol, some time king of Scotland. Redcastle was for a long time 
possessed by the Stewarts, Lords of Innermeath, who also held Inver- 
keillor and Lunan. He had likewise charters of confirmation in 1372, 
" Roberto Stewart de Schanbothy, militi," of the lands of Gerpets, Cragy, 
Castletoun, Hoggestoun, Wester Balblair, &c. In 1372 Alexander 
Meniers or Menzies, who had married Egidia, daughter of James, the 
High Steward, gave him Durrisdeer, in Dumfries-shire, for which Sir 
Robert had a charter. Alexander Menzies had previously resigned 
these lands to James Stewart, his wife's brother, but James dying with- 
out issue, they had reverted to him, and he now conferred them on his 
wife's cousin. In the parliament of Robert II., held at Scone 4th April 
1373, he is designed " Robertus Senescallus de Innermeath." He had 
also a charter from Robert II., dated 8th October 1382, of the lands of 
Castletoun, Hogstoun, Wester Balblayne, Morehouse, and others in 
Forfarshire; and another, dated 1386, "Domino Roberto Stewart de 
Innermeath," granting him an annuity of twenty merks sterling, out of 
the burgh of Inverkeithing. Sir Robert's seal bore a fess chequ^, 
within a border charged with buckles for Bonkyl, the bordure having, 
no doubt, been assumed as a mark of cadency. The name of his wife 
is not mentioned by any genealogist. He died in 1387, leaving two 
legitimate sons and one daughter. 

1. Sir John Stewart, ancestor of the Stewarts of Appin. 

2. Sir Robert Stewart, who inherited Schanbothy from his father. 
He had, from his brother John, a charter of ^20 sterling, payable 


yearly, out of the barony of Durrisdeer, and a confirmation thereof 
by King Robert II., under the great seal, dated 20th April 1386. He 
married Janet, elder daughter and heiress or co-heiress of John de 
Ergadia, Lord of Lorn and chief of the family afterwards bearing the 
surname of MacDougall. He subsequently surrendered Lorn to his 
elder brother. Sir John Stewart, in exchange for Durrisdeer, by a 
charter dated 13th April 1388. About that year Sir Robert, together 
with Sir William, the Black Douglas, Lord of Niddesdale, invaded 
Ireland by way of retaliation upon England, took and burned the town 
of Carlingford, and carried off great booty. He appears in the records 
of the Tower of London as having had a safe conduct to proceed to 
London, dated 7th July 1394, perhaps on business connected with a 
treaty then under negotiation between Robert II. and England. He 
was taken prisoner at Homildon in 1401, and killed at the batde of 
Shrewsbury on 21st July 1403, where he and other Scots nobles had 
gone to assist Harry Hotspur and Owen Glendower. He was ancestor 
of the Stewarts of Rosyth, in Fife, and Craigiehall, in Linlithgowshire, 
who became extinct on the death of William, last of Rosyth, without 
issue, in 1694. 

3. Katharine, married to John Bethune, of Balfour. 

Sir John Stewart inherited from his father, as we see from a 
charter of 1388, Innermeath and Durrisdeer, and subsequently ex- 
changed Durrisdeer with his younger brother, Robert, for the lordship 
of Lorn. According to Sir Robert Douglas, he married, apparently 
about 1386, Isabel, the younger daughter of John de Ergadia, Lord of 
Lorn. Skene calls her co-heiress with her sister. In the " Origines 
Parochiales Scotise," it is said, "Before the year 1388, Janet, the 
daughter and heiress of John of Lorn, appears to have carried the lands 
of Lome to her husband, Sir Robert Stewart. In 1388 the lands 
of Lome, Benechdirloch, Apthane, and Lesmore were resigned by Sir 
Robert the Stewart and Janet, his wife, and were then granted by 
Robert II. to John the Stewart, of Innermeath." Sir John also received 


from Robert II. a confirmatory charter of the lands of Lome, including 
Apthane, resigned by his brother. He had a charter, circa 1 390, from 
Robert, Earl of Fife and Monteith, Duke of Albany, and Regent of 
Scotland, of the lands of Cullyndrane, in the earldom and sheriffdom of 
Fife, for his good services, Sir John paying therefor three suits at the 
three chief courts held yearly at Cupar, with wards and releifs when 
they shall happen, to be held of the granter and his heirs for ever. He 
also occurs in a confirmatory charter by the Regent, Robert, Duke of 
Albany, of the barony of Hawick to William of Douglas, of Drumlan- 
rig, dated 24th October 1407. There is also a charter dated at Inner- 
meth, 9th March 14 19, from William Heryss, lord of a part of the 
lands of Colcarny, to Sir John Stewart, Lord of Innermeth, for his good 
and faithful counsel and assistance often rendered to the granter, of his 
said lands of Colcarny, with their pertinents, lying within the sheriffdom 
of Kynross, to be held by him and his heirs of the said William and his 
heirs, from the king, for rendering therefor yearly the usual services. 

The family of MacDougall of Lome, to whose estates Sir John 
Stewart had thus succeeded, is of great antiquity. In " Keltie's High- 
land Clans " it is said that " Robert Bruce determined to crush the 
Macdougalls of Lorn for their adherence to the party of Comyn, their 
kinsman, and utterly defeated them at the pass of Awe. John, the 
eldest son, fled to England, Alister, the Lord of Lome, being allowed 
to retain his possessions in vassalage to the King." A further account 
of the family is given hereafter. 

Sir John Stewart of Innermeath and Lorn now quartered the galley 
of the Macdougalls with his paternal coat — giving, indeed, to the feudal 
ensign of this great historical lordship heraldic precedence of the fess 
chequ^ of the Stewarts by assigning to it the first and fourth quarters 
of the shield, and dropping at the same time the bordure charged 
with the Bonkyll buckles, which had been assumed by his father. Sir 
Robert, as a mark of cadency at the time when his next elder brother. 
Sir Alan of Ochiltree, adopted the bend and three buckles as his differ- 


ence. Sir John's son, Sir Robert of Lorn and Innermeath, on his 
marriage with the Lady Margaret Stewart, daughter of Robert Duke of 
Albany and Earl of Buchan, charged the second and third quarters of 
his shield with a garb in chief, the well known feudal ensign of that 
ancient earldom. A facsimile of this coat, taken from the heraldic 
manuscript executed in 1542 by Sir David Lyndsay of the Mount, 
Lyon King of Arms, and authenticated by the Scottish Privy Coun- 
cil in 1630, is given upon the opposite page. He soon, however, 
restored the fess chequ6 to the place of honour upon the shield, 
which is thus described by Nisbet, writing before Sir David Lyndsay's 
MS. had become public. " The antientest blazon of Stewart of Inner- 
meath that I meet with is quarterly first and fourth, or, a fess chequ^ 
azure and argent, and in chief a garb of the second (some books of 
Blazons in the time of Queen Mary, in the place of a garb have a fleur 
de luce ; and Sir James Balfour in his blazons places a buckle azure, 
which speaks better to the descent from Stewart of Bonkyl), second 
and third a galley or lymphad, with flames of fire issuing out of the top 
of the mast, and out of the fore and hinder parts, commonly called St 
Anthony's fire, for the Lordship of Lorn." 

In the following generation we find Sir John Stewart, third of 
Lorn, as will be seen from his seal engraved at p. 46, restoring to 
his shield the Buckle of Bonkill in addition to the Garb of Buchan. 
He subsequently, however, dropped both of these cognisances, and 
adopted as his crest the unicorn's head, the coat being then that which 
is now borne by the Stewarts of Appin, and which is thus blazoned in 
Burke's General Armoury : " Stewart of Lorn and Innermeath : quar- 
terly, first and fourth or, a fess chequd azure and argent (in earlier times 
differenced with a buckle gules, or a garb in chief) for Stewart. Second 
and third a lymphad, sometimes represented with St Anthony's fire at 
the masthead, for Lorn. Crest, a unicorn's head argent, horned or. 
Motto, Ouhidder will zie." 

The shield of Sir John's younger brother Walter, who, as will be 

fi^ttcU ic^ ^l 



seen hereafter, became subsequently possessed of Innermeath, appears, 
from the Heraldic MSS. preserved at the Lyon Office, to have been at 
first similar to the one last described, with the unimportant difference 
of spelling the motto " Quhadder Vil Ze." At a later period — perhaps 
when he became temporarily in nominal possession of a portion of 
Lorn — we find, from an old book of blazons in the Harleian MSS. in 
the British Museum, containing divers achievements of arms relating to 
the Scottish nation, that Walter replaced the galley in the first and 
fourth quarters, and the fess chequti in the second and third quarters of 
the shield, the crest being a unicorn's head, and the motto " Whither 
will ye," a blazon to which the younger or Innermeath branch of the 
family adhered until it became extinct in 1625, with the exception that 
the unicorn's head was changed, forty or fifty years later, into that of a 
deer, and that two deer (" Fala-deer," as Nisbet calls them) were added 
as supporters. 

Nisbet says : " The unicorn is remarkable for his strength, but 
more for his great and haughty mind, who would die rather than be 
brought into subjection, for which see Job, chapter 39. Upon these 
considerations, and others, the unicorn is adopted by our nation as a 
supporter of our sovereign ensign, and has been granted by our kings 
to some of their well-deserving subjects." 

The motto, " Quhidder Will Zie," still borne by the Stewarts of 
Appin, is old Scots for " Whether will ye ? " leaving peace or war to , 
the option of the opponent, and indicating that the bearers of the motto ; 
were equally prompt for either. In the Scots of that day, " qu " is 
almost invariably found instead of the letter " w " at the beginning of a 
word, as in " quhair " for " where." The word " quhidder " itself is of , 
somewhat rare occurrence, but an unquestionable instance of its use for i 
whether is to be found in the poem entitled " The Pallice of Honour," \ 
written by the scholarly Gawain Douglas, Bishop of Dunkeld, who was ;' 
born in 1474, where the line occurs — j 

" For quhidder I this in saul or bodie saw," 


where quhidder is distinctly synonymous with whether. A similar 
instance will be found of its use with this signification in the Decree 
against Ewen Cameron of Lochiel by the Lords of Council on 1 7th 
February 1 507, referred to hereafter. " Z " also is usually found in 
place of " y," as in " zie " for " ye," and in " zear " for " year." 
Sir John Stewart left issue — 

1. Robert, who succeeded him. 

2. Archibald, mentioned in a charter of the Lordship of Lorn, 1452. 

3. Sir James, called the Black Knight of Lorn. Sir James, who is described as " a 
handsome graceful young man," married in 1439 the Lady Joan Beaufort, eldest daughter 
of John Marquess of Dorset, granddaughter of John of Gaunt, and widow of King James 
I. Sir James was at that time closely allied with the family of Douglas, the head of which 
was then Lieutenant General of Scotland, and Livingstone became alarmed at the pro- 
bable accession of power to that great family. Seeing that Sir James, as husband of the 
Queen mother, who was custodian of the King's person, might insist upon a principal 
share in the education of the youthful sovereign as well as in the administration of the 
government, Livingstone threw Sir James and his brother William into prison, at the 
same time confining the Lady Joan to her private apartments till she signed a deed sur- 
rendering all control over the person of the young king, and her own allowance as Queen 
mother. The Chronicle of Auchinleck says that " Schir Alexander Livingstoune, the 
Lord Kalendar, took at the castle of Striveling Schir James Stewart, the Lord of Lome's 
brother, and William Stewart, and put them in pittis and bollit thaim." After his release, 
Sir James went abroad, and is said to have died off the coast of Flanders, leaving 
three sons. 

(i.) John, created Earl of Athole in 1457. This title had been vested in the Crown 
since the forfeiture and execution of Walter Stewart, second son of King Robert 
IIL, in 1437, and it was now bestowed by King James II. upon his uterine 
brother, Sir John Stewart of Balveny. On this peerage becoming extinct in the 
family of Stewart of Lorn by the death, without male heirs, in 1595, of John, 
fifth Earl of that line, it was conferred by James VI. upon John Stewart, sixth 
Lord Innermeath, who had married the widowed Countess. But the earldom 
again reverting to the Crown on the death, without issue, of James, second Earl 
of Athole of the line of Stewart of Innermeath, Charles I. granted it to William 
Murray, second Earl of Tullibardine, who had married the Lady Dorothea 
Stewart, eldest daughter of John Stewart, fifth Earl of Athole, ordering that 
" the dignity of the Earl of Athole, which had so long and so gloriously flourished 


in the race of the Stewarts, related to him in blood, should be revived in the 
person and descendants of the lady who was heir of line," whose husband he 
created Earl of Athole. The Hurrays retained the motto, " Furth Fortune and 
fill the Fetters," which had been adopted by Sir John, first Earl of the line of 
Stewart of Lorn. They were the farewell words of King James III. to his uncle 
the first Earl, on despatching him, in 1476, to subdue the resistance to the royal 
authority of the last Lord of the Isles, and conveyed the wish, " May you be 
fortunate, and make many prisoners." Earl John adopted the words for his 
motto, and put it in large letters on his castle of Balveny, taking also two 
savages in chains as his supporters. It is from this marriage that the Duke of 
Athole and the Earl of Dunmore bear the fess cheque on their arms, and a 
savage as one of their supporters. 

(2.) Sir James Stewart, called " Hearty James ; " created in 1466 Earl of Buchan, a 
title which, since the execution, in 1425, of Murdoch, Duke of Albany and 
Earl of Buchan, had remained vested in the Crown. In 147 1 he was made 
High Chamberlain of Scotland, and in 1473 was sent as ambassador to France, 
on which occasion he obtained a safe conduct for passing through England. 
His death took place before 1500, and his male line failed on the death of his 
grandson John, third Earl of Buchan of the line of Stewart of Lorn. The third 
Earl's granddaughter, Christian Stewart (daughter of John, Master of Buchan, 
who predeceased his father), succeeding to the title, carried it, by her marriage 
in 1569, to Robert Douglas, second son of Sir Robert Douglas of Lochleven, 
who thus became fourth Earl in right of his wife. 

The tide of Earl of Traquair, dormant since 1861, was conferred in 1633 on Sir John 
Stuart, Lord High Treasurer of Scotland, fifth in descent from James Stewart, 
a natural son of " Hearty James." 

(3.) Andrew, Bishop of Moray. 

4. Alexander Stewart, ancestor of the Stewarts of Grandtully. Alexander Stewart 
of Grandtully got a grant, on 30th March 1424, from Archibald, Earl of Douglas and 
Galloway, "to and in favors of Alexander Stewart, his armour-bearer, son of a noble 
knight. Sir John Stewart of Lorn." 

5. William, who shared his brother Sir James' imprisonment by the Lord Kalendar, 
of whose issue there is no record. 

Sir John had also three daughters — Christian, married to Sir James Dundas of 
Dundas; Isabel, martied first to Sir William Oliphant of Aberdalgy, and secondly 
to Sir David Murray, designed of Gask, who founded and endowed the Collegiate 
Church of Tullibardine, where he and his wife were buried ; and Jean, married to Sir 
David Bruce, third Baron of Clackmannan. 


Robert, second Lord of Lorn and Innermeath, eldest son of Sir 
John Stewart, succeeded his father. He occurs in a charter of Robert 
IL, A.D. 1439 ; and in another by Walter, Earl Palatine of Stratherne, 
to David Murray of TuUibardine, of the lands of Polgoure, within the 
earldom of Stratherne and sheriffdom of Perth. He was one of the 
commissioners appointed to treat, in 142 1, for the return of James L 
from England, and subsequently proceeded, in 1429, to England as one 
of the hostages for his ransom. In the second parliament called by the 
king after his return to Edinburgh in 1425, Murdoch, Duke of Albany, 
Walter and Alexander Stewart his sons, and Duncan, Earl of Lennox, 
his father-in-law, were attainted of treason, and found guilty by a jury 
composed of twenty-one of the most eminent subjects of the realm, 
among whose names appears that of " Robert Stewart of Lorn." The 
same day upon which the sentence was pronounced, the Duke's two 
sons, Walter and Alexander, were beheaded, and the next day the 
Duke himself and Lennox lost their heads. The jury consisted of the 
following : — Walter, Earl of Atholl ; Archibald, Earl of Douglas ; Alex- 
ander, Earl of Ross, Lord of the Isles ; Alexander Stewart, Earl of 
Mar ; William, Earl of Angus ; William, Earl of Orkney ; George, 
Earl of March ; James Douglas of Balveny, Gilbert Hay of Errol, 
Constable of Scotland, Robert Stewart of Lorn, Sir John Montgomery 
of Ardrossan, Sir Thomas Sumerveil of Carnwath, Sir Herbert Herris 
of Terregles, Sir James Douglas of Dalkeith, Sir Robert Cunninghame 
of Kilmaures, Sir Alexander Livingstone of Callender, Sir Thomas 
Hay of Yester, Sir William Borthwick of that ilk. Sir Alexander 
Ogilvy, Sheriff of Angus, Sir John Forrester of Corstorphine, and Sir 
Walter Ogilvy of Lintrethan. 

Writing of Robert Stewart, Tytler says, " this powerful baron was 
in strict alliance with the house of Douglas," and he shared, in conse- 
quence, the imprisonment, in 1439, of his brothers, Sir James and 
William, by the faction of the Lord Kalendar. He married, before 
1 409, Margaret, fourth daughter of Robert, first Duke of Albany, and 


great-granddaughter of Walter, sixth High Steward, by his wife 
Marjory, daughter of King Robert Bruce, as we find from a charter in 
the Rolls, dated about that year, by the Duke " Roberto Senescallo de 
Lorn, filio suo." By her he left issue — 

1. John Stewart of Lorn, his successor. 

2. Walter, subsequently of Innermeath. He married Mar- 
garet Lindsay, "daughter to the Earl of Crawfurd's ancestor," says 
Duncan Stewart, and had issue. His line became extinct, on the 
death, without issue, in 1625, of James, seventh Lord Innermeath, and 
second Earl of A thole of the line of Stewart of Innermeath, the earldom 
of Athole and the Innermeath estates passing to his wife's nephew, 
John, third Earl of Tullibardine, who surrendered the newer title for 
the older dignity of Athole, both earldoms, however, becoming united 
in 1670. 

3. Alan, who seems to have left no issue. 

4. David, Bishop of Moray from 1463 to 1477. 

5. Robert, of whom no records remain. 

Also two daughters, one married to John, second Lord Lindsay of 
the Byres ; the other to Robert, eighth Lord Erskine. 

John, Lord of Lorn and Innermeath, eldest son of Robert and 
his wife, Margaret, daughter of Robert, Duke of Albany and Earl of 
Buchan, succeeded his father in the great family estates in Argyll, 
Perth, Kinross, Forfar, Clackmannan, and Fife. He married as his first 
wife a lady whose name has not been recorded by genealogists, by 
whom he had three daughters, regarding the order of whose birth not 
even the families of their husbands are agreed. Crawford, writing in 
1 710, followed by Duncan Stewart in 1730, and by Sir Robert Douglas, 
gives the order thus : — ist, Isabel, married to Colin, first Earl of 
Argyll ; 2d, Margaret, married to Sir Colin Campbell, of Glenurchy ; 
and 3rd, Marion, married to Arthur Campbell, of Ottar. Sir Bernard 
Burke in his " Peerage" says, " Colin, Lord Campbell, who was created 
Earl of Argyll, 1457, married Isabel Stewart, eldest daughter and 


co-heiress of John, Lord of Lorn, and in consequence added the galley 
to his achievement, with the designation of Lord Lorn to his other 
titles." Under the head of Breadalbane, we find in Burke that Sir Colin 
Campbell, of Glenurchy, " married, secondly, Margaret, second daughter 
and co-heir of John, Lord Lorn, with whom he got a third of that 
lordship," and quartered henceforward the galley of Lorn with his 
paternal achievement. 

Such is the generally received version of the order of birth of the 
three daughters of Sir John Stewart, and of the manner in which the 
lordship of Lorn passed to the Argyll family. Later investigations, 
however, clearly prove that this account of the acquisition of Lorn is 
altogether incorrect, and that the statements of the respective ages of 
the two elder daughters, as given by the two houses of Argyll and 
Breadalbane, do not agree with each other. 

In a curious MS., deposited in the British Museum, entitled " Mis- 
cellanies Historical, copied from a MS. which was in the possession of 
Archibald, Duke of Argyll, in the year 1 756," we find some " informa- 
tion anent the pedigree of the noble and ancient house of Lochow." At 
page 31, it is narrated that " Colin Mulle, Bold Earl Colin, Lieutenant 
of the Isles, and Chancellor of Scotland to James II., brought many 
actions to this house, especially the lordship of Lorn, by marriage of 
Isabella Stewart, heretrix of Lorn, and one of the three heretrices. 
Glenurchy married the eldest, and the laird of the third, the earl 

being always superior to all. It were tedious to set down all the 
troubles and passages of his time, especially with the Stewarts of Inner- 
meath, who pretended to be Lords of Lorn by tailzie. It is to be 
remembered that the three heretrices were daughters to John Stewart, 
Lord of Lorn, called John Mourach, which is to say, lipper John, who 
succeeded to his brother, Robert Stewart. This John married the Lord 
of the Isles and Earl of Ross' daughter, upon whom he begat three 

" Here may be opened an ocean of discourse as to the decay of Great 


Sorle, his house changed for his eldest son, Dougal, by the Stewarts of 
Innermeath to the Campbells, who keep it to this day, and how the 
M'Dougalls did keep it for ten successions — nine lawful and one bas- 
tard, — and this lipper lord was slain by the bastard M'Dougall, and how 
the Stewarts did kill the M'Dougall again, and in the end with how 
many varieties and troubles it did come to this earl, who was in the end 
compelled to give the Stewarts satisfaction, as the indenture between this 
earl and Walter, Lord Innermeath, doth bear, dated August 1469, as 
likewise to satisfy the two bastards of Dougald's, viz., M'Oneil, 
of Brue, and the Laird of Rarey, whose houses do both stand to 
this day." 

Without pausing to remark upon the blunders and admissions of 
this curious statement, we turn to the account given in the family 
history of the Glenorchy or Breadalbane branch of the Campbell 

In the " Black Book of Taymouth," a family history, written by 
Master William Bowie, family notary and pedagogue of the Breadalbane 
family, compiled from the Breadalbane papers in 1598, and printed in 
1845, we read that "Sir Colene Campbell, eftir the deceis of his said 
wyffe, Jonett Stewart, eldest dochtir to William" (evidently a mistake 
for John) "Stewart, Lord of Lome [with quhom he gatt in name of tochir- 
gude the auchtene markland of the Bray off Lome, hir father being 
then alyve. Bot eftir hir said father his deceis, the haill lordschip of 
Lome falling to his thre dochteris, heretrices thair off, the said Sir 
Colene, be vertew of his vyff, eldest of the three, fell to the haill 
superioritie of the lordschip of Lome, and first thrid thairoff, extending 
to tua hundredth and fyftie mark landis.] On her he begatt ane son, 
callit Sir Duncan Campbell, quha succeedit laird of Glenorquhay, and 
ane dochtir, callit Geillis Campbell, quha wes mariet on M'Cowle in 
Lome." The latter was a member of a family of which we shall speak 
hereafter, and was a descendant of the old Macdougalls — in Gaelic, 
M'Coules — of Lorn. We further read in the " Black Book of Tay- 


mouth," that "the said Sir Colene being tutour to his brother sone Colene 
Campbell (quha wes maid first Erie of Argyle), he mariet him on the 
secund heretrix of Lome, and thaireftir (for the favour he bure to him, 
and the standing of his Hows), frelie dimittit unto him the superioritie 
of the hail lordschip of Lome." Playfair, in his " British Family Anti- 
quity," confirms this account of the ancestor of the Breadalbane family 
marrying the elder daughter, and his nephew, the younger, which, 
indeed, their relative ages make most likely ; but the probability almost 
becomes certainty when we see the order in which the names of the 
daughters occur in the sasines of their shares in the inheritance of Castle 
Gloom and Dollar. Merely remarking at present, however, the great 
discrepancy between the account given in these family histories, and the 
generally accepted version as given by Burke, together with the impor- 
tant difference thereby involved as to the alleged succession to Lorn, we 
turn to facts established by deeds and charters, which again widely 
differ from both. 

By a charter, now in the Breadalbane charter-chest, dated 1448, by 
John Stewart, Lord of Lorn, consequent on a contract of marriage between 
his " derest cousing and mach," Sir Colene Campbell, of Glenorquhay, 
and his daughter, Jonet Stewart, there was granted to Sir Colene, out of 
the lands of Lorn, the five merk land of Letterbean, and half a merk 
land between Leakansumar and the rivulet called Allmothle, with the 
Isle of Inchconnan, and other isles thereto attached, in Ardchattan ; a 
penny land of Elarga and Blara, a penny land of Corelame, a penny 
land of Cluchaich, a penny land of Pollandowich, a penny land of 
Aeynyh, Lochaty-leod, with the loch Lochaty-leod, and a penny land of 
Drumnaschealge and Blaranedyn, in Kilmelfort, and a penny land of 
Finglen, in Kilninver. The lands of Letterbean, the most important of 
those enumerated, are on the south-east side of Ben Cruachan, on the 
north-west shore of Lochawe, and were consequently a very fitting 
dower to Sir John's daughter on her marriage with the laird of Glen- 
orchy, to whose estates they are adjacent. Laing writes, " The seal 


attached to this charter by Sir John Stewart, Lord Lorn, is in good 
preservation, and well executed, yet from 
the manner in which the charges are dis- 
posed, in outrage of all heraldic rule, a 
correct blazon is rendered almost impos- 

"The following description may give a 
correct enough idea of the seal, but certainly 
not of the noble coat of Stewart of Lorn : — 
Quarterly first, per fesse the base counter 
compony, in chief, a buckle, the strap extending towards the dexter ; 
second and third, a galley in full sail ; fourth, per fess, the ^/zz>/" counter 
compony, and in base a garb. This has evidently been intended for a 
composed coat ; the counter compony in the first and fourth quarters 
being meant for the fess chequ6, with the buckle marking the paternal 
descent ; the galley in the second and third quarters indicating Lorn ; 
and the garb in base of the fourth quarter, Buchan." The inscription on 
the seal is — " Sigillum Johi Steuward Domini de Lourn." 

The garb was the distinctive feudal cognisance of the earldom of 
Buchan, and was assumed by John of Lorn from his grandfather, Robert, 
Duke of Albany, having succeeded his brother, Alexander Stewart, the 
Wolf of Badenoch, in that earldom in 1394. This grant of land to 
Glenorchy, on his marriage, was signed at the castle of Glenorchy by 
Sir John Stewart in 1449. 

The cousinship above referred to as existing between Sir John 
Stewart and Sir Colin Campbell, arose from Sir John's mother being 
Margaret, fourth daughter of Robert, Duke of Albany (not Murdoch, as 
is erroneously stated in the " Black Book of Taymouth "), while Sir 
Colin's mother was Margaret's elder sister, Mariota or Marjory, the 
Duke's second daughter. 

In addition to the five and a half merk lands conveyed by the 
above-mentioned charter to his eldest daughter Janet and her husband, 



Sir Colin Campbell, out of the estate of Lorn, — a dower certainly not 
in the very slightest degree approaching, as stated in the Black Book 
of Taymouth, to a third of that lordship, then valued at about ;^450 
Scots, — she and each of her sisters were to receive, on their father's 
death, one-third of his patrimonial estate in the county of Clackmannan. 
These Clackmannan lands had now been in the family for four genera- 
tions, but with the object of keeping the more important Lordship of 
Lorn, and Barony of Innermeath intact for his male heirs, Sir John 
determined to divide this, though the older family property, among his 
three daughters. With this view these lands were excluded from the 
new grant of Lorn and Innermeath in 1452, and were consequently, 
after his death, divided among his daughters as heirs portioners ; and 
we find on 9th April 1465, Duncan Campbell, son of Sir Colin 
Campbell, Knight, Dame Isabel Stewart, and Marion Stewart, 
each seized " in all and haill the third part of the lands of Dollar and 

The third part of these lands which fell to the share of 
Duncan Campbell of Glenorchy was resigned by him in favour of 
Colin, Earl of Argyll, as appears from the Inventory of the Argyll 
Charters ; and in the Black Book of Taymouth we find " Item 
the said Sir Duncan excambit the third of the lands of Dollar 
and Acharnside, with the landis of Kilbryde beyand on the side of 

There is no mention of any deed conveying the part which fell to 
Marion Stewart, wife of Arthur Campbell of Ottar, but Argyll in some 
way or other acquired this part also, as there is a charter of confirma- 
tion by James IV., dated nth May 1497, of a charter by the superior, 
the Bishop of Dunkeld, in which it is expressly stated that the Bishop 
granted to Archibald, Earl of Argyll, all the lands of Dollar and Gloom. 
It is possible that the worthy Master William Bowie in his zeal for the 
standing of the house of Breadalbane, may have confounded this renun- 
ciation of Gloom, with the alleged free demission to the Earl of Argyll 


of the " superioritie of the haill Lordschip of Lorn," which, as will be 
conclusively shown, never fell as an inheritance to the daughters of Sir 
John Stewart. Be this as it may, the result was to place Argyll in pos- 
session of this large estate, with its ancient castle of Gloom, afterwards 
and until 1 664, a frequent and favourite residence of the Argylls under 
the name of Castle Campbell, a designation assumed under the autho- 
rity of an Act of the Scots Parliament in 1489. The castle was burned 
down by the Macleans in the army of Montrose in 1664, when he was 
marching from the north to the field of Kilsyth, and the estate was sold 
by the Duke of Argyll in 1808. 

In making the above settlements Sir John Stewart of Lorn seems 
to have considered that he had acquitted himself of his obligations to 
his female heirs and their husbands, for we find that after these grants, 
and a special and exceptional charter in favour of his kinsman John 
M'Alan, or Macdougal, called M'Coule, which will be afterwards noticed, 
he subsequently surrendered into the hands of James IL the Lordship 
of Lorn, and the baronies of Redcastle and Innermeath, for the purpose 
of obtaining two fresh charters more distinctly defining them, and des- 
tining them anew. Both these new charters are dated on the 20th of 
June 1452, and are given at length in the Appendix. In the first the 
King grants all and whole the Lordship of Lorn, all and whole the 
barony of Innermeath, lying in the sheriffdom of Perth, and all and 
whole the barony of Redcastle, lying in the sheriffdom of Forfar, " dilecto 
consanguineo nostro Johanni, Domino de Lorn," and the heirs male of 
his body, lawfully procreated or to be procreated, whom failing to his 
brother Walter Stewart, and his heirs male, and failing these to his 
brother Alan, and his heirs male. In default of these, the charter goes 
on to enumerate the other male relatives to whom the estates should 
descend — viz., John's brothers David and Robert, his uncles Sir Archi- 
bald and Sir James Stewart, and his kinsman Thomas Stewart, and 
the heirs male of each in their turn, as named ; and finally, failing all 
these, to his heirs whatsoever. 


The other charter, dated the same day, is much shorter, and refers 
only to the Barony of Innermeath, having been drawn for the purpose 
of obtaining the royal authority to include with that barony, which was 
entailed on heirs male by the major charter, the lands of Ennerdonyand 
Baldenys in the earldom of Stratherne and sheriffdom of Perth, also 
the lands of Colndrane, and of Maw in the sheriffdom of Fife, also the 
lands of Coltrane in the sheriffdom of Kinross, and also the 
lands of Kyldeny in the sheriffdom of Perth, all of which lands were 
incorporated with, and annexed to, the barony of Innermeath, to be 
held in perpetual tenure as part thereof, by John, Lord of Lorn, and his 
heirs, who were, as we have seen, fully enumerated in the major charter 
of the same date. Thus nothing could possibly be more clear than Sir 
John Stewart's set purpose to exclude his daughters, and their descen- 
dants, from all share in the Lordship of Lorn, the baronies of Redcastle 
and Innermeath, and the lands incorporated into the latter, until the 
failure of all the male heirs whom he could enumerate, even to the most 
remote degree ; but we shall see how, after his death, his intentions 
were frustrated, and who became the possessors of the lands incorpo- 
rated by royal charter into the barony of Innermeath. 

We turn now to the family of Macdougall of Lorn, from whom the 
lands of Lorn came, and from their alliance with whom the descendants 
of Sir John Stewart still bear on their armorial shield the galley of 
Lorn. This ancient clan derives its name and descent from Dugall, 
the eldest son of Somerled, the powerful chief of the Western Isles. 
His descendant, Alexander Macdougal, chief of Lorn, married the third 
daughter of the Red Comyn, slain by Robert de Brus in the Dominican 
Church at Dumfries in 1305, and adhered faithfully to the fortunes of 
his wife's family. Bruce, after his defeat at Methven on 19th June 
1306, retreated into the mountains of Breadalbane with less than three 
hundred men, and approached the borders of Argyllshire, where he was 
attacked and defeated by Alexander Macdougall at the head of one 
thousand men, at Dalree, the "king's field," in Strathfillan. It was at this 


battle that the famous " Brooch of Lorn," celebrated by Sir Walter Scott 
in his poem of " The Lord of the Isles," was wrested from the Bruce. 

In 1308, however, King Robert amply avenged his defeat, routing 
the Macdougalls at the Pass of Awe, and compelling Alexander to take 
refuge in his castle of Dunstaffnage, about twelve miles distant, which 
was at once besieged by the king. Barbour says — 

" The king that stoute wes, stark and bauld, 
Till Dunstaffynich rycht sturdily 
A sege set." 

Alexander soon surrendered to King Robert, and swore fealty to 
him ; but his son, John, " rebellious as he wont to be," says Barbour, 
refused to submit, and fled to England. After the battle of Bannock- 
burn, John was appointed by Edward 1 1, to the command of an English 
fleet, sent to encourage the chiefs of the Western Islands to detach 
themselves anew from the Scottish crown. Bruce, on his return from 
Ireland, sailed to attack him, routed his forces, dispersed his ships, 
and took John himself captive. He died a prisoner in Lochleven 
Castle ; but his son, John or Ewen, marrying Johanna, only child of the 
Princess Maude, daughter of David II., by her husband, Thomas Isaac 
or Ysac, was restored to his patrimonial possessions. This John died 
without male issue, but left two daughters, the elder of whom, as we 
have seen, carried the estate of Lorn to Sir Robert Stewart of Schan- 
bothy, who exchanged it with his elder brother. Sir John Stewart, who 
had married the younger daughter. The chieftainship of the clan Mac- 
dougall passed, without the estate, to John Macdougalls brother, Alan, 
upon whose son, John M'AIan M'Coule or Macdougall, John Stewart, 
Lord of Lorn, bestowed, in 1451, the lands and castle of Dunolly, 
which, with other lands granted at the same time, are still held by his 

Together with the lords of the Isles, the Macdougalls had always 
aspired to hold a position independent of the Scottish crown, and were 
almost continually in correspondence with England, assuming the right 


to enter into treaties and conclude peace as independent princes. It 
was through Lorn that the Western Islanders invaded the more central 
parts of Scotland, and it was thus of high political importance that a 
dominion of such consequence, from its extent and position, should be 
held by sure and loyal friends of the crown. King Robert I. had suffered 
so much from the relentless animosity of the various branches of this 
family, that to diminish their power became a prominent feature of his 
policy, and he bequeathed it for the guidance of his successors. These 
considerations leave little doubt that the royal sanction had been readily 
accorded, in the charter by King Robert II., to the passing of the 
inheritance, by the marriage of the heiress, to a Stewart, who was so 
closely allied in blood to the king ; and they may also serve to explain 
Sir John Stewart's care to secure the possession of the lordship to his 
own male heirs, and his making, with that view, provision for his 
daughters out of his Clackmannan estate. 

The Highlanders adhered strictly to the system of hereditary suc- 
cession in the male line, although that system was very different from 
the feudal one. The difference between the Highland law of tanistry, 
which determined the succession to the chiefship and the superiority 
of lands, and the feudal law, was that under the former the brothers 
succeeded before the sons, as nearer lineal descendants, by a generation, 
of the founder of the tribe. Bruce's claim to the throne was thus 
founded on tanistry, as being the son of Isabella, second daughter, while 
Baliol was the grandson of Margaret, the eldest daughter of David, 
Earl of Huntingdon, brother of William the Lion. Ferriales were alto- 
gether excluded from succession either to the chiefship or the family 
property, the possession of the latter being essential to support the 
dignity of the chiefs state, and the hospitality which he was called upon 
to exercise. Thus the descent of Lorn to the daughters of John, of 
Ergadia, had been in direct violation of the law of the Gael, as it left 
their uncle — who was the head of the family, the chief of the clan, and 
its leader in the field, — without the means of supporting his position or 


his power. But no doubt this had been precisely the object which the 
Crown had been especially desirous to effect. 

Sir John Stewart of Lorn, however, seems to have felt the hardship, 
not to say the injustice, of permanently depriving the heir, who was also 
his own kinsman, of such an old and powerful family as the Macdougalls, 
of all the wide lands, which should have descended to him according to 
the customs of his race. He consequently executed, in 145 1, a deed 
granting to John M'Alan or Macdougall, called M'Cowle, which is the 
Gaelic synonym for Macdougall, with remainder to his son, John Keir 
Macdougall, and his heirs male, the 29 merk land of the island of Car- 
rarry, the 6 merk land of DunoUych, the 8 merk land of Glensellach, the 
10 merk land of Gallawnoche and of Colgyn, the 10 merk land of Melliag, 
and the 8 merk land of Ardnahowe, in Kilbride ; the 8 merk land of 
Ardnohowe, and the 8 merk land of Dowanchowe, in Kilinver ; also, 
the 8 merk land of Dowach, the 10 merk land of Melrog, the 22 merk 
land of Degnish, and others in Kilbrandon. He also conferred on 
John M'Alan and his heirs the office of baillie of all the lands in Lorn 
which he then had or might have ; and, further, gave to John, and his 
son, John Keir, the onerous and very noteworthy trust of the guardian- 
ship and pupilage (alumniam et nutrimentum) of his heirs. John 
M'Allan or Macdougall was Sir John Stewart's nearest relative of the 
family of Macdougall, as well as the chief of the clan, and probably the 
Lord of Lorn desired by his munificence to his kinsman, and the trust 
he reposed in him, to secure his support and that of the clan Mac- 
dougall, for his youthful son, Dugald Stewart, then about six years old, 
whom he intended to make his heir. 

These grants were made without condition, except the usual clause 
of rendering to the granter homage and service against all except the 
king ; and, as baillie, of paying to him one-third part of all the rents and 
casualties of the lands of Lorn. 

Sir John Stewart had thus replaced his kinsman, Macdougall, not 
only in possession of the castle of Dunolly — an ancient stronghold of 


the family, and important as commanding the Sound of Mull, Loch 
Linnhe, and the Firth of Lorn — but had endowed him with an ample 
estate. The extent of the lands in Lorn thus granted to MacDougall 
contrasts very remarkably with the limited grant to his eldest daughter 
out of that lordship, and marks in a very decided manner his respect for 
the position of male heirs. Having completed this significant act of 
justice and generosity, Sir John proceeded to Edinburgh to make the 
further settlement of his estates on male heirs, as previously detailed. 
Passing now to the later years of the life of Sir John Stewart, of Lorn, 
we find — upon the authority of MSS. and traditions which have been 
handed down in the families of the Stewarts of Appin, and of the Mac- 
larens, supported by the high authority of Brown in his " Genealogical 
Tree of the Family of Stewart," — that he married, as his second wife, 
the daughter of Maclaren of Ardveich, by whom he had a son, Dugald. 

It seems proper here to notice more particularly the well-known 
genealogical work above referred to, published by its author in 1797, 
after many years of patient investigation and deep research. Sir Henry 
Steuart of Allantoun, in reply to Andrew Stuart's theory of the descent 
of the Stuarts of Castlemilk, calls Mr Brown " the best genealogist," 
and describes his work as, " without doubt, one of the most complete 
and correct views of any surname ever delivered to the public." A 
very high encomium was also passed upon it by the Earl of Buchan, 
founder of the Society of Antiquaries in Scotland ; and it further 
received, in the same year, the following approbation of the Lyon 
Office in Edinburgh ; one of the duties of the Lyon King-at-Arms, 
being, in the words of Seton, " to record the genealogies of persons 
descended from noble and honourable lineage, when supported by pro- 
per evidence." 

" LvoN Office, Edinburgh, ^d March 1792. 

" I have examined your historical and genealogical tree of the 
descendants of the Royal Family of Scotland with much satisfaction. 
There are two other trees on the same subject — one compiled by Mr 


Duncan Stewart, the other by the late Sir Robert Douglas, — but I 
observe that yours is more complete and full than both of them put 
together, and, consequently more valuable." 

(Signed) "James Cumyng." 

In the compilation of Mr Brown's work, he had the advantage of 
access to family papers, many of which have since unfortunately disap- 
peared. Among those examined and quoted by him, having especial 
reference to our subject, are the Appin, Achnacone, and Invernahyle 
MSS. ; and upon the authority of the information before him, he has 
recorded the second marriage of John, of Lorn, to the daughter of Mac- 
laren. The value of a family history must depend entirely upon its 
correctness, and it cannot for one moment be supposed that Mr Brown 
would have diminished the value or trustworthiness of a general history 
of the family of Stewart, by allowing an error of this sort to appear in 
his work, out of regard for the susceptibilities of any particular branch 
of the family. It is certain that he has not done so in the case of any 
of the very distinguished branches where the bar sinister really exists, 
for it has been recorded in every instance with unflinching impartiality, 
and there is no conceivable reason why he should have made any excep- 
tion in the case of the family of Appin. 

The existence of this son Dugald, and the intention of subsequently 
legitimating him, make at once apparent John of Lorn's grounds for the 
very remarkable, and, indeed, otherwise totally unintelligible appoint- 
ment of the Macdougalls, father and son, as the guardians of his heirs, 
for the reason that the interests of his own daughters and brothers were 
plainly inimical to those of the youthful son, who was his destined heir. 
The appointment could not have been made with the view of protecting 
the interests of his daughters, for those daughters were not only abso- 
lutely the very last in remainder, but were married to husbands of 
whose power to protect them there could be no possible doubt. Nor 
could it have been made in the interests of his brothers or their children, 


for those brothers were men of at least middle age, certainly requiring 
no guardianship in their own case, and being themselves the persons 
to appoint guardians for their own children, if the succession to Lorn 
were to devolve upon them. 

We have seen that Dugald Stewart's mother was of the clan Mac- 
laren. This clan is descended from " Labhrain," a Gaelic name pro- 
nounced like Laurin, and it is supposed to be identical with " Loarn." 
Loam was one of the three sons of Ere, one of the original founders of 
the Dalriadic kingdom. The Maclarens were certainly in possession of 
Tyrie in Perthshire in 1 296, and they also occupied lands in Balquidder 
and Stratherne, where they acquired considerable power. They suffered 
severely from the lawless attacks of their neighbours, the Macgregors, 
but maintained their position well among the neighbouring septs. No 
one was allowed to enter the parish church of Balquidder until the Mac- 
larens were all seated ; and in one of the many frays arising out of this 
pretension, the parson, himself a Maclaren, was killed. After the earl- 
dom of Stratherne was vested in the Crown as a Palatine honour in 
1371, the Maclarens held their lands as "kindly tenants" of the king 
till 1508, when they were granted the more secure tenure of feuars, and 
the clan afterwards followed the banner of the Stewarts of Appin. It was 
one of this family who was the real hero of the story which relates the 
escape of the Jacobite gentleman from his captors by rolling down the 
Devil's Beef Tub, near Moffat, as narrated by Sir Walter Scott 
in " Redgauntlet." Dugald Stewart's mother was a daughter of 
Maclaren of Ardveich, a gentleman of position and family, as is con- 
clusively shown by his ancestor, Laurin of Ardveich, being one of 
the Scottish barons who, with Conan of Balquidder and Maurice of 
Tyrie, were required, as heads of the clan Laurin, to sign the Ragman 
Roll in 1296. 

Sir John Stewart of Lorn had been at the tryst of Creifif, — it being 
customary for chiefs to attend these trysts, where many affairs of busi- 
ness and politics were arranged, — and, on his return, he met in Glen 


Fillan with a wedding party from Ardveich. He joined the company, 
and became enamoured of the daughter of the house. The lineal 
descendants of the Maclarens of Ardveich still reside there, and the 
house in which John of Lorn stayed on the occasion of his visits is still 
preserved with scrupulous care. 

The valuable records belonging to the Appin family, which were 
accessible to Brown when he compiled his genealogical tree, have unfor- 
tunately disappeared, and many of the Ardveich papers were destroyed 
in 1645, when Alister M'Colla burned the house. The traditions of 
the Stewarts of Appin, and those of the Maclarens, are, however, found 
to be so nearly identical, that it will suffice to give those of the Mac- 
larens, which are set down nearly in the same words as they have been 
related by Mr Donald Maclaren, Ardveich, the present representative 
of the old barons, who has found the details recorded in the papers of 
his family still existing. 

Dugald Stewart was born in 1445 ; and these records say that he 
resided at Ardveich till 1463, when his father sent him a message 
directing him to come to Dunstaffnage with his mother. They set out 
as a bridal party, with pipes and banners, accompanied by a party of 
Dugald's kinsmen from Lorn, and some of his mother's friends, the 
Maclarens. A Gaelic bard has commemorated the departure of Dugald 
and his mother from Ardveich, in a poem or ballad, of which only 
four verses are now extant. They clearly show that the party had 
set out for the purpose of the marriage, and Dugald's consequent 

" An Ik a dhag thu taobh Loch-Eir 
'S do mhathair chaomh air laimh leat fein 
Bu du an curaidh calma trbun 
'S bu ghrinn fuidh 'n eideadh creachain thu. 

" Bha romhad bratach 's piob ri ceol 
'S do chlaidhearah ruisgte dearrsa 'a d'dhorn 
'S iad chuideach na fir shundach mhor 
Clann Labhruinn 6g 's bu sqairteil iad. 


" A Dhughaill oig is cairdeach thu 

Do 'n Righ tha againn air a chrun 

'S na d' chuislibh tha i mireadh dlutli 

'N fhuil ard rinn clinteach feachmhor thu. 
" Bitheadh cuirm ro mhbr san Dun tha shuas 

'N uair ruigeas sibh gu suairce 

Nis guidheam slainte is sonas buan 

Do 'n bhean dhalbh nain Dhun-Stathanis." 

The following translation is by Mr Charles Stewart of Tighnduin, 
whose zeal and literary abilities have been of great service in the com- 
pilation of this genealogy : — ■ 

" That day you left Lochearnside with your gentle mother on your 
arm, you were a hero tall and powerful, and well did your mountain 
dress adorn you. 

" Before you was a banner and a pipe playing gladly ; your sword 
naked and gleaming in your hand ; your company, the youth of clan 
Laurin — men tall and sprightly, and full of activity. 

" Young Dugald, akin you are to him now wearing the royal crown ; 
and in your pulses is flowing gleefully the blood which makes you of 
a mighty race. 

" Great will be the feast in yon Dun in the west, when, with grace- 
ful courtesy, you both reach it. Now, may health and bliss never- 
failing attend the wife now leaving for Dunstaffnage." 

Shortly before this time, John II., Earl of Ross and Lord of the 
Isles, had entered into negotiations, — which were finally concluded by a 
treaty in February 1462, — with Edward IV. of England, to which 
James, ninth and last Earl of Douglas, then exiled in England, was a 
party. By this treaty, the whole of Scotland was to hold of Edward 
IV. as superior, while that portion of it north of the Forth was to be 
equally divided between the Earl of Ross, Donald Balloch, and the 
Earl of Douglas, the latter, in addition, to have possession of his large 
estates between the Forth and the English border. The Earl of Ross, 
desirous of strengthening his party on the eve of so great an enterprise, 
seems to have soua^ht the assistance of his kinsman, Macdougall or 


M'Cowle, as head of another branch of the family. The chief, however, 
John Keir Macdougall, to whom, with his father, John M'Alan, Sir John 
Stewart, had made such munificent grants, seems to have remained 
faithful to his allegiance to his sovereign, and to the trust reposed in 
him ; but a second son, Alan, supported by a number of the clan, among 
others, by an ambitious illegitimate kinsman and namesake, Alan, 
joined the conspiracy. We find in various histories — Buchanan's, 
Abercrombie's, and the " Auchinleck Chronicle," that, in 1461, "Allan 
of Lorn of the Wood," seized upon his elder brother " Kerr," and im- 
prisoned him in a castle in Kerrera, with the intention of starving him 
to death, and succeeding to his lands ; but that " Kerr" was relieved by 
the Earl of Argyll, who defeated and captured Alan, and confined him 
in a dungeon, where he died. 

The Earl of Ross soon after raised the standard of rebellion, and 
Alan M'Dougall, the illegitimate, seems to have occupied the position 
of leader of the disaffected in Lorn, in succession to Alan of the Wood, 
who had died in prison. 

It had become well known that Sir John Stewart of Lorn had 
sent for the daughter of Ardveich, in order that their marriage might 
legitimate their son, as was done in the similar case of an heir of 
Douglas of Drumlanrig a hundred years afterwards. The possession 
of Lorn by a just and powerful noble like Sir John Stewart, nearly 
allied to the king, was no doubt a great obstacle to the plans of Alan 
M'Cowle and his confederates, and they could not view with com- 
placency the probability of his being succeeded by a youth of such 
spirit and promise as Dugald, backed, as he would be, by his mother's 
clan, who had always been ardent friends of the royal house of Stewart. 
It was clearly unfavourable to their designs that the succession should 
should devolve upon Dugald, instead of his uncle, Walter, who, from 
advancing years, or from constitutional want of his nephew's conspicuous 
martial energy, would have been a less formidable antagonist. The 
preparations for the reception of Dugald and his mother, and the cele- 


bration of the marriage, would make the date of their expected arrival 
at Dunstaffnage no secret, and on that day Alan M'Coule or Mac- 
dougall repaired to Dunstaffnage Castle, and, according to the traditions 
of the Maclarens, stabbed Sir John in the castle shortly before the 
arrival of the joyous wedding party. The tradition of the Stewarts is 
that the murder was committed when Sir John was on his way from the 
Castle to the chapel, which is close at hand, where the marriage was to 
be performed. This immaterial point is the only divergence between 
the traditions handed down in the two families. 

The murderers fled instantly after Sir John was stabbed ; and 
Dugald would at once have pursued them had he not been restrained by 
the priest, who pointed out that no time was to be lost in having the 
marriage completed, as Lord Lorn was to all appearance mortally 
wounded. The rite was accordingly performed, the priest assisting the 
dying man to place the ring on the bride's finger, and the ceremony 
being so public that no doubt of its due completion was entertained in 
Argyllshire. Meantime, however, Alan M'Coule and his accomplices 
had time to effect their escape. 

The MacLaren tradition records that as Dugald was going from 
Ardveich to Dunstaffnage with his mother and the bridal party, he was 
met by an aged dame, who had the gift of second sight, and who asked 
him, " Whither are you bound for to-day ? " to which he replied, 
" What is that to you, old woman ? " adding, " I am going to receive 
some little justice." To this she answered, " Well, I have something 
to say to you. I have had a dream that, as you have been for eighteen 
years known as Dugald, the illegitimate of Ardveich, so you will for 
twenty-eight years be known as the head of the Stewarts of Lorn." It 
was in 1469 that Dugald's uncle, Walter, made over to the Earl of 
Argyll his alleged claims to Lorn, and Dugald, till his death in 1497, 
was acknowledged as the head of the Stewarts of Lorn, a period of 
twenty-eight years. 

The murder of John of Lorn seems to have taken place in 1463. 


The MacLaren tradition says that it was in that year Dugald left 
Ardveich. In the Chronicle, " Domini Jacobi M'Gregor, Notarii 
Publici ac Decani Lismorensis, qui obiit circiter a.d. 1542," is the 
following sentence : — 1463, Dec. 20. — Obitus Johannis Stewart, Domini 
de Lome, apud Dunstaffinicht." In the " Origines Parochiales Scotise," 
it is stated that there is preserved in the Cambridge University Library 
the original of an Act of the Scots Parliament, dated 1460, recommending 
the King to besiege Dunstaffnage Castle, for the purpose of punishing 
Alan M'Coule, who had slain the king's kinsman, John Lord of Lorn. 
This seems, however, to be a misquotation of the date, as in the Scots 
Acts of Parliament we find among the record of their transactions, in 1464, 
the following : — itExM as tueching ye puniciouii of Alane M'Coule quhilk 
as cruelyn flayn John lord lorn ye kinge cufing The lord^ think^ fpeidfull 
yt alffoun as ye feffion of ye wedd afkis ye king mowe jn propir pfone 
w' his lords for ye jnwadFg juflifing and punyffing of ye faide alane and 
aiTegeing of ye caftell of Dunftafnich and y' he be furthwith put to ye 
horii of party and fyne opTly put to ye kinge home And y' nocht 
w'ftanding ye Ires writtT of befor to ye Erie of Rof The lorde ordanis 
y' new Ires be Wttine baith be autorite of ye king and of pliament 
chargeing hym y' he nothir fupple fupport nor refett ye faide Alane in 
ye faide dede, vnd all ye heaft pait charge ze quiet z juri agayn ye 
kinge maiestete." The original of this is also said to be in the 
Cambridge University Library, and is most probably the same as the 
MS. referred to in the " Origines Parochiales." 

It is, therefore, certain that Alane M'Coule got possession of 
Dunstaffnage Castle, but whether in the confusion consequent on Sir 
John Stewart's murder, or after the battle with Dugald at Leac-a-dotha, 
is not known with certainty. According to Boece, the original fortress 
of Dunstaffnage was built by one of the Scots or Dalriadic kings, 
Eugenius or Ewen, and the " Stone of Destiny," Lia Fail, on which 
the Sovereigns of Scotland were crowned at Scone, and are still 
crowned in Westminster Abbey, was kept here till it was removed to 


Scone by Kenneth II. The ancient building was an extensive erection 
of wattles and clay, the solid stone castle being, as Mr Hill Burton is 
of opinion, built by the Stewarts. The castle is a square of eighty- 
seven feet within the walls, having round towers at three of the corners, 
and is situated on a perpendicular mass of conglomerate rock, from six- 
teen to twenty feet in height, near the extremity of a low, perpendicular 
flat at the entrance to Loch Etive. The meaning of the name Dun- 
staffnage is said by some authorities to be " the fortified hill with two 
islands," but the true etymology seems to be " Dunsteffanach," — Arx 
Stefani, as rendered by Boece, — or the fort of Stephen. A short dis- 
tance to the westward stand the remains of the ancient Gothic Chapel, 
formerly surrounded by a burial ground, where repose the ashes of 
many an ancient Scottish king and chieftain. The chapel — the interior 
of which is still used as a burying place — is seventy-two feet by twenty- 
four feet, apparently of the thirteenth or fourteenth century, and has the 
early English lancets, and the remains of a circular arched doorway, 
and of the dog tooth ornaments. 

DuGALD Stewart's succession to his estates in 1463 was, as might 
be expected after the commission of a murder to defeat it, not a peace- 
able one. Not only was the crime unpunished, but the perpetrator, 
with the assistance of the rebellious Islesmen, was maintaining himself 
in Dunstaffnage, the principal castle and seat of the owner of the 
heritage. Dugald was still little more than a boy in years, totally 
inexperienced in the ways of the world, and had consequently all the 
more right to expect the assistance of his uncles, and of his connections 
the Campbells, in having the murderer brought to justice. But no such 
assistance was given, and Dugald was left to his own unaided efforts 
until, as has been mentioned, the Scots Parliament moved, ineffectually, 
some months afterwards, for the punishment of the outrage. It cannot, 
indeed, be forgotten that Walter had just seen the long counted on 
inheritance of his brother apparently plucked from his grasp by the 
legitimation of his nephew, and that the death of Dugald might at any 


time still make him his brother's undoubted successor. With this con- 
tingency in view — under the circumstances neither an improbable nor 
a distant one — Walter seems to have contented himself at first with 
a policy of inaction, taking no measures to expel the intruder from 
Dunstaffnage, or to advance any claims upon the inheritance. Had he 
advanced any such claim, upon him would have devolved the duty of 
driving Alan M'Coule from the stronghold of the family, and of aveng- 
ing his brother's death, as in those times when the law was powerless, 
the right of vengeance was accounted a positive moral duty, and the 
nearest kinsman of the slain or injured was bound to take up the 
quarrel ; but no such claim was advanced, nor was any attempt to 
avenge Sir John Stewart's murder made either by his brother Walter, 
or by the husbands of Sir John's daughters. 

Before a year, however, had passed, and when the swords of Alan 
McCowle's followers had failed to remove the obstacle which stood be- 
tween him and his brother's inheritance, we find Walter profiting by 
Dugald's reverses in the field, and his omission to take legal procedure 
to have himself served heir to his father, to advance his own claims, 
under the plea that his brother's marriage with the mother of Dugald 
had not been duly solemnised. Any one acquainted with the details 
of Scotch history at this period need not be told that with powerful court 
influence there could be little difficulty in effecting this. But though it 
was easy to prefer this claim in Edinburgh, where Argyll's influence 
was all powerful, and the very existence of Dugald was probably known 
only to few, Walter could not venture to do so in person in Lorn, where 
ample evidence of the marriage was then forthcoming, and conse- 
quently from Lorn Walter then, and ever after, carefully kept aloof 

In like manner had Sir John Stewart's daughters been, — as is 
alleged in the family histories of Lochow and Breadalbane, but which 
is conclusively disproved by the charter of 1452, — "the heretrices of 
Lome," it would have been the duty of the Campbells, and, indeed, 
not a very arduous one when the power of Argyll as Justiciary of Scot- 

land is considered, to have taken measures for the recovery of their 
heritage from the murderer. But, as we have seen, no such steps were 
taken, and the duties of recovery and vengeance devolved upon Dugald 
as part of his inheritance ; for it does not appear that any action fol- 
lowed upon the recommendation of Parliament, nine months later, that 
the king's forces should avenge the murder of the "king's Cusyng." It 
was probably inconsistent with the plans of others that any steps should 
be taken on this minute. 

The attitude of the Campbells is perhaps not difficult of explana- 
tion when read by the light of subsequent events. It seems to furnish 
a striking illustration of their policy, so forcibly described by Skene in 
his History of the Highlanders. In 1427 Sir Colin Campbell of Lochow 
had succeeded in placing himself at the head of the family, and in sup- 
planting Campbell of Strachur, whose claims to that position had been 
acknowledged in a Royal Charter by King David II. " After this 
period the rise of the Argyll family to power and influence was rapid, 
and the encroachments which had commenced with the branches of 
their own clan, soon involved most of the clans in the neighbourhood. 
Their history is most remarkable, from their extraordinary progress 
from a station of comparative inferiority to one of unusual eminence, as 
well as from the constant and steady adherence of all the barons of 
that house to the same deep system of designing policy, by which they 
attained their greatness. It consisted principally of the details of a 
policy characterised by cunning and perfidy, though deep and far 
sighted, and which obtained its usual success in the acquisition of great 
temporal grandeur and power." A proof of their adherence to this 
policy was given in 1531, when the Earl of Argj'll was disgraced and im- 
prisoned for his own and his father's sins in encouraging the disorders 
in the islands so as to profit by them. 

Sir John Stewart himself seems to have foreseen their antagonism 
to his youthful son by his appointment of John McCowle as his 


Whatever may have been the reasons for the inaction of Walter 
and the Campbells, it was undoubtedly left to Dugald to avenge his 
father's murder, and for this purpose he at once ordered a muster of the 
followers of his family in Lorn, while he hastened in person to Strath- 
earn and Balquidder to raise the whole clan of the Maclarens. 

The odds against him were indeed heavy, for he was opposed not 
only by open foes in the field, consisting of a numerous section of the 
Macdougalls, — who, with their followers, were still a powerful clan in 
Lorn, — backed by the Earl of Ross, but by secret enemies as powerful, 
and, in reality, still more dangerous. Personally entirely unknown in 
Lorn, Dugald's claims to the succession had no recommendation save 
that of their inherent justice. This, however, was unhesitatingly 
acknowledged by the clan, and was sufficient to secure him uni- 
versal support from the retainers of his family ; and, sustained by the 
consciousness that " thrice armed is he who hath his quarrel just," 
Dugald at once took the field, marching, himself, with the Maclarens 
through Glendochart and Strathfillan to Leac-a-dotha, on the skirts of 
Bendoran, at the head of Loch Awe, having been joined by his father's 
retainers and followers from Lorn, whose route had lain through Glencoe 
and the Black Mount. He would thus, within ten days of his father's 
death, have finally crushed Alane Macdougall and his adherents, had 
not the latter been reinforced by the MacFarlanes from Loch Lomond. 

The traditions of the Stewarts and Maclarens combine to relate that 
this assistance was rendered at the instance of the Campbells; but whether 
this be true or not, it is certain that the MacFarlanes were at this time 
closely allied with the Campbells. Duncan MacFarlane, the sixth chief, 
had married Christian, daughter of Sir Duncan Campbell of Lochow, aunt 
of Glenorchy, and grand-aunt of Argyll ; and from their dwelling inland 
on the banks of Loch Lomond, and their connection at that time with 
the family of Dernely, they were not likely to have any share in the 
rebellion of the Earl of Ross. The MacFarlanes, arriving from Loch- 
lomondside, joined the Macdougalls near Dalmally, whence they 

marched northwards through the glen leading to the Bridge of Orchy, 
near Leac-a-dotha. A battle ensued in which Dugald was worsted. The 
engagement must have been a bloody one, more than one hundred and 
thirty of the Maclarens having been killed, while among the Stewarts it 
is said there were no less than fifty slain, whose widows bore posthum- 
ous sons. On the side of their opponents a son of Alane M'Cowle fell, 
and the losses of that clan were so great that they were never subse- 
quently so numerous in Argyllshire. The chief of the MacFarlanes 
was also killed, under circumstances which show the relentless nature 
of the conflict which had been waged, and prove that the sentiments 
of chivalry had not as yet influenced the contests in the Highlands. 
A wounded Maclaren had asked the MacFarlane to give him in his 
shoe a drink from a well close at hand, and as the chief was stooping 
down to fill the shoe, the wounded man drew his bow and sent an arrow 
through his back. MacFarlane put his hand behind him to feel for the 
arrow, when the dying Maclaren, exulting in the penetration of his shaft, 
called out, " Search in front of you, and you will find it." 

After this bloody battle, Dugald retreated with the remainder of 
his forces behind Loch Etive into Upper Lorn or Appin ; and though 
apparently he was unable to invade Middle Lorn in force, and risk 
another pitched battle, he continued unflinchingly and successfully 
to maintain his right of possession until the compromise in 1649, the 
particulars of which will hereafter appear. 

Meanwhile his uncle, Walter, had not ventured to take any steps 
in Argyllshire towards assuming possession of that magnificent heritage 
of Lorn, to which he had so tardily laid claim in Edinburgh. Walter 
had no doubt been looked upon in the capital for years as heir pre- 
sumptive to his brother's titles and estates, and as the knowledge of his 
brother's marriage was probably confined to the district of Argyll, there 
was no one to prevent his assuming the title, though it is certain he 
could not, and did not, until the surrender by Dugald five years after- 
wards, take sasine of Lorn. Those retainers of the family of Stewart 


who Still remained in Lorn, had become indignant at the ungenerous part 
which Walter had so long been playing towards his youthful kinsman, 
the head of his family, and at his subserviency to the Campbells, to 
whom they alleged their rights were being sacrificed ; and they now 
made the exodus known in Lorn as the " Inveich mor," or "great flit- 
ting," from the southern portion of Lorn to Upper Lorn, or Appin, fol- 
lowing the fortunes of Dugald as chief of the clan. Thus reinforced, 
Dugald, the Maclarens again aiding him, was able to defeat decisively 
an attack, very probably the result of the " Inveich Mor," made 
upon him by the whole strength of his enemies in the hope of at last 
driving him out of Lorn. The battle, called the battle of Stale, took 
place opposite to Castle Stalcaire, on the green hillside near where the 
village of Portnacroish now stands. Castle Stalcaire, an old hunting- 
seat of the lords of Lorn, and, occupying an insular position — then 
considered a strong one, — was probably Dugald's chief stronghold in 
Upper Lorn. In the battle, Alane Macdougall, the murderer of Sir 
John Stewart of Lorn, and the leader of the insurrection amongst the 
Macdougalls, was killed. 

Dugald having now avenged his father's death, and being, for the 
first time after five years' strife, victorious in a general engagement, 
directed his attention to the consolidation of that hold on his inherit- 
ance which he had never relaxed. 

From the circumstances of his early life in the seclusion of 
Ardveich, he was probably too ignorant of forms of law to know that 
anything more than his sword was necessary to give him possession of 
his father's land, which it would seem to him became his property as 
simply as his father's horse or his armour ; and since his succession he 
had been too busily engaged in seeking the customary, and what was 
held the sacred duty of vengeance for his father's death, and in main- 
taining himself in that upper district of Lorn, beyond which he was in 
the middle of enemies seeking his life, to have had either leisure or 
opportunity for other considerations. To whom could he now turn for 


help ? James III. was a minor, and it seemed in vain to look to him, 
at whose distracted court Argyll, from his high office and great abilities, 
had almost unbounded influence, for that aid and countenance, after- 
wards so freely given by succeeding sovereigns to his sons, Duncan and 
Alan. The Crown indeed was hardly able at that time to maintain its 
own rights, or enforce its own laws in districts much less remote than 
Lorn, which in fact was under no law. Till 1503, when they were 
attached to "the Courts of Justice-airs" to be held at Perth, the 
" inhabitants of Dowart, Glentowart, and the Lordship of Lorn " could 
not be called upon to attend any courts of justice, and each chief ruled 
despotically, and without responsibility to any external law, within his 
own heritable jurisdiction. Being thus hopeless of obtaining assistance 
from the Crown against his open or secret enemies, the chief at length 
became aware that it was in vain for him to attempt to regain and 
keep permanent possession of the whole lands of Lorn in the face of 
such powerful adversaries. It was then, and not till then, that he enter- 
tained the thought, or probably the proposal, of a compromise by 
which he should retain Appin, the northern portion of Lorn, which he 
had so long and so gallantly defended, making over the remainder of 
the estates to his uncle Walter, In consequence of this surrender by 
Dugald, Walter, who had never dared to show his face in Lorn, was 
now, in 1469, able formally to enter upon the southern portion of the 
lordship, and upon the barony of Innermeath. 

It was therefore more than five years after his brother's death, and 
after a compromise which the force of circumstances and the death of so 
many of his friends in battle, had compelled his nephew to make, that 
Walter Stewart was able, in the face of his brother's deed of 1452, be- 
queathing Lorn and Innermeath to the heirs male of his body, to enter 
to these baronies. The compromise must have been completed in the 
summer or autumn of 1469, as on the 30th November of that year 
Walter entered into an agreement with the Earl of Argyll, and the fol- 
lowing day gave the Earl a bond that he would enter upon Lorn for the 


purpose of resigning it in the Earl's favour, under a penalty of 6000 
merks Scots. On the 28th March 1470, more than six years after his 
brother's death, Walter at last took seisin " be yerde and stane " by his 
procurator, from Alan Stewart, Sheriff of Perth, of the lands of Lorn. 
On the 13th April 1470, Walter gave a bond to the Earl of Argyll that 
he would not dispute the resignation of Lorn at any future period, 
under a penalty of 6000 merks Scots, and on the following day he re- 
signed the lands and lordship into the hands of King James IIL, who 
three days afterwards, on the 17th April 1470, granted them to the 
Earl of Argyll. Thus the Earl fortified the deed of resignation in his 
favour by all the formalities that bonds could give him, and indeed by 
precautions somewhat unusual. This notable attention to every form 
of business contrasts very strongly with the delay of more than six 
years in Walter's going through the formality of being seized in what he 
now claimed as inheriting from his brother, and gives strong evidence 
that, previous to this time, an insurmountable obstacle had stood in the 
way, and that it had been removed by the compromise with Sir John 
Stewart's only son, Dugald. This delay is the stronger evidence that 
Sir John's disposition of his property was known in Edinburgh, as it 
appears that his two surviving daughters, and Campbell of Glenorchy, 
as heir of Margaret the eldest, took sasine of their portions, the lands of 
Dollar and Gloum, little more than a year after their father's death. 
Their rights to these estates were unquestioned, as they were not 
included in the eatail upon male heirs of 1452, and they had either been 
settled on them at their marriage or purposely excluded from that 
entail with this view. When we notice the praiseworthy attention to 
business evinced in thus promptly taking sasine of the lands in Clack- 
mannan, we may dismiss without further criticism the statements 
of Maister William Bowie, and the equally inventive historian of the 
House of Argyll, that Sir John Stewart's three daughters were 
"heretrices of Lorn." 

That the contents, as well as the incontrovertibility of the charter 

of 1452, were as well known to Walter Stewart as to the Campbells, 
may be unhesitatingly inferred from the fact that Walter was unable 
to take sasine of Lorn until after Dugald's surrender in 1469. 

Walter seems to have been a weak man, and in that year Colin, 
Earl of Argyll, who was able, active, and ambitious, saw his opportunity 
in the exhaustion of Dugald and the Macdougalls, and in the feeble 
character of Walter, to acquire possession of the coveted province of 
Lorn, and of the great opportunity in the power of its possessor to 
exercise influence on the islanders, an opportunity which in after years 
was not neglected. 

The earl, therefore, induced Walter to enter upon an agreement 
by which the latter retained or obtained possession of the barony of 
Innermeath, situated in a comparatively peaceful district, while the 
possession of the lordship of Lorn made Argyll the most powerful 
chieftain in the West Highlands, and enabled him, — though but a cadet 
of the family, and, as the Black Book of Taymouth informs us, the 
descendant of " Duncan Campbell, commonly callit Duncan in Aa," — 
effectually to gratify his ambition by eclipsing his chief, Campbell of 
Strachur, and by appearing before the world as the head of the Campbells. 

It was only decent to make an enumeration of the lands given in 
exchange for this great lordship, and accordingly we find Innerdonyng, 
Baldonyng, Kildonyng, Colindrane, Maw, Colcarney, Balnaguone, Lai- 
doth, Laithers, and Rothybrisbane, named as the equivalent given by 
Argyll. With the exception of the four last named, however, all these 
lands were enumerated in the charter of 1452, as being incorporated by 
royal authority into the barony of Innermeath, and by the charter of 
the same date, John Stewart of Lorn had destined that barony, together 
with Lorn, to his heirs-male exclusively. They could not, therefore, 
have been Argyll's to give, and their mention can only be taken as 
a colourable pretext. The agreement of 1469 then goes on to stipulate 
that Walter should enter upon the lands of Lorn for the purpose of 
resigning them to the Earl, an arrangement which could be easily 


carried out through Argj'll's great influence at the court of the youthful 
James III. 

But we can hardly suppose that even Walter's weakness would 
have led him to surrender this princely inheritance, had he for one 
moment believed that he would be permitted to take possession of 
Lorn, where the facts of Dugald's legitimation were known, and where 
he had met with such universal and effectual support from the friends 
and retainers of the family, who had recognised him as their chief. 
Walter, therefore, had probably little real choice in the matter, and was, 
perhaps, too glad to surrender a title and an estate which he well knew 
he could never retain in peace. 

Dugald, on the other hand, brought up in a remote glen in Strath- 
earn, was, as was almost inevitable from the circumstances of his birth, 
ignorant of the forms of procedure necessary for establishing his rights. 
Exhausted by five years of strife, and with Argyll's overwhelming forces 
in the background, he, too, probably found that he could do no better 
than compromise his right to the whole of Lorn for the district of 
Appin or Upper Lorn. 

His tenure of these lands, independendy of his possession of them, 
requires especial notice. If Walter and Argyll had not been aware of 
the justice of his claims, it is inconceivable that he should have been 
permitted to retain, blench of the Crown, so large a territory as Appin, 
one so easily defensible, and when in the possession of an enemy, 
from its situation, so dangerous to Lorn. Indeed, Argyll endeavoured 
to avert this danger by giving his kinsman of Glenorchy a strip of 
land between Dugald's possessions and his own portion of Lorn. This 
however, as will be seen, Glenorchy was afterwards compelled by 
James IV. to surrender to Dugald's son. Had Dugald's claim been 
unfounded, any land that might have been given him — and it is not at all 
likely that he would, under these circumstances, have got any territory 
whatever — would have been held by him from Walter, and then from 
Argyll, as his superior. But as a Crown vassal he held a widely 



different position, for besides being then — as was each of his successors 
afterwards, — the universally recognised head of the Stewarts of Lorn, he 
was a baron of parliament, acknowledging no superior save the king, 
and exercising unchallenged jurisdiction within the limits of his own 

To ensure the acquiescence and support of his powerful kinsman 
of Glenorchy, Argyll gave him a large district of Lorn in exchange for 
his mother, Jonet Stewart's dowry of the third part of the lands of 
Dollar, which were of less value, and were situated far from Glenorchy's 
paternal domain, while those he received in Lorn were adjacent to his 
own strong and recently-built castle of Kilchurn. Having now acquired 
possession of Lorn, — excepting the district of Appin held " in heritage " 
by Dugald Stewart, — and of two-thirds of Dollar and Gloum, Argyll got 
from the Bishop of Dunkeld, the superior of Dollar, a charter dated 
31st January 1493-4, which was confirmed by James IV. at Stirling, on 
nth May 1497, of the remaining third part of these lands which had 
been the portion of his wife's younger sister Marion, the wife of Arthur 
Campbell of Ottar. These, doubtless, are the " many actions " which 
the family chronicler of the Argylls says that the first earl brought to 
his house, and were not unworthy of the policy which that family has 
always steadily pursued, and which Mr Bowie enforces in the family 
maxim, " Conquer, or keep things conquest." The term conquer is used 
by Mr Bowie in its old legal signification of "acquire." 

If any doubt existed as to the real nature of these complicated 
transactions, it would be removed by the admissions of the author of the 
MSS. in the British Museum, who confesses that Argyll was " in end 
compelled to give the Stewarts satisfaction," as well as " likeways to 
satisfy " the Macdougalls, M'Oneil of Brue, and the Laird of Reray. 
This final clause of the sentence apparently implies a more serious 
charge against Argyll, into which it is beyond the province of this 
work to enter. It would seem, however, that the Macdougalls were 
not allowed to retain all the " satisfaction " they received, as we find, in 


1478, Alan Sorlesone M'Cowle suing the Earl for warrandice of the 
lands of Lerage and Wouchkouch, in terms of the Earl's charter, as 
Duncan and Dugall Campbell claimed a lease thereof, and, as might be 
expected, a "Icinless loon," like Alane M'Coule, was defeated. Neither 
does the Earl seem to have recognised the right of the head of the Mac- 
dougalls to the office of Bailie of Lorn, with the lucrative and honour- 
able privileges attached to it, which had been conferred by Sir John 
Stewart of Lorn. Argyll was unquestionably indebted for his acquisi- 
tion of Lorn, to the fact that he had to deal with two antagonists — one 
of whom played into his hand. His own claim was of course completely 
barred by the charter of 1452, while the circumstances of Sir John of 
Lorn's second marriage, followed by his death before further steps could 
be taken to make his son Dugald's legitimation more widely known, 
gave Walter Stewart the opportunity of advancing a claim. These 
pretensions had not been put forward at Sir John Stewart's death, when 
it had been left to Dugald to avenge his father's murder, and they only 
seem to have been advanced after his failure to eject the intruders from 
Lorn south of Loch Etive, and when it became evident he was too 
ignorant, and too inexperienced in the ways of the world, to be aware of 
the necessity of taking legal steps to secure his inheritance. 

Dugald's enforced compromise at once placed his uncle Walter, as 
next in remainder, in a position to enter upon the southern portion of 
Lorn, and the barony of Innermeath. Crawford says, and Duncan 
Stewart repeats, though expressly only on the authority of Crawford, 
that at this time Dugald entered into an agreement with his sisters, and 
that the deed was preserved in the Argyll charter chest. We have only 
Crawford's authority for this statement, and it is certain that neither in 
the " Origines Parochiales Scotiae," the author of which had access to the 
Argyll archives, nor in the " Reports on the Argyll Papers," by Mr W. 
Eraser, which are printed in the Fourth and Sixth Reports to the Royal 
Commission on Historical MSS., is there any reference to such an agree- 
ment, though they contain many of infinitely less importance. It is there- 


fore probable that the agreement mentioned by Crawford was Walter 
Stewart's subsequent agreement with Argyll. 

The part of Lorn which Dugald retained formed a portion of the 
lordship resigned by Robert Stewart, husband of Jonet, heiress of 
Lorn, in favour of his brother John, and Dugald could have no claim to 
hold it blench of the king, except by the same right by which he claimed 
the whole of Lorn. Appin had formerly belonged to the great Colum- 
ban monastery of Lismore, and the name of Abthania, or abbey lands, 
was corrupted into Apthane, when it was resigned by Robert Stewart, 
and then into Appine or Apine, and finally into Appin. 

Immediately after Walter was seized in the southern portion of 
Lorn on the 21st March 1469, the division of the estates took place, 
Walter retaining Innermeath, and making over Lorn to Argyll, who 
gave Campbell of Glenorchy his share, though, so far as we can dis- 
cover, Campbell of Ottar got no part of the lands. Crawford calls this 
an " exchange" by Walter of Lorn for Innermeath, but, as has already 
been made abundantly clear by the charter of 1452, Innermeath and 
Lorn were destined to the same male heir, whoever he might be. The 
indenture of 30th November 1469, enumerating the lands given in 
exchange, only names four — Balnaguone, Laidloith, Rothiebrisbane, and 
Laithers, which were not incorporated into the barony of Innermeath 
by the minor charter of 1452 ; and to speak of giving such a paltry equi- 
valent as these " in exchange " for the lordship of Lorn, for centuries an 
independent principality, and one of the noblest heritages in Britain, is 
to state a proposition which is absolutely ridiculous. 

The other lands mentioned as given in this pretended exchange— 
Baldonyng, Innerdonyng, and Kildonyng in the sheriffdom of Perth, 
Colindrane and Maw in Fife, and Calcarny in Kinross were all men- 
tioned in the charter of 1452 as being incorporated into the barony of 
Innermeath. Had Lady Campbell of Glenorchy, or her younger sister 
the Countess of Argyll, inherited from their father the whole or a 
third part of the lordship of Innermeath, a barony not only important 


in itself, but so largely augmented by the incorporation of these lands, 
and the historical barony of Redcastle in Forfarshire, and thus being 
heretrices of estates of infinitely greater value and extent than the 
Clackmannanshire lands, there can be no doubt whatever that Lady 
Campbell's son Duncan, and " Dame Isabell Stewart," would have been 
seized in their rich inheritance in April 1465, when they received sasine 
of the lands of Castle Gloum and Dollar, the record of which has been 
so carefully preserved. But as it appears that neither the Argyll 
Charter Chest nor the Taymouth Register contains any such documents, 
while the records of the small grants of land in Argyllshire on the 
marriage of the eldest daughter, and the sasines of their real inheritance 
in Clackmannan, have been so carefully kept, the conclusion is 
inevitable that the whole transactions were simply the division of 
the spoils of a lad, spirited and gallant enough, but nearly friendless, 
and ignorant of the ways of the world. It is a significant circum- 
stance, and one which can hardly be the result of accident, that neither 
in the family of Appin nor even among his own immediate descendants 
of Innermeath does the name of Walter, 50 long dear as that of their 
most renowned ancestors in Scotland, ever once thereafter appear. 

On the 1st December 1469, Walter, "Lord Lorn," granted to the 
Earl of Argyll the bond that he would immediately enter upon Lorn, 
and thereafter resign the title and the lands for a new grant to the Earl, 
who in turn obliged himself to obtain from the King for Walter the 
title of Lord Innermeath, with precedence over that of Lorn ; giving 
a striking proof of the weakness of the Crown, when one subject 
could thus undertake to procure a title of honour for another. In fact 
it is probable that the Earl, from his influential position as Justiciar of 
Scotland, had been able to secure in advance the sanction of the youthful 
King to this evidently long-planned arrangement, for we find a bond on 
the 13th April 1470, by Walter Stewart, " Lord Innermeath," never to 
dispute the preceding resignation under a penalty of 6000 merks— and on 
the next day Walter completed the resignation of the lands and title to 


the King, who three days after granted them to the Earl of Argyll, to 
be held blench of the King on the rendering of a mantle at Whitsun- 
day, if required. 

The Earl then proceeded to apportion to his kinsman of Glen- 
orchy his share of the acquired lands, making over to him one-third of 
Lorn, which included a third of Lismore and a belt of land in Appin 
lying on the north shore of Loch Creran, both of which, however. King 
James IV. subsequently compelled Sir Duncan Campbell of Glenorchy 
to restore to Duncan Stewart of Appin, Dugald's eldest son and 

Argyll's seal to the charter to Campbell of Glenorchy of these 
lands in 1470, is thus described by Laing : " Couch^, gyronny of eight. 
Crest, on a helmet a boar's head with neck couped. Supporters, two 
lions rampant, the background ornamented with foliage." It therefore 
appears plainly that the quartering of the galley of Lorn on the paternal 
achievement of Argyll, " in consequence " of his marriage, did not only 
not take place on his marriage, nor even upon his succession to his 
wife's inheritance, at the death of her father in 1463, but that it had not 
even been assumed in 1470. Dugald Stewart and his descendants alone 
continued to bear what Laing calls "the noble coat of the Stewarts of 
Lorn," and though it was partly borne by the Stewarts of Innermeath, 
the supporters of this junior branch were changed from roebucks to 
fallow-deer, and the crest of a unicorn's head to a deer's head, as may 
be seen in Workman's " Book of Blazons," compiled about 1550, and in 
another Book of Blazons, apparently compiled a little later, amongst 
the MSS. in the British Museum. 

Though Dugald Stewart, by the enforced compromise, gave up to his 
uncle the lordship of Lorn, his descendants were recognised as re- 
presenting the noble house of the Stewarts of Lorn. Sir David 
Lindsay of the Mount, " Lord Lyon King at Arms," was the most 
celebrated Scots genealogist and herald of his day, and would be 
punctilious in giving men of family their proper designation. As has 


been already mentioned, it has always been one of the duties of the 
Lyon King at Arms, and, indeed, it has been specially defined as such 
under the Statutes of 1592 and 1672, "to record the genealogies of 
persons descended from noble and honourable lineage when supported 
by proper evidence." Sir David was born in 1490, twenty years after 
the Stewarts of Innermeath had divested themselves, in favour of 
another, of any title they had to be called Stewarts of Lorn. Forty- 
one years later, about 1531, Sir David wrote his poem called "The 
Complaynt of the Papingo," and in the " Prolog " he mentions amongst 
the poets of his time William Stewart, and " Stewart of Lorn" who "will 
carpe richt curiouslie." The poem containing a sarcastic eulogy on the 
liberality of James V., who is well known to have been penurious, and 
of his courtiers, entitled " Lergess, Lergess hay, Lergess of this New 
Year's day," is that written by Stewart of Lorn, and alluded to by Sir 
David as " carping richt curiouslie." 

James V. was then nineteen years old, so that the poem must have 
been written shortly before that time, or sixty years after the Inner- 
meath family had relinquished that claim to Lorn which Dugald, and 
his sons Duncan and Alan, had still maintained. The poem begins, 
" First Lergess of the King, my Chief," pretty clearly showing the 
writer's Highland origin. " Stewart of Lome," so called by Sir David 
Lindsay, seems to have been Alan, Dugald's second son, who was in 
high favour with James V., as his brother had been with James IV., 
and in a charter was designed by the King, " consanguineus dilectus," 
dear blood relative. Afterwards, in the reign of James VI., in an Act 
of the Scots Parliament, dated 1587, the head of the clan was designed 
Stewart " of Lorn, or of Appin ;" and in 1 800, when the eldest branch of 
the Stewarts of Appin had become extinct, the Lyon King at Arms 
recognised, in his official declaration, the head of the family of Ardsheal 
as the representative of the " Stewarts of Lorn, Appin, and Ardsheal." 

After the compromise above narrated, Dugald Stewart seems to 
have held his lands of Appin without molestation, and in 1497, or 1498, 


we find him leading out his followers to the aid of his trusty allies, 
the Maclarens. This clan had made a foray into the lands of the 
M 'Donalds of Keppoch, who had turned out in force to ravage 
Balquidder in reprisal. The Maclarens calling the Appin men to their 
assistance, met the M' Donalds about the head of Glenorchy, and in the 
battle which ensued Dugald was killed, but not till Donald of Keppoch, 
elder brother of Alaster M 'Angus, had fallen under his sword. 

Dugald Stewart married a daughter of ■ Macdougall of Nether 
Lorn, a marriage which was probably arranged soon after the 
compromise of 1469 to stop the blood feud which would otherwise 
have continued between these two neighbouring families for years with 
intense inveteracy. He left three sons — 

1. Duncan, his successor. 

2. Alan, who succeeded Duncan. 

3. Robert, who died without legitimate issue. 

Duncan Stewart, eldest son of Dugald Stewart, first of Appin, 
succeeded his father in the ^40 land of Appin on his death in 1497. 
At this time the Western Highlands and Islands were much disturbed by 
the attempts of the representatives of the old Lords of the Isles to revive 
their pretensions to independent power. James IV., who was born in 
1473, and succeeded his father in 1488, made frequent journeys to the 
West Highlands, and thus became acquainted with Duncan of Appin, 
who was a bold and energetic man. The King recognised him as his 
kinsman, appointed him to the office of King's Chamberlain of the 
Isles, and bestowed on him large grants of lands, which will be 
enumerated hereafter. 

The King also compelled Sir Duncan Campbell of Glenorchy to 
restore to Duncan Stewart the third part of Appin, and the lands in 
Lismore which Glenorchy's father, Sir Colin, had received out of the 
inheritance of Dugald, only son of Sir John Stewart, Lord of Lorn. 
It was hardly possible for King James to compel the restoration of the 
whole of Lorn to Duncan, as the two families of Argyll and Glenorchy 


had held the lordship for nearly thirty years under the sanction of 
James III. and his Parliament, nor could he restore to him the title of 
Lord Lorn, for as Lord Hailes, whose authority on such a point can 
hardly be disputed, has pointed out, the possession of the comitatus 
carried with it the title. But by his grant to Duncan of a territory 
which extended from Loch Creran on the south to Inverlochy on the 
north, the Sovereign apparently desired to recompense his kinsman for 
the loss of Lorn without dispossessing the now powerful family of 
Argyll ; and by giving him possession of a domain nearly equivalent in 
value, as well as by appointing him to this high office in the Western 
Highlands, the King thus placed Duncan in a position of dignity 
resembling that of his forefathers. As will appear from the charters 
hereafter quoted, Duncan had now the whole of Appin, except, perhaps, 
the lands of Airds, which, so far as can be ascertained, never formed 
part of the Stewart lands, a small rivulet called Con Ruagh constitut- 
ing the narrow boundary, a single step over which brought a Stewart 
or a Campbell into the territory of friends or of hereditary foemen. 

The first charter granted by James IV. to Duncan was the life- 
rent, " Litera Vitalis," of the lands of Duror and Glencoe. Alan 
MacDougall or M'Coule had received a gift of these lands during 
James' minority, perhaps procured for him for reasons not unconnected 
with past events, but the grant was revoked by James when he reached 
his majority. The MacDonalds of Glencoe had long been settled there 
as occupants, and their possession was confirmed to them by the King 
in 1499. They still remained in occupation of the lands, paying feu- 
duty to Appin as superior, which Glencoe still continues to do. This 
charter, dated at Stirling, 14th January 1500, is "pro bono fideli et 
gratuito servicio nobis per dilectum nostrum Duncanum Stewart, filium 
et heredem quondam Dungalli Stewart de Appin ; " the King thus 
recognising Dugald's title as heir of Appin, a title which could only be 
his as succeeding to his father. Sir John Stewart of Lorn. The 
charter, which is given at length in the Appendix, includes, " the seven 


merk land of Coule of Durrour, the seven merk land of Ardoch and 
Lagynhall, the three merk land of Auchincar, the five merk land of 
Auchindarroch and Auchinblane, and the three merk land of Belle- 
caulis, also the whole and entire twenty-five merk land of Glencoyne 
with its pertinents, extending in all to fifty merk lands, lying in the 
Sheriffdom of Perth. Which lands were formerly in the possession 
of John M 'Coule by our gift in our minority, and now have lawfully 
lapsed." The lands of Glencoe were granted in 1343 by David II, to 
John of Yle, and were afterwards held from John of Yle by John of 
Larin, and were granted anew to the latter in 1354. In 1475 they were 
forfeited by John of Yle, Earl of Ross, and in 1476 were restored to 
him. In 1494, after the insurrection of Alexander of Lochalsh, the 
titles and lordship of the Isles were forfeited, and subsequently 
voluntarily surrendered ; and in that year James IV. granted John 
Makgilleon of Lochbouie, the fifty-three merk lands of Durgwin 
and Glencole. These lands were now granted by the King to Duncan 
in 1500, and the grant was renewed in 1501. 

In 1 501 Sir Duncan Campbell of Glenorchy, no doubt under 
pressure from the King, made to Duncan Stewart of Appin the above- 
mentioned restitution of the one-third part of Appin, which Glenorchy 
had received in 1470, comprehending the eight merk land of Cand- 
lochlagane, the two merk land of Auchichoskrachan, the two merk land 
of Finalten, the four merk land of Auchnagen, the three merk land of 
Inverahawle, the one merk land of Corrylone, besides Eilan Stalcaire 
and some other lands. In the same year Sir Duncan also gave up to 
Appin the twenty shilling land of Port Carrane in Lismore, which 
probably included the northern part of the island opposite Appin. 
Both these grants were in favour of Duncan Stewart and the heirs of 
his body, with remainder to his brothers Alan and Robert. This is the 
only mention of Robert in the history of the clan, nor is there any 
record of his marriage. If he had had legitimate issue there seems no 
reason to doubt that he would have received from the Chief a grant of 


land suitable to his position, as was then the invariable custom in the 
Highland families. It has been conjectured that a sept of the Stewarts 
known as the M'Robbs, of whom an account is afterwards given, are 
descended from an illegitimate son of this Robert, but no certainty 
exists on the point. 

On 24th September 1501, the Earl of Argyll and Sir Duncan 
Campbell bound themselves to recognise Duncan Stewart as the legal 
possessor of the forty pound land of Appin " held in heritage by his 
deceased father, Dugald Stewart of Appin," and, on the other hand, 
Duncan Stewart bound himself and his folks to be obedient to the king's 
laws, and not to vex or trouble the tenants and vassals of the Earl and 
Sir Duncan, under the penalty of ;i^200 Scots, as a fine to the King, 
and ^200 to the other parties for "coost and skaith," besides paying 
the skaith the Earl and his friends shall sustain from Duncan and his 
friends. From this it may be inferred that Dugald and his sons, un- 
dismayed by the strength of their foes, had not ceased to assert their 
rights by making continual forays and " herschips " upon the lands of 
Lorn wrested from them. 

In the "Scots Acts of Parliament of 1502," Vol. II., pp. 241, 249, 
we find James IV. also gave to Duncan a grant of the liferent of the 
royal lands of Mamore, which then included the district now called 
Nether Lochaber, and of the island of Dundabray. The venerable Dr 
M'Leod of Morven believes that this is the island still so called, lying 
between the coasts of Jura and Knapdale. 

In 1503 Lachlan M'Gillean, or Maclean, of Duart, joined Donald 
Dubh in his attempt to seize the territory and authority of the ancient 
Lords of the Isles. Duncan Stewart of Appin, at the head of his own 
men, and the MacDonalds of Glencoe, — who then mustered about 150 
claymores, — was prominent, as King's Chamberlain of the Isles, in 
opposing Maclean, who abandoned Donald Dubh's cause, and finally 
submitted in 1505. Donald Dubh's insurrection was suppressed in 
1506, and the result of his defeat was to transfer to the Earls of 

Huntly and Argyll the great power which had been enjoyed by the 
Earls of Ross, the former receiving at the same time large grants of 
land in Banffshire, Strathearn, and Lochaber. Differences seem to 
have arisen between Lochiel and his new neighbour, for we find in the 
Acts of the Lords of Council on i6th February 1507, a decree against 
" Ewin Allansoune " in favour of " Archibald Erie of Argile as 
cessionar and assignaye" to Alexander Earl of Huntly for an herschip 
of the Clan Cameron in Badenoch. The name of Duncan Stewart 
does not appear in this document, but the friendship and alliance which 
subsisted between the Stewarts and the Camerons — and which, indeed, 
became closer in succeeding generations — prompted the chief of Appin 
to come forward, not only as the mediator between the antagonists, but 
as security for his friend. In consequence of this arrangement the 
Lords of Council decreed on 9th February 1 508 that Ewin Allansoune 
and Duncan Stewart should pay to Argyll the sum of 500 merks. 
The settlement of the claim seems to have been deferred for some 
years, for it was not until 1 5 1 1 that Ewine Alansoune and Duncan 
Stewart gave a Charter of Apprisement of the lands of Kilandreist, 
Port Carran, and Kinlochan in Lismore, and of the island of Shuna, in 
favour of Archibald Earl of Argyll, as part payment of 500 merks, the 
balance remaining due being possibly one of those claims remitted by 
Argyll at the final settlement in 15 12 between Appin and the Earl, in 
the latter's capacity of security for Maclean of Duart. 

We have seen that the lands of Glencoe and Duror, after having 
been granted in 1494 to John Makgilleon of Lochbouie, had been in 
1500 granted by James IV. to Duncan Stewart of Appin, the Glencoe 
men having warmly espoused the cause of Donald Dubh, whose escape 
in 1 501 from prison in the Castle of Inchconnell was effected by their 
gallantry and fidelity. This transfer seems to have subsequently led 
to a raid upon Duncan's tenants by the MacLeans, headed by 
" Lauchlan M'Gillane of Dowarde, Johnne M'Cane Maklauchlane of 
Coll, and Dunslavy M'Barich of Ulva." On the 9th May 1509 we 


find the record of the summons to the MacLeans, and on the 21st July 
of the same year the decrees in favour of Duncan Stewart, and of his 
Appin and Duror tenants, which will be found in the Appendix. 

The settlement between Duart and Appin which had been in 
progress after the above decrees, seems to have been interrupted by 
the death in 15 10 of the former, who was succeeded by his son of the 
same name. In 1510 James IV. confirmed to Duncan Stewart of 
Appin " the 6^ mark lands of Auchnadialla, the 6^ mark lands of 
Corriemyll, the 3 mark lands of Canmask, the 3 mark lands of 
Thorane Carrigh in Lochaber, which with other lands he has acquired 
from the deceased Lauchlan Magilleon of Dowart in lieu of a certain 
sum of money, and under reversion on payment of that sum." On the 
8th of April 1510 King James granted Duncan a Charter of Apprise- 
ment. Carta Appirciationis, a summary of which is given in the 
Appendix, addressed to " certain of our Sheriffs, commanding them 
to compel and distrain Lachlan Makgilleon of Dowart for the sum of 
four thousand five hundred merks to be recovered from him by our 
beloved Duncan Stewart of Appin." MacLean had been ordered to 
enter upon his lands, no doubt in succession to his deceased father, so 
that he might legally give them over to Appin in security for the money, 
but he had failed to do so, and in consequence the King, by advice of 
his Council, received Duncan Stewart as tenant of the lands belonging 
to Lauchlan MacLean in heritage, granting MacLean a right of redemp- 
tion on payment to Appin of the 4500 merks and expenses within seven 
years. These lands comprehended nearly the whole of the islands of 
Mull and Tiree, lands in Jura and Knapdale, in Morven and Lochaber, 
and also the stewardship of Garmoran, now called Ardnamurchan. 

The questions still remaining unsettled between Appin and Duart 
were reopened before the Lords of Council in 15 12. On the ist of 
March in that year we find the Earl of Argyll, who was shortly to be- 
come the father-in-law of the youthful chief of the MacLeans, appearing 
as his friend and becoming his security for the amount at which Appin's 

claim had been approximately fixed by arbitrators, viz., 1040 merks. 
On the following day the Bishop of Argyll comes forward to claim his 
share of any composition which Duncan might be induced to accept, 
and offering in return the King's pardon and remission of all crimes 
committed by Duncan and his clansmen. On the same day, the 2nd 
March 15 12, it is decreed that the Earl of Argyll "of his own consent 
as borgh and dettour for Lauchlane Makgillane of Dowart sail content 
and pay to Duncan Stewart of Appin the sovm of ane thousand and 
fourty merks vsuall money of Scotland." It was probably in view of 
Argyll's taking upon himself this payment that Duncan, still on the 
same day, made application, jointly with Duart, to the Lords of 
Council to give the authority of their decree to the decision of a 
meeting of arbitrators at Edinburgh on the 19th of February preceding. 
These arbitrators were David Bishop of Galloway, Alexander Earl of 
Huntly, Archibald Earl of Argyll, William Earl of Erroll, and William 
Scot of Balwearie, and they had awarded him in satisfaction of his 
claim the sum of 10 11 merks, of which a certain proportion was to be 
paid to Duncan's tenants, and the balance of 800 merks to Duncan 
himself, at sundry specified terms within 2 years and 20 days. Various 
other conditions were also imposed by the arbitrators, one of which 
was that Duncan on his part should restore to the King his liferent or 
heritage of the 13 merk land lying beside the Castle of Inverlochy 
whereof MacLean had an old grant. Duncan had evidently received 
from James IV. before this time a promise of these lands, but the 
charter itself — granting to him, for his good service and for his present 
to the King of a galley of 36 oars, the liferent of the lands of Innerlochy, 
Terelondy, Drumefour, and Auchentoir, in the lordship of Lochaber — 
did not pass the seals till the 9th July 15 12. On the other hand 
Argyll was to remit to Duncan a debt of 100 merks due to the former, 
and all claims against Duncan or his tenants, and to "do his diligence" 
to cause his uncle. Sir Duncan Campbell, to do the same. Argyll was 
also to renew to Appin the infeftment of those lands which the latter 


held of him, and their mutual relations were to exist " in kindness and 
heartliness in time to come." A further decree on the same day makes 
Argyll liable for the payment of the loi i merks, and a still later one of 
the same date sets forth that Lauchlane Makgillane of Dowart and 
John Makclane of Louchboy shall jointly free, relieve, and keep 
scaithless the Earl of Argyll in respect of this loii merks, Dowart 
finally obliging himself to indemnify Louchboy. 

An amicable settlement of these long pending claims was thus 
arrived at, and upon terms extremely favourable to Mac Lean when com- 
pared with the damages awarded by the Lords in council. It was no 
doubt after friendly communications had passed between Appin and 
Duart that Duncan proceeded to Mull, as his sole attendant on the 
occasion was his henchman. There may perhaps have been no pre- 
meditated intention on the part of the MacLeans to provoke a quarrel, but 
rough jokes were passed upon the size and weight of Duncan's follower. 
The chief retorted that the Appin men were not fed upon mean shell- 
fish like barnacles, as the MacLeans were said to be; and seeing their 
now evident purpose and his own inevitable fate, he set his back against 
the rampart of the castle, and, pursuing the grim jest, declared that 
before he died he would make with his dirk marks like barnacles on 
many of the MacLeans. He fell, overpowered by numbers, after a 
gallant resistance. 

MacLea, now called Livingstone, of Bachuill in Lismore, hearing 
of the death of his chief, set out for Duart Castle at night in his boat, 
which was rowed by his two red-haired daughters. He scu tried all the 
boats in the Port of Duart, and brought the corpse of his chief to 
Lismore, in the church of which island it was buried. The tombstone 
was, until lately, visible in the floor, but was covered when some altera- 
tions were made in the church in 1877. 

This family of Livingstone, commonly called the Barons of 
Bachuill, received in early times a grant of land in Lismore, which they 
still hold as keepers of the Bishop of Lismore's crozier or baculum, in 

Gaelic " Bachuill Mor." The crozier was given up by them a few years 
ago to the Duke of Argyll, when he granted a confirmation of their title 
to their old possession. The sept of Mac Lea or Livingstone seem to 
have been very anciently seated in Appin, where they have held lands 
as tenants of the Stewarts, and have always followed their banner to 
war. At Culloden four of the name were killed and one wounded. 
Dr David Livingstone, the celebrated explorer in Africa, was of this 
race, and some of his relatives still reside in Appin, Mr Livingstone at 
Portnacroish being the nearest of kin. Dr David Livingstone writes of 
himself, " Our great grandfather fell at the battle of Culloden, fighting 
for the old line of kings ; " and it is doubtless to the baculum or 
Bachuill Mor that he alludes, when he recounts that his Roman Ca- 
tholic ancestors " were made Protestants by the laird coming round with 
a man having a yellow staff, which would seem to have attracted more 
attention than his teaching, for the new religion went long afterwards 
— perhaps it does so still — by the name of ' the religion of the yellow 
stick.' " 

For the accommodation of James IV., Duncan Stewart rebuilt Castle 
Stalcaire, which had previously been a hunting-seat of the Lords of 
Lorn, of the families of MacDougall and Stewart. Eilan Stalcaire 
signifies in Gaelic Falconer's Island, and tradition says that it was often 
inhabited by King James IV. and King James V. when hunting, hawk- 
ing, or fishing in Appin and the surrounding districts. A brooch was 
long in the possession of the Appin family, which had for a pendant a 
handsome pearl, said to have been taken out of a salmon killed by 
Duncan when fishing in the river Awe with James IV. 

It was on the 9th July 151 2 that Duncan Stewart, second of 
Appin, received the charter of Inverlochy which has been above 
noticed, and as his brother Alan led the clan to Flodden on the 9th 
September 1 5 1 3, it may be concluded that his death took place between 
those dates. He was never married, and was succeeded by his brother 

Alan Stewart, third of Appin, soon after his succession, accom- 
panied, together with his five sons, King James IV. to the disastrous 
field of Flodden, where that chivalrous benefactor of the Stewarts of 
Appin was slain. Alan was not long in finding the want of his royal 
kinsman's friendship and protection, and in experiencing the truth of the 
saying that the country is hapless whose monarch is a child. After the 
battle of Flodden the Islemen again rose in rebellion under Sir Donald 
MacDonald of Lochalsh, and the Earl of Argyll was appointed by the 
Council to the command of the force raised to subdue them. In 15 17 
Argyll obtained from the Regent Albany an appointment as his 
Lieutenant in Durrour, Glencoe, and Lochiel, to " keep the peace of the 
inhabitants ;" the peace desired being apparently that described by 
Tacitus, " ubi solitudinem faciunt, pacem appellant," they make a 
wilderness and call it peace. In 15 18 Alan was obliged to grant to the 
Earl of Argyll a Charter of Apprisement of the lands of Fasnacloich 
and Glasdrum ; but in 1539, in the reign of James V., these lands were 
feued to Alan and his heirs, the Earl retaining the superiority. On 
the 6th June 1522, John Campbell of Calder, brother of the Earl of 
Argyll, obtained from Maclean of Lochbuy the assignment of his 
obsolete and revoked charter, dated in 1494, of the lands of Durrour, 
Glencoe, and part of the lands of Lochiel, but the Stewarts, 
Mac Donalds, and Camerons effectually resisted his efforts to take 
possession. On the 8th November 1528 a meeting took place in 
Edinburgh with the view of settling the questions in dispute, Archibald 
Campbell of Skipness, Alexander M'lan M'Alexander of Glengarry, 
and John M'Alan M'Donuile Duff being chosen as arbitrators. The 
selection could not certainly be considered a favourable one for Lochiel 
and Appin : the first being Calder's brother and a hereditary foeman, 
while the two latter could probably bear but little favour towards Alan 
Stewart after the defeat and death of their kinsman Donall mac 
Aonghais of Keppoch by the hand of Dugald of Appin, Alan's father. 
The decree of the arbitrators, confirmed four days later by the Lords 

in Council, was, after declaring that goodwill was to prevail for the 
future, to award a sum of 400 merks to be paid to Calder by Lochiel 
and Appin for scaith done to Calder, but that 300 merks of this sum 
Avere to be remitted on condition of their giving Calder their bond of man- 
rent in return for Calder's bond of maintenance. Notwithstanding this 
settlement, however, matters do not seem to have gone on smoothly, 
for Calder subsequently resigned these lands to the King ; and the 
Council of which Argyll was a member. King James V. being still in 
minority, granted them to the Earl. In his account of these transac- 
tions Gregory says: " For some years after this time" (1520-7) "the Isles 
remained in a state of comparative tranquillity, owing partly to the 
continued imprisonment of Donald Dubh, which deprived the Islanders 
of their natural leader. This interval of peace was employed by Argyll 
in extending his influence among the chiefs with whom his commission 

of lieutenancy brought him in contact The principal coadjutors 

of Argyll in these plans for the aggrandisement of his family and clan, 
were his brothers. Sir John Campbell of Calder and Archibald 
Campbell of Skipnish. Calder, whose patrimony lay in the district of 
Lorn, was particularly active ; and having acquired from Maclean of 
Lochbuy certain claims, hitherto ineffectual, which that chief had to the 
lands of Lochiel, Duror, and Glencoe, he did not fail to make use of 
his opportunities. At first he was violently resisted by the Camerons 
and Stewarts, and suffered many injuries from them in these disputes. 
But by transferring his title to these lands to his brother Argyll, and 
employing the influence of that nobleman, Calder succeeded in estab- 
lishing a certain degree of authority over the unruly inhabitants, in a 
mode then of very frequent occurrence. Ewin AUanson of Lochiel, 
and Alan Stewart of Duror, were, by the arbitration of friends, ordered 
to pay Calder a large sum of damages, and likewise to give to him, for 
themselves, their children, kin, and friends, their bond of man-rent and 
service against all men, except the King and Argyll. In consideration 
of these bonds of service, three fourths of the damages awarded were 


remitted by Calder, who became also bound to give his bond of main- 
tenance in return. Finally, if the said Ewin and Alan should do good 
service to Sir John in helping him to obtain lands and possessions, they 
were to be rewarded by him therefor at the discretion of the arbiters. 
By such means was the influence of the house of Argyll extended and 
confirmed in the West Highlands." 

Colin, Earl of Argyll, died in 1530, and was succeeded by his son 
Archibald, fourth Earl, who pursued the same course of intrigue in the 
Western Highlands ; but a complaint being brought before the King 
and Council that he, his father, and his uncles Sir John Campbell of 
Calder, and Archibald Campbell of Skipnish, had for a long time 
fomented disturbances in the Highlands that they might acquire 
possession of the forfeited estates, the Earl was summoned to Edin- 
burgh to answer these charges, and committed to prison by the King 
on his arrival. He was soon liberated, but was deprived of his offices, 
which he never regained during the lifetime of James V. The King, 
having revoked all charters granted during his minority, at Falkland 
on the 7th December 1538, granted to Alan Stewart, his well-beloved 
relation in blood and servitor, "dilectus consanguineus et servitor Alanus 
Stewart in Lome," a charter, given in the Appendix, of the twenty 
pound land of Durrour in fee farm, viz., the seven merk land of Coule 
and Glencalladam, the seven merk land of Ardsell and Lagnahall, the 
three merk land of Ballychelis, the five merk land of Auchnandarroch, 
the three merk land of Auchycarne, the five merk land of Auchychan 
and Auchinblare, and the twenty merk land of Glenkowne, with all 
their pertinents, to the value of fifty merks. The charter is to Alan 
and his heirs, on condition of their paying to the king and his heirs a 
yearly rent of ^40 Scots, and " building and keeping a sufficient 
mansion with hall, chamber, kitchen, barn, byre, stables, dovecots, 
gardens, orchyards, etc." The charter is very explicit in conveying to 
Alan and his heirs these lands and their pertinents, woods, plains, 
mosses, morasses, waters stagnant and running, rivulets, fields and 

pastures, mills with their multures and sequels, rights of hunting and 
fishing, peats, turf, timber, coal, stone, lime, gorse, broom, and every- 
thing above or below ground pertaining to the said lands, to be held in 
peace without any revocation or renunciation whatever by the said 
Alan and his heirs. 

It might have been reckoned that so full a grant would have 
effectually secured the peaceable possession of these lands to Alan and 
his heirs. But James V. died in 1542, and in 1547, when Queen Mary 
was a child, and Argyll had regained his authority in the West of 
Scotland, we find Alan Stewart resigning these lands of Duror, Balla- 
chelish, and Glencoe into the hands of the Queen, and they were re- 
conveyed to the Earl of Argyll. After the former experience the Earl 
was not likely again to attempt to dispossess Alan of this territory, 
and it was re-granted to him, the Earl retaining the superiority, at a 
somewhat smaller feu-rent than that which Alan, in his original charter, 
had covenanted to pay to the Crown. 

In 1547, Somerset, the Protector of England, renewed the proposal 
of marriage between Edward VI. and Queen Mary, and marched an 
army of 18,000 men into Scotland to compel the compliance of the 
Scots. In the battle of Pinkie, which ensued on the loth September of 
that year, the Stewarts of Appin bore their part, the regiment being 
commanded by Donald-nan-ord, second of Invernahyle, Alan Stewart 
being then an old man, and his eldest son Duncan dead, while his 
grandson John, who succeeded him, was still a minor. 

Alan Stewart married a daughter of Cameron of Lochiel, by 
whom he had five sons, all of whom accompanied their father to the 
field of Flodden. 

They were : — 
I. Duncan. 
: 2. John : of whom the first Stewarts of Strathgarry. Page 
3. DuGALD : of whom Achnacone. Page 153. 


4. James: of whom Fasnacloich. Page 155. 

5. Alexander: of whom Invernahyle. Page 165. 

Alan seems to have died, at a very advanced age, about or soon 
after the year 1562. 

Duncan Stewart, fourth of Appin, appears to have predeceased 
his father before the battle of Pinkie in 1547, as we find the clan led 
on that occasion, as above mentioned, by the Tutor. He was certainly 
dead before 1562, as we find that in that year Alan Stewart of Appin 
resigned the lands in Lismore, held by him from Campbell of 
Glenorchy, for the purpose of having them re-granted to John Stewart, 
his grandson, the liferent of them, however, being reserved to Alan. 
Duncan married Jonet Gordon, daughter of the Earl of Huntly, who 
had obtained the neighbouring territory of Lochaber. In 1558 John 
Campbell of Calder, Commendator of Ardchattan Priory, granted to 
Jonet Gordon, Lady of Appin, in consideration of payments by her for 
repairing the church and monastery, the two merk lands of Yriskay and 
Dyrremeanach for a yearly payment of £4 Scots, and in 1562 she 
resigned these lands to John Campbell, the natural son of the 

Mr D. C. Macpherson, of the Advocates' Library, who has 
published an account of the clan Donald of Keppoch, gives the follow- 
ing narrative relating to Duncan, fourth of Appin. Raonall, second 
son of Raonall MacDhonaill Ghlais, and eighth of Keppoch, married a 
daughter of Duncan Stewart, younger of Appin. It is said that Stewart 
paid a visit to his son-in-law, and that he was escorted on his return 
by a party of the Keppoch men, the chief having promised him a safe 
conduct out of the parish. This was fulfilled to the letter, but as they 
were fording the river Nevis near Fort William, just as they got to the 
Kilmallie side, one M 'Arthur struck off Stewart's head with his axe. 
These M 'Arthurs are still in Lochaber, and bear the nick-name of 
" Tuagh bhearnach Mhic-Artair," the M'Arthurs of the hacked axe. 
The daughter of Appin took with her to Keppoch some Stewarts, 


named Dubh-shuilich, from their dark heavy eyebrows, who were ever 
after the " Fir-bhrataich " or standard-bearers of the Keppochs, and 
their descendants are still in that country. This violent end would 
account for the death of Duncan during his father's lifetime. He left 
one son John. 

John Stewart, fifth of Appin, was called, from his complexion and 
his maternal descent, "Gordonich baan," the fair Gordon. In the "Black 
Book of Taymouth" it is stated that, on 4th December 1570, John 
Stewart of Appin entered into a mutual contract with Colin Campbell 
of Glenurquhay for their common defence. He is also mentioned in 
records of the year 1580. In the Acts of 1587, on " The Roll of the 
Names of the Landislordes and'Baillies of Landis in the Hielandis and 
lies, quhair Brokin men hes duelt and presentlie duellis," we find 103 
names, commencing with that of Ludovick, second duke of Lennox, and 
ending with that of The Lord Hamiltown (Lord John Hamilton, 
proprietor of Arran, and afterwards Marquis of Hamilton), and among 
them is "Johnne Stewart of the Appin." And in the same year, on 
" The Roll of the Clannis (in the Hielandis and lies) that hes Capitanes, 
Cheiffis, and Chiftanes on quhome thay depend, oft tymes aganis the 
willis of thair landislordis : and of sum speciale persones of branchis of 
the saidis clannis " there appear thirty-four names, among whom are the 
"Stewartis of Lome or of Appin." Also in the Rotation of the 
Highland Clans, as mentioned in the two Acts of Parliament of 1587 
and 1594, forty-two names are recorded, the eleventh on the list being 
" Stewarts of Appin." 

In 1592 an extensive conspiracy was entered into, having for its 
object the murder of the " bonnie Earl of Murray," Archibald 7th Earl 
of Argyle, and his kinsman James Campbell of Calder, the principal 
administrator of the affairs of the latter earldom. In Februar}' 1592, 
the Earl of Murray was murdered at his house of Donibristle in Fife, 
by a party of the Gordons under the command of the Earl of Huntly. 
Sir Duncan Campbell of Glenorchy, Dugald Campbell of Auchinbreck, 

and Archibald Campbell of Lochnell, three of the guardians of the 
young Earl of Argyll, were among the conspirators of the West ; and, 
as brother-in-law of Lochnell, John Stewart of Appin was induced to 
join the plot, and, with him, Cameron of Lochiel and MacDougall of 
Dunolly. Sir John Campbell of Ardkinglass next became an accessory, 
and procured the services of an assassin named M'Ellar, who shot 
Calder in the house of Knepoch in Lorn, in February 1592. Ardking- 
lass' hereditary feud with Calder caused him to be suspected, and he 
was consequently threatened with the vengeance of the young Argyll. 
Glenorchy then ventured to communicate to him the plan of getting 
rid of the Earl and his brother, but Ardkinglass refused to be a party to 
it. Had this part of the plot been carried out, Lochnell would have 
succeeded, as heir, to the earldom, Glenorchy was to have received 
the barony of Lochow and Benderaloch, and MacDougall the lands of 
Luing, while John Stewart was to have had all the lands in Lorn 
belonging to the Earl, an arrangement which clearly shows that the 
claim of his family to Lorn was still recognised, even by some among 
the Campbells themselves. These occurrences served to embitter still 
further the feud between the families. 

John Stewart married, first, Katharine, daughter of John gorm 
Campbell, first of Lochnell, and widow of John Maclean of Kinlochaline, 
by whom he had one son, Duncan, his successor ; and, secondly, a 
daughter of Macdonald of Muidart, who bore to him a son, John, after- 
wards of Ardsheal. He had also a daughter, married to Alan Cameron 
of Lochiel. John Drummond of Bathaldie, in his memoir of Sir Ewen 
Cameron, says of her that " she was a handsome young lady, and by 
an excess of beauty, witt, and good-nature, so gained upon her husband's 
affections that he continued fond of her all his life." John Stewart 
of Appin must have died previous to, or in the early part of, 1595. 

Duncan Stewart, sixth of Appin, succeeded his father, and in 
1595 the possession of the lands in Lismore was confirmed by the 
superior. Sir Duncan Campbell of Glenorchy, to " Duncan Stewart of 


Appin, son of the deceased John Stewart." In 1595 Duncan Stewart 
granted, in heritage, to GilHemichael M'Ewin V'lUemichael in Annat, 
the " domus bruerie " of Annat, and certain land bounded by the rivulet 
of Annat on the west, by the " pule " called Lyn Ruagh on the south, 
by the rivulet of Achnagone on the east, and by the ridge " lie edge 
montis," between the rivulets of Annat and Achnagone, on the north. 
These lands form part of the estate now called Kinlochlaigh. 

It was in Duncan's lifetime that there lived and sang a poetess of 
the Siol Tormod, or clan MacLeod of Harris, called Mairi Nighean 
Alasdair Ruaidh. It would appear from the following effusion — unless, 
indeed, it is to be regarded as entirely fanciful — that there had been 
some project of a marriage between Stewart of Appin and a daughter 
of MacLeod, by which Appin hoped to acquire some of the MacLeod 
lands. This seems to have been displeasing to the clan, and Mary 
embodied their feeling in the following stanza of a poem, which has 
been translated from the original Gaelic by the Rev. Alexander Stewart, 
Nether Lochaber : — 

" Mac Ian Stewart of Appin, 
Though thou art a fine young fellow, 
Though the Stewarts are high-minded, 
And know what they should do in wax, 
Take no thought nor heed (of acquiring) 
Of lands which are not thine by right ; 
Thou canst not take them in spite of us. 
And with our will they shall never be thine." 

The records at Dunvegan supply no clue to the project to which 
the bardess alludes, and there was no connection by marriage between 
the families of the Chiefs of MacLeod and Appin till after her death. 

Duncan married a daughter of Campbell of Lochnell, by whom he 
had three sons — Duncan, his successor, and John and Alan, An old 
family MS. states that these two latter "appear to have had no issue, 
as the ingenious author of the ' Histoiy of the Stewarts' mentions 


nothing of them but their Christian names, and narrates that in the suc- 
ceeding generation the Laird of Ardsheal was Tutor, as nearest of kin 
to Appin, a fact universally known to all the branches of this family." 

Duncan Stewart, seventh of Appin, succeeded his father. It was 
this Chief of Appin who was persuaded, during a carousal, to give up 
Castle Stalcaire to Campbell of Airds in exchange for an eight-oared 
" beorlin" or wherry. Appin endeavoured to have the unfair, and no 
doubt vinous, bargain recalled ; but Airds refused to cancel a transaction 
so advantageous to himself, and Duncan, who, if not discreet, was at all 
events honourable, would not, without the other's consent, retract his 
word, though it had been passed in circumstances under which its 
fulfilment should certainly not have been exacted. The Stewart clan 
were indignant at seeing the alienation of the castle, which was not only 
their principal fortress, but which was a natural object of their pride as 
having been built for and occupied by the kings who had owned them 
as kinsmen, and assembled to consider whether they should not appoint 
one of Duncan's brothers to be their chief instead of this " Baothaire," 
or soft, easily-persuaded man, as they nick-named Duncan. The 
offended clan did not go so far as to depose him, but resolved that he 
should not lead them in any expedition of war. In consequence of this 
decision they were led on these occasions by the chief's brother John — 
at least until Duncan's son, Duncan Mor, had attained majority — as in 
1614 we find John was summoned to Edinburgh to answer charges 
brought against the Stewarts by the Earl of Argyll for forays upon his 
lands. It does not appear that John obeyed the summons, but on the 
9th May 1620 Duncan Mor Stewart, younger of Appin, son of Duncan 
seventh baron, granted an assignment of his rights in two bonds by 
James Spreul of Coldane and William Murray, in favour of Matthew 
White, keeper of the Tolbooth at Edinburgh, as a condition of his 
liberation. As this assignment is enumerated in the Reports previously 
referred to as existing amongst the Argyll papers, it seems probable 
that the heir of Appin had been seized to answer the complaints made 

by the Earl of Argyll's son, to whom the Earl had conveyed his estates 
previous to his forfeiture. This forfeiture had taken place in 1618, 
when Argyll had made open defection from the Protestant faith and 
gone to Spain, where he was intriguing with the banished Sir James 
Macdonald and Allaster MacRanald of Keppoch. In consequence of 
this, in December of that year twenty of the Argyllshire barons were 
summoned before the Privy Council, and to each was assigned a district 
in which he was' responsible for the preservation of the peace ; Lochnell, 
Stewart of Appin, the MacDougalls of Dunolly and Reray, and the 
Campbells of Dunstaffnage, Barbreck, and Glenfalloch being appointed 
for Upper Lorn. 

The Castle of Eilean Stalcaire has ever since continued to be the 
property of the Campbells, the unequal compact having been honourably 
observed by the Stewarts ; but on the outbreak of hostilities on subse- 
quent occasions, it was promptly seized and held for the king by its old 
possessors, in their capacity of Hereditary Keepers of the Castle. 

Duncan married a daughter of Cameron of Locheil, and had issue 
— Duncan, his successor ; Alan, who married a daughter of Maclean of 
Coll ; and Donald, who was father of William Stewart, a priest, who 
was murdered at Rome in 1737. 

Duncan Stewart, eighth of Appin, called Duncan Mor, succeeded 
to the estate on his father's death, after having been for many years 
virtually the leader of the clan. On the 30th January 1 645 he was one 
of those who signed " ane Band of Unione amongst all his Majestie's 
faithfull subjects," and according to his promise therein, he took the field 
at the head of his clan to join the Marquess of Montrose. On a clear 
and cold Sunday morning, on the 2nd February 1645, the Stewarts of 
Appin were in the centre of the great Marquess' army at the battle of 
Inverlochy, where they distinguished themselves by their furious valour, 
doubly inspired, as Hogg has beautifully expressed it, by their loyalty 
to the Royal head of the House of Stewart, and by their desire to 
avenge the many injuries they had sustained from Argyll. The skilful 

strategy of Montrose had cut off from the Campbells their only line of 
retreat, which was towards Ballachelish, and on their defeat they were 
thus forced backwards on the sea and the river Lochy, where many 
were drowned in their flight, their loss being not less than 1 500 killed. 
Duncan Mor continued in arms during the whole campaign, and after 
the defeat of Montrose at Philiphaugh on 13th September 1645, joined 
Sir Alexander MacCoU Macdonald, who still kept the field in Argyll- 
shire for King Charles. After Sir Alexander was forced to retire to 
Ireland, the district of Appin was sentenced to be ravaged with fire and 
sword, but was saved from this extremity by the intervention of Major 
James Stewart of Ardvoirlich. Major Stewart had faithfully served 
King Charles in Montrose's army, but he was a man of high temper, 
and in a private quarrel after the battle of Tippermuir, he unhappily 
killed Lord Kilpont, son of William i8th Earl of Menteith, after which 
he was obliged in self-defence to ally himself with Argyll and the 
Covenanters. By his interest with General Leslie, Major Stewart also 
saved the life of Henry Stewart, the laird of Baith or Beach. 

The execution of Charles L, on 20th January 1649, was loudly 
condemned in Scotland, and his son was proclaimed King on the 5th of 
the following month. Loyalty to the Sovereign was for the moment 
in the ascendant, and among the names of Royalist gentlemen who 
were appointed Commissioners of Supply in the beginning of that year, 
we find that of Duncan Stewart of Appin. But with Charles II.'s 
rejection of the overtures of the Presbyterians, a change came over the 
spirit of the Covenanters, and the gallant but ill-fated attempt by 
Montrose, terminating in his capture in Assynt, and his execution on 
25th May 1649, had the effect of bringing down the vengeance of the 
Government upon the heads of those who, four years before, had borne 
their share in the brilliant victories of the great Marquess at Inverlochy, 
Auldearn, and Kilsyth, and who were perhaps known to be now pre- 
paring to rejoin him. Thus we find from the Scots Acts Parliament of 
7th August 1649 that Sir Archibald Johnstone of Warristoun, His 

Majesty's Advocate, presented a petition against Murdoch Maclean of 
Lochbuy, Duncan Stewart, younger of Appin, Alexander Stewart of 
Invernaheil, and Hector Maclaine of Kingerloch, for joining James 
Grahame at Kilsythe, and being with him with all the men they could 
command at the battle of Inverlochie, and at divers other places, for 
which they were forfaulted in persons, lands, and estates. 

Duncan Mors forfeiture was, of course, cancelled on the accession 
of Charles II. in 1660, and in the Acts of the Scots Parliament of the 
following year, Duncane Stewart of Apyne is named as a Commissioner of 
Supply for Argyleshire, and also as one of His Majesty's Commissioners 
for regulating and uplifting certain excise duties. He married Jean, 
daughter of Sir Robert Campbell of Glenorchy, but his only child was 
a daughter, Margaret, who married Campbell of Lochnell, his lands 
and the chiefship passing on his death, which occurred apparently before 
1685, to his nephew, Robert, only son of his brother Alan, by his wife, 
the daughter of Maclean of Coll. 

Robert Stewart, ninth of Appin, succeeded his uncle. The 
first mention of him is in 1685, in the Acts of Parliament of 
which year we find " Stuart of Appin or his Tutor " appointed a 
Commissioner of Supply. He hastened from college to accompany 
the clan when, on account of his youth, it Avas led by John 
Stewart of Ardsheal, who, as next of kin, was his Tutor, to join Vis- 
count Dundee when he declared for King James VII. in 16S9. In 
expectation of aid both in men and money from King James, then in 
Ireland, Dundee came to Inverlochy, where he was in the midst of the 
loyal clans of Camerons, Stewarts, MacDonalds, and MacLeans. On 
his arrival at Inverlochy he found the Stewarts of Appin and the Mac- 
Naughtons awaiting him, having received notice from Lochiel of his 
coming. Writing of the events of this year, Lord Macaulay has said 
that " while England and Scotland were execrating the tyranny of 
James, he was honoured as a deliverer in Appin and Lochaber, in Glen- 
roy and Glenmore," and he proceeds to ascribe the Jacobitism of the 

Highlanders at that time to their dread and hatred of the grasping 
and insatiable house of Argyll, putting his case with perhaps even 
more than his usual force and eloquence. But this theory, though pos- 
sibly not absolutely devoid of foundation as regards the events of 1689, 
would entirely fail to account for the attachment of the Highlanders to 
the cause of the Stuarts in 1715 and 1745, when their lives or estates 
were hardly in greater danger from MacCailein Mor than they are at 
the present day ; and the dispassionate observer, after reading the record 
of Highland fidelity and devotion in 1745 and 1746, will hardly be dis- 
posed to endorse the conclusions of the Whig historian in this matter. 

Dundee remained for some time in Lochaber, anxiously awaiting 
the arrival of troops and supplies from Ireland. Macaulay says it was 
impossible for him to keep his Highlanders together in a state of 
inactivity. A vast extent of moor and mountain was required to 
furnish food for so many mouths. The clans therefore went back to 
their own glens, having promised to reassemble on the first summons. 
A few weeks after, hostilities broke out more violently than before. 
Stewart of Ballechin, at a meeting of the Stewarts of Athole and the 
Marquis of Athole's vassals, filled his bonnet with water from a neigh- 
bouring stream, drank a health to King James, and immediately seized 
in his interest Blair Castle, which occupies a commanding position at 
the head of the Pass of Killiecrankie. Lord Murray, the eldest son of 
the Marquis, and a declared Williamite, demanded admission to his 
father's house, but the garrison refused to open the gates. On the 
fate of Blair Castle probably depended the fate of all Athole. On the 
fate of Athole might depend the fate of Scotland. Dundee hastily 
summoned all the clans who acknowledged his commission to prepare 
for an expedition into Athole. The fiery crosses were sent again in all 
haste through Appin and Ardnamurchan, up Glenmore, and along 
Loch Leven ; but the call was so unexpected, and the time allowed so 
short, that the muster was not a very full one. Dundee had only 1900 
Highlanders with him when, after his rapid march across the mountains 

of Lochaber and Badenoch to anticipate Mackay, he so signally defeated 
that general about sunset on the 17th June 16S9. It has been doubted 
whether the Stewarts of Appin took part in the battle of Killiecrankie, 
or Roinn Rhuari, as the Highlanders call it. Lord Macaulay says 
that "the Stewarts of Appin who, though full of zeal, had not been 
able to come up in time for the battle, were among the first who 
arrived after it." 

This statement, however, is not quite correct, but the mistake may 
have not unnaturally arisen from the circumstance that a considerable 
body of the Stewarts joined the Highland army two days after the 
battle, and this fact being mentioned by Drummond of Bathaldie in his 
memoir of Sir Ewen Cameron, Lord Macaulay and other historians 
have erroneously concluded that no part of the clan had any share in 
the victory. But before passing sentence of attainder upon the chief 
men engaged in Dundee's rising, the Scots Parliament examined wit- 
nesses to prove the complicity of the accused. Among these was 
Lieut. James Colt, who deposed that he had been taken prisoner by 
Dundee and carried by him to Inverlochy, and that " he saw a young 
man, who was said to be Stewart of Appin, join Dundee between 
Lochaber and Badenoch with a hundred and thretty men of his own 
with him." James Malcolm became King's evidence, and deponed 
that he saw Stewart of Appin join Dundee in Lochaber with a company 
of men, who had colours. The helmet worn by Robert Stewart of 
Appin at Killiecrankie is still in possession of Dugald Stuart of Loch- 
carron, one of the family of Ballachelish. The following extracts from 
a letter written shortly after the battle by Alexander Stewart of Balla- 
chelish to his kinsman of Invernahyle, show clearly that a part of the 
Appin clan had joined Dundee before he encountered Mackay at Roinn 
Rhuari. " When Lochiel got letters from Claverhouse he came to see 
Appin, and upon this we all went to Letter Shuna," the Gaelic name 
for the place where Appin House stands. " Everything was settled 
overnight, and Lochiel came on with me the day after, and slept with 

us. Next day I put him on the loch, etc." The letter, which will be 
found at length in the Appendix, then goes on to say : " At Roinn 
Rhuari I was hurt in the hand, and we went on to Dunkeld, and tried 
to take the Cathedral, where poor Sandy was killed." " Sandy " was 
a brother of John Stewart, third of Ardsheal. Against the latter, 
described as Tutor of Appin, abundant evidence was forthcoming 
before Parliament as to his having led the clan. It therefore seems 
probable that Ardsheal had been in command of the clan at the original 
muster at Inverlochy, and that when Dundee's hasty summons arrived, 
the young chief set off at once with the men nearest at hand, leaving 
the Tutor to follow with the main body. The detachment of the 
Stewarts present at the battle seems to have been brigaded with their 
fast friends the Camerons, a large body of whom also only arrived two 
days afterwards. 

In the end of last century Professor Kennedy of Aberdeen wrote 
a curious rhyming ballad in Latin, in which he enumerates the prin- 
cipal gentlemen who were in Dundee's army. The poem is entitled, 
" Proelium Gilliecrankianum," and in the following verse Macneil of 
Barra, the Chiefs of Glencoe, Keppoch, and Appin, and Stewart of 
Ballechin and his brother, are named among those who "fought 
bravely " for James VII. : — 

" Macneillus de Bara, Glencono, Keppochanus, 
Ballechinus cum fratre, Stewartus Apianus, 
Pro Jacobo Septimo fortiter gessere, 
Pugiles fortissimi feliciter vicere." 

The death of Dundee at Killiecrankie was more fatal to the cause 
of the Stewarts than a defeat of his army would have been, as his suc- 
cessor, General Cannon, if not actually incapable, had, at all events, 
none of the genius necessary for conducting Highland warfare. Dis- 
gusted with his inefficiency, Lochiel returned home ; the Stewarts, 
however, remained and lost many men, including the Tutor's brother, 
in the ineffectual attacks on the Cathedral and house of Dunkeld, which 


were defended by the newly raised regiment, " The Cameronians," now 
the 26th of the Line, whose colours, which have since been proudly 
borne in every quarter of the world, were, on that day, for the first 
time unfurled. Seeing, at length, that no lasting success could be 
achieved under such a commander, the Highland Chiefs assembled at 
Blair Castle on the 24th August 1689, and, having signed the follow- 
ing bond of association, went home ; the small contingent promised by 
many of the chiefs showing how heavy had been their losses in the 
victory of Killiecrankie and the ineffectual attack on Dunkeld. The 
Bond, which was produced to the Scots Parliament on the 13th June 
1690, is as follows : — -"Wee, Lord James Murray, Patrick Stewart of 
Balbehan, S"^- John McLean, Sir Donald McDonald, S"^- Ewan Cameron, 
Glengarie, Benbecula, S"^- Alex"^- McLean, Appin, Enveray, Keppoch, 
Glencoe, Strowan, Calochele, L. Coll, M<=Gregor, Bara, Large, 
M'=Naughton, doe hereby bind and oblidge ourselves for his Matie's 
service, and our own safeties, to meit att the day of 

September next, and to bring along with us of fencible men, that 

is to say, L. James Murray and Ballechin , S''- John M'^Lean 200, 

S'- Donald McDonald 200, S""- Ewan Cameron 200, Glengarie 200, 
Benbecula 200, Sir Alex"^- M'^Lean 100, Appin 100, Enveray 100, 
Keppoch 100, L. Coll , M'^Gregor 100, Callochele 50, Strowan 60, 

Bara 50, Glencoe 50, McNaughton 50, Large 50. Bot in caice any 
of the rebells shall assault or attaque any of the above named persons 
betwixt the date hereof and the afore-said day of rendevouze, we doe 
all solemnlie promise to assist one another to the utmost of our power, 
as witness thir presents signed by us at the Castle of Blair the 24th 
August 1 689 years. 

Tho. Farq^sone. D. MakdonaS^. ' Al. Robertsone. 

Jo. MacLeane. D. M. D. of*Benbecula. D. McNeill. 

E. Cameron of Locheill. Al. McDonald. Alex. McDonald. 

Al. Stewart. Do. McGregor. 

Alex. M. Donell. 

They were consequently forfaulted on the i6th July 1690. It is, 
therefore, evident that none of the signatories had taken advantage of 
the Proclamation of William and Mary, dated 22nd August 1689, offer- 
ing indemnity to all, "including Chieftanes of Clans," who would 
surrender betwixt that date and 3rd September, but threatening all those 
who "continue obstinat and incorrigible that they shall be punished 
with the utmost rigour of the law." Indeed, if we are to suppose that 
the Proclamation was issued in Scotland on the day on which it bears 
date, the Bond above quoted may, perhaps, be regarded as the deli- 
berate and defiant answer of the confederate chiefs. Later in the same 
year Robert Stewart of Appin was surprised by the Governor of Inver- 
lochy, and sent prisoner by sea to Glasgow, but was released, perhaps 
in consequence of his youth, by the direct order of Queen Mary, then 
governing in the absence of William III. in Ireland. Ardsheal, as 
Tutor of Appin, and as his representative in the office of Heredi- 
tary Keeper, continued to hold Castle Stalcaire for King James 
until October 1690, when he surrendered it on very honourable 

The Stewarts of Appin narrowly escaped the same fate which befell 
their friends and neighbours, the MacDonalds of Glencoe, in the memor- 
able massacre of 1692. There is a letter written by Lord Stair on the 
7th January 1692, and signed by William III., to Sir Thomas Living- 
stone, Colonel Hamilton, and Colonel Hill, Governor of Inverlochy, 
informing them that the intention was " to destroy intearly the country of 
Lochaber, Lochiel's lands, Keppoch's, Glengarry's, Apine, and Glenco;" 
and he adds, " I assure you your power shall be full enough, and I hope 
the soldiers will not trouble the Government with prisoners." Lord 
Caermarthen, afterwards Duke of Leeds, remonstrated so strongly with 
William, that the order was withdrawn, though Lord Stair afterwards 
sought and found occasion to earn for himself his unenviable reputation 
by destroying the Glencoe men. A commission of inquiry into the 
massacre was granted on the 29th April 1695, and it was, perhaps, in 

consequence of their highly condemnatory report, which was after- 
wards adopted by Parh'ament, that Robert Stewart of Appin was, in 
that year, named as a Commissioner of Supply for Argyllshire, possibly 
with the view of making some amends by thus officially recognising his 
position. In Queen Anne's Parliament of 1 704 we find this appoint- 
ment renewed. 

About the year 17 10 or 171 2, the Macgregors had expelled a 
MacLaren from a farm in Balquidder, and the Chief of Appin marched 
with 200 men to the assistance of his old allies. The Macgregors 
also mustered in force, but were overawed, and submitted without 
bloodshed, saying that they were all one king's men, and should 
not fight. 

On the ist of August 1714, Robert Stewart of Appin was summoned 
to Edinburgh to give security that he would not join in any rising 
against the Government. He did not, however, obey the summons, 
and Campbell, captain of Castle Stalcaire, wrote his chief that "the 
Stewarts of Appin were preparing eighty more targets in addition to 
the great number they already had." Robert Stewart attended the 
famous hunting party of the Earl of Mar on the 27th August 1715, on 
the Braes of Mar. According to a History of Scotland published in 
Dublin in 1724, the names of those present were : " the Marquises of 
Huntly, Tulibardine, Seaforth and Drommond ; the Earls of Marshall, 
Linlithgow, Southesk, Strathmore, and Broadalbin ; the Lords Kilsyth, 
Strathallan, Rollo, Ogilvy, Pitsligo, and Duffus ; the Lairds of Glen- 
garry, Clanronald, Glenco, Appin, Innerytie, Garntully, Balcaskie, and 
many other gentlemen of the first and best families in the nation." In 
accordance with the engagement then entered into, the Chief of Appin 
took the field at the head of 250 men, and was present at the indecisive 
battle of Sheriffmuir, on the 13th November. The Earl of Mar then 
fell back on Perth. The attempt to restore the house of Stewart was 
abandoned a few weeks later, and the Highlanders returned home. 
Robert Stewart was a second time attainted, and went abroad. 

At the battle of Sheriffmuir the pipers of the clan played the 
March of the Stewarts, and hence it became known among the Perth- 
shire Stewarts as the Sherra'muir March. According to the traditions 
of the clan, this march was played alike when they were marching to 
battle, and in honour of a victory. Particular mention is made of its 
having been played when Donald-nan-ord defeated the Earl of Men- 
teith as the Stewarts were returning from the battle of Pinkie in 1547, 
and also at Inverlochy, Sheriffmuir, and Prestonpans, and it was recog- 
nised as the march peculiarly appertaining to the Stewarts, and played 
on all their incursions and forays. It is difficult to say when the Gaelic 
words of the present accompaniment were composed, as, in accordance 
with Highland custom, the clansmen were in the habit of marching, 
during the intervals of pipe music, to their own singing, and of impro- 
vising words as they stepped gaily along. The music, as played by 
the Perthshire Stewarts, assumed, in course of time, a somewhat 
different arrangement. Both versions, with translations of the Gaelic 
words, are given at the close of the history of the main stem of 

It would appear that the clan took part in the attempt made by 
Lord Seaforth and Lord Tullibardine in 1719 for the cause of the 
Stewarts, a notice of which will be found at page 141. No evidence, 
however, exists to show that the chief himself returned from abroad to 
share in it ; indeed, from all contemporaneous accounts, it would appear 
that but few chiefs of clans did so. Duncan Stewart, M.A., in his book 
written in 1730, but not published till 1739, records Robert as still liv- 
ing, but for obvious reasons makes as little allusion as possible to poli- 
tical matters, which, at the very time of publication, were again exciting 
an all-absorbing interest in the Highlands. Ardsheal's commission as 
colonel was signed in the year of the publication of the history ; and 
there is thus little doubt that Robert's death had occurred between 
1730 and 1739, though the destruction of the Appin MSS. leaves the 
exact date in doubt. 

Robert Stewart married, first, a daughter of MacLeod of MacLeod, 
by whom he had issue : Duncan, who died at school ; Mary, married to 
Lachlan Maclachlan of Maclachlan ; and Anne, married to Alexander 
Macdonald of Glencoe. He married, secondly, Anne, daughter of Sir 
Duncan Campbell of Lochnell, by whom he had issue, one son, Dugald, 
who succeeded him, and six daughters : Isabel, married to Donald 
Macdonald of Kinloch Muidart ; Janet, married to Alastair Mac- 
donald, eighteenth of Keppoch, who fell at Culloden ; Margaret, mar- 
ried to the Rev. John Stewart ; Katharine, married to Alexander 
Stewart, eighth of Invernahyle ; Anne, who died unmarried ; and Jean, 
who died young. 

Dugald Stewart, tenth of Appin, to whom the estate was restored, 
was a boy of tender years when Prince Charles unfurled the Royal 
Standard in Glenfinlas in 1745, and the clan was consequently led by 
the Tutor, Charles Stewart, fifth of Ardsheal. President Forbes in 
1 740 estimated the number of men that would follow the Chief of Appin 
at three hundred, and he repeated that estimate in his report to the 
Government in 1 744 ; but, with their followers, they now numbered 
about four hundred broadswords. We shall not here give any history 
of the fortunes of the clan during the campaign of 1 745-6, as the account 
belongs more properly to the notice of Ardsheal, who commanded them 
with credit and honour. 

Before, however, concluding the notice of Dugald, the last of the 
male descendants of Duncan, sixth of Appin, it may be proper to give 
here an account of the formation of the clan regiments in battle, which 
accounts for the very heavy loss of gentlemen which the Stewarts 
sustained at Culloden. Every regiment or clan was commanded by the 
chief, if of sufficient age, as colonel. The eldest cadet was lieutenant- 
colonel, and the next was major. Some clans in 1 745 had the youngest 
cadet lieutenant-colonel, but this was looked upon as an innovation of 
the established principle. Each company had two captains, two lieu- 
tenants, and ensigns, and the first rank was composed of gentlemen. 

who were all provided with targets, and were otherwise better armed 
than the rear. In the day of battle each company furnished two of 
their best men as a guard to the chief, and in their choice consanguinity 
was always considered. The chief was posted in the centre of the 
column beside the colours, and he stood between two brothers, cousins- 
german, or other relations. The common men were also disposed with 
regard to their relationship, the father, the son, and the brother 
standing beside each other. The effect which this " order of nature " 
must have had in stimulating the combatants to deeds of valour 
can be easily perceived. It did not escape the notice of the observant 

Dugald, last baron of Appin, married Mary Mackenzie, by whom 
he had one daughter, Anna, married to David Loch of Over Carnbee, 
an eminent merchant in Leith. Having no male issue, Dugald sold in 
1765 the estate of Appin to Mr Seton of Touch, and died in 1769. 
The representation of the Stewarts of Lorn and Appin then devolved 
upon the head of the family of Ardsheal, descended from John, second 
son of John, fifth baron of Appin. 

David Loch's estate of Over Carnbee is in Fife, and in the account 
of " The East Neuk of Fife," written by the Rev. Walter Wood, D.D., 
we find at p. 219 — "In 1780 died the proprietor of Over Carnbee, 
David Loch, who was long a merchant of eminence in Leith ; and in 
1776 was by the Trustees for fisheries, manufactures, and improvements, 
appointed inspector-general of the woollen manufactures of Scotland, on 
which he published an essay, and afterwards inspector-general of 
fisheries. In 1774 he was an unsuccessful candidate for the representa- 
tion of Edinburgh. His son John left a daughter, Jean, married to 
Alexander Murray, &c." In a marginal note, Dr Wood adds, " David 
Loch married Anna Stewart, the last in direct line of the family of 
Appin, who died in 1772." 

The badges of the Stewarts were the Darag, or oak, and also the 
Cluaran, or thistle, the present national badge. The adoption of the 


former, as not being an evergreen, was regarded by the Highlanders as 
an emblem of the fate of the Royal House. 

The tartan worn by the 
Stewarts of Appin is the well- 
known pattern commonly called 
the Royal Stewart, and the pro- 
portions of colours given in the 
margin are taken from Logan's 
" Scottish Gael." 

A web of tartan is two feet 
two inches wide, at least within 
half an inch more or less, so 
that the size of the patterns 
makes no difference in the scale. 
Commencing at the head of the 
cloth, the depth of the colours 
is stated throughout a square, 
on which the scale must be re- 
versed or gone through again 
to the commencement. There 
is, it may be observed, a parti- 
cular colour in some patterns 
which can scarcely admit of de- 
scription, but which is known to 
the Hig^hlanders. 

The following is the music of the Stewarts' March now usually 
played in Argyllshire, and the words are translated by the Rev. Alex- 
ander Stewart of Nether Lochaber, from the Argyll version of the song, 
as said to have been sung in 1644 when the clan and the Stewarts 
from Athole marched to Inverlochy : — 












































We will take the good old way, 
We will take the good old way, 
We'll take and keep the good old way, 
Let them say their will, O ! 

Let Macintyres say what they may, 
Let Macintyres say what they may. 
We'll take and keep the good old way, 
Let them say their will, O ! 

'Tis up the steep and heathery Ben, 
Adown the bonny winding glen. 
We march a band of loyal men, 

Let them say their will, O ! 

We will march adown Glencoe, 
We will march adown Glencoe, 
By the Ferry we will go. 

Let them say their will, O 1 

To Glengarry and Lochiel, 
Loyal hearts with arms of steel. 
These will back us in the field. 

Let them say their will, O ! 

Cluny shall come down the brae, 
Keppoch bold shall lead the way. 
Toss thine antlers Caber Feigh, 

Let them say their will, O ! 

Forward, sons of bold Rob Roy ; 
Stewarts, conflict is your joy ! 
We'll stand together pour le Roi, 

Let them say their will, O ! 

In the Gaelic words the march or lyric begins— 

Gabhaidh sinn an rathad mbr, 
Gabhaidh sinn an rathad mbr, 
Gabhaidh sinn an rathad mor, 

01c no math le ckch e. 

The arrangement of the music commonly played in Perthshire is 
as follows, and the words are translated by Mr Charles Stewart of 
Tighn'duin, from the words held by the Athole Stewarts to be the 
ancient version : — 


We will up and march away, 
We will up and march away, 
We will up and march away. 

Daring let of all men. 
The heath-clad Ben we'll soon ascend. 
Through Glen Laoigh we'll soon descend. 
Our points of steel we'll swiftly send 
Thro' every loon that bars us. 
We will up, &c. 

O'er the hills we'll speed along, 
Through Glencoe unwearied on, 
Our king the burden of our song, 
Asking leave of no man. 

We will up, &c. 

To Glengarry and Lochiel, 
Ever with us, true and leal ; 
Keppoch, too, who seeks our weal, 
Is there in spite of all men. 

We will up, &c. 

Macphersons come, in deeds not small, 
M'Kenzies also at our call, 
Whose battle-frenzy will appal 
And fill our foes with awe then. 
We will up, &c. 

Macgregors, fierce when man to man, 
Join with the Royal Stewart clan ; 
Blow up the pipes, march proudly on, 
Daring let of all men. 

We will up, &c. 


THE male line of Duncan Stewart, sixth baron of Appin, failing in the person of 
Dugald, tenth baron, the representation of the family devolved upon the descend- 
ants of John Stewart of Ardsheal, immediate younger brother of Duncan, and to the 
descent of the family of Ardsheal we now turn. 

John Stewart, first of Ardsheal, was second son of John, fifth baron of Appin, bom 
of his second wife, a daughter of Macdonald of Muidart. He received from his father 
the lands of Ardsheal, a name derived from the two Gaelic words, Ard-seallaidh, the 
height or point of view, a name rendered very appropriate to the locality by the eminence 
behind the mansion. It was at that time the custom for young men of family to be 
trained to arms and courtesy in the households of the great nobles. After receiving the 
best education the times could afford, John's name and blood obtained for him the 
privilege of entering the household of the king's cousin, Lodovick, second Duke of 
Lennox. The high appointments held by the Duke as High Chamberlain and Admiral 
of Scotland, and Ambassador to France in 1601, brought Ardsheal much to Court, and 
he became a highly accomplished gentleman. About this time his relative and neighbour, 
Lochiel, was the ward in chivalry of the Marquess of Argyll. 

John Stewart married Mary, daughter of Macdonald of Keppoch, Alastair n' an Cleas, 
and left two sons. 

1. Duncan, his successor. 

2. Alexander. 

Duncan Stewart, second of Ardsheal, succeeded his father. An old family MS. 
informs us that "he was steadfast in his loyalty to Charles I., and served in 1644 and 
1645 as an officer of the Appin regiment with the Marquis of Montrose, acquiring the 
favour of his heroic general by his zeal in the royal cause, and by his active intelligence." 

Duncan Stewart married, first, Anne, daughter of John Stewart of Lettershuna, 
brother of Donald Stewart, fifth of Invemahyle, and had two sons and four daughters — 

1. John, his successor. 

2. Alexander, who was killed, as before-mentioned, at the attack on the church of 

Dunkeld, after the battle of Killiecrankie, having married a daughter of Alex- 
ander Stewart of Ballachelish, by whom he had three sons — 

John Stewart of Acham, who had by his wife Ann, daughter of 
Campbell of Dunstaffnage — 

1. Alexander Stewart of Acham, who had two sons, both 

killed at Culloden. 

2. John Glas Stewart, who acquired the estate of Benmore in 

Perthshire, and who was killed, with his two nephews above 
mentioned, at Culloden, leaving, by his first wife, Margaret, 
daughter of John, fourth of Ardsheal, a son and daughter — 

1. John Stewart, who acquired the estate of Glen- 

buckie by his marriage with Mary, daughter of 
Duncan Stewart of Glenbuckie, and died without 
issue. The Stewarts of Glenbuckie were descended 
from John, second son of William Stewart of Bal 
dorran, grandson of Lord James Stewart, who was 
son of Murdoch, second Duke of Albany. 

2. Elizabeth Stewart, afterwards of Glenbuckie, who 

died unmarried. 
By his second marriage with Catharine, daughter of M'Nab 
of Innischewan, John Glas Stewart had — 

3. Duncan, a captain in the Western Regt. of Fencible 

men, who aftenvards acquired, from his half-sister 
Elizabeth, the estate of Glenbuckie. His first wife, 
Susannah, daughter of Captain Campbell of Kilberry, 
having died without issue, he married, secondly, 
Margaret, second daughter of Duncan Stewart, 
SLxth of Ardsheal, by whom he had issue two sons 
and daughters— 

I. John Lorn Stewart of Coll, who died in 1878, 
leaving issue by his wife, Mary Campbell — 
I. Duncan Stewart, Commander R.N., who 
married Ferooza, daughter of the Right Hon- 
ourable Sir John M'Neill, G.C.B., and has 
issue — Lorn M'Neill Stewart, Florence, Archi- 
bald who died in infancy, Duncan Archibald, 
Elisabeth Mary, Charles Edward, Crawford, 
and Ferooza Stewart ; 2. Archibald, died un- 
married ; 3. John Lorn Stewart of Coll, Major 
1 8th Hussars; also 4. Mary, married to D. 

Fox Tarratt of Ellary, with issue — Joseph Fox, 
William Archibald, and Mary Caroline Camp- 
bell Tarratt ; and 5. Helen, married to William 
A. Campbell of Ormsary, and has issue. 
2. Duncan Stewart, who went to Lima, and 
married a Spanish lady, sister of the wife of 
his maternal uncle William, and had issue — 
Duncan, William, and Carlos. 
2. Duncan Stewart, second son of Alexander Stewart, killed at Dunkeld 
in 1689, was thrice married. By his first marriage he had one son, 
who survived him ; and by his second wife, Margaret, daughter of 
Donald Maclean of Ardgour, he had four sons — 

1. Allan, of whom was the Rev. John Stewart of Inverness. 

2. Duncan, killed at Dunkeld. 

3. James, who died unmarried. 

4. William, who left issue, now extinct. 

Also a daughter, Moir, married to John Stewart, sixth of 
Duncan's third mfe was a daughter of Maclean of Coll, but by her 
he had no issue. From Donald Maclean of Ardgour, Duncan got a char- 
ter, to be seen among the confirmations under the Great Seal, in the 
Register House at Edinburgh, of the lands of Glengalmadale and Stron. 
Duncan Stewart, second of Ardsheal, had also four daughters — i. , married 

to Macdonald of Killiechonat ; 2. , married to John Stewart, third of Ballache- 

lish ; 3. Isabel, married to James Stewart, fifth of Fasnacloich ; and 4. , married 

to Maclachlan of Cregan. 

John Stewart, third of Ardsheal, succeeded his father Duncan. 
The following memorandum, found amongst the Ardsheal papers, illustrates the state 
of the laws and customs in Scotland at that period : — 

"Upon the forfeitry of the Earl of Argyll in the 1685, Sir James Stewart, Sheriff, 
afterwards Earl, of Bute, that was married to Sir George M'Kenzie's daughter, Lord Ad- 
vocate to King James VII., got a gift of the estate of Barbreck, which was forfeited as 
vassal of Argyll, but Bute finding it very troublesome to apprehend possession of that 
estate in the heart of the Argyllshire Campbells, applied to John Stewart (third) of Ard- 
sheal for his assistance to facilitate his entry to these lands. Ardsheal accordingly having 
the command of the country in Appin's minority, sent a number of armed men, com- 
manded by his own brothers, and carried off a considerable number of cattle from that 
estate in lieu of the rents ; and afterwards, in the year 1687, Ardsheal in person appre- 

hended possession of the Barbreck estate, and carried with him Achnacone, and a number 
of the Commoners who occupied farms upon the estate, till the Revolution in November 
1688. In February 1689, they were obliged to abandon it and return home with what 
they could carry of their effects, suffering considerable loss." The Laird of Barbreck raised 
an action at law against Ardsheal for loss and damage caused by carrying off the cattle, 
and it was not finally settled till 1742, Ardsheal being held not liable for any repayment. 

As nearest of kin to Robert, ninth baron of Appin, then a minor, John Stewart of 
Ardsheal was Tutor, and leader of the clan, an honour which, for the like reason, devolved 
on his grandson, who was Tutor to Dugald, last of Appin, in 1745. In this capacity he 
took an active part in raising the Western Clans to meet Dundee, the Appin Stewarts and 
the Macnaghtons being, according to Macaulay, the only clans under arms to meet 
Dundee when he arrived at Inverlochy in i6Sg, to confer with Lochiel. It was for this 
reason that he had withdrawn his men from the occupation of Barbreck. In the Scots Acts 
of Parliament of 1689, we find that John Campbell of Airds, no doubt with the Barbreck 
episode fresh in his recollection, presented a petition, stating that the Tutor of Appin 
was a very active man against all that bore the name of Campbell, and had seized upon 
the castle of Eilan Stalcaire, which ought not to be in the hands of such a disaffected 
person ; whereupon the Parliament gave the said John Campbell authority to summon 
certain companies of soldiers to expel the Tutor and his men, if they still refused to evac- 
uate the castle peaceably. Ardsheal had seized the castle for King James as Tutor of 
his chief, who was still hereditary keeper of the castle for the king, although the actual 
proprietorship had, as has been before narrated, passed into the hands of the family of 
Campbell of Airds. On the nth of May 1690, Colonel Hill, governor of Inverlochy 
Castle, wTOte to the Laird of Weem (Menzies) enjoining him to be very strict with the 
Tutor of Appin, as he might be " apt to be blowne up with storyes, and might think to 
stand out still." On the 28th of August in the same year. Colonel Hill again wrote 
Menzies that the Tutor still held Castle Stalcaire. From Sir Ewen Cameron's Memoirs, 
we learn that Ardsheal continued to hold Castle Stalcaire against the main body of " Ar- 
gile's men till the October following, when he yielded on very honourable terms." 

It is doubtful if Ardsheal and the main body of the Appin men were present at the 
battle of KilUecrankie. There is evidence enough to show that the young chief, Robert 
of Appin, was there with a little over a hundred of the clan, and the probability seems to 
be, that Ardsheal and the main body did not arrive till two days after the battle. None 
of the witnesses examined by the Scots Parliament deposed that they saw him with Dun- 
dee's army before the battle, and James Osbume swore that he saw the Tutor join before 
they went to Dunkeld, and that he was with them afterwards till the army dispersed. 

John Stewart, third of Ardsheal, married Anne, daughter of Colin Campbell of 
Lochnell, and had issue— 

1. John, who succeeded him. 

2. Duncan. 

3. Allan. 

4. James. 

Also three daughters — i. Anne, married first to Lachlan Maclachlan of Fassifem, by 
whom she had issue, and secondly to Dougal Campbell of Glenfeochan, by whom she had 
five sons ; 2. Janet, married to John Stewart, eighth of Glenbuckie ; 3. Isabel, married 
to Duncan, son of James Stewart, fifth of Fasnacloich, and had issue. 

John Stewart, fourth of Ardsheal, succeeded his father. He was summoned to 
Edinburgh in 1 7 14, with his chief, Robert Stewart of Appin, to give security that he would 
not join in any rising in favour of the Chevalier de St George. He did not obey the 
summons, and served with the Appin regiment under the Earl of Mar at the battle of 
Sheriffmuir in 17 15. His estates were consequently forfeited, but were restored in 1717. 
He married Elizabeth, daughter of Charles Stewart, eighth of Ballechin in Athole, and 
had issue — 

1. Charles, who succeeded him. 

2. John. 

Also five daughters — i. Anne, married to Alexander Stewart, fourth of Ballachelish ; 
2. Helen, married to Allan Cameron of Callart ; 3. Isabel, married to Alexander Mac- 
donald of Glencoe ; 4. Margaret, married to John Glas Stewart of Benmore ; 5. Janet, 
who died unmarried. 

Charles Stewart, fifth of Ardsheal, succeeded his father. He was a man of great 
personal strength, and accounted one of the best swordsmen in the Highlands. In an 
encounter with Rob Roy in Balquidder he wounded the celebrated freebooter, who threw 
his sword into Lochvoil, exclaiming that it was the first time it had failed him, and that 
Ardsheal was the first man who had drawn blood from him. It is said that the result of 
this combat aided him in his suit for the hand of his future wife, the daughter of Haldane 
of Lanrick. 

No records remain of Ardsheal's life before 1739, as most of the family papers were 
destroyed or lost on the sacking of the house at Ardsheal on the night of the isth to i6th 
December 1746, as will be afterwards related. It is known, however, that he was an 
enthusiastic Jacobite, keeping up an active correspondence with the Court of the 
Chevalier at Fontainebleau and Rome, and that in 1739 he received a commission as 
Colonel from King James, which is still in possession of the family, and of which the 
following is a copy : — 

" James the Eight, By the Grace of God King of Scotland, England, France, and 
Ireland, Defender of the Faith, etc. — To our Trusty and well-beloved Charles Stewart of 
Ardsheal, Esquire, Greeting. We, reposing especial Trust and Confidence in your loyalty. 

courage, aiid good conduct, Do hereby constitute and appoint you a Colonel in our 
Forces, and to take your rank in our Army from the date hereof. You are therefore 
carefully and diligently to Discharge the Duty and Trust of Colonel aforesaid, by doing 
and performing everything belonging thereto : And We hereby Require, all and sundry, 
our Forces to Respect and obey you as such, and yourself to observe and follow all such 
Orders, Directions, and Commands as you shall from time to time receive from as, our 
General and Commander-in-Chief of our Forces for the time being, or any other your 
Superior Officer, according to the Rules and Discipline of War : In pursuance of the 
Trust reposed in you, Given at our Court at Rome, This 20th Day of May 1739, In 
the 38th year of Our Reign. J. R." 

Charles Stewart of Ardsheal, being a man of energy and ability, and Tutor to the 
Chief, who was a minor, took, together with Lochiel and Glengarry, a leading part for 
years in the correspondence with Prince Charles as to his prospects of success in the 
event of his coming to Scotland to assert by arms his father's right to the Crown. In 
1745 Ardsheal, at the head of the Appin regiment, joined Prince Charles Edward at Low 
Bridge in the Great Glen. In a narrative, written apparently soon after 1746, Andrew 
Henderson says : " The Stewarts of Appin, ever zealous for the royal cause, joined the 
Chevalier under Stewart of Ardsheal, a gentleman of good parts, though misapplied." 
Lord Elcho, one of the attainted lords, says in his account of the campaign, that Stewart 
of Ardsheal was one of the Council who met with Prince Charles every morning. 

In a memorandum as to the Highland clans, sent to the King of France when he was 
computing the chances of the success of an expedition to Scotland, and the number of 
men who would take the field in support of the Royal Stuarts, we find the following :— 
"The Stewarts of Appin and M'Naughtons have still been loyal to the Kings Charies I. and 
II., and King James VII., and were in the fields for them. They may raise, of very good 
men, 500." The Appin regiment seems generally to have been a little over 300 men, 
including those of the name of Stewart, and their retainers who occupied crofts under them 
in Appin, chiefly of the names of M'Coll, Carmichael, M'Combich, M'Innes, M'Lea or 
Livingstone, M'Intyre, and M'Cormack or Buchanan. Their staunch allies the M'Larens 
also sent a contingent, which formed a valuable part of the regiment. In a " Life of the 
Duke of Cumberiand " they are only stated at zoo strong when they marched southward 
from Edinburgh. This, however, is a low estimate, as in no other account are they put 
at so small a number. In the list of Prince Charles' troops in November 1745, are " the 
Appin men, 360, under Stewart of Ardsheal." 

At the battle of Preston Pans, on 21st September 1745, the Camerons formed the 
extreme left of the Highland army. Next to them, and opposed to Lascelles' regiment, 
were the Stewarts of Appin, supported by 120 of their neighbours and hereditary friends 
the Macdonalds of Glencoe, whose chief was brother-in-law to Ardsheal. The Camerons 

and Stewarts were drawn up somewhat in advance of the clans on their right, and were 
thus the first to encounter the enemy. They were opposed to Sir John Cope's artillery, 
which they captured, Stewart of Invemahyle taking prisoner Colonel Whitefoord after he 
had fired off five of the six field pieces with his own hand. Four officers of Prince 
Charles' army were killed, and amongst them was " Captain Robert Stewart of Ardsheal's 

On the 20th December 1745, Macpherson of Clunie wrote to a friend, describing the 
engagement of the rear of the Highland army with. the Duke of Cumberland's troops at 
Clifton three days previously. He says that the Duke took them by surprise, accompanied 
by more than 3000 horse, and " when he appeared there happened to be no more of our 
army at hand than Glengarry's, Stewart of Appin's, and my own regiment. Glengarry's 
regiment was planted at the back of a stone wall on our right, the Appin regiment in the 
centre, and mine on the left, lining a hedge." The Duke's troops were repulsed with 
considerable loss, the Stewarts, Clunie says, coming off without the loss of a man. 

At the battle of Falkirk, 17th January 1746, the Appin men, 300 in number, were in 
the centre of the first line, according to Charles' History, but Home's sketch of the field, 
which is more likely to be correct, places them on the extreme left, next the Camerons. 
They were one of the few regiments charged by Hawley's dragoons, whom they decisively 
repulsed. Ardsheal was one of the chiefs who, after a Council of War on the 29th 
January, signed a recommendation to Prince Charles to continue his retreat to the north 
from Falkirk. 

At the battle of Culloden, i6th April 1746, the first line of the Highland army, 
enumerating from right to left, consisted of the Athole men, the Camerons, Stewarts of 
Appin, Frasers, M'Intoshes, Maclachlans, Macleans, Roy Stewart's regiment, Farquhar- 
son's, Clanranald, Keppoch, and Glengarry. The position assigned to the Macdonalds on 
the left, instead of on the right, an honour which they claimed to be theirs by hereditary 
right, contributed greatly to the loss of this battle, as the pride of the haughty clan was 
deeply wounded. The right wing — the Athole, Lochiel, and Appin regiments — were 
opposed by Barrel's and Monro's regiments, which were supported on the left flank by 
cavalry, and on the right by artillery ; Woolf's and Blakeney's regiments being drawn up 
in two lines in rear of the interval between Monro's and Burrell's. All accounts of the 
battle state that the regiments on the right of the Prince's army rushed to the attack with 
heroic valour. The Historical Geography of the Clans of Scotland says that Lord George 
Murray on the right, seeing that his division could be restrained no longer, ordered them 
to advance, which they did with a shout. In spite of the shower of grape shot which met 
their advance, the clansmen pressed on, and broke through Monro's and Barrel's 
regiments, capturing two cannon. Not content with this, they continued their advance 
till it was checked by the second line, which was drawm up as if to repel cavalry, the first 


rank kneeling, the second stooping over the first, and the third standing upright. Such a 
destructive fire was poured upon the Highlanders, that their advance was checked, and 
the survivors compelled to retire ; but so determined had been the attack, and so vigorous 
and effective the repulse, that the Highlanders were found, when the strife was over, 
heaped on each other three and four deep. 

One, who signs himself "An Eye Witness to most of the Facts," writing in 1748, 
says : " Those on the right (Stewarts and Camerons), with their glittering swords, ran 
swiftly on the cannon, making a dreadful huzza, and crying, ' Run ye dogs.' They broke 
between the grenadiers of Barrel and Monroe, who had given them fire when at the 
muzzles of their guns. When within two yards of the cannon they received a discharge 
of cartridge shot, while those who crowded into the opening made by the havoc received 
a full fire from the centre of Bligh's. They who survived possessed themselves of the 
cannon, and attacked the regiments sword in hand ; but Wolf's and Fleming's wheeled to 
the left of Barrel's, with Bligh's and Semple's, and made such a continued fire on their 
front and flank, that nearly all the right wing which broke in were killed or wounded." 
In his account of the battle of Culloden, the desperate valour of the clans moved Lord 
Mahon out of his usual composure to an unwonted swell of sympathetic eloquence. 
" Nowhere," he says, " not by their forefathers at Bannockbum, not by themselves at 
Preston and Falkirk, not in after years, when discipline had raised and refined the valour 
of their sons, not on the shores of the Nile, not on that other field of victory, where their 
gallant chief, with a prophetic shroud (it is their own superstition) high on his breast, 
addressed to them only these three words, ' Highlanders, remember Egypt ^ — not in those 
hours of triumph and glory was displayed a more firm and resolute bravery than now in 
this defeat of Culloden." But for the unfortunate affront to the numerous and gallant 
clan of the Macdonalds in placing them on the left wing, in place of on the right, an 
honour which they have claimed since the battle of Bannockbum, the disastrous defeat 
might have been a victory. Charles puts the number of the Appin regiment at Culloden 
at 300, and Chambers says they suffered more than any other of the Highland clans. 
Andrew Henderson writes " that the regiments " — those from Athole, Appin, and Lochiel, 
— " opposed to Barrel and Monroe broke through the first line with irresistible fury, but 
received a terrible discharge from cannon ; they possessed themselves of the guns, but 
it was impossible to hold them, and being attacked in the flank, they had to retreat." 
The regimental colour borne by the Stewarts of Appin at Culloden is still in the possession 
of the head of the Ballachelish branch of the family. It is of light blue silk, with a yellow 
saltire, or cross of St Andrew, the dimensions being 5 feet hoist, with a fly of 6 feet 7 
inches. Its gallant bearer, one of the Ardsheal family, was killed, and the banner is 
stained with his blood. It bears the marks of having been torn from the colour staff, 
which accords with MTan's account that, when the standard-bearer was slain, one of the 



corps, called Mac an t-Iedh, from Morven, tore it from the staff, and wrapping it round 
his body, made good his retreat from the field. The banner thus escaped the fate of those 
of twelve Highland clans, which were taken at Culloden, and burned at the Market Cross 
of Edinburgh on the 6th June following. 

There is a list in the possession of Alexander Stewart, now of Achnacone, of the 
Appin men killed and wounded at Culloden, of which the following is an abstract, the 
detailed list being given in the appendix : — 

Cousins of Appin (natural), 

Ardsheal's family, 





Stewarts, followers of Appin, 

Killed. Wounded. 

Commoners, followers of Appin, forming the rank and file 
of the regiment, ..... 

Gentleman volunteer, George Haldane, nephew toLanrick, 
Ardsheal being married to Lanrick's sister, . 



This large number of casualties fully justifies Chambers' remark previously quoted. 
The number of officers and gentlemen of the family killed and wounded, amounting to 
forty-seven out of a total of between fifty and sixty, seems quite disproportionate till we 
recollect the order of battle of the Highlanders, previously given. The proud feeling of 
kindred with " Charlie," as they fondly called the Prince, would also lead these gentle- 
men to venture all things on this decisive day. 

After the battle of Culloden the clan dispersed, and though Lochiel and Ardsheal 
endeavoured to rally the Western clans, and hold possession of Lochaber, they never 
drew to a head again. Amongst those attainted of high treason on the 8th June 1 746, 
were " Stewart of Ardsheal, and the other officers of the Stewarts." Haldane of Lanrick 
and his sons, who served in the campaign as major and captain of a body of Perthshire 
horse, were also attainted, and when the Act of Indemnity was passed in 1747, both Ard- 
sheal and his friends the Haldanes were excepted from its benefit. Before escaping to 
France, Ardsheal wished to see his family, and succeeded in reaching Appin, where he 

lay concealed in a cave, still called Ardsheal's cave, on the hill of Ardsheal, being gener- 
ally supplied with food by a little maiden, the daughter of one of his tenants, who daily 
drove out a few lambs to the hill, and watched her opportunity of communicating with her 
hidden chief. The district was occupied by English soldiers, and the peasantry were all 
acquainted with Ardsheal's hiding-place, but, regardless of the rewards offered for his cap- 
ture, they were faithful to the trust reposed in them. After a few weeks' concealment in 
the cave, Ardsheal found an opportunity of escaping to France. In a Scots Magazine of 
the period, we find a paragraph stating that on the 17th September 1746, Stewart of Ard- 
sheal, and four other gentlemen, got on board a French ship, and escaped pursuit. 
Meanwhile the estate had been confiscated and given up to plunder, though the hardships 
thus brought upon Ardsheal's wife and children, seem, from the following letter, to have 
been i"or a short time mitigated by the humanity of the officer in command : — 

Appin, May 2<,t/i, 1746. 

" Madam, 

" Your misfortune and the unhappy situation Ardsheal has brought 
you, and your innocent children into, by being so deeply concerned in this unjust and 
unnatural rebellion, makes my heart aik. I know the King to be compassionate and 
merciful. I know the brave Duke under whose command and orders I act, to have as 
much humanity as any man on earth, from which and my own natural inclination I have 
taken the liberty of ordering back your Milk Cows, six Wethers, and as many Lambs, the 
men whO;pretend a right to them shall be paid. I have taken the freedom at the same time 
of ordering two Bolls of Meal out of my own stores to be left here for you, which I desire 
you to accept for the use of yourself and little ones, and if what I write can have any 
weight, I must earnestly entreat you to bring up your children to be good subjects to his 
Majesty. I wish your husband, by surrendering himself to the Duke of Cumberland, had 
given me an opportunity of recommending him to his Majesty's mercy. I feel for you, 
and am, Madam, your most obedient and humble servant, John Campbell. 

" To the Lady Ardsheal. 

"Post free from John Campbell, Major-General." 

General Campbell had judged of the merciful disposition of the Duke of Cumber- 
land from his o^vn humane feelings ; but in December of the same year Ardsheal 
House was sacked, and "the Lady Ardsheal," compelled to flee for refuge to a hut. 
From this also she was driven, the very night after her confinement, to seek, with her 
new-bom infant, and five children, another shelter from the falling snow. 

After many trials and dangers, she succeeded in obtaining passage to France, where 
she rejoined her husband. They settled at Sens, in Champagne, where their life, though no 

doubt troubled at times by political hopes and fears, seems to have been of a peaceful 
and patriarchal character. Contributions in the name of rent, in addition to that paid to 
the Crown receiver, were regularly remitted to Ardsheal by his old tenants, and he was 
thus enabled to dispense hospitality and render assistance to the West Highland gentle- 
men around him, who were less favourably situated. Letters still in possession of the 
family, from James Edgar, private secretary to James VIII., the Cardinal de Luynes, the 
Archbishop of Sens, and others, attest the high consideration in which Ardsheal was held 
by his own Sovereign, and by Louis XV., as well as the regard and esteem felt for him in 
the locality in which his exile and the latter years of his life were spent. His own king 
referred to him the petitions of the distressed Highlanders, or sought from him 
particulars of their respective claims and hopes ; the Archbishop of Sens and other 
neighbouring magnates gave him the privilege of the chase over their respective 

Further trials, however, were in store for him. Campbell of Glenure had been 
appointed receiver of the rents of the confiscated estate, and, possibly on account of the 
tenantry continuing to send a second rent of their lands to their exiled laird, he began to 
remove the old occupants, and to give their farms to dependants of his own. In conse- 
quence of this harsh and unjust conduct, Glenure was shot on the 14th May 1752, near 
Ballachelish, it is supposed by Donald Breck Stewart, who fled the country, after having 
at first sought shelter with his relatives near Invercomrie in Perthshire. 

Campbell's death gave occasion to a somewhat remarkable trial. James Stewart of 
Acharn, the agent through whom the rents were collected and transmitted, was arrested, 
and tried at Inveraray as being an accessory to his death. At the trial he was described 
as reputed to be a natural brother of Charles of Ardsheal, but this seems more than 
doubtful. The descent of the Stewarts of Acharn has been already clearly given, and 
James Stewart was on intimate terms with the sisters of Ardsheal and their husbands, as 
proved at the trial. He held certain farms under Ardsheal, and having espoused and 
upheld the cause of the tenants threatened with eviction, was marked by the Campbells 
for vengeance. The Duke of Argyll, as Lord Justiciary of the county, presided at the 
trial, and eleven members of the jury were Campbells; two others of the name, much to 
their honour, refusing to sit on a jury so composed for the trial of a Stewart and a 
Jacobite. James Stewart was convicted, and condemned to be hanged where Glenure 
was shot. He may, perhaps, have been aware of Donald Breck's intention, but the com- 
position of the jury, the social position of the prisoner, —for it was shown that he was 
quite in the rank of the gentry of the country, — and the harshness with which he was 
treated by the President of the Court, created an impression of injustice, which is not 
even yet forgotten in Appin and Lochaber. The London Evening Post of 5 th December 
1752, noticed the trial in the following remarkable words: — "We are informed by a 

private letter that the ancient animosity between the Stewarts and the Campbells is likely 
to revive on the score of hanging James Stewart at Ballachelish, on account of the murder 
of Colin Campbell of Glenure. The circumstance of trying James Stewart at Inverary, the 

seat of the d of A , is what his friends fix upon to convince the world that he 

was harshly and unjustly condemned." 

The Duke of Argyll's remark when passing sentence on James Stewart, clearly shows 
how far the verdict had been influenced by political considerations. He said, "Your 
clan did in the year 1719 again rise in rebellion, unmindful of their lives and fortunes 
having been granted them only two years previously, and assisted a foreign enemy in 
invasion." It is needless to remark upon the irrelevancy of the participation of the clan 
in a political attempt made thirty- three years before, with the specific question of Acham's 
guilt or innocence of the murder of Glenure, but the Duke's statement, which, from his 
local knowledge, is probably true, is of some little historical value, as it points to the 
Stewarts having been engaged in the rising of 17 19, of which but few particulars have 
been preserved. 

In 1 7 18 the Duke of Ormond, with the Scots Earl Marischall and his brother, after- 
wards Marshal Keith, had concerted with Cardinal Alberoni an invasion of Scotland, 
where they expected to be joined by all the adherents of the exiled Royal family. In 
March 17 19 the expedition sailed, and early in May a part of it, after being some time 
at Stomoway, landed on the shores of Loch Alsh. The whole forces originally consisted 
of about 6000 troops, chiefly Irish, with arms for 10,000 or 12,000 men. The main 
portion of the fleet, commanded by the Duke of Ormond, sailed from Cadiz, but it was 
dispersed by a storm off Cape Finisterre, and never joined the rest of the expedition, 
which comprised two frigates, having on board the Earls Marischall and Seaforth, the 
Marquis of Tullibardine, 307 Spaniards, and arms for 2000 men. The Spanish oflicer in 
command was unwilling to land, finding that only a few Highlanders made their appear- 
ance, but he was at last prevailed on to do so by the Scottish nobles. They seized Eilan 
Donan Castle, an ancient stronghold of the Earls of Ross, and subsequently of the 
Mackenzies, which they garrisoned with 50 men, with the intention of holding it till they 
were supported. The fire of three Government vessels, however, soon made the fortalice 
untenable, and the Highlanders withdrew to the more advantageous position of Strachell, 
where they heard of the dispersing of the main expedition by the storm. 

General Wightman had marched from Inverness with a much superior force of troops, 
and attacked the Highlanders on the i8th June. The latter held their position for more 
than three hours, till the advance of the artillery among the defiles of the mountains 
warned them to disperse, but not until they had inflicted upon the military a loss of 2 1 
killed and upwards of 120 wounded. Lord Seaforth and Lord Tullibardine were wounded, 
but were carried off by the Highlanders, whose loss was never accurately ascertained. 

The Spaniards, who had remained at Glenshiel, without taking part in the engagement, 
surrendered next day, and this terminated the invasion. 

But to return to the fortunes of Ardsheal. As a result of Glenure's evictions ensued 
the failure of the income which Charles had for many years derived from the " Laird's 
dues " so long and so honourably remitted to him by his old tenants, and he became, for 
a time, indebted to the bounty of the Chevalier, who sent him from Rome 500 livres, 
promising, at the same time, to recommend him to the French King. Louis XV., in 
consequence, apportioned to him, out of the 40,000 francs annually granted by the 
French Treasury in aid of the Scotch refugees, a pension of 3000 francs, with many 
comphmentary expressions ; and one half of this sum was continued to his widow, who 
was unable to obtain payment of her jointure upon the Ardsheal estate, or of her settle- 
ment upon Lanrick, though both deeds had been executed before either estate was 
forfeited. Eventually, on 14th January 1767, Isobel Haldane or Stewart — her brothers 
having died in 1761 and 1764, and her father in 1765 — was retoured heir portioner general 
to her father, John Haldane of Lanrick. 

Isobel Haldane, to whom, at the age of nineteen, Ardsheal was married in 1732, was 
the youngest child of John Haldane of Lanrick. Robert Stewart of Appin, the chief of 
the clan, had, since 17 16, been under attainder and in exile, and Ardsheal thus found 
himself the representative of the family in the Highlands. Married to one who was thus 
— not only by hereditary politics, but by circumstances — deeply implicated in the enter- 
prise of attempting to restore " the King over the water," Isobel at once took a high 
position among the Jacobite families of the Western Highlands. She was descended 
from a Danish family, which had settled on the borders of Scotland, and a younger son 
of which had acquired, in the twelfth century, extensive possessions in Perthshire by a 
marriage with the heiress of Gleneagles. About 1650 the Lanrick portion of the estate 
was conferred upon a younger son, Patrick, whose son John, the father of Isobel, was 
out both in 17 15 and 1745, serving in the latter campaign as first major and commandant 
of a squadron of cavalry raised in Perthshire. As has been already mentioned, he was 
excepted from the amnesty, and a Bill found against him and his eldest son, who had also 
served as a captain in his father's squadron. After Ardsheal's death, his widow removed 
to the neighbourhood of Paris, so as to be near her aged father, who was also in exile. 
She returned to England in 1779, for the treatment of the dropsy from which she had 
for some time been suffering, and died at Northampton. The epitaph on her tomb in 
the Church of All Saints, in that town, gives much of the story of her eventful life : — 

In Diversorio cursum finivit honestum 

Isabella Haldane, 
JOANNis Haldane de Lanrick Filia, 


Carou Stewart de Ardsheal Vidua, 

Cui in vicibus vite difficillimis 

Pectus profecto bene preparatum. 

Bello enim plus quam civili, 

Domo a militibus spoliata et eversa, 

In casa paupercula parturire 

Nocteque etiam proxima 

Liberis comitata tenellis 

Per nires fugere coacta est innocens. 

Post amoris exiliique annos undecim 

Vidua in re tenui relicta 

Numerosam aluit prolem 

Operaque indefessa fauste stabilivit. 

Denique dira laborans hydrope 

Ictus matri senili gravissimos 

Pia fortitudine iterates excepit. 

Confidebat etenim se Liberos optimos 

Paululum prcEgressos 

In ccelis iterum visuram. 

Infestis igitur Viator 

Ne nimium trepida 

Vincat iter durum Pietas 

Obiit 8 Aprilis 1782 

Anno ^tatis 69. 

The following is a translation by Mr Ffytche of Thoqje Hall : — 

Isabella Haldane, 

Daughter of John Haldane of Lanrick, 

Widow of Charles Stewart of Ardsheal, 

In an hostel finished an honourable career, 

A^Tiose breast was indeed well prepared 

By the most arduous vicissitudes of life, 

For in a worse than civil war, 

Her house plundered and overthrown by soldiers. 

Innocent she was compelled to give birth to her babe 

In a poor and mean hut, 

And on the next night to flee through the snow 

Accompanied by her young and tender children. 

After eleven years of love and exile, 

Being left a widow in straightened circumstances, 

She brought up, and, by unwearied labour. 

Happily settled a numerous progeny. 

At length, suffering under a severe dropsy. 

She endured with pious fortitude its reiterated 

Attacks, most grievous to an aged matron, 

For she trusted that she should again in Heaven 

See her innocent children who had a short 

While gone before her. 

In adversity, therefore, O traveller, be not 

Too much dismayed, 

Piety may surmount a rugged road. 

She died 8th of April 1782, 

In the 69th year of her age. 

Charles Stewart of Ardsheal died at Sens on the 15th March 1757, leaving by his 
wife, Isobel Haldane, six sons — 

1. John, who died young. 

2. Alexander, who commanded " The Duke of Albany," East Indiaman, and died 

at Bencoolen in 1769. 

3. Duncan, afterwards of Ardsheal, of whom hereafter. 

4. John, who succeeded his brother in the command of "The Duke of Albany." 

5. Charles, who died in Jamaica in 1767. 

6. James Joseph Andrew Ormand, who entered the East India Company's service. 
Of these six sons Duncan only was married. 

Also four daughters. 

I. Margaret, who was married to George Johnstone of Cowhill, Dumfriesshire, and 
had issue — 

I. William Johnstone, who was an officer in the army and died in 

3. Charles James Johnstone, Vice-Admiral of the Red, of whom here- 


4. George Milligan Johnstone, died unmarried. 

5. Alexander Carruthers Johnstone, married Cecilia Anne Wright, 

and had issue — Isabella, married to E. Punier ; Frances, married to 
T. Punier ; Margaret, married to F. Pigou ; Cecilia, married to A. 

Pigou ; and George Liddell Johnstone, M.A., Chaplain to tlie British 

Embassy at Vienna. 
Also a daughter, Isabella Clejientina, married to William Key, merchant, 

London, and had issue — General George William Key, Colonel of isth 

Hussars ; and Captain Charles Hugh Key, deceased. 
Admiral Charles James Johnstone married, first, Sybella Frances Scott, and 
had issue, of whom survived infancy — 

1. Margaret Euphemia, married toN. Hollingsworth, and died 1876. 

2. Sybella Harriet, died 1825, unmarried. 

3. Phcebe de Courcy, married to Colonel Lyon of Dalruskin, and has 


4. Ellen, died 1878, unmarried. 

5. Cecilia Henrietta, married to the late Major James, H.E.C.S., 

and has one son. 

6. Catherine Anne Elliot, married to General Harley Maxwell of 

Admiral Johnstone married secondly, in 1826, Lilias, daughter of Captain 
Macalpine, 78th Highlanders, and had issue — 

7. George James Johnstone, Captain in the R.E.LC.S., died in 

1857, unmarried. 

8. Charles Johnstone, Colonel, Royal Artillery, bom 9th August 

1829, married Anne, daughter of A. E. Peterson, and has issue — 
I. Andrew Peterson; 2. Charles James; 3. William St Clair; 4. 

9. William Johnstone, who purchased Cowhill on the death of his 

father, bom i8th March 1831, married, first, Elizabeth Charlotte, 
daughter of the late Hon. J. Thomason, Governor of the North- 
west Provinces, India, by whom he had issue — i. James Thomason 
Johnstone, Lieutenant, Royal Artillery; 2. Harley Macalpine. 
He married, secondly, Eleanor Jean, daughter of C. H. Mackillop, 
late Bengal Civil Service, and has issue — 3. Leila ; 4. Violet 
Mary ; 5. Dorcas Stewart. 

2. Elizabeth, who died young. 

3. Anne, who was bom the night after the sacking of Ardsheal House, and was 

married to Dr Robert Graham of Balchaple and Leckie, and had issue, eleven 
children — 

1. James Lennox Graham, died unmarried. 

2. Charles Alexander Graham-Moir of Leckie, who married Henrietta, 


daughter of Robert Hay of Drumelzier, and had issue, besides three 
daughters — Janet Erskine, Anne Stewart (dead), and Isabella Matilda 
— a son— 

Robert Graham Motr, who married Anne Elizabeth, daughter 
of William Hay of Dunse Castle, and died, leaving issue, a 
son, Alastair Erskine Graham Moir, and four daughters, 
Henrietta Florence Mary, Evelyn Annie, Marion Clemen- 
tina, and Mabel Christian Hay. 

3. Isabella, died young. 

4. Isabella, died unmarried. 

5. Catherine, died unmarried. 

6. James, died unmarried. 

7. Anne, died unmarried. 

S. Clementina, died unmarried. 

9. Robert Graham, M.D., who married Elizabeth Belsches, second daugh- 

ter of David Carrick Buchanan of Drumpellier, and had issue seven 
sons and six daughters, viz. : 1. Elizabeth, married to Henry Belling- 
ham, and left issue, Henrietta Elizabeth Belsches Graham ; 2. Robert 
Graham of Coldock, Blair Drummond ; 3. David, died unmarried ; 
4. Anne ; 5. Charles, died unmarried ; 6. Margaret, died unmarried ; 
7. Jane, married to Colonel Godby, Royal Artillery, and has issue, 
Elizabeth, Frances, Charles, Robert, and Clement ; 8. James Andrew, 
died in infancy ; 9. Mary, died unmarried; 10. James Andrew, died 
in infancy; 11. Catherine Belsches; 12. Buchanan, died unmarried; 
13. John, died young. 

10. Jane Stewart, died unmarried. 

11. John George, died unmarried. 

4. Clementina Elizabeth Maria Henrietta, married to John Graham of Mickle- 
wood, Stirlingshire, but had no issue. 

Duncan Stewart, sixth of Ardsheal, succeeded to the representa- 
tion of the family on the death of his brother Alexander in 1769. He 
had settled in Connecticut, New England, where he was appointed 
Collector of Customs, and in 1767 married Anne, daughter of the 
Honourable John Erving, one of H.M. Council for the Province. 
Taking the Loyalist side in the American War, and suffering heavy 
losses, he obtained the restoration of his paternal estate of Ardsheal, 


and the appointment of Collector of Customs at Bermuda. He resigned 
this office after two years, and returned to his ancestral house, where he 
died, leaving issue — 

1 . Charles, his successor, of whom hereafter. 

2. John, who, at the age of eighteen, succeeded his father as 

Collector of Customs at Bermuda, and married Sarah, daugh- 
ter of the Honourable Daniel Leonard, Chief Justice of 
Bermuda, by whom he had issue — 

I. Duncan Stewart, H.M. Attorney-General for the 
Bermudas, who married Sarah Amelia, daughter of 
Richard Darrell of Montpelier, Bermuda, and had 
issue seven sons and six daughters — 

1. John Stewart of Lincoln's Inn, Barrister, 

married Anne, daughter of Thomas Wins- 
low, and has issue — i. Donald Charles ; 

2. Robert Bruce ; 3. Allan Winslow ; 4. 
Haldane Campbell. 

2. Duncan Stewart of Lincoln's Inn, Barrister, 

and a Master of the London Court of 
Bankruptcy, married Florence Emma, 
daughter of the Rev. Charles Mackenzie 
of Torridon, Ross-shire, a Prebendary of St 
Paul's, London, and has issue — i. Duncan 
Grant Mackenzie ; 2. Malcolm Mackenzie ; 

3. Graeme Mackenzie ; and four daughters, 
Florence Mackenzie, Helen Mackenzie, 
Agnes Margaret Mackenzie, and Beatrice 
Lilian Mackenzie. 

3. Leonard Stewart of Lincoln's Inn, Barrister. 

4. James Stewart, married first, Julia Bran- 

som, daughter of Edward Reinagle, by 
whom was no issue, and secondly, Jane, 


daughter of J. Bell, by whom he left a 
daughter, Grace Gwendoline Haldane. 

5. Richard Barrel Stewart, died in Demer- 

ara, unmarried. 

6. Harvey Darrell Stewart, of the Inner 

Temple, Barrister. 

7. Charles Edward Stewart, a clerk in holy 

orders, vicar of St James', Manchester. 
The daughters of Duncan Stewart, Bermuda, are 
Sarah Darrel, married to Major Papillon, 
Royal Artillery, with issue, and Emily 
Clementina, Mary Catharine Darrel, Anne 
Margaret, Esther Mary, and Harriet Pa- 
pillon, all unmarried. 

2. Leonard Stewart, M.D., died unmarried. 

3. James Stewart of Lincoln's Inn, Barrister, formerly 

M.P. for Honiton, married his cousin, Margaret 
Emily, daughter of Duncan Stewart of Glenbuckie, 
with issue — i. James, died unmarried; 2. Duncan 
John, in the Indian Army, married, without issue ; 
and four daughters, of whom one, Alice Charlotte, 
Of the daughters of John Stewart, Collector at Bermuda, 
Emily Clementina was married to Edward Wither- 
ington, and had issue a daughter, n arried to W. 
Hinton, with issue; Anne, married to William S. 
Cumming, with issue, several sons and daughters ; 
Sarah Joanna, married to Edward Winslow, Barrister, 
and has issue, Mary, Harriet, and Octavia, died un- 

3. George, died in infancy. 

4. James Haldane Stewart, a clergyman of the Church of Eng- 

land, who was eminent for his piety, and of whom a memoir 
was written. He married Mary, daughter of David Dale, 
and had issue — 

1. William Cadogan Stewart, died unmarried. 

2. David Dale Stewart, long Vicar of Maidstone, Kent, 

and now Rector of Coulsdon, Surrey, married Cecilia, 
daughter of the Rev. Henry Raikes, Chancellor of 
Chester, and has no issue. 

3. James Haldane Stewart, Rector of Brightnell, Berks, 

married Emily, daughter of William Leveson Gower 
of Titsey, and died leaving five daughters. 
Also two daughters, Anne Erving, and Mary Dale, both 
5. William George Erving Stewart, who went to Lima and mar- 
ried a Spanish lady there, and left issue three daughters, one 
of whom married General Pacheco of Ober, and another mar- 
ried the General's brother, Colonel Pacheco. 
Of the daughters of Duncan Stewart, sixth of Ardsheal, Anne was 
married to John M'Nab of Balquidder, and had issue four 
daughters: — i. Anne, married to the Rev. Harvey Sperling, 
of Lattenbury Hill, Hunts,and had issue three sons, viz.: Arthur 
Sperling, of Lattenbury Hill, Chairman of Quarter Sessions 
for Hunts and Cambs, who married Adelaide Noel, daughter 
of Sir Henry Baker, Bart, of Dunstable House, and has issue; 
Henry Sperling, who died unmarried ; Frederick Sperling, 
Rector of Papworth, St Agnes, who is married and has issue ; 
and also three daughters, of whom the eldest is married to 
Count Lecchini of Pisa. 2. Margaret, married to Duncan 
Stewart of Glenbuckie, vide page . 3. Charlotte, married 
to her cousin. Colonel Charles Alexander Stewart, second son 
of Stewart of Glenbuckie, and had issue three sons — 

John M'Nab Stewart, who married and has issue ; James 

Drummond Stewart, Lieutenant in the 72nd Highlanders, who 
died unmarried ; and the Rev. Charles Gerard Stewart, who 
died unmarried ; 4. Catharine, who died unmarried. 
Sophia, fourth daughter, married John Campbell, W.S., and had 
issue a son, Stewart, who died unmarried, and four daughters, 
Georgiana, Julia, Grace Jane (married to the Rev. R. Hall), 
and Amelia. 
Isabella, the fifth daughter, died unmarried. 

Charles Stewart, seventh of Ardsheal, succeeded his father in 
1793, and served for a short time in the army. He married Rebecca, 
daughter of William Sinclair of the Deer Park, county Armagh, and 
Strabane, county Tyrone, and had issue — 

1. Charles, his successor. 

2. Annette, married to Major Robert Stewart, of the 94th Regi- 

ment, seventh son by his wife Mary, daughter of Alexander 
Stewart, eighth of Invernahyle, of John Stewart Mor, who 
was second son of John Stewart, seventh of Fasnacloich, by 
his second wife, a daughter of M'iNab of M'Nab. Annette 
Stewart left issue, Anna Rebecca Charlotte, married to Miles 
Lockhart, son of James Lockhart of Lanhams, Essex, and of 
Marsden and Pring, Bucks, and has issue — 

I. Robert Stewart Lockhart; 2. James Haldane Stewart 

Lockhart ; 3. Eian Ingram Lockhart ; 4. Douglas 

Francis Pigott Lockhart. Also Elizabeth Lockhart, 

and Mary, married to Sebright Edward Coffin, son 

of Lieut.-Colonel Coffin. 

Duncan Stewart, sixth of Ardsheal, had established in 1771, in the 

Scots Herald Office, his position as the representative of the Stewarts 

of Appin and Lorn, on account of the failure of the male line of Duncan, 

sixth Baron of Appin; and on the 28th April 1800, the Earl of Kinnoul, 

then Lord Lyon King at Arms, issued the following certificate and 

declaration : — " The Ensigns Armorial, pertaining and belonging to 

Charles Stewart, Esquire of Ardsheal, eldest son and heir of Duncan 
Stewart, Esquire [late collector of the customs at New London, in Con- 
necticut, North America, heir male and representative of the Stewarts 
of Ardsheal, Appin and Lorn], and Anne, youngest daughter of the 
Hon. John Irvine, merchant in Boston, New England, and many years 
one of His Majesty's Council, which Duncan was eldest son of Charles 
Stewart, fifth of Ardsheal, by Isabella, daughter and coheiress of John 
Haldane of Lanrick, which Charles was son and heir of John, who was 
son and heir of Duncan, who was son and heir of John, the first of the 
family of Ardsheal, who was second son of John, fifth baron of Apine 
by ... , daughter . . . Macdonald of Moidart, which John was son 
and heir of Duncan, who was son and heir of Alan, who was brother 
and heir of Duncan, who was son and heir of Dugald, first of the family 
of Apine, the only son of the last Lord Lorn, and the seventh in descent 
in a direct male line from Alexander, sixth Lord High Steward of Scot- 
land, by Sir John Stewart of Bonkyll, his second son, who married 
Margaret, daughter and heiress of Sir Alexander Bonkyll of that Ilk, 
are matriculated in the Publick Registers of the Lyon Office, and are 
blazoned as on the margin, thus, viz. : quarterly first and fourth or, a fess 
checkie azure and argent for Stewart, second and third argent, a galley, 
her sails trussed up and oars in action sable for Lorn. Above the shield 
is placed a helmet befitting his degree, with a mantling gules, the doubling 
argent. On a wreath of his liveries is set for crest an unicorn's 
head issuing out of the wreath argent, maned, horned, and bearded or ; 
on an escroll above the crest this motto, Ouhidder will zie ; and on a 
compartment below the shield are placed for supporters two roe bucks 
proper." The certificate is signed by James Home, the Deputy of the 
Earl of Kinnoul, and the following note is added : — " The roe bucks 
were adopted as the old supporters of the Stewarts Lords Lorn, and 
proper for Mr Stewart of Ardsheal, as representative of that family." 
Under the authority of the Lyon Office, dated 13th June 1879, the flags 
in the galleys are blazoned gules. 

Charles Stewart, eighth of Ardsheal, the present chief of the 
clan, and heir male and representative of the Stewarts of Ardsheal, 
Appin, and Lorn, was born in 1805, and succeeded his father in 1844, 
and is unmarried. On his death, the representation of the clan and 
family will devolve upon the eldest male heir of the late Duncan 
Stewart of Bermuda, son of John, the second son of Duncan Stewart, 
sixth of Ardsheal. 


JOHN STEWART, second son of Alan Stewart, third of Appin, received from his 
father the lands of Strathgarry in Athole, after the return of Alan and his five sons 
from Flodden, a.d. 1513. 

This family of Strathgarry appears to have left Scotland before 1730, when the lands 
were sold to a cadet of the family of Invernahyle, by a lineal descendant of whom they 
are still held, together with the lands of Innerhadden, also in Athole. Vide Invernahyle. 

About one hundred and fifty years ago, Dugald Stewart, the representative of John, 
second son of Alan, was a Lieutenant in Halkett's regiment in the Dutch army, and 
seems subsequently to have risen to the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel. He married Susan 
Fairfoul, daughter of Lieutenant Fairfoul of Braeindam, and left issue. There are many 
gentlemen of the name of Stewart holding good positions in the civil and military services 
of Holland, but all endeavours to trace the descendants of Dugald Stewart among them 
have been unsuccessful, though it is possible that they still exist in that country. 

The Stewarts of Glen Ogle, and others in Balquidder, are also descendants of the 
Stewarts of Appin, but the old families of Baldorran, Ardvorlich, Annat, Gartnafuaroe, 
and the original Stewarts of Glenbuckie, were all descended from Lord James Stewart, 
son of Murdoch, Duke of Albany. 

Sometime towards the end of the sixteenth century, Stewart of Strathgarry, having 
taken possession of lands in the upper part of Rannoch, which had been possessed by a 
Macdonald, was surprised by a party of that clan, and killed by them for dispossessing 
their kinsman. A meeting of the Stewarts of Appin, Balquidder, and Athole was held at 
the Bridge of Keltney, where they entered into a written bond to avenge the death of 
their kinsman of Strathgarry, and it was arranged that they should all meet on the Black- 
mount on a day agreed upon. At the appointed time the Appin Stewarts came up 
through Glencoe, the Athole Stewarts marched up the braes of Rannoch, and the Stewarts 
of Balquidder, headed by Ardvorlich, came by Tyndrum. 

They had letters of Fire and Sword against the murderers of Strathgarry, which his 
widow had procured by going to Stirling, and showing her husband's bloody shirt to the 
Privy Council. As it was in the month of June, the Macdonalds of Glencoe were out at 
their shealings in the Blackmount, where they were surrounded by the Stewarts, and a 
number of them killed. The laird of Glencoe and his brother were among the slain, and 
their heads were cut ofiF, to be sent to Stirling and presented to the Privy Council, as an 
unquestionable proof that their orders had been fully carried out. A messenger was 
despatched with them in a small barrel, which he carried on his shoulder. He occa- 
sionally shook the barrel, and made the heads knock against each other, exclaiming in 
Gaelic, " Can't you agree ; I am sure you are friends." 

He halted at Ardvorlich on his way south, and no one being at home but the Lady 
of Ardvorlich, he asked to see her, and said he had brought two strangers to visit her, 
Glencoe and his brother. The lady was much alarmed, as all the men were away at the 
rendezvous, but the messenger soon allayed her fears by producing the two heads. 

A copy of the bond entered into by the Appin and Perthshire Stewarts to avenge the 
death of Strathgarry was long in the possession of the Ardvorlich family, but it was lent 
to a Stewart of Annat, and at his death could not be found amongst his papers. A copy 
of it is said to be in the possession of the Duke of Athole. 


ACHNACONE, in the charter of a.d. 1500 spelled Auchnaguone, signifies the " field 
of dogs," and obtained its name when Castle Stalcaire was occupied as a hunting 
seat by the ancient Lords of Lorn, and afterwards by James IV. and James V. of Scotland, 
from its being the place where the hounds were usually slipped or thrown off on a hunting 
morning. The rising ground, now occupied by the present mansion, commands an 
unobstructed view of the Strath of Appin, and down Loch Creran to Loch Linnhe, and 
was a favourable situation for hunting the deer driven down from the mountains to the 

DuGALD, first of Achnacone, was third son of Alan, third of Appin, by his wife, a 
daughter of Lochiel. The old and valuable papers of the Achnacone family have 
unfortunately been lost, and this loss is the more to be regretted as they were of such 
importance as to be referred to as authentic sources of information by Mr Brown, when 
he was compiling his Genealogical Tree of the Stewarts in 1792. 

Unhappily, scarcely anything now remains of this collection, excepting some marriage 
setdements with the Glencoe family. 


These lands, however, as narrated by Duncan Stewart in his "History of the Stewarts," 
descended from Dugald, who received them from his father soon after the battle of Flodden 
in 1513, in regular hereditary succession to Duncan Stewart, who married Mary, daughter 
of Duncan Stewart of Inverlochy, of the family of Fasnacloich, and died in 1850, leaving 
issue — 

1. Mary Isabella, married to Lieutenant-Colonel Alexander Macdonald, son of 

Lieutenant-Colonel Archibald Macdonald, of the Keppoch family, by whom she 
had two daughters, Margaret and Mary. 

2. Jessie, died unmarried. 

3. Alexander, now of Achnacone, of whom hereafter. 

4. John, died unmarried. 

5. Susan, married to Alexander Macdonald, Sheriff-Substitute of the Lewes, and 

died, leaving three sons and one daughter. 

6. Donald, died unmarried. 

7. Christina, married to Thomas Beattie of Creive, and had t^vo daughters — 

Christina, who died young, and Mary Stewart Beattie, now of Creive and 

8. Charles Edward, who entered the Royal Navy in 1827, and served at the Cape 

and in South America. He afterwards entered the diplomatic service as 
Financial Secretary and Treasurer under Sir Henry Pottinger during the second 
Chinese War, taking an active part in the negotiations for the treaty of peace by 
which it was terminated. He was for many years Secretary to the London and 
North-Western Railway Company, and subsequently Chairman of the Anglo- 
American Telegraph Company. Charies Edward Stewart died unmarried in 
1868, and the following is an extract from a minute of the New York Board of 
Directors of the Telegraph Company, recognising the valuable services he had 
rendered in establishing telegraphic communication between England and 
America : — 

" New York, 13//^ April 1868. 
" The Board having heard with profound regret of the sudden death of Mr 
Charles Stewart, late Chairman of the Anglo-American Telegraph Company, 
desire to record their deep sense of the loss which has thus unexpectedly been 
sustained, not only by the company of which he was the able, dignified, and 
faithful chief executive officer, but by the whole telegraphic interest of the world, 
which owed so much to his enlightened public spirit and the large catholic views 
which governed Mr Stewart, not only in the discharge of his duties, but in the 
extension of this beneficent agent of civilisation into the remotest quarters of 
the globe." 

Alexander Stewart, now of Achnacone, went to India in 1831, and entered the 
Government Civil Service, from which he retired in 1861. He married Mary Montague, 
eldest daughter of Daniel Wilson Davison of Brand Hall, Shropshire, and has issue — 

1. Charles Montague Duncan. 

2. Mary, married to John Stuart of Kishom, second son of the Right Hon. Sir John 

Stuart Vide Ballachelish. 

3. Alexander Kenneth, Physician in Her Majesty's Forces in India. 

4. Arthur Full; an es, died young. 

5. Montague Macdonell, died young. 

6. Annie Jane Borrodaile. 

7. Douglas Grant. 

8. Kenneth Trevor. 


JAMES, fourth son of Alan Stewart, third of Appin, by his wife, a daughter of Lochiel, 
received the lands of Fasnacloich from his father after their return from Flodden in 
15 13. Fasnacloich is situated at the foot of Glen Creran, and the name signifies a 
field or place of stones or crags. James, first of Fasnacloich, married a daughter of 
Maclean of Kinlochaline, and had issue — Dugald, James, and John. 

DuGALD Stewart, second of Fasnacloich, married a daughter of Alexander 
Macdonald, uncle and tutor of Macdonald of Glencoe. The Macdonalds of Glencoe are 
descended from Angus, brother of John, first Lord of the Isles, and grandson of Somerled. 
Dugald left one son, John, his successor. 

John Stewart, third of Fasnacloich, married a daughter of Campbell of Inverawe 
and had two sons, John and Alexander. 

John Stewart, fourth of Fasnacloich, married Margaret, third daughter of John 
Stewart of Lettershuna, brother of Donald, fifth of Invemahyle, and had one son, James. 

James Stewart, fifth of Fasnacloich, married, first, a daughter of Campbell of 
Auchnard, and had one son, John, his successor. He married, secondly, a daughter of 
Alexander Stewart, fourth of Ballachelish, by whom he had — i. Duncan ; 2. Alexander ; 
3. James, of whom hereafter ; and 4. Alan. These were all present at the battle of 
Killiecrankie, or at the siege of Dunkeld which followed, where James was wounded. 

John Stewart, sixth of Fasnacloich, married Moir, daughter of Duncan Stewart, 
second of Ardsheal, by his second wife, a daughter of Maclean of Ardgour, and had three 
sons— I. James, who predeceased his father, unmarried ; 2. John ; 3. Alexander James, 
of whom hereafter; and several daughters. 

John Stewart, seventh of Fasnacloich, married Une (Winifred), daughter of Mac- 
donald of Glencoe, by whom he had James, his successor, bom 17th July 1723, and one 
daughter, Mary. He married, secondly, Anne, daughter of M'Nab of M'Nab, and by her 
had issue — 

I. John Mor, who married Mary Stewart, daughter of Alexander Stewart, eighth of 
Invernahyle, and had issue — 

1. John, died in Jamaica, unmarried. 

2. Katharine, died unmarried. 

3. Anne, married to Ur Wilson of the Royal Scots Regiment, by whom 

she had two children, who died young. 

4. Alexander, Lieut.-Colonel commanding the 4th battalion Royal Scots, 

and equerry to H.R.H. the Duke of Kent, whose life he saved in a 
mutiny at Gibraltar. He served with the Royal Scots in Portugal 
under Sir Charles Stewart, from 1797 to 1799; in the expedition to 
Holland under Sir R. Abercromby in 1799, and actions of 19th Sep- 
tember and 2nd and 6th October ; in the secret expedition to Ferrol 
in 1800 ; in the expedition to Egypt in 1801-3 under Sir R. Aber- 
cromby, and in all the actions in that campaign ; in the reduction of St 
Lucia and Tobago in 1 803 ; in the campaign in North America in 1812- 
15, mentioned in despatches ; and with the army in France 1815-16. 

5. James, lost returning from India. 

6. Duncan, designed in the entail of Fasnacloich, executed on the i8th 

November 1794, as Lieutenant in the 74th Highlanders; drowned 
when returning from India, in H.M.'s Frigate "Java." He was un- 

7. Robert, Major in the 91st Highlanders. He served in the expedition 

to Portugal in 1808 under Sir Arthur Wellesley, and was present at the 
battles of Roleia and Vimiera ; under Sir John Moore in the retreat 
through Spain, and at the battle of Corunna in 1809 ; in the Walcheren 
expedition in the same year ; and with the Duke of Wellington's army 
in 1812-16, including the batdes of Vittoria, the Pyrenees (seriously 
wounded), Nive, Nivelle, Orthes, Toulouse (wounded), and Waterloo. 
He married Annette, only daughter of Charles Stewart, seventh of 
Ardsheal, and had issue an only child, Anna, married to Miles Lock- 
hart. Vide Ardsheal. 
James Stewart, eighth of Fasnacloich, was present at the battle of Culloden in 
1746. He married a daughter of Macdonald of Glencoe, and had issue, Ronald, and two 
daughters, besides twenty other children, who died young. James, eighth of Fasnacloich, 

executed, on the i8th November 1794, an entail of the lands of Fasnacloich, compre- 
hending the four merkland of Balmakeldon and Fasnacloich, with the lands called Selle 
and Corbiand thereto adjacent ; and the lands of Letterdrissaig and Corveallan, and 
other parts of the four merkland of old extent of Glassdrum, Altindain, Corveallan, Corily, 
and Corvenauchtrach. The entail destined these lands, after the entailer's death, to his 
son Ronald Stewart, and his heirs-male, whom failing, to any other son of the entailer, 
and his heirs-male. 

2. To John Stewart in Auchindarroch, his brother, and his heirs-male. 

3. To Major Alexander Stewart, his brother, and his heirs-male. 

4. To Lieutenant Duncan Stewart of the 74th Highlanders, his brother, and his 

5. To James Stewart, late in Clunes, giandson of James, fourth son of James Stewart, 
fifth of Fasnacloich, and his heirs-male. This James Stewart, late of Clunes, had married 
Maiy, daughter of John Stewart, seventh of Fasnacloich, and sister of the entailer. 

6. To William Stewart of Hillhead, Dumfriesshire, grandson of Alexander James, 
third son of John Stewart, sixth of Fasnacloich. 

7. To the heirs-male of the body of Winnie Stewart, his eldest daughter. 

8. To the heirs-male of the body of Margaret Stewart, his second daughter. 
Ronald Stewart, ninth in succession to Fasnacloich, predeceased his father. He 

married Catharine, daughter of Fraser of Brightmany, a branch of the Culduthol family, 
and had issue — 

1. John, his successor. 

2. James, who died young. 

3. Elizabeth, who died young. 

4. Ronald, a posthumous daughter, married to Stewart Menzies of Culdares, in 

Glenlyon, and had issue — t. Ronald Stewart Menzies of Culdares, who married 
May, daughter and heiress of Macdouall Grant of Arndilly, and had issue — i. 
William George Stewart Menzies, now of Culdares ; 2. Maria, married to 
Fletcher Norton Menzies, by whom she has a daughter, Grace ; and 3. Katharine, 
married to George Henry Vansittart of Bisham Abbey, Berks. 
John Stewart, tenth of Fasnacloich, succeeded his grandfather, James, in 1795. 
He married Harriet, daughter of Murdoch Maclaine of Lochbuy, and left issue — 

1. Ronald, who predeceased his father, unmarried. 

2. John Campbell, who succeeded his father. 

3. James, R.N., died unmarried. 

4. Alexander, died unmarried. 
And seven daughters — 

I. Jane, married to Lieutenant-General George Sandys, H.KI.C.S., by whom she 


had one son, Edwin, now of the 58th Regiment, and three daughters, Frances, 
Maiy, and Louisa ; 2. Catharine ; 3. Margaret ; 4. Anna ; 5. Harriet ; 6. Ehza- 
beth ; and 7. Henrietta, all unmarried. 
John Campbell Stewart, eleventh and present of Fasnacloich, succeeded his father. 

He married Mary Caroline, daughter of Charles Bernard. She died 9th December 1877, 

and left issue — 

1. John Charles, born 12th November 1S73. 

2. Ronald, born 4th February 1875. 

3. Bernard, bom 9th December 1877. 

And three daughters^May Ronald, Winifred, Harriet Anna. 

Captain John Campbell Stewart served in the 72nd Regiment, " The Duke of Albany's 
Own Highlanders," during the Crimean campaign in 1855 and 1856, was present at the 
capture of Kertch, and at the siege and fall of Sebastopol, for which he has medal and 
clasp, Turkish medal, and fifth class of the Order of Medjidi. He also served in the 
Indian Mutiny of 1857, and in the pursuit of the rebels in 1858, and was at the capture 
of the fortress of Kotah, and the action on the Bumass River, for which he has a medal 
and clasp. After returning to his estate from a distinguished career in the army, Captain 
Stewart has earned, by his liberality and his exertions in their behalf, the lasting gratitude 
of the Episcopal community of Glencreran. Ever since the disestablishment of the 
Episcopal Church of Scotland in 1688, a large portion of the people of Appin has 
remained faithful to her creed, and from that time till now the services of the Church 
have been kept up continuously at Glencreran, though at various places, and at one time 
in a chapel, now quite ruinous. But by the erection of St Mary's Church on his estate 
in 1877-8, with its parsonage adjoining, for which Captain Stewart gave the site, and to 
which he liberally contributed, he has provided for the regular and permanent services of 
the Church to which the people of Appin of the old stocks have been so steadfastly faithful. 
In Bishop Ewing's eloquent charge to the clergy of Argyll and the Isles in 1864, he writes : 
— " On those sweet lochs and dreamy shores, which are characteristic of this diocese, 
there is indeed more than lona. In the district of Appin, on the shores of Glencreran, 
on the banks of Loch Leven, in the valley of Glencoe, on the borders of Loch Linnhe, 
there are still some representatives of the past, some blood of the ancient race, some 
worship not unlike the worship of lona." 

Alexander James, third son of John Stewart, sixth of Fasnacloich, and of his wife 
Moir, daughter of Duncan Stewart, second of Ardsheal, was born in 1672. As a youth of 
seventeen, he was present at the batde of Killiecrankie in 1689, and at the siege of 
Dunkeld following. He was also at the batde of Sheriffmuir in 17 15, and after that 
engagement went abroad. Being se\enty-three years of age, he was too old to join Prince 

Charles Edward's army in 1745, but took an active part in raising men for the expedition, 
and in 1746 he was examined at the trial of Murray of Broughton, with a view of eliciting 
from him a corroboration of that traitor's evidence against gentlemen engaged in the 
rising, but he feigned dotage. Alexander Stewart married Anne Stewart of the family of 
Ardsheal, and died at the age of ninety-six, in May 1768, leaving one son, Charles. 

Charles Stewart, only son of Alexander, was attached to the person of Prince Charles 
in 1745-6 as his Purse Bearer, and received from the Prince the appointment of Sheriff of 
Argyll. He was present at the battles of Prestonpans, Falkirk, and Culloden, and was 
one of those who, after that ill-starred day, found a place of refuge and concealment in 
Appin, though that district was then in possession of the Duke of Cumberland's troops. 
But he soon quitted this comparative security to endeavour to rejoin and assist Prince 
Charles Edward, and sometime afterwards escaped to France, where he is named as one 
of those who, at the instance of James VIII., received grants for their support from Louis 
XV. He married Elizabeth, daughter of Johnstone of Redacres, a cadet of the family of 
Johnstone of Corehead, and a descendant of Rachel, daughter of Walter Whitefoord of 
Whitefoord, Bishop of Brechin. Nisbet says " the first of the family was Walter de 
Whitefoord in Renfrewshire, who got Whitefoord for his services at the battle of Largs, 
when under the command of Alexander, Senescallus Scotiae." The estate of Whitefoord 
descended in regular succession to Adam Whitefoord of that Ilk, who by his wife, the 
daughter of Sir James Somervell of Camnethan, had two sons, James, his successor, and 
Dr Walter 'Whitefoord, first sub-dean of Glasgow, aftenvards parson of Moffat, and in 
1635 advanced to the Episcopal See of Brechin. Charles Stewart left issue — 

1. Alexander, who died young. 

2. Duncan, who succeeded. 

3. William, of whom hereafter. 

4. John, who died in India, unmarried. 

5. Elizabeth, married to Donald Cameron. 

6. Christina, married to Stewart, and had issue, no\y extinct 

Duncan Stewart, second son of Charles Stewart, was Commandant of Fort William, 
and married Jessie, daughter of Donald M'Phee, Loch Arkaig, and had issue — 

1. Alexander, Lieutenant-Colonel in the 95th Regiment, Rifle Brigade, married 

Harriet Palmer, and had issue, Charles Alexander and Agnes, both of whom 
died unmarried. 

2. John, Major in the 95th Regiment, Rifle Brigade. He was an officer of great 

distinction, and served on the continent with the 79th regiment in 1794; in 
1795-96 and '97 in the West Indies; in 1798 in Germany; in 1799 in the 
campaign in Holland ; in 1800 at Ferrol with a detachment of the Rifle Brigade ; 
and in 1801 with Sir Ralph Abercromby in Egypt, where he was wounded. In 

i8o2-s Major Stewart was with his regiment at home, and in 1S06-7 he was 
in South America, serving on General Whitelock's staff at the taking of 
Monte Video, and during the following campaign. In 1808 he was on the 
staff of Sir John Moore during the campaign in Spain, and in 1S09 10, and 
till his death in 181 1, he served with his regiment during the campaigns in 
Spain and Portugal, under Lord Wellington. He fell on the 14th of March in 
that year, in the course of the operations on the Mondego, when, in command 
of the left wing of his regiment, he was leading a charge with the bayonet. 
General Sir Benjamin D'Urban wrote, that when " he was wounded, as in every 
action of his military life, he was a bright example of calm intrepidity, and many 
were admiring his gallantry and skill." Sir Sidney Beckwith also wrote of him 
in terms of the highest praise, and the London Courier of the 24th April 181 1 
gave a detailed notice of Major Stewart's career, observing that "scarcely a 
service of activity and danger had occurred within the previous eighteen years 
in which he had not been employed, and that on all occasions not only had he 
distinguished himself by his skill and bravery, by his steady and soldier-like con- 
duct in the field, but that he had made himself master of his profession, so far 
as study and a good understanding could enable him." The Courier concluded 
by saying that " he fell like another Wolfe, in the arms of victory, not too soon 
for his own glory, for he was known and admired by the whole army, but much 
too soon for his country, which had a right to expect that in due course he 
would supply the place of some one of the great generals of the present day, 
distinguishing himself, like them, by another Maida, Talavera, or Barrossa." 

The letter written on the occasion of the death of Major Stewart, to his elder 
brother, is given at length. The writer was the distinguished Colonel Cameron 
of Fassifem, who so long and so gloriously commanded the 92nd Highlanders, 
and who himself, four years later, met a like soldier's death on the field of 
Quatre Bras. It is characteristic of both the gallant soldiers who — maintaining 
under southern skies and the British flag that close friendship which had for 
centuries associated their families in the cause of loyalty and the Stuarts — had 
together, and almost shoulder to shoulder in old Highland fashion, borne up 
the fray against the enemies of their country on many a bloody and well-fought 
field. It is a sermon by two true soldiers, inculcating — with few words of 
preaching, but by that example which is better than precept —resignation, cheer- 
fulness, hope, courage, and devotion. 

" Hutted on the Mondego, 


" My dear Friend, — The fate of man is mortality. Prepare yourself for 

the greatest affliction, in having that truth brought home to your feelings with a 
vengeance. But, at the same time, draw some consolation from the reflection 
that he fell on the bed of honour, and died a martyr to that glory which he so 
successfully pursued, lamented and regretted by all, one of the brightest orna- 
ments of his country and profession. 

" Poor John, I was not far from him when he fell Word was brought 
me that he inquired for me. I went and saw him. He beckoned to me to 
sit down by him, but the doctors would not allow me to sit, or speak to him. 
But in spite of the doctors he made me bend over him, and said in Gaelic, ' My 
dear fellow, let them know that I am quite well, and want for nothing. The 
doctors are kind to me, and in a month I shall be at them again.' The French 
were then hard at the head of our column with small and great guns. I was 
obliged to go on. I never saw a man in better spirits. He pressed my hand 
eagerly, and we parted never to meet again. At eleven that night his soul fled 
to heaven. His wound was through the body and out at the back. God bless 
and strengthen you. — Yours ever, J. Cameron." 

To Lieut.-Col. Stewart, Milton, near Woodbridge. 

Major Stewart died unmarried at the age of thirty. 

3. William, also an officer in the 9Sth Regiment, who died in India, unmarried. 

Also six daughters — 

1. Anne, married to the Rev. W. Singer, D.D., and had issue five sons, who died 

unmarried, with the exception of Major Alexander Stewart Singer, who married 
Clara, daughter of the Rev. John Johnstone of Crossmichael, and left issue, 
William Duncan Singer, and Mary, married to James Bell of Woolbrook, 
Victoria, by whom she has issue, John Calvert, Alexander Singer ; also Anne 
Stewart Singer, unmarried, and Clara, married to George B. Poynter, Tasmania, 
and has issue, Clara, Mary Harriet, and one son. Aime Stewart or Singer had 
also two daughters — Elizabeth, married to the Rev. John Bennet of Ettrick, of 
the family of Bennet of Whiteside, Stiriingshire, and has one son, the Rev. 
William Bennet, who married Maria Rawson; and Anne Stewart Singer, married 
to the Rev. John Macmillan, D.D., and has issue, Samuel, who married Eliza 
Goodsir, daughter of the Rev. Hugh Dobie ; William Singer, and John James 
Macmillan ; also one daughter, Anne Stewart Macmillan, married to the Rev. 
Alexander Marshall, Kirkcudbright. 

2. Elizabeth, married to Captain Arthur Buchanan, and died without issue. 

3. Mary, married to Duncan Stewart of Achnacone. Vide Achnacone. 

4. Christina of Glenmorven, Argyllshire, died unmarried. 

5. Jessie, married to the Rt. Hon. Sir John Stuart of Lochcarron. Vide Ballachelish. 



6. Charlotte Sophia, married to John Collins, by whom she had one daughter, 

Margaret Elizabeth Stewart, married to His Excellency George Frederick 

Augustus, Count Bremer of Cadenberge, Privy Councillor, Chamberlain, and 

Knight of the Guelphic Order, in the Kingdom of Hanover, and has issue one 

daughter, Charlotte Sophie Von Bremer. 

William Stewart of Hillhead, Dumfriesshire, a Deputy-Lieutenant for that county, 

third son of Charles Stewart, married Margaret, daughter of George Graham of Shaw, 

lineal descendant of Henry de Graham of Dalkeith, by his marriage, about 1240, with the 

heiress of Roger de Avenel of Eskdale. William Stewart died in 1822, leaving 

issue — 

1. James Hope, who succeeded to Hillhead, bom 2nd August 1789. 

2. Charles of St Michael's, bom 2nd December 1790, died unmarried. 

3. Margaret, bom 15th June 1792, died unmarried. 

4. George Graham, Captain R.N., born 4th Febmary 1794, died unmarried. 

5. Elizabeth, bom 24th October 1795, died unmarried. 

6. William John, W.S., of whom hereafter, bom loth December 1798. 

7. Janet Graham, bom 14th March 1801, died immarried. 

8. Christina, born 27 th June 1803, died unmarried. 

9. John Duncan Alexander, of whom hereafter, born i8th April 1805. 

10. Anne Johnstone Hope, born loth December 1807, died unmarried. 

11. David Williamson, bom 7th October 1809, died unmarried.. 

James Hope Stewart of Hillhead succeeded his father in 1822, married Helen, 
daughter of Richard Bell of Dunnabie, and died in 1856, leaving issue — 

1. William, died in China, a partner in the firm of Messrs Jardine, Matheson, & Co. 

He predeceased his father, and was unmarried. 

2. Thomas, succeeded his father. 

3. George Graham (a partner in the firm of Messrs Heycock & Co., Bombay), 

married Wilhelmina Rankine, and died without issue. 

4. Charles. 

5. John Hope Johnstone, married Jessie, daughter of John Murray of Haregills, 

and has issue— Janet Margaret ; James Hope ; Eliza ; Helen Anne ; and Sarah 
Grundy Stewart. 

6. James Hope, died in Demerara, unmarried. 

7. Duncan, married Christina Anne, daughter of William Stewart, W.S., and has 

issue — Alison Helen ; Agnes Ethel ; George ; Elizabeth Jessie ; and Anne 

8. David Williamson of Grange, married Isabella, daughter and heiress of James 

Johnstone of Grange, and has issue — James Hope ; Isabella Johnstone ; Helen 

Bell ; William James ; Inez Jane ; Jessie Elizabeth ; Charles ; Anne ; Margaret 
Johnstone ; and Andrew Jardine Stewart. 
9. Alexander, died young. 

10. Andrew Johnstone Jardine, drowned in China, unmarried. 
Also two daughters — 

1. Anne, married to James Graham of Dunnabie, second son of George Graham of 

Shaw, and has issue — George, who died young ; Helen Bell Stewart, married to 
John Cross ; James Hope Stewart, now of Dunnabie ; and Mary. 

2. Margaret Christina, married to Christopher Johnstone of Croftheads, and has 

issue — Helen Bell Stewart ; William ; Sarah Blacklock, married to Alastair 
Robertson Stewart of Derculich ; and James Hope Stewart. 

Thomas Stewart of Slodahill succeeded his father in 1856. 

William Stewart, W.S., fourth son of William Stewart of Hillhead, married Alison, 
daughter of Charles Steuart, W.S., and died in 1842, leaving issue — 

1. Alice. 

2. Christina Anne, married to her cousin, Duncan Stewart, and has issue— Alice ; 

Agnes Ethel ; George ; Elizabeth Jessie ; and Anne Stewart. 

3. William Stewart, W.S., married Mary Harriet Binns, daughter of George 

Greaves, and has issue. 
John Duncan Alexander Stewart, fifth son of William Stewart of Hillhead, 
married Harriet Everilda, daughter of Major Antony Gore, brother of Sir Ralph Gore of 
Manor Gore, co. Donegal, who succeeded his uncle Ralph, Earl of Ross, as seventh 
baronet, the earldom being limited to heirs male of his uncle's body. J. D. A. Stewart 
died in 1869, leaving issue — 

1. William George Stewart of the 2nd Dragoon Guards, born April 1830, married 

in 1859 Charlotte Jane, daughter of George Cook, and has issue — William 
Duncan ; Horace, who died young ; and a daughter, Constance Charlotte. 

2. Duncan Stewart of the 92nd Highlanders, a lieutenant-colonel in the army, 

served in the Crimea at the close of the campaign in 1856, in the Indian Mutiny 
in 1858, including the battle of Azimghur, on the 6th April (specially thanked), 
actions at Shahjehanpore 14th May, and Mohunpore 26th May, capture of the 
fort of Pourie, and action at Beejapore (wounded by sabre cut, and mentioned 
in despatches.) Medal with clasp, and brevet of major. Born i8thjune 1831 ; 
married, 1864, Emily Rose, daughter of John Mackenzie Lindsay, and has 
issue — 

Ian Charles Lindsay, bom 8th September 1865 ; Ronald Robert, bom 2Sth 

June 1867 ; and Archibald Alan William John Stewart, bom 8th 

January 1872. 

3- Osmond de Havilland Stewart, bom 27th February 1835; married, i860, 
Jessie Mounsey, daughter of William Rogerson of Wamphray, and had issue — 
Agnes Florence and Jessie Harriet Margaret Stewart. Married, secondly, in 
1866, Frances, daughter of George Bathurst, and by her has issue — Duncan 
John, bom August 1867; Charles George, bom September 187 1 ; and John 
Stewart, born July 1875. Also three daughters — Mary Elizabeth Christina ; 
Frances ; and Christian Alice Stewart. 

4. Charles Stewart, an advocate at the Scottish bar, born 9th November 1840 ; 
married, December 1870, Eva, daughter of Henry Kingscote, and had 
issue — 

Bertrand, bom ist October 1872. 

He married, secondly, July 1874, Alice Louisa, daughter of Robert Johnstone 
Douglas of Lockerbie, and the Lady Jane Johnstone Douglas. 

Also four daughters — i. Margaret Mary Anne, died young; 2. Pauline Harriet, 
married, August 1865, to the Baron Otto Von Klenck, Lieutenant-Colonel in 
the Hanoverian Garde du Corps, and A.D.C. to H.M. King Ernest of Hanover, 
and Duke of Cumberland, and has issue — Frederica Langensabza and Marie 
Von Klenck, to whom H.R.H. Princess Frederica and H.M. Queen Marie of 
Hanover respectively stood sponsors ; 3. Christina Adelaide Ethel, married, 
February 1862, to James Alexander Rogerson of Wamphray, fomierly of the 
6 1 St Regiment, and has a daughter, Harriet ; 4. Florence Grace Norah, bom 
September 1839, and died November 1855. 

James Stewart, third son of James Stewart, fifth of Fasnacloich by his second wife, 
a daughter of Alexander Stewart, fourth of Ballachelish, married a daughter of Robertson 
of Fascally, Athole, and widow of Charles Robertson of Calvine, Athole. Mrs James 
Stewart had been left by her father the liferent of Clunes, in Glengarry in Athole, and both 
her husband and her son were known as of Clunes. They left issue — 


And two daughters, one of whom married Robertson of Kindrochet, Athole, and the 
other Macpherson of Phones, in Badenoch. 

James Stewart succeeded his father, and married, first, Susan Stewart, of the family 
of Drumchary, Athole, and by her had one son, who died unmarried. He married, 
second, Mary, daughter of John Stewart, seventh of Fasnacloich. James Stewart and the 
heirs male of his body were named in the entail of Fasnacloich, executed in August 1794, 
as next in succession after the heirs male of the body of the entailer, James Stewart, 



eighth of Fasnacloich, and those of his father. By his second marriage he left 
issue — 

Duncan Stewart. 

Also three daughters, one of whom, Anne, married James M'Nicoll of The Craig, 

Forfarshire, and had issue — John, who married his cousin, Eliza Stewart ; and 

a daughter, Mary M'Nicoll, married to the Rev. William Ramsay of Alyth, 


Duncan Stewart, son of James Stewart of Clunes, born 20th August 1770, was a 

solicitor in Edinburgh, and married in 1809 Janet or Jessie, daughter of Ranald M'Donald, 

nineteenth of Keppoch (Raonull Og), and had issue — 

1. James, bom September 1810, died unmarried. 

2. Ranald, born December 1813, died young. 

3. John, bom September 1816, died June 1865, unmarried. 

4. Alexander Macdonell. 

5. Ranald. 

Also three daughters — Eliza married her cousin, John M'Nicoll of The Craig, Forfar- 
shire, and had issue six daughters; Mary, died October 1864, unmarried ; and 
Clementina Macdonell Stewart, unmarried. 


ALEXANDER, first of Invemahyle, called the "Tiochail," or "The Peaceful," was 
fifth and youngest son of Alan Stewart, third of Appin, by his wife the daughter 
of Lochiel. After the return of the clan from Flodden in 15 13, Alexander received from 
his father the lands of Invemahyle, so called from their situation at the mouth of the 
Hyle, a stream separating the property from Achnacone. 

In the following account of Alexander and his descendants, the quaint style of the 
old family MS., from which it has been abridged, has been as far as possible preserved. It 
would appear that Alexander lived at Eilean-'n-Stalcair (Falconer's Island), and early one 
summer morning went to an island called Eilean nan Gall, which lies contiguous, and can 
be approached on foot at low water. Not apprehending any danger, he laid down his 
Lochaber axe carelessly by his side. A deadly feud then existed betwixt his family and 
that of the Campbells of Dunstaffnage, and at this very time Cailean Uaine (Green Colin), 
brother to Dunstaffnage, having landed with a party of men, came up suddenly and seized 
hold of the axe, exclaiming, " This is a good axe, if it had a good handle to it ! " Alex- 
ander immediately replied, " Has it not that ? " showing at the same time his appreciation 
of Colin's sarcastic meaning by the practical repartee of laying his own hand upon it. 

During the struggle which followed, Alexander was surrounded by Colin's men and basely 
murdered. His infant son only escaped a like fate through the courage and devotion of 
his nurse, Morag, wife of Raibeart-a-Pheti, smith or armourer of Moidart, who, to ensure 
the safety of her charge, fled with him to her own country, after having concealed him 
for three days in a cave, now known as Uaimh Dhomnuil nan Ord. 

Alexander had married Margaret, daughter of Macdonald of Lochan, brother to 
Muidart, by whom he had one son, Donald, who succeeded him. The Moidart family 
claim descent from Ranald or Reginald de Yle, who got a grant of lands from his father, 
with confirmation under the Great Seal of Robert II. in 1372-3. Ranald was second son 
of John de Yle, whose second wife was Margaret Stewart, daughter of Robert II. 

Donald, second of Invemahyle, so well known as Domhnull-nan-ord, or Donald of 
the hammers, was reared by the armourer and his wife, as if he had been one of their 
own sons. They, indeed, loved their foster-son, or dalt as he was called in the Gaelic, 
with the strongest and truest affection. Raibeart's armour-work bore the highest reputa- 
tion, so much so that it was a common question in the district, " Is that a Moidart-made 
sword you wear ? " Both as armourer and as tacksman of farms on Lochsheilside, he held 
a much higher social position than that held by a smith in the present day. Donald, as 
he grew up, developed remarkable talents, both mental and physical. He was ready of 
wit, quick in expedient, and of uncommon resolution, combined with great strength and 
activity. He could take in each hand one of the large hammers which required the full 
strength of an ordinary workman, and wield both at the same time without any unusual 
effort. He could dive, it is said, into a pool of the river Shiel, near the smith's house, 
and bring up a salmon with his hands. On Donald's reaching manhood, Raibeart told 
him the secret of his birth, at the same time presenting him with a sword tempered with 
the utmost cunning of his art, and offering him the assistance of his foster-brothers in 
taking vengeance on his father's murderers. His uncle, Muidart, on being made aware 
of the truth, recognised the relationship, and placed at his disposal a number of men 
chosen from his clan. Invemahyle, in the absence of an heir, had reverted to Appin, 
but the chief, fully convinced of Donald's birthright to the land, at once restored it. 
Donald, without delay, attacked Dunstaffnage, but though success ultimately crowned his 
efforts, it was not until after several fights in which Cailean Uaine and nine other gentle- 
men of that family were slain. Colin was killed by one of Donald's men, who pierced 
him with an arrow as he was attempting to escape by swimming over the river Lyon 
(Leven). While the arrow was still quivering in Colin's breast, one of the Campbells 
called out from the opposite side of the river, " That is clean blood you have given the 
Lyon salmon to-day !" "Not so clean," was the retort, "as you gave, without cause, one 
fine morning to the crabs of Eilean-'n-Stalcair ! " 

Argyll, greatly annoyed at the manner in which Invemahyle was harassing his clan. 


tried several times to cut him off. This caused Donald to make a foray on Loch- 
awe- side, commemorated in the following verse of a Gaelic ballad still recited in 
Appin : — 

" Donald-nan-ord, the armourer's dalt, 
In full coat of mail becomingly clad, 
Lifted the creach from the banks of Lochowe, 
Which retrieve Mac-a-Chailein shall never, nor now, 
Nor son, nor great-grandson, nor grandson know how." 

The fulness of the coat of mail marked the strength of the wearer. 

Appin, and other friends of Invemahyle, wishing to bring the feud to an end, insisted 
on his making peace with Argyll, and Donald went to Inveraray for that purpose. The 
meeting with Argyll took place at some distance from the castle, and the interview is 
thus narrated by the bard. Donald, who apparently did not anticipate that the confer 
ence would result in any increase of their mutual affection, thus accosts the Earl : — 

" Mhic-a-Chailean, grim and sallow. 
Small 's the love you bear to me ; 
But when my homeward path I follow, 
'Tis well if I bear more towards thee." 

When laughing heartily, Donald had an ungraceful habit of throwing back his head, 
a habit perpetuated — says the family MS., with some humour— in some of his descendants 
to the present generation. Argyll is related by the poet to have made a sneering re- 
ference to this, and to have asked, pointing to the rock above Ardkinlas, if Invemahyle 
knew that it was called "the ugly laugh." The rejoinder, though, perhaps, not more 
courteous than the remark which called it forth, was, at least, equally cutting : — 

" Ugly the laugh on the cliff of yon hill. 
Which for aye has been stamped on the place ; 
But as grim, and as ugly, you'll find when you will. 
By a look at your Countess' face." 

Argyll would only consent to make peace on the crafty condition that Invemahyle 
should raise " herships " on Moidart and Athole, hoping thus to bring him into collision 
with these his most intimate friends. But Argyll had met an intellect quite equal to his 
own. Donald agreed to the terms, but subsequently made an arrangement with his 
uncle and Athole by which they permitted him to raise a spoil from some refractory 
tenants who had sorely provoked them, while any pursuit, which, to save appearances, 
they would have to make, would be more in show than in reality. Thus, to the great 
chagrin of Argyll, Donald fulfilled his part of the compact without losing the regard of 
his old friends. 

His chief, Alan Stewart, third of Appin, being a very old man, and his eldest son, 
Duncan, dead, we find the clan commanded at the battle of Pinkie, on loth September 
1547, by Invemahyle, as Tutor. In the absence of the exact dates of the deaths of Alan's 
sons, there is no certainty upon the point, but the strong probability appears to be that 
Invemahyle held this command under exceptional conditions, that is to say, by the express 
appointment of the Chief, in consideration of his remarkable military abilities, and not by 
the claims of birthright. On their march homeward in the following month, when pass- 
ing through Menteith, the clan found prepared, at the house of one of the tenants, a 
marriage dinner, at which the Earl of Menteith was to be present. Being very hungry, 
Donald and his followers quickly disposed of the feast, without much consideration of 
consequences. Menteith, arriving immediately afterwards, was very wroth at the insult 
which he conceived had been offered to him, and instantly pursued the Stewarts. On 
overtaking them, one of the Grahams taunted them thus : — 

" Yellow-haired Stewarts, of smartest deeds, 
Who could grab at the kale in your sorest needs ! " 

To which a Stewart replied, — 

" If smartness in deeds is ours by descent, 
Then I draw— and to pierce you this arrow is sent," 

at the same time suiting the action to the word. 

A conflict followed, in which the Earl and many of his men were killed. The Appin 
men marched off in triumph, the pipers playing the Stewarts' march, " We will up and 
march away, we will up and march away, we will up and march away, daring let of all 
men." The whole words and music of this spirit-stirring march are given at pages 

In Eraser's book of " The Lennox," it is said, " William, fifth Earl of Menteith, was 
killed at Tobanareal, a spring on the summit of the ridge which divides Menteith from 
Strathgartney, by the celebrated Donald Stewart of Invemahyle, Tutor of Appin, famili- 
arly called ' na'n Ord,' or of the Hammers." Duncan Stewart's account is that Donald, 
"in his return, was attacked by the Earl of Menteith, at a place called Tipard'nerheil, 
near the Port of Menteith, in resentment of a little malverse some of Stewart's men had 
been guilty of in their march, where the Earl and some few of his friends and followers 
were killed." 

Donald looked with intense contempt on every employment for a gentlemen other 
than that of war or the chase. The quiet, domestic life of his son Duncan, and his great 
interest in his farm-work, troubled him sorely. He bore it, however, with outward patience 
until one day, when he saw his son not only directing his labourers, but even, for the pur- 
pose of showing more clearly what he wished to be done, taking a spade into his own 
hands. His long-simmering wrath at once boiled over, and the fiery old chieftain, draw- 
ing his dirk, pursued his son into the house, where, supposmg or pretending to suppose 

that Duncan had hidden in the bed, he struck with such force as to drive the weapon 
through both bed and bedding. Happily his son, as the old gentleman was probably 
well aware, had hidden elsewhere. The reef of rocks where he crossed the river Hyle in 
pursuit of his son is still called Donald's steps. The history of Donald n'an Ord 
has been immortalised by Sir Walter Scott, in a history of his life, printed in the fifth 
edition of Captain Burt's letters, by Robert Jamieson, F.S.A. of London and Scotland. 

Brought up in circumstances not entirely dissimilar from those attending the early 
life of his great-grandfather, Dugald, first of Appin, Donald seems to have shared his 
ancestor's ignorance of, or contempt for, forms of law. It was not till about 1570, when 
he was himself advanced in years, and when he was making over the lands of Innerphuill 
to his son Duncan, some time after the marriage of the latter, that he bethought himself 
of taking formal sasine of the estate which he had regained. 

The "Precept of Seisin of the lands of Innemaheil and Innerpollan in favours of Donald 
Stewart, son of Alexander, son of Alan, ad annum 1570," is noticed by Duncan Stewart. 

He died at a very advanced age towards the close of the sixteenth century, and was 
buried at Lismore. By his first wife, a daughter of John Stewart of Bunrannoch (Drum- 
chuin), he had — 

1. Alexander, who died young. 

2. Duncan, his successor 

3. Alan, of whom Ballachelish. 

4. John, who got Lettershuna, the old name of the lands round Appin House. He 

married a daughter of James Stewart of The Glens, and had issue six daughters. 
Among the retours of 1633, Mary, the wife of Dugald M'Dougall of Dounhach 
(Dunach), and second daughter of John Stewart of Lettirschewnay, and her 
sisters, Catharine the eldest, Margaret the third, Isobel the fourth, Janet the 
fifth, and Agnes the sixth, were served heirs-portioners to their father in the 
lands of Achachosgrane, of the old extent of two merks in the barony of Appin. 

5. A daughter, married to Archibald Campbell of Achalader. 
Invemahyle married, secondly, the widow of James Stewart of The Glens. 
Duncan, third of Invemahyle, succeeded his father. He married Helen, daughter 

of Campbell of Dunstaffnage, by whom he had issue — -i. Alexander, who succeeded him ; 
2. Dugald of Innishaorach, in Breadalbane ; and 3. Allan. 

He lived a gentle and peaceful life, keenly interested in the improvement of his 
lands. His marriage with a daughter of Dunstaffnage was intended to end all bye-gone 
feuds, and restore peace betwixt the families. At first, however, it was very bitter to his 
father Donald, who could not forget the soreness of the past, but in the course of time, 
and by the earnest intercession of friends, he became reconciled, and made over to the 
young people the lands of Innerphuill. 


Alexander, fourth of Invemahyle, seems to have played a conspicuous part in Mon- 
trose's campaigns, for, as above noticed at page i66, we find in the Acts of the Scots 
ParUament, anno 1649, his name specially mentioned, with those of Lochbuy, Appin, and 
Kingerloch, as having been present at Kilsythe on 15th August 1644, and Inverlochie on 
2nd February 1645, with the result of being forfeited in land, person, and estate. He mar- 
ried a daughter of Duncan Stewart, seventh of Appin, by whom he had twelve sons, who all 
lived to the age of manhood. It is recorded that Alexander appeared in church one day 
accompanied by these twelve sons, all dressed in kilts, with belted plaids, and in full armour. 

Records of all the descendants of the numerous family of Alexander, fourth of Inver- 
nr.hyle, have not been handed down. He was succeeded by his eldest son 

1. Donald, of whom hereafter. 

2. James, died about 1690, leaving one son — 

I. Allan, married a daughter of the Rev. Mr M'Calman, minister of Lismore ; 
died about 17 15, leaving issue — 

I. James, who died about 1787; 2. John; 3. Allan; 4. Dugald of 
Mount Stewart, in Jamaica. Allan, the third son, served with 
Prince Charles' army in 1745, was wounded in the campaign, 
and died of his wounds soon after. He left issue a son, Andrew 
who died about 1765, leaving — 

1. John. 

2. Thomas, who married Mary Brough, heiress of Boghall. He 

bought the adjoining property of Steelend, and left issue — 

1. John, died 1805. 

2. Thomas, an officer of the Royal Navy, who 

served at the siege of Gibraltar, 1779-83, and 
under Admiral Lord Rodney, died 1795. 

3. Peter. 

4. James, born 1778, married Isabella Tod, died in 

New York, 181 3, leaving issue one son, David, 
who, by his wife, Adelina Smith of Brooklyn, has 
issue — I. Isabella, married to John L. Gardner, 
Boston, U.S.; 2. Adelia, died, unmarried, 1854 ; 
3. David, died, unmarried, 1874; 4. James. 

5. George, bom 1785, died 1872, leaving issue. 
Also three daughters — i. Helen, married George 

Mehss, Perth; 2. Mary, died unmarried; 3. 

Ann, married to Arrat, with issue. Helen, 

the eldest daughter, left issue — 

I. Andrew ; 2. George ; 3. Charles — all of whom 
died unmarried ; 4. James, married Madeline 
Nairn, died 1853 ; 5. Thomas, married a daugh- 
ter of T. de Vain, and died in India, leaving 
one son. Helen had also three daughters — i. 
Ann, born 1778, died, unmarried, 1798; 2. 
Eliza, bom 1804, married E. L. Sanders of New 
Ross, Herefordshire, with issue; 3. Mary, 
bom 1789, married William Stuart, descended 
from the family of Garlies, and has issue — 
I. Robert, author of "Caledonia Ro- 
mana," died 1848, leaving issue — 
William, David, and three daughters; 
2. Helen, married Professor Thom- 
son, M.A., Aberdeen, has one son 
and three daughters ; 3. George ; 4. 
Eliza, married T. Robertson, by 
whom two sons (George and Wil- 
liam) and one daughter ; 5. William, 
married, no issue; 6. Mary, died 
1848 ; 7. John, died young ; 8. Ann ; 
9. Archibald; 10. James, has issue — 
Charles, Mary, and Rachel; ii. 
John ; 1 2. Madeline, died young. 
Donald Stewart, fifth of Invernahyle, succeeded his father, and married a daughter 
of Campbell of Lochnell, by whom he had issue^ 

1. Alexander, who succeeded him. 

2. Duncan Stewart, minister of Blair Athole, of whom hereafter, besides two other 

sons and two daughters. 

Alexander Stewart, sixth of Invernahyle, married, first, Isabel, daughter of John 
Campbell of Kirkton, Muckairn, by whom he had two daughters ; and, second, a daughter 
of Macdonald of Fersid, by whom he had Duncan, his successor, and one daughter. 

Duncan Stewart, seventh of Invemahyle, married a daughter of Campbell of 
Barcaldine, and left issue — 

1. Alexander, who succeeded him. 

2. John. 

3. Dugald. 

4. Robert. 

5. Allan, who was out with his brothers Alexander and James in the 'forty-five. 

He afterwards served during the Canadian war as a lieutenant in the 78th 
Regiment (Fraser's), and subsequently fought, together with some other High- 
landers, in the Royal cause during the American Revolution. He died at 
Invemahyle in 1792. 

6. James. 

7. Margaret. 

8. Mary. 

Duncan was out in 17 15 under the Earl of Mar, but his father having remained at 
home the estate was not forfeited. 

Alexander, eighth of Invemahyle, married Catherine, daughter of Robert Stewart, 
ninth of Appin, and left issue — Dugald, who succeeded him, besides five other sons and 
nine daughters. 

Alexander was the very ideal of a genuine Highland gentleman of the olden time : 
strict in his integrity, true to his word, sensitively honourable to the verge of romance, 
unconscious of fear, yet tender-hearted as a child. Sir Walter Scott, when a young man, 
visited him often at Invemahyle, and knew him well. He thus speaks of him : — 
" Alexander Stewart of Invemahyle, a name which I cannot write without the warmest 
recollections of gratitude to the friend of my childhood, who first introduced me to the 

Highlands, their traditions and their manners He was a noble specimen of the 

old Highlander — gallant, courteous, and brave even to chivalry." 

He was out in 1715 and in 1745, joining Prince Charles with his brothers Allan and 
James, and the Invemahyle contingent On the morning of the battle of Prestonpans the 
Camerons and Stewarts of Appin made a brilliant charge, storming and capturing a 
battery of four field-pieces. Alexander was in the very fore-front, and noticed an officer 
of King George's service standing alone, firmly grasping his sword, and evidently purposing 
to die at his post. He called on him to surrender, but for reply received a sword thrust, 
which he caught in his target. The officer, who afterwards proved to be Colonel Allan 
Whitefoord of Ballochmyle, being now defenceless, and the battle-axe of a gigantic 
Highlander — the miller of Invemahyle— about to descend on his head, reluctantly 
consented to yield. Invemahyle protected his person and property, and finally obtained 
his liberty on parole. Colonel Whitefoord was a man of high influence and character, 
and between him and his captor there sprung up a warm friendship and regard. 
Invemahyle visited Ballochmyle on his journey northwards to raise more men for Prince 
Charles when the Highland army were retreating from England, and spent a few days with 
the colonel and his Whig friends as pleasantly as if all had been peaceful. After Culloden 
it was Whitefoord's turn to strain every nerve to obtain Invernahyle's pardon. Being 
met everywhere with refusals, he at last went direct to the Duke of Cumberland, who also 

decidedly declined. He then limited his request to protection for Stewart's house, wife, 
children, and property ; but this also being denied him, he laid his commission on the 
table before the Duke, and asked permission to retire from the service of a sovereign who 
did not know how to spare a vanquished enemy. His Royal Highness was affected, and 
at length granted the request. A detachment of soldiers was accordingly sent to Inver- 
nahyle, who, though they spared his property, unremittingly searched for his person. He 
was nearer than they thought, being hid, like the Baron of Bradwardine, in a cave near at 
hand. For weeks his life was supported by precarious supplies brought to him by a 
daughter only eight years old, who strayed among the soldiers and watched for the 
moment when she could, unobserved, steal into the thicket. His sufferings were aggravated 
by an unhealed wound received at Culloden. After this, and when he had at last 
ventured to sleep in his own house, he had a remarkable escape, being fired at and 
pursued by a party of soldiers, who noticed him leaving it in the morning. The fugitive 
having escaped, the soldiers returned and threatened the household with punishment for 
sheltering one of the proscribed traitors. An old woman with great presence of mind 
said it v.'as the shepherd. " Why, then," said the soldiers, " did he not stop when we 
called him ? " " Because," was the ready reply, " he is stone deaf." The shepherd was 
sent for, but having been duly tutored, pretended deafness, and the storm consequently 
blew over. (See Quarterly Rei'iew of A.'^rW 1817). Invemahyle was afterwards pardoned 
under the Act of Indemnity. 

Letters are still in possession of the family written by I^ochiel and Keppoch to Inver- 
nahyle, and by him to Donald Campbell, governor of Eilean-'n-Stalcair, which give a 
vivid picture of the events occurring in those troublous times, as well as the culture, 
principles, and feelings of the Highland gentlemen who were so deeply involved in 

The first of these, addressed to Invemahyle, and dated from Glen Nevis, 20th March 
1746, is as follows : — 

Sir, — Yesternight we received a letter from Clunie, giving an account of the success 
of the party sent by His Royal Highness, under the command of Lord George Murray, a 
copy whereof we thought proper to send you enclosed ; and as you happen for the present 
to be stationed contiguous to the Campbells, it is our special desire that you instantly 
communicate to Airds the Sheriff, and other leading men among them, our sentiments 
(which, God Avilling, we are determined to execute), by remitting this our letter, and the 
enclosed copy, to any most convenient to you. It is our opinion that, of all men in Scot- 
land, the Campbells had the least reason of any to engage in the present war against His 
Royal Highness' interest, considering that they have always appeared in opposition to the 
Royal Family since the reign of James VI., and have been guilty of so many acts of 

rebellion and barbarity during that time, that no injured Prince but would endeavour to 
resent it when God was pleased to put the power in his hands. Yet his present Majesty 
and His Royal Highness the Prince Regent were generously pleased by their respective 
declarations to forgive all past miscarriages to the most violent and inveterate enemy, and 
even bury them in oblivion, provided they returned to their allegiance ; and though they 
should not appear personally in arms in support of the Royal cause, yet their standing 
neuter should entitle them to the good graces of their injured sovereign. But, in spite of 
all the lenity and clemency that a prince could show or promise, the Campbells have 
openly appeared with their wonted zeal for rebellion and usurpation in the most offensive 
manner ; nor could we form a thought to ourselves that any men, endowed with reason 
or common sense, could use their fellow-creatures with such inhumanity and barbarity as 
they do, and of which we have such daily proofs by their burning of houses, stripping of 
women and children and exposing them to the open fields and severity of the weather, 
houghing of cattle and killing of horses — to enumerate the whole would be too tedious at 
this time. They must naturally reflect that we cannot but look on such crueltie with 
horror and detestation, and, with hearts full of revenge, will certainly endeavour to make 
reprisals, and are determined to apply to His Royal Highness for having an order to enter 
their country, with full power to act at discretion ; and if we are lucky enough to obtain 
it, we will shew them that we are not to make war against women and the brute creation, 
but against men, as God was pleased to put so many of their people into their custody. 
We hope to prevail with His Royal Highness to hang a Campbell for every house that 
shall hereafter be burnt by them. 

Notwithstanding of the many scandalous and malicious aspersions industriously con- 
trived by our enemies against us, the world never hitherto, since the commencement of 
the war, can impeach us with any acts of hostility that had the least tendency to such 
cruelty as they exercise against us, though often we had it in our power, if barbarous 
enough to execute it. 

Wien courage fails against men, it always betrays cowardice to a degree to \'ent their 
spleen against brutes, houses, women, and children, who cannot resist. We are not 
ignorant of their villianous intentions by the interrupted letter from the Sheriff Airds, &c. ; 
will plainly discover that it was on their application that their general, Cumberland, granted 
orders for the burning, &c., which he could not be answerable for to a British Parliament, 
it being most certain that such barbarity could never be countenanced by any Christian 
Senate.— We are, Sir, your most humble servants, 

(Signed) Donald Cameron of Lochiel. 
,, Alexr. M'Donald of Keppoch. 

F.S. — l cannot omit taking notice that my people have been the first that felt the 


cowardly barbarity of my pretended Campbell friends. I shall desire to live to have an 
opportunity of thanking diem for it in the open field. 

(Initialed) D. C. 

Invemahyle forwarded the above letter to Donald Campbell, governor of Eilean- 
'n-Stalcair, with the following from himself: — 

Sir, — As you have frequent opportunities of corresponding with the gentlemen of 
Argyleshire, I send you the enclosed for their perusal, which I request you will forward. 
I am heartfelt sorry that the burning of houses and destruction of catrie is once begun in 
our country, which must be hurtful to both parties, and a loss to the conqueror, and make 
friends and neighbours that (wish) well to one another's interests alter their sentiments. I 
own it is the only part of the war that gives me most trouble. If my friends and I should 
differ about the government of the nation, I always thought it was better we decided in 
the field than bring our sentiments upon innocent wives and children, who may possibly 
differ in sentiments from their parents. You may see by the enclosed it is believed that 
my friends in Argyleshire have been the cause of this violent procedure. I shall be very 
sorry it hold true, as I still continue to have a value and friendship in private life for them, 
they being mosriy my good friends and relations ; and I hope, if it is in their power, they 
will put a stop to it. I did not choose to be employed in forwarding such letters, but people, 
once engaged on either side of the question, must execute their orders. — I am, dear Sir, 
your humble servant, 

(Signed) Alexr. Stewart of Invemahyle. 

Prince Charles presented Alexander with a ring, lozenge-shaped, and containing a 
lock of his hair, which is now in possession of the family of Charles Stewart of Ardsheal. 
Alexander, in the year 1778, exchanged with Major John Campbell of Airds, his lands of 
Invemahyle, InverphoUa, and Garrachoran, for the lands of Acham, Belloch, Keill and 
others, and afterwards sold Belloch and Keill. He died at an advanced age in 1795. 
By his wife, Katherine, daughter of Robert Stewart, ninth of Appin, he had issue — 

1. Margaret, married to Donald M'Donald, son of Kinloch Muidart, who " suffered" 

at Carlisle in 1874-6, by whom she had two sons, who both died unmarried. 

2. Charles, Lieutenant in the 74th Regiment, died without issue. 

3. Alexander, died young. 

4. Donald, died young. 

5. Mary, who was married to John Stewart. Sfe Fasnacloich. 

6. Anne. 

7. Jane. 

8. Janet. 

9. Robert, died young. 

10. ROBINA. 

11. Duncan, died without issue. 

12. Henrietta, died young. 

13. Catharine, died young. 

14. Dugald, who succeeded his father. 

15. Isabella, died young. 

Dugald Stewart, ninth of Invemahyle, succeeded his father. He sold the remain- 
der of the lands, and died at Ardsheal in 1 840, leaving no issue. 

James Stewart, sixth son of Duncan, seventh of Invemahyle, was severely wounded 
at Culloden. After the campaign he married Robina, daughter of John Edmonstone of 
Cambus-Wallace, and had issue three sons and two daughters. 

Alexander Stewart, his eldest son, served in His Majesty's forces as a surgeon, 
and married a great-granddaughter of the above-mentioned John Edmonstone. Alex- 
ander died in 1830, and left issue — 

I. John, who died unmarried; and 2. Charles. 

Charles Stewart, only surviving son, was a Writer to the Signet. He married 
Mary Henrietta, daughter of Andrew Wood, surgeon, Edinburgh, and died in 1836, leav- 
ing issue — 

1. Alexander, lost at sea. 

2. Andrew Wood, the present representative of the family. 

3. Elizabeth. 

4. BoNYER, in Australia. 

5. Francis, twin brother of Bonyer. 

Andrew Wood Stewart married, in June 1859, Frances Buchan Wilkie, daughter 
of James F. Wilkie, S.S.C, and has issue — 

1. Charles. 

2. Andrew Francis. 

3. Mary Alexandra. 

4. Edith Louisa. 

5. William Frederick. 

6. Henrietta. 

7. Alexander Patrick. 


DUNCAN STEWART, M.A., second son of Donald, fifth of Invernahyle, was Epis- 
copal clergyman of Dunoon and Kilmun, and was deposed for not praying for 
William and Mary in 1690. He subsequently held the living of Blair Athole, as the 
parishioners would not admit a Presbyterian minister. The Presbytery of Dunkeld 
ordained another minister in 1716, saying that Mr Duncan Stewart had intruded into the 
kirks of Blair Athole and Stnian ; that he had never prayed for King George, but only in 
general terms for the Sovereign ; that he read the thanksgivings for the safe arrival of the 
Pretender; had a great hand in influencing the people to rebellion in 17 15, and read 
all the Proclamations by the Earl of Mar. He married, first, the daughter and heiress 
of the Rev. .(Eneas Maclaine, Kilfinan, second son of Hector Machine, Lord Bishop of 
Argyll, by whom he had issue — 

1. Alexander, his successor in Strathgarry. 

2. Donald, who married a daughter of Stewart of Urchoilebeg in Athole, and had 

issue — 1. Jean, married to the Rev. Alexander M'Calman, Incumbent of Lis- 
more ; 2. Margaret or Ann, married to a brother of Stewart of Urchoilebeg ; 
3. Mary, married, first, to Alexander Robertson, by whom she had no issue, and 
secondly, to Campbell, brother of Glenlyon, by whom she had issue. 

The Rev. Duncan Stewart married, second, Janet, daughter of M'Calman, and 

had issue — 

1. John, who died young. 

2. AzAN, who inherited from his father the lands of Innerhadden. Alan married 

Christian, daughter of M'Nab of M'Nab, and had issue — i. Duncan Stewart, 
who succeeded his father in Innerhadden, and died 23rd March 1807, unmarried ; 
2. Alan Stewart, who succeeded his brother, and married in 1822 his cousin, 
Jean, daughter of Donald Stewart of Duntaulich. He purchased from the 
Duke of Athole the superiority of Bun-Rannoch, etc. He died in 1837 without 
issue, leaving Innerhadden to the head of the elder branch of his family, Allan 
Duncan Stewart of Strathgarry, by whom it is now possessed. Alan, first of Inner- 
hadden, inherited his father's attachment to the royal family of Stewart, took 
arms for Prince Charles in 1745-6, and, after Culloden, his house was burned 
and his lands plundered by the soldiers of the Duke of Cumberland. 
The Rev. Duncan Stewart had four daughters by his second marriage — i. Catharine, 
married to Alexander Stewart of Duntaulich, by whom she had issue Donald ; 2. A 
daughter, married to a son of Campbell of Glenlyon ; 3. Elizabeth, married to Donald 

M'Laren of Invenenty ; 4. Robina, married to Patrick Stewart, called " Mac Pheti," of the 
Ballechin family. 

The Rev. Duncan Stewart wrote a " History of the House of Stewart," which was not 
published till 1739, nine years after his death. This book is a standard work, and is 
constantly referred to by all later historians of the Stewarts. He died in 1 730. 

Alexander Stewart succeeded his father in Strathgarry. He married Amelia, daughter 
of Robertson of Kincraigie, a branch of the family of Lude, and died about 1749, leaving 
issue, and was succeeded by his eldest son, Alexander. . 

Alexander Stewart, third of Strathgarry, was born in 1712. He was minister of 
Blair Athole from 1741 to 1780, and married Isabella, daughter of Patrick Robertson, 
second son of Alexander Robertson, tenth of Lude, by whom he had issue — 

1. Duncan, who succeeded. 

2. Charles, died unmarried. 

3. Alexander Stewart, minister of Moulin, from which he was translated to 

Dingwall in 1805, and thence to the Canongate parish in 1820. He married, 
first, Louisa, daughter of Captain Macpherson of Dalchully, fifth son of Cluny 
Macpherson, chief of the Clan Chattan, and of Jean, daughter of Sir Ewen 
Cameron of Lochiel, and had by her two children — 

1. Alexander (a minister in holy orders), died, unmarried, at Cromarty 

in 1847. 

2. Catharine, married in 1821 to the Rev. Hector Allan, minister of 

Kincardine, in Ross-.shire, and died in 1836, leaving issue — i. 

Alexander Stewart Allan, born 19th August 1822, entered the H.E.L 

Company's military service in 1841, retiring as Major-General in 

1 ,"', 17-95 ) lie married, 25th October 1848, Edith Ross, daughter of 

William Samuel Blackburn, co. Lancaster. 2. Catharine, married to 

George Richmond of Bathaldie, co. Perth, and has issue. 

Dr Alexander Stewart, minister of Moulin, married second, in 1802, Emilia, daughter 

of the Rev. Charles Calder, minister of Urquhart, co. Ross, and by her had issue — 

1. Charles Calder, born 1804, minister of Aberdalgie, who married Jamima 

Hunter, daughter of Robert Lee, and died, leaving no issue. 

2. Duncan Stewart, M.D., H.E.I. C.S., who married Margaret Sophia, daughter of 

Edward Toussaint, Commander H.E.I. Company's Marine, and had issue— i. 
William Jackson Stewart, Major in the Bengal >JativG Tnttmtry, who married 
Jean Isabella, daughter of General Carmichael Smith, and had issue; 2. James 
Calder Stewart, Major in Her Majesty's Forces in India, who married Emily 
Hartley, daughter of Thomas Grant of Hungershall Park ; 3. Duncan Stewart, 
Lieutenant 7Sth Highlanders; and two daughters. 

3- James Calder Stewart, who married Rosina, daughter of Alexander Campbell, 
and has issue— i. Alexander ; 2. Charles ; 3. Douglas Campbell ; 4- Emily. 

4. Patrick Stewart, died without issue. 

5. John Stewart. He married Matilda, daughter of James Graham of Whitehills, 

advocate, and has issue — Matilda, James Graham, and Alexander. 

Dr Alexander Stewart of Moulin, by his second marriage, had two daughters — i. 
Margaret Brodie, married to Sir John Frederick William Herschel, Bart, and had issue 
three sons and nine daughters ; 2. Isabella, died unmarried. 

Alexander Stewart, third of Strathgarry, also left three daughters— 

1. Cecil, who was married in 1770 to Gilbert Stewart of Fincastle, and had issue, of 

whom Jean was married in 1 805 to Alexander Robertson, twenty-second baron 
of Struan, and was mother of Alexander Gilbert Robertson, whose son Alasdaer 
was chief of the clan Donachie, and twenty-fifth baron of Struan. 

2. Jean, who was married to the Rev. Alexander Small, and had issue — i. Robert 

Small, a merchant in London ; 2. Alexander Small, Minister of Stair ; 3. John 
Small of Foodie, co. Fife, who died in 1862, leaving issue. Also daughters, 
none of whom left issue, except the eldest, Isabella Small, who married in 18 11 
the Rev. Daniel Robertson, D.D., and left issue, one of whom is Patrick James 
Robertson of Heilton, M.P. for Hastings 1852 to 1868. 

3. Margaret, died unmarried. 

Duncan Stewart, fourth of Strathgarry, born 1747, succeeded his father, the Rev. 
Alexander Stewart, and was Minister of the parish of Balquhidder. He married Arabella, 
daughter of Duncan Campbell of Auchline, and had issue — 

1. Alexander, who succeeded him. 

2. Duncan, M.D., died unmarried. 

3. Robert, born 1787, who entered the H.E.I.C.S. in 1806, retiring as a Major- 

General. He married first, in 1831, Anne, eldest daughter of Captain Duncan 
Stewart of Glenbuckie, who died without issue in 1833 ; and secondly, in 1834, 
to Grace, third daughter of Robert Menzies of Dalreoch, in Perthshire, by whom 
he had issue — 

1. Anne Arabella, bom 1835, and married in 1861 to Charles Patrick 

Finlay, W.S., Edinburgh, and died in 1878, leaving issue— i. Gilbert 
Laurie ; 2. Robert Stewart ; 3. Charles Patrick. 

2. Jessie, died unmarried. 

3. Robert Duncan, died unmarried. 

4. Arabella Elizabeth Smythe, married in 1867 to William Bm-net 

Craigie, Major in the Bengal cavalry. She died in India in 1868, 
leaving issue. 

5- Grace Roberta Louisa, married in 1877 to Charles Baxter, W.S., 

Edinburgh, by whom she has one son, Edmund, also Mary TumbuU. 

The Rev. Duncan Stewart, fourth of Strathgarry, had also a daughter, Louisa, who 

was married in 1804 to the Rev. R. Kay, successively Minister of Kinclaven, of the 

Canongate Chapel, Edinburgh, and of the West Church, Perth. They had three sons 

and three daughters — 

1. Arabella, died unmarried. 

2. Elizabeth Anne, who was married in 1837 to the Rev. George Gordon Milne, 

formerly Episcopal Clergyman of Cupar Fife, by whom she has four sons and 
one daughter — i. Alexander Stewart Spencer; 2. Eliza Margaret; 3. Robert 
Duncan ; 4. George Louis Cyprian ; and 5. James Erskine Fulton. 

3. Alexander, died unmarried. 

4. Robert Duncan, born 1810, and died 1848. He was a Captain in the H.E.LC.S., 

and married in 1846 Caroline Alice, daughter of N. J. Halhed of the Bengal 
Civil Service. 

5. Henrietta Dundas, died unmarried. 

6. Duncan James of Drumpark, co. Kirkcudbright, who married Charlotte Halhed. 
Alexander Stewart, fifth of Strathgarry, born 17 79, was a Colonel in the H.E.LC.S., 

and married, first, Sarah Harriet, daughter of the Rev. Dart, Dover, by whom he had 

one daughter, who died young ; and second, Janetta, daughter of Ralph Allen Daniell of 
Trelissick, co. Cornwall, High Sheriff of that county in 1795, and M.P. for West Love in 
1806, by whom he had issue — 

1. Allan Duncan, his successor. 

2. Alexander, bom 1832, a merchant in Bombay. He married, first, Elizabeth 

Dalziell, daughter of General Sir John Cheape, K.C.B., and had issue — i. John 
Cheape; 2. Janetta; 3. Duncan Hubert. He married, second, Mary, daughter 
of Monsieur Gosset, Berne, Switzerland, and has by her — 1. Edith; 2. Marie 
Madeleine ; 3. Lucie ; 4. Alice. 

3. Janetta, unmarried. 

4. Hinton Daniell, born 1835, and married Lucy, daughter of Donald Macfarlane, 

M.D., Perth, and has issue — i. Donald Allan; 2. Hinton; 3. Isobel ; 
4. Janetta ; 5. Harriet. 
Allan Duncan Stewart, sixth of Strathgarry, and fifth of Innerhadden and Bun- 
Rannoch, born 1831, succeeded his father in 1835. He was a Fellow of St Peter's College, 
Cambridge, and is a C.E. and J. P. for Perthshire. He married in 1857 Susan Hepburne, 
daughter of Archibald Hepburne Mitchelson of Middleton, co. of Edinburgh, and has 
issue — -^LfU. a.-<: v'/i • > ■• /'/ . icA <_ Si'ijc/: '■ 

I. Gertrude. 

2. Alexander. 

3. Archibald HEPBURNE.-'-^'Ly .i^^*" --':-*».^A^y 

4. Robert Philip. 

5. Allan Hinton. , 

6. Susan Grace. "^ <4^.^.^^ 

7. Duncan Charles. 

8. Jessie Elizabeth. 

9. Jane Eliza. 

BALLACHELISH, a.d. 1520. 

Allan Stewart, third son of Domhnull-nan-ord of Invemahyle, was with his father at the 
battle of Pinkie in 1547, and so demeaned himself at that engagement that he was placed 
at Ballachelish to defend the ready entrance into Appin at that point, either across 
a narrow strait of Lochleven, or down the pass of Glencoe. Ballachelish is a corruption 
of the t^vo Gaelic words, Bala and Chaolas, and thus signifies the town on the ferry. Allan 
married a daughter of M'Donald of Killiechonat, and had two sons, Alexander and 

Alexander Stewart, second of Ballachelish, married Janet, youngest daughter of 
John Stewart, brother of Invemahyle, and had two sons — John, who succeeded him, and 
Alexander. Also two daughters, Isabel and Beatrice. Alexander married a daughter of 
Campbell of Barcaldine, and had three sons — Alexander, of whom hereafter, Donald and 

John Stewart, third of Ballachelish, married a daughter of Duncan Stewart of 
Ardsheal, but, having no issue, was succeeded by his nephew, Alexander. 

Alexander Stewart, fourth of Ballachelish, bom a.d. 1684, succeeded his uncle. 
He married, first, Anne, daughter of John Stewart of Ardsheal, but had no issue ; 
secondly, Isabel, daughter of Alexander Stewart of Annat, a branch of the Stewarts of 
Ardvorlich, and by her had issue— i. John, who succeeded him; 2. Alexander, killed at 
Culloden, where four of his nephews — Duncan, Donald, Dugald, and Alexander— were 
wounded ; 3. a daughter, Isabella. 

Alexander was present at the battle of SherifFmuir in 1715, at Culloden, and died in 
1774 at a great age, and was succeeded by his son, John. 

John Stewart, fifth of Ballachelish, succeeded his father, and married Margaret, 
daughter of William Wilson of Murrayshall, and grand-daughter of John Haldane of 
Lanrick, Perthshire. He died 1794, leaving issue one daughter, Lilias. 

Lilias Stewart, sixth of Ballachelish, succeeded her father, and married Dugald 

Stuart, a captain in the 71st Regiment. She died in 1840, leaving issue — i. Charles, who 
succeeded, born 1787; 2. John, of whom hereafter; 3. Henry, died unmarried; also a 
daughter, Margaret, who died unmarried. 

Charles Stuart, seventh of Ballachelish, succeeded his mother, and married 
Clementina, daughter of Dr Bartlett Buchanan. He died in 1855, leaving issue — Dugald, 
died unmarried in 1872 ; John; and three daughters. 

John Stuart, second son of Lilias Stewart of Ballachelish, was born 1793. He was 
admitted to the English Bar in 1839, was subsequently made Queen's Council, and in 
1852 was appointed Vice-Chancellor. In 1846 he was elected Member of Parliament for 
Newark, was re-elected in 1847, ^"d i" 1852 was elected Member for Bury St Edmunds. 
In 1 86 1 he purchased the lands of Lochcarron, Sheildaig, and Kishom. He was appointed 
one of Her Majesty's Privy Council on his retirement from the Vice-Chancellorship in 
187 1. The Right Honourable Sir John Stuart married Jessie, daughter of Duncan 
Stewart of Inverlochy, and died in 1876, leaving issue — 

1. Dugald Stuart of Lochcarron. He married in 1876 Elizabeth Margaret Down- 

ing M'Donald of Dalness, only child of Captain George Downing of the Madras 
Army, and of Margaret Campbell M'Donald, daughter of Coll M'Donald of 
Dalness. She is grand-niece of Colonel A. Ranaldson M'Donell of Glengarry. 

2. John Stuart of Kishom, married in 1874 Mary Hay, daughter of Alexander 

Stewart of Achnacoan. 

3. Lilias, died unmarried. 

4. Jessie, married to Colonel Alexander Cameron Gleig of the Royal Artillery. 


Dugald Stewart, the first of Innischaoraich, was second son of Duncan, third of Inver- 
nahyle. In 1656 he purchased the lands of Innischaoraich and others in Breadalbane, 
from Sir James Campbell of Lawers. He married, and had issue — i. Allan, who succeeded 
him; and 2. Niel. 

Allan Stewart of Innischaoraich married a daughter of Burden of Fidals, and had 
a son, James, who succeeded him. 

James Stewart of Innischaoraich married a daughter of Stewart of Annat, and had 
two sons, who died immarried. 

Niel Stewart of Botuamie and Tullich in Glenlochay, afterwards of Edravinnoch 
in Glendochart, succeeded as heir to his nephew, James. He married, first, Jean, 
daughter of William Stewart of Drumchary in Fortingall, by whom he had John, who suc- 
ceeded him ; and, secondly, Jane Campbell, by whom he had no issue. 


In an incursion by Ian Glas, the first Earl of Breadalbane, against the Sinclairs of 
Caithness in 1680, Niel was in command of the western division of the Breadalbane men ; 
and at the battle of AUt-na-Meirleach, near Wick, where the Sinclairs were defeated, and 
many of them slain ; he fought with such prowess at lan's right hand, that it still forms 
subject of fireside talk in Breadalbane. The sword carried by Niel on this occasion 
is still intimately associated with the same division of the Breadalbane Highlanders, and 
worn by one of his descendants at their parades. 

John Stewart, of Edravinnoch, succeeded his father at his death in 1737, but only 
survived him by a few months. He married his cousin, Isabel, daughter of Patrick 
Stewart of Drumchary, by whom he had Charles, who succeeded him. He was out in 
1 7 15, under the Earl of Mar, and severely wounded. He described himself as surrounded 
by his assailants, like a stag amidst a pack of hounds, and obliged to fight his way 
through them. 

Charles Stewart of Edravinnoch, afterwards of Bohallie, well known for his 
chivalrous bearing, succeeded his father, John. His relative. General David Stewart of 
Drumchary and Garth, in his " Sketches of Highlanders," thus describes him : " This 
gentleman was remarkable for his strength and activity, and one of the best swordsmen of 
his time, in an age when good swordsmanship was common, and considered an indispensable 
and graceful accomplishment of a gentleman." He was out with the clan in the 'forty-five, 
and severely wounded at CuUoden. At the very hottest of the fight his sword broke, but 
hastily snatching up one from the side of a slain comrade, he fiercely continued the struggle. 
This sword is now in possession of C. A. M'Diarmid of Rockwood. He was helped by a 
friend from the field of batde, and mounted on an old white horse fortunately caught 
amongst the hills, and so brought home to Bohallie. In the year following, a detachment 
of soldiers was sent to pacify that district of Athole, and he, along with the Stewart lairds 
of Foss and Duntaulich, had to go into hiding in the wood of Kynachan. The watch was 
very close, and they were saved from frequent want by the tact of the dairymaid, who 
drove the milk cows daily through the wood, and in their direction. The officers were 
quartered upon DaNad Stewart of Kynachan, to whose sister, Clementina, Charles was 
engaged in marriage, and it so happened that one evening as she was in the sitting-room 
spinning her wheel — the useful accomplishment of Highland ladies in those times — and 
talking to the officers, a servant entered and said she was wanted in the kitchen. Laying 
aside her wheel, and apologizing for her absence, she followed the servant, and found 
Charles, who had come in by a back window, accompanied by a clergyman, waiting 
for her. The marriage ceremony was soon over, and Charles having attained his wish of 
leaving her, in the event of his death, with the position and benefits accruing to his widow, 
returned by the back window to his hiding-place, whilst Clementina, with a happy yet 
anxious heart, returned to her entertainment of the officers. 

It may be mentioned that David was wounded at CuUoden, and as he never returned 
to Kynachan, an uncertainty hangs over his fate. He was last seen with a broken 
sword in his hand, fighting against two dragoons, who were sorely pressing him. He was 
taken prisoner, it is said, and along with some others of mark, confined in a barn, which 
was set fire to by orders of Cumberland, and the prisoners shot as they tried to escape. 
His name afterwards appears in the list of those excluded from the benefits of the Act of 

By Clementina, Charles had Elizabeth, who succeeded him, and three other daugh- 
ters, Jean, Anne, and Euphemia. 

Elizabeth Stewart of Bohallie, married John M'Diarmid, Dunark, and had issue — 
I. Charles M'Diarmid of Bohallie, who married Jane, daughter of John Stewart of Foss, 
and left issue, Charles Alexander M'Diarmid of Rockwood, Killin, and Donald Alexander 
M'Diarmid, Killiemore ; 2. Grace, who married Donald Stewart of Glencripesdale (of the 
family of James Stewart of The Glens), and had issue — r. Alexander Stewart of Glencripes- 
dale, who married Isabella, daughter of Joseph Stewart of Foss, by whom he has left a 
daughter, Margaret,' married to Alexander Gallaway, Huntershill, ; 2. Charles Stewart of 
Tighnduin, Killin ; 3. Elizabeth, who married John Stewart of Findynate, and left issue ; 
and 4. Clementina, who married her cousin, C. A, M'Diarmid. 


THIS sept of the clan Stewart, commonly called the " M'Robs," received their name 
in consequence of their descent from a natural son of Robert Stewart^ son of 
Dugald, first of Appin. The name of this illegitimate son seems to have been Alan, and 
he apparently had a son called Robert ; for the sept was sometimes spoken of by the 
seannachies of the clan as Sliochd Rob Ailein Tc Rob, or the descendants of Robert, son 
of Alan, who was son of Robert. As early as the wars of Montrose, the " MacRobs " 
could of themselves, on an emergency, muster fifty broadswords so trusty and true, that 
an old bard of the sept speaks of them as the " back-bone " of the clan, — 

" Cnaimh droma mo chinnidh 

Bras 'am mire nan treun chath." 
(" The back-bone of our clan. 

Eager in the excitement of the battles of heroes.") 

The lands occupied by the " MacRobs " were Glenduror, Lettermore, and Acharn 
in Duror, which they held at first from Appin, but afterwards from Ardsheal, paying but 
a nominal rent, and looking upon their possessions almost as their own, subject only to 
the small rent payable by them. When in the winter of 1644-5 Montrose made his 

memorable raid into the country of the Campbells, so graphically described in the 
" Legend of Montrose," the sept, as usual, formed part of the Appin regiment, and so 
distinguished themselves that their prowess was specially alluded to in the following verse 
of a poem written to commemorate Montrose's brilliant campaign in the West High- 
land's : — 

" Thugh sibh an sgriob a bha fearail 
Null gu fearann nan Drumhneach, 
Deadh Chlann Ian on Innean 
'S clann Ailein-ic-Rob o Ghleannduror." 
" That was a gallant raid of yours 
Into the lands of the Campbells, 
Bold Maclans from Glencoe's steep stithy. 
With the brave MacAllans-MacRobs of Glenduror." 

When, after the battle of Culloden, Charles Stewart, fifth of Ardsheal, upon whose 
lands they lived, was in exile in France, the " MacRobs " voluntarily assessed themselves 
in the sum of one hundred pounds, — a large sum in those days, — which they sent to Ard- 
sheal by a secret messenger, though they were at the same time paying a considerable 
rent to the Government. At the time when the Appin estate was sold, Allan Stewart, 
a " MacRob," an active and well-known man in Appin, was tenant of the island of Shuna, 
and was the subject of several verses still current in the Strath. He had a numerous 
family, and some of his sons rose to distinction in the military and civil services. Towards 
the end of last century many of the " MacRobs " emigrated to America, where they 
acquired extensive lands, held by their descendants at the present day. 

The foregoing account of the " MacRobs" is by die Rev. Alexander Stewart, F.S.A. 
Scot., and F.R.P.S.E., minister of the parish of Ballachelish and Ardgour. Mr Stewart is 
well known as an accomplished naturalist and litterateur under the name of " Nether Loch- 
aber." He is descended from Stewarts on both sides of the house for nine generations, 
his descent on the male side being from the Sliochd Ailein 'ic Rob. In 1 7 1 5 Donald 
Stewart " MacRob " was tenant in Lettermore, and was wounded in the knee at Sheriffmuir, 
being known thereafter as Domhnuill crubach na Leitrich-more. He died at Letter-shuna 
in 1 731, leaving two sons. The eldest, James, an Episcopal clergyman, died unmarried; 
the second, Robert, succeeded his father in Lettermore. Robert fought at Culloden, and 
for some time after the battle was in hiding, but after the Act of Indemnity returned to 
Lettermore. He died about 1768, leaving by his wife, who was of the family of Glen- 
buckie, a son James, who was for many years a tenant of a large grazing in Glenfinlas. 
James' son, Peter, died in 1793, well known and much respected as the schoolmaster of 
Ardgour. His son, David, for fifty years an officer of the Inland Revenue, was father of 
the Rev. Alexander Stewart, " Nether Lochaber," whose writings have done so much to 
make the public acquainted with the legends and natural history of the West Highlands. 
2 A 


Charter by King James II. to John, Lord Lorn, of the Lords/dp of Lorn, and the 
Baronies of Innermeath and Redcastk. Rcgistmm Magni Sigiili, Lib. 4, 
No. 176. Dated 20tk June 1452. 

Jacobus Dei gracia rex Scotorum omnibus probis hominibus tocius terre sue clericis et 
laicis salutem : Sciatis nos dedisse, concessisse et hac presenti carta nostra confirmasse 
dilecto consanguineo nostro Johanni domino le Lorn, totum et integrum dominium de 
Lorn cum pertinenciis, necnon totam et integram baroniam de Innermeth cum pertinen- 
ciis, jacentes infra vicecomitatum de Perth, ac omnes et singulas terras baronie de Red- 
castel cum pertinenciis, jacentes infra vicecomitatum de Forfar : quod dominium et baronie 
prescripte fuerunt dicti Johannis hereditarie, et quod et que idem Johannes non vi aut 
metu ductus, nee errore lapsus, sed sua mera et spontanea voluntate, in manus nostras 
apud Edinburgh coram subscriptis testibus personaliter per fustem et baculum sursum 
reddidit, pureque simpliciter resignauit, ac totum jus et clameum que in dictis dominio et 
baroniis cum pertinenciis habuit, seu habere potuit, pro se et heredibus suis omnino quie- 
tum clamauit imperpetuum : Tenendum et habendum dictum dominium de Lorn necnon 
predictas baronias de Innermeth et de Redcastel, cum vniuersis et singulis annexis, 
dependenciis et pertinenciis suis quibuscunque, Johanni domino le Lorn, et heredibus 
masculis de corpore suo legitime procreatis seu procreandis ; quibus forte deficientibus, 
Waltero Steuart fratri germano dicti Johannis et heredibus masculis de corpore suo legitime 
procreatis seu procreandis ; quibus forte deficientibus, Alano Steuart fratri eciam germano 
dicti Johannis domini le Lorn et heredibus masculis de corpore suo legitime procreatis seu 
procreandis ; quibus forte deficientibus, Dauid Steuart, fratri germano dicti Johannis domini 
le Lorn et heredibus masculis de corpore suo legitime procreatis seu procreandis ; quibus 
forte deficientibus, Roberto Steuart fratri germano dicti Johannis et heredibus masculis de 
corpore suo legitime procreatis seu procreandis ; quibus forsan deficientibus, Archibaldo 

Steuart auunculo dicti Johannis domini le Lorn et heredibus masculis de corpore suo 
legitime procreatis seu procreandis ; quibus forte deficientibus, Jacobo Steuart militi et 
heredibus suis masculis de corpore suo legitime procreatis seu procreandis ; quibus fortasse 
deficientibus, Thome Steuart consanguineo dicti Johannis domini le Lorn et heredibus 
masculis corpore suo legitime procreatis seu procreandis ; quibus omnibus deficientibus, 
veris, legittimis et propinquioribus heredibus dicti Johannis domini le Lorn quibuscunque 
de nobis et successoribus nostris, in feodo et hereditate imperpetuum, per omnes rectas 

metas suas antiquas et diuisas, prout jacent in longitudine et latitudine, in boscis 

brasinis, brueriis et genestis, cum furca, fossa, sok sak, thol theme, infangandtheyf, 
outfangandtheyf, cum tenandiis, tenandriis, et libere tenencium seruiciis, cum communi 
pastura, liber introitu et exitu, columbis, columbariis, curiis et earum exitibus, herzeldis, 
bludwitis, et merchetis mulierum, ac cum omnibus aliis et singulis libertatibus, commodi- 
tatibus, asiamentis ac justis pertinenciis suis quibuscunque tam non nominatis quam 
nominatis, ad supradictas terras cum pertinenciis spectantibus, seu quoquomodo juste 
spectare valentibus in futurum, et adeo libere, quiete, plenarie, integre, honorifice, bene et 
in pace, in omnibus et per omnia, sicut dictus Johannes dominus le Lome aut sui predi- 
cessores, dictum dominium et terras cum pertinenciis, de nobis aut predicessoribus nostris, 
ante dictam resignationem nobis inde factam, libere tenuit seu possedit, tenuerunt seu 
possiderunt. In cuius rei testimonium presenti carte nostri magnum sigillum nostrum 
apponi precepimus, testibus reuerendis in Christo patribus, Jacobo et Willelmo Sancti 
Andree et Glasguensis ecclesiarum episcopis, Willelmo domino Crechton nostro cancellario 
et consanguineo predilecto, dilectis consanguineis nostris Patricio domino de Ghrame, 
Alexandre domino Montigomery, Johanni domino le Lyndissay de Byris, Andrea domino 
le Gray, magistro hospicii nostri, magistro Johanni Arous, archidiacono Glasguensi, et 
Georgeo de Schoriswode rectore de Culter. Apud Edinburgh vicesimo die mensis Junii 
anno Domini millesimo quadringentesimo quinquagesimo secundo et regni nostri decimo 

Charter by King James II., including tJie lands of Ennerdotty, Baldenys, Colndrane, 
Maw, Coltrane and Kyldeny, ijt tlie Barony of Innermeatli. Registmm 
Magni Sigilli, Lib. 4, No. 177. Dated 20th June 1452. 

Jacobus Dei gracia Rex Scotorum omnibus probis hominibus tocius terre sue clericis 
et laicis salutem : Sciatis nos dedisse concessisse et hac presenti carta nostra confir- 
masse, dilecto consanguineo nostro Johanni Domino le Lorn, totam et integram baro- 
niam de Innemeth cum pertinenciis, jacentem infra vicecomitatum de Perth : necnon 
omnes et singulas terras subscriptas, videlicet, totas et integras terras de Ennerdony 

et Baldenys, jacentes in comitatu de Stratheme infra vicecomitatum de Perth ; necnon 
terras de Coludrane et de Maw cum pertinenciis jacentes infra vicecomitatum de Fyf ; 
necnon terras de Coltrane cum pertinenciis jacentes infra vicecomitatum de Kynros ; nec- 
non terras de Kyldeny cum pertinenciis, jacentes infra vicecomitatum de Perth : que 
baronia et terre supradicte cum pertinenciis fuerunt dicti Johannis domini le Lome 
hereditarie et quas idem Johannes non vi aut metu ductus nee errore lapsus sed sua mera 
et spontanea voluntate in manus nostras apud Edinburgh per fustem et baculum coram 
testibus subscriptis personaliter sursum reddidit pureque simpliciter resignauit ac totuni 
jus et clameum que in dictis baronia et terris cum pertinenciis habuit seu habere potuit 
pro se et heredibus suis omnino quietum clamauit imperpetuum. Quas omnes et 
singulas terras prescriptas cum vniuersis earundem pertinenciis dicte baronie de Inner- 
meth incorporamus anneximus et vnimus pro perpetuo tenore presentis carte : Tenendam 
et habendam totam et integram baroniam predictam cum pertinenciis, vniuersiis et singuHs 
terris prescriptis, per nos ut premittitur dicte baronie anexis et vnitis, dicto Johanni 
domino le Lorn et heredibus suis, de nobis heredibus et successoribus nostris, in feodo 
et hereditate imperpetuum, per omnes rectas metas suas antiquas et diuisas, prout jacent 
in longitudine et latitudine, cum omnibus et singulis libertatibus commoditatibus et 
asiamentis ac justis pertinenciis suis quibuscunque tam non nominatis quam nominatis, 
ad supradictas tenas cum pertinenciis spectantibus seu quouismodo juste spectare valenti- 
bus in futurum, et adeo libere quiete plenarie integre honorifice bene et in pace in 
omnibus et per omnia, sicut predictus Johannes dominus le Lorn aut sui predicessores 
nominatas terras cum pertinenciis de nobis aut predicessoribus nostris antediactm resig- 
nacionem nobis inde factam liberius tenuit seu possedit tenuerunt seu possiderunt. In 
cuius rei testimonium presenti carte nostre magnum sigillum nostrum apponi precepimus 
testibus loco anno et die ut in precedenti carta anno regni nostri decimo sexto. 

Charter by King James IV. to Duncan Steiuart, son and lieir of Dougal Stewart 
of Appin, in life-rent, of tlie lands of Coide of Durroure, Ardsell, Lagyn- 
hall, Aiichincan, Auchindarach, Auchinblare, Bellecatdis, and Glencowyn. 
Reg. Mag. Sig., Lib. 13, No. 429. Dated 141/1 January 1500. 

Jacobus Dei gracia Rex Scotorum omnibus probis hominibus suis ad quos presentes litere 
pervenerint Salutem: Sciatis quod pro bono fideli et gratuito seruicio nobis per dilectum nos- 
trum Duncanum Stewarte fiHum et heredem quondam Dungalli Stewart de Appin, impenso 
et impendendo, dedimus et concessimus ac tenore presencium damus et concedimus pre- 
dicto Duncano, pro toto tempore vite sue, totas et integras viginti libratas terrarum nos- 
trarum de Durroure subscriptas, viz. : septem mercatas terrarum de Coule de Durroure, sep- 
tem mercatas terrarum de Ardsell et Lagynhall tres, mercatas terrarum de Auchincar, quinque 

I go 


mercatas terrarum de Auchindarach et Auchinblare et tres mercatas terrarum de Bellecaullis ; 
Necnon tolas et integras viginti mercatas terrarum de Glencowyn cum suis pertinenciis : 
extendentes in integro ad quinquaginta mercatas terrarum jacentium infra vicecomitatum 
nostrum de Perth. Quequidem terre cum pertinenciis fuerunt prius in manibus Johannis 
Makcoule, per donacionem nostram in minore etate nostra sibi desuper confectam, et nunc 
in manibus nostris existunt et iterim legittime deuenerunt, per nostram vltimam generalem 
reuocacionem ad perfectam etatem nostram viginti quinque annorum completorum factam 
de omnibus donacionibus per nos in minore etate nostra concessis. Tenendas et 
habendas totas et integras predictas viginti libratas terrarum de Durroure, viz. : septem 
mercatas terrarum de Cowle de Durroure, septem mercatas terrarum de Ardsell et 
Lagynhall, tres mercatas terrarum de Auchincare, quinque mercatas terrarum de Auchin- 
darach et Auchinblare, et tres mercatas terrarum de Bellecaullis, necnon viginti merca- 
tas terrarum de Glencowyn predictas cum pertinenciis, dicto Duncano in feodo suo, pro 
toto tempore vite sue, pro suo bono et gratuito seruicio nobis vt premittitur impenso et 
impendendo, per omnes rectas metas suas antiquas et diuisas prout jacent in longitudine 
et latitudine, in boscis planis moris maresiis viis semitis aquis stagnis riuolis pratis pascuis et 
pasturis molendinis multuris et eorum sequelis aucupacionibus venacionibus piscacionibus 
petariis turbariis carbonariis lapicidiis lapide et calce fabrilibus brasinis brueriis et genestis 
cum curiis et earum exitibus herezeldis bludwitis et merchetis mulierum, ac cum omnibus 
aliis et singulis libertatibus commoditatibus et aisiamentis ac justis pertinenciis suis quibus- 
cumque, tam non nominatis quam nominatis tam subtus terra quam supra terram procul et 
prope ad predictas terras cum pertinenciis spectantibus seu iuste spectare valentibus quo- 
modolibet in futurum. Et cum potestate dicto Duncano predictas terras cum pertinenciis 
suis propriis bonis occupandi vel easdem tenentibus assedandi prout sibi melius videbitur 
expediens conueniens et oportunum durante vita sua libere quiete bene et in pace, sine 
aliqua reuocacione aut contradictione quacunque. Quare vniuersis et singulis quorum 
interest vel interesse poterit stricte precipimus et mandamus ne quis dicto Duncano suisve 
subtenentibus aut seruitoribus in occupacione dictarum terrarum cum pertinenciis 
durante vita sua impedimentum seu obstaculum facial sub omni pena que competere 
poterit in hac parte. Datum sub magno sigillo nostro, apud Striueling decimo quarto die 
mensis Januarii anno Domini millesimo quingentesimo et regni nostri decimo tercio. 

Decree against Ewiu Alansotine and his followers, in favour of Archibald, Earl of 
Argyll, as Cessionar and Assignaye to Alexander, Earl of Huntly,for damages 
in the Jieirschip onBadenoch. Acts of the Lords of Council, \6tli February 1 507-8. 

Decretis and deliueris that Ewin Alansoune Johnne Alanesoune his brother [and ninety- 
two followers therein named] sail content and pay to Archbald Erie of Ergile as cessionar 

and assignaye to Alexander Erie of Huntlie lord Baidzenocht and Gillespy M'William 
and the remanent of the personis vnderwrittin thair sovmes and gudis as particulary 
followis quhilkis war masterfully spulzeit and awaytakin fra the saidis personis to quham 
the said Erie of Ergile is assignay, be the said Ewin Alanesoune Johne Alansone his 
brother and the remanent of the personis forwrittin thair complicis furtht of the braa of 
Baidzenocht, Garf Ayemoir and Glasterie the tym of the heirschip of the sammyn. That 
is to say, fra the said Gillaspye MakWilliam xl ky zoung and auld, xxx scheip, xx gait, 
vj hors, be boUis of aitis xx bollis of beir and insicht gudis of houshald, extendin to xU 
[and seventy-nine others whose lost goods and gear are enumerated] the quhilkis gudis 
pertenit till the said Alexander Erie of Huntlie and to the saidis Gillaspy M'William Nele 
Roy and the remanent of the saidis personis his tennentis and vtheris with thair cottaris 
as is abone expremit, and now pertenis to the saide Archibald Erie of Ergile as sessionar 
and assignay to tham as thair lettres of powar and assignation made to him thairupon 
schawin and producit befor the lordis proportit and bur. And becaus that quhen the 
saide Erie of Ergile seruit our souerane lordis lettres of sumondis apon the saidis Ewin 
Alanson and Johne his brother and thair complicis for the foirsaidis gudis and sovmez 
the saide Ewin and his saide brother and complicis spulzeit and tuke the saide sumondis 
fra Ewin M'William our souerane lordis scheref in that part contenit in the saide 
sumondis for the quhilk the saidis Ewin Alanson and Johne his brother war sumonit to 
compeir befoir our souerane lord and his lordis of counsale at ane certane day bigan with 
certificatioun quhidder that thai comperit and deliuerit the saide sumondis or nocht the 
lordis of counsal forsaide wald procede and minister justice apon the pointis of the samyn 
in sa fer as the saide Erie of Ergile wald mak faitht was contenit in tharae, as the saide 
lettrez gevin thairupon deuly execut and indorsit schawin befor the saidis lordis proportit 
and bur at the quhilk terme the saide Erie previt sufficiently that the saidis gudis war 
contenit in the saide sumondis and that the saide Ewin Alanson and his brother tuke 
and spulzeit fra the saide scheref in that part the samin forsaide lettrez of sumondis and 
thairfor ordanis our souerane lordis lettrez to be direct to compell and distrenze thairfor. 
The saide Erie of Ergile being personaly present and the saide Ewan Alanson and Johne 
his brother being lauchfully sumonit and chargeit be the saide last lettrez eftir the tenour 
abone expremit oftimez callit and nocht comperit. 

Decree against Ewin Allanesoune and Duncan Stewart, in favour of Archibald, 
Earl of Argyll, for 500 inerks in full contentment of the herschip oti Badenocli. 
Acts of the Lords of Council, gih February 1508-9. 

Decretis and deliueris that Ewin Allanesoune and Duncan Stewart baitht personaly 
present, of thair avine consent, coniunctly and seueraly renunceand the benefite of 

diuisioun, sail content and pay till Archibald Erie of Ergill, the sovme of five hundreth 
merkis vsuall monye of Scotland, betuix the dait herof and the feist of Mertimes in wynter 
nixt to cum in full contentatioun and asithment of the herschip of Baidzenach and the 
richt thairof pertening to the said Archibald Erie of Ergile. And that our souerane lordis 
lettrez be direct to compell and distrenze thairfor eftir the passage of the said terme in 
dew form. And thairfor the said Erie transferrit in the saidis personis all rycht that he 
haid to the said herschip and gudis contenit in the decrete gevin thairuppoun at Edin- 
burgh the xvj day of Februare the zere of God j" v"^ and sevin zeris. 

Contimiaiion of the Summons raised by Duncan Stewart of Appin, and certam of 
his Duror tenants, against Duart, Coll, and Ulva. Acts of the Lords of 
Council, gth May 1509. 

CoNTiNEWis the summondis rasit at the instance of Duncane Stewart of Appin and 
certane his tennentis duelland apon his landis of Durrour agane Lauchlane M'Gillane of 
Dowarde, Johnne M'Cane Maklauchlane of Coll, and Dunslavy M'Vorich of Vlway, for the 
wranguis distructioun and withhaldin fra the said Duncane and his said tennentis of 
xxx'J ky tua hors xx bollis of aitis, and diuers vther gudis, like as at mair lentht is contenit 
in the said summondis thairuppoun on to the xvj day of Junij nixt to cum with continua- 
tion of dais, in the samyn form force and effect as it is now, but preiudice of party, and 
ordanis the said Duncane and his tennentis to haue lettres to summond the witnes that 
wer summonit of befor and comperit nocht to be summonit vnder gretar panis, and ma 
witnes gif thai plese, agane the said day, the said Duncane being present for him self and 
his tenentis. And that the remanent of the said personis be warnit of this continuation 
and to here the witnes suome. 

Continuation of the S?immons raised by Duncan Stewart of Appin, and certain of 
his Appin tenants, against Duart, Coll, and Ulva. Acts of the Lords of 
Council, iqth May 1509. 

CoNTiNEWis the summondis rasit at the instance of Duncane Stewart of Appin and 
certane his tennentis duelland apon his landis of Appin agane Lauchlane M'Gillen of 
Doward, Johne M'Cane M'Clachlane of Coll, and Dunslavy M'Vorich of Wlway, for 
the wrangws distruction and withhalding fra the said Duncane and his tenentis of 
ane galay of xxxij airis, price L" and diuers vtheris gudis, like as at mar lentht is 
contenit in the said summondis, onn to the xvj day of Junij nixt to cum with 
continewation of dais, in the samyn forme force and effect as it is now, but preiudice 

of party. And ordanis the said Duncane and his tenentis to haf lettrez to summond 
the witness that war summond of befor and comperit nocht to be summond vnder 
gretar panis and ma witnes gif thai plese agane the said day. The said Duncane 
being present for him self and his said tenentis. And that the remanent of the 
said personis be wamit of this continewation and to here the witnes suorne. 

CoNTiNEWis the summondis rasit at the instance of Duncane Stewart of Appin, 
and certane his tennentis duelland apoun his landis of Appin, agane Lauchlane 
Makgilleon of Doward, Johnne Makcane M'Lauchlane of Coll, and Dunslevy M'Vorich 
of Vhvay, for the wranguis spoliation distructioun and withhaldin fra the said 
Duncane and his tennentis of xx ky with thar foUowaris, and diuers vtheris gudis, 
like as at mar lentht is contenit in the said summondis on to the xvj day of 
Junij nixt to cum, with continuation of days, in the samyn forme force and effect 
as it is now but preiudice of party. And ordanis the said Duncane and his 
tennentis to haf lettrez to summond the witnes thai war summond of befor and 
comperit nocht to be summond vnder gretar panis and maa witnes gif thai plese 
agane the said day. The said Duncane being present for him self and his tenentis. 
And that the remanent of the said personis be wamit of this continuation and 
to here the witnes suorne. 

Decree against Duart, Coll, and Ulva,for damages, in favour of Duncan Stewart 
of Appin and his Appin tenants. Acts of the Lords of Council, 21st July 

Decretis and deliueris that Lauchlane M'Gilleoun of Dowart, Johne M'Cane 
M'Lauchlane of Coll, and Dunslavy M'Worich of Wlway, sail content and pay to 
Duncane Stewart of Appin, and to thir persounis his tennentis vnderwrittin, duelland 
apon his landis of Appin, thair gudis particulary efter following that is to say to 
Johne M'llbride xx'i ky with thare followaris, tua hors and Ix boUis of aitis : Johne 
Duff M'Wicar xv ky with thair followaris and tua hors ; Gillecrist Maknerrane xl 
ky with thair followaris, iiii hors and Ix bollis of aitis ; Finla Makgillecallum Makcolluff 
xxii ky with thair followaris; Nene Donill Maklauchlane xl ky with thair followaris; 
Johne Roy M'Culloiff xv ky with thair followaris; Finla M'Donill Makdwill M'Ken- 
nyth x ky with thair followaris ; Johne Smytht xii ky with thair followaris, and tua 
hors ; Ewin Maksorlee V™ of ky with thair followaris, and iiij hors ; Gillecallum 
Moyll xxij hors, xij scor of ky with thair followaris, ij'= schepe, j*^ gait, iij= bollis 
of aitis, and xl bollis of bere ; Katrine Nenesorlee xxx'J ky with thair followaris ; 
Dugall Makolcallum v'"'xiij ky with thair followaris ; Lauchlane RLikolcollum xv ky 
2 B 

with thair foUowaris. The quhilkis gudis pertenit to the said Duncane and to his 
tennentis abonewrittin particulary as said is, and war spulzeit and away takin be 
the saidis Lauchlane M'Gilleoun, Johne Makcane M'Lauchlane, and Dunslaby Mak- 
worich, and thair complicis out of the said landis of Appin like as was sufficiently 
previt before the saidis lordis. And ordanis our souerane lordis lettres to be direct 
to compell and distrenze thairfor in dew forme as efferis. The said Duncane 
being personaly present for him self and as procuratour for his said tennentis and 
the remanent of the saidis personis being lauchfully summonit to this actioun 
oftimez callit and nocht comperit. 

Decree against Duart, Coll, and Ulva,for damages, in favour of Duncan Stewart 
of Appin and his Duror tenants. Acts of the Lords of Council, 2\st July 1509. 

Decretis and deliueris that Lauchlane M'Gilleon of Doward, Johnne M'Cane M'Lauchlane 
of Coll, and Dunslavy M'Vorich of Vlway, sail content and pay till Duncane Stewart 
of Appin and thir persounis his tenentis vnderwrittin duellin apone his laundis of 
Durrour, thir gudis particulary efter followin, that is to say, to Malcome M'Nerane 
xxx'J ky tua hors xxx'J bollis of aitis ; Archibald M'Kene M'Gillmichell xxx'J ky 
with thair followaris, tua hors, xxx'J t> aitis ; Gillcrist Makduncane Roy xxx'J ky, ij hors 
xx'J iiii'' aitis ; Donald Revach Makellop xxxv ky with thair followaris, and ij hors, 
xxviii 1= atis ; Alexander Stewart vj"^ ky with thair followaris, xij hors, ij': ^ aitis ; M'Gillegyll 
Johne Moir and Kynneith M'Vicar V" ky with thair followaris, vj hors, Ix ^ aitis ; 
Johnne Makane Maksorle, Duncane Glas and Fynla Makduncane Roy, Ix ky with 
thair followaris, iiij hors, Ixxx ^ atis, price of the pece of the said ky with thair followaris 
xxs price of the pece of ilk hors ourhede xl^, price of ilk boll of aitis iiij^ The 
quhilkis gudis pertenit to the said Duncane and his said tennentis and war spulzeit 
and awaytakin be the saidis Lauchlane Johne M'Cane and Dunslavy M'Vorich and 
thair complicis o[ut] of the said Duncanis landis of Durrour forsaid ... as was sufficiently 
previt befor the saidis lordis. And thairfor ordanis that our souerane lordis lettres 
be direct to com[peIl] and distrenze thairfor : the said Duncane being personaly present 
for him self and as procuratour for his said tenentis, and the remanent of the saidis 
personis being lauchfully summonit to this actioun oftimez callit and nocht comperit. 

Decree against Duart, Coll, and Ulva, for damages, in favour of Duncan Stezvart of 
Appin and his Appin tenants. Acts of tlie Lords of Council, 2 \st July 1 509. 

Decretis and deliueris that Lauchlane M'Gilleon of Doward, John Makcane 
IMaklauchlane of Coll, and Dunslavy M'Vorich of Vlway, sail content and pay to 

Duncane Stewart of Appin and thir personis his tenentis vnderwrittin duelland apon 
his landis of Appin, thir gudis and monye particulary efter following, that is to say 
to the said Duncane Stewart ane galay of xxxij airis, price L", ane boit of x airis 
price X merkis, ane boit of viij airis price viij merk, and tua boitis ilkane of tham 
of four airis price iiij merkis ; Malcum Makvicar xxxiiij ky with thair followaris ; Johne 
Makgeig xiiij ky wth thair followaris ; Katrine Nenelauchlane vj ky ; Archibald Maketre, 
Mulmory M'Kere and Johne M'Ylnor Ix of ky with thair followaris, foure hors, 
j= bollis of aitis ; Gillecrist Awgh xl ky with thair followaris ; Gillecallum Moyll xl'' of 
monye ; Alexander Stewart vther xl'' ; Johne Makdoule Makintyre xxiiii ky with thair 
followaris ; Duncane Makene Makdonach xxxij ky with thair followaris ; Gillemertyne 
Makere xij ky, and Johne Fischar viii ky, price of the pece of the said ky with thair 
followaris xx^, price of the pece of the said hors ourhede xP, price of ilk boll of aitis iiij^ 
The quhilk gudis and sovmes pertenit to the said Duncane and his said tennentis and 
war spulzeit and takin fra tham be the saidis Lauchlane, Johne M'Cane, and Dun- 
slavy Makvorich, and thair complicis, like as was sufficiently previt befor the saidis 
lordis. And als sail content and pay to the saide Duncane the sovme of ij'= xx merkis 
vsuall monye of Scotland of male, with vtheris dewiteis, cheis and wedderis, extending 
to xl'' zerlie be the space of thre zeris nixt efter the spoliation of the said gudis, 
for the balding waist of the said Duncanis landis of Appin and Durrour be the 
saidis personis and thair complicis, as was elikewis previt befor the said lordis. And 
ordanis our souerane lordis lettrez to be direct to compell and distrenze thairfore 
in dew forme as efferis ; the said Duncane being personaly present for him self and 
as procuratour for his said tenentis, and the remanent of the saidis personis being 
lauchfully summonit to this actioun oftimes callit and nocht comperit. 

Charter of Apprisement by King James IV. in favour of Duncan Steivart of 
Appin, over the lands of Duart. Regis trwn Magni Sigilli, Lib. i6. Dated 
Ml April 1 510. 

Jacobus Dei gracia Rex Scotorum : Omnibus probis hominibus probis hominibus 
tocius terre sue clericis et laicis Salutem : Sciatis quod nostras direximus literas certis 
vicecomitibus nostris in hac parte, eis mandantes et precipientes ad compellendum 
et distringendum Lauchlanum Makgilleon de Dowart, terras et bona sua, pro summa 
quatuor millium et quingentarum mercarum vsualis monete regni nostri, super 
ipsum per dilectum nostrum Duncanum Stewart de Appin coram concilii nostri 
dominis recuperata et optenta. Et quia dictus Lauchlanus in bonis mobilibus ipsius 
bonis ascrutatis et non repertis pro dicta summa distringibilis non extitit, ideo 

sibi per nostras alias literas per deliberacionem dictorum dominorum postea directas, 
precepimus et mandavimus quod ipse Lauchlanus infra quadraginta dies huiusmodi 
mandatum immediate sequentes, ad terras et hereditatem suam intraret, de quibus 
ipse cartam nostram cum precepto sasine habuit, per nos sibi desuper confectam, 
postquam huiusmodi terre in manibus nostris forisfacte fuerunt, sic quod prefatus 
Duncanus easdem sibi appretiare poterat pro huiusmodi summa, per ipsum super 
dictum Lauchlanum ut premittitur recuperata et obtenta; sibi Lauchlano certificantes 
quod si ipse in hoc deficerat, et ad huiusmodi terras intrare neclexerat, lapsis 
dictis quadraginta diebus, nos tanquam dominus superior dictarum terrarum ipsum 
Duncanum nobis in tenentem earundem recipere volumus, prout in dictis nostris 
Hteris per dilectum nostrum Dauid Tempilman nuncium et vicecomitem nostrum 
in hac parte debite executis et indorsatis plenius continetur. Et quia dictus 
Lauchlanus sasinam dictarum terrarum et hereditatis sue accipere recusauit, et ad 
easdem intrare noluit, secundum tenorem huiusmodi literarum nostrarum, lapsis dictis 
quadraginta diebus completis, ad huiusmodi sasinam in fraudem et preiudicium 
sepedicti Duncani sui creditoris omnino postposuit, ideo prefati consilii nostri 
Domini nobis consuluerunt ad recipiendum ipsum Duncanum nobis in tenentem de 
tantis prefati Lauchkni terris sicut se extendunt ad valorem supradicte summe quatuor 
millium et quingentarum mercarum, et ipsum in eisdem infeodare per cartam et 
sasinam nostras. Et nos huiusmodi consilium perutile et racioni consonum con- 
siderantes, ideo dedimus et concessimus et confirmauimus, et hac presenti carta 
nostra damus et confirmamus hereditarie dicto Duncano Stewart de Appin, omnes 
et singulas terras et officia subscripta, que dicto Lauchlano ante forisfacturara 
earundem spectabant et pertinebant, viz. : tolas et integras terras de Dowart, exten- 
dentes ad vnam denariatam terrarum, cum castro earundem, vnam denariatam 
terrarum de Ardthorgh, duas denariatas terrarum de Thoirchormaigh, vnam denari- 
atam terrarum de Ardnagros, duas denariatas terrarum de binis Bamawfrane duas 
denariatas terrarum de Auchnauchcraighe, vnam denariatam terrarum de Ardnad- 
hrogit, duas denariatas terrarum de binis Glennannis, vnam denariatam terrarum de 
Tulkelis, vnam denariatam terrarum de Auchtabigh, vnam denariatam terrarum de 
Ardkeill, tres oblatas terrarum de binis Thornaskeah, vnam denariatam terrarum de 
Glenkeill, vnam denariatam terrarum de Blareboy, jacentem infra terras de Schorissay, 
vnam denariatam de Kilfadrich, vnam denariatam terrarum de Ardkinsinis, vnam 
denariatam terrarum de Ormussaige, tres denariatas terrarum de tribus Chorris, vnam 
denariatam terrarum de Kilmuagh, vnam denariatam terrarum de Nagros, vnam 
denariatam terrarum de Naigele, jacentem infra ten-as de Brolos, tres oblatas terrarum 
de Fregittill, tres oblatas terrarum de Calwegar, vnam denariatam terrarum de 
Soneboll, vnam denariatam terrarum de Gilcriste, vnam denariatam terrarum de 

Laigh, vnam denariatam terrarum de Challich duas denariatas terrarum de Areyn, 
vnam denariatam terrarum de Ymgway, vnam oblatam terrarum de Pennymore et 
Adirenis, septem denariatas terrarum de Chressenis, vBani denariatam terrarum de 
Chorssay, jacentem infra terras de Morinche, vnam denariatam terrarum de Bowrich, 
duas oblatas terrarum de Kilinchane, vnam denariatam terrarum de Cliallemore, 
vnam denariatam terrarum de Vlluch, vnam denariatam terrarum de Ardbalkuich, 
vnam denariatam terrarum de Kenloch, vnam denariatam terrarum de Dorferich, 
tres oblatas ten-arum de Duschoring, tres oblatas terrarum de Aremelkeyn, vnam 
denariatam terrarum de Drumgrane, vnam denariatam terrarum de Chorsboill, vnam 
oblatam terrarum de Knoighoir, duas denariatas terrarum de Enighsay, vnam den- 
ariatam terrarum de Glaichvgare, tres oblatas terrarum de Ardeskin, tres oblatas 
terrarum de Regdill, vnam denariatam terrarum de Chorsloke, vnam oblatam terra- 
rum de Nenoe, duas denariatas terrarum de binis Fanemore, vnam oblatam terrarum 
de Erdnely, vnam denariatam terrarum de Kilmichaell, tres oblatas terrarum de 
Corthamore, vnam denariatam terrarum de Oskemore, vnam denariatam terrarum de 
Bowrich, vnam denariatam terrarum de Thynniddale, et vnam oblatam terrarum de 
Baigh, antiqui extentus, cum suis pertinenciis, Jacentes in insulis nostris de Mule 
et Teree et infra vicecomitatum nostrum de Perth, vnacum officiis Senescallatuum 
de Teree et Mule, cum suis feodis, libertatibus deuoriis et hominum seruiciis, sicut 
quondam ipsius Lauchlani pater liabuit et possidebat tempore quo ipse senescallus 
eorum fuerat, quinque mercatas terrarum in Duray nuncupatarum Ardbanich, Cam- 
mis, Terbert, Croagh, Glennamuke, Hvanagelle, et Mylwoy, extendentium ad vnam 
denariatam terrarum antiqui extentus cum suis pertinenciis, Jacentium in insula de 
Dura, et infra vicecomitatum nostrum predictum ; ac totas et integras terras de 
Dunanwldach et Achataymolen, extendentes ad decem mercatas terrarum antiqui 
extentus cum suis pertinenciis, jacentes in Knapnadale et infra vicecomitatum nostrum 
de Tarbert, et duodecim mercatas terrarum de Garmorane Auchnadialla, extendentes 
ad sex meroitas cum dimedia mercate terrarum sex mercatas cum dimedia mercate 
terrarum de Corremyll, tres mercatas terrarum de Cammask, tres mercatas terrarum de 
Thomelekebeg, tres mercatas terrarum de Dowane, tres mercatas terrarum Thowmcarrigh 
antiqui extentus cum suis pertinenciis, jacentes in Lochaber et infra vicecomitatum nos- 
trum de Inuemes, vnacum officio senescallatus de Garmorane, cum libertatibus proficuis 
deuoriis et hominum seruiciis eiusdem, sicut dictus quondam ipsius Lauchlani pater 
habuit Que omnes et singule terre suprascripte in integro extendunt ad centum et 
octo libras terrarum antiqui extentus cum pertinenciis, et dictum Duncanum et heredes 
suos nobis in tenentes earundem recipientes, et dictum Lauchlanum et heredes suos 
virtute acti nostri parliamenti super debito confecti de eisdem destituentes : Tenendas 
et habendas totas et integras predictas terras et officia suprascripta cum suis feodis 

et libertatibus proficuis deuoriis et huiusmodi seruiciis predictis viz. : terras de Dowart 
cum castro earundem Ardthorgh, Thoirghormaich, Ardnagros, terras de binis Bamaw- 
frane, Auchnachcraghe, Ardnadhrogit, terras de binis Glennannis, Tulkelis Auchtabich, 
Ardkeill, terras de binis Thomaskeah, Glencarrell, Blareboy, Kilfadrich, Ardknesins, 
Ormissaigh, terras de tribus Chorris Killmuach, Nagros, Nageill, Fregittill, Calwegar, 
Soneboll, Gilcrist, Laigh Challich Areyn Ymg^vay Pennymore, Ardyrenis, Thressenis 
Chorssay, Bovrigh, Killinchane, Callemore, Vlluch, Ardbalkinch, Kenloch, Darferiche, 
Duschoring, Aremelkeyn, Drumgrane, Chorisboill, Knokhoir, Enighsay, Glaschvgare, 
Ardskin, Regdill, Thorsloskye, Nenoe, terras de binis Fanemore, Ardnaly, Kilmichael, 
Corthamore, Oskemore, Bowrigh, Tennidaill, Baigh, vnacum officiis Senescallatuum de 
Teree et Mule, cum suis feodis libertatibus deuoriis et hominum seruiciis, terras 
de Duray nuncupatas Ardbannich, Cammis, Terbert, Chroagh, Glennamuk, Hvannageill 
Milroy, terras de Dunanwldach, et Achataymolen, terras de Garmorane, Auchanadialla, 
Corremyll, Cammask, Thomelekebeg, Dowane, Thowmcarrigh, vnacum officio Senes- 
callatus de Garmorane, cum libertatibus proficuis deuoriis et hominum seruiciis eiusdem 
cum suis pertinenciis, dicto Duncano et heredibus suis de nobis et successoribus 
nostris in feodo et hereditate imperpetuum, per omnes rectas metas suas antiquas 
et diuisas prout jacent in longitudine et latitudine, in boscis planis moris marresiis 
viis semitis aquis stagnis riuolis pratis pascuis et pasturis molendinis multuris et eorum 
sequelis aucupacionibus venacionibus piscacionibus petariis turbariis carbonariis 
lapicidiis lapide et calce fabrilibus brasinis bruariis et genestis cum curiis et earum 
exitibus herezeldis bludvvitis et merchetis mulierum cum furca fossa sok sak, tholl, 
theme, infangtheif outfangtheif pitt et gallous, cum castris turribus fortaliciis et mansi- 
onibus terrarum predictarum cum tenentibus tenandriis et libere tenencium seruiciis 
earumdem, cum communi pastura libero introitu et exitu cum similibus libertatibus 
et huiusmodi priuilegiis ac aliis proficuis dictorum senescallatuum : Et cum potestate 
eisdem libere gaudendi vtendi et exercendi adeo libere sicut quondam ipsius Lauchlani 
pater aut predecessores sui easdem prius tenuit seu possedit tenuerunt seu possiderunt, 
ac cum omnibus aliis et singulis libertatibus commoditatibus et asiamentis ac iustis 
suis pertinenciis quibuscumque tam non nominatis quam nominatis tam subtus terra 
quam supra terram procul et prope ad predictas terras castram et officia cum suis 
feodis libertatibus proficuis deuoriis et hominum seruiciis predictis cum suis pertinenciis 
spectantibus seu inste spectare valentibus quomodolibet in futurum libere quiete plenarie 
integre honorifice bene et in pace sine aliqua reuocacione, impedimento aut contra- 
diccione quibuscumque Reddendo inde annuatim dictus Duncanno et heredes sui 
nobis et successoribus nostris wardam et releuium dictarum terrarum et officiorum 
debitum et consuetum. Et non obstante presenti nostra donacione et infeodacione 
volumus et ordinamus pro nobis et successoribus nostris quod dictus Lauchlanus 


et heredes sui habeat et Iiabeant plenum regressum et ingressum in et ad omnes et 
singulas terras et officia predicta cum pertinenciis quandocunque persoluerit vel per- 
solueriut dicto Duncano heredibus suis vel assignatis dictam sumniam quatuor millium 
et quingentarum mercarum vnacum expensis que super nos tanquam dominum 
superiorem pro nostris carta et infeodatione facte fuerint Dummodo solucionem 
huiusmodi infra septennium datam presentium proximo et immediate sequentem iuxta 
tenorem dicti acti parliamenti faciant et perimpleant, firmis tamen et proficuis dictarum 
terrarum et officiorum per dictum Duncanum et heredes suos interim percipiendum 
vsque redempcionem earundeni in solucione dicte summe et expensarum minime 
computandarum secundum tenorem dicti Acti parliamenti. In cuius Rei testimonium 
presenti carte nostre magnum sigillum nostrum apponi precepimus, Testibus ut in 
tercia carta precedenti apud Edinburgh octauo die mensis Aprilis Anno Domini 
Millesimo Quingentesimo decimo et Regni nostri vicesimo secundo. 

Offer by tlte Earl of Argyll of his own security for Duart. Acts of the Lords of 
Council, 1st March 1512. 

My Lord Erll of Ergile forspekar for Makclane, askit ane Instrument that he offerit 
him reddy baith for the said Makclane and for him self to fulfill thair part of the 
decrete arbitrale gevin betwix the said Makclane and Duncane Stewart, and thairfor 
protestit gif the said Duncane Stewart wald gang fra the said decrete that it suld nocht 
turn the said Makclane to preiudice sen he was reddy as said is : hora secunda. 

Claim by David, Bishop of A rgyll, of his Share of the Composition payable to 
Appin by Duart under the Arbitral Decree. Acts of the Lords of Council, 2nd 
March 15 12. 

Dauid bischop of Ergile protestit gif the remission that the Erll of Ergile suld get to 
Duncan Stewart and his tennentis, fell within the date of his lettre that he has of the 
King, that he micht haf his part of the Composition according to his said lettre, and 
askit this claus of the decrete arbitral gevin betwix Makclane and the said Duncan to 
be insert in the Instrument videlicet And sail gif to the said Duncan his tennentis 
and seruandis the Kingis remissioun of all crimes and offensis committit be thame 
siclik as the men of Lorn has gottin the samyn and of the samyn date, thai payand 
thairfor siclike as the tennentis and men of Lorn pais : hora secunda. 


Decree against Archibald Earl of Argyll, as security for Djiart, in favour of 
Djincan Stewart of Appin for 1040 vierks. Acts of the Lords of Council, 2nd 
March 15 12. 

Decretis and deliueris that Archibald Erll of Ergile of his a\in consent as borgh 
and dettour for Lauchlane Makgillane of Dowart, sail content and pay to Duncan Stewart 
of Appin the sovm of ane thousand and fourty merkis vsuall money of Scotland. 

Petition by Duart and Appin that tlie strength of a Decree might be given to the 
award made in favottr of tlie latter by Five Arbitrators at Edinburgh on l<^th 
February 1 5 1 2. Acts of the Lords of Council, 2nd March 1512. 

CoMPERiT Lauchlane M'Gillane of Dowart on the ta part, and Duncane Stewart of 
Appin on the tother part, and gaif in this decrete arbitrale vnderwrittin, and desirit 
the samyn to be put in form of act and to haif the strenth of the decrete of the 
saidis lordis in tyme to cum, of the quhilk the tenour foUowis : At Edinburgh the nyne- 
tene day of Februar the zeir of God j"" v<^ and xij zeris We Dauid bischop of Gallovay, 
Alexander Erie of Huntlie, Archibald Erie of Ergile, Williame Erie of Erroll, and 
William Scot of Baluery, Jugis arbitratouris and amicable compositouris comonelie 
chosin betwix Lauchlane M'Gillane of Dowart for him his frendis men and seruandis 
on the ta part, and Duncane Stewart of Appyn, for him his friendis men and seruandis 
on the tother, part anent the clame of the sovme of aucht thousand merkis clamit 
be the said Duncane and optenit be the said Duncane befor the lordis of counsale, 
and anent the Richt and clame of the landis apprisit to the said Duncane for the 
said sovme, and vtheris sovmez pertenyng to the said M'Gillane, and apon all vthir 
debatis clamez wrangis spoulzeis vnkyndenes herschippis slauchteris committit or thiftis 
committit be thame thair frendis men and seruandis and anerdance to thame in ony 
tyme bigane befor the day of the date hereof Wee the saidis Jugis all in ane voce 
decretis deliueris and gevis for sentence arbitrale, with consent of the saidis partys 
and in presens of thame, that the said Lauchlane M'Gillane sail in hale contentatioun 
assithment and payment of the said sovmez of viij™ merkis . . . content and pay to 
the said Duncan the sovme of j"" and xl merkis in maner and form efter following. 
That is to say, to James Stewart, Alanys son, for the Redemption and losing of the 
landis of Glenrevern pertenyng to the saide Duncan, the sovme of Ixxx'' ; and to Alane 
Stewart bruther to the said Duncan for the redemptioun and losing of the landis 
callit Twaletter pertenying to the said Duncan, the sovme of xl'' ; and to the airis 
of vmquhill Duncan Makcowle for the redemption of the landis of the four merk 

land of Arthur, the twa-merk land of the lard Grenocht, and the twa-merk land of 
Killard, pertenyng to the said Duncan, xl''; quhilk landis war analyt be the said 
Duncane, and sail mak the heretage of the saidis landis fred and dischargit of the 
said alienationis sa that the said Duncan may lefullie enter to the Witsounday male of 
the forsaid land as his heretage and as he had befoir the alienatioun thairof : Sauffand 
to the said James, Alane, and M'Cowhs airis, the takkis of the said landis gif thai ony 
haif and suld half be thair Reuersionis ; and the remanent of the said sovme quhilk 
is viij= merkis to be pait to the said Duncan Stewart [at sundry specified terms within 
two years and twenty days, the said Lauchlane finding sufficient security for due payment 
of the same] and the said sourte being fundin, the said Duncane sail resigne renunce 
quyteclame and discharge the apprising led apon the said Lauchlanys landis for the said 
sovme of viij" merkis . . . and the said Lauchlan and Duncan sail gif sufficient lettres 
of slaynis and discharge to vtheris of all actioun of slauchter etc. . . . and sail tak 
vtheris in hartly and afuald kyndenes and tendemes and neuir to commit brek iniur 
wTang or vnkyndenes till vtheris in tyme to cum . . . and the said Duncan sail leif and 
gif over to our souerane lord the liverent or heretage that he has of threttene merk-land 
that lyis besyde the castell of Innerlochquhy and allegit to pertene to the said Lauchlane 
in heretage, and sail neuir to intromet thairwith, nor with na vthir heretage pertenyng to 
the said Lauchlane in tyme to cum, and als the said Lauchlane sail caus the said 
Archibald Erie of Ergile ... to remit and forgif to the said Duncane the ane hundretht 
merkis that the said Duncan aucht to the said Erie of Ergile and to Sir Duncan 
Campbell his eme for the releif and mariage of the said Duncane, the said Duncane 
mariand mth the said Erlis avise in a place resonable quhar the said Erie is contentit of, 
and gif thai wary thairapon that variance to be modifeit be the counsale of the remanent 
of the Jugis befoirwrittin, and als the said Erie promittis to remit and discharge . . . 
al vnlawis and vthir claraez and actionis that the said Erie has to ask or craif at the 
said Duncane his tennentis and seruandis in ony tyme bigane . . . and sail do his 
diligence to caus Sir Duncan Campbell his eme to do the samyn; and als the said 
Erie sail Renew the Infeftment quhilk the said Duncan has of the landis of the 
Appin . . . and sail gif to the said Duncan his tennentis and seruandis the Kingis 
remissioun of all crymez and offensis committit be thame, siclik as the men of Lorn 
has gottin the samyn and of the samyn date : Thay payand thairfor siclik as the tennentis 
and men of Lorn pais thairfor, and the said Duncan salbe trew man and seruand to the 
said Erie and kepe a gude part to him aganis all personis his allegiance to our souerane 
lord ; And the said Erie salbe trew maister to the said Duncan and kepe afauld 
part to him in his justice and honest materis and decretis : and ordanis this oure 
decrete to be fulfillit and kepit in all punctis and specialie in kyndenes and hertlynes 
in tyme to cum [The party failing to the other to be subject to certain specified 
2 C 


penalties] and our decrete to be deliuerit to the partys in forme of Instrument . . . 
The quhilk desire the saidis lordis thocht ressonable and thairfor decemit and ordanit 
[accordingly in the usual terms.] 

Note. — The latter clauses refer to Appin's duties as holding certain lands from the Earl of 
Argyll, or his " eme," Glenorchy, as detailed at pages 96-7. 

Decree against A rcJiibald Earl of A rgyll in favour of Duncan Stewart of Appin 
for the sum of 1040 merks aivarded by tlie Arbiters. Acts of tJie Lords of 
CoJincil, 2 March 15 12. 

Decretis and deliueris that Archibald Erll of Ergile, of his avin consent as souerte 
and dettour for Lauchlane Makgillane of Dowart, sail red content and pay to Duncan 
Stewart of Appin, the sovme of J"" and xl merkis vsuall money of Scotland contenit 
in ane Decrete Arbitrale gevin betwix the saidis partiis of befor and after the form 
and at the termes of payment contenit in the said decrete arbitrale of the date of 
the xix day of Februar the zeir of God J™ v<= and xij zeirs, and thairfor ordanis 
our souerane lordis letterz to be direct to compell and distrenze the said Erll his landis 
and gudis thairfor efter the form of the said decrete arbitrale and efter the passage of the 
termez contenit thairintill in dew form as efferis. 

Decree that Duart and Lochbny sJiall keep the Earl of Argyll scaithless in respect 
of the sum of 1040 merks, due by the Earl to Duncan Stewart of Appin. 
Acts of the Lords of Council, 2nd March 1 5 1 2. 

Decretis and deliueris that Lauchlane Makgillane of Dowart and Johne Makclane 
of Louchboy, of thair avn consent coniunctly and seueraly renunciand the benefite 
of diuisioun, sail freith releif and keip skaithles Archibald Erll of Ergile of the 
sovm of J™ xl merkis vsuall money of Scotland, for the quhilk sovm the said 
Erll is becumit dettour and souerte to Duncan Stewart of Apin for the said 
Lauchlane Makgilleane of Dowart, efter the form of the decrete arbitrale gevin 
betuix the said Duncan and Lauchlane of the date of the xix day of Februar 
the zere of God j™ v'= xij zeris and at the termes contenit thairintill sik like 
as he is bund and actit to the said Duncan, and that our souerane lo;dis lettrez 
be direct apon thame thairuppon to distrenze thame for the releif of the said 
Erll termly as efferis. 


Decree that Duart sJmll keep Lochbuy scaitJdess in respect of the before-mentioned 
stint of 1040 marks. Acts of the Lords of Council, 2nd March 1 5 12. 

Decretis and deliueris that Lauchlane Makgillane of Dowart of his avn consent 
sail freith releif and keip skaithles Johne Makclane of Louchboy of the sovm 
of j" and xl merkis of the quhilk the said Johne is bund with the said Lauch- 
lane to releif Archibald Erll of Ergile at the handis of Duncan Stewart of Appin, 
and the quhilk sovm the said Erll is actit to pay to the said Duncan as souerte 
for the said Lauclane, efter the form and at the termez contenit in the decrete 
arbitrate gevin betuix the said Lauchlane and Duncan And ordanis our souerane 
lordis lettrez to be direct to compell and distrenze the said Lauchlane to the 
releif of the said Johne his landis and gudis thairfor termly as efferis. 

CJiarter by King James IV. to Duncan Stewart of Appin of the Lands of Inver- 
lochy, Terelondy, Drtimmysoiire, and Aiichintoir. Rcgistruni Magni Sigilli. 
Lib. xviii. 93. Dated gth Jnly 1 5 12. 

Carta vitalis redditus Duncano Stewart de Appin, facta pro suo bono at gratuito 
servicio regi impenso, ac pro deliberacione et donacione domino regi de una 
gallia triginta sex remorum, de terris de Inverlochy, Terelondy, Drummysoure et 
Auchintoir cum pertinenciis, jacentibus in dominio de Lochabir infra vicecomi- 
tatum de Invemys : de data apud Edinburgh nono Julij, anno regni regis 
vicesimo quinto (15 12). 

Petition by Sir John Campbell of Calder on the one part, and Loched and Appin 
on the other, that the A rbiti-al Decree in the questions at issue betiueen them 
shall be inserted in the Books of Council. Acts of the Lords of Council 12th 
November 1528. 

In presens of the lordis of Consale comperit Johnne Campble of Caldor Knycht 
on that ane part and Ewine Allansoune of Lochelze, capitane of the Clanchamron, 
and Allane Stewart of Durror on that vthir part, and gaif in this decrete arbi- 
trate . . . desirand the samin to be insert in the bukis of counsal ... of the 


quhilk the tenour followis At Edinburgh the viij day of November the zeir of 
God j" v<= and xxviij zeris Maister Donald Campble nominal to Cowpar, Archi- 
bald Campble of Skippinche, Alexander M'Ane M'AJexander of Glengarry, and 
Johne M'Allane M'Donile Duff, amicable copositouris evinly chosin and suorne 
be rycht honorable men Sir Johne Campble of Caldor Knycht Ewyne AUansoune 
of Lochelze capitane of Clanchamron and Allane Stewart of Durror, anentis all 
maner of actionis querelis clamis scathis slauchteris or quhatsumeuir debatable 
materis that happynnit betuix the said Sir John and the saidis Ewyne and 
Allane affor the dait hairof The saidis partijs beand oblist and sworn to abyde 
and stand at the saidis personis decrete and deliuerance with thair awine consentis, 
Decretis deliueris and for sentence gevis . . . that ... the saidis partijs sail 
remit and forgef . . . vtheris all maner of rancour displesour and malice that 
euir happynnit betuix thame to the day and dait hereof, and sail tak vtheris in 
als gude hartlynes and kyndnes as sick thingis neuir happinit betuix thame : And 
for certane scathis that the said Sir Johne hes gottin be the saidis Ewyn and 
Allane and thair complicis The saidis Ewyn and Allane sail content and pay 
to him the sovm of iiij<= '■ . . . and sail gef to him for thame tliair barnys kyn 
and frendis thair band of manrent incontrary all maner of man, the kingis grace and 
my lord of Ergile alanerlie beand exceptit : And for thair said band of manrent 
and thair thankfull seruice in tymes tocum the said Sir John sail remit and 
forgef the saidis Ewyne and Allane the sovme of iij'= '' . . . and the said Sir 
Johne sal gif to the saidis Ewine and Allane his band of mantenance incon- 
tinent als sone as he resaifis thair band of manrent . . . subscruit [as before 
mentioned] befor thir witnes Walter Cample capitane of Skipinche, John M'Lauch- 
lane, John Mungumry, Sir John M'Phale, Chaplane, Angus M'Angus, and maister 
Donald Bron notar public with vtheris diuers. 

Charter by King James V., to Alan Stewart, of the lands of Cowll and Gleii- 
callachane, Ardsell, Lagnahall, Ballychelis, Aiichnanderrach, Atichycarnc, 
Auchycar and Aiichinblare, and Glencoune. Registrnm Magni Sigilli. Lib. 
XXV. 184. Dated ph December 1538. 

Jacobus Dei gracia Rex Scotorum Omnibus probis hominibus totius terre sue clericis 
et laicis salutem. Sciatis quia nostras post legitimam et perfectam etateni vigintiquinque 
annorum completorum, et nostram generalem reuocacionem ac post dissolucionem per 
quondam nobilissimum patrem nostrum Jacobum Quartum bone memorie, cuius anime 
propicietur Deus, cum auisamento et consensu trium regni statuum in parliamento 


suo facto, super annexacionibus terrarum corone sue, pro assedacione earundem in 
feodifirma et hereditate, pro policia et edificacionibus infra regnum suum habendis, 
in augnientacionem sui rentalis et proficuum patrimonii corone sue, cum auisamento 
et consensu compotorum nostrorum rotulatoris, dedimus concessimus et ad feodifirmam 
dimisimus, et hac presenti carta nostra damus concedimus et ad feodifirmam hereditarie 
dimittimus, dilecto consanguineo et seruitori nostro Alano Stewart in Lome, onines 
et singulas terras nostras subscriptas viz : viginti libratas terrarum de Durrour prout 
sequuntur viz : septem mercatas terrarum de Cowll et Glencallachane, septem mercatas 
terrarum de Ardsell et Lagmahall, tres mercatas. terrarum de Ballychelis, quinque mercatas 
terrarum de Auchnanderrach, tres mercatas terrarum de Auchycarne, quinque mercatas 
terrarum Auchycar et Aucbinblare, ac totas et integras viginti mercatas terrarum de 
Glenkovne, cum omnibus suis pertinenciis, jacentes in dominio nostro insularum infra 
vicecomitatum nostrum de Perth, extendentes annuatim in rentali nostro ad summam 
quinquaginta marcarum monete regni nostri. Tenendas et habendas omnes et singulas 
prefatas viginti libratas terrarum de Durroure, videlicet septem mercatas terrarum de 
Cowll et Glencallachane, septem marcatas terrarum de Ardsell et Lagmahall, tres 
marcatas terrarum de Ballychelis, quinque marcatas terrarum de Auchnanderrach, tres 
marcatas terrarum de Auchycarne, quinque marcatas terrarum de Auchychar et Aucbin- 
blare, ac totas et integras prefatas viginti marcatas prefatarum terrarum de Glenkovne, 
cum omnibus suis pertinenciis, prefato Stewart et heredibus suis masculis, de nobis 
et nostris successoribus in feodifirma et hereditate imperpetuum Per omnes rectas 
metas suas antiquas et diuisas prout facent in longitudine et latitudine in boscis 
planis moris marresis viis semitis aquis stagnis riuolis pratis pascuis et pasturis 
molendinis multuris et eorum sequelis aucupaciomibus venacionibus piscacionibus 
petariis turbariis carbonariis lignis lapicidiis lapide et calce fkbrilibus brasinis brueriis 
et genestis cum communi pastura libero introitu et exitu, ac cum omnibus aliis et 
singulis libertatibus commoditatibus proficuis et asiamentis ac iustis suis pertinenciis 
quibuscunque tam non nominatis quam nominatis, tarn sub terra quam supra terram, 
procul et prope, ad predictas terras cum pertinenciis spectantibus seu iuste spectare 
valentibus quomodolibet in futurum, libere quiete plenarie integre honorifice bene et 
in pace sine aliqua reuocacione aut contradictione quacunque Reddendo inde annuatim 
dictus Alanus et heredes sui predicti nobis et nostris successoribus Summam quadraginta 
librarum vsualis monete regni nostri ad duos anni terminos consuetos festa viz. : 
Penthecostes et Sancti Martini in hyeme per equales porciones, nomine feodifirme, in 
augnientacionem rentalis nostri annuatim ad Summam decem marcarum monete predicte 
Acetiam heredes dicti Alani suprascripti duplicando dictam feodifirmam primi anni 
eorum introitus ad prefatas terras prout vsus est feodifirme ; necnon dictus Alanus et 
heredes sui suprascripti edificantes et sustentantes super prefatas terris vnam sufficientem 


mansionem cum aula camera coquina, horrio boscari stabulis columbari hortis pomeriis 
et aliis poleciis necessariis solo correspondentibus In cuius Testimonium huic presenti 
carte nostre magnum Sigillvm nostrum apponi precepimus Testibus vt in alliis cartis 
precedentibus consimilis date Apud Falkland septimo die mensis Decembris Anno 
Domini millesimo quingentesimo Tricesimo octauo Et regni nostri vicesimo sexto. 

Copy of a statement made in writing by Alexander Stewart of Ballachelish soon 
after the battle of Killiecrankie, in a letter to Invemahyle. 

" I SHALL give you as good an account as I can of the man who appeared to us last 
summer in so extraordinary a way. Everything about it is so strongly in my mind as at 
the time he was with us, and I think I will never lose the memory of it When Lochiel 
got letters from Claverhouse, he came to see Appin upon them. We all went to Letter- 
shuna to meet them ; everything was settled overnight, and Lochiel came on with me the 
day after, and slept that night with us. Next day I put him over the loch ; it was a grey 
morning, but it cleared up, and was a fine warm day, without any wind. When I came 
back I went up to the Knap (a knoll near Ballachelish), and lay down in the sun ; my dog 
Brandt was lying by me. I was there for some time between sleeping and waking, and 
thinking upon the business we had been speaking about, when Brandt started up and 
began to bark. I looked up and saw a man coming over the moss to where I was. I 
rose up, and I observed as he was walking to me that he had a long Spanish gun in his 
hand. When he came up he spoke to me by my name, which I was surprised at, as I 
had never seen him before. After some speaking, he told that he was a gentleman who 
had got into trouble, and that he had come into that part of the country to be out of the 
way. He said he could not then tell me what his name was, for it would be as much as 
his life was worth, and that he must keep as private as possible, that he would, with my 
leave, come and take his food with me, and, as the surest way not to be known, that he 
would wish not to say a word when he was with us. He then said that if I did not think 
it necessary, he would be better pleased if I took no notice at home of his having met 
me, as he thought there would not be so great a chance of his being found out if we all 
seemed to know nothing about him. I told him that he would be perfectly safe wth me, 
whoever he might be, and I hoped he would sleep in the house as well as take his meat 
with us, and that I would promise my head that no harm should happen to him from any 
one while he was with me. I said, too, that I would trouble him with no questions, that 
he might do just as he pleased, but that I was not sure that it was the best way witli my 
wife to keep silence altogether, for the more secret there was, the more anxious she would 
be to find it out, and that it would be better to tell her some story that would keep her 


quiet ; yet, that I was ready to do whatever he thought most Hkely to keep him most safely. 
He answered that it would be the surest plan to be altogether silent, and that it would be 
better to leave my wife to make anything of it she could, as he would take every care to 
let that be as little as possible. He said he was obliged to me for my offer of shelter, 
but that he was in so much danger that he would keep from going amongst other people 
as much as he could, and ended by saying that he hoped the time would come when he 
would be able to thank me openly for my kindness, if I would oblige him in these things. 
I then said that any gentleman in distress would always have my best assistance, still that 
I was sorry he did not put himself entirely into my hands, that I might be the better able 
to be answerable for his life ; however, whatever he thought the best way he might 
depend upon it that I would do everything I could to keep him from harm. He then 
left me. This was all that passed between us. While we were in conversation, I 
observed him very particularly. He was a man, to appearance, of about thirty years of 
age, and something above the middle size. He was not a very strong-looking man, but 
he was clean made and well put together ; he was good-looking in the face, with some 
few marks of the smallpox, but not very many. He had a straight nose, and there was a 
great deal of fire in his eyes when he spoke ; his hair was of a dark brown colour, and 
altogether no man could doubt that he was a gentleman. His Gaelic was like that which 
is spoken in the Isles, and I noticed that when he put out his right hand in speaking, 
tliat there was a cloth about it, as if it had been hurt. His clothes were of a red and 
green dark set, and his arms seemed to be very good. When he had gone a little way, 
he turned and made a sign to me. I walked home wondering who he could be. I told 
Beatrice that as the country was astir that it would be as well to have always plenty of 
meat ready. Wlien it was near night there was no word of him, and I began to doubt 
that he would come ; but just as we were sitting down he stepped in. When he entered 
he said, and went and laid his gun and sword in a corner, 

and drew up to the table. I said he was very welcome, and asked where he had come 
from, but he gave no answer. I put two or three questions to him, but seeing he was 
not inclined to speak, I said that as the gentleman might have reasons for his silence, we 
would not trouble him at present, but I hoped he would give us his news by-and-bye. 
Every person looked much surprised, and very little was said, and I beheve that very 
little was eaten, but the stranger eat heartily. When we had done he took his gun and 
sword and went out again, looking very sorrowful, and appearing to be much cast down. 
After he was gone there was nothing but wondering who he could be. We were all very 
uneasy. In the morning he came again, and went away as before. It was got amongst 
the people, and they did not like it as they were so soon to go out ; they thought it was 
a bad sign. Old John Lome swore that he would make him speak, cost what it would. 
I told them he could be nothing but an unfortunate gentleman who had come amongst 


us for safety, and that no man should touch him while in my hands. They were not 
easily satisfied, and they were detennined to find him out, and have from him what he 
was, but I kept them quiet, and desired that no man should go after him. He continued 
to come and go in this way for three days, and although I always spoke to him when he 
entered the house, he never said a word to me again, but he was always very civil. 
Nobody ever saw anything of him during the day, but when night was coming on he was 
observed to come out of the glen. The people did not know what to make of him, and 
after all their brave speaking at first, none of them could find heart to go near him when 
he was to be seen, and when they went to the hill they would go two or three together, 
but none of them ever met him. When he would come in before the meat was ready he 
would sit down, but still he never spoke a word. He would look much at the children, 
and took great notice of them, and he made much of Hector, who is gro\ving a fine lad, 
and after the first while, when he went near him, he would show him his dirk and his 
pistols, which had the Doune mark on them, but he never spoke a word. On the fourth 
day it was rainy with a high wind, and he did not come in the nxorning, at night there 
was no appearance of him, and we began to think he had left us, which I was very thank- 
ful for. I did not grudge him his meat and drink, poor man, but I did not like his 
coming and going without telling us anything about himself; I was afraid his appearance 
was to warn me of some misfortune, but I said nothing. 

"We were all busy getting ready to meet Dundee, and I began to think less about him. 
The people, now that he was away, were making their joke of it, and hoping that I would 
never have such another stranger. 

"At Rin Ruarie (Killiecrankie) I was hurt in the hand, and I afterwards remembered 
that it was in the same hand that this man had tied up. When we went down to Dunkeld 
I was sitting by myself in a house where we were, all the people being gone out to kill a 
cow they had got. It was towards evening, and it was very hot. The door was opened, 
and the same man came in ; he was looking as when I saw him before, with the same 
sorrowful look. I said to him there could be no reason for his concealing himself now, 
as he had come amongst so many people, and that I hoped he would let me know who 
he was. He replied that he was sorry that was not yet in his power, but that he could 
not be near me without coming to thank me for the way I had behaved to him, but that 
we should meet again. Upon saying this he immediately went out I followed him, but 
I could not see him ; and although I asked all that I met whether they had seen such a 
man, I could hear nothing of him. Next day we tried to take the Cathedral, and poor 
Sandy was killed. I now think he was sent to warn me of this ; and yet in the way he 
spoke there was nothing different from other men, and nobody thought he was anything 
else but a gentleman. It is now ten months since he came amongst us, and I have never 
been able to hear more of him. It has ahva)s been very heavy on my mind, but I say 


nothing, whether it means anything more than has yet happened God knows, but his will 
be done, which ever way it is." 

It is understood that the " man " turned out to be a Macdonald, who had been 
obliged to fly from his own clan to avoid the vengeance of his neighbours for some offence 
he had committed. 

List of the killed and ivonndcd of the Appin Regiment at the battle of Cullodcn, 
copied from MS. left by Alexander Stezvart, Eighth of Invernahyle. 

Ardsheal's family — 

John Stewart of Benmore, 

John, son to Alexander Stewart of Acharn, 

James, son to Alexander Stewart of Acharn, 

John Stewart, 

John Stewart, 

William Stewart, . 

John Stewart, 

Duncan Stewart, uncle to Ardshea 

Dugald Stewart, standard-bearer, 

Alan Mor Stewart, 

William Stewart, . 

Killed. Wounded. 

Fasnacloich's family — 

James Stewart, uncle to Fasnacloich, 
James Stewart, younger of Fasnacloich, 
John Stewart, son to Fasnacloich, . 
John, son to Duncan Stewart, 
James Stewart, from Ardnamurchan, 
Alan Stewart, son to Ardnamurchan, 

Achnacone's family — 

Alexander Stewart, brother to Achnacone, 
Duncan Stewart, ... 


Invernahyle's family — 



Alexander Stewart, son to Ballachelish, . 


Duncan, Donald, Dugald, and Alan Stewart, nephews to 

Ballachelish, ..... 


John Stewart, from Ardnamurchan, 


Charles Stewart, from Bohallie, . 


Alexander Stewart, of Invemahyle, 


James Stewart, brother to Invemahyle, 


Duncan Stewart, from Inverphalla, 



Donald Stewart, from Annat, 


Alan Stewart, died in the East Indies, 


Donald Stewart, nephew to Invemahyle, 


John Stewart, from Balquidder, . 


Duncan Stewart, . 


John Stewart, 


Stewarts, followers of Appin— 



Duncan Stewart, from Mull, 


Duncan, Hugh, and John Stewart, from Glenlyon, 


John Stewart— Macalan Vane, 

John Stewart, alias Macalan, 


Duncan Stewart, alias Macalan, . 


Malcolm Stewart, 


Dugald Stewart, .... 


Donald Stewart, natural son to Ballachellan, 


Robert Stewart, natural cousin to Appin, . 


Robert Stewart, natural cousin to Appin, . 


Ardsheal's family, .... 



Fasnacloich's family. 



Invernahyle's family, 



Achnacone's family. 


Stewarts, followers of Appin, 





Commoners, followers of Appin — 




Maclarens, ..... 




M'Innishes, or M'Innises, 
M'lldeus, or Blacks, 

M'Cormacks (Buchanans), 

Macleas, or Livingstones, 

Volunteer — George Haldane, nephew to Lanrick, Ardsheal 
having married Haldane of Lanrick's sister, . 

Total of killed and wounded, 


Achnacone, Stewarts of, 
Alan, filius Flaaldi, 

„ second High Steward, . 
Andrew, son of James, fifth High 

Steward, .... 
Ardsheal, Stewarts of, . 
Armorial bearings of the Stewarts 

Ballachelish, Stewarts of, 
Balmerino Abbey, donation to, 
Bancho, Maormar of Lochaber, 
Bannockburn, battle of, . 
Blackball, Manor Place of, . 
Cambuskenneth Abbey, grants to. 
Castle Acre Priory, grants to, . 
Cell of St Peter at Sele in Sussex, 

grant to, . 
Charter of the Office of High Steward 

&c., to Walter, by Malcolm IV., 
Culloden, battle of, 
Cupar Abbey, grants to, . 
Dalmulin Chapelry, foundation of, 
David, son of Alan, second Hig 

Steward, .... 
Doir, Maormar of Lochaber, . 
Dryburgh Abbey, grants to, . 
Dundonald Castle, 
Dunfermline Abbey, grants to, 
Dunstaffnage Castle, 
Ethus, King, 
Falkirk, battle of, 1298, . 




j Falkirk, battle of, 1746, . 



Farquhard, Maormar of Lochaber, 



Fasnacloich, Stewarts of. 


Fergus I., King, . 



Fess Cheque of the Stewarts, . 



Fleance, or Flaald, 


Flodden, battle of, . 



Glasgow, Church of, grant to the, 



Innerhadden, Stewarts of. 



Innischaoraich, or Bohallie, Stewarts 





Inverlochy, battle of, 



Invernahyle, Stewarts of. 



James, fifth High Steward, 



John, son of Walter, first High Steward, 


Jordan Fitzalan, 



Kelso Abbey, grants to, .23 


> 33 

Kenneth, Maormar of Lochaber, 



Killiecrankie, battle of, . 



Kilwinning Abbey, grants to, . 



Largs, battle of, . 



Livingstones of Bachuil, . 


Macdougalls of Lorn, . 




Maclarens of Ardveich, . 



March of the Stewarts, . 



Melros Abbey, grants to, 23, 25, 26, 



33. 37 




Murdoch, Maormar of Lochaber, . 



Norwich Priory, grants to. 



Paisley Abbey, foundation of the, . 



„ „ grants to, 25, 26, 32, 







Pinkie, battle of, . 


Stewart, Janet, wife of Sir Colin 

Prestonpans, battle of, . 


Campbell of Glenorchy, . 


Renfrew Castle, . . . . 


„ John, son of James, fifth 

Robert II., King of Scotland, . 


High Steward, 


St Andrew's Abbey, grants to. 


Sir John of Bonkyl, . 


St Colmanel Church, grants to. 


„ „ of Daldon, . 


Scone Abbey, grants to, . 


„ „ of Perston, . 


Seals of the Stewarts, . 23,37 


,, „ of Innermeath and 

Senescallus, derivation of, . . 




Sheriffmuir, battle of, . 


„ „ Lord Lorn, . 


Shrewsbury Abbey, grants to, . 


„ Margaret, Countess of Carrick, 


Simon Fitzalan, Boyt, or Boyd, 


„ Marion, wife of Campbell of 

Sliochd Ailein 'Ic Rob, . 


Ottar, .... 


Stewart, etymology of the name. 


„ Sir Robert of Dalduie, 


„ orthography, 


„ „ of Schanbothy 

„ Sir Alan of Dreghorn, 


and Innermeath, . 


„ Sir Alan, of Ochiltree, 


„ Sir Robert of Schanbothy, . 


„ Sir Alexander, of Bonkyl, . 


„ of Lorn, . 


„ „ Ancestor of 

„ Sir Walter of Dalswinton, . 


the Stewarts of Grand 

„ Walter of Innermeath, 




Stewarton Castle, .... 


„ Beatrix, Countess of Lenno? 


Stewarts, of Achnacone, . 


„ Christian, Countess of Dun 

„ ofArdsheal, 




„ Earls of Angus, 


„ Dugald, first of Appin, 


Earls of Athole, 


„ „ tenth „ 


of Ballachelish, 


„ Duncan, second „ 


Earls of Buchan, 


„ „ fourth „ 


„ Lords Damley, 


„ „ sixth 


„ ofEly, . . . . 


„ „ seventh „ 


„ of Fasnacloich, 


„ „ Mor, eighth „ 


Earls of Galloway, . 


„ John, fifth 


„ of Innerhadden, 


„ Robert, ninth „ 


„ ofInnischaoraich,orBohallie, 


„ Elizabeth, wife of Sir Wil 

„ of Invernahyle, 


liam de Douglas, . 


Earls of Menteth, . 


„ Sir Hugh, . 


„ of Strathgarry, . 


„ Isabel, Countess of Argyll, 


,, Earls of Traquair, . 


„ ,, Countess of Moray 


„ supposed Breton or Nor- 

„ Sir James, of Durrisdeer, 


man descent of the, 


„ „ of Peristoun, 


„ Badges of the, . 


„ „ The Black Knigh 


„ Motto of the, . 


of Lorn, 
1 ■ 


„ March of the, . 



Stewarts, Seals of the, 

,, Tartan of the, 
Strathgarry, Stewarts of, . 
Stuarts of Castlemilk, 
Syxle, grant to the convent of, 
Walter, first High Steward, 

23- 37- 48, 67 

Walter, son of Walter, third High 
sixth High Steward, . 
William, Fitzalan, ancestor of the 
Earls of Arundel, . 
„ son of Walter, third High 


Charters to John, Lord Lorn, 20th 

June 1452, .... 
Charters of Lands to Duncan Stewart, 

second of Appin, . . 18 
Charter of apprisement in favour of 

Duncan Stewart, over the lands 

ofDuart, .... 

Charter to Alan Stewart, third of 


Decrees against Duncan Stewart and 

Locheil for heirschip in Badenoch, 
Summonses by Duncan Stewart 

against Duart, Coll, and Ulva, 
for heirschip in Appin, . 
Decrees against Duart, Coll, and 
Ulva. . 

i Security given by the Earl of Argyll 

187-8 : for Duart, . . . 199, 2^0 

Claim by David, Bishop of Argyll, 

203 for share of damages, . . 199 
Decrees against Duart in favour of 

Duncan Stewart, . . 200-2-3 

195 Petition by Sir John Campbell of 
Calder against Locheil and Alan 

204 Stewart of Appin, . . .203 
I Statement by Alexander Stewart of 

1 90- 1 j Ballachelish after the Battle of 

I Killiecrankie, .... 206 

List of the Clan killed and wounded 
192-3 at Culloden, .... 200 

rurnhuU &- Spears, rHnters, Edinlitrgh. 


XiQBQoad SI awqefr^-' 

'i^MI IWIII im Bi 




Hit Hf^ 

^ \ i ^ ^ ^ t -"S 



Sir, — While perhaps little further enlightei 
merit can now be expected on the Appjr 
murder, the otherwise admirable account ol 
that tragedy given by your Special Corre^ 
spondent in a recent issue of The Times tends 
to leave a somewhat dubious impression of the 
ethical nature of the subseqirenl trial. Like 
so many others, your Correspondent has 
allowed his very natural sympathy for the 
harshly treated Stewarts to lead him into the 
(in my opinion) unwarranted assumption that 
the trial of James of the Glen was a travesty 
of justice. That assumption is quite unfair to 
Campbells, who, for all their faults, were 
staunch upholders of judicial rectitude. 
Consequently, the fact that Argyll himself pre- 
sided at that fateful trial 200 years ago ensured 
for James of the Glen whatever judicial con- 
sideration was available at the time. It is very 
far from my intention to make these observa- 
tions in order to mitigate in the least the whole- 
some abhorrence of the pitiably inadequate 
form of justice, the ministration of which 
could, at the time under consideration, send 
James of the Glen to his death. Rather 
they made in order to draw attention to the 
fact that this dark spot, in history does not 
necessarily lie at the door of the Campbells. 
I am, Sir, yours faithfully, 

T. URE. 
201, Rivermead Court, Hurlingham, S.W.6 

Sir, — Your Special Correspondent does not 
mention that the place of James Stewart's 
execution is now marked by a monument. This 
bears the unequivocal inscription: — " Erected 
in 1911 to the memory of James Stewart of 
Acharn, or James of liie Glens, executed on 
this spot Nqv. 8, 1752, for a crime of which 
he was not guilty." 

Yours faithfully, 


4, Lyndhurst Court, Woodford, E.18. 





From Our Special Correspondent 

The story of the Appin murder-the 
murder of Colin Campbell of Glcnure 
in the woods of Lettermore two hundrc.i 
years ago to-day — has gone round the 
world in the pages of Kidnapped. " There 
came the shot of a firelock from higher 
up the hill ; and with the very sound of 
it Glenure fell upon the road. 'O, 1 am 
dead,' he cried, several times over." David 
Balfour loolied up the hill. " The murderer 
was still moving away at no great 
distance. He was a big man, in a black 
coat, with metal buttons, and carried a 
fowling-piece. . , . The next moment he 
was lost in a fringe of birches." 

In history there was no David Balfour 
to witness the shooting, but the res^of it 
happened very much as Stevenson des- 
s. and the mystery is unsolved to this 

day. Who was the man in the black coat ? 
Some few families in the Appin district 
have had what is believed to be the secret 
handed down to them, but they keep it 
to themselves. Most people who have 
studied the old records agree that James 
Stewart of the Glen, hanged on a high 
knoll near the south landing at Ballachu- 
lish ferry on November 8, 1752, for being 
an accomplice, " art and part of the 
murder," was in fact innocent. Alan 
Breck Stewart — not quite so attrac- 
tive a character as Stevenson made him, 
but still recognizable in the old records — 
was certainly lurking near at hand at the 
hour of the murder and is commonly 
thought to have shared in the plan. 
According to local tradition, however, it 
was not his hand that fired the long black 


Everything combines to malje the 
mystery live on in Highland minds. There 
is the unshakable belief that James of 
the Glen was hanged by an act of Govern- 
ment policy an* clan vengeance. The 
Highlands in 1752 were still restive after 
the '45, there were rumours that Prince 
Charles would land again with a Swedish 
force ; and a lesson had to be taught even 
though the real murderer was unknown. 
A Campbell had been murdered in 
Stewart country, so a leading Stewart 
representative in the district had to pay 
after a trial presided over by the Duke of 

borrow as he moved from place to place. 
From James's house, when he arrived 
there, he borrowed a short black coat and 
some blue piaiden trousers — much the 
kind of dress that the murderer was seen 

e wearing, but it was a dress fairly 

Tion in the Highlands at the time. 

I .spent some days visiting younger 
people at Ballachulish and Fasnacloich. 
nd on May 1 1 Alan and a few young 
people spent the night — some sleeping in 

barn — at James's farm at Acharn. 

1 undoubtedly had spoken wildly 
against Glenure at different times, and 
these meetings of his with young men may 
be significant, for to this day it is said 
in Appin that the murder was plotted by 
some young folk. 

Alan, at any rate, had little talk with 
James himself on the night of May II ; 
they had no time to work out an elaborate 
plot of murder and escape. On May 12 
Alan left Acharn early and visited friends 
around Loch Leven and Glencoe. The 
night of May L't he spent at Ballachulish 
House, and the next morning — the day of 
the murder — he worked a little in the 
farmyard and then disappeared with a 
fishing rod. Glenure was expected to 
ride from Fort William during the day, 
crossing over the Ballachulish ferry to 
the Appin side. During the day Alan 
appeared again to ask the ferryman at 
Ballachulish south landing if Glenure had 
crossed. On being told " No," he was 
away again into the hill. Glenure later 
crossed the ferry, rode on a mile or two 
along the narrow hillside road (now grass- 
coveredl towards Duror, and was shot 
at a place still marked by a small heap 
of stones. His young lawyer, who was 
among the few with him, had the glimpse 
of the murderer. 

Later in the evening Alan, still in the 
neighbourhood, met a servant girl from 
Ballachulish House on the hill, asked 
" what was the occasion of the stir in the 
town," and, on being told that Glenure 
was killed, asked her to tell a Donald 
Stewart to get money for him from James 
of the Glen. Donald .Stewart then went 
up the brae to meet Alan, who told him 
to tell James that he would wait for the 
money at Coalisnacoan, by the side of 
Loch Leven. Donald Stewart duly saw 
James the next day and James arranged 
for the money to be sent. 

All this was used against James at the 
trial ; but if James had had foreknowledge 
of the murder, and had promised to help 
in Alan's escape, he would surely have 
arranged the money beforehand, not leav- 
ing it to be arranged in haste afterwards. 
James sent the money because Alan 
Breck was a kinsman, a former deserter 
from the Hanoverian forces, and a man 
who would certainly be hanged if caught. 
Thanks to the money and his native wit, 
Alan was soon safely in France. 


The case against Alan is black and, were 
it nnt fnr the strnni! local tradition that he 

Breck Stewart — not quite so attrac- 
tive a character as Stevenson made him. 
but still recognizable in the old records- 
was certainly lurking near at hand at the 
hour of the murder and is commonly 
thought to have shared in the plan. 
According to local tradition, however, it 
was not his hand that fired the long black 

Everything combines to make the 
mystery live on in Highland minds. There 
is the unshakable belief that James of 
the Glen was hanged by an act of Govern- 
ment policy ancft clan vengeance. The 
Highlands in 1752 were still restive after 
the '45, there were rumours that Prince 
Charles would land again with a S\H'edish 
force : and a lesson had to be taught even 
though the real murderer was unknown. 
A Campbell had been murdered in 
Stewart country, so a leading Stewart 
representative in the district had to pay — 
after a trial presided over by the Duke of 
Argyll himself with a jury made up almost 
entirely of Campbells. 

The main facts in the case are fairly 
clear. After the '45, Stewart of Ardshie'l 
fled with many others to France ; and 
James of the Glen, a natural brother of 
Ardshicl's, managed his estate in .\ppin 
for him for a time. Then the estate was 
taken over by the Government and C amp- 
bell of Glenure was made the factor over 
Glenure was at first content lo let 
James go on collecting the rents. James 
handed the rents to Glenure but managed 
to keep a surplus to support Ardshiel's 

ife and family. 

Then the authorities called Glenure to 
order, telling him in effect that he had 
been too lax and was letting Jacobite 
families take over the farms. Glenure 
sked James to move from his farm at 
Glenduror to Acharn (which James re- 
sented) and then, early in 1752, iierved 
notice on several families in the Appin 

strict. They were to be evicted if they 
had not moved by Whitsuntide. James 
took up their cause and tried unsuccess- 
fully before the Edinburgh courts to have 
the eviction orders suspended. 


At the beginning of May it was learned 

at Glenure would superintend the evic- 

insonMay 15. James forthwith wrote lo 

o men of law, asking them to be present 

on May 15 to protest to Glenure on behalf 

the tenants. This is an important point 

his favour, suggesting that he wa.s bent 

all forms of legal protest and not of 

ilence. )t is beyond doubt that at the 

hour of the murder — between 5 and 6 

o'clock on May 14— he was working 

quietly on his farm. Generally, in fact, he 

1 mild mannered man, although at the 

trial several witnesses declared that after 

he had been moved from his Glenduror 

farm he had spoken violently against 

Glenure when (in the old phrase) he was 

concerned in drink." 

There were others about him, however, 

younger and more headstrong. First of 

them was Alan Breck. then paying one 

f his clandestine visits from France. 

Alan used to arrive in his French clothes— 

long-bodied blue coat, red waistcoat, 

black breeches and tartan hose, and a hat 

th a black feather. These he would 

change for any clothes that he couia 

town, and, on bemg told that Glenure 
was killed, asked her to tell a Donald 
Stewart to get money for him from James 
of the Glen. Donald Stewart then went 
up the brae to meet Alan, who told him 
to tell James that he would wait for the 
money at Coalisnacoan. by the side of 
Loch Leven. Donald Stewart duly saw 
James the next day and James arranged 
for the money lo be sent. 

All this was used against James at the 
trial ; but if James had had foreknowledge 
of the murder, and had promised to help 
in Alan's escape, he would surely have 
arranged the money beforehand, not leav- 
ing it to be arranged in haste afterwards. 
James sent the money because Alan 
Breck was a kinsman, a former deserter 
from the Hanoverian forces, and a maa 

Alan was soon safely in France. 


The case against Alan is black and, were 
it not for the strong local tradition that he 
did not actually fire the shot, it might be 
taken as conclusive. If not he, who then ? 
Trying to sift the evidence at the trial (well 
set out in the Nniahle Scottish Trials series, 
published by Hodge) is fantastically diffi- 
cult, for most of the many witnesses had 
all the old Highland vagueness about time, 
and throughout the critical days everyone 
seemed to be visiting everyone else. The 
young people especially were here, there, 
and everywhere. 

Anyone reading the records would be 
glad to know more about the movements 
of a certain Ewan Roy MacColl, who 
came to Acharn from Glencoe (presum- 
ably past Lettermore) on the day of the 
murder. A greater question is whether 
Alan Breck — always impulsive, " a 
desperate foolish fellow," as James called 
him — was suddenly persuaded to take a 
part in the murder by one of the young 
Stewarts at Ballachulish House ? One 
of the strongest local traditions is that 
the shot was fired by Donald Stewart, 
the nephew of Stewart of Ballachulish, 
in league with John Stewart of Fasna- 
cloich, leaving Alan Breck to draw the 
pursuit away from the others. Other 
inquirers, again, would like to know 
more about the movements of James's 
own son, Alan Beg (Little Alan). 
Alan Beg had a black jacket very 
like the one Alan Breck was wearing. On 
the afternoon of the murder Alan Beg 
went alone from Acharn, according to 
his own evidence, to the hill called 
Fraochaidh — which is about as far from 
Acharn as Lettermore is. Earlier in 
the vear, about April 1, he wrote 
a letter to Duncan Stewart of Glen- 
buckie complaining of Glenure's actions, 
and adding: "However, it shall be 
a dear glen for them or (before) 
they shall have it." Further, it is 
said that Alan Breck, when in France, 
declared that it was Alan Beg who com- 
mitted the murder. 

No son surely would let his father hang 
for his own deed, but another of the 
Appin traditions is that on the day of the 
hanging a man had to be tied down by his 
friends to prevent him from going to 
declare the truth at the place of execu- 
The friends no doubt thought that 
poor James was doomed in any case. So 
the mystery remains. 
Pictures on page 12. 

'robably befogged