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Full text of "The stock owner's adviser; the breeding, rearing, management, diseases and treatment of domestic animals"

COPYRIGHT DEPOSIT 



THE 



STOCK OWNER'S ADVISER 



THE BREEDING, REARING, MANAGEMENT, 

DISEASES AND TREATMENT OF 

DOMESTIC ANIMALS 



BY 



C. K. RHODES, V„ S. 



^ 



ILLUSTRATED 



^■30 3 -, 
3 5 

> I O J 



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' * . J . ,« 



RICHMOND, VIRGINTA 
B. F. JOHNSON PUBLISHING COMPANY 



THE LIBRARY Of 

CONGRESS, 
Two Copifta RccctvCO 

AUG. 20 t901 

COPVWGHT e«THV 

CLASS ^^XXc. No. 

/^ o 73 
COPY a 



Copyright, 1901 by C. K. Rhodes 



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C C C c c. 



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I 



PREFACE. 

The frequent inquiries from farmers and stock-raisers througli- 
out the country, and tlieir inability to procure professional aid, 
suggested to the author the need of a reliable work of this kind. 
In attempting to supply this want he has brought to the work the 
training and labor of years spent in practice, in the laboratory, 
the dissecting room, and hospital ward. 

It is the aim of this volume to impart such information as will 
enable the non-professional reader not only to preserve the 
health of his stock, 'but also to know what remedies should be 
employed for their common ailments. It clearly explains how 
to breed according to physiological laws, how to rear animals 
under hygienic principles, and how to manage horses. An 
earnest effort has been made to present in the plainest possible 
way the nature, cause, symptoms, and treatment of each disease 
in the form in which it most frequently occurs. The various 
conditions requiring surgical interference and the surgical opera- 
tions to be performed in such cases are briefly described, and 
wherever possible the reader is informed whether the indications 
for operation are favorable or otherwise, and whether the opera- 
tion requires the sendee of a professional surgeon. 

It is claimed that, so far as anatomical and physiological 
problems are concerned, this volume is rigidly scientific, em- 
bracing all modern discoveries, so far as they come within the 
scope of its plan and purpose. Its style, arrangement, and ap- 
plication are, however, addressed to the popular rather than the 
professional reader. Its object is to give popular instruction on 
those subjects which have hitherto been to most people a sealed 
book. 



(3) 



INTRODUCTORY. 

All animals from early youth to old age are exposed to many 
dangerous and troublesome affections, the result of causes not 
less complex and multifarious than those influencing the human 
organization. Many diseases are the consequences of domesticity 
and of defects inherited from progenitors; others are dependent 
upon accidental circumstances, bad treatment, and improper 
nourishment, ^ot a few mortal maladies are the result of con- 
tagion, infection, and other like causes. While all domestic 
animals are more or less subject to certain diseases peculiar to 
their race, those breeds of most value to man are liable to a 
greater number of ills and casualties than others, for the reason 
that they are frequently exposed to extraordinary fatigue. Those 
diseases resulting from specific causes, either natural to the race 
or artificially produced by the animal itself in a state of morbid 
derangement, are most frequent and fatal. The close resem- 
blance existing between the diseases of the lower animals and 
those of the human race, as also the strong similarity in the action 
of many drugs over the brute and human systems, render the 
study of one branch almost synonymous with that of the other. 
It has been strenuously objected that drugs do not act upon the 
lower animals in the same manner as upon man. Stated in its 
broad sense, this is not true. In the vast majority of cases the 
action of drugs upon man and upon the lower animals, though 
seemingly different, is in reality similar. The more knowledge 
we acquire the few^er exceptions remain unexplained, and the 
whole matter is in all probability subject to laws whose develop- 
ment will greatly aid in explanation of various obscure clinical 
phenomena. 

In tlie large cities of our country and in "Fngland hospitals 
for the accommodation of invalid animals i\ro condncted upon 

(5) 



THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 



scientific system not less regular than that of similar establish- 
ments devoted to the relief of suffering humanity. To these 
hospitals thousands of sick animals are annually sent and receive 
e\eYy attention. Medicines are administered with the utmost 
care, either as assnagers of temporary pain or as remedial agents 
in the cure of disease. Operations the most complex are per- 
formed with the greatest skill, and every attention is bestowed 
upon these invalids in their different wards. 

While this is true of the cities, yet vast agricultural districts, 
the sources from which our best stock come, are not only remote 
from these institutions, but are unable to procure professional 
aid. It is to my customers throughout the rural districts of the 
Eastern States, who have solicited my professional services, that 
I dedicate this work. I have herein given the fruits of my expe- 
rience in practice, which, while chiefly in the great stock-raising 
regions of Virginia and West Virginia, extends from the pro- 
vince of Ontario to the Carolinas of our great Southland. 

It behooves every lover of animals, who cannot readily procure 
professional aid, to make himself familiar with the nature and 
treatment of the most prominent affections of these companions 
of our sports and servants of labor, and at the same time acquire 
a knowledge of the operations of certain medicines upon the 
system. 

I have endeavored to express myself plainly on all topics, 
endeavoring to simplify the work and render it a practical guide 
to the stock owner. This volume presents many new suggestions 
in hygiene, the management of disease, and development and 
improvement of animals, and the conclusions represent the re- 
sults of the latest investigations by the world's most distin- 
guished savants. 

The plan of this work is to attempt to sift the true from the 
false, to reconcile seeming differences, to point out what we 
know in the fewest possible words, and to lay a foundation from 
which investigators may start forward with some knowledge of 
what has already been achieved, without spending a great deal 



INTRODUCTORY. 7 

of time in the wild hunt through the almost boundless ranges of 
continental literature. 

The description of disease is largely illustrated from photo- 
graphs of the author's patients, taken by himself to assure abso- 
lute accuracy. Many of the ailments of animals are forcibly 
expressed in peculiar attitudes. Such attitudes as are distinct 
symptoms of any disease are shown in photographic illustrations, 
which may serve as a test to prove the accuracy of a diagnosis. 



CONTENTS. 



Page 
THE HORSE. 

I. History and Habits of the Horse, . . . 19 

II. Breeding, . 22 

III. The Mare — Her Qualities and Treatment, . 41 

IV. The Colt, 48 

V. Veterinary Hygiene and Dietetics, ... 75 

VI. Structure of the Horse, 85 

VII. Remedial Measures and Remedial Methods 

Other than Drugs, 135 

VIII. Inflammation, 139 

IX. Fractures of Bones, 144 

X. Diseases of the Bones, ...... 163 

XI. Diseases of Joints, ....... 177 

XII. Lameness, . . . 184 

XIII. A Sprain or Strain, 187 

XIV. Diseases of the Feet, 219 

XV. Wounds, 242 

XVI. Injuries in the Region of the Mouth, . . . 251 

XVn. Tumors 263 

XVIII. Diseases of the Eyes 269 

(0) 



10 



THE STOCK OW>'ER S ADVISEE. 



XIX. Hernia. 

XX. Diseases of the Head and Neck, . 

XXI. Diseases of the Skix. 

XXII. Diseases of the Veixs and Aeteries, 

XXIII. Lymphatics, ...... 

XXIV. Diseases of the [Male Organs of Gexeratiox, 
XXV. Diseases of the Female Organs of Gexerattox 

XXM:. Feeding the Sick, 

XXVII. General Symptoms of Disease, 

XXVIII. Contagious Diseases of the Horse, 

XXIX. Epizootic and Enzootic Diseases of the Horse 

XXX. Diseases of the Respiratory Organs. . 

XXXI. Diseases of the Stomach and Intestines, . 

XXXII. Diseases of the Xertous System, ... 

XXXIII. Diseases of the Liver, 

XXXIV. Diseases of the Spleen and Pancreas, 
XXXV, Diseases of the Kidneys, . . 

XXXVI. Diseases of the Heart and Its Membrane, 

XXXVII. Affections of the Diaphragm, 

XXXVIII. Parasitic Diseases of the Horse, . 



Page 

278 

282 
284 
295 
298 
300 
321 
326 
331 
335 
344 



392 
408 
412 
413 
426 
429 
430 



CATTLE. 

XXXIX. Contagious Diseases of Cattle, 

XL. Enzootic and Epizootic Diseases of the Ox, 
XLI. Respiratory Diseases of the Ox, . 



437 
455 
457 



CONTENTS. 



11 



XLII. Diseases of the Stomach and Intestines, . 
XLIII. Miscellaneous Diseases of Cattle, not Pke- 
viousLY Referred to, that are Different 

FROM those of THE HORSE, 

XLIV. Parasites Affecting Cattle, 

SHEEP. 

XLV. Contagious Diseases of Sheep, .... 
XLVI. Entozoa of the Sheep, ...... 

SWINE. 

XLVII. Contagious Diseases of Swine, 
XLVIII. Diseases of the Respiratory System, . 

XLIX. Diseases of the Digestive Organs, 
L. Nervous Diseases of the Hog, 
LI. Parasites of the Hog, . . . o 

THE DOG. 

LII. The Early History of the Dog, 

LIII. Contagious Diseases of Dogs, . 

LIV. Enzootic and Epizootic Diseases of. Dogs, 

LV. Diseases of the Nervous System, . 

LVI. Diseases of the Digestive Organs, 

LVII. Diseases of the Liver, .... 

LVIII. Diseases of the Kidneys and Bladder, 

LIX. Diseases of the Respiratory Organs, . 



Page 
460 



465 
473 



477 
481 



487 
493 

494 
496 
498 



505 
512 
521 
523 
526 
530 
532 
634 



12 



THE STOCK OW:s'ER S ADVISEE. 



LX. Diseases of the Eye, 
LXI. Diseases of the Ear, 
LXII. Diseases of the Nose and Mouth, 
LXIII. Diseases of the Feet, 
XLIV. Parturition, 
LXV. Parasites Infecting the Dog, 
LXVI. Poisons and Their Antidotes, 
Glossary, .... 
Index, ... . . i 



Page 
536 

540 

543 

545 

547 

548 

550 

553 

566 



I 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Page 

1 Skeleton of the Horse ?6 

2 Skeleton of Horse, showing the relation of the bones with the 

outline of the body 88 

3 Superficial Muscles 91 

4 Deep-Seated Muscles 93 

5 Circulatory System 101 

6 Digestive System 1 09 

7 Upper Incisor Teeth of a One Year Old Colt> showing the re- 

stricted necks of milk teeth 113 

8 Upper Incisors of a Two Year and Six Months Old Colt 113 

9 Upper Incisor Teeth of a Three Year Old Colt 114 

10 Upper Incisor Teeth of a Three Year and Six INIonths Old Colt. . 114 

11 Upper Incisor Teeth of a Four Year Old Colt 114 

12 Upper Incisor Teeth of a Four Year and Six INIonths Old Colt. . . 114 

13 Upper Incisor Teeth of a Five Year Old Horse 115 

14 Lower Incisor Teeth of a Five Year Old Horse 115 

15 Lower Incisors of a Six Year Old Horse 11(3 

16 Lower Incisors of a Seven Year Old Horse 1 IG 

17 Lower Incisors of an Eight Year Old Horse 117 

18 Upper Incisors of an Eight Year Old Horse 117 

19 Showing Hook in Upper Corner Incisor, which makes its appear- 

ance at eight years of age 118 

20 Upper Incisors of a Nine Year Old Horse 118 

21 Upper Incisor Teeth of a Ten Year Old 119 

22 Dental Star 119 

23 Upper Incisors of a Twelve Year Old, showing the upper row of 

teeth all smooth 119 

24 Lower Incisors of a Fifteen Year Old 119 

25 Lower Incisors of a Twenty-One Year Old Horse 120 

26 Nervous System 128 

27 Fracture of the Humerus 148 

28 The Horse in Slings 150 

29 Fracture of the Femur 153 

30 Fracture of the Sacrum 157 

31 Fracture of the Anterior Spine of the Ilium 158 

32 Splints 165 

33 Osteo Porosis, or Big Head 172 

34 Osteo Porosis, Side view 173 

35 Qriteo Porosis ,,,,.,,..,.., 174 

(13) 



14 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

Page 

36 Open Joint 181 

37 Anchylosis of Fetlock Joint . . 183 

38 The AValk in Shoulder Lameness 188 

39 Shoulder Lameness 188 

40 Capped Elbow 192 

41 Sprain of the Radial Ligament 194 

42 Wind Galls 195 

43 Speedy Cut 197 

44 Broken Knee 198 

45 Sprain of the INIetacarpal Ligament 200 

46 Partial Breakdown 201 

47 Firing the Tendons 202 

48 A Severe Firing of a Large and Long-Standing Ring Bone 204 

49 Stifle Joint Lameness 206 

50 Dislocation of the Patella 207 

51 Sprain of the Patella Ligaments 208 

52 Bog Spavin 210 

53 Sprung Hock 211 

54- Bone Spavin 212 

55 A Perfect Hock 213 

56 An Abnormal Straight Hock 214 

57 Capped Hock 215 

58 Curb 216 

59 Disease of the Pyrimidal Process of the Os Pedis 223 

60 Ossification of the Lateral Cartilages 224 

61 Navicular Disease 226 

62 Acute Laminitis 229 

63 Pomaced Foot 231 

64 Carbuncle 232 

65 Quarter Crack, showing Clasp 233 

66 Corns 235 

67 Foot Lameness 238 

68 Quittor 239 

69 Bruise of the Sensitive Sole, an indication of foot lameness 239 

70 Calk 240 

71 Puncture of Navicular Joint 241 

72 Paralysis of the Lips , 253 

73 Scrotal Hernia 279 

74 Poll Evil 282 

75 Fistulous Withers 283 

76 Cracked Heels to the Extent of Sloughing 284 

77 Grease Terminating into Elephantiasis 289 

78 Lymphangitis 298 

79 Casting with Side Lines 305 

80 Casting with Hobbles 306 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 15 

Page 

81 Chronic Glanders 336 

82 Acute Farcy 337 

83 Stomatitis Pustulaso 339 

84 Regular Strangles 342 

85 Irregular Strangles 343 

86 The Manner of Applying Poultices to the Lungs 347 

87 Cerebro-Spinal Meningitis, staggering and giving away in the 

limbs 350 

88 Cerebro-Spinal Meningitis 351 

89 Cerebro-Spinal Meningitis 351 

90 Cerebro-Spinal Meningitis, showing Delirium 352 

91 Cerebro-Spinal Meningitis 352 

92 Complication of Spinal Meningitis 353 

93 Cerebro-Spinal Meningitis 354 

94 Pneumonia 361 

95 Pleurisy 363 

96 Congestion of the Lungs 364 

97 Laryngitis 366 

98 Nasal Polypi 372 

99 Nasal Gleet 378 

100 Acute Indigestion 375 

101 Acute Indigestion 376 

102 Acute Indigestion 376 

103 Impaction of the Stomach 377 

104 Nausea 378 

105 Rupture of the Stomach 378 

106 Inflammation of the Stomach 379 

107 Spasmodic Colic. 380 

108 Spasmodic Colic 381 

109 Spasmodic Colic 381 

110 Impaction of the Colon. 383 

111 Inflammation of the Bowels 384 

112 Inflammation of the Bowels, Getting Down 385 

113 Inflammation of the Bowels, Rolling 385 

114 Dysentery 388 

115 Intussusception 390 

116 Sunstroke 394 

117 Sunstroke 395 

118 Sunstroke 396 

119 Concussion of the Brain 397 

120 Lockjaw 400 

121 Lockjaw 401 

122 Hysteria 402 

123 String Halt 404 

124 Inflammation of the Liver 409 



16 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

Page 

125 Inflammation of Kidney 414 

126 Chronic Inflammation of the Kidney 415 

127 Albuminuria .....'. 417 

128 Inflammation of the Bladder 419 

129 Retention of the Urine 420 

130 Azaturea 423 

131 Azaturea 424 

132 Symptoms of Abdominal Pain 461 

133 Impaction of the Rumen 462 

134 Impaction of the Manyplies 463 

135 Parturient Peritonitis 466 

136 Parturient Paralysis. . . , 467 

137 Parturient Apoplexy 468 

138 Mammitis 470 

139 Enteritis. . . . ,. 471 

140 Metritis 472 



THE HORSE. 



I. 

HISTORY AND HABITS OF THE HORSE. 

We learn from Bible history that Asia is the home of the 
horse, and that he was used in Egypt more than 1600 years 
before Christ. From the earliest ages these noble animals were 
captured and tamed by the Egyptians. Their large caravan 
trade with the interior of Africa formed the first channel for 
the distribution of the horse throughout the world. ISTew races 
were produced by breeding and mixing the different races from 
time to time, until now the number of races is almost innumera- 
ble. The horse in a domestic state is found in almost every part 
of the globe. Of the six ascertained original species of horses, 
only one has yet been discovered on this continent in a peT- 
fectly wild state. This species, an inhabtiant of the mountains 
of South America, has cloven hoofs. The larger herds of the 
Pampas are of French and Spanish origin, and entirely of the 
Andalusian breed. They are descendants of domestic animals, 
and can scarcely be called wild in the proper acceptation of the 
term. The same may be said of the wild horses found on each 
side of the Don. They are an offspring of Russian horses em- 
ployed by Asolph in the year 1697, when for want of forage 
they were turned loose. The beach horse is the Canadian pony 
breed, originally from the south of France, and is the same as 
the Indian pony. The wild horses of the plains are of the old 
Spanish stock and the pure Andalusian. The fine bloods of 
England and America are crosses of the Arabian and several 
others. The wild rovers on the plains of Texas and the West 
are descendants of these breeds. 

South of the Ararat mountains, upon which the ark rested, 
lies a fertile country, where the horse in a perfectly wild state 
is found in herds, some of which are said to consist of ten thou- 

(19) 



20 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

sand. Some of these horses in size, form, and motion are of 
the most perfect symmetry and models of beauty, possessing in 
a marked degree the varied movements and grace characterizing 
the carefully trained and bred horse. 

The horse is the associate of man's pride, vices, and infirmi- 
ties, no less, than of his independence and strength. He, like 
man, requires, and is capable of, great cultivation and discipline. 
Associated with man in his sins, he has been cursed like him with 
his diseases. 

The earliest history of the horse in battle is found in Pha- 
raoh's pursuit of the children of Israel. His martial traits 
especially have been the theme of glorious description and eulogy 
in all ages. The muse of history has painted his superb appear- 
ance in battle and thrown a bewildering fascination around the 
brilliant charge. 

HABITS OF THE HORSE. 

The habits of the horse in all countries, and of all varieties, 
are much the same. AVherever he is at large he is bold, but shy, 
and readily taking note of the appearance of man. In their 
wild state the different herds do not mingle together, and if one 
strays fi'om his own and gets into another herd he is kicked out. 
In his state of wildness he is most free and happy, and lives the 
longest. The wild rover of the plains lives to a great age, and, 
except in cases of accident or the fly, most of them die from old 
age. Some of them attain the age of forty and fifty years. They 
take exercise as nature requires, and are governed by its instincts. 
Their food is the wild grasses of the prairies, and their drink is 
of the clear water brook. Instead of the filthy stable of the 
domesticated animal, his bed is on the fresh grass of the valleys 
or elevated slopes. His shelter is under the deep shades of the 
olive and fig trees. Instead of the reeking fumes of crowded 
stables, the air he breathes is scented with the perfume of roses 
and flowers. His bed, therefore, in his wild state is one of blos- 
soms and perfume. He visits the salt lakes, with which the 
country abounds, and his simple life is almost free from diseases. 



SISTOEY Ai^t) HABITS OF THE HORSE, 21 

The horse naturally is subject to but few hereditary disorders, or 
perhaps to none, but indiscriminate commingling of blood has 
fearfully multiplied his diseases and occasioned deplorable de- 
generacy. Improper treatment and abuse at the hands of man 
have been the cause of nearly all his diseases and of his great 
loss in longevity and natural capabilities. 

It is not our design to enlarge on these topics, but in their 
appropriate chapters they will be fully presented. It is with the 
horse as we find him in America that we have to deal in this 
work — the history of his diseases, their causes and cures, and 
rational and generous rules for his treatment and general im- 
provement. 



n. 

BREEDING. 

The art of raising domestic animals has attained a great 
degree of perfection, due to the recogTdtion of certain principles 
in pln^siology. This subject has been studied as a science and 
practiced as an art for centuries, but there yet remains room for 
improvement. It will not be expected that the author will dwell 
minutely or at length upon the formation and growth of the 
fetal structures and trace them separately from their origin to 
their completion at the birth of the fetal animal. 

Menstruation, or period of puberty, in the mare and cow is 
reckoned at the age of one to two years, in most cases; but the 
filly should not be bred until she is three or four years of age, 
and even older, if she is immature. The cow may be bred at two 
years of age, or earlier, if well matured. There is, with few~ 
exceptions, a periodical discharge of mucus from the vagina. 
This discharge naturally follows the ripening and liberation of 
an ovum, and continues in a great majority of cases from two to 
four days; it recurs once in four or five weeks, and continues as 
long as the female is capable of conceiving, or rather as long as 
ova are developed. Menstruation is ovulation. When the geni- 
tal organs are sufiiciently developed, a germ cell, or ovum, is 
evolved from its ovarian bed, and passes along the channel of the 
fallopian tube into the uterine cavity; unless impregnated in its 
course by meeting and mingling with the sperm cell of the 
male, and fixed upon the wall of the utero-fallopian canal, it is 
expelled through the vaginal passage, a process repeated every 
four or five weeks in the mare and cow. At this time the nervous 
system of females is sensitive, and it is the only time that copula- 
tion is indulged in. Immediately before and after this period, 
conception is more likely to take place. The contests between 

(22) 



BREEDING. 



23 



the males of animals during the period of Oestrum are interest- 
ing. The animal wins the female through the law of battle. 
The most timid animals, not provided with any special weapons 
for fighting, engage in desperate conflicts during this season. 

In Colorado the law requires every person having cows run- 
ning at large to turn with them one bull for every twenty-five 
cows. These bulls, w^hen strange ones meet, fight with great 
ferocity. They are more likely to meet when the cows are in 
heat. 

A stallion will drive all other stallions and geldings out of 
his band, and sometimes even strange mares, especially if his 
band is large and he is well acquainted with them. If he desires 
to increase his band he will steal any mare he can find. He 
either leads or drives them to and from water, and as they are 
strung out he will pass back and forth with his head near the 
ground; if one is missing he will leave the band and search dili- 
gently until he brings her in, using teeth or heels for a whip. 
It is both difiicult and dangerous to lead a mare from a band 
having a regular herder, as the stallion is called. 

Where mares are kept in bands herded by stallions, it often 
happens that horses try singly to whip out a horse of another 
herd, and if they fail, get another to join the contest. One will 
engage with the horse while the other drives away the mares. 

Where a stallion is allowed to run as a herder of a small band 
of mares, we may expect the most perfect progeny. Here he 
escapes the injury of confinement in close, dark, and badly- 
ventilated stables. Stable feed has a tendency to heat the blood, 
a condition that often affects the genital organs. Constant con- 
finement renders his disposition fierce and intractable, and pri- 
vation of the daily society of the mare makes the matter still 
worse. When he is led out to meet her he is all frenzy and 
fever, and can hardly be controlled. This disposition will most 
assuredly be imparted to the foal. Almost invariably the foal 
will partake chiefly of the constitution and disposition of the sire, 
while his form and size are mainly derived from the dam. The 



24 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

operation of this law indicates the necessity of proper treat- 
ment. If the male were allowed constant association with the 
other sex he would be quiet and manageable. The horse and 
mare should be allowed to run together during the period of 
ovulation. This can be done by selecting a field, or by making 
a large enclosure in some out of the way place. This arrange- 
ment would do away with attendants' fees and would be the 
cheaper plan. By far too few horses are kept as breeders, and 
they are taxed beyond all reason and decency. Among the in- 
telligent breeders of Kentucky it is not uncommon for a gentle- 
man to keep a horse of his own to serve his own mares, and 
perhaps a few others. Sometimes a few farmers club together 
and purchase a first-class horse. This is a move in the right 
direction, and it is to be hoped that others will follow their 
example. 

Xo horse should serve more than twenty-five mares during the 
breeding season, and never oftener than every other day. The 
progeny of a horse allowed to serve sixty or seventy mares during 
the season cannot be sound; and if a foal is produced at all it 
will be big-boned, loose-jointed; of flabby, uncompact muscle, 
and with feeble constitution. A foal gotten under such circum- 
stances cannot be expected to prove otherwise than weak and 
feeble. A great number of such die before they attain the age 
of one year. The intelligent breeder will not have his animals 
begotten, born, and bred under such unphysiological conditions. 
The laws of life and health, and the rules of normal develop- 
ment, are the same in all living organisms. If we have unsound 
germs we cannot expect a sound progeny, and Avhere a horse is 
allowed to serve one or two mares a day the germ is immature. 
How frequently we see a handsome mare served by a fine horse 
and the progeny falling far below the standard of their excel- 
lency. It is established that conception is the mingling of cer- 
tain elements to which both animals contribute. It is probable 
that the seminal fluid of the horse forms the first substance of 
the fetus, while a small particle of blood with the ovum of the 



BREEDING. ^5 

mare communicates the principal of life. This is considered to 
be the case in all red-blooded animals. ■ 

SIGNS OF PREGNANCY. 

The first well-marked sign is suppression of menstruation, or 
period of heat. As a rule, when the mare conceives the desire 
for the male is no longer observable; and on being led to the 
horse she not only refuses to receive his caresses, but assumes the 
offensive, viciously striking and biting at him until led away. 
In the first stages of pregnancy the coat becomes sleeker and the 
mare becomes quieter in disposition. This disposition changes 
near the end to a crabbed one. Enlargement of the mammary 
glands is a more uniform and reliable symptom. The mamma, 
soon after conception, becomes more hard and movable, while 
the teat is more prominent and frequently painful or tender, 
and the veins of the glands enlarge. These changes may occur 
in two or three weeks, or not until two or three months after 
conception. Enlargement of the abdomen is apparent in the 
third month of pregnancy, but a similar appearance may result 
from dropsy or from a tumor. The abdomen gradually enlarges 
as pregnancy advances, the right side being a little larger than 
the left. This enlargement is especially well marked in the cow. 
In some cases the beating of the fetal heart may be heard with 
the assistance of the stethoscope. After the eighth month well- 
marked symptoms of pregnancy are manifest, the abdomen at 
this time being considerably distended, the back sinking, etc. 
To be certain of pregnancy when there are no well-marked signs, 
such as enlargement of the udder, secretion of milk, enlarged 
vulva, etc., we must examine per rectum. It is also recom- 
mended by some practitioners to make an examination through 
the vagina, but such a procedure is objectionable. 

DURATION OF PREGNANCY. 

The period of utero-gestation in the marc^ is forty-eight weeks; 
in the cow, forty; in the sheep, twenty-one or twenty-two; in 



26 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

the sow, sixteen or seventeen; in the bitch, nine; and in the rab- 
bit, about four weeks; in the cat, eight weeks. The period of 
gestation may Yarj to a remarkable extent in mares and cows. 
This difference is owing to some extent to the difficulty of fixing 
the exact time of conception. Male foals are carried two or three 
days longer than female foals, and, as a rule, an old mare carries 
her foal longer than a young mare. 

EMBRYOLOGY. 

The primary changes undergone by the fecundated ovum, 
interesting as they are, can be merely alluded to here. By re- 
peated fusion of the vitelline substance there arises a cellular 
material called the embryogenic tissue, or blastoderm, out of 
which the body of the embryo is formed. This tissue divides 
into three layers — an outer, a middle, and an internal — called, 
respectively, the epiblast, mesoblast, and hypoblast. From the 
epiblast becomes developed the epidermis and its appendages 
and the cerebro-spinal axis; from the hypoblast the mucous 
membrane of the alimentary canal, while the mesoblast forms 
the intervening organs and tissues. A linear indentation, the 
primitive groove, appears on the epiblast; below and coincident 
with this the notochord is formed, indicating the position of the 
vertebral column. 

The chief appendages and coverings associated with fetal life 
are the umbilical sack, the amnion, chorion, and allantois, the 
placenta, and the umbilical cord. The outer covering of the 
fetus is the chorion, a membrane derived from the blastoderm 
and reflected over the fetus. The placenta is formed by the 
connection of this covering with the mucous membrane of the 
uterus. The inner covering is the amnion, which contains a 
fluid, the liquor amnii. The allantois or urinary vesicle is re- 
garded as taking its origin from the primitive intestine. Becom- 
ing vesicular in form, to it proceeds the ducts of the Wolffian 
bodies, or primordial kidneys. The umbilical sack proceeds 
from the blastoderm. It covers the yelk, and like the allantois 



BREEDING. 27 

is not included in the amnion. The placenta, or after-birth, is 
a soft, flat, spongy, highly vascular body. It assumes a variety 
of forms in the various classes of animals. In the mare and sow 
it is diffused — i. e., it consists of villi scattered over nearly the 
whole of the outer surface of the chorion, and received into 
crypts or corresponding recesses in the uterine mucous mem- 
brane. In the ruminant the placental villi are collected into 
groups, forming a number of rounded or ovoid objects, termed 
cotyledons. It is the medium of communication between the 
mother and foal, its office being to supply necessary nutrient to 
the fetus. In carnivora the villi are collected in a mass, which 
assumes the form of a belt, surrounding the chorion, and hence 
called a zonary placenta. In rodentia the placenta is discoid, the 
villi being assembled in a more or less circular mass. 

THE UMBILICAL CORD. 

The umbilical cord is the channel of communication between 
the fetus and the placenta. It is composed of two arteries and 
one vein. 

DEVELOPMENT OF THE FETUS. 

The horse's embryo at six weeks has a length of 1 3-5 inches; 
at seven weeks, 2 inches, and at eight weeks, 2 3-5 inches; the 
thoracic and abdominal cavities are closed. At the ninth week 
the embryo measures 3 1-5 inches; the external ears are very 
small; the Wolffian body, genital glands, and suprarenal cap- 
sules are present. At ten weeks the embryo measures 3 4-5 
inches; the internal and external genital organs are formed. At 
eleven weeks the embryo measures 4 1-5 inches, and at twelve 
weeks 5 3-5 inches. At seventeen weeks it measures 14 3-5 
inches. At seventeen weeks the first hair appears on the lips. 
At twenty-two weeks the lips, eyelids, and point of the tail are 
provided with hair. The length of the embryo at tlie twouty- 
third to twenty-fourth week is about 2Y inches. The liair ap- 
pears on the crest and back. The testicles lie near the abdominal 



28 THE STOCK OWNER^S ADVISER. 

ring. At the twenty-fifth to forty-eighth week the fetus meas- 
ures 3 feet; it is completely covered with hair, and the testicles 
pass into the scrotum. The vaginal ring is very wide, and slight 
hernia is generally present. 

The embryo of the ox at twenty-eight days has a length of 2-3 
inch, and corresponds in its development to the sheep embryo 
of twenty-five days. At six weeks the embrj^o is 4-5 inch in 
length, and corresponds to the twenty-two-twenty-three days 
old dog's embryo. At seven weeks it is about 1 1-5 inches in 
length; the udder begins to form; the kidneys and ureters are 
present. At eight w^eks the embryo is from two inches to 2 3-5 
inches. At eleven weeks, 4 2-5 inches, and its development cor- 
responds to that of the horse's embryo of the same age; mouth- 
groove and nostrils are closed by a thin membrane; the divisions 
of the stomach are present. At twelve weeks the embryo meas- 
ures 5 3-5 inches. From the fourteenth to the twenty-second 
week the embryo increases from 5 3-5 inches to 12 3-5. At 
eighteen weeks the hair appears and the testicles descend into 
the scrotum. The embryo at the end of thirty-two weeks meas- 
ures about 25 inches. From the thirty-third to the fortieth week 
the fetus measures about 32 inches. 

The embryo of the sheep at eighteen days has a length of 1-3 
inch. At thirty-two days indications of the feet appear. At 
twenty-five days it has a length of 2-3 inch; indications of the 
eyes, ears, and tail are present; the intestine exists as if con- 
nected with the umbilical vesicle; the Wolffian body is well 
developed. At the fifth week the embryo has a length of 1 inch, 
and in development corresponds to the twenty-five days old dog's 
embryo. At nine weeks 3 3-5 inches; the nostrils are still closed. 
At the tenth to eleventh week the embryo of the sheep and goat 
measures 6 2-5 inches; hair is still wanting. From the thirteenth 
to the eighteenth week it measures from 10 to 13 inches. At 
the twenty-first to twenty-second week the fetus has a length of 
about 18 inches; goat, 13 or 18. 

The pig's embryo at twenty-one days has a length of about 1-3 



I 



BREEDING. 29 

inch ; at twenty-four days, 1-2 to 3-5 inch. The umbilical vesicle 
has reached its maximum size. At twenty-eight days the embryo 
has a length of 1 inch; at thirty-seven days, 2 1-5 inches. 
Length of embryo in the eighth week is 3 1-5 inches. At the 
ninth and tenth month it measures 5 1-5 inches. At the fifteenth 
it measures about 7 inches in length. At the sixteenth or seven- 
teenth week the fetus has a length of 10 inches. 

Carnivoka. — The dog's embryo measures about one line in 
length at the second w^eek. The chorion and amnion can be made 
out. At the third week the villi appears on the chorion, and 
becomes attached to the mucous membrane of the uterus. At 
eighteen days the embryo of the dog has a length of about 1-5 
inch; the primitive groove and chorda dorsalis are present. At 
nineteen or twenty days the heart is present as an S-shaped tube ; 
the intestine begins to form. At twenty-one days indications of 
the eyes, ears, and Wolffian body are present; the limbs are 
present as small blunt processes. At twenty-two to twenty-three 
days the embryo has a length of about 3-5 inch ; mouth groove, 
nostrils, lungs, trachea, and larynx are present; the anus is still 
closed; Wolffian body well formed; limbs about one line in 
length. At twenty-five days the thorax is closed, and the abdom- 
inal cavity almost closed. At twenty-six to twenty-eight days 
the embryo is about 1 3-5 inches in length; all organs are more 
or less distinctly marked. Length of embryo in the fifth week 
is 2 3-5 inches; at six weeks, 3 1-5 inches. At eight weeks the 
dog's embryo measures 5 inches; the cat's embryo, 4 inches. 
The body is covered with hair, and the claws are present. The 
eyelids are closed, and the testicles are still in the abdomen. At 
nine weeks the dog's fetus measures about 7 inches; the cat's 
fetus about 5 inches. 

PARTURITION. 

When the fetus is expelled from its uterine cavity, before the 
period of viability, the process is termed abortion or miscarriage. 
When the expulsion occurs during seventh or eightli luontli it 
js termed premature labor. Why the uterus expels its contents 



30 THE STOCK OWXEE S ADA'ISEE. 

at or near the end of eleven calendar months in the raare, and at 
the end of nine and a half in the co^;. is not easy to explain. 
That the uterus loses its anatomical connection with the fully 
develoiDcd and independent fetus is simply a fulfillment of the 
laws of reproduction. So true, so admirable, and energetic are 
the manifestations of the vital instincts of the utenis on this 
occasion that they seem almost like intelligence. Dunghson 
says: *'T\^ith respect to the causes that give rise to the extru- 
sion we are in utter darkness. It is in truth as inexplicable as 
any of the other instinctive operations of the living machine. 
Our knowledge appears to be limited to the fact that when the 
fetus has undergone a certain degree of development, and the 
uterus a corresponding distention and organic changes, its con- 
tractihty is called into action, and the uterine contents are beau- 
tifully and systematically expelled." 

CAN SEX BE PRODUCED AT WILL? 

To be able to determine the sex of embryo in animals would 
greatly advance the m^i of breeding. Trom the observation of 
During on this subject, I think we may safely conclude that 
among animals and plants, as well as in mankind, a favorable 
environment causes an excess of female births and an unfavora- 
ble environment an excess of male births. As the result of 
nearly a million observations of the births of colts, he shows 
that, as the number of mares put to a stallion in a year is in- 
creased, there is a corresponding and regiilar increase in the 
ntimber of male colts as compared with the female colts. He 
states that, while domesticated animals are much more prolific 
than their wild allies, there is also a much greater preponderance 
of female births; that wi^en animals are taken from a warm to a 
cold climate the ratio of male biiths increases, and that leather 
dealers say that they obtain most female skins from fertile coun- 
tries where pastures are rich, and most male skins from more 
barren regions: and he thinks we may safely conclude that the 
lower animals, as well as man, give birth to the greatest number 



BREEDING. 



31 



of females when placed in a favorable environment, and to most 
males in an unfavorable environment. Dr. Manly Miles, in his 
most excellent work, entitled ''Stock Breeding/' has collected a 
number of facts bearing on the theory that if the male is older 
and stronger than the female the offspring will be more males 
than females. If the females are most vigorous the offspring will 
contain more females. 

At a meeting of the Agricultural Society of Severac, on the 
3d of July, 1826, M. Charles Gironde Buzareingues proposed to 
divide a flock of sheep into two equal parts, so that a greater 
number of males or females, at the choice of the proprietors, 
should be produced from each of them. Two of the number of 
the society offered their flocks to become the subjects of his ex- 
periments, the results of which are given in the following table. 
The principle of division was to place young rams with strong, 
well-fed ewes for ewe lambs, and a matured, vigorous ram with 
weaker ewes for ram lambs. 

The first experiment gave the following results: 



FLOCK FOR FEMALE LAMBS SERVED 
BY TWO RAMS, ONE FIFTEEN 
MONTHS AND THE OTHER NEARLY 
TWO YEARS OLD. 


FLOCK FOR MALE LAMBS SERVED 
BY TWO STRONG RAMS, ONE FOUR 
AND THE OTHER FIVE YEARS 
OLD. 


Age of Mothees. 


Sex of Lambs. 


Age of Mothers. 


Sex of Lambs. 


Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


Two years 


14 

16 
5 


26 
29 
21 


Two years 


7 

15 
33 


8 


Three years 


Three years 

Four years. 


14 


Four years 


14 






Total 


;55 
18 


76 

8 


Total 

Five years and over. 


55 
25 


81 


Five years and over. . 


24 


Total 


53 


84 


Total 


80 


55 






There were three twin births in this flock. 


No twin births In thi i flock. 



In the second experiment the ewes were divided into three 
sections. The first section included the strongest ewes from four 
to five years old, which were better fed than the others. It was 



32 THi: STOCK ow^^:E*s advisee. 

served by four rain lainbsj about six months old. In :lie second 
section were the weaker ewes, under four c^r above live years old. 
The;v were served by two strong rams more than three years old. 
The third section consisted of ewes belonging to the shepherds, 
which are in general stronger and better fed than those of the 
master, because their owners are not always particular in pre- 
venting them from trespassing on the cultivated lands that are 
not inclosed. These ewes Avere served by the same rams as sec- 
tion two: 

Males. Femaues. 

The first section gave 15 25 

The second section gave 26 14 

The third section gave 10 ■ 12 

In the first section were twri twin births — fcair females. In 
the second and third there were also two — three males and one 
female. 

These experiments were considered almost conclusive: but it 
will be observed that the results are not more remarkable for the 
range of variations presented in the relative numbers of each sex 
than were obtained in my experience in different years with ani- 
mals under the same management. 

After weighing the whole evidence I come to the conclusion 
that where the male is better developed and older than the 
female we may expect an excess of males, and where the female 
is better developed an excess of females. If the female germ 
has the greater vitality, is more richly endowed with protoplasm, 
then the ovum will develop after the female form. How shall 
we apply these theories in breeding animals f If we make the 
environment of the female imfavorable and that of the male 
favorable, we may do her and the offspring harm, and vice versa, 
^^e have but one resource left, and that is. as far as we can, to 
control the time of impregnation. The weight of testimony col- 
lected from experiments on this point goes to show that an early 
impreg-nation favors the development of females, and a late im- 
pregnation the development of males. Starting from this idea 



BREEDING. 33 

and supposing that the complete maturity of an ovum might be 
very favorable to the production of male sex and inversely, M. 
Thurg caused cows to be impregnated sometimes at the begin- 
ning, sometimes at the end, of the rutting period. In the first 
case he obtained female calves; in the second, male calves. The 
experiment was repeated by a Swiss agriculturist, Mr. Cornaz, 
who twenty-nine times in twenty-nine cases succeeded in pro- 
ducing either sex at will. Giron found that if the female flowers 
of dioecious plants be fertilized as soon as they are fit to receive 
the pollen, the seed resulting produce mainly female plants, and 
that if the fertilization be deferred to as late period as possible 
the seeds resulting produce mainly male plants. , 

EFFECTS OF PREVIOUS IMPREGNATION ON THE FEMALES. 

One of the great mysteries of generation is the effect of one 
impregnation of the female on the offspring by succeeding males. 
A few facts will make the matter clear. Dr. Trail, on the au- 
thority of Mr. George T. Allman, of Tennessee, gives the follow- 
ing case: '^^A bay mare, with black points, was bred to Watson, 
a son of Lexington, who is a golden chestnut, having a large star 
and both hind and near front ankles white. After dropping her 
foal he bred the same mare to his saddle stallion. Prince Pulaski, 
a very dark chestnut, with no white save a very small star: this 
produce was a facsimile of Watson in every particular.'' 

A very fine Clydesdale mare was served by a Spanish ass and 
produced a mule. She afterward had a colt by a horse which 
bore a very marked likeness to a mule; seen at a distance, every 
one set it down as a mule. The ears were 94 inches long, the 
girth not quite six feet, and he stood above sixteen hands high. 
The hoofs were so long and narrow that there was difficulty in 
shoeing them, and the tail was thin and scanty. He w£*s a beast 
of indomitable energy and durability, and was highly prized by 
his owner. Dr. Miles writes that a mare belonging to Dr. 11. B. 
Shank, of Lansing, Michigan, produced a mule, was aftorAvard 
bred to a Morgan stallion with remarkably fine ears; the eai*s of 
8 



34 THE STOCK OWNER^S ADVISER, 

the colt were large and coarse, presenting a close resemblance to 
those of a mnle. A second colt produced by the mare to the 
same stallion had the head and ears of its sire. Dr. Burgess 
relates a similar case: 'Trom a mare which had once been 
served by a jack I have seen a colt so long-eared, sharp-backed, 
and rat-tailed that I stopped a second time to see if he were not 
a mule." 

A pure Aberdeenshire heifer was served by a pure Teeswater 
bull, by which she had a first cross calf. The following season 
the same cow was served with a pure Aberdeenshire bull; the 
produce was a cross calf, which, when two years old, had very 
long horns, the parents being both polled. A small flock of ewes 
belonging to Dr. Wells were served by a ram procured for the 
purpose ; the ewes w^ere all w^hite and woolly, the ram being quite 
different, of a chocolate color and hairy like a goat. The progeny 
were, of course, crosses, but bore a strong resemblance to the 
male parent. The next season Dr. Wells obtained a ram of pre- 
cisely the same breed as the ewes, but the progeny showed dis- 
tinct marks of resemblance to the former ram in color and cover- 
ing. 

Dr. Miles writes of visiting the farmer, Mr. A. I^. Gillette, 
in the town of Delta, Ingham county, where he saw a litter of 
pigs out of a pure Berkshire sow, and got by a pure Berkshire 
boar. More than one-half of the pigs were apparently Poland 
China in the form of the head, and their bodies were spotted with 
sandy white. He was informed by Mr. Gillette that the pre- 
ceding year the dam of these pigs had produced a litter of pigs 
by a Poland China boar, that were marked in the same manner 
with sandy white spots. The sow was bred under my direction 
at the Michigan Agricultural College three years ago, and the 
stock from w^hich she had been descended had not shown any 
variations from the pure Berkshire type. Mr. Darwin gives the 
following case: ^'Mr. Giles put a sow of Lord Western's black- 
and-tan Essex breed to a wild boar of a deep chestnut color, and 
the pigs partook in appearance of both boar and sow, but in some 



BREEDING. 35 

the chestnut color of the boar strongly prevailed. After this 
boar had long been dead, the sow was put to a boar of her own 
black and white breed, a kind which is well known to breed very 
true and never to show any chestnut color, yet from this union 
the sow produced some young pigs which were plainly marked 
with the same chestnut tint as in the first litter.'' A black, hair- 
less Barbary bitch was first impregnated by a mongrel spaniel 
with long, brown hair, and produced five puppies, three of which 
were hairless and two covered with short, brown hair. The next 
time she was put to a full black, hairless Barbary dog; but the 
mischief had been implanted in the mother, and again about 
half the litter looked like pure Barbarys and the other half like 
the short-haired progeny of the first father. 

Professor Agassiz states that he experimented with a l^ew- 
foundland bitch by coupling her with a water dog, and the 
progeny were partly water dog, partly [N^ewfoundland, and the 
remainder a mixture of both. Future connections of the same 
bitch with a greyhound produced a similar litter, with hardly a 
trace of the greyhound. He had bred rabbits with the laws es- 
tablished by this experiment, and at last had so impregnated a 
white rabbit with a gray rabbit that connection of this white 
rabbit with a black male invariably produced gray. The same 
influence is observed in chickens, and I might cite numbers of 
incidents of this wonderful phenomenon of generation, but these 
facts will suffice. These facts show that the act of fecundation 
is not an act which is limited in its effects, but that it is an act 
which affects the whole system, the sexual system especially, and 
in the sexual system the ovary to be impregnated hereafter is so 
modified by the first act that later impregnations do not efface 
that first impression. Dr. Manly Miles, in "Principles of Stock 
Breeding," says: "It was formerly claimed that tlio peculiar 
influence of the male was limited to the first impregnation of the 
female only, but there is good reason to believe that every im- 
pregnation may leave its impression upon partly developed 
germs, and be thus transmitted with the characters of a subse- 



36 THE STOCK owner's ADVISEE. 

quenf fecundation." Darwin, in the vegetable kingdom, shows 
the '^direct action of the male element on the mother form," and 
comes to the conclusion that the male element not only affects, 
in accordance with its proper function, the germ, but the sur- 
rounding tissues of the mother plant. 

HORSES AND THEIR aUALITIES. 

First of all, the sire should have a sound organization, free 
from hereditary ailment. There is no better established fact 
than that all progeny, vegetable or animal, takes its physical, 
■mental and moral qualities from those which predominate in the 
sire and dam during the period of conception and gestation. The 
form, temper, disposition, and constitution are stamped at these 
periods on the offspring. It is well known that all the secretions 
partake of both the general and particular states of body and 
mind. It is by closely observing this law of animated nature 
that we preserve the health and improve the breed of animals. 
Those who wish beautiful and sound animals will see to it that 
the sire and dam are in their best bodily condition when pro- 
creating. A perfectly symmetrical body implies an equal and 
balanced contribution from every organ and structure, and to 
secure this result the animal should be free from all local con- 
gestions or irritations. The stomach should not be loaded, the 
liver should not be obstructed, the lungs should not be congested, 
and the skin should not be clogged. In short, there should be 
the normal play of all the functions. The wild horses of the 
plains do not suffer with hereditary diseases. Xone of them are 
malformed, and no epidemic, not even endemic disease, prevails, 
showing that they die the natural death of healthy and sound 
animals. Could Ave learn the cause of this exemption, nothing in 
the history of the horse couM be of more interest or benefit. A 
horse's limbs should not be too long, but trim and clean, and his 
joints roimd and well set. He should have considerable space 
between the eyes, nose not dished, and the Roman nose is not 
desirable, llouth of medium size, but not too shallow. The side 



BEEEDINO. 3Y 

of the face should have well-developed maseter muscles, other- 
wise he cannot masticate his food properly. The eye is the index 
of the horse's character. The study of the disposition of the 
horse is one which the veterinary surgeon soon masters. He can 
tell at a glance if it is necessary to throw the horse for operation. 
The eye should be large, clear, and of a variegated, cinnamon 
color, for this sign of a good eye adds to the beauty of the horse. 
It should not be sunk within its orbit, and the lids should not 
be wrinkled. The ears should be small and well tapered. If 
thrown back and forth during progression it indicates an excit- 
able horse. The inferior maxillary or lower jaw should be 
wide; if narrow, it shows a predisposition to disease. The neck 
of the draught horse should be short. Roadsters and saddle 
horses should have long, rangy necks, wiry to the feeling, and 
should leave off in front of withers. Withers should be high for 
speed. The back should be straight, or nearly so, and of proper 
length. The ribs should be large, the flank smooth and full, 
and the hind parts or uppermost haunches not higher than the 
shoulders. There should be a good space between the back and 
the angle of the rib. The loins should be broad, the croup a little 
below the level. The tail should be carried well up heavy, and a 
firm dock. The chest is of great importance. A horse for speed 
should have a narrow bosom with an increasing curvature from 
before back. The last rib should be in close proximity to the 
angle of the ilium. He should be deep in the girth and round- 
bodied. The scapula, or shoulder blade, for speed should be 
oblique, while that for draught should bo more upright. The 
arm for speed should be 22 inches long, well muscled. The knee 
should be broad from side to side and nearly flat before, and 
allow the heel of the foot to touch the elbow when flexed. The 
limb should be flat below the knee and no thicker than a man's 
hand for roadsters or horses for speed. For gracefulness and 
ease of gait the horse should have an oblicpu^ ])astorn. Draught 
horse should have an upright or straight pastern. I'he foot 
should be smooth and tough, of a middle size, without wrinkles, 



38 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

and neither too hard and brittle nor too soft; the heels should be 
firm, and not spongy and rotten; the frogs horny and dry, and 
the sole a little hollow. The foot should not be flat or thin in the 
wall. Such feet will never disappoint your expectations, and 
such only should be chosen. The haunches should be well de- 
veloped and not higher than the shoulders. The thigh should be 
well muscled, and the hind-quarter should not be too short. The 
hock should not be tied in below nor sickle shaped; the oscalces 
should be of medium size. 

The wind of the horse should not be overlooked, and may be 
easily judged by noticing the flanks and by putting him to exer- 
tion. The temper of the horse should be particularly attended 
to. Avoid a fearful horse, which you may know at first sight by 
his starting, crouching, or creeping if you approach him. A hot 
and fretful horse is also to be avoided, but be careful to distin- 
guish between a hot, fretful horse and one that is eager and 
craving. The former begins to fret the moment he is out of the 
stable, and continues in that humor till he has quite fatigued 
himself ; but the latter only endeavors to be foremost in the field, 
and is truly valuable; he has those qualities that resemble pru- 
dence and courage; the other those of intemperate heat and rash- 
ness. His head should not be heavy, nor his neck thick and 
gross. A horse that goes with his heels very wide seldom moves 
well, and one that has them too near will chafe and cut his legs 
by crossing them. Fleshy legged horses are generally subject to 
Grease and other infirmities of that kind, and therefore should 
not be chosen. 

A horse that goes with his forefeet low is apt to stumble. 
Some go so near the ground that they stumble on even roads, 
and must be shod with heavy shoes. Care should be taken that 
the horse does not cut one leg with the other. A horse that goes 
near the ground will cut the low side of the fetlock joint, but 
one that goes high cuts below the knee, which is called the 
speedy cut. A horse that lifts his feet high generally trots fast, 
but is not the easiest for his rider, nor for his own feet on hard 



BREEDING. 39 

pavements. Some horses cut with the spurn of the foot and 
some with the heel, but this may be perceived by their standing, 
for if a horse points the front of his foot inward he cuts with the 
spurn, and if outward with the heel. 

For the average farm horse of this country about sixteen hands 
is the most desirable height. A horse with full form and well- 
developed muscles is preferable below rather than above sixteen 
hands high. The weight should be from thirteen to fifteen hun- 
dred pounds. Such is the most desirable horse in our cities for 
all delivery and dray purposes. The saddle and carriage horse 
should be of the same mold — light and free of limb, with a 
height of not more than fifteen hands and a half. A horse for 
rapid motion should possess parts very different from the farm 
horse. If the colt is designed for a saddle or carriage horse the 
mare should be bred to a stallion of superior adaptation for one 
or the other purpose. If for great speed the mare should go w^ell 
herself, and have good connections on her side, and should be 
bred to a stallion that in connection with his family has been 
noted for speed. 

In measuring a horse the height is taken at the highest bony 
point of the withers, the spinous process of the seventh dorsal 
vertebra. Care should be taken to see that the horse, when 
measured, is standing on an exact level with the examiner and 
with the instrument used. The ordinary form of instrument 
used is the standard, a rod six feet in height, with a movable 
cross bar, the latter usually fitted with a spirit level. Care should 
be taken to see that the upright is perfectly vertical, as a small 
inclination will make an important difference in the horizontal 
bar. When there is a decided difference in the height of the 
withers and croup, as sometimes occurs, it should be noted, but 
the record is taken from the former. It must bo remembered 
that in double teams the form and style in carrying the head 
will frequently render horses a good match, when the standard 
shows a decided difference in their height. 

The horse varies in height from 9 to 22 hands; under 14 



40 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

hands he is known as a pony; Cobs measure from 14 to 15^. 
Some of the great Belgian and English draught horses reach 18 
hands. I once saw a coach bred gelding that measured 22 hands. 
The average weight of an ordinary horse is about 1,000 
pounds. 

Ponies are under 800 pounds. 

Light roadsters 950 pounds. 

Ordinary roadsters and :.addle horses 930 to 1,150 pounds. 

Coach horses 1,000 to 1,350 pounds. 

Light draught 1,000 to 1,350 pounds. 

Medium draught horses 1,350 to 1,500 pounds. 

Heavy draught horses 1,500 and over. 

The color of the hair is an indication of some importance. 
The dark bay is the best color for strength and endurance. The 
iron gray and black next. For beauty the sorrel or chestnut 
proper exceeds them all. It is a rich, uniform, brownish red, 
like that of a ripe chestnut. 

Except in the way of general directions, not much can be said 
in regard to the selection of a particular horse from which to 
breed. 



in. 

THE MARE-HER QUALITIES AND TREATMENT. 

For breeding purposes the mare should possess a sound body. 
The nutriment of the fetus being derived directly from the 
mother's blood, if she is disordered or defective, its vital func- 
tions must suffer also. After conception the sire's condition or 
habits can have no further influence on the offspring during its 
embryonic life. The mother, however, must affect its character 
and destiny through all of her varying conditions during the 
whole period of gestation and lactation. Hereditary diseases are 
generally transmitted by the mare. The rule, then, for the pro- 
duction of sound colts is exceedingly simple. Keep the mare 
healthy. The rule extends through the entire period of gesta- 
tion and lactation. 

I do riot hold that every disease of the parents will be trans- 
mitted to the colt. Some fine colts are raised by feeble mares, 
although such is by no means the rule. Unhealthy parents in 
favorable conditions of procreation may produce healthy off- 
spring. But if only healthy parents produce colts, and that, too, 
with a strict compliance with the conditions of procreation, the 
result will be a steady improvement in quality, and the gradual 
breeding out of physical corruptions. Youatt says: "There is 
scarcely a disease by which either of the parents is affected that 
the foal does not inherit, or, at least, show a predisposition to. 
Even the consequences of ill-usage or hard work will descend to 
the progeny. There has been proof upon proof that blindness, 
roaring, thick wind, broken wind, spavin, curb, ringbone, and 
founder have been bequeathed to their offspring both by the 
sire and their dam." The animal races will never attain sound 
bodies until the people have learned how to breed healthy pro- 
geny. We have made considerable progress in the procreation 

(41) 



42 THE STOCK owner's ADVISEE. 

of cattle, but we come far from fully obser^'ing the laws of life 
in procreation. 

The dam should possess broad hips, a large abdomen, or space 
from the hips to the shoulders. In size, form, and motion she 
should be of the perfect symmetry and model of beauty. These 
last conditions are not always necessary, howeyer. I haye seen 
a beautiful colt from an ill-shaped mare. In such cases the foal 
partakes chiefly of the constitution and disposition of the mother, 
while its form and size are derived mainly from the sire. This 
is not the rule, however. 

If well developed, the filly may be bred at three years of age, 
but many are immature at this age, and should not be bred until 
four. The custom of breeding two-year-old fillies cannot be too 
greatly condemned, for at this age they are not qualified to 
breed satisfactorily. It will greatly retard growth and develop- 
ment, and may injure form and beauty for life. It is best to 
breed the mare every other year until she is fifteen years old. 
If bred every year she will fail more rapidly. As a general rule 
it is not best to continue breeding her after she is twelve or four- 
teen years old. 

STERILITY OF THE MARE. 

A mare's sterility is practically decided in the first three years 
of her breeding life. But she should not be considered sterile 
until she has been sensed by at least three horses. There may 
be an unsuitableness of the organs of generation, an unfavorable 
temperament or incompatibility of constitution which would 
disqualify them for reproduction. 

CAUSES OF BARRENNESS. 

The causes of barrenness may be from congenital deformities, 
as malformation of the uterus or absence of the fallopian tubes. 
These conditions cannot be corrected. It may be caused by the 
obliteration of the neck of the womb, sealing up of its mouth, or 
inflammation, resulting in adhesions of the walls of the vagina. 
The sTeatest cause of sterility in the mare is disease of the ova- 



THE MARE HER QUALITIES AND TREATMENT. 43 

ries, which prevents them from maturing healthy germs. 
Chronic inflammation of the neck of the womb and vagina gives 
rise to secretions which destroy the vitality of the spermatozoon. 
Tumors in connection with the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, 
neck of the womb, or any disorder of the uterine functions may 
disqualify for breeding purposes. 

The treatment of these diseases will be given in the future 
pages of this work. 

ARTIFICIAL PREGNATION. 

If sterility of the mare or cow be due to sealing of the mouth 
of the womb, the condition can be corrected. This is often the 
cause of sterility. The operator should provide a pail of warm 
water, carefully heated to the temperature of 103 degrees. In 
this place a long glass syringe a half inch in diameter. The fever 
thermometer should be used for taking the temperature of the 
water. The operator, greasing or oiling his hand, may enter the 
vulva, pass the hand along the floor of the vagina until he 
reaches its extremity. Here, just above the floor of the vagina, 
is a well-marked constriction — the neck of the womb. The fore- 
finger, previously saturated with belladonna, should now be 
gently pressed into the os uteri or neck. The manipulations 
should be carried to the extent of admitting the ends of three 
fingers. The subject should now be allowed to copulate. Imme- 
diately after its termination, the operator should get his syringe, 
which has not been allowed to cool, and, entering the vagina, 
should draw from its floor»the elements deposited during copu- 
lation. Without withdrawing the syringe, he should carry it to 
the neck of the womb, press the syringe well up in the neck, and 
inject with considerable force. In some cases it may not be 
necessary to use the syringe, dilatations of the os uteri being all 
that is necessary, but the neck is often left in such condition that 
it cannot perform its natural fimctions, generally necessitating 
the use of the syringe. 



44 THE STOCK OWXEr's ADVISER. 

IMPERFORATE HYMEN. 

The hjmen is a circular membrane which closes the outer 
orifice of the vagina in the virgin. This membrane is ruptured 
during the first act of copulation, formally the hymen has a 
small perforation at its upper anterior portion through which the 
menstrual fluid exudes. 

The author has operated on fillies where the membrane was 
not perforated, and the membrane so thickened and strong as to 
render sexual intercourse impossible. The condition is seldom 
discovered before puberty. AVhen this period arrives the men-^ 
strual discharge takes place. The animal suffers great irritation 
from retention of the menstrual discharge. She will strain and 
rub the parts against the stall continually. When straining vio- 
lently the membrane can be seen without exploring the parts. 
This condition, seldom seen should be entrusted to a skilled 
veterinarian. 

TREATMENT OF THE MARE WHILE PREGNANT. 

The care and feeding of the mare while with foal is an im- 
portant matter. She affects the foal either for good or evil 
through all of her conditions during the period of gestation and 
lactation. A life of duty is most conducive not only to the 
health of the mare, but to that of the offspring as well. This 
cannot be too strongly borne in mind. She should be protected 
from everything likely to create disturbance of her nervous sys-- 
tem. A sudden gust of passion, fear, or excitement will tell upon 
the offspring. And it must be remembered that pregnancy occa- 
sions in some mares, in the early months, a very excitable state 
of their nervous system, yet without disease. In consequence of 
this continued irritation, the temper of such animals is some- 
times rendered less gentle and patient than is consistent with 
their usual character. Bear this in mind, and do not cuff them 
about. The low, damp, dark stables of our cities, sometimes 
under ground, are sources of great mischief to the pregnant 



THE MARE HER QUALITIES AND TREATMENT. 45 

mare. The stables should be light, airy, and free from contami- 
nating influences. Any neglect, exposure, and abuse will tell 
upon the young animal. The mare should do light work up to 
within five or six weeks of foaling, at which time she should be 
relieved of all service until a month or six weeks after foaling. 
As she nears the time of foaling she should be removed from 
other animals and kept where she can be watched, so that if any 
difficulty arise during parturition assistance may be obtained 
promptly. 

After thirty days the mare may again be put to the horse ; but, 
as said before, it is best to breed every other year. Pregnancy 
alters the character of the milk. It is evident that a small num- 
ber become pregnant during lactation. Sr. Trail says: ''That 
conception should not occur during lactation is very clear. It is 
certainly not in accordance with physiological law, nor is it pro- 
bable that a woman while nursing one child will develop so per- 
fectly the ovum for another." 

Grass when it can be obtained is the best food for the mare. 
If in the time of pasture she will need but little grain. In the 
ktter month of gestation the food should be increased. The 
•mare then has both the foal and herself to support. She should 
never be allowed to fall off and become poor, and on the other 
hand a plethoric condition is objectionable. The food given 
should be of the best quality in order to make pregnant mares 
healthy, to strengthen them generally and locally. 

PARTURITION. 

This is performed in the mare in its natural way with no suf- 
fering. It is a perfectly natural function with them, as it should 
be with all living creatures. All females in perfect health pass 
through their time of trial with comparative ease. Nature never 
intended that they should be tortured when fulfilling her laws. 
The perversion of nature's laws has brought about suffering in 
the human family. The only cases accompanied with suffering 
in the mare are where her body is diseased, or where she has 



46 THE STOCK OWNER S ADVISER. 

associated with a horse larger than herself. In severe cases 
anaesthetics should be used to relieve pain. AYhen there is diffi- 
culty in producing the fetus, recourse should be had to the ergot 
of rye. Half -ounce doses should -be given every half hour. The 
manipulation should be gentle and continued, using as little 
force as possible. The mare should be assisted gently during 
each labor pain. If after a certain time some progress has been 
made with the ergot, it may be suspended for aAvhile; but if all 
progress is evidently suspended recourse must be had to the par- 
turition instruments. Such cases should be intrusted to the vete- 
rinary surgeon, as he will have perhaps the proper instruments 
to make the case easy and free from danger of injury to the mare. 
, The abnormal presentations of the fetus in the lower animals are 
frequent, and found in almost every conceivable shape. Mon- 
strosities are sometimes met with. By this is meant a deformed 
fetus. Such can only be removed by the performance of em- 
bryotomy, and should always be entrusted to the surgeon as 
early as possible. In some cases it is advisable to perform the 
Caesarian operation, a removal of the fetus from the side. Occa- 
sionally labor pains come on and persist for a considerable length 
of time, but it is observed that, instead of being strong and 
powerful as they should be, the contractions are weak and inade- 
•quate to the task of expelling the fetus. In such a case the 
bladder and rectum should be emptied and stimulants admin- 
istered. Pressure may be applied in the region of the uterus, the 
OS uteri should be smeared with belladonna tr. and ergot of rye 
used. Injection of tepid water into the vagina is of great as- 
sistance. 

After delivery, if the umbilical artery does not sever of its 
own accord, it should be ligatured by a silk cord about two inches 
from the umbilical opening and severed from the fetal mem- 
branes. 

Retention of the Placenta. — Retention of the placenta be- 
yond a reasonable length of time frequently occurs. The symp- 
tom generally present in such case is the umbilical cord hanging 



THE MAEE HEE QUALITIES AND TREATMENT. 4? 

from the vulva. It should not be removed immediately- after 
birth of the young animal, as it may come away of its own accord 
in the course of twenty-four hours. 

SavaUj laurel, anise seed, soda carbonate, etc., have been 
recommended, but their efficacy, to say the least, is doubtful. 
To remove them the surgeon must oil his arm and carefully 
manipulate the attachment of the envelops from the uterus, and 
remove them by breaking the attachments with the fingers. The 
membranes should never be pulled away. Where this is done 
the animal dies from its effects. 



IV. 
THE COLT. 

The animal is a foal, irrespective of sex, from birtli imtil 
weaned; a weanling, when weaned, until it becomes a yearling. 
The male animal is a colt until the month is made or until cas- 
trated; custom has. however, accepted the first indication of the 
corner teeth, or four yeaK, as the age at which he becomes a 
horse ; a gelding, after castration, at any age ; .a horse, or stallion, 
after the month is made, or earlier, if he stands for service; a 
ridgiing. if one testicle has not descended to the scrotum. The 
female is a filly until the mouth is made or until bred; a mare, 
after the mouth is made, or soo:ier, if bred. 

The ass is a foal imtil weaned ; after that the male animal is a 
jack; the female animal is a jenny. The male mule is known as 
a jack mule irrespective of gelding, and the female as a jenny 
mide. The hybrid foal of the male ass and the mare is the true 
mule. That between the stallion and the female ass is called the 
hinny. 

Cattle. — The animal is calf until six months old, the natural 
time for weaning: a bullock or bull is the male animal; a steer 
is the castrated male cattle. He is called an ox calf or bull calf 
until twelve months old; a steer until he is four years old, and 
after that an ox or bullock. A stag is a castrated male ; a heifer 
is a female until bred, or until the mouth is made; a cow is the 
female after breeding, or when the mouth is made. 

Sheep. — The animal is a lamb until a year old; a ram or a tup 
when over eighteen months old, and has its first intermediate 
permanent teeth. A ewe. when female over eighteen months 
old and with its first temporary teeth. A wether, when a cas- 
trated male. A hog, hogget, is the young sheep before it has 
been shorn. 

(48) 



THE COLT. 49 

Swine. — The young animal is a suckling until weaned; a 
roaster from four to eight weeks old ; a pig until a year old, male 
or female. A porkling is a young hog or pig of either sex. A 
boar is the adult male; the sow the adult female. A shoat is a 
growling young hog; a barrow is a castrated hog; a farrow is a 
litter of pigs. 

Goat. — The animal is a kid until a year old; a billy is the 
male and the nanny is the female. 

Dog. — A puppy is the young animal. A dog is the adult 
male; a bitch or slut is the female. 

Chickens. — A cock is the male; a cockerel is a young cock; a 
stag is a young game cock; a capon is a young castrated male; a 
hen is the female; a pullet is the young female. 

TREATMENT OF THE COLT. 

The little colt when four or five days old frequently suffers 
with indigestion, and if not attended to will die in a short time. 
This is due to changes in the mother's milk, the treatment of 
which will be found in other chapters. If the mother is worked 
on the road, the colt should not be allowed to follow her. If 
allowed to travel on hard roads, it weakens the limbs and causes 
ringbones and spavins. He may, however, be allowed to accom- 
pany the mother on short trips. The colt, if strong, may be 
weaned when six months old. If the youngster is thin and 
weakly he may be allowed to suck longer. Fall colts should 
always be allowed the mother's milk till the grass comes on in 
the spring. The little colt should never be weaned during the 
severe cold of winter. At weaning the colt should be removed 
from the sight and hearing of the mother. By this course she 
will soon become reconciled to her loss. The mare should be 
milked a few times after the colt has been taken away and the 
glands bathed with the tincture of belladona. This will dry up 
the secretion of milk and prevent inflammation. The little colt 
should be allowed to eat while sucking his mother. A little box 
should be placed along by the side of his mother, where he can 
4 



50 THE STOCK OWXEe's ADVISER. 

easily reacli it. He will enjoy a nice chop feed, and it will help 
him ont considerably when he is being weaned. The colt should 
receive the best of attention dnring the time of weaning and 
while he is young. Bad treatment at this age will weaken him 
for life, and he is too frequently a victim of cniel neglect. Un- 
sheltered from the bleak winds and snows of winter, his vital 
energies receive a shock from which he will never wholly re- 
cover. He not only loses a year's growth, but is injured for life. 

COLT AT FIVE DAYS. 

The foal's education should begin when he is five days old. 
The foal may be educated as well as the child, and wise people 
have said that it is never too early to begin. The rules which 
govern in the human are applicable to the lower animals. The 
prevailing practice among farmers and stock-raisers is to let the 
colt remain unbroken tmtil he is considered of suitable age to be 
put to work. This is not only a dangerous method to the colt, 
but to the trainer as well. A great many are spoilt or injured so 
that they are always unreliable to work, or rendered unfit from 
the abrupt manner in which they are brought into seiwices. ^"e 
cannot too greatly condemn this practice. If the stock-raiser 
would take into consideration the amount of money lost he would 
at once lay aside his old methods. He disposes of his colt at a 
great sacrifice, probably one-third of its value, rather than go 
through with the ordeal of breaking. If the little colt is trained 
at the proper time, and the training can-ied out until he becomes 
a horse, he Avill never know what breaking means. Take him in 
hand at once and gentle him. Xever let him know what fear is, 
and yet you must control him. There should never be a time 
when the colt does not recognize the mastery of his keeper and 
the necessity for obedience. Be gentle and kind to him,, allowing 
him to examine you thoroughly. Whatever he understands to 
be harmless he does not fear. In moving up to him. if he should 
show fear, be gentle and move carefully, and he will soon com- 
prehend that you are harmless, if allowed the privilege of exam- 



THE COLT. 51 

ining and understanding you in his own way, by smelling and 
breathing with the nose. At this age the little animal should not 
know that such a thing as a whip exists. If you strike him with 
the whip, he w^ill probably shy from you and the whip as long as 
he lives. You should teach him to love you, which he will 
readily do if kindly treated. His affection for his master is not 
as strong as that of the dog; if you cruelly treat him or whip him 
he w^ill lose his affection for you, while the dog may be whipped 
and will even love you better. Now that you have gotten up to 
him, and he has learnt that you will not hurt him, pat and caress 
him. Handle him every day until he is perfectly gentle and 
knows no fear. It is at this early age that most of the vices of 
the mature horse are begotten. If the colt is left to himself with- 
out proper training, he will just as certainly run into bad habits 
and those vices which so much detract from the value of many 
horses. The fundamental law of education applies to the colt, 
and as '^a child left to himself bringeth his mother to shame,'' 
so a colt left to himself bringeth his master into trouble. 

The little colt forms bad habits at this age, and if not pre- 
vented or broken while young the habit becomes strengthened 
by long continuance. Some habits formed in the adult can never 
be broken; for instance, the crib biter, wind sucker, and weaver. 
It is much easier to keep the colt from acquiring ugly tricks 
than it is to break mature horses of any settled vice. If the work 
of educating the colt be neglected, no subsequent pains will 
likely make good the deficiency. The colt of three or four years, 
unbroken and untamed, is like the youth who has never known 
parental control. He forms such tricks as backing, shying, kick- 
ing, rearing, running away, breaking the halter, continued res- 
tiveness; is vicious, nervous, fretful, kicks in the stall, and can 
seldom be taught to stand without hitching. We must win the 
colt's confidence, which may be done by uniform actions of a 
kindly disposition. He takes man exactly for what he proves 
himself by actions. By kind treatment he learns to associate Avitli 



52 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

man's feelings of protection and security, and he can have no 
fear or doubt, because never taught to doubt by deception. 

The stock-raiser should decide what his colt is best suited for, 
what place he shall fill, and then conduct the whole process of 
training with a view to the especial purpose selected. It may be 
laid doAvn, as a rule, that the colt is susceptible of training for 
whatever service is desired of him, and that no failures would 
occur if his peculiar adaptedness were properly studied and un- 
derstood. AVe may mould and fashion his disposition, control 
his actions, teach him obedience and submission, and habituate 
him to the performance of whatever duty is deemed best for him. 
If properly trained, he will be safe and true and free from vice 
in almost every instance. The colt now should frequently have 
his legs lifted, his head and ears handled, his neck and body 
stroked. All this he should be perfectly familiar mth before 
weaning. The bridle may now be put on, simply allowing him 
to champ the bit awhile on the first occasion. After he has be- 
come accustomed to wearing it by having it put on three or four 
times, he may be lead about with it a little longer and further 
each time. The first few times this is done it should be by the 
side of his mother, and while she is being led along; then he may 
follow at a little distance behind her, and presently he may be 
taken a few paces in advance of her. 

HOW TO LEAD THE COLT WITH A BROKE HORSE. 

Having the mare and colt in the stable, attach a second strap 
to the colt's bridle or halter, and lead the mother up alongside 
him. Then get on the broke horse and take one strap around his 
breast under the martingale (if he has any on), holding it in your 
left hand. This will prevent the colt from getting back too far. 
Take the other strap in your right hand to prevent his running 
ahead; then turn him about in the stable, and if the door is wide 
enough, ride out with him in that position ; if not, take the broke 
horse out first ?nd stand his breast up against the door, then lead 
the colt to the same spot and take the straps as before directed^ 



1 



THE COLT. 53 

one on each side of his neck, and then let some one start the colt 
out, turning your horse to the left. Any kind and aged colt may 
be managed this way without trouble, for if he tries to run ahead 
or pull back the two straps will bring the two facing each other, 
so that you can very easily follow up his movements without 
doing much holding. If he gets stubborn and does not want to 
go, you can remove all his stubbornness by riding your horse 
against his neck, thus compelling him to turn to the right, and 
as soon as turned about a few times he will be willing to go 
along. He may now be haltered. The rope halter should not 
be used. A good, strong leather halter should be used so as not 
to hurt his mouth. Be as kind and gentle toward him as possible, 
but always continuing the attitude of master. He must be made 
to understand that his master's will is his highest law, and that 
no alternative is open to his choice. Do not suffer him at any 
time to obtain any advantage in pulling about by the halter or 
bridle, or in running away. The latter occurrence even once 
may nearly ruin him. It will take months of careful manage- 
ment to correct its evil effects, and often it forms the beginning 
of a series of bad habits. 

HOW TO PROCEED WITH THE COLT AFTER HALTERING. 

Stand on the left side, pretty well back to his shoulders, taking 
hold of that part of the halter that goes around his neck, then 
with your two hands about his neck you can hold his head to you 
and raise the halter on it without making him dodge by putting 
your hands about his nose. A long rope should be ready, and as 
soon as you have the halter on, attach this to it so that you can 
let him walk the length of the stable without letting go the strap. 
When he runs from you it is best to give him rope. By doing so 
he will not rear up or throw himself, and still you will be hold- 
ing him and doing more towards gentling him than if you had 
the power to snub him right up and hold him to one s])ot. In a 
few minutes you can begin to control him with the halter; then 
shorten the distance between yourself and the colt by taking up 



54 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

the strap in your hand. As soon as he will allow yon to hold him 
by a tolerably short strap and to step up to him without flying- 
back you can begin to give him some idea about leading. In 
doing this pull him to one side. This can easily be done. When 
he steps to one side pat and caress him and repeat until you can 
walk about the stable with him. If he is given several lessons of 
this kind at proper intervals he will become so tame that he will 
come to be caressed while out in the pastures. 

HOW TO PROCEED WITH THE BRIDLE. 

To accustom the colt to the bit, you should use a large, smooth 
snaflle, with a bar at each side. This should be attached to the 
head stall of the bridle; put it in without any reins, and let him 
run loose in a large stable for some time. Repeat this several 
times. Reins should then be attached to the bit, and the animal 
handled with the bit until Is is thoroughly accustomed to it. 

TO ACCUSTOM HIM TO THE SADDLE. 

The saddle should now be brought out. The first thing is to 
tie each stirrup strap in a knot to make them short, preventing 
them from flying about and hitting him. Then double up the 
skirts and take the saddle in your right arm so as not to frighten 
him with it when you approach. When you get to him, rub 
him gently a few times with your hand, then raise the saddle 
very slowly until he can see it and smell and feel it with his nose. 
Then let the skirts loose and rub them very gently against his 
neck, the way the hair lays, letting him hear the rattle of the 
skirts and feel them against him, each time a little further back- 
ward, and finally slip it over on his back. Shake it a little with 
your hand, and in less than five minutes you can rattle it about 
over his back as you please, pull it off and throw it on again with- 
out his paying much attention to it. 

As soon as you have accustomed him to a saddle, fasten the 
girth. Be careful about this. It often frightens the colt when 
he feels the girth binding him. You should bring up the girth 



i 



THE COLT. 55 

very gently and not draw it too tight at first, just tight enough 
to hold the saddle on. Move him a little and then girth it as 
tight as you choose, and he will not mind it. You should then 
lead him about the stable a few times and remove the saddle and 
replace it again. The saddle should not have any loose straps 
about it to flap about and scare him. After he becomes thor- 
oughly accustomed to the saddle, and is not afraid to see you any- 
w^here about him, and will follow anywhere you want him to go 
with the saddle on, you may now proceed to mount the colt. 

HOW TO MOUNT THE COLT. 

You should always be alone and have your colt in some light 
stable the first time you ride him. You should pass all around 
him, move the saddle skirts, and see that they cannot frighten 
him. You may now place a block by the side of the colt and 
get on the block. If he becomes frightened at your appearing 
higher than usual repeat the lesson until fear is removed. Lean 
on the saddle put your foot in the stirrup, and allow him to bear 
your weight. Allow your knees to rest against him and your toe 
to touch him under the fore shoulder. Repeat this several times, 
or until the horse becomes thoroughly accustomed to it. You 
may now raise your leg over his croup and he will not become 
frightened. When you take these precautions there is no horse 
so wild but that you can mount him without making him jump. 
I have tried it on the wor'st horses that can be found, and have 
never failed in any case. When mounting, your horse should 
always stand without being held. 

HOW TO RIDE THE COLT. 

When you want a colt to start do not touch him on the side 
with your heel or strike him with the whip. At once speak to 
him kindly, and if he does not start pull him a little to the left 
until he does so, then let him walk off slowly with the reins loose. 
Ride him around in the stable, turning him from side to side 
until he becomes used to the bit. Get on and off until he will 



56 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

stand when you get into the saddle. Get on from both sides 
until he becomes thoroughly familiar with the movements and 
will not move. After you have trained him this way for several 
hours you can ride him anywhere without having him jump or 
make an effort to throw you. When you first take him out of 
the stable be very gentle with him, as he will feel a little more 
at liberty to jump or rim, and be easier frightened than while 
in the stable. When you moimt a colt take a little the shorter 
hold on the left rein, so that if anything frightens him you can 
prevent him from jumping by pulling his head around. This 
operation of pulling a horse's head round against his side will 
prevent him from jumping ahead, rearing up, or running away. 
If he is stubborn and will not go, you can make him move by 
pulling his head around to one side when whipping would have 
no effect. Turn him around and around until he becomes dizzy, 
then let him have his head and give him a little touch with the 
whip, and he will go along without any trouble. The martingale 
should never be used while the colt is learning. He should now 
be perfectly gentle and familiar with the halter, bridle, saddle, 
and the different parts of the harness, and should be accustomed 
to follow readily, when led by either the halter or bridle, and to 
jLtand tied either in company with other horses or alone. The 
colt should now be tied by the side of some old and steady horse 
in the shafts and led along until he becomes familiar with the 
harness, shafts, buggy, and feels that he is quite in his line of 
duty. He must now be taught the use and guidance of the lines. 
The lines should be transferred to the colt, and with some one to 
lead let him be driven around for awhile in company. This 
should be done until he is thoroughly accustomed to it. He may 
now be put in the shafts, which should be gently lowered upon 
his side. The buggy should be pulled along with the colt in the 
shafts for a distance, then the traces may be fastened. He will 
now take his first lesson in drawing the buggy, which is to be 
commenced slowly and carefully. First move the old horse 
along, when the colt will naturally move off alsoj he should not 



THE COLT. 57 

be allowed to stop until he becomes evidently tired. The old 
horse throughout this exercise should have a saddle on and the 
bridle over his neck ready for riding. If the colt moves off 
freely and kindly, after a few minutes let the person at the head 
lead the old horse a little way in advance, gradually increasing 
the distance until he is several lengths ahead of the colt in the 
shafts. Without stopping the old hor-se, let the assistant now 
spring into the saddle and keep lengthening the distance between 
them, until at length the old horse is taken entirely out of sight 
of the colt. During these lessons he should be taught to stop, 
start, and back. It will be a little difficult to teach him to back. 
Have him back only a few steps at first, gradually increasing 
until he backs readily. All of these performances are designed to 
accustom the colt to the bridle, the harness, the shafts of the 
buggy, and the guidance of the lines, and to complete the work 
of gentling before he has strength or inclination to disobey. He 
should take his lessons frequently, but without requiring from 
him any real labor while young and tender. His health at this 
period should not be neglected. He now begins cutting his per- 
manent teeth. In children a similar irritation is caused by the 
cutting of deciduous teeth. This interferes with his feeding. 
He often cuds his food and wastes more or less of it. The gums 
are reddened by an excess of blood, swollen and tender. The 
irritation may extend to and cause a slightly deranged condition 
of the stomach and bowels, giving rise to constipation, diarrhoea, 
etc. Good wood ashes with plenty of salt kept constantly in the 
feeding troughs will have the happiest effect in abating the evils 
referred to and in mitigating the suffering of colthood. Sulphur 
should be fed also. This has a good effect on the colt in two 
ways — preventing disease and keeping away lice of every descrip- 
tion that so frequently infest the young colt when not in good 
condition. His food should be similar to that described for the 
weanling, except that it should be given in larger quantities. 
This is the most favorable time for castration, which will be dis- 
cussed at length in the future pages of this work. 



58 THE STOCK owner's ADVISEE. 

THE COLT— HIS EDUCATION AND CARE AT TWO YEARS OLD. 

During the third year, the colt should be contiimed in the 
same training as before, and occasionally he may make short trips 
in the buggy. His work should be light during this year. He 
should not be driven or worked hard. This is the time to train 
him for the saddle. A person of small weight may get on his 
back, but no attempt should be made to ride him until he has 
been frequently mounted. His lessons should follow in the 
natural order until he has been ridden, and then he should be 
ridden often, not merely for the purpose of gentling him, but to 
accustom him to the road and the different objects to be met with 
along the way. 

BREAKING YOUNG COLTS. 

It is much to be regretted that farmers and stock-raisers do not 
appreciate the importance of attending to the work of gentling 
and training during the susceptible years of the colt age If 
they would carry out the system of gentling and training as pre- 
viously laid down in this work, the subject of breaking would 
not have to be here dealt with. While this is not done by many 
farmers and stock-raisers, the colt must not be neglected and 
given over as untamable and useless. 

The old method that has been handed down to our farmers for 
ages is a very rough, dangerous, and not always a successful one. 
The colt is brought up, thrust into the wagon; his rearing, kick- 
ing, and plunging must be endured until, from exhaustion, the 
animal is reduced to some degree of obedience. This method, 
however, I am glad to say, is being abandoned for other and 
more rational modes. The best known method of breaking, and 
that which has proven the most successful in my own hands, is 
that known as the Rarey method. 

RAREY METHOD. 

This method consists in conquering the animal by depriving 
him of the use of his limbs and rnaking him feel that he is utterly 



THE COLT. 59 

powerless in the hands of the operator, and must submit to what- 
ever is required of him. In other words, it carries the horse or 
colt through a rapid and vigorous course of training, which is 
both systematic and severe, and at the same time embraces in a 
" short space of time all the essential lessons that are to be taught 
him. This method was first instituted by the late John S. Rarey, 
of Gro ■\^esport, Franklin county, Ohio, although it was not solely 
original with him. His experience in training in this country 
has been very extensive and successful. In the year 1852 he 
went to England, and created such a sensation there that it is 
said the gross proceeds of his exhibitions, lessons, etc., amounted 
to the sum of £25,000, or about $120,000. Mr. Rarey won his 
reputation as a trainer by observing the natural laws that govern 
horses. He exercises reason and patience in teaching and con- 
trolling them, and has but little use for the whip. While his 
method of taming the Avild and vicious horse is rapid and severe, 
it is the most humane and gentle system known. Mr. Rarey uses 
an ordinary halter or head-stall, with the addition of his breaking 
bit, for all purposes. He attaches a leading strap to the nose- 
band, either before or behind. The bit is a straight bar bit, four 
and a half inches long between the rings, with side bars. The 
method of converting the halter into a breaking bridle consists 
merely in attaching any bit that may be selected to the rings con- 
necting the check pieces to the nose band. The attachment is 
made by means of two small billets and buckles. The first step 
is to halter the animal. To do this Mr. Rarey and his pni)ils are 
said to have resorted to the use of drugs. They rub a little oil 
cummin upon the hands and approach the horse on tlu^ windward 
side, so that ho will snioll the cummin. ''The horse will permit 
you to come u}) to him without any trouble. l\nl) your hand 
gently over the nose, so as to get a little of the oil on it, and you 
can lead him anywhere. Put eight drops of tlie oil of rhodium 
into a silver thimble; very gently open the horse's mouth and 
turn the oil in the thind)le upon his tongue, and he will follow 
you like a pet dog, and is yoni- pnpil and your friend." He says 



60 THE STOCK owner's ADVISEE. 

"that there is nothing that assists the trainer to tame his horse 
better than smelling oil." He says ^'it is better to approach a 
colt with the scent of honev or cinnamon upon yonr hand than 
the scent of hogs, for horses naturally fear the scent of hogs, and 
will attempt to escape from it, while they like the scent of honey, 
cummin, or salt." The effect of drugs in horse-training is of 
doubtful efficacy. The trainer should not place too much confi- 
dence in these supposed benefits. To afiect the horse with drugs, 
you must give him some preparation of opium, and while he is 
under the influence of it you cannot teach him anything more 
than a man when he is intoxicated with liquor. In using the 
anaesthetics, such as ether, chloroform, gas, etc., the effects would 
be similar; the horse on recovering from the effects would be no 
further advanced in his lessons; yet it is admissible, perhaps, to 
use essences to catch a brute otherwise unapproachable. After 
the horse is bridled, the next step is to throw him on his side. 
To throw a horse, put a rope 12 feet long around his body in a 
running noose, pass it down to the right fore foot through a ring 
in a spancil; then buckle up the left or near fore foot, take a 
firm hold of the rope, lead him around until he is tired, give him 
a shove with your shoulder, at the same time drawing up the 
right foot. This brings him on his knees; hold him as steady as 
possible, and in a few minutes he will lie down. ISTever attempt 
to hold him still, for the more he scuffles the better. If the 
operator be an active man, he will have no trouble in casting the 
animal, and after a little practice will be able to cast the animal 
with ease. When down, rub and caress him, treating him with 
the utmost gentleness, and every effort should be made to quiet 
his fears and soothe his excitement. He must be convinced that 
although completely mastered, he is in no way to be hurt. The 
operator should stroke his hair with the hand ; pat his body, neck, 
and head ; handle his feet, legs, and ears, thus manipulating every 
part of the body. The operator may now sit down upon him 
and get all over him. The more motions and changes that can be 
gone through with the better. The harness should be rubbed 



THE COLT. 61 

over him, the saddle laid on him ; the chains rattled over him, if 
used. Continue this until all symptoms of fear have departed, 
then allow him to get up. When on his feet, place the saddle on 
his back and each piece of harness. If he scares or jumps, take 
them off and cast him as before. Bring the buggy and allow the 
wheels to pass around him where he can see them; lay the shaft 
on him. Continue this method until he is perfectly familiar with 
the saddle, harness, and buggy. Whatever you undertake to 
teach him, persevere in the instructions until you succeed. The 
horse must be thoroughly conquered at the outset; unless this is 
done, it will be a somewhat prolonged course before he is brought 
under proper subjection. Allow no harsh word or measures of 
any kind. Let all your handling of him be gentle and soothing, 
remembering that the law of kindness is always more potent than 
that of force. The directions given for breal^ing the young colt 
to shafts, hitching, saddling, etc., will apply none the less here. 

There is another very good method of taming the wild and 
vicious horse by the use of the knee strap. When you desire to 
subdue a horse that is very wild, or has a vicious disposition, take 
up one forefoot and bend his knee till his hoof is bottom upwards 
and nearly touches his body; then slip a loop over his knee and 
shove it up until it comes above the pastern joint, being careful 
to draw the loop together between the hoof and pastern joint 
with a second strap of some kind to prevent the loop from slip- 
ping down and coming off. This will leave the horse standing 
on three legs; you can now handle him as you wish, for he can- 
not do much in this position. There is something in this opera- 
tion of taking up one foot that conquers a horse quicker and 
better, considering the trouble, than anything else, and there is 
no other process equal to it for breaking a kicking horse, for by 
conquering one meihber you conquer, to a great extent, the 
whole horse. When you first fasten up a horse's foot he will 
sometimes get very mad, and striking with his knee and trying 
every possible way to get it down, but as he cannot do that lie 
will soon give up and abandon all antagonistic demonstration. 



62 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

willing to obey and be generally docile. Operate on your borse 
in this manner as often as the occasion requires, and you will 
soon find him as gentle as his nature will permit. This method 
of conquering the horse is less trouble and less danger to the 
operator than any known, for after you have tied up his foot you 
can sit down and look at him until he gives up. When you find 
he is conquered, go to him and let down his foot, rub his leg with 
your hand, caress him, and let him rest a few minutes, then put 
it up again. Repeat this a fcAv times, always putting up the 
same foot, and he will soon learn to travel on three legs, so that 
you can drive him some distance. As soon as he gets a little 
used to this way of travelling, put on harness and hitch him to a 
sulky. If he is the worst kicking horse that ever raised a foot, 
you need not be fearful of his doing any damage while he has one 
foot up, for he cannot kick, neither can he run fast enough to 
do any harm. If he is the wildest horse that ever had harness 
on, and has run away every time he has been harnessed, you can 
now hitch him to a sulky and drive him as you please. If he 
wants to nm, you can let him have the lines, and the whip, too, 
with perfect safety, for he can go but a slow gait on three legs, 
and will soon be tired and ready to stop. Thus you will effectu- 
ally cure him of any farther notion of running off. 

This method is the best known for breaking a kicking horse. 
There are plenty of ways by which you can hitch a kicking horse 
and force him to go, though he kicks all the time, but this does 
not have any good effect towards breaking him, for we know that 
horses kick because thev are afraid of what is behind them, and 
when they kick against it and it hurts them they only kick 
harder. By the new method you can harness them to a rattling 
sulky, plow, wagon, or anything else in its worst shape. They 
may be frightened at first, but cannot kick or do anything to 
hurt themselves, and soon finding that you do not intend to hurt 
them, they will not care anything about it. You can then let 
down the leg and drive along gently without any further trouble. 



THE COLT. 63 

The kicking horse can be taught to be gentle in harness in a few 
hours' time. 

THE EUREKA BRIDLE. 

While a pupil of Prof. O. R. Gleason, who has great reputa- 
tion in this country and abroad as a horse trainer, we were taught 
to use the Eureka bridle in leading and handling the colt. It is 
the most powerful means of learning the colt to lead. There is 
one objection to the use of it, however, in the training of the 
innocent colt, for persons are apt to be inconsiderate in its use. 
Instead of using it with utmost mildness, a little resistance on 
the part of the colt is made an excuse to use it in the most severe 
manner, until the colt either submits unconditionally or becomes 
so desperate with pain as to be entirely reckless. 

HOW TO MAKE THE EUREKA BRIDLE. 

Take a sash cord or a small hemp rope about three-eighths of 
an inch. Let it be about fifteen feet long; tie one end into a 
hard knot just as you would to prevent its raveling; tie another 
knot about ten inches or a little more from the one on the end, 
but before you draw it tight put the knot on the end through. 
You have now a loop that will not slip, made on the principle of 
the hitching rope tied around the neck of the horse so as not to 
tighten upon the neck by pulling. This loop should be just 
large enough to slip over the under jaw; put this loop over the 
lower jaw while standing on the near side, take the cord in the 
left hand, and bring over the neck by passing the left hand 
under the neck to the opposite side towards the mane; bring the 
right hand over the neck and take the cord from the left and 
pass back to the loop, and put through from the top side until 
the part over the neck is drawn like a check rein; now take hold 
of the end of the rein, and you have a means of power in it that 
makes the strongest horse almost a plaything in your hands. In 
using the Eureka bridle as a means of subduing the colt, it is 
best to use the knee strap, tampering him on three legs. As soon 
as he submits cleverly to this step, instead of fastening up the 



64 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

leg by the method already described, take off your strap. Then 
put on the Eureka bridle gently and step to one side and back 
and say, "Come here, sir!" pulling a very little upon the bridle, 
just enough to bring his head towards you a little, l^ow step 
up to him and pat him on the neck, saying, "You are a fine fel- 
low." Then try again the same way, and so repeat until he will 
come quite freely; you may increase your force upon the bridle 
in proportion to his submission, but not if he shows stubbornness. 
You may then step to the other side and repeat the lesson until 
he will come to you either way cheerfully. When you wish him 
to follow, continue your training in this way, gradually pulling 
a little more on a line with his body, until he will follow as well 
ahead as he does sideways. 

HOW TO MAKE A BITTING BRIDLE FOR AN UNRULY HORSE. 

Take the Eureka bridle already d'^scribed and i^x a loop upon 
the other end like that already used to put around the jaw, but 
big enough to go over the head and fit over the neck, rather tight, 
where the collar is worn. Xow bring the cord forward, put 
through the mouth from the ofi-side, and bring back on the near 
side and put through the loop around the neck. Pull upon this 
cord and the head will be drawn back to the breast. You are 
now prepared to bit. Simply pull upon the cord a little, which 
will draw the head back slightly; after holding for a short time, 
render loose ; then draw up a little tighter, and so repeat for four 
or five minutes. Then stop bitting, and repeat at some future 
time till you have the horse under your control. 

THE STUBBORN HORSE. 

If the animal you are operating upon seems to have a stubborn 
or mulish disposition rather than wild; if he lags back his ears 
as you approach him, or turns to kick you, he has not proper 
regard or fear of man, and it might do well to give him a few 
sharp cuts, with the whip, about the legs pretty close to the body. 
It will crack keen as it plies about his legs, and the crack of the 



THE COLT. 65 

whip will affect him as much as the stroke. Do not whip him 
much, only enough to scare him. But whatever you do, do 
quickly and with a good deal of fire, but always without anger. 
If he does right, pat and caress him. If he does wrong, give him 
the whip. As soon as you have frightened him, so that he will 
stand up straight and pay some attention to you, approach him 
again and caress him a good deal more than you whipped him; 
thus you will excite the two controlling passions of his nature, 
love and fear; he will love and fear you, too, and as soon as he 
learns what you require he will obey quickly. 

If the horse is of too mulish a disposition to yield to careful 
and gentle treatment as here given, you must resort to the several 
measures recommended for taming vicious horses. 

HOW TO GET A COLT FROM PASTURE. 

Go to the pasture and walk around the whole herd quietly, at 
such a distance as not to cause them to scare or run. Then ap- 
proach very slowly; if they stick up their heads and seem to be 
frightened, wait till they become quiet, so as not to run them 
before you are close enough to drive them in the direction you 
want them to go. When you begin to drive do not flourish your 
arms or halloo, but gently follow them off, leaving the direction 
free you wish them to take. Thus taking advantage of their 
ignorance, you will be able to get them to the pound as easily as 
the hunter drives the quails into his net. 

KICKING IN STALLS. 

To cure a horse of this habit, put on the saddle part of a car- 
riage harness and buckle on tightly. Then take a short strap, 
with a ring attached, and buckle around the forward foot below 
the fetlock. To this short strap attach another strap, which bring 
up and pass through the turret; then return to the foot and run 
through the ring in the short strap. Then pass over the belly- 
band and tie to the hind leg, below the fetlock. With this at- 
tachment on each side, the moment the horse kicks ho pulls his 
6 - 



66 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

feet from under and trips himself upon his knees, which he will 
be very careful not to do after a few times. 

HALTER PULLING. 

Put on the Eureka bridle, as before described, and train the 
horse about until he will come to you readily when you pull him 
a little sideways. Simply repeat this, gradually a little more on 
a line Avith his body at each repetition, until he will yield as 
readily at being pulled forward as sidewise. Then tie a rope 
around the body where the harness saddle rests. Xow lead the 
horse to his manger or to a post, run the halter strap through the 
ring or hole, and pass back between the forelegs over the strap 
or cord tied around the body, and tie to the hind leg below the 
fetlock. If your halter strap is not long enough, splice a piece 
to it. When you have him fastened, step forward to his head 
and make him pull. He will go back with a rush and try his 
uttermost to break it, but the moment he attempts going back 
the halter pulls directly upon the hind leg, which not only dis- 
concerts, but makes it impossible for him to pull. When he 
comes up from trying the halter, you should meet him with a tap 
on the nose. He may then try it the second time. Continue as 
often as he will go back. They seldom try it more than twice. 

TO TRAIN A HORSE TO STAND WHILE GETTING INTO A 

CARRIAGE. 

If he rears up and starts very suddenly, or will not stand long 
enough to get in and be seated, do not whip him for it. This 
only adds to the trouble, and may make him stubborn, so that 
he T\dll refuse to start when called on. Rather, after he is 
hitched, caress him about the head, then take hold of the reins 
and put your foot on the step and shake the carriage ; if he starts, 
pull gradually on the reins, and at the same time speak low, 
"Whoa, my boy," or something like it. Then approach his head 
and give him a piece of apple, caress him on the head between 
the eyes and on the nose and neck; continue this kind of treat- 



THE COLT. 67 

ment a few minutes; when mounted, do not allow him to start 
off in a hurry — walk him off. After practicing this a few times 
he will be perfectly submissive. 

HOW TO CURE BAD KICKERS. 

For extremely bad kicker-s, or horses bad to shoe, the following 
method will be found effectual. Put on a common rope or strap 
halter, with a hitching rope or strap about twice as long as the 
animal's body. Have around the body a common rope or sur- 
cingle. Then pass the rope or strap between the forelegs over 
the surcingle, back around the hind feet, below the fetlocks, and 
forward over the surcingle between the legs, and tie short into 
the halter beneath the jaws. E^ow make him kick, and he will 
yield readily. 

HOW TO MANAGE BALKY HORSES. 

Free-going and high-spirited horses are the ones more liable 
to become balky. The cause of this is due to drivers who seem 
to believe that all horses have the same dispositions and should 
be treated alike. When a horse balks it is from some misman- 
agement, excitement, or from not knowing how to pull, but sel- 
dom from unwillingness to perform all that he understands. 
When you find a balky horse, you will always find him a free 
goer, or he is hitched by the side of a slow horse, and the driver 
an impatient man and usually possessing a small amount of comr 
mon sense. The anxious horse can scarcely wait until he is called 
on to go, and when the driver, who scarcely knoAvs a horse from a 
cow, bawls out for them to start, he springs forward against the 
load, whidh gives him a severe jerk on the shoulders, causing him 
to flyback and jerk the slow horse thatis just now getting started. 
The driver bawls out again, and the free horse springs up again, 
but the load does not move, leaving them confused and not 
knowing how to start the load. !N'ow the driver flies into a pas- 
sion and begins whipping and slashing and hollowing until the 
poor animals are so confused that they know nothing. The 
driver, who is whipping, knows less and has lost all reason and 



i 



68 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

common sense. To scare the already frightened horse is surely 
not the correct method to pursue, and to whip the confused horse 
is equally as bad. There is hardly one balky horse in five hun- 
dred that will pull truly from whipping; it is only adding fuel to 
fire and will make him more liable to balk at another time. 
Horses that have balked a few times, turn their heads and look 
back as soon as they are a little frustrated. This is because they 
have been whipped and are afraid of what is behind them. AVhen 
your horse balks, or is a little excited, or if he wants to start 
quickly, or looks around and don't want to go, there is some- 
thing wrong, and he needs kind treatment immediately. Caress 
him kindly, and if he don't understand at once what you want 
him to do, he will not be so much excited as to jump and break 
things through fear. As long as you are calm, and can keep 
down excitement, there are ten chances for him to understand 
you where there would not be one under harsh treatment, and 
then the little flare up would not carry with it any unfavorable 
recollections. Almost every wrong act the horse commits is 
from mismanagement, fear, or excitement; one harsh word will 
so excite a nervous horse as to increase his pulse ten beats per 
minute. Almost any team when first balked will start kindly 
if you will let them stand five or ten minutes as though there 
was nothing wrong; then walk some distance in front of them 
and return, passing around the team, so that they can see you. 
When you think they have forgotten their excitement, speak to 
them with a steady voice and turn them a little to the right or 
left so as to get them in motion before they feel the pinch of the 
load. Xow, if they should fail to start, go to them and gentle 
them. Spend some time doing this, or until they are composed. 
To start a team that you are not driving yourself, that has been 
balked, fooled, and whipped for some time, have the drivers and 
spectators, if there are any, stand off some distance to one side, 
so as not to attract the attention of the horse. Unloose their 
check reins, so that they can get their heads down if they choose; 
take off the bridle, pat and caress them, and put them back on; 



THE COLT. 69 

take up their fore feet, adjust their collars, unloose their traces 
and hook them up again. Now step in front of them, move their 
ears and put your hand in their mouth and handle their tongue. 
While thus gentling and composing them, the spectators will 
think you are doing something that they do not understand, and 
will not learn the trick. Do not start them until they are thor- 
oughly composed, which can be easily told from the expression 
of the eye and the movement of the ears. When you have them 
ready to start, stand before them, and as you seldom have but one 
balky horse in a team, get as near in front of them as you can. 
If he is too fast for the other horse, let his nose come against 
your breast; this will keep him steady, and he will go slow rather 
than run over you. Turn him gently to the right. Have the 
wagon standing in a favorable position for starting out, letting 
them pull on the trace as far as the tongue will let them go. 
Stop them with a kind word, gentle them a little, and turn them 
back to the left by the same process. You will have them under 
your control by this time, and as you turn them again to your 
right steady them in the collar, and you can take them where 
you please. 

There is a quicker process that will generally start a balky 
horse, but not so certain as the above method. Stand him a little 
ahead so that his shoulder will be against the collar. Then take 
up one of his fore feet and let the driver start them. He will 
generally go right r,long. If you want to break a horse from 
balking that has long been in the habit, put him by the side of 
some steady horse. Have check lines on them, tie up all traces 
and straps so there will be nothing to excite them. Ho not rein 
them up, but allow their heads to be loose. Walk them about 
together as slowly and as lazily as possible. Stop often and go 
up to the balky horse and gentle him, keeping him as quiet as 
possible. He will soon learn to start off at the word and stop 
when you tell him. As soon as he performs right, hitch him to 
an empty wagon. It will be well to shorten the stay chains be- 



70 THE STOCK owner's ADVISEE. 

hind the steady horse, so that if it be necessary lie can take the 
weight of the wagon off the other horse. 

HOW TO MAKE THE HORSE STAND STILL WITHOUT 

HITCHING. 

First, teach, him to follow you. When he will do this stand 
him in the center of the stable. Begin caressing him at the head 
and gradually work backwards. If he moves, give him a cut 
with the whip and put him back to the same spot from which he 
started. If he stands, caress him. Continue this until you can 
walk about him without making him move. Keep walking 
around him, increasing your distance and occasionally touch him 
and caress him. ' After getting some distance from him, if he 
should move, give him another cut with the whip and put him 
back to his place. If he stands, go to him frequently and caress 
him. Go round him as before. Then stand him in another place 
and proceed as before. 

ON THE TRAINING OF HORSES FOR TROTTING. 

The horse should be in good flesh. He should be driven 
moderately, with walking exercise CA^ery morning of about five 
miles. Before going into quarters, give him a brush, for one 
hundred yards, at the top of his speed and one or two miles of 
moderate driving, sufficient to sweat him. Then rub dry with 
rubbing rags. Light rubbing is the best — just enough to dry 
the hair. Hard rubbing on the bones or cords causes soreness. 
Rub the flesh and muscles well to harden them. AVhen driving 
to sweat, put on two thick, woollen blankets, and drive at full 
speed two miles. Then turn down the hood or neck cover and 
scrape the head and neck well and rub dry. Then cover dry and 
continue the same over the whole body, rubbing lightly and only 
enough to dry the hair. Then put on nice, dry covering and let 
him stand. Sweating often in this way will weaken, therefore it 
should be done but seldom. The food and drink should be of the 
purest kind; sift the oats free from all dust; also dust the hay 



THE COLT. 71 

and give about a handful at a feed, morning and noon, and about 
twice that quantity at night. From twelve to sixteen quarts of 
oats should be given in a day. Give one gallon of water in the 
morning, the same at noon; at night give two gallons of water 
and a peck of oats, with treble the quantity of hay. The horse 
should not be exercised on a full stomach. Grain lying undi- 
gested in the stomach generates a gas by fermentation, and indi- 
gestion is the result. 

WEIGHTS TO BE CARRIED IN TROTTING. 

Every trotting horse starting for a match purse or stake shall 
carry one hundred and fifty-six pounds. If in harness, the 
weight of the sulky and harness is not to be considered. Pacing 
horses are liable to the same rule. It will be interesting to note 
that, in the regular progressive movements of the horse when 
trotting, the diagonal limbs act nearly simultaneously, and that 
the body is entirely without support for varying intervals of time 
and distance. Until the recent investigation of animal locomo- 
tion by Mr. Mybridge, many experienced horsemen were of 
opinion that during the action of the trot one foot of the horse 
was always on the ground. Mr. Mybridge, after more than 
twenty years' study of the subject of animal locomotion, is the 
recognized authority on this subject, both in America and 
Europe. He received contributions amounting to seventy thou- 
sand dollars to assist him in his work. He produced photographs 
of the movements of the horse, taken by an automatic electro- 
photographic apparatus called the zoopraxiscope, invented by 
himself. The exposures were in some instances less than one 
five-thousandth part of a second. In trotting at a high rate of 
speed the fore foot usually precedes its diagonal liind foot in 
being lifted from and placed upon the ground, and the body will 
be entirely without support for about one-half the total length 
of the stride. Beginning the notation Avitli tlu^ landing of the 
right fore foot, the order of the supporting foot will be, first, the 
right fore foot; second^ the left hind and right fore^feet; third, 



72 THE STOCK OWNEe's ADVISER. 

the left hind foot; fourth, without support; fifth, the left fore 
foot; sixth, the right hind and left fore feet; seventh, the right 
hind foot; eighth, without support. The time during which one 
foot alone is on the ground is very brief. 

RACK. 

The rack is a method of progressive motion by a quadruped in 
which two lateral feet are, with nearly synchronous movement, 
placed upon and lifted from the ground, alternating with the 
other laterals, the body of the animal being in the intervals en- 
tirely without support. Sometimes it is called the pace. With 
some animals the rack is an hereditary movement; with others 
it is acquired. A trained horse can make faster time by racking 
than by trotting. The rack differs from the trot in the nearly 
synchronous action of the laterals, instead of the diagonals. 

It is a very easy matter to teach the horse to pace or rack. A 
strap attached to the stirrup and to the mouth will enable the 
rider to throw the horse into a pace with the greatest ease. An- 
other good method is as follows: Take nine or ten pounds of 
lead, divide in four parts equal to three and three-quarter inches 
by four and a half in size; make two holes in each end of these 
leads, then fasten two of them together and have them padded. 
Then fasten them on the horse's legs, one on each hind leg just 
above the ankle joint. Ride your horse briskly with these 
weights upon his ankle, at the same time pulling each rein of 
the bridle alternately. By this means you immediately throw 
him into a pace. After training in this way to some extent, 
change the leaden weights to something lighter — leather pad- 
dings, or something equivalent. Let him wear these plates until 
he is perfectly trained. By adopting this plan you may speedily 
make a smooth and easy pacer of any horse. 

AMBLE. 

This method of progression is the same as the walk in its foot 
fallings, except that a hind foot or a fore foot is lifted from the 



THE COLT. 



73 



ground before its fellow hind foot or fellow fore foot, the sup- 
port of the body developing alternately upon one foot and upon 
two feet, the single foot being alternately a fore and a hind foot, 
and the intermedial support alternately diagonals and laterals. 
The amble is natural to the elephant, and in some countries to 
the horse, the mule^ and the ass. The sequence of foot fallings 
is the right hind, the right fore, the left hind, the left fore, be- 
ginning again with the right hind foot. At no time during the 
stride is the body of the animal supported. The amble has been 
erroneously confused with the rack or pace. It is the most 
gentle and agreeable to the rider of all methods of locomotion of 
the horse; whereas the rack is the most disagreeable and un- 
graceful. 

WALK. 

This method of progression is common to nearly all of the 
terrestrial vertebrates. The notation begins with the landing of 
a right hind foot; the consecutive foot fallings will be the right 
fore foot, the left hind foot, the left fore foot, followed by its 
diagonal hind, with which the record began. The time intervals 
of foot fallings vary with different species of animals, but their 
sequence is invariably the same with all, the apes alone excepted, 
with which the landing of a hind foot is usually preceded by 
that of its lateral fore foot. During a single stride of a qua- 
druped in an ordinary walk it is supported in eight different 
ways — twice upon the laterals, twice upon the diagonals, twice 
upon two hind feet and one fore foot, and twice upon two fore 
feet and one hind foot. 

GALLOP. 

The gallop is the most rapid method of progressive quadru- 
pedal motion, in which the animal springs into the air from a 
fore foot and lands upon the diagonal hind foot. Jf the notation 
of stride by the horse during the gall()[) begins with a landing 
with a hind foot upon the ground — as for oxauiph', tlio left hind 
foot — the right hind will next strike the ground at a considerable 



74 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

distance forward, then following in succession the left fore and 
the right fore foot at a distance from each other sometimes equal 
to the height of the animal. The consecutive foundations of sup- 
port are — first, the left hind foot; second, both hind feet; third, 
the right hind foot; fourth, the right hind and the left fore 
feet; fifth, the left fore foot; sixth, both fore feet; seventh, 
the right fore foot from which the animal will spring into 
the air, in which phase (the only one of a gallop when the 
animal is entirely off the ground) all the legs are flexed un- 
der the body. The first foot to strike the ground will be the 
hind foot diagonal to that from which the spring was effected. 
This movement, the gallop, has in all ages been employed by 
artists to convey the impression of great speed, although, curi- 
ously enough, the phase in which the horse has been almost 
invariably depicted is one which is impractible during uniform 
progressive motion, and conveys no such impression to the care- 
ful observer. 

CANTER. 

In the canter the feet are landed on the ground in the same 
consecutive order as in the walk, but not with the same compara- 
tive intervals of time. Assuming that in the canter the notation 
is begun after a propulsion through the air with a final thrust of 
the left fore foot, the landing will take place on the right hind 
foot, followed in order by the right fore, the left hind, and the 
left fore from which a succeeding thrust off the ground will be 
effected. The consecutive supporting feet are — first, the right 
hind foot; second, the right hind and right fore feet; third, both 
hind and right fore feet; fourth, the left hind and right fore 
feet; fifth, the left hind and both fore feet; sixth, the left hind 
and left fore feet; seventh, the left fore foot alone, from which 
the animal leaves the ground. The canter is usually regarded as 
a slow gallop, probably from the facility with which a change 
from one gait to the other can be effected; an important differ- 
ence will^ however, be observed. 



i 



VETERINARY HYGIENE AND DIETETICS. 

WATER— aUANTITY, aUALITY. 

Water (H2O) forms about 70 per cent of the whole body. It is 
one of the chief constituents of the juices and tissues, and is a 
general solvent, by means of which various materials may be 
taken in as food, or excreted from the body. The various organs 
or liquids contain valuable quantities; thus, enamel contains 2 
per cent; saliva, 99 5-10 per cent. The water should be pure, 
and is best when obtained from the clear brook. If soft water 
cannot be had, draw the hard water from the well and allow it to 
stand two hours before using. Be careful that there is no drain- 
age of putrid matter into the well or cistern. Many diseases are 
contracted by allowing the refuse from the barn yards to drain 
into the cistern, or by watering the animals in the stream below 
where the drainage enters. During very cold weather the water 
should be warmed so as not to chill the animal. As a rule, the 
horse should have one gallon of water in the morning, the same 
at noon, and two gallons at night. Water should be given fre- 
quently while on the road, but only a small quantity at a time, 
merely cooling his mouth and tongue. Giving a great amount 
of water diseases the blood and deadens the hair. The water 
must in some way pass out; it cannot all pass through the kid- 
neys, and it passes off through the pores of the skin, causing the 
hair to become gummy and making the horse very hard to clean. 
So great a quantity of water passing off through the pores of the 
skin causes the hair to look dull and faded. Large draughts of 
cold water often derange the digestive organs and retard diges- 
tion for some time; one gallon of cold ice water will retard 
digestion two hours, destroy the juices, and disable digestion. 

(75)' 



76 THE STOCK OWXEE S ADVISEE. 

When a horse is verv warm he should not be allowed to have 
cold draughts of water; its rapid cooling of the stomach produces 
indigestion and colic, frequently causing inflammation of the 
mucous membrane and the sensitive structures of the feet. 

FOOD. 

Various tissues of the body, like the parts of a machine, are 
subject to wear and tear. There is also a constant liberation of 
energy in muscular work, and the evolution of heat going on in 
the body. The wear and tear of the various tissues of an active 
adult horse must be considerable: the brain cells, glandular epi- 
thelium, the blood corpuscles, from time to time require renewal 
and to be supplied with materials. The waste products of the 
disintegration of the tissues and of the combustion going on in 
the system are thrown out of the body at the lungs, the skin, and 
the kidneys. Experience proves that a mixed diet is best to main- 
tain the body in health. Animals will not live on hydrocarbons 
or carbo-hydrates alone. Too much nitrogenous food causes an 
excessive amount of urea and uric acid, throwing increased work 
on the excretory organs. 

Milk may be taken as a typical illustration of a natural com- 
bination of the various foods. Cows' milk contains: 

Nitrogenous matter, casene and albumen 4.1 

Butter 3.9 

Milk sugar 5.2 

Salts , 0.8 

Water 86.0 

Cows' milk equals 14 per cent solids. The normal diet for an 
adult horse is as follows: 

Albuminous matter 28 ounces of avoirdupois. 

Fatty matter 21 ounces of avoirdupois. 

Carbohydrates 98 ounces of avoirdupois. 

Salts 7 ounces of avoirdupois. 

Thus about 154 ounces of dry, solid food are contained in this 
diet, of which about one-fifth is nitrogenous. If we reckon that 



I 



VETEKINARY HYGIENE AND DIETETICS. 77 

50 per cent of ordinary food is water^, these 154 ounces will cor- 
respond to 308 ounces of ordinary solid food. The standard diet 
will necessarily be altered under different conditions. Horses 
need more in cold climates, and when working heavily than when 
at rest. The hard-working animal requires more food to build 
up waste tissue. 

THE AMOUNT OF NUTItlMENT IN THE VARIOUS FOODS 

USED FOR HORSES. 

The following table will show the amount of nutritive matter 
contained in the different foods used for the horse : 

1,000 parts of Wheat contains 955 parts of nutritive material. 

1,000 parts of Barley contains 950 parts of nutritive material. 

1,000 parts of Oats contains 744 parts of nutritive material. 

1,000 parts of Peas contains 573 parts of nutritive material. 

1,000 parts of Beans contains 570 parts of nutritive material. 

1,000 parts of Potatoes contains 230 parts of nutritive material. 

1,000 parts of Rf.d Beets contains 148 parts of nutritive material. 

1,000 parts of Parsnips contains 99 parts of nutritive material. 

1,000 parts of Carrots contains 98 parts of nutritive material. 

Of the grasses, 1,000 parts of the meadow cattail contains, at 
the time of seeding, 98 parts of nutritive matter; narrow-leafed 
meadow grass and seeds and sweet-scented soft grasses in flower, 
95 parts; narrow-leaved and flat-stalked meadow grass in flower, 
fertile meadow grass in seed, and tall rescue in flower, 03; creep- 
ing soft grass in flower, 78; common turnips, 42; long-rooted 
clover, 39; white clovers, 32; and lucerne, 25. 

RELATIVE VALUE OF THE VARIOUS GRASSES AND SOILS 
BEST SUITED TO THEIR GROWTH. 

We will here enumerate the various kinds of grasses ordinarily 
cultivated throughout the United States, specifying the roLativo 
value of each for grazing purposes, as also the latitude and soil 
best suited to them. The famous hlue grass of Kentucky, Ten- 
nessee, and West Virginia stands at the head of the list for pas- 
turing. It is a small, fine grass, growing about one foot high, 



78 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

with an abundance of small, bluish colored, narrow leaves at the 
bottom. It mats the ground thickly with bottom leaves. It is 
like the down of a carpet, and is the most beautiful grass that 
grows. It sheds an abundance of seed in the summer and fall, 
and when it once secures a hold it will overrun the countr)^, 
carpeting the fields with its soft, green texture. It is very sweet, 
full of nutrition, and the best grass known for grazing purposes. 
Its growth is confined to the limestone soil. It is cultivated with 
great difiiculty on any other soil, ^orth of latitude 40 or south 
of 35 it does not flourish well. 

Clover is next on the list, ^^e have the white and the red 
clover. The white clover grows about six inches high, with 
small leaves and Avhite blossoms. It is used for grazing purposes 
generally, as it is too small to cut. The red clover is much larger 
and grows three feet tall in good soil. There is an objection to 
both clovers when used for grazing. They act upon the salivary 
glands and cause a flow of saliva from the mouth, producing that 
debilitating affection known as slobbering. TVhen wet with dew 
it causes tympanites or hoven in the cow. T\"hen used for hay it 
contains a dust that is very detrimental to the respiratory organs 
of the horse. It is a good food, however, for the cow. 

Timothy is the next in the list. It is not a valuable grass for 
grazing purposes, but makes the best hay of all the perennials. 
It grows about five feet tall in good soil and is cut down and 
cured while in bloom. It grows in all latitudes north of 35 de- 
grees, flourishing best on rich, dry upland, and upon all soils 
about equally, except the sandy. 

The grasses we have enumerated here are perennials, living 
two years in most soils. They drop their seeds in the fall season 
and lie on the ground until spring, when they come up, very 
small at first; continuing to grow, they become the fine, tender 
grass of the fall pasture. The roots of these shoot up and make 
the pasture of spring. 

The annuals coming earlier are the millet, Hungarian, and 
jescue grasses. The perennial grasses do not thrive below the 



II 



VETEEINARY HYGIENE AND DIETETICS. 79 

latitude of 35, or the southern border of Tennessee. !N^one of 
the clovers succeed in the cotton States. The only grass that 
grows profusely in the cotton States is the herd grass. 

Pasture is the horse's natural food; the air his natural stable 
and home. Diseases, except from accident, are seldom found in 
the pastures. The horse is never so healthy and happy as when 
roaming through the fresh meadows and deep green valleys. 
Instead of the dusty walls of a stable, he is surrounded by na- 
ture's own amphitheatres. His bed among the ammoniacal 
vapors of the stable is changed to one of perfume and flowery 
beauty. The stable horse should have a run at pasture for at 
least two months in each year. He here finds a specific for the 
ills of stable confinement. It renews and purifies his blood, 
opens the capillaries, sends out the oily fluids to the surface, 
regulates digestion, relieves constipation, loosens the joints, 
transforming the jaded horse into a healthy one, with glossy coat 
and nimble limbs. The horse domesticated is a slave ; the stable 
is his prison. He often manifests his desire to be in the open 
air by neighing while in the stable and by playing and capering 
about when loosed from his prison. He grabs at every spear of 
grass within his reach, and thus demonstrates his desire for his 
natural food. A horse must be taught to eat the prepared foods. 
He does not relish it except by an appetite depraved by long 
habit. Even when pure, a great deal of the prepared food is not 
healthy. If a horse be allowed a run at pasture for two months 
in a year, the damage done by stabling may be repaired. 

HAY AND FODDER. 

Timothy when properly cured is the best grass for hay. It 
possesses more nutriment and retains it better through the pro- 
cess of curing than other grasses. It should be harvested at 
maturity while yet in bloom. It should be put in the barn while 
free from rain. It is as necessary to have shelter for the hay as 
it is for the horse. Good, ripe timothy loses only about one- 
fifth of its weight in curing; herd grass, two-fifths; white clover, 



80 THE STOCK OWNER S ADVISER. 

one-lialf ; and red clover, about tliree-fiftlis. In substance they 
vary about the same, and as to healtlifulness tliey are to be esti- 
mated in the same order, timothy being at the head. The herd 
grass may be placed next to timothy in substance. It does not 
grow well on uplands or heavy lands. It grows best in low, 
damp lands, and is extensively cultivated thronghout the Cotton 
States. AVe have frequently seen fine fields of this grass in the 
Cotton States, and always confined to low, damp lands. 

Some of the annuals make a good hay. The rescue grass 
ranks first in value; the Hungarian, second; millet, third. Millet 
fed with its seed makes a tolerably good food. It is extensively 
grown throughout the Southern States. Another annual exten- 
sively used is the corn fodder, obtained by pulling the blades 
from the stalk, and, when dry, binding them in bundles and 
storing away for winter use. This process of curing is generally 
used in the Southern States. In many parts of the country the 
stalks are cut with the blades left on, put on shocks to dry, and 
then stored away for winter food. Corn fodder is not so healthy 
a food as some others, and in the Southern States, where it is 
extensively used, many diseases are contracted by its constant 
use. It apj)ears to dry up the blood, and from its dryness and 
brittleness it is apt to harm the throat. The writer has traced 
encephalitis or inflammation of the brain to the continued use 
of damaged fodder. 

The different straws are wheat, rye, oats, and barley. They 
possess a limited amount of substance, about one-twentieth as 
much as good timothy hay. They are of but little value to the 
horse, and should only be used in making chop feed. They are 
too dry when used in any other way. It is best to feed dry hay 
moistened with water, and add the chop to it. This makes the 
dry feed soft, and the horse will keep fat on much less food than 
by any other mode. Most of the hay allowed between meals 
should be cut and rolled in chop. If the owner would consider 
the improved condition of his horses and the cheapness of this 
method, the trouble of cutting the feed would not be objected to. 



VETERINAKY HYOIENE AND DIETETICS. 81 

It is of the greatest importance that the hay be properly cured; 
damaged by rain, it is very injurious to the animal's health. 
We often trace diseases of the urinary organs to mouldy and 
mow-burnt hay. 

GRAIN. 

The horse must receive a portion of grain; as a general rule, 
one-half the food given him should be of this character. The 
horse at rest requires less feed, and he requires less grain in 
warm than in cold climates. When the horse is worked and 
undergoing long-continued muscular exertion, he requires more 
feed than when standing idle. There is greater difference in the 
quality and A^alue of the different grains than in the various 
grasses. Corn and oats are more extensively used in this coun- 
try than other grains. This is due, perhaps, to some extent to 
their convenience, they being much less trouble than other foods. 
Oats, as part of the food, is the best for the horse. Com alone is 
objectionable. It is heating to the blood and harder to digest. 
The oats may be fed unbroken, but are much better when 
ground. Oats unground are often not thorough masticated, and 
hence pass the stomach not thoroughly digested. Corn, when 
used alone, is very objectionable — the fruitful source of many 
diseases in the horse. Many a young animal has been ruined by 
feeding exclusively upon corn. It not only shows its bad effects 
in acute diseases of the digestive organs known as colic and acute 
indigestion, but in various cutaneous diseases and inflammation 
as a result. Many horses' teeth are so neglected that they can- 
not sufficiently masticate the grain. The whole food is taken 
into the stomach unmasticated; it heats and ferments, and then 
follow the evil consequences of colic. But few young horses fed 
on corn escape indigestion. When corn is used, it should only 
be in part. Bran fed with com makes it safer. The horse should 
have a good bran mash at least twice a week. Eye and barley 
mixed make an excellent chop feed. Carrots, turnips, beets, 
pumpkins, potatoes, cabbage, apples, and similar green feeds are 
good during winter while living on dry foods, 
6 



82 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

THE STABLE. 

'No division of our subject is of more importance tlian this. 
The evils resulting from badly located and ventilated stables are 
simply immense. The horse is debilitated to such an extent that 
it predisposes him to all the ills to which his flesh is heir. The 
farmers' stables are not so much in fault as those of the towns 
and cities. The cities are at disadvantage in getting pure air and 
light. Many a horse's home is located in some back alley or 
lane, in a low, damp, dark situation, where there is but little 
room, and where great piles of manure are suffered to accumu- 
late, filling the atmosphere with fumes. The location of the 
stable is of great importance. If possible it should be on an 
elevation where there can be drainage. If in the city, it should 
be so situated that surrounding buildings will not obstruct the 
air. The stable should be located in dry soil. Low, level, damp 
surroundings and marshy localities not only breed fevers and 
malaria, but are prolific causes of colds, coughs, and lung 
troubles. Do not locate the stable where the natural current of 
air or high winds will be likely to bring the poison of decayed 
vegetable matter from low lands. Certain brooks, boggy lands, 
ponds, foggy localities, too much shade, all conduce to the de- 
velopment of disease. The stable should not be shaded by too 
much foliage. The dampness of the leaves attracts malaria. 
Shade trees at a little distance, however^ are beneficial. In cities 
where stables are located in damp places the horses on the second 
floor will not be attacked with colds and fevers, while those on 
the ground floor will become affected. This is proof that malaria 
seeks the surface of the earth. Stables located where marshes 
or running streams have recently been filled in are hovels for 
disease. Dry earth destroys the germs of disease; it is a great 
absorbent and deodorizer, and should therefore be selected as a 
site for a stable. Each horse's apartment should be large enough 
for him to turn around or lie down comfortably. 

Ventilation is of the greatest importance in a stable. In cities 



VETEEINARY HYGIEl^E AND DIETETICS. 83 

we frequently see as many as a hundred horses shut up in narrow 
and close stables, with no openings for foul air to escape. Each 
pair of lungs throws off an immense amount of carbonic acid 
gas during the night. The air becomes so greatly surcharged as 
to be absolutely poisonous. Ordinary atmospheric air contains 
nearly 2,100 parts of oxygen and 7,900 of nitrogen, and about 
three parts of carbonic acid in 10,000 parts; expired air con- 
tains about 470 parts of carbonic acid, and only about 1,500 
parts oxygen, with little or no change in the nitrogen. Hence 
one can readily see that confined air may soon become absolutely 
poisonous. The ventilation may be accomplished by proper ven- 
tilators. The ventilators should be arranged on opposite sides of 
the building to insure an abundant supply of air. The ventila- 
tors and windows should be placed higher than the animals' 
heads. The flooring and sides of the building should be made 
air tight. The box stalls should be air tight to the height of four 
or five feet. The stable should be kept at a temperature of about 
ten or twelve degrees above the temperature out of doors. 
During the heated period slat doors should be used and all fresh 
air possible allowed to come into the stables. Electric fans are 
of great benefit in crowded city stables. 

If the temperature of the stables be regulated by a thermome- 
ter, and the ventilation sufficient to keep the air pure, sore 
throats, fevers, inflamed lungs and eyes, and swollen legs will be 
prevented. The majority of the maladies of the horse, and those 
of the most fatal character, are directly or indirectly caused by a 
deficient supply of air. The manure from the stables should be 
carted away each day. If there is a drainage away from the 
stables, the manure may be allowed to remain for several days, 
but should never be allowed to remain inside the stable for a day. 
The floor should be of dirt or gravel. The plank or paved floor 
is not objectionable when sawdust is used. The feet of horses 
standing on plank or hard floors become hard and brittle. The 
floor should be entirely level. 



84 THE STOCK OWXEe's ADVISEE. 

LIGHT. 

Light is essential to the groAvth and development of every 
object in the world. Onr stables, therefore, should be well 
lighted and made as pleasant as possible. Light is especially 
necessary for the yoimg animal. If kept in dark stables their 
eyesight will be injured, and they will become diseased, ^o 
special directions can be laid down regarding the lighting of 
stables, nor can special directions be given for ventilation. The 
owner must exercise his own judgment. 

BEDDING AND CLOTHING. 

Straw makes as good a bed as anything. It should be kept 
perfectly clean, the manure and the urine being removed every 
morning. AVhere floor and concrete stalls are used, the horse 
should have a bed to stand on as well as to lie doAvn on. About 
three inches of damp sawdust makes a good bed to stand on. 
Clothing for the horse is highly necessary. Xo better invest- 
ment can be made than the purchase of a good^ thick, and sub- 
stantial blanket for use during cold and stormy weather. Ex- 
posure to beating rain and cold atmosphere, without protection, 
is very detrimental to the animal's health. The horse, even 
when the weather is not very cold, if driven hard and perspira- 
tion is produced, if alloAved to stand in the wind, will take cold. 
The horse owner should be especially careful in the spring 
months. The first warm days are forerunners of pneumonia and 
fevers, caused by the temperature being suddenly checked by 
the cool atmosphere of the spring months. 

The blanket should be employed when the blood has become 
unusually heated by severe exercise, or when he is suddenly 
changed from one extreme temperature into another, and Avhen 
enfeebled by disease. If a blanket is used in the stable, it should 
be light in weight. Where stables are so arranged that a uni- 
form temperature can be maintained, blankets should not be 
used. 



VI. 
STRUCTURE OF THE HORSE. 

Our limits allow, and our purpose requires, but a short dis- 
cussion of the horse's structure. It is our object to communicate 
a general knowledge of his structure, so that in the treatment of 
disease the part affected may be readily known and the remedy 
intelligently administered. 

Our first division will be the internal framework on which the 
body is built, the endo-skeleton. This internal framework, sup- 
porting the soft tissues of the body, forms various cavities for the 
location of important organs, as the brain, spinal cord, eyes, 
heart, and lungs, and act as levers for the action of the muscles 
and joints to aid in the locomotion of the body. 

In describing the framework, we present the engraving of a 
perfect skeleton, accurately indexed for reference. This will 
enable the reader to locate the various bones of the body and to 
learn their proper names. It will also aid in shortening our de- 
scription of the bones. Anatomists differ as to the number of 
bones composing the skeleton, some enumerating all ossific 
bodies, including the teeth and sesamoids, which others elimi- 
nate; some, again, regard certain cranial bones as single, other 
authorities as double. It is of little practical importance what 
view is taken; it will be found that there are about 216 separate 
bones, or, including the teeth, 256 pieces in tlie skeleton of the 
horse. In our description, we take the anterior limb first, begin- 
ning superiorly and ending inferiorly. First in order is the 
scapula, a flat bone situated on the antero-lateral surface of the 
thorax, with its long axis sloping downwards and forwards to 
articulate with a somewhat twisted-looking bone, the humerus. 
The humerus extends from the scapula to the radius in an oblique 
direction, downwards and backwards. The radius occupies a 

(85) 







CO 

00 



STEUCTUKE OF THE HOESE. 8T 

vertical position between the humerus and carpus. This bone 
is frequently called the arm. It is the longest bone of the fore 
leg. On the supero-posterior part of this bone is a triangular 
bone, the ulna. N^ext in order is the carpus, or knee, composed 
of seven and often of eight small, irregular bones, arranged in 
two rows of three each, one above the other, the seventh being 
at the back of the three in the upper row, and the eighth, when 
present, in a similar position with respect to the lower row. 
Naming from within outwards, the bones of the upper row are 
the scaphoid. Inner, and cuneiform, and the trapezium behind 
the latter; those of the lower row are the trapezoid, os magnum, 
and unciform, and the pisiform behind the trapezoid. The next 
are the large and two small metacarpals, corresponding to the 
bone that lies between the wrist and finger of the human. Below 
this is the phalanges, consisting of three bones, which are homo- 
logous to the three phalanges of the human finger, and having 
two sesamoid bones placed behind. In descending the os suffra- 
ginis comes first, os coronse second, and lastly the os pedis. The 
navicular, or shuttle bone, is situated, w^ith its long axis trans- 
versely, behind and below the os coronge and behind the os pedis, 
with both of which it articulates. The posterior extremity is 
united to the trunk by the direct articulation of the pelvic arch 
with the femur and sacral vertebra. The entire arch is called 
the OS innominatum, or pelvis. The os innominatum is divided 
into three parts — the ilium, ischium, and pubis. The first bone 
of the hind extremity is the femur, or thigh bone. It is the 
largest, thickest, and strongest bone in the body. The patella, 
the knee pan, or stifle bone, is placed in front of the trochlea of 
the femur. The tibia, or shin bone, is situated between the 
femur and astragalus, slanting downwards and backwards. The 
fibula is a little, long slender bone, attached to the outer side of 
the tibia. The tarsus, or hock, corresponds to the ankle joint of 
man, and is composed of six bones arranged in two series — one 
consisting of the cuboid and three cuneiform bones, the magnum, 
medium, and parvum. The other, the upper series, consists of 



n 




EXPLANATION OF FIGUKE 2. 



Skeleton of the Hokse, 



Showing its relation to the contour of the animal, viewed laterally. 



A. Temporal fossa. 

B. Inferior maxilla. 

C. Atlas. 

D. Dentata. 

E. Cervical vertebrae. 

F. Dorsa] do. 

G. Lumbar do. 
H. Sacral do. 
I. Coccygeal do. 
J. Scapula. 

K. Humerus. 
L. Radius. 
L'. Ulna. 
M. Carpus. 
N. Trapezium. 
0. Metacarpus. 
P, b. Os suffraginis. 
Q, c. Sesamoids. 
R, d. Os coronae. 
S, e. Os pedis. 
TT. Ribs. 
U. Ilium. 
V. Femur. 
X. Patella. 
Y. Tibia. 
y. Fibula. 



Z. Tarsus. 
a. Metatarsus. 

/. Ligamentum nuchse, funicular 
portion. /'. Lamellar portion. 

1. Zygoma. 

2. Orbital fossa. 

3. Nasal peak. 

4. Incisor teeth. 
4'. Canine teeth. 

5. Molar teeth. 

6. External humeral trochanter. 
7 7. Scapular fossae. 

8. Coracoid apophysis. 

9. Cartilage of prolongation, 

10. Deltoid ridge, and external tu- 

berosity. 

11. Olecranon. 

12. Costal cartilages. 

13. Anterior iliac spine. 

14. Ischium. 

15. Trochanter major. 

16. Trochanter minor. 

18t Anterior tibial tuberosity. 
19. Calcaneum. 

20 20. Small metacarpal and meta- 
tarsal, or splint bones. 



(89) 



90 THE STOCK OWNER^S ADVISER. 

the astragalus and calcaneum. The other bones of the hind ex- 
tremity are similar to those described below the knee of the fore 
extremity. 

Next may be mentioned the bones of the head. The most 
noteworthy of these are the superior and inferior maxillaries, 
the upper and lower jawbones. In these are set the teeth, 
twenty-four molars, or grinders — six on each side, both above 
and below; twelve incisors, or front teeth — six above and six 
below, and four canine teeth, or tushes — one on each side, above 
and below\ Excluding the teeth and the internal bones of the 
ear, there are thirty-eight bones in the skull — six single ones, the 
rest in pairs. There are w^inding cavities in the bones of the 
face called sinuses. They communicate freely with each other 
and with the nasal fossae, of which they may be regarded as pro- 
longations. They number four on each side — viz., the frontal, 
the maxillary, the sphenoidal, and the ethnoidal. The head 
articulates with the first cervical vertebra, from which it is sus- 
pended by its posterior extremity, its anterior extremity being 
free. 

Here begins the line of the vertebrae; extending the whole 
length of the body, it consists of a series of single bones, termed 
vertebrae, firmly united and presenting horizontally a succession 
of curves; thus in the horse the neck, back, and croup are usually 
curved, while the loins are nearly straight. The vertebral chain 
is usually divided into five regions, exclusive of the cranial por- 
tion. These are the cervical, dorsal, lumbar, sacral, and coccy- 
geal, respectively the regions of the neck, back, loins, croup, and 
tail. The bones of these regions are seven cervical; eighteen 
dorsal, corresponding in number with the pairs of ribs; ^Ye or 
six lumbar; five sacral, and the coccygeal, varying from thirteen 
to twenty. The dorsal vertebrae superiorily, the ribs and their 
cartilages laterally, and the sternum or breast bone inferiorly, 
form the cavity called the thorax. In the horse the ribs usually 
number eighteen, eight of these being true ribs and attached to 
the sternum; the ten posterior ribs, having only an indirect 



02 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

sternal attachment, are known as false ribs. The sternum is con- 
structed of seven bones, united by cartilage in the young animal 
and by partial ossification in the adult. 

MUSCLES AND TENDONS. 

The muscles are the active organs of motion, or of locomotion.. 
They contain a specific contractile substance termed muscular 
tissue, together with areolar and fibrous tissue, and a certain 
amount of fatty material; they are also furnished with nerves, 
blood vessels, and absorbents. They constitute the chief bulk 
of the soft parts outside the three great cavities of the body — 
the cranial, thoracic, and abdominal. They are composed of 
numerous little strings or contractile fibers, which are either col- 
lected into bundles connected at their extremities, or they help 
to form the walls of the hollow viscera; for example, the blad- 
der, stomach, etc. The muscles are very extensile — i. e., capable 
of being extended or stretched; when one set of muscles con- 
tract the opposing muscles are extended. They possess very little 
elasticity, but that little is very perfect, as they return rapidly 
and perfectly to their original length. The muscles of the body 
are always in a state of extension — i. e., always slightly stretched. 
When a stimulus is applied to the muscle it responds by con- 
tracting. This contractibility is the characteristic property of 
muscle. One form of muscular tissue is known as striated or 
voluntary, the contractions and relaxations being controlled by 
the will of the animal. In another varietv the non-striated or 
involuntary action is beyond the control of the will. The mus- 
cles grow and become firmer in substance from exercise. If, 
however, the exercise be excessive, after growing to a certain 
extent, they will Avaste. We have atrophy from disuse and 
atrophy from overuse. Fattening the animal does not increase 
his muscles or his strength; nothing but the adipose or fatty 
matter is increased. This gives the parts a full and rounded 
appearance, so much admired in the horse, and also covers up 
many serious defects. The accumulation of fat, when excessive, 



94 THE STOCK OWXEk's ADVISEE. 

becomes an obstruction to muscular action. It bas, bowever, a 
bappy effect upon tbe skin and bair. Oozmg out at tbe pores, it 
oils tbe entire surface of tbe skin, wbicb is tbus kept soft and 
pliant, making tbe bair smootb and glossy. Tbe tendons are 
structures resembling ligaments in tbeir composition, being- 
formed of wbite fibrous tissue mixed witb vellow. Tbev form 
tbe termination and attacbment of muscles to tbe bones, are 
practically non-elastic, and serve an important purpose in tbe 
animal economy. 

It is not our design in tbis work to even classify tbe muscles 
or to name tbem. The reader may obtain a knowledge of tbeir 
location by referring to tbe plate, wbicb sbows tbe superficial 
muscles of tbe body and tbeir names. 

MEMBRANES. 

Tbe muscles are bound down by strong membranous expan- 
sions of wbite fibrous tissue called fascia, wbicb is firmly con- 
nected witb tbe bone, and known as tbe superficial and deep 
fascia. Tbe superficial fascia, varying in tbickness in different 
regions of tbe body, separates tbe muscles from tbe skin. Its 
cbief use is to protect tbe A^arious structures in contact and to 
conserve tbe animal beat, fat being a bad conductor. Tbe 
aponeurotic or deep fascia encloses tbe body of eacb muscle in a 
sbeatb, and becomes united to and blended witb tbe periosteum. 
Tbis fascia is very strong, and prevents displacement of tbe 
muscles during scA'ere exertion. 

Under tbis bead we will consider, briefly, tbe membrane wbicb 
lines tbe four great systems of tbe body — tbe digestive, respira- 
tory, urinary, and genital systems — from all of wbicb are aper- 
tures on tbe surface of tbe body. Tbese cavities are lined by 
mucous membrane and provided witb various glands and otber 
necessary organs, becoming continuous witb tbe skin at eacb of 
tbeir orifices. Wbile it lines tbe four great systems, tbe charac- 
ter of tbe membrane cbanges witb tbe different organs. In some 
it is smootb; in otber organs it is rougb or in folds, and supplied 



J.. 



STRUCTURE OF THE HORSE. 95 

witli villi or papillae. The membrane of one system becomes 
continuous with that of another; for an illustration, the mem- 
brane which lines the digestive canal becomes continuous with 
that lining the respiratory canal. In a similar manner the mu- 
cous membrane of the urinary canal becomes continuous with 
that of the genital canal in the vagina in the female, in the 
urethra in the male ; the membrane becomes continuous with the 
skin at the orifice of these organs. The closed cavities of the 
body are lined by serous membranes. The following are the 
serous membranes and their position in the body: The perito- 
neum lines the abdominal cavity; the pleura covers the lungs 
and lines the thoracic cavity; the pericardium, that contains and 
supports the heart; the endocardium, which is continued through 
the veins and arteries, lymphatics, etc. 

THE SKIN AND ITS APPENDAGES. 

The skin and its appendages form the external casing of 
the body. The skin consists of two parts — the epidermis or 
cuticle, superficially placed, and the dermis, corium or cutis vera, 
which forms the deep layer. Its chief appendages are glands 
and the epithelial modifications, hair, horn, and hoof. The epi- 
dermis forms a protective covering over the whole surface of the 
body. It varies in thickness in different parts, being especially 
thick wherever the skin is exposed to friction. It is moulded 
over the surface of the corium, covering the ridges, depressions, 
and papillae. It is made up of three principal layers — the horny 
layer, or stratum corneum, is the most superficial, and consists 
of layers of flattened cells, which are dry and horny, without any 
nucleus; the stratum lucidum, composed of several layers of nu- 
cleated cells, which are more or less indistinct and in section 
appear as an almost homogeneous layer; the rete mucosum or 
malpighian layer consists, in its upper part, of layers of prickle 
cells, and its inferior layer consists of a single stratum of 
columnar cells. In these cells the pigment exists which gives 
color to the skin. The cuticle is itself insensible, but one of its 



96 THE STOCK OWNEE^S ADVISER. 

most important fimctions is to protect the parts beneath. There 
is at all times a change taking place in the outer covering of the 
animal- — a constant alteration and renewal of every part of it. 
The scarf skin is constantly throwing off dry scales. In pro- 
ducing a blister, the scarf skin is raised from the skin beneath 
and thrown off, and in mange it is thrown off in dry, hard scales. 

The dermis or true skin lies beneath the rete mucosum. It is 
made up of an interlacing network of connective tissues, formed 
of white fibrous tissue, yellow elastic tissue, corpuscles, vessels 
and nerves. It is very vascular and highly sensitive, being the 
seat of touch. It is attached to the underlying parts by a layer 
of areolar tissue, which usually contains fat. The dermis con- 
sists of fibro-areolar tissue and vessels of supply ; it is divided into 
two layers — the deep and true corium and the upper and papil- 
liary. The skin everywhere clothes the external surface of the 
body, protecting the underlying parts from injury. It affords 
support and protection to the termination of the sensory nerves, 
which render it an important sense organ. It is a bad conductor 
of heat, and thus serves to preserve the heat of the body. It is 
supplied with a large extent of capillary blood vessels, and thus, 
by its means, a large surface of blood is exposed to the cooling 
influence of the air. The dilation or contraction of the blood 
vessels supplying the skin helps to regulate the heat of the body. 
The sweat glands, which it contains, make it an important excre- 
tory organ. It plays a subsidiary part as an organ of respiration. 
Under exceptional circumstances, absorption takes place from its 
surface. The sebaceous glands lodged in the corium are most 
abundant in parts exposed to friction. They generally open into 
the hair follicles, and occasionally on the surface of the skin. 
The sudoriferous or sweat 2:lands are situated in the subcutane- 
ous areolar tissue, surrounded by a quantity of fat. They are 
small, round, reddish bodies, each of which consists of one or 
more fine tubes coiled into a ball, the free end of the tube being 
continued up through the true skin and cuticle and opening on 
the surface by a funnel-shaped orifice. 



STRUCTURE OF THE HORSE. 97 

The liair is tlie clothing of the horse, and is a modification of 
the epidermis. The hair consists of a shaft and a root. The 
shaft of the hair is cylindrical and covered with a layer of scales, 
arranged with their edges upwards. The substance of the hair 
consists of fibers, in which nuclei may be discovered. There are 
also present in some hairs small air spaces. In the coarse hair 
there is the medulla, which is occupied by small, angular cells 
and fat granules. The root of the hair swells out into a knob, 
and fits into a recess in the skin, called a hair follicle. The fol- 
licle consists of two coats — an outer or dermic coat, continuous 
with the corium, and an inner, continuous with the epidermis 
and called the root sheath. 

The condition of the horse's health is shown by his hair. If 
debilitated or diseased, his coat will be dry, harsh, and standing. 
When in health, his coat will be soft and sleek, presenting a 
yielding softness and elasticity. The fatty matter from the 
sebaceous glands softens and oils the hair, causing it to lie in its 
proper direction, and giving it a smooth and glossy appearance. 
We can also judge the horse's breeding by his coat. The com- 
mon-bred horse has a long, shaggy coat. The coat of the well- 
bred horse is short, of a finer texture, and more downy in its 
character. When we see a horse clipped, we know that he is of 
common blood. We condemn the practice of clipping. Nature 
has provided different suits for the horse in different seasons. 
In the spring the old coat of thick, coarse hair comes off, and a 
new one, a half or quarter of an inch in length, is ready to take 
its place. The old coat, as the weather grows warmer, is gradu- 
ally replaced by the new. Part of the new coat is shed as the 
warm summer days approach. As the season again changes and 
the cold increases, a new suit of hair begins to show itself, much 
thicker and coarser. This is in addition to the finer summer 
coat, with which it forms an excellent clothing for winter. The 
suit which the horse will need in the fall begins to grow in the 
spring, and that for the spring in the fall. We should not tam- 
per with nature by clipping. 



98 , THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 



FOOT. 



In equine anatomy the word '^foot" implies the hoof, together 
with the bones and soft structures contained therein. The foot 
is of the greatest practical importance, owing to the many dis- 
eases and injuries to which it is liable. The protective portion, 
or wall of the foot, closely resembles the epidermis. It is, in 
fact, a modification of that structure, consisting of hard and thin 
layers of cells on the surface and round, moist cells beneath. 
The highly sensitive secreting portion is also a modification of 
the skin. The hoof of the horse corresponds to the finger-nail of 
man, but is developed over the sides, forming a protective, horny 
case, enveloping the inferior extremity of the digit. The wall 
is that part visible when the hoof rests on the ground; the sole 
forms the inferior portion of the hoof; and^ lastly, the frog is the 
interior horny substance. 

In speaking of the wall, we designate its different parts, as the 
toe, quarters, heels, and bars. The toe forms the front of the 
hoof, and is the deepest and thickest part of the wall, which 
gradually declines in height as it passes backwards to form the 
quarters; these occupy the space between the toe and heels. The 
wall decreases in thickness from the front, being not more than 
one-third as thick on the sides. At the back or posterior part of 
the foot the wall takes on each side a sudden bend, forming an 
acute angle, and is continued inwards to the center of the foot, 
where the two parts unite with the sole. The angles of the in- 
flections are called the heels, the inflections themselves the bars, 
the latter forming stays to the quarters. The external surface of 
the wall is, in a state of nature, covered by a kind of epithelial 
varnish, termed the periopJe, which is thickest at the top of the 
wall, just under the hair. This, which is a natural varnish pro- 
vided to check evaporation and consequent cracking of the sub- 
jacent horn, is generally rasped away by the shoeing smith. The 
internal surface of the wall is traversed in a vertical direction 
by the series of horny laminae, numbering about five or six hun- 



STRUCTURE OF THE HORSE. 99 

dred. The superior or corinary border of the wall shows a gutter, 
termed the cutigeral groove, which is the mould left by the coro- 
nary cushion. The inferior border embraces the sole, and in the 
unshod animal comes into contact with the ground. 

The sole is a thick plate of horn, which helps to form the 
inferior portion of the hoof. It is comprised between the inner 
border of the inferior part of the wall and the inflection of the 
bars. The inferior or external surface forms a vault, which is 
more or less concave in different animals. The superior face is 
somewhat convex, and has a punctuated appearance, similar to 
that already seen in the cutigeral groove. The minute holes 
lodge the papillae of the so-called sensitive sole, which is the 
horn-secreting structure of this region. Anteriorly the sole 
presents a convex border, -which unites it intimately to the lower 
border of the wall, a line of whitish horn marking the junction 
of the two structures. Posteriorly, it has a deep Y-shaped in- 
dentation, into the central point of which the frog penetrates. 

The frog is an elastic mass of horn, which in a state of nature 
projects sufficiently to come in contact with the ground, and thus 
give the animal a secure foothold. Its inferior surface shows 
posteriorly a shallow cleft, or depression, termed the median 
lacuna. The superior surface shows a projection termed the 
frog-stay. On each side of the frog-stay this surface is depressed, 
and the whole is moulded on the plantar cushion. The base or 
posterior extremities constitute the heels or bulbs of the frog; 
these are two round, flexible, and elastic eminences formed by 
two extremities, and separated by the cleft. The anterior ex- 
tremity, or point, is wedged into the center of the sole. The 
lateral borders bring the frog into relation with the bars and the 
sole, and there is an intimate union with each of these at the 
point of contact. The parts contained within the hoof are the 
OS pedis, OS navicular, the distal extremity of the os coron?e, the 
ligaments by which these are connected together, the insertion 
of the extensor pedis and flexor perforans tendon and the vessels 
and nerves. There are also certain structures proper to the 



100 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

foot — viz., the lateral cartilages, sensitive frog, coronary liga- 
ment, sensitive lamina, and sensitive sole. 

The lateral cartilages are two thin plates, composed of hyaline 
cartilage in the middle, partaking more of the nature of fibro- 
cartilage towards the borders. They are of an irregular qua- 
drangular form, and surmount the wings of the coffin bone. The 
sensitive portion of the foot is attached to the inner surface of 
the hoof. The sensitive frog occupies the posterior and central 
parts of the foot, filling up the irregular space between the late- 
ral cartilage, flexor tendons, and os pedis. The coronary sub- 
stance, or coronary band, is that vascular structure which occu- 
pies the cutigeral groove on the superior border of the wall. The 
sensitive laminoe are the continuations of the coronary substance, 
and are attached to the coffin bone by a dense, fibrous mem- 
brane. The sensitive sole, continuous with the sensitive laminae 
and frog, is firmly attached to the coffin bone; like the sensitive 
laminae, it is made up of a fibro-vascular membrane, clothed by 
a continuation of the corum, covered by villi, which secrete the 
horny sole. The perioplic ring is composed of papillae like those 
of the coronary cushion, but smaller in size, and it is by its 
agency that the periople which covers the exterior of the wall is 
formed. 

THE BLOOD. 

The blood, as it exists in the living body, is a red, homogene- 
ous, alkaline fluid, of saltish taste and faint odor; its specific 
gravity is 1052-1058. It consists of minute, solid bodies, the 
corpuscles floating in a liquid, the liquor sanguinis. The cor- 
puscles are of two kinds — the red and the Avhite, or colorless; 
the former, by far the more numerous, exist in varying propor- 
tions. The red corpuscles are circular biconcave discs of 
1.4000th part of an inch in diameter, their average thickness 
being about one-fourth of this. 

The white corpuscles are larger than the red, spheroidal in 
shape. Some of them are smaller than the red, and have a lower 
specific gravity. They possess one or. two nuclei, which are 



102 THE STOCK owner's ADVISEE. 

readily broiigiit out by acetic acid. The white corpuscles are 
present in the blood in the proportion of 1 per 300 red corpuscles 
after a meal and 1 per 800 during fasting; they are much more 
numerous in some diseases, as in leucocythsemia. 

The liquor sanguinis is a clear, yellow, alkaline fluid, in which 
the corpuscles float. It is pale and clear, and consists of water, 
fibrin, albumen, fatty compounds, extracts, odoriferous, and 
saline matters. It may be obtained by allowing the slowly 
coagulable blood of the horse to stand in a tall vessel surroimded 
by ice. The temperature of 0° C. prevents coagulation, the 
corpuscles subside, and the clear fluid may be removed by 
pipette. Its composition may be described as serum plus the 
elements of fibrin. The serum is a thin, transparent liquid, of a 
pale straw or yelloAv color, consisting of the liquor sanguinis 
deprived of fibrin. It contains nearly 90 per cent, of water, is 
always slightly alkaline, and coagulates when heated, owing to 
the large quantity of albumen it contains. Tibrin is a white, 
stringy, elastic substance, which, when the blood is in circula- 
tion, is in solution, and cannot be distinguished from the other 
constituents of the plasma. It may be obtained by stirring some 
freshly-drawn blood with a stick or bundle of twigs. It is in- 
soluble in water or alcohol: soluble in alkalies, lactic phosphoric, 
and acetic acids. 

THE CIRCULATION. 

The circulatory system of the horse, like that in the human 
body, is carried on by means of the heart, arteries, capillaries, 
and veins. The heart beats about thirty to forty per minute, 
alternately receiving blood from the venous system and dis- 
charging it into the pulmonars^ artery and aorta. The arteries, 
with their elastic and muscular walls, form channels for the 
blood to the system, assisting the heart in maintaining the cir- 
culation and regulating the supply of blood to the different 
parts. The capillaries are vessels of minute calibre, with thin, 
permeable, elastic walls, allowing both liquor sanguinis and 
white corpuscles to pass through their walls into the surrounding 



STRUCTURE OF THE HORSE. 103 

tissues. The veins form channels back to the heart. They are 
provided with muscular walls and valves, and are sufficiently 
capacious to hold the total blood of the body. 

THE HEART. 

The heart is a hollow, involuntary, muscular organ, and acts 
as a force-pump in maintaining the circulation of the blood. It 
consists of four chambers, with contractile walls, located in the 
chest, and surrounded by the pericardium, a fibro-serous bag, in 
which it works. The pericardium is considerably larger than 
the heart. It is fixed to the sternum from about the third chon- 
dro-sternal joint to within an inch of the insertion of the dia- 
phragm across the ensiform cartilage, while its upper and nar- 
rower part surrounds and is attached to the great vessels con- 
nected with the base of the heart. It consists of an external 
fibrous layer and an internal serous sac. In form the heart re- 
sembles a cone, slightly flattened from side to side, its base being 
turned upwards and towards the dorsal vertebrae, from which 
the heart is suspended by the blood vessels that spring from it; 
the apex points downwards, backwards, and to the left side, 
lying at about the level of the last bone of the sternum; the 
organ extends from about the third to the sixth rib, inclusive. 

The heart contains four chambers, two auricles and two ven- 
tricles. The cavities of the right side of the heart are, the right 
auricle and right ventricle, the auricle being placed above the 
ventricle. Into the right auricle open the two vena cava and the 
coronary veins — those which supply the heart itself with blood; 
the auriculo-ventricular opening; openings of one or two small 
veins of right ventricle; foramina Thebesii, which are small 
depressions, some of them transmitting minute veins. The blood 
leaves the right auricle through the auriculo-ventricular open- 
ing, and enters the right ventricle, which occupies the antero- 
inferior part of the right side of the heart. Its outer walls are 
thicker than those of the auricle. Two openings present them- 
selves in the right ventricle, guarded by valves, the auriculo- 



104 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

ventricular opening and the pulmonary artery. The auriculo- 
ventricular opening is guarded by the tricuspid valves, con- 
sisting of three triangular cusps or segments, which, connected 
at their bases, surround the opening. The entrance of the pul- 
monary artery is guarded by three semilunar or sigmoid valves, 
which consist of semi-circular folds of the lining membrane. 
When blood passes from the ventricle to the pulmonary artery 
the valves are laid against the sides of the vessel; when the cur- 
rent is checked a portion of it falls back towards the ventricle, 
and the valves are now thrown inwards ; they become distended, 
overlap and completely close the tube. The blood, after being 
purified in the lungs re-enters the heart at the left auricle, 
which is smaller than the right, but its walls are thicker. It is 
situated at the left postero-superior part of the heart. It re- 
ceives two pulmonary veins on each side, and opens into the left 
ventricle through the mitral valve. The interior of the left 
auricle is smooth like the right, its appendix presenting musculi 
pectinati. The remaining opening in the left auricle is the 
auriculo-ventricular opening, which occupies the floor and com- 
municates with the left ventricle. The blood leaves the left 
auricle, enters the left ventricle, which is conical, and occupies 
the posterior left region of the heart. Two openings present 
themselves — the auriculo-ventricular, guarded by the mitral, 
and the aortic, guarded by the semilunar valves. The venous 
blood is carried into the right auricle by the anterior and pos- 
terior venge cavse. It then passes through the right auriculo- 
ventricular opening into the right ventricle; thence through 
the pulmonary artery to the lungs. It returns by the pulmonary 
veins to the auricle; thence to the left ventricle, which propels 
it through the aorta and its branches into the system generally, 
the veins returning it again to the heart. The circulation is, 
therefore, double, the pulmonary or lesser being performed by 
the right, and the somatic or greater circulation by the left side. 
The arteries are elastic and contractile tubes, which convey 
the blood from the heart to the capillaries. Each artery has 



STRUCTURE OF THE HORSE. 105 

three distinct coats — an internal, middle, and external. Tlie 
internal coat is formed of an epithelial layer, a sub-epithelial 
layer, and an elastic layer. The middle coat is formed of muscle, 
with a slight admixture of elastic tissue. The external coat 
consists of fine, connective tissue, with a various amount of 
elastic tissue arranged longitudinally. The external coat is very 
tough, while the middle and internal are elastic and brittle. On 
ligaturing an artery, the internal and middle coats give way, 
while the external one is left unbroken. The heart contracts 
and propels the blood from the left ventricle through the aorta, 
the great artery of the whole body. This, after proceeding 
about two inches, divides into two large branches. The smaller 
branch is extended, by a multitude of sub-divisions, to every part 
of the head and fore extremity; the larger one, in a similar 
manner, throughout the body and hind extremities. In the smaller 
arteries anastomoses are frequent, forming a net-work, which 
pervades every tissue of the body. This is a point of great im- 
portance, since the circulation can be thus carried on after the 
main artery of the region has been obliterated; and it is proved 
that under such circumstances the smaller arteries of the part 
increase in size. As the blood nears the extremities, the arte- 
ries grow smaller, being divided and sub-divided to supply the 
various tissues of the body. The blood ultimately reaches the 
capillaries, which are interposed between the termination of the 
arteries and the commencement of the veins, forming plexuses, 
which vary much in arrangement. The capillary vessels are 
very small, their diameter being about 1.3000 of an inch. The 
blood flows through the capillaries with less velocity than in 
arteries or veins. The flow is constant, not intermittent, as in 
the larger arteries. While })assing through the capillaries the 
blood unloads its nutritive material and takes on eflote or waste 
material, conveying it back to the heart through tlie veins. 

The veins carry the blood from the capilhiries to the heart. 
They ramify through the body like tlio arteries, but are more 
numerous, anastomose more freely, and are of greater capacity. 



106 THE STOCK ow:^er's adviser. 

They "asiially accompany the arteries; but there are exceptions 

to this rule. The veins have thinner walls than the arteries; 
their inner coat closely resembles that of the arteries. The mid- 
dle coat is thinner and less muscular, and contains more white, 
fibrous tissue than the middle coat of the arteries. The external 
coat consists of connective tissue and elastic fibers. A feature 
peculiar to the veins is the existence of valves of various con- 
struction. Avhicli prevent the blood from returning upon its 
course, and assist in impelling it toward the heart. The veins 
of the extremities, neck, and scalp have numerous valves, which 
are absent for the most part in the deep veins of the abdomen, 
chest, and cranium. The dark, purplish blood of the veins 
empties into the heart again at the right attricle: after passing 
through the auriculo-ventricular opening to the right ventricle, 
it passes through the pulmonary artery to the lungs, where the 
impure, dark blood is purified and changed to a scarlet color, 
and sent again on its round. 

The lymphatic system, connected with the blood vascular 
system, consists of a series of tubes, which absorb and convey 
to the blood certain fluids, lymph and chyle. They take their 
origin in every tissue of the body supplied with blood: they 
carry back into the vascular system any excess of the plasma of 
the blood Avhich has transuded from the capillaries, and is not 
required for the nutrition of the tissues. 

The lymphatics unite to form two large trunks, the thoracic 
duct and the right lymphatic A'ein, both of which enter the 
venous system near the heart. Delicate in structtire and trans- 
parent, they are j^resent in nearly every tissue, and although 
more numerous than the blood vessels, their collective capacity 
is probably not greater. 

RESPIEATORY ORGANS. 

Respiration is carried on by the lungs, bronchial tubes, 
trachea, larynx, and the nasal chambers, with the assistance of 
the inspiratory muscles and the respiratory nerves. The lungs 



STRUCTURE OF THE HORSE. 107 

are surrounded by the pleurae, the smooth surface of the latter 
diminishing friction during the movements of respiration. They 
consist of two conical-shaped, spongy organs, the right and left, 
situated in the thoracic cavity. They are separated by the 
mediastinum, heart, pericardium, and large blood vessels. The 
right lung is larger than the left, and is more frequently dis- 
eased. Healthy lungs float in water, and are of a rosy, flesh 
color, marked by an irregular marbling or mottling. In conse- 
quence of their extremely cellular or porous structure, they are 
capable of great expansion and contraction during the process 
of breathing. They consist of lobes, lobules, bronchi, terminal 
bronchioles, alveolar passages and infundibula, air sacs, blood 
vessels, and nerves. The lobes are the primary divisions, the 
right having three, the left two. The lobes are divided into 
lobules of various sizes, separated by flne connective tissue. The 
bronchi, on entering the lung, divide and redivide, each of a 
smaller division entering a lobule. They resemble the trachea, 
forming in the larger tubes incomplete cartilaginous rings by 
sub-division. Each terminal bronchiole ends in one or more en- 
larged passages, called the alveolar passages, from which are 
given off blind dilatations, the end sacs. The air sacs, or cells, 
are about 1-100 inch in diameter, lined by nucleated cells. The 
pulmonary arteries accompany the bronchial tubes. Their ter- 
minal branches lie between the air sacs, and send a net-work of 
capillaries over them. The bronchial arteries arise from the 
aorta, and are distributed to the bronchi, lymphatic glands, con- 
nective tissue, and mucous membrane. The lymphatics arise 
from the spaces occupied by the connective tissue cells in the 
elastic tissue around the air sacs, and empty themselves into the 
perivascular lymphatics, and eventually enter the bronchial 
lymph glands. 

The nostrils furnish the solo means of admitting air to the 
lungs. They modify the condition of the air. If it is too cold 
they warm it; if too dry, they moisten it. They arc lined by a 



108 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

delicate, pale, rose-colored mucous membrane, the Schneiderian 
membrane. The horse, not being able to breathe through the 
month, takes in the air by the nasal chambers only. It then 
passes into the larynx, which is situated immediately behind and 
below the nasal chambers, and at the anterior extremity of the 
windpipe. This nOt only gives passage to air, but is the organ 
of voice. The cartilages which form the larynx are seven in 
number — three single ones and two pairs. The former are the 
cricoid, thyroid, epiglottis; the latter the arytenoid and cunei- 
form cartilages. We make special mention of the epiglottis, 
since its office is so important. It is situated in front of the 
opening of the larynx, which it completely closes during the 
passage of food through the pharynx into the oesophagus. It is 
soft and leaf-shaped, and is so attached that, when the animal 
swallows, it shuts down and backwards, so as to entirely close 
the opening of the larynx. Thus the food and water, in their 
passage to the stomach, are prevented from entering the lungs, 
but go onward into the oesophagus; after which the elastic 
muscles of the epiglottis in an instant throw it back to its origi- 
nal position, and the windpipe is open again. The larynx is suc- 
ceeded by the trachea; running down the neck, it enters the 
thorax, and terminates at the base of the heart, where it divides 
into the right and left bronchi. It consists of forty or fifty 
rings, the ends of which overlap posteriorly, forming a perfect 
expansile tube. The entire trachea is lined by mucous mem- 
brane. 

The lungs operate on the same principle as a pair of bellows. 
When the cavity of the thorax is enlarged by the contraction of 
certain muscles, the lungs become distended by drawing in air. 
When the muscles relax, the lungs tend to collapse, expelling 
most of their contained air. The blood, through respiration, is 
cooled and loses watery vapor. It gains oxygen and loses car- 
bonic acid gas, which the venous circulation has brought back 
from all parts of the system. 



J 



expla:n'atioe' of figuee e. 



DiaESTiYE Apparatus of the Horse. 



1. Mouth. 

2. Pharynx. 

3. (Esophagus. 

4. Diaphragm. 

5. Spleen. 

6. Stomach (left sac). 

7. Duodenum. 

8. Liver (upper extremity). 

9. Great colon. 
10. Caecum. 



11. Small intestine. 

12. Floating colon. 

13. Eectum. 

14. Anus. 

15. Left kidney and ureter. 

16. Bladder. 

17. Urethra. 

A. Hard palate. 

B. Tongue. 

C. Soft palate. 

D. Trachea. 

E. Pulmonary artery (divided). 

F. Heart. 

G. Posterior aorta. 



(110) 



STRUCTURE OF THE HOESE. Ill 

THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM. 

The digestive organs comprise the alimentary canal and its 
accessories, extending from the lips to the anus. Its walls are 
composed of muscular tissue, and lined throughout by mucous 
membrane. It consists of a continuous series of tubes, each of 
which will be considered in natural order. The food is pre- 
pared in the mouth, where it is crushed between the teeth and 
rolled about by the tongue, to mix it thoroughly with the saliva. 
The mouth is lined by a mucous membrane, consisting of a 
stratified epithelium, the superficial cells being flat and horny. 
The tongue is a muscular organ, which plays an important part 
in articulation, mastication, and as the organ of taste. The lips 
of the horse are the organs of prehension, taking up the food. 
They consist of skin, mucous membrane, muscles, vessels, 
nerves, areolar tissue, and fat. The cheeks are continuous with 
the lips, aiid close the mouth laterally; they consist of an exter- 
nal cuticular, a central muscular, and an internal mucous. The 
hard plate forms the roof of the mouth, and serves the purpose 
of assisting the tongue to manipulate the food. The soft palate, 
or velum pendulum 'palati, is the valvular curtain suspended 
between the mouth and pharynx, and consists of a double fold of 
mucous membrane, enclosing muscles, glands, and nerves. 

The salivary glands are accessories of the mouth. They 
secrete the saliva, which is discharged into the mouth, and satu- 
rates the food during mastication. There are three pairs — viz., 
parotid, submaxillary, and the sublingual. The parotid, the 
largest of the three, is situated in the space bounded by the pos- 
terior border of the inferior maxilla and at the anterior border 
of the wing of the atlas; it lies immediately below and partly 
surrounds the ear. The glands form a duct, known by anato- 
mists as Steno's duct. It enters the mouth at about the level of 
the third upper molar. The submaxillary gland lies in the 
maxillary space, below and behind the parotid, and terminates 
in what is known as Wharton's duct. It opens Into the mouth 



11- THE STOCi: ow^"En's advisee. 

rather in front of the frtennm lingiise. The sublingual gland is 
.-itnated under the tongne. It opens by from fifteen to twenty 
small ductSj known as duds of Eivinus. There are other small 
salivary glands situated in the cheek and under the mucous 
membrane of the lips. Glands are found at the base of the 
tongue and along its sides and in the soft palate. The use of 
saliva is to liquefy starch foods and change the starch into 
dextrin and maltose. It moistens the food, and therefore assists 
in mastication and deo-lutition. It administers to the sense of 
taste by dissolving the food. 

THE TEETH. 

The teeth perform a most important function in preparing 
the food for digestion. The horse, like man. has two sets — the 
temporary or milk leeth and the permanent set. the former num- 
bering twenty-four, the latter forty. In the mare there are 
usually thirty-^six permanent teeth, the tusks being wanting or 
rudimentary. 

The incisors, or front teeth, in the horse are twelve in num- 
ber, six in each jaw: the upper ones are longer than the lower. 
The central pair, or nippers, are called the central incisors, 
the two adjoining teeth the lateral, while the outer ones, which 
are the smallest, are termed the corner incisors. The ante- 
rior surface of a young incisor tooth presents a triangular 
shape, with the base at the table. As it wears it narrows 
laterally^ but its short axis widens, until in old age it is nearly 
round. The incisor teeth have a sinsle fano-, which is cov- 
ered by crusta petrosa. Towards the center of the table, in a 
young tooth, a second ring of enamel is visible, which is known 
as the cup, or infundibulum. The cup is ovoid, following that 
of the table. The cup wears with the tooth, becoming smaller, 
and ultimately vanishing. It wears away about one-third in 
each year. The incisor milk teeth are whiter than the perma- 
nent ones, and have distinct necks, the necks of the latter being 
imaginary. The tushes, or canine teeth, are four in number, a 
pair above and below. They are found in the interdental space. 



STBUCTURE OF THE HOKSE. 



113 



The crown is somewhat conical, the base being at the gums. 
They have no constricted neck, and the fang is single. In the 
horse tribe, as a rule, canine teeth are developed only in the 
male; if they exist in the female, they are rudimentary. The 
molars, or grinders, are twelve in the temporary set, three in 
each side of each jaw; twenty-four in the permanent set, six on 
each side, above and below; they are numbered from front back- 
wards, and, like the incisors, those of the upper jaw are the 
larger. The horse may have supplementary molars, or wolf 
teeth; these are small and placed one on each side of the jaw, 
anterior to the first molars; they are usually shed with the milk 
teeth. 

INDICATIONS OF AGE. 

The horse's age may be determined with considerable exact- 
ness by studying the peculiarities which characterize the teeth 




Fig. 7— Upper Incisor Teeth of a One Year 
Old Colt Showing the Restricted Necks of 
Milk Teeth. 

1, 1. Central incisors in wear. 2, 2. Lat- 
eral incisors in wear. S, S. Corner in- 
cisors in wear. At one year all the in- 
cisors are up and in wear. 




Fig. 8— Upper Incisors of a Two Year and 
Six Months Old Colt. 

1, 1. Showing the two central milk teeth 
shed and the tivo permanent ones coming 
in their place. 2, 2, Milk teeth. S, S. 
Milk teeth corner. 



at different periods of life. At or soon after birth the foal has 
four incisors and twelve molars. The ap])earance of the incisors 
at birth depends upon the length of time the foal is carried; it 
may be carried over the time or be born before the time of their 
appearance. At an age varying from six to nine weeks, the mid- 
8 



114 



THE STOCK OWXER S ADVISEE. 



die or lateral incisors appear; tlie corner incisors are up at the 
tenth month. AVhen the colt is one year old all the incisors are 
in "u-ear, and he now has twelve in number. He also has twelve 

temporary and four permanent molars; hence the colt at one 




Fig. 9 — Upper Incisor Teeth of a TTiree 
Year Old CoU. 

1, 1. Central permanent incisors nearly full 
grown. 2, 2. Milk teeth icith their re- 
stricted necks. 3, 3. Corner milk teeth 
showing well marked cups. 




Fig. 10— Upper Incisor Teeth of a Three 
Year and Six Months Old Colt. 

1, 1. Two permanent incisors, g, 2. Shed- 
ding the lateral incisors, and showing 
the two permanent laterals making their 
appearance. S,S. Corner milk teeth. 




Fig. 11 — Tipper Incisor Teeth of a Four 
Year Old Colt. 

1, 1. Permanent central incisors. 
S, 2. Permanent lateral incisors. 
S, S. Milk teeth. 




Fig. 12 — Upper Incisor Teeth of a Four 
Year and Six Months Old Colt. 

5, S. Shedding of the corner milk teeth 
and the permanent ones taking their 
place. 2, 2. Permanent lateral incisors. 
1, 1. Permanent central incisors. 



year old has twelve temporary incisors, or front teeth, and 
twelve temporary molars or grinders, and fonr permanent 
molars. Between the ages of one and two years the second per- 
manent molar makes its appearance. It is the fifth in the jaw, 



STRUCTURE OF THE HORSE. 



115 



and is up and in wear at two years. AVith variation of wear, the 
incisors remain the same' during the second year. At two years, 
the colt has twelve temporary incisors, twelve temporary molars, 
and eight permanent molars. About the middle of the third 
year the nippers, or central temporary incisors, fall out, and are 
replaced by permanent incisors, which are up and in wear at 
three years of age. About the tiijie of shedding the temporary 
incisors, two more permanent molars make their appearance, the 




Fig. 13 — Upper Incisor Teeth of a Five 
Year Old Horse. 

i, 1. Central incisors with cup unoblit- 
erated. 2, 2. Lateral incisors with cups 
deeper and larger. 3,3. Corner incisors, 
still larger cups, with their edges very 
slightly worn, k, 4. Canine teeth well 
developed. 




Fig. lit — Lower Incisor Teeth of a Five 
Year Old Horse. 

1, 1. Central incisors. 

2, f . Lateral incisors. 

3, 3. Corner incisors. 

It, h. Canine teeth. The cups are some- 
what obliterated in the teeth of the 
lower jaw at five as shown. 



first and second in the jaw. Hence at three years the colt has 
eight temporary incisors, four permanent incisors, four tempo- 
rary molars, and sixteen permanent molars. 

At the age of three years and six months the temporary late- 
ral incisors are replaced by permanent ones. They are up and 
in wear when the colt reaches the age of four years. The fifth 
permanent molar now makes its appearance, being the third in 
the jaw. A little later the sixth makes its appearance; it is also 
the sixth in the jaw. All the molars are up and in wear at four 



116 



THE STOCK OWNER S ADVISEE. 



years. At four years of age the horse has four temporary in- 
cisors, eight permanent incisors, no temporary molars, and 
twenty-four permanent ones. The permanent corner incisors 
appear between ages of four and five years. At ^Ye years they 
are up and in wear. At the age of five the canine teeth appear 
in the male. Hence at '^ye years of age the horse has a full 
mouth, possessing twelve molars, four canine teeth, and twenty- 
four molars. At the age of six years the infundibula, or cups, 





Fig. 15— Lower Incisors of a Six Year Old 
Horse. 

1, 1. Central nippers with cups entirely 
worn out. 2, 2. Cups disappearing in 
lateral incisors. 3, 3. Cups still showing 
plainly with their edges considerably 
worn. 4, 4. The canine teeth standing 
up three-quarters of an inch with their 
points only slightly blunted. 



Fig. 16— Lower Incisors of a Seven Year 
Old Horse. 

1, 1. Central nippers with cups obliter- 
ated. 2, 2. Cups entirely worn away 
in lateral incisors. 3, 3. Cups still 
showing in corner incisors, 4, 4. Not 
much change in canine teeth. 



are worn out of the central incisors, two-thirds worn out of the 
lateral, and one-third worn out of the corner incisors. At seven, 
cups leave the central incisors; at eight, cups leave the lateral 
incisors; at nine, cups leave the corner incisors. At this age 
the table surface of the lower row of incisors is perfectly smooth. 
We now notice a little hooklike projection on each of the upper 
corner incisors. When this hook is on the corner incisors we 
can mark it down that the horse is at least seven or eight years 
old. As a rule, the animal reaches the age of nine or ten before 
the cups leave the central incisors. At ten the cups leave the 



steijctuj?e of the horse. 



IIY 



upper lateral incisors, and at this time a groove will be noticed 
in the upper corner tooth. The groove extends half down down 
the tooth at fifteen years of age, and reaches the bottom of the 
tooth at twenty-one. At twelve years of age the table surface 
of the upper row of incisors is found to be worn smooth. The 
dental star makes its appearance when the animal is eleven 
years of age. This is a little spot, located on the table of the 
tooth, differing from the rest of the dentine. The temporary 
teeth may be readily recognized by their small size, their well- 




Fig. 17 — Lower Incisors of an Eight Year 
Old Horse. 

i, 1. Cups obliterated. 

2, 2. Cups obliterated. 

3, 3. Cups gone . 

U, 4. Cups worn considerably. 




Fig. 18 — Upper Incisors of an Eight Year 
Old Horse. 

1, 1. Central nearly smooth. 2, 2, Next 
pair showing a remnant of the cup. S, 3. 
Corner incisors showing cup plain 
enough, i, U. Canine teeth worn down 
more than in the lower jaw. of the six 
year old mouth. 



marked neck, and extreme whiteness. The permanent teeth 
are darker in color, have no well-marked neck, and are larger. 
The permanent incisors of the lower jaw show a well-marked 
groove on the anterior surface of each tooth that is absent in the 
permanent teeth. The permanent incisors of the upper jaw 
each show two of these grooves. The young tooth is broadest 
from side to side, the tooth of old age being broadest from the 
front backwards, and gradually growing narrower from side to 
side. After the animal has reached ten years, it beconies some- 
what difficult to ascertain his age correctly, but by practice one 



118 



THE STOCK OWNER S ADVISEE. 



may become quite proficient. It requires a great deal of prac- 
tice, and to succeed in it hundreds of mouths should be carefully 
examined and the kind of food carefully noted. The teeth of 
horses of the same age vary considerably in shape, size, etc. We 
have met with several that at the age of twelve or fifteen had 
the marks of only eight or nine, and quite a number whose cor- 
ner teeth never had any hook. Where horses graze in sandy 
districts, the hooks on the corner teeth are well ground off. 

The appearance of the teeth will be considerably modified by 
the kind of food, the soil and climate, and like circumstances. 





Fig. 19 — Showing hook in upper 
corner incisor which makes 
its appearance at eight years 
of age. It may be observed 
coming in at seven. 



Fig. 20 — Upper Incisors of a Nine Year 
Old Horse. 

1,1. Central incisors with cups entirely 
worn away. 2, 2. laterals disappearing. 
S, 3. Corner still larger. 



Where horses graze in sandy districts, the marks of age are 
brought on prematurely; an eight-year-old may be easily mis- 
taken for one of twelve years. Some stabled horses chew the 
brick walls of their stables and w^ear the teeth abnormally. Some 
are fed on hard canes growing in river and creek bottoms, which 
break their nippers. The crib-biter breaks his teeth off in such 
a manner that no reliable marks of age remain. In order to 
become proficient in the study of the horse's age, it is necessary, 
therefore, to examine, Ave might say, thousands of cases. There 
are some peculiarities in the teeth of certain breeds of horses. 
The teeth of the pony are different in several respects from the 



STRUCTURE OF THE HOKSE. 



119 



large breeds. Tall, bony animals have older-looking teeth than 
small animals. 

The examiner should in every case be careful to note the 
presence or absence of the ring of enamel that surrounds each 





Fig. n^Upper Incisor Teeth of a Ten Year Old. 
1, 1. Cups have left central. 

2, 2. Cups have left lateral. 

3, 3. Cups still remaining in corner incisors. 



Fig, 22 — Incisor tooth of a horse 
showing dental star which 
makes its appearance when the 
animal is about eleven years 
old. 




Fig. 23 — Upper Incisors of a Twelve Year 
Old Showing the Upper Row of Teeth All 
Smooth, 




Fig. 2U — Lower Incisors of a Fifteen 
Year Old. 



infundibula, as dishonest dealers often make artificial marks to 
deceive the purchaser. It is said that this swindling operation 
is of English origin. It is called Bishoi)ing, from the name of 
the man who invented it. The horse of eight or nine yeai-s 
is thrown, and with an engraver's tooth a hole is dug out in the 



120 



THE STOCK OWNEK S ADVISER. 



now almost plain surface of the corner teeth, so as to present the 
appearance of the infundibulum of a seven-year-old horse. The 
hole is then burnt with a heated iron, and a permanent black 
stain is left. The next pair of nippers is sometimes slightly 
touched. If the ring of enamel is not present we may rest 
assured that the depression is an artificial one, since, however 
expert or clever he may be, a man cannot possibly place or pro- 
duce a ring of enamel around a false infundibulum. 

After the horse is nine years old, we can only guess at his age, 
or approach within a few years of it, by the changes which the 

teeth undergo as they advance in age. 
It would be folly to claim perfect accu- 
racy at this advanced age. At eight the 
upper surface of the nippers is oval, the 
length of the oval running across from 
tooth to tooth, but as the horse gets older 
the teeth diminish in size, the diminution 
commencing in their width, and not in 
their thickness. They become a little 
separated, and their surface are rounded. 
Fig. 25— Lower Incisors of a At nine the Center nippcTs are evidently 

Twenty-One Year Old Horse. j. i j.i j.i i • j. i i. j.1. 

so; at ten the others begin to shorten the 
oval ; at eleven the second pair of nippers are round, and at 
thirteen the corner ones are round. At fourteen the faces 
of tlie central nippers become somewhat triangular. At seven- 
teen they are all so ; at nineteen the angle begins to wear 
off and the central teeth are again oval, but in reversed 
direction — ^viz. , from out inward, and at twenty-one they 
all wear this form. At about twelve years the teeth are of 
a yellow color, and, therefore, destitute of enamel. At this 
age the lower nippers change their original upright direction, 
and project forward. 

There are also general indications of the advance of old age 
aside from those offered by the teeth, such as deepening of the 
hollows over the eye; loss of its brilliancy and wrinkles under 




STRUCTURE OF THE HORSE, 121 

the lid; the appearance of gray hairs over the eyes and on the 
forehead; pendulous lips, with a wrinkled appearance; the with- 
ers become high and sharp; the chin, or lower jaw, begins to be 
pointed; the animal becomes more or less sway-backed; the space 
between the thighs increases, and there is a general appearance 
of feebleness and decay. 

OESOPHAGUS. 

The oesophagus, or gullet, is a musculo-membranous tube, 
lined with mucous membrane, the same in general character as 
that which lines the different parts of the mouth. It extends 
from the pharynx, which is simply a continuation of the ex- 
treme back part of the mouth, to the stomach. Directly behind 
the root of the tongue is the opening of the pharynx, and behind 
this the oesophagus. 

The oesophagus has no other use than for the conveyance of 
aliment from the pharynx to the stomach. The process of deglu- 
tition, or swallowing the food, is performed in the following 
manner: The masticated food gathers as a bolus at the root of 
the tongue, which, by retracting, forces the pellet through the 
isthmus faucium into the pharynx; the soft palate recedes back- 
wards and upwards; the food is forced down the epiglottis, clos- 
ing the larynx; finally the pharynx grasps the bolus and passes 
it downwards into the oesophagus. The food is propelled along 
the oesophagus by the peristaltic action of its muscular walls. 
The act of deglutition is involuntary in the oesophagus, the food 
travelling by peristaltic motion, caused by the successive con- 
traction of its muscular fibers. 

THE STOMACH. 

The stomach of the horse is small in proportion to the size of 
the animal. Its average capacity is about three gallons, while 
the stomach of man, whose weight is hardly one-eighth of that 
of the horse, contains frequently three quarts. When distended 
the stomach resembles a bent tube, with two lateral dilatations, 
divided by a central constriction into a left, or cardiac, and a 



122 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

right, or pyloric, portion. It has an opening. on the left, lead- 
ing into the oesophagus, through which the food enters, and 
another on the right, which communicates with the first portion 
of the intestine called the duodenum. The walls of the stomach 
are composed of three coats — an external, middle, and an in- 
ternal coat. The external coat is simplv a serous membrane and 
a reflection of the peritoneum. The middle or muscular coat 
consists of three sets of fibers — an external longitudinal, a mid- 
dle circular, and an internal oblique layer. The action of the 
different fibers produces a churning motion, which brings each 
portion of the food in contact with the mucous surface. The 
internal or mucous coat is different on the right and left portions 
of the stomach. In the cardiac portion it is called the cuticular. 
It is continuous with the mucous membrane of the oesophagus, 
which it resembles in structure and appearance. It is covered 
by a thick layer of stratified epithelium. It covers about one- 
third of the internal surface of the stomach. The villous or true 
digestive coat is reddish in color, soft, very vascular, and vel- 
vety-looking. The line of demarcation between the two por- 
tions is abrupt and dentated. The colors of the coverings are 
very dissimilar; the one has a reddish color, while the other is 
white. The villous portion has shallow depressions, or alveolar, 
into which the gastric follicles open ; at the pyloric end some of 
these follicles terminate in dilated sacs, or divide into two or 
more tubes. Some of them secrete gastric juice; others mucous. 
The use of the stomach is to macerate the food by the action of 
its muscular walls, and also to saturate it with mucous and gas- 
tric juice, the latter containing a principle called pepsine, which 
acts chemically on albuminous matter. The food during diges- 
tion in the stomach is kept in motion by the peristaltic action of 
its walls. By the contractions of its muscular fibers, currents 
are set up in its contents, the food travelling along the large 
curvature and returning by the lesser, while, as digestion pro- 
ceeds, certain portions are passed through the pylorus into the 
duodenum. 



STRUCTURE OF THE HORSE. 123 

INTESTINES. 

The intestines are divided into the large and small; the two, 
however, form a continuous musculo-membranous tube, with 
many widenings and convolutions; their length in an average- 
sized horse being about ninety feet. The coats of the intestines 
are similar to those of the stomach. The muscular coat con- 
sists of two layers of fibers, an outer longitudinal and an inner 
circular one. In certain intestinal diseases of the horse the cir- 
cular fibers contract spasmodically, producing strictures. The 
small intestines are continuous with the stomach at its pyloric 
orifice. They are about seventy-two feet in length. When fully 
expanded they hold about eleven gallons. The divisions of the 
small intestines by anatomists have received the names of the 
Duodenum, Jejunum, and the Ileum. The jejunum succeeds 
the duodenum, and includes about two-fifths of the remainder of 
the small intestines, the ileum constituting the rest ; they are 
attached to the free edge of the mesentery. 

The mucous membranes of the small intestines are furnished 
with glands and absorbents. Besides the mucous follicles, there 
are small glands resembling the acini of the salivary glands. 
They are found in the duodenum, and are known as the glands 
of Brunner. Very small glands are found throughout the in- 
testines, known as crypts of Lieberkuhn. The Beyer's patches 
are found in the jejunum and ileum. They are oval or circular 
groups of solitary glands. Other solitary glands, scattered 
throughout the intestines, resemble very much the sacs forming 
Beyer's patches. The absorbents originate in the villi, which 
are small finger-like vascular processes, thickly distributed over 
the mucous surface, consisting of loops of the lacteal vessels, 
surrounded by a network of capillaries, fine muscular fibers, and 
email, granular corpuscles. 

The large intestines consist of the caecum, the great colon, the 
floating colon, and the rectum. The cfrcum is much larger than 
the small intestines. It measures about thirtv-six inclies in 



124 THE STOCK OWNER^S ADVISER. 

length, and its capacity may average six gallons. It is some- 
what conical in shape, curved at its supero-posterior extremity, 
presenting on its outer surface a number of circular constric- 
tions and longitudinal muscular bands. The great colon is very 
large, measuring on an average from nine to eleven feet in 
length, and sometimes having a capacity of eighteen gallons. 
It has numerous transverse furrows and longitudinal muscular 
bands externally, and internally it resembles the caecum. The 
floating colon succeeds the great colon, and is convoluted. Its 
length is about ten feet. It is suspended by the colic mesen- 
tery. The contents of the colon, made up of the coarser parts 
of the food, become hard and solid, being deprived of nearly all 
moisture and nutrition. 

The rectum or straight intestine extends in a direct line from 
the entrance of the pelvic cavity to the anus, and resembles in 
structure the floating colon, but its walls are thicker. Its serous 
coat is a reflection of the peritoneum; the muscular coat is very 
strong, consisting of longitudinal bands, with circular fibers 
beneath them. In the spaces between its transverse ridges the 
faeces assume their characteristic shape. 

The anus is the posterior opening of the alimentary canal. 
Lying below the root of the tail, it forms a round projection, 
which becomes less prominent with age. It consists of thin, 
hairless skin externally and of mucous membrane internally, 
the two being continuous. 

THE LIVER. 

The liver is a solid gland, located in the abdomen. It is the 
largest secreting gland in the body, weighing from ten to twelve 
pounds. The coverings of the liver are an external serous and 
an internal fibrous coat. It is situated in close proximity to the 
right side of the diaphragm, and is divided into three lobes. Its 
normal color is a coal brown, but it varies in color from different 
diseases. It consists of very minute lobules, varying from about 
1-17 to 1-13 of an inch in diameter, separated from each other 



PTKUCTUEE OF THE HOKSE. 125 

by the interlobular tissue continuous with Glisson's capsule. 
The principal function of the liver is to secrete bile. The blood 
of the portal vein, returned chiefly from the abdominal alimen- 
tary canal, is charged with bile. The bile is removed by the 
vital power of the hepatic cells, while the blood is passing 
through the interlobular capillaries. The blood, thus deprived 
of bile, passes into the interlobular veins, and so into the sub- 
lobular and hepatic veins, while the bile gains the bile tubes, 
and ultimately the hepatic duct, to be poured again into the 
intestine. Most animals are provided with a gall bladder, in 
which the bile accumulates during the period of abstinence, and 
passes into the intestinal canal when digestion commences. The 
horse has no gall bladder; the bile, as fast as it is formed, flows 
directly into the small intestines, entering through the biliary 
duct a few inches below the pyloric orifice. Bile is an alkaline, 
golden yellow fluid of a bitter taste and specific gravity 1018, 
and containing about 14 per cent solid matter. It is used in 
converting starch into sugar, assists in emulsifying and saponi- 
fying fats, assists in the absorption of fats, increases peristaltic 
action, and prevents putrefactive changes in the intestines. 

THE PANCREAS. 

The pancreas is an elongated, lobulated gland, which lies 
across the abdomen, behind the stomach and in front of the 
kidneys. It is of a reddish, cream color. It belongs to the class 
of compound racemose glands, and closely resembles salivary 
glands. Pancreatic juice is a clear, viscid alkaline fluid resem- 
bling saliva, but of greater specific gravity, and containing from 
2 to 5 per cent of solid matter. It changes proteids into pep- 
tones in alkaline or neutral solutions, afterwards decomposing 
them into leucme and tryosine. It converts starch into dextrin 
and sugar, and emulsifies and saponifies fats. 



126 THE STOCK OWoS'EE's ADVISER. 

SPLEEN. 

The spleen is a soft, reddish-graj organ, situated on the left 
side of the great curvature of the stomach. It is an exceedingly 
vascular, ductless gland, having no excretory canal. It weighs 
from two to four pounds. Physiologists have been unable to 
demonstrate its use. 

The abdomen and part of the pelvis are lined by peritoneum. 
The internal surface is smooth, free, moist, and covered by scaly 
epithelium; it secretes a serous lubricating fluid. A mesentery 
is a broad, double fold of peritoneum, attached to the abdominal 
parieties above, and containing a portion of the intestine in its 
free or remote extremity. 

THE URINARY ORGANS. 

These are chiefly the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. 
The kidneys are two compound tubular glands, situated on the 
right and left of the vertebral column, in the sublumbar region 
of the abdomen, or under the loins. In the horse they are large; 
the right one is in advance of the left, lying just behind and 
beneath the last pair of ribs. They somewhat resemble in shape 
the heart on playing cards. The kidneys are made up chiefly 
of the tubes of the gland termed the uriniferous tubes, with 
blood vessels and nerves and connective tissue. The function of 
the kidneys is to secrete the urine, a fluid consisting of Avater 
holding in solution a varying quantity of earthy salts and a 
peculiar nitrogenous substance, urea, which, if not eliminated, 
acts as a blood poison. The urine is secreted by the kidneys and 
carried off by their ducts, the ureters, to a special reservoir^ the 
bladder, where it accumulates, and from which it is finally ex- 
pelled at intervals through the urethra. 

The bladder is situated within the pelvic cavity, and when 
full projecting into the abdomen. It serves as the reservoir for 
the urine, storing it, and at intervals, by contraction of its walls, 
forcing it into the urethra or excretory tube. It is a musculo- 



STEtrCTtJEE OF THF HOBSI:. 12T 

membranous organ. It consists of tliree coats — a mncons, nrns- 
cnlar, and a serous coat. Tlie serous coat only partly invests it, 
covering the upper half or more of the posterior wall, and being 
reflected from the sides and apex to the surrounding parts. The 
muscular coat consists of two layers of smooth, muscular fibers, 
an external longitudinal one and an inner circular layer, thinly 
scattered over the body, but denser at the neck, forming the 
sphincter vesicae. The mucous coat is pink and smooth; it is 
thrown into wrinkles, except at the trigone, where it is adherent 
to the muscular layer beneathf 

The ureters are two mepibranous canals, which convey the 
urine from the kidneys to the bladder. They have an external 
fibro-cellular, a middle muscular, and an internal mucous coat 
lined with epithelium, similar to that of the bladder. 

NERVOUS SYSTEM. 

The nervous system embraces those organs which receive and 
interpret impressions, stimulating and regulating the vital func- 
tions. The system is divided into tHe cerebro-spinal and the 
sympathetic. The former includes the brain, spinal cord, cer- 
tain ganglia, motor, and sensory nerves. The motor nerves are 
supplied to the voluntary mijscles; the sensory are distributed 
to the organs of sense, skin,f and other parts endowed with sen- 
sibility. The sympathetic consists of a series of ganglia and 
nerves, which supply the involuntary muscular fibers of the 
uterus, stomach, intestines, ducts, and blood vessels. 

The two systems are so intimately connected with each other 
that they can hardly be considered as distinct. The sympa- 
thetic system may be regarded as that portion which supplies 
the internal organs and blood vessels, having its own central and 
peripheral organs, like that of the cerebro-spinal. The two sys- 
tems have free inter-communication, ganglia being placed at the 
junctions. 

The nerve consists of bundles of nerve fibers bound together 
by a common tissue sheath. This sheath surrounds the whole 



STRUCTURE OF TltE HOR^E. l29 

nerve and binds its bundles together. It contains blood vessels, 
lymphatics, connective tissue, cells, and adipose tissue. Nerves 
which convey impressions to the centers are termed centripetal 
or afferent; those which transmit stimuli from the centers to the 
various organs are termed centrifugal or efferent, while those 
which pass from one center to another are called inter-centtral. 
Centrifugal are called motor, supplying muscles; vasomotox, 
supplying the muscular fibers of the blood vessels; secretory, 
supplying glandular epithelium ; inhibitory, modifying the ac- 
tions of the nerve centers; trophic, regulating the nutrition of 
a part. 

Centripetal nerves, which -convey common sensation, pain, 
touch, etc., are termed sensory. When they convey impressions 
peculiar to an organ, as the nerves of sight and hearing, they 
are known as nerves of special sense. Nerves conveying im- 
pressions which lead to the stimulation of motor, nerves are 
termed excito-motor; if to that of secretory nerves, excito- 
secretory; and if to that of inhibitory nerves excito-inhibitory. 
This reflection of nervous impulse from one nerve to another is 
known as reflex action. There are many things difficult and 
sometimes inexplicable about the nervous system and its opera- 
tions. 

The cerebro-spinal system has for its center the cerebro- 
spinal axis, consisting of the brain and spinal cord, which, like 
their coverings or meninges, are continuous with each other. 
The brain of the horse corresponds to the cavity in which it is 
placed. It is a flattened oval, divided into two parts, one much 
larger than the other — the cerebrum, or larger portion, and the 
cerebellum, or smaller portion. In the horse the cerebrum is 
belov/ the cerebellum, and occ;>pies the anterior portion of the 
cranial cavity. It is ovoid in shape, with an irregular flattened 
base, and consists of lateral halves or hemispheres, separated by 
a longitudinal fissure. The cerebellum or lesser brain is lodged 
in the posterior part of the cranial cavity, immediately above the 
9 - 



130 THE STOCK OWXEe's ADVISEE. 

medulla oblongata, which is the prolongation of the spinal cord. 
It is globular in shape, its transverse diameter being the greater. 
The membranes of the brain are the Dura Mater, Arachnoid, 
and the Pia Mater. The dura mater is the thick, white fibrous 
membrane which lines the cavity of the cranium, acting as the 
internal periosteum of the bones. The middle one, called the 
arachnoid, is a serous membrane of the ordinary character. The 
pia mater is closely adherent to the entire surface of the brain, 
dipping into every fissure or depression, into the sulci between 
the convolutions, and passing into the interior in several places. 

The human brain exceeds, in comparative bulk, that of the 
dog, the horse, or the ox. Thus are they classed in the order of 
intelligence. The human brain weighs, on an average, 50 ounces. 
The average weight of the horse's brain is 23 ounces. From the 
medullary substance proceed nerves by which the animal is 
enabled to receive impressions from surrounding objects, and 
also to experience many pleasurable or j^ainful sensations. One 
of them goes to the nose, and gives the special sensation of 
smell; another to the eye, and sight is produced; another to the 
ear, and the animal is conscious of sound: another to the tongue, 
and the taste is produced. Other nerves, proceeding to different 
parts, stimulate the faculty of motion: others stimulate the sense 
of feeling. Xerves which have their centers in the medulla 
supply the respiratory organs, and the liorse breathes. The 
vasomotor center is the center of the sympathetic system sup- 
plied to the muscular fiber of the blood vessels. They go to the 
stomach, and it digests; to the heart, and it beats: to the oeso- 
phagus and pharynx, and deglutition is performed; to the vocal 
chords, and voice is produced: to the mouth, and mastication is 
performed; to the salivary glands, and saliva is secreted. All 
of these have their centers in the medulla. 

The muscles of the body are kept in a constant state of con- 
traction or relaxation by nerve centers in the spinal cord. The 
centers for micturation and deftecation appear to exist in the 
lumbar region of the spinal cord. The centers that govern the 



1 



STKUCTURE OF THE HOKSE. 131 

movements of the uterus and erectile tissue are situated in tlie 
lumbar region of the cord. All along the spinal cord, from its 
origin to the tail, other nerves are given off at certain intervals. 
The spinal cord is composed of six distinct rods running through 
its whole length, three on eajch side, and the fibers of the two 
columns proceed to their destinations, enveloped in the same 
sheath and apparently as one nerve. They are united, yet dis- 
tinct, apparently constituting one nerve, yet neither their sub- 
stance nor their office is confounded. The cerebrum seems to 
be the seat of intelligence and will; the cerebellum seems to 
combine and balance the several muscular actions of the body; 
the medulla oblongata superintends respiration, mastication, and 
deglutition. Besides these are the ganglia, which are intended 
to subserve what are called the reflex actions of the organs of 
locomotion, etc., occupying the whole length of the spinal cord, 
one on each side. There are also the sympathetic systems of 
ganglia, which especially control the vital organs of circulation, 
digestion, and excretion. 

THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS. 

These consist of two testicles or seminal glands, with their 
excretory tubes, a musculo-glandular organ, the prostate, which 
provides a material for the dilution of the semen, and by its 
sphincteric contraction aids in the ejaculation of the spermatic 
fluid, at the same time intercepting its retrograde passage into 
the bladder; an organ of copulation, the penis, and a canal, the 
urethra, which pierces the prostate and penis, and serves as the 
transit for both the generative and urinary secretions. The 
testicles are two in number, and lie in a common pouch of iv- 
tegument, called the scrotum. In fetal life they are at first 
situated in the abdominal cavity behind the kidneys. At a cer- 
tain period they descend through the vaginal canal into the 
scrotum. They are glandular organs which secrete the semen. 
Lying u])on the posterior border of each testicle is a narrow 
flattened body, termed the epididymis. The testicles are sus- 



132 THE STOCK OW^Ze's ADVISEE. 

pended by the spermatic cord. The left is supposed to hang 
somewhat lower than the right in most cases. The vas deferens, 
the continuation of the tube of the epididymis, is the excretory 
duct of the testicle. It ascends along the inner side of the 
testicle and epididymis, through the spermatic canal to the in- 
ternal abdominal rino;. The spermatic cord is composed of arte- 
ries, veins, lymphatics, and the vas deferens. It extends from 
the internal inguinal ring, where its component structures are 
collected tosrether through the insniinal canal, and in the scro- 
tum as far as the summit of the testicles. The vesiculte semi- 
nales are two reservoirs situated between the bladder and rectum. 
They receive the semen from the vas deferens and secrete a fluid 
which is mixed with that of the testicles. In these reservoirs 
the sperm accumulates, and is expelled by the contractile walls 
of the vesiculse, during the act of copulation, through the ejacu- 
latory ducts into the urethra. The ejaculatory ducts, one on each 
side, are formed by the junction of the duct of the vesiculae semi- 
nales with the vas deferens. The urethra is a tube which extends 
from the neck of the bladder to the glans penis. It consists of 
two layers, a mucous and an external fibrous. It is divided into 
prostatic, membranous, and spongy portions. 

The penis is the organ of copulation, and is divided by anato- 
mists into a root, body, and extremity or glans penis. The root 
is attached to the pubis by two fibrous processes. The substance 
of the penis is formed of what is called erectile tissue, a tissue 
which, under certain circumstances, becomes enormously dis- 
tended with blood. The erectile structures are two in mimber, 
the corpus cavemosum and the corpus spongiosum. The corpus 
cavemosum, much the larger of the structures, forms the supe- 
rior and lateral portions of the penis. The corpus spongiosum 
encloses the urethra, is situated in the inferior groove of the 
corpora cavernosa, and is surrounded by the accelerator muscles. 
The glans penis forms the terminal extremity of the penis, and 
is an enlargement of the corpus spongiosum. At its apex is a 
deep fossa, in the center of which lies the meatus uiinarius, 



STKUCTUBE OF THE HORSE. 133 

bounded by two prominent lips. The sheath is a loose process 
of integument which invests the free portion of the penis. It 
forms a corrugated sack, extending from the scrotum, with which 
it is continuous, to a varying distance forward. Anteriorly, a 
loose double fold of the sheath projects, covering the anterior 
extremity of the penis completely. This is known as the pre- 
puce, or foreskin. 

THE FEMALE ORGANS OF GENERATION. 

The female genitals may be divided into an external part, the 
vulva, a vaginal passage, the cavity of which appears as a fissure 
in its ordinary condition, but is capable of very great dilatation; 
an internal apparatus comprising the organs of ovulation (ova- 
ries) with their ducts, and a musculo-mucous sack (uterus), in 
which the ovum undergoes development, and by which the fetus 
is ultimately expelled. The ovaries, being analogous to the 
testicles in the male, are the ultimate organs of generation in 
the female. They are similar in shape, but smaller than the 
testicles, and are situated in the sublumbar region of the abdo- 
men, being suspended from its roof a little behind the kidneys. 
They are attached anteriorly to the broad ligament of the uterus 
behind and below to the fallopian tube. Beneath the coat of the 
ovaries lies the graffian vesicles, or ovisac. Each sac contains a 
fluid secreted by cells, and this fluid increases in quantity as the 
vesicle develops. Ultimately the wall of the ovary and the 
graflian follicles give way, the ovum escapes into the fallopian 
tube, and is conveyed by it into the womb. The fallopian tubes 
are two canals, which convey the ova from the ovaries to the 
uterus. 

The uterus, or womb, is a musculo-membranous sac situated 
in the sublumbar region and pelvic cavity; it consist of a body 
and two cornua. It is properly the organ of gestation. Its 
office is to retain and support the fecundated ovum during the 
development of fetal life. It consists of three coats — a serous, 
muscular, and mucous. Projecting posteriorly is the neck of the 



134 THE STOCK owner's ADVISEE. 

wonib, which is thick, round, and projecting in the virgin. In 
the center is a transverse aperture or fissure opening into the 
vagina and closed during utero-gestation. The vagina is a mem- 
branous canal in the center of the pelvis, extending from the 
uterus to the vulva and situated between the rectum and bladder. 
It consists of two membranes, an inner mucous and an outer 
muscular. Constricted at its origin, the vagina widens at it 3 
inner portion and surrounds the neck of the uterus. The vagina 
is the chief female organ of coition. 

The vulva is the external orifice of the urino-genital system, 
and is situated in the perineal region immediately below the 
anus. It presents two lips and two commissures. In the interior 
of the vulva and in a depression on its floor lies the clitoris, 
which originates by two crura from the ischial arch, and is at- 
tached to the symphysis by a suspensory ligament. The clitoris 
is similar in its structure to the penis of the male, and is the 
principal organ of sexual pleasure in the female; having erectile 
tissue and cavernous vessels, it becomes erect during copulation. 
The external orifice of the urethra, the meatus urinaris, opens on 
the inferior surface of the vulva, about four inches from its 
opening. It is larger than the male opening and surmounted by 
a fold of mucous membrane, which acts as a valve. 

The hymen is a thin semilunar fold of mucous membrane 
which separates the vulva from the vagina, lying immediately 
before the meatus. It is ruptured during the first act of copu- 
lation. 

The mammary glands are compound racemose glands, which 
secrete milk for the nourishment of the recently born animal. 
They become developed at the age of puberty. The interior of 
the mamma is composed of lobes divided into still smaller lobules 
composed of minute ducts and numerous small cells, in which 
the milk is secreted and conveyed to the ducts, which unite to 
form a common excretory duct of each. From these ducts pro- 
ceed the canals that convey the milk to the teat. 



yn. 

REMEDIAL MEASURES AND REMEDIAL METHODS 
OTHER THAN DRUGS. 

MASSAGE. 

The word massage is used as the generic name for external 
manipulations employed for the purpose of affecting the nerves, 
muscular system, and general circulation. It has been practiced 
on animals and man from time immemorial, and is of great value 
in the lower animals. The rubbing and grooming of the race 
horse after the contest is a form of massage which is paralleled 
by the rubbings and manipulations employed by the early 
Greeks and Komans after the struggle in the arena. Massage 
has grown out of the practice of simply rubbing the skin. It 
has reached a high degree as a remedial measure in human 
patients, and requires considerable training and aptness for prac- 
ticing the art. Its good results are best achieved in the horse. 
In practicing massage upon the horse, it is not necessary that 
the operator be a highly educated person. It is essential, how- 
ever, that the masseur have sufficient knowledge of anatomy to 
understand the general drift of the circulation, the position and 
shape of the muscles, and of the muscle masses. 

Massage is of great value in general conditions of lack of 
muscular tone, nervous exhaustion, and failure of the peripheral 
circulation. In some local diseases affecting chiefly muscular 
tissue, its influence is most pronounced. By the influence of 
massage on circulation and nutrition, the contents of the blood 
vessels are moved onward, all backward movements of the blood 
being prevented by the valves of the veins and by the propelling 
power of the heart and arteries. Fluids outside these vessels 
pass through their walls to take the place of the stagnant blood 

(135) 



136 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

that has been moved onward. Other blood flows into the parts, 
and thus active and healthy circulation is induced, and nutritive 
material, capable of affording vital support, is also brought to 
refresh the local part. The movements of massage may be ar- 
ranged in three groups — first, stroking; second, kneading; third, 
percussion. In properly performed general massage, all these 
movements are practiced at a single seance in the order in which 
they have been named. The stroking movement should always 
precede the others, and be directed from the feet to the body. 
In making the strokes, both hands should be employed. The limb 
is grasped with one hand just above the other in such a way that 
pressure is exerted to some extent by the whole palm, but espe- 
cially by the ball of the thumb and the minor surface of the last 
two phalanges of the fingers. The hands are moved alternately, 
the second hand taking up the motion of the first hand where it 
has ceased, and while the movement is being executed by the 
second hand, the first hand returning to its original position. 
The strokes in the horse must be made with vis^or and firmness, 
and with great regularity. 

In kneading, the endeavor of the operator is to pick up the 
individual muscles or muscle groups between the fingers of the 
two hands, or in some cases between the thumb and finger of one 
hand, and then to roll or squeeze the muscle with a double move- 
ment. The series of pinchings is carried from the insertion of 
the muscle towards its origin. The second hand should follow 
rapidly upon the first in duplicating the stroke. For an exam- 
ple, the operator should start on the limbs at the feet and carry 
his series of pinchings to the body. 

Percussion is made either with the points of the finger brought 
into a line with one another, or with the side of the hand and 
fingers; the fingers should be so held as to have looseness and 
elasticitv. The blows should be at riaht angles to the fibers of 
the muscles, and the whole series of blows carried from the in- 
sertion towards the origin of the muscle. During prolonged 
muscular inaction, whether from indolence, disease, or other 



._ BEMEDIAL MEASURES AND REMEDIAL METHODS. 137 

causes, the muscular structure itself suffers and tlie peripheral 
circulation becomes very feeble. Much of the albuminous liquid 
which escapes from the blood vessels and diffuses itself through 
the tissues, afte/ serving the purpose of nutrition, is taken up 
by the lymphatics and returned to the great blood vessels. If 
there be any driving of this liquid from the periphery to the 
center it is so feeble that the return of the juices depends chiefly 
upon the squeezing of the various juice channels during muscu- 
lar contraction. During habitual inactivity, the movement of 
fluids in the juice channels outside of the blood vessels is ex- 
cessively sluggish, and it is one great object of the stroking 
movements in massage to force these juices onward. General 
stroking movements, if properly administered, are very quieting 
to the patient, removing nervousness and even pain. 

The kneading and percussion movements of massage act 
chiefly upon the local circulation. Both these jorocesses have a 
distinct effect upon the capillary circulation. Where the fibers 
of the muscles within their sheaths become agglutinated, and the 
skin itself becomes abnormally tense and attached to the sub- 
dermic tissue, as a result of rheumatic muscular affection and 
bad condition of the system generally, kneading has the power 
to remove this condition by mechanically loosening the aggluti- 
nated fibers and by so stimulating the local circulation as to 
cause absorption of exudations. This condition is generally 
known as hide-bound. 

The first seance in general massage should not last longer than 
from twenty minutes to a half hour, but in a little time a full 
hour will be required. When there is lack of digestive power, 
constipation, or similar symptoms — the outcome of sluggislmess 
of the abdominal circulation and nerve supply — local massage 
of the abdominal and pelvic region should be freely employed. 
In the treatment of sprains local massage is beneficial after the 
first stages of inflammation and irritation have passed. In mus- 
cular rheumatism or chronic inflammation of the joints, it is of 
great value. In various forms of paralysis local massage is of 



138 THE STOCK owner's ADVISEE. 

great value as a means of maintaining the nutrition of the af- 
fected muscles. It may be employed in all forms of paralysis. 
In no other class of animals is general massage so beneficial as 
in the horse. Good grooming and rubbing is worth almost as 
much to the horse's improvement, .and taking on flesh, as his 
food. 



VIII. 
INFLAMMATION. 

Definition. — Inflammation may be defined as the succession 
of changes which takes place in a living tissue as the result of 
some kind of injury, provided that this injury be insufficient, 
immediately, to destroy its vitality. — Sanderson. 

The process of inflammation is essentially the same in warm 
and cold blooded animals, and by microscopial examinations it 
has been proven to be the same in man. The process of inflam- 
mation comprises changes in the blood vessels and circulation, 
exudation of fluid and of blood corpuscles from the vessels, and 
changes in the inflamed tissues. These changes all go on to- 
gether. Inflammation causes a dilation of the arteries, which 
gradually extends to the veins and capillaries. It affects arteries 
chiefly, then the veins, and the capillaries but slightly. The 
enlargement of the blood vessels is associated at the commence- 
ment of the process with an acceleration in the flow of blood, and 
is followed by a considerable retardation in the circulation, the 
vessel still remaining dilated. As the stream gets slower white 
corpuscles are seen in increasing numbers in the plasmatic layer 
in the smaller veins, rolling slowly along, sticking here and 
there, and finally coming to a standstill, until the vessels are 
lined with them. This narrowing of the veins by layers of white 
corpuscles, among which there are no red corpuscles, increases 
the obstruction to the circulation, which becomes slower and 
slower until all onward movements cease in the capillaries. 
Finally, thrombosis or coagulation may take place, but no£ until 
the capillary walls are dead. 

There is an escape of fluid and of blood corpuscles from the 
vessels. The leucocytes immediately adjacent to the wall gradu- 
ally sink into it and pass through into the surrounding tissues. 

(139) 



140 THE STOCK OW^'Ee's ADVISEE. 

A similar escape takes place, but to a less extent from the capil- 
laries. In some inflammation the escape of red corpuscles even 
exceeds the white. It is certain that all new cells found in 
inflamed tissues, as a direct result of the injury which caused 
the process, are escaped blood corpuscles. The tissues of an in- 
flamed part are softer than natural, watery or solid looking, and 
in either case the component tissues are blurred or altogether in- 
distinguishable. 

Having thus briefly described the succession of changes which 
occur in the process of inflammation, we will next consider how 
an injury can produce them. It has been held that injury causes 
abnormal conditions of the blood, of the tissues, of the nerves, 
and of the blood vessels. On one or other or all of these parts 
it necessarily must act. The essential lesion of inflammation is 
a change in the vessel wall, resulting from an injury^ which in- 
creases the friction naturally offered to the passage of the blood, 
and IS a step tOAvards death. To cover all that we know of the 
escape of fluid and corpuscles, it is necessary to assume that the 
molecular change not only increases the friction between the 
blood and the vessel Avail, but also that it renders the latter more 
porous. The signs of inflammation are redness, heat, swelling, 
pain, and impaired function. Redness and heat may be taken 
together as depending upon the quantity of blood passing 
through the jDart in a unit of time. SAvelling is caused by exu- 
dation of fluid and corpuscles. Pain is due to pressure of the 
effusion on nerA'e endings, perhaps also to chemical A^iolation of 
them. Impaired function is due to the fact that CA^ery tissue is 
injured by inflammation. 

The folloAA'ing A^arieties of inflammation are to be regarded as 
steps in the process of inflammation due to A^ariation in the re- 
sisting power of the tissue, the intensity of the cause, and the 
duration of its action : 

Seeous IxFLA^kiMATiox. — As R Tcsult of slight injury, the nor- 
mal transudation from the vessels is increased in quantity and 
contains excess of albumen, but very few leucocytes. The best 



INFLAMMATION. 141 

examples are chronic effusion into serous cavities, the pleura 
joints, or tunica vaginalis (hydrocele). 

Fibrinous Inflammation. — In this form the exudation is still 
more richly albuminous and contains more leucocytes; it conse- 
quently has a much greater tendency to coagulate, and lymph 
forms on the inflamed surface or in the substance of the inflamed 
tissue. The most typical examples are found on serous mem- 
branes. 

Pkoductive Inflammation. — This is the case when the in- 
flammatory process ends in the formation of new tissue. In this 
case any fiber j)i'esent disappears before the leucocytes, which 
crowd into the lymph and convert it into a tissue of closely- 
packed leucocytes in a scanty homogeneous matrix. To supply 
this with nourishment, vascular loops spring from the capillaries 
of the inflamed tissue and penetrate into the lymph in all direc- 
tions; this is granulation tissue. 

Ulcerative Inflammation. — We have seen that suppuration 
in the substance of tissues produces molecular disintegration of 
them; as a rule, indistinct slough is found in pus. The same 
molecular distinction, eating away the tissues on a free surface, 
constitutes ulceration. 

Hemorrhagic Inflammation. — This form of inflammation is 
characterized by an exudation in which red corpuscles are in 
great excess. The results of inflammation are resolution, adhe- 
sion, effusion, suppuration, ulceration, and mortification, or gan- 
grene. Resolution is the most frequent and most favorable ter- 
mination of inflammation. It consists in the cessation of the 
process and the restoration of the part to health. The corpuscles 
of the stagnant blood move off, one after another, till a slow 
stream is re-established through the inflamed area; the flow 
quickens as resistance lessens and as the vessels contract, owing 
to gradual recovery of their muscular coats; exudation, first of 
corpuscles, then of fluid, ceases, and the circulation again be- 
comes normal. Whatever favors the re-establishment of normal 
circulation in the inflamed area will favor resolution. This may 



142 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

be done by a soothing application. The exudation may solidify, in 
which case applications are to be made to break down the struc- 
ture, and as a liquid it may be got rid of. Adhesive inflamma- 
tion is where there is inflammatory action, and the exciting 
causes are kept uj) until a permanent thickening of the affected 
part results. Effusion is where an exudation of serum takes 
place, as in inflammation of the pleura, etc. 

Suppuration, or the formation of pus, presents two parts for 
consideration — a liquid and a solid, the corpuscles being the 
solid. It may take place in difterent ways or in different forms — 
circumscribed, diffused, and superficial. Circumscribed suj^pu- 
ration is in the form of an abscess. Diffused suppuration is such 
as takes place over an extensive surface, as in the shoulders and 
injuries to large muscles. Superficial, as in the mucous mem- 
brane. Ulceration also occurs as a result of inflammation; the 
tissues degenerate and are thrown off in exudation. It occurs 
usually in cases where the inflammation has been long continued, 
and the circulation of blood in the parts obstructed, and mole- 
cular death of the part occurs. Gangrene is death of a part, and 
may take place without inflammation. Gangrene affects the 
whole system, and sets up such a constitutional disturbance that 
ieath often follows as a result. In cases, where recovery takes 
place, the gangrenous portions are removed by sloughing. 

Treatment of Inflammation. — The first step is to find and 
remove the exciting cause. The inflamed parts should be kept 
at rest. The animal should be dieted and placed in a comforta- 
ble box. Medicinal remedies may be either local or constitu- 
tional. Cold water as a local application, to allay inflammation, 
is used extensively. It acts by contracting the vessels. Warm 
water is also of great use where the pain is very severe and the 
deep-seated structures are involved. Its action is opposite to 
cold; the warmth promotes swelling and relaxation of the tissues, 
allaying pain and irritability. Hot or cold applications must be 
kept up for some time. Purgatives are useful in inflammation, 
jthe best being aloes for the horse, sulphate of magnesia for the 



INFLAMMATION. 143 

coWj and syrup of buckthorn and jalap for the dog. They are 
of the greatest benefit in such disease as laminitis, but must be 
withheld in inflammation of the lungs. Sedatives are useful in 
the treatment of inflammation, as aconite, digitalis, belladonna, 
calomel, and, tartar emetic. Diuretics are extensively used in 
our practice, the best being the neutral and alkaline salts, nitrate 
of potash, etc. Opium is also good where mu(^h pain is present. 
Counter-irritants are of very great benefit in the treatment of 
inflammation, especially when deep-seated and chronic. 



IX. 
FRACTURES OF BONES. 

A fracture may occur in three ways — ^first, by external yio- 
lencCj operating directly upon the injured part; second, by exter- 
nal violence, producing such concussion upon the bone as not to 
break it where the force is applied, but at some other part; third, 
by inordinate action of the muscles, as in broken back. Some 
bones are more liable to fracture than others. The bones of the 
pelvis, shoulders, thighs, pasterns, and vertebrae seem to be more 
frequently broken than others. Bones in a diseased condition 
are liable to fracture from trivial causes. The bones of old 
horses are more readily broken than those of the young. 

A solution of continuity of bone (fracture) may be transverse, 
oblique, or longitudinal, according as it is at a right or an acute 
angle vith, or parallel to, the long axis of the part of the bone 
in which it is situated. There are several varieties of fractures, 
known as simple, compound, comminuted, and complicated. A 
fracture is said to be simple, when a bone is broken at one part, 
without any injury of soft parts; compound or open, when the 
broken ends separate, pierce the soft tissues, and injure the skin; 
comminuted, when the bone is broken into several fragments; 
complicated, when, together with the fracture, there is a serious 
injury to the joining structures, as laceration of blood vessels, 
nerves, open joint or serious contusion of the tissues. There 
may be fractures without displacement, as sometimes happens 
when the tibia of the horse is fractured and held in place by the 
periosteum for days or weeks, without displacement, the frac- 
tured ends of the bone being held in apposition until complete 
reunion takes place. 

An erroneous idea has prevailed among horsemen that frac- 
tured bones in the horse will not unite as quickly as the bones of 

(144) 



FEACTUKES OF BONES. 145 

a man. They will unite more quickly, the great difficulty being 
to keep the animal quiet and the bones in proper position. The 
process of union and repair in the horse is very rapid and effi- 
cient, provided the solution of continuity does not extend into a 
joint having extensive motion. 

The Symptoms of Fracture. — When fracture occurs in one 
or more bones of a limb, the 'symptoms are great lameness sud- 
denly manifested, obvious deformity, crepitation and inability 
to bear weight upon the limb. These are the general symptoms; 
the particular ones, as well as the causes of the several fractures, 
will be hereafter described and illustrated. 

Treatment. — There are certain general rules applicable to 
such cases; generally speaking, if the animal be one of small 
value, we advise its destruction. On the other hand, if the ani- 
fnal be valuable, it should be treated. Compound fractures can- 
not be treated with any degree of success in the horse, especially 
those of the tibia and humerus, etc. Having decided that frac- 
ture is present, endeavor to bring the fractured ends of the 
bone into position as soon as possible. Having done this, splints 
must be applied in such a manner as to keep the parts at rest. 
This is accomplished by means of starch or plaster of Paris ban- 
dages, and by the use of slings. A starch bandage is simply 
factory cotton starched and applied around the parts. The best 
bandage, however, is formed of calico stiffened with plaster of 
Paris, care being taken to secure bandages of proper size, in 
width and length. They should be not less than thirty feet long 
and four inches wide. The bandage should be dipped into, or 
have poured upon it, plaster of Paris as it is being applied, 
which, on setting or becoming dry, forms a perfectly reliable 
and unyielding bandage, being, as it were, moulded to the parts 
and causing no undue irritation or feeling of discomfort. Nice, 
light splints may be used, such as strong leather, the pieces being 
made sufficiently long to extend to a distance beyond the supe- 
rior and inferior articulations of the fractured bones, and broad 

enough to envelop and enclose the whole circumference of the 
10 



146 THE STOCK OWNER S ADVISER. 

limb. Holes should be cut in the leather where the splints pass 
over any sharp eminence. There is a new kind of splint used 
in human jDractice, a kind of porous felt; this looks very nice and 
light, and, by immersing in hot water, it becomes perfectly plia- 
ble and will take the shape of the part; then applying cold 
water, it becomes solid. When swelling is present before the 
fracture is reduced, the splints may be maintained in position 
by the loop bandage, which consists of strips of calico about two 
or three inches broad, and long enough, when folded double, to 
pass around the limb, with a few inches of excess; one of the 
ends is then drawn through the loop and fastened to the other. 
This bandage is useful when the degree of tightness requires to 
be altered; but it must be replaced by the common roller, as soon 
as the swelling has subsided, and supplemented by one or two 
layers of bandage saturated with starch. We have used, with 
good results, a tarred cord carefully applied to the whole limb 
over the leather. The animal, if a horse, is to be kept in a state 
of quietude, in slings, for a period varying from two to three 
months. In foals, or unbroken horses, the slings must be dis- 
pensed with, the limb being set in the ordinary way and the 
colt being put in a comfortable box, bedded with sawdust, chaff, 
or short straw. When the bones of horned cattle are fractured, 
they must be treated in the same manner as those of the young 
horse, slings being as a rule inadmissible. The limbs of dogs, 
when broken, require nothing but a starch or plaster of Paris 
bandage; in the course of a very few weeks they will be found 
completely recovered. To prevent dogs from biting the bandage, 
it should be sprinkled with cayenne pepper before it sets. 

Modes of Ukion. — The mode of union, as well as the length 
of time required in repair, depends to a great extent upon the 
bone fractured. An early consequence of fracture appears to be 
an exudation of lymph, which ultimately becomes firm, when it 
is called callus. The first eight or ten days blood is extravasated 
into the medullary canal between the fragments and under the 
periosteum; after a time sanguineous effusion is removed by 



FKACTURES OF BONES. 147 

absorption. Between the tenth or twelfth to the twentieth or 
twenty-fifth day an exudation of lymph takes place, the repara- 
tive material being deposited between the fractured ends of the 
bone, and known as the callus. From the twentieth or twenty- 
fifth day to the thirtieth, fortieth, or sixtieth day the fibro- 
cartilage between the periosteum and the bone and that within 
the medullary canal are both converted into bone, the external 
forming a ring and the internal a plug, or peg, filling up the 
medullary canal, and together constituting the provisional 
callus. During the fifth and sixth months the callus increases 
in hardness, from day to day, until it is finally converted into 
bone, constituting the permanent callus. Extending from the 
fifth or sixth month to the tenth or twelfth, the provisional 
callus, being no longer necessary, disappears, and the medullary 
canal is restored. The reparative material makes the parts as 
strong, or stronger, than before fracture. 

FRACTURE OF THE HUMERUS. 

Fracture of the humerus is caused by falls, kicks, and severe 
injuries, such as are sustained sometimes in running away. We 
are of the opinion that perfect soundness cannot be restored in 
this fracture. The powerful muscles attached to this bone pull 
the fractured ends out of place, in spite of any appliance that 
can be used. A very young animal may be treated when the 
fracture is known as a simple one; but as a rule it is best to 
destroy the animal. 

Symptoms. — The fractured ends are drawn past each other 
as in the cut. The limb is shortened, the inferior portion of the 
bone being drawn uj)wards by the muscles attached to it; great 
lameness; crepitus may or may not bo well marked. It some- 
times happens that humeral arteries are ruptured, causing great 
engorgement of this part of the limb^ and rendering detection 
of crepitus an impossibility. The condyles of the humerus are 
occasionally fractured; as a riile^ they never will unite, because 



148 



THE STOCK OWK^EK S ADVISER. 



of the impossibility of keeping the parts in a state of complete 
rest. 

Kaditjs and Ulna. — The radius and ulna are fractured by 
direct violence, as the olecranon by muscular contraction. In 
dogs this fracture is not at all uncommon. The olecranon is 
fractured transversely by over-extension; it snaps 'across about 
its middle. 

Symptoms. — There will be immediate and great lameness; the 
animal will stand with the whole limb in an exceedingly relaxed 
and semi-flexed condition with almost total inability to move it 




Fig. 27 — Fracture of the Humerus. 

or support any weight upon it. Owing to the immediate swell- 
ing it becomes a matter of great difiiculty to form a correct 
diagnosis. Mr. Anderson, of Glasgow, has discovered an almost 
unfailing mode of diagnosing this fracture, as follows: Let the 
examiner place his knee firmly against the patient's injured leg; 
by firm pressure straighten the semi-flexed leg, and keep it in 
that position while an assistant is directed to lift up the horse's 
opposite forefoot. If the olecranon is fractured, the patient is 
unable to stand ; but if there is merely laceration, he will be able 
to bear his weight with the assistance at the knee given by the 
examiner. 



FRACTURES OF BONES. 149 

There are two positions in which the limb is maintained w^hen 
suffering from this injury — namely, semi-flex, with the foot in 
advance, or semi-flex with the foot behind, knuckling over, the 
toe only touching the ground and turned inward. 

Treatment. — Place in slings and bring the part, if possible, 
in proper position and bandage. When the process of caries or 
necrosis takes place, the diseased or detached fragments of bone 
are to be cut dowm upon and removed, but as a rule an animal 
receiving such a fracture should be destroyed. Fracture often 
takes place from the horse falling in the cart, the elbow being 
thrown across the shaft, and both the radius and ulna being 
broken through to the articulation. This lesion cannot be 
treated. The beak of the olecranon is sometimes broken; this 
cannot be cured. If the radius is broken in combination with 
the ulna it may be successfully treated. 

FRACTURE OF THE KNEE. 

Fracture of the knee is caused by kicks and falls, concussion, 
etc. ' As a rule, we do not treat such cases, but if the animal be 
valuable for breeding purposes, it is worth while to attempt 
treatment. 

Symptoms — There is extensive swelling, lameness, and crepi- 
tus may be detected. 

Treatment. — Absolute rest; apply the plaster of Paris band- 
age and place in slings. After a few weeks' rest the animal may 
be gently exercised. This is necessary owing to the liability of 
anchylosis taking place. 

FRACTURE OF THE SCAPULA. 

The tubercle on the spine of the scapula sometimes becomes 
fractured, usually caused by injury, as external violence of any 



160 



THE STOCK OWNER S ADVISEE. 



kind. It is never caused by muscular contraction. ^N^ecrosis is 
the usual result of this fracture^ and is manifested in the usual 
way by separation, etc. 

Treatment. — Cut down upon and remove any detached or 
diseased portions of bone that may be found. Fracture through 
the necTv of the scapula sometimes occurs, and may be caused in 
various ways. 

Symptoms. — The animal can hardly move the limb; perhaps 
goes on three legs, and there is crepitation. 




Fig. 28 — The Horse in Slinks. 

Treatment. — If the fracture be of the variety known as sim- 
ple, it can be cured; but it will take a long time and a great deal 
of trouble. If the fracture extends into the articulation, the 
case is usually hopeless, the only chance being the exudation of 
material to cover it up; but little can be done beyond enjoining 
quietude, placing the animal in slings, and watching for unto- 
ward complications. 



FKACTURES OF BONES. 151 



METACARPAL. 



This fracture is easily diagnosed, and, if simple, can be suc- 
cessfully treated by using splints, bandages, slings, etc. The 
small metacarpals may be fractured and set up considerable irri- 
tation, but reunion will generally take place if tbe animal is kept 
quiet. There is no necessity of putting the animal in slings. 
This fracture may be caused by striking with the hind foot. In 
some cases crepitation may be detected. 

SESAMOID BONES. 

Fracture of the sesamoids occur from a violent sprain as in 
galloping in steeplechasing. In transverse fracture the symp- 
toms are descent of the fetlock pad, elevation of the toe, with 
great lameness, and the presence of a depression, marking the 
seat of the fracture in the bone or bones. If the patient be a 
valuable animal for breeding it may be treated; if not, destroy 
the animal. 

OS SUFFRAGINIS. 

The OS suffraginis is sometimes broken into many fragments, 
most mysteriously, while the animal is galloped on sandy or soft 
ground. This bone is frequently fractured. It is a common 
accident among race horses and hunters. The fracture is usually 
caused by concussion. 

Symptoms. — Extreme lameness; there may or may not be crep- 
itation. If it is a simple fracture it may be treated with success, 
but if compound or comminuted, it is best to destroy the animal. 

OS CORONA. 

The OS corona is rarely fractured, but fracture nuiy be pro- 
duced in the same Avay as those given, and may be treated in the 
same way. 

Os Pedis. — Fracture of the os pedis is caused by concussion, 
and occurs most frequently among running horses. The animal, 



152 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

while running, suddenly falters and pulls dead lame. Soon there 
will be great heat around the coronet, and great pain manifested. 
The animal is unable to mark the limb. E'othing can be done 
except to rest the animal and endeavor to combat inflammation. 
It is frequently an act of mercy to destroy the animal. 

NAVICULAR. 

The navicular bone may be fractured in two ways — first, by 
direct puncture, as when a nail penetrates the frog; secondly, 
when it has been nearly worn through by caries or chronic navi- 
cular disease. Fracture of the navicular bone is hard to diag- 
nose. The history of the case must be taken into account. When 
the bone is punctured by a nail, and broken, the discharge will 
be of a bloody nature, giving it a dirty red hue and fetid odor. 
"When the fracture is caused by chronic navicular disease, the 
horse is generally found to have been lame for some time, but 
serviceable. All at once he becomes helplessly lame and unfit 
for further use. This form of fracture occui>6 very often after 
the operation of neurotomy, both tendon and bone giving way, 
and the fetlock coming to the ground. Inflammation and suppu- 
ration are the results ere reunion may take place. 

BROKEN RIBS. 

The causes are direct violence, such as kicks from other 
horses and blows. In simple fracture there are no symptoms pre- 
sented and no treatment necessary. The compound fracture is 
the only kind that generally comes under our notice. The rib 
may penetrate the lung and cause pneumonia. 

Treatment. — To find out whether the lung is punctured, and 
if the fragment or fragments of bone are displaced, and to re- 
place them in their proper position. All this may be done by 
introducing the finger into the wound and by converting the 
compound into a simple fracture, closing the external opening 
by a good, stiff plaster — the Burgundy or common pitch will do 
very well- A broad bandage may be applied around the body. 



FRACTURES OF BONES. 



153 



If treated immediately after the accident^ eight drachms of 
aloes may be used. If inflammation of the pulmonary organs 
has manifested itself, give sweet spirits of nitre, one ounce; 
nitrate of potash, three drachms, as a drench three limes a day. 

FRACTURE OF THE FEMUR. 

The femur may be fractured through its neck or through its 
shaft; both forms are incurable. In both there is shortening of 
the limb, the toe being turned inward^ except when the head of 




Fig. 29 — Fracture of the Femur. 

the femur is forced into the foramen oval, when the limb will be 
found longer than its fellow, and the toe will be turned outwards. 
Fractures of the trochanters may be treated. The symptoms of 
fracture of the trochanter minor externus are as follows: The 
commencement of the act of extending the foot is done easily, 
but the concluding part of the elevation of the limb is performed 
with great pain, causing a jerk when the limb is suddenly drop- 
ped; but when it has descended a very short way the pain is re- 
lieved. Fracture of the condyles cannot be treated. 



154 THE STOCK OWJS^Er's ADVISEE. 



PATELLA. 

Fracture of this bone takes place, due to direct injury or mus- 
cular contraction; the fracture may be longitudinal or trans- 
verse. It cannot be treated with success unless it is a mere crack 
of the bone, with no displacement. A shoe with a high toe- 
piece and heel may be used and the animal placed in slings, and 
cooling applications being employed to reduce inflammation and 
swelling. 

FRACTURE OF THE TIBIA. 

Fracture of this bone takes place oftener than that of any 
other bone of the hind extremity. It is caused by direct injury, 
as kicks, and often occurs without displacement for several days. 

Symptoms. — The animal stands with the limb flexed, throwing 
scarcely any weight upon it. AVhen the parts are manipulated 
the animal evinces great pain. If such symptoms are present, 
the animal should be treated for fracture, the limb retained in 
position by means already described. If displacement has taken 
place, and the animal is aged, the best course will be to destroy it. 

FRACTURE OF THE TARSAL AND METATARSAL BONES. 

If the astragalus be fractured, there is little use in treating. 
The OS calcis is transversely fractured by muscular contraction 
and by slipping forward of the limb. 

Inspection will demonstrate a flatness of the point of the hock, 
with an apparent shortening of the limb. By manipulation the 
examiner will be enabled to detect the detached portion of bone. 
Lameness and swelling are present. 

Treatment. — Place the animal in slings; apply a high-heeled 
shoe, then force the fragments into proper position, as nearly as 
possible, retaining it there by pads of tow and bandages. The 
tow should be made into firm pads and rolls, and pressed down 
in front and on both sides of the fragments to prevent it from 



FRACTURES OF BONES. 155 

falling forwards. Over the dry bandage the starch bandage must 
be carefully laid, extending from the foot over the hock as high 
as possible,- in order to keep the limb in a state of rigidity. 

PRACTURE OF THE METATARSAL BONES. 

The tarsal bones are all liable to be fractured by direct injury, 
and should be treated in the same manner as the similar bones of 
the fore extremity. 

FRACTURES OF THE VERTEBRAE. 

A fractured vertebra above the origin of the phrenic nerve, 
with displacement of its fragments, produces death. It is not dis- 
covered until a post mortem examination be made. The nerve 
being cut off, can no longer convey motor power to the dia- 
phragm; the respiration grows slower and slower until it finally 
ceases altogether, death resulting solely from paralysis of this 
great respiratory muscle. 

The transverse processes of the cervical vertebrae are some- 
times fractured, and, by pressing upon the cervical nerve in the 
immediate neighborhood, cause more or less paralysis of the 
cervical muscles supplied by the nerve, producing what is com- 
monly termed wry neck — that is, a twisted neck, the head being 
turned from the seat of injury. Fracture may occur by being 
halter-cast, getting the foot into the halter and struggling vio- 
lently, getting under the manger, or other such injuries. 

Symptoms. — There is a tendency to carry the head to one side; 
examination along the neck may find the seat of injury and de- 
tect crepitation. If you suspect a fracture, keep the animal as 
quiet as possible; bathe to allay the irritation and keep the feed- 
box pretty high; tie him up for several days. There are cases 
where reunion does not take place, causing necrosis of the parts; 
they become detached and set up irritation; there is a discharge; 
perhaps it heals up and tlien breaks out again. Cut down and 
remove the particle of bone. 

The spinous processes of tlio dorsal vertebra^ are tlio sent of 



156 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

fracture; when this occurs, the detached fragments cause what 
is known as fistulous withers; the sinuses must be explored and 
the fragments removed. It is sometimes found that the tuberous 
ends of the spines are in a state of caries or necrosis from being 
bruised. The treatment for this kind of injury is the careful 
scraping away of the diseased surface. 

DORSAL SPINE. 

Fracture of the bodies of the dorsal spine give rise to what is 
known as broken back. A fracture of the dorsal spine is gen- 
erally due to an ill-fitting saddle. Anchylosis of the dorsal verte- 
brae in old horses is manifested by a peculiar stiffness of the back, 
well shown when the animal turns around. On casting such a 
horse, fracture of the bodies of the vertebrse is very likely to 
occur, and will generally produce complete or partial paralysis. 
If the fractured part press upon the spinal cord, the animal will 
be unable to rise, and complete paralysis may occur. The animal 
shows no sign of feeling on being pricked with a pin. The hind 
legs may be moved about in any direction without any resistance 
by the animal. The fseces may be passed involuntarily. 

Treatment. — If fracture of the superior spinous processes be 
present, the detached pieces of bone should be cut down upon 
and removed, and if the bone is found to be diseased it should be 
touched with diluted hydrochloric acid; if the bodies of the ver- 
tebra are fractured, as a rule, nothing can be done. 

In the lumbar vertebra fractures occur in the same manner 
and present the same symptoms as in the dorsal region. If frac- 
ture occurs to the transverse processes, and the animal is kept 
quiet, reunion takes place quickly. 

FRACTURE OF THE SACRUM. 

Fracture of the transverse processes of the sacrum is caused by 
slipping, or by violent falls. Muscular contraction will also 
cause it. 

Symptoms. — There is difficulty in moving. Before long it is 



FKACTUKES OF BONES. 



157 



observed that the haunch falls to a certain extent; the highest 
part of the quarter becomes flattened. Examination per rectum 
will enable the practitioner easily to diagnose the exact seat of 
the injury. 

Treatment. — Slings and rest; as a rule cases terminate very 
satisfactorily, leaving only the flatness of the quarter. 

The coccygeal are also liable to fracture, which may be de- 
tected by inability of the animal 
to raise the tail, difliculty in de- 
fseoation, and by crepitation. 

Treatment. — S t r o n g leather 
binding laced around the tail, ex- 
tending from its upper to its lower 
part, proper padding being at the 
same time used to prevent excoria- 
tioUi 

The rudimentary spines of the 
false vertabrge of the tail are some- 
times fractured, giving rise to 
troublesome sinuses. The treat- 
ment will be to lay open the 
wounds and remove the detached 
bone. 

A comminuted fracture of the 
bones of the tail, with violent 
bruising of the soft parts and gan- 
grene, is occasionally seen. In such amputation of the tail and. 
removal of all of the fractured bones must at once be resorted to 
or serious consequences may result, such as irritative fever and 
tetanus. 




Fig. 30— Fracture of the 
Sacrum. 



FRACTURE OF THE PELVIC BONE. 



Ilium. — Fracture of the supero-anterior spine of the ilium is 
one of the most common accidents of horse flesh. It is usually 
produced by running through a doorway or other narrow place 



158 



THE STOCK OWIN'EE S ADVISER. 



and striking the part against the door frame. It may also be 
caused by falls. 

Symptoms. — There is lameness and lateral flatness of the quar- 
ter. The broken piece of bone is drawn inward and downward 
by the action of the abdominal muscles attached to it. In this 
fracture we find that the method of repair is by false joint. Very 
little treatment necessary in a case of this kind. If the soft parts 

are injured, purga- 
t i V e , fomentation, 
and a short rest will 
he sufficient. If the 
animal is not kept 
quiet, caries or ne- 
crosis may set in, 
5*endering it neces- 
sary to open up the 
parts and remove 
any diseased or de- 
tached portions of 
bone that may be 
found. 




FRACTURE OF THE 
ILIUM. 



Fig. 3i — Fracture of the Anterior Spine 
of the Ihunu 



Fracture of the 
dorsum of the ilium 
is generally due to muscular contraction. There is falling of the 
haunch and swelling. The animal is to be kept as quiet as possi- 
ble; use slings, fomentations, plasters, and chargers. 

Fracture through the shaft of the ilium is common, and is 
caused by slipping, falling, etc. There is difficulty in bringing 
the limb forward, which has suddenly slipped. Examination per 
rectum may detect crepitus. The prognosis is usually favorable, 
especially if the patient be young and strong. 



FEACTURES OF BONES. 159 

Ischium. — The shaft of the ischium is the portion most liable 
to fracture, and the fracture generally passes through the fora- 
men ovale. It is caused by slipping, falling, etc. There is diffi- 
culty in progression, descension of the haunch to a certain extent, 
and crepitus. 

Fractuee Through the Symphysis Pubis. — This form of frac- 
ture is caused by the posterior extremities suddenly slipping out- 
wards. Its symptoms are a wide, straddling gait behind, the 
legs being dragged forward in progression; the feet wide apart, 
the toes turned outward. Examine per rectum. 

Yery little can be done in the way of treatment. If the ani- 
mal is not of much value, he had better be destroyed; but if 
young he may be treated. Place in slings, pull the limbs as near 
to each other as possible, and keep in that position by fastening 
with a strap above the hocks. In two or three months a fair re- 
covery may be expected. 

Fracture of the tuberosity of the ischium is caused by falling 
upon the buttocks, either from slipping or falling. The symp- 
toms are flatness of the most rounded part of the quarter, crepitus 
in manipulation, swelling of the soft parts, lameness. All that 
needs be done is to apply a good, stiff charge or plaster after the 
subsidence of the swelling and keep quiet. 

When fracture of the acetabulum occurs, the case is a hopeless 
one. It is caused by kicks, falls, blows, and by muscular con- 
traction. The limb can scarcely be moved at all, the foot rests 
upon the toe, or is not placed to the ground at all; the limb is 
shorter than its fellow. There is great pain and crepitus. 

INFERIOR MAXILLA. 

Falling may fracture either the inferior or pre-maxilla. The 
direction o± the fracture is longitudinal, involving the alveolar 
cavities of the incisor teeth, and terminating in the maxillary 
space, 01 obliquely from the center outwards, through the neck 
of one or both rami. 



160 THE STOCK OWXEk's ADVISEE. 

Teeatmext. — Remove loose teeth and bone, bring tbe parts 
in position, and secure by means of copper wire, bound firmly 
around the incisor teetb. If tbe animal be a male the tushes may 
be included in the wire. Apply a calico bandage, and support the 
patient with liquid food for several days, fed from a shallow 
vessel. Eecovery takes place in a very short time. 

LowEE Jaw. — The lower jaw is often injured by the bit, espe- 
cially if a powerful curb bit is used and the animal hard to re- 
strain. There will be a dribbling of saliva, swelling of the 
mucous membrane, and pain. The animal shies when the mouth 
is touched; difficult mastication; perhaps hemorrhage from the 
mouth. 

Teeatment. — Remove the diseased bones, feed on soft diet, 
and clean the wound occasionally. If the wound is discharging 
fetid material, a solution of carbolic acid should be used. 

Fracture of the rami of the lower jaw is generally caused by 
falling. Mastication is rendered difficult, or even impossible. 
There will be swelling and crepitation. TVhen the broken ends 
of the bone are brought together, means to retain them in their 
proper position must be resorted to. The copper wire and ban- 
dages already referred to may be used; but if the fracture is 
situated posterior to the tush, something more than this is re- 
quired. A good apparatus for holding the bones together is the 
face cradle recommended by Professor Yarnell, of London. It 
is a very good apparatus, but not always easy of access. But we 
must not despair if we do not possess any other splints than such 
as may be made at the time. Thin strips of bass-wood acted upon 
by water and applied.to the parts do very well; gutta percha may 
be moulded to the parts after they have been brought together. 
The animal should be supported on liquid foods, and the case 
watched to see that reunion takes place in the proper manner. 

NASAL BOITES. 

This fracture occurs rather frequently from runaway horses 
coming in contact with hard substances, such as lamp-posts, tele- 



PEACTURES OP BONES. 161 

graph poles, etc. One or both bones may be fractured. Some- 
times the bones are driven into the nasal sinuses, and more or less 
hemorrhage ensues. Bring the bones into position and apply an 
adhesive plaster over the whole fractured surface. If the bones 
are driven in, wrap a chamois skin or piece of selvyt around a 
probe and press the bones into position, care being taken to re- 
move all detached pieces of bone. If they do not remain in posi- 
tion, one nostril must be plugged. 

FRONTAL BONES. 

Fracture of the frontal bones takes place from causes similar 
to those of the nasal bones, and is generally of the variety known 
as comminuted. The symptoms are a raising and lowering of 
the bones at each inspiration and expiration, hemorrhage, etc. 
The treatment requires the adhesive plaster, the removing of the 
detached pieces of bone, etc. It is best sometimes to wait a few 
days before moving the diseased bones. 

ORBITAL PROCESS. 

This is fractured by external violence, and sometimes produces 
opacity of the cornea. Bring the bones into position, apply plas- 
ters, and remove the small portions of detached bone. 

Fracture of the internal plate of the frontal bone is caused by 
external violence. In receiving the injury the animal usually 
falls to the ground, remains down for a few minutes, then gets 
up and appears all right, but in a few days brain symptoms are 
presented. 

Treatment. — Keep the patient quiet and endeavor to raise the 
bone. Use cooling food and cold applications to the seat of in- 
jury. The prognosis is unfavorable. 

PARIETAL. 

Fracture of the parietal bones occasionally occurs, and death 
results. The operation of trephining and removing the piece of 
11 



162 THE STOCK owner's ADVISEE. 

bone tliat is pressing upon the brain is not attended witb as mucli 
success in veterinary patients as it is in human practice. Wher- 
ever there is evidence that a bone is pressing upon the brain we 
should cut down, trephine, and remove it if necessary. This 
operation should be left to a surgeon. 



X. 
DISEASES OF THE BONES. 

Diseases of the bones are classed under two heads — inflamma- 
tory and non-inflammatory — but the line of demarcation is not 
very well defined. The process of inflammation takes place in 
bone the same as in soft tissues. On making a section of a bone 
compact and cancellated tissue is found. The compact tissue con- 
tains the Haversian canals, conveying blood plasma to the lacunae. 
In this manner this portion of the bone receives its supply of 
nutritious material from the blood; without this arrangement the 
bony structure could not receive nutrition. It will be seen that 
the compact bone is abimdantly provided with vessels, entering 
from numerous points, covered by periosteum and endosteum; 
that these nutrient vessels are exceedingly small; in consequence 
of this the inflammatory process is very distinct and the symp- 
toms very acute. Inflammation of the substance of the bone is 
termed ostitis. Superflcial ostitis is often associated w^ith perios- 
titis, or inflammation of the periosteum. In fact, the bone and 
periosteum are so closely related that inflammation of the one 
will involve the other. The flrst effect of inflammation is to in- 
crease the size of the Haversian canals, which become more 
irregular in size and outline. The earthy salts are partially re- 
moved, and their place is fllled by the products of inflammation. 
An external swelling makes its appearance; the vessels of the 
periosteum and soft parts becoming involved, throw out a deposit 
upon the surface of the bone. This exudate, as a rule, becomes 
converted into bone, leaving the ])arts permanently altered in 
shape and appearance, or it may become absorbed before it is 
ossified and the parts regain tlioir former condition. AVlien 
ossific matter is thrown out it is called exostosis, meaning houy 
deposit, as splint, spavins, sore shins, etc. This exudate is at first 

(163) 



164 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

of a gelatinous condition, forming a coagulum like the white of 
an egg', then it becomes a soft, flexible cartilage, and ultimately 
forms bone. 

Inflammation may be excited by many causes, but the most 
prolific cause is injury, either direct or indirect. It is also pro- 
duced by constitutional tendency. In joints the articular carti- 
lages are often destroyed by inflammation, and osseous material 
is thrown out, producing anchylosis, which means a union of the 
bones composing the joint; a stiff or completely immovable joint 
is the result. 

OSTITIS AND PERIOSTITIS OF THE METACARPAL BONES, OR 

SORE SHINS. 

This disease" affects the anterior surface of the metacarpal 
bones of young animals. It is more commonly seen in young 
race horses," under four years old, and is due to the fact that they 
are called upon to perform an amount of work at an age when 
they are totally unable to endure the shocks of concussion risked 
by such work. The leg with which the animal leads in the gallop 
is more frequently affected, though both legs may be affected. 
The whole shaft of the bone may be affected, and this may be so 
excessive as to cause necrosis, but it is usually circumscribed and 
confined to the lower extremities. 

Symptoms. — Lameness occurring after a gallop; slight at first; 
the horse is rested by the shifting of the legs, pointing the foot, 
if only one is affected; fever, increased respiration, swelling, pain 
upon pressure. The swelling is doughy to the touch, depending 
on the thickening of the periosteum and on the presence of the 
subperiosteal exudate. 

Active treatment must be employed in order to prevent necro- 
sis. If of an acute nature, free subcutaneous incisions through 
the periosteum should be employed; this will relieve pain and cut 
short the disease. In addition to this warm and soothing fomen- 
tation should be used, succeeded by cold, and afterwards by a 
liniment composed of equal parts of ammonia, turpentine, and 



DISEASES OF THE BONES. 



165 



linseed oil, or one part of biniodid of mercury to four or five parts 
of lard may be used. Keep it on for a day or two and wash off, 
repeating, if necessary, in a few days. 

SPLINTS. 

This is another form of ostitis and periostitis, affecting the 
metacarpal bones, and in rare instances the metatarsals. It is 
usually situated about the lower portion of the upper third of the 
bone and on the in- 
ner side. A splint, 
when not causing 
lameness, and in a 
position removed 
from either articula- 
tion or tendon, is not 
looked upon as an un- 
soundness; all other 
forms are unsound. 
The causes of splints 
are . concussion and 
hereditary predispo- 
sition, more especially 
that arising from 
shape and form of 
leg, which descends 
from parent to off- 
spring. Splints are 
generally found in Fig. 32-Splmt8. 

horses newly put to work and in the road horse or lighter 
breeds. They do not always produce lameness. If of the sim- 
ple kind, lameness is but seldom seen, and when about seven 
years of age the enlargement disappears, although the deposit 
may have been of considerable size. 

Symptoms. — Lameness may precede the a])pearance of any 
swelling or deposit. If the horse walks sound and drops dcci- 




166 THE STOCK OW^'Ek's ADVISER. 

dedlj in the trot on the sound limb, manipulate the parts to 
detect a deposit. Concussion applied will increase lameness, as 
will continued use. Tap on the parts and he will flinch; trot him 
immediately afterwards, and the lameness is increased. 

Teeatmein't. — Unless the splint is actually producing lameness, 
it should be let alone, except where it is of great size, causing an 
"eye sore." It may be cut down upon and the enlargement re- 
moved by the bone spoon. In all cases a purgative must be used; 
give eight drachms of aloes. Apply cold water freely for an hour 
at a time, and use the unguentum hydrarg. biniodid, one to four 
ounces, or the ungt. cantharides, one to four, may be used. The 
hair is to be clipped off the part and the ointment applied with 
friction. Several applications may be required. A seton passed 
over the splint, and allowed to remain several weeks, is an excel- 
lent remedy. It may be necessary in some cases to fire. After 
heating the iron, pass the j^oint right into the osseous enlarge- 
ment. Periosteotomy is often attended with good results. The 
operation is very simple, and consists of making an incision 
through the skin. Through the opening thus made the perioste- 
otomy knife is inserted, and the periosteum covering the splint 
is incised and pressure is relieved. Such operations should be per- 
formed by a surgeon. The above described ointment will soon 
remove all lameness, and should be used in preference to the 
operations. 

SCROFULOUS OSTITIS. 

Scrofulous ostitis is found in all young animals of a few days 

or weeks old. 

Causes. — Scrofulous ostitis is caused by an insufiicient supply 
of mother milk to the vouno; animal — Ions; fastins:, as in cases 
where the mother is put to work soon after the birth of the foal, 
and allowed to suckle her young only two or three times a day. 
It may be due also to a naturally weak constitution, or in rearing 
the foal on cow's milk. Foals gotten by horses that serve a large 
number of mares often suffer from this disease. 



DISEASES OF THE BONES. 167 

Symptoms. — The first symptom is a dribbling of urine from the 
umbilical cord. The patient will be still lame in one or more 
joints; the affected parts are swollen, hot and tender; the respira- 
tion is hurried, the joints enlarge and suppurate, and the dis- 
charge is complicated with open joint; abscesses form on various 
parts of the body, the patient loses flesh, is unable to rise, and 
dies a miserable death. 

Treatment. — It may possibly be overcome in some cases. The 
system should be toned up. Attention must be ]3aid to the state 
of the digestive organs. Four ounces of castor oil, with two 
drachms of carbonate of soda, may be given; lime water may be 
used in the milk. Care must be taken to see that the patient 
suckles its mother sufficiently often, and if he be unable to stand, 
he must be lifted up. The mother must rest from work and be 
supplied Avith good food. If she has not sufficient milk, the defi- 
ciency must be supplied with cow's milk. The patient should be 
kept quiet, and the parts gently stimulated, etc. 

CARIES. 

Caries is an ulceration, or death of bone in small particles. 
Caries may, or may not, be accompanied by a discharge. As a 
rule, when there is ulceration of bone, with a discharge of pus, it 
is the result of external injury; there is actual death of a layer 
of bone. The discharge is very offensive, due to the presence of 
sulphureted hydrogen. On going to the bottom of a sinus the 
presence of a carious bone may be at once detected by the sense 
of touch. 

Caries commences in the interior of a ])one and makes its way 
outward; the bones acquire a red hue, the articular surface be- 
coming soft; tlie laminal layer and articular cartilage are re- 
moved, exposing the cancellated structure, from which vascular 
processes shoot out in the form of red teat-like granulations; the 
surface of the opposing bone, forming the articulation, becom-es 
similarly diseased, the granulations from the one bone coalesce 
with those from the other and form a vascular connection be- 



168 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

tween the interior of both bones. In this manner the process of 
an anchylosis is commenced. 

Treatment. — Cut down upon and expose the diseased struc- 
ture; scrape the diseased bone until all carious portions are re- 
moved. Where extensive disease exists, scraping with the bone- 
spoon will rarely suffice. In such case a portion of bone must be 
removed by means of the bone forceps or bone saw, after which 
the parts may be touched with diluted hydrochloric acid. If the 
presence of caries in an articulation be suspected, the treatment 
should, of course, be different. If it exists in a true hock joint, a 
cure cannot be effected, but if in a gliding articulation the treat- 
ment consists in hastening the process of anchylosis. Give rest 
and use the actual cautery. Red iodide of mercury, one part of 
lard to five parts of mercury, may be used. 

NECROSIS. 

Definition is death of bone. It corresponds to mortification of 
the soft structures, and is distinct from caries, as mortification 
is from ulceration. Xecrosis is due in a large majority of cases to 
injury, either directly or indirectly received, and is very rarely 
due to constitutional disturbance. The necrosed portion presents 
a white, waxy appearance, sonorous when struck by a probe; ex- 
posed to the atmosphere, before separation, it becomes changed 
in color. If the skin should be uncut, an abscess soon forms, 
which, if left alone, discharges itself; if the ulcer is examined 
with a probe, the bone will be found bare and perhaps loose. The 
abscess does not heal until the loose portion, called an exfoliation, 
is removed; in fact, there is now a fistulous communication be- 
tween the dead bone and the atmosphere. 

Free vent must be given to the pus, which is curdy in consist- 
ence, and when the bone is found to be loose should be removed 
by the forceps. 

^Necrosis is often seen in connection with the lower jaw. It 
sometimes affects the shafts of the long bones, more especially the 
metacarpals, metatarsals, and scapula. 



DISEASES OF THE BONES. 169 

Symptoms. — Swelling. After awhile there is a discharge from 
the affected part, and an abscess isformed, at which time the dead 
bone is separating from the living. There is a discharge of curdy 
pus with fetid odor. The wound does not heal. 

Treatment. — Enlarge the opening from which the pus is flow- 
ing, and with the fingers or forceps remove the dead portion of 
bone. 

The same treatment will apply to necrosis wherever found. 
If it occurs in the weight-bearing bones, the treatment is more 
tedious. The animal should be properly cared for by having 
good food, comfort, and cleanliness. 

ABSCESS OF BONE. 

The formation of abscess in the substance of a bone is of rare 
occurrence. In long-continued cases of lameness, with enlarge- 
ment of a bone, a surgeon should open the enlarged portion by a 
trephine, the probabilities being that he will find pus. It is gen- 
erally necessary to cast the patient, make a careful incision on 
the diseased bone, avoiding injury to important blood vessels and 
nerves, dividing of their long axis, separating all the soft tissues 
from the bone before the trephine is applied, and finally washing 
out the abscess with water, in which a small quantity of pure 
carbolic acid has been dissolved. 

RICKETS. 

The term rickets is used to denote an unnatural softness of the 
osseous system in young animals. It is due to a deficiency of 
earthy, and an excess of animal, material in the bone. Rickets 
may be seen in foals, calves, and young dogs, more especially 
young spaniels and pointers. In foals and calves the metacarpal 
bones are those which bend first; in dogs, the lower third of tlie 
humerus, giving to the dog a dwarf-like appearance. When the 
bones of the posterior extremities are affected, the tiK^s arc turned 
outward, the hocks inward. 

Kickets appear when the patient is a few weeks or months old, 



170 THE STOCK owner's ADVISEE. 

caused by constitutional debility, scrofulous diathesis, or by ex- 
ternal and preventible causes. Thus we find it in calves which 
are not allowed to suckle their mothers; in foals when mothers 
are taken to work during the day and their offspring allowed to 
suckle perhaps every morning and night, or at most three times 
a day; young animals fed on artificial food in time of milk and 
kept without exercise. 

Treatme^^t. — The treatment must be both local and constitu- 
tional; to be successful it must be energetic and persevering, re- 
gardless of trouble until a cure is affected, or it becomes plain 
that the case cannot be treated successfully. If the milk of the 
mother is suspected, this may be remedied by changing or in- 
creasing her food, and giving her alteratives and tonics. The 
mother should take three drachms of sulphate of iron, pow- 
dered gentian, three drachms, in the feed night and morning. 
If the bowels are irregular, six drachms of aloes should be admin- 
istered; if acidity of the stomach be present, lime water and lin- 
seed oil, or castor oil, may be used. The limbs should be sup- 
ported by sticking a strong piece of canvas around a strong splint 
and lacing it around the limb. Care should be taken that the 
splint does not chafe the limb in any way. The splint of wood 
should be applied to the concave aspect of the curve, taking care 
that it is of sufficient length to reach the unbent portions of the 
limbs, both above and below curves. Keep the patient in a nice, 
level paddock, and give food that tends to make bone, as bones to 
a dog and oatmeal to foals. 

MOLLITIES OSSIUM. 

DEFiiS^iTiox.^An abnormal softening of bone, due to the pres- 
ence of a largely preponderating quantity of animal matter and a 
correspondingly small amount of earthy material within the bone 
substance. 

Symptoms. — There may be observed difficulty in mastication, 
which gradually becomes well marked as the disease progresses. 
The bones become enlarged and take on a soft and cartilaginous 



II 



DISEASES OF THE BONES. 171 

character; there may also be a discharge which is usually profuse 
and of a very offensive character. 

Teeatment. — There is no means known by which a cure can 
be effected. 

FRAGILITAS OSSIUM 

Is an unnatural, hard, and fragile condition of the bones, due 
to fatty degeneration of the animal basis and to the presence of an 
undue quantity of earthy material. 

Symptoms. — The disease chiefly affects old horses. Bad thriv- 
ers, with small articulations, badly-formed hocks and knees, and 
round pasterns, are subject to it. The animal moves stiffly and 
may have a roached back; he shows a tendency to ring-bone, 
spavin, etc. When down, he has difficulty in getting up. If such 
an animal be cast, or fall, fracture of some of the bones is an 
almost sure result. 

Treatment. — Like the previous condition, it is incurable and 
useless to treat. 

OSTEO POROSIS. 

This is a non-malignant disease of bone and of a non-inflamma- 
tory type. It is commonly known as ''big-head.'' It consists of a 
porous condition of the bone, which is increased in size without 
proportional increase in weight. It prevails most extensively in 
the great valley of the Mississippi, in the States of Tennessee, 
Arkansas, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Alabama. As we recede 
from the great river and its influences, it gradually diminishes, 
yet isolated cases may be found throughout the country, from the 
Atlantic to the plains of the far west, and from the Ohio and the 
Potomac to the Gulf of Mexico. 

As a rule, the bones of the face are the first to suffer; but this 
is liable to exceptions. The animal in most instances shows a 
defective action, perhaps, in one joint or limb only_, in which, 
upon examination, tenderness will be evinced with heat, niul in a 
few days visible enlargement. In a course of a week another limb 
may become affected in the same way, when the acute symptonis 



172 



THE STOCK OWXEE S ADVISEE. 



of the first attack perhaps have partially passed off. In this way 
all four extremities, one after the other, eventually become dis- 
eased. On being led out of the stable the animal steps short, 
flexes his limbs with difficulty and apparently with much pain; 
the joints are hotter than natural, slightly swollen, and tender 
when pressed tipon. On turning the horse around or moving him 

in a backward direction, 
a decidedly rigid state 
of the loins is observed, 
and usually pain is 
e^^nced b y pressing 
upon the back. On ex- 
aminins: the head, the 
facial region will look 
rotmd. Each ramus of 
the lower jaw, upper 
maxillary and nasal 
bones are usually en- 
larged, and pressure 
upon them causes pain. 
The mucous membrane 
of the mouth, the nasal 
chamber, and chambers 
of the eyes are paler 
than natural. 

Osteoporosis, in symp- 
toms and pathology, is 
closely related to rheumatoid arthritis and fatty degeneration of 
the bones. The disease is no doubt due to the same cause that pro- 
duces rheumatism of the joints. The various chemical changes of 
the bones, termed disease, are no doubt dtie to one and the same 
cause. Thev received their name from chemical chansies pre- 
sented at certain stages of the disease; hence the disease is first 
rheumatoid arthritis, or rheumatism of the articular joints, and 
later we have softening of the bone and enlargement of the head, 




Fig. 33— Osteo Porosis, or Big Head. 



DISEASES OF THE BONES. 



173 



known as osteo porosis. This disease is essentially a disease of 
growth, and in this particular it resembles rickets. It is seldom 
seen in horses over twelve years of age. 

Causes. — The causes producing this disease have been a mys- 
tery. It prevails most extensively in low-lying lands and in 
damp places. All classes of horses, mules, ponies, sheep, and 
cattle, no matter how fed and treated, get the disease in certain 
localities and under certain conditions. I have been unable, 




Fig. 34 — Osteo Porosis. 
Side view. The dotted lines show the enlargement. 

after thorough investigation, to trace the cause of the disease to 
feed. The water and feed may be predisposing causes, but they 
will not produce the disease in themselves. The symptoms are 
more aggravated during the winter months, and the disease is 
more prevalent where stables are located on low, marshy land. 

For the last five years the disease has prevailed to a consid- 
erable extent at Lambert's Point, Virginia. This point of land 
lies on the Elizabeth Eiver, only a few miles from Hampton 
Roads. With but few exceptions the farms on this point have 



174 



THE STOCK owner's ADVISEE 



had cases presenting symptoms of rheumatism. On one farm 
every young horse brought there has become similarly diseased. 
Out of twenty-one cases presenting symptoms of rheumatism, 
that came under my observation in this locality, only seven 
developed big-head. Some of this number were treated three 
and four years ago, and are now well. Some that were not able 
to stand without the aid of slings have made good recovery, and 
never showed enlargement of the bones of the head. It is first 

noticed from lifting the 
foot in pain, while standing 
in the stable; later there 
will be lameness in one 
or more joints, shifting 
from one joint to the other, 
and ultimately there will 
be enlargement of the head. 
This period may extend 
over a year. Those cases 
with big-head yielded to 
treatment as readily as 
others that showed no en- 
largement of the head. 

One case, that had big- 
head, had shown symptoms 
of lameness of the joints for 
some time, and was not 
treated. During the night, and while in her box stall, there was 
rupture of the internal lateral and capsular ligament of the knee 
joint. She was destroyed, and the post-mortem revealed the fol- 
lowing condition of parts: Troon the upper part of the cannon 
bone its periosteum was removed, and the bone Avas darkened wdth 
small detached pieces. The periosteum of the long bones near the 
joints could be easily removed. The long bones were not soft; 
they were firm enough externally, but on section were found to 
be thinner than normal. The cartilage of some of the joints was 



^ 




J*" 


\ 










K2 


y: 




. 


V 




^ M 


. 




\ 















Fig. 35 — Osteo Porosis. 



I 



DISEASES OF THE BONES. 



175 



partially removed, while others appeared normal. The cartilage 
of the hip joint was pale yellow in color. The quantity of syno- 
via in the joints was small. This same condition exists in rheu- 
matoid arthritis. Several small growths were found in the joints, 
some cartilaginous and others bony in their character. This 
condition is also present in rheumatoid arthritis. 

The bones of the jaw were considerably hypertrophied and of 
a pink color. The periosteum could be scraped off with ease. 
On pressing upon the bone, blood would ooze from its surface. 
The bones here were soft. 

Teeatment. — The treatment of the cases above mentioned 
consisted of six drachms of aloes every third or fourth day. 
!Nitrate of potash in one-half-ounce doses should be given in the 
feed three times a day. Drachm doses of salicylate of soda 
should be given in the feed, along with the potash, night and 
morning. Nitrous aether in ounce doses might be added to the 
first three or four doses. 

The local treatment consists of liniments to the affected parts. 
The animal should be put to slow work. 

OSTEO SARCOMA. 

This is a non-inflammatory disease of bone, and is defined to 
be a fibro-plastic degeneration of bone. It is a disease of a 
malignant character, and is seen often in the finer bred cattle, 
especially in the duchess strains. 

The cause of this disease has been attributed to external vio- 
lence in some cases, but I am inclined to believe that all cases ot 
osteo sarcoma are due to a vegetable parasite. The parasite 
causing the disease is known by the name actinomyces. Tlie 
parasite gets into the mucous membrane in connection with the 
teeth. "Vroi. Williams states that he is of the opinion that the 
causes are intrinsic and due to a scrofulous diathesis." It occurs 
in young animals mostly, and affects steers more than bulls. 

Symptoms. — The disease occurs oftenest in the lower jaw. A 
small tumor cr circumscribed swelling occurs in the neighbor- 



176 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

hood of the second or third molar teeth; the teeth generally, 
after a time, become loose and fall out. At first the animal 
experiences no inconvenience; indeed, it seems to suffer but little 
throughout the various stages of the disease, provided the teeth 
do not become carious. If this occur, the sufferings of the ani- 
mal will be severe, and it will lose flesh from inability to feed. 

Treatment. — If taken in time the disease can be cured. If, 
however, the tumor has attained a considerable magnitude, the 
animal should be prepared for market. The injury does not 
affect the quality of the meat for food. In some cases a surgical 
operation may be necessary. The skin must be dissected from 
the tumor, and the tumor and the diseased portion of the bone 
removed; after which scrape with the bone spoon and apply car- 
bolic acid, one part of acid to four parts of oil. 



XI. 
DISEASES OF JOINTS. 

The diseases of the joints are numerous and important, more 
especially when their varied activity is taken into consideration. 
Joints consist of bones, articular cartilage, synovial membrane, 
capsular and binding ligaments, fat, blood vessels, and nerves. 
They are divided into three classes — the immovable, the mova- 
ble, and the mixed. It is only with the two latter classes 
that we have to deal. The mixed joints are simply joined to- 
gether by powerful binding ligaments, the end of the bones 
being padded with iibro-cartilage. This simple kind of articu- 
lation is subject to but one form of disease, chronic inflamma- 
tion, causing the gradual conversion of the fibro-cartilaginous 
pad into bony tissue. In this manner the vertebral column of 
the dorsal region is converted into an unyielding structure, im- 
pairing the natural movements of the horse. 

Cause. — It is caused by placing too great weight upon the 
back, and by a constitutional diathesis. The bones degenerate, 
becoming fragile and liable to fracture from trivial causes. 

Symptoms. — The symptoms of this disease are very obscure; 
some slight stiffness about the loins may be observed. There 
will be disinclination to lie down, with more or less shivering. 
Cart horses are affected more frequently than any other class, • 
but it is sometimes seen in hunters and hack horses. Horses 
suffering with this disease occasionally present symptoms of par- 
tial paralysis; there will be an uncertain gait, crossing the hind 
legs, and reeling. There- will be great difficulty in backing, ac- 
companied with a peculiar and sudden quivering elevation of 
the tail. 

Treatment. — Rest the animal and give eight drachms of 
aloes. Drachm doses of the tincture of belladonna may be given 
12 (177) 



178 THE STOCK OW:sEk's ADVISER. 

three times a day. The local treatment will consist of fomenta- 
tion to the loins and the application, three times a day, of equal 
parts of ammonia, turpentine, and linseed oil. A blister made 
by mixing one part of powdered cantharides to six of lard may 
be used with advantage in some cases. It should be applied, 
about four inches wide by about eighteen inches long, to the 
dorsal spine or to the spine that is affected. It should be washed 
off at the end of twenty-four hours and the parts greased with 
lard. 

The diathrodial or true joints are divided into three varie- 
ties — namely, gliding joints, ball and socket joints, and the 
hinged joints. The gliding joints are liable to inflammation and 
ulceration of the articular surface. The bones of these joints 
are covered by cartilage of incrustation and the cavity lubricated 
by synovia. The enarthrodia, or ball and socket joints, are in 
the lower animals seldom diseased, and when they do become 
diseased, it is generally from a rheumatoid or tubercular dia- 
thesis. The ginglymoid, or hinged, joints are injured from with- 
out, and produce an acute and chronic inflammation of the syno- 
vial membrane, destruction of the articular cartilage, caries, 
and a calcarious deposit. There will be a defective secretion of 
synovia, a dropsical condition of the articulation, and anchylosis. 

INFLAMMATION OF THE SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE, OR ACUTE 

SYNOVITIS. 

Any true joint in the body may suffer from inflammation of 
its synovial membrane, but some are more liable than others. In 
acute synovitis the membrane is congested. Its surface becomes 
dark red or crimson colored. Its secretion is checked, and later 
there will be a superabundant secretion of unhealthy synovia, 
aqueous in its character, and containing flakes of lymph. This 
exudation of lymph is confined to the synovial surface, and does 
not extend to the articular cartilage. In severe cases suppura- 
tion may take place, and if the disease is not arrested ulceration 
of the cartilage is sure to follow. 

Cause. — Strains, punctures, rheumatic poison, deposits of 



DISEASES OF JOINTS. 179 

tubercular matter, and deposition, in and around the joints, of 
mineral poison, as seen in horses employed in smelting works. 

SYMrxoMS. — Lameness and fever. The pulse will be quick 
and irritable, sweats bedew the body, and the lameness is so great 
that the animal cannot put its foot to the ground. The affected 
joint soon swells, becoming more tense in the later stages. There 
will be increased heat and tenderness. 

Tkeatment. — Every means should be employed to arrest the 
disease before the cartilage becomes involved, or it will be in- 
curable. If it is in the hock, the animal should.be placed in 
slings. Long continued and repeated fomentations should be 
applied to the part, and a weak solution of opium or aconite ap- 
plied to soothe the parts. Give six ounces of aloes, and, if the 
pain be severe, give a dose three times a day of an ounce of tinc- 
ture of opium. If the pain is less acute, one ounce of nitrous 
aether may be given twice a day. Three drachms of nitrate of 
potas. should be dissolved in his drinking water morning and 
night. If the pulse be hard, twenty drops of aconite may be 
used. If these remedies fail to give relief in the course of a few 
days, a blister should be applied. If any lameness or thickening 
of the joint threatens to remain, it may be necessary to apply 
the actual cautery. 

CHRONIC SCROFULOUS SYNOVITIS. 

This disease is confined to horned cattle. The joints most 
usually affected are the elbow and stifle and the foot joints in 
cattle. It attacks animals of all ages, but generally after they 
are three years old. 

Symptoms. — Lameness without swelling, but later swelling 
may appear. The swelling gradually enlarges, and the limb 
below it wastes away. In some cases constitutional symptoms of 
scrofula may be seen at the outset of the disease. Scrofula is 
hereditary, and on its appearance in a herd it will be high time 
to infuse new blood into it. 

Treatment. — The treatment can be but palliative. There is 
no cure. 



180 ■ THE STOCK OW^'Ek's ADVISEE. 



RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS. 



This condition of the synovial membrane is probably due to 
the peculiar inflammation which has been termed rheumatic 
gout, or chronic rheumatic arthritis. The disease may be a con- 
stitutional or local disorder; the constitutional, originating from 
exposure to cold when the body has been over-heated, or as a 
sequel to rheumatic fever; the local, from over-exertion or acci- 
dent. 

Symptoms. — There will be a singular rigidity in the affected 
joints, which, when first moved, emit a crackling sound. In 
some cases there may be ^^ainfi^l spasms of the muscles. There 
will be swelling around the affected joints, which are painful 
and tender to the touch. The synovial bursse in connection ^yith. 
the affected joints is frequently found distended, and syno^T.al 
cysts become developed in the areola tissue, having no commu- 
nication with the joint. The fluid in the cysts finally becomes 
absorbed and converted into solid tumors. 

Tkeatmext. — The treatment can, generally, only be pallia- 
tive, and is chiefly constitutional. Xitrate of potash in three- 
drachm doses may be given. Salicylate of soda has been used 
with good results in some cases. The bowels should be regu- 
lated by an occasional purgative, the animal carefully fed and 
put to slow, light work. The patient should be kept in a com- 
fortable, dry box, and a liniment, composed of equal parts of 
ammonia, turpentine, and linseed oil, should be applied three or 
four times a day to the diseased joints. 

TRAUMATIC INFLAMMATION OF JOINTS. 

An open joint, when occasioned by puncture or incision, is not 
at first attended with severe local or constitutional disturbance, 
but in about ten days pain comes on and spreads over the joint, 
which soon presents a considerable amount of swelling. The 
swelling soon becomes hard and unyielding, accompanied by 
great constitutional disturbance; the pulse is frequent, hard and 



DISEASES OF JOINTS. 



181 



wirj, sweats bedew the body, and the animal evinces acute and 
agonizing pain. The animal cannot put the foot to the ground, 
keeping it almost continually in a state of motion. The dis- 
charge of synovia may be very trifling for some days after the 
accident, but it generally increases as the inflammation advances, 
is thin in consistency and mixed with flakes of lymph. The 
secretion from the wound finally becomes unhealthy and tinged 
with blood, while abscesses begin to form around the articula- 
tion. The fever and 
debility increases, 
and if not arrested 
the animal dies. 

Treatment. — A n 
effort should first be 
made to promote the 
healing of the wound 
by first intention. 
The lips of the 
wound should b e 
brought together by 
sutures. All foreign 
bodies, such as dirt, 
gravel, or detached tissue, should be removed. A thin paste of 
spirit varnish and iodoform must be applied, being painted on 
in successive layers. Xext, place the animal in slings. All 
other local applications should be withheld. 

Give six drachms of aloes, to be followed at intervals of four 
to six hours by half-ounce doses of tincture of opium or twenty 
drops of the tincture of aconite, and enemas of warm water will 
be beneficial. If after the wound heals an inflammation still 
exists, cold water should be applied in great abundance. If this 
plan of treatment does not seem to succeed, a blister must be 
used. 

If inflammation has already established itself and pus has 
commenced to form, the wound should not be plugged. If plug- 




Fig. 3(3— Open Joint. 



182 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

ged, tlie fluid would burst out at some other place. The wound 
should be irrigated with a solution of corrosive sublimate, one to 
five hundred parts of water, to destroy all germs that may have 
gained entrance, and bandaged. If the bandage causes no incon- 
venience, it should be allowed to remain until the wound heals. 
Ex23erience warrants me in recommending a blister applied to 
the whole surface of the joint. The coagulum of synovia which 
accumulates upon the wound should never be removed, as it pre- 
vents the admission of air and germs to the wound. If the pus 
is of a sanious or fetid character, the best results to be hoped 
for is anchylosis, which renders the animal unfit for further use. 
All cases of open joint require a long period of rest after the 
wound has healed, and it is eenerallv necessarv to blister re- 
peatedly, or even fire, to remove the inflammation. The food 
should be spare, light, and cooling; but when the fever has 
abated it should be more nourishing. 

DROPSY OF THE JOINT, OR HYDROPS ARTICULORUM. 

This disease is a morbid condition, with or without inflamma- 
tion, as in bog spavin and its analogues, termed wind galls. In 
this affection there is an OA^er-abundance of serous synovia, which 
distends the whole joint or bursse. There is generally not much 
lameness. The quantity of secretion varies, disappearing and 
reappearing on exercise or rest. Young growing cart horses 
show these fluid enlargements about the hocks. 

The treatment is the application of blisters and pressure, but 
this will be again referred to in another chapter. 

ANCHYLOSIS, OR THE STIFFENING OF JOINTS. 

There are four forms of anchylosis — osseous, true fibrous, 
ligamentous, and spurious. Tru'e anchylosis is complete at every 
part of the joint, as in some ringbones and spavins. All trace 
of the articulation is lost, and the bones so firmly united as to 
appear as one bone. An ulcerative absorption takes place in the 



DiaEASES OF JOINTS. 



183 



bone, and an exuda^-e is thrown out, which, becoming organized 
into bony matter, cements the bones together. The natural ter- 
mination and cure for bone lameness^ such as ringbone and 
spavins, is anchylosis. The 
fibrous form of anchylosis 
is where the surface of the 
opposing bones are united 
by fibrous tissue. The 
ligamentous form causes 
the joint to be stiff and 
immovable, whilst the ar- 
ticular surface of the 
bones remains healthy. 
Stiff joints in old horses 
are examples of this. The 
spurious is where there , 
is a deposit in the struc- "^ '^ , 

tures external to the joint ' ^.-...__ 

and uniting them to each 

, ^^-. -, Fig. 37— Anchylosis of Fetlock Joint, 

other. VVe see examples 

after acute inflammation of the joint, rupture of the suspensory 

ligament, which can be removed after exercising. It may be seen 

after open joint, and will absorb when brought into use, or it 

may require repeated applications of iodine to the skin. 




xn. 

UMENESS. 

How Diagnosed. — First determine the limb in whicli the 
patient is lame. Have the horse trotted from and towards yon. 
The assistant who trots the horse should take hold of the reins 
about two feet from the head and run by the side of the horse. 
Of course, there are many lamenesses that can be diagnosed 
without even moving the horse; at the same time, there are 
many other cases so slight in degree as to require the most rigid 
scrutiny. 

If the lameness be in one of the fore limbs, the patient will 
drop on the sound limb. If there is Avell-marked lameness, the 
head will drop in a marked degree. Do not make your diagnosis 
from simply having the horse trotted from you. In such case 
you are liable to mistake a lameness of the off fore limb for that 
of the near hind. T\"hen he is trotted from the observer, the 
quarter seems to ascend and descend. This ascending and de- 
scending of the quarter depends upon the elevation and dropping 
of the head and body. It will be plainly seen when the horse 
returns that the lameness is in the fore limb. The lameness may 
be in both fore limbs, and the animal seem to go sound. Ad- 
vantage of this has been taken by low horse dealers, Avho, when 
thev have a horse lame in one fore foot, make him lame in the 
other also. They do this by placing a small piece of iron tightly 
under the shoe of the sound foot, and by paring the toe of the 
sound foot almost to the quick. A horse lame in both fore feet 
will be short in action; each foot will be quickly lifted up and 
carefully put to the ground, while at the same time there is a 
peculiar rolling motion of the body. He may go lame in one 
foot as he goes from you, and in the other as he aj^proaches the 

(184) 



LAME]0:SS. 185 

observer. There is a peculiar action of young colts that must 
not be mistaken for lameness. This is called '^bridle lameness." 
The colt may appear lame in the near fore foot, if led with a 
short rein and his head pulled to one side, or when he is first 
bitted. If run in a slack rein it will disappear. If the lameness 
be in the hind limb, the quarter of the same side will be ele- 
vated, and that of the sound side thrown forward and downward 
with a jerking motion. The head is tolerably steady if the pain 
be light, but there will be a decided jerk of the head if the pain 
be severe. There are some forms of lameness which are appa- 
rent in the stable only, the movement of half a dozen steps being 
sufficient to dispell the appearance of lameness. It is therefore 
necessary to see the horse in the stable and out of it. A horse 
lame from an inflammation of the bone, as in spavin, ringbone, 
will warm out of it. In the early stages of such diseases, a walk 
of a hundred yards is sufficient to remove the lameness. Many 
low dealers will knock a horse around in the stall to remove 
such lameness. There are some lamenesses which are only mani- 
fested after sharp work, and in such cases it is necessary to give 
the horse half an hour's trot or gallop, tying him afterwards in 
a stall until he becomes cool. It is only when suspicion exists 
that this test need be applied. Lamenesses are manifested during 
repose, as in many foot lamenesses. For example, a horse will 
continually point, or even elevate, the foot which is suffering 
pain; if in both feet, each foot alternately will be pointed or 
elevated. If made to move, the extent of pain does not seem 
equal to that expressed while standing still. Some horses ex- 
hibit their lameness when they turn round. They may go sound 
when led straight to and from the observer, but when sharply 
turned by the use of the whip they at once manifest their un- 
soundness. Turn the animal both ways, as disease may not be 
shown when the animal is turned one way only. There are 
cases where lameness exists in two or more limbs, but not 
eoj^ually; when such is the case^ it rcMpiires great care to distin- 



186 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

giiish its true nature. Lameness may be discovered by manipu- 
lation, or by visible swelling of the parts. There will be ob- 
served heat and swelling. The observer, having satisfied himself 
as to which leg is lame, must now endeavor to find out its cause 
and location in the particular limb. The symptoms of lameness 
in the different parts, with their illustration, causes, and treat- 
ment, will be given in the following pages. 



I 



XIII. 
A SPRAIN OR STRAIN. 

A sprain or strain is violence inflicted upon any soft structure, 
with extension and often rupture of its fibers. Strains confined 
to the sheat'hs of tendons only are not as serious as when the liga- 
ments and tendons themselves are involved. Muscular strains 
are found in various parts of the body, and are produced by 
various causes. When a muscle is sprained, the injury is followed 
by pain, swelling, heat, and loss of function. The swelling of 
the inflamed muscle is often succeeded by loss of substance, as- 
suming a form like whitish threads of fat. 

Treatment. — Repose and soothing applications, succeeded by 
slight and afterwards stronger irritants. Purgatives and cooling 
diet at first, followed by good nursing. 

SHOULDER SLIP. 

Shoulder slip is the name used by professional men for what 
is more commonly termed sweeny. There is a peculiar outward 
slipping movement of the shoulder joint. It would almost ap- 
pear as if the shoulder were out of joint; hence the term 
"shoulder slip." This peculiar action of the shoulder is caused 
by the external muscles losing their contractile power. An 
injury to the muscles sets up an inflammatory action, which re- 
sults in atrophy of the muscles. 

Cause. — It may be caused in various ways, by direct or indi- 
rect injury. It is most commonly seen in young horses, whose 
undeveloped muscles are more susceptible to injury than those 
of a mature horse. It may be caused by putting the horse to 
work too soon. The plough is a very frequent cause. Jars, 
jerks, jolts, bruises, concussion, or any injury to the shoulder 
will produce the disease. 

(187) 




Fig. 38— The Walk in Shoulder Lameness Showing the up- 
lifting of shoulder and whole limb, during extension. 




Fig. 39— Shoulder Lameness. 



(188) 



A SPEAIN OR STRAIN. 189 

Symptoms. — In some cases there will be heat and swelling 
over the course of the muscles on the outer surface of the 
scapula or shoulder blade, and in the joint itself; but in the ma- 
jority of cases, lameness does not appear until there is consid- 
erable wasting of the muscles. There will be the unnatural 
bulging of the shoulder, as mentioned before, and a hollow space 
upon either side of the scapular spine, extending its whole 
length. The muscles involved are the antea spinatus, postea 
spinatus, and teres exturnus, and sometimes the flexor brachii. 

Treatment. — Rest, hot and cold applications, followed with 
a liniment composed of equal parts of aqua ammonia, turpen- 
tine, and linseed oil every four hours. It may be necessary to 
use a strong blister of cantharides of usual strength. Setons are 
highly recommended, but my experience has been that where 
the atrophy is not too great, the above treatment is the best 
course to pursue. It will take six weeks or two or three months 
for the muscles to develop. When the muscles begin to appear, 
give light exercise, as in a buggy. Low horsemen make a little 
opening and blow air into the areolar tissue, which gives the 
shoulder a normal appearance. Shoulder slip constitutes an un- 
soundness. 

DISEASE OF THE SHOULDER JOINT 

May arise from various causes, but it is not a frequent seat of 
lameness. If the disease is not checked, the capsular ligament 
becomes changed, distended with synovia; the removal of the 
articular cartilage ultimately ends in anchylosis of the joint. 

Symptoms. — The animal carries the limb with a rotary mo- 
tion, the limb being thrown outwards and the toe made to form 
the segment of a circle. In some cases the toe of the foot is 
dragged or trailed on the ground. (See Fig. 39.) There will be 
pain in raising the foot from the ground. When standing the 
foot of the afflicted limb is held a little behind the sound one. 
On extending the limb the animal will rear. The parts should be 
extended and the animal trotted out immediately, when usually 
the lameness is increased. The lameness will decrease by exer- 



190 THE STOCK owner's ADVISEE. 

cise. There will be inflammation and perhaps swelling of the 
parts. The animal stumbles and strikes his toe against little 
objects, and if urged to step over an elevation of any size he will 
refuse to do so. 

SPRAIN OF THE FLEXOR BRACHII 

Gives rise to a lameness which is frequently mistaken for ■ 
shoulder-joint lameness. The muscle will be found swollen and 
inflamed, standing out prominently from the surroundiug parts. 
This swelling, along with that of the bursa in front of the 
shoulder, pain upon pressure, and the gait peculiar to shoulder 
lameness are the diagnostic symptoms. 

Treatment is the same as for that of shoulder lameness. A 
high-heeled shoe should be used, oft-repeated and long-continued 
fomentations, and the application three times a day of a lini- 
ment composed of spirits of camphor a half pint, iodine tincture 
two ounces. In severe cases, mercury red iodide, one part of 
mercury to five of lard. 

SEROUS ABSCESSES— FIBROUS TUMORS. 

These enlargements are frequently met with in the shoulder 
and scapular region. They usually occur as a result of direct 
injury. Inflammation is set up, an exudation takes place, form- 
ing a serous abscess. They may be deep-seated or just under 
the skin. In some cases they are of a fibrous nature. 

Symptoms. — The ailment is usually not very sore; there will 
be fluctuation on manipulation. There is but little heat. If a 
fibrous tumor, it will be hard, and the skin will be rubbed off 
from the use of the collar over the seat of the tumor. 

Treatment. — Use fomentations and poultices to allay irrita- 
tion, and then open the abscess freely and allow the serum to 
escape. The abscess should be kept open for a few days, and 
carbolic acid, one part to forty parts of water, used to dress the 
wound twice a day. Pressure to the parts is beneficial, and 
setons are recommended by some. An abscess may have walls 



A SPilAIN OR STRAIN. l91 

several inches thick. Fibrous tumors are to be removed by the 
knife. The wound should be dressed three times a day with a 
solution of carbolic acid, one part of acid to forty parts of water. 
One ounce of acetate of lead, six drachms of zinc sulphate to 
one quart of water may be used as a dressing. 

Abscesses sometimes form between the scapula and thoracic 
wall. They may be detected by swelling, lameness, and heat in 
front and below the point of the shoulder. The limb will be 
pushed outward by the swelling. The pus is deep-seated and 
requires the opening of the abscess before the usual signs of 
pointing are noticed. A directory should be used to find the 
seat of pus, and when found it should be well opened. 

ELBOW LAMENESS 

Is caused by injuries, sprains of the lateral ligaments, and from 
rheumatism. 

Symptoms. — The limb is semi-flexed while standing still, and 
there will be excessive dropping of the head and anterior part of 
the body during action. If the ligaments or muscles are strained 
there will be pain, heat, and swelling. When the internal late- 
ral ligament is injured the horse stands with the foot and limb 
thrown outw^ards. If the triceps muscle is the seat of injury, 
the forearm is flexed upon the humerus. 

Treat:\iext. — Fomentations to allay the irritation, after 
which apply blisters. Setons are highly recommended by some. 
Give rest and apply a high-heeled shoe. 

CAPPED ELBOW. 

We mean by this an enlargement of the olecranon, due to 
injury of some kind. 

Cause. — The most common cause of this condition is the con- 
tact of the elbow with the shoe when the animal is lying down. 
The unshod hoof will j)roduce it, and It may be caused by the 
belly-band rubbing the elbow. It interferes to a considerable 



192 



THE STOCK OW^'Er's ADVISER. 



extent with, the appearance of an animal, but it is not a serious 
condition by any means. 

Teeatmext. — If of recent date, and the bursa but little en- 
larged, have the shoe removed, and make a free application of 
hot or cold Avater, according to the season of the year — warm 
if in winter, and cold if in the summer time. If consid- 
erable amount of effusion has taken i^lace the parts must be 



I 




Fig. 40— Capped Elbow. 

opened freely. Make the opening larger than the size of a 
knife blade. Generally there will be shreds lining the cavity, 
which may be removed by inserting the finger in the opening 
and breaking their attachments. If the enlargement is of long 
standing and of a fibrous nature, it should be carefully dis- 
sected out. In such cases the wound heals by granulation, and 
requires considerable time to heal. This is due to the fact that 
the part is one of extensive motion, and the injury may be con- 



A SPRAIN OR STRAIN. 193 

tinually aggravated by the horse lying down. Frequently such 
cases are six weeks healing. Small wounds in connection with 
the elbow frequently give rise to peculiar symptoms. A very 
small wound, perhaps so small that it w^ould escape observation, 
may be inflicted on the point of the olecranon, or on its side, or 
even in the space between the thoracic wall and elbow; and, as a 
result of motion, air is pumped into the subcutaneous areolar 
tissue. I have seen the head and neck swollen to an enormous 
extent. Where the animal was kept moving for some time, I 
have seen the entire body swell and the eyes closed by the swell- 
ing of the lids. On passing the hand over the swelling it gives 
out a crackling sound, and if the parts be tapped there will be 
a peculiar drum like, dead sound. 

Such a condition need occasion no alarm; all required is to 
find the w^ound, clean it well with warm water, plug it up with 
tow dipped in collodion, and keep the animal still. In a short 
time the air will be absorbed and the swelling disappear. If the 
nostrils should be so swollen as to endanger life through im- 
paired respiration, it will be necessary to puncture the skin sur- 
rounding them ; but such procedure is generally not necessary. 

INJURIES BELOW THE ELBOW. 

Injuries in this region are by no means uncommon. Sprain 
of the radial ligament sometimes occurs, and is manifested by 
lameness, difficulty in flexing the knee, swelling, heat, and ten- 
derness immediately above the knee, posterior to radius. There 
will be distension of the bursa of the tendon, which appears as 
a fluctuating swelling at the back and slightly above the knee. 
In some cases the perforatus and perforans muscles are in- 
volved. In such the pain and swelling is extensive. Flexion is 
difficult, owing to the swollen tendons being too thick to play 
through their thecse, just as a rope too thick for a pulley will 
not play easily. The tendons of the various muscles concerned 
in the flexion and extension of the limb pass through theca) upon 
10 



194 



THE STOCK OWXER S ADVISER. 



the surface of the carpus, and are liable to injury with disten- 
sion of their various synovial sheaths. These enlargements, 

when arising from in- 
jury and consequent 
thickening of the ten- 
dons themselves, or in- 
flammation of the syno- 
vial membrane, cause 
pain. Mere bursal en- 
largements give cause 
to no inconvenience. 

BURSAL ENLARGE- 
MENTS 

In connection with the 
knee are generally 
caused by an injury, 
such as blows, wearing 
a yoke, etc. 

Sy:\iptoms. — There is 
first more or less swell- 
ing, which, after a certain length of time, disappears, leaving a 
little puffy tumor. This cannot be considered much of a detri- 
ment, but looks badly. 

Teeatmext. — Remove the exciting cause and give the animal 
a rest. Cold water should be applied freely, in conjunction with 
three or four hours' pressure each day. A lotion composed of 
lead acetate, ounce one; zinc sulphate, drachms six; water, one 
quart, lias proven to be of great benefit, and should be used while 
applying pressure. Pressure can be applied by means of a band- 
age properly adjusted. Finally, stimulating applications should 
be used, the 'best in this case being gum camphor, ounce one;, 
alcohol, a half pint; iodine tincture, one ounce, applied twice a 
day to the parts. Some few cases may even require the use of 




Fig. 41 — Sprain of the Eadial Ligament. 



A SPKAIN OE STKAIN. 



195 



hydrarg. biniodi., one part to five of lard. Tr. of iodine may be 
used with good results. 

Opening tbe bursa is advisable in some few cases, but should 
be done as a last resort. Where it is thought advisable to open 
a bursa, it should be done by a veterinary surgeon. There is no 
danger, however, in opening the bursa in connection with the 
extensor metacarpi magnus, constituting what'is termed "capped 
knee." This bursa may be punc- 
tured without any hesitation, 
and the fluid allowed to escape. 
The puncture should be made at 
the lowest margin of the swell- 
ing, and upon its inner side. 
Press out the fluid and keep the 
walls of the sac in apposition by 
applying an antiseptic bandage. 
The bandage should be rolled 
around the knee from above 
downwards, and allowed to re- 
main without change for five or 
six days, if no inconvenience is 
caused to the patient. If signs 
of pains are manifested, the 
bandage should be removed and 
adjusted. 

Milch cows kept in-doors are liable to have enormously en- 
larged knees from distention of this bursa, caused by bruising 
while lying upon floors. These may be opened with safety. 
The best method is to insert a seton right through the swelling 
and allow it to remain in for three or four weeks, the knee to be 
protected from further injury by a good, thick bed, or by a 
thick flannel bandage wrapped round it. 

CARPITIS, OR INFLAMMATION OF THE KNEE. 

This joint, one of the most beautiful structures in the body, 
is seldom diseased, unless from the infliction of direct or indirect 




Fig, 42 — Bursal Enlargements 
of Fetlocks. Commonly 
known as wind gall. 



196 THE STOCK OWXEk's ADVISEE. 

injury. The disease is most frequently seen in young animals, 
race horses, and hunters. Concussion from galloping on hard 
ground may produce it. The inflammation may involve the 
whole articulation, or only a part. When the whole joint be- 
comes affected, it is liable to produce partial or complete anchy- 
losis of the knee-joint, and interfere with usefulness of the ani- 
mal. The osseous deposits are generally situated on the inner 
side of the joint, seldom extending to the bones of the upper row. 

Symptoms. — ^Difficulty in extending and a peculiar curved or 
rotary mo'tion of the limb; the animal does not flex the knee, 
stands pretty firmly, and steps slightly further with the lame 
than with the sound limb. Heat and swelling are generally 
absent, and therefore the diagTiosis is difficult. One of the best 
guides, perhaps, in diagnosing this disease is the expression of 
pain when the affected joint is forcibly ffexed or extended. 

Teeatmekt. — Rest, fomentations, hot or cold, according to 
the season of the year, should be applied. After the irritation 
is allayed, a liniment composed of camphor gum, ounce one; 
alcohol, a half pint; iodine, one ounce; chloroform, one ounce, 
should be used three times a day in large quantities and well 
rubbed in. The hydrarg. biniod. mixture is highly recom- 
mended in carpitis, and is worthy of a trial. Cantharides, one 
part to six or seven of lard, may be of use, if other remedies fail. 

SPEEDY CUT 

Is an injury infficted in the region of the knee by a high-step- 
ping horse. It is usually seen in animals that are out-toed to a 
certain extent. A high-stepper may inflict a speedy cut on any 
part of the limb from the pastern to the elbow; but it usually 
occurs in connection with the knee. When a horse strikes him- 
self, as in speedy cut, he is liable to fall from the violence of the 
pain, injuring his knees, and losing the race. The wound is 
often inflicted while the animal is galloping. 

Symptoms. — There will be an inflammation and swelling of 
the skin, collection of fluid in the subcutaneous areolar tissue, 



A SPRAIN OR STRAIN. 



197 



constituting a serous abscess, or the formation of pus in the 
part, with lameness and fever. In many cases the effused fluids 
become solidified, in which case a permanent enlargement re- 
mains. This not only detracts from the appearance of the ani- 
mal, but from its size ex- 
poses him to subsequent 
injuries which would 
otherwise be escaped. 

Treatment. — Appl^ a 
three-quarter or Charlier 
shoe. The foot must be 
kept narrow on the inner 
side, and the shoes re- 
moved every three 
weeks ; otherwise, b y 
growth of the foot, the 
animal is apt to strike. 
If it cannot be prevented 
by shoeing, a boot must 
be worn. If not solidi- 
fied, hot and cold appli- Fig. 43-Speedy Cut. 
cations should be used. Eight drachms of aloes should be given 
internally to open the bowels. If serum or pus be present, open 
it up. The thickened condition should be removed by blisters. 

BEOKEN KNEES. 

A wound upon the anterior part of the knee, though a mere 
scratch, lowers the value of an animal to a great extent. Many 
knees are broken through carelessness on the part of the driver 
or rider, and are not caused by faulty conformation. A horse, 
well made, with very fine action, may have broken knees, and 
the cause be purely accidental. Bad shoeing, carelessness on the 
part of the rider, or vertigo may cause the trouble. Some horses 
fall from faulty conformation, and are dangerous to ride. 

Treatment. — Complete rest; tie up the animal's head so that 




198 



THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 



it cannot lie down. Sponge the knee with cold water, and apply 
the solution of zinc and lead already referred to repeatedly for 
three or four days. If much swelling should arise, a purgative 
should be given. When the skin is cut, the edges should be 
brought together as well as possible, and so kept by plaster, or 
styptic colloid, or shellac paste dipped in lint or tow. A wound 
on the knee must never be stitched, for flexion of the knee will 
most assuredly tear out the sutures and enlarge the wound. In 

addition to the colloid plaster, a 
thin calico bandage should be ap- 
plied and allowed to remain for 
four or five days if the case pro- 
gresses favorably. If pain and 
swelline,' arise, the bandao:e must 
be removed and the wound ex- 
amined; if found to be suppu- 
rating, it should be gently washed, 
and zinc sulphate, drachms six; 
lead acetate, ounce one; water, 
one quart, applied four or five 
times a day. Dilute carbolic 
acid — one part of acid to forty 

parts of water mav be used. 

Fig. 44 — Broken Knee. -r-rri ,1 i • • i • • j j 

When the skm is divided, sim- 
ply exposing the magnus tendon, with a discharge of synovia 
from the tendon, the case will result favorably. If the tendon 
be crushed, it may slough; severe symptoms will be presented 
and the animal's life endangered. The fever becomes high, 
respiration and pulse quickened, bowels constipated, the urinary 
and other secretions arrested, the wound assumes a leadened 
hue, the discharge becomes offensive, and the lameness excessive. 
When the slough is removed the carpal articulations are ex- 
posed to view. The power of extension is now lost by the separa- 
tion of the tendon, and the limb is persistently fixed. 

Unless the patient be a valuable stud animal, it is best to 



M 


^ 


1 


M^^^^^^^^^^^^KKK^ v v^^f ■^i, "^ 


^^^^^^^n^^^^^^l^^ 



A SPRAIN OR STRAIN. 199 

destroy it, for if even a cure is effected the articulation will be 
anchylosed. If an attempt to cure is made, the limb must be 
fixed in a straight position by means of a tin splint used in frac- 
ture, placed behind the knee and fastened by proper straps and 
bandages, leaving the wound uncovered. When the accident 
has been so severe as to fracture one or more bones of the knee, 
the animal should unhesitatingly be destroyed. 

INJURIES BELOW THE KNEE. 

The causes of lameness now to be described, extending to the 
foot, are mostly common to both anterior and posterior extremi- 
ties. When not common to both, reference will be made. 

SPRAIN OF THE METACARPAL LIGAMENT. 

This ligament is often sprained, caused by violent exertion of 
any kind, pulling heavy loads, wearing high-toed shoes, etc. 

Symptoms. — Heat and swelling of the part; in the early 
stages, the ligament can be felt swollen prominently, the ten- 
dons themselves being normal. The horse evinces pain on pres- 
sure of the .ligament. He stands with his leg upright, moves 
stiffly, and digs his toes in the ground. When the tendons are 
affected the swelling is found further back, situated about the 
middle of the tendon. This swelling prevents their gliding- 
through the thecse, particularly the thecse situated in the carpal 
or tarsal fossae. 

Treatment. — Apply a high-heeled shoe in order to rest the 
tendons. If treated immediately after the injury, cold water 
should be freely used. Ice water and bandage should be applied, 
and the lotion of zinc and lead previously referred to employed 
to reduce the fever. If the exudate has already taken place 
and there is great pain, warm fomentations as hot as the animal 
can bear should be used. When the irritation subsides, a lini- 
ment made of equal parts of aqua ammonia, turpentine, and lin- 
seed oil should be used. Firing may be resorted to in some 



200 



THE STOCK OWNER S ADVISEE. 



cases, but should not be used too quickly. Its use is very benefi- 
cial, however, in chronic inflammation of the tendon. 

In chronic cases, where shortening has permanently taken 
place, the operation of tenotomy must be performed. Many 
horses with contraction of the tendons will do slow work toler- 
ably w^ell if a piece of iron is attached to the toe of the shoe, pro- 
jecting an inch or two in front of it and slightly turned up at its 
anterior j^art. Tenotomy or division of the tendon should only 




Fig. 45 — Sprain of the Metacarpal Ligament. 

be performed by a skilled surgeon, and the animal should be a 
valuable one, as it takes six months, in case of a fore leg, before 
an animal can be put to work again, and a much longer time if in 
the hind limb. The operation in the hind limb is often disap- 
pointing, even with the assistance of the lever on the toe of the 
shoe. 

SPEAIN OF THE SUSPENSORY LIGAMENT. 

The suspensory ligament is a broad band of white fibrous 
tissue, arising from the supra-posterior part of the canon bone, 
lying in the hollow between the two splint bones and termi- 



A SPRAIN OE STRAIN. 



201 



nating on either side of the os coronge and on the side of the 
pyramid of the os pedis. It is -asnally seen in race horses and 
hunters. 

Treatment. — Rest, fomentations, bandages, and finally blis- 
ters. The animal should have a long rest. If put to work too 
soon, rupture of the ligament is apt to occur. 

RUPTURE OF THE SUSPENSORY LIGAMENT. 

Rupture of the suspensory ligament, or breakdown, as it is 
commonly called. This injury is a very serious one, but with a 
long rest and proper treatment a horse so injured may become 
sufficiently sound to per- 
form moderate work. Yet 
there is always a weak- 
ness left which constitutes 
unsoundness. They can 
never be made fit for fast 
work again. Breakdown is 
common on the hard tracks 
of this continent. It rarely 
occurs on the soft and yield- 
ing turf of England. 

Symptoms. — If one of the 
branches only is ruptured, 
there will be slight swelling 
and lameness. The animal 

will stand or walk on the toe. This lameness may oe removed by 
cold water and liniments, but when the animal is afterwards put 
to a severe test he may break completely down. The fetlock then 
descends, the toe turns up, and there will be heat, pain and 
swelling. 

Treatment. — A long rest, cold and hot applications, accord- 
ing to the season of the year, and finally blisters should be used. 
Firm pledgets of tow, placed in the hollow of the heel to suj)- 
port the fetlock, should be used. The tow should be made into 




Fig. 46 — Partial Breakdown. 



202 THE STOCK OWNER S ADVISER. 

a firm roll, the fetlock pad elevated by an assistant, the roll of 
tow placed under it so as to completely fill up the hollow of the 
heel, and fixed in that position by a bandage. Other bandages 
should be placed around the leg as high as possible. Cold appli- 
cations should be used to relieve the inflammatory symptoms, 
and finally liniments should be used. 

CUT TENDON. 

A tendon may be cut or lacerated in various ways. Give rest 

and apply a shoe arranged so as 
to keep the limb in one position. 
Bandage and adopt the line of 
treatment that has been laid 
down before for injury of the 
tendons. 

SPRAIN OF THE FETLOCK. 

There may be infiammation 

Fig. 47— Firing the Tendons. n j_i - - ^ - £ ' £ 

. 01 the jomt or spram oi one oi 

the lateral ligaments, caused in various ways. In inflammation 
of the fetlock joint, from whatever cause, the lameness is char- 
acterized by inability to flex it, by heat, swelling, pain on pres- 
sure, and more or less pointing of the foot. The diagnosis is 
further assisted by flexing the joint, when the animal shows pain 
and the lameness is increased. Treat as for other injuries in the 
same region. 

SESAMOIDITIS— INFLAMMATION OF THE SESAMOID 

BURSAE. 

Symptoms. — Lameness, the animal going on his toe; heat at 
the back of the fetlock, with swelling of the bursse. The hard 
enlargement of sesamoiditis is an unsoundness, and must not be 
mistaken for the soft, yielding swelling constituting wind galls. 
In sesamoiditis the capsule is fully distended with fluid, and is 
tense; whereas in a common wind-gall it is soft and easily pressed 




A SPEAIN OR STRAIN. 203 

from side to side. The bursas are often the seat of rheumatism. 
The pain is very obstinate^ for a time subsiding and then reap- 
pearing. The special treatment consists in the application of a 
high-heeled shoe^ placing the animal in slings if the lameness be 
severe, and the use of cold water. 

RING BONE. 

This is the term applied to a ring of osseous material extend- 
ing around the limb just above the hoof. Ring bones are of two 
kinds, true and false. A false ring bone does not involve the 
articulation. The true ring bone involves important articula- 
tions, and is an unsoundness in every sense of the word. Ring 
bone may occur in any limb, and I have seen it in all four limbs 
at one time. The causes of ring bone are hereditary, structural, 
incidental, and rheumatoid. Hereditary predisposition is suffi- 
ciently proven and acknowledged. This subject has been thor- 
oughly dealt with in the chapter on breeding. The structural 
tendency is manifested in horses with upright pasterns. Hard 
work is probably the most common of all exciting causes. Im- 
proper shoeing, blows, and kicks may produce ring bone. 

Symptoms. — There will be an enlargement, which is soft in 
the early stages of the disease. Considerable heat is present, 
and there is more or less lameness, which may be increased by 
flexing the joint and trotting the animal. The lameness pre- 
cedes the deposition of bony matter, and is due to inflammation 
in. the bones. 

When ring bone is situated in the fore extremity, unless the 
deposit be on the posterior aspect, the patient puts his heel to 
the ground first; but when in the hind limb, in the upper part of 
the pastern, except it be in front, the toe touches the ground 
first. When locator^ in the lower portion of the pastern the 
heel comes down first. When in the hind limb the animal 
uses great care in bringing forward the foot. 

Treatment. — If located in the fore leg, and the animal puts 
the heel down first, a tli in-heeled bar shoe must be put on the 



204 



THE STOCK OWNER S ADVISER. 



foot. This will give great relief by allowing the animal to 
throw his weight upon the heels easily. If he walks on his toe, 
he must be shod with a high-heeled shoe. The firing iron is the 
best form of counter irritation in this disease. This should be 
done by an experienced surgeon. After firing, a vesicant should 




Fig. 48— A Severe Firing of a Large and Long-Standing Ring Bone. 

be applied, and nothing is better than the ungt. hydrarg. biniod., 
which may be washed off in three or four days, and lard or vase- 
line applied. 

HIP-JOINT LAMENESS. 

Hip-joint lameness rarely occurs, but it is possible. The 
trochanter major of the femur is the usual seat of lameness in 
that region. The trochanter stands higher than the articular 
head of the femur, and gives attachment to particular muscles. 
The summit of the trochanter is liable to injury from blows and 
falls. There may be sprain of the ligaments by exercise of a 
violent character, as slipping, falling, or turning suddenly. 

Symptoms. — If there is a violent inflammation of the hip- 
joint, the animal will stand persistently, being very averse to 



A SPEAIN OR STRAIN. 205 

moving about in any way. The foot is elevated from the ground, 
and held continually in that position. There will be fever, loss 
of appetite and flesh, rapid wasting of the quarter, and inability 
to lie down. If the violent symptoms above described do not 
soon abate, or some signs of improvement be made manifest, the 
prognosis of an incurable lameness may be safely made. There 
will be ulceration of the ligamentum teres, ulceration of the 
articular cartilage, and perhaps anchylosis. In hip-joint lame- 
ness the animal has a peculiar hop and catch in his gait, with a 
lack of movement in the quarter. The quarter in the lame side 
is elevated with as little motion of the hip as possible, the other 
articulation being flexed with ease. When standing, the foot is 
lifted, wasting of the muscles take place, and a swelling in con- 
nection with the trochanter may be noticed. Heat may be felt, 
by pressure applied per rectum. 

Treatment. — In either form a high-heeled shoe is to be put 
on the foot and a long rest given. Fomentations should be ap- 
plied for hours at a time. The mercurial ointment previously 
referred to should be used, and is of value. The ailment requires 
a powerful medicine. 

Sprain of the gluteus maximus sometimes takes place, and is 
very hard to distinguish from hip-joint lameness. There is the 
same peculiar rising^ and falling of the croup. The foot will be 
elevated, and there will be great difficulty in bringing forward 
the limb. Swelling will be noticed first, then atrophy. 

The treatment is similar to that for hip-joint lameness. It 
may be necessary to use slings in this as well as in hip-joint dis- 
ease. 

DISLOCATION OF THE HIP JOINT. 

Dislocation is never seen in the horse, unless there be frac- 
ture of the acetabulum. It may occur in the ox, dog, and cat 
without fracture. 

Symptoms. — Shortening of the limb, pain, an abnormally 
prominent condition, and later swelling. The symptoms are 
about the same in the dog and cat, 



206 



THE STOCK OWNER S ADVISEE. 



Tkeatment. — Reduce the dislocation by manipulation, exten- 
sion, traction, etc., brought to bear on the limb. It is easily 
reduced in the dog, but rarely in the ox. 

STIFLE-JOINT LAMENESS. 

Stifle-joint lameness is of two kinds, that within the joint 
proper and that in the patella articulation. The pathology of 
both forms is alike — inflammation, ulceration of the articular 

cartilage, and of the semi- 

lunse discs, and deposit of 

/ I'^^-v^ilSr^^' porcellaneous deposit, 

when caused by rheuma- 
tism. 

Symptoms. — T h e ani- 
mal stands with the limb 
bent, the thigh flexed upon 
the pelvis, and the leg 
upon the thigh. 

In lameness from dis- 
ease of the bursa-patella, 
the horse generally walks 
with his toe dragging the ground, the forward movement of the 
limb being performed with great difliculty, the toe of the foot 
describing the segment of a circle at each step. 

DISLOCATION OF THE PATELLA. 

Complete dislocation seldom takes place. Partial dislocation, 
however, is of very common occurrence, the bone slipping on 
the outside in all cases. The formation of the parts render it 
almost impossible for the bone to slip on the inside. 

Cause. — Falling, stepping on cobble stones, or on a rolling 
stone. It follows debilitating diseases, as influenza, etc. It is 
generally seen in young, unthrifty animals. It may occur from 
a scrofulous ostitis, hereditary tendency, faulty conformation, 
Mc. Allowing weak colts to run on hilly pastures may cause it. 




Fig. 49 — Stifle Joint Lameness. 



A SPRAIN OR STRAIN. 



207 



Symptoms. — In walking there is difficulty in bringing the 
limb forward. It is handled in a stiff manner, as though there 
was scarcely any articulation in it. On going forward and in 
backing the foot drags on the ground. In some cases the foot 
seems as though nailed to the floor. In partial dislocation, a 
clicking sound is heard during progression. When the animal 
lies down, he frequently has great difficulty in rising^ and in 
some cases is totally unable to rise. 

Treatment. — The treatment is not difficult, and as a rule is 
b'uccessful. Reduce the luxation by placing the animal by the 




Fig. 50— Dislocation of the Patella. 

b'ide of the stall; tie a soft cord around the fetlock of the affected 
limb, have an assistant take hold of the free end of the cord and 
gently draw the limb forward; at the same time the operator 
should manipulate, and, by pushing the bone, force it in place. 
The bone will produce a clicking sound as it slips into its place. 
After the reduction, cold water should be applied freely, and the 
lotion of zinc and lead used after each application until all irri- 
tation is allayed. After all inflammation has subsided, the can- 



f^OS 



THE STOCK OWA'EU S ADVISER. 



tharides blister should be applied to the part and the horse 
walked after each application. In exercising an animal, if the 
patella on the near side is dislocated, the animal in turning 
should turn to the opposite side, and vice versa. 

SPRAIN OF THE PATELLA LIGAMENTS. 

The ligaments of the patella may be strained, and this is most 
common in horses used for fast work. It is very common in 
stage horses. 

Symptoms. — There is considerable difficulty in bringing for- 
ward the limb, flexion of the joint is not properly performed, 

and in some cases 
there is a tendency 
to drag the toe. The 
animal may trot a 
short distance, then 
hop on the sound 
limb, keeping the 
affected one eleva- 
ted from the ground 
for a little ways, 
and then allowing it 
to descend to the 




Fig. 51 — Sprain of the Patella Ligaments. 



ground and trot off on it again. The symptoms are very much 
similar to stifle-joint lameness. 

The treatment is similar to stifle-joint lameness. 

SPRAIN OF THE VASTI AND RECTUS FEMORIS MUSCLES. 

This is caused by slipping and falling, etc. 

Symptoms. — Difficulty in extending the limb. The toe is 
dragged along on the ground, and the animal drops considerably. 
There will be observed a swelling of the part, which is succeeded 
by atrophy. The lameness is excessive. It will take from three 
to six months to effect a cure. 



A SPRAIN OR STRAIN. ^09 

Treatment. — Rest, fomentations, and the use of the ammo- 
niacal liniment. In some cases it may be necessary to place the 
animal in slings. 

SPRAIN OF THE FLEXOR METATARSI. 

This muscle is attached to the femur, tibia, and metatarsal 
bones. Sprain is caused by jumping, falling, or being cast in 
any way. 

Symptoms. — The symptoms are very peculiar. As a result of 
an injury inflicted, the muscle loses its power of contraction, 
while the opposing muscles at the back of the limb retain their 
contractile power, causing the limb to fly upwards and back- 
wards with great violence, where it remains hanging, dangling 
as if broken. When the animal makes a step or removes its 
weight from the limb it flies back and hangs dangling as before. 
If the injury is in connection with the tendinous portion of the 
muscle, and the animal very old, it is best to destroy it. 

Treatment. — Fomentations, the use of a liniment composed 
of equal parts of aqua ammonia, turpentine, and linseed oil, and 
a long rest. The animal should be fed well. It will take six 
months to effect a cure. 

Sprain of the gastroscnemi muscles occasionally occur. The 
symptoms are similar to sprain of the flexor metatarsi, except 
that the limb inclines forward instead of backwards. The treat- 
ment is similar. 

BOG SPAVIN. 

Bog spavin may be defined to be a soft, puffy tumor situated 
on the antero-internal aspect of the hock. If the enlargement is 
a tense, fluctuating swelling, accompanied by heat and pain, it 
is an unsoundness. It indicates a change within the textures of 
the joint. There are bog spavins, however, which may not be 
looked upon as constituting unsoundness, being a mere dropsy 
of the articulation. Bog spavin is most frequently seen among 
heavy horses, and in such animals very little importance is at- 
14 



210 



THE STOCK OWXER S ADVISEE. 



tached to it. unless actual lameness is present. But if in light 
horses, used for fast work, the presence of a bog spavin should 
be looked upon with suspicion. In such animals a bog spavin 
should be considered an unsoundness. 

Bog spavins are caused by hard and fast work, irregular exer- 
cise, high feeding, etc. Young hordes are more liable than old. 




Fig. 52 — Bog Spavin. 

The puffy tumor can be easily seen in connection with the hock. 
Inflammation of the true hock joint may be acute or chronic. 
In the acute form the lameness is very great, with fever, loss 

of condition, and inability to put the foot to the ground. It is 
apt to terminate in ulceration of the articular cartilage and a 
partial anchylosis of the joint. 

Teeatme^'t. — If the horse is in a plethoric condition, he 
should be reduced. Six drachms of aloes should be given, fol- 



A SPKAIN OR STRAIN. 



211 



lowed by a half ounce of nitrate of potash, in a drench. Cold 
applications should be applied to the enlargement. Zinc sul- 
phate, six drachms, to lead acetate one ounce in a quart of 
water may be used. Pressure should be applied by means of a 
bandage properly adjusted. A stimulant consisting of iodine 
and turpentine may be applied to the enlargement. In some few 
cases the actual cautery may be employed. Bog spavin is best 
treated in the winter. 

SPRUNG HOCK. 

This is an enlarged and inflamed condition of the tarsus gen- 
erally, involving the structures of the whole articulation, arising 
from severe sprain or injury. 




Fig. 53— Sprung Hock. 

Treatment. — The special treatment is the use of the slings 
and the animoniacal liniment. After the acute symptoms have 
subsided the biniodlde of mercury ointment should be used to 



212 



THE STOCK OWXER S ADVISEE. 



absorb the callus enlargement. It may be necessary to use tbe 
actual cautery. 

BONE SPAVIN. 

A bone spavin may be defined to be an exostosis on the inner 
and lower part of tbe bock, arising from inflammation of tbe 
joint, terminating generally in anchylosis of one or more of tbe 




Fig. 54— Bone Spavin. 

gliding joints of tbe bock. Bone spavin is very rarely found on 
tbe outer side of tbe bock. It arises from causes tbat are heredi- 
tary or constitutional and local. Tbe hereditary disposition to 
bone spavin is beyond a doubt, being well known to breeders of 
horses. This predisposition is not a peculiarity of conformation, 
as many breeds with very fine hocks often become unsound from 
spavin. 

The local exciting causes of spavin are sprains of the liga- 



I 



A SPRAIN OR STRAIlSr. 



213 



ments and concussion. High-calked shoes often cause it. The 
hock tied in below, or sickle-shaped, is the form most suscepti- 
ble to spavin. The lameness of bone spavin is, as a rule, remov- 
able in the young and middle aged, but generally incurable in 
horses past twelve years or their prime. 

Pathology. — Bone spavin is an inflammation of the bones 
and inter-osseous ligaments. The inflammation originates in the 




Fig. 55 — A. Perfect Hock. 

cancellated structure of the interior of the bones; an exudation 
is gradually thrown out between the bones and their cartilage, 
perverting the nutrition of the latter, whereby it ulcerates and 
is removed, leaving the exposed surfaces of bone in contact with 
each other and their cancellated structures in apposition, thus 
enabling their vessels to communicate with cacli other. Along 
with the destructive process going on in tlie interior of the bones, 
an exudate is found upon tlieir periosteal surface, extending from 



214 



THE STOCK OWNER S ADVISER. 



one diseased bone to another, binding them together by a band 
of lymph — ultimately converted into bone — which locks them 
firmly together/ preventing further motion. 

Symptoms. — In examining for spavin, the animal should be 
made to stand firmly on all four feet. In some cases it is neces- 
sary to have an assistant hold up one fore limb, in order to cause 

the animal to stand 
■squarely and firmly on 
both hind feet. Stand 
three or four feet from 
the shoulder and view the 
hock; now step to the 
other side, occupying the 
Bame position and com- 
pare the hocks; then step 
directly in front of the 
horse and look through 
between the fore legs. Af- 
ter this take a like view 
from behind. With an ex- 
perienced eye, the smallest 
variation from the normal 
can be readily detected. 
Pressure upon the parts 
may elicit some manifestations of pain or uneasiness, and 
there is generally heat present. In the stable, the animal 
favors the limb, standing with it flexed. If he is made to move 
from side to side in the stall, he will drop on the affected limb, 
but on being made to walk or trot he drops on the sound limb. 
When first brought out after standing all night, especially if 
the animal has been subjected to a long drive the day before, he 
will go stiff and lame. If driven a mile, he warms out of it. 
This is characteristic of joint affection. On trotting, there is a 
peculiar rising and falling of the croup; the hock is not flexed 




Fig. 56 — An Abnormal Straight Hock. 



A SPRAIN OR STRAIN. 215 

as freely as it should be, and the horse goes on his toe to a cer- 
tain extent. 

Treatment. — A long rest, a loose box, and the firing iron. A 
few days after the firing, the red iodide of mercury, one part to 
four or five parts of lard, should be applied. This should be 
washed off in three or four days, and another application made, 
if necessary. The method of firing will be dealt with more fully 
at the end of this chapter. 

THOROUGH-PIN. 

Thorough-pin is a bursal enlargement situated on the side of 
the hock. It is a distension of the bursa in connection with the 
flexor pedis perforanus muscle. It varies in size, in some cases 
no larger than the end of the finger ; in other cases it attains the 
size of the closed hand. Pressure on one 
side of the limb causes it to disappear on 
that side and appear on the other. 
Thorough-pin is generally as90cia;ted 
with bog spavin. It rarely produces 
lameness, and should not be considered 
as a serious condition. 

The treatment of thorough-pin is 
about the same as that for wind-galls, 
bog spavins, and o'ther bursal enlarge- 
ments. 

CAPPED HOCK. 

Capped hock is the term applied to an 
enlargement on the point of the hock, 
and is sometimes due to distension of the 
small bursa .situated imimediately be- 
neath the skin. In some cases it is a ^'^' ^^-Capped Hock. 
distension of the large bursa situated between the gastrocnemii 
externus and internus. Capped liock is caused by bk)ws, kicks, 
etc. It may arise from a mere dropsical condition or slug- 




216 



THE STOCK OWNER S ADVISER. 



gish circulation, and is seen after diseases of a debilitating 
character. Capped hock is most common among heavy horses. 
It is a hlemishj but cannot be considered an unsoundness. 

Treatmext. — If of long standing, it vill take some time to 
effect a cure. If the case is the result of an injury recently re- 
ceived, fomentations should be applied, and finally blisters used. 
The cause should be removed. If the enlargement still remains 
after pursuing this treatment, iodine tr. should be applied, and 
later iodide of mercury ointment may be applied, one part 
of mercury to five of lard. When serum or pus has formed it 

may be necessary to open up and al- 
low the contents to escape, but open- 
ing should not be made if it can be 
absorbed in any way. A seton may 
be passed through the enlargement 
and the contents allowed to drain for 
a few days. It should be dressed with 
the carbolic acid lotion. 




CURB. 

Curb is an enlargement on the pos- 
terior aspect of the hock, due to an 
injury or sprain of the calcaneo- 
cuboid ligament. It presents itself as 
a small, hard aodule in the lower part 
of the posterior aspect of the hock. 
It can easily be recognized on the 
back of the hock, about four or Rve 
inches below the point of the os 
calces. Animals with sickle-shaped hocks are predisposed to 
curb. A long, narrow, and coarse hock is more likely to suffer 
from curb than one well formed. The exciting causes are hard 
and fast work, running, jumping, playing, and especially rear- 




Fig. 58— Curb. 



A SPRAIN OR STRAIN. 



217 



ing. Driving an animal in deep snow will produce it; also slip- 
ping or starting rapidly. 

Treatment. — If treated immediately after the accident, cold 
applications should be applied to the part, as ice water and 
plumbi acetate in solution, etc. The thickened condition should 
be removed by the tincture of iodine. If lameness be present, 
fire. The animal should have rest, and a high-heeled shoe 
should be applied. 

GENERAL TREATMENT OF LAMENESS. 

After making a correct diagnosis, the first step is to remove 
the cause, if possible. !N^ext, the position of the limb demands 
attention. If the animal stands flat on his foot, and his feet are 
in good condition, all his shoes should be removed. But if the 
feet be weak, they should be protected with light shoes. This 
plan, of course, is only recommended where the patient will 
have to lay up for some time. If the horse elevates the heel, he 
must have a high-heeled shoe. If he throws his weight upon the 
heels, a thin-heeled shoe should be used. When the parts are in 
as complete a state of rest as possible, the effects of the primary 
lesions are next to be attended to. 

First reduce the inflammation by hot or cold applications. It 
is generally best to use cold applications first, and afterwards 
warm applications. In all painful affections, warm fomentations 
and poultices should be used. Eight drachms of aloes should be 
given to assist in reducing inflammation, the diet properly regu- 
lated and restricted to brand mashes, a little hay, and cool water. 
After the acute signs of inflammation have subsided, if the 
lameness still remains, counter-irritants must be used. In cases 
of some standing, when organic changes in the parts involved 
are suspected, a blister should be applied. The cantharidcs 
blister is best in tendinous or muscular wounds — one part of 
cantharides powd. to seven parts of lard or palm oil. For bone 
diseases, the mercurial ointment is the best — one })art of red 
mercury iodide to six or seven of lard. In applying a blister, 



218 THE STOCK OWIS^Er's ADVISER. 

the hair should first be clij)ped from the parts. The preparation 
should be applied with smart friction for about ten minutes. To 
obtain the full effect of a blister, a quantity of ointment is to be 
thickly laid on after the rubbing in is completed. 

Blister but two legs at a time, and do not repeat the applica- 
tion until after six or seven days. The horse's head should be 
tied to the rack after a blister has been applied, that he may not 
put his nose to it. Tie him so that he cannot lie down. If the 
blistered spot be in reach of the tail, it should be tied up, other- 
wise it is apt to become daubed and the blister whipped on the 
thighs, sheath, or mammary gland. In about twelve hours, 
what remains on the surface should be rubbed in. In about 
forty-eight hours after the application, it should be washed off 
and a little grease or oil should be applied. The horse may now 
be untied, and should be loose in a box stall. Tiring, or the 
application of the actual cautery, often removes pain very rap- 
idly after repeated blisters have failed. In bone diseases it is of 
great benefit. In fact, it is almost the only treatment for ring- 
bones and spavins. The firing may be in lines and superficial, 
the transverse method being the least calculated to blemish, or 
it may be in points and deep, by pyropuncture, and into the dis- 
eased structure. This latter method is the more easily per- 
formed, and the more effective. 



XIV. 
DISEASES OF THE FEET. 

Perhaps no greater curse has ever been inflicted upon the 
horse than that of shoeing. So great is the ignorance prevailing 
among owners, shoers, and managers of horses, that most cases 
of lameness arise from mismanagement of the feet. The num- 
ber of horses lame from bad shoeing is something enormous. It 
is not my intention here to enter minutely into the question of 
horseshoeing, but I hope that I may prevent, as far as possible, 
the unnecessary infliction of evils upon the horse by pointing 
out wherein they exist, and recommending a better practice than 
is usual in the art of shoeing. But little progress has been made 
in horseshoeing. It is scarcely better understood now than a 
century ago. The prevalent evils in the practice of shoeing 
arise not so much from want of knowledge as from carelessness 
on the part of workmen. By this indifference and ignorance, 
the animal's feet are injured, often ruined for life. Many 
times it causes disease which ruin not only the feet, but other 
and more vital parts. We frequently meet shoers so extremely 
clever that they imagine they can improve upon nature. Chang- 
ing the foot has caused irreparable injury to the ligaments and 
tendons. 

Every owner should take pains to understand thoroughly the 
horse's feet. He should accompany the horse to the forge; by 
doing so he will save expense to himself and punishment to the 
horse. In moving the old shoes, the smith should raise the 
clinchers before removing the shoe, and not violently wrench or 
twist the shoe off, without cutting the clinchers, as is usual. If 
the clinchers are not cutj the nail-holes will be torn larger, the 
future steady hold of the shoe weakened, sometimes tearing the 
crust and otherwise injuring the foot. The shoe having been 

\ 219 ) 



220 THE STOCK OWNER S ADVISEE. . 

removed, the smith should rasp t^he wall, in order to remove any 
stubs remaining in the nail holes or any gravel that might have 
insinuated itself. Xext comes the process of paring the foot, 
which should be done until the sole will yield to the firm pres- 
sure of the thumb. If the foot is allowed to grow, and the horn 
to accumulate month after month^ the sole loses its elasticity, 
and can no longer descend; its other functions are impeded, and 
foundations are laid for corns, contraction, and navicular disease. 
The quantity of horn to be removed in order to leave the proper 
degree of thickness will vary with different feet. The strong 
foot should be pared pretty well. The concave foot should be 
pared until the sole will yield to pressure; the flat foot needs but 
little paring, while the pomaced foot should be deprived of 
nothing but the ragged parts. Experience and anatomical in- 
vestigation point to the conclusion that the sole, as well as the 
crust or wall, is intended to perform the weight-bearing func- 
tion. The foot should be leveled in order tliat the shoe may rest 
perfectly level on the wall and sole. 

The practice of opening the heels, or, more truly, removing 
that which is the impediment to contraction, should not be al- 
lowed. The portion of the heels between the flexion of the bars 
and frog should scarcely be touched. The bar, likewise, should" 
be left fully prominent, not only at its first flexion, but as it 
runs down the side of the frog. Destruction of the bars will lead 
to contraction. The frog should not be pared; it should project 
to the lower surface of the shoe; it will then descend with the 
sole sufficiently to come in contact with the ground, and thus 
fulfill its functions by relieving concussion. When ready for the 
shoe, one should be selected that will fit the foot as nearly as 
possible. A careless smith will make the foot fit the shoe, in- 
stead of the shoe fitting the foot. The toe-knife and rasp is a 
very convenient instrument for hina, and he can soon make the 
foot as small as the shoe. A foot thus artificially diminished in 
size will soon grow ©ver the shoe and cause lameness. 

The shoe recommended bv Prof. Williams is the best shoe 



DISEASES OF THE FEET. 221 

for the road horse. The superior surface of the shoe bearing on 
the sole is perfectly flat. The shoe at the heels is drawn down 
to one-half the size, or less, of that of the toe. This allows th^ 
shoe at the heels to rest upon the walls only. By the use of such 
a shoe, all the weight-bearing parts are called to action. The 
inferior concave surface of the shoe prevents slipping, the rim 
and wedge-shaped frog grasping the ground. I have used this 
shoe on the icy pavements of winter with excellent results. The 
web of the shoe should be of such thickness that when the foot 
is properly pared the prominent part of the frog shall lie on a 
level with its ground surface, so that in the descent of the sole 
the frog shall come sufficiently on the ground to enable it to act 
as a wedge, expanding the quarters, while the shoe will defend 
it from the wear and injury it would receive if it came to the 
ground with the first and full shock of the weight. 

Much skill and time is necessary in leveling and fitting the 
shoe to the foot. The method of applying the shoe after it has 
been heated, somewhat below the red heat, to detect any little 
elevations by the deep color of the burned horn, is a great as- 
sistance in adjusting the shoe. If, however, the shoe is made to 
burn its weight to its seat, as is done by the careless smith, with 
little or no previous preparation of the foot, the heat must be 
injurious both to the sensitive and insensitive parts of the foot. 
Of the manner of attaching the shoe to the foot, the owner can 
scarcely be a competent judge; he can only take care that the 
shoe itself shall not be heavier than the work requires. Calks 
and toe pieces should be done away with for all kinds of horses 
except those used for heavy draught in town where the streets 
are paved and steep. All horses required to go beyond a walk 
are injured by shoes with turned-up heels and toes. AVliere pos- 
sible, all horses should be shod with flat shoes. Clips on the toe 
and side of each shoe are useful for heavy horses, but should 
only be used when circumstances absolutely require them. The 
hind shoe should be made broader at the toe than the fore ones. 
The hind toe is the point on which the animal propels itself, and 



222 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

therefore should be broader than the fore shoe. Another good 
effect is, that the hinder foot being a little shortened, there is 
less danger of over-reaching or forging, and especially if the shoe 
is wider on the foot surface than on the ground surface. The 
shoe is thus made to slope inward, and is a little within the toe 
of the crust. The hind foot is straighter in the quarter than the 
fore, and must therefore have a differently shaped shoe. 

The length of time that shoes may be worn without injury 
varies with different horses. Horses with soft or pumaced feet 
should not wear them longer than forty to fifty days. Old 
horses, if their feet have never been injured, may keep them on 
much longer. Young horses, with their first shoes, should not 
wear them longer than thirty days, and should wear them only 
part of the year. The colt should not be shod until he is three 
years old. Shoes may be then put on at the beginning of winter 
and remain until spring, when they are to be removed and left 
off until the following autumn. All young horses should remain 
barefooted as long as possible. Teet that have been long shod, 
especially if they be weak, will always be tender, and should not 
have their shoes removed. When horses are having a rest and 
run at pasture, the shoes should be removed and put on again 
when they are brought up for work. The colt should wear a 
very light shoe, and should never be allowed to wear it longer 
than a month. In foal, no shoe ought to be worn longer than a 
month. The shoe should never be heavier than the work re- 
quires, and the weak foot should never wear a heavy shoe. An 
ounce or two in the weight of the shoe will sadly tell at the end 
of a hard day's work. This is acknowledged in the hunting shoe, 
which is narrower and lighter than that of the hackney, al- 
though the foot of the hackney is smaller than that of the 
hunter. It is more decidedly acknowledged in the racer, who 
wears a shoe only sufficiently thick to prevent it from bending 
when it is used. 



DISEASES OF THE FEET. 



223 



LAMENESS FEOM DISEASE OF THE PYRAMIDAL PROCESS 

OF THE OS PEDIS. 

This exists in the fore or hind foot, and is caused by blows 
upon the front of the coronet, or from over-extension of the 
extensor tendon by the use 
of high calks. 

Symptoms. — Swelling i n 
front of the coronet, varying 
in size from that of a hazel 
nut to a pigeon's egg, with 
lameness. The horse puts 
the heel down first, and takes 
the foot up quickly, as soon 
as the toe comes in contact 
with the ground. There will 
be pain on pressure, heat, 
sloughing of the skin, leaving 
a wound that heals with diffi- 
culty. 

Treatment. — Low - heeled 
bar shoe, fomentations, poul- 
tices, rest; succeeded by the ammoniacal liniment, and in ex- 
treme cases the cautery. 

OSSIFICATION OF THE LATERAL CARTILAGES. 

Side Bones. — This condition is commonly met with in heavy 
horses, and in the fore feet. It rarely occurs in the hind feet. 

The lateral cartilages are two thin plates of fibro-cartilage, of 
irregular quadrangular form, surrounding the wings of the os 
pedis, which in virtue of their elasticity assist the sensitive frog 
and soft structures of the foot in regaining their natural posi- 
tion after being pressed upward and outwards by the weight of 
the animal. They may be easily felt on the sides of the foot, 
just above the coronet, as two yielding pads. When these be- 




Fig. 59— Disease of the Pyramidal 
Process of the Os Pedis. 



224 



THE STOCK OWNER S ADVISER. 



come ossified, they are hard and unyielding as the bone of the 
foot. 

The process of ossification is often a slow one, nnaccompanied 
by any acute inflammatory action, giving the animal no pain, 
and causing no lameness. AVe frequently see this in heavy 
horses. The causes are hereditary tendency and shoeing with 
high calks. Side bones are a cause of unsoundness, but if a 

horse with side bones 
has good, strong feet, 
open and well devel- 
oped, showing n o 
lameness, he should 
not be considered un- 
sound. If the light- 
bred horse is found to 
have side bones, 
whether lame or not, 
he should be consid- 
ered unsound. Side- 
b n e lameness is 
charac terized by 
bringing the toe of 
the foot first to the 




Fig. 60— Ossification of the Lateral Cartilages. 



ground; when both feet are involved, by a shortness of step and 
want of elasticity or springiness in action, resembling that of 
navicular disease. 

Treatment. — Bar shoe, rest, blisters, firing, and, should these 
fail, neurotomy. This operation should only be done through a 
skilled surgeon. 

NAVICULAR DISEASE. 

This is the most fertile cause of lameness known of in the 
better bred horses. I^avicular disease may be defined to be an 
inflammation set up in the navicular bone, bursa, and flexor 
pedis perforans tendon, The disease originates in the cancel- 



DISEASES OF THE FEET. ^25 

lated structure of the bone or the cartilage upon its surface. 
As a result the tendon becomes lacerated and adherent to the 
bone. The disease occurs in the fore feet, and is seen in saddle 
horses more than any other class. In all its stages it constitutes 
an unsoundness. The disease is always confined to the inferior 
surface of the navicular bone and in connection with the tendon. 
The great exciting cause of navicular disease is hard and fast 
work, particularly on hard roads. A hereditary tendency is 
also a cause. Certain breeds of horses are more or less subject 
to navicular disease on account of faulty conformation, the dis- 
ease being most frequently met with in horses having short, 
upright pasterns and a pounding action. Allowing the animal 
to be idle for a few days, feeding him highly in the mean time, 
then taking him out for a severe ride or drive on a hard road 
will cause it. 

I believe that, aside from concussion on hard roads, faulty 
shoeing is the most prolific cause of navicular disease. The prac- 
tice of the smith in removing the horn from the heels and soles 
produces a contraction, which causes an infiammation of the 
joint. The great barriers to the collapse of the hoof at this part 
are strong heels, bars, and soles. The majority of smiths re- 
move a quantity of horn, in what they term ^^opening the heels,'' 
which causes the foot to collapse and its sides approximate each 
other too closely. 

I hold that contraction here is the cause^ and not the effect 
of disease, as is the usual opinion. The smith frequently allows 
the toe of the foot to become too long, and applies a shoe, thick 
and irregular at the toe, which by increasing the resistance of 
the foot, while implanted on the ground, throws an additional 
strain on the tendon, which passes under the navicular bone. 

Symptoms. — At first slight lameness, perhaps just after being 
shod. There wdl be pointing of the foot. The examiner must 
here not confound pointing from habit or fatigue with the point- 
ing of lameness. It may come on suddenly and be severe, or it 
may come on gradually and be slight. A horse suffeiing from 
15 



226 



THE STOCK OWNER S ADVISER. 



this lameness comes out of the stable, after an interval of 
quietude, stiff and lame, but after short exercise the lameness 
disappears. If he be lame in both feet, his step is short and 
stilty, sad he seems rigid and bound by some stiffness of the 
muscles of the chest and shoulders. These peculiar symptoms 
have produced the name "chest founder." There is nothing, 
however, wrong with the shoulders or chest. There will be heat 
and tenderness upon pressure at the hollow of the heel. There 




Fig. 61 — Navicular Disease. 



may be reaness of the sole. If pressure be brought to bear on 
the seat of the navicular joint, pain will be evinced. This pres- 
sure must be gently applied; if not, the horse will flinch when 
there is no pain. The horse wears the toe of the shoe of the 
affected foot. If the disease is of some standing, there will be a 
well marked contraction and wasting of the foot and muscles of 
the fore limbs. The horny frog presents a shriveled appearance, 
in some cases dwindling in size until scarcely any frog remains. 
The fatty frog is also affected, causing a well marked concavity 
of the sole. 



DISEASES OF THE FEET. 227 

Treatment. — Remove the shoes; the frogs should be allowed 
to touch the ground; blood is to be withdrawn from the toe, or 
coronary plexus, and the feet placed in a cold water bath for 
several hours during the day, and in a poultice at night. This 
method of treatment, with the addition of six drachms of aloes 
internally, has proven successful in the early stages. At the 
end of a fortnight, whether the animal be lame or not, a mild 
blister should be applied around the coronet. If this treatment 
proves of no avail, a seton should be inserted through the frog. 
The seton should enter the frog about one inch from its toe, and 
brought out midway between the bulbs of the frog and the 
anterior boundary of the hollow of the heel. The ends of the 
tape must be tied together and of sufficient length to admit of 
a little movement in dressing. This should be saturated with a 
strong liquid preparation of mercury, red iodide, and cantha- 
rides, and moved a little each da v. Before the seton is intro- 
duced, a high-heeled shoe should be applied to prevent the parts 
from coming in contact with the ground. The seton should be 
allowed to remain three or four weeks. If the pain be not re- 
lieved after the seton has been removed one month, treatment 
will be useless, and the animal should be put to work and the 
pain removed by neurotomy. 

The operation of neurotomy requires the employment of a 
veterinary surgeon. It is a very simple operation to one who 
understands the anatomy of the parts. It consists of a division 
of the plantar nerves. This operation, however successful in 
some cases, should never be performed on a horse with thick 
legs or thin feet, weak in the heels, or full in the sole, or with 
high action, and only performed where the lameness is other- 
wise incurable. The bad results of the operation are fracture 
of the navicular bone, rupture of the tendon, sloughing of the 
hoof, and a gelatinous degeneration of the bursa, tendon, and 
surrounding tissues. These results, however, in my experience, 
seldom o(icur. 

I have successfully treated what seemed incurable cases, and 



228 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

where it was not advisable to perform neurotomy, by applying 
a slioe with two-inch calks on it, and at the same tiAie paring the 
toe as short as possible. 

Each time the horse is shod the toe should be pared as close 
as possible, and the heels not interfered with. As the foot is 
gradually brought in this position, the calks should be lowered, 
until finally they can be removed entirely. This method changes 
the seat of disease in connection with the bones and relieves 
the tendon. 

LAMINITIS, OR INFLAMMATION OF THE FOOT, 

Occurs in the acute, sub-acute, and chronic forms. It is also 
known as founder. It is one of the most dreadful diseases the 
horse is liable to, and is not confined to the feet, although its 
chief seat of pain is there. Frequently, in consequence of too 
long-delayed treatment, separation of the sensitive from the in- 
sensitive lamina takes place, the os pedis descends, constituting a 
disease known as pomaced foot. In resolution the exudate is 
removed by the absorptive process. AVhen not absorbed, it is 
greatest at the toe, and pomaced foot is the result. In other 
cases the os pedis may not descend, but the functions will be in- 
terfered with, causing the hoof to grow down in a series of 
ridges. 

Causes. — A predisposition, as weak and flat feet. The ex- 
citing cause is hard and fast work, especially on paved roads. A 
horse with high-pounding action is likelier to suffer with an 
attack of laminitis than an animal having a low, smooth action. 
Bad shoeing may cause it. It also follows any irritation or de- 
rangement of the digestive system, such as may be induced by 
the administration of food or drink in excessive quantities. A 
strong dose of purgative medicine may cause the disease, or 
diarrhoea from other causes may produce it. I have seen it fol- 
low parturition, in consequence of the irritation existing in con- 
nection w^ith the generative system. An inflammation of any 
mucous membrane may extend to the feet and produce laminitis. 



DISEASES OF THE FEET. 



229 



The whole body is usually affected. A wound inflicted during 
the progress of the disease will not heal readily. It occasionally 
occurs in one foot only, and in such case may be due to driving 
the animal with the shoe off. Generally the disease is confined 
to the two fore feet, but it is not unusual to find all four feet 
affected. A very frequent cause of the disease is the drinking 
of large quantities of water when heated by exercise. Standing 
the animal in a draft after being heated by exercise is a fre- 
quent cause. It is of greater occurrence during hot weather, 
being seldom seen in winter. 

Symptoms. — In the acute form of laminitis, the symptoms are 

plain, and when once seen may readily be recognized afterward. 

The disease is ushered in 

by rigors, which quickly 

give place to pyrexia. 

The pulse varies from 

fifty to eighty beats per 

minute, which are full 

and bounding. As the 

fever increases, sweats 

bedew the body; the 

countenance bears an 

Fig. 62 — Acute Lammitis. 
anxious expression, 

which shows the awful agony of the animal. The urine is 
voided in smaller quantities than usual, and is highly colored. 
If all four feet are affected, he will stand with all of his feet 
gathered together well up under the body, and the back is 
reached. If you attempt to back him, he offers all the resistance 
in his power. He moves backwards with every manifestation of 
severe pain, dragging the feet along on the ground, and often 
giving vent to groans. The breathing is usually affected to a 
considerable extent, being more or less accelerated, and greatly 
resembling the breathing of pneumonia. On moving, the ani- 
mal exhibits a strong tendency to stumble on even ground. He 
makes great effort to bring the heels to the ground first, keep- 




230 THE STOCK owner's ADVISEE. 

ing the toes from contact witli the ground. When the fore feet 
are affected, he stands with the hind feet well under the body, 
supjDorting the most of his weight upon them, while he stretches 
his fore feet out in front with the heels resting upon the ground. 
Some few will lie down when affected, and when forced to rise 
will spring with the hind feet and stumble forward with a groan. 
Great heat will be detected in the region of the coronet, which 
can be easily felt through the hoof. The mouth is hot and dry, 
and the bowels are constipated, except where the disease is 
caused by super-purgation. (See illustration.) Acute laminitis 
runs its course in from four to six days, and generally terminates 
favorably. 

Teeatmext. — In this disease nothing has proven so effectual 
as the use of eiaht drachms of aloes, where it is not caused bv 
super-purgation. Enemas should be administered. Tincture 
of aconite. United States phamiacopse tincture, twenty drops 
every three or four hours, is highly recommended. Potassium 
nitrate is almost indispensable in the treatment of this 
disease. It should be placed in the drinking water, or given 
in a drench if he will not take it in water. Three ounces should 
be given in the course of twenty-four hours. The shoes should 
be removed and warm fomentation applied from the knee down, 
after which poultices of bran should be applied. The poultices 
should be kept up for about forty hours. Then, if the animal 
can be placed in water, he should be allowed to stand in the 
stream or pond for three hours at a time during the day, and 
placed in a comfortable, loose stall at night. The shoes should 
be tacked on the third day after the attack and the animal exer- 
cised. 

If relief is not obtained in four or five days after the above 
treatment has been employed, it will be certain that exudation 
more or less copious has taken place. The exudate must be re- 
moved by cutting in at the toe and allowed to escape. A very 
slight exudate may be removed by the absorptive process. The 
poultices should not be continued too long.- Plenty of cold 



DISEASES OF THE FEET. 



231 



water should be used, and the food should be of a cooling nature, 
such as bran mashes, etc. 

Sub-acute and chronic laminitis is caused by hard work and 
irregular exercise. The symptoms are those of the acute form 
modified. The treatment, more tedious than that of the acute 
form, is the same, except that a blister should be applied to the 
coronet in the chronic form. 

PUMACED FOOT 

Is that condition of the foot in which the coffin bone descends. 
This condition occurs as a result of laminitis. It may also be 
caused by improper 
shoeing. The os 
pedis, in some cases, 
may force its way 
through the sole; in 
such case the animal 
should be destroyed. 
The treatment 
consists of removing 
the shoes, rest, poul- 
tices. A bar or 
round shoe should 
be applied, so that 
it will bear alto- 
gether on the wall 
and frog, and not on the sole. A horse suffering from this dis- 
ease will do very well for work on a farm, but cannot do fast 
work. 

INFLAMMATION OF THE CORONARY SUBSTANCE. 

Symptoms. — Harshness and brittleness of the crust; loss of 
toughness and pliability; increased heat round the coronet and 
upper part of the crust; diminished secretion of horn, and a pecu- 
liar striated condition of the crust. The horse glides his feet 
along the ground. The duration of this disease is a few weeks. 




Fig. 63— Pumaced Foot. 



232 



THE STOCK OWNER S ADVISER. 



It i? distinguishable from laminitis by the peculiar appearance 
and bulging of the crust. 

Treatme2^'t. — Eest, removal of shoes, poultice, application of 
bai shoe, cold application to the coronet, and vhen the heat and 
tenderness have subsided mild blisters. Purgatives should be 
occasionally administered. 

CARBUNCLE OF THE CORONARY BAND. 

This disease shows itself by the formation of a hard swelling 
on the coronet, accompanied by great pain, and febrile dis- 
turbance. After a few 
days, suppuration sets in, 
most commonly at several 
points, discharging a thin, 
unhealthy pus. There is 
sloughing of the sinuses or 
their borders. In some 
cases it extends up the 
limb to the hock or knee, 
causing sloughing of great 
patches of skin and sub- 
cutaneous tissue, exposing 
nerves and blood vessels. 
- * This disease is due to 

some change in the blood, 
Fig. 64-Carbuncie. ^^^^ -^ constitutional. If 

the inflamed point be limited, and surrounded by healthy tissue, 
recovery may be expected, but if there be extensive destruction 
of tissue an unfavorable termination may be looked for. 

Treatment. — The wound should be stimulated thoroughly 
with a j^encil of nitrate of silver. After using the caustic, the 
loot should be jDlaced in a cold-water bath for an hour at a time 
during the day. AVhen the foot is removed from the water, the 
parts should be dressed with a solution of the tincture of ter- 
cbloride of iron; eight drachms of aloes should be given inter- 




DISEASES OF THE FEET. 233 

nally. The caustic is to be emj)loyed every second day until the 
wound becomes healthy. The stable should be well ventilated, 
clean, and well drained. The animal should receive nourishing 
food, and powd. gentian, drachms three; powd. sulphate of iron, 
drachms two, should be used after the febrile symptoms have 
disappeared. 

FALSE aUARTER. 

This consists of a false growth, or an abnormal secretion of 
the horn of the wall. It is usually due to an injury in the region 
of the coronet, such as treads, quittors, etc. This is not looked 
upon as an unsoundness. Treatment is rarely adopted if the 
case is an old one. If the coronet is diseased or injured, it 
should be treated as an ordinary Avound. 

SAND CRACK. 

Sand crack consists of a fissure in any part of the foot, com- 
mencing at the coronet and extending to the bottom of the foot, 
as a rule. It is generally seen on the inner 
quarters of the fore foot and the toes of the 
hind feet. A crack in the center of the foot 
is termed a center crack, and when situated 
in the quarter a quarter crack. 

Sand crack commences at the thin upper 
margin of the wall, and is usually small and 
insignificant at first, but it gradually ex- 
tends downward and inwards until it 
reaches the bottom. There is more or less 
lameness in connection with it from the 
fact that when the animal is made to move 
the crack opens and closes, pinching the Fig. 65— Quarter Crack 
sensitive structures and causing excruciating Showing clasp, 
pain. 

Treatment. — Uemove the shoe and apply poultices and 
fomentations to relieve the irritation, after which carefully trim 
the edges. The crack must be prevented from extending any 




234 THE STOCK OWNER S ADVISER. 

further by bottoming it. This is done by making a groove trans- 
versely at its superior termination. The firing iron is the most 
convenient instrument for doing this, and is more successful than 
cutting. The iron should be made to burn through the wall 
transversely, until the sensitive structures are almost exposed 
and the exudation of a little blood seen, indicating that it is 
almost through. The iron should then be placed in the fissure 
and its edges smoothed with the red-hot iron from top to bottom. 
The fissure should be burned enough to set up an irritation. By 
this method I have even seen the crack unite, though this is held 
by most to be impossible. 

The irritation caused by firing should be allayed by poultices 
and fomentations. A bar shoe should be placed on the foot in 
order to have frog pressure. The wall is to be cut down so that 
the shoe cannot press upon the crack. Clenches should be ap- 
plied to hold the crack together while it grows down. The in- 
strument makers have for sale clenches of various sizes, with 
pincers and irons to burn the notches in the wall. They are the 
most convenient and effectual method of holding the cracks to- 
gether. Brass j)lates are used and do very well. A handy black- 
smith can, by cutting notches on both sides, drive and clench a 
horse nail. The whole secret of success lies in preventing mo- 
tion of the parts. If the crack be in the toe, side clas2)s should 
be used on the shoe. The growth of horn should be stimulated 
by vesicants. Two drachms of powdered cantharides to three or 
four ounces of linseed oil makes a good dressing to the coronet. 

SEEDY TOE. 

This term is applied to a perverted secretion of horn at the 
lower margin of the os pedis, by which the crust becomes de- 
tached from the horny lamina. It is often a result of laminitis, 
or of the pressure of the clip of the shoe. A small or large por- 
tion may be affected. In many cases the horn can be readily 
broken down with the finger and thumb. It gradually spreads, 
and exists for a long time without lameness. If it be not ar- 
rested m its course, lameness is certain to appear sooner or later. 



DISEASES OE THE EEET. 



235 



Treatment. — Remove all the diseased parts and promote the 
growth of horn by blisters, the cantharides blister being the best 
in this disease — one part of cantharides to ten of lard. The shoe 
clips should be removed and a bar shoe used. This condition is 
an unsoundness in all its stages. 

CORNS. 

A corn is the result of a bruise, involving the structure of the 
bars in the angle of the heels; occurring in the fore feet and 
almost invariably in the inside 
heel, and caused by bad shoeing. 
A corn consists of a bruise, and 
extravasation of blood, from rup- 
ture of the small blood vessels, 
which insinuates itself into horny 
texture and chives it the charac- 
teristic red appearance. It may 
terminate in suppuration, partial 
necrosis, horn tumor, or forma- 
tion of bony spicula of the pedal 
bone. A corn constitute an un- 
soundness in all its stages. 

Treatment. — R e m o v e the 
shoe, and having decided that a corn is present, pare it down 
nicely. If the corn has festered, give exit to the pus. Poul- 
tice the foot for a few days, when the shoe recommended by 
Professor Williams, previously referred to, should be applied. 
This shoe does not roach the seat of corn. If animals were 
shod with such shoes, corns would be unknown. A round 
shoe may be used with good results. Sometimes a fungoid 
growth springs up when suppuration has occurred. In such 
a case nitrate of silver should be applied, or corrosive subli- 
mate. AVliere the corn has not suppurated, it may be dressed 
with pure carbolic acid. 




Fig. 66— Corn. 



236 THE STOCK OWA'EPv's ADVISEE. 



THRUSH. 



A discharge of a very fetid material from the frog, arising 
from a diseased condition of the secretory surface of the fatty 
frog. The cleft is the part commonly affected. If neglected, 
the disease spreads oA^er the whole organ, detaching the horn 
from the bulbs of the heel to the toe of the frog. Thrush is 
caused by standing in filthy stables or running in a filthy barn- 
yard; hence it occurs more frequently in the hind than in the 
fore feet. The heavy breeds of horses are the most frequent 
sufferers from thrush. It is not a very serious condition, and 
seldom produces lameness of any extent. 

Treatmejs't. — Remove the cause and place the animal in a 
dry stall. It is not necessary to lay the animal off work, i^u- 
merous methods of treatment have been laid down by the best 
authors, some of them A^ery cumbersome. The treatment which 
I would recommend, and which has proven a direct specific in 
my hands, is the application of pure carbolic acid to the frog; to 
this apply sulphate of zinc in its undiluted form, and mix the 
two well into the parts. Xext, dust calomel over the w^hole. Use 
plenty of the acid and zinc, and take time to w^ork it well into 
the parts. ]^ext, roll a piece of absorbing cotton in calomel and 
fill all the little crevices with it, pressing it firmly to the bottom 
and filling them up. If this is properly applied it will require 
but one dressing; in bad cases, two dressings. The animal should 
be kept at work. 

CANKER. 

Canker consists of a malignant growth of a fungoid nature, 
and usually occurs as the result of an injury, as punctures. 
Separation of the insensitive from the sensitive sole takes place, 
and a growth of an extremely vascular nature springs up, ex- 
tending partly over the foot, causing a considerable amount of 
suffering. It is generally confined to the heavy horse, such being 
predisposed to the disease. The characteristic symptoms pf the 



DISEASES OF THE FEET. 237 

disease are strongly marked, and consist of an abundant, fetid, 
colorless discharge from the frog, which is large, spongy, and 
covered with vascular prominences of a fungoid nature. The 
growth extends, involving the whole frog and sole, and if not 
checked will ultimately produce deformity of the whole hoof. 

Treatment. — The treatment is tedious. The diseased surface 
should be removed, as well as the whole sole, by the knife. To 
remove the sole, cut down at the junction of the wall and sole, 
and follow it all around. Then cut it in halves. Throw the ani- 
mal, and remove every trace of the horny covering of both sole 
and frog. Dress the whole of the surface with a strong solution 
of nitrate of silver. Pack up with tow or cotton, and place a 
boot on the foot. Do not remove the dressing for two days. In 
removing the dressing it should first be soaked with w^ater in 
order to break its adhesion from the tender surface. Citric acid 
may be used to destroy the growth that sometimes springs up 
after the removal of the horn. Usually, after the removal of the 
horn, the foot presents a healthy appearance, and requires but 
little more than cleanliness. Professor Williams recommends 
the use of cromic acid in the treatment of canker. Sulphuric 
acid may be used in its undiluted state. When a thin pellicle of 
horn has formed, gentle pressure, by means of tow dipped in tar, 
should be used. The animal should be given a dose of aloes, 
followed with a half ounce of nitrate of potash and an ounce of 
sweet spirits of nitre. This requires, under favorable circum- 
stances, a period of two months. 

QUITTOR, 

A fistulous opening at the upper portion of the hoof, extending 
down between the sensitive and the insensitive lamina. It is 
generally caused by treads, pricks in shoeing, suppurating corns, 
or any other injury calculated to excite the suppurative action 
within the foot. 

Symptoms. — Lameness, a hard swelling in the region of the 
coronet, the softening and discharge of pus. A sinus is formed, 



238 



THE STOCK OWA'EK S ADVISER. 



and the wound shows no disposition to heal. Sometimes it ex- 
tends, involving the whole coronary substance, presenting a 
number of openings. 

Treatment. — It is very difficult to treat. If caused by a 
corn or a prick, an opening must be made in the sole, and the 




Fig. 67 — Foot Lameness. 

pus allowed to escape. This, along with poultices for a few days, 
wdth a blister to the coronet, will often be sufficient. Where 
there is no communication existing between the wound and sole 
of the foot, the sinus must be layed open, the knife inserted in 
the sinus, and cut throughout its entire length. A strong solu- 
tion of bichloride of mercury, two drachms of mercury to an 
ounce of water, should be injected. Poultices should now be 
applied for a few days. Dressings of undiluted carbolic acid, are 
beneficial. 

When quittor involves the lateral cartilages, the horse must 
be cast, and an incision made at the junction of the horny wall 
and coronary substance, immediately below the seat of disease, 
and folded upward in the form of a flap. The diseased portions 



DISEASES OF THE FEET. 



239 



should be carefully removed witli the knife and the skin brought 
back to its original position and retained there by bandages. In 
some cases it may be necessary to strip off part of the wall. 
When the discharge ceases and the wound heals, the slight ten- 





Fig. 68— Quittor. 



Fig. 69 — Bruise of Sensitive Sole. An indi- 
cation of foot lameness. 



derness that remains may be removed by a vesicant. The can- 
tharides blister has proven to be the best in all foot lamenesses. 
Quittor is an unsoundness in all its stages. 



BRUISE OF THE SENSITIVE SOLE. 

Bruise of the sensitive sole may occur in many ways, and is 
shown by lameness. Heat is present and there is more or less 
extravasation of blood. On tapping or pinching, the animal 
evinces pain 

Treatment. — Remove the shoe and thin the sole to a certain 
extent. Apply poultices and fomentations. Keep the foot 
moist for a day or two, give rest, and as a rule he quickly re- 
covers. "* 



240 



THE STOCK OWNER S ADVISER. 



CALKS AND TREADS. 

Injuries of this kind are common, especially durins" the win- 
ter, when shoes with sharp heels and toes are nsed. 

Treatment. — Remove the shoe and apply a poultice. Apply 
zinc sulphate, drachms six; lead acetate, ounce one; water, one 

pintj three times a day to 
the wound. If there is 
hemorrhage following the 
accident, it may be ar- 
rested by pressure around 
the fetlock, which should 
be allowed to remain for 
some time. 

PRICKING. 

Pricking a horse when 
shoeing him consists in 
driving the nail into the 
sensitive structures in- 
stead of through the in- 
sensitive homy wall of 
the hoof. Many cases of pricks are caused by drawn nails. 
The smith drives the nail into the sensitive part of the foot, 
draws it out, and drives it again. The result is great lame- 
ness in a day or two. If the nail had been withdrawn and the 
animal kept quiet for a day or two, there would not be any 
bad results. Lameness often occurs from the shoulder of the 
nail pressing upon the sensitive lamina, in consequence of the 
nail having been driven too close. In such cases the lameness 
does not come on for a week or so. Pricks usuallv manifest 
themselves shortly after the animal has been shod. The first 
step in the treatment is to pare down to the bottom of the punc- 
ture and allow the pus to escape. Apply poultices to allay the 
irritation. Dress the wound with equal parts of iodine, turpen- 
tine, and carbolic acid. 




Fig. 70— Calk. 



DISEASES OF THE FEET. 



24:1 



PUNCTURED WOUNDS OF THE FEET. 

Punctured wounds of the feet by nails are very common. 
They are sometimes hard to find, and if puncture is suspected a 
careful and thorough examination should be made. If the navi- 
cular joint be penetrated, serious consequences follow. If the 
nail punctures the fatty frog and goes deeply into the foot in 




Fig. 71 — Puncture of Navicular Joint. 

that region it does not constitute a serious trouble. The diag- 
nostic symptoms are nursing of the foot and a knuckling of 
the fetlock during progression. 

Treatment. — Keep the animal perfectly quiet and open the 
puncture with the knife to its bottom. Saturate a piece of cot- 
ton large enough to fill the cavity with equal parts of iodine, 
turpentine, and carbolic acid. Dress twice a day. If the animal 
is kept quiet, and this method of treatment employed, suppura- 
tion will seldom take place, and the animal will be ready for 
work in a few days. 



16 



XV. 
WOUNDS. 

A wound may be defined as a solution of continuity of tlie 
soft structures. Wounds are classified as incised^ punctured, 
lacerated, contused, gunshot, and poisoned. 

The incised wound is that made with a clean-cutting instru- 
ment. 

PUNCTURED WOUNDS. 

Punctured wounds are such as are inflicted by means of a 
sharp or blunt instrument. This variety of wound is character- 
ized by depth greater than its width. It is of a more dangerous 
character than incised wounds. 

LACERATED WOUNDS. 

Lacerated wounds are those in which the soft tissues are more 
or less torn, ^ot only the skin and areolar tissue, but in many 
cases the muscles are torn. 

CONTUSED WOUNDS. 

Contused wound is an injury inflicted by some blunt object 
without perforation of the skin. The deeper structures are more 
or less involved, causing a certain amount of effusion to take 
place. There will be an extravasation of blood. A clot is 
formed, which either causes suppuration or is removed by ab- 
sorption. 

GUNSHOT WOUNDS. 

Gunshot wounds are rare, except in war. They are followed 
by inflammation, mortification, resolution, and death. 

( 242 ) 



WOUNDS. 243 

POISONED WOUNDS. 

Poisoned wounds result from a bite of some venomous reptile, 
or may be caused by injudicious use of caustics. 

TREATMENT OF WOUNDS. 

Treatment. — The treatment of wounds varies to a consider- 
able extent, being governed by their situation, nature, and 
variety. If it be an incised wound, it is very simple. If there 
is hemorrhage present, it must be arrested. If from an artery, 
the blood is of a bright red color, and spurts out in jets, indi- 
cating the beats of the heart. If the artery be one of good size, 
the end of it must be searched for, drawn out by the forceps, 
and ligatured. Yenous bleeding is usually easily arrested by 
pressure, or by an astringent application, such as a solution of 
the chloride of iron, hot and cold application, the actual caiv- 
tery, etc. When the bleeding is arrested, the wound should be 
carefully and gently sponged with tepid water. The water 
should be squeezed out of the sponge on the wound, the sponge 
touching the wound very lightly. The edges of the wound are 
kept together by means of sutures, pins, plasters, and bandages. 
Plasters are rarely used in veterinary practice, but their em- 
ployment, especially in the lower portion of the limbs, may be 
preferred to that of suture. Various forms of sutures are em- 
ployed for keeping the edges of the wound together. The inter- 
rupted suture is that mostly in use, its material being silk. 

The suture is formed by passing the silk or wire through the 
edges of the wound, drawing them together and tying the ends. 
The twisted suture is the form employed to close the wound 
when bleeding. In the absence of a special pin, which can now 
be procured, an ordinary one may be used. Bring the edges of 
the wound together, and secure in place by means of the pin, 
which in its turn is to be retained in position by waxed hair, or 
silk, which is wound around the pin after the manner of figure 
eight. The pin should be introduced from the outside inwards, 



244 THE STOCK ow:see's adviser. 

and carried out through the opposite side at the same distance 
from the edge as the point of entry. 

aUILIED SUTURE. 

This variety consists of two pieces of whalebone, wood, or 
similar material, one on each side of the wound, and connected 
by a silk cord, wire, etc. The needle should pierce the skin not 
closer than an inch from the edge. This form of suture is 
usually employed in rupture, or lacerated peritoneum. It is 
useful in very large wounds where the lips have a tendency to 
gape. It prevents the sutures from tearing out. 

THE INTERRUPTED SUTURE 

Consists of one continuous thread, forming all the stitches of 
the wound. It is objectionable for the reason that if one stitch 
gives way all give way. A small opening should always be left 
at the most dependent part of the wound to allow the drainage 
of pus. The operator can judge from the animal's disposition, 
whether it be necessary to cast or not- As a local application to 
incised wounds, zinc sulphate, six drachms; lead acetate, one 
ounce; acid carbolicum, drachms four; water, one quart, should 
be used. It should be gently squeezed out of a sponge and allowed 
to trickle over the surrounding skin, care being taken that the 
sutures be not disturbed, nor the dried discharge which covers the 
surface of the fissure removed. Fomentations, hot or cold, and 
especially hot, should be withheld, because they have a tendency 
to bring on suppurative action. 

If the wound does well, the sutures should be removed after 
the sixth or seventh day. If, however, the wound "begins tc 
gape, the surrounding parts to inflame, and pus be discharged, 
it should be gently bathed with tepid water. A thin piece of 
absorbing cotton saturated with diluted boracic acid should be 
laid on the wound, and retained there by means of loose ban- 
dages placed a little distance from the wound. Where this can- 
jiqt be conveniently done, the boracic acid should be applied 



WOtJNDS. 245 

more frequently, merely dampening the wound at each applica- 
tion. Carbolic acid, one part to forty of water, makes a good 
dressing. 

Constitutional Teeatment. — The animal should have a cool- 
ing diet, such as bran mashes; eight drachms of aloes should be 
given and the horse allowed to lay up. 

The treatment of punctured wounds, when shallow and at- 
tended with little or no bruising, should be directed to the pro- 
motion of adhesion. As long as the oozing continues from the 
orifice cold-water bathing is to be practiced. When no more 
blood or serosity issues, a pledget of tow dipped in collodion may 
be applied. As in the incised Avound, one ounce of acetate of 
lead, six drachms of zinc sulphate, three drachms carbolic acid, 
one quart water, should be used. The constitutional treatment 
is the same. In more serious cases, or in the simpler ones, when 
inflammatory swelling supervenes, the wound must be poulticed 
and dressed with the white lotion. Carbolic acid, one part to 
forty of water, may be used. If excessive granulation takes 
place, it should be touched witli the nitrate of silver. If the 
zinc and lead lotion is used from the beginning, there will not be 
excessive granulations. The treatment of bruises or contused 
wounds is that calculated to suppress inflammation and prevent 
sloughing. An effort must be made to soothe and prevent undue 
inflammatory reaction. Tor this purpose, warm fomentations 
and poultices are to be applied. If much blood is imprisoned in 
the tissues, it should be removed, and where sloughing is present 
the process of suppuration should be assisted by poultices and 
fomentations. If there be excessive hemorrhage, it must be 
arrested by pressure, or cut down and ligatured. During the 
process of sloughing, the animal's strength should be supported 
by beer, Avine, or the use of tonics. Two drachms of iron sul- 
phate combined with three drachms of i)Owdered gentian may 
be given 

The treatment of lacerated wounds is directed towards the 
promotion of adhesion. Sutures are generally of no use; the 



246 THE STOCK owner's ADVISEE. 

parts should be kept in position by means of collodion, or styptic 
colloid, with absolute rest. If inflammation and suppuration 
supervene, the treatment must be changed to one promoting the 
separation of a slough and the growth of healthy granulation. 
Irrigation with warm water and the application of the zinc and 
lead lotion, carbolic acid, and other antiseptics are best adapted 
for this purpose. 

The treatment of gunshot wounds should be similar to that 
of contused and punctured wounds. If the lead is still in the 
body it should be removed by incision, forceps, or otherwise. If 
it cannot be removed without a very large incision, it is best to 
allow it to remain. It will generally be brought within reach 
by the contraction and by the flow of the pus, or it may be in- 
cysted and give no further trouble. If a ball lodges in the sub- 
stance of a bone, it should be removed by a trephine, or death 
of the bone will follow. AVounds in the abdominal parietes, if 
shallow, should be allowed a free escape of pus, otherwise the 
pus will burrow between the abdominal fascia and muscles. It 
may be necessary in some cases to dilate the opening. The hair 
should be clipped from around the wound, and it should be kept 
perfectly clean. The deeper punctures must be treated with a 
view of preventing the escape of the intestines. The discharge 
must have free exit, and the weakened walls should be supported 
by a broad bandage sewed around the body. The bandage should 
be of a thin substance, so that the pus can easily pass through. 
When the peritoneal cavity is actually penetrated, or even when 
nearly so, the treatment should be directed to lessening the dan- 
ger of peritonitis. Purgatives are to be withheld; an ounce of 
tincture of opium should be given and the bowels emptied by 
enemas. Incised wounds upon the belly are to be treated with 
strong sutures, the collodion paste, and broad bandage around 
the body. The result of wounds in this region is the production 
of a hernia. 

In treating frost bites, cold applications should flrst be used. 
If sloughing has commenced, poultices should be used. The 



WOUNDS. 247 

wound should be irrigated and zinc sulphate, six drachms; lead 
acetate, one ounce; acid carbolic, four drachms; water, one 
quart, applied to the wound. Deodorizers are useful, such as 
charcoal dusted on the parts. 

In treating burns and scalds the parts are to be dressed with 
carron oil — namely, linseed oil and lime water, equal parts. 
After dressing with the oil, flour should be applied over all, as it 
assists the oil in excluding the air. Cotton or wool may be used 
until the oil and flour can be got to exclude the air. l^itrate of 
silver, five grains to the ounce of water, has been recommended, 
and should be applied as often as it dries for several hours. A 
purgative should be given and the animal supported by stimu- 
lants, such as wine or whiskey. When pus forms the wound is 
to be treated like any suppurating wound. The zinc and lead 
lotion is a splendid dressing to the parts. 

The treatment of the bite of poisonous insects consists in pre- 
venting, absorption into the circulation by tying a ligature 
around the bitten limb upon the heart-side of the wound. The 
parts should be immediately excised and the actual cautery ap- 
plied. Stimulants, as brandy or whiskey, should be given in 
large quantities. The injection of ammonia into the veins has 
been recommended. Arsenic has also been recommended. The 
following has been useful in human patients: Bromine, five 
drachms; bichloride of mercury, two grains, and iodide of potas- 
sium, four grains. The dose for the human being is ten drops. 
In the horse, sixty minims should be used at one dose. 

RESULTS OF WOUNDS. 

Tetanus, or lockjaw, is a result of wounds, and usually fol- 
lows punctured wounds. Lockjaw usually appears about the 
eighth or ninth day, when the wound is beginning to heal. 

Erysipelas is a result of wounds. It consists of an inflam- 
mation of the skin and subcutaneous areolar tissue, characterized 
by difi"used swelling of the parts aftected, which has a remarkable 
tendency to spread, and is dependent upon some alteration of 



248 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

the blood. Odematous erysipelas is the most common form, and 
generally follows wounds of the extremities in debilitated horses. 

Symptoms. — About four days after an injury, the skin in the 
immediate neighborhood of the wound is found swollen, smooth, 
hot, shiny, tender, and painful. The swollen surface pits on 
pressure, as a rule. The pulse becomes quick, rigors are present, 
and the animal is fevered. 

Phlegmonous erysipelas is much more violent than the ode- 
matous, and produces a great amount of constitutional disturb- 
ance, partaking of a typhoid character. It manifests itself in 
twenty-four hours after the reception of the wound, by swelling, 
the pulse running seventy to eighty beats to the minute. This 
disease causes gangrene and sloughing of the tissues. The bow- 
els are constipated, the urine scanty and highly colored. Occa- 
sionally the inflammation extends into the articulation nearest 
the injury, and the case becomes complicated with open joint. 

Treatment. — Open the bowels with eight drachms of aloes. 
The swollen parts are to be frequently fomented, bandaged, and 
dressed with the zinc and lead lotion. The tincture of the ter- 
chloride of iron, in two-drachm doses, should be administered 
after the purgative has acted. 

In the phlegmonous form, the treatment is similar, except 
that the tincture of aconite, in twenty-drop doses, should be ad- 
ministered to allay the fever. 

Locally, zinc sulphate, drachms six; lead acetate, one ounce, 
in a quart of water, may be used. The parts are to be fomented 
with warm water and smeared with the extract of belladonna. 
If abscesses form, they must be opened. 

MODES OF HEALING. 

Wounds heal in various ways, and the mode of healing de- 
pends upon certain conditions, such as the character of the 
w^ound, the state of the patient's health, and the manner of treat- 
ment, 



WOUNDS. 249 

Immediate Union. — This can only be effected in incised 
wounds where the tissues are evenly divided. The lips of the 
wound should be immediately brought together; the blood, if 
any be shed, is thus pressed out, and the divided blood vessels 
and nerves are brought into perfect contact and union readily 
takes place. It is necessary that the parts be in perfect contact 
and in complete repose, and that means be taken to prevent the 
occurrence of inflammation. 

Primary Adhesion. — When the mouths of the divided ves- 
sels are entirely closed, an inflammation of the parts invariably 
follows, and furnishes the material for union by throwing out 
coagulable lymph. The lymph connects the two cut edges, and 
finally forms between them a thin layer of connective tissue, on 
the surface of which a layer of cuticle is developed. Union by 
primary adhesion may be accomplished in a very short time, 
usually in two or three days. 

Healing by Granulation. — It is by this method that the 
majority of wounds heal. At first a considerable extravasation 
of blood takes place. Soon the blood gradually ceases to flow 
from the surface of the wound; it becomes paler, and ultimately 
collects, like a whitish film glazing on the surface, containing an 
abundance of corpuscles, which become converted into pus cor- 
puscles. The next process is the production of the material to 
be organized into granulations. It is seen to fill up the wound, 
being a substance of a velvety character. These are the granu- 
lations. If examined microscopically, there will be seen nu- 
merous cells heaped together, irregularly arranged and con- 
nected by intermediate substance, termed protoplasm. They 
are of varying sizes and shapes. The development of the cells 
gradually assumes the character of connective tissue, and the 
wound gradually fills up, healing from the bottom. Granula- 
tions are sometimes arrested in their development; from some 
unknown causes, as in indolent wounds and ulcers, the cells will 
not develop for weeks, Sometimes there is excessive granula- 



250 THE STOCK OWNER^S ADVISER. 

tion, commonly known as "proud flesh," and the healing pro- 
cess is retarded. 

Healing Under a Scab. — This is the natural method of 
healing wounds, and the method in which all small wounds heal, 
when not interfered with. The scab is formed of the fluids that 
ooze from their surface, dust and other foreign substance en- 
tangled in the fluid. This forms an air-tight covering, and if 
allowed to remain undisturbed for a few days it will drop off, 
when it is found that the parts underneath are healed. In cases 
where irritation is present, and pus forms beneath the scab, it 
should be removed and a new scab allowed to form. The scar 
that remains may be improved by gradually loosening, so that 
it may move easily on the adjacent parts. The tissue of the scar 
extends down deep into the wound, fastening itself immovably 
upon its surface. If manipulated, it will finally become more 
elastic and looser, and the morbid adhesions freed. It never as- 
sumes the exact character of the original tissue, and the scar 
remains throughout the animal's life; but the rudimen'tal tex- 
tures may be removed, the fibro-cellular tissue improved, and the 
new cuticle caused to take on the condition, to an extent, of the 
surrounding tissue. Lubricants, absorbents, and rubbing will 
relieve the scar. 



XVI. 
INJURIES IN THE REGION OF THE MOUTH. 

The lip is sometimes lacerated. The treatment is the same as 
for like injury in any other part, save that in these parts there 
should be as little tissue removed as possible. An endeavor must 
be made to bring about a union of the divided parts. Sutures 
should b6 used instead of cutting and removing the divided 
parts, as is usually done. 

A tumor sometimes forms on the lip; at first it is firm and 
solid to the touch, of variable size, occurring either spontane- 
ously or as the result of a sting; in a day or two it bursts and sup- 
purates. It requires little treatment except fomentations. 

BRUISES OF THE MOUTH. 

Various parts of the mouth and tongue, and the rami of the 
lower jaw, are sometimes bruised and injured by the teeth or by 
severe bites. These have been noted in diseases of bone. I 
would here simply state that when a horse is injured by a bit or 
curb, time should be allowed for the mouth and jaw to regain 
their natural condition before the animal is bitted, and then the 
bit should be of the lightest and easiest description. 

EPITHELIOMA. 

This is a growth of a fibrous character, and usually of malig- 
nant nature. The disease is rarely met with in the lower ani- 
mals. Extirpation of the growth should be attempted by the 
use of caustics, or perhaps what is better, the knife, Carbolic 
acid is a most efficient remedy — one part of acid to thirty of 
water. In cases where the disease has been allowed to run its 
course unchecked for a considerable length of time, when the 
alveolar processes have become involved, and the teeth loosened, 
the animal should be destroyed, as treatment will end in failure. 

(251) 



^52 THE STOCK owner' ?i ABVISER. 

THRUSH. 

A crop of small vesicles, or even pustules, occasionally appears 
in the month, particnlarly during the process of dentition. In 
cattle, sheep and pigs thrush is common. The animal takes food 
with great difficulty. 

Teeatmen't. — Removal of th^e cause, and use alum as a wash. 
Chlorate of potash is good. Carbolic acid, one part of acid to 
fortv of water mav be tried. If ulcers form they are to be 
touched with the nitrate of silver. 

LAMPAS. 

Lampas consists of a congested state of the gums behind the 
bars. This is often seen between the aae of three and five; sel- 
dom in old horses except from some internal ailment. T\"e are 
frequently called upon to burn, or otherwise remove the trouble 
in old horses, whose gums are perfectly normal. All manner of 
persuasion sometimes fails to convince some men that the gums 
need no lancing, and if we decline some barbarous fellow, who 
has no feeling for poor animals, is ready for the task. It is sel- 
dom that colts, during the process of teething, need their gums 
lanced. Many a poor animal has suffered the barbarous method 
of burning the gums when they were normal. In a few cases 
where it becomes necessary to operate, the gums should be lanced 
with an ordinary lance, or a knife. The incisions should be very 
liaht. and anterior to the third bar. After scarifvino', a solution 
of alum in the proportion of alum, two drachms; water, one pint, 
to be applied as frequently as desired. Feed on soft food for a 
few days. The barbarous method of burning the gums cannot 
be too greatly condemned. 

WOUND OP THE PALATINE ARTERY. 

The most common cause of wound of this artery is the jack- 
knife in the hands of men who are ignorant of the parts, and who 
practice bleeding in the mouth for every ill to which horse-flesh 



INJURIES IN THE REGION OF THE MOUTH. 253 

is heir. Treatment is a matter of considerable difficulty. The 
use of the speculum will assist in getting at the parts to try the 
effects of a suture or two. The head should be steadied by an 
assistant. In some cases it may be necessary to use the hot iron 
to arrest the hemorrhage. Acupressure is a successful way of 
arresting hemorrhage. 

PARALYSIS OF THE LIPS. 

This is generally seen in horses that are compelled to wear 
heavy bridles. The lip hangs elongated, flaccid and powerless. 
When drinking, he pushes 
his nose into the water up 
to his eyes. This affection 
is due to injury to the 
seventh pair of nerves, j 
The lip is often drawn 
to one side from the fact 
that one nerve only is 
affected. 

Treatment. — R e m o vc 

all pressure from the head 

„_ 1 /• T-f +1, • 1 • Fig. 72— Paralysis of the Lip. 

and lace. 11 the animal is ^ 

tied in the stall by a head halter, this must be removed and 
replaced by the neck strap, or, what is better, turned loose in a 
box stall. The food should be soft. Fomentations and the cam- 
phorated liniment should be applied to the masseter region. If 
this should prove ineffectual the biniodide of mercur)^ ointment 
should be tried — one part of mercury to four or five parts of lard. 

AFFECTIONS OF THE DUCTS AND GLANDS OF THE MOUTH. 

Open Parotid Duct. — Steno's duct winds round the inferior 
maxillary bone, in company with the submaxillary artery and 
veins, and enters the mouth between the second and third upper 
molar teeth. It conveys the saliva into the mouth. It is liable 
to be opened by direct violence, or from ulceration of its coats 




254 THE STOCK OWXEe's ADVISER. 

when involved in the abcess of strangles. When it is opened the 
saliva will flow from the wound instead of flowing into the mouth. 
The flow of saliva is greatest during mastication. 

Teeatmext. — The first step in the treatment of open parotid 
duct is to make an opening between the wound and mouth, along 
the course of the original canal, if possible; if not, an artificial 
canal must be formed, by introducing a seton from the ulcer in 
the mouth, which should remain for four or ^ve days, or until it 
has made a suppurating channel. It is then to be withdrawn, 
the external wound is brought together by suture and colodion, 
or styptic-colloid, thickly applied. The dressing should in no 
way be disturbed, and the animal should be fed on milk, eggs, 
and such like, in order to prevent the stimulation of the glands. 

This method of treatment can only be carried out by your 
veterinary surgeon. If vou decide, however, that vou have an 
opening of the duct, you may try, bringing the edges of the open- 
ing together with suture, paint them with several layers of collo- 
dion, and aw'ait results. In the mean time, give very little food 
for several days. In some cases all treatment fails. The gland 
should then be destroyed by injecting into its substance the fol- 
lowing: Xitrate of silver, one drachm; nitric acid, one drachm; 
water, one ounce. 

SALIVARY CALCULI. 

Calcareous deposits may form in any actively secreting gland, 
or in the duct in connection with the gland. It is thought that a 
piece of hay or corn gains entrance to the canal, and the salts of 
the saliva adhering to it form concretion. The concretions block 
up the duct, which becomes enlarged and distended with saliva. 
The foreign body must be removed through the mouth. A pen- 
dulous sack will be noticed on the borders of the jaw. 

Excessive secretion of saliva — ptyalism — ^results from disease 
of the teeth, some peculiar food as green food, mercuralism; any 
source of irritation in the mouth from the poison of epizootic 
aptha, or foreign body in the tongue. 



iNJUKiES IN THE REGION OF THE MOUTH. 255 

Treatment. — In all cases remove the cause, and wash the 
mouth repeatedly with cold water, and mild astringents, such as 
vinegar or alum. 

AFFECTIONS OF THE TONGUE. 

Glossitis. — Glossitis, or inflammation of the tongue, is a con- 
dition not very often met with. The tongue is injured by being 
bitten, by chemicals of irritating nature, by cruel attendants, etc. 
There is an increased flow of saliva, and the tongue hangs out of 
the mouth, reddened, hot, and tender when touched. Treat with 
cool astringent lotions, vinegar and water. The tongue should 
be treated on conservative principles. E^othing must be destroyed, 
cut off, or removed, but all torn edges must be brought together 
and held by proper sutures. If, however, a portion be really gan- 
grenous, it must, of course, be excised. 

ULCERS OF THE TONGUE. 

This is generally caused by diseased and irregular teeth ; dirty 
and rusty bits, or as a result of indigestion. Touch the ulcer with 
a pencil of .nitrate of silver, and wash the tongue with alum, 
borax or chlorate of potash. 

PARALYSIS OF THE TONGUE. 

This is due to some brain disease, or may eventually be pro- 
duced by the animal's habit of lolling the tongue. It may also 
be caused by rough usage. 

Treatment. — Replace the tongue within the mouth, and re- 
tain it there by the application of a nose band sufficiently tight 
to keep the mouth shut for a few hours. Bandages placed round 
the upper and lower jaw Avill prevent the tongue coming out. 
Nerve stimulents should be tried — drachm doses of powdered 
nux vomica should be given in the feed. 



256 THE STOCK owner's ADVISEE. 

DEFORMITY OF THE MOUTH AND IRREGULARITIES OF THE 

TEETH. 

Paeeot Mouth. — This is a well-known deformity, in which 
the upper incisors project in front, overhanging the lower ones. 
The treatment in such cases can only be palliative, and consists 
in the periodic rasping of the edges of the teeth and feeding the 
animal on soft food. Deformities of the incisors are occasionally 
noticed, both as to position and number. They seldom cause any 
inconvenience, unless, when projecting beyond a moderate 
length, they bruise or otherwise injure the opposite jaw. They 
must be removed by the incisor cutter, and dressed by a suitable 
rasp, or, if not too long, may be rasped down. 

The molars are often seen to be irregular. The two opposing 
rows are often of irregular length. The teeth not coming in wear 
by this means, become elongated to such an extent as to cause 
extensive disease in the lower or upper jaw, as the case may be. 
The tooth should be cut by the molar cutters and dressed to a 
level with the other teeth. A mouth speculum, or balling iron, 
should be used to hold the mouth open. 

CARIES OF THE TEETH. 

Dental gangrene, or decay, is confined principally to the molar 
teeth; the incisors seldom decay. Caries may commence prima- 
rily in the fang, neck, or crown of the tooth. Caries in the lower 
animals is generally caused by some injury to the teeth, as a 
pebble or a piece of iron being taken into the mouth. Caries in 
the neck of the tooth is seen in animals with teeth set wide apart, 
and is caused by food remaining in the interspaces, and by decom- 
position, exciting, inflammation in the periodontal membrane. 

Symptoms. — Difficulty in mastication. Frequently, while eat- 
ing, the animal suddenly s^ops, throws up his head as though 
suffering a sudden twinge of pain, and perhaps drops the food 
from his mouth. There will be a remarkable odor, a flow of 
saliva, an appearance of a black spot on the carious tooth, sharp 



iJTJtJEIES m THE EEGIOK OT' THE MOUTH. 257 

pain indicated when the tootli is struck witli the sonnder, and 
swelling of the gums. The treatment is the removal of the tooth. 
The animal should be sent to the veterinary sursg^eon to have the 
teeth drawn. The surgeon only has the necessary instruments, 
and very frequently the animal must be cast and the trephine 
used to remove the tooth. 

DISEASES OF THE ALVEOLAR PROCESSES. 

The alveolar processes are the little depressions in the jaw in 
which the fangs of the teeth fit. They are diseased principally 
from the food being allowed to accumulate between the teeth. 
This food after a time decomposes and gives rise to fetid com- 
pounds, which destroy the parts in contact. The membrane 
covering the gums and lining the alveolar becomes inflamed, and 
consequently diseased. 

Symptoms. — Imperfect mastication of food, loss of condition, 
and fetid breath, due to the decomposed food between the teeth. 

Teeatment. — Wash the teeth with a brush and water; the 
parts afterward should be washed with a solution of the chloride 
of lime. 

DENTITION FEVER. 

In the lower animal, the cutting of the deciduous teeth is never 
accompanied with pain or irritation. When the permanent teeth 
are making their appearance there is often a considerable amount 
of irritation. The horse from three to four years old is more sub- 
ject to dental irritation than when younger. This accounts for 
the fact that the colt of two years old will stand more fatigue 
than one at three or four years of age. At this age dentition is 
at the height of activity. At three, eight permanent incisors are 
in active growth; at four years of age eight molars are cut, and 
four incisors in an advanced stage of growth are presents The 
canine teeth also make their appearance at this age. At four 
years of age, a cough frequently accompanies the cutting of the 
third and the sixth molar, or that standing last in the row. The 
17 



258 THE STOCK owner's adviser. 

irritation extends from the sixth molar into the fauces and larynx, 
and as a result a cough is produced. The cough, as a rule, is more 
severe in the morning, when tho animal begins to feed. 

Treatment. — Examine the mouth thoroughly, and if it is 
found that the temporary tooth is not being shed in proper man- 
ner, it should be removed. A small pair of forceps will move 
these very easily. Many young cattle have been sacrificed from 
this cause. They have starved in the midst of plenty. It is some- 
times necessary in removing the tooth to use the mouth speculum. 
Six drachms of aloes should be given, and the animal thrown ofi 
work, if possible, until the process of dentition is completed. A 
run at grass is very beneficial. If the gums are red and swollen, 
they should be lanced. The treatment of tooth cough is similar 
to that of dentition fever, with the exception that two drachm 
doses of the bicarbonate of soda should be given three times a 
day. The mouth should be gargled with a solution of the borate 
of soda or alum. 

WOLF TEETH 

Are small supernumerary teeth, which make their appearance 
just anterior to the first molar. They have been supposed to 
cause serious disease of the eye and even blindness; but they can 
produce no inconvenience. The irritation of teething might pos- 
sibly cause a very slight irritation of the eye. If it is decided to 
remove them, a small pair of forceps should be used. The old way 
of nocking them off at the crown does no good whatever. 

DISEASE OF THE PHARYNX AND OESOPHAGUS. 

Post Pharyngeal Abscess. — This abscess is located in the 
cartilaginous division of the guttural pouch. It is seldom met 
with, but is occasionally associated with strangles. When it does 
occur there will be difficulty in the act of deglutition. It fills up 
the posterior nairs, draws up the vellum pendulum palati, and 
causes the animal to breathe through the mouth. This can 
scarcely be diagnosed except by a surgeon, and opening the 
abscess should not be undertaken except by a surgeon. 



INJURIES IN THE REGION OF THE MOUTH. 259 

PHARYNGEAL POLYPI. 

Tumors with long pedicles are sometimes seen in the pharynx. 

Symptoms. — The presence of polypi in the pharynx produce 
symptoms of choking, difficult breathing, efforts to cough and 
flow of saliva from the mouth. 

They are to be removed with the ecraseur in the hands of a 
veterinary surgeon. 

CHOKING. 

Choking is caused by the lodgment of food. The horse when 
choked makes every effort to swallow. In his effort to do so the 
throat and neck becomes spasmodically drawn up, and probably 
he gives a loud shriek when the spasms take place. The ears are 
thrown back upon the neck at each attempt to swallow. If an 
attempt is made to swallow water the fluid returns through the 
nostrils. There is a great anxiety of countenance, sunken head, 
tremors, partial sweats over the body, and great exhaustion. 

In the cow the obstruction is generally a piece of turnip, 
potato, apple, or leather. The cow is very fond of chewing old 
shoes. The symptoms of choking in the cow are tympanites of 
the rumen, involuntary action of the jaws, flow of saliva from the 
mouth, and a violent cough, causing forcible expulsion of the 
faeces and urine. Tympanites is also seen in the horse. In the 
dog violent retching and cough, with staring, prominent eyes, are 
the most prevailing symptoms. When the obstruction is in the 
cervical region, it can be detected. If it is lodged high up in 
the cervical region or neck, symptoms of suffocation will be 
j)resent. 

Treatment. — Endeavor to find out the cause of choking, as 
the treatment depends to a considerable extent upon the nature 
of the obstruction. An effort should be made to dislodge the 
obstruction by manipulation. The head of the animal should be 
held by an assistant while the operator gently manipulates and 
endeavors to break up the mass. If it be an apple an effort should 
be made to force its passage to the stomach by gently manipu- 



260 THE STOCK owner's ADVISEE. 

lating. If the obstruction is liigli up in the throat, effort must 
he made to remove it through the mouth. To assist in reaching 
the object, an assistant should push it upwards. If these methods 
fail, the object may be removed by drenching with oil and water. 
In choking with dry food, the oil must always be used, as the 
probang cannot be used in this case. In addition to the oil, the 
mass is to be broken up by rubbing the neck and by pushing it 
upwards and downwards by gentle manipulation. Frequent 
drenches of water, filling up the oesophagus, will assist in re- 
moving the mass. When these means fail to unchoke the animal, 
the probang should be used. This can only be done by a sur- 
geon. All veterinary surgeons have probangs for the horse and 
cow. I have frequently been called to an animal and found that 
an effort had been made to unchoke the animal with a whip stalk. 
In every case where it was used, the oesophagus was ruptured, 
causing the animal's death. In case the probang proves of no 
avail, the operation of oesophagotomy must be performed. It 
consists of cutting down u2:>on the object and removing it. After 
its removal the edges of the oesophagus should be brought to- 
gether and held bv sutures of carbolized cat srat. The external 
opening may be secured by silk suttires. The after treatment 
consists in keeping the animal quiet and feeding on liquid foods. 
Allow no solid food until the wound is entirelv healed. This 
operation should not be performed except as a last resort. 

DILATATION OF THE OESOPHAGUS. 

As a result of choking, the oesophagus may become abnormally 
dilated, or a pouch may be formed in which food accumulates. 
If in the thoracic region the animal Avill be a slow feeder, and 
subject to repeated attacks of choking. If in the cervical portion 
of the oesophagus a bulging may be seen and felt. 

Tkeat^iext. — Very little can be done. The animal should be 
fed on sloppy foods, and when the fit of coughing comes on oil 
should be given. If in the cervical region, considerable advantage 
results from the use of a pad placed over the part. 



INJURIES IN THE REGION OF THE MOUTH. 261 

STRICTUEE OF THE OESOPHAGUS. 

This occurs as a result of choking. The walls of the oeso- 
phagus become thickened to a certain extent. It may exist with 
dilatation of the oesophagus. 

Symptoms. — Frequent fits of coughing. On attempting to use 
the probang the structure can be detected by its resistance to 
further passage. 

Treatment, as a rule, is useless, but it may be overcome in some 
cases by passing a probang each day. 

RUPTURE OF THE OESOPHAGUS. 

This may be caused by using too great force when passing the 
probang, the use of sticks by inexperienced men, etc. 

Symptoms. — The animal is dull and listless, respiration is af- 
fected, and swelling can be detected over the course of the oeso- 
phagus. The animal evinces pain on pressing the parts. Soon 
the whole neck becomes swollen and the breath fetid. A history 
of the case will assist in diagnosis. If a stick has been used to 
unchoke a horse and the above symptoms follow, it is certain that 
rupture has taken place. 

Treatment. — As a rule, treatment is of no avail; but, if it is 
a small rupture, it may be cut down upon and sutures tried. 

CRIB BITERS AND WIND SUCKERS. 

Horses which are crib biters or wind suckers are to be consid- 
ered as unsound, as the vice generally causes indigestion. A crib 
biter seizes the manger, or any other object, with his teeth, 
arches his neck, and makes a belching noise. Many crib biters 
thrive moderately well, while others are unthrifty and hide- 
bound. 

The wind sucker smacks his lips, gathers air into his mouth, 
arches his neck, gathers his feet together, and fills himself with 
air. Of the two vices this is the worst. A wind sucker is more 



262 THE STOCK owner's APYISE 

subject to indigestion. I have seen crib biters thrive as well as 
others. The best mare I ever owned, that could stand the most 
driving, and kept the fattest, was a crib biter. 

To prevent crib biting, use a muzzle or neck strap buckled 
tightly around the neck. For wind sucking a strap studded with 
sharp points of iron, opposite the lower jaw^ is the best pre- 
ventive. 



I 



XVII. 

TUMORS. 

May be defined to be bypertrophies or over-growth, and are of 
great variety. A tumor differs from an inflammatory exudate, in 
that it increases in itself, and grows as a part of the body by its 
own adherent force, depending on the surrounding p^arts for little 
more than a supply of blood, from which it appropriates its 
nourishment. As a rule, a tumor increases constantly, whereas 
an inflammatory exudation depends upon a morbid state of the 
parts, and increases in size only so long as the morbid action con- 
tinues. ' ':' ' 
A tumor rarely actually disappears, and thus differs from an 
inflammatory growth. They usually develop from small begin- 
nings. Some grow rapidly, others sloAvly and intermittently, and 
there is no limit to their growth, some reaching enormous size. 
They deprive the organ on which they are placed of nutriment, 
and are attended with more or less inconvenience or danger. 
We speak of a tumor as being malignant when it has a tendency 
to destroy and infiltrate into surrounding tissues; when it tends 
to recur after removal, and where there is no healing. The most 
common forms of tumor met with in the lower animals are fibrous 
tissue tumors, fibromata, and ordinary warts. 

FIBROUS TUMOR. 

The fibroma, or fibrous tumor, is slow in growth, and is not 
accompanied by pain or tenderness; is of a hard, rounded form; 
generally movable, and contained in a wall of areolar tissue. An 
example of this is a fibrous tumor between the neck and point of 
the shoulders, caused by the collar. When cut into, it will be 
found to have thickened walls containing a little pus. This old 
abscess may be removed by excision of the whole mass. If they 

( 263 ) 



264 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

are small, their removal may be tried by caustics and stimulants, 
as iodine; but if tbey are of any size, the knife should be used. 

PAPILLOMATTTS TUMOR. 

The wart is an example of these. A wart consists of a thicken- 
ing of the epidermis, or skin, producing by accumulation of its 
scales, with hypertrophy of the papillae of the true skin. They 
are found most commonly in young animals, their favorite seat 
being the under surface of the abdomen, the genitals, mammary 
glands, lips and eyelids. In the dog they are found in great 
numbers in the mouth. They may be removed by incision or 
tortion. The ecraseur is a good instrument for removing them. 
After their removal their seats should be cauterized. When in 
the mouth of a dog they may be snipped off with a pair of scis- 
sors. Washing the mouth twice a day with vinegar will some- 
times destroy them. When located on the eyelids, great care 
should be exercised, or the animal may be damaged for life. One 
drachm of arsenious acid to one ounce of lard is the best prepara- 
tion for removing these warts. They may be gently touched with 
an acid. 

There is an epithelial tumor occurring in the vagina, especially 
in the bitch. They have a tendency to bleed. Several of them 
form a tumor. They are to be removed by enclosing in a clam 
and cutting off by the cautery. 

FATTY TUMOR. 

Fatty tumors, or lipomata, consist of normal fat cells packed 
together. Their removal is similar to other tumors. Tumors 
connected with the nerves are termed neuromatous tumors. They 
have been seen in our patients as a result of division of the planter 
nerves, for foot lameness. They are oval bodies, with their diam- 
eter along the course of the nerve. They vary in size, and are 
very painful. The only treatment is excision by the knife. 



TUMORS. 265 

CARTILAGINOUS TUMORS. 

These are generally seen on the sternum, or upon the ribs. To 
the touch these tumors are hard and dense, but present a slight 
elasticity. When on the sternum they interfere with the ani- 
maPs movements, causing him to move with the four legs wide 
apart. The tumor is generally fastened to the bony wall and in- 
vested by the periosteum, which is generally thick and over- 
grown. When cut into they present a pinky white appearance, 
with gritty points of ossification. 

Treatment. — The only method is their removal by excision. 

We have seen crusta petrosa tumors in connection with the 
teeth, but these are seldom seen, and never give rise to any incon- 
venience. 

Calcarious tumors consist of a deposit of calcarious salts in 
various parts of the body. They are found in the brain of the 
horse, in the testicles, and the nerves. 

OSSEOUS TUMORS. 

These are common in the neighborhood of joints where the 
articular surface is affected with caries, and sometimes surround- 
ing the tendons of the limb. They result in the ossification of an 
exudate, which has been formed in consequence of some inflam- 
mation. 

CYSTIC TUMORS. 

These are formed by enlargement and fusion of the spaces or 
areola of the connective tissue. In these spaces fluid accumu- 
lates, and gradually the boundaries of the spaces are leveled 
down and walled in till a perfect sac or cyst is formed, the walls 
of which continue to secrete. Some cysts are formed by dilata- 
tion and growth of natural ducts or saculi, as are those sebaceous 
or epidermal cysts, which, formed by hair follicles, have perma- 
nent openings. Serous cysts arise in two ways — from effects of 
pressure and without evident cause. Examples of the first are 



^^^ THE STOCK owner's ADVISEE. 

capped hock, capped elbow, and other serous abscesses. Serous 
abscesses are soft tumors formed bj an effusion of serum. When 
they form on the elbow, the best treatment is puncture of the 
tumor, to be afterward injected with iodine solution. The wound 
should be kept open until the cavity is destroyed. 

When cysts have become consolidated they may be removed 
by excision, or by puncturing the tumor in several places, and 
inserting equal parts of arsenic and corrosive sublimate. After 
the slough caused by the application has been removed, it should 
be kept clean for a few days, and then reapply the caustic. If 
excision with the knife is preferred the incision should be made 
in a perpendicular direction. 

CAPPED ELBOW AND HOCK. 

Capped elbow is caused by the animal lying upon the heels of 
the shoe. The treatment is removal of the cause, and if serum is 
present it should be opened. 

Capped Hocks. — The treatment of capped hocks is different; 
if the enlargement is not very unsightly it is best to leave it 
alone. If it is decided to reduce it, a seton should be inserted 
through it and allowed to remain for two weeks. Repeated ap- 
plication of iodine will reduce it. If possible the horse should be 
turned out on grass. Collections of fluid forming cjsts in front 
of the patella and knees may be opened with safety. When they 
occur on the knees of horned cattle, from lying on hard floors, 
they may be removed by the seton, and bandaged to prevent 
bruising while the patient is lying down. Cysts occur in the 
ovaries, mammary gland, thyroid bodies, and mucous mem- 
branes. 

THE SARCOMATA. 

The sarcomata are by far the most common forms of malig- 
nant tumors met with in veterinary practice. When cut into 
they are of a soft, brain-like consistence, of a reddish white or 
gray color, very vascular. They vary in consistence from hard- 



TUMOES. 267 

ish nodulated masses to a soft colloid character. It will be a 
hard matter for the stock owner to distinguish the different 
tumors. The different varieties will be given here, and as the 
treatment for all is practically the same, there can be no mis- 
take made in the method of getting rid of them. 

The tumor that will interest the stock raiser perhaps most is 
the melanotic tumor, or melanotic sarcoma. It is seen almost 
exclusively in gray or white horses. Its favorite seat is on the 
under surface of the tail, around the anus or vagina, or the 
peringeum. All parts of the body, internal and external, may be 
affected by these tumors. In some cases there are no external 
tumors. They grow to an enormous size in some cases, and are 
of a malignant nature. It appears first as a small round tumor, 
which gradually enlarges in every direction within and upon 
those portions of the body which do not lose their black color by 
age. Other tumors form in the neighborhood forming a collec- 
tion similar to a bunch of grapes, but larger in size. The animal 
does not suffer much inconvenience unless there is friction pro- 
duced upon the surface of the tumor. A black tumor in any 
part of the body may be called melanosis. It is generally con- 
fined to aged animals. 

The treatment of melanosis is early removal, which may check 
its growth for some time, but it cannot be permanently removed. 
I have removed but one melanotic tumor that did not reappear 
some time in the animal's life. 

ACTING MYCOSIS. 

This is a malignant parasitic tumor caused by the parasite 
actinomyces. This has been referred to in a previous chapter of 
this work. 

HARD CANCER. 

A hard cancer is white in its structure, arranged in masses 
with projections passing from its center to various parts of the 
organ which it attacks. It cuts up almost like cartilage. It dif- 
fers from a simple tumor by being more rapid in its growth, by 



268 THE STOCK owner's ADVISEE. 

its tendency to involve the lymphatic glands, to break through 
the organ in which it is developed, and to involve neighboring 
textures. When it does not interfere with the vital functions, 
it seems not to affect the constitution for a long period. 

The only treatment is early removal. I have removed them 
with good success. Professor Bennet recommends a weak solu- 
tion of acetic acid, to be injected into the tumor. 

SOFT CANCER. 

There are two forms of soft cancer — colloid and medullary. 
The colloid is seen in different parts of the body. It consist of 
fibers so arranged as to form alveolar, or spaces varying in size, 
and containing amber colored liquid matter, but sometimes 
opaque and of a greenish yellow hue. Medullary cancers are 
developed in the form of circumscribed tumors or infiltrations. 
It may present itself as one tumor, but when cut into it will be 
found to be made up of several smaller ones. To the touch it 
presents a peculiar soft, elastic feeling, as though it contained 
pus. The veins over the tumor are congested. When the tumor 
is cut into the lobes are seen to be composed of a peculiar soft 
substance, which is easily broken and resembles matter. There 
are masses of peculiar-looking substances found in it resembling 
cysts. Medullary cancer may arise from an accidental injury, 
such as a blow or wound. It may exist for a long time before it 
attains any great size. 



I 



XYIII. 

DISEASES OF THE EYES. 

SIMPLE OPTHALMIA 

Is caused by a blow, as a stroke of the whip, a foreign body in 
the eye, ammoniacal vapors from filthy stables, extremes of heat 
and cold, or sudden alterations of temperature. 

Symptoms. — A closure of the eye, copious flow of tears, the 
eye retracted from the light, the pupil dilated, and there may be 
some swelling. The conjunctiva is covered by a number of red 
streaks. The flow of tears may after awhile be followed by a dis- 
charge of a purulent character, which ceases after awhile, and 
is in turn succeeded by a film between the layers of the cornia. 
The exudate soon disappears by absorption. Simple opthalmia is 
said to occur in an epizootic form. 

Teeatment. — Find out the cause; if a foreign 'body is in the 
eye it must be removed. The irritation should be allayed by 
warm fomentations in the winter and cold in the summer. The 
eye should be fomented with Avarm w^ater for ten minutes, and 
a decoction of hops, placed in a little bag, applied to the eye and 
allowed to remain several hours at a time. This should be re- 
peated three times a day. The animal should be placed in a 
darkened stable free from ammoniacal vapors. A decoction of 
poppy heads, when they can be procured, is very beneficial. Zinc 
sulphate, drachm one; opium tinct., ounce one; belladonna 
tincture, ounce one; water, six ounces, should be applied to the 
lids of the eye as well as the eye itself three times a day, by 
means of a little piece of sponge. If this treatment be carried 
out the eye will soon recover, if it can be saved. 

In some cases it may be necessary to reduce the congestion of 
the vessels by local bleeding from the an^ilar veins situated on 

( 269 ) 



270 THE STOCK O^VXEe's ADVISEE. 

the face immediatelv below the eve. The results searcelv ins- 
tify the operation, but some relief maj be obtained by bleeding. 
Belladonna extract is very useful in ophthalmia, or atropine may 
be used instead. A solution of atropia sulphate, grains four; 
aqua distilled, oimce one, may be used in the eye. 

The film that spreads over the anterior aspect of the eye con- 
sists of an exudate which continues as lone as the irritation lasts, 
but afterwards gradually disappears by absorption. The deposit 
is within the structures of the cornea and conjunctiva, and until 
the inflammation has subsided all irrit^iting applications are apt 
to do harm. TThen it becomes necessary to remove the exudate, 
and the inflammation has all subsided, nitrate of silver, grains 
five, to aqua, one ounce, should be used to touch the parts. 

PERIODIC OPTHALMIA. 

This disease is not so frequent as it was fifty years ago. The 
advancement of veterinary science has been the cause of its dis- 
appearing. It is a constitutional affection, terminating in an 
opacity of the crystalline lens, termed cataract. 

Symptoms. — The attack generally comes on suddenly and in 
the night. The eye is very weak, the upper lid droops, and the 
eye seems smaller than its fellow; it is drawn into the orbit by 
the retractor muscles. The eye retracts from the light. One 
eve is senerallv affected at a time. There is a slio:ht redness of 
the conjunctiva, but not to the same extent as in simple opthal- 
mia. The cornea is dim in appearance, with a well-marked ring 
around it. The eye assumes a yellowish brown appearance. The 
iris is always affected to a degree depending on the severity of in- 
flammation. The subsidence of the attack is marked by a dimi- 
nution of the inflammatory symptoms. The haziness slowly dis- 
appears from the cornea. The pupil becomes larger, less con- 
tracted and rounder. The eye clears up, but is smaller than be- 
fore the attack. The wrinkled appearance of the eyebrows after 
the acute svmptoms have passed off is characteristic of periodi- 
cal opthalmia. The eye having gained more or less of its natural 



DISEASES OP THE EYES. 271 

appearance may remain free from active disease for an indefinite 
period. Then suddenly it is attacked again without any appre- 
ciable cause. Each succeeding attack is marked by increased 
severity, until loss of vision results. 

Treatment. — Treatment is unsatisfactory; the ailment cannot 
be cured. The treatment can only be pallative, and is adopted 
with the view of mitigating the severity of the attack. The treat- 
ment should be similar to simple opthalmia. A purgative should 
be administered — eight drachms of aloes. The disease termi- 
nates in cataract. A cataract is an opacity of the crystalline lens, 
or its capsule. It makes its appearance after subsidence of the 
acute inflammatory stage of periodic opthalmia. It appears as a 
little white speck in the center of the pupil. This grows at each 
successive attack until it quite fills up the aperture. The vision 
grows less and less distinct during its formation. Although 
cataract is generally a sequel to periodical opthalmia, it by no 
means follows that this is the only cause. It is occasionally no- 
ticed in ground animals as soon as born, and is known as con- 
genital cataract. It may result from an injury to the eye, or 
without any previous irritation. 

Symptoms. — It can be easily detected, if it is of a good size. 
The eye affected is retracted, sudden exposure to light causing 
the eye to contract to an unnatural degree. To see a small cata- 
ractj the horse should be placed in a darkened box, and the eye 
examined with the aid of artificial light, as a candle. The pupil 
should first be dilated with belladonna or atropine. The exam- 
iner should keep any bright object, which he may have about his 
person, concealed, or it may cause a reflection from the eye of the 
patient and mislead the observer. On moving the light from 
side to side there may be observed an erect image, which is re- 
flected from the surface of the cornea. This image moves in the 
same direction. A second image may also be seen, which is also 
erect and moves in the same direction as the candle. This is 
reflected from the anterior surface of the crystalline lense. A 
third image, which is inverted and moved in the direction oppo- 



2Y2 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

site to that of the candle, is seen reflected from the posterior sur- 
face of the lense. When cataract is present the latter image, and 
sometimes the second one also, is rendered indistinct and wholly 
invisible. 

A good examination of the eye can be made where the disease 
is well marked, but cannot be detected in the light ; by bringing 
the horse from the darkened stable to the open door, and trying 
the head on a line with the rays of light without and above. A 
proper light can be thrown on the eye in this way. The animal 
may be brought to the stable door; place a black hat over the 
eyes for a few minutes, then move it suddenly, and observe the 
effect of light on the pupilary opening of the eye. The opthal- 
moscope is a good iD^^rument for examining the eyes, but it re- 
quires some practice lo use it successfully. Generally the above 
method is all required. Xo treatment; the disease is incurable 
in the horse. 

AMAUROSIS. 

This condition consists of a partial or complete loss of vision, 
as result of paralysis of the optic nerve and expansion of the 
retina, without much change in the appearance of the eye. 
Amaurosis as a disease of the optic nerve is incurable, hut the 
condition often exists as a symptom of other diseases in the body. 
It occurs in parturient apoplexy in cows and in the last stages of 
other diseases. It may result from injury to the optic nerve, by 
the animal receiving blows on the head. A horse remaining for 
a long time in a dark place, as dark stables, coal pits, etc., may 
he affected with this disease. Excessive hemorrhage has caused 
sudden and permanent amaurosis. 

Symptoms, — The pupil is greatly dilated, loses its natural form 
and becomes round. The eye is prominent, bright, and has a 
peculiar glassy appearance. The eyelids are opened more than 
natural, with a peculiar staring look. The gait, and movement 
of the ears, are indicative of blindness. It generally aflects both 
eyes. I have never seen a case where but one eye was affected. 



DISEASES OF THE EYES. 278 

Treatment. — It is incurable. When it results as a symptom 
of other diseases the cause should be removed. Powdered nux 
vomica in drachm doses may be used, or bromide of potash in 
three-drachm doses may be tried in the acute stages. Both may 
be administered in the feed. 

GLAUCOMA. 

A disease in which the vitreous humor loses its transparency 
and assumes a blue color. It is a very uncommon disease, and is 
usually associated with cataract or with amaurosis. It is gen- 
erally seen in old animals. 

Treatment. — The condition is incurable. 

FUNGUS HAEMATODES. 

This growth is known also by the name of medullary sarcoma. 
It is a dark colored, highly vascular tumor of a cancerous nature. 
It is a malignant disease, and very rare. It is occasionally asso- 
ciated with tuberculosis. If removed, it will reappear in nearly 
every case. Unless removed at a very early stage, it admits of no 
cure. 

Symptoms. — Slight irritation is noticed and there is a flow of 
tears; the cornea enlarges and bursts, and a small fungoid tumor 
makes its appearance, passes through the opening, and grows 
rapidly until it hangs down over the cheek, collecting dirt, etc. 

Treatment. — ^Everything within the orbit must be included 
in the operation, and the surface cauterized with the hot iron, 
not only to retain the hemorrhage, but to destroy any part of the 
malignant growth that may remain. If the patient be a cow, ox, 
or sheep, and in a fair condition, it should be slaughtered, as the 
disease is apt to return and cause death. 

STAPHYLOMA. 

This disease is so named because its tumor resembles a grape. 
The cornea loses its transparency, rises above the level of the 
eye, and even projects beyond the eyelids in the form of a whitish 
colored tumor. 
18 



274 THE STOCK owner's ADVISEE. 

This disease is generally seen in dogs and occasionally in 
horned cattle. In the dog it occurs from two causes — a growth 
of a tumor and bulging of the cornea caused by distention of the 
anterior chamber by increased secretion of its natural contents. 
In the first form, there will appear a small ulcer excavation in 
the center of the tumor; the ulcer has a tendency to eat its way 
through the cornea, and destroy the eye by allowing the escape 
of its contents. If an ulcer is present it should be touched with 
a point of the nitrate of silver. Afterward the thickening may 
be removed by excision, or by caustic. 

Staphyloma, due to dropsy of the eye, admits of but one 
remedy, and that may prove to be only palliative. The cornea is 
to be punctured to allow the escape of the contained fluids. 
Ulcers of the eye are best treated with the nitrate of silver, 
either in solution or in its solid form. 

LACERATION OF THE CORNEA. 

This may occur in various ways, causing the escape of aqueous 
humor. If it is a clean cut, the chances are that the cornea will 
heal and the aqueous humor be reproduced. But if the cornea is 
badly lacerated or torn, inflammation will set in, and the aqueous 
humor will not be reproduced. There usually remains a slight 
cicatrix, which, as a rule, does not interfere with vision. 

WORM IN THE EYE. 

Two kinds of worms have been noticed inhabiting the eye — 
the filaria oculi, and the strongylus equinus. They vary from 
half an inch to about two inches in length. The parasites are 
taken into the stomach along with the food or water, and reach 
the eye through the circulation. After reaching the eye, the 
parasite develops and grows very rapidly. The movement of the 
worm in the eye sets up an irritation, which causes a flow of 
tears. On examining the eye something like a thread may be 
seen. The worm moves about quickly. If allowed to remain, 
a loss of vision will result. 



1 



DISEASES OF THE EYES. 



275 



Teeatment. — The only method by which the worm can be 
removed from the eye is by means of a surgical operation, and 
consists of an incision through the cornea, allowing the aqueous 
humor and the worm with it to pass out. This should be en- 
trusted only to the veterinary surgeon. In some cases it be- 
comes necessary to place the animal in a darkened box for a few 
days, allow the aqueous humor to reaccumulate, and operate 
again where the worm could not be removed by the first opera- 
tion. 

STRABISMUS SaUINTING. 

Irregular action of the muscles of the eye never occur in the 
lower animals except as a symptom of other diseases or forms of 
poisoning. Myopia, no doubt, exists in our patients, resulting 
from too great convexity of the crystalline lense and cornea. It 
causes shying. In the human subject the defect is remedied by 
using concave glasses. There is no other remedial measure 
known; therefore the animal goes without treatment. 

HYPERMETROPIA. 

This is the opposite condition, and constitutes far-sightedness. 
This is remedied in man by convex glasses. As our patients can 
use no glasses, we know of no remedy for the lower animals. 
Ossification of the eye-ball is noticed sometimes. Calcarious 
growths, melanotic deposits, and ossious deposits are sometimes 
seen in connection with the eye. They are incurable. Ulcera- 
tion of the cornea has been referred to under the head of staphy- 
loma, and should be treated by touching the ulcer twice daily 
with nitrate of silver — ten grains to an ounce of water. Pay 
particular attention to the animal's health. 

DISLOCATION OF THE EYE-BALL. 

This may occur in various ways. It occurs very frequently 
in dogs fighting. 

Treatment. — If seen at once, there is a possibility of return- 
ing the eye and keeping it in place; judicious use of bandages and 



276 THE STOCK owner's ADVISEE. 

cold water, etc., may effect a cure. If the eye-ball is cold and 
has been hanging out for several hours, a cure cannot be effected, 
and the ball must be removed. 

WARTS ON THE EYELIDS. 

"VVarts are not uncommon on the cutaneous surface of the eye- 
lids or on their border. They are very often of an encrusted 
nature and difficult to remove. If they have a neck it is best to 
remove them by excision or ligature; if broad in the base, strong 
acetic acid should be applied. 

WOUNDS OF THE EYELIDS. 

Wounds of the eyelids are to be treated on conservative princi- 
ples; nothing must be destroyed; the edges are to be kept to- 
gether by fine silver suture wire or silk. It is remarkable how 
little blemish will remain when they are brought together nicely. 
Zinc sulphate, five grains to the ounce of water, with a small 
quantity of opium, may be added. 

MEMBRANE NICTITANS. 

An inflammation of this membrane takes place at times, being 
manifested by redness and swelling. Use fomentations and ap- 
ply zinc sulphate, grains forty; opium tr., ounces two; water, 
ounces ei2;ht. 

Ulceration of this membrane is occasionally seen, and it be- 
comes diseased to such an extent that it cannot be healed. When 
such is the case, it should be removed with the scissors, after 
having first secured the membrane Avith the tenaculum. It 
should never be removed except in cases where there is no alter- 
native. Ignorant horsemen have from time immemorial re- 
moved this membrane for a disease they call hooks, which in 
reality was lockjaw. It has also been removed by some for 
every disease of the eye. 



d 



DISEASES OF THE EYES. 277 

STRICTURE OF THE rACHRYMAL DUCT. 

This is due to the thickening of its lining mucous membrane, 
from catarrh of the nose extending into the duct, or from the 
inflammation of glands. The tears flow over the side of the face, 
constituting what is termed watery eye. The common seat of 
stricture of the lachrymal duct appears to be at the superior part, 
and is best treated by syringing with cold water, from the puncta 
lachrymalis downward, or it may be necessary to dilate it. Treat- 
ment of this condition must be entrusted to the veterinary sur- 
geon. 

ECTROPIUM, OR EVERSION OF THE EYELID. 

This is commonly seen in dogs as a result of distemper. Thd 
conjunctiva should be scraped and the nitrate of silver applied. 
When this fails it becomes necessary to excise an elliptical shaped 
portion of the conjunctival membrane, using the curved scissors 
for the purpose; after which use fomentations and use the rem- 
edy described for wounds of the eyelids. 

ENTROPIUM, OR INVERSION OF THE LID. 

This is exactly the opposite of ectropium, the eyelid being 
doubled in instead of outward. 

Treatment. — Part of the eyelid skin must be removed, in 
order to remove the surplus, so that when the wound heals the 
lid will be retained in proper position. 



XIX. 

HERNIA. 

Abdominal hernia, or ruptures, are classified as reducible, 
irriducible, and strangulated, according to their condition, and 
into inguinal, scrotal, ventral, umbilical, and diaphragmatic, 
according to their situation. A hernia maj be defined to be a 
protrusion of the whole or part of an organ from its natural 
cavity. 

INGUINAL HERNIA. 

This form is most commonly met with in young animals and 
stallions. It consists of a passage of a portion of the intestines 
through the internal abdominal ring, and into the inguinal canal. 
Sometimes the intestine passes down and becomes strangulated, 
causing colicky pains. The animal rolls, gets up, and is all right ; 
the intestine has returned to its place. There are usually no 
external signs of hernia of this description; it therefore requires 
a careful examination, with some knowledge of the anatomy of 
the parts, to diagnose it correctly. Castration tends to prevent 
it, by causing contraction of the inguinal canal. 

SCROTAL HERNIA. 

This form is not common among young animals; it is often 
congenital, being frequently seen at birth or soon after. In such 
cases it should be left alone, as it usually disappears in eight or 
nine months. Scrotal hernia will cause but little inconvenience 
unless it becomes strangulated. 

Symptoms. — It is not always easy to distinguish scrotal ente- 
rocele from other swellings of the genitals, and particularly when 
the hernia is complicated with sarcocele or varicocele, a thicken- 
ing of the cord, or a combination of these affections. If it is a 

( 278 ) 



HERNIA. 



279 



true hernia it will increase in size after a full meal. Tlie exam- 
iner should take hold of the suspected mass, while an assistant 
coughs the animal. If it be a portion of the bowel, it will be 
drawn up when the animal coughs. If it be raised up with the 
hand, it sensibly diminishes in volume, from part of its contents 
being withdrawn into the abdomen, which retraction is some- 
times attended with a gurgling sound. 

Teeatment. — The best method is to cast the animal, and by 
gentle manipulation return the intestine into the abdominal 
cavity. After which, take 
hold of the testicles and 
apply clams over the 
scrotum, close up, and 
allow the whole affection 
to slough off. This method 
has proven satisfactory in 
every case with myself. 
A good and very success- 
ful operation, known as 
the covered operation, 
must be entrusted with 
the veterinary surgeon. 
The operation is per- 
formed as follows: The Fig. 73-Scrotal Hernia. 

skin and dartos muscle are to be carefully separated from the 
tunica reflexa until the hernial sack is fully exposed to view, and 
incision, sufficiently large to introduce the finger, is then to be 
carefully made into it. The hernial sack being exposed to view, 
the finger along Avith the bistoury should be passed into the 
opening and divide the structure. It, as a rule, will now pass 
back into its place; but if a large quantity of intestines are im- 
prisoned, it will be necessary to enlarge the tunica reflexa, so 
that the bowel may be pulled out, gently unravelled, and re- 
turned. The return being effected, the scrotum, including the 
skin, cord, and tunicas are to be enclosed in a plain clam, which 




280 THE STOCK owner's ADVISEE. 

is to be left on until it sloughs. If a case of hernia is met Avith in 
a stallion, he should be cast, and the bowel returned; after which 
clams may be placed over the scrotum, beneath the testicle, and 
a portion of the scrotum allowed to slough off. 

STRANGULATED HERNIA. 

Strangulated hernia is where the intestine protrudes from the 
abdominal cavity; being compressed, the circulation is cut off, 
causing severe pain. The animal rolls, paws, and turns his head 
to the parts, in some cases almost touching the scrotum with his 
nose. Sweats break out over the body. See Fig. 73, page 279. 

Treatme^st. — The animal should be cast and turned upon his 
back; the hind parts are to be elevated, and the parts manipu- 
lated. When gas is generated in the strangulated mass, it may 
become necessary to puncture with a small trocar before it can 
be returned. When returned the clams should be applied over 
the whole mass, and it allowed to slough off. 

UMBILICAL HERNIA. 

This form of hernia consists of the protrusion of a portion of 
the bowel through the umbilical opening. It is more frequently 
met with in yoimg animals. The best method of treatment in 
this form of hernia is simply by taking the mass in the left hand, 
pressing the contents into the abdominal cavity, while the right 
hand surrounds it by a ligature placed as closely as possible to 
the abdominal parietes, and drawn sufficiently tight to cut off the 
circulation. On the third day a second cord should be tied 
around it. It will require a new cord every few days, which 
should always be tied above the preceding one. The whole mass 
will drop off, along with the tumor, in from ten to twelve days. 
1^0 further treatment is necessary. The next best and most 
successful method is to cut into the hernial sack, scarify the 
edges of the abdominal opening, bring them together, secure in 
place with catgut sutures, and place a broad bandage around the 
whole body. 



HERNIA. 281 

VENTRAL HERNIA. 

This form is a protrusion of the bowels through an artificial 
opening in the abdomen. It may be small or large. It is gen- 
erally caused by direct injury, as being gored, jumping fences, 
etc. In old animals hernia may occur in consequence of the 
abdominal muscles giving way without any apparent cause^ The 
opening of abscesses in this region should be done with care, as 
hernia may exist with the abscess. 

Treatment. — If small, it should not be interfered with. If 
it becomes strangulated, or any way interferes with the animal's 
usefulness, it may be removed. If it is small, the clams is the 
best method of treatment. If large, the best method is to cut 
into the abdominal wall, scarify the edges of the opening, bring 
them together, suture, and bandage. 

DIAPHRAGMATIC HERNIA. 

Here the bowels pass through the diaphragm into the thoracic 
cavity. This is very rare. It may be caused by severe exertions, 
or jumping, or drawing heavy loads. 

Symptoms. — A difficult breathing, in addition to rolling and 
tumbling. The body becomes bathed with sweat. The pulse 
quick and weak; the ears, body, and extremities cold; death in 
a short time. It is very hard to distinguish this disease from 
spasmodic colic or enteritis. 

Treatment is of no avail. 



DISEASES OF THE HEAD AND NECK. 

DISEASE OF THE EAR. 

The ear of the horse seldom is the seat of any disease ; the dog, 
however, is subject to well-known forms of disease of the ear — 
namely, internal and external canker. The horse sometimes suf- 
fers from an irritation of 
the ear, due to a parasite, 
or from eczema. 

POLL EVIL. 

This is a fistulous ulcer 
situated on the supero- 
posterior portion of the 
cranium, immediately be- 
hind the ears of the horse, 
and is caused by acci- 
dental violence. At first 
a soft, fluctuating tumor 
is seen, surrounded by 
swelling and stiffness of 
the neck; soon the inflam- 
mation of the surround- 
ing tissue subsides, leaving 
a prominent swelling — a 
serous abscess. 




Fig. 74— Poll Evil. 



Treatment. — The trouble is seldom noticed in time to reduce 
the inflammation by applying cold water, and afterward iodine. 
It is generally noticed 'after pus has already formed. The ab- 
scess should be laid open at once, to the bottom, if possible, and 
the wound should be kept open for some time. Treat as an ordi- 
nary abscess. If the abscess has already burst, discharging a 
fetid, unhealthy pus, the disease Avill be found to have assumed 

a most formidable aspect. 

(282) 



DISEASES OF THE HEAD AND NECK. 



283 



The treatment of a case of this description is a matter of some 
difficulty. The sinuses must be probed into and laid open to 
their very base, and the whole dressed with a solution of the 
bichloride of mercury — mercury, four drachms; water, four 
ounces. The linings of the sinus will thus be destroyed and the 
whole converted into a common wound. Where there is but one 
sinus, and that a deep one, a seton may be inserted in the original 
opening and brought out on the side of the poll. 

In some cases where neglected, the disease involves the syno- 
vial membrane of the occipito-atloidean articulation, causing 
anchylosis of the joint. In some cases it penetrates the capsules 
of the cervical vertebrae, causing sudden death by pressure upon 
the medulla spinatis. 

FISTULOUS WITHERS. 

Fistulous withers resembles poll evil in all particulars except 
its seat. It is caused by bruises from ill-fitting saddles. The 




Fig. 75 — Fistulous Withers. 

treatment is the same as for poll evil — namely, to make a depend- 
ing orifice for the drainage of the pus, and the sinuses laid open, 
or counter openings made by setons. 



XXI. 



DISEASES OF THE SKIN. 

ERYTHEMA. 

This consists of an inflammation of the outer layer of the 
dermis or skin^ produced by mild irritating agents, such as rubi- 
f acents, or from inflammation depending upon constitutional dis- 
turbance. ^Vhen present, there is a redness of the skin, with 
heat, swelling, and irritation. The causes are cold and heat 
operating alternately on the skin, friction, pressure, heredity, 
debility, plethora, and poverty. We have the acute and chronic 

forms. The chronic 
form is seen in long- 
standing cracked 
heels, 

CRACKED HEELS 

Is very common 
among race horses of 
both classes, and is 
most frequently seen 
in the hind limbs. It 
is produced in a 
variety of ways, as 
washing the heels and 
not drying them prop- 
A fruitful cause is per- 




Fig. 76 — Cracked Heels to the Extent 
of Sloughing. 



erly, filthy stables, irregular exercise, 
spiration collecting in the heels and in the flexures. Heat and 
cold will produce it. Washing the legs and not properly drying 
them is no doubt the chief cause. 

Symptoms. — At first there will be a slightly reddened appear- 
ance of the heel. This is followed by a crack or fissure. The 

( 284 ) 



DISEASES OF THE SKIN. 285 

animal will be stiff and walk in a peculiar, stiff manner. It 
sometimes takes on an odematous condition, extending as high as 
the hock. 

Tkeatment. — Place the animal in a comfortable, loose box, 
and give rest. Give eight drachms of aloes. If the irritation is 
severe, poultices should be used; they prove very beneficial by 
softening the parts and bringing about a healthy action. Glyce- 
rine should be applied on the heels on going out and a poultice 
on coming in. A lotion of sulphate of zinc, six drachms, one 
ounce of sugar of lead, to a quart of water may be used. Car- 
bolic acid, one part of acid to twenty parts of water, is beneficial. 

The acute forms of erythema are often witnessed in prolonged 
wet weather, involving the limbs to a certain extent; sometimes 
all four legs, arms, thighs, and abdomen are covered by pat-ches 
of superficial inflammation. 

MUD FEVER. 

Its cause is similar to cracked heel, as wet, dirt, washing the 
legs. It is generally seen in the winter and spring months. 

Symptoms. — There will be discovered a superficial inflamma- 
tion of the skin. The pain is severe, the hair loses its connection, 
coming off in patches. Suppuration sometimes takes place in the 
flexures of the knee, hock, and pasterns. The appetite is affected, 
the pulse runs up, and there may be some rise in temperature. 

Tkeatment. — Give six drachms of aloes internally, and apply 
the zinc, lead and acid lotion to the parts externally. Carbolic 
lotion, one to twenty, may be used. The zinc and lead lotion pre- 
viously referred to is highly beneficial. 

HERPES. 

This disease is expressed by patches of irregular form and 
variable size, upon each of which there arises groups of vesicles. 
The vesicles are larger than those of eczema, and contain a milky 
substance. It is generally confined to the lips, but may involve 



286 THE STOCK owner's ADVISEE. 

the whole body. It is noticed at the convalescent stage of in- 
fluenza. It is due to some changed condition of the blood. 

Symptoms. — A reddened appearance of the skin ; the hair falls 
off in patches. There will be an increase in temperature as well 
as an increase in the pulse. 

Treatment. — For this and all other skin diseases, where an 
astringent and antiseptic is needed, the zinc, lead and acid lotion 
is superior to others. Zinc sulphate, one ounce to a quart of 
water, is useful. The carbolic acid lotion may be used with good 
results. 

URTICARIA— NETTLE RASH, SURFEIT. 

This is a frequent form of skin disease in the horse, and con- 
sists of small, elastic eminences, varying in size and shape, and 
attended with itching. The lumps rise quickly, and may be seen 
over the whole body. They disappear as quickly as they come. 
It is seen most frequently in the summer months, when the 
animal is changing its coat. It is caused by some disorder of the 
digestive apparatus. A sudden change of diet will frequently 
produce it. Large draughts of cold water may produce it. 

Treatment. — A mild purgative, six drachms of aloes, as a 
rule, is all that is necessary to give. If there is much irritation 
and itching the zinc, lead and acid lotion should be used. 

SIMPLE ECZEMA. 

This disease is very common in the horse. No doubt more 
horses suffer from eczema than from all other skin diseases com- 
bined. It is seen more frequently in the summer months. Sim- 
ple eczema is a non-contagious disease of the skin, characterized 
by the formation of a small pimple, which subsequently becomes 
a vesicle and ultimately a pustule. 

Cause. — A changed condition of the blood, or a change in the 
weather. Certain foods produce it, as barley, a run at grass. It 
is thought that ripe grasses will produce it. It is due to some 



DISEASES OF THE SKUT. 28 Y 

constitutional disturbance. I do not believe tbat it can be pro- 
duced by the application of irritants, as is generally supposed. 

Symptoms. — It usually comes on suddenly, and is manifested 
by itchiness, which causes the animal to rub and bite itself until 
the hair and cuticle are brought off, leaving the skin red, raw, 
and inflamed. Excessive crops of vesicles develop themselves, 
dry on the sore skin, or discharge a fluid which seems to cause a 
distention of the disorder. 

Treatment. — Both local and constitutional remedies must be 
employed in the treatment of this disease, and it is difficult to 
treat. Six drachms of aloes should be given and followed by 
potassium nitrate, one-half oimce; sweet spirits nitre, one ounce. 
This must be given in a drench; two or three doses may be given. 
The animal should be dieted. Use the zinc lead and acid lotion. 
Acid hydro-cyanic, a half ounce ; aqua, eight ounces, may be used 
locally to the parts. Arsenite of potash should be given, and is 
to be prepared as follows: Acid arsenious, one drachm; potas- 
sium carbonate, one drachm; aqua, twelve drachms; mix and boil 
slowly until the arsenic is dissolved, and strain when cold. Each 
ounce of the solution contains five grains of arsenic. The dose is 
from a half ounce to an ounce of the liquor. Fowler's solution 
of arsenic may be tried. Acid carbolic, one to sixteen, is a good 
local remedy. The local treatment should be frequently changed. 
A very good lotion consists of corrosive sublimate, two drachms; 
spirits of wine, four ounces; aqua, one pint. 

MALLENDERS. 

This is an eczematous condition, and occurs in the flexures of 
the knee-joints, causing a scurfiness and dryness of the part. It 
occurs more frequently among heavy horses, and in stallions more 
frequently than mares or geldings. 

Cause. — Sluggish circulation, irregular exercise, stimulating 
food, or from the effects of a A^esicant. 

Symptoms. — Redness and a discharge of serous character takes 
place. Cracks appear, and the case may take on a chronic form. 



288 THE STOCK OW^'EK's ADVISER. 

The treatment is botli local and constitutional, and is difficult. 
Eight drachms of aloes should be given, followed by potassium 
nitrate, a half ounce, sweet spirits of nitre, one ounce. Fomen- 
tations should be used. As a local application, corrosive subli- 
mate is useful; it should be used in the proportion of two drachms 
of sublimate to four ounces of water. The iodide of potash com- 
pound is of service. Tincture of opium and glycerine make a 
good mixture to allay the irritation of the parts. 

SALLENDERS. 

This condition occurs in the flexures of the hock, and is the 
same condition as mallenders. The pathology, symptoms, and 
treatment are the same. 

PRURIGO OR PRTJRITIS— RUBBING THE TAIL. 

This is a disordered condition of the skin, caused by functural- 
derangement of the nerves of the part. Is seen about the roots 
of the tail and mane. The condition is hard to cure. 

Cause. — Irregular exercise and generous feeding are proba- 
bly the most usual causes. It is seen most frequently during the 
hot months. 

Symptoms. — Rubbing the mane and tail are the symptoms. 
The treatment consists of cleansing the parts thoroughly with 
warm water, and applying potassium liquor, two drachms; hydro- 
cyanic acid, one drachm; aqua, two pints, to the irritated parts of 
the skin. In case the animal is a valuahle stallion kept in a 
loose box, a bar of wood should be placed around the box in such 
a manner as to reach just above the hocks; this will prevent him 
rubbing the tail. The tail may be protected by a strong leather 
band securely fastened. The rubbing may he due to the worms 
ascarides in the Tectum. The method of removing them will be 
given later. There is no doubt that prurites becomes a hahit 
with some horses. 



DISEASES OF THE SKIN. 



289 



GREASE 

Is a disease showing itself in connection with the heels of a horse. 
It is of an eczematous nature, and is known as grease on account 
of its peculiar oily or greasy discharge. There is a superficial in- 
flammation, which extends and involves the hair follicles and 
sebaceous glands. It is 
seen principally in 
heavy horses, and is 
worse in some climates 
than in others. The 
causes of grease are 
predisposing and excit- 
ing. Heavy breeds are 
predisposed, as well as 
horses having flat feet 
and large quantities of 
hair on the limbs. The 
exciting cause is wash- 
ing too frequently 
without drying. Crack- 
ed heels often termi- 
nate in grease, and are 
caused by the same in- 
fluence which produces 
grease. 




Fig. 77 — Grease, terminating in Elephantiasis. 



Symptoms. — Swelling, accompanied with a slight discharge. 

Soon this discharge becomes of an oily character and the hair 

comes out. On first coming out of the stable, the animal walks 

very gingerly, but soon warms up and goes all right. When the 

papilla becomes enlarged there is usually a very offensive odor 

accompanying it. It is then known as the grapous stage. There 

is generally well-marked fever present. Grease, if neglected, 

may terminate in elephantiasis. 
19 



90(1 



THE STOCK OW.XEK S ADVISEE. 



Treatment. — Clip the hair from the parts and use the zinc 
lead and acid lotion. It is a mistake to use powerful remedies at 
first. Carbolic acid in its undiluted state should be applied 
thoroughly to the parts, and the zinc and lead lotion used for a 
few days, when the acid shottld be applied again as stated before. 
It should never be used more than twice in its undiluted form. 
Charcoal should be used to destroy the odor. Solutions of car- 
bolic acid, one to sixteen, may be applied for this purpose, ^hen 
grapes are present they should be removed by the actual cautery, 
it being more effectual than caustics. To do this requires two 
irons, one hot and the other cold. The cold iron is to be placed 
so as t-o protect the healthy structures, while the hot one removes 
the grapes. A very useful application to greasy and cracked 
heels is found in the benzoated oxide of zinc ointment. It may 
result in ulcers at the heel, which should be removed by caustics, 
such as caustic potash and poultices. The constitutional treat- 
ment consists of eight drachms of aloes, given at the outset of 
the disease, and when the cathartic acts, give arsenic and iron — 
five grains of arsenic to two drachms of sulphate of iron. Give 
twice a dav in feed. 

RAT TAILS. 

This is an inflamed condition of the dermis. There is an exu- 
date, the papillary layer of the skin becomes enlarged, showing 
transverse ridges resembling rat tails. It is generally seen in 
the hind limb, and is a result of grease. 

TREATiiEXT. — Purgative, and use the zinc lead and acid lotion 
externally. 

CRTJSTA lABIAIIS. 

This is an eczematous condition, and is said to be due to the 
actions of grasses in the pastures. I am inclined to think that it 
is caused by souie derangement of the digestive organs. 

Teeatmext. — Use the carbolic acid lotion, or the zinc lotion, 
or lead lotion. They are all good remedies. 



DISEASES OF THE SKIN. 291 

ECTHEMA. 

This condition is an eruptive pustular disease. It is said to be 
contagious. It is sometimes called the American skin disease of 
horses. 

It is characterized by medium sized, hard pustules over the 
body. These pustules finally burst, and discharge a thin, sticky 
fluid of the color of straw. Finally an unhealthy-looking scab 
forms, which drops off in time, leaving a cicatrice. 

Treatment. — Give six drachms of aloes, and follow with 
potassium nitrate, one-half ounce; sweet spirits of nitre, one 
ounce. Several doses of the latter may be given. Locally the 
carbolic acid lotion should be used. The different other prepara- 
tions referred to under the head of skin disease may be used. 

MANGE. 

This disease is also called scabies. It is due to an animal para- 
site belonging to the family of sarcoptes. They burrow in the 
flesh, and occur in the horse, man, sheep, pigs, and cattle. Be- 
sides the sarcoptes, there is a parasite known as the dermato- 
dectes. They simply hold on to and prick the skin. Another 
variety is known as symbrotes; they neither burrow nor prick 
the skin, but cause considerable irritation, and are common to 
the horse and ox. The above mentioned parasites are those 
causing mange, although of the three varieties named the sar- 
coptes is probably the one oftenest met with in mange. They 
may be carried from one animal to another by means of the har- 
ness, saddle, or clothing. The disease is not frequently met with 
on the American Continent, and the parasites causing mange are 
not spontaneously generated. At the same time, it should be 
remembered that dirty and badly kept animals are more prone to 
receive the parasites, and offer better advantages for their pro- 
duction. 

Symptoms. — If sarcoptes be present there will be vesicular 
eruptions and intense itching, which increases towards night. 



292 THE STOCK owner's ADVISEE. 

This pniritis is supposed to be due to an acrid fluid whicli the 
parasites deposit in the gallery in which it is lodged. This form 
of mange is seen, as a rule, on the sides of the neck and withers, 
and thence may extend over the entire body. Small, hard pim- 
ples may be felt which contain a scab, which can be easily re- 
moved, exposing a surface an eighth of an inch in diameter. 
Large surfaces become destitute of hair in the advanced stage. 
The skin takes on the appearance of the rhinoceros. 

The symptoms of the presence of the dermatodectes are char- 
acterized by great itching, with the formation of pustules, an 
eighth of an inch in height, soon forming a vesicle, which rup- 
tures and allows the serous contents to escape; these dry and 
form a crust. These parasites are found at the upper border of 
the neck and root of the tail; they spread more slowly and are 
easier to cure than the sarcoptes. 

The symptoms of symbiates are a production of serum, which 
forms into numerous crusts that break in large flakes. They do 
not produce the same amount of itching as the other forms. 
They are found on the limbs of horses, and merely bite the skin. 

Treatment of Mange. — First wash the animal thoroughly 
with warm water and soft soap. The destruction is then to be 
effected by applying carbolic acid, one part to sixteen of water. 
This should only be applied on a part of the body at a time. It 
is a good practice to have the animal clipped before making the 
application. Solutions of the iodide of potassium and of the 
iodide of sulphur have proven a most effective remedy, in pro- 
portions of one ounce of iodide to eight of sulphur. Sulphur and 
lard have been used with good results — one ounce of sulphur to 
three or four ounces of lard. Staphisagria seeds, four ounces; 
water, one gallon, boiled until the residue measures two quarts, 
and applied to the skin as hot as can be borne is a most effectual 
remedy. Mange in cattle and dogs will be dealt with in the 
chapters on dogs and cattle. 



DISEASES OF THE SKIN. 293 

RINGWORM. 

This disease is due to a parasite belonging to the crytogama, 
or vegetable kingdom. It is contagious; attacks animals, and is 
communicated from one to another, and from animals to man. 

Symptoms. — Small pimples appear on various parts of the 
body. After some time the hair begins to fall out in circular 
patches, and unless stopped the patches soon spread over the 
entire body. Its favorite seat is on the hind quarters, back and 
neck. It is accompanied by slight itchiness. 

Treatment. — First remove the crusts by washing the parts 
with warm water and soft soap. Apply to the parts the carbo- 
nate of potash or the iodine ointment — iodi potass, iodi a a, one 
drachm ; adeps, one ounce. The carbolic acid lotion may be used. 
^Nitrate of silver, twenty grains to a pint of water, may be used. 

LICE 

Are seen in poor, uncared for, half-starved animals and in 
very old animals. The treatment is to clip the animal and wash 
with a decoction of stavesacre, one ounce of the powdered seeds 
to a pint of water. Carbolic acid lotion, used in the same pro- 
portion as recommended for mange, is an effectual remedy. 

POULTRY LICE. 

These lice sometimes get on horses and cows, causing great 
itching, the animal scarcely being quiet for a moment. He rubs 
against everything near him. At night his torments increase. 
A horse infested with these lice will fall off in appetite and grow 
thin. 

Treatment. — Treat as for horse lice, 'and whitewash the 

stables. 

FLEA. 

Where the animal is infested with fleas, it should be dusted 
with the Persian insect powder. Attention should be paid to 
cleanliness. 



294 THE STOCK OWNEE^S ADVISEE. 

TICKS. 

They are seen in horses, cattle, sheep, and dogs. Their months 
are in the form of a sucker, and they attach themselves so firmly 
that they cannot be removed without tearing away the skin. 
They generally attach themselves to the parts least covered wdth 
hair. To remove them, their bodies must be cut off by sharp 
scissors, or kill them with the oil of turpentine. They multiply 
rapidly in hot climates, particularly in low lands or tidewater 
counties. 

FLY. 

A small fly resembling the house fly often proves a great 
source of trouble among horses and cattle during the months of 
August and September. They are longer and slimmer than the 
common house fly. They are most abundant in low, wet places. 

Treatment. — Use the carbolic acid lotion; keep the animal in 
during the day. Preparations containing tar should be used. 

BOT FLIES. 

Bot fly eggs are deposited in the skin, and are there developed 
into the larva of the fly. The bot of the ox is a large species. 
They form tumors on the backs of cows and oxen as large as a 
partridge egg. When the egg is deposited it is attended with 
severe suffering, causing the cattle to run wild and furious and 
stray from the pastures. They will run bellowing from the rest 
of the herd to brush or water. The tail from the severe pain is 
held with a tremulous motion straight from the body, and the 
head and neck stretched out to the utmost. If the larva be re- 
moved from its nest it will be seen to be of a white and almost 
transparent color. When it has attained its full growth it works 
its way out and drops to the ground, and ultimately becomes a 
fly. Bots are found in other animals, and are said to exist in man. 



xxn. 

DISEASES OF THE VEINS AND ARTERIES. 

INFLAMMATION OF THE JUGULAR VEIN. 

This occurs as a sequel to bleeding. It is characterized by a 
reddening of all its coats, an exudation pours out from the coats 
of the vein, which along with its contents forms a solid coagulum 
or clot. At first the clot is but loosely attached to the interior 
of the vessel, but soon it becomes more strongly adherent, the 
surrounding areolar tissue is infiltrated with serum, and that in 
contact with the vein, adherent to it, by a fibrinous exudate. 
Generally a swelling appears along the course of the coagulum, 
in which fluctuation can be detected similar to any other abscess. 
The pus is confined above and below by the coagulum. If the 
vein is manipulated on its course towards the head, it will be 
found to be considerably thickened. The swelling extends to- 
wards the head. 

Tkeatment. — Apply a cantharides blister to the part. If ab- 
scesses have formed, they must be opened before the blister is 
applied. Inflammation of the jugular always terminates in the 
permanent closure of the vessel. 

THROMBUS. 

This disease is produced through improper closure of the 
wound after bleeding. 

Symptoms. — Swelling in the neighborhood of the woamd. The 
swelling is caused by the exudation of a small amount of blood 
into the areolar tissue. The exudation is from the jugular vein, 
and takes place in about twenty-four hours after the operation. 

Treatment. — Tie the head to the rack, and apply a sponge 
saturated with cold water to the parts. 

( 205 ) 



296 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

VARICOSE VEINS 

Are seldom seen in the lower animals. I have seen the condition 
in horses and cattle. The treatment is pressure to the parts. If 
an abscess should form, it should be opened and a blister applied. 
The cantharides blister is the best in this case. 

VEIN STONES. 

Concretions have been seen in dilated veins of the neck and 
other parts. 

ENTRANCE OF AIR INTO VEINS. 

Air rapidly injected into the veins causes immediate death. 
The animal is suddenly seized with symptoms of faintness and 
convulsive breathing; falls and perhaps immediately dies. If 
only a small quantity enters the vein the animal may rally. 
This subject has been carefully investigated, and it behooves the 
operator to be careful when bleeding. 

INFLAMMATION OF THE ARTERIES. 

This is a rare affection in the lower animals, but is occasionally 
seen. Inflammation of the artery is caused by an injury. Exu- 
dation from the walls of the inflamed vessels form a clot, com- 
posed of lymph and coagulated blood, which plugs the artery. 
The symptoms of plugging of the external iliacs are coldness of 
the extremities, with muscular debility, which increases with 
exercise. The diagnostic sign is absence of pulsation in the 
artery, detectible by examination per rectum. The animal suf- 
fers great pain, the limb is deathly cold, and perspiration breaks 
out over the body. He may suddenly recover and appear all 
right, but may be affected again at any time. If the circulation 
is completely cut off, death will take place. 

Treatment. — Apply hot fomentations to the parts. Hot lini- 
ment may be applied with smart friction. If the limb remains 
cold after this treatment has been employed, it may be ascer- 



DISEASE OF THE VEINS AND AKTEEIES. 29T 

tained that the circulation of blood through the part is ob- 
structed. 

ANEURISM. 

Aneurism is a tumor produced by the dilation of an artery. 
When all the coats of the artery are dilated and form a pouch, it 
is known as true aneurism. Rupture of the inner coat, while the 
two outer coats reniain uninjured, constitute a false aneurism. 
When the outer coats are ruptured, and the inner coat remains 
uninjured, it is known as hernial aneurism. A dissecting aneu- 
rism is where a separation of two of the coats of the artery takes 
place. The blood flows between the separated coats and gradu- 
ally dissects one coat from the other. 

Teeatment. — If the aneurism can be got at, it should be cut 
down upon, the artery ligatured, and the aneurism dissected out. 



xxin. 



LYMPHATICS. 

LYMPHANGITIS, OR INFLAMMATION OF THE LYMPHATICS. 

Lympliaiigitis is knoTm by a variety of names, as Monday 
Hioming disease, weed, etc. It is an inflammation of the ab- 
sorbents, iisnally con- 
fined to the extremi- 
ties and to one hind 
leg. It is met with 
more frequently in the 
hea^-y breeds. 

Cause. — The usual 
cause is from improper 
feeding, as when an 
animal, having been 
worked regularly, is 
lain off work for a few 
days and receives the 
same quantity of food 
as when working. The 
horse's food should 
be reduced while rest- 
ing. Injury as wounds 

or kicks will also pro- 
Fig. 78— Lymphangitis. j^^^^g j^_ 

Symptoms. — The local inflammation is generally preceded by 
rigors, which are sometimes very severe. The mouth is hot, the 
pulse hard and strong. The visible mucous membranes are in- 
jected, and there is an increase in respiration. The bowels will 
be constipated and the urine highly colored. The swelling first 

( 298 ) 




LYMPHATICS. 299 

appears on the inside of the thigh and extends downward. The 
lymphatic glands are enlarged. There will be strong desire for 
water. If a case be neglected, it will result in elephantiasis. 

Teeatment. — Give eight drachms of aloes. When the purga- 
tive has acted, a diuretic should be given — ^potassium nitrate, a 
half ounce; sweet spirits of nitre, one ounce. This may be re- 
peated three times a day for three or four days. Tincture of 
aconite, twenty drops every four hours, should be given. The 
limb should be thoroughly fomented with w^arm water three 
times a day. After fomenting the limb should be dried and 
wrapped in cloths in order to retain the heat. Belladonna plas- 
ters are good to relieve pain. 

ELEPHANTIASIS. 

This condition is caused by repeated attacks of lymphangitis. 
The areolar tissue becomes thickened at each attack; new blood 
vessels and nerves are formed through the new structure, con- 
stituting the condition known as elephantiasis. When an animal 
once suffers from an attack of lymphangitis, he is more liable to 
succeeding attacks. 

Treatment. — It cannot be cured, but cold water may have a 
beneficial effect. 



XXIV. 

DISEASES OF THE MALE ORGANS OF GENERATION. 

ORCHITIS 

Is an inflammation of the testicle. It is a very serious condition, 
but not frequently met with. It is generally caused by direct 
injury, as blows, kicks while covering mares. 

Symptoms. — There will be great pain manifested, the. pulse 
being full and bounding. The parts are greatly swollen. The 
animal may lie down and attempt to roll. He expresses his pain 
by frequent groans, and experiences great difliculty in walking. 

Treatment. — Bathe the testicle with warm water for an hour 
at a time, using a soft sponge. Give eight drachms of aloes. 
The testicle must be supported by means of a suspensory bandage 
padded with cotton. This should be kept moist by warm water. 
The tincture of opium or belladonna should be applied locally to 
allay pain. If an exudate remains after the inflammation sub- 
sides, it may be a^bsorbed by administering two drachm doses of 
the iodide of potash. It may be necessary in some cases to apply 
a stimulant or blister. 

HYDROCELE, 

Or dropsy of the scrotum, is rarely met with. It may result 
from orchitis. 

Treatment. — Apply iodine and lard — two drachms of iodine 
to two ounces of lard. If there is much serum it should be drawn' 
ofl with a small trocar and canua. Iodide of potash should be 
given internally, in two-drachm doses, three times a day. 

PHYMOSIS, 

A morbid condition of the sheath, which, from contraction of 
the orifice, prevents the exit of the penis. This is seen more 

(300) 



DISEASES OF THE MALE OKGANS OF GENEEATION. 301 

particularly in geldings. It is due to injury of some kind, and 
m'ay be produced from the habit of not properly protruding the 
penis while urinating. 

Treatment.— Foment the parts with warm water and scarify. 
Give internally potassium nitrate, one-half ounce; sweet spirits of 
nitre, one ounce, In some cases it may be necessary to enlarge 
the prepuce or remove warts. 

PARAPHYMOSIS. 

The penis protrudes in paraphymosis, and cannot be drawn 
within the sheath. It may arise from a weakened condition of 
the penis, or from direct injury, too frequent coition, etc. 

Treatment. — If it results from paralysis, amputation is the 
only remedy. When it is caused by debility or injury, it should 
be treated with a view of returning it. If there is much swelling, 
it should be scarified and placed in a suspensory bandage. Apply 
fomentations, as cold water. It becomes necessary in some cases 
to puncture the sheath to prevent strangulating the penis. 

AMPUTATION OF THE PENIS. 

It becomes necessary in some instances to amputate the penis. 
This operation will require the employment of a surgeon. The 
animal should 'be cast and chloroform administered. A catheter 
should be introduced into the urethra and held in position by 
passing a ligature around the penis an inch above the intended 
incision. The penis should now be removed by a bold incision 
and the arteries ligatured. The ecraseur is a very good instru- 
ment for removing the penis. The catheter should be allowed to 
remain in the urethra until it partly heals, in order to prevent 
closing of the urethra by cicatrization. The wound should be 
dressed with the zinc, lead, acid lotion. Various kinds of 
growths occur in connection with the penis. They should be 
removed and the parts touched with a pencil of nitrate of silver. 



302 THE STOCK OWJS^Ee's ADVISEE. 

EXCORIATION OF THE PENIS 

May occur, and is generally due, to direct injury, such as may 
result from a large liorse covering a small mare, especially a 
mare that has never been served before. It may be caused by 
putting the horse to the mare too soon after foaling, the usual 
discharge after foaling causing excoriation. 

Teeatmext. — The animal should serve no mares until recov- 
ery. The penis should be dressed with a lotion of tincture of 
opium and zinc sulphate — two ounces of opium, one ounce of 
zinc, to a quart of water. 

URETHRITIS. 

Inflamimation of the urethra is caused in a number of ways, 
as the presence of calculus, exposure to cold, injury. 

Symptoms. — The animal shows pain when urinating, and does 
not retract the penis for some time after act is completed. If 
examined, the urethra will be found to be reddened and irritable. 

Teeatmext. — Give eight drachms of aloes. The urethra 
should be injected with zinc sulphate, four drachms; water, one 
pint. The injection should be made twice a day with a syringe. 

Ulceration of the urethra may occur by an injury inflicted, 
sometimes causing a fistula. The parts should be kept clean, the 
edges of the oj)eniDg should be scarified, brought together by 
means of sutures, and some of the other lotions previously 
mentioned for healing applied. If the wound is indolent it 
should be touched occasionally with the nitrate of silver. 

VARIOLA. 

This disease may occur in connection with the penis, and may 
be transmitted during coition from one animal to another. The 
animal should not be allowed to copulate when suffering from 
any irritation in connection with the generative system. Coition 
will retard the healing process. 



DISEASES OF THE MALE ORGANS OF GENERATION. 303 



MALADIE DU COIT. 

We have in the lower animals a disease called Maladie du Coit. 
It occurs both in the malignant and non-malignant forms. The 
disease results from the act of copulation^ and is similar to syphi- 
lis in man. It is a contagious disease. The symptoms of the 
disease in the benign form are similar to those presented at the 
period of oestrum. They appear in a few days after copulation. 
The mare strikes the ground with the hind feet, whisks the tail, 
and urinates frequently in small quantities. A discharge takes 
place, and is soon followed by ulcers. A peculiar feature in the 
disease is that the symptoms are not presented in the horse for 
months, and are then only shown by an odematous engorgement 
of the sheath. In the malignant form the symptoms in the mare 
are the same as those of the benign form, only are more severe. 
Those of the horse are similar also. The disease was first seen 
in Russia in 1796; since then it has found its way into Africa, 
America, Egypt, and the majority of the European countries. 

Treatment. — Turpentine is recommended to be given every 
other morning in a drench. Arsenic and iron are recommended 
very highly. Locally, astringents are to be used. The carbolic 
acid lotion may be used — sulphate of zinc, one ounce; water, one 
pint. 

CASTRATION. 

The colt should be castrated as soon as the testicle can be 
easily reached. It may be performed at any period of life, but 
is attended with less danger in young than in older animals. A 
period between twelve months and two years of age is generally 
preferred. I have operated on colts from two weeks up, and my 
experience has been that the earlier in life it is performed the 
better. It is less painful to the animal when young, but more 
troublesome to the operator, the testicle being harder to get 
hold of. 



304 THE STOCK O^V^'EE's ADVISEE. 



SEASON. 

When possible to choose the season most favorable for the 
operation, the spring and fall should have preference. Yet I 
have castrated every month in the year, and operated on old stal- 
lions in the month of August after finishing the season in the 
stud, with seemingly as good results as in the spring and fall. 
The origling should have the preference of the season. The 
months of May and June and October and Xovember should be 
set aside for this work. 

RESTRAINT. 

There are two modes of restraint in securing the animal during 
the manipulation and removal of the testicle. The first mode is 
by keeping the animal quiet by means of a twich, and allowing 
him to remain in the standing posture while operating. The 
second mode is by throwing, Avith the ordinary side line, and 
drawing one foot up and tying. The method of throwing is the 
safest for all parties engaged. The horses injured by throwing 
are few. I have castrated over four thousand straight colts and 
old horses without a single accident or death resulting from the 
operation. Should hernia be present after castration, or follow 
the operation while in the standing posture, death of the animal 
would likely result. The manipulation for hernia cannot be 
properly made while standing. 

SIDELINES AND HOBBLING. 

Casting. — There are two methods in ordinary use — one by 
side lines and one by hobbles. Casting by side lines is the 
method chiefly employed for young animals, and in cases where 
the animal does not need to be closely confined. It is done by 
means of an inch rope fifty feet long, doubled, and the doubled 
end tied in a firm knot, having a loop about two feet in length. 
Prepare a bed of straw, and apply a twich to the horse's nose. 
Fasten a small rope or surcingle around Ms chest, as seen in 



DISEASES OF THE MALE OEGANS OF GENERATION. 305 

Figure 79. The loop in the side line is passed over the animal's 
head, on to the neck, like a collar with the knot undermos't. The 
two ends of the rope should be then taken up by the operator 
and his assistant, and both at the same time should pass the ends 
of the rope back through the forelegs. One end is taken to the 
outside of the near hind leg, below the hock, passed around to 
the inside under itself, and up to the neck loop and passed 
through it. The other is taken to the outside of the off hind leg, 
passed round to the inside under itself, and up to the neck loop 




Fig. 79— Casting with Sidelines. 

and passed through. Two or- three men then lay hold of the free 
end of the near rope and stand by the near quarter of the ani- 
mal. Other two or three men lay hold of the off rope, and stand 
in front. The twitch may now be removed, and the man stand- 
ing at the side free from the ropes grasp the bridle, pull him to 
the ground as all the men quickly pull the ropes, and drop him 
on his hind quarters. The animal being down, both legs should 
be drawn up near the neck. The rope is to be fastened around 
the fetlock and a hitch drawn over the foot on to the fetlock, 
and pulled tight. The fore foot may then be included in the 
tie, and a similar process gone through with on the legs of the 

opposite side. 
20 



306 



THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 



Hobbles. — Hobbles are obtained like tliose shown in Fig. 80. 
Thej are simply four leather straps with buckles. Three of them 
have an iron link at either end. The fourth one, the main hob- 
ble, has, in addition to the link, a socket for a screw bolt called 
the key, with which to secure the chain. A chain about teii feet 
long, capable of passing easily through the links, should be ob- 
tained. Its first sixteen links should be sufficiently large to 
allow the insertion of the key, and on its first link having at- 




Fig. 80 — Casting with Hobbles. 



tached a screwed socket fitted to the space. To the other end of 
the chain is attached a strong rope about ten feet long. The 
animal is to be led on the bed prepared and twiched. If the ani- 
mal is to be cast on the off side, a rope should be looped around 
the near fore arm and passed to the off side to be held by an 
assistant. The main hobble is applied to the near fore pastern, 
and the other straps to the other pasterns. Care should be taken 
that the buckles are to the outside, the points of the straps of 
the fore buckles pointing backwards, and the points of the straps 
of the hind ones pointing forward. The assistant at the main 



DISEASES OF THE MALE ORGANS OF GENERATION. 307 

hobble passes through its projecting link the end of the chain, 
which is then passed from the inside through the link of the off 
fore hobble, and from the outside through the link of the off 
hind hobble, and from the inside through the link of the near 
hind hobble, and up again to the main hobble, and screwed 
end secured in the space by the key. One or two men lay hold 
of the rope across his back, and three or four men lay hold of the 
free end of the rope and chain, and at a given signal all pull. 
The animal's fore legs are thus drawn together and he is pulled 
over by the men holding to the rope that crosses his back. The 
chain is drawn as tight as possible, and the key into the last link 
of the chain passed through the link of the main hobble, and 
then screwed up to prevent it slipping. It is unloosed by simply 
unscrewing the key and removal of the straps. 

ANATOMY. 

It is necessary that the operator understand the anatomy of 
the parts. As such cannot be given in this work, the reader 
must gain the knowledge by works on anato'my. The principal 
parts met with, however, will be pointed out. 

The testicular envelopes, passing from without inward, are 
represented by the scrotum, the dartos, the cellular coat, the 
tunica erythrodia, formed by the cremaster, and the fibrous and 
serous or vaginal sac. The scrotum is a continuation of the 
skin, and forms a complete bag, common to both testicles, which 
it contains and covers. It is divided into two lateral halves by 
a raphe or median line. It easily contracts to its shrunken con- 
dition, and may be closely drawn up into the inguinal canal. 

The second envelope, the dartos, is a prolongation of the 
tunica abdominalis, and is a yellow, fibrous structure, forming 
tw^o distinct sacs resting upon each other, and lying on the in- 
side of the scrotum, to which it is intimately adherent. 

The next envelope is represented by the tunica erythrodia, 
which is the cremaster muscle, and from the lumbar region ex- 
tends itself downwards into the inguinal canal, along the outside 



308 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

of the cord, and terminates towards the superior part of the 
testicles in fibers extending only over its external surface. This 
muscle rests on the fibrous coat, another envelope, of the testicle 
and cord. This muscle sometimes gives the operator some 
trouble in young colts, as it has the power of retracting and 
carrying the testicle into the depth of the groin. 

The fibrous testicular envelope, just referred to, giving attacl'- 
ment to the cremaster, is a thin membranous bag, elongated like 
the neck of a bottle around the spermatic cord which it en- 
velops, and dilated below, in order to enclose the testicle. 
Adhering to this coat internally is the serous coat. This last 
membrane is a duplicate of the peritoneum. 

The testicles are suspended at the end of the spermatic cord, 
and surmounted upon their superior border by the epididymis, 
the first part of the deferent canal, which is folded upon itself. 
This conveys the products of the secretion of the testicle into the 
vesiculse seminales, lodged in the pelvic cavity. The spermatic 
cord is formed by the spermatic artery, the deferent canal, and 
the circumvolutions O'^ the small testicular artery. 

METHODS. 

The methods have been numerous. I shall simply refer to the 
older and dwell more largely on the more recent ones. 

SIMPLE EXCISION. 

This is one of the oldest modes of operation, and though to a 
great extent discarded, still finds its application in the smaller 
animals. 

SCRAPING. 

This operation is said to have originated in India. It is but a 
modification of the preceding method, the only difference being 
the use of a dull knife instead of a sharp one to separate the 
cpats of the artery. 



DISEASES OF THE MALE ORGANS OF GENERATION. 309 

TEARING AND TORSION. 

These two methods are similar. In tearing, the cord was sub- 
jected to a certain amount of torsion by the hand, and then torn 
apart at a given point in its length, while in simple torsion we 
divide the cord by twisting it with instruments. 

FREE TORSION. 

This is where the band alone is employed in the operation. 

LIMITED TORSION. 

Limited torsion is the operation by which the division of the 
spermatic cord is effected by torsion made upon a given point, 
and limited by special instruments. Operation by the instru- 
ments was first introduced in 1883 by two French veterinarians. 

LINEAR CRUSHING. 

The ecraseur was brought into use by Mr. H. Bouley in the 
year 1857. It is the best method of operation known, and is 
more surgical than any other methods. The function of the 
instrument is to effect the division of living parts without hemor- 
rhage. The original ecraseur has received many improvements. 
The essential design is to produce a general constriction of the 
blood vessels, by which, their internal and middle coats being 
first divided, they may contract within the cavity of the vessel 
in such a manner as to close their cavity and form a sort of 
stopper to the artery. 

The operation is comparatively a very simple one. Take a 
firm hold of the testicle with the left hand, if the operator be 
right-handed, and with a bold stroke make an incision through 
the coverings of the testicle. The testicle being exposed, the 
chain of the instrument is to be placed around the cord, Avell up; 
the contraction of the chain, as it divides the tissues, should be 
slow. Several seconds should elapse between each rotation of 
the wheel. This divides the tissues in a proper manner. The 
animal is then set at liberty. 



310 THE STOCK OW^'Er's ADVISEE. 

FIRING. 

This mode of castration consists in applying to the cut end of 
the testicular cord an iron heated to a white heat, the actual 
cautery. This i? one of the oldest methods of operating, and is 
a good one. The cord may be severed with the hot iron. A 
clamp is placed on the artery just above vhere it is to be 
burnt off. 

THE METHOD BY THE CLAMPS. 

This is an ancient mode of operating, having been transmitted 
to us through manv aces. I think this a g-ood method of castra- 
tion vdien hernia is present; but for ordinary castration, it has 
its objectiou^. The removal of the clamps after the operation 
is a source of trottble. and besides it frequently is accompanied 
with hemorrhage. There is a possildlity of the animal running 
into brush and teariug off the clamps. And then the weight of 
the clamps often causes champignon, a condition Avhich I have 
never seen follow an operation with the ecrasetir, or by ligature. 
The method of operation has been described in the chapter on 
hernia. 

THE LIGATURE. 

This method of castration consists in the application of a cir- 
cular ligature upon the entire cord, or a portion of it, for the 
purpose of completely closing it aud the various parts entering 
into its formation. This method Avas practiced as far back as 
1734. The operation has several varieties — that of the cord with 
its envelopes; that of the cord only, either by the covered or 
uncovered method: that of the spermatic artery alone; that of 
the efferent canal, and that by the subcutaneous process. Among 
all methods of castration by ligature, none of them has been sub- 
jected to sufficient practical test such as would justify a strong 
recommendation or unqualified approval. 



DISEASES OF THE MALE ORGANS OF GENERATION. 311 



CRUSHING OF THE TESTICULAR CORD. 

This consists of crushing the spermatic cord with a hammer; 
the vessel continuing^ meanwhile, to be covered with its enve- 
lopes. It was first used in the year 1826, and is most commonly 
practiced in some French districts. 

DOUBLE SUBCUTANEOUS TORSION. 

This method is practiced in the southern part of France. The 
position of the testicle is so changed that its lower extremity is 
made to take the place of the upper, the cord is subject to a cer- 
tain degree of tortion, and then the testicle is restored to its 
normal position, to undergo a process of atrophy which destroys 
its power of secretion by physiological action. The operation is 
much easier performed in ruminants than in solipeds. 

CASTRATION OF CHRIPTORCHIDES. 

The abnormal development of animals in which the testicles 
have failed to make their appearance by descending through the 
inguinal canal into the bags, is quite commonly met with in 
horses, the animal being then known as a ridgling, or original. 
The testicle may be found in the inguinal canal, or only remain- 
ing close to its superior opening, or floating in the abdominal 
cavity. 

MODE OF OPERATION. 

I will here give my method of operating, as it may be of in- 
terest to the reader. This operation requires a thorough knowl- 
edge of the anatomy of the parts, which can only be obtained by 
dissection. 'No one should attempt the operation unless thor- 
oughly familiar with the parts. 

The animal should be cast with the side lines and both hind 
feet tied to the fore ones. Place the animal on his back, make an 
incision about six inches long in the scrotum where the testicle 
is normally situated. Then divide the second layer of the cover- 



312 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

ings of the testicle, the dartos. Care should be taken in doing 
this to avoid the large venous branches which abound in the 
region. If these veins be cut the blood will interfere with the 
operation. 'Next tear the loose cellular tissue, that lies imme- 
diately under the dartos, with the fingers until the ring is felt. 
N^ow introduce the hand into the inguinal canal, and separate it 
as much as possible by passing the finger around the external 
surface. The opening is made lengthwise and of sufficient width 
to allow of the passage of the testicle. When situated high up in 
the ring, it is frequently difficult to grasp it and keep it suffi- 
ciently steady in position to permit the free use of the bistoury. 
The testicle should be gently drawn out and removed with the 
ecraseur. If the testicle is found to be in the abdominal cavity 
the surgeon should introduce his hand, with the fingers united 
in the form of a cone, into the external inguinal ring, and care- 
fully force them upward towards the external angle of the ilium, 
resting them upon the crural arch. He soon reaches the closed 
superior inguinal ring, feeling only the peritoneal membrane, 
where it is readily torn. The opening here generally must be 
large enough to permit the passage of the entire hand. Usually 
the testicle, epididymus, vas defferens, or the blood vessels are 
found floating near the torn opening in the peritoneum. If it 
cannot be felt near the opening, the hand must be carried above 
the neck of the bladder, towards the end of the deferent canal, 
which must be followed until the epididymus or the testicle is 
found. When found it must be carefully brought outwards by 
a slow and steady traction upon the testicle itself. The testicle 
should be removed by the use of the ecraseur, or by ligature. 
The wound, externally, should be closed by at least a half dozen 
interrupted sutures in order to guard against hernia. I have 
had a case of hernia resulting from the abdominal operation, 
caused by the horse rolling after the operation and getting his 
feet fast under the manger, breaking the sutures. This seldom 
happens, but a sufficient number of sutures should be used in 
order to avoid the possibility of the bowels escaping and being 



DISEASES OF THE MALE OEGANS OF GENERATION. 313 

trampled when hernia does take place. In concluding this sub- 
ject, I must say that the method of castration with the ecraseur 
has every advantage, with none of the disadvantages, of the other 
methods of operating, and before many years it will be practiced 
almost to the exclusion of other ways. 

The masculator is the latest instrument for castration. It was 
introduced several years ago, and is on the order of a pair of 
scissors. It acts on the same principal as the ecraseur, but is a 
quicker method. In any method of castration, the operator 
should thoroughly wash the sheath before the horse is allowed 
to get up. 

ATTENTION OF THE CASTRATED HORSE. 

The wound simply requires to be kept clean. The closing of 
the edges of the wound is to be carefully prevented by the intro- 
duction of the finger between them. If they close too soon, a 
swelling will take place about the third or fourth day, and the 
animal will walk stiff. All old horses should be worked in about 
twenty-four hours after the operation and kept at light, easy 
work. If this be done, the danger of losing an old hor&e is no 
greater than with a colt. 

RESULTS OF CASTRATION. 

A restless disposition is shown on the part of old horses, who 
may paw and show signs of restlessness. These symptoms sub- 
side by simply exercising the horse. 

Tearing the Clamps. — This results from the tail getting 
fast in the clamps, or the colt running through brush and tear- 
ing them off. The result of this is the appearance of a hemor- 
rhage from the spermatic artery, which can only be controlled by 
a reapplication of the clamps, or by other means Avhich will be 
considered later. 

HEMORRHAGE. 

Hemorrhage may take place, as stated before, by tearing off 
the clamps or from other causes. 



314 THl STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

Treatment. — AVhen caused by tearing off the clamps or at 
tlie time of their removal, it may be checked by the reapplica- 
tion of the clamp. But if the cord be retracted into the inguinal 
canal and cannot be reached, the checking of the flow must be 
tried by the apj)lication of cold water. The hose should be turned 
on the parts, or an iced sponge should be used. In other cases 
it may be necessary to pack the cai^ity with balls of oakum dip- 
ped in a solution of the perchloride of iron, the whole being kept 
in place by a suspensory bandage. If this fail, the animal must 
be cast and the artery ligatured. 

SWELLING OF SCROTAL REGION. 

The treatment of this condition we have referred to before. 
It must be remembered that some swelling is only normal. But 
when the swelling is severe the parts are to be bathed with, warm 
water and scarified. 

GANGRENE. 

This is a result that may follow any operation. It may be 
looked for from the fourth to the eighth day. The Avound will 
be cold, insensible, with a crepitating feeling, and will give off 
an offensive odor; in the place of healthy pus there will be a 
sanious, bloody, and offensive discharge. The animal becomes 
thirsty, with loss of appetite, fetid mouth, mucous membrane of 
a livid hue, weakened pulse, and increased respiration and tem- 
perature. 

Treatment. — Remove all the mortified parts at once, to pre- 
vent absorption of gangrenous matter. A blister should be used 
over the swelling. The parts must be subjected to the actual 
cauterv at white heat. Disinfectine: agents should be used such 
as the zinc, lead and acid lotion. Iodoform should be dusted into 
the wound. Solution of bichloride of mercury should be used 
in proportions of one drachm of mercury to a pint of water. The 
permanganate of potash may be used in a five per cent solution. 
Stimulants as ammonia should be used internally in ounce doses 
every four hours. 



DISEASES OF THE MALE ORGANS OF GENEEATION. 315 

ABSCESS. 

These form from too rapid closure of the wound. They rtiay 
be prevented bj carefully introducing the finger in the wound. 
If they have formed, a free incision should be made into the 
cavity and the abscess attended to. 

CHAMPIGNON. 

This consists of an indurated condition of the end of the cord, 
of a tumefied character, varying in size and extent and slow in 
growth. It may extend as far up as the upper inguinal opening, 
or beyond it. It is in some cases as large as a man's fist, and 
sometimes occurs on both sides. 

It often follows the operation by clamps. I have never seen 
it follow the operation by ecraseur. When called to operate on 
a champignon, I have always found, on gaining a history of the 
case, that the animal was castrated by the clamp method. I 
think it is due to the weight of the clamps pulling on the cord, 
or from pulling while removing them. In more than three thou- 
sand horses that I have castrated with the ecraseur I have never 
known of a case of champignon following; nor have I ever been 
called upon to remove a champignon where I could trace it to 
the use of the ecraseur. 

Symptoms. — It develops itself at the cut extremity of the cord 
as a granulating mass, or a red color varying in size, its growth 
allowing the cicatrization of the skin to progress in such a man- 
ner that it forms a point of attachment from which the tumor 
seems to proceed. There may be swelling of the parts, and the 
animal travels stiff in the hind legs. Fistulous tracks may be 
seen on the surface of the scrotum. If the parts be examined 
the tumor can be easily felt. The tumor may extend as high up 
as the sublumbar region; in such cases the exact nature of the 
growth can only be ascertained by an examination per rectum. 

Treatment. — The best method of removing the tumor is by 
the use of the ecraseur. An incision is to be made parallel with 



316 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

the median line, when the tnmor and the cord are carefully dis- 
sected and separated from their attachment. When it extends 
far up, the attachments may be displaced Avith the fingers. The 
chain is to be placed on the cord above the base of the tumor, 
and amputation is completed by slow pressure upon the cord. The 
operation being finished, the parts are left in the condition of a 
simple wound. A ligature may be used, and so long as the upper 
portion of the cord, which retains its healthy structure, can be 
reached, the application of the ligature is not attended with much 
difficulty. 

HERNIA FOLLOWING CASTRATION. 

This subject has been dealt with in the preceding pages of this 
work. 

PERITONITIS. 

This is the most frequent and most serious complication. It 
generally results from exposure to cold, but it may be seen where 
all care has been taken. It manifests itself between the second 
and third day after an operation. 

Symptoms. — The animal is dull and refuses all food; the sup- 
puration of the wound ceases; the bags and surrounding parts 
become the seat of a warm, hard, and painful swelling. The 
animal stands with his four legs brought close together, the back 
is stiff and arched, the flanks are corded, the abdomen painful, 
the pulse hard, small, and increased. There are slight, colicky 
pains; the symptoms increase and the animal dies about the sixth 
day. For treatment, see Peritonitis. 

TETANUS. 

Tetanus may follow the operation of castration, and generally 
proves fatal. It may occur irrespective of the method employed, 
or condition of the animal at the time of operating; hence the 
surgeon performing the operation should not be blamed. The 
disease usually appears about the ninth day, or when the wound 
begins to heal. For symptoms and treatment, see Tetanus. 



DISEASES OF THE MALE ORGANS OF GENERATION. 317 



AMAUROSIS. 

This is a sequel of castration, having been known to follow 
cases where hemorrhage from the small testicular artery had 
occurred. The condition is incurable. 

The reader should not come to the conclusion, after reading the 
various results of the operation, that it is a serious one. It is a 
very trivial one. Out of thirty-three hundred operations with 
the testicles in the scrotum, castrated at all seasons of the year 
and all ages, I have not had any of the conditions enumerated, 
except swelling from the wound closing too soon. 

CASTRATION OF FEMALES. 

Time of Operation. — The best time to perform the operation 
upon cows is from the sixth to the eighth year, or after they 
have had their second or third calf. The cow should not be in 
heat or pregnant, and the time selected should be from forty to 
sixty days after calving. 

Tw^o methods have been practiced. The original method was 
that of removal through the flanks, which, however, has fallen 
into disuse. The Charlier method of removal through the vagina 
is the process altogether to be preferred. It is very simple, and 
consists of inserting the hand into the vagina until the neck of 
the uterus is reached. Press against the neck of the uterus with 
the hand in order to stretch the walls of the vagina. Be sure 
that it is well stretched; then with a bistoury pierce the vaginal 
walls about two inches above the neck of the uterus. The in- 
cision should be three and a half inches in length, and made from 
below upwards and backwards. Now pass the fingers through 
the opening and feel for the ovaries, which will be found floating 
at the extremity of their ligaments, toward the entrance of the 
pelvis, below on each side and a short distance from the incision. 
Grasp the ovary and draw it carefully into the vagina and re- 
move it with the ecraseur. 

No further treatment is required beyond careful dieting. The 



318 THE STOCK owner's ADVISEE. 

operation is a very simple one, and can be done while the animal 
is standing in a narrow stall. There are no complications fol- 
lowing the operation. 

CASTRATION OF SWINE. 

In males, the best and most convenient method where the ani- 
mal is large is by use of the ecraseur. Small animals may be cas- 
trated by the method of simple excision, with which all are fa- 
miliar. 

In females, the animal must be prepared by securing upon the 
right side in order to expose the left flank; the incision is made 
after the bristles have been clipped off in a vertical position. The 
left leg should be carried backwards, the head inclined on a 
plank. The incision, from two to three inches in length, should 
be made with a single stroke of the knife, without dividing the 
peritoneum, which should afterwards be torn with the fingers, or 
lifted with the forceps and cut. To find the ovaries the operator 
introduces the index finger of the right hand between the verte- 
bral column and the intestines and explores the lumbar region. 
When the ovarian sac is found, he presses it against the abdomi- 
nal wall, and causes it to slide by pushing towards the opening, 
where it is caught. In the same way the right ovary is brought 
out and both scraped from their attachment and the sac returned 
to the abdomen. 

In old animals both ovaries must not be exposed outside to- 
gether, but each must be returned when removal of the ovary 
connected wdth it has been effected. 

When operating, if the animal is found to be in a state of 
pregnancy, the proceeding must be discontinued, the patient 
kept quiet, and the operation postponed. 

DOGS. 

The male is operated on by simple excision, tortion, ligature, 
or ecraseur. The females are castrated on the side and under the 
abdomen. The operation on the side requires about the same 



DISEASES OF THE MALE ORGANS OF GENEEATIOI^. 319 

manipulation as for sows, with the exception that the incision is 
made lower down, more forward, and nearer to the last rib. The 
objection to this method is that it is generally necessary to ope- 
rate on both sides. I operate along the median line under the 
belly, and afterwards close the wound with a sufficient number 
of interrupted sutures. I think this method superior in all cases, 
and the wound does not look so badly. 

The best method of casting the horse for removing the tes- 
ticles is by the simple side lines. An inch rope fifty feet in 
length is doubled, and the doubled end is tied in a firm knot, 
making a loop of about two feet in length. The horse is led out 
on a bed of straw or grass, and a twitch applied on the nose. Put 
a surcingle around the body. The loop of the big rope is now 
placed over the animal's head on the neck like a collar, with the 
knot undermost, ^ow tie a small rope or strap around the sur- 
cingle and rope around the neck, connecting the two for the pur- 
pose of preventing the rope slipping over the head. This should 
be tied on both sides. Let an assistant take one end of the rope 
and the operator the other, and pass the ends through between 
the forelegs. The rope should be passed around the outside of 
the hind leg below the hock, passed around between the hind 
limbs, and brought out under itself and carried up under the 
neck loop and passed through it. Two or three men should then 
lay hold of the rope on the left side of the horse, if the operator 
be right-handed. The operator and an assistant should take hold 
of the rope on the right side of the horse and stand near the 
quarter of the animal. The operator should give the command 
to pull. The animal's hind legs are thus drawn under him, and 
he falls on his quarters ; the ropes at the same time slipping down 
into the hollows of the heels. If the man at the head be handy, 
he will now complete the act by pulling the head to the ground 
and holding it there. The operator should now pull the foot 
tight up on the neck. The rope is then passed around the fet- 
lock, and a hitch drawn over the fetlock and pulled tight. This 



320 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

is all the tieing needed in the castration of young horses. The 
"under rope should be left loose, and where the testicle is hard to 
get at, the foot in the slack rope should be pushed back in order 
that the manipulations may be easier. 

In strong horses and origlings all four feet should be tied. 



xxy. 

DISEASES OF THE FEMALE ORGANS OF GENERATION. 

METRITIS. 

Metritis, or inflammation of the womb, occurs in all mammalia. 
In the mare it is usually a result of improper obstetrical instru- 
ments during the act of parturition. It may be caused by ex- 
posure to cold or damp weather soon after foaling. If the whole 
of the womb surface is affected, death will probably be the ter- 
mination. 

Symptoms. — First, an uneasiness, which increases. Soon the 
animal will lie down and roll. There will be arching of the back, 
an increased temperature and pulse beats. The appetite is lost, 
bowels constipated, and urine is passed frequently. Occasionally 
a reddish or brownish fluid escapes from the vagina. The coun- 
tenance becomes anxious, and sweat breaks out on the body. 
Examination per rectum or through the vagina reveals increased 
heat of the womb. Inflammation of the womb in the virgin ani- 
mal rarely or never occurs. 

Treatment. — If the pulse is strong and bounding, twenty 
drops of the tincture of aconite should be used. Opium pulver- 
ized in drachm doses should be given to allay pain. Belladonna 
in drachm doses or the hypodermic injection of morphia may be 
used for the same purpose. Enemas of tepid water should be 
freely used. The cavity of the uterus should also be injected 
with tepid water containing a little tincture of opium. Warm 
fomentations to the abdomen over the region of the womb are 
beneficial. If the discharge continues, the womb should be in- 
jected three times a day with one part of carbolic acid to forty 
parts of water; or a weak solution of sulphate of zinc may be 
injected — four drachms of zinc to a pint of water. 
21 ( 321 ) 



^22 THE STOCK owner's ADVISEK. 

LEUCOREHEA. 

This is a disease of the mucous membrane of the uterus, and is 
characterized by an outpouring of a ^dscid and milky discharge. 
It is caused from some inflammation of the mucous membrane of 
the parts. It is common in old and debilitated animals. 

Symptoms. — A Avhite, glairy discharge from the vulva, run- 
ning down the legs. It is generally noticed when the animal 
starts off after standing for some time. It is seen in cattle, asso- 
ciated with tuberculosis. Ovarian disease also gives rise to leu- 
corrhea. 

Teeatmext. — Give good food and administer tonics. Copaiba 
balsam and belladonna in drachm doses should be used to arrest 
the discharge. Give twice a day. The womb should be injected 
with a solution of carbolic acid, one to sixteen, at first, and after- 
wards milder solution may be used. 

VAGINITIS. 

Inflammation of the vagina may be due to contagious influ- 
ences, dilficult parturition, and injuries produced during coition 
on account of the penis of the stallion being large. 

Sympto^is. — The mucous membrane will be found to be hot 
and painful, and soon a discharge is seen. 

Treatmext. — Give six drachms of aloes, or a quart of linseed 
oil, and follow with ^ther nitricei, ounce one : potassium nitrate, 
drachms three. Twenty-drop doses of tincture of aconite may 
be used. A decoction of poppy heads with a small amount of 
zinc sulphate is beneficial as an injection. If the discharge con- 
tinues, iodine and iron in drachm doses of each should be given 
three or four times a day internally. 

TUMORS. 

Tumors of various kinds are occasionally met with in the 
uterus. They occur in old horses; in the majority of cases it is 



DISEASES OF THE FEMALE ORGANS OF GENEKATION. 323 

not worth while to remove them. If the animal be a valuable 
one, they may be removed by the surgeon. 

HYDROPS UTERI. 

Dropsy of the uterus consists of an accumulation of fluid 
within the cavity of the womb. I have seen the oestrual fluid 
retained by the hymen in young virgins. The animal looks as 
though she was pregnant, but she finally reduces, and on examin- 
ing no fetus will be found in the uterus. 

Treatment. — Draw off the fluid wdth the catheter. If a 
catheter is not at hand, a veterinary surgeon should be called in. 
After w^ithdrawal of the fluid, the uterine cavity should be in- 
jected with a solution of carbolic acid — one part of acid to twenty 
of water. Powd. gentian, three drachms; powd. sulphate of iron, 
three drachms; powd. nux vomica, one drachm, should be given 
in the feed. 

ABSCESS. 

Abscesses occur in connection with the vulva, being the result 
of injuries. Treat as an abscess in any other part. 

VULVA CLOSURE OF THE LIPS. 

This is of rare occurrence, but may follow parturition, injury 
or debility. 

Treatment. — Separate the lips of the vulva with the fingers. 
If this is not effectual, the knife should be used, and a pledget of 
tow saturated wdth the carbolic acid lotion should be inserted 
between the lips. It should be replaced after a few days. 

PROTRUSION OF THE VAGINA. 

This frequently occurs as a result of parturition, where the 
fetus has been dragged by force, constipation, injury, and de- 
bility. 

Treatment. — If dirty, wash with warm water containing tinc- 
ture of opium. The parts should be gently forced back to place 



324 THE STOCK OWXEk's ADVISER. 

and the hind quarters of the animal be elevated. It is sometimes 
necessary to place sutures in the lips of the vulva to keep the 
vagina in position. Astringent injections will be found useful. 
Strong doses of opium will relieve the straining. Two-ounce 
doses should be given. Enemas to clear out the rectum should 
be given. Give light diet and improve the condition by using 
tonics. 

CLITORIS. 

This becomes diseased in various ways, and but little can be 
done for it. In some cases it may be necessary to remove it, but 
this should never be done except in cases of extreme necessity. 

OVARIAN DISEASES. 

We have enlargement of the ovaries and tumors of a fibrous 
or encysted character in connection with them. It occurs in 
older cows and mares that have been bred several times. 

Symptoms. — The mare either refuses the horse or allows her- 
self to be covered a number of times^ but fails to conceive. 
Oestrum may be regular, but may extend over a longer period 
than it should. There will be irritation of the urino-genital sys- 
tem and a slio'ht dischar2:e of mucus from the vulva. The ani- 
mal tires easily. Enlargement of the ovaries may be detected by 
examination per rectum. The condition can only be remedied by 
a surgical oper.ation, removing the diseased ovary. 

DROPSY OF THE OVARIES 

Sometimes is seen, not accompanied by any well-marked symp- 
toms, except the general symptoms of ovarian disease. 

Treatment. — The fluid should be removed by puncturing the 
ovary and drawing off. Drachm doses of iodide of potash should 
be given after the fluid has been withdrawn, and should be con- 
tinued for six or eight days. 



DISEASES OF THE FEMALE ORGANS OF GENERATION. 325 

OESTROMANIA. 

A perpetual bulling in the cow is due to some abnormal condi- 
tion of the ovaries. They never conceive, and are always ready 
for the male. 

Treatment. — Two ounces of the tincture of opium may allay 
the symptoms. Iodide of potassium and iron may be tried, one 
drachm of each twice a day ; but it is best to remove the ovaries. 

NYMPHOMANIA. 

This condition is similar to oestromania, and is remedied in the 
same way. 



XXVI. 
FEEDING THE SICK. 

I propose to give here a brief practical summary of tlie 
methods of feeding sick animals. The proper feeding in acute 
diseases, accompanied with high fever, varies to some extent ac- 
cording to the individual affection, but is subject to general prin- 
ciples which are sufficient practical guides for most cases. When 
an acute febrile stage is very severe and temporary, it is usually 
associated with complete anorexia, which the nurse may obey 
with safety. After, however, the first day or two of such an 
attack, and when the febrile reaction is prolonged, a loss of appe- 
tite, amounting even to disgust with food, is no excuse for absti- 
nence. The amount of nourishment received by the body is 
measured, not by the amount of food put into the stomach, but by 
the amount which is assimilated; and in febrile complaints an 
effort must be directed not to the filling of the stomach, but to 
obtaining as large an assimilation of food as possible, without 
disturbing the alimentary canal. Any symptoms of gastric or 
intestinal disturbance should be the signal for immediate lessen- 
ing of the food. Excessive tympany, or an increased diarrhoea 
from over-feeding, should not be overlooked, nor attempt made 
to remove the symptoms by medicine. Such practice is exceed- 
ingly reprehensible. In febrile diseases the feeding should be at 
short intervals, with small amounts of liquid foods of a nutritious, 
easily digested character. The feeding of sick animals has not 
received deserved attention, and as a result many an animal has 
been lost that otherwise could have been saved. 

It may be set down as a general rule that all foods given in 
protracted febrile states should be in liquid form. In all febrile 
cases alcohol in some form should be given with the food. Alco- 
holic liquors in moderate amounts stimulate the stomach and aid 
digestion and absorption, but in large amounts interfere with 
these processes. 

( 326 ) 



FEEDING THE SICK. 



327 



MILK FOOD. 

Of all liquid foods, milk is the best and the most generally 
applicable to the treatment of disease. Cows' milk contains, in 
round numbers, 87.5 parts of water, 3 parts of caseine, 0.75 parts 
of albumen, 3.6 parts of fat, 5 parts sugar, and 0.07 of inorganic 
salts. One pint of milk contains in round numbers 0.6 ounces of 
solid albuminous substance, 0.6 ounces of fat, and 0.8 ounces of 
sugar. When four quarts of milk are taken in the course of 
twenty-four hours, about five ounces of fat are digested. It may 
be necessary to skim the milk when the amount of fat is too great 
for the alimentary canal to digest. Milk leaves behind no fecal 
matter, and its use, therefore, frequently produces constipation. 
In case of diarrhoea, if the milk be boiled fifteen minutes, it will 
arrest the ailment. There are very useful, nutrient, and stimu- 
lating foods prepared with alcohol in milk as follows: 

Wine Whey. — Bring half a pint of milk to the boiling point; 
add half a pint of sherry wine, and allow it to stand in a warm 
place for five minutes; strain and sweeten to taste. It contains 
very little nutriment, but is sometimes tolerated by the stomach, 
which refuses other food. 

Milk Punch. — Take half a pint of milk; pour into it from a 
dessertspoonful to a tablespoonful of brandy, rum, or whiskey, 
according to the need of the patient. This preparation represents 
all the nutritive value of milk and the stimulating effects of 
liquor. A tablespoonful of lime water should always be added 
to it before putting in the brandy. 

Eggnog. — Eggnog is a rich, highly nutritive liquid, but should 
be used in very small quantities. The yelk of one egg may be 
added to half a pint of milk, afterwards half an ounce to an 
ounce of brandy and the white then beaten in. 

Carbonic acid water added to milk is a very good food. 

Liquid meat foods are valuable in our patients, especially for 
delicate dogs. Liquid meat foods are either raw or cooked. Of 
the raw foods meat juice is the best. This is made by selecting 
lean from the round of beef, cutting it into small pieces, and 



328 THE STOCK owner's ADVISEE. 

pressing the juice in a press of sufficient power, sucli as now can 
be purchased at any of the large drugstores. Liebig's beef tea is 
made by adding seven ounces of water and three or four drops 
of hydrochloric acid to one and a half pounds of lean beef, allow- 
ing it to stand one hour, passing through a hair sieve, and Avash- 
ing out the meat with three ounces of water. This is very weak, 
and must be given in large quantities. 

Meat juice is valuable where a powerful stimulant is desired 
and the digestive forces weak, as in the feebleness and collapse 
that follows distemper in dogs. 

In making beef tea a round of good beef should be selected 
and. cut in small cubes not larger than a half inch in diameter. 
It should then be. put to soak for two hours on the back of the 
range in an earthenware pipkin, with one pint of cold water, and 
allow to simmer for about fifteen minutes, and finally to boil for 
three minutes. After adding half a teaspoonful of salt and a 
little pepper the tea is ready for use. 

In making beef essence the meat should be prepared as for 
beef tea. It should be put into an earthenware bottle and loosely 
corked. This should be set in a pot of cold water and brought 
very gradually to the boiling point. It then should be allowed to 
boil for from twenty minutes to half an hour. 

Soups are liquid preparations which resemble beef tea and beef 
essence in containing the extractives of meat, but which differ 
from these preparations in containing various nutritive sub- 
stances. . 

To make chicken broth, take three pounds of chicken well 
cleaned, cover with cold water, boil from three to five hours 
(until the meat falls to pieces), strain, cool, and skim off the fat. 
To a pint of this add salt and pepper and two tablespoonsful of 
soft rice, which has been previously thoroughly boiled in water; 
bring the broth to a boil. In preparing rice, half a cupful should 
be boiled for thirty minutes with a teaspoonful of salt in a pint 
of water. To make mutton broth, take one pound of lean, juicy 
mutton, chopped fine, and proceed as with chicken broth. 



FEEDING THE SICK. 329 

Liquid meat foods are more valuable for dog patients than any 
other class. During convaiescencej starchy foods may be admin- 
istered. In chronic patients they are serviceable. Oatmeal por- 
ridge may be made by stirring two ounces (half a cup full) of 
crushed oatmeal into a pint of milk, previously warmed, and 
afterwards cooking twenty to thirty minutes, adding salt to the 
taste. 

Porridge and milk is very beneficial for little dogs suffering 
from chronic eczema and similar diseases where dieting is neces- 
sary. It is good for colts and convalescent horses. All the 
various porridges are somewhat similar, and all are beneficial. 

Peptonized milk is very beneficial in all patients, and is made 
by diluting a pint of milk with a quarter of a pound of water, 
heating to about 140° P., adding two teaspoonsful of liquor pan- 
creaticus with twenty grains of bicarbonate of soda, digesting in 
a warm place for an hour to ah hour and a half, and rising 
momentarily to the boiling point; at the temperature of 65° P. 
the digestion will usually require about three hours. 

Peptonized milk gruel is made by first preparing a thick gruel 
with arrow-root, oatmeal, sago or other similar articles, adding, 
while still hot, an equal quantity of milk, and subsequently cool- 
ing to 100 degrees; for each gruel, put twenty grains of the 
bicarbonate of soda and two tablespoonsful of the liquor pancrea- 
ticus or five grains of pancreatic extract, digesting in a warm 
place for two hours, boiling the mixture momentarily, and strain- 
ing. 

Peptonized beef tea is prepared by simmering half a pound of 
minced beef for two hours in a pint of water containing twenty 
grains of bicarbonate of sodium, allowing it to cool to about 100° 
P., digesting at this temperature with a tablespoonful of liquor 
pancreaticus or ten grains of pancreatic extract for three hours, 
decanting and momentarily boiling. 

RECTAL ALIMENTATION. 

In paralysis of the throat or structure of the oesophagus and 



330 THE STOCK OWNER S ADVISEE. 

similar diseases, feeding by the rectum becomes a matter of 
utmost importance. 

The method of preparing the injection of nutriment is as fol- 
lows: The pancreas of swine or cattle are carefully cleaned of 
fat and 50 to 100 grammes thereof cut into very small pieces. 
In like manner 150 to 300 grammes of beef are prepared. Both 
substances are then put into a dish with about 50 to 150 c. c. of 
luke-warm water, and stirred into a thick paste and drawn into 
a clyster pipe with wide opening. In many cases from 25 to 50 
grammes of fat may be added to the mixture. An hour before 
using this clyster, one of pure water should be given to clean out 
the intestines. 

As the horse advances in convalescence, there is nothing that 
he will relish so much as fresh grass. As his appetite returns, he 
should be given green grass in small quantities. If it be in the 
winter time, when grass cannot be procured, a tea made of good 
hay is very nourishing, to which a little salt is added. He may 
now take a small amount of boiled oats, an apple occasionally, or 
a bran mash. 

A bran mash is made by pouring boiling water over good 
wheat bran ; sufficient water must be added to wet the bran, then 
cover the surface with dry bran and allow to set for several hours, 
when it is ready for use. This is very beneficial, as it acts as a 
mild laxative to the bowels. 

The various foods herein recommended for the sick are of the 
greatest importance in treating diseases of the dog. The various 
preparations of beef tea and milk, given at small intervals and in 
small doses, are of great value. They must not be used too 
freely, and the effects must be watched. The stomach of the 
dog in some cases is very delicate. 

Delicate calves and all of the small ruminants should receive 
nourishment during sickness. If this is not done, their strength 
is soon exhausted; in this way many are lost that would other- 
wise recover. 



XXVII. 
GENERAL SYMPTOMS OF DISEASE. 

In addition to what has been said regarding special symptoms, 
other and general symptoms will here be given in order to give 
assistance in the diagnosis of disease. The general appearance of 
the visible mucous membranes is of great assistance to the veteri- 
narian in the diagnosis of disease. The natural color of the 
Schneiderian membrane, conjunctiva, and mucous membrane of 
the mouth is a pale red, or carnation. Any deviation from this 
is indicative of some disorder. A heightened color of the mem- 
brane is indicative of an over-excitement of the circulatory sys- 
tem. 

The appearance of the mouth offers the greatest aid to diag- 
nosis. If the mouth is red, it indicates an irritable and con- 
gested state of the digestive organs or forms of eczema. If 
yellow colored, with desquamation of its epithelium, it indicates 
Rinderpest. When the gums and lips become pale, it indicates 
the approach of death. Usually about two hours before death 
the membrane becomes pale; at intervals the normal redness par- 
tially returns, and finally the membrane is void of all circulation 
and color. Yellowness of the membrane indicates disease of the 
liver; a slate-colored appearance, a condition of the blood due to 
the poison of glanders; rusty color, some form of epizootic dis- 
ease; pink, or pink-eye, epizootic cellulitis; lividity, a carbonized 
or non-oxygenated condition of the blood, as in bronchitis and 
pulmonary congestion. 

A foul appearance of the tongue, so valuable an aid to diag- 
nosis in the dog, is rarely observed in the ox and horse. How- 
ever, in dyspepsia a foul condition of the membrane is seen in 
the horse and ox. An acid condition of the salivary secretion 
gives off a sour and fetid smell. Dryness of the mouth is indica- 
tive of inflammatory disease. 

( 331 ) 



332 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

Symptoms Afforded by the Pulse. — The pulse is the index 
to the patient's feelings. No branch of medicine is so important 
as the study of the pulse, as it indicates the treatment to be 
adopted. To understand the pulse thoroughly requires long and 
diligent practice, in which the sense of touch must be trained and 
cultivated. The normal and abnormal pulse must be taken and 
its variations noted. It is one of the many never ending studies, 
but by long practice and study we are enabled to understand the 
feelings and condition of the patient. 

The pulse is the beating of the arteries, and is usually taken at 
the jaw — the sub-maxillary artery, or on the inner side of the 
arm — the brachial artery. In the cow, whilst recumbent, the 
pulse may be very distinctly felt on the posterior part of the fore 
fetlock; in the dog, it is best felt at the femoral artery, on the 
inner surface of the thigh. The pulsations felt by the finger are 
principally due to the fact that the artery expands during the 
contraction of the heart, and returns to its previous condition 
during the relaxation of the organ. The variation of the normal 
pulse differs about ten beats. The standard is set at forty beats 
per minute. The normal pulse, therefore, would range from 
thirty to forty. Cow, forty to fifty; dog, eighty to one hundred, 
according to size. The pulse of the sheep ranges from seventy 
to eighty. 

AVe speak oi a pulse as being quick when the heart accom- 
plishes its contraction almost instantaneously; slow when there 
is a prolonged or slow contraction of the cardiac ventricles; an 
infrequent pulse, when it is associated with slowness. An inter- 
mitting pulse is that in which a pulsation is occasionally omitted. 
The volume of the pulse may be greater than usual, in which 
case it is said to be large, or it may be less than usual when it is 
said to be small. The feeble pulse, if associated with softness, the 
artery yielding readily to the finger, indicates general or cardiac 
debility. The small pulse may result in ansema, from congestion 
of some important organs, as the lungs, or from feeble contrac- 
tion of the heart. The hard pulse — hardness of the pulse — is the 



GENERAL SYMPTOMS OF DISEASE. 333 

condition in whicli the artery resists compression ; it results from 
contraction of the muscular coat of the arterial walls. Hardness 
of the puls-e is often associated with smallness. It is then termed 
corded^ wiry^ or thready. This pulse is seen in the early stages 
of inflammatory diseases. 

SYMPTOMS CONNECTED WITH THE RESPIRATORY 

FUNCTIONS. 

The respiratory movements may be quickened, difficult, 
labored, wheezing, roaring, stertorous, spasmodic, convulsive, 
irregular, slow, thoracic, or abdominal. 

Quickened breathing may be produced by any cause which 
accelerates the circulation of the blood, as exercise. 

Difficulty of respiration is a prominent symptom of disease, 
and is associated with all respiratory diseases, as inflammation of 
the lungs, pleura, larynx, and trachea. 

Stertorous Breathing — Snoring. — This breathing is a 
symptom of brain disease. When the inspirations are delayed 
and then performed with a sudden noise and jerking effort, with 
diminished susceptibility to outward impressions, it is a symptom 
of the approach of death. 

Abdominal breathing is performed by the animal holding the 
ribs in a fixed position, owing to pain in the chest. It is a symp- 
tom of pleurisy and other chest troubles. 

Thoracic breathing is where the abdominal muscles are pre- 
vented from taking part in the respiratory movements, an account 
of abdominal pain or obstruction. 

Irregular breathing is where there is a want of harmony in the 
expiratory and inspiratory movements, as in broken wind. 

COUGH. 

This renders some aid in diagnosis. Coughs are known as dry, 
moist, short, hacking, violent, spasmodic, those peculiar to broken 
wind, and roarers. 

The moist cough attends catarrh, bronchitis, and diseases 



334 THE STOCK owner's ADVISEE. 

where the secretions of the mucous follicles of the air passages are 
increased. 

The dry cough is usually present during the early stages of 
catarrhal affections^ as in pleurisy, etc. 

The thermometer is a great aid to diagnosis. The animal 
body is so constituted that neither heat nor cold will have any 
material influence on the temperature until vitality has ceased. 

The temperature of the body in the internal parts of the horse 
is from 99 to 102° F. In young animals the temperature is 
generally 102, while in very old animals it is as low as 97 or 98°. 
The surrounding atmosphere may cause some variation in tem- 
perature. The method of taking the temperature of the body in 
the lower animals is by introducing a properly registered ther- 
mometer into the rectum. 

Many practitioners use their hand in the animal's mouth and 
on the rectum to ascertain the amount of abnormal heat present. 
But there are cases where only the properly registered thermome- 
ter can be admitted. The method of measuring the heat by the 
thermometer holds a liighlv important position, not only in cases 
of illness where symptoms are present, but more particularly in 
the incubative staoes of contaaious or infectious diseases. The 
straight thermometer is the best instrument to use. It should be 
kept in the rectum three minutes, and may be tried twice. 



XXVIII. 
CONTAGIOUS DISEASES OF THE HORSE. 

A contagious disease may be defined as one induced by the 
operation of a specific virus termed a poison, which is conveyed 
by contact into the system of a healthy animal, producing a con- 
dition identical with that of the body from which it originated. 

An infectious disease is one which has the power of spreading 
itself by diffusion of the specific material through the air, and is 
not transmitted by actual contact with the diseased animal. 

GLANDERS AND FARCY. 

Glanders may be defined to be a malignant disease, contagious, 
and due to the introduction into the system, or of generation 
within it, of a specific virus, the bacillus mallei. They show their 
specific effect principally upon the Schneiderian membrane, but 
traces of the poisoti may be seen in the lungs and lymphatic 
glands. It is communicated to all animals except cattle and pigs. 
When it occurs in man it seems to increase in intensity and 
malignancy. Some veterinarians claim that it originates by 
contagion only, while others claim it is capable of spontaneous 
origin. I am inclined to believe that it originates spontaneously. 
Glanders may occur in four forms — namely: Acute glanders, 
chronic glanders, acute farcy, and chronic farcy. It arises from 
debilitating influences, such as exhausting diseases, overwork, 
bad food, and bad ventilation. 

Glanders and farcy are one and the same disease. The virus 
is identical in both forms of the disease. The discharge from the 
nose of a glandered horse when introduced into the system of 
other horses may in one produce glanders and in another farcy; 
while the pus from a farcy ulcer may produce in the inoculated 
animal glanders, farcy, or both. 

( 3.S5 ) 



336 



THE STOCK OWNEE S ADVISER. 



Contagion. — Glanders does not seem to be a highly contagious 
disease; cases are known where affected animals worked and stood 
by the side of healthy animals for months without transmitting 
the disease. Again, when once introduced into the stables, it is 
certain to spread among the horses there located. The vitality 
of the virus is wonderful, as it may be dried in air, remain in that 
condition for years, and on being rendered fluid is found to retain 
its virulence. The virus may be taken into the nasal chambers 

in the form of dust, and on be- 
coming moistened by the secretions 
inoculate itself. 

Period of Incubation. — The 
period of incubation is short. It 
generally shows itself in connection 
with the submaxillary glauds on the 
third dav after inoculation, and the 
discharge from the nostrils occurs 
from the third to the sixth day. In 
some cases it does not appear for a 
much longer period. 

Symptoms or Acute Glanders. — 
The disease is ushered in by rigors, 
usually followed by a discharge and 
ulceration of the mucous membrane 
of the nose. The temperature is as high as 106°, or some- 
times as high as 109°. The breathing is affected, the 
appetite fails, and the eyes are affected. The principal diag- 
nostic symptoms, however, are connected with the nasal cham- 
bers. There will be an abundant discharge from the nostrils of 
a fetid nature. The pituitary membrane at first is of a dark 
copper color, with patches of ecchymosis of a dark red hue. It 
gradually becomes paler, and the patches are rapidly converted 
into pit-like, ragged-edged ulcers, from which issues the dis- 
charge. The submaxillary lymphatic glands enlarge. Other 




Fig. 81 — Chronic Glanders. 



CONTAGIOUS DISEASES OF THE HORSE. 337 

lymphatic glands enlarge, burst, and discharge a purulent mate- 
rial. This form of glanders is rapidly fatal. 

Symptoms of the Chronic Form. — This form of glanders is 
the most common, and is frequently seen in old, debilitated ani- 
mals. The animal may be affected for some time without pre- 
senting any well-marked symptoms. The general health is 
scarcely affected. The submaxillary gland becomes intermit- 
tently swollen and hard. The nostrils finally become paler, and 
soon the starchy, glue-like discharge comes on. The discharge 
usually issues from one nostril, although it may issue from both. 
If the discharge is thrown into water it sinks readily. In chronic 
glanders, the ulcers in many instances are not present. There 
will usually be a slight irrita- ■ 
tion of the eye on the same 
side as the nostril that is dis- 
charging. In order to bring 
out the symptoms, ten drachms 
of aloes may be administered, 
when usually the symptoms 
become more marked. If a 
case is suspected, it should be 
isolated. Some of the nasal 
discharge may be inoculated 
in the hind limb; if glanders 
is present farcy will probably 
appear. 

Acute Farcy. — The signs 
are those of fever, the tem- 
perature ranging from 106° to 

108°. The first symptom to 

,,,,,,. . "^ ^ ,,. Fig. 82— Acute Farcy, 

attract attention is a swelling ° 

of the limbs. There is an engorgement of the whole limb, 

resembling the swelling of lymphangitis. The lymphatic 

glands will be enlarged, showing cords and buds. These buds 
22 




338 THE STOCK OWNEE S ADVISER. 

burst and become confluent. The buds are generally seen in 
groups and away from the articulation. 

Chronic Farcy. — The fever is not well marked; locally there 
Avill be ulcers on the outer and inner surface of the thigh. The 
buds range themselves in groups, and run in the same direction 
as the veins. It may affect the submaxillary glands and neck. 
Some eminent authors hold that particular forms of farcy and 
glanders can be cured. I do not believe that a pure case of glan- 
ders or farcy has ever been cured. Where cures are reported, 
there w^as mistake in the diagnosis. Isolating the animal for 
treatment is all A^ery good, and perhaps the symptoms can be re- 
moved for the time being, but the danger to human life requires 
immediate destruction. There is no doubt that the animal may 
transmit the disease when all external symptoms are removed. 
If the bacillus has ever been in the system, it remains there in 
spite of all treatment. AVe know of no medicine that will cure 
the disease. One working with a glandered horse should be care- 
ful that there are no abrasions on the hand, or that the discharge 
does not in any way come in contact with the mucous membrane 
of the eye or nose. 

Preventive treatment after the disease appears in a stable is of 
the greatest importance. The ventilation, food, and water should 
be looked after. The stables should be whitewashed. The wash 
should contain a pint of crude carbolic aoid and a half ounce of 
bichloride of mercury to each bucketful. The stall in which the 
affected animal occupied should be torn out and his harness burnt 
with it in a heap. The fittings should all be painted. All horses 
in the stable should be given at each meal two ounces of the hypo- 
sulphate of soda, or two drachms of the chlorate of potash. 

STOMATITIS PUSTULOSO. 

This is a contagious disease, seldom seen in this country. It is 
said to have occurred in Germany. It affected horses principally 
from four to five years old. The animals looked to be in a healthy 
^nd thriving condition, but on eating hay large quantities of 



CONTAGIOUS DISEASES OF THE HORSE. 



339 



saliva would flow from the mouth. The temperature of the skin 
is warm, the pulse 60, the respiration normal. They all eat 
heartily, but masticate and swallow with difficulty. There is 
abundance of saliva, a green discharge from the nostrils, water 
taken returns through the nose, and the Schneiderian membrane 
is of a rose color. The submaxillary glands enlarge, the mucous 
membrane becomes hot, and firm nodules make their appearance. 




Fig. 83— Stomatitis Pustuloso. 

These extend to the cheeks, tip of the tong-ue, inferior surface of 
the tongue and lips. They soon form ulcers and ultimately begin 
to heal. The disease runs a rapid course. The ulcers begin heal- 
ing about the sixth, and the animal gets clear of the disease, 
under treatment, in twelve or fourteen days. The disease is trans- 
missible to man and some of the lower animals. 

The disease greatly resembles glanders, but the close observer 
will see a vast difference from it. 



340 THE STOCK OWNER S ADVISEE. 

ANTHRAX. 

Anthrax seldom attacks the horses of this country. It is said 
to prevail in India to a great extent. Elephants and other ani- 
mals snffer with this trouble, and it is termed in that country 
Loodianna disease. 

Symptoms. — Dullness, a heavy, feeble step, falling prostrate. 
If the animal be standing, the head hangs down, resting on the 
manger. It sometimes stands back in the stall, and finally be- 
comes restive, stamps the foot, looks at the side, and shows other 
signs of colic. The disease comes on while at work; there will be 
great weakness manifested, a stiffness over the loins, and a stag- 
gering gait. The skin is hot, the muscles tremble, and there is 
a flow of saliva from the month. 

Great excitement sets in, and soon he becomes unconscious to 
all around. The conjunctiva is of a yellowish red color, the pulse 
small and thready, and the respiration irregular. The symptoms 
soon increase, the muscular force becomes exhausted, the animal 
falls to the ground, and finally dies. The disease may terminate 
in from six to forty-eight hours after manifestation of the first 
symptoms. 

The Symptoms When Tumors are Present. — Usually, when 
the fever begins, tumors form on the surface of the body. This 
is generally the first symptom noticed. They are developed prin- 
cipally in the subcutaneous areolar tissue. The development of 
these tumors is shoAvn by heat in the skin, standing out of the 
hairs, and crepitation. They may be felt, as large as a walnut, 
adhering to a pedicle at its base. They are painful, and the sen- 
sibility of the surrounding tissue is increased. AYhen lanced, the 
animal shows no pain, and a brownish or black fluid escapes, 
together with a fetid gas. These tumors may be found in any 
part of the body and in great numbers. 

GLOSS ANTHRAX. 

This is shown by tumors on the mucous membranes, and espe- 
cially are they seen in connection with the tongue or inside of the 



CONTAGIOUS DISEASES OF THE HOKSE. 341 

lips. They vary in size from that of a nut to a hen's egg, and 
are filled with serum. The tumors are of a yellowish-gray color 
resting on the surface of the mucous membrane. The tongue 
swells and hangs out of the mouth, taking a bluish, mulberry 
color. The swelling extends to the throat, and the animal dies 
from suffocation. 

Treatment. — Preventive is of the greatest importance. A 
seton inserted in the breast is recommended as the best preventive 
measure, with the addition of four drachm doses of chlorate 
of potash dissolved in the drinking water, or given in a drench 
dissolved in a pint of water. The pasture should be changed. 
If it occurs on a rich pasture change to a poorer one. The disease 
usually occurs on rich pastures, and on dry soils in damp seasons. 
If the disease is not fully developed, treatment may be tried. 
The tumors may be dressed with one part of carbolic acid to 
four parts of sweet oil. Three drachms of chlorate of potash to 
one pint of water should be given. Twenty drops of carbolic 
acid; glycerine, one-half ounce; water, one pint, should be tried. 

VARIOLA EQUINA, OR HORSE POX. 

This is an eruptive disease, similar to cow-pox affecting cows. 
The eruptions are preceded by a very slight fever. The eruptions 
appear on the skin over the whole body. Variola is transmissible 
from horse to horse, to the cow, and mankind. It is a very mild, 
benignant disease, and is not beneficially influenced by the action 
of medicine. 

STRANGLES 

Is a contagious disease peculiar to the horse. The disease may be 
induced by inoculation. It generally prevails in the springtime. 
It is accompanied by well-marked febrile symptoms, attacking 
young horses, and terminating in the formation of an abscess in 
the areolar tissue of the submaxillary space. It may affect horses 
of any age, but is not transmissible to man or other animals. 
There are two forms of strangles, the regular and irregular. The 



342 



THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 



irregular form is a very grave affection, malignant in its nature. 
In this form tumors may form in the mesentery or in any part of 
the body. I have seen pus pouring from more than two dozen 
abscesses at a single time in various parts of the body. The dis- 
ease rarely attacks the same animal more than once. 

Symptoms. — The first symptom of the disease is dullness; the 
animal is easily fatigued, and perspires on very slight exertion. 
The first decided symptom is difficult deglutition. The animal 

pokes his nose out, holding it in a stiff 
position. A well-marked fever is present, 
and soon a tumor makes its appearance 
in the inferior maxillary space, at first 
hard, but it enlarges and finally becomes 
soft, containing pus. When the acute 
febrile symptoms have subsided, a dis- 
charge from the nose takes place. The 
disease runs a course of eight or ten 
days. In eighteen or twenty days the 
animal is usually fit to put to work. The 
disease is seen in the spring months. 

T R E A T M E N T. — The treatment of 
strangles is very simple. Place the 
patient in a loose box, and give abundant pure air. The body 
should be well clothed. The diet should consist of easily digested 
food. Alcohol, on-e ounce, or nitrous aether, one ounce, should 
be given three times a day. Nitrate of potash in three-drachm 
doses should be given three times a day, dissolved in the drinking 
water or given in a drench. If the pulse is weak, a half ounce of 
alcohol may be given three times a day. The animal should be 
walked in the w^arm sun. The camphorated liniment should be 
applied to the swelling under the jaw, or turpentine, ammonia, 
and linseed oil, equal parts, may be used, and ultimately a fly 
blister. When the abscess begins to fluctuate, it should be lanced. 
If there are symptoms of suffocation the surgeon should be called 
in and a tracheotomy tube inserted. 




Fig. 84 — Regular 
Strangles. 



CONTAGIOUS DISEASES OF THE HORSE. 



343 



Irregular strangles should be treated in the same way locally; 
but constitutionally, an effort must be made to support the system 
by good food and tonics. The animal must be protected from 
the weather, and should receive the best attention. The horse 
should be made to inhale steam, with a little turpentine added to 
the water. The local lesions are much more severe than in the 




Fig. 85 — Irregular Strangles. 

first form. Tumors may arise over the face, neck, body, and be- 
tween the thighs. The flesh is lost rapidly, the hair falls out of 
the mane and tail, the discharge from the nose increases, the legs 
begin to swell, and the patient becomes affected with glanders 
and farcy. The horse should be removed to a healthy situation. 
He should be kept in a box by himself, and have a liberal allow- 
ance of hay or grass and bran mashes. Milk shoidd be given, or 
milk, eggs, and whiskey. See chapter on Eeeding Sick Animals. 



XXIX. 

EPIZOOTIC AND ENZOOTIC DISEASES OF THE HORSE. 

An epizootic disease is one that spreads rapidly, attacking large 
numbers of animals in a short space of time, and destroying 
many. An enzootic disease is one peculiar to certain districts, 
and results from local conditions. An epizootic disease originates 
independently of contagion or infection. An epizootic disease is 
sometimes conveyed, however, from one locality to another by 
animals which are or have lately been suffering from it. 

INFLUENZA. 

Influenza is an epizootic, febrile disease, attended with early 
and great prostration of strength and inflammation of the nasal, 
laryngeal, and tracheal mucous membrane. It is known by a 
number of names, as la grippe, epidemic catarrh, catarrhal fever, 
etc. 

The history of the disease extends far back into ancient days. 
Hippocrates, a Greek physician who lived four hundred years 
before Christ, and who was styled the "Father of Medicine," 
mentions the disease as occurring in the human at that age. Since 
the year 1299 the disease has had many outbreaks in this and 
foreign countries. To trace its early history and point out the 
dates of the different outbreaks is beyond the purpose of this 
book. 

Causes. — The causes are predisposing and exciting. The pre- 
disposing causes are sudden change in the temperature and badly 
ventilated stables. The disease is usually seen during the spring 
months, and occurs more frequently in low, swampy situations. 
Usually the first symptom noticed is dullness; rigors are present, 
the coat is rough, and a cough is present. The appetite fails, 

the mouth becomes hot and dry, the temperature runs up, cough- 

-^- (344) 



EPIZOOTIC AND ENZOOTIC DISEASE. 345 

ing becomes more violent, tlie bowels are constipated, the urine 
becomes scanty, and is darker than natural. The characteristic 
symptom of the disease is early debility and weakness, the animal 
staggering during the acute stages. He quickly becomes dull 
and languid, his strength leaving him the first few days of the 
attack. Sore throat is present, and the animal seems to suffer 
headache. The breathing is affected. Soon a discharge of a 
brownish-red color takes place from the nose. Pneumonia fre- 
quently follows influenza. If an animal suffering with influenza 
be worked before he has entirely recovered, and be caught in 
rain, pneumonia is almost certain to follow. Frequently abdomi- 
nal complications are noticed; the animal acts as though suffering 
with colic. Sometimes the liver is involved. This may be de- 
tected by a yellow tinge of the mucous membrane. There may 
be considerable swelling of the legs and sheath, and perhaps of 
the belly. Toward the termination of influenza, rheumatic com- 
plications often occur. In some cases this may be noticed in the 
early part of the disease. Few horses suffer from more than one 
attack during the same season. The disease usually does well. 
Aged, debilitated, or otherwise diseased horses are the ones to suc- 
cumb to the disease. 

Treatment. — The disease being a fever, must be allowed to 
run its course. The animal should have good ventilation and be 
protected from the heat and sun. If it be in winter, the body 
should be judiciously clothed and the legs bandaged. Pure cold 
water should be given freely, and he should have any food that 
he will take. The liquid foods mentioned in this work should be 
given, and especially those containing milk and alcohol. Medici- 
nal remedies consist in giving spirits nitrous aether in ounce doses 
three times a day. Nitrate of potash in half-ounce doses should 
be given for the first few days, and then followed with chlorate 
of potash in two-drachm doses three times a day. Medicines may 
be given in the drinking water, if the animal will take it that 
way. Stimulants should be given — liqua acetate of ammonia, 
two ounces in a pint of water, three times a day. Alcohol, wine, 



346 V THE STOCK OWNER S ADVISEE. 

beer, whiskey are all good. If the throat is sore, ammoniacal 
liniment should be used. If pneumonia complications are pres- 
ent, treat as for pneumonia. AVhere abdominal complications 
are present, two ounces of the tincture of opium may be given. 
Some cases may become dangerous from the laiynx becoming 
involved, rendering breathing very difficult. In such cases it 
may become necessary to call in the veterinary surgeon to insert 
the tracheotomy tube. If a troublesome cough remains after the 
disease has subsided, the ammoniacal liniment should be applied 
to the throat. 

PLEUEO-PNEUMONIA. 

This is an epizootic disease, consisting of an inflammation of 
the pleura and substance of the lung. It is accompanied by a low 
typhoid fever, which lasts from seven to fourteen days. This 
disease has prevailed to a very great extent in England and south 
of Britain. It attacks principally debilitated horses, but may 
attack the most robust. 

Cause. — Change of weather is the most usual cause, especially 
in the spring and summer months. It is generally believed that 
the disease is contagious and infectious. This mav be true in 
some forms of the disease, while in others it most assuredly is not. 

Symptoms. — The animal is dull, off its food, weak and dejected. 
The pulse will number from sixty to eighty beats per minute^ 
temperature 103° to 104°. A cough is present in the acute 
stages, the extremities are alternately hot and cold, the mucous 
membranes are dejected and of a rusty tinge. The mouth is foul 
and the abdomen is tucked up. The animal persistently stands, 
with liis nose poked out, his forelegs far apart; the breathing is 
short and labored, and he will groan if made to turn around. In 
some instances the Avhole body becomes stiff. Percussion and 
auscultation will cause pain, and there will be absence of sound 
over the diseased pleura. 

Treatment. — Place the animal in a comfortable stall, if that 
can be procured, free from draughts of cold wind. The body 



EPIZOOTIC AND ENZOOTIC DISEASE. 



347 



should be clothed according to the season of the year. The exter- 
nal treatment is of great importance, and consists of the applica- 
tion to the lung of four ounces of mustard to a half pint of water. 
An ordinary newspaper should be applied to the part while wet. 
Hot bran poultices should be applied to the lungs, with an occa- 
sional repetition of the mustard. Cool and fresh drinking water 
should be placed in the stall. The poultices may be put into ordi- 
nary wide bags, tied together and thrown across the horse's back. 
The poultice should be manipulated so as to cover equally the 
lung. It should be tied down with a long rope that will reach 
twice around the body, 
bringing it to bear on the 
anterior and posterior 
part of the bag. Where 
such treatment is em- 
ployed, not more than one 
in fifty will succumb to 
pleurisy or pneumonia. 
Aconite tincture, twenty 
drops, three or four times 
a day, in conjunction 
with one ounce of alcohol 
in a pint of water, should be administered. Sweet spirits of 
nitre in one-ounce doses may be given every four hours, or the 
liqua acetate of ammonia, in two-ounce doses, may be given. 
Nitrate of potash should be given in three-drachm doses in the 
early stages of the disease, and increased tO' one ounce in the 
later stages. During convalescence three drachms of gentian 
with three drachms of sulphate of iron may be used in the feed 
night and morning. In this disease the liquid foods recom- 
mended for the sick are of the greatest importance, especially 
the preparations of m^k. 




Fig. 86— The Manner of Applying a 
Poultice to the Lungs. 



348 THE STOCK owner's advisee. 

PURPURA HAEMORRHAGICA. 

This is an eruptive, non-contagious fever, occurring as an idio- 
pathic disease, but most generally resulting from certain debili- 
tating diseases. 

Symptoms. — The primary manifestations are uncertain. In 
some cases swelling of the hind limbs is the first symptom noticed. 
In other instances the approach of the disease is shown by a few 
purple spots in the nostrils. Soon the purple spots are seen thick, 
in connection with the mucous membrane. Some of them are 
not much larger than a pin-head, but they grow larger and often 
become confluent, and cause sloughing of the mucous membrane. 
The pulse varies in character; in some cases quickening, in others 
infrequent. The temperature rises to 104-106° F. When the 
fore limbs are affected, the nose and head swell. This sometimes 
reaches such dimensions that there is danger of suffocation. The 
swellings disappear at one place and reappear in another. In 
horses with white heads the purple spots may easily be seen. If 
the nose is much swollen, the breathing will be difficult and blood 
will escape from the nose as a result of sloughing of the menj- 
brane. The urine is generally high, of a dark color. The disease 
may occur without the external manifestations, but such cases 
are very rare. 

Treatment. — In the treatment of this disease it is of great 
importance that the animal be quartered in pure, healthy atmos- 
phere, the box dry, clean, and, if possible, in the sunlight. Pur- 
pura, being a disease in which the blood is Yery much altered, 
with loss of a portion of its product of albumen and fibria, re- 
quires the administration of potassium chlorate in ounce doses, 
given once or twice daily. The chlorate of potash may be reduced 
one-half on the second day. Turpentine every alternate day, in 
two-ounce doses, may be given. Spirits of nitrous sether, in ounce 
doses, may be given with benefit if the heart is weak. 

The local treatment consists in the application of zinc and lead 
or the acid lotion frequently referred to. Fo^nentations may be 



EPIZOOTIC AND ENZOOTIC DISEASE. 349 

used to relieve pain. A solution of the perchloride of iron makes 
a good local application, in proportions of one ounce of iron to a 
pint of water. 

SCARLATINA. 

This is a febrile disease, characterized by an eruption on the 
skin. Spots are seen on the nose and throat. Suppuration occurs 
in various parts of the body, and especially in connection with 
the under jaw. The disease much resembles purpura. The sore- 
ness of the throat, which is always present in scarlatina, gives it a 
distinction from purpura. This sore throat is accompanied with a 
cough, which will recede with the eruptions on the fourth or 
fifth day. 

Treatment. — Treatment is similar to purpura, with the ex- 
ception that poultices and warm fomentations are to be used to 
the throat. A liniment composed of equal parts of ammonia, 
turpentine, and linseed oil may be applied to the throat in the 
place of poultices. During convalescence the animal should be 
exercised lightly and given good, nutritious food. 

EPIZOOTIC CEREBRO-SPINAI MENINGITIS. 

Definition. — An inflammation of the brain, spinal cord, and 
their coverings. It is a non-contagious epizootic disease of the 
Zymotic class, and has been confined principally to the United 
States. In the year 1871 it played great havoc in New York, 
Philadelphia, and Boston. It occurs annually in an epizootic 
form . on the sea coast of Virginia, comprising the counties of 
Nansemond, Princess Anne, and Northampton, and the adjacent 
counties of North Carolina. Isolated cases occur throughout the 
United States. I have witnessed it in the valleys and in the 
mountains of Virginia, West Virginia, Tennessee, and Maryland, 
but never in the epizootic form. The most favorable location for 
the development of this disease, and the one in which it has been 
most destructive, is on Nansemond river, one of the most fertile 
sections of Virginia east of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Here 



350 



THE STOCK OWNEE S ADVISEE. 



the farmers annnallj suffer great loss from tliis disease. But few 
farms located on tlie river front have escaped this disease in the 
past five years. It visits many every year, and I have witnessed 
as many as six cases affecting all the animals on one farm in two 
weeks' time. It occurs in the epizootic form here during th© 
months of July, August, and September. Isolated cases are met 
with during the winter months. During December, 1900, and 
January, 1901, the disease assumed the epizootic form in the 
counties above mentioned, it being the first time in a number of 
years that it occurred here in the epizootic form in winter. The 




Fig. 87 — Cerebro-Spinal Meningitis. Staggering and giving away 

in the limbs. 



cities in the vicinity of the infested district are almost free from 
the disease, only a small number of cases having occurred each 
year. 

Its origin is involved in mystery. It is due to a specific poison, 
which, existing in the air, becomes absorbed in the system. We 
do not know the origin and nature of the poison. The more ex- 
perience we have with the disease the more are we at a loss as to 



EPIZOOTIC AND ENZOOTIC DISEASE. 



351 




its causes. By witnessing it in all its forms and stages, in every 
conceivable locality, manner of feeding, and quality of drinking 
water, we become dumb-founded in its contemplation. To make 

matters worse, it 
cliooses for its prey 
the better kept ani- 
mals. I believe 
that it is conveyed 
into the system 
from the air. By 
chemical analysis of 
the various tissues 

f t h e diseased 
Fig. 88— Oerebro-Spinal Meningitis. Showing ]3 ^^ ^^^ y compared 
well marked paralysis during progression. - t l ^ ^ 

With those ot the 

soil, vegetation and water of the surxoundings, we may discover 

the cause and its origin. 

Symptoms. — I will first give the symptoms of that form of the 
disease met with during the heated months of the year. The first 
symptom is dullness. The animal drives duller than usual. If 
this symptom is noticed during the ,,,^ / 
outbreak of the disease, the animal f^^^-«>^ 
should at once be taken to the 
trough to drink. Tirst remove the 
bridle, and get in a position to see 
him take the first swallow. If he 
sips two or three times before swal- 
lowing, then succeeds in swallow- 
ing a small quantity, and finishes 
his drink in the regular manner, 
swallowing after each draw, the 
poison is in his system. The dis- 
ease at this stage can be treated as successfidly as a bad cold. 
If the disease is allowed to go on, the animal grows duller, in 
two or three days he Avill stumble occasionally, may fall but 




Fig. 89— Cerebro-Spinal Menin- 
gitis. Walking in a circle. 



352 



THE STOCK OWNER S ADVISER. 




Fig. 90 — Cerebro-Spinal Meningitis, 
delirium. 



Showing 



quickly regain his feet, and continn© doing his work. If taken 
to water he will now draw eight or ten times before he is able 
to make one swallow, 

and will then proceed ^fc^^*^''^ ^^- /■ 

taking small swallows 
after each draw. At 
this time he eats as 
well as usual, and 
there is no percepti- 
ble change in pulse. 
This stage of the dis- 
ease may be treated 
successfully. 

If the disease is 
allowed to run on un- 
checked, the horse, about the sixth day, will be able to swallow 
only a very small quantity. He can swollow easily enough, but 
the tongue being pararlyzed, he is not able to draw the water 

into the oesophagus. In eat- 
ing grass, he will nip until 
his mouth is full, and then, 
owing to the tongue being 
paralyzed, the grass slips 
back out of the mouth. The 
horse continually bunches 
the grass. At this stage 
there mil be a paddling gait, 
when exerted, and free 
sweat. Some may lie down 
to roll and not be able to get 
up without assistance. At 
this stage it is that the dis- 
ease is first noticed by the 




Fig. 91 — Cerebro-Spinal Meningitis. 

Showing delirium with partial 

paralysis. 



owner, and here the prognosis is uncertain. Some recover under 
treatment, and some die. If the disease, at this stage, cannot be 



:epizootic and enzootic disease. 



353 



arrested, there will be trembling of the muscles of the body; he 
may eat short feed, but is unable to take long feed, owing to the 
tongue being paralyzed. The conjunctiva becomes greatly in- 
jected. The pulse now becomes more frequent and wiry. The 
temperature in most cases falls below the normal, but in some 
there is a rise of three degrees. The mouth is dry and the bowels 
remain constipated. The animal now begins to give way in the 
limbs, staggers, and ultimately goes down. He may die in a few 
hours after going down, or may live a day. I never undertake 




Fig. 92— A Complication of SpinaJ. Meningitis. 



the treatment of a case after the animal goes down and Is not 
able to rise with a little assistance. The urine, in appearance, in 
some cases is normal, in some highly colored, in others almost 
black, or rather coffee-colored, which is due to the rapid decom- 
position of urea caused by unhealthy secretions from the walls 
of the bladder. 

Symptoms. — Of the form in which it occurs in winter: Tlie 
animal will be noticed to be duller than usual. This dullness 
generally lasts two or three days, when the horse is noticed to 
stumble. He shows excitement. In this form the disease ap- 
proaches gradually in some cases, while in others it progresses 
23 



354 



THE STOCK OWNER S ADVISEE. 



more rapidly. At this stage it can be easily cured. If not treated, 
tlie animal becomes nervous and excited. He lias difficulty in 
drinking, but not to the same extent as in the condition previously 
described. While driving he will bear to one side, owing to the 
lobe of the brain on that side being more greatly affected with the 
disease than its fellow. The pulse may be a little below the nor- 
mal in number of 
beats and a little 
wiry. He may lean 
against the fence and 
continue w a 1 k i n g 
along, leaning to one 
side, or against the 
side of the stall. It 
is very difficult to 
get him out of his 
stall, and when out 
he is not able to walk 
straight back with- 
out assistance. If 
running loose in pas- 
ture, many cases will 
continue trotting or 
running around in 
the lot, as though 
driven on the road. 
At this stage it is 
first noticed by the owner. If treatment be now undertaken 
the prognosis is uncertain, although the majority recover. If 
the. disease cannot be checked the excitement increases. The 
animal lifts the head higher than natural, or it is drawn 
back by the muscles. The conjunctiva becomes greatly in- 
jected. The animal now begins pressing forward, leans the 
head against the manger, and thumps his head against the 
corner of his stall. Some few cases can be cured at this stage of 




Fig. 93 — Another Symptom of Cerebro-Spinal 

Meningitis. Showing the head drawn 

backwards and the distention of the 

nostrils from labored breathing. 



EPIZOOTIC AND ENZOOTIC DISEASE. 355 

the disease, but it is generally best not to attempt treatment. As 
the disease advances the patient becomes delirious, the eyes take 
on a wildj staring look, and he seems blind to all objects around 
him. He strikes his head against the stall Avitli greater violence 
than before, utters the most horrible cries, goes down, and soon 
dies in great agony. It will be inferred from the above descrip- 
tion that when seen in time the treatment of the disease is an easy 
matter. 

Treatment. — The treatment should be wath the view of elimi- 
nating the poison from the body. In all cases, if the bowels re- 
spond to purgative medicines, we may expeci' a recovery. Espe- 
cially is this the case wdth the first described form of the disease. 
I have never lost a case in this form of the disease where the 
bowels responded to purgative medicines. If the case has ad- 
vanced too far for the bowels to become liquid, the patient will 
surely die. The action of the intestinal glands pouring out fluid 
relieves congestion and assists in eliminating the poison. The 
kidneys should be stimulated in order to get rid of as much 
poison as possible. By this means we can hold the disease in 
check until the secretion of the intestinal glands takes place. 
Eight drachms of aloes and one drachm of calomel should be 
administered as soon as possible. Mtrate of potash, one-half 
ounce; sweet spirits of nitre, one ounce; tincture of belladonna, 
one drachm; bromide of potash, one drachm, should be given in a 
pint of water every three hours, until four doses have been given, 
or until the bowels have responded; then give three times a day. 
One ounce of aloes should be added to the fourth dose. The sarrie 
quantity of aloes should be given with the seventh dose. The 
bowels must be made fluid, and the purgative should be repeated 
until this is done. Many cases require six, seven, and even eight 
purgative doses, and I have given ten in forty-eight hours. If 
the bowels respond in twenty-four hours, the horse, in two days, 
requires no further treatment. Ice in a sac should be applied to 
the head and kept up for twenty-four hours. Blisters may be 
applied to the spine. I seldom use slings. My experience has 



356 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

been that where it is necessary to use slings, the case is beyond 
treatment; however, there are a few cases where the slings may 
be used to advantage. The appetite should be kept up, if possi- 
ble. If it be in the summer season, green food in small quantities 
should be offered, such as green grass or tender and growing com 
blades. Some few cases recover slowly, and show symptoms of 
paralysis for some time. Such cases should not be worked under 
thirty days. 



XXX. 
DISEASES OF THE RESPIRATORY ORGANS. 

It will be necessary here to point out tlie different methods of 
making a physical examination, by which the diagnosis of these 
diseases is accurately traced. Auscultation is listening to the 
sounds of the interior by means of the ear applied to the surface 
of the body. It may be practiced directly by the ear or by an 
instrument called the stethoscope. In applying the stethoscope 
to the chestj its funnel-shaped end is to be held firmly to the sur- 
face and the opposite end must press closely to the ear. Imme- 
diate auscultation does very well. The ear should be accurately 
applied to the skinj a handkerchief or thin cloth may be allowed 
to intervene. 

Percussion. — This consists in striking upon the surface with 
the view of eliciting sounds, by the nature of which an opinion 
may be formed as to the condition of the interior parts. It is 
either immediate or mediate. In immediate percussion the ends 
of the fingers are brought together and supported by the thumb, 
and the parts are struck perpendicular to the surface. The 
knuckles or closed hand may be used. 

In immediate percussion, the pleximeter is generally a flat, 
oval, or circular piece of ivory, on the left index finger of the 
operator. 

NASAL SOUNDS. 

The normal condition is simply a soft, blowing sound, heard 
only when the ear is placed to the nostrils. 

Snoring is caused by a polypus, thickening of the Schneiderian 
membrane or some other obstruction of the nasal chambers. A 
snuffling sound is accompanied by a discharge as a result of some 
disease. Whistling may be due to a tumorfled condition of the 

(357) 



358 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

Sclmeiderian membrane. Sneezing or snorting is an indication 
of an irritation in connection with the Schneiderian membrane. 

LARYNGEAL SOUNDS IN HEALTH AND DISEASE. 

In health the sonnd is that of a soft to-and-fro sound. The 
laryngeal sounds of disease are many. 

Grunting. — When the animal is struck or pulls heavily, he 
grunts. This is normal with some horses; but the grunt is to be 
regarded with suspicion, and the animal should be thoroughly 
tried for its wind. It is frequently a forerunner of roaring. 

Whistling is a modification of roaring, and is an unsoundness. 

Roaring. — This consists of a loud, unnatural sound emitted 
during the inspiratory act. It is a symptom of acute laryngitis; 
if such, it only indicates temporary unsoundness. It is generally 
found, however, to be due to disease and wasting of the muscles 
of the larynx. It is then an unsoundness. 

COUGHS. 

A cough is produced by a violent expulsion of air from the 
lungs over the vocal chords. It is a symptom of various diseases. 

The dry cough is symptomatic of a dryness of the respiratory 
mucous membrane. The cough of pleurisy is a dry, painful, and 
prolonged cough. The hollow cough is a symptom of chronic 
disease. The moist cough indicates an inflamed and humid con- 
dition of the respiratory mucous membrane. The broken wind 
cough is a suppressed, deep, hollow cough. 

In connection with the trachea, there are what is known as 
tracheal rales, a peculiar rattling in the throat. This is a symptom 
of death. 

THOEACIC SOUNDS. 

The normal respiratory murmur is a soft diffused murmur of a 
gentle, breezy character. The length of expiration is about one- 
fourth that of inspiration. The normal bronchial sounds resem- 
ble the blowing of air quickly throu.£[h a tube. The sound is dis- 



DISEASES OF THE EESPIKATORY ORGANS. 359 

tinct over the middle and upper third of the chest. In the ox it 
is heard lower down. The sound produced by percussion in the 
normal chest is of a resonant character. It is very clear immedi- 
ately behind the shoulder to the twelfth or thirteenth rib, where 
it gradually diminishes. 

The abnormal sounds heard in the thoracic cavity are, first, a 
sonorous, murmuring sound, caused by narrowing of the large 
bronchial tubes. This is termed rhonchus. It may be heard in 
front of the chest and behind the shoulder. 

Sibilant Rale. — By this is meant a whistling, hissing, click- 
ing, wheezing sound. It is associated with bronchitis, and is heard 
in the region of the bronchial tubes. 

Mucous Rhonchus, or Rale. — The bursting of bubbles of 
some size, varying in number, modified by coughing and expecto- 
ration. The sound is due to bubbling of air through the liquid. 
This is seen in the moist stage of bronchitis. 

Crepitations. — This sound is compared with that produced 
by rubbing slowly and firmly between the finger and thumb a 
lock of one's hair near the ear. This is best heard in the lower 
third of the chest. 

TUBAL OE BRONCHIAL SOUND. 

When this sound is heard over the inferior portion of the 
thorax, it indicates some degree of consolidation of the lung. 

Absence of Sound. — When this occurs, it indicates that the 
exudation is excessive in quantity, and that effusion has taken 
place in the thorax. 

PLEURAL SOUNDS. 

There may be heard a rubbing or grating sound during inspi- 
ration and expiration. It is caused by rubbing together of the 
two opposed surfaces of the pleura, chiefly heard at the lower part 
of the chest. 



360 THE STOCK owner's ADVISEE. 

PNEUMONIA. 

Inflammation of the Paeenchyma or Lung Substance. — 
One or both lungs may be affected. When both lungs are affected 
to any great extent, death is the usual termination. 

There are three stages of pneumonia. The first stage is that 
of hypergemia, characterized by an excess of blood in the part. 
When a portion of the lung will float on being placed in water, 
the condition is known as splenization. 

The second stage is known as red hepatization. At this time 
the lung has undergone a more or less destructive process, and 
will readily sink on being placed in water. In case the patient 
should recover from this condition, the exudate will be removed, 
after liquefying, by the process of absorption. 

The third stage is gray hepatization, in contra-distinction to red 
hepatization. 

Cause. — Exposure to cold and wet, sudden chills, housing in 
cold, draughty stables. It may be caused by irritating gases, by 
smoke, foreign bodies entering the lungs. Medicine of an irri- 
table character finding its way into the lungs may produce pneu- 
monia. It is most frequently seen in sudden changes in the 
weather, or when the animal is allowed to cool down too suddenly 
after heating. 

Symptoms. — The disease is ushered in by rigors. Respirations 
are affected slightly at first. The pulse beats about eighty per 
minute; the temperature rises to 104 to 106 degrees. A dry, dull 
cough is present. The ears and legs are alternately hot and cold. 
The animal does not lie down, but will wander about in his stall 
in a listless manner, and may take a mouthful of food at intervals. 
The respirations vary according to the severity of the disease. 
The horse will seek fresh air. Percussion, if over the region of 
the diseased lung, yields a dull sound. The right lung is more 
frequently affected than the left. In cases likely to terminate 
fatally, the pulse runs up, becoming quicker and weaker, and the 
respirations become increased. The nostrils flap, with a brownisli 



DISEASES OF THE KESPIKATORY ORGANS. 



361 



or rusty colored discharge from the nose; the eyes take on an 
amaurotic stare, and the animal becomes unconscious of every- 
thing around. The pulse can scarcely be felt, and the body is 
deathly cold. He may lie down, turn his head to one side, and 
finally throw it back straight and breathe his last, or may rise to 
his feet and drop. The horse never, for any length of time, lies 
down in pneumonia . If 
he shou;ld lie down, he 
will at once get up. 

Treatment. — Place 
the patient in a well- 
ventilated loose box, 
free from draughts. 
Clothe the body ac- 
cording to the season 
of the year. Locally, 
mustard plasters are to 
be applied to the lungs, 
six ounces to one pint 
of water, and covered 
with ordinary news- 
papers. Bran - j^oultices 
also should be applied 

to the lungs. A bushel pjg 94— Pneumonia. See the haggard look, 
of bran should be di- the anxious expression of the eye, the 
vided into two equal labored "breathing as indicated by the 

, 111- nasal opening, 

parts and placed m f & 

two wide bags. Boiling wa'ter should be poured on the bran, 

and the poultice applied as hot as can be borne. Tie the sacks 

together and throw them across the horse's back and buckle down 

tightly, or tie with a long rope that will extend around the body 

twice. The rope should draw on the anterior and posterior part 

of the sack, and be drawn tightly, and the blanket should be put 

over this. Place a bucket of cool drinking water in the stall and 

give the liquid foods mentioned in the chapter on Feeding the 




362 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

Sick. Anything the animal will take should be given in small 
quantities. If given in large quantities and allowed to remain in 
the trough it will only disgust the patient. The mustard applica- 
tions may be repeated three or four times, and should be used 
alternately with poultices. If the fever be high, tincture of aco- 
nite, twenty drops; nitrate of potash, three drachms, should be 
given at intervals of four hours. AVhen the circulation is weak, 
stimulants should be given, as liqua acetate of ammonia, in two- 
ounce doses every four hours. An ounce of sweet spirits of nitre 
is useful. Three-drachm doses of potassium iodid may be given 
twice a day during convalescence. It is safer, as a general thing, 
to make a judicious use of stimulants from the beginning; nitrous 
aether, one ounce; sal. acetate of ammonia, one ounce, diluted in 
one pint of water, is the best and should be given every four 
hours. 

PLEURISY. 

This consists of an inflammation of the pleura. When the 
pleura and the lung substance itself are inflamed, we call it 
pleuro-pneumonia. The pleura is the serous membrane that lines 
the thoracic cavity and covers the viscera of the thorax. 

The causes are similar to those of pneumonia. I*Tearly a^ 
cases of pleurisy terminate in effusion of serum, constituting lir. 
ited hvdrothorax. 

Pleurisy may be double or single, but generally it is single, and 
confined to the right side. 

Symptoms. — It is characterized by a chill at the beginning. 
There is coldness of the body, a wiry pulse, and a painful cough. 
The animal becomes stiff and sore, and if approached or turned 
around suddenly he will groan. During the act of respiration, 
the ribs are fixed, a hollow line extends along the inferior border 
of the false ribs. The muscles over the affected part quiver, and 
great soreness will be obser^'ed. On auscultation, a crepitating 
sound can be heard, caused by the pleural membranes moving 
over each other. The cough accompanying pleurisy is of sup- 
pressed character. 



DISEASES OF THE EESPIRATORY ORGANS. 



363 



AYitliin four to six days llie animal becomes quiet, and seems 
to be free from pain. This is a sign that effusion of serum Las 
taken place. In this disease, as in pneumonia, the animal stands 
with the elbows turned outward. 

Tbeatment. — It should be treated similar to pneumonia, but 
mustard applications should not be laid on as frequently as in 
pneumonia. A half ounce of potassium nitrate; camphor, one 
drachm ; aqua, one 
pint, may be given. 
Digitalis, one 
drachm; potassium 
n i t r a t e, t h r e e 
drachms; water, 
one- half pint^ 
should be tried. 

IIydrothorax.- — 
This condition 
arises from an effu- 
sion of serum, of a 

port-wine color, into ^^" ^~ ^^^'^^y- 
^ . ^ extending along 

the cavity of the 

chest. It is the re- 
sult of pleurisy. 

Symptoms. — The respirations are difficult, and there is flapping 
of ihe nostrils. On auscultation no sound can be heard in the 
inferior thorax. Odematous swellings are seen along the belly 
and limbs. 

Tkeatment. — The treatment must be directed to the removal 
of the fluid, which may be absorbed by giving good, nutritious 
food. The liquid food, especially the milk preparations men- 
tioned in this Avork, should be given in half-ounce doses. Powd. 
gentian, three drachms; powd. sulphate of iron, three drachms; 
powd. nux vomica, one drachm, should be given in the feed night 
and morning. In some few cases it may be necessary to have the 




Showing the hollow line 
ig along the inferior border of the 
false ribs diu'ing the act of respiration. See 
drawn-up and fixed position of the abdomen 
and chest. 



364 



THE STOCK OWNER S ADVISEE. 



surgeon perform the operation of paracentesis thoracis, or tap- 
ping. The fluid should be removed by the trocar and canula, 
which should be inserted in the space between the eighth and 
ninth rib. 

CONGESTION OF THE LUNGS. 

This gives rise to a partial or complete arrest of pulmonary 
circulation. The blood is detained in the parts, causing func- 
tional derangement of the lungs. It is a forerunner of pneu- 
monia. 

Cause. — The disease is caused by standing idle during the bad 
winter months and being put to severe exertion all of a sudden 

when spring opens us. It 
may result from working a 
horse while suffering with 
other pulmonary affections. 
It is also produced by ex- 
posure to rain when over- 
heated. I saw two cases 
produced from this cause in 
a pasture in one night. The 
colts were turned into the 
field, Avhere they ran and 
played' for some time. Late 
in the night a heavy rain 
came up, and they con- 
tracted the disease. I saw 
them the following even- 
ing just before their death. 
Symptoms. — The animal 
is observed to shiver; all 
food is refused; the mouth is hot, the extremities are deathly 
cold; the pulse beats eighty or ninety per minute. There will be 
a peculiar flapping of the nostrils, the flanks heave rapidly; the 
eyes are blood-shot. In some cases there will be a discharge of 
frothy blood from- the nose. 




Fig. 96— Congestion of the Lungs. See 
the flapping of the nostrils, the deadly 
stare, the pressing forward with the 
forelimbs under the body — the fore- 
limbs wide apart. 



DISEASES OF THE EESPIEATORY ORGANS. 365 

Treatment. — Place the animal in a comfortable box stall and 
have his limbs rubbed vigorously for some time. Pie should be 
well clothed. Sweet spirits of nitre, in two-ounce doses, should be 
given and repeated in two hours. Whiskey, or alcohol in any of 
its forms, may be given, and enemas- should be given. Cloths 
wrung out of hot water may be applied to the sides. One to two 
ounces of the tincture of arnica is recommended by Prof. Wil- 
liams. Whiskey and gentian may be given during convalescence. 
The food should be good, and should consist of anything the ani- 
mal will take. Some of the preparations mentioned in this work 
should be used. 

CATARRH. 

This is simply a common cold — a running at the nose. 

Symptoms. — Sneezing, watering of the eyes, dryness of the 
mucous membrane of the nose, succeeded by a discharge, at first 
thin and colorless, which soon becomes yellowish-white and pro- 
fuse. 

Causes. — Alterations in temperature, hot, ill-ventilated sta- 
bles, exposure to wet, a sudden change of temperature. If the 
cold be neglected, a catarrhal inflammation is apt to spread from 
the nose over- the whole surface of the respiratory membrane. 

Treatment. — This is simple, if in time. Place the animal in 
a comfortable, loose box, well ventilated. Clothe the body and 
give good food. The animal should be made to inhale steam by 
holding its head over a bucket of hot water, at the same time stir- 
ring the water with a wisp of hay. A few doses of the nitrate of 
potash in the usual amounts are beneficial. In more severe cases 
nitrous sether, one ounce; potassium nitrate, three drachms, 
should be given every four hours. It must be remembered that 
no purgative medicine is admissible in respiratory diseases. The 
bowels should always be moved by enemas and laxative food. If 
there is a severe cough present, liniments of a stimulating char- 
acter may be employed, as tlie ammoniacal liniment. If the dis- 
charge has a tendency to become chronic, sulphate of iron, in 



366 



THE STOCK OWIS'ER S ADVISER. 



three-draclim doses, should be given in the feed. Particular at- 
tention should be paid to the food, which must be of the best 
character. Green food is highly beneficial. 

LARYNGITIS. 

This condition consists of an inflammation of the mucous mem- 
brane of the larynx. It is indicated by a discharge from the 
nose, difficult breathing, and febrile disturbances. 

This is a very grave affection, sometimes killing quickly. 
Sometimes it leaves a thickened condition of the mucous mem- 
branes. This swells and 
closes the glottal opening, 
and the animal dies from 
suffocation. 

The various conditions 
causing laryngitis are about 
the same as those causing 
simple catarrh. 

Symptoms. — T h e first 
symptoms are dullness and 
a difficulty in swallowing. 
When drinking, the Avater 
returns through the nose. 
The animars nose is pro- 
tnided, the respiratory pas- 
sages thus being brought 
as near on a straight line 
as possible. The conjunc- 
tiva is red, and tears flow from the eyes. The nasal chambers 
are red; a hoarse, rasping cough is present, and sweats bedew 
the body. The legs and ears are cold, and the animal will mani- 
fest his distress by stamping his feet. The pulse, at first hard and 
full, becomes rapid and indistinct. The membranes assume a 
li^^d hue, and the animal falls and dies. Milder cases are simply 
modifications of the above. There may be swelling of the limbs 




Fig. 97 — Laryngitig. Sho\Yiiig protrusion 
of the nose in an endeavor to bring 
the air passages as nearly on a straight 
line as possible. 



DISEASES OF THE RESPIRATORY ORGANS. 367 

and a discharge from the nostrils^ which, if profuse and coming 
away freely, is to be regarded as a favorable sign. 

Treatment. — Secure an abundance of pure air; place the 
patient in a comfortable, loose, box stall. Hand-rub and flannel- 
bandage the limbs. Administer the medicine, if possible, in the 
drinking water. If he will not take it thus, it must be given in 
a draught, using plenty of water to dilute the medicine. Inhala- 
tions of steam and hot fomentations to the throat should be tried, 
and if the distress is not quickly relieved, tracheotomy must be 
resorted to. Where the case is not so urgent, the fomentation 
and the use of the ammoniacal liniment to the throat will usually 
suffice. Chlorate of potash should be dissolved in the drinking 
water, and twenty drops of the tincture of aconite, in conjunc- 
tion with alcohol or sether, may be given in a drench; one ounce 
of either may be given. The results of laryngitis are thickening 
of the mucous membrane, ulceration of the rima glottidus, atro- 
phy of the laryngeal muscles, and follicular growths upon the 
laryngeal entrance. Thickening of the mucous membrane is best 
treated by putting the animal on a course of potassium iodide; 
three drachms should be given three times a day. Ulceration of 
the rima glottidus is treated with a solution of the nitrate of 
silver. It should be applied by a little piece of sponge fastened to 
a rod. The follicular growths are removed by the application 
of a solution of corrosive sublimate. To prevent atrophy of the 
muscles, the chlorate of potash should be used, in two-drachm 
doses. 

BRONCHITIS. 

Bronchitis may be defined as an inflammation of the mucous 
membrane lining the bronchial tubes. It is sometimes called 
Catarrhal Bronchitis. 

Causes. — Bronchitis is due to exposure to cold. It frequently 
arises during voyage at sea and by improper administration of 
medicine, as through the nostrils. Mechanical bronchitis may 
be produced by food gaining access to the trachea. 



368 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

Symptoms. — The disease begins with a chill, soon followed by 
febrile symptoms. There will be a husky, dry cough, and the 
animal will retain the standing posture. The pulse is quickened, 
rhonchus is heard by auscultation, and the bowels are constipated. 
Soon there is a discharge from the nose; if yellow, it is a favor- 
able symptom. 

Treatment. — The animal should be made to inhale medicated 
steam, which may be medicated with camphor, creosote, or car- 
bolic acid. The steam facilitates the passage of the fluid from the 
bronchi. The sides may be stimulated with mustard and water, 
or stimulating liniments. Where the cough is very distressing, 
camphor, belladonna, and digitalis, a drachm of each, should be 
given three times a day. In the primary stages of the disease, a 
strong opiate may be given, as opium tincture, two ounces. If 
the bowels are constipated, a pint of linseed oil should be given. 

Bronchitis may terminate in thick wind. 

PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA. 

Asthma, Broken AYind, or Heaves.— This is a dietetic dis- 
ease of a non-inflammatory nature, characterized by difficult 
respiration, and the presence of a prolonged and deep cough. 

Cause. — It is caused by injudicious feeding, allowing the ani- 
mal to overload his stomach, feeding on dusty hay, or bulky or 
dusty food of any kind. Cold and exposure exercise some influ- 
ence in producing the disease, and it may result from an attack of 
bronchitis. 

Symptoms. — There will be noticed a heaAdng of the flanks, 
which will be greatly increased when the animal is put to severe 
exertion. This is a peculiar bellows-like movement of the flanks. 
The inspiratory act is performed regularly and easily, while the 
expiratory act is difficult, and accomplished in a violent manner. 
Another well-marked symptom, and all that is necessary to diag- 
nose this condition, is a loud, deep, prolonged, and sonorous 
cough. This cough is peculiar to broken wind, and will be readily 
recognized, if ever once heardo^ 



DISEASES OF THE KESPIUATORY ORGANS. 369 

Treatment. — A permanent cure cannot be made if the disease 
has been running any length of time. The case may be benefited 
bj treatment, and the symptoms rem_oved by judicious treatment 
and proper food. I have kept a number of horses affected with 
this disease going through the driving season, without recurrence 
of »the symptoms, by giving an occasional purgative, and feeding 
on small and regular quantities of wet bran and oats, to which 
was added three ounces of linseed oil and three ounces of lime 
water. This was mixed with each feed for several wrecks at a 
time. The water was given in measured quantities, in order that 
the stomach should not be overloaded. Internally was given 
calomel, camphor, opium pulverized, digitalis, of each a half 
drachm, made into a bolus and given twice a day for a week at a 
time; and then arsenious acid, grains two; sulphate of iron, two 
drachms, were substituted. Drachm doses of nux vomica were 
also given. 

JiOW . horse dealers frequently administer lead pellets, large 
doses of oil, which, acting mechanically, will relieve the symp- 
toms for the time being. A strong purgative of any sort will 
relieve the symptoms, as will the reduction of food for a few days. 

LARYNGISMUS PARALYTICA. 

This condition gives rise to roaring, which may be defined as 
breathing with a loud and unnatural sound. It is due to paralysis 
or atrophy of the dilator muscles of the neck. The muscles in- 
volved are the crico-arytenoideus, posticus and lateralis, the 
arytenoideus and the thyro-arytenoideus. 

The muscles are atrophied, or paralyzed, from various diseases 
which affect the larynx. The loosely flapping parts of the larynx 
no doubt produce the roaring sound. It is an unsoundness in all 
its stages. To detect a roarer, he must be put to a severe test; 
have the animal galloped for some distance by an assistant, who 
may pull him up suddenly in front of you, when wheezing, 
whistling, or roaring may be heard by placing the ear to the 
trachea. If he is a roarer he may be heard at a great distance. 
24 



870 ' THE STOCK ow^'er's adyiseK. 

Wheezing and whistling are modifications of roaring, and all of 
them are incurable. Another method of testing an animal for 
roaring is to have the animal gently trotted, after which he is to 
be coughed; attention should be paid to the character of the 
cough, after which the animal is to be placed by a wall, his head 
firmly held by the attendant. The examiner now makes a feint, 
as if to strike. The animal will start, and emit the grnnt peculiar 
to roarers. 

Teeatmext. — Give good food, made free from dust by damp- 
ening. The ammoniacal liniment — viz., equal parts of ammonia, 
turpentine, and linseed oil — should be applied to the larynx ex- 
ternally, and potassium iodide, in three-drachm doses, may be 
used internally. The animal should be put on a course of chlo- 
rate of potash, which will help to restore the muscles of the 
larynx. 

Trachitis. — Inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the 
trachea. This may be due to the presence of a foreign body, or 
may exist as a complication of laryngitis. 

Symptoms. — The bTeathing is somewhat difficult, a rattling 
sound may be heard over the region of the trachea. A nasal dis- 
charge is present. 

Tbeatmex't. — Clip the hair over the course of the trachea and 
apply the ammoniacal liniment. Mustard may be applied, if the 
liniment is not at hand. Potassium chlorate and nitrate should 
be used internally. If there is much fever, aconite, twenty drops 
at a dose, may be given. Keep the animal in a comfortable place 
and give good food. 

HAEMOPTYSIS— HEMORRHAGE FROM THE LUNGS. 

This is usually caused by severe exertion when not in a suitable 
condition. It is generally met with in the r-ace horse. A ple- 
thoric animal put to extra exertions will sometimes suffer hemor- 
rhage. 



DISEASES OF THE EESPIRATORY ORGANS. 371 

Symptoms. — The blood flows from both nostrils, a cough is 
present, a rattling or gurgling sound is heard over the region of 
the trachea. If the animal loses a considerable amount of blood, 
there will be blanching of the visible mucous membranes and 
coldness of the extremities. 

Treatment. — If weak, give stimulants, such as alcohol. Cold 
water or ice should be applied to the sides of the chest. Tincture 
of perchloride of iron, in three-drachm doses, should be given. 
Turpentine in ounce doses should be given. Gallic acid and opium 
may be tried. The animal should not be put to any great exer- 
tion for a long time after hemorrhage has taken place. 

EPISTAXIS— BLEEDING FROM THE NOSE. 

Bleeding from the nose may occur as a symptom of various dis- 
eases, or may occur as a result of an injury. The blood flows from 
one nostril as a rule, but may flow from both nostrils. 

Treatment. — A solution of the perchloride of iron should be 
injected into the nostrils. Alum may be tried. Plugging of one 
nostril may be necessary. A string should be tied to the plug for 
the purpose of removing it. Ice water should be applied exter- 
nally. 

PHARYNGEAL POLYPI. 

These are occasionally seen in the pharynx, having a con- 
stricted base. They give rise to a discharge from the nostrils. 
The animal may show signs of suffocation and then recover in a 
few minutes. The throat should be examined; if the polypus 
has d constricted base, its removal is advisable. If, on the other 
hand, it has a broad base, it had better be left alone. 

Osseus tumors occur in the nasal cavity, and give rise to dif- 
ficult breathing as a result of obstruction. 

Treatment. — Prompt removal of the growths by the forceps 
or bone saw; they must be moved when accessible. 

Cysts. — Cysts form in connection with the false nostril, con- 
taining a cheesy matter. The cyst should be lanced and dressed 
with carbolic acid, one part to forty of water. 



ST2 



THE STOCK OWNER'S ADVISER. 



NASAL POLYPI. 

These growths are of a fibrous character. They become larger 
and obstruct the air passages. If situated low down, they can be 

easily seen. They 
should be removed 
with the ecraseur, 
or grasped, at their 
necks, with a for- 
ceps and t'^'isted off. 

NASAL GLEET ] 

Is a catarrhal dis- 
ease, characterized 
by a defluction from 
the nostrils. It may 
arise, however, 
from other causes 
than catarrhal in- 




Fig. 98— Nasal Polypi. 



flammation, such as external injury and disease of the upper 
molars. It may result from a sub-acute inflammation of the 
mucous membrane lining the nasal chamber, or from a neglected 
case of simple catarrh; by long exposure and neglect, or from 
injury, or caries of the teeth. In catarrhal affections the lining 
membrane of these sinuses, by extension of the inflammation of 
the Schneiderian membrane, becomes diseased, and pours out a 
quantity of pus, which, lodging in the various compartments of 
the sinuses, becomes a source of irritation, which, if not removed, 
will cause absorption of the bony plate. 

Symptoms. — There will be an irregular discharge from one 
nostril. The discharge at first is white; after awhile it becomes 
more yellow and adheres to the nostrils. Percussion over the 
region of the sinuses yields a dull, dead sound. The eye on the 
side that is affected will look dim, the upper lid will often droop 
a little, and there may be a rough appearance of the hair over the 



DISEASES OF THE EESPIKATOEY ORGANS. 



373 



region of the part diseased. The breath from the nostril on the 
diseased side may be very offensive, indicating diseased bone. 

Treatment. — Place the animal in a comfortable, loose box, 
and give good food. The nostrils should be kept clean by spong- 
ing. Potassium iodide, cupi'i sulphate, of each three drachms, 
and add ten grains of powdered cantharides. Iodine and iron, 




Fig. 99— Nasal Gleet Affecting Both Nostrils. 



forming ferro-iodide, should be given in three-drachm doses twice 
a day. Sulphate of iron, three drachms; acid arsenious, grains 
five, given twice a day, is highly thought of. Nux vomica in 
drachm doses may be used. The nasal chambers should be in- 
jected with carbolic acid, two drachms to a pint of water. AVhen 
pus accumulates in the sinuses, the operation of trephining must 
be performed. This will require the employment of a surgeon. 



374 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

The operation is very simple. The sinus should be opened an 
inch superior and posterior to the termination of the zygomatic 
spine. After trephining, the cavity should be syringed with a 
solution of carbolic acid in tepid water. If the turbinated bones 
are affected, the case will be a stubborn one to treat. 



XXXI. 

'diseases^of the stomach and intestines. 

SIMPLE INDIGESTION. 

Indigestion is frequently met with, and occurs as a result of 
errors in feeding, or improper care of the teeth. To remedy 
these causes read carefully the chapter on Peeding. 

Symptoms. — ^The animal falls off in condition, the coat be- 
comes dry and dusty looking ; slight and frequent attacks of colic 
may occur; the bowels are irregular, first constipated, then loose. 

ACUTE INDIGESTION. 

Acute indigestion is a very common and fatal disease. There 




Fig. 100— Acute Indigestion. 



is considerable distention, due to a large quantity of food in the 

^ases a] 
(375) j 



stomach and the evolution of gases arising from the fermentation 



376 



THE STOCK OWNER S ADVISEE. 




of the food; the gases formed are sulphuretted h.ydrogen, carbu- 
retted hydrogen^ and carbonic acid gas. 

Causes. — It results from over-abund- 
ant food, greedily swallowed and imper- 
fectly masticated, or from feeding in 
large quantities when the stomach is 
tired and weak. Certain kinds of food 
are more likely to produce it than others. 
Corn is the most usual cause of the dis- 
ease. Wheat and barley will also pro- 
duce the trouble. 

Sympto:\is. — The animal generally 
falls sick after exercising on a full meal. 

cringes and turns 



He becomes uneasy, 
his head to one side. If forced, he may 
go along without showing much pain. 
The severe pains come on again, and 
the abdomen is distended with gas. IT© 
will roll from side to side, and frequently 
tries to balance himself on his back. If there is extreme disten- 



Fig. 101— Acute Indi- 
gestion. Balancing 
on back. 




tion, there will be noticed eructation of gas from the stomach 
and flatus by the anus. 
This is a favorable symp- 
tom if it comes away 
freely. The animal gets 
relief almost instantly. 
In cases likely to termi- 
nate unfavorably, the 
rectum protrudes and is 
irritable. An enema 
given will not be re- 
tained. The mouth be- 
comes cold and clammy. Fig. 102— Acute Indigestion, 
cold sweats bedew the body, the eyes take on an amaurotic 
stare J the animal walks about in a semi-unconscious condi- 





DISEASES OF THE STOMACH AND INTESTINES. 377 

tion, occasionally staggering and finally falls to the ground 
and dies. 

Treatment. — Give as early as possible eight drachms of aloes. 
Enemas in this affection are of the greatest possible benefit, 
severe cases being sometimes entirely relieved by enemas alone. 
In preparing the enema, enough soap should be used to make it 
slippery. A little soda or turpentine may be added to the first 
enema. The soap should be omitted after the second enema. In 
cases of extreme distention, the animal must be held so that he 
may not throw himself and rupture the stomach or bowels. 

Tincture of opium, two ounces; sweet spirits of nitre, two 
ounces, in a drench, should be given to relieve pain. Turpentine 
in two-ounce doses is preferable to the spirits of nitre in extreme 
distention. If relief is not afforded 
by the first draught a second may 
be given in thirty minutes. 

Carbonate of soda and carbonate 
of ammonia, of each three 
drachms, will remove the gas and 
prevent further accumulation. 
Turpentine, applied externally to 
the abdomen and administered in- 
ternally, is highly useful in re- 
moving gas. In some few cases Fig. 103— Impaction of the 
it becomes necessary to puncture btomacn. 

the bowels and allow the gas to escape. The relief is almost 
instantaneous, the operation causes but little inconvenience, and 
is successful if employed in time. Ilypodenuic injections of 
morphine, in three to five-grain doses, may be given to allay pain, 
instead of using the drench. 

IMPACTION OF THE STOMACH. 

Impaction of the stomach occasionally takes place, caused by 
feeding gTeedy eaters on coarse food, such as coarse straw not 
well cut used in chop feed. 




378 



THE STOCK OWNER S ADVISER. 




Fig. 104— Nausea. 



Symptoms. — There may be some gas present, but generally 
there is not. The animal paws and rolls, turns his head to his 

side; the pulse be- 
comes quick and 
weak and, unless 
relieved, he dies. 
Treatment. 

Give eight drachms 
of aloes in conjunc- 
t i o n with one 
drachm of calomel, 
and follow with 
opium tincture, two 
ounces; nitrous 
aether, two ounces. 
Enemas should be freely given. A decoction made by boiling 
tobacco, one ounce to four pints of water, may be used as an 
enema. An ounce of alcohol mav be e:iven as a stimulant. 

RUPTURE OF THE STOMACH. 

This may occur as a result of acute indigestion or may 
occur from blows. 
Symptoms. 

The symptoms of 
this condition as a 
rule, enable us to 
diagnose with some 
accuracy, but they 
may be misleading. 
If the animal vomits, 
turns around in a 
circle, lies down and ^'^' lO^-Rupture of the Stomach. 

sits up on his haunches like a dog, with eyes in amaurotic state, 
and cold sweats on the body, there is reason to believe that 
rupture has taken place. Eupture of the stomach is invariably 
fatal. 




DISEASES OF THE STOMACH AND INTESTINES. 



379 



CHEONIC INDIGESTION 

Is produced in various ways, and is characterized by an untlirifty 
condition in general. The coat is dry and staring. The animal 
may be subject to slight attacks of colic, slight diarrhoea, or con- 
stipation. The liver is frequently affected by chronic indiges- 
tion, in which case there will be a yellowish tinge of all the 
mucous membranes. The animal may have a ravenous appetite, 
and on the following day refuse food. 

Treatment. — Give six drachms of aloes together with a half 
drachm of calomel. Place rock salt in the trough. Alcohol in 
its various forms is beneficial. Charcoal may be used with 
benefit, as also bicarbonate of soda in three-drachm doses 
three times a day. He should finally be put on a course of nux 
vomica. This should be given in drachm doses of the powders 

twice a day. 

GASTRITIS. 

Inflammation of the stomach is generally caused by taking 
medicines of an irritable character, as arsenic poisoning, etc. 




Fig. 106 — Inflammation of the Stomach. 

Symptoms. — The animal manifests great pain, the pulse runs 
down. The case is difficult to diagnose in the horse, but in the 
dog the diagnosis is easy. 



380 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

Treatment. — The cause of the inflammation should be ascer- 
tained. If found to be due to arsenic, the hydrated sesquiocide 
of iron should be administered. The principal poisons and their 
antidotes will be given in future pages of this work. Inflamma- 
tion of the stomach is invariably caused by some irritating poison. 

SPASMODIC COLIC. 

Spasmodic colic, or spasm of the intestines, is the most com- 
mon of all bowel diseases. It is known as gripes, belly ache, etc. 
It consists of a spasmodic contraction of the muscular coats of 
the intestines, which may ultimately end in inflammation. 

Causes, — It is due to improper food, sudden changes of diet, 
exhaustion from over-work, large draughts of cold water when 
heated or fatigued, or a combination of them all. Sudden change 




Fig. 107 — Spasmodic Colic. Early stage of the disease. 

in temperature is said to produce it. It is seldom fatal, and never 
of very long duration, if treated. 

Symptoms. — Spasmodic colic usually affects the small intes- 
tines. When it is purely intestinal, the symptoms are sudden 
pain, pawing, rolling, and struggling in many ways, then rising, 
shaking himself, and being almost free from pain for awhile. 
After taking a little food, the animal may begin to twinge, draw 
himself to one side, look at his side, whisk his tail, stamp and 
paw. He rolls and tumbles, suffering greater agony than from 
the first spasm. The spasms soon become more frequent and in- 
tense. The animal makes frequent attempts to urinate; this often 
leads people who do not understand the nature of the disease to 
believe that the cause of pain is due to inability to urinate. The 



DISEASES OF THE STOMACH AND INTESTINES. 



381 



neck of the bladder is spasmodically contracted and prevents the 
urine from passing; but when the spasms are relieved, he will lie 
quiet for some time, get up finally, shake himself, stretch out, 




Fig. 108 — Spasmodic Colic. Showing first symptoms. 

and urinate freely. When this takes place it is evidence that the 
spasmodic contractions of the muscular fibers of the intestines 
have relaxed, and the animal is freed from pain. The animal 




Fig. 109 — Spasmodic Colic. Becoming severe and aggravated. 

usually takes a little food between the paroxysms, but finally 
they may be so severe that he will not notice food. When the 



382 THE STOCK owner's ADVISEE. 

paroxjsm comes on, he turns round three or four times before 
lying down. When down he may try to balance himself on his 
back, and may kick viciously at his abdomen. In cases termi- 
nating favorably the spasms become less frequent and less severe. 
In fatal cases the paroxysms become longer and more violent, and 
ultimately terminate in death. 

Treatment. — The treatment is very satisfactory if adopted in 
time. Eight drachms of aloes or one quart of linseed oil should 
be administered at once, followed by opium tinct., ounces two; 
aether nitrice, ounces two. The employment of this treatment, 
together with enemas, is all that is required. 

The subcutaneous injections of morphine are very effectual, 
and act in from seven to ten minutes. Chloroform, chloral 
hydrate, sulphuric aether, and belladonna are useful in relieving 
pain. Two or three drachms of chloroform may be combined 
with the tincture of opium, or an ounce of the tincture of opium, 
one ounce of sulphuric aether, tAvo drachms of chloroform, to a 
pint of water may be given. Chloral hydrate may be given in 
two-ounce doses. 

The abdomen externally should be bathed with mustard and 
ammonia, or mustard and water. A diffusible stimulant, as good 
old rye whiskey, may expel a light attack. 

IMPACTION OF THE COLON. 

This is due to feeding on rough, coarse feed, such as straw cut 
long for mixing in chop feed. 

The symptoms, aside from those of abdominal pain, are a ten- 
dency on the part of the animal to push backwards, to press the 
tail against a solid object, to resist, by straining, the introduction 
of the hand and enemas into the rectum. In some cases the hard 
and impacted mass can be felt by introducing the hand into the 
rectum. The stomach and small intestines are usually found to 
be more or less emptied of alimentary matter, or containing large 
quantities of fluid; the large intestines are distended with a mass 
of hardened material, the mucous membrane highly congested, 



DISEASES OF THE STOMACH AND INTESTINES. 



383 



and sometimes caked to tlie faeces. Eupture of the colon some- 
times takes place from the extreme distension. 

Purgatives should not be pushed too strong for several days, 
but all the mild purgatives should be tried. If these fail, then it 
becomes necessary to employ more powerful remedies; but these 




Fig. 110 — Impaction of the Ck)lon. 

should not be used under five or six days. Eserine and pilocar^ 
pine should then be used hypodermically. 

HAEMORRHOIDS, OR PILES. 

The horse seldom suffers from piles, but the dog frequently is 
thus affected. There is, at first, congestion of the mucous mem- 
brane at the verge of the anus, and subsequently dilatation of the 
hsemorrhoidal veins, forming small tumors. These sometimes 
protrude, and bleed frequently. The diagnostic symptoms of 
piles are switching of the tail, and a tendency to rub it against the 
wall, pain during the act of defacation, and the faeces are tinged 
with blood. Examination of the anus will reveal the presence of 



384 THE STOCK OWNER^S ADVISER. 

vascular tumors, and mucli congestion and swelling of the mucous 
membrane of the skin. 

Treatment. — The cause is due to some obstruction of the 
portal circulation, constipation, or the retention of hardened 
faeces in the rectum. Hence, give enemas and allow a restricted 
diet. A laxative should be given, as a pint of linseed oil. An 
ointment, consisting of equal parts of oak galls and hog's lard, 
should be applied to the parts; the benzoate of zinc ointment is 
also a useful application. 

IMPERFORATE ANUS. 

A congenital malformation met with in all the domesticated 
animals, particularly in the pig. The intestine should be punc- 
tured and an artificial anus formed. 

ENTERITIS. 

This is, undoubtedly, the most rapidly fatal inflammatory dis- 
ease to wdiich the horse is liable. It often destroys life in the 
course of a few hours. As a rule, the inflammation begins in the 

mucous coat, and grad- 
ually extends to and in- 
volves the outer coats. A 
variety of causes have 
been assigned for enteri- 
tis, but the only recog- 
nizable causes are over- 
fatigue, cold from expo- 
sure or from washing with 
cold water while the 
animal is heated. Superpurgation, irritating medicines, foreign 
substances, putrid waters, drinking cold w^ater when the animal 
is heated, may cause it. It is seldom that a horse lives twenty- 
four hours after the first appearance of the disease. Mortification 
often takes place in three or four hours. 




Fig. Ill — Inflammation of the Bowels. 



DISEASES OF THE STOMACH AND INTESTINES. ' 



385 




Symptoms. — Tlie first symptoms are those of boAvel trouble. 
The animal mav appear dull for a day or two, when well-marked 
symptoms will be manifested. This dullness may not be noticed 

in some cases, the first 
symptom to attract atten- 
tion being slight colicky 
pains. The animal paws 
continually first with one 
foot and then the other. 
If allowed to paw in dirt, 
lie ^\all dig a hole large 
enough to bury himself, 
lie mav crino-e and look 
at his side. The pulse is 
hard, wiry, and somewhat 
quickened. The belly be- 

Fig. 112-Tlie slow, careful, and hesltat- monies tender on pressure. 

ing manner of getting down in As the disease progresses. 

Inflammation of Bowels. jt becomes as violent as 

colic. The animal lies down more carefully than in colic, 
may walk in a circle four or five times before lying, and 
when he does lie 
down he does so with 
great care. When 
down, ho will use 
every effort to prc- 
V e n t the al)domen 
coming in contact 
with the g r o u n d. 
Pressure upon the 
abdomen calls forth 
expressions of pain. 
There is a peculiar sighing breathing, and the pulse runs up 
from 80 to 120 beats. The face has a haggard expression, 
the eye becomes blood-shot and of a glassy appearance. Cold 
25 




Fig. 113— Careful and Easy Rolling in 
Inflammation of tlie Bowels. 



386 THE STOCK OWNER S ADVISER. 

sweats bedew the body, the belly becomes tympanitic and 
trembles incessantly; the legs, montli, and ears are cold and 
the breath fetid, the lips pendulous, and the eye becomes more 
glassy. Gangrene sets in, the animal becomes quieter, wanders 
about in an unconscious condition, until, after a short interval, 
death closes the scene. If the symptoms abate in three or four 
hours after the attack, a favorable termination may be looked for. 
This, however, can scarcely be expected. 

Treatment. — The first and most important step in the treat- 
ment is the administration of powdered opium; one, two, and 
even three drachms may be given in this case, succeeded by 
smaller doses. Subcutaneous injections of morphine, in five- 
grain doses, may be used. The tincture of belladonna in drachm 
doses may be administered every four hours. Hot fomentations 
should be applied to the abdomen, as flannels dipped into boiling 
water and rinsed out. Place dry cloths over this. Mustard 
applications are beneficial. Tincture of aconite, in twenty-drop 
doses, should be given. Stimulants may be tried and their effects 
watched. In some cases they do harm, and in other cases they 
are of benefit. If the appetite returns the liquid should be used 
for some time. 

DIARRHOEA. 

Diarrhoea is the term applied to all cases of simple purging in 
which the faeces are loose, liquid, and frequently discharged 
without any coexisting inflammation. 

Causes. — A variety of causes produce diarrhoea, as rich food 
or sudden changes of diet; medicinal substances, derangement of 
the liver or digestive organs, grazing on poor, sandy pastures; 
violent exercise, and such foods as raw potatoes or frozen roots, 
as carrots and turnips. It may be induced by an effort of nature 
to discharge from the intestines something which is obnoxious, 
Or it may occur as the breaking up of diseases. In such cases it 
should not be checked. Some horses are particularly prone to 
diarrhoea, such as highly nervous and long coupled horses. Such 



DISEASES OF THE STOMACH AND Ii!^TESTINES. 387 

horses start well on a journey, but before tbey have gone any 
great distance, commence to purge more or less freely. Such 
horses are hard to keep in condition. 

Symptoms. — The symptoms of diarrhoea are the passing of an 
undue amount of liquid faeces. Slight griping pains may be 
manifested by the animal. The pulse becomes quickened, the 
animal weakens, and the extremities are colder than natural. 
Excessive thirst is manifested, and the animal is off his feed. If 
it be not checked it may terminate in enteritis, or farcy and 
glanders may supervene. 

Treatment. — Endeavor to find the cause of the trouble. If 
due to an irritant, it is not safe to check it thoroughly; and on the 
other hand, if there is great weakness and prostration, it must be 
checked as soon as possible. Where nature is throwing off some 
offending matter, it must be assisted by a dose of linseed oil or 
castor oil. If there is prostration from undue passage of liquid 
faeces, it must be checked by giving opiates. The powdered 
opium should be given in drachm doses three or four times a day. 
Where the animal is not too weak, I think it best to administer a 
pint of oil. In cases Avhere great weakness is noticed, it becomes 
necessary to check it at once by giving opiates as above men- 
tioned. Boiled starch or flour gruel may be allowed the animal 
to drink, and the food should be of the best kind. If there be 
much fetor the hyposulphite of soda may be given in the feed in 
one-half ounce doses. Catechu and powdered chalk are highly 
beneficial. P,rof. Smith recommends the use of catechu, a half 
ounce to an ounce; gentian, two drachms; ginger two drachms, 
and repeat in twelve or eighteen hours. Oil of turpentine, one 
ounce; opium, one drachm, beaten up with two or three eggs, is 
a good remedy. The intense thirst should not be gratified, and 
the animal should be allowed to drink only small quantities at 
a time. 

DIARRHOEA IN FOALS. 

This is a common occurrence when they are only three or four 
days to two or three weeks old. It is generally caused by some 



388 



THE STOCX 0W3,"EE < ADVISER. 



altered condition of the mother's milk. It mav be caused by cold, 
exposure, or fatigue, often by the foal receiving milk other than 
that of the mother, as skimmed milk. 

Sy^iptoms. — The symptoms are similar to diarrhoea in the 
adult. The faeces are liquid, of a yellowish-white color, and 
usually mixed with lumps. The colt falls off in condition, be- 
comes weak and hide-bound, the belly is tucked up, and he stag- 
gen in his gait. If not quickly relieved it dies. 




Fig. lU — Dvsenterv 



Teeatmext. — If the colt is a good, strong one, castor oil, two 
ounces, and opium, twenty grains, may be administered. An 
ounce of nitrate of potash, one ounce of sweet spirits of nitre in a 
drench should be aiven the mother. Lime water mav be used 



with good results. 



DYSENTERY. 



The horse is not so liable to dvsenterv as is the cow and doo:. 
The disease mav result from some other disease, or mav occur as 
an independent affection. The presence of irritants in the intes- 
tinal canal Avill produce it. 

Symptoms. — The fa?ces are of a liquid character, tinged with. 
blood. It mav contain shreds of mucous membrane. There is 



DISEASES OF THE STOMACH A^sD I^'TESTINES. 389 

mncli straining, and the rectum and anns are irritable and in- 
flamed. With the liquid faeces there mav be hardened pellets, 
mixed with blood. There will be abdominal pain, great dullness, 
thirst, and rapid emaciation. 

Teeatmext. — A pint of linseed oil should be administered, 
followed by opium and chalk, in similar quantities as recom- 
mended in the treatment of diarrhoea. Such stimulants as ale, 
beer, and whiskey may be used. Should these not succeed, 
styptics, as the oil of turpentine, or astringents, as tannic acid, 
alum, or the chloride of iron, may be used in three-drachm doses 
three times a day. The strictest attention should be paid to the 
diet. When the disease becomes of a chronic nature, cod-liver 
oil and eggs mixed should be administered. Four or five ounces 
of this may be given in a day. 

CONSTIPATION. 

Constipation is a symptom of disease. It consists of an undue 
accumulation of faeces, and may be due to too great or rapid 
absorption of the fluids of the intestinal canal, as seen in febrile 
disorders. It is a symptom of liver and intestinal disorders. The 
kind of food may exercise some influence in producing constipa- 
tion. 

Symptoms. — The faeces are passed in hard pellets, and are 
coated with mucous. Abdominal pain is present. The animal 
paws and rolls, but not in as violent a m^anner as in colic. The 
faeces generally accumulate in the colon, giving rise to impaction 
of that portion of the bowel, as previously described. 

Treatment. — See Impaction of the Colon. 

INTESTINAL CONCRETIONS 

Are found in the large intestines. They consist of masses of hard 
material, round in shape, formed of salts of lime and magnesia. 
If a section be made of the calculus, it will be found to consist 
of layers arranged around a nucleus, generally consisting of a 
piece of iron or pebble. They are found most frequently in ani- 



390 THE STOCK OWNER S ADVISER. 

mals fed on tlie sweepings of flour mills. Sometimes calculi of 
enormous dimensions have been removed by tlie aid of enemas 
and the animal recover. Balls, composed of hair, are frequently 
seen in cows and pigs; in cows, they result from the animal's lick- 
ing itself. 

Symptoms. — There are no diagnostic signs beyond those of 
violent abdominal pain. We may, however, judge pretty accu- 
rately by recurrent attacks of" colic, immovable obstruction, etc. 

Treatment. — Where a calculus is suspected, an examination 
must be made per rectum. The arm should be well greased and 




Fig. 115 — Intussusception. 

passed as far as possible into the canal, where it is possible that 
the calculus may be felt; if found, it should be grasped and re- 
moved. 

INTESTINAL TUMORS. 

Tumors of various sizes are found in the intestines. If large, 
they obstruct the passage, and death ensues. They are not fre- 
quent. 

INTUSSUSCEPTION. 

^y intussusception is meant the slipping of a portion or whole 
of a bowel into the cavity of another bowel. This is rarely met 
with, but when it occurs it usuallv results in death. 



DISEASES OF THE ' STOMACH AND INTESTINES. 391 

Symptoms. — The symptoms are those of enteritis and obstinate 
constipation. 

Treatment of intiissnsception is by administration of opium, 
two ounces, to relieve pain. 

VOLVULUS, OR TWISTED BOWEL. 

This is caused by a portion of the intestine becoming twisted 
in some way or other. There is no possible way of diagnosing 
this trouble in the horse. The correct nature of the trouble can 
never be ascertained except by a post-mortem. The symptoms 
are those of enteritis and colic. 

ASCITES, OR DROPSY OF THE ABDOMEN. 

This consists of a collection of fluid in the peritoneal sac of a 
serous nature. It results from diseases of the liver principally, 
but may result from other diseases. 

Symptoms. — There will be noticed an enlarged condition of 
the belly, which fluctuates, and gives off a dull sound on per- 
cussion. 

Tkeatment. — When the trouble is due to organic disease of 
the liver, heart, or other organs, a cure cannot be made. The 
operation of paracentesis abdominis, or tapping, may be resorted 
to, but generally it only gives temporary relief. 



XXXIL. 

DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 

ENCEPHALITIS. 

Encephalitis, or inflammation of the brain, is frequently met 
with in some localities. 

Causes. — It occurs as a result of an injury; in other cases it 
can be traced to the food or water. It may result from feeding 
on over-ripe grasses or on roots that have lain in the cellar all 
winter, or from eating narcotic weeds and plants. The feeding 
of over-ripe rye grasses in Great Britain frequently produces 
brain diseases. It may also be due to tumors. 

Symptoms. — The first symptom is dullness; the animal falls 
asleep while standing, and may nod the head. The pulse is 
slower, the urine is scant; he walks with a staggering gait; looks 
excited; thrusts his head against the manger and presses it there 
for some time. He moves the limbs automatically, rears and 
falls, gets up and may put his feet in the manger, and elevate 
the head high up into the rack. There are often seen twitchings 
of the muscles of the neck, the eyes become blood-shot, the 
breathing stertorous, and sometimes there is frantic efl"ort to 
climb over the stall. In some cases the animal walks in a circle, 
and no persuasion or force Avill induce him to move otherwise. 

Treatme]\'t. — Give eight drachms of aloes, combined with 
one drachm of calomel. The cow should be given twenty ounces 
of sulphate of magnesia and fifteen croton beans. The animal 
should have plenty of water to drink, and the head should be 
bathed with cold water, or pounded ice in a bag may be applied 
to the head. Belladonna in two-drachm doses may be given, and 
is usually attended with good results. Bromide of potassium, in 
three-drachm doses, should be given every three hours, along 

( 392 ) 



DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. 393 

with the belladonna. When the bowels act freely there is hope 
of recovery. If the patient is lying down, he should be padded 
up and his comfort attended to. If cold sweats break out, and 
the eye becomes amaurotic, death will soon follow. The prog- 
nosis of this disease, as a rule, is unfavorable. 

SUNSTROKE. 

Sunstroke is of very frequent occurrence in large cities, and 
especially in our large cities of the South. It is a greater or less 
congestion of the brain, with loss of sensation and voluntary 
motion. 

Causes. — Excessive heat is the important causative agent, but 
other circumstances co-operate, such as muscular exertion, un- 
duly severe and prolonged. High feeding on highly stimulating 
food, irregular exercise, an insufficient supply of water, and 
badly ventilated stables, are predisposing conditions. Debility 
is also a predisposing cause. The horse is not always attacked 
while exposed to the direct rays of the sun. The attack may 
come after he has returned to the stable; generally it takes place 
when the heat of the day is at its maximum, between noon and 
6 P. M. 

Symptoms. — Generally, before the trouble becomes well 
marked — ^that is, before the acute stages are reached — certain 
premonitory symptoms are observed, such as an unusual dullness 
and languor on the part of the animal. As a rule, he does not 
perspire as he should when put to exertion; there is dryness of 
the skin, with increased temperature. These premonitory symp- 
toms may be shown for three or four days. In severe cases, the 
patient usually passes quickly into the comatose state; falls, and 
when down extends the head. The pupil in some cases is dilated, 
in some contracted, in some normal, but the respondencv to light 
is lessened or lost. There may be contraction and dilatation at 
different periods in the same case, an amaurotic stare, and lovss of 
vision. The pulse may be unfrequent at first, as in cases of 



394 



THE STOCK OWNER S ADVISEE. 



apoplexy, but it often becomes frequent and feeble toward tbe 
fatal termination. The respirations are sometimes stertorous, in 
other cases suspirous, and accompanied by sighing or moaning. 
In most cases the temperature of the body is notably raised. If 
the breathing be stertorous, with deep coma, sighing or grunt- 
ing, the prognosis is extremely unfavorable. Great feebleness, 




Fig. 116— Icing in Sunstroke — the horse in a comatose state. 

relaxation of the sphincters, tracheal rales, and complete immo- 
bility, are forerunners of a fatal termination; convulsions are 
extremely unfavorable. 

Treatment. — If the patient emerges from the comatose state, 
convalescence is usually speedy. The treatment is to be adapted 
to the pathological character of the affection, as represented by 
the symptoms in individual cases. Pursuing this course, thera- 
peutical measures, so far from being the same, will be diametri- 
cally opposite in different cases. In cases of nervous exhaustion^ 



DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. 



395 



there is danger of death from asthenia or syncope. Complete 
rest is of the first importance. Alcoholic stimulants, in ounce 
doses, should be given, if there be power of swallowing. If the 
power of swallowing is gone, alcoholic stimulants should be 
given by enema. Pounded ice, in a sack, should be applied to 
the head. In some cases the body should be kept warm. The 
patient should be. placed in an atmosphere as comfortable, cool 




Fig. 117— The horse conscious, assisted to his feet preparatory 
to moving to the hospital. 

and pure as possible. If the animal is lying exposed to the rays 
of the sun, an awning should be erected over him. Eub the 
extremities and body vigorously, and use hot applications on the 
extremities. If the surface be hot and dry, the body should be 
sponged with spirits and water or rubbed with ice and sprayed 
with ice water; but this should not be kept up after the rectal 
temperature has fallen below 104 or 105° F. If the treatment 
is kept up after the temperature has fallen below 104° F., the 
fall is apt to be too rapid and great. The hypodermic injection 



396 



THE STOCK OWNER S ADVISEE. 



of ether is tigUy recommended by Prof. Smith, and I have used 
it with good results. If the animal shows signs of returning con- 
sciousness, there is hope of recovery; if he wishes to drink give 
him pure cold water. If he recovers sufficiently to get on his 
feet, he will go struggling along from side to side when he at- 
tempts to walk, and it may be necessary to place him in slings. 
Give a small dose of purgative medicine. Cold application to 
the head is important in proportion as the cerebral congestion 




Fig. 118 — Result of a case of Sunstroke suffering too long before 

receiving treatment. 



predominates. "When the circulation is feeble stimulants are 
needed. If the animal is found lying in a comatose state, it 
should be treated on the spot. There are reasons to believe that 
many cases which terminate fatally would otherwise have ended 
in recovery but for the necessity of moving the animals to sta- 
bles or infirmaries and delay in obtaining medical aid. Bromide 
of potassium may be given. The horse should be kept in posi- 
tion on the sternum by sacks of straw wedged under the shoulder. 
All air possible should be given, and curiosity seekers should not 
be allowed to obstruct its passage. 



DISEASES OF THE KEIiVOUS SYSTEM. 



397 



CONCUSSION OF THE BRAIN. 

Concussion of the brain is usually caused by the horse run- 
ning away and striking his head against some hard object, or 
rearing and falling backwards and fracturing the basilar process 
of the occipital bone. Concussion is due to an injury on the 
head in various ways. 

Symptoms. — In concussion of the brain, complete loss of 
motor power and sensibility takes place. The pupil of the eye 




Fig. 119— Concussion of the Brain. Showing mechanical conges- 
tion from hanging the head to the extent of rendering the 
animal unable to lift the enlarged head. 

is dilated, the pulse indistinct; the temperature of the body 
lower than in health; the breathing is stertorous, and the animal 
totally unconscious. In a few hours consciousness may return, 
when he will make an effort to rise, getting up with his forelegs 
under him like a cow, hind legs first. If the pulse is strong, 
recovery may be expected. 

Treatment. — Apply cold applications to the head and wann 
applications to the body and extremities. Prop the patient up 
on his sternum, or sling him. Give stimulants and enemas. 
Sometimes the patient will hang its head persistently until mc- 



398 THE STOCK OW^^Ek's ADVISER. 

chanical congestion of the Kps take place. They should be 
scarified and bathed, and the head elevated by means of a sling. 

EPILEPSY. 

This disease is seldom seen in the horse, but frequently in the 
dog. It is characterized by complete loss of consciousness for a 
short time, with spasmodic contraction of the muscles. In young 
dogs epileptic fits are associated with dentition and worms in the 
intestinal canal or stomach. 

Symptoms. — The animal in apparent health is seen to stagger 
and stare, then fall in a convulsive fit and froth at the mouth. 
The attack lasts three or four minutes, after which he gets up, 
walks about in a dull manner, but soon recovers. 

Teeatme^^. — In treating this affection the bromide of potash, 
in half-ounce doses, should be given. A purgative should be ad- 
ministered, as six drachms of aloes. If teething is the cause, 
the offending teeth should be extracted. If due to w^orms in the 
stomach or intestines a vermifuge should be given. The con- 
dition will be dealt with more fully in the chapter on dogs. 

VERTIGO. 

This condition is due to some lesion of the brain. It may be 
due to temporary congestion, to cerebral tumors, or anything 
that interferes with the flow of blood to or from the brain. 
Gastric derangement will cause it. Over-study causes the con- 
dition in man. 

Symptoms. — The animal usually stops while being driven, 
elevates the head, staggers and falls, lies thus awhile,, and in a 
short time gets up, shakes himself, and appears to be all right. 

Treatment. — Give six drachms of aloes, and follow witli 
half-ounce doses of the bromide of potash every four hours. 
Some animals subject to this trouble are extremely dangerous. 



DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. 399 

APOPLEXY. 

"Apoplexy is a disease characterized by sudden loss, more or 
less complete, of volition, perception, sensation, and motion, de- 
pending on sudden pressure upon the brain (the tissues of which 
may be morbid), originating Avithin the cranium." (Aitkin.) 

It is due to arrest of the circulation of the blood in the brain, 
and there may possibly be rupture of some of the small blood 
vessels of the part and extravasation of blood. It is seen in all 
animals. 

Symptoms. — There may be some premonitory symptoms, su«h 
as staggering and partial paralysis. Soon the animal will fall 
and lie in an unconscious condition, without the power of motion. 
The eyes are wdde open, presenting a ghastly stare. The breath- 
ing is stertorous, the body cold, the pulse small. In some cases 
the animal retains the power of muscular movements, and fights 
convulsively. These symptoms may alternate with quietude. 

Treatment. — Give several doses of the hyposulphite of soda, 
half-ounce doses, every four hours. Apply ice to the head, and 
bleeding may be beneficial. Bromide of potash in half-ounce 
doses should be given. 

Apoplexy affecting the cow will be given in chapter on dis- 
eases of the ox. 

TETANUS, OR LOCKJAW. 

Tetanus is a common disease in certain localities. There are 
some parts of the United States where tetanus is almost un- 
known, but in other localities it is frequently seen at all times 
of the year. It is seen mostly during the months of August and 
September, and frequently takes an epizootic form. The disease 
is characterized by tonic contraction of the voluntary muscles. 
The variety known as trismus, or lockjaw, is characterized by 
contraction of the muscles of the jaws. There are several varie- 
ties of tetanus, known as opisthotonos, to designate the variety 
wherein the muscles of the back are rigidly contracted; cmpro&- 



400 



THE STOCK OWNER^S ADVISER. 



thotonos, when the muscles of the belly are rigidly contracted; 
pleurosthotonos, when the head and neck are pulled around to 
one side. Either of the three varieties is seldom seen. I think 
that I can safely say that in as many as two hundred cases I 
have never yet seen either of the varieties mentioned in a pure 
case of tetanus. There are two forms of tetanus — traumatic and 

iodiopathic. It is trau- 
matic when due to an 
injury. When the 
disease occurs without 
appreciable cause, it is 
known as iodiopathic 
tetanus. Tetanus is 
most likely to occur as 
a result of punctural 
wounds, and manifests 
itself about the time 
the wound is healing, 
or the ninth or tenth 
day after the injury. 
It follows castration, 
and is one of the most 
fatal diseases of the 
horse. 

Symptoms. — The condition is easily diagnosed when the dis- 
ease is well developed. "When once seen it will never be forgot- 
ten.: The driver usually finds that the horse drives duller than 
usual, shows some excitement on being harnessed, walks with the 
hind limbs farther apart than usual. He pokes his nose out far- 
ther than natural, and travels in a peculiarly stiff manner. These 
symptoms may be shown for a day or two, when the advanced 
symptoms of tetanus are seen. The animal stands with legs 
apart ; in other words, props himself with his limbs, similar to a 
wooden horse. The excitement is greater, the spasms are well 
marked, and come on more frequently. The head is poked out 




Fig. 120 — Lockjaw — First Stages. 



DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. 



401 



and the jaws closed. The membrana nictitans, on lifting the 
head, extends almost over the eyeball. The tail is drawn up, the 
animal carrying it stiffly. The ears are stiff, and stick straight 
up; and the nostrils become peculiarly dilated. The piilse varies 
according to the excitement. The bowels are usually consti- 
pated, the urine scant. If the animal lies down, his limbs stand 
out, stiff as four sticks. If the case is far advanced, he cannot 




Fig. 121 — Lockjaw. A well developed case. 

get on his feet again. When the symptoms are greatly aggra- 
vated, the animal fights and struggles, the body becomes bathed 
with sweat; if the animal is not raised in five or six hours, he 
dies from exhaustion. 

Treatment. — Quietude is of the greatest importance. The 
animal should be placed in a darkened, out of the way place. No 
persons except the one to administer medicine or the doctor 
should bo admitted, and even they should only go to him three 
times a day. 

Every drug in the pharmacopoeia has been tried. Experience 

26 



402 THE STOCK OWNER^S ADVISER. 

with me lias confined this number to four or five drugs. Ad- 
minister eight drachms of aloes, and follow with one-ounce 
doses of powdered belladonna leaves in a bolus^ or one drachm 
of the tincture may be used. Place the medicine well back on 
the tongue, and it Avill be sucked in. Atropine mav be given 
h}^:>odermically in five to ten minim doses. Bromide of potash 
should be dissolved in the drinking water, if the power of swal- 
lowing is not lost. If this treatment does not seem to do well, 
one drachm of powdered opium, made into a pill, should be 
given, or morphine may be given hypodermically in five-gTain 
doses. I have had good results from the use of calabar bean in 
thirty-grain doses. The food should be of the best and most 
nutritiotis quality, given in a thin gruel. The various liquid 
foods should be given. If the disease runs an acute course, end- 
ing, in about three days, a cure cannot be made, ^hen in the 
acute form the spasms come on every ten or fifteen minutes from 
the first of the attack, and gTadually increase. If this occurs 
twelve hours after treatment has been employed, the disease will 
result in death in three or four days. If it runs a chronic course, 
and the animal lives over the tenth day, a recovery may be ex- 
pected. The animal will not fully recover under six weeks or 
two months. He should receive exercise during convalescence, 
and should do only light and slow work for two months. 

CEREBRAL TUMORS. 

Tumors are often found in the choroid plexus. They grow 
very slowly and scarcely ever affect the health of the animal. 
If they become as large as a pigeon's or hen's egg, they will give 
rise to severe convulsive fits. Xothing can be done for this 
trouble. Tubercular meningitis is seen in animals of a tuber- 
cular diathesis. The symptoms are those of cerebral disturbance. 
There is a thickening of the dura mater, atrophy and a hyper- 
trophied condition of the brain, tumors in connection with and 
softening of the brain. They all occur as a result of many othe^'r 



DISEASES OF THE KEEVOUS SYSTEM. 



403 



diseases, and the symptoms are not well marked, being those 
usually presented by cerebral disturbances. 



HYSTERIA. 

Hysteria is characterized by a highly nervous or excitable 
condition. It is seen in all female animals. It is caused by some 
change or excitement of the generative system. 

Symptoms. — The animal becomes excited to a great degree. 
The pulse runs away, the mare neighs continually, and in some 




Fig. 122— Hysteria. 

cases there is a Mnd of hiccough, caused by spasms. Tl^ere is 
usually a whitish or reddish colored discharge from the vulva. 
Hysteria usually occurs about the time the animal comes in 
heat; but it may, though rarely, occur in pregnant animals. The 
symptoms will subside in a few days. The appetite is impaired, 
and sometimes there is present urination. 

Treatment is not necessary. Opium, in onnce doses, or bro- 
mide of potassium, in half-ounce doses, may be used. 



404 



THE STOCK 0W:N'ER S ADVISEE. 



CHOREA. 

Chorea is a disease of tlie nervous system, characterized by 
involuntary and convulsive muscular movements. It is fre- 
quently seen in the dog. See Diseases of the Dog. 

A form of chorea, known as stringhalt, in the horse is fre- 
quently met with, and is characterized by a violent spasmodic 
jerking of one or both hind legs. It is seen more particularly 





Fig. 123— Stringhalt. 

when the animal first comes from the stable and during cold 
weather. It is due to some lesion of the nervous system. 

Symptoms. — To detect the disease when slis:ht, he should be 
made to walk forward, and turn to first one side and then the 
other. While doing this the animal should be excited by using 
the whip. Walk him forward, trot him, and excite him with the 
whip. Some horses only show it in the stable by being made to 



•diseases of the nekvous system. 405 

step from side to side. Some will trot along for eight or ten 
steps, and then jerk up the foot. 

The disease is incurable, and is not worth while treating. 

SHIVERING. 

Shivering is a form of chorea, and is due to some lesion of the 
nervous system, perhaps the spinal cord. It affects the posterior 
parts principally. 

Symptoms. — It is seen most when the animal is backing or 
endeavoring to back. He has great difficulty in backing, and 
becomes excited. There is muscular twitching, with elevations 
and quivering of the tail. 

Teeatment. — It is useless to treat. E'erve tonics and sedatives 
may benefit it for a little while, as nux vomica, in drachm doses, 
an-d bromide of potash, in two-drachm doses, twice a day. 

IMMOBILITY. 

This is also a form of chorea, and is characterized by excite- 
ment. The animal when excited loses all use of his limbs; there 
is quivering, and he will finally sit down on his haunches. Noth- 
ing can be done in the way of treatment. 

SPINITIS. 

Inflammation of the spinal cord and its coverings occurs in 
the acute and chronic forms. It may result from injuries or 
struggling when confined for operation. Certain grasses and bad 
food also cause the disease. It is likely to terminate in paralysis, 
which may be due to softening of the cord. 

Symptoms. — The symptoms in the acute form are as follows: 
The animal while a^t work will suddenly perspire profusely; the 
breathing becomes quickened, and there will be great restless- 
ness. The hind feet are lifted from the ground in a violent man- 
ner. The animal may fall, struggle violently, and finally get 
on his feet again. His pulse runs up to ninety, the mucous mem- 
branes are injected, and the body bedewed with sweat. There 



406 THE STOCK owner's ADVISEE. 

may be intervals of quietude, and then a dreadful agony. This 
may exist for some hours, when the spasms may be relieved. He 
may get on his feet, stagger and knuckle over at the fetlock, and 
appear to be improving wonderfully, when sudden relapse may 
come, bringing paralysis and death. 

In the chronic form the symptoms are a stiffness of the spine, 
the animal turns with difficultv, the limbs are flexed with diffi- 
culty, the nose is elevated. In a few weeks the hind legs become 
feeble, the animal knuckles over at the fetlock, crosses his feet, 
staggers, and eventually becomes paralyzed. 

Teeatmek't. — Give eight drachms of aloes, combined with 
two drachms of belladonna. Stimulants should be applied to the 
spine. Ergot of rye, in combination with the iodide of potassium, 
may be used, three drachms of each three times a day. The 
bladder must be emptied, and the catheter should be used at least 
three times a day. Enemas should be regularly administered, 
and the bed kept clean and dry. 

PARALYSIS. 

Loss of voluntary motion, either with or without loss of sen- 
sation. It may be seen in various forms rather as a symptom of 
a lesion than as a disease itself. It is divided into hemiplegia 
and paraplegia. It may be described as local; that is, where 
paralysis of several muscles occur. 

Hemiplegia is that form of paralysis in which one lateral half 
of the body is affected. It is very rarely seen in the lower ani- 
mals, and results from some disease or injury of the brain. 

Symptoms. — When down the animal cannot rise, motor 
power, and sometimes sensation of one-half of the body, being 
lost. The ear on the affected side becomes pendulous. The 
cheek hangs down, the angle of the mouth is lower, and the nose 
may be turned towards the side affected. 

Teeatmext. — If the animal can support any portion of its 
Vv^eight, it may be put in slings. Eight drachms of aloes should 



DISEASES OP THE NEEVOUS SYSTEM. 407 

be administered, followed by coarse powdered nux vomica, in 

one-drachm doses. 

PARAPLEGIA. 

This form of paralysis is frequently seen in the lower animals. 
It is produced in a variety of ways, as slipping, falling, and 
jumping. It may originate in indigestion and constipation. 
Paralysis arising from indigestion is occasionally seen during an 
attack of colic. It is sometimes seen in the mare during the 
period of oestrum. In horned cattle, paraplegia is not an unfre- 
quent symptom of indigestion, arising from impaction of the 
rumen, and from uterine irritation. If the paralysis is due to 
fracture of the anterior dorsal vertebra, there will be loss of 
motion in the anterior as well as the posterior extremities. When 
the posterior extremities only are paralyzed, the practitioner 
may know that the injury is situated pretty well back. 

Treatment. — Give eight drachms of aloes. Ergot of rye and 
belladonna may be used, one drachm of each. The bromide of 
potash should be given in the early stages, followed by nux 
vomica, in drachm doses. Sling may be used if he will support 
part of his weight by his lim'bs. 

HYDROCEPHALUS. 

This is the term given to water in the cranial cavity. It is 
sometimes seen in connection with a fetus; in such a case, de- 
livery cannot be effected unless an opening is made in the head 
of the fetus and the fluid allowed to escape. 



XXXIII. 
DISEASES OF THE LIVER. 

The horse does not suffer from liver trouble to the extent of 
the human being, although the same conditions prevail in the 
horse as in the human being. The cause of liver disease is feed- 
ing an animal on a highly stimulating diet for a long time. Con- 
gestion of the liver occurs as a symptom of other diseases, as 
disease of the heart and lungs. 

Symptoms. — Abdominal pain, the animal looking to the right 
side; yellowness of the mucous membrane; high, brownish color 
of the urine; constipation of the bowels; the faeces are some- 
times of a light clay color and fetid, a sour, acid or offensive 
condition of the mouth ; grinding of the teeth. In some instances 
pain is manifested by lameness in the off (right) shoulder. 

Treatment. — Give eight drachms of aloes. The food should 
be of a character easily digested. Suljohate of magnesia may be 
given night and morning, in one-ounce doses, diluted in a half 
pint of water. A course of iodide of potassium is useful. 

HEPATITUS, OR INFLAMMATION OF THE LIVER. 

This disease, very rare in the lower animals, may be j)rodxiced 
by feeding on coarse, inferior food. It is almost always con- 
nected with inflammation of the other abdominal organs. After 
death the liver is found to be congested, of a gTayish-red color, 
and weighing from forty to fifty pounds. An epizootic form of 
the disease has occurred in Italy. 

Symptoms. — The animal is dull, the coat is staring, the pulse 
quick and weak, and the faeces of a clay color. There is a strong 
manifestation of fever rising in the system. The animal may 
lie down and roll, but not in as violent a manner as a case of 
colic. On the second or third day the mucous membranes begin 

(408) 



DISEASES OF THE LIVER. 



409 



to turn yellow. The inner surface of the lips, cheeks and tongue, 
the conjunctiva, and in some cases the transparent cornea and 
iris as well, become yellow, manifesting the diffusion of bile 
over the body. The faeces even are of a yellowish tinge. The 
urine is thick and contains the same bilious tinge. The horse 
will lie down, look at its right side, and so'on get up again. If 




Fig. 124 — Inflammation of the Liver. 

the right side be pressed upon the animal will flinch. Lameness 
in the off shoulder has been observed. 

Treatment. — Give eight drachms of aloes, and follow with 
twenty drops of the tincture of aconite, given every two hours. 
Ipecacuanha is of value in the treatment of this disease. Calo- 
mel and other liver stimulants should not be given. Counter- 
irritation, as mustard over the region of the liver, is of great 
service. Potassium iodide, in one-drachm dose should be given 
three times a day. The food should be of the best quality. 
Scalded bran should be given the first few days, then give grass 
or some nutritious diet. 

The disease frequently occurs in the chronic form, giving rise 



410 THE STOCK owner's ADVISEE. 

to changes in the substance of the liver, whereby it either be- 
comes enlarged and softened in structure or hardened and dimin- 
ished in bulk. 

JAUNDICE. 

Jaundice, or yellows, is a. symptom of many affections in which 
the tissues of the body are dyed yellow. It is, however, very 
generally spoken of and regarded as a disease of itself. The 
principal symptom is yellowness of the skin. Any disease of the 
liver may give rise to this jaundice appearance, as over-stimula- 
tion of the gland by feeding largely and giving but little exer- 
cise. Suppression or non-secretion of bile in consequence of in- 
flammation, or functional inactivity of the gland itself, or the 
presence of any obstruction preventing the passage of bile 
through the ducts, may result in reabsorption of the coloring 
matter, which, entering the blood, is carried to all parts of the 
body. There is a test by means of which one can ascertain 
whether the conditions are caused by obstruction of the ducts or 
due to functional inactivity of the gland. Harley's test is as 
follows: Take of acid sulphuric one drachm, loaf sugar a suffi- 
cient quantity, add two drachms of the suspected urine to the 
sugar, then add the sulphuric acid slowly. If the trouble is due 
to obstruction, the mixture will become a scarlet or purple red 
at the line of contact; but if a brown color be present at the line 
of contact, proof conclusive is obtained that the trouble is due to 
suppression. The test is thoroughly reliable. 

Treatment. — If the test reveals functional inactivity of the 
liver, eight drachms of aloes, with two drachms of calomel, may 
be administered. In case it indicates obstruction, liver stimu- 
lants would do harm. 

SCIRRHOSIS. 

Scirrhosis, or induration of the liver, may result from hepa- 
titis, but it frequently occurs from feeding on damaged food, 
such as damaged and mouldy hay, or changing from a poor food 



DISEASES OF THE LlVEK. 411 

to a highly stimulating diet. In man the same condition exists 
where long continued alcoholic stimulants are used. 

Symptoms. — The symptoms are those of general liver disease, 
the animal gradually falling off in condition. The yellow tinge 
of the skin is also present. The faeces are clay colored and very 
fetid. The animal, as a rule, persistently stands. The disease is 
a little difficult to diagnose from other liver troubles. 

Teeatment. — Sulphate of magnesia, in ounce doses, should be 
given for several days. Bicarbonate of soda may be given in 
three-drachm d'oses. The animal should be put on a long course 
of tonics. , 

RUPTURE OF THE LIVER. 

Rupture of the liver takes place in the horse, but it is very 
difficult to diagnose. The treatment would be the administra- 
tion of styptics, as tincture of iron, in two or three drachm doses, 
or half-ounce doses of ergot. 

BILIARY CALCULI. 

Biliary calculi are very rarely found in the lower animals, and 
there are no symptoms showing their presence during life. They 
are only revealed by a post-mortem. 

Other conditions of the liver occur, as atrophy, wasting of the 
gland, or hypertrophy, or an abnormal enlargement of the 
liver. Abscesses and tumors of various kinds may occur in con- 
nection with the liver, and give rise to no well-marked symptoms 
peculiar to themselves. The treatment of any of these condi- 
tions is useless. Good food and use of tonics is all that can be 
done. 



XXXIV. 
DISEASES OF THE SPLEEN AND PANCREAS. 

Diseases of the spleen are revealed on post-mortem; but there 
are no symptoms during life which indicate their presence. 
There are various organic changes taking place in connection 
with the pancreas, as atrophy, hypertrophy, thrombosis, tubercle, 
the presence of hydrates, lymphadenoma. 

ITumerous symptoms have been enumerated for the various 
conditions, but I question whether they can be diagnosed cor- 
rectly. 



(412) 



XXXV. 
DISEASES OF THE KIDNEYS. 

The kidneys of the lower animals are in a great measure ex- 
empt from diseases which so often destroy human life. They do 
not indulge in alcoholic drinks, and are free to a certain extent 
of the cares and troubles of the world. Their emotions and men- 
tal anxieties are not so great. Diseases of the kidneys, however, 
do occur and are well marked. Physiologically the kidneys 
excrete from the body those materials resulting from metamor- 
phosis of tissue, which, if retained, would act injuriously upon 
the system generally. 

INFLAMMATION OF THE KIDNEYS— NEPHRITIS. 

This disease is seldom seen in the lower animals. When it 
does occur it is generaly found in the chronic form, l^ephritis 
generally embraces all the structure of the kidney, often com- 
mencing in the mucous membrane of the uriniferous tubes, and 
afterward involving the parenchyma. One kidney may be 
affected to the exclusion of the other. 

Causes. — Many injuries and strains, causing a stiffness in the 
animal's gait, have been mistaken for kidney trouble, and we 
meet with practitioners who blister a poor animal's back and 
loins in most cruel manner. They come to the conclusion that 
bowel diseases and most injuries are pure cases of kidney disease. 
They seem to have made up their minds before seeing it that the 
animal had kidney trouble, and diagnosed as kidney trouble what 
was simply a strain, or stiffness from over-exertion. I think the 
most prolific cause is due to the absorption of irritable medicines 
applied as local liniments, or it may be produced by the admin- 
istration of internal medicines which have an irritating effect, 
as croton oil, turpentine, etc. Long-continued effect of cold, as 

( 413 ) 



414 



THE STOCK OWNER S ADVISEE. 



cold water dropping upon tlie animal's back, or exposure of tlie 
animal to cold after severe exertion, may produce it. 

Symptoms. — There is considerable fever and colicky pains. 
The pulse is bard and frequent, with increased thirst; short, 
rapid breathing; hot, clammy mouth, and constipation of the 
bowels. The most important diagnostic symptom is the scanty 
secretion, or total suppression, of urine, with desire to micturate 




Fig. 125 — Inflammation of the Kidney — Acute. 



frequently. The animal stretches itself in vain attempts, pass- 
ing, perhaps, but a few drops of a highly colored and irritating 
secretion. When fever with colicky pains is present, in addi- 
tion to emptiness of the urinary bladder, frequent attempts to 
urinate, with but little discharge, the examiner may be assured 
nephritis is present. A stiffness of the loins may be an indica- 
tion of nephritis, but it is not to be relied upon. Ursemic poison- 
ing may set in, causing the animal to act as though intoxicated, 
and a strong uriniferous odor is given out in the perspiration. 



DISEASES or THE KIDNEYS. 415 

Treatment. — Give a pint of linseed oil or eight drachms of 
aloes. Warm fomentations, succeeded by mild mustard applica- 
tions, should be used over the loins. One to two drachms of the 
tartar of antimony may be given. If the suppression continues 
for several days, or if at any time the urasmic intoxication is ap- 
parent, the secretion of urine must be excited. To do this digi- 
talis, in the form of a decoction, should be repeatedly applied to 
the skin. It must be discontinued as soon as the kidneys have 




Fig. 126— Inflammation of the Kidney— Chronic Form. 

commenced to act. . It may be applied in poultices over the 
region of the kidneys. The results of nephritis are atrophy, 
hypertrophy, etc. 

HYPERTROPHY. 

This is an abnormal enlargement of one or both kidneys. The 
condition may exist for. some time without presenting any sign 
of disease. The condition may be easily detected by placing the 
hand well up in the rectum. A case is on record in which the 
kidney weighed fifty pounds, and Percival mentions a case in 
which the kidney weighed upwards of one hundred and twelve. 

Treatment. — Such cases cannot be benefited very much, still 
the carbonate of soda may be tried, in two-drachm doses three 
times a day. 



416 THE STOCK OWXEe's ADVISEE. 



ATROPHY OF THE KIDNEY. 

Atrophy of the kidney may be treated by putting the animal 
on a course of nux vomica and by giving alcoholic stimulants. 

]\Ielanotic deposits occur in connection with the liver, and are 
always seen in connection with gray horses. The symptoms are 
those of kidney troubles. The diagnosis may be assisted from 
the fact that it usually occurs in gray horses, and when melanotic 
tumors are seen in other parts of the body. It is not worth while 
to treat this condition. 

FLOATING KIDNEYS. 

One or both kidneys may be displaced; and cases are on record 
where one kidney has been removed, the operation causing little 
or no inconvenience. 

AIBUMENURIA. 

The occurrence of large Cjuantities of albumen in the urine is 
a consequence of acute nephritis, or more frequently it occurs 
from some irregularity of the diet, faulty diet giving rise to de- 
rangement of the nervous system. This condition is identical 
with the disease known as Brights disease in the human family. 

SvMPTOMS. — The animal, as a rule, persistently stands, and 
there may be stiffness in the gait and shortness of breath. The 
animal may be more or less dull, loses flesh, and presents an un- 
thrifty condition generally. There will be edematous swellings 
in the limbs. The animal will stand stretched out in his stall, 
with his forefeet under the r'.anger and his hind feet backward. 
He will stand in that position all day long, and it seems com- 
fortable to him. He ustially comes out of the stable with a stiff 
motion. Where the above symptoms are present, it may be 
stated pretty accurately that albumen exists. To be sure that 
the diagnosis is correct, the test for albumen should be made as 
follows. To a small quantity of the suspected urine, add a little 



DISEASES OF THE KIDNEYS. 



417 



nitric acid, and lieat the mixture, when coagulation of the albu- 
men contained in the urine will at once take place. 

Treatment. — ^The howels should be kept in a relaxed condi- 
tion bj giving small doses of aloes. When constipation arises, 
eleterium may be used with success in fifteen minim doses. The 
food «hould be of the best quality, and the body should be kept 




Fig. 127 — Albumenuria. 

warm. If convalescence is established, tonics should be admin- 
istered, as sulphate of iron, three drachms; gentian, two 
drachms, may be given in the feed night and morning. 

POLYUREA, OR DIABETES INSIPIDIES. 

This is a dietetic disease, due to a deranged condition of the 
digestive system, which, causing an alteration in the condition 
of the blood, gives rise to excessive secretions of a clear, color-. 
less urine. 

Causes. — It is caused by faulty dieting, or the use of putrid, 

stagnant waters. The use of mouldy hay or corn is no doubt the 
27 



418 THE STOCK OWNERS ADVISEE. 

most usual cause. It may occur as the result of some de'bilitating 
disease. 

Symptoms. — The animal becomes very dull. The coat is dry 
and dusty-looking, the animal falling off in flesh to a considerable 
extent. The appetite is capricious, one day eating heartily and 
the next day refusing all food. The pulse becomes weak, and 
there is a terrible thirst; if led to the water, he will drink all 
that he possibly can, and there will be a difficulty in getting him 
away. The animal perspires freely on the slightest exertion. 
He rapidly loses flesh, and will soon die if nothing be done for 
him. 

Treatment. — Discover the cause, and remove it. Change the 
food and drink. Give iodine, one drachm; potassium iodide, one 
drachm, night and morning, in severe cases; and give in addition 
to this, in the feed, Gentian pow'd, drachms three; iron sulphate, 
drachms three, twice a day. 

EENAL CALCULI. 

Renal calculi are found in the kidneys, and are composed of 
the carbonate of lime and magnesia. Their presence is discov- 
ered by the condition of the urine, which is discharged with 
earthy materials, intermingled with blood. There are occasional 
colicky pains. 

Treatment. — Give hydrochloric acid to dissolve the calculus. 
One-half drachm should be given diluted in a pint of water twice 
a day for several days. 

SUPPRESSION or URINE. 

This is due to functional inactivity of the kidney. It is char- 
acterized by dullness of the animal and passing of urine in small 
quantities. The urine is normal in appearance. If an examina- 
tion be made per rectum, the bladder is found to be empty, or 
nearly so. 

Treatment. — All that is required is simply the administration 
of a stimulant, as an ounce of sweet spirits of nitre with a half 



DISEASES OF THE KIDNEYS. 419 

ounce of nitrate of potash; or rosin may be used. Three or four 
doses may be necessary. 

CYSTITIS, OR INFLAMMATION OF THE BLADDER. 

This disease occurs in all animals, and, I think, is due solely 
to the administration of irritable medicines. It may be caused 
by the absorption of irritating blisters, applied externally. 

Symptoms. — There will be pain, with a difficult passage of 
urine; the pulse is quickened, the mouth is hot. The horse may 




Fig. 128 — Inflammation of the Bladder. 

stamp and lie down. An examination per rectum will reveal 
heat, and give rise to pain. 

Treatment. — Twenty drops of the tincture of aconite and 
three-drachm doses of nitrate of potash should be given. If the 
patient is a female, tepid water, with a little tincture of opium 
added, should be injected into the bladder. Enemas of warm 
water should be given per rectum. Clothe the animal well, and 
keep the bowels open by the use of oil. 

RETENTION OF URINE. 

An inability, total or partial, to expel by natural effort the 
urine contained in the bladder. Its escape is prevented by mus- 



420 



THE STOCK OWAEH S ADVISEE. 



ciilar contractions of tlie neck of the bladder, bj enlargement of 
the prostate gland, prolapse of the rectum^ dirt in the sheath, or 
cancer of the penis. 

Symptoms. — Frequent and ineffectual attempts to urinate. 
The animal will stretch himself out, strain violently, and groan. 
He may succeed in voiding a very small quantity of urine, which 

comes away in a short, 



forcible jet. An ex- 
amination per rectum 
will find the bladder 
full of urine. 

Treatment. 

The arm should be well 
lubricated and gently 
passed into the rectum 
until the bladedr is 
reached. Gentle pressure should be brought to bear upon it and 
its contents forced out. Should this fail to remove the urine, a 
warm-water enema, especially an enema made from the decoc- 
tion of tobacco, should, be used; after which pressure may again 
be employed to the bladder. If this fail the catheter must be 
passed and the urine withdrawn. 




Fig. 129— Eetention oi the Urine. 



MELANOTIC DEPOSITS IN THE BLADDER. 

These are deposits seen in bladders of gray horses. Tumors 
and fungoid growths are also found in the bladder. 

Symptoms. — A difficulty in voiding the urine; the urine is 
tinged with blood, owing to rupture of small blood vessels. At 
times the urine may be black. The animal falls off in condition. 
The tumor may be detected by an examination per rectum. 

Treatment. — IS^ot much can be done for these conditions. If 
a fungoid growth is present, its removal may be tried. The 
operation should not be tried unless it be the only means of 
preventing death. 



DISEASES OF THE KIDNEYS. 421 

INVERSION OF THE BLADDEE. 

This frequently occurs in the cow and mare, and usually fol- 
lows difficult parturition, but may result from debility. It is 
detected by a small and reddened tumor-like substance protrud- 
ing from the vulva. The urine escapes dribbling down over the 
thighs. 

Treatment. — Bathe the bladder with warm water and tinc- 
ture of opium, and return it to its place as soon as possible. The 
vagina may afterwards be injected with warm water. The hind 
quarters should be elevated, and opium tincture may be given 
by the mouth in ounce doses. If the case has been neglected and 
the bladder becomes gangrenous, it should be removed by the 
ecraseur. The urine will then escape through the ureters and 
run over the thigh. 

CYSTIC CALCULI. 

Cystic calculi are said to originate in the limestone districts. 
I have always doubted whether the water from limestone dis- 
tricts would cause calculi. I am now convinced of the fact that 
calculi are more frequent in limestone districts. I have made 
observations regarding this in my practice in the limestone belts 
of the Xorth, and in the low, sandy, cotton belts of the South. 
A very minute portion of foreign matter may be present in the 
bladder and act as a nucleus around which the calcarious mate- 
rial is deposited. 

Symptoms. — A single calculus or numbers may exist in the 
bladder at one time. The urine becomes white or milky in color, 
and when being voided, instead of a full, round stream, the flow 
may be suddenly checked by the presence of the calculi. The 
animal will stand in the position for urinating, and after several 
attempts may succeed in voiding it. The urine may dribble 
away at times and be tinged with blood. To make certain of the 
condition, all that is required is an examination per rectum, when 
the calculi may be felt. 



4:22 THE STOCK OWNER'S ADVISEE. 

Teeatme^^t. — If the patient oe in a limestone country, change 
the ^vater and aive rain Avater. The animal should be aiven 
plenty of salt and he put on a course of hydrochloric acid; 
drachm doses should be used twice a day for a week. 

In case the calculi are large the operation of lithotomy may 
be performed. This operation is somewhat difficult in the male, 
but may be easily performed in the female. This should be en- 
trusted to the surgeon. 

TJEETHRAI CALCULI. 

These differ from cystic calculi only in their situation. When 
the calculi pass out of the bladder into the urethra they are 
known as urethral calculi. Cattle troubled with urinary calculi 
generally have calcarious deposits on the hair aroimd the pre- 
puce. They may set up an inflammation of the urethra of the 
ox and cause stricture. In such a case, as the catheter cannot be 
passed, the only remedy is to cut into the urethra and divide the 
stricture. This operation in cattle is performed with difficulty. 
The calculi can be removed from mares and coavs with ease. 
This may be done by lubricating a forceps, passing it in the 
meatus urinarius and urethra, getting a hold on the calculus and 
removing it. Injections in the bladder may remove them, or a 
small spoon may be used. 

HAEMATUKIA, OR BLOODY URlNE. 

This is frequently a symptom of calculi. A sj^rain across the 
loins, causing rupture of some of the blood vessels, may give 
rise to hgematuria. The cause of the hemorrhage should be 
ascertained. If found to be due to calculi, treat as for calculi. 
If the hemorrhage is from the kidneys, plumbi acetas, grains 
twenty, in combination with three or four drachms of the tinc- 
ture of the chloride of iron may be used. 

PARALYSIS OF THE BLADDER. 

This condition may be caused by the urine not being passed 
freely, the bladder not emptying itself during the passage. The 



DISEASES OF THE KIDNEYS. 



423 



bladder being thus continually distended with urine, becomes 
enlarged, resulting in paralysis. The symptoms are those of supr 
pression and retention, and can only be correctly diagnosed by 
an examination per rectum. The bladder may be injected with 
warm water, and the animal be put on a course of nerve stimu- 
lants. Nux vomica, in drachm doses, may be given. The condi- 
tion is incurable, however, if of long standing. 




AZOTURIA. 

Azoturia belongs to the class of dietetic diseases, and consists 
of a hyper-nitrogenous condition of the blood and system, gen- 
erally due to overfeeding and want of exercise. 

Causes. — There is no doubt that a super-abundance of albu- 
men is contained in the blood, and that by increased exercise the 
albumen is formed 
with urea and hip- 
puric acid. The 
blood being over- 
loaded, throws a 
great tax on the kid- 
neys in excreting the 
deleterious sub- 
stances. Wherever 
the disease is met 
with, the history of 
the case reveals that 
the horse, after working regularly, was rested for several days 
or a week, then hooked up and started on the road. The animal 
is said to have driven freely and more spirited than usual. After 
going three or four miles he was seized on the road. I have 
never seen a case that was not produced in this manner. The 
disease exists more frequently in some localities than others. It 
is seldom seen in the low lands and cotton belts of the south- 
eastern portion of the United States. In the mountainous sec- 
tion it is of frequent occurrence. It seems that the climate or 




Fig. 130 — Standing in Azoturia. 



424 



THE STOCK OWNER S ADVISER. 



soil has something to do with it. Albumen is found in the Tirine 
in excessiA^e quantities. 

Symptoms. — The horse when brought out of the stable, after 
resting for several days, is in a spirited condition and full of life. 
After travelling a short distance he becomes somewhat dull and 
sluggish, pei^pires freely, and shows stiffness in the loins. In a 
few minutes he will drac: the limbs along. The loss of motor 
power now becomes well marked in the hind extremities. The 

animal stops, is unable 
to go any further, and 
may fall down. When 
down, he is unable to 
rise. The pulse quick- 
ens and more or less 
pain is manifested. 
He may roll, as in 
oolic, but soon be- 
cojiies unable to rise. 
The muscles of the 
haunches contract and 
are rigid. 



Treatment. 

Give eis^ht drachms 
of aloes and adminis- 
ter enemas. The ani- 




Fig. 131 — Azaturea. 



mal should be placed in a comfortable box stall, and turned 
from side to side every two or three hours. Warm fomen- 
tations should be applied to the loins. The ammoniacal 
liniment should be applied thoroughly to the loins. Ounce doses 
of alcohol may be given every four hours. In some cases aconite, 
twenty drops, may be administered with benefit. The urine must 
be removed with the catheter. It will be found to be of a dark 
brown color, similar to coffee. After the purgative has acted, 
nitrate and chlorate of potash, in three-drachm doses, should be 



DISEASES OF THE KIDNEYS. 425 

given for several days. Hypodermic injections of morphine may 
be employed with good results. The animal should be induced to 
get on his feet as soon as possible, that the secretions may be 
more regularly performed. During convalescence the animal 
should receive good food, and iron sulphate, drachms three; 
powdered gentian, drachms two, should be given until he is in a 
good condition. 



XXXYI. 

DISEASES OF THE HEART AND ITS MEMBRANES. 

Heart disease is of rare occurrence in the lower animals, com- 
pared witli its frequency in the human race. Diseases of the 
heart are divided into functional and organic functional derange- 
ment of the heartj characterized bv palpitations, irregularity, or 
intermittence of the pulse, and may arise from debility, indiges- 
tion and many other diseases. 

Organic disease of the heart is a disease of its substance. 

CAEDniS. 

Carditis inflammation of the heart substance occurs, and is 
usually circumscribed. In cases where the whole or a large por- 
tion of the substance is inflamed, death quickly occurs. If, how- 
ever, it is circumscribed in character, recovery may take place, 
but there is a tendencv to the formation of small abscesses. 

Treatment. — Potassium bicarbonate, in doses of two drachms, 
should be administered. The animal should be kept quiet. Po- 
tassium chlorate is highly recommended. It should be given in 
two-drachm doses three times a day. Strong stimulants, or blis- 
ters should be applied over the region of the heart, and the 
bowels should be kept in good condition. The disease is not satis- 
factorily treated. 

PERICARDITIS. 

Inflammation of the pericardium occurs in all animals, but is 
most frequently met with in cattle. It may arise from injury, 
or it may be associated with chronic disease of any organ of the 
body. 

Symptoms. — The pulse is hard and irritable, and easily excited. 
The respirations are a little quickened, and the mouth is hotter 

(426) 



DISEASES OF THE HEART AND ITS MEMBRANES. 427 

than usual; the legs and ears are alternately hot and cold. The 
bowels and appetite are irregular. When hydrops pericardis re- 
sults, a lingering death is the only termination. 

Treatment. — The treatment is similar to carditis. To sum it 
up, fomentations to the side, warm clothing, bandaging the legs, 
with careful administration of medicines calculated to relieve 
the urgent symptoms arising during the progress of the disease, 
and supplying the animal with good food. 

ENDOCARDITIS. 

This consists of an inflammation of the lining memlbrane of the 
heart. It gives rise to symptoms similar to pericarditis. The 
treatment should be similar. 

HYPERTROPHY OF THE HEART. 

Hypertrophy is a condition in which the walls of the heart 
become thickened and the cavities enlarged. It is frequently 
seen in race horses and stallions. Concentric hypertrophy is that 
form of hypertrophy in which the walls of the heart become 
thickened and the cavities lessened. This disease is frequently 
associated with heaves and with valvular disease of the heart. 

Symptoms. — Fainting fits and regurgitations of blood in the 
jugulars. The pulse varies considerably; it may be weak and 
quick or strong and hard. The diagnostic symptoms are not 
plain. Treatment is of no avail. 

Heart Dilatation. — This condition is said to be most com- 
mon in pampered and irregularly exercised animals. I have 
never been able to diagnose this condition from hypertrophy, 
but have seen it frequently during post-mortem. Potassium 
chlorate should be administered freely. 

RUPTURE OF TK'E HEART. 

Hupture occurs as a result of dilatation, occasioned while the 
animal is undergoing some severe exertion, as in racing. Death 
immediately results. 



428 THE STOCK OWNER S ADVISER. 

DISEASE OF THE VALVES. 

Valvular diseases are exceedingly difficult to diagnose. They 
are generally due to a change of structure, caused by endocardi- 
tis, mechanical rupture, or morbid growths. Symptoms are in- 
dicated by difficult breathing when the animal is exercised. 

Treatment is not satisfactory. 

CYANOSIS. 

This is more commonly called '^blue disease. '^' It is caused by 
the foramen ovale remaining open instead of closing, as it should, 
at birth. It is manifested by blueness of the visible mucous 
membranes, difficulty in breathing, and coldness of the surface. 
Animals so affected live but a short time after birth. 

ECTOPIA CORDIS. 

Misplacement of the Heart. — The most common form of 
misplacement of the heart is that in which the heart is situated 
outside the chest. When it is outside the chest it communicates 
with the interior of the body through a foramen. 

FOREIGN BODIES IN THE HEART. 

In ruminants, particularly cattle, foreign bodies often find 
their way into the pericardium, wounding both it and the heart. 
Cattle are exceedingly fond of chewing and swallowing all sorts 
of substances. The foreign body is taken into the stomach, and 
thence forced through the diaphragm into the thoracic cavity. 
Various substances have been found in the hearts of cattle, such 
as knitting needles, nails, a piece of iron wire two inches long, a 
plank nail, a hair-pin; a table knife 7^ inches long, passing from 
the reticulum to the left ventricle; a ramrod 14 inches long, etc. 

Symptoms. — The animal shows general symptoms of heart dis- 
ease. He may seem to recover, when in a few days the symptoms 
will return. When such symptoms are present the examiner 
may feel pretty safe in diagnosing it as a case of some foreign 
substances in the heart. Xothing whatever in the way of treat- 
ment can be done. 



XXXVII. 
AFFECTIONS OF THE DIAPHRAGM. 

SPASMS OF THE DIAPHRAGM.- 

This is caused bv over-exertion when the animal is in unfit con- 
dition. Its most prominent symptom is a convulsive motion, or 
jerking of the whole body, accompanied by a dull, thumping 
sound. The diaphragm is a thin, fan-shaped muscle, separating 
the thoracic cavity from the abdominal. It is situated posterior 
to the heart, and at once indicates the difference between the 
spasms or thumps of the diaphragm and cardiac palpitation. 

Treatment. — All that is necessary is the administration of an 
ounce of alcohol and clothing of the body. If several doses of 
alcohol be necessary, they should be given every four hours. 

EUPTURE OF THE DIAPHRAGM. 

Rupture of the diaphragm is said to have taken place. I have 
never met with this lesion, and therefore do not know the symp- 
toms presented. 



(420) 



XXXVIII. 
PARASITIC DISEASES OF THE HORSE. 

Parasites are distingiiislied as endoparasites, or entozoa, when 
living in the interior of their hosts, and as ectoparasites, or ex- 
tozoa, when external ^Ye will confine onr attention entirely to 
entozoa, of which* among the most important are those known as 
worms. These include not only round worms resembling the 
earth worms, but also worms resembling a band or a tape (tape 
worms), or a leaf (flukes), and thornv-headed worms. We have 
here to deal with the parasites of the horse. Those of other 
animals are treated elsewhere in this work. 

The most important parasite is the tape worm, taenia perfoliata. 

They contain four sucking discs, in length from one to five 
inches, and are found in the large intestines. 

Symptoms. — There are no special symptoms of diagnostic 
value. The animal is generally in good condition when affected. 
He becomes weak, unable to keep up, sometimes running and 
stumblins: in o:oino' down hill, or fallins: headlons'. 

Teeatmext. — Give the oil of male shield fern, in gruel or ball, 
from one-half to one ounce, or areca nut, one-half ounce. The 
bowels should first be cleared out by giving bran mashes and 
fasting. A sharp purgative should be administered about twelve 
hours after giving the worm medicine. 

ASCARIS MEGAIOCOPHALA. 

This is a nematode or round worm, resembling the common 
earth worm in size and shape. The male is shorter than the 
female, and the average length is from six to eight inches. 

They are found in the entire length of the alimentary canal, 
but generally in the small intestine. 

(430) 



PAEASITIC DISEASES OF THE HORSE. 431 

Symptoms. — When the worms exist in small numbers they 
present little or no symptoms. If present in large numbers, 
there will be symptoms of abdominal pain. Wasting in appear- 
ance, the animal becomes pot bellied, with recurrent depraved, 
voracious appetite, dryness of the skin, and constipation, suc- 
ceeded by diarrhoea. In some cases nervous symptoms will be 
presented. The owner may generally notice that the animal is 
passing worms. The prognosis is favorable. 

Treatment. — Good water and good food are essential. Clear 
the bowels by giving a dose of oil or six drachms of aloes. Then 
give oil of turpentine, two, three or four ounces in a pint of lin- 
seed oil. Follow for seven days with similar treatment. A sharp 
cathartic should be given on the eighth day, such as aloes, eight 
drachms. Santonin in one to two drachm doses may be given. 
Another remedy is highly spoken of, as follows: Pulverized 
antimony tartar, one-half ounce; calomel, one-half drachm. Oil 
of Felix mass, one drachm; oil of savin, one drachm; pulverized 
ginger, one drachm; turpentine, one ounce, is also a good remedy. 

OXYUEIS CURVULA. 

These are small, white worms, of needle or whip form. They 
are from one and three-quarters to four inches in length. They 
are found in the large intestines, and in great numbers. They 
inhabit the colon, being very abundant in the flexures of that in- 
testine, but are more numerous in the rectum. They escape by 
the anus, and cause irritation by the horse rubbing its tail against 
any hard substance, or suddenly lifting the tail and turning it or 
switching while traveling. There is a yellow incrustation around 
the anus and adjacent skin, formed by eggs of the worms dis- 
charged from the body. 

Treatment. — It is very difficult to destroy these parasites. 
Injections of common salt in solution are beneficial. Three ounces 
of turpentine and common oil should be given daily for several 
weeks. Tincture of aconite in the usual doses may be tried. 
iWhen associated with emaciation and debility, four drachms of 



432 THE STOCK OWXEP/s ADVISER. 

the sulphate of iron may be given with advantage. Decoctions 
made of quassia, gentian, or wormwood, given as an enema, may 
be tried. The introduction of a small piece of mercurial oint- 
ment into the rectum is said to act very well. The animaTs con- 
dition should be attended to, and effort must be made to render 
his body an unfit habitation for parasites. If the condition of the 
animal is good, parasites are not seen ; or, if present, they will not 
multiply. 

STRONGYIUS TETRACANTHUS. 

These worms are found m the caecum, and when matured are 
found in other portions of the bowels. The symptoms are not 
observed until several hours before death. They may wound the 
walls of the vessels, so as to cause intestinal hemorrhage and 
diarrhoea. A cure may be effected. 

Teeatmext. — Give oil of tar in one or two drachm doses, night 
and morning, for several weeks. 

BACTERIA. 

The vegetable organisms, which have been found connected 
with the disease of animals, are plants in which no distinction 
exists between stem and leaf, belonging to the class of fungi. 
The pathological fungi are of three kinds — bacteria, yeast, and 
molds. The bacteria, besides causing putrefaction and several 
of the fermentations, include most of the ora^anisms which are 
believed to produce infective diseases. They are, therefore, by 
far the most important groujD. They are rounded, ovoid, or 
spiral in shape; are unicellular and devoid of chlorophyll. They 
consist of protoplasm enclosed in a membrane, having a great 
affinitv for certain stains, and, in common Avith vegetable mat- 
ters, are not destroyed by ammonia, potash, or weak acids. They 
have the power of production, and some of them have motion. 

Each variety of fungus seems to differ more or less from all 
others in its food requirements, but all must be supplied with the 
materials of which they consist. These are carbon, hydrogen, 



PARASITIC DISEASES OF THE HORSE. 433 

nitrogen, phosphorus, sulphur, calcium, magnesium, and potas- 
sium. The presence of water is essential to the development of 
all fungi, as a medium for conveying oxygen and food sub- 
stances into the cell. Each organism flourishes best at its special 
temperature. It is held that bacteria do not reproduce at 5° C, 
and many require a much higher point; but they do not neces- 
sarily die at lower temperature. Some are not killed by the 
greatest cold, and it is uncertain that any die from extreme cold. 
Some bacteria are frozen in fluids at minus 110° C. without in- 

These organisms are found in putrid wounds, in which they 
fairly swarm. They may enter from the exterior, developing 
only under special circumstances; or they may be spontaneously 
generated in the body under special circumstances, from ele- 
ments of the tisues. Earth, air, or water may be the habitat of 
germs external to the body. They exist in earth in the neigh- 
borhood of putrefaction. Koch found that all organisms are 
absent at a depth of one meter in soil not recently disturbed in 
winter, and not formed largely of decomposing material, and into 
which no usual leakage of water occurs. 

Dust contains much organic matter, as is easily shown by com- 
bustion, and cultivation proves that some of this is living. The 
air is supplied with organisms swept by currents from objects 
over which they pass. The dust left as the final result of putre- 
faction is a fertile source of contamination. Perfectly still air 
becomes pure by subsidence of its germs. All water, except such 
as comes from a great depth, as in Artesian wells, contains or- 
ganisms. Rain water sweeps the air and infects the soil with the 
germs which it carries down. All surface Avater is infected from 
the ground through which it soaks, and too often shallow wells 
are contaminated by sewerage. River water is exposed to all 
possible sources of pollution. 

These organisms exist in large numbers on the external skin, 
and internally on the bronchial and alimentiiry surfaces which 
are in contact with air. They are carried into the alimentary 
28 



434 THE STOCK owner's ADVISEE. 

canal bv food and drink. All kinds of fungi swarm in the mouth. 
Organisms are present in healthy bodies. They probably pass 
continually through the pulmonary and intestinal mucous mem- 
brane, but in small numbers. Such as ordinarily thus enter the 
tissues are unable to develop, so long as the body is healthy. All 
organisms, perhaps, flourish best in tissues of which the vitality 
is impaired; some, probably, cannot develop unless this is the 
case, and still others cannot multiply at all in living tissue. The 
acute specific diseases, heretofore referred to, are now regarded 
as forming a class of the much larger groups of infective diseases. 

An infective disease may be defined as a disease due to the 
action of a poison or virus, which has the power of invading and 
multiplying in living tissue. A contagious disease is communi- 
cable only from individual to individual, the name implying 
actual contact with the poison. Infectious diseases are communi- 
cable without actual contact with the poison, the victim usually 
being attacked from a distance. 

Bacteria are the causes of many diseases. Their classification 
will not be given here. Parasites and diseases which they pro- 
duce have been treated throughout this work. For fuller and 
more particular treatment of the subject, the reader is referred 
to special works on bacteriology. 



CATTLE. 



XXXIX. 
CONTAGIOUS DISEASES OF CATTLE. 

CATTLE PLAGUE. 

This disease, known also as Rinderpest, is a specific, malig- 
nant, and contagious fever, prevailing particularly in the Asiatic 
countries. It is not known in America. If found in this coun- 
try at all, it arises from direct or indirect communication with 
imported cattle. The period of incubation varies from four to 
eight days, at the end of which time the local manifestations are 
developed. Like all fevers, it runs a definite course. It usually 
terminates fatally; but where recovery takes place, the animal is 
rendered unsusceptible to another attack. It is peculiar to the 
bovine family, but has been communicated to sheep, goat, deer, 
camel, giraffe, antelope, and gazelle. 

The disease is induced by a streptococcus, which causes a 
morbid state of the blood. Serum obtained from the blood of 
affected animals may produce the disease in another animal by 
inoculation. The morbid poison is also contained in the dis- 
charge from the mouth, eyes, and intestinal canal. If a small 
portion of this be placed in the blood of a healthy animal, the 
whole mass of blood will become infected in forty-eight hours, 
and if a small portion of this newly inoculated blood be inocu- 
lated in still another animal, it will transmit enough poison to 
give the disease to the other animal. The morbid poison may be 
diffused and the disease communicated by the air for a distance 
of about five hundred yards; but it is said that beyond this dis- 
tance the poison is inoperative. It is also conveyed by flies, 
which, after rising from a sick animal or its offal, alight on 
healthy animals. Many theories have been advanced as to the 
true nature of the plague and its identity with various human 

(437) 



438 THE STOCK OWXEe's ADVISER. 

diseases. German pathologists held for a considerable period 
that the disease was a precise counterpart of typhoid or enteric 
fever. Dr. Murehirons, however, successfully combated the 
theory, pointing out its error, and declaring that it had no re- 
semblance to typhoid fever, typhus, scarlatina, erysipelas, in- 
fluenza, or dysentery, but that it resembles small-pox. He was 
so enthusiastic in his theory that it led to the belief in vaccina- 
tion as a preventive, and during the plague of 1S66 the cattle 
were immediatelv vaccinated throughout the countrv; but it 
proved a total failure. 

Symptoms. — The fever, as shown by elevation of the tem- 
perature, begins when the poison has infected the whole mass of 
blood, or within about forty to sixty hours after its entrance 
into the system. Two days after the perceptible rise in tempera- 
ture has begun, an eruption on the mucous membrane of the 
mouth is seen; almost simultaneously with this appearance of 
the mouth, the mucous membrane of the vagina of the cow is 
peculiarly affected. It is stated that one or the other of these 
signs is rarely absent. On the day following the eruption in the 
mouth, or about seventy-two hours after the first elevation of 
temperature, the animal may be observed to have less appetite 
than usual, and to ruminate irrearularlv. On the followinoj dav, 
the fourth from the first rise of temperature, the animal for the 
first time shows marked symptoms of illness. Death usually 
occurs on the seventh day from the first perceptible elevation of 
temperature. 

Dr. Jessen says: "The appearances observed by me on the 
mucous membrane of the mouth, both in the natural and inocu- 
lated disease, are as follows : In some cases small round nodules, 
seldom larger than a millet seed, are observed, which are still 
covered with epithelium, through which a yellowish or yellowish- 
gray material can be distinguished. A few hours later, some- 
times not till twenty-four hours, the epithelium gives and the 
contents become visible; hence results a superficial lesion, which, 
after the removal of the material lying upon it. is scarcely recog- 



CONTAGIOUS DISEASES OF CATTLE. 439 

nizal)le. It heals in a few days, leaving no cicatrix. In other 
cases these nodules become confluent, giving rise to an excavated 
ulcer of considerable extent, with irregular margins, which, how- 
ever, usually heals quickly, leaving a cicatrix. In another form 
of the affection, the epithelium is raised in the form of small 
vesicles, which contain either a clear or slightly turbid fluid, and 
leave behind shallow, round excavations, with smooth edges." 

The visible external signs are shivering, muscular twitchings, 
restlessness, often a husky cough, and yawning. Great dullness 
is shown, with dropping of the ears, sometimes with excitement 
approaching delirium, loss of appetite, suspension of rumination, 
and secretion of milk is arrested. As the disease advances, the 
animal incessantly grinds its teeth, arches the back, draws its 
legs together, and moans. The eyes, mouth, and nose are at first 
dry, hot, and red; the legs and ears generally cold. At first the 
bowels are constipated, but this condition is succeeded by violent 
purging, and the dry condition of the eye, mouth, and nose is 
followed by a discharge. The expiratory movement is rather 
long, and accompanied by a low moan. The animal will show 
colicky pains, and the intestinal discharges, at first black, become 
a pale greenish-brown color. 

Some few are said to recover. In such cases it is observed 
that the skin over the neck becomes covered with a yellowish 
sebaceous secretion, but there are no vesicles or pustules. While 
the disease is highly contagious, it is found that some cattle 
resist its influence, remaining healthy while surrounded with the 
plague. The post-mortem appearances of the cattle plague vary 
in difl'erent stages. In the first stage, there is congestion of the 
mucous membranes throughout the body. The surface of the 
mucous membrane is covered with a vesicle, tenacious and with 
a bloody secretion. The membrane is denuded of its epithelium, 
and the submucous tissue is charged Avith a turbid semi-fluid 
exudate. The first stomach shows patches of congestion, and in 
some cases sloughing of the membrane has been observed. The 
third stomach is impacted, the contents dry and caked, and 



440 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

moulded to the papilla r surface of the fold of the stomach. In 
some cases the leaves of the omasum are quite healthy; some- 
times they are highly reddened, the vessels which radiate from 
their attached borders being more or less injected, and sloughing 
may occur in patches. The fourth or true digestive stomach, 
the abomasum, shows the effects of the disease quite plainly. 
The contents of the stomach are fluid, and sometimes mixed with 
blood. In addition to the general redness, the membrane pre- 
sents circular or irregular patches of a claret color, varying in 
size from a mere speck to a five-cent piece. The color may be 
uniform over the patches, but at other times it may be limited to 
its circumference, forming a colored rim, Avitli a central grayish- 
yellow portion. In the small intestines spots of inflammation 
exist. The discolorations vary, some spots being scarlet or rose 
red, while others are of the deepest purple. The large intestines 
are also affected. The lining membrane of the respiratory organs 
presents signs of congestion. The lungs and heart show well- 
marked signs o± the disease. 

Treatmein't. — Treatment is unsuccessful. The disease when 
induced by inoculation has proved of a less severe nature, and 
the percen'tage of recoveries has been greater than in cases in- 
duced naturally; but it is almost as severe as that arising from 
natural rinderpest. If it should gain access to our shores, there 
is only one method of dealing with it, and that is to stamp it out 
by destroying not only all affected with it, but also those which 
have been in contact with effected animals. 

CONTAGIOUS PLETJRO-PNEUMONIA. 

This is a contagious febrile disease peculiar to horned cattle. 
It is due to a specific virus which gains access to the system by 
the lungs. The incubative stage is slow, being two weeks or a 
monith, and the progress of the disease is also of lingering char- 
acter. The disease induces an extensive exudation within the 
substance of the lungs, and upon the surface of the pleura, ulti- 
mately resulting in consolidation of the lungs. This disease was 



CONTAGIOUS DISEASES OF CATTLE. 441 

brought to our own shores. It first originated in central Europe, 
and finally spread all over Europe. It gained access to America, 
Great Britain, Africa, India, Australia, and Kew Zealand. The 
first appearance of the disease in the United States was in the 
year 1843. The disease prevailed in the eastern part of the 
United States, in 'New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, 
Pennsylvania, and in the neighborhood of the city of Washing- 
ton, and later in Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee. 

Symptoms. — The disease may run a rapid course, destroying 
life in a few days, but the majority of cases run from two to eight 
weeks. The animal, becoming much emaciated, finally succumbs 
to an exhausting diarrhoea, hydrothorax, and blood poisoning. 
The first symptom is an increase of temperature. Investigation 
has proven that extensive changes may exist without elevation of 
temperature. It cannot, therefore, be depended upon as a guide 
to its true commencement. But it is of great importance during 
an .outbreak to make examinations with 'the thermometer, in 
order to warn the owners of stock in time to isolate the animal. 
In suspected herds, if any should show a temperature of 102 
degrees, it should be regarded with suspicion. When the disease 
is well established t'he temperature rises to 105 or 106 degrees, 
and in some cases 107° E. There will be slight shivering, loss 
of appetite, diminished secretion of milk, knuckling over of the 
right hind fetlock, and the painful cough of pleurisy. Rumina- 
tion becomes irregular, the animal appears fuller than the rest 
of the cattle, although not eating. The bowels are constipated, 
the urine scanty and highly colored, and the animal is hide- 
bound. Auscultation at this stage of the disease will denote 
nothing unusual. The animal may show signs of improvement, 
and may ultimately recover, or may pass on to the second stage 
of the disease, when all of the symptoms above mentioned are 
intensified. The animal stands with the elbows turned out, the 
back arched, the limbs drawn under the body and knuckling over 
at the fetlocks. When in a recumbent position, he throws the 
weight upon the sternum. The breathing becomes painful, ac 



i-42 THE STOCK OW^'Er's ADVISEE. 

companied "by a grunt or moan. A discharge sometimes issues 
from the eyes and nose, the horns and ears are cold, and no sound 
is heard on auscultation. A slight tympanitic condition may 
occur, ^vith an offensive diarrhoea, grating of the teeth, and gan- 
grene of the lungs, followed hy death. Young animals are more 
subject to the disease than old ones. 

PosT-MoETEM Appeaea^^ces. — There is a dullness of the 
pleura, the substance of the lungs is red and congested, giving 
them a marbled appearance. There is a consolidation of the 
lung, vrhich will sink when placed in water. The pleura is also 
involved, and an effusion into the pleural cavity has taken place. 
The ribs present a bare appearance, being stripped of their 
pleural covering, and have an unnaturally white appearance. 
The disease is susceptible of transmission from sick to healthy 
animals by cohabitation, or even without immediate contact, as 
it may be taken at a distance. Stables occupied by diseased ani- 
mals are not safe for healthy cattle for several months. The 
disease has been produced in healthy animals by allowing them 
to run upon pastures three months after diseased cattle have 
occupied them. Hay soiled by infected animals has also produced 
the disease three months afterwards. Twenty per cent of ani- 
mals resist the contagion. Eighty per cent manifest various 
effects of its influence. Fifty per cent are seized with decided 
symptoms of pleuro-pneumonia, and of these fifteen per cent 
succumb. 

Treat:me^'t. — Treatment is not advisable. Slaughter and 
burial is the most effectual remedy. 

DisixFECTiox. — All sheds, cow-houses, or other premises 
which have contained cattle affected with the disease, should be 
thoroughly cleansed and disinfected. The best and cheapest way 
is to burn sulphur in the buildings: to whitewash the s«talls, roof, 

and every portion of the building with lime wash containing 
carbolic acid, in proportion of one pint of crude acid to each 
bucketful of whitewash. 



I 



CONTAGIOUS DISEASES OF CATTLE. 443 

• 

Inoculation. — Inoculation has been practiced for a number of 
years, at first with not much success; but later with a great de- 
gree of success. Inoculation produces not the disease, but a 
fever which is easily overcome; after which the animal is safe 
from pleuro-pneumonia. The method of inoculation is as fol- 
lows: The blood and the serous and frothy liquid are squeezed 
from the lungs of a diseased animal in the first stages of pleuro- 
pneumonia. The fluid while warm is placed in a strainer, over 
a clean glass bowl covered over with cloths to prevent dust, and 
to keep it warm. The fluid, if not required for immediate use, 
is to be placed in glass tubes or bottles, and the tube hermetically 
sealed by a blow-pipe flame. The tip of the tail should be se- 
lected for inoculation, and the superior is better than the in- 
ferior surface of the tip. The tip of the tail is selected because 
it can be easily amputated, should gangrene occur. The hair 
should be removed from the spot, and the skin scarified super- 
ficially. A single drop of the virus should then be placed on the 
scarified spot. At a period varying from a week to two months, 
a slight heat and swelling occurs around the inoculated spot; 
generally, however, the eruption manifests itself from the ninth 
to the sixteenth day, accompanied by slight rigor, loss of appetite, 
and slightly diminished secretion of milk.- The inoculation 
method has not yet been fully established. liaws have been en- 
acted whereby all animals suffering from an attack of pleuro- 
pneumonia, or in any way having been exposed to the infection, 
shall be slaughtered within a specified time. 

FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE. 

This disease is also known as eczema, contagiosa, and by many 
other names. This is a highly contagious and infectious febrile 
disease, characterized by secular eruptions in the mouth, between 
the pedal digits and around the coronets. In some cases the 
eruptions are absent in the mouth and present only in the feet, 
and vice versa. Eruptions are sometimes seen in connection with, 
the mammary glands; when such occurs the milk is unfit for use. 



444 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

Thi^ disease is not confined exclusively to cattle, but affects sheep, 
pigs, dogs, poultry, and even human beings. Cattle, however, 
are more susceptible to the influence of the contagious poison. 
The period of incubation is very s'hort, varying from twenty-four 
hours to three or four days. The disease is characterized by an 
elevation of temperature, of from two to four degrees; the pres- 
ence of vesicles on the tongue, lips, and roof of the mouth, be- 
tween the digits, and around the coronets, and in some cases on 
the udder. There is a discharge from the nose and eyes. The 
symptoms of the presence of vesicles in the mouth are shown by 
the animal constantly moving the lips, champing of the jaws, a 
flow of saliva from the mouth, and difficulty in feeding. T^^hen 
affecting the feet, there is some degree of lameness. These symp- 
toms arise from the elimination of the poison from the system; 
when eliminated by the feet and mouth, pastures become impreg- 
nated with it. In this way it is spread, being carried from pas- 
ture to pasture, and across the country by dogs and small game. 
An animal is never attacked more than once in a season, as a 
rule. The milk of a cow suffering from foot and mouth disease 
should not be given to pigs, young calves, or to human beings. 
The loss to dairymen from the diminished secretion of milk, con- 
sequent on foot and mouth disease, is very great. On an average 
the loss would be about twenty dollars a head. 

Treatment. — Toot and mouth disease is one that terminates 
in recovery. Mild cases require little medicinal treatment. 
Plenty of good, cold water is generally all that is necessary, with 
the addition of soft food, as bran mashes. If the fever be very 
high an ounce of nitrate of potash, dissolved in each bucket of 
water, and thirty drops of aconite administered every four or five 
hours. The feet should be carefully washed, and acid carbolic, 
drachms six; lead acetate, ounces two; zinc sulphate, ounce one 
and a half; water one quart; creolin is excellent. 



CONTAGIOUS DISEASES OF CATTLE. 445 



VARIOLA VACCINAE (Cow-Pox). 

This disease is seen in most parts of the gloT^e, and is not at- 
tended with any great fatality. It is a contagious, febrile, and 
eruptive disease, resulting from the presence of a specific virus 
in the body. The period of incubation is from six to nine days. 
The disease causes eruptions, principally upon the mammary 
gland. The disease runs a definite and mild course, and destroys 
the susceptibility of the affected animal to another attack. The 
origin of the disease is not known. Jenner believed that cow- 
pox and small-pox had their common origin in the '^grease" of the 
horse. Whether man had the disease communicated to him from 
the lower animals, or whether horses and cows had it from man 
is not determined. The origin will perhaps forever remain a 
mystery. But let that be as it may, the disease, through the 
experiments of Jenner, who directly communicated it by vacci- 
nation from the lower to the higher animals, has proved a bless- 
ing to millions of the human race. The local symptoms of true 
variola are heat, swelling, and tenderness of the teats for three 
or four days, followed by irregular pimples, more particularly 
about the base of the teats. When the pimples are about the 
size of a pea they assume a red hue. They gradually increase in 
size, are painful and hard, becoming circular in form on the 
udder and oblong on the teats. Finally, they rise in the center, 
become pointed, and contain at first a clear, and ultimately a tur- 
bid, fluid. They reach their maximum size about the tenth day, 
and are then pustular; as the pustules dry, dark brown or black 
solid scabs or crusts form upon the surface. Vesicles, pustules, 
and scabs may be seen on the teat at any time. The crusts, if left 
undisturbed, gradually become thicker and darker, until about 
the fourteenth day; at the end of three weeks they spontaneously 
separate, leaving shallow, smooth, oval, or circular pits of a pale 
rose color, with some traces of surrounding induration. If the 
vesicles are broken during their progress, troublesome sores su- 
pervene, the discharge from which will communicate the disease 



44G THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

to the milker, if he is not already protected by previous vaccina- 
tion. The flow of milk is arrested to a certain extent, and there 
is a rise in the temperature. Pyrexia is always present. The 
disease seldom or never proves fatal in this country. In hot 
climates, however, it is more severe; the symptoms being suc- 
ceeded by abdominal pain, profuse diarrhoea, rapid wasting of 
flesh, and death. 

Treatment. — In severe cases a laxative may be given, and 
carbolized oil used locally, or the calamine ointment may be used. 
Great care must be exercised to prevent exposure to draughts of 
cold air. The animal should be isolated from the rest of the herd. 
^"hen once the disease breaks out in a dairy, it is apt to spread 
to the whole herd unless precaution be taken by separating all 
affected animals and the employment of separate attendants. The 
milker of an affected cow should not touch a healthy one. The 
milk should be drawn ofl with a teat syphon, and if the mammary 
gland becomes much swollen, fomentations should be used, with 
treatment as in a case of mammitis. 

The contagium of variola vaccinae is an extremely small form 
of micrococcus, usually called the diplococcus variohie et vaccinae. 
Jenner was the first investigator who discovered the identity of 
cow-pox and small-pox. The results of his investigations have 
saved the lives of millions of the human race. 

ANTHRAX. 

The symptoms of anthrax fever in the ox are similar to those 
in the horse. For full information as to the nature of the disease, 
see Anthrax of the Horse. The ox suddenly goes ofl its feed; 
rumination is suspended; there are rigors and tremblings, and 
partial sweats bedew the body, which is alternately hot and cold. 
The gait becomes staggering, and the animal rapidly exhausted. 
The animal lies down and is not able to rise. He looks to the 
sides, falls into convulsions, and may expel soft, bloody matter 
by the anus. The heart beats '^^olently. the pulse is small, rapid, 
and intermittent; the conjunctiva shows a blackish-red tint; the 



CONTAGIOUS DISEASES OF CATTLE. 447 

respirations are panting; the abdomen tympanitic; the lung blush 
red; the mouth is filled with mucous, and there is an escape of 
blood from the nose; the eyes are sunk, and tears flow over the 
cheeks. Death may take place in a few minutes or in twenty 
hours. In cattle above two years old, particularly milch cows, 
the spleen is greatly congested. This gave rise to the name, 
splenic fever. In true splenic apoplexy, the spleen is enlarged 
and its capsules distended with a mass of tar-like blood. In an- 
other form of anthrax, without external tumors, the most promi- 
nent sign is a passage from the bowels of a quantity of dark 
colored blood. 

Death from splenic fever is very sudden. An animal, a few 
hours before in good health, may be found dead, having died 
apparently without a struggle, though some cases may linger 
several days. The disease is seldom seen in this country. 

For treatment in cattle, see the treatment of anthrax in the 
horse. Food from diseased animals should be strictly for'bidden. 
Milk from cows aifected with anthrax is unfit for the use of man 
or other animals. All incurable animals should be destroyed and 
buried deeply, and all alimentary matter buried with them. 
Those that are curable should be isolated from the herd and the 
place disinfected thoroughly. 

aUARTER ILL, OR BLACK LEG. 

This disease, under numerous names, is well known to stock- 
raisers. It is frequently seen in this country. The disease 
affects cattle and sheep only, and is due to the presence of an 
organism. It occurs much more frequently in young animals 
than in old ones. Animals affected under two years old almost 
invariably die, but animals over that age frequently recover. It 
is seldom seen in calves under six months old, unless fed exclu- 
sively on a diet other than a milk one. The disease occurs most 
frequently when animals are changed from one pasture to an- 
other, especially when changed from poor feeding to rich pas- 
tures. The disease is also most prevalent in low-lying lands. 



448 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

Symptoms. — There is loss of appetite^ dnllnesSj^ cessation of 
rumination, harshness, and starring of the coat, elevation of tem- 
perature, rigors, coldness of the extremities, lameness or stiffness 
when moved, and arching of the back. If the skin he examined, 
tumors will be found forming under it in some parts of the body. 
The tumors may occur in any part of the body, but most fre- 
quently in the shoulder or the loins, and more frequently on the 
right side than on the left. The tumors are ill-defined and have 
no lining membranes. They are first hot and painful to the 
touch, and then become cold and insensitive. If incised, a dark 
colored and fetid fluid is discharged. As the disease progresses, 
the tumors enlarge and the animal shows great pain. The breath- 
ing becomes hurried, the temperature rises, the pulse beats 120 
to 130 per minute; tympanitis varies in individual cases. In some 
cases there are lameness and stiffness in one limb, with no ap- 
pearance of a tumor. In some there are symptoms of derange- 
ment of the digestive organs. On post-mortem examination, the 
animal is found to be enormously swollen. Bloody froth is seen 
issuing from the mouth, nostrils, and anus. On opening the ani- 
mal gases of bad odor escape, accompanied by spurts of dark 
blood. The tumors are black, and are found principally in the 
loins and withers. In some parts of the country such animals are 
used for human food. I am of the opinion that it is dangerous 
to human life. The disease is due to a very small germ measur- 
ing from Y'wi~o"o ^^ ttVo ^^^^^ ^^ length. The germs are found 
principally in the tumor. Protective inoculation has been 
practiced with great success, rendering the animal immune to 
the disease. The germs are taken from the tumor and injected 
into the jugular vein by means of a hypodermic syringe. The 
blackest portion of the tumor is cut into small pieces, mixed with 
distilled water, then triturated in a mortar, squeezed through 
cloth, and filtered through folds of muslin. Five to ten drops of 
this fluid is used as an injection. 



CONTAGIOUS DISEASES OF CATTLE. 



440 



TEXAN FEVER. 

This disease has been described as anthrax. In this country the 
term is applied to diseases arising from various causes, as ticks, 
and want of water during hot months. Dr. Salmon and Dr. Cam- 
bridge claim through their experiments that the disease is due to 
a particular micrococcus, and that by vaccination the animal is 
able to resist the contagium. I have frequently met with fever 
in cattle confined to low lands, especially in the cattle of Virginia. 
Cattle brought from the low lands of Virginia to the moun- 
tainous parts of the State suffer greatly with the disease. It 
occurs during the hot summer months when grasses are ripe and 
the water becoming low. I have seen as many as fifteen die in 
a herd in one day. This condition was caused by malarial in- 
fluences. 

Symptoms. — The animal will be noticed to stray from the herd, 
its head hanging low and the breathing rapid. The muzzle is 
hot and dry, and the animal greatly fevered. The bowels are con- 
stipated and the urine dark or of a violet color. The animal after 
about twelve hours sickness grates its teeth, shows abdominal 
pain, the breathing becomes more labored, and the eyes take on 
an amaurotic condition. The animal staggers, falls, and dies in 
a few hours. 

Treatment. — Medicinal remedies are of no use, either in 
young or old cattle. Purgatives of every description, and in 
various quantities, have no effect on the bowels, and when the 
disease once attacks an animal no remedies can save it. The dis- 
ease indicates the use of purgatives, enemas, and the chlorate of 
potash, but, as stated before, a cure cannot be affected. 

Preventive Treatment. — T have always changed the ani- 
mals to another pasture, selecting a field of new clover or new, 
fresh pastures. If in low countries, where the new grasses can- 
not be obtained, they may be herded around the swamps, eating 
grasses in close proximity to the water only. Each animal should 
29 



450 THE STOCK owner's ADVISEE. 

receive a poucd of epsom salts and a pound of table salt in a 
drench, when changed to the new pasture. This treatment will 
effectually stamp out the disease in a few days' time. 

PosT-MoKTEM. — The post-mortem revealed the fecal matter 
in the reticulum dry and caked to the mucous membrane, the 
bladder distended with dark or purple colored urine. This dis- 
ease resembles Texan fever and anthrax, but it is not the same 
disease, as is generally supposed. It is no doubt due to the effects 
of climate and the condition of pastures and water. 

TUBERCULOSIS. 

This disease is commonly known as consumption, and is due 
to a vegetable parasite, the bacillus tuberculosis. It affects man 
and all other animals, but is much more prevalent in cattle. In 
1882 Koch announced his discovery of the bacillus or germ of 
tuberculosis, and was the first to demonstrate, by a special pro- 
cess of staining, the constant presence of the peculiar bacilli in 
cases of acute tuberculosis. The bacillus is a small, rod-shaped 
organism from one seven-thousandth to one ten-thousandth of an 
inch long, and one-tenth as broad. They are usually straight, but 
may be curved. They occur singly, but sometimes by pairs. 
Multiplication is very slow, and takes place by division, by spore 
formation. They multiply only in the body of man and other 
animals. They cannot multiply external to the body, but can 
live and retain their virulence, external to the body, for forty- 
three days in putrid sputum, and one hundred and sixty days in 
the dry state. The bacillus enters the body through wounds or 
broken skin. The mucous membrane, pulmonary and digesStive, 
affords passage, and is the most frequent mode of entry. In the 
former, the germs are inhaled in the form of dust ; in the latter, 
they are taken in the alimentary canal by infected milk or meat. 
Having found a spot in w^hich it can grow, the bacillus proceeds 
to multiply. Most bacilli are taken up by cells, which enlarge 
into giant cells and become the centers of typical tuberculosis. 
Their presence excites more or less inflammation, and cassation 



CONTAGIOUS DISEASES OF CATTLE. 451 

soon follows, the nearest lymphates becoming affected. The 
mode of spread is bj continuity of tissue, and by lymphatic veins, 
arteries, and by the affection of one part from another. The 
germs may pass through the lungs, thence by the pulmonary 
capillaries to the systemic circulation. We are able to recognize 
the presence of tuberculosis in the dead animal by the character- 
istic tubercles — the formations which give the disease its name. 
These tubercles are sm'all, hard masses, which may be present in 
almost any part of the body, but are most frequently found in 
the lungs, pleura, peritoneum, liver, intestinal walls, and the 
lymphatic glands belonging to these organs. The tubercle is, at 
first, a small, grayish, opalescent m-ass, the size of a millet seed, 
which may be single or a number may be found side by side, thus 
making a large, diseased area. As the tubercle or tubercular 
mass grows older it becomes yellow, and forms a cheesy mass. 
Especially is this noticed in connection with tubercles in the 
lungs. We have here the yellow and the gray. The gray are 
' semi-transparent nodules of a grayish-white color, varying in size 
from a pin-head to a hemp seed or shot. They are somewhat 
spherical in shape, and usually possess a well-defined outline. The 
yellow are much larger. I have seen in the lungs of cattle large 
cavities filled with a yellowish thick fluid mass known as tu'bercu- 
lar abscesses. Some of them are larger than walnuts. They are 
irregular in outline. When the tubercles are situated in the 
pleura or peritoneum, the growths are usually hard and nodular. 
The normal smooth and glistening surface is dotted or thickly 
studded with sound, hard masses, ranging from the size of a 
mustard seed to that of a grape. In the liver the tubercular 
masses are similar to those of the lungs. Immense numbers of 
these tubercles may conglomerate to form a collection of diseased 
products, as large as an apple between the lungs and chest wall; 
masses even larger are found. If one of the diseased lymphatic 
glands be cut across, it will be noticed that small, yellow spots 
dot the cut surface. Sometimes the whole center of the gland is 
taken up by this cheesy substance. In other cases the gland be- 



452 THE STOCK OWXEE^S ADVISEE. 

comes hard and gritty from the deposition of lime salt. If the 
udder is affected yellow spots or tubercles are discernible on the 
cut surface; the entire quarter is enlarged and hard, and the 
lymphatic glands of the udder are usually tu'berculous. In the 
intestines the morbid process is most marked at the lower end 
of the ilium and in the caecum. The appendix is sometimes af- 
fected; also the duodenum and rectum. The germs reach these 
parts through infected milk or meat. The urino-genital tract 
may also be a seat of tubercular infiltration. In the brain, the 
masses vary in size from a hazelnut to a pigeon's egg, and com- 
monly occur in the cerebral substance, especially at the base of 
the brain. They are of a pale yellow color, and usually fonn 
quite round globular tumors. Their surface is often seen to be 
covered with minute erav nodules, which extend into the sur- 
rounding tissue. 

If a tubercular mass be examined microscopically, it will be 
found that those tubercles near the circumference of the diseased 
area contain the laraest number of active bacilli, and that these 
germs are thus favorably situated to invade the surrounding 
tissues, or to be carried by the lymph or blood vessels to distant 
parts of the body, and there set up the tubercular process. The 
disease has prevailed throughout the old and new world. It is 
much more prevalent in some races of cattle than others, and is 
much more common in the milk than the beef breeds. The coun- 
try in the vicinity of large cities contains a larger percentage of 
tuberculous animals than more remote localities. It is not, how- 
ever, the proximity of the cities which leads to the prevalence of 
the disease, but the system of housing and caring for the animals 
practiced in such districts. 

Tuberculosis is not developed in every animal which inhales or 
injects the germ, because all animals are not equally predisposed. 
Close stalling, poor ventilation, feeding on innutritious food, and 
all the influences of domestication predispose the animal to the 
disease. Where these depressing causes exist, it is much easier 
for tuberculosis to start and spread. But no matter how weak a 



CONTAGIOUS DISEASES OF CATTLE. 453 

COW is, or how little vitality she may have, she can never develop 
tuberculosis unless the germ is introduced into the system. 
When the germ is taken in, if the animal be strong and have no 
inherited weaknesses, the bacillus is expectorated, or is destroyed 
by the cells where it lodges, or may be thrown off through the 
alimentary or urino-genital tract. Every influence which weakens 
the constitution or resisting power of the animal is a predisposing 
cause, and favors the development of the disease when the germs 
are present. The disease is unquestionably contagious, and nu- 
merous instances have been published in which it has extended 
along a row of cattle in both directions from a subject of tubercu- 
losis. Thousands of experiments prove conclusively that animals 
have tuberculosis, and that it is transmitted from one to another, 
and from infected cows to human beings. I have dealt at length 
on this subject because it is one that should interest the people 
greatly. , The spread of this disease over the whole world, with 
the exception of the Polar regions, the steppes of Russia, and 
portions of Africa, and the percentage of cattle affected in herds 
should receive the careful consideration of the public generally. 

Symptoms. — Unthriftiness, decrease in milk, abortion if in 
calf; the appetite capricious, mucous membrane pale; a dry, dull 
cough, skin and hair dry and dusty; skin yellow, and the animal 
ceases to lick itself. As emaciation proceeds more rapidly, the 
digestive organs are weakened, and diarrhoea reduces the animal 
to a skeleton. Auscultation and percussion may reveal the lungs 
diseased. In many cases the thoracic cavity becomes partially 
filled with blood, as does also the abdominal cavity. The animal 
on getting up in the morning may cough several times. This 
may be noticed to increase for months before there is much loss 
of flesh. Such a cow should be looked upon with suspicion. A 
reliable means of diagnosis has been given us by Robert Koch, 
of Berlin, in what is known as " Koch's lymph of tuberculine.'' 
Where properly used it is an infallible diagnostic agent. Since 
it was firsit tried on cattle by Prof. Gutmar, of the Veterinary 



454 tHE STOCK OWXER^S ADVlSEIi. 

Institute, Darpart, Eussia, in January, 1891, thousandfe of ex- 
periments have been made with satisfactory results in all cases. 
Treatment. — ^It is a waste of time and money to treat this 
disease. The time has arrived when this disease should be 
stamped out, and included in the contagious disease, animal act. 

GRASS DISEASE. 

This disease prevails in different parts of Scotland, and occurs 
from the end of April until the middle of June, the period when 
grasses begin to ripen. All ages and breeds of animals are alike 
liable to the disease when put on fields favorable to its develop- 
ment. It is most frequently seen on light, gravelly land, and 
especially poor land. Rye grasses are most favorable to the pro- 
duction of the disease. The animals generally are on pasture 
about a month before they are attacked. It is always worse on 
first year's grass. 

Symptoms. — The animal loiters about, feeding occasionally, 
and if it lies down a characteristic flapping or restless movement 
of the ears may be observed. If you attempt to drive the animal 
from the field he will become excited, and generally becomes 
blind before going very far. There will be purging of a black 
and watery character. The cow refuses all food and water, the 
milk suddenly fails, and she grates the teeth. The pulse is 
accelerated, extremities cold, and the animal blind. The tem- 
perature is not elevated, and the disease runs a bourse of three 
days before the crisis is reached. At this period the animal is 
intensely excited with violent tremors, bellows fearfully, presses 
its head ag^ainst the wall, or, if unfastened, scrambles up agains/t 
the wall, staggers, falls, and dies. 

PosT-MoRTEM Appeaeances. — The contents of the manyplies 
are soft and in a healthy condition. The only lesion observed is 
an inflammation of the true stomach and bowels, evidently due 
to some narcotic. 

Treatment. — Treatment is unsatisfactory. When the animal 
is in good condition, immediate slaughter is to be recommended. 
This disease has not been seen in America. 



XL. 
ENZOOTIC AND EPIZOOTIC DISEASES OF THE OX. 

MALIGNANT CATARRHAL FEVER. 

This disease is due to ia specific virus which affects the mucous 
memhrane lining the sinuses of the head and nasal chambers. 

Sympto]\is. — RigorSj dullness, and de'bility. The mucous mem- 
brane becomes of a bluish-red color, the eyes are closed, the eye- 
lids swollen, with flowing of tears over the cheeks. The animal 
coughs incessantly, the pulse is feeble, and the bowels are very 
loose. In the course of a few hours after the onset of the dis- 
ease, a profuse discharge issues from the nostrils, mouth, and 
eyes. The sinuses of the head become filled with matter, and in 
some instances the horns fall off. 

Treatment. — The disease is very fatal, and causes death in 
from three to seven days. If the animal lives over seven days a 
cure may be expected. The patient should be placed in a warm 
shed. Enemas shoulc] be given to relieve constipation. Two 
ounces of sweet spirits of nitre should 'be given every four hours, 
diluted in a pint of water. The animal should be m'ade to inhale 
hot steam. 



(455 




SKELETON OF THE OX (Ruminantia). 
Axial Skeleton. 

the skull. 

Cranial Bones.— Occipital, 1; 6, Parietal, 2; a, Frontal, 2; c, Temporal, 2; 
Sphenoid, 1; Ethmoid, 1; Auditory ossicles, 8. 

Facial Bones.— h, Nasal, 2; e, Lachrj-mal, 2; d, Malar, 2; f, Maxilla, 2; g, Pre- 
maxilla, 2; i. Inferior maxilla, 2; Palatine, 2; Pterygoid, 2; Vomer, 1; Turbinals, 
4; Hyoid (segments), 7. Teeth— Incisors, 6; Canines, 2; Molars, 24. 

The Trt(nk.—k, Cervical Vertebrae, 7; I, Dorsal vertebrae, 13; m, Lumbar verte- 
brae, 6; n, Sacrum (five segments), 1; o, Coccygeal vertebrae (variable), 20; p p, 
Ribs, 26; * Sternum (seven steruebrae), 1; •*♦ Costal cartilages. 

Appendicular Skeleton. 

pectoral limb. 

/, Scapula, 2; w, Humerus, 2; v, Radius, 2; w. Ulna, 2. Carpus— a?. Trapezium, 
2; y, Cuneiform, 2; s, Lunar, 2; a', Scaphoid, 2; h', Unciform, 2; c'. Magnum, 2. 
Metacarpus— (/', Large bone, 2; e', Small bone, 4; f, Large sesamoids, 8. Digit— 
g'. Proximal phalanges, 4; /(', Mesian phalanges, 4; V, Distal phalanges, 4; k', 
small sesamoids (naviculars), 4. 

PELVIC LIMB. 

Pelvis.— Os Innominatum— g, Ilium, 2; s, Ischium, 2; r, Pubis, 2. 

The Limb.— I', Femur, 2; m', Patella, 2; n'. Tibia, 2. Tarsus— o', Maleolar, 2; 
p', Calcaneum, 2; <?', Astragalus, 2; r', Cubo-cuneiform, 2; s', Cuneiforme me- 
dium, 2; t', Cuueiforme parvnm, 2. Metatarsus— Large bone, 2; u', Small bone, 
2. Large sesamoids, 8. Digit— Proximal phalanges, 4; Mesian phalanges, 4; 
Distal phalanges, 4; Small sesamoids, 4. 

Visceral Skeleton. 
Bones of the heart, 2. " 

The separate bones of the Ruminant Skeleton, as here considered, are 251. 

( 456 ) 



XLL 
RESPIRATORY DISEASES OF THE OX. 

CATARRH. 

This disease does not occur quite as frequently among cattle 
as in the horse, but it is not uncommon. It arises from inflam- 
mation of the mucous membrane lining the nasal cavities. Cat- 
tle do not suffer with catarrh as frequently as horses, because 
they better endure foul air and confinement. 

Causes. — The causes of catarrh in the ox are similar to those 
producing the disease in the horse, such as exposure to cold, 
dampness, alternation of temperature, etc. 

Symptoms. — The disease is ushered in with a chill; the muzzle 
is hot and dry, the horns may be cold or hot; there is a nasal dis- 
charge and other symptoms like those of the same disease in the 
horse. 

Treatment is the same as that employed for the horse. 

LARYNGITIS. 

The disease among cattle is about the same as that of the 
horse. It presents similar symptoms, and requires similar treat- 
ment. The changes of the pulse and temperature are similar. 
In administering medicines to the cow, the dose should be a little 
larger than that used for the horse. Liniments to the throat 
should he much stronger than those prescribed for the horse, 
the skin of the ox being much thicker. . 

PHARYNGITIS. 

This disease in the ox is usually associated with laryngitis, 
constituting what is known as laryngo-pharyngitis. Causes, 
symptoms, and treatment are similar to laryngitis aliecting the 
horse. 

(457) 



458 THE STOCK OWNER S ADVISER. 



BRONCHITIS. 



Inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the bronchial 
tubes. Causes are similar to those of the horse, exposure to cold, 
inhalations of smoke, etc. 

Symptoms. — Wheezing, difficult breathing, husky cough, hide- 
bound, and a starring coat. The muzzle is dry and hot, and the 
pulse quickened. The cow lies down in this disease. 

Treatment. — Place in a warm, ventilated place. Give 
nitrous sether, spirits ammo, arom., of each one ounce. Give one 
pound of sulphate of magnesia. Counter-irritants should be 
applied over the seat of the bronchial tubes and trachea. The 
ammoniacal liniment frequently referred to should be applied 
freely. Fly blisters may be necessary in some cases. 

PNEUMONIA. 

The causes which produce this disease in the cow are identical 
to those in the horse. The method of examining the lungs 
proves as effectual in the cow as in the horse. For information, 
see Pneumonia in the Horse. The muzzle of the cow becomes 
dry and hot, the breathing quickened, and the elbows are 
turned outward to a greater extent than is shown in the horse. 
The cow is able to lie on the sternum to a greater extent than 
the horse. There are other symptoms of this disease in the cow 
that are similar to those of the horse. 

Treatment. — The treatment should be similar, but with 
larger doses. The skin being thicker than that of the horse, 
mustard plasters must be used to a greater extent. For pneu- 
monia in the cow, a pound of epsom salts is admissible and bene- 
ficial. 

PLEURISY. 

This disease is similar to the same disease in the equine, and 
should be diagnosed and treated in a similar manner. 



RESPIRATORY DISEASES OF THE OX. 459 



RED WATER. 

This disease is also known by the name of bloody urine, black 
water, hgematuria, etc. It is a disease peculiar to the bovine 
tribe, characterized by the emission of red, chocolate or black 
urine, containing albumen, and the coloring matter of the blood 
in a broken-down condition. 

Causes. — The immediate causes of the disease are to be found 
in the nature of the food. Turnips, when given over^abun- 
dantly and without sufficient mixture of other food, will produce 
it. The disease is due also to insufficient feeding. It is always 
seen on pasture lands, and never in stall-fed animals, except 
when produced by turnips grown on damp lands. Red water 
prevails among calves, oxen, and 'bulls, and takes on an enzootic 
form in impoverished and Woody pastures. It is seen most fre- 
quently on damp lands and in wet seasons. 

Symptoms. — There is great prostration, febrile excitement, 
palpitation of the heart, a trembling pulse, pallor of the mucous 
membrane, and diarrhoea, succeeded by obstinate constipation. 
When following parturition, it is developed in from eight to 
fourteen days after, with general derangement, diarrhoea, and 
loss of milk. The pulse is quick, the back is arched. Constipa- 
tion succeeds the diarrhoea, and the faeces passed are dark in 
color. Milk drawn from the cow prior to the attack is particu- 
larly disposed to froth in the pail, and may have a red settlement 
at the bottom after standing. 

Teeatment. — Good, nutritious food is the remedy. If this be 
given the disease will be arrested. The animal should be fed 
on eggs and milk. The chlorate of potash, in ounce doses, may 
be given. A pint of oil may be given, and strict attention should 
be paid to the diet. 



XLH. 

DISEASES OF THE STOMACH AND INTESTINES. 

TYMPANITES. 

TjmpaniteSj or hoven, is a very common affection of cattle, 
caused by gaseous distention of the rumen or first stomach. The 
formation of gas is due to the character of the food, but may be 
due in some cases to functional derangement of the rumen. It 
occurs from choking and in connection with parturient fever. 
Frozen roots, or inferior food of any kind, will produce it. 
Clover is a very frequent cause of tympanites, when the animal 
is turned on the pasture while dew is on the grass or it is wet 
from rain. Feeding on kitchen refuse, slops, etc., is the most 
common cause in town cows. 

Symptoms. — The animal shows an uneasiness, shifting from 
one set of limbs to another. The left flank is distended, and 
there may be eructations of grass. The animal grunts; saliva 
flows from the mouth. As the distention increases, the breath- 
ing is seriously interfered with; the animal persistently stands, 
and the tongue protrudes from the mouth. The animal falls, 
and, if not immediately relieved, will die in a few minutes. 
Death may result from rupture of the diaphragm or rumen, but 
usually results from asphyxia. 

Treatment. — This should be undertaken at once. Oil of tur- 
pentine, three ounces; linseed oil, one pint, should be given in a 
drench, and followed by a pound of magnesia sulphate. Car- 
bonate of ammonia, one-half ounce to one ounce, is g'ood. Chlori- 
nated lime, potassium chlorate, and cai^bonate of soda are excel- 
lent remedies. If seriously swollen and it becomes evident that 
death will take place before medicines can act, the animal should 
be tapped at the most distended part with the trocar. The 

(4G0) 



DISEASES OF THE STOMACH AND INTESTINES. 



461 



canuia should he left in tlie rumen until all the gas escapes. The 
place to puncture is a span with the hand from the external 
angle of the ilium or point of the hip, downward and forwards, 
and the trocar should be entered downward and forwards. If 
the purgative has not been given, a pound of epsom salt should 
be administered. After the tapping, give stimulants and tonics. 

VOMITIOIT. 

Yomition takes place in the ox, although rarely. The act is 
easily performed by them, but the reason that we seldom see it 
is due to the fact that these animals are not easily nauseated. 




Fig. 132— Symptoms of Abdomiual Pain. 



The act of vomition is rarely perforined by the horse, occurring 
only as symptoms of a grave lesion or disease. It is frequently 
seen just at the point of death. Cattle vomit when suffering 
from indigestion, during profound coma or apoplexy. I have 
seen it occur during severe cases of parturition. The dog", pig, 
and cat are easily nauseated and vomit very q^uicldy. 



462 



THE STOCK OWIs'^EE S ADVISEE. 



IMPACTION OF THE RUMEN.) 

This is caused by an excessive quantity of food in tlie rumen. 
It may come on gradually, giving rise to no well-marked symp- 
toms for several days. On tapping the distended part with the 
fingers, it reveals a dough-like feeling. The stomach pits on 
pressure, indicating a paralyzed condition of the coats of the 
rumen. If the patient be a milk cow, she will show a falling off 

in the quantity of milk. 
The muzzle becomes dry 
and hot, respiration 
quickened, and there 
will be a flow of saliva 
from the mouth. The 
rumen may become ex- 
tremely distended, caus- 
ing regurgitation of 
food. When the coat 
of the rumen is para- 
lyzed, the operation of 
rumenotomy should be 
performed. It is per- 
formed by making an 
incision midway between 
the last rib and the 




Fig. 133 — Impaction of the Eumen. 



spine of the ilium, and from four to five inches from the 
points of the transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae. 
The incision should be made downwards and long enough to 
admit the hand. A handkerchief may be inserted in the wound 
in order to prevent the food falling into the peritoneal cavity. 
When this has been done, the food should be taken out with the 
hand, the parts Chen thoroughly cleaned, the incision in the 
stomach to be first stitched up with catgut sutures, the edges 
turned in, so as to get the peritoneal coat into position. The 
external coat may then be closed with strong silk or waxed twine 



DISEASES OF THE STOMACH AND INTESTINES. 463 

and covered witli a stiff pitch plaster. A pound of epsom salts 
should be administered^ followed with iron sulphate, two 
drachms; powdered gentian, two drachms; powdered nux vomica, 
one drachm, twice a day. If the animal is entirely off feed, the 
medicines above may be given in the form of tincture in similar 
doses. 

IMPACTION OF THE MANYPLIES. 

This occurs generally as a symptom of disease in some otlier 
parts, or may occur as an independent disease. A dry, and even 
caked, condition of the manyplies does not prove conclusively 
that dryness of the food in the stomach caused death. Fevers 
and an inflammation of the different stomachs may cause impac- 
tion of the manyplies. It may 
occur from feeding on dry food 
and an insufficient quantity of 
water, or perhaps from inferio'^ 
food. 

Symptoms. — The animal is 
dull, refuses feed, the muzzle 
is dry and hot, the breathing 
increased; the animal grunts ^'^- 134-Tmpaction of the 

after each respiration, and the 

pulse is quickened. There will be more or less diarrhoea, fol- 
lowed by constipation. In many instances the animal strains 
violently and passes both blood and mucus. 

Treatment. — Give a pound of epsom salts, half pound of 
table salt in a drench, and follow with laudanum, two ounces; 
alcohol, one ounce, every four hours. During convalescence the 
tonics should he made use of. 

When cattle suffer with spasmodic colic, enteritis, dysentery, 
diarrhoea, etc., the nature, causes, symptoms, and treatment are 
similar to like cases in the horse. 




464 THE STOCK owxer's advisee," 

WHITE SCOURS. 

This form of diarrhoea is peculiar to young animals, and prin- 
cipally seen in little calves. Tt is due to inflammation of the 
true digestive stomach, and is generally caused from the mother's 
milk being either too rich or too poor. It is commonly seen in 
calves that get skimmed milk instead of the first milk of the cow. 

Symptoms. — ^The patient lies down, stretches itself out, gets 
up, grates its teeth, stamps, curls the tail, and soon becomes very 
weak. The faeces are semi-fluid, whitish in appearance, with an 
offensive odor, 

Treatmext. — Give about three or four ounces of castor oil. 
If the pain is excessive, thirty drops of the tincture of opium 
should be combined with the oil. Lime water should be given, 
administered in the milk. Ten grains of pepsin, with five drops 
of hydrochloric acid, may be given, repeated as long as necessary. 

PERITONITIS 

This is an inflammation of the peritoneum, and has been pre- 
viously described in the pages of this work. It is caused by 
exposure to cold, punctures, wounds, etc. 

The animal stands a greater portion of the time; the pulse 
is from sixty to eighty beats per minute, wiry in character^ 
and the mouth is hot. The breathing is quickened, the eyes 
reddened, and an intense fever is present. The animal turns his 
head wistfully to the flank, but does not roll. 

Treatment. — If well-marked peritonitis occurs, it generally 
proves fatal. Tincture of aconite in twenty-drop doses may be 
used. In some cases stimulants are very beneficial. Opiates 
may be given to relieve pain, llustard applications may be used 
externally to the abdomen. Blankets rung out of hot water 
and applied to the abdomen are very beneficial. 



XLIII. 

MISCELLANEOUS DISEASES OF CATTLE, NOT PREVI- 

OUSLY REFERRED TO, THAT ARE DIFFERENT 

FROM THOSE OF THE HORSE. 

PARTURIENT FEVER. 

This disorder is commonly known as Milk Fever. It may oc- 
cur in all animals, but it is most frequently seen in cows. It is 
characterized by greater or less febrile disturbance, rising tem- 
perature, and the various indications of fever. 

Symptoms. — The animal becomes dull, the muzzle dry and 
hot, the pulse quickened, and the breathing is increased. This 
disease may occur in a light form or may be severe. The udder 
becomes hot and inflamed, and no milk is secreted. The animal 
shows thirst, and in severe cases refuses food. 

Tkeatment. — Give one pound of epsom salts. Long-continued 
fomentations of hot water should be freely applied to the udder, 
and the patient milked eight or ten times a day. Two ounces of 
nitrous aether, with a half ounce of nitrate of potash, should be 
given two or three times a day for two or three days. 

PARTURIENT PERITONITIS. 

This condition is usually met with in cows, and is commonly 
caused by difficult parturition, and by the use of instruments, 
etc.; by long drives directly before or after parturition, or ex- 
posure to cold or wet weather during parturition. 

Symptoms. — The cow becoaues dull, the muzzle dry and hot, 

the pulse hard and wiry, the breathing short and painful, the 

bowels constipated, the urine scant and high in color, and there 

is a reddish-brown fluid dischaige from the vagina. The patient 

30 ( 465 ) 



466 



THE STOCK OWNER S ADVISER. 



goes down and is unable to rise, groans heavily, and shows evi- 
dence of great pain. This disease is very fatal, and if extensive 
inflammation is present, death is the usual result. 

Treatment. — Make a good, soft bed for the patient, and prop 
her up by placing supports for her to lean against. The place 
should be as quiet as possible. Drinking water should be offered 
frequently, but in sm^all quantities. Enemas of warm water 
should be given three times a day. The vagina and uterus should 
also be injected with warm water, with a small quantity of 




"^-t^^^an^^ 




Fig. 135 — Parturient Peritonitis. 

opium added. A half pound of epsom salts should be adminia- 
tered, followed by tincture of opium, one ounce; aconite tincture, 
ten drops, every three hours. During convalescence, tonics 
should be given — iron sulphate, one-half ounce; powdered gen- 
tian, one-half ounce — twice a day in feed. Keep the body well 
clothed and change the position of the animal every three or 
four hours. 

PATURIENT PARALYSIS. 

Paralysis occasionally follows paturition, usually making its 
appearance within two or three days after the birth of the young 
animal, and is not a verv serious condition. .^ 



MISCELLATs^EOUS DISEASES OE CATTLE. 



467 



Symptoms. — The cow walks with a paddling gait, staggers 
and ultiniately falls to the ground, and is unable to rise. It 
affects very little the secretion of milk. 

Treatment. — Give a strong diffusible stimulant — alcohol, one 
ounce every four hours. Two ounces of sweet spirits of nitre may 
be used. Tincture of nux vomica should be given three times a 
day in drachm doses. Nux vomica should be used as long as any 
signs of paralysis remain. Where the condition persists for an 
unusual length of time, electricity may be used upon the parts 




Fig. 136 — Parturient Paralysis. 

with benefit. The position of the patient should be changed 
every three hours. Liniments should be applied to the spinal 
column. A cloth spread along the spine and a hot smoothing 
iron passed over it until cold is beneficial. 



PARTURIENT APOPLEXY. 

This disease is peculiar to cows, and consists of a congested 
state of brain and spinal cord. It is one of the most serious and 
rapidly fatal diseases of cattle. It commonly attacks very deep 
milkers and those highly fed and in a plethoric condition. It 
usually occurs when a cow is six or seven years of age, and always 



468 



THE STOCK OWNER S ADVISER. 



just after parturition, and generally at the birth of the second or 
third calf. It occurs where grasses are very fine, rarely being 
seen in badly-fed cattle. The disease runs its course in twelve 
to twenty-four hours. 

Symptoms. — The animal suddenly becomes dull and hangs the 
head; as the disease develops, the patient shows uneasiness, rest- 
ing first upon one set of limbs and then upon another. The flow 




Fig. 137— Parturient Apoplexy. 



of milk is greatly decreased, rumination ceases, and the cow 
ceases to notice her calf. On attempting to walk, she moves with 
a paddling gait, breathes heavily, and the respirations quicken. 
She soon falls heavily to the ground, and, becoming excited, 
makes great effort to regain her feet; but in a very short time 
becomes comatose, with head drawn around to the side. If the 
head be straightened and then freed, it will immediately return 
to the side with a thump. This is the diagnostic symptom of 
the disease. The eyes are now amaurotic and the cornea devoid 
of sensibility. The breathing at times is scarcely perceptible; 
at other times of stertorous character. The urine at this stage 
ceases to pass^ the bowels do not act, and tympanites appears. 



MISCELLANEOUS DISEASES OF CATTLE. 469 

Tkeatment. — Give a pound of epsom salts as quickly as possi- 
ble, witli enemas of tepid water. If down, the patient should 
be kept propped up on her sternum, with a support for her head. 
Her position must be changed every two hours. I have always 
had good results from the use of ice to the head. The blood that 
should go to make milk is thrown back upon the system, thus 
producing a congested state of the brain. Blisters or strong 
liniments should be applied to the spine. If tympanites sets in, 
the trochar and canula should be used to relieve the condition. 
Hand-rubbing the body is beneficial. The cow should be milked 
every two hours, and be protected from the sun in the summer 
and from cold in the winter. The urine should be removed from 
the bladder by the catheter. Mtrous sether, two ounces; bella- 
donna tincture, one drachm, should be given every four hours. 
Half-ounce doses of the bromide of potash should accompany 
every other dose. 

' MAMMITIS. 

Inflammation of the mammary glands is usually found in the 
cow, but is met with occasionally in all females. It occurs in two 
forms — an inflammation of the superior structure of the glands 
and an inflammation of the interior of the glands. It may affect 
a single gland, or all the glands may be involved in the inflam- 
matory process. 

Causes. — It is frequently due to an injury caused by briers, 
brush, or wounds inflicted from any cause. Poisonous weeds or 
stings from insects may cause it. A change in temperature or 
a change in the animal's condition may produce it. It is often 
caused by neglecting to completely empty the udder at each 
milking. 

Symptoms. — ^There will be a straddling gait if the whole gland 
is inflamed. If but a portion of the gland is inflamed, the animal 
will be lame in the limb next to the inflamed part. The glands 
will be swollen, hard, and tender to the touch. A well-marked 
fever is present, the muzzle is dry and hot, and the breathing is 



470 



THE STOCK OWNER S ADVISEK. 



affected. The patient iisiially has a chill at the 'beginning of the 
disease, is thirsty, with appe'tite impaired. The bowels are con- 
stipated and the urine high in color. The milk in the glands 
becomes clotted, and may be mixed with blood, or even pus, and 
possesses a fetid odor. At this stage, destruction of a portion or 
whole of the gland may be expected. In cases terminating fa- 
vorably, a full flow of milk cannot be expected from the gland 
until the animal has her next calf. 

Treatment. — Give one pound of epsom salts. A suspensory 
bandage is of the greatest importance. Holes should be made in 




Fig. 138— Mammitis. 



the bandage for the teats to go through, and the bandage fastened 
over the back. The gland should rest upon the bandage, packed 
with bran and hops, which should be kept moist by constantly 
pouring warm water upon them. The patient should be kept 
warmly clothed, and an ounce of alcohol should be administered 
three times a day. The cow should be milked a dozen times a 
day. The bumps or clots by this means may be broken down 
and forced out of the gland. If the milk will run, a milk syphon 
may be used and allowed to remain in. In case of suppuration, 



MISCELLANEOUS DISEASES OF CATTLE. 



471 



tlie parts must be opened to allow tlie pus to escape freely. The 
parts should then be treated as an ordinary wound. Belladonna 
paste is a very good application to the gland for relieving pain. 

ENTERITIS AND COLIC. 

These diseases are not freq[uent in the cow. The causes, 
symptoms, and treatment are similar to those of the horse. The 




Fig. 139 — Enteritis, or luflammation of Bowels. 

cow does not roll in expressing abdominal pain, but stamps and 
kicks at the abdomen. 

Wounds, fractures, diseases of bones and joints are similar to 
those of the horse. 

STRICTURE OF THE TEAT. 

This condition is due to inflammation of the gland. The milk 
flows in a small stream. 

Treatment. — The stricture should be divided by the con- 
cealed history, and the cow milked four or five times a day to 
prevent the parts adhering. This condition should be entrusted 
to a competent surgeon. 



472 THE STOCK OW^S'Ek's ADVISEE. 

WARTS. 

These occur both on the outside and the inside of the teats. 
If outside, calamine ointment will be the best remedy for re- 
moving it. If inside, the concealed history should be used to 
remove it. A calculi or milk stone is sometimes found in the 
teats. They can usually be removed by gentle manipulation. 




Fig. 140— Metritis. 

Diseases of the eyes of cattle are similar to those of the horse, 
except that the cow does not have the disease known as constitu- 
tional opthalmia. For treatment, see Diseases of the Horse. 

Skin diseases of the cow are not numerous. Tor treatment, 
see 5kin Diseases of the Horse. 

HOOF EVIL. 

This is a disease usually confined between the two claws. The 
treatment is similar to that for thrush in the horse. 

METRITIS. 

Causes, symptoms, and treatment are similar to the same 
disease in the mare. 



XLIV. 
PARASITES AFFECTING CATTLE. 

Parasites very seldom trouble cattle. A tapeworm known by 
the name taenia expansa sometimes affects cattle. It does not 
cause much harm. They are found in the intestines, and some- 
times fifteen feet in length. 

Treatment. — Give male shield fern, one ounce, with oil. An 
ounce of areca nut, in oil, may also be tried. Turpentine, three 
ounces in oil, may be given with good results in some cases. 

CYSTICERCUS BOVIS. 

This parasite is the cause of measles in cattle. It lives in the 
muscles of the ox, may be found in the pteragoid muscle in the 
heart and in the diaphragm. 

Life History. — If the parasites be eaten and taken into the 
stomach, they then separate and locate in the intestines of man. 
They are then passed from the man, and the ox takes in the eggs 
and they find their way into the muscles. 

Symptoms not well defined. No treatment. 

FASCIOLA HEPATICA. 

This is a round worm. It is the cause of rot in the liver of 
sheep. The disease is found along rivers, when they overflow. 

Symptoms. — The only symptom noticed is the sudden loss of 
flesh after rapid improvement for a month or two. 

Treatment. — Putting the animal on other pastures, on high 
land, if possible, is about all that can be done. 

STRONGYLUS MICRURUS. 

These parasites generally become encysted in the lung tissue. 
Young animals are affected much more commonly than adults. 

(473; 



474 THE STOCK OWXER'^S ADVISEE. 

The ovum gains access to the stomach during the process of feed- 
ing. It is there set free, enters the circulation, and is carried to 
its favorite ha'bit-ation. The disease prevails on both sides of 
Lake Erie, in the State of Ohio, and in the Dominion of Canada. 
It is frequently seen in Virginia, and throughout the low-lying 
districts. 

Symptoms. — The animal has a husky cough, which increases 
in frequency and severity by exertion. The appetite is impaired, 
and there is a discharge from the nostrils. The parasites may 
be detected by the naked eye, if the discharge be closely exam- 
ined. 

Teeatmeis't. — Change the animals to a higher and dryer pas- 
ture, if possible. Turpentine, one ounce; linseed oil, eight 
ounces, should be given in a drench. Inhalation of chlorine gas 
will destroy the parasites. Place three or four of the affected 
animals in a loose box; the chlorine gas may be generated by 
pouring sulphuric acid over a mixture of sodium chloride and 
magnesium black oxide. AYhen the animals begin to cough they 
should be liberated. Inhalation of burning sulphur in a close 
stable is a very safe and effectual remedy. 



SHEEP. 



XLV. 
CONTAGIOUS DISEASES OF SHEEP. 

VARIOLA OVINAE (Sheep-Pox) 

Is a contagious and infectious eruptive disease, analogous to 
small-pox and cow-pox. This disease has caused great loss to 
sheep-owners in Britain as well as in other countries. It occurs 
in two forms, malignant and benign. The malignant form never 
produces vesicles; the sheep lose their eyes, the wool falls out, 
the skin cracks, and the nostrils are filled with a fetid discharge. 
In the benign form, vesicles appear; their scabs falling off, leave 
pits on which the wool never grows again. 

Symptoms. — The period of inculcation is about fifteen days. 
As in all fevers, there is a rise in temperature, and in this it is 
well marked, rising as high as 107 or 108. Soon little papulae or 
nodules, deeply imbedded in the dermis, having a florid red 
aspect, make their appearance. They are first seen on the sides 
of the anus and thighs, and on the cheeks and lips, "causing the 
skin to have a flea-bitten appearance. The papula gradually en- 
larges in size, then becomes elevated and transparent in the cen- 
ter. The papula is now a vesicle containing a liquid, at first 
transparent, then turbid; ultimately it becomes dry, hardens into 
a crust, and is cast off with the epidermis. 

The affected animals separate from their fellows; their heads 
hang low; the breathing is quick and short; the eyelids swollen, 
the conjunctiva reddened; a discharge of mucus from the nos- 
trils; yellow spots appear on the pituitary membrane; the pulse 
is quick and wiry; rumination is suspended; food is refused and 
there is great thirst for water. The feet and ears are usually 
cold, while the surface of the body is hot. These symptoms are 
shown from the commencement of the eruption, and do not a'bate 

(477) 



478 • THE STOCK owner's ADVISEE. 

until tlie papuiar stage gives place to the vesicular. When the 
vesicular stage is reached the animal is relieved. 

Usually half the sheep attacked with this disease succum'b. 
In some cases nearly the whole flock is swept away. 

Treatment. — Medicinal remedies are of no service. The dis- 
ease must be allowed to run its course. Sweet spirits of nitre, 
one-half ounce; potassium nitrate, one drachm, may be used 
and the nostrils sponged to prevent suffocation. The diseased 
sheep should be separated from the healthy. If possible, this 
should be done while the fever is rising and before the com- 
mencement of the eruptions. If this be done, the disease may be 
checked. The healthy animals should not be allowed to go on 
pastures or roads frequented by diseased animals until heavy 
rains have destroyed the contagium. 

RINDERPEST. 

This disease occurs in sheep, although not so frequently as in 
cattle. The symptoms are the same in sheep as rinderpest, or 
cattle plague, in the ox. The incubative stage is more variable 
than in cattle. Sheep running with cattle that have rinderpest 
generally contract the disease. 

ANTHRAX. 

This disease occurs in sheep, but not so frequently as in cattle 
and horses. When affecting sheep, it is sometimes called splenic 
apoplexy. 

Symptoms. — The first symptom exhibited by a sheep thus af- 
fected is a short step. The animals are seen to lie down and rise 
frequently, or stand apart with the head depressed and the back 
arched. Should the disease not terminate rapidly the wool will 
drop out. The post-morten appearances are identical with those 
seen in cattle. 

FOOT ROT. 

This is the name given to a contagious disease in sheep, which 
causes a destruction of the horn of the foot. It is asserted by 



CONTAGIOUS DISEASES OF SHEEP. 



479 



some to be non-contagiouSj but I think there can be no doubt that 
the disease is contagious. 

Symptoms. — ^There may be swelling of the inter-digital tissueSj 
or there may be an inflammation of the sole at the end of the 
toes. An alteration of the horn takes place, and there is a dis- 
charge of fetid ichorous fluid from the parts. Fungoid growths 
appear on the exposed surface. The disease burrows under the 
horn of the inner wall of the claws and separates it from the sen- 
sitive structures within. As the disease advances the animal 
loses flesh. In some cases the sensitive structures of the af- 
fected feet are separated from the horny walls, the wall becoming 
entirely detached. The horny sole crumbles away also, leaving 
the sensitive structures exposed, which soon sprout with masses 
of fungoid growths. The animal, unable to put its lame foot to 
the ground, will crawl on its knees if the forefeet are affected, 
and upon its abdomen if the hind ones be the seat of the disease. 
The disease generally attacks one foot and then passes to the 
others. It is generally seen on hill farms during the months of 
August and September. 

Prevention. — Remove the sheep, if possible, to another pas- 
ture, after making them walk through a long trough containing 
an ounce of carbolic acid, two drachms of corrosive sublimate, to 
each quart of water. They should be made to walk through this 
solution once a week. 

It may be necessary to drive them through a solution of sul- 
phate of copper. One pound of arsenic to five gallons of water 
may be used in the same w^ay. In some cases it may be necessary 
to touch the fungoid growths with nitric acid. 

LOUPING ILL. 

This disease entails an enormous loss in some countries among 
hill sheep of both the white and black faced breeds. It prevails 
to a consideralble extent in Scotland. The disease is due to the 
tick, a true blood-sucking parasite, belonging to the family of 
ixodidse. The mouth of the tick is provided with a serrated beak, 



480 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

or rostrum, whicli enables it to pierce the skin and retain its hold 
very firmly and almost without effort, as the barbed serrations 
point backwards. Ticks are found on old grasses where the last, 
or previous, year's grasses are rank, affording cover for the para- 
sites. They attack animals by plunging their beaks deeply into 
the skin, particularly about the face, root of the ears, lower part 
of breast, between the thighs, or in parts of the body most ex- 
posed. They will hang for days, sucking the blood, until their 
bodies become distended to eight or ten times the original size. 
They seem not to quit their hold until they die. 

Symptoms. — The animal trembles. There will be a spasmodic 
contraction of the muscles, especially those of the upper part of 
the neck. There will also be spasms of the muscles of the limbs, 
causing the animal to walk stiffly and jerk the feet in peculiar 
manner. The -breathing is quick, the pulse 102 to 103, and the 
temperature 105 to 106. The head and neck are distended as in 
lockjaw, the animal trembles, and ultimately becomes paralyzed. 

Treatment. — ^The ticks should be destroyed, because through 
them the micro-organisms are communicated to the sheep. It 
has been proven that the ticks contain the spores, and are capable 
of infecting sheep. 

They must not be pulled off. Their bodies should be clipped 
in two with scissors; they will then immediately retract the suck- 
ing organ and fall off. A strong decoction of tobacco, saturated 
with salt, will remove them, and they are also quickly destroyed 
by turpentine. An ounce of creosote to four of linseed oil is 
recommended, and dipping with any of the recognized sheep dips 
will destroy them. 

The old grasses in which they stay should be cut down or 
ploughed under. 



XLVI. 
ENTOZOA OF THE SHEEP. 

Sheep are infested with four varieties of tapeworms. A tape- 
worm consists of a head and several joints, or suckers. The suck- 
ers and hooks hold on to the mucous memhrane of the intestines. 
They multiply by the lengthening of the neck. The head has 
four suckers. They have no generative organs, no mouth, nor 
digestive organs, but live by absorption of nourishment through 
pores. Each segment may come off from the rest. 

TAENIA COENURUS. 

This parasite infests the intestines of the dog, from which per- 
fect segments are expelled. These segments falling in the pas- 
ture where sheep are feeding, are swallowed with the herbage; 
getting into the blood vessels, they are carried to every part of 
the body, and are lodged in the brain. Here the young embryo 
covers itself. It is then the size of a mustard seed, and gradually 
grows. This parasite causes the disease in sheep known as sturdy 
tumsick or gid. The parasite encysts itself in the brain, the cyst 
measuring in diameter one-half inch to a hen's egg. . Usually but 
one cyst is found. They generally attack lambs under one year 
old; sheep above two years old being rarely affected. The ail- 
ment prevails largely in flocks where dogs are employed to assist 
the shepherds. On enclosed pastures, where the sheep are un- 
attended by dogs, the disease seldom occurs. 

Symptoms. — The animal becomes dull and stupid. If made to 
go on, he may dash into the wall or fence, turning to the right or 
left, as controlled by the hemisphere of the brain in which the 
parasite is located. When the parasite is lodged between the 
hemispheres, the animal steps high and goes forward in a straight 
line; the head is carried upwards, and there may he a varying 
81 ( 481 ) 



482 THE STOCK OWNER S ADVISER. 

degree of amaurosis in one or both eyes. Sometimes the animal 
becomes blind and deaf. When the parasite is lodged in the cere- 
bellum, the animal's movements are performed without control. 
The head is elevated; the lim'bs are moved automatically; one 
or two steps are taken forward, when the animal starts with a 
bound, but immediately falls and is unable to rise for a time. 

Prevention. — The dogs should be treated to prevent the 
trouble in sheep. 

TAENIA MARGINATA. 

This is very common on this continent, being frequently seen 
in the Western States. It is found in the mucous membrane, 
peritoneum, or liver. The life history is the same as that of the 
taenia coenurus. The j^arasites generally perish in the liver. 
They in some cases cause inflammation of the peritoneum. 

No treatment. 

TAENIA EXP ANSA. 

This parasite does not cause much harm. They may be fifteen 
inches in length, and are found in the intestines. 

Treatment. — Male shield fern, one to two drachms in oil, 
may be given. Areca nut, one to two drachms in oil, or turpen- 
tine, three to four drachms, are all good remedies. 

DISTOMATA HEPATICA. 

This parasite destroys the liver of sheep, producing the disease 
known as " rot," which has caused great losses to sheep-owners 
throughout England. It prevails on low, marshy lands and 
during wet seasons. The disease may be detected in the spring, 
when ewes are dropping their lambs. A sound ewe, in good 
order, drops a lam'b covered with a thick and yellow slime ; when 
the slime is white, thin, and watery, the sheep is not in a healthy 
condition. Another method by which healthy sheep may be 
known is by rubbing the flesh backwards and forward between 
the fingers and thumb, at the ends of the short ribs. If the 
flesh is solid and firm, she may be considered sound ; if found soft 



ENTOZOA OF THE SHEEP. 483 

and flabby, with a sort of crackling sound and a watery or blub- 
bery feeling, they are unsound. Professor Simonds states that 
a dry, scaly state of the skin on the inner part of the thighs, par- 
ticularly where it is uncovered with either wool or hair, is early 
recognized as a sign, and that an examination of the eye will 
materially assist in determining the question of disease. If dis- 
eased, the vessels of the eye are tinged with a pale or yellowish 
colored blood. 

The progress of the rot is slow. The animal becomes dull, the 
mucous membranes become pale, skin is dry, the flanks hollow, 
back weak, the belly tucked up. The eyes become yellow, and 
dropsical swelling is seen in various parts of the body. 

Treatment. — The unsound pastures should be abandoned. 
The sheep may be moved to dry pastures and an abundant supply 
of salt given. 

OESOPHAGOSTOMA. 

This parasite shows itself by the formation of litde tumors or 
nodules in the mesentery and intestines, resembling tubercular 
deposits. In the tumor will be found little round worms. The 
male is less than a half inch; the female is three inches in length. 

Symptoms. — The symptoms are not well shown. A sheep 
should be killed in order to find out the nature of the disease. 

STRONGYLUS FILARIA. 

This paT-asite affects cattle also. They are located and lay 
their eggs in the bronchial tubes. The male parasite is from one 
to two inches; the female from two to three inches in leng^th. 

Symptoms. — Cough, diflicult breathing, and panting. Shreds 
of mucus may be passed up. The animals may have a fair appe- 
tite, and if they live over winter the parasites will disappear. 

Treatment — Preventive. — It will be some time before the 
sheep can be put upon the land, and they should be fed well. 

Medicinal Treatment. — Give one to two drachms of turpen- 
tine, in oil, and inhalations of sulphur. The sheep should be con- 



484 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

fined in a close stable, where tliey may be compelled to inhale the 
fumes of burning sulphur. This treatment should be continued 
once a day for three or four days. Oil of turpentine, one to two 
drachms; chloroform, one-half drachm; carbolic acid, ten minims, 
may be injected in the trachea, hypodermdcally, every day for 
three or four days. 

Sheep suffer from the various sporadic diseases to which the 
cow and horse are subject. Their causes, symptoms, and treat- 
ment may be found under Diseases of Cattle and Horses. The 
dose for the she^p is about one-fourth of that for the horse. 



SWINE. 



XLYII. 
CONTAGIOUS DISEASES OF SWINE. 

SWINE PLAGUE. 

This disease, commonly known as '^ hog cholera/' is a disease 
peculiar to swine. It is highly contagious and infectious, and 
extremely fatal, especially among young animals. It seems to 
prefer in its attack large herds, and is always more fatal where 
animals are crowded together. Some individual animals seem 
more predisposed than others. The morbid process, although in 
all cases essentially the same, is not restricted to a single part or 
organ, or to a set of organs, but has its seat in almost all parts of 
the body. The period of incubation after inoculation is about 
^YQ days. 

Symptoms. — The first symptom noticed is shivering, lasting 
from a few minutes to several hours, frequent sneezing, and 
more or less cough. The temperature is greatly elevaited, in 
some cases reaching 111° F. These symptoms are followed by 
loss of appetite, a rough appearance of the coat, dropping of the 
ears, loss of vivacity, attempts to vomit, a tendency to root in the 
bedding, and to lie down in a dark and quiet corner; watery 
eyes, swelling of the head, eruptions on the ears and other parts 
of the body; bleeding from the nose, swelling of the eyelids; diz- 
ziness, blindness, lalbored breathing, constipation, or, in some 
cases, diarrhoea. There will be rapid emaciation and a gaunt ap- 
pearance of the flanks; an appetite for* dirt, an increased thirst, 
and a copious discharge from the nose. The peculiar, offensive, 
and fetid odor of the exhalations and of the excrements may be 
considered as characteristic of the disease. If the animals are 
costive the faeces are grayish or brownish black and hard; if 
diarrhoea is present the fa3ces are of a grayish-green color, and 

(487) 



488 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

contain in some cases an admixture of blood. In a large number 
of cases red spots are seen between the hind legs, behind the ears, 
and on the nose and neck. Toward a fatal termination of the 
disease, this redness changes frequently to purple. As the dis- 
ease progresses the animal becomes weaker, and there is lameness 
in the hind leg. The animal, when standing, carries the head 
near the ground. As the fatal termination approaches, there will 
be fetid diarrhoea, taking place of costiveness. The voice be- 
comes faint and hoarse, and the animal is unconscious; the skin 
becomes wrinkled and dry, with a cold, clammy sweat. In those 
few cases in which the disease has not a fatal termination, the 
symptoms above enumerated gradually subside. The hacking 
cough remains for a long time. 

MORBID ANATOMY. 

A more or less hepatization of the lung, so extensive in some 
cases that a portion of the lung will sink like a rock in water. 
The lymphatic glands are enlarged, as also the mesenteric glands. 
In some cases they present even a brownish or blackish color. 
N^umerous hacilli suis are found in these parts and in the lung. 
The trachea contains a frothy mucus; its mucous membrane con- 
gested and swollen. The pleura and pericardium contain a straw- 
colored serum. The heart is more or less congested; is flabby 
and dark in appearance, owing to the engorgement of its blood 
vessels. Tumors or morbid growths appear on the mucous mem- 
brane of the intestines, varying in size from that of a pin's head 
to a pigeon's egg. They are of a grayish-black color. These 
tumors contain innumerable hacilli suis, and are found through- 
out the intestines. Tumors may now and then be seen on the 
mucous membrane of the gall, bladder, stomach, and uterus. 
Slight changes appear in the liver, pancreas, and spleen. Morbid 
changes are sometimes seen on the mucous membrane of the eye, 
the lower jaw, and in the skin. Numerous small growths de- 
velop, extending but slightly into tflie cutis, but causing a com- 
plete degeneration of the epidermis, and leaving behind, if re- 



CONTAGIOUS DISEASES OF SWINE. 489 

moved, an uneven raw surface. In some cases they are so numer- 
ous between the legs and behind the ears as to produce a slough- 
ing of the whole skin. Red or purple spots and pa'tches are found 
in the skin, on the under <surface of the body, behind the ears, 
and between the legs. The blood becomes altered and reduced in 
quantity, is of a dark color, and coagulates very readily when ex- 
posed to air. The blood examined microscopically will be seen to 
contain large numbers of the hacilli suis. 

Measures to Arrest the Disease. — To effectually stamp out 
the disease, congressional legislation is necessary. One farmer 
may successfully eradicate it from his own herds, but so long as 
his neighbor's continue to harbor it, his stock is daily subjected 
to the danger of renewed infection. His personal sacrifice is all 
in vain so long as his neighbors' hogs are dying. Animals are 
only isafe from infection at a distance of one mile, and a strong 
wind will carry the disease from farm to farm. When hog 
cholera breaks out in a community the hogs are too often shipped 
to market, thus disseminating the disease. 

Every sick hog should be destroyed, immediately buried or 
burnt, and the premises should be disinfected. If this be done 
the disease may be stamped out in a short time. If this cannot 
be done, the diseased herd should be isolated and their pens dis- 
infected. The healthy animals on the same farm should be kept 
in movable pens on high and dry ground. The pens should be 
moved each day to a new spot. These pens could be made with a 
few planks. The troughs should be kept clean and the water 
pure. The healthy animals should not be waited on by those 
that attend the diseased animals. 

Therapeu'tically, but little can be done to prevent an outbreak. 
Carbolic acid may be used to disinfect the premises, and it may 
be given internally in the drinking water, every morning and 
evening, in doses of from ten to twenty drops. Chloride of lime 
is also a good disinfectant for use in the pen. A solution of car- 
bolic acid and water may be sprinkled over the hogs once a day. 



490 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

Treatment. — A cure for this disease has never been found. 
The advertised specifics are worthless. 'No cure has ever been 
found for glanders, cattle plague, and anthrax. 

ANTHRAX. 

The varieties in the pig are reduced to anthrax fever, gloss 
anthrax, and anthrax with tumor. This disease is generally pro- 
duced in the hog when allowed to run in pastures where cattle are 
dying from anthrax, or from eating flesh of other animals that 
have died of the malady. 

Anthrax fever is rapidly fatal in the pig, killing without pre- 
vious manifestations of sickness. In mild cases there will be 
sudden prostration, hanging ears, arched back, sullen appearance, 
vomition of a coffee-colored fluid, continual convulsions, paralysis 
of the extremities, rapid alteration of heat in the 'body, highly in- 
jected mucous membrane, followed by death. 

Gloss Anthrax. — In this form there is great swelling of the 
throat, pharynx, larynx, and tongue. The parts become gan- 
grenous, an exhaustive diarrhoea sets in, accompanied with a dis- 
charge of blood, and speedy death. 

Anthrax with tumor is rare in the pig. When it does occur, 
the tumors form below the parotid gland on each side and be- 
tween the lower jaw and wind-pipe. The tumors are very pain- 
ful to the touch. There is no treatment for this disease when it 
occurs in the hog. It rarely occurs in this country, but is preva- 
lent in India and Africa. In India it is termed " Loodiana Dis- 
ease '' in Africa "Horse Sickness.'' 

TUBERCULOSIS. 

This disease is not often found in swine, but they are not 
exempt. They generally contract the disease by drinking milk 
from tuberculous cows. The animal will present all symptoms of 
tuberculosis as shown in other animals. For further information 
on tuberculosis, see chapter on this subjedt under Diseases of 
Cattle. 



CONTAGIOUS DISEASES OF SWINE. 491 



SPORADIC DISEASES OF HOGS. 

The hog in his natural state is almost free from disease. His 
power to resist disease has been greatly lessened by continual 
close breeding and improper treatment. An injudicious prac- 
tice of crossing has been carried to such an extent as to almost 
obliterate traces of the original breed. An attempt has been 
made to improve upon nature, to make a permanent stock that 
will reproduce itself, which has proven a failure. All hogs be- 
long to one great family, and it is a law of nature that, where 
great divergence has taken place from any parent stock, a ten- 
dency to revert prevails. However, if a judicious system of 
crossing be practiced, certain breeds may be improved. The 
male may be selected carefully from some special breed, as 
Poland China, and crossed with an opposite breed in shape and 
habits, as the Essex. In-breeding is often practiced through 
an effort to dbtain a perfectly pure breed of any particular 
species. Hogs bred in such a manner are predisposed to dis- 
eases of every sort. The custom of breeding from sows too 
young is a predisposing cause of disease. The sow should not 
be allowed to become pregnant until one year old. Before that 
time she is growing and immature. The results of breeding 
young sows and in-breeding are loss of vitality and scrofulous 
degeneracy. This is well exemplified in herds when cholera is 
raging. 




SKELETON OF THE HOG (Omxivora). 

Axial Skeleton, 
the skull. 

Cranial Bones. — a, Occipital. 1; &, Parietal, 2; d. Frontal, 2; c, Temporal, 2; 
Sphenoid, 1; Ethmoid, 1; Auditory ossicles, 8. 

Facial Bones.— g. Nasal. 2; /;, Os rostri, 1: /, Lachrymal, 2; e, Malar, 2; i. 
Maxilla, 2; k, Pre-maxilla, 2: 1, Inferior maxilla, 1; Palatine, 2: Pterygoid, 2; 
Vomer, 1; Turbinals, 4; Hyoid (segments), 5. Teeth— Incisors, 12; Canines, 4; 
Molars, 28. 

The Tninh.—m, Cervicle vertebrae, 7; ?i, Dorsal vertebrae, 14; o. Lumbar verte- 
brae, 7; p, Sacrum (four segments), 1; q, Coccygeal vertebrae (variable), 18; r r. 
Ribs, 28; * Sternum (seven sternebrae), 1; ♦> Costal cartilages. 

Appendicular Skeleton. 

pectoral limb. 

V, Scapula, 2; ic. Humerus, 2; x, Radius, 2; y, Ulna, 2. Carpus— «, Trapezium, 
2; a', Cuneiform, 2; I', Lunar, 2; c'. Scaphoid, 2; d', Unciform, 2; e', "Magnum, 
2; /', Trapezoid. 2: g', Pisiform, 2. Metacarpus— 7;', Bones, 8: Large sesamoids, 
16. Digit— r, Proximal phalanges, 8; k', Mesian phalanges, 8; l', Distal pha- 
langes, 8; I", Small sesamoids, 8. 



PELVIC LIMB. 

Pelvis.— Os Innominatum— s, Ilium, 2; t, Pubis, 2; u, Ischium, 2. 

The Limb.—m', Femur, 2; »', Patella, 2; a', Tibia, 2; p', Fibula. 2. Tarsus — g', 
Calcaneum, 3; r'. Astragalus, 2; s'. Cuboid, 2; /', Cuneiforme magnum, 2; «', 
Ecto,cuneiforme, 2; v' ic', Meso- and Endo-cuneiformes, 4. Metatarsus— Large 
bones, 8; a?'. Small bones, 2; y'. Large sesamoids, 16. Digit— Proximal pha- 
langes, 8; Mesian phalanges, 8; Distal phalanges, 8; small sesamoids, 8. 

Visceral Skeleton. 

None. 

The separate bones of the Skeleton of the Hog, as here considered, are 324. 

(492) 



XLYIII. 
DISEASES OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM. 

PNEUMONIA. 

This sometimes occurs in hogs, and the causes are similar to 
those producing the disease in other animals, as sudden altera- 
tions in temperature, exposure, etc. It is produced sometimes 
by using a close pen, with an adjoining unprotected inclosure 
for the animals to run in. The change from the close pen into 
the open air, with no protection from the wind_, results in colds 
and pneumonia. An animal taken from a warm pen and turned 
on pasture, with no protection at night, will sometimes suffer 
with colds and lung troubles. 

Symptoms. — The animal stands or sits up most of the time; 
there is an elevation in temperature; the pulse is increased, with 
increased respirations; there is a frequent cough; the limbs be- 
come cold; the animal stands with the back arched and the nose 
low to the ground. Auscultation and percussion are of little aid 
in the diagnosis of lung disease in the hog. 

Treatment. — Tincture of aconite, in from five to ten drop 
doses, should be used. If the animal shows great weakness, with 
a weak pulse, a drachm of alcohol should be given three times a 
day. I^itrate of potash, dissolved in the drinking water, is bene- 
ficial. If the animal will not take it in the drinking water, 
drachm doses should be given along with the drench. Milk 
should be given as soon as the appetite returns, and finally 
stronger food may be given. Mustard should be applied to the 
lungs. 

The hog may have bronchitis, laryngitis, trachitis, etc. The 
causes, symptoms, and treatment are similar to those of the same 
diseases in other animals. The dose for the hog is about one- 
eighth that of the horse. 

( 493 ) 



XLIX. 
DISEASES OF THE DIGESTIVE ORGANS. 

The hog frequently suffers with diseases of the digestive 
organs. He is an omnivorous animal, eating both animal and 
vegetable food; his instinct demands and his health requires 
such food. In his native state, he obtains animal food by dig- 
ging worais with his nose. The improved methods of swine 
breeding have proclaimed the nose of the hog a useless appen- 
dage. He is deprived of his natural method of obtaining food 
by putting a ring in his nose. Thus deprived of the natural 
means of obtaining a supply of animal food, he is forced to sub- 
sist almost exclusively upon vegetable diet, consisting mostly of 
corn. In the corn-growing and hog-growing districts, the only 
food received from birth to slaughter is com. T\^here this diet 
is used, hogs frequently suffer with troubles of the digestive 
organs. 

The symptoms of stomach and bowel troubles are a refusal 
of food; the hog stands and hangs the head low tothe ground, 
stamps the feet, especially the hind ones, or he may lie down 
most of the time. The ears are dropped, the face indicates pain, 
the forehead having a wrinkkd appearance. The tongue is gen- 
erally white and flabby, especially when the stomach is affected. 
If the tongue is narrow, red, and contracted, it shows that the 
stomach requires acids. Slight tympanites may be present, 
which may be detected by tapping on the abdomen when the hog 
is lying down. The animal may vomit in some cases. 

Teeatmext. — Give one drachm of aloes, or, for the same pur- 
pose, four ounces of epsom salts may be used. To relieve pain, 
the following remedies may be used: Tincture of opium, two 
drachms; sweet spirits of nitre, one drachm; water, a half pint, 

( 494 } 



DISEASES OF THE DIGESTIVE ORGANS. 495 

every four hours. Enemas should be administered. If gas is 
present, a half ounce of turpentine may be substituted for the 
nitre in the above drench. Bicarbonate of soda, in half-drachm 
doses, may be given, and is an excellent remedy. 

CONSTIPATION. 

This condition is frequently seen in hogs. Two or three of a 
herd may cease to eat. They will wander off, and at feeding time 
will not come up. Repeated and ineffectual efforts to pass faeces 
are observed. 

Treatment. — Give four ounces of epsom salts and administer 
enema. . 

The hog may suffer with the various diseases of the digestive 
canal. The causes, symptoms, and treatment are similar to those 
of the same disease in the horse. 



NERVOUS DISEASES OF THE HOG. 

ENCEPHALITIS. 

The pig sometimes suffers witli inflammation of the brain. 
This occurs most frequently when running in pastures where the 
grass is over-ripe. It may also arise from the effects of some nar- 
cotic agent, or may be produced by tumors or abscesses forming 
in the brain. 

Symptoms. — There will be marked dullness, increasing as the 
disease progresses. The animal is excited by noise, the urine is 
scant, and the bowels constipated. The pulse falls below normal. 
The respirations are slow and usually stertorous in character. 
The animal when standing hangs the head or rests the nose on 
the ground; staggers, falls, and ultimately is unable to rise. 

Treatment. — But little can be done in this case. One drachm 
of aloes should be administered. Twenty grains of the bromide 
of potassium may be used. Belladonna tincture, in five-minim 
doses, is an excellent remedy for inflammation of the brain in 
hogs. 

EPILEPSY. 

This sometimes occurs in hogs, and is due to intestinal derange- 
ment, such as worms, etc. 

Symptoms. — The patient gives way behind, begins champing 
the jaws, froths at the mouth, and there is spasmodic jerking of 
the head. The head is gradually raised as the fit comes on, and 
finally the hog falls backwards on the ground, the attack lasting 
for three or four minutes; after which he arises, and is appa- 
rently well again. 

(496) 



NERVOUS DISEASES OF THE HOG. 



497 



Treatment. — Give one drachm of aloes, and follow with ten- 
grain doses of potassium bromide. An endeavor should be made 
to remove the cause. 

For other nervous diseases in the hog, see Nervous Diseases 
of the Horse. 



u. 

PARASITES OF THE HOG. 

STRONGYLUS ELONGATUS. 

This parasite is located in tlie lungs of hogs. They are gen- 
erally found in the terminal part of the main bronchium in the 
posterior lobe of one or both lungs. Other air tubes are occa- 
sionally infested. The male is eight to nine inches in length, the 
female one to one and a half. They have curled tails. Pigs in- 
fested by these worms thrive badly, a»d may die. 

Teeatmeis^t. — These parasites may be destroyed by placing 
the herd in a close pen and compelling them to inhale the fumes 
of burning sulphur once a day for three days. When the hogs 
begin coughing they may be released. 

TRICOCEPHAITJS DISPAI— WHIP WORMS OF SWINE. 

These are found in large numbers in the intestines, the caecum, 
and colon. This worm is characterized by a long, delicate, ante- 
rior part of the body, and a short, thick, posterior portion. The 
male is about one and a half inches long, and is curved in a 
spiral. The female is one and a half to two inches in length. 
When these worms are present, they may cause an inflammation 
of the large intestines, with costiveness or diarrhoea and a rapidly 
advancing bloodlessness. 

Teeatmext. — Give a half ounce of the oil of turpentine, and 
continue the treatment once a day for six or seven days. 

SCLEROSTOMUM DENTATUM. 

This is another small worm of the caecum and colon in hogs. 
It is only about one-third to one-half inch in length. They ^ 

(498) 



PARASITES OF THE HOG. 



499 



themselves to the mucous membrane of the intestine, penetrate 
the tissue with their sharp teeth, and live upon the blood. 

Symptoms. — If present in large numbers the hog becomes pale 
and bloodless, with rapid loss of condition and ansema. There 
will be an irritation of the bowels, followed bj constipa^tion or 
diarrhoea. 

Treatment. — Give half-ounce doses of turpentine. Santo- 
nine, in ten-grain doses, will often remove them. 

CYSTICERCUS ZEMICOLLIS. 

Considerable numbers of this hydatid are found in the abdomi- 
nal cavity, omentum peritoneum, liver, and kidney. 'No symp- 
toms are shown, but without the appearance of much harm they 
may be destructive to life. The treatment is similar to that of 
the last mentioned parasite. 

Many hog-raisers speak of kidney worms, characterized by the 
animal's losing the use of its posterior parts. I have failed to 
find worms in the kidneys that could produce any well-marked 
disease. 

GE^'ERAL Care a^'d Treatment. — The natural haunts of the 
pig in a wild state are in the torrid zone. Swine are never found 
in a northern climate. They must therefore be protected from 
cold. Tlie pens should be warm, and at the same time well venti- 
lated. The ventilation should be at the top, as it is absolutely 
necessarv in cold climates to utilize the natural heat of the hoe; 

1/ CD 

to keep the pen at a moderate temperature. There should be no 
ventilation below in winter. The floor of the pen should be cov- 
ered with a foot of clay, the feeding floor should have several 
inches slope to carry off rain. By having the feeding floor open 
to the rain, sun, and wind, it is kept pure. The lot should slope 
away from the pen, in order that rain may assist in removing 
refuse matter from the surface. Straw or leaves are not neces- 
sary in the sleeping rooms when clay is used. The hog in its 
wild state grew up and roamed in the forest imtil maturity. 
Being allowed free use of their noses, and being omnivorous by 



500 IHE STOCK OVrNER'S ADVISEE. 

nature, they fed on worms, roots, mast, and such food as was 
adapted to them. They exercised as their inclinations or neces- 
sities inclined; had access to springs and streams of lamning 
water; slept in storm-sheltered thickets, on beds of clean leaves, 
and enjoyed under these circumstances a vigor of constitution 
and immunity from disease unknown to modem swine-breeders. 
As the country became populated and agriculture advanced, the 
long-nosed hog began to disappear. Agriculturists found that a 
hog fed to profit must have an inbred tendency, with close con- 
finement. We thus see that the hog of to-day is of impaired 
constitution, and that its habits, as imposed by the will of the 
farmer, do not approach so nearly a strict observance of the laws 
of health as do the instinctive habits of the animal in an unre- 
strained state of nature. 

As I have said, the most improved methods of swine breeding 
have proclaik^ed the nose of the hog a useless appendage. Rings 
are put in his i.ose which deprive him of animal food, and force 
him to live almost upon an exclusively vegetable diet, mostly of 
corn. The object in feeding swine is to accumulate fat as rapidly 
as possible in those intended for market, to keep stock hogs in 
healthy, growing condition, and to have breed sows in the best 
condition for bearing. To accomplish this the stomach must be 
kept in a healthy condition, and not overloaded. Hogs should 
not be fed on an exclusive diet of corn and water. Green food 
should be furnished them. Hogs fed on corn may have sour 
slops fed to an advantage. If kept on clover, slops should not 
be given, but rather roots and vegetables, such as potatoes, tur- 
nips, etc. An exclusive clover diet is not proper food for the 
hog. It is very good if the hog receives a supply of potatoes, 
turnips, corn, etc. I have seen relief afforded by change of food 
when hogs were dying rapidly on an exclusive clover diet. When 
a herd does not eat well, the tongues of a few should be exam- 
ined. If the tongues are red and contracted, give some slop or 
turn them to clover pasture, and they will at once improve. If 
their tongues are large, pale and flabby, give corn, cornmeal. 



PARASITES OF THE HOG. 



601 



cooked root vegetables, and use soda in the feed. If farmers 
must keep their hogs on grass, and must use rings to save their 
clover, thej should furnish the food which the hog's nature re- 
quires. As a rule, the constituents of all grasses and annual 
plants are acid, have an acid reaction. Especially is this the case 
with clover. Root vegetables have an alkaline reaction, and are 
composed largely of phosphates and soda salts. In clay soils, 
hogs can probably supply themselves from the ground with 
phosphate, but when confined to a black, loaming soil they can 
obtain but little of these necessary salts from the earth. Where 
root vegetables cannot be obtained, and hogs are kept on a clover 
range, soda and lime, or sulphate of iron, should be given freely. 
Corn should not be given exclusively; roots should be given in 
order to make a change in the bill of fare. If the corn is cooked, 
it will make much better food. The water should be clean, pure, 
running water, and should be within reach of the hogs at all 
times. During the hot months it seldom happens that hogs have 
a proper supply of good, pure water. In many cases the animals 
have only thin mud or stagnant water. Young pigs, if reared 
on a floor, frequently become ill and die when four or five weeks 
old. In such case they should be moved from the wooden to a 
dirt floor; if possible, it should be a clay floor. If pigs and 
mother be moved at once, immediate relief is obtained. 

Pigs may be weaned at six weeks old, and soon after they may 
be castrated. 



THE DOG. 



in. 

THE EARLY HISTORY OF THE DOG. 

' ■ From the earliest known history, the dog, the companion and 
friend of man, is found in almost every part of the globe. He is 
supposed to have originated from the wolf, another variety of 
the same family. Their inclinations to associate with each other, 
their readiness to breed together, and anatomical similarity, 
seemed sufficient proof of relationship. But even this is not 
absolute proof that the dog originated from the wolf. From 
earliest history, the dog has been the same docile and affectionate 
animal as now. Intellectually, the dog ranks next to the human. 
The inferior animals are, to a certain extent, endowed with the 
same faculties as ourselves. Hatred, love, fear, courage, jealousy, 
and many varied passions influence and agitate them as they do 
human beings. The dog is susceptible to every impression. With 
regard to intellectual power, the difference between man and 
animals is in degree, and not in kind. In the quadruped as well 
as the biped, knowledge is derived from the perception of things 
around us. A certain impression is made on the outward fibers 
of a sensitive nerve. That impression in some mysterious way is 
conveyed to the brain, and there it is fixed, imagination com- 
bining it with many impressions. Judgment determines the 
value of it and the conclusions that are to be drawn from it. 

The writer has frequently observed this phenomenon of im- 
pressions and the keenness of perception in dogs during opera- 
tions. Often, when approached for examination, they at first 
offer resistance. All at once, however, something seems to strike 
their minds. They will utter a little whine, wag their tails, 
crouch at our feet, and lay themselves down for inspection. A 
word or two of kindness is all that is necessary, and they will 
readily submit to the most painful operation. This is better 

(505) 



506 THE STOCK OWXER S ADVISER. 

exemplified in the female. The flesh quivers as the knife pur- 
sues its course, a moan or two escapes, but yet she does not strug- 
gle; and her first act, after all is over, is to lick the operator's 
hand. Years may pass, but whenever she sees the operator she 
testifies her joy and gratitude in the most expressive and endear- 
ing manner. Often, seeing me on the crowded street, they will 
cross over for recognition. 

The important faculty termed attention is well developed in 
the dog. It is this which distinguishes the promising from the 
unpromising pupil, and the scientific man from the superficial 
and ignorant one. The power of keeping the mind steadily upon 
one purpose is the great secret of individual and moral improve- 
ment. T\"e see the habit of attention carried to a very consid- 
erable extent in the dog. The setter or pointer stands firm to 
his point, even though the blunders and unskillfulness of his 
master annoys him. The fox hound, insensible to a thousand 
scents, and deaf to every sound, anxiously and perseveringly 
searches out the track of his prey. The drover's dog, leading a 
flock of sheep through pastures and crowded streets without 
losing a single one and without human aid; the terrier eagerly 
watching for vermin — these are striking illust<rations of the 
power of attention. The faculty of memory in the dog and 
horse is remarkable, of which we could aive numerous instances. 
The dog has remarkable powers of observation and reasoning, 
independent of any training, many of his performances being 
entirely voluntary and the result of causes dependent upon acci- 
dental circumstances alone. A good bird dog will noiselessly 
withdraw from his point, hunt up his master, and induce him, 
by peculiar signs, to follow to the spot where he had observed 
the birds. The St. Bernadine is remarkable for such faculties, so 
much so that he is employed in the Alps to search for frozen 
wanderers, administer refreshments, and lead them to places of 
safety and shelter. The St. Bernard is known to have voluntarily 
gone a distance of a mile, bark and make a noise at a neighbor's 
door, inducing some one to follow him to the rescue of man or 



THE EARLY HISTORY OF THE DOG. 



507 



beast. In every country and in every time tliere have existed 
between man and dog associations different from those with other 
animals. Other animals may be brought to a certain degree of 
familiarity, and may display much affection and gratitude, but 
they can rarely be said to love or even recognize us, except for 
the satisfying of their wants. The horse will exhibit degrees of 
affection; he Avill share some of our pleasures, enjoys the chase, 
and feels the influence and emulation of victory, but his affec- 
tions are selfish and easily transferable. With the dog, however, 
it is otherwise. His courao:e, his fidelitv, and devotion induce 
US to admire and love him. If he transgresses and is punished, 
immediately when it is over, by some significant gesture, he will 
acknowledge his consciousness of deserving what he has suffered. 
He will fly to us with alacrity and submissively lay at our feet. 
A glance of the eye is sufficient, for he understands the least ex- 
pression of our will. He has all the candor of friendship, with 
fidelity and constancy in his affections. He is all zeal and obedi- 
ence. Neither interest nor desire of revenge can corrupt him, 
and he has no fear but that of displeasing. He speedily forgets 
ill-usage, or only recollects it to make returning attachments the 
stronger. He licks the hand which causes him pain, and subdues 
his anger by submission. He shares in our abundance, and he is 
content with the scantiest and most humble fare. 

CARE OF THE DOG. 

Where one or two dogs are kept, they generally take a suffi- 
cient amount of exercise of their own accord. Kennel dogs 
should be exercised daily. In feeding dogs, the little puppies 
should be taught to lap milk wdien about three weeks old. The 
milk should be scalded and slightly sweetened. When the pup- 
pies are about four weeks old, they may begin taking a little soup, 
to which stale bread is added. This will pass them over the 
weaning period, which usually takes place when the puppies are 
six weeks old. The young dog shoidd receive a mixed diet of 
well-boiled meats and vegetables. They should not be allowed 



508 THE STOCK OWNER S ADVISER. 

mucli meat ; they require some, but it is safer to give principally 
a vegetable diet. The puppy should be fed four times a day 
until he is four or five months old. He may then be fed twice a 
day, receiving very little in the morning. The largest feed 
should be at night. When the puppy is two or three months old 
his condition should be carefully watched. His food at this time 
should be limited, for two reasons — first, that his body may not 
become too heavy for his legs, causing rickets; and, secondly, 
lest derangement of the digestive organs lead to distemper and 
various other diseases. Proper exercise and nourishing diet are 
all that is required to keep the dog strong and healthy. The 
various prepared dog foods should not be used except for con- 
venience, where other food cannot be procured. 

Hunting dogs should receive abundant food, with plenty of 
meat. They cannot do their work well unless judiciously fed. 
Each dog of the kennel requires particular and constitutional 
care. E^ot more than four or five hounds should be let into the 
eating apartment at a time, so that the feeder may have each 
hound under observation. Some hounds cannot run if they caiTy 
much flesh; others are improved by it. Much depends upon the 
management of the kennel. The keeper must be thoroughly ac- 
quainted with the appetite of every hound, for some will eat too 
much, and others will require inducement to feed. The food 
should be boiled in two iron kettles — the oatmeal in one, the 
flesh in another. The flesh should be cut in very small pieces 
and mixed with meal. It should be stirred for two hours and 
then transferred to flat coolers. 

Delicate hounds succeed well on dry, unboiled oatmeal. When 
once induced to take it, they will eat it readily. Other hounds of 
delicate constitution may be tempted with a little additional 
flesh. In summer an extra cow or two should be kept in the 
dairy. The skimmed milk may be used instead of flesh. About 
Christmas is the proper time to arrange the breeding establish- 
ment. The bitch should not breed before she has hunted two 
seasons, for before that time it will be scarcely possible to ascer- 



THE EARLY HISTORY OF THE DOG. 



509 



tain her liuntiiig qualities. If there is any considerable fault, 
she should not be bred. The pregnant bitch should not be al- 
lowed to engage in long and severe chase, but kept as quiet as 
practicable. She should not receive too great abundance of food. 
Her condition should be carefully watched before and during 
pupping. After pupping, she should receive an increased amount 
of food, with plenty of milk. Her constitution will decide how 
many puppies should be left with her to raise. When the pup- 
pies are sufficiently grown to run about, they should be placed in 
a warm situation. A small kennel should be built as a favorable 
place for them to pass through the distemper, which they will 
undoubtedly have sooner or later. When young hounds first 
enter the main kennel, they should be kept separate to avoid 
quarreling. 

The hounds should be walked out every day and taught to 
follow the horse with the keeper. They should be taken out on 
the public roads. The keeper must be kind and patient, other- 
wise he is not fit to attend a kennel. He should try to teach the 
dog the nature of his fault before correcting him. The whip 
should seldom be used, as it generally does more harm than good, 
not being used judiciously. The young hounds may be coupled 
to the older ones, and should be taken out among the sheep until 
tliey disregard them. They should not be allowed to hunt im- 
proper game. They should be taken out in the country over 
which they are afterwards to hunt, and young foxes may be 
turned out for them to pursue, until they are turned out to hunt 
game in earnest. They should be frequently called out in the 
kennel and their names gone over. As the sporting season ap- 
proaches, the hounds may be divided in two packs, to be taken 
out alternate days, and finally the whole pack may be taken out 
together. The honi should be used only as an instrument of 
speaking to the dogs. Each note should indicate some action, 
which they should be taught to obey. A certain note should call 
them together, another call up a lost hound, and another should 
be used when the fox breaks cover. 



510 THE STOCK OWNER S ADVISER. 

LOCATION OF KENNELS. 

This is very important. The kennel should be located in a 
dry and warm situation^ and it is of great importance that it be 
located on a clay soil. If located on a gravelly or porous soil, 
from which vapors are continually rising to dampen the building, 
the dogs will be attacked with rheumatism, known as '^kennel 
lameness." The dogs should never be washed in the evening 
after the day's hunt, but on the day following. Where a deep 
super-soil of clay cannot be found, one or two layers of bricks or 
stone may line the floor. A clean bed of straw should be allowed 
every second day, or oftener when the weather is vet. The 
lodging house should be sealed, and there should be shutters on 
the windows. Stoves should not be used in kennels. By lying- 
together, dogs will keep warm in a correctly-built kennel. The 
plans of the kennel may be left to the good judgment of the 
owner. 




SKELETON OF THE DOG (Carnivora). 
Axial Skeleton, 
the skull. 
Cranial Bones.— a, Occipital, 1; &, Parietal, 2; c, Frontal, 2; k, Temporal, 2; 
Sphenoid, 1; Ethmoid, 2; Auditory ossicles, 8. 

Facial Bones.— f. Nasal, 2; e, Lachrymal, 2; d, Malar, 2; 7i, Maxilla, 2; g, Pre- 
maxilla, 2; i, Inferior maxilla, 2; Palatine, 2; Pterygoid, 2; Vomer, 1; Tnrbinals, 
4; Hyoid (segments), 9. Teeth— Incisors, 12; Canines, 4; Molars, 26. 

The Trunin.— I I, Cervical vertebrae, 7; mm, Dorsal vertebrae, 13; n n, Lumbar 
vertebrae, 7; o, Sacrum (three segments), 1; pp, Coccygeal vertebrae (variable), 
20; 1 1, Ribs, 26; * Sternum (eight sternebrae), 1; ♦^ Costal cartilages. 

Appendicular Skeleton. 

PECTORAL limb. 

u. Scapula, 2; v, Humerus, 2; iv, Radius, 2; x. Ulna. Carpus— ^2/, Trapezium, 2; 
z, Cuneiform, 2; a', Scaphoid, 2; &', Unciform, 2; c', Magnum, 2; d', Trapezoid, 2; 
e', Pisiform, 2; Metacarpal bones, 10; h', Anterior sesamoids, 10; g', Posterior 
sesamoids, 20. Digit— i'. Proximal phalanges, 10; k', Mesian phalanges, 8; V, 
Distal phalanges, 10; Small sesamoids wanting. 

PELVIC LIMB. 

Pelvis.— Os Innominatum— <7, Ilium, 2; r. Pubis, 2; s, Ischium, 2. 

The Limh.—m', Femur, 2; o', Fabellae, 4; «', Patella, 2; q' , Tibia. 2; p'. Tibial 
sesamoid, 2; r', Fibula, 2. Tarsus— s', Calcaneum, 2; t'. Astragalus, 2; t*', 
Cuboid, 2; v', Superior cuneiform, 2; w', Ecto-cuneiforme, 2; a?', Meso-eunel- 
forme, 2; ;y', lOndo-cunoi forme, 2. Metatarsus— Large bones, 8; z'. Small bones, 
2; Anterior sesamoid, 8; Posterior sesamoids, 16. Digit— Proximal phalanges, 8; 
Mesian phalanges, 8; Distal phalanges, 8; Small sesamoids wanting. 

Visceral Skeleton. 
Os Penis ,1; Rudimentai-y clavicle (inconstant), 2. 

The bones of the Carnivore Skeleton, thus considered, are 345. 

( 511 ) 



Lin. 

CONTAGIOUS DISEASES OF DOGS. 

DISTEMPER. 

By this singular name is distinguished a febrile disease due to 
the operation of a morbid poison, occurring spontaneously from 
ordinary causes of disease, or as a result of contagion and infec- 
tion. The disease is known throughout the world. Dogs of all 
ages are subject to its attack, but it of tenest appears between the 
sixth and twelfth month of the animal's life. If at an earlier 
period, it generally proves fatal. Distemper, like all contagious 
and infectious diseases, has an uncertain but short period of 
latency. As a rule, it affects the system but once, and some- 
times prevails as an epizootic. It varies in different breeds. The 
shepherd is scarcely ill a day with it. The terrier comes next in 
liability, the hound next, and after him the setter. The small 
spaniel comes next, followed by the pointer. The pug is next in 
order, and the Newfoundland suffers more than any other breed. 
Should a foreign dog be affected, he almost certainly dies. The 
delicate stallion grayhound has little chance when imported from 
abroad. The disease differs not only in different species of dogs, 
but in different breeds of the same species. 

Symptoms. — The primary symptoms are those of fever, asso- 
ciated with those of catarrh. The dog shivers, is dull, restless, 
the eyes are weak and watery, the nose dry, the appetite partially 
lost, w^ith increased thirst and frequent attacks of sneezing. In 
the course of five or six days the nasal discharge becomes more 
profuse. The eyes are weaker and the discharge from the eyes 
is much increased. Very often the eyelids are gummed to- 
gether, and the animal is temporarily blind. A husky cough is 
present, at first dry and husky, afterwards moist. The pulse may 

(512) 



CONTAGIOUS DISEASES OF DOGS. 613 

run from 120 to 160, with elevated temperature. Frequently 
an opacity spreads over the cornea, quickly succeeded by ulcera- 
tion. The first of the ulceration is generally seen in the center 
of the cornea, and is circular. The ulcer widens and deepens; 
sometimes it eats through the cornea, and the aqueous humor 
escapes. As the disease advances, the dog becomes so feeble at 
the end of a week that it can scarcely stand. The appetite is al- 
most entirely lost. Food is quickly vomited or passes through the 
intestinal canalin a fetid, ill-congested condition. At the end of 
a fortnight the symptoms may abate in intensity and the dog 
slowly regain its strength. Sometimes epileptic fits come on, 
making a serious complication. If a second fit come on within a 
day or two the dog is generally lost. These fits may appear Avith- 
out warning; if their approach be carefully watched, they may 
possibly be prevented. The champing of the lower jaw will be 
seen at least tw^elve hours before the first fit. 

The inflammation extends to the lungs in some cases, pro- 
ducing pneumonia. If the ear be placed to the chest, the crepi- 
tating sounds of pneumonia will be detected. Intestinal compli- 
cations are indicated by violent vomiting and purging. The 
fa?ces vary from white, with a slight tinge of gray, to a dark slate 
color. By degrees mucus begins to mingle with the faecal dis- 
charge, and then streaks of blood. The case when in this condi- 
tion is almost hopeless. Jaundice is a frequent complication. 
An intense yellowness suddenly appears all over the dog. The 
result of this complication is usually unfavorable. In most in- 
stances cutaneous eruptions are seen on the inner surface of the 
thighs and other parts where the hair is thin and downy. These 
eruptions peel off in large scales, causing the hair to be filled 
vitli them. 

Treatment. — In the early stages, if the bowels are at all irreg- 
ular, a small dose of castor oil is to be prescribed. The dose 
varies from a tea spoonful for a young puppy to an ounce for a 
well-grown dog. After the purgative acts I have received the 
best results from sal. acetate of ammonia, four drachms; nitrous 
33 



514 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

setlier, six dradams; water, four ounces. Give a teaspoonful 
every three hours. The animal should be kept warm by clothing 
the body. Plenty of good, fresh water, or milk and water, 
should be given. The nose and eyes should be repeatedly 
sponged, and the food restricted to a milk and water diet^; or the 
various liquid foods recommended in this work may be used. 
This simple treatment, if thoroughly carried out, will cure most 
cases. Prof. Williams recommends the use of six-grain doses of 
the hyposulphite of soda, Avith one drachm of sweet spirits of 
nitre. When there is excessive purging, it should be arrested by 
a good dose of epsom salts, to carry away anything that may act 
as an irritant; after it has acted, a scruple of powdered chalk, ten 
grains of catechu, and five of ginger, with a quarter of a grain of 
opium, made into a ball with palm oil, may be given to a middle- 
sized dog twice or thrice every day. If Avorms are present, a 
scruple to one drachm of areca nut should be given. If from 
teething, the gums are to be lanced. If vomiting is excited, it 
should be allayed by giving from two to four drops Scheel's 
strength of hydrocyanic acid. If jaundice is present, the bowels 
should be opened with epsom salts, and then give half-grain 
doses of calomel twice a day. When fits are present, and the 
animal is strong, a grain of calomel and a quarter of a grain of 
opium should be given. The pulmonary complications are best 
relieved by the application of hot flannels to the sides. If chorea 
be a complication, and summer is approaching, the dog may 
recover. Nitrate of silver, in doses of one-eighth of a grain, 
made into pills with linseed meal, and increased to a quarter of a 
grain, should be given morning and night. Nourishment must 
be forced upon the animal if it will not take it spontaneously. 
The milk food recommended in this work should be given. As 
soon, however, as spasms spread over him, accompanied by a 
singular half fetid smell, the poor creature moaning and crying, 
humanity demands that we put an end to that which we cannot 
cure. 



CONTAGIOUS DISEASES OF DOGS. 515 



SMALL-POX. 



Tills disease, first seen in 1809, receiving its name at the Royal 
Veterinary School at Lyons, is propagated from dog to dog by 
contagion. It is not difficult to cure. 

Symptoms. — There is an unnatural red color of the skin in the 
region of the belly, groin, and inside the fore arm. These parts 
are sprinkled with little red spots, irregularly rounded, which 
gradually grow larger for several days, becoming very prominent 
at their centers. About the fifth day the redness of the centers 
begins to assume a grayish color. On the summit is a white cir- 
cular point, containing a quantity of nearly transparent fluid, 
covered by a thin and transparent pellicle. This fluid gradually 
changes to pus, ultimately of purulent character. The pustule 
becomes flattened, and desiccation and desquamation takes place 
about the tenth day. 

The near approach of the eruption is announced by an increase 
of fever. After desiccation the skin remains covered with brown 
spots, which by degrees disappear, sometimes leaving little spots 
on which the hair does not grow. A moderate temperature is the 
most favorable to recovery. Exposure to cold is generally fatal. 
The dog suffering from small-pox has a very offensive breath, 
and the faeces are also very fetid. In some instances pneumonia 
occurs as a most serious complication. 

Treatment. — Give a dose of castor oil and follow with sal. 
acetate of ammonia, drachms four; nitrous aether, drachms six; 
water, q. s. four ounces. Give a teaspoonful every three or four 
hours. This is generally all that is required. 

RABIES. 

This is one of the most important subjects in veterinary 
pathology, and one in which every practitioner of human medi- 
cine should be thoroughly interested. The disease has its origin 
in the canine. The specific virus is conveyed in the saliva of the 
affected dog through wounds to other animals and to man. Opin- 



516 THE STOCK OWAEE^S ADVISER. 

ions are divided on the spontaneous origin of rabies. I do not 
believe that the disease has ever originated spontaneously, but 
that it originates only by innoculation. Rabies once generated 
in a dog is transmissable by innoculation to every warm-blooded 
animal. The disease may occur at any month in the year, and 
in the female as well as in the male. The virus, when intro- 
duced into the system, generally lies dormant for a very indefi- 
nite period, the shortest period in the dog being about seven days, 
and the longest one hundred and fifty-five days. The period in 
the majority of cases, however, runs from seven to thirtv-five 
days. 

Symptoms. — The symptoms of rabies are essentially the same 
in all warm-blooded creatures. The dog becomes restless and 
continually shifts his posture, searching new resting places, but 
very soon changing them. He lies in dark comers, shuns the 
light, and gazes strangely about him, with countenance* clouded 
and suspicious. He becomes more fidgety, lying down and jump- 
ing up again in an excited, unnatural manner. At this stage he 
shows no disposition to bite, and answers the call upon him lag- 
gardly. A peculiar delirium is an early symptom, and One that 
never deceives. There is a desire to lick an}i:hing cold, to rest 
the nose on a cold object, and to pick up bits of wood and straw. 
The movements of the animal now become unsteady. He will 
stare at an imaginary object, then rush forward and bite at any- 
thing in his way. He may start up after a few moments of 
quietude, with unmingled ferocity depicted on his countenance, 
and plunge with a savage howl to the end of his chain. He may 
stop and watch the nails in the partition, and fancy them to be 
moving, he will start at them. The symptoms becoming still 
more severe, the desire to bite is greatly increased; the pupils are 
dilated, the conjunctiva is red and injected; the eyes alternately 
wide open with fury, and then closed in a dull, but fierce manner. 
The forehead becomes wrinkled, and the animal has a terrifying 
and repulsive look. The presence of any living or shining object 
will bring on a paroxysm of rage and excitement. Between the 



CONTAGIOUS DISEASES OF DOGS. 5lT 

periods of excitement there is great prostration, the exhausted 
animal lying down in the quietest spot it can find, insensible to 
all surrounding objects, until, all at once, he springs up greatly 
agitated. 

The bark of a rabid dog is husky, spasmodic, and more in the 
nature of a howl. The jaw drops, exposing the tongue, which is 
dry, and the bronchial membrane is of a brownish hue. If the 
dog be spoken to by his master he will be recalled from watching 
the motes flying in the air or the insects on the wall. Dispersed 
by the magic influence of his master's voice, every object of terror 
disappears, and he crawls toward him wath the old expression of 
attachment. A moment of quietude comes, the eyes slowly close, 
the head drops, and the fore feet seem to be giving away, as if 
he would fall; but with renewed paroxysm he springs up again, 
gazes wildly around, barks, snaps, and rushes to the extent of his 
chain. The dog loses the power of swallowing, owing to the 
spasmodic contraction of the throat. The animal does not dread 
water, but, on the other hand, will plunge its muzzle deeply in, 
and make effort to drink. A mad dog, when loose, will travel a 
great distance in a short time. Anally endeavoring to return 
home, generally rushing at everything in its way, but preferring 
to attack other creatures than man. There is, in the first stages, 
a flow of saliva from the mouth. The urine is high colored, the 
bowels are constipated, the pulse accelerated, the gait is un- 
steady, the tail drops, the head is depressed, the nose protruded, 
and the scent, sight, and hearing are much impaired. The dog 
frequently vomits, and ultimately dies from coma, exhaustion, 
and suffocation. The rabid dog, when loose, travels with his tail 
depressed, and seemingly half unconscious of surrounding ob- 
jects. His open mouth, protruded and black tongue, and rolling 
gait sufficiently characterize his condition. In the very earliest 
period of rabies, a person accustomed to dogs will detect the 
existence of the disease. The animal runs as if in pursuit of 
imaginary objects,- The countenance changes, with alternating 
brightness, and he wags his tail as though some pleasing vision 



518 THE STOCK O wisher's ADVISEE. 

passed before him; then his countenance indicates the dislike and 
fear with which the intruder is regarded. When the vision seems 
within proper distance, he darts on it with violence. The ab- 
sence of pain, for the most part, is an almost invariable accom- 
paniment of rabies, though dogs will sometimes gnaw and tear 
the flesh from their limbs. The appearance of the eye is an im- 
portant symptom. There is at first singular brightness, but later 
it becomes dull and wasted. In about forty hours from the first 
clouding of the eye it becomes a disorganized mass. The bark 
of the mad dog is perfectly characteristic. There is no other 
sound that it resembles. The muzzle is elevated, and the com- 
mencement is that of a perfect bark, ending in a howl, with a 
rising inflection an eighth higher than at the commencement. 

Hydrophobia in man is characteriezd by symptoms similar to 
those of the dog, except perhaps that there are symptoms of 
intense pain in the seat of the wound in man. The man wall 
have frightful dreams, Avith a peculiar delirium. The image of 
the dog that attacked him is always before him. Some complain 
of smothering, and pant violently, as if an enormous weight op- 
pressed the chest. The power of swallowing is lost almost en- 
tirely in the human being. The expression of the countenance 
and eye is similar to that of the dog. Convulsions come on, and 
the sufferer will spring from his seat, uttering the most fearful 
howling and tearing everything around him; then becoming ra- 
tional, he regains his reasoning powers and talks intelligently. 

The same delirium seen in the dog occurs in the human pa- 
tient, and is described by Dr. Bardsley as follows: "1 observed 
that he frequently fixed his eyes with horror and affright on 
some ideal object, and then with a sudden and violent emotion 
buried his head beneath the bed clothes. The next time I saw 
him repeat this action, I was induced to inquire into the cause of 
his terror. He asked whether I had not heard bowlings and 
scratchings. On being answered in the negative, he suddenly 
threw himself on his knees, extending his arms in a defensive 
posture, and forcibly threw back his head and body. The muscles 



CONTAGIOUS DISEASES OF DOGS. 619 

of the face were agitated by various spasmodic contractions; kis 
eyeballs glazed and seemed ready to start from their sockets, and 
at the moment, Avhen crying out in agonizing tone, 'Do you not 
see that black dog?' his countenance and attitude exhibited the 
most dreadful picture of complicated horror, distress, and rage 
that words could describe or imagination paint." 

Hydrophobia in the horse is similar to that of the dog, with 
the exception that the remissions and paroxysms are less apparent 
in the horse. The dog seems, for a time, to be almost freed from 
the disease, but in the horse the absence of anxiety, restlessness, 
and exhaustion is of much shorter duration, and the fits of vio- 
lence more violent and prolonged, killing the animal on the 
second or third day. The sexual desire is increased in the mare 
and horse during the course of the disease. 

The symptoms of rabies in the cow, sheep, pig, goat, rabbit, 
and cat are very similar to those in the dog. In the cow there is 
paralysis of the hind extremities, before death, as in the horse. 

Post-mortem appearances of a dog affected v\^ith ra\jies show 
a paralysis of the lower jaw, a discoloration and swollen condi- 
tion of the tongue, which hangs from the mouth, with super- 
fluous blood in the outer inferior part. The color varies from a 
dark red to a dingy purple, or almost black. The fauces situated 
at the posterior part of the mouth generally exhibit traces of 
inflammation. A strange post-mortem exhibit is the presence of 
indigestible matter, probably small in quantity, in the back part 
of the mouth. This indicates the depraved appetite and loss of 
power in the muscles of the pharynx. The epiglottis is more or 
less injected in every case of rabies. The edges of the glottis 
show inflammation. The stomach and its organs may contain a 
strange mass of hair, hay, straw, earth, horse faeces, etc. There 
is a peculiar inflammation of the stomach. It is more intense on 
the summits or folds of the stomach. Well-marked extravasation 
of blood or diffused inflammation is seen throughout the stomach 
and bowels. The liver, spleen, kidney, and muscular system are 
congested. No conclusions can be drawn from the lesions of the 



520 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

brain, the principal post-mortem appearances being oedema or 
congestion, sometimes in patches, of the brain and spinal cord. 

Preve^'tive TREATME^'T. — Tliis should not be resorted to in 
the dog. The bitten animal should be destroyed at once. All 
dogs inoculated with rabies poison do not become mad, but the 
risk is so great, and the mischief they may inflict of so grave im- 
portance, that no chances should be taken. 

If a person has been bitten, a complete excision of the bitten 
surface should be made as soon as possible after the injury. The 
knife should not come in contact with, but should be carefully 
passed beneath, the bitten surface. After excision is completed, 
the parts should be burned with a pencil of nitrate of silver, ap- 
plied to every recess and sinuosity of the wound. Where this 
treatment is carried out in man, seven out of ten escape, while if 
no such means are used eiglit out of the ten die. 

Pasteur has given to the world a method by which those bitten 
can be rendered insusceptible before the mortal malady has had 
time to declare itself. Those bitten should, if possible, be sent to 
his institution for treatment. 



JAY. 
ENZOOTIC AND EPIZOOTIC DISEASES OF DOGS. 

DISEASES OF THE SKIN— MANGE. 

Dog mange is due to an insect, the sarcoptes canis. The disease 
is transferable to man. I have seen cases of a mangy dog almost 
covered with eruptions. 

Symptoms. — There is an itching, with formation of red points 
like flea bites, vesicles, pustules, and scabs. The red points may 
be plainly seen on the inside of the thighs and under the abdo- 
men. 

Follicular scabies is a frequent form of mange, due to the 
presence of the ascarus demodox folliculorium. 

The symptoms of the disease are the formation of small pimples 
and circumscribed spots, from which the hair falls out; scabs form 
from the discharge of the contents of the pustules, with cracking 
and bleeding of the surface. A positive diagnosis of the parasite 
can only be made by the aid of the microscope. The disease is not 
so contagious as scabies. Its duration may be a year, and even 
longer. 

Treatment. — Creosote, four drachms; olive oil, seven ounces; 
sol. potassium, one ounce. The affected parts should be dressed 
with this about twice a week. Where the whole body is affected 
the animal should be clipped. Before making the application, 
wash the dog thoroughly with soft soap. 

ECZEMA RUBRUM. 

This is an eczematous affection occurring among sporting dogs. 

It is caused by improper diet and by running through long grass 

when it is wet, 

( 521 ) 



522 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

Sympioms. — There is redness of the skin along the back, breast, 

and belly. The parts are hotter than natural and irritable. 
There may be falling off of the hair in patches, and slight consti- 
tutional disturbance, as fever, loss of appetite, etc. 

Treatment. — Externally, lead acetate, ounce one; zinc sul- 
phate, drachms six; water, one quart, should be used as a wash. 
The patient should receive a drachm of jalap to open the bowels, 
and the food should be milk and porridge or other liquid foods. 
Xo n^eats should be given. The following is a safe and very 
effectual remedy: Sulphur, one drachm; potassium carbonate, 
one drachm; lard, one ounce. 



LY. 
DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. 

EPILEPSY. 

This frequently occurs in dogs as the result of intestinal de- 
rangementj as worms. It is frequently a result of distemper, and 
follows teething in the puppy. 

Symptoms. — The patient falls to the ground, froths at the 
mouth, etc. The attack lasts three or four minutes, followed by 
dullness, from which the dog soon recovers. 

Treatment.— See that the patient gets plenty of air. A piece 
of wood should be inserted between the teeth to prevent biting 
the tongue. Calomel, one grain; tartar emetic, one grain, made 
into a pill should be given. Potassium bromide^ in twenty-grain 
doses, should be given every two hours until the fits cease. Fits 
may be warded off by seizing the dog by the nape of the neck 
and dashing cold water in his face. 

CHOKEA. 

This ie an irregular distribution of nerve power, characterized 
by convulsive, involuntary, twitching of some muscle or set of 
muscles. It sometimes follows distemper, and may atfect one or 
two limbs. It sometimes pervades the whole system. 

Symptoms. — There is a spasmodic, jerking action in one leg 
or shoulder, seen particularly when the dog is lying down. When 
standing, there is a sinking of the head and neck. It sometimes 
affects principally the muscles of the neck and face. If a case of 
chorea be neglected, this spasmodic action of the muscles spreads 
over the body, and the dog lies extended with every limb in con- 
stant and spasmodic action. 

Chorea is oftenest seen in young animals, and is a result of 

(523) 



524 THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

distemper, bad feeding, cold and damp housing, debility, ^Yonns, 
and chronic affections. 

Teeatmext. — The bowels should be kept in good condition 
by giving oil. Iron and gentian are serviceable as tonics, five 
or ten grains of each. Silver nitrate is highly recommended, 
combined with ginger, in doses varying from one-sixth to one- 
third of a grain, according to the size of the dog. If the dog is 
in fair condition, and the season favorable, a cnre may be made. 
If there is general debility and loss of flesh, a cnre cannot be 
effected. 

RHEUMATISM. 

Rhenmatism. occurs in the dog in the acute and chronic forms. 
The attack comes on rather suddenly, the joints swell, the pulse 
becomes full and tense, the eyes blood-shot, the stomach de- 
ranged, and the boAvels costive. Severe pains run through the 
ai'ticulation, the tongue is coated, the muzzle hot and dry, and 
the poor animal howls with agony. The causes are numerous — 
exposure to bad weather, reiuaining idle and wet after coming 
from the water, damp kennel, luxurious living, etc. 

Chronic rheumatism is known as gout. There is pain in the 
parts, the muscles are tender and the joints stiff, with but little 
inflammation. The pain seems to be removed by exercise. 

Treat:^iext. — Give extract of colocynth, one scruple; calo- 
mel, ten grains, powdered gamboge, two grains; aloes, ten grains. 
Make into four pills, and give two at night and two in the morn- 
ing. The dog should be Avrapped in blankets, and a warm bath 
may be used. The bowels should be kept in proper condition by 
giving purgatives. Plasters may be applied to the spine. The 
treatment of chronic rheumatism is similar to the treatment of 
the acute form; consists of warm baths,, warm housing, a strict 
attention to diet, and keeping the bowels in proper condition. 
Stimulants may be applied to the parts. The spirits of camphor 
is excellent for this. 



DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. 525 

PALSY. 

This is characterized by partial or complete loss of motion or 
sensation in some part of the muscular system^ and is common 
in the canine race. The loins and hind limbs suffer more fre- 
quently than other parts. 

Symptoms. — The animal may eat well and seem cheerful,' but 
his belly is tucked up, and there are two longitudinal cords 
parallel to each other, which will scarcely yield to pressure. 
Castor oil will remove the trouble, and should be given freely 
until the proper effect is produced. 



LYI. 
DISEASES OF THE DIGESTIVE ORGANS. 

ENTERITIS. 

!N^o animal suffers so frequently with inflammation of tlie 
bowels as does the dog. His intestines are peculiarly irritable 
and subject to inflammation. A cold temperature is a common 
cause of the disease. 

Symptoms. — A great thirst, blood-shot eyes, a tender and 
corded belly; his cries are frequent and piteous; he avoids food, 
and looks around at his flanks with lingering gaze, accompanied 
by a cry or groan. Its prevailing cause is exposure to cold, espe- 
cially after fatigue, or lying on wet stones or grass. 

Treatment. — Place the paiient in a warm bath. The abdo- 
men should be rubbed while in the bath. Emetics should be 
given, but not too frequently. An ounce of castor oil should be 
given. The spirits of white poppies is highly recommended in 
this disease. The pulverized or tincture of opium is also useful, 
given in doses of eight grains of the powder or ten to fifteen 
drops of the tincture every four hours. 

PERITONITIS. 

An inflammation of the peritoneal membrane frequently oc- 
curs in the dog, characterized by loss of appetite; the belly is 
tucked up, hard, and contracted, and there is a frequent pulse. 
The dog may whine and try to hide himself. 

Treatment. — ^Castor oil should be given. Tincture of opium 
may be given in ten to fifteen drop doses, according to the size 
and age of the animal. It may be given every four hours. 

(526) 



DISEASES OF THE DIGESTIVE ORGANS. 527 

COLTC. 

The dog is subject to fits of colic, caused by sudden changes of 
food, improper food, and exposure to cold. 

Symptoms. — The dog labors under fits of pain. He may lie in 
a corner quietly for a minute, but when the pain comes on he 
utters a yelp and seeks a new place. This is continued, and the 
animal shows intense suffering. • 

Treatment. — Castor oil is the favorite purgative in this affec- 
tion, and should be used in all bowel troubles. Tincture of 
opium, ten or fifteen drops; sweet spirits of nitre, one drachm, 
may be given every three hours to relieve pain. Enemas should 
be administered and the abdomen fomented with warm water. 
Flannels wrung out of warm water may be applied to the abdo- 
men. 

DIARRHOEA. 

This is a discharge of an undue amount of liquid faeces. It is 
caused by improper feeding, or overfeeding. This condition 
should not be checked too soon, but if it continues and the ani- 
mal is becoming weak, it must be stopped. Give a tablespoonful 
to an ounce of castor oil to remove the irritant. Give milk that 
has been boiled for ten or fifteen minutes. Fifteen drops of the 
tincture of opium may be used. 

DYSENTERY. 

The dog sometimes suffers with dysentery, which is a serious 
complaint. It is an inflammation of the mucous membrane of 
the intestines. The symptoms are a discharge per anus of mucus 
and blood. A very small amount of faeces is evacuated at a time, 
and there is great straining. 

Treatment. — Enemas containing tincture of opium may be 
administered. A small dose of castor oil should be administered. 
Tincture of opium and sweet spirits of nitre may be used, in doses 
of ten drops of opium to a half drachm of nitre. 



528 THE STOCK OW^'Er's ADVISER, 



COSTIVENESS. 

This frequently is caused by the quality of food, such as feed- 
ing too greatly on bones. It occurs as a symptom of indigestion. 
A dog should never be allowed to remain costive more than two 
days. 

TrExVtmext. — A drachm of jalap or of aloes should be admin- 
istered. After the bowels have moved, it is Avell to follow Avith a 
dose of oil. Clysters should be freely given. The dog may be 
put on a course of boiled liver and exercised every day. 

CALCULUS IN THE INTESTINES. 

Calculi are formed in all the lower animals. Calculi in the 
dog cannot be diagnosed. A true nature of the case can only be 
learned by post-mortem. The calculus may sometimes be dis- 
covered, however, by pressing on both sides of the abdomen. If 
discovered its removal may easily be accomplished. 

INTUSSUSCEPTION. 

By this is meant the slipping of one portion of a bowel within 
another. This disease cannot be diagnosed in the dog, but we 
find it in post-mortem. It cannot be distinguished from acute 
inflammation of the bowels. 

DROPSY. 

Dropsy of the abdornen frequently occurs in the dog, caused 
by an accumulation of fluid within the abdomen, generally as a 
consequence of some other disease, or it may be caused by a 
diminished absorption. It is most frequently caused in the dog 
by disease of the liver, induced by overfeeding and want of 
exercise. 

Treatment. — Remove the cause, by proper food, and restore 
Ileal th by exercise. AYhen it is due to organic disease of the 
liver, heart, and other organs a cure cannot be effected. Purga- 



DISEASES OF THE DIGESTIVE ORGANS. 529 

tives should be given occasionally; and powd. gentian, two grains; 
iron sulphate, two grains, in pill twice a day, should be used to 
improve the general condition. 

The operation of paracentesis abdominus, or tapping, gives 
temporary but seldom permanent relief. Great benefit has been 
received from the use of iodine. The dog should receive a grain 
of iodine at a dose, and gradually increase to two grains three 
times a day. 



LVII. 
DISEASES OF THE LIVER? 

The liver Las an important function — namely, to receive the 
blood returned from the intestines and to secrete the bile, and 
then to transmit the remaining portion to the Inngs, where it 
undergoes the nsnal process of purification, and is changed to 
arterial blood. 

INFLAMMATION OF THE LIVER. 

The animal becomes dull; the skin and urine are tinged with 
a yellow effusion, which hue increases day after day, as seen 
more particularly on the cuticle, the conjunctiva, the iris, and 
groins. The animal is fevered, with pulse from 80 to 120; the 
tongue hangs from the mouth, the appetite is gone, and there is 
intense thirst. The dog becomes very restless and hides him- 
self; if the liver is pressed upon he will groan. The dog will lie 
stretched out on his belly, his legs extended in front and behind 
him. The yellow color increases with the fever, and he vomits 
a yellowish green substance mixed with blood. He passes blood 
by the anus, and soon dies. The duration of the disease is about 
ten to twelve days. If taken early and properly treated, it can 
generally be cured, but if it is of some days standing, and has 
taken on a typhoid character, or if inflammation of the stomach 
has taken place, with vomiting of blood and fits, it cannot be 
cured. 

Treatment. — If in the first stages, epsom salts, two to four 
drachms, should be given. Later calomel, tartar emetic, cam- 
phor, and opium, of each a half grain made into a pill, may be 

given. A liniment should be applied over the region of the liver. 

(530) 



DISEASES OF THE LIVEE. 



JAUNDICE. 



531 



The symptoms of jaundice in the dog are a jellow discolora- 
tion of the skin and mucous membrane. The causes of jaundice 
are chiefly over-fatigue, immersion in water, swallowing great 
quantities of indigestible food, and cold after long-continued 
exercise. 

Treatment. — If constipation is present, an ounce of manna 
dissolved in water should be given, and the dog afterwards 
drenched with linseed oil. If watery diarrhoea should supervene, 
and the belly is not hot and tender, a drachm of sulphate of 
magnesia should be administered, and repeated if necessary. 
When the liquid excrement contains much blood, of a deep color, 
all medicines by the mouth should be substituted by frequent 
injections, consisting of starch and a few drops of laudanum. 
Great care should be taken in regard to the food. The liquid 
foods recommended in this work should be given and the animal 
gradually brought back to solid foods. He should be guarded 
from taking cold. 



LYIII. 
DISEASES OF THE KIDNEYS AND BLADDER. 

INFLAMMATION OF THE KIDNEYS. 

This seldom occurs, fortunately for the dog, for it is a dan- 
gerous malady. The immediate causes are blows and wounds in 
the lumbar region, long and continued exercise, improper food, 
long-continued use of stimulants, and the pressure of calculi. 

Symptoms. — The animal moves stiffly. If the parts are ma- 
nipulated over the region of the kidney, the animal evinces pain, 
the pulse is quickened, and the temperature elevated. The ani- 
mal will frequently turn his head to the seat of pain. The 
bowels are frequently constipated, the belly tucked up, and the 
animal walks about as though under the influence of opium. 
Ursemic poison may set in, causing the animal to act as though 
intoxicated, and a strong uriniferous odor is given out in the per- 
spiration. This condition is serious, and unless relief be quickly 
afforded the animal dies. 

Treatment. — The kidneys must be relieved of work and kept 
quiet. A good oleaginous purgative should be given. Aconite 
in one-drop doses may be given, and carbonate of soda may be 
administered occasionally. 

CALCULUS. 

Calculus is sometimes met with in the dog, more frequently 
than in the horse. 

Symptoms. — The urine is voided with difficulty. The animal 
walks slowly and in evident pain. He will make frequent at- 
tempts to urinate, which will come from him drop by drop. The 

dog may roll and whine or howl. 

(532) 



DISEASES OF THE KIDNEYS AND BLADDER. 533^ 

Treatment. — To remove the stones requires the operation of 
lithotomy. To perform this operation, the catheter should be 
passed up the penis to the extremity of the angle where the 
penis makes an acute angle forward; the point of the instrument 
must then be cut dow^n upon, and from this opening the instru- 
ment may be readily passed forward into the bladder. The sound 
being introduced, pass a small bistoury along its groove into the 
bladder to effect an opening sufficient to admit the introduction 
of a small pair of forceps, by which the stone may be removed. 

INFLAMMATION OF THE BLADDER. 

Symptoms. — There is a trembling of the hind limbs, with fre- 
quent attempts to urinate. Small quantities are voided and 
passed in jets, containing some sediment that may be bloody. 
Colicky pains may be present, as the animal looks at his flanks, 
and there is an increased thirst. 

An oleaginous purgative should be given. If the patient be 
female, tepid water and tincture of opium may be injected into 
the bladder. Enerhas should be freely administered, and the 
animal should be kept well clothed. 



LIX. 

DISEASES OF THE RESPIRATORY ORGANS. 

PNEUMONIA. 

The symptoms of pneumonia 'are marked by protrusion of the 
head and tongue, the eyes are blood-shot, the breathing quick- 
ened, and the pulse is wiry and small. The dog sits up per- 
sistently, until, through extreme fatigue, his eyes close, his head 
drops, and his feet slip from under him. He may lie for a few 
moments, but will quickly rise again. Auscultation and percus- 
sion offer better aids of diagnosis in the dog than in the horse, 
and especially the stethoscope can be used more satisfactorily, 
owing to the softer hair of the dog. 

Treatment. — Sal. acetate of ammonia, drachms four; nitrous 
aether, drachms six; syrup of lemon, drachms two; water, q. s. 
four ounces, a teaspoonful every three or four hours, should be 
used. Mustard applications should be made to the sides, and hot 
poultices used alternately with the mustard. The food should be 
of liquids. If this treatment is carried out the disease yields easily. 

Congestion of the lungs is a frequent termination of pneumo- 
nia. It generally proves fatal to the dog. The treatment should 
be similar to pneumonia. During convalescence the following 
should be used: Two-fifths grain of strichnia, two ounces each 
of the essence of pepsin and pancreatin; a teaspoonful ^fter 
meals. 

PLEURISY. 

Inflammation of the pleura in the dog, sometimes met ^vith, 
may be easily diagnosed. The cough of pleurisy is well marked 
in the dog. It is painful and suppressed. There is tenderness of 
the sides, and the dog sits as in pneumonia. Auscultation reveals 
the true condition. 

(534) 



DISEASES OF THE RESPIRATORY ORGANS. 535 

Treatment. — Give nitrous aether, draelim one-half to one 
drachm, according to size, every four hours, and stimulants 
should be applied to the sides. 

SPASMODIC COUGH. 

This is best treated by giving calomel, one grain; tartar emetic, 
one grain. In some cases a stimulating liniment must be applied 
to the throat, as spirits of camphor. 



LX. 
DISEASES OF THE EYE. 

OPHTHALMIA— INFLAMMATION OF THE EYE. 

The disease yields readily to treatment in the mild form. 
When it occurs as an epizootic in kennels it proves more stub- 
born. 

Symptoms. — There is a redness of the conjunctiva, tenderness 
to light, and a secretion of tears. The eyeball is retracted in the 
socket. There is an extravasation of blood within the conjunc- 
tiva, which may increase as the disease advances. The cornea 
becomes opaque. If the disease is not arrested, ulceration may 
take place and the sight be destroyed by the bursting and dis- 
charge of its contents. 

Causes. — It is caused in various ways, as by injuries to the 
eye, bad feeding, lodging, want of exercise, extremes of heat and 
cold, etc. 

Treatment. — Give two drachms of epsom salts. The eye 
should be fomented several times a day with cold water in the 
summer and warm water in the winter. After the eye has been 
thoroughly fomented, a lotion composed of zinc sulphate, grains 
five; water, ounce one; laudanum, drachm one; belladonna tinc- 
ture, drachm one, should be put into the eye with a sponge. 
"Weak vinegar and water, with a small portion of laudanum, is 
said to be good. 

CHRONIC OPHTHALMIA. 

In this form the discharge from the eyes is not so great. The 
conjunctiva is not so red or congested. The inner side of the lid 

is ulcerated. 

( 536 ) 



DISEASES OF THE EYE. , 537 

Treatment. — Fomentations should be kept up as in simple 
ophthalmia. The animal should receive two drachms of epsom 
salts internally. Zinc sulphate, twenty grains; tincture of bella- 
donna, one ounce; laudanum, one ounce; water, four ounces, may 
be used as a wash to the eye. 

Traumatic ophthalmia is produced by wounds, foreign sub- 
stances in the eye, etc. 

Treatment. — Kemove the foreign body. Treatment is simi- 
lar to simple ophthalmia. 

ULCERATION OF THE CORNEA. 

This is met with more frequently in the dog than in other 
animals. The ulcer may be touched with the nitrate of silver. 

AMAUROSIS. 

By this is meant a partial or complete paralysis of the optic 
nerve. If there is complete paralysis, total blindness ensues. 
The disease is characterized by a dilated state of the pupil. The 
coats and humors of the eyes are transparent. It is a disease 
very deceptive to the inexperienced observer. 

The disease is caused principally by concussion, from blows 
upon the head, disease of bone, epileptic fits, or tumors. 

The treatment of amaurosis is so unsatisfactory that it is a 
waste of time to attempt it. 

SYMPATHETIC OPHTHALMIA. 

This condition arises from other disease in some other part of 
the body or from derangement of the stomach, mange, etc. 

Treatment. — Give a drachm of jalap, and apply zinc sulphate, 
grains five; opium tincture, drachm one; belladonna tincture, 
drachm one; water, ounce one. Apply to the eye. 

Congenital blindness occurs sometimes throughout the whole 
litter of puppies, due to heredity. The puppies should bo Oc- 
stroyed. 



538 THE STOCK owner's ADVISEE. 



CATARACT. 

Cataract consists of a partial or complete opacity of the crystal- 
line lensCj due to various causes. In the horse it is generally due 
to periodic ophthalmia. It may be caused by old age, hard work, 
and bad breeding. When seen in young dogs it is generally 
caused by blows and injuries to the head. 

Teeatment. — Treatment of this disease is very unsatisfactory, 
and usually terminates in opacity of the lense. Therefore, I 
advise no treatment. 

EXTIRPATION OF THE EYE. 

I have found a simple spoon to be the best instrument for re- 
moving the eye. The attachment of the muscles to the orbit 
may be easily disengaged by a firm pressure of the spoon. An- 
other method of removing is by passing a curved needle through 
the eye. This will assist in making the excision with the scalpel. 
The hemorrhage from the operation is trifling. If the eye has 
been extirpated on account of a malignant disease, the actual 
cauter should be used on the parts. 

ULCERATION OF THE EYELIDS. 

This occurs in old or ill-fed animals. The lids become en- 
larged and tender. The lashes fall out and the edges present an 
angry, red appearance. 

Teeatment. — Tincture belladonna, one drachm; opium, a half 
ounce; zinc sulphate, forty grains; water, four ounces, should 
be used on the eye. Later it may be necessary to touch the parts 
with the nitrate of silver. If the lids are considerably swollen 
they may be scarified. Fomentations are useful. Warts on the 
lids of the eyes may be excised and the wound touched with the 
nitrate of silver. 



DISEASES OF THE EAR. 539 

PEOTRUSION OP THE EYES. 

Tlds frequently occurs from fighting. If the ball is not in- 
jured and the eye is warm, showing that the circulation is not 
cut off, it may be put in place. 

Treatment. — The eyeball and orbit should be wiped with a 

silk handkerchief, and immediately replaced within the socket. 

When handling the eye, the fingers should be dipped in warm 

water or olive oil. In replacing the eye, it must be done gently. 

A firm pressure must be brought to bear, and the pressure should 

be changed from one part to the other, in order to replace it in 

the socket. A little oil may be placed on the inside of the lids. 

If it is best to remove the eye, a needle with a thread may be 

passed through it; then draw it out as far as possible, and cut off 

close to the lids. The bleeding will soon cease and the lids close 

perfectly. 

FISTULA LACHRYMALIS. 

The lachrymal duct is a small canal leading from the internal 
angle of the eye to the nostrils, and is the passage through which 
the tears escape. This duct may become closed by inflammation 
of the mucous miCmbrane lining the nasal chamber, by fungus 
growths, etc. The canal when thus obstructed forms a fistulous 
opening, just above the internal canthus. 

Treatment. — An effort should be made to clean out the canal 

by a suitable syringe. A small silver slide should be placed in 

the canal to keep it open and to direct the tears through the 

natural channel. The dog must be confined so that he cannot 

scratch the eye. 

WEAK EYES. 

Some breeds of dogs have naturally weak eyes. The eye in 
such cases may be strengthened by the use of vinegar, one ounce; 
laudanum, one scruple; water, six ounces. Sulphate of zinc, one 
scruple; water, six ounces, is another good remedy. AVhen a 
white film remains on the eye after acute inflammation has sub- 
sided, nitrate of silver, one scruple; water, six ounces, should le 
dropped into the eye. 



LXI. 
DISEASES OF THE EAR. 

CANKEK. 

This disease affects principally the water dog, but no breed is 
exempt. It is frequently met with in the pointer and setter. 

Internal canker, otorrha'a, is an inflammation of the lining 
membrane of the meatus auditorus externus, with a discharge of 
purulent matter, sometimes mixed with blood, which may occa- 
sionally coagulate, block up the tube and cause deafness. When 
the disease extends to the internal ear it constitutes otitis, which 
may end in death. The disease is local or constitutional. When 
local, it is caused by the lodgement of dirt, water, or foreign mat- 
ter in the ear. The constitutional arises from improper and over- 
feeding, want of exercise, catarrhal affections, and the extension 
of skin diseases. 

The earliest symptom of the approach of canker is frequent 
shaking of the head, or holding the head to one side. The dog 
will scratch the ear violently. Eedness of the integument lining 
the annular cartilage may be observed, and this may be accom- 
panied by an enlargement of the folds of the skin. If the case 
be neglected, the pain will rapidly increase, the ear becoming 
redder, and there will be a deposit of red or black matter in the 
hollow of the ear. 

Treatment. — The ear should be thoroughly w^ashed three 
times a day with warm Avater and soap. A scruple of the extract 
of lead to an ounce of water should be applied. The preparation 
should be applied Avarm, and may contain a little tincture of 
opium. A purgative should be administered in the first stages 
and the animal kept on a cooling diet for a fcAv days. The liquid 

( 540 ) 



DISEASES OF THE EAR. 



641 



should be poured into the ear, and the dog's head held firmly 
until it insinuates itself as deeply as possible in the passages of the 
ear. Zinc sulphate and alum are useful, and should be applied 
in the proportion of six grains of either to the ounce of water. A 
solution of the perchloride of iron is a very effectual remedy. 
Should the disease continue after this treatment, nitrate of silver 
in the proportion of five grains to the ounce of water should be 
employed. The animal should receive good food, and the fol- 
lowing tonic should be used to improve his general health: 
Strychnia, grains two-fifths; essence of pancreatin and pepsin, of 
each two ounces. A teaspoonful to be given after meals. 
When it becomes very painful and acute, the animal howling 
with a pain, a seton should be inserted behind the ear. If the 
fever is very great, nitrate of potash, etc., may be used in twenty- 
grain doses. 

EXTERNAL CANKER. 

This is an abraded or wounded condition of the ear. It is 
caused by the dog shaking his ears, or from accidental injury. 
It is rarely found in other than long-eared dogs. It may first 
appear as a very small, trifling wound, but from constant flap- 
ping the wound grows larger and the ear commences to split. A 
netting should be worn over the ears to prevent the dog shaking 
them. He must not be allowed to go in the water. The remedies 
recommended for internal canker may be used in external canker. 

If the ear be split to any depth, and if after removing the cap 
the wound separates, the edges must be pared and brought to- 
gether with metallic sutures. 

POLYPUS. 

Polypi sometimes seen in the ear of the dog may be removed 
with small scissors and ligatures of wire or silk. When removed, 
the base of the tumor should be destroyed by the nitrate of silver; 
it may be necessary to repeat the application. Tumors are some- 
times seen in the flap of the ear, and may extend from the base 
of the ear to the lip of the flap. 



542 THE STOCK owner's advisek. 

Treatment. — The astringent preparation recommended for 
canker shonld first be used. AYhen, however, it becomes evident 
that the tumor will not heal, it must be opened throughout its 
whole extent. A poultice should be applied for several days. 
The parts may be dressed with chloride of lime, one drachm; 
water, six ounces. 



Lxn. 

DISEASES OF THE NOSE AND MOUTH. 

Ozsena, a fetid discliarge from the nose, is a very troublesome 
and frequent affection of tlie dog. Sliglit fever is present, tlie 
parts are swollen, and tliere is a fetid discliarge from tlie nose. 
If not attended to it will become chronic, and the animal will be 
rendered offensive and unsightly. Caries of the bones of the 
nose will ultimately take place. It is caused by inflammation of 
the mucous membrane of the nose, or may result from distemper 
or a polypus in the nose. 

Treatment. — Give a drachm of jalap at the beginning. Weak 
astringents should be injected up the nose. Carbolic acid, one 
part to fifty or sixty of water, is good. Zinc sulphate, five grains 
to the ounce of water, is a good remedy. Alum, one scruple; 
water, one ounce; mix and inject. 

THE TONGUE. 

Inflammation of the tongue, met with in all animals, is a dan- 
gerous affection. The disease comes on suddenly, with fever, 
heat, swelling, and redness of the tongue, which protrudes from 
the mouth, exhibiting a dry, hot, inflammatory appearance. 
There is a desire to lap water, and great uneasiness is exhibited. 
It is caused by injuries to the tongue, stings of insects, and from 
taking poisonous substances in the mouth. 

Treatment. — Astringents should be applied to the tongue, as 
solution of alum, strong vinegar, oak bark, etc., and a large blister 
should be placed under the throat. A purgative should be given 
as soon as possible. 

(543) 



544 THE STOCK owner's ADVISEE. 



THE LIPS. 

The lips sometimes become sore and swollen, and the soreness 
has a tendency to spread over the cheek externally. Zinc sul- 
phate, grains five; water, one onnce, will remove the trouble. 

TEETH. 

Little dogs, especially in cities, frequently suffer with decayed 
teeth and diseased gums. Sometimes there is a great accumula- 
tion of tartar around them. The loose teeth should be removed, 
and if there is a deposit of tartaric acid, it must be removed by a 
suitable brush; chlorinated lime, diluted with twenty times its 
bulk of water, should be applied to the gums. This will quickly 
remove the tartar and heal the ulcers. 

Diseases of the larynx, pharynx, and trachea are similar to 
those affecting the same organs in the horse. For a full descrip- 
tion, see Respiratory Diseases of Horses. 

FOREIGN ARTICLE IN THE THROAT. 

Bones frequently become lodged in the throat. If beyond 
reach, the better plan is to attempt to shove it downward into 
the stomach. A piece of sponge securely fastened to a piece of 
whalebone makes a good probang for the dog. Xf it cannot be 
dislodged, an incision should be made in the oesophagus and the 
bone extricated. This should not be done except as a last resort. 



LXIII. 
DISEASES OF THE FEET. 

This frequently occurs in hunting dogs. The feet become ten- 
der, swollen, and hot; the toes become sore; the claws are dis- 
eased, and the balls painful. 

Causes. — It is caused by running over frozen or stony ground 
and hunting over rough country. Over-feeding may produce it, 
the morbid process seeking an outlet at the foot. 

Treatment. — The dog should be confined to his house. A 
drachm of jalap should be given. If pus forms in the balls of the 
feet, they must be lanced. Zinc sulphate, one ounce; lead ace- 
tate, one ounce; water, one pint, should be used freely on the feet. 

PUSTULAR AFFECTIONS OF THE FEET. 

This is sometimes seen affecting the toes, and occurs independ- 
ently of mange and other skin diseases. It is caused by unclean- 
liness, bad houping, etc. 

Treatment. — Wash frequently with castile soap and water. 
The parts should be dressed with the zinc and lead lotion. 

WOUNDS OF THE FEET. 

These frequently occur from stepping on sharp instruments, 
glass, thorns, nails, etc. 

Treatment. — If the foot is cut deeply it should be thoroughly 
cleansed and brought together with several sutures and strips of 
adhesive plaster. When the foot is punctured, a careful search 
should be made for the foreign body, and its removal effected. 
A poultice should be applied. Wounds in the feet may be 
dressed with the zinc and lead lotion. 
35 ( 545 ) 



546 THE STOCK OWI^K^S ABVISEB. 



SPRAINS. 

Sprains are very frequent in hunting dogs, and are charac- 
terized by lameness, heat, and swelling. 

Teeatmeis't. — Hot fomentations, purgatives, and the use of 
the ammoniacal liniment — ^^z., equal parts of ammonia, turpen- 
tine, and linseed oil. Other stimulants may be used, as spirits of 
camphor and alcohol. 

FEACTURE. 

"No other animal recovers so quickly from a fracture as does 
the dog. In little dogs, the simple plaster of Paris bandage is all 
that is necessary. The starch bandage does very well. Cayenne 
pepper should be sprinkled on the bandage before it becomes dry 
to prevent the dog gnawing it. The bones unite very quickly, 
and the bandage may be removed in two weeks. 

CASTRATION. 

Castration of dogs has been dealt with under the head of 
Castration of Horses. 



LXIY. 

PARTURITION. 

Parturition generally takes place in the bitch from the sixty- 
second to the sixty-fourth day. A quarter to three-quarters of 
an hour is required for the production of each puppy. 

Assistance is generally necessary in the production of the 
puppies, owing to the fact that if allowed to associate with dogs 
larger than themselves they sometimes pay for it with their lives. 
The bitch should be regularly exercised for some time previous to 
lying-in. The bowels should be kept in proper condition. When 
the time for lying-in has arrived and there is difficulty in pro- 
ducing the fetus, recourse should be had to the ergot of rye. It 
should be given every hour or half hour, according to circum- 
stances. 

A drachm should be given every half hour until the fetus is 
expelled, or until six or eight doses have been given. If ergot 
fail, recourse must be had to the hook or forceps. The manipu- 
lation must be gentle and continued. If the animal seems to be 
losing strength, a half drachm of ether and ten or fifteen drops 
of laudanum may be given. The patience of a bitch in labor is 
remarkable. Their distress is very affecting and their look im- 
ploring. Injections of warm water, to which a little soap has 
been added, into the uterus will assist in removing the fetus. 
When the puppies are dead their removal may be effected by 
patient and gentle manipulation. When violence has been used 
at the commencement, the patient will die. During labor the 
expulsion of fetus may be assisted by giving a warm bath and an 
ounce of castor oil. 



(547) 



LXY. 
PARASITES INFECTING THE DOG. 

ASCARIS MARGINATA. 

This worm, a frequent source of sickness, is the most common 
in the dog. The male is three inches long, the female four to six 
inches. 

Symptoms. — Irregularity of the bowels, voracious appetite, 
colic, loss of flesh. The worm sometimes finds its way into the 
trachea, and when such is the case the animal has a persistent- 
cough. The parasite reaches the trachea through the oesophagus. 
Thev have been known to find their wav into the nasal cavity and 
produce obstinate sneezing. There may be partial paralysis. 

Teeatmext. — Santonin, in three to five grain doses, mixed 
with castor oil, may be given on an empty stomach every morn- 
ins; for three or four davs. This treatment should be followed 
with a good purgative. Then give tonics — gentian, quassia, and 
sulphate of iron, each five grains. 

ASCARIDE. 

The ascarides are small, thread-like worms, generally not more 
than six or ten inches in length. They are white in color, the 
head obtuse, and the tail tenninating in a transparent prolonga- 
tion. They are principally found in the rectum; they seem to 
possess considerable agility, and the itching caused by them is 
intense. The dog often drags the fundament along the ground 
to relieve this itching. The worms roll themselves in a ball as 
large as a iiut, and it is difficult to disentangle them. When in 
the stomach they are not removed by vomiting. Young dogs are 
subject to and are with great difficulty entirely freed from them. 

The treatment of this worm is similar to the treatment of 
ascaries marginata. 

(548) 



PAEASITES INFECTING THE DOG. 54:9 

TERES. 

Another worm, the teres, occasionally infects dogs. It resem- 
bles the earth worm. Occasionally they crawl into the stomach 
and produce a great deal of inflammation. 

TAPEWORM— TAENIA ECHINOCOCCUS. 

This worm consists of a head and three segments. It is one- 
third of an inch in length. The last segment is the longest part 
of the body. 

TAENIA COENURES. 

Thig worm is from twelve to eighteen inches long. 

TAENIA MARYMALO. 

This is the large tapeworm of the dog. It measures from three 
to eight feet long, and consists of a head and four suckers. We 
find them all in the small intestines. The mugmato is found 
about the middle of the intestine. In regard to numbers, the 
first parasite is not common. You may find a thousand or per- 
haps only forty. In the second and third varieties you will find 
from one to twelve. All of them are found holding on to some 
part of the mucous membrane of the small intestines. They 
impregnate in the dog. 

Symptoms. — A wasting away of the animals, voracious appe- 
tite. 

Treatment. — First give the animal a purgative, and on the 
following morning give the worm medicine. Male shield fern 
or Felix mass and powdered areca nut should be given — pow- 
dered areca nut, two grains for each pound of the animal's 
weight; male shield fern, ten to twenty drops. Two hours after- 
ward a tablespoonful of castor oil should be given. In twelve 
hours the worms will be passed. The f«}ccs should be burnt. 
This treatment should be repeated every two weeks, and then 
every eight weeks, until a cure is effected. 



LXYI. 

POISONS AND THEIR ANTIDOTES. 

ACIDS. 

Acetic, citric, muriatic, and tartaric acids require alkalies as 
antidotes, such as carbonate of soda, potash, lime, and magnesia. 
As soon as the acids are neutralized, mucilaginous teas, such as 
flaxseed, gum arable, or slippery elm, may be given. Sulphuric 
acid requires soap in solution, or magnesia, as an antidote. Xitric 
acid poison is counteracted by lime water, carbonate of lime, and 
magnesia in solution. For carbolic acid there is no special anti- 
dote. Oil, glycerine, milk, flour and water, white of eggs, mag- 
nesia, and flaxseed tea may be used. Prussic acid, laurel water, 
and oil of bitter almonds are the most deadly poisons. Cold 
should be applied to the head' and ammonia inhaled. If prussic 
acid is taken internally in poisonous doses it will kill almost in- 
stantly. Copper and its compounds, blue vitrol, and verdegris 
may be counteracted by giving yellow prussiate of potash in 
solution. Albuminous substances should be given, such as milk, 
white of eggs, wheat flour in w^ater or magnesia. 

Arsenic and its compounds are the most common poisons. 
Paris green, the well-known potato-bug killer, frequently poisons 
cows. The cow^ will eat almost anything, and if allowed to get at 
a tub in which Paris green has been mixed she will lick it as 
though it were meal. Under the arsenical compounds we have 
white arsenic, yellow sulphate of arsenic, red sulphate of arsenic, 
king's yellow, and fly powder; arsenical paste, soap^ Scheel's 
green, and Paris green. Their antidotes are oils, fats, lard, melted 
butter, and milk. In animals that vomit, the stomach should be 
evacuated by giving zinc sulphate or mustard. Mucilaginous 
drinks may be given as soon as the stomach is evacuated. Pine 

( 550 ) 



POISONS AND THEIK ANTlDUiiis. OOl 

powdered iron rust may be given every fifteen minutes. Lead 
and its compounds, lead acetate, white lead, red lead, and litharge 
poisoning may be counteracted by giving purgatives, anodines, 
and potassium iodide. 

Mercury, corrosive sublimate, white precipitate and red pre- 
cipitate, calomel, require albumen in some form. If the poison 
is not absorbed, follow with a mustard emetic in animals that can 
vomit. It should be remembered that the horse cannot vomit, 
neither can the ox and sheep very readily. Other animals vomit 
freely. The stomach pump may be used on those that cannot 
vomit. 

Some oils, such as creosote, oil of tar, and oil of turpentine will 
destroy life. When an over-amount is taken it may be counter- 
acted by giving mucilageous drinks, wheat flour mixed with 
water, eggs, milk, etc. The antidote for iodine is similar to the 
above. 

Alcoholic poisoning may be treated by giving a powerful 
emetic and applying cold to the head and rubbing the extremi- 
ties. 

x\lkalies, such as liquor of ammonia, water of ammonia, muri- 
ate of ammonia, may be neutralized by giving vinegar, lemon 
juice, citric and tartaric acid. Liquor of potassium, nitrate of 
potash, carbonate of potash, and salts of tar, seldom produce 
poisoning, but their effects may be reduced by giving mucilagi- 
nous drinks and any of the fixed oils. 

Ergot, aconite, fox glove, black helebore, veratrum viride, and 
gelseminum should be treated by emetic or the stomach pump. 
Belladonna and stramonium may be counteracted by morphine, 
sassafras, iodine, and stimulants. Nux vomica and strichnine 
may be neutralized by giving large doses of camphor. 

Henbane and opium may be treated, by sassafras for henbane 
and belladonna for opium. Cold should be applied to the head 
and the extremities should be rubbed. 



GLOSSARY TO THE STOCK OWNER'S ADVISER. 



Abate — To lessen, to diminish. 

Abdomen — The belly; that part of the body which contains the stomach 

and intestines. 
Abdominal — Belonging to the abdomen. 
Abnormal — Unnatural. 

Abortion — Expulsion of the fetus before it is capable of sustaining life. 
Abscess — A collection of pus in any tissue or organ of the body. 
Absorption — The act or process of absorbing or sucking in; the condi- 
tion of being absorbed or sucked in. 
Abrasion — A rubbing off, as a piece of skin. 

Acetabulum — The bony cup which receives the head of the thigh bone. 
Acme — The top or highest point. 
Acrid — Pungent, irritating. 
Acute — Sharp, severe; an acute disease is severe and comes speedily 

to a crisis. 
Adipose — Fatty. 

Adhesion — The action of sticking; union of surfaces. 
Adventitious — Accidental; acquired, as diseases. 
A/fec^to/^— Disease; malady. 
Albumen — In urine a chemical composition resembling the white of an 

egg. 
Albuminoid — Of the nature of albumen. 
Aliment — Any kind of food. 
Alimentary Canal — The canal extending from the mouth to anus through 

which food passes, and the useless parts are ejected. 
Alkali — A substance which neutralizes acids, as soda, potash, etc. 
Alterative — A medicine that gradually induces a change. 
Alveolar Processes — That part of jaw which contains the sockets of the 

teeth. 
Amaurosis — A loss of sight from loss of power of the optic nerve. 
Amenorrhwa — Retention or suppression of the menses. 
Amnion — A membrane enveloping the fetus and the liquid. 
Amputation — The act of removing a limb. 

Amyloids — Foods composed of carbon and hydrogen, as sugar and starch. 
Anaemia — A morbid condition in which the blood is deficient in quality 

or in quantity. 
Anatomy — The science of the structure of the body. 
Anaesthetic — That which produces insensibility to pain. 

(553) 



554r THE STOCK OWNEr's ADVISEK. 

Angina Pectoris — Neuralgia of the heart; called also hreast pang. 

Animalcule — An animal invisible to the naked eye. 

Anodyne — Medicine which relieves pain. 

Anomaly — Irregularity; deviation from the common rule. 

Anthelmintic — Medicine which destroys or expels worms from the 

stomach and intestines. 
Antidote — A remedy to counteract the effects of poison. 
Antiseptic — A substance which prevents putrefaction. 
Antispasmodic — A medicine which relieves spasms. 
Anns — The circular opening at the end of the bowel. 
Aorta — The great artery which carries the blood from the heart to all 

parts of the body except the lungs. 
Aperient — A medicine which moves the bowels gently. 
Aqueous — Watery. 
Articulate — To join together. 
Apoplexy — Rush of blood to an organ. 
Arachnoid — A thin membrane covering the brain. 
Areolar Tissue — A network of delicate fibres spread over the body. 
Artery — One of the vessels or tubes which carry blood from the heart. 
Astringent— A medicine which contracts the flesh. 
Attenuate — To make thin. 
Atrophy — A wasting away. 
Auscultation — Diagnosing disease by listening. 
Auricle — The external part of the ear; an earshaped appendage or part. 

Benign — Mild, kind, gentle. 

Bile — A bitter yellow or greenish fluid secreted by the liver. 

Biliary — Belonging to or containing bile. 

Bronchial — Belonging to the divisions of the windpipe. 

Bisect — To divide into two equal parts. 

Biology — The science of life. 

Bistoury — A small cutting knife. 

Blood Serum — The yellow fluid which is left after the coagulation of 

blood. 
Bolus — A large pill. 

Calcareous — Containing lime. 

Calcification — The process of change into a calcareous substance; con- 
verting into chalk. 
Calculus — Stones formed by a deposit of solid matter. 
Callus — A hard deposit. 

Capillaries — Very small blood vessels connecting the arteries and veins. 
Capsule — A membranous bag enclosing an organ. 
Caries — Ulceration of bone= 
Cartilage — Gristle. 
Carotids — The great arteries of the side of the neck. 



GLOSSARY. 



555 



Carminative — A substance which allays pain in the stomach and intes- 
tines by expelling gas. 

Cardiac — Pertaining to the heart. 

Carhonic Acid — A heavy poisonous gas. 

Casein — The part of milk which contains nitrogen. 

Catarrh — Chronic inflammation of a mucous membrane. 

Castrate — To deprive of the ovaries or testicles. 

Cathartic — A purgative. 

Catheter — A hollow tube used in drawing off the urine. 

Caustic — A substance which burns or destroys tissue. 

Cauterization — Searing with a hot iron. 

Cephalic — Pertaining to the head. 

Cerebellum — Little brain. 

Cerehrum — The upper or large brain. 

Cervix — The neck of the womb. 

Chronic — Of long continuance. 

Cholagogues — An agent which promotes discharge of bile. 

Chyle — Food digested and ready for absorption. 

Chyme — Pood after being subjected to the action of the gastric juices. 

Cicatrize — To heal or induce the formation of a scar. 

Cilia — Small hairs. 

Clyster — A liquid injection into the intestines. 

Coagulate — To thicken, to harden. 

Coition — Sexual intercourse. 

Coffin-Bone — The lower bone of the leg encased in the hoof. 

Colic — A painful disorder of the intestine. 

Colon — Part of the large intestines. 

Coma — A condition of heavy, unconscious sleep. 

Conception — The beginning of pregnancy; impregnation of the ovum. 

Congenital — Born with, belonging to from birth. 

Congestion — An abnorm.al amount of blood in a part. 

Conjunctiva — The membrane which covers the external surface of the 
ball of the eye. 

Contagion — The transmission of a disease by direct or indirect contact. 

Convoluted — Curved or rolled together. 

Copulation — Sexual intercourse. 

Coriuni — A layer of skin. 

Cornea — A transparent covering of the front of the eye. 

Contusion — A bruise. 

Cranial — Pertaining to the skull. 

Crucial — Like a cross. 

Crural — Belonging to the leg. 

Crustaceous — Having a crustlike shell. 

Cul-de-sac — A passage closed at one end. 

Cutaneous — Pertaining to the skin. 

Cuticle — The outer or scarf skin. 



556 THE STOCK OWNEK^S ADVISEE. 

Cyst — A small bladder or bag. 
Cystitis — Inflammation of the bladder. 

Debris — Broken or detached fragments. 

Decoction — A fluid impregnated with any substance by boiling. 

Defecation — A voiding of excrement from the body. 

Deglutition — The act of swallowing. 

De;eciiow— Matter voided from the bowels. 

Degenerate — To grow worse or inferior. 

Decarbonize — To free from carbon. 

Deleterious — Destructive, poisonous. 

Depletion — The act of emptying. 

Dentition — Cutting of the teeth in infancy. 

Deodorizer — A substance that destroys a bad smell. 

Dermal — Belonging to the skin. 

Depravation — Corruption. 

Detergent — Cleansing. 

Dermatologist — One who makes diseases of the skin a specialty. 

Desiccate— To dry up. 

Desquamation — Scaling off of the skin. 

Diabetes — A disease which is attended with an inordinate flow of urine. 

Diagnosis — The act of distinguishing one disease from another. 

Diaphoretic — A medicine which increases perspiration. 

Diaphragm — A muscular partition which divides the cavity of the chest" 

from that of the abdomen. 
Diathesis — Peculiarity of constitution. 
Disinfect — To free from infectious matter. 
Dilatation — Expansion ; enlargement. 

Diluent — A fluid which thins the blood, or holds medicines in solution. 
Diuretic — A medicine which increases the flow of urine. 
Douche — Dashes of water. 

Drastic — A medicine which moves the bowels harshly. 
Dropsy — An unnatural accumulation of fluid in the body. 
Dorsal — Pertaining to the back. 
Duct — A tube or vessel for conveying fluid. 
Duodenum — The first portion of the intestine. 

Dura Mater — A thick fibrous membrane lining the cavity of the skull. 
Dyspnoea — Difiiculty of breathing. 

Ecchymoma — An effusion of blood into the cellular tissue under the skin. 

Ecchymosis — A black or yellow spot produced by effused blood. 

Ecraseur — Instrument for castration. 

Eczematous — Of the nature of eczema. 

Effluvium — An unpleasant odor or exhalation from decaying or putrefy- 
ing matter. 

Effusion — The pouring out of blood or other fiuid from its proper vessels 
into the cellular tissue or into a cavity. 



GLOSSARY. 



557 



Elasticity — That property of matter by which a body tends to resume 

its original form after the removal of external pressure or altering 

force. 
Eliminate — Discharge, expel. 
Emaciation — Excessive leanness. 
Embryo — The germ of an animal at the beginning of its development 

in the womb. 
Emetic — A medicine which produces vomiting. 
Emollient — Softening or relaxing. 

Endocarditis — Inflammation of the lining membrane of the heart. 
Endocardium — The lining membrane of the heart. 
Enema — A medicine injected into the rectum. 
Enteric — Intestinal. 

Enteritis — Inflammation of the intestines. 
Epidemic — A disease which attacks a number of animals at the same 

time. 
Epiglottis — A cap over the windpipe, allowing the admission of air, but 

preventing the introduction of foreign bodies. 
Epithelium — The thin covering upon the lips, nipple, mucous and serous 

membranes, the lining of the blood vessels and other canals. 
Eruption— K breaking forth; a rash on the skin. 
Esophagus—The tube which conveys food to the stomach. 
Evacuant — Cathartic. 
Excoriate — To remove the skin in part; to rub and gall or break the 

skin off; to abrade. 
Excrement — Refuse matter. 
Excrescence — An unnatural growth. 

Excretion — The separation of fluids from the body by means of glands. 
Exhalation — A breathing out, as of the air in the lungs. 
Exostosis — An unnatural growth or projection of bone. 
Expectorant — A medicine which promotes discharge from the lungs 

or throat. 
Expiration — The act of breathing out or forcing air from the lungs. 
Extraneous — Foreign. 
Extravasatc — To force or let out from the proper vessels or arteries, 

as blood. 
Exudation — A discharge, as of sweat, through the pores. 
Exude — To sweat; to discharge through pores. 

Facial — Pertaining to the face. 

F(rces — Excrement or refuse matter. 

Fallopian Tube — The canals through which the ovum passes from the 

ovary to the womb. 
Farcy — Acute glanders. 

Fascia — A layer of connective tissue covering and investing all muscles. 
Feculent — Foul or turbid from dregs or sediment. 



558 THE STOCK OWjS^Ee's ADVISER. 

Fehrifnge — A medicine which reduces fever. 

Fehrile — Pertaining to fever. 

Fecundation — The ovum uniting with the male germ. 

Femur — The thigh-bone. 

Fermented — Changed by a process of decomposition. 

Fetid — Having an offensive smell. 

Fetus or Faius — The young unborn animal. 

Fibrin — An organic substance found in the blood, and composing a great 

part of the tissues of the body. 
Fibrous Tissue — Connective tissue, composed chiefly of white inelastic 

or yellow elastic fibres. 
Fibula — The small bone attached to the outer side of the tibia. 
Fistula — A permanent abnormal opening into the soft parts, with a 

constant discharge. 
Fistulous — Hollow like a pipe. 
Flatulency — The state of being flatulent. 
Flatulent — Generating wind in the stomach and intestines. 
Flexible — Capable of being bent. 
Flexor — A bender. 
Fwtus — An unborn animal. 
Follicles — Small depressions in the skin. 

Fomentations — Local applications of cloths wrung out of hot water. 
Fumigate — To apply smoke or vapor. 
Fundus — The bottom or base of any hollow organ. 
Fungous — Resembing mushrooms, spongy. 

Galvanism — Current electricity. 

Gangrene — Death of a portion of the body. 

Ganglion — Any special nerve center or center of nervous action. 

Gastric — Pertaining to the stomach. 

Gelatinous — Jellylike. 

Generation — The process, act or function of begetting; reproduction. 

Genitals — The sexual orgSns. 

Glans — Head of penis. 

Granules — Small grains. 

Glottis — The mouth of the windpipe. 

Groin — The oblique depression between the abdomen and thigh. 

Habitat — The usual abode or locality of an animal. 

Hair-Bulb — The enlargement at the root of a hair. 

Hcemal — Relating to blood. 

Hcematein — The coloring matter of the blood. 

Hemorrhage — Discharge of blood from a ruptured blood vessel. 

HauncJi — The hip; the upper part of the thigh. 

Hectic — Constitutional. 

HemipJilegia — Paralysis affecting only one side of the body. 



GLOSSARY. 



559 



EemorrJioidal Veins — The veins about the rectum which enlarge and 

form piles. 
Hepatic— Belonging to the liver. 
Bepatize — To turn into a substance resembling liver. 
Hereditary — Transmitted from parent to offspring. 
Hernia— The protrusion of an organ, in whole or in part, through some 

opening in the walls of its natural cavity. 
Humerus — The upper bone of the foreleg. 
Hygiene — That department of science which treats of the preservation 

of health. 
Hymen — The fold of mucous membrane at the vaginal entrance. 
Hypercemia — A superabundance or congestion of blood in an organ or 

part of the body. 
BypertropJiy — Excessive development; enlargement; thickening. 

Idiopatliy — A primary disease not depending on any other. 

Ileum — A portion of the small intestine. 

Incision — The act of cutting. 

Infection — The communication of disease germs by indirect means. 

I mperf orate* -WMhout a natural opening. 

Impregnation — The fusion of the female germ-cell with the male germ- 
cell. 

Indigenous — Native. 

Indolent — Painless; a term applied to tumors. 

Induration — The act of hardening. 

Infiltration — The passage of fluid into the cellular tissue. 

Ingest — To take in; applied to food. 

Inguinal Canal — A passage through the abdominal wall in the region of 
the groin, through which the spermatic cord passes. 

Inoculate — To communicate a disease by inserting infectious matter in 
the flesh. 

Inorganic — Without the organs necessary for life, as a mineral. 

Insalivation — The mixing of the food with saliva and other secretions 
of the mouth in eating. 

Insemination-^The emission of sperm in coition. 

Inspiration — The drawing in of the breath. 

Integument — The skin. 

Interstice— A small space between the particles of a body. 

Intercostal^-Betweeii the ribs. 

Intermittent— -Coming and going at intervals. 

Intussusception — The slipping of the upper part of the small intestine 
into the lower. 

Iris — A curtain which gives the eye its color. 

Jejunum — The middle division of the small intestine, or that portion 
between the duodenum and the ilium. 



560 THE STOCK owner's ADVISEE. 

Lachrymal — Pertaining to tears. 

Lactation — The act of giving suck. 

Lacteals — The vessels which convey milk. 

Lamella — ^A thin plate or scale. 

Laminal — Having the form of a thin plate. 

Larynx — The enlarged upper portion of the windpipe extending into 

the throat. 
Laryngitis — ^Inflammation of the larynx. 
Laxative — A mild purgative. 
Lesion — Any hurt or injury. 
Ligament — A fibrous structure uniting bones. 
Ligature — A cord or catgut to be tied around a blood vessel to arrest 

hemorrhage. 
Lobe — A round, projecting part of an organ, as of the lungs and liver. 
Loin — That portion of the body between the hip-bone and ribs. 
Lymph — A transparent fluid, resembling blood, found in the lymphatic 

vessels. 

Malady — Disease. 

Malar — Pertaining to the cheek-bone. 

Malformation — Irregular in structure. 

Malignant — Applied to diseases which threaten life. 

Mammalia — Animals that suckle their young. 

Manipulatioti — Examination by the hand. 

Massage — Kneeding, rubbing. 

Meatus — Canal or passage. 

Mediastinum — The partition formed by the meeting of the pleura, 

dividing the chest into two lateral parts. 
Membrane — A thin sheet-like structure, usually flbrous, covering or 

lining some part or organ. 
Meninges — Membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. 
Menses — Monthly flow. 

Menstruation — The discharge of bloody matter from the womb. 
Mesentery — The fold or membrane which attaches the intestines to the 

spine. 
Melastasis — A transference of disease from one place to another. 
Molars — The grinding teeth. 
Morbid — Diseased, 

Molecule — The smallest portion of matter which can exist alone. 
Mucus — A mucilaginous fluid found on the surface of certain membranes 

which keeps them soft and pliable. 
Muscle — An organ which by its contraction produces motion. 
Myalgia — Muscular rheumatism. 

Nasal — Belonging to the nose. 

Nausea — Any sickness of the stomach, with inclination to vomit. 



GLOSS AEY. 561 

Narcotic — A medicine which stupefies. 

Necrosis — Mortification or death of bone. 

Nitrogen — One of the gases in the atmosphere. 

Noxious — Injurious. 

Nymplioinania — Extreme desire for sexual intercourse in the female. 

Obesity — Excessive fatness. 

Obstetrical — Pertaining to midwifery. 

Ocular — Pertaining to the eyes. 

Omentum — A fold of the peritoneum. 

Optic — Pertaining to sight. 

Osseous — Formed of or resembling bone. 

Ossify — To form bone; to become bone. 

Os Uteri — Mouth of womb. 

Ovary — The female organ in which the ovum is formed. 

Oxygen — A vital gas in the atmospheric air. 

Pabulum — Food. 

Palliative — A remedy which relieves, but does not cure. 

Palate — The roof of the mouth. 

Papillw — Small nipple-shaped prominences found on tongue and skin. 

Pancreas — The sweetbread, a gland connected with the intestine. 

Parasite^An animal which lives in, or on, the body of some other 
animal. 

Parencliyma — The soft cellular substance of the tissues of plants and 
animals. 

Paroxysm — A periodical attack. 

Parturition — The act of bringing forth young: 

Patella — The knee-pan. 

Pathology — The science which treats of diseases, their nature, causes, etc. 

Pedicle — The narrow part of a tumor. 

Penis — The male organ of generation. 

Pectoral — Of or pertaining to the breast. 

Peptic — Promoting digestion. 

Pericardium — The double bag-like fold of serous membrane which en- 
closes the heart. 

Perichondrium— The membrane covering the cartilages. 

Pericranium — The membrane lining the bones of the skull externally. 

Periosteum — The fibrous membrane which covers bone. 

Peritoneum — The serous membrane which lines the cavity of the 
abdomen. 

Permeate — To pass through without rupture. 

Pharynx — The muscular tube at the back part of the mouth which 
leads to the gullet. 

Phlegmon — An inflammatory exudation in the connective tissue. 

Phlegmonous — Relating to or of the nature of a phlegmon. 
36 



562 THE STOCK OWXEe's ADVISEE. 

PlitJiisis — Consumption. 

Phl/siology — The science whicli treats of the phenomena and functions 

of animal life. 
Placenta — The vascular appendage which connects the fetus with the 

parent. 
Plasma — The colorless fluid of the hlood. 
Plethoric — Having a full habit of body, full of blood. 
Pleura — The serous membrane which lines the interior of the chest and 

covers the lungs. 
Plexus — A net work of vessels, nerves or fi'bers. 
Polypus — A tumor which grows from mucous membranes. 
Portal Vessels — The cluster of veins that join and enter the liver. 
Process — A prominence or projecting part. 
Procreation — Generation and production of offspring. 
Prohang — A leather instrument for unchoking animals. 
Prohe — An instrument for examining wounds. 
Prolapsus Uteri — A falling of the womb. 
Prolapsus Recti — A falling of the rectum. 
Prognosis — Opinion of the future course of a disease. 
Prophylactic — Preventive. 
Proteids — Foods composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen — 

as the white of an egg. 
Protozoan — A primary division of the animal kingdom. 
Pruritus — Itching. 
Pruritus Tulva — A nervous disease attended with excessive itching of 

the external genital parts of the female. 
Ptyalin — A ferment contained in the saliva of man and of most animals. 
Puberty — The age at which the subject is capable of procreatiron. 
Pulmonary — Relating to the lungs. 
Pulsate — To beat or throb. 

Pupil — The circular opening in the colored curtain within the eye. 
Purgative — A medicine which causes evacuations of the bowels. 
Pus — Yellowish-white matter produced by the process of suppuration. 
Pylorus — That portion of the stomach through which the food passes 

to the intestines. 

Quiescent — Being at rest. 

Quickening — The time when the motion of the fetus within the womb 
is first perceptible. 

Rabies — The disease known as hydrophobia. 

Rales- — Noise produced by air passing through mucus in the lungs. 

Ramify — To divide into branches. 

Raphe — A term applied to parts that look as if sewed together. 

Receptacle — That which receives or contains. 

Rectal — Pertaining to the rectum. 



GLOSSARY. 



563 



Recumhent — Reclining. 

Regurgitation — The act by which blood is forced backward in an 

unnatural manner. 
Remittent — Ceasing for a time. 

Reproduction — The production of living bodies similar to the parents. 
Resolution — The disappearance of inflammation without suppuration. 
Respiration— Breathing. 
Retina — That part of the eye upon which the image is formed in the act 

of vision. 
Retrocession — Change of an eruption from the surface to the inner parts. 
Ricliets — A disease of the bones. 

Saccharine — Like or containing sugar. 

Sacral — Of or pertaining to the sacrum. 

Saline — Salty. 

Saliva — The secretion of the glands of the mouth. 

Sanative — Curative. 

Scale-z-One of the thin, flat, horny membranous or bony outgrowths 

of the skin of various vertebrates. 
Scapula — Shoulder blade. 
Sciatic Nen:e — The great nerve of the thigh. 

Sclerotic — Hard; applied especially to the outer coat of the eyeball 
Sc7Vtum — The bag which contains the testicles. 
Scurvy — A disease due to impaired nutrition. 
Secrete — To separate from the blood. 
Sehaceous Glands — The oil tubes of the skin. 
Sensorirnn — The seat of sensation. 

Sedative — A medicine which allays irritation and irritability. 
Septic — Having power to promote putrefaction. 
Septicccmia — Blood poisoning, usually by absorption. 
Sequel — That which follows. 
Serum— {See Blood Serum.) 

Shank — The part of the leg from the knee to the foot. 
Slough— To fall off. 
Spinal — Belonging to the spine. 
Splint — Osseous tumor on the splint-bone of a horse. 
Sporadic — Separate. 
Sternum — Breastbone. 

Strangulated — Choked; having the circulation stopped. 
Styptic — An astringent, having the property of arresting bleeding. 
Sudorific — Causing sweat. 
Suppuration — The process of generating pus. 
Synovia — A fluid resembling the white of an egg. 

Tapping — Drawing off collected fluid. 
Tegument — The covering of the body. 



^^^ THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 

Tendon— K tough cord, bundle, or band of fibrous connective tissue 

uniting a muscle with some other part. 
Tenuity — Thinness. 

Tergal— Ot or pertaining to the back. 
Testicles—The glands which contain the seminal fluid. 
Therapeutic— Veridimmg, to the art of healing. 
TJiorax — Chest. 
Tibia — The inner of the two bones of the leg or hind limb above the 

hock. 
Tonsil — An oblong gland situated on each side of the fauces. 
Tortion — The act of twisting. 
Tourniquet — An instrument to arrest bleeding. 
Trachea — The windpipe. 
Translucent — Partially transparent. 

Transudation — Passage of liquid through the tissues of the body. 
Traumatic — Relating to a wound or injury. 
Tractile — Capable of being drawn out. 
Trephining — To perforate the skull with a trepan, so as to remove a 

piece of bone. 
Triturate — To pulverize. 
Turner — A rounded projection of bone. 

Tumor — A morbid swelling or enlargement on any part of the body. 
Typanum — Ear drum. 

TJlna — The elbow of the foreleg. 

Umbilicus — The navel. 

Urinary — Pertaining to the urine. 

Urcemic — Of or pertaining to the accumulation in the blood of the 

principles of the urine. 
Urea — A constituent of the urine. 

Ureter — The canal leading from the kidneys to the bladder. 
Urethra — The canal leading from the bladder outward. 

Vagina — The canal between the vulva and the womb. 

Taricose — Irregularly swollen or enlarged. 

Vascular — Consisting of or containing vessels. - 

Ventral — Pertaining to the belly. 

Veins — The vessels which return the blood to the heart. 

Ventricles — The posterior chambers of the heart. 

Vermifuge — A medicine which destroys or expels worms. 

Vertebrw — The bones of the spinal column. 

Vertigo — Dizziness. 

Vesicles — Small bladders or sacs. 

yilli — Minute thread-like projections. 



GLOSSARY. 565 

Yinis — Contagicus or poisonous matter. 

Virulent — Very poisonous. 

Yiscera — The organs contained in the cavities of the body. 

Visciis — Any internal organ. 

Viscid — Gluey, sticky. 

Vitreous Humor — The fluid in the eye behind the lense. 

Vulnerary — Useful in healing wounds. 

Vulva — The external organs of generation in the female. 



INDEX. 



THE HORSE. Page 

Abscess 323 

Actino Mycosis 267 

Affections of the Gfands of ttie 

Mouth 253 

Albumeuuria 416 

Alimentary Canal, Accessories of.,. Ill 

Alveolar Processes, Disease of 257 

Amaurosis 272 

Amble Method of Progression 72 

Animal Locomotion, Mr. Mybridge 

on 71 

Animals, Identification of 48 

Anthrax 340 

Aneurism 297 

Anus Imperforate 384 

Apoplexy 399 

Arteries 102 

Arteries, Disease of 295 

Arteries, Description of 104 

Arteries, Inflammation of 296 

Ascites 391 

Asthma 368 

Ascaris Megalocephala 430 

Azoturia 423 

Bladder, Paralysis of 422 

Bacteria 432 

Bedding 84 

Beef Essence 328 

Beef Tea, How to Make 328 

Biliary Calculi 411 

Bitting, Bridle for an Unruly Horse, 

How to Make 64 

Bladder 126 

Bladder, Inversion of 421 

Bladder, Melanotic Deposits of 420 

Bladder, Paralysis of 422 

Blanket, Use of 84 

Blood, Composition of 100 

Blood, Liquor Sanguinous in 102 

Bog Spavin 209 

Bot Files 294 

Bone, Necrosis of 168 

Bone, Abscess or 169 

Bones, Disease of 163 

Bone, Metacarpal, Ostitis of 164 

Bono, Caries of, Ti-(>atmont of 167 

Bones, Number in Horse 85 

Bone Spavin 212 

Bones of Limbs, Description of 85 



Page 

Bones of He^ad, Description of 90 

Bones of tae Vertebrae 90 

Brain 127 

Brain, Concussion of 397 

Breaking, Drugs, Benefit in 59 

Breaking, Rarey Method 58 

Breaking by Knee Strap 61 

Breaking, Best Method of 60 

Breaking, Best Method for Kicking. 62 

Breeding 22 

Bronchitis 367 

Bruise of the Sensitive Sole 239 

Bursal Enlargements, 'xreatment of. 192 

Bursal Enlargements 192 

Burns, Treatment of 247 

Calks and Treads 240 

Calculi Salivary 254 

Canker 236 

Canter, Method of Progression 74 

Capped Hock 215, 266 

Capilaries 102 

Capilaries, Description of 105 

Capped Elbow 191, 266 

Carbuncle of the Coronary Band... 232 
Carpitis or Inflammation of the 

Knee 195 

Carditis 426 

Castration, The Method by the 

Clamps 310 

Castration, Swelling of the Scrotal 

Region Resulting from 314 

Castration, Hemorrhage Following., 313 
Castration, Chriptorchides Mode of 

Operation 311 

Castration, Limited Torsion 309 

Castration, Anatomy of Parts 307 

Castration, Scraping 308 

Castration, Linear Crushing 309 

Castration, Double Subcutaneous 

Torsion 311 

Castration, Chriptorchides 311 

Castration, Firing 310 

Castration, Tearing and Torsion.... ."^OO 

Castration, The Ligature 310 

Castration, Crushing, of the Testi- 
cular Cord 311 

Castration, Onngrcno Resulting 

from 314 

Castration, Hernia Following 31G 



(567) 



568 



THE STOCK owner's ADVISER. 



Page 

Castration, Horse, Attention of 313 

Castration, Results of 313 

Castration, Abscess Resulting from. 315 

Castration, Restraint 304 

Castration, Limited Torsion 309 

Castration of Dogs 318 

Castration, Amauroris Following..., 317 

Castration 303 

Castration, Season for 304 

Castration, Simple Excision 308 

Castration, Methods of 308 

Castration, Tetanus Following 316 

Castration, Peritonitis Following . . 816 

Castration of Females 817 

Castration of Swine 318 

Castration, Champignon Resulting 

from 315 

Catarrh 365 

Chemical Properties of Milk 76 

Chiclien Broth 328 

Chorea 404 

Choking 259 

Circulation 102 

Circulation, Round of 104 

Clipping 97 

Clitoris 324 

Colon, Impaction of 382 

Colt, How to Accustom to Saddle... 54 

Colt, How to Educate 50 

Colt, How to Proceed with After 

Haltering 53 

Colt, Treatment of 49 

Colt, How to Accustom to the Bridle 54 

Colt, How to Prevent Fear 50 

Colt, Identification of 48 

Colts, Education Neglected 50 

Colt, Indigestion of 49 

Colt, How to Lead with a Broke 

Horse 52 

Colt, How to Learn to Feed 49 

Colt, When Weaned 49 

Colt, How to Mount 55 

Colt, How to Ride 55 

Colt, How to Ride When Stubborn. 56 
Colt, How to Teach the Use and 

Guidance of the Lines 56 

Colt, How to Take First Lesson in 

Drawing the Buggy 56 

Colt, Health at Age of Breaking. ... 57 
Colt, Education and Care at Two 

Years 58 

Colts Broken While Young 58 

Colt at Five Days 50 

Colt, How to Get from Pasture 65 

Colt, Education of 50 

Colt, Old Method of Breaking 58 

Colic, Spasmodic 380 



Page 

Contests Between the Males of Ani- 
mals During the Period of 

Oestrum 23 

Conception, when Likely to Take 

Place 22 

Cornea, Laceration of 274 

Corns 235 

Contagious Diseases of Horses 335 

Constipation 389 

Coughs 358 

Cough 333 

Crib Biters 261 

Crusta Labialis 290 

Cut Tendon 200 

Curb 216 

Cyanosis 428 

Cystic Calculi 421 

Cystitis 410 

Dentition Fever 257 

Diaphragm, Rupture of 429 

Diaphragm, Diseases of 429 

Diarrhea in Foals 387 

Diarrhea 386 

Digestive System Ill 

Diseases of Ear 282 

Diseases of the Nervous System 392 

Diseases of the Stomach and In- 
testines 375 

Dislocation of the Hip Joint 205 

Dislocation of Patella 206 

Dislocation of Patella, Symptoms of. 207 

Dysentery ■ 388 

Early History of the Battle Horse. . 20 

Ectopia Cordis 428 

Ecthema 291 

Eczema, Simple 286 

Eggnog 327 

Elbow Lameness 191 

Elephantiasis 299 

Embryo of the Dog 29 

Embryo of the Sheep 28 

Embryo of the Horse, Development 

of' 27 

Embryo of the Ox 28 

Embryology 26 

Embryo of the Pig 28 

Endocarditis 427 

Enteritis 384 

Epilepsy -. 398 

Epistaxis 371 

Epizootic and Enzootic Diseases of 

the Horse 344 

Epizootic Cerebro-spinal Meningitis. 349 

Erysipelas 247 

Erysipelas Phlegmonous 248 

Erythema 284 



INDEX. 



569 



Page 

Eureka Bridle as a Means of Sub- 
duing the Colt 63 

Eureka Bridle, How Made 63 

Eyelids, Wounds of 276 

Eyelids, Warts on 276 

Eyelid, E version of 277 

Eyeball, Dislocation of 275 

Eye, Worm In 274 

False Quarter 233 

Feeding the Sick 326 

Female Organs of Generation 133 

Female, Effect on by a Previous 

Impregnation 33 

Female Organs of Generation, Dis- 
ease of 321 

Fetus, Coverings of 26 

Fetus, Development of , 27 

Fibrous Tumors 263 

Filly, Time When She May Be Bred. 42 

Fistulous Withers 283 

Flea 293 

Fly .' 294 

Fodder 79 

Food 76 

Foot 98 

Foot, Wall of 98 

Foot, To Understand by Owner 219 

Foot, Sole of 99 

Foot, Frog of 99 

Fracture, Symptoms of 143 

Fracture, Treatment of 143 

Fracture of Knee, Symptoms of 147 

Fracture of Knee, Treatment of.... 147 

Fracture of Humerus 144 

Fracture, Modes of Union 140 

Fracture of Humerus, Symptoms of. 1^7 

Fracture of Patella 154 

Fracture of Tibia, Symptoms of 154 

Fracture of the Tarsal Bones, Treat- 
ment of 154 

Fracture of the Metatarsal Bones, 

Treatment of 154 

Fracture of the Vertebrae, Symp- 
toms of 155 

Fracture of Dorsal Spine, Treat- 
ment of 156 

Fracture of the Sacrum, Symptoms 

of 156 

Fracture of Radius and Ulna, Symp- 
toms of ^ 148 

Fractui-e Radius and Ulna, Treat- 
ment of 149 

Fracture of the Scapula, Treat- 
ment of 150 

Fracture of Femur, Symptoms of... 153 

Fracture of Femur 153 

Fracture of Ribs, Treatment of 152 



Page 

Fracture of Navicular 152 

Fracture of Os Pedis 151 

Fracture of Os Corona 151 

Fracture of Sesamoid Bones 151 

Fracture of the Os - Suffraginis, 

Symptoms of 151 

Fracture of Metacarpal 151 

Fracture of Scapula, Symptoms of. . 150 

Fracture of Scapula 149 

Fracture 144 

Fracture of Femur, Treatment of . . . 153 

Fracture of Inferior Maxilla 159 

Fracture of Orbital Process 161 

Fragilitas Orsium 171 

Fracture of Frontal Bones 161 

Fracture of Ischium 159 

Fracture of tne Ilium 157 

Fracture of Parietal 161 

Fracture of Nasal Bones 160 

Fracture of Pelvic Bone 157 

Frame Work of Horse 83 

Frost Bites, Treatment of 24ft 

Fungus Haematodes 273 

Gallop Method of Progression 73 

Gastritis 379 

General Treatment of Lameness.... 217 

General Symptoms of Disease 331 

Glanders and Farcy 335 

Glaucoma 273 

Gloss Anthrax 340 

Grain 81 

Grain, Value of 81 

Grass, Perennials 78 

Grass as Hay, Value of 79 

Grass, Annuals as Haj', Value of. ... SO 
Grasses, Value of and Soils Adapted 

to Their Growth 77 

Grass, Blue 77 

Grass, Clover 78 

Grass, Annuals 78 

Grass, Timothy 78 

Grass for Pasture 79 

Grease 289 

Habits of the Horse 20 

Haemoptysis 370 

Haematuria 422 

Hair, Description of 07 

Halter Pulling 06 

Hard Cancer 267 

Hay 79 

Head and Neck, Disease of 2S2 

Healing by Primary Adhesion ?40 

Healing by Granulation 249 

Health, Condition of as Shown by 

Hair 07 

Healing, IModes of 248 

Healing by Immediate Union 243 



570 



THB STOCK OWNER S ADVISEE. 



Page 

Heart, Diseases of 426 

Heart, Hypertrophy of 427 

Heart, Rupture of 427 

Heart, Disease of Valves 428 

Heart, Foreign Bodies in 428 

Heart, Description of . ., 103 

Heels, Cracked 284 

Hernia, Scrotal 278 

Hernia, Strangulated 280 

Hernia, rmbilical 280 

Hernia, Diaphragmatic 281 

Hernia, Ventral 281 

Hernia 278 

Herpes 285 

Hip-Joint Lameness 204 

History and Habits of the Horse. ... 19 

Hobbling 306 

Horse, Balky, How to Manage 67 

Horse, Desirable Height of 39 

Horse, How to Train for Trotting. . 70 
Horse, To Train to Stand While 

Getting into a Carriage 66 

Horses, Balky, How to Start by 

Taking up Foot 69 

Horse, Quality of 36 

Horse, Wild, Exempt from Disease. 36 
Horse, Regular Progressive Move- 
ments in Trotting 71 

Horse, Health of When Procreating.. 36 

Horse, Perfectly Formed 37 

Horse, Tests of Soundness 38 

Horse, Disposition of 38 

Horses, Trotting, How to Feed.... 70 

Horse, Faulty in Action 38 

Horse, How to Make Stand Still 

Without Hitching 70 

Horses, Names Given According to 

Weight 40 

Horse, Measurement of 39 

Hydrops Uteri 323 

Hydrocele 300 

Hydrothorax 363 

Hydrocephalus 407 

Hymen, Imperforate 44 

Hymen, Imperforate, Operation of . . 44 

Hymen 134 

Hypermetropia 275 

Hysteria 403 

Immobility 405 

Impregnation. Effects upon by Suc- 
ceeding Males 33 

Impregnation, Dr. Trail on 33 

Impregnation. Professor Agassiz on. 35 

Impregnation, Dr. Miles on 34 

Impregnation, Mr. Darwin on 34 

Indigestion, Acute 375 

Indigestion, Simple 875 



Page 

Indigestion, Chronic 379 

Inflammation 139 

Inflammation, Hemorrhagic 141 

Inflammation, Treatment of 142 

Inflammation, Ulcerative 141 

Inflammation, Serous 140 

Inflammation, Varieties of 140 

Inflammation, Fibrinous 141 

Inflammation, The Process of 139 

Inflammation, Suppuration Result- 
ing from 142 

Inflammation, Productive 141 

Inflammation of the Coronary Sub- 
stance 231 

Inferior Maxilla, Injury of by Bit.. 160 

Injuries Below the Elbow 193 

Injuries in the Region of the Mouth. 251 

Intestines 123 

Intestinal Concretions 389 

Intestines, Small Divisions of 123 

Intestinal Tumors 390 

Intestines, Length of 123 

Intestines, Large Divisions of 123 

Intussusception 390 

Jaundice 410 

Joints, Inflammation of 180 

Joint, Open 181 

Joints, Anchylosis of 182 

Joints, Diseases of 177 

Jugular Vein, Inflammation of 295 

Kicking in Stalls 65 

Kickers, How to Cure 67 

Kidney, Floating 416 

Kidney, Atrophy of 416 

Kidneys, Diseases of 413 

Kidneys, Hypertrophy of 415 

Kidney, Inflammation of 413 

Knee, Injuries Below 199 

Knee, Broken 197 

Lachrymal Duct, Stricture of 277 

Lameness, How Diagnosed 184 

Lameness from Disease of the Pyr- 
amidal Process of t"he Os Pedis. . 223 

Lampas 252 

Laminitis 228 

Laryngitis 366 

Laryngeal Sounds 3-58 

Laryngisamus Paralytica 369 

Larynx, Description of 108 

Lateral Cartilages 100 

Leucorrhea 322 

Light 84 

Lice 293 

Lice, Poultry 293 

Liver, Structure of 124 

Liver, Rupture of 411 

Liver, Inflammation of 408 



INDEX. 



571 



Page 

Liver, Diseases of 408 

Liver, Functions of 125 

Lungs, Description of 107 

Lungs, Congestion of 364 

Lungs, Operation of 108 

Lympliatics, Inflammation of 298 

Lymphatic System, Description of. . 106 

Mallenders 287 

Male Organs of Generation, Disease 

of 300 

Maladie Du Coit 303 

Mammary Glands 134 

Mange 291 

Mare, Treatment of After Weaning 

tlie Colt 49 

Mare, Time at whicli She May 

Again be Bred 45 

Mare, Qualities of 41 

Mare, Treatment of While Pregnant 44 

Mare, Sterility of 42 

Mare, Formation of 42 

Mare, Food Best Suited During 

Pregnancy 45 

Mare, Causes of Barrenness. 42 

Mare, Transmission of Hereditary 

Disease 41 

Massage, How Performed 136 

Massage 135 

Meat Juice 828 

Membranes 94 

Membranes Lining the Four Great 

Systems of the Body 94 

Membrane Nictitans 276 

Menstruation (or period of puberty) 22 

Milk Punch 327 

Milk Food 327 

Milk, as an Illustration of Combi- 
nation of Foods 76 

Mollities Ossium 170 

Mouth, Deformity of 256 

Mouth, Bruises of 251 

Mud Fever 285 

Muscles 92 

Nasal Polypi 372 

Nasal Gleet 372 

Nasal Sounds 357 

Navicular Disease 224 

Navicular Disease, Treatment of... 227 

Nervous System 127 

Nerves, Cercbro-Spinal 129 

Nerves, Description of 127 

Nostrils, Use of 107 

Number of Mares a Horse Should 
Serve During the Breeding Sea- 
son 24 

Nutriment, Amount of In Foods 
Used for Stock 77 



Page 

Nymphomania 325 

Oesophagus, Use of 1^1 

Oesophagus, Dilation of 260 

Oesophagus, Diseases of 258 

Oesophagus, Rupture of 261 

Oesophagus, Stricture of 361 

Oestromania 325 

Ophthalmia, Periodical 270 

Ophthalmia, Simple 269 

Orechitis 300 

Organs, Respiratory 106 

Ossification of the Lateral Carti- 
lages 223 

Osteo Porosis 171 

Osteo Porosis, Treatment of 175 

Osteo Sarcoma, Treatment of 176 

Ovarian Diseases 324 

Ovaries 133 

Ovaries, Dropsy of 324 

Oxyuris Curvula 431 

Pancreas, Diseases of 412 

Pancreas, Functions of 125 

Paralysis 406 

Paraphymosis 301 

Paraplegia 407 

Parasitic Diseases of the Horse.,.. 430 

Paralysis of the Lips 253 

Parturition 29, 45 

Parturition, Assistance in 46 

Partuition, Function Of 45 

Partuition, Abnormal Presentations 

Accompanying 46 

Penis, Amputation of 301 

Penis, Description of 132 

Penis, Excoriation of 302 

Peptonized Milk Gruel 329 

Peptonized Beef Tea 329 

Peptonized Milk 329 

Pericarditis 426 

Phymosis 300 

Pharyngeal Polypi 371 

Pharynx, Diseases of 258 

Piles 383 

Placenta, How Removed 47 

Placenta, Retention of 46 

Pleuro Pneumonia 346 

Pleural Sounds 359 

Poll Evil 282 

Polyuria 417 

Polypi, Pharyngeal 259 

Porridge 329 

Pneumonia 360 

Prognatlon, Artificially Produced.,,. 43 

Pregnancy, Duration of 25 

Pregnancy, Signs of 25 

Punctured Wounds of the Feet 241 

Pumaced Foot « , , , « 231 



572 



THE STOCK OAVNEK's ADVISEE. 



Page 

Prurigo ^ 288 

Purpura Hseraorrhagica 348 

Quittor 237 

Rack, Method of Teaching 72 

Piacli, Method of Progression 72 

Rat-Tails 290 

Rectal Alimentation 320 

Renal Calculi 438 

Reproductive Organs, Male 131 

Respiration, How Canied ou 106 

Respiratory Diseases 357 

Results of Wounds 247 

Ring Bones 203 

Rickets 169 

Ringworm 293 

Rheumatoid Arthritis ISO 

Rules to Observe in the Purchase of 

a Horse 36-40 

Salivary Glands Ill 

Sallenders 288 

Sand Crack 233 

Sarcomata 266 

Scarlatina 349 

Scrofulous Ostitis 166 

Scirrhosis 410 

Seedy Toe 234 

Serous Abscess 190 

Sex, the Production of at Will 30 

Sex, Experiments Regulating Same. 31 
Sex, Regulation of by an Early or 

Late Impregnation 82 

Sex, Regulation of by a Favorable 

and Unfavorable Environment. . 30 

Shoulder Slip 187 

Shoulder Joint, Disease of 189 

Shoe Recommended by Professor 

Williams .' 220 

Shoeing 219 

Shivering 405 

Shoes, Proper Length of Time to 

be Worn 222 

Sidelines 304 

Skin, Layers of 94 

Skin 95 

Skeleton, Horse 85 

Skin, Disease of 284 

Soft Cancer 268 

Soups 328 

Speedy Cut 195 

Spinitis 405 

Spinal Cord 127 

Sprain 187 

Sprain of Flexor Brachi, Treatment 

of 190 

Sprain of tae Suspensory Ligament. 200 

Eprain of Metacarpal Ligament 199 

Sprains of Fetlock 202 



Page 

Sprain of the Flexer Metatarsi 209 

Sprain of the Patella Ligaments 208 

Sprain of the Yasti and Rectus 

Femoris Muscles 208 

Sprung Hock 211 

Spleen, Description of 126 

Splints 165 

Stable 82 

Stable, Ventilation of 82 

Stable, Location of 82 

Stables, Temperature, Regulation of 83 

Stallion as Herder 23 

Staphyloma 273 

Stifle-joint Lameness 206 

Stomach, Rupture of 378 

Stomach, Description of 121 

Stomatitis Pustuloso 338 

Stomach, Impaction of 377 

Strabismus Squinting 275 

Strongylus Tetracanthus 432 

Strangles 341 

Stubborn Horse 64 

Suture. Quilled 244 

Suture, the Interrupted 244 

Sweat Glands 96 

Sunstroke 393 

Symptoms Connected with the Res- 
piratory Functions 333 

Synovitis, Chronic Scrofulous 179 

Synovitis 178 

Team. Bnlky, How to Start that 

You are Not Driving Yourself. . . 68 
Teeth of a Four-Year and Six- 

Month-old Colt 114 

Teeth of a Nine-Year-Old Horse 118 

Teeth. Function of 112 

Teeth of Three-Old Colt 114 

Teeth, Kind of 112 

Teeth of a Twelve-Year-Old.. 119 

Teeth, Dental Star in 119 

Teeth of an Eight-Year-Old Horse.. 117 

Teeth of a Twenty-one-Year-Old 120 

Teeth of a Fifteen-Year-Old 119 

Teeth Indicating Age 113 

Teeth of a Ten-Year-Old Horse 119 

Teeth Hook in Corner 118 

Teeth, Description of 112 

Teeth of a Six-Year-Old Horse 116 

Teeth of a Seven-Year-Ofd Horse 116 

Teeth of a Two-Year and Six-Month 

Colt 113 

Teeth of a Three-Year and Six- 

MonthsOId Colt .114 

Teeth of a Four-Year-Old Colt 114 

Teeth, Upper, One- Year-Old Colt 113 

Teeth, Caries of 256 

Teeth, Irregularities of 25C 



INDEX. 



573 



Page 

Tendons 94 

Tetanus 399 

Testicles, Description of 131 

Ticks 294 

Thermometer as Aid to Diagnosis. . 334 

Tlioracic Sounds 358 

Ttirombus 295 

Thorough Pin 215 

Thrush 23G, 252 

Tongue, Paralj'sis of 255 

Tongue, Ulcers of 255 

Tongue, Affections of 255 

Trachea, Description of 108 

Trotting, Weights to be Carried in. 71 

Tubal or Bronchial Sound 359 

Tumors 263, 322 

Tumors, Fatty 264 

Tumors, Cerebral 402 

Tumors, Fibrous ~. . . . 263 

Tumors, Cartilaginous 265 

Tumors, Osseous 265 

Tumors, Cystic 265 

Umbilical Cord 27 

Urinary Organs 126 

Ureters 127 

Urethritis 302 

Urethral Calculi 422 

Urine, Retention of 419 

Urine, Suppression of 418 

Urticaria 286 

Uterus 133 

Vagina, Protrusion of 323 

Vaginitis 322 

Variola 302 

Variola Equina or Horse Pox 341 

Veins 103 

Veins, Description of 105 

Veins, Disease of 205 

Vein Stones 296 

Veins, Entrance of Air 296 

Veins Varicose 296 

Vertigo 398 

Volvulus 391 

Vulva 134 

Vulva, Closure of the Lips of 323 

Walk, Method of Progression 73 

Water, to Prevent Putrid Matter 

Draining into 75 

Water, Quantity, Quality 75 

Wine, Whey 327 

Wind Suckers 261 

Wolf Teeth 258 

Wounds 242 

Wounds, Gun Shot 2-42 

Wounds, Poisoned 243 

Wounds, Treatment of 243 

Wounds, Punctured, Treatment of. . 245 



Page 

Wounds, Lacerated, Treatment of. . 245 

Wounds, Gun Shot, Treatment of... 246 

Wounds, Contused 242 

Wounds, Results of 247 

Wounds, Lacerated 242 

Wounds, Punctured 242 

Wounds, Poisonous, Treatment of. . 247 

Wound of lae Palatine Artery 252 

CATTLE. 

Anthrax 446 

Bronchitis 458 

Cattle, Contagious Diseases of 437 

Cattle, Diseases of the Stomach 

and Intestines 460 

Contagious Pleuro-Pneumonia 440 

Cysticercus Bovis 473 

Enteritis and Colic 471 

Enzootic and Epizootic Disease of 

the Ox 455 

Fasciola Hepatica 473 

Foot and Mouth Disease 443 

Grass Disease 454 

Hoof Evil 472 

Manyplies, Impaction of 463 

Mammitis 469 

Metritis 472 

Parasites Affecting Cattle 473 

Parturient Paralysis 466 

Parturient Fever 465 

Parturient Apoplexy 467 

Peritonitis 464 

Pleurisy 458 

Pneumonia 458 

Red Water 459 

Respiratory Diseases of the Ox.... 457 

Rumen, Impaction of 462 

Strongylus Micrurus 473 

Teat, Stricture of 471 

Texan Fever 449 

Tuberculosis 450 

Tympanites 460 

Variola Vacinse 445 

Vomition 461 

Warts 472 

White Scours 464 

DOGS. 

Amaurosis 537 

Ascarlde 548 

Ascarls Marginata 548 

Bladder, Infl-ammatlon of 533 

Calculus 532 

Calculus in the Intestines 528 

Canker 540 

Canker, External 541 

Costiveness .,,.,, , 628 



5T4 



THE STOCK OWNER S ADVISER. 






Page 

Castration 546 

Cataract 538 

Chorea 523 

Colic 527 

Contagious Disease of Dogs 512 

Diseases of the Eye 536 

Diseases of the Nervous System.... 523 
Disease of the Digestive Organs. .. . 526 
Diseases of Kidney aud Bladder... 532 

Diarrhea 527 

Dog, Care of 507 

Dysentery 527 

Dropsy 528 

Ear, Diseases of 540 

Early History of the Dog 505 

Eczema Rubrum 521 

Epilepsy 523 

Enteritis 526 

Enzootic and EpizoofTC Diseases of 

Dogs 521 

External Canker 541 

Extirpation of the Eye 538 

Eyelids, Ulceration of 538 

Eyes, Protrusion of 539 

Feet, Disease of 545 

Feet, Pustular Affections of 545 

Feet, Wounds of 545 

Fistula Lachrymalis 539 

Foreign Articles in Throat 544 

Fracture 546 

Glossary of the Stock Owner's Ad- 
viser 553 

Intussusception 528 

Jaundice 531 

Kennels, Location of 510 

Kidneys, Inflammation of 532 

Lips, Disease of 544 

Liver, Diseases of 530 

Mange 521 

Nose and Mouth, Diseases of 543 

Ophthalmia, Chronic 536 

Ophthalmia 536 

Palsy '. . . 525 

Parturition 547 

Parasites Infecting the Dog 548 

Peritonitis 526 

Polypus 541 



Page 



Pleiuisy .777.7. (/..( 53^ 

Pneumonia 534 

Poisons and Their Antidotes 550 

Rabies 515 

Respiratoi-y Organs, Diseases of.... 534 

Rheumatism 524 

Spasmodic Cough 535 

Sprains 546 

Small Pox 515 

Sympathetic Ophthalmia 537 

Taenia Coenuris 549 

Tapeworm f 49 

Teeth 544 

Teres f 49 

Targus, Inflammation of i 43 

Ulceration of the Cornea ;' 37 

Weak Eyes ,39 



si]:-:i:r. 

Anthrax 478 

Contagious Disease oi Shoep 477 

Distomata Hepatica 482 

Entozoa of Sheep 481 

Foot Rot 478 

Loupiug 111 479 

Oesophagostoma 483 

Rinderpest 478 

Strongylns Filaria 4S3 

Taenia Cceuuris 481 

Taenia Expansa 482 

Taenia Marginata 482 

SWINE. 

Anthrax 490 

Constipation 495 

Contagious Disease of Swine 487 

Diseases of the Respiratory System. 493 

Encephalitis 496 

Nervous Diseases of the Hog 495 

Parasites of the Hog 498 

Sclerostoma Dentatnm 498 

Strongylus Elongalus 498 

Swine Plague 487 

Sporadic Diseases of Hogs 491 

Tricocephahis Dispia 498 

Tuberculosis , 490 






IH 1 A'" G -13 O T 




X XJL 



■ \ :\yi 



t*