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LIBRARY 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



Class 



ST. HELENA 




His EXCELLENCY COLONEL GALLWEY, C.M.G., D.S.O. 

(Governor of St. Helena, 1903.) 



ST. HELENA 

THE HISTORIC ISLAND 

FROM ITS DISCOVERY TO 
THE PRESENT DATE 



BY 

E. L. JACKSON 



ILLUSTRATED FROM PHOTOGRAPHS 



NEW YORK 

THOMAS WHITTAKER 

2 AND 3, BIBLE HOUSE 
1905 



Contents 

PAGE 

HISTORICAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL 

DESCRIPTION ..... 

DESCRIPTIVE 

JOTTINGS FROM ST. HELENA RECORDS . 

CHAPPELL VALLEY . 

ON SLAVERY AND THE WORK OF H.M. CRUISERS ON THE 

WEST COAST OF AFRICA 2 59 



TRISTAN D'ACUNHA 



226462 



ST. HELENA 



HISTORICAL AND CxEOGRAPHICAL 

THIS most solitary island, probably an extinct tertiary 
volcano, is one of the peaks of a range of mountains 
traversing the South Atlantic Ocean, Ascension, with Green 
Mountain, and Tristan d'Acunha, with peak 8,000 feet high, 
being parts of the same range. 

Geologists have been unable to fix with exactness its 
chronological position, from the circumstance of its fossils 
being peculiar to the island, and therefore furnishing no 
clue to the geological age of the formations in which they 
occur. The volcanic forces which have produced the com- 
plicated disturbances so conspicuous throughout the island 
must have ceased at a very remote period, as it has evidently 
retained for ages its existing conformation. At the height 
of many hundred feet above the level of the sea, shells 
in considerable numbers are found, embedded in the soil ; 
these shells were formerly supposed to be of marine origin, 
but a more careful examination has shown them to be 
(altogether) of a land species, and of a kind no longer found 
in a living state. Their destruction, which has been im- 
puted to the clearing away of 'the original forests, is more 
probably owing to geological causes. The principal com- 
ponent of the island is a dark lava, the successive streams 
of which are very distinctly marked on the faces of the 
abrupt cliffs which form the coast. 

In its central and higher parts, a different series of rocks 
has, from extreme decomposition, produced a clayey soil, 
which, where not covered with vegetation, is seen in bright 
bands of colour. Some of this mud or clay presents a 
wonderful appearance, the tints being of all shades. On 
one side is seen the beautiful mauve and violet peculiar to 
the pansy, on another the shaded reds and pinks of ger- 
aniums, and, at a distance, the colourings appear suitable 
for pigments, but on inspection are found to be of a very 
coarse nature. 



to ST. HELENA 

In the year 1502, when the island was first discovered by 
Juan de Nova Castella, the commodore of a Portuguese 
fleet, the interior was a huge forest, even some of the preci- 
pices overhanging the sea being covered with gum wood 
trees. The day of its discovery was the anniversary of the 
birthday of Helena, the mother of Constantine the Great, 
so the island by the Portuguese was called St. Helena, a 
name which it has always retained. In the first record the 
word is, however, spelt Hellena. 

These early navigators, always on the outlook to find 
islands which they could use as watering places for their 
vessels, and which would generally supply them with 
vegetables, meat, and fruit, were eager to stock and colonize 
them. On the occasion of the discovery of St. Helena, we 
find they were prepared, for they left at the island 
some goats, asses, and pigs; but at this visit there is no 
mention of colonization. Eleven years after, a Portuguese 
fleet called on its way home from India, and left here the 
first human inhabitant. He was Fernandez Lopez, a noble- 
man who, having incurred disgrace through desertion, was 
condemned, and punished to the extent of having his nose, 
ears, right hand and the little finger of the left hand cut off. 
We can well imagine he preferred to be left here, rather than 
to endure the reproach and ignominy which awaited him at 
home. Thus, he was the first Governor of St. Helena, and, 
according to the records, was provided with a few negro 
slaves, pigs, goats, poultry, partridges, guinea-fowl, phea- 
sants, peacocks, vegetables, roots, fig, orange and peach 
trees. (It is a mystery how the small vessels of that date 
were able to keep on board all these animals, poultry, and 
food.) Here he spent four years, being then recalled by 
Portugal. That nation, however, continued to use the 
island as a place of call for vessels homeward bound. 

Captain Cavendish in 1588 anchored off Chapel Valley 
(Jamestown), and an interesting account of his visit will be 
found in a later chapter. There were then a few good 
buildings, and a Roman Catholic Church. He found that 
the Portuguese had been very successful in introducing 
useful trees and plants, and that fig, lemon, orange, pome- 
granate, shaddock, and date trees, as well as parsley, sorrel, 
mustard, and radishes were plentiful; there were also 



~r 




ST. HELENA n 

partridges, pheasants and turkeys, with a large number of 
goats and wild pigs. We do not read again of the visit of 
an English ship till 1591, when Captain Kendall (of the ship 
Royal Merchant), who commanded one of the first three 
ships which set out for India, could, owing to sickness in the 
fleet, get no further than the Cape of Good Hope. These 
first three ships were the Royal Merchant, the Penelope 
(Captain Raymond) and the Bonaventure (Captain Lan- 
caster). It was deemed advisable by them that the Royal 
Merchant should return with the sick men of the squadron 
who were exhausted by scurvy ; so on her passage home she 
called at the island, where her debilitated sailors derived 
much benefit. The other two ships were afterwards 
separated in a gale, and the Admiral (Raymond) was never 
heard of more. Lancaster, however, reached India. Return- 
ing after many disasters he reached St. Helena on 
April 3, 1593, making a stay of nineteen days. Accord- 
ing to the accounts given of his visit, it was not the place 
of plenty and beauty described by Captain Cavendish. 
When the sailors landed, their attention was attracted by 
a voice singing within the chapel, which they entered. 
Their sudden appearance greatly alarmed the forlorn singer, 
until he found they were his own countrymen, and, to add 
to his delight, he recognized amongst them some of his old 
companions. This man (John Legar) was one of those 
whom it had been deemed necessary to send home in the 
Royal Merchant, but his disease on the voyage had made 
such progress that he had been left by Captain Kendall 
at St. Helena, as the only chance of saving his life. His 
comrades had made him two suits of goat skins, and his diet, 
together with the climate of the place, had completely 
restored him to bodily health; but the sudden transition 
from a state of apprehension that he might never return to 
his native land, to joy, at the sight of his countrymen, and 
the contemplation of once more seeing his home, was too 
much for him ; for having taken no rest nor sleep during 
eight days, he died from exhaustion and debility. 

In 1603, Captain Lancaster made another call. He was 
then in one of a fleet of four ships outward bound in the 
interests of the East India Company. At this time the 
island was the resort of Dutch and Spanish ships as well as 



12 ST. HELENA 

English, and the Portuguese, busy with fresh conquests, 
deserted the island. It was, however, quite a favourite 
post office with the captains and crews of passing vessels. 
The letters were usually placed under a boulder, and the 
boulder made conspicuous, so that people coming on shore 
could not help seeing it. In this way the crews of homeward 
bound vessels took news to England of the outward bound. 

The Dutch traders were the next to take an interest in 
and to make use of this solitary spot, and until the year 
1651, they found it very useful; but, after establishing a 
colony in the Cape of Good Hope, they deserted St. Helena, 
and the East India Company of Merchants in England, being 
by this time fully aware of its great value, at once annexed 
it with a capital of 72,000, part of which was laid out in the 
equipment of four ships, viz. the Dragon, Hector, Ascension, 
and Susan, all under the command of Captain Lancaster, 
and a fort was erected by Governor Button. The incorpora- 
tion of the East India Company that event so memorable 
in the commercial annals of England took place in the year 
1600, under the auspices of Queen Elizabeth. For ten years 
they held the island, and ultimately obtained from King 
Charles II a charter, which secured it to their use and 
benefit. This charter is still kept at the Castle in James- 
town. 

EXTRACT FROM THE CHARTER OF KING CHARLES II, 

Dated $rd April, 1661. 

And, that it shall and may be lawful, to, and for the said Governor 
and Company, and their successors from time to time, and at all 
times from henceforth, to erect and build such castles, fortifica- 
tions, forts, garrisons, colonies or plantations at St. Helena ; as 
also elsewhere within the limits and bounds of trade granted unto 
the said Governor and Company, as aforesaid, as they in their dis- 
cretion shall think fit and require, and for the supplying of such 
as shall be requisite to keep and be in the same, to send out of 
this kingdom to the said castles, fortifications, forts, garrisons, 
colonies or plantations, all kinds of clothing, provision of victuals, 
ammunition, and implements necessary for such purposes, with- 
out paying of any custom, subsidy or other duty, for the same ; as 
also to transport and carry over such number of men (being willing 
thereunto) as they shall think fit ; as also to govern them in such 
legal and reasonable manner as the said Governor and Company 
shall think fit ; and to inflict punishment for misdemeanours, or 
impose such fines upon them for breach of their orders, as in these 
presents are formerly expressed. 



ST. HELENA 13 

On the Company assuming sole right, they at once 
established a small colony, fortifications were erected, and 
emigrants came from England bringing cattle, trees, plants, 
etc., and in a short time the place seemed thriving. 
This prosperity excited the covetousness of the Dutch ; so, 
in 1665, they attacked it, and were successful in gaining 
possession. But the English were not easily to be driven 
out of the colony they had worked hard to form, and 
within twelve months were again in full possession. They 
had, however, learnt a lesson, and at once commenced 
fortifications. The original fort, built by Dutton, was 
demolished (a stone record still remains of this, built into 
the wall of the present building close to the entrance) and 
another built. This was triangular, and is supposed to 
form the basement part of the present Castle. 

The place then took the name of Fort James in com- 
pliment to the Duke of York (afterwards King James II), 
and from this time the valley is termed James' instead of 
Chapel Valley the usual term now in speaking of the 
valley is Jamestown. This year saw the great fire of 
London, and many ruined families sought refuge in St. 
Helena. 

For nearly ten years the East India Company kept no 
records of their transactions at any rate no written accounts 
can be found but, by tradition, we know the island was 
governed successively by men of the names of Dutton, 
Stringer, Swallow, Coney and Bennett. After them came 
Anthony Beale, and while he was Governor in 1673, the 
Dutch again took possession, but only after great resistance 
from the islanders, who fought valiantly. This time the 
invaders gained a footing in Lemon Valley (near Jamestown), 
but they met such a furious shower of rocks and boulders 
from the hillsides, that it was impossible for them to pro- 
ceed, and they were driven to take shelter in their ships. 
Even in these times such a fusilade would be most formid- 
able, but it did not daunt the Dutch, who waited till night. 
Then, espying a light on the coast, they made for it, and 
landed at a place called Bennett's Point in Swanley Valley, 
where they found a planter fishing on the rocks attended by 
a slave. This slave was coerced by threats to guide them 
through the intricate parts of Swanley Valley to the moun- 



i 4 ST. HELENA 

tainous land near High Peak ; but the islanders were again 
on the alert, and prepared to meet them with a force of 
500 men from the island__garrison. The Battle of High 
Peak then took place, and the islanders had to retire, the 
Dutch forcing their way down towards Fort James, into which 
the Governor and the islanders had retired. The besieged 
Governor and men resisted the attack for some time, but 
eventually gave in, and made their escape on some ships in 
harbour which were bound to the coast of Brazil. Very 
fortunately they fell in with a British squadron commanded 
by Captain Munden (afterwards Sir Richard). 

He was proceeding outward to convey to England the 
East India homeward bound fleet, but on learning what 
had occurred at St. Helena he determined to recapture 
it, and accordingly set sail for the island, arriving on 
May 14, 1673. Unobserved and quite unexpected by 
the Dutch, he landed at " Prosperous Bay " on the east, 
with about 200 men, under command of Captain Kedgewin. 

Fortunately they had a slave, who had escaped with 
Governor Beale, named Black Oliver (of whom an account 
will be found in "Jottings from Records"). He was 
well acquainted with the island, and made a good guide up 
the steep and rugged rocks till they came to a perpendicular 
cliff of great height, now called " Hold-fast Tom." This 
seemed an insurmountable difficulty, but one of the party, 
named Tom, taking with him a large ball of twine, and 
exhorted and encouraged by his companions, accomplished 
the difficult feat of scaling it. By the help of the twine a 
rope was drawn up, and he was able to assist his companions 
to the summit. Captain Kedgewin, with his little army, 
was then enabled to travel by Hutt's gate toward Long- 
wood heights. On the way they refreshed themselves at 
the houses of the cottagers, and passing Longwood, took up 
a position on the top of Rupert's Hill, east of, and above, 
Jamestown. 

By this time Captain Munden had sailed across to the 
north and appeared in front of Fort James about the same 
time as Kedgewin appeared on the heights, and the Dutch 
were so taken by surprise that they immediately sur- 
rendered. 

On landing, the English placed two guns in position on a 




SEAL OF THE GREAT CHARTER GRANTED BY CHARLES II. 

(From a photograph.') 



ST. HELENA 15 

hill to the eastward of Fort James, to protect the town 
from attack on that side: and this was the beginning of 
the Battery known to this day as Munden's, mentioned 
again in the chapter " Jottings from Records." 

In those days of slow communication, intelligence of the 
surrender had not reached Holland before a Governor had 
been sent out to succeed the Dutch officer (supposed to be 
named Duke), who was temporarily in charge. When the 
Dutch Governor arrived, he anchored with his fleet of several 
richly-laden vessels, in total ignorance of what had occurred. 
Captain Munden had the satisfaction of taking him prisoner, 
and making prizes of the valuable cargoes. After this 
Munden left the island in charge of Captain Kedgewin. 

King Charles II again in 1673 granted by charter, dated 
December 16, the rights and possessions of the island to 
the East India Company, as lords proprietors of the island. 
This charter, as well as that of 1661, is still preserved at the 
Castle. 

It is well known that St. Helena was successively occupied 
by Portuguese, Dutch and British, as a store island for ships 
from India, China, etc., up to the time of the opening of the 
Suee Canal, and in these old times many regulations and 
orders were sent from England, as under : 

" You are particularly enjoined to render every acre of ground 
capable of cultivation, as productive as the nature of the soil will 
admit." 

As early as 1675 Directors of the East India Company 
wrote : 

" We find there is wanting industry and painstaking in many of 
the inhabitants, which we will not permit to continue amongst you : 
for they that will not plant, and take care for provisions of their own, 
we will not supply them : but rather send them home under the 
title of drones." 

This threat was actually executed by Governor Roberts 
in 1708, and for the time had an effect. 

COPY OF THE CHARTER GRANTED TO THE COMPANY BY His MAJESTY 
KING CHARLES II. 

Dated i6th December, 1673. 

Preamble. Charles II by the grace of God King of 

England, Scotland, France and Ireland, Defender 

of the faith, and so forth, to all those whom these presents shall 



1 6 ST. HELENA 

come greeting, whereas at the suit of our well beloved subjects the 
Governour and Company of Merchants of London, trading into 
the East Indies, and for the honour and profit of this our 
realme, and in the encouragement of trade in those remote parts, 
We have, by our Ruyall Charter, or letters patent bearing date at 
Westminster, the third day of Aprill, in the i3th yeare of our reigne, 
granted unto the said Governour and Company of Merchants of 
London trading into the East Indies, and their successors ; that 
they, and their successors and their factors, servants and assigns, 
in the trade of merchandise for them, and on their behalfe^and 
not otherwise, shall for ever have, use and enjoy the whole, "and 
entire and only trade, and trafique, and the whole entire and only 
liberty, use, and privilege of trading, and trafnquing and using the 
feate and trade of merchandise to and from the said East Indies, 
and toe and from all the islands, ports, havens, cities, towns and 
places within their said Charter, that is to say, to and from the 
East Indies, in the countries of Asia, Africa and America, or any 
of them beyond the Cape of Bona-Esperanza to the streights of 
Magellan, where any trade or traffique of merchandise may be used 
or had ; and that it should and may be lawful to and for the same 
Governour and Company and their successors from time to time, 
and at all times, henceforth to erect and build such castles, fortifica- 
tions, forts, garrisons and to erect such collonies, and make such 
plantations at St. Helena as also elsewhere within the limits and 
bounds of trade granted unto the said Governour and Company 
as aforesaid, as they in their discretion shall think fit and requesit 
and for the supplying of such as should be requested to keep or be 
in the same, to send out of this Kingdom to the said Castles, forti- 
fications, forts, garrisons, collonies or plantations all kinde of cloth- 
ing, provision or victuals, ammunition and supplyments necessary 
for such purpose without paying of any custom, subsidy (or other) 

duty for the same ; as also to govern them in such 

To send Provi- legal and reasonable manner as the Governour 

sions thither and Company shall think fitt ; and to inflict 

without paying punishment for misdemeanours, or impose such 

any Duty. fines upon for breach of their orders as in our said 

Charter are expressed. And whereas also by 
our said Royal Charter or letters patent, We have ordained that 
there shall be a Government and twenty foure Committees of the 
said Company, to be elected and appointed in such forme as therein 
is expressed, who shall from time to time have the directions of the 
voyage of and for the said Company, and the provision of the 
shipping and merchandise thereunto belonging, and also the saile 
of all merchandise goods and other things returned in all or any of 
the voyages of ships of or for the said Company, and the manageing 
and handling of all other businesses, affairs and things belonging to 
the said Company, and likewise that it shall and may be lawfull to 
and for the said Governour and Company for the time being, or the 
major part of them present at any publique meeting, commonly 
called the Generall Court, holder for the said Company, the said 



ST. HELENA 17 

Governour for the said Company alwaies being one from time to 
time, elect, nominate and appoint one of the said Company to be 
the Deputy to the said Governour, who from time to time, in the 
absence of the said Governour shall exercise and execute the office 
of Governour of the said Company, in such sort as the said Govern- 
our ought to do, as by our said Charter letters patent, reference 
thereunto being had amongst divers others, grants liberties immu- 
nities, priveleges and pre-eminences, may more fully appear ; and 
whereas in pursuance of our said Royal Charter, the said Governour 
and Company did, at their own cost and charge erect severall forts 
and fortifications as aforesaid being an island situate in or near 
Africa, beyond the line and on this side the Cape of Bona-Esperanza, 
and placed a garrison there and were proceeding to plant and people 
on the same, and for that purpose had transferred divers of our 
subjects who were willing thereunto to inhabit there ; but our said 
subjects inhabiting the said island were lately, in the time of war 
between us and the states of the United Provinces, by force of arms 
dispossessed thereof by the subjects and forces of the said States, 
and the said States and their subjects had and kept the quiet posetion 
thereof for severall months together ; and whereas 
Referred to the by the grace of God on our royall ships and 
capture of forces under the command of Sir Richard Munden, 
St. Helena by the the said island, and all and singular the forts, 
Dutch. fortifications and other the appurtenances there- 

unto belonging were retaken from the said states 
and their subjects, and a garrison of our subjects placed there, by 
virtue or reason whereof the said island, and all and singular the 
forts and fortifications, erections and buildings thereon, with the 
appurtenances vested in us, our heirs and successors in the write 
of our crowne, all artillery, arms, armour, weapons, ordinance, 
munition, magazins, stores, goods, chatties and moveables what- 
soever which were there found at the time our said forces retook 
the same as aforesaid, do of right belong unto us, and no other ; 
and whereas the said island hath been found by experience to be 
very necessary and commodious for our loving subjects, the said 
Governour and Company of Merchants trading into the East Indies 
for refreshing of their servants and people in their returns home- 
wards, being often then weak and decayed in their health by reason 
of their long voyages under their hot clymes, whereupon our sub- 
jects, the said Governour and Company, have besought us to re- 
grant and confirme the same unto them : Now know yee, that 
forasmuch as we have found by much experience that the said 
trade into the East Indies hath bin managed by the said Governour 
and Company to the honour and profitt of this our realme, and to 
that end, and out of the earnest desires that the said Governour and 
Company may, by all good and lawfull means and waies, be en- 
couraged in their difficult and hazardous trade and traffique in 
these remote parts of the world, Wee, therefore, of our especial 
grace, certain knowledge and meer motion have given, granted and 
confirmed, and by these presents for us, our heirs, and successors, 

B 



1 8 ST. HELENA 

do give, grant and confirme unto the said Governour and Company 
of Merchants of London trading into the East Indies, their successors 
and assigns, all that the said island St. Helena, with all the rights, 
profitts, territories and appurtenances whatsoever ; and the soyle, 
lands, fields, woods, mountains, farms, lakes, pools, harbours, 
rivers, bays, isles, islets scituate or being within the bounds, or 
limitts thereof, with the fishing of all sorts of fish, whales, sturgeons, 
and all other royall fishes in the seas, bayes, isletts, rivers, within 
the premises and the fish therein taken ; and all the seines, maines, 
quarryes, as well royall mines as the mines whether the same be 
already discovered or not discovered, and also all the gold silver 
veines and precious stones, and all others whatever, be it of stones, 
metales, or any thing whatsoever, found, or to be found, within the 
veines, mines or quarryes, of the said island and premises aforesaid, 
and all and singular royalties, revenues, rents, customes, castles, 
forts and buildings, and fortifications, erected and to be erected, 
on the premises, or any part thereof, and all priveleges franchises, 
immunities, preheminences, and heridants, whatsoever within the 
same or to them, or any of them belonging or in any wise appertain- 
ing in as large and ample a manner, to all intents and purposes 
and constitutions, as Wee now ourselfe have and enjoy the same by 
virtue and force of our said conquest thereof, or otherwise how- 
soever ; and them the said Governour and Company of Merchants 

of London, trading into the East Indies, their 

The Company of successors and assigns, Wee do, by these presents, 

Constituted for us, our heirs and successors make, create, 

Lords Proprie- and constitute the true and absolute Lords and 

tors of St. Helena Proprietors of the island and premises aforesaid, 

reserving to the and every part and parcell thereof, saveing and 

Crown the faith alwaies reserving to us, our heirs and successors, 

and Allegiance the faith and allegiance to us due and belonging 

of the Company and our royall power and soverignty of and over 

and inhabitants, our subjects and inhabitants there, to have, hold, 

possess and enjoy the said island, and all and 
singular other the premises hereinbefore granted unto them, the 
said Governour and Company of Merchants of London trading into 
the East Indies their successors and assigns for ever to the only 
use of them the said Governour and Company and their assigns for 

ever more to be holders of us our heirs and success- 

To be holden in ors as of the manner of East Greenwich in the 

the same manner county of Kent in free and common socage, 

as East Green- and in capite not by Knight service : and know 

wich in the ye further that Wee of our mose especiall grace, 

County of Kent, certaine knowledge and meir motion, have given, 

granted and confirmed, and by these presents 
do give, grant and confirm unto the said Governour and Company 
and their successors and assigns to their own proper use and benefit t 
all that artillery and all and singular arms, weapons and ordinances, 
munition powder and shott, victuals, magazins, stores, ammuni- 
tion and provision of war, and other provisions whatsoever, and 



ST. HELENA 19 

singular ships, vessels and boats and all manner of merchandise 
and wares, clothing, implements, beasts, cattle, horses and mares 
which are or remaine upon or within the premises, or any part 
thereof, and belonging unto us in any manner or wise, and Wee 
are pleased, and do by these presents for us, our heirs and suc- 
cessors, grant unto the said Governour and Company of Merchants 
of London trading into the East Indies, that for the better supply 
of the said island (being a place of no trade or tramque) and of 
the castles erected and placed and to be erected and placed in or 
upon the said island or within the premises or limit ts thereof and 
of the inhabitants thereof to send of this kingdom to the said 
island and to the castles, fortifications, forts, garrisons, collonies, 
plantations and inhabitants thereof, all kinde of clothing, 
provisions, victuals, ammunition, ordinance and supplyments 
necessary for such purpose without paying any custom subsidy 
or other duty for the same ; as also to transport and carry 
over such number of men being willing thereunto as they shall 
think fitt ; and forasmuch as Wee have made such grant of the 
said island and premises to the said Governour and Company of 
Merchants of London trading into the East Indies and their suc- 
cessors as before is mentioned, it is therefore needfull such powers, 
and premises and jurisdictions be granted unto them as be requisite 
for the good government and safety thereof, and of the inhabitants 
thereof ; Know yee therefore further, that reposing especiall trust 
and confidence in theire fidelitye, justis, wisdome, provident cir- 
cumspection, have granted and by these presents for us, our heirs 
and successors, do grant unto the said Governour and Company 
of Merchants of London trading into the East Indies, and their 
successors that it shall and may be lawf ull to and for the said Gov- 
ernour and Company of Merchants of London for the time being, 
or the major part of them, present at any publique assembly, 
commonly called the General! Court for the said Company, the 
Governour of the said Company or Deputy being alwaies one, or 
for the said Governour or his Deputy or Committees for the time 
being or the major part of them, present att any assembly commonly 
called the Generall Court of Committees holden for the said Com- 
pany, the Governour or his Deputy likewise being alwaies one 
from time to time ordain, make establish, and under theire common 
seal to publish any laws, orders, ordinances and constitutions, 
whatsoever, for the Government and other use 
Company's of the said island and premises and the inhabitants 
Legislative thereof ; and the same, or any of them againe 
Power. and from time to time to revoak, abrogate and 
change, as they in their directions shall think fitt 
and convenient ; and also to impose, limit t and provide such 
paines, punishments, and penalties by fines, amerciaments, im- 
prisonments of body, and where the quality of the offence shall 
require, by taking away life and member as to the said Governour 
and Company for the time being, or the majority of them present 
at any such Generall Court or to the said Governour, or his Deputy 




20 ST. HELENA 

or Committees of the said Company or the major part of them 

present at any such Court of Committees as 
To the extent of aforesaid, the said Governour or his Deputy being 
Life and Limb, alwaies one shall seem necessary requisite and 

convenient for the observation of the same laws, 
constitutions, orders, and ordinances and for the punishment of 
offenders against the same ; so also as the said laws constitutions 
orders ordinances pains, punishments penalties be consonant 
to reason and not repugnant nor contrary, but as neer as may be 
agreeable to the laws of this our realme of England and subject 
to the saveings therein contained. And also of our further espe- 
ciall grace, certain knowledge and meer motion, Wee do by these 
presents, for us, our heirs and successors, give and grant unto the 
said Governour and Company and their successors, that it shall and 
may be lawfull to and for the said Governour or his Deputy and the 
said Committees of the said Company for the time being, or the 
major part of them, at any of them said Courts commonly called 
the Court of Committees, holden for the said Company from time 
to time to nominate, make and constitute and ordain and confirme 

by such name or names, stile or stiles, as to them 

Power to appoint shall seem good such Governour or Governours, 

Governours and or Ministers cheife factors, and agents or other 

other Ministers, factors or agents as shall be by them thought fitt 

and needfull to be made and used for the Govern- 
ment, and other use and uses of the said island St. Helena, and of 
the Castles, forts, fortifications, and other the premises hereby 
granted and such Governour and Governours, Officers and Ministers, 
Factors or agents at their directions to revoake, discharge, alter 
and change, and also to discharge, alter and change all and singular 
the Governour, Governours officers and Ministers as heretofore 
have bin by us made and appointed for the Government and other 
use of the island of St. Helena, or any of the forts, fortifications, 
limmetts, etc., or presincts therefore ; and Wee are also pleased, 
and by these presents for us, our heirs and successors do give and 
grant unto the said Governour and Company, and their successors 
that it shall and may be lawfull to and for the said Governour or 
his Deputy and Committees of the Company for the time being, 
or the major part of them, by themselves or by their Governour 
or Governours, Officers or Ministers, Factors and agents, to be 
ordained and appointed as aforesaid, according to the nature and 
limitts of their respective offices and places within the said island 

St. Helena, the territories and presincts thereof, 
Judicial Powers, to correct, punish govern and rule, all and every 

the subjects of us our heirs and successors that 
now do, or any time hereafter shall inhabit within the said island 
and presincts thereof, according to such laws, ordinances, orders 
and constitutions, as by the samesaid Governour and Company 
at any Generall Court, or Court of Committees as aforesaid shall be 
established and to do all and every other thing and things which is 
to the complete establishment of justice doth belong by court 



ST. HELENA 21 

sessions of judicature and manners of proceedings thereunto like 
unto those established and used in our realme of England. Although 
in these presents express mention be not made thereof, and by 
Judges and by their officers, by them the said Governour, or his 
Deputy and Committee of the said Company, or the major part of 
them, or by the said Chief Governour or Governours of the island 
St. Helena to be delegated to award process, hold please, judge and 
determine all actions, suitts, and causes whatsoever of any kind 
or nature, and to execute all and every such judgements, alwaies 
the said laws, ordinances and proceedings be reasonable and not 
repugnant or contrary, but as near as may be to the laws, statutes, 
governments and policy, of our kingdom of England, and subject 
to the saveings herein. And Wee do also confirme and grant unto 
the said Governour and Company, and their successors, as also to 
all and every such Governour or Governours of officers Ministers 
and Commanders as shall be appointed by the said Governour, or 
his Deputy, or Committees of the said Company as aforesaid, to 
have power and authority of Government and command in and 
over the said port and island and they and every of them shall 
and lawfully may, from time to time, and at all times hereafter, 
for their several defence, and safety, encounter, expell, repell, 
resist, subdue, retayne and possess by force of armes as well by sea 

as by land, and by all waies and means what- 
Military Power, soever, all and every such person or persons 

whatsoever, as without the special license and 
authority of us, our heirs and successors, or of the said Governour 
and Company or their successor shall attempt to inhabit within 
the presincts and limmitts of the said island, and also every such 
person and persons whatsoever as shall enterprize or attempt any 
destruction or invasion, hurt, detriment, or annoyances thereunto 
or to our subjects inhabiting within the same or any part thereof, 
or to them, or any of their goods, merchandize, interests, property, 
or estates whatsoever ; and Wee do further, for us, our heirs and 
successors, hereby declare, ordayne and grant that such principall 
Governours of the said island as shall from time to time be duly 
authorized and appointed, in manner aforesaid, shall have full 
powers and authority in their respective places and charges to use 
and exercise all such powers and authorities in their respective 
places, in such cases of rebellion, mutiny, or sedition, of refusing 
to serve in wars, flying to the enemye, forsaking the colours or 
ensignes or other officers, law custom and disaplene, military in as 
large and ample a manner, to all intents and purposes whatsoever, 

as any Captain General of our Army, by virtue 

Governor to have of his office, have used and accustomed, and 

the power of may or might do ; and of our more especiall 

Captain General, grace, certain knowledge and meer motion, Wee 

do, for us, our heirs and successors, further 
ordaine and grant, that it shall and may be lawfull to and for the 
said Governour of the said Company, or his Deputy for the time 
being, or the appointment of the major part of the Committees 



22 ST. HELENA 

for the said Company assembled in any of their said Courts commonly 

called their Courts of Committee from time to time and at all times 

hereafter, to administer such a formall legall 

Power to oath as by their directions shall be reasonably 
administer devised with any person or persons to be employed 
Oaths. in, for, or concerning the said island St. Helena, 

or any part thereof, as well as for the true and 
faithful execution and performance of their respective offices and 
employment as also for the rendering a just, true and perfect ac- 
count of writeing of all such goods, monies and other things as by 
reason of their said offices and employments, shall come to their 
respective hands unto the said Governour and Company to such 
person or persons as shall be by them appointed to take the same 
account ; and also to all Governours, Officers, Ministers, Agents, 
Factors of what nature soever or by what title soever they shall 
be called which shall be lawfully sent or placed in the said island 
St. Helena, as well for the good Government thereof and the in- 
habitants there, as for the ordering, safe keeping and true accomp- 
ing of and for all such laws, goods, profitts, commodities, matters 
and things whatsoever, as shall be committed to their charge, or 
any of their Government, charge, care and custody ; and also to 
such persons as the Governour or said Deputy, with the major part 
of the said Committees for the time being shall think meet for the 
examination of, or clearing the truth in any case whatsoever 
concerning the said Company and relating to the said island 
St. Helena, or concerning any prisoner from thence proceeding 
or thereunto belonging ; and Wee do, for us our heirs and successors, 
give and grant unto the said Governour and Company, and their 
successors, that the Chief Governour or Governours resident in the 
said island of what names or title soever they be called, shall have 
the like power to minister a formall and legall oath to all other 
officers and inferior Ministers whatsoever on the said island 
St. Helena for the just true and faithful discharge of their severall 
places, duties and services as also unto any other person or persons 
whatsoever for the examination, satisfying and clearing the truth 
in any cause as well concerning the said Island St. Helena as any 
other particular business there arising for the maintaining and 
administration of peace and justice amongst the inhabitants of the 
said island, or any other person in that place : and our pleasure is, 
and Wee do, for us, our heirs and successors declare by these pre- 
sents, that all and every the persons being our subjects which do 
or shall inhabit within the said port or island, and every their 
children and posterity which shall happen to be 
Natives of St. borne within the presincts thereof, shall have 

Helena to be and enjoy all liberties, franchises, immunities, 
Free Denizens capacities and abilities, of franchises and natural 

of England. subjects within any of our dominions, to all 
intents and purposes as if they had been abiding 
and borne~within this our realme of England or in any of our do- 
minions ; and lastly our Will and pleasure is, and Wee do by these 



ST. HELENA 23 

presents, for us, our heirs and successors, ordain and grant unto 
the said Governour and Company of Merchants of London trading 
into the East Indies, that these our letters patents, and all and 
singular grants and causes therein contayned, shall be and continue 
firme, strong and sufficient and available in the law, and shall be 
contayned, reputed and taken as well to the meaning and intent 
as to the words of the same most graciously and honourably for the 
best advantage and benefitt of the said Governour and Company, 
and their successors, although express mention be not made herein 
of the true yearly value and certainty of the premises, or any part 
thereof or of any other gifts or grants made by us, or any of our 
ancestors or predecessors, to them the said Governour and Company 
or any other person or persons whatsoever or any omission or 
defect herein or any law, statut, act, provision, order, ordinance 
published, ordayned, or provided, or any other cause, matter or 
things whatsoever to the contrary thereof, or in any wise not- 
withstanding. In witness whereof, Wee have caused these our 
letters patent to be made witness ourselfe at Westminster the i6th 
day of December in the five and twentieth yeare of our reigne. 

By writt of privy seal, 

(Signed) PIGGOTT. 

The pay of the Government Officers was as follows, from 
1673 to 1687 : 

Captain Field, Governor and Captain of a Company, Fifty pounds, 
also gratuity Fifty pounds, i.e. One hundred pounds per annum. 

Captain Beale, Deputy-Governor, Captain and Store Keeper, 
Fifty pounds per annum. 

Lieutenants . . . 2 10 o per month. 

Ensigns . . . .200 

Sergeants . . . .100 

Gunners . . . .^200 and diet. 

Gunners' mates . . . i 10 o 

Private soldiers . . .^0180 

The Minister (Mr. Swindle) ^50 o o per annum. 

,, as Schoolmaster, 25, and gratuity 

^25, making one hundred pounds. 

The Chirurgeon, Twenty-five pounds, gratuity twenty-five, 
making Fifty pounds. 

The Minister and Chirurgeon besides their diet were each 
allowed the same proportion of land as other settlers. 

In returning the salutes of foreign guns, it was directed 
that no more than seven guns should at any time be fired, 
and only three, to ships in the Company's service ; but 
interlopers were not on any account whatever to be saluted. 
An extract from a letter addressed to the St. Helena Govern- 
ment by the home authorities reads : 



24 ' ST. HELENA 

We find by the list of guns fired, sent us by Captain Beale, 
three hundred and odd guns which is so strange a waste that we 
could not think our Governor would have been guilty of ; especially 
considering that island cost us forty thousand pounds, without one 
penny profit, hitherto, more than refreshment to our ships, which all 
strangers have had as well as ourselves. But most impudent it was 
to salute interlopers ; and as vile for our Minister, Mr. Church (if 
our information be true) to be first on board the interloper Pitts 
that came in last voyage, and to entertain him at his house. 

As taxes, every English vessel trading to Madagascar had 
to leave a negro slave on the island and also to pay a duty 
of 2s. 6d. for every ton measurement, 55. anchorage, the 
latter being paid by all ships. This charge, however, was 
not levied on Dutch ships, as long as a similar exemption 
was allowed to English East Indiamen at the Cape of Good 
Hope. Ships in the Company's service were obliged to 
deliver a barrel of gunpowder. The orders of the East 
India Company were that ships of interlopers were not to 
be supplied with water or refreshment until they paid in 
money or goods to the value of 2os. per ton. No refresh- 
ment was allowed them unless they agreed to resign ship 
and cargo to the Company's disposal and until each sur- 
render was made, all traffic and communication between 
them and the inhabitants was prohibited, under a penalty 
of 20 from a member of Council, and 10 from any other 
person in the island, who should disregard these orders. 
Many ships under Ostend colours were refused stores of any 
kind, and scarcely allowed water sufficient to preserve the 
lives of their crews, and were often fired upon either 
to prevent their entry into the roads or to hasten their de- 
parture. 

A constant succession of showers is more necessary for the 
process of vegetation in a hilly country like St. Helena 
than on flat ground, and from the idea which prevails, that 
trees on the summits of mountains have an attractive in- 
fluence on the clouds, as well as from consideration of the 
value of timber, the preservation of wood was at these 
early times deemed an object of great importance, and 
regulations were formed for its preservation. A great 
quantity of wood was used for the distilling of spirit from 
potatoes a manufacture in which many stills in the island 
were employed, and which doubtless occasioned many 







HEART-SHAPED WATERFALL 
(From an Old Print.) 






VIEW TOWARDS SANDY BAY. 
(From an Old Print.) 



ST. HELENA 25 

abuses and disorders. To suppress the excessive use of 
the wood, an impost was levied of twelve pence for every 
hundredweight of wood appropriated to distillation, beside 
fourpence for every gallon of liquor. 

The chaplains appointed by the East India Company of 
this time seem by the following to have been of a most tur- 
bulent disposition. 

Dr. Sault scurrilously insulted the Council, contemned 
their authority, and by his disrespectful and insolent de- 
meanour, to which the Governor too tamely submitted, 
fostered a discontent productive of the most serious and 
alarming mutiny that had hitherto disturbed the settle- 
ment. The Company had spared neither expense, ordi- 
nances nor exhortations to promote virtue and religion, 
but their good endeavours were frustrated by the behaviour 
of a succession of clergymen, whose principles and conduct 
counteracted the tenets of their sacred profession. In the 
official correspondence we find one mentioned as an en- 
croaching avaricious person, threatened with dismissal, and 
afterwards sent to England for refusing to marry a couple, 
after the Governor had signed the licence. Comment from 
the Company's letter : 

And if it be true, as we have been informed, that he did refuse 
to marry Mr. Smoult's daughter, upon the license of the Governor, 
it is a great sign of his weakness as of his pride ; for if he under- 
stands our constitution he must knowe that noe lawes are of force 
in that island, till they are lawes made by us. And therefore, if 
any Minister shall refuse to marry any couple upon our Governor's 
license, we would have our Governor and Council immediately to 
dismiss him from our service, and send him home. 

Dated ist Aug., 1683. 

In 1676 the island was visited by the celebrated Dr. 
Halley for the observing and for the completing of the 
catalogue of fixed stars, by the addition of those near the 
South Pole. 

From his observatory on the hill which has since borne 
his name he had an opportunity of distinctly seeing a 
transit of Mercury over the sun's disc, and the report of this 
transit induced the astronomers of Europe to watch with 
greater attention the memorable transit of Venus in 1761. 

Captain Kedgewin was now relieved by Captain Field as 
Governor. The East India Company gave the slave 



26 



ST. HELENA 



Oliver, who had done such good service in leading their 
troops, his freedom ; and in other ways they showed their 
appreciation of the valuable services of Captain Kedgewin. 

In 1684 occurred the Dennison insurrection, in which 
Bowyer and Clarke were tried for sedition and mutiny, and 
were hanged. Five more were executed in the following 
year, and several were banished to Barbadoes ; and in 1687 
the King's flag was substituted on the Fort for that of the 
Company. 

At this time we read that the island was very productive 
and fresh provisions were so abundant as to ensure a regular 
demand; therefore a clause was inserted in the charter- 
parties of ships in the Company's service, obliging their 
owners to purchase a certain quantity of beef, the price of 
which in the year 1683 was i6s. per cwt, alive. But as 
the demands upon the island increased with the prosperity 
and trade of the Company, so the value of provisions became 
enhanced, and the price of beef in the year 1707 was 255. 
per cwt. The market rates of other articles in the same 
year were : 



Veal, per Ib. 
Pork 
Bacon 
Running hogs 



Potatoes . 

Yams 

Milk 

Butter 

New milk Cheese 



6d. 
Ad. 

lod. 

2d. 



A sheep 
A Goat 
Fowl 
Turkey 
Goose 
per bushel 
cwt. 

gal- 
Ib. 
Ib. 



20/- 



6d. 

lod. 

4* 



Shortly after the establishment of the colony a species of 
yam had been introduced from Madagascar. Planted in 
the valleys it throve wonderfully well, as it requires a con- 
stant soak of water for fifteen months to bring it to perfec- 
tion. In its raw state it has an acrid, almost a caustic, 
property, but after several hours' boiling it becomes whole- 
some and nourishing food, and for many years formed the 
chief sustenance of the slaves, as well as food for the numer- 
ous hogs and poultry. These yam plantations are now almost 
without exception thrown into pasture and other grounds 
enclosed for cultivation of potatoes, which find a ready sale, 
but which in earlier days were generally bartered for grain. 



ST. HELENA 27 

Cabbages, peas, beans, cauliflowers, turnips, carrots, 
beetroot, cucumbers, lettuce, tomatoes were raised in 
abundance. The land was portioned out to various settlers, 
and in 1679 it was ordained that when a soldier married a 
free planter's widow, and became entitled to her ^deceased 
husband's land, he should be given ten acres and one cow 
from the Company ; and if he married a farmer's daughter 
or a young woman sent out from England who had no land, 
he was in such case to have twenty acres and two cows. 
Every unmarried man sent out from England as a settler 
was to have ten acres of land and one cow, and ten acres 
more and another cow if he married a planter's daughter 
or an Englishwoman. If a planter's son married an 
Englishwoman during his father's life-time, he became en- 
titled to twenty acres and two cows ; but if the marriage took 
place after his father's death, the son being possessed of the 
whole or a part of his father's land, he had then given him 
only ten acres and one cow. A planter's son or any Eng- 
lishman resident on the island (not being in the Company's 
pay, nor having been assigned lands) was allowed, on his 
marrying a planter's widow, ten acres and one cow, if his 
wife had children living by her former husband ; but, if 
she had no child, no further allotment was granted. On 
every ten acres of land one cow at least was to be maintained, 
and if a farm was not occupied and improved in twelve 
months after possession, or if, being occupied, it became 
deserted for six months, it could be seized by the Company 
and granted to some one of more industrious habits. Some 
who were dispossessed for this reason were sent off the 
island as drones. No lands could be sold or disposed of by 
the proprietors until after they had improved and occupied 
them for a period, which at first was fixed at four years, 
then at seven years, but in 1683 was altered to five years. 
For every ten acres of land the holder was obliged to main- 
tain on the premises an Englishman who was capable of 
bearing arms for the defence of the island, and who was 
occasionally to do garrison duty ; while for twenty acres, 
two men were required to be maintained, one of whom was 
to take turn in mounting guard, In 1683, however, this 
service was remitted on payment of 2s. per acre, afterwards 
reduced to is. per acre ; but the planters themselves were 



28 ST. HELENA 

not by this payment exempted from bearing arms in com- 
mon with air other persons, when danger was apprehended, 
or from appearance at general musters, on penalty of a fine 
according to the offence. On these conditions grants of 
land were made to the holders, their heirs and successors, 
and a register was kept of all grants and alienations. 
Settlers from England added to the numbers and formed a 
militia, which the East India Company preferred to regu- 
lars. They reduced the regulars to fifty men, allowing those 
not chosen the option of remaining as planters or of re- 
turning to England. Before this reduction the regular 
garrison was in two companies, one commanded by the 
Governor, and the other by the Deputy-Governor ; but now 
the fifty men formed one company, quartered on the in- 
habitants at the rate of ten shillings per month for each 
man. Officials generally filled both military and civil 
appointments. For example, the Deputy Governor was 
captain of a company, and also a storekeeper ; the third in 
Council, who was a subaltern officer, was Surveyor-General. 
The clerk of the company, or secretary, was an ensign, 
and voted as a Member of Council, while the storekeeper's 
assistant was sometimes a commissioned officer, and some- 
times a sergeant. Those of the Council who were not upon 
the regular military establishment held brevet commissions 
under the Government signature, and were assigned military 
commands in all cases of general alarm. Since the batteries 
were built and guns mounted, no disturbance of British 
power has taken place. 

Field was succeeded by Governor Blackmore in 1690. It 
will be seen by illustration of first record book that three of 
the Members of Council being unable to sign their names, 
affixed their mark. Governor Blackmore slipped on a path 
near Chubb's spring and was killed. An account of this is 
given under the heading " Putty Hill." He did much good in 
the island and established a Court of Justice to be assembled 
four times in the year ; trial by jury was used only for 
offences where life, limb, or land was at stake; all other 
cases were decided by the Governor and Council. In 
1691 Captain Dampier visited the island of which he gave a 
highly favourable description. A great number of plants, 
shrubs, and fruit frees were imported, including the peach, 



ST. HELENA 29 

apple and mulberry ; and vines were planted in Horse 
pasture under the management of the French refugees. 

When Blackmore died, the succession fell on the Deputy- 
Governor, Captain Joshua Johnson. The colony was pros- 
perous, and Johnson was a good man, but disliked by the 
soldiers whose excesses he endeavoured to check. Crime 
in those days consisted generally of what we should call 
trivial things, such as slander, debt, unfairness in dealing, 
cruelty to animals, and at times the whole of the inhabitants 
would be called up for inspection. Governor Johnson was 
warned of an intended attack on him by the soldiers this 
we find in the records but, taking no notice, he retired 
as usual to rest. Amongst the state guard on that night 
was a soldier named Jackson, who planned with three of his 
companions to rob the Treasury and escape. At dead of 
night they 'let soldiers who were in their scheme enter, and 
then sent messages to the other guards, getting them there 
one at a time. All who objected to their plans were at once 
cast into a dungeon under the fort which had been built 
for " securing villinous and desperate blacks." Governor 
Johnson always delivered the keys in person to the Sergeant 
of the Guard, and came early as usual in his " gowne and 
slippers." It is thought they only intended to place him 
in the dungeon ; but he resisted, and three of the party fired 
at him, mortally wounding him. They, however, hit Jackson 
as well, wounding him in the arm. Finding themselves in 
power, these ruffians with great haste threw the wounded 
Governor into the guard-house; but his wife was by this 
time aroused, and in order to quiet her they allowed her 
with her two negro servants to drag the body up to her 
own room. They then permitted the surgeon (who had been 
brought up from the dungeon) to dress Jackson's wound ; 
and afterwards, when they were convinced of the mortal 
nature of the Governor's hurt, that was also attended to, 
but death ensued that night. Fearful that the news of 
their misdeed would get to the ears of those in authority, 
they secured all the roadways ; and the soldiers, as they came 
into the fort on duty, were locked up (there were fifty found 
in the dungeon). After spiking all guns which overlooked 
the anchorage, they got the Governor's chest, and with 
whatever treasure they could find they went on board a 



3 o ST. HELENA 

little vessel called the Francis and Mary, then in harbour. 
They took with them as prisoners the Lieutenant-Governor 
and several others, and also placed under arrest the master 
of the vessel, retaining them prisoners in order that they 
might procure, by exchange, necessary provisions for their 
journey. One of their party was sent on shore to negotiate, 
and to state that if their demands were not complied with 
they would kill their prisoners. Thus they obtained the 
provisions which were placed at a spot halfway between 
the ship and shore, out of range of fort guns. Unfortun- 
ately their terrible scheme was a success and they escaped, 
and it is supposed they landed in Ireland. 

On the death of Governor Johnson, Captain Richard 
Keeling, Lieutenant-Governor, assumed command, but the 
success of this diabolical plot had raised a mutinous spirit all 
through the Colony, and he had to keep a great check both 
on the garrison and on the slaves. He was evidently a man 
swift to act, and directly he heard rumours that the blacks 
meant to murder the Europeans, and follow out Jackson's 
acts, he, without waiting to ask permission of his Honour- 
able masters, and going on the adage of " Prevention is 
better than cure," secured three whom he considered to be 
the moving spirits. One he hanged alive in chains at 
Ladder Hill and allowed him to starve to death ; the other 
two he " hanged, but cut down alive, and their quarters 
and heads being placed in the publique crossway for the 
publique view of all the negroes." 

In 1697 Governor Keeling, after a very severe illness 
died, and Captain Stephen Poirier succeeded him ; little of 
interest occurred, but the number of private stills so in- 
creased, and became such a nuisance that by orders from 
England they were all suppressed. 

War was at this time declared between France and Eng- 
land, and news came here ; but two of the Company's ships 
lying at anchor, the Queen and the Dover, were cut off in 
the roadstead by French boats, which came in commanded 
by Mons. Desduquieres under Dutch colours in broad day- 
light. When their nationality was discovered, orders were 
issued by the Governor that they should be fired upon, but 
the powder was not at hand, and the sponges did not fit 
the guns, so the French ships were soon out of sight. 



ST. HELENA 31 

After this a large board was placed at Buttermilk Point, 
(I am told it is still there, but illegible) ; it directed that 
all ships coming round should send first a boat to Bankses 
the board is very huge, and on it were painted the words 
" SEND A BOAT." 

The East India Company spent much money on the 
island, and did all they could to keep it in a state of pros- 
perity ; it was fortified in almost every spot that cannon 
could be put. During Poirier's time, as well as during 
that of his successor, Goodwin, the island was in a state 
of unrest through their injudicious management. 

In 1707 the old and new East India Companies were 
incorporated, under the title of the United Company of 
Merchants of England, trading to the East Indies ; and 
St. Helena was transferred to them as Lords Proprietors. 

An extract from Record Book, October 1707, shows us 
that an article of sustenance or luxury was derived from the 
numerous eggs laid by sea-birds on the detached rocks 
round the coast. The shores and neighbourhood abound 
in these sea-fowl, which deposit their eggs in the cliffs. 
Their haunts, covered with white dung, present a fantastic 
appearance, especially upon an isolated rock called Shore 
Island, which has often been mistaken for a ship under 
sail. The eggs, collected in the months of October and 
November, are in flavour somewhat like those of a plover. 
One species of this fowl however prefers making its home 
in the woody central eminences of the island, and at times 
the birds may be seen flying across country with fish in 
their beaks. The property in the eggs was considered as 
one of the Company's royalties ; and certain days in the 
week were specified, when the inhabitants were permitted 
to collect them. This permission being abused, notice was 
issued by proclamation that any person taking eggs, except 
on the appointed days, should forfeit their privileges for 
the remainder of the season. 

The Record states : 

Whereas there was usually granted by the Governor from time 
to time, as he thought fit, liberty to gather eggs upon the Right 
Honourable Company's Lords Proprietors' egg islands, which for 
some years past have been appointed by the late Governor to be 
Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays, which days are still allowed 



32 ST. HELENA 

by the present Governor. But finding there has been (notwithstand- 
ing they have thereby granted them as much as the said Lords 
Proprietors) eggs gathered upon those days when they should not . . . 
It is therefore hereby declared, that if any person shall presume any 
more to gather eggs upon any other but their granted days ; that 
then such boat and people therein offending, shall lose their said 
privilege for the whole season. 

Sea-cows were also a royalty, for it was proclaimed : 

That from the ist September next, whatsoever free planter or 
other inhabitants shall find any of the sayd fish called sea-cows, or 
other of the like nature and quality ; on the shore of any part of 
the sayd island, he may boyle the same and convert it into oyle 
and take it to his owne proper use and behoof ; prcvided always 
that he forthwith send, or cause to be sent, the eighth part, or gal- 
lon, of all the sayde oyle so made unto Fort James, and deliver it to 
the Governor, or such as he shall appoint, as an acknowledge- 
ment of the said Honourable Company's royalty and property 
and for their use and service. Further it is ordered that from the 
said time if any officer or soldier in the sayd Honourable Company's 
pay shall find any such fish, he may convert it into oyle, and send 
one third part or share thereof to Fort James, the other two- thirds 
he may dispose of as he pleaseth, provided, and it must always 
be remembered, that all persons concerned in this matter be just 
and right in the division and distribution of this commodity betwixt 
the Company and themselves. 

In 1708 Governor Captain John Roberts arrived, and with 
the help of Captain Nashbourne soon caused a healthy re- 
action, and his attention was at once turned to defensive 
work. Laws and ordinances were republished, trial by civil 
law and by jury extended, extensive works were commenced, 
and the Battery on Munden's Point was begun, as well as 
the present castle in Jamestown. Lime quarries were found, 
and lime was burnt. The planting of sugar-cane and other 
produce, together with the making of tiles and bricks, re- 
ceived attention. In fact, a general improvement of the 
island dates from his arrival, and the islanders were fully 
employed. He first turned his attention to the defences. 
An engineer came out from England, and on the day he landed 
he received instructions to send in a plan for a battery to be 
erected at Munden's Point ; and two days after a resolution 
was passed in council to construct the present fort in James 
Valley, and also to build Government House. 

Mud mortar was the cement generally used for ordinary 
buildings, but it was thought better to obtain superior 



-_ 



.-rftf 



THE ANCHORAGE FROM THE SIDE PATH. 
(From an Old Print.) 




THE WHARF AND SEA FRONT. 
(From an Old Print.) 



ST. HELENA 33 

cement. On former occasions chalk had been imported 
from England, and had been burnt into lime in St. Helena ; 
but this was expensive as well as inconvenient, and a reward 
of one hundred dollars was offered for the discovery of lime. 
Aaron Johnson, a soldier, was successful, but the quantity 
found was not considered sufficient to entitle him to the 
reward. Part of the reward ^was however given to him to 
stimulate others to further exertions. But excitement was 
at a great height when signs of gold and copper ore were dis- 
covered by Captain Nashbourne, a member of Council, who 
was searching for limestone. Later on we find the engineer 
did not give satisfaction, for we read that the Governor re- 
ported to the Council that 

" He observes the Engineer to be useless running headlong about 
business without his directions," which being fully considered in 
Council give their opinion of him " That Christian Frederick 
Vogell is rather pioneer than engineer, and no Gentleman by his 
actions and behaviour, and is altogether useless to serve the Honour- 
able Company in any capacity, as being idle, ignorant and lazy, 
not knowing how to obey orders, or give directions, by which means 
our Honourable Masters have suffered. Resolved that the said 
C. F. Vogell be dismissed the Honourable Company's service from 
this day." 

Governor Roberts laid out plantations for yams near 
Friar's Valley, and conveyed water there, but this land was 
allowed afterwards to go un tilled. He planted sugar-canes 
in Sandy Bay, manufactured sugar, rum, wine and brand}''. 
He also made " bricks and tyles." On August 15, 1710, he 
exhibited to the Council samples of St. Helena sugar, where- 
upon the following resolution was passed : 

That a pound or two be sent to our Honourable Masters by the 
next shipping, and that they may be acquainted that we have found 
the following articles since Governor Roberts came here, viz. lime, 
tyles, brick, cutstone for building, sugar, rum, minerals of several 
sortes, upon which we are now resolved to fire nine guns ; to drink 
our Honourable Masters' good health and success to the island ; 
for we are well satisfied this island will turn to account, and not 
be a dead charge, as it ever has been, if our Honourable Masters 
will be pleased to encourage it, and supply these people with neces- 
saries ; and then there will be no aversion against improvements, 
but showers of blessings of these people will come to them. 

The East India Company were continually sending out 
orders, but so little attention had been paid to them that it 

C 



34 ST. HELENA 

was doubtful whether the orders or regulations were in force 
or obsolete. 

Land owners were also many of them ignorant of even 
the terms on which they retained possession of their proper- 
ties. Two members of Council were therefore entrusted 
with the work of arranging all the orders which had been 
issued from time to time ; and were instructed to engross 
them in a book, to be entitled Laws and Ordinances. 

When they reported their work finished, a meeting 
was convened of thirty-six of the principal inhabitants at 
the country church, and there the code of laws was read to 
them, and copies of the same distributed by the church- 
wardens. They were then notified that propositions for the 
amendment of these laws should be delivered in writing to 
the Government for consideration. Out of the thirty-six 
inhabitants twelve were chosen as a committee to examine 
the laws and to comment thereon, and on June 14, 1709, 
they presented their report and desires as under : 

PROPOSITIONS AND ADDRESS TO THE GOVERNOR AND 
COUNCIL. 

ARMS, 
istly. 

They desire the chief families may have armes in their 
houses. 

ASSEMBLIES. 
2ndly. 

In their friendly meetings and merry makings, it may not be 
deemed as riots; and that upon any time, by order of the 
Governor they will separate if ever it should enter into his 
thoughts such meeting is for any evil intention ; which they 
say God forbid it shouldir 

ALARMS. 
Srdly. 

They desire they may not be corporally punished in case any 
neglect their duty ; but to be punished in their purses. 

BLACKS. 

4 thly. 

They humbly desire that when their Blacks are run away 
from them, they may not be obliged to pay fourfold for what 
they steale, but only to make satisfaction for the thing stole 
to the person injured. 



ST. HELENA 35 

MARKET HOUSE. 
Sthly. 

They desire if there be a market house built, they mayn't be 
obliged to bring their goods out of the country to a publick 
market. 

BEEFE. 
6thly. 

They desire to have free liberty to sell beefe to ships. 

DOGGS. 

7thly. 

They desire that themselves may not be obliged to lead their 
doggs in a string, but are willing their servants shall do it. 

CATTLE. 
Sthly. 

They desire the toll of cattle may be taken off, that they sell 
to one another, which is two shillings per head ; for that the 
trouble of giving such accounts is more burdensome to them 
than the thing itself. 

9thly. 

They desire that the trouble they are put to when they kill 
any cattle in carrying the hide, homes and ears to persons that 
has been appointed for that purpose, may be redrest. 

FENCING LAND. 
lothly. 

They desire they may not be obliged to fence in their land 
at all, it being a new thing they never heard of before. 

JURYS. 
iithly. 

They desire all other matters may be tried by Jurys, besides 
life, limb, and land as the plaintiff shall think fitt. 

WHOLESALE. 
I2thly. 

They desire that the liquors, etc., called wholesale, being 
three gallons, may be reduced to one gallon arrack ; four 
pounds sugar, and one or two pounds of tobacco ; and this be 
deemed a wholesale. 

LIQUOR RETAYLED. 
ijthly. 

They desire that there should be established a certain rate 
upon liquors retayled by the punch houses. 

CAUSES. 
i4thly. 

They desire to be tryed by the civill law and not by martiall 
law. 



36 ST. HELENA 

SHIPPS, 
iSthly. %& 

We desire the liberty,'as we always had, of going on board 
shipps without the Governor's leave. 

BLACKS. 
i6thly. 

They desire to be eased something in the tax of paying ten 
shillings every year for each black they have. 

GAME. 
i;thly. 

They desire that each chief of family that has guns allowed 
them, may for their diversion have liberty to go ashooting. 

GREAT WOOD. 
iSthly. 

They desire liberty to make use of the great wood and 
common, otherwise they will be ruined. 

LESSEES, 
ipthly. 

They desire lessees may vote for parish officers, and also 
serve in their turns. 

And all these grievances they humbly begg may be redrest 
as by their address in the following manner : 

ISLAND OF ST. HELENA. 

That whereas your worshipp and council was pleased on the 
1 6th day of April last past to summons Thirty-six of the prin- 
cipal inhabitants to the Church in the country, and there to 
hear the laws read over, which was accordingly done ; and 
forasmuch as we were a long time kept in the dark, and knew 
nothing of it : the inhabitants so summoned did, by a consent, 
chose twelve of us to inspect into them, and to make our re- 
marks upon the province of your worshipps and Council, that 
in case of any grievance which appeared reasonable, that your 
Worshipp and Council would be pleased to make address to the 
Lords Proprietors for redress, and this day we do with sub- 
mission present the same to your Worshipp and Council with 
our remarks thereon, and hope you will find them reasonable. 

And in the meantime we shall be obedient to those laws 
and orders delivered to the Churchwardens on the 26th April last 
past. . , , And we hope that every one of us and all together will 
do our utmost endeavours to do everything for the preservation 
of this island, and the good of the Honourable Company ; and 
we promise that we will not be remiss in our military dutys ; 
but when occasion shall present, wee will not be frugal of our 
blood, but ready to spill every drop of it for the preservation 
of the island, our wives and families, against any enemy that 
shall come here to invade us. And finally we give your Wor- 



ST. HELENA 37 

shipp and Councill our humble thanks for having been pleased 
to communicate to us the aforesaid laws and constitutions for 
our personal perusal, that we might better be enabled to know 
our duty (a thing which was never done before), but have 
always bin kept in ignorance of the same. 

We have no more to say to your Worshipp and Council : 
but wishing you all the health imaginable in your Government, 
and wee, a quiet and peaceable living under it, which we beseech 
Almighty God to grant to you and us. 

We remain, 
Your Worshipp and Councills* 

Most humble and obedient servants, 
HENRY COALS, HENRY FRANCIS, 

JOHN NICHOLS, RICHARD GURLING, 

THOS. SWALLOW, ORLANDO BAGLEY, 

ROBERT ADDIS, CHARLES STEWARD, 

MATTHEW BAZETT, JOHN COLES, 

JAMES GREENTREE, RICHARD SWALLOW. 

To each of the above clauses the Governor and Council 
annexed their answers ; and the above committee for the 
inhabitants subjoined their acquiescence to the greater num- 
ber of the Council's resolutions, as follows 

ARMES. 

istly. 

As to armes, the Governor will give them his warrant in the 
following manner to such chiefs of families : 

" Forasmuch as the principal inhabitants of this island have 
solicited to have armes in their houses, which they think very 
necessary to them (which the law prohibits), but the Governor 
and Council have dispensed with it. 

Wherefore this does give leave and license to you, Mr. A. B. 
for such necessary armes as you think convenient ; which 
armes you are to deliver up at any time when required by 
order of the Governor for the time being. And you have 
further power to seize any armes from any person that has 
not my license ; which armes shall be yours to dispose of as 
you think fit, giving me notice of the person ; and for so doing 
this I shall be your warrant. 

Given under my hand this I4th day of May, 1709, at the 
United Castle in James 1 Valley. 

JOHN ROBERTS. 

The following proclamation was then issued : 
ISLAND OF ST. HELENA. 

These are to give notice to all persons inhabiting the said island, 
that none do presume to possess, keep or carry any armes without 



38 ST. HELENA 

leave or license first obtained from the Governor, under hand and 
seale, upon-penalty of twenty shillings to the Honourable Company, 
and having the same seized and taken from them by any person 
licensed thereunto for their owne use, and to receive such corporal 
punishment as the Governor and Council shall think fit ; and that 
no licensed person do lead or permit any person to make use of 
their armes ; upon the penalty of having their license and armes 
forfeited. Dated the 3ist day of May, 1709, at the United Castle 
in St. James' Valley. 

(Signed) per order of the Governor and Councill, 

JOHN ALEXANDER. 

Affixed by Committee : " They are sattisfied." 

ASSEMBLYS. 
2ndly. 

God forbid that any merry meetings and innocent diversion 
should be deemed riots ; it's not the intent of the law. 
" Sattisfied." 

ALARMES. 
3rdly. 

You shall not suffer corporal punishment for not coming to 
al armes ; except it be in time of war. 
" Sattisfied." 

BLACKS. 
4thly. 

We shall dispense with that law of fourfold, and desire the 
Lords Proprietors to repeal it. 

" Sattisfied." 

MARKETTS. 
5thly. 

As this law is not penall, we cannot see how it can be a 
grievance ; and although marketts have never bin used, and 
not beneficial to the inhabitants, it's no rule that it should 
ever be in your favour. 

" We shall write to our Masters about it." 

BEEFE. 
6thly. 

You desire free liberty to sell beefe. Wee shall write to our 
Masters in your favour about it. 

DOGGES. 
;thly. 

You desire not to lead your dogges yourselves, but your 
servants. Wee shall dispense with it. 
" Sattisfied." 



ST. HELENA 39 

CATTLE TOLLED. 

Sthly. 

You desire the toll of Cattle may be taken off, for that it 
creates you a great deal of trouble. It is necessary that wee 
should know how you sell your cattle to one another, because 
of our Common, that it may both prejudice you and us too by 
not knowing it. 

CATTLE. 

9thly. 

You desire that the trouble you are put to when you kill any 
cattle in carrying the hides, homes and eares to persons ap- 
pointed may be redrest. Wee design to make this trouble 
easier to you; a man kills a beast, and sends for his next 
neighbour, he being a reputed man, and warranted by the 
Governor to have armes in his house ; he has shewn him the 
mark of his beast that he has killed that shall be a testimony 
sufficient without going any further. Now the usefulness of 
it A man loses a beast and gets a warrant to search suspected 
houses, in which houses if they find any beefe, if he cannot 
bring his testimony that he killed it at such a time, by such 
substantial men as aforesaid, or where he had the same, such 
person ought to be convicted. And we believe if it went as 
far as hoggs, goats, and sheep, it would be much to your benefit 
for (if we are rightly informed) several suspected persons eat 
more flesh than we think in reason and conscience they are 
able to do if they come by it honestly. 
" Sattisfied." 

And ordered that a new statute be penned accordingly, and 
sent home by this shipping to the Honourable Lords Pro- 
prietors for their concurrence, and that it takes force from 
the publication. 

LANDS. 

lOthly. 

You desire you may not be obliged to fence in your lands 
at all, it being a new thing you never heard of before. 

This law has bin made above twenty-seven years ago, and 
no doubt but it hath bin published, for it is what you hold 
your lands by. And we must say by this law, that what land 
is not fenced in, is, by course, the Lords Proprietors' ; we have 
no other way to know which is your land and which is theirs. 

However because you say you have bin so long kept in the 
dark by not knowing anything of it, we shall for this time 
neglect our duty of making seizures, and will intercede with 
the Lords Proprietors that the time appointed for enclosing 
may begin anew from the 25 th March last. In the meantime 
wee friendly advise you to enclose as fast as you can, lest wee 
should be checkt for this our neglect of duty, and receive orders 
from them to make seizures. 



40 ST. HELENA 

CAUSES BY JURYS. 
iithly. 

You desire all other matters may be tryed by jurys besides 
life, limb and lands, as the plaintiffs shall think fitt. No 
Governor and Council! will trouble themselves to give sentence 
upon intricate matters, and that may be of great importance, 
as you urge, by giving a definite sentence, which, though never 
so just, seldom pleases both parties, and creates an odium to 
the Governor and Councill, when the same thing may be judged 
by yourselves. As the Governor is Judge of that Court, he 
ought to be the Judge of what shall be tryed by Jurys and 
what he himself will try in Councill ; otherwise a litigious 
man that hath wealth and a cause depending with a poor man, 
although a trifling one, shall come and demand to be tryed 
by a jury, which will create the poor man such a charge that 
he will rather sit down in his wrong. 

The Governor would willingly put you in mind that he hath 
refused to try severall causes in Councill, as some of you know. 
And indeed to take all this matter aright, we look upon it as a 
burden our Masters has laid upon us to ease you. 

" Satisfied that the Governor shall be judge of what shall 
be tryed in Councill, and what in Court, except life, limb and 
land." 

LIQUOR. 

I2thly. 

You desire that the liquor called wholesale, being three 
gallons, may be reduced to one gallon arrack, four Ibs. sugar, 
and one or two Ibs. of tobacco to be deemed wholesale. We 
cannot see what occasion there is to deem anything wholesale 
less that what is exprest in the law, without prejudice and 
wrong to those who pay for license. And you all know very 
well that you may have what small quantities you please out 
of the stores, even to a Ib. or a quart of anything. 
" Sattisfied." 

LIQUOR RETAILED. 

Ijthly. 

You desire that we would establish certaine rates upon 
liquor retayled by the punch houses. 

Ordered, 
That the following declaration be issued out : 

" These are to give notice to all lycencees or retaylers of 
strong liquors, that a bowle of punch, made with one pint of 
arrack, with sugar and lemon, be from the date hereof, sold at 
2/- per bowle and no more, while arrack is at 6/- per gallon 
and if any one presumes to exact more, shall upon information 
thereof given to the Governor and Councill forfeit their lycence, 
and double the value. Which pint of arrack aforesaid is to 
be put into such sizable bowle as will not be too strong, nor 




ST. HELENA FROM THE ANCHORAGE. 




ST. HELENA FROM THE ANCHORAGE. 
(From an Old Print.) 



ST. HELENA 41 

yet too weak, but palateable and pleasant for the buyer. But 
if any lycencee or retayler of liquor shall think this not a 
sufficient profitt, they may deliver up their lycences, paying 
proportionable for the time they have had it, after the rate 
of Four pounds per annum, which all such retaylers are to 
do within eight days from the date hereof. 
" Sattisfied." 

MARTIALL LAW. 
I4thly. 

You desire to be tryed by civill law and not by martiall law. 
We shall write to our Masters about it ; we think it is but 
reason that the planters should be tryed by civill law except 
it be in time of war and action, or, that we hope never to see, 
rebellion, cowardice, neglect of duty, which may be the ruin 
of the island, and several other misdemeanours in time of 
action which cannot be judged by the Civil law; and we like- 
wise design in our Court Martiall to choose worthy people of 
this island to be of it. 

" Sattisfied." 

GOING ON BOARD SHIPPS. 
iSthly. 

You desire the liberty that you always had of going on 
board any ship or shipps in the road, asking the Governor's 
leave. It is what our Masters say was never done at the Cape, 
or as we know of, done in any other Dutch factory in India, 
however, if there be any urgent occasion, the Governor at that 
time will not deny them leave. 

" Sattisfied." 

BLACK TAX. 

i6thly. 

You desire to be eased something in the tax of ten shillings 
every year for each black you have. There is no nation under 
the hopes of Heaven, nay, we are apt to believe if there be 
any wild people, they contribute to their own safety in some 
measure. And if any man will look into our Mother country, 
England, we shall there find the four shillings in the pound 
tax alone gives the Queen every fifth year their whole estate ; 
beside taxes cf windows, lights, parish duties, and parson's 
tythes, and sundry other taxes, which every Englishman 
knows that has five hundred pounds per annum, never gets 
in above three' hundred pounds, and very well if that. And 
now that the Honourable Company has for six years last past 
paid for fortifications, by employing the blacks and artificers 
of this island, about fifteen hundred pounds a year, beside the 
constant charge of the garrison, etc., for your preservation. 
We shall only now give you our Masters' reasons; but must tell 
you we little expected at this time of day such an article from 



42 ST. HELENA 

you, which indeed, we find, by a medium of six years last past 
amounts but to fifty-eight pounds per annum : a great mite 
to such a vast charge. The reason of which order is as the 
Negros increase upon the island, it will be necessary for the 
Honourable Company proportionably to increase the garrison 
and soldiers for the security of the inhabitants as well as the 
island. 

LYSENCE TO SHOOT. 
I7thly. 

You desire that each chief of a family that have guns allowed 
you, may have liberty to go ashooting for your diversion. 

You must keep within the law of the preservation of game. 
But if any person should desire any further privilege, they 
are not to presume to do it without leave first had of the 
Governor, which is left to his pleasure to give or let alone. 
" Sattisfied." 

GREAT WOOD. 
iSthly. 

You desire leave of the Great Wood and Common. Provided 
you will agree to make a law to plant one acre of wood in every 
ten acres of land you possess, otherwise you shall have no 
benefit of our wood or common as our published order. 
" Agreed to and Sattisfied.'* 

. 

You desire lessees may vote for election of parish officers, 
and serve in their turn. We shall dispense with that, and 
write to the Lords Proprietors to repeal that law, and hope 
they will comply. 

" Sattisfied.' 1 

Judging from the i8th clause, the landowners readily 
acceded to any terms rather than lose the advantage of so 
valuable a common ; and the proposition of the Council on 
this subject, as well as on the other articles submitted to 
their consideration, appears to have met with the acquiescence 
of the Company ; but the law which required the hide, ears, 
and horns of every beast slaughtered to be exhibited to cer- 
tain specified persons was enforced with greater rigour than 
before, as will be seen by the following : 

A LAW FOR THE BETTER PREVENTION AND APPREHENDING OF 

FELONS. 

Whereas great and grievous complaints have been made by 
severall good people of the island, that divers felonyes, larcenys 
and pelfrages, and such like offences are many times done, to their 
great loss and prejudice. And that severall idle and evil-disposed 



ST. HELENA 43 

persons do kill and eat more flesh than they can be reasonably 
supposed to do conscientiously and honestly ; and we are further 
credibly informed, and inclined to believe, that the clandestine way 
and method used in this island among the people of killing, offering 
and putting to sale, their cattle, goods and other merchandise, in 
private manner and obscure places not bringing the same to mar- 
kett, or selling the same in open shopps or stalls is a great cause 
of such enormitys : for that such private and secret sales and 
slaughters are found to be the means of encouraging many thieves, 
who easily convey the said goods, by them stolen and pilfered to 
shipping and strangers ; that there can be nothing found against 
them to their conviction. For remedy whereof and for the better 
detecting and apprehending of all such lewd persons and bringing 
them to condign punishment. We do absolutely enjoin all and 
every person and persons inhabiting the said island, that from 
henceforth when they kill for their own use, or others, or kill, ex- 
change or part with any kind of beaste or cattle, as oxen, runts, 
steers, kine, heifers, calfes, sheep, lambs, goates, kidds, hoggs, they 
shall be obliged to repair to, or send for, and give notice thereof to 
some person or persons warranted by the Governor to keep armes, 
who are hereby appointed and empowered to view, inspect, search 
and examine the ears, hides, homes of every beast so killed, or to 
be sold, whereby to be informed and sattisfied that it hath the true 
and proper mark of the owner, or possessor, or that the disposer or 
seller hath a property therein. And if any person or persons shall 
presume or endeavour fraudulently to hide or conceal any such 
sale or slaughter, or kill or dispose of any beaste, without notice 
given, and search made, as aforesaid, otherwise than according 
to this law and be thereof lawfully convicted, he, they, and every 
one of them shall be, and are hereby declared, and shall be deemed 
and adjudged as felons, and the beast so concealed, not viewed, 
and unlawfully killed or made away, shall be forfeited, the one half 
to the Honourable Company and the other half to the informer 
or prosecutor. And we do further declare that any person or 
persons warranted by the Governor to keep armes, shall have 
power to enter into and search (as for stolen goods) the houses of 
all and every unlicensed person whom they shall vehemently suspect ' 
by circumstance, or otherwise, fraudulently and clandestinely to 
kill any meat, and where any flesh or skins of a beast shall be found, 
of which they can give no reasonable or good account how they 
came by the same, or produce the party of whom they bought 
the same, or some credible witness of the sale thereof ; he, or they 
shall be subject to the forfeiture and penal tys of clandestinely and 
feloniously killing a beast, as if thereof convicted. And we do 
hereby further declare that any person not licensed to keep armes, 
shall be obliged to get two licensed persons to view and examine 
the marks ; but when any person, having the Governor's warrant 
for armes do kill, sell, or dispose of any, the testimony of one single 
person shall be sufficient. And we do further declare and enjoin 
every inhabitant do at the marking of the cattle, procure one or 



44 ST. HELENA 

more sufficient witness to be then and there present : but always 
the unlicensed person to have two present as witness of their actions, 
upon the penalty aforesaid. And we do further declare that the 
informer or prosecutor shall have over and above the half of the 
beasts forfeited and clandestinely made away with, as aforesaid, 
half the fourfold, being part of the penaltys inflicted on felons. 

In 1710 a stream of water was laid from the springs at 
Plantation to New Ground, for the purpose of establishing a 
yam plantation, and we read that the drones were sent off 
the island, their lands being allotted to better workers. 

Very, very unfortunate was it that Roberts' successor, 
Captain Bouchier (1711), proved so unfit for his post ; he 
allowed the beautiful gardens of plantations to lay waste, and 
threw a great deal into pasture for his asses, of which he kept 
a numerous stud. His favourite occupation, that of riding 
them in all weathers, caused him to erect a shed 400 feet long 
at the Company's expense. When leaving it is said that " he 
stripped Government House of all that was portable, even 
the locks and the keys from many of the doors, as well as 
everything that might be serviceable to him on his voyage 
home. The population was then 832, whites and blacks 
being about equal, increasing at the rate of forty-five to 
fifty each year. 

Witchcraft in these days was punished severely. Quakers 
were not allowed to remain on the island, neither were 
lawyers, lest the people should occupy their minds with 
litigation. 

After Governor Bouchier came Captain Matthew Bazett 
(acting), 1714, and Captain Isacke Pike, also 1714. Gover- 
nor Pike was a great agriculturist, and strove to rectify all 
the harm committed by Governor Bouchier. In General 
Roberts' time the red wood and ebony were specially cared 
for, and Governor Pike continued to devote much attention 
to it. Concerning forests the records contain the following : 

Forasmuch as the red wood, and ebony wood whose barks are 
fit for tanning feather, are most of 'em destroyed by the tanners, 
that for laziness never took the paines to bark the whole trees, but 
only the bodies, leaving the rest of the bark on the branches, which 
means has destroyed all those trees, at least three for one ; and 
therefore to prevent the like for the future, and to preserve and 
recover so useful and necessary a thing for the island use : Ordered 



ST. HELENA 45 

that no more hides be sold to the people : for that we are about 
to engage one John Orchard, a tanner who has offered himself to 
tan and dress those hides at three shillings and sixpence a piece : 
all other skins at the prices following : 

A calf's skin at 1/6 

A sheep's skin at 1/6 

and goat skins at sixpence each : and have supplied him with one 
of the Honourable Company's blacks to help and assist him ; it 
being too much work for himself ; and the said Orchard hath 
obliged himself to learne and teach the Black his trade of a tanner 
and currier : and that articles of agreement be drawn accordingly. 
The advantageous proposals to our Masters in this matter are thus : 
First, the preservation of the trees; secondly, as we used to do, to 
sell those hides to tanners at three shillings apiece, and that, when 
tanned sold them again from twelve to fourteen shillings apiece, 
so that with one another we may probably clear seven shillings a 
hide : and if shipping comes we may be able to tan two hundred in 
a year (besides all other skins') which will clear seventy pounds a 
year, if sold out ; besides the advantage of the small skins ; and if 
wee employ shoemakers to work 'em up, wee are apt to believe 
that this article will yield our Masters one hundred pound a year 
at least : the loss of the work of the black and all other charges 
deducted. 

He also made a safe roadway from town to country by 
means of Ladder Hill, In a letter to the East India Company 
dated 1715 it is stated that two Spanish gentlemen, one a 
priest and the other an engineer, arrived on the island from 
Mexico. They professed a knowledge of mining and re- 
ported : " There are certainly some rich mines of metal here." 
These Spaniards stayed several months, and Governor Pike 
was much interested in the search for gold. After five 
months' search he had not abandoned the idea, but com- 
plained that want of labour prevented their getting to a 
sufficient depth. Another record of this hoped-for gold mine 
was, in an official letter dated June 15, 1716, as follows : 

The Governor has employed most of his time since the arrival 
of the Heathcote with Mons. Olievier, a Spaniard, who has dwelt a 
considerable time both in Mexico and Peru, amongst the Spanish 
mines, and he has set some of your Honour's slaves to work at 
digging on the north-east part of this island, near a place called 
Turk's Cap, where we have found a sort of mineral earth which 
the Spaniard says is a sure sign of a mine of metal. We have sent 
home musters of it by the Heathcote, and are assured by Mons. 
Olievier that as we go deeper, we shall find clearer and more evident 
proofs of metal. We wish we had hands to spare that we might 
keep some employed in digging on this occasion, because we desire 



46 ST. HELENA 

nothing better than to make the island yield to your Honours some 
reasonable recompense for the great expense and trouble you have 
been at to improve this hitherto unprofitable place. 

(We do not hear again of this gold mine until 1810, in 
Governor Beatson's time.) Pike is the Governor who in 
1719 considered it necessary to publicly reprimand the par- 
son in church " for making great alterations and omissions 
in the Church service," and he writes : " Since then, to make 
amends, he has read the prayer for the Honourable Com- 
pany, but leaves out their being Lords Proprietors of the 
island." "And whereas before it was used by all chaplains 
that has been here to insert immediately after the petition 
for those in the Company's service abroad these words, 
' more especially the Governor and Council of this place? and 
since he constantly omitts that sentence and has given out 
by his brother that ' he don't think them worth praying 
for,' the Governor says there is an old proverb, * No penny, 
no paternoster,' so we say ' No paternoster, no penny,' and 
are very well contented, because we think the prayers of such 
a fellow can do us but little good." The parson seemed to be 
the worse for being kept without his money, for the record 
says : 

He was locked up and confined for persisting in reading the 
Collect for ist Sunday in Advent, after the Governor called (according 
to his statement), in a very mild manner, " Doctor, you are wrong, 
this is the second Sunday in Advent.' 1 A full account of this will 
be found under the heading of " Jottings from the Records." 

The immediate charge and superintendence of the Com- 
pany's lands and plantations were entrusted to the Governor. 
From the produce of these a publick table was kept up, at 
which not only the Governor and Council, with principal 
servants and officers, but even the head artificers and ser- 
geants of the Guard sat in the order of their ranks. This is 
shown by the following extract, October, 1717 : 

Likewise in the Governor's absence, there shall stand a salt 
upon the table which shall be placed below the Council and Chap- 
lain. Those who sit above that salt shall always drink as they think 
proper, either wine or punch, but those who sit below that salt shall 
have to two persons, one common bowl of punch (which contains 
about three pints) ; if but three, the same ; if four, two bowls ; if 
five, no more ; and if six persons, three bowls of punch ; or in case 
of wine, instead thereof, one bottle for each bowl of punch. 



ST. HELENA 47 

This rule continued, and was in force in 1783. 

There were some bad seasons at this time, and a drought, 
much sickness amongst both blacks and whites, and a very 
strange thing happened for St. Helena the wind continued 
for three whole weeks to blow from the north-east. Such a 
thing had not then been known, nor has been known since. 

Governor Pike was rather severe, and his severity was 
often resented. Some soldiers, who considered they had 
been unjustly punished, escaped in an open boat. After 
performing a voyage of 1,498 leagues they arrived safely at 
the island of Nevis, in the West Indies. Governor Pike was 
withdrawn, and sent to Bencoolen. He however was ap- 
pointed Governor of St. Helena again at a later date. 

In 1719 Mr. Edward Johnson became Governor, and a 
terrible drought set in. A most destructive flood also took 
place, owing, it is supposed, to a waterspout breaking over 
the island, causing a deluge which is thus described : 

The water descended with mighty floods and torrents, carrying 
away the soil in an incredible manner, with both grass, trees, yams 
and stone walls before it. It brought down rocks of a mighty 
bulk, and covered abundance of fruitful land with stones. 

Notwithstanding this the drought continued till 1723, and 
the poor islanders were reduced to famine. Johnson died, 
and was succeeded for a time by Mr. Ed. Byfield. Then 
Captain Smith arrived, but he was decidedly unpopular, and 
orders were sent out in 1727 for Mr. Byfield to again assume 
command, which he kept until 1732. He paid attention to 
the Redwood plants, and protected them till they had borne 
seed, which he again planted and nursed. He also had the 
furze planted, which has ever since been so valuable as fire- 
wood. Goats and sheep were destroyed, or enclosed for ten 
years, and it is said that plants and trees shot up and the 
island became well wooded, where before it was very barren. 
When he retired from office in 1731 he had done much good 
work for the Company, but a powerful party was formed in 
the island against him, and he retired in disgust. The day 
on which he embarked for England, in a letter to the Direct- 
ors, he says ; 

We have had a fine season, and the place plentifully abounds 
with yam and beef, and idle fellows. 



48 ST. HELENA 

At this time a Mr. Benjamin Hawkes, an officer in the civil 
and military services, and Mrs. Margaret Tovey were sen- 
tenced by Governor John Smith to stand in the pillory to- 
gether " from the hour of eleven till twelve at noon." 
Governor Pike again was appointed Governor, and was even 
more disliked than at first. In 1736 " Old Will," who had 
arrived as a slave at the first settlement under Governor 
Button, 1657, died at the age of 104 years. 

After Pike's death Mr. Goodwin, who was senior member 
of Council, was made Governor, but he died in about a year, 
when Duke Crisp, who had been the second in Council, took 
office. He managed to rob the Government to the amount 
of 6,284, When the Company got to hear of his evil doings, 
they sent out Mr. Robert Jenkins, a commander in one of 
their vessels, to investigate. On the way out his ship was 
boarded by Spaniards, who tortured him by tearing off 
one of his ears. Duke Crisp not only had to give up the 
Governorship, but the whole of the Council, excepting 
Powell, were dismissed out of the Company's service for 
malversation. Their estates were seized, and Mr. Jenkins 
administered the Government until 1741, when the new 
Governor, Major Thomas Lambert, arrived on March 22. 

On the return of Jenkins to England he exhibited his torn 
ear before the House of Commons. Being asked by a mem- 
ber what he thought and did when they mangled him, he 
made the memorable reply, " I committed my soul to God, 
and my cause to my country." 

Lambert erected a hospital on its present site, but he died 
only four months after his arrival, and the senior member of 
Council, Mr. George Powell, succeeded. 

Evidently he had not benefited from, or he did not remem- 
ber, the punishment meted out to Crisp and his fellow- 
members of Council, for he exhibited a very unprincipled 
character. Following him came Governor Dunbar, who, 
although he only held the reins of Government for three 
years, did a great deal for the island. 

Rats were a great scourge at this time, and the oats, 
barley and wheat were devoured by them. In 1756 they 
also barked the trees at Longwood for food; but in 1700 
they must have been worse, for it is written in the records of 
the island that they devoured their own species, and that 




MAIN STREET, SHOWING OFFICERS' MESS. 








MAIN STREET, SHOWING ST. HELENA CLUB. 



ST. HELENA 49 

consequently the island was nearly cleared of these rodents. 

A barn was erected at Longwood which afterwards was 
converted into a residence for the Lieutenant-Governor, 
and which ultimately became the residence of the Emperor 
Napoleon I. An avenue of peepul trees was planted 
through the streets of Jamestown ; many of these are still 
standing. 

Goats were introduced in 1513, and in 1588 there were 
thousands of them. They ate all the young trees even the 
old trees were not spared, if they were within reach. To 
the goats therefore the dearth of wood on this formerly 
well wooded island is primarily due. Goats were then 
brought from Bombay and Surat, in order to improve the 
species, and in a few years they had multiplied to such a 
degree that they were regarded as wild animals. From the 
scanty patches of herbage on the heights contiguous to the 
sea, neither black cattle, nor sheep, even had nature fitted 
them for traversing such giddy heights and craggy precipices, 
could derive much sustenance ; but, inaccessible as these 
cliffs are to man, the goat finds excellent browsing, and 
thrives where other animals would perish. They are at the 
present time only allowed to range over certain lands; 
and on specified days the owners impound and cut their 
several marks in their ears. This is a task of difficulty and 
danger to any but those inured to it from childhood. 

A record of January i, 1686, reads : 

Starling and others are rewarded for the capture of one Richard 
Hancock that had lived in ye woods 22 months and was a principal 
agent in the late rebellion. 

A thick wood occupied Half Tree Hollow, and " some persons who 
advanced therein lost their way and perished." 

An old inhabitant says the wood was full of monkeys, who 
pelted stones at passers-by. 

The following extract of a letter from the Government 
of St. Helena by Governor Dunbar to the Court of Directors, 
dated July 9, 1745, affords a positive proof that the dis- 
appearance of the forests was due to the goats, and not 
to any physical change. 

Finding that quantities of ebony trees which grew in and about 
Peak Gut in their tender growth were barked and destroyed by 

D 



50 ST. HELENA 

the goats that ranged there, we thought it for your Honours' interest, 
for the preservation of wood, and the welfare of the island, to order 
the goats there to be killed. 

To this the Court replied : 

The goats are not to be destroyed, being more useful than ebony. 

But the most remarkable testimony to the existence of 
huge forests is that of July 1709, when in conference it is 
stated : 

Our necessity is so great for want of coals that we thought it 
would put a full stop to our work, but do find that ebony wood 
will burn lime extraordinary, and just by where the wood lies are 
mountains of lime stone, and it will be cheaper to our honourable 
Masters to bring lime from thence ready burnt (being light), than 
to fetch that sort of wood (which is very heavy) and bring it to 
Jamestown. 

This is clear evidence that the island abounded with trees, 
but of those huge forests, alas, very little remains. Ebony, 
redwood, white cedar and cotton were all indigenous ; the 
principal trees were the gumwoods, which formed the lower 
portion of the forest contiguous to the sea, and higher above 
mingled with these were ebony and redwood. Above the 
latter, succeeded the cabbage- trees, extending up the central 
ridge to its summit, where they were joined as at present by 
the tree-ferns. Few gumwoods now remain, except at 
Longwood, where they were planted within an enclosure 
by Government in 1780, when the decrease of wood had 
occasioned great alarm. The ebony has become entirely 
extinct, and is only found in small pieces on a few spots of 
the island. The red wood narrowly escaped the same fate, 
and is very scarce ; the honour of its preservation is due to 
Governor Byfield, who, having accidentally met with two 
young trees in 1730, caused them to be removed to planta- 
tion grounds, and protected till they produced seed. 

The original Flora of St. Helena should be carefully dis- 
tinguished from that which has been gradually formed on 
the introduction of numerous plants from various countries. 
The association of plants in this island will be found ex- 
tremely curious, and the circumstances, which enable species 
of very different habits to flourish equally well in the same 
spot, notwithstanding their constitutional diversity, are 
deserving of particular attention. Tree ferns are found 



ST. HELENA 51 

both at St. Helena and at Hobart's Town. Those of this 
island have the stems destitute of external fibres, except 
near the ground, while the tree ferns of Hobart Town are 
thickly covered with similar fibres from the very summit. 
The particular interest attached to St. Helena flora is men- 
tioned in Lyell's Geology 1840, " Vegetation of Islands." 

In islands very distinct from continents the total number of 
plants is comparatively small, but a huge proportion of the species 
are such as occur nowhere else. In the flora of St. Helena which 
is so far distant even from the western shores of Africa, there have 
been found out of sixty-one native species, only two or three which 
are to be found in any other part of the globe. It is a pity, that some 
of the most ornamental and elegant of the woods, as redwood, 
ebony and stringwood, should stand such danger of becoming extinct. 
Fruit trees of every sort, vines and sugar cane flourish j lettuces, 
we read, were so plentiful that they were used as food for hogs. 

After Dunbar, came Charles Hutchinson, who, in con- 
sideration of his valuable services for eighteen years, was 
allowed by the East India Company an annuity of 300 
per year. 

In 1749 acorns were planted, and many Scotch and spruce 
firs, oaks and cypress- trees were introduced. 

On June 29, 1756, a heavy flood came down the valley, 
and, overflowing its channel, forced its way through the 
churchyard and so into the streets of Jamestown. A slight 
earthquake occurred before this on June 7. The follow- 
ing passage occurs in the records : 

On the 7th June, 1756, a little before seven o'clock in the morn- 
ing, were sensibly felt, in several parts of the island, two small 
shocks of an earthquake, but did no manner of harm. 

In 1758 three French ships were cruising round the island 
for several weeks endeavouring without success to capture 
our returning East Indiamen, and in the same year a dread- 
ful sickness broke out amongst the cattle, whereby nearly all 
were destroyed. 

It was in 1761, during the useful career of Governor 
Charles Hutchinson, that the island was visited for the 
observance of a transit of Venus on June 6, when it 
was calculated that the planet Venus would pass over the 
sun's disc. It was in consequence of an appeal to his 
Majesty that measures were adopted for observing the 
transit from St. Helena. Dr. Maskelyne and Mr. Wadding- 



52 ST. HELENA 

ton were appointed for that purpose, and instead of building 
their observatory on low land, they placed it on the high ridge 
near Halley's Mount, which is very often covered in clouds 
and vapours. 

After Governor Hutchinson obtained his pension, 
Governor Skottoe followed the good example of his pre- 
decessor, and gave his time and attention to the preservation 
of trees. He instituted the Courts of Oyer and Terminer, 
and Gaol delivery. 

In 1763 a commission was granted by the Governor to 
the vessels Mercury and Fly to proceed to Madagascar to 
obtain slaves for St. Helena. 

An earthquake took place on May 21, which was so 
strong on the south part of the island that china and loose 
articles were shaken off the shelves, but no houses were 
damaged. 

A good carriage road was made to Ladder Hill, and James- 
town Barracks were constructed. After eighteen years 
Skottoe resigned his post to Mr. Daniel Corneille, 1782. 

Pipes were laid down from Chub's Spring for the supply 
of water to the town and for shipping. In this year another 
sensation of earthquake was felt by a number of people, 
who described it as a trembling of the earth, accompanied 
by a noise resembling distant thunder. The glasses and 
china in houses were agitated, and struck against each 
other, while in the fields a number of blacks employed on a 
yam plantation were so terrified that they abandoned their 
work. 

Corneille issued new regulations, which deprived the 
soldiers of their punch-houses, and prevented excessive 
use of spirits. This caused a mutiny in the garrison, which, 
owing to its indecision, assumed large proportions, and 
which might easily have been prevented had he acted deci- 
dedly at first. It was on Christmas Eve that the insubordina- 
tion commenced, and for days the men were turbulent and 
riotous. They (about 200) met under the direction or 
command of a Sergeant Tooley, and with arms declared 
their intention of seizing Ladder Hill Fort. Fortunately 
the Governor and the Lieutenant-Go vernor, Major Graeme, 
were at the time returning by Ladder Hill road to the town, 
and happening to look over the wall saw the movements of 



ST. HELENA 53 

the mutineers. Major Graeme was sent back to Ladder Hill 
Fort to give alarm, and to procure arms, while the Governor 
proceeded on his journey to town, where he met them. 

His reasoning had some effect, but he was foolish enough 
to open the punch-houses again for them. The evil effect 
of giving way to them was soon apparent. When too late 
the Governor saw it, and repenting of his leniency secured 
Sergeant Tooley as a prisoner. He then went with the main 
guard to the barracks, hoping to find the mutineers, but they 
were cunning, and had gone off to the country to seize Alarm 
House, which overlooked the town and near which was a 
guard with guns. Major Graeme was sent on horseback to 
cut off the mutineers. He galloped up Side Path, and taking 
short cuts with his horse, was enabled to reach Alarm House 
before them, as they had started on foot up a steep circuitous 
path. At one time he was dangerously near them, and 
they fired several shots at him. With the assistance of the 
six men on duty he fired grape-shot on the mutineers ; but it 
was getting dark, and they knew sufficient to throw them- 
selves flat when the discharge came. They succeeded in 
surrounding him, and chased him some distance, firing 
several times. Eventually he arrived again in Jamestown. 

In the meantime the Governor had sent off Major Bazett 
and seventy men, who went by an indirect road, hoping to 
take the mutineers unawares; but he found them well 
prepared, with their position fortified on all sides by the 
Alarm House guns. They received him with a discharge of 
grape, but, nothing daunted, he and his party rushed and 
secured the gun from which they were firing, threw the 
gunners into confusion, and, following up the attack quickly 
with musketry, they overcame the rebels. Many of the 
mutineers in the darkness deserted their side, and joined 
Bazett ; the others took refuge in the Alarm House. On 
Major Bazett's side two were killed, several mutineers were 
wounded, and 103 taken prisoners. These were all tried by 
Court Martial, and, except fourteen, were condemned to 
death ; the sentence was however remitted for many. Only 
nine, including Burnet, suffered death. Tooley was sent 
off the island in a ship bound for England ; this was wrecked 
off Salby and every soul perished. 

Mr. Corneille resigned, and was followed by Colonel 



54 ST. HELENA 

Robert Brooke, 1787. St. James* church was built on a site 
adjacent to the present church (now occupied by three 
military quarters). 

A serious accident occurred at the laboratory near the 
Castle. A rocket took fire whilst driving; two men were 
killed and three wounded. 

In the first year of Colonel Brooke's Government, pine- 
asters were introduced ; they have flourished ever since. At 
this time the island had gained a name for the acclimatizing 
of troops on their way to India. So reinforcements came 
for infantry and artillery, and improvements went on. 
Ladder Hill was adopted as a military fort, and water was 
conveyed there in an open drain of cutstone. The lower 
wharf and crane were constructed, and in 1791 the founda- 
tion of Plantation House was laid. On the other side of the 
country improvements were also being made, for we read 
that " water was conveyed to Longwood in an open drain." 

In 1792 the terrible curse of slavery was partially removed 
from the island, for the further importation of slaves was 
interdicted. 

In 1795 intelligence was received of the Dutch joining in 
the war against England, and very soon after, eight richly 
laden Dutch ships homeward bound came in for provisions. 
H.M.S. Sceptre was in harbour, and with it and the assist- 
ance of the crews of several of the Company's ships, Brooke 
succeeded in capturing and making prizes of them all. He 
then sent off troops from the garrison, about 400 men with 
guns and ammunition, 10,000 in specie and a quantity of 
provisions, to assist in the reduction of the Cape of Good 
Hope, for he knew the garrison there was not sufficiently 
strong. 

He was highly commended by the Company, and in 
recognition of his services he was presented by the Marquis 
Wellesley, Governor-General of India, at the head of the 
garrison of St. Helena, with a sword taken in the palace of 
Seringapatam. The presentation was made by Honourable 
Henry Wellesley. 

Brooke retired owing to ill-health in 1800, and Lieutenant- 
Colonel Robson took his place for a short time, until Gover- 
nor Pat ton could arrive. Just at this time the Mary 
whaler arrived in charge of two of her officers, who whilst 



ST. HELENA 55 

on parole had recaptured her from the Dutch in Table Bay. 
Governor Patton highly disapproved of this act, and seized 
the vessel, sending information to Governor Jansen that he 
had done so. 

Patton much improved the water of the island by puddling 
them with a mixture of lime, gravel and clay, which he 
named puzzolana ; he attended also to the state of the 
fortifications, and one battery, the site of which can only 
now be seen, was called Patton's Battery. 

Three hundred men were sent in 1805 to assist in the 
attack on Buenos Ayres under General Beresford. 

The Government schooner Jolly Tar was stolen from her 
anchorage in the harbour, on October n, by three Spanish 
officers (prisoners on parole), together with ten foreigners 
who were serving in the garrison. They murdered Mr. 
Swete, the commander, and took the schooner to Rio de 
Janeiro. 

Governor Patton instituted a system of telegraphy invented 
by himself. 

The rapid spread of the blackberry plant caused much 
trouble, and we read that the grand jury at quarter sessions 
represented the devastation caused by the spread of these 
plants to be such as required the immediate attention of 
Government ; but the blackberry trouble was soon swallowed 
up in the measles outbreak. Almost the whole population 
were stricken at one time, and this naturally caused great 
distress. The epidemic was also very fatal to life. 

Just above the Government garden a walk, which still 
exists, was cut out of the hillside by Patton, who wished to 
provide a retired promenade for his two daughters ; this has 
always borne the name of Sisters' Walk. 

Much more attention was now given to trade with ship- 
ping, and agriculture began to be neglected. Labour was 
dearer and scarce, and the price of a good slave increased 
from about 40 to 150. 

Governor Patton fell into ill-health, and went home. His 
duties were undertaken by Lieutenant-Colonel Lane until 
the arrival, on July 4, 1808, of Governor Beatson. He was 
a very energetic man, of high intellect, who did his utmost for 
the welfare of the people and island. He it was who greatly 
developed agriculture. First he imported farm labourers 



56 ST. HELENA 

from England, and about 650 Chinese from Canton : the 
Chinese proved such excellent workmen that some of their 
work even now remains. They had a Chinese settlement in 
the grounds of Plantation House, where, until lately, the 
remains of their joss-house was to be seen. In the Museum 
are some interesting tiles taken from the joss-house. Their 
burying-place was at New Ground. 

Beatson shows clearly in his tracts, that the soil was most 
productive if properly treated. He caused the goats run- 
ning wild to be destroyed, and made compensation to the 
people. He states that in 1808 eighty-eight acres in gar- 
dens and potato grounds was the total cultivation ; this 
only produced a very scanty supply for the shipping, to 
which it was sold at most exorbitant rates, the inhabitants 
(3,600) themselves living almost wholly upon the public 
stores, and obtaining most of the necessaries of life in pro- 
fusion, at prices not exceeding one-third of the primary cost. 
This was checked by Governor Beatson. 

Between the years 1800 and 1808 the imports for 
these inhabitants rose from 51,030 to 114,961 per 
annum first cost freight to be added at 30 per ton from 
India, and somewhat less from England, making the total 
in 1808, 157,356. This Beatson altered, for he found 
there had been no sanction of the directors to issue to the 
people from the public stores at such a low rate. It will 
be scarcely credited, but so determined were the growers 
to keep up the prices, that rather than lower potatoes from 
IDS. or I2S. per bushel, the crops were allowed to rot, 
and many cart-loads thrown into the sea. The markets 
in St. Helena are always deranged by the arrival of shipping, 
and from captains and passengers high prices are demanded. 
If prices were regulated and kept within certain bounds, 
industry would be encouraged, and more land cultivated. 
In 1811 the Government did interpose, and prohibited any 
one from demanding, or receiving more than 55. for a fowl ; 
potatoes also were lowered from 125. to 6s. per bushel. 
The prices in 1810 were beef, is. zd. per pound ; turkeys, 
325. to 425. each ; geese, 2is. to 255. ; sheep, 405. to 6os. 
each. 

In the year 1809 tanks or reservoirs were made in stiff 
clay on the south side of High Knoll, chiefly to supply 




3 







ST. HELENA 57 

Ladder Hill Fort. These tanks were fed by channels cut 
on High Knoll, and also on the adjoining hill, " Merriman," 
a space of several acres. In the map (drawn for Admiral 
Cockburn by Major Barnes) will be seen this reservoir or 
tank near High Knoll. The S.E. wind coming down the 
valley kept the water in agitation, and prevented its becom- 
ing stagnant. It was originally intended only to supply 
the soldiers of Ladder Hill, who before this time, 1809, had 
been stinted in water, having to fetch it all in kegs from 
Jamestown. One reservoir contained 4,000 tons, and 
" Beatson," writing of it, says : 

It may be expected to be filled twice a year (during two rainy 
seasons) ; the total annual supply will be 8,000 tons. Allowing ten 
tons a day for Ladder Hill, there would remain 4,000 or 5,000 tons 
for intermediate gardens. 

The descent from tank to fort is one foot in ten, and a cutstone 
watercourse has been laid the whole distance of 2,800 yards. 

At Plantation, in 1810, from a few seeds sown in October, 
there was raised from the first crop 3,583 Ib. of pumpkins. 
Several of them weighed seventy pounds each. 

As well as devoting a deal of time to agriculture, Beatson 
also looked after the welfare of the soldiers and islanders. 
He saw the terrible effect of the incessant spirit drinking, 
and checked it by preventing any further importation of 
rum, substituting for it beer, which was island-made. The 
Brewery was at the head of Jamestown, and had the repu- 
tation of supplying excellent beer. He also imported Cape 
wine, but the dissatisfaction grew at his prohibiting rum, 
and the peace of the little community was disturbed. 
Governor Beatson showed great firmness ; when threaten- 
ing letters came to him he took precautions, and his account 
of the mutiny will be found interesting. It is a pity that 
his most interesting book has been allowed to pass out of 
print. Governor Beatson relates as follows : 

A most daring mutiny having broken out in the St. Helena 
infantry on the night of the 23rd December, 1811, for the avowed 
purpose of seizing my person and subverting this Government, it 
becomes my duty to lay before you a general view of the causes 
which led to these licentious and highly criminal proceedings. . . . 
Your Honourable Court is well aware of the state of St. Helena 
at the time you did me the honour to appoint me to this Government. 
On my arrival in July, 1808, I found a population of 3,600 living 



58 ST. HELENA 

almost wholly upon the public stores : and obtaining most of the 
necessaries of life in profusion at prices not exceeding one third of 
the prime cost. The consequences of so unprecedented a system 
were the neglect of cultivation, the decline of industry, and an 
immense augmentation in the annual charges of the island. I found 
a garrison as well as many of the inhabitants immersed in the 
grossest intemperance, from the facility of obtaining, and their 
excessive use of, spirituous liquors ; and I found that abuses ob- 
tained in some of the departments. . . . While I was carrying for- 
ward my official duties, upon principles of strict justice between 
the Company and individuals, I was often assailed with reports of 
intended mutinies. These were sometimes conveyed in anonymous 
papers, and circulated, no doubt, with a view of intimidating me 
from persevering in a system of reform, which had become necessary, 
and which I was firmly resolved to pursue. Although these vile 
means evinced a general dissatisfaction, yet, conscious of the up- 
rightness of my conduct, I totally disregarded them ; and these 
factious and discontented men who took the lead in these despicable 
and seditious attempts, finding that their mean and unbecoming 
artifice had not the desired effect, were apparently lulled for many 
months past. Very lately, however, when a temporary incon- 
venience was felt arising from our reduced stock of flour, and the 
total want of rice in the public stores, this occasion was eagerly 
laid hold of, and became a plea for the revival of unreasonable 
demands, accompanied with menaces of mutiny and rebellion. 
The want of corn-bread was the pretended cause of dissatisfaction, 
but circumstances have since clearly shown that the sole object of 
the late violent measures was to compel this Government to give 
spirits to the garrison ; an object in which every drunkard on the 
island felt a deep and warm interest. I delivered orders to the 
Town Major to be issued, and then opened a sealed anonymous 
paper which during the night was slipped under Mr. Doveton's 
door. I was at the same time informed by the Town Major that 
the regiment was prepared to mutiny, for the purpose of seizing 
my person and sending me on board the Camperdown. (The Camper- 
down was a cutter hired by the Company and attached to the island 
in 1808. She was occasionally sent to the Cape of Good Hope and 
to South America on public service.) 

The following is a copy of the anonymous letter addressed 
to the Governor and Council : 

GENTLEMEN OF THE COUNCIL, 

His it still your intension to percevere in your oppression and 
tyranny towards the troops in this garrison has hitherto you have 
done ? if so, you can expect nothing but an open rebellion. I am 
hereby authorized by the troops of this island to inform this Council 
if they do not immeadatly soply this garrison with liquor and pro- 
visions in the same manner has Governor Brooks did (whose regula- 
tions you have voilated) you shall be made answerable for what 



ST. HELENA 59 

may follow, except you make your escape good from this settle- 
ment. It is in your power to prevent the impending vengeance 
which now hangs over your heads, and save the lives of many poor 
souls which will inevitably fall a sacrifice. 

This seditious paper was written in a feigned hand. 
Beatson thereupon sent off the Camper down, reinforced 
High Knoll and Ladder Hill, and placed guard at Plantation, 
for the artillery were all true, and to be depended on. 

It was settled by the mutineers, that when the troops 
paraded for relieving guard, the whole of the regiment, in- 
cluding the main guard, should, after seizing their officers, 
go to Plantation and seize the Governor. His preparations 
and knowledge of their intentions necessarily changed their 
tactics, and the ringleaders, feeling there was no time to 
lose, proceeded to Longwood to get possession of field-pieces 
and ammunition. The narrative continues : 

I sent an express to the Lieut. -Governor suggesting the advance 
of some field pieces to oppose the mutineers if they should move 
in that direction. The Lieut. -Governor lost no time in taking up 
an advantageous position with the field-pieces manned by the guard 
at Longwood : but at the moment the advanced gun was loading 
the mutineers surrounded him and his party and took them prisoners. 
It was three-quarters past nine at night when the general alarm fired. 
By this time some of the volunteer artillery, to whom secret orders 
had been sent, had arrived, and by midnight Plantation contained 
a garrison of 130 men, which I considered enough to repel the most 
formidable attack of mutinous troops. On the ground floor every 
window and door was guarded by three or four armed men, parties 
of rifle volunteers lay behind the parapet on the roof, and the rooms 
on the upper floor were prepared for occupation at the instant the 
mutineers approached. Mrs. Beatson and my children were placed 
in security against musketry in one of the upper rooms. After the 
alarm fired, a judicious movement was made from Jamestown by 
parties of artillery and infantry to reinforce me, the former under 
the command of Major Kinnaird, and the latter under Capt. 
Sampson, two excellent officers who had both been extremely active 
in bringing back a number of soldiers to a sense of duty. Captain 
Sampson halted at Red Hill, and Major Kinnaird about twelve at 
night had passed Plantation House, and took up a commanding 
position in advance with field pieces. Capt. Barnes' company 
and some other artillerymen were upon the roads, on which the 
mutineers must pass in coming from Longwood. Capt. Des- 
fountain, with three guns and the volunteer artillery, occupied 
another position in the rear of Major Kinnaird. Although Capt. 
Sampson had expressed a confidence in his men, yet I could not 
but entertain the strongest suspicion of the whole of the infantry ; 



60 ST. HELENA 

I therefore gave positive orders that if any troops advanced near 
my post without permission they should be fired upon. These 
suspicions were not without cause, for Archibald Nimmo, who had 
been one of the most daring and active in seducing the soldiers and 
administering the oath and obligation to seize the Governor and send 
him off the island, had the audacity to range himself among the 
friends of the Governor who came to reinforce Plantation House. 
He had hoped to turn those friends into foes, and seemed at one 
time, when the Longwood mutineers approached, to be on the eve 
of making the attempt, but perceiving he was suspected, and closely 
watched by a non-commissioned officer with a drawn sword imme- 
diately behind him, he was thus deterred from putting his designs 
into execution. About one in the morning two lights and a number 
of men were discerned moving slowly alongside of the hills, two 
miles east of Plantation House. Major Doveton, commandant of 
volunteers, despatched two active men to gain intelligence. John 
Bayley and Kennedy were selected, but immediately a black mes- 
senger brought in news that Colonel Broughton and his party were 
taken prisoners. I therefore wrote a pencilled note to Capt. 
Sampson to advance with thirty men to form an ambuscade on the 
left flank of the mutineers' column, and commence attack by one 
fire, in a manner so as to avoid Colonel Broughton, and immediately 
after to rush on them with the bayonet. Major Kinnaird was to 
support this attack. These orders were just given when Major 
Wright arrived with the news that the mutineers had halted within 
sixty yards of Kinnaird, and sent forward the terms on which they 
would surrender. The negotiations ended in the unconditional 
surrender of the whole party. The first proposals sent by the 
mutineers were that grievances must be redressed, and a promise 
given that soldiers should have regular issues of spirits from the 
stores. I replied, I would grant no terms, I could not treat with 
rebels, and if they did not instantly surrender I would put every 
man to the sword ; then they said all they would ask now was my 
promise of pardon ; this I positively refused, and at the same time 
informed them that if they did not yield unconditionally Major 
Kinnaird had orders to put the whole of them to death. It was 
now daylight, and seeing a superior force opposed to them they 
surrendered, saying they would trust to my mercy. Of 200 men 
who had sallied from Jamestown on the mad enterprise only seventy- 
five remained in the morning; the others seem to have repented 
and returned to their barracks. The prisoners were put in close 
confinement at High Knoll. The discomfiture of these rebels had 
not subdued the mutinous spirit of their associates outside, and it 
was reported that an attempt would be made to rescue the prisoners. 
So I sent across orders to Colonel Smith to occupy two strong 
positions, which commanded with cannon the barracks and the 
roads leading to the interior. 
General orders were issued : 

" 25th December, 1811. A considerable portion of the St. Helena 



ST. HELENA 61 

regiment having been guilty of mutiny and rebellion on the night 
of the 23rd, by outrageously seizing the Lieut. -Governor and avowing 
their desperate intention of attempting to seize the Governor : it 
is therefore the Governor's positive orders that the men keep in 
their barracks, and that the main guard shall not get under arms 
without the sanction of the Commanding Officer of Ladder Hill, 
who has been ordered to depress guns loaded with grape, and to 
fire upon the main guard if it shall presume to get under arms 
without his previous permission. Under the present state of 
affairs, the Governor deems it expedient to notify to the troops 
that if any non-commissioned officer or soldier shall be guilty of 
disobedience to his officers, or shall evince by words or actions the 
smallest symptoms of mutinous spirit, he will instantly be seized, 
tried by Drumhead Court Martial, and hanged. 

" By order of the Governor, 

"C. R. G. HODSON, 
" Town Major." 

Then a general Court Martial was called, and nine prisoners 
tried upon a charge of mutiny ; names Henry Sisell, Thomas 
Berwick, Archibald Nimmo, Robert Anderson, privates ; and Arthur 
Smith, Thomas Edgeworth, Peter Wilson, and John Seager, corporals 
in St. Helena regiments, and Richard Kitchen, gunner in Artillery. 
All these prisoners were found guilty and condemned to death. Six 
were executed at High Knoll at sunset, and Wilson, Seager and 
Kitchen were remanded. The general Court Martial reassembled 
on the 26th for the trial of three others ; and of these one, Hewitt, 
was ordered to be executed. The whole garrison was drawn up in 
lower parade, and prisoners led along the front. The ' Dead 
March ' was played, and Hewitt hanged. Sefton and Lindsay were 
pardoned under the gallows. 

This awful scene made a strong impression : the mutinous 
spirit was gone and obedience restored. In order however to 
prevent a return of such disgraceful proceedings, I gave orders to 
seize and confine every man who had been active in the late mutiny. 
Between twenty and thirty have been placed in close confinement, 
whom it is my intention to send off the island by the first favourable 
opportunity. On the 3Oth December I granted an amnesty to the 
remainder of prisoners taken in arms. They were paraded at Planta- 
tion House, and after admonishing them to behave in future 
like good soldiers, and telling them that I freely forgave them, 
although they had taken up arms against me, I ordered their return 
to their duty. 

In an after report Beatson says : 

The Governor feels much satisfaction and pleasure in publicly 
expressing to the officers of St. Helena his warmest approbation of 
their conduct ; and he requests that they will accept his best acknow- 
ledgement and thanks for the signal and important services they 
have rendered. The uniformly steady conduct of the corps of 



62 ST. HELENA 

Artillery, who almost to a man escaped the contagion that spread 
around them, deserves the highest praise. The late occasion is the 
first that has occurred by which judgment could be formed of the 
St. Helena volunteers. Their loyalty in the support of public 
authority, their alacrity in reinforcing the Governor, their determined 
spirit to stand by him to the last extremity, their eagerness to do 
their duty, and to guard his person and family for several nights 
after he considered the danger was past, will ever be remembered 
by him with sentiments of the warmest gratitude. He requests 
therefore that these his sentiments and his best thanks may be con- 
veyed to all the officers, non-commissioned officers, and privates of 
the St. Helena volunteers by their worthy commandant and leader, 
Major Doveton. 

That Beatson gained his point with regard to excessive 
spirit-drinking may be seen, for the houses for retailing 
spirits were abolished on May 15, 1809. The garrison 
at that time consisted of about 1,250 men, of whom 130 
were ill and in hospital. In four months, under his abolition 
of spirits, the patients were reduced to forty-eight. 

With regard to his extermination of the goats he was not 
so successful, for he could not get his orders carried out 
regularly, and so in a few years they increased in such 
numbers that not only indigenous plants and young trees 
were devoured, but all vegetation suffered. 

In 1810 attempts were made to again find gold, and 
Governor Beatson, remarking on the letter written by 
Governor Pike in 1719, says : 

I employed three men under the direction of Capt. Henry 
Pritchard, a very intelligent officer, to examine the hills in the 
vicinity of Turk's Cap, and to dig where was a likelihood of ore. 
Pritchard's report says : " I would propose, after having penetrated 
50 or 60 feet, and carefully examining each strata, to commence 
cutting directly down the ravine, as our pit is on the top of a hill 
250 feet high, by which means we shall be able to explore better 
the properties of the interior. 

It seems very probable that the researches of these times 
would have been of much more value, had the pits or shafts 
been made nearer the base of the hill instead of 250 feet 
above the sea level. 

Beatson will always be remembered for his untiring energy 
in planting the islands, and importing good trees. We 
read in his book that " the gardens produced excellent 
grapes, peaches, apples, guavas, oranges, plantains and 



ST. HELENA 63 

other fruit, and all sorts of esculent vegetables." The apples 
were of high flavour, some of them measuring sixteen inches 
in circumference. How very different from the present day, 
when bananas and figs are almost the only fruit which 
escapes the ravages of the worm, and oranges, apples, 
grapes, and lemons are also imported. 

At the end of five years Beatson retired, leaving his work 
to Colonel Mark Wilks, who fortunately was a man of wide 
views, and concurred in general with Governor Beatson's 
plans for improving both people and island. 

Colonel Wilks arrived on the island on June 22, 1813, 
and his Government is memorable as being that during 
which occurred the arrival of Napoleon. The St. Helena 
library was formed in this year, and in 1814 the Benevolent 
Society for the education and relief of the poor was estab- 
lished. In this year also the celebrated Dr. Roxburgh 
recommended the introduction of Cinchona officinalis from 
South America, also that young plants be raised here for 
transmission to India. A list of the plants found and 
reported on by Dr. Roxburgh will be found at end of book, 
as well as a report in 1869 of the cinchona planting. 

Napoleon Bonaparte, Emperor of the French, arrived 
in October 1815. His arrival was totally unexpected, and 
caused a great sensation on the generally quiet and monoto- 
nous little rock. There is so much of interest concerning 
his enforced residence and sad lonely death, that I have 
considered it advisable to place it under a separate heading. 

In 1816 Lieut .-General Sir Hudson Lowe arrived to take 
over the Government from Colonel Wilks. Sir Hudson 
Lowe was of course appointed by the Crown, not by the 
Company. The island however was still to belong to 
the East India Company, but, as the expense of keeping it 
up would be so much more, it was decided that the Company 
should only bear as much expense as was the average of 
several years, and that the Crown should bear the remainder. 
It was during Sir Hudson Lowe's Government that the 
waters of Diana's Peak were conveyed to Deadwood, and 
again from a stream near that beautiful spot, Oakbank, to 
Francis Plain. In both instances this was done with a view 
to supplying troops then encamped at these places. One 
good law attributed to him was that which decreed that 



64 ST. HELENA 

all children born of any slave woman should from and after 
Christmas Day 1818 be free. 

The introduction of slavery on the island itself appears 
to have originated with the first settlement ; but according 
to the records, restrictions were early placed on any further 
importation, as a fear gained ground that their number 
would exceed those of the Europeans. Some years after 
however permission was again granted to import slaves, 
on condition that the purchaser should maintain a white 
man for the militia, or in default should pay the Govern- 
ment i os. per head for each slave. There was a law that 
each Madagascar ship calling for stores should be compelled 
to land a negro either man or woman (whichever was 
decided by the Governor) for service in the Company's 
plantations. 

The laws made for white people did not extend to the 
blacks, who were hardly considered above the animals, 
except for their value as workers. This will be seen from 
some of the laws and orders constituted for the negro 
slaves by the inhabitants of the island, with the approba- 
tion of the Governor and Council. They are as under, and 
are supposed to have been framed either in Governor Field's 
time or in the early part of Mr. Blackmore's Government. 

That no Black or Blacks upon any pretence whatever shall wander 
from his master's plantation upon Sundays without a lawful occa- 
sion granted by their said masters or mistresses, either by writing 
or some other token that shall be known by the neighbourhood, 
upon the penalty of ten lashes on his naked body for the first offence, 
fifteen for the second, twenty for the third, and so for every offence 
thereafter committed ; but if the master of the said slave or slaves 
should refuse to comply with this said order, the person who 
shall have taken the said slave or slaves acting contrary to this said 
order, shall be obliged to complain to the Governor and Council 
whom we desire to fine him or them that shall so offend at discretion. 
That negro, or negroes, that shall be known to 
For pilfering steal the value of eighteen pence, shall have 
and stealing. twenty lashes on their naked body, inflicted by 
the master or masters of such slave or slaves in 
the presence of the person so offended ; but, if the theft should 
amount to three shillings, the lashes aforesaid are to be increased 
to thirty ; and if six shillings, to sixty, and the party so prejudiced 
shall receive the value of the thing so stolen in specie, or in money 
from the owner of the said slave or slaves ; and if the theft amounts 
to above six shillings and under thirty shillings, the offender shall 




LIEUT. -GENERAL SIR HUDSON LOWE, K.C.B., 

Governor of St. Helena, April, 1816, to July, 1821. 

(Reproduced from a Print now in Castle Jamestown.) 



ST. HELENA 65 

be seized and brought to the Fort, where he shall immediately 

receive fifty lashes on his naked body, and secured ; two days after 

he shall receive thirty lashes, and two days after that twenty more ; 

and the master of the black shall pay the value stolen as aforesaid. 

Those that absent their master's service three 

A bsentees and days and three nights shall be punished according 

runaways. to the last foregoing article and the master make 

satisfaction for what they have stolen as aforesaid. 

For the first offence of this kind, the master or 

For breaking masters shall make satisfaction for what is stolen 

open houses, and repair all damages done by the slave or 

slaves ; so soon as taken he shall be brought to 

the Fort, and immediately receive on his naked body one hundred 

lashes, then secured ; four days after that thirty ; six days after 

that twenty more, and branded in the forehead with the letter R. 

For the second offence of this kind he shall be punished as aforesaid 

and wear for one year a chain and clogg of thirty pounds weight ; 

and for the third offence, satisfaction shall be made as aforesaid to 

the loser or losers, and the slave or slaves shall suffer death, at the 

discretion of the Governor and Council. 

In case any male slave from the age of sixteen 
In relation to years and upwards shall presume and attempt to 
striking or strike or assault any white person whatsoever, 
assaulting any correcting him or otherwise, for any cause what- 
white person. soever, shall for the said offence or offences (though 
without weapon or dangerous instrument) undergo 
and suffer the punishment of castration ; and in case any such 
slave or slaves shall chance to die under the punishment aforesaid, 
or before he be well, then the country and public shall bear the loss 
and make good the value of the said black, according to an appraise- 
ment made by the Governor and Council for the time being ; further, 
but in case the said slave or slaves should die through neglect of 
the master or owner, then, upon proof thereof, the said master or 
owner to bear their own loss of the said slave or slaves and the whole 
charge of everything relating thereto ; and if the said slave live, 
the master to be at all charges. 

That if any negro slave, male or female, shall 

In relation to presume to resist any white person whatsoever in 

those that shall the taking or pursuit of them upon any lawful 

give saucy occasion, the slave or slaves so offending and 

language, resist resisting as aforesaid for the first offence shall be 

or oppose or immediately conveyed to the Great Fort and 

strike any secured till they have undergone double punish- 

white person. ment according to the constitution of runaway 

negroes, and branded in the forehead with the 

letter R ; and for a second offence in this nature, the said slave or 

slaves so offending shall suffer the same punishment as is adjudged 

and ordered in the case of striking ; but if a female, to be severely 

whipped and both ears to be cut off, and branded in the forehead 

and both cheeks. 

E 



66 ST. HELENA 

And in case any slaves, male or female, shall presume to strike 
any white person whatsoever with any weapon, they shall suffer 
death, except those white persons who demean and debase them- 
selves in conversing, corresponding and gaining with the blacks, as 
if they were equals, which we judge shall have no more benefit of 
those laws than blacks themselves. 

And in case any negro slave shall presume to give saucy or imper- 
tinent language or answer to any white person (except those white 
persons aforesaid) shall, upon complaint thereof to the master or 
owners of the said slave, be severely whipt in the presence of the 
party offended, to his satisfaction ; and if the said master or owner 
of the said slave shall refuse or neglect to punish the said slave so 
offending, then the party offended may complain to the Governor ; 
and so cause the said slave to be apprehended and conveyed to the 
Fort, and punished according to the nature of the offence. 

That no negro slave shall truck, barter or ex- 

Against one change anything, without the foreknowledge and 

black bartering consent of the owners of the said negroes, both 

with another, the sellers and buyers, deliverers and receivers of 

any commodity whatsoever to the value of one 

shilling, upon the penalty of twenty lashes or more, if it should 

exceed that value according to the judgment of the Governor and 

Council, severely to be inflicted on them at the Flagstaff, upon the 

complaint of any one aggrieved by such a clandestine way of one 

negro dealing with another. 

That no white person whatsoever shall truck, 
Against any barter or exchange any commodity whatsoever 
white person ' with any negro or negroes, to sell to them nor buy 
touching or of them any sort of commodity, without the fore- 
bartering with knowledge and consent of the owners of the said 
blacks. negro or negroes upon the penalty of being ad- 

judged, accessory to felony, and so consequently 
liable to a fourfold restitution to the owners of the said negro or 
negroes, besides a fine to the Lords Proprietors ; nor no negro shall 
alienate any commodity or thing whatsoever to any white person 
whatsoever, without the leave and consent of the said negroes' 
master or mistress before had, upon the penalty of severe correction 
according to the judgment of the Governor and Council. 

That no negro whatsoever shall prescribe or 
No blacks administer any physic or medicine whatsoever to 
to prescribe any negro or negroes without the consent of his 
physic to or their master or mistress of that negro unto 
each other. whom he shall prescribe or administer any physic 
or medicine upon the penalty of severe correction, 
according to the judgment of the Governor and Council ; neither 
shall any negro whatsoever take or receive any physic or medicine, 
or follow the rules or prescriptions of any pretended black doctor 
whatsoever, "without acquainting their master or mistress there- 
with, upon the penalty of the like pain and punishment as the 
black doctor who pretends to physic is liable to. 



ST. HELENA 67 

In 1792 laws for the better government of slaves were 
issued. 

These were embodied in forty- two articles, ordering slaves 
to be diligent and obedient, and to demean themselves 
as faithful servants. These laws certainly much improved 
the condition of the blacks. 

They ordained : 

That masters and mistresses shall treat their slaves with kindness 
and protection, with good and wholesome provision, and in sickness, 
necessary medicines, care and attention. 

That masters and mistresses are to be allowed to correct slaves 
moderately for wilful neglect or turbulence or abusive language ; 
the punishment not to exceed twelve lashes with a cat-of-nine-tails. 

That for faults and crimes of greater enormity than above, they 
should be carried before the justices of the peace and punished by 
their orders. 

That if masters and mistresses inflicted heavier punishment than 
was authorized for the offence, or punish without reasonable cause, 
that they should be considered as guilty of assault as if the offence 
had been committed against a free person. 

That in case the proprietors of slaves did not supply them with 
proper clothing, medicine, etc., it shall be lawful for the slaves to 
make complaint to the justices of peace the Governor to be one 
and if necessary, the proprietors to be fined. 

All slaves, except those employed as household servants, shall be 
allowed Sunday to themselves, and not be required to work thereon 
for their masters. 

And that household slaves also shall be spared from labour on 
Sundays as much as may reasonably be consistent, and to be allowed 
alternately one Sunday in two for themselves. 

And that no slaves shall be allowed to collect or carry wood on a 
Sunday, either for their masters or mistresses or for themselves, on 
pain of being punished by the order of two justices of the peace. 

Sir Hudson Lowe aimed at the progressive abolition of 
slavery. It might, it is true, have been abolished by legisla- 
tion, but that would have been at an enormous cost, besides 
which, a sudden freedom of all restraint on those who had 
been born and brought up in slavery would have led to 
grave consequences in many cases. The slave-owners 
listened with respect to Sir Hudson when he addressed 
them on this matter, and pointed out that St. Helena was 
then the only spot under British Government where slavery 
existed. He owned that in no part of the world did slavery 
exist in a milder form than in this island ; still it would be 



68 ST. HELENA 

in perpetuity, if the present system remained, which decreed 
that the child of a slave was also a slave. 

He showed that in Ceylon it had been decreed " that all 
children born of slave parents after a certain date would 
be free from birth," and it was this he wished them to 
imitate. He left the matter to their deliberations ; and 
after a discussion of not more than ten minutes, the slave- 
owners carried by acclamation the adoption of his sug- 
gestion, and a committee of thirteen persons was appointed 
to frame resolutions, and in four days these were submitted 
to the Governor and Council with a request that they might 
pass into law. This was complied with, and by these laws- 
All children born of a slave woman from and after Christmas 
Day 1818 were free, but considered as apprentices to the pro- 
prietors of the mothers, if males, until the age of eighteen years ; 
and if females, until the age of sixteen years : and that masters and 
mistresses were to enforce the attendance of free-born children at 
church and Sunday school. 

So by degrees a great difference was seen in favour of the 
slave population. Importation of slaves had before been 
prohibited, and those now in slavery were allowed many 
privileges. Teaching in religion and morality had not been 
in vain, for a Benevolent Society was formed by Governor 
Wilks for their education. Statistics show too that whip- 
ping was not as frequent, though it was still in use ; but 
Governor Walker devised a treadmill which did away with 
the demoralizing punishment of the lash. The treadmill 
is described as follows : 

The part upon which the culprits tread is a horizontal circular 
plane, revolving upon a vertical axis or spindle. The labour is 
similar to that of pushing with their hands. A cross-bow is placed 
about the height of the head or a little higher. At every step the 
wheel recedes from behind them, and there is a contrivance for 
keeping their bodies in a position leaning forward. The exercise 
probably is not so severe as that in the English tread-wheels, but 
augmented punishment can always be administered by making the 
offenders work in shackles, or by prolonging the duration of the 
sentence. The purpose to which the machinery is applied is that 
of grinding lime ; a process requisite to give to the lime of St. Helena 
the qualities of a good cement. 

Slaves were also at this time allowed to attend church, 
and alterations had to be made in the interior arrangements 



ST. HELENA 69 

of the churches to accommodate them. The following was 
a proclamation issued by the Governor and Council on 
August 20, 1823 : 

None, it is presumed, will be disposed to question that regular 
attendance at public worship will, in time at least, produce some 
degree of respect for divine ordinances ; and whatever may be the 
inattention of many, it can hardly be supposed that all will continue 
insensible to impressions so liable to be excited by the habitual 
hearing of the Word of God, and witnessing a congregation uniting 
in prayer and adoration. It is by teaching a slave the duties of 
religion that he will learn his duty towards his master, and acquire 
a proper respect for his own character. It is only, in short, by oblig- 
ing slaves to go to church, that Sabbath-breaking, and all the de- 
moralizing vices that accompany idleness can be prevented. The 
same proclamation in which these objects have been urged to the 
attention of the inhabitants also states that "Although due regard 
for religion and its institutions forms the chief ground-work of good 
conduct, yet we are not to reject the aid of other means to promote 
the advancement of morals, decency, and industry among the slave 
population of this island." Slaves, we must remember, are men, 
and are here to be governed, not less by rewards than by punish- 
ments. With this view the Governor and Council propose to revive 
the humane and judicious plan of Governor Patton, by allotting 
premiums and rewards to meritorious slaves. The Benevolent 
Society instituted by Governor Wilks did good work ; it was well 
supported also by General Walker. One of the purposes of the 
society is relief for pecuniary distress ; but the main object was to 
rescue from ignorance and vice the children of slaves, free blacks, 
and the poorer children of the community. 

At this time the island may be looked upon as at the 
height of prosperity. Still the prosperity was, as I heard 
it called in a speech by Governor Grey Wilson some years 
back, a " fictitious inflation " ; for the great increase in the 
circulation of money caused by Napoleon's residence made 
the islanders lavish and careless, and drew their attention 
away from the cultivation of the soil to more easy, but less 
certain, methods of earning a living. 

The same thing is again seen at the present time. The 
soil is totally neglected owing to the high rate of wages paid 
by military authorities for services required in connexion 
with the prisoners of war from South Africa. This artificial 
prosperity is always short-lived, and the present generation 
seem to have lost the knowledge and value of the soil of 
their beautiful and productive island. In September 1817 
two successive and almost instantaneous shocks of earth- 



70 ST. HELENA 

quake were felt, which lasted ten seconds. They were 
strong enough to set the church bell ringing. The rumbling 
sound which accompanied them was described as the noise 
which accompanies an extended blaze of fire. It awakened 
Napoleon Bonaparte, who at first thought H.M.S. Con- 
queror had blown up. The shock was also felt by those on 
board ship, but it occasioned no injury. 

The 66th Regiment were here at this time, and at Turk's 
Cap a heavy sea swept away two of the officers. In 1818 
Barry O'Meara, surgeon to Napoleon, was dismissed by the 
Governor, and on his return home published his journal 
A Voice from St. Helena. 

Pipes were laid down for the carriage of water to Long- 
wood, and in the same year a quarrel arose between the 
Chinese natives of Macao and those of Canton, in the employ 
of the East India Company. Turtle is caught still near the 
shores of the island, but the number has fallen off consider- 
ably even in the last ten years. Those caught are of average 
size, but in 1819 one was caught which weighed 800 Ib. 
It made the staple dinner for the messes of two regiments 
for three days, and the shell afterwards formed the roof of a 
hut in which lived a soldier and his wife. The foundation 
of Longwood New House was laid for the occupation of 
Napoleon, who however died before it was finished. In 
1822 the lower wharf was greatly enlarged and improved, 
and the foundation-stone of the head school was laid. At 
this time the island was most valuable for purposes of trade 
with India, as it made a halfway house for the shipping. 

The next Governor was Brigadier-General Walker, a 
distinguished Indian officer. He brought with him all the 
methods which had produced such a good result in the 
Bombay Presidency ; and his efforts to improve the slaves 
morally and religiously, as well as the agricultural fairs, 
ploughing matches, etc., which he instituted, made the 
inhabitants once more rely on the produce of the soil, and 
did much to prevent poverty being felt for lack of work and 
of money, caused by the death of Napoleon and by the 
withdrawal of his suite. 

In 1828 the building of the military parade was com- 
menced, and Mr. Brooke again took the reins of Government 
until Brigadier-General Dallas arrived. He was an officer of 



ST. HELENA 71 

very high merit, and having a good executive Council, he 
carried through works of improvement which could not 
otherwise have been done. An observatory was built at 
Ladder Hill, the site of the present officers' mess, and 
furnished with instruments at a great expense ; but when 
the island was transferred to the Crown the instruments were 
taken to Canada. The inclined plane from Jamestown 
to Ladder Hill was built. Governor Dallas was fully alive 
to the great cost and labour of conveying goods and produce 
from town to country, or from country to town ; he there- 
fore, to lessen the expense of conveying manure up, and 
of bringing produce down, caused this plane to be erected. 
It was carried out under the personal supervision of Lieut. 
G. W. Mellis, an artillery officer, and consisted of a ladder 
900 feet in length with about 700 steps, placed against the 
face of the cliffs between Jamestown and Ladder Hill, at an 
angle of 39 or 40. On either side was a tramway, upon 
which wagons (worked by machinery and ropes at the top) 
travelled up and down. This train service of St. Helena 
was only for the conveyance of goods, but in these days of 
engineering power it could have been made also to carry 
passengers. 

Many years since it had fallen into disuse and bad repair, 
and was ultimately demolished in the days of adversity 
which came on the island. This is greatly to be regretted, 
for during the late South African war it would have been 
of inestimable value. A railway there to convey stores 
up a perpendicular height of 600 feet, a storage depot at the 
summit, on the direct way to Broadbottom Camp, would 
have saved much money, labour and health ; for the cost of 
transport here for the past three years has been very great, 
as also has been the strain on the transport officers. A 
similar railway might have been easily constructed also 
from Rupert's Valley direct to Deadwood Camp, but nothing 
in the way of improvement in traffic or roads has been done, 
although several thousand men were here, eager to labour, 
and so to relieve the monotony of camp life. The roads 
in use are inconvenient, and the incline much greater than 
would be the case if the roads were replanned by modern 
engineers. 

In 1829 we rea d that the mina bird, much in estimation 



72 ST. HELENA 

as a destroyer of insects, made its appearance. These must 
have died out many years since, as there were none when 
Miss Moss a few years ago let some free to propagate ; these 
seem to be increasing and flourishing. It was hoped that 
these minas would have caused the destruction of white 
ants, but unfortunately these pests increased on the island 
to such an extent that many houses became unsafe, and at 
last Government made ordinances compelling the owners 
to cut down and burn any trees containing white ants. This 
was a check, and the substitution of teak and other hard 
woods for the soft wood which is so quickly devoured by 
these termites, together with the use of iron wherever it 
could be used in building, has considerably lessened their 
numbers. 

To Governor Dallas was due the building of barracks in 
the town for the infantry. He also sank a well to the depth 
of eighty-three feet in Rupert's Valley, and obtained a strong 
spring of water which was most useful in fertilizing that 
part of the island. In 1901 another well was sunk in Rupert's 
Valley by Mr. H. Miller, constructing engineer of the con- 
densing works erected by the Imperial Government, for the 
purpose of supplying the troops and prisoners of war camped 
at Dead wood. 

During the Government of General Dallas the Government 
schooner St. Helena left the island March 3, and on April 6 
she was captured by a pirate felucca Despedago. Captain 
Harrison and Doctor Waddell, with eleven of the crew, 
were murdered, but the pirate was afterwards caught on the 
coast of Africa. 

In 1831 the theatre in Jamestown was destroyed by fire, 
and at this time fire-plugs were laid throughout the town. 

Now occurred the liberal act of the East India Company 
in the abolition of slavery in the island. The valuation of 
the 614 slaves in St. Helena was computed at over 28,000, 
and their freedom was the end of slavery except for the 
liberated Africans, who a little later were brought here from 
the slavers captured by British cruisers, an account of which 
is given later. Advertisements of this kind were frequent. 

St. Helena Monthly Register. 

At the same time will be let for five years two women servants, 
two girls, and a good fisherman. 



ST. HELENA 73 

Also will be sold at the said house a slave boy, aged nine years, 
and a slave girl, aged seven years, with a few articles of furniture. 

Every effort was made by the East India Company to 
advance the welfare and prosperity of the little island, and 
this will be seen when it is stated that the annual expenditure 
in the island by the Company was between eighty and 
ninety thousand pounds. They kept the St. Helena Regi- 
ment 700 strong (four companies), and the St. Helena 
Artillery (three batteries), besides a strong force of militia. 
The island was a flourishing and peaceful colony when, as 
Mellis states, a heavy blow fell on them, a blow from which 
the colony has never recovered. In 1833 the islanders 
received the unexpected and unwelcome news that, by act of 
Parliament dated August 20, the East India Company's rule 
would end on the following April 22, 1834. In this short 
time the Government was broken up and the garrison dis- 
banded, some taking service with the new Government, 
others receiving pensions, and it is said that many who had 
been living in comfort were reduced to bitter straits. In 
fact, so much poverty ensued that many of the Company's 
servants, who had been in the first rank, were to be seen till- 
ing the ground side by side with their own negro servant 
in order that they might support their families. Remon- 
strances against the inadequacy of the pensions granted by 
Government, and petitions to the East India Company 
for grants to their discarded officers, who had served them 
for so long, were disregarded for nine years, and then the 
repeated appeals to their humanity wrung from them the 
trifling grant of 740 annually among thirty-three of their 
servants. By their arrangement of this pittance their army 
captains who had served twenty-three years received lod. 
per day, or 15 6s. per annum ; subalterns of nineteen 
years standing 13 195. per annum, and the rest were paid in 
the same ratio. Nor was this the full extent of the injustice 
done for the unfortunate St. Helena establishment. They 
had been compulsorily removed from situations which they 
had been led to believe would be permanent, and would form 
a provision for life, and then found themselves undeservedly 
deprived of all employment, without which they were 
unable to support and educate their families, whilst 
all their appeals to the East India Company ended in their 



74 ST. HELENA 

being referred to the British Government, who replied to 
their requests for employment : " We must employ our 
own servants first, and we have only sufficient employment 
for them." The East India Company saved annually 
90,000 by relinquishing the island, and yet most ungener- 
ously made no arrangement with the British Government 
for the provision of their civil and military servants. Major 
Middlemore arrived on February 24, 1836, and took pos- 
session of the island for William IV. The first regiment 
sent was His Majesty's gist. 

9,000 per year had been the East India Company's pay 
for the Governor here, but this was all cut down to about 
2,000. On this it was impossible to keep up such an 
establishment as had been and should be kept with such 
a beautiful residence and grounds. Reduction was made 
in salaries of all Government officials. Not only the 
officials, but the labouring classes quickly felt the difference, 
and emigration took place. Many families and about no 
other persons, consisting chiefly of lads who hired themselves 
for a period of from five to seven years to agriculturists at 
the Cape of Good Hope, left the island. 

During this year, when His Majesty King William's 
Government took charge of the island from the East India 
Company, 648 vessels called, and during the first six months 
of the year 1845, ending June 30, the crews and passengers 
of no fewer than 890 vessels of all nations sought and ob- 
tained refreshment, recreation and health amidst the perfect 
scenery, and in the beautiful climate of this island. Yet 
so happily is the island situated, that during the whole of 
the above period of nearly nine years, during which of course 
many thousand vessels visited the roadstead, not one catas- 
trophe occurred. 

In 1838 a grandson of the King, Prince William Henry 
Frederick of Holland, visited the island. 

The supreme Court was established by Her Majesty Queen 
Victoria's order in Council on February 13, 1837, and by 
law slavery was for ever abolished within this colony in 

1839. 

Cotton and coffee were amongst the objects of culture 
at this time. This is shown by the following interesting 
reports : 



ST. HELENA 75 

The St. Helena coffee has descended from the true Mocha stock 
imported by the East India Company, is of excellent quality, and the 
trees bear wonderfully well considering that they are never manured. 
The dry seasons seem to be favourable to them, for the crops are 
then exceptionally heavy : it is said that a small patch of coffee in 
Plantation ground, containing about 286 bushes, yielded about 
428 Ib. of dried coffee, an average of about i Ib. per bush, but in 
Sandy Bay the yield of coffee per bush is nearly double. Our late 
Governor, His Excellency R. A. Sterndale, is of opinion, confirmed 
by a practical tea-grower from Assam, that tea could also be grown 
to a limited extent for home consumption. 

Coffee is grown in small patches, and its cultivation is capable 
of great improvement. Mr. Melliss states that some of the island- 
grown coffee took the first prize for best quality at the Exhibition 
of 1851. Dr. Morris reports in 1883: "At Plantation House, 
Terrace Knoll, Bambu Grove, Elliott's Prospect and Oaklands I 
saw very fine patches of coffee, somewhat neglected, it is true, but 
indicating the capabilities of the island to grow in sheltered hollows 
a fair quantity of very good coffee." 

One pound of St. Helena cotton in the bole contains five ounces 
of lint cotton and eleven ounces of seed. Thirty-five pounds of lint 
to the hundredweight, or one ton of 2,240 Ib. of cotton out of the 
field, will make a bale of 700 Ib., valued at i i 135. 4^. more or less. 
This is not including 1,540 Ib. of seed. One hundred pounds seed 
gives two gallons of oil, 48 Ib. of oil-cake, 6 Ib. of fatty oil, for soap- 
making, while the residue is a first-class manure ; and yet this cotton 
tree is wholly neglected and the pods burst year after year, dis- 
charging their precious cargo in vain. 

The following letters show the opinion of experts of coffee 
and cotton : 

To Messrs. Wm. Buvnie & Co., London. From St. Helena. 
GENTLEMEN, 

We have submitted the sample of coffee received by you from 
St. Helena to the Trade, who have tested it, and pronounced it to 
be of a very superior quality and flavour, and if cultivated to any 
extent would no doubt amply repay the grower. In the present 
state of the market the value would be from 1257- to 1307- per cwt., 
and under any circumstances we consider that it would realize from 
ioo/- to no/- per cwt. There is but one objection, and that, of a 
very trivial nature, viz. that it is not sufficiently cleaned from the 
thin silvery skin ; if your friends will pay a little more attention 
to this point, it would enhance the value here 5/- to io/- per cwt., 
and ultimately prove a very valuable and secure source of income 
to them. 

We are, gentlemen, 

Your most obedient servants, 

BURROW AND KERKMAN. 

London, MAY 16, 1839. 



76 ST. HELENA 

Reports on cotton samples received from Messrs. Burnie 
and Co. : 

St. Helena Cotton. 

The first quality cleaned. The fibre or staple has been injured 
or broken in the process of cleaning, and the value is thereby lessened ; 
it is now worth about 9^. per Ib. 

The second quality partially cleaned. It appears to be of the 
same description with the fibre more perfect, and, although inferior 
in colour, with more dirt : the value is now lod. to nd. per Ib. 

The two samples rough from the tree. It will be quite useless 
to send it in this state. The sale would be very uncertain and the 
value not more than j /- to io/- per cwt. The growth of this is 
decidedly superior, and I am of opinion that, with attention in the 
process of cleaning to preserve the staple it will take a rank above 
the best Brazilian growth, and nearly, if not quite, equal the best 
Egyptian. I would recommend a few bags to be sent over as 
speedily as possible, in order that a fair trial may be made by our 
manufacturers. 

Signed, DAVID RICHARDS, 

Cotton Broker. 

London, OCTOBER 30, 1839. 

In 1840 commenced a season of excitement, Africans 
from the west coast of Africa, captured in slave vessels 
by Her Majesty's cruisers were brought here and cared for 
until able to work. This led to the establishment of a Vice- 
Admiralty Court for the trial of vessels engaged in the slave 
trade on the West coast of Africa. Constantly the cruisers 
were bringing their freight of human misery ; and so much 
of interest is to be found with regard to the British Navy 
and their successes in these waters that it has been thought 
best to devote a chapter to it. 

It is said that the white ant was brought here in some of 
these slave vessels, and Melliss says (what is the opinion of 
all who have noted the destruction of property and the 
consequent ruin of many island families) : 

The St. Helenians naturally feel the strong claim they have 
upon Great Britain ; their island home having aided so much in 
building up her (i.e. Great Britain's) commercial greatness and pro- 
sperity, but apart from this, they very reasonably expect aid from 
England, because it was through her successful efforts to suppress 
the slave trade on the West Coast, that the white ants have added 
so greatly to the impoverishment of the place. 

On October 1840 His Royal Highness Prince de Join- 
ville and suite arrived in the frigate La Belle Poule, accom- 



ST. HELENA 77 

panied by the corvette Favourita in order to convey to 
France the remains of the late Napoleon Bonaparte. The 
exhumation of the body from Tomb Vale took place on 
October 15, and on the same day it was with military 
honours placed on the frigate which remained at anchor 
until Sunday the i8th, when she sailed for France. (Further 
account under heading of Napoleon.) 

In this year a magnetic observatory was erected at Long- 
wood, the windward side of the island, 1,760 feet above the 
level of the sea, for the purpose of taking meteorological 
observations. Those observations were continued for five 
years by officers and non-commissioned officers of the Royal 
Artillery specially selected for the purpose. The report 
issued from the observatory says : 

The mean temperature derived from the five years of observation 
is 61-4. A maximum is obtained about the middle of March, and 
a minimum early in September. The progression from maximum 
to minimum and from minimum to maximum is continuous. 

The mean is passed through, at nearly equal intervals, viz. early 
in June and about the middle of December. The mean height of 
the thermometer in the different months, ranged from 57*07 in 
September to 66-24 m March, being a difference on the average of 
only 9-17 between the hottest and coldest months. The extreme 
range in the five years was : 

Highest 77-6, March 3rd, 1842 ; lowest, 52-0, September 5th, 1845. 
By simultaneous hourly observations on 2nd May, 1841, at the 
Observatory and at level of the sea with thermometer freely exposed 
to the air, but protected as far as possible from disturbing influences, 
the temperature was found to be 7-07 higher at the sea-side. Both 
stations are on the windward side of the island. The observatory 
was at an elevation of 1,765 feet and two and a half miles from the 
sea on a nearly level and naked plain. The greatest temperature 
at Longwood is less than Jamestown on the average of the year 
by 9-125. 

The barometric pressure from the five years' observation has a 
minimum in the beginning of March, and a maximum towards the 
end of July, and between these periods the progression is continuous 
and uninterrupted. 

The mean pressure in the five years was 28-285 inches ; lowest in 
March, 28*232 ; July highest, 28-367. 

The greatest depression on March i4th, 1843, was 28-097, and the 
greatest elevation 9th July, 1842, was 28-497. 

In 1842 Governor Middlemore was succeeded by Colonel 
H. Trelawney and five companies, raised in England 



7 8 



ST. HELENA 



especially for this island under the title of the St. Helena 
regiment, arrived to replace the line regiments. 

In 1843 measles again broke out, causing much mor- 
tality. At this time a new steeple was built for St. James' 
Church, which was also considerably altered and repaired ; 
the market was established in the centre of the town, where 
it now stands ; and the Court of Commissioners was es- 
tablished by writ of the Privy Council for the trial of offences 
on the high seas. The notice of this court was given as fol- 
lows : 

Island Saint Helena. 
To wit. 

These are in her Majesty's name to notify to the inhabitants of 
the said island that a sessions of the Court of Commissioners ap- 
pointed by Letters Patent under the Great Seal, bearing date the 
24th day of October in the seventh year of her Majesty Queen 
Victoria, for the trial within the Colony of offences committed on 
the high seas, and other parts in the said letters patent mentioned, 
will be holden, and kept at the Sessions Hall of the Supreme Court 
in Jamestown, on Wednesday, the 24th day of this present month 
of June, by nine o'clock in the forenoon of the said day. All per- 
sons therefore within the said island who are bound over to prosecute 
any prisoner or prisoners within the gaols of the said island and all 
persons bound over there to appear and answer, are hereby required 
to be present at the time and place aforesaid. 

All paid, special, or petit jurymen summoned to inquire on Her 
Majesty's behalf and all gaolers, constables and bailiffs are to be 
then and there personally present to do such matters and things as 
shall then and there be given them in charge. 

Hereof fail not. 

Given under my hand and seal this sixth day of June in the year 
of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and forty-six. 

(Signed) W. T. JULIO, 

Provost Marshal. 

June 1846. 

In 1845 a loss of life occurred from a rock which has 
since been called Emily's jump, a precipice overlooking the 
lower part of the town. The St. Helena Gazette of Septem- 
ber 20 says : 

On Tuesday, i6th inst., Mr. T. B. Knipe held an inquest in 
the Moon Tavern, Jamestown, upon the body of James Emily, who 
had fractured his skull by throwing himself over a precipice on the 
side of Ladder Hill, that morning about six o'clock. The deceased 
was for many years a private soldier in H.M. gist Regiment, and 
was discharged at his own request with a good character and a 



ST. HELENA 79 

gratuity. For the last six years he has been employed as a master 
blacksmith, under the orders of the commanding engineer, and was 
always considered a sober steady man. On the morning of his 
death he absented himself from work, and was seen walking from 
H. T. Hollow towards town with a man named Henry Leo. Police- 
man William Smith and Private Hardy of the St. Helena Regiment, 
who were at the upper part of Jamestown, saw the deceased climb 
over the wall, walk deliberately to the edge of the precipice in the 
highest part, and throw himself head foremost, a height of more 
than 30 feet. His body was with difficulty removed, and his remains 
were interred between nine and ten o'clock that night in the Upper 
Churchyard, Jamestown, without the rites of Christian burial. 

And now occurred the memorable rollers which caused 
so much damage to the wharf and glacis, and destroyed 
no less than fourteen ships in six hours, an account of which 
will be found on page 250. 

In May Colonel Trelawney died, and was succeeded by 
Colonel George Brodie Fraser, R.A., the senior officer com- 
manding the troops, but shortly afterwards Colonel John 
Ross came to take command of the St. Helena Regiment, 
and as he was senior in the army he took the reins of Govern- 
ment until November, when the newly-appointed Governor 
Sir Patrick Ross arrived. 

The fine building of the present Civil Hospital was begun 
in 1847, chiefly for the use of the merchant service. Many 
poor stricken sailors owe their lives to this hospital, which of 
late years, under the direction of Governor Gray Wilson, 
was enlarged and fitted with many conveniences for the 
comfort of the patients. In the Jubilee year of Queen 
Victoria it was supplied with an ambulance stretcher, which 
added greatly to the comfort of the patients, who were 
formerly conveyed to the hospital in a chair carried by two 
men. At every step the poor sufferer must in many cases 
have endured great pain. (It was a sight which attracted 
my attention just after I landed here, and has never left my 
memory.) 

The arrival of the Governor was announced in the St. 
Helena Gazette of November 22 as under : 

His Excellency Major-General Sir Patrick Ross, Q.C.M.G. and 
K.C.B., arrived on Sunday morning last at ten o'clock, in the ship 
Boyne from the Cape of Good Hope. He landed at one o'clock p.m. 
under a salute of seventeen guns from Ladder Hill. Lieut. -Colonel 
Ross, the senior officer in command of troops, and administering 



80 ST. HELENA 

the Government for the time being, with his Aide-de-Camp and 
Town Major went on board the Boyne to wait on his Excellency. 
On his Excellency landing he was received by a guard of honour 
consisting of 100 rank and file of the St. Helena regiment, under 
the command of Capt. Keating, which was drawn up on the landing 
place. His Excellency with his family, after a short stay at the Castle, 
went direct to Plantation House, the official residence of the 
Governor. The following day he was sworn in, and his commission 
read in the town Square adjoining the Castle, the St. Helena Regi- 
ment under the command of Capt. Woollard forming three sides of 
a square, the fourth composed of civil and military officers of the 
colony (not under arms), and a numerous body of the inhabitants 
of the island ; after which his Excellency retired to the reception 
rooms at the Castle, where he received the civil authorities, the 
military, and such of the respectable inhabitants as presented 
themselves. Sir Patrick took great interest in island affairs, and 
agriculture was encouraged by the holding of agricultural and 
horticultural exhibitions. One of the reports says : 

" Prize for labourers' neat cottages. We do not think any of the 
four candidates reach the standard which would justify a recom- 
mendation to the high reward offered. 

" Mr. Chas. Smith's cottage would come nearest the mark if it 
belonged to a labouring man. Richards deserves much praise for 
making a profitable garden well worth seeing among the heaps of 
rocks. 

" Peggy Bagley's cottage indicates in the interior habits of neat- 
ness fitly characterizing a good old domestic servant. 

" On the whole, Benjamin of Fisher's Valley seems to us to direct 
his labour in a manner best calculated to combine eventually the 
requisites of a neat cottage, and, without recommending the Society's 
handsome reward, we think a gratuity of i would be well deserved, 
with a view to stimulate his further exertions. 

" Signed, RICHARD KEMPTHORNE, 
" THOS. C. LUXMORE." 

Governor Ross also caused to be constructed the road 
from the lower waterfall up over Cat's Hole, around Peak 
Hill to Francis Plain. This road was made by liberated 
Africans and prisoners under the direction of Major Barnes, 
whose name the road still bears. The St. Helena militia 
were in 1847 presented with new colours. The ground 
selected for the occasion was Francis Plain, the headquar- 
ters of the corps. On the arrival of the new colours in 
front of the regiment, two field pieces were placed muzzle 
to muzzle and the colours laid on them, a temporary altar 
of drums being placed near. Immediately after the con- 
secration by R. M. Kempthorne, M.A., Colonial chaplain, 



ST. HELENA 81 

they were handed by Captains H.Doveton and Kennedy to 
Miss Ross, who handed them to the ensigns elected to 
receive them. She made a short speech on delivering 
them, and they were then trooped down the front of the 
line attended by the guard, who took their appointed 
stations, when the old colours were conducted to the mess- 
house. The governor commented upon the absence of 
Lieut.-Colonel Lambe, who was suffering from severe in- 
disposition, and stated that, as the memory of the late Sir 
William Doveton, under whose command the St. Helena 
militia served for many years, was held dear, not only by 
the regiment but by all classes of island people, he had 
directed that the old colours, under which the corps had so 
often meritoriously and so gallantly conducted themselves, 
at the time when the security of the island was seriously 
threatened, should be placed over the monument of that 
patriotic individual, as a memorial of the esteem of his 
countrymen. 

Distressing accounts of the destitution in Ireland and in 
the Highlands of Scotland came to the island, and we find 
that the non-commissioned officers and men of the St. 
Helena regiment nobly came forward with a day's pay 
each (which a soldier can ill afford in this colony) for the 
relief of their destitute countrymen. This offering, with 
the contributions of the officers, made the sum of 40, 
which was forwarded to London for the sufferers, and the 
receipt of it was acknowledged with warm and sincere 
thanks. At this time the Chinese barracks in Plantation 
grounds were pulled down, but the cut blue stone and 
other valuable relics were preserved. These are now in 
the museum. 

The foundation-stone of the present country church 
was laid on February 6, 1850, by Major-General Sir Patrick 
Ross, and in 1851 a printing company was formed. Up 
to this time all writing had been under the control of the 
Government, and this was the first free press imported 
from England for use in the island. 

In August a fire broke out on the premises of Mr. Gigney, 
but, under the indefatigable labours of Mr. Gigney himself, 
together with Town-Major Barnes and troops, it was 
extinguished. 



82 ST. HELENA 

Dissent .was introduced in 1847 by a Scotch Baptist 
minister and soon spread, being popular amongst the 
native population. 

In December, 1847, St. Helena was included in the See 
of Cape Town. The Letters Patent stated : 

We do by these our Letters Patent, under the great seal of our 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland erect, found, make, 
ordain, and constitute our said Colony or settlement of the Cape 
of Good Hope, with its dependencies, and our said Island of St. 
Helena to be a Bishop's See and Diocese, and do fairly hereby 
declare and ordain that the same shall be called the Bishopric of 
Cape Town. And we, having confidence in the leading moral 
probity and prudence of our well-beloved Robert Gray, Doctor in 
Divinity, do name and appoint him to be ordained and consecrated 
Bishop of the said See. 

As the Bishop did not reside on the island, an ordinance 
was passed to determine the authority of the Governor of 
St. Helena to grant marriage licences. 

On the death, in August, 1850, of Sir Patrick Ross, 
Colonel Clark, officer commanding Royal Artillery, acted 
as Governor until the arrival of Colonel (now Sir Thomas) 
Gore Browne, C.B. He only remained three years, for 
he was promoted to the Governorship of New Zealand. 
He worked hard at St. Helena making changes in the civil 
establishments to reduce expenditure. This policy has 
been carried on from that time to the present day, much 
to the detriment of the island. 

He built a gaol in Rupert's Valley, and tried to form a 
village there, to do away with overcrowding in Jamestown. 
A new road was cut to Rupert's, and water was carried to 
the valley in iron pipes from over the Briars. 

Colonel Vigors took office on the departure of Governor 
Gore Browne and family, and during his regime interments 
were prohibited within the limits of Jamestown. 

Sir Edward Drummond Hay arrived on October 10, 
1856. In the same year a flour mill was imported by 
Government, and extensive alterations were begun at the 
Batteries and Lines, Jamestown. The foundations were 
dug out for St. John's Church, and in 1857 the corner-stone 
was laid by Lady Drummond Hay, wife of the Governor. 
This church was built mainly by the untiring devotion 
and exertions of Lady Ross (widow of the late Governor, 



ST. HELENA 83 

Sir Patrick) together with many other ladies of the island, 

A new Custom House was also erected on the Lower 
Parade, and works commenced for the better drainage of 
the town. 

In 1858, by ordinance of his Excellency Sir Edward 
Drummond Hay, Governor in Council of date March 18, 
ratified and confirmed by order of the Queen in Council, 
on May 7 thereafter, the lands in this island forming the 
site of the tomb of His Majesty Napoleon, the first late 
Emperor of the French, and also the land forming the site 
of the tenement of Longwood and its appurtenances, 
formerly the residence of the late said Emperor, are vested 
in His Majesty Napoleon III., the then Emperor of the 
French, and his heirs for ever, as absolute owners thereof 
in fee simple. 

The first Bishop of St. Helena was appointed in 1860 to 
be resident on the island (the diocese to include the neigh- 
bouring island of Ascension, the British residents at Rio and 
other similar places situated on the coast of South America). 
Bishop Piers Claughton was an energetic man, devoted to 
his work ; he mapped out the island into various parishes, 
and by degrees got a church in each parish. His influence 
was a thoroughly good one, and he did much to raise the 
moral tone of the islanders, who regretted deeply his transfer 
to the See of Colombo. 

Sir Edward Drummond Hay built dwellings for the poor 
in Jamestown, which still retain the name of Drummond 
Hay Square. He also gave much attention to the im- 
provement of the militia. 

St. Matthew's church was built, and in September 1860 
H.R.H. Prince Alfred, first Duke of Edinburgh, and after- 
wards Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha arrived. He was 
then an officer serving in the Royal Navy, on board 
H.M.S. Euryalus. His visit of course threw the island 
into a fever of excitement. Triumphal arches, etc., lined 
the wharf and streets, and, all preparations completed, 
they awaited the Prince; but the ship not arriving the 
day expected, the vexation of the people was great. 
However, after three days' suspense the Prince landed, 
and the people of St. Helena were able to render a 
hearty welcome, and to give vent to their excitement. 



84 ST. HELENA 

The Prince honoured the Governor by dining at Plantation. 
He attended a ball at the Castle, and sailed again on the 
evening of the same day he arrived. 

In 1862 St. John's Church was opened on January 24, 
and St. Matthew's at Hutt's Gate on February 24. 

Governor Drummond Hay was succeeded by Admiral 
Sir Charles Elliott on July 3, 1863. He administered the 
Government for seven years, and continually endeavoured 
to advance the welfare of the island. He had to contend 
with many difficulties, especially with the diminishing 
revenue. White ants at this time again gave great trouble, 
and he was indefatigable in his warfare against them. 
Many of the government buildings were repaired or re- 
built with stone, iron and teak. The water-works were 
not neglected, but were augmented largely to supply the 
necessary quantity of water in case of fire or for shipping. 

A great number of Mexican pines, Norfolk pines and 
Bermuda cedars were reared, and Dr. Hooker, the Director 
of the Royal Gardens at Kew, when commenting on the 
possibilities of the island, advised the culture of cinchona 
plants on the mountainous parts of the island. The 
Governor agreed with his plan, and a skilled gardener, 
J. H. Chalmers, was sent out from Kew, and cinchona 
planting rapidly progressed. At the end of the year 1869 
there were 10,000 cinchona plants raised from seed and 
cuttings in all stages of growth, of which 545 were in the 
plantations, vigorous and in good health, approaching three 
feet in height. These promised a great source of profit, but 
Sir Charles being recalled, was succeeded in 1870 by Ad- 
miral Patey, who seemed unable to see the advantage of 
the undertaking, and the plantation was neglected, and 
afterwards totally abandoned. The following report on 
the cinchona planting by J. H. Chalmers fully explains the 
work : 

REPORT ON THE EXPERIMENT OF ESTABLISHING THE CINCHONA 

PLANT IN ST. HELENA, 
From yth July, 1868, to iyth December, 1869. 

J. H. CHALMERS, 
Superintendent of the Cinchona Plantation and Public Nursery. 

On the ;th July, 1868, after the erection of a small propagating 



ST. HELENA 85 

house and certain other preliminary arrangements, I entered upon 
the duties of this experiment by sowing a quantity of cinchona 
seed of the two species succirubra and officinalis. In the course of 
fourteen days these seeds began to germinate, and by the middle 
of August many had attained a size to admit of handling. I then 
pricked out the small plants into boxes of about four inches deep, 
and conveniently large size, placing them, with the young plants 
in them, in the propagating house, where they remained until large 
enough for removal to the open-air nursery at the Peak. By 
December we had increased our stock of seedlings to something 
over 2,000 plants, the greater number exceedingly healthy and 
from three to six inches in height. This number completely filled 
the house, and many required to be moved on account of having too 
little space to grow in, so it became necessary to select a site for a 
nursery, and for a plantation somewhere on high land. A spot near 
Newfoundland Cottage was fixed on, as combining the greatest 
number of requisite points in respect to the object for which it was 
chosen. It has almost the greatest altitude of any part, has a 
southern aspect, is well sheltered, is rich in native vegetation, having 
good soil. A road from the low lands runs along one side and there 
is a cottage for a resident workman. This spot is a portion of the 
south face of " Acteon," which is in the centre and highest part 
and fortunately also is central in relation to the localities likely 
to be found available for the cultivation of the cinchona plant. It 
rises to a height of 2,700 feet above the level of the sea, and is one 
of the dampest regions to be met with here. The character of the 
ground is for the most part precipitous and rocky. The soil, con- 
sisting chiefly of rich black peat or vegetable mould, rests upon a 
bed of reddish soft volcanic rock, in some places of considerable 
thickness, in others shallow, varying according to the inclination of 
the ground. The indigenous vegetation with which it is clothed is 
composed principally of what are here popularly called cabbage- 
trees (Solidago sp. and Melanodendron integri folium), "dog wood" 
(Hedyotis arborca) ; tree ferns (Dicksonia aborescens}, and several 
species of smaller ferns, grasses, etc. These cabbage-trees consti- 
tute the native bush and seldom exceed 25 to 30 feet ; the average 
height is about 1 8 or 20 feet. 

The following gives temperature of air as deduced from a register 
of the thermometer kept at Newfoundland Cottage, altitude 2,400 
feet, during the months of August, September, October, and Novem- 
ber of 1869. 



August. 

Mean minimum . . . $2*26' 

Mean maximum . . . 6o3' 

Highest temperature , 64 o' 

Lowest temperature . 5io' 

Mean daily variation . 78' 

Greatest daily variation . 1 3 o' 



September. 

Mean minimum 
Mean maximum 
Highest temperature 
Lowest temperature 
Mean daily variation 
Greatest daily variation 



537' 
63 6' 
68o' 
5io' 
727' 
I4o' 



86 ST. HELENA 

October. November. 

Mean minimum . . . 5i2o' Mean minimum . . 54i3' 

Mean maximum . . 6i24' Mean maximum . . 63 4' 

Highest temperature . 67o / Highest temperature . 72o' 

Lowest temperature . $io' Lowest temperature . 53o' 

Mean daily variation . 83' Mean daily variation . 89' 

Greatest daily variation . i4o / Greatest daily variation i6o' 

Seedlings to the number of 1,500 were removed from the propa- 
gating house at Plantation and placed under a temporary shading 
of fern leaves at Newfoundland, where they stood till beds were 
ready. The beds were formed on terraces on the hill-side at about 
250 feet below the summit, the soil here being a light vegetable 
mould of a reddish colour. The plants were then carefully set out 
in the beds in rows six inches apart. No shading was at first given; 
but when severe drought set in and they appeared to be suffering 
from the power of the sun, I had tree-fern fronds stuck in all over 
the beds to shield them. The drought still continued, so I removed 
them to other nursery beds which we had prepared at the top of 
the Peak : in this case more under the shade of the forest, and in a 
damper, cooler situation. I did not however remove all ; thereby 
I had an opportunity for testing the fitness of the two localities. 
The plants were treated in precisely the same manner in both cases, 
with this result : Of those shifted to the new situation, not more 
than five or six per cent, died, whereas of those remaining in the 
lower ground more than half perished. So we abandoned the lower 
and confined ourselves entirely to the Peak, where we succeeded 
without difficulty. After establishing these nurseries and making 
walks through the forest to facilitate future operations we proceeded 
to prepare ground for permanent planting. It was found that 
shelter and shade are both highly essential to the success of cinchona 
in the earlier stages of their growth ; and as it seems there is no 
better way of securing these than by allowing a portion of the 
native forest trees to stand, I made it a point in preparing for planting 
never to destroy more of the indigenous vegetation than is necessary 
in order to give room to the young plants. By this system the ground 
is shaded and retains more moisture than if laid open to the sun by 
clearing away the forests, and the young cinchonas are in a com- 
paratively cool and damp atmosphere. From this, do not infer that 
the plants are under dense foliage, cr in the drip of high trees, for 
in the one case we find they become very delicate and slender, and 
in the other die away altogether. Independently of shading, I find 
it necessary to have them shaded with tree-fern leaves. This 
serves to keep the earth and air cool, and consequently to prevent 
evaporation. Preparing the ground for the reception of the plants 
is a simple and easy operation. The ground is very soft and loose, 
and a spade may be forced down by mere hand-pressure. Pits of 
about three feet in diameter and from eighteen inches to three feet 
deep, are prepared at distances of from six to nine feet apart, varying 
on account of forest -trees, etc. This was done during the dry season 



ST. HELENA 87 

namely the period between the end of September and the beginning 
of April ; though in the neighbourhood of the Peak the term dry 
cannot be applied in any season. The only real difference between 
dry and wet seasons is simply that the one is characterized by lighter 
rains and higher temperature, the other by heavy rains and a some- 
what low temperature. A whole fortnight of really dry weather is 
quite an unusual occurrence at any season. From the beginning of 
April to the end of September is the period most favourable to 
transplanting. 

The planting out of our young cinchona-trees was commenced on 
May 1869, and continued to the end of September. Total number 
set out was 540 plants. The failures in this lot have not exceeded 
5 or 6 per cent, and the greater portion of them are in a very pro- 
mising condition at the present time. The tallest plant (a C. 
succirubra) measured twenty inches, the average being fifteen inches. 
Since September their growth has been rapid and is every day 
increasing. The following shows the total number and condition 
of the cinchona plants at Newfoundland on 9th December : 
C. succirubra planted out ..... $06 
Do. in nursery beds .... 1,109 
Do. in boxes under glass . . . 2,035 
Officinalis planted out . . . . . 25 
Do. in nursery beds . . . . 575 

Do. in boxes under glass .... 1,700 
C. calisaya planted out . . . . . 10 
Do. in nursery beds . . . . 12 

C. pahudiana planted out . . . . . 10 

Do. in nursery beds .... 44 

Seedlings of officinalis and succumbra in boxes under 

glass . . . 4,000 

Total 10,026 

In consequence of having so little labour at my disposal, I have 
not increased the stock of plants beyond that which we can manure, 
but should it be found advisable to do so there will be no difficulty 
in raising plants. The different seeds of cinchona supplied so gener- 
ously by Dr. Hooker generally germinate freely ; so while these are 
to be had there does not appear the necessity for propagating by 
cuttings. The latter mode of propagation might, however, be 
resorted to if circumstances recommended it, and it may be noted 
as an interesting fact that several cuttings of a C. officinalis taken 
off the parent plant and stuck into the earth in the open air without 
any protection whatever have emitted roots and are growing freely. 
Since erecting the first propagating house at Plantation I have 
erected another something like a cucumber-frame. Should it 
answer, we shall be able to carry on the whole work of culture at 
the Peak, and the house at Plantation will be devoted to the rearing 
of new and useful plants for the colony. 

Having so far summed up the course of our proceedings, it remains 
to be seen what prospects of success there are in the undertaking. 



88 ST. HELENA 

It might seem premature to offer an opinion in respect to this, at 
so short a time from the commencement of the experiment, but 
considering the progress the plants have made, the extraordinarily 
long period of drought to which they were subjected during the 
very earliest stages of their growth, and perhaps, too, at times not 
the most favourable treatment resulting from inexperience on 
my part, I can express myself well satisfied with their present 
promising state. In comparing the growth of our plants with those 
of the same age raised in India and elsewhere, it ought to be remem- 
bered that owing to the limited extent of our propagating depart- 
ment it is necessary for us to remove them to the open air at a very 
early stage, and consequently they do not acquire so large proportions 
in the first year as plants kept six months or so under glass. As an 
evidence of this, I planted on the 6th March in prepared soil, in 
the bed of the propagating house at Plantation, one cinchona plant 
of each of the four species in cultivation here for the purpose of 
watching their development under glass. I measured them on the 
thirteenth of this month and found that the larger (sp. C. succumbra] 
had reached a height of 4 feet 6 inches, with a circumference of 

4 inches round the stem. The next in size (a C. pahudiana) is 4 feet 

5 inches with a stem of 3 inches in circumference, and C. calisaya is 
2 feet 10 inches and very healthy. The other plant (C. officinalis) 
was cut down a few days ago, and measured 4 feet 8 inches, but 
was not so robust and healthy as the other trees. 

J. H. CHALMERS, 
Supt. of Cinchona Plantation and Public Nursery. 

A great reduction in the Civil Government took place 
on Admiral Patey's arrival. It was represented that the 
Civil establishment was larger than necessary, and re- 
trenchment was the order of the day ; so, when Patey had 
been here two years, the Home Government recalled him, 
and considerably reduced the salary, appointing the then 
Colonial Secretary, Hudson Ralph Janisch, Esq., as Gover- 
nor of the island. 

In 1871 there occurred a terrible flood, chiefly from the 
sides of Ladder Hill and Rupert's Hill, causing great damage 
to the houses situated at the base on either side. About 
100 persons emigrated to the Cape of Good Hope, owing 
to the great distress of trade here, and a Commission was 
appointed to inquire into the causes of the financial depres- 
sion. The chief causes assigned were the reduction of the 
naval and military establishments, for H.M. ships had made 
it their headquarters during the suppression of the slave 
trade, and thousands of 'pounds annually circulated. 
Another cause was the opening of the Suez Canal. Living 



90 ST. HELENA 

In 1875 a barque, the Elizabeth, was fitted as a whaler 
and manned chiefly by island men, but the whaling industry 
has slackened much in these waters since that date. In 
1878 another heavy flood occurred, and, bringing huge 
boulders before it, rushed through the culvert and over- 
flowed, spreading destruction in its course. It broke 
through the churchyard into the streets of Jamestown, 
ruining much house property as well as the stores of the 
merchants. Two lives were lost. The water, after rush- 
ing through the main street, spread on the lower parade, 
rising to a great height before it could make its way through 
the line gate, in the pillars of which a stone is placed mark- 
ing the height to which the water rose. 

In 1879 came the terrible news of the disaster at 
Isandhlwana, and the troops from the garrison were im- 
mediately embarked on H.M.S. Shah for Natal on Feb- 
ruary 12. 

In 1880 the Empress Eugenie called here on her way 
from her visit to the grave of her son in South Africa. She 
was entertained by the Governor at the Castle, but no 
festivities marked her call, out of respect to her deep 
mourning. She visited the tomb and Longwood, and then 
re-embarked on the Trojan. 

In this year too, his Royal Highness Prince Albert 
Heinrich of Prussia (grandson of Her Majesty Queen 
Victoria) arrived in the German frigate Prinz Adalbert. 

1 88 1 saw the arrival of Sir Frederick Roberts. He was 
on his way to the Cape, but landed to distribute the South 
African war-medals to the detachment of gist Highlanders 
who had lately returned from Zululand. The new road 
leading from the upper part of Jamestown direct to Ladder 
Hill was cut in 1882, and the poorhouse, with a lunatic 
asylum attached, was built in the town. On Governor 
Janisch's death Colonel Blunt, then commanding the 
Royal Engineers, was appointed ; and during his term of 
governorship the Hon. W. Grey Wilson was Colonial 
Secretary. When Colonel Blunt returned to England, 
Grey Wilson was appointed Acting Governor, and under 
his able administration the island was relieved of its burden 
of debt. In this year, 1887, a serious outbreak of measles 
took place. As it was forty years since the last visitation, 



ST. HELENA 91 

the consequences were very serious, there being scarcely a 
house un visited by the scourge, which was of a virulent 
type. Much suffering ensued, but hardly a death occurred, 
and this speaks volumes for the climate. The same year 
was the memorable one of our late good Queen Victoria's 
Jubilee, and the people on the appointed day were early 
astir, decorating their houses and the streets in honour of 
the joyful event. H.M.S. Rifleman was in harbour, and 
presented a pretty sight when dressed from stem to stern. 
The troops were under the command of Major Miles, R.A., 
and assembled on the Lower Parade ground. The Gover- 
nor, attended by his staff and many officials, was received 
by a guard of honour of the Royal Scots, under command 
of Lieut. Brush. A special thanksgiving service was held 
in St. James' Church, which was attended by the Governor 
and Militia, as well as by the inhabitants, after which the 
troops were drawn up in line on parade. The Governor, 
attended by Captain Bruno, Staff-Surgeon Gunning and 
Lieut. Pollock-Gore, inspected the line, after which a salute 
of fifty guns was fired from Ladder Hill under command of 
Captain Reynolds, R.A. After the seventeenth, thirty- 
fourth and last round came a feu de joie from the troops on 
parade, and simultaneously from the decks of the Rifleman. 

The various societies of the island were present, and marched 
vigorously with banners flying. By all, the Jubilee Anthem 
was vigorously sung, followed by " God save the Queen." 
Before dispersing, an address was given by the Governor, 
and after presentation of arms the troops marched off to 
the music of the St. Helena band. The old and sick were 
not forgotten, for the poorhouse was inundated with meats, 
drinks, tobacco, pipes, etc., etc. It was intended that all 
the children of the island should have had a tea on the 
same day, but, owing to the outbreak of measles, many 
were weak, and it was thought better to postpone it. In 
the following month, when all were well and hearty, the 
children had their merrymaking in Plantation grounds, 
where everything possible was done to ensure their enjoy- 
ment. The Jubilee day was brought to a close with a 
fine display of fireworks. 

In July of this year occurred a disastrous fire, whereby 
the counting-house and adjoining dwelling-house of Messrs. 



92 ST. HELENA 

Solomon were destroyed. A robbery took place of over 
1,000, but much of this was recovered, the thief having 
lost coins as he ran off. How the fire occurred is a mystery 
which has never been cleared up. 

In the church of St. James will be seen the colours of the 
late St. Helena regiment delivered over to the Vicar (the 
Rev. Stephen Johnson Ellis) and the churchwardens for 
safe keeping in October 1887. 

Up to this time, although there were many charitable 
and provident societies for the inhabitants, there was not 
one whereby sick children might benefit ; but now Mr. 
Edward J. Watson brought forward a scheme, which was 
readily put into action by the workers in the parish of St. 
James. The St. Helena Guardian of December 15 says : 

A crowd of children may be seen on Saturday mornings at the 
Mess House (then the residence of Colonel Woodward, R.E.) to pay 
their small subscriptions of halfpenny per week to the hon. treasurer 
(Mrs. Woodward). 

This Society is still in a most flourishing condition: it 
affords weekly relief to sick children ; gives a burial 
allowance; and when the members are too old for their 
rules, pays the entrance fee to any one of the adult 
societies chosen. Its present good standing is greatly 
due to the assiduity with which its originator, Mr. Watson, 
has worked. 

In March 1888 lamps were erected between the lower 
burial ground and the hospital. Before this time, that 
part of the town had been in total darkness after nightfall, 
and the inhabitants carried lanterns to guide their foot- 
steps when they had occasion to be out of doors after dark. 

Robbery is not of frequent occurrence on the island, but 
in this year the Court House at the Castle was broken into, 
and a safe containing Government money was stolen. 
The remains of the safe, with a part of the money, were 
found at Sampson's battery. No trace of the culprit could 
be discovered for some time, but the Governor having 
his suspicions, had the lock of the door examined, and in 
it was found a minute piece from the point .of a blade of a 
knife. He suspected a man who had just "left the island 
for the Cape, and the police sergeant (Mr. Harrison) was 
shipped off to arrest him. When the arrest was made 



ST. HELENA 93 

the knife, to which the small piece belonged, was on the 
person of the thief, and this completed the evidence. He 
was brought back to the island and there sentenced. 

Trade was very depressed in this year, and the revenue 
of the colony was at a low ebb. Governor W. Grey Wilson, 
in remarking on it, writes : 

In point of climate St. Helena will compare favourably with 
any other British Colony, and the soil is remarkably productive. 
The potato harvest in this year (1888) was the largest known for 
many years past, and the price came down to 6/- per 100 Ib. Nearly 
all English vegetables grow to perfection. The revenue of the 
Colony is at a very low ebb, and the depression is due to four causes : 

1 . the opening of the Suez Canal, which diverted so large a pro- 
portion of trade to the East. 

2. The substitution of steam for sailing vessels. 

3. The very great economy aimed at by shipowners in the face 
of low freights. This natural economy has developed the tinned 
provision trade to an enormous extent, and rendered ships more or 
less independent of the ports of call. 

4. The elimination of defective ships due to recent imperial 
legislation, by which excellent measures this colony has been deprived 
of much of the harvest cleared from vessels in distress. 

In 1889 engravings of Her Majesty Queen Victoria and 
of the Prince Consort were sent out to be placed in the 
Government House. 

In July 1889 the officers and eleven of the crew of the 
Lindores Abbey were charged by the master with piracy 
and mutiny on the high seas. Verdict was given that the 
crew were justified in securing the captain in irons on the 
night of July 8, and there was no evidence of undue vio- 
lence. Verdict passed, " Not guilty." 

After this came a counter trial. 

The master of the bark Lindores Abbey was charged with 
shooting at Charles Godfrey, seaman, with intent to kill. 
Verdict, " The master was justified in self-defence." 

In this year Mr. Reginald Antrobus came from England 
toj administer the Government during the absence on 
leave of Governor Grey Wilson. 

The year 1890 was marked by a terrible fall of rocks, 
which caused loss of life. The town is on three sides sur- 
rounded by high rocky precipices which completely shut it 
in, the only open space being northward towards the sea. 



94 ST. HELENA 

The roads to the interior are made along these rocks, which 
are imnany places loose and intersected with shale. After 
heavy rains, or after a very hot season, huge masses de- 
tach themselves and fall into the valley. There have been 
many falls of rock, but none so terrible as that which 
occurred on April 19, 1890, when the inhabitants were 
rouse'd in the dead of a night of perfect darkness by ^a low 
rumbling sound, gaining quickly in force, until, with a 
deafening roar, hundreds of tons of rock were precipitated 
on the houses in the town, burying sleeping men, women 
and children. The remembrance of this is even now 
terrifying to the people who fled from their homes panic- 
stricken, not knowing from what quarter danger threatened. 
Nine persons were killed, many seriously hurt, and a great 
number saved in a most miraculous manner. To .the memory 
of the dead, and as a thanksgiving for the escape of so 
many, a memorial fountain was erected in the main street. 
In 1892 the island was advertised through the arrest of 
Deeming, alias Williams, alias Ward, who in 1888 landed 
here from the Barossa. He had, it appears, killed eight 
women and several children before he was arrested. It 
will be remembered that while he was here he frequently 
frightened girls who were in the garden. Just prior to his 
leaving the island he applied for a situation as clerk to 
Messrs. Solomon and Company, the negative reply most 
probably saving some fearful tragedy amongst St. Helenians. 
St. Helena at this time was at a very low ebb, and there 
appeared to be no outlook of better things, though the 
people are described by Governor Grey Wilson to be bravely 
battling against poverty and suffering, being unable to 
leave the island in consequence of the high rates charged 
by the steamer companies for passage. 

In 1890 the Chief of the Zulu tribe, Dinizulu, son of 
Cetewayo, arrived, together with his two uncles Undabuka 
and Tchingana, his wives and servants. All three chiefs were 
fine specimens of the Zulu tribe. Dinizulu himself had a great 
ambition to become English, and made rapid strides in his 
education, and before long he was able to read and write 
with ease. He was greatly interested in music, and while on 
the island learnt to play the piano. It was terribly ludicrous to 
see his earnestness, but by taking great pains he soon became 



ST. HELENA 95 

able to play hymns. His uncles were much more unso- 
ciable, and had set their faces steadily against any innova- 
tions, continually endeavouring to keep Dinizulu a slave 
to their own uncivilized ways : they would not use chairs, 
tables, nor beds, neither would they wear European dress 
except on occasions when they walked abroad, and were 
compelled to do so. Dinizulu, on the contrary, was very 
particular over the fit, etc. of his clothes, and while on the 
island sent to the Cape for the measurements of his relatives. 
On receiving them he sent to England, and got out a fashion- 
able costume for each. These were sent to the Cape. 
Before ordering, he carefully studied the colour and quality 
of the material, and selected with great care the style he pre- 
ferred from the latest fashion-books. The Zulus were first 
domiciled at " Rosemary Hall," but this was found cold as 
the rainy season set in ; then they were moved to Maldivia ; 
but as the uncles made it unpleasant for Dinizulu, he was 
allowed to set up housekeeping for himself. He then moved 
to the cottage on Francis Plain. Visitors calling there were 
always treated to tea and cake in English style. Many 
amusing anecdotes are told of their simplicity while learning ; 
more especially are these tales told of the uncles. The 
vicar of St. Paul's was their instructor, and Undabuka, finding 
he could not learn his lesson, asked what his teacher would 
do to an English boy to make him learn it. The reply 
came " I should stand him on the form." To his great 
surprise, on turning round, he found the huge Zulu standing 
unsteadily on the seat of a chair. After remaining there 
some time, he quietly got down and again looked at the 
book ; then, finding that he could not say anything more 
of the lesson, he upbraided his teacher for deceiving him, 
remarking " that he had no faith in him now." 

While they were here Miss Colenso paid them a visit. 
Her account of it is very one-sided. She says : 

She called at St. Helena and found the chiefs there in very 
poor health. They suffered extremely from the climate. The place 
where they were located was in a valley, or, as they call it, aj" pot," 
and the heat was excessive. The Governor of St. Helena and the 
people generally were however very kind to them. Until she 
brought some one to assist them in their reading, the chiefs sat on 
the verandah and wished they were somewhere else. To get out 
of the place where they were situated was like climbing a precipice. 



96 ST. HELENA 

About a fortnight before she arrived at St. Helena they 
had received an intimation that they were to start for 
Zululand, but this order was suddenly cancelled. Miss 
Colenso believes this was owing to communications which 
passed between the Colonial Office and the Natal Ministry. 
The chiefs had a strong desire to get back to their own 
country in a proper position. They wished to be on good 
terms both with the Imperial and the Natal Government, 
and not to be misunderstood by either. She believed their 
return would contribute to the further settlement and peace 
of Zululand. No doubt Miss Colenso was very earnest in 
her efforts to obtain the release from exile of the Zulu 
chiefs, but she should not have made a statement from 
which an inference can be drawn far from the truth. " Mal- 
divia," in which the prisoners lived, and which possibly 
Miss Colenso has, biassed by her zeal for the Zulu cause, 
been brought to consider a " pot," is the most healthy 
residence in Jamestown, and the " excessive heat " at no 
time registers 80 degrees in the shade. Miss Colenso was here 
during the hottest season of the year. The poor health 
of the prisoners, which was apparent only to Miss Colenso, 
was probably only disappointment at the cancelling of the 
order for their return. They complained of the cold when 
at Rosemary, and of the heat in Jamestown. After a great 
deal of agitation, both in England and Natal, for the return 
of the Zulu exiles (Prince Dinizulu and the chiefs Undabuka 
and Tchingana), the Natal Government determined upon 
their return, and the establishment was broken up, the 
exiles, with wives, children and attendants, going on board 
the steamer Umbilo (Captain Cox), from London bound to 
Natal, which was chartered to convey the Zulu exiles. 

They left on December 24 ; the party included Miss 
Colenso, Mr. Madden (the interpreter), Chief Dinizulu, and 
two female attendants with five children ; Tchingana, wife 
and three children ; Undabuka and wife ; Umbodiya, an old 
nurse ; Paul Mlimkula, wife and child ; Mkolokoto, Mho- 
fana, Myosama ; Xamandolo, wife and child ; and Magema 
Magwaza. 

During the time they were on the island they were grad- 
ually weaned from their uncivilized and savage life, until 
at the time of their departure they were as much civilized 




JAMESTOWN FROM TOP OF THE LADDER (LOOKING DOWN). 



ST. HELENA 97 

and attached to civilized customs as could be expected in 
such a short time. This can be said especially of the 
young Prince, who became more refined, his gentlemanly 
manners and bearing promising well for the tribe over 
which he may hold sway. Dinizulu was liked by all who 
knew him, and he left many friends and well-wishers 
in the island. 

Financially, the island suffered much by the departure of 
the Zulus, as considerably over a thousand pounds a year 
were expended upon their establishment, a loss the Colony 
continued to feel until the arrival of the Boer prisoners. 

It is understood that the terms on which Dinizulu and 
his uncles Tchingana and Undabuka returned to Zululand 
are as follows : 

Dinizulu will take the position of an Induna of the first rank, 
shorn, however, of the power, but acting as confidant or adviser, 
ex-officio, of the Administration. He will be made chief of a dis- 
trict of Zululand, over which he will exercise the authority which 
is granted at the present moment to a district chief in Natal. He 
will not, however, be permitted to exercise paramount authority 
over any of the other Zulu chiefs. He will be salaried by the local 
Government, furnished with a house of his own, and in general well 
appurtenanced, the sole proviso being that he shall behave himself 
in due accordance with the laws of the colony. A further condition 
is attached in connection with the stipulation as to the non-exercise 
of paramount power, namely, that neither he nor his headman shall 
visit his former opponent, Usibebu, but on the clear understanding 
that neither Dinizulu nor Usibebu should have any ground of com- 
plaint left to them. 

A Cape Times correspondent, writing from Zululand on 
June 14, says that Dinizulu 5 s return is already creating a 
disturbing influence. He asks : " Will Dinizulu be able 
to withstand the varied influences which undoubtedly will 
be brought to bear upon him ? " His journey from Etshowe 
to Nongoma was a triumphal march. His people, including 
Government chiefs from remote quarters in vast numbers, 
met him along the route, giving in their allegiance, and 
presenting him with money. One of the most striking 
facts in connection with this is that the Colwas, or so-called 
Christian Zulus, were as eager in their protestations and 
monetary gifts as the veriest heathen. Such a fully spon- 
taneous outburst of loyalty could not fail to impress this 
young man with a sense^of his power. His people are 

G 



98 ST. HELENA 

urging him to give up his European habits, to cease wearing 
clothes, and to return to the primitive costume of his 
illustrious ancestors. Tchingana, one of his uncles, whom 
we have been accustomed to see clothed and seated like 
the rest, has within a month of returning to his kraal, cast 
off the cumbersome apparel of civilization, and taken to 
his " moucha " and " nongoma." Dinizulu is in the heart 
of Zululand, and far away from Etshowe and officialism. 
He is here surrounded on all sides by his faithful and still 
savage people, and his journey thither has impressed him 
with the fervour of the Zulu nation's attachment. Undabuka 
is with him, and is known to be a cunning and unscrupulous 
man. Has the leaven of civilization got hold of Dinizulu 
to that degree as to defy natural incentives, which at 
present are everywhere urging him to return to heathen- 
dom, and all that it means ? 

A SUPREME TEST. 

The Government have fondly hoped and thought that 
Zulu power was finally broken, that under the system of 
petty chieftainship into which the country is divided an 
end had been put to the concentration of power and organi- 
zation. It may be so, but the time is at hand when that 
belief is to stand a supreme test, and one is amazed at the 
easy nonchalance with which everywhere his return has 
been viewed, Dinizulu at Nongoma is allowing his 
thoughts to run riot, and there comes back to him the time 
when he, as a boy, single-handed, penetrated the fastnesses 
of the enemy's camp that enemy that had twice vanquished 
his powerful father, and having made his plans, returned, 
and gathering these same Usuto, led them to victory by 
the knowledge thus gained. This was an event to be proud 
of, which stamped him as a true descendant of a kingly 
line : this as a boy, what ambition is in the man ? In 
dealing with Zulu minds we are dealing with an unknown 
and devious quantity. The whole nation awakes in a 
night, and that first night or two is usually a bad time. 
These things have happened before, and every one was 
aghast. There is absolutely nothing to prevent it happen- 
ing again. 

During the debate on the Estimates in the Natal Parlia- 



ST. HELENA 99 

ment, on consideration of an item of 500 for Dinizulu, 
Mr. Schofield asked whether Dinizulu was at home, and 
was behaving himself properly. There was a rumour that 
he was rambling about the country and that the authorities 
had no control over him. The Prime Minister said the 
general rumour was absolutely incorrect. For a time 
Dinizulu was in the house provided by the Imperial Govern- 
ment, and after a certain time he was allowed by the Chief 
Magistrate to go to his own kraal, and he was there for 
some little time. The Government had been kept fully 
informed of all his movements. His conduct had been 
very good, and there was no foundation for the rumour. 
Mr. Schofield said he referred to the matter because it 
was stated that a large kraal was being built for him. The 
Natal mail brought an interesting letter from Miss Colenso* 
Writing from Pietermaritzburg, she says ; 

At last I have got back to the land of tables and chairs, from 
a four months' visit to Zululand. I went straight on with the 
chiefs when we landed at Durban, and found it desirable to stay 
through their settling in. That is now, I think, safely accomplished. 
They have been greeted rapturously by the Zulus generally almost 
universally. Even Zibeba went to welcome them. His messengers 
were well received, Ndabuko greeting them as friends, which was 
much more than I expected, and I think that in time even that 
breach may heal also. Before I left, a good many Zulus had come 
in to welcome us from Dutch Zululand. When I parted from Mr. 
Saunders, the Special Commissioner at Etshowe, a fortnight ago, 
he said that he was well satisfied with the way in which things had 
settled down, and considered that much of the credit for this was 
due to Dinizulu. It is too soon yet to say that all is going on well, 
and there are many possibilities for mischief, but on the whole 
things seem to be shaping fairly in this corner. 

In 1893 many of the islanders emigrated to Port Nolloth, 
to work at the copper mines, others in search of domestic 
service went to the Cape. 

The year 1895 brought great rains, which carried away 
three of the large beds of rushes which grew on the hill- 
side above Maldivia House garden. In this year also the 
old convict ship Success called on her way from Australia 
to the East India Dock, Blackwall, London, where she was 
put on exhibition. The vessel belonged to the old system 
of treating prisoners with barbarous cruelty bordering on 
inhumanity. She was built in 1798 in India, of solid teak 



loo ST. HELENA 

of great thickness, and was used as an East Indiaman, 
and then as an emigrant ship, but in 1852, when the gold- 
fields were being opened up in Australia, she was converted 
into a convict ship,and anchored off Williamstown, Victoria. 
There were five of these convict ships moored together, in 
order to safely keep the worst of the bad characters from 
all quarters, and the convicts who were escaping from the 
penal settlements to get to the gold fields. The Success 
was called the Dark Cell Drill ship, and was fitted with 
solitary cells admitting no light. It is wonderful that she 
safely reached home : she took five months and a half to 
complete the voyage. 

The quarters occupied formerly by the warders were on 
the quarter-deck, where were to be seen rusty muskets, 
pistols, leg-irons and manacles, and an original copy of a 
ticket of leave signed by the Governor of the Colony. Be- 
tween decks there were cells on each side, each cell made for 
three prisoners ; and on the lower deck, where no light and 
very little air could penetrate, were the solitary cells, 
which must have been living tombs. A small space at 
the end of each cell was railed off, and called the tiger's 
cage; this was used for dangerous occupants. Often 
murder was committed in the gloom of these awful tombs, 
as the result of quarrels, or of an old grievance. There also 
were iron necklets by which the malefactors were fastened 
in a line. In the torture cells the chains prevented the poor 
wretches from either sitting, kneeling, or lying down. The 
convicts were of the worst type ; still, such barbarity 
could only have hardened them, and in 1857 tne Y found 
an opportunity of revenging themselves by assassinating 
the official head inspector, General Price. Public feeling 
then revolted against the system on these convict ships, 
and they were, in 1859, broken up, with the exception of 
the Success. She was scuttled in Sydney harbour, then 
was raised and exhibited at various ports in Australia 
after which she was taken to England. 

On Sunday, October 13, 1895, three artillerymen (a 
bombardier and two gunners), two of whom were on the 
main guard, boarded the Luna, a water- tank, and took her 
put to sea. Before leaving guard, they locked the remain- 
ing man on guard in the cells, and filled in the guard 



ST. HELENA 101 

report with facetious remarks ; they then took a gig, which 
had the day previous been hoisted for cleaning, and rowed 
off to the Luna. They had three carbines, a large amount 
of ammunition, their kits, supplies of bread, oatmeal, 
tinned meat, and a map with a straight line drawn from 
St. Helena to America. 

About three a.m. the Luna was missed by the night 
watchman, who got a man to help, and they went after her 
with the intention of bringing her into the moorings, but 
when within twenty yards they were fired at. Repeated 
firing went on, one bullet going through the roof of Signal- 
man Ward's quarters, while others fell so near that Ward 
and the sergeant of artillery had to keep their heads below 
the parapet to avoid being shot. As daylight grew stronger 
the men were seen to be Bombardier Longman and Gunners 
Bush and Richards. For over two hours messages were 
passing between the owners of the tank (Messrs. Solomon 
and Co.), the police magistrate, Captain Bateman of the 
Royal Artillery, and the sergeant of the police, as to what 
steps were to be taken to get back the men and tank, but 
neither civil nor military authorities cared to take the 
initiative, and nothing was done. An end was put to the 
affair by the men themselves (finding they were sea-sick 
and quite unable to sail the tank) getting into the gig which 
they had fastened astern, and rowing for the shore, where 
they arrived in harbour and landed, to be taken in charge 
by the military police. They had 193 rounds of ammunition 
still in their possession, and they had fired about 100 rounds 
while in the tank. They were tried by court-martial for 
leaving their post while on guard, making away with a 
water-tank and a gig, taking Government carbines and 
ammunition, also firing round after round at their barracks, 
every action tending to the presumption that they intended 
to desert. 

Two were sentenced to two years' hard labour, and the 
third to eighty-four days' ; but on the day following the 
Officer Commanding troops remitted half of the first sen- 
tence, much to the astonishment of the community. 

In the December following the Boys' Brigade was formed 
by the Rev. Canon Ellis, vicar of St. James' ; this corps is 
still in existence. 



102 ST. HELENA 

The next year was remarkable for its trade depression, 
as also for the marked decrease in the number of calling 
vessels, and for the fact that there were in port at one time 
four damaged vessels: the steamship Port Phillip on fire 
(this vessel was taking emigrant girls to Australia), the 
steamer Strathmore with broken shaft, The Madeline 
Rickmers on fire, and the Howden (now a hulk in harbour, 
and lately used as a quarantine station) leaking. 
The year is also remembered as a time of great reduction 
in the prices of imported goods, and also of reduction in 
postage from 6d. to 2%d. per half-ounce. This was again 
reduced in 1901 to id. per half ounce. 

In 1897, while shooting on the barn, some men made an 
interesting discovery. Following a goat along a vein on the 
west side, just on the verge of a precipice immediately over- 
hanging the sea, they came suddenly on a hole or cave which 
was built up, only leaving an entrance sufficiently large to 
allow of a man squeezing through, and so very near to the 
edge of the precipice that the slightest push from any one 
standing in the doorway would land an intruder 300 feet 
or more below. It is supposed that the cave is the much 
talked of place of abode of an eccentric person called 
" London's Ben," who was subject to occasional fits of 
mania, and who would absent himself from civilization for 
lengthened periods, living a wild and hermit -like life. It 
was known that he lived on the barn, because, when he began 
to feel what he termed " that way," he always said " the 
white goat on the barn called him," and then made his dis- 
appearance. He had been missed twenty-three years when 
the cave was discovered. On entering the cave there was 
found a bag containing about ten pounds of salt, a razor 
perfectly good, and wrapped in flannel, a large quantity of 
island tobacco nicely done up in rolls, quite good, some 
cooking utensils, a chopper made from the heel of a scythe, 
a whetstone, tinder-box, flint and steel, some jerked beef in 
a perfect state of preservation, together with many other 
things, including a bottle of water, which also-was good. The 
bed was framed of rough stone, the top being of flat slate- 
like stones, large quantities of which are found on the barn 
in a beautiful smooth state. There was a pair of blue cloth 
trousers, which fell in pieces when touched, and by the 



ST. HELENA 103 

bed was a stone club about eighteen inches long and three 
inches in diameter. The walls of the cave were shelved 
with flat slabs of stone supported by spikes, driven into 
the rock, and near by was another cave evidently used as 
a kitchen. 

In September 1897 the island was subjected to a very 
high wind, which it is said travelled at the rate of forty miles 
an hour, its force being eight pounds to the square foot. 
Fortunately this rate is unusual, or St. Helena would in all 
probability be denuded of trees or placed on a par with the 
Falkland Islands, which possess very few trees taller than 
furze bushes. Many trees were uprooted by the wind, one 
especially deserving mention. It stood in a field at Long- 
wood called the Black Field, and for nearly twenty years it 
had, by the kindness of Mr. Deason of Longwood Farm, been 
fenced in. This tree is referred to by Mr. J. C. Melliss, 
C.E., in his admirable work on St. Helena, at page 286, and a 
plate respecting it given between pages 294-5. The quota- 
tion is under the heading "Esiadia Jacq," as follows : 

P. rotundifolia, Hk. f ., Solidago rotundt folia, Roxb. Only one tree 
of this species is now known to exist in the world, and that grows 
in a field to the left of the entrance gate at Longwood, called the 
" Black Field." Roxburgh states that the islanders called it 
Bastard Gumwood or Cabbage-tree, After a careful search, extend- 
ing over a year or more, the plant above mentioned was discovered 
in the year 1868. It is a tree about twenty feet in height and 
apparently very old. It grows side by side with the gumwood, 
and without close examination might be mistaken for that species ; 
indeed I discovered it only by riding up to it to look for the blossoms 
of the gumwood, and was surprised to find it covered with small 
white flowers of a different plant. It is much to be desired that a 
plant of such singular interest should be propagated before it is 
entirely lost. It flowers in May and June. 

The advice given by Mr. Melliss was followed by Mr. 
Deason, who tried to propagate the species by planting the 
seeds ; some were also sent to Kew and were planted ; but 
all have turned out failures. The tree from its appearance 
was very old, and for a long time was hollow, leaving merely 
a decayed woody fibre covered by a thick bark ; in all prob- 
ability to this cause the sterility of the seeds is due ; the 
species being now entirely lost. 

A thunder-storm at St. Helena is a thing almost unknown, 



io 4 ST - HELENA 

yet in about a month after the extraordinary wind the 
island was visited by a thunder-storm which continued over 
two days, and was accompanied by much rain and hail of 
hail up to this time there has been no record in St. Helena, 
yet now, hail-stones half an inch in diameter were picked up 
on the south-west part of the island, where the country was 
thick with them. 

On Thursday, April 14, 1898, the arrival of Captain 
Joshua Slocum in his little yacht Spray constituted an event 
as unique in the history of St. Helena as the fact of a man 
making alone a voyage round the globe in a nine-ton boat 
probably is in the history of the world. 

The Spray made her appearance after a smart run of 
sixteen days from Cape Town, the news of her arrival causing 
a commotion among the community of the island, and many 
visited the boat in which a feat requiring rare pluck and 
skill had been so successfully accomplished a feat which 
in its extreme daring, amounted to foolhardiness. 

Captain Slocum hailed from Boston, from which port he 
started on his voyage three years before, on April 24, 
1895. He called successively at Fayal, Gilbraltar, Pernam- 
buco, Rio de Janeiro, Montevideo, Buenos Ayres, Straits of 
Magellan (twice), thence to Juan Fernandez (Robinson 
Crusoe's island), Samoa, Newcastle and Sydney (New 
South Wales), Melbourne, Launceston (Tasmania), Torres 
Straits across the Indian Ocean to the island of Keeling, 
thence to Rodrigues, Mauritius, Natal and Cape Town, and 
lastly St. Helena, whence he proceeded to the United States. 

At the Garden Hall the Captain gave a very interesting 
and humorous lecture on his voyage, illustrated by a series 
of beautiful lantern-views of the various places he had 
visited, and the classes of people met with. Mr. R. P. 
Pooley, United States Consul, having introduced the Cap- 
tain to the audience with a few amusing remarks, the 
lecturer began by narrating an account of his voyage, telling 
in a highly humorous manner the many and various in- 
cidents which occurred on his voyage. His reason for 
coming alone, he said, was because he could not get the one 
he wanted to come with him. He could get lots of others, 
but he didn't want them. He considered the failure of 
many a great expedition was due to there being too many 



ST. HELENA 105 

who wanted to be master. Columbus' expedition was an 
instance of this : if Columbus had been alone, he would have 
discovered America long before in fact, he added, America 
would have discovered itself. The Spray he had built 
himself ; there was not a nail in her he had not driven, and 
she took thirteen months to build. When he determined 
to make the voyage alone, he put all hardships behind him, 
and having been twenty-five years a ship -master knew 
pretty well what he undertook. Up to the present he had 
not regretted having done so ; not even when in a violent 
storm off Cape Horn (in which three vessels were lost one 
the City of Philadelphia) did he regret his undertaking. His 
boat had lived through it ; in fact, being so light she would 
live through a storm that many another vessel would not 
survive, for she sat like a duck on the water. He had never 
felt any extra fatigue never once felt over- worked. The 
course he came was by deliberation, not by chance ; he 
pricked off on his chart the course he meant to take, and he 
followed it. His chronometer was a watch which went 
all right when he did not neglect to wind it. Everything 
was done by dead reckoning. The biggest run the Spray 
made was 1,200 miles in eight days in a gale. He spoke 
two vessels, one the Java. The Captain of this vessel 
asked him how long it had been calm. He replied, " I 
don't know ; I haven't been here long." " How long are you 
out ? " was the next query. " Eight days from Boston." 
He went below, says Captain Slocum, to fetch his mate to 
hear this " Yankee Skipper " tell fish-stories ! The Cap- 
tain humorously described some of his experiences with the 
native pirates in the Straits of Magellan, a place where the 
wind is so strong that not a vestige of moss can grow on 
the rocks strong enough at times to " blow the hair off 
a dog's back," he aptly termed it. "I left my hat there," 
remarked the Captain reflectively, as he felt the bald spot 
on the top of his head ! At Gibraltar he was very cordially 
received, and was shown through the fortifications. " These 
works are," he adds, " said to be worthy of the Russians ; 
I say they are worthy of John Bull alone ! " he also paid 
a visit to Juan Fernandez, the uninhabited island on which 
Alexander Selkirk, better known as Robinson Crusoe, 
spent four and a half years. He went to the look-out 



io6 ST. HELENA 

place, and also brought a stone from the fireplace of the 
cave. 

Among many of the views shown was one of Government 
House, Pretoria, a building which, says the Captain, would 
grace any city in the world. He went to see Oom Paul, 
who, when he was told that the Captain had been round 
the world, said, "You mean across the world!" Mr. 
Kruger believes the world is flat, and is quite positive on 
this point. 

In speaking of the objects of his voyage, the Captain 
frankly admitted that one of them was to make money ; as 
he cutely remarked, any man with his head screwed on in 
the right place wants to do that ; then again he possesses a 
spirit of adventure. 

Altogether the lecture was really interesting and amusing, 
and the lantern views superb. At the conclusion cheers were 
given for the lecturer, who was entertained at dinner 
by His Excellency the Governor and Mrs. Sterndale at 
Government House, Plantation. 

In 1899, the Eastern Telegraph landed a submarine cable 
ex ss. Anglia, which brings the 'island into direct com- 
munication with England and with the Cape; during the 
war with the Transvaal it has been of inestimable value. 
It is shored at Rupert's Valley, where also are the office and 
plant ; but the Briars House and valley has been acquired, 
and offices, together with residences for the staff, are now 
in process of erection there. 

Since the removal of the Zulu prisoners the island had 
been very tranquil and quiet, but on the breaking out of 
war in the Transvaal there arose the necessity of secure 
confinement for the prisoners taken in the war. St. Helena 
was chosen. 

On April 5, 1900, His Excellency R. A. Sterndale, C.M.G., 
published the following proclamation : 

In a few days the troopship Milwaukee, escorted by H.M.S. 
Niobe, will arrive with prisoners of war. 

No unauthorized persons will be allowed on the wharf at the 
time of disembarkation. The police will assist as far as they can 
the military, acting under the orders of the officer commanding the 
troops, in keeping order. H.E. the Governor expresses the hope 
that the inhabitants will treat the prisoners with that courtesy and 
consideration which should be extended to all men who have fought 



ST. HELENA 107 

bravely in what they considered the cause of their country, and will 
help in repressing any unseemly demonstration which individuals 
might exhibit,, 

This proclamation was posted in various parts of the 
island, one being near the landing-steps of the wharf. I 
have been told by more than one of the prisoners how they 
dreaded landing on the formidable looking rock, how they 
shrank from the march through the streets of the town 
in view. Very many of them were able to read English, 
and when landed on the wharf, and while waiting for the 
successive boat-loads of comrades, this notice appealed 
so much to them after their hardships, that some few entirely 
broke down. 

Expecting harshness, rudeness and ill feeling from the 
inhabitants, they discovered from the proclamation so 
kindly issued by the Governor they might anticipate 
courtesy and respect. Not a jeering sound, or rude remark 
was heard from the crowds of islanders congregated to see 
them pass on their way to Deadwood Camp, which had 
been prepared for them. Amongst the number of prisoners 
(514) landed from the Milwaukee on April 14, 1900, were 
General Cronje with his wife. " Cronje," instead of being 
taken to Deadwood Camp was allowed to live at " Kent 
Cottage," but under a strong military guard changed every 
day. A guard of the militia (4th North Staffordshire) 
escorted them as far as Ladder Hill, where they met a 
guard of the Royal Garrison Artillery, who took charge of 
the prisoners and conveyed them to Kent Cottage, not far 
from High Knoll Fort. On April 21 the steamship Lake 
Erie arrived, bringing 394 prisoners, including thirty-four 
Boer officers ; then on May i the British transport 
Bavarian brought 1,099 t ac *d to tne increasing numbers. 
One hundred and ten more, including twelve officers, 
arrived on June 26 by the transport Mahratta, and in July 
Lieut .-Colonel von Braun was brought by the British 
transport Manchester Port. The Idaho, another British 
transport, brought 189 men and seven officers ; the last 
arrival in 1900 being the Victorian, on December 10, with 
199 prisoners; but early in 1901, on January 12, arrived 
the Columbia with 200 ; on January 24 the Bavarian with 
*>337 ; and on February 3 came the Mongolian with 649, 



io8 ST. HELENA 

For some time I had been teaching the children of the 
island the art of pillow-lace making, and was anxious that 
they should have an opportunity of exhibiting, and per- 
chance of disposing of their work. This idea, enlarged, 
became a scheme for the holding of an exhibition of in- 
dustrial arts in the island. A committee, headed by 
His Excellency the Governor, the Bishop, the United States 
Consul and others was formed ; when, to further extend the 
exhibition, I proposed that the prisoners of war might also 
be allowed to exhibit. This met with unanimous approval, 
and after securing the consent of the Officer Commanding 
troops, the prisoners were asked to contribute, not as com- 
petitors, but as exhibitors with a view to sale. The idea 
was eagerly taken up by them, and so numerous were their 
exhibits that a separate room was allowed for their con- 
tributions. A committee was elected from their number 
on parole, and these carried out their part of the work so 
well that the section was a great credit to their manage- 
ment. 

Models of carts, model of stamping machinery, carved 
caskets, boxes, pipes, sticks, etc., etc., all found ready 
sale. The tools with which these were made were also 
exhibited, being old table knives made into saws, umbrella 
wires as fret-saws, stone hammers, etc. 

The drawings, paintings, and etchings were very beauti- 
ful, as also was the writing, illuminations, manuscript 
music, etc. The exhibition was opened on November 10, 
1900, for five days, and was a great success. Island-made 
pottery (by His Excellency the Governor), carving, models, 
island-made preserves, plain and fancy needlework, and 
pillow, Torchon, Honiton, and Point lace, photographs, 
paintings, etc., well filled the section devoted to the islanders, 
the little lace-workers and wood-carvers gaining especial 
praise, as well as substantial remuneration for their work. 

It was a pleasant change from the antagonism still going 
on in South Africa to the peaceful rivalry of the indus- 
trial arts, and it was a subject for wonder that such 
beautiful results could have been obtained from the rudest 
of implements and material. The exhibition caused a break 
in the monotony of the prisoners' lives, and caused a better 
feeling to spring up between them and the islanders. 



ST. HELENA 109 

On the night of February 2, 1901, a very determined at- 
tempt to escape from the island was made at Sandy Bay, 
by four of the Boer prisoners of war, one of them being the 
grandson of President Kruger (Commandant P. Eloff). The 
men had a quantity of provisions with them, and seized 
an old fishing-boat at Sandy Bay. The fishermen, who 
had just landed, took away the oars, and a struggle ensued 
between the prisoners and fishermen for possession of 
them, the latter succeeding^ in retaining them. The 
prisoners got into the boat j and 1 tore up the bottom 
boards to make paddles of, but finding them useless they 
again landed, and tried to bribe the fishermen by offering 
a goodly sum for the boat and oars, but without avail. 
While this was going on a messenger sped on his way to 
report the occurrence, and in the early dawn of the morn- 
ing (Sunday) a guard from Broadbottom Camp arrived and 
took the men into custody. This attempt was an ex- 
tremely foolhardy one, for the boat was in such a condition 
that it would have been in half before they were many miles 
from the shore. In fact, it broke in half a fortnight after 
the occurrence. 

Another escape was attempted by two Frenchmen 
amongst the prisoners. They bathed from the beach at 
Rupert's and attempted to swim to a ship in harbour. 
Being seen by the guardship the guns were directed on them 
and they were hailed. One turned and swam back to 
Rupert's Beach, the other swam to the steps of Jamestown 
wharf, where he was taken in charge and escorted to camp. 

The American whaler, Morning Star, Captain King 
(226 tons), arrived in June from whaling, bound to New 
Bedford with a catch of 900 barrels of sperm-whale oil. 
With such success it is hoped the whaling fleet will again 
visit these waters. 

An outbreak of bubonic plague occurred in 1901 in South 
Africa. 

All vessels touching at the Cape ports were therefore 
under quarantine regulations when they called at St. 
Helena no passengers were allowed to land except for the 
island, and then only under strict quarantine. No cargo 
was brought by steamers, no parcel post allowed. This 
was a terrible loss to the island in the matter of trade. 



no ST. HELENA 

Rats have from the earliest times been a pest on the 
island, and the fear of plague made the Government offer 
a sum of one penny per head ; then of twopence, and, when 
they became scarcer, of threepence per head. This to a 
great extent cleared the country of these troublesome 
rodents. 

Deadwood Plain, which lies due east of the island, became 
filled with the tents of the Transvaalers and of the 4th 
Battalion Gloucester Regiment, which was commanded by 
Lieut. -Colonel Earl Bathurst, so it was found necessary to 
form another camp. Broadbottom, a large plain on the 
western side of the island, was chosen, and here the Orange 
Free Staters were located. 

In April 1901 Captain Meiklejohn arrived per R.M.S. 
Raglan Castle. In this month also His Excellency and Mrs. 
Sterndale left for England on sick leave, Colonel Evans 
assuming the reins of government. Governor Sterndale 
returned again in August. 

In January 1902 the British steamship Orient arrived 
with 1,050 prisoners, followed on the 25th by the Britannia, 
which brought thirty-nine Boer officers, amongst them 
General Ben Viljoen, who had done so much for the Boers 
in the field ! 

February brought the British transport Victorian with 
the last batch of prisoners, consisting of twenty officers and 
fifty-seven rebels. 

The camps were nicely laid out and girdled by three 
separate fencings of barbed wire separated by tangled barb, 
and guarded outside by patrolling soldiers ; for such a 
number congregated together there was very little trouble 
given by the majority; but, as is usual in all communities, 
there were bound to be agitators and ill-conditioned men. 
Usually the prisoners would settle their little disturbances 
amongst themselves, but some cases required the decision 
of the British commandants. Several of the untractable 
were confined in High Knoll, one amongst these being 
Eloff. Schiel also was confined there for a short time. 

By degrees the moneyed men amongst the prisoners, 
dissatisfied with sharing tents, built for themselves snug 
little huts. Some of them were well constructed, the 
majority being composed of paraffin tins soldered together 



ST. HELENA in 

or overlapped ; these, lined out in some cases with wood, in 
others with cloth, were most comfortable. 

The commandants on parole were allowed to live outside 
the camp in comparative freedom, very little restriction 
being placed on their movements so long as they were well 
conducted and reported themselves at stated times. 

Amongst the prisoners were clever musicians, teachers, 
architects, builders, engineers, carpenters, cabinet makers, 
as well as steady labourers ; and many of these obtained 
employment with the farmers and merchants, who were 
responsible for them during working hours. Camps were 
formed in the Government garden and in the Botanical 
garden in the town, so that the workers might return there 
after their day's work instead of having to report at Dead- 
wood or Broadbottom, five to seven miles up in the interior. 
But many of good conduct were allowed to find their own 
lodgings on condition that they were indoors at a certain 
time ; others, such as shop assistants, bakers, grooms and 
household servants lived altogether at their employers' 
residences. 

Many regulations were formed for the safe-guarding of 
the prisoners, and censors were appointed to overlook the 
correspondence. Some of the rules were as under ; 

PORT REGULATIONS 

made by 
HIS EXCELLENCY THE GOVERNOR IN COUNCIL 

under 
"THE HARBOUR ORDINANCE, 1894.'* 

Whereas by the Harbour Ordinance of 1894 it is enacted that the 
Governor in Council " may from time to time make, alter or repeal 
regulations." 

AND WHEREAS during the detention at St. Helena of prisoners 
of war it appears essentially necessary to adopt some additional 
precautions for the preservation of the Port of Jamestown and the 
management of vessels and boats within the waters of the Colony, 
and particularly by night, I do hereby proclaim, declare and make 
known that I have framed the following regulations, and I further 
proclaim that the regulations shall come into force and have effect 
from the date hereof : 

i. Every boat going to and coming from all vessels in port or 
lying in the offing must first report alongside the senior naval 



ii2 ST. HELENA 

officer's ship, and state to the officer on duty the number of persons 
in such boat, and further to answer correctly all questions that may 
be put to persons or person therein. 

2. No person whatever shall be permitted to board, nor shall any 
boat go alongside any ship or vessel in the offing, or approaching or 
coming to the island, or being in the roadstead or harbour, until 
such ship or vessel shall have been visited by the Harbour Master 
and the White Flag hoisted at the maintop-gallant masthead. 

3. Any person in charge of any boat wishing, for the purpose of 
fishing or otherwise, to leave the harbour of Jamestown, including 
Rupert's, must report himself alongside the senior naval officer's 
ship in leaving or coming to the port of Jamestown specifying the 
description of the boat and the use generally made of her. 

4. It shall be lawful for the senior naval officer to post a seaman 
guard at the gangway of all British vessels arriving at St. Helena, 
provided pratique has been given by the harbour-master. 

5 . That all persons wishing to board any vessel arriving in the 
port of Jamestown shall produce a pass signed by the Colonial 
Secretary or Garrison Adjutant, which pass must be produced to 
the naval guard alongside the vessel. 

6. It shall not be lawful for any person to leave any oars, sails, 
bottom boards, rudders and other fittings belonging to any boat 
moored in Jamestown harbour, or on the wharf, or near the landing- 
place, without a permit from the harbour-master. 

7. All boats moving out of the harbour between sunset and sun- 
rise must exhibit a light at the bow not less than three feet above 
the boat, 

8. That no master of any vessel shall receive any person for the 
purpose of taking such person from the island, without giving to 
the undersigned twenty-four hours' previous notice of the intention 
of such person to leave the island, nor shall any person be taken 
from the island, or taken on board such vessel, against whom any 
prohibition or order shall be given to the master in writing. 

9. The operation of these regulations as regards movements of 
boats between sunrise and sunset does not apply to foreign consuls, 
officers of His Majesty's Services in uniform. Custom House officers, 
and the harbour-master. 

10. No person shall be allowed to leave the island except by the 
landing-steps of the wharf. Any person in a boat taking any one 
off the rocks will be liable to a penalty. 

11. Any person not complying with these orders shall be liable 
to a penalty not exceeding ^50. 

12. The port regulations dated 25th day of January, 1902, are 
hereby repealed. 

Made by the Governor in Council this 7th day of April, 1902. 

(Signed) ROBT. R. BRUCE, 

For Colonial Secretary. 

THE CASTLE, ST. HELENA, 
yth April, 1902. 



ST. HELENA 113 



ST. HELENA 
In the second year of the reign of His Majesty 

KING EDWARD VII 

ROBERT ARMITAGE STERNDALE, ESQUIRE, 

Governor and Commander-in-Chief . 

2$th April, 1902. 

AN ORDINANCE for the better preservation 
Title. of the custody of prisoners of war and for the pre- 

vention of smuggling of illicit correspondence. 

Whereas it is expedient during the present 

Preamble. condition of this island as a place of safe custody 

for prisoners of war, that certain regulations be 

promulgated and passed into law for the time being for the purpose 

of more efficiently exercising a check over correspondence to and 

from the said prisoners of war, and for providing a penalty for 

those who aid and abet the said prisoners in sending away letters 

surreptitiously. 

BE IT ENACTED by the Governor of St. Helena as follows : 

1. That any person who assists any prisoner of 
Aiding prisoners war in evading the regulations of the censorship 

of war to evade by undertaking to post and carrying out the posting 

regulation of or delivery of any letter, parcel or other article 

the censorship, through the post, or otherwise, with the intent of 

evading the censorship, shall on conviction of the 

same be liable to a penalty not exceeding ^5 for every such offence 

as aforesaid. 

2. That it shall be lawful for the postmaster 
Postmaster may during the detention of prisoners of war to 
detain letters and hand over to the military authorities any letters, 

hand them over newspapers, or parcels, which he has reason to 

to the military suppose are intended for the prisoners of war 

authorities. though addressed to residents of this island with 

intent to evade censorship of the same, if posted 

by any resident surreptitiously for any prisoner of war. 

3. Any person convicted of carrying any letters, 
Penalty for parcels or other articles for any prisoner of war 

carrying letters, on board any vessel, or of conveying any prisoner 
etc. to any such vessel, shall on conviction be liable to 

a penalty not exceeding ^50, or imprisonment not 
exceeding six months. 

4. Any person trading for arms or ammunition 
Import of arms or accepting any firearm or weapon and ammuni- 

prohibited. tion shall on conviction be liable to a penalty not 

exceeding 10. 

5. Any person possessing arms and selling or 
Selling arms to lending the same to any prisoner of war shall on 

prisoners of war. conviction be liable to a penalty not exceeding 
six months' imprisonment. 

H 



n 4 ST - HELENA 

6. After the passing of this ordinance every per- 
Registration son possessing any firearm of any description 

of arms. whatsoever shall register the same at the Castle 

and deliver the same for safe custody to be re- 
turned to the owner after the necessity for this restriction is over. 
Excepted always officers and men entitled to bear arms, members 
of volunteer corps and such persons as the Governor may consider 
should be allowed to retain weapons for sporting or other purposes. 
Any person hiding or omitting to bring up such arms for registration 
shall be liable to a fine of 2 and confiscation of the weapon. 

7. Any constable or other authorized person 
Constables may may, under the orders of the Governor, a magis- 

enter any house in trate, or justice of the peace enter into and 
search for arms, examine any house in which there is reason to 
suppose arms are secreted. 

8. The Governor may at any time prohibit the 
Regulations may importation of firearms, weapons, ammunition or 

be made by the explosive articles, and may make, vary or rescind 
Governor. regulations with reference to every matter in con- 
nexion with this ordinance. 

9. Any person convicted of a contravention of 
Penalty. a prohibition or of a regulation made by the 

Governor under the preceding clause shall for a 
first offence be liable to a penalty not exceeding ^50 or imprisonment 
not exceeding six months. 

10. AND WHEREAS the welfare of His Ma- 
To have jesty's subjects within the said island urgently 

immediate requires that this ordinance should have immediate 
operation. operation therein. NOW BE IT THEREFORE 
ENACTED that this ordinance shall take effect and 
be in force from and after the date of the promulgation thereof. 

GOD SAVE THE KING. 

Given under the public seal of the island of St. Helena this 2$th 
day of April, 1902. 

Byjcommand of His Excellency the Governor, 

(Signed) ROBT. R. BRUCE, 

For Colonial Secretary. 
(Signed) R. A. STERNDALE. 

As time went on many who had been commandeered, 
some who had taken arms against Britain through ill advice, 
and many who considered they would benefit by so doing, 
gave in their names to the military as being desirous of 
peace. It is said that a number, anxious to be on the 
winning side, offered, if allowed to go back, to fight for 
Britain ; and this all caused a great stir and excitement 
amongst those who were staunch to their own cause ; 
naturally it was a matter for contention, and so bitter did 



ST. HELENA 115 

the feeling become, that the authorities were compelled to 
form another camp (called No. 2 or Peace Camp), where 
those admitting their desire to become British subjects 
might be located quite apart from the general camp. 
These men called themselves " Loyalists," but by their 
fellow prisoners they were termed " Traitors." A number 
of men were allowed liberty each day from the camp at 
Broadbottom and Deadwood. These in parties rambled 
all over the country, their rations and kettles with them ; 
they picnicked where they pleased. In groups of ten, 
twenty, forty or more, they might be seen lighting their 
fires and boiling their coffee, grilling their steaks, and 
thoroughly enjoying themselves. There were one or two 
disturbances with the members of No. 2 Camp ; and then 
the rule was made that the liberty from the different camps 
should be on different days, and thus friction was avoided. 
As the early months of 1902 passed, the camps became 
greatly excited over the war news ; the more enlightened 
amongst them, coming to the conclusion that a continua- 
tion of the struggle was futile, but the majority maintained 
obstinately that they could not and would not lose their 
independence. That seemed to be their one thought 
(Independence) ; they never contemplated terms. Owing 
to an absence of rain and wind, sickness broke out in the 
camp ; this however affected the soldiers and officers more 
than the prisoners. A number of nurses, with additional 
(medical) aid arrived, and the enteric gradually declined; 
still, there were many deaths. 

On June i came the cable " Peace," with no mention 
of terms. Prisoners and British were alike loud in their 
demonstrations, and the stock of champagne in the island 
was speedily lessened. Britishers were confident the Peace 
was in their favour ; prisoners also were quite as confident 
they had at last gained their independence. For hours the 
suspense and excitement was great ; then on the following 
day came the terms, and with them the downfall of the 
Boers' hopes. 

On Sunday, June 8, thanksgiving services for Peace 
were offered in the Churches. At the Cathedral a detach- 
ment of Royal Garrison Artillery, who had returned from 
South Africa, attended, and instead of the usual organ 



n6 ST. HELENA 

music, the Band of the " Buffs " accompanied the hymn, 
and played the National Anthem. After service the 
Artillery lined up near Plantation House, when H.E. the 
Governor distributed to them the medals and clasps so 
hardly won in South Africa, and made them a most impres- 
sive speech. 

All this time preparations had been going forward for 
the Coronation festivities ; but by the cable news it was 
known that the King was far from well, and on June 24 
was received the following cable : " The Coronation 
is postponed indefinitely, owing to the indisposition of the 
King, who is suffering from perityphlitis surgical opera- 
tion is necessary." This caused great depression, and all 
preparations for ball, regatta, teas, etc., etc., were at an 
end. The regatta however came off the following week, 
and was a great success, mainly due to the cheerful energy 
of Mr. R. R. Bruce, Naval Agent. 

A loyal Coronation address had been illuminated by 
H.E the Governor and forwarded to England in a most 
beautiful casket of island ebony. The casket was elabo- 
rately carved by one of the prisoners of war, many of whom 
excelled in the art of carving. It was as follows : 

FROM THE ISLAND OF ST. HELENA. 

May it please your Gracious Majesty, we, your loyal subjects 
of this your most ancient Colony of St. Helena, beg humbly to lay 
at the foot of your throne this our expression of deep loyalty and 
devotion to your Majesty and to our beloved Queen, your most 
gracious Consort, offering you our heartfelt congratulations on this 
auspicious occasion of your Coronation, and praying Almighty God 
to bless you both with long life and unalloyed felicity and prosperity 
beyond measure. 

After the declaration of Peace and publication through- 
out the camps of the terms by which the war was ended, 
notices were posted in English and Dutch throughout the 
island, and arrangements made for the taking of an oath of 
allegiance to Great Britain. 

The following Copy of Telegram from Secretary of State 
to the Governor St. Helena, dated 5th June, 1902, is pub- 
lished for general information : 



ST. HELENA 117 

By order, 

ROBERT R. BRUCE, 

For Colonial Secretary. 
THE CASTLE, ST. HELENA, 

gth June, 1902. 

Terms of surrender of Boers are contained in the document 
signed 3ist May, of which following is the substance. Begins : 

His Excellency General Lord Kitchener and His Excellency Lord 
Milner, on behalf of the British Government ; and General C. R. de 
Wet, Judge J. B. M. Hertzog, J. Brebner, and General C. Ollivier, 
acting as the Government of the Orange Free State ; and Messrs, 
S. W. Burger, F. W. Reitz, General Louis Botha, J. H. de la Rey, 
Lucas Meyer, Krogh, acting as the Government of the South African 
Republic ; on behalf of their respective burghers, desirous to ter- 
minate the present hostilities, agree on the following : 



ARTICLE I. 

Burgher force will forthwith lay down arms, giving up all munitions 
of war, and desist from further resistance to the authority of His 
Majesty King Edward VII, whom they recognize as their lawful 
sovereign. 

ARTICLE II. 

All Burghers in the field outside the limits of the Transvaal, and 
Orange River Colony, and all prisoners of war at present outside 
South Africa, who are burghers, will, on duly declaring their accept- 
ance of the position as subjects of His Majesty King Edward the 
Seventh, be gradually brought back to their homes as soon as 
transport can be provided, and their means of subsistence secured. 



ARTICLE III. 

Burghers surrendering will not be deprived of personal liberty or 
property. 

ARTICLE IV. 

No proceedings to be taken against Burghers surrendering for 
bona fide acts of war, except in case of certain acts notified to Boer 
generals by Commander-in-Chief. 



ARTICLE V. 

Dutch language to be taught in schools where parents desire it, 
and to be used in courts of law where necessary. 



n8 ST. HELENA 

ARTICLE VI. 

Possession of rifles for their protection to be allowed to persons 
taking out licence. 

ARTICLE VII. 

Civil Government to be introduced as soon as possible, followed 
by representative, leading up to self-government. 

ARTICLE VIII. 

No franchise for natives till after introduction of self-government. 

ARTICLE IX. 

No special land-tax in Transvaal and Orange River Colony to pay 
for war. 

ARTICLE X. 

His Majesty's Government will set aside 3,000,000 pounds (ster- 
ling) for restoration of population to their homes and for making 
good war losses. Bona fide possession of commandeering receipts, 
or South African Republican Government notes will be taken as 
evidence of war losses. In addition His Majesty's Government will 
make advances on loan to burghers for same purpose. 

Please make these terms known to prisoners of war and inform 
them that preparation will be commenced as soon as possible for 
their gradual return, but that owing to the denuded state of the 
country it will take time before all can be brought back. 

NOTA BENE. This is the only recognized notification. 

E.R. 

VERTALING. 

Termen van overgave van Boeren zyn bevat in het document 
geteekend 31 Mei, 1902, waarvan het navolgende de geest is : 

Z. E. Generaal Lord Kitchener, en Z. E. Lord Milner ten behoeve 
van de Britsche Regeering ; en Generaal C. R. de Wet, Rechter J. B. M. 
Hertzog, J. Brebner en Generaal C. Olivier, ageerende als de Regeer- 
ing van de Orange Vry Staat ; en de Heeren S. W. Burger, F. W. 
Reitz, de Generaalen Louis Botha, J. H. de la Rey, Lucas Meyer, 
en Krogh, ageerende als de Regeering van de Z. A. R., ten behoeve 
van hunne respectieve Burgers begeering de tegenwoordige vyandel- 
kyheden te eindigen, komen overeen over de navolgende artikelen : 

ARTIKEL i. 

Burgermacht moet dadelyk wagenen nederleggen, opgevende alle 
Krygsbehoefte afzien van verdere tegenstand te en de autoriteit 
van Zyne Majesteit Koning EDWARD VII, wien zy als hun wettig 
Sonverin erkennen. 



ST. HELENA 119 

ARTIKEL 2. 

Alle Burgers in het veld buiten de grenzen der Transvaal en Orange 
River Colonie, en alle Krygsgevangenen thans buiten Zuid-Afrika, 
die Burgers zyn, zullen by behoorlyke verklaring hunner aanneming 
der positie als ondeerdanen van Z. M. Koning EDWARD VII 
trapsgewyze terug genomen worden naar hunne woniger zoodra 
voor transport voorziening gemaakt kan worden, en hun levens- 
onderhoud gewaarborgt is : 

ARTIKEL 3. 

Burgers, zich overgevende zullen niet van persoonlyke vryheid of 
eigendom ontbloot worden. 

ARTIKEL 4. 

Geen stappen zullen worden genomen tegen Burgers zich over- 
gevende voor bona fide Krygsdaden, uitgezonderd in het gevat van 
zekere daden ter kennisse van Boer Generalen door den Opperte 
velhebber gebracht. 

ARTIKEL 5. 

De Hollandsche taal in scholen to worden onderwezen, indien 
ouders zulks begeeren, en alwaar noodig in Gerechtshoven te worden 
gebruikt. 

ARTIKEL 6. 

Bezit van geweren voor hunne protectie te worden toegelaten aan 
personnen licentie witnemende. 

ARTIKEL 7. 

Civiele Regeering zal ingesteld worden zoo spoedig mogelyk door 
vertegenwoordiging opleidende naar eigen Regeering. 

ARTIKEL 8. 

Geen stemrecht aan Naturellen tot na instelling van eigen Regeer- 
ing. 

ARTIKEL 9. 

Geen speciale plaatsbelasting in Transvaal en Orange River Colonie 
zal geheven worden voor oorlogskosten. 

ARTIKEL 10. 

Zyner Majesteits Regeering zal Drie Millioen Ponden Sterling 
toestaan ter herstelling der bevolking van hunne wonigen, en ver- 
goeding van Oorlogs-Schaden. 



120 ST. HELENA 

Bona-fide bezit van Commandeer-Kwitanties of Zuid-Afrikaansche- 
Regeerings Noten, zullen als bewys voor oorlogs Schaden aangenmen 
worden. 

Bovendien zal Z. M. Regeering leenings voorschotten aan Burgers 
voor het zelfde doel maken. 

Gelieve deze termen aan Krygsgevangenen bekend to stellen, en 
hen in kennistellen dat voorbereidsdlen zoo spoedig mogelyk 
gemaakt zullen worden voor hunne trapsgewye terugzending maar 
dat ten gevolge van den verwoesten toestand lands, zal het tyd 
nemen, voor dat alien terug genomen kunnen worden. 

NOTA BENE. Dit is de einigste herkennende kennisgeving. 

E.R. 
KENNISGEVING. 

Van af Woensdag den i8de dezer, worden Burgers van de gewezene 
Oranje Vriejstaat en Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek, begeerig om den 
eed van getrouwheid af te leggen aan Zijne Majesteit Koning Edward 
VII, verzocht om aanzoe daartoe te doen in het Gerechts-Hof te 
Jamestown, tusschen de uren van n tot i voormiddags, en van 2 
tot 4 namiddags (Zondagen en Kroningsdag, 26sten Jun izijn 
uitgesloten). 

Permitten voor dit doel zullen worden uitgegeven door Kamp 
Commandanten. 

De eed van getrouwheid zal worden afgenomen door Kol. A. J. 
Price, C.M.G., en Kapitein John Proctor, C.G.A., die aangesteld 
zojn als Speciale Commissarissen. 

A. J. PRICE, 

Kolonel, O.C.T. 

THE CASTLE, ST. HELENA, JAMESTOWN, 
i^de Juniy 1902. 

NOTICE, 

From and after Wednesday, i8th inst., those burghers of the late 
Orange Free State and South African Republic who are desirous of 
taking the oath of allegiance to His Majesty King Edward VII are 
directed to attend at the Court House, Jamestown, between the 
hours of ii to i p.m., and from 2 p.m. to 4 p.m. daily, Sundays and 
Coronation Day (26th June) excepted. 

Permits for this purpose will be granted by Commandants at each 
camp. 

The oath of allegiance will be administered by Col. A. J. Price, 
C.M.G., and Capt. John Proctor, C.G.A., who have been appointed 
Special Commissioners. 

A. J. PRICE, 
Colonel, O.C.T. 

THE CASTLE, ST. HELENA, 
1 4th day of June, 1902. 




CRONJE AND HIS OFFICERS. 




KENT COTTAGE, CRONJE'S HOME IN ST. HELENA. 



ST. HELENA 121 

The taking of the Oath was more universal than had been 
anticipated, though several hung back; amongst these, 
Woolmarans, who urged the prisoners strongly not to take 
it. 

On the 25th June H.M. transport Canada arrived, 5,701 
tons, from England (Capt. Maddox),also the British steamer 
Wakool, 3,147 tons, from South Africa (Capt. Thomas); the 
latter was in quarantine, and brought the 3rd Battalion 
Royal Sussex Regiment, taking a few days later the Buffs, 
with their genial Colonel Theodore Brinckman. On the 
26th there was great excitement in the town, when over 
470 who had taken the oath came from the camp to 
embark on the Canada for South Africa. They were 
escorted by the band of the 3rd Wilts, and they marched 
down with Union Jacks flying. Before going off they 
assembled on the Lower Parade (see illustration), where 
H.E. the Governor bade them farewell. He said he was 
glad to have an opportunity of saying good-bye, and 
of wishing them good luck in the future. It was a mark 
of regard on the side of the Government that they were 
being sent home first, and on arrival at the Cape they would 
meet the loyalists from Ceylon, and so the first one thousand 
men to land on their native shores would be those in whom 
the Government felt confidence. Had all been of their 
opinion, and refrained from countenancing a hopeless 
contest, their country would not have been in the same 
sad condition as it now was. He felt sure, however, that 
under the firm and just rule of England prosperity would 
come again, and that all would be firm friends. His 
Excellency concluded by saying: "I trust we shall always be 
friends and grow in prosperity day by day. You have 
been here now over two years and we part with you with 
regret. We have admired the fortitude and constancy 
with which you have borne exceptional trials, and I feel 
that amongst you I am parting with some personal friends 
of whose welfare in the future I shall always be glad to hear. 
And now I bid you all good-bye, and wish you all good 
fortune in the years to come." This was translated in 
short sentences to the prisoners by Captain Proctor, C.G.A., 
and was replied to by Commandant Jooste on behalf of 
himself and his fellow loyalists. He thanked the Governor 



122 ST. HELENA 

for all his kindness to them, and then with three cheers for 
the King, three again for the Governor, and another three 
for Colonel Wright and other officers, they marched down 
the parade along the wharf, headed by the band playing 
" Auld Lang Syne." 

They were hardly able to control their excitement at 
the thought of seeing all those from whom they had been 
so long parted and of reaching their native shores after their 
tedious and enforced exile. 

On July 4 His Excellency received a deputation from the 
German residents of Deadwood Camp, late prisoners of war. 
Lieut. -Colonel Hind, Camp Commandant, introduced the 
deputation, and Colonel von Braun presented a beauti- 
fully carved casket containing an illuminated address, which 
was read out by Captain Weiss as follows : 

DEADWOOD CAMP, 

June 24th , 1902. 

To His Excellency R. A. Sterndale, Governor of St. Helena. 
YOUR EXCELLENCY, 

Having heard that peace has been proclaimed and that the 
prisoners of war are soon to leave the island, the undersigned take 
the liberty of addressing your Excellency. 

In the first place we wish to express our heartfelt thanks for the 
kindness and consideration shown to the prisoners of war by your 
Excellency in issuing to the inhabitants of the island a seasonable 
proclamation exhorting them to treat us with the respect due to 
an honourable foe. 

Secondly, we beg your Excellency to convey to the inhabitants 
of the island our sincerest thanks for the noble manner in which 
they have responded to your Excellency's appeal. 

The kindness shown to the prisoners of war one and all by the 
people of the island, with very few exceptions, is a fact which will 
long be remembered and cherished by them as a bright speck in the 
gloomy days of captivity in St. Helena. 

We have the honour to remain, 

Your Excellency's obedient servants, 

CONSTANTIN VON BRAUN, R. C. SCHLESINGER, 

Oberst (Colonel), JOSEF WEIL, 

OTTO VON ALBIDYLL, Com- OTTO SCHMID, 

mandant Z.A.R. JUL. FULLHARDT, 

R. E. RUNGE, JOHANNES ENGEL, 

C. WEISS (Captain), W. F. PLAGE, 

F. W. REICHARDT (Lieut.) WILHELM SCHUTTE-BROCKHOFF, 

A. GRAAF, OTTO SCHEFFLER, 
P. ERNST, etc., etc., etc. 



ST. HELENA 123 

Having received the address, His Excellency replied : 

COLONEL VON BRAUN, CAPTAIN WEISS, and GENTLEMEN, 

It is a most agreeable surprise, for which I thank you very 
much, to receive from you this beautifully illuminated address in 
such an elegantly carved casket, both of which will always be 
carefully preserved by me and my family as a valued memento 
of the past two years. 

I thank you heartily, on behalf of myself and the inhabitants 
of St. Helena, for the kindly sentiments conveyed in the address, 
and I trust that those friendly feelings which have grown up by the 
intercourse of the past two years will continue to our lives' end, 
and bear good fruit in helping to bind our two nations in closer 
bonds of friendship. 

As the time of your departure approaches, I feel I lose some 
personal friends, who will not, I trust, forget me in the time to come ; 
and to you all I wish good fortune in the future, and a bright, happy 
meeting at home with those who are so anxiously looking out for a 
re-union after the weary time, which has now, I am glad to say, 
passed. 

On June 30 General Cronje came into the town, ac- 
companied by his secretary, to the Castle, and there took the 
oath of allegiance. At his own request, his guard, which 
had never been withdrawn, was allowed to remain, as many 
of the prisoners, still obdurate, were very bitter against 
him. On August 22 he left the island for the Cape in the 
transport Tagus, with 994 other prisoners. 

Many incidents tend to show the good feeling which 
sprung up between the prisoners and the military staff in 
St. Helena. 

To Dr. Casey, who was in charge of the medical ward at 
Deadwood Camp, was presented a very handsome album 
by some of his Boer patients, J. Noorthout, F. J. Pick, 
Max Treunissen, C. E. Schutte, and J. Frus. In accepting 
this, he spoke very highly of his patients. His speech 
shows how manliness and nobility of character were pre- 
dominant throughout their time of suffering : "I never 
had any patients who were more appreciative and grateful 
for even the slightest attention, and far from any grumbling 
or complaining spirit amongst them, they were more disposed 
to hide their troubles and suffer on in silence. 

"Who could help admiring the fortitude of such men? 
Who could refuse to extend a helping hand in the hour of 
their need ? " 



i2 4 ST. HELENA 

Before leaving for South Africa a public letter was written 
by the prisoners to the St. Helena Guardian. In this they 
say: 

We find it impossible to leave St. Helena unless we contribute 
our share of thankfulness to His Majesty's officers placed over us 
from time to time, for what they have done to make us take courage 
to fight the future. Much is owed to His Majesty's officers for 
the kindness and consideration accorded by them since January 
1 2th, 1901, and the conclusion has been made that the prisoners of 
war have been squarely and gentlemanly treated. The calm 
Lieut.-Col. Paget ; the placid and collected Lieut.-Col. Barclay 
and Hind; the manly attitude taken up by Col. Price, C.M.G. ; 
the even and courteous Lieut. Garden, will never be forgotten ; nor 
will they ever cease to respect the genial Captain Meiklejohn and 
his staff. Our heartfelt thanks go to the gentlemen mentioned for 
the kind and courteous way they have received and met us from 
time to time kindness that was a sweet drop in our bitter glass. 
Their general attitude towards us prisoners of war will always 
be recounted with pleasure an attitude at once firm and manly, 
and worthy of admiration and why ? Because ' politeness ' 
was evinced in all their actions and doings. 

Very quickly were the preparations made for the removal 
of the prisoners. The special court constructed for the 
administering of the Oath of Allegiance, opened directly 
after the declaration of peace, continued till September, 
when it terminated according to the following public 
notice. 



R. 



NOTICE. 



Notice is hereby given that by order of H. E. the Governor, 
Colonel A. J. Price, C.M.G., the special Court constituted for ad- 
ministering Oath, or taking declaration of allegiance to His Majesty 
King Edward VII by the burghers of the late South African Republic 
and Orange Free State will close on Saturday next, the 6th of 
September, 1902, at 12 o'clock noon. 

By Order, 

JOHN PROCTOR, Captain, 

Special Commissioner. 
COURT HOUSE, JAMESTOWN, 
2nd Sept., 1902, 



ST. HELENA 125 

This was also posted in Dutch ; 

Op last van Z.E. de Governeur Kolonel A. J. Price, C.M.G., jal 

het special Hof gemachtigt tot bet afnemen van de eed of declaratie 
van getrouwheid aan Zijner Majesteit Koning Edward de Zevende 
van Burghers van de gewezane Zuid Afrikaanche Republiek en 
Orange Vrij Staat worden gesloten op Zaterdag de 6den Sept., 1902. 

Op last, 

JOHN PROCTOR, Kapt. 

By this time very few remained obdurate concerning the 
oath, and the greater number had already embarked after 
their enforced sojourn of considerably over two years. 
The Golconda in October took the last batch, and one can 
imagine how varied were their thoughts, while they travelled 
back as British subjects to the two republics which have 
become part and parcel of the British Empire. The ships 
conveying the prisoners were as under : 

Canada left St. Helena on June 26, taking 370 (Peace Camp) and 
no others. 

Kirkfield left St. Helena on July 7, taking 11. 

Goorkha left St. Helena on July 25, taking French prisoners to 
Europe. 

Abaka left St. Helena on August i, taking 20 prisoners of war, 

Avondale Castle left St. Helena in August, taking 20 prisoners of 
war. 

Tagus left St. Helena on August 21, taking 994 prisoners of war. 

Canada left St. Helena on August 21, taking 984 prisoners of war. 

Malta left St. Helena on August 30, taking 990 prisoners of war. 

Goorkha left St. Helena on September 18, taking 12 prisoners of 
war, 

Orotava left St. Helena on October 8, taking 990 prisoners of war, 

Braemar Castle left St. Helena on October 12, taking 2 prisoners 
of war. 

Gohonda left St. Helena on October 21, taking remainder, 

but leaving the Cape rebels and a few unpardoned men 
still on the island. General Ben Viljoen left in July, and 
Cronje, as before stated, in August by the Tagus. During 
the whole time the prisoners were on the island steamships 
were constantly arriving with live cattle (and provisions 
such as potatoes, onions, and the usual tinned rations, as 
well as medical comforts and stores). It is said each beast 
cost about 25 in England, which, with about 25 freight, 
made the sum expended in beef alone for military and 
prisoners no small item. 



1 26 ST. HELENA 

In August His Excellency Governor Sterndale had been 
compelled through ill-health to leave his post, the Gover- 
norship being undertaken by Colonel Price, C.M.G., O.C.T., 
and it was with profound and deep regret that the inhabi- 
tants received a cable announcing his death in England 
of sudden failure of the heart, on October 3, for he had been 
expected to arrive again in the island in November. For 
five years he had administered the Government, and his 
courteous kindly manner will always be remembered by 
all classes of society. The fountain in the garden, the road 
round the West Rocks, the improved wharf, the museum, 
which it is greatly to be hoped will be kept up and added to, 
and the new drainiage system will testify to his many works 
of improvement. In November Lieut. -Colonel Henry 
Lionel Gallwey, C.M.G., D.S.O., senior division, was ap- 
pointed Governor. 

The West India Regiment had been ordered to St. Helena 
to replace those regiments stationed there during the war, 
but the inhabitants, having suffered before from the mutinous 
conduct of this regiment, petitioned against the order. 
The Colonial Secretary therefore refused to allow them to 
proceed on account of the objection raised, and the War 
Office accordingly decided to send two companies of the 
South African line regiment in their place. 

The following postal statistics are of interest as showing 
the work done by the postal staff, which is small. The 
heading, Money Orders, shows a decrease, but in every 
other department there is a substantial increase, especially 
in the number of mail bags, there being an increase of 443 
during the eight months of 1902 as compared with the 
same months of 1901. The increase of monies received 
in the island is also worthy of notice ; 



ST. HELENA 



127 



COMPARATIVE STATEMENT OF THE WORKING OF THE POST OFFICE FOR THE 
FIRST EIGHT MONTHS OF THE YEARS IQOI AND I9O2. 





1901. 


1902. 


Increase. 


Decrease. 


No. Mails from England 


20 


44 


24 




,, Bags Mail received, in 










eluding enclosures 


425 


868 


443 




,, Cases of Parcel Post re 










ceived 


218 


220 


2 




Parcels received 


2715 


2758 


43 




,, Registered letters, etc. 


1290 


1414 


124 




Amount of Money Orders 


I 5. d. 


S. d. 


s. d. 




received 


991 18 2 


1400 7 4 


408 9 2 




No. Mails for England 


22 


3i 






Letters and Post Cards 










sent 


49185 


58023 


8838 




,, Other Articles . 


4080 


4610 


536 




,, Parcels sent 


770 


1181 


411 




,, Registered Letters, etc. 


2078 


3264 


1186 




,, Bags of Mails sent 


105 


H3 


8 




No. Cases of Parcel Post . 


29 


42 


13 






s- d. 


s. d. 


^ d. 




Amount of Money Orders 


4598 7 9 


4801 8 ii 


203 I 2 




No. Mails from Cape Colony 










and Natal 


ii 


16 


5 




Bags of Mail received, 










including enclosures 


103 


141 


38 




,, Bags, parcels received 










(from Natal) . 


Nil. 


ii 


ii 




,, Registered Letters, etc. 


2705 


3122 


4i7 




Amount of Money Orders 


s. d. 


s. d. 


s. d. 




received 


2463 15 2 


33i6 i 4 


852 6 2 




No. Mails for Cape Colony 










and Natal 


37 


44 


7 




,, Letters and Post Cards 


53522 


64485 


10963 




,, Other articles 


2874 


3727 


853 




Parcels 


489 


59 2 


103 




,, Bags of Mail 


88 


123 


35 




,, Registered Letters, etc. 


I9S7 


1966 


9 






s. d. 


s. d. 




s.d. 


Amount of Money Orders 


776 15 3 


672 12 6 




104 2 II 



128 ST. HELENA 

THE ACCOUNTS OF THE PARISH OF ST. HELENA FOR THE 
The Overseer of Poor in account with the Parish of 



9r. April i, 1901. 


s 




d. 


i 


s. 


d. 


Fo Cash in hand, . . . . 


v . 




t 


85 


15 


9i 


Rates for qr. ended June 30, 1901 


160 


6 


3 








Sept. 30, 1901 


163 


6 










Dec. 31, 1901 


-v 162 


4 


4 








Mar. 31, 1902 


. 168 


3 


4 
















654 


o 


9i 








Arrears of rates collected 














Qr. ending June 30, 1901 


14 


i 


6 








Sept. 30, 1901 


13 


4 


7\ 








Dec. 31, 1901 


16 


i 


8* 








Mar. 31, 1902 


20 16 


9i 
















64 


4 


7\ 








Relief from Women's Society for P. 


Chippendale 


2 


i 


2 


M. 


Stevens 




. 


2 


o 


4i 


Ann March 


2 


I 


2 


E. 


Hoyles 




. 


2 


I 


2 


M. 


Sawyer 




. 


2 





4i 


W.M.C. Association for James Lamble 





9 


2 


Poor Society for Mary 


McClinton 




' . ;. 


O 


4 


6 


Burial allowance from Women's Society for Margaret 






Stevens ..... 


; 






4 





o 


Burial expenses refunded, John 


Fuller, 6s. 


y 


Jas. 








Lamble, 4 ; Jemima Phillips, 6 
Maintenance Jane Flagg .... 






10 

i 


6 
16 




o 


Charlotte Henry 


. 






7 


16 





Police fines .... 








o 


T C 


o 


Amount overcharged refunded 








o 


* J 

9 


o 


Cash from Colonial Govern- 














ment on account of Dog 














Tax, 1901 . . 12 10 















Less 10% Commission . i 5 




T T 












Cash from Colonial Govern- 






5 








ment on account of Dog 














Tax, 1902 . . 62 o 


o 












Less 10% Commission . 6 4 


o 
















16 o 
* 


T 


Q 














+?f 


1 




907 


2 


Ii 




BROADBOTTOM CAMP 







DEADWOOD CAMP. 



ST. HELENA 129 

YEAR ENDING MARCH, 1902, GIVE THE FOLLOWING : 
St. Helena for year ending March 31, 1902. 

Cr. March 31. s. d. 

By paid Surgeon . . . . . . 80 o o 

, paid Dispenser . . . . . . .1500 

, paid Assistant Overseer . . . . . 54 o o 

, Matron Poor House . . . . . 45 o o 

, Matron Lunatic Asylum . . . . .1800 

, Keeper 64 10 o 

, Weekly relief . . . . . .11559 

, Monthly ,, ......300 

, Casual 1130 

, Maintenance of Leper 12 o o 

, Coffins . . . . . . . 24 2 o 

, Burial expenses 29 12 o 

, Hospital 48 9 I 

, Printing and advertising . . . . . 7 3 6 

, Clothing and Bedding for inmates . . . 42 16 4 

, Medicines . . . . . . . 5 14 5 

, Fire insurance to 1 5th February, 1903 . . . 3 15 o 
, Water rate . . . . . . . 200 

, Sanitary repairs . . . . . .723 

, Repairs and making cells in Lunatic Asylum . 25 13 i 
, Provisions . . . . . . . 275 4 3 

, Incidental expenses 2 19 6 

, Cash in hand . . . . . . 24 I 1 1 



/907 



Examined in detail and compared with vouchers and found 
correct, 

T. L. M. ADAMS, Chairman. 
THOS. JACKSON, 
WM. HARRISON, 
O, W. BAGLEY. 

I 



1 3 o ST. HELENA 



ASSETS OF THE PARISH OF ST. HELENA, APRIL i, 1902. 

Arrears outstanding s. d. 

To Dec. 31, 1901 .... 17 ii 6 

,,Mar. 31, 1902 .... 12 g 9$ 

30 i 4 

Assessment on ^8,000 @ $d. in . . . 166 13 4 

Cash in hand . . . . . . . . 24 i 1 1 

220 i 6 7 



The Overseer of the Poor in account with the Parish of St. Helena 

s. d. 

To Cash in hand o 6 i 

Government contribution . . . . .1000 
Rates collected s. d. 

Quarter ending June 30, 1901 . 7 n 7^ 

Sept. 30, 1901 . .7128 
Dec. 31, 1901 . . 7 ii 6 
Mar. 31, 1902 . . 7 16 9J 

30 12 6-} 

Arrears of Rates collected s. d. 

Quarter ending June 30, 1901 . o 5 7^ 
Sept. 30, 1901 . . o ii 7| 
Dec. 31, 1901 . .0135 
Mar. 31, 1902 . . i 19 oj 

3 9 8^ 

Amount advanced by Assistant Overseer . . o 14 i 

44 17 5i 



ST. HELENA 131 



Estimated Liabilities for Quarter ending June 30, 1902. 

s. d. 
Salaries . . . . . . . 69 2 6 

Outdoor paupers 30 o o 

Provisions . . . . . . . . 72 o o 

Hospital expenses . . . . . . .1500 

Coffins and Burial expenses . . . . . 15 o o 

Printing and advertising . . . . . 6 10 o 

Incidental expenses 500 



212 12 6 



for the Lighting of Jamestown for year ending March 31, 1902. 

s. d, 

By paid matches . . . . . . .057^ 

, Chimneys and wicks . . . . . i 8 10 

, Repairs to lamps . . . . . .286 

, Making new lamps . . . . . .0166 

, New burners . . . . . . .076 

, Oil . 21 3 6 

, Lighting, twelve months @ i . . . . 12 o o 

, Assistant Overseer, keeping account . . .600 
, Incidental expenses .... 070 



44 17 
A. L. INNES, Overseer. 

Examined and found correct, 

A. MclNTYRE, Auditor. 



DESCRIPTION 

THE natural strength of the island lies in its compact 
form and size together with its inaccessible coast, formed 
by an almost uninterrupted belt of rocks which rise per- 
pendicularly to the height of about 600 to 1,200 feet. It 
appears, when viewed from vessels . at a distance, to defy 
entrance ; the lofty barren hills divided by huge fissures 
and deep gorges with a total absence of any vegetation 
other than a few patches of samphire and cactus, present 
a most formidable appearance ; for none of the beautiful 
woods and pastures of the interior can be seen from the 
sea. 

Melliss, in his work on the island, says : 

Its isolated position, its peculiar fauna, and its very remark- 
able insular flora, together with its geological character, present 
strong reasons for placing St. Helena amongst the oldest land now 
existing on the face of the globe. It is said that out of sixty-one 
native species, only two or three are found in any other part of the 
globe. 

On nearer approach the gorges appear -as valleys which 
narrow as they wind inland toward the central ridge. 
Bankses, Rupert's Bay (the sea shore of Seine Valley), 
Chapel Valley or Jamestown, Lemon Valley or Spr agues 
on the north side of the island, and Sandy Bay on the south, 
are the places suitable for landing from boats or ships. 
Jamestown in Chapel Valley is almost due north, and its 
site was probably selected from its being the largest ravine 
and the most sheltered. There is a good anchorage from 
twelve to twenty-five fathoms deep. A chart issued by Mr. 
G. Thomas, who was here in the 'Northumberland with Rear- 
Admiral Sir George Cockburn in the year 1815, shows that 
the soundings are very various. The sea-bottom slopes 
gradually for a distance of one to one and a half miles to 
sixty or seventy fathoms, after which the depth is about 

132 




BAKERY, BROADBOTTOM CAMP. 




SCENE IN CAMP, WASHING DAY. 
(Showing Barbed Wire Fencing.) 



ST. HELENA 133 

250 fathoms, while in many places it is such that no sound- 
ings can be obtained. Along the coast are many caves, 
some high above the water-mark, others below, so that the 
sea penetrates far into the base of the island. In these 
holes or caves the air is so strongly compressed by the inrush 
of water that wherever there is a crack or outlet in the rock 
the water emerges in a strong jet or fountain, similar in 
appearance to the spou tings of a whale. In many cases 
these spouts of water are near the sea-level, in others they 
appear on the face of the cliff sixty or seventy feet above ; 
this is the case near Egg Island. 

Several islands lie near the coast, but none of any size, 
Egg Island, Sperie and George Island being the largest. 
Guano is collected from these and from the cliffs, and was 
formerly exported ; of late years the constant employment 
of the labouring class by the Government as mule-drivers, 
messengers, etc., has caused the collection of this to be 
neglected. Of fish it is computed that seventy-six species 
frequent the coast. These are : 

The whale, groundshark, shovel-nosed shark, dog shark, 
mackerel, sunfish, albicore, porpoise, bottle-nosed porpoise, 
white conger, red conger, speckled conger, green conger, 
yellowtail, cavalli, coal fish, stone bras, beard, striped, 
shrimp, cunning fish, flying fish, trooper, two kinds of green 
fish, old wife, silver fish, five fingers, gurnet, three sorts of 
mullet, three sorts of bull's eyes, two kinds of jacks, pilot 
cavalli, bonita, dolphin, pilot, soldier, baracoota, pike, 
serpent, parrot, turtle, sword, thrasher, kingson, sandspear, 
rockfish, trumpet, sole, cat-fish, flying cat-fish, sucking, 
lantern-fish, bottle-fish, two kinds of hog-fish, cod, devil, 
lathercoat, bream, snake, flounder, two kinds of eels, cray- 
fish, rock oyster. 

The albicore (which in the Mediterranean is called the 
tunny, and in which great trade is done) can be caught 
plentifully all the year round. The bonita is also very 
abundant. Conger-eels abound and salt well. 

It is said that the livers of mackerel yield a valuable 
oil which is worth 12 per ton. 

Sharks come so close to the shores that they prevent much 
sea-bathing. These, if caught, might be a constant source 
of considerable profit, and fisheries have been established 



'34 



ST. HELENA 



in various parts of the world for the express purpose of 
capturing sharks, whose oil and skins command good prices, 
the fins also being a valuable article of commerce in China, 
who draws her supplies chiefly from Australia. 

Long legs and stumps or cray-fish resemble the lobster 
in taste and colour and have the same kind of tail. 

Rock oysters in some situations are hardly distinguishable 
from the rock. 

The coal-fish is so called from the black hue of its skin ; it 
is from two to three feet or more in length, and very thick 
about neck and shoulders ; highly flavoured and delicate, 
being not unlike a salmon in taste. The fish is not very 
abundant, and when obtainable fetch 2s. to 35. each. 

The flying fish about the shores are often chased by porpoise, 
shark or other voracious enemies, and frequently meet their 
death by jumping out of the water on to the hard shelving 
rock. They measure sometimes more than two feet in 
length, a size which I am told they do not attain elsewhere. 

Between .the months of December and March, turtle 
frequent the island, but of late years they have been very 
seldom caught. 

Whales are not infrequently seen, and they have been 
caught in the roads by the South Sea whalers. There is 
no doubt, if a few expert fishermen were employed, a con- 
siderable number might be caught each year. The species 
frequenting the island is called the " race-horse " whale, 
and yields, it is said, about five tons of oil. 

In the early days the only mammal was the manatee, 
or sea-cow (probably the Manatus australis, or M . Senegal- 
ensis), the former being the American, and the latter the 
African species. It may however have been peculiar to 
the island ; from the earliest times it has been killed when 
found, the last one mentioned being in 1810, and there is 
not even a bone left for the study of the naturalist. 

With such a variety of fish there is no doubt that the es- 
tablishment of a proper fishery would be of great advantage 
to the island. The general mode of fishing practised is that 
of hook and line; and generally from open boats moored near 
the shore or upon the banks and ledges situate around the 
coast. 

The most productive of these banks is called New Ledge, 



ST. HELENA 135 

the centre part of which lies about two miles to the south 
west and is composed of rocks and sand. Its soundings 
are from forty to sixty fathoms and only useful for fishing 
in calm weather. About one and a half miles from land is 
Sperie Ledge, over which there are four fathoms of water. 
Here the sea breaks at times with great violence. 

Barn Ledge lies about one mile off Turk's Cap. The 
soundings here run from four to twelve fathoms ; the sea 
here breaks also with violence. 

There is another bank to leeward about a mile distant, 
where the soundings are from forty-three to forty-eight 
fathoms. 

Forts were placed on the different points of the island, 
and in the old days were well fortified. We read before the 
arrival here of Napoleon " these are well fortified by fleur 
d'eau batteries provided with furnaces for heating shot 
and flanked by cannon placed upon the cliffs far above the 
reach of ships' guns. Mortars and howitzers for showering 
grape upon ships' decks or upon boats attempting to land 
are also provided." The dismantled forts remain, and at 
Bankses is still one of the iron furnaces used for heating 
shot. Munden's Battery is now well fortified, as are also 
Ladder Hill and High Knoll. 

The island is io miles long by 6f broad and lies inlat. S. 15 55'. 
Long. W. 5 46'. It contains forty-seven square miles. 

Its distance from the west coast of Africa is 1,200 miles. 

South America . . 1,800 

Tristan d'Acunha . . 1,200 
the Isle of Ascension . 700 
England . . 4,400 

Cape of Good Hope . 1,750 

The surface is very diversified, and distinctly of volcanic 
origin, having no trace of continental land nearer than 
1,200 miles, and possessing plants, insects, birds and shells 
found nowhere else. 

A mountainous ridge, varying in height to upwards of 
3,000 feet, crosses the island from S.E. to S.W., dividing it 
distinctly into two parts, the slopes leading from it being 
the most fertile spots, and, forming the chief and richest 
pasture lands, present a very marked contrast to the barren 
rugged rocks surrounding them. The majesty of one part, 



136 



ST. HELENA 



the beauty and repose of another, and the horror of a third 
cannot fail to delight and astonish every admirer of nature. 
The northern side is divided by spurs of ridge-land, but 
it slopes gradually, divided into narrow clefts which widen 
and become as they near the coast deep huge ravines and 
valleys ; e.g. Rupert's Valley, Jamestown Valley, Lemon 
Valley, and Deep Valley. On this central ridge are situated 
the three highest points of the island : 



Diana's Peak 
Cuckold's Point 
Acteon 



2,740 feet. 
2,672 
2,704 



These are all clothed in a forest of old-world flora tree- 
ferns, dogwood, gum, and cabbage- trees. Half way up the 
peak of " Diana " is " Taylor's Flat," a favourite spot for 
picnics, and near this was the valuable plantation of cin- 
chona, now utterly neglected. 

To the East are Halley's Mount . f. . 2,467 feet. 
FlagStaff .... '.;' '.. . 2,272 
The Barn . . . . . . . 2,015 

The other points of interest are : 

Sandy Bay Ridge . . 2,200 feet. 
Long Range ... 2,000 
Alarm House . . . 1,960 
High Knoll ... 1,903 
Longwood House . . 1,762 
Columnar Pile "Lot" . i,444 
Columnar Pile "Lot's Wife" . 1,423 
Base of the Friar . 1,431 
Coffee Grove and Bamboo Hedg in Sandy Bay 1,356 
Turk's Cap ... 750 
Ladder Hill ... 600 
And the Calcareous vein on the north-west of Flag- 
staff Hill in which the fossil shells are found . i ,61 1 

The plain of Longwood and Deadwood, the eastern end 
of the central ridge, comprises 1,500 acres of land, 2,000 
feet above the sea, and has a south east slope. Here were 
placed the camps for the military and for Boer prisoners in 
1900, and here it is contemplated, in course of time, to make 
barracks. There were in the town extensive barracks 
which were pulled down. At an enormous expense bricks 
were imported by the Imperial Government, although the 



VIEW OF SANDY BAY, LOOKING SOUTH. 




CLOSER VIEW OF SANDY BAY. 



ST. HELENA 137 

island abounds with good building-stone. Foundations 
were dug and walls to the height of a few feet built ; this 
building was then abandoned, and the unfinished walls 
surrounded by unused and broken bricks still remain, an 
eyesore to the community. 

To the south of the central ridge lies an enormous basin 
called Sandy Bay, measuring about four miles across. This 
forms part of the huge crater which existed at the volcanic 
period. 

Thick vegetation, for the most part of indigenous growth, 
clothes the high central ridge, extending down the sides 
of the southern slope for about a mile, where suddenly it 
merges into barren ground, with a few struggling shrubs 
and thin grass, which gradually disappears, leaving the stretch 
to the sea a scene of rugged, barren and desolate splendour. 
To stand on the ridge looking south over Sandy Bay is one 
of the most enjoyable sights to a pedestrian. The cool trade- 
winds weeps up the valley over the ridge ; at the edge of the 
precipice it is strong, almost more than one can stand against, 
yet a few feet back, only a breath of balmy air is per- 
ceptible. Of course only a bird's-eye view can be obtained 
from such a height, but it is a view which never fails to 
silence the sightseer. 

Brooke, in his history of St. Helena, describes it graphi- 
cally. He says : 

The hills on the left (i.e. Diana's Peak and Acteon), richly 
clothed with trees to the very summits, display a wonderful con- 
trast to the wild and grotesque nakedness that triumphs on the 
right, where shelving cliffs, surmounted by huge perpendicular or 
spiral masses of rock, are multiplied under every shape and aspect. 

Another writer says : 

On the right great rugged mountains, black and naked, stretch 
their craggy peaks heavenward, the rocky summits being split and 
rent into the most fantastic outline, and seeming in their huge 
uprising to have shivered the strata through which they forced 
their way, and sent the boulders rolling into the vast abyss below 
in all directions. 

The downward view consists of a variety of ridges, 
eminences, and ravines, converging towards the sea into one 
common valley. 



138 ST. HELENA 

Conspicuous in the centre of the huge basin, the rocky 
pyramids of Lot and Lot's Wife shoot their weather-worn 
pinnacles abruptly out of the surrounding scoria, while at 
a short distance from these is the peculiar columnar pile 
" Asses' Ears." Lot is a monolith of hard grey stone shaped 
like a cone, situated on a ridge about 1,440 feet above the 
sea, and rising from a base 100 feet in diameter to a height 
of nearly 300 feet. About a mile to the south-west lies 
Lot's wife, another monolith about 260 feet high, and 1,550 
feet above the sea ; this has the peculiarity of being narrower 
at the base than at the top. 

On the gentle slope, where vegetation is rife, there are 
houses and cultivated grounds, vegetable and corn-fields 
all snugly placed amid thick groves of trees ; the coffee 
grown on this slope is the best obtainable, while the pasture- 
lands, dotted with grazing cattle and sheep, form a contrast 
indeed to the lower part, where the prospect closes in with 
the distant sea, whose narrow fringe of surf rushes in between 
the black and craggy cliffs, whitening them with its spray. 
Beyond lies the vast Atlantic Ocean. From the small beach 
which it washes, a party of prisoners of war tried to effect 
an escape in an open fishing-boat which they endeavoured 
to buy from the fishermen. The latter, it is said, held the 
prisoners in parley while one of their number went to the 
camp and reported the matter. The arrival of a military 
guard, under whose escort they were marched to camp, 
ended the matter. Had they taken the boat, there is no 
doubt but that all would have perished, for it was 
very old and dilapidated, and, not a fortnight after, 
during a heavy sea, became entirely unfit for use except 
as firewood. 

Limestone of an excellent quality is in abundance in 
Sandy Bay, and is said to be a concretion of shells with sand 
or sometimes clay. The heights close to Sandy Bay beach 
are chiefly composed of it. Lot's Wife beach is covered with 
a white sand consisting almost entirely of fragments of 
limestone. On the opposite side of the island (north) in 
Rupert's Bay, and Bankses Battery, lime is also found. 
That it was burnt and in use as late as 1886 may be seen 
from the following advertisement culled from the St. Helena 
Advertiser: 



ST. HELENA 139 

NOTICE. 

To be had on the shortest notice and quick despatch at the store 
of the undersigned : " Island lime." 

(Signed) N. D. SMITH. 
July 6, 1866. 

But neither lime nor shells are found in the interior. 

The subsoil throughout the island is clay, of various kinds. 
One is called marl, but it does not effervesce upon the applica- 
tion of acids. When divested of its superincumbent earth, it 
has often the appearance of stone, but on exposure to the 
atmosphere it soon separates. It is frequently used as a 
substitute for gravel on the roads and does not generally 
clog like clay ; ' it is however very slippery in wet weather. 
Lands near the coast, when not entirely rock, have a thin 
covering of loose friable earth, which if well watered is very 
productive, particularly in the valleys. The soil upon the 
summits and steep sides of the hills in the interior is rich, 
though light and of no great depth. The surface-covering 
of other parts is various from soil as light as dust to heavy 
black clay, -the greater part of the intermediate lands between 
the verdant heights and the barren outskirts being of a fine 
loamy soil from four inches to three feet deep, upon a stratum 
of good yellow or red clay. A good deal of plaster of Paris 
has been found in Prosperous Valley. It is dug from the 
rock not more than a foot below the surface, and is very easily 
reduced to powder. It makes a good plaster and also a 
beautiful shining whitewash for walls. Sand and gravel 
are rarely met with except near the coast. 

Governor Beatson (1815), in his book, says : 

Many of the soils of the island are wholly destitute of sand, 
and this circumstance is that which causes all attempts to make 
bricks a failure. 

Bricks of good quality have however since been made. 
Mr. Thomas Deason, of Longwood, manufactured bricks 
of good quality with which he built a windmill tower. This, 
although more than twenty years old, still is in excellent 
condition, the bricks showing no signs of deterioration. 
Bricks also have of late years been made in Friar's Valley 
and used in the renovation of Friar's Lodge ; these latter 
were made by the Boer prisoners of war. 



140 ST. HELENA 

Iron ore has been found in some parts of the island, but 
any idea of its fusion is precluded by scarcity of fuel. As 
shown in Governor Pike's time, appearances of gold and 
copper were discovered and near Turk's Cap there are veins 
of a stone which takes a most beautiful polish and which 
will bear cutting for seals. 

The clays and earth of the interior are most interesting. 
On the sides of the ravines in the eastern and southern part, 
the infinite diversity of the tints of red, white, blue, purple 
and grey which overspread the whole of this extraordinary 
panorama are marvellous in their shading, and of such 
brilliance when the sun is on them, that descriptions by 
pen or even by brush is difficult. The strata of red soil 
which is so often seen throughout the island contains a 
large mixture of salt. A few hours' boiling separates the 
latter from the red soil, and nitrations through these beds 
will possibly account for some of the brackish springs to be 
found ; yet not for all. One spring near Longwood con- 
tains a considerable quantity of sulphate of magnesia, and 
is noticed to be rather warmer than the surrounding atmo- 
sphere ; this water operates as a carthartic, and is said to 
resemble the Bristol Hotwells in taste. In 1887 a small 
quantity of water trickled over the rock on the side of Peak 
Hill, so small a quantity that there was hardly a flow ; this 
was so salt that it was not drinkable, whereas, now, in 1902, 
flows over the same rock a little stream, hardly to be termed 
brackish, and very pleasant to the taste. The stream has 
developed to the extent of placing a drinking trough for 
animals under its fall. Clear and wholesome springs issue 
from the sides of almost every hill ; but as they have not 
much volume, nor any length of current, they form only 
small rills. The island is a mass of hills and valleys, and 
from this circumstance visitors might expect to find a num- 
ber of picturesque cascades, yet there are no waterfalls of 
any magnitude. One stream projects itself from Francis 
Plain 1,250 feet above the sea level into the valley of James- 
town below, a height of 260 feet; but as a general thing 
the stream is so thin that it becomes a shower of mist before 
reaching the cavity below ; still, after heavy rains it is 
swollen to a torrent and descends in a continuous stream. 
Ai such times, however, its effect and beauty are greatly 



ST. HELENA 141 

marred by the mud which it gathers during its course. It is 
somewhat remarkable that while many of the streams, 
springs and rills abate considerably, or are entirely dried 
up during a dry season, some few remain undiminished, 
and it is said that two, one in Fisher's Valley and another 
at the Briars, are enlarged during the continuance of dry 
weather, and at such times seem to glide with increased 
velocity at the same time remaining transparent and pure. 

The drinking-water in Jamestown is remarkably pure and 
good and is conveyed in pipes from a spring at Chubb's 
Spring. Fresh pipes have been lately laid during the pres- 
ence on the island of the prisoners of war ; and although 
the first workers have now left the island, this water system 
is being greatly extended at the present time (1902) by the 
prisoners still remaining. 

St. Helena contrasts strongly with Ascension as regards 
water, for there are over 200 springs discharging fresh water. 
The climate is one of the finest in the world, even being 
drier in parts than Madeira ; and its effect on weak-chested 
and consumptive patients has been most beneficial. Viru- 
lent diseases, such as smallpox, yellow fever, do not live 
even if brought by the shipping, of which there is little fear 
owing to the strict quarantine regulations. Its situation 
accounts for this in the sweep of the always fresh and 
healthy south-east trade- wind ; it is far removed from any 
malarial influence, and is kept so much cooler than the 
position and latitude would lead one to suppose. Many 
Europeans wear the usual English soft caps, yet sunstroke 
is unknown. 

The temperature, too, is greatly lessened by the cool 
current of water which flows from the Antarctic regions 
toward the island; but about twice in the year, which is 
generally at the time known as the " roller season," the 
current sets strongly from the Equatorial regions, when 
there is a closeness and oppression causing amongst Europ- 
eans a depression of spirits. Often at this time a stagnant 
calm prevails, or it may be a slight wind from the north, 
which is almost unbearable in the town ; then natives may 
be seen with their heads bound, and on asking why, you 
would invariably receive the answer : " The wind is blowing 
the wrong way " and wrong indeed it seems to be, for it 



142 ST. HELENA 

brings weariness and headache in its train. Still, it does not 
last long enough to produce serious consequences ; in a few 
hours the wind will once more shift to its usual quarter, 
and again the pure breeze sweeps over the land bringing 
coolness, relief and comfort. When this breeze is stiff and 
accompanied by rain, it sweeps all impurities from the 
island and is aptly termed the " Parish Doctor." Across 
Longwood and Deadwood it occasionally travels with great 
velocity, sweeping through the ravines and valleys with such 
force as to uproot trees and unroof shaky cottages. The 
tents of the camp at Deadwood are at such times con- 
tinually overthrown, but this unpleasantness is entirely 
forgotten in the effects of its purifying and invigorating 
influence. 

Clouds sometimes hang over the island for a few days, 
very high up ; these veil the sun, causing what the islanders 
term " covered days," which are the most enjoyable times 
for out-door excursions. It is difficult to define the seasons, 
which glide from spring to summer, again to autumn and 
winter with very little to mark the change. The chief sign 
of spring is the bright cheerful sunny weather which pre- 
vails, varied occasionally by gentle refreshing showers ; 
with a minimum temperature of 55 and a maximum of 68. 

The oaks burst into full leaf, and with gorse, narcissus, 
mimosa, acacia and other plants, give the season much of 
the charm and character of an English spring. Summer 
of course brings hotter weather, the temperature rises to 
over 72 on the highlands, while in the town of Jamestown 
it registers 82 to 84. The radiated heat from the rocks here 
makes the summer more trying, and during the months of 
January, February and March the mosquitoes add much 
to the discomfort. The temperature being quite 10 lower 
in the country, makes that part no hotter than the English 
summer. 

Autumn, which is characterized as in England by the 
fall of the oak-leaf, brings the slight rain or mist which 
gives the ridges so close a resemblance to the Scotch High- 
lands. The country throughout, but especially Planta- 
tion, Oaklands, and Oakbank, is very beautiful in its 
russet-tinted dress. 

Winter finds the temperature as low as 50 on the heights, 



ST. HELENA 143 

and fires are generally welcomed. Jamestown and other 
valleys are then just sufficiently cool to be pleasant, and fire- 
places are unknown in the houses, except where necessary 
for cooking. Visitors find the mildness of the climate 
sometimes too relaxing, but this is quickly remedied by 
going from one part to another in the hills, for the different 
parts possess great differences of climate. The rainfall 
varies much in different years, and also differs greatly ac- 
cording to locality. Taking 1898 as an average, 36-06 
inches fell at Mount Pleasant near Sandy Bay ridge ; but 
only 4' 82 inches in Jamestown. 

A prisoner of war, in one of his humorous contributions 
to the little paper issued in Deadwood Camp, De Krijgs- 
evangene, says : 

There are two seasons : (i) the rainy season, in which rain is 
the rule and sunshine the exception ; (2) the dry season, which 
resembles the rainy one so much that the mistaking of one for the 
other has never yet been ascribed to ignorance. 

But this, it must be admitted, was written after an excep- 
tionally wet summer. 

The length of day varies with the different seasons about 
one hour. The longest day is December 21, when darkness 
falls about 7.30 p.m., the shortest day being June 21, when 
the sun sets about six o'clock. There is scarcely any twi- 
light, night closing in almost immediately after sunset. 

The soil is very productive, and trees and shrubs from all 
parts of the world flourish. In the grounds of Plantation 
House there are not only the plants and trees indigenous to 
the island, but trees from Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, 
and Polynesia. 

The Araucaria excelsa or Norfolk island pine, so 
commonly seen as a pot-plant in English conservatories, 
grows here to a height of over 100 feet. Side by side with 
a tree from Ceylon may be seen the South Sea Island panda- 
mus or screw pine ; the oak, the cedar, the apple, the guava, 
the peach and banana mingle their foliage, while here and 
there an indigenous tree stands amidst a host of aliens the 
mimosa of New South Wales, the Scotch firs and the bamboo 
of India, with the pines of the North and the Australian 
blue gum or eucalyptus, seeming to outvie each other in 
the luxuriance of their growth. 



i 4 4 ST. HELENA 

Here is entertainment indeed for the botanist. Almost 
anything will grow. Flax, aloes, sugar-cane, and cotton, 
together with coffee and tobacco, are to be seen, and nearly 
all English vegetables as well as Cape produce. Two crops 
of potatoes are raised yearly. In the roofs of the old 
buildings cabbage-tree wood was much esteemed for its 
durability. This grows on all the interior heights. 

The red wood (Dombeya erythroxylon) is a beautiful 
spreading tree rising to a height of about thirty feet with 
long pendant blossoms of the bell kind, white, pink and red. 
It was valuable for building, but the white ant so attacked 
it that there are only a very few trees remaining. 

Of the same genus is the dwarf ebony (Dombeya mela- 
noxylon), which low shrub is quite different to the black 
heavy wood called ebony in the records, of which there are 
at present only a few isolated dry pieces. 

In some of the most rocky and barren places grows a 
bushy tree with small pale green leaves called the wild 
rosemary (Philica rosmarinifolia). It is said that nothing 
will flower beneath its shade. The wild olive (Philica 
elliptica) is of the same genus as the wild rosemary ; it 
bears a small dry berry, but neither of them answers 
the description of the rosemary and olive of other 
countries. 

An astrigent shrub called the St. Helena tea (Beatsonia 
portulacifolia) is often to be found on the sides of rocky, in- 
accessible heights, bearing a little white blossom. It has 
been used with great success for tanning. 

Myrtle in some situations attains the height of twenty 
feet. In the grounds of Oakbank are to be found most 
beautiful trees ; the camellia trees which form the southern 
boundary being of great height, the China date and Chilian 
pine being also of wonderful growth. The latter is a very 
pretty wood for furniture and house decoration, and is 
said to resist the attacks of white ants. 

A great variety of curious ferns is obtainable, the most 
remarkable being the tree fern (Dicksonia arbor escens) 
rising to between fifteen and twenty feet, in appearance 
resembling a palm. In the museum in Jamestown may be 
seen a beautiful collection of ferns made by Captain Thom- 
son of the Bengal Pioneers. 




PLANTATION OR GOVERNMENT HOUSE AND GROUNDS. 




OAKBAXK HOUSE AND GROUNDS. 



ST. HELENA 145 

The salsola or samphire, which produces barilla, is 
abundant on all parts near the sea. 

The palma Christi, or physic nut (castor oil plant), yields 
a fine oil and grows wild, but is not made use of. 

Amongst the various lichens is the valuable kind called 
orchel, much used in dyeing. In 1743 this was sent to 
London and sold for 50 to 60 per ton. In 1815 we read 
that it had risen in price to four times that amount, yet no 
notice is taken of it. 

Fine trees of olives (Olea Europoea) grow on the Briars 
estate, lately bought by the Eastern Telegraph Company, 
and are annually laden with fruit. From them large 
quantities of oil might be prepared, and the cultivation of 
them might be extended with profit. 

Tobacco has been tried and failed for want of proper 
manuring of the soil. Mr. Chalmers, the skilled gardener, 
who was sent out in 1869 for the cinchona industry, but 
who was unfortunately recalled when great reductions were 
made in the island establishment, expected the tobacco in- 
dustry would become a permanent one. 

At the present time a start has again been made and very 
good tobacco is prepared. The seed for this was brought 
from South Africa during the enforced stay of the Trans- 
vaalers and Orange River colonists. 

Coffee is grown in small plantations, that of " Coffee 
Grove " in Sandy Bay being of the most excellent quality. 
The cultivation is capable of much extension ; at the Eng- 
lish exhibition of 1851 island-grown coffee took the prize 
for first quality. 

The English furze and blackberry overrun the island and 
mingle with the snowy blooms of the arum lily, while in 
gardens the begonia, petunia, geranium spider and annuncia- 
tion lilies, thunbergia, camellias, roses, carnations, nastur- 
tiums, magnolias, gardenias, etc., etc., grow in profusion 
and make the country-house lands very beautiful. Pine- 
apples, apples, pears, grapes, oranges, lemons, peaches, 
custard apples, bananas, dates, figs all grow, but fruit is 
scarce through the ravages of insects ; in fact, many fruit- 
trees and gardens have been totally destroyed. 

In the debris of a condemned Brazilian slaver there 
happened to be a colony of white ants which grew and 

K 



146 ST. HELENA 

multiplied in their new home so quickly that Jamestown 
was almost ruined these, spreading to the country at- 
tacked fruit and fir trees, together with all soft wood trees, 
to such an extent, that it was considered necessary to burn 
the trees wherever they were found. Not content with 
denuding the forests and lessening the supply of fruit these 
active workers entered the houses, continuing their work 
until a great number had to be rebuilt. This was generally 
done with teak-wood and with iron, and as the destruction 
by burning was well carried out the ants are now con- 
siderably fewer than formerly. 

The fruit-trees have for many years been ravaged by 
insects ; the peach was the first attacked, and since then al- 
most every kind of fruit has suffered ; so that it has been 
considered best to destroy the greater number, especially 
of peach, guava, pear and orange- trees. The only real cure 
would be to burn, as was done several years since in Tas- 
mania, where, owing to the maggots in the peaches, an or- 
dinance was promulgated enforcing the total destruction by 
fire of all peach-trees in the colony. For three years not a 
peach was grown, but in the fourth year the result made 
itself apparent ; the new peaches were larger, of excellent 
flavour and free from pest. The following letters and notes 
are added as being of interest to fruit-growers : 

DOWNING STREET, 

ist June, 1896. 

SIR, I have the honour to inform you that your despatch No. 23, 
of the fourth of April last, with the accompanying specimens of an 
insect which had attacked the peach crop in St. Helena during the 
past year, was referred to the Director of the Royal Gardens at 
Kew, and I now transmit to you a copy of a letter with a report 
by Mr. W. F. H. Blandford, F.R.S., which we have received in 
reply. 

2. I shall be interested to learn what measures are taken to lessen 
the ravages of this pest. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your most obedient servant, 

J. CHAMBERLAIN. 
The Officer Administering the Government of St. Helena. 

ROYAL GARDENS, KEW, 

2 is/ May, 1896. 

SIR, I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your 
letter of the 3Oth ultimo (9000/96), forwarding a copy of the des- 



ST. HELENA 147 

patch and specimens of an insect received from the Acting-Governor 
of St. Helena. 

2. At my request the insect has been identified by Mr. W. F. H. 
Blandford, F.R.S., as a dipterous fly (Ceratitis capitata}, known in 
Malta and elsewhere as the orange fly. In addition, Mr. Blandford 
has prepared a useful summary of information respecting its dis- 
tribution and the best means for treating it. This is enclosed 
herewith. 

3. It is probable that the fly has been destructive to fruit crops 
in St. Helena for many years. Hence this interesting island is 
practically destitute of many tropical fruits that in other places 
afford a considerable addition to the food supply of the inhabi- 
tants. If Mr. Blandford's suggestions are fully carried out there 
is little doubt that it may be possible to lessen the ravages of the 
insect and save a good deal of fruit that is at present destroyed. 
It is, however, necessary to secure the intelligent co-operation of 
the people and carry on experiments for two or three years in order 
to produce satisfactory results. 

I am, etc., 
(Signed) W. T. THISELTON DYER. 

EDWARD WINGFIELD, Esq., B.C.L., C.B., 
Colonial Office, Downing Street, S.W. 



NOTES ON A DIPTEROUS INSECT DESTRUCTIVE TO PEACHES IN 

ST. HELENA. 

This insect, of which I have received specimens in alcohol, for- 
warded to the Royal Gardens, Kew, by the Acting-Governor of 
St. Helena, is Ceratitis capitata, Wied, commonly but less accurately 
referred to as Ceratitis citriperda, Macd., the well known orange fly. 

The insect is a very characteristic and easily recognizable form, 
distinguished amongst other features by the presence, on the head 
of the male, of two long hairs ending in lozenge-shaped plates. 
A great deal has been written about it, but for present purposes 
I have not thought it necessary to do more than refer to the more 
recent writings on the subject. 

The fly has a very wide range in warm countries, having been 
recorded from South Africa, Mauritius, the Azores and other 
Atlantic islands, including Bermuda, Central America, etc. A. S. 
European species, C. hispanica, Breme, is probably identical with 
it, and one of the two species (if there be two) has been very de- 
structive to the orange crop in Malta. 

According to Penzig, the Mediterranean species is found in Spain, 
Algiers, Sicily, Italy and Malta, and is distinct from C. capitata. 
From information given in Insect Life, iii. p. 6, it appears that 
a commission was appointed in Malta, which is stated to have 
issued a report in 1890. 

About the year 1866, the late entomologist, Edward Newman, 
found a ceratitis, then identified as C. citriperda, very destructive to 



148 



ST. HELENA 



pears in his garden at Peckham. It was no doubt imported, and 
established itself for a short time only. 

The question of the specific identity or not of the forms found 
in different countries is of no immediate moment, but is of import- 
ance as regards the distribution of the species and any variation in 
habits which may characterize them. 

The fruits on which attacks have been observed are the orange, 
lemon and other species of citrus, the peach, apricot, plum, Surinam 
cherry, the fig, the pear, and possibly the apple. With regard to 
the last mentioned confusion with an allied species of fly may have 
arisen. 

Attack on very young fruit, as mentioned in the letter of the 
Acting-Governor of St. Helena, appears to be unusual. An African 
grower, Mr. J. B. Hellier, in a letter from Grahamstown, quoted by 
Miss Ormerod, says : " The perfect insect maybejseen flying about 
very swiftly, and depositing some half-dozen eggs in a fruit. They 
do not deposit their eggs till the fruit is turning, that is, getting 
sweet. The maggots are never found in green apricots used for 
making pies, neither are they found in sour apples.' 1 

In some districts one or other fruit escapes. " The oranges 
at Uitenhage (South Africa) in October and November, 1886, were 
infested and maggoty, but the apricots and peaches which came 
ripe in December and January, were comparatively free.'* 

On the contrary, in Liguria, in 1882, the fly was observed to 
damage peaches, but its presence in oranges or lemons was not 
verified. 

This is likely to depend on the respective degrees of ripeness 
of the fruit at the time of the oviposition of the flies. On this 
latter point, and on the time passed by the fly in its various stages, 
and on the number of broods in the year, there is not sufficient 
information ; and these circumstances are likely to vary in country 
and climate, and should be ascertained on the spot. 

Professor Riley wrote with reference to attack on peaches in 
May in Bermuda : " With our knowledge of the habits of the insect, 
derived from writings of those who have mentioned it as an orange 
pest, it seems altogether likely that there is more than one genera- 
tion, and that the flies issuing from peaches in May oviposit in 
some other fruit, and in this event the destruction of the peaches 
will only prove a partial remedy, unless it should turn out that a 
generation in the peach at this time is necessary to fill a gap in 
point of time in the life-history of the insect. He adds that, judging 
from the rapid development, there should be six or eight generations 
in the course of a season, provided that food is at hand. 

Few additional details of importance as to the life-history of 
the insect are to be gathered from those who have written on it. 
It appears that the egg is laid by the fly within the skin of the 
fruit at a depth of one to three millim. ; and this appears to exclude 
the use of arsenical insecticides, which have been so largely em- 
ployed to prevent the somewhat similar mischief caused by the 
oodlin moth, the larva of which, however, has to bore its way 



ST. HELENA 149 

through the skin and is poisoned in so doing. But in any case, 
the use of arsenical preparations on so tender a plant as the peach, 
and one of which the fruit-skin is so downy, would be a risky pro- 
ceeding. 

The attacked oranges (and other fruits) soon fall to the ground, 
and in the space of fifteen days, more or less, the larvae issue, either 
through the original opening or through another one made for the 
purpose, and enter the ground, where they transform to pupae, 
remaining in this condition only a few days." (Insect Life, iii. 
p. 80.) This condition lasts for ten days (Ormerod). Moreover, 
the fly is active by daylight, resting at night, and does not move 
far from the trees or bushes. There is no indication in any account 
of any definite natural conditions which modify the liability of 
the fruit to be attacked. Absence of insectivorous birds and bats 
has been before suggested in the case of insular attacks, but there 
is really no evidence to show that this is a factor. The insect 
is destructive in South Africa, and its importance in islands may 
really be due to the extensive part which fruit-growing plays in 
their industrial conditions. 

I have no suggestions to make on treatment, but the following 
methods have been suggested and employed, and agree with my 
own independently formed ideas. 

1. REMEDIAL. In so far as no means exist for checking the 
work of the maggot after the egg is laid, no remedial measures are 
practical. 

2. PREVENTIVE. (a) Direct The only method which has proved 
successful in preventing egg-laying is that of tying up the fruit or 
fruiting trees with what is termed mosquito-netting. This can only 
be done on a small scale. 

No insecticide is likely to be of use, except such as by its odour 
might repel the flies ; and I cannot suggest, at present, one which 
shall be innocuous, and at the same time possess so lasting a smell 
as to be of practical use. The smell of any insecticides, such as 
kerosene emulsion, is necessarily evanescent. At present, there- 
fore, the use of an insecticide appears to be out of the question. 

(b) Indirect. Here the most suitable remedy is the collection and 
immediate destruction of all attacked fruit, at least of all which 
has fallen. Penzig suggests its burial in a ditch, covered with a 
layer of quicklime ; after six months the mass is converted into a 
valuable fertilizer. He very properly urges concerted action and 
energetic measures on the part of the authorities, and indeed it is 
evident that the whole value of this promising method depends on 
the thoroughness with which it is carried out. 

The Maltese Commission (Henslow, Card. Chron., May 24, 1890) 
also recommends the destruction of fallen fruit and the strewing 
of the surface of the ground under the trees with one part of finely 
powdered sulphate of lime to twenty-four parts of "sand, and sub- 
sequent watering. ^ 

Of course, if the larvae of certain breeds do not leave the fruit 
to pupate, the infested fruit must be picked. Miss Ormerod suggests 



150 ST. HELENA 

that, if not badly damaged, part of it might be utilized. This point 
may be left to growers to decide. 

The only means of dealing with the fly is in a suggestion of Miss 
Ormerod's that, if the flies are sluggish and inactive when basking 
on the leaves (which is certainly doubtful), their numbers might be 
reduced " by shaking them down on sticky clothes or by syringing 
with good soft soap, or whale-oil soap washes." 

No suggestions whatever for the introduction of animal enemies 
(birds or insects) to the fly can be made on present knowledge. 

Lastly, there remains the question whether, as suggested by the 
Acting-Governor, an entire crop of fruit may be destroyed. 

The idea is not one to be dismissed ; but such destruction, to 
be carried out with prospects of success and as little loss of property 
as possible, should be done only when sure knowledge has been 
gained of the distribution of the insect upon various species of 
fruit-bearing trees, of its length of life, number of broods, regu- 
larity of those broods (i.e. whether the flies emerge together or 
are to be found indifferently throughout the greater part of the 
year), and the stage in which it hibernates. 

If these points were known it might be possible to destroy a 
brood by the destruction of some fruit, not necessarily the peach, 
at a particular season. It is not absolutely necesssary that they 
shall be known ; but if they are not, there is more risk of failure 
and of expense to growers. And, moreover, it must be recollected 
that the insect occurs in Madeira, the Azores, Cape Verde Islands 
and Africa, and may always be re-introduced. 

On the whole the destruction of infested fruit, as recommended 
and carried out elsewhere, appears to give the most promise ; and 
although the specimens sent were bred from a peach, it does not 
follow that the maggots of at least some generations do not pupate 
in the ground. I append a list of the more important recent ac- 
counts or notes on the insect. 

(Signed) W. F. H. BLANDFORD. 

Henslow. Gardener's Chronicle, 1890, vol. vii. p. 655. 

Newman. The Field (circa 1866). I have not the exact re- 
ference. 

Ormerod. Observations on Injurious . . . Insects of South 
Africa. London, 1889, pp. 49-56. 

Penzig. Studi Botanici sugli Agruni e sulle Piante a/fine. (Annali 
di Agricoltura, pp. 469-477.) 

Riley. Insect Life, iii. pp. 5-8, and notes, pp. 80-1, 120. 

Westwood. Gardener's Chronicle, 1848, p. 604. 

There are no birds of prey, but insectivorous birds are 
greatly needed. The only indigenous land-bird is a small 
one of a plover family (Aegialiiis Sanctax Helena) called 
locally the wire-bird. It inhabits the interior, and is found 
in considerable numbers. In appearance and habits it 



ST. HELENA 151 

resembles the lark of Europe, but is not migratory ; its 
name was given it from its remarkably long legs like wires, 
which enable it to run very swiftly over the ground. 

The white people of the island are for the most part the 
descendants of the old English officials who settled in the 
island, together with present military and Government 
officials and merchants. 

St. Helenians proper are of mixed race, quiet, tractable, 
and inoffensive. Crime is small. Governor Sterndale states, 
that during fourteen criminal sessions over which he pre- 
sided as Chief Justice, he had white gloves presented to him 
on all but two occasions. 

Strict laws were in force in old times concerning gossip by 
women, but the men seem to have enjoyed the use of their 
tongues without rebuke. The following law is interesting : 

Whereas several idle, gossiping women make it their busi- 
ness to go from house to house, about the island, inventing and 
spreading false and scandalous reports of the good people thereof, 
and thereby sow discord and debate among neighbours, and often 
between men and their wives, to the great grief and trouble of all 
good and quiet people and to the utter extinguishing of all friend- 
ship, amity, and good neighbourhood ; for the punishment and 
suppression whereof, and to the intent that all strife may be ended, 
charity revived, and friendship continued, we do order that if any 
woman from henceforwards shall be convicted of tale-bearing, 
mischief -making, scolding, drunkenness, or any other notorious 
vices, they shall be punished by ducking or whipping, or such 
other punishment as their crimes or transgressions shall deserve, 
as the Governor and Council shall think fit. 

Many of the islanders love their church and attend re- 
gularly. The Church of England is paramount, but there 
are also Roman Catholics, Baptists, and members of the 
Salvation Army. 

The Church of England is presided over by a bishop, 
assisted by three priests, who have charge of the districts 
of St. James', St. Paul and St. Matthews'. There is also 
the Church of St. John's in the upper town of Jamestown, 
built at a time when the military force was too large to be 
accommodated at St. James' ; and the Roman Catholic 
Chapel is presided over by a military chaplain. 

The Baptists have their own minister and place of 
worship. 



152 



ST. HELENA 



None of the churches can lay much claim to architectural 
beauty, the most imposing is that of St. James', which it is 
generally considered should be the Cathedral, seeing that it 
is situated where the greater number of people are com- 
pelled to live, and also that it is in all probability the site, 
or very near the site, on which the first chapel was built by 
the Portuguese. 

St. Paul's is utterly devoid of architectural beauty outside 
or in, but it is commandingly situated on a hill above and 
at the back of Government House, and is surrounded by the 
cemetery. 

St. Matthew's is a small iron church at Hutt's Gate, on 
the road to Longwood. 

There are two hospitals, military and civil, the latter 
presided over by trained nurses. 

St. Helenians are fond of music, and generally possess good 
voices ; they are also very loyal. 

Canaries are wild and numerous, and are charming song- 
sters, and there is a beautiful little finch called the 
" cardinal." " Avadavats " and Java sparrows abound, 
as well as small doves. Other imported birds are fowls, 
peacocks, guinea-fowls, turkeys, ducks, geese, pheasants, 
partridges, minors and pigeons. A beautiful white gull also 
makes its home on the island, the feathers of which are 
used for boas, capes, etc., and make very pretty trimmings. 

There are no snakes, nor any noxious reptiles, reptilia 
being represented by some harmless little lizards, two 
enormous tortoises of fabulous age (which live in planta- 
tion grounds, and are said to be over 150 years of age) ; and 
a small species of frog, which is quite a recent introduction, 
but which has spread wonderfully all over the island. In 
some of the valleys a few scorpions and centipedes are found, 
but their sting, although painful, is not dangerous. 

Bees are kept, and the honey is of very good flavour. 
With so favourable a climate and a never-failing supply of 
honey-producing flowers, St. Helena might rival Jamaica, 
which annually exports over 8,000 worth of honey and 
wax, the bee farmers there being chiefly negroes. It is a 
cottage industry, and would therefore be well suited to the 
St. Helenians. The breed of cattle and sheep on the island 
was originally English. It is still kept up by importation 





PROCLAMATION OF KING EDWARD VII. 




ST. JAMES' CHURCH ON LOWER PARADE. 



ST. HELENA 153 

from England, and the beef is of good quality. Sheep are 
numerous, and provide sweet and tender mutton. Pigs 
are kept in the country and their flesh when well fed is good. 
Goat-meat is often procurable, and of good flavour. Fowls 
are reared in numbers, but ducks, geese, and turkeys are 
not so plentiful. Eggs are as a rule plentiful, but poultry 
and eggs have been more scarce during the increased popu- 
lation of military and of Boer prisoners. Vegetables also 
were quickly bought up by them. Prices given during 
this time were 6d. to is. for cabbages, 405. per bag for 
potatoes, 2s. 8d. per Ib. for fresh butter. 

The language spoken is English (and with a purity not often 
found in the rural districts of England) ; the islanders how- 
ever find a difficulty with the letter " v " and " w," calling a 
veil a wale, a person said to be vain is described as wain, 
while a child named Willie will become Villie ; in this 
respect they are no worse than uneducated Londoners. 
The letters " th " also are a stumbling block, the native 
children using the expressions de, dis and dat for the, 
this and that. 



DESCRIPTIVE 

THE town of Jamestown that tiny city which enjoys 
the unique position of being at once the capital and only 
town of St. Helena is situate on the north and leeward side 
of the island, where there is good anchorage of from eight 
to twenty-five fathoms. It lies between two formidable, 
frowning rocks, Mundens on the east and Ladder Hill on 
the west, both fortified with cannon. From the fort of 
Ladder Hill, which contains commodious barracks and is 
connected with the town by a ladder of seven hundred 
steps as well as by a good carriage road, floats the Union 
Jack. 

That "St. Helena has only one entrance and no exit " 
is said by many, who have grown so to love the old rock 
that they retain no wish to leave it. Viewed from the 
sea, the town resembles that of St. Peter's Port, the capital 
of the island of Guernsey in the English Channel ; and very 
conspicuous stands the white church spire with, at the 
summit, a fish in place of the usual weathercock. The 
white houses, which are seen stretching away up the nar- 
row valley, seem to nestle comfortably in the mighty cleft, 
and present from sea board a most picturesque appear- 
ance ; but on closer acquaintance, although there are some 
good and substantial buildings, there are others merely 
whited sepulchres houses which at different times have 
been burnt out and never rebuilt. 

The sea front is protected by a well built wall, which has, 
during the residence on the island of the Transvaal prisoners 
of war, been added to very considerably on both sides, east 
and west. A road from the landing steps of the wharf, 
bordered on the land side by a deep moat, leads over a 
moated drawbridge, through an arched portcullised gate- 
way (where is still stationed a military guard) on to a 
spacious square called the lower parade. Here the troops 
assemble on such holidays as the King's birthday, the 



ST. HELENA 155 

appointment of a governor, for proclamations, parades, 
drills, etc. Here the proclamation of the death of our 
good Queen Victoria, on January 22, 1901, was made, 
together with that of the accession of our gracious Sovereign 
Edward VII as follows : 

PROCLAMATION. 

By His Excellency Robert Armitage Sterndale, Esquire, Governor 
and Commander-in-Chief of the Island of St. Helena, etc., etc., etc. 
Whereas it has pleased Almighty God to call to His mercy our late 
Sovereign Lady Queen Victoria', of blessed and glorious memory, 
by whose decease the Imperial Crown of the United Kingdom of 
Great Britain and Ireland, and all other Her late Majesty's dominions, 
is solely and rightfully come to the High and Mighty Prince Albert 
Edward. 

We, Robert Armitage Sterndale, Governor and Commander-in- 
Chief of the island of Saint Helena ; John Garroway, Lord Bishop of 
Saint Helena; Thomas Julian Penrhys Evans, Lieut. -Col. R.M.L.I. 
commanding the troops in St. Helena; 

George Nathaniel Moss, Member of the Executive Council of St. 
Helena ; 

William Joseph Williams, Member of the Executive Council and 
Sheriff of St. Helena; 

Therefore do now hereby with one full voice and consent of 
tongue and heart publish and proclaim that the High and Mighty 
Prince Albert Edward is now by the death of our late Sovereign, of 
happy and glorious memory, become our only lawful and rightful 
liege Lord Edward the Seventh, by the grace of God King of the 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Defender of the 
Faith, Emperor of India, and supreme Lord in and over this ancient 
Colony of the Island of Saint Helena, to whom we do acknowledge 
all faith and constant obedience, with all hearty and humble affection, 
beseeching God by whom Kings and Queens do reign to bless the 
Royal Prince Edward the Seventh with long and happy years to 
reign over us. 

GOD SAVE THE KING. 

Given under my hand and public seal of the island of St. 
Helena this 26th day of January, 1901. 

(Signed) R. A. STERNDALE, 

Governor. 
By command of His Excellency the Governor. 

(Signed) ROBT. R. BRUCE, 

For Colonial Secretary. 

The message sent by His Most Gracious Majesty to his 
colonists was : 

To my people beyond the seas. The countless messages of loyal 
sympathy which I have received from every part of my dominions 
over the seas testify to the universal grief in which the whole Empire 



156 ST. HELENA 



now mourns the loss of my beloved mother. In the welfare and 
prosperity of her subjects throughout Greater Britain, the Queen 
ever evinced a heartfelt interest. She saw with thankfulness the 
steady progress which, under a wide extension of self-government, 
they had made during her reign. She warmly appreciated their 
unfailing loyalty to her throne and person, and was proud to think 
of those who had so nobly fought and died for the Empire's cause 
in South Africa. I have already declared that it will be my con- 
stant endeavour to follow the great example bequeathed to me. 
In these endeavours I shall have a confident trust in the devotion 
and the sympathy of the people and of their several representative 
assemblies throughout my vast colonial dominions ; with such 
loyal support I will with God's blessing solemnly work for the pro- 
motion of the common welfare and security of the Great Empire 
over which I have now been called to reign. 

(Signed) EDWARD R. AND I. 
WINDSOR CASTLE, 
4th February, 1901. 

The square is flanked on three sides by buildings, the 
chief being the Fort or Castle, the first of which was built 
under the superintendence of Captain Button, the first 
English Governor. 

This ancient fort is closely described by the narrator of 
the voyage of Mons. Rennefort, who saw it in 1666 : 

Its form was triangular with three bastions. On two of 
the bastions were mounted seven pieces of heavy iron cannon, 
pointed toward the sea. Four guns were placed on the 3rd which 
was upon the land side, and was calculated to serve as a kind of 
citadel in the event of the other parts of the work being captured. 
The two bastions next the sea were flanked by two redoubts with 
two pieces of ordnance on each, nearly on a level with the water's 
edge. 

Up to this time the valley was called Chapel Valley, 
from the chapel built by the Portuguese, the ruins 
of which were still to be seen when the island was first 
settled by the English. But the Castle or Fort was named 
Fort James, probably in compliment to the Duke of York 
(afterwards James II.) for he was an active patron of com- 
merce and at the head of an African Company. 

The site' of Fort James was in all probability that of the 
present Castle, which appellation was seemingly derived 
from its being enclosed within a high quadrangular wall 
or rampart (built in 1707), and surmounted with battle- 
ments or small embrasures. In the walls of this building 
are built several stones bearing inscriptions as under, which 



ST. HELENA 157 

sufficiently indicate them to be relics of Governor Button's 
work. 

Stone No. I. 

CAPT IOHN BUTTON 

GOVERNOR OF THIS ISLE 

FIRST ERECTED THIS FORTIFICATION 

FOR THE ENGLISH EAST 

INDIA COMPY IVNE YE AN : DOM. 1659 

OPERA TESTANTUR DE ME. 

Stone No. II. 
The above stone alludes 

TO A 
FORT BUILT IN 1659. TAKEN DOWN 

AND 

THE PRESENT CASTLE BUILT 
BY GOVERNOUR ROBERTS IN 1708. 
THE HONBLE BRIGD GENERAL DALLAS 
THE LAST GOVERNOR 

OF THE 

HONBLE UNITED EAST INDIA COMPANY. 

In clearing away found it upside down in part of the foundations 
of this Castle and restored it as now placed A.D. 1854. 

Stone No. III. 

THO COLEMAN, workman in chief of this fortifica- 
tion FOR THE USE OF THE ENGLISH EAST INDIA COMPY. 
I CAME ON THE MARMIDUCK MAN OF WARE 

MAY ye 5 1659. 

Stone No. IV. 

IOHN IEFREYS THE MASTERS MATE 

OF THE ADVICE. OCTO- 

-BER ye 16 1659. 

The Castle contains a suite of furnished rooms intended 
for the use of the Governor when in town. In the base- 
ment are stored all the record books of the island, the con- 
tents of which are very interesting, and extracts from which 
will be found on pages 169-80. 

Over the portcullised gateway, parallel with the sea and 
moat, is a spacious walk called the " Terrace." From 
this terrace, entrance is gained to the upper floor of the 
Castle ; from it also there is access to the Government 
garden, and to the paths cut on the hill sides, which were 
planted with trees by Governor Dallas as a promenade for 
his two daughters, and which still retains the name of 
" The Sisters' Walk." 



158 ST. HELENA 

From this~terrace the square or lower parade presents 
a very pleasing appearance. On the left is seen the Castle 
and post-office, the commissariat yard, police court and 
sessions room. There are shaded by a row of most beauti- 
ful trees, under which stand several large cannon ; on the 
right are the guard room, the custom house, the garrison 
offices and the gaol, as well as a large store now called 
the " Rickmers " which was formerly a story higher, and 
well known as " Lawler's Hotel." 

The Church of St. James forms the southern boundary 
of the square, and is a plain, unpretentious building. The 
Portuguese are supposed to have been very anxious to 
conceal the situation of St. Helena from the knowledge of 
other nations, and they succeeded until it was visited by 
Captain Cavendish. (This is known from a manuscript 
containing extracts and memoranda collected by Lieut. 
Thos. Leach, a native of the island.) Captain Cavendish 
called in 1588 on his homeward way during a circum- 
navigating voyage. On the day of arrival he was pre- 
vented from landing by a breeze, but on the following 
morning a boat was put off to ascertain the most con- 
venient anchorage. That selected was off Chapel Valley, 
in atwelve fathoms of water. The narrator of the voyage 
of Captain Cavendish writes : 

The same day about two or three o'clock in the afternoon we 
went on shore, where we found an exceeding fair and pleasant valley 
wherein divers handsome buildings and houses were set up ; and 
one particularly which was a church, was tiled, and whitened on 
the outside very fair, and made with a porch ; and within the church 
at the upper end was set an altar, whereon stood a very large table, 
set in a frame, having on it the picture of our Saviour Christ upon 
the cross, and the image of our Lady praying, with divers other 
histories painted curiously on the same. The sides of the Church 
were hung round with stained cloths having many devices drawn 
on them. 

The narrative continues : 

There are two houses adjoining to the church, on each side one, 
which served for a kitchen to dress meat in with necessary rooms 
and houses of office. The coverings of the said houses are made 
flat, where is planted a very fair vine and through both the said 
houses runneth a very good and wholesome stream of fresh water. 
There is also over and against the church a very fair causeway 
made up with stones reaching unto a valley by the sea-side, in which 
valley is planted a garden wherein grows a great store of pompions 



ST. HELENA 159 

and melons and upon the said causeway is a frame erected whereon 
hang two bells, wherewith they ring to mass, and near to it a cross 
is set up, which is squared, framed, and made very artificially of 
freestone, whereon is carved in cyphers what time it was built, 
which was in the year of our Lord 1571. 

The valley is the fairest and largest low plot in all the island 
and is exceedingly sweet and pleasant, and planted in every place 
either with fruit or with herbs. There are fig trees which bear 
fruit continually and very plentiful, for on every tree you may see 
blossoms, green figs and ripe figs all at once, and it is so all the year 
long. 

The reason is that the island standeth so near the sun. There 
is also great store of lemon trees, orange trees, pomegranates, pome- 
citron trees, and date trees, which bear fruit as the fig trees do, and 
are planted carefully and very artificially with pleasant walks under 
and between them, and the said walks are overshadowed with the 
leaves of the trees, and in every void place is planted parsley, sorrel, 
basil, fennel, aniseed, mustard seed, radishes and many very good 
herbs. The fresh water brook runneth through divers places of 
this orchard and may with very small pains be made to water any 
tree in the valley. This fresh water stream cometh from the top 
of the mountains and falleth from the cliff into the valley, the height 
of a cable and hath many arms issuing out of it that refresh the 
whole island and almost every tree in it. 

The island is altogether high mountains and steep valleys 
except it be on the tops of some hills and down below in some of 
the valleys, where great plenty of all those fruits before spoken of 
do grow. There are much more growing on the tops of the moun- 
tains than below in the valleys, but it is very toilsome and dangerous 
travelling up unto them and down again, by reason of the height 
and steepness of the hills. 

There are also upon this island great store of partridges which 
are very tame, not making any great haste to fly away, though one 
come very near them, but only run away and get up into the cliffs. 
We killed some of them with a fowling-piece. They differ very 
much from our partridges which are in England both in bigness and 
also in colour, and live in coveys, twelve, sixteen and twenty to- 
gether. You cannot go ten or twelve score paces but you shall 
spring one or two coveys at least. 

There are likewise no less plenty of pheasants in the island 
which are also very big and fat, surpassing those which are in our 
country in bigness and numbers in a company ; they differ not very 
much in colour from the partridges before spoken of. We found 
moreover in this island plenty of guinea-cocks which we call turkeys, 
of colour black and white with red heads ; they are much the same 
in bigness with ours in England ; their eggs are white and as big 
as a turkey's egg. 

There are in this island thousands of goats which the Spaniards 
call cabutos, which are very wild. You shall see one or two hun- 
dreds of them together, and sometimes you may see them go in a 



160 ST. HELENA 

flock almost a mile long ; some of them (whether it be the nature 
of the breed of them or the country I know not) are as big as an 
ass with a mane like a horse and a beard hanging down to the very 
ground ; they will climb up the cliffs, which are so steep that a man 
would think it impossible that any living creature could go there. 
We took and killed many of them for all their swiftness, for there 
are thousands of them upon the mountains. Here are in like manner 
great store of swine, which are very wild and fat and of great big- 
ness ; they keep all together upon the mountains, and will very seldom 
abide any man to come near them, except it be by mere chance, 
when they are found asleep or otherwise, according to their kind, 
or taken lying in the mire. We found in the house at our coming 
three slaves who were negroes and one who was born in the island 
of Java, who told us that the East India fleet, which were in number 
five sail, the last whereof was in burden eight or nine hundred 
tons, all laden with spices and callicut cloth, with store of treasure 
and very rich stones and pearls, were gone from the island but 
twenty days before we came hither. 

When the Portuguese touch at the island, they have all things 
in plenty for their relief by reason that they suffer none to inhabit 
there that might eat up all the produce of the island, except some 
very few sick persons of their company, whom they suspect will not 
live until they come home ; these they leave to refresh themselves, 
and take them away the year following with the other fleet, if they 
live so long. 

Between the Custom House and Rickmer's store is a path 
which leads to the ladder. This, with its 700 steps, leads 
to Ladder Hill Fort. 

To one not accustomed either to ascending or descend- 
ing, the mere sight of that vast staircase, without a break 
or turn, causes a sensation of giddiness ; yet the islanders 
pass up and down two or three times a day. Small boys 
are to be found who are willing to slide down the whole 
distance of 600 feet. With their heads on one handle 
rail, their feet on the other, grasping loosely over their 
heads, they execute a feat most indescribably terrible to 
watch. At the top of the ladder is the signal station, 
reigned over by an old and trusted servant of the Govern- 
ment (George Ward). In its vicinity are the main fortifi- 
cations, barracks, and quarters of the military establishment. 

After passing St. James' Church the main street is en- 
tered, to the left of which stands the Government garden, 
nicely railed in ; this contains some beautiful trees, shrubs 
and plants. A few years since it was in good order, but 
the use of it as a camping ground during the stay of the 




WEST ROCKS, LADDER, AND LADDER HILL FORT. 



J, 



ST. HELENA 161 

prisoners of war from South Africa has altogether altered 
its appearance. 

In this garden stands the public library, the telephone 
station and the museum. The public library contains 
560 volumes of modern literature, in addition to a great 
number of old books which may be read on the premises 
but not removed; nine monthly magazines are there, 
and fourteen weekly papers, and during the stay of the 
prisoners of wa*- those who were on parole, as well as the 
extra troops stationed in Jamestown, highly appreciated 
the privilege ace ded to them of becoming monthly sub- 
scribers, and their support has cleared it from the financial 
difficulty it was in some time since. But the residents 
on the island do not take much interest in their library, as 
will be seen from the fact that there are at present in 1902 
only ten yearly subscribers, the rest of the funds necessary 
having come from the casual visitors and monthly sub- 
scribers. The museum was started by his Excellency 
Governor Sterndale, C.M.G. It already contains much 
of interest, and is well worth a visit. Here may be seen 
specimens of cotton, flax, rope, dried fish, lantern fish, and 
a beautiful collection of St. Helena ferns, made by Captain 
Thomson, of the Bengal Pioneers. Specimens are here too 
of lace-work and wood-carving, done by the little fingers 
of St. Helena children, together with much more of interest 
to visitors. 

In the centre of the garden stands a handsome foun- 
tain ; this, when active, makes the hottest day seem cool, 
while under the shade of the trees are several seats. Just 
at the entrance to the gardens is a large building, which if 
utilized would form a spacious public hall, the need of 
which is greatly felt. This building was formerly a dwell- 
ing house, and it was here that Napoleon slept on the 
first night of his arrival in St. Helena. Strangely enough, 
the same room was occupied by Arthur Wellesley, after- 
wards Duke of Wellington, who slept there one night on 
his way from India to England. Concerning this I have 
come across in an old book of St. Helena papers the fol- 
lowing : 

The Duke of Wellington on his return from India occupied the 
house in St. Helena, which afterwards was assigned to Buonaparte 

L 



1 62 ST. HELENA 

on his being exiled there ; and subsequently the Duke, during the 
occupation of Paris by the allied troops, occupied Napoleon's palace, 
which gave rise to the following letter to Admiral Malcolm who 
commanded at St. Helena. It is a literary curiosity, and ought to 
shame idlers : 

PARIS, 

April 3, 1816. 
MY DEAR MALCOLM, 

I am very much obliged to you for Mr. Simpson's book, which 
I will read when I shall have a moment's leisure. I am glad you 
have taken the command at St. Helena, upon which I congratulate 
you. "We must never be idle if we can avoid it." You may tell 
" Bony " that I find his apartments at the Elisee Bourbon very 
convenient, and that I hope he likes mine at Mr. Balcom's. It is a 
droll sequel enough to the affairs of Europe that we should change 
places of residence. 

I am yours most sincerely, 

(Signed) WELLINGTON. 

Main Street is wide and spacious ; military quarters 
occupy the lower end, above which stands the hotel. On 
the opposite side are the United States consulate ; and 
the pharmacy, a well appointed modern business, to which 
is attached a lending library and reading room. Solomon 
& Co., the agents for the Union Castle line, have their 
offices in this street, above which are Jackson's stores, so 
well known to all passengers outward or homeward bound. 

The mess house is an imposing building, and fronting it 
is the St. Helena club. Here the street widens and divides 
the road on the left being Napoleon Street, leading to the 
Briars, St. Matthew's Church, the Tomb, Longwood, and 
Deadwood Camp. The street on the right continues past 
Thorpe's store and that of Galbraith & Co. into the market 
place. Here are several shops, the principal being Messrs. 
Henry's, Thorpe, and Solomon's. Beyond the market is a 
long straggling street, which sadly wants rebuilding in 
many parts. One or two graveyards are here, but they 
have been closed for years past. About half-way up the 
valley is the middle parade, with officers' quarters. At- 
tached were spacious barracks and a pretty little theatre ; 
these have been demolished, and some years since new 
barracks were commenced, but they stand a few feet high, 
surrounded by the broken bricks which were imported by 
the Imperial Government at so great a cost. The Botani- 
cal Garden is the next place of interest. It was sold by the 



ST. HELENA 163 

Colonial to the Imperial Government, and has been used 
as the Town Camp for military and prisoners during the 
war with the Transvaal. It contains many very beautiful 
trees and shrubs. Further up the valley stands the Roman 
Catholic church, the Government school for boys, St. 
John's church, and the two hospitals, civil and military. 
The civil hospital is well worth a visit, being presided 
over by trained nurses. Beyond lies St. John's Villa 
(Government property), Maldivia House, which was 
occupied by the Zulu prisoners, but is now used as a military 
quarters, and Cambrian Cottage, where board and lodging 
may be obtained. From St. John's Church there are two 
roads, one going past the hospitals up the valley, where 
it again divides, one branch passing the waterfalls to the 
Briars, and so eastward into the Longwood road, and the 
other going up and winding round the cliffs called Barnes 
Road or Peak Hill on to Francis Plain, and so into the 
centre of the island. The chief road from St. John's 
church, however, is that called " Phillips " Road, which 
is the main approach to Ladder Hill. Here are barracks, 
signal station, fort, officers' quarters, etc. quite a little 
village. The officers' mess (formerly the observatory) 
overlooks the town, and the view from it is very fine. Far 
below lie the houses of Jamestown, the neat church, upon 
whose summit the fish shows clearly and appears quite, 
near, so steep are the rocks ; then on the horseshoe coast- 
line, a fringe of white surf churning restlessly, and, beyond, 
a trackless ocean of most beautiful blue, over which on a 
clear day a vessel may be sighted at sixty miles. The 
fortifications entirely command the harbour. Passing 
through Half Tree Hollow, wholly destitute of trees except a 
few young saplings of recent planting, and continually ascend- 
ing past clean little cottages, generally enclosed in a small 
patch of garden ground, " Kent Cottage," the home of Cronje 
while in St. Helena, conies into view. Above it on the left 
frowns that gloomy fortress, " High Knoll," where many of 
the more troublesome prisoners were kept. Schiel was 
lodged here for a short time directly on his arrival, when it 
was rumoured that he endeavoured to escape. Here Eloff 
was kept for the greater part of his time. One of the illus- 
trations shows the prisoners outside the fort after the peace 



1 64 ST. HELENA 

declaration and shortly before the departure of many from 
the island. Eloff is seated in the centre. From the road 
now can be seen " Prince's Lodge," owned and occupied by 
Mr. Solomon, and above it " Red Hill," the residence of Bishop 
Holmes. Near here is a Sanatorium for convalescent sol- 
diers. At this point a view of the interior of the island 
bursts suddenly upon the traveller. Until now the journey 
has been up, up, over rocks covered with cactus and prickly 
pear, until High Knoll was reached, at whose base shrubs and 
trees of small size, mingled with aloes, relieve the mono- 
tony ; the scene however from the hill top is one of great 
beauty. The central ridge outlined against the sky is some 
miles off, and at its foot pasture lands, sloping green and 
verdant, may be seen. On the extreme left is " Prospect," 
the property and residence of H. B. Morrice, Esq., also 
" Brook Hill," the farm of Mr. Louis Knipe. In the fore- 
ground still to the left lie " Woodcot " and " Woodlands," 
both owned by Mr. W. A. Thorpe. Nestling in the immedi- 
ate valley is Willow Bank, Mr. Liddy's residence, above which 
stands the cottage of Francis Plain, lately used by Dinizulu, 
and Mr. Thomas Scott's house, where refreshments may always 
be obtained, the Baptist Chapel of Knollcombe, and " Knoll- 
combe House," owned by Mr. C. Grey lie in the valley, while 
higher and on the left is Rose Bower, the property of R. G. 
Short, Esq., the present (1902) sheriff. To the right of this 
stands out clearly the beautiful house and grounds of Oak- 
bank. This property formerly belonged to the See of Saint 
Helena, but was a few years since bought by J. Homagee, 
Esq., supervisor of customs and police magistrate. Since 
the arrival of prisoners of war skilled workmen have been 
employed in renovating the house with the result that it is, 
with its spacious verandah and balcony room, all that could 
be desired. The grounds are extensive and very beautiful, 
containing valuable trees, Chilian and Norfolk pines, Scotch 
firs, oaks and eucalyptus. In the valley cedars mingle with 
bamboos of immense size, the feathery tops of which present 
a beautiful appearance from the higher ground on which the 
house stands. A large stream of water flows through the 
valley, the banks of which are white with arum lilies. When 
these fail, up springs the delicate Easter lily in their place. 
This ground is noted too for the variety of ferns which grow 



ST. HELENA 165 

in wild profusion. On high ground to the right of Oakbank 
is Lufkins Towers, lately rebuilt by Government, the resi- 
dence now of Surgeon-Colonel Mosse, while more in the fore- 
ground is St. Paul's Villa, a compact little house owned by 
Mrs. Lloyd Roe. 

During the residence of the prisoners of war there were 
amongst them, as I have before stated, many excellent 
workmen. One, a builder (Mr. Otto Scheffler), undertook to 
erect for me a nine-roomed bungalow. With a staff of com- 
petent workmen he had completed this work when the news 
for their relief from captivity arrived. This bungalow, 
" Kingshurst," is, I think, with the exception of one built for 
Mr. Deason at Longwood, the only house erected during the 
time of their imprisonment, although nearly all the country 
houses have been repaired or enlarged by the addition of 
verandahs. On the summit stands St. Paul's Church 
(the Cathedral) of the island, surrounded by a spacious 
cemetery, and close by, on the finest property in the island, 
stands Government or Plantation House, the residence 
of the Governor of St. Helena. It is well built and com- 
modious, containing about forty rooms, but it would 
be wonderfully improved by the addition of balcony and 
verandah. 

It was erected in 1791, and stands in about 176 acres of 
picturesque and fertile park land studded with oaks, 
Norfolk and Chilian pines, Scotch firs, cedars, etc. ; in fact, 
trees from cold, from temperate, and from tropical climes 
abound, and it is situated about three and a half miles from 
Jamestown at an elevation above the sea of 1,791 feet. 
The grounds contain a fund of amusement and recreation 
for the botanist. Here, in one of the valleys near some 
large clumps of Indian bamboos, the Chinese had their 
settlement and Joss-house, from which were taken the in- 
teresting tiles, etc., now in the museum, and the old laundry 
used by them has only lately been demolished. The view 
from the plantation is very extensive and beautiful ; and 
the walks are delightfully cool and shady even during 
the tropical summer. 

Following the main road from Plantation we get into the 
centre of the island near the heights of " Diana," " Cuckold," 
and " Acteon." But a road skirts Plantation House and 



1 66 ST. HELENA 

St. Paul's Cathedral bearing west, leading through a pretty 
lane past " Sydenham," owned by the Misses Deason ; 
Scotland, the property of the Misses Moss ; St. Paul's 
Vicarage, Oaklands belonging to Mr. R. Henry, Farm 
Lodge, and Woodland, owned by Mr. G. Moss. Near here 
is " Broadbottom," on which the camp for the military and 
the prisoners from the Orange River Colony stood during 
1901-2. Away beyond this the verdure suddenly merges 
into rugged and inaccessible cliffs, some of the paths round 
which are fit for riding, but many of which can only be 
traversed on foot. There are scattered over the landscape 
many cottages but none of any size. West Lodge, said to 
be haunted, was formerly a show place of the island ; the 
lands are still beautiful, but the house is now in ruins ; 
High Peak, Horse Pasture, Man and Horse, Blue Hill, and 
Thompson's Wood are some of the best known places on 
the westward side. On the westward ridge is the curious 
rock named the Friar, so called from its striking resemblance 
to a cowled monk. At the base of the ridge is Friar's 
Lodge, and near by Cleughs' Plain, both owned by the 
Rev. Father Daine, R.C. chaplain to the troops. 

Near Oaklands is a small knoll called " Mount Eternity," 
where slaves were formerly buried. Several headstones 
remain ; one very easily deciphered is that of " Diana." 
In Plantation grounds also, near the site of the Chinese 
quarters, are a few headstones of slaves ; one of these is 
dated 1777. 

Seen from the main road the scenery is remarkable for 
its softness, until the road skirts the central ridge, from 
which is to be seen Sandy Bay in all its varied splendour. 
Houses are dotted about on the right ; but out of sight from 
the ridge stand Fairyland, owned by Mr. Thorpe ; and 
Rose Cottage, lately Bishopric property, but now owned by 
Mr. Adams. Fairyland was once a noted dairy on the 
island ; even now the pasture land is excellent. 

In view on the right is Mount Pleasant, the property 
of Mr. Barker ; while to the left is Wranghams, not long since 
bought by Solomon and Co. In the centre of the huge 
basin of land is Coffee Grove and Bamboo Hedge, where 
Mr. Albert Henry grows what is determined as the best 
obtainable coffee. 



ST. HELENA 167 

On a point may be seen Mrs. John's residence, while away 
to the left stand a little group of cottages on Green Hill. In 
the foreground soar the huge peaks with their wonderful tree 
ferns and cabbage trees ; the distant panorama finishing 
with the sea. Continuing around the ridge, verdant pasture 
lands stretch as far as Halley's Mount, to reach which 
" Rural retreat " and " Hunt's Gut " is passed. From 
Halley's Mount the whole of the east of the island is in view 
St. Matthew's Church, with its pretty vicarage, and 
Hutt's Gate, owned by Mr. Jackson. Around the Church, 
a path having now Diana's peak on the right, leads to 
"Teutonic Hall," the property of Messrs. Lewis; and 
Arnos Vale, belonging to Messrs. Deason Bros. Around 
the knoll of Arnos Vale this road continues to Silver Hill, 
Bell Stone, and many outlying cottages. The main road 
from Hutt's Gate, however, is that to Longwood and 
Deadwood. In the valley by the road is Willow Bank, 
occupied by Mr. Metcalf . The supplies of water are brought 
along here from the peak lands for the use of Longwood and 
the camp at Deadwood, beyond which rises the peak called 
Flagstaff. To the right of Deadwood is the historic plain 
of Longwood with its houses of Napoleonic interest one 
occupied by Monsieur Morilleau, the custodian of old 
Longwood house and the tomb. Longwood is farmed by 
Messrs. Deason and is in an excellent state of cultivation. 
The late Mr. Thomas Deason was very keen on introducing 
modern improvements and implements. Here are to be 
seen silos for storage of fodder a windmill for which he 
had bricks made on the island, and which he fitted with 
machinery of various kinds. He imported and improved 
greatly the breed of horses and cattle, ostriches also were 
imported by him, but the climate proved unsuitable, though 
one lived for several years ; the feathers were of good 
quality but often much soiled by the red clay of Longwood, 
which is almost destitute of sand. The road leading to 
Longwood skirts the head of Rupert's or Seine Valley as 
it is called here in the upper part. The precipice from the 
road down is terribly dangerous. Mr. Deason planted this 
edge with flax which adds greatly to the comfort of travel- 
lers, breaking the sweep of wind and also to a great extent 
hiding the awful steep. In reality the danger of driving 



1 68 ST. HELENA 

off the road is not much lessened, but visitors do not lose 
their nerve in riding or driving around, as they did when 
the edge of the road was bare, and a yawning chasm shewed 
beneath. Longwood and Deadwood do not now contain 
many plantations of trees, still young trees have been 
planted of late years. Further on is Prosperous Bay, 
(where the electric telegraph station is built) and the " Barn," 
a compact mass of land bearing a marked resemblance to 
a large barn. Here on certain days goats may be hunted. 
Returning from Longwood as far as Hutt's Gate, the town 
is approached direct instead of going by Halley's Mount. 
From St. Matthew's Church the road winds round Seine 
Valley in the verdant part of which is " The Tomb." This 
is a pretty spot and one much frequented by visitors to the 
island. On the height overlooking the town and harbour 
is " Alarm House," the residence of Mr. Legge, while below 
are " Varneys," owned by Mr. Broadway, and the pretty 
little cottage belonging to Miss Marshall. The road winds 
around, and on the left is " Prospect," which was viewed 
from the High Knoll side. This is a well-built house stand- 
ing in good grounds and lately made much more attractive 
by the addition of a verandah. From this point the road 
steadily descends past " Two-gun saddle " to the " Briars," 
which nestles most comfortably in its fertile valley. Here 
are the houses lately bought, and others recently erected by 
the Eastern Telegraph Company and in the Briar's house 
the Superintendent, Mr. CoUard, resides, while the " Pavi- 
lion " (where lived Napoleon for the first two months of his 
exile), is occupied by the Assistant Superintendent, Mr. 
Marsden. 

Below the Briars the road is called Side Path. From 
this a fine view of the waterfall as well as of the town and 
harbour is to be seen. Just under the path are the Com- 
missiariat Stables, the Poor house and the Lunatic Asylum ; 
and near here the path merges into Napoleon Street, where 
are situate the Benevolent Society, the Hussy Charity and 
the Government Girls' and Infants' Schools. Napoleon 
Street is narrow ; it opens out of the Main Street, which 
is very wide. It took its name from its being the street 
which Napoleon traversed on first going to Longwood, 



JOTTINGS FROM ST. HELENA RECORDS. 

THE records of the island are very voluminous, but none 
are of earlier date than 1673. They consist of 154 large 
(four quire demi) books of consultations of the Council 
during the period from 1678 to 1836. The first volume, 
from 1673 to 1677, is unfortunately lost, and was said even 
a hundred years ago to be torn and illegible. Besides 
these, there are thirty- two volumes of letters from the 
Directors of the East India Company to the Government 
and Council, commencing from 1673, and twenty-nine 
volumes of letters from the latter to the Directors. There 
are also eight volumes of registers of property and deeds of 
transfer, beginning with an account of the allotment of 
land to the planters, as it was given to the jury impannelled 
for that purpose on September 26, 1682 ; also four volumes 
of registry of wills from 1681, and twelve volumes of trials 
at sessions, commencing 1762. All the trials of earlier 
date are entered on the Council proceedings. 

These records give us minute detail of the squabbles, 
jealousies and crime of the inhabitants for nearly 200 years. 
The majority of the people were honest, inoffensive and 
hospitable so in reading the ludicrous, sad, or sorry occur- 
rences, we must remember that they only attracted atten- 
tion because they were not usual. 

Here it is impossible to give in detail all the interesting 
matter found in the records. The following table of the 
contents of the first two volumes forms a curious and 
interesting contribution to the Archaeology of the island : 

June 27, 1678. Blackmore Governor 8 members of Council, 3 

cannot sign their names. School held in country church. Mr 

Wynne minister. 
Council, 2nd Sept. 1678, Tanners ; Wild cattle about High Peak. 

Places "of publication of notices, church door in country, and 

flagstaff in the Fort St. James. 



i 7 o ST. HELENA 

30th Sept. Church suffered some damage by extreme heat of 
weather. Sexton appointed. Churchyard enclosure, and hedge 
of lemon trees ordered. 
Wild goats and wild cattle. 

2ist Oct. Church to be inspected after the next rains, boards 
cracked by the sun. 

Guard House at Spraqueses, i.e. Lemon Valley, to be repaired. 
Timber to be cut in the next adjacent place. 

2nd Dec. Two soldiers killed in the Crane Battery by falling rocks. 
Timber viz. 240 pcs. Gumwood trees to be felled in the next 
adjacent wood, that is nearest to the Fort St. James, to cover 
in the said battery this timber was felled at the head of the 
Seine Valley vide 24th Feb. 1678. 

1678-79. 27th Jan. Peter Williams, 2 1 lashes on his naked body at 
the Flagstaff for concealing two runaway blacks. 

Lemon trees and their fruit, order for their preservation. 
Church by report of Mr. Wynne in need of some repair, order 
for a voluntary collection. Order that all pigs in Chappell 
Valley be penned up on the firing of alarm guns, they fouling 
the water for the shippes. 

Salto, a black, condemned to be hung, his hand and head 
cut off for wounding his master ; and Rowland, a black, to be 
led to the place of Saltos execution, there to receive 40 stripes 
save one on his naked body, and a pair of iron pothooks rivetted 
about his neck. 

Page 86. Sarah Marshall to have 31 lashes on her naked body for 
scandal- Asses. 

A law against the wilful throwing or rolling down of rocks. 

Page 85. Inquest on Thos. Green ; body taken up ; trial by touch- 
ing the dead body ; 3 persons committed on verdict of man- 
slaughter. 

Page 84. Liberty given to inhabitants of E division to build a place 
for public worship and for schools. 

Page 104. W. Melling to ride the wooden horse with a bag of shot 
at each heel. 

Page 105. 6 was the expense of making the new line of batteries 
before the lines at Ruperts. 

Settlers in St. Helena to have 10 acres of land and a cow 
on marrying in some cases 10 acres more and another cow. 

Page 124. Gaming; bowls, nine holes, nine pins forbidden. 

Page 126. Some soldiers through intemperance, and ill husbanding 
their clothes to rags (?). 

2nd Aug. 1680. Council ordered for this day could not meet till 
a week after, a ship having arrived from England. 

^5 IDS. od. the expense in repairing and making new the mount 
at Ruperts and the Batteries at Banks. Paid 129 dollars 
current at 5 /- each. 

Women not to go on board ship without Governor's license, 
and then only in company with their husbands. 

Page 143. School house in the E division permission for requested, 



ST. HELENA 171 

IN SECOND BOOK, 1680. 

Page 155. That troops will be paid half in cash and half in goods. 
The ship Bridgewater with slaves from St. Laurence Island 

bound to Barbadoes. 

Pinnace sold by inch of candle. 
Page 163. Ship Friends Adventure with slaves from St. Laurence, 

alarm occasioned by her arrival. 
Page 184. William and John free trader from Bengalla in a leaky 

state. 

Page 187. Ponds by the Saley port, Fort James. 
Page 195. Mr. Church the minister exchanging a black woman for 

a black man. 
Page 209. Permission to planters to take away fallen trees in the 

Great Wood. 

Page 220. Church rate i/- per 20 acres or id. per head of stock. 
Page 231. Wm. Saddler is discovered to be a Quaker, for which 

and other bad behaviour he is ordered to leave the island. 
Complaint by A. Wilson against Kersey for calling him 

wizard. A black man is distrained for debt and ordered to be 

sold. 

Page 239. A woman whipped at the Flagstaff, Jamestown. Con- 
tract and agreement by a joiner to make a chest of drawers. 
Page 241. Asses no increase in. Two acres of potatoes. 
Page 253. 320 yams per month with beef, sweet oil, lamp oil, 30 

candles, etc. allowed to Mr. Church the minister. 
Page 256. Also rice, vinegar, and paddy for his fowls. Fish royal 

the sea cow (royalty claimed on). 
Page 269. W. Gates called Mrs. Powell a witch on the ground that 

he has never thriven since he took home his little daughter. 
Page 277. Gates to ask pardon publicly in the church. Inhabitants 

have cut down much wood and building timber. 
Page 289. Wood and timber in Sandy Bay. Thomstone wood. 
Page 290. Extraordinary drought and failure of water. 
Page 297. Timber and wood in Sharke's Valley and Fisher's Valley. 
Page 299. Women whipped on their naked bodies at the Flagstaff 

in Jamestown. 

Wood and timber at Hutt's plain. 
Chubb's spring. 

Page 331. W. Melling to keep school in the church. 
Page 336. The only boat at St. Helena blown out to sea and lost. 
Page 396. Mr. Church the minister dead. Mr. J. Cramond ap- 
pointed. Mr. Lufkin, being one of a sober serious life and con- 
versation, appointed member of Council. 
Page 404. Order for erecting Court of Adjudicature or sessions 

house. The market house near Fort James selected for the 

purpose. 
Page 406. Mr. J. Sick the first sheriff. Prison to be appointed and 

made. 
Page 607. Edmund Chubb killed by falling from a ledge of rocks 



172 ST. HELENA 

at the seaside near Rupert's or Seine Valley. Inquest, verdict 

death by chance. 
Page 410. First sessions, scale of fees, etc. John Orchard doth 

run away to neighbour's houses and into the woods many 

nights and days, for some weeks together. 
Pages 85, 102. Extraordinary verdicts, churchwardens appointed 

to collect money for repair of church. 
Page 414. Order of proclaiming sessions and fee. 

COPY OF FIRST PAGE ST. HELENA RECORDS AS ILLUSTRATION. 

At a Council held at Fort James the 2;th of June, 1678. 
Present- 
John Blackmore . . Governor. 
Capt. Gregory Field . . Late Governor. 
Capt. Anthony Beale . Deputy Governor. 
Jonathon Tyler . . Lieutenant. 

Joshua Johnson . . Lieutenant. 
Robert Swallow 
Jno Greentree 
John Colston. 

Capt. Hopefor Benbell, Commander of the ship Johann 
The instructions from the Honourable East India Company dated 
the Twentieth of February last past and brought over by the Gover- 
nor were openly read, and this being the first Councill after the 
present Governor's arrival, it was proposed by him (for the better 
management of the Government of the said island and free debates 
at all consultations) that all who are members of the Councill should 
promise and engage upon their reputation not to disclose, discover 
or declare to any person or persons, inhabitants or souldiers of the 
said island (except amongst themselves) or others that shall arrive 
thereon any of the said debates, discourses, consultations or reso- 
lutions that shall be at any time had or made at the Councill board 
but shall keep all words, passages, votes very privette and secret, 
excepting such orders of declarations as are agreed on to be made 
publicke, which said proposall was assented unto by all the members 
present and accordingly every one of us doe personally promise and 
engage upon our representations to perform the same. 
In witness whereof we have hereunto put our hands. 
'Signed) J. BLACKMORE, Gov : 

GREGORY FIELD. 
ANTHONY BEALE. 

A mark 8 made by JONATHON TILOR 
afterwards spell TYLER. 
Jo JOHNSON. 
ROBERT SWALLOW. 

A mark =F made by JOHN GREENTREE. 
A mark x made by JOHN COLSTON. 

The lot of the St. Helenians is very different now com- 



ST. HELENA 173 

pared to that of the people in the old days of slavery. 
Owing to the wise and gradual process of emancipation 
adopted, i.e. the free children growing up with their slave 
parents, the evils of sudden manumission, so disastrously 
felt in the West Indies, were avoided in St. Helena, and the 
result is a manly, civil people, educated quite as well as 
the same class in the United Kingdom (in fact, the English 
tongue is spoken by them with as great purity as in the 
rural districts of England), living in many instances in 
their own comfortable cottages, with generally a neat, 
productive garden attached. Contrast this with life in 
the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, when slaves 
were judicially tortured, hung drawn and quartered, and 
burnt alive on mere circumstantial evidence, while for open 
acts of diabolical cruelty their masters were acquitted or 
very lightly punished. The records give many instances 
of this : 

On January 2, 1693, a slave of Deputy-Governor Keeling was 
found guilty of sorcery and burnt to death. 

In November, 1687, Peter, and in December, 1689, Job and Der- 
rick, slaves, convicted of poisoning their masters out of revenge, 
were burnt to death ; all other slaves to be present, and to bring 
down a turn of wood for the purpose. 

A black who was tried before a jury and acquitted was ordered to 
be flogged before being discharged ! For stealing a piece of cloth 
from a sailor in the street, William Whaley was hanged on June 
24, 1789 ; and on January 15, 1800, Job, Mr. Defountain's slave was 
hanged for snatching a bottle of liquor from a drunken soldier. 
Both these cases were looked upon as highway robbery. 

A young girl found guilty of burglary was sentenced to death. 
The jury were told to reconsider their verdict, but they adhered to 
it. She was respited for a time, but hanged herself in prison. 

Terrible sentence on a negro : A slave attempted to kill his 
master by putting ground glass on his supper. He was condemned 
to be burnt in the presence of all the adult blacks of the place, each 
one of whom was compelled to bring in a load of wood to help in 
burning him. 

Sunday was strictly observed throughout the island, and the 
following was enjoined by proclamation : 

" That the Lord's Day be religiously observed through the said 
island, and all persons hereby enjoined to abstain from all bodily 
labour, unnecessary travel, or any secular employment (except 
works of necessity and charity) and noe person presume to spend 
any part of that day in unlawful sports, but all (who are able) are 
required to resort every Lord's Day unto publique place or places 
where the worship of Almighty God is celebrated, and there joyne 



174 ST. HELENA 

together^in the solemn exercises of Right Duties and attendance 
upon God's holy ordinances. Also carefully to avoid the odious 
sinnes of profane swearing and cursing or commonly taking the 
holy name of the Great Glorious God in vaine, and to abstain from 
drunckenness, stealing, thieving and other horrid vices and wicked- 
nesses." 

Sarah Marshall had thirty-one lashes on her naked body at the 
Flagstaff for scandalizing Captain Bendall. 

Parnum was fined 55. for working on the Lord's Day, and his wife 
is. for cursing the island. 

A terrible punishment was this : Sottoe, a slave, was for some 
fault chastised by his master, and retaliated by attacking him 
with his knife ; the result was, not much harm for the master, but 
terrible for the poor slave. There was just at this time a fear of 
insurrection amongst the blacks, and Sottoe was chosen as the 
instrument for maintaining order. He pleaded that a fellow slave 
named Rowland persuaded him to attack his master ; also that he 
was under the influence of tobacco which he had stolen and smoked 
in a pipe ; this pleading was in vain. It was ordered that his hand 
wherewith he attacked his master was to be cut off ; he was then 
to be hanged and when dead his head was to be cut off and placed 
on the top of the Market House as a warning to all transgressors. 
Rowland was not let off punishment, for he was to be led with a rope 
round his neck to witness his companion's execution, and after 
forty stripes on his naked body he was to have a pair of iron pot- 
hooks rivetted round his neck until further orders. 

The above terrible sentence was not, however, carried out in 
full. Sottoe's hand was cut off in the presence of all the blacks, 
but his life was spared. 

Soldiers were generally punished by being compelled to ride the 
wooden horse. 

William Melling for swearing and incivility " doe ride the wooden 
horse two houres with a bag of shott at each heel." Again, " that 
Richard Honeywood doe rid ye wooden horse halfe an houre with 
two musketts at each heele for slighting the Government and 
malitiously revenging himself e.' 

For attempting to get away from the island slaves were punished 
by seventy-five lashes, with five drops of burning sealing-wax dropped 
on the naked body. 

They seemed in the olden time to be unfortunate in the 
choice of their clergy, but in reading all these records of 
cruelty we must remember that the times were cruel, and 
that in England also highway robbery, sheep stealing and 
forgery were capital offences. 

Even the whites in St. Helena were made at times to 
suffer cruel punishments : 

In 1684 Elizabeth Starling was flogged and " duckt " three times. 



ST. HELENA 175 

In November, 1728, Ensign Slaughter, accused of slandering the 
Governor, was flogged ; and late in the records is a reference to this 
whipping which it is stated was done with wire whips and fish hooks 
tied to a cane. 

INTERESTING RECORD CONCERNING LIME. 

Capt. Edward Mashborne in digging of lime stone in Breaknect 
Valley, amongst 'em seat some that was mixed with other stones 
and dirt, which being tryed in the fier there was found with it several 
specks of gold. And Mr. Daniel Griffiths since hath sent to the 
Governor two sortes of minerals found the last week by Charles 
Rothwall, a soldr lodging at his house. The one is gold the other 
we take to be copper, samples whereof may be seen at the Governors. 
Wherefore for the encouragement of any person that shall be indus- 
trious towards finding a mine thereof shall have as a reward for 
his trouble two hundred and fifty pounds for the gold, and one hundred 
and fifty pounds for the copper mine. And this rainy season being 
the most proper time for looking into all the waterfalls and streams, 
we desire that they may apply themselves diligently thereabout, 
being assured that there are such mines upon the island. 
Dated Fort James this 2$rd February, 1708. 

At a consultation held on Tuesday the 3Oth day of May, 1710, at 
the United Castle in James Valley. 
Present 

JNO. ROBERTS, Esq. . . Governor. 

EDWD. MASHBORNE . . Dep. Governor. 

WM. MARSDEN . . . 3rd in Councill. 

DANIEL GRIFFITH . . . 4th in Councill. 

MATTHEW BAZETT . . 5th in Councill. 

Capt. Mashborne reports that he findes the Governours project 
of mixing lime very serviceable to the ground in destroying the 
worms which were so destructive to the meaze planted, and has 
got the plow up, and designs to brak up more ground and manure 
it with lime, in order to plant more meaze. 

" Let Capt. Mashbourne use his utmost endeavours to bring the 
meaze plantations to perfection, it being of so great importance in 
preserving the health of the people of this island. The people are 
very sickly and they sending down to the Governour every day for 
Brandy to supply their present Necessitys." 

Ordered. 

That a noat be put up at the Store that Monday next being the 
5th day of June, the Brandy will be served out at Eight Shillings 
a Gallon, in the mean while let Every one bring in an Account to 
the Storekeeper what quantity they want. 

At a Consultation held on Tuesday, the i$thday of August, 1710. 
Passed as above. 

The Governour says he got a Receipt for making of sugar out of 
one of the last Shipps, and so he made an Enquire to Squeese the 
Canes, and with three Yam potts went to work Last week and 



176 



ST. HELENA 



Unhappily spoiled the first Lime, for it burnt to the bottom of the 
Pott, but he went to work again with it, Squeezed more canes, and 
it hit the second time, and made nine or Ten pound of as good 
sugar as any in the West Indies, and here it is 

Ordered. 

That a Pound or two be sent to our Honble Masters by the next 
shipping and that they may be acquainted that We have found the 
following articles Since Governour Roberts came here, viz : 

Lime. Sugar. 

Tyles. Rum. 

Brick. Mineralls of severall sorts. 

Cut stones for building, 

Upon which we are now resolved to fire Nine Guns, to drink our 
Hon'ble Masters good health and Success to the Island, for we are 
well sattisfied this Island will turn to account and not be a dead 
charge it Ever has been, if our Hon'ble Masters will please to En- 
courage it and supply these people with necessarys, and then there 
will be no Aversion against Improvements, but Showers of blessings 
of these people will come to them. 

At a consultation held on Tuesday, i9th December, 1710, at the 
United Castle in James Valley, present Jno. Roberts, Esq., Governor, 
etc. 

The Chanell or Water Course that runs upon the side of a Hill 
that waters the Shipping and this Lower Garden by the soaking of 
the Water, occasioned a great deal of the Hill to Tumble down 
and made such breach that has taken us a great many blacks and 
Whites to Repair which is now over, although its to be feared other 
places will do the like if not timely prevented, and it seems hardly 
possible to prevent it under three months labour with fifty people 
at least, but having so many irons in the fire, the most needful is 
to be preferred, and that is planting pearsides. The Castle at Mun- 
dens point is finished all but one battery and a halfe, and the angles 
that joyn to the Hill, which we think to leave so, untill the guns 
are mounted, that being the properish place to purchase them up. 

RESOLVED. 

That a path of communication be cut between Managers Castle 
upon Mundens point, and the United Castle in this Valley, that a file 
of Musqueteers may go in a Breast, and that the same be done 
according to the Governors scheme. 

At a consultation held on Wednesday, i4th of Feb. 1710-11, at 
the United Castle in James' Valley, present John Roberts, Esq., 
Governor, etc. 

The Governor reports a Channell being cut from the Water 
Course in the Valley to the top of the Hill, as mentioned in consulta- 
tion of the Qth of January last. Yesterday in the afternoon, he 
turned the water out of the Valley, which now runs currant on top 
of the Hill as you all see, and says he has done it sooner than he 
expected, having had no more labourers than he expected, by 



m e 




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,/.-?-.-'"* / '* 







PAGES FROM OLD RECORD BOOK. 




PAGES FROM OLD RECORD BOOK. 



ST. HELENA 177 

which means we have saved the season, and believe the best way 
now is to fence in fifty or sixty acres of it immediately, and proceed 
in planting what grain we have, corn and beans, etc. 

As also when fenced in to transplant all the Yam Succors in the 
upper part of it. And a pond must be made to resist the force 
and fury of the water course in the raines, as well as to save the 
water for the dry season, after the land is fenced in, and we must 
be obliged to burn lime with wood for that purpose, and if the season 
should set well in, we might make a shift with that one pond, till a 
ship comes from England that may bring coles, which will save 
the company a great deal of charge, nor will the charge he says 
amount to halfe as much money as he proposed in the consultation 
of the 9th of January as aforesaid, because two-thirds of the water- 
course is cut out of rocks and clay, so that it won't require above 
a third of it to be done with lime, and by what he can see yet there 
will be no occasion to repair the watercourse in many years, even 
as it is now cut, in the next place there will not be occasion for 
so many ponds for the current is pretty strong now, notwithstanding 
the long dry windy weather we have had, and we may reasonably 
expect that the current three-quarters of the year will be three 
times bigger than it is. 

And as he has gained a great deal of ground by raising the water 
a-top of that hill by several acres higher than he first measured, 
so that that plantation, well managed, will supply a thousand 
people with yams, corn, beanes and potatoes, besides the advantage 
of sugar plantations, and vinyards. And the antient constant 
custom of buying yams of the planters will be altered in twelve 
months time, if please God to give a blessing to our endeavours. 

Ordered. 

That the land and plantation aforesaid be fenced in, as the Gover- 
nor shall please to direct, and that Capt. Mashborne do proceed in 
planting the same accordingly. 

At a consultation held on Thursday the 29th day of March 1711, 
at the United Castle in James' Valley, present John Roberts, Esq., 
Governor, etc. 

Mrs. Grace Coulson declares that black Oliver was her slave, and 
also his wife, and when the Dutch took the Island they went to 
Brazile, and there sold the said Oliver her slave to an English mer- 
chant one Mr. Abram by name ; Capt. Anthony Beale, and Captn. 
Metford, Commander of the Humphrey and Elisabeth, hired a sloop 
at Brazile to come and cruise to the windward of this island, to give 
notice to all merchant men that the Island was taken by the Dutch 
and they persuaded Mr. Abram to let the said Oliver go in the afore- 
said sloop because he knew the Island; being upon her cruise to 
the windward of the Island they met Sir Richard Munden to whom 
they gave notice as aforesaid, and black Oliver being well acquainted 
with the Island took him out of the sloop, and ordered him to con- 
duct his men into the country to retake the island, which he per- 
formed, for that good service Sir Richard Munden gave him his free- 
dom, and sent the money to his master to Brazile, and five pound 

M 



i 7 8 



ST. HELENA 



more that he had paid for him to Mr. Coulson. And his wife the 
antient old company bought her of them, and sent her to her husband, 
and repaid Sir Richard Munden for black Oliver, who was made a 
free planter and bestowed this twenty acres of land upon him, 
and all other encouragements that free planters then had, as appears 
by the 33rd paragraph of a letter from the antient old company 
dated ipth September, 1673, as may appear. 

The following records on the names of localities will be 
found interesting : 

" ALARM HOUSE " called so from 2 guns (stationed here prior to 
1692) which were fired as alarm guns whenever ships were signalled. 

There is an order in Record of Sept. 12, 1692, that 

" The alarm of two guns from Prosperous Bay is to be repeated 
by the alarm guns on the main ridge of two guns. But if more 
than one ship, then three or more guns, on which not only the planters 
but their blacks must also attend." 

Governor Pyke proposed to plant this ridge with trees, being of 
opinion it would make this valley (James Valley) as healthy and 
fruitful as formerly, he^says : 

" We are confirmed in this opinion by a sort of experience. Those 
who best remember this place say that the fine Lymon and other 
fruit trees that used to grow in such abundance in this valley thrived 
till after the cutting away of wood on this ridge, and it is a sort of 
demonstration that Mr. Powell, whose house stood on a ridge exposed 
to bleak winds and rain, people used by way of derision to call 
it Stark-naked House, yet, Mr. Powell being obliged by a most 
useful law made in Governor Roberts, his time, to plant part of 
that land with wood, since the wood has grown up, everything has 
flourished and he has now plenty of Lymons. 

BANKSES, mentioned by this name on June 2/th, 1678, but on 
ist May, 1734, called King William's Fort with an explanation that 
it was in the drift of the island called Bankses platform the plat- 
form was first built there, and retained the Builders name, but at 
Bankses platform they could not call to any ships, and the men of 
war that came here, in King William's time contrived the fort above 
the hill above Bankses, which they called King William's fort ; 
and it is this place that all ships that intend for the island go as 
near as they can, so that we usually hale them from this place, and 
they hear well what is said to them, but the wind there coming 
alway off the shore, we cannot so well hear what they answer but, 
if they are heard, a messenger is always dispatched thence to the 
Governor, and they run along the side of the hill in a dangerous path 
which all strangers usually admire to see." 

BRIARS mentioned as a Yam plantation of the Company on i6th 
May, 1733. This plantaiton was given up in September, 1739. In 
August, 1827, it was repurchased by the Company for 6,000 to 
make a mulberry plantation for feeding silkworms. Since then the 
property has been famed as the residence of Napoleon while Long- 



ST. HELENA 179 

wood was being prepared for him. The day after his arrival he rode 
to Longwood and on returning was struck with the appearance of 
the Briars and expressed a wish to remain there. It is very probable 
he did not wish to return to the town where crowds were waiting 
to see him. Mr. Balcombe, the owner, readily gave him accom- 
modation, and his daughter Miss Betsy (Mrs. Abell) gives in her book 
Recollections of the Emperor Napoleon numerous and humerous 
anecdotes, many of them remembered by old people not long passed 
away. Miss Betsy seems to have been a very lively girl. In a steep 
descent she pushed her sister Jane with such force against Count 
Las Casas that to the horror of the old count he found himself made 
a catapult of on to the back of Napoleon who was leading the way. 
This was done to revenge herself on Napoleon who the day before 
held her while young Las Casas kissed her. Another time she with 
a drawn sword kept Napoleon pinned in a corner of the room. 
Napoleon's method of punishing her was to pinch her and call her 
Mademoiselle IBetsee, and on one occasion when she expected to go 
to a ball at the Castle he ran away with her ball dress and kept it 
until Betsy was in despair at having to stay at home. Her father's 
method of punishing her was more severe, for he locked her up in a 
dark cellar infested with rats and terrorised her. 

(The Briars for many years was the property of Mr. George Moss, 
but is now owned by the Eastern Telegraph Company.) 

BROADBOTTOM. Unlike many of the island ravines, which are 
generally narrow, this widens out at the bottom and forms a fine 
broad flat of arable land. On nth August, 1679, it is recorded that 
Lieut. Johnson had chosen his grant of thirty acres at Great Bottom 
near High Peak. This Lieut. Johnson afterwards became Governor 
Johnson and was shot by Henry Fogg, a confederate in Sergt. Jack- 
son's mutiny in 1693, particulars of which are given in Brooke's 
History. The fact that the Governor had been warned but treated 
the warning lightly is not noted by Brooke. We find this, however, 
in the settlement of a private dispute between Hoskinson v. Rooker 
which took place nine months after the mutiny. A witness named 
Gargen then stated that he heard Fogg speak of their intent and 
" he told Governor Johnson what he heard from Fogg, which the 
Governor made light of, "but that the Governor as an acknowledge- 
ment " sent him a clean pipe by his son Caleb." Governor John- 
son's widow and son remained in possession of Broadbottom, the 
widow died in 1713 and the son in 1745, when he bequeathed it to 
his son-in-law John Alexander in whose family it remained till 
1843, when it was surrendered to Government for a mortgage to 
the Widows' Fund. The original allotments of land to first settlers 
very soon changed owners, and passed through many transfers, 
and this of Broadbottom is the only one that remained in the same 
family until the transfer of the island to the Crown. 

(Broadbottom, which now belongs to the Hon. G. N. Moss, member 
of Council, has come lately into great notice as the camping ground 
for the prisoners from the Orange Free State during the Transvaal 
War.) 



180 ST. HELENA 

CHUBB'S SPRING. This is a fine spring at the head of James 
Valley, discharging hourly 3,600 gallons of pure water. It is the 
chief source of the water supply of Jamestown. It takes its name 
from Chubb a soldier who landed with Governor Blackmore in 1678. 
From Record, March, 1682 : " Edward Chubb allowed half an acre 
a little below Peak Hill and High Waterfall. Chubb's Rock, where 
he was killed in 1683, is near Rupert's Valley; the great rollers of 
1846 were so high and of such force that they split the wall of the 
battery on Chubb's rock, and swept the ground from it into the 
sea. Such force had been recorded before, and in 1737, I2th Nov. 
there was a violent surf ; for the records relate that a gun or a large 
piece of iron ordnance was washed off the top of Chubb's rock (a 
demi culverin 43 cwt. which was afterward recovered in three 
fathoms)." 



CHAPPELL VALLEY. 

THE modern name of James Valley and James Town is 
seldom found in the old records. The Fort or Castle was 
called Fort James after James II., in whose reign it was 
enlarged and improved, but the valley in the records is 
named Chapel Valley from a small chapel built by the 
Portuguese on their discovery of the island. This chapel is 
described by Captain Cavendish, the first English dis- 
coverer, who visited the island on June 8, 1688. It is not 
certain whether the same site was used for the present 
church, or whether even any part of the original building 
was there when the East India Company obtained the 
island, but that the building used as a church in 1711 was in 
a ruinous state is plain from a record, which says : 

7th April, 1711. The Churchwardens made a petition "That 
whereas our Churchyard at the Fort is very small, and hardly room 
to dig a grave for rocks and graves already digged, also our yard 
wall is very bad and irregular . . . that we may inlarge our yard 
backwards by cutting the water in a new course near the hill and 
have liberty of ranging the front wall with the street." Governor 
Roberts answered the churchwardens, " That it is commendable 
in them to promote the putting that piece of rubbish called the 
churchyard in order, it's for the credit of the island, and we advise 
you to repair the church or it will tumble down in a little time . . 
people will be apt to say that at this island the old proverb is true 
about settlements, that where the English settle they first build a 
punch house, the Dutch a fort, and the Portuguese a church." 

Matters had not improved in 1732, when we find on Sep- 
tember 30 another letter from the Churchwardens to the 
Governor on 

the ruinous condition both of the Chappie in the country, and the 
Chappie at the Fort, the former of which has lain level with the ground 
for two or three years past, and the latter is so much out of repair 
that it's shameful a place set apart for the celebration of Divine 
Service, and in the open view of all strangers, especially of the foreign 
nations, etc. But after we had proposed to rebuild the Chappie 
in the country, it was objected that the poverty of the people was 

181 



1 8a ST. HELENA 

such that they could not comply therewith, though it was said that 
if they could be assured of having an honest good man for a minister 
they would be as willing as able to rebuild the Church as their own 
houses, but have had of late such worthless undeserving men, that 
unless they could have a man to sett them a better example by his 
own life and conversation, they have no encouragement to do 
anything. 

The present church was not built until 1772, and the 
following entries of records tend to show that it was not 
built on the old site, but near to it : 

April 2nd, 1772. In erecting the new Church we were obliged 
to pull down the Doctor's shops. 

Feb. 6, 1774. That three houses were built upon the ground 
where the old Church stood for the use of the Company's servants. 

These are the three houses still standing above the 
Church, belonging to and occupied by the Imperial Govern- 
ment, but formerly occupied by the Members of Council 
who had a town house allowed them, together with a good 
salary. 

EGG ISLAND is mentioned first in 1681 : 

Alarm caused at daybreak by discovering a vessel at anchor 
near Egg Island which proved to be the Friend's Adventure with 
slaves for the West Indies. 

Other entries show that large numbers of seabirds' eggs 
were gathered at this island under Government regula- 
tions. In 1707 warning is given that liberty had been 
granted by the Governors from time to time to gather eggs 
upon the Egg Island on Tuesdays, Thursdays and Satur- 
days, and that boats which went on other days would be 
deprived of their privilege for the rest of the season. 

In 1717 there is the entry : 

The birds called Egg birds beginning now to come to the island 
to lay eggs at Shepheard's Hole, notice is given to all persons not 
to go to the Egg Island until the end of this present month. 

After October they may go on Tuesdays, Thursdays and Satur- 
days as usual. 

FLAGSTAFF is mentioned in June, 1678, as one of five 
places where outguards have formerly been kept, viz. : 

Ruperts, Bankses, Flagstaff, Prosperous Bay and Spragues or 
Lemon Valley. It (Flagstaff) rises perpendicularly from the sea 
shore to a height of 2,290 feet and on a clear day is one of the most 



ST. HELENA 183 

commanding positions for a signal station, but from its height it is 
often hidden in the clouds and it is ordered Sep. 1692 that Matts 
mount or Flagstaff should be discontinued as a look-out, being 
mostly very foggy and hazey and inaccessible to an enemy 
Prosperous Bay being much lower hath a very clear prospect. 

FRIAR'S VALLEY is first mentioned July 14, 1684, in con- 
nexion with Breakneck Valley. The shape of the pillar- 
like rock on the ridge of hills bears a close resemblance to 
a cowled friar, that there is no difficulty in knowing whence 
the valley obtained its name. (Friar's Lodge is now 
owned by Rev. J. H. Daine, R.C. Chaplain.) 

HUNT'S Gun, near Halley's Mount, was allotment 
ground granted to Sergeant Maurice Hunt on January 15, 
1683. It is described as adjoining Hutt's Plain, and next 
the grand ridge that leadeth to the wood. 

HORSE PASTURE. In the records are careful returns of 
all stock in the island, including cattle, sheep, goats, hogs, 
asses, and even poultry belonging to the Company, but 
horses are not mentioned before 1733. We should there- 
fore infer that no horses were on the island, yet a large 
common in 1714 is called " Horse Pasture,'* which name it 
still bears, and " Horse Ridge " is named as early as 1695. 
An account of the voyage of M. Rennefort in 1666 
proves that horses had been introduced at an early date, 
but had become so wild that they preferred to break their 
necks over the precipices into the sea rather than allow 
themselves to be caught : 

On y avait porte des chevaux mais ils etoient devenues si farouches 
que lorsqu'on les poursuivoit jusqu'aus extremites de 1'ile se pre- 
cipitoient du sommet des roches dans la mer plutot de se laisser 
prendre. 

The absence of any allusion to horses in records from 
1673 to 1734 justifies the belief that these wild lovers of 
fieedom committed suicide rather than be captured. The 
first horse mentioned in the records was December, 1734. 
It must have been of their stock, for we read : 

A young black horse of the Company being grown big enough 
for the saddle, the Government ordered him to be taken up and 
broke, but as they were bringing him home, he raised himself upright 
and fell with such force upon a sharp stick in a furze bush that it 
went through the bladebone of his shoulder, and penetrated into his 
heart, and killed him on the spot. 



1 84 ST. HELENA 

HALLEY'S MOUNT is called in the records Hawley's 
Mount, and was used by the famous Dr. Halley for his 
astronomical observations in 1676. While here he observed 
a transit of Mercury, which suggested to him the method 
to which so much importance has since been attached, of 
ascertaining the distance of the sun by observations on the 
transit of Venus. The name Hawley's Mount first appears 
in 1682, with the following order : 

Sundry families settled in Sandy Bay and other windward 
valleys, being at a great distance from the Alarm guns, the guns 
to be removed to Hawley's mount, and to be fired by any person 
discovering a ship. 

HUTT'S GATE. In the time of the Company this was 
called "Hutts' Plain," or more frequently "The Hutts," 
from the buildings erected for the negro slaves. In 1715 
the Hutts plantation is recorded as the chief and best yam 
plantation, producing the greatest quantity, there being 
now 300,000 planted. It remained a Government planta- 
tion till March, 1725, when it was resolved to throw up the 
land into pasture. 

HALF TREE HOLLOW, in the Records " Half Way Tree," 
first mentioned December, 1696. Mary Tewsdale (a 
suicide) was ordered to be buried at Half Way Tree with a 
stake through her body and a heap of stones cast upon her 
as a monument. 

In 1711 it is ordered that Halfway Tree common, 3 miles 
in circumference, be reserved for the Company's cattle, 
hogs and goats. 

LEMON VALLEY was first mentioned in 1678 as Spragues. 
In a record on its defensive condition in 1734, Governor 
Pyke says some of the Dutch landed here, but by throwing 
large stones down the hill they were beat off again. He says 
" The guns are much flamed and honeycombed. We have 
taken them away thence as useless, and placed them on 
the West Rocks as shoar fasts for any ship that has occasion 
to warp in there. We have placed an anchor and several 
guns there for that purpose." (This explains the presence 
of the old guns, leaded muzzle downward, in the solid rock 
on West Rocks, under Ladder Hill. The anchor was carried 
away by the heavy rollers in 1846.) 




! Ait mm 




ST. HELENA 185 

LEMON VALLEY, or SPRAGUES, was formerly the best 
watering place for ships, but in 1732 there was a landslip 
of seven or eight acres of land (600 yards long by 91). This 
altered the taste and colour of the water, making it less 
pure than that of Jamestown or Chappie Valley. 

LUFFKINS. There are two places called by this name, 
Luff kins near Plantation, and Luffkins near Horse Pasture. 
Both derive the name from John Luffkins, one of the first 
settlers, of whom it is recorded in 1683 that the Mr. John 
Luffkins being one of a serious life and conversation, was 
chosen as fifth in council. He is referred to again in the 
Dennison rebellion as one of the planters without arms, 
who accompanied the soldiers to the Gate. The lands of 
those implicated in the rebellion were forfeit, except in the 
case of Luffkins, as "He wholly refused to make any agree- 
ment, alleging his estate was not forfeit." Luffkins, near 
Plantation, afterwards became Government land, not by 
forfeiture, but by purchase ; June 1767, Record says : 
" John Luffkins going to England, sold his house and 30 
acres near Plantation to the Government for 350." 

LADDER HILL appears in the records 1733. It was more 
usually called Fort Hill, meaning the hill above the fort or 
Castle at Jamestown, for there were no fortifications on it. 
A curious steep zigzag path, with a shore ladder piece in 
the centre, can even now be clearly traced on the side of 
rocks. It was cut by Governor Pyke in 1717, and for 
cutting this Governor Pyke received a lecture from Eng- 
land, for the Directors thought the labour and expense 
should have been given to the fortifications. The only use 
made of the top of the hill for the first hundred years of the 
settlement was as a position for the gibbet on which crimi- 
nals were hanged in chains at the point where the flagstaff 
now stands. It commanded a view of the whole town and 
harbour, so that after an execution the cheerful spectacle 
was to be seen by all inhabitants. In 1770 the carriage 
road was made. In 1797, in anticipation of war, Governor 
Brooke relates that Ladder Hill had been strengthened by 
an additional tower, mounting two 12 pounders, to aid in 
covering the rear of the works, and by a battery of two 18 
pounders on a point over the sea. He says a " barrier gate 
has been constructed with works to flank it on the road 



1 86 ST. HELENA 

leading from town to the hill, and stones have been col- 
lected in heaps in readiness to throw down." 

THE " OBSERVATORY," LADDER HILL, was proposed and 
built by Governor Walker, October 1823, and Lieut. 
Johnson, of the" St. Helena artillery, was selected to take 
charge of it. He showed such natural aptitude that his 
catalogue of stars, published by the East India Company 
in 1835, is still a standard work. After the break up of the 
Company's St. Helena establishment, Lieut. Johnson ob- 
tained charge of the Radcliffe Observatory at Oxford. 

LONGS was the allotment ground of Francis Moore, a 
Chirurgeon, who died in 1682, when the land was sold to 
John Long. On April 3, 1717, Governor Pyke relates : 

There is a report run about the island like wildfire that there 
is a new Governor coming. On 9th is another record, that John 
Long, rejoicing in the report of a new Governor and Council, walked 
7 miles to town to defy Capt. Haswell and tell him "a little time ago 
you threatened to cane me, now strike me if you dare. I don't 
care a D for you." 

For this Long was sent to prison. The governor writes : 

It is very strange the Directors for the Honble Company should 
have such mistaken notions of these people, who never did nor 
could live peaceable, there being too many of them of John Long's 
temper. Tis pitty we have not some of the Committee to live among 
them, for that would certainly make them judge of these people's 
temper better. 

This was a candid but hardly respectful hint to the Court 
of Directors that they needed a personal experience of St. 
Helena Billingsgate ; and it was no doubt prompted by the 
following hint, written by the Directors to the Governor ; 
" We have some complaints of our Governor's arbitrary 
temper. We expect that he give no cause for it." 

In 1733 John Long was brought up for receiving stolen 
yam from the Company's plantation at the Briars, and 
ordered to be whipt. The warrant says : 

You are to whip the said John Long publicly with ten lashes, 
but in regard he hath been a planter here, you may for this first 
time let him receive the shame of this punishment with his clothes 
on. You are to make your prisoner fast to the tail of the wooden 
horse, and read this to him before you whip him. 

And the said John Long was whipped accordingly in the 



ST. HELENA 187 

presence of a great many people, who were only concerned 
that he did not receive the stripes upon his naked body, 
and in greater number. 

LOT. This is only mentioned once in the records. (About 
a mile and half from Lot is Lot's wife, 1,550 feet above the 
sea, the pillar itself 260 feet above the hill on which it 
stands.) It is a pillar 290 feet from base to top, standing 
1,444 feet above the sea. Record says : 

There has been two of your Honour's blacks, being strong 
mutinous fellows by some means got some weapons and tryed to 
get some more blacks to join them, and betook themselves to a kind 
of fastness which was at the foot of a spiral rock called Lot, and on 
the top of a high mountain almost inaccessible, and there in a large 
cave they took up their residence and withstood every body they 
could see, who came towards them from a great distance and by 
rowling down stones kept every body off, so that they were beseidged 
for three or four days. The soldiers, sent after them, desired leave 
to fire at them. The Governor sayd in case they could not be other- 
wise taken in one day more they should be fired at. The next day 
one Mr. Worrale, a brisk young man with two or three more did get 
up behind them, and above them, and then they hove down rocks 
in their turn and beat down the chief of them so much bruised that 
he dyed, at which all the people in Sandy Bay had great satis- 
faction for they suffered much for them. These rebels were in a 
cave at the foot of Lot. 

The summit of the pillar, 290 feet higher, can only be 
gained by careful climbing, and it involves so much risk of 
broken necks that few persons have ventured to try it. On 
the summit the perpendicular sides of the pillar are in- 
visible, and you see only the eight or ten feet of space on 
which you stand, nearly 1,500 feet above the sea. This 
produces a terrible feeling of insecurity. 

LONGWOOD. This and Deadwood were formerly known 
as one property, viz., " The Great Wood." The first men- 
tion of it is in 1678, " that there were herds of wild swine 
in the Great Wood, and it was ordered that no person 
should presume to kill any unmarked swine." 

In 1716 a ground plan of the wood is inserted in the records, 
and it is said that the "Great Wood is in a flourishing condi- 
tion, full of young trees but miserably lessened and destroyed 
within our memories, and is not near the circuit and length 
it was, but we believe it does not contain less now than 
1,500 acres of fine woodland and good ground, but no water 



1 88 ST. HELENA 

but what is brackish. If wells could be sunk we should 
think it the most pleasant and healthiest part of the 
island . . . the Hutts was called the wood's end. But the 
wood is so destroyed that the beginning of the great wood 
is now a whole mile beyond that place. The destruction of 
the wood, though often spoken of and regretted, seemed to 
continue until a large portion of it received the name it 
now retains of Deadwood. 

It was treated as a common ; planters were allowed to 
pasture their cattle and obtain fuel from it. In 1789, 
Governor Brooke proposed to carry water to Longwood in 
an open drain. At the close of the last century the forest 
both at Deadwood and Longwood had entirely disappeared, 
but in August, 1745, it is stated that 317,000 young gum 
trees had been planted at Longwood up to 1720. The 
cost to the Company of fencing this property was 5,400 
and in 1778 a further sum of 5,000 was estimated as the 
cost of renewing the fence at Longwood with a stone wall 
of three miles in circumference. Until the arrival of 
Napoleon, the house on it was used as a residence for the 
Lieut enant-Governor. In 1815, Governor Wilkes names a 
carrying of water to Longwood as one of his improvements, 
that 3,226 yards of drain and lead pipes had been laid from 
Wells to Longwood at a cost of 1,231. Longwood had 
then become the residence of Napoleon and staff. The 
grounds were used as a Company farm, and in June, 1823, 
Governor Walker says " that the farm buildings at Long- 
wood are in a ruinous condition, and their reconstruction 
would be attended with great expense " he therefore 
proposed to appropriate the old dwelling house at Longwood 
used by Napoleon as farm offices, as they could not be 
consigned to a more useful or a more necessary purpose. 
This was practical and it did not then occur to any one it 
would be a desecration to turn the room in which Napoleon 
died into a threshing barn, or his bedroom into a horse 
stable. 

In 1857 the enclosure called the " Old House " was con- 
veyed by Her late Majesty's Government to Napoleon III, 
and it is now restored so as to resemble (as nearly as pos- 
sible) its appearance as it was in 1815 to 1821. 

MUNDENS was named from Sir Richard Munden, who recap- 



ST. HELENA 189 

tured the island in 1673 ; not because, as some reports say, 
" he landed his men there from the yard arm of his ship," 
but because with a sailor's eye he first saw the advantage 
of placing a battery on it to protect the anchorage and the 
shore from Sugar Loaf to Horse pasture point. 

New batteries have since been built, but still, remains of 
the former fortifications can be seen. The old battery was 
formed of ancient rubble masonry, and it was thought a 
shell from a modern gun would ruin it. But while the 
Boxer was in harbour in May, 1878, Captain Allington tried 
the effect of a couple of shells from his heaviest guns, a black 
mark being painted on the battery as a target. The 
Boxer was 400 yards distant with guns fixed by the Captain 
himself, with full battering charge. They were fired with 
such precision that both shots struck the same spot in the 
centre of the black mark ; they penetrated some depth, but 
the aged battery seemed not a bit the worse for it, and it is 
to be hoped the modern casement will stand as well, if 
necessary. 

PLANTATION. This beautiful spot was set apart by the 
Company as the official residence of the Governor at the 
first settlement it was merely a plantation for the supply 
of the Governor's table and for the growth of Yam to feed 
slaves hence its name. In the record of December, 1673, 
Governor Field ordered "that Plantation" is to be at the 
direction and disposal of the Governor for the supply of 
the table for himself and others that are appointed to dyett 
with him. In 1679 * s a minute * Captain Beale hath a 
house standing on the Honble Company's plantation which 
he erected by consent of the late Governor Field. The 
Company have no house but where the blacks lodged 
there being great need of such a convenient house as is the 
said Captain Beales, ordered four carpenters to appraise it. 
In 1709 the land was so bare of wood that slaves were com- 
pelled to go once a week to Horse pasture to obtain fuel. 
Record says " Our Masters plantation is quite destitute 
of wood so that one day in the week it employed all the 
blacks to fetch wood from Horse pasture and the Great 
Wood therefore ordered that fifteen acres be enclosed at 
Plantation Valley and planted with gum wood." 

In 1714 Governor Bourcher's successor complains that 



190 ST. HELENA 

the house had been left very much out of repair and nothing 
in the garden but plaint ain trees and pasturage for Gover- 
nor Bourcher's asses. It was afterwards steadily improved 
under successive Governors, and Governor Wilkes, in 1815, 
says he had expended during his time 4,500 in repairs and 
additions to the property, and had planted out 27,000 pine 
asters. It is now the best wooded property in the island 
and contains a number of rare and beautiful trees, fine 
vegetable and flower gardens, and spacious walks, that 
towards Green Gate being very beautiful. 

PUTTY HILL is so called from the stickiness of the clay on 
the hill in wet weather. Governor Blackmore, in December, 
1690, was killed by a fall on Putty Hill, but so low down 
that his body fell into the water. Captain Johnson, who 
succeeded him, stated at the inquest that he and Governor 
Blackmore with two boys were coming from the country at 
about six o'clock, and that the Governor slipped and fell 
down a steep place. The fall was so violent that he had only 
time to say, " Oh, help me." His body was taken out of 
the run of water near the waterfall, at the bottom of the 
steep opposite the upper end of Maldivia Gardens. 

RUPERTS. In May, 1734, is an entry which says " Here 
Prince Rupert, son of the King of Bohemia and nephew to 
King Charles I., on his return from India, came to an anchor 
and stayed to refresh his ship's company." This event 
gave the place the name of Rupert's Valley. On the same 
date is an order that the 4-pounder guns in Rupert lines 
were to be kept loaded with partridge shot which looks as 
if the Frenchmen would have been fair game had they 
tried to land there. 

ROWLAND'S COVE. This has been the scene of frightful 
accidents even of late years. It was first called Downing's 
Cove from a fatal accident to a soldier of that name. 

In 1734 Corydon, the Company's chief fisherman, going 
to Ruperts, carrying a small box of fish for his wife who lived 
in Rupert's Valley, was killed there, and later, a man named 
Rowley, carrying a small keg in the same path hit it against 
the jutting rock, when it hove him down and smashed him 
to pieces. 

SOUTHENS near Friar's Valley was allotted to a 
Sergeant Southens. It was his widow Sarah, who made 



ST. HELENA 191 

the name notable. In January, 1720, she was taken into 
custody with two or three others for writing the following 
complaint to the Company against the Governor : 

Whereas on the 29th November 1719, that the Rev. Mr, Jones, 
the Right Honble Company's Chaplain on the said Island was cele- 
brating of Divine Service according to his office, the collect of the 
day was interrupted by Governor Johnson saying very outrageously, 
" You are out to-day as you was last Sunday, for this is the 2nd 
Sunday in Advent," the which the Rev. Mr. Jones read to prevent 
any further indecency, but informing himself while a psalm was 
sung and finding he had committed no error proceeded on his duty 
till he came a second time to read the Collect for the first Sunday 
in Advent, was instantaneously interrupted by Governor Johnson, 
saying, "Why do you make these mistakes"; to which the Rev. 
Mr. Jones made no reply, but went on scarcely to the end of the 
Communion Service and published the Holy Day, viz. St. Andrews, 
being the next day, adding that prayers will be at church ; then the 
Rev. Mr. Jones had no sooner expressed himself thus, but Governor 
Johnson said, "Not by you, sir! " calling out very furiously "Officer, 
take him prisoner, bring him before me," and the order was imme- 
diately executed. 

For this writing Mrs. Southens and several others were 
committed for trial. The evidence given agrees with above 
letter, except that the Governor called to Mr. Jones in a 
very mild manner and that Mr. Jones, without any regard to 
what mistakes the Governor had told him of, did persist and 
read on in open defiance of the Governor, which gave him 
cause to order Mr. Jones to be seized by the Officer of the 
Guard and to bring him to the Castle ; where he appeared 
with an haughty countenance and vindicated himself in a 
very rude manner, who for his disobedience and violent 
behaviour then, as well as several other times before the 
Governor and Council, he was confined. 

The jury found Sarah Southens and Dr. Civil guilty, and 
they were both sentenced "to be sett in the pillory for one 
hour, the pillory to be sett in the middle of the valley over 
against the store house (the present commissariat yard) 
they had to stand with their faces up the valley. 

After these proceedings Mr. Jones left the island, and 
while Governor Johnson remained no other clergyman would 
come. In the August following, there being no clergyman 
Mrs. Swallow, the widow of the planter, and possessed of 
small property, was married to Joseph Bedloe, one of the 



192 ST. HELENA 

garrison, by Dr. Middleton, surgeon of the ship Hartford 
Francis , but they had forgotten to ask the Governor's leave. 
As soon as he heard of it, he sent the Marshall in pursuit of 
the newly married couple and the record states : 

Bedloe led her down the Valley and introduced her into the 
Hall of the Castle by the hand as his wife. They both owned the 
fact before the Governor, and Bedloe offered to show the certificate. 
Upon this the Governor ordered Bedloe to be whipt, and to receive 
fifty lashes on his bare back at the Flagstaff, and to be confined 
to prison till the departure of the next storeship, and the said widow 
Swallow was ordered to receive twenty lashes on her naked back, 
but when she was affixed to the Flagstaff the Governor ordered the 
whipping to be remitted, hoping the shame of being so publicly 
exposed would have the same effect on her, as the smart had on some. 

The Doctor had hurried on board ship to be out of the 
way, but this did not avail him. The Marshall was sent 
to bring him on shore, and by the Governor's order he was 
tied up to the flagstaff and whipped with twenty lashes. 

The Court of Directors seem to have taken very little 
notice except to hint to the Governor that he had better 
keep out of Dr. Middleton' s reach. The Directors wrote 
on May 31, 1721 : 

The affair of Mr. Jones the chaplain taking him out of his 
desk in the time of Divine Service in that outrageous and unpre- 
cedented manner shockt us at the first hearing of it, and more so 
when it was further explained and the cause of it particularized. 
We are surprised Mr. Johnson, who knows so much better, could be 
capable of doing it. We tell you we will never endure it. It seems 
he did while officiating in his office act unbecomingly, and the 
language thereof might be interpreted " Thou art the man," but if 
there had been no secret guilt, why such outrageous anger ? We 
have reason to believe Mr. Jones is not a man of the best morals, 
but that ought not to warrant unlawful revenge. Be angry and 
sin not, and avoid all appearance of evil, are two rules as necessary 
to persons in authority as to any of their inferiors, if not more so. 
Can any of you think that bearing all down before you, whether 
right or wrong, will ever make an Englishman easy the common 
peoples judgement of things makes them sometimes argue wrong, 
but they always feel right when hardly dealt with. 

On 23rd February, 1722, they say : " You were in the right to 
deny Bedloe the soldier marrying the widow Swallow, and censuring 
Mr. Middleton for presuming to marry them contrary to the settled 
custom of the island, but the manner of punishing Mr. Middleton 
is what can be no ways justified by any law of England or St. 
Helena, nor can we imagine what should induce the Governor to 




VIEW OF INTERIOR FROM FRIAR'S RIDGF, LOOKING WEST. 




VIEW OF SOUTH RIDGES FROM HIGH KNOLL FORT. 



ST. HELENA 193 

take so large a step, but an apprehension of his own despotick 
power as if he were above all law. As to the present case, we are 
sorry for the occasion, let him take the consequence when he returns 
to England and finds that our mild laws will suffer no man to stretch 
his authority at this rate. The Governor's carriage towards Mr. 
Jones (mentioned in our last letter) has made such a general ill im- 
pression upon people's minds here, that we cannot hitherto get a 
Chaplain to be sent to you. 

SEALES FLAT, a small plain at the upper part of Sharks 
Valley now forming part of Amos Valley, the original 
allotment in 1682 of Benjamin Seale. In 1695 Seale was 
accused by John Long (before referred to) of having said 
that godfathers and godmothers lied, when for a child they 
renounced the devil and all his works, and for this, Mr. 
Harewood the minister ordered him to appear in Church 
on August 25, and there openly confess his guilt in a form 
drawn up by Mr. Harewood in which form he styles the 
Church of England, " new part of God's Catholic Church." 
Penance of this kind may be good for some, but in Benjamin 
Scales' case the thought of it acted on body instead of on 
mind. When the Sunday arrived he was compelled to stay 
at home instead of going to church, and on the following day 
he appeared before the Council and " in a humble manner 
craved forgiveness and declared he could not possibly come 
to church,being then much troubled with ' grips in ye gutts.' " 

THOMPSON'S WOOD should be Toms tones wood. Men- 
tioned first in September, 1678, that Peter Williams' land 
of twenty acres in Tomstone wood is in a remote and 
desolate place far from neighbours, and it is ordered he is to 
share with Smoult at High Peak till some other inhabitant 
shall have land allotted, in or near Tomstones wood. A 
part of this land is called the Churchyard, for the huge 
boulders scattered over the ground are worn into a shape 
closely resembling at a distance, Tombstones hence the 
name Tomstone which has been modernized into Thomp- 
son's. 

There is an entry of May, 1717 shewing that a planter 
could not then cut down his own trees with impunity. 

Ripon Wills was summoned for wilfully destroying forty lemon 
trees. The complaint was "about fifteen days since, two of his 
neighbours walking by his upper grove of lemon trees picked off 
some of the fruit and eat them, which the old man seeing, fell into 

N 



194 ST. HELENA 

a passion and sayed they robbed him and would be damned for it, 
and in his rage fetched an axe and cut those trees down forty in 
number, and very large with fruit on them, and then sayed he did it 
to save the people's souls, that would be damned for stealing." 
Wills on this prayed for leniency, and sayed that the trees grew in 
a very windy cold place, a quarter of a mile from his house and 
produced no profit to him, but he was in terrorem fined 2O/- each 
tree 40 ; but if he plant double the number in some other place his 
fine will be lessened. 

PROSPECT. This place is not mentioned in the records, 
but Grace Coulson, widow of the Coulson who was executed 
in 1685 for being concerned in the Dennison rebellion of 
1684, was allowed to retain her husband's property on con- 
dition of paying a rent. It can be traced that this property 
was that which now forms the fine estate of " Prospect." 
Widow Coulson was a woman of spirit, for we read that she 
was before the Council on March 20, 1690, where the rent 
was demanded from her. She answered she had paid none, 
and further peremptorily added that none would she pay, 
withal saying she had paid too much already, and soe in a 
womanly passion departed saying, " You may doe what you 
will and turn me with my children out of doors. I am 
bleeding every day and you may as well hang me as you did 
my husband." This Coulson was an original planter under 
the first Charter and was the owner of Black Oliver, who 
acted as guide to Sir Richard Munden, when he landed at 
Prosperous Bay. 

. So much has been written on the subject of Napoleon 
Buonaparte that it is difficult to sift the truth from tra- 
dition. He was such a " great criminal that he was not 
only permitted to escape the punishment due to his atro- 
cious crimes," but from the Government he had striven 
against he received every necessary comfort, nay, every 
luxury, obtainable. 

He was born at Ajaccio, in Corsica, on August 15, 1769, 
and was the second son of Carlo Buonaparte, who was a 
professor of law, but who had, previously to the birth of 
Napoleon, quitted law for the sword ; and under the stan- 
dard of his friend and patron Paoli, taken up arms with his 
countrymen to resist the cession of Corsica to France. 

Napoleon early evinced a strong predilection for military 
pursuits, and his father, through the interest of Mons. de 



ST. HELENA 195 

Marbeuf, the French Governor of Corsica, procured his 
admission to the military school of Brienne, in Champagne 
in his tenth year. The military education received at the 
public schools was marked by a peculiar severity of dis- 
cipline, and was strongly of a monastic character, so that 
while here, Napoleon's disposition, naturally reserved and 
unsocial, was not improved, while his military propensities 
received all possible encouragement. He pursued his 
military studies with ardour, and showed great fondness 
for mathematics, but paid little or no attention to writing, 
languages and fine arts, evincing a contempt for everything 
not military. At the school his conduct gave presage of an 
unusual character, for he associated very little with the other 
boys, and evinced a distaste for their amusements. By 
this he gained the name of " Spartan." In games and 
exercises of a martial nature, he excelled, always taking 
the lead, and influencing his comrades. In 1784 he was 
removed to the " Ecole Militaire " at Paris, where he studied 
mathematics under the celebrated Monge ; his proficiency 
was so great that immediately after his first examination 
he was placed as an officer in the " Corps de Genie," a part 
of the French Service which combined both artillery and 
engineering. 

In 1783 he left this school, having obtained a lieutenant's 
commission, but still continued with passionate ardour his 
military study, and his republican notions at this time 
frequently drew him into fierce disputes with his brother 
officers. When the elements of the Revolution showed 
themselves openly in France, Napoleon, with thousands of 
others, was fired with the ambition of taking a decided part 
in the scenes which it became evident would follow. An 
opportunity soon offered, for he, with his family, had been 
removed by General Paoli from Corsica to Marseilles, where 
he was introduced to General Barras, who obtained for him 
a commission in the French Artillery. He was ordered at 
once with his regiment to the siege of Toulon, which was 
occupied by the British, and so distinguished himself that he 
was during the siege raised to be adjutant-general, and then 
appointed general of artillery. 

Soon after this he was ordered to Nice, where he became 
acquainted with Marat, who, with him was cashiered for 



196 ST. HELENA 

misconduct. Napoleon went to Paris to complain of his 
sentence, but was not restored to his rank in the army. 
October, 1795, saw him in command (under Barras) of the 
Conventional Army, to act against the Parisians, who were 
showing an active disapprobation of the measures of the 
Convention. 

He acquitted himself in this contest so much to the satis- 
faction of Barras and fell in so entirely with his views in 
other matters, that he resigned the army of the interior to 
him, and then procured his appointment to the command 
of the army of Italy. Just before his departure for Italy 
Napoleon married Josephine, the rich widow of the Viscount 
de Beauharnois. Such were the steps by which he, at 
twenty-seven years of age, rose in a space of three years 
from the rank of Chef-de-brigade to that of commander-in- 
chief of the most important army in the Republican service, 
and for this extraordinary promotion he appears to have 
been indebted principally to the good offices of Barras, 
who had sufficient penetration to discover his military 
talent. In a single campaign he over-ran the greater part 
of Italy, defeating three Austrian armies, commanded by 
the veteran Wormser. By celerity of movement, and 
dec ve manoeuvres then unknown, he allowed the enemy 
no time to concentrate forces, or choose positions, but 
attacked with an intrepidity which even the bravery and 
discipline of the Austrian army could not withstand. By 
his brilliant and decisive victory over Archduke Charles 
in March, 1797, and subsequent successes, he advanced so 
far into the Austrian dominions as to threaten Vienna itself. 
This state of things led to a treaty highly favourable to 
French aggrandisement and power, and ended the first Re- 
publican war under Napoleon. Under successive titles 
of First Consul and then Emperor (for the people wearied 
with scenes of anarchy and bloodshed, hailed him as their 
deliverer, and gave him sufficient ambition and address 
to mount the vacant throne, thus covering crime with 
military glory), he obtained a series of victories over the 
continental armies of Europe, conquests unparelleled in 
ancient or modern warfare. In the year 1810 he had reached 
the zenith of his power. The battles of Marengo, Austerlitz, 
and Jena had compelled the great powers Russia, Austria, 



ST. HELENA 197 

and Prussia to enter into treaties dictated by himself and con- 
sequently highly favourable to his ambitious views ; the two 
latter powers had already seen their capitals occupied by 
his victorious armies, while the minor powers of Europe were 
either incorporated with France or acted under his direct 
influence. One splendid exception alone remained to this 
hopeless scene. England was not only unsubdued by him, 
but was preparing for the regeneration of Europe, by the 
resistance to his invasion of the Spanish peninsula ; and 
the armies of England, under the illustrious Wellington, 
first convinced the world that the troops of Napoleon were 
not invincible. To this time his career had been one of 
uninterrupted success ; he had never sustained a defeat 
in any general engagement, but his reverses now commenced, 
and he never after obtained a decided victory. He de- 
scended even more rapidly than he had ascended. 

In 1812 he was firmly seated on the throne of France, 
allied by marriage with Marie Therese, daughter of the 
Emperor of Austria, at the head of 500,000 men ; and the 
year 1814 saw Louis XVIII restored to the throne of his 
ancestors, and Buonaparte on the road to ignominous exile. 
One of the greatest military commanders that ever lived, 
he stands, perhaps, a solitary instance of the most consu- 
mate military talent, wholly unaccompanied by the generous 
and magnanimous qualities which generally dignify and 
exalt a military character. 

On the day of the Capitulation of Paris to the allied troops 
he was at Rochefort endeavouring to escape to America. 
There were two frigates which the provisional government 
had placed at his disposal and on which, if he had not hesi- 
tated, he might very easily have escaped. But he lingered, 
hoping his army might recall him. 

In the meantime he was busily employed in making 
preparations to depart. Wagons were bringing from the 
palaces valuable articles which he chose to consider as 
useful for his voyage, or necessary for his establishment 
at his future residence. He was repeatedly advised to 
embark, and boats were ready at every tide to convey him 
to the ship, but he was irresolute. At one time he resolved 
to return to Paris, and make a forcible appeal to his troops, 
then he contemplated addressing the Government requesting 



198 ST. HELENA 

a command in the army ; then he issued orders to embark 
and almost directly countermanded them, pretending that 
the whole of his baggage had not arrived. So day after day 
rolled on, until the British cruisers, hearing of his presence 
in Rochefort, blockaded the port, and so rendered his 
escape impossible. There he remained, awaiting news 
from Paris, and when it arrived he was filled with dismay 
indeed. Paris had surrendered to the Allies, the provisional 
Government which would have helped him to escape was 
dissolved, and Louis was daily expected in the capital. 
Too late he regretted his indecision, and for a while gave 
way to despair. Then a multitude of schemes presented 
themselves, one of which was to fortify the little town of 
Aix and there defend himself to the death. He went, 
landed marines, reviewed his adherents, inspected forti- 
fications and commenced repairs, but almost immediately 
saw the absurdity of his idea : the fortifications would soon 
have been demolished and a blockade of a very short time 
would have starved him into surrender. Two ways of escape 
he determined on, one by a Danish, and another by a small 
French vessel, trusting under cover of darkness to elude the 
vigilance of the British cruisers ; but this also he abandoned 
as hopeless. All chance of escape was gone, when he sug- 
gested the expedient of sending a flag of truce by Generals 
Savary and Las Casas to the Commander of the British 
Squadron requesting to be allowed to pass out and giving 
his word of honour that he would proceed to America. 

To this, answer was made by Captain Maitland, the British 
Commander, that the vessel would be attacked directly they 
quitted the harbour. His situation was indeed desperate 
for LoinY was reinstated on the throne, and the wonder of 
Napoleon and all around was that orders had not been sent 
to arrest him, and at the hands of the French, he knew he 
would not obtain much consideration. In his desperation, 
he determined to appeal for protection to the generosity 
of the British Nation, and he despatched two officers again 
to Captain Maitland proposing ^surrender, on condition 
that his person and property should be respected, and that 
he should be allowed to live where he pleased in England 
as a private subject. 

Captain Maitland made answer that he would convey him 



ST. HELENA 199 

with his suite to England to be received as the Prince 
Regent might determine, and that he was unable to make 
terms. Napoleon was chagrined, but there was no alter- 
native except certain destruction ; he therefore embarked 
on a brig bearing a flag of truce. Seeing this, Captain 
Maitland sent his boats to meet the brig, and in about an 
hour the barge, in charge of the first lieutenant (Mr. Motts), 
returned to the Better ophon accompanied by the " once 
great ruler of half the world," who, on ascending to the 
quarter deck, advanced to Captain Maitland and said in 
French : " I come to claim the protection of your Prince 
and your laws." He was received by the captain with all 
the respect due to his former rank for at that time there 
were no orders to the contrary. 

The appended letter, written by Napoleon to the Prince 
Regent, was sent to England by the Slaney with the des- 
patches giving an account of his surrender to Captain 
Maitland. 

ALTESSE ROYALE, 

En butte aux factions que divisent mon pays et a 1'inimitie des 
plus grandes puissances de 1'Europe, j'ai termine ma carriere politique 
et je viens, comme Themistocle, m'asseoir sur les foyers du peuple 
Britannique. Je me mets sous la protection de ses lois, qui je 
reclame de Vc A. R. comme les plus puissant le plus constant et le 
plus genereux, de mes ennemis. 

NAPOLEON. 

Translated : 
ROYAL HIGHNESS, 

Exposed to the factions which divide my country and to the 
enmity of the great powers of Europe, I have terminated my political 
career, and I come like Themistocles to throw myself on the hos- 
pitality of the British nation. I place myself under the safeguard 
of their laws, and claim the protection of your Royal Highness, the 
most powerful, the most constant, and the most generous of my 
enemies. 

NAPOLEON. 

Writers have censured this allusion to the illustrious 
Athenian as puerile and absurd, for there was very little 
similarity between the surrender of Themistocles and 
Buonaparte. The former was the saviour of his country, 
and had made her mistress of Greece. In the height of his 
prosperity, that country was ungrateful, and he was doomed 
to banishment. Unable to find a refuge, he threw himself 



200 ST. HELENA 

on the generosity of a monarch whose fleets he had before 
defeated, and whose father he had killed. Buonaparte 
certainly made France for the time supreme in Europe, and 
while she maintained her supremacy, the gratitude of the 
country was his. To him she gave her liberties and trea- 
sures ; it was only when he had laid her prostrate before 
foreigners that she chased him from her shores ; not to 
humble himself to one whom he had before conquered, as 
Themistocles, but to a people who had repeatedly beaten 
Mm, who had been in a great measure the cause of his 
dethronement. Still, 

" Both were born of obscure parents ; both shunned the society 
of their youthful companions, and both were sacrificed to the sus- 
picions and apprehensions of their country.' 1 

The principal personages who embarked on the Beller- 
ophon with Buonaparte were : 

Lieut.-General Count Bertrand, 

Grand Marshal of the Palace, 

Countess Bertrand and three children, 

Lieut.-General the Duke de Rovigo, 

Lieut.-General Lallemand, 

Marshall de Camp Baron Gourgand, aide-de-camp of Napoleon, 

Marshall de Camp Baron Montholon Semonville, also aide-de-camp, 

The Countess Montholon Semonville and child, 

Count de las Casas, Counsellor of State, and son, 

M. de Resigny, Chef d'Escadron, officer of ordnance, 

M. Planat, 

M. Autric, 

M, Schultz, 

M. Mercher, 

M. Pointkorski, 

M. Mamgault, surgeon of Napoleon, 

as well as forty others. 

When first the Bellerophon neared land in Torbay, Na- 
poleon exclaimed "Enfin, voila ce beau pays." (At length, 
here is this fine country). As soon as the arrival in Torbay 
was announced, the ship was the centre of attraction, and 
innumerable boats set out to obtain a view of Napoleon, 
and although they were not permitted to come alongside, 
not less than a thousand put off daily. 

By some of those on board the Bellerophon it is stated that 
he was quite at his ease, taking possession of the captain's 
cabin, inviting the officers to his table, and talking with 



ST. HELENA 201 

great freedom on the current affairs. Among others, he 
said that it was impossible for the Bourbons to govern 
France, and that Napoleon II would soon be recalled to the 
throne, that England alone had ruined his plans, that but 
for her, he would now have been Emperor both of East and 
West. He declared he would rather have perished than 
have surrendered to Russia, Austria, or Prussia, as the 
sovereigns of these countries were despotic ; but by de- 
livering himself to the British he was throwing himself on 
the generosity of a nation with just and honourable laws, 
affording protection to all persons. 

The question now was, what was to be done with him ? 
In England he could not be allowed to reside there would 
have been no security to Europe ; nor could he be allowed 
to migrate to any neutral country, for there his corres- 
pondence with French agitators would have been unre- 
strained, and no guarantee could be accepted or given con- 
cerning his return. 

A distant and isolated spot was required, where escape 
was impossible, so that many unpleasant restraints on his 
liberty could be dispensed with, and quietness and peace 
reign in Europe. 

It was now that the little island of St. Helena proved its 
value. 

Many hundreds of miles from continental land, having 
only one harbour, and landing from that easily guarded, 
naturally strong, and rendered impregnable by forts, bidding 
defiance to sudden surprise, commanding a view of the 
ocean from its lofty rocks of over sixty miles in all directions, 
this was evidently a safe prison, and here it was determined 
that the dethroned Emperor should be sent. 

An official letter written by Earl Bathurst, Secretary of 
State to the Lords of the Admiralty shows that the British 
Government were anxious to contribute as far as possible 
to his comfort, though compelled to take necessary pre- 
cautions for his security. 

DOWNING STREET, 

July soth. 

MY LORDS, I wish your Lordships to have the goodness to com- 
municate to Rear-Admiral Sir George Cockburn a copy of the 
following memorial, which is to serve him by way of instructions 



202 ST. HELENA 

to direct his conduct while General Buonaparte remains under his 
care. 

The Prince Regent, in confiding to English officers a mission of 
such importance, feels that it is unnecessary to express to them 
his earnest desire that no greater personal restraint may be em- 
ployed than what shall be found necessary faithfully to perform 
the duties of which the Admiral as well as the Governor of St. 
Helena must never lose sight, namely, the perfectly secure detention 
of the person of General Buonaparte. Everything which, without 
opposing the grand object, can be granted as an indulgence will, His 
Royal Highness is convinced, be allowed the General. The Prince 
Regent depends further on the well-known zeal and resolute cha- 
racter of Sir George Cockburn that he will not suffer himself to be 
misled imprudently to deviate from the performance of his duty. 

BATHURST, 

MEMORIAL. 

When General Buonaparte leaves the Bellerophon to go on board 
the Northumberland ', it will be the properest moment for Admiral 
Cockburn to have the effects examined which General Buonaparte 
may have brought with him. 

The Admiral will allow all the baggage, wine, and provisions, 
which the General may have brought with him, to be taken on 
board the Northumberland. 

Among the baggage, his table service is to be understood as in- 
cluded, unless it be so considerable as to seem rather an article 
to be converted into ready money than for real use. 

His money, his diamonds, and his valuable effects (consequently 
bills of exchange also), of whatever kind they may be, must be deli- 
vered up. The Admiral will declare to the General that the British 
Government by no means intends to confiscate his property, but 
merely to take upon itself the administration of his effects, to 
hinder him from using them as means to promote his flight. 

The examination shall be made in the presence of a person named 
by the General ; the inventory of the effects to be retained shall 
be signed by this person, as well as by the Rear-Admiral, and by 
the person whom he shall appoint to draw up the inventory. 

The interest on the principal (according as his property is more 
or less considerable) shall be applied to his support, and in this 
respect the principal arrangements be left to him. 

For this reason he can, from time to time, signify his wishes to 
the Admiral till the arrival of the new Governor of St. Helena, and 
afterwards to the latter ; and, if no objection is to be made to his 
proposal, the Admiral or the Governor can give the necessary 
orders, and the disbursement will be paid by bills on His Majesty's 
treasury. 

In case of death he can dispose of his property by a last will, 
and be assured that the contents of his testament shall be faithfully 
executed. 



ST. HELENA 203 

As an attempt might be made to cause a part of his property 
to pass for the property of the persons of his suite, it must be sig- 
nified that the property of his attendants is subject to the same 
regulations. 

The disposal of the troops intended to guard him must be left to 
the Governor. The latter, however, has received a notice, in the 
case which will be hereafter mentioned, to act according to the 
desire of the Admiral, 

The General must be constantly attended by an officer appointed 
either by the Admiral or the Governor. If the General is allowed 
to go out of the bounds where the sentinels are placed, one orderly 
man at least must accompany the officer. 

When ships arrive, and as long as they remain in sight, the General 
must be confined to the limits where the sentinels are placed. 
During this time all communication with the inhabitants is for- 
bidden. His companions in St. Helena are subject during this 
time to the same rules and must remain with him. At other times 
it is left to the judgment of the Admiral or Governor to make the 
necessary regulations concerning them. 

It must be signified to the General, that, if he make any attempt 
to fly, he will be put under close confinement, and it must be notified 
to his attendants that, if it should be found that they are plotting 
to prepare the General's flight, they shall be separated from him 
and likewise put under close confinement. 

All letters addressed to the General or to persons in his suite 
must be delivered to the Admiral or Governor, who will read them 
before he suffers them to be delivered to those to whom they are 
addressed. Letters written by the General or his suite are subject 
to the same rules. 

No letter that does not come to St. Helena through the Secretary 
of State must be communicated to the General or his attendants 
if it is written by a person not living in the island. All letters 
addressed to persons not living in the island must go under the 
cover of the Secretary of State. 

It will be clearly expressed to the General that the Governor 
and Admiral have precise orders to inform His Majesty's Govern- 
ment of all the wishes and representations which he may desire 
to address to it ; in this respect they need not use any precaution. 
But the paper on which such request or representation is written 
must be communicated to them open, that they may both read it, 
and when they send it, accompany it with such observations as 
they may judge necessary. 

Till the arrival of the new Governor, the Admiral must be con- 
sidered as entirely responsible for the person of General Buonaparte, 
and His Majesty has no doubt of the inclination of the present 
Governor to concur with the Admiral for this purpose. 

The Admiral has full power to retain the General on board his 
ship, or to convey him on board again when, in his opinion, the 
secure detention of his person cannot be otherwise effected. 
When the Admiral arrives at St. Helena, the Governor will, 



204 ST - HELENA 

upon his representation, adopt measures for sending immediately 
to England, the Cape of Good Hope or the East Indies, such officers 
or persons in the military corps of St. Helena, as the Admiral, 
either because they are foreigners, or on account of their characters 
or their dispositions, shall think it advisable to dismiss from the 
military service in St. Helena. 

If there are strangers in the island, whose residence in the country 
shall seem to be with a view of becoming instrumental in the flight 
of General Buonaparte, he must take measures to remove them. 

The whole coast of the island and all ships and boats that visit 
it are placed under the surveillance of the Admiral. 

He fixes the places which the boats may visit, and the Governor 
will send a sufficient guard to the points where the Admiral shall 
consider this precaution to be necessary. 

The Admiral will adopt the most rigorous measures to watch 
over the arrival and departure of every ship, and to prevent all 
communication with the coast, except such as he shall allow. 

Orders will be issued to prevent, after a certain necessary interval, 
any foreign or mercantile vessel from going in future to St, Helena. 

If the General should be seized with a serious illness, the Admiral 
and Governor will each name a physician who enjoys their confi- 
dence in order to attend the General in common with his own 
physician ; they will give them strict orders to give in every day 
a report on the state of his health. 

In case of his death, the Admiral will give orders to convey his 
body to England. 

Given at the War Ofiice, July 30, 1815. 

The decision of the Cabinet was made public through 
the press, and was therefore known to Buonaparte before it 
was officially announced to him. At first he was speechless, 
after which he abandoned himself to ungovernable rage, 
declaring that they should never take him from the Bellero- 
phon alive, but after a few days he recognized the futility 
of his fury, and appeared more reconciled. 

The duty of communicating to Napoleon the decision 
of the Government to send him to the island of St. Helena 
was delegated to Sir Henry Bunbury, who, with Lord 
Keith, waited upon him with the information. He was to 
have the choice of four of his friends to accompany him, as 
well as twelve domestics. He protested strongly, saying 
he had been compelled to quit the island of Elba owing to 
the breach of the treaty made with him by the allied sove- 
reigns, that he had exerted himself to prevent the renewal 
of hostilities, but that when hostilities were unavoidable, 
and then unsuccessful, he, on being told that it was only 



ST. HELENA 205 

against him they had taken arms, abdicated the throne of 
France, fully confident that the allies would keep faith and 
allow the French to choose their own form of Government. 
His first wish had been to retire to America and devote 
himself to literature ; but, disappointed, he had resolved 
to seek protection in England, and had so placed himself 
in the power of the British Government, and in this pre- 
dicament he protested against the decision now announced 
to him, as the Government could not consistently with the 
principles of the British constitution doom him to perpetual 
banishment without accusation or trial. 

Sir Henry Bunbury replied that he was only delegated 
to acquaint him with the decision of the Cabinet, but that 
he would faithfully report the objections raised. 

The Bellerophon and Tonnant sailed from Plymouth on 
Friday, August u, to Torbay, to meet the Northumberland, 
which came from Portsmouth and on which Napoleon was 
to be conveyed to St. Helena. Lord Keith and Sir George 
Cockburn went from her to the Bellerophon^ and found 
Napoleon on deck to receive them dressed in a green coat 
with red facings, two epaulets, white waistcoat and breeches, 
silk stockings, the star of the Legion of Honour, and a 
chapeau bras with the tri-coloured cockade. According to 
instructions he was now to be treated only as a General, and 
the Admiral, approaching him, removed his hat, saying, 
" How do you do, General Buonaparte ? " 
^Buonaparte was surprised, and hesitated for a moment ; 
then replied very distantly. After a moment's pause he 
broke out into invectives against the Government for their 
conduct towards him. Lord Keith and Admiral Cockburn 
remained silent, but an officer standing near remarked that 
" if he had not been sent to St. Helena he would have been 
sent to the Emperor of Russia ! " 

" Dieu me garde de Russes ! " (" God keep me from the 
Russians ! ") was his ejaculation. 

Sir George Cockburn asked at what hour he should receive 
him on the Northumberland. Instead of answering, Na- 
poleon turned to Lord Keith abruptly, seeking his advice. 
His lordship said that he considered it would be better for 
him to submit with a good grace, on which Napoleon ap- 
pointed the hour of ten. No sooner had he done so than 



206 ST. HELENA 

he recalled his consent, and began again a furious harangue 
against his fate. Another officer standing by reminded 
him that if he had remained in Rochefort another hour he 
would have been taken and removed to Paris. This made 
him turn on his informer with evident indignation, but he 
controlled himself and made no reply. 

Being addressed as " General " again, it once more roused 
his indignation, and he exclaimed, " You have sent ambassa- 
dors to me as a sovereign potentate ; you have acknowledged 
me as First Consul." 

To terminate all this unpleasantness he was reminded by 
Sir George Cockburn that the barge of the Northumberland 
would come up for him at ten o'clock the next morning, 
after which he, with Lord Keith, immediately withdrew. 

There were on the Bellerophon about forty servants other 
than his friends, and these, with the exception of the number 
allowed by the Government, were to be sent on the Erotus 
(frigate). There was a great demonstration of affection, 
most of them begging to be allowed to accompany him ; 
there was an exception, however, in the case of his surgeon, 
who refused to go, his place being then supplied by the 
surgeon of the Bellerophon. On the next morning (Monday) 
Admiral Cockburn went on board to superintend the in- 
spection and removal of Napoleon's baggage, amongst which 
were two services of plate, several articles in gold, a most 
beautiful toilet of plate, together with books and beds. 
And, at half-past eleven, Lord Keith in the barge of the 
Tonnant went to receive him with his chosen attendants. 
Napoleon had already said farewell to Captain Maitland 
and his officers, and after descending the ladder to the barge 
he again removed his hat to them. He was dressed in a 
cocked hat with tricoloured cockade, a plain green coat 
with red collar buttoned closely round him ; he wore three 
orders, two crosses, and a large silver star, with the inscrip- 
tion "Honneur et Patrie"; white breeches, silk stockings 
and gold buckles ; and about twelve mid-day the Tonnant' s 
barge was alongside the Northumberland. Bertrand stepped 
first on the deck ; Buonaparte next, with the agility of a 
seaman ; the marines were drawn up, and presented arms 
as to a General. As soon as he was on deck, advancing to 
Sir G. Cockburn, he said, " Je suis a vous ordres." To Lord 



ST. HELENA 207 

Lowther and Mr. Lyttleton, who were standing near, he 
made a few remarks, and then, taking leave of the officers 
who had escorted him from the Bellerophon, and embracing 
the nephew of Josephine, who was not to accompany him 
to St. Helena, he went into the after-cabin. Here were as- 
sembled Lord Keith, Sir George Cockburn, Lord Lowther, 
Hon. Mr. Lyttleton, and others. An interesting conversa- 
tion took place between them, for in a tirade against the 
measures taken for his safety, he said, " You do not know 
my character ; you ought to have relied on my word of 
honour." 

One of those present said, " May I tell you the truth ? " 

" You may." 

" I must then tell you that since your invasion of Spain 
no Englishman could put any confidence in your most solemn 
engagements." 

He said : "I was called into Spain by Charles IV to assist 
him against the machinations of his son." 

" No ! No ! Only, in my opinion, to place your brother 
Joseph on the throne." 

After much discussion he concluded by saying, " Well, 
I have been deceived in your generosity in confining me 
you have acted like a little aristocratic Power, not like a 
great free people." He afterwards added : " I do not say 
I have not for twenty years endeavoured to ruin England," 
and then, as if feeling he had said more than he wished to, 
he said, " that is to say, to lower you." " I wished to force 
you to be just at least less unjust." Again he broke out 
into a furious tirade against the conduct of the allies, calling 
it both perfidious and treacherous. He said, " I would 
have given my word of honour to remain quiet, and to hold 
no political correspondence in England ; I would have 
pledged myself not to quit the place assigned me, but to live 
as a simple individual. Why not let me remain in England 
upon my parole of honour ? " 

He delivered a protest to Lord Keith (in writing) against 
his banishment to St. Helena, as follows : 

I solemnly protest, before God and man, against the violation 
of my sacred rights, in disposing of my person and liberty. I 
came voluntarily on board the Bellerophon ; I am not a prisoner, 
I am a guest of England. As soon as I was on board the Bellerophon 



ao8 ST. HELENA 

I was under the protection of the British people. If their Govern- 
ment, in giving orders to the Bellerophon to receive me and my 
suite, only meant to entrap me, it has forfeited its honour, and 
tarnished its flag. If this act is put into execution, it will be in 
vain that the English boast of their fidelity, their laws, and their 
liberty, British faith will be obscured by the hospitality of the 
Bellerophon. I appeal to history, whether an enemy, who, after 
having for twenty years waged war against the English people, 
comes deliberately, in his misfortunes, to seek an asylum under the 
protection of their laws, can give a more convincing proof of his 
esteem and confidence ; but how have the English answered such 
confidence and magnanimity ; they pretended to extend a friendly 
hand to this enemy, and when he relied on their good faith they 
sacrificed him. 

On board the Bellerophon at sea, August 4, 1815. 

NAPOLEON. 

The British Government for "Napoleon" its inveterate 
enemy determined by the express wishes of the Prince 
Regent to furnish him in his exile with every possible com- 
fort, so an order was given by Earl Bathurst to one of the 
large London houses. It included every kind of furniture, 
linen, glassware, clothes, musical instruments and music 
he could need for a period of three years. No stipulation 
was made as to price, everything was to be of a pure and 
simple elegance, this reservation only being made, that no 
ornament or initial letter should appear on anything. The 
order was to be completed in six weeks, and four hundred 
men were employed to execute the same in the given time. 
Report on finished work says : 

The whole has been executed in British materials ; the chairs 
and tables are formed of the finest British oak, inlaid with polished 
brass ; the breakfast service is of Wedgewood's most beautiful 
pale blue composition, with a white cameo device in relief, modelled 
by Flaxman, in best style ; the dinner service is white and gold, 
the centre of each plate, dish, etc., containing an elegantly executed 
landscape of British scenery ; the glass, of the finest quality, is 
plainly but elegantly cut, with a fancy border of stars supported 
by fluted pillars ; the table cloths and napkins are of the finest 
damask ; the evening service is white and gold ; the Imperial 
plate rendering it unnecessary to furnish him with a service of 
British manufacture ; but a few dozens of spoons and other minor 
articles of that description, to meet the wear and tear of domestic 
accidents, form a part of the present supply. The cushions and 
curtains are of light blue silk, with a black border and small black 
wreaths. Some are of blue with a rich yellow border. Both the 
colours and styles of this part of the furniture, and indeed of the 



ST. HELENA 209 

whole, are admirably suited to the climate for which they are 
intended. In Buonaparte's wearing apparel, his favourite colour 
(dark green) has been preserved. Shirts, cravats, pocket hand- 
kerchiefs, boots, shoes, stockings of every description, are also 
provided for him. His friends and suite are no less attended to, 
for they are equally to be provided with suitable equipments. A 
pianoforte and articles of dress are furnished for Madame Bertrand, 
(Madame Bertrand was born at Martinique of Irish parents. Her 
maiden name was Dillon). 

Directly stores and provisions were on board, the Northum- 
berland sailed for St. Helena. 

Buonaparte ate and drank, conversing familiarly with 
the officers on board who could speak the French language, 
and playing whist in the evenings. At dinner he helped 
himself to a mutton cutlet, which he ate from his fingers 
without the use of either knife or fork. Indisposition com- 
pelled seclusion in his cabin, but he would not acknowledge 
to sea-sickness ; and it is said his suite, who still paid him 
all the attention the most despotic monarch could desire, 
were courtiers too refined to question the veracity or dis- 
cernment of their imperial master when he ascribed his 
illness to different causes. But he was soon on deck again, 
assailing all whom he met with questions. To one of the 
midshipmen he put the question as to how long he had been 
in His Majesty's service, and on being told " Nine years " 
remarked on the length of time. " Yes," replied the mid- 
shipman, " but part was passed in imprisonment in France, 
and I happened to be at Verdun when you, sir, set out on 
your expedition to Moscow." At this answer Buonaparte 
shrugged his shoulders and ended the conversation. 

Amongst the baggage brought on the Northumberland 
were two camp bedsteads which had accompanied him in 
several campaigns. They are described by one who was 
on board as being about two yards long and one wide, with 
furniture of green silk, the frames being of steel and so 
extremely light that they could very easily be carried. 
Napoleon used one, and the other was set apart for Madame 
Bertrand. He much wished to see Madeira, but unfortu- 
nately the weather was cloudy, and the island was not seen 
till the vessel got between Desert Island and Puerto Santo; 
Desert Island was pointed out to him as having a slight 
resemblance to St. Helena, in that its rocks are almost per- 

o 



aio ST. HELENA 

pendicular ; whatever his feelings may have been in viewing 
this and comparing it, he said nothing. After crossing the 
line with the usual ceremonies, they were compelled to 
make a sweep off the Gulf of Guinea in consequence of a 
wind from the north-west, but soon the lofty peak of St. 
Helena was dimly seen about sunset on October 14. 

Sir George Cockburn in his diary notes written during the 
voyage says : 

I cannot but remark that his (Napoleon's) general manners, 
as far as I am yet able to speak of them, are uncouth and disagreable, 
To his French friends they are most overbearing, if not absolutely 
rude. 

On August 12 the diary reads : 

Buonaparte came on deck this day earlier than usual, that is 
to say about three o'clock. He does not generally quit his bed 
till about ten or eleven, and, like most Frenchmen, he breakfasts 
on meat and wine, reads, etc., before he makes his toilet, but does 
not come out of his cabin till he is dressed ; then he takes a short 
walk on deck and plays until dinner, when he eats and drinks a 
great deal. 

August 17. In the course of conversation, Buonaparte re- 
marked that he had been placed in chief command as a general 
officer at twenty-four years of age, and that he made his conquest 
of Italy at twenty-five. That he had risen from nothing to be the 
sovereign of his country (as Consul) at thirty, and if chance had 
caused him to be killed the day after he entered Moscow, his would 
have been a career of advancement and uninterrupted success 
without a parallel the misfortunes which afterwards befell the 
French army would have tended rather to the advancement of his 
fame. 

In these days of electricity it is difficult to place ourselves 
in the position of the inhabitants of St. Helena in 1815. 

With no cable and no steam, the news on the arrival of 
H.M.S. Icarus that Napoleon Buonaparte was a prisoner in 
the Northumberland, and within a few days' sail of the 
island, caused an astonishment which it would be difficult 
to describe. It was entirely unexpected ; no communica- 
tions had reached the Governor, and the captain of the 
Icarus could only tell them of the fact of Napoleon's prox- 
imity and that the second battalion of the 53rd Regiment 
had embarked in the squadron. The St. Helenians felt that 
the consequences to them of the appropriation of the island 
as a prison might not be pleasant ; they also feared the 



ST. HELENA 211 

removal of their Governor, Colonel Mark Wilkes, who had 
gained their esteem by his firm but kind policy. Many were 
the discussions during the few days which intervened be- 
tween the arrival of the Icarus and the Northumberland as 
to whether the island would be transferred to the Crown, 
and as to what would become of all the present servants of 
the colony. But the time passed, and soon all uncer- 
tainty was over. 

It was on October 15 that the Northumberland, bearing 
the flag of Rear-Admiral Sir George Cockburn, anchored 
with his illustrious prisoner, who was attended by the 
following friends and servants. 

Grand Mareschal Comte de Bertrand. 

Madame de Bertrand and three children. 

One female servant and her child. 

One man-servant. 

General Comte de Montholon. 

Madame de Montholon and one child. 

One female servant. 

Comte de las Casas and a son of thirteen years of age. 

General Gourgaud. 

Three valets de chambre. 

Three footmen. 

One cook. 

One usher. 

One lampiste. 

One steward. 

One Chef d' office. 

Of which seven were to dine at the Admiral's table, twenty-seven 
souls in all. 

It was found that the island was still to belong to the 
East India Company, but that, as the appropriation of it 
would necessarily involve a deal of expenditure, it was 
arranged that the Company should bear the annual expense 
of the place to the extent of the average sum which had been 
spent in former years, and that the Crown should bear the 
remainder. Sir George Cockburn landed at once, and had 
a conference with Governor Wilkes, who returned with 
him on a visit of ceremony to Napoleon. 

The King's Ministers were, of course, responsible to the 
nation and to Europe for the safe custody of Napoleon, 
so they were vested with authority to appoint that person ; 
and it was deemed essential that the same person should be 



212 ST. HELENA 

the administrator of both civil and military law in the island. 

Sir Hudson Lowe was appointed and made Governor of 
St. Helena. In announcing this to the island, the Court 
avowed to the St. Helena Government that they could not 
contemplate without pain the attendant consequence of 
the removal of Colonel Wilkes, whose conduct had entitled 
him to their entire approbation. Until Sir Hudson Lowe 
arrived, Sir George Cockburn was in power, and conse- 
quently the disposal of the troops was in a way subservient 
to his wishes. This placed Governor Wilkes in a secondary 
position, which was heightened by the fact that there was 
now a senior officer to Colonel Wilkes. 

Brookes says : 

The arrival of the second battalion of His Majesty's 53rd 
Regiment, with detachments of other troops, brought into operation 
the clause in the act of the 2/th of George II, chap, ix, which trans- 
fers from the Company's Government to the senior officer of the 
King's forces serving in the settlement, the authority for holding 
general courts-martial. 

That senior officer (Sir George Bingham) held also a Colonel's 
commission of prior date to Colonel Wilks', but as the charter vests 
the powers of Captain-General in whatever person holds the office 
of Governor, Colonel Wilks consequently still remained paramount 
in military as well as in civil authority. These circumstances 
formed altogether rather an unusual assemblage of powers, but 
the characters of those in whom they were severally lodged, pre- 
cluded all risk of the consequences which might have arisen from 
a want of unanimity. Inconvenience was effectually prevented 
by a general order issued in the name of the Governor and Council, 
appointing Sir George Bingham Commandant of the troops, and 
by another order immediately after from the Governor directing 
the Commandant to comply with all requisitions from Sir George 
Cockburn, which could in any way be connected with the safe 
custody of his charge. 

The island was well guarded, for on the day the Northum- 
berland anchored a ball of twenty-four was fired at her 
from one of the fort batteries because Admiral Malcolm 
had omitted to send some one on shore in a boat to an- 
nounce his arrival. After the sunset gun no vessel of any 
description was permitted to enter or leave the port, or 
even to alter its position, there being officers appointed for 
the sole duty of watching vessels after the firing of the gun. 
nThe curiosity excited in the colonists by the arrival of 



ST. HELENA 213 

one who had for so long agitated and convulsed the dis- 
tracted nations of Europe, may be more easily imagined 
than described. In consequence of arrangements necessary 
for his accommodation, he remained on board until the 
evening of the i7th ; then, when all the inhabitants had 
retired to rest, he (with the Lieu tenant-Governor and Sir 
G. Cockburn) walked to the house situate by the gate of 
the Government garden, which had been hastily prepared 
for his reception. It is strange that this house should be 
that in which the Duke of Wellington also remained for 
one night when, some time previously, he had visited 
St. Helena on his return from India (see letter from Welling- 
ton to Admiral Malcolm given on page 162.) 

Horses were obtained on the following morning, and the 
streets were crowded with inhabitants eager to see Napoleon, 
and he, with Sir George Cockburn and Count Bertrand, rode 
to Longwood to breakfast with Colonel and Mrs. Skelton. 
Colonel Skelton was Lieut. -Governor, and occupied the 
house proposed as residence for Napoleon, who, Sir George 
Cockburn states in his diary, expressed himself as well 
pleased with it and desired to remain there, until it was 
pointed out to him that the Lieut .-Governor's wife and 
family would be inconvenienced by so sudden a move. 
The party then proceeded toward town, but Napoleon was 
dreading the curiosity of the people on his return. About 
a mile from the town is a pretty house called The Briars 
(now owned by the Eastern Telegraph Company). The 
property occupies about two acres of ground, the greater 
part of which is level, and well supplied with water. It 
exhibits a scene of luxuriant vegetation which contrasts 
greatly with the rocky cliffs above and below. Here they 
rested, and Napoleon, being much pleased with the pic- 
turesque spot, begged to be allowed to remain there in 
order to avoid the curious gaze of the assembled inhabitants 
awaiting his arrival in the valley. Mr. Balcombe, the 
owner, raised no objection, so it was decided that he might 
remain until the house at Longwood was vacated and pre- 
pared for him. At a short distance from the Briars house 
is a smaller one named the " Pavilion," now connected with 
the Briars house by a balcony, and there he resided for 
nearly two months. The ground floor was set apart for 



2i4 ST. HELENA 

him while the upper story was occupied by Las Casas and 
his son, with the valet in waiting ; accommodation was 
required for his suite, so two large marquees were pitched 
on the lawn. An English officer resided there also, and was 
responsible for the security of the exile. Certain limits were 
assigned for exercise, surrounded by a cordon of sentinels ; 
and in case he wished to go beyond an officer was appointed 
to accompany him. It was also determined that no person 
should be allowed to visit him unless provided with a pass 
from the Governor or the Admiral. (These arrangements 
are very similar to those made for General Cronje while on 
the island, save that an ordinary guard accompanied him 
on his excursions.) 

These strictures were highly offensive to Napoleon, and 
as his remonstrances on the subject proved ineffectual he 
gradually confined himself to the grounds surrounding the 
house. As a rule he joined the family in the evening at 
cards, which he played with the ladies of the house for 
sugar-plums, and there was very little restraint between 
Napoleon and the two young daughters of Mr. and Mrs. 
Balcombe. He was much amused at their playful ways, 
especially those of Miss Betsy, the youngest. He taught 
them geography, played blind man's buff, and was generally 
to be seen surrounded by a group of playful admiring 
children. Betsy in her geography lesson asked him " Who 
burned Moscow ? " "I did," he answered, tapping his 
chest. 

Beef was scarce on the island, and the sensations of those 
in authority may be imagined when the mattre (Thotel of 
Napoleon ordered, a few days after his arrival, four bullocks, 
so that he might prepare a dish of brains for his master. 
It is only fair to state that Napoleon himself knew nothing 
of this until Sir George Cockburn explained why the 
demand could not be complied with, and the refusal is 
said to have been received with utmost good humour. 
The house at Longwood being ready for his reception, he 
removed there ; and an extent of several miles was at his 
disposal, within the limits of which he enjoyed perfect 
freedom. Even the guards could only approach the house 
after sunset, when it was surrounded by the military until 
morning. Very strict discipline was kept for his surveil- 



ST. HELENA 215 

lance. During the day a pass from the Governor was 
needed even for the inhabitants to walk or ride in certain 
directions, and at night the sentinels on all parts made it 
utterly impossible to move out of town or towards town 
unless the countersign was known. In all directions were 
sentries and patrols. When Napoleon wished to pass out 
of the space allotted to him, which was always surrounded 
by a cordon of military camps and defended by artillery, 
he was compelled to accept the escort of a British officer, 
the one appointed being Captain Poppleton, of the 53rd 
Infantry Regiment, who had to live at Longwood, and 
was held responsible for the security of his charge. His 
apartment was close to that of Napoleon, and it was 
his duty to see him every day. News of Napoleon was 
conveyed by him to the Governor by a system of signals, 
and directly he left the enclosure, Poppleton had to follow, 
being ordered not to lose sight of him. Naturally he was, 
though only doing his duty, held in detestation by all the 
French. The signals used were very simple, and an old 
sentinel of Napoleon's time, James Smith, of Basingstoke, 
says : 

If Napoleon went out, a soldier's hat was hoisted on a bayonet, 
and this was continued from one sentinel picket to another. We 
had strict orders never to speak to him or salute him in any 
way. . . . 

He adds : 

During the latter part of his life, he took very little exercise 
and grew fat, becoming so stout at last, that it was painful to look 
at him, for the fat hung over his ankles. 

Las Casas, as a rule, also accompanied Napoleon, and in 
his almost daily rides, he got to know well the various 
families resident on the island, greatly interesting himself 
in their agricultural pursuits, and for some time he was 
sociable even to the extent of giving dinner parties. He 
much liked to converse with Governor Mark Wilkes, their 
conversation being mainly about chemistry. He was very 
irate, though, at having an escort, and did much to annoy 
Poppleton. In a conversation with Admiral Malcolm, who 
succeeded Sir George Cockburn, he complained of the 
surveillance exercised. He said : " Are you frightened 



216 ST. HELENA 

that I shall escape ? I admit that I should be prohibited 
from going into the town, but beyond the limits of the town 
I should have liberty." Malcolm replied : " So you have. 
You are not even prevented from visiting the town." 
" Yes," he said, " with that officer at my heels " (referring 
to Popple ton) " I degrade myself if I admit that I am a 
prisoner." " Still," said Malcolm, " it would be impossible 
to treat you as a sovereign." To which Napoleon said, 
" Why ! they might leave me my honours to amuse me. 
It could do no harm on this rock." " But," then replied 
Malcolm, "you would have to be styled Emperor." 
Napoleon was silent for a moment, and then said, " No, 
they could not do that ; I have abdicated." " Yet you 
object to be called general," said Malcolm. " That is be- 
because I am no longer a general," retorted he, " not since 
I returned from Egypt ; but why not call me Napoleon ? " 
One day, when out for his riding exercise, he suddenly 
wished to examine a slope. Putting spurs to his horse, 
he was quickly outside the boundary. Poppleton followed, 
but, being a poor horseman, was unable to overtake or keep 
up with them, and was quickly left behind. This so an- 
noyed and worried Poppleton, who was evidently afraid of 
losing sight of his charge, that he commenced shouting, 
" Stop ! " After some little time the cavalcade allowed 
the poor officer to gain on them. He was on the point of 
delivering a reprimand, when a look from Napoleon stopped 
his intended speech, and he substituted it with " Une 
autre fois, messieurs, je prendrai garde a vous." Of this 
little incident, incorrect accounts have been given, which 
state that Napoleon was fired on by Poppleton. 

Sir Hudson Lowe arrived on April 16, 1816, and Governor 
Wilkes being relieved, sailed a week after. From all sides he 
received messages of regret at his departure, and, as Brooke 
says, " He left behind him a veneration for his name which 
will be long affectionately cherished on this island." In 
November Count Las Casas and his son were arrested for 
having tried to bribe a native of the island named Scott 
to secretly send letters to Europe. When Napoleon and 
his suite arrived in St. Helena, Scott was engaged as a ser- 
vant for Count Las Casas, who tested his fidelity by en- 
trusting him with a secret message. This was faithfully 




LONGWOOD OLD HOUSE, WHERE NAPOLEON DIED. 




SIDEBOARD, FORMERLY PART OF NAPOLEON'S FURNITURE, NOW IN 
PLANTATION HOUSE. 



ST. HELENA 217 

delivered, and the Governor was informed by the person 
to whom it was sent ; so the young native was ordered to 
leave the service of his master. Las Casas kept on good 
terms with the man, being anxious to use his services later ; 
and hoping for a good reward, the lad consented to go to 
England by the first sailer. Young Las Casas wrote in 
almost imperceptible characters on white silk handker- 
chiefs, which they sewed into the lining of a waistcoat to 
be worn by Scott, and given on his arrival in England to 
Lady Clavering, a French lady, but the widow of an English 
officer. Scott agreed to all this, but became afraid of de- 
tection, and asked his father's advice. The latter, very 
irate, ordered him to disclose the whole affair to the Govern- 
ment ; and, on his refusal, seized him, tore off the waist- 
coat, obtained the handkerchief letters, and carried them 
to Plantation House to the Governor. Scott was immedi- 
ately imprisoned, and Las Casas and his son removed from 
Longwood and placed in custody. It is said that Napoleon 
knew nothing of this, and it is the general opinion that 
Las Casas followed the fallen Emperor not through de- 
votion, but to collect material for memoirs of Napoleon. 
Having accomplished his object, he became tired of the 
island, and evolved this plan in order that he might be 
sent home. All the handkerchiefs were sent to Lord 
Bathurst, and Las Casas and son remained under sur- 
veillance ; but on December 25, 1816, they were allowed to 
go to the Governor's residence in Jamestown, and were 
allowed freedom on parole. Las Casas declared that he 
had no wish to return to Longwood, being disgraced in his 
Emperor's eyes. The whole affair seemed really of little 
moment, and simply devised to render a pretext for their 
home going. He had before written a letter to the British 
Government full of abuse of the Governor, and placing the 
worst construction on affairs in the island. This he knew 
must pass through the Governor's hand, as, by orders of 
the English Ministry, all the correspondence of the Long- 
wood people had to be read by the Governor before it could 
be forwarded or delivered. Very contrary to his expecta- 
tions, the Governor allowed the letter to pass, thus com- 
pelling Las Casas to devise another plan, which he calcu- 
lated would, even if the letters failed to reach England, 



2i 8 ST. HELENA 

ensure his expulsion. Napoleon was very downhearted 
at the loss of Las Casas. He affected indifference, but 
suffered much. " Why cannot I die this instant ? " was 
his exclamation. " Let them send away all my French- 
men, I do not wish them any longer near me. 

Soon after Sir Hudson Lowe's arrival, Napoleon had 
become morose, declining to receive visitors, keeping him- 
self almost entirely in the grounds of Longwood House. 
Though confined on a British island and guarded by British 
soldiers, he was officially recognized as the prisoner of the 
allied powers. France, Austria and Russia each sent a 
representative, whose duty it was to report to their several 
countries all that came to their knowledge concerning the 
prisoner and his treatment of life. 

The French commissioner was Marquis de Montchenu, 
who was called by the English sailors " Old Munch Enough." 
He was very prejudiced against Napoleon, who was in his 
eyes not a Frenchman, but a " Corsican upstart." 

The Austrian Commissioner was Baron Sturmer. With 
Baron Sturmer there was a person supposed to be a 
botanist. This man had brought with him a packet 
for Marchand, Buonaparte's valet, ostensibly from Mar- 
chand's mother ; but she had it seems been employed 
by Marie Louise, Napoleon's second wife and the mother 
of his little son, to send a lock of the child's hair. The 
packet contained a little roll of hair, with the words. 
" I send you some of my hair. If you have the means of 
having your portrait painted, send me a copy. Your 
Mother, Marchand." As soon as the Governor heard of it, 
he sent an official note to Baron Sturmer, informing him 
that Welles had no special permission from the British 
Government to reside in St. Helena, and that, as three 
months were quite sufficient for him to make a collection 
of plants, he must depart ; that he did not object to a 
father receiving a lock of hair from his child, but that the 
matter should not have been made a mystery of, but should 
have been first made known to him. The concealment 
therefore was an infringement of the law. The Austrian 
took great umbrage, and objected to Welles' removal, and 
there was a deal of bitterness shown on both sides, but 
Welles had to depart. 



ST. HELENA 219 

Russia's Commissioner was Count Balmain, who, al- 
though he was a Russian subject, was of Scotch descent. 
His conduct was to be purely passive. The commissioners 
were to observe all, and to report to their respective 
countries, and in their dealings with the British officials 
always to bear in mind the friendship existing between 
England and their own countries, and implicitly to obey 
whatever rules the Governor might lay down. 

The French and Austrian Commissioners were instructed 
to assure themselves each day of the existence of Buona- 
parte, and report once a month, which report was to be 
countersigned by the Governor. Sir Hudson Lowe, in 
June 1816, announced the arrival of the Commissioners 
to Count Bertrand (who acted as master of ceremonies), 
and informed him of their wish to see General Buonaparte. 
Bertrand replied by asking whether they possessed letters 
from their respective Sovereigns, and stating the conven- 
tions of August 2, 1815, had not been made known to the 
Emperor, who wished to see the terms. For days search 
was made for an authenticated copy of the Convention, 
but unfortunately it could not be found, and Sir Hudson 
Lowe then went personally to Buonaparte concerning the 
admission of the Commissioners. "If these gentlemen 
desire to be presented in their capacity of private gentle- 
men, there is nothing against such a course ; let them go to 
the Grand Marshall (Bertrand). If, however, they desire 
to see me in their capacity of Commissioners, let me see a 
copy of the Convention, and I will take the matter into 
consideration," was Napoleon's answer. The case was 
decidedly embarrassing, especially for those two whose 
orders were to see him every day. They could assure 
themselves each day of his welfare, but officially they could 
do nothing. Napoleon endeavoured to get them to visit 
him as private gentlemen, but this they would not do. 
But on July 7 the missing copy was found by Baron Stur- 
mer among his papers. Balmain's instructions contained 
the following : " You will neither seek nor avoid occasions 
to see him, and in this respect will implicitly obey any 
rules laid down by the Governor," so that, while Mont- 
chenu and Stunner maintained they could only see him in 
their capacity of commissioners, and that to do otherwise 



220 ST. HELENA 

would be to nullify their mission and compromise their 
Courts, Balmain said he did not see that Napoleon's con- 
sent to the measure was necessary, as he did not consider 
himself in official relation with Napoleon, but with the 
Government. He therefore would waive the question of 
official interview, considering it quite sufficient to encoun- 
ter him from time to time while walking. He was even 
willing, as was the case with Admiral Malcolm and many 
English persons, simply to announce an intention of visiting 
him. That he had not done so was simply due to the fact 
that he did not wish to seem opposed to the course taken 
by the Government or other Commissioners. 

Sir Hudson Lowe remonstrated strongly with the other 
Commissioners. He said his own relations with Buona- 
parte were so strained that he could not compel himself to 
offer an indignity or humiliation to him in his fallen position. 
Montchenu and Sturmer then wrote this official letter to 
the Governor : 

The undersigned Commissioners being desirous of fulfilling 
the principal object of their mission have the honour to beg His 
Excellency the Governor to procure for them as early as possible 
an opportunity of seeing Napoleon Buonaparte. 

This letter was forwarded to Buonaparte through Count 
Montholon, with the copy of the Convention of August 2. 
Montholon replied in a letter which in detail showed the ill 
feeling of the Frenchmen against the Governor and against 
the English nation, against the island, against his being 
called simply General Buonaparte, and against the world 
generally. The letter finished : 

Are your Ambassadors aware that the spectacle of a great 
man struggling with adversity is a spectacle than which there 
is none more sublime ? Are they ignorant of the fact that Napoleon 
amid persecutions of every nature which he meets with nothing 
but serenity is greater and more to be revered than if he were 
still seated on the first throne of the universe, a throne on which 
for so long he was the arbiter of kings ? 

This uncalled-for letter still left the Commissioners 
officially unacknowledged by Napoleon, who from this 
time became more morose and unbending. He adhered to 
his resolution not to see the Commissioners officially, yet 
was ill-humoured and annoyed at not seeing them as visitors, 



ST. HELENA 221 

for his life was very monotonous. Still he, with his iron 
will, would not give in, and issued orders to his retainers 
to refuse admission to the enclosure of Longwood to any 
presenting passes from English authorities. This was to 
reserve to Marshall Bertrand only the right to give such 
passes. The Governor, unable to allow this, again came 
under his displeasure. His annoyance was so great that 
he sent a letter to Sir Hudson announcing his desire that he 
would not present any strangers to him, that for the future 
he would receive nobody ; and from that day no one in- 
truded upon him. Travellers who had always paid Long- 
wood a visit were kept from it ; the inhabitants and military 
also avoided it, and he was left in his gloomy solitude. At 
about four in the afternoon he might be seen pacing slowly 
on a path near the house, but he avoided leaving the en- 
closure, hating to see the guards, and hating more the 
surveillance of the English officer on duty. Another 
source of annoyance to Napoleon was caused through a 
present sent to him by an Englishman domiciled in Cal- 
cutta. This present was a most beautiful set of chessmen 
elaborately ornamented with oriental designs, with a French 
eagle well carved on each. It was not allowed that Na- 
poleon should have anything reminding him of his former 
rank, but these eagles escaped the notice of Sir Hudson 
Lowe at the time, and the chessmen were handed over to 
Napoleon. Being told afterwards of the eagles, the 
Governor wrote to Bertrand stating that a mistake had 
been made, and making a formal protest against such a 
present having been made ; and similar foolish bickerings 
rendered the lives of all concerned most miserable. 

In 1817 O'Meara, Napoleon's physician, was ordered to 
issue bulletins, so that the Commissioners might be in- 
formed on matters relating to his health. These bulletins 
were often very trivial, as under : 

General Buonaparte is so much recovered from his indisposition 
as to be able to dine at table yesterday ; very trifling catarrhal 
symptoms at present exist. 

And again as follows ; 

I have the honour to inform your Excellency that General 
Buonaparte is entirely free from any catarrhal symptoms, and 
has resumed his customary mode of living. 



222 ST. HELENA 

The sum of 8,000 allotted for the Emperor and suite 
did not appear to cover the expenses. They were continu- 
ally applying for money ; and Montholon says : 

We can only come into possession of our own money by bills 
On Balcombe and Co. for ^50 at a time. On one occasion, asking 
for ;6o, difficulties were made about it. 

The Imperial plate was broken up and sold gradually 
at 5s. per ounce, and this gave them funds for daily ex- 
penses and additions to their table alllowance. They 
complained that the meat was tough, the poultry under- 
sized, and the vegetables watery, and all provisions of 
inferior quality. 

On September, 1817, there occurred slight shocks of 
earthquake. O'Meara, in writing to Sir Hudson Lowe, 
says : - 

The whole of the house was shaken with a rumbling, clattering 
noise, as if some very heavy body, such as a loaded waggon, was 
dragged along the upper apartments, which was succeeded by an 
evident trembling motion of the ground ; the glasses rattled on 
the table and the pictures receded from the walls. General 
Montholon stated that his son Tristan, who was asleep, was wakened 
by the shock, and explained that somebody was endeavouring 
to throw him out of bed. General Buonaparte informed me that 
on feeling the first shock he thought the Conqueror had taken fire 
or blown up, or that an explosion of powder had taken place on 
the island. He said he felt three distinct shocks and was of opinion 
that the duration of them might be about twelve or fourteen se- 
conds. 

Admiral Malcolm had been recalled and succeeded by 
Admiral Plampim, who reached St. Helena in June, 1817, 
on board the Conqueror, a ship of 94 guns (Capt. Davis). 
The second battalion of the 53rd Infantry and the second 
battalion of the 66th Infantry, each about 600 strong, 
were relieved by the ist battalion of the 66th Infantry, 
numbering 1,300 and Captain Poppleton of the 53rd there- 
fore gave place at Longwood as orderly officer to Captain 
Blakeney of the 66th. 

It was possible in the enclosure to drive about eight miles, 
and Napoleon would drive as fast as six horses could carry 
him ; but even this came to an end, and for three months 
he did not leave the house. During this time he was quite 
alone, and took no exercise. Naturally he was ill-humoured 



ST. HELENA 223 

and capricious, continually changing his hours for food or 
rest. Still, he looked well and grew stouter, having a vora- 
cious appetite, which often led to fits of indisposition. 

In October 1820, however, he advised Sir William Dove- 
ton of his wish to breakfast at his house if agreeable to 
him ; and soon after servants were seen conveying in baskets 
the breakfast, followed by Napoleon and Counts Bertrand 
and Montholon. Breakfast was laid on the lawn in front 
of the house, and Buonaparte did the honours, treating 
Sir William and his family as honoured guests. It was 
hoped from this that he would throw off his depression ; 
possibly he was trying to do so, but his health was far from 
good. Even on the way back from breakfast (he was 
riding) he became so unwell that he had to seek shelter in 
a cottage on the road side, remaining there while his carriage 
was sent for. His pallor was great, and from that time 
he seemed to lose strength. In 1819 the New House was 
commenced (a large building which is well described by a 
writer of the time) ; 

To meet the difficulty for procuring for Buonaparte a suitable 
residence at St. Helena, the architect for the ordnance department 
at Woolwich was engaged to complete a timber frame-work for a 
building to be erected on the island, in the cottage style. The 
front is in the pure simplicity of the Grecian style. It is about 
1 20 feet in length, containing fourteen windows and a fine open 
corridor. The depth of the building is about one hundred feet with 
a back corridor, almost making the whole building square. It is 
two stories high and will have an elegant appearance. The ground 
floor of the right division of the house contains Buonaparte's apart- 
ments. In the centre of this wing is his drawing-room which, 
as well as the other apartments for his accommodation, is spacious, 
being about 30 feet in length, by a breadth of 20. This propor- 
tion runs through the whole. Next is his dining-room, with an 
adjoining library, behind which is a capacious billiard-room. His 
bed-room, dressing-room and bath, are of course connected. The 
left division of the edifice contains spacious and well-suited aparte- 
ments for the officers of his suite. The rear comprises the servants, 
and store rooms. The kitchen is somewhat curiously constructed, 
being detached from the regular building, and yet perfectly con- 
venient to the dining-room, without communicating any offensive 
fumes to the principal range of rooms. This is an improvement of 
no small value in a sultry climate. The corridor will furnish a cool 
and shaded promenade. 

The drawing-room is coloured with various shades of green. 
The curtains are Pomona green, made of light silk tabaret, bordered 



224 ST. HELENA 

with full green velvet, and edged with a gold-coloured silken twist 
to correspond. The green silk forms a fine ground for the border, 
and the style, in fitting up the upholstery, is chaste and simple ; 
the curtain rings are concealed under a matted gold cornice, en- 
closing the rod on which they run. The supporters are gilt and 
carved patras, and the green velvet folds form into the architecture 
of the room by falling in straight lines at each side of the windows, 
where they draw smooth and compact, without interrupting the 
progress of two useful, but often excluded, properties of nature 
air and light. 

The centre table is formed out of one piece of exquisitely veined 
British oak, polished in the very highest degree of perfection. 

The pier table is of the same timber and quality, inlaid with a 
slab of the verd-antique marble of Mona (the only place in which 
this precious material is now found), and surmounted by a pier- 
glass with a frame of Buhl and ebony. The chairs in this apart- 
ment correspond with the table. There are also two Greek sofas 
with footstools i these are particularly elegant, being enriched 
with highly finished ormolu ornaments. The carpets are of the 
Brussels texture in shades of olive, brown and amber colours 
finely calculated to harmonize with the decorations in the room. 
The walls are of light tints of sage green, with beautiful ornamented 
panels in arabesque gold. The colours ascend from the darker 
shades upon the ground till they are lost in the cream colour of the 
ceiling. This produces a harmony in the decorations, which is 
in the highest degree elegant. One of the drawing-room recesses 
is filled up with a pianoforte, and a few tasteful chandeliers and 
candelabra are occasionally introduced with a pleasing effect. 

The dining-room. A neatly finished table, supported by sub- 
stantial claw and pillars, capable of being divided, to suit a company 
of from six to fourteen. The sideboard intended for the Imperial 
plate is of a new form, pure and simple in its construction and 
decoration. The wine-cooler is of bronze and rich wood, and 
shaped after the fashion of the Greek bacchanalian vases. The 
chairs are plain. The curtains are of lavender-coloured silk, with 
a rich black border, relieved by a gold-coloured silk lace and cord. 
The carpet and walls are shaded with the same colours, falling into 
a black and brown relief ; the latter, in various hues, pervades 
the room. 

The library is fitted up in the Etruscan style, with a number 
of dwarf bookcases. The curtains are of a new material, composed 
of cotton, which produces the appearance of fine cloth. The 
library table is particularly elegant, and mechanical ingenuity 
has been laboriously applied to furnish it with desks and drawers 
suited to every convenience of study and accommodation. 

The sitting-room is fitted up with several cabinets formed of 
ebony, inlaid with polished brass ; the carpets are ethereal blue, 
intermingled with black. 

The bed-room contains a high canopy bedstead, with curtains of 
fine straw-coloured muslin and lilac draperies of Persian ; the 



ST. HELENA 225 

whole edged with a gold-coloured fringe ornament. The bedstead 
encloses a curious mosquito-net, formed of silk weft, embossed with 
transparent rich drapery. The dressing-room possesses the usual 
conveniences required by taste and comfort. The adjoining bath 
is lined with marble and so constructed that it can admit either 
hot or cold water. 

The sets of china were selected from different manufacturers 
throughout England : 

Among other articles ordered by the Government for Buonaparte 
were two fowling pieces, one with double barrels and the other with 
a single barrel, finished in the richest style, having the patent 
lock, which is constructed upon a plan by which the guns may be 
fired under water, in the rain and without flint, besides priming 
themselves forty successive times. 

It is a strange coincidence that this house, the ordering 
of which was relegated to Earl Bathurst so many years 
since, should, during the exile or imprisonment of the Boer 
prisoners of war here, have been occupied by the present 
Earl and Lady Bathurst; Earl Bathurst being Lieut.- 
Colonel of the 4th Gloster Regiment, stationed as guards 
of the camp on Deadwood, which is contiguous to Long- 
wood. 

Napoleon took great interest in the building of the house ; 
still he was often heard to say he should never inhabit it. 
When it was complete and the removal from the old house 
expected each day, rumours circulated of his illness. His 
unsociability was no doubt due to the existence of a 
disease which, unsuspected by those around him, was 
silently but surely hastening his end. 

The population had almost doubled since Buonaparte's 
arrival and as all vessels were prohibited from calling, 
except those belonging to the Company, the islanders found 
they could not live as heretofore. They had been accus- 
tomed, when vessels arrived, to take of the produce of the 
land and barter it with the shipping for supplies of which 
they were most in need, such as grain, salt-meat, China and 
India produce, and surplus ships' stores, as well as stores 
brought often specially by the captains for the purpose of 
trading. At first this inability to obtain what they re- 
quired caused dissatisfaction, but a reaction soon set in. 
They found that the great increase in the population and the 
continual advent of men-of-war more than compensated 
them, for the squadron and the military created a larger 

p 



226 ST. HELENA 

demand for vegetables and fruit than had been the case 
previous to Napoleon's arrival. 

The total garrison at the time was 2,784, i.e. officers and 
men. There were 500 cannon in batteries, besides fifty 
field-guns and a number of mortars in good order. There 
were also a number of guns in store. 

I -The naval strength under Admiral Pulteney Malcolm 
was made up of three large frigates of thirty-six to fifty 
guns, and eight smaller war-ships with from ten to twenty 
guns each. The frigates and two brigs remained to guard 
the island ; the rest were cruisers in South Atlantic waters 
one brig was anchored at Ascension, where fifty sailors were 
also stationed to defend the island. 

The official letters by Count Balmain show that Sir 
Hudson Lowe was, although often maligned by his own 
countrymen, not unkind to his charge, for he writes : 

Sir Hudson Lowe tries his best to satisfy Napoleon ; he treats 
him with respect and consideration ; uncomplainingly puts up with 
his rudeness ; tolerates his whims ; does, in fact, the impossible. 
But to Napoleon he will never seem anything but a scourge. 
There is too much incompatibility of temper between the two men. 
To sum up the situation in a phrase, the man who only knows how 
to command is in the power of him who only knows how to obey. 
And there is no sort of annoyance that the prisoner has not in- 
flicted on the Governor." 

Again he writes : 

General Lowe treats him with all possible respect, and even, 
to a certain extent, humours him in his mania for playing the 
Emperor. In spite of this Buonaparte dislikes him. 

During this time Napoleon was compiling the account 
of his campaigns, and repeatedly was heard to say that he 
ought to have died on the day he entered Moscow when he 
conceived himself to have attained " the highest pinnacle 
of glory." 

The island of Tristan d'Acunha was now taken possession 
of by the British, a measure " adopted to prevent the 
Americans from establishing themselves there ; as they 
might probably prove disagreeable neighbours, under the 
circumstances in which we are placed as guardians of the 
'Disturber of the World.'" 



ST. HELENA 227 

An old St. Helena paper gives the following account of 
his later days : 

" The Emperor for some months considered himself attacked 
by an internal disease which would speedily prove fatal to him. 
He mentioned it, but he was supposed only to be imaginative. A 
few weeks before his death he laboured with a spade in his garden, so 
long and so severely as to be faint with fatigue. Some one suggested 
the probable injury to his health. " No/' said he, " it cannot alter 
my health that is lost beyond all hope. It will but shorten my 
days." 

He gave but little time then to the memoirs of his life, and 
Bertrand urged him to labour with more assiduity. 

"It is beneath me,' 1 he said, "to be the historian of my own life. 
Alexander had his Quintus Curtius, and I shall have mine. At all 
events my life is recorded in my achievements. 11 

A short time before his malady became serious, he aban- 
doned his reserve, and became familiar with all. He set a 
high value on Bertrand but did not like him. One day 
at table he said : 

" Bertrand, it was not your attachment to me, but your love of 
glory that brought you to St. Helena ; you would immortalize 
your name as my Fidus Achates ! " 

It is scarcely known that a little girl of nine years of age, 
the daughter of a sergeant of the garrison, often kept him 
company ; he took great pleasure in her presence, and 
constantly provided himself with fruits and sweetmeats 
for her. Shortly before he died he hung a gold watch and 
chain round her neck, saying, " Julia, wear this for my 
sake." He had with a penknife rudely graved on the 
cover (clumsily enough, it is true), " The Emperor, to his 
little friend Julia." Often he amused himself by giving 
her drawing lessons from the scenery round. 

On April 2 he was seen to be very seriously indisposed. 
He rose early and walked in the garden, but after a few 
minutes sat on the bank apparently faint. Montholon, 
who was near, asked if he were ill. " Yes ! " he said, " I 
feel nausea and sick stomach, the a vant- couriers of death." 
Montholon smiled, but Napoleon, taking his arm, said, " My 
friend, we must not smile at death when he is so near us." 

Just then Julia appeared and attracted his attention. 



228 ST. HELENA 

He took her into the saloon where breakfast was prepared 
and filled her basket with different sweet things, adding a 
bottle of liquor with these words, " This is for your father 
to drink my health ! " 

One day he sent for a jeweller to alter or repair a trinket, 
and while talking asked him if he could make a silver coffin. 
The jeweller tried to shift the question, but Buonaparte, re- 
peating it, said, " I shall die in a few weeks." 

" God forbid that we should lose your Highness," said the 
man ; but " God grant that I may die soon," was the answer, 
"for I am well convinced that life is not a blessing, but a 
curse." 

He often read from Telemachus. While lying on his sofa 
he one day inquired if an English journal could be pre- 
cured him. With some difficulty a newspaper was pro- 
vided. Taking it, and glancing over it hastily, he suddenly 
exclaimed, " Ah ! Naples, Naples ! poor devils. Murat 
was the bravest king they had, but he did not know his 

subjects; they are all Lazzaroni from the Duke of 

down to the lowest ! " 

On the morning of his death he said, "Death has nothing 
to affright me; for three weeks he has been the companion 
of my pillow." 

Ailing, as has been shown, for some months, depressed and 
weak, his illness at the end was of short duration, and he 
died on May 5, 1821, at Longwood Old House. 

His heart was placed in spirit, and in his military uniform 
the body lay in state on the two following days, the Star 
of the Legion of Honour on his side, and a Crucifix on his 
breast. The room was draped in black, and there were in 
attendance Count and Countess Bertrand, Count Montho- 
lon, the priest, physician and servants. 
' On the following morning about seven o'clock Sir Hudson 
Lowe proceeded to the apartment in which the body lay 
in state. He was accompanied by Rear-Admiral Lambert, 
the Marquis de Montchenu, Commissioner on the part of 
France and Austria, and other public functionaries. After 
viewing the body, which lay with the face uncovered, they 
retired, and at two o'clock on the same day the body was 
opened in the presence of six medical gentlemen, including 
Professor Autommarchi, Buonaparte's own physician. An 



ST. HELENA 229 

ulcer was found, which had penetrated the coats and the 
internal surface of the stomach, nearly the whole extent 
being a mass of cancerous disease, or schirrous portions 
advancing to cancer. Buonaparte had frequently declared 
he knew his disease, that it was hereditary, and that his 
father had died of it. The official report appended shows 
clearly that the cause of death was cancer, although many 
have attributed it to heart disease. 

This report on the dissection of the body (made by the 
medical men on May 6, 1821, appeared in the Scotsman 
of July 14, 1821. 

With the report was forwarded to Earl Bathurst a letter 
from Sir Hudson Lowe, as follows ; 

ST. HELENA, 
May 6th, 1821. 

MY LORD, It falls to my duty to inform your Lordship that 
Napoleon Buonaparte expired at about ten minutes before six 
o'clock in the evening of the 5th inst., after an illness which had 
confined him to his apartments since the i/th of March last. He 
was attended during the early part of his indisposition, from the 
1 7th to the 3ist March by his own medical assistant, Professor 
Autommarchi, alone. During the latter period, from the ist 
April to the 5th May, he received the daily visits of Dr. Arnott, 
of H.M. 2Oth Regiment, generally in conjunction with Professor 
Au tommarchi . 

Dr. Short, physician to the forces, and Dr. Mitchell, principal 
medical officer of the Royal Navy on the station, whose services, 
as well as those of any other medical persons on the island, had 
been offered, were called upon in consultaion by Professor Autom- 
marchi on the 3rd of May, but they had not any opportunity 
afforded to them of seeing the patient. 

Dr. Arnott was with him at the moment of his decease and saw 
him expire. Captain Crokat, orderly officer in attendance, and 
Doctors Short and Mitchell saw the body immediately afterwards. 
Dr. Arnott remained with the body during the night. Early this 
morning, at about seven o'clock, I proceeded to the apartment, 
where the body lay, accompanied by Rear-Admiral Lambert 
Naval Commander-in-Chief on this station ; the Marquis de 
Montchenu, Commissioner of His Majesty the King of France, 
charged with the same duty also on the part of His Majesty the 
Emperor of Austria ; Brigadier-General Coffin, second in command 
of the troops ; Thomas H. Brooke and Thomas Greentree, Esqs. 
members of Council in the Government of this island ; and Captains 
Brown, Hendry and Marryat, of the Royal Navy. After visiting 
the person of Napoleon Buonaparte, which lay with the face un- 
covered, we retired. 



230 ST. HELENA 

An opportunity was afterwards afforded, with the concurrence 
of the persons who had composed the family of Napoleon Buona- 
parte, to as many officers, naval and military, as were desirous, 
to the Honourable the East India Company's officers and Civil 
servants, and to various other inhabitants resident here, to enter 
the room in which the body lay and to view it. 

At two o'clock this day the body was opened in the presence 
of the following medical gentlemen : 

Dr. Short, M.D. 

Dr. Mitchell, M.D. 

Dr. Arnott, M.D. 

Dr. Burton, M.D., of H.M. 66th Regiment, and 

Matthew Livingstone, Esq., surgeon in the East India Company's 
service. 

Professor Autommarchi assisted at the dissection. General 
Bertrand and Count Montholon were present. 

After a careful examination of the several internal parts of the 
body, the whole of the medical gentlemen present concurred in a 
report on their appearance. The report is enclosed. 

I shall cause the body to be interred with the honours due to a 
general officer of the highest rank. 

I have entrusted this despatch to Captain Crokat, of His Majesty's 
2Oth Regiment, who was the orderly officer in attendance upon the 
person of Napoleon Buonaparte at the time of his decease. He 
embarks on board His Majesty's sloop Heron, which Rear- Admiral 
Lambert has despatched from the squadron under his command 
with the intelligence. 

I have, etc., etc., etc., 

H. LOWE, Lieut. -General. 

To the Right Hon. the Earl Bathurst, K.G., etc., etc. 



THE REPORT OF APPEARANCES ON DISSECTION OF THE BODY OF 
NAPOLEON BUONAPARTE. 

LONGWOOD, ST. HELENA, 
May 6. 

On a superficial view the body appeared very fat, which state 
was confirmed by the first incision down its centre, where the fat 
was upwards of one inch and a half over the abdomen. On cutting 
through the cartilages of the ribs, and exposing the cavity of the 
thorax, a trifling adhesion of the left pleura was found to the pleura 
costalis. About three ounces of reddish fluid were contained 
in the left cavity and nearly eight ounces in the right. The lungs 
were quite sound. The pericardium was natural, and contained 
about an ounce of fluid. The heart was of the natural size, but 
thickly covered with fat. The auricles and ventricles exhibited 
nothing extraordinary, except that the muscular parts appeared 
rather paler than natural. 

Upon opening the abdomen the omentum was found remarkably 



ST. HELENA 231 

fat, and on exposing the stomach the viscus was found the seat 
of extensive disease. 

Strong adhesions connected the surface, particularly about the 
pyloric extremity to the concave surface of the left lobe of the 
liver ; and on separating these, an ulcer, which penetrated the 
coat of the stomach, was discovered, one inch from the pylorus, 
sufficient to allow the passage of the little finger. The internal 
surface of the stomach to nearly its whole extent was a mass of 
cancerous disease or schirrous portions advancing to cancer ; this 
was particularly noticed in the pylorus. The cardiac extremity, 
for a small place near the termination of the oesophagus, was the 
only part appearing in a healthy state. The stomach was found 
nearly filled with a large quantity of fluid resembling coffee grounds. 
The convex surface of the left lobe of the liver adhered to the 
diaphragm. With the exception of the adhesions occasioned by 
the disease in the stomach, no unhealthy appearance presented 
itself in the liver. 

The remainder of the abdominal viscera were in a healthy state. 
A slight peculiarity in the formation of the left lobe kidney was 
observed. 

(Signed) THOMAS SHORT, M.D., and principal Medical Officer. 

ARCH. ARNOTT, M.D., Surgeon 2oth Regiment. 

CHAS. MITCHELL, M.D., Surgeon of H.M.S. Vigo. 

FRANCIS BURTON, M.D., Surgeon 66th Regiment. 

MATTHEW LIVINGSTONE, Surgeon E.I.C. Service. 

At an exhibition held in the Mechanics' Hall, Dumfries, 
some years since, there was shown by Major Young, of 
Lincluden, a lock of hair, cut from the head of the great 
Napoleon after death, together with a letter which is 
of some historical value. Hitherto, French writers have 
asserted that the post-mortem examination of Napoleon's 
body was an unwarrantable liberty taken in opposition to 
the deceased's wish. The letter, together with the lock of 
hair, was discovered by Major Young in a secret drawer of 
an old writing desk belonging to his father, to whom the 
epistle had been written by Dr. Short (a native of Dum- 
fries), who held the office of Principal Medical Officer of the 
British Staff at St. Helena, and who superintended the 
dissection, as stated in Sir Hudson Lowe's letter to Earl 
Bathurst. 

ST. HELENA, 

May fth, 1821. 

MY DEAR SIR, You will no doubt be much surprised to hear of 
Buonaparte's death, who expired on the 5th of May after an illness 
of some standing. 

His disease was cancer in the stomach that must have lasted 



232 ST. HELENA 

some years, and been in a state of ulceration some months. I was 
in consultation and attendance several days, but he would not see 
strangers. I was officially introduced the moment he died. His 
face in death was the most beautiful I ever beheld, exhibiting soft- 
ness and every good expression in the highest degree, and really 
seemed formed to conquer. 

The following day I superintended the dissection of the body 
(at this time his countenance was much altered), which was done 
at his own request to ascertain the exact seat of the disease (which 
he imagined to be where it was afterwards discovered to be) with 
the view of benefiting his son, who might inherit it. During the 
whole of his illness he never complained, and kept his character 
to the last. The disease being hereditary, his father having died 
of it, and his sister, the Princess Borghese, being supposed to have 
it, proves to the world that the climate and mode of life had no 
hand in it, and, contrary to the assertion of Messrs. O'Meara and 
Stokoe, his liver was perfectly sound ; and had he been on the throne 
of France instead of an inhabitant of St. Helena, he would equally 
have suffered, as no earthly power could cure the disease when 
formed. From North British Advertiser, May 2, 1873. 

Preparatory to the funeral the body was placed in a 
leaden coffin in the dress in which it had lain in state, in- 
cluding boots and spurs. This coffin was enclosed in two 
others made of mahogany. The outer one had a plain top 
and sides, with ebony round the edges and silver head- 
screws. Pursuant to military orders for conducting the 
ceremony with the honours usually paid to the remains of 
a general of the highest rank the left side of the road, from 
Longwood gate in the direction of the burying-place, was, 
on May 9, lined with troops of the garrison ; the Royal 
Artillery were on the right of the whole ; then the 20th 
Regiment, the Royal Marines, the 66th Regiment, the St. 
Helena Artillery, the St. Helena Regiment and on the left 
the St. Helena Volunteers. 

(The instructions to Sir George Cockburn had provided 
that in case of the death of Napoleon his body was to be 
taken to -England, but it seems that counter orders were 
subsequently sent to Sir Hudson Lowe, and Napoleon 
had requested that in the event of his dying at St. Helena, 
he should be buried in the vale where his grave was made.) 
The coffin was placed in a car drawn by four horses ; the 
whole of the funeral procession passed along the front of 
the line of troops, the band of each corps playing solemn 
music. As the procession cleared each company it was 



ST. HELENA 233 

followed by the troops till they took up a position on the 
road above the grave. At the moment of lowering the body, 
three discharges were fired from eleven pieces of artillery. 

So by his own wish, in the shady valley close to the 
spring of water at which he so frequently quenched his 
thirst, he was laid with last honours. Here his body rested 
for nearly twenty years, from May 9, 1821, to October 15, 
1840. The little glen is shaded by beautiful Norfolk pines, 
cypresses, and firs, and the enclosed portion measures about 
twenty by thirty yards. 

The vault itself is covered by a large flat stone, twelve by 
six feet, which at the present time is run over with cement 
much cracked, bearing no name, no inscrption. Formerly, 
overhanging it, were two willow trees, but they have long 
since disappeared. Outside the fencing is a thick-set 
privet hedge and a wooden hut or sentry-box, in which an 
attendant keeps a visitor's book. Here a notice is affixed 
to the effect that the grave and its surroundings are the 
sole freehold property of the French Republic. 

Sir Hudson Lowe wishing to return to England, the 
question arose as to who should take command ; Mr. Brooke 
was senior in Council, but it had been ordered in Council 
that in the event of death or absence of Sir Hudson Lowe, 
the custody of Napoleon as well as the Governorship of 
the island should devolve on the officer commanding the 
troops. The death of Napoleon was not anticipated or 
allowed for so Brigadier-General Pine Coffin was appointed 
Acting Commander-in-Chief, with charge of Longwood 
House and all properties belonging to the British Govern- 
ment, while the Civil Authority was vested in Mr. Brooke 
under the title of Acting-Governor. 

On leaving the island Sir Hudson Lowe was presented 
with an address signed by the inhabitants generally, stating 
that as he was on the eve of resigning his authority they 
could not be suspected of views of an interested nature in 
respectfully offering their most sincere and grateful ac- 
knowledgments for the consideration, justice, impartiality, 
and moderation which had distinguished his Government. 

After his departure the troops which had formed the 
military establishment were removed, and hard times fell 
on many who had lived in affluence. 



234 ST. HELENA 

In Longwood Old House is a bust of Napoleon. There 
have been doubts raised as to whether or not a cast of his 
face was made after death. The present custodian of 
French property in St. Helena, in writing on the subject to 
the editor of the St. Helena Guardian, says : 

I regret to say I have not in my possession at present The 
Memorial of St. Helena, begun by Las Casas and continued by 
Dr. Autommarchi. If my memory served me right I read in the 
latter part of said Memorial that first of all the autopsy of the 
dead body of the great Emperor was made (probably on the 6th 
May) by Dr. Autommarchi, aided by Dr. Arnott (some spell Arnold), 
assisted also by other doctors of the garrison. Then a cast was 
taken of the great General, but a mishap occurred. When the 
doctors had mixed the plaster of Paris they found the quantity 
was not sufficient to complete the cast. Jamestown was ransacked 
but without success; no more "plaster" could be found. . . . 
The doctors were in a dilemma. Someone proposed exploring the 
vicinity of Longwood to obtain a substitute to complete the cast, 
and they were so far successful as to find some argillaceous marl 
with a certain amount of adhesiveness, They burnt and pulverized 
it, and thus finished their almost hopeless task ; the only fault with 
the cast was that it was of two colours. 

Dr. Autommarchi, I believe, took the cast to Paris, and it was 
exhibited in the Louvre for years after. 

There are but two busts of Napoleon I acknowledged as correct, 
one taken during lifetime by Canova, and the other taken from 
the cast after death, by Chaudet, which is still at Longwood old 
House,' St. Helena, placed between the two windows of the saloon, 
where the mortuary bed was taken from the bed-room, a few days 
before the end of the Great Conqueror. This last bust in Carrara 
marble was brought to St. Helena by the late M. Gautier de Rouge- 
mont (not Louis). . . . 

I remain, dear Mr. Editor, 

Yours sincerely, 
(Signed) L. MORILLEAU. 

The copy of the Campaigns of Italy, which was written 
at St. Helena by Napoleon himself, was in the possession 
of General Bertrand who, when he was dying, delivered it 
to his brother, M. L. Bertrand, to present to the city of 
Lyons Napoleon had made two copies of these memoirs ; 
the one he gave to Bertrand was (as above) transferred to 
Lyons with a map of Italy by Albe (which Napoleon used 
in compiling the memoirs), together with the Cross of the 
order of the Iron Crown (worn by the Emperor) and an 




NAPOLEON'S TOMB. 



ST. HELENA 235 

eagle of silver, given to Bertrand by Napoleon, which con- 
stituted part of the plate broken up in St. Helena. 

On October 8, 1840, the frigate, La Belle Poule, bringing 
the Prince de Joinville and suite, arrived, accompanied by 
the Favourite, a corvette. Their mission was to convey 
to France the remains of the late Napoleon Buonaparte. 
(See illustration of funeral cortege passing through Lower 
Parade.) 

After exhumation, the coffins were deposited with funeral 
honours in the frigate which, on Sunday, 15, sailed for 
France. 

EXTRACT FROM THE " ST. HELENA GAZETTE/' SATURDAY, MAY 26, 
1849, AND JUNE 9, ENTITLED "THE TWO FUNERALS OF 
NAPOLEON." 

In the log of the Free Trader, homeward bound, by Robert 
Pastans, May 5, 1821, there appears this entry : 

" A memorable event occurred this day.' 1 Apparently, at the 
time these words were written it was supposed they would be 
sufficient to recall to the memory, at a future period, the circum- 
stance they so briefly recorded, for the journal said nothing more 
about it. True, it was further stated lower down on the same page 
with nautical brevity, under the head of " Remarks " : 

" All useful sail set." 
" Beat the best bower." 
" Pumped ship." 
" A stranger in sight." 

To which was added, " Lat. by observation 16' 30" south, 5' 30* 
west." Assisted by the latitude and longitude, as well as by the 
date, I made two or three desperate dives into the stream of time, 
hoping to rescue from oblivion the event, and, after a hard struggle, 
succeeded in bringing to the surface of my memory the leading 
incident, and then the whole affair floated through my mind with 
all the freshness of yesterday. And, perhaps, it will be as well 
to state, for the information of the general reader, that on the day 
in question, the Free Trader was running before the south-east 
trade wind, over that aqueous portion of our planet which rolls 
between the Cape of Good Hope and the island of St. Helena. 

It was my morning watch, and I recollect leaning over the cap- 
stan and lapsing into one of those paradoxical states, when, although 
attending to nothing in particular, yet almost every object within 
the range of our senses undergoes a sort of dreamy observation. 
I could see the man at the helm, and see how firm he kept the 
plunging ship in hand, his sinewy grasp seemed by a secret intel- 
ligence to impress his will upon the vast mass of the vessel. With- 
out disturbing the process of observation, a shoal of porpoises 
would occasionally rush along, pursuing their earnest and busy 



236 



ST. HELENA 



passage at a velocity compared with which the progress of the 
swift ship was tardiness itself, for I could hear the hissing of the 
crisp sea as it curled a crescent of foam beneath her bows. Then 
came the busy hum of the " morning watch," mingling with the 
welcome sound of " eight bells " and the merry whistle of the 
boatswain piping to breakfast. The motion of the rolling vessel, 
the freshness of the delicious south-east trade, the thoughts of 
home, the dancing waters and the sparkling sunshine, each of 
these in their turn would for a moment slightly arrest the attention ; 
but vigilance is a cardinal virtue in old Neptune's domain, and 
bustling times were close at hand. A ship in the middle of the 
Atlantic, with a rattling south-easter whistling through the rigging, 
is not the bed where day-dreaming can be indulged in with impu- 
nity, and so it soon appeared, for a hoarse voice from the main- 
top-mast cross-trees, as if by magic, dispelled the illusion, and 
brought my senses to their duty. 

" Sail, ho t " 

" Where away ? " was the prompt demand. 

" Right ahead," returned the seaman. " I make her out a 
full-rigged ship lying to." 

The officer of the watch had barely time to apply his " Dollond " 
in the direction indicated when the man aloft was again heard 
shouting " Land on the larboard bow." 

As the Free Trader had been traversing the ocean for weeks, 
with nothing to relieve the eye but the " blue above and the blue 
below," the excitement which was caused by the discovery of the 
stranger, coupled with the sudden cry of " land," is not surprising. 

For it is in the deep solitudes of the ocean that man most keenly 
feels how dependent he is upon his kind for happiness. In such 
situations the most trifling incident arrests the attention a floating 
spar or even an old tar-barrel become objects of speculative 
curiosity. Accordingly, as we neared the strange ship, the cut 
of her canvas and the mould of her hull were critically examined 
by the more experienced seamen, who can generally guess from 
the appearance they present not only the nation to which a ship 
belongs, but her occupation also. But on the present occasion 
they were puzzled to give a reason why a large vessel like the 
stranger should be lying to just where she was (that seemed the 
mystery), and apparently waiting our approach. 

This quiet bearing lasted until the Free Trader was in the act 
of passing the strange vessel, and then, as if suddenly roused out 
of her lethargy, a thin volume of white smoke was seen curling 
out of one of her forward ports. The explosion was followed by 
the appearance of a flag, which, after fluttering for an instant, blew 
steadily out, and, much to our satisfaction, displayed the blue field 
and red cross of the English ensign. 

" What ship's that ? " bellowed a loud voice from our formidable- 
looking neighbour, who had ranged alongside the Indiaman close 
enough to be within hailing distance. 

"The Free Trader." 



ST. HELENA 237 

" Where from ? " was demanded. 

" Calcutta, and bound to London/' replied our captain. 

" Do you intend calling at the island ? " 

" Yes.' 1 

" Then send a boat on board His Majesty's frigate The Blossom 
for instructions," was demanded in tones that left no doubt what 
would be the result of a non-compliance. An interchange of visits 
speedily followed between the frigate and the Indiaman, and soon 
after they were sailing side by side in the direction of the land, 
keeping company until the Free Trader had received such sailing 
directions as enabled her to stand in for the island alone. The 
frigate then took up her cruising ground as before. 

It would require but a slight stretch of the imagination to convert 
the perpendicular cliffs of St. Helena into the enormous walls of a 
sea-girt castle. There is an air of stern and solemn gloom stamped 
by nature upon each rocky lineament that reminds one of the 
characteristics of a stronghold. Not a sign of vegetation is out- 
wardly visible. Headlands appear each in its turn looking more 
repulsive than those left behind. The sea-birds, as they utter 
their discordant screams, seem afraid to alight, but wheel about 
the lofty summits of the bald rocks in a labyrinth of gyrations, 
while an everlasting surf, as it advances in incessant charges at 
their base, rumbles upon the air in a hollow ceaseless roar. 

It was during the operations of working the Free Trader round 
one of the points of the island that the heavy booming sound of a 
large gun was heard, slowly borne up against the wind over the 
surface of the sea. As the sun was just then dipping in the bosom 
of the Atlantic, it was generally thought on board to be the evening 
gun. But again the same solemn heavy sound floated by on the 
wind. Again, and again, it came in measured time, when at length, 
as we cleared the last projecting headland, the roadstead and the 
town came suddenly into view. At the same time the colours 
of the fort on Ladder Hill, and on board the Admiral's ship, the 
Vigo, of seventy-four guns, were seen fluttering at half-mast, denot- 
ing the death of some person of distinction. 

While sailing into our berth, and after the anchor had fixed us 
to the land, the report of the cannon came upon us at intervals. 
Their sounds seemed bodeful of some great event. We all looked 
inquiringly for some explanation, but before any positive intel- 
ligence had reached the ship from the shore, surmise after surmise 
had given way to a settled conviction ; for by one of those inscrut- 
able impulses of the mind, every man in the Free Trader felt assured 
those island guns announced the death of Napoleon. 

Our suspense was brief, for soon after the anchor was down a 
shore boat came alongside, containing an official person, to demand 
the nature of our wants, and he confirmed our suspicions. This 
intelligence, although anticipated, created a feeling of disappoint- 
ment, as every individual in the ship had speculated during the 
voyage upon the chance of seeing Napoleon alive. However, by 
an easy transition, now that he was dead, we wondered whether 



2 3 8 



ST. HELENA 



we should be permitted to witness his funeral, but as no communica- 
tion was allowed from the ships in the roads to the shore between 
the hours of sundown and sunrise, we were obliged to pass the night 
in conjecture. Under these circumstances, we were scarcely pro- 
pared for the news that reached us early in the morning. It was 
a general notice to all strangers and residents, informing them 
that they were permitted to visit the island and to see the body 
of General Buonaparte as it lay in state. 

After the lapse of six and twenty years, and now, when the 
passions of that mighty conflict which filled Europe in the early 
part of the century are extinct, it would be difficult to make the 
present generation comprehend the profound emotions which the 
news had upon those who, like ourselves, happened to be at St. 
Helena at this eventful period. Consequently, on the second 
day after Napoleon's death nearly every individual on the island, 
as well as those in the different vessels at anchor in the roads, 
repaired to Longwood, the place where he died. Of course the 
house was thronged with people, but as the greatest order prevailed, 
I was soon in the room with all that was left of the most wondrous 
man of modern times. Suddenly coming out of the glare of a 
tropical sun into the partially darkened room, a few moments 
elapsed before the objects were properly defined. Gradually, as 
the contents of the apartment tumbled into shape, the person of 
Napoleon, dressed in a plain green uniform, grew out of the compara- 
tive gloom, and became the loadstar of attraction. 

He was lying on a small brass tent bedstead, which had been 
with him in most of his campaigns. I found it impossible to with- 
draw my eyes for an instant from his countenance ; it caused in 
me a sensation difficult to define, but the impression can never be 
forgotten. There was a crucifix on his breast, and by its side 
glittered a large diamond star, the brilliancy of which strangely 
contrasted with the pallid face of the dead. The skin was of a 
most intense whiteness, and looked like wax. 

What struck me as most strange was the mean appearance of 
the surrounding furniture and the " getting up " of the ceremony. 
There appeared to be no want of respect to the memory of the dead 
hero, whatever might have been his treatment when living. But 
the knowledge of this did not prevent a comparison between his 
fallen state and the magnificence and power with which imagin- 
ation invested him when living. And although it may be idle 
to compare the deeds of a great man with the appearance of the 
man himself, yet it is what most of us are prone to do ; and on this 
occasion it was impossible to avoid falling into the practice, for 
possibly the results of a comparison could not be more striking. 
Napoleon at Austerlitz or Zena, with continental Europe at his feet, 
and Napoleon lying dead in that miserable room, presents to the 
dullest imagination a theme pregnant with emotion. It was indeed 
difficult to understand how, even by the proverbial instability fof 
fortune, that insensible form lying in its utter helplessness could 
ever have been the 



ST. HELENA 239 

Man of a thousand thrones, 

Who strewed our earth with hostile bones." 



Solemnly and sternly the reality forced itself upon all, and I felt 
that I was reading a journal of true romance, so absorbing, so 
wretched, that if I was to confine my studies to man, it would be 
unnecessary to peruse a second volume to grow perfect in know- 
ledge or reflection. 

The time allowed for the visitors to remain in the chamber was 
very limited and condensed observations into a passing glimpse. 
This could not well have been otherwise, as every individual on 
the island was anxious to obtain even a momentary view of one 
who had attracted so large a portion of the attention of the world. 
And not the least singular spectacle seen on that day was the motley 
group which Napoleon's fame had drawn around his funeral couch. 
For although St. Helena on the map may at first appear to be a 
secluded spot, yet in reality it is not so. A glance or two is sufficient 
to assure us that it is placed in the centre of the great highway of 
the world, where the necessities of commerce, and the wants and 
hazards inseparable from a sea-faring life, are the means of bringing 
together the antipodes of the human race. And if the dense masses 
of people which thronged to his second funeral at a more recent 
period, in his own dear France, were wanting, their deficiency in 
numbers was in some sort compensated by the variety of men ; 
or if there was not a multitude, there was, at least, a medley of 
curious gazers. 

Foremost in intelligence were the French and English ; but 
apart from these stood the wondering African negro, the uncouth 
Hottentot from the Cape, the yellow Brazilian from South America, 
the fierce-looking Lascar from Bengal, and the quiet, inoffensive 
Chinese from remotest Asia. Some of these knew but little of 
Napoleon's renown ; but being inoculated with the prevailing 
emotion, they came, like the more intellectual European, to gaze 
upon the embers of that dazzling meteor, the blaze of which had 
so recently expired. 

The same tincture of corruption dyes all mortality, and hero 
dust, as well as common clay, soon becomes offensive in a tropical 
climate. Even on the second day after his death it was already 
time he should have been soldered up. With a knowledge of this 
fact, the Governor- General had ordered the funeral to take place 
on the 9th, thus allowing only four days to elapse between his 
death and his burial. 

In the meantime the spot where the pioneers were digging the 
grave became an object of mingled curiosity and veneration, 
second only in importance to the illustrious hero who was so soon 
to make it his abiding place. 

It was close to a small spring, of which Napoleon always drank, 
and occasionally he breakfasted beneath the shade of two willows 
that bend over the bubbling water. The grave was singularly 
made. It was formed very wide at the top, but sloped gradually 



240 ST. HELENA 

inwards, having the appearance of an inverted pyramid. The 
lowest part was chambered to receive the coffin, and one large 
stone covered the chamber. It was said that this covering was 
taken from the floor of the kitchen at Longwood, where it had 
been used as a hearthstone in front of the fireplace, though why 
it should have been removed for such a purpose it is difficult to 
comprehend, for the island is not deficient of the requisite material. 
The remaining space was to be filled up with solid masonry clamped 
together with bands of iron. These precautions, it appeared, 
were intended to prevent the removal of the body, as much at 
the request of the French as of the Governor of the island. Di- 
vested of the associations connected with his fame, Napoleon's 
funeral at St. Helena was a simple, though heartfelt, affair. His 
long agony on that sunburnt rock commanded the reverence of 
every beholder. Consequently, on the 9th, all the inhabitants 
and visitors on the island flocked to the line of march. Like many 
others, I selected a prominent position on the shoulders of a hill 
from whence the solemn procession could be traced, as it threaded 
its way through the gorges and ravines of this picturesque place, 
on its way to the grave. The coffin was borne upon the shoulders 
of English Grenadiers, and followed by the soldiers who had con- 
tributed more towards his downfall than those of any other nation. 
Their solemn tread and grave deportment contrasted strongly 
with the heartfelt sorrow of Count Montholon and General Bertrand, 
who bore the hero's pall. Madame Bertrand followed next, in 
tears, and then came Lady Lowe and her daughters, in mourning ; 
the officers of the English man-of-war next, and then the officers 
of the army, the Governor- General and Admiral Lambert closing 
the rear. The 66th and 2Oth Regiments of Infantry, the Artillery 
and the Marines were stationed on the crests of the surrounding 
hills ; and when the body was lowered into the tomb, three rounds 
of eleven guns were fired. And thus the great soldier of France 
received the last tribute of respect in honour of his achievements, 
from the hands of his most constant, but, as he described them, 
the most generous of his enemies. 

The last years of Napoleon's life, except so far as they derived 
a gloomy and awful importance from the remembrance of his 
terrific career of blood and power, were as insignificant as his first. 
He could neither act upon, nor be acted upon, by the transactions 
of the world. He seemed to be buried alive, kept as he was in close 
custody by a power, with whose strength it was useless to cope, 
and whose vigilance there was little chance of eluding. 

On the following morning the sounds of labour were heard from 
every quarter of the Free Trader, and the long-drawn songs of the 
mariners were rising in the cool quiet of the early dawn. Then 
commenced the heavy toil which lifts the anchor from its bed ; 
the ship, once more released, from her hold upon the land stood 
across the Atlantic for England, and long ere noon the sun-blistered 
rock of St. Helena was shut out from our view by the rising waters 
in which it seemed to submerge. And thus ended the " memorable 



ST. HELENA 241 

event " which formed such a singular episode in the otherwise 
monotonous voyage of the Free Trader. 



On an intensely cold morning, some twenty years after the occur- 
rences above narrated, I was proceeding to Paris as fast as a French 
diligence could carry me. After passing through a long winter's 
night, cramped and stiffened for want of exercise, it was with feelings 
approaching delight that I beheld the French capital. But as the 
vehicle neared the gay metropolis, it was impossible to avoid being 
surprised at the appearance of the populace. Everybody was going 
toward Paris, no one appeared to be going in any other direction. 
The multitude increased as we progressed, and when the diligence 
entered the Boulevard, it was with great difficulty the lumbering 
vehicle was urged through the living mass. On either side of us 
was a dense crown of heads, eagerness pictured on every counten- 
ance. Amid the jabber arising from so large an assemblage was 
heard the rolling sound of artillery, mingling strangely, nay wildly, 
with the solemn tolling of the great bell of Notre Dame, which every 
now and then fell upon the ear, without mingling with the great 
tide of sound, but each vibration seemed distinct in its isolation. 
It was impossible, from the vexed and confused nature of the tumult 
arising from bells, guns, and drums, to form an idea whether the 
people were celebrating a holiday, a spectacle, or a revolution. 

Most human feelings are contagious, and I was soon inoculated 
with a desire to mix with the crowd, and see what was going on. 
Accordingly, as soon as the diligence arived at the Messagerie, I 
left my carpet-bag in the custody of an official, and set forth to 
satisfy my curiosity. Once fairly in the throng, I was soon urged 
along the Place de la Bourse, and from thence up the Rue Vivienne 
to the Boulevard des Italiens, happy in having availed myself of 
any change, whether of sentiment or situation, which would rouse 
my half-frozen blood into action, and enable me to compete with a 
temperature ten degrees below freezing. 

Forward, forward, along the interminable Boulevard, I was 
forced by the dense mass, and extrication became hopeless. That 
broad thoroughfare seemed to be the main channel through which 
flowed the living tide ; and, as it was continually being fed by the 
streets on either side, it was ultimately crowded to a dangerous 
degree. 

At the magnificent church of the Madeleine, a divided opinion 
acted upon the people, and gave me scope for action. I followed 
that section whose destinies led them to the Place de la Concorde, 
where I had scarcely arrived when preparations of an uncommon 
description came at once into view. Salvos of artillery were still heard, 
or rather they had never ceased ; the bells also tolled incessantly, 
and that intolerable beat of the French drum, mixed with the noise 
arising from a crowd of thousands of Frenchmen was most bewilder- 
ing. But as well as the confusion would permit observation of the 
surrounding objects, it seemed that, on each side of the crowded 

Q 



242 ST. HELENA 

avenue of the Champs Elysdes, large statues had been raised, each 
symbolical of some mental attitude, such as justice, valour, fortitude, 
and the like, and between their colossal figures magnificent tripos 
of a great height were erected, supporting vases which were filled 
with flames. The spectacle had approached its crisis when I arrived 
at the Place de la Concorde, and my position afforded me a good 
view of the avenue. In the distance dense columns of horse and 
foot soldiery were slowly marching, preceded by military bands 
playing solemn music. 

" But where is he, the champion and the child, 

Of all that's great or little, wise or wild? 

Whose game was empires, and whose stakes were thrones ? 

Whose table earth whose dice was human bones ? 

Behold the grand result of yon lone isle 

And, as thy nature urges, weep or smile." 

BYRON. 

Column after column paraded by. The whole chivalry of France 
had assembled to do honour to some dearly-loved object, for every 
class of French soldier had sent its representative, and every depart- 
ment of the kingdom its deputy. The procession appeared inter- 
minable. On it came, in every variety of uniform, the soldiers of 
Davoust, of Hoche, of Moreau, Jourdan, Massena, and Angereau, 
Ney, Murat, Kleber and Kellerman. Fragments of all " arms " of 
the Imperial Guard were there represented, strangely mingled with 
the picturesque dresses of Mamelukes and guides. At length a 
moving tower of sable plumes rolled by upon golden wheels, drawn 
by sixteen horses. Immediately following came the Royal Family 
of France and the great Ministers of State, decorated with glittering 
stars and orders. Twenty years back I had witnessed the funeral 
obsequies of this remarkable man, for, of course, by this time, I 
knew that it was the second burial of Napoleon at which I was a 
chance spectator. Since then a great alteration had taken place in 
the affairs of Europe. A quarter of a century of profound peace 
had rendered the entente cordiale apparently perfect. British ships 
of war no longer muzzled the mouth of every French port from 
Dunkerque to Toulon. The correction was done, and the rod was 
burnt, and in the fulness of time came the crowning act of grace, 
when, as M. de Remusat stated in the Chamber of Deputes, England 
had magnanimously consented to the proposal of the French nation 
to return the remains of Napoleon, thus surrendering the trophy 
of the most unparalleled struggle in modern history. 

And yet, incredible as it may seem, when France was receiving 
from British generosity a boon which she could not obtain by any 
physical appliance, the law and medical students of Paris displayed 
a base and infamous hostility against the country (which was in 
the very act of returning with a noble and chivalrous sentiment 
the undying token of her own supremacy and the humiliation of 
her enemies) using such expressions as "A bas Palmerston," "A 
bas les Anglais," which sounded oddly enough in an Englishman's 
ears, with these recollections still throbbing in his memory. It was 
to do honour to those precious remains that France, nay Europe, 



ST. HELENA 243 

had assembled her thousands in the Champs Ely sees on that day. 
His faults, as well as the unbounded sacrifice made to his daring 
ambition, seemed to be forgotten. Men appeared to point only to 
the bright and burning spots in Napoleon's career, without recollecting 
what they had proved to France and the world. It was a spectacle 
of a nation paying homage in the names of freedom and honour to 
the representative of military power. It has been said that French 
enthusiasm is easily excited, and that it as easily cools, seldom lasting 
long enough to ripen into the more dignified sentiment of traditional 
veneration. Certainly it inconsistently decreed the honour of 
national obsequies on Napoleon, whose fall was hailed by the great 
bulk of the nation, after the battle of Waterloo, as the end of their 
unbounded sacrifices, and as the second dawn of their public liber- 
ties. But little penetration was required to discover that curiosity 
was the strongest feeling exhibited, or at the most, it was a gal- 
vanized excitement it wanted the reality of natural emotion. To 
these few, whose lot it was to witness both the burials of Napoleon, 
this must have been apparent. They could not fail to note the 
contrast between the gorgeous display of the second ceremony and 
the simple but deeply heartfelt funeral at St. Helena. In Paris 
everything seemed unreal. For a burial, the second ceremony was 
too far removed from the death ; people, if they had not forgotten, 
had ceased to lament for him. The charger led before the hero's 
hearse had never borne the hero. And for a commemoration it was 
much too soon. True, the remembrance of his reverses and his 
sufferings at St. Helena commanded the sympathy and reverence 
of every Frenchman present ; doubtless they felt, and felt keenly, 
the return of their former hero, though dead ; but the reflections 
were bitter to their sensitive natures ; they felt that though the 
bones of their idol were amongst them, yet the sentence which 
indignant Europe had written on the rocks of St. Helena was not 
erased, but was treasured in the depths of men's minds, and regis- 
tered in the history of the world. 

As the catafalque slowly passed by, over the bridge, along the 
Quay d'Orsay, until it was finally hidden from the view by the trees 
of the Esplanade of the Invalides, it was evident, that, let his 
countrymen do what they would, let them fire their cannon, sound 
their trumpets, unfold their dusty banners of past wars, they failed 
to impart to the memory of the vanquished of Waterloo a becoming 
character ; their funeral ceremony wanted moral grandeur ; they 
converted into a theatrical show what was intended for a national 
solemnity, for mourners there were none ; his own uniforms were 
not even seen around him, and the only eagles there were those 
which were cut in yellow pasteboard. 

But the light had burned out which projected the gigantic shadow 
on the canvas, and what was left behind ? nothing but a name 
the sport of fortune and the jest of fame. 

An amusing act of gasconade, the performance of which rumour 
awarded to the Prince de Joinville, was freely commented upon in 



244 ST. HELENA 

naval circles about this period. It will be remembered that his 
Royal Highness was despatched by the French Government in La 
Belle Poule, the finest frigate in their service, to convey the remains 
of Napoleon from St. Helena to France. After the exhumation of 
the body, which was performed in the presence of many English and 
French officers, the features of Napoleon were recognized, contrary, as 
it was stated, to French expectations. The coffin, after being placed 
in a sumptuous one brought from Europe, was conveyed, after many 
compliments upon the honour and good faith of England, on board 
La Belle Poule, which with its sacred freight soon after put to sea. 
The faith of " perfide Albion " was not so bad as expected. A few 
weeks after the French frigate had taken her departure from St. 
Helena, and was nearing the coast of Europe, an English frigate 
hove in sight, and perceiving a French ship-of-war, she bore down 
upon her to speak her. From some unexplained reason the Prince 
imagined she might be sent to capture the precious relic he had 
on board La Belle Poule, and rushing on the quarter-deck he ordered 
his crew to quarters and prepare for action. A word, however, from 
the captain of the English frigate was enough to dispel the gallant 
Prince's vain alarms, and the explanations which soon followed 
afforded the British tars a hearty laugh at the distorted view the 
Frenchmen had of English faith. 

This rumoured bravado of the Prince is nevertheless in perfect 
keeping with his Bodadil pamphlet, published soon after his return 
with Napoleon's remains, in which he attempts to show " how 
easily he could invade England, if he had only ships enough, with 
men of the right sort to man them." 

SIR HUDSON LOWE'S MEMOIRS. 

The publication of these long expected memoirs was from time 
to time delayed from a variety of circumstances, the principal 
cause, however, being a disagreement between the publisher and 
Sir Hudson's family, respecting the mode of publishing. Sir Hudson's 
son wishing, naturally enough, to vindicate the character and memory 
of his father from the endless slanders so mercilessly heaped upon 
him, respecting his connexion with Napoleon whilst at St. Helena, 
thought it advisable for this purpose to curtail the mere memoirs, 
and give as many original documents as it was possible to do ; and 
from the number in his possession, and that of his family, he thought 
at least five volumes would be required. To this, objections were 
raised by the publisher, who, of course, looked upon the matter 
merely in a mercantile point of view, and considered three volumes 
ample for the purpose, and perhaps quite as many as would com- 
mand a profitable sale. 

When these objections were raised by the publisher and strictly 
insisted on by him, Sir Hudson's son declined having anything 
further to do in the matter, and left it entirely for his family and 
the publisher to arrange between themselves, which led to the MS. 
memoir and original documents being placed in the hands of Sir 
Harris Nicholas, who took them with him to France to re-arrange, 



ST. HELENA 245 

but soon after died before much further progress had been made in 
the work, which fully accounts for the delay of the publication. 
*; In their original form these memoirs would have embraced 
notices of his early occupations in Sicily, Corsica and Calabria, and 
would have made public many valuable letters and documents con- 
nected with affairs of that part of the world, from the most emi- 
nent soldiers and diplomatists of that eventful time. 

To St. Helena, of course, the most interesting part would have 
related to the period while he was Governor and had charge of 
Napoleon. It has been confidently asserted that the scurrilous 
libels of Montholon and other Bonapartists would be shown in their 
true light, and the extent of their exaggerations and misstatements 
fully revealed, for young Lowe possessed all the qualifications for 
the task and had naturally a greater and more direct personal 
interest in the issue of the matter than a stranger could be expected 
to have. The change of editors is therefore to be regretted in more 
respects than one, although it cannot be doubted that posterity 
will do Sir Hudson justice, which Napoleon appears to have thought 
would be just only to his own reputation. Posterity has done justice 
to Napoleon, and will do so yet for the memory of Sir Hudson Lowe. 

THE EXPEDITION TO SAINT HELENA. 
Translated from the French of Arthur Bertrand. 

A voyage of five thousand miles, to fetch from the land of his exile, 
and render to this country the ashes of its hero, is an event without 
example in history, and a fact so remarkable that the least circum- 
stance connected with it excites our interest. While events succeed 
each other so rapidly, and are so soon forgotten, the memory of 
Napoleon appears to revive each day. In the cottage, in the salon, in 
the palace and amongst the names of men of modern days, no one is 
so often heard of as that of Napoleon, and to no other can be applied 
with truth these two lines of one of the first of our lyric poets : 

" Ce heros n'est pas port ; beau de lui-me'ines 

Vit encore parmi nous." 
" The hero is not dead ; his better part remains 

And lives amongst us still." 

Two good anchors at length held us safely moored, and for the 
first time for twenty years I breathe the air of the land where I was 
born. I smiled upon these rocks blackened with age, I saw grace 
in these mountains, which lose themselves in the sky, which, how- 
ever, others are slow to admire. It was in vain that I tried to prove 
to my companions that there is more of grace and majesty in the 
elevation of these rocks, than in the finest fields of Europe. I saw 
all here under a different aspect, d'un oeil amoureux ; for it is the 
land of my birth, it is the cradle of my infancy, that I salute. 

Before casting anchor we had perceived a man-of-war under the 
tricolour flag, the captain of which soon after came to the commander 
of the frigate. We had left Cherbourg on the 3oth July, and had on 
board a pilot de la Manchi, for the Bette-Poule. Captain Doret, com- 



246 



ST. HELENA 



mander of this vessel, was highly esteemed in the navy, as much 
for the nobleness of his character as for his services. He it was 
who in 1815, in conjunction with several of his companions, pro- 
posed to the Emperor when he was at Rochefort to carry him to 
the United States. About an hour after our fine frigate had anchored 
in the roads of St. Helena the decks were crowded by great numbers 
of visitors who came to present their respects to the Prince. Mr. 
Solomon, the Croesus of the Isle, consul of France, Sardinia and 
sheriff of the country, etc., came on board : he is an old friend of 
the French, and one who seemed happy to receive the old companions 
in exile of the great man. In the midst of all this noise, of the 
thousand questions put to me from all parts, of my brothers who 
had lived here, excited by the pleasure of seeing again my native 
land, the former house of the Emperor, the dwelling of my mother, 
the old Chinese who served us five years, I knew not what I did, 
I was so happy. 

We were all impatient to render homage to the tomb of the 
Emperor. This is the first duty which every French heart must 
fulfil on landing at St. Helena. 

The day after our arrival, the 9th of October, about ten o'clock, 
His Royal Highness disembarked, attended by a party of his officers 
and by those who had lived at Longwood. The place where we landed 
is protected by numerous artillery : we saw a long range of mounted 
guns with their piles of shot. On our entry into the town we found 
the authorities of the place waiting for the Prince. After having 
received them with his customary politeness, he mounted on horse- 
back. 

The only town which we traversed in the whole way to Longwood 
is called James' Town. As in all English colonies, we remarked in 
this town a propriety and order which left nothing to be desired. 
The streets and walks by the sea remind us of the paths in our gar- 
dens ; it is a pleasure to walk in them. James' Town is commanded 
on all sides by lofty mountains covered with fortifications which 
threaten the town with their artillery. 

I found a severe grandeur in these rocks, which threaten to fall 
upon the helpless inhabitants. In spite of the precautions taken 
to sustain them by little walls of masonry, the rocks suspended 
here and there do not unfrequently fall. The eye is terrified by 
the disorder of this wild and savage place, and the soul mourns 
over the memory of the great unfortunate who has immortalized 
St. Helena. It is difficult to suppress a sentiment of generous 
indignation against those who chose so well for him a prison and 
a tomb. 

In leaving the town we followed the traverses of the mountains 
by a good road with a parapet ; we had for our guide Captain Alex- 
ander, of whom we all preserve the best remembrance, not alone 
for the manner in which he acquitted himself of the mission entrusted 
to him, but also from the amiable reception we had from him. 

At a little distance from the town he showed us the " Briars," 
a pretty little house, of which the Emperor during two months 



ST. HELENA 247 

inhabited a pavilion with the Count Las Casas and his son. It is 
placed in the same valley as James' Town, but we fear its proximity 
to that town was the cause of the Emperor's removal to Longwood. 

We hurried on to reach the tomb. We descended into the valley 
by a road which had been newly made. 

Cypresses and weeping willows, sufficiently mournful, with an 
iron railing round three large slabs, formed the tomb of the hero 
around which all is veneration. 

Not a word, not an inscription is upon the three slabs. The eyes 
cannot distinguish a character, but the heart divines it, and you 
say, Here it is ! Bow down ye children of ages yet to come, at 
the approach of this holy place pray, pray for him ! ! ! 

This simplicity, the silence of the valley, the verdure at our feet, 
the rocks above us, the two old willows under which the Emperor 
lies, the one standing, the other on the ground dead from old age ; 
there too, in the crevice of the rock, that spring where he was wont 
to drink, the contrast of such nothingness and grandeur, gave rise 
to impressions of unspeakable sadness. Near this tomb, so silent, 
our emotions were profound. We could not speak, we could but 
pray, and soon the tears rolled from the eyes of all those who knelt 
at the feet of the greatest man of modern days. His body is there, 
deep in the earth, decayed by time and death, but his spirit watches 
from heaven and protects La France. 

Within the circuit of the tomb all has been religiously preserved. 
The willows are yet green, the cypress shelters the narrow home 
in eternal sleep of him who filled the universe with his name. 

We remained an hour in the valley. I have gathered up several 
branches and flowers of those geraniums which my good mother 
had planted before quitting the island round the borders of the 
tomb of the benefactor of her family, and the heroes of her country. 

The guardian of the place had the goodness to look after and 
transplant these flowers, many of which we carried to France. 

After having remained a little less than an hour at the Tomb, 
the Prince remounted his horse for the purpose of visiting Longwood. 
Each of the travellers said farewell to the tomb, and promised to 
revisit it again. 

We had nearly forgotten Hutt's Gate, a villa situate in the sum- 
mit of the valley, and which my father had inhabited during the 
first months of his sojourn at Longwood, while waiting to occupy 
the lodgings destined for him. As his family was numerous, Admiral 
Cockburn had built for him a commodious little house at the end of 
the lawn, about 50 yards perhaps from the Emperor's residence. 
Napoleon had the goodness to visit Hutt's Gate several times. In 
descending into the valley he observed a little spring under the 
shade of some willows ; he drank the water from the hollow of his 
hand and found it good, and from that time two Chinese came every 
day to fetch it for his house. There, under the shade of the willows, 
he sometimes sought repose ; there he doubtless thought of France, 
of his son, the brilliant past, melancholy present, and sombre 
future. A few days before his death he sent for my father and ex- 



248 



ST. HELENA 



pressed the desire that if they would not permit his remains to be 
taken to France, that he should be buried under the shade of these 
willows, at the feet of which he had so often sat. 

Hutt's Gate is at present inhabited by a lady, Mrs. Dickson, who 
at my birth received me in her arms and gave to me the first cares 
so necessary to infancy. She often passed whole weeks at Long- 
wood. She is at present surrounded by a numerous and charming 
family. She showed to me all the tenderness of a mother, and it 
was a pleasure for me to press her to my heart. 

After having left Hutt's Gate we were not slow to perceive its 
gum trees ; these are small lank trees which grow upon the plateau , 
bent by the tiresome blasts and killing winds which never cease in 
this part of the island. Longwood itself soon came into view, sad 
and neglected. A foggy atmosphere added to its sadness. The 
gardens ruined, the house of the Emperor in a miserable state, the 
room where he died turned into a mill to crush barley, his bed- 
chamber a stable ! What profanation ! At the tomb it was emotion, 
but here it was stupor that affected us. In wandering through 
these historical ruins, we could yet recognize the walks of the Em- 
peror's garden, the place where his spade dug up the ground, and 
the squares where he cultivated his flowers. At the angle of a walk 
we saw the Prince collecting several herbs from the garden. We 
have since found that he had a commission to that effect from his 
sister the Princess Clementine. I recognized very well the little 
balcony with its railings painted green, where the Emperor often 
sat, and also the lawn which ran before his house, as far as my 
father's pavilion. I reviewed the chamber where I was born. That 
is where my mother, holding me in her arms, on the day of my birth 
presented me to the Emperor, saying, " Sire, I have the honour to 
present to you the first Frenchman who has entered Longwood, 
without the permission of the Governor." 

There exists near Longwood a moderately good house (possibly 
the new house which Napoleon never inhabited) which the cicerones 
of the island point out to travellers as one of the residences of 
Napoleon. 

After having ended our long visit to Longwood we took the road 
to James' Town, sad and dispirited, a prey to melancholy thoughts 
which had sprung from the places where we had been. 

Visitors making a stay at St. Helena during the months 
of February or October in any year must always be inter- 
ested in witnessing the long rolling waves which at those 
times come sweeping in over wharf and sea-front, often 
interrupting for days communication with the shipping. 
These mighty and grand forces of Nature are termed 
" The Rollers." 

On February 13, 1902, and for several days, the " rollers " 
were very high, and heavy surf was raging ; so furious was 



ST. HELENA 249 

the sea that the roof of the wharf crane was destroyed, 
while the two iron girders were snapped with the force of one 
wave. The water must indeed be high even to reach the 
platform on which the crane stands, therefore the roof was 
considered quite out of danger. The damage done, al- 
though considerable, seems hardly worthy of mention when 
compared with that caused by the " rollers " of 1827, 1828, 
and 1846 ; but as time goes on, one is apt to imagine the 
accounts of them exaggerated, but that they are not so 
may be drawn from the accounts given at that time in the 
St. Helena Gazette, a paper published by the authority of 
the Government. A heavy surf is reported in this paper at 
Sandy Bay and along the windward coast as follows : 

On the 24th July, 1827, 8 a.m. the wind changed from the 
S.E. or nearly so, and blew with considerable strength from the 
S.W. By noon the sea was very rough and the surf higher than 
before seen ; this continued until the 26th, when the wind again 
shifted toward S.E. and the sea and surf gradually abated. During 
its violence it threw on shore a fine fishing boat which had been 
strongly moored and secured (the property of Capt. Wright and 
Mrs. Scale). It was dashed in pieces near the western cullis. It 
also bursted the door of the coal-hole (now in use many years), and 
by this day's measurement I find has washed 272 bushels of coal 
into the sea. It rendered the road lately made for a cart to and from 
the shears impassible, indeed almost useless for that purpose. So 
high a surf is not in the remembrance of the oldest inhabitant or 
foreman at Sandy Bay. It has totally changed the appearance of 
the beach, and the spray ascended to Crown Point and Horse's 
Head batteries, so as to run off in torrents. There was much 
lightning about 10 o'clock at night with frequent and luminous 
flashes accompanied by heavy rain, but no thunder could be heard. 
The surf extended from South-west Point to Flagstaff and Barn 
Point, gradually subsiding as it ran north. It rose very suddenly 
at Lemon Valley and Egg Island on the 24th, continuing until the 
26th. An account says : I left this place for Egg Island with 
scarce a rufHe on the water, and by the time the boat got to Long- 
ledge the swell rolled in very heavy ; and in going between the main 
and the ledge the boat began to fill with every sea. The non-com- 
missioned officer and myself thought it prudent to make the boatmen 
pull back and go outside. The Lascars in the boat, for the safety 
of themselves as well as for every one else, deemed it necessary 
after bailing the boat to start the water out of one of the casks 
and all the small kegs, and then with difficulty we landed. During 
the two days the surf was so high here, it was low in James' Bay. It 
appears to have extended all round the coast except the short space 
between Bank's and Lemon Valley. 



2 50 ST. HELENA 

In the year 1828 His Majesty's sloop Redwing was prevented from 
sailing in consequence of surf which precluded all communication 
(except by telegraph) between the shore and the shipping. 

Besides several persons severely hurt, two lives were lost, one a 
woman washed off the wharf, and the other a Lascar who in the 
attempt to save her was so bruised that he could not survive. 

The wharf was cleared of everything movable, including a wooden 
house and a sentry-box. The Governor withdrew the sea-gate 
guard as one of the sentries narrowly escaped drowning with the 
loss of his firelock. Nothing but the substantial manner in which 
the new part of the wharf and crane was completed could have 
saved them from destruction, for the wall and wharf showed serious 
breaches. The rollers beat over the counterscarp in Jamestown 
and filled the ditch, also rushing through the portcullis at Rupert's ; 
while the lower battery at Bank's sustained much damage in 
short, " neither the remembrance of any person here nor tradition 
can furnish an instance of the sea having run so high at any former 
time." 

On February 7, 1846, the St. Helena Gazette contains the 
following : 

Toward the close of last month the island was visited with un- 
usually heavy rollers. By them the sea wall and wharf has been 
greatly damaged, and while they lasted the vessels in harbour were 
pervented from obtaining their ordinary supply of water. It has 
been remarked that heavy gales of wind are usually felt at the 
Cape some days previous to having " rollers " at St. Helena. No 
" storms " are known at St. Helena, but it is not improbable that 
the rollers which occasionally visit us are consequent on some dis- 
tant gale, the fag end only of which reaches this island. 

And a week after this was written came the terrific rollers 
known as " Rollers of 1846." These, which occurred on 
February 16 and 17, were drawn by an eye-witness, and from 
the drawing an excellent painting has been made by Mr. 
Thomas Bruce (postmaster). By the kindness of Mr. R. R. 
Bruce, I am enabled to give an illustration from the painting. 
From the Gazette I append the account of an eye- 
witness : 

At sunset on the evening of Monday, i6th, a few heavy rollers 
broke upon the beach in front of the town and gradually increased 
during the night. At daybreak on Tuesday morning the sea was 
one mass of foam, with tremendous rollers breaking some distance 
from the shore. Eighteen slave vessels were lying in the roads, 
some of which had been condemned and sold and were partially 
broken up. About n a.m. the Descobrador slaver brig, 127 tons, 
lifted her anchors and fell broadside on the schooner Cornelia, both 
of which were by the force of the rollers carried on to the beach 



ST. HELENA 251 

just in front of the sea-gate guard ; the shipkeepers had not been 
relieved, and were consequently on board at the time. The Desco- 
brador took the beach broadside on, with the sea breaking over her, 
and the shipkeeper with his wife and a Lascar were hanging on the 
rigging. Mr. Chatrield, master's assistant to the Flying Fish, 
attempted to gain the vessel with a rope, but was overwhelmed in 
the surf ; still he was got safe again to shore. The Town Major then 
tried to throw a rocket with line between the masts, but it was too 
heavy and fell short. In the meantime an American dashed into 
the sea, gained the vessel with a rope, which he lashed round the 
woman, and jumped overboard with her in his arms ; they were 
drawn ashore by the people on the beach, amongst whom were 
Lieut. Grant, R.A., and Dr. Tweedale, H.M.S. Prometheus. The 
Lascar and shipkeeper afterwards jumped overboard with ropes 
and were safely hauled ashore. Whilst the Descobrador was beating 
about, another slaver, partly broken up, came on shore with the 
velocity of a steamboat and ranged herself by the Descobrador. Then 
both vessels commenced breaking up very fast. A slaver, name 
unknown, and a beautiful schooner, Acquilla, soon after broke 
anchors and came in as though propelled by steam ; she took the 
beach close to the Descobrador, but continued whole long after the 
other vessels had gone to pieces. 

It was evident from the fearful height and size of the rollers 
that other vessels would share the same fate, and about one o'clock 
the schooner Euphrasia was capsized ; and the following sea beating 
upon the deck of the Esperanza, broke it into atoms. She was seen 
for a moment among the foam and surf, and then not a vestige of 
her was seen again. By this time the sea was covered with masts, 
yards, casks, and all description of wreck, and about sunset two 
other vessels, the De Marco and the Julia, were brought in with terrific 
force upon the west rocks under Ladder Hill. The Julia no sooner 
reached the rocks than she was dashed in pieces; indeed it was so 
sudden that at one moment you saw the vessel with her lower 
masts standing, and the next she was floating in the surge in ten 
thousand pieces. 

So in seven hours no fewer than thirteen vessels were dashed 
to atoms within a few yards of the shore. Eleven of them were 
captured slavers; the others, the Rocket, belonging to Mr. J. Scott, 
and the Cornelia, the property of Mr. T. Cole, merchant. The glacis 
and ditch in front of the works was impassable from wreck of every 
description. The most extraordinary circumstance attending all 
this destruction of property was that several merchant vessels were 
laying at anchorage clear of the rollers with scarcely a move. There 
was not a breath of wind, the weather was sultry, accompanied with 
occasional showers. Some idea of the violence of the sea may be 
formed when the crane and lower wharf with the commissariat coal- 
yard and one of the reservoirs containing water for shipping have 
been completely destroyed, together with the whole line up to the 
sea-gate guard. The glacis is so torn to pieces as to make it impas- 
sable. The damage to the wharf and line alone is estimated at 



252 ST. HELENA 

10,000. To'add to this dreadful calamity the whole of the passage 
boats lying at their moorings were destroyed and so many poor 
families deprived of support. Fourteen of these boats were over- 
whelmed by one sea. 

The force and height of the sea is shown also by its breaking 
over Lower Chubb's Battery, taking with it a 24-pounder carronade, 
with a parapet wall on both sides ; also splitting the solid rock at 
the landing steps, on which the foundation of the wharf is built, and 
detaching a mass of rock hundreds of tons in weight. 

That the above was not an exaggeration is shown by the 
following, which corroborates it, and which, emanating 
from another eye-witness, was published also in the St. 
Helena Gazette of that time : 

The fearful height of the rollers which set in on our shores on 
Tuesday had at an early hour drawn many spectators to the wharf 
and lines, the writer among the number. The atmosphere was dense 
and heavy, the harbour at the outside rilled with black heavy 
clouds and fog, and everything betokened the scenes which fol- 
lowed. 

The sultry and oppressive steam had the day previously brought 
forth a remark that it was such as preceded an earthquake in the 
West Indies, and a remarkable fall of the barometer, a circumstance 
hitherto unknown at St. Helena, had been also noticed. 

At ten o'clock two prizes (one of them the Descobrador} with four 
persons on board the shipkeeper, his wife, a Lascar, and an island 
boatman attached to the Marine Department were torn from their 
anchorage, and in a moment were drawn into the beach. The 
empty one was soon stranded and shivered into a thousand pieces, 
but the other, after passing through the break of the rollers for a 
moment, lay quiet in a lull, when the Lascar and the boatman seized 
the opportunity to jump over and swim to the beach. The vessel 
was immediately after driven into the eastern corner of the beach, 
leaving the spectators in breathless expectation of seeing her hurled 
to pieces. There were some, however, who actually engaged them- 
selves in rendering assistance to the frightened couple on board, 
but without success, till an American seaman swam through the 
surf and got on board. He, with much coolness and self-possession, 
fastened the rope round the female's waist, and then jumped over- 
board with her, when she was dragged on shore safe from a watery 
grave, but apparently lifeless and helpless from fright. Several 
prizes were by this time dashed from their anchorage, although every 
one had been firmly fixed by four anchors each. 

Fortunately the warning had been given and the shipkeepers 
had all been removed. I say fortunately, for neither ship that fol- 
lowed would have allowed the spectators the slightest chance of 
saving any human beings on board. Indeed in this the good hand 
of Him who in the midst of deserved wrath remembers mercy, was 
plainly manifest, for I had forgotten to mention that not only was 



ST. HELENA 253 

she driven to the best spot in the harbour where assistance could be 
afforded, but whilst every eye was upon her one of the prizes which 
had been broken even with the water's edge was struck broadside 
on by an enormous wave, and instead of being forced onward to the 
beach was driven across the berth with fearful velocity head on to 
the Descobrador. Had she struck as she was driving she must have 
immediately sunk the Descobrador, but, like a thing of life, at the 
critical instant she suddenly turned from the point and quietly lay 
to, side by side with her, thereby keeping off in a great measure 
the force of the rollers which were dashing over her. 

It would take much time to relate all the various incidents of the 
day, but the following were most striking. About one o'clock a 
mountain roller swept over the wharf, and, lifting the hull of the 
Rocket (an English merchant brig condemned some months since), 
for a moment hid all beneath it ; when it had broken, the wreck it 
had made was truly awful no trace of the Rocket could be 
seen. A number of boats lying round the Rocket had all disappear- 
ed. A large iron crane built in the lower wharf was washed 
away, and the balcony built quite at the back of the wharf en- 
tirely swept off. 

In this case also the merciful hand of God was shown, for the 
height of this balcony above the reach of the water and its strength 
had caused it to be the resort of many seeking an advantageous 
spot for witnessing the wonderful prospect. But just half an hour 
before it was carried away a large roller came driving about fifty 
persons who were there (many gentlemen among the number) from 
the spot ; not so much, even then, from any apprehension of serious 
danger in the balcony as the disagreeable prospect of being washed 
with the spray. The reader must understand that it was not by 
a gradual increase of the storm, but by one sudden and enormous 
roller that this place was swept off, and that with inconceivable 
violence. 

At five o'clock another magnificent scene filled every beholder 
with amazement. A large schooner prize named Quatro de Marco 
at the westward of the harbour was by one wave torn from her 
berth, and although turned completely over in the boiling surge, 
thereby breaking out both of her masts, was by the same wave 
lodged high on the shore at the West Rocks ! The two following 
waves moved her a little further back, and her entire hull now lies 
touching the bank of Ladder Hill, one of the most forcible proofs of 
the force of the water. The Julia, another prize lying alongside of 
her, followed next, but instead of being lifted over she was dashed 
against the rocks, and two minutes from the time her cable parted 
not an atom of her could be seen. The vessels lost were thir- 
teen or fourteen in number, all of which were condemned prizes 
excepting one defended, and whose condemnation is uncertain, and 
two hulks of vessels condemned as unfit for sea, and used in 
harbour for receiving stores, etc., etc. The Rocket before named 
had several anchors, cables, etc., and two or three very fine boats 
on board at the time of her loss. The ships in harbour experienced 



254 ST. HELENA 

no ill effects from the rollers, which only affected such as were 
within half a mile of the shore. The wharf is damaged so much 
as to justify one in calling it a total destruction, and will take 
10,000 or 12,000 to repair. Nearly all passenger and luggage 
boats have been destroyed ; but fortunately for the poor fishermen 
the storm broke in the night when they were fishing outside in calm 
water. Only three or four fishing boats were at moorings; these 
were lost. 

We have now to relate the most painful part of the events of this 
memorable day to the island. 

Three men, viz. John Maggott, an old fisherman ; James Craig, 
a shoemaker ; and Robert Bath, a cook, had gone fishing at Sugar- 
loaf Rocks on Monday evening. The Rocks are reached by one 
precipitous path from the land side ; from this place the fishermen 
pass along about 400 yards of a narrow shelf at the water's edge 
of 10 or 12 feet wide to an opposite side of the cliff, where the shelf 
becomes much wider. 

On Tuesday morning a fishing-boat went as near shore as it 
could venture, and could then see only two of the unfortunates. 
At three o'clock, when the boat again tried to come in to them, they 
were gone. They must have had a terrible experience all Monday 
night and part of Tuesday. 

We have also heard of two others who had gone out fishing on 
the Sunday, but were caught in the profanation of the Sabbath, 
and held in fear and momentary expectation of being swept off by 
the raging waters till Tuesday ; and though spared, we trust it will 
not be mercy abused by them, and that a few more of their com- 
panions may profit by the warning. 

Efforts are being made to remedy the losses by the passage-boat 
owners, and we earnestly hope they will not readily forget this 
fearful manifestation of the power of Him whose commands they 
have been in the habit of breaking every Sabbath as regularly as 
opportunity and profit gave them reason to do so. 

Yet another account of the same was published as under : 
Further particulars of the rollers of February, 17 th inst. 

To the Editor of the St. Helena Gazette. 

SIR, I do myself the honour to forward a few observations which 
I made on the i/th as to the occurrences of the day; and should 
it be deemed worthy of a place in the St. Helena Gazette, it will 
recompense me for the little time it has cost. I, however, earnestly 
hope that the want of language adequate to express the grandeur 
as well as the awfulness of what every spectator witnessed will be 
in a measure allowed for by the accuracy of the statement. 

St. Helena has ever boasted of the safety of its roadstead, and that 
most justly, as no individual upon the island can remember a solitary 
instance of a vessel having been wrecked upon its shores. Those who 
witnessed the scene presented on Tuesday, alas, will have a different 
tale to tell. The roadstead, which only the day before was like a 



ST. HELENA 255 

mill-pond, was on this day a sea of troubled waters. During Monday 
night the rollers for which St. Helena has ever been celebrated, 
the cause of which is altogether unaccounted for, began gradually 
to rise, and on Tuesday had increased to an awful height, like so 
many rolling mountains, one after the other driving everything 
before them. The English schooner Cornelia, condemned at this 
port a short time since, and purchased by Mr. Cole, was the first 
vessel driven on shore, being, no doubt, not so securely moored as 
other vessels, although in any other weather equally safe. If the 
person in charge of this vessel had been left five minutes longer on 
board it would have been out of human power to save his life, as 
the vessel some distance from the shore was buried in the tremendous 
seas and ultimately came in on the beach. In a few moments she 
was a mass of splinters. Immediately after the Cornelia disappeared, 
the Brazilian brig Descobrador, 127 tons, brought here by Lieut. 
Meynell, and condemned on January 15 as a slaver (prize to H.M.S. 
sloop Star}, lifted her anchors and was driven with force on to the 
beach between the drawbridge and upper crane ; the shipkeeper, 
Robert Seale, his wife and two others were on board at the time 
she touched. Sea after sea broke over the vessel and she fell broad- 
side on the shore. The larboard shrouds ultimately gave way, and 
the lives of the poor creatures on board were in imminent danger, 
not only by the vessel separating but by the falling of the masts. 
At this time two people from on board swam on shore, leaving Seale 
and his wife holding on the rail on the leeward of the ship, appealing 
to the numbers on shore, within hearing of them, for assistance. 
The Town Major endeavoured to convey a rope by means of a rocket, 
but it failed. Mr. Chatfield, master's assistant of H.M. sloop 
Flying Fish, attempted to swim off with a spar attached to a rope, 
and after arriving alongside roller after roller broke over him ; these 
buried him for a time and finally threw him on to the beach in an 
exhausted state. A whale-boat belonging to the Rose was launched, 
but she was no sooner in the water than she was dashed to pieces. 
At this period an American seaman, named Roach, who has been 
on the island some time as a boatman, nobly plunged into the sea 
and swam to the vessel, which he reached in gallant style. Taking 
with him a rope, the end of which was secured on shore, he gained 
the deck and hauled on board from shore a sufficiency of rope ; then 
after attaching the end which he brought to the side of the vessel, 
he tied a rope round Mrs. Seale and plunged into the water (leaving 
sufficient rope on board to enable Seale the means of escape). They 
were dragged on shore by the spectators, amongst whom were Dr. 
Tweedale, of H.M. sloop Prometheus, and Lieut. Grant, R.A. They 
both plunged into the water to assist Roach as he approached, for 
rollers were knocking him over and over. Mrs. Seale was almost 
senseless, but soon rallied under medical aid. Seale, when he saw 
his wife safe, tied the rope he had round himself, and was drawn on 
shore without sustaining any injury. All this was done quickly, 
for from the time the Descobrador touched the rocks to the period 
of the people all being out of her could not have been more than 



256 



ST. HELENA 



ten minutes, and within another five minutes she separated and 
went to pieces. The shipkeepers of the other condemned slavers 
had in the meantime been taken off on a vessel lying outside the 
rollers. 

While the Descobrador was on her beam ends upon the beach, 
a schooner, name and nation unknown, captured by H.M.S. Pro- 
metheus on 22nd November last, parted her anchor, and as if pro- 
pelled by steam, ranged herself on the outside of the Descobrador 
then about twelve o'clock the Brazilian schooner Acquilla, with 
another prize, St. Domingos, captured by Prometheus and brought 
here by Mr. Clark, naval cadet, lifted their anchors, and were 
driven upon the beach. 

The Acquilla remained perfect for some time, but the other 
very soon went to pieces. The Acquilla was detained by H.M.S. 
Cygnet), and near one o'clock a tremendous heavy roller, which 
seemed determined to sweep away everything before it, broke over 
the hull of the Rocket and lifted her stem uppermost. She totally 
disappeared. The same roller swept away the lower crane and a 
verandah placed at some distance from the landing place against 
the hill-side, for the accommodation of captains and others awaiting 
ships or boats. 

By this almost every passage and luggage boat had been swept 
from the moorings, some thrown on shore, some swept out to sea. 
The glacis, in front of fortifications, was impassable from the 
immense quantity of wood, masts, casks, bunks and material 
thrown up. Then the Eupazia, captured by H.M.S. Prometheus, 
December 25, 1845, an d brought here by Lieut. Pollard, also the 
brig Esperanza, captured on December 26 by H.M.S. Actaeon 
and brought here by Mr. Lowe, second master, were buried by a 
roller breaking over them ; the former instantly disappeared, the 
latter, after her masts went by the board, drifted out to sea, a total 
wreck. The rollers continued at an awful height, but the fishing- 
boats, being out, fortunately escaped. They remained out and 
received assistance from the merchant vessels riding in safety 
outside the rollers. It was quite five o'clock in the afternoon 
when the Julia, captured by H.M.S. Star, was separated from 
her companion, the Quatro de Marco, and thrown up by a succession 
of heavy rollers upon the West Rocks, and in an instant not a parti- 
cle of her was to be seen. Almost immediately after the Brazilian 
brig, Quatro de Marco, was, with four anchors down, lifted by the 
gigantic rollers, and although buried for a time in the sea, was 
ultimately, by a heavy wave, lodged on the shore under Patton's 
Battery, near West Rocks, the masts having been previously carried 
away. This Quatro de Marco was captured by H.M.S. Cygnet 
1 8th December, 1845, an d brought here by Mr. Jones, Purser, with 
540 slaves. When thrown up she came in contact with an old 
anchor which has for nearly a century been embedded on the 
projecting point of the West Rocks, and carried it away. Thus 
ended the scenes of this memorable day, a day that will ever be 
remembered by all who were witnesses of what took place. In 




DISTRIBUTION OF MEDALS BY GOVERNOR STERNDALE. 




GROUP OF PRISONERS PREVIOUS TO TAKING OATH OF ALLEGIANCE. 



ST. HELENA 257 

addition to vessels already mentioned, there were three other 
condemned slave- vessels, names unknown. The loss of boats has 
thrown many out of employment, and deprived them of their little 
all and the means of supporting their families. Thus, after the 
savings of many a hard day's toil, they are deprived of a living ; 
but God's will be done; and what has this day been experienced 
only reminds us of our frail state, and how little we ought to think 
of our earthly possessions. 

The wharf from lower steps to the glacis is almost destroyed 
The Commissariat Coal Yard, which was erected at a great expense 
in 1834, by General Dallas, the tanks for supplying water to ship- 
ping, are totally wrecked. The fortifications at Lemon Valley 
are much injured, and great damage is sustained at Rupert's, where 
the liberated Africans are located. 

To attempt to give a correct idea of the violence of the rollers 
is impossible, but as this humble description may meet the eye 
of many who have spent happy hours on the Old Rock, and are 
now in England and elsewhere, they will be able to judge of what 
I am unable to describe, and I will simply close by stating that 
the sea rolled as far as the officer's quarters at Rupert's, that ^ a 
24-pounder carronade was taken from its platform at Chubb's, 
that a Battery was carried into the sea, as well as the parapet 
on both sides being destroyed. The wind for many days previous 
to the setting in of the rollers was from north and west, with close, 
sultry weather. The property lost by individuals and the estimated 
repair of wharf, coal-yard, etc., is upward of ^20,000. 

That the bravery of Roach in saving the lives of those on board 
the Descobrador was not allowed to pass unnoticed is shown in the 
issue of the St. Helena Gazette for May 29, 1847, when at a meeting 
held in the library, the Rev. Kempthorne having been voted 
to the chair, addressed Roach as follows : 

" Joseph Roach, seeing that I am deputed by the Committee 
and other gentlemen present to perform this agreeable duty, I have 
called for the minutes of the Benevolent Society to show you that 
though it may seem late now to take this public notice of a cir- 
cumstance which occurred in February of last year, yet but few 
hours elapsed before this Society took into consideration the pro- 
priety of awarding to you some testimonial which your heroic, 
your noble conduct, richly deserved. I did not myself witness 
the surf on the i;th ; it was from the scene on the Lines on the 
following day, and from the clever pencillings of some gentlemen 
of the island that I obtained some idea of the terrific circumstances. 
Some idea was still further conveyed by another incident. On 
Monday I passed a house in the upper street, where a father sup- 
ported a wife and several children by the labour of his hands. On 
the Thursday I saw the widow and all those children in mourning, 
though no funeral bell had tolled, no prayers been offered up, and no 
grave had been opened save the great deep. 

" To your courage we owe it under Providence that another 
family was not overtaken by a similar calamity. We cannot all 

R 



25 8 



ST. HELENA 



do these things, but it is something to belong to a Society which 
renders this public tribute to your heroic conduct in venturing 
your own life for the woman now standing at your side. It is 
thus we seem to acquire in some sort a share in the credit of your 
action without any diminution of your own. I thank you, there- 
fore, as a member of the Benevolent Society, as a member of the 
Community, as the minister of the parish. I trust that when 
any future history of St. Helena is written your name will be recorded 
on its pages, and that your brave act, combined with respectability 
and good conduct, will be a satisfaction to you to your latest day." 

The medal then having been attached to Roach's breast, 
Mrs. Scale (the person saved) cordially shook him by the hand, 
expressing with much earnestness her gratitude for having saved 
her from a watery grave. After which Roach returned his thanks 
in a few very appropriate terms, remarking that he had sought 
no reward, nor did he claim any merit for his action, which had 
been prompted only by the sight of a fellow-creature in such immi- 
nent danger. 

The inscription on the medal is as follows : 

Presented to 
JOSEPH ROACH 

by the 
Benevolent Society 

of 
St. Helena. 

On the reverse side : 

To commemorate 
his preservation of the life of 

FLORELLA SEALE 
from the wreck of the 

" Descobrador " 
and from the fatal surf 

in James' Bay 

on the i?th February, 

A.D. 1846. 



ON SLAVERY AND THE WORK OF H.M. CRUISERS 
ON THE WEST COAST OF AFRICA. 

It may be interesting to those unacquainted with slave 
shipment to learn something of the method employed when 
a shipping of slaves was about to take place. This account 
is taken from an old paper, the 52. Helena Gazette of 1848, 
when slavers were continually being captured and brought 
to St. Helena to be freed. It says : 

The slaves are taken out as if for their usual airing, perhaps 
ten or twenty on one chain, which is fastened to the neck of each 
individual at the distance of about one yard apart. In this manner 
they are marched in single file to the beach without any intimation 
of their fate, about which they seem quite indifferent, even when 
they know it. Every canoe is then put in requisition and the little 
piece of cotton cloth tied round the loins of the slave is stripped 
off and the gang on each chain is in succession marched close to a 
fire previously kindled on the beach. Here marking irons are 
heated, and when an iron is sufficiently hot, it is quickly dipped 
in palm-oil in order to prevent its sticking to the flesh and then 
applied to the ribs or hip, and sometimes even to the breast. Each 
slave-dealer uses his own mark, so that when the vessel arrives 
at her destination, it is easily ascertained to whom those who died 
belonged. 

The slaves are then hurried into a small canoe and compelled 
to sit in the bottom, where they are stowed as closely as possible 
till the canoe reaches the ship. They are then put on board and 
again chained until they reach their destination, where they are 
given over to intended masters or their agents. Their food is 
generally farina and palm-oil. 

Farina is made from the manioc or cassava root, the root being 
ground in the same manner as potatoes for starch, then dried in the 
sun and again partially ground till about the same substance as 
oatmeal. This farina constitutes the principal food of the slaves 
both during the time they are waiting to be shipped and also on 
the passage. (Ibid. p. 192.) 

The palm oil imported into England is not the same as that 
used by the natives. The oil sent to England is merely the outside 
of the nut, similar to the outside of a plum, or any other stone 
fruit. The oil exported is extracted from the pulp, but the palm- 
oil used by these people in cooking is extracted from the kernel 
taken out "of the stone of the palm-nut, and is equal to our best 
salad oil. 

In 1839 a Court termed " The Supreme Court " was 
established in St. Helena, by order of her Majesty in Coun- 



260 ST. HELENA 

cil ; and in 1840 the " Vice- Admiralty Court " was estab- 
lished for the trial of vessels engaged as slavers, this with the 
working of the Liberated African Depot, and the frequent 
visits of the several boats of the Naval Squadron engaged 
in the suppression of the slave-trade, brought into circula- 
tion a considerable amount of money, and furnished 
employment for the islanders, though unfortunately of a 
kind to cause them to neglect the diligent cultivation of 
their fertile soil, which would have been ultimately of 
greater benefit to them. The total extinction of the slave- 
trade after the American war led to the reduction of the 
West Indian Squadron and the abolition of the Liberated 
African Establishment, causing hard times to fall on the 
little island. 

It was in the year 1840 that the slaves captured by H.M. 
Cruisers were first brought to St. Helena. Depots were 
formed at Rupert's Valley, Lemon Valley, and High Knoll, 
at which places the poor wretches were domiciled, until 
they gradually gained health and strength. When well and 
fit to travel, they were conveyed to the West Indies, where 
they engaged to work for various employers, as labour was 
there greatly in demand. The merchants and farmers in 
St. Helena, when requiring servants, went to the depots 
and made their choice, engaging to clothe and feed those 
chosen. A number of these slaves became so fond of their 
St. Helena masters and mistresses, that they elected to 
remain on the island instead of seeking their fortunes else- 
where. In many cases they took the names of their mas- 
ters. One of the first slaves to arrive was baptized " Eve," 
her son being named " Adam." These freed African slaves 
must not be confounded with the 614 native-born slaves 
who were freed in 1831. 

That the authorities looked after them we find from the 
Gazette, which says : 

The Government of St. Helena has engaged the services of 
Mr. Fry, of the Lutheran Church, to instruct the liberated Africans 
lately captured by H.M. cruisers and brought to the island, as well 
as those who may hereafter arrive. 

Mellis in his book states that he himself went on board 
one of these ships as she cast anchor in Rupert's Bay even 
as late as 1861, and the whole deck as 



ST. HELENA 261 

I picked my way from end to end in order to avoid treading 
upon them, was thickly strewn with the dead, dying and starved 
bodies. ... A visit to a full freighted slave-ship is not easily to 
be forgotten ; a scene so intensified in all that is horrible almost 
defies description. 

The vessel of which he writes was one of one hundred tons 
burden, and contained a little short of one thousand souls, 
who had been closely packed for weeks together in the 
hottest and most polluted of atmospheres. The arms and 
legs of the poor creatures were worn down to about the size 
of walking-sticks and as they were passed over the ship's 
side, some living, some dead, others dying, it was hard to 
believe they really were human beings. Many died as they 
were in the act of being passed over the side of the ship. 
This Liberated African Depot gave much employment to 
the people, and caused an immense influx of trade in the 
island, for they were brought by H.M. cruisers ; and to 
stamp out this horrible traffic in human flesh a large squad- 
ron was placed in these waters. The following extract 
shows the number of Africans captured by H.M. Cruisers 
and brought to St. Helena between June 9, 1840, and 
September 30, 1847, and the manner of their disposal : 

Received 9>i33 slaves. 

Born . 22 

Total . .... 9,155 

Emigrated to the West Indian Colonies : 

To Jamaica ....... 1,093 

To British Guiana 2,115 

To Trinidad . . . . . . .1,136 



4,344 
To Cape of Good Hope . .1,410 

5,754 
Deceased ....... 2,926 



8,680 

Removed from the depot as servants . . 445 

Missing, supposed to be drowned ... i 

9,126 
Remaining in charge on 3oth Sept., 1847 2 9 

Total 9,155 



262 ST. HELENA 

In 1848 the establishment kept up for them was as follows : 

Clerk . . .... .Mr. T. B. Knipe. 

Surgeon . . . , , C. H. Rawlins. 

Dispenser of medicines . . Mr. H. McDaniel. 

Superintendent of station and store- 
keeper .... Mr. John Harris. 
On one occasion of a slaver being brought in (she was about 
100 tons), Bishop Gray, of Cape Town, was staying at Plantation. 
On hearing of her arrival he sent to ask that the slaves should not 
be removed until he could see them. The poor famished creatures 
were brought up from below and there they waited for two long 
hours before the Bishop was able to come down. He wished to 
give them water from his own hands, but it is said he was so over- 
come by the sight which awaited him that he fainted. On landing 
they usually recovered rapidly from the effects of their ill treatment 
and confinement between decks. 

The Styx was noted for her conquests. I am told by an old 
resident that she made thirty- two captures. The Conquest, 
too, brought sixteen here, and the Waterwitch was most 
active. A monument is erected in the Government Garden 
to the memory of all those brave fellows who lost their lives 
while engaged in this work of rescue. The Waterwitch 
brought the first consignment of liberated slaves. 

The Cyclops is spoken of by one of the old men still living, 
and there are five I was able to photograph who came in 
her two men and three old women, who are now in the 
poorhouse. The men, although over seventy, are still 
able to earn a little, but the women are helpless, and almost 
blind, being all of good age. 

The taller man is named Duke Wellington, the other 
Blinker. Wellington says they were brought here in the 
Cyclops, and that soon after they arrived some officers 
came to Rupert's to choose servants, and, as he relates, 
Captain George Woolet (?), St. Helena Regiment, took him, 
Major Piggott chose Blinker, and Colonel Ross, officer, 
chose Caesar. They lived in tents, and had as rations 
biscuit, rice, salt meat, and fish, i.e. at Rupert's ; but when 
living in the mess-house they had food like soldiers. 

During the past two years many have died Old Cappy, 
who earned a living to the last by fetching watercress down 
for the shipping ; Jack Fry Pumpkin, or John Janische 
(his master's name) ; Toby Morrison here again the mas- 
ter's name were for many years well known to all the 



ST. HELENA 263 

shipping fraternity. Thinking the accounts would interest 
the descendants of those who so gallantly gave their lives 
to stamp out the curse of slavery, I have made extracts 
from Government papers between the dates 1845 to 1850. 
For many years in fact more than ten years the slavers 
were continually arriving and discharging their human 
freight, and the whole account would be voluminous. 
Sufficient, however, is given to show what kind of work was 
done at that time by our " Handy Men " for their country. 
The first Africans sometimes gave trouble, for we find 
that 2 reward was given for the whereabouts of one, as 
under : 

Whereas an African negro has absconded from the Establish- 
ment at Rupert's, and is supposed to be secreted in the neighbour- 
hood of Peak Hill ; the above Reward will be paid by me to any 
person or persons who shall apprehend and deliver the said African 
to the Police Sergeant in Jamestown. 

The African above alluded to has already been committing 
depredations, and the Public are hereby cautioned in the event 
of his being found trespassing. 

JOHN YOUNG, Collector. 
CUSTOM HOUSE, ST. HELENA, 
nth Jan., 1849. 

But the majority were very grateful and well-behaved, 
as will be seen from the following address to His Excellency 
Sir Patrick Ross, Governor, received from the Liberated 
Africans located in this colony. 

To His Excellency Major-General Sir Patrick Ross, G.C.M.G. and 

Governor, etc., etc., etc. 
May it please your Excellency, 

We, the Liberated Africans residing at Saint Helena, do beg 
to return our most hearty and sincere thanks for the care that 
has been taken of us since our arrival in the British Dominions, 
and we have become the subjects of our beloved Queen, Victoria, 
Defender of the Faith, etc., etc., etc. We likewise return our 
most hearty thanks and praises to God for His merciful guidance 
in bringing us into the hands of Christian people from whom we have 
been taught to love and serve God, and who have been instru- 
mental in bringing us to return those thanks which we cannot 
find words to express for our feelings towards our most Gracious 
Queen ; and it is the prayer of us all that she may obtain a Crown 
in Heaven when this life terminates. We were poor, forlorn, 
friendless and ignorant beings, and did not know there was a God, 
from whom we derived our being. We cannot return the thanks 
we wish, but if we were called upon to defend the rights and posses- 



264 



ST. HELENA 



sions of Great Britain, we will, one and all, endeavour to defend 
it with our last breath. 

BENJAMIN VEMBA, 
JOHN MARSCH, \ Atoira. 
JAMES GEORGE. / A ' ncans - 

The above-signed Africans inform His Excellency that their 
countrymen have requested them to forward this as a respect due 
to the British Government. 
ST. HELENA, 

August iSth, 1848. 

An account of the prize money, etc., of H.M. brig Espoir 
(Commander Arthur Morrell) is interesting, consisting of 
" A moiety of the proceeds and of the bounty money for 
slaves captured on the Helena, a Brazilian brig, on Novem- 
ber 29, 1843, to be paid to them or their representatives 
duly authorized to receive the same, on and after the 
25th June, at Messrs. Chard's, No. 3, Clifford's Inn." The 
amount was above 2,000, and the proportions due to each 
class were as follows : 

i s. d. 

Commander Morrell . . . 252 10 4 

ist Class ..... 119 13 9 

2nd . . . . . 71 16 3 



3rd 



35 18 



4th , . . . . 23 18 9 

5th , ..... ii 19 4 

6th , . . . . -* . 7 19 ii 

7th , . . . , . 3 10 9 

HER MAJESTY'S BARK " CYGNET " (H. LAYTON, ESQ.), 1845 

On the 5th April last, H.M. brig of war Cygnet , while cruising in 
the neighbourhood of St. Paul de Loando, about thirty miles from 
coast, fell in with what appeared to them in the distance to be a 
canoe, but which proved to be a raft on which were seven men, 
who were taken on board in the last stage of exhaustion, They 
proved to be Lieut. Wilson and six men belonging to H.M.S. Star, 
who had been put on board a slaver prize. They said they had got 
on all right till the i6th of the previous month, when at about 
three p.m. the prize was capsized in a white squall, the unfortunate 
crew had no boat, but lashed thirteen spars together with the mam 
hatch and some sails. They were able to pick up a barrel of pork 
and a little rum, but not water. The vessel sank and they tried 
for the nearest land, Cape Threepoints, 200 miles distant, but 
could not keep their course. Having only sun and stars to guide 
them, they drifted for twenty days, but fortunately caught a few 
sharks and flying-fish. Their sufferings were from want of water, 
as they got none from the slaver prize. For nine days after leaving 










(Africans still living on St. Helena who were captured by H.M. Cruisers 
and freed.) 



ST. HELENA 265 

the wreck they had on two occasions only a mouthful of water 
obtained during a shower, but providentially it rained harder and 
they caught water in the rum cask. This was served out three 
times a day in the heel of Lieut. Wilson's shoe, and lasted them 
seven days. Whenever there was the least wind the seas broke 
over them, and they were compelled to stand as much as possible, 
which was terrible in their weakened condition. 

The heat of the sun and the salt water lacerated their feet, ankles 
and legs in a dreadful manner, but on the seventeenth day they saw 
the coast in the neighbourhood of St. Paul de Loando, where the 
Cygnet picked them up. The master of the slaver and two of our 
seamen died as they persisted in drinking salt water, which drove 
them mad. The scene on board when Lieut. Wilson and crew 
were brought up was most affecting. They had travelled over 
400 miles when picked up. 

A strange circumstance is that the captain of the slaver, who 
died mad on the raft, had, previously to his being taken by the 
Stay, recaptured his vessel from H.M.S. Wasp by murdering all 
the crew ; this was discovered by some of the slaver's crew turning 
Queen's evidence. The men spoke in the highest terms of Lieut. 
Wilson during the trying circumstances above narrated. 

VICE- ADMIRALTY COURT, I/TH JULY, 1845. 

The slave-brig Alabes (master and nation unknown), taken by 
H.M. sloop Cygnet (Henry Layton, commander) on 4th January, 
on West coast of Africa, after having been run ashore, scuttled, 
set on fire and abandoned by her crew, was pronounced in the 
Vice- Admiralty Court of this colony to be subject to condemnation 
as being equipped for, and engaged in the slave-trade. 

CAPTURE OF A SLAVER. 

The Brazilian brigantine Saspiro, thirty-three days from Rio, 
was captured on the 6th inst. by H.M. steam-sloop Prometheus, 
and sent to Sierra Leone for adjudication. 

The Hydra, steam-sloop (Commander Young) has captured the 
notorious slave felucca, which beat off the Growler's pinnace, when 
Lieut. Lodwick was wounded. She still bore evident marks of 
the rough encounter with the pinnace of the Growler : the mizzen 
was completely riddled, the mainsail cut to ribands, and five men 
were killed in the action. Her crew was about seventy men. The 
Hydra has made a prize also of another equally famous slaver, 
the Pepita, which she captured at night after a most exciting chase, 
the felucca striving might and main to get away, but the Hydra's 
68-pounders committed great havoc in her sails, crippled her speed, 
and shattered her hull and bulwarks. She carried on still, but 
found steam too powerful for her, as the Hydra gained fast and 
soon overtook her, when Lieut. Rooystra boarded her. He found 
every preparation made for a bloody resistance, along 1 8 -pounder 
being loaded with grape and round shot and pointed over her 
quarter, a cask of cartridges near, several swivels loaded with 



266 ST. HELENA 

one-pound balls, four chests of arms, muskets and pistols all loaded, 
some with balls, others with slugs, the deck strewn with round and 
grape shot, and upwards of 200 rounds in her magazine. She had 
upwards of 300 slaves on board. 

VICE-ADMIRALTY COURT. 

The brig (name and nation unknown), taken by H.M.S. Albatross 
(Reginald Yorke, commander) on the nth July last, on West Coast 
of Africa, in lat. 10' 20'" S. and long. 10' 42" E., brought to this 
port under charge of Lieut. J. A. Dunbar, R.N., on the 27th, being 
fully equipped for the slave-trade, was condemned and forfeited 
to Her Majesty in the Vice- Admiralty Court of this island on 
Thursday last, i4th inst., according to the provisions contained 
in the Act of Parliament, 2nd and 3rd of Victoria, chap. 13. 

VICE-ADMIRALTY COURT. 

The brigantine or vessel (name and nation unknown), taken 
and seized on the i3th July last on West Coast of Africa, in lat. 
8' 56" S. and long. 13' 2" E., by the pinnace of Her Majesty's sloop 
Albatross (Reginald Yorke, commander) which was run on shore 
upon Point Palmarinhas, and deserted by her crew after having 
set her on fire, was pronounced by His Honour the Judge of this 
Court on Thursday, the 2ist inst., liable to condemnation at time 
of seizure, being equipped for slave-trade, and the figure-head of 
this ship brought here by Her Majesty's ship Albatross for ad- 
judication, was at the same time condemned and forfeited to Her 
Majesty. When the pinnace first saw the brigantine or vessel, 
she was at anchor off Point Palmarinhas, but upon the approach 
of the boat the crew ran her on shore and set fire to her. Mr. 
Wilkinson, the officer in charge of the pinnace, with his boat's 
crew, used every exertion to extinguish the fire, but without success. 
A measurement was made, and her dimensions were as follows : 
Length, 95 feet 6 inches ; breadth of beam, 24 feet 3 inches ; and 
depth of hold 10 feet. 

That the freed slaves were not always well behaved or 
grateful we find from the following extract : 

The Master John Roman, of the British bark Salzette, of 422 tons, 
now in these roads, states : 

That he left St. Helena for Jamaica in December 1843, with 
206 liberated Africans ; that about a fortnight after leaving the 
island a great number of the men showed symptoms of mutinous 
conduct, and threatened the lives of the Captain and Doctor, also 
to fire the ship, and became very troublesome and dangerous; 
so much so, that it became necessary to arm the crew and punish 
the ringleaders by confining them in irons and by putting them on 
diet of bread and water ; this had the desired effect of restoring 
order and discipline. 

The Captain further states that after a passage of five weeks 
he landed the whole of the emigrants at Savannah le Mar in good 



ST. HELENA 267 

health ; that two births occurred on the passage, so that 208 reached 
Jamaica. 

ST. HELENA GAZETTE, SEPTEMBER, 1845. 

We learn from our vessels of war stationed on the Western Coast 
of Africa that from ist April, 1844, to 6th July, 1845, no fewer than 
seventy-five slavers have been captured by them, the Americans 
having during the same period captured one slaver, making a total 
of seventy-six captured vessels during a period of fifteen months 
and six days. 

Commodore Jones, the senior officer on the station, arrived here 
in the steam frigate Penelope from Ascension, having left that 
island on Monday last, reports the death of Lieutenant Horatio 
F. Elliott, of H.M.S. Albatross. Mr. Elliott was on his way to 
this island with a prize crew of H.M.S. Albatross, and when within 
a short distance off the island provisions fell short, and finding 
it difficult to beat up, they put back into Anna Bona. After obtain- 
ing what they wanted they sailed for St. Helena, when fever broke 
out and carried off Mr. Elliott and five men. Mr. Elliott was a pro- 
mising young officer and son of Rear- Admiral Elliott. 

DESPERATE RESISTANCE OF A SLAVER, ATTENDED WITH Loss OF 

LIFE. 1845. 

On the morning of the 24th May, H.M.S. Pantaloon, then cruising 
in lat. 4' 30" N. and long. 3' o" E., made a sail, distant about five 
miles on the weather bow. It being dead calm at the time three 
boats from the Pantaloon were speedily manned, and sent after the 
stranger, which was soon ascertained to be a slaver. When the 
boats got within a mile of the prize which turned out to be a 
Polacca brig (name unknown), of 320 tons, with six guns and forty- 
seven men she hauled both courses up together, and fired a 
shot which fell short of our boats. She then commenced firing 
grape and round shot in good earnest without however doing 
any mischief. When our men were about a cable's length off the 
slaver, they gave three hearty English cheers, such as forebode 
destruction to all who resist, and swept alongside. Two of the 
boats made for the bows of the brig. Lieut. Lewis de J. Prevost, 
who commanded, ran his boat under the bumpkin brace. Mr. 
Crout, the master of the Pantaloon, at the same time gained a 
footing over the bows and the prize was boarded, not however 
before three of our gallant tars were wounded, in return for which 
one of the rascals was shot through the forehead. 

The third boat, with the boatswain, attempted to board from 
the main chains, and being much exposed, had the misfortune 
to lose two men, he with three others being wounded. Our men 
had no sooner a fair footing on deck, than the crew vanished as if 
by magic ; their fight was over, the cowardly rascals having done 
enough mischief for one voyage. Mr. Crout, on getting on board, 
was saluted with four muskets, fired close to his face, by which 
he was nearly blinded.. Mr. Prevost likewise had some narrow 



268 ST. HELENA 

escapes. A breeze having sprung up, they were joined by the 
Pantaloon, which was saluted with four guns from the prize which 
had been captured at such a terrible sacrifice. 

The following General Order was issued just after the above 
resistance : 

By William Jones, Esq., Commodore of the second class, and 
senior officer commanding Her Majesty's ships and vessels employed 
and to be employed on the West Coast of Africa. 

General Order. Whereas several instances have recently oc- 
curred on the station of piratical resistance on the part of vessels 
engaged in the slave trade to the visits authorized by Treaty with 
the powers whose colours such vessels were sailing under, and 
many of the Queen's servants having been either killed or hurt in 
the performance of their regular duty. 

And whereas it is necessary to check such lawless proceedings, 
which there is reason to impute to the too great lenity hitherto 
shown on our part towards the dealers in slaves, I have thought it 
right to order, and I hereby direct : 

1. That in every case of armed resistance to the lawful visits 
of her Majesty's boats, the crew of vessels so resisting and taken 
by assault shall be rigorously dealt with according to the laws of 
war. 

2. The Commanding Officer on every such occasion is enjoined 
to bear in mind the necessity of having two or three witnesses 
belonging to a vessel which may be brought before the Courts 
of Mixed Commission ; and he will therefore be careful to spare 
and to take alive at least three of the crew of such piratical vessel, 
if colours be shown. 

3. All the survivors are to be strictly confined until their cases 
shall be finally adjudicated ; and in no case of armed resistance 
is any part of the crew, passengers or other persons on board the 
prize, to be landed or disposed of, except at the port where the 
vessel may be tried. 

Given under my hand on board H.M.S. Penelope, at Sierra Leone, 
this 26th June, 1845. 

(Signed) W. JONES. 

To the respective Captains, Commanders and Commanding Officers 
of H.M. ships and vessels on the West coast of Africa. 

The following, although not connected with the slave trade, is of 
interest : 

The brig Comet was captured at St. Mary's, Madagascar, on the 
ipth August, by H.M.S. Conway, Captain Kelly, as she was not 
able to produce the papers required by Act of Parliament. The 
master of the Comet stated that he was from St. Helena, at which 
place he had transhipped a cargo of guano on freight to England ; 
that, having been driven out of the St. Helena roads, he was then 
bound to an island known to himself only, where he expected to 
find an abundance of that valuable manure. In the meantime 
however he was disposing of all the brig's stores, which in itself 



ST. HELENA 269 

was suspicious, and, together with the fact of his having no register, 
fully justified her being captured by the Conway, the impression 
of the Conway being that the original master of the Comet had 
met with foul play, and that the tale of the present master was a 
fabrication. The above is easily understood after reading the 
St. Helena Gazette for May ist, when the brig Comet suddenly 
disappeared from this roadstead during the night, carrying oft 
two women of the town and a soldier of the garrison to have a 
cruise ; and that Mr. Carrol, the agent of the vessel, was left minus 
some ^300, which he had advanced for provisions, etc., little anti- 
cipating this result. 

The Comet left this port without her register, which had been 
deposited at the Custom House. 

Her crew was sent by the Conway to the isle of France to stand 
its trial. 

October i8th, 1845. H.M. steam- vessel Penelope (Commodore 
Jones) after a cruise of nearly a month, returned to this island 
on the 1 2th inst. During her absence she had taken two prizes, 
one of which was the Cacique, on September 26th, a steamer with 
no papers but showing Brazilian colours, of about 290 tons, to 
carry 1,500 slaves, fitted out in New York. Her engine high pres- 
sure, similar to those in use on our railways, is fixed on the deck, 
the wheels being placed on each side abaft, each of which can be 
worked separate from the other. Her speed (which has not yet been 
ascertained), is supposed to be very great, although the engine 
is only a 4O-horse power. Previous to her capture by the Penelope 
she had refused to ship a cargo of 1,060 slaves which were ready 
for embarkation at Cabenda, preferring to wait for 500 more to 
make her carrying number. Her crew numbered thirty Portu- 
guese, Spaniards, and four American engineers and was furnished 
with small arms of every description, the present being the first 
voyage. 

The stores, etc., of the Cacique were sold at St. Helena, and the 
vessel sent to Ascension. The second prize was a brigantine on 
the 3Oth September with no papers, but showing Brazilian colours. 

CAPTURE OF THE " CYGNET " (CAPT. LAYTON). 

24th September. The Cygnet was at anchor at the mouth of 
the river Congo when she observed a ship come down river and 
anchor. The Cygnet got under weigh and made sail in order to 
close the ship, which weighed anchor and stood up river under 
all sail. However, as the Cygnet gained on her, the crew set her on 
fire, and running her into the shore they abandoned her. Captain 
Layton despatched a boat's crew to extinguish the flames, but 
they found it impossible to board her, and she burned to the water's 
edge. She was afterwards discovered to be the Rose, 400 tons. 

The Alert has captured a brigantine which has been sent to Sierra 
Leone in charge of Mr. London, master's assistant of that vessel. 

H.M.S. Star in the short space of a fortnight, viz. from the loth 
to the 24th October, captured three brigs fully equipped for the 



270 ST. HELENA 

slave-trade, making a total of fourteen vessels taken by Captain 
Dunlop during this commission. Two of the brigs (name and nation 
unknown) arrived in St. Helena, have been entered in the Vice- 
Admiralty Court of this island for adjudication : one is armed 
with a long i2-pounder pivot gun aft, and the other has the remains 
of the pivot of a gun which has apparently been thrown overboard. 
The account goes on to say that the third prize was hourly expected 
to arrive here. This third was the Descobrador, an account of 
which will be found under heading " Rollers." 

On December 10 we find a notice : Arrival schooner, name un- 
known, captured by H.M.S. Prometheus, and sent here for adju- 
dication in charge of W. J. Bridges. 

i/th. Arrival brig, unknown, detained by H.M.S. Prometheus 
for adjudication, in charge of John Russell, boatswain's mate, 
Lieut. O'Brien, the late prize officer, having poisoned himself, died 
on the loth December. The prize was captured on 2nd October. 

These prizes were generally sold quickly after adjudication. 
The St. Helena Gazette, of December 27th, 1845, has the following 
notice, and we find similar notices throughout the records of that 
time : 

ON MONDAY, 

the 1 2th instant, 
WILL BE SOLD BY PUBLIC AUCTION, 

on the Wharf, 

The following Stores from the Condemned Vessel, 
Unknown i8th, 

Consisting of 

Masts, yards, sails, standing or running rigging, farina, beans, rice, 
jerked beef, firewood, watercasks, vinegar, copper boilers, bunks, 
medicine, large iron grapnel, slave-deck, sweeps, anchors, and 
chain cables, etc., etc., etc. Also the 

HULL 

For ready money. 

Sale to commence at eleven o'clock in the forenoon. 
By decree of the Vice-Admiralty Court. 

EDWARD GULLIVER, R.N., 

Marshal V.-A. Court. 
ST. HELENA, 

igth Dec., 1845. 

On December 25 H.M. brig of war Cygnet arrived (Captain Lay ton) 
from Benguela. Also Descobrador, brig, detained by H.M. Star, 
sent here for adjudication in charge of J. Maynell. 

In January 1846, there arrived the Esperance, detained by 
Mr. Lowe, R.N., second master, taken off the river Juna. 

January 9. An entry reads : Enfracia, schooner, Lieut. Pollard, 
R.N., in charge, detained by H.M.S. Prometheus, and sent here 
for adjudication from off the river Congo. 

January 12. Unknown brig, detained by H.M. brig Cygnet, 
sent here for adjudication. Lieut. Oakley in charge, has on board 
525 slaves. 



ST. HELENA 271 



January 13. St. Domingo (brigantine), Mr. W. Clarke in charge, 
prize to H.M.S. Prometheus, captured off Congo, sent here for 
adjudication. 

The issue of the St. Helena Gazette for the 24th January, 1846, says : 
There are at present no fewer than fifteen condemned slavers in 
this port. Two out of the above were full of slaves, prizes to H.M.S. 
Cygnet (Captain Lay ton). The first, arriving on 25th December, 
was a Brazilian schooner of about 100 tons, captured off Cape 
Palmerinho, having on board 547 slaves. The other arriving on 
the nth, a brig, name and nation unknown, had 542 slaves on 
board, and was captured by the Cygnet on her return from St. 
Helena to the coast in lat. IT' 38" S., long, i' 37" E. 

February 6. The Brazilian brig Eliza, a well known slaver, 
has arrived. She was captured during a calm by the boats of 
H.M.S. Flying Fish. She was considered the fastest vessel in the 
slave-trade, and it is said she once sailed round the Pantaloon, fired 
into her, and then got away. 

February 9. Arrived brigantine slaver, detained by H.M.B. 
Wasp, and sent here for adjudication in charge of Mr. F. Clemen tson, 
R.N., from Loando. 

March 12. Arrived H.M.S. Winchester, Admiral the Hon. Jocelyn 
Percy, C.B., from Simon's Bay, twelve days. 

March 21. Arrived H.M.S. Larne (J. W. Brisbane) from Ascen- 
sion, five days. 

March 23. Arrived the unknown brigantine, brought by Mr. 
Carrington from off Benguela, detained by H.M.S. Cygnet. 

April 1 8. Arrived the Brazilian schooner Gaio, prize to H.M. 
brig Wasp, on the 5th, in lat. 7' 18" S., and long. 2' 10" E. The 
prize was observed making in towards main land when the gig and 
whale boat of the Wasp, commanded by Lieut. Hocking and Mr. 
Cave, midshipman, were sent in chase. The boats were fired upon 
as they approached the steamer, and three men wounded. Upon 
this the boats were ordered by Lieut. Hocking to return the fire, 
which they did with effect ; and as soon as their ammunition was 
expended, boarded and carried the prize, after some resistance, 
in which the chief mate of the prize was killed. The master was 
found severely wounded, the iron gun of the vessel having burst 
in its last discharge at the boats, and carried away one of his legs ; 
he was also wounded through the body, probably through the 
firing from the boats, and died about two hours after his capture. 
Three of the crew were brought up in the prize, as prisoners for 
trial, the remaining ten removed on board H.M.S. Wasp, which 
vessel is expected shortly to arrive. 

May i . Capture of a slaver. Arrived the Gal go, a smart Brazilian 
brig of 320 tons, armed with three guns, captured by three boats of 
H.M.S. Wasp, under the command of Lieut. Hocking, on the 2Oth 
April, in lat. 7' 15" S. and long. 12' 28" E. The crew of the prize, 
thirty-six in number, kept up a constant fire on the boats for an 
hour and a half, and after the boarding party got on deck con- 
tinued it from the tops of the vessel until shot down by the captors. 



272 ST. HELENA 

Of the Wasp three men were slightly wounded and two dangerously ; 
on the part of the crew of the slaver thirteen were killed, viz. Captain 
Joaquin Antonio Perreira, the mate, and eleven men. With the 
Gaio the Wasp had three wounded, and the fearful massacre of her 
prize crew on board the Felicidade has left the crew of the Wasp 
in an exasperated state, while the escape of the murderers of their 
companions from justice has no doubt added fuel to the flames. 

May 14, 1846. Three vessels were condemned for being equipped 
for and engaged in the slave-trade, viz. Brazilian brig Gabriel, taken 
by H.M.S. Waterwitch (Commander Birch) ; the schooner Gaio, 
taken by H.M.S. Wasp (Commander Ussher), after considerable 
resistance, in which three of the Wasp's crew were wounded, and 
three of the Gaio killed ; and a brigantine, name and nation un- 
known, taken by H.M.S. Actaeon (Captain Mansel). 

The Emprehendedora was detained by the Alert, but after tnal 
before Vice-Admiralty Court, His Honour decreed the restoration 
of the vessel. 

The following account of a trial by Vice- Admiralty Court 
will show how, after a hard struggle with the enemy, the 
officers and men of our Navy found themselves placed in 
the wrong : 

ADMIRALTY SESSIONS. 

24th June, 1846. 

A session of the Court of Commissioners for the trial within this 
colony of offences committed on the high seas was holden on 
Wednesday, 24th June, for the trial of the sessions of the crews 
of the Brazilian slave-vessels Gaio and Gal go, for resisting the boats 
of H.M.S. Wasp, and wounding several of the men on the occasion 
of their seizure. 

The Court having assembled soon after ten o'clock, the Letters 
Patent under the Great Seal, by which the Commissioners are 
appointed, were read, and the oath of Qualification was taken by 
His Honour, Mr. Wilde, Esq., Chief Justice of the Colony ; James 
Everard Home, Baronet, Captain of the Royal Navy, commanding 
H.M.S. Star, then in the roadstead of Jamestown ; the Honourable 
Major Henry E. O'Dell, Saint Helena Regiment, member of the 
Legislative Council ; and George Summer Hand, Esq., Commander 
of H.M.S. Espoir, then in the roadstead. The Grand Jury, consist- 
ing of the following gentlemen, were then sworn, viz. : 

WILLIAM CARROL, ESQUIRE, Foreman 
GEO. W T . ALEXANDER, SAMUEL HOPEWELL, 

THOMAS ALESWORTH, WILLIAM MASON, 

THOMAS CHARLETT, ISAAC Moss, 

GEORGE CHADWICK, MATTHEW O'CONNOR, 

THOMAS COLE, THOMAS ROTE, 

JOHN DE FOUNTAINE, JOHN SCOTT, 

W. K. DOVETON, JOHN K. TORBETT, 

W. O. KENNEDY, JOHN WRIGHT. 




" TEA TIME," 3RD ROYAL SUSSEX REGIMENT, BROADBOTTOM CAMP. 




CAMP LIFE," 97TH COMPANY R.G.A., DEADWOOD CAMP. 



ST. HELENA 273 

His Honour the Chief Justice, in delivering the charge to the 
Grand Jury, made some preparatory observations on the origin 
and constitution of Courts appointed for the trial of offences com- 
mitted on the high seas. He stated that, previously to an Act of 
Parliament passed in the reign of Henry VIII for the "Punishment 
of pirates and robbers of the sea," all such offences were brought 
before the Lord High Admiral according to the rules of Civil Law ; 
but as that mode of trial was deemed inconsistent with the liberties 
of the subject, and as no man's life could, consistently with our 
laws, be taken away without judgment of his peers, a new juris- 
diction was established by which all persons accused of felonies, 
robberies or murders committed on the high seas should be tried 
by a jury of twelve men according to the course of Common Law, 
as if such offence had been committed on land ; and under this 
statute a commission was directed to certain persons named therein 
and afterward extended to the colonies to avoid bringing witnesses 
and prisoners from distant parts. 

ADMIRALTY SESSIONS. " SLAVERY." 

An Act was passed in the reign of George III. by which the like pow- 
ers and authorities were given to certain Commissioners to inquire, 
try, determine, in any of our islands, plantations and Colonies, 
offences committed on the high seas. His Honour referred to the 
various statutes relative to the subject of piracy. The crimes 
which would be brought before them originated in the resistance 
made by two slave-vessels against the boats of H.M.S. Wasp on 
their approach to board and search the said vessels. A severe 
and desperate conflict had taken place, in which several seamen 
of the Wasp were wounded, some dangerously, and several of the 
slaver's crew were killed. The prisoners were also charged with 
feloniously shooting with intent to murder, to maim, to disable, 
to do some grievous bodily harm, or to prevent lawful detaining. 
The number of prisoners were upwards of thirty, comprising the 
persons found on board the two Brazilian vessels Gaio and Galgo. 
The Grand Jury were doubtless aware of the great but unsuccessful 
exertions made by England to suppress the slave trade ; and had 
other nations been equally sincere in their professions to repress 
this guilty traffic, no doubt it had long since been extinguished, 
at least, so far as the civilized world was concerned. But slavery 
had existed under the sanction of Laws of Nations from the earliest 
ages of the world until the last half century. Commission Courts 
were established for the condemnation of Brazilian vessels engaged 
in the slave trade, and an Act of Parliament passed was to authorize 
the adjudication of Brazilian vessels engaged in slave-trade by 
Vice Admiralty Courts. But the 8th and 9th of Victoria, which gave 
this authority concerning the vessels and the cargoes of such vessels, 
gave no authority with regard to the persons found on board ; 
nor were foreigners (not being under the protection of our laws) 
amenable to them for any acts committed in a country or place 
not subject to the dominion of Great Britain, and so beyond the 

S 



274 ST. HELENA 

jurisdiction of any English Court. His Honour observed that 
the only exception to this was piracy ; for all pirates, being rovers 
and robbers on the seas, are enemies to all, and sailing under no 
flag, every nation had a right to inflict that punishment on them 
which their crime deserved. But the slave-trade was not piracy 
by the law of nations nor by Treaty until made so by the Municipal 
Law of the countries keeping the Treaty ; nor even then cognizable 
by a foreign country until a legislative measure is passed to sanction 
the jurisdiction of their Courts. For, notwithstanding the con- 
vention with Brazil, wherein the first article declares that the 
carrying on of the slave-trade by any person subject to the Emperor 
of Brazil shall be deemed and treated as piracy, yet there was no Act 
of Parliament which authorized a British Court to try and punish 
a subject of Brazil for carrying on the slave-trade ; although there 
was an Act authorizing the confiscation of their vessels. So the 
two important questions arise in this case whether the prisoners 
are foreigners and whether they have committed any offence that 
amounts to piracy. It was for the jury to consider whether the 
resistance made was piratical or justifiable as made in ignorance 
of any right which H.M. boats had to search and detain them, 
and under an idea that they were only acting in self-defence. His 
Honour endeavoured to impress on the minds of the Grand Jury 
the great importance of the subject submitted to their considera- 
tion, and the necessity of devoting their most serious attention 
to the arduous and important duties which they were called upon 
to perform duties which were important as regarded the fate 
of the prisoners important as regarded the great question of 
the slave-trade, and so affecting our relations with Brazil. The 
Bills of indictment being given to the Grand Jury, they retired, 
and on their return into Court found true bills against all the 
prisoners. The survivors of the crew of the Gaio, thirteen in 
number, were then placed in the dock. An interpreter, Mr. Peter 
Christian Gurner, was sworn in consequence of the prisoners not 
appearing to understand the proceedings. They were then severally 
arraigned upon the indictment, which charged them with piratically 
and feloniously shooting at one Austin Elson upon the high seas 
within the jurisdiction of the Court with intent to kill and murder 
him ; a second count charged them with being present aiding 
and abetting a certain person to the jurors unknown in committing 
the said piracy and felony. 

Prisoners all pleaded not guilty. 

Mr. T. E. Thompson appeared for the prisoners but made no ob- 
jection, on their behalf, to the proceedings. 

The Queen's advocate stated the case for the prosecution and 
briefly related the circumstances connected with the offence, with 
which they were indicted. He reminded the jury of the great 
exertions which had been made by Great Britain to abolish slavery 
and the slave trade throughout the world. He referred to the treaties 
which have been entered into with nearly thirty independent states 
for the suppression of the slave trade and particularly the convention 



ST. HELENA 275 

between Great Britain and Brazil. He stated that a strong naval 
force was constantly employed on the coast of Africa for the purpose 
of searching and detaining vessels engaged in the slave trade : that 
the Wasp was one of Her Majesty's squadron employed in that ser- 
vice ; and whilst cruising off Ambrizette in the performance of that 
important duty discovered on April 5 last a suspicious-looking 
vessel which afterwards proved to be the Brazilian schooner Gaio. 
She was completely equipped for the slave trade, brought here for 
adjudication and condemned in the Vice- Admiralty Court. 

Such were the facts of the case, and he, the Queen's advocate, 
found it difficult to conceive what justification could be offered for 
this wanton attack on the boats of H.M.S. Wasp, approaching as 
they were with colours flying, the officers in uniform, and the Wasp 
in sight during the whole day, with the British ensign and pennant 
hoisted. 

The prisoners at the bar were found on board the Gaio, and no 
doubt were partakers in the transaction more or less. It might 
not appear in evidence which, or whether any of the prisoners 
actually discharged the gun which inflicted the injury, but it would 
be proved that they were all present aiding and abetting and were 
therefore properly charged as principals in the indictment. 

The evidence would admit of no reasonable doubt of their active 
participation in the attack on the boats. The commander of H.M.S. 
Wasp was fully authorized in sending his boats to ascertain the 
character of the vessel, whether she was a Brazilian slaver or not. 
The attack on the boats was therefore a resistance to lawful authority, 
and it is expressly laid down " That a lawful force cannot be lawfully 
resisted." The attack on the boats was wanton and unprovoked. 
There was no aggression on the part of the British. The attempt 
to escape from the boat was of itself a suspicious circumstance, 
amounting nearly to a proof that the schooner was no legal trader. 

And she followed up her refusal to obey the usual signal of firing 
two or three muskets to induce her to heave to by piratically firing 
upon the boats with both large shot and musketry, and kept up 
the fire with only one interval, whilst the boats got near enough to 
enable them to renew it with more deadly effect, and never ceased 
until the schooner was carried by boarding : nor even then until 
two of the crew had forfeited their lives by their rash and obstinate 
resistance. She was then found to be the very description of vessel 
that the commander of the Wasp was authorized to detain : a 
Brazilian slaver, fully equipped for the reception of slaves and con- 
sequently engaged in the slave trade. After some further obser- 
vations, the Queen's advocate left the matter in the hands of the 
jury, trusting that in the fulfilment of their important and responsible 
duties, though their feelings of compassion might dispose them to 
a merciful consideration of the prisoners' case, they would not lose 
sight of what was due to that gallant service devoted at the expense 
of life and health to the arduous duty of suppressing the foulest 
blot that ever disgraced humanity, denounced by assembled states- 
men as the " desolation of Africa, the degradation of Europe and the 



2/6 



ST. HELENA 



afflicting scourge of humanity," and that their verdict would be such 
as to satisfy their own consciences, the country which had made 
such enormous sacrifices to abolish that abominable traffic in human 
flesh, and the world at large. The first witness called was Mr. 
John Halliday Cave, midshipman, belonging to H.M.S. Wasp, who 
being sworn, stated : " On the 5th April last I was ordered by 
Captain Usher to take charge of the whale-boat belonging to H.M.S. 
Wasp, to chase and examine, under the orders of Lieut. Hockin 
who was in the gig, a schooner which had just hove in sight off 
Ambrizette about twenty miles from the land. This was about 
half-past seven in the morning. The chase continued the whole 
day. A little after sunset I observed the schooner firing musketry 
at the gig, which was about two miles ahead of the whale-boat. At 
the same time I heard a loud report from a small gun. The gig 
returned the fire and about ten minutes after it ceased on both sides. 
About half an hour afterwards I succeeded in getting up with the 
gig when Mr. Hocking made me divide my ammunition with him, 
as his was expended, and ordered me to pull ahead of the schooner 
with him, and after we had got ahead, to separate. I was to board 
on the port bow while Mr. Hockin boarded on the starboard bow. 
The colours were then hoisted in the gig and the whale boat. As 
soon as the boats got within range the people in the schooner began to 
fire again. They all seemed on board the schooner to be armed with 
muskets, and it" was during the time we were pulling ahead of the 
vessel that three of the men in the boat were wounded by muskets. 
One man in the whale-boat, Austin Elson, was wounded in the 
thigh by a musket ball which was fired from the schooner before 
we got alongside. I also heard Edward Campbell in the gig cry out, ' I 
am struck in the leg.' The firing from the schooner continued until 
the boats got alongside, when it ceased entirely. On boarding the 
schooner I saw only one man on deck he was running to the hatch- 
way and he was cut down. The rest of the crew all hid themselves. 
On going aft I saw a small gun, a three or four pounder, which ap- 
peared to have recently burst ; and about the same time the captain 
was handed up from below with one of his legs off, which Jose 
Ignaceo Oliveiro, one of the prisoners, gave me to understand had 
been caused by the bursting of the gun. There was a great quantity 
of ammunition and arms of all descriptions lying about the deck, 
consisting of muskets, boarding pikes, cutlasses, musket ball-cart- 
ridges, a case of canister shot, and a quantity of loose gunpowder. 
The schooner had no colours up at the time of boarding, and I saw 
none before. A Brazilian ensign was found below. She was com- 
pletely fitted up for slaves, had a slave-deck laid, also farina beans, 
jerked beef, and several breakers of water. I had on^my naval 
uniform cap with gold band and blue jacket with naval buttons. Can- 
not say whether Mr. Hockin had on his uniform. The crew of the 
schooner were put into the whale-boat and towed astern. A blue 
light was burnt as a signal to the Wasp which burnt another in 
answer, and we then proceeded in the direction of the Wasp, and 
fell in with her about one o'clock in the morning of the 6th April. 



ST. HELENA 277 

Lieut. Hockin took the prisoners on board the Wasp. I remained 
in charge of the schooner till Lieut. Elliott came on board about 
two hours afterwards. The schooner was boarded in the dark. I 
was afterwards ordered to take charge of the schooner with three of 
the prisoners and proceed to St. Helena for adjudication. I was 
present when the Gaio was condemned in the Vice- Admiralty Court 
of this place for being engaged in the slave trade. 

Edward Campbell, one of the crew of the gig when the Gaio was 
taken, deposed that when about a mile from the schooner three 
muskets were fired from the gig to bring the schooner to, the muskets 
were fired in the air. He was wounded in the leg before boarding : 
the ball went right through his leg. All the crew ran below when 
they boarded, except one man, who jumped from the port to the 
starboard side, and not knowing but what he was going to attack 
him witness struck him on the neck with his sword, and as that had 
no effect he ran him through and then threw him overboard ; did not 
know whether he was armed or not. Lieut. Hockin had on his cap with 
a gold band and a naval uniform coat with straps on the shoulders. 
This witness corroborated Mr. Cave's evidence in other particulars. 

Austin Elson, the man named in the indictment, was one of the 
crew of the Wasp's whale-boat when the Gaio was taken : he des- 
cribed the manner in which he was wounded and produced the 
leaden musket-ball which had been cut out from the under part of 
his thigh. His wound was severe, and for some time he was con- 
sidered in a dangerous state ; he had never done any duty since he 
received the wound, and was still in the hospital. The shot which 
wounded him came first through the boat just under the gunwale. 

The other witnesses, one of whom, Wm. Norman, was wounded 
by a musket ball on the back of his head, testified to the same facts 
that the others had stated. 

The ship's papers filed in the Registry of the Vice-Admiralty 
Court, the decree of condemnation, and a certified copy of Captain 
Ussher's authority to seize Brazilian vessels engaged in the slave 
trade, were then put in as evidence of the unlawful character of the 
vessel, and concluded the case on the part of the prosecution. 

Mr. Thompson on the part of the prisoners produced no witnesses 
nor did the cross-examination of the witnesses for the prosecution 
in any degree tend to weaken or discredit their evidence. Two of 
the prisoners, Bastos and Sing Juan, produced passports in support 
of their assertion that they were passengers, and some of them denied 
taking part in the resistance, being below all the time. 

They all professed not to have seen any colours hoisted either in 
the boats or on board the Wasp, and that they were not aware until 
the moment of boarding that the boats were manned by English 
sailors, which was first intimated by the cheering of the boats' 
crews as they approached to board. The Chief Justice having 
summed up, the jury retired and after an hour's deliberation returned 
a verdict of guilty against the whole of the prisoners. 

The Court then adjourned till the next morning at ten. 

Thursday, 2$th June, 1846. 



278 



ST. HELENA 



The Court of Commissioners for the trial of offences committed 
on the high seas, adjourned from yesterday, was re-opened this morn- 
ing at ten o'clock, when the prisoners taken in the Brazilian brig 
Galgo were set to the bar and charged with piratically and feloniously 
shooting on the high seas at one George Horwood, a seaman of H.M.S. 
Wasp, with intent to kill and murder him. 

The prisoners were twenty- two in number, and named in the 
indictment in the following order : 

Joze Pereira Santos, Antonio Joze Peirerira, Francisco Marquis 
Couto, Joaquin Coreia Soaces, Hanwel, Ferreira, Dion isio Marinho, 
Francisco Mondes, Joze Francisco d'Almeida, Celestieno Emendes, 
Manvel Joze dos Santos, Joze Baptista Goncalves, Joze Francisco, 
Raphall Sanxes, Antonio des Santos, Joze Roura, Joas de Las Reis, 
Antonio Joze da Silva, Hilario Porie Bento Belles, Joas Kosmay, 
and Antonio dos Santos. 

Mr. Fowler appeared for the prisoners on their being arraigned 
and prayed the Court to appoint an interpreter, as the prisoners 
were foreigners. Mr. P. C. Gurnet was accordingly sworn as inter- 
preter, and directed to explain the proceedings to them. 

Mr. Fowler then objected to the jurisdiction of the Court, on the 
ground that the prisoners were all foreigners, but on being desired 
to put his objection in the form of a plea, he withdrew it, and the 
prisoners severally pleaded " Not guilty." 

A jury, de medietate, was next applied for, on the part of the 
prisoners. The Provost Marshal was desired to return a sufficient 
number of aliens to be put on the jury, and the Court adjourned till 
two o'clock. 1%-h 

Upon the re-assembling of the Court, Mr. Fowler stated that a 
Brazilian vessel of war had just anchored in the roads, and that 
some Brazilian officers were present who were desirous of being 
permitted to protest against the authority of the Court to try the 
prisoners, who were all subjects of the Emperor of Brazil. The 
Court refused to admit any interference of the proceedings, as the 
prisoners had already pleaded, and the jury was sworn, with one 
foreigner, all that the Provost Marshal was enabled to return. The 
names of the jury were : 

Fernandez Rosse, George Baxter, Robert Ramage, Richard 
Sparkes, Young, James Scott, Stephen Young, Edward Greenland, 
Matthew Torbett, John Bargo, William Scale, Charles Hogg, Stephen 
Stroud. 

Mr. Firman, the Queen's Advocate, stated the case for the pro- 
secution, and produced Lieut. David Elliot as a witness, from whose 
evidence it appeared that at daylight on the morning of the 2Oth 
of April, a suspicious looking brig bearing NW. was observed from 
the deck of H.M.S. Wasp, commanded by Captain S. H. Ussher, who 
immediately ordered three of his boats, viz. the pinnace, the gig, and 
the cutter to go in chase, and examine the strange brig. Lieut. 
Hockin was in the pinnace,*Lieut. Elliot in the gig, and Mr. Burnley, 
midshipman /in the cutter. The English colours were hoisted in the 
boats ; the"officers had on their uniform jackets and caps ; and the 



ST. HELENA 279 

Wasp followed in the same direction, with her colours flying. The 
brig showed no colours, and when the pinnace got sufficiently near, 
which was after a chase of more than four hours, Lieut. Hockin 
ordered a gun to be fired ahead of the brig. This shot was imme- 
diately returned by two guns, whether shotted or not did not appear, 
from the brig ; and the pinnace and gig then lay to for the cutter, 
which was some distance astern. Whilst waiting for the cutter, 
the brig took in several of her sails, and kept up a continuous fire 
on the boats. As soon as the cutter had joined, Mr. Hockin gave 
directions for boarding, and the boats pulled down to the brig under 
a heavy fire, the men cheering tremendously. Two of the boats 
were much injured by the shot, and the sail and mast of the pinnace 
completely riddled. Mr. Burnley and six of the men were wounded, 
two of whom, George Horwood and Henry Gully, were shot through 
the breast. The brig was instantly carried by boarding, but the 
resistance was continued by firing from the tops, which was only 
put an end to by shooting those who were in the tops. There was 
also some firing below, and some of the people were killed. On 
taking possession, the brig proved to be the brig Galgo with a crew 
of thirty-six men, well armed, and abundantly supplied with ammu- 
nition. She had both a Spanish and Brazilian ensign on board, and 
was completely fitted for the slave trade. The cargo consisted of 
farina and rice, with water sufficient for a thousand people. The 
vessel had ventilation in the deck with iron gratings, also iron bars 
across the hatches and a slave deck completely laid. The prisoners 
were put into the pinnace, and on nearing the Wasp, Mr. Hockin 
took them on board. In answer to a question from the prisoners, 
this witness stated that according to the orders of the Commodore, 
they were directed to treat all vessels that fired on them as pirates, 
and to stimulate the men he said, " Remember the Felicidade." 

There was also something jaid about the judges. 

From the testimony of the other witnesses it was evident that the 
resistance had been desperate, and the preparations for it of a most 
determined character ; the boarding-pikes were slushed or greased 
on their points, two feet up the staff. One of the Wasp's men 
was wounded after getting on board, and when below, Mr. Burnley, 
the midshipman, and a man named Thomas Brown were wounded 
in the act of boarding. T. Cooper on going below, was seized by 
the throat, and thrown down by one of the Galgo' s men, who was 
instantly shot. 

The decree of the condemnation of the Galgo, under the seal of 
the Vice-Admiralty Court of this Colony, was produced in proof of 
the vessel being engaged in the slave trade. Also two letters, found 
amongst the papers on board ; one desiring the captain on his 
return to Brazil to land such of his crew as were not entered on 
the crew list at a place therein mentioned, the other advising him 
to keep off the land, in order to avoid the English cruisers. The 
crew list was also put in, to show that, although there were thirty- 
six men found on board, only seventeen were regularly entered 
as her crew. 



280 ST. HELENA 

Upon the close of the prosecution. Mr. Fowler " applied to be 
allowed till the next morning for the defence. The Court there- 
upon adjourned till ten o'clock the next day, and directed that the 
jury should be kept together, and that accommodation should be 
provided for them. 

On Friday 26th the Court again sat. Mr. Fowler, for the pri- 
soners, contended that the Court had no jurisdicion, as they were 
Brazilian subjects on board a Brazilian vessel : and that at the time 
of the commission of the offence as laid in the indictment, no con- 
version of the vessel had taken place. He observed that English 
Acts of Parliament could not apply to Brazilian subjects in a Bra- 
zilian vessel which was Brazilian ground. He also observed that 
the indictment stated the prisoners to be late of St. Etelena, whereas 
they were taken out of the Galgo ; and that Capt. Ussher's authority 
being limited to the seizure of Brazilian vessels could not warrant 
his seizure of Brazilian subjects. He then read a paper which three 
of the passengers had prepared stating that they were passengers 
and took no part in the resistance : that some of the sailors com- 
menced the firing without the Capt's. orders whereupon the pas- 
sengers and the remainder of the crew went below : the firing from 
both parties continued for some time : at last it ceased for a few 
minutes, when the voices of those whom they afterwards found to 
be English sailors were heard on deck mingled with the ones from 
the Galgo' s crew, who were being fired upon and killed by their 
opponents. As their hiding place was below the cabin, they could 
distinctly hear what was going on in the cabin, where the captain 
of the Galgo and two others who had concealed themselves 
were killed. The captain (in French) begged the English to be 
merciful, to pity and spare him, but in vain. After which they (the 
English) took their breakfasts in iheGalgo's cabin, which just before 
had been the scene of so much horror and bloodshed. He then 
related the appearance of the decks, cabin, and the other parts of the 
vessel after they had ventured from their hiding-place when all 
was quiet, their removal to the Wasp, and the rough usage which 
they experienced from the exasperated seamen. Thirteen of the 
Galgo's crew were killed, and one, who was wounded, died afterwards 
in the hospital at'St. Helena. Another statement in writing was read 
from five others of the prisoners concluding with the assertion that 
those who were killed were the parties who had defended the vessel. 

Mr. Fowler proceeded, after reading the above, to maintain 
that the prisoners had taken no part in the resistance made to the 
boats, and that those who had were all killed. He insisted that no 
offence had been committed against the British laws, and said if 
the prisoners had been guilty of any crime, they ought to have been 
tried by the laws of their own country. 

The crew list was again referred to for the purpose of showing 

that the prisoners were foreigners, also the affidavit of Lieut. Elliot, 

on bringing the Galgo into the Vice- Admiralty Court to prove her 

national character. 

Lieut. Elliot and William Hill, captain of the forecastle on board 




BAND 3RD MIDDLESEX REGIMENT, DEADWOOD CAMP. 







ROYAL ENGINEERS AND FATIGUE FROM PRISONERS OF WAR, DEADWOOD CAMP 



ST. HELENA 281 

the Wasp, were then called and examined respecting some papers, 
which the prisoners stated had been destroyed. 

The Queen's Advocate addressed the jury in reply, to the effect 
that the objection made on the part of the prisoners was either 
immaterial, or should have been made at an earlier period of the 
proceedings, and maintained that the statements of the prisoners 
had not been substantiated by evidence. 

The Chief Justice proceeded to sum up, and told the jury that 
if they were satisfied the prisoners fired the muskets or were aiding 
therein, they must not consider whether, had the person fired at 
died, the offence would have been murder ; and whether or not it 
would have been murder depended on the question of the resistance 
which the prisoners made, being lawful or unlawful. His Honour 
said that the authority which Captain Ussher possessed, to visit and 
search Brazilian vessels, was a lawful authority ; but it did not 
follow, if the prisoners on board were Brazilian subjects, that they 
were bound to submit to be visited and searched. His Honour 
also said that if the prisoners were guilty of any offence in resisting 
the visit and search by the boats of the Wasp, this offence, 
being a felony created by an Act of the British Legislature, it could 
only apply to British subjects ; and that no person, not under the 
protection of the British law, was liable to be punished for any infrac- 
tion of that law committed at a time when not under the protection 
of it. Therefore if the jury should be satisfied that the offence was 
committed in a foreign ship by foreigners, they ought to find the 
verdict of Acquittal. 

The Jury retired for a short time, and on their return into Court, 
brought in a verdict of " Not Guilty." 

The prisoners from the Gaio, who were tried on Wednesday and 
found guilty, being brought up for judgment, pleaded that they were 
Brazilian subjects, and said that Mr. Thompson would speak for them. 

Mr. Thompson on the part of the prisoners, moved for an arrest 
of judgment on the grounds that only three of them had been 
identified as being on board the Gaio when the vessel was taken, 
and that they were all Brazilian subjects; to prove which/ as well as 
to show that he was not aware of there being some documents in 
the Registry of the Vice- Admiralty Court to that effect, he put in 
affidavits. The Chief Justice, in pronouncing judgment, told the 
prisoners that their objection ought to have been made on the trial ; 
but as the Court was satisfied that they were really Brazilian sub- 
jects, a sentence of a nominal punishment only would be passed 
upon them of twenty-four hours imprisonment. 

Alert, 6, (Com. Bosanquet), Mr. Wasey, of this vessel, appointed 
Acting-Lieutenant nearly a year since, on the promotion of the late 
gallant Lieut. Lodwick, arrived at Liverpool last week in a merchant 
vessel, with some seamen belonging to the Alert, from the south-east 
coast of America, and immediately reported himself at the Admiralty 
and related the circumstances under which he presented himself. 
It appeared that the Alert captured a Brazilian slave- vesseljwithout 
colours, name unknown, having between seventy and eighty slaves 



282 ST. HELENA 

on board, at Cabenda, and having put Mr. Wasey and a prize crew 
on board, ordered him to proceed to Sierra Leone for adjudication. 
The gales being unpropitious, he was driven by their force on the 
south coast of America. He managed, however, by almost super- 
human exertions to reach Maranham, one of the northern presi- 
dencies of Brazil, although he had frequently seven feet of water 
in the hold, with fresh leaks breaking out at intervals, and only kept 
his ship afloat by dint of extraordinary perseverance in working the 
pumps. On his arrival at Maranham, the British Consul rendered 
every assistance and an endeavour was made to secure the offices 
of the Government in obtaining proper protection for the slaves 
until a vessel could be procured to take them. In the meantime, 
whilst Mr. Wasey was engaged on shore with the President, en- 
deavouring to effect his object, a body of about forty-six to fifty 
armed men, in the uniform of the National Guard, proceeded to the 
vessel, saying to those on board that they were instructed to take 
the slaves and crew and conduct them to a place of safety for the 
night, it being then impossible for any one to remain on board, as 
the water was washing over the decks. The English seamen refused 
to leave the vessel in the absence of their officer, but all the slaves, 
together with the captain and crew of the slaver, landed with their 
visitors. Mr. Wasey soon after returned, and finding the eighty 
slaves with the prisoners gone, he immediately instituted inquiries, 
when he ascertained that the visitors were a party of brigands in 
disguise of Brazilian soldiers, who had made themselves masters 
of the cargo and marched them off up the country. An ostensible 
attempt was made on the part of the Government to recover them, 
but of course without success, and finding all attempts fruitless, Mr. 
Wasey embarked his men on board a merchantman for Liverpool. 
Great credit is due to Lieut. Wasey for his conduct throughout the 
affair. He preserved his vessel under the most disadvantageous 
circumstances of wind, weather, and cargo, until she reached a place 
of safety, and on the voyage succeeded in preventing an outbreak 
which he had reason to apprehend was meditated on the part of 
the slaves and the slaver captain, of which warning was given him 
by one of the slaves who could speak a little English. They had 
to work all day and night with their arms by their sides, bailing out 
water, or their vessel would have gone down. 

Thursday, August 6th, 1846. Queen v. Brazilian brigantine 
Emprehendedora. 

This vessel, which was formerly^ seized by Capt. Bosanquet of 
H.M.S. Alert, and restored by decreeiof the Vice- Admiralty Court of 
this Colony, on the nth May last, the particulars of which case 
appeared in the S*. Helena Gazette of May 16, was again seized while 
at anchor in these roads on the nth June by Capt. Birch of H.M.S. 
Waterwitch for being equipped for the slave trade, and put into Court. 
The case was adjudicated on Thursday. 

Mr. Gideon moved on the affidavit for condemnation, upon the 
ground that the usual equipments for carrying on the slave trade 
were found on board at the time of seizure. 



ST. HELENA 283 

Mr. Fowler for the claimant, Francisco Roderiques de Silva, 

opposed the motion for the condemnation, on the following grounds : 

i st. That there was no proof of the seizure or detention of the 

vessel by Capt. Birch or by any person on his behalf. 
2nd. That the vessel was not at the time of the search and deten- 
tion equipped for the slave trade, but was in the same state as 
when restored by decree of the Vice-Admiralty Court and regu- 
larly entered at the Custom House. 

3rd. That Capt. Birch had no especial authority for seizing 
Brazilian vessels engaged in the slave trade excepting on the 
high seas. 

4th. That the Emprehendedora was lying at anchor in the roads 
at St. Helena within range of the batteries and therefore the 
seizure was in violation of the convention. The judge was of 
opinion, that whatever might have been the intention of the 
original voyages of the Emprehendedora with regard to the 
slave trade, that intention had been evidently abandoned upon 
the release of the vessel from the seizure by H.M.S. Alert. 
The vessel had been regularly entered at the Custom House 
and permission had been applied for and obtained to land the 
cargo and slave equipments, before the seizure by Capt. Birch, 
which sufficiently proved that there was no intention to carry on 
the African slave trade. His Honour therefore decreed that 
the vessel be restored with costs. 

Thursday, i3th. The Brazilian brig Relampago, taken by H.M. 
steam sloop Hecate, Commander Joseph West, with 545 slaves on 
board, was condemned. This vessel arrived on the 24th inst. under 
charge of Lieut. Hancock ; upwards of forty slaves died on the 
passage, and about forty more since their arrival. The case was 
unopposed and prosecution conducted by Mr. Baker, the Queen's 
Proctor. 

September 2. Arrived Maria, schooner. J. C. Millett, Esq. 
R.N., in charge : a prize to H.M.S. Kingfisher, captured on the i5th 
August, off Juan Bay. 

September 18. Unknown, prize to H.M. brig Waterwitch, with 
540 negroes on board. This beautiful little sloop Waterwitch cap- 
tured on Sunday i3th, after a spirited chase, a large brig fifteen 
days from Ambriz, having a living cargo of 556 human beings. We 
regret to add that a number had fallen victims since their departure 
from the coast to the period of their capture. 

September 26th. Dios Ismaas, brig. H. B. Akaster, Esq., in 
charge, a prize to H.M.S. Prometheus, captured on September 8th 
off Ambriz. 

October 26th. The Izabelbrig, detained by H.M.S. Hydra, off 
Palma, 3Oth September, in charge of Lieut. Charleton, R.N. Brought 
here to be adjudicated. 

MarevalAllvoisie, schooner. Detained by H.M.S. Brilliant on 8th 
October/in charge of Lieut. Corkroff, and brought here to be^adjudi- 
cated. 

27th. Rolla, brigantine, detained by H.M.S. Styx on i/th Sep- 



284 



ST. HELENA 



tember off Little Pofri, in charge of Lieut. C. Rainier. Brought here 
to be adjudicated. 

November 3. Bonorto Porto, brigantine. Detained by Sealark, on 
October 21, in charge of Mr. Fenwick. Brought here to be adjudi- 
cated. 

November 4. Angle, brigantine. Mr. S. Waith, R.N., in charge. 
Prize to H.M.S. Sealark, captured October 22 off Ambriz. 

November 18. Victoria, brigantine. Mr. A. Dewar in charge. A 
prize to H.M.S. Kingfisher, captured on October 16. 

23. Genie, brig. Detained by Kingfisher, in charge of J. Millet, 
Esq., R.N., captured on October 17, off River Fernanyas. 

December 5. Adelaide, brig. Detained by H.M. Sloop Bittern 
off River Congo 2ist November, in charge of Lieut. Powell, R.N. 
Here to be adjudicated. 

January 16, 1847. From a private letter dated January 6, 1847, 
an extract states that Commanders Layton, late of the Cygnet, 
Brisbane of Lame, Young of Hydra, and Oake of Ferret all posted. 
Capt. Morell of Tortoise is to be superseded by Capt. Hatton as 
Post-Captain. The Penelope is coming out to be Flagship to Com- 
modore Hotham, who is made a Commodore of the first class and 
Commander-in-chief. Capt. Henry Wells Gifford is the captain of 
the Penelope, so that Courts-martial will be held on the station. 

Commander Morell takes command of the Hydra, and his family 
go home in her. The Grappler is expected daily with Capt. Hutt 
on board. 

Sir Charles Hutton has improved many things on this island, 
which adds very much to comfort of the cruisers. Eurydice sails in 
evening for Cape to relieve Conway. Hydra is also here refitting. 
Devastation has gone the round of the station, taking the northern 
division first and working round to the south to St. Helena, therefore 
will probably be at St. Helena in March. Pantaloon goes to West 
Indies. 

This gives an idea of the state of shipping in the days of St. Helenas 
prosperity. 

VICE-ADMIRALTY COURT. 
iSth February, 1847. 

Thursday, i8th February, 1847. Queen versus Brazilian Brigan- 
tine Felina. Jose Antonio Cordeiro, Master. This vessel was seized 
by F. F. Birch, Esq., Commander of H.M.S Waterwitch, for being 
equipped for and engaged in the African slave trade, and arrived at 
this colony for adjudication under charge of Mr. M'Clune, Master's 
Assistant of the Waterwitch. 

The prosecution was conducted by Mr. Gideon, the Proctor for 
the captors, and being undefended, the vessel was condemned upon 
the usual affidavits, under the 8th and 9th Victoria, cap. 122, and 
ordered to be broken up and sold. 

Queen v. Brazilian Brigantine Rolla. Joze Gregoria Pereira, 
Master. Seized by H. Chads, Esq., Commander of H.M.S. Styx. 

This was an undefended case. The Rolla arrived at this port the 



ST. HELENA 285 

2/th of last October, in charge of Lieut. Rainier. The prosecution 
was conducted by Mr. Solomon, Proctor for the captor, and the de- 
fence by Mr. Fowler, The proceedings were by plea and proof, 
and the voluminous nature of those proceedings, consisting of libel, 
answers, examinations of witnesses, survey translations of docu- 
ments, etc., had necessarily protracted the case until now. 

The judge decreed the vessel to be condemned under the provisions 
of the 8th and 9th Victoria, cap, 122. Mr. Fowler intimated 
the probability of the decision being appealed against. 

Within the last few days we have had at anchor in these roads 
four steamers, and a fifth which passed through the harbour. One 
of them is H.M. steam frigate Penelope, Commodore Sir Charles 
Hotham, who arrived on Monday afternoon, the 5th April. This 
vessel has had the good fortune to capture three prizes since the 
2oth ult., one of them having 320 negroes on board, another of the 
three being captured the afternoon before his arrival here. 

In the St. Helena Gazette of 1846 I found a description 
by Captain C. A. Kellett of a beautiful Chinese junk, the 
Keying, which put into St. Helena. She does not appear 
to have been in any way connected with the slave trade, 
still I venture to think an account of her here will be inter- 
esting, and not out of place : 

The junk Keying left China December 6th, 1846 ; arrived at St. 
Helena i/th April, 1847 > having had very light winds nearly the 
whole voyage, having been at anchor six weeks in the Java Sea, and 
Sunda Straits, with light southerly and south-west winds. Off the 
Mauritius experienced some very heavy weather on the 22nd and 
23rd March, but found her to be a most beautiful sea boat, and easy, 
never having shipped a drop of water since leaving China, or leaking. 
Her masts and rudder are of immense size and weight, being made 
of iron- wood, her rudder is hung to three large ropes, and drawn into 
her stern by two others, going underneath her bottom and coming 
over the bows, and when the rudder is down draws 23 feet, but when 
hoisted only 13 feet. It sometimes takes twenty men to steer her ; 
but in fine weather, running before the wind, she goes so steady that 
the tiller rarely requires to be touched, and then two men can steer 
her. She is built in compartments, having fifteen, several of which 
are watertight ; she has a main deck, raised quarter-deck, two poops 
and a raised forecastle, with a high verandah above that again ; 
her main deck is arched. Her anchors are made of wood, and the 
shanks about 30 feet long. The cables are made of bamboo, the 
ropes made of bamboo, rattan and grass ; she has three water tanks 
built on her decks ; her sails reef themselves by lowering the hal- 
yards, so that one man to each mast, at the halyards, can either 
reef the sail or take it in in a minute ; her stern and bows are open, 
but she is so very buoyant that she never takes in any water at 
either end. Her main cabin'or saloon is 30 feet long, 25 feet wide, 
and 12 feet high, painted with various birds, beasts, etc. She has 



286 ST. HELENA 

also six small cabins on the first poop, with the joss house in the 
centre, in which a light is constantly kept burning. Her stern is 
32 feet high of the water. 

Her Majesty's steam frigate Penelope 'H. W. Giffard, Esq., 
captain,' bearing the broad pennant of Commodore Sir 
Charles Hotham, K.C.B., Commander-in-Chief of the 
squadron on the West Coast of Africa, arrived in these Roads 
on Monday, 5th inst., with three prizes in company, viz. : 

The Brazilian felucca Saron, captured on the i8th March, 1847. 
The schooner, name and nation unknown, of 52 tons, with 317 slaves, 
captured on 3Oth March, 1847, and Brazilian schooner Joanito, 
captured on 4th April, 1847, which vessels bearing 315 surviving 
slaves were condemned in the Vice-Admiralty Court on Thursday, 
22nd instant. 

The Brazilian schooner Jupiter, captured by H.M. sloop Flying 
Fish, on 3Oth March, 1847, arrived on the 6th instant under the 
charge of Mr. Simpson, Midshipman, this was also condemned on the 
22nd instant ; and the felucca, name and nation unknown, captured 
by the same cruiser on the i7th April, 1846, and run on shore by the 
crew of the vessel, was also pronounced liable to condemnation by 
His Honour the Judge. 

Slave Steamer. 

Information has just been received that a large black steamer, 
brig-rigged mounted with a large traversing gun on her top-gallant 
forecastle, was seen in the River Congo by the boats of H.M.S. Siren. 

On the boats nearing her, with a view to boarding, a shot was fired 
across the steamer's bow, which she returned with round and grape 
from her pivot gun on the forecastle, and another on her 
starboard quarter, but showed no colours ; and although a quick 
fire was kept up from the boats, and every exertion made to get 
alongside, it was without success, owing to the steamer's great speed. 
The boats had the satisfaction, however, of seeing that part of her 
starboard paddle-box and fore-rigging were shot away ; the speed 
of the steamer gave her every advantage of choosing her position, 
as it enabled her to direct her fire on the pinnace from her stern- 
quarter, and forecastle gun, with the greatest precision. The ammu- 
nition in the boats being expended, and the pinnace's gun having 
several times capsized from the boat's pitching, it was found impos- 
sible to board her, and therefore it was deemed hopeless to continue 
the chase ; the boats then stood in for the shore, under a heavy fire 
which the steamer continued to keep up while she was going down 
the river at full speed. The gun on the steamer's forecastle was a 
24-pounder, Grape shot passed through the ensign, and two oars 
were shot away. The men had been forty-six hours on their oars. 
The pinnace was commanded by Senior Lieut. Jackson of the Siren, 
in which was Mr. J. W. Lowe, Master of H.M.S. Hound. The cool 
and determined manner in which the officers and men conducted 
the affair deserves the greatest praise, 



ST. HELENA 287 

VICE- ADMIRALTY COURT. 
4th September , 1848. 

In the Vice- Admiralty Court of this Colony a case has been adjudi- 
cated, which for some time past has been contested. From the 
unusual number of persons present, on judgment being pronounced 
by His Honour William Wilde, Esquire, the Judge of the Court, on 
Monday last, the 4th inst, it seemed to have excited very general 
interest. 

'.. This was the case of a Brazilian schooner named the Bella Maria, 
taken by Her Majesty's brigantine Kestrel, commanded by Lieut. 
Baker, and sent to the Colony for adjudication, as engaged in the 
slave trade. The vessel, by the affidavit of Mr. Winnicott, the 
Prize Officer in charge, appeared to have been detained immediately 
after she had left the harbour of Rio de Janeiro, at a distance of 
about 14 miles from, Santa Crux. She was fitted and provided with 
all the equipments, etc., usually found on vessels engaged in the 
transport of negroes from the African coast, having a slave-deck 
laid, a larger number of shackles, rice, farina, beans, and jerked beef, 
than could possibly have been requisite for the consumption of her 
crew ; a number of mess tins and kids, large boilers and other articles 
employed in that trade. A monition was therefore issued citing the 
Master to appear and show cause why the vessel should not be 
declared to be subject to forfeiture to her Majesty, upon which a 
claim by the Master on behalf of the Owner, with an affidavit in 
support thereof, was filed and Mr. Proctor N. Solomon was retained 
to defend the vessel. The points on which the defence rested were 
four : 

i st. That the vessel when taken was without the jurisdiction of 
the Courts. 

2ndly. That the authority under which the Seizor acted was not 
valid. 

3rdly. That the vessel was not charged with what alone she was 
subject to confiscation for, that of being engaged in the African 
Slave Trade ; and 

4thly. That she was not engaged therein. 

The first and last of these points were the only material ones, the 
other two having been merely technical objections as to whether 
the slave trade and the African slave trade were, in this case, to be 
considered as one ; the treaty under which Brazilian vessels are 
seized extending only to the African slave trade, whil ein the 
authority given by the Admiralty to Lieut. Baker to seize, and the 
charge made against the vessel, the word African was omitted. 

The Queen's Proctor, Mr. Knipe, conducted the suit on the part 
of the Seizor. The following is a very brief and imperfect sketch of 
the clear and elaborate judgment delivered by Judge Wilde on 
decreeing the condemnation of the vessel. His Honour, after going 
through the evidence contained in affidavits filed by the Counsel 
on the day of final hearing, proceeded in the first instance to detail 
the reasons which had induced him to decide that the Bella Maria 
was engaged in the slave trade. This point he considered most 



288 ST. HELENA 

clearly proved by the equipment of the vessel, before detailed ; 
added to her having had a large quantity of arms and ammunition, 
and a greater number of men on board than was necessary to navigate 
a vessel of her size. He, however, remarked that had it been the 
first case of a slaver brought before him for adjudication he should 
have felt great difficulty in deciding that a vessel taken on the south- 
east coast of America, within a few miles of her port of registry, and 
ostensibly bound as appeared by her papers, as was the case of the 
Bella Maria, to Macahe, (a port about 1 50 miles to the northward 
of Rio de Janeiro) was, even though fully equipped in the manner 
described, engaged in the African slave trade, but that after his 
experience of several years as judge, during which time a number 
of Brazilian vessels had been condemned in this Court, fitted out in 
the same manner, and as appeared by an affidavit filed in this cause, 
fourteen since the ist of January this year, four of them with slaves 
on board, and taken on the coast of Africa, though by their papers 
they appeared to have cleared out from Rio de Janeiro for the very 
port in question the port of Macahe he thought very little faith 
could be placed on such papers ; and therefore, since he knew of no 
other slave trade than that of African, (at least in this part of the 
world), he was convinced that the Bella Maria was intended for the 
transport of negroes from that coast, and having actually sailed on 
her destined voyage was when seized engaged in that trade. As to 
the question of the jurisdiction of the Court, the vessel having been 
seized within so short a distance of her own territory, His Honour 
regretted that no precise calculation should have been made of the 
exact position of the vessel at the time of seizure. In the affidavit 
of Mr. Winnicott, supported by that of a seaman of the Kestrel, it 
was laid down as between 4 and 5 miles, whilst in that of the Master 
of the Bella Maria, it was stated to have been made within 2 miles 
of the island of Raza, lying off the mouth of the Rio harbour. By 
reference to the extract from the log of the Kestrel, aided by data 
taken from Mr. Winnicott's affidavit, His Honour remarked he was 
of opinion the distance was slightly within 3 miles of Raza ; but as 
the balance of evidence was in favour of its having been 4 or 5 miles, 
he considered himself bound to decide that the Bella Maria was 
captured on the high seas. His Honour stated his opinion, however, 
that it was a point with which this Court had nothing to do, as the 
Act of Parliament authorized Vice- Admiralty Courts to adjudicate 
upon vessels which had been seized. Had any violation of territory 
been committed it would have been matter for settlement between 
the two Governments. The technical objections were overruled, as 
in no way fatal to the validity of either Lieut. Baker's authority to 
seize Brazilian vessels, or of any of the proceedings which took 
place in the cause. His Honour accordingly pronounced for the 
condemnation and demolition of the vessel. 

Notice of appeal was immediately entered by the claimants' 
Proctor ; but in consequence of his inability to give the necessary 
bail to secure the costs of such appeal, the vessel will be broken up 
and sold, as decreed. 



SERGEANTS, 3RD BUFFS, BROADBOTTOM CAMP. 




GROUP FROM JRD BUFFS, BROADBOTTOM CAMP. 



ST. HELENA 289 

Space will not permit of further accounts, although they 
are full of interest. 

The foreign coins current in St. Helena in 1844 were the 
gold doubloon of Spain, Mexico or South America (3 45.), 
and the silver dollar of Spain, Mexico or South America 
(45. 2d.). 

From the records we find that, although payments to 
the military and civilian servants were expressed in sterling, 
yet sterling coin did not circulate. 

In the seventeenth century the commercial coin was the 
Spanish dollar (or piece of eight). This was rated at 6s., 
but copper money and pieces of eight to the value of 400 
were brought from England in 1673, though dollars or pieces 
of eight must have remained in general use, for we read : 

Fines for non-attendance at Council were : absence, 
J dollar ; second absence, i dollar ; third time, i dollars. 

In 1678 a fine of 4 dollars was imposed for picking lemons, 
and of 2 dollars for throwing rocks into the sea ; and in 1707 
a fine of 6 dollars was paid by Mrs. Clavering to escape 
being " duckt in the sea at the Crane for scandalizing the 
whole island." 

In 1683 figures (" two setts "), engraved in iron from 
i to lo, were sent out to stamp copper money ; these 
stamped coppers were id. the ounce. Obstacles arose 
concerning this copper, and orders were issued in 1687 
that not more than half of any debt should be paid in such 
currency, the remainder was to be paid in coined money. 
In 1708 we find that " Crowns and Spanish pieces of eight 
were to pass at 55. instead of 6s.," but "they maybe paid 
into the store for old debts at 6s." 

The reduction of the value from 6s. to 55. produced a 
disastrous effect on the currency, for in November, 1708, 
it was recorded that " Cash is all gone from the island : in 
selling 800 worth of stores only 7 dollars was received in 
ready money." The explanation given in 1716 is that 
dollars (being worth 20 per cent, more than 55. in Madras) 
could not be kept in the island. After this the colony was 
in considerable straits for a circulating medium, and in 1713 
it petitioned for one whole ton of Chinese money, called 
" Petiese," which would be of advantage here, of the value 
of farthings ; or allowing them to be passed at six for one 

T 



290 ST. HELENA 

penny, there would be a profit of 100 per cent. Then 
again, the island authorities suggested that copper farthings 
should be sent out to pass as pence (this being customary 
in some parts of the West Indies). The pice of Madras 
were not liked 'by the people because they were badly 
shaped. They were worth three to the penny, and were 
very heavy. In 1715 petition was again made for English 
half-pence and farthings, which were sent. We know this, 
for in 1716 small holes were drilled in " dollars and farthings 
to keep them on the island." Paper money was in use in 
1750 ; there were bank bills and cash notes, of the value of 
405., 2os., 55., and 2s. 6d. 

In 1717 the amount of the Government balance was 
700. 480 was in these cash bills, and the remainder was 
100 in " bits," or Spanish rials or reals, valued at j^d. in 
1750. There were also double reals and half reals. 

100 was in fanams or Phenams in 1742, valued at $d ; 
and 100 in copper pice. July 1740 shows a great im- 
provement in circulating medium. 

The items then in the Government balance were as 
under : 

s- <* 

Cash notes . . . . * 300 o o 
Pagodas . . . 6,413 @ 9/- . . 2885 17 o 

(These were the standard gold coins of Madras. 
Dollars . . 1,140 @ 5/- . _. 285 o o 
Venetians . 1,234 @ io/- . . 617 o o 
(Venetian sequin, or chicken, e.g. Chicks of India.) 
Madras Rupees 1,525 @ 2/3 . ."" 171 n 3 
Ducatoons .. 146 @ 6/- . . % 43 16 o 
Small money ... o 4 io 

4,303 9 i 

Moriscoes are first mentioned in 1742 ; also Half St. 
Thomas and gold gubbers, reckoned at 6s. each. There 
were also gold rupees at 305., and Dudoes, is. 2d. French 
copper money came into use about 1750, valued at 2d. each. 
In 1750 the Government balance in treasury is given 
in pieces of gold bullion : 

Venetians. Ryals. 

Gold rupees, French pieces, and 

Pagodas, Cash notes. 

Dollars, 



ST. HELENA 



291 



In 1760 gold rupees and ryals are not mentioned, and 
no alteration is mentioned in value of silver, for, after this, 
the treasury balance is written only as " Specie " and 
" Cash notes." 

But St. Helena was in the direct homeward track of 
vessels from India and, as many Anglo-Indians settled 
here, it formed, although so far off, a part of the Indian 
currency area, and the gold coins of the island were pagodas 
and Venetians. During the exile here of Napoleon, 
naturally French money was current. Still Indian money, 
especially the pagoda, was the chief circulating medium. 

In 1819 the coins were rated as under : 

Doubloons 
Mohurs . 
Napoleon 
Venetian 
Star pagoda 
Porto novo 
Ducatoon 
Spanish dollar 
German crown 
- French crown 
Sicca rupee 

And to prevent their being sent off the island they were 
taken by the treasury in payment for goods, etc., at 7 per 
cent, above their prices. But even this did not avail, for 
in 1818 the Company had to import 50,000 in dollars. In 
1821 the Company struck a copper half -penny, and cont- 
templated, it is thought, a silver coinage, for patterns of a 
half-crown of 1823 are known, and of a shilling of 1833. 
Small coin was scarce, and all small copper coins, even 
farthings, were counted as halfpence, which latter coin is 
still the St. Helena minimum. 

In 1823 values of coinage were determined by the Gover- 
nor and Council as under : 



i 


s. 


d. 


3 


13 


6 


i 


12 


8 





16 


10 





9 


2 





7 


6 


o 


6 


3 





5 


7 





4 


8 


o 


4 


8 





4 


2 





2 


I 



Spanish and American dollars 

(The Maria Therese dollar still in use 

in Africa and Abyssinia.) 
Doubloons ..... 
Jose Portuguese .... 
(With star) Bengal mohurs 
Bombay and other mohurs 



s. d. 
4 6 



10 

15 

ii 

8 



2 9 2 ST. HELENA 

5. d. 

Moidores . , .;'.-,: . .126 

Louis d'or and Napoleons . o 16 2 

Venetians . . * . v . . .090 
Star pagodas . ._ , -., . .072 
Porto novo pagodas . ^ . . .059 
American dollars, German and French crowns 040 
Bengal sicca rupees . ._ ' .020 

Bombay and all other rupees . . . o i 10 
Ducatoons . . . . , .054 
British 3/- tokens ... . o 2 8 

Johannes 4/- pieces . . . v ~- o 3 9 
Dutch and Ceylon guilders and Rix dollars .016 
Colonial pieces . . . . 023 

(The anchor ^-dollar coined in 1822 for 

Mauritius) 

All lod. pieces . . . . .009 
Old English and all other shillings , -, o o 9 
Old English and all other sixpences . --; 004 

We read in the St. Helena record that no change was 
made in the rating up to 1829, but in 1830 the Spanish 
dollar was again reduced to 45. 2d. and the doubloon to 
3 45. This was the actual sterling value elsewhere, and 
in this year the ratings fixed by the Governor and Council 
were : 

i s. d. i s. d. 

Doubloons .340 Venetians v . o 9 o 

Jose . . i 12 o Star pagodas . .070 

With star) Bengal Porto novo pagodas 054 

mohurs . . i 12 o Ducatoons . .052 

Other mohurs . .190 3 -guilder pieces .046 

Moidores . .150 Dollars Spanish and 

Napoleons and Louis American . .042 

d'or . . o 15 o 
i o-guilder pieces . o 15 o 

s. d. 

Dollars, United States . . o 3 10 

5-franc piece . . . . ,. . o 3 10 

Half-star pagodas . * . . .036 
Colonial pieces (English coined) . .023 

Sicca rupees (Star) . ;. . .020 

Other rupees . . ; 'V . . o i 10 

Dutch guilders f . , ,, . . .016 

2-franc pieces. . v . . . o i 10 

This rate was in effect in 1834, when the Imperial Govern- 
ment took charge of the island. In name the currency was 



ST. HELENA 293 

sterling, but when treasury money was handed over by 
the Company's officers in March, 1836, the whole of it was in 
Spanish dollars. It was supposed that this was managed 
in order to get the 2d. extra on each dollar, as in the follow- 
ing proclamation : - 

As the correct value of the dollar (45. 2d.) clashed with 
the incorrect (Imp) rating, and as other ratings were also 
at variance with existing Treasury regulations for military 
pay, The Secretary of State ordered, in October, 1835, 
that- 
All receipts and payments on behalf of Government should be 
in British currency, or in foreign coins at regulated military rate. 
This led to the retrograde proclamation by the Governor, February, 
1836, when 

GOLD SILVER s. d. 

Doubloons were valued Ducatoons @ . .054 

@ . .360 3-guilder pieces .048 

Jose Portuguese . i 13 3 Dollars . . .044 
Bengal mohurs (star) i 13 3 Half-star pagodas .038 
Other mohurs . i 10 2 Colonial pieces (Eng- 

Moidores . .160 lish coined) . .024 

Napoleons and Louis Sicca Rupee star .021 

d'or . . . o 15 7 Other rupees . i n o 

Venetians . .094 Dutch guilders .016 
Star pagodas . -073 5 -Franc pieces .040 
Porto novo . .056 Franc . . .0010 

There was such a variety of coin on the island that mer- 
chants, when applying to the commissariat for bills on 
London, seldom knew what coins they had, and Ducatoons, 
rupees, francs, etc., etc., etc., were all mingled. They were 
many short of the right weight even, but that did not 
prevent their circulation. 

In 1843 a proclamation was issued by Order in Council 
that the dollar was to be 45. 2d., the doubloons 645., and 
all other non-sterling coins to be de-monetized. These 
were exchanged for British silver by the commissariat 
officer to the amount of nearly 12,000, the money being 
shipped to England and sold as bullion. 

Dollars still at 45. 2d. here were valued at 35. 8d. at the 
Cape. So they began to pour into St. Helena. This 
caused an ordinance to be passed that the dollar should be 
valued at 45. 2d. for only three days after date. Conse- 
quently the dollars were all paid in. And now it was 



294 ST. HELENA 

decided that the doubloon was unnecessary. Trade rela- 
tions were chiefly with England and the Cape, and a 405. 
limit was imposed on silver, with is. limit on bronze, and 
the gold, silver and bronze coins of England are now the 
legal tender of the Colony. 

There are no banks except the Government, and no 
paper money, so the treasury has its money in gold, and the 
Colonial Government issues bills at 55. Sd. and i per cent, 
instead of P.0.0. as formerly, which could only be obtained 
for 10. 

Money orders may, however, still be obtained. No 
foreign coins are in circulation ; if we except the time when 
foreign gunboats are at anchor or the months when whalers 
are in port. During the latter time American money 
circulates, but it quickly disappears when the vessels leave 
port. 

GOVERNORS OF ST. HELENA. 

From the first possession by the English East India Company, 
1657, with the dates on which they assumed the Government. 
Button 
Stringer 

Swallow . . From 1657 to 1672. 

Coney 
Bennett 
Beale 

The island taken by the Dutch 1672 "Dyke" is supposed to be 
the name of the Dutch officer who held the Government until the 
island was retaken by Sir Richard Munden 7th May, 1673. 
Sir Richard Munden . . May 1673 

Capt. Richard Kegwin . . May 1673 

Capt. Gregory Field . . May 1674 

Major John Blackmore, died ist 

December, 1690, by a fall 

from Putty Hill . . . June 19 1678 

Capt. Joshua Johnston, shot by 

a mutineer 2ist April, 1693 . December i 1690 
Capt. Richard Keeling, died 3oth 

November, 1697 . . April 22 1693 

Capt. Stephen Poirier, died 3rd 

September, 1707 . . . November 30 1697 
Capt. Thomas Goodwin (acting) September 8 1707 
Capt. John Roberts . . August 24 1708 

Capt. Benjamin Boucher . . August 7 1711 
Capt. Matthew Bazett (acting). June 28 1714 

Capt. Isaac Pik . . . July 8 1714 



ST. HELENA 



Edw. Johnson, Esq., died i6th 
February, 1723 . 

Edw. Byfield, Esq., (acting) . 

Capt. John Smith . 

Edw. Byfield, Esq. (a second 
time) .... 

Capt. Isaac Pike (a second time) 
died 28th July, 1738 . 

John Goodwin, Esq., died Au- 
gust, 1740 .... 

Duke Crisp, Esq. (acting) 

Robert Jenkins, Esq. 

Major Thomas Lambert, died 
9th July, 1742 . 

George G. Powell, Esq. (acting) 

Colonel Daird Dunbar 

Charles Hutchinson, Esq. 

John Shottowe, Esq. 

Daniel Corneille, Esq 

Colonel Robert Brooke . 

Lieut. -Colonel Francis Bobson 
(acting) .... 

Colonel Robert Patton . 

Lieut. -Col. William Lane (acting) 

Major-General Alexander Beat- 
son . I . 

Colonel Mark Wilks 

Lieut.-General Sir Hudson 
Lowe, K.C.B. 

Thomas Henry Brooke, Esq. 
(acting) .... 

Brigadier-General Alexander 
Walker .... 

Thomas Henry Brooke, Esq. (a 
second time acting) 

Brigadier- General Charles Dallas 

Major-General George Middle- 
more, C.B. .... 

Colonel Hamelin Trelawney 
(died 3rd May, 1846) . 

Lieut. -Colonel G. C. Fraser 
(acting) . . . 

Lieut. -Colonel J. Ross (acting) 

Major-General Sir Patrick Ross, 
G.C.M.G., K.C.B., died 28th 
August, 1850 

Lieut. -Colonel Clarke (acting) . 
Col. Sir Thomas Gore Brown, 

K.C.M.G., C.B. . 
Col. H. N. Vigors (acting) 



295 



June 


13 1719 


February 


16 1723 


May 


28 1723 


February 


26 1727 


March 


24 1731 


July 


28 1738 


August 


1740 


May 




March 


22 1742 


July 


20 1742 


March 


ii 1744 


March 


14 1747 


March 


10 1764 


July 


15 1782 


June 


22 1787 


July 


13 1801 


March 


ii i 802 


July 


13 1807 


July 


4 1808 


August 


12 1813 


August 


14 1816 


July 


25 1821 


March 


ii 1823 


April 


14 1828 


April 


29 1828 


February 


24 1836 


January 


6 1842 


May 


4 1846 


July 


18 1846 


November 23 1846 


August 


28 1850 


July 


18 1851 


December 


15 1854 



296 



ST. HELENA 



October 10 1856 



1863 
1870 
1870 



Sir E. H. Drummond Hay, Kt. 
Admiral Sir Charles Elliott, 

K.C.B. . . . . July 3 

Hudson Ralph Janisch (acting) January 29 
Vice- Admiral C. G. E. Patey . February 4 
Hudson Ralph Janisch, Esq., 

C.M.G. 
Lieut.-Colonel Grant Blunt,R.E, 

(acting) . . . 1884 

W. Gray Wilson (acting) . ; 1887 

R. L. An trobus (acting) . , 1889 

W. Grey Wilson, C.M.G. . ,- 1890 

Robert Armitage Sterndale, 

C.M.G June 7 1897 

Lieut.-Col. Julian Penrhyn 
Evans (acting during absence 

of Governor) ... 1901 

Colonel Price, C.M.G. (acting 
during absence and after 
death of Governor Sterndale, 

October 3, 1902) . . . 1902 

Lieut.-Col. Gallway. C.M.G., 

D.S.O November 1902 

Robert Armitage Sterndale, C.M.G., died of heart failure on the 
3rd of October, 1902, at the age of sixty-three. 

He saw service in India during the Mutiny, and afterwards entered 
the Indian Civil Service. From December, 1895, to J u ty> 1896, he 
administered the Government of St. Helena during the absence of 
W. Grey Wilson, Esq. Appointed Governor and Commander-in- 
Chief in 1897, he was in England on sick leave at the time of his 
death. He was the author of several books. Mammals of India, 
An Afghan Knife, etc. 



CIVIL ESTABLISHMENT, 1902-1903, 



1902. Governor and Commander-in-Chief, also Colonial Secretary, 
His Ex. Robert A. Sterndale (deceased), C.M.G. 

1903. Governor and Commander-in-Chief, also Colonial Secretary, 
His Ex. H. L. Gallwey, C.M.G., D.S.O. 

Members of Council : 
Thomas Julian Penhryn Evans, Senior Military Officer in command 

of troops (succeeded by Col. Price). 
Honble. Col. Price, O.C.T. (During August, September, and 

October acting Governor, during absence and after death of 

H.E. Governor Sterndale.) 
Honble. G. H. Mosse, sworn in September, 1897, 
Honble, H. Bovell, sworn in August, 1898. 




THE LATE ROBERT ARMITAGE STERNDALE, C.M.G. 
(Governor of St. Helena from June, 1897, to October, 1902.) 



ST. HELENA 297 

SECRETARIAL DEPARTMENT. 
1903. 
Chief Clerk . . E. H. Merivale Drury, Bar- 

rister-at-Law. 
1902. 

Chief Clerk . . . R. R. Bruce, Esq. 
2nd Clerk . . .A. Hands, Esq. 
Harbour Master . . R. R. Bruce, Esq. 

RECEIVER GENERAL'S DEPARTMENT. 
Superintendent . . J. Homagee, Esq. 
2nd Officer . . . S. Cullen. 
Landing Waiter . . J. Boyd. 
Assistant Landing Waiter . T. Clayton. 

SURVEYOR AND COLONIAL ENGINEER DEPARTMENT. 
Colonial Engineer . . His Excellency the Governor. 
Clerk of Works . . Mr. T. Broadway. 
Naval Agent . . . R. R. Bruce, Esq. 

POST OFFICE. 

Postmaster . . . Mr. R. T. Bruce. 
Clerk . . . .Mr. Edwin Grant. 

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT. 

Colonial Surgeon . . Colonel Mosse, R.A.M.C. 

Sanitary Inspector . . Mr. C. Cottrell. 
Lady Superintendent of 

Hospital . . . Miss Williams. 

Nurse .... Miss F. Lindon Saunders. 

Nurse .... Miss Wrigley. 

Nurse .... Miss Dando. 

REGISTRAR'S OFFICE. 
Registrar and Shipping 

Master . . . Mr. C. Bruce. 

Emigration Agent . . Mr. R. R. Bnice. 

GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS. 
Town Boys . . . Mr. Brady. 
Town Girls . . . Miss Short. 
Town Infants . . . Miss Harris. 
Country School . . Mr. J. A. Stover. 

JUDICIAL ESTABLISHMENT. 

Chief Justice (deceased} . His Excellency R. A. Stern- 
dale, Esq., C.M.G. 
Chief Prosecutor, Clerk of 

the Peace . . . J. Homagee, Esq. 
Sheriff .... R. G. Short, Esq. 
Coroner . . . . W. A. Thorpe, Esq. 
Colonial Chaplain . . Rev. Canon Porter, 



298 ST. HELENA 



POLICE COURT. 

Police Magistrate and Clerk 
of Summary Court . J. Homagee, Esq. 

Inspector of Police . . Mr. C. Cottrell. 

Policemen . . . W. Kennedy, J. Smith, A. 

Hall, N. Constantine, 
E. Pagan, J. Moyee, J. 
Thomas, G. Sylvestre. 

COURT OF COMMISSIONERS. 
SHERIFF'S OFFICE. 

Sheriff . . . . R. G. Short. 
Justices of the Peace 

GAOL. 

Gaoler , . . . C. Cottrell. 
Matron . . .A. Cottrell. 

SAVINGS BANK. 

Manager . . . J. Homagee, Esq. 

The island forms one Diocese under Bishop Holmes. 

CHURCHES. 

ANGLICAN. 

Priest in Charge. 

St. James', Jamestown . Canon Porter. 

St. John's, . Rev. H. Gibbons. 

St. Paul's, Western Division Services taken by Bishop 

Holmes. 

St. Matthew's, Eastern 
Division . . . Canon Hands. 

ROMAN CATHOLIC. 
Military Chapel, Jamestown Rev. Father Daine. 

BAPTIST. 

Chapel Jamestown . . Rev. T. Aitken. 
Knollecombe 

Sandy Bay . 

High Peak, West. 

The Eastern Telegraph Company laid their cable between St, 
Helena and the Cape . . November 24, 1899. 
Between St. Helena and 

Ascension . . , December 15, 1899. 
JTariff Europe . . ; 37- (per word). 
East Coast of Africa 6/3 
,, South Coast of Africa 2/2 ,, 
Ascension , .1/2 
Government messages half rate. 



ST. HELENA 299 

LOCAL INSTITUTIONS, ETC. 

WIDOWS' AND ORPHANS' FUND OR SOCIAL SOCIETY. 
Established, November 18, 1845. 

Objects. To raise from time to time by subscriptions among the 
members or by voluntary contributions, or by donations, a stock or 
fund for the benefit of the widows and orphans of the members and 
a Burial Allowance for the members. The Society is under the 
management of a Committee, consisting of a President, Treasurer, 
Secretary, and four other members, three of whom retire annually 
by rotation, but are eligible for re-election. 

A general meeting to be held quarterly, when the accounts are 
submitted for inspection. 

The anniversary of the Society is held on the i8th November, on 
which occasion the members attend Divine Service. 

BENEVOLENT SOCIETY, 

Founded in 1814. 

Patron .... His Excellency the Governor. 
Vice-Patrons . . . The Honble. Members of 

Council. 

President . . . The Bishop. 
Committee . . . Rev. Canon A. Porter, Rev. 

Harry Gibbons, Mr. H. 
W. Solomon, Mr. Thos. C. 
Barker, Mr. G. Liddy. 
Hon. Secretary and Trea- 
surer .... Mr. T. Broadway. 
Clerk . . . . Mr. H. J. Broadway. 
Mistress of Town School . Miss Burchill. 
Mistress of Country School Miss Barker. 

The capital in the year 1883 was ^3,000 but it is greatly diminished, 
and is, according to the report issued in 1901, ^1,887 os. rod. 

PUBLIC MARKET. 

This was opened to the public in May, 1865, under ordinance 
No. 5 of 1865. 

The Committee of Management is elected at an Annual General 
Meeting of the inhabitants convened by the Sheriff, and held in 
the Market each year in the month of May, and is composed of five 
members, of whom three form a quorum and two retire annually. 
This Committee has the power to frame Bye-Laws and Regulations 
for the proper conduct and management of the Market and to 
impose rents, dues and charges subject to the approval of the 
Governor. They appoint a market clerk and apportion the stalls, 
benches, and public space in the market. 

LIBRARY. 

The Public Library is in the Government Gardens and contains 
a nuaiber of valuable books of reference. Under the present 



300 ST. HELENA 

control it is well managed and a good supply of periodicals and 
literature kept up. It is, however, very badly supported by the 
inhabitants, of whom only ten are yearly subscribers. 

There is also a good lending library and reading rooms in con- 
nexion with the Pharmacy, Main Street. 

HOSPITALS. ONE CIVIL, ONE MILITARY. 

The Jamestown Civil Hospital is supported by Government, 
and by a fund placed in charge of trustees by Major Prenderville, 
late St. Helena Regiment. In 1869 the sum of 325 was paid 
by the above trustees to the Colonial Government for enlarging 
the female wards of the Hospital, on condition that patients could 
be admitted by them to the Hospital free of all charge to the extent 
of 650 diets annually. 

Rates of Admission. 

Labourers . . . . i/- per day. 

Paupers gd. per day. 

Seamen if- per day. 

Prenderville Patients . . . Free. 

Master mariners and private patients, 
exclusive of wines and spirits . io/- per day. 

PRESENT HOSPITAL STAFF. 

Miss Williams . . Lady Superintendent. 

Miss Dando . . . Nurse. 

Miss F. Lindon Saunders 

Miss Wrigley . . . 

In 1901 the numbers admitted were : Males, 60 ; females, 54. 

MILITARY TELEGRAPHS. 

Jamestown, Munden's Point, Solomon & Co. Office, 

Ladder Hill, Station Hospital, Deadwood, 

High Knoll, White Gate, Longwood, 

Prosperous Bay, Munden's Hill, Princes Lodge, 

Woodlands, R.E. Office, Jamestown Barracks, 

S. W. Point, R.G.A. Office, 

Constructed by the Imperial Government with a contribution 
of 400 from the Colonial Government, and worked by the Royal 
Engineer Department. Sixty-four miles of line, military included. 

COMMON GAOL. 

In looi. Committed sixty-four, viz. Men, twenty-two. Women, 
thirty-four. Juveniles, eight. 

In this goal the sexes are kept separate, and persons placed in 
separate cells, when practicable. There are three wards, into 
which open eight cells, all secured. The labour given is, for males, 
on the Public Works, such as cleaning streets, and sanitary work 
under Colonial Engineer ; for females, cooking, cleaning, washing 
etc., etc. The profit of their labour is paid into the Colonial Trea- 
sury. 



ST. HELENA 



301 



Cost of the prison in 1901 was ^152 135. nd. Prisoners are 
allowed nine hours sleep, with lighted dormitories, visited at un- 
certain hours. The chaplain is generally the Vicar of S. James', 
and prisoners attend divine service on Sundays. Prisoners of 
Roman Catholic or Dissenting persuasion are allowed their own 
ministers. 

Prisoners on hard labour have full diet. 

Prisoners without hard labour a reduced diet, solitary confine- 
ment. Rice and water. 

No deaths occurred in 1901. Health very good. 

AGRICULTURE. 
Forty-seven Square Miles. 

ACRES. 

Cultivation . . . about 1,133^ 

Pasture . . 7,650 V 30,000 

Waste ... 21,217) 

Estimated average of lands, gardens, 

and Orchards . . . 575 

Forests and Trees . . 558 

Pasture ... . 7,151 j. 30,300 

Barren . . . . .1,816 

Crown Waste .... 2O,2OOj 



MASONIC LODGES. 1902. 
THE ST. HELENA LODGE, No. 488, E.C, 



W.M. 

I.P.M. 

S.W. 

J.W. 

Treasurer 

Secretary 

S.D. 

J.D. 

D.C. 

Organist 

1.6. 

Steward 

Tyler 



Bro. Lieut. W. F. Box. 
Wor. Bro. George Finch, 
Bro. Herbert Jameson. 
,, Francis N. Reed. 
Wor. Bro. T. L. M. Adams. 
Bro. Arthur W. Pegge. 
Mclntyre. 

John McCullough. 

P. Fellows. 

Major Horniblow. 

W. Kirkdale. 

A. Joshua. 

P. Truebody. 



THE OLD ROCK LODGE, No. 912, E.C. 

W.M Wor. Bro. A. L. Innes. 

I.P.M Bro. G. T. Craik. 

S.W. .... Bro. Lieut. J. McCullough. 

J.W. . R. M. George. 

Treasurer . . . T. Clayton. 

Secretary . A. Godwin. 

Organist Maj. F. Horniblow. 



302 ST. HELENA 

D.C. . . . . Bro. F. R. Mclntyre. 

S.D. . . . .'-; C. W. Tyler. 

J.D. - . . . . A. W. Pegge, 

I.G W. G. Sturgess. 

GOOD TEMPLARS. 

Established at Saint Helena October 10, 1889. 

C.D.G.C.T. and S.T.T. . Bro. J. Williams. 

C.T. . . . . W. Hayes. 

V.T Sis. M. Williams. 

Secretary and A.S.J.T. . J. Spratt. 

Treasurer . . . Bro. J. Williams. 

P.C.T W. Whittingsteel. 

D.T W. Wilson. 

Number of members, sixty. 
Self-supported by members' subscriptions* 
Meetings held twice in every week. 

MECHANICS' AND FRIENDLY BENEFIT SOCIETY. 

Established November 10, 1838. 

Capital, 800. 
Committee : (1902) 

President . . . Mr. T. M. Adams. 

Secretary . . . Mr. Jas. Williams. 

Treasurer . . Mr. R. Adams. 

Committee-man . . . Mr, J. Richards. 
... Mr. T. Le Breton. 

. . . . Mr. T. George. 
. . Mr. T. Duncan. 

Number of members, ninety-seven, 

POOR SOCIETY. 

Established August 19, 1847. 

Capital, 5,783 ?s. tf. 
Committee (1902) : 

President . . .Mr. A. S. Brady. 

Secretary . . . Mr. F. J, Broadway, 

Treasurer . . .Mr. T. M. Adams. 

Committee-men . . . Mr. Rich. 

; Mr. W. Spratt. 
... Mr. J. E. Watson. 
* . Mr. W. Burton. 

Number of members, 780. 
Relief issued yearly is 170. 

Burial allowances range from 8 to 14 according to term of 
membership. 



ST. HELENA 33 

ANCIENT ORDER OF FORESTERS. 

Established at St. Helena December 12, 1871. 

Officers (1902) : 

Chief Ranger . . Bro. Shoesmith. 

Sub. Chief Ranger 
Secretary 
Treasurer 

Senior .... 
Junior .... 
Senior Beadle 
Junior 
Trustees 



A. S. Brady, P.C.R. 
T. M. Adams. 
Thomas. 
J. Rich. 
. Fowler. 

Bennett. 

E. Jameson, P.C.R. 
J. E. Watson, P.C.R. 
E. J. Warren. 



WORKING MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION. 

Established February 6, 1873. 

Capital, 663. 
Committee (1902) : 

President . . . Mr. W. Harrison, sen. 

Vice-President . . . Mr. J. E. Watson. 
Secretary . . . Mr. I. Boyd. 

Treasurer . . . Mr. G. Greentree. 

Committee men . . . Mr. I. Williams. 

. . . . Twelve Stewards. 
Number of members, 492. 

CHURCH PROVIDENT SOCIETY FOR WOMEN. 

Established March 16, 1878. 

Capital, 104. 
Committee (1902) : 

President . . . Rev. Canon Porter. 

Secretary . . . Mr. A. J. Young. 

Treasurer . . . Mr. A. S. Brady. 

Committee-man . . . Mr. T. Bennett. 
... Mr. R. Henry. 

. . . Mr. J. George. 

... Mr. W. Burton. 

Number of members. 26 

CHILDREN'S BENEFIT SOCIETY. 

Established December 28, 1887. 

Capital, 147 35. $d. 

Committee (1902) : 

President . . . Rev. Canon Porter. 

Secretary . . . Miss E. Short. 

Treasurer . . . Mr, J. E. Watson, 



304 ST. HELENA 

Associates ^ . . Miss M. Burchill. 

. . . Miss G. Moss. 

--. ,-;v . Miss E. Barker. 

' . Mr. T. Clayton. 

. Mr. A. G. Broadway. 

. ' . Mr. J. Sim. 
Number of members, 180. 

Weekly subscription, id. Relief weekly, 2/- each member. 
Burial allowance, 3. 

POOR RELIEF BOARDS. 

Elected (Easter, 1902) : 

Chairman . . . ' . Mr. H. Solomon. 
<..-. * . Mr. H. Jameson. 

. .: . Mr. E. Thorpe. 
,, . . . . S. P. Young. 
. . . Mr. T. Bennett. 

Overseer of poor . . Mr. J. E. Watson. 
Assistant do. . v . Mr. C. Grant. 

Medical Officer . /' , Lt.-Col. MosJse, R.A.M.C. 

Keeper of Asylum . . Mr. J. Fowler. 
Matron . . Mrs. J. Fowler. 

Matron of Poor House . Miss H. Mortimer. 
Number of lunatics, seven. 
Number of inmates of Poor House, thirty-two. 
Supported by Rates levied on Proprietors. 
Out-door relief averages between ^25 to ^30 per quarter. 
Medical attendance and medicines supplied to all poor people, 
also burial and hospital treatment. 

CONSULS AND CONSULAR AGENTS RESIDENT AT ST. 

HELENA. 

America, United States R. P. Pooley, Esq. 
Denmark . . H. W. Solomon, Esq. (Acting). 
France . . L. Morilleau, Esq. 

Germany . : . H. W. Solomon (Acting). Esq. 
Netherlands . . H. W. Solomon, Esq. 
Portugal v . H. W. Solomon, Esq. (Acting). 
Russia . . H. W. Solomon, Esq., Vice- 

Consul (Acting). 

Spain . . L. Morilleau, Esq. 

Sweden and Norway H. W. Solomon Esq. (Acting). 

RATES OF LABOUR. 

Labouring hands, per day, about 2/- to 4/- without food. 
Mechanics, about 3/- to 6/-. 
Servants from about ^10 to 24 a year. 



ST. HELENA 305 

CENSUS TAKEN, APRIL 7, 1901. 

MALES. FEMALES. CHILDREN. 

Jamestown . . . 687 . 88 1 
Country . . . 847 . 927 

Garrison . . . 1,428 . 35 . 69 
Shipping ... 320 

Prisoners of war . . 4,655 
Population : 9,850. 

BIRTHS, MARRIAGES AND DEATHS. 

Births . . . . . . . .129 

Marriages 39 

Deaths 125 



The number of vessels calling at the port with Cargo during : 
1901 was . . . . . . .82 

1900 53 

1899 44 

ROADS. 

Country, maintained by Imperial Government 60 miles. 
Town, maintained by Colonial Government, about 2^ miles. 

NEWSPAPER. 
" ST. HELENA GUARDIAN." 
Circulation weekly .... 290 copies. 



The Military Staff in 1902 consisted of : 
His Excellency the Go- 
vernor and Commander 
in Chief . . . R. A. Sterndale, Esq., now 

deceased. 

Aide-de-Camp . . Lord Guernsey. 
Private Secretary . A. Hands, Esq. 

O.C. Troops . . Col. A. J. Price, C.M.G., 

Acting Governor after July. 

Aide-de-Camp . . W. P. B. Eraser, 3rd Wilts. 
Garrison Adjutant . Capt. W. H. C. Davy 
O. C. Royal Artillery . Major C. C. Wiseman Clarke. 
O. C. Royal Engineers Lieut. E. M. Jack, R.E. 
Senior Medical Officer . Lieut.-Col. C. D. D. Mosse, 

R.A.M. Corps. 

Chief Ordnance Officer . Lieut. J. Nicholson. 
District Paymaster (Act- 
ing) . . . . Lt. T. S. M. Hardinge, 

R.G.A. 

O.C. Army Service Corps Maj. F. Horniblow, A.S.C. 

U 



306 



ST. HELENA 



Capt. Fisher. 

Lieut. H. J. Garden, R.G.A. 



Broadbottom 



Manchester Regt., 
3rd Batt. Buffs . 



Command : Prisoners of 

War, Deadwood Camp Lieut.-Col. J. W. Hind. 
Command : Prisoners of 

War, Broadbottom Camp Lieut.-Col. H. O. P. Wright 
O.C. Prisoners of War, 

Jamestown 
Camp Quarter-Master, 

Deadwood 
Camp Quarter-Master, 

. Lieut, and Qr.-Mr. Mc- 
Cullough, the King's 
(Liverpool Rt.) 
. Lieut.-Col. J. P. Gethin 
. Col. T. Brinckman. 
. Capt. J. Walker. 

Lieuts. Mouillet and Black- 
a , ., 

hall. 

. 2nd Lieuts. Wells, Bentley, 

Wisder. 
. Major and Adjutant R. 

Bayard. 

. Capt. and Qr.-Mr. Cumber. 
Lieutenants M. H. Coode, 
A. H. P. Pepper, W. P. B. 
Fraser, F. H. Booke. 
. 2nd Lieuts. C. B. Long, 
D. J. Johnson, R. G. H. 
Challoner; H. C. C. 
Reynolds, F. H. Bailey, 
Lord Guernsey, Attached 
Capt. E. P. Lewis, 2nd 
Volunteer Batt. Wilt- 
shire Regiment. 

Relieved 4th Battalion Glos'ter Regiment, 8th July, 1901 
In 1901 and 1900 the forces were : 

Medical Staff . . Dr. Arnold, M.D., Lloyd 

Roe. 
The King's Own Yorkshire 



Light Infantry 
2nd Glos'ter Regt. 

Royal Berks Regt. 
3 rd Wilts Regt. . 



Lieut. A. R. Keppel. 
Lieuts. Baker, Law, Inglis 

Phelps. 

Lieut. A. H. Bathurst. 
Col. E. C. A. Sanford. 
Lieut.-Col. Barclay. 
Captains C. H. Stillwell, 

C. W. Spiller, F. R. 

Cockburn, J. P. H. 

Winterscale. 
Major and Adjutant L. H. 

Warden. 



ST. HELENA 307 

3rd Wilts Regt. . . Lieut, and Quarter-Master 

G. Pepper. 
97th Company, R.G.A. Captain Galway. 

Lieuts. Page and Watson. 

3rd Batt. Sussex relieved 3rd Buffs. 
3rd Sussex Regt. . Major Clarke. 

. Captains Hurst, Clark, Pa- 

pillon. 

. . Lieuts. Parkin, Bidder, Ot- 
ter, De St. Croise, Val- 
lentin, Nicholson. 

,, . . 2nd Lieuts. Sandeman, 

Winter, Meller Powys 
Lybbe, North, Bell. 

Capt. and Adj. Aldridge. 

,, Lieut, and Qr.-Mr. Pearce. 

Relieved detachments of Glos'ters, Berks, Yorkshire Light 
Infantry. 

3rd Batt. Middlesex Regt. Lieut.-Col. E. V. Bellers. 
Majors Longe, Bennett, 

Stephenson. 
,, ,, Captains Fisher, Abell, 

Davy, Thompson. 

,, Lieut. Cunningham. 

2nd Lieuts. Trafford, 

Cloete, Wienholt, Large, 
Phillips, Rowe, Hill, Drew. 

,, Lieut, and Qr.-Mr. Tulcher. 

84th Company R.G.A. . Major Wiseman Clarke. 
. Captain Bellairs. 

,, . . Lieuts. Hardinge, Hall, 

Larmour. 

43rd Comp. Royal Engin. Captain Michie. 
Lieut. Jack. 

Lieut, and Qr.-Mr. Mclntyre. 

4th Batt. Glos'ter Regt. Lieut. Col.-Earl Bathurst. 
,, ,, Major (Hon. Lieut.-Col.) 

A. L. Paget. 

,, Major (Hon. Lieut.-Col.) 

Goodlake. 

Capt.-Adj. J. S. Hobbs. 
Capt. Quarter-Master B.N. 

Spragett. 

Captains J. D. Gouldsmith, 

C. H. Harding, W. J. P. 
Marling, C. Capel, Hon. 

B. Bathurst, M.P. Wink- 
field. 

Lieuts. H. Hicks-Beach, 

J, B. W, Robinson. 



308 ST. HELENA 

4th Batt. Glos'ter Regt.2nd Lieuts. R. H. Pollen, 

C. H. Smith, R. C. Hop- 
kinson, C. E. Limbecke, 
F. C. Ingham, Inglis, 
Ponsonby and Marsham 
Townsend. 

,, Sergeant-Major Adkins. 

Qr.-Mr. Sergt. Vince. 

MILITIA. 

There is no Militia Regiment in existence, but the Governor of 
St. Helena may call out and embody upon any pressing emergency 
wherein the safety and security of the colony may be involved 
all and every male inhabitant of the said island between the ages 
of fifteen and fifty-five, as the local Militia of the island, and at 
all times when it may seem expedient to him so to do, the Governor 
may enrol a certain number of the inhabitants not exceeding 360, 
in all, to serve as the Local Militia. The force enrolled may be 
required to parade for drill not more than twelve times in each 
year, and will not be entitled to any pay or allowance on such 
occasions. Recruits are entitled to 1/6 per day when being taught 
their exercise. If called and embodied for permanent duty, the 
Local Militia will be entitled to the same pay and allowances as 
officers, non-commissioned officers and soldiers of His Majesty's 
Army. There has been no enrolment of the force since 1874. The 
act in force for regulating the Militia is Ordinance No. 2, of 1874, 
entitled, " An Ordinance to amend and consolidate the Laws relat- 
ing to the Local Militia." 

VOLUNTEER SHARPSHOOTERS. 

Commandant . His Excellency the Governor. 

Captain . ., J. Deacon. 

Lieutenant . . A. Hands. 
Full force not more than fifty all told. 




TURBULENT BOERS OUTSIDE HIGH KNOLL FORT. 
(Taken after Declaration of Peace.) 




BOERS ON PARADE BEING ADDRESSED BY THE GOVERNOR. 



TRISTAN D'ACUNHA. 

TRISTAN D'ACUNHA is closely associated with St. Helena, 
therefore a short account of it will not be out of place. It 
is one of a group of three islands, Tristan, Nightingale, 
and Inaccessible, in 37 S. lat. 12 W. long., and was taken 
possession of by the British during the residence of Napoleon 
in St. Helena. Upon his death the garrison was withdrawn, 
with the exception of three men, who, with certain ship- 
wrecked sailors, became the founders of the present settle- 
ment. For a long time only one of the settlers had a wife, 
but subsequently the others contracted with a sea captain 
to bring them wives from St. Helena. They are a peaceable 
community ; no drinking is allowed, and there is no crime. 
The inhabitants are spoken of as long lived, healthy, moral, 
religious, and hospitable to strangers. A supply of stores 
and provisions was granted by Parliament in 1885, and 
sent out by a man-of-war, as nearly all the able-bodied men 
had been drowned while attempting to board a vessel. 
It lies 1,200 miles due south of St. Helena and 1,500 miles 
to the west of the Cape, which is the nearest land. This is 
explained by seamen ; for to sail direct to Tristan from St. 
Helena is quite impossible. A vessel has to tack again and 
again to reach her destination. The Peak, 8,325 feet high, 
is covered with snow in winter. On the north side there 
is a good anchorage from twenty to thirty fathoms, and 
generally a safe landing place, while abundance of pure 
water can be obtained. But the sea is at times very rough 
around the island, and ships are unable to get in to land 
either stores or people. During June, July and August 
the island is almost inaccessible. 

The Rev. E. Dodgson (brother of Lewis Carroll), while 
Vicar of St. James', wrote a very amusing letter to the St. ' 
Helena Guardian, which gives an idea of the difficulties he 
had to contend with while resident there as minister. 

309 



310 ST. HELENA 

A SHORT ACCOUNT OF TRISTAN D'ACUNHA. 

A long time to talk of, but a very short time while actually 
passing, for as a general rule the days were almost exactly alike, 
and after a short time the regular routine of work made them pass 
very quickly. The first question which is naturally asked is, 
" Where is Tristan d'Acunha ? " It is one of a group of three, 
Tristan, Nightingale and Inaccessible, lying 1,200 miles due south 
of St. Helena, and 1,500 miles to the west of the Cape, which is the 
nearest land. This sounds like a paradox, but it is perfectly true. 
I leave it to your readers to discover the solution for themselves, 
I will only say that I once gave this puzzle to two English clergy- 
men, and the reply of one of them was, " Oh, indeed ! I didn't 
know that the land went out so f ar 1 " But the other was very 
irate, and said, " Do you take me for a fool ? " The only person 
who has ever accepted the truth of this seeming paradox without 
demur was a certain sea captain, who at once explained it. The 
way in which it came about that I went to this outlandish place 
was rather curious. An uncle of mine saw in a newspaper a letter 
from the captain of a man of war which had just been to Tristan 
saying how anxious the people were to have a resident clergyman 
who would also act as a schoolmaster. My uncle cut this letter 
out and sent it to me, saying in a joke, " Here is the very place 
for you to go to." He was much horrified when I made up my 
mind really to go there ! After arranging matters with the S.P.G. 
I left England in the mail for St. Helena in September, 1880, hoping 
to be taken on to my destination in some whaler, but this I found 
to be impossible, as no whaler was willing to take me at any price ; 
indeed, one old captain declared that he wouldn't have a parson 
as passenger in his ship for 100. I was beginning to despair of 
getting a passage to Tristan until the next man of war went down 
there, which was expected here some time in the following January, 
but after staying on the island for three or four weeks, during 
which time I had charge of St. John's Church, a small English 
schooner came in, and the captain agreed to take me down to 
Tristan at once on pre-payment of a very large sum of money, 
and considerably more than the expense of a passage to England 
by the mail. The crew of this schooner consisted of a mate who 
would have been much smaller if he had ever been washed, a boats- 
wain who also acted as cook, his sole qualification being that he 
knew nothing whatever about cooking, and two apprentice boys. 
There was only one cabin in the ship, which contained no bed, 
but the crockery was kept there, and a very strong smelling cheese. 
After about a week of this luxurious travelling I reached Tristan 
with considerable difficulty on one of the Saturdays in October, 
and the schooner was wrecked on the Tuesday or Wednesday 
following. At first the sea was quite smooth, with a light breeze 
blowing off shore, but as the vessel was heavily insured, the captain, 
who was also the owner, gained a good deal of money by the ship- 
wreck. There was a horse on board whose body was washed on 



ST. HELENA 311 

shore, to the great astonishment of the children, who had never 
seen one before. 

Among the many things which I lost were all my boots, so that 
for nearly a year I had to content myself with home-made moccas- 
sins (mogsins) made of pieces of the hide of bullocks dried in the sun. 
These got so hard during the day time that they had to be soaked 
in water all night, and in this wet and flabby condition to be put 
on each morning each pair lasted me about three weeks. I was 
accommodated with a room in one of the houses (with a sofa bed- 
stead within) eight feet long, eight feet high, and six feet wide ; 
there was just room for one chair by my bedside, which had to be 
on the bed whenever I wanted to be on the floor. I afterwards 
got one of the men to make me a small wooden bedstead and some 
book shelves in another room, which I was given the use of. I 
believe I was thought rather greedy for wishing to have two rooms ! 
Of course nothing could be done about a church for the first Sunday, 
the day after my unexpected arrival ; the services had to be in one 
of the dwelling-houses on that day ; but during the following week 
I had the best and most central house given up to me for a church 
and school. Fortunately, many pieces of the altar I was taking 
out with me were washed ashore, and all the requisites for the 
Holy Communion, also the font the wooden box containing it 
was dashed to pieces on the rocks ; but the font itself, though 
made of Bath stone, more brittle than wood, was picked up un- 
injured. The houses are built only one story high (stairs, I am 
thankful to say were unknown), divided into two or more rooms 
by wooden partitions and thatched with tupock grass. The walls 
are of stone, of which there is abundance on the island, about three 
feet thick (five feet at the gable ends), and eight feet high. The 
walls are obliged to be made very strong and low because of gales 
of wind. The house placed at my disposal was turned into a church 
by the simple expedient of removing the partitions and so turning 
it into one long room which just held all the people. Every family 
had to provide enough benches for its own members, the wood 
coming from wrecked ships, and the vestry was formed at the west 
end by screening off one corner with a sail a blue dungaree cur- 
tain, cutting off the altar, made the church into a school on week- 
days. There was soon a very fair choir of men and boys, and a 
full choral service, except the Psalms, twice daily. The choir boys 
had to learn the canticles, hymns, etc., off by heart, as they could 
not read at first. Holy Communion was celebrated every Sunday 
and Thursday, at first at eight a.m., but eventually at five a.m. 
There were to start with only twelve communicants, who had 
all been confirmed by Bishop Gray, but this number quickly in- 
creased to thirty-five, an average of seventeen every Sunday and 
four every Thursday. There were only 104 people on the island. 
On the day of a funeral there was always early celebration, at 
which all the communicants generally received. On every Sunday 
afternoon was a children's service, followed by a choir practice, 
which was attended by many of the congregation, but we had no 



3 I2 



ST. HELENA 



musical instrument except a pitch pipe. The number of the popu- 
lation gradually decreased to about ninety, as the people (young 
men chiefly) got a chance of going to the Cape, for a man of war 
has for a long time been in the habit of calling there on its way 
to the Cape about once a year. Soon after my arrival the men 
offered to build a proper church, and also a home for me to live in. 
They asked which I should like to be built first. Of course I said 
the church, and I drew some simple plans for one. Accordingly, 
they began to build a church, but after a few months I calculated 
that at the pace at which they were proceeding they would be 
about eighty years in building it. In fact, it was abandoned al- 
together after six months, and I had the stones removed to form 
a wall around the graveyard. Each man, I believe, promised to 
give two or three days' work a week to the church, but one by one 
the promises became as pie-crust on some paltry excuse or other, 
for, like other people I know, they were very keen at first, but soon 
got tired of exerting themselves ! I need hardly say that my 
house was never even begun. 

The village is called Somerset Town, in honour of Lord 
Charles Somerset, and consists of several dwelling houses 
of one story, with numerous outhouses for cattle. 

A visitor there in 1835 sa Y s tne principal inhabitant is 
William Glass, who is always styled the " Governor." 
He is a native of Kelso, N.B., and resided there with his 
wife and children, of whom he had twelve, for nineteen 
years. The present governor, however, is Peter W. Green. 
Her late Majesty Queen Victoria forwarded to this veteran 
sailor, and headman in the lonely island, a framed portrait 
of herself in recognition of his self-denying efforts in saving 
life from shipwreck during the last sixty years. The aged 
recipient of her Majesty's gift wrote as follows to his friend, 
Mr. G. Newman, of 47, Finsbury Road, Woodgreen, Middle- 
sex, whose relative he saved from drowning long ago : 

TRISTAN D'ACUNHA. 

DEAR OLD FRIEND NEWMAN, This letter comes in a different 
style from all the rest of my letters. I do not suppose you know 
about the handsome present I received from Her Majesty Queen 
Victoria ! Such a picture never came to Tristan before. The 
height of the frame is nearly four feet, the breadth is nearly three 
feet, and the crown is on the top, all beautifully carved and gilded. 
The address on the outside was : 
Peter Green, Esq., 
Tristan d'Acunha, 

Care of Commander, H.M.S. Magpie, 
St. Helena. 




H.M.S. DWARF. 




BLUE JACKETS FROM H.M.S. D\VA:;F. 



ST. HELENA 313 

To wait customs office, St. Helena. 

FROM THE QUEEN. 

As I have to thank Her Majesty for the Royal present that I 
received, will my old friend Newman be kind enough to do it for 
me ? You are the right man in the right place, and it would only 
be as a kind man speaking to a very kind Queen. I remember 
His Royal Highness the Duke of Edinburgh well. When he came 
to Tristan in Her Majesty's ship Galatea I had the honour of 
carrying him from his boat to the sand beach, as recommended by 
Captain Fullerton, R.N. I hope he is an admiral now. Our settle- 
ment has been called Edinburgh since that time. I should not 
like to try to back the Duke ashore now. He was as much as I 
could carry thirty years ago. On boarding the Galatea afterwards 
I was carrying a large bundle, and His Royal Highness said to the 
officer who was with him, " What is Mr. Green going to do with 
that bundle ? " "I want to find a gentleman," I replied, " to 
take charge of it, and deliver it at Government House, Cape Town, 
where I have two daughters in the service of the Governor, Sir 
George Grey." The Duke kindly said at once, " I will be the 
gentleman," and then told one of his servants to take the bundle 
from me and put it in his cabin. I afterwards received a letter 
from my daughters thanking me for the present ; it was a double 
present, for His Royal Highness also left some money for the ser- 
vants at Government House. 

If I get no chance to write any more this time let me still remain, 

Your old friend, 

PETER W. GREEN. 

In 1897 (November) the island was visited by H.M.S. 
Widgeon, under the command of Lieut, and Commander 
A. F. Gurney. The special object of the visit was to con- 
vey to the islanders a whaling boat, which was supplied by 
the Admiralty. The total population then was sixty-four, 
composed of eighteen men, nineteen women, fifteen boys 
and twelve girls. The island is capable of affording pas- 
turage for some 500 head of cattle, and as there were be- 
tween 800 and 900 cattle on the island, as well as 500 sheep, 
the inhabitants were anxious to dispose of their surplus 
stock. If a ship fetched cattle from there, they could 
supplement their load by guana from the neighbouring 
isles. The labour for such a purpose would readily be 
found by the inhabitants of Tristan d'Acunha. The wants 
of the islanders are few, but they are always pleased to 
receive presents of vegetable seeds. 

They seem very contented, and enjoy good health, sick- 
ness being very infrequent. On Sundays they meet together 



3'4 



ST. HELENA 



for public worship, after which they make friendly calls. 

The only wild animals are goats, which are very numer- 
ous. There are few species of fish, but great quantities are 
caught in fine weather. The land birds are the island cock, 
similar to our moorhen, the thrush and green linnet. 

Apples, peaches and grapes are produced, but the two 
last seldom ripen thoroughly. Mails are conveyed at un- 
certain intervals by H.M. ships. The inhabitants grow a 
large number of potatoes, and these, with beef and milk 
in abundance, form the chief article of diet. The potatoes 
are exchanged, when they have opportunity, for bread with 
the American whalers. 

The ships comprising the Naval Squadron in these 
waters during the Boer war were as under : 

NOTE. Although pains have been taken to ensure accuracy, 
the correctness of names of officers cannot be vouched for, on 
account of the changes in appointments which took place during 
the three years and which make correct compilation difficult. 

Niobe, Twin-screw Cruiser, ist Class, 1 1,000 tons. 



Captain 
Commander 
Lieutenants . 



Lieutenant R.N.R. 
Captain R.M. 
Lieutenant R.M. . 
Chaplain & Naval Inspec. 

Staff Surgeon 
Staff Paymaster . 
Fleet Engineer 
Surgeon 
Staff Engineer 
Sub-Lieutenant. . 
Assistant Paymaster 
Assistant Engineers 



A. G. L. Winsloe. 
Rosslyn E. Wemyss. 
Philip H. Colomb. 
Henry F. Oliver. 
George S. Petch. 
Joseph Man. 
William G. A. Kennedy. 
Coventry M. Crichton 

Maitland. 
Ernest G. Diggle. 
John A. Tupman. 
Henry H. F. Stockley. 
Rev. Edwin R. Borthwick, 

B.A. 

James H. L. German. 
Everard H. Saunders. 
John W. Craig, M.B. 
Arthur J. Johns. 
Hugh P. Pritchard. 
C. Betton Roberts. 
Richard R. Jury. 
Joseph J. Kirwin. 
William H. Rosevere. 
Francis W. Hamblin. 
Arthur E. Lester. 



ST. HELENA 315 

Gunner . . . Albert Northcote. 
Boatswains . . . Albert Whiting. 

Thomas G. Southwood. 

Henry J. Wayling. 

Carpenter . . . William Banbury. 
Clerk . . . James P. Pitcairn. 

Assistant Clerk . . Richard G. T. Sennett. 

Thetis, Twin-screw Cruiser, 2nd Class, 3,400 tons. 
Captain . . . William Stokes-Rees. 
Lieutenants . . . A. G. Davidson. 

W. H. Moir. 

H. W. Denny. 

Staff Surgeon . . J. G. J. Coolican. 
Staff Paymaster . . H. Cleveland. 
Staff Engineer . . G. L. R. Perkins. 
Engineer . . .A. Saunders. 
Assistant Paymaster . R. Sidney Smith. 
Assistant Engineer. . P. Morrison. 
Sub.-Lieutenant . . E. M. Bennett. 
Gunner . . E. S. Norman. 

Boatswain . . . W. Spiller. 
Carpenter . . . W. Neale. 

Philomel, Twin-screw Cruiser, 3rd Class, 2,575 tons. 
Captain . . . John E. Bearcroft. 
Chief Engineer . . Charles Laugh ton. 
Gunner . . . Joseph Rowe. 
Carpenter . . . John C. Sole. 

Beagle, Twin-screw sloop, 1,170 tons. 
Commander . . Henry V. W. Elliott. 

Lieutenants . . John E. Cameron. 

Richard Home. 

Humphrey T. Walwyn. 

John P. R. Marriott. 

Paymaster . . . Wilfred J. A. Carter. 
Sub.-Lieutenant . . Horatio S. Bland. 
Surgeon . . . Alexander G. W. Bowen, 

B.A., M.B. 

Engineer . . . Edward W. Liversidge. 
Gunner . . . William C. Hunt. 

Naiad, Twin-screw Cruiser, 2nd Class, 3,400 tons. 
Captain . . . Hon. Alexander E. Bethell. 
Lieutenants . . Ernest S. Carey. 

Herbert R. M. Williams. 

Richard J. Shee. 

Edward M. Bennett. 

Hugh J. Middleton, 



316 ST. HELENA 

Lieutenants . j: Thomas L. S. Garrett, R.N.R. 

Francis J. Vanzellar. 

Staff Surgeon . . Walter Bowden, D.S.O. 
Paymaster . . * Francis C. Leonard. 
Chief Engineer . Henry R. Teed. 
Engineer . . . Albert G. Archard. 
Assistant Engineer . William S. Torrance 
Gunners . . . George Booth. 

John C. Souhamy. 

Clerk . . . Charles M. Tonge 

Assistant Clerk . . Harold C. F. Pinsent. 

Dwarf, Twin-screw Gun-boat, ist Class, 710 tons. 

Lieut, and Commander William N. England. 
Surgeon . . . Warren G. Westcott. 
Sub. Lieutenants . . John White. 

Paul M. Broster. 

Gunner . . . Harry Batey. 
Assistant Engineer Herbert W. Fookes. 

John Hindmarsh. 

Magpie, Screw Gun-boat, ist Class, 805 tons. 

Lieut, and Commander John K. Laird. 
Lieutenants . . . Robert A. Richards. 

Roger G. Kenyon. 

Surgeon . . . Henry C. Whiteside. 
Gunner . . . Frederick S. Gidley. 
Assistant Engineer . Laurence Jackson. 

Rattler, Screw Gun-boat, ist Class, 715 tons. 

Lieut, and Commander Charles Tibbits. 

Lieutenant . . . Henry E. F. Aylmer. 

Surgeon . . . Percy H. Bannister. 

Sub.-Lieu tenant . . Henry L. Street. 

Gunner . . . George E. Ford. 

Assistant . . . James D. Gardiner. 

Terpsichore, Twin-screw Cruiser, 2nd Class, 3,40x3 tons. 

Captain . Charles H. Coke Feb. 7, 1901. 

Lieutenants Frank C. Grover. Feb. 7, 1901. 

Charles Bissett. Feb. 7, 1901. 

John K. P. Dooner March 18, 1901. 

George P. Leith. Feb. 7, 1901. 

Charles H. Davey. Feb. 7, 1901. 
Paymaster . . . Wingfield W. Alton. 
Staff Engineer . . Sidney G. Haddock. 
Surgeon . . . Henry W. Finlayson, M.B. 
Engineer . . . William Dawson. 
Sub. -Lieutenant R.N.R. Edward P. W. Stroud. 
Assistant Engineer . Ernest W. Roberts. 



ST. HELENA 



3 1 ? 



Gunners 



Carpenter 
Clerk , 



George W. Blackman. 
Thomas Mitchell. 
John R. Hambly. 
William H. Reed. 
Edward G. Leyshon. 



Thrush, Screw Gun-boat, ist Class, 805 tons. 
Lieut, and Commander Warren H. D'Oyley. 
Lieutenant 
Surgeon 

Sub. Lieutenant . 
Gunner 
Assistant Engineer 



Harold N. Key. 
Francis T. Lobb. 
Dashwood F. Moir. 
Samuel A. H. McCulloch. 
Robert W. Kingston. 



Barracouta, Twin-screw Cruiser, 3rd Class, 1,580 tons. 



Commander 
Lieutenants 



Staff Surgeon 

Paymaster . 

Engineer 

Sub.-Lieutenant R.N.R. 

Gunner 

Assistant Engineer 



Selby H. B. Ash. 
Hubert S. Cardale. 
Montague H. Lubbock. 
Harry W. C. Hughes. 
Charles M. Beadnell. 
Henry Horniman. 
Alfred H. Maysey. 
Louis A. Brooks-Smith. 
William Hall. 
Thomas J. Johan. 
George G. French. 



Blanche, Twin-Screw 
Commander 
Lieutenants 



Staff Surgeon 
Paymaster . 
Chief Engineer 
Sub.-Lieutenant R.N 
Gunner 
Boatswain . 
Assistant Engineer 
Captain 

Lieutenants 



Lieutenant R.N.R. 
Chaplain 
Paymaster . 
Staff Engineer 
Surgeon 



Cruiser, 3rd Class, 1,580 tons. 
. Murray T. Parks. 
. Algernon W. Abbott. 

Arthur G. Warren. 

Robert C. Hocking. 
. George A. S. Bell. 
. John K. Watson. 
. William W. Pearce. 
R. Harold E. Jackson. 
. Albert Whiting. 

Samuel J. Redman. 
. Thomas J. Wells. 
. Robert C. Sparkes, C.M.G. 

John D. Kelly. 

Francis E. Massy-Dawson. 

Percy Johnson. 

John H. Steel. 

Hugh D. Marry at. 
. Harry W. Wright. 
. Rev. Walter McL. Tod, M.A. 
. Charles F. Petch. 
. William R. Appis. 
. Christ. L. W. Burton, M.B. 

Algernon C. Bean. 



318 ST. HELENA 

Engineer . . ,> 

Assistant Paymaster . ; 

Assistant Engineer 

Gunners . -. . James Oliver. 

Edward Holland. 

Boatswain . . . George S. Steel. 

Carpenter . . . Thomas H. W. Deacon. 

Assist. Clerk . . Henry A. Brown. 

^Forte, Twin-screw Cruiser, 2nd Class, 4,360 tons. 
Captain . . . Peyton Hoskyns, C.M.G., 

M.V.O. 
Lieutenants . . Frank E. M. Roe. 

Hubert S. Monroe. 

Bernard W. M. Fairbairn. 
Chaplain . . . Rev. David L. Williams, 

B.A. 

Paymaster . . . Edward H. Innes. 
Staff Engineer . . George Ramsay. 
Sub.-Lieutenant . . Percy J. Helyar. 
Assistant Paymaster . Edward Boucher. 
Assistant Engineer . Thomas M. David. 
Gunners . . . Henry B. McGhie. 

Samuel J. Portbury. 

Henry Taylor. 

Boatswain . . . Walter H. Godsmark. 
Carpenter . . . Joseph E. G. Smith. 

Gibraltar, Twin-screw Cruiser, ist Class, 7,700 tons. 
Rear- Admiral . . Arthur W. Moore, C.B., 

C.M.G, 

Flag Lieutenant . . Henry F. G. Talbot. 
Secretary . . . William C. Gillies. 
Clerks to Secretary . Henshaw R. Russell. 

Thomas W. S. Seath, 

Sidney W. Finch. 

Captain . . Arthur H. Limpus. 

Commander . . Lewis Clinton Baker, 

Lieutenants . . Edwin V. Underbill. 

James D. Dick. 

Richard H. Walters. 

Charles L. Lewin. 

John L. W. Allison, 

Henry C. D. Field. 

Major R.M. . . Leonard C. Peters. 

Lieutenant R.M.A. . Arthur F. Simson. 
Chaplain & Naval Instr. Rev. Francis C. Hartley, B.A, 
Staff Surgeon . . Robert F. Bowie. 
Staff Paymaster . . William R. Dodridge, 
Surgeon . . . Hugh P. Turnbull. 



ST. HELENA 



3'9 



Surgeon . 
Staff Engineer 
Engineer 
Sub-Lieutenant 
Assistant Paymasters 

Assistant Engineers 



Gunners 



Boatswain 
Carpenter 
Midshipmen 



Clerks 



William J. Codrington, M.B. 
Henry P. Vining. 
Hugh S. Garwood. 
Richard W. Bromley. 
Frederick A. F. Banbury, 
Alan E. Stack. 
Frederick C. Fisher. 
Frederick F. May. 
Harry C. R. Johnson. 
William Elliott. 
Alexander Duguid. 
James W. Newland. 
William Basketter. 
Thomas D. Stafford. 
Charles H. Jones. 
Archibald C. W. Domville. 
Anthony L. H. D. Coke. 
Ernest C. Brent. 
Jehoida J. Brewer. 
Christopher J. F. Wood. 
James R. Harvey. 
Ralph B. Janarin. 
Evan Bruce-Gardynel. 
Arthur L. O'Brien. 
Francis C. Cadogan. 
William M. M. Robinsonj 
John H. D. Cunningham. 
Fred. N. Eardley-Wilmot. 
Ronald M. Fraser. 
Harold F. G. Mayston. 
Claude M. Ware. 
John H. Bugden. 
Colin C. Merry. 



Assistant Clerk . 

The following officers are borne as additional : 
Captain Frederick St. C. Luscombe, 

(For service as Principal Transport Officer, South Africa.) 
Captain Herbert G. King Hall, D.S.O., 

(Divisional Transport Officer, Durban.) 
Commander (Retired) John T. Hardinge, 

(Divisional Transport Officer, East London.) 
John Martin, 

(Divisional Transport Officer, Port Elizabeth.) 
William J. V. Hudson, 

(For Transport duties.) 
Lieutenant James O. Hatcher, 

(For Transport duties.) 
Lieutenant (Retired) Charles W. Pleydell-Bouverie, 

(For Transport duties.) 
Staff Paymaster William M. C. Beresford Whyte, 

(Secretary to Principal Transport Officer.) 



3 20 



ST. HELENA 



Chief Engineer John Richardson, 

(For Transport duties.) 
Boatswains : Henry Penfound, Charles Jones, Charles G. Reypert. 

(For Transport duties.) 
Carpenter Solomon J. Lacey, 
(For Transport duties.) 

Herald Stern-wheel Steel Vessel, 82 tons. 
Lieutenant and Com- 
mander . . . Ernest Stevenson. 
Surgeon . . . Herbert L. Geoghegan, B.A., 

M.D. 
Monarch Screw Battleship, 3rd Class Armoured, 8,845 tons. 



Captain 
Commander 
Lieutenants . 



Staff Commander . 
Captain R.M. 
Lieut. R.M.A. 
Staff Surgeon 
Fleet Paymaster . 
Paymaster . 
Chief Engineer 
Surgeon 
Engineer 

Assistant Paymaster 
Assistant Engineers 

Gunners 



Boatswains . 



Charles H. Bayley. 
Cunningham R. de C. Foot. 
Charles W. N. McCullock. 
Arthur J. Payne. 
Richard M. T. Stephens, 
Edward Union. 
Frank E. M. Roe. 
Francis Roberts. 
Robert D. Beith. 
George Y. Russell. 
James T. C. Whicker. 
Thomas Guard. 
Charles D. M. Home. 
Frank R. Stuttaford. 
Fred C. B. Gillings, M.B. 
Ernest E. Pethwick. 
Charles H. Carroll 
Vernon A. Brook. 
John A. T. Fielder. 
William J. Talbot. 
James Wood. 
Frank Smith. 
Walter W. L. Newnham. 
Francis J. Camble. 
Henry Snell. 
Valentine Urell. 



Carpenter 
The following officers are borne as additional for various services. 

For service of Naval Establishments. 
Fleet Engineer . . George Elbrow. 
Chief Gunner . . Joseph Mitchell. 
(For charge of Torpedo boats and stores at the Cape.) 

Christopher H. Deighton. 

(For Charge of Ordnance stores at Cape of Good Hope.) 
Chief Boatswain . . James Thornback. 
Gunner s$ : '. - . Thomas J. Shyne. 

(And for charge of Rifle Range, Simonstown.) 




R.G.A. DRAWN UP TO RECEIVE MEDALS AFTER THEIR RETURN FROM 
SOUTH AFRICA. 




SERGEANTS, 3RD ROYAL SUSSEX REGIMENT, BROADBOTTOM CAMP. 



ST. HELENA 321 



(For sendee at Ascension.) 

Captain . . Robert K. McAlpine. 

Lieutenant . . . Arthur J. D. Macauley. 

Captain R.M. . . Charles J. Thornton. 

Lieutenant R.M. A. . Richard U. F. Food. 

Chaplain . . . Rev. Dallas G. Brookes, B.A. 

Staff Surgeon . . John Anderson, M.B. 

Fleet Paymaster . . George J. Mills. 

Surgeon . . . Richard A. Ross, M.B. 

Assistant Paymaster . Harold Radham. 

Gunner . . . William Simpson. 

Mosquito Stern-wheel vessel, 82 tons. 
(For charge of Ordnance stores) 
Boatswain . . . John U. Vinnicombe. 
Lieut, and Commander . 
Surgeon . . . Theodore Maries Thomas 

Partridge Screw Gun-boat, ist Class, 755 tons. 
Lieutenant and Com- 
mander . . . Eustace La T. Leatham. 
Lieutenants . . . Hon. Richard O. B. Bridgemani 

Thomas B. Scott. 
Surgeons . . . Harold E. Fryer. 

John Whelan. 
Sub-Lieutenants . . Walter Scott. 

Cecil N. Reyne. 
Gunners . . . Charles J. Hay ward. 

Frederick J. Baker. 

Monatgue J. Speer. 

Pearl Twin-screw Cruiser, 3rd Class, 2,575 tons. 
Captain . . . Edward P. Ashe. 
Lieutenants . . Alan E. Hudson. 

Alfred W. Gush. 
James H. Thorn. 

Lieutenant R.N.R. . Robert H. W. Hughes. 
Staff Surgeon . . Joseph Chambers, B.A., M.B. 
Paymaster . . . Charles M. Luckham. 
Chief Engineer . . Harry G. Andrews. 
Sub-Lieutenant . . George S. Hallowes. 
Assistant Paymaster . C. Betton Roberts. 
Gunner . . . Joseph Brown. 
Carpenter . . . Alfred C. Smith. 
Assistant Engineer . .William O'Keefe. 

Juno Twin-screw Cruiser, 2nd Class, 5,600 tons. 
Captain . . . Henry P. Routh. 
Commander . . Albert S. Lafonc. 

X 



322 



ST. HELENA 



Lieutenants . 



Lieutenant R.M. . , ; 
Chaplain and Naval In- 
structor . 

Staff Surgeon . ; 
Paymaster . 
Fleet Engineer 
Surgeon 
Engineer 
Sub-Lieutenant 
Assistant Paymaster 
Assistant Engineer 
Gunners 

Boatswain . 
Carpenter . . 
Midshipmen 



Assistant Clerk 



Montague L. Hulton. 
Alfred A. Ellison. 
Thomas E. Wardle. 
Francis R. Wood. 
Philip H. Wateran. 
William W. Godfrey. 

Rev. Henry Blackwell, M.A. 
Richard A. Fitch. 
William C. Davy. 
William W. White. 
George Ross, B.A., M.B. 
John C. Pearson. 
Richard B. Ward. 
Reginald F. Brown. 
Frank M. Attwood. 
Frederick J. Russell. 
William J. Bonsey. 
Frederick W. S. Crocker. 
John B. Watson. 
Herbert L. Lucas. 
Arthur G. Sparrow. 
Herbert G. Briggs. 
Trevor R. Chamberlain. 
Gordon F. Markwick. 
Cuthbert P. Blake. 
Deporest J. D. Noble. 
Arthur M. Longmore. 
Charles E. Maconochie. 
Alexander Organ. 



St. George, Twin-screw Cruiser, ist Class, 7,700 tons. 



Captain 

Secretary 

Commander 

Lieutenants 



Captain R.M. . , 
Chaplain and Naval In- 
structor . .- .vj 
Staff Surgeon . % : , 
Fleet Paymaster . 
Staff Engineer . - - .;;; 
Surgeon :*/- -. * 
Engineer */ . - ', 



Alfred L. Winslowe, C.V.O., 

C.M.G. (Commodore 2nd Class). 
Walter Gask. 
Alexander L. Duff. 
Herbert J. Savill. 
Henry W. Grant. 
Charles W. Trousdale. 
Cyril P. Ryan. 
James L. S. Kirkness. 
John H. Bainbridge. 
John H. Lambert. 

Rev. William Hall, B.A. 
Alfred Cropley. 
Francis B. Pritchard. 
William J. Blake. 
William H. Thompson. 
Alfred E. Everitt. 



ST. HELENA 323 

Sub-Lieutenant . . Nicholas E. Archdale. 
Assistant Paymasters . Arthur Mudge. 

Louis J. P. G. McSheehy, 
Assistant Engineers . George M. Gay. 

Robert D. Nelson. 
Gunners . . . George J. L. Stroud. 

William G. Ford. 

Carpenter . . . James W. Dodd. 
Boatswain . . . William M. Taylor. 
Sig. Boatswain . . Henry J. Wayling. 

Wilfred M. Richardson. 

Frederick G. Satge. 

Frank G. Terry. 
Midshipmen . . Baldwin C. Walker. 

Bernard Acworth. 

Lionel B. Foote. 

Reginald B. Darke. 

An alphabetical list of plants reported as seen by Dr. 
Roxburgh, and growing on the island of St. Helena in 
1813-1814, as given by Melliss. 

(I. means indigenous ; E., exotic). Several of the most 
conspicuous of the undetermined species are briefly de- 
scribed ; and Dr. Roxburgh's names are distinguished by 
the letter R.) 

E. Abrus precatorius. Willd. 3. p. 911. 1025. 

I. Acalypha rubra. R. Red Acalypha or string-tree of the 
islanders. Arboreus. Peduncles axillary and between the 
leaves : one or more female flowers near the base, the rest a 
long, pendulous, filiform, glomerate male spike : involucres cucu- 
late, entire. Leaves petioled, ovate, ereuate, three-nerved. A 
beautiful small tree, a native of elevated parts of the south face 
of Diana's Peak (2,760), and called a string-tree by the natives 
on account of its numerous beautiful red male spikes, which 
hang in great profusion from every twig. Ultimate branches 
tubercled with the scars of the fallen leaves ; above, where the 
leaves remain coloured, red and smooth ; the petioles, nerves 
and veins are also red and smooth. 

E. Acer pseudo-platanus. Willd. 4. 2. 983. Common maple or 
sycamore tree. 

E. Achyranthes aspera. A weed in gardens. 

I. Acrostichum bifurcatum. A delicate, small, beautiful, smooth 
species growing in crowded tufts about six inches in the most 
shaded fissures of the rocks about Diana's Peak. 

I. Acrostichum lanceolatum. R. Stipes runcutaceous : fronds 
simple lanceolar, strongly veined, entire : the fertile longer 
stiped. Fructifications occupy the whole of the inferior surface. 

E. Aeschymomene sesban and grandi flora. 



324 ST. HELENA 

E. Agapanthus umbettatus. 

E. Agave tuberosa. Gucca superba. 

E. Agave lurida. Used for fences. 

I. Agrostis purpurascus. Purple bent grass. Indigenous of ^the 
hills of St. Helena where it grows to from 2 to 3 feet high, per- 
fectly erect, very naked of leaves, as they are not only few in 
number but short and very slender. The inflorescence a long 
slender panicle composed of numerous small purple or compound 
appressed branches, crowded with numerous small pedicelled 
smooth flowers. Calcyme valves unequal, scarce half the length 
of the corol, which has its two valves nearly equal and rather 
acute ; but nothing like an awn either here or in the calyx. 
Agrostis lenta. Forked bent grass. 

Agrostis stellata see Panicum dactylon, and compare with 
Agrostis linearis or wire grass. 

E. Aleurites tribola. Three-lobed aleurites. 

E. Allium cepa. Porum aecalonicum and of satebuw two varieties. 
Onion, leek, shallot and garlic. 

E. Aloe perfoliata. Two or three varieties in gardens, 

E. Aloe spicata and three or four undetermined species, all 
exotics. 

I. Alopecurus paniculatus. R. 

E. Althaea rosea. Hollyhock. 

E. Amaranthus blitum. A weed in gardens. 

E. Amaranthus candatus and tricolour, cultivated for ornament. 

E. Amaryllis belladonna. Belladonna lily. 

E. Amaryllis formosissima, Jacobea lily. 

E. Amygdalas persica. Peach, two or three varieties and almond, 
but the latter does not succeed here, whereas the peaches grow 
luxuriantly and are productive. 

E. Anagallis arvensis, three varieties, blue, red, and white. 

E. Andropogon schoenanthus , or lemon grass. Cultivated in gar- 
dens. 

E. Annona muricata. In one garden only (Major Hudson's). 

E. Annona charinoya. In one garden only (Major Hudson's). 

E. Annona squamosa \ In few gardens f Custard apple. 

E. Annona reticulata } but rare \ Bullock's heart. 

E. Angelica bracteata. Bracted angelica. 

Leaves pennate : floral ternate. Leaflets petrol- clasping 
subcordate, 3-7 nerved, finely laciniate-serrate. 

Angelica the vernacular name. It grows to be a stout, erect 
perennial of 8-12 feet in height, with columnar, fistulous, smooth, 
bright green stem and branches. Leaves sparse, in some parts 
grown unequally pennate, those next the umbels frompennate- 
palmate to three-lobed : leaflets of the inferior larger leaves 
from four to twelve pairs, opposite, closely embracing the smooth 
green columnar petiole, cordate-nerved, smooth, finely laciniate- 
serrate ; each serrature ends in a green bustle ; at the base of 
each petiole a pair of large simple or compound suborbicular 
bractes, and generally a single one between the leaflets, and all 



ST. HELENA 325 

subalate serrate like them. Umbels terminals, numerous, 
compound subglobules and many rayed. Involucre and involu- 
cells of 6-10 broad lanceolate leaflets each. Flowers numerous, 
small white but turn pink by age. Petals subequal oval and 
oblong uncurved, stamina unequal, anthers purple. Styles 
short erect. Receptacles naked. 

E. Anthoylza oethcopica. Flag-leaved antholyza. 

E. Anthoxanthum odoratum. Sweet scented vernal grass. 

E. Apumi toselumn. Parsley and graveolens or smallage. 

E. Argemona mexicana. The most common weed on the island. 

E. Artemesia absenthium. Wormwood. 

E. Arumcolocasia. St. Helena yam: of this there are several wild 
varieties but only the white is cultivated. 

E. Asclepias fructicosa. Shrubby asclepias. 

E. Asclepias carassewica. Bastura ipecacuanha. 

I. Aspidium reparumi. Stipes villous flat above. Fronds oblong, 
bipinnatifid : pumice linear segments linguiform or falcate 
and deeply divided. Spots in one crowded row a little removed 
from the margin : involucres veniform. Found plenty over 
the south side of the mountains immediately above Major Seal's 
in Sandy Bay, where it grows in tufts from 2 to 4 feet high. 

I. Aspidium pulchrum. Base of the stipes and tuberous-like 
runners chaffy, the rest brown and smooth. Fronds ovate- 
oblong, firm, sub-bipennate ; pumice opposite generally pinna- 
tifid : sequients oblong obtuse, subcrenate. Spots, generally 
one, rarely two or three to each sequent of the pinnae, involucres 
veniform. A small (6-12 inch) plant of a hard texture, but not 
glossy, with the stipes about as long as the fronds : a native 
of Diana's Peak. 

I. Aspidium vestitum. Stipes and divisions amply clothed with 
large brown soft scales. Fronds oblong, bipinnated leaflets 
linguiform, obtuse crenate. Grows on Diana's Peak to about 
2 feet high. 

I. Aspidium capense. Stipes green and channelled. Fronds 
ovate, smooth bipinnate : pinna opposite, apices ensiform and 
sharply serrate ; pinnulae from serrate to pinnatifid, with 
obtuse dentate apices. Spots in two rows a little removed 
from the nerve : involucres reniform. A native of Diana's 
Peak where it grows to be from 20 to 30 inches high, is of a soft 
delicate texture, the spots numerous and very large. 

I. Aspidium corraceum. Stipes as long as the oppositely bipen- 
nate ovale fronds. Leaflets linguiform, crenate serrate and 
pinnatifid. Spots in one line half way between the nerve and 
the margin : involucres veniform. Is also a native of south 
face of Sandy Bay range of mountains where it rises to the height 
of 2 feet and generally amongst bushes. It differs from A. 
Capense in little else than the shape of the apices of the pumice 
and the single row of spots, whereas in that species it is double. 

I. Asplenium tenellum. R. Stipes polished. Fronds linear re- 
curved apices rooting, alternately pennate : leaflets numerous, 



326 



ST. HELENA 



obliquely linguiform, obtuse crenate, anterior side of the base 
enlarged, posterior alternate. A pretty small (6-8 inch) species 
with the habit of adiantum candatum, found indigenous on the 
tops of the high mountains in the centre of the island. 

I. Asplenium falcatum. Stipes long as the lanceolate, alternately 
pennate firm smooth fronds, three-sided, three-grooved, pretty, 
smooth and black. Leaflets short petioled, falcate lanceolate 
lobate ; lobes and fine ensiform apices serrate. A most beau- 
tiful species growing in small tufts on the top of Sandy Bay ridge 
to be about 2 feet high. 

I. Asplenium proemor sum. 

I. Asplenium filamentosum. R. Stipes longer than the thin 
ovate, alternately tripennatifid frond, channelled, base clothed 
with long, black chaffy scales ; pumice remote ; leaflets pinnati- 
fid ; segments short linguiform serrulate obtuse. A stout 
species of from 2 to 6 feet high ; a native of the south face of 
Diana's Peak. 

I. Aster glutinosum. R. (Compare with hertus.~) Shrubby, ten- 
der parts woolly. Leaves from cuneate to spatulate ; apices 
rounded and grossly serrated, fleshly veguose with very pro- 
minent veins underneath, pedicels terminal ultimately axillary 
subsolitary, length of or longer than the leaves, one-flowered. 
A native of the most naked barren rocks on the south side of 
the island, where it grows to be a middling-sized shrub. The 
clammy leaves are fragrant. Bractes scattered over the long 
clammy peduncles, and of a long clavate shape. The flowers 
are large, pure white. Goats are said to be fond of it and while 
browsing on it the clammy exudation thereof is collected on 
their beards. (See history of Mastich.) 

E. A triplex triangularis. Triangular atriplex. 

E. Atropa physaloides. Blue-flowered atropa. 

E. Bambusa Arundinaceae. Common bamboo. 

E. Barringtonia speciosa. Laurel-leaved Barringtonia. 

Beatsonia. R. Pentandria monogynia. Generic character. Calyx 
five-toothed. Corol five-petalled, campanulate. Germ 
superior, one-celled contaning many ovula attached to the two 
opposite sides of the cells. Style bifid. Stigmas globular. 
Capsule one-celled, two-valved. Seeds a few. Named in 
honour of Col. Alexander Beatson, Governor of St. Helena. 

I. Beatsonia portulace folia. R. St. Helena tea, the vernacular 
name on that island, where it grows on the naked rocky moun- 
tains and hills on the south side, to be a very famous shrub of a 
middling size. Trunk short, soon dividing into numerous 
branches crowded with innumerable small delicate vellous 
subarticulate brittle ramuli. Bark of the old ligneous parts, 
dark brown and pretty smooth. Leaves opposite sub-rotund, 
fleshy, convex and smooth above, hollow underneath ; size of 
a large pin's head, etc., almost exactly as in Portulaca quadrifida 
even to the quartern florat leaves. Petroles short stem-clasping. 
Flowers terminal, solitary, sessile in the bosom of the four 



ST. HELENA 327 

floral leaves. Calyx subcylindric, five-grooved, five-toothed, 
withering. Corol five-petalled, campanulate, large for the size 
of the foliage, pure white and like the calyx withering. Fila- 
ments five nearly as long as the petals and with them alter- 
nately inserted into the receptacle : at the base broad and seem 
united there but are not. Anthers yellow, germ superior, ovate 
smooth, one-celled and contains several ovula attached to the 
lower half of two opposite parietal receptacles. Style, length 
of the stamina apex bifid. Stigmas globular. Capsule ovate, 
hid in the withered calyx and corol, one-celled, two valved, 
opening from the apex. Seeds few attached as in the germ. 
E. Beta vulgaris and sicla. Red and green beet and mangel wurzel 

belong to the first and the common white beet to the second. 
I. Bedeas arborea. R. Arboreous. Leaves opposite short petioled, 
oblong ventricoso, serrate. Panicles terminal, bracheate, 
corymbose. White-wood cabbage-tree, the vernacular name 
in St. Helena, where it grows on the south face of Diana's Peak 
to be a large tree with straight upright trunk and dark coloured 
smooth bark. The young shoots are rough with much short 
brown hair. Leaves from oval to oblong, very equally gland 
serrate, smooth above, somewhat vellous underneath. Stipules 
none. Panicles terminal while young in flower, large sub- 
corymbose, pretty well crowded with opposite hairy ramifica- 
tions and their subdivisions. Flowers conical. Calyx scarce 
calycled, composed of a very few leaflets, and most of them 
embrace a floret like the scales of the receptacle. Seeds four- 
sided strigose, particularly the four angles, each crowned with 
two very short scabrous arista, which are about as long as the 
tubes of the florets. 

I. Boerhaavia repanda is common among the rocks in James' Valley. 

E. B or ago Zeylanicu. Ceylon borage. 

E. Brassica oberacea. The common useful species and varieties 
of cabbage. 

E. Browallra el at a. 

E. Buxus sempervirens. Common box tree. 

E. Cactus opuntia. Common cactus. 

E. Cactus cocinellifera. Cochineal fig. 

E. Cactus chinensis. Chian cactus. 

E. Call a othropica. Aithiopic calla. 

E. Camellia-japonica. Two or three varieties. 

E. Canna indica. Three or four varieties. 

E. Cannabris sativa. Common hemp. 

E. Calendula. 

E. Calendula officinalis. Common marigold. 

E. Capsicum cerasiflorme. Cherry pepper. 

E. Capsicum grossum. Bell pepper. 

E. Capsicum frutescens. Shrubby pepper. 

I. Car ex pedunculata. Spikes androgynous, pedicelled erect cylin 
dric, alternate on a terminal rachis : male flowers (when present) 
under the female : scales striated, apices serrate-dentate : 



328 



ST. HELENA 



corol striated. Style trind, seed triangularly obovate. A 
native of the south face of Diana's Peak under the shade of 
trees, where kept most by fogs which rest on the Peak. It 
grows in small tufts to about the height of 3 feet when in flower. 
Radical leaves numerous, very long striated ; keeled, hard and 
smooth ; colour similar but smaller ; culus, three-sided, smooth, 
leafy. 

E. Cassia microphytta. 

E. Cassia aurea. 

E. Cassia aluta. 

E. Cassia esculenta. 

E. Cassia sophera. 

E. Castarea vesca. 

E. C el si a A returns. 

E. Cent aurea moschata. 

I. Cheiranthes Temmpbia. Found on Diana's Peak where it grows 
in large masses to be from 6 to 18 inches high, with long slender 
crooked dark coloured (brownish black) stipe and divisions. 
Compare with Adiantum assemile. 

E. Cheranthus cheiro. Wallflower. 

E. Cheranthus incanus. Gilly flower or stock. Several varieties. 

E. Cheranthus odoratissimus. Persian stock. 

E. Chenipodum ambrosioides. Mexican chenpodium. 

E. Chenipodum album and viride. White and green chenpodium. 

E. Cichorain Intybus. Wild succory and endive, garden succory 
or endive. 

E. Cicer arietinum. Chick pea. 

E. Citrus, including lemon, citron, orange with varieties. 

E. Clerodendrum incrona. 

E. Clitoria ternatea. 

E. Cluytia pulchella. A Cape flowering shrub. 

E. Cocas nucifera. Cocoa nut palm, very few and do not thrive. 

E. Coffee Arabica. In Alexander's garden at Sandy Bay were 
some of the finest coffee trees I ever saw, and at the same time 
(February) in every stage from the blossom to the ripe berry. 

E. Conchium gibbosum of Dr. E. Smith is Hakes' Gibbosa of Brown. 

I. Conyza gummifera. R. Arboreous, leaves sparse, approximate 
subsessile but not decurrent from lanceolar to cunneate oblong, 
subserrate soft rugose and more or less woolly underneath. 
Peduncles axillary solitary, drooping, one flowered ; flowers 
globular. Gum-wood tree of the islanders, it grows on 
the more elevated land over the interior parts to be a tree of 
considerable size with short crooked trunk and still more 
crooked spreading branches and ditrichotomous branchlets. 
The bark of the trunk and large branches are a deeper or lighter 
brown and smooth except for the numerous scars of fallen 
leaves. The leaves are crowded about the ends of the branchlets, 
often broad lanceolar, particularly in old trees ; while young, 
gummy and more hoary ; length, 2-4 inches by mc h to i 
broad. 




B" COMPANY, SRD MIDDLESEX REGIMENT, DEADVVOOD CAMP. 




E" COMPANY, JRD MIDDLESEX REGIMENT, DEADVVOOD CAMP. 



ST. HELENA 329 

I. Conyza robusta, R. Leaves subsessile (not decurrent), lanceo- 
lar crenated, entate rugose. Penduncles axillary, solitary 
length of leaves, one flowered. Bastard gum tree is the ver- 
nacular name on St. Helena, where it grows to be a tree very 
similar to the last, and possessed of nearly the same qualities. 
The dwarfish, very crooked, antique habit of these trees makes 
them very conspicuous. The bark on the old parts is very 
thick and deeply cracked ; the branchlets generally dichoto- 
mous and marked with the scars of the fallen leaves. The 
leaves while young, hoary with soft pubescence ; the flowers 
few but large and white. 
Conyza rugosa. Aitons, Kew, 3, 184. (See solidago cuneifolia.} 

I. Convolvulus Brasiliensis. Willd. I. 877, and another un- 
determined indigenous species. 

E. Purpureus. Willd. i. 352. Convolvulus major. 

E. Convolvulus batalas. Willd. i. 853. Sweet potato, the red 
and white variety. 

E. Cookia punctata. Willd. 2. 558. Wampee of the Chinese. 

E. Cordia macrophylla. R. A large tree from Bengal. 

E. Cordia campanulata. R. A small tree from the Moluccas 
and South Sea Islands. 

E. Cotula coronapifolia. Willd. 3. 2167. Pagoda plant of the 
islanders. 

E. Crassula cultrata. Willd. 3. 1552. Sharp-leaved Crassula. 

E. Crassula obliqua. Willd. i. 1553. Oblique leaved. 

E. Crinum toxicarium. R. And two or three other species 
which were not seen in blossom by Dr. Roxburgh. 

E. Crotalaria retusa. Linn. Retuse leaved crotolaria. 

E. Crotalaria laburnifolia. Linn. Laburnum leaved. 

E. Crotalaria incanescens. Linn. Hoary. 

E. Croton sebiferum. Linn. Tallow tree of China. 

E. Cucurbita lagenaria. Willd. 4. 616. Bottle gourd. 

E. Cunonia Capensis. Willd. 2.634. 

E. Curtisa faginea. Willd. i. 687. Hassegay tree. 

E. Cupressus sempervirens. Two varieties of the Cypress. 

E. Cupressus lusitanica. Lamb Pin t~42. Goa Cypress tree. 

E. Cycas revoluta. Re volute leaved Cycas. 

E. Cynara scolymus. Willd. 3. 1691. Artichoke. 

E. Cyperus rotunda. A very common weed in gardens. 

E. Cyperus tenniftoras. 

E. Cyperus Pepo et citrallus. Linn. Pumpkin and water melon. 

E. Cucumis sativus. Linn. Garden cucumber. 

E. Costas speciosus. Willd. i. 10. 

E. Dalbergie Lissoo. R. \ From Bengal where they grow to 

E. Dalbergie frondosa. R.J large timber trees. 

E. Daphne odora, Hort. Kew. Sweet scented Daphne from 
China. 

E. Datura fashiosa. Willd. i. 1003. 

E. Datura metel. Willd. i. 1009. 

E. Datura tatula. Willd. I. 1008. 



330 ST. HELENA 

E. Daucus carota. Linn. Common Carrot. 

E. Draecoena cernus. Willd. 2. 157. 

E. Dianthus barbatus. Linn. Sweet William. 

E. Dianthus chinenses. Linn. China Pink. 

E. Dianthus carophyllus. Linn. Clove. 

I. Dicksonia arborescens. Willd. 5. 485. Stipes, raches and sub- 
divisions compressed and somewhat woolly, but not scabrous. 
Fronds ovate-oblong, hard glossy above, suboppositely tri- 
pinnate ; ultimate segments from oval to oblong and crenate 
serrate. Spots on the margin until they open transversely 
oval after round. Grows on the tops of the highest mountains, 
such as Diana's Peak. Trunk single, straight ; general height 
when full grown twenty or more feet, and of various thick- 
nesses up to that of a man's body ; covered with the bases of 
the decayed stipes, mosses and parasites of various kinds ; 
at the apex clothed with long soft tawny-brown wool like that 
of which the finest shawls are made. When the woolly sub- 
stance is removed, the parts over which it extends are found 
to be scabrous. Fronds (including the stipes) from four to 
ten feet long. 

E. Diosconea alata. Linn. Winged Yam. / " ere do "* 

E. Dio SCOne a ac^ata. R. Tho^y Yan, { 

E. Diospyrus Kanki, Linn. Japan Diospyros, fruit large and 
edible. 

I. Dombeya Erythroxylon. Willd. 3. 725. Pentapetes Erythroxy- 
lon. Hort. Kew, ist edit., 2, 438. Melhavia, 2nd edit., 4-146 
of the same work. 

Arboreous. Leaves ovate-cordate, crenulate, acuminate, smooth 
above, reticulate underneath, while young hoary obscurely 
3-5 nerved. Peduncles axillary solitary 2-3 flowered, flowers 
pentandrous. Red wood tree, the vernacular name on St. 
Helena where it is indigenous on moderately high hills, where, 
if the soil is suitable, it grows rapidly with a straight trunk 
to be a middling sized tree of great beauty. Bark dark brown, 
even and pretty smooth. Branches numerous, spreading, 
tender twigs hoary. Stipules subulate. Peduncles about as 
long as the petioles. Flowers larger than in the following 
(d. Melanoxylon), colour the same and also changeable. 
Nectarial filaments flesh coloured. Style twice the length of 
the stamina. Capsules oblong, pointed, very hairy and some- 
what shorter than the permanent calyx ; cells 3-5 seeded. 
This tree furnishes the islanders with a hard, close-grained 
mahogany-coloured durable wood. 

I. Dombeya melanoxylon. R. Melhania melanoxylon, Hort. Kew, 
2nd edit., 4-46. Leaves ovate-cordate, longpetioled subentire, 
firm, smooth above, ferruginously hoary underneath, obscurely 
three-nerved. Peduncles axillary solitary, 1-2 flowered, 
flowers pentandrous. Capsules ovate, obtuse, greatly shorter 
than the permanent calyx. Cells 2-3 seeded. Ebony the 



ST. HELENA 331 

vernacular name. Is a native of the barren rocks near the 
sea, and not far from Sandy Bay, on the south side of the island, 
I saw it in two gardens only, where it had in many years grown 
to the height of only three feet, with many longer branches 
spreading flat on the ground, well decorated with abundance 
of foliage and large beautiful flowers. Bark of the old ligneous 
parts rather rough and of a dark olive- coloured colour. 
Of the young shoots, hoary with stellate pubescence, each starlet 
thereof has a ferruginous centre. Petioles under-side of the 
leaves, peduncles, branches and calyx have the same colouring. 
The leaves are greatly smaller than in D. Erythroxylon, but 
more entire ; stipules subulate. Peduncles, length of the 
leaves, 1-2 flowered. Flowers large campanulate ; when 
they first expand white, becoming pink or rosy by age. Bractes 
turn ovate, lanceolate pressing the base of the calyx. Stamina 
five, shorter than the five dark purple clavate nectarial fila- 
ments. In some parts on the south side of the island near 
the sea numbers of the dry trunks were found in former days, 
now few remain, the greater part having been carried away 
for fuel ; these little trunks are but a few feet in length, gener- 
ally very crooked, and run from one to three or four feet in 
circumference near the root ; those parts of the root and 
branches which remain spread nearly horizontal : the exterior 
surface is pretty even, and of a dark lead colour, having been 
exposed to the weather for probably some hundred years ; 
within, it is nearly as black as common ebony, and as close- 
grained, hard and heavy ; in short, it is so very like ebony 
as to have procured it that name from the islanders. The 
few trees now found alive in their native soil and situation 
are from ten to fifteen feet high, their trunks crooked and 
about as thick as a man's thigh ; the branches very numerous, 
spreading, etc., etc., and at this season, when the young foliage 
is expanding, the flower buds are also to be seen, and in this 
state generally two on each peduncle ; whereas in the cultivated 
plants rarely more than one. 

E. Eletisine coracdna. R. Cynosurus corocanus. Linn. 

E. Eleusine indica. Gaert. Cynosurus. Linn. 

E. Eleusine calycina. R. 

E. Erodium sempervivum. R. Pelargonium Colyledonis. Willd, 
3-74. Shrubby, succulent, and extremely tortuous, umbels 
long-peduncled, decompound. Leaves subcordate, downy, 
rugose, some lobate-crenate, some peltate. A native of the 
barren rocky precipices on the south side of the island, and 
known by the name, " Old father live for ever." It grows 
to be a large spreading shrub, with innumerable, thick, suc- 
culent, extremely crooked branches, the apices obtuse, and 
thence both leaves and umbels spring. Bark thick and fleshy, 
the surface dark brown and peels off in small fragments. 
Leaves long, petioled, and soft with down. Stipules small, 
triangular and acute. Peduncles terminal, generally single, 



332 ST. HELENA 

very long, erect, coloured and villous : the umbellets numerous 
and all the divisions long, coloured and villous. Involucres 
scarcely any, involucres of a few small acute scales. Flowers 
numerous, pure white calyx, five- tooth. The rest as in the 
genus. Every part is to me void of smell. 

E. Erythonia caffia. Willd. 3. 914. Cape-coral-tree. 

E. Euphorbia rosea. Willd. 2. 895. French grass of the islanders. 

E. Euphorbia peplus. Willd. 2. 913. Small spurge. 

E. Eugenia Jambos. Willd. 2. 959. Rose apple. 

E. Ficus carica. The common fig grows freely here, and 
produces good crops of excellent fruit ; but like all else in rural 
economy, is too much neglected. 

E. Ficus indica, or the famous Banyan Tree of India. 

E. Ficus religiosa. Willd. 41134. 

E. Ficus terebrata. Willd. 41145. Is the most common tree 
in James Valley, where it grows freely and furnishes excellent 
fuel, the wood of the species being much firmer than any other 
species of this genus known to me. 

I, Fimbristylis textilis. R. Culius naked, columnar until above 
the middle, then somewhat compressed. Leaves none. Spike- 
lets numerous in a hard sessile head 1-2 inches below the 
subulate grooved apex ; flowers 1-3 androgynous ; scales 
boat-shaped, rather obtuse, style 3~fid. St. Helena thatching 
rush ; is a native of the interior of the island, and is in plenty 
for every purpose ; in moist elevated situations, it grows to 
the height of 3-6 feet perfectly destitute of leaves and quite 
straight, about as thick as a crow's quill, of a firm texture 
and smooth glossy deep green colour. A good substantial 
covering of this rush is said to last from ten to fifteen years 
and keeps out wet effectually. 

E. Frageria vesca. Willd. 2. 1090. Strawberries a few varieties, 
but little or no care is taken of them ; they consequently do not 
thrive. 

E. Fraxinus chinensis. R. China ash, a small slow-growing 
tree. 

E. Fumaria capreolata. Willd. 3. 868. Running Fumitory. 

E. Fuchsia coccinea. Willd. 2. 340. Scarlet Fuchsia, grows 
most luxuriantly in Sandy Bay. 

E. Gardenia florida. Willd. 1.1225. Cape Jasmine. 

E, Gardenia thunbergia. Willd. i. 1226. 

E. Gardenia radicans. Willd. i. 1225. 

E. Gledetschia horrida. Willd. 4. 1097. This tree is one of the 
most stately and most beautiful on the island, but unfor- 
tunately, there is but a single specimen to be seen ; it grows 
in the garden at the Governor's country house, where it has 
attained to the height of fifty feet or more ; with trunk and 
coma proportionately large. It has not produced seeds, nor 
have they hitherto been able to multiply this charming tree. 
The large ramous species are confined to the trunk and larger 
branches. 



ST. HELENA 333 

E. Gmelina asiatica. Willd. 3. 313. A large thorny shrub with 

large drooping yellow flowers. 

E. Gnaphalium americanum. Willd. 3. 1887. Everlasting. 
E. Gomphrena globosa. Willd. i. 1321. Annual globe-amaranth. 
E. Gossypium lati folium. Willd. 3. 806. Grows freely and yields 

a large produce of fine cotton. 

E. Gossypium barbeodense. Willd. 3. 806. Barbadoes cotton. 
I. Graminetes marguella. Willd. 5. 139. 
E. Hibiscus populus. Willd. 3. 209. A useful timber tree of 

considerable size. 

E. Hibiscus populeoides. R. A tree similar to last but larger. 
E. Hibiscus mutabilis. Willd. 3. 817. Changeable flowers. 
E. Hibiscus syriacus. Willd. 3. 818. Syrian Hibiscus. 
E. Hibiscus sabdariffa. Willd. 3. 821. Or West Indian sorrel. 
E. Hibiscus cannabinus. Willd. 3. 822. Hemp Hibiscus. 
E. Hibiscus abelmoschus. Willd. 3. 826. Musk Hibiscus. 
E. Hibiscus trionam. Willd. 3. 836. Bladder Hibiscus. 
E. Hibiscus diversifolius. Willd. 3. 820. A tall tree of short 

duration. 

E. Hibiscus ureus. Willd. 3. 817. 
E. Hibiscus rosa sinensis. Willd. 3. 812. China Rose or Shoe 

Flower. 

E. Hibiscus phoeniceus. Willd. 3. 813. 
E. Hibiscus armatus. Or Rock-rose of the islanders. 
E. Haeinanthus. From Cape of Good Hope ; species uncertain. 
I. Hedyotis arborea. R. Dog-wood of the islanders. Arboreous, 
leaves opposite, short petioled, oblong, acummate, entire, 
glossy, recurved ; stipulary sheath cylindric, with one or three 
unequal dentieuli on each side ; Corymbs terminal, bracheate, 
subglobular. Capsules globular. A small tree, a native 
of the dark forests which decorate the misty Alpine tops of 
the most lofty mountains in St. Helena. 

E. Helianthus annures. Willd. 3. 2237, Annual sunflower. 
E. Heliotropium indicum. Willd. i. 740. A weed in gardens. 
E. Hemerocallis fulva. Willd. 2. 197. Day Lily. 
E. Hordeum hexastichon. Willd. i. 472. Spring barley. 
E. Hordeum distichon. Willd. i. 437. Common barley. 
E. Hyderocopyle-asiatica. Willd. i. 1362. Pennywort. 
E. Hydrangea tortensis. Willd. 2. 633. China guelder rose. 
E. Hymenophyllum capillaceum. R. Parasitic, surcald and 
stipes capillary, the former creeping. Fronds lanceolate, 
bipinnatifid ; sigment linear, margins entire. Involucres 
terminal, solitary, more rarely paired subrotund. A most 
beautiful, exquisitely delicate, small creeping parasite, found 
mixed with moss on the trunks of trees over Diana's Peak. 
E. Hypericum monogynum. Willd, 3. 1442. Chinese St. John's 

wort. 

E. Jasminum officinale and odoratissumum. Willd. i. 40. Com- 
mon yellow jasmine. 
E. Impatiens balsamina. Willd. i. 1175. Garden Balsam. 



334 ST. HELENA 

E. Indyoffera tinctoria. Willd. 3. 1237. Common Indigo Plant. 

E. Ipomera qudmoclit. Willd. i. 879, and Grandiflora, R. 

E. Justicia betonica. Willd. i. 96. Betony leaved Justicia. 

E. Issa. Several species from the Cape which thrive well in 
elevated gardens. 

Kyelinga monociphyla. Willd. I. 256. 
Kyelinga sumatrensis. Willd. 1.258. 

E. Lactuca sativa. Willd. 3. 15a3- Lettuces some few for varieties. 

E. Lammen purpurean. Willd. 3. 88. Red Dead nettle. 

E. Laura peisea. Willd. 2. 480. Avocado pear. Saw only one 
tree on the whole island, and no care taken of it ; indeed no 
person knew what it was. It blossoms freely every year, but 
has not produced fruit. 

E. Leontodon taraxacum. Willd. 3. 1544. Dandelion. 

E. Limodoreum aloefolium. Cymbedium. Willd, 4.101. 

I. Lobelia scoevoli folia. R. Shrubby erect branchlets, succulent 
and polished. Leaves sparse, crenate-lanceolate, smooth 
serrate. Peduncles axillary, solitary, shorter than the leaves, 
one-flowered. Capsules clavate-turbinate. A native of the 
thick well-shaded forests which clothe the south face of the 
Sandy Bay range of mountains, where it grows to be a pretty 
large shrub, the flowers rather large and pure white. 

I. Lonicera Pervclymenum and Caprifolium. Two species of 
Honeysuckle. 

E. Lupinis. Lupin, two or three species in gardens on hills. 

I. Lycopodium cernnum. Willd. 5. 30 (compare with P. Saururus 
Willd, 5.30). Grows in great abundance on the mountains, 
where it is called Buckshorn. General height, from one to 
three feet, and uncommonly raucous. 

I. Lycopodium axittare. R. Stems erect, simple, umbracated 
on all sides with numerous glossy, entirely acute, subappressed 
ensiform leaves. Capsules axillary, solitary sessile. Found 
indigenous among grass on rather dry rocky situations over 
the higher parts of the south face of Diana's Peak. 

E. Magnoliac pumila, obovata and fuscata. All from China and 
grow luxuriantly here. 

E. Malva mauritiana. Linn. Ivy leaf mallow. 

E. Mangifera rudica. Linn. Common mango thrives well at Briars. 

E. Melia sempervivens, Willd. Grows abundantly to the size 
of a small tree over most parts of the island, and highly or- 
namental, being in flower and seed the whole year. 

E. Melia superba. R. A large timber tree from India. 

E. Melia robusta. R. Also a large timber tree from India. 

E. Melia Azedarach. Willd. 2.558. A good and beautiful timber 

tree, a native of China. 

E. Melissa officinalis. Willd. 3. 146. Balm. 
E. Mentha viridis. Lii and two or three undetermined species 

of mint. 

E. Mesembryanthemum. Fig marigold. Several species Dr. Rox- 
burgh saw in garden, from Cape of Good Hope originally. 



ST. HELENA 335 

E. Mespilus japonica. Willd. 2. 1010. Louquat of the Chinese. 
This most elegant useful tree is perfectly at home here, and 
in time, with a little care, will be highly beneficial to St. Helena. 
E. Michellia champaca. Willd. 2. 1260. In one garden only. 

i. Mikania arborea. R. Arboreous with straight trunk. Leaves 
alternate, petioled, oblong, smooth gland dentate serrate. 
Panicles, terminal drooping. Calyx simple, cylindrico, five 
toothed, five-flowered. She-cabbage tree, the vernacular name, 
In the forests which decorate the south face of Sandy Bay 
ridge it grows plentifully to be a tall slender straight tree, 
particularly while young ; for by age it becomes bent to one 
side and well furnished with crooked brittle branches. The 
wood is white and is used for timber in very large 
quantities. Young shoots smooth, of a bright purple colour ; 
while the trees are young (say under six to eight feet), 
simple with the leafy tops, resembling a highly coloured cole- 
wort, hence the vernacular name. When in this stage the 
leaves are generally from one to two feet long by four to eight 
inches broad ; in old stunted trees two to three inches long 
by one to two inches broad. Panicles rather thin sub-dicho- 
tomous, coloured like the petioles, etc., corymbiform. Branches 
single, smooth and small under each division, besides others 
on the pedicells and round the base of the simple cylindric, 
smooth five-toothed calyx, which when the seeds are ripe 
splits in five linear recurved leaflets. 

E. Mimosa arabica. R. Acacia. Willd. 4. 1085. 

E. Mimosa sressa R. Or Mauritius blackwood. 

E. Mimosa cinerea. Linn. Acacia cinerea. Willd. 4. 1057. 

E. Mimosa glaucescens. R. Acacia glancesceas. Willd. 4. 1052. 

E. Mimosa juniperina. Acacia juniperina. Willd. 4. 1099. 

E. Mimosa lunfolia. Linn. Acacia lunfolia. Willd. 4. 1051. 

E. Mimosa glauca. Linn. Acacia glanca. Willd. 4. 1075. 

E. Mimosa farnesiana. Linn. Acacia farnesiana. Willd. 4. 1083. 

E. Mimosa scandens. Linn. Acacia scandens. Willd, 4.1057. 
On the windward side of the island the seeds are cast on shore 
and vegetate. Beside the above there are some other exotic 
species which I had no opportunity to determine. 

E. Mimusops Eleuji. Willd. 2. 325. Bocul of the Hindoos. 

E. Mirabilis jalapa. Willd. i. 999. Common marvel of Peru. 

E. Momordia charantia. Willd. 4. 60 1. The fruit before maturity 
much used in the diet of the Hindoos. 

E. Moreae chinensis. Willd. i. 245. 

E. Morus nigra. Willd. 4. 369. Common Mulberry tree. 

E. Morus atropurpurea. R. A quick growing tree from China. 

E. Murrays exotica. Willd. 2. 548. China box tree. 

E. Musa sapientum. Willd. 4. 894. Banana. 

E. Musa paradisicea, Willd. 4. 893. Common plantain tree. 

I. Myrsticamoschata. Willd. 4. 863. Banda nutmeg. One sickly 

plant in Major Hudson's garden, James Valley. 
E. Myrtus pementa. Willd. 2.973. Introduced by Dr. Roxburgh 



336 



ST. HELENA 



in 1805. It thrives well in the garden near the south island, 
where it is cool and often moistened. 

Myrtus communis. Willd. 2. 967. Grows most luxuriantly to the 
size of a small, very ramous tree. Besides the common myrtle 
there are two other varieties thereof. 

E. Narcissus tazetta. Pseudo Narcissus and Jonquilla. In 
gardens. 

E. Nerium tructorium. R. and ordorium. Willd. i. 1235. 

E. Nicotiana Tabacum. Willd. i. 1014. Common Virginian and 
Havana tobacco. 

E. Olea europea. Willd. i. 44. Common olive. Grows luxu- 
riantly to be a tree of considerable size, and might be advan- 
tageously reared for fuel independent of the fruit. 

I. Ophioglossum lusitanicum. Willd. 5. 59. 

E. Origanum majoraioides. Willd. 3, 137. Stout shrubby species 
Marjoram. 

E. Oriza sativa. Willd. 2. 247. This highly useful grain, rice, 
does not thrive on any part of the island, at least such is the 
report ; and Dr. Roxburgh saw nothing to make him think 
otherwise. 

E. Osteospeimum pesiferum. Willd. 

Panicum aliare. Willd. i . 344. 

Panicum aegypticum. Willd. i. 343. 

Panicum dactylon. Willd. i. 342. Wire grass the vernacular 
name, and supposed to be a native of the island. Agrostis 
stellata and lincarrs of Willdenow. I am inclined to consider 
this very identical species consequently the East Indian 
dup-grass or dupa. 

E. Panicum italicum. Willd. i. 336. Is much cultivated in 
many parts of Asia, but does not thrive in St. Helena. 

E. Panicum molle. Willd. i. 340, or Scotch grass. 

E. Panicum verticillatum. Willd. i. 343. Rough Panic grass. 
Besides the above six there are two or three more which Dr. 
Roxburgh had not a good opportunity of ascertaining. 

E. Parkinsonia aculeata. Willd. 2. 513. A most beautiful quick 
growing tree. 

E. Passiflora cerulea. Willd. 3. 623. Common Passion Flower. 

E. Pelargonium betulinum \ 
Pelargonium capitatum. 

E. Pelargonium angulosum. 

E. Pelargonium cucullatum. I Geraniums. All introduced 

E. Pelargonium inquinans. from the Cape of Good Hope. 

E. Pelargonium denticulatum. 

E. Pelargonium graveolius. 

E. Pelargonium hytvidim. ) 

E. Pentapetes. Linn. Pterospermum suberifolium. Willd. 3. 723 
Saw only one tree on the island. It was reared in the Com- 
pany's nursery from seed sent from Bengal by Dr. Roxburgh. 
E. Phaseolus vulgaris. Willd. 3. 1030. Several varieties of kidney 
bean. 



ST. HELENA 337 

E. Phaseolus lunatus. Willd. 3. 1031. Lima Bean. 

E. Phillyea. Willd. i. 42. Common Phillyrea. 

E. Phlomis nepetifolia. Willd. 3. 1236. 

I. Phylica elliptica. R. Shrubby. Leaves opposite, short pe- 
tioled, elliptic, rarely subovate, thick and hard, hoary and 
concave underneath. Stipules four tern, ovate, concave. 
Flowers in peduncled, axillary, hoary heads. Capsules tur- 
binate. A native of the most elevated parts of Diana's Peak 
and of the Sandy Bay range, where it grows fairly large, but 
is a low spreading tree, there called the wild olive ; flowering 
in July and the seeds ripen in March. The wood is dark 
coloured, hard, and very useful. 

I. Phylica rosmanfolia. R. Arboreus, very ramous. Leaves 
alternate, short petioled, lanceolar acute, lucid above, hoary 
underneath, margins revoluto. Stipules subulate: Flowers 
axillary subsessile. Wild Rosemary it is called by the islanders ; 
and is found indigenous on moderately high mountains, where 
it grows to be a middling sized useful timber tree of great 
beauty and fragrance. The bark tolerably smooth ; the trunk 
short, thick and crooked. The leaves bear resemblance to 
those of Rosemary : lucid above and white beneath. Flowers 
minute, pale greenish white. Capsules size of a pea, oval, 
until dry-ripe bacciform, after they split into three. 

E. Phoenix dactylifera. Willd. 4. 730. A few trees only were 
seen, though they thrive well and promise much benefit to the 
island if carefully managed. 

E. Phyllanthus andrachnoides. Willd. 4. 575. 

I. Physalis begonifolia. R. Shrubby and very ramous. Leaves 
in pairs, petioled, unequally ovate-cordate, entire and soft. 
Peduncles axillary, solitary, drooping, one-flowered. Calyx 
campanulate, larger than the whole corol, its borders divided 
into five, broad short unequal rounded segments. A native 
of the rocky hills on the east and south sides of the island 
and known by the name of box-wood. The trunk grows 
single from two to four feet in height, and about as thick as 
a man's arm ; its bark tolerably smooth and brownish. 
Branches numerous and divide into innumerable alternate 
villous branches. 

E. Physalis peruveana. Willd, i. 1022. Brazil cherry, is very 
common everywhere because the goats do not eat it, and 
furnishes the island folk with ample supplies of large palatable 
berries, without requiring the least care. 

E, Pinus longifolia. Lamb pin-tab 21. Of this magnificent 
pine there are but one or two young trees in the Governor's 
garden. 

Pinus pinaster. Willd, 4. 496. Grows well and to a great size on 
the south side of the island, also in the Governor's garden 
and plantations. 

E. Pinus pivea. Willd. 4. 497. Stone pine. 

E. Pinus sylvestors. Willd. 4. 494. Scotch fir. 

Y 



338 



ST. HELENA 



Pisum sativum. Willd. 3. 1070. Garden pea, a few varieties. 

E. Pitto sporum. Tobira. Botanical Magazine, 1396. 

I. Plantago robusta. R. Shrubby. Leaves crowded round the 
apices of the robust ligneous branches, linear entire, withering. 
Spikes few, axillary, cylindric, long peduncled. A native of 
the top of the moderately high hills over the island, where it 
grows to be a stout shrub, with but few very thick simple 
somewhat woody branches ; bark strongly marked with the 
innumerable scars of the fallen leaves. 

394.' j Three <> ualities of rather inferior 

Poa pratensis. Willd. i. 388. J 

Poa laxa. Willd, i. 386. 

E. Poinciana pulcherimma. Willd. Prickly flower fence. 

E. Polyanthes tuberosa. Willd, 2.164. Tuberose. 

I. Polypodium macrocarpum. Willd, 5.147. Surculi creeping, 
slender and very scaly, rooting on trees, rocks, etc. Stipes 
short, slender, polished dark brown and somewhat winged 
while young, scaly. Fronds (4-6 inch) narrow, lanceolar, 
tapering most at the base, entire rather obtuse, smooth thick 
firm, veinless surfaces, particularly the under dotted with 
ferruginous specks. Spots in one row on the exterior half 
large, round and distinct, but intermixed with many peltate 
scales, which while young unite and form a complete poly- 
phyllous involucre, Is a pretty delicate species, growing 
over the south face of Diana's Peak. It may be referred to 
Pleopeltis of Humboldt and Bonpland. 

I. Polypodium molle. R. Stipes deeply channelled with the 
rachis, covered with soft hair and large brown ramenti. Fronds 
ovate, soft and hairy underneath, sub oppositely bipinnate. 
Leaflet deeply crenate. Fructifications numerous, small gener- 
ally in two ill-defined rows equally distant from the nerve 
and margin. A native of Diana's Peak, grows in tufts in most 
thickets to be 2-4 feet high. 

I. Polypodium rugulosum. Willd. 5. 2046. Stipes hairy. Fronds 
oblong, alternately bi-ternate, texture thin and soft, pinnoe, 
lanceolate, obtuse. Leaflets dentate. Spors sub-marginal. 
Found on Diana's Peak growing to the height of 2-3 feet, but 
slender and every way delicate. 

I. Polypodium dicksoni folium. R. Stipes brown channelled and 
scabeous. Fronds lanceolate, sub-triplinate, sub-opposite, 
linear oblong, obtuse deeply obtuse crenate. Spots large, 
one or two on each of the ultimate segments of the frond, the 
margins of which turn down, and in part cover them. A 
pretty, delicate, divided plant growing on Diana's Peak to 
height 8-12 inches. 

I. Polypodium viscidium. R. Surculi flexuose, brown and 
shaggy, stipes, etc., channelled and clothed with clammy 
headed diverging soft hairs on a brown ground. Fronds 
ovate, sub-oppositely triplinnate and superdecompound 



ST. HELENA 339 

leaflets linear oblong, obtusely crenate or pinnatifid. Spots 
distinct, few or numerous, under the recurved crenatures of 
the segments of the leaflets. Common about stone dikes, 
etc., etc., Sandy Bay, where it grows to the height of from 
6 inches to 2-3 feet and fructifies all the year. 

E. Populus alba. Willd. 4. 802. White poplar or Abele tree 
thrives well. 

E. Portulaca oleracea. Willd. 2. 859. Common Purslane. 

E. Protea argenta. Willd. i. 529. Silver tree. 

E. Protea mellifera. Willd. i. 522. Honey-bearing Protea. 

E. Prenus armeniaca. Willd, 2. 989. Apricot. Does not succeed 
here. 

E. Psidium pomiferum. Willd. 2. 958. Common guava. 

I. Psoralea pennata. Willd. 3. 1342. Goble-gheer, the vernacular 
name. 

I. Ptevis semiserrata. R. Stipes length of the ovate, oppositely 
binatifid, flimsy fronds, polished smooth green and channelled. 
Pinnoe lanceolate ; segments divided nearly to the base, linear- 
lanceolate barren apices serrate. A native of Sandy Bay, 
where it grows to be 2-5 feet high. 

I. Ptevis palaceae. R. Stipes and surculi densely clothed with 
long brown black scarious scales. Fronds suborbicular, bi- 
tripinnately pedube, leaflets falcate-linguiform obtuse. Raches 
of the punia spinulosa on the upper side. A robust scarce 
species of about 2 feet in height, a native of the south face of 
Diana's Peak. 

E. Punica granatum. Willd. 2. 981. Pomegranate. 

E. Pyrus chinensis. R. China pear. Large but very indifferent. 

E. Pyrus mallis. Willd. 2. 1016. The apple and but few sorts 
on the island. 

E. Pyrus cydonea. Willd. 2. 1020. Quince. 

E. Quercus robur. Willd. 4. 450. Common British oak. 

E. Quercus ilex. Willd. 4. 433. Evergreen oak. 

E. Quercus suber. Willd. 4. 433. Cork tree. 

E. Ranunculus bulbosus. Willd. 2. 1324. Buttercups. 

E. Raphanus sattvus. 3.560. Radish. 

E. Rhus vernex. Willd. i. 1497. One tree in Deputy-Governors' 
garden. 

E. Ricinus commune. Willd. 4. 564. Common Palmi Chris ti. 
This grows luxuriantly. 

I. Roella angustifolia. R. Perennial, diffuse ; branches long, 
slender and scabrous. Leaves alternate, sessile linear lanceo- 
late, remotely and acutely gland-serrate, denticulate. Pe- 
duncles lateral many times longer than the leaves, dichotomous, 
many flowered. Common in fissures of the rocks about Major 
Seals' farm in Sandy Bay, where fogs prevail and the ther- 
mometer ranges from 60 to 70. Is in seed and flower the 
whole year. The flowers are pure white, erect and pretty large. 
I think it would be an ornamental plant for a flower garden. 
I. Roella paniculata. R. Shrubby, erect, branchlets hairy, 



340 ST. HELENA 



Leaves sparse, sessile, cuneate-lanceolate, serrulate, hairy. 
Panicles terminal hairy. A slender upright shrub with but 
few erect branches. A native of the thick forest of the south 
face of Diana's Peak ; the flowers are large and white. 
I. Roella huofolia. R. Shrubby sub-parasitic (or 2 Dicksonia 
arborescens). Leaves sparse, sessiles numerous, linear, smooth, 
very acutely serrulate. Peduncles (racoures) terminal, few 
flowered. A pretty little ramous diffuse alpine plant found 
in the top of Sandy Bay Ridge, chiefly on Diana's Peak. 
Leaves crowded round the somewhat villous columnar branches. 
The flowers white, with a tinge of pink and highly ornamental. 
E. Rosa-triphytta. R. Scandent ternate-leaved, large white 

single rose. 

E. Rosa centifolia. Willd. 2. 1071. Common Rose. 
E. Rosa muscosa. Willd. 2. 1078. Moss Rose. 
E. Rosa chinensis. Willd. 2. 1078. 
E. Rosa semper ftorens. Willd. 2. 1074. 

E. Rubus pinnatus. Willd. 2. 1 08 1. Shrubby. Leaves pinnate, 
leaflets five or seven, rarely three ovate-cordate lucid, strongly 
veined, doubly serrate. Panicles terminate. Stems, branches, 
petioles and peduncles armed ; tender shoots villous and hoary. 
Bramble, the vernacular name on St. Helena, where it proves 
a most noxious plant running over large tracts of the best land ; 
on account of the rapidity with which it grows to a much larger 
size than the common bramble of Europe (Rubus friticoseus}. 
It has hitherto baffled every attempt to extirpate it. The roots 
grow to a great size, and every bit left in the ground grows. 
Stem scarce, and what there is grows to be as thick as a man's 
leg sometimes. Branches numerous, very long and scandent, 
when their apices rest on the ground they strike root and 
produce other plants as in the other species of this genus. 
The young shoots glaucous and downy, the bark of the old 
dark brown ; all are well armed with numerous recurved 
prickles. Leaves alternate, pinnate 6-12 inches long, leaflets 
ovate and ovate-cordate, smooth doubly serrate. Petioles 
and ribs armed. Stipules petiolary, ensiform. Panicles term- 
inal, with their peduncles and sub-divisions armed and downy. 
Brackes like the stipules. Calycine segments lanceloate, 
nearly twice the length of the ovate, pink petals, and they are 
rather longer than the stamina and styles. Berries in shape, 
size and colour very like those of the common bramble, but 
scarcely so palatable. Some of the old inhabitants say it was 
brought originally from England for the common bramble 
of that country ; others, and with greater probability, say it 
was brought from the Cape of Good Hope. 
E. Runex vescicannis. Willd. 2. 256. Bladder sorrel and Ace tosa 

or common sorrel. 
E. Runex paticuta. Willd. 2. 249, and one or two species, which 

Dr. Roxburgh had no opportunity of ascertaining. 
E. Ruta graveolens. Willd. 2. 542. Rue. 



ST. HELENA 341 

E. Salex babylonica. Willd. 4. 671. Weeping Willow and two 
other unascertained species. 

E. Sacchamm officinavum. Willd. i. 321. Sugar-cane. 

I. Salsola salsa. Willd, i. 1312. Common over the most barren 
parts of the island. 

E. Salvia officinalis. Willd. 3. 129. Common sage and coccinea 
scarlet sage. 

E. Sambuci nigra. Willd. i. 1495. Common Elder. 

E. Sanseviera zeylanica. Willd. 2. 159. 

E. Scytalia litchi.(see Gaert sem, 1. 197.) Litchi of China, a well- 
known fruit. 

E. Scytalia longa. R. Longan or Dragon's Eye, the small 
round grey Litchi. 

E. Scytalia rambootan. R. Nephelium cappaceum. Linn. 
Rambootan of the Malays. 

E. Senecia j'acobea. Willd. 3. 1997. Common Ragwort. 

E. Sida lanceolatea and micro phylla. Willd. 3. 736 and 739. 

E. Sigesbeckia orientalis. Willd. 3.2219. A weed in gardens. 

E. Solanum tuberosum. Willd. i. 1033. Common Potatoes, se- 
veral varieties. 

E. Solanum lycopersicum. Willd. i. 1033. Love apple. 

E. Solanum pseudo-capsicum. Willd, 1.1026. Bastard capsicum 

E. Solanum sodomann. Willd. i. 1043. Black spined Solanum. 

E. Solanum jacqumiri. Willd. i. 1041. 

E. Solanum nigrum. Willd. i. 1035. Garden solanum leaves 
used as spinage. 

I. Solidago spuria. Willd. 3. 2053. Conyza rugosa, Ait, Kew, 
3.184. Arboreous. Leaves short petioled, cuneate-lanceolate, 
obtuse serrate-dentate, tomentone underneath. Corymbs 
terminal (ultimately in the forks and length of the leaves) 
much crowded. Bastard cabbage tree of the islanders. On 
the tops of the highest mountains it grows to be a large but 
inelegant tree. The wood close grained, white and durable, 
but chief use for fuel. 

I. Solidago leucodendfon. Willd. 3. 2054. Arboreous, very 
ramous. Leaves sessile, cuneate-lanceolate, anterior margin 
serrate, smooth. Corymbs terminal, length of the leaves, 
many flowered ; flowers sub-cylindric ; female florets 6-10 
in the ray and 4-6 hermaphrodite in the centre. Cabbage 
tree gum- wood the vernacular name on St. Helena, where 
it is indigenous on the mountain at an elevation of from 1,500 
to 2,000 feet above the sea, and grows to be a pretty large 
ramous tree, its ultimate ramification tricholomous with dark 
brown bark, rendered scabious by the numerous elevated 
scars of the fallen leaves. Leaves smoother and less clammy 
than in the other species. Corymbs terminal, several to- 
gether ; peduncles and divisions cylindric and smooth ; flowers 
numerous, small and white, the female florets revolute, branches 
subulate ; scales of the calyx decrease so as to be very minute 
at the base. The wood used for fuel chiefly. 



342 ST. HELENA 

I. Solidago integrifolia. R. Arboreus with far-spreading 
branches, and smooth glossy branchlets. Leaves sparse, 
approximate, sessile, cuneate-lanceolate, obtuse entire, margins 
revolute, glossy above while young, slightly woolly underneath. 
Corymbs terminal, length of the leaves, very ramous and 
large. Black cabbage-tree. The vernacular name. On Sandy 
Bay Ridge it grows to be one of the largest, some say the largest 
indigenous tree on the island, the trunk about 5-6 feet in 
circumference ; the coma very ramous, large and spreading ; 
wood white, hard and serviceable for various purposes, but 
fuel chiefly. Flowers white, appearing in January, female 
florets 20-30 inches the ray ; male in the disk and numerous ; 
receptacle naked, convex pappus hairy. Calyx subcylindric, 
imbricated scales numerous, linear, acute. 

I. Solidago cuneifolia. R. Arboreus. Leaves sessile, cuneiform, 
grossly serrate on the anterior margins, very rugose (but scarce 
villous). Peduncles terminal, length of the leaves, few flow- 
ered. Hermaphrodite and female florets about two of each. 
He-cabbage tree of the islanders. It grows to be a middle- 
sized tree, its ultimate ramifications dichotomous, bark thereof 
olive brown. Leaves less crowded than in Leucodendron 
but larger, anterior half deeply serrate ; posterior half entire 
and taper much, all are very rigose and villous underneath. 
Peduncles terminal, simple and one flowered, or soon divide 
into two, three of four long, slender, smooth, one flowered 
pedicells ; flowers white ; calyx cylindric, etc., as in Leuco- 
dendron ; the female florets are nearly as numerous as the 
hermaphrodite lanceolar, apices three dentate, spreading at 
first, but by age become revolute. 

I. Solidago rotundi flora. R. Arboreus. Leaves alternate, long 
petioled from oval to sub-rotund, serrate-dentate, smooth, 
while young shining with clammy varnish. Panicles terminal, 
spreading, length of the leaves very ramous and sub-rotund. 
A native of the heights of St. Helena, where it is called the 
Bastard Gum- wood by some, and Cabbage tree by others. 
On the hills and mountains it grows to be a tree of about 20 
feet in height, with a crooked trunk, which is thick in pro- 
portion to the size of the tree ; its bark and that of the branches 
also almost black, but pretty smooth except for the numerous 
scars left by the decayed leaves. Wood white, hard and 
durable. Petioles channelled, nearly as long as the leaves. 
Panicles terminal when they first appear, but by the growth 
of two or three branchlets from the apex of the twig they 
soon stand in the fork thereof ; this is the general habit of all 
those syngenesious trees found by me in this island. Flowers 
numerous, small and white, 3-10 ligulate revolute female 
florets in the ray, and 7-8 tubular male in the disk. Sonchus 
oleraceus and laevis. Common sow thistles. 

E. Spactium junceum. Willd. 3. 926. Broom. 

I. Spilanthus tetrandra. R. Shrubby. Leaves opposite, short, 



ST. HELENA 343 

petioled, oblong serrate, convex reticulate, underneath. Pe- 
duncles axillary solitary, one rarely, two flowered, bracted ; 
florets tetrandous. Indigenous on the mountains, where it 
grows to 4-5 feet high. 

E. Spinacia oleracea. Willd. 4. 766. Spinage (Common). 

E. Spiraea corymbosa. R. A pretty China shrub already de- 
scribed by Dr. Roxburgh. 

E. Swietenia mahagoni. Willd. 2. 557. Mahogany tree intro- 
duced from the Botanic Garden at Calcutta. 

E. Swietenia febrifuga. R. East India Fever bark tree. 

E. Syringa vulgaris. Willd. i. Common Lilac. 

E. Tagetes patula and erecta. Willd. 3. 2136. French and African 
Marigold. 

E. Tamanucus indica. Willd. 3. 577. Tamarind tree. 

E. Taxus elongata. Willd, 4.857. Cape of Good Hope. 

E. Taxus chinensis. R. China Yew. 

E. Tectona grandis. Willd, 1.1088. Teakitree. 

E. Tevminalia catappa. Willd. 4. 967. An elegant and useful 
large tree. 

E. Tetmntheae macrophylla. R. Brought from Bengal by Dr. 
Roxburgh, being the food of the Mogadooty silkworm. 

E. Thea. Tea. Saw one or two stunted plants in the Governor's 
garden. 

E. Thuja oracutalis. Willd. 4. 508. Chinese arbor-vitae. 

E. Thuja cupressoides. Willd. 4. 510. African arbor-vitae. 

E. Thymus vulgaris. Willd. 3. 139. Common Thyme. 

E. Tradescantia discolor. Willd. 2. 18. Purple leaved Trades- 
cantia. 

E. Trichosanthes anguina. Willd. 4. 598. Snake gourd. 

E. Trifolium clover. Several sorts have been repeatedly tried 
but with little success ; in some places a little white clover is 
seen growing amongst the grass in gardens. 

E. Triticum aestuum and hybericum. Summer and winter wheat. 

E. Tropcelum majus. Willd, 2.298. Indian cress. 

E. Ulex eurapeous. Willd. 3. 969. Common whin. 

E. U limes virgata. R. A small tree from China. 

E. Urtica tenacissima. R. Calvoee of the Malays ; from the 
fibres of its bark the China grass cloth is made. 

E. Vicia faba. Willd. 4. ii.n. Garden bean. 

E. Vinca rosea. Willd. i. 1233. Rosy periwinkle. 

E. Vilts vunferae. Willd. i. 1180. Grapevine. 

E. Volkameria inerme. See Clerodendron. 

E. Viola tricolour. Willd. i. 1168. Pansy. 

E. Zea mays. Willd. 4. 200. India corn is common in gardens 
but does not seem to make anything like a profitable field crop. 

E. Zamia. One small plant of an uncertain species in the public 
nursery. 



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