N COUNTY PUBLIC
3 1833 01431 9070 ^
STEWARTS OF APPIN,
JOHN H. J. STEWART, F. S.A.Scot.
LIEUT.-COL. DUNCAN STEWART, LATE 02" HIGHLANDERS.
PRINTEb Fok PRIVATE CIRCULATION BY MACLACHLAN AND STkWaRT.
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
THE origin and early genealogy of the House of Stewart have en-
gaged the attention and labours of numerous archaeologists.
The position occupied by the family in Scotland, and their relations
with the throne, have connected them closely with the recorded history,
as well as with the traditions of the country. The genealogists of the
last century had no difficulty in tracing with accuracy, and with the
support of deeds and charters of the kings of Scotland, their descent
from Alan, father of Walter the first High Steward of Scotland under
King David I., who reigned 1 124 to 1 153. But the researches of later
antiquaries have not only brought to light proofs of their having been
seated in Norfolk in 1 100, and in Shropshire a few years later, but have
also demonstrated the probability of the correctness of the traditional
and generally received accounts of their Celtic descent.
Where records exist the task is easy, but it becomes more difficult
when we reach the period where charters end, and tradition begins.
But to reject, as absolutely unworthy of credit, all history or tradition
which cannot be established by conclusive or documentary proof, would
be to efface almost entirely the early annals of our country, for such
proof it is impossible, in most instances, to obtain ; and we should thus
leave unaccounted for the many monuments of the piety and patriotism
of our ancestors, and should consequently rob them of the credit which
is justly due to their valour and to their zeal for religion. Thus for in-
stance, Christian temples were built and the Danes were expelled from
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
Scotland. Are lona and Loncarty to be regarded but as names, not as
realities ? Should we not, instead of disregarding the traditions and
memorials of the past, do all in our power to preserve them, until
further researches shall enable the enquirer to discover the exact truth ?
In this view, the reader shall be presented with such information and
particulars regarding the early history of the House of Stewart as can be
collected from the most approved authorities, and it will be for himself
to determine the value to be placed on their testimony.
Among the various authorities from which this account has been
compiled, are Fordun's History, WInton's Chronicles, Barbour's Bruce,
Blind Harry's Wallace, Holinshed's Chronicles, Buchanan's History of
Scotland, Sir James Dalrymple's Historical Collection, Sir David
Dalrymple's Annals, Camden's Britannia, Crawfurd's History of the
Stewarts, Abercromby's History, Anderson's Royal Genealogies,
Simson's History of the Stewarts, Sir Robert Douglas' Peerage,
Duncan Stewart's Genealogy of the Stewarts, Andrew Stuart's
Genealogy of the Stewarts, Sir Henry Steuart's reply to Andrew
Stuart, Brown's Genealogical Tree of the Royal Family of Stewart,
Nisbet's Heraldry, Drummond of Hawthornden's History, Eyton's
Antiquities of Shropshire, and his Account of the Origin and Early
History of the Houses of FItzalan and Stuart, Corbet Anderson's
Antiquities of Shropshire, Chalmers' Caledonia, Gordon's Monasticon,
Origines Parochiales Scotiae, Lives of the Lindsays, Reports of the
Royal Commission on Historical Manuscripts, Font's Cunlnghame,
Eraser's Earls of Southesk, The Black Book of Taymouth,
Burke's Genealogy of the Princes of North Wales, Burke's Armoury,
Macaulay's History, Skene's Highlanders and Celtic Scotland, MSS. in
the British Museum, Historical MSS. in the Register House, Edinburgh,
and various Histories of the Highlands, and family papers.
The descent of the ancestors of the Stewarts from King Fergus
L, whose reign began B.C. 330, and who was the contemporary of
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
Alexander the Great, and Darius the Mede, King of Persia, is traced
by various historians and genealogists through thirty-five generations
of kings, down to
Ethus, who succeeded his brother, Constantine II., a.d. 875. At
this point the descent of the progenitors of the Stewarts diverges from
that of the Crown, into the Hne of Doir, second son of Ethus. But on
the death of King David II. in 1371, the representation of the main
hne devolved upon his nephew, Robert II., the descendant and repre-
sentative of Doir.
Doir, second son of Ethus, was Maormor of Lochaber, and married
Osfleda, daughter of Osbert, King of Northumberland. Died 936.
Murdoch, son of Doir, married Helen, or Dervegil, daughter of
Hugh, said to be the ancestor of the Douglasses. He died 959.
Farquhard, son of Doir, Maormor of Lochaber, married Idua,
daughter of Eric of Norway, and was killed at Loncarty in 980.
Kenneth, son of Farquhard, Maormor of Lochaber, married
Dunclina, daughter of King Kenneth III. Died 1030.
Bancho, son of Kenneth, Maormor of Lochaber, General of the
army with Macbeth, Governor of the Western Isles under King
Duncan I. Simson and other Historians say he was a Chief Officer of
the Crown, and employed as Steward in gathering in the Royal
revenues. He defeated Sueno, King of Norway, who had landed an
army at Kinghorn in Fife, and also the forces of Canute, King of
Denmark, near Teith. He married Maud, grand daughter of Garede,
Thane or Maormor of Atholl, and was murdered, with his three eldest
sons, by Macbeth about 1050.
Fleance, son of Bancho. Of him we read in Buchanan's History,
that on the murder of his father and brothers, he escaped " secretly to
Wales;" and in Corbet Anderson's Early History and Antiquities of
Shropshire, that when Macbeth, King of Scotland, " sought about the
year 1050, to secure the succession in his own line, by putting to death,
and confiscating the estates of those whom he suspected of plotting the
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
restoration of Malcolm Canmore, amongst those who fled from his
reach was Fleance, son of Banquo, the murdered Thane of Lochaber.
He fled to the Prince of North Wales, Gryffyth ap Lewellyn, with
whose daughter Guenta being enamoured, the Welsh Princess bore to
Fleance a son Alan." Gryffyth ap Lewellyn was originally the Prince
of Powys, of which principality Shropshire formed part. He conquered
North Wales, and married Alditha (whose second husband was Harold,
slain at Hastings), daughter of Algus the Saxon Earl of Mercia, by
whom he had the above mentioned daughter Guenta. Of the same
family was Meredith ap Bleddyn, whose estates in Shropshire Alan,
filius Flaaldi or Fleanchi, afterwards received ; and a lineal descendant
of the family, twelve generations later, was the renowned Owen Glen-
dower, in assisting whom. Sir Robert Stewart of Durrisdeer, elder son
of Sir Robert Stewart of Schanbothy, was killed at the battle of
Shrewsbury in 1403.
Ralph Holinshed, in his Chronicles, written a.d. 1577, says, that on
account of their consanguinity with the murdered Duncan, " Macbeth
devised to slea Banquo and his soune. It chanced through the benefit
of the dark night that though the father was slain, the son yet, by the
help of Almighty God reserving him to better fortune, escaped that
danger, and to avoid further peril fled into Wales."
All genealogists concur in saying that Jean, daughter and heiress
of Angus Macrory, or M'Roderick, Lord of Bute, who was married to
Alexander, fourth High Steward, was of her husband's blood and
family. The relationship is acknowledged even by those genealogists,
who reject the descent from Fleance, as not being proved by direct
documentary evidence. It is almost certain she was not a descendant
of her husband's family after their return to Scotland, but Duncan
Stewart, M.A. (1739), says Kenneth, father of Banquo, had a daughter,
Gunora, married to Malcolm Macrorie of Bute, and it does not appear
how Jean, heiress of Bute, and her husband could be connected in any
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
Of Flaaldus or Fleanchus we know little, except by tradition.
His name appears to have been variously spelled ; he is called Fladald
in various charters to his son. Dugdale gives his name as Flathald.
Leland calls his son Alan Fleilsone, and in the Fitzwarine Chronicle he
is named Alan Fitz Flaen. In 1275 the Norfolk jurors spoke of the
father of Alan as " a certain knight called Flancus." There are many
circumstances in the history of Alan, and his son Walter, which point
to their connection with Wales. Alan was undoubtedly a man of high
position, but neither in the Domesday Book, the Roll of Battle Abbey,
nor in any notice of those who accompanied William the Conqueror
from Normandy, is his name or his father's included.
Camden says Fleance was murdered on account of the favour
with which he, a stranger, was looked upon by the Prince, about the
year 1060, leaving one son, Alan.
Alan, born about a.d. 1050. In consequence of a quarrel at the
Welsh Court, about 1067, Alan returned to his father's native country
of Scotland, at a time when Edgar Atheling, with his mother and two
sisters, had left England, and had placed themselves under the protec-
tion of Malcolm III., who soon after married Margaret, the elder of
the two princesses. Alan rapidly distinguished himself in the service
of Malcolm, and he also served in the Crusade of 1096-9. Robert
Stewarde, last Prior and first Dean of Ely, says " he performed great
things in the Holy Land under the standard of Godfrey of Bouillon."
In 1 100 he seems to have gone to England in the suite of the Princess
Matilda, who, on the i ith November in that year, became the wife of
Henry I. Having been formerly distinguished as a servant of King
Malcolm, and more recently as a Crusader, Alan seems to have been
retained in the service of Henry I. on account of capabilities which, at
that period of his reign, were so much needed by the King. The
learned Eyton, whom we have quoted above, and who has examined
with the utmost attention and critical research the legends and records
relating to the " Origin and early History of the Houses of Fitzalan
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
and Stuart," as well as the " Antiquities and Archaeological History of
Shropshire," relates how Henry I., as a means of strengthening his
hold on the English sceptre, to which his title was doubtful, selected as
his principal counsellors a small but able band of chieftains, preferring
foreigners to Normans ; " such," he says, " in Shropshire were Warin de
Metz, a Lorrainer, the three Peverels, and greatest of all, Alan, son of
It has been indeed contended, though we do not admit the conten-
tion, that the father of Alan was of Breton origin. Main, son of
Theon, granted (1040-66) to the Cell or Priory of Combourg, dependent
on the Abbey of Marmoutier, his rights in the church of Guguen, on
the restoration to health of his sons Hamon and Walter. It has been
conjectured that Walter was the father of
I. Fledald, who had issue —
1 . Alan, Seneschal of the Church of Dol ; transferred, between
1076 and 1081, his rights within the vill of Mezuoit, to
the new church of St Florent at Dol ; gave, before 1084,
by the name of Alan Fitz-Floaud, all his rights in the
church of Guguen to the monks of Marmoutier ; went to
the Crusades 1096 (Ordericus Vitalis). D. s.p. The
town of Dol was formerly of considerable strength, and
it has been thought that it may have been the siege of
this place, in 1076, which introduced the brothers to the
notice of William the Conqueror.
2. Fledald, who succeeded his brother Alan.
3. Riwallon, a monk of St Florent at Saumur.
II. Fledald, consents, 1076-81, to his brother Alan's grant to St
Florent at Dol ; probably dead before i loi, as there is evidence in one
of Henry I.'s charters of 3d September in that year, that his son Alan
was then in possession of the Norfolk fief, leaving issue, a son —
III. Alan, witnesses two charters of Henry I. at Windsor, 3d
September iioi ; 1 100-5 Sherift' of Shropshire; was one of those in
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
whose "seeing and hearing" Henry I. confirmed at York, to the
monks of Marmoutier, the donation of Ralph Paynel. By his wife
Avelina, he left issue —
1. Jordan, mentioned in the Pipe Roll of 1130; died before
1 147, leaving issue —
Alan. Alan Fitz Jordan Fitz Alan inherited the
Britanny estates; confirmed, 1154-61, his grand-
father's grant to Marmoutier ; founded the Abbey
of St Mary of Tronchet, near Dol, before 1147.
(Gallia Christiania, vol. xiv.)
2. William, called " Juvenis" by Ordericus in 1138 ; inherited
the English estates ; ancestor of the Fitz-Alans.
I 3. Walter, Steward of Scotland ; ancestor of the Stewarts.
The chartulary of St Florent, near Saumur, containing these
grants, has not yet been published, but Lobineau's transcription of them
has been taken as correct.
The similarity of the family names is, no doubt, extremely strik-
ing, but it cannot be held to be conclusive evidence until the connection
of this Breton family with England is proved. Conclusions from such
premisses, when unsupported by connecting evidence, would be, in the
great majority of cases, erroneous. For instance, we find from the
chartulary of St Peter of Chartres, that a Walter Fitz-Fleald or Fledald
held a considerable fief near Boisville, under Walter de Alneto, which
he had acquired with his wife Fredesindis, and that he was a great
benefactor to the abbey. Here also, the similarity of family names is
remarkable, but any broad deductions drawn from such an occurrence
are unwarrantable. Indeed, some positive and not merely inferential
proof seems necessary before we can reject a tradition so long and so
firmly rooted as that of the Celtic descent of Fleance. But these two
theories, apparently so widely divergent, might, perhaps, be reconciled
by the supposition — if we felt disposed to adopt this method of supple-
menting our genealogical information — that Fleance fled from the
Welsh Court to the kindred country of Britanny, whither the know-
ledge of the language acquired in Wales might be one of the reasons
for his flight, and where he subsequently married ; his Scottish name,
Fleance, being changed into a name more in harmony with the nomen-
clature of his adopted country. Indeed Duncan Stewart records at
considerable length the tradition then universally believed of the flight
to Britanny, and the subsequent marriage there ; but in his account these
incidents belong to the history of Fleance's son, not to that of Fleance
himself, a mistake the explanation of which will be found at p. i6.
The first recorded mention of Alan in England belongs to iioi.
On September 3d of that year the King held a great Court at Windsor,
and a charter then granted to Herbert, Bishop of Norwich, is signed
by witnesses, " illustrious of England, ecclesiastical and secular," the list
being headed by the name of Queen Matilda, and followed, among
others, by that of Alan, which occupies a high position on the roll,
standing before those of Gilbert and Roger Fitz-Richard, Robert
Malet, and Herbert, the King's chamberlain (Monasticon, iv. 17, v.)
Another charter, by which Herbert, Bishop of Norwich, founded
the Cathedral Priory of his see, passed on the same occasion, and was
attested by nearly the same witnesses as the first, including the King
and Queen and Alan Fitz-Flaald. This charter confirms the " Church
of Langham, which had been Alan's, and his (Alan's) tithes." Now
Langham was afterwards a recognized portion of Fitz-Alan's Honour
of Mileham, from which it was not far distant. We see from the
Hundred Rolls (i. 434) that the tenure of this fief was made a subject
of report by a provincial jury in 1275. The jurors of the hundred of
Launditch, in Norfolk, said that " Melam (Mileham), with its appur-
tenances, was in the hands of William the Bastard at the Conquest,
and the said king gave the said manor to a certain knight, who was
called Flancus," etc. But these gentlemen, in their wish to record the
Norfolk tradition, and to designate the father of Fitz-Flaad, proceed to
adulterate this probable approach to etymological correctness with a
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
great historical inaccuracy, for they add, "who came with the said
King into England," etc. Of such a Norman knight, however, there
is nowhere, as has been before observed, any trace whatever to be
found. Summarily, then, we conclude that Alan Fitz-Flaald had
acquired a part of his Norfolk fief before September iioi, and had
already granted a church and tithes therein towards the endowment of
Norwich Priory. Henry I. also gave Alan the manor of Eaton, which
he transferred to Norwich Priory, apparently before November 1 109,
as that was the date on which the king promised a confirmatory charter
" when Alan shall come to my court."
Alan made a further grant of land, his wife Adelina being a party
to the charter, to the Priory of Castle Acre, a Cluniac house on the
western boundary of his honour of Mileham. He was also a benefactor
(as were his son and grandson) to the Cell of St Peter, at Sele in Sussex.
Passing now to the connection of Alan with Shropshire, we find
that Warin, the first Sheriff of Shropshire, was dead at the time of
Domesday, 1085-6, leaving, by his marriage with Ameria, the niece of
Earl Roger de Montgomery, an infant son Hugh. Ameria was re-
married to Rainald de Ballol, and Rainald, either in right of his wife,
or as guardian of Warin's heir, held the Shrievalty and the lands of
Warin, both of which he ceded to Hugh on the latter's attaining a
sufficient age. Hugh, however, died without issue, and the Shrievalty
and attached barony reverted to the Crown, and we read (Monasticon,
III. 519, col. a), " Alanus filius Fladaldi honorem Vicecomitis Warini
post filium ejus suscepit." From these words has arisen the unwarranted
assumption that Alan acquired his Shropshire fief by marrying a sup-
posed daughter and eventual heir of Warin, but there is no confirmation
whatever of such a marriage.
It appears, therefore, that Alan received by a new investiture, and
by grant of Henry I., the whole " Honour of the Sheriff of Shropshire,"
which lay chiefly in Shropshire, but which included also the lands of
Wolston and Stretton super Dunesmore in Warwickshire, certain manors
in Staffordshire, and Arundel in Sussex. In 1109, on the occasion of
the visit of Henry I. to Shropshire, Alan's name appears as attesting a
judicial decision of Richard de Belmeis, Bishop of London, regarding
some right of Shrewsbury Abbey, and to the same Abbey and at the
same time, Alan Fitz-Fladald, with ready devotion, conceded all things
which had been bestowed by his predecessors or by his barons, whether
in his time or previously.
In summing up the evidence which he had so laboriously collected,
of which the preceding is only an abstract, Eyton remarks that the
change from Fleanchus to Flaaldus is not very great, when we compare
it with other instances, when a foreign name had to be accommodated
to the English ear. It might have been added that Fleance's change
of country may also have involved a partial change of name. The
opinions of Eyton are also shared by Corbet Anderson, who says,
" Meanwhile, Hugh, son of Warine, having deceased without issue,
Alan Fitz Flaald received, by grant, from Henry I., a.d. 1102, the
honour of the Sheriff of Shropshire. It is a question who the new lord
of Upton Magna was, but that Alan Fitz Flaald was progenitor of the
Royal House of Stewart is beyond a doubt." The passage previously
quoted as to the identity of Fleanchus with Flaaldus follows, and
Anderson thus continues, " The change from Fleanchus to Flaaldus is
certainly not very great, especially when we bear in mind that the nomen-
clature of that period was far from fixed. According to this, then, Alan
Fitz Flaald was grandson of Gryffyth ap Lewellyn, Prince of North
Wales. Now, as Gryffyth married Alditha, daughter of Algus, King
of Mercia, by whom he had Guenta, it follows that Alan Fitz Flaald,
legitimate or illegitimate, was the great-grandson of the Saxon Earl of
Mercia. Henry I., be it remembered, married a Scoto-Saxon princess ;
therefore, in giving Alan Fitz Flaald the specific fief of the Sheriff of
Shropshire, he may be supposed to have been actuated by a variety of
motives. In the first place, he (Henry I.) was planting in the very van
of border warfare, a chieftain who sprang from the native princes of
North Wales. Secondly, descending, as Alan did, from the Saxon Earl
of Mercia, Henry I. acted in accordance with his well-known policy of
conciliating the English. Again he, who now became lord of Upton
Magna, represented a house illustrious in that land of Scots, where
Henry I. had married his queen."
It is certainly noteworthy that " Flathail," which, in its spelling, is
almost identical with the Flathald of Dugdale, and in its pronunciation
(Fla-al) so closely resembles Flaald, signifies in the Gaelic language
"princely." Without attaching undue weight to phonetic etymologies,
it is impossible to avoid remarking how appropriately this epithet would
describe, in an age where names were so commonly derived from per-
sonal characteristics, the youthful stranger, whose appearance and
demeanour procured for him, as Holinshed so quaintly narrates, such
signal favour in the eyes of the Welsh princess. In the Welsh the
cognate word is "gwlad," pronounced flad, which also bears what seems
to be a very significant resemblance to Flaald, the Flaaldus of the
Chalmers, in his "Caledonia," says, "Alan was undoubtedly a person
of great consequence at the accession of Henry I. He was a frequent
witness to the king's charters, along with other eminent personages of that
splendid Court." Besides witnessing the above-mentioned charters of 3d
September iioi, "he was a witness to a charter of Henry I., together
with Matilda, his queen, the daughter of Malcolm Canmore, and other
personages of the highest rank, dated the iSth September iioi, which
charter was engraved in 1728, from the original in the possession of
Matthew Howard, the Lord of the Manor of Thorp, near Norwich.
He also witnessed another charter of Henry I. at Canterbury, and one
of Willian Peverel to the Church of St Peter at Shrewsbury. Alan
subscribed all these charters, ' Ego, Alanus Flaaldi filius.' "
He married between 11 00 and 1105 Adelina, called also Avelina
and Adeliza, daughter of Ernulph de Hesding, half-sister, and in her
issue co-heir of Ernulph de Hesding the second, who, for his brave de-
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
fence of Shrewsbury in 1 138, was so mercilessly put to death by Stephen.
The various fees in Gloucestershire, Wiltshire, and elsewhere, which
formed the Domesday Barony of Ernulph de Hesding, were found in
1 165 to be divided among coparceners, a third being vested in the
representatives of Alan Fitz Flaald.
They had four sons : —
I. William. In 1 126, at the time when William was entering
upon manhood, the Earldom of Shrewsbury had continued
in the crown for twenty-four years ; and Henry I., having
then convened an assembly of his prelates and barons at
London during the feast of Christmas, gave the county of
Salopesbury, says William of Malmesbury (Hist. Novell,
lib. I., sub. init.), to his second wife, Adelais, daughter of
the Duke of Louvain. The Queen appointed for her
viscount or sheriff, William Fitzalan, " a baron not inferior
to earls," in the estimate of a contemporary writer (Gesta
Regis Stephani, 356). William married first Christiana,
niece of Robert, the consul. Earl of Gloucester. She
died in 1153, leaving one son, Alan, who died in infancy,
and was buried at Haughmond. William married,
secondly, Isabel, daughter and sole heiress of Helias de
Say, Lord of Clun. Their son, William Fitz- Alan (II),
born about 1 154, married the daughter of Hugh de Lacy
of Ewyas, and died June 121 1, having had issue, William
(who died 12 16, s.p.), and John Fitz-Alan. John, who
died about June 1240, married first, Isabel de Albini, in
her issue co-heir of the Earls of Arundel. Their great-
grandson, Richard Fitz-Alan, born 3d February 1267,
succeeded to the Earldom of Arundel, and changed his
residence from Shropshire to Sussex. The escheat rolls
of Henry V. show that Thomas, Earl of Arundel, who
died without issue, possessed, among other great estates.
Oswestrie, the original seat of Alan, and Clune Castle,
the demesne of William, the son of Alan. The Earl-
dom of Arundel, with the baronies of Fitz-Alan, Clun,
Oswaldestrie, and Maltravers, became merged in 1556 in
the Dukedom of Norfolk by the marriage of Mary,
daughter and eventual heir of Henry Fitz-Alan, Earl of
Arundel, with Thomas, fourth Duke of Norfolk, who
was beheaded in 1572 for his adherence to the cause of
Mary, Queen of Scots. The earldom (a feudal honour,
as adjudged in Parliament, 8th July 1433, eleventh Henry
VI.), is held by possession of Arundel Castle only, with-
out any creation, and also by summons to Parliament,
1 6th June 1580.
Walter, afterwards High Steward of Scotland.
Jordan, occurs 11 29 and 11 30, as in possession of lands
granted to him in Lincolnshire. He must have died
before 1 147, and his line appears to have become extinct
in the person of his son, Alan Fitz-Jordan Fitz-Alan,
who was a benefactor of the Cell of St Peter at Sele, in
Sussex, belonging to the Abbey of St Florand, in Anjou.
Simon, who accompanied Walter to Scotland, and witnessed
his charter to the Abbey of Paisley about 1 1 60, signing
as " Frater Walteri, filii Alani, dapiferi." Simon had a
son, Robert, who is designed in the chartulary of Paisley
nephew of Walter, the High Steward, and from him the
Earls of Kilmarnock were descended. To this Robert,
the name of Boyt or Boyd was given, derived from the
Gaelic word " Boidh," signifying fair or yellow. William,
fourth and last Earl of Kilmarnock, joined Prince
Charles in 1745, and was executed on Tower Hill on
the 1 8th August 1746, when the earldom ceased, but his
son, James, succeeded his grand-aunt, the Countess
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
Mary, in the Earldom of Errol. The armorial shield of
the Kilmarnock family bore the fess chequd.
Also, a daughter, Sibil, married in or before 1132 to Roger de
Freville. Alan died about 11 14, and was succeeded in his Shropshire
fief by his eldest son, William.
Walter, the second son of Alan Fitz-Flaald, together with the rest
of his family, took an active part on behalf of the Empress Maude, the
niece of King David I. of Scotland, in her conflict with Stephen for the
English crown. Hume notices William Fitz-Alan as a powerful par-
tisan on the side of Maude. Chalmers, in his " Caledonia," writes as fol-
lows : — "Walter, the son of Alan, undoubtedly obtained from David I.,
and from his successor, Malcolm IV., great possessions, a high office,
and extensive patronage. And it may be reasonably asked by what
influence he could acquire from two kings so much opulence and such an
office ? David I. was a strenuous supporter of the claims of his niece,
the Empress Maude, in her severe contest with Stephen. William,
the brother of Walter, influenced by the Earl of Gloucester, the natural
son of Henry I., and the powerful partisan of his sister, the Empress,
seized Shrewsbury in September 1139, and held it for her interest.
Walter attended her, with King David, at the siege of Winchester in
1 141, where they were overpowered by the London citizens, and
obliged to flee. Such, then, were the bonds of connection between
David I. and the sons of Alan, who were also favoured by the Earl of
Gloucester. It was, probably, on that occasion that Walter accom-
panied David into Scotland. William, the son of Alan, adhered
steadily to the Empress, and was rewarded by Henry II. for his attach-
ment. Thus Walter, the son of Alan, could not have had more power-
ful protectors than the Earl of Gloucester with David I., and Henry II.
with Malcolm IV." Chalmers might also have included, among other
reasons for David's favour for Walter, that it was well known to both
that they were already allied in blood. William, the elder brother, as
heir to his father, was amply provided for ; but Weaker, though not
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN. 15
without lands, would only have a younger son's portion. Mr W.
Fraser says that, before going to Scotland, Walter had lands in
appanage, being the provision made for him as younger son, at Os-
westrie, of the Fitz-Alan fief or barony, adjoining the lands of the
Priory of Wenlock. In his " Stewartiana," Mr Riddell quotes an inqui-
sition, made in 1185, by Galfrid Fitz-Stephen, into all previous grants
in favour of the Knight-Templars, where we find " Apud Carditonam
ex dono Willielmi filii Alani tota villa de Carditona et Huchmerse, ex
dimidia villa de Chatterville et confirmatione domini regis. . . . Adam
Albus pro dimidia virgata XL eli. Apud Covetone ex dono Walteri
filii Alani Robertus et Hanno filius pro i virgata Vs." Mr Riddell
calls this a "clinching proof" of the first High Steward's connection
with Shropshire. " Carditona " is Cardington in Shropshire, lying in
Oswestry Hundred, and in the vicarage of Wenlock. " Coveton " is
Cotton in Shropshire, also in Oswestry Hundred, and in the old
writings of the place is styled Coveton. The " Liber Niger Saccarii "
contains a list of English fiefs from 1 100 to 11 54, in the reign of Henry
L, and among the vassals of " Willielmi filii Alani " there is mentioned
" Walterus filius Alani," as holding " feodum 11 militum." It appears,
also, from the Harleian MS. in the British Museum, that William, pro-
bably between 1155 and 11 60, "invested" his brother in his Sussex
manor of Stoke, and " this feoffment must have been over and above
those two knights' fees of new feoffment, which, in 1165, Walter Fitz-
Alan is said to have held in the barony of his nephew. Walter had
revisited England at his brother's restoration in 1 155, after the accession
of Henry II."
Holinshed writes : — " Walter proved a man of greater courage and
valiance than any other had been commonly found, and there reigned
in him a certain stoutness of stomach ready to attempt high enter-
Walter was appointed, by David I., High Steward of Scotland, and
was the first to hold that great ofiice, the chief, under the king, in the
monarchy. Down to the beginning of the present century, Brown
and other genealogists were of opinion that two members of the House
of Stewart, Walter and Alan, held that office before " Walterus filius
Alani." Pinkerton, about 1775, pointed out the probability that the
origin of the family, and that of the noble English race of Fitz-Alan
would probably be found to be identical, and this was followed up, as
we have seen, by Chalmers. " Walterus filius Alani " could not have
been the son of Fleanchus ; and the older genealogists, searching for
members of the family to fill the blank space of time, found one man,
Alan or Alden, who witnessed charters of Gospatrick, Earl of Nor-
thumberland — afterwards, from 1146 to 1166, Earl of Dunbar, — to
the religious houses at Durham and Melros. This Alden designed
himself " Alden Dapifer," and he was supposed to be the father of
" Walterus filius Alani." As a Walter was manifestly first High
Steward, they were compelled to interpolate another Walter, as father
of Alan or Alden. Duncan Stewart, M.A., in his " History of the
Stewarts," published in 1739, was evidently puzzled with this Alden,
and thought he might be Steward or " Dapifer " to Gospatric, and later
investigations show that he was right. A little later. Sir David Dal-
rymple, in his " Annals," declared that Walter, who lived in the reigns
of David I. and Malcolm IV., was, indeed, Steward of Scotland; but
that there was at that time no authentic knowledge of the family
previous to him.
The proofs, besides those already quoted, that Walter, the first
High Steward of Scotland, was brother to William Fitz-Alan, seem
ample. As witness to the charters of David I., and in his own, he
always subscribed himself "Walterus filius Alani." He founded, about
1 160, the Abbey of Paisley for monks of the Cluniac order of Reformed
Benedictines, whom he brought from Wenlock in Shropshire. The
first actual settlement of the monks was at the Inch of Renfrew, in the
neighbourhood of the residence of the founder, the church being dedi-
cated to St Mary and St James. It has, indeed, been supposed that
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
the original intention of the Steward was that they should be per-
manently seated there, but the terms of the charter seem to make it
more probable that it was not proposed that their settlement on the
Isle should be other than temporary, and merely until the house at
Paisley should be ready for their reception. The first grant was that
of " the church of Passelet, with two ploughs of land," followed by the
confirmation of Walter's charter to the monks of St Milburga of
Wenlock, of this grant on the Inch or Isle of Renfrew. While the
monks were still seated on this island, they received from Walter a
further grant, confirmed by Malcolm IV., of various lands in Roxburgh-
shire, Haddingtonshire, and Renfrewshire. A few years after their
settlement on the Inch of Renfrew, the monks removed to Paisley,
where their house was still more munificently endowed, the Inch of
Renfrew being subsequently resigned to the grandson of the founder
for certain other lands. The charter to the monastery is in Latin, and
the following is a translation of the preamble : — " Be it known to all
present and to come, that I, Walter, the son of Alan, High Steward to
the King of Scotland, for the soul of King David, King Henry, and
Earl Henry, and also for the soul of King Malcolm, and of myself, and
of my wife and heirs, and also for the souls of my ancestors and bene-
factors, for the honour of God and of the blessed Virgin Mary, erect a
certain house of religion below my land of Paisley (of the order of the
brotherhood of Wenlock), viz., according to the order of Clugny, with
the concurrent consent of the convent of Wenlock, and for the erecting
of that house I have thirteen of the brotherhood of Wenlock," etc.
The Earl Henry was the only son of David I., and King Henry was
the King of England, to whom we have seen the family of Fitz-Alan
was so much indebted. The connection of the Fitz-Alans with Clune
and Wenlock has been already fully noticed. The monastery of
Wenlock was founded by Roger de Montgomery, Earl of Shrewsbury.
Among those who accompanied Walter from Shropshire was "Robert de
Mundegumbri," on whomWalter bestowed the manor of Eglisham,granted
to him by David I., and it was until very recently held by the Earl of
Eglinton, the representative of the family of Montgomerie in Scotland.
The Melros Chronicle says, that in 1169 " Humbardus Prior de
Weneloc adduxit conventum apud Passelet, qui est juxta Renfriew."
Among other witnesses formerly connected, like the founder, with
Shropshire, are Robert de Mundegumbri, Robert, Geoffrey, and Walter
de Costentin, Richard Wall:, Robert de Nesse, Alan the grantor's son,
and Alexander de Hasting. By the chartulary of Paisley it appears that
Walter gave Humbard for his services some lands and right of herring
fishing in Clydesdale, but that he afterwards gave in exchange for them
some land in the south-west of Sussex, where Walter possessed other
In 1334 John Baliol having been put, by the help of Edward III.,
in temporary occupation of the Scottish throne, confiscated the whole
possessions of Robert Stewart, son of Walter Stewart and Marjory
Bruce, the High Steward. In 1335 Richard Fitzalan, Earl of Arundel,
who had accompanied Edward III. into Scotland, claimed the forfeited
office as his by hereditary right, and sold it to Edward for 1000 merks.
The claim was, of course, illusory, as Richard Fitzalan could have no
shadow of right to the office till all the descendants of Walter, first
Steward, were extinct ; and though it was only made to give Edward
a pretence for interfering further in Scottish affairs, it shows the con-
nection at that time recognised as existing between the families.
Edward obtained from Baliol, in 1340, a confirmation of this trans-
action, a record of which is still extant in the English Crown Archives.
The charter given by Walter to the monastery of Paisley was
signed a.d. 1160, at Fotheringhay Castle in Northamptonshire, a manor
inherited by Malcolm IV., along with the earldom of Huntingdon.
Malcolm was there at that time, doing homage for his English lands to
Henry II., who was then at Wodstoke, not far distant from Malcolm's
castle of Fotheringhay, which was destined to be the place of the im-
prisonment and execution, rather more than four hundred years later,
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
of his unhappy descendant Queen Mary, in 1587. The monastery
was dedicated generally to God and the blessed Virgin, and, in par-
ticular, to St James, St Milburga, and St Mirin, and it eventually
numbered under its patronage thirty-one churches, as appears from its
chartulary, which comes down to 1548. The foundation was confirmed
by King William the Lion, and also by Pope Innocent III., and by
Stephen, abbot of the parent house of Cluny in Burgundy. On the seal
of the abbey is, says Laing, " a figure of St James with pilgrim's staff
and scrip, at each side a shield, the dexter bearing a fess chequ6 for
Stewart, the sinister a saltire cantoned with four roses for Lennox,"
the great Lords of Lennox and the Isles being also munificent benefac-
tors of the Abbey. It was one of the four holy places in Scotland to
which pilgrimages were made, the others being Scone, Dundee, and
Dr Lees, in his history of the Abbey of Paisley, says that St
James was peculiarly the patron saint of the Stewarts, and that St Mil-
burga was the founder and the patron saint of Wenlock, the oldest and
the most wealthy of the religious houses of Shropshire. St Milburga
was daughter of Merewald, the Christian founder of Leominster Priory,
and granddaughter of Penda, last Saxon pagan king of Mercia. St
Mirin was a Celtic Saint, a pupil of St Cougal, Abbot of Bangor, and
the friend and frequent visitor of St Columba at lona. St Mirin's
name is frequently found in Scots Kalendars, and he is distinguished
as the first preacher of Christianity to the natives of Clydesdale. Dr
Lees and others, who hold that Walter was of Norman lineage, express
surprise that he should have selected a Saxon and a Celtic saint as
patrons of his munificently endowed Church at Paisley ; but his own
Celtic and Saxon descent fully account for the choice, which, indeed,
could otherwise hardly be explained.
Malcolm IV. confirmed the grants of land which David I. had made
to Walter, and also that of the office of High Steward, making it heredi-
tary in his family. The following is the translation of the charter, as
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
given by Crawford : — " Malcolm, King of Scots, to the bishops, abbots,
barons, justices, sheriffs, provosts, officers, and all good men, clergy,
laity, French and English, Scots, and inhabitants of Galloway, through
all his dominions, both present and to come, greeting. Be it known to
all men that before I took up arms, I granted, and have by this, my
charter, confirmed in hereditary succession to Walter, the son of Alan,
my high Steward, and to his heirs in fee farm and inheritance, my High
Stewardship to be held by him and his heirs as well and fully as King
David granted him his High Stewardship. I further confirm the grant
which King David, my grandfather, gave him, namely, of the lands of
Renfrew, Paisley, Pollok, Tullok, Cathcart, Le Drep, Eglisham, Loch-
winnoch and Innerwick, Inchinan, Hastenden, Legerwood, and Birchen-
side, with all the pertinents of these lands, and in every burgh and
regality to me belonging, one full toft, and with every toft twenty acres
of land for his entertainment therein, and for giving me and my heirs
for that fee farm, the service of five soldiers (' milites,' which should be
more properly translated knights).
" At the castle of Roxburgh, on the feast of St John the Baptist,
in the fifth year of our reign (24th June 11 57), before the witnesses,
Ernest, Bishop of St Andrews ; Herbert, Bishop of Glasgow ; John,
Abbot of Kelkow (Kelso) ; William, Abbot of Melros ; Walter, the
Chamberlain ; William and David, brothers of the King ; Earl Gos-
patrick. Earl Duncan, Richard de Moreville, Gilbert de Umphraville,
Robert de Brus, Randolph de Sulis, Philip de Colville, William de
Somerville, Hugo Riddel, David Olifard, Walden, son of Earl Gos-
patric ; William de Moreville, Baldwin de la Mar, Lyulph, son of
A copy of the above charter, in Latin, is among the Harleian MS.,
in the British Museum, on folio 45, in the handwriting of Sir James
Balfour, where it also appears (folio 44) that this had been taken from
a manuscript of the handwriting of Sir John Skene, Clerk- Register of
Scotland, who had copied it from the original.
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
Walter witnessed many charters of King David — one of a grant to
Melros Abbey, passed in June 1142, at Ercheldon ; one in favour of
May Priory, dated at Kyngor ; and also of a charter in favour of the
Church at Glasgow, together with Willielmus Cuming, Cancellarius,
Hugo de Morevilla, Ferg. de Galweia, Hugh Breton, and others. He
also witnessed a charter of Prince Henry of Scotland, " Henricus Comes,"
to Holm Cultram, which must have passed after the foundation of that
house in January 1 1 50, and before the death of the Prince in May or June
There is also a charter in the Scots College at Paris of a grant by
" Henricus Comes," in favour of the Church of St John of the Castle of
Roxburgh, signed at Traquair, without date, which is witnessed by
Walter. He was also witness to a charter by Ricardus de Moreville,
Constabularius Regni Scotise, granted about 1 1 70. The De Morevilles,
from Burgh, in Cumberland, were very powerful in Scotland under
David I., Malcolm IV., and William the Lion. They held hereditarily
the office of High Constable, founded the Abbey of Dryburgh, and
almost certainly that of Kilwinning, and they were also great benefac-
tors of Melros Abbey. The male line ended in 11 96 in the person of
William. He died s.p., and his sister, Elena, marrying Roland, Lord of
Galloway, carried to her husband the high offices and large estates of the
De Morevilles. Through the marriage of Robert de Brus, great-great-
great-grandfather of King Robert the Bruce, with the heiress of Gallo-
way and Annandale, these powerful Celtic Lords of Galloway, which
then comprehended not only the Shire of Wigton and the Stewartry of
Kirkcudbright, but also a portion of Dumfries-shire and a large part of
Ayrshire, were the ancestors, on the maternal side, of the Stewart Kings.
In the charter by Malcolm IV., Walter is termed " Senescallus," and
he signed himself at different times " Dapifer " and " Senescallus."
Duncan Stewart says the derivation of Senescallus is from two old
German words, " Senes," signifying old, principal, or chief, and " Scale,"
a servant ; in the Gaelic, the cognate words are " Sean " and " Sgalag,"
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
having the same meaning. He also derives the name of Stewart from two
Saxon words, "Sti," a house, and "Ward" or "Wart," a guardian or keeper.
In Douglas's Peerage, we find Ducange's description, of the office
of Senescallus as follows : — " Senescallus (Steward), said to be derived
from Sennen, a herd, and Schalc, a servant, was the first ofiice under
the crown ; he was not only chief of the household, but his power, from
the confidence acquired by that station, extended to the collection and
management of the revenue, to the administration of justice, and even
to the chief direction in war. It being found in France a power too
vast for a subject, the power was there subdivided."
Sir Henry Steuart, of Allanton, in his letter to Andrew Stuart,
M.P., in refutation of some statements made by the latter in his "Genea-
logy of the Stewarts," gives the following explanation of the variety
of ways in which the name has, in later days, been spelled. " I shall
here," he says, "take an opportunity of accounting for the various
manners in which the name of Stewart is written. Surnames, accord-
ing to the best accounts, were invented by the Normans in the Twelfth
Century. About the beginning of the Thirteenth, they were intro-
duced into this island ; and Walter, the fifth Lord High Steward
of Scotland, who died about a.d. 1241, was the first who settled the
name of Stewart on his posterity. Being obviously derived from the
office, Stewart is, beyond question, the most ancient and the most proper
orthography. But different races, in process of time, have found it con-
venient to alter it, either in order to mark their own particular descent
or to distinguish them from others of the same origin. Accordingly,
we find that Stewart, Steuart, and Stuart, have been common among
numbers. The long and intimate connection between Scodand and
France appears to have given rise to the idea of discarding the w from
the word, and writing Stuart instead of Stewart ; as the French, who
are without the ' w ' in their alphabet, first set the example. The prac-
tice, it is supposed, first originated with Sir John Stewart, of Darnley,
soon after the notable campaigns which he served in France, in the
THE STEWARTS OF APPIxV.
beginning of the Fifteenth Century. But it has been most generally,
and most erroneously, applied to the Royal Family by historians.
Queen Mary, from a natural partiality to the French manners,
also contributed to bring this innovation into fashion. But King James
VI., her son, condemned the alteration from the former orthography, by
introducing, in several of his charters and letters patent, clauses tending
to restore the latter. The rule seems to be that when the name in
general is written, it should certainly be Stewart ; the office Steward, and
in the case of particular families, that mode of orthography ought to be
followed, which they themselves have long been in the habit of using."
Walter is said to have defeated Somerled, Thane of Argyll, and
ancestor of the Macdonalds, the MacDougalls, and the various other
branches of the family of the Lords of the Isles, in an attempt to
ravage the Barony of Renfrew, a.d. 1164 (according to Sir James Bal-
four, in 1 161), when Somerled's son Gillecolane was killed. Sir Robert
Douglas says both Somerled and his son were killed.
In addition to his munificent gifts to the Abbey of Paisley, Walter
was a benefactor to Kelso, a monastery of the Cistercian order founded
by King David I., Dunfermline, founded by Malcolm III., Cupar, and
Melros. To Kelso he gave lands near Roxburgh, an acre in Molle,
and two parcels of land in Renfrew ; to Dunfermline he gave a toft in
his burgh of Renfrew, another in Innerkeithing, and on the day that
King Malcolm was buried twenty-four acres lying in the bounds of the
burgh. To Melrose he gave, about 11 70, the lands of Edmunstune
and Machline, and those of the Shiels on the north side of the river
Ayr, with fishings, and one carucate of laboured land, bounded by
Duveglass, Lesmahago, and Glengevel. His charter to Melros is yet in
existence, and a representation of his seal attached thereto is given in
the Plate on the preceding page (fig. i). For this valuable and interest-
ing addition to this work the authors are indebted to the courtesy of
the Duke of Buccleuch and Queensberry, who permitted an impression
— from which the plates in this volume have been reproduced — to be
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
taken from the original plate engraved for the Liber de Melros, his
Grace's contribution to the Bannatyne Club. Mr Henry Laing, whose
descriptions of these and subsequent seals are quoted, says : — " This is
rudely executed, and much defaced, yet it is extremely interesting, as
being probably the earliest seal in existence of this great family. The
design is an armed knight on horseback at full speed, a lance with pen-
non, couched in his right hand, and a shield on his left arm. sigillum
WALTERi FiLii ALANi DAPiFERi REG." The counterseal (fig. i) is "equally
interesting. Unfortunately, the Impression is very imperfect ; but it
has evidently been an antique gem, in a broad setting, on which was
cut the inscription, now illegible. The design seems to be a warrior
with a spear in his right hand, leaning against a pillar, and with his left
hand holding his horse. These seals afford a presumption that as yet
the family used no coat armour." The witnesses to the charter are
Alan, the grantor's son, Robert de Montegumeri, Walter Costetin,
Richard Wallensis, and Adam de Newtun.
Walter married Eschina, sister of Alan, fifth Earl of Athole (in
right of his wife, eldest granddaughter of Henry, fourth Earl of Athole),
and daughter of Thomas de Londoniis, who had been appointed by
William the Lion " Hostiarius," or Door ward, an office which became
hereditary in the family, and from which they assumed the surname of
Durward. Thomas was son of Malcolm de Londiniis, who received
from Malcolm IV. the lands of Lundin in Forfarshire, when his brother
Philip obtained from the same monarch the barony also called Lundin,
near Largo, in Fife. Eschina was the widow of Henry de Molla, and
brought to her second husband the baronies of Molla and Huntlaw
in Teviotdale, Roxburghshire. Gordon says, in his " Monasticon,"
" Eschina de Londiniis, the wife of Henry of Molle, gave to Kelso a
confirmatory charter in 1 185, to the convent, of the church of Molle, its
lands and liberties." In her charter, circa a.d. 1190, in favour of the
Abbey of Kelso, the grant is made for the souls of her " lords," Walter
the Steward and Henry of Molle. These estates of Molla and Hunt-
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
law remained in the family of Stewart for many generations, as King
Robert III. erected all the lands of the Stewart of Scotland, which
were either in the Baronies of Renfrew, or in Kyle Stewart in Ayrshire,
as well as also their lands of Molla, Huntlaw, and Hassendean in Rox-
burghshire, and the lands of Orde in the shire of Peebles, into a Rega-
lity " in honorem Dei, Beatse Virginis Maris, et Beato Jacobo Apos-
tolo, et Sancto Mirino Confessori, pro salute animae suae, et animarum
antecessorum Regum, Senescallorum Scotiae." The chartulary of
Paisley shows that Eschina granted to the prior and monks of Paisley
a carucate, or one hundred acres of land, with pasturage for fifty oxen,
for the welfare of the souls of the Kings of Scotland and England,
Walter her husband, herself, her son Alan, and Margaret, her daughter,
who died unmarried, and was buried at Paisley. Among the witnesses
to this charter are her husband, " Walterus filius Alani," described as
" Dominus meus," and " Alanus filius ejus."
The last grant of Walter to his church at Paisley is that of an
annual payment of two chalders of meal for the support of a monk to
pray for the soul of Robert de Brus, showing an early connection be-
tween the houses of Stewart and Bruce, a relation which became more
close in later years. Ramsay says that towards the close of his life
Walter assumed the monastic habit, and passed the evening of his days
within the hallowed precincts of the Abbey of Melrose, where he died
in 1 177. In the Chronicle of Melros there is the following record of
his death: "Anno Domini 1 1 77 obiit Walterus, filius Alani, Dapifer
Regis Scotise, qui fundavit Pasleto, cujus beata anima vivit in gloria,"
Fordun says he died in 11 78, but the different periods from which, in
those days, the commencement of the year was computed, often caused
such discrepancies in dates. Walter was buried at Paisley, which con-
tinued to be the burying place of the Stewarts till they ascended the
throne ; indeed, after their accession, it was occasionally employed as
their place of sepulture.
Alan, son and heir of Walter, succeeded his father in 1 177, as
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
High Steward of Scotland under King William the Lion, who had
been crowned, on the death of his brother Malcolm, on the 24th De-
cember 1165. Alan accompanied Philip II., King of France, Richard
Coeur de Lion, and David Earl of Huntingdon, in the third Crusade,
against Saladin, about 1191. On his return from Palestine he led an
army against rebels in the north of Scotland, under Harold, Earl of
Caithness and Orkney, whose son Roderick he killed in battle with his
own hand. The rebels were defeated, and the southern part of Harold's
lands given to Hugh Freskin, grandson of Freskin the Fleming, and
progenitor of the Dukes of Sutherland.
Alan gave the patronage of the church of Kingarf, in the isle of
Bute, with the tithes of all the churches and chapels within that island,
to the monastery of Paisley. To the Abbey of Melros he gave a pas-
turage on the west side of the river Leader, the lands of Baremor and
Godeneth, as well as those of Monabroc in Strathgrief, with an annuity
of five merks, which had been payable to him out of the lands
of Mauchlyn by the monks of Melros ; and also an annual sum from
his lands of Thirlstane in Lauderdale to buy wax candles for the altar
of St Mary at Melros. He gave to Cupar a toft in his burgh of
Renfrew, and the liberty of a net for fishing salmon in the Clyde ; and
to Kelso many lands lying in his barony of Inverwick. He also
granted, apparently in early life, and in confirmation of his father's pre-
vious gift, the church of Mauchline, and his lands of Mauchline, to
Melros Abbey, together with the pasturage of his forests as far as the
marches of Duneglas and Lesmahago, and Glengarvil. An engraving
of the seal attached to this charter will be found at p. 23 (fig. 3). "It
is," says Laing, " much defaced. An armed knight on horseback, a
sword in his right hand, and a shield on his left arm. The inscription
is indistinct, but the following may be read — ' s alain . fi . watir .
L . Fi . AL . SENESCHALL . RE . SCO,' which may be ' Sigillum Alain le
Fitz Watir le Fjtz Alain Senescalli Regis Scotiae.' " The witnesses to
this deed are Reginald de Hasting, William de Lindesei, Walter de
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
Constentin, Adam de Neueton. The same Alan, renouncing at a
later period his claim to certain lands in Blenselei — probably Blainsli
in Lauderdale — in favour of Melrose Abbey, sealed his charter with a
seal, a representation of which is given at page 23 (fig. 2). It is " of a
similar design, but in a much improved style of art. The remains of a
fess chequ6 is quite apparent upon the shield, and is perhaps the
earliest instance of this well-known bearing of the Stewart family —
siGiLL . ALANi FiLii WALTERi." Alan also gave to the Abbey of Cam-
bus Kenneth a full toft in the Burgh of Renfrew, and one fishing in
the water of the same village.
Alan was witness to a charter by William the Lion, confirming an
agreement between the Bishop of Glasgow and Robert de Brus, concern-
ing certain churches in Annandale, signing as " Alanus Dapifer." In the
chartulary of the Bishopric of Glasgow, preserved at the Scots College
at Paris, there is a convention between the Bishop of Glasgow and
Roger de Vallens, as to the church of Kilbride, which was signed in
presence of "His testibus, Domino Rege ; Comite Patricio; Roberto
Capellano ; Hug. Clerico ; Ric de Moreville, Const. Regis ; Alano
Dapifero Regis ; Philippo de Vallen ; Adamo filio Gilberti ; Waltero
de Berkely, Cam. Regis."
Alan married Eve, daughter of Suan, the son of Thor, Lord of
Tippermuir and Tranent, a person of great account at that time. Suan
was a benefactor of Scone Abbey, as appears from a confirmation by
Walter Stewart, his grandson ; he also gave to the Abbey of Holyrood
all right he had in the church of " Trevernent," its lands, pastures, and
tithes. Alan gave a donation of land to the Canons of St Andrews,
for the salvation of the souls of the Kings David and Malcolm, of his
father's, of his own, and of that of his wife Eve. Simson says he
married a second wife, Alesta, daughter of Morgund, Earl of Mar.
Alan died in 1204, and was buried before the high altar at Paisley,
leaving two sons —
I. Walter, who succeeded him.
2. David, who, as appears from Rymer's Fcedera, was one of the
guarantors in 12 19, that Alexander II., King of Scotland, should
marry Joan, eldest daughter of John, King of England, if her hand
could be obtained, and if not, that he should marry her sister Isabella.
There is no record of any descendants of David, and he had escaped the
notice of genealogists till he was pointed out by Sir David Dalrymple.
Walter, designed of Dundonald in Ayrshire, succeeded his father
in 1 204, and was the first who took the name of Stewart as a surname,
and transmitted it to his posterity ; the appellation having been pre-
viously official, and confined to the holder of the office. Chalmers says
the manor and parish of Dundonald belonged to Walter the first High
Steward, who held the whole of the northern half of Kyle in the begin-
ning of the reign of William the Lion ; it was, however, his grandson
Walter who was first styled of Dundonald. Dundonald Castle is about
four miles south-west of Kilmarnock, and is most picturesquely situated
on the summit of a detached and almost precipitous green " dun," or
conical hill, commanding an extensive view of the Stewart lands on
the north, east, and south-east, and of Cantyre and Knapdale in Argyll-
shire, with the islands of Bute and Arran on the north-west and west.
"It must have been a place of great strength prior to the introduction of
artillery. The building is not extensive, the area on which it stands being
circumscribed. It bears, however, unequivocal evidence of having been
one of the most magnificent strongholds of the age. Besides the massive
oblong tower — at least three spacious stories in height — the remains of
the court-yard and some interior structures still exist. The arch over
the ground floor is in good preservation, as well as some of the outer
walls, particularly the north-west, but the stair is almost entirely gone."
The original castle on the Dun was, it is supposed, built by some
Donald, not improbably one of the ancient Scots kings, and was in all
likelihood added to, and occupied occasionally as a residence by Walter,
first High Steward, after he had made over to the monks, on the
foundation of the monastery about 1 1 60, the dwelling on the rock at
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
Paisley where his hall was founded, "ubi aula mea erat fundata." It
seems, however, to have been added to more than once, for in addition
to the fess cheque of the Stewarts, the lion of Scotland appears on
various parts of the building. As the principal castle of the Stewarts
in their extensive barony, or rather principality of Kyle Stewart, it
continued their chief seat in Ayrshire for about two hundred years,
though they had other smaller castles in the district which were either
their occasional residences or were occupied by their vassals. Among
these were, in the Lordship of Stewarton, " Steuartetoune Castell," now
forming part of the modern mansion of Lainshaw, described by Pont
as " a stronge old Dounijon, the ancient inheritance of the predecessors
of our Scotts Kings ;" and, in Strath-grief or Renfrewshire, the manor-
place of Blackhall, to which a chapel was attached, the fortalice of
Raiss, and Renfrew Castle, which will be noticed hereafter.
King Robert II., as appears from various charters, dated at Dun-
donald, resided there, at least occasionally, during the earlier part of
his reign, and from 1388 — when, enfeebled by age, and deeply affected
by the death of his son-in-law James, Earl of Douglas, at the battle of
Otterburn, he practically transferred the reins of government to his
second son, the Earl of Fife — he lived there till his death in 1390.
" The second Robert of Scotland Kyng
As God purwaid maid endying
At Downdownald in his countrie
Of a schort sickness thare deyd he." — Wyiitnn.
Robert III. also inhabited the castle for some time after his father's
death, and it is asserted by several authors that he died there. It con-
tinued to be occasionally visited by the kings of Scotland until 1468,
when James III. conferred it, with other extensive estates, on Thomas
Boyd, Earl of Arran, on his marriage with his Majesty's eldest sister,
the Princess Mary ; but on the fall of the family of Boyd, and the for-
feiture of their estates in the following year, it returned into the posses-
sion of the Crown. In 1482, James III. granted the custody of the
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
castle, with the dominical lands, to Alan, first Lord Cathcart. In 1527,
James V. granted a confirmatory charter of the castle and estate to
William Wallace, probably a cadet of the family of Craigie, in the pos-
session of whose descendants it remained till 1638, when it was sold to
Sir William Cochrane, of Cowden, the ancestor of the Earls of Dun-
donald. In 1726, the estate passed, by purchase, to the Eglinton
family, with whom it still continues ; the castle only, with the surrounding
seven or eight acres of land, remaining the property of the Cochranes.
Walter was witness to a charter by William the Lion, granted at
Dumfries, but without date, to which the witnesses were — Ricardus de
Moreville, Walterus filius Alani Dapifer, Walterus Olifar, Robertus
de Quinci, Willielmus de Veteri Ponte. The last designation appears
frequently afterwards in Scots and English charters, and was contracted
as a surname into Vipont. The family had extensive possessions in
Roxburghshire, and Alan de Vipont held the castle of Lochleven for
King David II., after the "battle of Halidonhill. The family of De
Quinci was a very powerful one, both in Scotland and England, in the
1 2th and 13th centuries. Robert de Quinci came to Scotland in the
reign of William the Lion, and got Leuchars, in Fife, by his marriage
with Arabella, daughter of Nes. His grandson, Roger, who held,
besides his Scottish barony, the Earldom of Winchester, in England,
married Elena, eldest daughter of Alan, Lord of Galloway ; and, on
Alan's death in 1234, not only shared the extensive estates of his
father-in-law, but also succeeded to the high office of Constable of Scot-
land, which had descended to the Lords of Galloway from the marriage
of Alan with Elena, sister of William, the last of the De Morevilles.
The office and Scots estates were forfeited during the wars of the
There is a charter, with the Great Seal of Scotland attached, in
the Scots College at Paris, granted by Alexander II. in favour of the
Church at Glasgow, dated at Ayr, on the 8th May 1223. The first
witness is " Walterus filius Alani Senescallus," and the names after his
are Walterus Olifard, Roderick Capellanus, Ingelram de Ballol, Henri-
cus de Baliol, Henricus de Stivel, Joannis de Macaswell, Reginaldus de
Crawfurd, Vice Comes de Ar, Walterus Bisset. The family of Bisset
were at this time of importance in the districts now chiefly occupied by
the Frasers, but shortly afterwards the heads of the family were out-
lawed on account of their share in the assassination of the young Earl of
Atholl, son of Thomas of Galloway.
Walter's earliest benefaction to the Church appears to have been a
grant, between 1207 and 12 14, of an annual rent of three merks to the
Convent of Syxle. His confirmation to Melros Abbey assures four
carucates of land at Edmunstune, as granted by Walter Fitz-Alan, his
grandfather. His seal, p. 23, fig. 4, bears an armed knight on horse-
back, a drawn sword in his right hand, and on his left arm a shield
bearing " a fess chequ^, sigill walteri filii alani." His privy seal,
p. 23, fig. 5, appended to a charter of the lands of Molle, in excam-
bion for the lands of Freretun, to the Abbey of Melros, bears simply a
fess cheque. He also, as Seneschal, attests the deed, signed at York on
i8th June 122 1, whereby Alexander II. of Scotland fixed the dower of
the English Princess Johanna. About 1223, Walter granted a charter
in favour of the Church of Glasgow, in which he describes himself as
" Dapifer Regis Scotise," showing, as pointed out by Ducange, that
Dapifer and Senescallus were names of the same office. Alexander II.
granted a charter, now in the Scots College at Paris, also in favour
of the Church at Glasgow, dated 8th February 1237, to which the
witnesses were Walterus filius Alani, Justiciar Scotiae, Walter Cumyn,
Comes de Menteth, Walterus Olifard, Alan Hostier (Hostiarius or
Doorward), Walterus Bysset, Roger Avenel, David Marscal. By this
it appears that Walter had, previous to 1237, been appointed Justiciary
of Scotland ; and Sir Robert Douglas and Duncan Stewart say that
the appointment was made at St Andrews on the 24th August 1230.
In September 1237, he was one of the commissioners named by Alex-
ander II. to swear to the observance of the peace agreed upon with Henry
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
III. In Winton's Chronicle, it is said that after the death of Alexan-
der's first wife, the Princess Joan of England, Walter was sent in 1238
as ambassador to France, to negotiate a marriage for King Alexander
with Mary, daughter of Ingerlam, Lord of Coucy, and that he accom-
panied her to Scotland. Abercromby says that Walter went with a
command to Palestine, in the Sixth Crusade of 1228-40, and that after
his return he defeated a rebellion raised by Thomas Mac-du-Allan in
About this time the Pope's usurpation of the right of patronage of
monasteries caused the pious benefactors of the Church to erect colle-
giate churches and chapelries, the patronage of which was reserved by
ecclesiastical canon, to the founders and their heirs. Walter founded a
religious house of this kind, of the Gilbertine order, at Dalmulin, in
Kyle, about two miles east of Ayr, endowing it with various lands and
tithes, among others, with the church of Dundonald and its two chapels
of Richardstoun and Crossby. When the Dalmulin house was given up
in 1238, Walter granted the church of Dundonald with its two chapels
to the monks of Paisley, and also at the same time the church of San-
quhar, as well as that of Auchinleck, with all its pertinents. He also
gave donations to the Abbeys of Kelso and Balmerino, confirmed his
father's charter of Mauchline, and also that of his grandfather, Suan, of
lands to the Abbey of Scone. He further, according to Crawford, gave
an annuity of six chalders of meal for the support of a priest of Melros,
to say mass for the benefit of the soul of Robert de Brus, Lord of
The following is quoted from Nisbet's Heraldry. " Walter, High
Steward in the reign of Alexander II., appended his seal to a charter
confirming grants of lands upon the Water of Ayr to the monks of Mel-
ros. The seal has a man on horseback, in a coat of mail, brandishing
a sword with his right hand, and on his left arm a shield with a fesse
cheque of three tracts, and above his head a helmet, with a wreath also
cheque. The fesse is a belt across the shield, and meant to signify a
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
knight's belt. The term cheque in heraldry is said of the field, or any
other charge or figure filled up with square pieces alternately of differ-
ent tinctures ; which pieces Monsieur Baron will have to represent in
armouries, battalions, and squadrons of soldiers, and are a fit bearing
for chief commanders of armies, as those of the antient family of Stew-
art, who long before they ascended the throne, were commanders in
chief of armies under our antient kings, and Lord High Stewards of
Scotland, and were in use always to carry for their paternal ensign, or,
a fesse chequd, azure and argent."
Duncan Stewart, quoting Sir James Balfour, says : " The fesse
cheque was assumed by the Stewarts, perhaps because the fesse repre-
sents a military belt, and the fesse cheque represents battalions and
squares of soldiers ; because the Stewart of Scotland had command of
the King's armies. Likewise the fesse cheque represents the chess-
boards, which, of old, accomptants in the King's office of Exchequer
did make use of in calculating their accompts. Whence, probably, the
Exchequer had its name, and which office was under the High Stew-
art. The seal of Walter, son of Alan, Lord High Stewart, carried a
fesse cheque very probably upon this account."
Walter married Beatrix, daughter of Gilchrist, third Earl of
Angus. Noble, in his history of the Stewarts, says that the mother of
Beatrix was Marjory, sister of Malcolm IV. and William the Lion.
Walter died in 1 246, leaving issue —
1. Alexander, his successor.
2. John, killed at Damietta in Egypt. Noble says he accom-
panied his brother Alexander in the seventh Crusade, led by Saint
Lewis, King of France,
3. Walter, called Bailloch, or the freckled ; designed in a charter of
1248, " Walterus filius Walteri Senescalli ; " and in charters of 1261 and
1263, "Walterus Senescallus, comes de Menteth." He accompanied his
brothers to the seventh Crusade in 1 248, and distinguished himself at
the battle of Largs in 1263. He witnessed the marriage contract of
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
the Princess Margaret with King Eric of Norway in 1281, and, with
his Countess, accompanied the Princess to that country. In the parlia-
ment of 1283, he swore allegiance to the Maiden of Norway in the
event of the death of Alexander III. In 1292 he was one of the
auditors, on the part of Bruce, in the competition for the crown. Dun-
can Stewart says that he took part in the invasions of England in 1295
and 1296, and that having surrendered after the battle of Dunbar on
honourable conditions, he was, notwithstanding, put to death in the
76th year of his age. He married the younger daughter of
Mauritius, third Earl of Menteth, and in her right succeeded as fifth
earl, on the death of Walter Cumyn, fourth earl, in right of his wife, the
elder sister. Walter Cumyn died suddenly in 1258, and his widow
somewhat precipitately married Sir John Russell, an English knight.
Sir John and his wife were both imprisoned on suspicion of having
poisoned her first husband, but were afterwards permitted to leave the
kingdom. Sir Walter Stewart thereupon laid claim to the earldom,
and obtained it by favour of the estates of the realm. His male issue
failing, the title was carried by his granddaughter Mary to Sir John
Graham, and by their daughter Margaret's marriage with Robert, first
Duke of Albany, third son of Robert II., it passed again to the line of
the Stewarts ; but on the execution of Duke Murdoch in 1425, it was
forfeited and vested in the Crown. Walter was a benefactor of the
abbey of Kilwinning, conferring on it the patronage of the parish
church of St Charmaig and chapel of St Mary in Knapdale, St Michael
in Inverlussa, together with the lands in Riventos annexed to the said
church. He also confirmed to the monks of Paisley the grants of Duf-
gall the son of Syfyn regarding the church of St Colmanel with its
penny land, and the chapel near the castle of Schypinche, or Skipness.
4. William, mentioned in some charters, of whose issue there is
Also three daughters :
I. Beatrix, married to Maldwin, third Earl of Lennox, great-
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
grandson of Arkyll, the Saxon lord of several baronies In Yorkshire
and Northumberland, who, after several insurrections against William
the Conqueror, fled to Scotland, where he received from Malcolm Can-
more the district in the counties of Dumbarton and Stirling called the
Lennox. Her great-granddaughter, Margaret, married Walter de Fas-
lane, who became Earl of Lennox. He is thought to have been a
descendant of one of the Stewards of Scotland, and his seal, attached
to a charter, certainly bore the fess chequ^. In reference to the charter
granted to Walter de Faslane, Sir David Dalrymple, Lord Hailes,
says that words cannot express more strongly the notion of those times
that the possession of the " Comitatus " conferred the title of " Comes."
Their granddaughter. Lady Elizabeth, married in 1392 Sir John Stew-
art of Dernely, a descendant of Sir John Stewart of Bonkyl, and thus
the title of Lennox came into that family.
2. Christian, married to Patrick, sixth Earl of Dunbar. Lord
Hailes calls him the most powerful baron of the southern districts
of Scodand. He held the first rank among the twenty-four barons who
guaranteed the treaty of peace with England in 1244. He died at the
siege of Damietta in 1248. J ^30o''i!2
3. Margaret, married to Niel de Galloway, second Earl of Car-
rick ; by whom she had a daughter, Margaret, Countess of Carrick in
her own right, who, after the death of her first husband Adam de Kil-
conquhar in the Holy Land at the beginning of the eighth and last
Crusade, married, under well known romantic circumstances, in 1271,
Robert de Brus, Lord of Annandale and Cleveland, the eldest son of
the Competitor, and by him became the mother of Robert the Bruce,
afterwards King of Scotland.
Alexander, designed of Dundonald, eldest son of Walter, succeeded
his father in 1246. He bound himself, under a penalty of 1000 merks,
to serve, along with the Earl of Angus, under Louis IX. of France,
for two years against the Saracens ; and accordingly, as narrated by
Abercromby, attended St Lewis, King of France, to the seventh
36 THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
Crusade in 1 248, becoming, at the death of his brother-in-law, the Earl
of Dunbar, commander of the Scots contingent. In 1255 he was one
of the council of Alexander III., then under age, and also one of the
Regents of the kingdom. Alexander the Stewart, together with Pat-
rick Earl of March, Malise Earl of Stratherne, Niel Earl of Carrick,
Robert de Brus, and Alan Dureward (a descendant of Thomas de
Londoniis), opposed the schemes of the Cumyns, Robert de Ros,
and John de Baliol. When Alexander III., King of Scotland,
went to England with his queen, Margaret, daughter of Henry III.
of England, he stipulated that, if he should die there, their child,
then expected, should be intrusted to the care of Alexander the
At the defeat of the Norwegians at Largs in 1263, the High
Steward commanded the right wing of the Scots, and having routed
those opposed to him, he wheeled his division, in military phrase, to
the left about, and attacked the enemy in reverse, disengaging the
sovereign, who was surrounded. Boece records of Alexander at Largs,
" Incontinent, Alexander Stewart of Paisley came with a bachement of
fresche men to the Middleward, quhair King Alexander was fechtand
against King Acho with uncertain victory, and the Danes seand this
Alexander cum, gaif bakkis." The Stewart was ordered to pursue the
enemy to the Hebrides, which he re-annexed to the Crown. He then,
according to some accounts, invaded the Isle of Man, and compelled
Magnus, son of Olave, to come to Dumfries to do homage to
King Alexander, and to become bound to furnish five gallies of
twenty-four oars, and five of twelve oars, for the service of the Scottish
On the 30th November 1263, Alexander the Stewart got from
King Alexander a charter of the Barony of Garlies, in the Stewartry of
Kirkcudbright, which was then included in Dumfriesshire, and he after-
wards conferred this barony on Sir John Stewart de Bonkyl, his second
son. Alexander's seal, appended to a charter by him of lands and
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
pastures of Machline and Carentabel, in Kyle, to the Abbey of Melros,
is, says Laing, " unfortunately but
the fragment of a remarkably fine
seal. The design, admirably ex-
ecuted, is a knight on horseback at
full speed, armed with a lance
couched in his right hand, and on
his left arm a shield bearing the fess
chequd, which seems to be repeated
on the breast leather of the horse.
Only the following letters of the
inscription remain . . . . ' nescalli
RE ' . . ." The counter-seal bore
" a fess cheque. All that remains of the inscription are the letters
' XANDRi FiLii ' ; it is most likely the inscriptions on both seals were the
same, and have been 'sigillum alexandri filii walteri senescalei
REGIS SCOCIE.' "
At Roxburgh, on the 25th July 1281, on the final agreement as to
the terms of the matrimonial contract between Margaret, daughter of
Alexander III., and Eric King of Norway, Alexander the Stewart was
one of the great nobles who became bound for the fulfilment of the
articles agreed upon by the King of Scotland. He gave many charters,
chiefly confirming those of his predecessors. In particular, in 1266, in
presence of King Alexander and many noble witnesses, he gave a new
grant to the abbot and monks of Melros, ratifying to them the lands
of which they were already possessed, and granting them many excep-
tions and privileges. In this charter he is designed " Alexander
Senescallus Scotiae, filius Walteri Senescalli." It is recorded in the
Chartulary of Paisley that he made a pilgrimage to the shrine of his
patron saint, Saint James, at Compostella in Spain, the abbot and monks
of Paisley assembling with great pomp to give him their blessing on his
departure. Alexander married Jean, daughter and heiress of James, son
38 THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
of Angus M'Rorie or M'Roderick, Lord of Bute, "of his own family,"
a relationship to which the attention of the reader has been above drawn.
The M'Rories were descended from Roderick, son of Somerled, Lord of
the Isles. He died in 1283, and was buried at Paisley, leaving issue —
1. James, his successor.
2. Sir John Stewart of Bonkyl, ancestor of the Stewarts of
Angus, Galloway, Blantyre, Atholl, Lorn, Appin, Buchan, and others.
3. Elizabeth, married to Sir William de Douglas, Lord of Lugton,
ancestor of the Earls of Morton. Sir William was uncle of the good
Before tracing the descent of the Stewarts of Appin from Sir John Stewart de Bonkyl,
a short sketch of the history of the main line of the House to the accession of Robert
Stewart to the throne of Scotland in 137 1, will be given. Less than a hundred years
afterwards one of the descendants of this main line, Margaret, daughter of the Duke of
Albany, was grandmother of Dugall, first of Appin, by her marriage with Robert Stewart,
Lord of Lorn.
James, the eldest son of Alexander Stewart of Dundonald, was bom in 1243, and
succeeded his father in 1283. He was one of the six Regents of Scotland during Queen
Margaret's absence after the death of her grandfather Alexander IH. ; the others being
Duncan, Earl of Fife ; Alexander Comyn, Earl of Buchan, Constable and Justiciary of
Scotland ; Fraser, Bishop of St Andrews ; Wishart, Bishop of Glasgow; and John Comyn,
Lord of Badenoch. In that capacity he was addressed, on 1 4th October 1 2 86, by the Abbot
of Aberbrothoc, respecting property in that abbacy, and on the nth November of the same
year, he subscribed a remonstrance with the King of England, on the harsh conduct of the
King's Escheator on the north of the Trent. His name also appears very frequently in the
public documents of the period, still preserved in the Register House in Edinburgh, autho-
rising the payment of the customary fees to various knights, and in all these he gives the
confirmatory signature at the end. His name appears, on 20th September 1286, as the
signatory of a bond between certain nobles of Scotland and England for mutual defence,
including Patrick, Seventh Earl of Dunbar, and his sons Patrick, John, and Alexander ;
Walter, Earl of Menteith ; Robert de Brus, Lord of Annandale, and Robert and Richard
his sons ; James, Seneschal of Scodand, and his brother John. The Chamberlain Rolls
show that he was Vicecomes de Air before 1289. In that year the management of the king-
dom was entrusted to him, while his colleagues went to England to treat with Edward I.
and the ambassadors of the King of Nor\vay, about the affairs of the young Queen of
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN. 39
Scotland In 1294 he granted to the Monastery of Paisley the privilege of a herring-
fishing in the Clyde. In 1296 he signed the Ragman Roll, a document deriving its name
from Ragimunde, a papal legate in Scotland, which contains the instruments of homage
and fealty to Edward I., sworn to by the nobility and clergy of Scotland ; but in the year
following, he and his brother John associated themselves with Wallace for the defence of
the kingdom. The dissensions of the party, however, induced James, Sir Alexander de
Lindsay of Crawford, and Robert de Brus, to submit to Edward I. at Ayr, James, never-
theless, sending his Brandanes, under his brother John's command, to the battle of
Falkirk, on 22d July 1289. Winton writes —
" Thare Ihon Stewart a' pon fute,
Wyth hym the Brandanes thare of Bute."
And Holinshed— " There were slain Sir John Stewart with his Brandanes, for so they
name them that are taken to warre furth of the Stewartes lands."
In 1307 the English burned a part of the monastery of Paisley. To the perpetration
of this sacrilegious act against the peculiar religious foundation of the Stewarts, they were
doubtless provoked by the prominent and heroic part taken by Sir John Stewart of
Bonkill, and by a feeling of revenge against James, the High Steward, who, after he had
for a time yielded a compulsory obedience to Edward I., latterly became one of the
most zealous and powerful supporters of Bruce in his protracted struggle for national
James appears to have frequently, if not principally, resided at Renfrew Castle, which
probably had been originally an old dwelling of the Kings of Scotland. It stood on a
rising ground between the Cross and the Ferry in the King's Inch. "Here," says
Crawford, " the Lord High Stewart of Scotland had a castle, the chief manour of this fair
barony ; for this I have seen a charter granted by James, High Stewart of Scotland
(grandfather to King Robert II.), to Stephen, ancestor of the family of Hall of Fulbar,
the charter being given ' apud manerium nostrum de Renfrew.' This castle," continues
Crawford, "was situate upon a pretty, rising ground, called Castlehill, upon the brink of
the river of Clyde ; from whence there has been a very agreeable prospect of the country,
many miles distant every way, and surrounded with a large and deep fossie." Ramsay tells
us that the castle continued to be one of the principal residences of the Stewarts as long
as they continued in the relation of subjects. Even after Robert II. ascended the throne,
he occasionally resided there, as some of his charters show. It would also appear that
James IV. visited Renfrew Casde, for a deed by him bears to have been executed there.
The seal of James, fifth High Steward, appended to a remittance in favour of the
abbey of Melros of ten shillings from lands in the barony of Inverwick, is " but a mere
fragment. The design is similar to the seal of his father, and it has evidently been a well
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
executed seal. The inscription is lost, except the letters i se ." The counterseal bears
" a fess cheque. The shield, of an elegant form, has been surrounded with beautiful
tracery. The inscription is lost except the letters esca, but was probably the same as
that on the seal of his father, except the difference of names."
He died on i6th July 1309, and was buried among his ancestors in the abbey of
Paisley, to which he had confirmed, in 1294, all previous donations by his predecessors.
He married Cecilia, daughter of Patrick, ninth Earl of Dunbar, and had issue —
1. Andrew, who predeceased his father.
2. Walter, his successor.
3. John, killed at the battle of Dundalk, 5th October 131S.
4. Sir James, of Durrisdeer.
Also a daughter, Egidia, married to Sir Alexander de Meyners or Menzies. They
got a charier from Robert I. of the lands of Durrisdeer, afterwards resigned to her brother
Walter, who succeeded his father, was bom in 1293. The first mention of him in
history is when the Scottish army was assembled at Torwood, the day before the battle of
Bannockburn, on 25th June 1314, when Walter brought up a large body of men from his
extensive territories in Ayrshire, Renfrewshire, and Bute. Barbour says —
" Walter, Stewart of Scotland, syne,
That then was but a beardless hyne.
Came with a rout of noble men,
That might by countenance be ken."
In the marshalling of the Scottish army, the command of the first division was given
to Thomas Randolph, Earl of Murray ; that of the second to Edward Bruce, the king's
brother ; that of the third to Walter, the young Stewart, though then only twenty-one years
of age, and to his kinsman, Sir James Douglas ; the king in person commanding the
fourth division, which was in reserve.
" And syne the third battle they gave
To Walter Stewart for to lead.
And to Douglas doughty of deed.
They were cousins in near degree. — Barbour.
Young Walter Stewart was knighted after the battle,
" The king maid Walter Stewart knycht,
And James of Dowglas, that wes wycht,"
says Barbour. He was subsequently sent to receive, on the borders of England, Elizabeth,
wife of King Robert, and their daughter, Marjory, to whom Walter was married the next
year, 1315. In 13 16, when King Robert went over to Ireland to aid his brother Edward,
he appointed Sir Walter Stewart and Sir James Douglas governors of Scotland during his
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
absence. On Shrove Tuesday of that year, tradition says, the Lady Marjory was unfor-
tunately thrown from her horse when returning from Paisley to Renfrew Castle, and her
unborn son, afterwards Robert IL, is said to have been extracted by the Cassarian opera-
tion, in the process of which he got a cut in the eye, which gave him afterwards the name
of King " Blear-eye." Fordun says Robert was born in the natural course, and that Mar-
jory died two days after his birth. Dr Lees relates that a stone pillar marked the spot
where Marjory fell from her horse, but that, when last seen, it formed a lintel in a farm-
house, and that the stones of the pedestal had been taken for repairing stone walls. In
Gordon's Monasticon, it is stated that the death of Marjory Bruce was occasioned by a
fall from her horse, in March 131 6, while hunting at the Knock, between Paisley and the
castle of Renfrew, the principal seat of her husband, Walter, the Great Steward of Scot-
land, and that Robert IL " was cuttit out of his mother's womb by Sir John Forrester of
For the welfare of his wife's soul, Walter gave, in 1318, the patronage of the church
at Largs, with the tithes thereto belonging, to the monks of Paisley. He also granted
to the monks of Dryburgh the patronage of the church of Maxton, in Roxburghshire,
and subsequently the church itself, with the glebe, to which he added four acres in
At a convention of the Scots nobles, held at Ayr on the 26th April 1313, the succes-
sion to the Crown, in the event of Robert I. dying without male issue, was settled on Edward
Bruce ; but, after the death of the latter at the battle of Dundalk in 13 18, another parlia-
ment met at Scone on the 3d December in that year, to make a new settlement. It was
there enacted that Robert, the son of Walter Stewart and Marjory Bruce, then called John,
should, failing issue of Robert I., succeed to the throne. Walter got by his marriage, in
addition to his great patrimonial possessions, the lands of Bathgate, Rathoe, Riccardtoun,
Bams, Brome, Bonnington, Kinalach, Gallowhill, Wermes, Emygaith, and the rents of the
Carse of Stirling. About 1320, he also got grants of the lands of Nisbet, Langnewton,
Maxtoun, and Cavertoun, forfeited by Sir John de Soulis; and Eckford, Kelly, and
Methven, forfeited by Sir Roger Moubray.
Sir Walter Stewart was made governor of Berwick — an appointment which he retained
till his death — after it was taken by the Scots in 1318 ; and he distinguished himself by
the signal bravery with which, in the following year, he successfully defended the town
with his own kindred and vassals against a large English army, led by Edward II. in per-
son, a brilliant sally made by Walter leading to the final raising of the siege. In 1320, he
appears as a signatory of the celebrated letter to the Pope from the Scottish barons,
assembled at Arbroath. Laing says that "no seal of Walter has yet been met with. There
was one appended to the letter of the Scottish barons to the Pope, a.d. 1320, but it has
been for a long time lost from that instrument. Could it be here inserted, it would present
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
(in connection with the great seals after their accession to the throne) an unbroken succes-
sion of this great family for nearly five centuries."
In 1322, in an enterprise to seize Edward 11. at Byland Abbey, near Melton in York-
shire, Sir Walter, with Douglas and Randolph at the head of five hundred horsemen, pur-
sued the English king to the gates of York, and, in the spirit of chivalry, remained
there till evening, waiting for the enemy to come forth and give battle.
" Stewart Waltre, that gret bounte
Set ay on hey chewalry
"With fyve hundred in cumpany
Till Yorkis yettis the chass gan ma
And thar sum of thair men gan sla
And abade thar quhill ner the nycht
To see gif ony wald ische to iychi."— Barbour.
Walter died on the 9th of April 1326 ;
" As gude Crystyn the gat he gan."
Crawford says "at Bathcate in 1328," — Bathgate Castle, curiously situated in the midst
of a bog, being one of his chief residences — and was solemnly interred at Paisley.
" When long time they their Dale had made.
The Corps to Paisley have they had.
And there with great solemnity
And with great Dule, eirded was he." — Barbour.
Lord Hailes remarks, " Had he lived, he might have equalled Randolph and Douglas,
but his course of glory was short."
Walter is said by Simson, and by Sir Robert Douglas, to have been three times mar-
ried. First, to Alice, daughter of Sir John Erskine, of Erskine, by whom he had a
daughter, Jean, who was the second wife of Hugh, fifth Earl of Rossj secondly, to
Marjory Bruce, mother of Robert II. ; and, thirdly, to Isabel, sister to the gallant Sir
John Grahame, of Abercom, by whom he is said to have had a son, Sir John Stewart, of
Railstoun. This Sir John Stewart had a son, who died without issue, and a daughter, who
was married to Sir William Graham, of Kincardine, by whom she was mother of Patrick
Graham, afterwards Earl of Stratherne. Walter, the High Steward, had also, by Isabel
Grahame, a daughter, Egidia, who was married— first, by Papal dispensation, dated at
Avignon, nth April 1346, to her cousin, Sir James Lindsay, of Crawford; secondly, to
Sir Hew Eglintoun, of Eglintoun and Ardrossan ; and, thirdly, to Sir James Douglas, of
Dalkeith, ancestor of the Earls of Morton, and had issue by all three. Her daughter, by
Sir Hew Eglintoun, carried the succession to the lordships of Eglinton and Ardrossan to
her husband. Sir John Montgomerie, of Eaglesham, the predecessor of the Earls of
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN. 43
Robert, High Steward of Scotland, bom 13 16, was declared heir-presumptive to the
throne in 13 18, but the birth of a son to King David Bruce in 1326 interrupted his pro-
spects for a time. He had inherited from his grandfather large estates in Kintyre. He
succeeded his father, Walter, when he was ten years old ; and when only seventeen,
fought at the battle of Halidonhill on 13th July 1333. The result of that disastrous day
was to give possession of nearly the whole of the kingdom to Balliol, who declared all
Robert's estates forfeited, and conferred them in the following year upon David de Strath-
bogie, twelfth Earl of AthoU, nephew of John Cumyn, of Badenoch ; and it was at this
time, as has been before mentioned, that William Fitz-Alan, Earl of Arundel, laid claim
to the Stewardship, and sold it to Edward III. for 1000 merks. Robert, once the most
opulent noble in Scotland, had now nothing left but his valour and enterprise. He lay
concealed in Bute for some months, but, gradually collecting a body of men, he recaptured
his own castle of Dunoon ; and his cousin, Colin Campbell, son of Sir Neil Campbell, of
Lochow, by Mary, sister of King Robert Bruce, bringing some Highlandmen to his assis-
tance, he took possession of his paternal estates in Renfrewshire, and was the first to raise
in the field the standard of Scottish independence, after the overwhelming defeat of Hali-
donhill. Fordun says he was there joined by William Carnithers and a band of " honest
men and proved Scotsmen " from Annandale.
Fordun describes Robert in Latin, of which the following may be taken as a transla-
tion : — " He was a comely youth, tall and robust, modest, liberal, gay, and courteous ;
and for the sweetness of his disposition, beloved by all true hearted Scotsmen."
In the History of Dumbartonshire we find the following account of the events of
i333"4 : — " In the exercise of that power with which he considered himself invested,
Balliol conferred upon the Earl of Atholl the extensive possessions of Robert the Stewart
of Scotland, grandson of Robert Bruce. This young baron, stript of his patrimony, and
closely pursued by the enemies of his house, lay concealed on his paternal estate (the
island of Bute) for about a twelvemonth, after the defeat of Halidon Hill. With a skill
and determination far beyond his years (he was only 18), he organised a plan for escaping
to the castle of Dumbarton. Confiding his scheme to two faithful vassals of the family
named Gibson and Heriot, they brought a boat to a convenient spot on the shore late in
the evening, and accompanied by a page and two staunch friends, the Stewart was con-
veyed to a point on the Cowall shore, where horses were in readiness to convey the party
to Dumbarton. . . . Robert the Stewart did not long remain inactive in the district where
he now found himself; gathering together such friends of his house as were willing to
risk their lives in his cause, he, along with Sir Colin Campbell of Lochow, attacked and
destroyed the castle of Dunoon, and put many of its defenders to the sword. The news
of this success was not long in reaching his retainers in Bute, who, mustering in great
force, captured de Lyle, the English Governor, and put him to death. Bearing his head
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
in savage triumph along with them, the Stewart's vassals, or, as Wynton calls them, the
Brandanes of Bute, soon after left the island and joined their master in the neighbourhood
of Dumbarton. In the same year, 1334, an assembly of the Scottish nobles was held, in
which the young Stewart and the Earl of Moray were elected joint regents on behalf of
David, then an exile in France."
In 1338 the Earl of Moray being prisoner in England, and Sir John Moray of
Bothwell dead, Robert Stewart was acknowledged sole Regent, and gradually expelled the
English from Edinburgh, and from all the towns north of the Forth.
In 1341 King David II. returned to Scotland, and assumed the government. At
the battle of Durham, in 1346, Robert Stewart and Patrick, ninth Earl of Dunbar and
March, commanded the left wing, and brought off the remains of the Scots army from that
illstarred field. Robert was elected Regent of the kingdom during King David's eleven
years' imprisonment in England, under the title of " Robertus Senescallus Scotiae locum
tenens Serenissimi Principis David."
When David was ransomed in 1357, it was agreed that twenty young Scots nobles
should be given as hostages, and amongst these was the eldest son of the Stewart. In
1359 the king conferred upon Robert the Earldom of Strathern.
King David II. died on the 22d February 137 1, and on the 26th March 1371 his
nephew, Robert Stewart, was crowned King of Scotland at Scone. At his coronation a
solemn Act was passed, reciting the Act passed at Scone in the time of Robert I., and
fixing the succession on his eldest son, John " Comes de Carrick et Senescallus Scotiae."
On succeeding to the throne he changed his name to Robert, a name beloved by the Scots,
who considered John, from the e.xamples of King John of England and John Baliol, a
name of ill omen for a king.
The narrative will now return to Sir John Stewart de Bonkyl, second son of Alex-
ander, High Steward of Scotland, and ancestor of the Stewarts of Appin.
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
SIR JOHN STEWART, who received from his father the barony
of GarKes, but who was commonly designed of Bonkyl, in Ber-
wickshire, is thus described in Nisbet's Heraldry: " Sir John Stewart
of Bonkyl, second son of Alexander, High Steward of Scotland, born in
the year 1246. He married Margaret, daughter of Sir Alexander
Bonkyl of that Ilk. She bore him several sons, heads of great families
of the name of Stewart, which families were known by the fess chequd,
and bend and buckles, the figures which Sir John carried in right of his
wife ; viz., or, a fess cheque, surmounted of a bend, gules, charged
with three buckles of the first for Bonkyl." A facsimile of the coat of
arms of " Stewart of Bonkylle " taken from the ancient heraldic manu-
script emblazoned by Sir David Lyndsay of the Mount, Lyon King at
Arms in the reign of James V., a.d. T542, is given upon the preceding
page. Holinshed writes : " The said Alexander Stewart, son of Alan,
had divers sons ; one of whom, John, married the heiress of Bonkyl, a
virgine of great beauties." Alexander de Bonekil is mentioned, on
28th November 1292, in the list of exemptions from Common Sum-
mons to Common Pleas, in the County of Northumberland and Liberty
of Tynedale, together with the King of Scotland, the Abbot of Kelso,
Patrick Earl of Dunbar and March, and Thomas of Clerehill.
Sir John Stewart's name appears in the bond, previously quoted at
page 38, wherein the Earls of Gloucester and Ulster, and other
nobles, James " Senescallus Scotise," and John, his brother, agree to
stand by each other in all questions, saving their allegiance to their
respective sovereigns. This contract is dated at Turnberry in Carrick,
20th September 1286. In the competition between Bruce and Baliol
for the Scottish throne in 1292, the auditors for Bruce were Walter
46 THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
Earl of Menteith, Malcolm Earl of Lennox, James the High Stewart,
John Stewart his brother, Alexander de Bonkyl, Thomas de Bonkyl,
the Bishops of Glasgow and Dunkeld, and the Abbots of Melros and
Jedworth. Of the 1600 or 1700 names in the Ragman Roll, the first
is that of James, Seneschal of Scotland, and next to it is that of John
Stewart his brother, followed by those of Alexander Earl of Menteth,
and Alexander de Bonkyl. The seals of James the High Steward, and
of Sir John his brother, are preserved in the Chapter House, West-
minster. That of James is much smaller, and in better preservation,
than the seal engraved and described at page 23. It bears " a fess
chequd, the shield surrounded with tracery, secreto
jACOBi SENESCALLi scociE." That of Sir John bears
" a fess cheque surmounted with a bend, s' johannis
On Candlemas day 1296, John Stewart "for the
health of his own soul and all his ancestors and suc-
cessors, and for the health of Margaret his wife and his children,
gives to Melroes and to the canons thereof" two pounds of wax to
light at the tomb of St Waldare, to be paid yearly at the fairs of
Roxburgh ; and among the witnesses is James, Seneschal of Scotland,
" brother of the granter."
When King Edward I. of England again invaded Scotland in
1298, Sir John Stewart joined Wallace previous to the battle of
Falkirk on the 22d July. Lord Hailes says of the leaders : " They
whose names are recorded were John Comyn of Badenoch, the
younger ; Sir John Stewart of Bonkyl, brother to the Stewart ; Sir
John Graham of Abercorn ; and Macduff, granduncle of the young
Earl of Fife."
" Ye gud Stewart yon till array is gane,
Ye field he tuk, as braw and worthy knycht,"
says Blind Harry. Sir John Stewart — who, in the absence of his elder
brother James, was in command of the whole united body of the vas-
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
sals and military tenants of the House of Stewart — contended with
Wallace and Comyn for the place of honour in the line of battle ; and
in the dissension which unhappily ensued upon this rivalry, Sir John
and his division of 10,000 men were overwhelmed by the English.
Hemmingford gives an account of his death in Latin, which may be
thus translated : " Among whom was the brother of the Seneschal of
Scotland, who, when giving commands to the archers from the forest of
Selkirk, was accidentally thrown from his horse and slain. The archers
stood around him and were overpowered, men who were of tall stature
and of elegant form." The monument to Sir John Stewart at Falkirk
is a plain slab, with the inscription, " Here lies a Scottish hero, Sir
John Stewart, killed at the battle of Falkirk, 22 July 1298," with a cross
" Quhen Wallace saw zis nobile worthi deid.
Held up hys handys with humyll prayer prest,"
is Blind Harry's touching lament for his fall.
In an inquisition taken at Carlisle by Edward I., a jury de-
clared that the deceased Alexander de Bonkyl had possessed the
manor of Ulnedale, in Cumberland, with the pertinents of Thomas de
Lucy, and that the said manor was escheated to the King, as Margaret,
daughter and heir of the said Sir Alexander, residing in Scotland with
the enemies of their sovereign lord, Edward, King of England.
There are many proofs in records that this Sir John Stewart mar-
ried the daughter and heiress of Sir Alexander of Bonkyl, or Bonckhill,
as the name was afterwards spelled, and that he was killed in 1298;
but it appears that his father - in - law did not die till about 1 300.
Thus Sir John was not universally styled de Bonkyl by contemporary
writers, but in Barbour and other authorities his son Sir Alexander
Stewart was so called.
" For off Bonkle the Lord thar was,
Alysander Stewart hat he." — Barbour.
In another inquisition, taken at Ulnedale, a jury declared that
48 THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
Alexander le Seneschal was seized as of fee of the manor of Ulnedale,
and that he had departed from the fealty due by him to his sovereign
Lord and King, then Edward II.
Sir John Stewart, killed at Falkirk, a.d. 1298, left by his wife Mar-
garet a large family, upon each and all of whom, no doubt in recogni-
tion of their father's distinguished services, Robert the Bruce bestowed
the most signal marks of favour, in the grant of honours and lands.
I. Sir Alexander Stewart of Bonkyl. We read in the family record of the Bruces
and the Comyns that " in 1308, Sir Thomas Randolph, the king's nephew, and Alexander
Stewart of Bonkyl, then in the interest of England, but afterwards the most trusty adher-
ents of the Bruce, were taken prisoners by Sir James Douglas, who treated them with
great kindness, and soon after made their peace with the king." Sir Alexander left a son,
Sir John Stewart of Bonkyl, created by King Robert L, in 1327, Earl of Angus on the
failure of the lines of Comyn and Umfraville ; and a daughter, Isabel, who married, ist,
Donald twelfth Earl of Mar, and, 2ndly, after her first husband's death at Dupplin in
1332, her cousin, John Randolph, third Earl of Moray, who fell at Durham in 1346. Sir
John Stewart is designed Earl of Angus, Lord Bonkyll and Abernethy, in the charter of
the lands of Blainerne which he inherited through his wife Margaret, daughter of Sir
Alexander Abernethy. He died in 1331, leaving, besides two daughters, one son Thomas,
second Earl of Angus, who, by his wife Margaret, daughter of Sir William Sinclair of
Roslin, had issue Thomas, third Earl of Angus, who married Margaret, daughter and
co-heir of Donald twelfth Earl of Mar, a marriage of which there was no issue. Conse-
quently, upon the death of the third Earl in 1377, the estate and honours devolved upon
the son of his elder sister Margaret, who had married, first, Thomas thirteenth Earl of
Mar (without issue), and, secondly, William first Earl of Douglas, to whom she was third
wife, and by whom she had a son George, who, as Earl William's second son, succeeded
to his mother's title as fourth Earl of Angus, being the first Earl of Angus of the Douglas
family. I'he estates of Bonkyl, — now called Bonkle, and lying in the united parishes of
Reston and Bunkle, near Dunse — the Abernethy estates, and others, passed with the titles
to the Douglasses. These honours were subsequently restricted to heirs-male, and are
now vested in the Duke of Hamilton, the head of the family of Douglas, who, as Earl
of Angus and Lord Abernethy, and representative in the male line of George fourth Earl
of Angus, now quarters with his paternal coat the fesse chequ^ and buckles of Stewart
of Bonkyl. These bearings also appear on the shield of the Duke of Buccleuch, from
the marriage, about 1565, of Sir Walter Scott of Branxholm and Buccleuch with Lady
Margaret Douglas, daughter of David seventh Earl of Angus.
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
2. Sir Alan Stewart of Dreghorn, in Ayrshire, who got from King Robert I. a charter
of the lands of " Dregerum, que fuerunt Johannis de Baliolo, Willielmi de Ferrariis, et
Allani la Suce," which continued in the possession of his descendants till 1520. These
lands, as also those of Perceton and Warwickhill, bestowed on Sir Alan's younger brother.
Sir James, formed part of the great barony of Cunninghame, which had passed, as has been
above mentioned, by the marriage of the heiress of the De Morvilles, into the possession
of the Lords of Galloway, and again in the same manner into that of Roger de Quinci,
Earl of Winchester. Two of the daughters of the latter marrying, respectively, AVilliam de
Ferrars, Earl of Derby, and Alan de la Zuche, brought to their husbands large possessions
in Cunninghame, which were after^vards forfeited in consequence of the adherence of their
possessors to the cause of Baliol. Sir Alan Stewart fell at the battle of Halidon Hill, in
1333. From him are sprung the Lords of Damley and d'Aubigny, the Earls and Dukes
of Lennox, the Earls of Galloway, and their cadets, amongst whom are the Stuarts of
Castlemilk. This latter family resided at their seat of Castlemilk, in Dumfriesshire, from
1387 to 1579, when they sold that estate to John, Lord Maxwell, removing to their pro-
perty at Cassiltoun in Lanarkshire, which they named Castlemilk, so as to retain their
ancient designation. Sir Alan's great-grandson married Marion Stewart, heiress of Dal-
swinton, in Dumfriesshire, and of Garlies, now in the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright, but which
then formed part of the county of Dumfries, and after this marriage there descended from
the main line of Garlies or Galloway, the Lords of Blantyre and Blessington, and the
Stewarts of Barclay, Physgill, and Castle Stewart.
Henry, Lord Damley, eldest surviving son of Matthew, Earl of Lennox, the eighth
in descent from Sir Alan, married Mary Queen of Scotland, in July 1565, and their last
descendant in the male line, Prince Henry Benedict Maria Clement, Cardinal York,
younger brother of Prince Charles Edward, died at Rome, in June 1807, in the 83d year
of his age. Charles, second surviving son of Matthew, Earl of Lennox, was created Earl
by King James VI., but the peerage eventually went into the family of John, Lord
d'Aubigny, brother of Matthew, whose son was raised to the rank of Duke of Lennox, and
on the death of the last heir-male of the family, the honours of this illustrious house
reverted to King Charles IL, as nearest heir-male, and His Majesty conferred them upon
his natural son, Charles Lenox, whose descendant is Duke of Richmond, Lennox, and
Gordon. The Royal family of Stewart, the senior branch of Bonkyl, and the Houses of
Damley, d'Aubigny, and Lennox, being all extinct in the male line, the Earl of
Galloway is now the representative, in the male line of descent, of the High Stewards of
3. Sir Walter Stewart of Dalswinton got a charter of the lands of Dalswinton
from King Robert I., and of the Barony of Garlies from his nephew, John Randolph,
third Earl of Moray. His great-granddaughter, Marion, was married, as above mentioned,
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
in 1396, to John, great-grandson of Sir Alan, carrying with her as her portion, the estates
of Dalswinton and Garlies.
4. Sir James Stewart of Perston and Warwickhill in Cunninghame, got a charter
of these lands from King Robert I. From Sir James are descended the Stewarts, Earls
of Buchan, Atholl, and Traquair, the Lords of Lorn, now represented by the Stewarts of
Appin, the Stewarts of Grandtully, Rosyth, Kinnaird, etc.
5. Sir John Stewart of Daldon was one of the principal persons who landed at
Carrickfergus, on 25th May 13 15, with Edward Bruce, when, in command of an army of
6000 men, he made his brilliant but fruitless attempt to aid the Irish of Ulster to throw
off the English yoke. " And Schyr Ihone Stewart went alsua," says Barbour. He is also
mentioned in Fordun's Scotichronicon, and was killed at the battle of Halidon Hill,
apparently leaving no issue.
6. Sir Robert Stewart of Dalduie in Lanarkshire. He, too, accompanied Edward
Bruce to Ireland, and was at the concluding battle of Dundalk, on 5th October 1318.
According to Sir Henry Steuart, " his grandson, Sir Alan obtained the lands of Allantoun,
in Lanarkshire, and from him have sprung the Steuarts of Allanton and their various
descendants, viz., those of Kirkfield and Coltness, Goodtrees, Westshield, Collemie,
Westbams, AUanbank, and Mitcham, as also the Steuarts of Hartwood, Carbarns," etc.
7. Sir Hugh Stewart, who is said, in Holinshed's Chronicles, to have accompanied
Edward Bruce to Ireland, and to have died without issue.
Sir John Stewart of Bonkyl had also a daughter, Isabel, married to Thomas Randolph,
first Earl of Moray, to whom she brought the barony of Garlies as her portion. This
barony was afterwards transferred by John, Earl of Moray, to his uncle. Sir Walter Stewart
Sir James Stewart, fourth son of Sir John Stewart of Bonkyl, and
ancestor of the Stewarts of Appin, had a charter from King Robert Bruce
of the lands of Peristoun and Warwickhill, in the district of Cuninghame
in Ayrshire. The charter is to " dilecto et fideli Jacobo Stewart filio
quondam domini Johannis Stewart terrarum Preston et Warwickhill infra
baroniam de Cunningham." Sir James was present at the battle of
Bannockburn in 13 14, on which occasion, says Sir D. Dalrymple, the
second body of the Scots army was commanded by the youthful Steward
of Scotland, under the inspection of his uncle. Sir James Stewart of
Rosyth. It has, however, been elsewhere pointed out that Sir James
was not his uncle, but his father's first cousin. He was killed at Hallidon
Hill on 19th July 1333, with his brothers Sir Alan and Sir John Stewart.
Fordun, in recounting the most distinguished persons killed at this
battle, begins thus, " Nomina nobillum occisorum ex parte Regis David
sunt hsc ; tres incliti fratres vizt. Jacobus Joannes et Alanus Stewart."
Winton, in his Chronicle, mentions, James, John, and Alan Stewart as
killed at the battle of Hallidon Hill, and positively states that they
were brothers. Bellenden, in his translation of Boethius, writes thus,
" In the third battal was the Douglas, Governor, having with him
James, John, and Alan Stewart," and in his account of the slain says,
" Thir are the principal men that were slain, Archibald Douglas,
Governor, John Stewart, James Stewart, and Alan Stewart."
Lord Hailes in his Annals, in a note at the end of his remarks on
the battle of Hallidon Hill, points out that, " At Hallidon two Stewarts
fought, the one Alan of Dreghorn, the paternal ancestor of Charles I.,
and the other James, his brother, the maternal ancestor of Oliver
Cromwell." Oliver's mother was descended from the Stewarts of Ely.
Robert Stewart, last Prior of Ely, writing his own genealogy in Queen
Mary's time, claimed to be descended from Andrew, son of Alexander,
High Stewart, who, he says, fought a duel with a Baliol, and having
broken his sword, snatched up a club, with which he so beat his
antagonist, that Baliol would have been killed if help had not been given
him. Hence these Stewarts carry a knotty baton in their arms. Lord
Hailes was of opinion that they came from Sir James Stewart of
Perstoun, through the Rosyth family.
In the disorganisation which prevailed in Scotland after the defeat
of Halidon Hill, many contemporary records were destroyed or lost,
and the name of Sir James Stewart's wife has not been preserved. He
left legitimate issue, three sons and one daughter.
I. Sir John Stewart, designed of Perston in a charter of 1356.
He had a charter in that year, from King David II., of the barony of
Kelly, in Forfarshire, and a confirmation from King Robert III. of the
same barony in 1384. He also occurs as a witness in a confirmatory
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
charter by King David II. of lands to the abbey of Kilwinning. He
left one daughter, married to Sir William Douglas, designed in 1391
" Dominus de Peirston." Sir William left three daughters, all great
heiresses, the eldest being married to Blair of Adamton, the second to
Crawfurd of Thirdpart, and the youngest, whose portion consisted of
Perceton and Warwick Hill, to Robert Berkeley, ancestor of the Bar-
clays, now baronets of Perceton.
2. Sir Alan Stewart, of Ochiltree, or Ugiltree, in Ayrshire, who,
in a charter in 1377 making over the barony of Longnewton to Sir
Henry Douglas, of Lugton, his relative, describes himself as " Alanus
filius quondam Jacobi Stewart." He occurs again, together with his
son John — with whom his line seems to have ended — in another obliga-
tion to Sir Henry Douglas, regarding the lands of Longniddry. Their
seals are thus described by Laing. Sir Alan's is " Couch6 a fess chequ6
surmounted with a bend, charged with three buckles, crest on a helmet,
a horse's head issuing from a coronet. Supporters, two lions sejant,
gardant, coue." Of his son's, Laing says, " This a fine seal, in excellent
preservation. The design is precisely the same as that on his father's
seal, with the addition of a label of three points as a difference."
3. Sir Robert Stewart, of Schanbothy, in the county of Clack-
mannan, upon whose descendants the representation of the male line of
Peirstoun thus devolved, and ancestor of the Stewarts of Appin.
Sir Robert Stewart, of Schanbothy, designed "of Innermeath,"
in his brother Alan's charter in 1377, to which he was a witness. Sir
Robert had a charter of the lands of Schanbothy from his cousin,
Thomas de Moravia, Lord of Bothwell, which was confirmed by David
II. He also had a grant, dated 23d March 1362, from David II., of
the lands of Motherwell and Dalzell, in Lanarkshire, which had been
forfeited by Sir Robert de la Val ; a charter of Innermeath, now Inver-
may, in Perthshire, in the same year ; and also a charter of half the
lands of Redcastle, in Forfarshire. The feudal or baronial residence
of Redcastle, one of the oldest castellated ruins in Angus, is situated
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
at the influx of the river Lunan into the German Ocean, on an
almost perpendicular eminence on the edge of the sea. It was built
by William the Lion, and used by him as a hunting seat, and sub-
sequently became the property of Walter de Berkeley, Chamberlain of
Scotland, whose daughter married Ingelram de Baliol, Lord of Barnard
Castle, the first of that name in Scotland. Redcastle passed to their
eldest son, Henry, whose son, John, by his marriage with Devorgilla,
eldest daughter and co-heiress of Allan, Lord of Galloway, was John de
Balliol, some time king of Scotland. Redcastle was for a long time
possessed by the Stewarts, Lords of Innermeath, who also held Inver-
keillor and Lunan. He had likewise charters of confirmation in 1372,
" Roberto Stewart de Schanbothy, militi," of the lands of Gerpets, Cragy,
Castletoun, Hoggestoun, Wester Balblair, &c. In 1372 Alexander
Meniers or Menzies, who had married Egidia, daughter of James, the
High Steward, gave him Durrisdeer, in Dumfries-shire, for which Sir
Robert had a charter. Alexander Menzies had previously resigned
these lands to James Stewart, his wife's brother, but James dying with-
out issue, they had reverted to him, and he now conferred them on his
wife's cousin. In the parliament of Robert II., held at Scone 4th April
1373, he is designed " Robertus Senescallus de Innermeath." He had
also a charter from Robert II., dated 8th October 1382, of the lands of
Castletoun, Hogstoun, Wester Balblayne, Morehouse, and others in
Forfarshire; and another, dated 1386, "Domino Roberto Stewart de
Innermeath," granting him an annuity of twenty merks sterling, out of
the burgh of Inverkeithing. Sir Robert's seal bore a fess chequ^,
within a border charged with buckles for Bonkyl, the bordure having,
no doubt, been assumed as a mark of cadency. The name of his wife
is not mentioned by any genealogist. He died in 1387, leaving two
legitimate sons and one daughter.
1. Sir John Stewart, ancestor of the Stewarts of Appin.
2. Sir Robert Stewart, who inherited Schanbothy from his father.
He had, from his brother John, a charter of ^20 sterling, payable
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
yearly, out of the barony of Durrisdeer, and a confirmation thereof
by King Robert II., under the great seal, dated 20th April 1386. He
married Janet, elder daughter and heiress or co-heiress of John de
Ergadia, Lord of Lorn and chief of the family afterwards bearing the
surname of MacDougall. He subsequently surrendered Lorn to his
elder brother. Sir John Stewart, in exchange for Durrisdeer, by a
charter dated 13th April 1388. About that year Sir Robert, together
with Sir William, the Black Douglas, Lord of Niddesdale, invaded
Ireland by way of retaliation upon England, took and burned the town
of Carlingford, and carried off great booty. He appears in the records
of the Tower of London as having had a safe conduct to proceed to
London, dated 7th July 1394, perhaps on business connected with a
treaty then under negotiation between Robert II. and England. He
was taken prisoner at Homildon in 1401, and killed at the batde of
Shrewsbury on 21st July 1403, where he and other Scots nobles had
gone to assist Harry Hotspur and Owen Glendower. He was ancestor
of the Stewarts of Rosyth, in Fife, and Craigiehall, in Linlithgowshire,
who became extinct on the death of William, last of Rosyth, without
issue, in 1694.
3. Katharine, married to John Bethune, of Balfour.
Sir John Stewart inherited from his father, as we see from a
charter of 1388, Innermeath and Durrisdeer, and subsequently ex-
changed Durrisdeer with his younger brother, Robert, for the lordship
of Lorn. According to Sir Robert Douglas, he married, apparently
about 1386, Isabel, the younger daughter of John de Ergadia, Lord of
Lorn. Skene calls her co-heiress with her sister. In the " Origines
Parochiales Scotise," it is said, "Before the year 1388, Janet, the
daughter and heiress of John of Lorn, appears to have carried the lands
of Lome to her husband, Sir Robert Stewart. In 1388 the lands
of Lome, Benechdirloch, Apthane, and Lesmore were resigned by Sir
Robert the Stewart and Janet, his wife, and were then granted by
Robert II. to John the Stewart, of Innermeath." Sir John also received
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
from Robert II. a confirmatory charter of the lands of Lome, including
Apthane, resigned by his brother. He had a charter, circa 1 390, from
Robert, Earl of Fife and Monteith, Duke of Albany, and Regent of
Scotland, of the lands of Cullyndrane, in the earldom and sheriffdom of
Fife, for his good services, Sir John paying therefor three suits at the
three chief courts held yearly at Cupar, with wards and releifs when
they shall happen, to be held of the granter and his heirs for ever. He
also occurs in a confirmatory charter by the Regent, Robert, Duke of
Albany, of the barony of Hawick to William of Douglas, of Drumlan-
rig, dated 24th October 1407. There is also a charter dated at Inner-
meth, 9th March 14 19, from William Heryss, lord of a part of the
lands of Colcarny, to Sir John Stewart, Lord of Innermeth, for his good
and faithful counsel and assistance often rendered to the granter, of his
said lands of Colcarny, with their pertinents, lying within the sheriffdom
of Kynross, to be held by him and his heirs of the said William and his
heirs, from the king, for rendering therefor yearly the usual services.
The family of MacDougall of Lome, to whose estates Sir John
Stewart had thus succeeded, is of great antiquity. In " Keltie's High-
land Clans " it is said that " Robert Bruce determined to crush the
Macdougalls of Lorn for their adherence to the party of Comyn, their
kinsman, and utterly defeated them at the pass of Awe. John, the
eldest son, fled to England, Alister, the Lord of Lome, being allowed
to retain his possessions in vassalage to the King." A further account
of the family is given hereafter.
Sir John Stewart of Innermeath and Lorn now quartered the galley
of the Macdougalls with his paternal coat — giving, indeed, to the feudal
ensign of this great historical lordship heraldic precedence of the fess
chequ^ of the Stewarts by assigning to it the first and fourth quarters
of the shield, and dropping at the same time the bordure charged
with the Bonkyll buckles, which had been assumed by his father. Sir
Robert, as a mark of cadency at the time when his next elder brother.
Sir Alan of Ochiltree, adopted the bend and three buckles as his differ-
S6 THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
ence. Sir John's son, Sir Robert of Lorn and Innermeath, on his
marriage with the Lady Margaret Stewart, daughter of Robert Duke of
Albany and Earl of Buchan, charged the second and third quarters of
his shield with a garb in chief, the well known feudal ensign of that
ancient earldom. A facsimile of this coat, taken from the heraldic
manuscript executed in 1542 by Sir David Lyndsay of the Mount,
Lyon King of Arms, and authenticated by the Scottish Privy Coun-
cil in 1630, is given upon the opposite page. He soon, however,
restored the fess chequ6 to the place of honour upon the shield,
which is thus described by Nisbet, writing before Sir David Lyndsay's
MS. had become public. " The antientest blazon of Stewart of Inner-
meath that I meet with is quarterly first and fourth, or, a fess chequ^
azure and argent, and in chief a garb of the second (some books of
Blazons in the time of Queen Mary, in the place of a garb have a fleur
de luce ; and Sir James Balfour in his blazons places a buckle azure,
which speaks better to the descent from Stewart of Bonkyl), second
and third a galley or lymphad, with flames of fire issuing out of the top
of the mast, and out of the fore and hinder parts, commonly called St
Anthony's fire, for the Lordship of Lorn."
In the following generation we find Sir John Stewart, third of
Lorn, as will be seen from his seal engraved at p. 46, restoring to
his shield the Buckle of Bonkill in addition to the Garb of Buchan.
He subsequently, however, dropped both of these cognisances, and
adopted as his crest the unicorn's head, the coat being then that which
is now borne by the Stewarts of Appin, and which is thus blazoned in
Burke's General Armoury : " Stewart of Lorn and Innermeath : quar-
terly, first and fourth or, a fess chequd azure and argent (in earlier times
differenced with a buckle gules, or a garb in chief) for Stewart. Second
and third a lymphad, sometimes represented with St Anthony's fire at
the masthead, for Lorn. Crest, a unicorn's head argent, horned or.
Motto, Ouhidder will zie."
The shield of Sir John's younger brother Walter, who, as will be
fi^ttcU ic^ ^l
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
seen hereafter, became subsequently possessed of Innermeath, appears,
from the Heraldic MSS. preserved at the Lyon Office, to have been at
first similar to the one last described, with the unimportant difference
of spelling the motto " Quhadder Vil Ze." At a later period — perhaps
when he became temporarily in nominal possession of a portion of
Lorn — we find, from an old book of blazons in the Harleian MSS. in
the British Museum, containing divers achievements of arms relating to
the Scottish nation, that Walter replaced the galley in the first and
fourth quarters, and the fess chequti in the second and third quarters of
the shield, the crest being a unicorn's head, and the motto " Whither
will ye," a blazon to which the younger or Innermeath branch of the
family adhered until it became extinct in 1625, with the exception that
the unicorn's head was changed, forty or fifty years later, into that of a
deer, and that two deer (" Fala-deer," as Nisbet calls them) were added
Nisbet says : " The unicorn is remarkable for his strength, but
more for his great and haughty mind, who would die rather than be
brought into subjection, for which see Job, chapter 39. Upon these
considerations, and others, the unicorn is adopted by our nation as a
supporter of our sovereign ensign, and has been granted by our kings
to some of their well-deserving subjects."
The motto, " Quhidder Will Zie," still borne by the Stewarts of
Appin, is old Scots for " Whether will ye ? " leaving peace or war to ,
the option of the opponent, and indicating that the bearers of the motto ;
were equally prompt for either. In the Scots of that day, " qu " is
almost invariably found instead of the letter " w " at the beginning of a
word, as in " quhair " for " where." The word " quhidder " itself is of ,
somewhat rare occurrence, but an unquestionable instance of its use for i
whether is to be found in the poem entitled " The Pallice of Honour," \
written by the scholarly Gawain Douglas, Bishop of Dunkeld, who was ;'
born in 1474, where the line occurs — j
" For quhidder I this in saul or bodie saw,"
58 THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
where quhidder is distinctly synonymous with whether. A similar
instance will be found of its use with this signification in the Decree
against Ewen Cameron of Lochiel by the Lords of Council on 1 7th
February 1 507, referred to hereafter. " Z " also is usually found in
place of " y," as in " zie " for " ye," and in " zear " for " year."
Sir John Stewart left issue —
1. Robert, who succeeded him.
2. Archibald, mentioned in a charter of the Lordship of Lorn, 1452.
3. Sir James, called the Black Knight of Lorn. Sir James, who is described as " a
handsome graceful young man," married in 1439 the Lady Joan Beaufort, eldest daughter
of John Marquess of Dorset, granddaughter of John of Gaunt, and widow of King James
I. Sir James was at that time closely allied with the family of Douglas, the head of which
was then Lieutenant General of Scotland, and Livingstone became alarmed at the pro-
bable accession of power to that great family. Seeing that Sir James, as husband of the
Queen mother, who was custodian of the King's person, might insist upon a principal
share in the education of the youthful sovereign as well as in the administration of the
government, Livingstone threw Sir James and his brother William into prison, at the
same time confining the Lady Joan to her private apartments till she signed a deed sur-
rendering all control over the person of the young king, and her own allowance as Queen
mother. The Chronicle of Auchinleck says that " Schir Alexander Livingstoune, the
Lord Kalendar, took at the castle of Striveling Schir James Stewart, the Lord of Lome's
brother, and William Stewart, and put them in pittis and bollit thaim." After his release,
Sir James went abroad, and is said to have died off the coast of Flanders, leaving
(i.) John, created Earl of Athole in 1457. This title had been vested in the Crown
since the forfeiture and execution of Walter Stewart, second son of King Robert
IIL, in 1437, and it was now bestowed by King James II. upon his uterine
brother, Sir John Stewart of Balveny. On this peerage becoming extinct in the
family of Stewart of Lorn by the death, without male heirs, in 1595, of John,
fifth Earl of that line, it was conferred by James VI. upon John Stewart, sixth
Lord Innermeath, who had married the widowed Countess. But the earldom
again reverting to the Crown on the death, without issue, of James, second Earl
of Athole of the line of Stewart of Innermeath, Charles I. granted it to William
Murray, second Earl of Tullibardine, who had married the Lady Dorothea
Stewart, eldest daughter of John Stewart, fifth Earl of Athole, ordering that
" the dignity of the Earl of Athole, which had so long and so gloriously flourished
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN. 59
in the race of the Stewarts, related to him in blood, should be revived in the
person and descendants of the lady who was heir of line," whose husband he
created Earl of Athole. The Hurrays retained the motto, " Furth Fortune and
fill the Fetters," which had been adopted by Sir John, first Earl of the line of
Stewart of Lorn. They were the farewell words of King James III. to his uncle
the first Earl, on despatching him, in 1476, to subdue the resistance to the royal
authority of the last Lord of the Isles, and conveyed the wish, " May you be
fortunate, and make many prisoners." Earl John adopted the words for his
motto, and put it in large letters on his castle of Balveny, taking also two
savages in chains as his supporters. It is from this marriage that the Duke of
Athole and the Earl of Dunmore bear the fess cheque on their arms, and a
savage as one of their supporters.
(2.) Sir James Stewart, called " Hearty James ; " created in 1466 Earl of Buchan, a
title which, since the execution, in 1425, of Murdoch, Duke of Albany and
Earl of Buchan, had remained vested in the Crown. In 147 1 he was made
High Chamberlain of Scotland, and in 1473 was sent as ambassador to France,
on which occasion he obtained a safe conduct for passing through England.
His death took place before 1500, and his male line failed on the death of his
grandson John, third Earl of Buchan of the line of Stewart of Lorn. The third
Earl's granddaughter, Christian Stewart (daughter of John, Master of Buchan,
who predeceased his father), succeeding to the title, carried it, by her marriage
in 1569, to Robert Douglas, second son of Sir Robert Douglas of Lochleven,
who thus became fourth Earl in right of his wife.
The tide of Earl of Traquair, dormant since 1861, was conferred in 1633 on Sir John
Stuart, Lord High Treasurer of Scotland, fifth in descent from James Stewart,
a natural son of " Hearty James."
(3.) Andrew, Bishop of Moray.
4. Alexander Stewart, ancestor of the Stewarts of Grandtully. Alexander Stewart
of Grandtully got a grant, on 30th March 1424, from Archibald, Earl of Douglas and
Galloway, "to and in favors of Alexander Stewart, his armour-bearer, son of a noble
knight. Sir John Stewart of Lorn."
5. William, who shared his brother Sir James' imprisonment by the Lord Kalendar,
of whose issue there is no record.
Sir John had also three daughters — Christian, married to Sir James Dundas of
Dundas; Isabel, martied first to Sir William Oliphant of Aberdalgy, and secondly
to Sir David Murray, designed of Gask, who founded and endowed the Collegiate
Church of Tullibardine, where he and his wife were buried ; and Jean, married to Sir
David Bruce, third Baron of Clackmannan.
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
Robert, second Lord of Lorn and Innermeath, eldest son of Sir
John Stewart, succeeded his father. He occurs in a charter of Robert
IL, A.D. 1439 ; and in another by Walter, Earl Palatine of Stratherne,
to David Murray of TuUibardine, of the lands of Polgoure, within the
earldom of Stratherne and sheriffdom of Perth. He was one of the
commissioners appointed to treat, in 142 1, for the return of James L
from England, and subsequently proceeded, in 1429, to England as one
of the hostages for his ransom. In the second parliament called by the
king after his return to Edinburgh in 1425, Murdoch, Duke of Albany,
Walter and Alexander Stewart his sons, and Duncan, Earl of Lennox,
his father-in-law, were attainted of treason, and found guilty by a jury
composed of twenty-one of the most eminent subjects of the realm,
among whose names appears that of " Robert Stewart of Lorn." The
same day upon which the sentence was pronounced, the Duke's two
sons, Walter and Alexander, were beheaded, and the next day the
Duke himself and Lennox lost their heads. The jury consisted of the
following : — Walter, Earl of Atholl ; Archibald, Earl of Douglas ; Alex-
ander, Earl of Ross, Lord of the Isles ; Alexander Stewart, Earl of
Mar ; William, Earl of Angus ; William, Earl of Orkney ; George,
Earl of March ; James Douglas of Balveny, Gilbert Hay of Errol,
Constable of Scotland, Robert Stewart of Lorn, Sir John Montgomery
of Ardrossan, Sir Thomas Sumerveil of Carnwath, Sir Herbert Herris
of Terregles, Sir James Douglas of Dalkeith, Sir Robert Cunninghame
of Kilmaures, Sir Alexander Livingstone of Callender, Sir Thomas
Hay of Yester, Sir William Borthwick of that ilk. Sir Alexander
Ogilvy, Sheriff of Angus, Sir John Forrester of Corstorphine, and Sir
Walter Ogilvy of Lintrethan.
Writing of Robert Stewart, Tytler says, " this powerful baron was
in strict alliance with the house of Douglas," and he shared, in conse-
quence, the imprisonment, in 1439, of his brothers, Sir James and
William, by the faction of the Lord Kalendar. He married, before
1 409, Margaret, fourth daughter of Robert, first Duke of Albany, and
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN. _6i
great-granddaughter of Walter, sixth High Steward, by his wife
Marjory, daughter of King Robert Bruce, as we find from a charter in
the Rolls, dated about that year, by the Duke " Roberto Senescallo de
Lorn, filio suo." By her he left issue —
1. John Stewart of Lorn, his successor.
2. Walter, subsequently of Innermeath. He married Mar-
garet Lindsay, "daughter to the Earl of Crawfurd's ancestor," says
Duncan Stewart, and had issue. His line became extinct, on the
death, without issue, in 1625, of James, seventh Lord Innermeath, and
second Earl of A thole of the line of Stewart of Innermeath, the earldom
of Athole and the Innermeath estates passing to his wife's nephew,
John, third Earl of Tullibardine, who surrendered the newer title for
the older dignity of Athole, both earldoms, however, becoming united
3. Alan, who seems to have left no issue.
4. David, Bishop of Moray from 1463 to 1477.
5. Robert, of whom no records remain.
Also two daughters, one married to John, second Lord Lindsay of
the Byres ; the other to Robert, eighth Lord Erskine.
John, Lord of Lorn and Innermeath, eldest son of Robert and
his wife, Margaret, daughter of Robert, Duke of Albany and Earl of
Buchan, succeeded his father in the great family estates in Argyll,
Perth, Kinross, Forfar, Clackmannan, and Fife. He married as his first
wife a lady whose name has not been recorded by genealogists, by
whom he had three daughters, regarding the order of whose birth not
even the families of their husbands are agreed. Crawford, writing in
1 710, followed by Duncan Stewart in 1730, and by Sir Robert Douglas,
gives the order thus : — ist, Isabel, married to Colin, first Earl of
Argyll ; 2d, Margaret, married to Sir Colin Campbell, of Glenurchy ;
and 3rd, Marion, married to Arthur Campbell, of Ottar. Sir Bernard
Burke in his " Peerage" says, " Colin, Lord Campbell, who was created
Earl of Argyll, 1457, married Isabel Stewart, eldest daughter and
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
co-heiress of John, Lord of Lorn, and in consequence added the galley
to his achievement, with the designation of Lord Lorn to his other
titles." Under the head of Breadalbane, we find in Burke that Sir Colin
Campbell, of Glenurchy, " married, secondly, Margaret, second daughter
and co-heir of John, Lord Lorn, with whom he got a third of that
lordship," and quartered henceforward the galley of Lorn with his
Such is the generally received version of the order of birth of the
three daughters of Sir John Stewart, and of the manner in which the
lordship of Lorn passed to the Argyll family. Later investigations,
however, clearly prove that this account of the acquisition of Lorn is
altogether incorrect, and that the statements of the respective ages of
the two elder daughters, as given by the two houses of Argyll and
Breadalbane, do not agree with each other.
In a curious MS., deposited in the British Museum, entitled " Mis-
cellanies Historical, copied from a MS. which was in the possession of
Archibald, Duke of Argyll, in the year 1 756," we find some " informa-
tion anent the pedigree of the noble and ancient house of Lochow." At
page 31, it is narrated that " Colin Mulle, Bold Earl Colin, Lieutenant
of the Isles, and Chancellor of Scotland to James II., brought many
actions to this house, especially the lordship of Lorn, by marriage of
Isabella Stewart, heretrix of Lorn, and one of the three heretrices.
Glenurchy married the eldest, and the laird of the third, the earl
being always superior to all. It were tedious to set down all the
troubles and passages of his time, especially with the Stewarts of Inner-
meath, who pretended to be Lords of Lorn by tailzie. It is to be
remembered that the three heretrices were daughters to John Stewart,
Lord of Lorn, called John Mourach, which is to say, lipper John, who
succeeded to his brother, Robert Stewart. This John married the Lord
of the Isles and Earl of Ross' daughter, upon whom he begat three
" Here may be opened an ocean of discourse as to the decay of Great
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN. 63
Sorle, his house changed for his eldest son, Dougal, by the Stewarts of
Innermeath to the Campbells, who keep it to this day, and how the
M'Dougalls did keep it for ten successions — nine lawful and one bas-
tard, — and this lipper lord was slain by the bastard M'Dougall, and how
the Stewarts did kill the M'Dougall again, and in the end with how
many varieties and troubles it did come to this earl, who was in the end
compelled to give the Stewarts satisfaction, as the indenture between this
earl and Walter, Lord Innermeath, doth bear, dated August 1469, as
likewise to satisfy the two bastards of Dougald's, viz., M'Oneil,
of Brue, and the Laird of Rarey, whose houses do both stand to
Without pausing to remark upon the blunders and admissions of
this curious statement, we turn to the account given in the family
history of the Glenorchy or Breadalbane branch of the Campbell
In the " Black Book of Taymouth," a family history, written by
Master William Bowie, family notary and pedagogue of the Breadalbane
family, compiled from the Breadalbane papers in 1598, and printed in
1845, we read that "Sir Colene Campbell, eftir the deceis of his said
wyffe, Jonett Stewart, eldest dochtir to William" (evidently a mistake
for John) "Stewart, Lord of Lome [with quhom he gatt in name of tochir-
gude the auchtene markland of the Bray off Lome, hir father being
then alyve. Bot eftir hir said father his deceis, the haill lordschip of
Lome falling to his thre dochteris, heretrices thair off, the said Sir
Colene, be vertew of his vyff, eldest of the three, fell to the haill
superioritie of the lordschip of Lome, and first thrid thairoff, extending
to tua hundredth and fyftie mark landis.] On her he begatt ane son,
callit Sir Duncan Campbell, quha succeedit laird of Glenorquhay, and
ane dochtir, callit Geillis Campbell, quha wes mariet on M'Cowle in
Lome." The latter was a member of a family of which we shall speak
hereafter, and was a descendant of the old Macdougalls — in Gaelic,
M'Coules — of Lorn. We further read in the " Black Book of Tay-
64 THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
mouth," that "the said Sir Colene being tutour to his brother sone Colene
Campbell (quha wes maid first Erie of Argyle), he mariet him on the
secund heretrix of Lome, and thaireftir (for the favour he bure to him,
and the standing of his Hows), frelie dimittit unto him the superioritie
of the hail lordschip of Lome." Playfair, in his " British Family Anti-
quity," confirms this account of the ancestor of the Breadalbane family
marrying the elder daughter, and his nephew, the younger, which,
indeed, their relative ages make most likely ; but the probability almost
becomes certainty when we see the order in which the names of the
daughters occur in the sasines of their shares in the inheritance of Castle
Gloom and Dollar. Merely remarking at present, however, the great
discrepancy between the account given in these family histories, and the
generally accepted version as given by Burke, together with the impor-
tant difference thereby involved as to the alleged succession to Lorn, we
turn to facts established by deeds and charters, which again widely
differ from both.
By a charter, now in the Breadalbane charter-chest, dated 1448, by
John Stewart, Lord of Lorn, consequent on a contract of marriage between
his " derest cousing and mach," Sir Colene Campbell, of Glenorquhay,
and his daughter, Jonet Stewart, there was granted to Sir Colene, out of
the lands of Lorn, the five merk land of Letterbean, and half a merk
land between Leakansumar and the rivulet called Allmothle, with the
Isle of Inchconnan, and other isles thereto attached, in Ardchattan ; a
penny land of Elarga and Blara, a penny land of Corelame, a penny
land of Cluchaich, a penny land of Pollandowich, a penny land of
Aeynyh, Lochaty-leod, with the loch Lochaty-leod, and a penny land of
Drumnaschealge and Blaranedyn, in Kilmelfort, and a penny land of
Finglen, in Kilninver. The lands of Letterbean, the most important of
those enumerated, are on the south-east side of Ben Cruachan, on the
north-west shore of Lochawe, and were consequently a very fitting
dower to Sir John's daughter on her marriage with the laird of Glen-
orchy, to whose estates they are adjacent. Laing writes, " The seal
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN. 65
attached to this charter by Sir John Stewart, Lord Lorn, is in good
preservation, and well executed, yet from
the manner in which the charges are dis-
posed, in outrage of all heraldic rule, a
correct blazon is rendered almost impos-
"The following description may give a
correct enough idea of the seal, but certainly
not of the noble coat of Stewart of Lorn : —
Quarterly first, per fesse the base counter
compony, in chief, a buckle, the strap extending towards the dexter ;
second and third, a galley in full sail ; fourth, per fess, the ^/zz>/" counter
compony, and in base a garb. This has evidently been intended for a
composed coat ; the counter compony in the first and fourth quarters
being meant for the fess chequ6, with the buckle marking the paternal
descent ; the galley in the second and third quarters indicating Lorn ;
and the garb in base of the fourth quarter, Buchan." The inscription on
the seal is — " Sigillum Johi Steuward Domini de Lourn."
The garb was the distinctive feudal cognisance of the earldom of
Buchan, and was assumed by John of Lorn from his grandfather, Robert,
Duke of Albany, having succeeded his brother, Alexander Stewart, the
Wolf of Badenoch, in that earldom in 1394. This grant of land to
Glenorchy, on his marriage, was signed at the castle of Glenorchy by
Sir John Stewart in 1449.
The cousinship above referred to as existing between Sir John
Stewart and Sir Colin Campbell, arose from Sir John's mother being
Margaret, fourth daughter of Robert, Duke of Albany (not Murdoch, as
is erroneously stated in the " Black Book of Taymouth "), while Sir
Colin's mother was Margaret's elder sister, Mariota or Marjory, the
Duke's second daughter.
In addition to the five and a half merk lands conveyed by the
above-mentioned charter to his eldest daughter Janet and her husband,
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
Sir Colin Campbell, out of the estate of Lorn, — a dower certainly not
in the very slightest degree approaching, as stated in the Black Book
of Taymouth, to a third of that lordship, then valued at about ;^450
Scots, — she and each of her sisters were to receive, on their father's
death, one-third of his patrimonial estate in the county of Clackmannan.
These Clackmannan lands had now been in the family for four genera-
tions, but with the object of keeping the more important Lordship of
Lorn, and Barony of Innermeath intact for his male heirs, Sir John
determined to divide this, though the older family property, among his
three daughters. With this view these lands were excluded from the
new grant of Lorn and Innermeath in 1452, and were consequently,
after his death, divided among his daughters as heirs portioners ; and
we find on 9th April 1465, Duncan Campbell, son of Sir Colin
Campbell, Knight, Dame Isabel Stewart, and Marion Stewart,
each seized " in all and haill the third part of the lands of Dollar and
The third part of these lands which fell to the share of
Duncan Campbell of Glenorchy was resigned by him in favour of
Colin, Earl of Argyll, as appears from the Inventory of the Argyll
Charters ; and in the Black Book of Taymouth we find " Item
the said Sir Duncan excambit the third of the lands of Dollar
and Acharnside, with the landis of Kilbryde beyand on the side of
There is no mention of any deed conveying the part which fell to
Marion Stewart, wife of Arthur Campbell of Ottar, but Argyll in some
way or other acquired this part also, as there is a charter of confirma-
tion by James IV., dated nth May 1497, of a charter by the superior,
the Bishop of Dunkeld, in which it is expressly stated that the Bishop
granted to Archibald, Earl of Argyll, all the lands of Dollar and Gloom.
It is possible that the worthy Master William Bowie in his zeal for the
standing of the house of Breadalbane, may have confounded this renun-
ciation of Gloom, with the alleged free demission to the Earl of Argyll
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN. 67
of the " superioritie of the haill Lordschip of Lorn," which, as will be
conclusively shown, never fell as an inheritance to the daughters of Sir
John Stewart. Be this as it may, the result was to place Argyll in pos-
session of this large estate, with its ancient castle of Gloom, afterwards
and until 1 664, a frequent and favourite residence of the Argylls under
the name of Castle Campbell, a designation assumed under the autho-
rity of an Act of the Scots Parliament in 1489. The castle was burned
down by the Macleans in the army of Montrose in 1664, when he was
marching from the north to the field of Kilsyth, and the estate was sold
by the Duke of Argyll in 1808.
In making the above settlements Sir John Stewart of Lorn seems
to have considered that he had acquitted himself of his obligations to
his female heirs and their husbands, for we find that after these grants,
and a special and exceptional charter in favour of his kinsman John
M'Alan, or Macdougal, called M'Coule, which will be afterwards noticed,
he subsequently surrendered into the hands of James IL the Lordship
of Lorn, and the baronies of Redcastle and Innermeath, for the purpose
of obtaining two fresh charters more distinctly defining them, and des-
tining them anew. Both these new charters are dated on the 20th of
June 1452, and are given at length in the Appendix. In the first the
King grants all and whole the Lordship of Lorn, all and whole the
barony of Innermeath, lying in the sheriffdom of Perth, and all and
whole the barony of Redcastle, lying in the sheriffdom of Forfar, " dilecto
consanguineo nostro Johanni, Domino de Lorn," and the heirs male of
his body, lawfully procreated or to be procreated, whom failing to his
brother Walter Stewart, and his heirs male, and failing these to his
brother Alan, and his heirs male. In default of these, the charter goes
on to enumerate the other male relatives to whom the estates should
descend — viz., John's brothers David and Robert, his uncles Sir Archi-
bald and Sir James Stewart, and his kinsman Thomas Stewart, and
the heirs male of each in their turn, as named ; and finally, failing all
these, to his heirs whatsoever.
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
The other charter, dated the same day, is much shorter, and refers
only to the Barony of Innermeath, having been drawn for the purpose
of obtaining the royal authority to include with that barony, which was
entailed on heirs male by the major charter, the lands of Ennerdonyand
Baldenys in the earldom of Stratherne and sheriffdom of Perth, also
the lands of Colndrane, and of Maw in the sheriffdom of Fife, also the
lands of Coltrane in the sheriffdom of Kinross, and also the
lands of Kyldeny in the sheriffdom of Perth, all of which lands were
incorporated with, and annexed to, the barony of Innermeath, to be
held in perpetual tenure as part thereof, by John, Lord of Lorn, and his
heirs, who were, as we have seen, fully enumerated in the major charter
of the same date. Thus nothing could possibly be more clear than Sir
John Stewart's set purpose to exclude his daughters, and their descen-
dants, from all share in the Lordship of Lorn, the baronies of Redcastle
and Innermeath, and the lands incorporated into the latter, until the
failure of all the male heirs whom he could enumerate, even to the most
remote degree ; but we shall see how, after his death, his intentions
were frustrated, and who became the possessors of the lands incorpo-
rated by royal charter into the barony of Innermeath.
We turn now to the family of Macdougall of Lorn, from whom the
lands of Lorn came, and from their alliance with whom the descendants
of Sir John Stewart still bear on their armorial shield the galley of
Lorn. This ancient clan derives its name and descent from Dugall,
the eldest son of Somerled, the powerful chief of the Western Isles.
His descendant, Alexander Macdougal, chief of Lorn, married the third
daughter of the Red Comyn, slain by Robert de Brus in the Dominican
Church at Dumfries in 1305, and adhered faithfully to the fortunes of
his wife's family. Bruce, after his defeat at Methven on 19th June
1306, retreated into the mountains of Breadalbane with less than three
hundred men, and approached the borders of Argyllshire, where he was
attacked and defeated by Alexander Macdougall at the head of one
thousand men, at Dalree, the "king's field," in Strathfillan. It was at this
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN. 69
battle that the famous " Brooch of Lorn," celebrated by Sir Walter Scott
in his poem of " The Lord of the Isles," was wrested from the Bruce.
In 1308, however, King Robert amply avenged his defeat, routing
the Macdougalls at the Pass of Awe, and compelling Alexander to take
refuge in his castle of Dunstaffnage, about twelve miles distant, which
was at once besieged by the king. Barbour says —
" The king that stoute wes, stark and bauld,
Till Dunstaffynich rycht sturdily
A sege set."
Alexander soon surrendered to King Robert, and swore fealty to
him ; but his son, John, " rebellious as he wont to be," says Barbour,
refused to submit, and fled to England. After the battle of Bannock-
burn, John was appointed by Edward 1 1, to the command of an English
fleet, sent to encourage the chiefs of the Western Islands to detach
themselves anew from the Scottish crown. Bruce, on his return from
Ireland, sailed to attack him, routed his forces, dispersed his ships,
and took John himself captive. He died a prisoner in Lochleven
Castle ; but his son, John or Ewen, marrying Johanna, only child of the
Princess Maude, daughter of David II., by her husband, Thomas Isaac
or Ysac, was restored to his patrimonial possessions. This John died
without male issue, but left two daughters, the elder of whom, as we
have seen, carried the estate of Lorn to Sir Robert Stewart of Schan-
bothy, who exchanged it with his elder brother. Sir John Stewart, who
had married the younger daughter. The chieftainship of the clan Mac-
dougall passed, without the estate, to John Macdougalls brother, Alan,
upon whose son, John M'AIan M'Coule or Macdougall, John Stewart,
Lord of Lorn, bestowed, in 1451, the lands and castle of Dunolly,
which, with other lands granted at the same time, are still held by his
Together with the lords of the Isles, the Macdougalls had always
aspired to hold a position independent of the Scottish crown, and were
almost continually in correspondence with England, assuming the right
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
to enter into treaties and conclude peace as independent princes. It
was through Lorn that the Western Islanders invaded the more central
parts of Scotland, and it was thus of high political importance that a
dominion of such consequence, from its extent and position, should be
held by sure and loyal friends of the crown. King Robert I. had suffered
so much from the relentless animosity of the various branches of this
family, that to diminish their power became a prominent feature of his
policy, and he bequeathed it for the guidance of his successors. These
considerations leave little doubt that the royal sanction had been readily
accorded, in the charter by King Robert II., to the passing of the
inheritance, by the marriage of the heiress, to a Stewart, who was so
closely allied in blood to the king ; and they may also serve to explain
Sir John Stewart's care to secure the possession of the lordship to his
own male heirs, and his making, with that view, provision for his
daughters out of his Clackmannan estate.
The Highlanders adhered strictly to the system of hereditary suc-
cession in the male line, although that system was very different from
the feudal one. The difference between the Highland law of tanistry,
which determined the succession to the chiefship and the superiority
of lands, and the feudal law, was that under the former the brothers
succeeded before the sons, as nearer lineal descendants, by a generation,
of the founder of the tribe. Bruce's claim to the throne was thus
founded on tanistry, as being the son of Isabella, second daughter, while
Baliol was the grandson of Margaret, the eldest daughter of David,
Earl of Huntingdon, brother of William the Lion. Ferriales were alto-
gether excluded from succession either to the chiefship or the family
property, the possession of the latter being essential to support the
dignity of the chiefs state, and the hospitality which he was called upon
to exercise. Thus the descent of Lorn to the daughters of John, of
Ergadia, had been in direct violation of the law of the Gael, as it left
their uncle — who was the head of the family, the chief of the clan, and
its leader in the field, — without the means of supporting his position or
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
his power. But no doubt this had been precisely the object which the
Crown had been especially desirous to effect.
Sir John Stewart of Lorn, however, seems to have felt the hardship,
not to say the injustice, of permanently depriving the heir, who was also
his own kinsman, of such an old and powerful family as the Macdougalls,
of all the wide lands, which should have descended to him according to
the customs of his race. He consequently executed, in 145 1, a deed
granting to John M'Alan or Macdougall, called M'Cowle, which is the
Gaelic synonym for Macdougall, with remainder to his son, John Keir
Macdougall, and his heirs male, the 29 merk land of the island of Car-
rarry, the 6 merk land of DunoUych, the 8 merk land of Glensellach, the
10 merk land of Gallawnoche and of Colgyn, the 10 merk land of Melliag,
and the 8 merk land of Ardnahowe, in Kilbride ; the 8 merk land of
Ardnohowe, and the 8 merk land of Dowanchowe, in Kilinver ; also,
the 8 merk land of Dowach, the 10 merk land of Melrog, the 22 merk
land of Degnish, and others in Kilbrandon. He also conferred on
John M'Alan and his heirs the office of baillie of all the lands in Lorn
which he then had or might have ; and, further, gave to John, and his
son, John Keir, the onerous and very noteworthy trust of the guardian-
ship and pupilage (alumniam et nutrimentum) of his heirs. John
M'Allan or Macdougall was Sir John Stewart's nearest relative of the
family of Macdougall, as well as the chief of the clan, and probably the
Lord of Lorn desired by his munificence to his kinsman, and the trust
he reposed in him, to secure his support and that of the clan Mac-
dougall, for his youthful son, Dugald Stewart, then about six years old,
whom he intended to make his heir.
These grants were made without condition, except the usual clause
of rendering to the granter homage and service against all except the
king ; and, as baillie, of paying to him one-third part of all the rents and
casualties of the lands of Lorn.
Sir John Stewart had thus replaced his kinsman, Macdougall, not
only in possession of the castle of Dunolly — an ancient stronghold of
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
the family, and important as commanding the Sound of Mull, Loch
Linnhe, and the Firth of Lorn — but had endowed him with an ample
estate. The extent of the lands in Lorn thus granted to MacDougall
contrasts very remarkably with the limited grant to his eldest daughter
out of that lordship, and marks in a very decided manner his respect for
the position of male heirs. Having completed this significant act of
justice and generosity, Sir John proceeded to Edinburgh to make the
further settlement of his estates on male heirs, as previously detailed.
Passing now to the later years of the life of Sir John Stewart, of Lorn,
we find — upon the authority of MSS. and traditions which have been
handed down in the families of the Stewarts of Appin, and of the Mac-
larens, supported by the high authority of Brown in his " Genealogical
Tree of the Family of Stewart," — that he married, as his second wife,
the daughter of Maclaren of Ardveich, by whom he had a son, Dugald.
It seems proper here to notice more particularly the well-known
genealogical work above referred to, published by its author in 1797,
after many years of patient investigation and deep research. Sir Henry
Steuart of Allantoun, in reply to Andrew Stuart's theory of the descent
of the Stuarts of Castlemilk, calls Mr Brown " the best genealogist,"
and describes his work as, " without doubt, one of the most complete
and correct views of any surname ever delivered to the public." A
very high encomium was also passed upon it by the Earl of Buchan,
founder of the Society of Antiquaries in Scotland ; and it further
received, in the same year, the following approbation of the Lyon
Office in Edinburgh ; one of the duties of the Lyon King-at-Arms,
being, in the words of Seton, " to record the genealogies of persons
descended from noble and honourable lineage, when supported by pro-
" LvoN Office, Edinburgh, ^d March 1792.
" I have examined your historical and genealogical tree of the
descendants of the Royal Family of Scotland with much satisfaction.
There are two other trees on the same subject — one compiled by Mr
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
Duncan Stewart, the other by the late Sir Robert Douglas, — but I
observe that yours is more complete and full than both of them put
together, and, consequently more valuable."
(Signed) "James Cumyng."
In the compilation of Mr Brown's work, he had the advantage of
access to family papers, many of which have since unfortunately disap-
peared. Among those examined and quoted by him, having especial
reference to our subject, are the Appin, Achnacone, and Invernahyle
MSS. ; and upon the authority of the information before him, he has
recorded the second marriage of John, of Lorn, to the daughter of Mac-
laren. The value of a family history must depend entirely upon its
correctness, and it cannot for one moment be supposed that Mr Brown
would have diminished the value or trustworthiness of a general history
of the family of Stewart, by allowing an error of this sort to appear in
his work, out of regard for the susceptibilities of any particular branch
of the family. It is certain that he has not done so in the case of any
of the very distinguished branches where the bar sinister really exists,
for it has been recorded in every instance with unflinching impartiality,
and there is no conceivable reason why he should have made any excep-
tion in the case of the family of Appin.
The existence of this son Dugald, and the intention of subsequently
legitimating him, make at once apparent John of Lorn's grounds for the
very remarkable, and, indeed, otherwise totally unintelligible appoint-
ment of the Macdougalls, father and son, as the guardians of his heirs,
for the reason that the interests of his own daughters and brothers were
plainly inimical to those of the youthful son, who was his destined heir.
The appointment could not have been made with the view of protecting
the interests of his daughters, for those daughters were not only abso-
lutely the very last in remainder, but were married to husbands of
whose power to protect them there could be no possible doubt. Nor
could it have been made in the interests of his brothers or their children,
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
for those brothers were men of at least middle age, certainly requiring
no guardianship in their own case, and being themselves the persons
to appoint guardians for their own children, if the succession to Lorn
were to devolve upon them.
We have seen that Dugald Stewart's mother was of the clan Mac-
laren. This clan is descended from " Labhrain," a Gaelic name pro-
nounced like Laurin, and it is supposed to be identical with " Loarn."
Loam was one of the three sons of Ere, one of the original founders of
the Dalriadic kingdom. The Maclarens were certainly in possession of
Tyrie in Perthshire in 1 296, and they also occupied lands in Balquidder
and Stratherne, where they acquired considerable power. They suffered
severely from the lawless attacks of their neighbours, the Macgregors,
but maintained their position well among the neighbouring septs. No
one was allowed to enter the parish church of Balquidder until the Mac-
larens were all seated ; and in one of the many frays arising out of this
pretension, the parson, himself a Maclaren, was killed. After the earl-
dom of Stratherne was vested in the Crown as a Palatine honour in
1371, the Maclarens held their lands as "kindly tenants" of the king
till 1508, when they were granted the more secure tenure of feuars, and
the clan afterwards followed the banner of the Stewarts of Appin. It was
one of this family who was the real hero of the story which relates the
escape of the Jacobite gentleman from his captors by rolling down the
Devil's Beef Tub, near Moffat, as narrated by Sir Walter Scott
in " Redgauntlet." Dugald Stewart's mother was a daughter of
Maclaren of Ardveich, a gentleman of position and family, as is con-
clusively shown by his ancestor, Laurin of Ardveich, being one of
the Scottish barons who, with Conan of Balquidder and Maurice of
Tyrie, were required, as heads of the clan Laurin, to sign the Ragman
Roll in 1296.
Sir John Stewart of Lorn had been at the tryst of Creifif, — it being
customary for chiefs to attend these trysts, where many affairs of busi-
ness and politics were arranged, — and, on his return, he met in Glen
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN. 7S
Fillan with a wedding party from Ardveich. He joined the company,
and became enamoured of the daughter of the house. The lineal
descendants of the Maclarens of Ardveich still reside there, and the
house in which John of Lorn stayed on the occasion of his visits is still
preserved with scrupulous care.
The valuable records belonging to the Appin family, which were
accessible to Brown when he compiled his genealogical tree, have unfor-
tunately disappeared, and many of the Ardveich papers were destroyed
in 1645, when Alister M'Colla burned the house. The traditions of
the Stewarts of Appin, and those of the Maclarens, are, however, found
to be so nearly identical, that it will suffice to give those of the Mac-
larens, which are set down nearly in the same words as they have been
related by Mr Donald Maclaren, Ardveich, the present representative
of the old barons, who has found the details recorded in the papers of
his family still existing.
Dugald Stewart was born in 1445 ; and these records say that he
resided at Ardveich till 1463, when his father sent him a message
directing him to come to Dunstaffnage with his mother. They set out
as a bridal party, with pipes and banners, accompanied by a party of
Dugald's kinsmen from Lorn, and some of his mother's friends, the
Maclarens. A Gaelic bard has commemorated the departure of Dugald
and his mother from Ardveich, in a poem or ballad, of which only
four verses are now extant. They clearly show that the party had
set out for the purpose of the marriage, and Dugald's consequent
" An Ik a dhag thu taobh Loch-Eir
'S do mhathair chaomh air laimh leat fein
Bu du an curaidh calma trbun
'S bu ghrinn fuidh 'n eideadh creachain thu.
" Bha romhad bratach 's piob ri ceol
'S do chlaidhearah ruisgte dearrsa 'a d'dhorn
'S iad chuideach na fir shundach mhor
Clann Labhruinn 6g 's bu sqairteil iad.
76 THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
" A Dhughaill oig is cairdeach thu
Do 'n Righ tha againn air a chrun
'S na d' chuislibh tha i mireadh dlutli
'N fhuil ard rinn clinteach feachmhor thu.
" Bitheadh cuirm ro mhbr san Dun tha shuas
'N uair ruigeas sibh gu suairce
Nis guidheam slainte is sonas buan
Do 'n bhean dhalbh nain Dhun-Stathanis."
The following translation is by Mr Charles Stewart of Tighnduin,
whose zeal and literary abilities have been of great service in the com-
pilation of this genealogy : — ■
" That day you left Lochearnside with your gentle mother on your
arm, you were a hero tall and powerful, and well did your mountain
dress adorn you.
" Before you was a banner and a pipe playing gladly ; your sword
naked and gleaming in your hand ; your company, the youth of clan
Laurin — men tall and sprightly, and full of activity.
" Young Dugald, akin you are to him now wearing the royal crown ;
and in your pulses is flowing gleefully the blood which makes you of
a mighty race.
" Great will be the feast in yon Dun in the west, when, with grace-
ful courtesy, you both reach it. Now, may health and bliss never-
failing attend the wife now leaving for Dunstaffnage."
Shortly before this time, John II., Earl of Ross and Lord of the
Isles, had entered into negotiations, — which were finally concluded by a
treaty in February 1462, — with Edward IV. of England, to which
James, ninth and last Earl of Douglas, then exiled in England, was a
party. By this treaty, the whole of Scotland was to hold of Edward
IV. as superior, while that portion of it north of the Forth was to be
equally divided between the Earl of Ross, Donald Balloch, and the
Earl of Douglas, the latter, in addition, to have possession of his large
estates between the Forth and the English border. The Earl of Ross,
desirous of strengthening his party on the eve of so great an enterprise,
seems to have soua^ht the assistance of his kinsman, Macdougall or
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
M'Cowle, as head of another branch of the family. The chief, however,
John Keir Macdougall, to whom, with his father, John M'Alan, Sir John
Stewart, had made such munificent grants, seems to have remained
faithful to his allegiance to his sovereign, and to the trust reposed in
him ; but a second son, Alan, supported by a number of the clan, among
others, by an ambitious illegitimate kinsman and namesake, Alan,
joined the conspiracy. We find in various histories — Buchanan's,
Abercrombie's, and the " Auchinleck Chronicle," that, in 1461, "Allan
of Lorn of the Wood," seized upon his elder brother " Kerr," and im-
prisoned him in a castle in Kerrera, with the intention of starving him
to death, and succeeding to his lands ; but that " Kerr" was relieved by
the Earl of Argyll, who defeated and captured Alan, and confined him
in a dungeon, where he died.
The Earl of Ross soon after raised the standard of rebellion, and
Alan M'Dougall, the illegitimate, seems to have occupied the position
of leader of the disaffected in Lorn, in succession to Alan of the Wood,
who had died in prison.
It had become well known that Sir John Stewart of Lorn had
sent for the daughter of Ardveich, in order that their marriage might
legitimate their son, as was done in the similar case of an heir of
Douglas of Drumlanrig a hundred years afterwards. The possession
of Lorn by a just and powerful noble like Sir John Stewart, nearly
allied to the king, was no doubt a great obstacle to the plans of Alan
M'Cowle and his confederates, and they could not view with com-
placency the probability of his being succeeded by a youth of such
spirit and promise as Dugald, backed, as he would be, by his mother's
clan, who had always been ardent friends of the royal house of Stewart.
It was clearly unfavourable to their designs that the succession should
should devolve upon Dugald, instead of his uncle, Walter, who, from
advancing years, or from constitutional want of his nephew's conspicuous
martial energy, would have been a less formidable antagonist. The
preparations for the reception of Dugald and his mother, and the cele-
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
bration of the marriage, would make the date of their expected arrival
at Dunstaffnage no secret, and on that day Alan M'Coule or Mac-
dougall repaired to Dunstaffnage Castle, and, according to the traditions
of the Maclarens, stabbed Sir John in the castle shortly before the
arrival of the joyous wedding party. The tradition of the Stewarts is
that the murder was committed when Sir John was on his way from the
Castle to the chapel, which is close at hand, where the marriage was to
be performed. This immaterial point is the only divergence between
the traditions handed down in the two families.
The murderers fled instantly after Sir John was stabbed ; and
Dugald would at once have pursued them had he not been restrained by
the priest, who pointed out that no time was to be lost in having the
marriage completed, as Lord Lorn was to all appearance mortally
wounded. The rite was accordingly performed, the priest assisting the
dying man to place the ring on the bride's finger, and the ceremony
being so public that no doubt of its due completion was entertained in
Argyllshire. Meantime, however, Alan M'Coule and his accomplices
had time to effect their escape.
The MacLaren tradition records that as Dugald was going from
Ardveich to Dunstaffnage with his mother and the bridal party, he was
met by an aged dame, who had the gift of second sight, and who asked
him, " Whither are you bound for to-day ? " to which he replied,
" What is that to you, old woman ? " adding, " I am going to receive
some little justice." To this she answered, " Well, I have something
to say to you. I have had a dream that, as you have been for eighteen
years known as Dugald, the illegitimate of Ardveich, so you will for
twenty-eight years be known as the head of the Stewarts of Lorn." It
was in 1469 that Dugald's uncle, Walter, made over to the Earl of
Argyll his alleged claims to Lorn, and Dugald, till his death in 1497,
was acknowledged as the head of the Stewarts of Lorn, a period of
The murder of John of Lorn seems to have taken place in 1463.
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
The MacLaren tradition says that it was in that year Dugald left
Ardveich. In the Chronicle, " Domini Jacobi M'Gregor, Notarii
Publici ac Decani Lismorensis, qui obiit circiter a.d. 1542," is the
following sentence : — 1463, Dec. 20. — Obitus Johannis Stewart, Domini
de Lome, apud Dunstaffinicht." In the " Origines Parochiales Scotise,"
it is stated that there is preserved in the Cambridge University Library
the original of an Act of the Scots Parliament, dated 1460, recommending
the King to besiege Dunstaffnage Castle, for the purpose of punishing
Alan M'Coule, who had slain the king's kinsman, John Lord of Lorn.
This seems, however, to be a misquotation of the date, as in the Scots
Acts of Parliament we find among the record of their transactions, in 1464,
the following : — itExM as tueching ye puniciouii of Alane M'Coule quhilk
as cruelyn flayn John lord lorn ye kinge cufing The lord^ think^ fpeidfull
yt alffoun as ye feffion of ye wedd afkis ye king mowe jn propir pfone
w' his lords for ye jnwadFg juflifing and punyffing of ye faide alane and
aiTegeing of ye caftell of Dunftafnich and y' he be furthwith put to ye
horii of party and fyne opTly put to ye kinge home And y' nocht
w'ftanding ye Ires writtT of befor to ye Erie of Rof The lorde ordanis
y' new Ires be Wttine baith be autorite of ye king and of pliament
chargeing hym y' he nothir fupple fupport nor refett ye faide Alane in
ye faide dede, vnd all ye heaft pait charge ze quiet z juri agayn ye
kinge maiestete." The original of this is also said to be in the
Cambridge University Library, and is most probably the same as the
MS. referred to in the " Origines Parochiales."
It is, therefore, certain that Alane M'Coule got possession of
Dunstaffnage Castle, but whether in the confusion consequent on Sir
John Stewart's murder, or after the battle with Dugald at Leac-a-dotha,
is not known with certainty. According to Boece, the original fortress
of Dunstaffnage was built by one of the Scots or Dalriadic kings,
Eugenius or Ewen, and the " Stone of Destiny," Lia Fail, on which
the Sovereigns of Scotland were crowned at Scone, and are still
crowned in Westminster Abbey, was kept here till it was removed to
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
Scone by Kenneth II. The ancient building was an extensive erection
of wattles and clay, the solid stone castle being, as Mr Hill Burton is
of opinion, built by the Stewarts. The castle is a square of eighty-
seven feet within the walls, having round towers at three of the corners,
and is situated on a perpendicular mass of conglomerate rock, from six-
teen to twenty feet in height, near the extremity of a low, perpendicular
flat at the entrance to Loch Etive. The meaning of the name Dun-
staffnage is said by some authorities to be " the fortified hill with two
islands," but the true etymology seems to be " Dunsteffanach," — Arx
Stefani, as rendered by Boece, — or the fort of Stephen. A short dis-
tance to the westward stand the remains of the ancient Gothic Chapel,
formerly surrounded by a burial ground, where repose the ashes of
many an ancient Scottish king and chieftain. The chapel — the interior
of which is still used as a burying place — is seventy-two feet by twenty-
four feet, apparently of the thirteenth or fourteenth century, and has the
early English lancets, and the remains of a circular arched doorway,
and of the dog tooth ornaments.
DuGALD Stewart's succession to his estates in 1463 was, as might
be expected after the commission of a murder to defeat it, not a peace-
able one. Not only was the crime unpunished, but the perpetrator,
with the assistance of the rebellious Islesmen, was maintaining himself
in Dunstaffnage, the principal castle and seat of the owner of the
heritage. Dugald was still little more than a boy in years, totally
inexperienced in the ways of the world, and had consequently all the
more right to expect the assistance of his uncles, and of his connections
the Campbells, in having the murderer brought to justice. But no such
assistance was given, and Dugald was left to his own unaided efforts
until, as has been mentioned, the Scots Parliament moved, ineffectually,
some months afterwards, for the punishment of the outrage. It cannot,
indeed, be forgotten that Walter had just seen the long counted on
inheritance of his brother apparently plucked from his grasp by the
legitimation of his nephew, and that the death of Dugald might at any
TPIE STEAVARTS OF APPIN.
time still make him his brother's undoubted successor. With this con-
tingency in view — under the circumstances neither an improbable nor
a distant one — Walter seems to have contented himself at first with
a policy of inaction, taking no measures to expel the intruder from
Dunstaffnage, or to advance any claims upon the inheritance. Had he
advanced any such claim, upon him would have devolved the duty of
driving Alan M'Coule from the stronghold of the family, and of aveng-
ing his brother's death, as in those times when the law was powerless,
the right of vengeance was accounted a positive moral duty, and the
nearest kinsman of the slain or injured was bound to take up the
quarrel ; but no such claim was advanced, nor was any attempt to
avenge Sir John Stewart's murder made either by his brother Walter,
or by the husbands of Sir John's daughters.
Before a year, however, had passed, and when the swords of Alan
McCowle's followers had failed to remove the obstacle which stood be-
tween him and his brother's inheritance, we find Walter profiting by
Dugald's reverses in the field, and his omission to take legal procedure
to have himself served heir to his father, to advance his own claims,
under the plea that his brother's marriage with the mother of Dugald
had not been duly solemnised. Any one acquainted with the details
of Scotch history at this period need not be told that with powerful court
influence there could be little difficulty in effecting this. But though it
was easy to prefer this claim in Edinburgh, where Argyll's influence
was all powerful, and the very existence of Dugald was probably known
only to few, Walter could not venture to do so in person in Lorn, where
ample evidence of the marriage was then forthcoming, and conse-
quently from Lorn Walter then, and ever after, carefully kept aloof
In like manner had Sir John Stewart's daughters been, — as is
alleged in the family histories of Lochow and Breadalbane, but which
is conclusively disproved by the charter of 1452, — "the heretrices of
Lome," it would have been the duty of the Campbells, and, indeed,
not a very arduous one when the power of Argyll as Justiciary of Scot-
land is considered, to have taken measures for the recovery of their
heritage from the murderer. But, as we have seen, no such steps were
taken, and the duties of recovery and vengeance devolved upon Dugald
as part of his inheritance ; for it does not appear that any action fol-
lowed upon the recommendation of Parliament, nine months later, that
the king's forces should avenge the murder of the "king's Cusyng." It
was probably inconsistent with the plans of others that any steps should
be taken on this minute.
The attitude of the Campbells is perhaps not difficult of explana-
tion when read by the light of subsequent events. It seems to furnish
a striking illustration of their policy, so forcibly described by Skene in
his History of the Highlanders. In 1427 Sir Colin Campbell of Lochow
had succeeded in placing himself at the head of the family, and in sup-
planting Campbell of Strachur, whose claims to that position had been
acknowledged in a Royal Charter by King David II. " After this
period the rise of the Argyll family to power and influence was rapid,
and the encroachments which had commenced with the branches of
their own clan, soon involved most of the clans in the neighbourhood.
Their history is most remarkable, from their extraordinary progress
from a station of comparative inferiority to one of unusual eminence, as
well as from the constant and steady adherence of all the barons of
that house to the same deep system of designing policy, by which they
attained their greatness. It consisted principally of the details of a
policy characterised by cunning and perfidy, though deep and far
sighted, and which obtained its usual success in the acquisition of great
temporal grandeur and power." A proof of their adherence to this
policy was given in 1531, when the Earl of Argj'll was disgraced and im-
prisoned for his own and his father's sins in encouraging the disorders
in the islands so as to profit by them.
Sir John Stewart himself seems to have foreseen their antagonism
to his youthful son by his appointment of John McCowle as his
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN. 83
Whatever may have been the reasons for the inaction of Walter
and the Campbells, it was undoubtedly left to Dugald to avenge his
father's murder, and for this purpose he at once ordered a muster of the
followers of his family in Lorn, while he hastened in person to Strath-
earn and Balquidder to raise the whole clan of the Maclarens.
The odds against him were indeed heavy, for he was opposed not
only by open foes in the field, consisting of a numerous section of the
Macdougalls, — who, with their followers, were still a powerful clan in
Lorn, — backed by the Earl of Ross, but by secret enemies as powerful,
and, in reality, still more dangerous. Personally entirely unknown in
Lorn, Dugald's claims to the succession had no recommendation save
that of their inherent justice. This, however, was unhesitatingly
acknowledged by the clan, and was sufficient to secure him uni-
versal support from the retainers of his family ; and, sustained by the
consciousness that " thrice armed is he who hath his quarrel just,"
Dugald at once took the field, marching, himself, with the Maclarens
through Glendochart and Strathfillan to Leac-a-dotha, on the skirts of
Bendoran, at the head of Loch Awe, having been joined by his father's
retainers and followers from Lorn, whose route had lain through Glencoe
and the Black Mount. He would thus, within ten days of his father's
death, have finally crushed Alane Macdougall and his adherents, had
not the latter been reinforced by the MacFarlanes from Loch Lomond.
The traditions of the Stewarts and Maclarens combine to relate that
this assistance was rendered at the instance of the Campbells; but whether
this be true or not, it is certain that the MacFarlanes were at this time
closely allied with the Campbells. Duncan MacFarlane, the sixth chief,
had married Christian, daughter of Sir Duncan Campbell of Lochow, aunt
of Glenorchy, and grand-aunt of Argyll ; and from their dwelling inland
on the banks of Loch Lomond, and their connection at that time with
the family of Dernely, they were not likely to have any share in the
rebellion of the Earl of Ross. The MacFarlanes, arriving from Loch-
lomondside, joined the Macdougalls near Dalmally, whence they
marched northwards through the glen leading to the Bridge of Orchy,
near Leac-a-dotha. A battle ensued in which Dugald was worsted. The
engagement must have been a bloody one, more than one hundred and
thirty of the Maclarens having been killed, while among the Stewarts it
is said there were no less than fifty slain, whose widows bore posthum-
ous sons. On the side of their opponents a son of Alane M'Cowle fell,
and the losses of that clan were so great that they were never subse-
quently so numerous in Argyllshire. The chief of the MacFarlanes
was also killed, under circumstances which show the relentless nature
of the conflict which had been waged, and prove that the sentiments
of chivalry had not as yet influenced the contests in the Highlands.
A wounded Maclaren had asked the MacFarlane to give him in his
shoe a drink from a well close at hand, and as the chief was stooping
down to fill the shoe, the wounded man drew his bow and sent an arrow
through his back. MacFarlane put his hand behind him to feel for the
arrow, when the dying Maclaren, exulting in the penetration of his shaft,
called out, " Search in front of you, and you will find it."
After this bloody battle, Dugald retreated with the remainder of
his forces behind Loch Etive into Upper Lorn or Appin ; and though
apparently he was unable to invade Middle Lorn in force, and risk
another pitched battle, he continued unflinchingly and successfully
to maintain his right of possession until the compromise in 1649, the
particulars of which will hereafter appear.
Meanwhile his uncle, Walter, had not ventured to take any steps
in Argyllshire towards assuming possession of that magnificent heritage
of Lorn, to which he had so tardily laid claim in Edinburgh. Walter
had no doubt been looked upon in the capital for years as heir pre-
sumptive to his brother's titles and estates, and as the knowledge of his
brother's marriage was probably confined to the district of Argyll, there
was no one to prevent his assuming the title, though it is certain he
could not, and did not, until the surrender by Dugald five years after-
wards, take sasine of Lorn. Those retainers of the family of Stewart
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN. 85
who Still remained in Lorn, had become indignant at the ungenerous part
which Walter had so long been playing towards his youthful kinsman,
the head of his family, and at his subserviency to the Campbells, to
whom they alleged their rights were being sacrificed ; and they now
made the exodus known in Lorn as the " Inveich mor," or "great flit-
ting," from the southern portion of Lorn to Upper Lorn, or Appin, fol-
lowing the fortunes of Dugald as chief of the clan. Thus reinforced,
Dugald, the Maclarens again aiding him, was able to defeat decisively
an attack, very probably the result of the " Inveich Mor," made
upon him by the whole strength of his enemies in the hope of at last
driving him out of Lorn. The battle, called the battle of Stale, took
place opposite to Castle Stalcaire, on the green hillside near where the
village of Portnacroish now stands. Castle Stalcaire, an old hunting-
seat of the lords of Lorn, and, occupying an insular position — then
considered a strong one, — was probably Dugald's chief stronghold in
Upper Lorn. In the battle, Alane Macdougall, the murderer of Sir
John Stewart of Lorn, and the leader of the insurrection amongst the
Macdougalls, was killed.
Dugald having now avenged his father's death, and being, for the
first time after five years' strife, victorious in a general engagement,
directed his attention to the consolidation of that hold on his inherit-
ance which he had never relaxed.
From the circumstances of his early life in the seclusion of
Ardveich, he was probably too ignorant of forms of law to know that
anything more than his sword was necessary to give him possession of
his father's land, which it would seem to him became his property as
simply as his father's horse or his armour ; and since his succession he
had been too busily engaged in seeking the customary, and what was
held the sacred duty of vengeance for his father's death, and in main-
taining himself in that upper district of Lorn, beyond which he was in
the middle of enemies seeking his life, to have had either leisure or
opportunity for other considerations. To whom could he now turn for
86 THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
help ? James III. was a minor, and it seemed in vain to look to him,
at whose distracted court Argyll, from his high office and great abilities,
had almost unbounded influence, for that aid and countenance, after-
wards so freely given by succeeding sovereigns to his sons, Duncan and
Alan. The Crown indeed was hardly able at that time to maintain its
own rights, or enforce its own laws in districts much less remote than
Lorn, which in fact was under no law. Till 1503, when they were
attached to "the Courts of Justice-airs" to be held at Perth, the
" inhabitants of Dowart, Glentowart, and the Lordship of Lorn " could
not be called upon to attend any courts of justice, and each chief ruled
despotically, and without responsibility to any external law, within his
own heritable jurisdiction. Being thus hopeless of obtaining assistance
from the Crown against his open or secret enemies, the chief at length
became aware that it was in vain for him to attempt to regain and
keep permanent possession of the whole lands of Lorn in the face of
such powerful adversaries. It was then, and not till then, that he enter-
tained the thought, or probably the proposal, of a compromise by
which he should retain Appin, the northern portion of Lorn, which he
had so long and so gallantly defended, making over the remainder of
the estates to his uncle Walter, In consequence of this surrender by
Dugald, Walter, who had never dared to show his face in Lorn, was
now, in 1469, able formally to enter upon the southern portion of the
lordship, and upon the barony of Innermeath.
It was therefore more than five years after his brother's death, and
after a compromise which the force of circumstances and the death of so
many of his friends in battle, had compelled his nephew to make, that
Walter Stewart was able, in the face of his brother's deed of 1452, be-
queathing Lorn and Innermeath to the heirs male of his body, to enter
to these baronies. The compromise must have been completed in the
summer or autumn of 1469, as on the 30th November of that year
Walter entered into an agreement with the Earl of Argyll, and the fol-
lowing day gave the Earl a bond that he would enter upon Lorn for the
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
purpose of resigning it in the Earl's favour, under a penalty of 6000
merks Scots. On the 28th March 1470, more than six years after his
brother's death, Walter at last took seisin " be yerde and stane " by his
procurator, from Alan Stewart, Sheriff of Perth, of the lands of Lorn.
On the 13th April 1470, Walter gave a bond to the Earl of Argyll that
he would not dispute the resignation of Lorn at any future period,
under a penalty of 6000 merks Scots, and on the following day he re-
signed the lands and lordship into the hands of King James IIL, who
three days afterwards, on the 17th April 1470, granted them to the
Earl of Argyll. Thus the Earl fortified the deed of resignation in his
favour by all the formalities that bonds could give him, and indeed by
precautions somewhat unusual. This notable attention to every form
of business contrasts very strongly with the delay of more than six
years in Walter's going through the formality of being seized in what he
now claimed as inheriting from his brother, and gives strong evidence
that, previous to this time, an insurmountable obstacle had stood in the
way, and that it had been removed by the compromise with Sir John
Stewart's only son, Dugald. This delay is the stronger evidence that
Sir John's disposition of his property was known in Edinburgh, as it
appears that his two surviving daughters, and Campbell of Glenorchy,
as heir of Margaret the eldest, took sasine of their portions, the lands of
Dollar and Gloum, little more than a year after their father's death.
Their rights to these estates were unquestioned, as they were not
included in the eatail upon male heirs of 1452, and they had either been
settled on them at their marriage or purposely excluded from that
entail with this view. When we notice the praiseworthy attention to
business evinced in thus promptly taking sasine of the lands in Clack-
mannan, we may dismiss without further criticism the statements
of Maister William Bowie, and the equally inventive historian of the
House of Argyll, that Sir John Stewart's three daughters were
"heretrices of Lorn."
That the contents, as well as the incontrovertibility of the charter
of 1452, were as well known to Walter Stewart as to the Campbells,
may be unhesitatingly inferred from the fact that Walter was unable
to take sasine of Lorn until after Dugald's surrender in 1469.
Walter seems to have been a weak man, and in that year Colin,
Earl of Argyll, who was able, active, and ambitious, saw his opportunity
in the exhaustion of Dugald and the Macdougalls, and in the feeble
character of Walter, to acquire possession of the coveted province of
Lorn, and of the great opportunity in the power of its possessor to
exercise influence on the islanders, an opportunity which in after years
was not neglected.
The earl, therefore, induced Walter to enter upon an agreement
by which the latter retained or obtained possession of the barony of
Innermeath, situated in a comparatively peaceful district, while the
possession of the lordship of Lorn made Argyll the most powerful
chieftain in the West Highlands, and enabled him, — though but a cadet
of the family, and, as the Black Book of Taymouth informs us, the
descendant of " Duncan Campbell, commonly callit Duncan in Aa," —
effectually to gratify his ambition by eclipsing his chief, Campbell of
Strachur, and by appearing before the world as the head of the Campbells.
It was only decent to make an enumeration of the lands given in
exchange for this great lordship, and accordingly we find Innerdonyng,
Baldonyng, Kildonyng, Colindrane, Maw, Colcarney, Balnaguone, Lai-
doth, Laithers, and Rothybrisbane, named as the equivalent given by
Argyll. With the exception of the four last named, however, all these
lands were enumerated in the charter of 1452, as being incorporated by
royal authority into the barony of Innermeath, and by the charter of
the same date, John Stewart of Lorn had destined that barony, together
with Lorn, to his heirs-male exclusively. They could not, therefore,
have been Argyll's to give, and their mention can only be taken as
a colourable pretext. The agreement of 1469 then goes on to stipulate
that Walter should enter upon the lands of Lorn for the purpose of
resigning them to the Earl, an arrangement which could be easily
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN. 89
carried out through Argj'll's great influence at the court of the youthful
But we can hardly suppose that even Walter's weakness would
have led him to surrender this princely inheritance, had he for one
moment believed that he would be permitted to take possession of
Lorn, where the facts of Dugald's legitimation were known, and where
he had met with such universal and effectual support from the friends
and retainers of the family, who had recognised him as their chief.
Walter, therefore, had probably little real choice in the matter, and was,
perhaps, too glad to surrender a title and an estate which he well knew
he could never retain in peace.
Dugald, on the other hand, brought up in a remote glen in Strath-
earn, was, as was almost inevitable from the circumstances of his birth,
ignorant of the forms of procedure necessary for establishing his rights.
Exhausted by five years of strife, and with Argyll's overwhelming forces
in the background, he, too, probably found that he could do no better
than compromise his right to the whole of Lorn for the district of
Appin or Upper Lorn.
His tenure of these lands, independendy of his possession of them,
requires especial notice. If Walter and Argyll had not been aware of
the justice of his claims, it is inconceivable that he should have been
permitted to retain, blench of the Crown, so large a territory as Appin,
one so easily defensible, and when in the possession of an enemy,
from its situation, so dangerous to Lorn. Indeed, Argyll endeavoured
to avert this danger by giving his kinsman of Glenorchy a strip of
land between Dugald's possessions and his own portion of Lorn. This
however, as will be seen, Glenorchy was afterwards compelled by
James IV. to surrender to Dugald's son. Had Dugald's claim been
unfounded, any land that might have been given him — and it is not at all
likely that he would, under these circumstances, have got any territory
whatever — would have been held by him from Walter, and then from
Argyll, as his superior. But as a Crown vassal he held a widely
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
different position, for besides being then — as was each of his successors
afterwards, — the universally recognised head of the Stewarts of Lorn, he
was a baron of parliament, acknowledging no superior save the king,
and exercising unchallenged jurisdiction within the limits of his own
To ensure the acquiescence and support of his powerful kinsman
of Glenorchy, Argyll gave him a large district of Lorn in exchange for
his mother, Jonet Stewart's dowry of the third part of the lands of
Dollar, which were of less value, and were situated far from Glenorchy's
paternal domain, while those he received in Lorn were adjacent to his
own strong and recently-built castle of Kilchurn. Having now acquired
possession of Lorn, — excepting the district of Appin held " in heritage "
by Dugald Stewart, — and of two-thirds of Dollar and Gloum, Argyll got
from the Bishop of Dunkeld, the superior of Dollar, a charter dated
31st January 1493-4, which was confirmed by James IV. at Stirling, on
nth May 1497, of the remaining third part of these lands which had
been the portion of his wife's younger sister Marion, the wife of Arthur
Campbell of Ottar. These, doubtless, are the " many actions " which
the family chronicler of the Argylls says that the first earl brought to
his house, and were not unworthy of the policy which that family has
always steadily pursued, and which Mr Bowie enforces in the family
maxim, " Conquer, or keep things conquest." The term conquer is used
by Mr Bowie in its old legal signification of "acquire."
If any doubt existed as to the real nature of these complicated
transactions, it would be removed by the admissions of the author of the
MSS. in the British Museum, who confesses that Argyll was " in end
compelled to give the Stewarts satisfaction," as well as " likeways to
satisfy " the Macdougalls, M'Oneil of Brue, and the Laird of Reray.
This final clause of the sentence apparently implies a more serious
charge against Argyll, into which it is beyond the province of this
work to enter. It would seem, however, that the Macdougalls were
not allowed to retain all the " satisfaction " they received, as we find, in
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN. 91
1478, Alan Sorlesone M'Cowle suing the Earl for warrandice of the
lands of Lerage and Wouchkouch, in terms of the Earl's charter, as
Duncan and Dugall Campbell claimed a lease thereof, and, as might be
expected, a "Icinless loon," like Alane M'Coule, was defeated. Neither
does the Earl seem to have recognised the right of the head of the Mac-
dougalls to the office of Bailie of Lorn, with the lucrative and honour-
able privileges attached to it, which had been conferred by Sir John
Stewart of Lorn. Argyll was unquestionably indebted for his acquisi-
tion of Lorn, to the fact that he had to deal with two antagonists — one
of whom played into his hand. His own claim was of course completely
barred by the charter of 1452, while the circumstances of Sir John of
Lorn's second marriage, followed by his death before further steps could
be taken to make his son Dugald's legitimation more widely known,
gave Walter Stewart the opportunity of advancing a claim. These
pretensions had not been put forward at Sir John Stewart's death, when
it had been left to Dugald to avenge his father's murder, and they only
seem to have been advanced after his failure to eject the intruders from
Lorn south of Loch Etive, and when it became evident he was too
ignorant, and too inexperienced in the ways of the world, to be aware of
the necessity of taking legal steps to secure his inheritance.
Dugald's enforced compromise at once placed his uncle Walter, as
next in remainder, in a position to enter upon the southern portion of
Lorn, and the barony of Innermeath. Crawford says, and Duncan
Stewart repeats, though expressly only on the authority of Crawford,
that at this time Dugald entered into an agreement with his sisters, and
that the deed was preserved in the Argyll charter chest. We have only
Crawford's authority for this statement, and it is certain that neither in
the " Origines Parochiales Scotiae," the author of which had access to the
Argyll archives, nor in the " Reports on the Argyll Papers," by Mr W.
Eraser, which are printed in the Fourth and Sixth Reports to the Royal
Commission on Historical MSS., is there any reference to such an agree-
ment, though they contain many of infinitely less importance. It is there-
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
fore probable that the agreement mentioned by Crawford was Walter
Stewart's subsequent agreement with Argyll.
The part of Lorn which Dugald retained formed a portion of the
lordship resigned by Robert Stewart, husband of Jonet, heiress of
Lorn, in favour of his brother John, and Dugald could have no claim to
hold it blench of the king, except by the same right by which he claimed
the whole of Lorn. Appin had formerly belonged to the great Colum-
ban monastery of Lismore, and the name of Abthania, or abbey lands,
was corrupted into Apthane, when it was resigned by Robert Stewart,
and then into Appine or Apine, and finally into Appin.
Immediately after Walter was seized in the southern portion of
Lorn on the 21st March 1469, the division of the estates took place,
Walter retaining Innermeath, and making over Lorn to Argyll, who
gave Campbell of Glenorchy his share, though, so far as we can dis-
cover, Campbell of Ottar got no part of the lands. Crawford calls this
an " exchange" by Walter of Lorn for Innermeath, but, as has already
been made abundantly clear by the charter of 1452, Innermeath and
Lorn were destined to the same male heir, whoever he might be. The
indenture of 30th November 1469, enumerating the lands given in
exchange, only names four — Balnaguone, Laidloith, Rothiebrisbane, and
Laithers, which were not incorporated into the barony of Innermeath
by the minor charter of 1452 ; and to speak of giving such a paltry equi-
valent as these " in exchange " for the lordship of Lorn, for centuries an
independent principality, and one of the noblest heritages in Britain, is
to state a proposition which is absolutely ridiculous.
The other lands mentioned as given in this pretended exchange—
Baldonyng, Innerdonyng, and Kildonyng in the sheriffdom of Perth,
Colindrane and Maw in Fife, and Calcarny in Kinross were all men-
tioned in the charter of 1452 as being incorporated into the barony of
Innermeath. Had Lady Campbell of Glenorchy, or her younger sister
the Countess of Argyll, inherited from their father the whole or a
third part of the lordship of Innermeath, a barony not only important
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
in itself, but so largely augmented by the incorporation of these lands,
and the historical barony of Redcastle in Forfarshire, and thus being
heretrices of estates of infinitely greater value and extent than the
Clackmannanshire lands, there can be no doubt whatever that Lady
Campbell's son Duncan, and " Dame Isabell Stewart," would have been
seized in their rich inheritance in April 1465, when they received sasine
of the lands of Castle Gloum and Dollar, the record of which has been
so carefully preserved. But as it appears that neither the Argyll
Charter Chest nor the Taymouth Register contains any such documents,
while the records of the small grants of land in Argyllshire on the
marriage of the eldest daughter, and the sasines of their real inheritance
in Clackmannan, have been so carefully kept, the conclusion is
inevitable that the whole transactions were simply the division of
the spoils of a lad, spirited and gallant enough, but nearly friendless,
and ignorant of the ways of the world. It is a significant circum-
stance, and one which can hardly be the result of accident, that neither
in the family of Appin nor even among his own immediate descendants
of Innermeath does the name of Walter, 50 long dear as that of their
most renowned ancestors in Scotland, ever once thereafter appear.
On the 1st December 1469, Walter, "Lord Lorn," granted to the
Earl of Argyll the bond that he would immediately enter upon Lorn,
and thereafter resign the title and the lands for a new grant to the Earl,
who in turn obliged himself to obtain from the King for Walter the
title of Lord Innermeath, with precedence over that of Lorn ; giving
a striking proof of the weakness of the Crown, when one subject
could thus undertake to procure a title of honour for another. In fact
it is probable that the Earl, from his influential position as Justiciar of
Scotland, had been able to secure in advance the sanction of the youthful
King to this evidently long-planned arrangement, for we find a bond on
the 13th April 1470, by Walter Stewart, " Lord Innermeath," never to
dispute the preceding resignation under a penalty of 6000 merks— and on
the next day Walter completed the resignation of the lands and title to
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
the King, who three days after granted them to the Earl of Argyll, to
be held blench of the King on the rendering of a mantle at Whitsun-
day, if required.
The Earl then proceeded to apportion to his kinsman of Glen-
orchy his share of the acquired lands, making over to him one-third of
Lorn, which included a third of Lismore and a belt of land in Appin
lying on the north shore of Loch Creran, both of which, however. King
James IV. subsequently compelled Sir Duncan Campbell of Glenorchy
to restore to Duncan Stewart of Appin, Dugald's eldest son and
Argyll's seal to the charter to Campbell of Glenorchy of these
lands in 1470, is thus described by Laing : " Couch^, gyronny of eight.
Crest, on a helmet a boar's head with neck couped. Supporters, two
lions rampant, the background ornamented with foliage." It therefore
appears plainly that the quartering of the galley of Lorn on the paternal
achievement of Argyll, " in consequence " of his marriage, did not only
not take place on his marriage, nor even upon his succession to his
wife's inheritance, at the death of her father in 1463, but that it had not
even been assumed in 1470. Dugald Stewart and his descendants alone
continued to bear what Laing calls "the noble coat of the Stewarts of
Lorn," and though it was partly borne by the Stewarts of Innermeath,
the supporters of this junior branch were changed from roebucks to
fallow-deer, and the crest of a unicorn's head to a deer's head, as may
be seen in Workman's " Book of Blazons," compiled about 1550, and in
another Book of Blazons, apparently compiled a little later, amongst
the MSS. in the British Museum.
Though Dugald Stewart, by the enforced compromise, gave up to his
uncle the lordship of Lorn, his descendants were recognised as re-
presenting the noble house of the Stewarts of Lorn. Sir David
Lindsay of the Mount, " Lord Lyon King at Arms," was the most
celebrated Scots genealogist and herald of his day, and would be
punctilious in giving men of family their proper designation. As has
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
been already mentioned, it has always been one of the duties of the
Lyon King at Arms, and, indeed, it has been specially defined as such
under the Statutes of 1592 and 1672, "to record the genealogies of
persons descended from noble and honourable lineage when supported
by proper evidence." Sir David was born in 1490, twenty years after
the Stewarts of Innermeath had divested themselves, in favour of
another, of any title they had to be called Stewarts of Lorn. Forty-
one years later, about 1531, Sir David wrote his poem called "The
Complaynt of the Papingo," and in the " Prolog " he mentions amongst
the poets of his time William Stewart, and " Stewart of Lorn" who "will
carpe richt curiouslie." The poem containing a sarcastic eulogy on the
liberality of James V., who is well known to have been penurious, and
of his courtiers, entitled " Lergess, Lergess hay, Lergess of this New
Year's day," is that written by Stewart of Lorn, and alluded to by Sir
David as " carping richt curiouslie."
James V. was then nineteen years old, so that the poem must have
been written shortly before that time, or sixty years after the Inner-
meath family had relinquished that claim to Lorn which Dugald, and
his sons Duncan and Alan, had still maintained. The poem begins,
" First Lergess of the King, my Chief," pretty clearly showing the
writer's Highland origin. " Stewart of Lome," so called by Sir David
Lindsay, seems to have been Alan, Dugald's second son, who was in
high favour with James V., as his brother had been with James IV.,
and in a charter was designed by the King, " consanguineus dilectus,"
dear blood relative. Afterwards, in the reign of James VI., in an Act
of the Scots Parliament, dated 1587, the head of the clan was designed
Stewart " of Lorn, or of Appin ;" and in 1 800, when the eldest branch of
the Stewarts of Appin had become extinct, the Lyon King at Arms
recognised, in his official declaration, the head of the family of Ardsheal
as the representative of the " Stewarts of Lorn, Appin, and Ardsheal."
After the compromise above narrated, Dugald Stewart seems to
have held his lands of Appin without molestation, and in 1497, or 1498,
96 THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
we find him leading out his followers to the aid of his trusty allies,
the Maclarens. This clan had made a foray into the lands of the
M 'Donalds of Keppoch, who had turned out in force to ravage
Balquidder in reprisal. The Maclarens calling the Appin men to their
assistance, met the M' Donalds about the head of Glenorchy, and in the
battle which ensued Dugald was killed, but not till Donald of Keppoch,
elder brother of Alaster M 'Angus, had fallen under his sword.
Dugald Stewart married a daughter of ■ Macdougall of Nether
Lorn, a marriage which was probably arranged soon after the
compromise of 1469 to stop the blood feud which would otherwise
have continued between these two neighbouring families for years with
intense inveteracy. He left three sons —
1. Duncan, his successor.
2. Alan, who succeeded Duncan.
3. Robert, who died without legitimate issue.
Duncan Stewart, eldest son of Dugald Stewart, first of Appin,
succeeded his father in the ^40 land of Appin on his death in 1497.
At this time the Western Highlands and Islands were much disturbed by
the attempts of the representatives of the old Lords of the Isles to revive
their pretensions to independent power. James IV., who was born in
1473, and succeeded his father in 1488, made frequent journeys to the
West Highlands, and thus became acquainted with Duncan of Appin,
who was a bold and energetic man. The King recognised him as his
kinsman, appointed him to the office of King's Chamberlain of the
Isles, and bestowed on him large grants of lands, which will be
The King also compelled Sir Duncan Campbell of Glenorchy to
restore to Duncan Stewart the third part of Appin, and the lands in
Lismore which Glenorchy's father, Sir Colin, had received out of the
inheritance of Dugald, only son of Sir John Stewart, Lord of Lorn.
It was hardly possible for King James to compel the restoration of the
whole of Lorn to Duncan, as the two families of Argyll and Glenorchy
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
had held the lordship for nearly thirty years under the sanction of
James III. and his Parliament, nor could he restore to him the title of
Lord Lorn, for as Lord Hailes, whose authority on such a point can
hardly be disputed, has pointed out, the possession of the comitatus
carried with it the title. But by his grant to Duncan of a territory
which extended from Loch Creran on the south to Inverlochy on the
north, the Sovereign apparently desired to recompense his kinsman for
the loss of Lorn without dispossessing the now powerful family of
Argyll ; and by giving him possession of a domain nearly equivalent in
value, as well as by appointing him to this high office in the Western
Highlands, the King thus placed Duncan in a position of dignity
resembling that of his forefathers. As will appear from the charters
hereafter quoted, Duncan had now the whole of Appin, except, perhaps,
the lands of Airds, which, so far as can be ascertained, never formed
part of the Stewart lands, a small rivulet called Con Ruagh constitut-
ing the narrow boundary, a single step over which brought a Stewart
or a Campbell into the territory of friends or of hereditary foemen.
The first charter granted by James IV. to Duncan was the life-
rent, " Litera Vitalis," of the lands of Duror and Glencoe. Alan
MacDougall or M'Coule had received a gift of these lands during
James' minority, perhaps procured for him for reasons not unconnected
with past events, but the grant was revoked by James when he reached
his majority. The MacDonalds of Glencoe had long been settled there
as occupants, and their possession was confirmed to them by the King
in 1499. They still remained in occupation of the lands, paying feu-
duty to Appin as superior, which Glencoe still continues to do. This
charter, dated at Stirling, 14th January 1500, is "pro bono fideli et
gratuito servicio nobis per dilectum nostrum Duncanum Stewart, filium
et heredem quondam Dungalli Stewart de Appin ; " the King thus
recognising Dugald's title as heir of Appin, a title which could only be
his as succeeding to his father. Sir John Stewart of Lorn. The
charter, which is given at length in the Appendix, includes, " the seven
merk land of Coule of Durrour, the seven merk land of Ardoch and
Lagynhall, the three merk land of Auchincar, the five merk land of
Auchindarroch and Auchinblane, and the three merk land of Belle-
caulis, also the whole and entire twenty-five merk land of Glencoyne
with its pertinents, extending in all to fifty merk lands, lying in the
Sheriffdom of Perth. Which lands were formerly in the possession
of John M 'Coule by our gift in our minority, and now have lawfully
lapsed." The lands of Glencoe were granted in 1343 by David II, to
John of Yle, and were afterwards held from John of Yle by John of
Larin, and were granted anew to the latter in 1354. In 1475 they were
forfeited by John of Yle, Earl of Ross, and in 1476 were restored to
him. In 1494, after the insurrection of Alexander of Lochalsh, the
titles and lordship of the Isles were forfeited, and subsequently
voluntarily surrendered ; and in that year James IV. granted John
Makgilleon of Lochbouie, the fifty-three merk lands of Durgwin
and Glencole. These lands were now granted by the King to Duncan
in 1500, and the grant was renewed in 1501.
In 1 501 Sir Duncan Campbell of Glenorchy, no doubt under
pressure from the King, made to Duncan Stewart of Appin the above-
mentioned restitution of the one-third part of Appin, which Glenorchy
had received in 1470, comprehending the eight merk land of Cand-
lochlagane, the two merk land of Auchichoskrachan, the two merk land
of Finalten, the four merk land of Auchnagen, the three merk land of
Inverahawle, the one merk land of Corrylone, besides Eilan Stalcaire
and some other lands. In the same year Sir Duncan also gave up to
Appin the twenty shilling land of Port Carrane in Lismore, which
probably included the northern part of the island opposite Appin.
Both these grants were in favour of Duncan Stewart and the heirs of
his body, with remainder to his brothers Alan and Robert. This is the
only mention of Robert in the history of the clan, nor is there any
record of his marriage. If he had had legitimate issue there seems no
reason to doubt that he would have received from the Chief a grant of
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
land suitable to his position, as was then the invariable custom in the
Highland families. It has been conjectured that a sept of the Stewarts
known as the M'Robbs, of whom an account is afterwards given, are
descended from an illegitimate son of this Robert, but no certainty
exists on the point.
On 24th September 1501, the Earl of Argyll and Sir Duncan
Campbell bound themselves to recognise Duncan Stewart as the legal
possessor of the forty pound land of Appin " held in heritage by his
deceased father, Dugald Stewart of Appin," and, on the other hand,
Duncan Stewart bound himself and his folks to be obedient to the king's
laws, and not to vex or trouble the tenants and vassals of the Earl and
Sir Duncan, under the penalty of ;i^200 Scots, as a fine to the King,
and ^200 to the other parties for "coost and skaith," besides paying
the skaith the Earl and his friends shall sustain from Duncan and his
friends. From this it may be inferred that Dugald and his sons, un-
dismayed by the strength of their foes, had not ceased to assert their
rights by making continual forays and " herschips " upon the lands of
Lorn wrested from them.
In the "Scots Acts of Parliament of 1502," Vol. II., pp. 241, 249,
we find James IV. also gave to Duncan a grant of the liferent of the
royal lands of Mamore, which then included the district now called
Nether Lochaber, and of the island of Dundabray. The venerable Dr
M'Leod of Morven believes that this is the island still so called, lying
between the coasts of Jura and Knapdale.
In 1503 Lachlan M'Gillean, or Maclean, of Duart, joined Donald
Dubh in his attempt to seize the territory and authority of the ancient
Lords of the Isles. Duncan Stewart of Appin, at the head of his own
men, and the MacDonalds of Glencoe, — who then mustered about 150
claymores, — was prominent, as King's Chamberlain of the Isles, in
opposing Maclean, who abandoned Donald Dubh's cause, and finally
submitted in 1505. Donald Dubh's insurrection was suppressed in
1506, and the result of his defeat was to transfer to the Earls of
Huntly and Argyll the great power which had been enjoyed by the
Earls of Ross, the former receiving at the same time large grants of
land in Banffshire, Strathearn, and Lochaber. Differences seem to
have arisen between Lochiel and his new neighbour, for we find in the
Acts of the Lords of Council on i6th February 1507, a decree against
" Ewin Allansoune " in favour of " Archibald Erie of Argile as
cessionar and assignaye" to Alexander Earl of Huntly for an herschip
of the Clan Cameron in Badenoch. The name of Duncan Stewart
does not appear in this document, but the friendship and alliance which
subsisted between the Stewarts and the Camerons — and which, indeed,
became closer in succeeding generations — prompted the chief of Appin
to come forward, not only as the mediator between the antagonists, but
as security for his friend. In consequence of this arrangement the
Lords of Council decreed on 9th February 1 508 that Ewin Allansoune
and Duncan Stewart should pay to Argyll the sum of 500 merks.
The settlement of the claim seems to have been deferred for some
years, for it was not until 1 5 1 1 that Ewine Alansoune and Duncan
Stewart gave a Charter of Apprisement of the lands of Kilandreist,
Port Carran, and Kinlochan in Lismore, and of the island of Shuna, in
favour of Archibald Earl of Argyll, as part payment of 500 merks, the
balance remaining due being possibly one of those claims remitted by
Argyll at the final settlement in 15 12 between Appin and the Earl, in
the latter's capacity of security for Maclean of Duart.
We have seen that the lands of Glencoe and Duror, after having
been granted in 1494 to John Makgilleon of Lochbouie, had been in
1500 granted by James IV. to Duncan Stewart of Appin, the Glencoe
men having warmly espoused the cause of Donald Dubh, whose escape
in 1 501 from prison in the Castle of Inchconnell was effected by their
gallantry and fidelity. This transfer seems to have subsequently led
to a raid upon Duncan's tenants by the MacLeans, headed by
" Lauchlan M'Gillane of Dowarde, Johnne M'Cane Maklauchlane of
Coll, and Dunslavy M'Barich of Ulva." On the 9th May 1509 we
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
find the record of the summons to the MacLeans, and on the 21st July
of the same year the decrees in favour of Duncan Stewart, and of his
Appin and Duror tenants, which will be found in the Appendix.
The settlement between Duart and Appin which had been in
progress after the above decrees, seems to have been interrupted by
the death in 15 10 of the former, who was succeeded by his son of the
same name. In 1510 James IV. confirmed to Duncan Stewart of
Appin " the 6^ mark lands of Auchnadialla, the 6^ mark lands of
Corriemyll, the 3 mark lands of Canmask, the 3 mark lands of
Thorane Carrigh in Lochaber, which with other lands he has acquired
from the deceased Lauchlan Magilleon of Dowart in lieu of a certain
sum of money, and under reversion on payment of that sum." On the
8th of April 1510 King James granted Duncan a Charter of Apprise-
ment. Carta Appirciationis, a summary of which is given in the
Appendix, addressed to " certain of our Sheriffs, commanding them
to compel and distrain Lachlan Makgilleon of Dowart for the sum of
four thousand five hundred merks to be recovered from him by our
beloved Duncan Stewart of Appin." MacLean had been ordered to
enter upon his lands, no doubt in succession to his deceased father, so
that he might legally give them over to Appin in security for the money,
but he had failed to do so, and in consequence the King, by advice of
his Council, received Duncan Stewart as tenant of the lands belonging
to Lauchlan MacLean in heritage, granting MacLean a right of redemp-
tion on payment to Appin of the 4500 merks and expenses within seven
years. These lands comprehended nearly the whole of the islands of
Mull and Tiree, lands in Jura and Knapdale, in Morven and Lochaber,
and also the stewardship of Garmoran, now called Ardnamurchan.
The questions still remaining unsettled between Appin and Duart
were reopened before the Lords of Council in 15 12. On the ist of
March in that year we find the Earl of Argyll, who was shortly to be-
come the father-in-law of the youthful chief of the MacLeans, appearing
as his friend and becoming his security for the amount at which Appin's
claim had been approximately fixed by arbitrators, viz., 1040 merks.
On the following day the Bishop of Argyll comes forward to claim his
share of any composition which Duncan might be induced to accept,
and offering in return the King's pardon and remission of all crimes
committed by Duncan and his clansmen. On the same day, the 2nd
March 15 12, it is decreed that the Earl of Argyll "of his own consent
as borgh and dettour for Lauchlane Makgillane of Dowart sail content
and pay to Duncan Stewart of Appin the sovm of ane thousand and
fourty merks vsuall money of Scotland." It was probably in view of
Argyll's taking upon himself this payment that Duncan, still on the
same day, made application, jointly with Duart, to the Lords of
Council to give the authority of their decree to the decision of a
meeting of arbitrators at Edinburgh on the 19th of February preceding.
These arbitrators were David Bishop of Galloway, Alexander Earl of
Huntly, Archibald Earl of Argyll, William Earl of Erroll, and William
Scot of Balwearie, and they had awarded him in satisfaction of his
claim the sum of 10 11 merks, of which a certain proportion was to be
paid to Duncan's tenants, and the balance of 800 merks to Duncan
himself, at sundry specified terms within 2 years and 20 days. Various
other conditions were also imposed by the arbitrators, one of which
was that Duncan on his part should restore to the King his liferent or
heritage of the 13 merk land lying beside the Castle of Inverlochy
whereof MacLean had an old grant. Duncan had evidently received
from James IV. before this time a promise of these lands, but the
charter itself — granting to him, for his good service and for his present
to the King of a galley of 36 oars, the liferent of the lands of Innerlochy,
Terelondy, Drumefour, and Auchentoir, in the lordship of Lochaber —
did not pass the seals till the 9th July 15 12. On the other hand
Argyll was to remit to Duncan a debt of 100 merks due to the former,
and all claims against Duncan or his tenants, and to "do his diligence"
to cause his uncle. Sir Duncan Campbell, to do the same. Argyll was
also to renew to Appin the infeftment of those lands which the latter
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
held of him, and their mutual relations were to exist " in kindness and
heartliness in time to come." A further decree on the same day makes
Argyll liable for the payment of the loi i merks, and a still later one of
the same date sets forth that Lauchlane Makgillane of Dowart and
John Makclane of Louchboy shall jointly free, relieve, and keep
scaithless the Earl of Argyll in respect of this loii merks, Dowart
finally obliging himself to indemnify Louchboy.
An amicable settlement of these long pending claims was thus
arrived at, and upon terms extremely favourable to Mac Lean when com-
pared with the damages awarded by the Lords in council. It was no
doubt after friendly communications had passed between Appin and
Duart that Duncan proceeded to Mull, as his sole attendant on the
occasion was his henchman. There may perhaps have been no pre-
meditated intention on the part of the MacLeans to provoke a quarrel, but
rough jokes were passed upon the size and weight of Duncan's follower.
The chief retorted that the Appin men were not fed upon mean shell-
fish like barnacles, as the MacLeans were said to be; and seeing their
now evident purpose and his own inevitable fate, he set his back against
the rampart of the castle, and, pursuing the grim jest, declared that
before he died he would make with his dirk marks like barnacles on
many of the MacLeans. He fell, overpowered by numbers, after a
MacLea, now called Livingstone, of Bachuill in Lismore, hearing
of the death of his chief, set out for Duart Castle at night in his boat,
which was rowed by his two red-haired daughters. He scu tried all the
boats in the Port of Duart, and brought the corpse of his chief to
Lismore, in the church of which island it was buried. The tombstone
was, until lately, visible in the floor, but was covered when some altera-
tions were made in the church in 1877.
This family of Livingstone, commonly called the Barons of
Bachuill, received in early times a grant of land in Lismore, which they
still hold as keepers of the Bishop of Lismore's crozier or baculum, in
Gaelic " Bachuill Mor." The crozier was given up by them a few years
ago to the Duke of Argyll, when he granted a confirmation of their title
to their old possession. The sept of Mac Lea or Livingstone seem to
have been very anciently seated in Appin, where they have held lands
as tenants of the Stewarts, and have always followed their banner to
war. At Culloden four of the name were killed and one wounded.
Dr David Livingstone, the celebrated explorer in Africa, was of this
race, and some of his relatives still reside in Appin, Mr Livingstone at
Portnacroish being the nearest of kin. Dr David Livingstone writes of
himself, " Our great grandfather fell at the battle of Culloden, fighting
for the old line of kings ; " and it is doubtless to the baculum or
Bachuill Mor that he alludes, when he recounts that his Roman Ca-
tholic ancestors " were made Protestants by the laird coming round with
a man having a yellow staff, which would seem to have attracted more
attention than his teaching, for the new religion went long afterwards
— perhaps it does so still — by the name of ' the religion of the yellow
For the accommodation of James IV., Duncan Stewart rebuilt Castle
Stalcaire, which had previously been a hunting-seat of the Lords of
Lorn, of the families of MacDougall and Stewart. Eilan Stalcaire
signifies in Gaelic Falconer's Island, and tradition says that it was often
inhabited by King James IV. and King James V. when hunting, hawk-
ing, or fishing in Appin and the surrounding districts. A brooch was
long in the possession of the Appin family, which had for a pendant a
handsome pearl, said to have been taken out of a salmon killed by
Duncan when fishing in the river Awe with James IV.
It was on the 9th July 151 2 that Duncan Stewart, second of
Appin, received the charter of Inverlochy which has been above
noticed, and as his brother Alan led the clan to Flodden on the 9th
September 1 5 1 3, it may be concluded that his death took place between
those dates. He was never married, and was succeeded by his brother
Alan Stewart, third of Appin, soon after his succession, accom-
panied, together with his five sons, King James IV. to the disastrous
field of Flodden, where that chivalrous benefactor of the Stewarts of
Appin was slain. Alan was not long in finding the want of his royal
kinsman's friendship and protection, and in experiencing the truth of the
saying that the country is hapless whose monarch is a child. After the
battle of Flodden the Islemen again rose in rebellion under Sir Donald
MacDonald of Lochalsh, and the Earl of Argyll was appointed by the
Council to the command of the force raised to subdue them. In 15 17
Argyll obtained from the Regent Albany an appointment as his
Lieutenant in Durrour, Glencoe, and Lochiel, to " keep the peace of the
inhabitants ;" the peace desired being apparently that described by
Tacitus, " ubi solitudinem faciunt, pacem appellant," they make a
wilderness and call it peace. In 15 18 Alan was obliged to grant to the
Earl of Argyll a Charter of Apprisement of the lands of Fasnacloich
and Glasdrum ; but in 1539, in the reign of James V., these lands were
feued to Alan and his heirs, the Earl retaining the superiority. On
the 6th June 1522, John Campbell of Calder, brother of the Earl of
Argyll, obtained from Maclean of Lochbuy the assignment of his
obsolete and revoked charter, dated in 1494, of the lands of Durrour,
Glencoe, and part of the lands of Lochiel, but the Stewarts,
Mac Donalds, and Camerons effectually resisted his efforts to take
possession. On the 8th November 1528 a meeting took place in
Edinburgh with the view of settling the questions in dispute, Archibald
Campbell of Skipness, Alexander M'lan M'Alexander of Glengarry,
and John M'Alan M'Donuile Duff being chosen as arbitrators. The
selection could not certainly be considered a favourable one for Lochiel
and Appin : the first being Calder's brother and a hereditary foeman,
while the two latter could probably bear but little favour towards Alan
Stewart after the defeat and death of their kinsman Donall mac
Aonghais of Keppoch by the hand of Dugald of Appin, Alan's father.
The decree of the arbitrators, confirmed four days later by the Lords
in Council, was, after declaring that goodwill was to prevail for the
future, to award a sum of 400 merks to be paid to Calder by Lochiel
and Appin for scaith done to Calder, but that 300 merks of this sum
Avere to be remitted on condition of their giving Calder their bond of man-
rent in return for Calder's bond of maintenance. Notwithstanding this
settlement, however, matters do not seem to have gone on smoothly,
for Calder subsequently resigned these lands to the King ; and the
Council of which Argyll was a member. King James V. being still in
minority, granted them to the Earl. In his account of these transac-
tions Gregory says: " For some years after this time" (1520-7) "the Isles
remained in a state of comparative tranquillity, owing partly to the
continued imprisonment of Donald Dubh, which deprived the Islanders
of their natural leader. This interval of peace was employed by Argyll
in extending his influence among the chiefs with whom his commission
of lieutenancy brought him in contact The principal coadjutors
of Argyll in these plans for the aggrandisement of his family and clan,
were his brothers. Sir John Campbell of Calder and Archibald
Campbell of Skipnish. Calder, whose patrimony lay in the district of
Lorn, was particularly active ; and having acquired from Maclean of
Lochbuy certain claims, hitherto ineffectual, which that chief had to the
lands of Lochiel, Duror, and Glencoe, he did not fail to make use of
his opportunities. At first he was violently resisted by the Camerons
and Stewarts, and suffered many injuries from them in these disputes.
But by transferring his title to these lands to his brother Argyll, and
employing the influence of that nobleman, Calder succeeded in estab-
lishing a certain degree of authority over the unruly inhabitants, in a
mode then of very frequent occurrence. Ewin AUanson of Lochiel,
and Alan Stewart of Duror, were, by the arbitration of friends, ordered
to pay Calder a large sum of damages, and likewise to give to him, for
themselves, their children, kin, and friends, their bond of man-rent and
service against all men, except the King and Argyll. In consideration
of these bonds of service, three fourths of the damages awarded were
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
remitted by Calder, who became also bound to give his bond of main-
tenance in return. Finally, if the said Ewin and Alan should do good
service to Sir John in helping him to obtain lands and possessions, they
were to be rewarded by him therefor at the discretion of the arbiters.
By such means was the influence of the house of Argyll extended and
confirmed in the West Highlands."
Colin, Earl of Argyll, died in 1530, and was succeeded by his son
Archibald, fourth Earl, who pursued the same course of intrigue in the
Western Highlands ; but a complaint being brought before the King
and Council that he, his father, and his uncles Sir John Campbell of
Calder, and Archibald Campbell of Skipnish, had for a long time
fomented disturbances in the Highlands that they might acquire
possession of the forfeited estates, the Earl was summoned to Edin-
burgh to answer these charges, and committed to prison by the King
on his arrival. He was soon liberated, but was deprived of his offices,
which he never regained during the lifetime of James V. The King,
having revoked all charters granted during his minority, at Falkland
on the 7th December 1538, granted to Alan Stewart, his well-beloved
relation in blood and servitor, "dilectus consanguineus et servitor Alanus
Stewart in Lome," a charter, given in the Appendix, of the twenty
pound land of Durrour in fee farm, viz., the seven merk land of Coule
and Glencalladam, the seven merk land of Ardsell and Lagnahall, the
three merk land of Ballychelis, the five merk land of Auchnandarroch,
the three merk land of Auchycarne, the five merk land of Auchychan
and Auchinblare, and the twenty merk land of Glenkowne, with all
their pertinents, to the value of fifty merks. The charter is to Alan
and his heirs, on condition of their paying to the king and his heirs a
yearly rent of ^40 Scots, and " building and keeping a sufficient
mansion with hall, chamber, kitchen, barn, byre, stables, dovecots,
gardens, orchyards, etc." The charter is very explicit in conveying to
Alan and his heirs these lands and their pertinents, woods, plains,
mosses, morasses, waters stagnant and running, rivulets, fields and
pastures, mills with their multures and sequels, rights of hunting and
fishing, peats, turf, timber, coal, stone, lime, gorse, broom, and every-
thing above or below ground pertaining to the said lands, to be held in
peace without any revocation or renunciation whatever by the said
Alan and his heirs.
It might have been reckoned that so full a grant would have
effectually secured the peaceable possession of these lands to Alan and
his heirs. But James V. died in 1542, and in 1547, when Queen Mary
was a child, and Argyll had regained his authority in the West of
Scotland, we find Alan Stewart resigning these lands of Duror, Balla-
chelish, and Glencoe into the hands of the Queen, and they were re-
conveyed to the Earl of Argyll. After the former experience the Earl
was not likely again to attempt to dispossess Alan of this territory,
and it was re-granted to him, the Earl retaining the superiority, at a
somewhat smaller feu-rent than that which Alan, in his original charter,
had covenanted to pay to the Crown.
In 1547, Somerset, the Protector of England, renewed the proposal
of marriage between Edward VI. and Queen Mary, and marched an
army of 18,000 men into Scotland to compel the compliance of the
Scots. In the battle of Pinkie, which ensued on the loth September of
that year, the Stewarts of Appin bore their part, the regiment being
commanded by Donald-nan-ord, second of Invernahyle, Alan Stewart
being then an old man, and his eldest son Duncan dead, while his
grandson John, who succeeded him, was still a minor.
Alan Stewart married a daughter of Cameron of Lochiel, by
whom he had five sons, all of whom accompanied their father to the
field of Flodden.
They were : —
: 2. John : of whom the first Stewarts of Strathgarry. Page
3. DuGALD : of whom Achnacone. Page 153.
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
4. James: of whom Fasnacloich. Page 155.
5. Alexander: of whom Invernahyle. Page 165.
Alan seems to have died, at a very advanced age, about or soon
after the year 1562.
Duncan Stewart, fourth of Appin, appears to have predeceased
his father before the battle of Pinkie in 1547, as we find the clan led
on that occasion, as above mentioned, by the Tutor. He was certainly
dead before 1562, as we find that in that year Alan Stewart of Appin
resigned the lands in Lismore, held by him from Campbell of
Glenorchy, for the purpose of having them re-granted to John Stewart,
his grandson, the liferent of them, however, being reserved to Alan.
Duncan married Jonet Gordon, daughter of the Earl of Huntly, who
had obtained the neighbouring territory of Lochaber. In 1558 John
Campbell of Calder, Commendator of Ardchattan Priory, granted to
Jonet Gordon, Lady of Appin, in consideration of payments by her for
repairing the church and monastery, the two merk lands of Yriskay and
Dyrremeanach for a yearly payment of £4 Scots, and in 1562 she
resigned these lands to John Campbell, the natural son of the
Mr D. C. Macpherson, of the Advocates' Library, who has
published an account of the clan Donald of Keppoch, gives the follow-
ing narrative relating to Duncan, fourth of Appin. Raonall, second
son of Raonall MacDhonaill Ghlais, and eighth of Keppoch, married a
daughter of Duncan Stewart, younger of Appin. It is said that Stewart
paid a visit to his son-in-law, and that he was escorted on his return
by a party of the Keppoch men, the chief having promised him a safe
conduct out of the parish. This was fulfilled to the letter, but as they
were fording the river Nevis near Fort William, just as they got to the
Kilmallie side, one M 'Arthur struck off Stewart's head with his axe.
These M 'Arthurs are still in Lochaber, and bear the nick-name of
" Tuagh bhearnach Mhic-Artair," the M'Arthurs of the hacked axe.
The daughter of Appin took with her to Keppoch some Stewarts,
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
named Dubh-shuilich, from their dark heavy eyebrows, who were ever
after the " Fir-bhrataich " or standard-bearers of the Keppochs, and
their descendants are still in that country. This violent end would
account for the death of Duncan during his father's lifetime. He left
one son John.
John Stewart, fifth of Appin, was called, from his complexion and
his maternal descent, "Gordonich baan," the fair Gordon. In the "Black
Book of Taymouth" it is stated that, on 4th December 1570, John
Stewart of Appin entered into a mutual contract with Colin Campbell
of Glenurquhay for their common defence. He is also mentioned in
records of the year 1580. In the Acts of 1587, on " The Roll of the
Names of the Landislordes and'Baillies of Landis in the Hielandis and
lies, quhair Brokin men hes duelt and presentlie duellis," we find 103
names, commencing with that of Ludovick, second duke of Lennox, and
ending with that of The Lord Hamiltown (Lord John Hamilton,
proprietor of Arran, and afterwards Marquis of Hamilton), and among
them is "Johnne Stewart of the Appin." And in the same year, on
" The Roll of the Clannis (in the Hielandis and lies) that hes Capitanes,
Cheiffis, and Chiftanes on quhome thay depend, oft tymes aganis the
willis of thair landislordis : and of sum speciale persones of branchis of
the saidis clannis " there appear thirty-four names, among whom are the
"Stewartis of Lome or of Appin." Also in the Rotation of the
Highland Clans, as mentioned in the two Acts of Parliament of 1587
and 1594, forty-two names are recorded, the eleventh on the list being
" Stewarts of Appin."
In 1592 an extensive conspiracy was entered into, having for its
object the murder of the " bonnie Earl of Murray," Archibald 7th Earl
of Argyle, and his kinsman James Campbell of Calder, the principal
administrator of the affairs of the latter earldom. In Februar}' 1592,
the Earl of Murray was murdered at his house of Donibristle in Fife,
by a party of the Gordons under the command of the Earl of Huntly.
Sir Duncan Campbell of Glenorchy, Dugald Campbell of Auchinbreck,
and Archibald Campbell of Lochnell, three of the guardians of the
young Earl of Argyll, were among the conspirators of the West ; and,
as brother-in-law of Lochnell, John Stewart of Appin was induced to
join the plot, and, with him, Cameron of Lochiel and MacDougall of
Dunolly. Sir John Campbell of Ardkinglass next became an accessory,
and procured the services of an assassin named M'Ellar, who shot
Calder in the house of Knepoch in Lorn, in February 1592. Ardking-
lass' hereditary feud with Calder caused him to be suspected, and he
was consequently threatened with the vengeance of the young Argyll.
Glenorchy then ventured to communicate to him the plan of getting
rid of the Earl and his brother, but Ardkinglass refused to be a party to
it. Had this part of the plot been carried out, Lochnell would have
succeeded, as heir, to the earldom, Glenorchy was to have received
the barony of Lochow and Benderaloch, and MacDougall the lands of
Luing, while John Stewart was to have had all the lands in Lorn
belonging to the Earl, an arrangement which clearly shows that the
claim of his family to Lorn was still recognised, even by some among
the Campbells themselves. These occurrences served to embitter still
further the feud between the families.
John Stewart married, first, Katharine, daughter of John gorm
Campbell, first of Lochnell, and widow of John Maclean of Kinlochaline,
by whom he had one son, Duncan, his successor ; and, secondly, a
daughter of Macdonald of Muidart, who bore to him a son, John, after-
wards of Ardsheal. He had also a daughter, married to Alan Cameron
of Lochiel. John Drummond of Bathaldie, in his memoir of Sir Ewen
Cameron, says of her that " she was a handsome young lady, and by
an excess of beauty, witt, and good-nature, so gained upon her husband's
affections that he continued fond of her all his life." John Stewart
of Appin must have died previous to, or in the early part of, 1595.
Duncan Stewart, sixth of Appin, succeeded his father, and in
1595 the possession of the lands in Lismore was confirmed by the
superior. Sir Duncan Campbell of Glenorchy, to " Duncan Stewart of
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
Appin, son of the deceased John Stewart." In 1595 Duncan Stewart
granted, in heritage, to GilHemichael M'Ewin V'lUemichael in Annat,
the " domus bruerie " of Annat, and certain land bounded by the rivulet
of Annat on the west, by the " pule " called Lyn Ruagh on the south,
by the rivulet of Achnagone on the east, and by the ridge " lie edge
montis," between the rivulets of Annat and Achnagone, on the north.
These lands form part of the estate now called Kinlochlaigh.
It was in Duncan's lifetime that there lived and sang a poetess of
the Siol Tormod, or clan MacLeod of Harris, called Mairi Nighean
Alasdair Ruaidh. It would appear from the following effusion — unless,
indeed, it is to be regarded as entirely fanciful — that there had been
some project of a marriage between Stewart of Appin and a daughter
of MacLeod, by which Appin hoped to acquire some of the MacLeod
lands. This seems to have been displeasing to the clan, and Mary
embodied their feeling in the following stanza of a poem, which has
been translated from the original Gaelic by the Rev. Alexander Stewart,
Nether Lochaber : —
" Mac Ian Stewart of Appin,
Though thou art a fine young fellow,
Though the Stewarts are high-minded,
And know what they should do in wax,
Take no thought nor heed (of acquiring)
Of lands which are not thine by right ;
Thou canst not take them in spite of us.
And with our will they shall never be thine."
The records at Dunvegan supply no clue to the project to which
the bardess alludes, and there was no connection by marriage between
the families of the Chiefs of MacLeod and Appin till after her death.
Duncan married a daughter of Campbell of Lochnell, by whom he
had three sons — Duncan, his successor, and John and Alan, An old
family MS. states that these two latter "appear to have had no issue,
as the ingenious author of the ' Histoiy of the Stewarts' mentions
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
nothing of them but their Christian names, and narrates that in the suc-
ceeding generation the Laird of Ardsheal was Tutor, as nearest of kin
to Appin, a fact universally known to all the branches of this family."
Duncan Stewart, seventh of Appin, succeeded his father. It was
this Chief of Appin who was persuaded, during a carousal, to give up
Castle Stalcaire to Campbell of Airds in exchange for an eight-oared
" beorlin" or wherry. Appin endeavoured to have the unfair, and no
doubt vinous, bargain recalled ; but Airds refused to cancel a transaction
so advantageous to himself, and Duncan, who, if not discreet, was at all
events honourable, would not, without the other's consent, retract his
word, though it had been passed in circumstances under which its
fulfilment should certainly not have been exacted. The Stewart clan
were indignant at seeing the alienation of the castle, which was not only
their principal fortress, but which was a natural object of their pride as
having been built for and occupied by the kings who had owned them
as kinsmen, and assembled to consider whether they should not appoint
one of Duncan's brothers to be their chief instead of this " Baothaire,"
or soft, easily-persuaded man, as they nick-named Duncan. The
offended clan did not go so far as to depose him, but resolved that he
should not lead them in any expedition of war. In consequence of this
decision they were led on these occasions by the chief's brother John —
at least until Duncan's son, Duncan Mor, had attained majority — as in
1614 we find John was summoned to Edinburgh to answer charges
brought against the Stewarts by the Earl of Argyll for forays upon his
lands. It does not appear that John obeyed the summons, but on the
9th May 1620 Duncan Mor Stewart, younger of Appin, son of Duncan
seventh baron, granted an assignment of his rights in two bonds by
James Spreul of Coldane and William Murray, in favour of Matthew
White, keeper of the Tolbooth at Edinburgh, as a condition of his
liberation. As this assignment is enumerated in the Reports previously
referred to as existing amongst the Argyll papers, it seems probable
that the heir of Appin had been seized to answer the complaints made
by the Earl of Argyll's son, to whom the Earl had conveyed his estates
previous to his forfeiture. This forfeiture had taken place in 1618,
when Argyll had made open defection from the Protestant faith and
gone to Spain, where he was intriguing with the banished Sir James
Macdonald and Allaster MacRanald of Keppoch. In consequence of
this, in December of that year twenty of the Argyllshire barons were
summoned before the Privy Council, and to each was assigned a district
in which he was' responsible for the preservation of the peace ; Lochnell,
Stewart of Appin, the MacDougalls of Dunolly and Reray, and the
Campbells of Dunstaffnage, Barbreck, and Glenfalloch being appointed
for Upper Lorn.
The Castle of Eilean Stalcaire has ever since continued to be the
property of the Campbells, the unequal compact having been honourably
observed by the Stewarts ; but on the outbreak of hostilities on subse-
quent occasions, it was promptly seized and held for the king by its old
possessors, in their capacity of Hereditary Keepers of the Castle.
Duncan married a daughter of Cameron of Locheil, and had issue
— Duncan, his successor ; Alan, who married a daughter of Maclean of
Coll ; and Donald, who was father of William Stewart, a priest, who
was murdered at Rome in 1737.
Duncan Stewart, eighth of Appin, called Duncan Mor, succeeded
to the estate on his father's death, after having been for many years
virtually the leader of the clan. On the 30th January 1 645 he was one
of those who signed " ane Band of Unione amongst all his Majestie's
faithfull subjects," and according to his promise therein, he took the field
at the head of his clan to join the Marquess of Montrose. On a clear
and cold Sunday morning, on the 2nd February 1645, the Stewarts of
Appin were in the centre of the great Marquess' army at the battle of
Inverlochy, where they distinguished themselves by their furious valour,
doubly inspired, as Hogg has beautifully expressed it, by their loyalty
to the Royal head of the House of Stewart, and by their desire to
avenge the many injuries they had sustained from Argyll. The skilful
strategy of Montrose had cut off from the Campbells their only line of
retreat, which was towards Ballachelish, and on their defeat they were
thus forced backwards on the sea and the river Lochy, where many
were drowned in their flight, their loss being not less than 1 500 killed.
Duncan Mor continued in arms during the whole campaign, and after
the defeat of Montrose at Philiphaugh on 13th September 1645, joined
Sir Alexander MacCoU Macdonald, who still kept the field in Argyll-
shire for King Charles. After Sir Alexander was forced to retire to
Ireland, the district of Appin was sentenced to be ravaged with fire and
sword, but was saved from this extremity by the intervention of Major
James Stewart of Ardvoirlich. Major Stewart had faithfully served
King Charles in Montrose's army, but he was a man of high temper,
and in a private quarrel after the battle of Tippermuir, he unhappily
killed Lord Kilpont, son of William i8th Earl of Menteith, after which
he was obliged in self-defence to ally himself with Argyll and the
Covenanters. By his interest with General Leslie, Major Stewart also
saved the life of Henry Stewart, the laird of Baith or Beach.
The execution of Charles L, on 20th January 1649, was loudly
condemned in Scotland, and his son was proclaimed King on the 5th of
the following month. Loyalty to the Sovereign was for the moment
in the ascendant, and among the names of Royalist gentlemen who
were appointed Commissioners of Supply in the beginning of that year,
we find that of Duncan Stewart of Appin. But with Charles II.'s
rejection of the overtures of the Presbyterians, a change came over the
spirit of the Covenanters, and the gallant but ill-fated attempt by
Montrose, terminating in his capture in Assynt, and his execution on
25th May 1649, had the effect of bringing down the vengeance of the
Government upon the heads of those who, four years before, had borne
their share in the brilliant victories of the great Marquess at Inverlochy,
Auldearn, and Kilsyth, and who were perhaps known to be now pre-
paring to rejoin him. Thus we find from the Scots Acts Parliament of
7th August 1649 that Sir Archibald Johnstone of Warristoun, His
Majesty's Advocate, presented a petition against Murdoch Maclean of
Lochbuy, Duncan Stewart, younger of Appin, Alexander Stewart of
Invernaheil, and Hector Maclaine of Kingerloch, for joining James
Grahame at Kilsythe, and being with him with all the men they could
command at the battle of Inverlochie, and at divers other places, for
which they were forfaulted in persons, lands, and estates.
Duncan Mors forfeiture was, of course, cancelled on the accession
of Charles II. in 1660, and in the Acts of the Scots Parliament of the
following year, Duncane Stewart of Apyne is named as a Commissioner of
Supply for Argyleshire, and also as one of His Majesty's Commissioners
for regulating and uplifting certain excise duties. He married Jean,
daughter of Sir Robert Campbell of Glenorchy, but his only child was
a daughter, Margaret, who married Campbell of Lochnell, his lands
and the chiefship passing on his death, which occurred apparently before
1685, to his nephew, Robert, only son of his brother Alan, by his wife,
the daughter of Maclean of Coll.
Robert Stewart, ninth of Appin, succeeded his uncle. The
first mention of him is in 1685, in the Acts of Parliament of
which year we find " Stuart of Appin or his Tutor " appointed a
Commissioner of Supply. He hastened from college to accompany
the clan when, on account of his youth, it Avas led by John
Stewart of Ardsheal, who, as next of kin, was his Tutor, to join Vis-
count Dundee when he declared for King James VII. in 16S9. In
expectation of aid both in men and money from King James, then in
Ireland, Dundee came to Inverlochy, where he was in the midst of the
loyal clans of Camerons, Stewarts, MacDonalds, and MacLeans. On
his arrival at Inverlochy he found the Stewarts of Appin and the Mac-
Naughtons awaiting him, having received notice from Lochiel of his
coming. Writing of the events of this year, Lord Macaulay has said
that " while England and Scotland were execrating the tyranny of
James, he was honoured as a deliverer in Appin and Lochaber, in Glen-
roy and Glenmore," and he proceeds to ascribe the Jacobitism of the
Highlanders at that time to their dread and hatred of the grasping
and insatiable house of Argyll, putting his case with perhaps even
more than his usual force and eloquence. But this theory, though pos-
sibly not absolutely devoid of foundation as regards the events of 1689,
would entirely fail to account for the attachment of the Highlanders to
the cause of the Stuarts in 1715 and 1745, when their lives or estates
were hardly in greater danger from MacCailein Mor than they are at
the present day ; and the dispassionate observer, after reading the record
of Highland fidelity and devotion in 1745 and 1746, will hardly be dis-
posed to endorse the conclusions of the Whig historian in this matter.
Dundee remained for some time in Lochaber, anxiously awaiting
the arrival of troops and supplies from Ireland. Macaulay says it was
impossible for him to keep his Highlanders together in a state of
inactivity. A vast extent of moor and mountain was required to
furnish food for so many mouths. The clans therefore went back to
their own glens, having promised to reassemble on the first summons.
A few weeks after, hostilities broke out more violently than before.
Stewart of Ballechin, at a meeting of the Stewarts of Athole and the
Marquis of Athole's vassals, filled his bonnet with water from a neigh-
bouring stream, drank a health to King James, and immediately seized
in his interest Blair Castle, which occupies a commanding position at
the head of the Pass of Killiecrankie. Lord Murray, the eldest son of
the Marquis, and a declared Williamite, demanded admission to his
father's house, but the garrison refused to open the gates. On the
fate of Blair Castle probably depended the fate of all Athole. On the
fate of Athole might depend the fate of Scotland. Dundee hastily
summoned all the clans who acknowledged his commission to prepare
for an expedition into Athole. The fiery crosses were sent again in all
haste through Appin and Ardnamurchan, up Glenmore, and along
Loch Leven ; but the call was so unexpected, and the time allowed so
short, that the muster was not a very full one. Dundee had only 1900
Highlanders with him when, after his rapid march across the mountains
of Lochaber and Badenoch to anticipate Mackay, he so signally defeated
that general about sunset on the 17th June 16S9. It has been doubted
whether the Stewarts of Appin took part in the battle of Killiecrankie,
or Roinn Rhuari, as the Highlanders call it. Lord Macaulay says
that "the Stewarts of Appin who, though full of zeal, had not been
able to come up in time for the battle, were among the first who
arrived after it."
This statement, however, is not quite correct, but the mistake may
have not unnaturally arisen from the circumstance that a considerable
body of the Stewarts joined the Highland army two days after the
battle, and this fact being mentioned by Drummond of Bathaldie in his
memoir of Sir Ewen Cameron, Lord Macaulay and other historians
have erroneously concluded that no part of the clan had any share in
the victory. But before passing sentence of attainder upon the chief
men engaged in Dundee's rising, the Scots Parliament examined wit-
nesses to prove the complicity of the accused. Among these was
Lieut. James Colt, who deposed that he had been taken prisoner by
Dundee and carried by him to Inverlochy, and that " he saw a young
man, who was said to be Stewart of Appin, join Dundee between
Lochaber and Badenoch with a hundred and thretty men of his own
with him." James Malcolm became King's evidence, and deponed
that he saw Stewart of Appin join Dundee in Lochaber with a company
of men, who had colours. The helmet worn by Robert Stewart of
Appin at Killiecrankie is still in possession of Dugald Stuart of Loch-
carron, one of the family of Ballachelish. The following extracts from
a letter written shortly after the battle by Alexander Stewart of Balla-
chelish to his kinsman of Invernahyle, show clearly that a part of the
Appin clan had joined Dundee before he encountered Mackay at Roinn
Rhuari. " When Lochiel got letters from Claverhouse he came to see
Appin, and upon this we all went to Letter Shuna," the Gaelic name
for the place where Appin House stands. " Everything was settled
overnight, and Lochiel came on with me the day after, and slept with
us. Next day I put him on the loch, etc." The letter, which will be
found at length in the Appendix, then goes on to say : " At Roinn
Rhuari I was hurt in the hand, and we went on to Dunkeld, and tried
to take the Cathedral, where poor Sandy was killed." " Sandy " was
a brother of John Stewart, third of Ardsheal. Against the latter,
described as Tutor of Appin, abundant evidence was forthcoming
before Parliament as to his having led the clan. It therefore seems
probable that Ardsheal had been in command of the clan at the original
muster at Inverlochy, and that when Dundee's hasty summons arrived,
the young chief set off at once with the men nearest at hand, leaving
the Tutor to follow with the main body. The detachment of the
Stewarts present at the battle seems to have been brigaded with their
fast friends the Camerons, a large body of whom also only arrived two
In the end of last century Professor Kennedy of Aberdeen wrote
a curious rhyming ballad in Latin, in which he enumerates the prin-
cipal gentlemen who were in Dundee's army. The poem is entitled,
" Proelium Gilliecrankianum," and in the following verse Macneil of
Barra, the Chiefs of Glencoe, Keppoch, and Appin, and Stewart of
Ballechin and his brother, are named among those who "fought
bravely " for James VII. : —
" Macneillus de Bara, Glencono, Keppochanus,
Ballechinus cum fratre, Stewartus Apianus,
Pro Jacobo Septimo fortiter gessere,
Pugiles fortissimi feliciter vicere."
The death of Dundee at Killiecrankie was more fatal to the cause
of the Stewarts than a defeat of his army would have been, as his suc-
cessor, General Cannon, if not actually incapable, had, at all events,
none of the genius necessary for conducting Highland warfare. Dis-
gusted with his inefficiency, Lochiel returned home ; the Stewarts,
however, remained and lost many men, including the Tutor's brother,
in the ineffectual attacks on the Cathedral and house of Dunkeld, which
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
were defended by the newly raised regiment, " The Cameronians," now
the 26th of the Line, whose colours, which have since been proudly
borne in every quarter of the world, were, on that day, for the first
time unfurled. Seeing, at length, that no lasting success could be
achieved under such a commander, the Highland Chiefs assembled at
Blair Castle on the 24th August 1689, and, having signed the follow-
ing bond of association, went home ; the small contingent promised by
many of the chiefs showing how heavy had been their losses in the
victory of Killiecrankie and the ineffectual attack on Dunkeld. The
Bond, which was produced to the Scots Parliament on the 13th June
1690, is as follows : — -"Wee, Lord James Murray, Patrick Stewart of
Balbehan, S"^- John McLean, Sir Donald McDonald, S"^- Ewan Cameron,
Glengarie, Benbecula, S"^- Alex"^- McLean, Appin, Enveray, Keppoch,
Glencoe, Strowan, Calochele, L. Coll, M<=Gregor, Bara, Large,
M'=Naughton, doe hereby bind and oblidge ourselves for his Matie's
service, and our own safeties, to meit att the day of
September next, and to bring along with us of fencible men, that
is to say, L. James Murray and Ballechin , S''- John M'^Lean 200,
S'- Donald McDonald 200, S""- Ewan Cameron 200, Glengarie 200,
Benbecula 200, Sir Alex"^- M'^Lean 100, Appin 100, Enveray 100,
Keppoch 100, L. Coll , M'^Gregor 100, Callochele 50, Strowan 60,
Bara 50, Glencoe 50, McNaughton 50, Large 50. Bot in caice any
of the rebells shall assault or attaque any of the above named persons
betwixt the date hereof and the afore-said day of rendevouze, we doe
all solemnlie promise to assist one another to the utmost of our power,
as witness thir presents signed by us at the Castle of Blair the 24th
August 1 689 years.
Tho. Farq^sone. D. MakdonaS^. ' Al. Robertsone.
Jo. MacLeane. D. M. D. of*Benbecula. D. McNeill.
E. Cameron of Locheill. Al. McDonald. Alex. McDonald.
Al. Stewart. Do. McGregor.
Alex. M. Donell.
They were consequently forfaulted on the i6th July 1690. It is,
therefore, evident that none of the signatories had taken advantage of
the Proclamation of William and Mary, dated 22nd August 1689, offer-
ing indemnity to all, "including Chieftanes of Clans," who would
surrender betwixt that date and 3rd September, but threatening all those
who "continue obstinat and incorrigible that they shall be punished
with the utmost rigour of the law." Indeed, if we are to suppose that
the Proclamation was issued in Scotland on the day on which it bears
date, the Bond above quoted may, perhaps, be regarded as the deli-
berate and defiant answer of the confederate chiefs. Later in the same
year Robert Stewart of Appin was surprised by the Governor of Inver-
lochy, and sent prisoner by sea to Glasgow, but was released, perhaps
in consequence of his youth, by the direct order of Queen Mary, then
governing in the absence of William III. in Ireland. Ardsheal, as
Tutor of Appin, and as his representative in the office of Heredi-
tary Keeper, continued to hold Castle Stalcaire for King James
until October 1690, when he surrendered it on very honourable
The Stewarts of Appin narrowly escaped the same fate which befell
their friends and neighbours, the MacDonalds of Glencoe, in the memor-
able massacre of 1692. There is a letter written by Lord Stair on the
7th January 1692, and signed by William III., to Sir Thomas Living-
stone, Colonel Hamilton, and Colonel Hill, Governor of Inverlochy,
informing them that the intention was " to destroy intearly the country of
Lochaber, Lochiel's lands, Keppoch's, Glengarry's, Apine, and Glenco;"
and he adds, " I assure you your power shall be full enough, and I hope
the soldiers will not trouble the Government with prisoners." Lord
Caermarthen, afterwards Duke of Leeds, remonstrated so strongly with
William, that the order was withdrawn, though Lord Stair afterwards
sought and found occasion to earn for himself his unenviable reputation
by destroying the Glencoe men. A commission of inquiry into the
massacre was granted on the 29th April 1695, and it was, perhaps, in
consequence of their highly condemnatory report, which was after-
wards adopted by Parh'ament, that Robert Stewart of Appin was, in
that year, named as a Commissioner of Supply for Argyllshire, possibly
with the view of making some amends by thus officially recognising his
position. In Queen Anne's Parliament of 1 704 we find this appoint-
About the year 17 10 or 171 2, the Macgregors had expelled a
MacLaren from a farm in Balquidder, and the Chief of Appin marched
with 200 men to the assistance of his old allies. The Macgregors
also mustered in force, but were overawed, and submitted without
bloodshed, saying that they were all one king's men, and should
On the ist of August 1714, Robert Stewart of Appin was summoned
to Edinburgh to give security that he would not join in any rising
against the Government. He did not, however, obey the summons,
and Campbell, captain of Castle Stalcaire, wrote his chief that "the
Stewarts of Appin were preparing eighty more targets in addition to
the great number they already had." Robert Stewart attended the
famous hunting party of the Earl of Mar on the 27th August 1715, on
the Braes of Mar. According to a History of Scotland published in
Dublin in 1724, the names of those present were : " the Marquises of
Huntly, Tulibardine, Seaforth and Drommond ; the Earls of Marshall,
Linlithgow, Southesk, Strathmore, and Broadalbin ; the Lords Kilsyth,
Strathallan, Rollo, Ogilvy, Pitsligo, and Duffus ; the Lairds of Glen-
garry, Clanronald, Glenco, Appin, Innerytie, Garntully, Balcaskie, and
many other gentlemen of the first and best families in the nation." In
accordance with the engagement then entered into, the Chief of Appin
took the field at the head of 250 men, and was present at the indecisive
battle of Sheriffmuir, on the 13th November. The Earl of Mar then
fell back on Perth. The attempt to restore the house of Stewart was
abandoned a few weeks later, and the Highlanders returned home.
Robert Stewart was a second time attainted, and went abroad.
At the battle of Sheriffmuir the pipers of the clan played the
March of the Stewarts, and hence it became known among the Perth-
shire Stewarts as the Sherra'muir March. According to the traditions
of the clan, this march was played alike when they were marching to
battle, and in honour of a victory. Particular mention is made of its
having been played when Donald-nan-ord defeated the Earl of Men-
teith as the Stewarts were returning from the battle of Pinkie in 1547,
and also at Inverlochy, Sheriffmuir, and Prestonpans, and it was recog-
nised as the march peculiarly appertaining to the Stewarts, and played
on all their incursions and forays. It is difficult to say when the Gaelic
words of the present accompaniment were composed, as, in accordance
with Highland custom, the clansmen were in the habit of marching,
during the intervals of pipe music, to their own singing, and of impro-
vising words as they stepped gaily along. The music, as played by
the Perthshire Stewarts, assumed, in course of time, a somewhat
different arrangement. Both versions, with translations of the Gaelic
words, are given at the close of the history of the main stem of
It would appear that the clan took part in the attempt made by
Lord Seaforth and Lord Tullibardine in 1719 for the cause of the
Stewarts, a notice of which will be found at page 141. No evidence,
however, exists to show that the chief himself returned from abroad to
share in it ; indeed, from all contemporaneous accounts, it would appear
that but few chiefs of clans did so. Duncan Stewart, M.A., in his book
written in 1730, but not published till 1739, records Robert as still liv-
ing, but for obvious reasons makes as little allusion as possible to poli-
tical matters, which, at the very time of publication, were again exciting
an all-absorbing interest in the Highlands. Ardsheal's commission as
colonel was signed in the year of the publication of the history ; and
there is thus little doubt that Robert's death had occurred between
1730 and 1739, though the destruction of the Appin MSS. leaves the
exact date in doubt.
Robert Stewart married, first, a daughter of MacLeod of MacLeod,
by whom he had issue : Duncan, who died at school ; Mary, married to
Lachlan Maclachlan of Maclachlan ; and Anne, married to Alexander
Macdonald of Glencoe. He married, secondly, Anne, daughter of Sir
Duncan Campbell of Lochnell, by whom he had issue, one son, Dugald,
who succeeded him, and six daughters : Isabel, married to Donald
Macdonald of Kinloch Muidart ; Janet, married to Alastair Mac-
donald, eighteenth of Keppoch, who fell at Culloden ; Margaret, mar-
ried to the Rev. John Stewart ; Katharine, married to Alexander
Stewart, eighth of Invernahyle ; Anne, who died unmarried ; and Jean,
who died young.
Dugald Stewart, tenth of Appin, to whom the estate was restored,
was a boy of tender years when Prince Charles unfurled the Royal
Standard in Glenfinlas in 1745, and the clan was consequently led by
the Tutor, Charles Stewart, fifth of Ardsheal. President Forbes in
1 740 estimated the number of men that would follow the Chief of Appin
at three hundred, and he repeated that estimate in his report to the
Government in 1 744 ; but, with their followers, they now numbered
about four hundred broadswords. We shall not here give any history
of the fortunes of the clan during the campaign of 1 745-6, as the account
belongs more properly to the notice of Ardsheal, who commanded them
with credit and honour.
Before, however, concluding the notice of Dugald, the last of the
male descendants of Duncan, sixth of Appin, it may be proper to give
here an account of the formation of the clan regiments in battle, which
accounts for the very heavy loss of gentlemen which the Stewarts
sustained at Culloden. Every regiment or clan was commanded by the
chief, if of sufficient age, as colonel. The eldest cadet was lieutenant-
colonel, and the next was major. Some clans in 1 745 had the youngest
cadet lieutenant-colonel, but this was looked upon as an innovation of
the established principle. Each company had two captains, two lieu-
tenants, and ensigns, and the first rank was composed of gentlemen.
who were all provided with targets, and were otherwise better armed
than the rear. In the day of battle each company furnished two of
their best men as a guard to the chief, and in their choice consanguinity
was always considered. The chief was posted in the centre of the
column beside the colours, and he stood between two brothers, cousins-
german, or other relations. The common men were also disposed with
regard to their relationship, the father, the son, and the brother
standing beside each other. The effect which this " order of nature "
must have had in stimulating the combatants to deeds of valour
can be easily perceived. It did not escape the notice of the observant
Dugald, last baron of Appin, married Mary Mackenzie, by whom
he had one daughter, Anna, married to David Loch of Over Carnbee,
an eminent merchant in Leith. Having no male issue, Dugald sold in
1765 the estate of Appin to Mr Seton of Touch, and died in 1769.
The representation of the Stewarts of Lorn and Appin then devolved
upon the head of the family of Ardsheal, descended from John, second
son of John, fifth baron of Appin.
David Loch's estate of Over Carnbee is in Fife, and in the account
of " The East Neuk of Fife," written by the Rev. Walter Wood, D.D.,
we find at p. 219 — "In 1780 died the proprietor of Over Carnbee,
David Loch, who was long a merchant of eminence in Leith ; and in
1776 was by the Trustees for fisheries, manufactures, and improvements,
appointed inspector-general of the woollen manufactures of Scotland, on
which he published an essay, and afterwards inspector-general of
fisheries. In 1774 he was an unsuccessful candidate for the representa-
tion of Edinburgh. His son John left a daughter, Jean, married to
Alexander Murray, &c." In a marginal note, Dr Wood adds, " David
Loch married Anna Stewart, the last in direct line of the family of
Appin, who died in 1772."
The badges of the Stewarts were the Darag, or oak, and also the
Cluaran, or thistle, the present national badge. The adoption of the
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
former, as not being an evergreen, was regarded by the Highlanders as
an emblem of the fate of the Royal House.
The tartan worn by the
Stewarts of Appin is the well-
known pattern commonly called
the Royal Stewart, and the pro-
portions of colours given in the
margin are taken from Logan's
" Scottish Gael."
A web of tartan is two feet
two inches wide, at least within
half an inch more or less, so
that the size of the patterns
makes no difference in the scale.
Commencing at the head of the
cloth, the depth of the colours
is stated throughout a square,
on which the scale must be re-
versed or gone through again
to the commencement. There
is, it may be observed, a parti-
cular colour in some patterns
which can scarcely admit of de-
scription, but which is known to
The following is the music of the Stewarts' March now usually
played in Argyllshire, and the words are translated by the Rev. Alex-
ander Stewart of Nether Lochaber, from the Argyll version of the song,
as said to have been sung in 1644 when the clan and the Stewarts
from Athole marched to Inverlochy : —
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
STEWARTS' MARCH, OR SHERIFFMUIR.
We will take the good old way,
We will take the good old way,
We'll take and keep the good old way,
Let them say their will, O !
Let Macintyres say what they may,
Let Macintyres say what they may.
We'll take and keep the good old way,
Let them say their will, O !
'Tis up the steep and heathery Ben,
Adown the bonny winding glen.
We march a band of loyal men,
Let them say their will, O !
We will march adown Glencoe,
We will march adown Glencoe,
By the Ferry we will go.
Let them say their will, O 1
To Glengarry and Lochiel,
Loyal hearts with arms of steel.
These will back us in the field.
Let them say their will, O !
Cluny shall come down the brae,
Keppoch bold shall lead the way.
Toss thine antlers Caber Feigh,
Let them say their will, O !
Forward, sons of bold Rob Roy ;
Stewarts, conflict is your joy !
We'll stand together pour le Roi,
Let them say their will, O !
In the Gaelic words the march or lyric begins—
Gabhaidh sinn an rathad mbr,
Gabhaidh sinn an rathad mbr,
Gabhaidh sinn an rathad mor,
01c no math le ckch e.
The arrangement of the music commonly played in Perthshire is
as follows, and the words are translated by Mr Charles Stewart of
Tighn'duin, from the words held by the Athole Stewarts to be the
ancient version : —
GABHAIDH SINN AN RATHAD MOR.
We will up and march away,
We will up and march away,
We will up and march away.
Daring let of all men.
The heath-clad Ben we'll soon ascend.
Through Glen Laoigh we'll soon descend.
Our points of steel we'll swiftly send
Thro' every loon that bars us.
We will up, &c.
O'er the hills we'll speed along,
Through Glencoe unwearied on,
Our king the burden of our song,
Asking leave of no man.
We will up, &c.
To Glengarry and Lochiel,
Ever with us, true and leal ;
Keppoch, too, who seeks our weal,
Is there in spite of all men.
We will up, &c.
Macphersons come, in deeds not small,
M'Kenzies also at our call,
Whose battle-frenzy will appal
And fill our foes with awe then.
We will up, &c.
Macgregors, fierce when man to man,
Join with the Royal Stewart clan ;
Blow up the pipes, march proudly on,
Daring let of all men.
We will up, &c.
THE male line of Duncan Stewart, sixth baron of Appin, failing in the person of
Dugald, tenth baron, the representation of the family devolved upon the descend-
ants of John Stewart of Ardsheal, immediate younger brother of Duncan, and to the
descent of the family of Ardsheal we now turn.
John Stewart, first of Ardsheal, was second son of John, fifth baron of Appin, bom
of his second wife, a daughter of Macdonald of Muidart. He received from his father
the lands of Ardsheal, a name derived from the two Gaelic words, Ard-seallaidh, the
height or point of view, a name rendered very appropriate to the locality by the eminence
behind the mansion. It was at that time the custom for young men of family to be
trained to arms and courtesy in the households of the great nobles. After receiving the
best education the times could afford, John's name and blood obtained for him the
privilege of entering the household of the king's cousin, Lodovick, second Duke of
Lennox. The high appointments held by the Duke as High Chamberlain and Admiral
of Scotland, and Ambassador to France in 1601, brought Ardsheal much to Court, and
he became a highly accomplished gentleman. About this time his relative and neighbour,
Lochiel, was the ward in chivalry of the Marquess of Argyll.
John Stewart married Mary, daughter of Macdonald of Keppoch, Alastair n' an Cleas,
and left two sons.
1. Duncan, his successor.
Duncan Stewart, second of Ardsheal, succeeded his father. An old family MS.
informs us that "he was steadfast in his loyalty to Charles I., and served in 1644 and
1645 as an officer of the Appin regiment with the Marquis of Montrose, acquiring the
favour of his heroic general by his zeal in the royal cause, and by his active intelligence."
Duncan Stewart married, first, Anne, daughter of John Stewart of Lettershuna,
brother of Donald Stewart, fifth of Invemahyle, and had two sons and four daughters —
1. John, his successor.
2. Alexander, who was killed, as before-mentioned, at the attack on the church of
Dunkeld, after the battle of Killiecrankie, having married a daughter of Alex-
ander Stewart of Ballachelish, by whom he had three sons —
John Stewart of Acham, who had by his wife Ann, daughter of
Campbell of Dunstaffnage —
1. Alexander Stewart of Acham, who had two sons, both
killed at Culloden.
2. John Glas Stewart, who acquired the estate of Benmore in
Perthshire, and who was killed, with his two nephews above
mentioned, at Culloden, leaving, by his first wife, Margaret,
daughter of John, fourth of Ardsheal, a son and daughter —
1. John Stewart, who acquired the estate of Glen-
buckie by his marriage with Mary, daughter of
Duncan Stewart of Glenbuckie, and died without
issue. The Stewarts of Glenbuckie were descended
from John, second son of William Stewart of Bal
dorran, grandson of Lord James Stewart, who was
son of Murdoch, second Duke of Albany.
2. Elizabeth Stewart, afterwards of Glenbuckie, who
By his second marriage with Catharine, daughter of M'Nab
of Innischewan, John Glas Stewart had —
3. Duncan, a captain in the Western Regt. of Fencible
men, who aftenvards acquired, from his half-sister
Elizabeth, the estate of Glenbuckie. His first wife,
Susannah, daughter of Captain Campbell of Kilberry,
having died without issue, he married, secondly,
Margaret, second daughter of Duncan Stewart,
SLxth of Ardsheal, by whom he had issue two sons
I. John Lorn Stewart of Coll, who died in 1878,
leaving issue by his wife, Mary Campbell —
I. Duncan Stewart, Commander R.N., who
married Ferooza, daughter of the Right Hon-
ourable Sir John M'Neill, G.C.B., and has
issue — Lorn M'Neill Stewart, Florence, Archi-
bald who died in infancy, Duncan Archibald,
Elisabeth Mary, Charles Edward, Crawford,
and Ferooza Stewart ; 2. Archibald, died un-
married ; 3. John Lorn Stewart of Coll, Major
1 8th Hussars; also 4. Mary, married to D.
Fox Tarratt of Ellary, with issue — Joseph Fox,
William Archibald, and Mary Caroline Camp-
bell Tarratt ; and 5. Helen, married to William
A. Campbell of Ormsary, and has issue.
2. Duncan Stewart, who went to Lima, and
married a Spanish lady, sister of the wife of
his maternal uncle William, and had issue —
Duncan, William, and Carlos.
2. Duncan Stewart, second son of Alexander Stewart, killed at Dunkeld
in 1689, was thrice married. By his first marriage he had one son,
who survived him ; and by his second wife, Margaret, daughter of
Donald Maclean of Ardgour, he had four sons —
1. Allan, of whom was the Rev. John Stewart of Inverness.
2. Duncan, killed at Dunkeld.
3. James, who died unmarried.
4. William, who left issue, now extinct.
Also a daughter, Moir, married to John Stewart, sixth of
Duncan's third mfe was a daughter of Maclean of Coll, but by her
he had no issue. From Donald Maclean of Ardgour, Duncan got a char-
ter, to be seen among the confirmations under the Great Seal, in the
Register House at Edinburgh, of the lands of Glengalmadale and Stron.
Duncan Stewart, second of Ardsheal, had also four daughters — i. , married
to Macdonald of Killiechonat ; 2. , married to John Stewart, third of Ballache-
lish ; 3. Isabel, married to James Stewart, fifth of Fasnacloich ; and 4. , married
to Maclachlan of Cregan.
John Stewart, third of Ardsheal, succeeded his father Duncan.
The following memorandum, found amongst the Ardsheal papers, illustrates the state
of the laws and customs in Scotland at that period : —
"Upon the forfeitry of the Earl of Argyll in the 1685, Sir James Stewart, Sheriff,
afterwards Earl, of Bute, that was married to Sir George M'Kenzie's daughter, Lord Ad-
vocate to King James VII., got a gift of the estate of Barbreck, which was forfeited as
vassal of Argyll, but Bute finding it very troublesome to apprehend possession of that
estate in the heart of the Argyllshire Campbells, applied to John Stewart (third) of Ard-
sheal for his assistance to facilitate his entry to these lands. Ardsheal accordingly having
the command of the country in Appin's minority, sent a number of armed men, com-
manded by his own brothers, and carried off a considerable number of cattle from that
estate in lieu of the rents ; and afterwards, in the year 1687, Ardsheal in person appre-
hended possession of the Barbreck estate, and carried with him Achnacone, and a number
of the Commoners who occupied farms upon the estate, till the Revolution in November
1688. In February 1689, they were obliged to abandon it and return home with what
they could carry of their effects, suffering considerable loss." The Laird of Barbreck raised
an action at law against Ardsheal for loss and damage caused by carrying off the cattle,
and it was not finally settled till 1742, Ardsheal being held not liable for any repayment.
As nearest of kin to Robert, ninth baron of Appin, then a minor, John Stewart of
Ardsheal was Tutor, and leader of the clan, an honour which, for the like reason, devolved
on his grandson, who was Tutor to Dugald, last of Appin, in 1745. In this capacity he
took an active part in raising the Western Clans to meet Dundee, the Appin Stewarts and
the Macnaghtons being, according to Macaulay, the only clans under arms to meet
Dundee when he arrived at Inverlochy in i6Sg, to confer with Lochiel. It was for this
reason that he had withdrawn his men from the occupation of Barbreck. In the Scots Acts
of Parliament of 1689, we find that John Campbell of Airds, no doubt with the Barbreck
episode fresh in his recollection, presented a petition, stating that the Tutor of Appin
was a very active man against all that bore the name of Campbell, and had seized upon
the castle of Eilan Stalcaire, which ought not to be in the hands of such a disaffected
person ; whereupon the Parliament gave the said John Campbell authority to summon
certain companies of soldiers to expel the Tutor and his men, if they still refused to evac-
uate the castle peaceably. Ardsheal had seized the castle for King James as Tutor of
his chief, who was still hereditary keeper of the castle for the king, although the actual
proprietorship had, as has been before narrated, passed into the hands of the family of
Campbell of Airds. On the nth of May 1690, Colonel Hill, governor of Inverlochy
Castle, wTOte to the Laird of Weem (Menzies) enjoining him to be very strict with the
Tutor of Appin, as he might be " apt to be blowne up with storyes, and might think to
stand out still." On the 28th of August in the same year. Colonel Hill again wrote
Menzies that the Tutor still held Castle Stalcaire. From Sir Ewen Cameron's Memoirs,
we learn that Ardsheal continued to hold Castle Stalcaire against the main body of " Ar-
gile's men till the October following, when he yielded on very honourable terms."
It is doubtful if Ardsheal and the main body of the Appin men were present at the
battle of KilUecrankie. There is evidence enough to show that the young chief, Robert
of Appin, was there with a little over a hundred of the clan, and the probability seems to
be, that Ardsheal and the main body did not arrive till two days after the battle. None
of the witnesses examined by the Scots Parliament deposed that they saw him with Dun-
dee's army before the battle, and James Osbume swore that he saw the Tutor join before
they went to Dunkeld, and that he was with them afterwards till the army dispersed.
John Stewart, third of Ardsheal, married Anne, daughter of Colin Campbell of
Lochnell, and had issue—
1. John, who succeeded him.
Also three daughters — i. Anne, married first to Lachlan Maclachlan of Fassifem, by
whom she had issue, and secondly to Dougal Campbell of Glenfeochan, by whom she had
five sons ; 2. Janet, married to John Stewart, eighth of Glenbuckie ; 3. Isabel, married
to Duncan, son of James Stewart, fifth of Fasnacloich, and had issue.
John Stewart, fourth of Ardsheal, succeeded his father. He was summoned to
Edinburgh in 1 7 14, with his chief, Robert Stewart of Appin, to give security that he would
not join in any rising in favour of the Chevalier de St George. He did not obey the
summons, and served with the Appin regiment under the Earl of Mar at the battle of
Sheriffmuir in 17 15. His estates were consequently forfeited, but were restored in 1717.
He married Elizabeth, daughter of Charles Stewart, eighth of Ballechin in Athole, and
had issue —
1. Charles, who succeeded him.
Also five daughters — i. Anne, married to Alexander Stewart, fourth of Ballachelish ;
2. Helen, married to Allan Cameron of Callart ; 3. Isabel, married to Alexander Mac-
donald of Glencoe ; 4. Margaret, married to John Glas Stewart of Benmore ; 5. Janet,
who died unmarried.
Charles Stewart, fifth of Ardsheal, succeeded his father. He was a man of great
personal strength, and accounted one of the best swordsmen in the Highlands. In an
encounter with Rob Roy in Balquidder he wounded the celebrated freebooter, who threw
his sword into Lochvoil, exclaiming that it was the first time it had failed him, and that
Ardsheal was the first man who had drawn blood from him. It is said that the result of
this combat aided him in his suit for the hand of his future wife, the daughter of Haldane
No records remain of Ardsheal's life before 1739, as most of the family papers were
destroyed or lost on the sacking of the house at Ardsheal on the night of the isth to i6th
December 1746, as will be afterwards related. It is known, however, that he was an
enthusiastic Jacobite, keeping up an active correspondence with the Court of the
Chevalier at Fontainebleau and Rome, and that in 1739 he received a commission as
Colonel from King James, which is still in possession of the family, and of which the
following is a copy : —
" James the Eight, By the Grace of God King of Scotland, England, France, and
Ireland, Defender of the Faith, etc. — To our Trusty and well-beloved Charles Stewart of
Ardsheal, Esquire, Greeting. We, reposing especial Trust and Confidence in your loyalty.
courage, aiid good conduct, Do hereby constitute and appoint you a Colonel in our
Forces, and to take your rank in our Army from the date hereof. You are therefore
carefully and diligently to Discharge the Duty and Trust of Colonel aforesaid, by doing
and performing everything belonging thereto : And We hereby Require, all and sundry,
our Forces to Respect and obey you as such, and yourself to observe and follow all such
Orders, Directions, and Commands as you shall from time to time receive from as, our
General and Commander-in-Chief of our Forces for the time being, or any other your
Superior Officer, according to the Rules and Discipline of War : In pursuance of the
Trust reposed in you, Given at our Court at Rome, This 20th Day of May 1739, In
the 38th year of Our Reign. J. R."
Charles Stewart of Ardsheal, being a man of energy and ability, and Tutor to the
Chief, who was a minor, took, together with Lochiel and Glengarry, a leading part for
years in the correspondence with Prince Charles as to his prospects of success in the
event of his coming to Scotland to assert by arms his father's right to the Crown. In
1745 Ardsheal, at the head of the Appin regiment, joined Prince Charles Edward at Low
Bridge in the Great Glen. In a narrative, written apparently soon after 1746, Andrew
Henderson says : " The Stewarts of Appin, ever zealous for the royal cause, joined the
Chevalier under Stewart of Ardsheal, a gentleman of good parts, though misapplied."
Lord Elcho, one of the attainted lords, says in his account of the campaign, that Stewart
of Ardsheal was one of the Council who met with Prince Charles every morning.
In a memorandum as to the Highland clans, sent to the King of France when he was
computing the chances of the success of an expedition to Scotland, and the number of
men who would take the field in support of the Royal Stuarts, we find the following :—
"The Stewarts of Appin and M'Naughtons have still been loyal to the Kings Charies I. and
II., and King James VII., and were in the fields for them. They may raise, of very good
men, 500." The Appin regiment seems generally to have been a little over 300 men,
including those of the name of Stewart, and their retainers who occupied crofts under them
in Appin, chiefly of the names of M'Coll, Carmichael, M'Combich, M'Innes, M'Lea or
Livingstone, M'Intyre, and M'Cormack or Buchanan. Their staunch allies the M'Larens
also sent a contingent, which formed a valuable part of the regiment. In a " Life of the
Duke of Cumberiand " they are only stated at zoo strong when they marched southward
from Edinburgh. This, however, is a low estimate, as in no other account are they put
at so small a number. In the list of Prince Charles' troops in November 1745, are " the
Appin men, 360, under Stewart of Ardsheal."
At the battle of Preston Pans, on 21st September 1745, the Camerons formed the
extreme left of the Highland army. Next to them, and opposed to Lascelles' regiment,
were the Stewarts of Appin, supported by 120 of their neighbours and hereditary friends
the Macdonalds of Glencoe, whose chief was brother-in-law to Ardsheal. The Camerons
and Stewarts were drawn up somewhat in advance of the clans on their right, and were
thus the first to encounter the enemy. They were opposed to Sir John Cope's artillery,
which they captured, Stewart of Invemahyle taking prisoner Colonel Whitefoord after he
had fired off five of the six field pieces with his own hand. Four officers of Prince
Charles' army were killed, and amongst them was " Captain Robert Stewart of Ardsheal's
On the 20th December 1745, Macpherson of Clunie wrote to a friend, describing the
engagement of the rear of the Highland army with. the Duke of Cumberland's troops at
Clifton three days previously. He says that the Duke took them by surprise, accompanied
by more than 3000 horse, and " when he appeared there happened to be no more of our
army at hand than Glengarry's, Stewart of Appin's, and my own regiment. Glengarry's
regiment was planted at the back of a stone wall on our right, the Appin regiment in the
centre, and mine on the left, lining a hedge." The Duke's troops were repulsed with
considerable loss, the Stewarts, Clunie says, coming off without the loss of a man.
At the battle of Falkirk, 17th January 1746, the Appin men, 300 in number, were in
the centre of the first line, according to Charles' History, but Home's sketch of the field,
which is more likely to be correct, places them on the extreme left, next the Camerons.
They were one of the few regiments charged by Hawley's dragoons, whom they decisively
repulsed. Ardsheal was one of the chiefs who, after a Council of War on the 29th
January, signed a recommendation to Prince Charles to continue his retreat to the north
At the battle of Culloden, i6th April 1746, the first line of the Highland army,
enumerating from right to left, consisted of the Athole men, the Camerons, Stewarts of
Appin, Frasers, M'Intoshes, Maclachlans, Macleans, Roy Stewart's regiment, Farquhar-
son's, Clanranald, Keppoch, and Glengarry. The position assigned to the Macdonalds on
the left, instead of on the right, an honour which they claimed to be theirs by hereditary
right, contributed greatly to the loss of this battle, as the pride of the haughty clan was
deeply wounded. The right wing — the Athole, Lochiel, and Appin regiments — were
opposed by Barrel's and Monro's regiments, which were supported on the left flank by
cavalry, and on the right by artillery ; Woolf's and Blakeney's regiments being drawn up
in two lines in rear of the interval between Monro's and Burrell's. All accounts of the
battle state that the regiments on the right of the Prince's army rushed to the attack with
heroic valour. The Historical Geography of the Clans of Scotland says that Lord George
Murray on the right, seeing that his division could be restrained no longer, ordered them
to advance, which they did with a shout. In spite of the shower of grape shot which met
their advance, the clansmen pressed on, and broke through Monro's and Barrel's
regiments, capturing two cannon. Not content with this, they continued their advance
till it was checked by the second line, which was drawm up as if to repel cavalry, the first
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN. 137
rank kneeling, the second stooping over the first, and the third standing upright. Such a
destructive fire was poured upon the Highlanders, that their advance was checked, and
the survivors compelled to retire ; but so determined had been the attack, and so vigorous
and effective the repulse, that the Highlanders were found, when the strife was over,
heaped on each other three and four deep.
One, who signs himself "An Eye Witness to most of the Facts," writing in 1748,
says : " Those on the right (Stewarts and Camerons), with their glittering swords, ran
swiftly on the cannon, making a dreadful huzza, and crying, ' Run ye dogs.' They broke
between the grenadiers of Barrel and Monroe, who had given them fire when at the
muzzles of their guns. When within two yards of the cannon they received a discharge
of cartridge shot, while those who crowded into the opening made by the havoc received
a full fire from the centre of Bligh's. They who survived possessed themselves of the
cannon, and attacked the regiments sword in hand ; but Wolf's and Fleming's wheeled to
the left of Barrel's, with Bligh's and Semple's, and made such a continued fire on their
front and flank, that nearly all the right wing which broke in were killed or wounded."
In his account of the battle of Culloden, the desperate valour of the clans moved Lord
Mahon out of his usual composure to an unwonted swell of sympathetic eloquence.
" Nowhere," he says, " not by their forefathers at Bannockbum, not by themselves at
Preston and Falkirk, not in after years, when discipline had raised and refined the valour
of their sons, not on the shores of the Nile, not on that other field of victory, where their
gallant chief, with a prophetic shroud (it is their own superstition) high on his breast,
addressed to them only these three words, ' Highlanders, remember Egypt ^ — not in those
hours of triumph and glory was displayed a more firm and resolute bravery than now in
this defeat of Culloden." But for the unfortunate affront to the numerous and gallant
clan of the Macdonalds in placing them on the left wing, in place of on the right, an
honour which they have claimed since the battle of Bannockbum, the disastrous defeat
might have been a victory. Charles puts the number of the Appin regiment at Culloden
at 300, and Chambers says they suffered more than any other of the Highland clans.
Andrew Henderson writes " that the regiments " — those from Athole, Appin, and Lochiel,
— " opposed to Barrel and Monroe broke through the first line with irresistible fury, but
received a terrible discharge from cannon ; they possessed themselves of the guns, but
it was impossible to hold them, and being attacked in the flank, they had to retreat."
The regimental colour borne by the Stewarts of Appin at Culloden is still in the possession
of the head of the Ballachelish branch of the family. It is of light blue silk, with a yellow
saltire, or cross of St Andrew, the dimensions being 5 feet hoist, with a fly of 6 feet 7
inches. Its gallant bearer, one of the Ardsheal family, was killed, and the banner is
stained with his blood. It bears the marks of having been torn from the colour staff,
which accords with MTan's account that, when the standard-bearer was slain, one of the
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
corps, called Mac an t-Iedh, from Morven, tore it from the staff, and wrapping it round
his body, made good his retreat from the field. The banner thus escaped the fate of those
of twelve Highland clans, which were taken at Culloden, and burned at the Market Cross
of Edinburgh on the 6th June following.
There is a list in the possession of Alexander Stewart, now of Achnacone, of the
Appin men killed and wounded at Culloden, of which the following is an abstract, the
detailed list being given in the appendix : —
Cousins of Appin (natural),
Stewarts, followers of Appin,
Commoners, followers of Appin, forming the rank and file
of the regiment, .....
Gentleman volunteer, George Haldane, nephew toLanrick,
Ardsheal being married to Lanrick's sister, .
This large number of casualties fully justifies Chambers' remark previously quoted.
The number of officers and gentlemen of the family killed and wounded, amounting to
forty-seven out of a total of between fifty and sixty, seems quite disproportionate till we
recollect the order of battle of the Highlanders, previously given. The proud feeling of
kindred with " Charlie," as they fondly called the Prince, would also lead these gentle-
men to venture all things on this decisive day.
After the battle of Culloden the clan dispersed, and though Lochiel and Ardsheal
endeavoured to rally the Western clans, and hold possession of Lochaber, they never
drew to a head again. Amongst those attainted of high treason on the 8th June 1 746,
were " Stewart of Ardsheal, and the other officers of the Stewarts." Haldane of Lanrick
and his sons, who served in the campaign as major and captain of a body of Perthshire
horse, were also attainted, and when the Act of Indemnity was passed in 1747, both Ard-
sheal and his friends the Haldanes were excepted from its benefit. Before escaping to
France, Ardsheal wished to see his family, and succeeded in reaching Appin, where he
lay concealed in a cave, still called Ardsheal's cave, on the hill of Ardsheal, being gener-
ally supplied with food by a little maiden, the daughter of one of his tenants, who daily
drove out a few lambs to the hill, and watched her opportunity of communicating with her
hidden chief. The district was occupied by English soldiers, and the peasantry were all
acquainted with Ardsheal's hiding-place, but, regardless of the rewards offered for his cap-
ture, they were faithful to the trust reposed in them. After a few weeks' concealment in
the cave, Ardsheal found an opportunity of escaping to France. In a Scots Magazine of
the period, we find a paragraph stating that on the 17th September 1746, Stewart of Ard-
sheal, and four other gentlemen, got on board a French ship, and escaped pursuit.
Meanwhile the estate had been confiscated and given up to plunder, though the hardships
thus brought upon Ardsheal's wife and children, seem, from the following letter, to have
been i"or a short time mitigated by the humanity of the officer in command : —
Appin, May 2<,t/i, 1746.
" Your misfortune and the unhappy situation Ardsheal has brought
you, and your innocent children into, by being so deeply concerned in this unjust and
unnatural rebellion, makes my heart aik. I know the King to be compassionate and
merciful. I know the brave Duke under whose command and orders I act, to have as
much humanity as any man on earth, from which and my own natural inclination I have
taken the liberty of ordering back your Milk Cows, six Wethers, and as many Lambs, the
men whO;pretend a right to them shall be paid. I have taken the freedom at the same time
of ordering two Bolls of Meal out of my own stores to be left here for you, which I desire
you to accept for the use of yourself and little ones, and if what I write can have any
weight, I must earnestly entreat you to bring up your children to be good subjects to his
Majesty. I wish your husband, by surrendering himself to the Duke of Cumberland, had
given me an opportunity of recommending him to his Majesty's mercy. I feel for you,
and am, Madam, your most obedient and humble servant, John Campbell.
" To the Lady Ardsheal.
"Post free from John Campbell, Major-General."
General Campbell had judged of the merciful disposition of the Duke of Cumber-
land from his o^vn humane feelings ; but in December of the same year Ardsheal
House was sacked, and "the Lady Ardsheal," compelled to flee for refuge to a hut.
From this also she was driven, the very night after her confinement, to seek, with her
new-bom infant, and five children, another shelter from the falling snow.
After many trials and dangers, she succeeded in obtaining passage to France, where
she rejoined her husband. They settled at Sens, in Champagne, where their life, though no
doubt troubled at times by political hopes and fears, seems to have been of a peaceful
and patriarchal character. Contributions in the name of rent, in addition to that paid to
the Crown receiver, were regularly remitted to Ardsheal by his old tenants, and he was
thus enabled to dispense hospitality and render assistance to the West Highland gentle-
men around him, who were less favourably situated. Letters still in possession of the
family, from James Edgar, private secretary to James VIII., the Cardinal de Luynes, the
Archbishop of Sens, and others, attest the high consideration in which Ardsheal was held
by his own Sovereign, and by Louis XV., as well as the regard and esteem felt for him in
the locality in which his exile and the latter years of his life were spent. His own king
referred to him the petitions of the distressed Highlanders, or sought from him
particulars of their respective claims and hopes ; the Archbishop of Sens and other
neighbouring magnates gave him the privilege of the chase over their respective
Further trials, however, were in store for him. Campbell of Glenure had been
appointed receiver of the rents of the confiscated estate, and, possibly on account of the
tenantry continuing to send a second rent of their lands to their exiled laird, he began to
remove the old occupants, and to give their farms to dependants of his own. In conse-
quence of this harsh and unjust conduct, Glenure was shot on the 14th May 1752, near
Ballachelish, it is supposed by Donald Breck Stewart, who fled the country, after having
at first sought shelter with his relatives near Invercomrie in Perthshire.
Campbell's death gave occasion to a somewhat remarkable trial. James Stewart of
Acharn, the agent through whom the rents were collected and transmitted, was arrested,
and tried at Inveraray as being an accessory to his death. At the trial he was described
as reputed to be a natural brother of Charles of Ardsheal, but this seems more than
doubtful. The descent of the Stewarts of Acharn has been already clearly given, and
James Stewart was on intimate terms with the sisters of Ardsheal and their husbands, as
proved at the trial. He held certain farms under Ardsheal, and having espoused and
upheld the cause of the tenants threatened with eviction, was marked by the Campbells
for vengeance. The Duke of Argyll, as Lord Justiciary of the county, presided at the
trial, and eleven members of the jury were Campbells; two others of the name, much to
their honour, refusing to sit on a jury so composed for the trial of a Stewart and a
Jacobite. James Stewart was convicted, and condemned to be hanged where Glenure
was shot. He may, perhaps, have been aware of Donald Breck's intention, but the com-
position of the jury, the social position of the prisoner, —for it was shown that he was
quite in the rank of the gentry of the country, — and the harshness with which he was
treated by the President of the Court, created an impression of injustice, which is not
even yet forgotten in Appin and Lochaber. The London Evening Post of 5 th December
1752, noticed the trial in the following remarkable words: — "We are informed by a
private letter that the ancient animosity between the Stewarts and the Campbells is likely
to revive on the score of hanging James Stewart at Ballachelish, on account of the murder
of Colin Campbell of Glenure. The circumstance of trying James Stewart at Inverary, the
seat of the d of A , is what his friends fix upon to convince the world that he
was harshly and unjustly condemned."
The Duke of Argyll's remark when passing sentence on James Stewart, clearly shows
how far the verdict had been influenced by political considerations. He said, "Your
clan did in the year 1719 again rise in rebellion, unmindful of their lives and fortunes
having been granted them only two years previously, and assisted a foreign enemy in
invasion." It is needless to remark upon the irrelevancy of the participation of the clan
in a political attempt made thirty- three years before, with the specific question of Acham's
guilt or innocence of the murder of Glenure, but the Duke's statement, which, from his
local knowledge, is probably true, is of some little historical value, as it points to the
Stewarts having been engaged in the rising of 17 19, of which but few particulars have
In 1 7 18 the Duke of Ormond, with the Scots Earl Marischall and his brother, after-
wards Marshal Keith, had concerted with Cardinal Alberoni an invasion of Scotland,
where they expected to be joined by all the adherents of the exiled Royal family. In
March 17 19 the expedition sailed, and early in May a part of it, after being some time
at Stomoway, landed on the shores of Loch Alsh. The whole forces originally consisted
of about 6000 troops, chiefly Irish, with arms for 10,000 or 12,000 men. The main
portion of the fleet, commanded by the Duke of Ormond, sailed from Cadiz, but it was
dispersed by a storm off Cape Finisterre, and never joined the rest of the expedition,
which comprised two frigates, having on board the Earls Marischall and Seaforth, the
Marquis of Tullibardine, 307 Spaniards, and arms for 2000 men. The Spanish oflicer in
command was unwilling to land, finding that only a few Highlanders made their appear-
ance, but he was at last prevailed on to do so by the Scottish nobles. They seized Eilan
Donan Castle, an ancient stronghold of the Earls of Ross, and subsequently of the
Mackenzies, which they garrisoned with 50 men, with the intention of holding it till they
were supported. The fire of three Government vessels, however, soon made the fortalice
untenable, and the Highlanders withdrew to the more advantageous position of Strachell,
where they heard of the dispersing of the main expedition by the storm.
General Wightman had marched from Inverness with a much superior force of troops,
and attacked the Highlanders on the i8th June. The latter held their position for more
than three hours, till the advance of the artillery among the defiles of the mountains
warned them to disperse, but not until they had inflicted upon the military a loss of 2 1
killed and upwards of 120 wounded. Lord Seaforth and Lord Tullibardine were wounded,
but were carried off by the Highlanders, whose loss was never accurately ascertained.
The Spaniards, who had remained at Glenshiel, without taking part in the engagement,
surrendered next day, and this terminated the invasion.
But to return to the fortunes of Ardsheal. As a result of Glenure's evictions ensued
the failure of the income which Charles had for many years derived from the " Laird's
dues " so long and so honourably remitted to him by his old tenants, and he became, for
a time, indebted to the bounty of the Chevalier, who sent him from Rome 500 livres,
promising, at the same time, to recommend him to the French King. Louis XV., in
consequence, apportioned to him, out of the 40,000 francs annually granted by the
French Treasury in aid of the Scotch refugees, a pension of 3000 francs, with many
comphmentary expressions ; and one half of this sum was continued to his widow, who
was unable to obtain payment of her jointure upon the Ardsheal estate, or of her settle-
ment upon Lanrick, though both deeds had been executed before either estate was
forfeited. Eventually, on 14th January 1767, Isobel Haldane or Stewart — her brothers
having died in 1761 and 1764, and her father in 1765 — was retoured heir portioner general
to her father, John Haldane of Lanrick.
Isobel Haldane, to whom, at the age of nineteen, Ardsheal was married in 1732, was
the youngest child of John Haldane of Lanrick. Robert Stewart of Appin, the chief of
the clan, had, since 17 16, been under attainder and in exile, and Ardsheal thus found
himself the representative of the family in the Highlands. Married to one who was thus
— not only by hereditary politics, but by circumstances — deeply implicated in the enter-
prise of attempting to restore " the King over the water," Isobel at once took a high
position among the Jacobite families of the Western Highlands. She was descended
from a Danish family, which had settled on the borders of Scotland, and a younger son
of which had acquired, in the twelfth century, extensive possessions in Perthshire by a
marriage with the heiress of Gleneagles. About 1650 the Lanrick portion of the estate
was conferred upon a younger son, Patrick, whose son John, the father of Isobel, was
out both in 17 15 and 1745, serving in the latter campaign as first major and commandant
of a squadron of cavalry raised in Perthshire. As has been already mentioned, he was
excepted from the amnesty, and a Bill found against him and his eldest son, who had also
served as a captain in his father's squadron. After Ardsheal's death, his widow removed
to the neighbourhood of Paris, so as to be near her aged father, who was also in exile.
She returned to England in 1779, for the treatment of the dropsy from which she had
for some time been suffering, and died at Northampton. The epitaph on her tomb in
the Church of All Saints, in that town, gives much of the story of her eventful life : —
In Diversorio cursum finivit honestum
JOANNis Haldane de Lanrick Filia,
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
Carou Stewart de Ardsheal Vidua,
Cui in vicibus vite difficillimis
Pectus profecto bene preparatum.
Bello enim plus quam civili,
Domo a militibus spoliata et eversa,
In casa paupercula parturire
Nocteque etiam proxima
Liberis comitata tenellis
Per nires fugere coacta est innocens.
Post amoris exiliique annos undecim
Vidua in re tenui relicta
Numerosam aluit prolem
Operaque indefessa fauste stabilivit.
Denique dira laborans hydrope
Ictus matri senili gravissimos
Pia fortitudine iterates excepit.
Confidebat etenim se Liberos optimos
In ccelis iterum visuram.
Infestis igitur Viator
Ne nimium trepida
Vincat iter durum Pietas
Obiit 8 Aprilis 1782
Anno ^tatis 69.
The following is a translation by Mr Ffytche of Thoqje Hall : —
Daughter of John Haldane of Lanrick,
Widow of Charles Stewart of Ardsheal,
In an hostel finished an honourable career,
A^Tiose breast was indeed well prepared
By the most arduous vicissitudes of life,
For in a worse than civil war,
Her house plundered and overthrown by soldiers.
Innocent she was compelled to give birth to her babe
In a poor and mean hut,
And on the next night to flee through the snow
Accompanied by her young and tender children.
After eleven years of love and exile,
Being left a widow in straightened circumstances,
She brought up, and, by unwearied labour.
Happily settled a numerous progeny.
At length, suffering under a severe dropsy.
She endured with pious fortitude its reiterated
Attacks, most grievous to an aged matron,
For she trusted that she should again in Heaven
See her innocent children who had a short
While gone before her.
In adversity, therefore, O traveller, be not
Too much dismayed,
Piety may surmount a rugged road.
She died 8th of April 1782,
In the 69th year of her age.
Charles Stewart of Ardsheal died at Sens on the 15th March 1757, leaving by his
wife, Isobel Haldane, six sons —
1. John, who died young.
2. Alexander, who commanded " The Duke of Albany," East Indiaman, and died
at Bencoolen in 1769.
3. Duncan, afterwards of Ardsheal, of whom hereafter.
4. John, who succeeded his brother in the command of "The Duke of Albany."
5. Charles, who died in Jamaica in 1767.
6. James Joseph Andrew Ormand, who entered the East India Company's service.
Of these six sons Duncan only was married.
Also four daughters.
I. Margaret, who was married to George Johnstone of Cowhill, Dumfriesshire, and
had issue —
I. William Johnstone, who was an officer in the army and died in
3. Charles James Johnstone, Vice-Admiral of the Red, of whom here-
4. George Milligan Johnstone, died unmarried.
5. Alexander Carruthers Johnstone, married Cecilia Anne Wright,
and had issue — Isabella, married to E. Punier ; Frances, married to
T. Punier ; Margaret, married to F. Pigou ; Cecilia, married to A.
Pigou ; and George Liddell Johnstone, M.A., Chaplain to tlie British
Embassy at Vienna.
Also a daughter, Isabella Clejientina, married to William Key, merchant,
London, and had issue — General George William Key, Colonel of isth
Hussars ; and Captain Charles Hugh Key, deceased.
Admiral Charles James Johnstone married, first, Sybella Frances Scott, and
had issue, of whom survived infancy —
1. Margaret Euphemia, married toN. Hollingsworth, and died 1876.
2. Sybella Harriet, died 1825, unmarried.
3. Phcebe de Courcy, married to Colonel Lyon of Dalruskin, and has
4. Ellen, died 1878, unmarried.
5. Cecilia Henrietta, married to the late Major James, H.E.C.S.,
and has one son.
6. Catherine Anne Elliot, married to General Harley Maxwell of
Admiral Johnstone married secondly, in 1826, Lilias, daughter of Captain
Macalpine, 78th Highlanders, and had issue —
7. George James Johnstone, Captain in the R.E.LC.S., died in
8. Charles Johnstone, Colonel, Royal Artillery, bom 9th August
1829, married Anne, daughter of A. E. Peterson, and has issue —
I. Andrew Peterson; 2. Charles James; 3. William St Clair; 4.
9. William Johnstone, who purchased Cowhill on the death of his
father, bom i8th March 1831, married, first, Elizabeth Charlotte,
daughter of the late Hon. J. Thomason, Governor of the North-
west Provinces, India, by whom he had issue — i. James Thomason
Johnstone, Lieutenant, Royal Artillery; 2. Harley Macalpine.
He married, secondly, Eleanor Jean, daughter of C. H. Mackillop,
late Bengal Civil Service, and has issue — 3. Leila ; 4. Violet
Mary ; 5. Dorcas Stewart.
2. Elizabeth, who died young.
3. Anne, who was bom the night after the sacking of Ardsheal House, and was
married to Dr Robert Graham of Balchaple and Leckie, and had issue, eleven
1. James Lennox Graham, died unmarried.
2. Charles Alexander Graham-Moir of Leckie, who married Henrietta,
daughter of Robert Hay of Drumelzier, and had issue, besides three
daughters — Janet Erskine, Anne Stewart (dead), and Isabella Matilda
— a son—
Robert Graham Motr, who married Anne Elizabeth, daughter
of William Hay of Dunse Castle, and died, leaving issue, a
son, Alastair Erskine Graham Moir, and four daughters,
Henrietta Florence Mary, Evelyn Annie, Marion Clemen-
tina, and Mabel Christian Hay.
3. Isabella, died young.
4. Isabella, died unmarried.
5. Catherine, died unmarried.
6. James, died unmarried.
7. Anne, died unmarried.
S. Clementina, died unmarried.
9. Robert Graham, M.D., who married Elizabeth Belsches, second daugh-
ter of David Carrick Buchanan of Drumpellier, and had issue seven
sons and six daughters, viz. : 1. Elizabeth, married to Henry Belling-
ham, and left issue, Henrietta Elizabeth Belsches Graham ; 2. Robert
Graham of Coldock, Blair Drummond ; 3. David, died unmarried ;
4. Anne ; 5. Charles, died unmarried ; 6. Margaret, died unmarried ;
7. Jane, married to Colonel Godby, Royal Artillery, and has issue,
Elizabeth, Frances, Charles, Robert, and Clement ; 8. James Andrew,
died in infancy ; 9. Mary, died unmarried; 10. James Andrew, died
in infancy; 11. Catherine Belsches; 12. Buchanan, died unmarried;
13. John, died young.
10. Jane Stewart, died unmarried.
11. John George, died unmarried.
4. Clementina Elizabeth Maria Henrietta, married to John Graham of Mickle-
wood, Stirlingshire, but had no issue.
Duncan Stewart, sixth of Ardsheal, succeeded to the representa-
tion of the family on the death of his brother Alexander in 1769. He
had settled in Connecticut, New England, where he was appointed
Collector of Customs, and in 1767 married Anne, daughter of the
Honourable John Erving, one of H.M. Council for the Province.
Taking the Loyalist side in the American War, and suffering heavy
losses, he obtained the restoration of his paternal estate of Ardsheal,
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
and the appointment of Collector of Customs at Bermuda. He resigned
this office after two years, and returned to his ancestral house, where he
died, leaving issue —
1 . Charles, his successor, of whom hereafter.
2. John, who, at the age of eighteen, succeeded his father as
Collector of Customs at Bermuda, and married Sarah, daugh-
ter of the Honourable Daniel Leonard, Chief Justice of
Bermuda, by whom he had issue —
I. Duncan Stewart, H.M. Attorney-General for the
Bermudas, who married Sarah Amelia, daughter of
Richard Darrell of Montpelier, Bermuda, and had
issue seven sons and six daughters —
1. John Stewart of Lincoln's Inn, Barrister,
married Anne, daughter of Thomas Wins-
low, and has issue — i. Donald Charles ;
2. Robert Bruce ; 3. Allan Winslow ; 4.
2. Duncan Stewart of Lincoln's Inn, Barrister,
and a Master of the London Court of
Bankruptcy, married Florence Emma,
daughter of the Rev. Charles Mackenzie
of Torridon, Ross-shire, a Prebendary of St
Paul's, London, and has issue — i. Duncan
Grant Mackenzie ; 2. Malcolm Mackenzie ;
3. Graeme Mackenzie ; and four daughters,
Florence Mackenzie, Helen Mackenzie,
Agnes Margaret Mackenzie, and Beatrice
3. Leonard Stewart of Lincoln's Inn, Barrister.
4. James Stewart, married first, Julia Bran-
som, daughter of Edward Reinagle, by
whom was no issue, and secondly, Jane,
148 THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
daughter of J. Bell, by whom he left a
daughter, Grace Gwendoline Haldane.
5. Richard Barrel Stewart, died in Demer-
6. Harvey Darrell Stewart, of the Inner
7. Charles Edward Stewart, a clerk in holy
orders, vicar of St James', Manchester.
The daughters of Duncan Stewart, Bermuda, are
Sarah Darrel, married to Major Papillon,
Royal Artillery, with issue, and Emily
Clementina, Mary Catharine Darrel, Anne
Margaret, Esther Mary, and Harriet Pa-
pillon, all unmarried.
2. Leonard Stewart, M.D., died unmarried.
3. James Stewart of Lincoln's Inn, Barrister, formerly
M.P. for Honiton, married his cousin, Margaret
Emily, daughter of Duncan Stewart of Glenbuckie,
with issue — i. James, died unmarried; 2. Duncan
John, in the Indian Army, married, without issue ;
and four daughters, of whom one, Alice Charlotte,
Of the daughters of John Stewart, Collector at Bermuda,
Emily Clementina was married to Edward Wither-
ington, and had issue a daughter, n arried to W.
Hinton, with issue; Anne, married to William S.
Cumming, with issue, several sons and daughters ;
Sarah Joanna, married to Edward Winslow, Barrister,
and has issue, Mary, Harriet, and Octavia, died un-
3. George, died in infancy.
4. James Haldane Stewart, a clergyman of the Church of Eng-
land, who was eminent for his piety, and of whom a memoir
was written. He married Mary, daughter of David Dale,
and had issue —
1. William Cadogan Stewart, died unmarried.
2. David Dale Stewart, long Vicar of Maidstone, Kent,
and now Rector of Coulsdon, Surrey, married Cecilia,
daughter of the Rev. Henry Raikes, Chancellor of
Chester, and has no issue.
3. James Haldane Stewart, Rector of Brightnell, Berks,
married Emily, daughter of William Leveson Gower
of Titsey, and died leaving five daughters.
Also two daughters, Anne Erving, and Mary Dale, both
5. William George Erving Stewart, who went to Lima and mar-
ried a Spanish lady there, and left issue three daughters, one
of whom married General Pacheco of Ober, and another mar-
ried the General's brother, Colonel Pacheco.
Of the daughters of Duncan Stewart, sixth of Ardsheal, Anne was
married to John M'Nab of Balquidder, and had issue four
daughters: — i. Anne, married to the Rev. Harvey Sperling,
of Lattenbury Hill, Hunts,and had issue three sons, viz.: Arthur
Sperling, of Lattenbury Hill, Chairman of Quarter Sessions
for Hunts and Cambs, who married Adelaide Noel, daughter
of Sir Henry Baker, Bart, of Dunstable House, and has issue;
Henry Sperling, who died unmarried ; Frederick Sperling,
Rector of Papworth, St Agnes, who is married and has issue ;
and also three daughters, of whom the eldest is married to
Count Lecchini of Pisa. 2. Margaret, married to Duncan
Stewart of Glenbuckie, vide page . 3. Charlotte, married
to her cousin. Colonel Charles Alexander Stewart, second son
of Stewart of Glenbuckie, and had issue three sons —
John M'Nab Stewart, who married and has issue ; James
Drummond Stewart, Lieutenant in the 72nd Highlanders, who
died unmarried ; and the Rev. Charles Gerard Stewart, who
died unmarried ; 4. Catharine, who died unmarried.
Sophia, fourth daughter, married John Campbell, W.S., and had
issue a son, Stewart, who died unmarried, and four daughters,
Georgiana, Julia, Grace Jane (married to the Rev. R. Hall),
Isabella, the fifth daughter, died unmarried.
Charles Stewart, seventh of Ardsheal, succeeded his father in
1793, and served for a short time in the army. He married Rebecca,
daughter of William Sinclair of the Deer Park, county Armagh, and
Strabane, county Tyrone, and had issue —
1. Charles, his successor.
2. Annette, married to Major Robert Stewart, of the 94th Regi-
ment, seventh son by his wife Mary, daughter of Alexander
Stewart, eighth of Invernahyle, of John Stewart Mor, who
was second son of John Stewart, seventh of Fasnacloich, by
his second wife, a daughter of M'iNab of M'Nab. Annette
Stewart left issue, Anna Rebecca Charlotte, married to Miles
Lockhart, son of James Lockhart of Lanhams, Essex, and of
Marsden and Pring, Bucks, and has issue —
I. Robert Stewart Lockhart; 2. James Haldane Stewart
Lockhart ; 3. Eian Ingram Lockhart ; 4. Douglas
Francis Pigott Lockhart. Also Elizabeth Lockhart,
and Mary, married to Sebright Edward Coffin, son
of Lieut.-Colonel Coffin.
Duncan Stewart, sixth of Ardsheal, had established in 1771, in the
Scots Herald Office, his position as the representative of the Stewarts
of Appin and Lorn, on account of the failure of the male line of Duncan,
sixth Baron of Appin; and on the 28th April 1800, the Earl of Kinnoul,
then Lord Lyon King at Arms, issued the following certificate and
declaration : — " The Ensigns Armorial, pertaining and belonging to
Charles Stewart, Esquire of Ardsheal, eldest son and heir of Duncan
Stewart, Esquire [late collector of the customs at New London, in Con-
necticut, North America, heir male and representative of the Stewarts
of Ardsheal, Appin and Lorn], and Anne, youngest daughter of the
Hon. John Irvine, merchant in Boston, New England, and many years
one of His Majesty's Council, which Duncan was eldest son of Charles
Stewart, fifth of Ardsheal, by Isabella, daughter and coheiress of John
Haldane of Lanrick, which Charles was son and heir of John, who was
son and heir of Duncan, who was son and heir of John, the first of the
family of Ardsheal, who was second son of John, fifth baron of Apine
by ... , daughter . . . Macdonald of Moidart, which John was son
and heir of Duncan, who was son and heir of Alan, who was brother
and heir of Duncan, who was son and heir of Dugald, first of the family
of Apine, the only son of the last Lord Lorn, and the seventh in descent
in a direct male line from Alexander, sixth Lord High Steward of Scot-
land, by Sir John Stewart of Bonkyll, his second son, who married
Margaret, daughter and heiress of Sir Alexander Bonkyll of that Ilk,
are matriculated in the Publick Registers of the Lyon Office, and are
blazoned as on the margin, thus, viz. : quarterly first and fourth or, a fess
checkie azure and argent for Stewart, second and third argent, a galley,
her sails trussed up and oars in action sable for Lorn. Above the shield
is placed a helmet befitting his degree, with a mantling gules, the doubling
argent. On a wreath of his liveries is set for crest an unicorn's
head issuing out of the wreath argent, maned, horned, and bearded or ;
on an escroll above the crest this motto, Ouhidder will zie ; and on a
compartment below the shield are placed for supporters two roe bucks
proper." The certificate is signed by James Home, the Deputy of the
Earl of Kinnoul, and the following note is added : — " The roe bucks
were adopted as the old supporters of the Stewarts Lords Lorn, and
proper for Mr Stewart of Ardsheal, as representative of that family."
Under the authority of the Lyon Office, dated 13th June 1879, the flags
in the galleys are blazoned gules.
Charles Stewart, eighth of Ardsheal, the present chief of the
clan, and heir male and representative of the Stewarts of Ardsheal,
Appin, and Lorn, was born in 1805, and succeeded his father in 1844,
and is unmarried. On his death, the representation of the clan and
family will devolve upon the eldest male heir of the late Duncan
Stewart of Bermuda, son of John, the second son of Duncan Stewart,
sixth of Ardsheal.
JOHN STEWART, second son of Alan Stewart, third of Appin, received from his
father the lands of Strathgarry in Athole, after the return of Alan and his five sons
from Flodden, a.d. 1513.
This family of Strathgarry appears to have left Scotland before 1730, when the lands
were sold to a cadet of the family of Invernahyle, by a lineal descendant of whom they
are still held, together with the lands of Innerhadden, also in Athole. Vide Invernahyle.
About one hundred and fifty years ago, Dugald Stewart, the representative of John,
second son of Alan, was a Lieutenant in Halkett's regiment in the Dutch army, and
seems subsequently to have risen to the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel. He married Susan
Fairfoul, daughter of Lieutenant Fairfoul of Braeindam, and left issue. There are many
gentlemen of the name of Stewart holding good positions in the civil and military services
of Holland, but all endeavours to trace the descendants of Dugald Stewart among them
have been unsuccessful, though it is possible that they still exist in that country.
The Stewarts of Glen Ogle, and others in Balquidder, are also descendants of the
Stewarts of Appin, but the old families of Baldorran, Ardvorlich, Annat, Gartnafuaroe,
and the original Stewarts of Glenbuckie, were all descended from Lord James Stewart,
son of Murdoch, Duke of Albany.
Sometime towards the end of the sixteenth century, Stewart of Strathgarry, having
taken possession of lands in the upper part of Rannoch, which had been possessed by a
Macdonald, was surprised by a party of that clan, and killed by them for dispossessing
their kinsman. A meeting of the Stewarts of Appin, Balquidder, and Athole was held at
the Bridge of Keltney, where they entered into a written bond to avenge the death of
their kinsman of Strathgarry, and it was arranged that they should all meet on the Black-
mount on a day agreed upon. At the appointed time the Appin Stewarts came up
through Glencoe, the Athole Stewarts marched up the braes of Rannoch, and the Stewarts
of Balquidder, headed by Ardvorlich, came by Tyndrum.
They had letters of Fire and Sword against the murderers of Strathgarry, which his
widow had procured by going to Stirling, and showing her husband's bloody shirt to the
Privy Council. As it was in the month of June, the Macdonalds of Glencoe were out at
their shealings in the Blackmount, where they were surrounded by the Stewarts, and a
number of them killed. The laird of Glencoe and his brother were among the slain, and
their heads were cut ofiF, to be sent to Stirling and presented to the Privy Council, as an
unquestionable proof that their orders had been fully carried out. A messenger was
despatched with them in a small barrel, which he carried on his shoulder. He occa-
sionally shook the barrel, and made the heads knock against each other, exclaiming in
Gaelic, " Can't you agree ; I am sure you are friends."
He halted at Ardvorlich on his way south, and no one being at home but the Lady
of Ardvorlich, he asked to see her, and said he had brought two strangers to visit her,
Glencoe and his brother. The lady was much alarmed, as all the men were away at the
rendezvous, but the messenger soon allayed her fears by producing the two heads.
A copy of the bond entered into by the Appin and Perthshire Stewarts to avenge the
death of Strathgarry was long in the possession of the Ardvorlich family, but it was lent
to a Stewart of Annat, and at his death could not be found amongst his papers. A copy
of it is said to be in the possession of the Duke of Athole.
ACHNACONE, in the charter of a.d. 1500 spelled Auchnaguone, signifies the " field
of dogs," and obtained its name when Castle Stalcaire was occupied as a hunting
seat by the ancient Lords of Lorn, and afterwards by James IV. and James V. of Scotland,
from its being the place where the hounds were usually slipped or thrown off on a hunting
morning. The rising ground, now occupied by the present mansion, commands an
unobstructed view of the Strath of Appin, and down Loch Creran to Loch Linnhe, and
was a favourable situation for hunting the deer driven down from the mountains to the
DuGALD, first of Achnacone, was third son of Alan, third of Appin, by his wife, a
daughter of Lochiel. The old and valuable papers of the Achnacone family have
unfortunately been lost, and this loss is the more to be regretted as they were of such
importance as to be referred to as authentic sources of information by Mr Brown, when
he was compiling his Genealogical Tree of the Stewarts in 1792.
Unhappily, scarcely anything now remains of this collection, excepting some marriage
setdements with the Glencoe family.
These lands, however, as narrated by Duncan Stewart in his "History of the Stewarts,"
descended from Dugald, who received them from his father soon after the battle of Flodden
in 1513, in regular hereditary succession to Duncan Stewart, who married Mary, daughter
of Duncan Stewart of Inverlochy, of the family of Fasnacloich, and died in 1850, leaving
1. Mary Isabella, married to Lieutenant-Colonel Alexander Macdonald, son of
Lieutenant-Colonel Archibald Macdonald, of the Keppoch family, by whom she
had two daughters, Margaret and Mary.
2. Jessie, died unmarried.
3. Alexander, now of Achnacone, of whom hereafter.
4. John, died unmarried.
5. Susan, married to Alexander Macdonald, Sheriff-Substitute of the Lewes, and
died, leaving three sons and one daughter.
6. Donald, died unmarried.
7. Christina, married to Thomas Beattie of Creive, and had t^vo daughters —
Christina, who died young, and Mary Stewart Beattie, now of Creive and
8. Charles Edward, who entered the Royal Navy in 1827, and served at the Cape
and in South America. He afterwards entered the diplomatic service as
Financial Secretary and Treasurer under Sir Henry Pottinger during the second
Chinese War, taking an active part in the negotiations for the treaty of peace by
which it was terminated. He was for many years Secretary to the London and
North-Western Railway Company, and subsequently Chairman of the Anglo-
American Telegraph Company. Charies Edward Stewart died unmarried in
1868, and the following is an extract from a minute of the New York Board of
Directors of the Telegraph Company, recognising the valuable services he had
rendered in establishing telegraphic communication between England and
America : —
" New York, 13//^ April 1868.
" The Board having heard with profound regret of the sudden death of Mr
Charles Stewart, late Chairman of the Anglo-American Telegraph Company,
desire to record their deep sense of the loss which has thus unexpectedly been
sustained, not only by the company of which he was the able, dignified, and
faithful chief executive officer, but by the whole telegraphic interest of the world,
which owed so much to his enlightened public spirit and the large catholic views
which governed Mr Stewart, not only in the discharge of his duties, but in the
extension of this beneficent agent of civilisation into the remotest quarters of
Alexander Stewart, now of Achnacone, went to India in 1831, and entered the
Government Civil Service, from which he retired in 1861. He married Mary Montague,
eldest daughter of Daniel Wilson Davison of Brand Hall, Shropshire, and has issue —
1. Charles Montague Duncan.
2. Mary, married to John Stuart of Kishom, second son of the Right Hon. Sir John
Stuart Vide Ballachelish.
3. Alexander Kenneth, Physician in Her Majesty's Forces in India.
4. Arthur Full; an es, died young.
5. Montague Macdonell, died young.
6. Annie Jane Borrodaile.
7. Douglas Grant.
8. Kenneth Trevor.
JAMES, fourth son of Alan Stewart, third of Appin, by his wife, a daughter of Lochiel,
received the lands of Fasnacloich from his father after their return from Flodden in
15 13. Fasnacloich is situated at the foot of Glen Creran, and the name signifies a
field or place of stones or crags. James, first of Fasnacloich, married a daughter of
Maclean of Kinlochaline, and had issue — Dugald, James, and John.
DuGALD Stewart, second of Fasnacloich, married a daughter of Alexander
Macdonald, uncle and tutor of Macdonald of Glencoe. The Macdonalds of Glencoe are
descended from Angus, brother of John, first Lord of the Isles, and grandson of Somerled.
Dugald left one son, John, his successor.
John Stewart, third of Fasnacloich, married a daughter of Campbell of Inverawe
and had two sons, John and Alexander.
John Stewart, fourth of Fasnacloich, married Margaret, third daughter of John
Stewart of Lettershuna, brother of Donald, fifth of Invemahyle, and had one son, James.
James Stewart, fifth of Fasnacloich, married, first, a daughter of Campbell of
Auchnard, and had one son, John, his successor. He married, secondly, a daughter of
Alexander Stewart, fourth of Ballachelish, by whom he had — i. Duncan ; 2. Alexander ;
3. James, of whom hereafter ; and 4. Alan. These were all present at the battle of
Killiecrankie, or at the siege of Dunkeld which followed, where James was wounded.
John Stewart, sixth of Fasnacloich, married Moir, daughter of Duncan Stewart,
second of Ardsheal, by his second wife, a daughter of Maclean of Ardgour, and had three
sons— I. James, who predeceased his father, unmarried ; 2. John ; 3. Alexander James,
of whom hereafter; and several daughters.
John Stewart, seventh of Fasnacloich, married Une (Winifred), daughter of Mac-
donald of Glencoe, by whom he had James, his successor, bom 17th July 1723, and one
daughter, Mary. He married, secondly, Anne, daughter of M'Nab of M'Nab, and by her
had issue —
I. John Mor, who married Mary Stewart, daughter of Alexander Stewart, eighth of
Invernahyle, and had issue —
1. John, died in Jamaica, unmarried.
2. Katharine, died unmarried.
3. Anne, married to Ur Wilson of the Royal Scots Regiment, by whom
she had two children, who died young.
4. Alexander, Lieut.-Colonel commanding the 4th battalion Royal Scots,
and equerry to H.R.H. the Duke of Kent, whose life he saved in a
mutiny at Gibraltar. He served with the Royal Scots in Portugal
under Sir Charles Stewart, from 1797 to 1799; in the expedition to
Holland under Sir R. Abercromby in 1799, and actions of 19th Sep-
tember and 2nd and 6th October ; in the secret expedition to Ferrol
in 1800 ; in the expedition to Egypt in 1801-3 under Sir R. Aber-
cromby, and in all the actions in that campaign ; in the reduction of St
Lucia and Tobago in 1 803 ; in the campaign in North America in 1812-
15, mentioned in despatches ; and with the army in France 1815-16.
5. James, lost returning from India.
6. Duncan, designed in the entail of Fasnacloich, executed on the i8th
November 1794, as Lieutenant in the 74th Highlanders; drowned
when returning from India, in H.M.'s Frigate "Java." He was un-
7. Robert, Major in the 91st Highlanders. He served in the expedition
to Portugal in 1808 under Sir Arthur Wellesley, and was present at the
battles of Roleia and Vimiera ; under Sir John Moore in the retreat
through Spain, and at the battle of Corunna in 1809 ; in the Walcheren
expedition in the same year ; and with the Duke of Wellington's army
in 1812-16, including the batdes of Vittoria, the Pyrenees (seriously
wounded), Nive, Nivelle, Orthes, Toulouse (wounded), and Waterloo.
He married Annette, only daughter of Charles Stewart, seventh of
Ardsheal, and had issue an only child, Anna, married to Miles Lock-
hart. Vide Ardsheal.
James Stewart, eighth of Fasnacloich, was present at the battle of Culloden in
1746. He married a daughter of Macdonald of Glencoe, and had issue, Ronald, and two
daughters, besides twenty other children, who died young. James, eighth of Fasnacloich,
executed, on the i8th November 1794, an entail of the lands of Fasnacloich, compre-
hending the four merkland of Balmakeldon and Fasnacloich, with the lands called Selle
and Corbiand thereto adjacent ; and the lands of Letterdrissaig and Corveallan, and
other parts of the four merkland of old extent of Glassdrum, Altindain, Corveallan, Corily,
and Corvenauchtrach. The entail destined these lands, after the entailer's death, to his
son Ronald Stewart, and his heirs-male, whom failing, to any other son of the entailer,
and his heirs-male.
2. To John Stewart in Auchindarroch, his brother, and his heirs-male.
3. To Major Alexander Stewart, his brother, and his heirs-male.
4. To Lieutenant Duncan Stewart of the 74th Highlanders, his brother, and his
5. To James Stewart, late in Clunes, giandson of James, fourth son of James Stewart,
fifth of Fasnacloich, and his heirs-male. This James Stewart, late of Clunes, had married
Maiy, daughter of John Stewart, seventh of Fasnacloich, and sister of the entailer.
6. To William Stewart of Hillhead, Dumfriesshire, grandson of Alexander James,
third son of John Stewart, sixth of Fasnacloich.
7. To the heirs-male of the body of Winnie Stewart, his eldest daughter.
8. To the heirs-male of the body of Margaret Stewart, his second daughter.
Ronald Stewart, ninth in succession to Fasnacloich, predeceased his father. He
married Catharine, daughter of Fraser of Brightmany, a branch of the Culduthol family,
and had issue —
1. John, his successor.
2. James, who died young.
3. Elizabeth, who died young.
4. Ronald, a posthumous daughter, married to Stewart Menzies of Culdares, in
Glenlyon, and had issue — t. Ronald Stewart Menzies of Culdares, who married
May, daughter and heiress of Macdouall Grant of Arndilly, and had issue — i.
William George Stewart Menzies, now of Culdares ; 2. Maria, married to
Fletcher Norton Menzies, by whom she has a daughter, Grace ; and 3. Katharine,
married to George Henry Vansittart of Bisham Abbey, Berks.
John Stewart, tenth of Fasnacloich, succeeded his grandfather, James, in 1795.
He married Harriet, daughter of Murdoch Maclaine of Lochbuy, and left issue —
1. Ronald, who predeceased his father, unmarried.
2. John Campbell, who succeeded his father.
3. James, R.N., died unmarried.
4. Alexander, died unmarried.
And seven daughters —
I. Jane, married to Lieutenant-General George Sandys, H.KI.C.S., by whom she
158 THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
had one son, Edwin, now of the 58th Regiment, and three daughters, Frances,
Maiy, and Louisa ; 2. Catharine ; 3. Margaret ; 4. Anna ; 5. Harriet ; 6. Ehza-
beth ; and 7. Henrietta, all unmarried.
John Campbell Stewart, eleventh and present of Fasnacloich, succeeded his father.
He married Mary Caroline, daughter of Charles Bernard. She died 9th December 1877,
and left issue —
1. John Charles, born 12th November 1S73.
2. Ronald, born 4th February 1875.
3. Bernard, bom 9th December 1877.
And three daughters^May Ronald, Winifred, Harriet Anna.
Captain John Campbell Stewart served in the 72nd Regiment, " The Duke of Albany's
Own Highlanders," during the Crimean campaign in 1855 and 1856, was present at the
capture of Kertch, and at the siege and fall of Sebastopol, for which he has medal and
clasp, Turkish medal, and fifth class of the Order of Medjidi. He also served in the
Indian Mutiny of 1857, and in the pursuit of the rebels in 1858, and was at the capture
of the fortress of Kotah, and the action on the Bumass River, for which he has a medal
and clasp. After returning to his estate from a distinguished career in the army, Captain
Stewart has earned, by his liberality and his exertions in their behalf, the lasting gratitude
of the Episcopal community of Glencreran. Ever since the disestablishment of the
Episcopal Church of Scotland in 1688, a large portion of the people of Appin has
remained faithful to her creed, and from that time till now the services of the Church
have been kept up continuously at Glencreran, though at various places, and at one time
in a chapel, now quite ruinous. But by the erection of St Mary's Church on his estate
in 1877-8, with its parsonage adjoining, for which Captain Stewart gave the site, and to
which he liberally contributed, he has provided for the regular and permanent services of
the Church to which the people of Appin of the old stocks have been so steadfastly faithful.
In Bishop Ewing's eloquent charge to the clergy of Argyll and the Isles in 1864, he writes :
— " On those sweet lochs and dreamy shores, which are characteristic of this diocese,
there is indeed more than lona. In the district of Appin, on the shores of Glencreran,
on the banks of Loch Leven, in the valley of Glencoe, on the borders of Loch Linnhe,
there are still some representatives of the past, some blood of the ancient race, some
worship not unlike the worship of lona."
Alexander James, third son of John Stewart, sixth of Fasnacloich, and of his wife
Moir, daughter of Duncan Stewart, second of Ardsheal, was born in 1672. As a youth of
seventeen, he was present at the batde of Killiecrankie in 1689, and at the siege of
Dunkeld following. He was also at the batde of Sheriffmuir in 17 15, and after that
engagement went abroad. Being se\enty-three years of age, he was too old to join Prince
Charles Edward's army in 1745, but took an active part in raising men for the expedition,
and in 1746 he was examined at the trial of Murray of Broughton, with a view of eliciting
from him a corroboration of that traitor's evidence against gentlemen engaged in the
rising, but he feigned dotage. Alexander Stewart married Anne Stewart of the family of
Ardsheal, and died at the age of ninety-six, in May 1768, leaving one son, Charles.
Charles Stewart, only son of Alexander, was attached to the person of Prince Charles
in 1745-6 as his Purse Bearer, and received from the Prince the appointment of Sheriff of
Argyll. He was present at the battles of Prestonpans, Falkirk, and Culloden, and was
one of those who, after that ill-starred day, found a place of refuge and concealment in
Appin, though that district was then in possession of the Duke of Cumberland's troops.
But he soon quitted this comparative security to endeavour to rejoin and assist Prince
Charles Edward, and sometime afterwards escaped to France, where he is named as one
of those who, at the instance of James VIII., received grants for their support from Louis
XV. He married Elizabeth, daughter of Johnstone of Redacres, a cadet of the family of
Johnstone of Corehead, and a descendant of Rachel, daughter of Walter Whitefoord of
Whitefoord, Bishop of Brechin. Nisbet says " the first of the family was Walter de
Whitefoord in Renfrewshire, who got Whitefoord for his services at the battle of Largs,
when under the command of Alexander, Senescallus Scotiae." The estate of Whitefoord
descended in regular succession to Adam Whitefoord of that Ilk, who by his wife, the
daughter of Sir James Somervell of Camnethan, had two sons, James, his successor, and
Dr Walter 'Whitefoord, first sub-dean of Glasgow, aftenvards parson of Moffat, and in
1635 advanced to the Episcopal See of Brechin. Charles Stewart left issue —
1. Alexander, who died young.
2. Duncan, who succeeded.
3. William, of whom hereafter.
4. John, who died in India, unmarried.
5. Elizabeth, married to Donald Cameron.
6. Christina, married to Stewart, and had issue, no\y extinct
Duncan Stewart, second son of Charles Stewart, was Commandant of Fort William,
and married Jessie, daughter of Donald M'Phee, Loch Arkaig, and had issue —
1. Alexander, Lieutenant-Colonel in the 95th Regiment, Rifle Brigade, married
Harriet Palmer, and had issue, Charles Alexander and Agnes, both of whom
2. John, Major in the 95th Regiment, Rifle Brigade. He was an officer of great
distinction, and served on the continent with the 79th regiment in 1794; in
1795-96 and '97 in the West Indies; in 1798 in Germany; in 1799 in the
campaign in Holland ; in 1800 at Ferrol with a detachment of the Rifle Brigade ;
and in 1801 with Sir Ralph Abercromby in Egypt, where he was wounded. In
i8o2-s Major Stewart was with his regiment at home, and in 1S06-7 he was
in South America, serving on General Whitelock's staff at the taking of
Monte Video, and during the following campaign. In 1808 he was on the
staff of Sir John Moore during the campaign in Spain, and in 1S09 10, and
till his death in 181 1, he served with his regiment during the campaigns in
Spain and Portugal, under Lord Wellington. He fell on the 14th of March in
that year, in the course of the operations on the Mondego, when, in command
of the left wing of his regiment, he was leading a charge with the bayonet.
General Sir Benjamin D'Urban wrote, that when " he was wounded, as in every
action of his military life, he was a bright example of calm intrepidity, and many
were admiring his gallantry and skill." Sir Sidney Beckwith also wrote of him
in terms of the highest praise, and the London Courier of the 24th April 181 1
gave a detailed notice of Major Stewart's career, observing that "scarcely a
service of activity and danger had occurred within the previous eighteen years
in which he had not been employed, and that on all occasions not only had he
distinguished himself by his skill and bravery, by his steady and soldier-like con-
duct in the field, but that he had made himself master of his profession, so far
as study and a good understanding could enable him." The Courier concluded
by saying that " he fell like another Wolfe, in the arms of victory, not too soon
for his own glory, for he was known and admired by the whole army, but much
too soon for his country, which had a right to expect that in due course he
would supply the place of some one of the great generals of the present day,
distinguishing himself, like them, by another Maida, Talavera, or Barrossa."
The letter written on the occasion of the death of Major Stewart, to his elder
brother, is given at length. The writer was the distinguished Colonel Cameron
of Fassifem, who so long and so gloriously commanded the 92nd Highlanders,
and who himself, four years later, met a like soldier's death on the field of
Quatre Bras. It is characteristic of both the gallant soldiers who — maintaining
under southern skies and the British flag that close friendship which had for
centuries associated their families in the cause of loyalty and the Stuarts — had
together, and almost shoulder to shoulder in old Highland fashion, borne up
the fray against the enemies of their country on many a bloody and well-fought
field. It is a sermon by two true soldiers, inculcating — with few words of
preaching, but by that example which is better than precept —resignation, cheer-
fulness, hope, courage, and devotion.
" Hutted on the Mondego,
NEAR the PonTE DE MaRIELLO.
" My dear Friend, — The fate of man is mortality. Prepare yourself for
the greatest affliction, in having that truth brought home to your feelings with a
vengeance. But, at the same time, draw some consolation from the reflection
that he fell on the bed of honour, and died a martyr to that glory which he so
successfully pursued, lamented and regretted by all, one of the brightest orna-
ments of his country and profession.
" Poor John, I was not far from him when he fell Word was brought
me that he inquired for me. I went and saw him. He beckoned to me to
sit down by him, but the doctors would not allow me to sit, or speak to him.
But in spite of the doctors he made me bend over him, and said in Gaelic, ' My
dear fellow, let them know that I am quite well, and want for nothing. The
doctors are kind to me, and in a month I shall be at them again.' The French
were then hard at the head of our column with small and great guns. I was
obliged to go on. I never saw a man in better spirits. He pressed my hand
eagerly, and we parted never to meet again. At eleven that night his soul fled
to heaven. His wound was through the body and out at the back. God bless
and strengthen you. — Yours ever, J. Cameron."
To Lieut.-Col. Stewart, Milton, near Woodbridge.
Major Stewart died unmarried at the age of thirty.
3. William, also an officer in the 9Sth Regiment, who died in India, unmarried.
Also six daughters —
1. Anne, married to the Rev. W. Singer, D.D., and had issue five sons, who died
unmarried, with the exception of Major Alexander Stewart Singer, who married
Clara, daughter of the Rev. John Johnstone of Crossmichael, and left issue,
William Duncan Singer, and Mary, married to James Bell of Woolbrook,
Victoria, by whom she has issue, John Calvert, Alexander Singer ; also Anne
Stewart Singer, unmarried, and Clara, married to George B. Poynter, Tasmania,
and has issue, Clara, Mary Harriet, and one son. Aime Stewart or Singer had
also two daughters — Elizabeth, married to the Rev. John Bennet of Ettrick, of
the family of Bennet of Whiteside, Stiriingshire, and has one son, the Rev.
William Bennet, who married Maria Rawson; and Anne Stewart Singer, married
to the Rev. John Macmillan, D.D., and has issue, Samuel, who married Eliza
Goodsir, daughter of the Rev. Hugh Dobie ; William Singer, and John James
Macmillan ; also one daughter, Anne Stewart Macmillan, married to the Rev.
Alexander Marshall, Kirkcudbright.
2. Elizabeth, married to Captain Arthur Buchanan, and died without issue.
3. Mary, married to Duncan Stewart of Achnacone. Vide Achnacone.
4. Christina of Glenmorven, Argyllshire, died unmarried.
5. Jessie, married to the Rt. Hon. Sir John Stuart of Lochcarron. Vide Ballachelish.
i62 THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
6. Charlotte Sophia, married to John Collins, by whom she had one daughter,
Margaret Elizabeth Stewart, married to His Excellency George Frederick
Augustus, Count Bremer of Cadenberge, Privy Councillor, Chamberlain, and
Knight of the Guelphic Order, in the Kingdom of Hanover, and has issue one
daughter, Charlotte Sophie Von Bremer.
William Stewart of Hillhead, Dumfriesshire, a Deputy-Lieutenant for that county,
third son of Charles Stewart, married Margaret, daughter of George Graham of Shaw,
lineal descendant of Henry de Graham of Dalkeith, by his marriage, about 1240, with the
heiress of Roger de Avenel of Eskdale. William Stewart died in 1822, leaving
1. James Hope, who succeeded to Hillhead, bom 2nd August 1789.
2. Charles of St Michael's, bom 2nd December 1790, died unmarried.
3. Margaret, bom 15th June 1792, died unmarried.
4. George Graham, Captain R.N., born 4th Febmary 1794, died unmarried.
5. Elizabeth, bom 24th October 1795, died unmarried.
6. William John, W.S., of whom hereafter, bom loth December 1798.
7. Janet Graham, bom 14th March 1801, died immarried.
8. Christina, born 27 th June 1803, died unmarried.
9. John Duncan Alexander, of whom hereafter, born i8th April 1805.
10. Anne Johnstone Hope, born loth December 1807, died unmarried.
11. David Williamson, bom 7th October 1809, died unmarried..
James Hope Stewart of Hillhead succeeded his father in 1822, married Helen,
daughter of Richard Bell of Dunnabie, and died in 1856, leaving issue —
1. William, died in China, a partner in the firm of Messrs Jardine, Matheson, & Co.
He predeceased his father, and was unmarried.
2. Thomas, succeeded his father.
3. George Graham (a partner in the firm of Messrs Heycock & Co., Bombay),
married Wilhelmina Rankine, and died without issue.
5. John Hope Johnstone, married Jessie, daughter of John Murray of Haregills,
and has issue— Janet Margaret ; James Hope ; Eliza ; Helen Anne ; and Sarah
6. James Hope, died in Demerara, unmarried.
7. Duncan, married Christina Anne, daughter of William Stewart, W.S., and has
issue — Alison Helen ; Agnes Ethel ; George ; Elizabeth Jessie ; and Anne
8. David Williamson of Grange, married Isabella, daughter and heiress of James
Johnstone of Grange, and has issue — James Hope ; Isabella Johnstone ; Helen
Bell ; William James ; Inez Jane ; Jessie Elizabeth ; Charles ; Anne ; Margaret
Johnstone ; and Andrew Jardine Stewart.
9. Alexander, died young.
10. Andrew Johnstone Jardine, drowned in China, unmarried.
Also two daughters —
1. Anne, married to James Graham of Dunnabie, second son of George Graham of
Shaw, and has issue — George, who died young ; Helen Bell Stewart, married to
John Cross ; James Hope Stewart, now of Dunnabie ; and Mary.
2. Margaret Christina, married to Christopher Johnstone of Croftheads, and has
issue — Helen Bell Stewart ; William ; Sarah Blacklock, married to Alastair
Robertson Stewart of Derculich ; and James Hope Stewart.
Thomas Stewart of Slodahill succeeded his father in 1856.
William Stewart, W.S., fourth son of William Stewart of Hillhead, married Alison,
daughter of Charles Steuart, W.S., and died in 1842, leaving issue —
2. Christina Anne, married to her cousin, Duncan Stewart, and has issue— Alice ;
Agnes Ethel ; George ; Elizabeth Jessie ; and Anne Stewart.
3. William Stewart, W.S., married Mary Harriet Binns, daughter of George
Greaves, and has issue.
John Duncan Alexander Stewart, fifth son of William Stewart of Hillhead,
married Harriet Everilda, daughter of Major Antony Gore, brother of Sir Ralph Gore of
Manor Gore, co. Donegal, who succeeded his uncle Ralph, Earl of Ross, as seventh
baronet, the earldom being limited to heirs male of his uncle's body. J. D. A. Stewart
died in 1869, leaving issue —
1. William George Stewart of the 2nd Dragoon Guards, born April 1830, married
in 1859 Charlotte Jane, daughter of George Cook, and has issue — William
Duncan ; Horace, who died young ; and a daughter, Constance Charlotte.
2. Duncan Stewart of the 92nd Highlanders, a lieutenant-colonel in the army,
served in the Crimea at the close of the campaign in 1856, in the Indian Mutiny
in 1858, including the battle of Azimghur, on the 6th April (specially thanked),
actions at Shahjehanpore 14th May, and Mohunpore 26th May, capture of the
fort of Pourie, and action at Beejapore (wounded by sabre cut, and mentioned
in despatches.) Medal with clasp, and brevet of major. Born i8thjune 1831 ;
married, 1864, Emily Rose, daughter of John Mackenzie Lindsay, and has
Ian Charles Lindsay, bom 8th September 1865 ; Ronald Robert, bom 2Sth
June 1867 ; and Archibald Alan William John Stewart, bom 8th
3- Osmond de Havilland Stewart, bom 27th February 1835; married, i860,
Jessie Mounsey, daughter of William Rogerson of Wamphray, and had issue —
Agnes Florence and Jessie Harriet Margaret Stewart. Married, secondly, in
1866, Frances, daughter of George Bathurst, and by her has issue — Duncan
John, bom August 1867; Charles George, bom September 187 1 ; and John
Stewart, born July 1875. Also three daughters — Mary Elizabeth Christina ;
Frances ; and Christian Alice Stewart.
4. Charles Stewart, an advocate at the Scottish bar, born 9th November 1840 ;
married, December 1870, Eva, daughter of Henry Kingscote, and had
Bertrand, bom ist October 1872.
He married, secondly, July 1874, Alice Louisa, daughter of Robert Johnstone
Douglas of Lockerbie, and the Lady Jane Johnstone Douglas.
Also four daughters — i. Margaret Mary Anne, died young; 2. Pauline Harriet,
married, August 1865, to the Baron Otto Von Klenck, Lieutenant-Colonel in
the Hanoverian Garde du Corps, and A.D.C. to H.M. King Ernest of Hanover,
and Duke of Cumberland, and has issue — Frederica Langensabza and Marie
Von Klenck, to whom H.R.H. Princess Frederica and H.M. Queen Marie of
Hanover respectively stood sponsors ; 3. Christina Adelaide Ethel, married,
February 1862, to James Alexander Rogerson of Wamphray, fomierly of the
6 1 St Regiment, and has a daughter, Harriet ; 4. Florence Grace Norah, bom
September 1839, and died November 1855.
James Stewart, third son of James Stewart, fifth of Fasnacloich by his second wife,
a daughter of Alexander Stewart, fourth of Ballachelish, married a daughter of Robertson
of Fascally, Athole, and widow of Charles Robertson of Calvine, Athole. Mrs James
Stewart had been left by her father the liferent of Clunes, in Glengarry in Athole, and both
her husband and her son were known as of Clunes. They left issue —
And two daughters, one of whom married Robertson of Kindrochet, Athole, and the
other Macpherson of Phones, in Badenoch.
James Stewart succeeded his father, and married, first, Susan Stewart, of the family
of Drumchary, Athole, and by her had one son, who died unmarried. He married,
second, Mary, daughter of John Stewart, seventh of Fasnacloich. James Stewart and the
heirs male of his body were named in the entail of Fasnacloich, executed in August 1794,
as next in succession after the heirs male of the body of the entailer, James Stewart,
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
eighth of Fasnacloich, and those of his father. By his second marriage he left
Also three daughters, one of whom, Anne, married James M'Nicoll of The Craig,
Forfarshire, and had issue — John, who married his cousin, Eliza Stewart ; and
a daughter, Mary M'Nicoll, married to the Rev. William Ramsay of Alyth,
Duncan Stewart, son of James Stewart of Clunes, born 20th August 1770, was a
solicitor in Edinburgh, and married in 1809 Janet or Jessie, daughter of Ranald M'Donald,
nineteenth of Keppoch (Raonull Og), and had issue —
1. James, bom September 1810, died unmarried.
2. Ranald, born December 1813, died young.
3. John, bom September 1816, died June 1865, unmarried.
4. Alexander Macdonell.
Also three daughters — Eliza married her cousin, John M'Nicoll of The Craig, Forfar-
shire, and had issue six daughters; Mary, died October 1864, unmarried ; and
Clementina Macdonell Stewart, unmarried.
ALEXANDER, first of Invemahyle, called the "Tiochail," or "The Peaceful," was
fifth and youngest son of Alan Stewart, third of Appin, by his wife the daughter
of Lochiel. After the return of the clan from Flodden in 15 13, Alexander received from
his father the lands of Invemahyle, so called from their situation at the mouth of the
Hyle, a stream separating the property from Achnacone.
In the following account of Alexander and his descendants, the quaint style of the
old family MS., from which it has been abridged, has been as far as possible preserved. It
would appear that Alexander lived at Eilean-'n-Stalcair (Falconer's Island), and early one
summer morning went to an island called Eilean nan Gall, which lies contiguous, and can
be approached on foot at low water. Not apprehending any danger, he laid down his
Lochaber axe carelessly by his side. A deadly feud then existed betwixt his family and
that of the Campbells of Dunstaffnage, and at this very time Cailean Uaine (Green Colin),
brother to Dunstaffnage, having landed with a party of men, came up suddenly and seized
hold of the axe, exclaiming, " This is a good axe, if it had a good handle to it ! " Alex-
ander immediately replied, " Has it not that ? " showing at the same time his appreciation
of Colin's sarcastic meaning by the practical repartee of laying his own hand upon it.
During the struggle which followed, Alexander was surrounded by Colin's men and basely
murdered. His infant son only escaped a like fate through the courage and devotion of
his nurse, Morag, wife of Raibeart-a-Pheti, smith or armourer of Moidart, who, to ensure
the safety of her charge, fled with him to her own country, after having concealed him
for three days in a cave, now known as Uaimh Dhomnuil nan Ord.
Alexander had married Margaret, daughter of Macdonald of Lochan, brother to
Muidart, by whom he had one son, Donald, who succeeded him. The Moidart family
claim descent from Ranald or Reginald de Yle, who got a grant of lands from his father,
with confirmation under the Great Seal of Robert II. in 1372-3. Ranald was second son
of John de Yle, whose second wife was Margaret Stewart, daughter of Robert II.
Donald, second of Invemahyle, so well known as Domhnull-nan-ord, or Donald of
the hammers, was reared by the armourer and his wife, as if he had been one of their
own sons. They, indeed, loved their foster-son, or dalt as he was called in the Gaelic,
with the strongest and truest affection. Raibeart's armour-work bore the highest reputa-
tion, so much so that it was a common question in the district, " Is that a Moidart-made
sword you wear ? " Both as armourer and as tacksman of farms on Lochsheilside, he held
a much higher social position than that held by a smith in the present day. Donald, as
he grew up, developed remarkable talents, both mental and physical. He was ready of
wit, quick in expedient, and of uncommon resolution, combined with great strength and
activity. He could take in each hand one of the large hammers which required the full
strength of an ordinary workman, and wield both at the same time without any unusual
effort. He could dive, it is said, into a pool of the river Shiel, near the smith's house,
and bring up a salmon with his hands. On Donald's reaching manhood, Raibeart told
him the secret of his birth, at the same time presenting him with a sword tempered with
the utmost cunning of his art, and offering him the assistance of his foster-brothers in
taking vengeance on his father's murderers. His uncle, Muidart, on being made aware
of the truth, recognised the relationship, and placed at his disposal a number of men
chosen from his clan. Invemahyle, in the absence of an heir, had reverted to Appin,
but the chief, fully convinced of Donald's birthright to the land, at once restored it.
Donald, without delay, attacked Dunstaffnage, but though success ultimately crowned his
efforts, it was not until after several fights in which Cailean Uaine and nine other gentle-
men of that family were slain. Colin was killed by one of Donald's men, who pierced
him with an arrow as he was attempting to escape by swimming over the river Lyon
(Leven). While the arrow was still quivering in Colin's breast, one of the Campbells
called out from the opposite side of the river, " That is clean blood you have given the
Lyon salmon to-day !" "Not so clean," was the retort, "as you gave, without cause, one
fine morning to the crabs of Eilean-'n-Stalcair ! "
Argyll, greatly annoyed at the manner in which Invemahyle was harassing his clan.
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN. 167
tried several times to cut him off. This caused Donald to make a foray on Loch-
awe- side, commemorated in the following verse of a Gaelic ballad still recited in
Appin : —
" Donald-nan-ord, the armourer's dalt,
In full coat of mail becomingly clad,
Lifted the creach from the banks of Lochowe,
Which retrieve Mac-a-Chailein shall never, nor now,
Nor son, nor great-grandson, nor grandson know how."
The fulness of the coat of mail marked the strength of the wearer.
Appin, and other friends of Invemahyle, wishing to bring the feud to an end, insisted
on his making peace with Argyll, and Donald went to Inveraray for that purpose. The
meeting with Argyll took place at some distance from the castle, and the interview is
thus narrated by the bard. Donald, who apparently did not anticipate that the confer
ence would result in any increase of their mutual affection, thus accosts the Earl : —
" Mhic-a-Chailean, grim and sallow.
Small 's the love you bear to me ;
But when my homeward path I follow,
'Tis well if I bear more towards thee."
When laughing heartily, Donald had an ungraceful habit of throwing back his head,
a habit perpetuated — says the family MS., with some humour— in some of his descendants
to the present generation. Argyll is related by the poet to have made a sneering re-
ference to this, and to have asked, pointing to the rock above Ardkinlas, if Invemahyle
knew that it was called "the ugly laugh." The rejoinder, though, perhaps, not more
courteous than the remark which called it forth, was, at least, equally cutting : —
" Ugly the laugh on the cliff of yon hill.
Which for aye has been stamped on the place ;
But as grim, and as ugly, you'll find when you will.
By a look at your Countess' face."
Argyll would only consent to make peace on the crafty condition that Invemahyle
should raise " herships " on Moidart and Athole, hoping thus to bring him into collision
with these his most intimate friends. But Argyll had met an intellect quite equal to his
own. Donald agreed to the terms, but subsequently made an arrangement with his
uncle and Athole by which they permitted him to raise a spoil from some refractory
tenants who had sorely provoked them, while any pursuit, which, to save appearances,
they would have to make, would be more in show than in reality. Thus, to the great
chagrin of Argyll, Donald fulfilled his part of the compact without losing the regard of
his old friends.
His chief, Alan Stewart, third of Appin, being a very old man, and his eldest son,
Duncan, dead, we find the clan commanded at the battle of Pinkie, on loth September
1547, by Invemahyle, as Tutor. In the absence of the exact dates of the deaths of Alan's
sons, there is no certainty upon the point, but the strong probability appears to be that
Invemahyle held this command under exceptional conditions, that is to say, by the express
appointment of the Chief, in consideration of his remarkable military abilities, and not by
the claims of birthright. On their march homeward in the following month, when pass-
ing through Menteith, the clan found prepared, at the house of one of the tenants, a
marriage dinner, at which the Earl of Menteith was to be present. Being very hungry,
Donald and his followers quickly disposed of the feast, without much consideration of
consequences. Menteith, arriving immediately afterwards, was very wroth at the insult
which he conceived had been offered to him, and instantly pursued the Stewarts. On
overtaking them, one of the Grahams taunted them thus : —
" Yellow-haired Stewarts, of smartest deeds,
Who could grab at the kale in your sorest needs ! "
To which a Stewart replied, —
" If smartness in deeds is ours by descent,
Then I draw— and to pierce you this arrow is sent,"
at the same time suiting the action to the word.
A conflict followed, in which the Earl and many of his men were killed. The Appin
men marched off in triumph, the pipers playing the Stewarts' march, " We will up and
march away, we will up and march away, we will up and march away, daring let of all
men." The whole words and music of this spirit-stirring march are given at pages
In Eraser's book of " The Lennox," it is said, " William, fifth Earl of Menteith, was
killed at Tobanareal, a spring on the summit of the ridge which divides Menteith from
Strathgartney, by the celebrated Donald Stewart of Invemahyle, Tutor of Appin, famili-
arly called ' na'n Ord,' or of the Hammers." Duncan Stewart's account is that Donald,
"in his return, was attacked by the Earl of Menteith, at a place called Tipard'nerheil,
near the Port of Menteith, in resentment of a little malverse some of Stewart's men had
been guilty of in their march, where the Earl and some few of his friends and followers
Donald looked with intense contempt on every employment for a gentlemen other
than that of war or the chase. The quiet, domestic life of his son Duncan, and his great
interest in his farm-work, troubled him sorely. He bore it, however, with outward patience
until one day, when he saw his son not only directing his labourers, but even, for the pur-
pose of showing more clearly what he wished to be done, taking a spade into his own
hands. His long-simmering wrath at once boiled over, and the fiery old chieftain, draw-
ing his dirk, pursued his son into the house, where, supposmg or pretending to suppose
that Duncan had hidden in the bed, he struck with such force as to drive the weapon
through both bed and bedding. Happily his son, as the old gentleman was probably
well aware, had hidden elsewhere. The reef of rocks where he crossed the river Hyle in
pursuit of his son is still called Donald's steps. The history of Donald n'an Ord
has been immortalised by Sir Walter Scott, in a history of his life, printed in the fifth
edition of Captain Burt's letters, by Robert Jamieson, F.S.A. of London and Scotland.
Brought up in circumstances not entirely dissimilar from those attending the early
life of his great-grandfather, Dugald, first of Appin, Donald seems to have shared his
ancestor's ignorance of, or contempt for, forms of law. It was not till about 1570, when
he was himself advanced in years, and when he was making over the lands of Innerphuill
to his son Duncan, some time after the marriage of the latter, that he bethought himself
of taking formal sasine of the estate which he had regained.
The "Precept of Seisin of the lands of Innemaheil and Innerpollan in favours of Donald
Stewart, son of Alexander, son of Alan, ad annum 1570," is noticed by Duncan Stewart.
He died at a very advanced age towards the close of the sixteenth century, and was
buried at Lismore. By his first wife, a daughter of John Stewart of Bunrannoch (Drum-
chuin), he had —
1. Alexander, who died young.
2. Duncan, his successor
3. Alan, of whom Ballachelish.
4. John, who got Lettershuna, the old name of the lands round Appin House. He
married a daughter of James Stewart of The Glens, and had issue six daughters.
Among the retours of 1633, Mary, the wife of Dugald M'Dougall of Dounhach
(Dunach), and second daughter of John Stewart of Lettirschewnay, and her
sisters, Catharine the eldest, Margaret the third, Isobel the fourth, Janet the
fifth, and Agnes the sixth, were served heirs-portioners to their father in the
lands of Achachosgrane, of the old extent of two merks in the barony of Appin.
5. A daughter, married to Archibald Campbell of Achalader.
Invemahyle married, secondly, the widow of James Stewart of The Glens.
Duncan, third of Invemahyle, succeeded his father. He married Helen, daughter
of Campbell of Dunstaffnage, by whom he had issue — -i. Alexander, who succeeded him ;
2. Dugald of Innishaorach, in Breadalbane ; and 3. Allan.
He lived a gentle and peaceful life, keenly interested in the improvement of his
lands. His marriage with a daughter of Dunstaffnage was intended to end all bye-gone
feuds, and restore peace betwixt the families. At first, however, it was very bitter to his
father Donald, who could not forget the soreness of the past, but in the course of time,
and by the earnest intercession of friends, he became reconciled, and made over to the
young people the lands of Innerphuill.
Alexander, fourth of Invemahyle, seems to have played a conspicuous part in Mon-
trose's campaigns, for, as above noticed at page i66, we find in the Acts of the Scots
ParUament, anno 1649, his name specially mentioned, with those of Lochbuy, Appin, and
Kingerloch, as having been present at Kilsythe on 15th August 1644, and Inverlochie on
2nd February 1645, with the result of being forfeited in land, person, and estate. He mar-
ried a daughter of Duncan Stewart, seventh of Appin, by whom he had twelve sons, who all
lived to the age of manhood. It is recorded that Alexander appeared in church one day
accompanied by these twelve sons, all dressed in kilts, with belted plaids, and in full armour.
Records of all the descendants of the numerous family of Alexander, fourth of Inver-
nr.hyle, have not been handed down. He was succeeded by his eldest son
1. Donald, of whom hereafter.
2. James, died about 1690, leaving one son —
I. Allan, married a daughter of the Rev. Mr M'Calman, minister of Lismore ;
died about 17 15, leaving issue —
I. James, who died about 1787; 2. John; 3. Allan; 4. Dugald of
Mount Stewart, in Jamaica. Allan, the third son, served with
Prince Charles' army in 1745, was wounded in the campaign,
and died of his wounds soon after. He left issue a son, Andrew
who died about 1765, leaving —
2. Thomas, who married Mary Brough, heiress of Boghall. He
bought the adjoining property of Steelend, and left issue —
1. John, died 1805.
2. Thomas, an officer of the Royal Navy, who
served at the siege of Gibraltar, 1779-83, and
under Admiral Lord Rodney, died 1795.
4. James, born 1778, married Isabella Tod, died in
New York, 181 3, leaving issue one son, David,
who, by his wife, Adelina Smith of Brooklyn, has
issue — I. Isabella, married to John L. Gardner,
Boston, U.S.; 2. Adelia, died, unmarried, 1854 ;
3. David, died, unmarried, 1874; 4. James.
5. George, bom 1785, died 1872, leaving issue.
Also three daughters — i. Helen, married George
Mehss, Perth; 2. Mary, died unmarried; 3.
Ann, married to Arrat, with issue. Helen,
the eldest daughter, left issue —
I. Andrew ; 2. George ; 3. Charles — all of whom
died unmarried ; 4. James, married Madeline
Nairn, died 1853 ; 5. Thomas, married a daugh-
ter of T. de Vain, and died in India, leaving
one son. Helen had also three daughters — i.
Ann, born 1778, died, unmarried, 1798; 2.
Eliza, bom 1804, married E. L. Sanders of New
Ross, Herefordshire, with issue; 3. Mary,
bom 1789, married William Stuart, descended
from the family of Garlies, and has issue —
I. Robert, author of "Caledonia Ro-
mana," died 1848, leaving issue —
William, David, and three daughters;
2. Helen, married Professor Thom-
son, M.A., Aberdeen, has one son
and three daughters ; 3. George ; 4.
Eliza, married T. Robertson, by
whom two sons (George and Wil-
liam) and one daughter ; 5. William,
married, no issue; 6. Mary, died
1848 ; 7. John, died young ; 8. Ann ;
9. Archibald; 10. James, has issue —
Charles, Mary, and Rachel; ii.
John ; 1 2. Madeline, died young.
Donald Stewart, fifth of Invernahyle, succeeded his father, and married a daughter
of Campbell of Lochnell, by whom he had issue^
1. Alexander, who succeeded him.
2. Duncan Stewart, minister of Blair Athole, of whom hereafter, besides two other
sons and two daughters.
Alexander Stewart, sixth of Invernahyle, married, first, Isabel, daughter of John
Campbell of Kirkton, Muckairn, by whom he had two daughters ; and, second, a daughter
of Macdonald of Fersid, by whom he had Duncan, his successor, and one daughter.
Duncan Stewart, seventh of Invemahyle, married a daughter of Campbell of
Barcaldine, and left issue —
1. Alexander, who succeeded him.
5. Allan, who was out with his brothers Alexander and James in the 'forty-five.
He afterwards served during the Canadian war as a lieutenant in the 78th
Regiment (Fraser's), and subsequently fought, together with some other High-
landers, in the Royal cause during the American Revolution. He died at
Invemahyle in 1792.
Duncan was out in 17 15 under the Earl of Mar, but his father having remained at
home the estate was not forfeited.
Alexander, eighth of Invemahyle, married Catherine, daughter of Robert Stewart,
ninth of Appin, and left issue — Dugald, who succeeded him, besides five other sons and
Alexander was the very ideal of a genuine Highland gentleman of the olden time :
strict in his integrity, true to his word, sensitively honourable to the verge of romance,
unconscious of fear, yet tender-hearted as a child. Sir Walter Scott, when a young man,
visited him often at Invemahyle, and knew him well. He thus speaks of him : —
" Alexander Stewart of Invemahyle, a name which I cannot write without the warmest
recollections of gratitude to the friend of my childhood, who first introduced me to the
Highlands, their traditions and their manners He was a noble specimen of the
old Highlander — gallant, courteous, and brave even to chivalry."
He was out in 1715 and in 1745, joining Prince Charles with his brothers Allan and
James, and the Invemahyle contingent On the morning of the battle of Prestonpans the
Camerons and Stewarts of Appin made a brilliant charge, storming and capturing a
battery of four field-pieces. Alexander was in the very fore-front, and noticed an officer
of King George's service standing alone, firmly grasping his sword, and evidently purposing
to die at his post. He called on him to surrender, but for reply received a sword thrust,
which he caught in his target. The officer, who afterwards proved to be Colonel Allan
Whitefoord of Ballochmyle, being now defenceless, and the battle-axe of a gigantic
Highlander — the miller of Invemahyle— about to descend on his head, reluctantly
consented to yield. Invemahyle protected his person and property, and finally obtained
his liberty on parole. Colonel Whitefoord was a man of high influence and character,
and between him and his captor there sprung up a warm friendship and regard.
Invemahyle visited Ballochmyle on his journey northwards to raise more men for Prince
Charles when the Highland army were retreating from England, and spent a few days with
the colonel and his Whig friends as pleasantly as if all had been peaceful. After Culloden
it was Whitefoord's turn to strain every nerve to obtain Invernahyle's pardon. Being
met everywhere with refusals, he at last went direct to the Duke of Cumberland, who also
decidedly declined. He then limited his request to protection for Stewart's house, wife,
children, and property ; but this also being denied him, he laid his commission on the
table before the Duke, and asked permission to retire from the service of a sovereign who
did not know how to spare a vanquished enemy. His Royal Highness was affected, and
at length granted the request. A detachment of soldiers was accordingly sent to Inver-
nahyle, who, though they spared his property, unremittingly searched for his person. He
was nearer than they thought, being hid, like the Baron of Bradwardine, in a cave near at
hand. For weeks his life was supported by precarious supplies brought to him by a
daughter only eight years old, who strayed among the soldiers and watched for the
moment when she could, unobserved, steal into the thicket. His sufferings were aggravated
by an unhealed wound received at Culloden. After this, and when he had at last
ventured to sleep in his own house, he had a remarkable escape, being fired at and
pursued by a party of soldiers, who noticed him leaving it in the morning. The fugitive
having escaped, the soldiers returned and threatened the household with punishment for
sheltering one of the proscribed traitors. An old woman with great presence of mind
said it v.'as the shepherd. " Why, then," said the soldiers, " did he not stop when we
called him ? " " Because," was the ready reply, " he is stone deaf." The shepherd was
sent for, but having been duly tutored, pretended deafness, and the storm consequently
blew over. (See Quarterly Rei'iew of A.'^rW 1817). Invemahyle was afterwards pardoned
under the Act of Indemnity.
Letters are still in possession of the family written by I^ochiel and Keppoch to Inver-
nahyle, and by him to Donald Campbell, governor of Eilean-'n-Stalcair, which give a
vivid picture of the events occurring in those troublous times, as well as the culture,
principles, and feelings of the Highland gentlemen who were so deeply involved in
The first of these, addressed to Invemahyle, and dated from Glen Nevis, 20th March
1746, is as follows : —
Sir, — Yesternight we received a letter from Clunie, giving an account of the success
of the party sent by His Royal Highness, under the command of Lord George Murray, a
copy whereof we thought proper to send you enclosed ; and as you happen for the present
to be stationed contiguous to the Campbells, it is our special desire that you instantly
communicate to Airds the Sheriff, and other leading men among them, our sentiments
(which, God Avilling, we are determined to execute), by remitting this our letter, and the
enclosed copy, to any most convenient to you. It is our opinion that, of all men in Scot-
land, the Campbells had the least reason of any to engage in the present war against His
Royal Highness' interest, considering that they have always appeared in opposition to the
Royal Family since the reign of James VI., and have been guilty of so many acts of
rebellion and barbarity during that time, that no injured Prince but would endeavour to
resent it when God was pleased to put the power in his hands. Yet his present Majesty
and His Royal Highness the Prince Regent were generously pleased by their respective
declarations to forgive all past miscarriages to the most violent and inveterate enemy, and
even bury them in oblivion, provided they returned to their allegiance ; and though they
should not appear personally in arms in support of the Royal cause, yet their standing
neuter should entitle them to the good graces of their injured sovereign. But, in spite of
all the lenity and clemency that a prince could show or promise, the Campbells have
openly appeared with their wonted zeal for rebellion and usurpation in the most offensive
manner ; nor could we form a thought to ourselves that any men, endowed with reason
or common sense, could use their fellow-creatures with such inhumanity and barbarity as
they do, and of which we have such daily proofs by their burning of houses, stripping of
women and children and exposing them to the open fields and severity of the weather,
houghing of cattle and killing of horses — to enumerate the whole would be too tedious at
this time. They must naturally reflect that we cannot but look on such crueltie with
horror and detestation, and, with hearts full of revenge, will certainly endeavour to make
reprisals, and are determined to apply to His Royal Highness for having an order to enter
their country, with full power to act at discretion ; and if we are lucky enough to obtain
it, we will shew them that we are not to make war against women and the brute creation,
but against men, as God was pleased to put so many of their people into their custody.
We hope to prevail with His Royal Highness to hang a Campbell for every house that
shall hereafter be burnt by them.
Notwithstanding of the many scandalous and malicious aspersions industriously con-
trived by our enemies against us, the world never hitherto, since the commencement of
the war, can impeach us with any acts of hostility that had the least tendency to such
cruelty as they exercise against us, though often we had it in our power, if barbarous
enough to execute it.
Wien courage fails against men, it always betrays cowardice to a degree to \'ent their
spleen against brutes, houses, women, and children, who cannot resist. We are not
ignorant of their villianous intentions by the interrupted letter from the Sheriff Airds, &c. ;
will plainly discover that it was on their application that their general, Cumberland, granted
orders for the burning, &c., which he could not be answerable for to a British Parliament,
it being most certain that such barbarity could never be countenanced by any Christian
Senate.— We are, Sir, your most humble servants,
(Signed) Donald Cameron of Lochiel.
,, Alexr. M'Donald of Keppoch.
F.S. — l cannot omit taking notice that my people have been the first that felt the
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
cowardly barbarity of my pretended Campbell friends. I shall desire to live to have an
opportunity of thanking diem for it in the open field.
(Initialed) D. C.
Invemahyle forwarded the above letter to Donald Campbell, governor of Eilean-
'n-Stalcair, with the following from himself: —
Sir, — As you have frequent opportunities of corresponding with the gentlemen of
Argyleshire, I send you the enclosed for their perusal, which I request you will forward.
I am heartfelt sorry that the burning of houses and destruction of catrie is once begun in
our country, which must be hurtful to both parties, and a loss to the conqueror, and make
friends and neighbours that (wish) well to one another's interests alter their sentiments. I
own it is the only part of the war that gives me most trouble. If my friends and I should
differ about the government of the nation, I always thought it was better we decided in
the field than bring our sentiments upon innocent wives and children, who may possibly
differ in sentiments from their parents. You may see by the enclosed it is believed that
my friends in Argyleshire have been the cause of this violent procedure. I shall be very
sorry it hold true, as I still continue to have a value and friendship in private life for them,
they being mosriy my good friends and relations ; and I hope, if it is in their power, they
will put a stop to it. I did not choose to be employed in forwarding such letters, but people,
once engaged on either side of the question, must execute their orders. — I am, dear Sir,
your humble servant,
(Signed) Alexr. Stewart of Invemahyle.
Prince Charles presented Alexander with a ring, lozenge-shaped, and containing a
lock of his hair, which is now in possession of the family of Charles Stewart of Ardsheal.
Alexander, in the year 1778, exchanged with Major John Campbell of Airds, his lands of
Invemahyle, InverphoUa, and Garrachoran, for the lands of Acham, Belloch, Keill and
others, and afterwards sold Belloch and Keill. He died at an advanced age in 1795.
By his wife, Katherine, daughter of Robert Stewart, ninth of Appin, he had issue —
1. Margaret, married to Donald M'Donald, son of Kinloch Muidart, who " suffered"
at Carlisle in 1874-6, by whom she had two sons, who both died unmarried.
2. Charles, Lieutenant in the 74th Regiment, died without issue.
3. Alexander, died young.
4. Donald, died young.
5. Mary, who was married to John Stewart. Sfe Fasnacloich.
9. Robert, died young.
11. Duncan, died without issue.
12. Henrietta, died young.
13. Catharine, died young.
14. Dugald, who succeeded his father.
15. Isabella, died young.
Dugald Stewart, ninth of Invemahyle, succeeded his father. He sold the remain-
der of the lands, and died at Ardsheal in 1 840, leaving no issue.
James Stewart, sixth son of Duncan, seventh of Invemahyle, was severely wounded
at Culloden. After the campaign he married Robina, daughter of John Edmonstone of
Cambus-Wallace, and had issue three sons and two daughters.
Alexander Stewart, his eldest son, served in His Majesty's forces as a surgeon,
and married a great-granddaughter of the above-mentioned John Edmonstone. Alex-
ander died in 1830, and left issue —
I. John, who died unmarried; and 2. Charles.
Charles Stewart, only surviving son, was a Writer to the Signet. He married
Mary Henrietta, daughter of Andrew Wood, surgeon, Edinburgh, and died in 1836, leav-
ing issue —
1. Alexander, lost at sea.
2. Andrew Wood, the present representative of the family.
4. BoNYER, in Australia.
5. Francis, twin brother of Bonyer.
Andrew Wood Stewart married, in June 1859, Frances Buchan Wilkie, daughter
of James F. Wilkie, S.S.C, and has issue —
2. Andrew Francis.
3. Mary Alexandra.
4. Edith Louisa.
5. William Frederick.
7. Alexander Patrick.
INNERHADDEN AND STRATHGARRY.
DUNCAN STEWART, M.A., second son of Donald, fifth of Invernahyle, was Epis-
copal clergyman of Dunoon and Kilmun, and was deposed for not praying for
William and Mary in 1690. He subsequently held the living of Blair Athole, as the
parishioners would not admit a Presbyterian minister. The Presbytery of Dunkeld
ordained another minister in 1716, saying that Mr Duncan Stewart had intruded into the
kirks of Blair Athole and Stnian ; that he had never prayed for King George, but only in
general terms for the Sovereign ; that he read the thanksgivings for the safe arrival of the
Pretender; had a great hand in influencing the people to rebellion in 17 15, and read
all the Proclamations by the Earl of Mar. He married, first, the daughter and heiress
of the Rev. .(Eneas Maclaine, Kilfinan, second son of Hector Machine, Lord Bishop of
Argyll, by whom he had issue —
1. Alexander, his successor in Strathgarry.
2. Donald, who married a daughter of Stewart of Urchoilebeg in Athole, and had
issue — 1. Jean, married to the Rev. Alexander M'Calman, Incumbent of Lis-
more ; 2. Margaret or Ann, married to a brother of Stewart of Urchoilebeg ;
3. Mary, married, first, to Alexander Robertson, by whom she had no issue, and
secondly, to Campbell, brother of Glenlyon, by whom she had issue.
The Rev. Duncan Stewart married, second, Janet, daughter of M'Calman, and
had issue —
1. John, who died young.
2. AzAN, who inherited from his father the lands of Innerhadden. Alan married
Christian, daughter of M'Nab of M'Nab, and had issue — i. Duncan Stewart,
who succeeded his father in Innerhadden, and died 23rd March 1807, unmarried ;
2. Alan Stewart, who succeeded his brother, and married in 1822 his cousin,
Jean, daughter of Donald Stewart of Duntaulich. He purchased from the
Duke of Athole the superiority of Bun-Rannoch, etc. He died in 1837 without
issue, leaving Innerhadden to the head of the elder branch of his family, Allan
Duncan Stewart of Strathgarry, by whom it is now possessed. Alan, first of Inner-
hadden, inherited his father's attachment to the royal family of Stewart, took
arms for Prince Charles in 1745-6, and, after Culloden, his house was burned
and his lands plundered by the soldiers of the Duke of Cumberland.
The Rev. Duncan Stewart had four daughters by his second marriage — i. Catharine,
married to Alexander Stewart of Duntaulich, by whom she had issue Donald ; 2. A
daughter, married to a son of Campbell of Glenlyon ; 3. Elizabeth, married to Donald
M'Laren of Invenenty ; 4. Robina, married to Patrick Stewart, called " Mac Pheti," of the
The Rev. Duncan Stewart wrote a " History of the House of Stewart," which was not
published till 1739, nine years after his death. This book is a standard work, and is
constantly referred to by all later historians of the Stewarts. He died in 1 730.
Alexander Stewart succeeded his father in Strathgarry. He married Amelia, daughter
of Robertson of Kincraigie, a branch of the family of Lude, and died about 1749, leaving
issue, and was succeeded by his eldest son, Alexander. .
Alexander Stewart, third of Strathgarry, was born in 1712. He was minister of
Blair Athole from 1741 to 1780, and married Isabella, daughter of Patrick Robertson,
second son of Alexander Robertson, tenth of Lude, by whom he had issue —
1. Duncan, who succeeded.
2. Charles, died unmarried.
3. Alexander Stewart, minister of Moulin, from which he was translated to
Dingwall in 1805, and thence to the Canongate parish in 1820. He married,
first, Louisa, daughter of Captain Macpherson of Dalchully, fifth son of Cluny
Macpherson, chief of the Clan Chattan, and of Jean, daughter of Sir Ewen
Cameron of Lochiel, and had by her two children —
1. Alexander (a minister in holy orders), died, unmarried, at Cromarty
2. Catharine, married in 1821 to the Rev. Hector Allan, minister of
Kincardine, in Ross-.shire, and died in 1836, leaving issue — i.
Alexander Stewart Allan, born 19th August 1822, entered the H.E.L
Company's military service in 1841, retiring as Major-General in
1 ,"', 17-95 ) lie married, 25th October 1848, Edith Ross, daughter of
William Samuel Blackburn, co. Lancaster. 2. Catharine, married to
George Richmond of Bathaldie, co. Perth, and has issue.
Dr Alexander Stewart, minister of Moulin, married second, in 1802, Emilia, daughter
of the Rev. Charles Calder, minister of Urquhart, co. Ross, and by her had issue —
1. Charles Calder, born 1804, minister of Aberdalgie, who married Jamima
Hunter, daughter of Robert Lee, and died, leaving no issue.
2. Duncan Stewart, M.D., H.E.I. C.S., who married Margaret Sophia, daughter of
Edward Toussaint, Commander H.E.I. Company's Marine, and had issue— i.
William Jackson Stewart, Major in the Bengal >JativG Tnttmtry, who married
Jean Isabella, daughter of General Carmichael Smith, and had issue; 2. James
Calder Stewart, Major in Her Majesty's Forces in India, who married Emily
Hartley, daughter of Thomas Grant of Hungershall Park ; 3. Duncan Stewart,
Lieutenant 7Sth Highlanders; and two daughters.
3- James Calder Stewart, who married Rosina, daughter of Alexander Campbell,
and has issue— i. Alexander ; 2. Charles ; 3. Douglas Campbell ; 4- Emily.
4. Patrick Stewart, died without issue.
5. John Stewart. He married Matilda, daughter of James Graham of Whitehills,
advocate, and has issue — Matilda, James Graham, and Alexander.
Dr Alexander Stewart of Moulin, by his second marriage, had two daughters — i.
Margaret Brodie, married to Sir John Frederick William Herschel, Bart, and had issue
three sons and nine daughters ; 2. Isabella, died unmarried.
Alexander Stewart, third of Strathgarry, also left three daughters—
1. Cecil, who was married in 1770 to Gilbert Stewart of Fincastle, and had issue, of
whom Jean was married in 1 805 to Alexander Robertson, twenty-second baron
of Struan, and was mother of Alexander Gilbert Robertson, whose son Alasdaer
was chief of the clan Donachie, and twenty-fifth baron of Struan.
2. Jean, who was married to the Rev. Alexander Small, and had issue — i. Robert
Small, a merchant in London ; 2. Alexander Small, Minister of Stair ; 3. John
Small of Foodie, co. Fife, who died in 1862, leaving issue. Also daughters,
none of whom left issue, except the eldest, Isabella Small, who married in 18 11
the Rev. Daniel Robertson, D.D., and left issue, one of whom is Patrick James
Robertson of Heilton, M.P. for Hastings 1852 to 1868.
3. Margaret, died unmarried.
Duncan Stewart, fourth of Strathgarry, born 1747, succeeded his father, the Rev.
Alexander Stewart, and was Minister of the parish of Balquhidder. He married Arabella,
daughter of Duncan Campbell of Auchline, and had issue —
1. Alexander, who succeeded him.
2. Duncan, M.D., died unmarried.
3. Robert, born 1787, who entered the H.E.I.C.S. in 1806, retiring as a Major-
General. He married first, in 1831, Anne, eldest daughter of Captain Duncan
Stewart of Glenbuckie, who died without issue in 1833 ; and secondly, in 1834,
to Grace, third daughter of Robert Menzies of Dalreoch, in Perthshire, by whom
he had issue —
1. Anne Arabella, bom 1835, and married in 1861 to Charles Patrick
Finlay, W.S., Edinburgh, and died in 1878, leaving issue— i. Gilbert
Laurie ; 2. Robert Stewart ; 3. Charles Patrick.
2. Jessie, died unmarried.
3. Robert Duncan, died unmarried.
4. Arabella Elizabeth Smythe, married in 1867 to William Bm-net
Craigie, Major in the Bengal cavalry. She died in India in 1868,
5- Grace Roberta Louisa, married in 1877 to Charles Baxter, W.S.,
Edinburgh, by whom she has one son, Edmund, also Mary TumbuU.
The Rev. Duncan Stewart, fourth of Strathgarry, had also a daughter, Louisa, who
was married in 1804 to the Rev. R. Kay, successively Minister of Kinclaven, of the
Canongate Chapel, Edinburgh, and of the West Church, Perth. They had three sons
and three daughters —
1. Arabella, died unmarried.
2. Elizabeth Anne, who was married in 1837 to the Rev. George Gordon Milne,
formerly Episcopal Clergyman of Cupar Fife, by whom she has four sons and
one daughter — i. Alexander Stewart Spencer; 2. Eliza Margaret; 3. Robert
Duncan ; 4. George Louis Cyprian ; and 5. James Erskine Fulton.
3. Alexander, died unmarried.
4. Robert Duncan, born 1810, and died 1848. He was a Captain in the H.E.LC.S.,
and married in 1846 Caroline Alice, daughter of N. J. Halhed of the Bengal
5. Henrietta Dundas, died unmarried.
6. Duncan James of Drumpark, co. Kirkcudbright, who married Charlotte Halhed.
Alexander Stewart, fifth of Strathgarry, born 17 79, was a Colonel in the H.E.LC.S.,
and married, first, Sarah Harriet, daughter of the Rev. Dart, Dover, by whom he had
one daughter, who died young ; and second, Janetta, daughter of Ralph Allen Daniell of
Trelissick, co. Cornwall, High Sheriff of that county in 1795, and M.P. for West Love in
1806, by whom he had issue —
1. Allan Duncan, his successor.
2. Alexander, bom 1832, a merchant in Bombay. He married, first, Elizabeth
Dalziell, daughter of General Sir John Cheape, K.C.B., and had issue — i. John
Cheape; 2. Janetta; 3. Duncan Hubert. He married, second, Mary, daughter
of Monsieur Gosset, Berne, Switzerland, and has by her — 1. Edith; 2. Marie
Madeleine ; 3. Lucie ; 4. Alice.
3. Janetta, unmarried.
4. Hinton Daniell, born 1835, and married Lucy, daughter of Donald Macfarlane,
M.D., Perth, and has issue — i. Donald Allan; 2. Hinton; 3. Isobel ;
4. Janetta ; 5. Harriet.
Allan Duncan Stewart, sixth of Strathgarry, and fifth of Innerhadden and Bun-
Rannoch, born 1831, succeeded his father in 1835. He was a Fellow of St Peter's College,
Cambridge, and is a C.E. and J. P. for Perthshire. He married in 1857 Susan Hepburne,
daughter of Archibald Hepburne Mitchelson of Middleton, co. of Edinburgh, and has
issue — -^LfU. a.-<: v'/i • > ■• /'/ . icA <_ Si'ijc/: '■
3. Archibald HEPBURNE.-'-^'Ly .i^^*" --':-*».^A^y
4. Robert Philip.
5. Allan Hinton. ,
6. Susan Grace. "^ <4^.^.^^
7. Duncan Charles.
8. Jessie Elizabeth.
9. Jane Eliza.
BALLACHELISH, a.d. 1520.
Allan Stewart, third son of Domhnull-nan-ord of Invemahyle, was with his father at the
battle of Pinkie in 1547, and so demeaned himself at that engagement that he was placed
at Ballachelish to defend the ready entrance into Appin at that point, either across
a narrow strait of Lochleven, or down the pass of Glencoe. Ballachelish is a corruption
of the t^vo Gaelic words, Bala and Chaolas, and thus signifies the town on the ferry. Allan
married a daughter of M'Donald of Killiechonat, and had two sons, Alexander and
Alexander Stewart, second of Ballachelish, married Janet, youngest daughter of
John Stewart, brother of Invemahyle, and had two sons — John, who succeeded him, and
Alexander. Also two daughters, Isabel and Beatrice. Alexander married a daughter of
Campbell of Barcaldine, and had three sons — Alexander, of whom hereafter, Donald and
John Stewart, third of Ballachelish, married a daughter of Duncan Stewart of
Ardsheal, but, having no issue, was succeeded by his nephew, Alexander.
Alexander Stewart, fourth of Ballachelish, bom a.d. 1684, succeeded his uncle.
He married, first, Anne, daughter of John Stewart of Ardsheal, but had no issue ;
secondly, Isabel, daughter of Alexander Stewart of Annat, a branch of the Stewarts of
Ardvorlich, and by her had issue— i. John, who succeeded him; 2. Alexander, killed at
Culloden, where four of his nephews — Duncan, Donald, Dugald, and Alexander— were
wounded ; 3. a daughter, Isabella.
Alexander was present at the battle of SherifFmuir in 1715, at Culloden, and died in
1774 at a great age, and was succeeded by his son, John.
John Stewart, fifth of Ballachelish, succeeded his father, and married Margaret,
daughter of William Wilson of Murrayshall, and grand-daughter of John Haldane of
Lanrick, Perthshire. He died 1794, leaving issue one daughter, Lilias.
Lilias Stewart, sixth of Ballachelish, succeeded her father, and married Dugald
Stuart, a captain in the 71st Regiment. She died in 1840, leaving issue — i. Charles, who
succeeded, born 1787; 2. John, of whom hereafter; 3. Henry, died unmarried; also a
daughter, Margaret, who died unmarried.
Charles Stuart, seventh of Ballachelish, succeeded his mother, and married
Clementina, daughter of Dr Bartlett Buchanan. He died in 1855, leaving issue — Dugald,
died unmarried in 1872 ; John; and three daughters.
John Stuart, second son of Lilias Stewart of Ballachelish, was born 1793. He was
admitted to the English Bar in 1839, was subsequently made Queen's Council, and in
1852 was appointed Vice-Chancellor. In 1846 he was elected Member of Parliament for
Newark, was re-elected in 1847, ^"d i" 1852 was elected Member for Bury St Edmunds.
In 1 86 1 he purchased the lands of Lochcarron, Sheildaig, and Kishom. He was appointed
one of Her Majesty's Privy Council on his retirement from the Vice-Chancellorship in
187 1. The Right Honourable Sir John Stuart married Jessie, daughter of Duncan
Stewart of Inverlochy, and died in 1876, leaving issue —
1. Dugald Stuart of Lochcarron. He married in 1876 Elizabeth Margaret Down-
ing M'Donald of Dalness, only child of Captain George Downing of the Madras
Army, and of Margaret Campbell M'Donald, daughter of Coll M'Donald of
Dalness. She is grand-niece of Colonel A. Ranaldson M'Donell of Glengarry.
2. John Stuart of Kishom, married in 1874 Mary Hay, daughter of Alexander
Stewart of Achnacoan.
3. Lilias, died unmarried.
4. Jessie, married to Colonel Alexander Cameron Gleig of the Royal Artillery.
INNISCHAORAICH AND BOHALLIE.
Dugald Stewart, the first of Innischaoraich, was second son of Duncan, third of Inver-
nahyle. In 1656 he purchased the lands of Innischaoraich and others in Breadalbane,
from Sir James Campbell of Lawers. He married, and had issue — i. Allan, who succeeded
him; and 2. Niel.
Allan Stewart of Innischaoraich married a daughter of Burden of Fidals, and had
a son, James, who succeeded him.
James Stewart of Innischaoraich married a daughter of Stewart of Annat, and had
two sons, who died immarried.
Niel Stewart of Botuamie and Tullich in Glenlochay, afterwards of Edravinnoch
in Glendochart, succeeded as heir to his nephew, James. He married, first, Jean,
daughter of William Stewart of Drumchary in Fortingall, by whom he had John, who suc-
ceeded him ; and, secondly, Jane Campbell, by whom he had no issue.
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN. 183
In an incursion by Ian Glas, the first Earl of Breadalbane, against the Sinclairs of
Caithness in 1680, Niel was in command of the western division of the Breadalbane men ;
and at the battle of AUt-na-Meirleach, near Wick, where the Sinclairs were defeated, and
many of them slain ; he fought with such prowess at lan's right hand, that it still forms
subject of fireside talk in Breadalbane. The sword carried by Niel on this occasion
is still intimately associated with the same division of the Breadalbane Highlanders, and
worn by one of his descendants at their parades.
John Stewart, of Edravinnoch, succeeded his father at his death in 1737, but only
survived him by a few months. He married his cousin, Isabel, daughter of Patrick
Stewart of Drumchary, by whom he had Charles, who succeeded him. He was out in
1 7 15, under the Earl of Mar, and severely wounded. He described himself as surrounded
by his assailants, like a stag amidst a pack of hounds, and obliged to fight his way
Charles Stewart of Edravinnoch, afterwards of Bohallie, well known for his
chivalrous bearing, succeeded his father, John. His relative. General David Stewart of
Drumchary and Garth, in his " Sketches of Highlanders," thus describes him : " This
gentleman was remarkable for his strength and activity, and one of the best swordsmen of
his time, in an age when good swordsmanship was common, and considered an indispensable
and graceful accomplishment of a gentleman." He was out with the clan in the 'forty-five,
and severely wounded at CuUoden. At the very hottest of the fight his sword broke, but
hastily snatching up one from the side of a slain comrade, he fiercely continued the struggle.
This sword is now in possession of C. A. M'Diarmid of Rockwood. He was helped by a
friend from the field of batde, and mounted on an old white horse fortunately caught
amongst the hills, and so brought home to Bohallie. In the year following, a detachment
of soldiers was sent to pacify that district of Athole, and he, along with the Stewart lairds
of Foss and Duntaulich, had to go into hiding in the wood of Kynachan. The watch was
very close, and they were saved from frequent want by the tact of the dairymaid, who
drove the milk cows daily through the wood, and in their direction. The officers were
quartered upon DaNad Stewart of Kynachan, to whose sister, Clementina, Charles was
engaged in marriage, and it so happened that one evening as she was in the sitting-room
spinning her wheel — the useful accomplishment of Highland ladies in those times — and
talking to the officers, a servant entered and said she was wanted in the kitchen. Laying
aside her wheel, and apologizing for her absence, she followed the servant, and found
Charles, who had come in by a back window, accompanied by a clergyman, waiting
for her. The marriage ceremony was soon over, and Charles having attained his wish of
leaving her, in the event of his death, with the position and benefits accruing to his widow,
returned by the back window to his hiding-place, whilst Clementina, with a happy yet
anxious heart, returned to her entertainment of the officers.
It may be mentioned that David was wounded at CuUoden, and as he never returned
to Kynachan, an uncertainty hangs over his fate. He was last seen with a broken
sword in his hand, fighting against two dragoons, who were sorely pressing him. He was
taken prisoner, it is said, and along with some others of mark, confined in a barn, which
was set fire to by orders of Cumberland, and the prisoners shot as they tried to escape.
His name afterwards appears in the list of those excluded from the benefits of the Act of
By Clementina, Charles had Elizabeth, who succeeded him, and three other daugh-
ters, Jean, Anne, and Euphemia.
Elizabeth Stewart of Bohallie, married John M'Diarmid, Dunark, and had issue —
I. Charles M'Diarmid of Bohallie, who married Jane, daughter of John Stewart of Foss,
and left issue, Charles Alexander M'Diarmid of Rockwood, Killin, and Donald Alexander
M'Diarmid, Killiemore ; 2. Grace, who married Donald Stewart of Glencripesdale (of the
family of James Stewart of The Glens), and had issue — r. Alexander Stewart of Glencripes-
dale, who married Isabella, daughter of Joseph Stewart of Foss, by whom he has left a
daughter, Margaret,' married to Alexander Gallaway, Huntershill, ; 2. Charles Stewart of
Tighnduin, Killin ; 3. Elizabeth, who married John Stewart of Findynate, and left issue ;
and 4. Clementina, who married her cousin, C. A, M'Diarmid.
SLIOCHD AILEIN 'IC ROB.
THIS sept of the clan Stewart, commonly called the " M'Robs," received their name
in consequence of their descent from a natural son of Robert Stewart^ son of
Dugald, first of Appin. The name of this illegitimate son seems to have been Alan, and
he apparently had a son called Robert ; for the sept was sometimes spoken of by the
seannachies of the clan as Sliochd Rob Ailein Tc Rob, or the descendants of Robert, son
of Alan, who was son of Robert. As early as the wars of Montrose, the " MacRobs "
could of themselves, on an emergency, muster fifty broadswords so trusty and true, that
an old bard of the sept speaks of them as the " back-bone " of the clan, —
" Cnaimh droma mo chinnidh
Bras 'am mire nan treun chath."
(" The back-bone of our clan.
Eager in the excitement of the battles of heroes.")
The lands occupied by the " MacRobs " were Glenduror, Lettermore, and Acharn
in Duror, which they held at first from Appin, but afterwards from Ardsheal, paying but
a nominal rent, and looking upon their possessions almost as their own, subject only to
the small rent payable by them. When in the winter of 1644-5 Montrose made his
memorable raid into the country of the Campbells, so graphically described in the
" Legend of Montrose," the sept, as usual, formed part of the Appin regiment, and so
distinguished themselves that their prowess was specially alluded to in the following verse
of a poem written to commemorate Montrose's brilliant campaign in the West High-
land's : —
" Thugh sibh an sgriob a bha fearail
Null gu fearann nan Drumhneach,
Deadh Chlann Ian on Innean
'S clann Ailein-ic-Rob o Ghleannduror."
" That was a gallant raid of yours
Into the lands of the Campbells,
Bold Maclans from Glencoe's steep stithy.
With the brave MacAllans-MacRobs of Glenduror."
When, after the battle of Culloden, Charles Stewart, fifth of Ardsheal, upon whose
lands they lived, was in exile in France, the " MacRobs " voluntarily assessed themselves
in the sum of one hundred pounds, — a large sum in those days, — which they sent to Ard-
sheal by a secret messenger, though they were at the same time paying a considerable
rent to the Government. At the time when the Appin estate was sold, Allan Stewart,
a " MacRob," an active and well-known man in Appin, was tenant of the island of Shuna,
and was the subject of several verses still current in the Strath. He had a numerous
family, and some of his sons rose to distinction in the military and civil services. Towards
the end of last century many of the " MacRobs " emigrated to America, where they
acquired extensive lands, held by their descendants at the present day.
The foregoing account of the " MacRobs" is by die Rev. Alexander Stewart, F.S.A.
Scot., and F.R.P.S.E., minister of the parish of Ballachelish and Ardgour. Mr Stewart is
well known as an accomplished naturalist and litterateur under the name of " Nether Loch-
aber." He is descended from Stewarts on both sides of the house for nine generations,
his descent on the male side being from the Sliochd Ailein 'ic Rob. In 1 7 1 5 Donald
Stewart " MacRob " was tenant in Lettermore, and was wounded in the knee at Sheriffmuir,
being known thereafter as Domhnuill crubach na Leitrich-more. He died at Letter-shuna
in 1 731, leaving two sons. The eldest, James, an Episcopal clergyman, died unmarried;
the second, Robert, succeeded his father in Lettermore. Robert fought at Culloden, and
for some time after the battle was in hiding, but after the Act of Indemnity returned to
Lettermore. He died about 1768, leaving by his wife, who was of the family of Glen-
buckie, a son James, who was for many years a tenant of a large grazing in Glenfinlas.
James' son, Peter, died in 1793, well known and much respected as the schoolmaster of
Ardgour. His son, David, for fifty years an officer of the Inland Revenue, was father of
the Rev. Alexander Stewart, " Nether Lochaber," whose writings have done so much to
make the public acquainted with the legends and natural history of the West Highlands.
Charter by King James II. to John, Lord Lorn, of the Lords/dp of Lorn, and the
Baronies of Innermeath and Redcastk. Rcgistmm Magni Sigiili, Lib. 4,
No. 176. Dated 20tk June 1452.
Jacobus Dei gracia rex Scotorum omnibus probis hominibus tocius terre sue clericis et
laicis salutem : Sciatis nos dedisse, concessisse et hac presenti carta nostra confirmasse
dilecto consanguineo nostro Johanni domino le Lorn, totum et integrum dominium de
Lorn cum pertinenciis, necnon totam et integram baroniam de Innermeth cum pertinen-
ciis, jacentes infra vicecomitatum de Perth, ac omnes et singulas terras baronie de Red-
castel cum pertinenciis, jacentes infra vicecomitatum de Forfar : quod dominium et baronie
prescripte fuerunt dicti Johannis hereditarie, et quod et que idem Johannes non vi aut
metu ductus, nee errore lapsus, sed sua mera et spontanea voluntate, in manus nostras
apud Edinburgh coram subscriptis testibus personaliter per fustem et baculum sursum
reddidit, pureque simpliciter resignauit, ac totum jus et clameum que in dictis dominio et
baroniis cum pertinenciis habuit, seu habere potuit, pro se et heredibus suis omnino quie-
tum clamauit imperpetuum : Tenendum et habendum dictum dominium de Lorn necnon
predictas baronias de Innermeth et de Redcastel, cum vniuersis et singulis annexis,
dependenciis et pertinenciis suis quibuscunque, Johanni domino le Lorn, et heredibus
masculis de corpore suo legitime procreatis seu procreandis ; quibus forte deficientibus,
Waltero Steuart fratri germano dicti Johannis et heredibus masculis de corpore suo legitime
procreatis seu procreandis ; quibus forte deficientibus, Alano Steuart fratri eciam germano
dicti Johannis domini le Lorn et heredibus masculis de corpore suo legitime procreatis seu
procreandis ; quibus forte deficientibus, Dauid Steuart, fratri germano dicti Johannis domini
le Lorn et heredibus masculis de corpore suo legitime procreatis seu procreandis ; quibus
forte deficientibus, Roberto Steuart fratri germano dicti Johannis et heredibus masculis de
corpore suo legitime procreatis seu procreandis ; quibus forsan deficientibus, Archibaldo
Steuart auunculo dicti Johannis domini le Lorn et heredibus masculis de corpore suo
legitime procreatis seu procreandis ; quibus forte deficientibus, Jacobo Steuart militi et
heredibus suis masculis de corpore suo legitime procreatis seu procreandis ; quibus fortasse
deficientibus, Thome Steuart consanguineo dicti Johannis domini le Lorn et heredibus
masculis corpore suo legitime procreatis seu procreandis ; quibus omnibus deficientibus,
veris, legittimis et propinquioribus heredibus dicti Johannis domini le Lorn quibuscunque
de nobis et successoribus nostris, in feodo et hereditate imperpetuum, per omnes rectas
metas suas antiquas et diuisas, prout jacent in longitudine et latitudine, in boscis
brasinis, brueriis et genestis, cum furca, fossa, sok sak, thol theme, infangandtheyf,
outfangandtheyf, cum tenandiis, tenandriis, et libere tenencium seruiciis, cum communi
pastura, liber introitu et exitu, columbis, columbariis, curiis et earum exitibus, herzeldis,
bludwitis, et merchetis mulierum, ac cum omnibus aliis et singulis libertatibus, commodi-
tatibus, asiamentis ac justis pertinenciis suis quibuscunque tam non nominatis quam
nominatis, ad supradictas terras cum pertinenciis spectantibus, seu quoquomodo juste
spectare valentibus in futurum, et adeo libere, quiete, plenarie, integre, honorifice, bene et
in pace, in omnibus et per omnia, sicut dictus Johannes dominus le Lome aut sui predi-
cessores, dictum dominium et terras cum pertinenciis, de nobis aut predicessoribus nostris,
ante dictam resignationem nobis inde factam, libere tenuit seu possedit, tenuerunt seu
possiderunt. In cuius rei testimonium presenti carte nostri magnum sigillum nostrum
apponi precepimus, testibus reuerendis in Christo patribus, Jacobo et Willelmo Sancti
Andree et Glasguensis ecclesiarum episcopis, Willelmo domino Crechton nostro cancellario
et consanguineo predilecto, dilectis consanguineis nostris Patricio domino de Ghrame,
Alexandre domino Montigomery, Johanni domino le Lyndissay de Byris, Andrea domino
le Gray, magistro hospicii nostri, magistro Johanni Arous, archidiacono Glasguensi, et
Georgeo de Schoriswode rectore de Culter. Apud Edinburgh vicesimo die mensis Junii
anno Domini millesimo quadringentesimo quinquagesimo secundo et regni nostri decimo
Charter by King James II., including tJie lands of Ennerdotty, Baldenys, Colndrane,
Maw, Coltrane and Kyldeny, ijt tlie Barony of Innermeatli. Registmm
Magni Sigilli, Lib. 4, No. 177. Dated 20th June 1452.
Jacobus Dei gracia Rex Scotorum omnibus probis hominibus tocius terre sue clericis
et laicis salutem : Sciatis nos dedisse concessisse et hac presenti carta nostra confir-
masse, dilecto consanguineo nostro Johanni Domino le Lorn, totam et integram baro-
niam de Innemeth cum pertinenciis, jacentem infra vicecomitatum de Perth : necnon
omnes et singulas terras subscriptas, videlicet, totas et integras terras de Ennerdony
et Baldenys, jacentes in comitatu de Stratheme infra vicecomitatum de Perth ; necnon
terras de Coludrane et de Maw cum pertinenciis jacentes infra vicecomitatum de Fyf ;
necnon terras de Coltrane cum pertinenciis jacentes infra vicecomitatum de Kynros ; nec-
non terras de Kyldeny cum pertinenciis, jacentes infra vicecomitatum de Perth : que
baronia et terre supradicte cum pertinenciis fuerunt dicti Johannis domini le Lome
hereditarie et quas idem Johannes non vi aut metu ductus nee errore lapsus sed sua mera
et spontanea voluntate in manus nostras apud Edinburgh per fustem et baculum coram
testibus subscriptis personaliter sursum reddidit pureque simpliciter resignauit ac totuni
jus et clameum que in dictis baronia et terris cum pertinenciis habuit seu habere potuit
pro se et heredibus suis omnino quietum clamauit imperpetuum. Quas omnes et
singulas terras prescriptas cum vniuersis earundem pertinenciis dicte baronie de Inner-
meth incorporamus anneximus et vnimus pro perpetuo tenore presentis carte : Tenendam
et habendam totam et integram baroniam predictam cum pertinenciis, vniuersiis et singuHs
terris prescriptis, per nos ut premittitur dicte baronie anexis et vnitis, dicto Johanni
domino le Lorn et heredibus suis, de nobis heredibus et successoribus nostris, in feodo
et hereditate imperpetuum, per omnes rectas metas suas antiquas et diuisas, prout jacent
in longitudine et latitudine, cum omnibus et singulis libertatibus commoditatibus et
asiamentis ac justis pertinenciis suis quibuscunque tam non nominatis quam nominatis,
ad supradictas tenas cum pertinenciis spectantibus seu quouismodo juste spectare valenti-
bus in futurum, et adeo libere quiete plenarie integre honorifice bene et in pace in
omnibus et per omnia, sicut predictus Johannes dominus le Lorn aut sui predicessores
nominatas terras cum pertinenciis de nobis aut predicessoribus nostris antediactm resig-
nacionem nobis inde factam liberius tenuit seu possedit tenuerunt seu possiderunt. In
cuius rei testimonium presenti carte nostre magnum sigillum nostrum apponi precepimus
testibus loco anno et die ut in precedenti carta anno regni nostri decimo sexto.
Charter by King James IV. to Duncan Steiuart, son and lieir of Dougal Stewart
of Appin, in life-rent, of tlie lands of Coide of Durroure, Ardsell, Lagyn-
hall, Aiichincan, Auchindarach, Auchinblare, Bellecatdis, and Glencowyn.
Reg. Mag. Sig., Lib. 13, No. 429. Dated 141/1 January 1500.
Jacobus Dei gracia Rex Scotorum omnibus probis hominibus suis ad quos presentes litere
pervenerint Salutem: Sciatis quod pro bono fideli et gratuito seruicio nobis per dilectum nos-
trum Duncanum Stewarte fiHum et heredem quondam Dungalli Stewart de Appin, impenso
et impendendo, dedimus et concessimus ac tenore presencium damus et concedimus pre-
dicto Duncano, pro toto tempore vite sue, totas et integras viginti libratas terrarum nos-
trarum de Durroure subscriptas, viz. : septem mercatas terrarum de Coule de Durroure, sep-
tem mercatas terrarum de Ardsell et Lagynhall tres, mercatas terrarum de Auchincar, quinque
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
mercatas terrarum de Auchindarach et Auchinblare et tres mercatas terrarum de Bellecaullis ;
Necnon tolas et integras viginti mercatas terrarum de Glencowyn cum suis pertinenciis :
extendentes in integro ad quinquaginta mercatas terrarum jacentium infra vicecomitatum
nostrum de Perth. Quequidem terre cum pertinenciis fuerunt prius in manibus Johannis
Makcoule, per donacionem nostram in minore etate nostra sibi desuper confectam, et nunc
in manibus nostris existunt et iterim legittime deuenerunt, per nostram vltimam generalem
reuocacionem ad perfectam etatem nostram viginti quinque annorum completorum factam
de omnibus donacionibus per nos in minore etate nostra concessis. Tenendas et
habendas totas et integras predictas viginti libratas terrarum de Durroure, viz. : septem
mercatas terrarum de Cowle de Durroure, septem mercatas terrarum de Ardsell et
Lagynhall, tres mercatas terrarum de Auchincare, quinque mercatas terrarum de Auchin-
darach et Auchinblare, et tres mercatas terrarum de Bellecaullis, necnon viginti merca-
tas terrarum de Glencowyn predictas cum pertinenciis, dicto Duncano in feodo suo, pro
toto tempore vite sue, pro suo bono et gratuito seruicio nobis vt premittitur impenso et
impendendo, per omnes rectas metas suas antiquas et diuisas prout jacent in longitudine
et latitudine, in boscis planis moris maresiis viis semitis aquis stagnis riuolis pratis pascuis et
pasturis molendinis multuris et eorum sequelis aucupacionibus venacionibus piscacionibus
petariis turbariis carbonariis lapicidiis lapide et calce fabrilibus brasinis brueriis et genestis
cum curiis et earum exitibus herezeldis bludwitis et merchetis mulierum, ac cum omnibus
aliis et singulis libertatibus commoditatibus et aisiamentis ac justis pertinenciis suis quibus-
cumque, tam non nominatis quam nominatis tam subtus terra quam supra terram procul et
prope ad predictas terras cum pertinenciis spectantibus seu iuste spectare valentibus quo-
modolibet in futurum. Et cum potestate dicto Duncano predictas terras cum pertinenciis
suis propriis bonis occupandi vel easdem tenentibus assedandi prout sibi melius videbitur
expediens conueniens et oportunum durante vita sua libere quiete bene et in pace, sine
aliqua reuocacione aut contradictione quacunque. Quare vniuersis et singulis quorum
interest vel interesse poterit stricte precipimus et mandamus ne quis dicto Duncano suisve
subtenentibus aut seruitoribus in occupacione dictarum terrarum cum pertinenciis
durante vita sua impedimentum seu obstaculum facial sub omni pena que competere
poterit in hac parte. Datum sub magno sigillo nostro, apud Striueling decimo quarto die
mensis Januarii anno Domini millesimo quingentesimo et regni nostri decimo tercio.
Decree against Ewiu Alansotine and his followers, in favour of Archibald, Earl of
Argyll, as Cessionar and Assignaye to Alexander, Earl of Huntly,for damages
in the Jieirschip onBadenoch. Acts of the Lords of Council, \6tli February 1 507-8.
Decretis and deliueris that Ewin Alansoune Johnne Alanesoune his brother [and ninety-
two followers therein named] sail content and pay to Archbald Erie of Ergile as cessionar
and assignaye to Alexander Erie of Huntlie lord Baidzenocht and Gillespy M'William
and the remanent of the personis vnderwrittin thair sovmes and gudis as particulary
followis quhilkis war masterfully spulzeit and awaytakin fra the saidis personis to quham
the said Erie of Ergile is assignay, be the said Ewin Alanesoune Johne Alansone his
brother and the remanent of the personis forwrittin thair complicis furtht of the braa of
Baidzenocht, Garf Ayemoir and Glasterie the tym of the heirschip of the sammyn. That
is to say, fra the said Gillaspye MakWilliam xl ky zoung and auld, xxx scheip, xx gait,
vj hors, be boUis of aitis xx bollis of beir and insicht gudis of houshald, extendin to xU
[and seventy-nine others whose lost goods and gear are enumerated] the quhilkis gudis
pertenit till the said Alexander Erie of Huntlie and to the saidis Gillaspy M'William Nele
Roy and the remanent of the saidis personis his tennentis and vtheris with thair cottaris
as is abone expremit, and now pertenis to the saide Archibald Erie of Ergile as sessionar
and assignay to tham as thair lettres of powar and assignation made to him thairupon
schawin and producit befor the lordis proportit and bur. And becaus that quhen the
saide Erie of Ergile seruit our souerane lordis lettres of sumondis apon the saidis Ewin
Alanson and Johne his brother and thair complicis for the foirsaidis gudis and sovmez
the saide Ewin and his saide brother and complicis spulzeit and tuke the saide sumondis
fra Ewin M'William our souerane lordis scheref in that part contenit in the saide
sumondis for the quhilk the saidis Ewin Alanson and Johne his brother war sumonit to
compeir befoir our souerane lord and his lordis of counsale at ane certane day bigan with
certificatioun quhidder that thai comperit and deliuerit the saide sumondis or nocht the
lordis of counsal forsaide wald procede and minister justice apon the pointis of the samyn
in sa fer as the saide Erie of Ergile wald mak faitht was contenit in tharae, as the saide
lettrez gevin thairupon deuly execut and indorsit schawin befor the saidis lordis proportit
and bur at the quhilk terme the saide Erie previt sufficiently that the saidis gudis war
contenit in the saide sumondis and that the saide Ewin Alanson and his brother tuke
and spulzeit fra the saide scheref in that part the samin forsaide lettrez of sumondis and
thairfor ordanis our souerane lordis lettrez to be direct to compell and distrenze thairfor.
The saide Erie of Ergile being personaly present and the saide Ewan Alanson and Johne
his brother being lauchfully sumonit and chargeit be the saide last lettrez eftir the tenour
abone expremit oftimez callit and nocht comperit.
Decree against Ewin Allanesoune and Duncan Stewart, in favour of Archibald,
Earl of Argyll, for 500 inerks in full contentment of the herschip oti Badenocli.
Acts of the Lords of Council, gih February 1508-9.
Decretis and deliueris that Ewin Allanesoune and Duncan Stewart baitht personaly
present, of thair avine consent, coniunctly and seueraly renunceand the benefite of
diuisioun, sail content and pay till Archibald Erie of Ergill, the sovme of five hundreth
merkis vsuall monye of Scotland, betuix the dait herof and the feist of Mertimes in wynter
nixt to cum in full contentatioun and asithment of the herschip of Baidzenach and the
richt thairof pertening to the said Archibald Erie of Ergile. And that our souerane lordis
lettrez be direct to compell and distrenze thairfor eftir the passage of the said terme in
dew form. And thairfor the said Erie transferrit in the saidis personis all rycht that he
haid to the said herschip and gudis contenit in the decrete gevin thairuppoun at Edin-
burgh the xvj day of Februare the zere of God j" v"^ and sevin zeris.
Contimiaiion of the Summons raised by Duncan Stewart of Appin, and certam of
his Duror tenants, against Duart, Coll, and Ulva. Acts of the Lords of
Council, gth May 1509.
CoNTiNEWis the summondis rasit at the instance of Duncane Stewart of Appin and
certane his tennentis duelland apon his landis of Durrour agane Lauchlane M'Gillane of
Dowarde, Johnne M'Cane Maklauchlane of Coll, and Dunslavy M'Vorich of Vlway, for the
wranguis distructioun and withhaldin fra the said Duncane and his said tennentis of
xxx'J ky tua hors xx bollis of aitis, and diuers vther gudis, like as at mair lentht is contenit
in the said summondis thairuppoun on to the xvj day of Junij nixt to cum with continua-
tion of dais, in the samyn form force and effect as it is now, but preiudice of party, and
ordanis the said Duncane and his tennentis to haue lettres to summond the witnes that
wer summonit of befor and comperit nocht to be summonit vnder gretar panis, and ma
witnes gif thai plese, agane the said day, the said Duncane being present for him self and
his tenentis. And that the remanent of the said personis be warnit of this continuation
and to here the witnes suome.
Continuation of the S?immons raised by Duncan Stewart of Appin, and certain of
his Appin tenants, against Duart, Coll, and Ulva. Acts of the Lords of
Council, iqth May 1509.
CoNTiNEWis the summondis rasit at the instance of Duncane Stewart of Appin and
certane his tennentis duelland apon his landis of Appin agane Lauchlane M'Gillen of
Doward, Johne M'Cane M'Clachlane of Coll, and Dunslavy M'Vorich of Wlway, for
the wrangws distruction and withhalding fra the said Duncane and his tenentis of
ane galay of xxxij airis, price L" and diuers vtheris gudis, like as at mar lentht is
contenit in the said summondis, onn to the xvj day of Junij nixt to cum with
continewation of dais, in the samyn forme force and effect as it is now, but preiudice
of party. And ordanis the said Duncane and his tenentis to haf lettrez to summond
the witness that war summond of befor and comperit nocht to be summond vnder
gretar panis and ma witnes gif thai plese agane the said day. The said Duncane
being present for him self and his said tenentis. And that the remanent of the
said personis be wamit of this continewation and to here the witnes suorne.
CoNTiNEWis the summondis rasit at the instance of Duncane Stewart of Appin,
and certane his tennentis duelland apoun his landis of Appin, agane Lauchlane
Makgilleon of Doward, Johnne Makcane M'Lauchlane of Coll, and Dunslevy M'Vorich
of Vhvay, for the wranguis spoliation distructioun and withhaldin fra the said
Duncane and his tennentis of xx ky with thar foUowaris, and diuers vtheris gudis,
like as at mar lentht is contenit in the said summondis on to the xvj day of
Junij nixt to cum, with continuation of days, in the samyn forme force and effect
as it is now but preiudice of party. And ordanis the said Duncane and his
tennentis to haf lettrez to summond the witnes thai war summond of befor and
comperit nocht to be summond vnder gretar panis and maa witnes gif thai plese
agane the said day. The said Duncane being present for him self and his tenentis.
And that the remanent of the said personis be wamit of this continuation and
to here the witnes suorne.
Decree against Duart, Coll, and Ulva,for damages, in favour of Duncan Stewart
of Appin and his Appin tenants. Acts of the Lords of Council, 21st July
Decretis and deliueris that Lauchlane M'Gilleoun of Dowart, Johne M'Cane
M'Lauchlane of Coll, and Dunslavy M'Worich of Wlway, sail content and pay to
Duncane Stewart of Appin, and to thir persounis his tennentis vnderwrittin, duelland
apon his landis of Appin, thair gudis particulary efter following that is to say to
Johne M'llbride xx'i ky with thare followaris, tua hors and Ix boUis of aitis : Johne
Duff M'Wicar xv ky with thair followaris and tua hors ; Gillecrist Maknerrane xl
ky with thair followaris, iiii hors and Ix bollis of aitis ; Finla Makgillecallum Makcolluff
xxii ky with thair followaris; Nene Donill Maklauchlane xl ky with thair followaris;
Johne Roy M'Culloiff xv ky with thair followaris; Finla M'Donill Makdwill M'Ken-
nyth x ky with thair followaris ; Johne Smytht xii ky with thair followaris, and tua
hors ; Ewin Maksorlee V™ of ky with thair followaris, and iiij hors ; Gillecallum
Moyll xxij hors, xij scor of ky with thair followaris, ij'= schepe, j*^ gait, iij= bollis
of aitis, and xl bollis of bere ; Katrine Nenesorlee xxx'J ky with thair followaris ;
Dugall Makolcallum v'"'xiij ky with thair followaris ; Lauchlane RLikolcollum xv ky
with thair foUowaris. The quhilkis gudis pertenit to the said Duncane and to his
tennentis abonewrittin particulary as said is, and war spulzeit and away takin be
the saidis Lauchlane M'Gilleoun, Johne Makcane M'Lauchlane, and Dunslaby Mak-
worich, and thair complicis out of the said landis of Appin like as was sufficiently
previt before the saidis lordis. And ordanis our souerane lordis lettres to be direct
to compell and distrenze thairfor in dew forme as efferis. The said Duncane
being personaly present for him self and as procuratour for his said tennentis and
the remanent of the saidis personis being lauchfully summonit to this actioun
oftimez callit and nocht comperit.
Decree against Duart, Coll, and Ulva,for damages, in favour of Duncan Stewart
of Appin and his Duror tenants. Acts of the Lords of Council, 2\st July 1509.
Decretis and deliueris that Lauchlane M'Gilleon of Doward, Johnne M'Cane M'Lauchlane
of Coll, and Dunslavy M'Vorich of Vlway, sail content and pay till Duncane Stewart
of Appin and thir persounis his tenentis vnderwrittin duellin apone his laundis of
Durrour, thir gudis particulary efter followin, that is to say, to Malcome M'Nerane
xxx'J ky tua hors xxx'J bollis of aitis ; Archibald M'Kene M'Gillmichell xxx'J ky
with thair followaris, tua hors, xxx'J t> aitis ; Gillcrist Makduncane Roy xxx'J ky, ij hors
xx'J iiii'' aitis ; Donald Revach Makellop xxxv ky with thair followaris, and ij hors,
xxviii 1= atis ; Alexander Stewart vj"^ ky with thair followaris, xij hors, ij': ^ aitis ; M'Gillegyll
Johne Moir and Kynneith M'Vicar V" ky with thair followaris, vj hors, Ix ^ aitis ;
Johnne Makane Maksorle, Duncane Glas and Fynla Makduncane Roy, Ix ky with
thair followaris, iiij hors, Ixxx ^ atis, price of the pece of the said ky with thair followaris
xxs price of the pece of ilk hors ourhede xl^, price of ilk boll of aitis iiij^ The
quhilkis gudis pertenit to the said Duncane and his said tennentis and war spulzeit
and awaytakin be the saidis Lauchlane Johne M'Cane and Dunslavy M'Vorich and
thair complicis o[ut] of the said Duncanis landis of Durrour forsaid ... as was sufficiently
previt befor the saidis lordis. And thairfor ordanis that our souerane lordis lettres
be direct to com[peIl] and distrenze thairfor : the said Duncane being personaly present
for him self and as procuratour for his said tenentis, and the remanent of the saidis
personis being lauchfully summonit to this actioun oftimez callit and nocht comperit.
Decree against Duart, Coll, and Ulva, for damages, in favour of Duncan Stezvart of
Appin and his Appin tenants. Acts of tlie Lords of Council, 2 \st July 1 509.
Decretis and deliueris that Lauchlane M'Gilleon of Doward, John Makcane
IMaklauchlane of Coll, and Dunslavy M'Vorich of Vlway, sail content and pay to
Duncane Stewart of Appin and thir personis his tenentis vnderwrittin duelland apon
his landis of Appin, thir gudis and monye particulary efter following, that is to say
to the said Duncane Stewart ane galay of xxxij airis, price L", ane boit of x airis
price X merkis, ane boit of viij airis price viij merk, and tua boitis ilkane of tham
of four airis price iiij merkis ; Malcum Makvicar xxxiiij ky with thair followaris ; Johne
Makgeig xiiij ky wth thair followaris ; Katrine Nenelauchlane vj ky ; Archibald Maketre,
Mulmory M'Kere and Johne M'Ylnor Ix of ky with thair followaris, foure hors,
j= bollis of aitis ; Gillecrist Awgh xl ky with thair followaris ; Gillecallum Moyll xl'' of
monye ; Alexander Stewart vther xl'' ; Johne Makdoule Makintyre xxiiii ky with thair
followaris ; Duncane Makene Makdonach xxxij ky with thair followaris ; Gillemertyne
Makere xij ky, and Johne Fischar viii ky, price of the pece of the said ky with thair
followaris xx^, price of the pece of the said hors ourhede xP, price of ilk boll of aitis iiij^
The quhilk gudis and sovmes pertenit to the said Duncane and his said tennentis and
war spulzeit and takin fra tham be the saidis Lauchlane, Johne M'Cane, and Dun-
slavy Makvorich, and thair complicis, like as was sufficiently previt befor the saidis
lordis. And als sail content and pay to the saide Duncane the sovme of ij'= xx merkis
vsuall monye of Scotland of male, with vtheris dewiteis, cheis and wedderis, extending
to xl'' zerlie be the space of thre zeris nixt efter the spoliation of the said gudis,
for the balding waist of the said Duncanis landis of Appin and Durrour be the
saidis personis and thair complicis, as was elikewis previt befor the said lordis. And
ordanis our souerane lordis lettrez to be direct to compell and distrenze thairfore
in dew forme as efferis ; the said Duncane being personaly present for him self and
as procuratour for his said tenentis, and the remanent of the saidis personis being
lauchfully summonit to this actioun oftimes callit and nocht comperit.
Charter of Apprisement by King James IV. in favour of Duncan Steivart of
Appin, over the lands of Duart. Regis trwn Magni Sigilli, Lib. i6. Dated
Ml April 1 510.
Jacobus Dei gracia Rex Scotorum : Omnibus probis hominibus probis hominibus
tocius terre sue clericis et laicis Salutem : Sciatis quod nostras direximus literas certis
vicecomitibus nostris in hac parte, eis mandantes et precipientes ad compellendum
et distringendum Lauchlanum Makgilleon de Dowart, terras et bona sua, pro summa
quatuor millium et quingentarum mercarum vsualis monete regni nostri, super
ipsum per dilectum nostrum Duncanum Stewart de Appin coram concilii nostri
dominis recuperata et optenta. Et quia dictus Lauchlanus in bonis mobilibus ipsius
bonis ascrutatis et non repertis pro dicta summa distringibilis non extitit, ideo
sibi per nostras alias literas per deliberacionem dictorum dominorum postea directas,
precepimus et mandavimus quod ipse Lauchlanus infra quadraginta dies huiusmodi
mandatum immediate sequentes, ad terras et hereditatem suam intraret, de quibus
ipse cartam nostram cum precepto sasine habuit, per nos sibi desuper confectam,
postquam huiusmodi terre in manibus nostris forisfacte fuerunt, sic quod prefatus
Duncanus easdem sibi appretiare poterat pro huiusmodi summa, per ipsum super
dictum Lauchlanum ut premittitur recuperata et obtenta; sibi Lauchlano certificantes
quod si ipse in hoc deficerat, et ad huiusmodi terras intrare neclexerat, lapsis
dictis quadraginta diebus, nos tanquam dominus superior dictarum terrarum ipsum
Duncanum nobis in tenentem earundem recipere volumus, prout in dictis nostris
Hteris per dilectum nostrum Dauid Tempilman nuncium et vicecomitem nostrum
in hac parte debite executis et indorsatis plenius continetur. Et quia dictus
Lauchlanus sasinam dictarum terrarum et hereditatis sue accipere recusauit, et ad
easdem intrare noluit, secundum tenorem huiusmodi literarum nostrarum, lapsis dictis
quadraginta diebus completis, ad huiusmodi sasinam in fraudem et preiudicium
sepedicti Duncani sui creditoris omnino postposuit, ideo prefati consilii nostri
Domini nobis consuluerunt ad recipiendum ipsum Duncanum nobis in tenentem de
tantis prefati Lauchkni terris sicut se extendunt ad valorem supradicte summe quatuor
millium et quingentarum mercarum, et ipsum in eisdem infeodare per cartam et
sasinam nostras. Et nos huiusmodi consilium perutile et racioni consonum con-
siderantes, ideo dedimus et concessimus et confirmauimus, et hac presenti carta
nostra damus et confirmamus hereditarie dicto Duncano Stewart de Appin, omnes
et singulas terras et officia subscripta, que dicto Lauchlano ante forisfacturara
earundem spectabant et pertinebant, viz. : tolas et integras terras de Dowart, exten-
dentes ad vnam denariatam terrarum, cum castro earundem, vnam denariatam
terrarum de Ardthorgh, duas denariatas terrarum de Thoirchormaigh, vnam denari-
atam terrarum de Ardnagros, duas denariatas terrarum de binis Bamawfrane duas
denariatas terrarum de Auchnauchcraighe, vnam denariatam terrarum de Ardnad-
hrogit, duas denariatas terrarum de binis Glennannis, vnam denariatam terrarum de
Tulkelis, vnam denariatam terrarum de Auchtabigh, vnam denariatam terrarum de
Ardkeill, tres oblatas terrarum de binis Thornaskeah, vnam denariatam terrarum de
Glenkeill, vnam denariatam terrarum de Blareboy, jacentem infra terras de Schorissay,
vnam denariatam de Kilfadrich, vnam denariatam terrarum de Ardkinsinis, vnam
denariatam terrarum de Ormussaige, tres denariatas terrarum de tribus Chorris, vnam
denariatam terrarum de Kilmuagh, vnam denariatam terrarum de Nagros, vnam
denariatam terrarum de Naigele, jacentem infra ten-as de Brolos, tres oblatas terrarum
de Fregittill, tres oblatas terrarum de Calwegar, vnam denariatam terrarum de
Soneboll, vnam denariatam terrarum de Gilcriste, vnam denariatam terrarum de
Laigh, vnam denariatam terrarum de Challich duas denariatas terrarum de Areyn,
vnam denariatam terrarum de Ymgway, vnam oblatam terrarum de Pennymore et
Adirenis, septem denariatas terrarum de Chressenis, vBani denariatam terrarum de
Chorssay, jacentem infra terras de Morinche, vnam denariatam terrarum de Bowrich,
duas oblatas terrarum de Kilinchane, vnam denariatam terrarum de Cliallemore,
vnam denariatam terrarum de Vlluch, vnam denariatam terrarum de Ardbalkuich,
vnam denariatam terrarum de Kenloch, vnam denariatam terrarum de Dorferich,
tres oblatas ten-arum de Duschoring, tres oblatas terrarum de Aremelkeyn, vnam
denariatam terrarum de Drumgrane, vnam denariatam terrarum de Chorsboill, vnam
oblatam terrarum de Knoighoir, duas denariatas terrarum de Enighsay, vnam den-
ariatam terrarum de Glaichvgare, tres oblatas terrarum de Ardeskin, tres oblatas
terrarum de Regdill, vnam denariatam terrarum de Chorsloke, vnam oblatam terra-
rum de Nenoe, duas denariatas terrarum de binis Fanemore, vnam oblatam terrarum
de Erdnely, vnam denariatam terrarum de Kilmichaell, tres oblatas terrarum de
Corthamore, vnam denariatam terrarum de Oskemore, vnam denariatam terrarum de
Bowrich, vnam denariatam terrarum de Thynniddale, et vnam oblatam terrarum de
Baigh, antiqui extentus, cum suis pertinenciis, Jacentes in insulis nostris de Mule
et Teree et infra vicecomitatum nostrum de Perth, vnacum officiis Senescallatuum
de Teree et Mule, cum suis feodis, libertatibus deuoriis et hominum seruiciis, sicut
quondam ipsius Lauchlani pater liabuit et possidebat tempore quo ipse senescallus
eorum fuerat, quinque mercatas terrarum in Duray nuncupatarum Ardbanich, Cam-
mis, Terbert, Croagh, Glennamuke, Hvanagelle, et Mylwoy, extendentium ad vnam
denariatam terrarum antiqui extentus cum suis pertinenciis, Jacentium in insula de
Dura, et infra vicecomitatum nostrum predictum ; ac totas et integras terras de
Dunanwldach et Achataymolen, extendentes ad decem mercatas terrarum antiqui
extentus cum suis pertinenciis, jacentes in Knapnadale et infra vicecomitatum nostrum
de Tarbert, et duodecim mercatas terrarum de Garmorane Auchnadialla, extendentes
ad sex meroitas cum dimedia mercate terrarum sex mercatas cum dimedia mercate
terrarum de Corremyll, tres mercatas terrarum de Cammask, tres mercatas terrarum de
Thomelekebeg, tres mercatas terrarum de Dowane, tres mercatas terrarum Thowmcarrigh
antiqui extentus cum suis pertinenciis, jacentes in Lochaber et infra vicecomitatum nos-
trum de Inuemes, vnacum officio senescallatus de Garmorane, cum libertatibus proficuis
deuoriis et hominum seruiciis eiusdem, sicut dictus quondam ipsius Lauchlani pater
habuit Que omnes et singule terre suprascripte in integro extendunt ad centum et
octo libras terrarum antiqui extentus cum pertinenciis, et dictum Duncanum et heredes
suos nobis in tenentes earundem recipientes, et dictum Lauchlanum et heredes suos
virtute acti nostri parliamenti super debito confecti de eisdem destituentes : Tenendas
et habendas totas et integras predictas terras et officia suprascripta cum suis feodis
et libertatibus proficuis deuoriis et huiusmodi seruiciis predictis viz. : terras de Dowart
cum castro earundem Ardthorgh, Thoirghormaich, Ardnagros, terras de binis Bamaw-
frane, Auchnachcraghe, Ardnadhrogit, terras de binis Glennannis, Tulkelis Auchtabich,
Ardkeill, terras de binis Thomaskeah, Glencarrell, Blareboy, Kilfadrich, Ardknesins,
Ormissaigh, terras de tribus Chorris Killmuach, Nagros, Nageill, Fregittill, Calwegar,
Soneboll, Gilcrist, Laigh Challich Areyn Ymg^vay Pennymore, Ardyrenis, Thressenis
Chorssay, Bovrigh, Killinchane, Callemore, Vlluch, Ardbalkinch, Kenloch, Darferiche,
Duschoring, Aremelkeyn, Drumgrane, Chorisboill, Knokhoir, Enighsay, Glaschvgare,
Ardskin, Regdill, Thorsloskye, Nenoe, terras de binis Fanemore, Ardnaly, Kilmichael,
Corthamore, Oskemore, Bowrigh, Tennidaill, Baigh, vnacum officiis Senescallatuum de
Teree et Mule, cum suis feodis libertatibus deuoriis et hominum seruiciis, terras
de Duray nuncupatas Ardbannich, Cammis, Terbert, Chroagh, Glennamuk, Hvannageill
Milroy, terras de Dunanwldach, et Achataymolen, terras de Garmorane, Auchanadialla,
Corremyll, Cammask, Thomelekebeg, Dowane, Thowmcarrigh, vnacum officio Senes-
callatus de Garmorane, cum libertatibus proficuis deuoriis et hominum seruiciis eiusdem
cum suis pertinenciis, dicto Duncano et heredibus suis de nobis et successoribus
nostris in feodo et hereditate imperpetuum, per omnes rectas metas suas antiquas
et diuisas prout jacent in longitudine et latitudine, in boscis planis moris marresiis
viis semitis aquis stagnis riuolis pratis pascuis et pasturis molendinis multuris et eorum
sequelis aucupacionibus venacionibus piscacionibus petariis turbariis carbonariis
lapicidiis lapide et calce fabrilibus brasinis bruariis et genestis cum curiis et earum
exitibus herezeldis bludvvitis et merchetis mulierum cum furca fossa sok sak, tholl,
theme, infangtheif outfangtheif pitt et gallous, cum castris turribus fortaliciis et mansi-
onibus terrarum predictarum cum tenentibus tenandriis et libere tenencium seruiciis
earumdem, cum communi pastura libero introitu et exitu cum similibus libertatibus
et huiusmodi priuilegiis ac aliis proficuis dictorum senescallatuum : Et cum potestate
eisdem libere gaudendi vtendi et exercendi adeo libere sicut quondam ipsius Lauchlani
pater aut predecessores sui easdem prius tenuit seu possedit tenuerunt seu possiderunt,
ac cum omnibus aliis et singulis libertatibus commoditatibus et asiamentis ac iustis
suis pertinenciis quibuscumque tam non nominatis quam nominatis tam subtus terra
quam supra terram procul et prope ad predictas terras castram et officia cum suis
feodis libertatibus proficuis deuoriis et hominum seruiciis predictis cum suis pertinenciis
spectantibus seu inste spectare valentibus quomodolibet in futurum libere quiete plenarie
integre honorifice bene et in pace sine aliqua reuocacione, impedimento aut contra-
diccione quibuscumque Reddendo inde annuatim dictus Duncanno et heredes sui
nobis et successoribus nostris wardam et releuium dictarum terrarum et officiorum
debitum et consuetum. Et non obstante presenti nostra donacione et infeodacione
volumus et ordinamus pro nobis et successoribus nostris quod dictus Lauchlanus
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN. 199
et heredes sui habeat et Iiabeant plenum regressum et ingressum in et ad omnes et
singulas terras et officia predicta cum pertinenciis quandocunque persoluerit vel per-
solueriut dicto Duncano heredibus suis vel assignatis dictam sumniam quatuor millium
et quingentarum mercarum vnacum expensis que super nos tanquam dominum
superiorem pro nostris carta et infeodatione facte fuerint Dummodo solucionem
huiusmodi infra septennium datam presentium proximo et immediate sequentem iuxta
tenorem dicti acti parliamenti faciant et perimpleant, firmis tamen et proficuis dictarum
terrarum et officiorum per dictum Duncanum et heredes suos interim percipiendum
vsque redempcionem earundeni in solucione dicte summe et expensarum minime
computandarum secundum tenorem dicti Acti parliamenti. In cuius Rei testimonium
presenti carte nostre magnum sigillum nostrum apponi precepimus, Testibus ut in
tercia carta precedenti apud Edinburgh octauo die mensis Aprilis Anno Domini
Millesimo Quingentesimo decimo et Regni nostri vicesimo secundo.
Offer by tlte Earl of Argyll of his own security for Duart. Acts of the Lords of
Council, 1st March 1512.
My Lord Erll of Ergile forspekar for Makclane, askit ane Instrument that he offerit
him reddy baith for the said Makclane and for him self to fulfill thair part of the
decrete arbitrale gevin betwix the said Makclane and Duncane Stewart, and thairfor
protestit gif the said Duncane Stewart wald gang fra the said decrete that it suld nocht
turn the said Makclane to preiudice sen he was reddy as said is : hora secunda.
Claim by David, Bishop of A rgyll, of his Share of the Composition payable to
Appin by Duart under the Arbitral Decree. Acts of the Lords of Council, 2nd
March 15 12.
Dauid bischop of Ergile protestit gif the remission that the Erll of Ergile suld get to
Duncan Stewart and his tennentis, fell within the date of his lettre that he has of the
King, that he micht haf his part of the Composition according to his said lettre, and
askit this claus of the decrete arbitral gevin betwix Makclane and the said Duncan to
be insert in the Instrument videlicet And sail gif to the said Duncan his tennentis
and seruandis the Kingis remissioun of all crimes and offensis committit be thame
siclik as the men of Lorn has gottin the samyn and of the samyn date, thai payand
thairfor siclike as the tennentis and men of Lorn pais : hora secunda.
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
Decree against Archibald Earl of Argyll, as security for Djiart, in favour of
Djincan Stewart of Appin for 1040 vierks. Acts of the Lords of Council, 2nd
March 15 12.
Decretis and deliueris that Archibald Erll of Ergile of his a\in consent as borgh
and dettour for Lauchlane Makgillane of Dowart, sail content and pay to Duncan Stewart
of Appin the sovm of ane thousand and fourty merkis vsuall money of Scotland.
Petition by Duart and Appin that tlie strength of a Decree might be given to the
award made in favottr of tlie latter by Five Arbitrators at Edinburgh on l<^th
February 1 5 1 2. Acts of the Lords of Council, 2nd March 1512.
CoMPERiT Lauchlane M'Gillane of Dowart on the ta part, and Duncane Stewart of
Appin on the tother part, and gaif in this decrete arbitrale vnderwrittin, and desirit
the samyn to be put in form of act and to haif the strenth of the decrete of the
saidis lordis in tyme to cum, of the quhilk the tenour foUowis : At Edinburgh the nyne-
tene day of Februar the zeir of God j"" v<^ and xij zeris We Dauid bischop of Gallovay,
Alexander Erie of Huntlie, Archibald Erie of Ergile, Williame Erie of Erroll, and
William Scot of Baluery, Jugis arbitratouris and amicable compositouris comonelie
chosin betwix Lauchlane M'Gillane of Dowart for him his frendis men and seruandis
on the ta part, and Duncane Stewart of Appyn, for him his friendis men and seruandis
on the tother, part anent the clame of the sovme of aucht thousand merkis clamit
be the said Duncane and optenit be the said Duncane befor the lordis of counsale,
and anent the Richt and clame of the landis apprisit to the said Duncane for the
said sovme, and vtheris sovmez pertenyng to the said M'Gillane, and apon all vthir
debatis clamez wrangis spoulzeis vnkyndenes herschippis slauchteris committit or thiftis
committit be thame thair frendis men and seruandis and anerdance to thame in ony
tyme bigane befor the day of the date hereof Wee the saidis Jugis all in ane voce
decretis deliueris and gevis for sentence arbitrale, with consent of the saidis partys
and in presens of thame, that the said Lauchlane M'Gillane sail in hale contentatioun
assithment and payment of the said sovmez of viij™ merkis . . . content and pay to
the said Duncan the sovme of j"" and xl merkis in maner and form efter following.
That is to say, to James Stewart, Alanys son, for the Redemption and losing of the
landis of Glenrevern pertenyng to the saide Duncan, the sovme of Ixxx'' ; and to Alane
Stewart bruther to the said Duncan for the redemptioun and losing of the landis
callit Twaletter pertenying to the said Duncan, the sovme of xl'' ; and to the airis
of vmquhill Duncan Makcowle for the redemption of the landis of the four merk
land of Arthur, the twa-merk land of the lard Grenocht, and the twa-merk land of
Killard, pertenyng to the said Duncan, xl''; quhilk landis war analyt be the said
Duncane, and sail mak the heretage of the saidis landis fred and dischargit of the
said alienationis sa that the said Duncan may lefullie enter to the Witsounday male of
the forsaid land as his heretage and as he had befoir the alienatioun thairof : Sauffand
to the said James, Alane, and M'Cowhs airis, the takkis of the said landis gif thai ony
haif and suld half be thair Reuersionis ; and the remanent of the said sovme quhilk
is viij= merkis to be pait to the said Duncan Stewart [at sundry specified terms within
two years and twenty days, the said Lauchlane finding sufficient security for due payment
of the same] and the said sourte being fundin, the said Duncane sail resigne renunce
quyteclame and discharge the apprising led apon the said Lauchlanys landis for the said
sovme of viij" merkis . . . and the said Lauchlan and Duncan sail gif sufficient lettres
of slaynis and discharge to vtheris of all actioun of slauchter etc. . . . and sail tak
vtheris in hartly and afuald kyndenes and tendemes and neuir to commit brek iniur
wTang or vnkyndenes till vtheris in tyme to cum . . . and the said Duncan sail leif and
gif over to our souerane lord the liverent or heretage that he has of threttene merk-land
that lyis besyde the castell of Innerlochquhy and allegit to pertene to the said Lauchlane
in heretage, and sail neuir to intromet thairwith, nor with na vthir heretage pertenyng to
the said Lauchlane in tyme to cum, and als the said Lauchlane sail caus the said
Archibald Erie of Ergile ... to remit and forgif to the said Duncane the ane hundretht
merkis that the said Duncan aucht to the said Erie of Ergile and to Sir Duncan
Campbell his eme for the releif and mariage of the said Duncane, the said Duncane
mariand mth the said Erlis avise in a place resonable quhar the said Erie is contentit of,
and gif thai wary thairapon that variance to be modifeit be the counsale of the remanent
of the Jugis befoirwrittin, and als the said Erie promittis to remit and discharge . . .
al vnlawis and vthir claraez and actionis that the said Erie has to ask or craif at the
said Duncane his tennentis and seruandis in ony tyme bigane . . . and sail do his
diligence to caus Sir Duncan Campbell his eme to do the samyn; and als the said
Erie sail Renew the Infeftment quhilk the said Duncan has of the landis of the
Appin . . . and sail gif to the said Duncan his tennentis and seruandis the Kingis
remissioun of all crymez and offensis committit be thame, siclik as the men of Lorn
has gottin the samyn and of the samyn date : Thay payand thairfor siclik as the tennentis
and men of Lorn pais thairfor, and the said Duncan salbe trew man and seruand to the
said Erie and kepe a gude part to him aganis all personis his allegiance to our souerane
lord ; And the said Erie salbe trew maister to the said Duncan and kepe afauld
part to him in his justice and honest materis and decretis : and ordanis this oure
decrete to be fulfillit and kepit in all punctis and specialie in kyndenes and hertlynes
in tyme to cum [The party failing to the other to be subject to certain specified
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
penalties] and our decrete to be deliuerit to the partys in forme of Instrument . . .
The quhilk desire the saidis lordis thocht ressonable and thairfor decemit and ordanit
[accordingly in the usual terms.]
Note. — The latter clauses refer to Appin's duties as holding certain lands from the Earl of
Argyll, or his " eme," Glenorchy, as detailed at pages 96-7.
Decree against A rcJiibald Earl of A rgyll in favour of Duncan Stewart of Appin
for the sum of 1040 merks aivarded by tlie Arbiters. Acts of tJie Lords of
CoJincil, 2 March 15 12.
Decretis and deliueris that Archibald Erll of Ergile, of his avin consent as souerte
and dettour for Lauchlane Makgillane of Dowart, sail red content and pay to Duncan
Stewart of Appin, the sovme of J"" and xl merkis vsuall money of Scotland contenit
in ane Decrete Arbitrale gevin betwix the saidis partiis of befor and after the form
and at the termes of payment contenit in the said decrete arbitrale of the date of
the xix day of Februar the zeir of God J™ v<= and xij zeirs, and thairfor ordanis
our souerane lordis letterz to be direct to compell and distrenze the said Erll his landis
and gudis thairfor efter the form of the said decrete arbitrale and efter the passage of the
termez contenit thairintill in dew form as efferis.
Decree that Duart and Lochbny sJiall keep the Earl of Argyll scaithless in respect
of the sum of 1040 merks, due by the Earl to Duncan Stewart of Appin.
Acts of the Lords of Council, 2nd March 1 5 1 2.
Decretis and deliueris that Lauchlane Makgillane of Dowart and Johne Makclane
of Louchboy, of thair avn consent coniunctly and seueraly renunciand the benefite
of diuisioun, sail freith releif and keip skaithles Archibald Erll of Ergile of the
sovm of J™ xl merkis vsuall money of Scotland, for the quhilk sovm the said
Erll is becumit dettour and souerte to Duncan Stewart of Apin for the said
Lauchlane Makgilleane of Dowart, efter the form of the decrete arbitrale gevin
betuix the said Duncan and Lauchlane of the date of the xix day of Februar
the zere of God j™ v'= xij zeris and at the termes contenit thairintill sik like
as he is bund and actit to the said Duncan, and that our souerane lo;dis lettrez
be direct apon thame thairuppon to distrenze thame for the releif of the said
Erll termly as efferis.
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
Decree that Duart sJmll keep Lochbuy scaitJdess in respect of the before-mentioned
stint of 1040 marks. Acts of the Lords of Council, 2nd March 1 5 12.
Decretis and deliueris that Lauchlane Makgillane of Dowart of his avn consent
sail freith releif and keip skaithles Johne Makclane of Louchboy of the sovm
of j" and xl merkis of the quhilk the said Johne is bund with the said Lauch-
lane to releif Archibald Erll of Ergile at the handis of Duncan Stewart of Appin,
and the quhilk sovm the said Erll is actit to pay to the said Duncan as souerte
for the said Lauclane, efter the form and at the termez contenit in the decrete
arbitrate gevin betuix the said Lauchlane and Duncan And ordanis our souerane
lordis lettrez to be direct to compell and distrenze the said Lauchlane to the
releif of the said Johne his landis and gudis thairfor termly as efferis.
CJiarter by King James IV. to Duncan Stewart of Appin of the Lands of Inver-
lochy, Terelondy, Drtimmysoiire, and Aiichintoir. Rcgistruni Magni Sigilli.
Lib. xviii. 93. Dated gth Jnly 1 5 12.
Carta vitalis redditus Duncano Stewart de Appin, facta pro suo bono at gratuito
servicio regi impenso, ac pro deliberacione et donacione domino regi de una
gallia triginta sex remorum, de terris de Inverlochy, Terelondy, Drummysoure et
Auchintoir cum pertinenciis, jacentibus in dominio de Lochabir infra vicecomi-
tatum de Invemys : de data apud Edinburgh nono Julij, anno regni regis
vicesimo quinto (15 12).
Petition by Sir John Campbell of Calder on the one part, and Loched and Appin
on the other, that the A rbiti-al Decree in the questions at issue betiueen them
shall be inserted in the Books of Council. Acts of the Lords of Council 12th
In presens of the lordis of Consale comperit Johnne Campble of Caldor Knycht
on that ane part and Ewine Allansoune of Lochelze, capitane of the Clanchamron,
and Allane Stewart of Durror on that vthir part, and gaif in this decrete arbi-
trate . . . desirand the samin to be insert in the bukis of counsal ... of the
204 THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
quhilk the tenour followis At Edinburgh the viij day of November the zeir of
God j" v<= and xxviij zeris Maister Donald Campble nominal to Cowpar, Archi-
bald Campble of Skippinche, Alexander M'Ane M'AJexander of Glengarry, and
Johne M'Allane M'Donile Duff, amicable copositouris evinly chosin and suorne
be rycht honorable men Sir Johne Campble of Caldor Knycht Ewyne AUansoune
of Lochelze capitane of Clanchamron and Allane Stewart of Durror, anentis all
maner of actionis querelis clamis scathis slauchteris or quhatsumeuir debatable
materis that happynnit betuix the said Sir John and the saidis Ewyne and
Allane affor the dait hairof The saidis partijs beand oblist and sworn to abyde
and stand at the saidis personis decrete and deliuerance with thair awine consentis,
Decretis deliueris and for sentence gevis . . . that ... the saidis partijs sail
remit and forgef . . . vtheris all maner of rancour displesour and malice that
euir happynnit betuix thame to the day and dait hereof, and sail tak vtheris in
als gude hartlynes and kyndnes as sick thingis neuir happinit betuix thame : And
for certane scathis that the said Sir Johne hes gottin be the saidis Ewyn and
Allane and thair complicis The saidis Ewyn and Allane sail content and pay
to him the sovm of iiij<= '■ . . . and sail gef to him for thame tliair barnys kyn
and frendis thair band of manrent incontrary all maner of man, the kingis grace and
my lord of Ergile alanerlie beand exceptit : And for thair said band of manrent
and thair thankfull seruice in tymes tocum the said Sir John sail remit and
forgef the saidis Ewyne and Allane the sovme of iij'= '' . . . and the said Sir
Johne sal gif to the saidis Ewine and Allane his band of mantenance incon-
tinent als sone as he resaifis thair band of manrent . . . subscruit [as before
mentioned] befor thir witnes Walter Cample capitane of Skipinche, John M'Lauch-
lane, John Mungumry, Sir John M'Phale, Chaplane, Angus M'Angus, and maister
Donald Bron notar public with vtheris diuers.
Charter by King James V., to Alan Stewart, of the lands of Cowll and Gleii-
callachane, Ardsell, Lagnahall, Ballychelis, Aiichnanderrach, Atichycarnc,
Auchycar and Aiichinblare, and Glencoune. Registrnm Magni Sigilli. Lib.
XXV. 184. Dated ph December 1538.
Jacobus Dei gracia Rex Scotorum Omnibus probis hominibus totius terre sue clericis
et laicis salutem. Sciatis quia nostras post legitimam et perfectam etateni vigintiquinque
annorum completorum, et nostram generalem reuocacionem ac post dissolucionem per
quondam nobilissimum patrem nostrum Jacobum Quartum bone memorie, cuius anime
propicietur Deus, cum auisamento et consensu trium regni statuum in parliamento
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN. 205
suo facto, super annexacionibus terrarum corone sue, pro assedacione earundem in
feodifirma et hereditate, pro policia et edificacionibus infra regnum suum habendis,
in augnientacionem sui rentalis et proficuum patrimonii corone sue, cum auisamento
et consensu compotorum nostrorum rotulatoris, dedimus concessimus et ad feodifirmam
dimisimus, et hac presenti carta nostra damus concedimus et ad feodifirmam hereditarie
dimittimus, dilecto consanguineo et seruitori nostro Alano Stewart in Lome, onines
et singulas terras nostras subscriptas viz : viginti libratas terrarum de Durrour prout
sequuntur viz : septem mercatas terrarum de Cowll et Glencallachane, septem mercatas
terrarum de Ardsell et Lagmahall, tres mercatas. terrarum de Ballychelis, quinque mercatas
terrarum de Auchnanderrach, tres mercatas terrarum de Auchycarne, quinque mercatas
terrarum Auchycar et Aucbinblare, ac totas et integras viginti mercatas terrarum de
Glenkovne, cum omnibus suis pertinenciis, jacentes in dominio nostro insularum infra
vicecomitatum nostrum de Perth, extendentes annuatim in rentali nostro ad summam
quinquaginta marcarum monete regni nostri. Tenendas et habendas omnes et singulas
prefatas viginti libratas terrarum de Durroure, videlicet septem mercatas terrarum de
Cowll et Glencallachane, septem marcatas terrarum de Ardsell et Lagmahall, tres
marcatas terrarum de Ballychelis, quinque marcatas terrarum de Auchnanderrach, tres
marcatas terrarum de Auchycarne, quinque marcatas terrarum de Auchychar et Aucbin-
blare, ac totas et integras prefatas viginti marcatas prefatarum terrarum de Glenkovne,
cum omnibus suis pertinenciis, prefato Stewart et heredibus suis masculis, de nobis
et nostris successoribus in feodifirma et hereditate imperpetuum Per omnes rectas
metas suas antiquas et diuisas prout facent in longitudine et latitudine in boscis
planis moris marresis viis semitis aquis stagnis riuolis pratis pascuis et pasturis
molendinis multuris et eorum sequelis aucupaciomibus venacionibus piscacionibus
petariis turbariis carbonariis lignis lapicidiis lapide et calce fkbrilibus brasinis brueriis
et genestis cum communi pastura libero introitu et exitu, ac cum omnibus aliis et
singulis libertatibus commoditatibus proficuis et asiamentis ac iustis suis pertinenciis
quibuscunque tam non nominatis quam nominatis, tarn sub terra quam supra terram,
procul et prope, ad predictas terras cum pertinenciis spectantibus seu iuste spectare
valentibus quomodolibet in futurum, libere quiete plenarie integre honorifice bene et
in pace sine aliqua reuocacione aut contradictione quacunque Reddendo inde annuatim
dictus Alanus et heredes sui predicti nobis et nostris successoribus Summam quadraginta
librarum vsualis monete regni nostri ad duos anni terminos consuetos festa viz. :
Penthecostes et Sancti Martini in hyeme per equales porciones, nomine feodifirme, in
augnientacionem rentalis nostri annuatim ad Summam decem marcarum monete predicte
Acetiam heredes dicti Alani suprascripti duplicando dictam feodifirmam primi anni
eorum introitus ad prefatas terras prout vsus est feodifirme ; necnon dictus Alanus et
heredes sui suprascripti edificantes et sustentantes super prefatas terris vnam sufficientem
2o6 THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
mansionem cum aula camera coquina, horrio boscari stabulis columbari hortis pomeriis
et aliis poleciis necessariis solo correspondentibus In cuius Testimonium huic presenti
carte nostre magnum Sigillvm nostrum apponi precepimus Testibus vt in alliis cartis
precedentibus consimilis date Apud Falkland septimo die mensis Decembris Anno
Domini millesimo quingentesimo Tricesimo octauo Et regni nostri vicesimo sexto.
Copy of a statement made in writing by Alexander Stewart of Ballachelish soon
after the battle of Killiecrankie, in a letter to Invemahyle.
" I SHALL give you as good an account as I can of the man who appeared to us last
summer in so extraordinary a way. Everything about it is so strongly in my mind as at
the time he was with us, and I think I will never lose the memory of it When Lochiel
got letters from Claverhouse, he came to see Appin upon them. We all went to Letter-
shuna to meet them ; everything was settled overnight, and Lochiel came on with me the
day after, and slept that night with us. Next day I put him over the loch ; it was a grey
morning, but it cleared up, and was a fine warm day, without any wind. When I came
back I went up to the Knap (a knoll near Ballachelish), and lay down in the sun ; my dog
Brandt was lying by me. I was there for some time between sleeping and waking, and
thinking upon the business we had been speaking about, when Brandt started up and
began to bark. I looked up and saw a man coming over the moss to where I was. I
rose up, and I observed as he was walking to me that he had a long Spanish gun in his
hand. When he came up he spoke to me by my name, which I was surprised at, as I
had never seen him before. After some speaking, he told that he was a gentleman who
had got into trouble, and that he had come into that part of the country to be out of the
way. He said he could not then tell me what his name was, for it would be as much as
his life was worth, and that he must keep as private as possible, that he would, with my
leave, come and take his food with me, and, as the surest way not to be known, that he
would wish not to say a word when he was with us. He then said that if I did not think
it necessary, he would be better pleased if I took no notice at home of his having met
me, as he thought there would not be so great a chance of his being found out if we all
seemed to know nothing about him. I told him that he would be perfectly safe wth me,
whoever he might be, and I hoped he would sleep in the house as well as take his meat
with us, and that I would promise my head that no harm should happen to him from any
one while he was with me. I said, too, that I would trouble him with no questions, that
he might do just as he pleased, but that I was not sure that it was the best way witli my
wife to keep silence altogether, for the more secret there was, the more anxious she would
be to find it out, and that it would be better to tell her some story that would keep her
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN. 207
quiet ; yet, that I was ready to do whatever he thought most Hkely to keep him most safely.
He answered that it would be the surest plan to be altogether silent, and that it would be
better to leave my wife to make anything of it she could, as he would take every care to
let that be as little as possible. He said he was obliged to me for my offer of shelter,
but that he was in so much danger that he would keep from going amongst other people
as much as he could, and ended by saying that he hoped the time would come when he
would be able to thank me openly for my kindness, if I would oblige him in these things.
I then said that any gentleman in distress would always have my best assistance, still that
I was sorry he did not put himself entirely into my hands, that I might be the better able
to be answerable for his life ; however, whatever he thought the best way he might
depend upon it that I would do everything I could to keep him from harm. He then
left me. This was all that passed between us. While we were in conversation, I
observed him very particularly. He was a man, to appearance, of about thirty years of
age, and something above the middle size. He was not a very strong-looking man, but
he was clean made and well put together ; he was good-looking in the face, with some
few marks of the smallpox, but not very many. He had a straight nose, and there was a
great deal of fire in his eyes when he spoke ; his hair was of a dark brown colour, and
altogether no man could doubt that he was a gentleman. His Gaelic was like that which
is spoken in the Isles, and I noticed that when he put out his right hand in speaking,
tliat there was a cloth about it, as if it had been hurt. His clothes were of a red and
green dark set, and his arms seemed to be very good. When he had gone a little way,
he turned and made a sign to me. I walked home wondering who he could be. I told
Beatrice that as the country was astir that it would be as well to have always plenty of
meat ready. Wlien it was near night there was no word of him, and I began to doubt
that he would come ; but just as we were sitting down he stepped in. When he entered
he said, and went and laid his gun and sword in a corner,
and drew up to the table. I said he was very welcome, and asked where he had come
from, but he gave no answer. I put two or three questions to him, but seeing he was
not inclined to speak, I said that as the gentleman might have reasons for his silence, we
would not trouble him at present, but I hoped he would give us his news by-and-bye.
Every person looked much surprised, and very little was said, and I beheve that very
little was eaten, but the stranger eat heartily. When we had done he took his gun and
sword and went out again, looking very sorrowful, and appearing to be much cast down.
After he was gone there was nothing but wondering who he could be. We were all very
uneasy. In the morning he came again, and went away as before. It was got amongst
the people, and they did not like it as they were so soon to go out ; they thought it was
a bad sign. Old John Lome swore that he would make him speak, cost what it would.
I told them he could be nothing but an unfortunate gentleman who had come amongst
2oS THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
us for safety, and that no man should touch him while in my hands. They were not
easily satisfied, and they were detennined to find him out, and have from him what he
was, but I kept them quiet, and desired that no man should go after him. He continued
to come and go in this way for three days, and although I always spoke to him when he
entered the house, he never said a word to me again, but he was always very civil.
Nobody ever saw anything of him during the day, but when night was coming on he was
observed to come out of the glen. The people did not know what to make of him, and
after all their brave speaking at first, none of them could find heart to go near him when
he was to be seen, and when they went to the hill they would go two or three together,
but none of them ever met him. When he would come in before the meat was ready he
would sit down, but still he never spoke a word. He would look much at the children,
and took great notice of them, and he made much of Hector, who is gro\ving a fine lad,
and after the first while, when he went near him, he would show him his dirk and his
pistols, which had the Doune mark on them, but he never spoke a word. On the fourth
day it was rainy with a high wind, and he did not come in the nxorning, at night there
was no appearance of him, and we began to think he had left us, which I was very thank-
ful for. I did not grudge him his meat and drink, poor man, but I did not like his
coming and going without telling us anything about himself; I was afraid his appearance
was to warn me of some misfortune, but I said nothing.
"We were all busy getting ready to meet Dundee, and I began to think less about him.
The people, now that he was away, were making their joke of it, and hoping that I would
never have such another stranger.
"At Rin Ruarie (Killiecrankie) I was hurt in the hand, and I afterwards remembered
that it was in the same hand that this man had tied up. When we went down to Dunkeld
I was sitting by myself in a house where we were, all the people being gone out to kill a
cow they had got. It was towards evening, and it was very hot. The door was opened,
and the same man came in ; he was looking as when I saw him before, with the same
sorrowful look. I said to him there could be no reason for his concealing himself now,
as he had come amongst so many people, and that I hoped he would let me know who
he was. He replied that he was sorry that was not yet in his power, but that he could
not be near me without coming to thank me for the way I had behaved to him, but that
we should meet again. Upon saying this he immediately went out I followed him, but
I could not see him ; and although I asked all that I met whether they had seen such a
man, I could hear nothing of him. Next day we tried to take the Cathedral, and poor
Sandy was killed. I now think he was sent to warn me of this ; and yet in the way he
spoke there was nothing different from other men, and nobody thought he was anything
else but a gentleman. It is now ten months since he came amongst us, and I have never
been able to hear more of him. It has ahva)s been very heavy on my mind, but I say
THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
nothing, whether it means anything more than has yet happened God knows, but his will
be done, which ever way it is."
It is understood that the " man " turned out to be a Macdonald, who had been
obliged to fly from his own clan to avoid the vengeance of his neighbours for some offence
he had committed.
List of the killed and ivonndcd of the Appin Regiment at the battle of Cullodcn,
copied from MS. left by Alexander Stezvart, Eighth of Invernahyle.
Ardsheal's family —
John Stewart of Benmore,
John, son to Alexander Stewart of Acharn,
James, son to Alexander Stewart of Acharn,
William Stewart, .
Duncan Stewart, uncle to Ardshea
Dugald Stewart, standard-bearer,
Alan Mor Stewart,
William Stewart, .
Fasnacloich's family —
James Stewart, uncle to Fasnacloich,
James Stewart, younger of Fasnacloich,
John Stewart, son to Fasnacloich, .
John, son to Duncan Stewart,
James Stewart, from Ardnamurchan,
Alan Stewart, son to Ardnamurchan,
Achnacone's family —
Alexander Stewart, brother to Achnacone,
Duncan Stewart, ...
2IO THE STEWARTS OF APPIN.
Invernahyle's family —
Alexander Stewart, son to Ballachelish, .
Duncan, Donald, Dugald, and Alan Stewart, nephews to
John Stewart, from Ardnamurchan,
Charles Stewart, from Bohallie, .
Alexander Stewart, of Invemahyle,
James Stewart, brother to Invemahyle,
Duncan Stewart, from Inverphalla,
Donald Stewart, from Annat,
Alan Stewart, died in the East Indies,
Donald Stewart, nephew to Invemahyle,
John Stewart, from Balquidder, .
Duncan Stewart, .
Stewarts, followers of Appin—
Duncan Stewart, from Mull,
Duncan, Hugh, and John Stewart, from Glenlyon,
John Stewart— Macalan Vane,
John Stewart, alias Macalan,
Duncan Stewart, alias Macalan, .
Dugald Stewart, ....
Donald Stewart, natural son to Ballachellan,
Robert Stewart, natural cousin to Appin, .
Robert Stewart, natural cousin to Appin, .
Ardsheal's family, ....
Stewarts, followers of Appin,
Commoners, followers of Appin —
M'Innishes, or M'Innises,
M'lldeus, or Blacks,
Macleas, or Livingstones,
Volunteer — George Haldane, nephew to Lanrick, Ardsheal
having married Haldane of Lanrick's sister, .
Total of killed and wounded,
Achnacone, Stewarts of,
Alan, filius Flaaldi,
„ second High Steward, .
Andrew, son of James, fifth High
Ardsheal, Stewarts of, .
Armorial bearings of the Stewarts
Ballachelish, Stewarts of,
Balmerino Abbey, donation to,
Bancho, Maormar of Lochaber,
Bannockburn, battle of, .
Blackball, Manor Place of, .
Cambuskenneth Abbey, grants to.
Castle Acre Priory, grants to, .
Cell of St Peter at Sele in Sussex,
grant to, .
Charter of the Office of High Steward
&c., to Walter, by Malcolm IV.,
Culloden, battle of,
Cupar Abbey, grants to, .
Dalmulin Chapelry, foundation of,
David, son of Alan, second Hig
Doir, Maormar of Lochaber, .
Dryburgh Abbey, grants to, .
Dunfermline Abbey, grants to,
Falkirk, battle of, 1298, .
j Falkirk, battle of, 1746, .
Farquhard, Maormar of Lochaber,
Fasnacloich, Stewarts of.
Fergus I., King, .
Fess Cheque of the Stewarts, .
Fleance, or Flaald,
Flodden, battle of, .
Glasgow, Church of, grant to the,
Innerhadden, Stewarts of.
Innischaoraich, or Bohallie, Stewarts
Inverlochy, battle of,
Invernahyle, Stewarts of.
James, fifth High Steward,
John, son of Walter, first High Steward,
Kelso Abbey, grants to, .23
Kenneth, Maormar of Lochaber,
Killiecrankie, battle of, .
Kilwinning Abbey, grants to, .
Largs, battle of, .
Livingstones of Bachuil, .
Macdougalls of Lorn, .
Maclarens of Ardveich, .
March of the Stewarts, .
Melros Abbey, grants to, 23, 25, 26,
Murdoch, Maormar of Lochaber, .
Norwich Priory, grants to.
Paisley Abbey, foundation of the, .
„ „ grants to, 25, 26, 32,
Pinkie, battle of, .
Stewart, Janet, wife of Sir Colin
Prestonpans, battle of, .
Campbell of Glenorchy, .
Renfrew Castle, . . . .
„ John, son of James, fifth
Robert II., King of Scotland, .
St Andrew's Abbey, grants to.
Sir John of Bonkyl, .
St Colmanel Church, grants to.
„ „ of Daldon, .
Scone Abbey, grants to, .
„ „ of Perston, .
Seals of the Stewarts, . 23,37
,, „ of Innermeath and
Senescallus, derivation of, . .
Sheriffmuir, battle of, .
„ „ Lord Lorn, .
Shrewsbury Abbey, grants to, .
„ Margaret, Countess of Carrick,
Simon Fitzalan, Boyt, or Boyd,
„ Marion, wife of Campbell of
Sliochd Ailein 'Ic Rob, .
Stewart, etymology of the name.
„ Sir Robert of Dalduie,
„ „ of Schanbothy
„ Sir Alan of Dreghorn,
and Innermeath, .
„ Sir Alan, of Ochiltree,
„ Sir Robert of Schanbothy, .
„ Sir Alexander, of Bonkyl, .
„ of Lorn, .
„ „ Ancestor of
„ Sir Walter of Dalswinton, .
the Stewarts of Grand
„ Walter of Innermeath,
Stewarton Castle, ....
„ Beatrix, Countess of Lenno?
Stewarts, of Achnacone, .
„ Christian, Countess of Dun
„ Earls of Angus,
„ Dugald, first of Appin,
Earls of Athole,
„ „ tenth „
„ Duncan, second „
Earls of Buchan,
„ „ fourth „
„ Lords Damley,
„ „ sixth
„ ofEly, . . . .
„ „ seventh „
„ of Fasnacloich,
„ „ Mor, eighth „
Earls of Galloway, .
„ John, fifth
„ of Innerhadden,
„ Robert, ninth „
„ Elizabeth, wife of Sir Wil
„ of Invernahyle,
liam de Douglas, .
Earls of Menteth, .
„ Sir Hugh, .
„ of Strathgarry, .
„ Isabel, Countess of Argyll,
,, Earls of Traquair, .
„ ,, Countess of Moray
„ supposed Breton or Nor-
„ Sir James, of Durrisdeer,
man descent of the,
„ „ of Peristoun,
„ Badges of the, .
„ „ The Black Knigh
„ Motto of the, .
„ March of the, .
Stewarts, Seals of the,
,, Tartan of the,
Strathgarry, Stewarts of, .
Stuarts of Castlemilk,
Syxle, grant to the convent of,
Walter, first High Steward,
23- 37- 48, 67
Walter, son of Walter, third High
sixth High Steward, .
William, Fitzalan, ancestor of the
Earls of Arundel, .
„ son of Walter, third High
Charters to John, Lord Lorn, 20th
June 1452, ....
Charters of Lands to Duncan Stewart,
second of Appin, . . 18
Charter of apprisement in favour of
Duncan Stewart, over the lands
Charter to Alan Stewart, third of
Decrees against Duncan Stewart and
Locheil for heirschip in Badenoch,
Summonses by Duncan Stewart
against Duart, Coll, and Ulva,
for heirschip in Appin, .
Decrees against Duart, Coll, and
i Security given by the Earl of Argyll
187-8 : for Duart, . . . 199, 2^0
Claim by David, Bishop of Argyll,
203 for share of damages, . . 199
Decrees against Duart in favour of
Duncan Stewart, . . 200-2-3
195 Petition by Sir John Campbell of
Calder against Locheil and Alan
204 Stewart of Appin, . . .203
I Statement by Alexander Stewart of
1 90- 1 j Ballachelish after the Battle of
I Killiecrankie, .... 206
List of the Clan killed and wounded
192-3 at Culloden, .... 200
rurnhuU &- Spears, rHnters, Edinlitrgh.
XiQBQoad SI awqefr^-'
'i^MI IWIII im Bi
^ \ i ^ ^ ^ t -"S
THE APPIN MURDER
TO THE EDITOR OF THE TIMES
Sir, — While perhaps little further enlightei
merit can now be expected on the Appjr
murder, the otherwise admirable account ol
that tragedy given by your Special Corre^
spondent in a recent issue of The Times tends
to leave a somewhat dubious impression of the
ethical nature of the subseqirenl trial. Like
so many others, your Correspondent has
allowed his very natural sympathy for the
harshly treated Stewarts to lead him into the
(in my opinion) unwarranted assumption that
the trial of James of the Glen was a travesty
of justice. That assumption is quite unfair to
Campbells, who, for all their faults, were
staunch upholders of judicial rectitude.
Consequently, the fact that Argyll himself pre-
sided at that fateful trial 200 years ago ensured
for James of the Glen whatever judicial con-
sideration was available at the time. It is very
far from my intention to make these observa-
tions in order to mitigate in the least the whole-
some abhorrence of the pitiably inadequate
form of justice, the ministration of which
could, at the time under consideration, send
James of the Glen to his death. Rather
they made in order to draw attention to the
fact that this dark spot, in history does not
necessarily lie at the door of the Campbells.
I am, Sir, yours faithfully,
201, Rivermead Court, Hurlingham, S.W.6
Sir, — Your Special Correspondent does not
mention that the place of James Stewart's
execution is now marked by a monument. This
bears the unequivocal inscription: — " Erected
in 1911 to the memory of James Stewart of
Acharn, or James of liie Glens, executed on
this spot Nqv. 8, 1752, for a crime of which
he was not guilty."
RODNEY M. GALEY.
4, Lyndhurst Court, Woodford, E.18.
THE APPIN MURDER
MYSTERY UNSOLVED AFTER
TWO HUNDRED YEARS
From Our Special Correspondent
The story of the Appin murder-the
murder of Colin Campbell of Glcnure
in the woods of Lettermore two hundrc.i
years ago to-day — has gone round the
world in the pages of Kidnapped. " There
came the shot of a firelock from higher
up the hill ; and with the very sound of
it Glenure fell upon the road. 'O, 1 am
dead,' he cried, several times over." David
Balfour loolied up the hill. " The murderer
was still moving away at no great
distance. He was a big man, in a black
coat, with metal buttons, and carried a
fowling-piece. . , . The next moment he
was lost in a fringe of birches."
In history there was no David Balfour
to witness the shooting, but the res^of it
happened very much as Stevenson des-
s. and the mystery is unsolved to this
day. Who was the man in the black coat ?
Some few families in the Appin district
have had what is believed to be the secret
handed down to them, but they keep it
to themselves. Most people who have
studied the old records agree that James
Stewart of the Glen, hanged on a high
knoll near the south landing at Ballachu-
lish ferry on November 8, 1752, for being
an accomplice, " art and part of the
murder," was in fact innocent. Alan
Breck Stewart — not quite so attrac-
tive a character as Stevenson made him,
but still recognizable in the old records —
was certainly lurking near at hand at the
hour of the murder and is commonly
thought to have shared in the plan.
According to local tradition, however, it
was not his hand that fired the long black
Everything combines to malje the
mystery live on in Highland minds. There
is the unshakable belief that James of
the Glen was hanged by an act of Govern-
ment policy an* clan vengeance. The
Highlands in 1752 were still restive after
the '45, there were rumours that Prince
Charles would land again with a Swedish
force ; and a lesson had to be taught even
though the real murderer was unknown.
A Campbell had been murdered in
Stewart country, so a leading Stewart
representative in the district had to pay
after a trial presided over by the Duke of
borrow as he moved from place to place.
From James's house, when he arrived
there, he borrowed a short black coat and
some blue piaiden trousers — much the
kind of dress that the murderer was seen
e wearing, but it was a dress fairly
Tion in the Highlands at the time.
I .spent some days visiting younger
people at Ballachulish and Fasnacloich.
nd on May 1 1 Alan and a few young
people spent the night — some sleeping in
barn — at James's farm at Acharn.
1 undoubtedly had spoken wildly
against Glenure at different times, and
these meetings of his with young men may
be significant, for to this day it is said
in Appin that the murder was plotted by
some young folk.
Alan, at any rate, had little talk with
James himself on the night of May II ;
they had no time to work out an elaborate
plot of murder and escape. On May 12
Alan left Acharn early and visited friends
around Loch Leven and Glencoe. The
night of May L't he spent at Ballachulish
House, and the next morning — the day of
the murder — he worked a little in the
farmyard and then disappeared with a
fishing rod. Glenure was expected to
ride from Fort William during the day,
crossing over the Ballachulish ferry to
the Appin side. During the day Alan
appeared again to ask the ferryman at
Ballachulish south landing if Glenure had
crossed. On being told " No," he was
away again into the hill. Glenure later
crossed the ferry, rode on a mile or two
along the narrow hillside road (now grass-
coveredl towards Duror, and was shot
at a place still marked by a small heap
of stones. His young lawyer, who was
among the few with him, had the glimpse
of the murderer.
Later in the evening Alan, still in the
neighbourhood, met a servant girl from
Ballachulish House on the hill, asked
" what was the occasion of the stir in the
town," and, on being told that Glenure
was killed, asked her to tell a Donald
Stewart to get money for him from James
of the Glen. Donald .Stewart then went
up the brae to meet Alan, who told him
to tell James that he would wait for the
money at Coalisnacoan, by the side of
Loch Leven. Donald Stewart duly saw
James the next day and James arranged
for the money to be sent.
All this was used against James at the
trial ; but if James had had foreknowledge
of the murder, and had promised to help
in Alan's escape, he would surely have
arranged the money beforehand, not leav-
ing it to be arranged in haste afterwards.
James sent the money because Alan
Breck was a kinsman, a former deserter
from the Hanoverian forces, and a man
who would certainly be hanged if caught.
Thanks to the money and his native wit,
Alan was soon safely in France.
The case against Alan is black and, were
it nnt fnr the strnni! local tradition that he
Breck Stewart — not quite so attrac-
tive a character as Stevenson made him.
but still recognizable in the old records-
was certainly lurking near at hand at the
hour of the murder and is commonly
thought to have shared in the plan.
According to local tradition, however, it
was not his hand that fired the long black
Everything combines to make the
mystery live on in Highland minds. There
is the unshakable belief that James of
the Glen was hanged by an act of Govern-
ment policy ancft clan vengeance. The
Highlands in 1752 were still restive after
the '45, there were rumours that Prince
Charles would land again with a S\H'edish
force : and a lesson had to be taught even
though the real murderer was unknown.
A Campbell had been murdered in
Stewart country, so a leading Stewart
representative in the district had to pay —
after a trial presided over by the Duke of
Argyll himself with a jury made up almost
entirely of Campbells.
The main facts in the case are fairly
clear. After the '45, Stewart of Ardshie'l
fled with many others to France ; and
James of the Glen, a natural brother of
Ardshicl's, managed his estate in .\ppin
for him for a time. Then the estate was
taken over by the Government and C amp-
bell of Glenure was made the factor over
Glenure was at first content lo let
James go on collecting the rents. James
handed the rents to Glenure but managed
to keep a surplus to support Ardshiel's
ife and family.
Then the authorities called Glenure to
order, telling him in effect that he had
been too lax and was letting Jacobite
families take over the farms. Glenure
sked James to move from his farm at
Glenduror to Acharn (which James re-
sented) and then, early in 1752, iierved
notice on several families in the Appin
strict. They were to be evicted if they
had not moved by Whitsuntide. James
took up their cause and tried unsuccess-
fully before the Edinburgh courts to have
the eviction orders suspended.
ALAN BRECK'S VISIT
At the beginning of May it was learned
at Glenure would superintend the evic-
insonMay 15. James forthwith wrote lo
o men of law, asking them to be present
on May 15 to protest to Glenure on behalf
the tenants. This is an important point
his favour, suggesting that he wa.s bent
all forms of legal protest and not of
ilence. )t is beyond doubt that at the
hour of the murder — between 5 and 6
o'clock on May 14— he was working
quietly on his farm. Generally, in fact, he
1 mild mannered man, although at the
trial several witnesses declared that after
he had been moved from his Glenduror
farm he had spoken violently against
Glenure when (in the old phrase) he was
concerned in drink."
There were others about him, however,
younger and more headstrong. First of
them was Alan Breck. then paying one
f his clandestine visits from France.
Alan used to arrive in his French clothes—
long-bodied blue coat, red waistcoat,
black breeches and tartan hose, and a hat
th a black feather. These he would
change for any clothes that he couia
town, and, on bemg told that Glenure
was killed, asked her to tell a Donald
Stewart to get money for him from James
of the Glen. Donald Stewart then went
up the brae to meet Alan, who told him
to tell James that he would wait for the
money at Coalisnacoan. by the side of
Loch Leven. Donald Stewart duly saw
James the next day and James arranged
for the money lo be sent.
All this was used against James at the
trial ; but if James had had foreknowledge
of the murder, and had promised to help
in Alan's escape, he would surely have
arranged the money beforehand, not leav-
ing it to be arranged in haste afterwards.
James sent the money because Alan
Breck was a kinsman, a former deserter
from the Hanoverian forces, and a maa
Alan was soon safely in France.
The case against Alan is black and, were
it not for the strong local tradition that he
did not actually fire the shot, it might be
taken as conclusive. If not he, who then ?
Trying to sift the evidence at the trial (well
set out in the Nniahle Scottish Trials series,
published by Hodge) is fantastically diffi-
cult, for most of the many witnesses had
all the old Highland vagueness about time,
and throughout the critical days everyone
seemed to be visiting everyone else. The
young people especially were here, there,
Anyone reading the records would be
glad to know more about the movements
of a certain Ewan Roy MacColl, who
came to Acharn from Glencoe (presum-
ably past Lettermore) on the day of the
murder. A greater question is whether
Alan Breck — always impulsive, " a
desperate foolish fellow," as James called
him — was suddenly persuaded to take a
part in the murder by one of the young
Stewarts at Ballachulish House ? One
of the strongest local traditions is that
the shot was fired by Donald Stewart,
the nephew of Stewart of Ballachulish,
in league with John Stewart of Fasna-
cloich, leaving Alan Breck to draw the
pursuit away from the others. Other
inquirers, again, would like to know
more about the movements of James's
own son, Alan Beg (Little Alan).
Alan Beg had a black jacket very
like the one Alan Breck was wearing. On
the afternoon of the murder Alan Beg
went alone from Acharn, according to
his own evidence, to the hill called
Fraochaidh — which is about as far from
Acharn as Lettermore is. Earlier in
the vear, about April 1, he wrote
a letter to Duncan Stewart of Glen-
buckie complaining of Glenure's actions,
and adding: "However, it shall be
a dear glen for them or (before)
they shall have it." Further, it is
said that Alan Breck, when in France,
declared that it was Alan Beg who com-
mitted the murder.
No son surely would let his father hang
for his own deed, but another of the
Appin traditions is that on the day of the
hanging a man had to be tied down by his
friends to prevent him from going to
declare the truth at the place of execu-
The friends no doubt thought that
poor James was doomed in any case. So
the mystery remains.
Pictures on page 12.