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EUSEBIUS in his Ecclesiastical History tells us 
that in addition to his great work Against Heresies 
St Irenseus wrote A Discourse in Demonstration of 
the Apostolic Preaching. This work was entirely 
lost sight of: no one seems ever to have quoted 
a word of it. But it has quite recently reappeared 
in an Armenian manuscript together with Books 
IV and V of the greater work. The Armenian 
translation proves to be a fairly close rendering 
of the original Greek. 

What Irenseus meant by the Apostolic Preach- 
ing can be seen from his larger work. Although the 
exact expression does not seem to occur there, we 
have its equivalent, " the Preaching of the Apostles " 
(III, iii. 2), and also the parallel phrases, "the 
Tradition of the Apostles" (III, iii. 4) and "the 
Preaching of the Truth'' (I, iii. I; III, iii. 4). 
Moreover, in I, i. 20 we read that "he who holds 
the canon (or rule) of the truth without deviation, 
which he received through his baptism," will be 
able to escape all the snares of heresy : and in the 
Demonstration (c. 3.) we have closely'parallel words 
which also refer to the baptismal faith. Although 
it was not until much later that the baptismal 
confession came to be called the Apostles' Creed, 


it was already regarded as a summary of the 
essential elements of the Apostolic message. Its 
form varied in some details in different Churches, 
but its structure was everywhere the same, for it 
had grown up on the basis of the baptismal 

What Irenaeus undertakes in the present work 
is to set out the main points of this Apostolic 
message, which, as he has explained in his greater 
work (III, iii. i ff.), has been handed down in the 
Church by the successions of the bishops and is 
the same in substance in all parts of the world, 
and to demonstrate its truth more especially from 
the sacred scriptures of the Old Testament. This 
argument from prophecy was the earliest form of 
Christian evidence ; and though it does not appeal 
to us with equal force to-day, and we find it hard 
to be patient with some of the proofs which 
seemed to be convincing in the earliest times, we 
must yet recognize that it was a true instinct 
which claimed the Jewish scriptures as the heri- 
tage of the Christian Church, and surmounted by 
means of allegorical interpretations those serious 
difficulties which led many Christians to wish to 
cast them aside altogether. 

The words of Bishop Westcott in reference to 
the methods of the schoolmen of the Middle 
Ages, are applicable also to these earlier teachers : 
" Many of the arguments which they use appear 
to us frivolous and pointless. It requires a serious 
effort to enter into them with a sympathetic in- 
telligence. But the effort is worth making. Con- 
clusions which rest upon arbitrary assumptions 


as to the symmetries of things witness in an 
imperfect fashion to a deep sense of a divine order 
in creation ; and we do injustice to those who draw 
them if we allow even the greatest errors of 
expression and form to blind us to the nobility 
of the conception which they embody most in- 
adequately" (Epp. of St John, "The Gospel of 
Creation," pp. 276 f.). 

The wonder of Irenaeus is the largeness of his 
outlook. No theologian had arisen since St Paul 
and St John who had grasped so much of the 
purpose of God for His world. " The Making of 
Man," to borrow Tennyson's great phrase, is his 
constant theme. Even though he was forced to 
be controversial, he was never merely negative ; 
and the last of his books Against Heresies ends 
on the keynote of the whole that man shall at 
length be made " after the image and likeness of 
God." This is to him the meaning of all history ; 
and for that reason the centre point of history is 
the Incarnation. So Christ came " to link up the 
end with the beginning," or in St Paul's words, 
which Irenaeus never tires of repeating, " to gather 
up into one all things " in Himself. 

I have retained the chapter divisions of the first 
editors and translators of the Armenian text. The 
references to the work Against Heresies are to 
Harvey's edition (Cambridge, 1857). Though I 
have not everywhere reproduced the double render- 
ings which are so frequent in the Armenian, I 
have made the translation sufficiently literal to 
serve the general needs of the patristic student, 




even at the cost of some clumsiness of expression. 
In the Introduction and Notes I have been at some 
pains to bring out the indebtedness of Irenaeus to 
Justin Martyr ; and in pursuance of the same end 
I have devoted a section of the Introduction -to 
the teaching of both these writers in regard to the 
Holy Spirit. 


The Deanery, 
Wells, Somerset, Oct. 1919. 



PREFACE . . . . . . v 




GENERAL INDEX . . . . . . 154 






IT is a remarkable fact, and much to be 
regretted, that none of the works of St Irenaeus, the 
greatest theologian of the second century, have 
come down to us in the language in which they 
were written. Of his chief work, the five books 
Against Heresies, we have a very early Latin 
translation, and a few fragments of the original 
Greek preserved through quotation by other 
writers. 1 The work now before us, The Demon- 
stration of the Apostolic Preaching, has recently 
been found in an Armenian translation, and no 
portion of it seems to have survived in any other 

This new treatise does not come upon us entirely 
as a surprise ; for Eusebius 2 had mentioned its 
title, El$ snidsi^iv TOV anoorofanov xrjQvyjuaTos, and 
had said that it was addressed to " a brother named 

1 The Armenian translation of Bks. IV and V, found in the 
same MS. with our treatise, is a valuable aid for the criticism 
of these books. 

2 Eccl. Hist., v. 26. 


Marcianus." This is all he tells us ; but we can 
now add from the book itself that it was written 
after the completion of the greater work, and 
therefore somewhere about A.D. 190; and that 
Marcianus was on intimate terms with the writer, 
but absent from him at the time of writing. 1 The 
work Against Heresies is, of course, controversial 
from first to last : but the present treatise is a sort 
of Vade mecum for an intelligent Christian, 
explaining his faith, placing it in its historical 
setting in relation to Judaism, and confirming it 
by the citation and exposition of a great number 
of Old Testament passages. It is in no sense 
a manual for catechumens : it is a handbook of 
Christian Evidence, though its form is not 

A tract of this kind from the pen of a great 
teacher in any age must needs be of interest. 
How was Christianity presented as a whole to an 
educated believer ? What were the main points 
of doctrine and of life on which stress was laid ? 
What were the grounds of belief which appeared 
to be most convincing then ? These are the things 
which the historian of religious development wants 
to know in each of the Christian centuries, and which 
he finds it exceptionally difficult to get at. The 
great events and the leading personalities have 
left their mark on the records of the time : the 
development of doctrine and the growth of 
ecclesiastical institutions can be traced with 
increasing clearness as the documents are tested 
and studied and compared : but the religious sense 

1 See chapters I and 99. 


of an age, the beliefs which affected life, and the 
grounds of those beliefs, the ruling motives 
of conduct, the things that to the best minds 
seemed to matter most these escape us unless 
we are insistent in our search for them ; and often, 
search as we will, we find little to reward our 
pains. We have special reason to be grateful for 
a plain statement of the Christian religion as 
it presented itself to a master mind at the end of 
the second century. A long and varied experience 
had qualified Irenaeus for such a task. As a boy 
he had listened to St Polycarp at Smyrna, and he 
may have conversed with others the Elders, as he 
calls them who had seen the Apostles. He had 
visited Rome on business of ecclesiastical moment, 
and as Bishop of Lyons he had long presided over 
the churches of Southern Gaul. Moreover he had 
explored every maze of heresy, and had confronted 
what we now call " Gnosticism," in all its divergent 
forms, with the Christian truth as he had come to 
conceive it in a long life of patient study and 
practical ministry. He had given to the Church 
his five books of The Exposure and Overthrow of 
Knowledge (Gnosis) falsely so called. When such 
a man lays controversy aside and takes up his pen 
to talk, as he says, to his absent friend, and furnish 
him with a summary statement of the Apostolic 
message and the reasons for believing it in terms of 
his own day, he deserves our close attention. We 
shall make little of him if we insist on judging him 
by modern standards : we shall miss the definite- 
ness of post-Nicene doctrine ; we shall be 
disappointed at finding nothing about ecclesiastical 


organization ; we shall be distressed at the quaint 
conceits of his exposition of Old Testament 
prophecies. But if we come to him fresh from the 
study of Justin Martyr's First Apology, written 
some thirty-five years before, we shall appreciate 
the atmosphere in which he had grown up and 
shall recognize the advance which he had made in 
the thoughtful interpretation of the Faith. 

The manuscript which contains our treatise was 
found in December 1904, in the Church of the 
Blessed Virgin at Eriwan in Armenia, by Dr 
Karapet Ter-Mekerttshian, one of the most learned 
of the Armenian clergy. It was edited by him 
with a translation into German, in conjunction with 
Dr Erwand Ter-Minassiantz, in 1907, in the Texte 
und Untersuchungen (xxxi. i); and Dr Harnack 
added a brief dissertation and some notes. Then 
in 1912 Dr Simon Weber, of the Faculty of Catholic 
Theology in the University of Freiburg in Breisgau, 
being dissatisfied with this presentation of the work, 
published a fresh translation with the help of some 
Armenian scholars. Neither of these translations 
satisfies the needs of English patristic students. 
The second, though it corrects some errors of the 
first, is far less close to the original text. And 
both are vitiated by a want of acquaintance with 
the textual criticism of the Septuagint and the 
Greek New Testament, and also with the larger 
work of St Irenseus himself. The present trans- 
lation is an attempt to remedy these defects, and 
at the same time to bring the treatise to the know- 
ledge of those who have hitherto been debarred 
by linguistic difficulties from reading it. My own 


acquaintance with the Armenian language and 
literature is so limited that I cannot hope to have 
altogether avoided mistakes, and I shall be grateful 
to those who will point them out. I owe very much 
to the first of the translations into German, and 
something also to the second : if I am sometimes 
right where they were wrong, it is mainly because 
I have sought to read the text in the light of what 
Irenaeus has said elsewhere. 

The same manuscript contains an Armenian' 
version of Books IV and V of the great work 
Against Heresies* These come immediately before 
our treatise, and are embraced with them under 
the single title, The Demonstration of the Apostolic 
Preaching. We cannot say whether this error of 
title goes back beyond the date of the manuscript, 
which was probably written between 1270-1289, 
that is in the time of the learned Archbishop John, 
the brother of King Hetum of Cilicia. A note at 
the end states that it was written for this arch- 
bishop. The Armenian editors believe that the 
same translator is responsible for the two books of 
the larger work and for our treatise, and that the 
translation was made at some date between 650 
and 750. The version of Books IV and V is 
of high value, as enabling us to check the Latin 
version, the MSS. of which differ considerably 
among themselves. It is useful also as illustrating 
the fondness of the Armenian translator for a 
double rendering of a single word of the original. 
When we read the Armenian and the Latin side 

1 Published with a translation by the same editors in Texte u. 
Untersuchungen, xxxv. 2. 


by side, we gain the impression that the Greek 
text has been very closely followed ; and thus we 
are assured that for our present treatise also the 
Armenian version is a faithful representative of 
the lost original. 


IF we are to proceed with safety in forming a 
judgment as to the relation between Justin and 
Irenaeus in respect of the matter which they have 
in common, it will be necessary not merely to 
consider a number of selected parallels, but also 
to examine the treatment of a particular theme in 
the two writers. Let us set side by side, for 
example, c. 32 of Justin's First Apology with 
c. 57 of the Demonstration. Justin has been ex- 
plaining to his Roman readers who the Jewish 
prophets were, and then giving a list of the chief 
things which they expressly foretold concerning 
the coming of Christ. Then he proceeds thus : 

Moses then, who was the first of the prophets, speaks 
expressly as follows : There shall not fail a prince from 
Judah, nor a leader from his loins, until he shall come for 
whom it is reserved : and he shall be the expectation of the 
Gentiles ; binding his colt to the vine ; washing his robe in 
the blood of the grape. It is your part then to make careful 
enquiry and to learn up to what point the Jews had a prince 
and king of their own. It was up to the appearing of Jesus 
Christ, our teacher and the expounder of the prophecies 
which were not understood, namely how it was foretold by 
the divine holy prophetic Spirit through Moses that there 
should not fail a prince from the Jews, until he should come 
for whom is reserved the kingdom. For Judah is the 
ancestor of the Jews, from whom also they obtained that 
they should be called Jews. And you, after His appearance 


took place, both ruled over the Jews and mastered their 

Now the words He shall be the expectation of the Gentiles 
were meant to indicate that from among all the Gentiles men 
shall expect Him to come again which you yourselves can 
see with your eyes and believe as a fact : for men of all races 
are expecting Him who was crucified in Judaea, immediately 
after whose time the land of the Jews was conquered and 
given over to you. 

And the words Binding his colt to the vine and Washing 
his robe in the blood of the grape were a sign to show what 
was to happen to Christ, and what was to be done by Him. 
For the colt of an ass was standing at the entrance to a 
village, tied to a vine ; and this He commanded His disciples 
at that time to bring to Him ; and when it was brought He 
mounted and sat on it, and entered into Jerusalem, where 
was that very great temple of the Jews, which afterwards 
was destroyed by you. And after these things He was 
crucified, that the remainder of the prophecy might be 
accomplished. For Washing his robe in the blood of the 
grape was the announcement beforehand of the passion 
which He was to suffer, cleansing by blood those who be- 
lieve on Him. For what is called by the divine Spirit through 
the prophet (His) robe means the men who believe in Him, 
those in whom dwells the seed from God, (that is) the Word. 
And that which is spoken of as blood of the grape signifies 
that He who is to appear has blood indeed^ yet not from 
human seed, but from a divine power. Now the first power 
after God, the Father and Lord of all, is the Son, the Word : 
of whom we shall presently tell after what manner He was 
made flesh and became man. For even as the blood of the 
vine not man hath made, but God ; so also is it signified that 
this blood shall not be of human seed, but of the power of 
God, as we have said before. 

Moreover Isaiah, another prophet, prophesying the same 
things in other words said thus : There shall rise a star out 
of Jacob, and a flower shall spring up from the root of 
fesse,and^on his arm shall the Gentiles hope. 

The points that strike us at once in this passage 
are these : 

(i) The well-known Blessing of Jacob is cited 
as the prophecy of Moses, who is called the " first 
of the prophets." 


(2) The quotation is abbreviated, and Justin 
comments on it in its abbreviated form. 

(3) The statement that Judah was the ancestor 
of the Jews, and that from him they got their 
name, is on a par with many such explanations 
which Justin makes for the sake of his Roman 

(4) That the Jews had no prince or king of their 
own after the time of Christ, and that their land 
was conquered and ruled by the Romans, was a 
good point of apologetic and one which his readers 
would fully appreciate. 

(5) We are somewhat surprised that "the ex- 
pectation of the Gentiles " should be referred to 
the second coming of Christ. 

(6) The statement that the ass's colt was tied 
to a vine is not found in our Gospels. 

(7) Washing his robe in the blood of the grape 
easily suggested our Lord's passion ; but that His 
robe should be those who believe on Him seems 
to us far-fetched. 

(8) Equally far-fetched is the explanation of the 
blood of the grape as pointing to blood made not 
by man, but by God. 

(9) The combination of Balaam's prophecy with 
words of Isaiah, and the attribution of the whole 
to Isaiah, strikes us as a strange piece of 

Now let us read c. 57 of the Demonstration. 
After a few prefatory sentences in which he notes 
certain points regarding Christ which are the 
subject of prophecy, Irenaeus goes on : 


Moses in Genesis says thus : There shall not fail a prince 
fromjtidah, nor a leader from his loins, until he shall come 
for whom it remaineth : and he shall be the expectation of the 
Gentiles : washing his robe in wine* and his garment in the 
blood of the grape. Now Judah was the ancestor of the Jews, 
.the son of Jacob ; from whom also they obtained the name. 
And there failed not a prince among them and a leader, 
until the coming of Christ. But from the time of His coming 
the might of the quiver was captured, the land of the Jews 
was given over into subjection to the Romans, and they had 
no longer a prince or king of their own. For He was come, 
for whom remaineth in heaven the kingdom ; who also 
washed his robe in wine, and his garment in the blood of the 
grape: His robe as also His garment are those who believe 
on Him, \vhom also He cleansed, redeeming us by His 
blood. And His blood is said to be blood of the grape : 
for even as the blood of the grape no man maketh, but 
God produceth, and maketh glad them that drink thereof, 
so also His flesh and blood no man wrought, but God made. 
The Lord Himself gave the sign of the virgin, even that 
Emmanuel which was from the virgin ; who also maketh 
glad them that drink of Him, that is to say, who receive 
His Spirit, (even) everlasting glcuiness. Wherefore also He 
is the expectation of the Gentiles, of those who hope in him; 
for we expect of Him that He will establish again the 

We may now take our nine points one by one : 

(1) Here again the Blessing of Jacob is cited as 
the prophecy of Moses ; and a little earlier ( 43) 
we find the words : " Moses, who was the first that 

(2) The text of the quotation is the same as in 
Justin : but the words about binding the colt to the 
vine are omitted, and the remainder of the passage 
is given without abbreviation, as in the LXX. 

(3) That Judah is the ancestor of the Jews, who 
got their name from him, is found in Irenaeus ; and 
the actual words would seem to have been taken 
over from Justin. The statement is somewhat 
superfluous in a book written for a fairly well 


instructed Christian, whereas it comes quite 
naturally in Justin's Apology. Though several 
parallels between Justin and Irenaeus might be 
explained by the hypothesis of their both having 
used a book of" Testimonies against the Jews," such 
a solution could hardly be advanced in this case ; 
for the statement in question would not be likely 
to occur in such a book. 

(4) Justin's words are : jueO'ov svOvQ 6oQi(tta)To<; 
vjuiv r\ yfj ' lovdatcov naosdoOrj. The translation of 
the first part of the parallel in Irenaeus is obscure: 
but it is possible that the phrase " the might of the 
quiver was captured " is no more than the transla- 
tor's attempt to make something of doouttwros. 
If so, it would appear certain that here also 
Irenaeus was practically writing out a sentence of 
Justin, only changing vfuv into xol<; f Pcojuatoi<;. 

(5) The expectation of the Gentiles is here also 
explained of the Second Advent ; and the word 
" kingdom " is offered, as in Justin, as the unex- 
pressed subject of & anoKEixai. 

(6) The passage about the ass's colt is omitted 
both from the quotation and from the interpreta- 
tion. Irenaeus has it in IV, xx. 2, where he quotes, 
again as from Moses, the whole section (Gen. xlix. 
1012), ending with : Icetifici oculi ejus a vino, et 
candidi denies ejus quam lac. He then goes on : 
" Let these persons who are said to investigate all 
things search out the time at which there failed 
prince and leader from Judah, and who is the ex- 
pectation of the Gentiles, and what the vine, and 
what his colt, and what the robe, and what are eyes 
and teeth and wine ; and search out every point ; 


and they shall find that none other is foretold, 
than our Lord Jesus Christ." Here again Irenaeus 
is very close to the passage in Justin, so far as the 
general method of putting the argument goes. 

(7) and (8) reappear in Irenaeus, and it is most 
natural to suppose that he took them over from 
Justin. He has a point of his own when he goes 
on to add to the interpretation of the blood of 
the grape the gladness produced by the wine. It 
seems to be introduced without any obvious 
reason, until we observe that the words which 
follow in the passage in Genesis tell of the gladness 
of the eyes produced by wine (Icetifici oculi, etc. 
quoted above). 

(9) In c. 58 Irenaeus proceeds at once to the 
quotation of Balaam's prophecy, as follows : " And 
again Moses says : There shall rise a star out of 
Jacob> and a leader shall be raised up out of Israel" 
He does not make the combination with Isaiah 
which we find in Justin ; nor does he attribute 
Balaam's words to Isaiah. It is however to be 
noted that in III, ix. 2, where he quotes the passage 
as here, he does attribute it to Isaiah : " Cujus et 
stellam Ysaias quidem sic prophetavit : Orietur 
stella ex Jacob, et surget dux in Israel" On this 
coincidence in error Dr Rendel Harris remarks 
(Testimonies, I. p. n): " Justin shews us the 
passage of Isaiah following the one from Numbers, 
and the error lies in the covering of two passages 
with a single reference. It is clear, then, that 
Justin's mistake was made in a collection of 
Testimonies from the prophets, and that the same 
collection, or one that closely agreed with it, was 


in the hands of Irenaeus." In view, however, of 
the intimate connexion which appears to exist 
between Irenaeus and Justin we must not exclude 
the alternative possibility that the mistake began 
with Justin, and was at first reproduced by Irenseus, 
but was afterwards corrected by him in his later 

Another example of a whole section drawn from 
Justin Martyr will be found in cc. 44 f. Here it 
is the Dialogue with Trypho the Jew to which 
Irenseus is indebted. The whole of these two 
chapters should be read consecutively : but the 
chief parts must be given here. Irenaeus cites 
Gen. xviii. I ff., to show that it was the Son of God 
who spake with Abraham. This is Justin's view 
also, but the nearest parallels come after the 
quotation of Gen. xix. 24. At this point Irenaeus 
says : 

And then the Scripture says : And the Lord rained upon 
Sodom and Gomorrah brimstone and fire from the Lord out 
of heaven : that is to say, the Son, who spake with Abraham, 
being Lord, received power to punish the men of Sodom 
from the Lord out of heaven, even from the Father who 
rules (or is Lord) over all. So Abraham was a prophet and 
saw things to come, which were to take place in human 
form : even the Son of God, that He should speak with 
men and eat with them, and then should bring in the 
judgment from the Father, having received from Him who 
rules over all the power to punish the men of Sodom. 

Justin had said (Dial. 56 ad fin.) : " And He 
is the Lord, who from the Lord who is in heaven, 
that is, from the Maker of all things, received 
(power) to bring these things on Sodom and 
Gomorrah, which the narrative recounts, saying : 
The Lord rained upon Sodom and Gomorrah brim- 



stone and fire from the Lord out of heaven (xal 


tov noirjTov TO>V cttcov, hafiwv TO ravra anevsyxelv 
ZodojuoiQ K. T. A.)." And he then goes on to dis 
cuss the question of the eating and drinking with 
Abraham, but does not treat it as Irenaeus does 

The interpretation of the passage may already 
have been common Christian apologetic : it is the 
expression "received power (or authority)" to 
punish the Sodomites that suggests a directiiterary 
connexion ; and this expression is found again in 
Irenaeus III, vi. I, quoted below in the note on 
this passage. 

After this Irenaeus goes on at once as follows 
(Dem. c. 45) : 

And Jacob, when he went into Mesopotamia, saw Him in 
a dream, standing upon the ladder, that is, the tree, which 
was set up from earth to heaven ; for thereby they that 
believe on Him go up to the heavens. For His sufferings 
are our ascension on high. And all such visions point to 
the Son of God, speaking with men and being in their 
midst. For it was not the Father of all, etc. (See below.) 

This idea that Jacob's Ladder was "the tree" 
(vkov\ that is to say, the cross, is found in Justin 
(Dial. 86), among a number of other types equally 
strange to us : " It says that a ladder was seen by 
him ; and the Scripture has declared that God was 
supported upon it; and that this was not the 
Father we have proved from the Scriptures." 
Irenaeus again expands the comment in his own 
way, but he recurs to the theme "It was not the 

For it was not the Father of all, who is not seen by the 


world, the Maker of all jwho said: Heaven is my throne, 
and earth is my footstool: what house will ye build me, or 
what is the place of my rest ? and who comprehendeth the 
earth with his hand, and with his span the heaven it was 
not He that came and stood in a very small space and 
spake with Abraham ; but the Word of God, etc. 

Now the words " in a very small space " are 
clearly reminiscent of Justin. For in Dial. 127 he 
says : " Think not that the unbegotten God Him- 
self came down or went up from anywhere. For 
the unutterable Father and Lord of all has never 
come any whither," etc. " How then should He 
either speak to any one, or be seen by any, or 
appear in some very small portion of earth (ev 
eAa%loTq) jusosi yfjs) ? " Cf. Dial. 60 : ev oMyu* yrjg 
jLiOQLCO necpdvQai. 

These repeated coincidences, in large matters 
and in small, make us feel that Irenaeus was very 
familiar with Justin's writings. Everywhere he 
goes beyond him : but again and again he starts 
from him. 

The advantage to be gained by the recognition 
of the dependence of Irenaeus upon Justin may be 
illustrated from c. 53 of our Treatise. The 
Armenian text here presents several difficulties, 
probably from corrupt transcription. The original 
cannot have been very easy to understand ; but 
when we read with it c. 6 of Justin's Second 
Apology some points at any rate are cleared up. 
Irenaeus has just quoted Isa. vii. 14 ff., following 
the LXX with slight variations : 

Therefore the Lord himself shall give you a sign : behold, 
the virgin shall conceive and shall bring forth a son, and ye 
shall call him Emmanuel : butter and honey shall he eat; 
before he knoweth or selecteth the evil, he chooseth the good : 


for, before the child knoiveth good or evil, he rejecteth wicked- 
ness to choose the good. So he proclaimed His birth from a 
virgin; and that He was truly man he declared beforehand 
by His eating; and also because he called Him the child : 
and further by giving Him a name ; for this is the custom 
also for one that is born. 

We must pause here for a moment to quote 
some parallel words from Irenaeus himself (III, 
xxv. 2). He has quoted the same Scripture, and 
in commenting upon it he says : " Et manifestat 
quoniam homo, in eo quod dicit : Butyrum et mel 
manducabit ; et in eo quod infantem nominat eum ; 
et priusquam cognoscat bonum et malum : hsec 
enim omnia signa sunt hominis infantis." 

In my translation I have written: "this is the 
custom also for one that is born." But the Ar- 
.menian text has: "this is the error also of one 
that is born." I have accepted Mr F. C. Conybeare's 
simple and attractive emendation sovoruthiun, 
" custom," for moloruthinn, " error." - 1 

We now return to our passage : 

And His name is two-fold : in the Hebrew tongue 
Messiah Jesus, and in ours Christ Saviour. And the 1 two 
names are names of works actually wrought. For He was 
named Christ, because through Him the Father anointed 
and adorned all things ; and because on His coming as man 
He was anointed with the Spirit of God and His Father. 
As also by Isaiah He says of Himself: The Spirit of the 
Lord is upon me : wherefore he hath anointed me to preach 
good tidings to the poor. And (He was named) Saviour for 
this, that He became the cause of salvation to those who at 

1 I had at first thought that a comparison of the passage quoted 
from III, xxv. 2 pointed to the loss of some words from our text, 
and that we might emend thus : " [and in that he said : Before he 
knoweth good or evil ;] for this is the uncertainty also of one that 
is born." But I doubt whether moloruthiun could be toned down 
to mean "uncertainty." Moreover in what follows it is the name 
on which stress is laid. 


that time were delivered by Him from all sicknesses and 
from death, and to those who afterwards believed on Him 
the author of salvation in the future and for evermore. 

The Armenian text reads : " in the Hebrew 
tongue Messiah Christ, and in the Armenian Jesus 
Saviour." I have adopted the emendation proposed 
by the Armenian scholars who made the first 
translation into German. No doubt XQLOTOQ ZCOTIJO 
was what Irenaeus wrote as the rendering of 
"Messiah Jesus": compare Just. M. Ap. I, 33, 
" Now the name Jesus in the Hebrew speech 
signifies Saviour in the Greek language." 

Having disposed of these preliminary difficulties, 
we note some curious matters that remain for 
consideration. What is the point of saying, 
" names of works actually wrought " ? Is there 
any parallel to the explanation of " Christ " as " He 
through whom the Father anointed " ? And why 
does our author lay stress on the cure of the sick 
as the explanation of the name " Jesus " ? 

Let us now look at the passage of Justin to 
which we referred at the outset (Ap. II, 6) : 

Now a name imposed on the Father of all, unbegotten as 
He is, is an impossibility. For he to whom a name is 
applied must have one older than himself who has imposed 
on him the name. Father and God and Creator and Lord 
and Master are not names: they are appellations derived 

from benefits and works (e/c r&v tviroi'itav /ecu ruv epyoiv). 

Here we see the force of what Irenaeus had said 
about the naming spoken of by Isaiah, as indicating 
the manhood of the promised Child of the Virgin. 
The Unbegotten has no name, in the strict sense : 
there was none before Him to impose a name on 
Him. The Begotten, when begotten as man, has 


a name, though before that He has what is at 
once an appellation and a name. Justin goes on : 

But His Son, who alone is called Son in the full sense, 
the Word who before all created things both was with Him 
and was generated, when at the beginning He created and 
ordered (or adorned) all things through Him, is called on 
the one hand Christ, in respect of His being anointed and 
of God's ordering (or adorning) all things through Him 
a name which also in itself contains a signification beyond 
our knowledge, just as the title God is not a name, but a 
conception, innate in human nature, of a thing (or work) 
too hard to be declared 

Here Justin is explaining that "Christ" is a 
name indeed, but more than a name. It is a 
designation derived from a work, just as the 
designation God is derived from a work' (cf. egywv 
above, and nodyjuaro^. What then is this work ? 
The anointing which made Him the Christ is 
something which to Justin's mind occurred before 
His coming as man. He was anointed that 
through Him God might order (or adorn) the 
universe. The sense of the words is fairly plain, 
if it be somewhat surprising. 

But the construction of the Greek at the crucial 
point is at least awkward. The words are : XQIOTOQ 
juev Kara TO xe%QioO(u Kal xoofifjoai TO. Tidvra dt 
avrov TOV Oeov teyerai. Long ago Scaliger proposed 
to read KOI %Qioai, instead of xe%QioOau. This 
would mean : " in respect of God's both anointing 
and ordering all things through Him." The 
emendation found little favour with the editors of 
Justin, until the discovery of the Demonstration. 
Now it seems likely to find a wider acceptance in 
view of these words of Irenaeus : " For He was 
named Christ because through Him the Father 


anointed and adorned all things." At any rate it 
will not be doubted that Irenaeus so understood 
the passage, whatever he may have actually read 
in his copy of Justin. I have not myself ventured 
to correct Justin's text : for it is intelligible as it 
stands ; whereas to say "He was called Christ," 
not because He was anointed, but "because the 
Father anointed all things through Him," is not 
very intelligible, even though Irenaeus has said it. 
Justin continues : 

Jesus, on the other hand, offers both the name of a man 
and the significance of Saviour. For, as we have already 
said, He has become man, born in accordance with the 
counsel of God the Father on behalf of the men that believe 
on Him and for the overthrow of the demons : and this you 
can learn at the present time from what takes place under 
your eyes. For many possessed of demons, in the world 
generally and in your own city, have been healed and are 
still being healed by many of our men, the Christians, who 
exorcise them by the name of Jesus Christ, crucified under 
Pontius Pilate, though they could not be healed by all the 
rest of the exorcists. 

Jesus is a man's name, familiar enough to Greek 
readers of the Bible from having been given by 
Moses to his successor whom we call Joshua. It 
also has a significance : for it means Saviour. 
As ZcorrJQ to the Greeks suggested specially the 
giving of health (ocoTrjQia), Justin finds a connexion 
between 'Iqoovc; and 10.01$, "healing." You can 
see this to-day, he says : for the Christians who 
use the name of Jesus Christ, crucified under 
Pontius Pilate, can heal when no one else can 
(ytw) laOsvrag idoavro ual en vvv icovxai) . 

Turning back to the last words of the passage 
quoted above from Irenaeus, we note that the 
same interpretation of " Jesus" is in his mind, even 


if he does not play on the word taais. For 
itself includes " healing " among its meanings : and 
Irenaeus refers to our Lord's own acts of healing, 
though he does not at this point follow Justin in 
instancing the healing of the possessed by Christians 
in the name of Jesus. 1 

We have now to consider a passage in which the 
help to be gained from Justin is not so clear. In 
c.43 we read: "This Jeremiah the prophet also 
testified, saying thus : Before the morning-star I 
begat thee ; and before the sun (is) thy name ; and 
that is, before the creation of the world ; for 
together with the world the stars were made/' 

Here we have a composite quotation, made up 
from two different Psalms and attributed to the 
prophet Jeremiah. The words of Ps. ex. 3, which 
are familiar to us in the form " The dew of thy 
youth is of the womb of the morning," were under- 
stood by the LXX to mean " From the womb before 
the morning-star I begat thee " (ex yaoTQOQ TIQO 
ecoocpoQov eyevvrjod oe). In our passage the phrase 
"from the womb" is dropped; and thus the text 
can be the more easily applied to the pre-existent 
Son of God. We feel the difficulty of combining 
the two phrases when we find Tertullian (Adv. 
Marcion. V. 9), who applies the passage to our 
Lord's human birth, constrained to interpret 
"before the morning-star" as meaning while it 
was yet dark, and offering various proofs from the 
Gospels that Christ was born in the night. 

The second half of our quotation is a modifica- 

1 He does so in the notable passage II, xlix. 3, of which 
Eusebius has preserved the original Greek. 


tion of Ps. Ixxii. 17: "Before the sun his name 
remaineth " (TTQO rov r\kiov dia^svei TO dvojLiaavwv), 
or " shall remain " (dia^svel}. 

It is obvious that the two texts have been drawn 
together by a recollection of the parallel phrases 
"before the morning-star" and "before the sun." 
But again, in the neighbourhood of the latter, we 
find " before the moon," in the difficult verse (Ps. 
Ixxii. 5) : no! ovvnaQa^evsl TOJ rjfa'cp, nal TCQO rfjs 
oefo'jvrjs ysva<; ysvsajv. We shall see that in other 
writers this phrase also is drawn in. 

We may now consider the use made of these 
texts by Justin Martyr. In his Dialogue with 
the Jew Trypho (c. 45) he speaks of Christ, as " the 
Son of God, who was before the morning-star and 
the moon' 1 and was incarnate and born of the 
Virgin. This is not exactly a mixed quotation, 
but we see how readily phrases from the two 
Psalms are combined. Then in c. 63 he quotes 
" that which was spoken by David : In the bright- 
ness of thy holy ones, from the womb before the 
morning- star I begat thee : " and he comments thus : 
" Does this not show you that from of old (dva)0sv^) 
and through a human womb the God and Father 
of all was to beget Him ? " Here there is no com- 
bination of texts : but in c. 76 we have the three 
texts brought together, though " the morning-star " 
is not mentioned: "And David proclaimed that 
before sun (Ps. Ixxii. 17) and moon (Ps. Ixxii. 5) 
He should be begotten from the womb (Ps. ex. 3), 
according to the counsel of the Father." 

If, as we may well believe, these passages of 
Justin were familiar to Irenseus, it is not difficult 


to understand that by a trick of memory he 
should produce the quotation : " Before the 
morning-star I begat thee and before the sun is 
thy name." It was a more serious lapse to assign 
the quotation to Jeremiah. 

In a book of Testimonies against the Jews, 
attributed to Gregory of Nyssa, 1 we have the 
following quotation which combines all three texts : 
" From the womb before the morning-star I begat 
thee : and before the sun is his name, and before 
the moon." This is not assigned to any particular 
author ; and as we have " his name," not " thy name," 
it may be intended for two separate quotations. 2 
It is possible that by this date the words " and 
before the moon " had got into some MSS. of the 
LXX. The Old Latin Psalter has : " Ante solem 
permanebit nomen ejus in saecula, et ante 
lunam sedes ejus ; " and some cursive MSS. of the 
LXX have a Greek text which corresponds with 

Dr Rendel Harris also quotes from the Syriac 
writer Bar Salibi: 3 " David said : Before the day-star 
I begat thee. And before the sun is his name, 
and before the moon." From these and other 
parallels he concludes that Irenaeus made use of a 
common body of proof texts contained in a very 
ancient book of " Testimonies against the Jews." 

1 Printed by Zacagni, Monumenta, p. 292 (Rome, 1698). 

2 We have, " thy name " in Clem. Alex. Exc. ex Theodoto 20 : 
Tb yap irpt> uff<p6pov fyevvijad <re ovrus e|a/couo/tiev enl TOV TrpcaroKTi- 
arov OQV \6yov, Kal vpb y\iov Kal <reXij/7js Kal irpb ird<nt)s Krifffcas rb 


8 Harris, Testimonies^ p. 15. See also on p. 45 a quotation 
from an anti-Mohammedan tract : " His name endures before the 
sun and moon throughout all ages." 


The existence of such a work has been suggested 
more than once. Dr Rendel Harris has pro- 
pounded it in a fresh and attractive form in a book 
entitled " Testimonies," of which as yet only the 
introductory portion has appeared (Cambridge, 
1916). The body of evidence on which it 
rests is promised us in a second volume ; 
and judgment must necessarily be suspended 
until this is available. So far as the Demon- 
stration of Irenaeus is concerned, this is the only 
passage in which there might conceivably be a 
gain in calling in such a hypothesis. Direct 
dependence on Justin, on the other hand, can be 
demonstrated in various portions of our treatise ; 
and this may be the true explanation here. 

Irenseus goes on to attribute to Jeremiah a yet 
more strange quotation : " Blessed is he who was, 
before he became man." The German translations 
render the last words differently : one of them has : 
" before the coming into being of man (yor dem 
Werden des Menschen): " the other has : " before 
through him man was made (bevor durch ihn der 
Mensch warde)." We have however an exact 
parallel to the construction in the Armenian 
rendering of the words " before he knoweth " in 
c. 53. The Greek there is TiQivfj yvwvcu avtov (Isa. 
vii. 15); and we may suppose that here it was 
TIQIV i) yevrjOfjvai GLVTOV dvOoajnov. 

No such text is to be found in any book now 
known to us which is attributed to Jeremiah. Dr 
Rendel Harris has been the first to point to its 
occurrence in a slightly different form, and again 
as quoted from Jeremiah, in Lactantius (Divin. Inst. 


iv. 8). The whole passage must be given : " First 
of all we affirm that He was twice born, first in 
spirit, afterwards in flesh. Wherefore in Jeremiah 
it is thus spoken : Before I formed thee in the 
womb, I knew thee. Also : Blessed is he who 
was, before he was born : which happened unto 
none save Christ; who, being from the beginning 
Son of God, was re-born anew according to the 
flesh." The Latin, " Beatus qui erat antequam 
nasceretur," may represent a Greek reading, nglv 
f) yemjOrjvcu. 

The words which follow in Lactantius : "qui,- 
cum esset a principle filius dei, regeneratus est 
denuo secundum carnem," appear to be taken from 
Cyprian's Testimonies (II, 8), where a section is 
headed : " Quod, cum a principio filius dei fuisset, 
generari denuo haberet secundum carnem ; " but 
the only O.T. quotation that there follows is 
Ps. ii. 7 f. 

So far, then, we have no clue to the source from 
which either Irenaeus or Lactantius derived this 
strange quotation. It is not likely that Lactantius 
got it, directly at any rate, from the Demonstration 
of Irenaeus, which does not appear to have had 
a wide circulation. It is possible that this and 
certain other passages which are attributed to 
Jeremiah may be derived from some apocryphal 
work bearing that prophet's name. 




IF we are to do justice to the teaching of 
Irenseus as to the Holy Spirit, it is imperative 
that we should pay some attention first of all to 
the view of Justin Martyr, whose First and Second 
Apologies, as well as the Dialogue with Trypho 
the Jew, were in his hands, and indeed must have 
been very familiar to him. 

I. The Holy Spirit in relation to Prophecy. 
Justin first mentions the Holy Spirit under the 
designation of "the prophetic Spirit" (Ap. I, 6) ; 
and this designation frequently recurs. It is 
noteworthy that prophecy itself is first introduced 
in answer to the supposed objection, why should 
not Christ have been a mere man, who by magic 
performed the miracles attributed to him and so 
was considered a Son of God ? No Christian 
writer of that day would have been prepared to 
answer this by denying the power of magic. 
Justin's answer is on quite a different line. Many 
generations before the coming of Christ the main 
events of His life on earth, including the wonders 
of healing which He should perform, had been 
foretold by the Jewish prophets. The verification 
of these prophecies in the story contained in the 
Gospels was the surest testimony to the truth of 
what Christians claimed for Christ. 

The expression "the prophetic Spirit," occurs 


frequently both in the First Apology and in the 
Dialogue with Trypho the Jew. Sometimes Justin 
says "the holy prophetic Spirit," and once (Ap. 
32) " the divine holy prophetic Spirit." Now 
" the prophetic Spirit," means the Spirit oft the 
prophets. So Athenagoras, who follows Justin, 
interpreting and sometimes correcting him, says 
that it is the Spirit "which works in those who 
make prophetic utterances," and he adds that it is 
" an effluence of God," as the ray is of the sun. 1 
The prophets in question are the Jewish prophets : 
and Justin's insistence on " the prophetic Spirit " 
is understood when we remember the attempt that 
was then being made to distinguish the God of the 
Old Testament ("the Just God") from the God 
of the New Testament (" the Good God "). This 
was to cut off Christianity from the past, and to 
destroy its historical background and its function 
as the fulfilment of the age-long purpose of God. 
There was, however, a further reason for emphasiz- 
ing "the prophetic Spirit," a reason of even 
greater importance from the standpoint of Christian 
evidence. The correspondence between the Gospel 
facts and the prophetic utterances proved two 
things : namely, that the claim of Jesus to be the 
Christ was valid, and that the Spirit of the 
prophets was of God. 

We do not in our apologetic today make this 
use of the exact correspondence of Old Testament 
texts with facts recorded in the Gospels. But the 
deeper meaning of the argument deeper than 
those who used it knew the preparation in Jewish 
1 SuppL 10. 


history for the coming of the Christ, and the con- 
tinuity of the self-revelation of God that is of the 
essence of the Christian argument still. And 
we must not forget how great a debt we owe to 
those who, with a narrow and tiresome literalness 
of exposition, claimed the Old Testament as the 
sacred book of the early Christian Church. " Who 
spake by the prophets" represents the primary 
conception of the Holy Spirit in the writers of the 
second century : just as the great sentence which 
precedes it in the Creed "Who with the Father 
and the Son together is worshipped and glorified" 
goes beyond what they were able to say, and 
represents the final pronouncement of the Church 
after two more centuries of uncertainty and debate. 
2. The Holy Spirit in relation to the Father and 
the Son. The passage above alluded to as the first 
in which Justin mentions the Holy Spirit will show 
us how great a distance the Church had to travel 
before the doctrine of the Blessed Trinity could 
find adequate expression. Justin has been saying 
to his Roman readers : You call us atheists and put 
us to death, being urged thereto by the demons 
who have contrived to get themselves called gods. 
Socrates long ago by true Reason (Aqyog) exposed 
them, and they got him slain, just as they get us 
slain today. For today not only Greeks like 
Socrates, but mere barbarians have cast them off, 
being enlightened by the Reason Himself, who has 
taken form and become man and is called Jesus 
Christ. Yes, we are atheists in respect of your 
pagan gods : but not in respect of the most true 
God, the Father of justice and temperance and the 


other virtues. "But" and here we must quote 
the exact words " Him, and the Son who came 
from Him and taught us these things, and the host 
of the other good angels that attend Him and are 
made like unto Him, and the prophetic Spirit, we 
worship and adore, honouring them with reason 
and with truth." 1 It would not be fair to say that 
here Justin ranks the Holy Spirit after the angels : 
other passages, to be quoted later, show that this is 
not his meaning. It is rather that the angels are 
brought into prominence as the escort of the Son, 
to whom Justin again and again insists on applying 
the title "Angel" in the sense of divine messenger, 2 
especially when he is explaining various passages 
in Genesis as manifestations of the divine Son to 
the patriarchs. Justin's immediate purpose was to 
show what a wealth of spiritual powers Christianity 
could set out in contrast to the "many gods" 
the demons of the heathen world : how absurd 
therefore it was to call Christians atheists. The 
same argument is handled thirty years later by 
Athenagoras with Justin's language in mind, but 
with more caution. Father, Son and Spirit he 
mentions in due order : but he adds : Not that 
our theology stops here, for it includes a multitude 
of angels and ministrants to whom the heavenly 

1 'AAA* e/ceZV<$i> re, Kal rbv Trap' avrov vlov e\d6j/ra Kal 8tScc|ai/TO 

ravra, Kal T&P rwv &\\cav kiro^vtav Kal eo/j.oiov/j.ev<av ayadwv 
arpar6v, Tfvv/j.d re T& Tfpo(pr]TiKbv (TejSo/tefla Kal TTpoffKV- 
oycf) Kal a\r]8fia n^uivrfs, /c.r.A. (Just. M. Ap. I, 6). 

2 E. g. Ap. I, 63 : <O \6yos 8e TOV 6eov iffTiv & vibs avrov, us 
TrpoefprjfAev Kal ayye\os 5e /caAetrai Kal a.Tf6ffro\os avrbs yap 
airayy(\\i K.T.A. ; Dial. 93 : (He who fulfils the First and Great 
Commandment) ovSeva a\\ov rtyu^cret Qeov Kal ayye\ov e/ceZVov &v 
Ti/trjerei, 0oG jSouAojueVou, r&f ayairwfji.evoi' uir' avrov TOV Kvpiov Kal 


bodies, the heavens themselves, and our world have 
been entrusted by the Creator. 1 He has retained 
Justin's argument, but he has carefully avoided the 
imperfections of its expression. 

A little later Justin returns to the charge of 
atheism, and, having described the kind of worship 
which Christians offer to the Creator of the universe, 
he goes on to speak of Him who has taught them 
this, even Jesus Christ, who was crucified 'under 
Pontius Pilate, and whom they had learned to 
know as the Son of the true God ; "having Him 
in the second place, and the prophetic Spirit in 
the third rank." 2 Such language would have been 
challenged in later times as unduly subordinating 
the Son to the Father and the Holy Spirit to the 
Son ; but it is of value as correcting the impression 
which might have been derived from the earlier 
passage in which the Holy Spirit was mentioned 
after the angelic host. 

Towards the end of the Apology Justin touches 
again on this order of the three divine Powers. 
He finds it in Plato, and gives it as one of several 
proofs that Plato had read but not understood 
Moses. Plato had read of the Brazen Serpent 
which Moses set up "on a sign" (ev orjjustq)), but 
had not understood that the sign was the cross : 
he had taken it as the form of the Greek letter X, 
a %laojua (i. e> " St. Andrew's cross," or a saltire, as 

1 Kal ou5' eVl Tourots rb Oeo\oyiKbv yptav 'l<rrarni /xepos, a\\a Kal 
TT\riOos ayye\d)V Kal XeirovpyS>v fya.iJ.ev, ovs 6 iroir]Tr)s KOI Sri/niovpybs 
K6ff/j.ov 0ebs 8io rov Trap' avrov \6yov Sievei/j.e Kal Siera^ev Trepi re TO 
(TToj^eTa elvai Kal rovs ovpavovs Kal rb/ K^ff^ov Kal TO sv avrtf Kal rr]V 
TOVTUV fvTaiav (Athenag. Supplic. lo). 

2 Ap. I, 13 : (y'Cbv 0eov) ev Sevrepa ^wpu ^xovrcs Trvevud re 

ev rpirr) Toet. 


we say in heraldry). Moreover he had read in the 
first chapter of Genesis that the Spirit of God 
moved upon the waters. Accordingly, says Justin, 
"he gives the second place to the Word that is 
from God, whom he declared to have been extended 
saltire-wise (K%idoQaC) in the universe; and the 
third to the Spirit who was said to move on the 
water." * 

In the closing chapters of his First Apology 
Justin describes, in language such as his heathen 
readers might understand, the Christian sacraments 
of Baptism and Holy Communion. He gives a 
paraphrase only of the baptismal formula, perhaps 
with a view to lucidity, but possibly also through 
unwillingness to give the actual words. 2 He does 
not even use the terms " baptism " and " baptise," 
but only speaks of" making the washing " or " bath." 
" For in the name of the Father of all and Lord God, 
and of our Saviour Jesus Christ, and of the Holy 
Spirit, they then make the washing in the water." 3 
He uses similar words a little lower down, with 
some additions : " There is named on him the name 
of the Father of all, etc. . . . And in the name of 
Jesus Christ, who was crucified under Pontius 
Pilate, and in the name of the Holy Spirit, who by 

1 Ap. I, 60. Athenagoras (Suppl. 23) treats the matter more 
elaborately as usual. We shall find that Irenaeus has been influenced 
by Justin's words about the xtaff^o. : see below, c. 34. 

2 On the other hand he shows no unwillingness to give the Words 
of Institution in describing the Last Supper. But there is no ground 
for supposing that he attached to them a consecrating effect, nor 
indeed is it known whether in his day they formed a part of the 
Eucharistic Prayer. 

3 'ETT' ovo/jLaros yap rov Trarpbs ra>v '6\<av KO.\ ScffTrdrov 0eoD, Kal rov 
ffcarripos r/juwj/ 'ITJJTOU Xpio~Tov, Kal irvtv JJLO.TOS aytov, rb Iv r<p uScm 
r6re \ovrpbv TTOIOVVTO.I (Aj>. I, 6l). 


the prophets announced beforehand all the things 
concerning Jesus." l This last addition is of special 
interest in view of the ultimate inclusion of " Who 
spake by the prophets " in the Creed. 

In describing the Eucharist which followed after 
Baptism Justin speaks first of the people's prayers : 
" We make prayers in common, for ourselves, for 
the person baptized (lit. enlightened), and for all 
men everywhere." These "common prayers" are 
followed by the kiss of peace. Then he who pre- 
sides over the brethren (Justin avoids any technical 
term such as " bishop ") receives the Bread and the 
Cup, and "he sends up praise and glory to the 
Father of all through the name of the Son and the 
Holy Spirit, and makes thanksgiving (' eucharist ') 
for being accounted worthy of these gifts from 
Him ; " and this he does " at some length." 
"When he has completed the prayers and the 
thanksgiving, all the people present respond 
saying Amen." 2 

We note that the Holy Spirit is only mentioned 
in reference to the offering of praise to the Father 
" through the name of the Son and the Holy Spirit." 
When he goes on to describe the character of " this 
food, which we call Eucharist," there is no reference 
to the Holy Spirit, but only to the Word of God : 
so far are we from that Invocation of the Holy 
Spirit for the purpose of consecration which came 
into the liturgies two hundred years later. 

Presently Justin says : " And over all our food 

1 /cal &T' 6v6/j.aros Trvev/Aaros ayiou, b bia TWV 
ra Kara rbv 'Iryerow iroivTa (ibid.), 

2 Ap. I, 65. 


we bless the Maker of all things through His Son 
Jesus Christ and through the Holy Spirit." l Once 
again we observe that praise is directed to the 
Father through the Son and Holy Spirit. 

3. The Holy Spirit and the Incarnation of the 
Word. We are so familiar with the part assigned 
in our Creeds to the Holy Spirit in connexion with 
our Lord's birth, that the passage now to be quoted 
from Justin may at first sight seem very surprising. 
It may be well to approach it by citing some words 
from the learned and orthodox Waterland, who in 
1734, in his book on The Trinity (c. vi : Works, III, 
571 : Oxford, 1843), wrote as follows in reference 
to a passage of St Irenaeus : " I may remark by 
the way, that Irenaeus here [V, c. i] seems to 
understand Spirit of God, and Holy Spirit before, 
of the second Person, of the Logos himself coming 
down upon the Virgin. So the earliest Fathers 
commonly do, interpreting Luke i. 35, to that 
sense: which I the rather note, because so their 
asserting Christ's birth of a virgin^ and his pre- 
existing as Spirit of God, and God, amounted to 
the same thing." Waterland appends in a note a 
catena of eight passages, the texts of which he cites 
in full. Our passage from Justin is among them. 

Justin mentions the subject in his First Apology 
when he is interpreting Jacob's Blessing in 
Gen. xlix. The passage is given in full above on 
p. 7. "The blood of the grape," he says, "signifies 
that He who is to appear has blood indeed, but not 
of human seed, but of divine power. Now the 
first power after the Father of all and Lord God 

1 Ap. i, 67. 


... is the Word." x Later he says : " The power 
of God came upon the Virgin and overshadowed 
her." Then he quotes the angel's message in a 
composite form : " Behold, thou shall conceive in 
the womb, of (the) Holy Spirit, and shalt bear a 
son, and he shall be called Son of the Most High," 
etc. (Luke i. 31, Matt. i. 20). These things, he 
adds, have been taught us by those who recorded 
them ; and we believe them because " the prophetic 
Spirit" declared through Isaiah that so it should 
be. Then he says : " But the Spirit and the Power 
that is from God, it is not allowable to regard as 
any other than the Word (the Logos), who also is 
the first-begotten unto God. ... It was this 
(Spirit) that came upon the Virgin and over- 
shadowed her," etc. 2 

This interpretation of the words " Holy Spirit " in 
Matt. i. 20 and Luke i. 35 is all the more striking 
because it follows immediately upon the reference 
to the " prophetic Spirit," whose function it was to 
announce the birth from the Virgin beforehand. 
No further comment is necessary here on this 
passage ; but it may be worth while to note that 
the belief that the Word was Himself the agent 
of His own Incarnation finds its natural place side 
by side with the belief that it is through His direct 
agency, and not through that of the Holy Spirit, 
that the bread and wine of the Eucharist are made 
the Body and Blood of the Incarnate Word : see 

1 Ap. i, 32. 

2 T& TTvevfta ovv Kal rfyv bvva.fji.iv rtyv Trapa TOV Oeov ouSej/ &\\o 
voriffai BffjLis ^ rbv \6yov, t>s Kal irpwr^TOKos T$ 6ey ecm . . . Kal TOVTO 

l T)]V TrapOevov Kal eTrurKidffav ov Sia <rvvou<rias a\\a Sia 
eyKv/j-ova KaT^ffr^ffe (Ap, I, 33) c ^- Dial, IOO ad fin. 


the well-known passage in Ap. i, 66, where however 
Justin's intricate constructions make the exact 
meaning of his words difficult to determine. 

While "the prophetic Spirit" is thus expressly 
excluded from the part in the mystery of the 
Incarnation which a later interpretation of the 
words of the Gospels assigned to Him, it is to be 
noted that" Justin makes much of His descent upon 
Christ at the Baptism. In Dial. 87 the Jew 
Trypho is made to quote Isa. xi. 1-3 : "The Spirit 
of the Lord shall rest upon him, the Spirit of 
wisdom and understanding," etc. Conceding that 
it is Christ on whom the Spirit is to rest in His 
sevenfold power, Trypho proceeds to ask how, if 
Christ be God, He should be in need of this gift. 
Justin's answer is that He is in no such need : 
that, when the prophet says that the Spirit shall 
"rest" upon Him, he means that He will go no 
further, that He will have reached a termination 
so far as His prophetic work among the Jewish 
people is concerned. This, he says, you yourselves 
see to be true : you have had no prophet since. 
The gifts enumerated were divided among your 
prophets, some had one, some had another. But 
they all met on Christ. " When He was come, 
the Spirit rested, paused " (dvsnavoaro ovv, 
rovreoTLv enavoaro, IhOovTog exeivov). 1 A new 

1 It is interesting to compare with this the passage quoted from 
the Gospel according to the Hebrews by St Jerome in his Commen- 
tary on Isaiah (lib. iv. cap. 12) : "Now it came to pass, when the 
Lord had come up from the water, the whole fount of the Holy 
Spirit came down and rested upon him, and said to him : My 
Son, in all the prophets was I wailing for thee, that thou mightest 
come and I might rest in thee. For thou art my rest ; thou art 
my Son, (my) first-born, which reignest for ever." 


era then began, in which Christ " having received 
gifts," as was prophesied, "gives them, from the 
grace of the power of that Spirit, to those who 
believe on Him, according as He knows each to 
be worthy." To-day " you can see among us both 
women and men who have gifts of grace (%a.Qloi- 
juara) from the Spirit of God " (c. 88). In'an earlier 
chapter he had said (c. 82 : cf. also c. 39) : " Among 
us at the present time there are gifts of prophecy 
(prophetic charismata] ; " and he had just before 
referred to the prophecies of St John's Apocalypse. 
While Justin thus recognises the existence of 
special gifts of the Holy Spirit in the Church, 
he does not expressly connect Him with the 
ordinary graces of the Christian life. Even when 
he is dealing with the interpretation of the prophe- 
cies inspired by the Holy Spirit, he does not say, 
as later writers do, that we need the enlightenment 
of the same Holy Spirit to explain their meaning : 
he says, again and again, that we need " the grace 
of God " for this purpose. And just as he stops 
short of saying that this "grace" is, .or proceeds 
from, the Holy Spirit, so also he stops short of 
saying that "the living water" given by Christ, 
the true Rock, is the Holy Spirit (Dial. 114). 

We pass now from Justin's teaching about the 
Holy Spirit to that of Irenaeus in the Demonstra- 
tion, to which we shall add illustrations taken from 
his larger work Against Heresies. It will be 
convenient at first at any rate to consider it under 
the same headings as before. 

I. The Holy Spirit in relation to Prophecy. 


Justin's favourite term " the prophetic Spirit " does 
not occur in the Demonstration : but the work of 
the Holy Spirit in the ancient prophets is fre- 
quently mentioned. Thus for Moses in Genesis 
we have in c. 24: " God bare witness unto [Abraham] 
by the Holy Spirit, saying in the Scripture : And 
Abraham believed God" etc. So in c. 26, with 
regard to the Tables written with the finger of 
God, we have the curious explanation : " Now the 
finger of God is that which is stretched forth from 
the Father in the Holy Spirit." We shall see 
presently that Irenaeus elsewhere regards the Holy 
Spirit as one of the hands of God in the work 
of creation. Here no doubt he is influenced 
by the words of our Lord in St Luke, "If I by 
the finger of God cast out devils," where in St 
Matthew's Gospel the expression is changed to 
"the Spirit of God." 1 Then, again, in c. 30 we 
are told more generally that the prophets were 
" sent by God through the Holy Spirit." 

A fuller treatment is found in several passages. 
Thus in c. 49 we read : " For it is not a man who 
speaks the prophecies ; but the Spirit of God, 
assimilating and likening Himself to the persons 
represented, speaks in the prophets and utters the 
words sometimes from Christ and sometimes from 
the Father." The thought is found in Justin (Ap. 
i, 36 ff.), where it is fully dealt with and illustrated 
by examples. 

Again, in c. 67 : " He took our infirmities" etc. : 
" that is to say, He shall take, etc. For there are 
passages in which the Spirit of God through the 

1 See note on p. 53. 


prophets recounts things that are to be as having 
taken place . . . and the Spirit, regarding and 
seeing the time in which the issues of the 
prophecy are fulfilled, utters the words (accord- 
ingly)." This again is found in Justin (Dial. 114). 

In his description of the third point of the Rule 
of Faith (c. 6) he begins with the prophetic 
function : " The Holy Spirit, through whom the 
prophets prophesied, and the fathers learned the 
things of God, and the righteous were led forth 
into the way of righteousness ; and who in the 
end of the times was poured out in a new way 
upon mankind in all the earth, renewing man unto 
God." Here we see the wider conception of the 
Spirit's work, which marks the advance upon 
Justin to which we shall refer presently. 

So far all has been plain : but, in view of the 
fact that "the Word of God" is so frequently 
mentioned in Holy Scripture as coming to the 
prophets, it was inevitable that difficulty should be 
felt in distinguishing the functions of the Word 
and the Spirit in this connexion. In c. 5 we read : 
" Now the Spirit shows forth the Word, and there- 
fore the prophets announced the Son of God ; 
and the Word utters the Spirit, and therefore is 
Himself the announcer of the prophets." A 
passage in c. 73 illustrates this yet further : 
" David said not this of himself . . . but the 
Spirit of Christ, who (spake) also in other prophets 
concerning Him, says here by David : / laid me 
doivn and slept : I awoke, for the Lord received me" 

A few illustrations may be appended from the 
five books of the great treatise Against Heresies, 


II, xli. i : Some Scriptures are too hard for us: 
" but we know that the Scriptures are perfect, 
seeing that they are spoken by the Word of God 
and His Spirit ; whereas we are minores et 
novissimi a verbo del et spiritu ejus" We are at 
a great remove from the Word and the Spirit who 
inspired them. He adds in striking words ( 3) 
that " the Scriptures are spiritual : some things we 
can interpret, others are left with God, and that 
not only in this world but in that which is to come ; 
that God may for ever be teacher, and man for 
ever a learner." 

Next we may note that Irenaeus extends the 
work of the Holy Spirit to the evangelists : " The 
Holy Spirit says by Matthew : Now the birth of 
Christ ^vas on this wise" (III, xvii. i). And a 
curious collocation is found in III, vi. i : " Neither 
the Lord nor the Holy Spirit nor the apostles 
would have definitely called any God, unless He 
were truly God ; nor any Lord save the Ruler of 
all, the Father, and His Son who received rule 
from Him." Here perhaps the Holy Spirit is 
referred to for the Old Testament, the Lord and 
the apostles for the New. In III, vii. 2, however, 
he recognizes the " impetus " of the Spirit in St 
Paul's Epistle to the Galatians, especially in his 
rapid questions and answers : " as though man 
asked the question, and the Spirit gave the 

Enough has been said to show that Irenaeus 
goes beyond Justin's expressions, and widens the 
function of the Holy Spirit in relation to Scripture. 
But before we leave the topic we may note that 


the designation "prophetic Spirit" does occur 
in Irenaeus, only with another or a modified 
connotation. In III, xi. 12 we are told that certain 
heretics, "in order to frustrate the gift of the 
Spirit," which in the last days has been poured 
forth, reject St John's Gospel with its account of 
the Paraclete : " they reject at once the Gospel and 
the prophetic Spirit ' n ; and, as he says again, " they 
reject from the Church the grace of prophecy." 
So also in IV, xxxiv. 6: "Some of the prophets 
beheld the prophetic Spirit and His operations in 
all manner of charismata " or gifts of grace. The 
context shows that it is the working of the Spirit 
in the Christian Church which was foreseen by 
some of the prophets. We may compare two 
passages from the end of the Demonstration 
(cc. 99 f.). " Others receive not the gifts of the 
Holy Spirit, and cast away from themselves the 
prophetic grace, watered whereby man bears the 
fruit of life unto God : " and again : " Or else 
they receive not the Spirit, that is, they reject 

2 . The Holy Spirit in relation to the Father and 
the Son. Under this heading we began by con- 
sidering Justin's remarkable words, in which he 
declares that " we worship and adore the Father, and 
the Son who came from Him and taught us these 
things, and the host of the other good angels that 
attend Him and are made like unto Him, and the 
prophetic Spirit." Hardly less remarkable, though 
in a very different way, is the following passage 
from the Demonstration (c. 10) ; and it has a special 
1 Cf. also III, xi. ii. 


interest from the fact that here also we have a 
reference to the functions of angels. 

" Now this God is glorified by His Word who is 
His Son continually, and by the Holy Spirit who 
is the Wisdom of the Father of all : and the powers 
of these, (namely) of the Word and Wisdom, which 
are called Cherubim and Seraphim, with unceasing 
voices glorify God ; and every created thing that 
is in the heavens offers glory to God the Father of 
all. He by His Word has created the whole world, 
and in the world are the angels ; " etc. 

The liturgical ring of this passage is unmis- 
takable. We saw that Justin spoke of Eucharistic 
praise as being offered to the Father " through the 
name of the Son and the Holy Spirit." But this 
hardly prepares us for such a passage as we have 
just read. Two interesting parallels, however, may 
prove suggestive. The first is from the Eucharistic 
Prayer of Bishop Serapion (c. A.D. 350) : 

" May the Lord Jesus speak in us, and (the) 
Holy Spirit, and hymn thee through us. For 
thou art far above all rule and authority and power 
and dominion, and every name that is named, 
not only in this world but also in that which is 
to come. Beside thee stand thousand thousands 
and myriad myriads of angels, archangels, thrones, 
dominions, principalities, powers : beside thee stand 
the two most honourable six-winged Seraphim, 
with two wings covering," etc., leading up to the 
Ter Sanctus}- 

1 Wobbermin's edition, Texte u. Untersuch. xvii, 3 b, p. 5 : Aa- 
/"\7)<raT eV T]fitv 6 nvpios 'Iqffovs KQ.I ayiov TryeO/xa, Kal v/j.vr,(rdT(i) af <5t 


This Prayer comes to us from Egypt. When 
we look at the Liturgy of Alexandria, known as 
that of St Mark, we find that the reference to the 
praise offered to the Father by the Son and the 
Spirit is absent. And in the place of "the two 
most honourable Seraphim " we read : " the two 
most honourable living creatures (=Hab. iii. 2, 
LXX), the many-eyed Cherubim, and the six- 
winged Seraphim." l In the other Greek Liturgies 
" the two living creatures " are not found, but 
Cherubim and Seraphim remain ; and we in the 
West are familiar with this combination in the 
words of the TeDeum: "Tibi Cherubim et Seraphim 
incessabili voce proclamant : Sanctus, sanctus, 
sanctus," etc. 2 

The second parallel is not less remarkable. It 
comes from the Eucharistic Preface of the so-called 
Clementine Liturgy contained in the Apostolic 
Constitutions (viii. 12). But it does not appear in 
the ordinary texts. Mr C. H. Turner has recently 
called attention to a MS. in the Vatican (Vat. Gr. 
1506), as offering a more original text of this work 
and presenting Arian features no longer to be found 
in the current recension. This early text contains 
the following words towards the close of the 
Preface : 

"Thee every incorporeal and holy order (of 
beings) worshippeth ; [thee the Paraclete worship- 

1 It is curious to notice that each of these pairs (Living Creatures, 
Cherubim, Seraphim) is in turn interpreted by the Alexandrian 
Origen as signifying the Son and the Holy Spirit : see the note 
to c. 10 below. 

2 In the Slavonic Secrets of Enoch (cc. xix f.), in both recensions, 
Cherubim and Seraphim are mentioned, by themselves and in this 
order. Where did the combination first arise? 


peth] and, before all, thy holy Servant Jesus the 
Christ, our Lord and God and thy angel and 
captain of the host and eternal and unending high 
priest : thee the well-ordered hosts of angels and 
archangels worship/' etc. 1 

When now we look back to the passage in the 
Demonstration, with its reference to Cherubim and 
Seraphim who " with unceasing voices " glorify God, 
we feel that there is matter here which deserves 
the attention of students of the earliest forms of 
the Liturgy. 

But a yet earlier witness must be called before 
we leave this passage. There are several places in 
the Demonstration which suggest that Irenaeus was 
acquainted with the splendid vision &{&& Ascension 
of Isaiah, a Christian apocryphal writing which 
probably belongs to the first half of the second 
century. A brief outline of that vision must be 
given here. 2 

Isaiah is taken (c. 7) by an angel, whose name he may 
not know, because he is to return to his mortal body, first 
up into the firmament, where he finds perpetual warfare 
between Satanic powers. Next he ascends into the first 
heaven, where he sees a throne with angels on either side ; 

* Journal of Theological Studies, Oct. 1914, p. 59: 2e 
irav afftafj-arov Kal ayiov ra.yp.a, [<re irpoffKvvf'i 6 Trapa/cATjros,] 7rpJ> 5e 

iravriav 6 ayi6s ffov ircus 'lycrovs 6 Xpiffros, 6 Kvpios /cat 0eby rip. 
aov 8e &yye\os /cal TTJS Si'va^uecos apxurTpaTi)yi>s /cat dpX' 6 P 6 ^ s aicbvtos 

KO.I areAejrrTjTos, (re irpo(TKvvov(n e{jpvd/j.oi (TTpaTtal dyyeAcov, /c.T.A. 
Mr Turner says : "The bracketed words are by the second hand 
over an erasure according to Funk : but I do not doubt that it was 
some close connexion in the original of the Holy Spirit with angelic 
spirits which was the motive of the erasure." 

2 I may be allowed to refer to my article (Isaiah, Ascension of) 
in Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible for an account of this document. 
I have borrowed from it the outline here given. The book has since 
been edited with much care by Dr Charles. 


they chant a hymn of praise, which he learns is addressd to 
the Glory of the seventh heaven and to His Beloved. In the 
second heaven he finds also a throne with angels, but more 
glorious ; he would fain fall down and worship, but is not 
permitted. In the third heaven he finds the like ; there is 
there no mention of the deeds of the vain world from which 
he has come, but he is assured that nothing escapes 
observation. In the fourth heaven he again sees angels on 
either side of a throne, the glory of those on the right being, 
as before, greater than of those on the left ; and all are more 
glorious than those below. The same in yet greater degree 
is true of the fifth heaven. But in the sixth heaven (c. 8) 
there is no throne, and no left hand, but all are alike in 
splendour : it is in close connexion with the seventh heaven, 
and its glory makes the glory of the five heavens below 
seem but darkness. At length he comes (c. 9) to the 
seventh heaven, where his entry is challenged, but per- 
mitted. Here he sees the just clothed in their heavenly 
robes, but not yet having received their thrones and crowns. 
These they cannot have until the descent and the return of 
the Beloved has been accomplished. He is shown also the 
books which contain the transactions of the world below, 
and learns that all is known in the seventh heaven. He 
beholds the Lord of Glory, and is bidden to worship Him. 
He then beholds a second most glorious one, like unto Him, 
and again is bidden to worship ; and then again a third, 
who is the angel of the Holy Spirit, the inspirer of the pro- 
phets. These two latter worship the ineffable Glory ; and 
the chant of praise (c. 10) sounds up from the sixth heaven. 
Then the voice of the Most High is heard speaking to the 
Lord the Son, bidding Him descend through the heavens to 
the firmament, and to the world, and even to the angel of 
the infernal regions ; He is to assimilate Himself to those 
who dwell in each region in turn, so that He may not be 
recognized as He passes down. He will ascend at length 
with glory and worship from all. The prophet now beholds., 
the descent of the Beloved. In the sixth heaven there is 
no change of His appearance, and the angels glorify Him. 
But in the fifth He is changed, and not recognized, and so in 
each of the lower heavens, down to the firmament, where 
He passes through the strife that rages there, still unrecog- 
nized. At this point the angel calls the prophet's special 
attention to what follows (c. n). 

Here follows a description of the Birth from a Virgin, and 
a notice of the life, death, and resurrection of the Lord, 
and the sending forth of the Twelve (n 2 - 22 ). 


Then the prophet beholds the ascent through the firma- 
ment and the six heavens : the Lord is recognized and 
glorified as He ascends : at length He reaches the seventh 
heaven, and takes His seat on the right hand of the great 
Glory ; and the angel of the Holy Spirit sits on the left 
hand. The prophet is then sent back to his mortal clothing. 
On his return he warns Hezekiah that these things will come 
to pass, but that they may not be communicated to the 
people of Israel. 

Now it is to be observed that in c. 9 of the 
Demonstration Irenaeus gives us an account of the 
Seven Heavens ; in c. 10 he speaks of God as 
being glorified by His Word and by the Holy 
Spirit ; and in c. 84 he says that the Lord in His 
descent was not recognized by any created beings, 
and he thus explains the dialogue with the 
heavenly powers in Ps. xxiv : " Lift up your gates, 
ye rulers . . . Who is the King of Glory?" and so 
forth. We cannot therefore reasonably doubt that 
Irenaeus was acquainted with the vision in the 
Ascension of Isaiah. 

The words which immediately concern us here 
are at the end of the ninth chapter of that book : 
" I saw that my Lord worshipped, and the angel of 
the Spirit, and that both of them together glorified 
God. And immediately all the saints approached 
and worshipped : and all the saints and angels 
approached and worshipped, and all the angels 

We see then that Irenaeus by no means stands 
alone in his statement that the God and Father of 
all is glorified by the Son and by the Holy Spirit. 
Strange as the conception is to us it was not 
strange to the religious mind of the second 
Christian century. It would appear to have found 


a place in an early form of the Liturgy, and to 
have been retained by the Arian compiler of 
the so-called Clementine Liturgy of the Apostolic 
Constitutions : for the Arians not infrequently 
could claim to be conservative in points of detail. 
Possibly we may even trace it, in a form modified 
into harmony with a later orthodoxy, in the 
Liturgy of Serapion ; but it is cast out altogether 
in the Greek Liturgies of the subsequent period, 
and by the orthodox reviser of the Apostolic 

As the Demonstration starts from the Rule 
of Faith the "three points" of the Creed it 
necessarily has something to say of the relation 
of the Spirit to the Father and the Son : but 
at once we feel that Irenaeus finds difficulty 
in drawing a clear distinction between the 
functions of the Word and the Spirit. In c. 5 he 
says : God is rational (koyiKo^ ; therefore He 
creates by the Word (Aovog) : God is Spirit ; 
therefore He orders all by the Spirit. Here 
Ps. xxxiii. 6 comes to his aid : " By the word of the 
Lord were the heavens established, and by his 
spirit all their power." Then, having identified the 
Word with the Son, he identifies the Spirit with 
the Wisdom of God. After this he takes refuge 
in St Paul : " One God, the Father? etc. But the 
passage must be given in full. 

" Since God is rational, therefore by (the) Word 
[or Reason] He created the things that were 
made ; and God is Spirit, and by (the) Spirit He 
adorned all things : as also the prophet says : By 
the word of the Lord were the heavens established > 


and by his spirit all their power. Since then the 
Word establishes, that is to say, gives body and 
grants the reality of being, and the Spirit gives 
order and form to the diversity of the powers ; 
rightly and fittingly is the Word called the Son, 
and the Spirit the Wisdom of God. Well also 
does Paul His apostle say : One God, the Father, 
who is over all and through all and in us all. For 
over all is the Father ; and through all is the Son, 
for by means of Him all things were made by the 
Father ; and in us all is the Spirit, who cries Abba 
Father, and fashions man into the likeness of God. 1 
Now the Spirit shows forth the Word," etc. 2 

Here we have moved a long way from Justin, who 
does not connect the Holy Spirit with the work of 
creation, nor quote Ps. xxxiii. 6 ; and who 
expressly tells us more than once that it is the 
Son who is called Wisdom by Solomon (Dial. 62 
and 126). It is to other writings of Irenaeus 
himself that we must look for illustration of these 
words of the Demonstration. 

We begin with IV, xxxiv. I ff., a passage which 
contains so many illustrations of the language of 
the Demonstration that we must quote it at some 
length. The translation is made from a compari- 
son of the Latin and Armenian versions : where 
it does not accord with the Latin, it is to be 
assumed that the Armenian is followed. 

V, xviii. I he gives a like interpretation, though in a different 
don : " Over all is the Father, and He is the head of Christ ; 



and throttgh all the Word, and He is the head of the Church ; and 
in us all the Spirit, and He is the living water which the Lord 
bestows," etc. 

2 As quoted above, p. 36. 


(1) "So then according to His greatness it is not 
possible to know God ; for it is impossible that 
the Father should be measured. But according 
to His love for love it is which leads us to God 
through His Word as we obey Him we ever 
learn that He is so great a God, and that it is 
He who by Himself created and made and adorned 
and contains all things. Now in all things are both 
we and this world of ours : x therefore we also were 
made together with those things that are contained 
by Him. And it is this concerning which the 
Scripture says: And the Lord God formed man, 
dust of the earth ; and breathed in his face the breath 
of life (Gen. ii. 7). Angels therefore made us not, 
nor formed us : for neither could angels make the 
image of God, nor could any other except the true 
God, nor any power standing remote from the 
Father of all. For of none of these was God in 
need to make whatsoever He of Himself had fore- 
ordained should be made : as though He Himself 
had not His own Hands. For ever with Him is 
the Word and Wisdom the Son and the Spirit 
through whom and in whom freely and of His 
own power He made all things ; unto whom also 
the Father speaks, 2 saying : Let us make man after 
our image and likeness: taking from Himself the 
substance of the things created, and the pattern 
of those made, and the form of those adorned. 

(2) "Well then spake the Scripture which 
says : First of all believe that there is one God, who 

1 Cf. c, 4 : " Now among all things is this world of ours," etc., 
and the note there. 

2 Cf. c. 55: "The Father speaking to the Son" (the same 
quotation, Gen. i. 26). 


created and fashioned all things, and made all things 
to be from that which was not ; and containeth 
all things, and alone is uncontained^- Well also in 
the prophets says the Angel : 2 Hath not one God 
created us? Is there not one Father of us all 
(Mai. ii. 10) ? And agreeably with this the Apostle 
says : One God and Father, above all and through 
all and in us all (Eph. iv. 6). In like manner also 
the Lord says : All things have been delivered unto 
me by my Father (Matt. xi. 27) ; plainly by Him who 
made all things : for He gave Him not the things 
of another, but His own. 3 

"And in all things there is nothing excepted. 
And for this cause He is Judge of quick and dead ; 
having the key of David, opening and none shall 

1 Cf. c. 4 : " And therefore it is right first of all to believe that 
there is One God, the Father, who created what was not that it 
should be, and who, containing all things, alone is uncontained. " 
See note there, where the Greek is given from the Shepherd of 

? The Latin has " Malachias," both here and in IV, xxix. 5, where 
again the Armenian has "the Angel": these are the only places 
where Irenaeus quotes the prophet by name. The name Malachi 
only occurs as the heading of the prophecy, and in the first verse 
of it, where the LXX however give ayy4\ov avrov instead. There 
was uncertainty about the authorship, which was sometimes attri- 
buted to Ezra. In 4 Esdras i. 40 a list of the twelve prophets ends 
with " Malachise, qui et angelus Domini vocatus est." Hippolytus 
(de Antichr. 46) writes : itaQ&s 5ta MaAa^toi/ rov (ryyeAou tyi\v{v. 
Cf. Clem. Al. Strom. I, 122, 127, 129, 135 (6 eV rots 5wSe/ca 
&yye\os). In the Latin fragment of the Didascalia (Hauler, p. 68) 
we find : "per Malachiam loquens, qui nuncupatur et angelus ; " so 
again in the Syriac (ed. Achelis-Flemming, p. 129): "Malachi 
the Angel." Jerome says that Origen regarded the writer actually 
as an angel. Twice Justin assigns quotations from him to Zachariah 
(Dial. 29 and 49). I have adopted " the Angel " in the translation 
here to call attention to the reading. I think it not unlikely to be 
what Irenseus wrote : but it is right to add that the Armenian Bible 
follows the LXX in reading " his angel " in Mai. i. I. 

3 Cf. c. 3 : "For God is not ruler and Lord over the things of 
another, but over His own." 


shut, and He sHall shut and none shall open (Rev. 
iii. 7). For none other was able, neither in heaven 
nor on earth nor beneath the earth to open the 
Father's book, nor to look thereon, save the Lamb 
that was slain and redeemed us by his blood (Rev. 
v. 2) ; having received all power from Him, who 
by the Word made and by Wisdom adorned all 
things, when the Word was made flesh (John i. 14) : 
that as in heaven He had the preeminence, 1 because 
He was the Word of God, so also on earth He should 
have the preeminence, because He was a just man, 2 
who did no sin, neither was guile found in his mouth 
(i Pet. ii. 22} ; and that He should have the 
preeminence also over those who are beneath the 
earth, being made the first-begotten from the dead 
(Rev. i. 5) : and that all things should behold, as 
we have said, their King : and that the Father's 
light should come upon the flesh of our Lord, 
and from His flesh sparkling and flashing back 
should come to us, and so man should be drawn 
and caught into the incorruption of the Father's 

(3) " Now that the Word, that is, the Son, was 
always with the Father, 3 we have shown by many 
proofs. And that Wisdom, which is the Spirit, 
was with Him before all creation, He says by 
Solomon, thus : God by wisdom founded the earth, 
and he prepared the heaven by understanding : by 

1 Cf. c. 40 : " Thus then the Word of God in all things hath the 
preeminence," and note there. 

2 Cf. c. 39 : "A just and holy man . . . the first begotten of the 

8 Cf. c. 52 : " Christ, being Son of God before all the world, is. 
always with the Father," etc. 


his knowledge the depths were broken up, and the 
clouds dropped down the dew (Prov. iii. 19 f.). And 
again : The Lord created me (in Arm.) the beginning 
of his ways, for his works" etc. (Prov. viii. 22-25). 

(4) "There is therefore one God, who by the 
Word and Wisdom made and fashioned all 
things . . ." 

So the great passage runs on : later portions 
of it describe the work of the Holy Spirit among 
men. The footnotes have shown how much of 
it is repeated in almost the same words in the 
Demonstration, apart from the particular section 
which we have called it in to illustrate. To 
that section we must return ; for we are now 
concerned with the Spirit's work in connexion 
with Creation. 

First we must deal with the quotation, By the 
word of the Lord were the heavens established, and by 
his spirit all their power. This is quoted more cor- 
rectly "by the spirit (or 'breath') of his mouth" 
in I, xv and also in III, viii. 3. In the latter 
place he makes no comment ; but in the former, 
after having quoted this text to prove that God 
made all things by His Word, he presently adds a 
reference to the Spirit : " By His Word and Spirit 
making all things, and disposing and governing 
them, and granting existence to them all." Here 
the Word and the Spirit seem to be brought 
together merely because they have occurred in the 
quotation, and there is no further reference to the 
Holy Spirit in the context. It might therefore 
appear that they are no more distinguished from 
one another than they are in the parallelism of 


the Hebrew poet, to whom " the word " and " the 
breath of his mouth " are but one and the same. 
But Irenaeus has no eye for such parallelisms, and 
the dropping of the phrase " of his mouth " in our 
present passage makes this only too plain. 

Next we note the expression " by the Spirit 
He adorned them." This word " adorned " (Lat. 
adornavif) recurs several times in the passage we 
have quoted from Bk. IV : " created and made and 
adorned and contains all things ; " " the form of 
the things adorned," " who by the Word made and 
by Wisdom adorned all things." The Armenian 
word is the same throughout, and probably repre- 
sents the Greek ixoojuqoev and TOJV xexoojur]/j,eva)v. 1 
At the end of the passage we have a similar 
phrase : " who by the Word and Wisdom made 
and fashioned all things (Lat. adaptavif)" * 

The passage in the Demonstration goes on to 
say that " rightly and fittingly is the Word called 
the Son, and the Spirit the Wisdom of God." The 
proof texts for this latter statement are not given : 
but we have had them in the long passage from 
the fourth book Against Heresies. For the pur- 
pose of asserting the part of the Holy Spirit in 
Creation, Irenaeus has boldly taken over the texts 
which speak of Wisdom in this connexion texts 

1 In Justin (Ap. II, 6) we have e/n-/(re /col eKoV^rjo-e, and in 
Athenagoras (Sitppl. 8) eVonjo-e Kal e'/cdV^Tjo-e. 

2 The Arm. also has here a different word one which is used 
to translate Karapricras in the quotation from Hermas. Other 
parallels are II, xlvii. 2 : " condens et faciens omnia . . . Verbo 
virtutis suse ; et omnia aptavit et disposuit Sapientia sua . . . qui 
fecit ea per semetipsum, hoc est per Verbum et per Sapientiam 
suam:" III, xxxviii. 2: "Verbo suo confirmans et Sapientia 
compingens omnia." 


which Justin before him and Origen 1 after him 
would have referred to the Son. 

This equivalence in creative function of the 
Son and the Spirit, as the Word and the Wisdom 
of God, is strangely expressed in Bks. IV and 
V, by calling them the Hands of God. In IV, 
pref. 3 we read : " Man is a mingling of soul and 
flesh, 2 fashioned after the likeness of God and 
formed (plasmatus) by His Hands, that is, by the 
Son and the Spirit, to whom also He said : Let 
us make man'' The conception is developed in IV, 
xiv. I : " The Father had no need of angels to make 
the world and to form man for whose sake the 
world was made ; nor again was He in want of 
ministration for the making of created things and 
the dispensation of the work that concerned man : 
but He had abundant and unbounded ministration ; 
because there ministers unto Him His own Off- 
spring for all purposes, and His own Hands, 3 that 
is, the Son and the Spirit, the Word and Wisdom 
to whom all the angels render service and are in 
subjection." The next occurrence of the metaphor 
is in the great passage we have quoted above 
(IV, xxxiv. i, "as though He had not His own 
Hands "), where he practically repeats what he 
has said before. 

Then in V, i. 3 we have : " For never at any time 
has Adam escaped the Hands of God, to whom 

1 Oiigen found the Spirit in Gen. i. 2 and in Ps. xxxiii. 6 : but 
he is quite clear that Wisdom is the Son. 

2 Cf. c. 2: "Man is a living being compounded of soul and 
flesh," and note there. 

3 For " His own Hands" (Arm.) the Latin has "figuratio sua," 
which has troubled the commentators : the Armenian version 
restores the meaning of the passage. 


the Father spake, saying : Let us make man after 
our image and likeness. And for this cause in the 
end (of the times), not of the will of flesh nor of 
the will of man (John i. 13), but of the good 
pleasure of the Father, His Hands made the Living 
Man, that Adam might become after the image 
and likeness of God." Here we see the conception 
carried on from the Creation to the Incarnation. 

In V, v. x I, speaking of Enoch and Elijah, he 
says : " By those Hands by which they were 
formed (enModrjoav') at the beginning they were 
translated and taken up : for in Adam the Hands 
of God were habituated to order and hold and 
carry their own formation (nhdojua), and to bear it 
and set it where they themselves would." He goes 
on to say that " the Hand of God was present " 
with the Three Children in the Furnace namely 
"the Son of God." 

Then in V, vi. I the continual moulding of man 
is indicated : " God shall be glorified in His own 
formation (plasmate\ conforming and conjoining it 
to His Son. For by the Hands of the Father, that 
is, the Son and the Spirit, man is made after the 
image and likeness of God but not part of man." 
He is arguing for the resurrection of the flesh, not 
of the soul alone. 

In V, xv. 2 f. our Lord's cures in the Gospels are 
said to show the Hand of God, which formed man 
at the beginning : cf. also xvi. I. This is not at 
variance with the conception, for the Son is one of 
the Hands of God. 

Lastly, in V, xxviii. 3, he returns to the two 
Hands : " Wherefore in all this time (viz. the 


6000 years) man, formed at the beginning by the 
Hands of God, that is, the Son and the Spirit, is 
being made after the image and likeness of God." 

In the Demonstration the same thought is 
suggested by the phrase in c. 1 1 : " But man He 
formed with His own Hands ; " but it is not further 
dwelt upon. 

The identification of the Spirit with Wisdom 
was made after a fashion by some of the " Gnostics," 
but not in a way that is likely to have influenced 
Irenaeus. 1 Nor do I know where else to find it at 
this date except in Theophilus of Antioch. But 
on his name we must pause for a brief digression. 
He seems to have written a little earlier than 
Irenaeus, who is generally admitted to have had 
some acquaintance with his works. 

In approaching what Theophilus of Antioch has 
to say concerning the Holy Spirit, it is of the first 
importance to bear in mind that his three books 
addressed to Autolycus represent a systematic 
attempt to convert a heathen from the worship of 
a plurality of Gods. A higher faith is set before 
him, but it is not what we today should speak of 

1 In the Clementine Homilies, however, the doctrine of which 
has much in common with the Helchesaite teachings of the second 
century, there are some curious parallels to the language of Irenseus 
on this subject. In Hqjn. xvi. 12 we read: "There is one God 
who said to His Wisdom, Let us make man. Now Wisdom, with 
which, as with His own Spirit, He Himself ever rejoiced (cf. Prov. 
viii. 30), is united as Soul with God, and stretched out from Him as 
Hand, creating the universe (e/cre/j/eTai 5e us x ^P ^TH^tovpyovcra ri> 
iroj')." So in Horn. xi. 22, "of the Spirit of God moving on the 
water," we are told : " The Spirit has the beginning of extension 
(rV apxTiv TTJS e/craoreojs) from God who made all things;" and, 
"when God spake, the Spirit as His Hand created all things." 
With this tKTaffts cf. Dem. c. 26 : " Now the finger of God is 
that which is stretched forth from the Father in the Holy Spirit." 


as distinctively Christian. There is no Christian 
theology, properly so called, propounded : the 
Incarnation, Passion, Resurrection of our Lord are 
not mentioned ; the very names Christ and Jesus 
are absent : x the Gospels are referred to only in 
passing for certain moral precepts. Much of the 
work is directly controversial and negative : his 
positive arguments are concerned with the process 
of Creation as revealed to Moses and with prophe- 
cies of the Old Testament. In these Scriptures 
and in the Gospels, so far as he touches on them, 
he finds the inspiring activity of the Spirit of God : 
but Creation, not less than Inspiration, is for him a 
function of God's Wisdom as well as of God's Word ; 
and, though he does not explicitly identify Wisdom 
with the Holy Spirit, his language certainly implies 
that this was his meaning. 

Theophilus leads off with a general statement 
which is perhaps to be explained by his anxiety to 
keep the Unity of God in the front of his exposition. 
The form of God, he says, is ineffable: "if I call 
Him Light, I speak of His handiwork; if Word, 
of His rule " for he explains later that OLQ^TJ means 
" rule " (8xi ao%ei) as well as " beginning " ; " if I call 
Him Mind, I speak of His understanding ; if Spirit, 
of His breath; if Wisdom, of His offspring; if 
Strength, of His might ; if Power, of His working ; 
if Providence, of His goodness," and so on. 2 

Here we have " Word," Spirit," " Wisdom "as 

1 Even when explaining the word "Christian" he does not 
mention Christ, but plays with the word evxpfjo'Tos, and then says, 
"We are called Christians because we are anointed (xpi6/j.e0a) with 
the oil of God " (i. I and 12). 


it were Names of God : a sort of warning that, if 
these are hereafter mentioned as active powers, 
they are not to be thought of as infringing on the 
Unity of the Deity. 

Next, in i. 5, we read : " the whole creation is 
embraced by the Spirit of God, and the Spirit that 
embraces it is together with the creation embraced 
by the hand of God." This does not encourage us 
to expect a very clear definition of terms. 

In i. 7 we get what is more to our purpose. He 
is speaking of God as the Physician who can open 
the eyes of the soul : " God, who heals and quickens 
by the Word and Wisdom. For God by His 
Word and Wisdom made all things. For by his 
word were the heavens established \ and by his spirit 
all their power. Most excellent is His Wisdom : 
God by wisdom founded the earth, and prepared the 
heavens by understanding : by (his) knowledge the 
depths were broken ///, and the clouds dropped down 
the dew." 

This might be Irenaeus himself. 1 There is the 
same inexact quotation of Ps. xxxiii. 6, with " his 
spirit," instead of "the spirit (or 'breath') of his 
mouth"; and the same full quotation of Prov. iii. 
19, 20, where the former verse only might have 
been expected. Moreover the next sentences of 
Theophilus give in summary form much which is 
said with great fulness by Irenaeus, touching the 
vision of God and the resurrection of the flesh as 
well as of the soul. 

In ii. 9 Wisdom and Holy Spirit are found in 
close conjunction. The prophets being " spirit- 

1 See above, pp. 44, 48 f. 


bearers of holy Spirit" (nvsvjuaTCKpoQoi 
ayiov) were able to take in the Wisdom that is from 
Him (i. e. from God) and by this Wisdom spoke of 
creation and of other things, future as well as past. 
Wisdom is here connected with the Holy Spirit, 
yet not expressly identified with Him. 

We go on (ii. 10) to what the prophets have 
told us about the creation. Out of what did not 
exist God made all things. For God has no 
coeval. Though in need of nought in His existence 
before the ages, yet He willed to make man, by 
whom He might be known. So He made the 
world in preparation for man. And this is how 
He did it : " God having His own Word existent 
within His own heart (IvdidOerov), begat Him, 
together with His own Wisdom, uttering Him 
forth before all things. 1 This Word He used as 
minister for the things brought into being by Him, 
and through Him He made all things. This 
(Word) is also called Rule (oQ%tf y on a.Q%ei} t because 
He rules and dominates all that has been created 
through Him. This (Word) therefore, being 
Spirit of God and Rule and Wisdom and Power 
of the Highest, came down upon the prophets and 
through them spoke of the world's creation and 
all other things. For the prophets were not there 
when the world was made, but (only) the Wisdom 
of God which is in Him, and His holy Word who 
is ever present with Him. So Solomon says : 
When he prepared the heaven I was present with 

rbv favrov \6yov eySidOzTOV v rots IStois 
avrbv pera rrjs eavrov (?o<pia.s 
The language is moulded on Ps. xlv. I : 
\6yov ayaddv. 


him" and so on. "And long before Solomon 
Moses, or rather the Word of God through him as 
an instrument, says : In the beginning God made 
the heaven and the earth." Then follows a mention 
of" the Divine Wisdom " as foreknowing the foolish 
idolatries of men, and as saying In the beginning 
God made> that it might be understood that " in 
His Word God made the heaven and the earth." 

It may be that Theophilus thus passes from the 
Word of God to the Wisdom of Gocl, and back 
again, and even calls the Word both Spirit of God 
and Wisdom, in order to maintain the ruling 
conception of the Unity of the Deity. He speaks 
of God as begetting His own Word together with 
His own Wisdom and we remember that in an 
earlier place he spoke of Wisdom as the offspring 
(yevvrifjLa) of God but he has not used the word 
" Son," though this he will have to do later. He 
writes so clearly when he chooses, that we are 
almost forced to conclude that he is withholding 
the fuller doctrine with intentional reserve from 
one who still persists in his heathen beliefs. 

He now quotes (ii. n) the whole of the first 
chapter of Genesis, and begins to comment on it, 
first noting " the exceeding greatness and riches 
of the Wisdom of God " displayed in it. Presently 
(ii. 13) he says that, unlike man, God can begin 
His building from the roof. Therefore "/ the 
beginning God made the heaven, that is, through 
the Beginning (dia z% %??) the heaven was 
made, as we have explained." He has already 
called the Word do%rj, though in the sense of 
Rule. The Spirit appears as the vivifying power 


in connexion with the water. Then " the Command 
(TI didxa^H;} of God, that is, His Word," introduces 
light. Then the Word of God gathers the waters 
"into one assembly" (eiq owaycoy^v) , a phrase 
which presently is allegorised. 1 

When he comes to the fourth day, on which 
the luminaries were created, he offers some alle- 
gorical interpretations. Man, though not yet 
created, is in a way anticipated and prefigured. 
The sun, never waning, is a type of God in His 
eternal fulness : the moon with her changes is a 
type of man, his re-birth and resurrection. "In 
like manner also," he proceeds, "the three days 
before the luminaries were made are types of the 
triad God and His Word and His Wisdom ; 2 
and to the fourth type (what corresponds) is man, 
who needs the light : so that there may be God, 
Word, Wisdom, Man. This is why the luminaries 
were made on the fourth day." And he goes on 
to interpret the stars, bright and less bright, as 
the prophets and other just men, and the planets 
as wanderers from God. 

Here for a moment we seem to have got the 
doctrine of the Holy Trinity, and the identification 
of Wisdom with the Spirit. And we have no 
earlier example of the use of the word Tolas 
in this sense. But we are instantly warned off 
from such a view by his introduction of Man as 
a fourth member of the series. If he has come 
too near enunciating the Trinity, he certainly 

1 ii. 14 : rots ffvvaycayds, Ae'yo/zev 8e ew/cAtjcrtas ayias- 

2 ii. 15 : TVTTOI elffl TT}S rpidSos, rov Oeoii Kal TOV \6yov avrov Kal 
TTJS ffotylas aiiTov. 


escapes, covering his tracks. Is it possible that 
these were " words to the wise " ? At any rate he 
has said nothing that could raise in the mind of 
Autolycus any thought of plurality of Gods. 

In ii. 1 8 he comes on to the creation of man. First 
the high dignity of man is indicated in the words, 
Let us make man after our image and likeness. 
"For when God had made all things by word, 
and counted them all as subsidiary (ndoEQya), the 
making of man He alone counted work of His 
own hands. Yea more, as though needing 
assistance, God is found saying, Let us make . . . 
But to none other did He say it, save to His own 
Word and His own Wisdom." 

Here again we almost seem to be listening to 
Irenaeus. Is it possible that it is in view of the 
indistinctness of this very teaching that Irenaeus 
so often reiterates that the Word and the Wisdom 
are the Son and the Spirit, and that these are the 
Hands of God? Theophilus has almost said it 
himself: but he has stopped shorj: of saying it. 
And in a later chapter (ii. 22) he will return to 
the old vagueness, and tell us that it was " not the 
God and Father of all ... but His Word, through 
whom He made all^things, who, being His Power 
and His Wisdom, represented the Father of all/' 
and conversed in Paradise with Adam. And he 
adds that the Voice Adam heard is "the Word 
of God, who is also His Son (vlo$ avwv) : not 
indeed as poets and mythologers speak of sons of 
the gods begotten by intercourse ; but as truth 
declares concerning the Word who is ever existent 
within (evdidOerov) the heart of God. For before 


anything was made He had Him to His Counsellor, 
as being His own mind and understanding. But 
when He willed to make what He had counselled, 
He begat this Word into outwardness (noocpogixov), 
as first-begotten of all creation : not being Him- 
self emptied of the Word, but having begotten 
the Word, and for ever conversing with His Word." 
He then quotes the first verses of St John's 
Gospel ; but he does not go on to " the Word 
made flesh." 

In all this we have much that reminds us of 
Irenaeus, and there are yet closer parallels to be 
found in later chapters. We cannot but regret 
that we have none of those works of Theophilus 
which would have given us his more distinctively 
Christian teaching, such as Autolycus might have 
received had he been willing to become a catechu- 
men. We have enough at any rate to make us 
feel that Irenaeus was not on wholly new ground 
in this particular matter, even if he trod it much 
more firmly than his predecessor. 

We now return to the Demonstration and read a 
passage in which Irenaeus sums up a portion of 
his argument (c. 47). " So then the Father is Lord 
and the Son is Lord, and the Father is God and 
the Son is God : for that which is begotten of God 
is God." This surprises us alike by its anticipation 
of a later formula, and by its silence in regard 
to the Holy Spirit. It is only at a later point 
after a quotation from Ps. xlv, that the Spirit 
is mentioned : " The Son, as being God, receives 
from the Father, that is, from God, the throne of 
the everlasting kingdom, and the oil of anointing 


above His fellows. The oil of anointing is the 
Spirit, wherewith He has been anointed." This 
statement is also found in III, xix. 3: and in 
III, vi. i we read : "Since therefore the Father is 
truly Lord and the Son is truly Lord, the Holy 
Spirit duly indicated them by the title of Lord ; " 
and, after certain texts have been quoted : " For 
the Holy Spirit indicated both by the title of 
Lord Him who is anointed, even the Son, and 
Him who anoints, that is, the Father." 1 

The concern of Irenaeus, as of Justin before him, 

is with the Father and the Son ; and he writes 

always with the heresy of Marcion in the back of 

his mind. It would seem as though no question of 

the Deity of the Holy Spirit occurred to him. 

The Spirit was the Spirit of God and the Spirit of 

Christ. It was necessary to insist that "that 

which is begotten of God is God : " the Godhead 

of the Son required proof. But to say that "the 

Spirit of God " is truly God would have been 

to him a tautology. The thought of the Spirit as 

God did not as yet involve any such distinction as 

could seem to conflict with the Unity of the Deity. 

To do justice to the teaching of Irenaeus so far 

as it regards the relation of the Holy Spirit to the 

Father and the Son, it would be necessary to 

examine what he has to tell us of the Spirit's work 

in the process of man's restoration. An adequate 

1 The earlier part of this chapter has been quoted above (p. 37). 
In insisting that no other save the Father and the Son is called God 
or Lord in the full sense, Irenseus is following Justin (Dial. 56). 
Justin has quoted Ps. xlv. 7, and asks : Ei ovv Kal &\\ov TWO. QtoXo- 
yetv teal KvpioXoyelv rb Trvev/j.0, rb ayidv (pore u/xels trapa rbv irartpa TU>V 
o\<av itdi Tbv xp lffrr bv avrov. Equally strong are the statements in 
Dial, 65 and 68. 


consideration of this would correct the one-sided 
view which is all that we gain from treating of 
the points on which his conceptions are farthest 
removed from those with which we ourselves are 
familiar. It has been necessary to consider these 
points with some fulness, because it is important to 
observe how much still remained unsettled, and 
how great a task still lay before the leaders of 
Christian thought before such definitions could be 
reached as should adequately guard the Catholic 
doctrine of the Holy Trinity. It is not possible 
however to do more within our present limits, and 
it is fortunate for us that the gap may be filled by 
a reference to the careful and sympathetic 
exposition of Dr. Swete in his valuable work on 
The Holy Spirit in the Ancient Church (1912, pp. 
89-94). " Irenaeus," he tells us, " enters into the 
details of the Holy Spirit's work on the hearts and 
lives of men with a fulness which is far in advance 
of other Christian writers of the second century." 
And he sums up by saying : " On the whole, the 
pneumatology of Irenaeus is a great advance on all 
earlier Christian teaching outside* the Canon." 
With this apology for incompleteness we must pass 
on to the third and last point of our subject. 

3. The Holy Spirit and the Incarnation of the 
Word. We have seen how Justin declared that it 
was not permissible to regard " the Spirit " and 
" the Power " that came upon the Virgin as any 
other than the Word of God Himself. And we 
also noted- in passing that Theophilus of Antioch 
spoke of the Word as being " Spirit of God " and 
" Power of the Highest/' the second of which 


designations comes from Luke i. 35. We have 
now to ask whether the language of Irenaeus 
corresponds with this interpretation and makes 
the Word Himself to be the agent of His own 

We begin with a strange passage of the 
Demonstration (c. 71) in which he expounds Lam. 
iv. 20 : The Spirit of our face, the Lord Christ, was 
taken in their snares ; of whom we said, Under his 
shadow we shall live among the Gentiles. He has 
used part of this text in III,xi. 2, a passage which 
must be cited here. Christ, he says, is Salus, 
Salvator, and Salutare in various Scriptures. " He 
is Salvator (Saviour), because He is Son and Word 
of God : Salutare (perhaps as saving-principle), 
because He is Spirit ; for the Spirit of our face, it 
says, Christ the Lord: and He is Salus (Salvation), 
because He is flesh." He has in his mind some 
" Gnostic " error which he is refuting ; but we are 
only concerned with his use of the text to prove 
that Christ is Spirit. In the passage in the 
Demonstration he makes the same use of it. This 
Scripture, he says, declares " that Christ being 
(the) Spirit of God was to become a suffering 
man." Then he adds : " And by shadow he means 
His body. For just as a shadow is made by a 
body, so also Christ's body was made by His 
Spirit." Here again we are not concerned with the 
general argument, but only with these two state- 
ments : Christ was Spirit of God, and Christ's body 
was made by His Spirit. This is as much as 
to say that the Word of God was the agent of His 
own Incarnation. 


In c. 59 we read : " By flower [of the root of 
Jesse] he means His flesh (or "body") : for from 
spirit it budded forth, as we have said before." 
The reference would appear to be to c. 51: " that 
the same God forms Him from the womb, that is, 
that of the Spirit of God He should be born." 

In V, i. 2, controverting Docetic views, he says : 
" If He were not man and yet appeared to be man, 
then neither did He remain what He was in truth, 
(viz.) Spirit of God, since the Spirit is invisible ; nor 
was any truth in Him, since He was not what He 
appeared to be." 

In c. 97, after quoting from Baruch iii. 38, 
Afterward did he appear upon earth, and was 
conversant with men, he says : " mingling and 
mixing the Spirit of God the Father with the 
plasma (* formation ') of God, that man might be 
after the image and likeness of God." There is 
a close parallel in IV, xxxiv. 4, a continuation of 
the great passage cited at length above : " His 
advent according to flesh, whereby a mingling and 
communion of God and man was made, according 
to the good-pleasure of the Father : the Word of 
God having foretold from the beginning that God 
should be seen of men and should be conversant with 
them on the earth . . . that man being intermingled 1 
with the Spirit of God should be brought to the 
glory of the Father." 

The general thought here is that the restoration 
of man takes place after the pattern of the Incar- 
nation the intermingling of human flesh with 

1 Latin: complexus homo Spirit urn Dei. Arm.: "intertwined 
and mingled with." Perhaps the Greek 


the Spirit of God. If the Spirit of God in the 
Incarnation is thought of primarily as Christ 
Himself, yet there is no sharp distinction drawn 
between Christ as Spirit and the Spirit that works 
in believers. The indistinctness is not greater 
than in St Paul : " if the Spirit of God be in you 
. . . but if any man have not the Spirit of Christ 
. . . but if Christ be in you ... if the Spirit of 
him that raised up Jesus from the dead dvvelleth 
in you " all in consecutive verses in Rom. viii. 9 ff. 

We have left to the last a phrase, which taken 
alone might have suggested a later view. If we 
are not to misinterpret Irenaeus, we must bear 
in mind that the clause " Conceived of the Holy 
Ghost " does not appear in any credal confession 
before the Council of Ariminum in 359, and it 
was not until some years later that it found final 
acceptance. It belongs to a period of definition 
long subsequent to the age of Irenaeus. 

The words in question are these (c. 40) : " He 
from whom all things are, He who spake with 
Moses, came into Judaea, generated from God 
by (the) Holy Spirit, and born of the Virgin Mary." 
I have been compelled to use the word " generated," 
at the risk of misunderstanding : but the Armenian 
word means simply "sown." And we shall do 
well at once to compare III, xvii. 6 : "The Word, 
. . . united and sown together with that which He 
Himself had formed (or, as the Latin has it, unitus 
et consparsus suo plasmati] according to the good- 
pleasure of the Father, and made flesh." It is the 
Word that the Father " sows " by His Spirit. And 
to show the wide scope of the metaphor, we may 


compare IV, xx. I : " The Son of God is sown every- 
where in the Scriptures ; at one time speaking with 
Abraham and eating with him," and so forth. And, 
again, in IV, xlviii. 2 we have : " the seed of the 
Father of all, that is, the Spirit of God, through 
whom all things were made, mingled and united 
with flesh, that is, His plasma (' formation ')." 
This is said of the Holy Spirit in His work 
amongst men. 

The whole topic is further illustrated by V, i. 3 : 
" The Ebionites . . . not willing to understand 
that the Holy Spirit came upon Mary, and the power 
of the Highest overshadowed her ; wherefore also 
that which was born was holy, and Son of the 
Most High God, the Father of all, who wrought 
His incarnation, and manifested a new birth ; that, 
as by the former birth we inherited death, so by 
this birth we should inherit life." Presently he 
adds : " and not considering that, just as at the 
beginning of our formation (plasmatio] in Adam 
that breath of life which was from God, being 
united to] the thing formed (plasmati), animated 
man and manifested a rational animal, so at the 
end the Word of the Father and the Spirit of God, 
being united (adunitus, singular) to the original 
substance of the formation (plasmatio) of Adam, 
made man living and perfect, capable of receiving 
the perfect Father ; that, as in the animal we all 
died, so in the spiritual we should all be made 
alive." 1 

It results from this exa'mination that the teaching 

1 The words which follow have been quoted above, p. 51 : " For 
never at any time hath Adam escaped the Hands of God," etc. 


of Irenaeus as to the relation of the Holy Spirit to 
the Incarnation is vague, perhaps even transitional. 
He does not, like Justin, plainly assert that the 
Spirit of God who came down upon the Virgin 
was the Word of God Himself ; nor, on the other 
hand, does he definitely preclude that view. He 
seems to prefer to think of a cooperation of the 
Word of God and the Wisdom of God the Two 
Hands of God to whom the creation of the first- 
formed man was due. 

We may 'conclude by quoting a striking passage 
from the Demonstration, x the earlier part of which 
will recall the noble lines of Newman's hymn : 

O wisest love ! that flesh and blood, 

Which did in Adam fail, 
Should strive afresh against the foe, 

Should strive and should prevail. 

And that a higher gift than grace 

Should flesh and blood refine, 
God's presence and his very Self, 

And Essence all-divine. 

" So the Word was made flesh, that, through that 
very flesh which sin had ruled and dominated, 
it should lose its force and be no longer in us. 
And therefore our Lord took that same original 
formation as (His) entry into flesh, so that He 
might draw near and contend on behalf of the 
fathers, and conquer by Adam that which by 
Adam had stricken us down. Whence then is 
the substance of the first-formed (man) ? From 
the Will and the Wisdom of God, and from the 
virgin earth. For God had not sent rain, the 

1 Dem. cc. 31 f. 


Scripture says, upon the earth, before man" was 
made ; and there was no man to till the earth. 
From this, then, whilst it was still virgin, God 
took dust of the earth and formed the man, the 
beginning of mankind. So then the Lord, sum- 
ming up afresh this man, took the same dispensa- 
tion of entry into flesh, being born from the Virgin 
by the Will and the Wisdom of God ; that He 
also should show forth the likeness of Adam's entry 
into flesh, and there should be that which was 
written in the beginning, man after the image and 
likeness of God." 


I. Knowing, my beloved Marcianus, your desire 
to walk in godliness, which alone leads man to 
life eternal, I rejoice with you and make my prayer 
that you may preserve your faith entire and so be 
pleasing to God who made you. Would that it 
were possible for us to be always together, to help 
each other and to lighten the labour of our earthly 
life by continual discourse together on the things 
that profit. 1 But, since at this present time we 
are parted from one another in the body, yet 
according to our power we will not fail to speak 
with you a little by writing, and to show forth in 
brief the preaching of the truth for the confirmation 
of your faith. 2 We send you as it were a manual 
of essentials, 3 that by little you may attain to much, 
learning in short space all the members of the 
body of the truth, 4 and receiving in brief the 

1 This opening section is in the manner of the introductions to 
each of the five books Against Heresies : in the first of these, of 
which the Greek is preserved, we have parallels to language used 
here : KaOws Swapis TJ/JUV, and eVl iroAi/ Kapirocpop-lifffis TO 81 o\iyuv 

2 "To shew forth the preaching." This corresponds to the 
wording of the title: the e7r5et|is, ostensio, or "demonstration" 
of the Apostolic Preaching. 

3 Lit. "a more essential remembrancer." 

4 Cf. I, i. 20 : fv tKaaTov 5e riav eipr)fj.fvcav airotiovs TT? iSta 
KOI'as r<# TT)S a\r)0eias 

6 9 


demonstration of the things of God. So shall it 
be fruitful to your own salvation, and you shall put 
to shame all who inculcate falsehood, and bring 
with all confidence our sound and pure teaching to 
everyone who desires to understand it. For one 
is the way leading upwards for all who see, lightened 
with heavenly light : but many and dark and 
contrary are the ways of them that see not. This 
way leads to the kingdom of heaven, uniting man 
to God : but those ways bring down to death, 
separating man from God. Wherefore it is needful 
for you and for all who care for their own salvation 
to make your course unswerving, firm and sure by 
means of faith, that you falter not, nor be retarded 
and detained in material desires, nor turn aside and 
wander from the right. > 

2. Now, since man is a living being compounded 
of soul and flesh, 1 he must needs exist by both of 
these : and, whereas from both of them offences 
come, purity of the flesh is the restraining abstinence 
from all shameful things and all unrighteous deeds, 
and purity of the soul is the keeping faith towards 
God entire, neither adding thereto nor diminishing 
therefrom. For godliness is obscured and dulled 
by the soiling and the staining of the flesh, and is 
broken and polluted and no more entire, if false- 
hood enter into the soul : but it will keep itself in 
its beauty and its measure, when truth is constant 
in the soul 2 and purity in the flesh. For what 

1 Cf. IV. pref. 3 : " Homo est autem temperatio animae et 
carnis : " V, vi. i, viii. i, ix. I. 

2 Or, "spirit." The Armenian word for "spirit" (in/eC/ia) is 
sometimes used also for "soul " (fyvx'h) : the context shows that it is 
so used here. 


profit is it to know the truth in words, and to 
pollute the flesh and perform the works of evil? 
Or what profit can purity of the flesh bring, if truth 
be not in the soul? For these rejoice with one 
another, and are united and allied to bring man 
face to face with God. Wherefore the Holy Spirit 
says by David : Blessed is the man who hath not Ps. i. i 
walked in the counsel of the ungodly : that is, the 
counsel of the nations which know not God : for 
those are ungodly who worship not the God that 
truly is. And therefore the Word says to Moses : 
I am He that is :^ but they that worship not the Ex. Hi. 
God that is, these are the ungodly. And hath not I4 ' 
stood in the way of sinners : but sinners are those 
who have the knowledge of God and keep not His 
commandments ; that is, disdainful scorners. And 
hath not sat in the seat of the pestilential : 2 now the 
pestilential are those who by wicked and perverse 
doctrines corrupt not themselves only, but others 
also. For the seat is a symbol of teaching. Such 
then are all heretics : they sit in the seats of the 
pestilential, and those are corrupted who receive 
the venom of their doctrine. 

3. Now, that we may not suffer ought of this 
kind, we must needs hold the rule of the faith with- 
out deviation, 3 and do the commandments of God, 
believing in God and fearing Him as Lord and 
loving Him as Father. Now this doing is produced 

1 Lit. "I am the Existing One, "as in LXX'Eyo* elfj.1 6 >v. In III, 
vi. 2 the words are quoted as spoken by the Father. 

2 Here, as usual, the LXX is followed (\ot/j.S>v). 

3 Cf. I, i. 2O : 6 r'bv KO.VOVO. rf)s aXrjQeias a/cAtj/r) fv eavraj KaTfXtav, 
bv 8ta TOV fiairTicr/jLaTos efAi7</>e. The Arm. has taken over the 
Greek word KOLVUV. 


Isa. vii. 9 by faith : for Isaiah says : If ye believe not, neither 
shall ye understand. And faith is produced by the 
truth ; for faith rests on things that truly are. For 
in things that are, as they are,, we believe ; and 
believing in things that are, as they ever are, we 
keep firm our confidence in them. Since then faith 
is the perpetuation of our salvation, we must needs 
bestow much pains on the maintenance thereof, in 
order that we may have a true comprehension of 
the things that are. Now faith occasions this for 
us ; even as the Elders, the disciples of the 
Apostles, 1 have handed down to us. First of all 
it bids us bear in mind that we have received 
baptism for the remission of sins, in the name of 
God the Father, and in the name of Jesus Christ, 
the Son of God, who was incarnate and died and 
rose again, and in the Holy Spirit of God. And 
that this baptism is the seal of eternal life, and is 
the new birth unto God, that we should no longer 
be the sons of mortal men, but of the eternal and 
perpetual God ; and that what is everlasting and 
continuing is made God; 2 and is over all things 
that are made, and all things are put under Him ; 

1 Cf. V, xxxvi. i : " presbyteri apostolorum discipuli." 

2 This passage is obscure, and I cannot feel any confidence in my 
rendering of it. The Armenian translator has probably misunder- 
stood the construction of the Greek : his verbs are all in the 
infinitive, which suggests that Irenaeus is recording what the faith 
teaches. The words " made God" represent 0eoiroiet(r0at. This 
word, if not traceable elsewhere in Irenceus, is found in other early 

( writers : e. g. Hippolytus, Philos. x. 34 : yeyovas yap Qe6s . . . 
eOeoirofhOris yfvvt]B(ls ou yap Trrwxeyei 0e&s /col <re Bthv 
irotTJo-os ets 86av avrov. It is frequent in Athanasius ; e.g. De 
Incarn. 54 : aitrbs yap fvnvOpwirrjarev, 'iva y^e'is 6eo-noi7]6caiJifV. In 
Irenreus the thought finds expression in various forms : see IV, Ixiii. 
3: " quoniam non ab initio dii facti sumus, sed primo quidem 
homines, tune demum dii :" also III, vi. i. 


and all the things that are put under Him are 
made His own ; for God is not ruler and Lord over 
the things of another, but over His own ; * and all 
things are God's ; and therefore God is Almighty, 
and all things are of God. 

4. For it is necessary that things that are made 
should have the beginning of their making from 
some great cause ; and the beginning of all things 
is God. For He Himself was not made by any, 
and by Him all things were made. And therefore 
it is right first of all to believe that there is One 
God, the Father, who made and fashioned all 
things, and .made what was not that it should be, 
and who, containing all things, alone is uncon- 
tained. 2 Now among all things is this world of 
ours, 3 and in the world is man : so then this world 
also was formed by God. 

5. Thus then there is shown forth 4 One God, the 
Father, not made, invisible, creator of all things ; 
above whom there is no other God, and after whom 
there is no other God. And, since God is rational, Cf. isa. 

xliii. 10. 

1 This is a reminiscence of controversy with the heretics who 
denied that the Good God of the New Testament was the Creator 
God of the Old Testament : see IV, xxxiv. 2 : " non enim aliena sed 
sua tradidit ei " (of the Father committing all things to the Son) ; 
V, ii. i : " vani autem qui in aliena dicunt Dominum venisse, velut 
aliena concupiscentem " (where the Arm. enables us to correct the 
Latin, which has "Deum ") 

2 In IV, xxxiv. 2 he quotes, as "Scripture," the Shepherd of 
Hermas, Maud. I : Tlpwrov trdvTUJV iriarfuffov 5rt efs fffrlv 6 6e6s, 6 ra 
irdvra KTiffas Kal Karaprlaas, teal iroiriffas e/c TOV p.}} OVTOS fls rb e/i/at 
TO. irdvra, Kal iravra xwpwv, p.6vos 5e ax^pTlTos &v. Cf. also I, 

XV. I. 

3 IV, xxxiv. i : "in omnibus autem et nos, et hunc mundum qui 
est secundum nos : " I, xv. I: "etenim mundus ex omnibus :" III, xi. 
7 : "in omnibus ergo est et hsec quoe secundum nos est conditio." 

* Or "shown to be" : cf. V, xviii. I : " Et sic unus Deus Pater 
ostenditur = 


therefore by (the) Word He created the things 
that were made ; 1 and God is Spirit, and by (the) 
Spirit He adorned all things : as also the prophet 

PS. xxxiii. says : By the word of the Lord were the heavens 
established, and by his spirit all their power. 
Since then the Word establishes, that is to say, 
gives body 2 and grants the reality of being, and 
the Spirit gives order and form to the diversity of 
the powers; rightly and fittingly is the Word 
called the Son, and the Spirit the Wisdom of God. 3 

Eph. iv. 6. Well also does Paul His apostle say : One God, 
the Father, who is over all and through all and in us 
all. For over all is the Father ; and through all is 
the Son, for through Him all things were made by 

Cf. Gal. the Father ; and in us all is the Spirit, who cries 

iv. 6. Abba Father \ and fashions man into the likeness of 
God. 4 Now the Spirit shows forth the Word, and 
therefore the prophets announced the Son of God ; 
and the Word utters the Spirit, and therefore is 
Himself the announcer of the prophets, and leads 
and draws man to the Father. 

6. This then is the order of the rule of our faith, 
and the foundation of the building, and the 

1 God is \oyiic6s, therefore by \6yos He created the world. 
The play on the words is given by the Armenian, but cannot 
be given by the English translation. 

2 "Gives body :" apparently representing atap.a.Toiroifi : cf. I. 
i. 9, of the Demiurge of Valentinus : ^{ affoo/jidTwt/ arcafjiaroiroiTia-avra. 

3 III, xxxviii. 2: "Verbo suo confirmans et Sapientia compingens 
omnia;" IV, xxxiv. 2: "qui omnia Verbo fecit et Sapientia 
adornavit ;" 4 : "qui Verbo et Sapientia fecit et adaptavit omnia." 
On this whole section, see Introd. pp. 44 ff. 

4 V, xviii. i : "Super omnia quidem Pater, et ipse est caput 
Christi ; per omnia autem Verbum, et ipse est caput ecclesire ; in 
omnibus autem nobis Spiritus, et ipse est aqua viva quam prbestat 
Dominus," etc. Cf. Hippol. c. Noet. 14: 6 &v irarfyp eirl iravruv, 
6 5e vlbs Sia iravruv, rb 8e asyiov irvevfjia iv irafftv. 


stability of our conversation : God, the Father, not 
made, not material, invisible ; one God, the creator 
of all things : this is the first point l of our faith. 
The second point is : The Word of God, Son of 
God, Christ Jesus our Lord, who was manifested to 
the prophets according to the form of their 
prophesying and according to the method of the 
dispensation of the Father : 2 through whom all 
things were made ; who also at the end of the 
times, to complete and gather up 3 all things, was 
made man among men, visible and tangible, 4 in 
order to abolish death and show forth life and 
produce a community of union 5 between God and 
man. And the third point is : The Holy Spirit, 
through whom the prophets prophesied, and the 
fathers learned the things of God, and the right- 
eous were led forth into the way of righteousness ; 
and who in the end of the times was poured out 
in a new way 6 upon mankind in all the earth, 
renewing man unto God. 

7. And for this reason the baptism of our 

1 Lit. "head:" cf. cc. 7, 100. 

2 This is fully worked out in IV, Iv. 1-6 : the prophets were 
"members of Christ," and so each, according to the "member" 
that he was, declared his portion of prophecy, all together 
announcing the whole. 

3 The same double rendering of avaKf<pa\aia>ffa(rOai (Eph. i. 10) 
is found in the Arm. version of V, i. 2. 

4 IV, xi. 4: "visibilem et palpabilem ;" cf. IV, xiii. i, where 
the Arm. shows that the Latin "passibilis" should be corrected to 

5 This double rendering occurs in the Arm. of IV, xxxiv. 4 and 
V, i. i, where the Latin has simply "communio." With the whole 
of this passage compare IV, xxxiv. 4 : " qui novissimis temporibus 
homo in hominibus factus est, ut finem conjungeret principio, id est, 
hominem Deo." 

6 We have the same words in IV, Iv. 6: "in novissimis tem- 
poribus nove effusus est in nos." 


regeneration proceeds through these three points : 
God the Father bestowing on us regeneration 
through His Son by the Holy Spirit. For as 
many as carry (in them) the Spirit of God 1 are 
led to the Word, that is to the Son ; and the Son 
brings them to the Father ; and the Father causes 
them to possess incorruption. 2 Without the Spirit 
it is not possible to behold the Word of God, nor 
without the Son can any draw near to the Father : 
for the knowledge of the Father is the Son, 3 and the 
knowledge of the Son of God is through the Holy 
Spirit ; and, according to the good pleasure of the 
Father, the Son ministers and dispenses 4 the Spirit 
to whomsoever the Father wills and as He wills. 

8. And by the Spirit the Father is called Most 
High and Almighty and Lord of hosts ; that we 
may learn concerning God that He it is who is 
creator of heaven and earth and all the world, and 
maker of angels and men, and Lord of all, through 
whom all things exist and by whom all things are 
sustained ; merciful, compassionate and very tender, 
good, just, the God of all, both of Jews and 
of Gentiles, and of them that believe. To them 
that believe He is as Father, for in the end of the 
times He opened up the covenant 5 of adoption; 

1 IV, xxv. 2: "assuescens hominem portare ejus Spiritum; 5 ' 
xxxiv. 6: "qui portant Spiritum ejus." 

2 IV, xxxiv. 5 : "Spiritu quidem prseparante hominem in Filium 
Dei, Filio autem adducente ad Patrem, Patre autem incorruptelam 
donante ; " V, xxxvi. 2: "per Spiritum quidem ad Filium, per 
Filium autem ascendere ad Patrem." 

3 IV, xi. 5 : " Agnitio enim Patris Filius." 

4 Lit. "ministerially dispenses." Cf. V, xviii. I: "Verbum 
. . . preestat Spiritum omnibus quemadmodum vult Pater." 

5 Cf. c. 91 ; and III, xi. 5: " testamentum hominibus aperiens ; " 
V, ix. 4: "testamentum evangelii apertum et universe mundo 
lectumj" xxxiii. I : "apeitionem hrereditatis j" cf, JJI, xviii. I. 


but to the Jews as Lord and Lawgiver, for in the 
intermediate times, when man forgat God and 
departed and revolted from Him, He brought them 
into subjection by the Law, that they might learn 
that they had for Lord the maker and creator, who 
also gives the breath of life, and whom we ought to 
worship day and night : and to the Gentiles as 
maker and creator and almighty : and to all alike 
sustainer and nourisher and king and judge ; for 
none shall escape and be delivered from His judg- 
ment, neither Jew nor Gentile, nor believer that has 
sinned, nor angel : but they who now reject His 
goodness shall know His power in judgment, ac- 
cording to that which the blessed apostle says : 
Not knowing that the goodness of God leadeth thee to R om . ii. 
repentance ; but according to thy hardness and im- 4~ 6 - 
penitent heart thou treasurest up for thyself wrath in 
the day of wrath and of the revelation of the righteous 
judgment of God, who shall render to every man 
according to his works. This is He who is called 
in the Law the God of Abraham and the God of 
Isaac and the God of Jacob, the God of the living; 
although the sublimity and greatness of this God is 

9. Now this world is encompassed by seven 
heavens, 1 in which dwell powers and angels and 

1 An account of the late Jewish teaching as to the Seven Heavens 
is given in Mr. H. St John Thackeray's valuable book St Paul and 
Contemporary Jewish Thought, pp. 172-179, where three parallel 
tables of their descriptions will be found. References to them in 
Christian apocryphal literature are collected in Dr Charles's Book of 
the Secrets of Enoch (from the Sclavonic), pp. xliv-xlvii. Hippolytus 
in his Commentary on Daniel (ed. Achelis, p. 96), referring to ' 
ovpavoi in the Benedicite, says : rovs eTrra ovpavovs . . . 
Clement of Alexandria (Strom, iv. 25) says : elre 
ovpavoi, ovs rives apid/j.ov<nv KO.T' eiravdftaffiv. Origen (c, Cels, 


archangels, doing service to God, the Almighty 
and Maker of all things : not as though He was in 
need, but that they may not be idle and unprofit- 
able and ineffectual. 1 Wherefore also the Spirit of 
God is manifold in (His) indwelling, 2 and in seven 
forms of service 3 is He reckoned by the prophet 
Isaiah, as resting on the Son of God, that is the 
Isa. xi. 2f. Word, in His coming as man. The Spirit of God, 
he says, shall rest iipon him, the Spirit of wisdom 
and of understanding, the Spirit of counsel and of 
might, (the Spirit of knowledge] 4 and of godliness ; 
the Spirit of the fear of God shall fill him. Now 
the heaven which is first from above, 5 and en- 
compasses the rest, is (that of) wisdom; and the 

vi. 21) likewise mentions the Seven Heavens, but without com- 
mitting himself to the exact number. 

Irenaeus in I, i. 9 refers to the Valentinian teaching which identi- 
fied the Seven Heavens with angels of varying degrees of power. 
In our passage he strangely connects the Seven Heavens with the 
Seven Gifts of the Spirit. We observe two peculiarities in his 
description. First, that, numbering from above downwards, he 
reckons the highest as the First Heaven : secondly, that his Seventh, 
or lowest, is the firmament. Evil is wholly excluded from these 
heavens : so it is in the Ascension of Isaiah (for which see In trod. 
p. 41), where however it is found in the firmament, which is not 
reckoned as one of the heavens. 

The belief in the Seven Heavens soon came to be discredited ; 
and it is curious to find a survival of it, due apparently to Irish 
influences, in the invocation of the septeni ccelos in a book of 
prayers of the seventh or eighth century (Brit. Mus. Reg. 2. 
A. xx, f. 47 v. ). 

1 Compare the reason given by Justin Martyr (Dial. 22) for the 
worship in the Temple : o\>x &s ^vSt^s &v . . . dAA' onus K&V Kara 
rovro irpuffexovres avry p.^] t5wAoA.orpT}T6. 

2 Perhaps the text should be emended so as to give "operation " 

3 Or " ministrations " ( SiaKoviwv in Arm. version of I Cor. xii. 5). 

4 Omitted by oversight : cf. c. 59, and III, x. i, xviii. 2, where 
the words are correctly given. 

* The heavens are enumerated from above, in order to correspond 
with the prophet's words and put Wisdom first and Fear of God last. 


second from it, of understanding ; and the third, 
of counsel ; and the fourth, reckoned from above, 
(is that) of might ; and the fifth, of knowledge ; 
and the sixth, of godliness ; and the seventh, this 
firmament of ours, is full of the fear of that Spirit 
which gives light to the heavens. For, as the 
pattern (of this), Moses received the seven-branched 
candlestick, 1 that shined continually in the holy 
place ; for as a pattern of the heavens he received 
this service, according to that which the Word 
spake unto him : Thou shalt make (if) according Ex. xxv. 
to all the pattern of the things which thou hast seen 4 ' 
in the mount?' 

10. Now this God is glorified by His Word 3 
who is His Son continually, 4 and by the Holy 
Spirit who is the Wisdom of the Father of all : 
and the power(s) of these, (namely) of the Word 
and Wisdom, which are called Cherubim and 
Seraphim, 5 with unceasing voices glorify God ; and 

1 V, xx. 2 : "ecclesia . . . eTrra^uxos lucerna." 

2 IV, xxv. 3 : "Quoniam fades omnia juxta typum eorum quas " 
vidisti in monte : " LXX, rt>v SeSerjTieVov aoi : the variation may be 
due to a reminiscence of Acts vii. 44, by ewpa/cet. 

3 On the glorification of the Father by the Son and the Holy 
Spirit, see Introd. p. 39. 

4 The meaning is uncertain : the word means " daily, continual, 
perpetual " ; but it is also used as an adverb. The German trans- 
lations take it in the sense of "eternal" (sein ewiger Sohn). It 
renders 5io irayrbs in Lev. xxiv. 2 ; and that may have been the 
original Greek in this passage. But even so it is not clear whether 
it is to be taken with "who is His Son," or with " is glorified" 
For the Eternal Sonship we may compare III, xix. I : "existens 
semper apud Patrem ; " and IV, xxxiv. 3 : " semper cum Patreerat." 

5 Origen in his Commentary on Romans (III, 8) interprets 
the two Cherubim over the mercy-seat as the Son and the Holy 
Spirit. In De Principiis (I, iii. 4, IV, iii. 26) he gives the same 
interpretation of the two Seraphim of Isa. vi. 3, saying that he 
received it from his Hebrew teacher : he adds that the same applies 
to the two living creatures of Hab. iii. 2 (LXX). Philo ( Vit. Mos. 


Cf. Rev. every created thing that is in the heavens offers 
v ' I3> glory to God the Father of all. He by His Word 
has created the whole world, and in the world are 
the angels ; and to all the world He has given laws 
wherein each several thing should abide, and 
according to that which is determined by God 
should not pass their bounds, each fulfilling his 
appointed task. 

ii. But man He formed with His own hands, 1 
taking from the earth that which was purest and 
finest, and mingling in measure His own power 
with the earth. For He traced His own form on 
the formation, 2 that that which should be seen 
should be of divine form: for (as) the. image of 
God was man formed and set on the earth. And 
that he might become living, He breathed on his 
face the breath of life ; that both for the breath 
and for the formation man should be like unto 
God. Moreover he was free and self- con trolled, 
being made by God for this end, that he might 
rule all those things that were upon the earth. 
And this great created world, prepared by God 
before the formation of man, was given to man as 
his place, containing all things within itself. 3 And 
there were in this place also with (their) tasks the 

iii. 8) had interpreted the two Cherubim as ras irpear^vrdras Ka\ 
avcordrd} 5vo rov OVTOS 5vvd/j.eis, T^V re tron)TiK.)]v Kal fia.(Ti\iKT)v : 
the former ovo^a^rai deos, the latter Kvpios. This probably paved 
the way for Origen's interpretation. 

x Elsewhere Irenoeus constantly speaks of the Son and the Spirit 
as the Hands of God: see Introd. p. 51. 

2 Equivalent to plasma or plasmatio. 

8 So both the German translations : but they transfer the words 
so as to link them with " this great created world." What we seem 
to want is, "to have all as his own," if the words can bear that 


servants of that God who formed all things ; and 
the steward, who was set over all his fellow- 
servants received this place. Now the servants 
were angels, and the steward was the archangel. 1 

12. Now, having made man lord of the earth 
and all things in it, He secretly appointed him 
lord also of those who were servants in it. They 
however were in their perfection ; but the lord, 
that is, man, was (but) small ; for he was a child ; 2 
and it was necessary that he should grow, and so 
come to (his) perfection. And, that he might have 
his nourishment and growth with festive and dainty 
meats, He prepared him a place better than this 
world, 3 excelling in air, beauty, light, food, plants, 

1 For this function of angels cf. Papias, as quoted by Andreas 
in ApocaL C. 34, serm. 12 : 'Eviois 5e avriav (5r?\a5^ riav TraAot 
detail/ ayy\ci)v) ical TT/S ircpl r^v yrfV StaKoa'fj.'fja'fcas 5a>/cei/ apx^iv, 
Kal Ka\ws ap%eiv irapriyyvriffe. 

2 IV. Ixii. I : HjTTios yap i\v. 

3 That Paradise was in a region outside this world is not quite 
distinctly stated here, but the opening words of c. 17 seem to 
support this view. The view of Irenaeus, however, is clearly given 
in V, v. I : IloG ovv ere'077 6 irptaros avBpwiros ; eV T$ TropoSetV^ 
T]\ov6Ti, Kadws ysypairrai (Gen. ii. 8) ... Kal CKfWev eeArj077 ets 
rovSe rbv Koffp.ov Tropa/coucros. He goes on to speak of this as the 
Paradise into which St Paul was caught up (2 Cor. xii. 4). More- 
over he identifies it with the resting-place of just men, such as 
Enoch and Elijah. So in the Apocalypse of Peter the just are 
dwelling in a ^yiaTov x^>P v exrhs rovrov TOV Koff/j.ov. Irenaeus is 
silent as to whether Paradise is in the third heaven. But the 
Slavonic Secrets of Enoch, referred to above, places it there. In 
the shorter and apparently more original recension we read as 
follows (c. 8): "And the men removed me from that place, and 
brought me to the third heaven, and placed me in the midst of a 
garden ; a place such as was never seen for the goodliness of its 
appearance. And every tree is beautiful, and every fruit ripe ; all 
kinds of agreeable food springing up with every kind of fragrance. 
And (there are) four rivers flowing with a soft course ; and every 
kind of thing good, that grows for food," etc. The Valentinians, 
according to Irenreus (I, i. 9), placed Paradise uTrep rpirov ovpav6v. 

Comp. the Anaphora in the Liturgy of St Basil (Swainson, 
p. 80) : e|wpt(ras ai'Top eV TTJ SiKaioKpiffia aov, 6 6e6s, e/c 
ets rtvSf rbv 


fruit, water, and all other necessaries of life : and 
its name is Paradise. And so fair and good was 
this Paradise, that the Word of God continually 
resorted thither, and walked and talked with the 
man, figuring beforehand the things that should be 
in the future, (namely) that He should dwell with 
him and talk with him, and should be with men, 
teaching them righteousness. But man was a 
child, not yet having his understanding perfected ; 
wherefore also he was easily led astray by the 

13. And, whilst man dwelt in Paradise, God 
brought before him all living things and corn- 
Gen, ii. manded him to give names to them all ; and 
whatsoever Adam called a living soul, that was its 
name. And He determined also to make a helper 
Gen. ii. for the man : for thus God said, //' is not good for 
l8 ' the man to be alone : let us make for him a helper 
meet for him}- For among all the other living 
things there was not found a helper equal and 
comparable and like to Adam. But God Himself 

Gen. ii. cast a trance upon Adam and made him sleep ; and, 

that work might be accomplished from work, since 

there was no sleep in Paradise, this was brought 
upon Adam by the will of God ; and God took one 
of Adams ribs and filled up the flesh in its place, 
and the rib which He took He buildedinto a woman ; 2 
and so He brought her to Adam ; and he seeing (her) 
said : This is now bone of my bone, flesh of my 
flesh: she shall be called woman, because she was 
taken from her husband. 

1 As LXX, Kara.vr6v. 

2 As LXX, 


14. And Adam and Eve for that is the name 

of the woman were naked, and were not ashamed y 1 Gen. ii. 
for there was in them an innocent and childlike 25< 
mind, and it was not possible for them to conceive 
and understand anything of that which by wicked- 
ness through lusts and shameful desires is born 
in the soul. For they were at that time entire, 
preserving -their own nature; since they had 
the breath of life which was breathed on their 
creation : and, while this breath remains in its 
place and power, it has no comprehension and 
understanding of things that are base. And 
therefore they were not ashamed, kissing and em- 
bracing each other in purity after the manner of 

15. But, lest man should conceive thoughts too 
high, and be exalted and uplifted, as though he 
had no lord, because of the authority and freedom 
granted to him, and so should transgress against 
his maker God, overpassing his measure, and enter- 
tain selfish imaginings of pride in opposition to 
God ; a law was given to him by God, in order 
that he might perceive that he had as lord the 
Lord of all. And He set him certain limitations, 
so that, if he should keep the commandment of 
God, he should ever remain such as he was, that is 
to say, immortal ; but, if he should not keep it, he 
should become mortal and be dissolved to earth 
from whence his formation had been taken. 
Now the commandment was this : Of every tree Gen. ii. 
that is in the Paradise thou shalt freely eat ; but qf l6f ' 
that tree alone from which is the knowledge of good 

1 Cf. Ill, xxxii. i. 


and evil, of it thou shalt not eat ; for in the day thou 
eatest, thou shalt surely die. 

1 6. This commandment the man kept not, but 
was disobedient to God, being led astray by the 
angel who, for the great gifts of God which He 
had given to man, was envious and jealous of him, 1 
and both brought himself to nought and made 
man sinful, persuading him to disobey the com- 
mandment of God. So the angel, becoming by 
his falsehood the author and originator of sin, 
himself was struck down, having offended against 
God, and man he caused to be cast out from 
Paradise. And, because through the guidance of his 
disposition he apostatized and departed from God, 
he was called Satan, according to the Hebrew word ; 
that is, Apostate : 2 but he is also called Slanderer. 
Now God cursed the serpent which carried and con- 
veyed the Slanderer ; and this malediction came 
on the beast himself and on the angel hidden and 
concealed in him, even on Satan ; and man He put 
away from His presence, removing him and making 
him to dwell on the way to Paradise 3 at that time ; 
because Paradise receiveth not the sinful. 

17. And when they were put out of Paradise, 
Adam and his wife Eve fell into many troubles of 
anxious grief, going about with sorrow and toil 

1 IV, Ixvi. 2 ; fKTore yap aTroo-Tarrjs & &yyf\os ovros teal 

a( 5 $re eV}A.a><re rb ir\d(r/j.arov 0eou : V, xxiv. 4: " Invidens homini, 
apostata adivina factus estlege : invidia enim aliena esta Deo." Cf. 
Wisd. ii. 24 : <(>Q6v(p 8e 5iafi6\ov Qdvaros ei<rf)A.06' els T^bv K6ffp.ov. 

2 V, xxi. 2 : " Satana enim verbum Hebraicum apostatam signifi- 
cat." Cf. Just. Mart. Dial. 103. 

3 Cf. Gen. iii. 24 : KaTfyKurev avrbv airevavTi TOV TrapaSeuroy TTJS 
Tpu</>fjs. Perhaps "the way" comes from "the way of the tree of 
life " in the same verse. 


and lamentation in this world. For under the 
beams of this sun man tilled the earth, and it put 
forth thorns and thistles, the punishment of sin. 
Then was fulfilled that which was written : Adam Gen. iv. 
knew his wife, and she conceived and bare Cain ; l ' 
and after him she bare Abel. Now the apostate 
angel, who led man into disobedience and made 
him sinful and caused his expulsion from Paradise, 
not content with the first evil, wrought a second on 
the brothers; for filling Cain with his spirit he 
made him a fratricide. And so Abel died, slain by 
his brother ; signifying thenceforth that certain 
should be persecuted and oppressed and slain, the 
unrighteous slaying and persecuting the righteous. 
And upon this God was angered yet more, and 
cursed Cain ; and it came to pass that everyone of 
that race in successive generations was made like 
to the begetter. And God raised up another son Gen. iv 
to Adam, instead of Abel who was slain. 

1 8. And for a very long while wickedness ex- 
tended and spread, and reached and laid hold 
upon the whole race of mankind, until a very 
small seed of righteousness remained among them : 
and illicit unions took place upon the earth, since 
angels were united with the daughters of the race 
of mankind ; and they bore to them sons who for 
their exceeding greatness were called giants. And 
the angels brought as presents to their wives 
teachings of wickedness, 1 in that they brought 

1 This is from the Book of Enoch, to which Irenseus also refers in 
IV, xxvii. 2. Enoch vii. I : /col eSiSa^av auras (pap/j.aKtas Kal eVooiSas 
Kal pioTo/j.ias, Kal ras froTavas eSr)\caffav avrals : viii. I : fy(\ta Kal 
K^ff/j-ovs Kal ffrifieis /cat rb Ka\\tfi\(papov Kal iravroiovs \i6ovs 
tK\KTovs Kal ra ftacpiKoi. Tcrtullian makes use of the same passage : 
De cultufem. i. 2, ii. 10 (ut Enoch refert). 


them the virtues of roots and herbs, dyeing in 
colours and cosmetics, the discovery of rare sub- 
stances, love-potions, aversions, amours, concupis- 
cence, constraints of love, spells of bewitchment, 
and all sorcery and idolatry hateful to God ; by 
the entry of which things into the world evil 
extended and spread, while righteousness was 
diminished and enfeebled : 

19. Until judgment came upon the world from 
God by means of a flood, in the tenth generation from 
the first-formed (man); Noah alone being found 
righteous. And he for his righteousness was him- 
self delivered, and his wife and his three sons, and 
the three wives of his sons, being shut up in the ark. 
And when destruction came upon all, both man 
and also animals, that were upon the earth, that 
which was preserved in the ark escaped. Now the 
three sons of Noah were Shem, Ham and Japheth, 
from whom again the race was multiplied : for these 
were the beginning of mankind after the flood. 

20. Now of these one fell under a curse, and the 
two (others) inherited a blessing by reason of their 
works. For the younger of them, 1 who was called 
Ham, having mocked his father, and having been 

1 The Armenian corresponds to the Greek 6 vedrepos (Gen. ix. 24). 
As there were three sons of Noah, the comparative causes difficulty. 
Origen took it as a superlative : for in later Greek (as in French) 
the comparative with the article is used as a superlative. He went 
on to argue that as Ham was not the youngest son of Noah, the 
word " son " was used for grandson, and that " Noah knew what his 
grandson (Canaan) had done to him": hence the curse falls on 
Canaan. This accorded with a tradition given him by his Hebrew 
teacher (Comm. in Gen. ix. 18 ; Lomm. viii, p. 65). The trouble 
arose from the fact that " the curse of Ham " was not pronounced on 
Ham, but on his son Canaan. Justin Martyr (Dial. 139) says that 
Noah cursed his son's son ; "for the prophetic Spirit would not curse 
his son, who had been blessed together with the other sons by God." 


condemned of the sin of impiety because of his 
outrage and unrighteousness against his father, 
received a curse ; and all the posterity that came 
of him he involved in the curse ; whence it came 
about that his whole race after him were accursed, 
and in sins they increased and multiplied. But 
Shem and Japheth, his brothers, because of their 
piety towards their father obtained a blessing. 
Now the curse of Ham, wherewith his father Noah 
cursed him, is this : Cursed be Ham the child ; 1 a Gen. ix. 
servant, shall he be unto his brethren. This having 25< 
come upon his race, he begat many descendants upon 
the earth, (even) for fourteen generations, growing 
up in a wild condition ; and then his race was cut 
off by God, being delivered up to judgment. For 
the Canaanites and Hittites and Peresites and 
Hivites and Amorites and Jebusites and Gergasites 
and Sodomites, the Arabians also and the dwellers in 
Phoenicia, all the Egyptians arid the Libyans, 2 are 
of the posterity of Ham, who have fallen under the 
curse ; for the curse" is of long duration over the 

21. And even as the curse passed on, so also the 
blessing passed on to the race of him who was 

1 Irenceus makes no difficulty about speaking of "the curse of 
Ham." It is clear that he had a text of the LXX, which enabled him 
to do so. The Hebrew of Gen. ix. 25 gives us : "Cursed be Canaan : 
a servant of servants shall he be unto his brethren." The LXX 
has : 'EiriKardparos Xavdav irais oi/cerTjs tcrrai TOIS d8eA.<o?s avrov. 
But some MSS (E and some cursives) read Xa,u for Xavdav. When 
JTCUS was taken with the preceding word, Xa/j. TTOIS was no doubt 
intended to mean " the child of Ham," i.e. Canaan : it might how- 
ever be understood as " Ham the child." So here the Armenian 
translator does not give the genitive case of Ham, but the nomina- 
tive : and it would seem that he rightly interprets the meaning of 

2 Irenceus seems to have drawn on Acts ii. 9-1 1 to amplify his list, 



blessed, to each in his own order. For first of 

Gen. ix. them was Shem blessed in these words : Blessed 

26 - be the Lord, the God of Shem ; and Ham 1 shall be 

his servant. The power of the blessing lies in this, 

that the God and Lord of all should be to Shem a 

peculiar possession of worship. And the blessing 

extended and reached unto Abraham, who was 

reckoned as descended in the tenth generation 

from the race of Shem : and therefore the Father 

and God of all was pleased to be called the God of 

Abraham and the God of Isaac and the God of 

Jacob ; because the blessing of Shem reached out 

and attached itself to Abraham. Now the blessing 

Gen. ix. of Japheth is on this wise : God shall enlarge ttnto 

27 ' Japheth, and he shall dwell in the house of Shem, 

and Ham 2 shall be his servant. That is to say : 

In the end of the ages he blossomed forth, at the 

appearing of the Lord, through the calling of the 

Gentiles, when God enlarged unto them the calling ; 

Ps. xix. and their sound went out into all the earth, and 

4 * their words to the end of the world. The enlarging, 

then, is the calling from among the Gentiles, that 

is to say, the Church. 3 And he dwells in the house 

1 The LXX reads Canaan, but one cursive has Ham. 

2 Here again the LXX reads Canaan, though E and other MSS. 
have Ham. The Arm. here has "he shall bless" for "he shall 
dwell " ; but this is a slip, as appears from below. 

3 " The calling of the Gentiles," or, as we have it also here, 
"the calling from among the Gentiles," recurs in cc. 28, 41 bis, 
42, 89, 91. I have noted it in the Armenian version of IV, xxxiv. 
12, where however we find in the Greek ^ e| fdvuv e/c/c\rj(ria, and in 
the Latin ca qua ex gentibus est ccclesia. I do not remember to 
have met with it elsewhere in the writings of Irenseus, or in any 
earlier writer. In the fragments of Hippolytus on Gen. xlix (ed. 
Achelis, pp. 59 ff.) r) e| tQv&v K\TJ(TIS is found several times, and more 
than once e/c/cATjtrta occurs as a various reading. It is not found, 
however, in the corresponding comments in The Blessings of Jacob 
(Texte u. Unters. xxxviii. i). 


of S hem; that is, in the inheritance of the fathers, 
receiving in Christ Jesus the right of the firstborn. 
So in the rank in which each was blessed, in that 
same order through his posterity he received the 
fruit of the blessing. 1 

22. Now after the Flood God made a covenant 
with all the world, even with every living thing of 
animals and of men, that He would no more destroy 
with a flood all that grew upon the earth. And 
He set them a sign (saying) : When the sky shall Gen. Sx. 
be covered with a cloud, the bow shall be seen in the I4 ' 
cloud ; and I will remember my covenant, and will 
no more destroy by water every moving thing upon 
the earth. And He changed the food of men, 
giving them leave to eat flesh : for from Adam 
the first-formed until the Flood men ate only of 
seeds and the fruit of trees, and to eat flesh was 
not permitted to them. But since the three sons 
of Noah were the beginning of a race of men, God 
blessed them for multiplication and increase, say- 
ing : Increase and multiply, and replenish the earth and Gen. ix. 
rule it ; and the fear and dread of you shall be upon z ' 
every living thing of animals and upon all the fowls 
of the. air ; and they shall be to you for meat, even 
as the green herb : but the flesh with the blood of life 
ye sJiall not eat : for your blood also will I requite 
at the hand of all beasts and at the hand of man. 
Whoso sheddeth a man's blood, in return for his 
blood shall it be shed? For He made man the 

1 With all the above cf. Just. M. Dial. 139. 

2 These last words are so quoted in V, xtv. i. The LXX continues : 
on eV \K6vi 0eoS eVoirjo-a riv tivdpcairov. This Irenaeus paraphrases ; 
cf. c. II : "for (as) the image of God was man formed and set 
on the earth." That "the image of God is the Son" may be a 
reminiscence of Col. i. 15. 


image of God ; and the image of God is the Son, 
after whose image man was made : and for this 
cause He appeared in the end of the times that 
He might show the image (to be) like unto Him- 
self. 1 According to this covenant the race of 
man multiplied, springing up from the seed of the 
Gen. xi. three. And upon the earth was one lip, that is to 
say one language. 

23. And they arose and came from the land of 
the east ; and, as they went through the land, they 
chanced upon the land of Shinar, which was 
exceeding broad ; where they took in hand to 
build a tower. They sought means thereby to 
go up to heaven, and be able to leave their work 
as a memorial to those men who should come after 
them. And the building was made with burnt 
bricks and bitumen : and the boldness of their 
audacity went forward, as they were all of one 
mind and consent, and by means of one speech 
they served the purpose of their desires. But 
that the work should advance no further, God 
divided their tongues, that they should no longer 
be able to understand one another. And so they 
were scattered and planted out, and took possession 
of the world, and dwelt in groups and companies 
each according to his language : whence came 
the diverse tribes and various languages upon 
the earth. So then, whereas three races of men 
took possession of the earth, and one of them 
was under the curse, and two under the blessing, 
the blessing first of all came to Shem, whose 

1 V, xvi. I : TKfyelova eSei^v ahyOias, avrbs TOVTO y*r&fifOS OTrep 
ri et'/cwv avrov : where see the context. 


race dwelt in the east and held the land of the 

24. In process of time, that is to say, in the 
tenth generation after the Flood, Abraham appeared, 1 
seeking for the God who by the blessing of his 
ancestor was due and proper to him. 2 And when, 
urged by the eagerness of his spirit, he went all 
about the world, searching where God is, and failed 
to find out ; God took pity on him who alone was 
silently seeking Him ; and He appeared unto 
Abraham, making Himself known by the Word, 
as by a beam of light. For He spake with him 
from heaven, and said unto him : Get thee out of Gen. xii. 
thy country ', and from thy kindred, and from thy(\.^* . 
father's house; and come into the land that I will 
show thee, and there dwell. And he believed the 
heavenly voice, being then of ripe age, even 
seventy 3 years old, and having a wife ; and to- 
gether with her he went forth from Mesopotamia, 
taking with him Lot, the son of his brother who 
was dead. And when he came into the land which 
now is called Judaea, in which at that time dwelt 
seven tribes descended from Ham, God appeared 
unto him in a vision and said : To thee will I give Gen. xvii. 
this land, and to thy seed after thee, for an ever- 8 ' 
lasting possession, and (He said) that his seed 
should be a stranger in a land not their own, and 
should be evil-entreated there, being afflicted and 

1 Lit. "was found " (= evpe'07?). 

2 This is explained by the comment above (c. 21) on the blessing 
of Shem, which did not say "Blessed be Shem," but "Blessed 
be the Lord, the God of Shem" ; meaning that God "should be 
to Shem a peculiar possession of worship." 

3 Heb. and LXX : "seventy and five." 


in bondage four hundred years ; and in the fourth 
generation should return unto the place that was 
promised to Abraham ; and that God would judge 
that race which had brought his seed into bondage. 
And, that Abraham might know as well the 
multitude as the glory of his seed, God brought 

Gen. xv. him forth abroad by night, and said : Look upon 
the heaven, and behold the stars of the heaven, if 
thou be able to number them : so shall thy seed be. 
And when God saw the undoubting and unwaver- 
ing certainty of his spirit, He bare witness unto 
him by the Holy Spirit, saying in the Scripture : 

Gen. xv. And Abraham believed, and it was counted unto 

f v ' ~ Rom ' him for righteousness. And he was uncircum- 
cised when this witness was borne ; and, that the 
excellency of his faith should be made known by 

Rom. iv. a sign, He gave him circumcision, a seal of the 
righteousness 1 of that faith which he had in un- 
circumcision. And after this there was born to 
him a son, Isaac, from Sarah who was barren, 
according to the promise of God ; and him he cir- 
cumcised, according to that which God had coven- 
anted with him. And of Isaac was Jacob born ; and 
on this wise the original blessing of Shem reached 
to Abraham, and from Abraham to Isaac, and 
from Isaac to Jacob, the inheritance of the Spirit 
being imparted to them : for He was called the 
God of Abraham and the God of Isaac and the 
God of Jacob. And Jacob begat twelve sons, from 
whom the twelve tribes of Israel were named. 
25. And when famine had come upon all the 

1 The Arm. has " uncircumcision " for " righteousness" by an 


earth, it chanced that in Egypt alone there was food ; 
and Jacob with all his seed removed and dwelt 
in Egypt : and the number of all that migrated 
was threescore and fifteen souls: and in four hun- Actsvii. 
dred years, as the oracle had declared before- *4- 
hand, they became six hundred and sixty thousand. 
And, because they were grievously afflicted and 
oppressed through evil bondage, and sighed and 
groaned unto God, the God of their fathers, 
Abraham and Isaac and Jacob ; He brought them 
out of Egypt by the hand of Moses and Aaron, 
smiting the Egyptians with ten plagues, and in 
the last plague sending a destroying angel and 
slaying their first-born, both of man and of beast : 
wherefrom He saved the children of Israel, reveal- 
ing in a mystery the sufferings of Christ by the 
sacrifice of a lamb without spot, and giving its 
blood to be smeared on the houses of the Hebrews 
as a sure precaution. And the name of this 
mystery is Passion, 1 the source of deliverance. 
And dividing the Red Sea, He brought the chil- 
dren of Israel with all security to the wilderness ; 
and as to the pursuing Egyptians, who followed 
them and entered into the sea, they were all over- 
whelmed ; this judgment of God coming upon 
those who had iniquitously oppressed the seed 
of Abraham. 

26. And in the wilderness Moses received the 
Law from God, the Ten Words on tables of stone, Ex xxxi. 
written with the finger of God (now the finger of *g' xxxlv 

1 The same interpretation of Pascha, as if from Trao-xew, is 
found in IV, xx. I : " cujus et diem passionis non ignoravit, sed 
figuratim prsenuntiavit eum, Pascha nominans." 


God is that which is stretched forth from the 
Father in the Holy Spirit) ; l and the command- 
ments and ordinances which he delivered to the 
children of Israel to observe. And the tabernacle 
of witness he constructed by the command of 
God, the visible form on earth of those things 
which are spiritual and invisible in the heavens, 
and a figure of the form of the Church, and a 
prophecy of things to come : in which also were 
the vessels and the altars of sacrifice and the ark 
in which Jtie placed the tables (of the Law). And 
he appointed as priests Aaron and his sons, assign- 
ing the priesthood to all their tribe : and they were 
of the seed of Levi. Moreover this whole tribe he 
summoned by the word of God to accomplish the 
work of service in the temple of God, and gave 
them the Levitical law, (to shew) what and what 
manner of men they ought to be who are continually 
employed in performing the service of the temple 
of God. 

27. And when they were near to the land, which 
God had promised to Abraham and his seed, 
Moses chose a man from every tribe, and sent 
them to search out the land and the cities therein 
and the dwellers in the cities. At that time God 
revealed to him the Name which alone is able to 
save them that believe thereon ; and Moses changed 
the name of Oshea the son of Nun, one of them 
that were sent, and named him Jesus : 2 and so he 

1 "The finger of God" (Luke xi. 20) appears as "the Spirit of 
God " in Matt. xii. 28. Cf. Barn. xiv. 3 ; and Clem. Horn. xi. 22, 
xvi. 12, quoted in Introd. p. 53 n. I. 

2 Num. xiii. 16 : KOI e7raWytia<rei> MWUO-TJS T~bv Auo-^ vlbv Nau)? 
'\-r\crovv. Justin Martyr (Dial 75, 113) has much to say on this 
change of name. Cf. Barn. xii. 8 f. 


sent them forth with the power of the Name, 
believing that he should receive them back safe 
and sound through the guidance of the Name : 
which came to pass. 1 Now when they had gone 
and searched and enquired, they returned bringing 
with them a bunch of grapes ; and some of the 
twelve who were sent cast the whole multitude 
into fear and dismay, saying that the cities were 
exceeding great and walled, and the sons of the 
giants dwelt therein, so that it was (not) possible 
for them to take the land. And thereupon it fell 
out that all the multitude wept, failing to believe 
that it was God who should grant them power 
and subjugate all to them. And they spake evil 
also of the land, as not being good, and as though 
it were not worth while to undergo the danger for 
the sake of such a land. But two of the twelve, 
Jesus the son of Nun, and Caleb the son of 
Jephunneh, rent their clothes for the evil that was 
done, and besought the people not to be dis- 
heartened nor lose their courage ; for God had 
given all into their hands, and the land was ex- 
ceeding good. And when they believed not, but 
the people still continued in the same unbelief, 
God changed and altered their way, that they 
should wander desolate and sore smitten in the 
desert. And according to the days that they were 
in going and returning who had spied out the 
land and these were forty in number setting a 

1 Probably this represents t> eyevero. Compare the brief clauses : 
"and this came to pass" (c. 67), and "as indeed they have be- 
come" (c. 72); III, vi. 4 : "quod et erat." But it might be 
rendered, in conjunction with the Name, " which was (given them) " : 
so the German translations take it. 


year for a day, He kept them in the wilderness for 
the space of forty years; and none of those who 
were fulJgrown and had understanding counted 
He worthy to enter into the land because of their 
unbelief, save only the two who had testified of 
the inheritance, Jesus the son of Nun and Caleb 
the son of Jephunneh, and those who were quite 
young and knew not the right hand and the left. 
So all the unbelieving multitude perished and were 
consumed in the wilderness, receiving one by one 
the due reward of their want of faith : but the 
children, growing up in the course of forty years, 
filled up the number of the dead. 

28. When the forty years were fulfilled, the 
people drew near to the Jordan, and were assembled 
and arrayed over against Jericho. Here Moses 
gathered the people together, and summed up 
all afresh, proclaiming the mighty works of God 
even unto that day, fashioning and preparing those 
that had grown up in the wilderness to fear God 
and keep His commandments, imposing on them 
as it were a new legislation, adding to that 
which was made before. And this was called 
Deuteronomy : 1 and in it were written many 
prophecies concerning our Lord Jesus Christ and 
concerning the people, and also concerning the 
calling of the Gentiles and concerning the kingdom. 

29. And, when Moses had finished his course, 

1 Cf. the Greek fragment attributed to Irenseus, Harvey II, 
p. 487, where we have waKf^aXatov^vos : this fragment, however, 
is now shown to be from Hippolytus On the Blessings of Moses 
(Texte u. Unters. N. F. XI, la, p. 49). Cf. also IV, ii. I : 
" Moyses igitur recapitulationem universe legis ... in Deuteronomio 


it was said to him by God : Get thee up into the 
mountain^ and die : for thou shalt not bring in my x ' 
people into the land. So he died according to the Deut. 
word of the Lord; and Jesus the son of Nun XXXIV< 5 
succeeded him. He divided the Jordan and made 
the people to pass over into the land ; and, when 
he had overthrown and destroyed the seven races 
that dwelt therein, he assigned to the people the 
temporal Jerusalem, 1 wherein David was king, and 
Solomon his son, who builded the temple to the 
name of God, according to the likeness of the 
tabernacle which had been made by Moses after 
the pattern of the heavenly and spiritual things. 

30. Hither were the prophets sent by God 
through the Holy Spirit ; and they instructed the 
people and turned them to the God of their fathers, 
the Almighty ; and they became heralds of the 
revelation of our Lord Jesus Christ the Son of 
God, declaring that from the posterity of David 
His flesh should blossom forth ; that after the flesh 
He might be the son of David, who was the son 
of Abraham by a long succession ; but according 
to the spirit Son of God, pre-existing 2 with the 
Father, begotten before all the creation of the 
world, and at the end of the times appearing to 

all the world as man, the Word of God gathering Eph. i. 10 
up in Himself all things that are in heaven and that 
are on earth. 

31. So then He united man with God, and 
established a community of union 3 between God 

1 Or "this present Jerusalem": perhaps representing rV vvv 
'lejoya-aArju (Gal. IV. 25). 

2 Cf.c. 51. 

3 For this double rendering see above c. 6. 


and man ; since we could not in any other way 1 
participate in incorruption, save by His coming 
among us. For so long as incorruption was 
invisible and unrevealed, it helped us not at all : 
therefore it became visible, 2 that in all respects we 
might participate in the reception of incorruption. 
And, because in the original formation 3 of Adam 
all of us were tied and bound up with death through 
his disobedience, it was right that through the 
obedience of Him who was made man for us we 
should be released from death : and because death 
reigned over the flesh, it was right that through 
the flesh it should lose its force and let man 
John i. 14. go free from its oppression. So the Word was 
made flesh, that, through that very flesh which 
sin had ruled and dominated, it should lose its 
force and be no longer in us. And therefore our 
Lord took that same original formation as (His) 
entry into flesh, so that He might draw near 
and contend on behalf of the fathers, 4 and con- 
quer by Adam that which by Adam had stricken 
us down. 

32. Whence then is the substance of the first- 
formed (man) ? From the Will and the Wisdom 

1 III, xx. I : " Quemadmodum autcm adunari possemus incor- 
ruptelae et immortalitati, nisi prius incorruptela et immortalitas 
facta fuisset id quod et nos?" Cf. Ill, xix. 6 : ai et 
6 &v9pci}TTOs Ttf 0e<, OVK &>/ T)Svvf]9tj yueTCKrxetV rrjs 

2 Cf. 2 Tim. i. IO : (pcoriffavTos (fco^v Kal acpBapffia^ Sta rov 


3 V, i. 2 : TV apxaiav TrXaffivrov 'ASa/i els eawrlv avfK(pa\aia>(raTO. 

4 III, xix. 5: " erat enim homo pro patribus certans : " 
V, xxi. i : " Omnia ergo recapitulans, recapitulates est et adversus 
inimicum nostrum bellum, provocans et elidens eum qui in initio in 
Adam captivos duxerat nos " (the Arm. version of this passage 
suggests the true punctuation). With " pro patribus " comp. Barn, 
V. 7 ' tv& xal rols Tra.Tp6.tnv TT\V 


of God, and from the virgin earth. 1 For God had Gen. ii. 5. 

not sent rain, the Scripture says, upon the eartli, 

before man was made ; and there was no man to 

till the earth. From this, then, whilst it was still 

virgin, God took dust of the earth and formed 

the man, the beginning of mankind. So then 

the Lord, summing up afresh this man, took 

the same dispensation of entry into flesh, being 

born from the Virgin by the Will and the 

Wisdom of God ; that He also should show 

forth the likeness of Adam's entry into flesh, 2 

and there should be that which was written in 

the beginning, 3 man after the image and likeness Gen. i. 26 

of God. 

33. And just as through a disobedient virgin 
man was stricken down and fell into death, so 
through the Virgin who was obedient to the Word 
of God man was reanimated and received life. 4 
For the Lord came to seek again the sheep that 

1 Almost the same words are here used as in III, xxx. I. : " Et 
quemadmodum protoplastus ille Adam de rudi terra et de adhuc 
virgine nondum enim phierat Deus, et homo non erat operatus terram 
habuit substantiam et plasmatus est manu Dei, id est, Verbo 
Dei omnia enim per ipsumfacta stint et sumpsit Dominus limum 
a terra et plasmavit hominem : ita recapitulans in se Adam ipse 
Verbum existens ex Maria, qure adhuc erat virgo, recte accipiebat 
generationem Adae recapitulationis. " Cf. Ill, xix. 6: also 
Ephraim's Commentary on the Diatessaron (Moesinger, p. 21): 
" In Virginis conceptione disce quod qui sine conjugio Adamum 
ex virginea terra protulit, is etiam Adamum secunduni in utero 
virginis formaverit." Cf. also Tertullian, De carne Christi, 17 ; 
Firmicus Maternus, De errore prof, relig., 25. 

2 III, xxxi. I : rV aurV fiteivcp rrjs yevv^ffecas fX fLV o/jLOiornra. 

3 V, ii. i : " restaurans suo plasmatt quod dictum est in principio, 
factum esse hominem secundum imaginem et siinilitudinem Dei:" 
and below, c. 97. 

4 The same parallel is worked out in III, xxxii. I, and V, xix. I. 
It is found earlier in Justin Martyr (Dial. 100), and later in 
Tertullian (De carne Chr. 17). 


was lost ; 1 and man it was that was lost : and for 
this cause there was not made some other forma- 
tion, 2 but in that same which had its descent from 
Adam He preserved the likeness of the (first) 
formation. 3 For it was necessary that Adam 
Cf. i Cor. should be summed up in Christ, that mortality 
xv> * 3 ' might be swallowed up and overwhelmed by im- 
mortality ; and Eve summed up in Mary, that a 
virgin should be a virgin's intercessor, 4 and by a 
virgin's obedience undo and put away the dis- 
obedience of a virgin. 

34. And the trespass which came by the tree was 
undone by the tree of obedience, 5 when, hearkening 
unto God, the Son of man was nailed to the tree ; 
thereby putting away the knowledge of evil and 
bringing in and establishing the knowledge of 
good : now evil it is to disobey God, even as 
hearkening unto God is good. And for this cause 
the Word spake by Isaiah the prophet, announcing 
beforehand that which was to come for therefore 
are they prophets, because they proclaim what is 
to come 6 : by him then spake the Word thus : 

1 Irenseus is fond of referring to the sheep that was lost : see III, 
xx. 3, xxxii. 2, xxxvii. I ; V, xii. 3, xv. 2. 

2 V, xiv. 2: "Nunc autetn quod fuit qui perierat homo, hoc 
salutare factum est Verbum . . . non alteram quandam, sed illam 
principalem Patris plasmationem in se recapitulans, exquirens id 
quod perierat." 

3 See above, c. 32. 

4 III, xxxii. I : "earn quse est a Maria in Evam recirculationem 
significans ; " V, xix. i: " uti virginis Eva? virgo Maria fieret 
advocata." Cf. Just. M. Dial. ioo. 

6 V, xvi. 2 : " Dissolvens enim earn qua? in initio in ligno facta 
fuerat hominis inobedientiam, o bediens factus est usque ad mortem, 
mortem autem cruets, earn qua; in ligno facta fuerat inobedientiam 
per earn qua? in ligno fuerat obedi 

6 IV, xxxiv. 5: " Narr 


/ refuse not, nor gainsay : I gave my back to scourg- Isa. 1. 5 f. 
ing, and my cheeks to smiting ; l and my face I 
turned not aivay from the shame of spitting. So 
then by the obedience wherewith He obeyed even Phil. ii. 8. 
unto death, hanging on the tree, He put away the 
old disobedience which was wrought in the tree. 
Now seeing that He is the Word of God Almighty, 
who in unseen wise in our midst is universally 
extended in all the world, and encompasses 
its length and breadth and height and depth 2 
for by the Word of God the whole universe is 
ordered and disposed in it is crucified the Son of 
God, inscribed crosswise upon it all : 3 for it is right 
that He being made visible, should set upon all 
things visible the sharing of His cross, that He 
might show His operation on visible things through 
a visible form. For He it is who illuminates the 
height, that is the heavens ; and encompasses the 
deep which is beneath the earth ; and stretches 
and spreads out the length from east to west ; and 
steers across the breadth of north and south ; 

1 Cf. c. 68. 

2 V, xvii. 4 : 'ETrel yap 5ia uA.ou aTTftd.\o/j.ev avr6v (sc. rbv \6yov 
Kvpiov), Sta u\ou ird\tv <pai>pbs rots iraffiv e-yevero, tTriSfiKViHav rb 
ityos Kal fJ.r)Kos KOI irXdros eV eau-r ' Kal, us <pr) rts rcav irpo&e&r]K6- 
roav irpefffivTepwi', 5ia TTJS eKTa<rea>s TWV xzipcav rovs Svo \aovs ets 
eVo Qebv crvfayuv. The Greek, preserved in a Catena, is here 
emended from the Latin and Armenian versions, both of which 
omit Kal fidOos. 

3 V, xviii. 2 : "in hocmundo existens, et secundum invisibilitatem 
continet quae facta sunt omnia, et in universa conditione infixus 
(Arm. "and in all this world in-crucified"), quoniam Verbum Dei 
gubernans et disponens omnia." The thought is taken from Justin 
(Ap. I. 60), who attributes to Plato the words : 'Exia-fffv avrbv eV rf 
TTCIVTI (cf. Tim&us 36 B.C.). See above, Introd. p. 29. Justin says 
that Plato misunderstanding the story of the Brazen Serpent, 
jU7)Se foriffas TVTTOV slvai aravpov, dAA.a x' i 

irp&TOv Oebv Zvvafjuv /ce^iacr^ai eV ry Travrl 


summoning all that are scattered in every quarter 
to the knowledge of the Father. 

35. Moreover He fulfilled the promise made to 
Abraham, which God had promised him, to make 
his seed as the stars of heaven. For this Christ 
did, who was born of the Virgin who was of 
Abraham's seed, and constituted those who have 

Phil. ii. faith in Him lights in the world?- and by the same 

\ 5> faith with Abraham justified the Gentiles. For 

6 ; c 'f. Abraham believed God, and it was counted unto him 

Rom. iv. j~ or righteousness. In like manner we also are 

Gal iii 11- justified by faith in God : for the just shall live by 

Rom. faith. Now not by the law is the promise to 

1V> I3 ' Abraham, but by faith : for Abraham was justified 

i Tim. i. by faith : and for a righteous man the law is not 

made. In like manner we also are justified not by 

the law, but by faith, which is witnessed to in the 

law and in the prophets, whom the Word of God 

presents to us. 

36. And He fulfilled the promise to David ; for 
Ts. cxxxii. to him God had promised ftti&of the fruit of his body 

He would raise up an eternal King, 2 whose king- 
dom should have no end. And this King is Christ, 
the Son of God, who became the Son of man ; 
that is, who became the fruit of that Virgin who 
had her descent from David. And for this cause 


IV, x. I : ort Trot^<Ti T& aTcipfj-a. avrov &s ra &ffTpa rov ovpavov . 
b uTri) Tlav\ov elp"fi/j.evov' ls (fxaarrjpes ev itdcr/uup : cf. IV, 
xiii. I. 

2 III, xxvi. I : fK Kapirov TTJS Koi\ias avrov alwviov avaffTT}ffeiv 
fiaffiXea : III, xi. 4, xvii. I, xxix. I. In all these places the phrase 
" eternal king " is used in connexion with this particular promise. 
The phrase also occurs in III, xx. 2, and below in cc. 56, 66, 95. 
Justin uses it several times (Dial. 34, 36, 118, 135), but not in 
this connexion. 


the promise was, Of the fruit of thy body 1 that He 
might declare the peculiar uniqueness of Him, who 
was the fruit of the virgin body that was of David, 
(even of Him) who was King over the house of 
David, (and) of whose kingdom there shall be no 

37. Thus then He gloriously achieved our 
redemption, and fulfilled the promise of the 
fathers, and abolished the old disobedience. The 
Son of God became Son of David and Son 
of Abraham ; perfecting and summing up this 
in Himself, that He might make us to possess 
life. The Word of God was made flesh by the 
dispensation of the Virgin, to abolish death and 
make man live. For we were imprisoned by 
sin, being born in sinfulness and living under 

38. But God the Father was very merciful : He 
sent His creative 2 Word, who in coming to deliver 
us came to the very place and spot in which we 
had lost life, and brake the bonds of our fetters. 
And His light appeared and made the darkness of 
the prison disappear, and hallowed our birth and 
destroyed death, loosing those same fetters in 
which we were enchained. And He manifested 

1 Here and above I have used "body" as in A. V. for 

but the strange argument is thus somewhat obscured. The words 
which immediately follow in the Armenian text may be more 
easily rendered in Latin : " de fructu veniris tui, quod est proprium 
feminse prsegnantis : non de fructu lumborum, nee de fructu 
renum, quod est proprium viri generantis : ut declararet," etc. 
Almost the same words are found in III, xxvi. i : cf. also III, 
ix. 2 : "ex fructu ventris David, id est, ex David virgine." The 
argument is used by Tertullian, Adv, Marcion, III, 20. 

2 The same word corresponds to "artifex" in the Arm. version 
of V, xv. 2, xxiv. 4 : cf. Ill, xi. II : 6 rwv cnrdvTuv re^iT^r Arf-yos. 



the resurrection, 1 Himself becoming the first- 
begotten of the dead, and in Himself raising up man 
that was fallen, lifting him up far above the heaven 
to the right hand of the glory of the Father : even 
as God promised by the prophet, saying: And I 
will raise up the tabernacle of David that is fallen ; 
that is, the flesh 2 that was from David. And this 
our Lord Jesus Christ truly fulfilled, when He 
gloriously achieved our redemption, that He might 
truly raise us up, setting us free unto the Father. 
And if any man will not receive His birth from a 
virgin, how shall he receive His resurrection from 
the dead ? For it is nothing wonderful and aston- 
ishing and extraordinary, if one who was not born 
rose from the dead : nay indeed we cannot speak of 
a resurrection of him who came unto being with- 
out birth. For one who is unborn and immortal, 
and has not undergone birth, will also not undergo 
death. For he who took not the beginning of man, 
how could he receive his end? 

39. Now, if He was not born, neither did He 
die ; and, if He died not, neither did He rise 
from the dead ; and, if He rose not from the dead, 
neither did He vanquish death and bring its reign 
to nought ; and if death be not vanquished, how can 
we ascend to life, who from the beginning have fallen 
under death ? So then those who take away 
redemption from man, and believe not in God that 
He will raise them from the dead, these also despise 

1 Cf. c. 39 : Barn. V. 6 : 'iva Karapy-hffri T^V Ka\ r^v e/c 
vcKpSiiV avaffraffiv 5e^p : and Hippolytus, Apostolic Tradition, in the 
Eucharistic Prayer : " ut resurrectionem manifestet " ; and Philos. 
x. 33 (Connolly, Texts and Studies, VIII, 4. 166). 

2 Or " body " : cf. c. 62. 


the birth of our Lord, 1 which He underwent on our 
behalf, that the Word of God should be made 
flesh in order that He might manifest the resur- 
rection of the flesh, and might have pre-eminence 
over all things in the heavens, as the first-born and 
eldest offspring of the thought of the Father, the 
Word, fulfilling all things, and Himself guiding 
and ruling upon earth. For He was the Virgin's 
first-born, a just and holy man, 2 godfearing, good, 
well- pleasing to God, perfect in all ways, and 
delivering from hell all who follow after Him : for 
He Himself was the first-begotten of the dead, the Rev. i. 5. 
Prince and Author of life unto God. 

40. Thus then the Word of God in all things Col. i. 18. 
hath the pre-eminence ; 3 for that He is true man 
and Wonderful Counsellor and Mighty God; 4 isa. ix. 6. 
calling men anew to fellowship with God, that by 
fellowship with Him we may partake of incorrup- 
tion. So then He who was proclaimed by the law 
through Moses, and by the prophets of the Most 
High and Almighty God, as Son of the Father of 
all ; He from whom all things are, He who spake 
with Moses He came into Judaea, generated from 
God by the Holy Spirit, 5 and born of the Virgin 
Mary, even of her who was of the seed of David 
and of Abraham, Jesus the Anointed of God, show- 

1 V, xix. 2 : " Alii autem manifestum adventum Domini contem- 
nunt, incarnationem ejus non recipientes." 

2 IV, xxxiv. 2 : " homo Justus : " the whole context is parallel to 
our passage : cf. also III, xvii. 6. 

3 IV, xxxiv. 2, Ixiii. 2. 

4 Cf. cc. 54 f. 

5 The Arm. seems to be a rendering ot e/c 0eou o-irapels 5ta 
irvfv/j.a.Tos aytov. Cf. Ill, xvii. 6: " unitus et consparsus suo plas- 
mati secundum placitum Patris, et caro factus." See Introd. p. 65. 


ing Himself to be the One who was proclaimed 
beforehand by the prophets. 

41. And His forerunner was John the Baptist, 
who prepared and made ready the people before- 
hand for the reception of the Word of life ; 
declaring that He was the Christ, on whom the 
Spirit of God rested, mingling with His flesh. 1 
His disciples, the witnesses of all His good deeds, 
and of His teachings and His sufferings and death 
and resurrection, and of His ascension into heaven 
after His bodily 2 resurrection these were the 
apostles, who after (receiving) the power of the 
Holy Spirit were sent forth by Him into all 
the world, and wrought the calling of the Gentiles, 
showing to mankind the way of life, to turn them 
from idols and fornication and covetousness, 
cleansing their souls and bodies by the baptism of 
water and of the Holy Spirit ; which Holy Spirit 
they had received of the Lord, and they distributed 
and imparted It to them that believed ; and thus 
they ordered and established the Churches. By 
faith and love and hope they established that 
which was foretold by the prophets, the calling of the 
Gentiles, according to the mercy of God which was 
extended to them ; bringing it to light through the 
ministration of their service, and admitting them 
to the promise of the fathers : to wit, that to those 
who thus believed in and loved the Lord, and con- 
tinued in holiness and righteousness and patient 
endurance, the God of all had promised to grant 

1 Cf. c. 97 (where however the Incarnation is in question), and 
the references there given. 

2 Or " fleshly" : cf. I, ii. I : /col rfy eyepffiv e/c veKpwv Kal rV 

TOVS ovpavovs 


eternal life by the resurrection of the dead ; through 
Him who died and rose again, Jesus Christ, to 
whom He has delivered over the kingdom of all 
existing things, and the rule of quick and dead, 
and also the judgment. And they counselled them 
by the word of truth to keep their flesh undefiled 
unto the resurrection and their soul unstained. 

42. For such is the state l of those who have 
believed, since in them continually abides the Holy 
Spirit, who was given by Him in baptism, and 
is retained by the receiver, if he walks in truth 
and holiness and righteousness and patient 
endurance. For this soul has a resurrection in 
them that believe, the body receiving the soul 
again, and along with it, by the power of the Holy 
Spirit, being raised up and entering into the 
kingdom of God. This is the fruit of the blessing 
of Japheth, in the calling of the Gentiles, made 
manifest through the Church, standing in readi- 
ness 2 to receive its dwelling in the house of Shem 
according to the promise of *God. That all these 
things would so come to pass, the Spirit of God 
declared beforehand by the prophets ; that in 
respect of them the faith of those who worship God 
in truth should be confirmed. For what was 
an impossibility to our nature, and therefore ready 
to cause incredibility to mankind, this God caused 
to be made known beforehand by the prophets ; 
in order that, through its having been foretold 
in times long before, and then at last rinding 

1 The Arm. is a literal rendering of OVTWS ex eiv > as * n the Arm. 
version of IV, xi. 2 (" sic se habere "). 

2 Cf. c. 21. The Arm. is obscure, perhaps corrupt. 


effect in this way, even as it was foretold, we 
might know that it was God who (thus) proclaimed 
to us beforehand our redemption. 

43. So then we must believe God in all things, 
for in all things God is true. Now that there was 
a Son of God, and that He existed not only before 
He appeared in the world, but also before the 
world was made, Moses, who was the first that 
Gen. i. i. prophesied, 1 says in Hebrew : Baresith bara 
Elowin basan benuam samenthares. And this, 
translated into our language, 2 is : " The Son 
in the beginning : God established then the heaven 
and the earth." 3 This Jeremiah the prophet also 
PS. ex. 3, testified, saying thus : Before the morning-star I 
IXXH. 1 7. fogat thee : and before the sun (is] thy name ; 4 and 
that is, before the creation of the world ; for 
together with the world the stars were made. And 
again the same says : Blessed is he who was, before 
he became man? Because, for God, the Son was 
(as) the beginning before the creation of the 
world ; 6 but for us (He was) then, when He 

1 Cf. Just. M. Ap. I. 32 : M<av<rr)S . . . irpwros TWV 

2 Lit. "the Armenian language." 

3 The Hebrew text has been corrupted in transmission : but it is 
plain that Irenseus interpreted the first two words ("In the 
beginning created ") as " In the beginning the Son." St Hilary, on 
Ps. ii. 2, says that bresith has three meanings, "in principio 
in capile, in filio " ; but he prefers the first as the interpretation 
given by the LXX. See the note of the learned Dom Coustant, the 
Benedictine editor of St Hilary. See also Dr Harnack's notes in 
Texte u. Unters., I, I. 1176. and xxxi, I. 60. In Clem. Alex. Eel. 
Proph. 4 we find as a comment on Gen. i. I, '6ri apx^) o vl6s. 

4 For this composite quotation from the Psalms, here attributed 
to Jeremiah, see Introd. p. 196. 

5 For this quotation also see Introd. p. 22 f. 

6 This is probably a reference to Prov. viii. 22 : 6 Kvptos 

&V bfiwv avrov. 


appeared ; and before that He was not for us, who 
knew Him not 1 Wherefore also His disciple 
John, in teaching us who is the Son of God, who 
was with the Father before the world was made, and 
that all the things that were made were made by 
Him, says thus : In the beginning was the Word, and John i. 
the Word was with God, and the Word was God. l fi ' 
The same was in the beginning with God. All 
things were made by Him, and without Him was not 
anything made : showing with certainty that the 
Word, who was in the beginning with the Father, 
and by whom all things were made, this is His Son. 
44. And again Moses tells how the Son of God 
drew near to hold converse with Abraham: And Gen. xviii 
God appeared unto him by the oak of Mamre in the r ff * 
middle of the day. And looking up with his eyes 
he beheld, and, lo, three men stood over against him. 
And he bowed himself down to the earth, and said : 
Lord, if indeed I have found favour in thy sight. 
And all that which follows he spake with the Lord, 
and the Lord spake with him. Now two of the 
three were angels ; but one was the Son of God, 
with whom also Abraham spake, pleading on 
behalf of the men of Sodom, that they should not 
perish if at least ten righteous should be found 
there. And, whilst these were speaking, the two 
angels entered into Sodom, and Lot received them. 
And then the Scripture says : And the Lord rained GV\\. xix. 
upon Sodom and Gomorrah brimstone and fire from 24> 

i Justin (Dial. 88) quotes the Voice at the Baptism in the form 
" Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee " (Ps. ii. 7, and 
Luke iii. 22 in Codex Bezae, etc. ). Then he says : r6re 
avrov Xs-ywv ylveadai rots avdpwtrois, e| orov TJ yvwffis avrov 


the Lord out of heaven : that is to say, the Son, who 
spake with Abraham, being Lord, received power 
to punish the men of Sodom from the Lord out of 
heaven, even from the Father who rules over all. 1 
So Abraham was a prophet and saw things to 
come, which were to take place in human form : 
even the Son of God, that He should speak with 
men and eat with them, and then should bring 
in the judgment from the Father, having received 
from Him who rules over all the power to punish 
the men of Sodom. 

45. And Jacob, when he went into Mesopotamia, 

Gen. saw Him in a dream, standing upon the ladder, that 

*2 V f m * is, the tree, which was set up from earth to 

heaven ; 2 for thereby they that believe on Him 

go up to the heavens. For His sufferings are our 

ascension on high. And all such visions point to 

the Son of God, speaking with men and being in 

their midst. For it was not the Father of all, who 

is not seen by the world, the Maker of all who 

Acts vii. said : Heaven is my throne, and earth is my footstool: 

Ixvi. i)! what house will ye build me, or what is the place of 

Isa. xl. 12. my rest ? and who comprehendeth the earth with his 

hand, and with his span the heaven 3 it was not He 

that came and stood in a very small space and 

spake with Abraham ; but the Word of God, who 

was ever with mankind, and made known before- 

_ * III, vi. I : " Filium enim hie significat, qui et Abrahse collocutus 
sit, a Patre accepisse potestatem judicandi Sodomitas propter ini- 
quitatem eorum." For the indebtedness of Irenzeus to Justin in this 
and the next chapter, see Introd. p. 12. 

' 2 The Arm. text has "from heaven to heaven" by oversight. 
That Jacob's Ladder signified the Cross was said by Justin (Dial. 86). 

3 IV, xxxiii. i : " Audistis mensos esse oelos in palma ... qui 
comprehendit terram pugillo." 


hand what should come to pass in the future, and 
taught men the things of God. 

46. He it is who spake with Moses in the bush, 
and said : Seeing have I seen the affliction of my EX. Hi. 7. 
people that is in Egypt ; and I am come down to 
deliver them. He it is who came forth and came 
down for the deliverance of the oppressed, bringing 
us out from the power of the Egyptians, that is, from 
all idolatry and impiety ; and delivering us from 
the Red Sea, that is, delivering us from the deadly 
confusion of the Gentiles and the grievous vexation 
of their blasphemy. For in them the Word of 
God prepared and rehearsed beforehand the things 
concerning us. Then He set forth in types before- 
hand that which was to be ; now in very truth 
He has brought us out from the cruel service of the 
Gentiles, and a stream of water in the desert has He 
made to flow forth in abundance from a rock ; and 
that rock is Himself; and has given twelve fount- Cf. i Cor. 
ains, that is, the teaching of the twelve apostles. Q f 4 g x 
And the obstinate unbelievers He brought to an xv. 27. 
end and consumed in the wilderness ; but those 
who believed on Him, and in malice were children?- i Cor. 
He made to enter into the inheritance of the 
fathers ; whom not Moses, but Jesus puts in pos- 
session of the heritage : 2 who also delivers us from 
Amalek by the expansion of His hands, 3 and Cf. Ex. 
brings us to the kingdom of the Father. 

1 IV, xliv. 3 : " Malitia parvuli " : cf. c. 95. 

2 IV, xlvii. i : "ecclesise . . . quam non Moyses quidem famulus 
Dei, sed Jesus filius Dei in haereditatem dabit." 

3 V, xvii. 4 : 8:0 rfjs e/cratrecos r&v xeipcav (where neither Lat. nor 
Arm. supports the inserted 0eios) : cf. c. 79. For this &CTCKTIS cf. 
Barn. XII. 2 ; Just. M. Dial. 91, 112, 131. 


47. So then the Father is Lord and the Son is 
Lord, 1 and the Father is God and the Son is God ; 
for that which is begotten of God is God. 2 And 
so in the substance and power of His being there 
is shown forth one God ; but there is also according 
to the economy of our redemption both Son and 
Father. Because to created things the Father of 
all is invisible and unapproachable, 3 therefore those 
who are to draw near to God must have their access 
to the Father through the Son. And yet more 
plainly and evidently does David speak concerning 
Heb. i. the Father and the Son as follows : Thy throne, 
xlv^6f ) God, is for ever and ever : thou hast loved righteous- 
ness and hated unrighteousness : 4 therefore God hath 
anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy 
fellows. For the Son, as being God, receives from 
the Father, that is, from God, 5 the throne of the 
everlasting kingdom, and the oil of anointing 
above His fellows. The oil of anointing is the 
Spirit, 6 wherewith He has been anointed ; and His 
fellows are prophets and righteous men and 
apostles, and all who receive the fellowship of His 
kingdom, that is to say, His disciples. 
Ps. ex. 48. And again David says: The Lord said unto 

1 ff - my Lord : Sit on my right hand, until I make thy 

1 III, vi. I : " Vere igitur cum Pater sit Dominus et Filius vere sit 
Dominus, merito Spiritus Sanctus Domini appellatione signavit eos." 

2 I, i. l8 : rb yap e/c 0eoG yevvyOev 6e6s fffnv. 

3 Cf. Athan. Orat. i. 64 : /cal %anv 6 Oebs a6pa,Tos /cai airpoffiros 


4 Apparently reading aSiKiav. The omission of ' ' thy God " after 
" God" may^be an oversight. 

5 III, vi. I : " Utrosque enim Dei appellatione signavit Spiritus : 
et eum qui ungitur Filium, et eum qui ungit, id est, Patrem." 

6 III, xix. 3 : " Et unxit quidem Pater, unctus est vero Filius, in 
Spiritu qui est unctio," etc. For this chapter, see Introd. p. 60. 


enemies thy footstool. The rod of thy strength shall 
the Lord send forth from Sion ; and rule thou in 
the midst of thy enemies. With thee in the begin- 
ning^ in the day of thy power > in the brightness of 
the holy ones : from the womb before the morning- 
star I begat thee. The Lord sware and will not 
repent : Thou art a priest for ever after the order 
of Melchisedec. And the Lord on thy right hand 
hath broken in pieces kings in the day of wrath : 
he shall judge among the Gentiles, he shall fill up the 
ruins, and shall break in pieces the heads of many 
on the earth? He shall drink of the brook in the 
zvay : therefore shall he lift up the head. Now here- 
by he proclaimed that He came into being before 
all, and that He rules over the Gentiles and judges 
all mankind and the kings who now hate Him 
and persecute His name ; for these are His ene- 
mies : and in calling Him God's priest for ever, he 
declared His immortality. And therefore he said : 
He shall drink of the brook in the way ; therefore 
shall he lift up the head ; proclaiming the exaltation 
with glory that followed on His humanity and 
humiliation and ingloriousness. 3 

49. And again Isaiah the prophet says : Thus isa. xlv. 
saith the Lord God to my Anointed the Lord* whose ' 
right hand I have held, that the Gentiles should 
hearken before him. And how the Christ is called 
Son of God and King of the Gentiles, that is. of all 

1 As though reading h apxy for apx^- 

2 As though reading Tr\fjpwffei Trra>fj.ara and eiri yys iroXXwv, with 
some MSS. of LXX. 

3 This is Justin's interpretaton of the words : see Dial. 33 : fcai 
on TdTrejvbs eaTcu irpdarov &v8p(airos, elra 

4 Reading /tuple? for Kvpy : cf. Barn. XII, n : so also many 
later writers. 


mankind ; and that He not only is called but is 
Son of God and King of all, David declares thus : 

Ps. ii. 7 f. The Lord said unto me : Thou art my Son, this day 
have I begotten thee. Ask of me and I will give thee 
the Gentiles for thy inheritance, and for a possession 
the iitmost parts of the earth. These things were 
not said of David ; for neither over the Gentiles 
nor over the utmost parts did he rule, but only 
over the Jews. So then it is plain that the promise 
to the Anointed to reign over the utmost parts of 
the earth is to the Son of God, whom David 
himself acknowledges as his Lord, saying thus : 

Ps. ex. i. The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit on my right hand, 
and so forth, as we have said above. For he 
means that the Father speaks with the Son ; as 
we showed a little before as to Isaiah, that he said 

Isa. xlv. i. thus : God saith to my Anointed the Lord, that the 
Gentiles should hearken before him. For the 
promise is the same by the two prophets, that He 
should be King : so that the speech of God is 
addressed to one and the same, I mean, to Christ 

Ps. ii. 7. the Son of God. Forasmuch as David says : The 
Lord said unto me, it is necessary to say that it is 
not David who speaks, nor any one of the prophets, 
in his own person : for it is not a man who speaks 
the prophecies ; but the Spirit of God, assimilating 
and likening Himself to the persons represented, 
speaks in the prophets, and utters the words 
sometimes from Christ and sometimes from the 
Father. 1 

1 The subject is fully treated by Justin (Ap. i, 36 ff.) : cf. 
especially : ir&rt 8e ws cbrb irpoffwirov TOV 8e<nr6Tov irdvTwv KO.\ 
irarphs Ofov QOeyyerai, TTOTC 8e a>s ebrb Trpoffwirov TOV xpj(rrot). 


50. So then right fitly Christ says through 
David that He converses with the Father ; and 
right worthily does He say the other things 
concerning Himself through the prophets ; as in 
other instances, so also after this manner by 
Isaiah : And now thus saith the Lord, who formed Is** 
me as his servant from the womb, to gather Jacob 5 
and to gather Israel unto him : and I shall be 
glorified before the Lord, and my God shall be a 
strength unto me. And he said; A great thing 
shall it be to thee to be called my servant, to stablish 
and confirm the tribe of Jacob, and to turn again the 
dispersion of Israel: and I have set thee for a light 
of the Gentiles^ tJiat thou shouldst be for salvation 
unto the end of the earth. 

51. Here, first of all, is seen that the Son of God 
pre-existed, from the fact that the Father spake 
with Him, 2 and before He was born revealed Him 
to men : and, next, that He must needs be born a 
man among men ; and that the same God forms 
Him from the womb, that is, that of the Spirit of 
God He should be born ; and that He is Lord of 
all men, and Saviour of them that believe on Him, 
both Jews and others. For the people of the Jews 
is called Israel in the Hebrew language, from 
Jacob their father, who was the first to be called 
Israel : and Gentiles He calls the whole of man- 
kind. And that the Son of the Father calls 
Himself servant, (this is) on account of His sub- 

1 Here the quotation corresponds with Acts xiii. 47, as in Just. 
M. Dial. 121. 

2 Cf. C. 30. Justin says (Dial. 62) : 'AAAeb TOVTO rb T<$ ovn a?rb 
TOU Trarphs TrpojSA.Tjflei' yeWTj/ua Trpb TrdvTcav ruv TT OJTJ fj-d-r uv avvr\v T< 
irarpl, /col TOVT<J> 6 Trar^p 


jection to the Father : for among men also every 
son is the servant of his father. 

52. That Christ, then, being Son of God before 
all the world, is with the Father ; and being with the 
Father 1 is also nigh and close and joined unto 
mankind ; and is King of all, because the Father 
has subjected all things unto Him ; and Saviour of 
them that believe on Him such things do the 
Scriptures declare. For it is not feasible and 
possible to enumerate every scripture in order ; 
and from these you may understand the others 
also which have been spoken in like manner, 
believing in Christ, and seeking understanding 
and comprehension from God, so as to understand 
what has been spoken by the prophets. 

53. And that this Christ, who was with the 
Father, being the Word of the Father, was there- 
after to be made flesh and become man and under- 
go the process of birth and be born of a virgin and 
dwell among men, the Father of all bringing about 

Isa. vii. His incarnation 2 Isaiah says thus : Therefore the 
14 Lord himself shall give you a sign : behold, the 
virgin shall conceive and shall bring forth a son, and 
ye shall call him Emmanuel : butter and honey shall 
he eat ; before he knoweth or selecteth the evil, he 
chooseth the good: for, before the child knoiveth good 
or evil, he rejecteth wickedness to choose the good. 
So he proclaimed His birth from a virgin ; and 
that He was truly man he declared beforehand by 
His eating ; and also because he called Him the 

1 The construction of the Arm. is uncertain, but the general 
sense is plain. The preposition " with" in the first place seems to 
represent avv, in the second place irp6s. 

2 V, i. 3 : " Patris omnium, qui operatus est incarnationem ejus. 


child; and further by giving Him a name; for 
this is the custom also for one that is born. 1 And 
His name is two-fold : in the Hebrew tongue 
Messiah Jesus, and in ours Christ Saviour. And 
the two names are names of works actually 
wrought. For He was named Christ, because 
through Him the Father anointed and adorned all 
things ; and because on His coming as man He 
was anointed with the Spirit of God and His 
Father. As also by Isaiah He says of Himself; 
The Spirit of the Lord is upon me: wherefore he isa. ixi. \ 
hath anointed me to preach good tidings to the poor. 
And (He was named) Saviour for this, that He 
became the cause of salvation to those who at that 
time were delivered by Him from all sicknesses 
and from death, 2 and to those who afterwards 
believed on Him the author of salvation in the 
future and for evermore. 

54. For this cause then is He Saviour. Now 
Emmanuel is, being interpreted, With you God;* or Cf. Matt, 
as a yearning cry 4 uttered by the prophet, such as 1- 23> 
this : With us shall be God ; according to which it 
is the explanation and manifestation of the good 
tidings proclaimed. For Behold^ He saith, the virgin Isa. vii. 
shall conceive and shall bring forth a son ; and He, I4 * 
being God, is to be with us. And, as if altogether 
astonished 5 at these things, he proclaims in regard 
to these future events that With us shall be God. 

1 For comments on the rest of this chapter, see Introd. pp. 15 f. 

2 After the word "death " the Arm. has again "at that time." 

3 The translator has read /ue0' vfj.S>v for fj.e6' TJ^WV : there is no 
distinction in sound in the later Greek pronunciation. 

4 Or, perhaps," a cry of augury." 

5 Cf. c. 71 ; and Just. M. Ap. I, 47 : OavnatfvT&v ra 
Dial, llS : rovro 9av/j.d(av 'H<rcuas ty>7j. 


And yet again concerning His birth the same 
Isa. Ixvi. prophet says in another place : Before she that 
17 ' travailed gave birth, and before the pains of travail 

came on, she escaped and was delivered of a man- 
child. Thus he showed that His birth from the 
virgin was unforeseen and unexpected. 1 And again 
Isa. ix. 6. the same prophet says : Unto us a son is born, and 
unto us a child is given : 2 and his name is called 
Wonderful Counsellor, Mighty God? 

55. He calls Him Wonderful Counsellor, meaning 
of the Father : whereby it is declared that the 
Father works all things together with Him ; as is 
contained in the first book of Moses which is 
Gen. i. entitled Genesis : And God said, Let us make man 
after our image and likeness. For there is seen in 
this place the Father speaking to the Son, 4 the 
Wonderful Counsellor of the Father. Moreover 
He is also our Counsellor, giving advice ; not 
compelling as God, 5 even though He is Mighty 
God, (as) he says ; but giving advice that we should 
forsake ignorance and acquire knowledge, and 

1 III, xxvi. 2 : "In eo autem quod dixerit : Ipse Dominus dabit 
signwn, id quod erat inopinatum generationis ejus significavit. . . . 
Sed quoniam inopinata salus hominibus inciperet fieri, Deo 
adjuvante, inopinatus et partus virginis fiebat," etc. 

2 The transposition of "son " and " child " would seem to be an 
oversight : see however Just. M. Ap. I, 35 (iraiS'iov . . . veaviffKos]: 
and note that the whole passage is quoted differently in c. 56 below. 

* So in IV, lv. 2 : cf. Ill, xx. 2. So above, c. 40. But in c. 56 we 
have "Angel of great counsel," as in III, xvii. 3: cf. Just. M. 
Dial. 76. 

4 V, xv. 4: "Cum quo et loquebatur Pater: Faciatnus," etc.: 
cf. IV, xxxiv. i. Cf. Barn. V, 5. 

5 V,i. i: "noncumvi . . . sed secundum suadelam . . . suadentem, 
non vim inferentem : " cf. IV, lix. I : Bio 0e ov irpoVea-ru/ ' ayaQ^i 5e 
yvw/j.7) irdi>TOT (rvfAirdpecmv aiT<j3 : Ix. I : aAAa /j,^ f)iao[j.i>ov. Compare 
Ep. ad Diognetum 7 : is irft6u>i>, ov fiiatf/jLevos j8io yhp ov i 


depart from error and come to the truth, and put 
away corruption and receive incorruption. 

56. And again Isaiah says : And they shall wish Isi. ix. 

that they had been burned ivith fire : for unto us a 5 ' ' 

child is born, and unto us a son is given ; whose 

government is upon his shoulders, and his name is 

called Angel of great counsel. For I will bring 

peace upon the rulers, again peace and health unto 

him. Great is his rule, and of his peace there is no 

bound, upon the throne of David and upon his king- 

dom, to prosper and complete, to aid and undertake^ 

in righteousness and judgment from this time forth 

and for evermore, For hereby the Son of God is 

proclaimed both as being born and also as eternal 

King. 2 But they shall wish that they had been 

burned zvithfire (is said) of those who believe not 

on Him, and who have done to Him all that they 

have done : for they shall say in the judgment, 

How much better that we had been burned with 

fire before the Son of God was born, than that, 

when He was born, we should not have believed 

on Him. Because for those who died before Christ 

appeared there is hope that in the judgment of 

the risen 3 they may obtain salvation, even such as 

feared God and died in righteousness and had in 

them the Spirit of God, as the patriarchs and 

prophets and righteous men. But for those who 

after Christ's appearing believed not on Him, there 

is a vengeance without pardon in the judgment. 

1 The Arm. offers double renderings both of KaropGaxrai and of 

2 Cf. cc. 36, 66, 95. 

3 The Arm. appears to mean " of the Risen One" : but the text 
may be corrupt. 



Now in this : Whose government is upon his shoulder, 
the cross is in a figure declared, on which He was 
nailed back. 1 For that which was and is a reproach 
to Him, and for His sake to us, 2 even the cross, 
this same is, says he, His government, being a sign 
of His kingdom. And, Angel of great counsel, he 
says ; that is, of the Father 3 whom He hath 
declared unto us. 

57. That the Son of God should be born, and in 
what way He was to be born, and that He should 
be shown to be Christ from what has been said 
it is plain how this was made known beforehand 
by the prophets. And in addition to this, in what 
land and among whom of mankind He was to be 
born 4 and to appear, this also was proclaimed 
beforehand with words such as these. Moses in 
Gen. xlix. Genesis says thus : There shall not fail a prince 
10 f ' from Judah, nor a leader from his loins, until he 
shall come for whom it remaineth ; 5 and he shall be 
the expectation of the Gentiles : washing his robe in 
wine, and his garment in the blood of the grape. 
Now Judah was the ancestor of the Jews, the son 
of Jacob ; from whom also they obtained the name. 6 

1 This is Justin's interpretation in Ap. I, 35 : o3 T\ apx^ rJ r&v 
iS}p.(av'fJif]vvrtK^)v TTJS 8uvd/j.fd)S TOV ffravpov, $ TrpoffeOyKe rovs &/J.QVS 

2 Cf. Just. M. Dial, IOI : "OveiSos pev yap T\IUV rots fls avrbv 
avQpwirois vavraxov <TTIV. Justin is interpreting oveiSos 

(Ps. xxii. 7)- 

3 III, xvii. 3 : " magniconsilii patris nuntius : " see note to c. 54. 

4 Cf. Just. M. Ap, I, 34: OTTOU 8e /col rfjs yrjs yevvaffOai e/ieAAer, 
K.T.A., quoting Mic. v. 2, which Irenseus quotes below, c. 63. 

5 So in IV, xx. 2: "cui repositum est," corresponding to 
$ ctTrJ/mTat, the reading which Justin defends in Dial. 1 20. 

6 Cf. Just. M. Ap, I, 32 : 'lovSas yap irpoirdTwp 'louSa/wr, o<>' ov 
/cal rb 'loi/Seuot KaXf'iffdai fffx^Kaari. See on this whole chapter 
Introd. pp. 6 ff. 


And there failed not a prince among them and a 
leader, until the coming of Christ. But from the 
time of His coming the might of the quiver was 
captured, 1 the land of the Jews was given over into 
subjection to the Romans, and they had no longer 
a prince or king of their own. For He was come, 
for whom remaineth in heaven the kingdom ; 2 who 
also washed his robe in wine> and his garment in 
the blood of the grape. His robe as also His gar- 
ment are those who believe on Him, 3 whom also 
He cleansed, redeeming us by His blood. And 
His blood is said to be blood of the grape : for even 
as the blood of the grape no man maketh, but God 
produceth, and maketh glad them that drink thereof, Cf. Ps. 
so also His flesh and blood no man wrought, but Clv ' I5 ' 
God made. The Lord Himself gave the sign of the Isa. vii. 
virgin, even that Emmanuel which was from the I4 * 
virgin ; who also maketh glad them that drink of 
Him, that is to say, who receive His Spirit, (even) 
everlasting gladness. Wherefore also He is the Isa. xxxv. 
expectation of the Gentiles, of those who hope in |^ xi I0 
Him; because we expect of Him that He will 
establish again the kingdom. 

58. And again Moses says: There shall rise a star Num. 
out of Jacob,; and a leader^ shall be raised up out 0/ xxlv< I7- 
Israel ; showing yet more plainly that the dispen- 

1 The translation is uncertain. Cf. Justin, ibid. : /xefl'&V *v6vs 
oopia\o>Tos vfjuv i) yT} 'lovSaicav irapfftdOij. 

2 Cf. Justin, ibid. : u ctTrdVemu T& ftafflteiov. 

Cf. Justin, ibid. : ^ yap /ce/cArjjUcz/rj . . . o"ToA^ of iriffrevovres 
<XUT< fiffiy avdpwiroi. And for what follows : t>v rp6irov yap TO TTJS 
a^tTreAoy af/xa OVK avdpuiros TreTroirj/cei/ a\A' 6 Of 6s, K.T.\. and the similar 
passage in Dial. 54. 

So in III, ix. 2 ("dux"). The only other evidence for this 
seems to be Just. M. Dial. 106 (r}yov/j.fvos) : LXX, 


sation of His coming in flesh should be among the 
Jews. And from Jacob and from the tribe of 
Judah He who was born, coming down from 
heaven, took upon Him this economy of dispensa- 
tion : for the star appeared in heaven. And by 
leader he means king, because He is the King of 
Cf. Matt. a ii t h e redeemed. And at His birth the star 
appeared to the Magi who dwelt in the east ; and 
thereby they learned that Christ was born ; and 
they came to Judaea, led by the star ; until the star 
came to Bethlehem where Christ was born, and 
entered the house wherein was laid the child, 
wrapped in swaddling-clothes ; and it stood over 
His head, 1 declaring to the Magi the Son of God., 
the Christ. 

59. Moreover Isaiah himself yet further says : 
Isa. xi. And there shall come forth a rod out of the roots of 
1 ' Jesse,anda flower from his root shall come forth. And 
the spirit of God shall rest upon him ; the spirit of 
wisdom and of understanding, the spirit of counsel 
and of might, the spirit of knowledge and of godli- 
ness : the spirit of the fear of God shall fill him?' 
Not according to opinion shall he judge, and not 
according to speech shall he reprove: but he shall 
judge judgment for the humble, and shew mercy 
to z the humble of the earth. And he shall smite 
the earth with the word of his mouth, and with the 

1 Cf. Protevang. Jacob i (cod. D) : e<as ov ei<rrj\8ev . . . /cal (ffrrj eir! 
rV K#a\V rov TratSiou : Of us Imperf. in Matth. p. 30: "venit 
et stetit super caput pueri." Codex Bezce has ^Travco rot) -rraiSt'oy 
and supra puerum (with vet. lat.). 

2 This passage was quoted in c. 9. 

3 As though reading eAerjo-et for eAe^et. But in III, x. I we 
find "arguet gloriosos terne." The confusion between \fyx ti/ 
and eAeeiV is found in the text of Jude 22. 


breath of his lips x shall he slay the impious man. 
And he shall be girt about his loins with righteous- 
ness^ and with truth encompassed about his reins. 
And the wolf shall feed with the lamb, and the 
leopard* 1 with the kid, and the calf and the lion 
shall pasture together. And a sucking child shall 
put his hand on the hole of the asps, and on the lair 
of the offspring of the asps, and they shall not hurt 
him. And in that day there shall be a root of 
Jesse, and he that riseth up to rule the Gentiles : in 
him shall the Gentiles hope : and his rising up 3 
shall be honour. By these words he states that He 
was born from her who was of the race of David 
and of Abraham. For Jesse was the descendant 
of Abraham, and the father of David ; (and 
David's) descendant the virgin was who conceived 
Christ. Now (as to) the rod: for this cause also 
Moses with 4 a rod showed the mighty works to 
Pharaoh : and with other men also the rod is a 
sign of rule. And by flower he means His flesh ; 5 
for from spirit it budded forth, as we have said 

60. Now, Not according to opinion shall he judge, 
and not according to speech shall he reprove : but he 
shall judge judgment for the humble, and shall show 
mercy to tJie hiimble on the earth (by this) he the 

1 Lit. "with spirit through the lips," as in LXX. 

2 Omitting "shall lie down" : but this is found in V, xxxiii. 4 
(lat. and arm.} : so too are the other words which are wanting in 
what follows here. 

3 As though reading avdffraa-is instead of avd-jrauffts. 

4 The Arm. means "with," not "by means of." Cf. Just. M. 
Dial. 86 : Mceuo-rji fj.era fid&Sov eirt rfyv rov \aov airo^vr 
TT/j.(()Qrj : the Rod from Jesse's root is there said to be Christ. 

5 Or "body." 


more establishes and declares His godhead. 1 For 
to judge without respect of persons and partiality, 
and not as favouring the illustrious, but affording 
to the humble worthy and like and equal treatment, 
accords with the height and summit of the right- 
eousness of God : for God is influenced and moved 
by none, save only the righteous. And to show 
mercy is the peculiar attribute of God, who by 
mercy is able to save. And He shall smite the 
earth with a word, and slay the impious with a word 
only : this belongs to God who worketh all things 
with a word. And in saying : He shall be girt 
about his loins with righteousness, and with truth 
encompassed about his reins > he declares His human 
form and aspect, and His own surpassing righteous- 

6 1. Now as to the union and concord and peace 
of the animals of different kinds, 2 which by nature 
are opposed and hostile to each other, the Elders 
say that so it will be in truth at the coming of 
Christ, when He is to reign over all. For already 
in a symbol he announces the gathering together 
in peace and concord, through the name of Christ, 
of men of unlike races and (yet) of like dispositions. 
For, when thus united, on the righteous, who are 
likened to calves and lambs and kids and sucking 

1 III, x. I : " secundum autem quod Deus erat non secundum 
gloriam judicabat neque secundum loquelam arguebat." 

2 In V, xxxiii. 4 he discusses the same question and, while recog- 
nizing that some persons give a symbolical interpretation, he 
inclines to look for a literal fulfilment. Here also he finds room 
for both interpretations. The passage of Papias there quoted, as 
to the marvellous productivity of the millennial period, ends with 
the statement that the animals will live in peace and concord and 
in subjection to man. This explains the reference to the Elders in 
our text. 


children, those inflict no hurt at all who in the 
former time were, through their rapacity, like wild 
beasts in manners and disposition, both men and 
women ; so much so that some of them were like 
wolves and lions, ravaging the weaker and warring 
on their equals; while the women (were like) 
leopards or asps, who slew, it may be, even their 
loved ones with deadly poisons, or by reason of 
lustful desire. (But now) coming together in one 
name 1 they have acquired righteous habits by the 
grace of God, changing their wild and untamed 
nature. And this has come to pass already. For 
those who were before exceeding wicked, so that 
they left no work of ungodliness undone, learning 
of Christ and believing on Him, have at once 
believed and been changed, so as to leave no 
excellency of righteousness undone ; so great is 
the transformation which faith in Christ the Son 
of God effects for those who believe on Him. And 
he says : Rising up to rule the Gentiles^ because He 
is to die and rise again, and be confessed and 
believed as the Son of God (and) King. On this 
account he says : And His rising up shall be honour : 
that is, glory ; for then was He glorified as God, 
when He rose. 

62. Wherefore again the prophet says: 2 In that Amos ix. 
day I will raise up the tabernacle of David that is "' 
fallen : that body 3 of Christ, which, as we have said 
before, is born of David, he plainly declares as after 
death rising from the dead. For the body is called a 

1 The Arm. text as printed gives "in my name"; but by a 
different division of the letters we get "in one name." 

2 Cf. c. 38. 

3 Or " flesh" ; and so throughout the passage. 


tabernacle. 1 For by these words he says that He 
who according to the flesh is of the race of David 
will be Christ the Son of God ; and that He will 
die and rise again, and that He is in aspect a man, 
but in power God ; and that He Himself will be 
as judge of all the world and as the only worker 
of righteousness and redeemer all this the 
Scripture declared. 

63. And again the prophet Micah speaks of the 
place where Christ should be born, that it should 

Matt. ii. be in Bethlehem of Judaea, saying thus : And 
6 (Micah t j lou ^ Bethlehem of Judcea, art thou the least among 
the princes of Judah ? for out of thee shall come a 
prince who shall feed my people Israel? But Beth- 
lehem is the native place 3 of David : so that not 
only in respect of the Virgin who bore Him is He 
of David's race, but also in respect of His birth in 
Bethlehem the native place of David. 

64. And again David says that of his race Christ 
Ps. cxxxii. is to be born, (speaking) after this manner : For 
10 ff. David my 4 servant's sake turn not away the face of 

thy Christ. The Lord sivare truth unto David, and 
he will not disappoint him : Of the fruit of thy body 

1 Cf. Wisd. ix. 15 (R. v. ): "For a corruptible body weighs 
down the soul, and the earthly frame (TO yeS>Ses aicrivos} lieth heavy 
on a mind that is full of cares : " 2 Cor. v. I : ^ eTrfyeios T]p.S>v olida 
rov (nervous : and cf. ffK-hvwpa in 2 Pet. i. I3f. For the use of 
a-KTJvos in the sense of "body" in Greek literature, see Field, 
Notes on N. T. Translation, p. 183 ; and Stephanus, Thesatirus Gr. 
Ling., ad vocem. 

2 Irenseus quotes the prophecy in the Matthsean form, which 
differs much from the LXX rendering. Moreover he agrees with 
Codex in reading TT}S 'lovSaias for 777 'lovda, and ^ for oi/So/uws. 
Justin quotes the words twice in the Matthsean form, but with the 
usual 777 'louSa and ovSap&s (Ap. I, 34, Dial. 78). 

3 The Arm. word renders ndrpis in Matt. xiii. 54, 57. 

4 My " for "thy " (LXX troy) by oversight. Part of the text is 
quoted in III, ix. 2. See also above, c. 36. 


will I set on thy throne : if thy children shall keep 
my covenant and my testimonies, which I covenanted 
with them, their sons for evermore (shall sit upon 
thy throne)}* But none of the sons of David reigned 
for evermore, nor was their kingdom for evermore ; 
for it was brought to nought. But the king that 
was born of David, He is Christ. All these testi- 
monies declare in plain terms His descent accord- 
ing to the flesh, and the race and place where He 
was to be born ; so that no man should seek among 
the Gentiles or elsewhere for the birth of the Son 
of God, but in Bethlehem of Judaea from Abraham 
and from David's race. 

65. And the manner of His entry into Jerusalem, 
which was the capital of Judaea, where also was 
His royal seat and the temple of God, the prophet 
Isaiah declares : Say ye to the daughter of Sion> Matt, x 
Behold a king cometh unto thee, meek and sitting J5riL?i 
upon an ass, a colt the foal of an ass. 2 For, sitting Zech. i 
on an ass's colt, so He entered into Jerusalem, the 
multitudes strewing and putting down for Him 
their garments. And by the daughter of Sion he 
means Jerusalem. 

66. So then, that the Son of God should be born, 
and in what manner born, and where He was to be 
born, and that Christ is the one eternal King, 3 the 
prophets thus declared. And again they told 
beforehand concerning Him how, sprung from 
mankind, He should heal those whom He healed, 

1 The Arm. has "and their son for evermore," and nothing further. 

2 The passage is quoted in the Matthaean form, and ascribed to 
Isaiah from whom the first words come. In St Matthew's Gospel 
it is ascribed to "the prophet," though some codices insert 
"Zachariah." Justin quotes it differently, Ap. I, 35, Dial. 53. 

8 Cf. cc. 36, 56, 95. 


and raise the dead whom He raised, and be hated 
and despised and undergo sufferings and be put to 
death and crucified, even as He was hated and 
despised and put to death. 

67. At this point let us speak of His healings. 
Matt. viii. Isaiah says thus : He took our infirmities and bare 
ini^4^ our sicknesses: that is to say, He shall take, and 
shall bear. For there are passages in which the 
Spirit of God through the prophets recounts things 
that ' are to be as having taken place. 1 For that 
which with God is essayed and conceived of as 
determined to take place, is reckoned as having 
already taken place : and the Spirit, regarding and 
seeing the time in which the issues of the prophecy 
are fulfilled, utters the words (accordingly). And 
Isa. xxix. concerning the kind of healing, thus will He make 
mention, saying : In that day shall the deaf hear 
the words of the book, and in darkness and in mist 
Isa. xxxv. the eyes of the blind shall see. And the same says 
3 ' again : Be strong, ye weak hands and feeble and 

trembling knees : be comforted, ye that are of a fear- 
ful mind. Be strong, fear not. Behold, our God 
will recompense judgment : He will come and save 
us. Then shall the eyes of the blind be opened, and 
the ears of the deaf shall hear : then shall the lame 
man leap as an hart, and the tongue of the stam- 
Isa. xxvi. merers shall be plain. And concerning the dead, 
that they shall be raised, he says thus : The 
dead shall be raised, and they that are in the tombs 

1 Cf. Just. M. Dial. 114: &T0' tire yap rb ayiov iri/ev/xa . . . 
\6yov3 e<f>6fya.To irepl TWV cwrojSaii/eti/ /j.\\6vT(av } <pOeyy6/j.vov avrovs 
ws T<$re yivopevuv % /cal yeyevi)/j.vuv. It is interesting to see that in 
IV. Iv. 2, Irenaeus actually had given the future in this passage. 
' ' Ipse infirmitates nostras accipiet et languores portabit. " 


shall be raised. And in bringing these things to 
pass He shall be believed to be the Son of God. 

68. And that He shall be despised and tormented 
and in the end put to death, Isaiah says thus : 
Behold, my son shall understand?- and shall be Isa. ii. 
exalted and glorified greatly. Even as many shall I3 ' 
be astonished at thee, so without glory shall thy form 
be from men. And many races shall be astonished, 
and kings shall shut their mouths : for they to whom 
it was not declared concerning him shall see, and they 
who have not heard shall consider. Lord, who hath 
believed our report ? and to whom hath the arm of the 
Lord been revealed ? We declared before him as a 
child, as a root in a dry ground : and there is to him 
no form nor glory : and we saw him, and he had no 
form nor beauty : and his form ivas without honour 
meaner than that of other men : a man in chastise- 
ment, and acquainted with the bearing of pain ; for 
his face was turned away, he was dishonoured and 
made of no account. He beareth our sins, and for 
our sakes endureth pain : and we accounted him to . 
be in pain and chastisement and affliction. But he 
was wounded for our iniquities, and was tormented 
for our sins. The discipline of our peace (was) upon 
him ; by his stripes, we were healed. By these 
words it is declared that He was tormented ; as 
also David says : And I was tormented?' Now 

1 The Arm. text gives the passive ("be understood ") ; but doubt- 
less the LXX ffvvT)ffei was read : the difference is only in the final 

2 The repetition in the Arm. of the word here rendered "tor- 
mented " suggests that the same Greek verb would underlie the 
words of the prophet (" was tormented for our sins") and of the 
psalmist ("And I was tormented"). But in the former case we 
and ^ejuaXa/atTTcu, and this verb does not occur in the LXX of the 


David was never tormented, but Christ (was), when 
the command was given that He should be cruci- 

Isa. I. 6. fied. And again by Isaiah His Word says : I gave 
my back to scourging, and my cheeks to smiting: and 
my face I turned not away from the shame of spit- 
ting^ And Jeremiah the prophet says the same, 

Lam. iii. thus : He shall give his cheek to the smiter : he 
shall be filled with reproaches. All these things 
Christ suffered. 

Isa. liii, 69. Now what follows in Isaiah is this : By 

5 f ' his stripes we ivere healed. All we like sheep 

went astray : a man in his way went astray : and 
the Lord delivered him. up to oitr sins. It is mani- 
fest therefore that by the will of the Father 
these things occurred to Him for the sake of 

Isa. liii. 7. our salvation. Then he says : And he by reason 
of his suffering opened not (his) mouth : as a sheep to 
the slaughter was he brought \ as a lamb 2 dumb before 
the shearer. Behold how he declares His voluntary 

Isa. liii. 8. coming to death. And when the prophet says : In 
the humiliation his judgment was taken away t he 
signifies the appearance of His humiliation : accord- 
ing tcr the form of the abasement was the taking 
away of judgment. And the taking away of 
judgment is for some unto salvation, and to some 
unto the torments of perdition. For there is a 
taking away for a person, and also from a person. 

Psalms. Probably the reference is to Ps. xxxviii. 8 (9), 
taking up ev Ko/c&><rei and /ce/ca/c<S<r0cu of Isa. liii. 4, 7. For the 
argument cf. Just. M. Ap. I, 35 : 6 /j.v AauetS . . . ouSei/ rovTwv 
ZiraOev; /f.T.A. 

1 Cf. C. 34. 

2 The Arm. word for "lamb" in this place (amaru] seems to be 
a Syriac loan-word : see the note in Dr. Weber's translation. 


So also with the judgment those for whom it is 
taken away have it unto the torments of their 
perdition : but those from whom it is taken away 
are saved by it. Now those took away to them- 
selves the judgment who crucified Him, and when 
they had done this to Him believed not on Him : for 
through that judgment which was taken away by 
them they shall be destroyed with torments. And 
from them that believe on Him the judgment is 
taken away, and they are no longer under it. And 
the judgment is that which by fire will be the 
destruction of the unbelievers at the end of the 

70. Then he says : His generation who shall Isa. liii. 8. 
declare ? This was said to warn us, lest on account 

of His enemies and the outrage of His sufferings 
we should despise Him as a mean and contemptible 
man. For He who endured all this has an un- 
declarable generation ; x for by generation He 
means descent ; (for) He who is. His Father is 
undeclarable and unspeakable. Know therefore 
that such descent was His who endured these 
sufferings ; and despise Him not because of the 
sufferings which for thy sake He of purpose endured, 
but fear Him because of His descent. 

71. And in another place Jeremiah says: The Lam. iv. 
Spirit of our face, the Lord Christ ; 2 and how He 20< 
was taken in their snares, of whom we said, Under 

his shadow we shall live among the Gentiles. That, 
being (the) Spirit of God, Christ was to become a 

1 IV, lv. 2 : " et inenarrabile habet genus." Cf. Just. M. Ap. I, 
51 : b Tavra Trdcrxw avfKSi-fiyrirov fxet rb yevos : Dial. 43 and 76. 

2 III, xi. 2: " Spiritus enim inquit faciei nostr<z Christus 
Domimis." See for this whole passage Introd. p. 63. 


suffering man the Scripture declares ; and is, as 
it were, amazed and astonished at His sufferings, 
that in such manner He was to endure sufferings, 
under whose shadow we said that we should live. 
And by shadow he means His body. 1 For just 
as a shadow is made by a body, so also Christ's 
body was made by His Spirit. 2 But, further, the 
humiliation and contemptibility of His body he 
indicates by the shadow. For, as the shadow of 
bodies standing upright is upon the ground and 
is trodden upon, so also the body of Christ fell 
upon the ground by His sufferings and was 
trodden on indeed. And he named Christ's body 
a shadow, because the Spirit overshadowed it, 
as it were, with glory and covered it. 8 Moreover 
oftentimes when the Lord passed by, they laid 
those who were held by divers diseases in the 
way, and on whomsoever His shadow fell, they 
were healed. 4 

Isa. ivii. 72. And again the same prophet (says) thus 
concerning the sufferings of Christ : Behold how 
the righteous is destroyed, and no man layeth it to 
heart ; and righteous men are taken away, and no 
man understandeth. For from the face of iniquity 
is the taking away of the righteous : peace shall be 
his burial, he hath been taken away from the midst. 
And who else is perfectly righteous, but the Son of 
God, who makes righteous and perfects them that 
believe on Him, who like unto Him are persecuted 

1 Or " flesh," as elsewhere. 

2 Cf. c. 59, ad -fin. 

3 The words appear to mean literally : "the Spirit becoming as 
it were a shadow with glory and covering it (or him)." 

4 This is said of St Peter in Acts v. 15. 


and put to death ? l But in saying : Peace shall be 
his burial, he declares how on account of our 
redemption He died : for it is in the peace of 
redemption : and (also he declares) that by His 
death those who aforetime were enemies and 
opposed to one another, believing with one accord 
upon Him, should have peace with one another, 
becoming friends and beloved on account of their 
common faith in Him ; as indeed they have be- 
come. But in saying : He hath been taken away 
from the midst, he signifies His resurrection from 
the dead. Moreover because He appeared no 
more after His death and burial, the prophet 
declares that after dying and rising again He was 
to remain immortal, (saying) thus : He asked life, p s . xxi. 
and thou gavest (it) him, and length of days for 4- 
ever and ever. Now what is this that he says, 
He asked life, since He was about to die? He 
proclaims His resurrection from the dead, and that 
being raised from the dead He is immortal. For 
He received both life, that He should rise, and 
length of days for ever and ever, that He should 
be incorruptible. 

73. And again David says thus concerning the 
death and resurrection of Christ : / laid me down Ps. iii. 5. 
and slept: I awaked, for the Lord received me. 21 
David said not this of himself, for he was not 
raised after death : but the Spirit of Christ, who 
(spake) also in other prophets concerning Him, 
says here by David : / laid me down and slept : I 

1 The same point about "the Just" and "just men" is made 
by Justin (Ap. i, 48 ; Dial. no). 

2 Cf. IV, xlviii. 2 ; Iv. 4. 


awaked, for the Lord received me. By sleep he 
means death ; for He arose again. 

74. And again David (says) thus concerning the 
Ps. ii. i f. sufferings of Christ : Why did the Gentiles rage, 

and the people imagine vain things ? Kings rose 

up on the earth, and princes were gathered together, 

Cf. Acts against the Lord and his Anointed. For Herod 

iv. 25 ff. the kmg . of the j ews and p ontius palate, the 

governor of Claudius Caesar, 1 came together and 
condemned Him to be crucified. For Herod 
feared, as though He were to be an earthly king } 
lest he should be expelled by Him from the 
kingdom. But Pilate was constrained by Herod 
and the Jews that were with him against his will 
to deliver Him to death : (for they threatened 
him) if he should not rather do this 2 than act 
contrary to Caesar, by letting go a man who was 
called a king. 

75. And further concerning the sufferings of 
Ps. Christ the same prophet says : Thou hast repelled 

and despised us ; and hast cast away thine Anointed. 
Thou hast broken the covenant of my z servant ; 
thou hast cast his holiness to the ground. Thou 
hast overthrown all his hedges ; thou hast made his 

1 Pilate was procurator of Judaea for ten years (27-37). Claudius 
did not become emperor until A.D. 42. The statement here made 
is therefore inconsistent with the chronology of history : but it 
agrees with the view, expressed in II, xxxiii. 2ff., that our Lord 
reached cetatem seniorem, that is, an age between 40 and 50 : a 
view which is largely based on John viii. 57 : "Thou art not yet 
fifty years old, and hast thou seen Abraham ? " For these words 
seemed to Irenreus to show that He could not have been much less 
than fifty at the time when they were spoken. See C. H. Turner's 
art. " Chronology" in Hastings' Diet, of the Bible. 

2 The Armenian is here uncertain. 

3 Cf. c. 64 for a similar oversight. 


strongholds to tremble}- They that pass on the way 
have ravaged him; he is become a reproach to his 
neighbours. Thou hast exalted the right hand of his 
oppressors ; tkou hast made his enemies to rejoice 
over him. Thou hast turned away the help of his 
sword, andgavest him not a hand in the battle. Thou 
hast removed and thrown him down from purifica- 
tion ; thou kast overturned his throne upon the ground. 
Thou hast shortened the days of his time, and hast 
poured forth shame upon him. That He should 
endure these things, and that too by the will of 
the Father, he manifestly declared : for by the will 
of the Father He was to endure sufferings. 

76. And Zechariah says thus : Sword, awake Zech. xiii. 
against my shepherd, and against the man (that is] 7 ' 

my companion. Smite 2 the shepherd, and the sheep 
of the flock shall be scattered. And this came to 
pass when He was taken by the Jews : for all the 
disciples forsook Him, fearing lest they should die 
with Him. For not yet did they stedfastly believe 
on Him, until they had seen Him risen from the 

77. Again He says in the Twelve Prophets : 3 

And they bound him and brought him as a present Hos. x. 6. 
to the king. For Pontius Pilate was governor of 
Judaea, and he had at that time resentful enmity 
against Herod the king of the Jews. 4 But then, 
when Christ was brought to him bound, Pilate sent 

1 Lit. "for trembling." 

2 "Smite" is in the singular, as in cod. A of the LXX, which 
is here followed. 

3 Cf. c. 93, and IV, xxix. 5 ; "in duodecim prophetis Malachias." 
Often in Justin. 

4 The same interpretation is given by Justin {Dial. 103). 



Him to Herod, giving command to enquire of him, 
that he might know of a certainty what he should 
desire concerning Him ; making Christ a con- 
venient occasion of reconciliation with the king. 

78. And in Jeremiah He thus declares His 
death and descent into hell, saying : And the Lord 
the Holy One of Israel^ remembered his dead, which 
aforetime fell asleep in the dust of the earth ; and he 
went down unto them, to bring the tidings of his 
salvation, to deliver them}- In this place He also 
renders the cause of His death : for His descent 
into hell was the salvation of them that had passed 

79. And, again, concerning His cross Isaiah says 
Tsa. Ixv. thus : / have stretched out my hands all the day long 
2 - to a disobedient and gainsaying people. For this is 

an indication of the cross. 2 And yet more mani- 
Ps. xxii. festly David says : Hunting-dogs encompassed me : 3 
l6 - the assembly of evil-doers came about me. They 

pierced my hands and my feet. And again he says : 

Ps. xxii. My heart became even as wax melting in the midst 
14, 17. 

1 This is one of the prophecies which Justin declared the Jews 
had erased from their Scriptures {Dial. 72). It is quoted several 
times by Irenseus : III, xxii. I (as from Isaiah) ; IV, xxxvi. I (as 
from Jeremiah, to whom Justin had attributed it) ; 1. I (an allusion 
only); Iv. 3 ("alii autem dicentes: Rememoratus . . . causam 
reddiderunt propter quam passus est hsec oninia") ; V, xxxi. I 
(with variations, and no name of author). 

2 Cf. c. 46 : Barn. XII. 4: Just. M. Ap. I, 35. 

3 Justin (Dial. 104) quotes the passage with KVVCS' (as 
LXX), but in his comment says : obs Kal itvvas KoAet /coi Kwyyots. 
Jerome, in his Psalter translated from the Hebrew, has " venatores," 
apparently after Symmachus or Theodotion (see Field, Origenis 
Hexapla, ad. loc.). The Arm. is literally "dogs hunter"; but 
"hunter" is used adjectivally, and the two words signify "hounds." 
Why woAAo/ should have disappeared and "hunter" have taken its 
place does not seem to be explained by these curious parallels. 


of my body ;^ and they put asunder* my bones, and 
again he says : Spare my soul from the sword and'??,, xxii. 
nail my flesh : for the assembly of evil-doers hath ^ . c ^: 
risen up against me? In these words with mani- 16. 
fest clearness he signifies that He should be 
crucified. And Moses says this same thing to the 
people, thus : A nd thy life shall be hanged up before Deut. 
thine eyes, and thou s halt fear by day and by night > xxvm - 66 - 
and tjiou shalt not believe in thy life. 

80. And again David says : They looked upon me, Ps. xxii. 
they parted my garments among them, and upon my ^ ' 
vesture they cast lots. For at His crucifixion the 
soldiers parted His garments as they were wont ; 

and the garments they parted by tearing ; but for Cf. John 
the vesture, because it was woven from the top and X1X ' 23 ' 
was not sewn, they cast lots, that to whomsoever it 
should fall he should take it. 

8 1. And again Jeremiah the prophet says: A nd Matt 
they took the thirty pieces of silver, the price of him j^JJ' xi* 
that was sold, whom they bought from the children 13)- 

of Israel ; and they gave them for the potter's field, 

as the Lord commanded me. For Judas, being one 

of Christ's disciples, agreed with the Jews and 

covenanted with them, when he saw they desired 

to kill Him, because he had been reproved by Him ' 

and he took the thirty staters 4 of the province, and cf. Matt. 

betrayed Christ unto them : and then, repenting of XXVK J 5- 

1 Lit. Koi\las. 

z Or " they sent far" : apparently for e'l^pi^Tjo-av of Ps. xxii. 17. 

3 " Nail my flesh " comes from the LXX. of Ps. cxix. 120, where 
A. V. has " My flesh trembleth for fear of thee." Cf. Barn. V, 13 : 
Qelffai /JLOV rrjs i^uxfjs a7rb po/j.<paias teal K.aQ-i)Xwar6v ftov ras (rdpicas, 
on irovripevo/jLevcav awaryciiyal eTravfffrrjffdv fiot. 

4 In Matt. xxvi. 15 Cod. Bezae and some other authorities have 
rrrarripas for dpyvpia. 


what he had done, he gave the silver back again to 
the rulers of the Jews, and hanged himself. But 
they, thinking it not right to cast it into their 
treasury, because it was the price of blood, bought 
with it the ground that was a certain potter's for 
the burial of strangers. 

Cf. Matt. 82. And at His crucifixion, when He asked a 
** h vll x .34- drink, they gave Him to drink vinegar mingled 
29. with gall. And this was declared through David : 

Ps. ixix. They gave gall to my meat, and in my thirst they 
gave me vinegar to drink} 

83. And that, being raised from the dead, He 

Ps. Ixviii. was to ascend into heaven, David says thus : The 

17 ' chariot of God (is) ten-thousandfold, thousands are 

the drivers : 2 the Lord (is) among them in Sinai in 

Eph. iv. 8. (his) sanctuary. He ascended up on high, he led 

captivity captive : he received, he gave gifts to men- 

And by captivity he means the destruction of the 

rule of the apostate angels. 3 He declares also the 

place where He was to ascend into heaven from 

the earth. For the Lord, he says, from Sion 

ascended up on high.^ For over against Jerusalem, 

1 The Arm. probably represents 'Ev 8e T< (rravpa^vai avr6v. 
The oos /xT& x^ s ft*/wyM<fw in Matt, xxvii. 34 (oos A etc. ; 
dlvov XBD etc.) was before crucifixion, when "He would not 
drink." " When He asked a drink " on the cross (Joh. xix. 29), 
they gave Him o|os: but some MSS. add //era x o ^ s - Cf. Barn. 
VII, 3, 5 ; Ev. Petr. 5. 

2 As though reading svQvvovriov (as some MSS. of LXX) for 
fvBijvovfrcav : so too in the Arm. Psalter, which in the next verse 
has after " captive " : " He received booty, he distributed gifts, and 
gave to the sons of men." It is possible therefore that here "he 
received, he gave " is a reminiscence of his own Psalter on the part 
of the translator. 

3 Just. M. Dial. 39 : irpoetfujTevQr) aiX^^-WTeOtTat avrbv TJ/HUS airb 
rrjs Tr\di/r)s /cal SoDfai TJ/JUV Sahara. 

4 This is not a fresh quotation, but part of the comment on the 
passage before quoted : "The Lord ... in Sinai in his sanctuary : 


on the mount which is called (the Mount) of 
Olives, after He was risen from the dead, He 
assembled His disciples, and expounded to them 
the things concerning the kingdom of heaven ; 
and they saw that He ascended, and they saw how 
the heavens were opened and received Him. 

84. And the same jays David again : Lift up p s . xxiv. 
your gates, ye rulers ; and be ye lift up, ye everlasting 7< 
gates, and the King of glory shall come in. For the 
everlasting gates are the heavens. But because 

the Word descended invisible to created things, He 

was not made known in His descent to them. 

Because the Word was made flesh, He was visible 

in His ascension ; and, when the powers saw Him, 

the angels below cried out to those who were on 

the firmament: Lift up your gates; and be ye lift up, 

ye everlasting gates, that the King of glory may come 

in. And when they marvelled and said : Who is p s . xxiv. 

this ? those who had already seen Him testified a 8 ff - 

second time : The Lord strong and mighty, he is the 

King of glory }- 

85. And being raised from the dead and exalted 
at the Father's right hand, He awaits the time 
appointed by the Father for the judgment, when 
all enemies shall be put under Him. Now the 
enemies are all those who were found in apostasy, 
angels and archangels and powers and thrones, 
who despised the truth. And the prophet David 

he ascended upon high." Irenieus seems to have taken it as 
though it were " in Sion in his sanctuary." 

1 Justin's interpretation (Dial. 36) makes the humble form of 
our Lord's humanity (oetSr/s /cal O.TL/U.OS) the reason why He is not at 
once recognized. The interpretation given by Irenceus corresponds 
to that of the Ascension of Isaiah : see Introd. p. 43. 


Ts. ex, i. himself says thus : The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit 
on my right hand> until I make thine enemies thy 
footstool. And that He ascended thither, whence 

Ps. xix. 6. He had come down, David says : From the end 
of heaven is his going forth, and his cessation even at 
the end of heaven. Then he signifies his judgment : 
A nd there is none that shall be hid from his heatl 

86. If then the prophets prophesied that the Son 
of God was to appear upon the earth, and 
prophesied also where on the earth and how and in 
what manner He should make known His appear- 
ance, and all these prophecies the Lord took upon 
Himself; our faith in Him was well-founded, and 
the tradition of the preaching (is) true : that is to 
say, the testimony of the apostles, who being sent 
forth by the Lord preached in all the world the 
Son of God, who came to suffer, and endured 
to the destruction of death and the quickening of 
the flesh : that by the putting away of the enmity 
towards God, which is unrighteousness, we should 
obtain peace with Him, doing that which is 
pleasing to Him. And this was declared by the 
Rom. x. prophets in the words : How beautiful are the feet 

15 (Isa. O j: them that bring tidings of peace, and of them that 
bring tidings ef good things? 1 And that these were 
to go forth from Judaea and from Jerusalem, 
to declare to us the word of God, which is the law 3 

Isa. ii. 3. for us, Isaiah says thus : For from Sion shall come 

1 The same interpretation in IV, Iv. 4 : " quoniam illuc assumptus 
est unde et descendit, et non est qui justum judicium ejus effugiat." 

2 Quoted with a small difference in III, xiii. i. 

3 See the comment on the same text in IV, Ivi. 3 f. : " Si autem 
libertatis lex, id est, verbum Dei ab apostolis qui ab Hierusalem 
exierunt annuntiatum," etc. 


forth the law, and the word of the Lord from 
Jerusalem. And that in all the earth they were to 
preach, David says : Into all the earth went forth PS. xix. 4. 
their speech, and their words to the ends of the 

87. And that not by the much-speaking of the Cf. Matt, 
law, but by the brevity of faith and love, men were vl> 7> 

to be saved, Isaiah says thus : A ivord brief and Rom. ix. 
short in righteousness : for a short word will God*. 22*!). 
make in the whole world. And therefore the 
apostle Paul says : Love is the fulfilling of the law : Rom. xiii. 
for he who loves God has fulfilled the law. More- Ic 
over the Lord, when He was asked which is the 
first commandment, said : Thou shalt love the Lord Matt. 
thy God with all . thy heart and with all thy Marie xii. 
strength}- And tJie second is like unto it: Thou 3f- 
shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. On these two 
commandments, He says, all the law hangeth and 
the prophets. So then by our faith in Him He 
has made our love to God and our neighbour to 
grow, making us godly and righteous and good. 
And therefore a short word has God made on the 
earth in the world. 

88. And that after His ascension He was to be 
exalted above all, and that there shall be none 
to be compared and equalled unto Him, Isaiah 

says thus : 2 Who is he that entereth into judgment isa. 1. 8 f.; 
(with me] ? Let him stand up against (me). And 11 ' I7 ' 

1 For the abbreviation of the " First Commandment " cf. Just. M. 
Dial. 93. 

2 Almost the same comment is found in IV, Iv. 4, where the 
same combination of texts is made : " Quisquisjudicatur, ex adverse 
adstet ; et quisquis justificatur, appropinquet puero Dei (Arm. 
Domini) ; et vje vobis ... in altissimis." 


who is he who is justified ? Let him draw near to 
the Lord's Son. Woe unto you, for ye shall grow old 
as a garment, and the moth shall devour you. And 
all flesh shall be humbled and abased, and the Lord 
alone shall be exalted in the highest. And that 
in the end by His name they should be saved who 

Isa. Ixv. served God, Isaiah says : And on those who serve me 
a new name shall be called, which shall be blessed 
upon the earth: and they shall bless the true God. 
And that this blessing He Himself should bring 
about, and Himself should redeem us by His 

Isa. Ixiii. own blood, Isaiah declared, saying : No mediator, 

9 ' no angel, but the Lord himself saved them ; because 

he loved them and spared them : he himself redeemed 

89. That He would not send back the redeemed 
to the legislation of Moses for the law was fulfilled 
in Christ but would have them live 2 in newness 
by the Word, through faith in the Son of God 

Isa. xliii. and love, Isaiah declared, saying : Remember not the 
former things, nor bring to mind the things that 
were in the beginning. Behold I make new (things) > 
which shall now spring up, and ye shall know 
(them}. And I will make in tJie wilderness a way, 
and in the waterless place streams, to give drink to 
my chosen race, and to my people whom I have 
purchased to declare my virtues? Now a wilderness 
and a waterless place was at first the calling of the 
Gentiles : for the Word had not passed through 

1 Cf. 0.94. In III, xxii. i we have ; " Neque senior ( 
LXX) neque angelus." 

2 The word means more especially " to live in freedom." 

3 Quoted in IV, Iv. 5, with a brief comment, 


them, 1 nor given them the Holy Spirit to drink ; 2 
who fashioned the new way of godliness and 
righteousness, and made copious streams to spring 
forth, disseminating over the earth the Holy 
Spirit ; even as it had been promised through the 
prophets, that in the end of the days He should 
pour out the Spirit upon the face of the earth. 

90. Therefore by newness of the spirit is our Cf. Rom. 
calling, and not in the oldness of the letter ; 3 even V11< 6 * 
as Jeremiah prophesied : Behold the days come, Jer. xxxi. 
saith the Lord, that 1 will accomplish for the house Heb.'viii 
of Israel and for the house of Judah the covenant 8 ff. 
of the testament 1 ^ which I covenanted with their 
fathers, in the day when I took them by the hand to 
lead them out of the land of Egypt : because they 
continued not in the covenant, and I regarded them 
not, saith the Lord. For this is the covenant of the 
testament that I will covenant with the house of 
Israel after those days, saith the Lord : I will put 
my laivs 5 into their minds, and write them in their 
hearts ; and I will be to them a God, and they 
shall be to me a people : and they shall not teach any 
more every man his neighbour, and every man 
his brother, saying, Know the Lord: for all shall 

1 IV, xxv. 2. : " per omnes illos transiens Verbum," in connexion 
with " the voice of many waters." 

2 The Greek doubtless was : ouSe irvfv/j.a ayiov eVJ-rterei/ avrovs : 
and the context shows that Trvev/j.0. must be taken as accusative. 
For the general thought of the passage cf. Ill, xviii. I f. 

3 I have followed the simple emendation suggested by the 
editors: the printed text has " not in our oldness." 

4 After ia()T)KT]v the words Kaiv4\v, ov Kara rrjv Siafl^j/ojv must 
have been missed by the scribe or translator. "The covenant 
of the testament " is only a double rendering of tiiad-nK-nv : such 
double renderings occur several times in this quotation, but I have 
not retained them in every case. 

5 Lit. " giving my la\\s "; cf. Heb. viii. 10. 


know me, from the least to the greatest of them. 
For I will pardon and be merciful unto the sins 
of their iniquities, and their sins will I remember 
no more. 

91. And that these promises the calling from 
among the Gentiles should inherit, to whom also 
the new testament was opened up, 1 Isaiah says 

Isa. xvii. thus : These things saith the God of Israel: In that 
17 ' day a man shall trust* 1 in his Maker, and his eyes 
shall look to the Holy One of Israel: and they shall 
not trust in altars, nor in the work of their own 
hands, which their fingers have made. For very 
plainly this was said of such as have forsaken idols 
and believed in God our Maker through the 
Holy One of Israel. And the Holy One of 
Israel is Christ : and He became visible to men, 
and to Him we look eagerly and behold Him ; 
and we trust not in altars, nor in the works of 
our hands. 

92. And that He should become visible 3 amongst 
us for the Son of God became Son of man and 
be found of us who before had no knowledge (of 

Isa. ixv. Him), the Word Himself says thus in Isaiah : / 

* became manifest to them that sought me not ; I was 

found of them that asked not for me. I said, 

Behold, here am I, to a race that called not on my 


93. And that this race was to become an holy 
people was declared in the Twelve Prophets 4 by 

Rom. ix. Hosea, thus : / will call that which was not (my] 

25 f. (Hos. 

ii. 23, i. * Cf. c. 8, and note there. 

10). z Or " hope " : and so twice below. 

3 Or " manifest," as in the quotation below. 

4 Cf. c. 77. For the quotation cf. I, iv. I ; IV, xxxiv. 12. 


people, my people ; and her that was not beloved, 
beloved. It shall come to pass that in the place 
where it was called not my people, there shall they be 
called sons of the Living God. This also is that 
which was said by John the Baptist : That God Matt. ill. 
is able of these stones to raise up sons to Abraham. 9 ' 
For our hearts being withdrawn and taken away 
from the stony worship * by means of faith behold 
God, and become sons of Abraham, who was 
justified by faith. And therefore God says by 
Ezekiel the prophet : And I will give them another Ezek. xi, 
heart, and a new spirit will I give them : and I will I9 f * 
withdraw and take away the stony heart from their 
flesh, and I will give them another heart of flesh: 
so that they shall walk in my precepts, and shall 
keep my ordinances and do them. And they shall 
be to me for a people, and I will be to them for a God. 
94. So then by the new calling a change of 
hearts in the Gentiles came to pass through the 
Word of God, when He was made flesh and taber- 
nacled with men ; as also His disciple John says : 
And his Word was made flesh and dwelt among Johni. i 
us. Wherefore the Church beareth much fruit of 
the redeemed : because no longer Moses (as) 
mediator nor Elijah (as) messenger, 2 but the Lord 
Himself has redeemed us, granting many more 
children to the Church than to the first Synagogue ; 3 

1 IV, xiii. I : " a lapidum religione extrahens nos." 

2 Rendering the Greek 776 \os. Cf. c. 88. 

3 Both the German translations take the passage to mean: 
"granting many children to the Church, the assembly of the first- 
born." But it is hard to get this out of the Armenian text, which 
has "first" and not "first-born." It seems certain that there 
is a contrast between "the Church" and " the first Synagogue " 
(whose husband was the Law, as is said below). The text can 


Isa. liv. i ; as Isaiah declared, saying : Rejoice thou barren, 
2 7 * ' that didst not bear. The barren is the Church, 

which never at all in former times presented sons 
to God. Cry out and call, thou that didst not 
travail: for the children of the desolate are more than 
of her which hath an husband. Now the first 
Synagogue had as husband the Law. 

95. Moreover Moses in Deuteronomy says that 
Cf. Deut. the Gentiles should be the head, and the unbelieving 
Deut! 44 ' P eo pl e the tail. And again he says : Ye provoked 
xxxii. 21 ; me to jealousy with those that are no gods, and 
19. angered me with your idols : and I will provoke you 

to jealousy with that which is no nation, and with 
a foolish nation will I anger you. Because they 
forsook the God who is, and worshipped and served 
the gods who are not ; and they slew the prophets 
Cf. Jer. ii. of God, and prophesied for Baal, who was the idol 
of the Canaanites. And the Son of God, who 
is, x they despised and condemned, but they chose 
Barabbas the robber who had been taken for 
murder : and the eternal King 2 they disavowed, 
and they acknowledged as their king the temporal 
Caesar. (So) it pleased God to grant their 
inheritance to the foolish Gentiles, even to those 
who were not of the polity of God and knew not 
what God is. Since, then, by this calling life has 
been given (us), and God has summed up again 
for Himself in us the faith of Abraham, we ought 

easily be amended so as to give the meaning required. Cf. IV, 
xlviii. i. f : "duaesynagog3e...fructificantes...filios vivos vivo Deo " ; 
III, vi. i: " Ecclesia, hsec enim est synagoga Dei." For the 
quotation and its interpretation cf. Just. M. Ap. I, 53. 

1 In the Arm. "who is" refers to "the Son," 

2 Cf. 36, 56, 66. 


not to turn back any more I mean, to the first 
legislation. For we have received the Lord of the 
Law, the Son of God ; and by faith in Him we 
learn to love God with all our heart, and our 
neighbour as ourselves. Now the love of God is 
far from all sin, 1 and love to the neighbour worketh Cf. Rom 
no ill to the neighbour. xiii * Ia 

96. Wherefore also we need not the Law as a 
tutor. Behold, with the Father we speak, and in 
His presence we stand, being children in malice? ^ Cor 
and grown strong in all righteousness and sober- xiv. 20. 
ness. For no longer shall the Law say, Do not Ex 
commit adultery, to him who has no desire at all 13 k; 
for another's wife ; and Thou shalt not kill, to him R 6 ^' v * 
who has put away from himself all anger and 
enmity ; (and) Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour s 
field or ox or ass, to those who have no care at all 
for earthly things, but store up the heavenly fruits : 
nor An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth, to EX. xxi. 
him who counts no man his enemy, but all men 2 4- 
his neighbours, and therefore cannot stretch out 
his hand at all for vengeance. It will not require 
tithes of him who consecrates all his possessions to 
God, 3 leaving father and mother and all his kindred, 
and following the Word of God. And there will 
be no command to remain idle for one day of rest, 
to him who perpetually keeps sabbath, 4 that is to 

1 Dr Rendel Harris ( Testimonies I, 66) has pointed out that this 
is a reminiscence of Polycarp, Ep. ad Phil. 3 ; 'O 70^ e^wv ayairyv 
fj.a.Kpdv effriv]S apapTias- 2 Cf. c. 46. 

8 IV, xxxi. I : " illi quidem decimas suorum habebant consecratas : 
qui autem perceperunt libertatem, omnia quse sunt ipsorum ad 
dominicos decernunt usus." 

4 Just. M. Dial. 12 : ffaPftarifciv v/ 6 itaivbs v6/j.os 5ta iravrbs 
9eA.6{, /cal u/uets ptav apyovvres 7]/J.epav evffe&e'iv So/fetYe. 


say, who in the temple of God, which is man's body, 

does service to God, and in every hour works 

Hos. vi. righteousness. For I desire mercy^ He saith, and 

not sacrifice ; and the knowledge of God more than 

Isa. Ixvi. burnt offerings. Btit the wicked that sacrificeth to me 

a calf is as if he should kill a dog; and that offereth 

Joel ii. fine flour \ as though (he offered} swine's blood. But 

whosoever shall call on the name of the Lord shall 

Cf. Acts be saved. And there is none other name of the 

Lord given under heaven whereby men are saved, 

save that of God, which is Jesus Christ the Son of 

God, to which also the demons are subject and 

evil spirits and all apostate energies. 

97. By the invocation of the name of Jesus 
Christ, crucified under Pontius Pilate, 1 there is a 
separation and division among mankind ; and 
wheresoever any of those who believe on Him 
shall invoke and call upon Him and do His will } 
He is near and present, fulfilling the requests of 
those who with pure hearts call upon Him. 
Whereby receiving salvation, we continually give 
thanks to God, ,who by His great, inscrutable and 
unsearchable wisdom delivered us, and proclaimed 
the salvation from heaven to wit, the visible 
coming of our Lord, that is, His living as man 2 
Luke to which we by ourselves could not attain : for the 
xvni. 27. fhings w hi cn are impossible with men are possible 
with God? Wherefore also Jeremiah saith con- 
Bar, iii. cerning her (i.e. wisdom): Who hath gone lip into 

1 II, xlix. 3 : 'Ev T< ov6/ '\f\ffov Xpiffrov, rov ffTavpooOevros eVt ' 
Uovriov neiAarov. Cf. Just. M. Ap. ii.,6, Dial. 30, 76, 85. These 
words should be taken with c. 96 : see Add. Note on p. 151. 

" Suggesting the Greek rfy avOpcairi^v avrov TroXireiav. 

3 So quoted in IV, xxxiv. 5. 


heaven, and taken her, and brought her down from 
the clouds ? Who hath gone over the sea, found her, 
and will bring her for choice gold ? There is none 
that hath found her way, nor any that comprehendeth 
her path. But he that knoweth all things knoweth her 
by his understanding: he that prepareth the earth 
for evermore, hath filled it with four-footed beasts .- 1 
he that sendeth forth the light and it goeth ; he called 
it, and it obeyed him with fear : and the stars shined 
in their watches, and were glad : he called them, and 
they said Here we be ; they shined with gladness 
unto him that made them. This is our God: there 
shall none other be accounted of in comparison with 
him. He hath found out every way by knowledge, 
and hath given it unto Jacob his servant, and to 
Israel that is beloved of him. Afterward did he 
appear upon earth, and was conversant with men. 
This is the book of the commandments of God, and 
of the law which endureth for ever. All they that 
hold it fast (are appointed] to life : but such as leave 
it shall die. Now by Jacob and Israel he means 
the Son of God, who received power from the 
Father over our life, and after having received this 
brought it down to us who were far off from Him, 
when He appeared on earth and was conversant with 
men, mingling and mixing 2 the Spirit of God the 

1 The Arm. for "beasts" (/cTajj/oh/) is here "fat (things)." 

2 With the whole of this passage compare IV, xxxiv. 4 fif., 
especially the words " pnedicaverunt ejus secundum carnem adven- 
tum, per quern commixtio et communio Dei et hominis secundum 
placitum Patrisfacta est ; ab initio praenuntiante Verbo Deiquoniam 
vidcbitur Deus ab hominibus et conversabitur cum eis super terrain 
et colloqueretur et adfuturus esset suo plasmati " ; and " pnesignifi- 
cabant igitur prophetoe quoniam videbitur Deus ab hominibus," words 
which come again a little further on. 


Father with the creature formed by God, 1 that 
man might be after the image and likeness of God. 2 

98. This, beloved, is the preaching of the truth, 
and this is the manner of our redemption, and this 
is the way of life, which the prophets proclaimed, 
and Christ established, and the apostles delivered, 
and the Church in all the world hands on to her 
children. 3 This must we keep with all certainty, 
with a sound will and pleasing to God, with good 
works and right-willed disposition. 

99. So that none should imagine God the Father 
to be other than our Creator, as the heretics 
imagine ; (for) they despise the God who is, and 
make gods of that which 'is not ; and they fashion a 
Father of their own above our Creator, and imagine 
that they have found out for themselves something 
greater than the truth. For all these are impious 
and blasphemers against their Creator and against 
the Father, as we have shown in the Exposure 
and Overthrow of Knowledge falsely so-called. And 
others again reject the coming of the Son of God 
and the dispensation of His incarnation, which 
the apostles delivered and the prophets declared 
beforehand, even such as should be the summing 
up of mankind, as we have shown you in brief: 
and such also are reckoned amongst those who 
are lacking in faith. And others receive not the 
gifts of the Holy Spirit, and cast away from them- 

1 Lit. " with the formation (plasma) of God." 

2 Cf. c. 32: V, i. 3, ii. I, xxxvi. i, and elsewhere. 

3 The same language is found in the preface to Bk. V : " quod 
prophetae quidem prceconaverunt . . . perfecit autem Christus, 
apostoli vero tradiderunt, a quibus ecclesia accipiens, per universum 
mundum sola bene custodiens, tradidit filiis suis : " and similar II. xlvii. 2. 


selves the prophetic grace, 1 watered whereby man 
bears the fruit of life unto God : and these are they 
of whom Isaiah speaks : For they shall be, saith he, isa. i. 30. 
as an oak that is stripped of leaves, and as a garden 
that hath no water. And such are in no wise 
serviceable to God, seeing that they cannot bear 
any fruit. 

100. So then in respect of the three points 2 of 
our seal error has strayed widely from the truth. 
For either they reject the Father, or they accept 
not the Son and speak against the dispensation of 
His incarnation ; or else they receive not the 
Spirit, that is, they reject prophecy. And of all 
such must we beware, and shun their ways, if in 
very truth we desire to be well-pleasing to God 
and to attain the redemption that is from Him. 

1 III, xi. 12 : "propheticam vero gratiam repellunt ab ecclesia." 

2 Lit. "heads": cf. cc. 6 f . 

ADDITIONAL NOTE. A new instalment has now appeared of the 
Patrologia Orientalis (XII. 5 : Paris, 1919), containing a reprint of 
the Armenian text, with a translation into English by the discoverer, 
Ter-Mekerttschian, and Dr S. G. Wilson. This is followed by a 
much more accurate translation into French by the late Pere 
Barthoulout, S.J., formerly a missionary in Armenia. Among 
other valuable notes he points out that the opening words of c. 97 
have been wrongly separated from the preceding chapter. The next 
sentence would then appear to mean : " He is separated and with- 
drawn from among men, and (yet) wheresoever," etc. 

On p. 78, n. 5. Compare the fragment attributed to Victorinus 
of Pettau, printed by Routh, RelL III, 458 : " Summum ergo 
ccelum sapientke," etc. The common source maybe "the Elders" 
or Papias. 


An asterisk (*) signifies an allusion only. References within brackets are to 
Harvey's edition of Irenaeus. 

Gen. i, I : c. 43 [I, 11,4; II, 


i, 26 : cc. 32, 55 [often] 
ii, 5: c. 32 [III, 30, i] 
ii, i6f. : c. 15 [V, 23, i] 
ii, i8f. : c. 13 
ii, 21 ff. : c. 13 
ii, 25 : c. 14 [III, 32, i] 
iv, i : c. 17 
iv, 25 : c. 17* 
ix, i ff. : c. 22 [V, 14, i] 
ix, 14 f. : c. 22 
ix, 26 f. :c. 21 [111,5,3] 
xi, i : c. 22 
xv, 5 : c. 24 [III, 9, I ; IV, 

12, i ; 13, i] 
xv, 6 : cc. 24, 35 [IV, 10, i ; 

15, i] 

xvn, 8 : c. 24 
xviii, I ff . : c. 44 
xix, 24 : c. 44 [III, 6, i ; IV, 

20, i ; 58, 3 f.] 
xxviii, 12 f. : c. 45 
xlix, lof. : c. 57 [IV, 20, 2] 
Ex. iii, 7f. : c. 46 [IV, 14, i; 

23, i] 

iii, 14 : c. 2 [III, 6, 2] 
xv, 27 : c. 46* 
xvii, 9ff. : c. 46* [IV, 38, I ; 

50, i] 

xx, 13 ff. : c. 96 
xxi, 24 : c. 96 
xxv, 40: c. 9 [IV, 25, 3; 

32, i] 

xxxi, 1 8 : c. 26 
xxxiv, 28 : c. 26 
Num. xxiv, 17 : c. 58 [III, 9, 2] 
Deut. v, I7ff. : c. 96 
xxviii, 44 : c. 95* 
xxviii, 66 : c. 79 [IV, 20, 2 ; 

V, 1 8, 2] 
xxxii, 21 : c. 95 
xxxii, 49 f. : c. 29 
xxxiv, 5 : c. 29 

Ps. i, i : c. 2 
ii, if.: c. 74 
ii, 7 f. : c. 49 [IV, 35, 3] 
iii, 5 : c. 73 [IV, 48, 2 ; 55, 


xix, 4 : cc. 21, 86 
xix, 6 : c. 85 [IV, 55, 4] 
xxii, 14-20 : cc. 79 f. 
xxiv, 7-10 : c. 84 [IV, 55, 4] 
xxxiii, 6 : c. 5 [I, 15, I ; III, 

xlv, 6f. : c. 47 [III, 6,1 ; IV, 

55, i] 

Ixviii, I7f. : c. 83 [II, 32, 2] 
Ixix, 21 : c. 82 [III, 20, 2 ; 

IV, 55, 3] 
Ixxii, 17 : c. 43 
Ixxxix, 39-46 : c. 75 
civ, 15 : c. 57* 

ex, i : c. 85 [often] 

ex, 3 : c. 43 

ex, 1-7 : cc. 48 f. 

cxix, 120: c. 79 

cxxxii, 10 ff. : c. 64 [III, 9, 2] 

cxxxii, ii : c. 36 [III, II, 4 ; 

17, I ; 26, i] 
Isa. i, 30: c. 99 

ii, 3: c. 86 [IV, 56, 3] 

ii, 17: c. 88 [IV, 55, 4] 

vii, 9 : c. 3 

vii, 14 ff. :cc. 53 f., 57 [often] 

ix, 5 ff. : cc. 54 ff. 

ix, 6: c. 40 [III, 17, 3 ; 20, 

2; IV, 55, 2] 
x, 22 f. : c. 87 
xi, i-io : cc. 59 ff. [Ill, 10, 

i ; IV, 41, i ; 50, i 5 V, 

33, 3] 
xi, 2f. : c. 9 [III, 10, I ; 18, 


xvii, 7f. : c. 91 
xxvi, 19 : c. 67 [IV, 55, 2 ; 

V, 15, i ; 34, I] 
xxix, 18 : c. 67 


INDEX 153 

Isa.xxxv, 3-6 : c. 67 [III, 21, 2 ; Matt, viii, 17 : c. 67 

IV, 55, 2] xxi, 5 : c. 65 

xxxv, 10 : c. 47* xxii, 37 f. : c. 87 

xl, 12: c. 45 [IV, 33, i] xxvi, 15: c. 81 

xliii, 10 : c. 5* [IV, 8, 3] xxvii, 9 f . : c. 81 

xliii, 18-21 : c. 89 [IV, 55, 5] xxvii, 34 : c. 82 

xlv, i : c. 49 Mark xii, 30 f. : c. 87 

xlix, 5 f. : c. 50 Luke xviii, 27 : c. 97 [IV, 13, 5] 

1, 5f. : cc. 34, 68 [IV, 55, 3] John i, i ff. : c. 43 [often] 

1, 8f. c. 88 [IV, 55, 4] i, 14 : cc. 31, 94 [often] 

lii, 7 : c. 86 [III, 13, i] xix, 23 f. : c. 80* 

Hi, 13-53, 8: cc. 67 ff. [often] xix, 29 : c. 82 

liv, i : c. 94 [I, 4, i] Acts iv, 12 : c. 96* [III, 12, 4] 

Ivii, i f. : c. 72 [IV, 56, 4] iv, 25 ff. : c. 74 [III, 12, 5] 

Ixi, i : c. 53 [III, 10, i ; 18, v, 15 : c. 71 

i 5 19, 3 ; IV, 37, i] vii, 3 : c. 24 

Ixii, 1 1 : c. 65 vii, 14 : c. 25 

Ixiii, 9 : c. 88 [III, 22, i] vii, 49 : c. 45 

Ixv, i : c. 92 [III, 6, i ; 10, i] Rom. ii, 4ff. : c. 8 [IV, 59, i] 

Ixv, 2 : c. 79 [IV, 55, 2] iv, 3 : cc. 24, 35 

Ixv, 15 f. : c. 88 iv, ii : c. 24 [IV, 39, i] 

Ixvi, i : c. 45 [IV, 4, i] iv, 13 : c. 35 

Ixvi, 3 : c. 96 [IV, 31, 2] vii, 6 : c. 90 

Ixvi, 7 : c. 54 ix, 25 f. : c. 93 

Jer, ii, 8 : c. 95* ix, 28 : c. 87 

xxxi, 31-34: c. 90 [IV, 18, x, 15: c. 86 [III, 13, i] 

i 5 55, 5] *. 19: c. 95 

Lam. iii, 30 : c. 68 xiii, 10 : cc. 87, 95 [IV, 22, 2] 

iv, 20 : c. 71 [III, II, 2] i Cor. x, 4 : c. 46* [IV, 25, 3] 

Ezek. xi, 19 f. : c. 93 xiv, 20 : cc. 46, 96 [IV, 44, 3] 

Hos. i, 10: c. 93 Gal. iii, n : c. 35 

ii, 23 : c. 93 [I, 4, i ; IV, 24, iv, 6 : c. 5 [IV, 19, i] 

12] iv, 27: c. 94 

vi, 6: c. 96 [IV, 29, 5] Eph. i, 10: c. 30 [often] 

x, 6 : c. 77 iv, 6 : c. 5 [II, 2, 5 ; IV, 34, 

Joel ii, 32 : c. 96 2 ; 49, 2 ; V, 18, i] 

Amos ix, ii: cc. 38, 62 iv, 8 : c. 83 

Mic. v, 2 ; c. 63 Phil, ii, 8 : c. 34 [III, 12, II ; 

Zech. ix, 9 : c. 65 IV, 38, 2 ; V, 16, 2] 

xi, 13 : c. 81 ii, 15 : c. 35 [IV, 10, i ; 13, i] 

xiii, 7 : c. 76 Col. i, 18 : c. 40 [IV, 34, 2] 

Bar. iii, 29-iv, i : c. 97 [IV, 34, I Tim. i, 9 : c. 35 [IV, 27, 3] 

4f.] . Heb. i, 8f. : c. 47 

Matt, i, 23 : c. 54* viii, 8 ff. : c. 90 

ii, i-u : c. 58* [III, 10, i] Rev. i, 5 : c. 38 f. [Ill, 32, I ; 

ii, 6: c. 63 IV, 3, 2; 34, 2] 
iii, 9 : c. 93 [often] 


Angel : applied to Christ, 27, 

119: for Malachi, 47 
Animals, concord among : 124 f. 
Apocryphal quotations from 

"Jeremiah": 22 f., 108, 136 
Apostolic Constitutions : 40 f. , 

Athenagoras: 25, 27 ff., 50 

Barnabas, Epistle of: 94, 98, 
104, in, 113, 118, 136 ff. 

Cherubim and Seraphim : 39 ff. , 

Christ: meaning of, i6ff. ; Name 

of, I24f. 

Claudius Caesar : 134 
Clementine Homilies : 53, 94 
Cross, prefigurationsofthe: 28f., 

100 f., 120, 136 f. 

Deuteronomy, meaning of: 96 
Diognetus, Epistle to : 118 

Elders, the : disciples of apostles, 

72, 101, 124, 151 
Enoch, Book of: 85 

Secrets of: 40, 77 

God : Two Hands of, 51 ff., 80 ; 
Finger of, 93 f. 

Heavens, Seven :4i ff., 77 ,151 
Hebrews, Gospel ace. to : 33 
Hernias, Shepherd of: 73 
Hippolytus : 72, 74, 77, 88, 96, 

Isaiah, Ascension of: 41 ff., 78, 

Jacobi, Protevangelium : 122 
Jesus : meaning of, 16 ff. ; power 

of the Name, 94 f., 148 
Justin Martyr : parallels in, 6- 
23 78, 84, 86, 89, 94, 99 ff., 
io8ff., 113 ff., 117 f., I2of., 
123, 126 ff., 130 f., 133, 135 f., 
I38f., 141, I46ff. : on the 
Holy Spirit, 24-34 

Lactantius : 23 

Liturgy of St Basil : 81 ; of St 
Mark, 40 ; of Serapion, 39 

Malachi : see Angel 

Papias: 81, 124, 151 
Paradise : 81 ff. 
Pascha, as Passion : 93 
Peter, Apocalypse of: 81 ; Gos- 
pel of: 138 
Plato: 28 f., 10 1 
Polycarp, Epistle of: 147 

Satan, meaning of: 84 
Serapion, Litiugyof: 39 
Spirit, the Holy : glorifies the 

Father, 39 ff., 79 : as Wisdom 

of God, 44 ff., 55 ff. 

"Testimonies against the Jews" : 

iof., 21 f. 
Theophilus of Antioch : 53 ff. 

Waterland: 31