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{All rit/hts reserved.) 






In presenting this work to the public I need say but little by way 
of preface. It is the result of the occupation of what leisure 
hours I could spare, during the last few years, from various 
and important business, and my object in undertaking it is ex- 
plained in the Introduction. 

What now remains for me to do, is to express my thanks to 
those numerous friends who have so kindly aided me during the 
progress of my work, both by placing specimens in their col- 
lections at my disposal, and by examination of my proofs. Fore- 
most among these must be ranked the Rev. William Greenwell, 
F.S.A., from whose unrivalled collection of British antiquities I 
have largely drawn, and from whose experience and knowledge I 
have received much assistance in other ways. 

To Mr. A. W. Franks, F.S.A. ; Mr. J. W. Flower, F.G.S. ; Mr. 
W. Pengclly, F.R.S. ; Colonel A. Lane Fox, F.S.A. ; Mr. E. T. 
Stevens, of Salisbury ; Messrs Mortimer, of Fimber ; Mr. Joseph 
Anderson, the Curator of the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh ; 
and to numerous others Avhose names are mentioned in the fol- 
lowing pages, my thanks must also be expressed. 

The work itself will, I believe, be found to contain most of the 
information at present available with regard to the class of 
antiquities of which it treats. The subject is one which does 
not readily lend itself to lively description, and an accimuilation 
of facts, such as is here presented, is of necessity dull. 1 have, 
however, relegated to smalk-r typc^ the bulk of the descriptive 


details of little interest to tlio ordinary reader, wlio will probably 
find more than enougb of dry matter to content him, if he confines 
himself to the larger tj'pe, and an examination of the illustrations. 

Whatever may be the merits or defects of the book, there are 
two points on which I feel that some credit may be claimed. The 
one is that the woodcuts — the great majority of which have been 
specially engraved for this work by Mr. Swain, of Bouverie 
Street — give accurate representations of the objects; the other 
is, that all the references have been carefully checked. 

The Index is divided into two parts ; the first showing the 
subjects discussed in the work, the second the localities where 
the various antiquities have been found. 

Now that so much more attention than formerly is being 
bestowed on this class of antiquities, there will, no doubt, be 
numerous discoveries made, not only of forms with which we 
are at present unacquainted, but also of circumstances calculated 
to throw light on the uses to which stone implements and weapons 
were apj)licd, and the degree of antiquity to be assigned to the 
various forms. 

I will only add that I shall gladly receive any communications 
relative to such discoveries. 


Xash Mills, Ilemel Hcnqjstcd, May^ 1872. 





The Iron, Bronze, and Stone Ages — Bronze in use before Iron — Persistence of 
Keligious Kites — Use of IStono in Keligious Ceremonies — Stone Antiquities 
not all of the same Age 1 



Pyrites and Flint used for striking Fire — The Gun-flint ^lanufacture — Gun- 
flint Production — ^lode of producing Flakes — Australian lilcthod of 
Making Flakes — Pressigny Kuclci — Rough-hewing iStone Hatclicts — 
Ancient Mining for Flint — ^lode of Chiijping out Scrapers — Flaking 
Arrow-heads — Arrow-flakcrs — Grinding Stone Implements — Method of 
Sawing Stone — Methods of Boring Stone — Progress in the Ai-t of Working 
Stone 13 




Regarded as Thunderbolts — Belief in their Meteoric Origin — Celt with Gnostic 

Inscription — Origin and Virtues of Celts — Their Materials and Forms . 50 



"With the Edge formed by Two Facets — Numerous in many Districts — Some 
carefully Chipped — Some expanding at the Ends — The Common Forms — 
Discoveries at Cissbury — Many of the same Age as the Polished Celts — 
Their probable ^Vgc CO 



One made from a Natural Prism of Flint — The long narrow Form — Expanding 
at the End — Some intended for use as Adzes — Formed of other l^Iaterials 
than Flint 78 



A Type common in the Eastfm Counties — Some show n Facet at the Edge — Of 
other Materials than Flint — The thin and highly linished TN^^^e — Those 


with Flat Sides — With the Edge ohlique — ^\\''ith a narrow Butt— Not of 
Flint — So large as to be taken for Clubs — Of reetangular Section — Of oval 
Section — And with conical Butt — Of a Form found in Greece and India — - 
Eoughened at the Butt — Sharp at both Ends — Of abnormal Forms — Used 
in the Hand without hafting — With Depressions on the Faces — Earely 
found with Objects of Bronze — Their Discovery with Objects of later Date 
— Their range in Time — Celts accompanying Interments — Manner in which 
Hafted — Found in their original Handles — Compared with Axes of IModern 
Savages — Mounted in Stag's-horn Sockets — In Wooden Hafts — -Compared 
with Adzes of Modern Wavages — Modern Methods of hafdng Ajces — 
Probable Uses of Celts 89 



Pointed Picks — Small Hand Chisels — Gouges rare in Britain — Bastard Gouges . 1-54 


Those shai^) at both Ends — Expanding at one End — Adze-like in character — 
Hoe-like in character — Cutting at one End only — Used as Battle-axes — 
Large and heavy — A large Form common in the North — Some for domestic 
use — Hummer-like at one End — Boring the last Process — Axe-hammers 
hollowed on the Faces — Ornamented on the Sides — Constantly found in 
Barrows — Perforated Axes but little used by Modern Savages . . . 163 



Perforated Hammers, how hafted — Some of them Weapons, not Tools— Some 
made from broken Celts — Or fi'om Pebbles with natural holes — Of an orna- 
mental charactex- — Made from Quartzite Pebbles — Those found in Ii-eland 
and other Countries — Grooved Hammers used for IMiuing Purposes — Hard 
to distinguish from Net-sinkers ......... 194 



With Depressions on the Faces — Made from broken Celts — Some probaldj' used 
for pounding Food — Ridged at the End — Made of Flint — Saddle-querns — 
Pestles and Mortiirs — Shetland and Orkney Forms — Various Forms of 
Mortars — Hand-mills, or Querns 213 



L^sed for sliarpeniug Celts — Found in Barrows — Used for pointed Tools . . 235 



Bulb of Percussion — Occasionally very small — Numerous in Ancient Settle- 
ments — Localities where abundant — Not confined to tlie Stone Period — 
The Roman Tribulum — Flakes, &c., in other parts of the World — Their 
Uses— Ground at the Edge — Made into Saws — Danish seiTated Instru- 
ments 245 




Used in dressing Hides — Horseshoe-shaped — Kite-shaped — Like Oyster-shells 
in Form — Spoon-shaped — Evidences upon them of wear — Found with 
Pyrites — The Modern Forms of Strike-a-light — Scrapers used with Pj-rites 
for producing Fire — The Flat and Hollowed Forms 2G8 


Found in different Countries — Some of doubtful determination .... 288 



Trimmed Flakes in different Countries — Some probably Knives — Others 
possibly I^ance-heads — Wrought on both Faces — With one Edge ground 
blunt — Sharpened by grinding — Some probably Skinning-knives — Of other 
Materials than Flint — The so-called Picts' Knives — Daggers or Lance-heads 
— Blunted towards the Butt — Notched at the Sides — Curved Knives — 
Probably Sickles 292 



When first described in Britain — Superstitions attaching to them — The Virtues 
ascribed to them — Their various Forms — JaveUn-heads — Leaf-shaped 
Arrow-heads — Pointed at both Ends: — Lozenge-shaped — Stemmed — 
Stemmed and Barbed — Found in Scotland — Localities where found — 
Triangular Arrow-heads — Single-barbed — The Chisel-edged Type — Found 
in Barrows — Irish and French Types — Swiss and Italian Types — Scandi- 
navian and Asiatic Tj'pes — Americau Types — How attached to their 
Shafts 321 


Used for working in Flint — Their probable Uses 367 



The early use of Slings — Reasons for fashioning Sling-stones -—The use of 

"Bolas" — Clubs with Stone Balls attached ...... 372 



Bracers of Stone — The use of Arm-guards — Bone Lance-heads and Pins — 

Needles of Bone — Hammers and Axes of Stag'a-horn . . ... 380 



Superstitions attaching to Whorls — Use of Perforated Discs — Use of Slick- 
stones — Stone Cups — Cups turned in a Lalhe — The Pole-lathe — Gold and 
Amber Cups — Vessels of Stone ......... 390 





Buttons — Jet Buttons and Studs — Necklaces — Beads, Pendants, and Bracelets — - 

Rinas — Pebbles — Amulets — Conclusions as to the Neolithic Period . . 406 



Compared with those from the River Drift — Formation of Caverns — Deposition 
of Stalagmite — Difierent Ages of Caverns — Their Chronological Sequence — 
Age of LeMoustier^OfLaugerie Haute — Of Cro-Magnon — Of LaMadelainc 
— Fauna of British Caves — JDean Buckland's Researches — Kent's Cavern, 
Torquay — Ovate Implements — Alteration in Structure of Flmt — Trimmed 
Flakes — Scrapers — Flakes — Hammers^ — Bone Harpoons — Pins and Needles 
— Fauna of Kent's Cavern — Brixham Cave, Torquay — The Wookey Hyaena 
Den — The Gower Caves — King Arthur's Cave, Whitchurch . . . 425 



The Valley of the Ouse— Bedford— The Valley of the Cam— Of the Lark— Bury 
St. Edmunds and Ickiingham — High Lodge, IMildenhall — Valley of the 
Little Ouse — Thetford — Santon Downham — Bromehill, AVeeting — JBrandon 
- — Shrub Hill, Feltwell — Hoxne, Suffolk — Gray's Inn Lane, London — 
Hacknej'- Down — Highbury — Acton and Ealing — Valley of the Gnde — 
Peasemarsh, Godalming — Valley of the Stort — Valley of the Cray — Dart- 
ford — Valley of the Medway — Reculver — Studhill — Thanington — Canter- 
bury — Southampton — Hill Head — Isle of Wight — Lake, near Salisbury — 
Bemerton — Highfield, Fishcrton, Milford Hill, Salisburj' — Fordingbridge — 
Wimborne — Bournemouth — Barton — Valley of the Axe — Colyton, Devon . 477 



Flakes — Trimmed Flakes — Pointed Implements— Sharp-rimmed Implements — 
Differ from those of Neolithic Age — Their Occurrence in other Countries — 
The Civilization they betoken — Characteristics of Authenticity . . . 560 



Hypothetical Case of River-action — Origin of River-systems — Effects of Floods 
— Amount of Solid Matter in turbid Water — Nature of Flood-deposits — 
Transporting Power of Water — Effects of Ground-ice and Shore-ice — 
Action of Rivers near their Mouths — Solvent Power of Carbonic Acid — 
Effect of deepening Valleys — Actual Phenomena compared with the Hypo- 
thetical—The Basin of the Ouse — Of the Little Ouse — Of the Waveney — 
The Valley of the Thames — Of the Test and Itchen — Origin of the Solent 
Sf a — Ancient Condition of the South Coast — The Ancient River Solent— 
The Evidence as to Climate — Evidence of the Faima — The Presence of the 
Mammoth— Difiiculties of the Question — Estimate of Time fiom Denuda- 
tion — From subsequent Changes in the Coast-line — Conclusion . . . 578 

Description oi- the Plates 623 





1. Egyptian Dagger or Knife . . 8 


25. Forest of Bere, near Ilorndean 69 

26. Cissbury, Sussex 73 

27. „ „ 73 

28. „ „ 74 

29. „ „ 74 






Flint Core with Flakes replacec 


Downs, near Eastbourne . . 


upon it 



Culford, Suffolk .... 



Xucleus, Pressigny . . . . 



Near Mildenhall, Suffolk . 



)) J) . . . . 



Sawdon, N.R., Yorkshire . 



i> . . . . 



Weston, Norfolk .... 






Mildenhall, Suffolk . . . 



,, ., . . . . 



Burwell Fen, Cambs. 



Esquimaux Ai-row-flaker . . 



Thetford, Suffolk .... 



51 )1 



Undley Common, Lakenheath 

L 85 


?) 5> • 



Ganton, Yorkshire . . 



Swaffham Fen, Cambridge 



Grindale, Bridlington . . 




North Burton, Yorkshii-e . 





Celt with Gnostic Inscription 





Santon Downham, Suffolk 



Coton, Cambridge . . . 




Reach Fen, Cambridge . . 



Great Bedwin, Wilts . . 



Near Mildenliall, Suffolk . 



Burradon, Northumberland 



)> »' >} 



Coton, Cambridge . . 



Ntar Thetlord „ 



Ponteland, Northumberland 



Oving, near Chichester . . 



Fridaythorpe, Yorkshire . 



Near Newhaven, Sussex 



Oulston ,, 



Near Dunstable, Beds . . 



Burwell Fen, Cambs. . . 



Burwell Fen, Carabs. . . 

. 65 


Botesdale, Suffolk . . . 



Mildenhall, Suffolk . . . 

. 66 


Lack ford ,, .... 



Bottisham Fen, Canibs. . 

. 66 


Dalmeny, Linlithgow . . 



Near Bournemouth, Hants 

. 67 


Sprouston, near Kelso . . 



Thetford, Suffolk .... 

. 67 


Nunnington, Yorkshire . . 



Reach Fen, Cambridge . 

. 68 


Burradon, Northumberland 



Scamridge, Yorkshire . 

. 69 

, 59 

Livermere, Suffolk . . . 





60. Ilderton, Northumberland . . lUo 

61. Near Pendle, Lancashire . . lOG 

62. Ness, N.K., Yorkshii-e . . .108 

63. Gilling „ „ ... 109 

64. Swinton, near Malton . . .110 

65. iscamridge Dykes, Yorkshire . Ill 

66. AVhitwell „ .111 

67. Thames, London 112 

68. Near Bridlington, Yorkshire . 113 

69. Lakenheath, Suflblk . . . .114 

70. Seamer, Yorkshire . . . .115 

71. Guernsey 115 

72. Wareham, Dorsetshire . . .116 

73. Forfarshire 117 

74. Bridlington, Yorkshii-e . . .117 

75. Caithness 118 

76. Gilmerton, East Lothian . .119 

77. ytirlingshire 120 

78. Harome, N.R., Yorkshir-e . . 121 

79. Daviot, near Inverness . . .122 

80. Near Cottenham, Cambs. . . 123 

81. Near Malton, Yorkshire . . 123 

82. Mennithorpe „ . .124 

83. Middleton Moor, Derbyshire . 124 

84. Near Truro, Cornwall . . .125 

85. Near Lerwick, iShetland . .125 

86. Weston, Norfolk 126 

87. Acklam AYold, Yorkshire . .126 

88. Fimber „ . . 127 

89. Duggleby, E.E. „ . . -127 

90. Guernsey 128 

91. Hafted Celt, Solway Moss . . 138 

92. „ „ Cumberland . .139 

93. „ „ Monaghan . . .140 

94. Axe from the Rio Frio . . .140 

95. War-axe, Gaveoe Indians, 

Brazil 141 

96. Axe of Montezuma II. . . .142 

97. „ Nootka Sound .... 142 

98. „ in Stag's-horn Socket, 

Concise 143 

99. Axe, itobenhausen . . . .143 

100. „ „ .... 145 

101. Celt Handle, Schraplau . . .146 

102. Adze, New Caledonia . . . 147 

103. „ Clalam Indians . . . 148 

104. South Sea Island Adzes . . 149 

105. Axe, Northern Australia . . 150 

106. Hatchet, Western Australia . 152 


107. Great Easton, Essex .... 154 

108. Bury St. Edmunds . . . .155 
lO:). Bui'well, Cambs 156 

110. Near Bridliugton, Yorkshire . 156 

111. Dalton „ . 157 

112. Helperthorpe „ . 157 

113. New Zealand Chisel .... 158 

114. Burwell, Cambs 159 


115. Eastbourne, Sussex .... 160 

116. Willerby Wold, Yorkshire .161 

117. Bridlington 162 





Hunmanby, Yorkshire . 

Hove, Sussex 

Llanmadock, Gower . 


Fireburn Mill, Coldstream . 
Burwell Fen, Cambs. . . 
Stourton, Wilts .... 
Bardwell, Sufiblk .... 
Potter Brompton Wold, Yksh 
Rudstone, York.shire ... 
Borrowash, Derbyshire . . 
Crichie, Aberdeenshire . . 
Wigton, Cumberland 
Wollaton Park, Notts . . 
Buckthorjie, Yorkshire . 
Aldro', Malton „ . . 

Cowlam ,, 

Seghill, near Newcastle . . 
Kirklington, Yorkshire . . 
Winterbourn Steepleton, Dor 


Skelton Moors, Yorkshire . 
Selwood Barrow, Wilts . . 
Upton Lovel „ . . 

Thames, London .... 
Pelj-nt, Cornwall .... 





144. Balmaclellan, New Galloway . 196 

145. Thames, London 196 

146. Scarborough 197 

147. Shetland 197 

148. Caithness 198 

149. Leeds 198 

150. Rockland, Norfolk .... 199 

151. Heslert on AYold, Yorkshire . 200 

152. Birdoswald, Cumberland . . 201 

153. Maesmore, Corwen, Wales . 202 
164. Normanton, Wilts .... 203 

155. Redgrave Park, Suffolk . . .204 

156. Redmore Fen, Cambs. . . 204 

157. Stifford, Essex 205 

158. Sutton, Suffolk 206 

159. Siukstone, Ambleside, West- 

moreland 211 



160. Helmaley, Yorkshire. . . .'214 



no. ' PAGE 

161. Winterbourn Bassett, Wilts . 215 

162. St. Botolph's Priory, Pem- 

brokeshire 215 

163. Bridlington, Yorkshire . . .217 

164. „ „ . . . 218 

165. „ „ . . . 218 

166. Scamridge „ ... 221 

167. Yorkshire Wolds 223 

168. „ , 223 

169. Bridlington, Yorkshire . . .224 

170. Holvhead 225 

171. TyMawr, Holyhead. . . .227 

172. Holyhead 228 

173. Pulborough, Sussex . . . .228 

174. Shetland 229 

175. „ 230 

176. „ 230 

177. „ 230 

178. „ 230 

179. „ 230 

180. Balmaclellan, Xew Galloway . 234 


181. Dorchester, Oxfordshire . . . 239 

182. Rudstone, Yorkshire .... 239 

183. Fimber, Yorkshire Wolds . . 240 

184. Cowlam, Yorkshire .... 241 

185. Amesburj-, Wilts 241 

186. Hove, Sussex 242 

187. Ty Mawr, Holyhead .... 243 




Artificial Cone of Flint . 
Weaverthorpe, Yorkshire 
Newhaven, Sussex 
Redhill, Reigate, Surrey 
Icklingham, Suffolk . . 
Seaford, Sussex 
Tribulum from Aleppo . 
Xew Caledonia 
Charleston, E.R., Yorkshire 
Xussdorf, Switzerland 
Australian Knife 


Saw, Willerby Wold, Yorksh. 265 
,, Yorkshire Wolds . . . 265 
Scamridge, Yorkshire . 266 
West Cranmore, Somerset 266 


203. Esquimaux Scraper . . 

204. Weaverthorpe, Yorkshire 

205. Sussex Downs .... 

. 268 
. 270 
. 271 


206. Yorkshire 271 

207. Helperthorpe, Yorkshire . . 272 

208. Weaverthorpe „ ... 272 

209. Sussex Downs 272 

210. Yorkshire 273 

211. Yorkshire Wolds 273 

212. „ „ 273 

213. Sussex Downs 274 

214. Yorkshire Wolds 274 

215. Sussex Downs 274 

216. „ „ 275 

217. „ „ 275 

218. Yorkshire 276 

219. Bridlington, Yorkshii-e . . . 276 

220. Yorkshire Wolds 277 

221. „ „ 277 

222. French "Strike-a-light" . .283 

223. Rudstone, Yorkshire . . . .284 

224. Method of using Pyrites and 

Scraper 285 

225. Yorkshire Wolds 286 

226. „ „ 287 



227. Yorkshire Wolds 289 

228., Bridlington, Yorkshire . . . 289 

229. Yorkshire Wolds 290 

230. Bridlington, Yorkshire . . . 290 

231. Yorkshire Wolds 291 

232. „ „ 291 



233. Cambridge (?) 292 

234. Yorkshire W^olds 294 

235. Yorkshire 291 

236. Bridlington, Yorkshire . . . 294 

237. Yorkshire 295 

238. Bridlington, Yorkshire . . . 295 

239. Castle Carrock, Cumberland . 295 

240. Ford, Xorthumberland . . . 296 

241. Weaverthorpe, Yorkshire . . 296 

242. Wykeham Sloor ,, . . 297 

243. Potter Brompton Wold, Yksh. 297 

244. Snainton Moor, Yorkshire . . 298 

245. Ford, Xorthumberland . . . 298 

246. Bridlington, Yorkshire . . . 299 

247. Cambridge Fens 299 

248. Scamridge, Yorkshire . . . 300 

249. Burwell Fen, Cambs. . . . 301 

250. Saffron Walden, Essex . . .301 

251. Fimber, Yorkshire .... 302 

252. Aberdeenshire 303 

253. Urquhart, Elgin 303 

254. Bridlington, Yorkshire . . . 303 

255. Overton, Wilts 304 

256. Kempston, Bedford .... 305 





Kintore, Aberdeenshire . 
Newhaven, Derbyshire . 
Harome, Yorkshire . . 

Crambe, N.E., Yorkshire 
Walls, Shetland . . . 

Lamborne Down, Berkshire 


Burnt Fen, Cambridge . 
Arbor Low, Derbyshire . 
Fimber, Yorkshire . . 
Yarmouth, Norfolk . . 
Eastbourne, Sussex . 




Elf-shot moiinted in silver . . 
Egyptian Arrow-head . 
Winterbourn Stoke, Wilts 

)) ?j . . 

Calais Wold Barrow, Yorkshire 

>> )j 

Icklingham, Suffolk .... 
Gunthorpe, Lincolnshire . . 
Yorkshire Wolds 

Little Solsbury Hill, iSath . . 334 

Yorkshire Wolds 334 

Bridlington, Yorkshire . . .334 

Yorkshire Wolds 335 


Lakenheath, Suffolk .... 335 

Yorkshire Wolds 335 



„ 336 


Fyfield, Wilts 337 

Bridlington, Yorkshire . . . 337 
Newton Ketton, Durham . . 337 

Yorkshire Wolds 338 



Amotherby, Yorkshire . . .338 
Iwerne Minster, Dorsetshire . 339 

Yorkshire Wolds 339 


Overton, Wilts 340 

Sherburn Wold, Yorkshire . 340 

Yorksliiro Wolds 341 

„ 341 



„ 341 

































































Yorkshire Wolds 341 

Eddlesborough, Bucks . . .342 
Beach Fen, Cambridgeshire . 342 
Isleham „ . 342 

Rudstone, Yorkshire .... 343 
Lamborne Down, Berks . . 343 
Fovant, South Wilts .... 343 

Yorkshire Moors 344 

Yorkshire Wolds 344 


Isle of Skye 345 

Urquhart, Elgin 345 

Aberdeenshire 345 

Glenlivet, Banff 345 

Icklingham, Suffolk .... 348 
Langdale End, N.R., York- 
shire 348 

Amotherby, Yorkshire . . . 348 
Weaverthorpe „ ... 349 

Lakenheath, Suffolk . . . .349 

Yorkshii-e Wolds 349 



Bridlington, Yorkshire . . . o50 

„ ... 350 

Fimber ,, ... 351 

Hungry Bentley, Derbyshire . 351 

Caithness 351 

Lakenheath, Suffolk . . . .352 

Urquhart, Elgin 352 

Switzerland 364 

Fiiuen, Denmark 365 

Modern Stone Arrow-head . 365 


346. Yorkshii-e Wolds 367 

347. Bridlington, Yorkshire . . .368 

348. Sawdon „ ... 370 
319. Acklam Wold „ ... 370 


350. Yorkshire Wolds 374 

351. Dumfriesshire 376 

352. Towie, Aberdeenshire . . . 376 



353. Isle of Skye 380 

354. Evantown, Ross-shire . . .381 

355. Devizes, Wilts 381 

356. Isle of Skye 382 






357. Scampston, Yorkshire . . . 392 

358. Holyhead 392 

359. „ 392 

360. Ty Mawr, Holyhead .... 392 

361. Holyhead 396 

362. Scotland 397 

363. Sutherlandshire 398 

364. Faroe Islands 398 

365. Broad Down, near Honiton . 399 

366. Gold Cup, Rillaton, Cornwall . 402 

367. Hove, near Brighton .... 403 

368. Ty Mawr, Holyhead .... 404 



369. Butterwick, Yorkshire . . .407 

370. „ „ ... 407 

371. Rudstone „ ... 408 

372. „ „ ... 408 

373. Crawfurd Moor, Lanarkshire . 408 

374. Calais Wold Barrow, Yorkshire 409 

375. Assynt, Ross-shire . . . .411 

376. Pen-y-Bonc, Holj-head . . .412 

377. Jet Necklace, Pen-y-Bonc, 

Holyhead 413 

378. Fimber, Yorkshire .... 415 

379. Egton Bridge, Whitby, York- 

shire 416 

380. Yorkshire 416 

381. Hungry Bentley, Derbyshire . 417 

382. Jet Bracelet, Guernsey . . .417 

383. Bronze „ „ ... 417 

384. Kent's Cavern, Devon . . . 419 

385. Ty Mawr, Holyhead . . .419 



386. Kent's 













Cavern, Torquay 

. 447 
. 447 
. 448 
. 449 
. 450 
. 451 
. 452 
. 453 
. 453 
. 454 
. 454 
. 455 
. 456 


, 456 

, 457 

. . 457 

. . 457 

Bone Instrument, Kent's Cavern 459 

set. 473 

399. Kent's Cavern, Torquay 

400. „ „ 

409. Brixham Cave, Torquay 

410. „ „ 
413. WookeyHytenaDen, Somer 






Biddenham, Bedford . . 

Maynewater Lane, Bury St. 

Edmunds .... 
Rampart Hill, Icklingham 
Icklingham, Suffolk . . 

High Lodge, Mildenhall 
Redhill, Thetford 

Santon Downham 

Bromehill, Brandon 
Gravel Hill 

Valley of the Lark or of the 

Little Ouse 

Shrub HiU, FeltweU, Norfolk 

Hoxne, Suffolk 

j> M 

Gray's Inn Lane, London . . 












Hackney Down, Middlesex 

. 523 


Southampton .... 

. 544 


Highbury New Park ,, 

. 525 


Hill Head, Southampton Wa- 


Ealing Dean ,, 

. 527 


. 546 


Peasemarsh, Godalmin^ 

. 529 


Foreland, Isle of Wight 

. 548 


Dartford Heath, Kent . 

. 532 


Lake, near Salisbury 

. 549 


Reculver ,, 

. 534 


Bemcrton ,, 

. 550 


Near Reculver „ 

. 536 



. 551 



. 537 


Fisherton ,, 

. 551 


. 538 


Milford Hill „ 

. 554 


. 538 


Fordingbridge, Hants . 

. 555 


Studhill ',! 

. 539 


Boscombe, Bournemouth 

. 556 


Thanington, near Cantei 

bury . 541 


)> jj 

. 557 


Canterbury .... 

. 542 


Bournemouth .... 

. 558 



IN the followin<^ pages I purpose to give an account of the 
various forms of stone implements, weapons, and ornaments of 
remote antiquity discoyercd in Great Britain, their probable uses 
and method of manufacture, and also, in some instances, the cir- 
cumstances of their discovery. While reducing the whole series 
into some sort of classification, as has been done for the stone 
antiquities of Denmark by Professor Worsaae, and for those of 
Ireland by Sir William Wilde, I hoi)e to add something to our 
knowledge of this branch of Archaeology by instituting compari- 
sons, where possible, between the antiquities of England and Scot- 
land and those of the other countries of Western Europe. Nor, in 
considering the uses of the various forms and their method of 
manufacture, must I neglect to avail myself of the illustrations 
afforded by the practice of modern savages, of which Sir John 
Lubbock and others have already made such profitable use. 

But before commencing any examination of special forms, there 
are some few general considerations on which it seems advisable 
to enter, if only in a cursory manner ; and this is the more neces- 
sary, since notwithstanding the attention which has of late years 
been devoted to Prehistoric Antiquities, and the numerous treatises 
which have appeared upon the subject, there is seemingly still 
much misapprehension abroad as to the nature and value of the 
conclusions based upon recent archaeological and geological investi- 

At the risk therefore of being tedious, I shall have to notice 
once more many things already well known to archaeologists, 
but which, it would appear from the misconceptions so often 
evinced, even by those who speak and write on such matters, can 
hardly be too often repeated. 


Not the least misunderstood of these sulDJects is the classification 
of the antiquities of Western Europe, first practically adopted by 
the Danish antiquaries, under periods known as the Iron, Bronze, 
and Stone Ages ; the Iron Age, so far as Denmark is concerned, 
being supposed to go back to about the Christian era, the Bronze 
Age to embrace a period of one or two thousand years previous 
to that date, and the Stone Age all previous time of man's occu- 
pation of that part of the world. These diiFerent periods have 
been, and in some cases may be, safely subdivided ; but into this 
question I need not now enter, as it does not affect the general 
sequence. The idea of the succession is this : — 

1. That there was a period in each given part of Western 
Europe, say, for example, Denmark, when the use of metals for 
cutting instruments of any kind was unknown, and man had to 
depend on stone, bone, wood, and other readily accessible natural 
products, for his implements and weapons of the chase or war. 

2. That this period was succeeded by one in which the use of 
copper, or of copper alloyed with tin — bronze — became known, and 
gradually superseded the use of stone for certain purposes, though 
it remained in use for others ; and 

3. That a time arrived when bronze, in its turn, gave way to 
iron or steel, as being a superior metal for all cutting purposes ; 
and which, as such, has remained in use up to the present day. 

Such a classification into diiFerent ages in no way implies any 
exact chronology, far less one that would be applicable to all the 
countries of Western Europe alike, but is rather to be regarded as 
significant only of a succession of different stages of civilization ; 
for it is evident that at the time when, for instance, in a countiy 
such as Italy, the Iron Age may have commenced, some of the 
more northern countries of Europe may possibly have been in 
their Bronze Age, and others again still in their Stone Age. 

Neither does this classification imply that in the Bronze Age 
of any country stone implements had entirely ceased to be in use, 
nor even that in the Iron Ago both bronze and stone had been 
completely superseded for all cutting purposes. Like the three 
principal colours of the rainbow, these three stages of civilization 
overlap, intermingle, and shade off the one into the other ; and yet 
their succession, so far as Western Europe is concerned, appears 
to be equally well defined with that of the prismatic colours, 
though the proportions of the spectrum may vary in different 


T have spoken of this division into Periods as having been first 
practically adopted by the Danish school of antiquaries, but in fact 
this classification is by no means so recent as has been commonly 
supposed. Take, for instance, the following passage from Bishop 
Lyttelton's " Observations on Stone Hatchets," * written in 1766 : — 
" There is not the least doubt of these stone instruments havins; 
been fabricated in the earliest times, and by barbarous people, before 
the use of iron or other metals was known, and from the same cause 
spears and arrows were headed with flint and other hard stones." 
A century earlier, Sir William Dugdale, in his " History of 
Warwickshire," t also speaks of stone celts as weapons used by the 
Britons before the art of making arms of brass or iron was known. 
We find, in fact, that the same views were entertained not only 
by various writers J within the last two centuries, but also by many 
of the early poets and historians. There are even biblical grounds 
for argument in favour of such a view of a gradual development of 
material civilization. For all, including those who invest Adam 
with high moral attributes, must confess that whatever may have 
been his mental condition, his personal equipment in the way of 
tools or weapons could have been but inefficient if no artificer was 
instructed in brass and iron until the days of Tubal Cain, the 
sixth in descent from Adam's outcast son, and that too at a time 
when a generation was reckoned at a hundred years, instead of at 
thirty, as now. 

Turning, however, to Greek and Roman authors, we find 
Hesiod, § about k.c. 850, mentioning a time when bronze had not 
been superseded by iron : — 

ToTc S' i]v xaXicEnt i^ttv riv\tn, ^aA/cjoi 0« r« oikoi 
XoXki^ 5' tipyaZovTO, fikXag b' ovk iffj^e aiSijoog. 

Lucretius II is even more distinct in his views as to the successive 
Periods : — 

" Ai-ma antiqua manua, ungues, dentesque fuerunt 
Et lapides, et item sylvarum fragmina rami, — 
Posterius ferri vis est feiisque reperta ; 
Sed prior seris erat quam feiri cognitus usus. — 
^re solum terras tractabant, a^reque belli 
jMiscebant fluctus et vulnera vasta ferebant." 

So early as the days of Augustus it would appear that bronze 
arms were regarded as antiquities, and that emperor seems to have 

* ArrJireoloffia, ii. 118. t P- 778. 

j I would especially refer to an excellent article by the Rev. John Hodgson in 
vol. i. of the ^rchreologia JEliana (a. P. 1816), entitled "An Inquiry into the .Era 
when Brass was used in purposes to which Iron is now applied." 

§ Op. et Di., i. 150. || De Eeriun Nat., v. 1282. 

B 2 


commenced tlie first arcliaeological and g-eological collection on 
record, having adorned one of his country residences " rebus 
vetustate ac raritate notabilibus, qualia sunt Capreis immanium 
belluarum ferarumque membra pra^grandia, qua) dicuntur gigan- 
tum ossa et arma heroum."* 

We learn from Pausaniasf what these arms of the heroes 
were, for he explains how in the heroic times all weapons were 
of bronze, and quotes Homer's description of the axe of Pisander 
and the arrow of Meriones. He also cites the spear of Achilles in 
the Temple of Minerva, at Phaselis, the point and ferrule of which 
only were of bronze ; and the sword of Memnon in the Temple of 
^sculapius, at Nicomedia, which was wholly of bronze. In the 
same manner Plutarch J relates that when Cimon disinterred the 
remains of Theseus in Scyros he found with them a bronze spear- 
head and sword. 

There is, indeed, in Homer constant mention of arms, axes, and 
adzes of bronze, and though iron is also named, it is of far less 
frequent occurrence. According to the Arundelian marbles, § it 
was discovered only 188 years before the Trojan war, though of 
course such a date must be purely conjectural. Even Yirgil pre- 
serves the unities, and often gives to the heroes of the ^neid 
bronze arms, as well as to some of the people of Italy — 
"^rataeque micant peltse, micat asreus ensis." || 

The fact that in the Greek 5[ language the words ;)^o\Kei)? and 

^oX/cfijeu' remained in use as significant of working in iron affords a 

very strong, if not an irrefragable argument as to bronze having 

been the earlier metal known to that people. In the same way 

the continuance in use of bronze cutting implements in certain 

religious rites — as was also the case with some stone implements 

which I shall subsequently mention — affords evidence of their 

comparative antiquity. The Tuscans** at the foundation of a 

city ploughed the pomoerium with a bronze ploughshare, the 

priests of the Sabines cut their hair with bronze knives, and the 

Chief Priest of Jupiter at Pome used shears of the same metal for 

that purpose. In the same manner Medea has attributed to her, both 

by Sophocles andOvid,tf a bronze sickle when gathering her magic 

* Suetonius, Vit. Aug., cap. Ixxii. f Laconica, cap. 3. 

+ Op., ed. 1624, vol. i. p. 17. § Wilkinson, Anc. Egypt, iii. 241. 

II ^n., 1. vii. 743. 

H XoXkiiiuv Si Kai rb fficripeviiv iXiyov, Kn'i x'^'^'^^'^C tovq t'ov (yivripcv ipya'Co- 
n'ivovQ. — Jul. Pollux, Onomastioon, lib. vii. cap. 24. 

** Macrohius, Saturnal., v. 19. Ilhodiginus, Antiq., Lect. xix. c. 10. 
tt Met., lib. vii. 228. 


herbs, and Elissa is represented by Virgil as using a similar instru- 
ment for the same purpose. Altogether, if history is to count for 
anything, there can be no doubt that in Greece and Italy, the 
earliest civilized countries of Europe, the use of bronze preceded 
that of iron, and therefore that there was in each case a Bronze 
Age of greater or less duration preceding the Iron Age. 

It seems probable that the first iron used was meteoric, and 
such may have been that "self-fused" mass which formed one of 
the prizes at the funeral games of Patroclus,* and was so large 
that it would suffice its possessor for all purposes during five years. 
Even the Greek word for iron (fft'Siypos) may not improbably be 
connected with the meteoric origin of the first known form of the 
metal. Its affinity with aaTi]p, often used for a shooting star or 
meteor, with the Latin sidera and our own "star," is evident. 

Professor Lauth,f moreover, interprets the Coptic word for 
iron, Hertine, as "the stone of heaven " (Stein des Himmels), 
which implies that in Egypt also its meteoric origin was acknow- 

Some, however, are of opinion that during the time that bronze 
was employed for cutting instruments iron was also in use for other 
purposes. J At the first introduction of iron this was, no doubt, 
the case, but we can hardly suppose the two metals to have been 
introduced simultaneously ; and if they had been, the questions 
arise, from whence did they come ? and how are we to account 
for the one not having sooner superseded the other for cutting 
purposes ? 

Another argument that has been employed in favour of iron 
having been the first metal used is that bronze is a mixed metal 
requiring a knowledge of the art of smelting both copper and tin, 
the latter being only produced in few districts, and generally 
having to be brought from far, while certain of the ores of iron 
are of easy access and readily reducible, § and meteoric iron is also 
found in the metallic state and adapted for immediate use. The 
answer to this is, first, that all historical evidence is against the 
use of iron previous to that of bronze ; and, secondly, that even in 
Eastern Africa, where, above all other places, the conditions for 
the development of the manufacture of iron seem most favourable, 
we have no evidence of the knowledge of that metal having pre- 

* Homer, II., xxiii. 82G. 

t Zeitsch. f. -Egypt. Sprache, &c., 1870, p. 114. 
X See De Rougemout, " L'Age du Brunze," p. 159. 
^ See Percy's " Metallurgy," vol. i. p. 873. 


ceded that of bronze ; but, on the contrary, we find in Egypt, a 
country often brought in contact with these iron-producing dis- 
tricts, no trace of iron before the twelfth dynasty,* and of its use 
even then the evidence is onl}^ pictorial, whereas the copper mines 
at Maghara are said to date back to the second dynasty, some 
eight hundred years earlier, Agatharchides,f moreover, relates 
that in his time, ciira B.C. 100, there were found buried in the 
ancient gold mines of Egypt the bronze chisels (Aaro/AtSes -xaXKai) 
of the old miners, and he accounts for their being of that metal by 
the fact that at the period when the mines were originally worked 
the use of iron was entirely unknown. To use the words of my 
lamented friend, the late Mr. Crawfurd,J who by no means agreed 
that such a sequence was almost universal, "Ancient Egypt seems 
to offer a case in which a Bronze Age clearly preceded an Iron 
one ; or, at least, in which cutting instruments of bronze preceded 
those of iron." 

To return, however, to Greece and Italy, there can, as I have 
already said, be little question but that even on historical grounds 
we must accept the fact that in those countries, at all events, the 
use of bronze preceded that of iron. We may therefore infer 
theoretically that the same sequence held good with the neighbour- 
ing and more barbarous nations of lYestern Euroije. Even in the 
time of Pausanias§ (after a.d. 174) the Sarmatians are mentioned as 
being unacquainted with the use of iron ; and practically we have 
good corroborative archncological evidence of such a sequence in 
other countries, for in more than one instance extensive discoveries 
have been made of antiquities belonging to the transitional period, 
when the use of iron or steel was gradually superseding that of 
bronze for tools or weapons, and when the forms given to the 
new metal were copied from those of the old. The most notable 
relics of this transitional period are those of the ancient cemetery at 
Ilallstatt, in the Salzkammergut, Austria, where upwards of a 
thousand graves have been opened by Herr Ramsauer, of the con- 
tents of which a detailed account has been given by the Baron von 
>Sacken.|| The evidence afforded by the discoveries in the Swiss lakes 
is almost equally satisfactory ; but I need not now enter further into 
the question of the existence and succession of the Bronze and Iron 
Ages, which has already been so fully discussed by Sir John 

* De Rouf^emont, op. ciL, p. 158. 

t Photii Bibliothoca, ed. 1653, col. 1343. 

J I'raris. Ktlniiil. ,Sor., vol. iv. p. 5. § Lib. i. C. 21, 

II " Das Grabl'old voii Ilallstatt und dessen Alterthumer." Vienna, 1868. 


Lubbock and others, I am at present concerned with the Stone 
Age, and if, as all agree, there was a time when the use of iron or 
of bronze, or of both together, first became known to the barbarous 
nations of the West of Eurojje, then it is evident that before that 
time they were unacquainted with the use of those metals, and 
were therefore in that stage of civilization which has been charac- 
terized as the Stone Age. 

It is not, of course, to be expected that Ave should discover 
direct contemporary historical testimony amongst any people of 
their being in this condition, for in no case do we find a know- 
ledge of writing developed in this stage of culture ; and yet, apart 
from the material relics of this phase of progress which are found 
from time to time in the soil, there is to be obtained in most civilized 
countries indirect circumstantial evidence of the former use of stone 
implements, even where those of metal had been employed for cen- 
turies before authentic history commences. It is in religious cus- 
toms and ceremonies — in rites which have been handed down from 
generation to generation, and in which the minute and careful 
repetition of ancient observances is indeed often the essential 
religious element — that such evidence is to be sought. As has 
already been observed by others, the transition from ancient to 
venerable, from venerable to holy, is as natural as it is universal ; 
and in the same manner as some of the festivals and customs of 
Christian countries are directly traceable to heathen times, so no 
doubt many of the religious observances of ancient times were 
relics of what was even then a dim past. 

Whatever we may think of the etymology of the word as given 
by Cicero,* Lactantius,t or Lucretius, J there is much to be said 
in favour of Mr. E. B. Tyler's § view of superstition being " the 
standing over of old habits into the midst of a new and changed 
state of things — of the retention of ancient practices for cere- 
monial purposes long after they had been superseded for the 
commonplace uses of ordinary life." 

Such a standing over of old customs we seem to discover among 
most of the civilized peoples of antiquity. Turning to Egypt and 
Western Asia, the eaidy home of European civilization, we find 
from Herodotus || and from Diodorus Siculus ^ that in the rite of 

* Tie Nat. Deor., 1. ii. c. 28. f Lib. iv. c. 28. 
X Lib. i. V. 66. 

§ '-Earl}' Hibtory of Mauliiud," p. 218, q.i\; 2ud edit. p. 22L 

II Lib. ii. 86. ^ Lib. i. 9L 




embalming, though the brain was removed by a crooked iron, yet 
the body was cut open with a sharp Ethiopian stone. 

In several European museums are preserved thin, flat, leaf-shaped 
knives of dark cherty flint found in Egypt. In character of work- 
manship their correspondence to the flint knives or daggers of 
Scandinavia is most striking. They are, however, usually pro- 
vided with a tang at one end at the back of the blade, and in this 
respect resemble metallic blades intended to be mounted by means 
of a tang; driven into the haft. 

In the British Museum is an Egyptian dagger-like instrument 
of flint, from the Hay collection, still mounted in its original 
wooden handle, apparently by a central tang, and with remains 
of its skin sheath. It is shown on the scale of one- 
fourth in Fig. 1. There is also a polished stone 
knife broken at the handle, which bears upon it, in 
hieroglyphical characters, the name of ptahmes, an 

Curiously enough, the bodies of the chiefs or 
Menceys of the Guanches in Tenerifie* were also cut 
open with knives made of sharp pieces of obsidian, 
by particular persons set apart for the office. 

The rite of circumcision was among those prac- 
tised by the Egyptians, but whether it was per- 
formed with a stone knife, as was the case with 
the Jews when they came out of Egypt, is not 
certain. Among the latter people, not to lay stress 
on the case of Zipporah,f it is recorded of JoshuaJ 
that in circumcising the children of Israel he made 
use of knives of stone. It is true that in our ver- 
sion the words C^l^^i n'in"in are translated sharp knives, which by 
analogy with a passage in Psalm Ixxxix. 44 (43 E. V.) is not other- 
wise than correct ; but the Syriac, Arabic, Vulgate, and Septuagint 
translations all give knives of stone ; § and the latter version, in 
the account of the burial of Joshua, adds that they laid with him 
the stone knives (tos fxaxaipas ras irerpiva^) with which he circum- 
cised the children of Israel — " and there they are unto this day." 
Gesenius (s. r. IT^) observes upon the passage, " This is a cir- 
cumstance worthy of remark ; and goes to show at least, that knives 
of stone were found in tlie sepulchres of Palestine, as well as in 

r-' (.' 

Egypt.— Fig. 1. 

* TrcDin. Ethn. Soc, N. S., vii. 112. 
t Josh. V. 2. 

t Exod. iv. 25. 
^S lb., xxiv. 30. 


tLose of nortli-westeru Europe." * Under certain circumstances 
modern Jews make use of a fragment of flint or glass for this rite. 
The occurrence of flint knives in ancient Jewish sejjulchres may, 
however, be connected with a far earlier occupation of Palestine 
than that of the Jews. It was a constant custom with them to 
bury in caves, and recent discoveries have shown that, like the 
caves of Western Europe, many of these were at a remote period 
occupied by those unacquainted with the use of metals, and whose 
stone implements are found mixed up with the bones of the 
animals which had served them for food.f 

Of analogous uses of stone Ave hud some few traces among 
classical writers. Ovid, speaking of Atys, makes the instrument 
with which he maimed himself to be a sharp stone. 

" Ille etiam saxo corpus laniavit acuto." 

The solemn treaties amoug the Romans were ratified by the 
FetialisiJ: sacrificing a pig with a flint stone, which, however, does 
not appear to have been sharpened. " Ubi dixit, porcum saxo 
silice percussit." The " religiosa silex " § of Claudian seems 
rather to have been a block of stone like that under the form 
of which Jupiter, Cybele, Diana, and even Venus were worshipped. 
Pausanias informs us that it was the custom among the Greeks to 
bestow divine honours on certain unshaped stones, and ZEYS 
KASIOS is thus represented on coins of Seleucia in Syria, Avhile the 
Paphian Venus appears in the form of a conical stone on coins 
struck in Cyprus. 

The traces, however, of the Stone Age in the religious rites of 
Greece and E-ome are extremely slight, and this is by no means 
remarkable when we consider how long the use of bronze, and 
even of iron, had been known in those parts of Europe at the time 
when authentic history commences. We shall subsequently see 
at how early a period different implements of stone had a mys- 
terious if not a superstitious virtue assigned to them. I need 
only mention as an instance that in a beautiful gold necklace || 
of Greek or Etruscan workmanship, and now in the British 
Museum, the central pendant consists of a delicate flint arrow- 
head, elegantly set in gold, and probably worn as a charm. 

* See also Tylor's "Early History of Mankind," 2nd edit., p. 217. The entire 
chapter on the Stone Age, Past and Present, is well worthy of careful perusal, and 
enters more fully into the whole question of the Stone Age throughout the woild 
than comes within my province. 

t Cuinptes Jioid/is, 1871, Ixxiii. 540. ; Livy, lib. i. c. 2-1. § Rapt. Proserp., i. 201. 

II " Hone Ferales," p. 136. Arc/i. Juitni., vol. xi. p. 169. 


Nor is the religious use of stone confiued to Europe.* In 
Western Africa, when the god Gimawong makes his annual visit 
to his temple at Labode, his worshij}pers kill the ox which they 
offer with a stone. 

To come nearer home, it is not to be expected that in this 
country, the earliest written history of which (if we except the 
slight account derived from merchants trading hither) comes from 
the pen of foreign conquerors, we should have any records of the 
Stone Age. In Caesar's time the tribes with which he came in 
contact were already acquainted with the use of iron, and M^ere, 
indeed, for the most part immigrants from Gaul, a country whose 
inhabitants had, by war and commerce, been long brought in 
contact with the more civilized inhabitants of Italy and Greece, 
I have elsewhere shown f that the degree of civilization which must 
be conceded to those maritime tribes far exceeds what is accorded 
by popular belief. The older occupants of Britain, who had 
retreated before the Belgic invaders, and occupied the western and 
northern parts of the island, were no doubt in a far more bar- 
barous condition ; but in no case in which they came in contact 
with their Roman invaders do they seem to have been unacquainted 
with the use of iron. Even the Caledonians,^ in the time of 
Severus, who tattooed themselves with the figures of animals, and 
went nearly naked, carried a shield, a spear, and a sword, and 
wore iron collars and girdles, though they deemed these latter 
ornamental and an evidence of wealth, in the same way as other 
barbarians esteemed gold. 

But though at the commencement of the Christian era the 
knowledge of the use of iron may have been general throughout 
Britain, and though probably an acquaintance with bronze, at all 
events in the southern part of the island, may probably date many 
centuries further back, it by no means follows, as I cannot too 
often repeat, that the use of stone for various purposes to which it 
had previously been applied should suddenly have ceased on a 
superior material, in the shape of metal, becoming known. On the 
contrary, we know that the use of certain stone weapons was con- 
temporary with the use of bronze daggers, and the probability is 
that in the poorer and more inaccessible parts of the country stone 
continued in use for many ordinarj'^ purposes long after bronze, 

* Arch, fih- ^4nf/iropol., iii. IG. 

t "Coins of the Aucient Britons," pp. 42, 263, et alin. 

X Herodiuu, lib. iii. c. 14. 


and possibly even iron, was known in the richer and more civilized 

Sir William "Wilde informs us that in Ireland * "stone hammers, 
and not unfrequently stone anvils, have been employed by countrj^ 
smiths and tinkers in some of the remote couiitr}^ districts until a 
comparatively recent period." The same use of stone hammers 
and anvils for forging prevails among the Kaffirs f of the present 
day. In Iceland,:}: also, perforated stone hammers are still in use 
for pounding dried fish, driving in stakes, for forging and other 
purposes ; and I have seen fruit-hawkers in the streets of London 
cracking Brazil nuts between two stones. 

With some excej)tions it is, therefore, nearl}^ imjDossible to say 
whether an ancient object made of stone can be assigned with 
absolute certainty to t*he Stone Period or no. Much will depend 
upon the circumstances of the discovery, and in some instances 
the form may be a guide. 

The remarks I have just made apply more particularly to the 
weapons, tools, and implements belonging to the period more 
immediately antecedent to the Bronze Age, and extending back- 
wards in time through an imknown number of centuries. For 
besides the objects belonging to what was originally known by 
the Danish antiquaries as the Stone Period, which are usually 
found upon or near the surface of the soil, in encampments, on 
the sites of ancient habitations, and in tumuli, there are others 
which occur in caverns beneath thick layers of stalagmite, and in 
ancient alluvia, in both cases usually associated with the remains 
of animals either locally or entirely extinct. In no case do we 
find any trace of metallic tools or weapons in true association with 
the stone implements of the old ossiferous caverns, or with those 
of the beds of gravel, sand, and cla}' deposited by the ancient 
rivers ; and, unlike the implements found upon the surface and 
in graves, which in many instances are ground or polished, 
those from the caves, and from what are termed by geologists 
the Quaternary gravels, are, so far as at present known, invari- 
ably chipped only, and not ground, besides as a rule differino- in 

This difference § in the character of the implements of the two 

* Cat. of Stone Ant. in E. I. A. Mus., p. 81. 

t Wood's Nat. Hist, of Man, i. 97. 

X Klemm, " Allgemeine Culturwissenschaft," part i. p. 86. 

§ P/iil. Trans., 1860, p. 311. Anh(€olo(jlii, vol. xxxviii. p. 293. 


periods, and the vast interval of time between the two, I pointed 
out in 1859, at the time when the discoveries of M. Boucher de 
Perthes in the Valley of the Somme first attracted the attention of 
English geologists and antiquaries. Since then, the necessity of 
subdividing what had until then been regarded as the Stone 
Age into two distinct stages, an earlier and a later, has been 
universally recognised ; and Sir John Lubbock * has proposed 
to call them the Archaeolithic, or Palaeolithic, and the Neolithic 
Periods respectively, terms which have met with almost general 
acceptance, and of which I shall avail myself in the course of 
this work. In speaking of the polished and other implements 
belonging to the time when the general surface of the country 
had received its present configuration, I may, however, also 
occasionally make use of the synonymous term Surface Period for 
the Neolithic, and shall also find it convenient to treat of the 
Palaeolithic Period under two subdivisions — those of the Piver- 
gravels and of the Caves, the fauna and implements of which 
are not in all cases identical. 

In passing the different kinds of implements, weapons, and 
ornaments formed of stone under review, I propose to commence 
with an examination of the antiquities of the Neolithic Period, 
then to proceed to the stone implements of human manufacture 
discovered embedded with ancient mammalian remains in Caverns, 
and to conclude with an account of the discoveries of flint 
implements in the Drift or Piver- gravels in various parts of 
England. But before describing their forms and characters, it 
will be well to consider the method of manufacture by which the 
various forms were produced. 

* "Prehistoric Times" (1865), p. 60. 




In seeking to ascertain the metliod by whicli the stone imple- 
ments and weapons of antiquity were fabricated, we cannot, in all 
probability, follow a better guide than that which is afforded us 
by the manner in which instruments of similar character are 
produced at the present day. As, in accounting for the vast 
geological changes which we find to have taken place in the crust 
of the earth, the safest method of argument is by referring to 
ascertained chemical laws, and to the existing operations of 
nature, so, in order to elucidate the manufacture of stone imple- 
ments by the ancient inhabitants of this and other countries, we 
may refer to the methods employed by existing savages in what we 
must judge to be a somewhat similar state of culture, and to the 
recognised characteristics of the materials employed. "We may 
even go further, and call in aid the experience of some of our own 
countrymen, who still work upon similar materials, although for 
the purpose of producing different objects from those which were 
in use in ancient times. 

So far as relates to the method of production of implements 
formed of silicious materials, there can be no doubt that the 
manufacture of gun-flints, which, notwithstanding the introduction 
of percussion-caps, is still carried on to some extent both in this 
and in neighbouring countries, is that best calculated to afford 
instruction. The principal places in England where the gun- 
flint manufacture is now carried on are Icklingham in Suffolk, 
and Brandon, on the borders of Norfolk and Suffolk, at both 
which places I have witnessed the process. They are also 

* This chapter, with the exception of a few passages, was -nTitten in 1868, and 
communicated to the International Congress of Prehistoric Archaeology held at 
Norwich in that year. See Treats. Freli. Coiij., 1868, p. 191, where a short abstract 
is given. 


manufactured on a less extensive scale at Nonvich. At Brandon, 
in 1868, I was informed that upwards of twenty workmen were 
employed, who were capable of producing among them from 
200,000 to 250,000 gun-flints per week. These are destined 
almost entirely for exportation, principally to Africa. 

In proof of the antiquity of the use of flint as a means of pro- 
ducing fire, I need hardly quote the ingenious derivation of the 
word Silox as given by Vincent of Beauvais : — " Silex est lapis 
durus, sic dictus eo quod ex eo ignis exiliat." * But before iron 
was known as a metal, it would appear that flint was in use as a 
fire-producing agent in combination with blocks of iron pyrites 
(sulphuret of iron) instead of steel. Nodules of this substance 
have been found in both French and Belgian bone-caves belonging 
to an extremely remote period ; while, as belonging to Neolithic 
times, to say nothing of discoveries in this country which will 
subsequently be mentioned, part of a nodule of pyrites may be 
cited which had apparently been thus used, and was found in the 
Lake-dwelling of Robenhausen.f In our own days, this method 
of obtaining fire has been observed among savages in Ticrra 
del Fuego, and among the Esquimaux of Smith's Sound. J The 
Pueo-ian tinder, like the modern German and ancient Roman, 
consisted of dried fungus, which when lighted is wrapped in a ball 
of dried grass and whirled round the head till it bursts into 
flames. Achates, as will shortly be seen, is described by Virgil 
as following the same method. 

The name of pyrites (from nvp) is itself sufficient evidence of 
the purpose to which this mineral was applied in early times, and 
the same stone was used as the fire- giving agent in the guns with 
the form of lock known as the wheel-lock. Pliny § speaks of a 
certain sort of pyrites, " plurimum habens ignis, quos vivos appel- 
lamus, et ponderosissimi sunt." These, as his translator, Holland, 
says, " bee most necessary for the espiaUs belonging unto a campe, 

* Spec. Natm-fo, lib. ix. srct. 13. 

t Morlot in licr. Arch., vol. v. (1862), p. 216. Geologist, vol. v. p. 192. En.c-cl- 
hardt found several similar pieces of pyrites at Thorsbjerg, with iron and other 
antiquities of about the fourth century of our era. He says that steels for striking 
fire are not at present known as belonging to the Early Iron Age of Denmark. This 
late use of pyrites affords strong evidence of iron and steel having been unknown to 
the makers of flint imjilements, for had they made use of ii'on hammers, the superior 
fire-giving properties of flint and iron would at once have been evident, and pyrites 
would probablv soon have been superseded, at all events in countries whei-e flint 
abounded.— Engclhardt, "Thorsbjerg ]\Iosefund," p. 60; p. 65 in the English edit. 

I Weddell, "Voyage towards South Pole," p. 167; Tylor, "Early History of 
Mankind," 2nd edit., p. 249. Wood's Nat. Hist, of Man, vol. ii. p. 522. 

§ Hist. Nat., lib. xxxvi. cap. 19. 


for if they strike tlicra eitliei' with an yi"on spike or another stone 
they will cast forth sparks of fire, which lighting upon matches 
dipt in brimstone (sulphiiratis) drie puffs {fungis) or leaves, will 
cause them to catch fire sooner than a man can say the word." 

The same author * informs us that it was Pyrodes, the son of 
Cilix, who first devised the way to strike fire out of flint — a myth 
which seems to point to the use of silex and pyrites rather than of 
steel. How soon jDyrites was, to a great extent, superseded by 
steel or iron, there seems to be no good evidence to prove ; it is 
probable, however, that the use of flint and steel was well known 
to the Homans of the Augustan age, and that Virgil f pictured 
the Trojan voyager as using steel, when — 

" silici scintillam excudit Achates, 
Suscepitqiie ignem foliis atqiie arida circum 
Nutrimenta dedit, rapuitque in fomite fiammam." 

And again, where — 

"quferit pars semina flammse 
Abstrusa in venis silicis." j 

In Claudian § we find the distinct mention of flint and steel — 

"Flagrat anhela siJex et amicam saucia sentit 
Materiem, placidosque chalybs agnoscit amores." 

At Unter Uhldingen |] a Swiss lake station where Roman 
pottery was present, was found what appears to be a steel for 
striking a light. However the case may have been as to the 
means of procuring fire, it was not until some centuries after the 
invention of gunpowder that flints were applied to the purpose of 
discharging fire-arms. Beckmann,^ in his " History of Inven- 
tions," mentions that it was not until the year 1687 that the 
soldiers of Brvmswick obtained guns with flint-locks, instead of 
match-locks, though, no doubt, the \ise of the wheel-lock with 
pyrites had in some other places been superseded before that time. 
I am not aware of there being any record of flints, such as were 
in use for tinder-boxes,** having been in ancient times an article of 
commerce ; this, however, must have been the case, as there are 
so many districts in which flint does not naturally occur, and into 
which, therefore, it woidd have by some means to be introduced. 

* Lib. vii. cap. 56. t ^neid, i. v. 174 

X ^neid, vi. v. 6. See also Georg. i. 135 — "Ut silicis venis abslxusum 
excuderet ignem." On this passage Fosbroke remarks {^Enc. Ant., i. 307), "A stone 
with a vein was chosen as now." 

§ Eidvllia, v. 42. || Keller, "Lake-dwellings," p. 119. 

H Vol. ii. p. 536. Bohn's edit., 1846. 

** An interesting paper on tinder-boxes will be found in The Rdiquari/, vii. 65. 


Even at the j)resent day, when so many lucifers and other chemical 
matches are in use, flints are still to be purchased at the shops in 
country places in the United Kingdom ; and artificially prepared 
flints continue to be common articles of sale both in France and 
Germany, and are in constant use, in conjunction with German 
tinder or prepared cotton, by tobacco-smokers. At Brandon * a 
certain number of " strike-a-light " flints are still manufactured 
for exportation, principally to the East and to Brazil — they are 
usually circular discs, about two inches in diameter. These flints 
are wrought into shape in precisely the same manner as gun-flints, 
and it seems possible that the trade of chipping flint into forms 
adapted to be used ^vith steel for striking a light may be of con- 
siderable antiquity, and that the manufacture of gun-flints ought 
consequently to be regarded as only a modification and extension 
of a pre-existing art, closely allied with the facing and squaring of 
flints for architectural purposes, which reached great perfection at 
an early period. However this may be, it would seem that when 
gun-flints were an indispensable munition of war, a great mystery 
was made as to the manner in which they were prepared. Bcck- 
mann f says that, considering the great use made of them, it will 
hardly be believed how much trouble he had to obtain information 
on the subject. It would be ludicrous to rej)eat the various 
answers he obtained to his inquiries. Many thought that the 
stones were cut down by grinding them ; some conceived that 
they were formed by means of red-hot pincers ; and many asserted 
that they were made in mills. The best account of the manufac- 
ture with which he was acquainted was that collected by his 
brother, and published in the Hanoverian Magazine for the year 
1772. At a later date the well-known mineralogist DolomieuJ 
gave an account of the process in the 3Ieinoires de Vliufifut 
National des Sciences, and M. Hacquet,§ of Leopol, in Galicia, 
published a pamphlet on the same subject. The accounts given 
by these latter authors correspond most closely with each other, and 
also with the practice of the present day. The flints best adapted 
for the purpose of the manufacture are those from the chalk. 
They must, however, be of fair size, free from flaws and included 
organisms, and very homogeneous in structure. They are usually 

* Stevens's " Flint Chips," p. 588. f Op. cif., ii. p. .537. 

J " Classe Mathenmtiqne et Physiqno," t. 3, an. ix. An abstract of this account 
is given in R(!cs' Encyclop., s.r. Gun-fiint. 

^ " Physischo und terhnische Bcschreibunp; der Fh'ntcnsteine," &c., von Hacquet. 
Wien, 1792, 8vo. A nearly similar account is given in Winckell's " Handhuch fiir 
.Jiiger," &c., 1822, Theil iii' p. 546. 


procured by sinking small shafts into the ground until a band of 
flints of the right quality is reached, along which low horizontal 
galleries, or "burrows," as they are called, are worked. For 
success in the manufacture a great deal is said to depend upon the 
condition of the flint as regards the moisture it contains, those 
which have been too long exposed upon the surface becoming 
intractable, and there being also a difficulty in working those that 
are too moist. A few blows with the hammer enable a practised 
flint-knapper to judge whether the material on which he is at 
work is in the proper condition or no. Some of the Brandon 
workmen, however, maintain that though a flint which has been 
some time exposed to the air is harder than one recently dug, yet 
that it works equally well, and they say further, that the object in 
keeping the flints moist is to preserve the black colour from fading, 
black gun-flints being most saleable. 

The tools required in the process are few and simple : — 

1. A square-faced blocking or quartering hammer, from one to two 
pounds in weight, made either of iron or of iron faced with steel. 

2. A well-hardened steel flaking hammer, bluntly pointed at 
each end, and weighing about a pound or more. 

3. A light oval hammer, known as an " English " hammer, the 
pointed flaking hammer having been introduced from France. 

4. A square-edged trimming or knapping hammer, which 
may either be in the form of a disc, or oblong and flat at the 
end, and is made of steel not hardened. In England this 
hammer is usually made from a portion of an old flat file drawn 
out at each end into a thin blade, about yV of an inch in thick- 
ness, and perforated to receive the helve, the total length being 
about 7 or 8 inches. 

5. A chisel about 2 inches wide, not sharp, but flat at either 
end, and set vertically in a block of wood, which at the same time 
forms a bench for the workman. In England, the upper surface 
of this chisel, or stake, is about J inch thick, and inclined at an 
angle to the bench. 

The method * of manufacture is as follows : — A block of flint is 
broken by means of the quartering hammer in such a manner as 
to detach masses, the newly fractured surfaces of which are as 
nearly as possible plane and even. One of these blocks is then 

* Since this was written, an account of the process of making gun-flints, written 
hy INIr. James Wyatt, F.G.S., has been published in Stevens's " Flint Chips," p. 578. 
A set of gim-flint makers' tools is in the Mnsee de St. Germain, and the process of 
manufacture has been described by M. G. de Mortillet ("Promenades," p. G9). 



held in the left hand, so that the edge rests on a leathern pad tied 
on the thigh of the seated workman, the surface to be struck 
inclining at an angle of about 45°. A splinter is then detached from 
the margin by means of the flaking, or the English, hammer. 
If the flint is of good quality, this splinter may be 3 or 4 
inches in length, the line of fracture being approximately parallel 
to the exterior of the flint. There is, of course, the usual bulb of 
percussion, or rounded protuberance at the end,* where the 
blow is given, and a corresponding depression is left in the mass 
of flint. Another splinter is next detached, by a blow given at a 
distance of about an inch on one side of the spot where the first 
blow fell, and then others at similar distances, until some portion 
of the block assumes a more or less regular polygonal outline. As 
the splinters which are first detached usually show a portion of the 
natural crust of the flint upon them, they are commonly thrown 
away as useless. The second and succeeding rows of flakes are 
those adaj)ted for gun-flints. To obtain these, the blows of tlie 
flaking hammer are administered midway between two of the 
projecting angles of the polygon, and almost immediately behind 
the spots where the blows dislodging the previous row of flakes or 
splinters were administered, though a little to one side. They 
fall at such a distance from the outer surface as is necessary for 
the thickness of a gun-flint. By this means a succession of flakes 
is produced, the section of which is that of an obtuse isosceles 

Fig. 2. — Flint-core with Hakes lojiluct'd uiJon it. j 

triangle with the apex removed, inasmuch as for gun-flints 
flakes are required with the face and back parallel, and not with a 
projecting ridge running along the back. 

* See posfea, p. 247. 


Fig. 2, representing a block from which a number offtakes adapted 
for gun-flints have been detached and subsequently returned to their 
original positions around the central core or nucleus, will give a good 
idea of the manner in which flake after flake is struck off. To com- 
plete the manufacture, each flake is taken in the left hand, and cut 
ofi" into lengths of the width required for a gun-flint, by means of 
the knapping hammer and the chisel fixed in the bench. The 
flake is placed over the chisel at the spot where it is to be cut, 
and, by a few light blows of the hammer, a slight notch is pro- 
duced, where the flint breaks in a straight line across on receiving 
a harder blow ; or a skilful workman will cut the flake in two, at a 
single stroke. The sections of flakes thus produced have a cutting 
edge at each end ; but the finished gun-flint is formed by chipping 
ofi" the edge at the butt-end and slightly rounding it by means 
of the fixed chisel and knapping hammer, the blows from which 
are made to fall just within the chisel, so that the two together 
cut much in the same manner as a pair of shears. Considerable 
skill is required in the manufacture, more especially in the forma- 
tion of the flakes ; but Hacquet * says that a fortnight's practice 
is sufficient to enable an ordinary workman to fashion from five 
hundred to eight himdred gun-flints in a day. According to him, 
an experienced workman will produce from a thousand to fifteen 
hundred. Dolomieu, however, estimates three days as the time 
required by a calUoiiteur to produce a thousand gun-flints ; but 
as the highest price quoted by Hacquet for French gun-flints is 
only six francs the thousand, it seems probable that his calculation 
as to the time required for their manufacture is not far wrong. 
Some of the Brandon flint-knappers are, however, said to be 
capable of producing sixteen thousand to eighteen thousand gun- 
flints in a week. Taking the lowest estimate, it appears that a 
practised hand is capable of making at least three hundred flint 
implements of a given definite form, and of some degree of finish, 
in the course of a single day. If our primitive forefathers could 
produce their worked flints with equal ease, the wonder is, not 
that so many of them are found, but that they do not occur in far 
greater numbers. 

The ancient flint-workers had not, however, the advantages of 
steel and iron tools and other modern appliances at their command ; 
and, at first sight, it would appear that the production of flakes of 
flint, without having a pointed metallic hammer for the purpose, 

* P. 52. 

c 2 


was a matter of great difficult3\ I have, however, made some 
experiments upon the subject, and have also employed a Suffolk 
flint-knapper to do so, and I find that bloAvs from a rounded 
pebble, judiciously administered, are capable of producing well- 
formed flakes, such as in shape cannot be distinguished from 
those made with a metallic hammer. The main difiiculties consist, 
first, in making the blow fall exactly in the proper place ; and, 
secondly, in so proportioning its intensity that it shall simply 
dislodge a flake, without shattering it. The pebble employed as a 
hammer need not be attached to a shaft, but can be used, without 
any preparation, in the hand. Professor Nilsson tried the same 
experiment long ago, and has left on record an interesting 
account of his experience.* 

In the neighbourhood of the Pfahl-bauten of Moosseedorf, in 
Switzerland, have been found numerous spots where flint has been 
worked up into implements, and vast numbers of flakes and 
splinters left as refuse. Dr. Keller t says that "the tools used for 
making these flint implements do not seem to have been of the same 
material, but of gabbro, a bluish-green and very hard and tough 
kind of stone. Several of these implements have been met with ; 
their form is very simple, and varies between a cube and an oval. 
The oval specimens were ground down in one or two places, and 
the most pointed part was used for hammering." There were 
nearly similar workshops at Wauwyl | and Bodmann, not to 
mention places where flint was dug for the purposes of manu- 

Closely analogous sites of ancient flint-workshops have been 
discovered both in France § and Germany, || as well as in Great 
Britain ; such, for instance, as that at the confluence ^ of the 
Leochel and the Don, in Aberdeenshire, where, moreover, flint is 
not native in the neigbbourhood ; but proper attention has not, 
in all cases, been paid to the hammer-stones, which, in all pro- 
bability, occur with the chippings of flint. 

The blow from the hammer coidd not, of course, be alwaj^s 
administered at the right spot ; and I have noticed on some 
ancient flakes a groove at the butt-end, the bottom of which is 
crushed, as if by blows from a round pebble, which, from having 

* "Stone Age," p. 6. f "Lake-dwellings," p. 36. 

I I. c. pp. 86 and 97. § Com]}tcs Scndus, 1867, vol. Ixv. p. 640. 

II 'JVoyon, " Mon. de I'Antiquite," p. 52. 
if rroc. Soc. Ant. ISvot., vol. iv. p. 38o. 


fallen too near tlie eJgc of the block, had at first merely bruised 
the flint, instead of detaching the flake. 

There are, moreover, a certain nmnber of small cores, or nuclei, 
both English and foreign, from which such minute and regular 
flakes have been detached, that it is difficult to believe that a 
mere stone hammer could have been directed with sufficient skill 
and precision to produce such extreme regularity of form. I may 
cite as instances some of the small nuclei which are found on the 
Yorkshire wolds, and some of those from the banks of the 
Mahanuddy,* in India, which, but for the slight dissimilarity in 
the material (the latter being usually chalcedony and the former 
flint), coidd hardly be distinguished from each other. There are 
also some large nuclei, such as those from the neighbourhood of 
the Indus, t in Upper Scinde, and one which I possess from 
Ghlin, in Belgium, which are suggestive of the same difficulty. 
In form they much resemble the obsidian cores of Mexico, and it 
seems not improbable that they are the result of some similar 
process of making flakes or knives to that which was in use 
among the Aztecs. 

Torquemada+ thus describes the process he found in use: — 
" One of these Indian workmen sits down upon the ground, and 
takes a piece of this black stone " (obsidian) " about eight inches 
long or rather more, and as thick as one's leg or rather less, and 
cylindrical ; they have a stick as large as the shaft of a lance, 
and three cubits or rather more in length ; and at the end of it 
they fasten firmly another piece of wood, eight inches long, to give 
more weight to this part ; then, pressing their naked feet together, 
they hold the stone as with a pair of pincers or the vice of a 
carpenter's bench. They take the stick (which is cut off" smooth 
at the end) with both hands, and set it well home against the edge 
of the front of the stone {y ponen lo aresar con el canto cle la /rente 
de la pied ra), which also is cut smooth in that part ; and then they 
press it against their breast, and with the force of the pressure 
there flies off" a knife, with its point, and edge on each side, as 
neatly as if one were to make them of a turnip w^ith a sharp knife, 
or of iron in the fire." Hernandez § gives a similar account of the 

* Proc. Soc. Ant., 2nd Series, vol. iii. p. 38. 

t Geol. Ma;/., vol. iii. (1866), p. 433. 

X "Monarquia Indiana," lib. xvii. cap. 1, Seville, IGlo, translated by E. B. Tyler, 
" Anahnac," p. 331. See a correction of Mr. Tylor's translation in the Comptes 
Hendiis, Ixvii. p. 1296. 

§ Tylor's " Anahuac," p. 332. 


process, but conij)ares the wooden instrument used to a cross-bow, 
so that it would appear to have had a crutch-shaped end to rest 
against the breast. So skilful were the Mexicans in the manu- 
facture of obsidian knives, that, according to Clavigero, a single 
workman could produce a hundred per hour. 

The short piece of wood at the end of the staff was probably cut 
from some of the very hard trees of tropical growth. I much 
doubt whether any of our indigenous trees produce wood sufficiently 
hard to be used for sjDlintering obsidian ; and flint is, I believe, 
tougher and still more difficult of fracture. We have, however, in 
this Mexican case, an instance of the manufacture of flakes by 
sudden pressure, and of the employment of a flaking tool, which 
could be carefully adjusted into position before the pressure or 
blow was given to produce the flake. There appears, moreover, 
to have been another, but closely analogous process in use in 
Central America, for Mr. Tylor* heard on good authority that 
somewhere in Peru the Indians still have a way of working 
obsidian b}' laying a bone wedge on the surface of a piece, and 
tapping it till the stone cracks. Catlinf also describes the method 
of making flint arrow-heads among the Apachees in Mexico as of 
the same character. After breaking a boulder of flint by means of 
a hammer formed of a rounded pebble of hornstone set in a handle 
made of a twisted withe, flakes are struck off", and these are 
wrought into shape, while held on the palm of the left hand, by 
means of a punch made of the tooth of the sperm whale, held 
in the right hand, and struck with a hard wooden mallet by an 
assistant. Both holder and striker sing, and the strokes of the 
mallet are given in time with the music, the blow being sharp and 
rebounding, in which the Indians say is the great medicine or 
principal knack of the operation. 

Such a process as this may well have been adopted in this 
country in the manufacture of flint flakes ; either bone or stags' - 
horn sets or punches, or else small and hard pebbles, may have 
been applied at the proper spots upon the surface of the flints, and 
then been struck by a stone or wooden mallet. I have tried some 
experiments with sucli stone sets, and have succeeded in producing 
flakes in this manner, having been first led to suppose that some 
such system, was in use by discovering, in the year 1864, some 

* Tylor's "Analmac," p. 99. 

t " Last Riimbles amongst the Indians," 1868, p. 188. The whole passage is re- 
printed in "l''lint Chips," p. 82. 


small quartz pebbles battered at the ends, and associated witb 
flint flakes and cores in an ancient encampment at Little Solsbury 
Hill, near Bath, of whicb I have already given an account 
elsewhere.* I am, however, inclined to think that the use of such 
a punch or set was in any case the exception rather than the rule ; 
for with practice, and by making the blows only from the elbow 
kept fixed against the body, and not with the whole arm, it is 
extraordinary what precision of blow may be attained with merely 
a pebble held in the hand as a hammer. 

The flakes of chert, from which the Esquimaux manufacture 
their arrow-heads, are produced, according to Sir Edward Belcher,t 
who saw the process, by slight taps with a hammer formed of a 
very stubborn kind of jade or nephrite. He has kindly shown me 
one of these hammers, which is oval in section, about 3 inches 
long and 2 inches broad, and secured by a cord of sinew to a 
bone handle, against which it abuts. The ends are nearly flat. 

Among the natives of North Australia a totally difierent method 
appears to have been adopted, the flakes being struck oS the stone 
which is used as a hammer, and not ofi" the block which is struck. 
In the exploring expedition, under Mr. A. Gr. Gregory, in 1855-6, 
the party came on an open space between the cliffs along one of 
the tributary streams of the Victoria River, where the ground was 
thickly strewn with fragments of various stones and imperfectly- 
formed weapons. The method of formation of the weapons, accord- 
ing to Mr. Baines, J was this : — ^" The native having chosen a pebble 
of agate, flint, or other suitable stone, perhaps as large as an ostrich 
egg, sits down before a larger block, on which he strikes it so as to 
detach from the end a piece, leaving a flattened base for his subse- 
quent operations. Then, holding the pebble with its base dowai- 
w^ards, he again strikes so as to split ofl' a piece as thin and broad as 
possible, tapering upward in an oval or leaf- like form, and sharp 
and thin at the edges. His next object is to strike ofl" another 
piece nearly similar, so close as to leave a projecting angle on the 
stone, as sharp, straight, and perpendicular as possible. Then, 
again taking the pebble carefully in his hand, he aims the decisive 
blow, which, if he is successful, splits ofl" another piece with the 
angle running straight up its centre as a midrib, and the two 
edges sharp, clear, and equal, spreading slightly from the base, and 

* Tranmctions of the Ethnological Societi/, vol. iv. N. S., p. 242. 
t lb., N. S., vol. i. p. 138. 

1 Anthrop. Bev., vol. iv. p. civ. JMr. Baineshns also communicated an interesting 
letter on this subject, with illustrations, to Mackie's " Geol. Repertory," vol. i. p. 2.3b. 


again narrowing till tlicy meet tlie midrib in a keen and taper 
point. If lie lias done this well, he possesses a perfect weapon, 
but at least three chips must have been formed in making it, and it 
seemed highly probable, from the number of imperfect heads that lay 
about, that the failures far outnumbered the successful results. In 
the making of tomahawks or axes, in which a darker green stone is 
generally used, great numbers of failures must ensue ; and in these 
another operation seemed necessary, for we saw upon the rocks 
several places where they had been ground, with a great expen- 
diture of labour, to a smooth round edge." 

In the manufacture of flint flakes, whether they were to serve as 
knives or lance-heads without any more preparation, or whether 
they were to be subjected to further manipulation, so as eventually 
to become arrow-heads, scrapers, or any other of the more finished 
implements, the form of the nucleus from which they were struck 
was usually a matter of no great importance, the chips or flakes 
being the object of the operator, and not the resulting core, which 
was in most cases thrown aw^ay as worthless. But where very long 
flakes were desired, it became a matter of importance to produce 
nuclei of a particular form, specially adapted for the purpose. I 
have never met with any such nuclei in England, but the well- 
known Uvres de heurre, chiefly found in the neighbourhood of Pres- 
signy-le-Grand (Indre et Loire), France, are typical instances of 
the kind. I have precisely similar specimens, though on a rather 
smaller scale, and of a somewhat different kind of flint, from 
Spiennes, near Mens, in Belgium ; and a few nuclei of the same 
form have also been found in Denmark. The occurrence of flints 
wrought into the same shape, at places so far ajjart, might at first 
appear to countenance the view of this peculiar form being that of 
an implement intended for some special purpose, and not merely a 
refuse block. This, however, is not the case. I have treated of 
this question elsewhere,* but it will be well here to repeat a 
portion at least of what I have before written on this point. 

These large nuclei or lirres-dc-beurre are blocks of flint, usually 
10 to 12 inches long and 3 to 5 inches wide in the broadest part, 
the thickness being in most cases less than the width. In general 
outline they may be described as boat-shaped, being square at one 
end and brought to a point — more or less finished — at the other. 
The outline has been given by striking a succession of flakes from 

* Arehwohyia, vol. xl. p. 381. See also Prof. Stccnstrup and Sir John Lubbock in 
the Trans. Ethnol. Hoc, N. S., vol. v. p. 221. 


the sides of a mass of flint, until the boat-like contour has been 
obtained, with the sides slightly converging towards the keel, and 
then the ujiper surface corresponding to the deck of the boat has 
been chipped into form by a succession of blows administered at 
right angles to the first, and in such a manner that the deck, as 
originally formed, was convex instead of flat. After this convex 
surface was formed, one, two, or even more long flakes were dislodged 
along its whole length, or nearly so, by blows administered at the 
part represented by the stern of the boat, thus leaving one or 
more channels along what corresponds to the deck. In rare 
instances these long flakes have not been removed ; in others of 
more frequent occurrence, one of the flakes has broken ofi" short 
before attaining^ its full leng'th. 

Strange as this boat-shaped form may at the outset appear, yet 
on a little consideration it will be seen that the chipping into such a 
form is in fact one of the necessities of the case for the production of 
long blades of flint. Where flakes only 3 or 4 inches long are 
required, the operator may readily, with his hammer, strike off from 
the outside of his block of flint a succession of chips, so as to give 
it a polygonal outline, the projections of which will serve for the 
central ridges or back-bones of the first series of regular flakes that 
he strikes ofi". The removal of this first series of flakes leaves a 
number of projecting ridges, which serve as guides for the forma- 
tion of a second series of flakes, and so on until the block is 
used up. 

But where a flake 10 or 12 inches in length is required, a 
different process becomes necessary. For it is nearly impossible 
with a rough mass of flint to produce by single blows plane sur- 
faces 10 or 12 inches in length, and arranged at such an angle as 
to produce a straight ridge, such as would serve to form the back- 
bone, as it were, of a long flake ; and without such a back-bone 
the production of a long flake is impossible. It is indeed this 
ridge (which need not, of course, be angular, but may be more or 
less rounded or polygonal) that regulates the course of the fissure 
by which the flake is dislodged from the matrix or parent flint ; 
there being a slight degree of elasticity in the stone, which enables 
a fissure once properly commenced in a homogeneous flint to 
proceed at right angles to the line of least resistance in the dis- 
lodged flake, while at the same time exerting a nearly uniform 
strain, so that the inner surface of the flake becomes nearly 
parallel to the outer ridge. It was to obtain this outer ridge that 





Fig. 3.- Nucleus -Preasigny. 

the Pres.sig'uy cores were cliippsd 
into the form in which we find 
them ; and it appears as if the 
workmen who formed them 
adopted the readiest means of 
obtaining the desired result of 
producing along the block of 
flint a central ridge whenever it 
became necessary, until the block 
was so much reduced in size as 
to be no longer serviceable. 
For, the process of chipping the 
block into the required form 
could be repeated each time 
that a set of flakes had 
been removed. The blocks are 
found in various stages, rarely 
with the central ridge still left 
on, as Fig. 3, but more com- 
monly with one or more long 

A flakes removed from them, like 

Figs. 4 and 5. The sections of 
each block are shown beneath 
them. Two of the flakes are re- 
presented in Figs. 6 and 7. All 
the figures are on the scale of 
one-half linear measure. 

The causes why the nuclei 
were rejected as useless are still 
susceptible of being traced. In 
some cases they had become so 
thin that they would not bear 
re-shaping ; in others a want of 
uniformity in the texture of the 
flint, probably caused by some 
included organism, had made its 
appearance, and caused the flakes 
to break ofi" short of their proper 
length, or had even made it 
useless to attemj^t to strike them 
ofi". In some rare instances, 
when the strikin"' ofi" long- flakes 



liad proved unsuccessful on tlie one face, the attempt has been 
made to procure them from the other. The abundance of large 

Nuclei— Piessigny. 

masses of flint in the covmtry — some as much as two or three 
feet over — has, however, rendered the workmen rather prodigal 



of their materials. The skill which has been brought to 
bear in the manufacture of these long flakes is marvellous, as 
the utmost precision is required in giving the blow by which 
they are produced. Generally speaking, the projecting ridge 
left at the butt-end of the nucleus between the depressions, 
whence two of the short flakes have been struck off" in chipping it 
square, has been selected as the point of impact. They appear to 
me to have been struck ofi" by a free blow, and not b}^ the inter- 

Fig. 6.— Fluke— Pressigny. 

7.— Fhike— Pressigny. 

vention of a set or punch. No doubt the face of the flint at the 
time of the blow being struck was supported on some elastic body. 
A few flints which bear marks of having been used as hammer- 
stones are found at Pressigny. 

I have hitherto been treating of the production of flint flakes 
for various purposes. In such cases the flakes are everything, and 
the resulting core, or nucleus, mere refuse. In the manufacture of 
celts, or hatchets, the reverse is the case : the flakes are the refuse 
(though, of course, they might occasionally be utilized), and the 
resulting block is the main object sought. To produce this, how- 
ever, much the same process appears to have been adopted, at all 


events wliere flint was the material employed. The hatchets 
seem to have been rough hewn by detaching a succession of flakes, 
chips, or splinters from a block of flint by means of a hammer- 
stone, and these rough-hewn implements were subsequently 
worked into a more finished form by detaching smaller splinters, 
also probably by means of a hammer, previously to their being 
ground or polished, if they were destined to be finished in such a 
manner. In most cases one face of the hatchet was first roughed 
out, and then by a series of blows, given at proper intervals, along 
the margin of that face, the general shape was given, and the other 
face chipped out. This is proved by the fact that in most of the 
roughly chipped hatchets found in Britain the depressions of the 
bulbs of percussion of the flakes struck off occur in a perfect state 
only on one face, having been partly removed on the other face by 
the subsequent chipping. There are, however, exceptions to this 
rule, and more especially among the implements found in our 
ancient river-gravels. In some cases (see poatea, Fig. 12) the 
cutting edge has been formed by the intersection of two convex lines 
of fracture giving a curved and sharp outline, and the body of the 
hatchet has been subsequently made to suit the edge. The same 
is the case with the hatchets from the Danish kjokken-moddings 
and coast-finds, though the intersecting facets are flatter, and the 
resulting edge straighter, than in the specimens to which I allude. 
The edge is also, like that of a mortising chisel, at the extremity of 
a flat face, and not in the centre of the blade. The cutting edge has, 
however, in most of the so-called celts of the ordinary form, been 
fashioned by chipping subsequently to the roughing out of the 
hatchet ; and even in the case of polished hatchets, the edge, when 
damaged, was frequently re-chipped into form before being ground 

There hardly appears to be sufficient cause for believing 
that any of the stone hatchets found in this country were 
chipped out by any other means than by direct blows of a 
hammer ; but in the case of the Danish axes with square 
sides, and with their corners as neatly crimped or puckered as 
if they had been made of pieces of leather sewn together, it is 
probable that this neat finish was produced by the use of some 
kind of punch or set. The hammer-stones used iw the manufacture 
of flint hatchets appear to have been usually quartzite jiebbles, 
where such are readily to be obtained, but also frequently to have 
been themselves mere blocks of flint. In the very interesting pits 


explored by Colonel A. Lane Fox, F.S.A.,* at Cissbuiy, near 
Worthing, where there ajDpears to have been a regular manufac- 
tory of rough-hewn flint implements, many such hammer-stones 
of flint were found. I have found similar hammer- stones on 
the Sussex Downs, near Eastbourne, where also flint implements 
of various kinds appear to have been manufactured in quan- 
tities. Not improbably these hammers were made of flints 
which had been for some time exposed on the surface, and 
which were in consequence liarder than the flints recently dug 
from the pits. We have already seen that the gun-flint knappers 
of the present day are said to work most successfully on blocks 
of flint recently extracted, and those, too, from a particular 
layer in the chalk ; and it seems probable that the ancient flint- 
workers were also acquainted with the advantages of using 
the flints fresh from the chalk, and worked them into shape 
at the pits from which they were dug, not only on account of 
the saving in transport of the partly manufactured articles, but 
on account of the greater facility of working the freshly extracted 
flints. That they were in some cases at great pains to procure 
flint of the proper quality for being chipped into form, and 
were not content with blocks and nodules, such as might be 
found on the surface, is proved by the interesting explorations 
at Grime's Graves, near Brandon, carried on by the Rev. W. 
GreenweU, F.S.A.f 

In a wood at this spot the whole surface of the ground 
is studded with shallow bowl-shaped depressions from 20 to 
GO feet in diameter, sometimes running into each other so 
as to form irregularly shaped hollows. They are over 250 in 
number, and one selected for exploration was about 28 feet in 
diameter at the mouth, gradually narrowing to 12 feet at the 
bottom, which proved to be 39 feet below the surface. Through 
the first 13 feet it had been cut through sand, below which the 
chalk was reached, and after passing through one layer of flint 
of inferior quality, which was not quarried beyond the limits of the 
shaft, the layer known as the " floor-stone," from which gun-flints 
are manufactured at the present day, was met with at the bottom 
of the shaft. To procure this, various horizontal galleries about 
3| feet in height were driven into the chalk. The excavations had 
been made by means of picks formed from the antlers of the red- 

* Arch., vol. xlii. p. 68. f Juurn. Elhnol. ^oc, N. S., vol. ii. p. 419. 


deer, of which about eighty were found. The points are worn by 
use, and the thick bases of the horns battered by having been used 
as hammers for breaking off portions of the chalk, and also of 
the nodules of flint. "Where they had been grasped by the hand 
the surface is worn smooth, and on some there was a coating of 
chalky matter adhering, on which was still distinctly visible the 
impression of the cuticle of the old flint- workers. The marks of 
the picks and hammers were as fresh on the walls of the galleries 
as if made but yesterday. It is to be observed that such picks as 
these formed of stags' horn have been found in various other 
places, but have not had proper attention called to their character. 
I have seen one from the neighbourhood of Ipswich,* Suflblk. 
Mr. Greenwell mentions somewhat similar discoveries having 
been made at Eaton and Buckenham, Norfolk. One was also 
found by him in a grave under a barrow he examined at Rudstone, 
near Bridlington, f and others occurred near Weaverthorpe and 
Sherburn. A hatchet of basalt had also been used at Grime's Graves 
as one of the tools for excavation, and the marks of its cutting edge 
were plentiful in the gallery in which it was discovered. There 
were also found some rudely made cups of chalk, apparently 
intended for lamps ; a bone pin or awl ; and, what is very remark- 
able, a rounded piece of bone 4^ inches long and 1 inch in circum- 
ference, rubbed smooth, and showing signs of use at the ends, 
which, as Mr. Greenwell suggests, may have been a punch or 
instrument for taking ofl^ the lesser flakes of flint in making arrow- 
heads and other small articles. It somewhat resembles the pin of 
reindeer horn in the Esquimaux arrow-flaker, shortly to be men- 
tioned. The shaft had been filled in with rubble, aj)parently from 
neighbouring pits, and in it were numerous chippings and cores of 
flint, and several quartzite and other pebbles battered at the ends 
by having been used as hammers for chipping the flints. Some 
large rounded cores of flint exhibited similar signs of use. On the 
surface of the fields around, numerous chippings of flint, and more 
or less perfect implements, such as celts, scrapers, and borers, were 

At Spiennes (near Mons, in Belgium), where a very similar 
manufacture, but on a larger scale than that of Cissbury or even 
of Grime's Graves, appears to have been carried on, flints seem to 

* Jottrn. Anthrop. Inst., vol. i. p. 73. 

t Pennant describes a flint axe as having been found stuck in a vein of coal 
exposed to the day in Craig y Pare, Monmouthslure. 


have been dug in the same manner. Since I visited the spot some 
years ago, a railway cutting has traversed a portion of the district 
where the manufacture existed, and exposed a series of excavations 
evidently intended for the extraction of flint. Mens. A. Houzeau 
de Lehaie, of Hyon, near Mons, has most obligingly furnished me 
with some particulars of these subterranean works, an account of 
which has also been recently published.* From these accounts 
it appears that shafts from 3 feet to 3 feet 6 inches in diameter 
were sunk through the loam and sand above the chalk, to 
a depth of 30 or even 40 feet ; and from the bottom of the 
shafts lateral galleries were worked, from 5 to 6 feet in height and 
about the same in width. Stags' horns, which had been used as 
hammers, were found in the galleries, but it is doubtful whether 
they had been used as pickaxes like those in Grime's Graves. 
Among the rubble in the galleries, as well as on the surface of 
the ground above, were found roughly chipped flints and splinters, 
and more or less rudely shaped hatchets by thousands. There is 
one peculiar feature among these hatchets which I have not 
noticed to the same extent elsewhere, viz., that many of them are 
made from the nuclei or cores which, in the first instance, had 
subserved to the manufacture of long flint flakes, the furrows left 
by which appear on one of the faces of the hatchets. Sometimes, 
though rarely, the Pressigny nuclei have been utilized in a similar 

In all these instances, at Cissbury and Grime's Graves in 
England, and at Pressigny and Spiennes on the Continent, and, 
indeed, at other places also,t there appears to have been an 
organized manufactory of flint instruments by settled occupants of 
the different spots ; and it seems probable that the products were 
bartered away to those who were less favoured in their supply 
of the raw material, flint. 

The chijiping out of celts and some other tools formed, not of 
flint, but of other hard rocks, must have been efi'ected in the same 
manner. The stone employed is almost always of a more or less 
silicious nature, and such as breaks with a conchoidal fracture. 

To return, however, to the manufacture of the flint implements 
of this country, and more especially to those which are merely 

* " Rapport sur Ics Dccouvortcs Geologiqnes ct Areheologiqucs faites a Spiennes 
en 18f)7." I'ar A. Briart, F. Cornet, et A. Houzeau de Lehaie. Mons, 18ti8. See 
also Malaise, Hull, de I' Ac. Roij. de Heir/., 2^ S., vols. x.xi. and x.xv., and Geol. Mag., 
vol. iii. p. 310. 

t Cochet, "Seine Inf.," pp. IC, 528. Archivio per VAnlrojml., &c., vol. i. p. 489. 

:mode of chipping out scrapeiis. 83 

flakes submitted to a secondary process of chipping-. We have 
seen that in the g-un-flint manufacture the flakes are finally shaped 
by means of a knapping or trimming hammer and a fixed chisel, 
which act one against the other, somewhat like the two blades of a 
pair of shears, and the process adopted by the ancient flint- workers 
for many purposes must have been to some extent analogous, 
though it can hardly have been precisely similar. One of the 
most common forms of flint implements is that to which the name 
of " scraper " or " thumb-flint " has been given, and which is found 
in abundance on the Yorkshire Wolds and on the Downs of Sussex. 
The normal form is that of a broad flake chipped to a semicircular 
edge, usually at the end farthest from the bulb of percussion, the 
edge being bevelled away from the flat face of the flake, like that 
of a round-nosed turning-chisel. The name of "scraper," or 
f/raffoi)-, has been given to these worked flints, from their simi- 
larity to an instrument in use among the Esquimaux* for scraping 
the insides of hides in the course of their preparation ; but I need 
not here enter upon the question of the purpose for which these 
ancient instruments were used, as we are at present concerned 
only with the method of their manufacture. I am not aware of 
any evidence existing as to the method pursued by* the Esquimaux 
in the chipping out of their instruments ; but I think that if, at 
the present time, we are able to produ^ce flint tools precisely similar 
to the ancient " scrapers " by the most simple means possible, and 
without the aid of any metallic appliances, there is every proba- 
bility that identically the same means were employed of old. 
Now% I have found by experiment that, taking a flake of flint 
(made, I may remark, with a stone hammer, consisting of a flint 
or quartzite pebble held in the hand), and placing it, with the 
flat face upwards, on a smooth block of stone, I can, by successive 
blows of the pebble, chip the end of the flake without any difficulty 
into the desired form. The face of the stone hammer is brought 
to bear a slight distance only within the margin of the flake, and, 
however sharjj the blow administered, the smooth block of stone 
on which the flake is placed, and which of course projects beyond 
it, acts as a stop to prevent the hammer being carried forward so 
as to injure the form, and brings it up sharply directly it has done 
its work of striking off a splinter from the end of the flake. The 
upper face of the flake remains quite uninjured, and, strange as 
it may appear, there is no difficulty in producing the evenly 

* Lartet and Christy's "Eel. xVquit.," p. 13. 



[ciiAr. II. 

circular edge of the scraper by siiccessive blows of the convex 

Some of the other ancient tools and weapons, having one flat 
face, seem to have been fashioned in much the same manner. In 
the case of arrow-heads and lance-heads, however, another process 
would appear to have been adopted. It is true that we know not 
exactly how 

" tlie ancient arrow-maker 
Made his arrow-heads of sandstone, 
Arrow-heads of chalcedony, 
Arrow-hejids of flint and jasper, 
Smooth and sharpened at the edges, 
Hai'd and polished, keen and costly." 

And yet the process of making such arrow-heads is carried on 
at the present day by various half- civilized peoples, and has been 
witnessed by many Europeans, though but few have accurately 
recorded their observations. Sir Edw^ard Belcher,* who has seen 
obsidian arrow-heads made by the Indians of California, and 
those of chert or flint hj the Esquimaux of Cape Lisburne, states 
that the mode pursued in each case was exactly similar. The 
instrument employed among the Esquimaux, which may be 
termed an " arrpw-flaker," usually consists of a handle formed of 
fossil ivory, curved at one end for the purpose of being firmly held, 
and having at the other end a slit, like that for the lead in our 
pencils, in which is placed a slip of the point of the horn of a rein- 
deer, which is found to be harder and more stubborn than ivory. 
This is secured in its place by a strong thong of leather or plaited 
sinew, put on wet, which on drying becomes very rigid. A 

Fig. 8.— Esquimaux Arro-n'-flakiT. 

representation of one of these instruments, in the Blackmore 
Museum at Salisbury, is given in Fig. 8. Another in the 

p. 341 

Trans. Ethnol. Soc, N. >S., vol. i. p. 139. Sec also Rev. Arch., vol. iii. (18C1) 



Christ}' Collection* is shown in Fig. 9. Another form of instru- 
ment of this kind, but in which the piece of horn is mounted in a 

rig. 9. — Esquimaux Arrow-flaker. j 

wooden handle, is shown in Fig. 10, from an original in the same 

Fig. 10.— Esquimaux Arrow-flaker. J 

collection from Kotzebue Gulf. The bench on which the arrow- 
heads are made is said to consist of a log of wood, in which a 
spoon-shaped cavity is cut ; over this the flake of chert is placed, 
and then, b}^ pressing the " arrow-flaker " gently along the margin 
vertically, first on one side and then on the other, as one would 
set a saw, alternate fragments are splintered ofi", until the object 
thus properly outlined presents the spear- or arrow-head form, with 
two cutting serrated sides. 

Sir Edward Belcher has kindly explained the process to 
me, and showed me both the implements used, and the objects 
he saw manufactured. It appears that the flake from which 
the arrow-head is to be made is sometimes fixed by means 
of a cord in a split piece of wood so as to hold it firmly, and that 
all the large surface flaking is produced either by blows direct 

* Rel. Aquit.. p. 18. For the loan of this cut I am indchted to the executors of 
the late Henry Christy. The same specimen has been engraved by the Rev. J. G. 
Wood, "Nat. Hist, of Man," vol. ii. p. 717. 


Irom the liammer, or tlirougli an intermediate punch or set formed 
of reindeer horn. The arrow- or harpoon-head thus roughly 
chipped out is afterwards finished by means of the " arrow-flaker." 

The process in use at the present day among the Indians of 
J^Iexico in making their arrows is described in a somewhat different 
manner by Signer Craveri, who lived sixteen years in Mexico, and 
who gave the account to Mr. C. H. Chambers.* He relates that 
when the Indians " wish to make an arrow or other instrument of a 
splinter of obsidian, they take the piece in the left hand, and hold 
grasped in the other a small goat's horn ; they set the piece of 
stone upon the horn, and dexterously pressing it against the point 
of it, while they give the horn a gentle movement from right to 
left, and up and down, they disengage from it frequent chips, and 
in this way obtain the desired form." M. F. de Pourtalesf speaks 
of a small notch in the end of the bone into which the edge of the 
flake is inserted, and a chip broken off from it by a sideways blow. 
Mr. T. R. Peale X describes the manufacture of arrow-heads among 
the Shasta and North California Indians as being effected by 
means of a notched horn, as a glazier chips glass. 

The late Mr. Christy,^ in a paper on the Cave-dwellers of 
Southern France, gave an account, furnished to him by Sir Charles 
Lyell (to whom it had been communicated by Mr. Cabot), of the 
process of making stone arrow-heads by the Shasta Indians of 
California, who still commonly use them, which slightly differs from 
that of Mr. Peale. This account runs as follows : — " The Indian 
seated himself upon the floor, and, laying the stone anvil upon his 
knee, with one blow of his agate chisel he separated the obsidian 
pebble into two parts ; then giving a blow to the fractured side, he 
split off a slab a quarter of an inch in thickness. Holding the 
piece against his anvil with the thumb and finger of his left hand, 
he commenced a series of continuous blows, every one of which 
chipped off fragments of the brittle substance. It gradually 
seemed to acquire shape. After finishing the base of the arrow- 
head (the whole being little over an inch in length), he began 
•striking gentle blows, every one of which I expected would break 
it in pieces. Yet such was his adroit application, his skill, and 
dexterity, that in little over an hour he produced a perfect obsidian 

* Gastaldi's " Lake Habitations of Northern and Central Italy," translated and 
edited by C. II. Chambers, ]\I.A. (Antli. See., 1865), p. 106. 
t Mortillet, "Mat. pour I'llist. do rHommo," vol. ii. p. 517. 
+ "Flint Chips," ]). 7S. 
§ Trans. Ethnol. Sue, N. S., vol. iii. p. 365. Eel. Aquit., p. 17. 


arrow-head. . . . No sculptor ever handled a chisel with greater pre- 
cision, or more carefully measured the weight and effect of every 
blow than did this ingenious Indian ; for even among them arrow- 
making is a distinct profession, in which few attain excellence." 

Mr. Wyeth states that the Indians on the Snake River form 
their arrow-heads of obsidian by laying one edge of the flake on 
a hard stone, and striking the other edge with another hard stone ; 
and that many are broken when nearly finished, and are thrown 

Captain John Smith,! writing in 1606 of the Indians of 
Virginia, says, " His arrow-head he maketh quickly with a little 
bone, which he ever weareth at his bracert,]; of any splint of stone 
or glasse in the form of a heart, and these they glew to the end of 
their arrowes. With the sinewes of deer and the tops of deer's 
horns boiled to a jelly, they make a glue which will not dissolve 
in cold water." 

Beyond the pin of bone already mentioned as having been 
found in one of the pits at Grime's Graves, I am not aware of 
any bone or horn implements of precisely this character having 
been as yet discovered in Europe ; but hammers of stags' 
horn and detached tines have frequently been found in connection 
with worked flints, and may have served in their manufacture. 
I have, moreover, remarked among the worked flints discovered in 
this comitry, and especially in Yorkshire, a number of small tools, 
the ends of which present a blunted, worn, and rounded appear- 
ance, as if from attrition against a hard substance. These tools 
are usually from 2 to 4 inches long, and made from large thick 
flakes, with the cutting edges removed by chipping ; but occa- 
sionally they are carefully finished implements of a pointed oval 
or of a subtriangular section, and sometimes slightly curved longi- 
tudinally. Of these illustrations will be given at a subsequent 
page. They are usually well adapted for being held in the hand, 
and I cannot but think that we have in them some of the tools 
which were used in the preparation of flint arrow-heads and other 
small instruments. I have tried the experiment with a large 
flake of flint used as the arrow-flaker, both unmounted and 
mounted in a wooden handle, and have succeeded in producing 
with it very passable imitations of ancient arrow-heads, both leaf- 

* Schoolcraft, " Ind. Tribes," vol. i. p. 212. 

t Sixth voyage, "Pinkerton's Travels," vol. xiii. p. 36, quoted also in '= Flint 
Chips," p. 79. 

J Bracer, a sirdle or baudac-e. 


shaped and barbed. The flake of flint on wliich I have operated 
has been placed against a stop on a flat piece of wood, and when 
necessary to raise its edge I have j)laced a small blocking piece, 
also of wood, underneath it, and then by pressure of the arrow- 
flaker upon the edge of the flake, have detached successive splin- 
ters until I have reduced it into the required form. If the tool 
consists of a rather square-ended flake, one corner may rest upon 
the table of wood, and the pressure be given by a rocking action, 
bringing the other corner down upon the flake. In cutting the 
notches in barbed arrow-heads, this was probably the plan adopted, 
as I was surprised to find how easily this seemingly difficult 
part of the process was efiected. Serration of the edges may be 
produced by the same means. 

The edges of the arrow-heads made entirely with these flint 
arrow-flakers are, however, more obtuse and rounded than those of 
ancient specimens, so that probably these flint tools were used 
rather for removing slight irregularities in the form than for the 
main chipping out. This latter process, I find experimentally, can 
be best performed by means of a piece of stags' horn, used much 
in the same way as practised by the Esquimaux. By supporting 
the flake of flint which is to be converted into an arrow-head 
against a wooden stop, and pressing the horn against the edge of 
the flake, the flint enters slightly into the body of the horn ; then 
bringing the pressure to bear sideways, minute splinters can be 
detached, and the arrow-head formed by degrees in this manner 
without much risk of breaking. Not only can the leaf-shaped 
forms be produced, but the barbed arrow-heads, both with and 
without the central stem. The leaf- shaped arrow-heads are, how- 
ever, the most easy to manufacture, and this simple form was 
probably that earliest in use. 

Among many tribes* of America, arrow-maldng is said to 
have been a trade confined to a certain class, who possessed the 
traditional knowledge of the process of manufacture ; and it can 
hardly be expected that a mere novice like myself should be able 
at once to attain the art. I may, therefore, at once confess that 
though by the use of stags' horn the ordinary surface-chipping 
characteristic of ancient implements may be obtained, yet the 
method of producing the even fluting, like ripple-marks, by 
detaching parallel splinters uniform in size, and extending 
almost across the surface of a lance- or arrow-head, is at prc- 
* Schoolcraft, " Indian Tribes," vol. iii. p. 81 ; see also p. 4G7. 


sent a mystery to me, as is also the method by wliicli the delicate 
ornamentation on the handles of Danish flint daggers was produced. 
It seems, however, possible that by pressing the flint to be ojDerated 
\\])OTi on some close-fitting, elastic body at the time of removing the 
minute flakes, the line of fracture may be carried along a con- 
siderable distance over the surface of the flint, before coming to an 
end by reason of the dislodged flake breaking ofl" or terminating. 
It is also possible that the minute and elegant ornaments maj^ 
have been produced by the use of a pointed tooth of some animal 
as a punch. 

With regard to the process of grinding or polishing flint and 
other stone implements not much need be said. I may, however, 
refer the reader to Wilde's Catalogue* of the Museum of the Royal 
Irish Academy for an account of the different processes. In all 
cases the grindstone on which they were polished was fixed and 
not rotatory, and in nearly all cases the striae running along the 
stone hatchets are longitudinal, thus proving that they were 
rubbed lengthways and not crossways on the grinding-bed. This 
is a criterion of some service in detecting modern forgeries. The 
grin ding- stones met with in Denmark and Scandinavia are gene- 
rally of compact sandstone or quartzite, and are usually of two 
forms — flat slabs, often worn hollow by use, and j)olygonal prisms 
smallest in the middle, these latter ha\ing frequently hollow facets 
in which gouges or the more convex-faced hatchets might be ground, 
and sometimes rounded ridges such as would grind the hollow part 
of gouges. From the coarse striation on the body of most flint 
hatchets, especially the large ones, it would appear that they were 
not ground immediately on such fine-grained stones, but that 
some coarse and hard grit must have been used to assist the action 
of the grindstone. M. Morlot f thought that some mechanical 
pressure was also used to aid in the operation, and that the hatchet 
to be ground was weighted in some manner, possibly by means of a 
lever. In grinding and polishing the hollowed faces of diflferent 
forms of stone axes, it would appear that certain rubbers formed of 
stone were used, probably in conjunction with sand. These will 
be more particularly described in a subsequent page. 

Closely allied to the process of grinding is that of sawing stone. 
It is, however, rarely, if ever, that in this country any of the stone 
implements show signs of having been reduced into shape by 
this process. Among the small hatchets in fibrolite, so common 

* p. 4G. t ^roitilk't, " :\ratonaux," vol. ii. p. 3.53. 


ill tlie Auvergne and in the South of France, and among the 
greenstone, and especially the nephrite celts found in the Swiss 
Pfahl-bauten,* many show evident traces of having been partially 
fashioned by means of sawing. I have also remarked it on a 
specimen from Portugal, t Dr. Keller has noticed the process, and 
suggests that the incisions on the flat surface of the stone chosen 
for the purpose of being converted into a celt were made some- 
times on one side, and sometimes on both, by means of a sharp 
saw-like tool. He has lately J gone more deeply into the question, 
and has suggested that the stone to be sawn was placed on the 
ground near a tree, and then sawn by means of a sjDlinter of flint 
flxed in the end of a stafi*, which at its other end was forked, and 
as it were hinged under one of the boughs of the tree suflicienth" 
flexible, "when a weight was suspended from it, to give pressure to 
the flint. The stafi" was, he supposed, to have been grasped in the 
hand, and moved backwards and forwards, while water was applied 
to the flint to facilitate the sawing. The objection to this suggestion 
is, that in case of the flint being brought to the edge of the stone it 
would be liable to go beyond it, and be driven into the ground by 
the weighted bough, and this would constantly hinder the operation : 
still, some such mechanical aids in sawing may have been in use. 

M. Troyon§ considered that the blade of flint was used in 
connection with sand as well as water. This latter view appears, at 
first sight, far more probable, as the sa"s\'ing instrument has in some 
instances cut nearly three-quarters of an inch into the stone, which, 
it would seem, could hardly have been accomplished with a simple 
flint saw ; and the sides of the saw-kerf or notch show, moreover, 
parallel strice, as if resulting from the use of sand. The objection that 
at first occurred to my mind against regarding the sawing instru- 
ment as having been of flint was of a negative character only, and 
arose from my not having seen in any of the Swiss collections any 
flint flakes that had indisputably been used for sawing by means 
of sand. At one time I fancied, from the character of the bottom 
and sides of the notches, that a string stretched like that of a bow 
might have been used with sand in the manner in which, according 
to Oviedo,|| the American Indians sawed in two their iron fetters, 

* «' Pfahl-hautcn," Iter Boricht, p. 71. " Luke-dwellings," pp. 18, 125. See also 
T/indenschmit, " Ilohonz. Samnil.," Taf. xxvii. 

f Froc. Ethnol. 8oc., N. S., vol. vii. p. 47. 

X "Anzeigcr fiir Scliweiz. AltiTth.," 1870, p. 123. 

§ Habit. Uu-Aiai., p. 19. 

II See Conipics Reiuhtx, vol. Ixvii. p. 1292, where a sug-gestion is made of some 
stone implements from Java having been sawn in this manner. 


and I succeeded in cutting oflF the end of an ancient Swiss hatcliet 
of hard steatite by this means. I found, however, that the bottom 
of the kerf thus formed was convex longitudinally, whereas in the 
ancient examples it was slightly concave. It is therefore evident 
that "whatever was used as the saw must have been of a compara- 
tively unyielding nature, and probably shorter than the pebble or 
block of stone it was used to saw, for even the iron blades used in 
conjunction with sand and water by modern masons become con- 
cave b}^ wear, and therefore the bottom of the kerf they produce 
is convex longitudinally. I accordingly made some further expe- 
riments, and this time upon a fragment of a greenstone celt of 
such hardness that it would readily scratch window-glass. I 
found, however, that with a flint flake I was able to work a 
groove along it, and that whether I used sand or no, my progress 
was equally certain, though it must be confessed very slow. I am 
indeed doubtful whether the flint did not produce most effect 
without the sand, as the latter, to become effective, requires a 
softer body in which it may become embedded ; while by working 
Avith the points and projections in the slightly notched edge of the 
flake, its scratching action soon discoloured the water in the notch. 
What was most remarkable, and served in a great measure to 
discredit the negative evidence to which I before referred, was 
that the edges of the flake, when not used with sand, showed but 
slight traces of wear or polish. 

On the whole, I am inclined to think that both the Swiss anti- 
quaries are in the right, and that the blocks of stone were sawn 
both with and without sand, by means of flint flakes, and possibly 
also of strips of hard wood and bone used in conjunction with sand. 

Most of the jade implements from New Zealand have been 
partially shaped by sawing, and in the British Museum is a large 
block of jade from that country deeply grooved by sawing, and 
almost ready to be split, so as to be of the right thickness for a 
merai. It would be of interest to ascertain the details of the 
process, as there till lately in use. 

There is another peculiarity to be seen in some of the green- 
stone hatchets and perforated axes, and of which the most 
characteristic examples occur in Switzerland, though the same 
may occasionally be observed in British specimens. It is that the 
blocks of stone have been reduced into form, not only by chipping 
with a hammer, as is the case with flint hatchets, but by working 
upon the surface with some sort of pick or chisel, which was not 


improbably formed of flint. In some instances, wbere the hatchets 
^yere intended for insertion into sockets of stags' horn or other 
materials, their butt-end was j^urposely roughened by means of a 
pick after the whole surface had been polished. Instances of this 
roughening are common in Switzerland, rare in France, and rarer 
still in England. The curious greenstone hatchet found in a 
gravel-pit near Malton* (Fig. 123) has its butt-end roughened in 
this manner. The shaft-holes in some few perforated axes appear 
to have been worked out by means of such picks or chisels, the 
hole having been bored from oj^posite sides of the axe, and gene- 
rally with a gradually decreasing diameter. In some rare 
instances the perforation is oval. The cup- or funnel-shaped 
depressions in some hammer-stones seem to have been made in a 
similar manner ; in others, they have been at all events finished, 
if not made, by grinding with some conical or partially spherical 
grinding tool. The inner surface of the shaft-holes in perforated 
axes is also frequently ground, and occasionally polished. This 
has in most cases been effected by turning a cylindrical grinder 
within the hole, though in some few instances the grinding 
instrument has been rubbed backwards and forwards in the hole 
after the manner of a file. M. Franck de Truguet,f of Treytel, in 
Switzerland, thinks he has found in a lake-dwelling of the Stone 
Age an instrument used for finishing and enlarging the holes. It 
is a fragment of sandstone about 2 J inches long, and 1 inch wide 
at the base, and about ^ inch thick, and rounded on one fixce, 
which is worn by friction. 

But, besides the mode of chipj^ing out the shaft-hole in perforated 
implements, several other methods were employed, especially in 
the days when the use of bronze was known, to which period 
most of the highly finished perforated axes found in this coimtry 
are to be referred. In some cases it would appear that, after 
chipping out a recess so as to form a guide for the boring tool, the 
perforation was eflfected by giving a rotatory motion, either con- 
stant or intermittent, to the tool. I have, indeed, seen some 
specimens in which, from the marks visible in the hole, I am 
inclined to think a metallic drill was used. But whether, where 
metal was not employed, and no central core, as subsequently 
mentioned, was left in the hole, the boring tool was of flint, and 
acted like a drill, or whether it was a roitnd stone used in con- 

* The Jieliquary, vol. viii. p. 184. 

t " Mati'iiaux pour I'Hist. de 1' Homme/' vol. iv. p. 2D3. 


juuction with sand, as suggested by Professor Daniel Wilson* and 
Sir W. Wilde, t so that the hole was actually ground away, it 
is impossible to say. I have never seen any flint tools that could 
unhesitatingly be referred to this use ; but Ilerr Grewingk, in 
his "Steinalter der Ostseeprovinzen,"+ mentions several imple- 
ments in the form of truncated cones, which he regards as borins: 
tools [Bohrstenipel), used for perforating stone axes and hammers. 
As, however, none of these borers are more than two inches and a 
quarter in length, and some have the larger end flat and polished, 
so that they could not Avell have been attached to a handle of any 
kind, it is difl[icult to see in what manner they were used. Ilerr 
Grewingk suggests the employment of a drill-bow to make them 
revolve, and thinks that, in som,e cases, the boring tool was 
fixed, and the axe itself caused to revolve. Not having seen the 
specimens, I cannot pronounce upon them ; but the fact that 
several of these conical pieces show signs of fracture at the base, 
and that they are all of the same kinds of stone (diorite, augite, 
porphyry, and syenite) as those of which the stone axes of the 
district are made, is suggestive of their being merely the cores 
resulting from boring with a tube in the manner about to be 
described, in some cases from each face of the axe, and in others, 
where the base of the cone is smooth, from one face only. One of 
these central cores found in Lithuania is figured by Mortillet,v^ 
and is regarded by him as being probably the result of boring 
by means of a metal tube ; others, from Switzerland, presumably 
of the Stone Age, are cited by Keller. || 

Professor Worsaae^ has suggested that in early times the boring 
may have been effected with a pointed stick and sand and water ; 
and, indeed, if any grinding process was used, it is a question 
whether some softer substance, such as wood, in which the sand 
or abrasive material could become embedded, would not be more 
effective than flint. By way of experiment I bored a hole through 
the Swiss hatchet of steatite before mentioned, and I found that 
in that case a flint flake could be used as a sort of drill ; but 
that for grinding, a stick of elder was superior to both flint and 
bone, inasmuch as it formed a better bed for the sand. 

Professor E,au, of New York, has made some interesting experi- 

* Prehist. Ann. of Scotland, 2nd edit., vol. i. p. 19.3. 
t Cat. Stone Ant. Mus. R. I. A., p. 78. + P. 26. 

§ " Materiaux," vol. i. p. 463; vol. iii. p. 307. 
II Anz. f. Schweiz. Alt., 1870, pi. xii. 18—20. 
^ "Primeval Ants, of Denmark," p. 16. 


meiits in boring stone by means of a drilling-stock and sand, 
wbich are described in the " Annual Report of tlie Smithsonian 
Institute for 1868.* He operated on a piece of hard diorite an 
inch and three- eighths in thickness, and employed as a drilling 
agent a wooden wand of ash, or, at times, of pine, in conjunction 
with sharp quartz sand. Attached to the wand was a heavy 
disc, to act as a fly-wheel, and an alternating rotatory motion 
was obtained by means of a bow and cord attached at its centre 
to the apex of the drilling-stock, and giving motion to it after the 
manner of a "■ jDump-drill," such as is used by the Dacotahs f and 
Iroquois]; for producing fire by friction, or what is sometimes 
called the Chinese drill. So slow was the process, that two hours 
of constant drilling added, on an average, not more than the 
thickness of an ordinary lead-pencil line to the depth of the 

The use of a drill of some form or other, to which rotatory motion 
in alternate directions was communicated by means of a cord, is of 
great antiquity. "We find it practised with the ordinary bow by 
the ancient Egyptians ; § and Ulysses is described by Homer || as 
drilling out the eye of the Cyclops by means of a stake with a thong 
of leather wound round it, which he pulled alternately at each end, 
" like a shipwright boring timber." The " fire-drill," for producing 
fire by friction, and which is precisely analogous to the ordinary 
drill, is, or was, in use in most parts of the world. Among the 
Aleutian islanders the thong-drill, and among the New Zealanders 
a modification of it, is used for boring holes in stone. Those 
who wish to see more on the subject must consult Tyler's " Early 
History of Mankind." ^ 

Professor Carl Yogt** has suggested that the small roundels of 
stone (like Worsaae, Afh., No. 86) too large to have been used as 
spindle-wheels, which are occasionally found in Denmark, may 
have been the fly-wheels of vertical pump-drills, used for boring 
stone tools. They may, however, be heads of war-maces. 

In the case of some of the unfinished and broken axes found in 
the Swiss lakes, and even in some of the objects made of stags' - 

* P. 392. Archil' fur Aiithrop., vol. iii. p. 187. 
t Schoolcraft, " Iiid. Tribes," vol. iii. pp. 228, 4GG. 

I Tylor, "Early Hist, of Mankind," p. 218. 

ij Wilkinson, "Anc. Egv2)tians," vol. ii. pp. 180, 181 ; vol. iii. pp. 141, 172. 

II Odyss., ix. 384. 

IF 2nd edit., pp. 241 ct seqq.; sec also " Flint Chip.s," p. 96. 
** " Guide ill. du Mus. des Ant. du Nord," 2nd edit., p. 8. 


horn,* there is a projecting coref at the bottom of the unfinished 
hole, indicating, as Dr. Keller has shown, the emploj^ment of 
some kind of tube as a boring tool, as indeed had been pointed 
out by Gutsmuths+ so long ago as 1832, who, in his paper " Wie 
durchbohrte der alte Germane seine Streitaxt ? " suggested that a 
copjjer or bronze tube was used in conjunction with powdered quartz, 
or sand and water. In the Klemm collection, formerly at Dresden, 
is a bronze tube, five inches long and three-quarters of an inch in 
diameter, found near Camenz, in Saxony, which its late owner 
regarded § as one of the boring tools used in the manufacture of 
stone axes. This is now in the British Museum, and does not 
appear to me to have been employed for any such purpose. The 
Danish antiquaries || seem to have arrived at the same conclusion. 
Yon Estorfi"^ goes so far as to say that the shaft-holes are in some 
cases so regular and straight, and their inner surface so smooth, 
that they can only have been bored by means of a metallic 
cylinder and emery. Lindenschmit ** considers the boring to 
have been efiiected either by means of a hard stone, or a plug of 
hard wood with sand and water, or else, in some cases, by means 
of a metallic tube, as described by Gutsniuths. He engraves some 
specimens, in which the commencement of the hole, instead of 
being a mere depression, is a sunk ring. Similar specimens 
are mentioned by Lisch.ff Dr. Keller's translator, Mr. Lee, 
cites a friend as suggesting the employment of a hollow stick, 
such as a piece of elder, for the boring tool. My experience 
confirms this ; but I found that the coarse sand was liable to clog 
and accumulate in the hollow part of the stick, and thus grind 
away the top of the core. If I had used finer sand this probably 
would not have been the case. 

Mr. Hose ij: J has suggested the use of a hollow bone ; but, as 
already observed, I found bone less efiective than wood, in conse- 
quence of its not being so good a medium for carrying the sand. 

Most of the holes drilled in the stone instruments and pipes of 

* " Anzeigcr f. SchweiT:. Alt.," 1870, pi. xii. 24. 

t Keller's " Lake-dwellings," p. 22. iter Bericlit, p. 74. See also " Anzeiger 
fur Schweiz. Alterth.," 1870, p. 139. 

X^Morf/enhlatt, No. 2-53. 

§ " Allgemeine Culturwissenschaft," i. p. 80. See also Preusker, " Blioke in die 
Vaterlandische Yorzeit," vol. i. p. 173. 

II Mem. de la Soc. dcs Ant. du Nord, 18C3, p. 149. 

U •' Heidnische Alterthlimer," p. 66. 

** " AltertMmer, u. h. V.," vol. i., Heft viii. Taf. i. 

tt " Frederico-Francisceum," p. 111. 

XX Journal of the Anthrop. Soc, vol. vi. p. xlii. 


Xortli America appear to liave been produced by hollow drills, 
whicli Professor Rau* suggests may have been formed of a hard 
and tough cane, the Arundmaria macrospenna, which grows abun- 
dantly in the southern parts of the United States. He finds 
reason for supposing that the India*!! w^orkmen were acquainted 
with the ordinary form of drill driven by a pulley and bow. 
The tubes of steatite, one foot in length, found in some of the 
minor mounds of the Ohio Valley,t must probabl}^ have been 
bored with metal. 

Dr. Keller, after making some experiments with a hollow bone 
and quartz-sand, tried a portion of ox-horn, Avhich he found 
surprisingly more efiective, the sand becoming embedded in the 
horn and acting like a file. He comments on the absence of any 
bronze tubes that could have been used for boring in this manner, 
and on the impossibility of making flint tools for the purpose. 
The perishable nature of ox-horn accounts for its absence in the 
Lake settlements. + On the whole, this suggestion appears to me 
the most reasonable. 

M. Troyon§ considered that these holes were not bored by 
means of a hollow cylinder, inasmuch as this would not produce so 
conical an opening, and he thought that the axe was made to 
revolve in some sort of lathe, while the boring was efiected by 
means of a bronze tool used in conjunction with sand and water. 
He mentions some stone axes found in Bohemia, and in the col- 
lection of the Baron de Neuberg, at Prague, which have so little 
space left between the body of the axe and the central cores, that 
in his opinion they must have been bored by means of a metal 
point, and not of a hollow cylinder. Mortillet|| thinks that some of 
the Swiss axes were bored in a similar manner. The small holes 
for suspension, drilled through some of the Danish celts, he thinks 
were drilled with a pointed stone. ^ Not having seen the specimens 
cited by M. Troyon, I am unable to offer any opinion upon them ; 
but it appears to me doubtful whether anything approaching in 
character to a lathe was known at the early period to which most of 
the perforated axes belong, or we should otherwise probably find it 
applied to the manufacture of pottery in the shape of the potter's 
wheel, whereas the contemporary pottery is all hand-made. M. 

* Lib. cit., p. 399. t Schoolcraft, "Indian Tribes," vol. i. p. 9o. 

; "Anzeigor f. Schwciz. Alt.," 1870, p. 143. 

^ "Habitations Lacustres," p. 66. Eev. Arch., 1860, vol. i. p. 39. 

II "Materiaux," vol. iii. p. 264. H Ibid., vol. iii. p, 294. 


Desor,* thoug-li admitting tliat a liollow metallic tube would have 
afforded tlie best means of drilling tliese holes, is inclined to refer 
the axes to a period when the use of metals was unknown. He 
suggests that thin flakes of flint may have been fastened round a 
stick, and thus used to bore the hole, leaving a solid core in the 
middle. I do not, however, think that such a method is practicable. 
In some of the Swiss f specimens in which the boring is incom- 
plete there is a small hole in advance of the larger, so that the 
section is like that of a trifoliated Gothic arch. In this case the 
borer would appear to have somewhat resembled a centre-bit or 
pin-drill. In others J the holes are oval, and must have been 
much modified after they were first bored. 

Kirchner,§ the ingenious but perverse author of " Tlior's Don- 
nerkeil," considers that steel boring tools must have been used ; 
and even Nilsson,|| who comments on the rarity of the axes with 
the central core in the holes, is inclined to refer them to the 
Iron Age. He^ considers it an im]3ossibility to bore "such 
holes " with a wooden pin and wet sand, and is no doubt right, 
if he means that a wooden pin would not leave a core standing in 
the centre of the hole. 

The drilling the holes through the handles of the New Zealand** 
merais is stated to be a very slow process, but efiected by means of 
a wetted stick dipped in emery powder. I have seen one in which 
the hole was unfinished, and only represented by a conical 
depression on each face. 

In some stones, however, such holes can be bored with wood 
and sand ; and in all cases where the stone to be worked upon 
can be scratched by sand, the boring by means of wood is 
possible, given sufiicient time, and the patience of a savage. 

To what a degree this extends may be estimated b}^ what 
Lafitau ft says of the North American Indians sometimes spending 
their whole life in making a stone tomahawk without entirely 
finishing it ; and by the years spent by members of tribes on the 
Rio Negro + J in perforating cylinders of rock crystal, by twirling a 

* " Les Palafittes." p. 19. f Keller, "Lake-dwellings," xxv. 1, 7, p. 91. 

I Op. cit., xxvii. 11, 24, p. 110. § "Thor's Donnerkeil," p. 13. 

II "Stone Ago," p. 79. The hollow boring tool is, in the English edition, called 
a centre-bit. 

ir "Stone Age," p. 80. 

** Wood, " Nat. Hist, of Man," vol. ii. p. 157. 

tt " Moeurs des Sauv. Amer.," 1724, vol. ii. p. 110. " Flint Chips," p. 52.5. 
It Tylor, "Early Hist, of Mankind," 2nd edit., p. 191. Wallace, "Travels on 
Amazon and Eio Negro," p. 278. 


flexible leaf-shoot of wild plantain between the hands, and thus 
grinding the hole with the aid of sand and water. 

On the whole, we may conclude that the holes were bored in 
various manners, of which the principal were — 

1. By chiselling, or picking with a sharp stone. 

2. By grinding with a solid grinder, probably of wood. 

3. By grinding with a tubular grinder, probably of ox-horn. 

4. By drilling with a stone drill. 

5. By drilling with a metallic drill. 

Holes produced by any of these means could, of course, receive 
their final polish by grinding. 

With regard to the external shaping of the perforated stone 
axes but little can be said. They appear to have been in some 
cases wrought into shape by means of a pick or chisel, and sub- 
sequently ground ; in other cases to have been fashioned almost 
exclusively by grinding. In some of the axe-hammers made 
of compact quartzite, the form of the pebble from which they 
have been mode has evidently given the general contour, 
in the same manner as has been observed on some fibrolite 
hatchets, which have been made by sawing a flat pebble in two 
longitudinally, and then sharpening the end, or ends, the rest 
of the surface being left unaltered in form ; as is also the case 
with some stone hatchets, to form which a suitable pebble has 
been selected, and one end ground to an edge. 

8uch is a general review of the more usual processes adopted in 
the manufacture of stone implements in prehistoric times, which I 
have thought it best should precede the account of the implements 
themselves. I can hardly quit the subject without just mention- 
ing that here, as elsewhere, we find traces of improvement and 
progress, both in adapting forms to the ends they had to subserve, 
and in the manner of treating the stubborn materials of which 
these implements were made. Such progress may not have 
been, and probably was not, uniform, even in any one country ; 
and, indeed, there are breaks in the chronology of stone imple- 
ments which it is hard to fill up ; but any one comparing, for 
instance, the exquisitely made axe-hammers and delicately 
chipped flint arrow-heads of the Bronze Age with the rude 
implements of the Pala)olithic Period — neatly chipped as some 
of these latter are — cannot but perceive the advances that 
had been made in skill, and in adaptation of means to 
ends. If, for the sake of illustration, we divide the lapse of 


time embraced between these two extremes into four Periods, 
it appears — 

1. That in the Palscolithic, River- gravel, or Drift Period, imple- 
ments were fashioned by chipping only, and not ground or 
polished. The material used in Europe was, moreover, as far as at 
present knoAvn, almost exclusively flint. 

2. That in the Reindeer or Cavern Period of Central France, 
though grinding was not practised, except for bone instruments, 
yet greater skill in flaking flint and in working up flakes into 
serviceable tools was exhibited. In some places, as at Laugerie- 
haute, surface-chipping is found on the flint arrow-heads. Cup- 
shaped recesses have been worked in other hard stones than flint, 
though no other stones have been used for cutting purposes. 

3. That in the Neolithic or Surface Stone Period of Western 
Europe other materials besides flint were largely used for the 
manufacture of hatchets ; grinding at the edge and on the 
surface was generally practised ; and the art of working flint by 
pressure from the edge was probably known. The stone axes, 
at least in Britain, were rarely perforated. 

4. That in the Bronze Period such stone implements, with the 
exception of mere flakes and scrapers, as remained in use, were, 
as a rule, highly finished, many of the axes being perforated 
and of graceful form, and some of the flint arrow-heads evincing 
the highest degree of manual skill. 

Having said thus much on the methods by which the stone 
implements of antiquity were manufactured, I pass on to the con- 
sideration of their different forms, commencing with those of the 
Neolithic Age, and with the form which is perhaps the best known 
in all countries — the celt. 




The name of Celt, wliicli has long been given to hatchets, adzes, or 
chisels of stone, is so well known and has been so universally 
employed, that though its use has at times led to considerable 
misapprehension, I have thought it best to retain it. It has been 
fancied by some that the name bore reference to the Celtic people, 
by whom the implements were supposed to have been made ; 
and among those who have thought fit to adopt the modern fashion 
of calling the Celts " Kelts " there have been not a few who have 
given the instruments the novel name of "kelts" also. In the 
same manner, many French antiquaries have given the plural 
form of the word as Celfce. Notwithstanding this misappre- 
hension, there can be no doubt as to the derivation of the word, it 
being no other than the English form of the Latin celds or ce/fes, 
a chisel. This word, however, is curiously enough an aTra^ 
Xeyoixevov in this sense, being only found in the Yulgate translation 
of Job,* though it is repeated in a forged inscription recorded by 
Gruter and Aldus, t The usual derivation given is d ccelando, and 
it is regarded as the equivalent of ccp/um. The first use of the 
term that I have met with, as applied to antiquities, is in Beger's 
" Thesaurus Brandenburgicus," + 1696, where a bronze celt, adapted 
for insertion in its haft, is described under the name of Cclfes. 

It has been suggested that there may originally have been 
some connection between the Latin celtis and the British or 
Welsh ceili, a flint ; but this seems rather an instance of fortuitous 
resemblance than of affinity. § A Welsh triad says there are three 
hard things in the world — nmen cellt (a flint stone), steel, and a 
miser's heart. 

* Cap. xix. V. 24. It also occurs in a quotation of the passage by St. Jerome, in 
his Epist. ad Pammachium. See Athenmum, June 11, 1870. 

t P. 329, 1. 23. + Vol. iii. p. 418. 

§ Barnes, "Notes on Ancient Britain," 1853, p. 15. 


The general form of stone celts is well known, being usually 
that of more or less flat blades, approaching an oval in section, 
with the sides more or less straight, and one end broader and also 
sharper than the other. In length they vary from about two 
inches to as much as sixteen inches. I do not, however, propose 
entering at once into any description of the varieties in their form 
and character, but to pass in review some of the opinions that have 
been held concerning their nature and origin. 

One of the most universal of these is a belief, which may almost 
be described as having been held "semper, ubique et ab omnibus," 
in their having been thunderbolts. 

" The country folks* of the West of England still hold that the 
' thunder-axes ' they find, once fell from the sky." In Cornwall f 
they still have medical "sdrtues assigned to them ; the water in 
which " a thunderbolt," or celt, has been boiled being a specific 
for rheumatism. In the North of England, and in parts of 
Scotland, they are kno^^^l as thunderbolts, + and, like flint arrow- 
heads, are supposed to have preservative virtues, especially 
against diseases of cattle. In Ireland the same superstition 
prevails, and I have myself kno'wai an instance where a stone celt 
was lent among neighbours to place in the troughs from which 
cattle drank, on account of its healing powers. 

In most parts of France, § and in the Channel Islands, the stone 
celt is known by no other name than Coin de foudre, or Pierre 
de tonnerre ; and Mr. F. C. Lukisll gives an instance of a flint 
celt having been found near the spot where a signal-stafi" had 
been struck by lightning, and which was proved to have been the 
bolt, by its peculiar smell when broken. 

In Brittany^ the stone celt is frequently throwm into the well 
for purifying the water, or for securing a continued supply ; and in 
Savoy it is not rare to find one of these instruments rolled up 
in the wool of the sheep, or the hair of the goat, for good luck, or 
the prevention of the rot or putrid decay. 

In Sweden** they are preserved as a protection against light- 

* Tylor, " Early Hist, of Man.," 2nd edit. p. 226, which also see for many of the 
facts here quoted. See also Tylor's '• Prim. Culture," ii. p. 237, &c. 

t HalliweU, " Rambles in West. ComwaU," 1861, p. 20-5. Rev. Celt, 1870, p. 6. 

X Sibbald mentions two perforated ceraunicc found in Scotland. Prod. Nat. 
Hist. Scot., ii. lib. iv. p. 49. 

§ Comptes Eendus, 1864, lix. p. 713. Cochet, " Seine Inf.," 15. B. de Perthes, " Ant. 
Celt, et Anted.," i. p. 522, &c. 

II F. C. Lukis, F.S.A., in ReUquary, \\\\. p. 208. H Ibid. 

** Xilsson, "Stone Age," pp. 199 — 201. 

E 2 

52 CELTS. [chap. III. 

ning, being regarded as the stone-bolts tbat liave fallen during 

In Norway they are known as Tonderkiler, and in Denmark 
the old name for a celt was Torden-steen.* The test of their being 
really thunderbolts was to tie a thread round them, and place 
them on hot coals, when, if genuine, the thread was not burnt, 
but rather rendered moist. 

In Grermany f both celts and perforated stone axes are regarded 
as thunderbolts (DonnerJcei/c, or ThorsJceik) ; and, on account of 
their valuable properties, are sometimes preserved in families for 
hundreds of years. I possess a specimen from North Germany, 
on which is inscribed the date 1571, being probably the year in 
which it was discovered. The curious perforated axe or hammer 
found early in the last century, now preserved in the Museum of 
Antiquities at Upsala,+ seems to have been a family treasure of 
the same kind. It bears upon it, in early Runes, an inscription 
thus interpreted by Professor Stephens — " Owns Oltha this Axe." 
Another, with four§ Runic characters uj)on it, was found in Den- 
mark, and it has been suggested that the letters upon it represent 
the names of Loki, Thor, Odin, and Belgthor. || The appearance 
of the American inscribed axe from Pemberton,1[ New Jersey, 
described by my namesake. Dr. J. C. Evans, and published by 
Dr. Daniel Wilson, is not calculated to inspire confidence in its 

The German belief is much the same as the Irish. Stone celts 
are held to preserve from lightning the house in which they are 
kept. They perspire when a storm is approaching ; they are good 
for diseases of man and beast ; they increase the milk of cows ; 
they assist the birth of children; and powder scraped from them may 
be taken with advantage for various childish disorders. It is usually 
nine days after their fall before they are found on the surface. 

In Holland,* * in like manner, they are known as donder-heitels, 
or thunder-chisels. 

Among the Portuguese ft and in Brazil ++ the name for a stone 
axe-blade is corisco, or lightning. 

* Mks. TFoi-ininnum, p. 74. 

t Preusker, " Blicke in die Vateriilndische Vorzeit," i. p. 170. 
j "Old Northern Runic Monuments," p. 205. Ant. Tid.sskr., 1852-54, p. 258. 
Sjoborg, " .Siimlingar for Nordens Fornalskara," iii. p. 163. 

^ Ant. Tidsskr., 1852-54, p. 8. Mem. de la Soc. dcs Aut. du Nnrd, 1850-60, p. 28. 
II Arch. Joiirn., xxv. ]). 117. H Preh. Man, ii. p. 185. 

* * Notes and Queries, 2nd S., viii. p. 92. 
tt Tylor, "Early Hist, of ]Man," p. 227. 

XI Ann. for Nord. Oldk., 1838, p. 159. Klemm, " C. G.," i. 268. Prinz Neuwied, ii. 35. 


In Italy* a similar belief in these stone implements being 
thunderbolts prevails ; and in Greecef the stone celts are known as 
Astropelelda, and have long been held in veneration. 

About the year 1081 we find the Byzantine emperor, Alexius 
Comnenus,+ sending, among other presents, to the Emperor Henry 
III. of Germany, aa-TpoiriXeKw SeSeiximv ixcTo. xpy<Tacf)tov, an expression 
which appears to have puzzled Ducange and Gibbon, but which 
probably means a celt of meteoric origin mounted in gold. 

Nor is the belief in the meteoric and supernatural origin of celts 
confined to Europe. Throughout a great part of Asia the same 
name of thunderbolts, or lightning- stones, is applied to them. 
Mr. Tylor§ cites an interesting passage from a Chinese ency- 
clopsedia of the seventeenth century respecting lightning- stones, 
some of which have the shape of a hatchet. 

In Japan || they are known as thunderbolts, or as the battle-axe 
of Tengu,1[ the Guardian of Heaven ; and in Java** as lightning- 
teeth. The old naturalist Ilumph,tt towards the end of the seven- 
teenth century, met with many such in Java and Amboyna, which 
he says were known as " Dondersteenen." 

In Burmah ++ and Assam §§ stone adzes are called lightning- 
stones, and are said to be always to be found on the spot where a 
thunderbolt has fallen, provided it is dug for, three years after- 
wards. When reduced to powder they are an infallible specific 
for ophthalmia. They |||| also render those who carry them invul- 
nerable, and possess other valuable properties. 

Among the Malaysia the same idea of the celestial origin of 
these stones prevails ; while in China they are revered as relics of 
long deceased ancestors. 

I am not aware whether they are regarded as thunderbolts in 
India,*** but there also they are venerated as sacred, and placed 
against the Mahadeos, or adorned with red paint as Mahadeo. 

* Nicolucci, " Di Alcuno Armi, &c., in Pietra," 1863, p. 2. 
t Her. Arch., xv. p. 3-58; xvi. p. 145. Finlay, Tlpoicrr. 'ApxdioX., p. 5. 
t Alexius, lib. iii. p. 93, et seqq., quoted by Gibbon, " Dec. and Fall," c. 56. 
5 "Early Hist, of Mankind," p. 211. Klemin, " Cultur-Gescliichte," vi. p. 467. 
II Tylor, 02). cit., 214. 

f Franks, Trans. Preh. Cong., 1868, p. 260. 

** Notes and Queries, 2nd S., viii. p. 92. Arch. Journ., xi. p. 121. 
tt Arch.furAnthrop.,\\. Corr.BIatt.,^^. 48. Rumphius, "Curios. Amboin.," p. 215. 
XX Froc. Soc. Ant., N. S., iii. p. 97. 
^^^ Proc. Pthriol. Soc., 1870, p. Lxii. 

nil Proc. As. Soc. Beng., July, 1869. "Nature," vol. ii. p. 104. 
illT Morlot, Actes de la Soc. jurass. d'E/nuL, 1863. Earl, " Native Races of the 
Indian Archip.," vol. v. p. 84. Von Siebold. 

*** Proc. As. S»c. Bengal, 1861, p. 81. Do., 1862, p. 325. 

54 CELTS. [chap. III. 

It is the same in AVestern Africa.* Mr. Bowen, a missionary, 
states tliat tliere also the stones, or thunderbolts, which Saugo, the 
Thunder God, casts down from heaven, are preserved as sacred 
relics. In appearance they are identical with the stone hatchets 
picked up in the fields of America. 

The very remarkable celt of nephrite (now in the Christy 
collection), procured in Egypt many years ago by Colonel Milner, 
and exhibited to the Archaeological Institute in 1868 f by General 
Lefroy, F.R.S., affords another instance of the suj)erstitions 
attaching to these instruments, and has been the subject of a very 
interesting memoir by Mr. C. W. King,+ the well-known authority 
on ancient gems. In this case both faces of the celt have been 
engraved with Gnostic inscriptions in Greek, arranged on one face 
in the form of a wreath ; and it was doubtless regarded as in itself 
possessed of mystic power by some Greek of Alexandria, where it 
seems to have been engraved. It is shown in Fig. 11, here 
reproduced from the Archceological Journal. Another celt, not 
from Egypt, but from Greece proper, with three personages and 
a Greek inscription engraved upon it, is mentioned by Mortillet.§ 

Curiously enough, the hatchet appears in ancient times to have 
had some sacred importance among the Greeks. It was from a 
hatchet that, according to Plutarch, || Jupiter Labrandeus received 
that title ; and M. de LongperierU has pointed out a passage, from 
which it appears that Bacchus was in one instance, at all events, 
worshipped under the form of a hatchet, or iriX^KVQ. He has also 
published a Chaldsean cylinder on which a priest is represented 
as making an offering to a hatchet placed upright on a throne, 
and has called attention to the fact that the Egyptian hieroglyph 
for Nouter, God, is simply the figure of an axe. 

In India the hammer was the attribute of the ffod Indra** as 
Yagi-akarti. A similar worship appears to have prevailed in the 
North. Saxo Grammaticus mentions that the Danish prince, 
Magnus Nilsson, after a successful expedition against the Goths, 
brought back among his trophies some Thor's hammers, "malleos 
joviales," of unusual weight, which had been objects of veneration 
in an island in Avhich he had destroyed a temple. In Brittany 

* Rev. T. J. Bowen, " Gram, and Diet, of Yoruba Lana^uage." " Smithsonian 
Contr.," vol. i. p. xvi., quoted by Mr. E. B. Tylor, Trims. Preh. Cong., 1868, p. 14. 
t Arc]i. Journ., xxv. p. 151. % Ibid., p. 103. 

\ Matei-iaux, iv. p. 9. || Qiuest. Gnec. (ed. 1G24), p. 301. 

II Conyris Intern. d'Anth. et d' Arch. Preh., 1S67, pp. 39, 40. 
♦* Kruse, "Neeroliv.," JSlachtrag, p. 21. Journ. As. Sac. Beng., v. p. 34.' 



the fio'ures of stone celts are in several instances engraved on tlie 
laro-e stones of chambered tuinuli and dolmens. 



Fig. 11.— Celt with Gnostic Inscription. (Tlie upper figure full size, the lower enlarged.) 

There are two* deductions which may readily be drawn from the 

facts just stated ; first, that in nearly all, if not indeed in all parts of 
* See also Tylor, /.c, p. 228. 

56 CELTS. [chap. III. 

the globe wliicli are now civilized, there was a period when the use 
of stone implements prevailed ; and, secondly, that this period 
is so remote, that what were then the common implements of 
every-day life have now for centuries been regarded with super- 
stitioiis reverence, or as being in some sense of celestial origin, 
and not the work of man's hands. 

Nor was such a belief even in Europe, and in comparatively 
modern times, confined to the uneducated. On the contrary, Mercati,* 
physician to Clement VIII., at the end of the sixteenth century, 
appears to have been the first to maintain that what were regarded 
as thunderbolts were the arms of a primitive people unacquainted 
with the use of bronze or iron ; and in France, Mahudel,t about 
1734, reproduced this view to the Academic des Inscriptions. In 
our own country, Dr. Plot, in his " History of Stafibrdshire " + (1686), 
also recognised their true character ; and, citing an axe of stone 
made of speckled flint ground to an edge, says that either the 
Britons or Romans, or both, made use of such axes ; and adds that 
" how they might be fastened to a helve may be seen in the Museum 
Ashmoleanum, where there are several Indian ones of the like 
kind fitted up in the same order as when formerly used." Dr. Plot's 
views were not, however, accepted by all his countrymen, for in the 
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society % we find Dr. Lister 
regarding unmistakable stone weapons as having been fashioned 
naturally and without any artifice. Some of the old German || 
authors have written long dissertations about these stone hatchets 
and axes under the name of Cerauniae, and give representations 
of various forms which are known as Malleus fuhnineus, Cunens ful- 
minis, Donnerstein, &c. Aldrovandus says that these stones are 
usually about five inches long and three wide, of a substance like 
flint, some so hard that a file will not touch them. About the centre 
of gravity of the stone is usually a hole an inch in diameter, quite 
round. They all imitate in form a hammer, a wedge, or an axe, or 
some such instrument, with a hole to receive a haft, so that some think 
them not to be thunderbolts, but iron implements petrified by time. 
But many explode such an opinion, and relate how such stones 
have been found under trees and houses struck by lightning ; and 

* "Metallothoca Vaticana," p. 242. De Rossi, "Scoperte PaleoetnoL," 1867, p. H. 

t Hist, et Mom., xii. p. 163. + P. 397. § No. 201. 

II Aldrovandus, "Mus. Met.," 1648, p. 607—611. Gosnor, "De Fig. Lapid.," 
p. 62 — 64. BoethiiiH, "Hist. Gem.," lib. ii. c. 261. Besler, "Gazophyl. Rer. Nat.," 
tab. 34. Wormius, " Musttiiim," lib. i. sec. 2, c. 12, p. 7-5. Moscardi, " Musseo," 
1672, p. 148. l.achmund, "De foss. Hildeshem.," p. 23. 


assert that trustworthy persons were present, and saw them dug 
out, after the lightning had struck. Kentmann informs us how, 
in the month of May, 1561, there was dug out at Torgau such a 
bolt projected by thunder. It was five inches long, and of a stone 
harder than basalt, which in some parts of Germany was used 
instead of anvils. He also relates how near Jiilich another stone 
was driven by thunder through an enormous oak, and was then 
dug up. Aldrovandus describes the philosophical views of the 
formation of these stones by an admixture of a certain exhalation 
of thunder and lightning with metallic matter, chiefly in dark 
clouds, which is coagulated by the circuinfused moisture and con- 
glutinated into a mass (like flour with water), and subsequently 
indurated by heat, like a brick. 

Going a little further back, we find Marbodaeus,* Bishop of 
E,ennes, who died in the year 1123, and who wrote a metrical work 
concerning gems, ascribing the following origin and virtues to the 
Ceraunius : — 

" Ventorum rabie cnm turbidiis a^stuat aer. 
Cum tonat hoiTendum, cum fulgurat igneus sether, 
Nubibus elisus coelo cadit ille lapillus. 
Cujus apud Grtecos extat de fulmine nomen : 
lllis quippe locis, quos constat fulmine tactos, 
Iste lapis tantum reperiri posse putatur, 
Uude Kt^avvioQ est Gra^co sermone vocatus : 
Xam quod nos fulmen, Gra^ci dixere KfQavvbv. 
Qui caste gerit liunc a fulmine non ferietur, 
Nee domus aut villse, quibus affuerit lapis ille : 
Sed neque navigio per tlumina vel mare vectus. 
Turbine mergetur, nee fulmine percutietur : 
Ad causas etiam, -sdncendaque pitelia prodest, 
Et dulces somnos, et dulcia somnia praestat." 

It was not, however, purely from the belief of his own day that 
Marbodaeus derived this catalogue of the virtues of the Cerauniae, 
but from the pages of writers of a much earlier date. Pliny, f giving 
an account of the precious stones known as ceraunue, quotes an 
earlier author still, Sotacus, who, to use the words of Philemon 
Holland's translation, " hath set downe two kinds more of Cerau- 
nia, to wit, the blacke and the red, saying that they do resemble 
halberds or axeheads. And by his saying, the blacke, such espe- 
cially as bee round withall, are endued with this vertue, that by 
the meanes of them, cities may be forced, and whole navies at sea 
discomfited ; and these (forsooth) be called Betuli, whereas the 
long ones be named properly Cerauniae." Pliny goes on to say 

* " Marboda^i Galli Csenomanensis de gemmarum lapidumque pretiosorum formis," 
&c. (Cologne, 1539), p. 48. 

t Hist. Nat., lib. xxxvii. c. 9. For a series of interesting Papers on La Foudre, 
&c., dans I'Antiquite, see M. Henri Martin in the Rev. Arch., vol. xii. et seqq. 

58 CELTS. [chap. III. 

"that there is one more Ceraunia yet, but verj^ geason* it is, and 
hard to be found, which the Parthian magicians set much store by, 
and they only can find it, for that it is no where to bee had than 
in a place which hath been shot with a thunderbolt." There is a 
very remarkable passage in Suetonius f illustrative of this belief 
among the Romans. After relating one prodig}-, which was 
interpreted as significant of the accession of Galba to the purple, 
he adds that " shortly afterwards lightning fell in a lake in 
Cantabria and twelve axes were found, a by no means ambiguous 
omen of Empire." The twelve axes were regarded as referring to 
those of the twelve lictors, and were therefore portentous ; but 
their being found Avhere the lightning fell would seem to have 
been considered a natural occurrence, except so far as related to 
the number. It appears by no means improbable that if the 
lake could be now identified, some ancient pile settlement might 
be found to have existed on its shores. 

The exact period when the earliest of these authorities, Sotacus, 
wrote is not known, but he was among the earliest of Greek 
authors who treated of stones, and is cited by ApoUonius Dyscolus, 
and Solinus, as well as by Pliny. We cannot be far wrong in 
assigning him to an age two thousand years before our time, and 
yet at that remote period the use of these stone " halberds and axe- 
heads " had so long ceased in Greece, that when found they were 
regarded as of superhuman origin, and invested with magical vir- 
tues. We have already seen that a flint arrow-head was mounted, 
probabl}^ as a charm, in an Etruscan necklace, and we shall subse- 
quently see that superstitions, almost similar to those relating to 
celts, have been attached to stone arrow-heads in various countries. 

To return from the superstitious veneration attaching to them, 
to the objects themselves. The materials+ of which celts in Great 
Britain are usually formed are flint, chert, clay-slate, porphyry, 
quartzite, felstone, serpentine, and various kinds of greenstone 
and of metamorphic rocks. M. A. Damour,§ in his " Essays on 
the Composition of Stone Hatchets, Ancient and Modern," gives 
the following list of materials : quartz, agate, flint, jasper, obsidian, 
fibrolite, jade, jadeite, chloromelanite, amphibolite, aphanite, di- 

* Geason := scarce. "Scant and geason," Harrison's "England." — Halliwell, 
Diet, of Archaic Words, s. v. 

t " Noo multo post in Cantiiln-i;u lacum fiilmen decidit, reportieque sunt duodecim 
secures, haud amhiguum sutnmi imperii signum."^ — (ialba, viii. c. 4. 

X See Arch. Assoc. Jonrn.., in. p. 127, and Wilde's Cut. 3fus. R. I. A., p. 72. 

\ Comptes Rendus de I'Ac. des. IScL, 1SG5, Ixi. pp. 313, Zbl ; 18G6, Ixiii. p. 1038. 


orite, saussurite, and staurotide ; but even to these many other 
varieties of rock might be added. 

The material most commonly in use in the southern and eastern 
parts of Britain was flint derived from the chalk ; in the north and 
west, on the contrary, owing to the scarcity of flint, difierent hard 
metamorphic and eruptive rocks were more frequently employed, 
not on account of any superior qualities, but simply from being more 
accessible. So far as general character is concerned, stone celts 
or hatchets may be divided into three classes, which I propose to 
treat separately, as follows : — 

1. Those merely chipped out in a more or less careful manner, 
and not ground or polished ; 

2. Those which, after being fashioned by chipping, have been 
ground or polished at the edge only ; and 

3. Those which are more or less ground or polished, not only at 
the edge, but over the whole surface. 

In describing them I propose to term the end opposite to the 
cutting edge the butt-end ; the two principal surfaces, which are 
usually convex, I shall speak of as the faces. These are either 
bounded by, or merge in, what I shall call the sides, which are 
usually sharp, flat, or rounded. In the figures the celts are all 
engraved on the scale of half an inch to the inch, or half linear 
measure, and are presented in front and side view, with a section 



Celts wliich liave beeu merely cliipped into form, and left un- 
ground, even at the edge, are of frequent occurrence in England, 
especially in those counties where flint naturally abounds. They 
are not, however, nearly so abundant in collections of antiquities 
as those which have been ground either wholly or in part ; and 
this, no doubt, arises from the fact that many of them are so 
rudely chipped out, that it requires a practised eye to recognise 
them, when associated, as they usually are, with numerous other 
flints of natural and accidental forms. No doubt many of these 
chipped celts, especially where, from the numbers discovered, 
there appears to have been a manufactory on the spot, were 
intended to be eventually ground ; but there are some which are 
roughly chipped, and which may possibly have been used as 
agricultural implements without further preparation ; and others, 
the edges of which are so minutely and symmetrically chipped, 
that they appear to be adapted for use as hatchets or cutting tools 
without requiring to be further sharpened by grinding. There 
are others again, as already mentioned at page 29, the edges of 
which have been produced by the intersection of two facets only, 
and are yet so symmetrical and sharp, that whetting their edge on 
a grindstone would be superfluous. 

Of this character I possess several specimens from the neighbourhood 
of Mildenhall, Suffolk, of which one is engraved in Fig. 12. As will be 
observed, the edge is nearly semicircular, but it is nevertheless formed 
merely by the intersection of two facets, each resulting from a single 
chip or flake of flint having been removed. I have in my collection 
another hatchet from the same place, which is so curiously similar to 
this in all respects, that it was probably made by the same hand. I am 
not, however, aware whether the two wei'e found together. 

There is in these implements a peculiar curvature on one face, as 
shown in the side view, which, I think, must be connected with the 
method by which they were attached to their handles. From the form, 
it seems probable that they were mounted as adzes, with the edge 



transversely to the line of the handle, and not as axes. I have a more 
roughly chipped specimen of the same type, found near Wanlud's Bank, 
Luton, Beds, by Mr. W. Whitaker, F.G.S., in which the same curvature 
of one of the faces is observable. It is not so conspicuous in a larger 
implement of the same class, also from Mildenhall (Fig. 13), but this 
likewise is slightly curved longitudinally. In the Christy Collection is 
another, found at Burwell, Cambridgeshire, of the same type, 5^ inches 
long and 2 inches broad, rather more convex on one face than the other. 

Fig. 12.— Near Mildenhall. 

No;ir Mildenhall. 

and slightly curved in the direction of the length. It is rounded at the 
butt, but nearly square at the cutting edge, which is formed by the 
junction of two facets, from which flakes have been struck off. I have 
seen others of the same character from near the Bartlow Hills, Cambs., 
and from Sussex. Others, from 4f to 6 inches in length, from Burwell, 
Wicken, and Bottisham Fens, are preserved in the Museum of the Cam- 
bridge Antiquarian Society, and in my own collection. The Kev. W. 
Greenwell, F.S.A., has a specimen Tf inches long, from Burnt Fen, 
I have also a French implement of this kind from the neighbourhood 
of Abbeville. 

Implements with the peculiar edge, of the same character, are found 
in Denmark. Indeed, the edges of the common form of Kjokken-modding 
axes* are usually produced in the same manner, by the intersection of 
two facets, each formed by a single blow, though the resulting edge is 
generally nearly straight. 

Closely approaching this Danish form is that of a celt of brown flint, 

K(jl. Danske J'idensk. Selskabs Forhand., 1861, 


Madsen, Afbild., pi. iii. 1 to 3. 



[chap. IV. 

Pig. 14.— Neai- Thctford. 

shown in Fig. 14, and found near Thetford by Mr. J. W. Flower, F.G.S., 

with one face nearly flat, and the edge 
formed by a single transverse facet. The 
implements, however, of this type, with the 
chisel edge, are rarely met with in this 
country ; and, generally speaking, axes 
similar to those which occur in such num- 
bers in the Danish Kjcikken-moddings and 
Coast-finds are of very rare occurrence 
elsewhere. I have, however, a small nearly 
triangular hatchet of the Danish type, and 
Avith the sides bruised in the same manner 
(probably with a view of preventing their 
cutting the ligaments by which the instru- 
ments were attached to their handles, or 
possibly to prevent their cutting the hand 
when held), which I found in the circular 
encampment known as Maiden Bower, near 
Dunstable, where also I have discovered 
many other antiquities in stone. 

Hatchets of this type have also been 
found in the neighbourhood of Pontlevoy (Loir et Cher) by the Abbe 
Bourgeois ; and I have likewise specimens from the neighbourhood of 
Pressigny-le-Grand and of Chatellerault. It would therefore appear that 
this form of implement is not confined to maritime districts, and that 
it can hardly be regarded as merely a weight for a fishing-line,* as has 
been suggested by Professor Steenstrup.f 

A few of the large Polynesian adzes of basalt have their edges pro- 
duced by a similar method of chipping, and are left unground. 

Another and more^ common form of roughly chipped colt is that of 
which an example is given in Fig. 15, from my own collection. It was 
found at Oving, near Chichester, and was given me by Mr. W. Boyd 
Dawkins, F.R.S. The edge, in this instance, is formed in the same 
manner, by the intersection of two facets, but the section is nearly 
triangular. If attached to a handle, it was probably after the manner of 
an adze rather than of an axe. I have a smaller specimen of the same 
type, and another, flatter and more neatly chipped, 7| inches long, from 
the Cambridge Fens. 

I have seen implements of much the same form which have been 
found at Bemerton, near Salisbury (Blackmore Museum) ; at St. Mary 
Bourne, Andover ; at Santon Downham, near Thetford ; at Little Dunham, 
Norfolk ; near Ware ; and near Canterbury ; but the edge is sometimes 
formed by several chips, in the same manner as the sides, and not 
merely by the junction of two planes of fracture. 

There are also smaller rough celts with the subtriangular section, of 
which I have a good example, 4i inches long, found by Mr. W. Whitaker, 
F.G.S., near Maiden Castle, Dorsetshire. It is curiously similar to one 
that I found near Store Lyngby, in Denmark. 
The same form occurs in France. 

* Lubbock, r. T., p. 72, 2nd edit. p. 93. 

t Kgl. JJanskc Vidensk. Selskahs Fork., 1861, p. 3-12. 



Otlier roughly chipped implements are to be found in various 
parts of Britain, lying- scattered over the fields, some of them so 
rude that it is difficult to say 
whether it is preferable to 
regard them as flints chipped 
into form to serve some tem- 
porary purpose ; as wasters 
or refuse pieces, thrown away 
as useless by those who were 
trying to manufacture stone 
implements which were even- 
tually destined to be ground ; 
or as the rude implements 
of the merest savage. Cer- 
tainly some of the stone 
hatchets of the Australian 
natives are quite as rude 
or ruder, and yet we find 
them carefully provided with 
handles. In my own neigh- 
bourhood, in Hertfordshire, 
I have myself picked up 
several such implements ; 
and they have been found in 
considerable numbers in the 
neighbourhood of Ickling- 
ham in Suffolk, near An- 
dover, and in other places. 
Were proper search made 
for them, there are probably not many districts where it would be 
fruitless. In Ireland they appear to be rare ; but numerous 
roughly shaped implements of this class have been found in 
Poitou and in other parts of France. They are also met with in 

As has alreadj^ been suggested, it is b}- no means improbable 
that some of these ruder unpolished implements were employed in 
agriculture, like the so-called shovels and hoes of flint of North 
America, described by Professor Rau. I have a flat celt-like 
implement about six and a half inches long and three inches broad, 
found in Cayuga County, New York, which, though unground, has 
its broad end beautifully polished on both faces, apparently bv 

Ovmg, near Cliiehester. 



[chap. IV. 

friction of the silty soil in wliich it has been used as a hoe. It is, 
as Professor Ran has pointed out in other cases, slightly striated 
in the direction in which the implement penetrated the ground.* 

The implement represented in Fig. 16, rude as it is, is more sym- 
metrical and more carefully chipped than many of this class. I found 

it, with several other worked flints, 
on the surface of the soil in a field 
between Newhaven and Telscombe, 
Sussex. At the place where I dis- 
covered it, had formerly stood a 
barrow, one of a group of four, 
the positions of which are shown 
on the Ordnance Map, though they 
are now all levelled to the ground. 
It is of course possible that such 
an implement may have been merely 
blocked out, with the intention of 
finisbing it by subsequent chipping 
and grinding, and that it was not 
intended for use in its present con- 
dition. Or it may possibly have been 
deposited in the tumulus as a votive 
offering, or in compliance with some 
ancient custom, as suggested here- 
after. (See p. 254.) It will be 
observed that the original crust of 
the block of flint from which it was 
fashioned is left at the butt-end. 
A somewhat similar sjiecimen, from 
the neighbourhood of Hastings, is 
figured in the Sussex Ai-chjeological 
Collections ; t and I have one from the Thames at Battersea, and others 
from Suflblk and from the Cambridge Fens. Mr. Prestwich, F.E.S., 
has found one of the same character at Shoreham, near Sevenoaks, 
and Mr. J. F. Lucas has another, 4 inches long, from Arbor Low, 

Fig. 17 shows an implement found by my eldest son at the foot of 
the Downs near Dunstable. It has been chipped from apiece of tabular 
flint, and can hardly have been intended for grinding or polishing. It is 
more than usually oval in form, and in general character approaches 
very closely to the ovate implements from the river-gravels. From the 
manner in which it is fashioned, and from its being found in company 
with worked flints, unquestionably belonging to the Surface Period, I 
regard it, however, as of Neolithic and not of Palagolithic age. Another 
implement of much the same form, found near Grime's Graves, in Nor- 
folk,! has been figured by the Rev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A. Others were 

16. — Near Newhaven. 

♦ Smithsonian Ecjjort, 1863, p. 379; 1868, p. 401. "Flint Chips," 145. 

t xix. 53. 

X Journ. Eth. Soc, N. S., ii. pi. xxviii. 7. 



found at Cissbury, Sussex.* Mr. C. Monkman possesses another, 
SJ inches long, and rather narrower in its proportions, found at 

Fig. 17.— Xear Liunstable. j 

Bempton, Yorkshire. I have some implements of much the same shape, 
though larger, from some of the 
ancient flint-implement manufac- 
tories of Belgium. 

The next specimen (Fig. 18) 
which I have engraved is from 
Burwell Fen, Cambridge, and 
is in my own collection. It 
is of beautiful workmanship, 
most skilfully and symmetrically 
chipped, and thinner than is 
usual with implements of this 
class. The edge is perfectly 
regular, and has been formed by 
delicate secondary chipping. So 
sharp is it, that I should almost 
doubt its ever having been in- 
tended for grinding or polishing. 
That a sufficient edge for cutting 
purposes could be obtained by 
careful chipping without grinding, . 

seems to be evinced by the fact IjJ- '^^-^cf 
that some stone celts, the whole ^^^ 
body of which has been polished, 
are found with the edge mei'ely 
chipped and not ground. No 
doubt, when these blades were 
new, they were polished all over ; 
but as the edge became broken 
away by wear, it would appear as if the owners had contented them- 
* Arch., xlii. pi. viii. 10, IL 

,^ V 

Fig. 18.— BurwtU Fen. 



[chap. IV. 

selves with chipping out a fresh edge, without taking the trouble of 
grinding it. Still it must be borne in mind that a vast amount of 
labour in grinding was saved by the implement being brought as nearly 
to the required shape as possible by chipping only, so that the circum- 
stance of polished celts having uuground edges may be due to merely 
accidental causes. 

These neatly chipped flint celts are found also in Ireland. I have 
one of the same section as Fig. 18, but longer and narrower, being 7 
inches long, 2 inches broad at edge, and li^ inches at butt. It was 
found in Ulster. 

I have also specimens from Poitou. 

They are of occasional but rare occurrence with this section in 

A neatly chipped flint hatchet of small size and remarkably square at 
the edge is shown in Fig. 19. It was found at Mildcnhall, Suflblk, and 

Fig. 19.-MUdcnliall. 

Fig. 20.— Bottisham Fen. 

is in the collection of the Rev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A. There are traces 
of grinding on some portions of the faces. In the same collection is 
another hatchet of the same character from Ganton Wold, Yorkshire, 
the edge of which is ground. I have an unground example of this 
type from Lakenheath. 

The original of Fig. 20 is in the Museum of the Cambridge Anti- 
quarian Society, and was found in Bottisham Feu. In neatness of 
workmanship it much resembles Fig. ly ; but it is slightly curved 
longitudinally, and has the inner face more ridged than the outer. It 
was ])robably intended to be mounted as an adze. 

I have a beautiful implement of the same general form, but nearly 



flat on one face, found in Burwell Fen. 
a large flake. 

The hatchet engraved as Fig. 21 
has been kindly brought under my 
notice by Mr. Albert Way, F.S.A. 
It was found in ploughing near 
Bournemouth, and is in the posses- 
sion of the Hev. J. H. Austen. Its 
principal peculiarity is the inward 
curvature of the sides, rendering it 
somewhat narrower in the middle 
than at either end. Its greatest 
expansion is, however, at what 
appears to have been intended for 
the cutting edge, so that at this 
end its outline much resembles that 
of one of the Scandinavian forms. 
The sides, however, instead of being 
square, are sharp. The specimen 
from Burwell Fen, Fig. 3G, exhibits 
nearly the same form, but has the 
edge gi'ound. A thinner specimen, 
also from Burwell Fen, and in the 
Museum of the Cambridge Anti- 
quarian Society, is unground. It 
is 5| inches long, 2^ inches broad 
at one end and 1^ inches at the 
other, but only 1.^ inches broad to- 
wards the middle of the blade. Mr. 
T. Layton, F.S.A., possesses a celt 
found ill the Thames, and present- 
ing this peculiarity in a still more 
exaggerated manner. It is 6 J 
inches long, 2:} inches broad at one 
end and 2:^ inches at the other, but 
only li inches in width at the middle 
of the blade. 

A remarkably elegant specimen 
of the same character is shown 
in Fig. 22. It was found on the 
surface at Thetford Warren, Suf- 
folk, and is in the collection of 
Mr. J. W. Flower, F.G.S. It is 
of grey flint, and has been formed 
from a large flake, a considerable 
portion of the flat face of which 
has been left untouched by the 
subsequent working. All along the 
sides, however, as Avell as at the 
ends, it has been chipped on both 
faces to a symmetrical form. The 


It has been manufactured from 

Fijr. 21. — Near Bouinemoutli. i 


, 22.— Thetford. 


fHipPKD OK hough-hp:wn celts. 


vr. IV 

outer surface of the original flake has almost entirely disappeared during 
the process of manufacturing the adze, for such it appears to have heen 
rather than an axe. The form is suggestive of the tool having been 
copied from one in metal, and is very like that of the fiat bronze celts. 
It may belong to the transitional period, when bronze was coming into 
use, but was still too scarce to have superseded flint. 

The commonest form of the 
symmetrically chipped but un- 
ground celts is that shown in 
Fig. 23. The particular speci- 
men engraved is in my own col- 
lection ; and, like so many other 
antiquities of this class, came 
from the Fen district, having 
been found in Keach Fen in 1852. 
It is equally convex on both 
faces, and, from its close resem- 
blance in form to so many of 
the polished celts, it was pro- 
bably destined for grinding. I 
have another of the same form, 
6^ inches long, from the neigh- 
bourhood of Thetford. 

A magnificent specimen of this 
class, butwider in proportion toits 
length, is preserved in the Christy 
Collection. It is 8^ inches long, 
4 inches in extreme width, and 
about 1} inches thick, most sym- 
metrically chipped out, but rather 
more convex on one face than 
the other. It was found near 

I have others 6.j and 5]- inches 
long, of the same wide form, and 
delicately chipped all round, from Burwell Fen. Mr. James Carter, of 
Cambridge, has one of the narrower kind, 9 inches long and 3| inches 
broad, found at Blunt's Hill, near Witham, Essex. The same form, 
with numerous modifications, was found in the pits at Cissbury,* which 
will shortly be described. 

One of the most remarkable discoveries of celts of this character is 
that of which I have seen a MS. memorandum in the hands of Mrs. 
Dickinson, t of Hurstpierpoint, Sussex, who herself has four of the imple- 
ments. According to this account, a man digging flints on Clayton Hill, 
on the South Downs, Sussex, in 1803, found near the windmill, just beneath 
the sod, and lying side by side, eight celts of grey flint, chipped into 
form, and not ground. One of these was as much as 13 inches long. 
Those in Mrs. Dickinson's collection are — (1) llf long by 3^ broad and 
2i thick, (2) 9^- by 3i by If, (3) 7^ by 3^ by 2^, and (4) 6i by 3 by If:. 

* Arch., xlii. pi. viii. 17. 

t Hee also C'hiLhcstcr vul. ot Arch. Inst., p. 61. 

Fig. 23.~Pieach Fen, Cambridge. 



24. - iScamridge, 

Others, S^ aud 7^ inches long, found at Bohuer, near Fahner, and on 
the South Downs, are in the Lewes Museum. I 
have seen a large celt of this section, hut with flatter 
edge and straighter sides, which was found in peat 
at Thatcham, near Newbury, Berks. It was 8 inches 
long and 2i^ broad. Of the same class is a celt 
found near Norwich, engraved in the OeoJoi/ist.* 

1 have seen several other specimens from Norfolk, 
as well as fi'om Wilts, Cambridgeshire, Dorsetshire, 
and other counties. Some specimens from the 
neighbourhood of Grime's Graves, Norfolk, have 
been figured.! Flint celts of this class are occa- 
sionally found in Yorkshire, but the edge is usually 
less round in outline than Fig, 23. In some cases 
it is straight, like Fig. 19. Some of those from 
Yorkshire are extremely small, as will be seen by 
Fig. 24, from Scamridge, in the North Riding. I have other specimens, 

2 and 2| inches long and about 
1| inches broad, from theY'^oi'k- 
shire Wolds. I have also one 
of the ordinary form from 
Lough Neagh, Ireland ; but it 
has been slightly ground near 
the edge. 

Though rare in Ireland, flint 
celts of this form aud character 
are of common occurrence in 
France I and Belgium. Many 
such have been found at Spi- 
ennes, near Mons, where there 
appears to have been a manu- 
factory, as already mentioned ; 
and I have specimens from 
Amiens, from various parts of 
Poitou, and from the Seine at 
Paris. A broad, thin instru- 
ment of this class, made of 
Silurian schist, and found in the 
dolmen of Bernac, Charente,§ 
is engraved by De Rochebrune. 

They occur also in Denmark 
and Sweden in considerable 

A slightly ditferent and nar- 
rower form of implement is 
shown in Fig. 25, which first 
appeared in the Archaoloi/icttl 
Juitnial, vol. XX. p. 371. The 

Fiff. 25. — Forest of Bere, near Horndean. 

* Vol. vi. p. iii. t Joiini. Eth. Soc, ii. pi. xxviii. 4, o. 

\ Wiit.'let, " Age de Pierre dii Dcp. de I'Ai.sne," c^f. 
\^ Restes de I'lnd., «fcc., pi. .xiii. 1- 


original is of yellow flint, and was found in tlie Forest of Bere, Hamp- 

Many of the other forms of polished celts occur in the nnground con- 
dition, of the same form, for instance, as Fig. 35; but it is needless to 
multiply illustrations of this class of implement. I must, however, men- 
tion a very remarkable instrument of this character in the collection of 
the Rev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A. It is of flint, G] inches long. If inches 
wide at the edge, and 1^ at the butt, and in outline closely resembling 
Fig. 35. It is, however, much curved longitudinally, the curve being 
more rapid towards the butt-end, which is also somewhat thickened. 
The chord of the rather irregular arc thus produced is ^ an inch. Such 
a tool can only have been mounted as an adze or hoc, with the concave 
face towards the helve. It was found at Kenny Hill, Mildenhall. 

I have already spoken of the method in which these and other 
allied forms of stone implements were manufactured ; but, before 
quitting- the subject of chipped or rough-hewn celts, I must 
devote a little space to the interesting discovery made by Colonel 
A. Lane Fox, F.S.A., of what would appear to have been the site 
of an ancient manufactory of flint implements, among which celts 
predominated, within the entrenchment known as Cissbury, near 
Worthing, where Colonel Ayre, E..A.,* found, some years ago, a 
very perfect flint celt. 

Colonel A. Lane Fox has given a detailed account of his dis- 
coveries in the Are]ia'ologia,f from which most of the following 
l^articulars are al)stracted. The Rev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A., also 
assisted at a part of the exploration, and some of my illustrations 
are taken from specimens in his collection. The earthwork, of 
irregularly oval form, surrounds the summit of a chalk hill, near 
Worthing, in Sussex, on the western slope of which, within the 
rampart, are some fifty funnel- or cu])- shaped depressions, some of 
small size, but others about seventy feet in diameter and twelve 
feet in depth. Thirty of these were opened, and were found to 
contain, amongst the rubble with which they were partially filled, 
well-chipped celts and ruder implements ; quantities of splinters 
and minute chippings of flint ; flakes, some worked on one or both 
faces ; some few boring tools and scrapers ; and many stones that 
had been used as hammers. Most of the flints had become quite 
white on the surface, as is often the case when they rest in a 
porous soil. Parts of antlers of red deer, remains of horse, goat, 
boar, and ox (7?os hnf/ifroiis), oyster, and a few other marine shells 
and snail shells, as well as fragments of charcoal and rude pottery, 
were also found. Tliere can, indeed, be but little doubt that the 

* Suss. Arch. Coll., ii. p. 2G8. f xlii. p. 53. 


pits resemble in charcactcr tliose at Grime's Graves, near Brandon, 
and at Spiennes, near Mons, in Belgium, whicli I have alrcad}' 
described, and that tbey were sunk for the purpose of procuring 
flint, to be chipped into the form of implements upon the spot. 
It does not appear that the few portions of antler which were 
found had been used, as in the other cases, for picks for digging 
in the chalk ; but possibly some of the roughly chijjpod flints, 
adapted for being held in the hand,* and not imlikc in form to 
the chopper-like flints from the far older deposit in the cave of 
Le Mousticr, Dordognc,t may have been thus used, or as wedges 
to split the chalk. This is by no means inconsistent with their 
having been originally flints partially trimmed into shape, in order 
to be made into celts, and used for a secondary purpose when it 
was found that they were not adapted for what they were at first 
intended. In chipping them out, the part of the nodule best 
suited for being held in the hand would be thus grasped, and the 
opposite edge be trimmed by the hammer, and in this manner 
the semblance of a chopper would be produced in what was 
merely an inchoate celt. I have found flints on the Sussex Downs 
with one side trimmed in much the same manner as the Cissbury 
specimens, but which, from their form, can hardly have been 
intended for "choppers." 

Looking at a series of the worked flints from Cissbury, exclusive 
of flakes and mere rough blocks, the general fades is such as shows 
that the ordinar}^ forms of celts, or hatchets, were those at which, 
in the main, the workmen aimed. A small proportion of them are 
highly finished specimens, not improbably hidden away in the loose 
chalk when chipped out, and accidentally left there. Others are 
broken, not, I think, in use, as Colonel Lane Fox has suggested, but 
more probably in the process of manufacture ; but a great proportion 
are very rude, and but ill adapted for being ground. They are, in 
fact, such as may be regarded, if not as wasters, yet, at all events, 
as unmarketable ; for it seems probable that at Cissbury, as well as at 
other manufactories of flint implements, they were j)roduced, not for 
immediate iise by those who made them, but to be bartered away 
for some other commodities. In Central America, + at the joresent 
day, the natives use cutting instrmnents of flint, which must, 
apparently, have been brought from a distance of four hundred 
miles ; while, among the aborigines of Australia, § flints were 

* Arch., xlii. pi. viii. 1. + Reliq. Aqnit., A, pi. v. 

i Joiini. Anih. Soc, 1869, cxii. § Trails. Ethnol. Sor., N. S., iii. p. 269. 


articles of barter between distant tribes; and some of tlie 
clialcedony implements in the early Belgian caves are made of 
material presumed to have come from the South of France. Only 
a single fragment of a polished celt was found by Colonel Lane 
Fox within the enclosure, though another was found by Lord 
Rosehill in a pit he subsequently opened. They are equally rare 
in proportion at Spiennes. This fact, and the absence of grinding- 
stones, also seem to show that the process of grinding was carried 
on elsewhere, in cases where a ground edge was required. 

Colonel Lane Fox suggests a question, whether the implements 
found at Cissbury belong to the Neolithic or Pala3olithic age, and 
seems almost to regard the distinction between the implements of 
those two ages as founded merely on the minor point of whether they 
ai-e chipped simply, or also polished. The associated fauna in this 
case is, however, purely Neolithic, or, as Mr. Boyd DaAvkins would 
call it. Prehistoric ; and whatever may be the case with a few of 
the specimens which resemble in form implements from the River 
Drift, the great bulk are unmistakably of forms such as are con- 
stantly foimd polished, and are undoubtedly Neolithic. Indeed, 
a portion of at all events one polished specimen has been found in 
one of the pits. I need not, however, dwell longer on the circum- 
stances of this discovery, nor on the speculations to which it 
may give rise, but will proceed to give illustrations of a few of the 
forms of implements found at Cissbury, referring for others to the 
memoir of Colonel A. Lane Fox,* by whom a tine series of the 
implements has been most liberally presented to the Christy 

One of the most higlily finished firms, of which, however, a con- 
siderable number were found, is a long, narrow instrument, as shown in 
Fig. 26. So narrow and pointed are they, that Colonel Lane Fox 
thinks they may have been intended to bo used with the pointed end as 
spear-heads. Huch instruments, however, are occasionally found with 
the broad end ground to an edge. It is also to be observed that this 
circular edge is generally more carefully chipped into form than the 
pointed butt, and was therefore considered of the most importance. 

Another specimen is figured in the Arcliaohxi'ia ;\ and a narrow flint 
celt of this character, 5| inches long, found with a larger celt in a 
barrow in Hampshire, | is in the British Museum. 

Another rough-hewn celt is shown in Fig. 27. Like several others, 
both from Cissbury and Spiennes, the two ends are almost similar in 
form, so that it is diificult to say at which extremity the cutting edge was 
to be. Possibly it was found convenient to fashion some of the imple- 

* Arch., xlii. i). 07. t xHi. pi. viii. IS. j " Iloriu Fcrale.s," pi. li. 36. 


meiits, in the first instance, into this comparatively regular oval contour, 
and subsequently to chip an edge at whichever end seemed best adapted 
for the purpose. This instrument is not unlike that from the Forest of 
Bere, Fig. 23. Another from Cissbury, with more parallel sides, is 
figured in the ArcJucoloi/ia* Others from the same place are like Figs. 
16, 17, and 23, and like Fig. 35, though not ground at the edi^e. 

26. — Cissbury. 


Others again, but much fewer in number, are of a wedge-shaped form, 
with the thin end rounded. The specimen shown in Fig. 28 is in the collec- 
tion of the Rev. W. Greenwell, and is very symmetrical. The butt-end is 
considerably battered at one part, but not at its extremity ; so that this 
bruising may possibly have been on the block of flint before the implement 
was chipped out. A less symmetrical specimen is figured by Colonel Lane 
Fox, having the butt formed of the natural crust of the flint. That here 
engraved appears well adapted for holding in the hand, so as to be used 
as a kind of chopper; but the rounded edge is uninjured. Can it have 
been used as a wedge for splitting o])en the chalk ? or is it to be regarded 
as a special form of implement ? If so, it seems singular that, if such a 
form was in use in Britain, no specimens have hitherto been met with 
having the edge ground. Another objection is, that the specimens under 
consideration show no unmistakable signs of use at the edge, for I must 
confess that I do not attach so much importance to the four minute facets 
at the sharp end of one of them as does Colonel Lane Fox, for thej' may 
be merel)' accidental. I should also be more satisfied as to the form 

* xlii. pi. viii. 21. 



being intentional for a certain purpose, had it occurred elsewliere than 

what si 

Fig. 28.— Cissbury. i 

what is evidently the refuse of a manufactory ; and yet a some- 
milar hand-tool is said to be in use among the natives of Australia. 
Fig. 29, also in the possession of Mr. 
Grccnwell, presents a very remarkable 
form, which, at first sight, has the appear- 
ance of being a chisel or hatchet, with a 
large tang, intended for insertion in a 
socket. The lower part is symmetrically 
chipped, like the cutting end of a narrow 
celt, with sharp sides, such as Fig. 2G ; 
but at a point a little more than half-way 
along the blade, it rapidly expands, so as 
to have an almost circular section. Much 
as I am tempted to regard this as pre- 
senting a special type, I am almost con- 
vinced that the form is due rather to acci- 
dent than design. It appears to me that 
a piece of flint, partially chipped into shape 
for a larger and thicker celt, had been 
broken in the process of manufacture, and 
a second attempt had been made to convert 
it into a celt, this time of smaller size. 
The lower part of this was successfully 
chipped out, but on arriving at that por- 
Tig. 20.— Cisshury. J tion of the blado where the section was 
nearly circular, the flint was cither so refractory, or the projections 


on wliich blows could be administered to detach splinters were so small, 
that the manufacture was abandoned, not, however, before many blows 
had been fruitlessly struck, as the sides and projections on the face of 
the celt at this part are considerably battered. 

An interesting instance of the discovery of a flint celt, merel}^ 
chipped out, but associated with polished celts and other objects, is 
recorded in the Ai'chceologia* and by Hoare.f In a barrow on Upton 
Level Down, opened by Mr. W. Cunnington in 1802, was a grave of 
oval form, containing a large skeleton lying on its back, and slight!}^ 
on one side, and above it a smaller skeleton in a contracted posture. 
At the feet of the larger skeleton were more than three dozen 
perforated pins and other instruments of bone, and three celts 
of white flint, two of which were neatly polished, with a fine 
circular edge ; and the third was " only chipped to the intended 
form and size." With these lay what was apparently a stone to 
polish the celts or similar implements, and some grooved sand- 
stones, like Fig. 185, probably used for grinding the bone imple- 
ments. About the legs were several boars' teeth perforated, and 
some cups made of hollow flints ; near the breast were a flat circular 
stone and a perforated stone axe, shown in Fig. 141, and two dozen 
more of the bone instrinnents. Some jet or cannel-coal beads and 
a ring of the same substance were also found, as well as a small 
bronze awl ; but it is doubtful to which of the bodies this belono-ed. 

It wall subsequently be seen that perforated axes similar to that 
in this barrow are frequently associated with bronze daggers, so 
that we seem to have, in this instance, evidence of the contempo- 
raneous use of unground, polished, and perforated stone axes at a 
period when bronze was at all events not unknown in this country. 

If the chijDped celt is to be regarded as unfinished, it may be 
that the survivors, in burying it, together with the grinding and 
polishing stones, in company with the original occupant of the 
barrow, entertained a belief that in some future state of existence 
he might be at leisure to complete the process of jDolishing. 

Very roughly chipped pieces of flint, apparently rovigh-hewn 
celts, are occasionally found in barrows. Two such, 8 inches by 31, 
and 7 by 3|, from a barrow near Alfriston, Sussex, examined by 
Dr. Mantell, are in the British Museum. They may have been 
deposited under a similar belief, or as votive offerings. Possibly 
this custom of placing roughly chipped implements like, for 

* Vol. XV. p. 122, plates ii., iii., iv., v. 

t " South Wilts," p. 75, plates v., vi., A-ii. 


instance, Fig. 16, in graves, may be a "survival" from tlie times 
Avhen warriors or hunters Avere buried witli the arms or weapons 
they had worn when living, and the burials which they accompany 
may belong to a late part of the stone period. It is worthj^ of 
notice that in the cemetery of Hallstatt, which belongs to a date 
when iron was just coming into use, many of the ornaments appear 
to have been manufactured expressly for funereal purposes, being 
like the gold wreaths in Etruscan tombs, almost too light and 
fragile to be worn by the living. In Denmark, the weapons of 
flint, however, which accompanied interments seem usually to 
have been highly finished and perfect. 

Celts, merely chipped into form and unground, occur also in 
other kinds of stone. They are, however, much rarer than those 
of flint. One of ironstone, from Sussex, 8 inches long and 3| 
Avide at the broad end, is in the Blackmore Museum. A very 
fine specimen fi'om Anglesey, formed of felstone, is preserved 
in the Museum of Economic Geology in Jermyn Street. I have 
a fragment of one in greenstone, found by Mr. W. I). Darliishire, 
F.G.S., at Dwj^gyfylchi, Carnarvonshire, and another of felstone, 
extremely rude, foimd by him on Pen-maen-mawr. Some rough 
celts of greenstone, found in barrows near St. Just, Cornwall, are 
in the Truro Museum. 

In Ireland, Avhere flint celts are comparatively rare, those in 
the impolished condition appear to be relatively more abundant 
in that material than in other rocks. In the large collection of 
the Royal Irish Academy there are but few of either class, and 
I certainly have seen some hundreds of Irish celts with the 
edges ground, for one in which it had been left as chijiped out. 

In France the chipped celts of flint are not uncommon, but 
those of other materials are extremely rare. 

In Denmark, and Sweden also, the unpolished celts of flint are 
abundant, but principally of a class not found in Britain, with 
flat sides and faces and neatly worked wavy angles. Some of the 
forms, however, also occur, as has been already mentioned, In 
other materials than flint they are almost unknown. 

In North America the rouglily chipped hatchets are scarce, but 
are more common in flint and ironstone than in other materials. 

In Western Australia, where tlie hatchets are made of rough 
splinters of basalt and of silicious rocks, grinding seems but little 
practised. Hatchets ground at the edge seem more common 
in Northern Australia. It is, however, by no means improbable 


that in many countries the ruder forms of stone implements liuve 
to a great extent escaped observation. I much doubt whether the 
stone blades of the Australian hatchets, one of which is engraved 
in Fig. 106, wovdd, if detached from their handles, be thought 
worthy of notice by the large majority of travellers, or even be 
regarded as of human workmanship. 

However this may be, it appears that in Western Europe the 
practice of grinding the edges of hatchets and adzes was more 
universal in the case of those formed of other stones than flint, 
than with those of purely silicious material. This circumstance 
rather strengthens the probability of some of the flint implements 
which are fovmd in the unground condition having been destined 
for use in that state, as was the case with the North American 
hoe-like implements already mentioned. 

It seems almost demonstrable that some at least of these un- 
polished celts must be among the earliest of the Neolithic imple- 
ments of this country ; for though in Neolithic times sc me 
naturally shaped stones have been sharpened for use by grinding 
only, yet the art of chipping stone into shape must in all pro- 
bability have preceded that of grinding or polishing its edges. 
So far as at present ascertained, the practice of sharpening 
stone tools on the grindstone was unknown in Palceolithic times ; 
and, assuming the occupation of this country into Neolithic times 
to have been continuous, the transition from one stage of civiliza- 
tion to the other has still to be traced. Under any circumstances, 
we have as yet, in this country, no means at command for 
assigning with certainty any of these roughly chipped forms to an 
antiquity more remote than that of the carefully finished celts 
with their edges sharpened by grinding, though in all probability 
some of them must date back to a very distant period. 

We have, on the contrary, good evidence that whatever may have 
been the date when the roughly chipped implements of this form 
were first manufactured, they continued to be chipped out in much 
the same manner, at a time when the practice of sharpening by 
grinding was well known. Though some may have been used 
without being ground, they bear, for the most part, the same 
relation to the finished forms as the blade of steel rough from the 
forge bears to the polished knife. 



The implements belonging to this class testify to a greater amount 
of pains having been bestowed upon them than on those which 
have been chipped only ; yet the labour in grinding them has been 
far less than with those which are polished over their entire sur- 
face. There are some which occupy an intermediate position 
between those ground at the edge only, and those which are 
polished all over, inasmuch as not only has their edge been 
sharpened by grinding, but the principal asperities both of the 
sides and faces have been removed in a similar manner, yet without 
polishing anything like the entire surface. These may be classed 
among polished celts ; and, indeed, any distinction that can be 
drawn between celts partly and wholly polished is imaginary 
rather than real, as it is only a difference in degree. The speci- 
mens of this class Avhich I have selected for engraving present, as 
a rule, some slight peculiarity either in fonn or in other respects. 

The first of tliese, Fig. 30, is remarkable for the extreinoly rude 
manner in which it is chipped out, and for the small portion of its surface 
which is polished. So rude, indeed, is it, that an inexperienced eye 
would hardly accept it as being of human workmanship. The edge, 
however, has unmistakably been ground. Possibly the implement may 
have been chipped out from a fragment of a larger polished celt, of which 
the edge had been preserved. It is of flint, quite whitened by exposure, 
and was found by myself upon the downs near Eastbourne in 1852, 
being the first stone implement I ever discovered. I have since found 
a similar but larger celt in a field of my own at Abbots Langlcy, Herts. 
It is 4i inches long, and the edge has been intentionally blunted by 
grinding, so that it was possibly a battle-axe. I have some other 
specimens which appear to have been made from fragments of larger 
polished celts. One of these, found near Icklingham, 2 [ inches wide and 
2J inches long, is almost pear-shaped in outline, but truncated at the butt, 
where it is about an inch wide. I have several similar implements from 
France and Belgium, the butt-ends of which are battered, as if they had 
been used as wedges. 



The original of Fig. 31 is curious in another aspect, it having been 
shaped, with the exception of the edge, entirely by nature, and not by art. 
The tendency of certain kinds of Hint to spht up into more or loss regular 

Fig. 30 

Fig. 31.— Culford, Suffolk. 

prisms by assuming a sort of columnar structure, much like that which 
is exhibited by starch in drying, is well known. The maker of this 
implement has judiciously selected one of these prisms, which required no 
more than a moderate amount of gi-inding at one end to convert it into a 
neat and useful tool. It was found at Culford, in Sutiolk, and formerly 
belonged to Mr. Warren, of Ixworth, but is now in my own collection. 

The celt represented in Fig. 32 is also 
mine, and was found in the same neighbour- 
hood, near Mildenhall. It is pointed and 
entirely unpolished at the butt-end, which, 
had that part only been preserved, would 
have had all the appearance of being the 
point of an implement of the Palseohthic 
period. It is, however, ground to a thin 
circular edge at the broad end. Another, 
nearly similar, from Burwell Fen, is in the 
Museum of the Cambridge Antiquarian So- 
ciety. I have another, rather straighter at 
the edge, but even more sharply pointed 
at the butt, from R^sach Fen. One* of the 
three celts found in the Upton Lovel bar- 
row was of much the same shape, only 
larger and more rudely chipped. It had 
also apparently more of its surface polished. 
Colonel A. Lane Fox has a large Indian 
celt of this character, but broader in its 
proportions, found in Bundelcund. 

Approaching to the form of Fig. 32, but rather broader at the edge and 

2.— Xear Mildenhall, Suffolk. 

* A)ch., XV. pi. iv. 1. Hoaie's *' South ^\'iltahiie," pi. v. 1. 




more truncated at the butt, where a cavity in the Hint has interfered with 
the symmetry, is another celt in my own collection, found at Sawdon, in 
the North Riding of Yorkshire, and engraved as Fig. 33. It has been 
skilfully rubbed to a sharp segmental edge, but no labour has been 
wasted in grinding any portion of the face, beyond what was necessary 
to produce the edge. Towards the butt-end some few of the facets and 
projections are, however, highly polished, but by friction only, as the 
surface is still uneven and not ground down. These polished patches, as 
has been pointed out by Professor Stcenstrup, are probably significant of 
the blade having been mounted in a horn or wooden socket, though not 

. so firmly but that there was 


some little motion in it, so that 
the resulting friction produced 
the polish. Mr. E. Fitch, 
F.S.A., has a celt of this class, 
formed of ochreous flint, with 
rather more of a ridge on one 
face than the other, and with 
a semicircular edge, the sides 
straight, and partly ground 
away. It is 6^ inches long, 
3h^ inches wide at edge, If 
inches at butt, and 1| inches 
thick. It was found at Martles- 
ham Hill, Sufiblk. A celt of 
this character, about 9 inches 
long, rounded at the sides, and 
partly ground on the faces, 
was found in a barrow at 
Hartland, Devon, and is pre- 
served in the Museum at 
Exeter. Small specimens of 
this form are occasionally 
found in Suffolk. In Yorkshire 
they occur of still smaller size. The Rev, W. Greenwell, F.S.A., has 
one from Willerby Wold 2 inches long and 1^ inches wide at the edge, 
nearly triangular in outline ; and another with an oblique edge from 
Helperthorpe, 2;^ inches long and 1:^ inches wide. One from Ganton 
Wold, 2| inches long, has a straight edge. I have a very rude 
specimen from the Yorkshire Wolds about 1^ inches long, If inches 
wide at the edge, and 1 inch at the butt. They occur also in Scotland. 
Dr. John Stuart, Sec. S.A. Scotland, has shown me a sketch of a flint 
celt of this type 4 J inches long and 2f inches wide at the edge, from 
Bogingarry, Old Deer, Aberdeenshire. I have a celt of this character, 
4 inches long and 1:] inches wide, from the neighbourhood of Mons, in 

Another much more elongated form, but still belonging to the same 
class of implement, is that represented by Fig. 34. The original is of 
grey flint, and was found at Weston, Norfolk. It was formerly in the 
collection of Mr. Joseph Warren, of Ixworth, but is now in my own. 
The grinding is continued further along the body of the implement than 


Fig. 33.— Sjuvduii, North Yorkshire. 



in the former examples, especially on one of the faces, and the asperities 
of the sides have in places been removed by the same process. About 
half-way along the blade, some of the facets have been polished by 

The Rev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A., has a beautiful specimen 8| inches 
long, 2 inches broad at edge, and J inch at butt, and nowhere more than 
f inch thick. It is most skilfully chipped, and the grinding extends only 


Fig. 34.— Weston, Norfolk. \ 

\ inch back from the edge. The sides have been made straight by 
grinding, and are slightly rounded. It was found at Kinlochew, Ross- 
shire. Another in the same collection, 9;^ inches long, and ^% inches 
broad at the edge, was found at Kilham, in the East Riding of York- 
shire. I have seen one 8 inches long. If inches wide at the edge, and 
1 inch at the butt, which was found at Leighton Buzzard. 

I have two shorter specimens, about the same breadth as Fig. 34 at 
the cutting edge, and 5^ inches and 5f inches long, from the neighbour- 





hood of Bury St. Edmunds and Mildenhall. They do not, however, 
present any of the polished marks. The sides of both have to a certain 
extent been made straight by grinding. One of these with the natural 
crust of the flint still left at the butt-end is shown in Fig. 35. I have 
two of much the same form from Carnaby Moor and liing's Field, near 

Bridlington, procured by Mr. E. Tindall ; 
and another from Thetford. The Rev. W. 
Greenwell has specimens found at Woodhall, 
near Harbottle, Northumberland, and at Stan- 
ford, Norfolk. The latter is sharp at the 
butt. Others have been found in the Thames, 
and are now in the British Museum. One of 
these is 7-]- inches long, and 3 inches broad 
at the edge. 

Mr. R. Fitch, F.S.A., has one from De- 
benhani, Suffolk, and another, more tapering, 
from Dunham, Norfolk ; another, rather 
thicker, from Thorpe, is in the Norwich 

One of white flint 4^ inches long and 1-^ 
inches broad at the edge, with square butt, 
made straight by grinding, and with the faces 
chipped in such a manner as to form a central 
ridge, so that the grinding at the edge shows 
an almost triangular facet, was found atlvirby 
Underdale, and is in the collection of the 
Rev. W, Greenwell, F.S.A. The sides in this 
specimen curve slightly inward. 

The two celts found by the late Mr. 
Bateman in Lift''s Low,* near Biggin, in 
company with a curious cup, a stag's-horn 
hammer, and numerous worked flints, in- 
cluding two flakes ground at the edge, were of this form and character. 
The larger of the two is about 7 inches long. 

Mr. Cunnington, F.G.S., has a small celt of this kind from Morton, near 
Dorchester. I have a thick celt of this class, 8 inches long and 2^^ inches 
vnde at the edge, from Wicken Fen, Cambridge. Though in part ground 
on the faces, the edge, which has probably been re-chipped, is left rough 
and ungrouud. The same is the case with some French celts. Messrs. 
Mortimer, of Fimber, have specimens of the same class. One of these, 
4f inches long and 2 inches wide at the edge, is from Garton, Yorkshire ; 
another similar, but less taper, 4^ inches long and l.j inches wide, is 
from Lady Graves, near Fimber, where also a ruder celt of the same 
character was found. I have a small celt 3 inches long, of the same 
class, from Seamer, Yorkshire. One of dark flint, slightly curved, 5;^ 
inches long, 2 inches wide, -^" inch thick, found at South Slipperfield, 
West Linton, Peeblesshire, is preserved in the Antiquarian Museum at 

It was the cutting end of a celt of this class, sharp at the sides, and 

. 35.— Mildeiiliall. 

* Vest. Ant. Derby, p. 43. Cat., p. 31. f rroc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vi. p. 17f 



ground only at the edge, which is said to have been found embedded 
in the skull of a J^ns primiucnius,-'' in a fen near Cambridge. The skull 
and implement have been deposited by Mr. Carter in the Woodwardian 
Museum. In the collection of Mr. R. Fitch, F.S.A., is a small flint 
adze of this character, but rather narrower, and very much thinner in 
proportion. It is 4| inches long, about 1| inches broad, and only \ 
inch thick. It is considerably curved in the direction of its length, and 
bears only slight traces of grinding at the edge, which is segmental. It 
was found at Santon Downham, Suffolk. 

A celt of the form of Fig. 35, found with flint knives and other implements 


Fig. 36.— Bm-vvell Fen. i 

in some beds of sand near York, has been figured by Mr. C. Monkman.f 
Similar implements are found in Ireland, I have two such, almost 
identical in form with those from Suffolk. They are both from Ulster. 
The same form occurs in Belgium. I have a celt 4:\ inches long and 1^ 
inches wide, from the Bois de Mons, Belgium. 

The celt represented in Fig. 36 is of remarkable form, inasmuch as, 
like the unground specimen. Fig. 21, the sides expand at the butt-end. 
It was found in Burwell Fen, and is in the collection of the Cambridge 

* See Cambridge Antiq. Comms., ii. 28.5, where there is a woodcut of the skull, 
t Journ. Ethn'ol. Hoc, 1869, a'oI. ii. pi. xv. fig. 11. 

G 2 



[chap. v. 

Antiquarian Society. It is formed of clialcedonic flint, and the sharp 
sides are partially smoothed by grinding. It is slightly curved in the 
direction of its length, and may have been used as an adze. 

Another smaller and somev\diat similar implement, but expanding 
more towards the edge and less at the butt, was found at Bridge Farm, 
near North Tawton, Devon, and is in the possession of Mr. W. Vicary, 
F.G.S., of Exeter. It is of brown flint, 5 inches long, and 2:^ inches broad 
at the edge. 

A few celts expanding at the edge, and polished all over, will be 
subsequently descx'ibcd. 

In Fig. 37 is shown a flint celt, found near Thetford, and in the col- 
lection of Mr. J. W. Flower, F.G.S., of Croydon. It is partially ground 
at the edge and on the projecting portion of one face, which is curved 

Fig. 37.— Thetford. i 

lengthwise. The other face is rather ogival, and much resembles those 
of the chipped celts from Mildenhall, Fig. 12. I have a shorter speci- 
men of the same character from Icklingham. 

Flint celts of the form of Fig. 23, but having the edge ground, fre- 
quently occur. I have specimens from Burwell Fen, and one, longer and 
of narrower proportions, from Icklingham. One found at Stiftbrd, near 
Gray's Thurrock, Essex, 6i^ inches long, was exhibited by Mr. K. Meeson. 
F.S.A.,* to the Society of Antiquaries in January, 18G7. Mrs. Dickin- 
son, of Hurstpicrpoint, has another 6 inches long, 3 inches wide, and li 
inches thick, found at Pycombe Hill, Sussex. Mr. Durdcn, of Blandford, 
has one from the encampment on Hod Hill, Dorsetshire. I have one 

* Ffoc. Sue. Ant., 2nd S., vol. iii. p. 406. 



or two such from the site of the ancient manufactory at Spicnnes, 
near Mons, and others from the North of France. 

The next specimen, Fig. 38, 1 have engraved on account of the peculiarity 
in its form. The butt-end, for nearly 2^ inches along it, has the sides neai-ly 
parallel ; the blade then suddenly expands with a rounded shoulder, and 
terminates in a semicircular edge, which is neatly ground, the rest of the 
celt being left in the state in which it was chipped out. From the form, it 
would appear as if this im^^lemcnt had been intended to be mounted by 
the insertion of the butt-end in a socket, like that shown in Fig. 98, so 
that it could be used as an axe. The axis of the butt is not quite in the 


Fig. 3S.— TJndley C'cjmujou, Lakenl 

same line as that of the rest of the blade. It was found at Undley 
Common, near Lakenheath, and is in the collection of the Rev. W. 
Greenwell, F.S.A. 

Another form, apparently intended for use as an adze, is also of 
rare occurrence. The specimen given in Fig. 39 was found at 
Ganton, Yorkshire, and is in my own collection. It is very much 
more convex on one face than the other, which indeed is nearly 
flat. The grinding is confined to the edge, but some parts of the 
flat face are polished as if by friction. 




Dr. Jolin Stuart, F.S.A. Scot., lias shown me a sketch of a large 
implement of this type, and considerably bowed longitudinally, 
found at Boging-arry, Old-deer, Aberdeenshire. It is of flint, 
4| inches long, and 2 inches wide. 

Another form of adze, if such it be, remarkably flat on one face 
and narrow at the butt, is shown in Fig. 40. This specimen was 
found in S waff ham Fen, Cambridge, and is in my own collection. 
The flat face has been produced at a single blow, and has been left 
almost untouched, except where it has been trimmed to form the 
edge, which, however, has been rendered blunt by grinding. The 

Fiff. 39.— Gantuii. 

Fig. 40.— Swaffliam Fen. 

sides are very minutely chipped along the angles, and there seems 
some possibility of the instrument having been used as a rimer or 
boring tool. 

The celts of other materials than flint, and ground only at the 
edge, are of rarer occurrence than those in flint. That engraved as 
Fig. 41 was procured by Mr. E. Tindall at Grindale, near Brid- 
lington. It is of felstone, and is remarkable as being so much 
curved in the direction of its length. I have another smaller 
specimen from the same place, but the blade is straight. The 
edge, however, is slightly gouge-like. 

Another of these instruments expanding towards the edge, and 
apparent!}^ adapted for insertion in a socket, is shown in Fig. 42. 
It is made of hone-stone, and the flat butt is the result of a uatural 



joint in llio stone. It was found tit North Burton, in the East 
llidino- of Yorkshire, and is in the collection of the Rev. W. Green- 
well, F.S.A. He has also a celt of greenstone much like Fig-, 41, 
2 J inches long and 2| inches broad, found in a barroAv with a burnt 
interment on Seamer Moor, Yorkshire. He has another of the same 
class 3f inches long and 2f inches wide, also found on Seamer Moor. 
A third specimen, rather smaller, was found in a barrow at Uncleby, 
Yorkshire, by the same exj)lorer. One of greenstone, 2^ inches 
long and 2^ inches broad at the edge, and nearly triangular in 
outline, was found near Keswick, and is in the Blackmore Museum, 
A longer adze of greenstone, considerably curved in the blade, was 
found with various implements of flint in some sand-beds near 

Fip. 41. — Cirindale, Bridliiigtmi. 

I- IK- 42. — !Nuith Burton. 

York.* In the Mayer Collection at Liverpool is a celt of clay- 
slate, 4 inches long and ground at the edge, found at Toxteth. In 
the collection of Mr. J. F. Lucas, of Fenny Bentley Hall, near 
Ashbourne, are two celts of the same type as Fig. 35, but more 
adze-like in character, and formed of felstone. They are 5| and 
7 inches long, and were found on Middleton Moor, and at Worm- 
hill, near Buxton, Derbyshire. 

In my own collection is a large greenstone celt with the sides 
sharp and nearly parallel, 7| inches long and nearly 3 inches 
broad, with a semicirciilar edge partly ground, found at Shrub 
Hill, Feltwell, Norfolk. 

I have also a large specimen in form more resembling Fig. 23, 
6 inches long, 4 inches broad at the edge, and If inches thick. It is 
ground at the edge, which is nearly semicircular, and along the 
* Jcnrii. EtJmol. Soc, 1869, vol. ii. fig. 7. 


sides. It was found at Thurston, Suffolk, and is formed of a piece of 
tough mica schist, with garnets* in it, which was, no doubt, derived 
from the boulder- clay of that district. Another from Troston, in 
the same neighbourhood, is formed from a rough fragment of mica- 
ceous grit ground to an edge at one end. In Scotland some wedge- 
shaped blades of granite, exhibiting traces of a very small amount 
of artificial adaptation, have been found. Two such, from Aber- 
deenshire, described as axes, are engraved in the Proceedings of the 
Society of Antiquaries of Scotland.f The small stone celts found in 
Orkney,+ though tolerably sharp at the edge, are described as 
rough on the sides. 

Turning to foreign countries, the discovery of flint instruments 
of this class, ground at the edge only, or on some small portions 
of their surface, is, as has already been observed, not uncommon in 
France and Belgium. In Denmark they are also very abundant, 
but the most common Danish form with a thick rectangular sec- 
tion does not appear to occur in Britain. Among the North 
American stone hatchets many present this feature of being ground 
at the edge only, and the same is the case with some of the tools of 
the native Australians, such as that engraved in Fig. 105. A rough 
celt from Borneo, ground at the edge only, has been engraved by 
Colonel A. Lane Fox, F.S.A.§ 

In all European countries instruments of this form and charac- 
ter, but made of other materials than flint, are, like those entirely 
unground, of very rare occurrence. This rarity may arise from 
two causes : the one that the tools or weapons made of these mate- 
rials have not so sharp a cutting edge produced by chipping only 
as those formed of flint ; and the second, that being usually some- 
what softer than flint, it required less time and trouble to grind 

None of the rough celts, nor those ground at the edge only, 
seem so well adapted for use as hand-tools without a haft, as do 
some of those which are polished all over. Looking, however, at 
some of the rough Australian tools which are hafted with gum in 
a piece of skin, and thus used in the hand, it is hardly safe to 
express a decided opinion. The majority were, notwithstanding, 
in all probability, mounted with shafts after the manner of axes or 

* A largo celt formed of "indurated elaystone witli garnets" is mentioned by 
Mr. F. C. Lukis, F.S.A., as having been found in the Cliannel Islands [Airh. Assoc. 
Journ., iii. 128). 

t vii. p. 101. i P. S. A. S., ^-iu 213. ^^ Froc. Elhnol. Soc, 1870, p. xxxix. 



The last of the three classes into which, for the sake of conve- 
nience of arrangement, I have divided these instruments, viz., that 
comprising the celts ground or polished, not only at the edge, but 
over a great portion, or the "whole, of their surface, is also that 
which is usually most numerously represented in collections of 
antiquities. Whether this excess in number over the other classes 
arises from the greater original abundance of these polished imple- 
ments, or from their being better calculated to attract observation, 
and therefore more likely to be collected and preserved rather 
than those of a less finished character, is a difficult question. 
From my own experience I think that, so far as relates to the 
implements of this character formed of flint, and still lying un- 
noticed on the surface of the soil, the proportions which usually 
obtain in collections are as nearly as may be reversed, and the 
chipped, or but partially polished, celts are in a large majority. 

Among the polished celts there is a great range in size, and 
much variation in form, though the general character is in the 
main uniform. The readiest method of classification is, I think, 
in accordance with the section presented by the middle of the 
blade, and I therefore propose to arrange them as follows : — 

1. Those sharp or but slightly rounded at the sides, and pre- 
senting a pointed oval, or vesica piscis, in section. 

2. Those with flat sides. 

3. Those with an oval section. 

4. Those presenting abnormal peculiarities. 

In each subdivision there will, of course, be several varieties, 
according as the sides are more or less parallel, the blade thicker 
or thinner, the butt-end more or less pointed, and the edge flat, 
circular, or oblique. There are also intermediate forms between 
these merely arbitrary classes. 



[chap. vr. 

I commence with those of the first subdivision in flint. The first 
specimen I have engraved, Fig. 43, is a representative of a common type, 
and was found at Santon Downham, between Brandon and Thetford, on 
the borders of Norfolk and Sutiblk, where, also, implements belonging to 

Fig. 43. — Suiildii Diiwiiliam, Sultolk. J 

the Palicolithic Period have been discovered. The sides have originally 
been sharp, but have been slightly rounded by grinding. The faces still 
show, in many places, the surface originally produced by chipping, but 
all projections have been ground away. 


I have a larger specimen from the same spot, and found, I believe, at 
the same time. It is 9^ inches long, 3:^ inches wide, and 2 inches thick. 

This form is of common occurrence in the eastern counties. I have 
specimens from Botesdale (7 inches), Hepworth (G:^ inclies), UndleyHall, 
near Lakenheath (5f inches), all in Sutiblk. Some of these are ground 
over almost the entire face. A fine specimen, 10 inches long and 3 inches 
wide, is in the Woodwardian Museum at Cambridge. Mr. R. Fitch, 
F.S.A., has a fine series of them. One of these, 9f inches long, Bi inches 
broad, and 2^ inches thick, weighing 3 lbs. 6^ ozs., was found at 
Narborough, near Swaffham. Another, 9i inches long, weighing 3i| lbs., 
was found near Ipswich. A third, 8^ inches long, Avas discovered at 
Bolton, near Great Yarmouth. Others, from 5J inches to 7:^ inches 
long, are from Beachamwell, Elsing, Grundisburgh, Aylsham, and 
Breckles, in the counties of Suffolk and Norfolk. That from the last- 
named locality has one face flatter than the other. 

In the Norwich Museum are several ; one from Blofield is 8h inches 
long, 3i inches broad, and 2J inches thick. 

There are several specimens of this type in the British Museum. One 
from Barton Bendish, Norfolk, is 7f inches long ; another from Oxburgh, 
in the same county, 6f inches. Others, 6tV inches and 5^ inches long, are 
from Market Weston and Kesgrave, Sutiblk. The former is semi- 
circular at both ends. 

The Rev. S. Banks, of Cottenham, has a fine specimen, of white flint, 
8^ inches long, 3h inches wide, and 2| inches thick, found at Stow 
Heath, Sufi'olk. 

Several celts of this form found in the Fen district are in the Museum 
of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society. I have some from the same 
neighbourhood, of which two are unusually wide in proportion to their 
length, and in outline much resemble Fig. 48, though the edge is more 
semicircular. One of these is 7 inches long, 3:^ inches wide, and 1| 
inches thick ; the other 5^ inches long, 2 J inches wide, and If inches 

I have seen a celt presenting a narrow variety of this form, which 
was found at Albury, near Bishop's Stortford. It is 6J inches long, 
and If inches wide, and polished all over. 

The ordinary form, though apparently of most frequent occurrence in 
the East Anglian counties, is not by any means confined to that district. 
One, 8^ inches long, 2f inches broad, and 1^ inches thick, the sides very 
slightly flattened ; and three others, 6 inches and 5 inches long, with the 
sides more rounded, all found in the Thames, at London, are in the 
British Museum. The Rev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A., has one 7i inches 
long, found at Holme, on Spalding Moor, Yorkshire. 

A flint celt of this form, 6\ inches long, from Reigate,* is in the British 
Museum, as well as another, 6^ inches long, rather oblique at the edge, found 
in a barrow in Hampshire, engraved in the ArcIiaologia.-\ I have a short, 
thick specimen, 4^ inches long, found atEynsham, Oxfordshire. It some- 
times happens that celts of this general character have one side much 
curved while the other is nearly straight, so that in outline they resemble 
Fig. 8G. One such, 5 inches long and 2 inches broad in the middle, 

* See " Horfe Ferales," pi. ii. 8. 

t Vol. xvii. pi. xiv. " Horai Ferales," pi. ii. 10. 



[chap. VI. 

found at Bishopstow, is in the Blackmore Museum. Another, 6^ inches 
long, with the sides less curved, found at Stanton Fitzwarren, Wilts, 
has been engraved by the Archfeological Institute.* 

The same type as Fig. 43 occasionally occurs in other materials than 
flint. Mr. James Wyatt, F.G.S., has a celt of greenstone 9| inches 
long, 3^ inches wide at the edge, which is slightly oblique, and 2^ inches 
thick, found many years ago in Miller's Bog, Pavenham, Beds. There is 
an engraving of it, on which it is described as of flint, but such is not 
the fact. The form is also sometimes found in France and Belgium. 
I have specimens from both countries ; and one from Perigord, 8 inches 
long, is in the Museum at Le Puy. 

Allied to this form, but usually more rounded at the sides, and flatter 

on the faces, are the implements of 
which an example is given in Fig. 44. 
The original was found at Coton, Cam- 
bridgeshire, in 1863. The type is the 
same as that of Fig. 35 ; but in this case 
the celt is polished all over. The butt- 
end is ground to a semicircular outline, 
but is like the sides, rounded. The same 
is the case with some of the thicker celts 
of the form last described. A celt of 
much the same character, but with the 
sides apparently rather flatter, is en- 
graved in the Arch. Journ., xx. p. 192. 
It is 7i inches long, and was found at 
Panshanger, Herts. One, 5 inches long, 
from the Isle of Wight, is in the British 
Museum. The edge is oblique, as is 
that of another of the same length found 
on the South Downs, and now in the 
Museum at Lewes. Another of grey 
flint, 7 inches long, tapering from 2 
inches at edge to 1 inch at butt, | inch 
thick, semicircular at the butt and edge, 
the faces polished nearly all over, but 
the sides sharp and left unground, was found during the Main Drainage 
Works for London, and is in the British Museum. 

I have seen specimens of the same kind, with the sides straight and 
sharp though slightly rounded, tapering towards the butt, which is semi- 
circular, and varying in length from 5| inches to 7:f inches long, found 
at Alderton, Suffolk; Thorn Marsh, Yorkshire; Norton, near Malton ; 
Westacre Hall, Norfolk ; and elsewhere. Mr. J. Brent, F.S.A., has shoAvn 
me a drawing of one about 7 inches long, found at Bigborough Wood, 
Tunford, Canterbury. 

The celt shown in Fig. 45 belongs to the same class, though it is 
rather flatter at the sides. It is polished over the greater part of its sur- 
face, but is on one face quite unpolished at the edge. I have engraved 
it as an example of the manner in which, after the edge of a hatchet of 



Fig. 44. — Coton, Cambridge. 

* Arcli. Join-ii., ix. p. 194. "Salisbury vol.." ]). 112. 



this kind had become damaged by use, a fresh edge was obtained by 
chipping, which, in some instances, the owner of the implement was not 
at the pains to sharpen by grinding. 

Fig. 40 gives another variety of the flint celts with sharp or somewhat 
rounded sides. It is slightly ridged along each face, and the faces, 
instead of being uniformly convex to the edge, have at the lower part a 
nearly flat facet of triangular form, the base of which forms the edge. 
This specimen was found at Great Bedwin, Wilts, and is in the collection 
of the Eev. W. Greenwell, F.8.A., of Durham. 

I have a nearly similar celt, 6:^ inches long, found at Hepworth, 
Suflblk, but the facet at the edge is not quite so disitnct. I have 
another from Abingdon only 4;V inches long. 

Fig. 45. — Eeiicli i'eii, Cambridge. 

Fig. 46.— Great Bedwin, Wilts. 

A flint celt from Chiriqui,''' found with a sort of flint punch and some 
burnishing pebbles in a grave, presumed to be that of one of the native 
workers in gold, is remarkably like Fig. 46 in form. 

Mr. R. Fitch, F.S.A., has a large thick specimen, 9| inches long, 
3^ inches broad at the edge, and 1^ inches thick, found at Heckingham 
Common, Norfolk, and a shorter, broader one with a faceted edge, from 
Pentney. Another of flint, 6^ inches long, with the sides much rounded, 
but with a similar facet at the edge, was found at Histon, Cambs., and 
is in the collection of the Rev. S. Banks. 

L. Simonin, "La Vie Souterraine," &c,, 18G7. Mortillet, "Mat.,"' iii. p. 101. 





It seems probable that these instruments when first made did not 
exhibit the facet at the edge, but that it has resulted from ro2>eated 
grinding as the edge became injured by wear. 

A celt, apparently of this section, but more truncated at the butt, 
and with a narrow facet running along the centre of the face, was 

found in Llangwyllog, Anglesey, 
and is engraved in the Arclicb- 
()hi(jiccd Journal.'^'' It is not of 
flint, but of "white magnesian 

Fig. 47 exhibits a beautiful im- 
plement of a different character, 
and of a very rare form, inasmuch 
as it expands towards the edge. 
It is of ochreous- coloured flint 
polished all over, and is in the 
collection of the Rev. W. Green- 
well, F.S.A. It was found at 
Burradon, Northumberland. In 
outline it much resembles that 
from Gilmerton, Fig. 76, but this 
latter has the sides flat and a cut- 
ting edge at each end. 

A celt of similar form, but only 
G^ inches long, found at Clifi' 
Hill, is in the Museum at Lei- 

A few specimens of this form, 
both unground and ground merely 
at the edge, have already been 
mentioned, and specimens en- 
graved, as Figs. 21 and 36. 
Hatchets expanding towards the 
edge are of more common occur- 
rence in Denmark than in this 
country, though even there they 
are rather rare when the expan- 
sion is well defined. 

The next specimens I shall 
describe are principally made of 
other materials than Hint. 

Fig. 48, in my own collection, is 
\ of porphyritic greenstone, and was 
It is polished all over, equally convex 
on both faces, and has the sides rather more rounded than most of those 
of nearly similar section in flint. The butt is rather sharper than the 
sides. I have an analogous implement, but with the sides straighter and 
rather more converging towards the butt. It was found at Nunnington, 
Yorkshire, and was presented to me by Mr. Charles Monkman, of Malton. 
Others have been found in the same district. 

* xxvii. pi. X. 1, p. 164. 

Fijr. 47. — Burradon, Ndrtluiiiiberliiiicl. 

found at Coton, Cambridgeshire. 



Other specimens of greenstone have been found in the Fens, some of 
which are in the Museum of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society. 

In the Newcastle Museum is a 
compact greenstone celt of this 
character, 51; inches long, with the 
edge slightly oblique, found at Pen- 
rith Beacon, Cumberland. 

Implements of this class are fre- 
quently more tapering at the butt 
than the one shown in the figure. 
I have several such from the Cam- 
bridge Fens, and have seen an ex- 
ample from Towcester (Mr. S. Sharp, 
F.S.A.). One of flint, 4 inches long, 
so much rounded at the edge as to 
be almost oval in outline, found near 
Mildenhall, is in the Christy Col- 
lection. Mr. J. F. Lucas has one 
of greenstone, 4J inches long, from 
Wormhill, Derbyshire. 

Fig. 49, of dark grey whinstone, 
is of much the same character, but 
has an oblique cutting edge. The 
butt -end is ground to a blunted 
curve. The original is in the col- 
lection of the Rev. W. Greenwell, Fig. 1-.-1..1,,,,, tamiuidge. j 
F.S.A., and was found in draining at Ponteland, Northumberland. 
Another, in the same collection, similar, but much rougher, 6 inches long, 
was found at Halton Chesters, in the same county. 

Mr. James Wyatt, F.G.S., has a flint hatchet of nearly the same form, 
4^ inches long, found at Kempston, near Bedford. A celt from Anda- 
lusia of this character, but with the edge straighter, is engraved in the 
AnlnTologicaJ JoKiiial.* 

The celt engraved in Fig. 50 is in the collection of the Picv. W. 
Greenwell, F.S.A., and was found at Fridaythorpe, in the East Riding of 
Yorkshire. It is formed of green hone-stone. Another, similar but 
thicker, and having the sides more convergent and the edge less oblique, 
was found at the same place and is in the same collection, in which also 
is the fragment of a larger implement of the same class from Amotherby, 
near Malton, Yorkshire. Mr. Greenwell has another, 4f inches long, 2;^ 
wide at the edge and If at butt, and 1^ inch thick, which was found in 
a barrow with a burnt interment on Seamer Moor, Yorkshire. It is 
apparently of clay-slate which has become red by burning with the body. 

The Messrs. INIortimer have one of this form in greenstone, 5f long, 
found near Malton, and also one in flint, 4,\ long, found near Fimber. 

I have a well-finished celt of hone-stone, rather thicker proportionally 
than that figured, 5 j inches long, and probably found in Cumberland, it 
having formed part of the Crosthwaite Collection at Keswick. The Rev. 
W. Greenwell, F.S.A., has another of basalt, with straight sides, tapcr- 

* Vol. xxvii. p. 2^8. 



[chap. VI. 

ing from 2} inches at edge to If at butt, 9^ in length, and 1| thick, 
found in a peat moss at Cowshill-in-Weardale, Durham. 

A thin, flat form of celt, still presenting the same character of section, 
is represented in Fig. 51. The original is formed of a hard, nearly- 
black clay-slate, and was found at Oulston, in the North Hiding of York- 
shire. Like so many others which I have described, it is in the collec- 
tion of the Rev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A., of Durham. 

A celt of greenstone, 4f inches long, of the same character, but thicker 
and with straighter sides, was found at Newton, Aberdeenshire, and is 
in the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh, where is also another, in out- 

Pi.iiit eland, NiirtliiiiiiberUind. 

Friilayl he n'lie, Ycji-kshire. 

line more like the figure, but broader at the butt-end, and having one 
side somewhat flattened. It was found at Redhall, near Edinburgh, 
and is 4| inches long, 2^ broad, and | thick. 

Some Irish celts, formed of difl"erent metamorphic rocks, present the 
same forms as those of Figs. 48 to 51. As a rule, however, the sides of 
Irish specimens are more rounded. 

Fig. 52 represents an exquisitely polished celt, of a mottled, pale 
green colour, found in Burwell Fen, Cambridgeshire, and, through the 
kindness of Mr. IMarlborough Pryor, now in my own collection. The 
material appears to be a very hard dioiite ; and as both fiices are highly 
polished all over, the labour bestowed in the manufacture of such an 
instrument must have been immense. It is somewhat curved length- 
ways, and on the inner face is a slight depression, as if, in chipping it 



out, one of the Hues of fracture had run in too far ; but even this depres- 
sion is polished, and no trace of the original chipped surface remains. 
The point is quite sharp, and the sides are only in the slightest degree 

J\Ir. J. W. Flower, F.Gr.S., has a somewhat larger specimen of the 
same character, found at Daviot, Inverness. It is slightly broken at the 
pointed butt, but must have been about 8 inches long and 3;^ broad. 
The material is of similar character, but perhaps more nearly approaching 
what the French term jadeite. In the Truro Museum is another highly 

Fig. 51.— Uul.-lnii. J 

polished celt of the same form, and similar material, found near Fal- 

Another, of " a fine granite stone, highly polished, 9 inches long, 4^^ 
broad at one end, tapering to the other, its thickness in the middle S ot 
an inch, and quite shai'p at the edges all round," was found at Mains,* 
near Dumfries, in 1779. It was discovered in blowing up some large 
stones, possibly those of a dolmen. 

Another celt, 7| inches long, " the edges thin, rising gradually to 
about the thickness of half an inch in the middle," was found in 1791 
near Hopton, Derbyshire, f The material is described as appearing " to 

Arc/ucoL, vii. j). 414. 

t Ibid., xii. pi. ii. I. 



[f'HAr. VI. 

be marble, of a light colour tinged with yellow, and a mixture of pale red 
and green veins." 

In the collection of Mr. J. F. Lucas is a celt of this type slightly 
unsymmetrical in outline, owing to the cleavage of the stone. It is 5^ 
inches long, 2^ broad, and f thick. It is said to have been found near 
Brierlow, Buxton. The material is a green jade-like stone, but so 
fibrous in appearance as to resemble fibrolite. 

A large celt, ll} long, 4 in extreme width, and Ig in thickness, found 

in Cornwall,''' and now in the 
Antiquarian Museum at Edin- 
burgh, is of much the same out- 
line as these, but it is thicker in 
proportion, and the sides are 
'.lightly flattened. The material 
is of the jadeite character. 

Several of these highly polished 
jadeite celts have been found in 
dolmens in Brittany, and there 
aie some fine specimens in the 
Museum at Vannes. Some of 
them t have small holes bored 
through them. The various types 
(it Brittany celts have been clas- 
sified by the SocieU' Pol i/inatJi iqne 
(lit Moybilian.l In the Musee de 
St. Germain is a specimen (un- 
bored) 9 inches long, and found 
near Paris. § I have one 7\ 
inches long from St. Jean, Cha- 
teaudun. One about 61 inches 
long, from the environs of Sois- 
sons, is in the Museum at Lyons. 
One of jade, of analogous form 
to these, and found near Brussels, 
IS engraved by Le Hon.|| 

Five specimens of the same 
character, of different sizes, the 
longest about 9^ inches in length, 
and the shortest about 4 inches, 
are said to have been found with 
FiK. 52.— Buivveii Fcii. i Roman remains at Kiistrich, near 

Gonsenheim,*'! and are preserved in the Museum at Mayence. The 
smallest is of greenstone, and the others of chloritic albite. They are 
said to have been buried in a sort of leather case, arranged alternately with 
the pointed and broad ends downwards, and in accordance with their size. 

* Pror. Soc. Aid. Scot., iv. 52. 

t Bonstetton, Supp. au Rec. cVAiit. Sitissctf, pi. ii. 1. 

X Froc. Ethnol. Hoc, 1870, p. cxxxvii. 

\j Moitillet, "Promenades," 145. 

(I "L'noinme Fossile," 2ncl edit. 147. 

II Lindciischmit, Alt. n. h. V., vol. i., Iluft ii., Taf. i. 10, &c. 


Both with the EngUsh and continental specimens, there appears to 
be considerable doubt as to the exact localities whence the materials 
were derived from which they are formed. 

Instruments for which such beautiful and intractable materials were 
selected can hardly have been in common use ; but we have not sufficient 
ground for arriving at any trustworthy conclusion as to the purpose for 
which they were intended. I have, however, a short celt, 3| inches 
long, from Burwell Fen, and made of this jade-like material, which has 
evidently been much in use, and was once considerably longer. It 
appears, indeed, to be the butt-end of an instrument, like Fig. 52. 

I now come to the second of the subdivisions under which 
I have arranged this class of implements, viz., those having- 
the sides flattened. The flat sides, of course, taper away to a 
point at the cutting edge of the celts, and usually diminish 
much in width towards the butt-end, which is commonly ground 
to a semicircular blunted edge. The implements of this kind are 
generally very symmetrical in form. 

I have selected a large specimen for engraving in Fig. 53. It is of 
grey mottled flint, ground all over to such an extent, that hardly any 
traces of the original chipping remain. It was found at Botesdale, Suffolk, 
and was formerly in the collection of Mr. Warren, of Ixworth, but is now 
in my own. 

One of the same form, found near Stowmarket, is engraved in the 
Aycha:olo(jia.'^ If the account there given be correct, it was Vl'\ 
inches long. A specimen from Cardiff, now in the British Museum, 
4^ inches long, has lost a considerable portion of its original length by 
use, and is ground so that the edge forms a facet with the face. The 
sides at the butt-end are somewhat rounded, but near the edge they are 
flat, and :f inch wide. 

A fine specimen of this character, formed of ochreous flint, and 9 inches 
long, found in Swaffham Fen, Cambridgeshire, is in the Christy Collec- 
tion, as well as one from Mfldenhall, 5^ inches long, the butt-end of 
which is sharper than is usual. 

Mr, R, Fitch, F.S.A., has a flint celt of this type, 7 inches long and 2^ 
broad at the edge, which, however, has been broken ofl'. It is said to 
have been found in a tumulus at Swannington, Norfolk, in 1855. In 
the Northampton Museum is a specimen, 6 inches long, of ochreous 
flint, found at Gflsborough, Northamptonshire. Mr. James Wyatt, 
F.G.S., has a beautiful implement of this type, but narrower in propor- 
tion to its length, being 7 inches long and only If wide at the edge. 
It was found in the Thames at Coway Stakes, near Egham. Mr. 
Cunnington, F.G.S., of Devizes, has a fine specimen, 9i inches long, 
and 3 wide at the edge, with the sides quite flat, but less than \ inch 
wide. It is of ochreous flint, polished all over, and was found at 
Crudwell, Wilts. 

Others, in flint, have been found at Sutton, Suffolk t (8 inches long) ; 

* Vol. xvi. pi. lii. p. 361. t Mr. Baker, AVoodbridge. 

H 2 



[chap. VI. 

Wishford, Great Bedwin, Wilts ^'^ (7 inches); Portsmouth;! Cherbury 
Camp, Pusey, Faringdon ;[ (5^ inches long, edge foceted) ; and Eamp- 
ton, Cambridge. § 

In the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh is one of grey flint, from 

Fig. uS.— iiotesdale, Siiftblk. -J- 

Skye, 7i inches long and 2J- wide at the edge. Another, 5.V inches long, 
in the same museum, from Roxburghshire, has the middle part of the 
faces ground flat, so tliat the section is a sort of compressed octagon : 
the edge is nearly straight. 

* Rev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A. 
t Mr. Frank Buclvlund, F.Z.S. 

t IMr. Jameis Brown. 
^^ licv. S. Baulis. 



Much the same form occurs in other materials than flint. I have a 
specimen with one side less flat than the other, 10] inches long, 3 witle, 
and Ig thick, said to have been found with four others in a cairn on 
Druim-a-shi, Culloden, Inverness. 

The fine celt from Gilmerton, Fig. 70, is of the same class, but has 
a cutting edge at each end. 

Implements of nearly similar form to that last described, but having 
the edge oblique, are also met with. That engraved in Fig. Si was 


rig. 54.— Lackford, Suffolk. 

found at Lackford, Suffolk, and was formerly in the collection of Mr. 
Warren, of Ixworth, but is now in mine. It is of grey flint. I have 
another, of white flint, of the same length, but a trifle narrower, and 
with the grinding for the edge forming more of a facet with the body 
of the celt. It was found in the Isle of Portland. The obliquity of the 
edge was no doubt intentional, and may have originated in the manner 



[cHAr. VL 

in -wliicli these batcbets were mounted in their hafts. Professor Nilsson"''' 
has suggested that the obliquity is due to the front part of the blade 
being worn away in use more quickly than the back. 

To this class, though very different in appearance, belongs a beauti- 
fully made celt of grey flint in the British Museum. It is probably of 
English origin, though the place of finding is unknown. The sides are 
straight and flat, but only about r,r of an inch wide, the faces equally 
convex and polished all over. It is 9 inches long, and tapers from 1| 
inches wide at the edge, which is bi'oken, to | at the butt. Its greatest 
thickness is ^ an inch. It is engraved in the Archaological JounialA 

Flint celts of the type of 
both Figs. 53 and 54 are not 
uncommon in France and Bel- 
gium. They also are found, 
though rarely, in Ireland. 

The cutting end of one 
formed of nearly transparent 
([uartz, and found in Egypt, 
is in the Museum at Geneva. 
Celts with the sides flat- 
tened are of not unfrequent 
occurrence in other materials 
than flint. That figured as 
No. 55 is of ochreous-co- 
loured quartzite, and was 
found at Dalmeny, Linlith- 
gow. It is preserved in the 
Antiquarian Museum at Edin- 
burgh. The form is remark- 
able, as being so broad in 
proportion to the length. The 
sides are flat, but the angles 
the)' make with the faces are 
slightly rounded. The butt- 
end is rounded in both direc- 
tions, and appears to have 
been worked with a pointed 

Fig. 55.-nalmeny, Linlithgow. * tOol Or pick. 

Another celt, of greenstone, of much the same form, but with the sides 
more tapering, 6 inches long and 3-]- wide, which was found in Loch- 
leven]; in 18G0, is in the same museum. This latter more nearly 
resembles Fig. 51 in outline. Another, more triangular in outline, 6^ 
inches long, 4^ wide, and 1{| thick, was found at Barugh, Yorkshire, and 
is in the collection of the Rev. W. Grecnwell, F.S.A. 

Many of the Danish greenstone celts, which are perforated at the butt, 
present much the same outline and section. 

Stone hatchets of this character occur, though rarely, in France. I 
have seen one in the collection of M, Aymard at Le Puy. Dr. Finlay, of 

* "Stone Age," p. G3. t Vol. iv. p. 2. 

I Froc. Soc, Ant. Scut., vol. i.ii. p. 486. 



Athens, has a thin, flat hatchet of this form made of heUotropo, BJ inches 
long, and with flat sides, found in Greece. 

Several celts of this form have been brought from diiferent parts of 
Asia. One, of basalt, 2 inches long, wedge-shaped, found at Muquier,-'= 
in Southern Babylonia, is iu the British Museum ; and several of jade, 3 
to 4 inches long, procured by Major Sladen from the province ofYun-nan 
in Southern China, are in the Christy Collection. By Major Sladen's 
kindness I have also a specimen. 

The same form, also in jade, has been found in Assam,! where celts 
are held in veneration. Some from Java, in the Museum at Leyden, 
formed of flint, present the same section, but the sides expand towards 
the edge. A nearly similar but longer form occurs in Japan. 

Fig. 56. — Spruustun, near Kelso. | 

Fig. 56 is of the same character as Fig. 55, but narrower at the butt- 
end. The original is in the collection of the Piev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A., 
and is formed of Lydian stone. It was found at Sprouston, near Kelso, 
Roxburghshire. Though flat at the sides along most of the blade, the 
section becomes oval near the butt-end. 

I have a smaller example of this type in clay-slate, d^ inches long and 
If wide at the edge, found at Carnaby, near Bridlington. The butt-end 
is in this case rectangular in section. It closely resembles the flat-sided 

* " Horse Ferales," pi, ii. 14. 

t Proc. As. Sw. Beiia., Sept., 1870. Proc. lilhiiol. So,-., 1S70, p. Ixii. 



[oHAr. VI. 

hatcliets so commonly found in France. I have an Irish celt of the 
same form found near Armajjjh, and made of clay-slate. Flat-sided celts 
are, however, rare in Ireland. 

A celt of grey flint, of much the same outline, but having the sides 
rounded and not flat, and the butt brought to a straight sharp edge, 
was found in Burwell Fen, and is now in the Christy Collection. It is 
4| inches long, and 2^ wide at the edge. 

A celt of the same section, but of peculiar form, with the sides curved 
slightly inwards, and tapering considerably to the butt, is shown in 
Fig. 57. The sides are flat, but have the angles slightly rounded : a 

Fig. .57. — Kuniiiii;,'! 

narrow, flattened face is carried round the butt-end. It would appear 
to have been made from a calcareous nodule found in some argillaceous 
bed, like the septaria in the London clay. Both of its faces present a 
series of diverging cracks, of slight depth, apparently resulting from the 
dissolution of calcareous veins in the stone. It was found at Nunning- 
ton, Yorkshire, and is in the collection of the Rev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A. 
The original of Fig. 58 was discovered at Burradon, Northumberland, 
where also the fine flint celt. Fig. 47, was found. This likewise is in 
the same collection. It is of porphyritic stone, and has the angles of 
the flat sides slightly rounded. Another, in the same collection, 4 inches 



long, from Dodtlington, in the same county, is of similar character. 
Celts of much the same character and size have heeu found in the 
Shetland Isles, one of which, 5i inches long, from West Burratirth, is 
in the British Museum. 

Fii?. 59 shows a celt of much the same general character, found at 

Fig. .58. — Burradon, Norlhumbeiiaiid. 

Fijj. 59. — Livermere, Suffolk. 

Livermere, near Bury St. Edmunds. It is formed of a close-grained 
greenstone, and is in my own collection. The angles at the sides are 
slightly rounded. I have another hatchet 
of the same size and of similar material, /^^ 

with the angles left sharp, found near 
Cirencester. Greenstone celts of ahout 
this size, and with the sides more or 
less flat, so as to range between Figs. 
48 and 58, are of not uncommon occur- 
rence in the Fen country. Mr. Fisher, 
of Ely, has one, found near Manea, and 
several from Bottisham. I have one, of 
felstone, S^ inches long, found at Coton, 
Cambs., one side of which presents a 
flat surfoce f inch wide, while the other \ 
is but slightly flattened. 

A still more triangular form, more 
convex on the faces, and having the 
square sides much narrower, is shown 
in Fig. 60, from a specimen in the col- 
lection of the Rev, W. Greenwell, F.S.A., 
found at Ilderton, Northumberland. It is formed of a hard, slaty rock 
or hone-stone. The angles of the sides are rounded. 

Fig. 60, 

toll, X.)i!hmi)beilanil. 





In the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh are two implements of 
greenstone, 2f and 3 inches long, of nearly similar form to Fig. 60, but 
having the sides sharp. They were found in the Isle of Skye." 

A smaller celt of the same cha- 
racter, 2^ inches long, found in a 
cairn at Brindv Hill , Aberdeenshhe, f 
is in the British Museum. 

One, 2f inches long, formed of 
haematite, or touchstone, from Sar- 
dis,;]: in Lydia, and in the same 
collection, is of much the same 
form, but rounder at the sides and 
less pointed at the butt. 

Implements of the form repre- 
sented in Fig. 61 occur most fre- 
quently in the northern part of 
Britain, especially in Cumberland 
and Westmoreland, in consequence, 
it may be supposed, of the felspathic 
rocks, of which they are usually 
formed, being there found in the 
greatest abundance. That here 
figured is in the British Museum. It 
is of mottled close-grained stone, 
beautifully finished, and was found in 
a turf pit on Windy Harbour Farm, 
near Pendle, Lancashire. § It is more 
slender than the generality of the 
implements of this class, which in 
outline usually more closely resem- 
ble Fig. 77, which, however, has a 
cutting edge at each end. They 
sometimes slightly expand towards 
the butt-end. 

I have a more roughly finished 
implement of this class, with the 
two faces faceted longitudinally, 
found near Wigton, Cumberland, 
and formerly in the Crosthwaite 
Museum at Keswick. It is formed 
of felspathic ash, much decomposed 
on the surface, and 9 inches long. 
Some larger specimens of similar 
character are now in the Christ}^ 
Collection. One of them is 13 J 
inches in length, 
has an implement of this type, but 

Fig. 61. — Near Pendle, Lancashire, i 

The Rev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A. 

with the sides straighter, and the angles rounded, found at Holme, on 

* See ylcct. of 8oc. Jut. of Scot., p. .5.5 

t " Hora' Feralca," pi. ii. 11. 

Hoi-aj Ferales," pl.ii. 13. Arch. Joiini., xv. p. 178. ^^ " Hora> Ferales," pi. ii. 7. 


Spalding Moor, Yorkshire. It is of hone-stone, 7 inches long, 2^ inches 
broad at the edge, but tapering to 1| inches at the butt. He possesses 
another of felstone, 12f inches long, and 2rV wide at edge, found at 
Great Salkeld, Cumberland. 

There is a celt of this type in the Blackmore Museum, 13^ inches long, 
3^ inches wide, and 1| inches thick; the butt-end round and sharpened, 
though the edge has been removed by grinding. It is said to have been 
found, 5 or 6 feet deep in gravel, at Shaw Hall,"' near Flixton, Lancashire. 
Another, in the same collection, 8 inches long, 3 inches broad, and 
1^ inches thick, was found near Keswick. 

What from the engraving would appear to be a large implement of this 
kind, has been described by Mr. Cumingf as a club. "It is wrought of 
fawn-coloured hone-slate, much like that obtained in the neighbourhood 
of Snowdon. It weighs 6:^ lbs., and measures 17t inches in length, 
nearly 32 inches across its greatest breadth, and nearly 2^ inches in its 
greatest thickness. The faces are convex, the edges blunt and thinning 
oft' at both of the rounded extremities." It was found near Newton, 
Lancashire. Another so-called club is mentioned as having been found 
near Keswick.]: 

Clumsy and unwieldy as implements of such a length appear to he if 
mounted as axes, there can be no doubt of their having been intended 
for use as cutting tools ; and though, from their size, they might be con- 
sidered as clubs, yet their form is but ill adapted for such a purpose, 
even if we assume that, as is said to be the case with the New Zealand 
Patoo-patoo, they were sometimes employed for thrusting as well as 
striking, and therefore had the broad end sharpened. The Stirlingshire 
specimen. Fig. 77, which is 13j inches long, is, however, sharp at both 
ends. There have been, moreover, discovered in Denmark what are 
indubitably celts, almost, if not quite, as long as the Newton so-called 
club. I have myself such an implement from Jutland, of ochreous flint, 
16 inches long and 3 inches broad at the edge, which is carefully 
sharpened. I have another roughly chipped Danish celt, li^ inches 
long, which weighs Gibs. 14ozs., or more than that from Newton. 

The celt found in Solway Moss, with its handle still preserved, as will 
subsequently be mentioned, is of the form of Fig. 61. It is of felspathic 
rock, 9^ inches long and 2| inches broad, the edge slightly oblique. 

One lately presented to the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland j is of 
felstone, 15| inches long. It was found at Drumour, in Glenshee, For- 
farshire ; from which place also another 13 inches long was presented 
at the same time. This latter widens out suddenly at the butt. The 
larger of these two presents on its surface a transverse mark, not 
unlike that on the Solway Moss specimen, such as may have resulted 
from that portion of the surface having been protected for a time by 
a wooden handle, which eventually decayed and perished. 

Another from Lempitlaw, in the Kelso Museum, is 13 inches long. 

The flattening of the sides and faces of celts is sometimes, though 
rarely, carried to such an extent that they become almost rectangular in 

* Arch. Joiirii., vii. p. 389. f Arch. Assoc. Joxni., xv. p. 232. 

t Pfoc. Soc. Ant., iii. p. 225. ^^ March 31, 1871. 



[CHAr. YI. 

That shown in Fig. G2 was found near the Rye bank, at Ness,* in the 
North Riding of Yorkshire, and is formed of a dark, much-altered slaty 
rock, containing a good deal of iron. The butt-end, though brought to 


/ /. 



an edge, is not so sharp as the broader or cutting end. The surface is 
somewhat decomposed. It is in the collection of the Rev. W. Green- 

* Journ. Elhn. Soc, ii. p. IGo. 



well F.S.A., in which also is the somewhat analogous implement shown 
in Fig. 63. 

This also is from the same part of Yorkshire, having been found, 
in 1808, at GilHng,* in the Vale of Mowbray, 4 feet deep in peaty clay. It 
is formed of clay ironstone, and has the angles somewhat rounded. The 

edge is oblique and slightly chipped away. Another celt of close-grained 
schist, found in the same parish, and preserved in the same col- 
lection, more resembles in outline that from Ness, though not sharp at 
the butt, and having an obUque edge. It is 5f inches long and 2^ 
inches broad. Mr. Greenwell has a thinner celt of the same type, found 
at Heslcrton Carr. 

* Jouni. Ethi. Soc, ii. p. 165. 




An Italian celt, of mucli the same character as Fig. 62, but of green- 
stone, has been figured by Clastaldi.* 

The next form of celt which I have to describe is more chisel-like in 
appearance, both the faces and sides being almost flat and nearly parallel. 
This peculiarity of form is no doubt mainly due to the schistose character 
of the rock from which the implement is made, which, in the case of the 
original of Fig. 64, is a close-grained slate or hone-stone. It was 
found at Swinton, near Malton, Yorkshire, and 
was given to me by Mr. C. Monkman. The 
angles are slightly rounded, and the butt-end is 
tapered oft as if to an edge, which, however, is 
now broken away. 

Long, narrow celts of this rectangular section 
are of very rare occurrence both in Britain and 
Ireland, and, so far as I am aware, have never 
been found of flint. In Denmark, on the contrary, 
they are common in flint, but usually of a larger 
size than the specimen here engraved. The faces 
also are usually rather more convex. 

They are to be found among the North Ame- 
rican! forms, sometimes with a hole towards the 
butt-end, as if for suspension. 

The next specimen, shown in Fig. 65, is of the 
same material as the last, and was found in the 
same neighbourhood, at the Dykes, Scamridge, in 
the North Eiding of Yorkshire. Owing to the 
irregular fissure of the stone, it is considerably 
thicker at one side than the other. The broader 
side is flat, with the angles chamfered, and the 
narrower side is rounded. The faces taper at the 
butt-end, which is ground to a regular curve and 
blunted. This also was given to me by Mr. C. 
Monkman, of Malton. 
A curious variety of celt is shown in Fig. 66, the original of which 
was found at Whitwell, in the North Riding of Yorkshire, and is in the 
collection of the Eev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A. It is formed from a hard, 
shelly limestone, apparently of Oolitic age, the surface of which has 
been partially eroded. It is nearly flat on one face, and seems to have 
been intended for mounting as an adze. Other celts of similar material 
have been found in the same district, and Mr. Greenwell has kindly 
presented me with one of much the same character as this, though 
far broader in proportion to its thickness. This specimen, which was 
found at Osgodby, closely resembles in section that from Truro, Fig. 84. 
Some of the large celts from the Shetland Isles present the same pecu- 
liarity of being flat on one face, but, as the sides are much rounded, 
I shall include them among those of oval section, which form the 
third subdivision of polished celts, and Avhich I now proceed to 

Fig. 64. — Swiiitdii, 

* Mem. Aicdd. li. di Torino, Scr. 2, vol. xxvi. tav. iv. 4. 
t Sfhookiiift, "Ind. Tribea," i. pi. xi. 3; xiv. '2. 



It will be observed that implements of this character, formed of flint, 
are extremely rare. The reason for this appears to be, that from the 
method in which, in this country, flint celts were chipped out, the sides 
were in all cases originally sharp, and they had a pointed oval, or vesica 
piscis, section. In polishing, this form was to a great extent preserved, 
though the edges were, as has been seen, sometimes ground flat and 
sometimes rounded. It rarely happens, however, that the rounding is 
carried to so great an extent as to produce such a contour that it is impos- 
sible to say within a little where the faces end, and the sides begin, though 
this is often the case with celts of greenstone and other materials, which 
were shaped out in a somewhat ditferent manner, and in the formation ol 
which grinding played a more conspicuous part. It is almost needless to 
say that I use the Avord oval in its popular sense, and not as significant 
of a mathematically true ellipse. At the part where the edge of the celts 
commences, the section is of course a vesica piscis. 

Fig. 65. — Scamridge Dykes, Yurksliire. -J 

Fig. 66. — WliiLwell, Yorkshire. 

The first specimen engraved. Fig. 67, is in my own collection, and 
was found in the Thames at London. It is of dark greenstone, and, 
owing to a defect in the piece of stone of which it was made, there is a 
hollow place in one of the faces. Colonel A. Lane Fox, F.S.A., has a 
similar but more symmetrical celt, of the same material, also found in 
the Thames. Another smaller, from the same source, is in the British 
Museum ; and another is in the collection of the Rev. T. Hugo, F.S.A.* 

Large implements of this form are of not uncommon occurrence in 
Scotland and in the Shetland Isles. There are several in the Antiquarian 
iVluseum at Edinburgh, and also in the British Museum, and in that of 
Newcastle. The butt-end is occasionally pointed, and the faces in broad 

* Arch. Assoc. Joun/., x. p. 105. 



[cHAr. VI. 

ppecimens flatter than in Fig. 67. Several of these celts in the British 
Museum were found in the middle of the last century, in Shetland. The 
largest is 11 inches long, 3 inches wide at the edge, and If inches thick. 
It was found in Selter,* parish of Walls. Others are from 8 inches to 

Fig. 67.— Thames, Louduii. | 

9 inches long. In the case of one, 12 inches long and Sg inches wide, 
from Shetland, and in the Edinburgh Museum, the edge is oblique. 
The Rev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A., has a celt of this kind formed of 

* "Ilonc Fcrales," pi. ii. o. 



porphyi-itic greenstone, 13 inches long, and 3f inches wide, from 
Sandsting, Shetland. 

A celt of greenstone, 8 inches long, 2| inches wide, and 1^ inches 
thick, in outline much resembling Fig. 72, was found, in 1758, at 
Tresta, in the parish of Aithsting, Shetland, and is now in the British 
Museum. It is flat on one face, the other being convex, so that 
the section is an oval with a segment removed. Such an instrument 
must, in all probability, have been mounted as an adze, though the flat 
face may have originally been due to the cleavage of the rock, which is a 
porphyritic greenstone. 

Another celt, flat on one face, so that the section presents little more 
than half an oval, was found 
at Yell, in the same island, 
and is now in the Newcastle 
Museum. It is 6^ inches long, 
and 2 inches wide. 

I have a large heavy celt 
less tapering at the butt than 
Fig. 67, 8i inches long, 3^ 
inches wide, and 2J inches 
thick, said to have been found 
at Spalding, Lincolnshire. 

One of flint, 7 inches long 
and 2f inches broad, nearly 
oval in section, and found at 
Northampton, is preserved in 
the Museum at that town. 

Celts of the same form 
and character as Fig. 67 are 
found both in Ireland and in 

Fig. 68 shows another va- 
riety of this form, which be- 
comes almost conical at the 
butt. The original was found 
near Bridlington by Mr. E. 
Tindall, and is now in my 
own collection. The material 
is greenstone. Implements 
of this form, but rarely ex- 
panding at the edge, are of 
common occurrence in that 
part of Yorkshire. Some of 
them have been made of a 
variety of greenstone liable to decomposition from atmospheric or other 
causes, and the celts when found present a surface so excessively eroded 
that their form can with difliculty be recognised. The Rev. Mr. Greenwell 
has celts of the type of Fig. 68, from Willerby, in the East Riding (6:^ inches 
and (")+ inches), and Crambe, in the North Riding of Yorkshire (6 J inches), 
as well as another (5f inches) from Sherburn, Durham. I have one nearly 
8 inches long, procured by Mr. Tindall from Speeton, near Bridlington. 


Near Bridlington. 



[chap, VI. 

Mr. R. Fitch, F.S.A., has one of serpentine, 6^^ inches long, from DuU's 
Lane, near Loddon, Norfolk, and Mr. J. W. Flower, F.G.S., has one of 
greenstone, 4:^ inches long and 2^ inches wide at the edge, found at Melyn 
Works, Neath, Glamorganshire. The greenstone celt found in Grime's 
Graves,"^' Norfolk, was of this form, but rather longer in its proportions, 
being 7i inches long, and 2| inches broad at the edge, which is oblique. 
Mr. H. Durden, of Blandford, has a greenstone celt of this type, 6 inches 
in length, found at Langton, near Blandford, the butt-end of which is 
roughened by picking, probably for insertion in a socket. The Rev. 
E. Duke, of Lake, near Salisbury, has a celt of this character, found in 
a tumulus in that parish. I have both French and Danish specimens 
of the same form at the butt, though narrower at the edge. 

Another variety, in which the 
butt-end is less pointed and more 
oval, is given in Fig. 69. The 
original is of dark green horn- 
blende schist, and was found at 
Lakenheath, Suifolk. I have a large 
implement of similar form and ma- 
terial, 5^ inches long, with the edge 
slightly oblique, from Swaffham, 
Cambridgeshire ; and another of 
serpentine 3:^ inches, from Cold- 
ham's Common, Cambridge ; as 
well as one of greenstone, 4f inches 
long, from Standlake, Oxon. A 
celt of this type, of porphyritic 
stone, 5^ inches long and 2^ inches 
wide at the edge, found at Branton, 
Northumberland, is in the collec- 
tion of the Rev. W. Greenwell, 
F.S.A. It is slightly oblique at the 
edge. Another of the same cha- 
racter, of greenstone, 6f inches long 
and 3 inches broad at the edge, 
Fig. 69.-Lakenheatii, Suffolk, i f^^j^^j ^^ Sproughton, Suffolk, is in 

that of Mr. R. Fitch, F.S.A. Another, 5 inches long, found at Kingston- 
on-Thames, is in the Museum of the Society of Antiquaries. 

Another of green serpentine, faceted to form the edge, and rounded at 
the butt, 4 inches long, 2 inches wide, and lj| inches thick, was found 
in a cairn in Fifeshire, and is preserved in the Antiquarian Museum at 

In the Blackmore Museum is a celt of granite tapering to the rounded 
point at the butt, C)^ inches long, 3 J inches wide, and 1^ inches thick, 
which has been roughened at the upper end, and is polished towards the 
edge. It was found in the river Lambourn, Berks. 

I have seen another of this form, but of flint, 4.V inches long, with the 
sides much rounded, so as to be almost oval, found near Eastbourne, 
where also this form has occurred in greenstone. Mr. H. Durden, of 

Jonrn. EthnoL Soc, vol. ii. pi. .xxx. 3. 



Blandforcl, has a celt of greenstone of this form 4^ inches long, found 
at Tarrant Launceston, Dorset. 

A shorter form, which also seems to be most prevalent in Yorkshire, 
is represented in Fig. 70. The specimen figured is from Seamer, formed 
of greenstone, and in the collection 
of the Rev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A. 
In the same collection is another 
(4 inches), rather larger and thicker, 
from Scampston. Another of qnartz- 
ite, 5 inches long, 2^ inches wide, 
1| inches thick, polished all over, 
but showing traces of having been 
worked with a pick, was found at 
Birdsall, near Malton, and is in the 
collection of Messrs. Mortimer, of 
Fimber. I have one of greenstone 
4| inches long and 2^ inches wide, 
also from Seamer. 

A celt of greenstone, of the same 
section, but broader and more 
truncated at the butt, 3 inches 
long, and found near Bellingham, 
North Tyne, is in the Newcastle 

Museum. ^jg- 70.-,s.';mi.T, Yoi-k.^lm-e. i 

Some of the stone celts from Greece and Italy are of much the same 
form, but usually rather longer in their proportions. There are several 
from Eubcea in the Museum at Zurich, and some from the Peloponnesus 
are in the Christy Collection. I have some Greek specimens more like 
Fig. 71 — kindly given me by Captain H. Thurburn, F.G.S. Celts of this 
character are said to have been used among the North American Indians ■''- 
as fleshing instruments, employed by the women in the preparation of 
skins. They were not hafted, but held in the hand like chisels. I have 
a celt almost identical in form and material with Fig. 70, but from 
Central India. 

I have inserted the form shown in Fig. 71 among those of Britain, 
though geographically it may be regarded as French 
rather than British, having been found in Guernsey. 
I have engraved it from a cast presented to the 
Society of Antiquaries by Mr. F. C. Lukis, F.S.A. 
The form occurs in various materials — rarely flint 
— and is common through the whole of France. I 
have seen one which was said to have been found 
in the neighbourhood of London, but it was not 
improbably an imported specimen. 

Should authenticated instances of the finding of 
celts of this class in our southern counties be adduced, they will be of 
interest as aflbrding prima facie evidence of intercourse with the Con- 
tinent at an early period. 

* Schoolcraft, " Ind. Tribes," vol. i. p. 91. Other North American celts are 
engraved in the " Anc. Men. of the Mies. Valley," pp. 217, 218; Squier, "Abor. 
Mou. of New York," p. 77. 


Fig. 71. — Guernsey. 



[chap. VI. 

Major Sladen brought several small jade celts of this form, but 
flatter at the sides, from Yun-nan, in Southern China. Through his 
liberality several are in the Christy Collection, and one in my own. Some 
haematite celts found in North America* are of much the same size and 

The specimen engraved as Fig. 72 was found in the neighbourhood 
of Wareham, Dorsetshire, and is in my own collection. It is formed 
of syenite, and, unlike the instruments previously described, is 
narrower at the edge than in the middle of the blade ; the section 
shows that the faces are nearly flat. I have another celt in 
which these peculiarities are exaggerated, the faces being flatter, 

the blade thinner, and also wider 
in the middle in proportion to 
the edge, it being 5^ inches long, 
2\ inches wide in the middle, 
and 1^ inches at the edge, and 
rather less than an inch in thick- 
ness. The material is a Serpula 
limestone, and the celt was no doubt 
formed from a travelled block, 
as it was found in a Boulder- 
clay district at Troston, near Bury 
St. Edmunds. I have a much 
heavier implement from the same 
locality, and formed of the same 
sort of stone. It is rather wider in 
proportion than Fig. 72, and does 
not narrow towards the edge, but 
in section and general form may 
be classed with it. It is 10 inches 
long, 3f inches wide, and 2| inches 

A large celt of the same section, 
but thinner proportionally, and 
with straighter and more parallel 
sides, in outline more like Fig. 79, 
10 inches long, 3 inches broad at the 
edge, and If inchesthick, was found 
at Pilmoor, in the North Riding of 
Yorkshire, and is in the collection 
Fig. 72.-Waieiiam. i of the Rev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A. 

It is of clay-slate. Another in the same collection, and from North 
Holme, in the same Riding, is broader and flatter, with the sides 
somewhat more square, and the edge more curved. It is 10 inches 
long, 4 inches wide at the edge, and If thick. One face is somewhat 
hollowed towards one side, possibly to grind out the trace of a too 
deep chip. A third from Barmston, in the East Riding, is 10|- inches 
long, and 4 inches broad at the end. An analogous form from Japan is 
in the Museum at Leyden. 

Anc. Mon. of Miss. Val., p. 215, fig. 106. 



A long narrow chisel-like celt, with an oval section, is given in Fig. 73. 
The original is of dark greenstone, and was fonnd in Forfarshire. It lu 
in the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh. I have a larger celt of the 
same form. Si inches long and 1| inches wide, formed of a close-grained 
grit, and found at Sherburn, Yorkshire. Messrs. Mortimer have another 
of schist, 4^ inches long and If inches wide, from Thixendale, Yorkshire. 
This form occurs, though rarely, in Ireland. 

A much larger celt, of metamorphic rock, 8^ inches long, 3 inches 
broad at the edge and If inches at the butt, 1| inches thick, was found 
on Throckley Fell, Northumberland, and is in the Museum at Newcastle. 

Fig. 74 gives a shorter form of implement, truncated at the butt. The 
original, which is in my own collection, is formed of greenstone, and was 
found at Easton, near Bridlington, by Mr. E. Tindall. It is carefully 
polished towards the edge, but at the butt it is roughened, apparently 
with the intention of rendering it more capable of adhesion to its socket. 

Fig. 73.— Forfarshire. 

Fig. 74. — Bridlington. 

The celt from Malton, Fig. 81, is roughened in a similar manner, and 
the same is the case with many of the hatchets from the Swiss Lake- 
dwellings, which have been frequently found still fixed in their sockets of 
stag's horn. 

I have another specimen, also procured by Mr. E. Tindall, from South 
Back Lane, Bridlington, which, however, is not roughened at the butt, 
and the sides of which have had a narrow flat facet ground along them. 
It is 6 inches long, and 8^ inches wide at the edge. 



[chap. VI. 

Another form presents a rather pointed and unusually elongated oval 
in section, and is pointed at the butt. Fig. 75 represents a highly 
finished celt of this kind made of light green, almost jade-like stone, 
preserved in the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh, and said to have 
been found in Caithness. It is so thoroughly Carib in character, and so 
closely resembles specimens I possess from the West Indian Islands, 
that for some time I hesitated to engrave it. There are, however, 
sufficiently numerous instances of other implements of the same form 
having been found in this country for the type to 
be accepted as British. The celt found at Glas- 
gow,''' in a canoe at a depth of twenty-five feet 
below the surface, was of this kind. The Rev. 
W. Greenwell, F.S.A., possesses one of por- 
phyritic greenstone, 7 inches long and 3 inches 
wide, and of nearly this form, found at Grant- 
chester, Cambridge. Two celts of this character, 
the one from Jamaica and the other from the 
North of Italy, are engraved in the Archa'oh>gia.\ 
I have specimens of the same type from 
various parts of France. Mr. Greenwell has 
a Spanish celt of the same form found near 

The bulk of the celts found in Ireland, and 
foimed of other materials than flint, approximate 
in form to Figs. 69 to 75, though they are usually 
rather thinner in their proportions. They range, 
however, widely in shape, and vary much in 
their degree of finish. 

I now come to tlie fourth of tlie subdivisions under which, 
mainly for the sake of having some basis for classification, I 
have arranged the polished celts. In it I have placed those 
which present any abnormal peculiarities ; and the first of these 
which I shall notice are such as do not materially affect the 
outline of the celts ; as, for instance, the existence of a second 
cutting edge at the butt-end, at a part where, though the blade is 
usually tapered away and ground, yet it very rarely happens that 
it has been left sharp. Indeed, in almost all cases, if in shaping 
and polishing the celt the butt-end has at one time been sharpened, 
the edge has been afterwards carefully removed by grinding it 

The beautifully formed implement of ochreously stained flint repre- 
sented in Fig. 76 was found at Gilmerton, in East Lothian, and is 
preserved in the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh. The sides are flat, 
with the angles rounded oft', and the blade expands slightly at the ends, 
both of which arc sharpened. It is carefully polished all over, so as to 
show no traces of its having been chipped out, except a slight depression 

* Wilson's " Preh. RIiui," vol. i. p. 154. Hee po.stra, p. 136. f Vol. xvii. p. 222. 



on one face, and this is polished like the rest of the blade. It is nearly 
ninety years since this instrument was turned up by the plough, as 
described in the Minutes of the Sorieti/ of Antiqiuirics of Scutlund'''- ior 
April 2nd, 1782, where it is mentioned as the "head of a hatchet of 
polished yellow marble, sharpened at both ends." 

Fig. 76.— Gilmerton, East Lothian. 

A somewhat similar instrument, but narrower at the butt, and formed 
of jade (?), and 11 inches long, found at Nougaroulet, is engraved in the 
Revue ile Gasco(jne.\ 

* Ace. of Soc. Ant. of Scot., 1782, p. 91. t Vol. vi. 1865. 

Fij;. 77. — Stirlingshire. J 




Fig. 77 represents another celt, in the Edinburgh Museum, of similar 
section, but expanding only at the butt-end, which is sharpened, and 
contracting from the middle towards the broader end, which, as usual, 
seems to have been the principal cutting end. It is formed of compact 
greenstone, and was found in Stirlingshire. In general outline it closely 
resembles a common Cumberland form, of which, however, the butt is 
not sharp. 

Celts with an edge at each end are rare on the Continent, though they 
are of more frequent occurrence in Ireland. 

. One of this character, found in Dauphine, Finance,* has been engraved 
by M. Chantre. 

Another from Portugal f has been described by myself elsewhere. 

A celt of shorter proportions, but 
also provided with a cutting edge at 
each end, is shown in Fig. 78. It 
is in the collection of the Rev. W. 
Greenwell, F.S.A., and was found at 
Harome, in the North Riding of 
Yorkshire, where several stone im- 
plements of rare form have been 
discovered. The material is a hard 
clay-slate. The tool seems quite as 
well adapted for being used in the 
hand without any mounting, as for 
attachment to a haft. 

Another of these implements, with 
a cutting edge at either end, is shown 
in Fig. 79. 

As will be observed, it is curved 
longitudinally, so that if attached to 
a handle, it must have been after the 
manner of an adze, and not of an 
axe. The sides curve slightly in- 
wards, which would render any at- 
tachment to a handle more secure. 

The material of which it is formed 
is a dark green porphyry. It was found in a cairn at Daviot,| near 
Inverness, in company with a celt of oval section, and pointed at the butt, 
'dh inches long, and 2^ inches broad at the edge ; and also with a green- 
stone pestle ('?), 10|- inches long and 2| inches in diameter, rounded at 
each end. This latter was probably formed from a long pebble. They 
are all preserved in the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh. 

The next peculiarity which I have to notice is that of the tapering 
sides of the celt being curved inwards, as if for the purpose of being 
more securely fixed either to a handle or in a socket. In the last 
implement described, the reduction in width towards the middle 
of the blade would appear to have been intended to assist in fasten- 
ing it at the end of a handle, as an adze cutting at each end. 

* Etudes Paleoethnol., pi. viii. 5. 

t Trans. Ethn. Soc, N. S., vol. vii. 46. 

i Procs. Soc. Aitt. Scot., vol. vi. p. 179. 

Fig. 79.— Daviot, near Inverness. 



In Fig. 80 the reduction in width is more abrupt, and the blade wouhl 
aj^pear to have been mounted as an axe. It is formed of a compact light 
grey metamorphic rock, and is in the collection of the Rev. S. Banks, of 
Cottenham, Cambridgeshire. I have a greenstone celt found at Carnac, 
Brittany, with shoulders of the same character about the middle of the 

The original of Fig. 81 was found in a gravel-pit near Malton, York- 
shire, and is in the possession of Capt. 
Copperthwaite. It was supposed that 
this implement was found in undis- 
turbed drift, and some correspondence 
upon the subject appeared in the Times 
newspaper.'" There must, however, have 
been some misapprehension as to the 
circumstances under which it was found, 
for the gravel appears to belong to the 
series of Glacial deposits, and is of 
considerably greater antiquity than any 
of the old River Gravels in which the 
unpolished flint implements have been 
discovered. This celt, however, is of 
greenstone, carefully polished at the 
edge, and towards the butt slightly 
roughened by being picked with a sharp- 
pointed tool. This roughening is in 
character similar to that which has been 
observed on many of the celts from 
the Swiss Lake-dwellings, and was no 
doubt intended in their case to make 
the stone adhere more firmly in the socket of stag's horn in which it 
Avas inserted. The object in this case would appear to be the same; and, 
like other polished celts, it in all probability belongs to the Neolithic 
Period. The expansion of the blade towards the edge is very remark- 
able, and exceeds that of any other British 
specimen with which I am acquainted. As 
before observed, the Danish hatchets ex- 
panding at the edge are usually rectangular 
in section. 

A celt of the same form as that from 
Malton, but somewhat oblique at the edge, 
and formed of quartz containing pyrites, 
found at Soden, is in the Museum at Bonn. 

A fiat form of stone hatchet, expanding 
rapidly from a slightly tapering butt about 
half the entire length of the blade, so as to 
form a semicircular cutting-edge, has been 
found in South Carolina.! There is a 
small perforation in the centre, as if for ; 

in its handle. 

-Near Cutteiiliaiu. 


Fi|,r. 81.— Near Malton 

to assist 

in securing 

* Jan. 7, 1868. See also Reliquary, voL viii. p. 184. 
t Schoolcraft, " Ind. Tribes," vol. ii., pi. xliv. 



[chap. VI. 

Another form, with the blade reduced in width for about half its length, 
so as to form a sort of tang, is engraved by Squier and Davis.* 

The celt engraved in Fig. 82 pre- 
sents an abrupt shoulder on one 
side only, which, however, is in this 
case probably due to the form of 
the pebble from which it was made, 
a portion of which had split off along 
a line of natural cleavage. It is formed 
of a reddish, close-grained porphyritic 
rock, and is subquadrate in section at 
the butt. It was found at Mennithorpe, 
Yorkshire, and is in the collection of 
the Rev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A. In 
the same collection is a thin celt of 
clay-slate, 4f inches long, of much 
the same form, but rounded at the 
shoulder. It was found at Ryedale, 
in the North Riding of Yorkshire. 

Some of these shouldered imple- 
ments may have been intended for use 
Fig. 82.— Mennithorpe, Yorkshire, i in the hand, without hafting. This 
appears to be the case with the greenstone celt shoAvn in Fig. 83. It was 

Fig. 83.— Middleton Moor. a 

found on Middleton Moor, Derbyshire, and is in the collection of Mr. J. F. 
* Anc. Mon. of Miss. Valley, p. 218. 



"Lucas. The shallow grooves at the sides appear intended to receive the 
fingers, much in the same manner as the grooves in the handles of some 
of the tools of the Esquimaux.* An 

Irish celt, 8 inches long, formerly 
in the Brackstone Collection,! and 
now in the Blackmore Museum, has 
two notches on one side only, and 
more distinctly formed, "seemingly 
to receive the fingers and give a 
firmer hold when used in the hand 
without a haft." 

Colonel A. Lane Fox has an In- 
dian celt with a notch on either 
side, but this may have been con- 
nected with the method of hafting. 

The original of Fig. 84 is in 
Mr. Greenwell's collection, and was 
found near Trui'o. It is of serpen- 
tine, with an oblique edge, and 
appears to have been formed from 
a pebble with little labour beyond 
that of sharpening one end. Though 
much flatter on one face than the 
other, it would appear, from the 
slanting edge, to have been used 
as an axe, and not as an adze, 
unless indeed it were a hand-tool. 

Another peculiarity of form is 
where the edge, instead of being 
as usual nearly in the centre of the 
blade, is almost in the same plane as 
one of the faces, like that of a chisel. 
An implement of this character, from 
a " Pict's castle," Clickem-in, near 
Lerwick, Shetland, is shown in Fig. 

It is in my own collection, having 
been presented to me by the Rev. 
Dr. Knowles, F.S.A. The material 
appears to be a hard clay-slate. 
The form is well adapted for being 
mounted as an adze, much in the 
same manner as the nearly similar 
implements in use by the South Sea 
Islanders. A New Zealand adze of 
precisely the same character is en- 
graved in Lubbock's " Prehistoric 

Times," p. 73. ^'^- ^^--Neai Lerwick. i 

Sometimes the edge of a celt, instead of being sharp, has been care- 

* Lubbock, "Preh. Times," p. 490, figs. 215, 216. 
t Anh. Joiirn., vol. viii. p. 422. 



[chap. VI 

fully removed by grinding, so as to present a flat or rounded surface. 
In Fig. 86 is represented a singular implement of this kind in flint. It 
is polished all over ; one side is straight, and the other curved ; both 
ends are curved, but one is rounded at the edge, and the other flat. It 
is diflicult to understand for what purpose such an instrument can have 
been intended. There is no reason for supposing that the grinding at 
the ends was later in date than the formation of the other parts. I have 

another like Fig. 30 with the edge also flat- 
tened ; and I have seen another flint celt of 
much the same form, found at Chesterford, 
Cambs.,with a somewhatflat edge, but rounded 
and worn away, as if by scraping some soft 
substance. Small transverse stri(P, such as 
might have been caused by particles of sand, 
are visible on the worn edge. The Kev. W. 
Greenwell has a portion of a celt of green- 
stone, the fractured face ground flat, and a 
portion of the edge also ground away. 

A small flint celt, with a round polished 
edge instead of a cutting one as usual, was 
found, with other objects, in a barrow on 
i'jlton Moor, Derbyshire,'" by the late Mr. 
Thomas Bateman. 

It is hard to say for what purpose the 
edge was thus made blunt. In some cases, 
however, the instruments may have been 
used as battle-axes, the edges of which, 
when of the perforated foi'ms, are usually 
flattened or rounded, probably with the view 
of preventing accidental injury to those who carried them. In some 
celts, however, the broad end is so much rounded that they can hardly 
be said to have an edge, and they have more the appearance of having 
been used as burnishing or calendering tools. I have observed this 

rounding of the end in some Irish and 
French specimens, but not of flint, as well 
as in one from India. 

Occasionally, but very seldom, acircular con- 
cave recess is worked on each face of the celt, 
apparently for the purpose of preventing it from 
slipping between the thumb and finger when 
held in the hand and used either as a chop- 
]iing or cutting instrument. The specimen 
here engraved was kindly lent me by Mr. 
Eobert Mortimer, of Fimber, who found it 
on Acklam Wold, Yorkshire. It is of green- 
stone, and has been ground or polished over 
almost the entire surface. The butt-end is 
>i(i. \ nearly flat transversely, and ground in the 
a sweep, so as to fit beneath the forefinger, when 
held by the thumb and middle finger placed in the recesses on the 
* " Vestiges of the Ants, of Derbysh.," p. 53. 

Fig. 86.— Weston, Norfolk. 

Fig. 87.— \ I k 1 

other direction 



faces. Such recesses are by no means uncommon on the stones intended 
for use as hammers ; and further on (p. 217) I have engraved a 
hammer-stone of this class, which M^ould seem to have been originally a 
celt such as this, but which has entirely lost any approach to an edge 
by continual battering. In Mr. Mortimer's specimen the edge is fairly 
sharp, though it has lost some splinters from off it in ancient times. 

In the same collection is another specimen, found near Fimber, formed 
of a green metamorphic rock. The butt- 
end is ground flat, and the sides nearly 
so. There is a slight depression worked 
on each face. The edge is slightly 
rounded, and shows longitudinal struc. 
By the owner's kindness I am able to 
engrave it as Fig. 88. 

In Colonel A. Lane Fox's collection 
is a celt from Hindostan, with a cup- 
shaped depression on one of its faces. 

In the extensive collection of the Rev. 
W. Greenwell, F.S.A., so often referred 
to, is another remarkable celt, which, 
though entirely different in character 
from those last described, may also 
have been intended for holding in the hand. It 

the surface of which is considerably decomposed, 

18.— Fiuiber. | 

is of greenstone, 
and was found at 

Duggleby, in the East Riding of Yorkshire. On each side is an elon- 

Ficr. S9.— Dii 

gated concavity, well adapted for receiving the end of the forefinger 
when the instrument is held in the hand with the thumb on one 
face, and the middle finger on the other. At first sight it might 
appear that the depressions had been made with the view of perforating 
the blade, so as to make it like Fig. 133. It is, however, too thin for 



[chap. VI. 

such a purpose, and as the depressions can hardly be connected with 
any method of hafting, it appears probable that they are merely for 
the purpose of giving the hand a secure grip, when using the instrument 
as a cutting tool. 

The last peculiarity I have to notice is when the blade of the celt 
assumes an ornamental character, by being fluted or otherwise orna- 
mented. That represented in Fig. 90 is deeply fluted on either side. I 

have engraved the figure from a cast in 
the Museum of the Society of Antiquaries, 
the original of which was in the possession 
of F. C. Lukis, Esq., M.D. It was 
found at St. Sampson, Guernsey. As- 
suming the figure given by M. Brouillet 
to be correct, a somewhat similar celt 
of red flint was found with skeletons in 
the Tombelle de Brioux, Poitou."'' I 
have a small celt of nearly similar form, 
but not so hollow on the faces, from Costa 
Rica. Such specimens are extremely 
rare, and I cannot at present point to 
any other examples. Indeed, it may be 
questioned how far the implements found 
in the Channel Islands come within the 
scope of the present work. The grooves 
in the faces of the celt found at Trinity, 
near Edinburgh, and engraved in the 
Proceed ivi/s of the Society of Antiquaries,^ 
can hardly have been intended for orna- 

A kind of celt, not uncommon in Den- 
mark, like Fig. 55, but with a small hole drilled through it at the butt- 
end, as if for suspension, like a sailor's knife, has not, I believe, been 
found in England. Bored celts, however, occur in Brittany I and other 
parts of France, as well as in Italy. § A few have also been found in 
Ireland. II A stone hatchet from Quito, in the Christy Collection, though 
of somewhat difterent form, is perforated in a similar manner. 

A vastly greater number of instances of the discovery of instru- 
ments of this class in Britain might have been cited ; but inasmuch 
as in most cases where mention is made of celts, no particulars are 
given of their form, and as they occur in all parts of the country, 
it seems needless to encumber my pages with references. As an 
instance of their abundance, I may mention that the late H Mr. 

Fig. yo.— Guenisey. 

* Iiidicatei<r Arch, de Civrai, 1865, p. 271. 

X Bonstottcn, Stipp. au Rec. d'Ant. Suifises, pi. ii. 1 

t 2nd S., vol. i. p. 281. 

§ Arch. Camb., 3rd S., vol. vi. p. 303. Watelet, " Age de Pierre dans le Dept. de 
I'Aisne," pi. v. 9. " Ep. Anted, et Celt, du Poitou," pi. x. 7. Rev. Arch., vol. xii. 
pi. XV., i.; op. cit., vol. xv. pi. viii. and x. Lindenschmit, " Hohenz. Samml.," Taf. 
xliii. No. 12. 

II Wilde, Vat. Miis. R. I. Ac, p. 44. H Vest. Ant. Derb., p. 6. 


Bateman records the discovery of upwards of thirty, at fourteen 
different localities within a small district of Derbyshire. Numerous 
discoveries in Yorkshire are recorded by Mr. C. Monkman.* 

The circumstances under which stone celts of various forms 
have been discovered must now be considered, with a view of 
throwing some light on their antiquity, and the length of time 
they have remained in use. And it must at the outset be confessed 
that we have but little to guide us on these points. We have 
already seen that they have been found with objects of bronze ; for 
in the barrow on Upton Level Down,t examined by Sir R. Colt 
Hoare, flint celts, both rough and polished, were discovered in 
company with a perforated stone axe and a bronze pin, though in 
this instance there were two interments. The Ravenhill tumulus, 
near Scarborough, + is more conclusive ; for in it was an urn 
containing burnt bones, a broken flint celt, flint arrow-heads, and 
a beautifid. bronze pin one and a half inches long. The evidence 
of other recorded cases is but weak. Near Tynewydd, in the 
parish of Llansilin, Denbighshire, § a greenstone celt and a bronze 
socketed celt were found together in moving an accumulation of 
stones, which did not, however, appear to have been a cairn. In 
another instance, || three stone celts, one roughly chipped, the 
others polished, are stated to have been found with a bronze 
socketed celt in the parish of Southend, Cantire. At Campbelton, 
in Kintyre, Argyleshire,^! were found two polished stone celts, 
and with them, on the same spot, two stone moulds for casting 
looped spear-heads of bronze. 

Though there may be doubts as to the true association of stone 
celts with instruments of bronze in some of these cases, the pre- 
sumptive evidence is strong of their having remained in use, as 
might indeed have been reasonably expected, after the introduction 
of bronze for cutting tools. By the time bronze knife-daggers 
had become common, perforated battle-axes had also come to form 
part of a warrior's ordinary equipment, and are often found with 
the daggers in graves, and there can be no doubt of the ordinary 
form of stone hatchet having preceded that mth a shaft-hole. 
There are, however, a nimiber of facts in connection with the 

* Journ. Ethn. Soc, vol. ii. p. 157. 
t " South Wilts," p. 75. Arch., vol. xv. p. 122. 
X Arch. Assoc. Journ., vol. vi. p. 3. 
§ Arch. Journ., vol. x. p. 161. 
II Froe. Soc. Ant. of Scot., vol. iv. p. 396. 
11 Proc. Soc. Ant. of Scot., vol. vi. p. 48. 


occurrence of the ordinary stone celt which must not be passed 
over, and which at first sight tend to raise a presumption of 
their having remained in use even during the period of the 
Roman occupation of this country. I will shortly recapitulate 
the principal facts to which I allude. 

In excavating a Roman building at Ickleton, Essex, the late 
Lord Braybrooke found a greenstone celt ;* and a celt of greenstone 
is said to have been found with Roman remains at Alchester, 
Oxfordshire.! A flint celt is also described as having been found 
with Roman remains at Eastbourne.+ 

Among the relics discovered by Mr. Samuel Lysons, F.R.S., in 
the Roman villa at Great Witcombe, Gloucestershire, is described 
a British hatchet of flint.§ Another flint celt, found close 
by a Roman villa at Titsey, is figured in the Journal of the 
Surrey Arehwological Socief//.\\ 

A stone celt, like Fig. 70, has been engraved by ArtisH as a 
polishing stone used in the manufactory of Roman earthen vessels, 
but no evidence is given as to the cause of its being thus regarded. 

At Leicester a fragment of a flint celt was found at a depth of 
twelve feet from the surface on an old " ground line," and accom- 
panied by bone objects which Mr. Franks assigns to a late Roman 
or even possibly to an early Saxon period.** 

In the Saxon burial-place at Ash, in Kent, were found a polished 
flint celt, a circular flint stone, and a Roman fibula. ft 

In 1868 a fibrolite hatchet was found within a building at Mont 
Beuvray, the ancient Bibracte,++ with three Gaulish coins of the 
time of Augustus. 

Others of flint were found in a Merovingian cemetery at La- 
bruyere, in the Cote d'Or.§§ 

The occurrence at Gonsenheim, near Mayence, of a series of thin 
polished celts with remains presumably Roman, has already been 
mentioned. In two, if not more, instances in Denmark, |||| frag- 
ments of iron have been found in tumuli, and apparently in asso- 
ciation with polished hatchets and other instruments of flint and 
stone. It seems doubtful, however, whether in both cases the iron 
was not subsequently introduced. 

* Arch. Journ., vol. vi. p. 17; xvii. 170. t Arch. Assoc. Jonrn., vol. xii. p. 177- 

X Snssex Arch. Coll., vol. ii. p. 258. § Arch., vol. xix. p. 183. 

II 1868, pi. iii. 6. 11 Durohriva, pi. xxix. 4. 

** Proc. 8oc. Ant., 2nd S., vol. i. p. 249. ft Douglas, *' Nsenia," p. 92. 

II Rev. Arch., vol. xx. p. 322. \^§ Rev. Arch., vol. iv. p. 484. 

Illl Ann.for Nordisk Oldkynd., 1838-9, p. 176! 


The association of these stone implements with Koman, and 
even post-Roman, remains in so many different places, would at 
first sight appear to argue their contemporaneity ; but in the case 
of the celts being found on the sites of Roman villas, two things 
are to be remarked : first, that sites once occupied may, and 
constantly do, continue in occupation for an indefinite length of 
time, so that the imperishable relics of one age, such as those in 
stone, may become mixed with those of a long subsequent date ; 
and second, that had these stone implements been in common use 
in Roman times, their presence among Roman remains would have 
been the I'ule and not the exception, and we should have found 
them mentioned by Latin authors. Moreover, if their use had 
survived in this manner into Roman times, we should expect to 
find them still more abundantly associated with tools of the bronze 
age. AVe have, however, seen how rarely this class of stone instru- 
ments is found with bronze. 

As to the stone celt discovered at Ash, Mr. Douglas remarks, it 
may not " be improbable that this stone instrument was deposited 
with the dead as an amulet, and which the owner had found and 
preserved with a super stitio vis reverence." In a tumulus in 
Flanders* six celts were found placed upright in a circle round 
the interment, but from the difference in the condition of their 
surface they appeared to be of different ages, so that it has 
been suggested that they also were gathered from the surface of 
the soil and placed in the tomb as amulets. We shall subse- 
quently see that flint arrow-heads were frequently thus preserved. 

In many cases in Grermany,t stone axes, for the most part per- 
forated, are said to have been found in association with objects of 
iron ; but the proofs of the contemporaneity of the two classes of 
objects are not satisfactory. The religious veneration attaching 
to the Thor's hammers may, however, have had to do with their 
interment in graves, at a time when they had ceased to be in 
ordinary use. 

Another argument in favour of these instruments having re- 
mained in use in Britain until a comparatively late period has been 
derived from the circumstance of the words stan-cex and stan-bill 
occurring in ^Ifric's Saxon Glossary. These words are translated 
by Lye + as a stone axe, a stone bill — terms which have naturally 

* Comj. Intcru. d'Anth. et d'Arc/i. Fre'L, 1867, p. 119. 

t Kirchner has collected a number of cases. " Thor's Donnerkcil,'' p. 27. 

X " Dictionarium Saxonico et Gothico Latinum," s.r. 

K 2 


been regarded as referring to axes and bills made of stone, whicb, 
therefore, it might be reasonably inferred were in use at the time 
when the Glossary Avas written, or about a.d. 1000. On examina- 
tion, however, it appears that no such inference is warranted. 
The Glossary is Latin, Avith the Saxon equivalents annexed to each 
word, and the two words referred to are Bipennis, rendered tivibille 
and dcui-cex ; and Mann, rendered stan-hiU. ~Now Bipejinis is, an. 
axe cutting at either end, and the Avord is accurately rendered by 
"twibill"* — the axe having "bill" or steel at its two edges. 
But a double- cutting axe in stone is a form of A^ery rare occurrence, 
and this alone raises a presumption of the sfaii in shui-cex referring 
to stone in some other manner than as the material of Avhich the 
axe was made. The second word, Marra, seems to clear up the 
question, for this Avas a mattock or pick-axe, or some such tool, 
and this is rendered dan-hill — the steel for use on or among 
stones. The stone axe may be one for cutting stones, like the 
mill-bill of the present day, Avhich is used for dressing mill- stones, 
and this being usually sharp at each end, might not inaptly be 
regarded as the equivalent of the ancient hipennm. An axe is still 
a bricklayer's tool, and is also occasionally used by stone-cutters. 
It seems, then, that the dan in these two Saxon Avords refers, 
not to the material of Avhich the axes or bills were made, but to 
the stones on or among which they were used. In Halliwell's 
"Dictionary of Archaisms and Provincialisms, "f the interpretation 
of Stone-axe is given as "A stone- worker's axe," but it is not stated 
where the term occurs. 

In the same manner, the passage in William of Poitiers, J — 
" Jactant cuspides ac diversorum generum tela, sasvissimas quasque 
secures ac lignis imposita saxa," — which has been cited as proving 
that some of the Anglo-Saxons fought Avith weaj^ons of stone at 
the battle of Hastings, seems only to refer to stone missiles pro- 
bably discharged from some engines of Avar, and serving the same 
purpose as the stone cannon-balls of more recent times. Professor 
Nilsson§ has pointed out \ki'dX jadare often signifies " to brandish," 
and argues that the large stone axes were too heavy either for 
brandishing or throwing as weapons. It seems to me, hoAvever, that 

* "Twybyl, a wryhtys instrument," is in the " Promptorium Parvulorum" trans- 
liited himcuta or biceps, and " Twybyl or mattoke," Marra, or ligo. 
t 185.5, vol. ii. p. 811. 

X Wright's " The Celt, the Roman, and the iSaxon," p. 72. 
§ " fcjtone Age," p. T6. 


jaotare in this passage is used in the sense of throwing-, the same 
as in Virg-il,* — 

" Deucalion vacuum lapides jactavit in orbcm, 
Unde homines nati, durum genus." 

If it be uncertain to how late a period these Neolithic imple- 
ments remained in use in this country, it is still more uncertain 
to how early a period their introduction may be referred. If we 
take the possible limits in either direction, the date at which they 
fell into disuse becomes approximately fixed as compared with that 
at which they may first have come into use in Britain. For we 
may safely say that the use of bronze must have been known in 
this country 500 or 600 years B.C., and therefore that at that time 
cutting tools of stone began to be superseded; while by a.d. 1100 
it will be agreed on all hands that they were no longer in use. 
We can, therefore, fix the date of their desuetude within, at the 
outside, two thousand years ; but who can tell within any such 
limits the time when a people acquainted with the use of polished 
stone implements first settled in this island, or when the process 
of grinding them may have been first developed among native 
tribes ? The long period which intervened between the deposit of 
the River Gravels (containing, so far as at present known, imple- 
ments chipped only, and not polished), and the first appearance of 
polished hatchets, is not in this country so w^ell illustrated as in 
France, but even there all that can be said as to the introduction 
of polished stone hatchets is that it took place subsequently to the 
accmnulation, in the caves of the South of France, of the deposits 
belonging to an age when reindeer constituted one of the princijDal 
articles of food of the cave-dwellers. As to the date at which 
those cave deposits were formed, history and tradition are silent, 
and at present even Geolog}^ affords but little aid in determining 
the question. 

But though we cannot fix the range in time of these implements, 
it will be well to notice some of the circumstances under which 
they have been found, if only as illustrative of the habits and 
customs of some of the people who used them. Of course the most 
instructive cases are those in which they have occurred with inter- 
ments, and some of these I have already incidentally mentioned ; as, 
for instance, the discovery in a barrow on Upton Lovel Down of 
a roughly chipped celt, with others polished at the edge, and other 

* Georg., lib. i. C2. 


objects ; and tliat of two very rouglily chipped flint celts found 
by Dr. Mantell, in a barrow at Alfriston, Sussex. 

A celt of greenstone, ground at the edge only, was found in a 
barrow with a burnt body on Seamer Moor, Yorkshire, by the 
Rev. F. Porter ; and in another barrow on the same moor, the 
Rev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A., found a celt of clay-slate, like 
Fig. 50, burnt red, in association with a deposit of burnt bones. 
In a third on the same moor, opened by the late Lord Londes- 
borough, there were numerous interments, but one of these 
consisted of a small portion of human bones,* four flint celts, five 
beautifully formed arrow-heads of flint, two rude spear-heads 
of flint, two well-formed knives and spear-heads of flint, two 
very large tusks of the wild boar, and a piece of deer-horn, per- 
forated at the end and drilled through, which was thought to 
have been the handle for one of the celts. 

In these three instances the polished celts accomj)any inter- 
ments by cremation, and probably belong to a late period of the 
Stone Age in Britain. They have, however, been frequently found 
with the remains of unburnt bodies. In one of the banks of an 
ancient settlement near Knook Castle, Upton Level, Sir R. Colt 
Hoare f discovered a skeleton with its head towards the north, and 
at its feet a fine black celt. In a barrow about seven miles east of 
Pickering, + besides other interments, is said to have been a 
skeleton with the head towards the south, and a " beautiful 
stone adze or celt, 85 inches long, wrought in green basalt, and 
a very elaborately chipped spear of flint, near four inches long, 
near its right hand." 

In another barrow in the same district § the skeleton was 
accompanied by "a very small celt or chisel of grey flint, smoothly 
rubbed, and a plain spear-head of the same material." 

In another barrow on Elton Moor, Derbyshire, || there was in 
the rear of the skeleton a neatly ornamented " drinking cup," con- 
taining three pebbles of quartz, a flat piece of j)olished iron ore, a 
small celt of flint, with a rounded instead of a cutting edge, a 
beautifully chipped cutting tool, twenty-one circular ended instru- 
ments, and seventeen rude pieces of flint. 

In Liff''8 Low, near Biggin,1I Mr. Bateman found a skeleton in 
the contracted position, and with it two flint celts beautifully 

* A woodcut of these is given in the Arch. Assoc. JoDrn., vol. iv. p. 105. 

t " South Wilts," p. 85. 

+ "Ten Years' Diggings," p. 221. f Thid., p. 222. 

II " Vestiges of the Ant. of Derbyshire," p. 53. II Ihid., p. 42. 


chipped, and polislied at tlie cutting edges ; two flint arrow-heads 
delicately chipped, two flint knives jDolished on the edge, and one 
of them serrated on the back to serve as a saw ; numerous other 
objects of flint, some red ochre, a small earthenware cup, and a 
hammer-head of stag's horn. 

In Cross Low, near Parwich,* a fragment of a celt and a small 
piece of chipped flint were found with a human skeleton in a cist, 
and a kind of flint axe, or tomahawk, is rejjorted to have been 
similarly found in a barrow near Pickering, f 

In the Grospel Hillock barrow, near Buxton, Captain Lukis, 
F.S.A., found, near the shoulder of a contracted skeleton, a 
polished flint celt, of which an engraving is given in the 
Reliquary. t 

It will be observed that in these cases stone celts accompan}^ the 
earliest form of interment with which we are acquainted, that in 
which the body is deposited in the contracted position. The 
reason why bodies were interred in that posture appears to be 
that it was in all probabiKty the usual attitude of sleep, at a 
period when the small cloak for the day must generally have 
served as the only covering at night. 

In Scotland, stone celts appear to be of frequent occurrence in 
cairns. I have one, already mentioned, § which is said to have been 
found with four others in a cairn on Druim-a-shi, near CuUoden. 

Three others, of which two have been already described, || were 
discovered in a cairn in Daviot parish, Inverness, together with a 
cylindrical implement, possibly a pestle, and are now in the 
Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh. Not imj)robably my speci- 
men came from the same cairn. 

Another K was found in the Cat's Cairn, Cromartyshire. 
Another,** pointed at the butt, is said to have been found in a 
" Druidical circle," Aberdeenshire. Another,tt of black flint, from 
the parish of Cruden, Aberdeenshire, would seem to have accom- 
panied an interment, as with it were found a necklace of large 
oblong beads of jet, and rudely shaped pieces of amber. 

None, however, of these instances afibrd any absolute testimony 
as to their exact or even approximate age, unless, indeed, the jet 

* "Vestiges of the Ant. of Derbyshire," p. 49. 

t "Ten Years' Diggings," p. 216. % Vol. viii. p. 86. ^^ P. 101. 

II P. 121. See Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. vi. p. 179. 

H " Cat. Arch. Inst. Mus. at Edinburgh," p. 8. 

** Arch. Journ.. vol. viii. p. 422. 

ft " Cat. A. I. Mus. at Edin.," p. 10. 


and amber, if tliey really accompanied tlie flint celt, point in tliat 
case to a date at all events not far removed from tliat of the bronze 
objects witb which, such necklaces have frequently been found. 

In the other cases of interments in barrows, however ancient 
they may be, it seems probable that they are of late Neolithic 
date, and not those of the earliest occupants of this country by 
whom polished stone celts, or those of the same character rough 
hewn only, were in use. The labour bestowed in the formation 
of the graves and the erection of the barrows must have been 
immense, and could hardly have been undertaken until a stage 
of civilization had been reached higher than that of some of the 
ruder savage races of the present day. 

There are a few instances of the finding of these instruments, 
not in association with interments, where the circumstances under 
which they have been discovered testify to a great, though still 
indeterminate antiquity. One, for instance, of greenstone, in the 
Museum of the Society of Antiquaries, is stated to have been 
" found deep in the clay whilst digging the Chelsea Waterworks 
at Kingston."* Others in a sand-bed near Yorkf were six or 
seven feet below the surface, and nearly a quarter of a mile from 
the river which is thought to have deposited the sand. 

In Wilson's "Prehistoric Annals of Scotland "+ is recorded the 
finding of a greenstone celt in a primitive canoe, formed of a 
hollowed trunk of oak, at a depth of twenty-five feet from the 
surface, at Glasgow; and in the Norwich Museum is one of 
brown flint, ground all over, 4^ inches long, similar to Fig. 54, 
but with facets towards the edge, as if from repeated grinding, 
which is stated to have been found fixed in a tree, in the sub- 
marine forest at Hunstanton, by the Rev. George Mumford, of 
East Winch, in the year 1829. 

On the whole evidence it would appear, from the number of this 
class of implements which have been discovered, from the various 
characters of the interments with which they are associated, and 
from the circumstances under which they have been found, that 
these stone celts must have been in use in this country during a 
long period of years ; though we still revert to our first confession, 
that at liow early a date this period commenced, or to how late a 
date it may have extended, it is impossible to detennino. If, how- 

* rroc. Son. Aril., 2nd S., vol. i. p. S2. 

t Jonrn. EthnnJ. Soc, vol. ii. p. 1.59. 

I Vol. i. p. 53. See p. 118, supra. Pror. Sor. Ai/f. Srof., vol. i. p. 44. 


ever, the occupation of this part of the glohe by man was con- 
tinuous from the jDeriod of the deposit of the old River Gravels unto 
the present day, it seems probable that some of these implements 
may claim an almost fabulous antiquity, while in certain 
remote districts of Britain into which civilization has made but a 
tardy approach, it is possible that their use may have lingered on 
to a time when in other parts of the country, owing- to the supe- 
riority and abundance of metallic tools, these stone hatchets had 
long fallen into disuse. 

Instances of this comparatively late use of stone celts appear to 
be afforded by some of the discoveries made in the Orkney and 
Shetland Isles ; and it is doubtful whether in Ireland the use of 
stone implements did not survive, in some parts of the country, to a 
far more recent date than would at first sight appear probable. 
I have, however, remarked on this subject elsewhere.* 

The methods in which these instruments were used and mounted 
must to some extent have varied in accordance with the jjurposes 
to which they were applied. In describing the forms, I have 
pointed out that in some cases they were used as axes or hatchets, 
and in other cases as adzes, and that there are some which not 
improbably were used in the hand without any handle at all, or 
else were mounted in short handles, and used after the manner of 
chisels or knives. 

The instances of their being found in this country still attached 
to their handles are extremely rare. Besides that shortly to 
be cited, I am aware of but two recorded cases, that of the 
hatchet found in the Solway Moss, near Longtown, now in the 
British Museum ; and that of the celt found near Tranmere,t 
Cheshire, now in the Mayer Museum at Liverpool. In the 
latter case " the greater part of the wood had perished, but 
enough remained to show that the handle had passed in a 
slightly diagonal direction towards the upper end of the stone." 
In the Christy Collection is a large felstone celt, 12^ inches long 
and 31 inches broad, of the same section as Fig. 43, slightly 
flattened at the sides, on the face of which the mark of the handle 
is still visible, crossing it obliquely near the middle. This speci- 
men was found at Pentney, Norfolk. Similar marks may not 
improbably be observed on other specimens, like that from 
Glenshee already mentioned. 

* Arch., vol. xli. p. 405. 

t " Horae Fer.," p. 134. Trans. ITisf. S'oc. Lane anil Chesh., vol. xiv. pi. ii. 3. 


The Sohvay Moss hatcliet was found by a labourer digging peat, 
at tlie depth of rather more than six feet, and the handle appears 
to have been broken, even at the time when the sketch was made 
from which the woodcut given in the Proceedings of the Society of 
A)itiqi!arie.'i*v>^a,s engraved, which is, by permission, here reproduced. 
In drying, the haft has, imfortunately, quite lost its form, and is 
still further broken. The process of preserving wood when in 
the tender condition in which it is found after long burial in peat 
was probably not known at the time. It has been adopted with 
great success by Mr. Engelhardt in preserving the wooden anti- 
quities from the Danish peat bogs, and consists in keeping the 
objects moist until they have been well steeped, or even boiled, in 

Fig. 91.— Solway Moss. 

a strong solution of almn, after which they are allowed to dry 
gradually, and are found to retain their form in a remarkable 

It is probably owing to the broken and distorted condition of 
the wood that the sketch was inaccurate as to the position of the 
blade with regard to the handle, for the mark of the wood where 
it was in contact with the stone is still visible, and proves that the 
central line of the blade was inclined outwards at an angle of 
about 110° to the haft, instead of being nearly vertical, as shown. 
The edge of the hatchet is oblique to nearly the same extent as the 
inclination of the blade to the haft. It would seem from this that 
the obliquity of the edge was in some cases connected with the 
method of hafting, and not always, as suggested by Nilsson,t the 
result of the blade being most worn away in the part farthest 
from the hand holding the shaft. The preservation of the 
wooden handle has been more successfully efiected in the case of 
the celt shown in Fig. 92, which is engraved from a photograph 
kindly supplied me by Mr. Pt. D. Darbishire, F.G.S. The circum- 
* Vol. iv. p. 112. t " Stone Age," Eng. ed., p. 65. 



stances of the discovery are not yet publislied, but I am at liberty 
to state that it was found in peat which had once formed the bed 
of a tarn or small lake in Cumberland, which has now been 
drained. With it were found another haft of the same character, 
and several stone celts, one of them nearly 15 inches in length, 
with the sides but slightly curved, and almost equally broad at 
each end. Some wooden paddles and clubs, pottery and other 
objects, were also found. The farmer who cultivates the former 
bed of the lake had previously discovered some stone antiquities, 
which were brought under the notice of Mr. A. W. Franks, 
F.S.A., who induced Mr. Darbishire to make the search which 
has been so amply rewarded. It will be observed that the end of 

FiS. 92.— Cumberland. 

the handle has originally been recurved, possibly with the view of 
steadpng the bvitt-end of the celt. Curiously enough, in the 
outline of a celt in its handle, carved on the under side of the 
roof- stone of a dolmen, known as La Table des Marchands, near 
Locmariaker, Brittany,* the end of the handle seems also to be 
curved back beyond the socket for the blade, which, however, it 
does not touch. At the other end of the handle there is a loop 
like a sword guard, for the insertion of the hand. 

There is some little difficulty in determining the exact form of 
this incised carving, as the lines are shallow, and the light does not 
fall upon them. I speak from a sketch I made on the spot in 1863. 

In the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy f is a drawing of a 
celt in its handle (which is apparently of pine) found in the county 

* Rev. Arch., vol. x^^ii. p. 268. f Wilde's " Cat. Mus. R. T. A," p. 46. 




of Monag-lian. Tliis lianclle was 131 inches long, and more clumsj^ 
at the socketed end than that from Solway Moss. The woodcut 
given by Sir W. Wilde is here, by permission, reproduced as Fig. 93. 

Fig. 93. — Monaglian. 

Another nearly simihir specimen was discovered near Cooks- 
town, in the county of Tyrone, and is engraved in the Archcpologlcal 
Journal* Another is in the collection of Colonel A. Lane Fox, 
F.S.A. Some of the hatchets from the Swiss Lake-dwellings were 
hafted in a similar manner. In one such haft, formed of ash, 
from E,obenhausen,t the blade is inclined towards the hand ; in 
another, also of ash, the blade is at right angles to the shaft. J 
Some of these club-like hafts resemble in character those in use 
for iron blades in Southern and Central Africa. § The copper or 
bronze axes of the Mexicans || were hafted in the same manner. 

I have engraved, in Fig. 94, an extremely rude example of this 
kind of hafting from an original kindly lent me by Mr. Thomas 

-Axe from (lie Rio Frio. 

Belt, F.G.S., who procured it among the Indians of the Rio 
Frio, a tributary of the Hio Nueces, in Texas. The blade is 
of trachyte, entirely unground and most rudely chipped. The 
club-like haft is formed of some endogenous wood, and has 
evidently been chopped into shape by means of stone tools. 

In these instances Clavigero's remark with regard to the copperll 
or bronze axes of the Mexicans holds good ; they are like " those 
of modern times, except that we put the handle in an eye of the 
axe, while they put the axe in an eye of the handle." 

* Vol. iv. p. n. t Keller's "Lake Dwellings," Eng. ed., pi. x. 14. 

I Ihid., pi. .\i. 1. ^S Wood, "Nat. Hist, of Man," vol. i. pp. 3'21, 404. 

II Scpiicr, " Alior. Men. oi' Now York," p. 1<S(). 

U (Quoted in " Anr. I\Imi. of Miss, \-tllcy," }). 198. 



Some of the stone and metallic axes in use among other modern 
savages are hafted in much the same manner. In some instances 
it would appear as if the hole for receiving- the stone did not 
extend through the haft, but was merely a sort of socket — even a 

Fig. 95. — War-axe — Gaveoe Indians, Brazil 

notch. Such seems to be the case with a war-axe of the Gaveoe 
Indians of Brazil in the British Museum, figured in the Pro- 
ceedings of the Society of Antiquaries* and here, by permission, 
reproduced as Fig. 95. 

* 2nd S., vol. i. p. 102. 



[chap. VI. 

The " securis lapidea in sacrificiis Indorum usitata," engraved 
by Aldrovandus,* seems to have the blade inserted in a socket 
without being tied, but in most axes of the same kind the blade is 
secured in its place by a plaited binding artistically interlaced. 
The stone axe said to be that of Montezuma II., preserved in 
the Ambras Museum at Vienna, is a good example of the kind.t 
I have eno^raved it as Fig. 96, from a sketch I made in 1866. 

Fig. 96. — Axe of Montezuma IT. 

In some cases the whole handle is covered with the binding. Two 
such in the Dresden Historical Museum are engraved by Klemm.+ 

Fig. 97. — Axe — Noolka Sound. 

Some of the war-axes (called taawisch or tsud-iah) in use among 
the natives of Nootka Sound § are mounted in this manner, but the 

* "Mnsoeum Metallicum," p. 158. 

t It has also been figured by Klemm, " Ciilt.-Wiss.," vol. i. fig. 136. 
X " Cult.-Gesch.," vol. ii. Taf. vi. a.b. 

\ Klemm's " AUgemeine Cultur-Wiss.," vol. i. p. 71, whence I have copied the 
figure. Sec also "Cult.-Gesch.," vol. ii. p. 3.52. 



socket end of the shaft is carved into the form of a grotesque 
human head, in the mouth of which the stone blade is secured 
with cement. In another instance the handle is carved into the 
form of a bird,* and inlaid with mother-of-pearl, or, more properly 
speaking, shell of haliotis. The blade of basalt projects from the 
breast of the bird, the tail of which forms the handle. In some, 
the blade goes right through the handle, so as to project equally on 
both sides of it, and is sharpened at both ends. 
The socket in all these handles is usually 
at some little distance from their end, but 
even with this precaution the wedge-like 
form of the celt must have rendered them 
very liable to sj)lit. It was probably with 
a view of avoiding this that the intermediate 
socket of stag's horn, so common in the 
Lake-dwellings of Switzerland, was adopted. 
The stone was firmly bedded in the horn, 
the end of which was usually worked into 
a square form, but slightly tapering, and with 
a shoulder all round to prevent its being 
driven into the wood. The annexed woodcut f 
(Fig. 98) shows one of these sockets with the 
hatchet inserted. It was found at Concise, in the Lake of 

Fig. 98.— Axe in Stag's-horn 
Socket — Concise. 

Fig. 99.— Axe— Robenhausen. i 

Neuchatel. One of these instruments in its complete form is 
shown in Fig. 99, which I have copied from Keller. J It was found 

* Skelton's " Meyrick's Armour," pi. cl. 1. 

t f^ee also P/w ^V 4«^ 2nd S. vol. i. p. 56, and "Horfe Feralns," p. 129. 
Lmdemchmit,;' Alt. u. h. V.," vol. i. Heft xii. Taf. 1. Keller, " Pfahl-bauten," ler 
iiencht, lai. u. ' 

J "Lake Dwellings," pi. x. 7; oter Bericht, pi. x. 17. Another from St 
Aubm IS engraved by Chantre, " Etudes Paleoothn.," pi. xi. 

144 POLISHED CEI/rS. [chap. VI. 

at Robenliausen, and the club-like handle is of ash. Several other 
specimens are engraved by the same author and Professor Desor.* 

In some instances the stone was inserted lengthways! into the 
end of a tine of stag's horn at the part where it had been severed 
from the antler, so as to form a sort of chisel. + In other cases the 
socket was worked through the tine, and the stone blade fixed in 
it after the manner of an axe, though the handle was too short to 
be used for chopping with. Some wooden handles § are also but 
a few inches long, so that the celts mounted in them must have 
been used for cutting by drawing them along the object to be cut. 
Sockets of this kind have occurred, though rarely, in France. 
M. Perrault found some in his researches in the Camp de Chassey, 
Saone et Loire. || Some seem to have been found at Vauvray,^f in 
making the railway from Paris to Houen. Some others were dis- 
covered in company with arrow-heads, celts, and trimmed flakes of 
flint, in the Dolmen,** or Allee couverte, of Argenteuil, Seine et 
Oise. These are now in the Musee de St. Germain. Others were 
found in a cavern on Mont Sargel, Aveyron.ff They occasionally 
occur in Germany. One from Dienheim is in the Central Muscvun 
at Mayence. 

Discoveries of these stag's-horn sockets for stone tools in Eng- 
land seem to be extremely rare. Mr. Albert Way describes 
one, of which a woodcut is given in the Arcliceological JournaL+t 
It is formed of the horn of the red deer (which is erroneously 
described as being extinct), and is said to have been found with 
human remains and pottery of an early character at Cockshott 
Hill, in AVychwood Forest, Oxfordshire. It seems better adapted 
for mounting a small celt as a chisel, like that of bronze found in a 
barrow at Everley,§§ than to form part of a hatchet. Mr. Wayllll 
cites several cases of the discovery of these stag's-horn sockets in 
Franco and elsewhere on the continent of Europe. I may add, by 

* "Palafittes," fig. 17. See also Troyon, " Ilabit. Lacust.," but some of his 
engravings, like those of Meillet in the " Epoques Antedil. et Celtique du Poitou," 
appear to have been made from modern fabrications. 

t Keller, " Lake Dwellings," pi. xxii. 7. 

X Wilde's " Cat. Mus. R. I. A.," p. 251 ; Lindenschmit, " Sigmaringcn," pi. xxix. 
7 ; Keller, " Lake Dwellings," pi. ii. 

§ Ibid., pi. xxii. 12. 

II " Note stir wn Foyer," &c., Chiilon, 1870, pi. iv. 

f Cochet, " Seine Inf.," 2nd ed. p. 16. 

** Rev. Arch., vol. xv. p. 364, pi. viii. ; IMortillet, " Promenades," p. 128. 

ft " IMat^iiaux," vol. v. p. 96. 

XX Vol. xxi. p. 54. See also vol. xiv. p. 82. 

§^^ Hoaro's "South "Wilts," pi. xxi. 

nil Arch. Joiun., vol. xxi. p. 54. 


way of caution, that numerous forgeries of tliem have been pro- 
duced at Amiens. In some of the genuine specimens from tlie 
peat of the valley of the Somme* the stone was fixed in a socket 
bored in one end of the piece of stag's horn, and the shaft was 
inserted in another hole bored through the horn. M. Boucher de 
Perthes describes the handle of one as made of a branch of oak, 
burnt at each end. 

The socket discovered by the late Lord Londesborough, in a 
barrow near Scarborough, appears to have been of this kind.f 
He describes it as a piece of deer-horn, perforated at the end, and 
drilled through, and imagined it to have been the handle for one 
of the celts found with it, much in the manner of that in the 
museum of M. de Courvale, at his Castle of Pinon, in France, of 
which he sent a drawing to the Archaeological Association. A 
stag's-horn socket, with a transverse hole for the haft, and a 

Fig. 100.— Axe — Eobenhausen. 

circular socket bored in the end, from which the main body of the 
horn was cut off, was found in the Thames, near Kew, and is in 
the possession of T. Lay ton, Esq., F.S.A, In the circular socket 
was a portion of a tine of stag's horn, so that it seems rather to 
have been intended for mounting such tines for use as picks than 
for hafting celts. 

A celt, mounted in a socket of stag's horn, bored through to 
receive the wooden shaft, found in the Lake-dwellings at Concise, 
and in the collection of Dr. Clement, has been engraved b}^ Desor ; + 
and another, found near Aerschot,§ in Belgium, by Le Hon. 

Another method of hafting, adopted by the Swiss Lake-dwellers 
for their stone hatchets, is described by Dr. Keller, || from whose 
work I have copied the above woodcut. Pig. 100. 

* B. de Perthes' " Antiqaites Celtiques," &c., vol. i. p. 282, pi. i., ii. 
t Arch. Assoc. Joiirn., vol. iv. p. 105. Supra, p. 134. 
X "Palafittes," fig. 18. 
§ " L'Homme Fossile," 2nd ed., p. 149. 

II " Lake Dwellings," Eng. ed., p. 110. See also pi. x. 16, xi. 2, and xxviii. 24 ; 
and Lindenschmit, " Hohenz. Samml.," pi. xxix. 4. 



Tlie haft was usually formed of a stem of hazel, " with a root 
running from it at right angles. A cleft was then made in this 
shorter part, forming a kind of beak in which the celt was fixed 
with cord and asphalte." A woodcut of a handle of the same 
character, found near Schraplau, in company with its stone blade, 
is given by Klemm,* and is here reproduced as Fig. 101. A 
handle of much the same character, found 
with a skeleton and a wooden shield in a 
grave near Langen Eichstatt, in Saxony, f 
has been engraved by Lindenschmit. The 
handles of bronze palstaves, found in the 
salt mines near Salzburg, Austria, are of the 
same character. One of them, formerly in 
the Klemm Collection, is now in the British 

F,g. 10L-Sch.aplau. MuSCUm. 

The same system of hafting has been in use among savages 
in recent times, as will be seen from the annexed figure of a 
stone adze from New Caledonia, + Fig. 102, kindly lent me by the 
executors of the late Mr. Henry Christy. Another is engraved 
in the Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. % 
Some other varieties of New Caledonian and Fiji handles have 
been engraved by M. Chantre.ll In some countries, probably 
in consequence of the difficulty of procuring forked boughs of 
trees of the proper kind, the wood which forms the socket for 
the blade is bound on at the desired angle to the end of the 
wooden handle. An adze of stone from the Caroline Islands, 
thus mounted, is engraved in the Comptes Rendus ;^ and a 
handle of this kind from North America, but with a small iron 
blade, is figured by Klemm.** 

In other cases the branch of wood forming the socket is 
inserted in a hole in that forming the handle, which is securely 
bound round on either side of the hole to prevent its splitting. 
The stone blade is inserted in the split end of the shorter 
piece of wood, the other end of which is tapered so as to fit 
tightly in the hole in that forming the handle. I have seen 

* " Cidtur.-Wiss.," fig. 127, p. 70. 

t "Alt. u. h. v.," vol. ii. Heft viii. Taf. i. 7; "Archiv fiir Anthropol.," vol. iii. 
p. 105. 

+ "Reliq. vVciuit.," fig. 12. ^ Vol. iv. p. 297. 

II "Etudes Paleooth.," pi. xii. See also Worsaac, " Primev. Ants, of Denmark," 
p. 12; " Danemark'a Vorz.," p. 10; emdi. I)a)tmnrk' t< Tidliqste Bebyggelse" 1861, p. 17. 

t 1868, vol. Ixvii. p. 1285. ** " Cultur-Wiss.," p. 70. 



this form of mountiug in axes and adzes from New Guinea and 

We are left in a great degree to conjecture as to the other 
methods of mounting stone hatchets and adzes on handles in 
prehistoric times ; but doubtless others besides those already 

Fig. 102.— Adze— New Caledonia. 

mentioned were practised. A very common method among exist- 
ing savages is to bind the blade of stone on to the face of a 
branch at the end of the handle, which in some cases projects 
upwards, and in others downwards, and is inclined at an angle 
more or less perpendicular to the handle. 

Figs. 103 and 104 are kindly lent me by the Society of Anti- 

L 2 



[chap. VI. 

quaries of Scotland.* The sliort-hancTled adze, Fig. 103, is one used 
by the Schlalnm or Clalam Indians of the Pacific Coast, to the 
south of the Straits of De Fuca and on Puget's Sound, to hollow 
out their canoes. The group, Fig. 104, exhibits various methods 

of attachment of stone adzes 
to their handles employed 
by the South Sea Islanders. 
The Australians occasion- 
ally mounted their toma- 
hawks in much the same 
manner as that shown in 
the central figure. An ex- 
ample has been engraved by 
the Rev. J. G. Wood.f The 
right-hand figure probably 
represents an adze from the 
Sandwich Islands. 

The jade adzes of the New 
Zealanders are hafted in a 
somewhat similar manner ; 
but the hafts are often beau- 
tifully carved and inlaid. A 
fine example is in the Black- 
more Museum, and a handle 
in the Christy Collection. 
One of them is engraved by 
the Eev. J. G. Wood.^: The 
axe to the left, in Fig. 
104, may be from Polynesia 
also, but is of some com- 
Fig.io3.-Adze- Clalam Indians. monstonc. The axcs from 

Mangaia, so common in collections, exhibit great skill in the 
mounting and in the carving of the handles. Some have been 
engraved by the Rev. J. G. Wood. § 

In some instances the ligaments for attaching the stone blade 
against the handle pass through a hole towards the end of the 
blade. A North American adze in the Ethnological Museum at 
Copenhagen is thus mounted, the cord being apparently of gut. 

* Froc, vol. ii. pp. 423, 424; "Wilson's "Preh. Man," vol. i. p. 156. 

t "Nat. Hi8t. of Man," vol. ii. p. 32. 

X Op. cit., vol. ii. p. 20L § Op. cit., vol. ii. pp. 369, 373. 



A similar metliod of mounting' their adzes, by binding them 
against the haft, was in use among the Egyptians.* Although 
it is extremely probable that some of the ancient stone adzes of 
other countries may have been mounted in this manner, there 
have not, so far as I am aware, been any of the handles of this 
class found. I have, however, two Swiss celts of Lydian stone, and 
of rectangular section, found at Nussdorf and Sipplingen, in the 
Ueberlinger See, and on the flatter of the two faces of each there 

Fig. 104. — South Sea Island Axes. 

is a slight hollow, worn away apparently by friction, which was, I 
think, due to their having been attached against a handle in this 
manner. The blade in which the depression is most evident has 
lost its edge, seemingly from its having been broken in use. I 
have not up to the present time found any similarly worn sur- 
faces upon British celts. 

Another method of hafting in use among various savage tribes 
is that of winding a flexible branch of wood round the stone, and 
* Hev. Arch., vol. xviii. p. 266. 



[chap. \l. 

securing the two ends of the branch by binding them together in 
such a manner as tightly to embrace the blade. A stone axe from 
Northern Australia thus hafted is now, through Mr. Akerman's 
kindness, in my own collection, and is figured in the Archwologia* 
whence I have borrowed the annexed cut. This method of haft- 
ing has been mentioned by White, f who describes the binding as 
being effected by strips of bark, and in his figure shows the two 
ends of the stick more firmly bound together. 

Another example has been engraved by the Rev. J. G. Wood.+ 
This mode is very similar to that in common use among black- 
smiths for their chisels and swages, which are held by means of 
withies twisted round them, and secured in their places by rings. 

Fig. 105. — Axe — Northern Australia. 

It seems extremely probable that so simple a method may have 
been in use in early times in this country, though we have no 
direct evidence as to the fact. A " fancy sketch " of a celt in a 
withy handle will be found in the A)xhceoIogia.% It resembles in 
a singular manner the actual implements employed by the Ojibwa}" 
Indians, II of which there is a specimen in the Christy Collection, 
engraved by the Rev. J. G. "VVood.H Some of the other North 
American tribes** mounted their hatchets in much the same 
manner. A hatchet thus hafted is engraved by Schoolcraft. ft 

In some instances a groove of greater or less dej^th has been 
worked round the axes mounted in this manner, though I am not 
aware of any undoubtedly British examples. The blade engraved 
in the Arcluvological Joun)aI,XX and found near Coldstream, 

* Vol. xxxiv. p. 172. 

t "Jonrn. of Voy. to N. S. Wales," p. 293 ; Kleinm, " Cult.-Gesch.," vol. i. p. 308. 

:J; " Nat. Hist, of Man," vol. ii. p. 32. Coiif. Worsaae, " Danemark's Vorz.," p. 10. 

\ Vol. xxxi. p. 452. II See Jones's "Hist, of Ojibway Indians." 

t " Nat. Hist, of Man," vol. ii. p. 6.52. Vonf. Catlin, " N. A. lud.," vol. i. pi. xcix../'. 

** Col. A. Lane Fox, " Prim. Warf.," part ii. p. 17- 

ft "Ind. Tribos," vol. i. pi. xv. 1, p. 285. XX Vol. xxiv. p. 80. 


Northumberland, is probably of Carib origin, like others which 
have also been supposed to have been British. Another from the 
Liverjjool Docks is mentioned by Mr. H. Ecroyd Smith.* In the 
British Museum are two such axes, and some other stone imple- 
ments, found near Alexandria, but which probably are Carib, as 
would also seem to be those in the Museum of Douai,t on which 
are sculptured representations of the human face. 

Stone axe-heads Avith a groove round their middle, for receiving 
a handle, have been found in Denmark, + but are of rare occurrence. 
The large stone mauls found so commonly in the neighbourhood 
of ancient copper mines in this and many other countries in both 
hemispheres, were hafted much in the same manner as the Aus- 
tralian axe. 

In other cases axe-heads are used by being fixed in a cleft stick 
for a handle, the stick being then lashed round so as to secure the 
stone and retain it in its place. This method was employed by 
some of the North American Indians,! and the aborigines in the 
colony of In the Blackmore Museum is a stone axe 
thus mounted, from British Guiana. There is a small hole 
through the butt, which is carved into a series of small spikes. 
I have an iron hatchet, edged with steel, brought home by 
Mr. David Forbes, F.E..S., from among the Aymara Indians 
of Bolivia, which is mounted in a stick cleft at the end. The 
blade is T-shaped at the butt, and is tied in such a manner, 
by means of a strip of leather, that the arms of the T rest 
on two of the coils, so as to prevent its falling out, while other two 
coils pass over the butt and prevent its being driven back, and 
the whole binds the two sides of the cleft stick together so as 
tightly to grasp the blade and prevent lateral or endways motion. 
The ancient Egyptian bronze hatchets were merely placed in a 
groove and bound to the handle by the lugs, and sometimes by the 
cord being passed through holes in the blade. 

xinother Australian method of mounting implies the possession 
of some resinous material susceptible of being softened by heat, 
and again becoming hard and tough when cold. This mode is 
exhibited in Fig. 106, which represents a rude instrument from 
Western Australia, now in my collection, engraved in the Archceo- 

* "Arch, of Mersey District," 1867, p. ly. 
t Arch., vol. xxxii. p. 400; Proc. Soc. Ant., vol. i. p. 131. 
X Worsaae's " Nordiske Oldsager," fig. 14. 

§ Schoolcraft, " Ind. Tribes," vol. ii. pi. Ixxiii. ; Klemm, "Cult.-Gesch.," vol. ii. 
p- H2, II Proc. Soc. Ant, Scot., vol. v. p. 287. 


logia* It is hammer-like at one end, axe-like at tlie other, and 
is formed of either one or two roughly chipped pieces of basalt-like 
stone entirely unground, and secured in a mass of resinous gum, in 
which the handle is inserted. In most implements of this kind 
there appear to be two separate stones used to form the double 
blade, and these are sometimes of different kinds of rock. It 
would seem that the shaft, either cleft or uncleft, passed between 
them, and that the stones, when bound with string to hold them 
in their places, were further secured with a mass of the gum 
of the Xanthorrha3a, or grass- tree, f 

Such a method of hafting cannot, I think, have been in general 
use in this country, for want of the necessary cementing material, 

Fig. 106. — Hatchet— Western Australia. 

though, from discoveries made in Scandinavia, it would appear 
that a resinous pitch was in common use for fixing bronze imple- 
ments to their handles ; so that the practice may also have applied 
to those of stone. In the Swiss Lake-dwellings bitumen was used 
as a cement for attaching stone to wood. 

Besides those that were hafted as axes or adzes, it seems 
probable that not a few of the implements known as celts may 
have been for use in the hand as cutting tools, either mounted 
in short handles or unmounted. There can be but little doubt 
that the implement with a depression on each face (Fig. 87), and 
that with the notches at the side, were destined for use in the 
latter manner, and can hardly have been unique of their kind. 

Dr. Lxdvis,+ indeed, at one time expressed an opinion that the 
stone celt was not intended to be secured "in a handle, but was 
held in the hand and applied to particvdar uses which are not now 

* Vol. xxxiv. p. 172. See also Wood, " Nat. Hist, of Man," vol. ii. p. 32. 
t Bonwick'a " Daily Life of the Tasmanians," p. 44 ; Trti/is. Etlmol. Hoc, N. S., 
vol. iii. p. 267. 

+ Proc. Soc. Ant., vol. ii. p. 305. 


evident, but to which neither the hammer nor the hatchet was 
applicable." But in the face of the numerous handles which have 
since been found, such an opinion is no longer tenable except in a 
very limited sense. 

Among modern savages we have instances of similar tools being 
used in the hand without the intervention of any haft, though 
among the Australians the butt-end is sometimes enveloped in a 
mass of resinous matter, so as to form a knob which fits the hand. 
According to Prinz I^euwied,* the Botocudos used their stone 
blades both unmounted in the hand and hafted as hatchets. The 
South Australians t likewise use celts in a similar manner. 

With regard to the uses to which these instruments were applied, 
they must have been still more varied than the methods of mount- 
ing, which, as we have seen, adapted them for the purposes of 
hatchets and adzes ; while, mounted in other ways, or unmounted, 
they may have served as wedges, chisels, and knives. 

The purposes which similar instruments serve among modern 
savages must be much the same as those for which the stone 
celts found in this country were employed by our barbarian 
predecessors. An admirable summary of the uses to which stone 
hatchets — the " Toki " of the Maori — are or were applied in New 
Zealand, has been given by Dr. W. Lauder Lindsay. + They were 
used chiefly for cutting down timber, and for scooping canoes § out of 
the trunks of forest trees ; for dressing posts for huts ; for grubbing 
up roots, and killing animals for food ; for preparing firewood ; for 
scraping the flesh from the bones when eating; and for various 
other purposes in the domestic arts. But they were also em- 
ployed in times of war, as weapons of offence and defence, as a 
supplementary kind of tomahawk. 

For all these purposes stone celts must also have been employed 
in Britain, and some may even have been used in agriculture. 
We can add to the list at least one other service to which they 
were applied, that of mining in the chalk in pursuit of flint, as 
the raw material from which similar instruments might be 

* Quoted by Klemm, " C.-G.," vol. i. p. 268. 

t Journ. Eth. Soc, vol. ii. p. 109, fig. 7. 

X Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. v. p. 327. 

§ It is, however, to be observed that among the North American Indians fire was 
the great agent employed in felling trees and in excavating canoes, the stone hatchet 
being called in aid principally to remove the charred wood. — Schoolcraft, " Ind. 
Tribes," vol. i. p. 75. 




I NOW come to several forms of implements wliich, though 
approximating closely to those to which the name of celts has 
been given, may perhajDs be regarded with some degree of cer- 
tainty as forming a separate class of tools. 
Among these, the long narrow form to 
which, for want of a better name, that 
of " Picks" has been given, may be first 
described, as being perhaps the most closely 
allied to that of the so-called celts. 

An idea of the prevaiUng form will be 
gathered from Fig. 107, which represents 
a specimen in my own collection found at 
Great Easton, near Dunmow, Essex, and 
given me by Mr. A. T. Copeland. Its 
surfaces are partially ground, especially to- 
wards the upper end, which appears to have 
been pointed, though now somewhat bi'oken. 
The lower end is chipped to a rounded outline, 
but this end is not ground, and the outer or 
more convex face of the implement in one 
part shows the original crust of the flint. 

Mr. Fitch, F.B.A., has a finer and more 
symmetrical specimen of the same kind from 
North Walsham. It is Ih inches long, rather 
more than 1 inch wide, and f inch thick. It 
is polished nearly all over ; both faces are 
ridged, so that it is almost rhomboidal in sec- 
tion, though the angles are rounded ; one face is 
curved lengthways much more than the other, 
which is nearly straight. At one end it is 
ground to a semicii'cular edge, but the other 

is merely chipped, and still shows part of the original crust of the flint. 

Another implement of this character, but IItV inches long, and 2;^ inches 

wide in the broadest part, was found at Melbourn,* Cambridgeshire, 

and was in the collection of the late Lord Braj'brooke. 

* Arch. Juunt., vol. xvii. p. 170. 

Fig. 107.— Great Easton. ^ 



I have seen another nearly G inches long, but little polished, and 
almost oval in section, which was found at Melton, near Woodbridge, 
Suffolk. This also is blunt at one end, and ground to a semicircular 
edge at the other. A fr.agment of an implement of this class, found near 
Maidenhead, is in the Geological Museum in Jermyn Street. Another 
implement of the same kind, more roughly chipped out and but par- 
tially polished, was found on Mount Harry, near Lewes, and is preserved 
in the Museum in that town. It is narrow at one end, where it is ground 
to a sharp edge. 

Mr. H. Durden, of Blandford, has another, found on Iwerne Minster 
Down, Dorset, 5^ inches long and 1:^ inches broad, which comes nearer to 
the celt type. One face is more convex than the other ; the sides are 
sharp, and one end is more square than the other, which comes to a 
rounded point. 

The Kev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A., has what appears to be a fragment of 
one, still about 4 inches long, found at Northdale, near Bridlington. It 
may, however, be a chisel. The same form of implement is found in 
France. I have a fragment of one which 
was found by M. Dimpre, of Abbeville, in 
the old encampment known as the Camp de 
Cesar, near Pontremy. 

In the case of some very similar imple- 
ments of flint from Scandinavia it is the 
broad end that is usually sharp, though 
some are entirely ungi-ound. 

Occasionally these implements occur in 
this country in the same unpolished con- 
dition, like Fig. 108, from the neighbour- 
hood of Bury St. Edmunds. This alsd 
presents on the more highly ridged face the 
same curvature in the direction of its length 
as is to be observed on the polished speci- 
mens, and the pointed end seems the sharper 
and the better adapted for use. 

Unfortunately there are no indications by 
which to judge of the method of hafting 
such instruments. It appears probable, how- 
ever, that the broader end may have been 
attached at the end of a handle, like those in 
Fig. 104, and that the tool was a sort of 
narrow adze or pick, adapted for working 
out cavities in wood, or it may be for grub- 
bing in the ground. Some rough instru- 
ments of this character are found in Ire- 
land ; '^' but are usually more clumsy in their 
proportions than the English specimens I have figured. They are often 
of a subtriangular section, and pointed at one or both ends, though 
rarely ground. I have, however, a tapering pointed tool of black 
chert, and belonging to the same class of implements, found in Lough 




Fig 108 - Burj St. Edmunds. 

* WilcK " Cut. :\riis. R. I. A.,"" p. 27. 



[chap. VII. 

Neagli.* It appears adapted for boring holes in leather or other soft 

A very remarkable implement belonging to the same group is shown 
in Fig. 109. It was found in the Fen country near Burwell, Cambridge, 
and was given me by Mr. J. W. Flower, F.G.S. At the broad end it 
is much like the instruments just described. A portion of both faces 
has been polished, the sides have been rounded by grinding, and though 
it has been chipped to an edge at the broad end, this also has been 
rendered blunt in the same manner, possibly with the view of preventing 
it from cutting the ligaments by which it was attached to a handle. 
The narrow end is ground to a chisel edge, which is at right angles to 

Fig. 109.— Burwell. 

Fig. 110.— Near Bridlington. | 

that of the broad end. In form and character this chisel end is exactly 
like that of a narrow " cold chisel " of steel, in use by engineers. 
Whether it was used as a narrow adze or axe, or after the manner of 
a chisel, it is difficult to say. 

Fig. 110 is still more chisel-like in character. It is of flint weathered 
white, but stained in places by iron-mould, from having been brought in 
contact with modern agricultural implements, while lying on the surface 
of the ground. It was found by Mr. E. Tindall at Charleston, near Brid- 
lington. It is unground except at the edge, where it is very sharp, and 
at one or two places along the sides, where slight projections have been 
removed or rounded off by grinding. The butt- end is truncated, but is 
not at all battered, so that if a hammer or mallet was used with it, with. 

* ArclucoloijiK , vol. xli. p. 402, \)\. xviii. 7. 



Fig. 111.— Dalton, York- 
shire, i 

out the intervention of a socket or handle, it was probably of wood. I 
have another specimen of rather smaller size from the same locality. It 
is, however, of porphyritic greenstone, and the butt- end, instead of being 
truncated, has been chipped to a comparatively sharp 
edge, which has subsequently been partially rounded 
by grinding. If used as a chisel at all, this imple- 
ment must have been inserted in a socket. 

I have another of grey flint, 4| inches long and 1 
inch broad, ground at the sides and over some por- 
tion of the faces, with a sharp narrow segmental edge, 
and rounded at the butt, where it is somewhat bat- 
tered. It was found in Bottisham Fen, Cambridge. 

Mr. H. Durden has a chisel of the same character 
found at Hod Hill, Dorset, 5^ inches long and 1-| 
inches broad, with the sides ground straight. 

The Rev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A., has a flint chisel 
of this form 5 inches long and ^ inch broad, found 
near Icklingham, Sufiblk. It is ground at the sides 
as well as at the edge. Another, 4J inches long, in 
the same collection, was found at North Stow, Sutiblk. 

There are occasionally found some small chisels 
apparently intended for holding in the hand, as if 
for carving wood. One of these, from Dalton, on the Yorkshire Wolds, 
and in the collection of Messrs. Mortimer, is shown in Fig. 111. It is 
of grey flint, sHghtly curved longitudinally, nearly semicircular in sec- 
tion, with the side angles rounded, the butt truncated, but all its sharp 
angles worn or ground away, and with a circular edge slightly gouge-like 
in character. It has been ground transversely or 
obliquely on both faces, but the stricc from the 
grinding are at the edge longitudinal. I have a 
nearly similar tool from the neighbourhood of Brid- 
lington, Yorkshire, but the butt-end is broken. 

Another flint chisel, 3^ inches long and ^ inch 
wide, in my collection, procured by Mr. E. Tindall 
from the same neighbourhood, presents the peculiarity 
of having the butt-end ground to a sharp narrow 
semicircular edge, the principal edge at the other end 
being broader and less curved. There can be little 
doubt of this having been merely a hand tool. A 
portion of the edge at the narrow end is worn away 
as if by scraping bone or something equally hard. 
This wearing away does not extend to the end of 
the tool. Another specimen from Yorkshire is in 
the Blackmore Museum.*' 

The Rev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A., has a small 
chisel of hone-stone 2g inches long, found at Rud- Fig. 112.— Heipeithorpe. ^ 
stone, near Bridlington, and another 3i| inches long, of subquadrate 
section, found in a barrow at Cowlam, Yorkshire. 

The implement shown in Fig. 112 appears to belong to this same class 
of tools, though closely resembling some of those which will hereafter be 
* « Flint Chips," p. 76. 



[CHAr. VII. 

described as " arrow-flakers," from which it differs only in not showing 
any signs of being worn away at the ends. It is of flint neatly chipped, 
and was found at Helperthorpe, Yorkshire. I have another of the same 
form, but a trifle longer, found by Mr. W. Whitaker, F.G.S., near Bal- 
dock, Herts. Neither of them shows any traces of grinding. 

A similar chisel of flint, square at the edge, and found near Lon- 
dinieres,* is engraved by the Abbe Cochet. 

Imj^lements which can without hesitation be classed as chisels are 
rare in Ireland, though long narrow celts approxi- 
mating to the chisel form are not uncommon. 
These are usually of clay-slate, or of some meta- 
morphic rock. I have, however, specimens of oval 
section not more than an inch wide, and as much 
as 5 inches long, with narrow straight edges, which 
seem to be undoubtedly chisels. I do not remember 
to have seen a specimen in flint, those described by 
Sir W. Wilde f being more celt-like in character. 

Narrow chisels, occasionally 10 or 12 inches 
long, and usually square in section, and either 
polished all over or merely ground at the edge, are 
of common occurrence in Denmark and Sweden.]: 
They are sometimes, but more rarely, oval in sec- 

In Germany and Switzerland the form is rare, 
but one from the Sigmaringen district is engraved 
by Lindenschmit,§ and a Swiss specimen, in ser- 
pentine, by Perrin.|| 

Some of the small celts found in the Swiss Lakes 
appear to have been rather chisels than hatchets 
or adzes, as they were mounted in sockets H bored 
axially in hafts of stag's horn. In some instances 
the hole was bored transversely through the piece 
of horn, but even then the tools are so small that 
they must have been used rather as knives or 
drawing chisels than as hatchets. Chisels made of 
bone are abundant in the Swiss Lake-settlements. 
They are also plentiful in some of the caverns in 
the French Pyrenees, which have been inhabited 
in Neolithic times. Several have also occurred in 
the Gibraltar caves. 

Among the Maories of New Zealand small hand- 
chisels of jade are used for carving wood and for 
other purposes. They are sometimes attached to 
their handles by a curiously intertwined cord,** and sometimes by a 
more simple binding. For the sketch of that shown in Fig. 113 I am 

Fig. 113.— New Zea- 
land Chisel. 4 

* "Seine Inf.," 2nd ed., p. 528. f "Cat. Mns. R. I. A.," p. 27. 

j Worsaae, " Nord. Olds.," No. 20, 22; Nilsson, " Stone Age," pl- vi. 127. 

§ " Hohenz. Samml.," Taf. xliii. 5. 

II " Etude Prehist. sur la Savoie," 1869, pi. ii. 4. 

H Desor, "Talafittes," p. 23, fig. 19. 

** Wood, " Nat. Hist, of Man," vol. ii. p. 201. 



indebted to Mr. Gray. The original is in the British Museum."'' It will 
be observed that the end of the handle, which has been battered in use, 
is tied round with a strip of bark to prevent its splitting. The blade 
seems to rest against a shoulder in the handle, to which it is firmly 
bound by a cord of vegetable fibre. The stone chisels in use in ancient 
times in Britain were, when hafted at all, probably mounted in a some- 
what analogous manner. 

Considering the great numbers of gouges or hollow chisels of 
flint which have been found in Denmark and Sweden, their ex- 
treme rarity in Britain is remarkable. It seems possible that the 
celts with an almost semicircular edge, some of which, when the 
two faces of the blade are not equally convex, are of a gouge-like 
character, may have answered the same purpose as gouges. It 
is to be observed that this class of celts is scarce in Denmark, 
where gouges are abimdant ; but possibly the ancient inhabitants 
of that country may have been 
more of a canoe-forming" race 
than those of Britain, so that 
implements for hollowing out the 
trunks of trees were in greater 
demand among them in conse- 
quence. The best-formed gouges 
discovered in England, so far as 
I am aware, have been found in 
the Fen country, where it is pro- 
bable that canoes would be in con- 
stant use. 

Two such, found in Burwell Fen, 
are preserved in the Museum of the 
Cambridge Antiquarian Society, one 
of which is shown in Fig. 114. The 
other is rather smaller, being 5} 
inches long and 1| inches broad. 
They are entirely unpolished, with 
the sides nearly straight and sharp, 
and one face more convex than the 
other. At the butt-end they are 
truncated, or show the natural crust 
of the ilint. • The cutting edge at 
the other end is approximately in 
one plane at right angles to the axis of the blade, and is chipped hollow, 
so that the edge is like that of a carp enter's gouge. 

The next specimen, Fig. 115, is less decidedly gouge-like in character. 
It is of grey flint, and was in the collection of the late Mr. Caldecott, of 
* Nilsson, "Stone Age," pi. vi. 129, p. 54. 



[chap. VII. 

Mead Street, having been found at Eastbourne, Sussex. The sides are 
sharp, but rounded towards the butt, which is also round. A large flake 
has been taken lengthways ofl' the hollow face, and it may be mainly 
to this circumstance, rather than to original design, that the gouge-like 
character of the implement is due. 

Most of the Danish gouges have a rectangular section at the middle of 
the blade, and the butt-end is usually truncated, and sometimes shows 
marks of having been hammered, so that these implements were pro- 
bably used without hafting, and in conjunction with a mallet or hammer 
of wood or stag's horn. Another and rarer form of gouge with a sharp 
elliptical section tapers to the butt, and may have been used for paring 

Fig. 115.— Eastbourne. 

away charred surfaces without the aid of a mallet. Some small examples 
of this class show, however, pohshed markings as if from having been 
inserted in handles. 

Under the head of gouges I must comprise a few of those celt-hke 
implements already mentioned, which, without being actually ground 
hollow, yet, by having one of their faces much flatter transversely than 
the other, present at the edge a gouge-like appearance, somewhat after 
the manner of the " round-nosed chisels" of engineers. One of these 
was discovered in a barrow on Willcrby Wold, Yorkshire, by the 
Rev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A., though it was not associated with any 



It is shown iu Fig. 116, and is formed of a light green hone-stone 
carefully ground and even polished, and presents a beautifully regular 
and sharp cutting edge. It would appear to have been intended for 
mounting as a hollow adze rather than as a gouge, and would, when thus 
mounted, have formed a useful tool for hoUowing canoes, or for other 
similar purposes. 

Mr. Greenwell has also another implement of the same character and 
material, but smaller, being 4 inches long and 2f inches broad. It was 
found at Ganthorpe, Yorkshire. The sides in this case are flat. 

The implement shown in Fig. 117 has, when the convex face is seen, 
much the same appearance as Fig. 68. The 
other face, however, is slightly hollowed 
towards the middle longitudinally, and is 
nearly flat transversely, so that the edge 
presents a gouge-like appearance. It was 
found at Huntow, near Bridlington, and 
formerly belonged to Mr. E. Tindall, but 
is now in my collection. The material is 
greenstone, the surface of which is some- 
what decomposed, and seems in places to 
have been scratched by the plough or the 

A considerable number of gouges of this 
bastard kind have been found in Ireland, 
and I have figured one from Lough Neagh 
in the AirJurologia.'-'' A few of the Irish celts 
are actually hollowed at the edge, so as to 
become more truly gouge-like in character. 

Besides occurring in abundance in Scan- 
dinavia, gouges, properly so called, are also 
found in Northern Germany and Lithuania. 
Some from Finland also are in the Ethno- 
logical Museum at Copenhagen. 

One of flint, 5 inches long, from the 
neighbourhood of Beauvais, France, is in 
the Blackmore Museum. They have also 
been found in Portugal and Algeria. + i^'g- ne.-wmerby WoW. a 

A stone implement,]: " a square chisel at one end and a gouge at the 
other," was found in one of the Gibraltar caves. 

In North America§ gouges formed of other varieties of stone than 
flint are by no means uncommon, and among the Caribs of Barbadoes, 
where stone was not to be procured, we find gouge-like instruments 
formed from the columella of the large Stromhns (jiyas. On the western 
coast of North America, mussel-shell adzes are still preferred by the 
Ahts II to the best English chisels for canoe-making purposes. 

Some narrow bastard gouges, almost semicircular on one face and flat 

Vol. xli. pi. xviii. 10. 
Trans. Etiui. Soc, N. S., vol. vii. j). 47- 
Trans. I'reh. Cony., 1868, p. 130. 
Schoolcraft, " Indian Tribes," vol. iv. p. 175. 
Sproat, " Scenes and Studies of Savage Lite,' 




[chap. VII. 

transversely on the other, but not hollowed, have been found in the 
Swiss Lake-settlements. I have one of diorite, 5f inches long and 1 inch 
broad, from Sipplingeu. The butt is roughened as if for insertion in a 

Fig. 117 — Biidlingtun. i 

socket. A similar form is found in Germany. I have a specimen 9i 
inches long, 1 inch wide, and 1^ inches thick in the middle of the blade, 
found in the neighbourhood of Mayence. 

A bastard form of gouge, mounted as an adze, is in use in the Solomon 
Islands. One tied to its haft with rattan is in the Christy Collection. 



I NOW come to a very important class of antiquities, the stone 
axes and axe-hammers with a hole for the insertion of a haft, 
like the ordinary axes and hammers of the present day. As to 
the method by which these shaft-holes were bored, I have already 
sj)oken in a previous chapter. I have also mentioned that many 
of them appear to belong to a time when bronze was already in 
use, at all events for knife-like daggers, and that they have in 
many countries shared with the more simply formed celts the 
attribution of a heavenly origin as thimderbolts, together with 
the superstitious reverence due to their supernatural descent. 
I have, therefore, but little here to add beyond a classification and 
description of the various forms ; but I may raention that the 
name by which such implements were " popularly known in 
Scotland almost till the close of last century was that of the 
Purgatory Hammer," buried with its owner that he might have 
the wherewithal " to thunder at the gates of Purgatory till the 
heavenly janitor appeared."* 

They are for the most part made from metamorphic or volcanic 
rocks, and I have never seen a British perforated axe made from ordi- 
nary flint, though a hammer of this material is known. Stukeley,t 
indeed, mentions that in cleansing the moat at Tabley, near Knuts- 
ford, " they found an old British axe, or some such thing, made 
of large flint, neatly ground into an edge, with a hole in the 
middle to fasten into a handle ; it would serve for a battle-axe." 
Stukeley was probably mistaken as to the material, but there are 
in the Museum at Copenhagen one or two flint axes ground to an 
edge, the shaft-holes in which are natural, and no doubt led to the 
stones being selected for the purpose to which they were appKed. 
An artificially perforated French specimen will subsequently be 

* Wilson, "Preh. Ann. of Scot.," vol. i. p. 191 ; Arch. Scot., vol. i. p. 391. 
t ''Itin. Curios.," 2nd. ed., vol. i. p. 54. 




[chap. VIII. 

mentioned. Flints, both naturally and artificially perforated, 
have also been occasionally converted into hammers. 

In Scandinavia and Northern Germany perforated axes and 
axe-hammers are frequently known as Thor's hammers, and some 
authors have maintained that they were in use for warlike pur- 
poses so late as eight or ten centuries after our era. Kruse,* how- 
ever, has urged that though found in the neighbourhood of graves 
of the Iron Age in Livonia and Courland, they are never found in 

the graves themselves, and 
that their use is not men- 
tioned in any ancient his- 

The principal forms may 
be classified as follows : — 

1. Double-edged axes, or 
those with a cutting, or 
but slightly blunted edge 
at either end. 

2. Adzes, or implements 
with the edge at right 
angles to the shaft-hole. 

3. Axes with the edge at 
one end only, the hole being 
near the other end, which is 
rounded. These shade off 
into — 

4. Axe-hammers sharp at 
one end, and more or less 
hammer-like at the other, 
the shaft-hole being usually 
near the centre. 

To the weapons of the first 
of these classes the name of 
Amazon Axe has been ap- 
plied by Professor Nilsson ; f 
Fig. ii8.-Huiimaiib). J but the Scandinavian axes 

expanding considerably at the cutting ends, resemble the Amazonia 
securis of classical sculpture more than do the English specimens. 

Fig. 118 represents a beautifully formed axe of the first class, in my 
own collection. It is of greenstone, and was found near Hunmanby, 

• " Necrolivonica," Boil C. p. 23; and Nachtrag, p. 20. f "Stone Age,," p. 71. 


Yorkshire. It subsequently came into the hands of Mr. E. Tindall, of 
Bridlington, from whom I obtained it. The two faces are concave 
longitudinally, so that it expands towards the edges. They are also 
slightly concave transversely. The angles are rounded, and the edges 
are blunt, especially that at the shorter end. The shaft-hole is oval, and 
tapers slightly from each face towards the middle. It would appear to 
have been worked out with some sort of chisel, and to have been after- 
wards made smoother by grinding. 

A specimen of nearly the same type, found near Uelzen, Hanover, is 
engraved by Von Estorff;''' another, from Sweden, by Sjoborg.f 

In the Museum at Geneva is a very similar axe of greenstone, 5;^ 
inches long, found in the neighbourhood of that town. One of serpen- 
tine much longer in its proportions, 9^ inches long, and with an oval 
shaft-hole, is in the Museum at Lausanne. It was found at Agiez, 
Canton de Vaud. 

In the Collections I published by the Sussex Ai'chfeological Society is 
a figure, obligingly lent me, of a beautiful axe-head of this class. 
Fig. 119, found with the remains of a skeleton, an amber cup. 

Fig. 119.— Hove. i 

Fig. 3G7, a whetstone, Fig. 186, and a small bronze dagger with 
two rivet holes, in an oaken coffin in a barrow at Hove, near Brighton. 
The axe-head is said to be formed of some kind of ironstone, and 
is 5 inches long, Ij^o inches wide in the broadest part, and -^g- inch 
thick. The hole is described as neatly drilled. A small black stone 
axe-head of nearly similar form was found near the head of a con- 
tracted skeleton, at a depth of twelve feet, in a barrow in Rolston Field, 
Wilts. § A somewhat similar specimen, with the sides faceted and 
blunt at one end, has been engraved as having been found in Yorkshire. || 
It is, however, doubtful whether, like many other objects in the same 
plate, it is not foreign. The original is now in the Christy Collection. 

A double-edged axe-head of basalt, 4| inches long, and injured by fire, 
was found by the late Mr. Bateman, in a large urn with calcined bones, 
bone pins, a tubular bone laterally perforated, a flint " spear-head," and 
a bronze awl, in a barrow near Throwley, Derbyshire. H This was the 
only instance in which he found a perforated stone axe accompanying an 
interment by cremation. 

An axe-head of basalt, with a double edge to cut either way, was also 
dug up in the neighbourhood of Tideswell, Derbyshire.** 

* Eeidmsche Alterthiimer, 1846, pi. vi. 16. t Vol. ii. fig. 144. 

X Vol. ix. p. 120. vSee Arch. Joiirn., vol. xiii. p. 184, and vol. xv. p. 90. 

§ Hoare's "South Wilts," p. 174. || Arch. Assoc. Jnnrn., vol. xx. pi. vii. 1. 

11 "Ten Years' Diggings," p. 155. ** "Vest, of Ants, of Derb3'shire," p. 7. 


A good specimen of this kind, 5 inches long, 2 inches broad at one 
end, and If inches at the other, edged at both ends, but " the one end 
rather bhmted and lessened a Httle by use," was found near Grimley, 
Worcestershire, and is figured by Allies.'" 

Another, 5 inches long, engraved in the Salisbury volume f of the 
Archaeological Institute, from a barrow on Windmill Hill, Abury, Wilts, 
is described as double-edged. | 

The Danish and German axe-heads § of this form have usually, but not 
always, one edge much more blunted than the other. Occasionally there 
is a ridge on each side at the blunt end, which shows that this thicken- 
ing was intentional. A fine double-edged axe-head of quartz of this form, 
from Brandenburg, is engraved in the " Hora? Ferales." || 

The form also occurs in France, but the faces are usually flatter. I 
have one from the Seine at Paris. Another, from the department of the 
Charente, is engraved by De Rochebrune ;^r and a third, from the depart- 
ment of the Seine et Oise, is in the Musee de St. Germain.** A fine 
example of the same form is in the Museum at Tours, and another in 
that of Blois. I have seen in the collection of M. Reboux a curious 
implement from the Seine, formed of flint, pointed at each end, and per- 
forated in the middle. 

A stone axe in the Museum of the Royal Institution at Swansea, and 
found at Llaumadock, in Gower, has been kindly lent me, by the managers 
of the institution, for engraving, and is shown in Fig. 120. It expands 
at the sharper end much more suddenly and to a much greater extent 
than does that from Hunmanby. The edge at that end, which is 
almost semicircular in outline, has sufl'ered from ill-usage since it was 
discovered ; the material of which it is made being felspathic ash, the 
surface of which has become soft by decomposition. The other and 
narrower end is flattened to about ^ inch in width. The implement has 
already been engraved on a smaller scale in the Archaological Joiirual.ii 

In Bartlett's " History and Antiquities of Manceter, Warwickshire," || 
is engraved an axe of the same character as this, but expanding at the 
blunter end almost as much as it does at the edge, which is described as 
being very sharp. It is said to have been formed of the hard blue stone 
of the country, but "from age or the soil in which it has lain" " now 
coloured with an elegant olive-coloured patina." It was found on Hartshill 
Common, in 1770, where a small tumulus had been cut through, " the 
bottom of which was paved with brick, which by the heat of the fire had 
been nearly vitrified." There is probably some mistake as to the bricks. 

Another axe-head like Fig. 120, 8 inches in length, and more dis- 
tinctly hammer-like at the narrow end, was found in the parish of Aber- 
nethy, Scotland, and has been engraved by Wilson. §§ 

In character, these axes with expanded ends more nearly resemble some 
of the Scandinavian and North German types than do most of the other 
British forms. 

* "Ants, of Worcestershire," pi. iv. 8 and 9. + P. 108, No. 4. 

X Arch. Journ., vol. vii. p. 399. 

^ See Lindenschmit, '-Alt. u. h. V.," vol. i. Heft iv. Taf. i. ; Worsaae, " Nord. 
Oldsager," No. 40. 

II PI. iii, 9. U Mem. surhx Rcsfrs (Vlndiist., <^-c., 18GG, pi. x. 12. 

** Mortillet, " Promenades," p. I4G. 

ft Vol. iii. p. 67. II P. 17, pi. ii. 3. \\ " Preh. Ann. of Scot.," vol. i. p. 193. 



In the Museum of the Leeds Philosophical Society is a double-edged 
axe-head of a larger and coarser kind, which is said to have been found 
near Whitby. The edges have been rounded by modern grinding ; it is 
cracked across the hole, and there are some other appearances about 
it calculated to cast strong doubts on its authenticity. The surface 
seems to have been worked by means of a pick or pointed chisel. The 
shaft-hole is nearly parallel, and has been drilled, though also in part 


Fifl. 120.— Llanmadotk. i 

chiselled, and shows a tendency to assume a triangular form, as is some- 
times the case with holes bored with a thin drill. Its authenticity was 
strongly vouched for by the late Mr. Denny, but I fear it is a modern 

An implement of the same form, from Geixlauen, East Prussia, is pre- 
served in the Berlin Museum ; and another of greenstone was found 
at Hallstatt.''' A singular variety from the same spot has the edge at 
one end at right angles to that at the other. 

A small sketch of a very remarkable curved blade, pointed at one end 

* Simony, " Alt. von Hallstatt," p. 9, Taf. vi. 3. 



[chap. VIII. 

and with an axe-like edge at the other, is given in the Journal of ihf 
Archieolof/ical Assoriaiion* from a specimen in the collection of Mr. 
F. C. Lukis. It is of greenstone, 11 inches long and 2| inches across, 
and was found in Guernsey. By the kindness of the Rev. W. C. Lukis, 
F.S.A., of Wath, I am enabled to give an engraving of the type in 
Fig. 121. A number of specimens have been found in the Channel 
Islands, to which the form seems peculiar. 

Fig. lai.— Uuen 

The second class into wlilch I proposed to divide these imple- 
ments consists of adzes, or blades having the edge at right angles 
to the shaft-hole. With the exception of a short notice by Mr. 

* Vol. iii. p. 128. 



Monkmaii, I believe tliat attention is now for the first time called 
to this form as occurring in Britain. 

The specimen I have selected for engraving, as Fig. 122, gives a good 
idea of the typical character. It is of greenstone, with the shaft-hole taper- 
ing inwards from both faces, one of which is less convex than the other. 
It was found at Fireburn Mill, near Coldstream, Berwickshire, and is in 
the collection of the Rev. "W. Greenwell, F.S.A. In the same collection is 

Fig. 122.— Fireburn :\Iill, Coldstream. i 

another of similar character, but having the butt-end broken ofl' and the 
edge more circular, found at Willerby Carr, in the East Riding of 

I have a smaller specimen, 4f inches long and 2,^ inches broad, of a 
hard micaceous grit, found at AUerston, in the North Riding. I have 
also a remarkably fine and perfect adze of porphyritic greenstone, 
0| inches long, 3 J inches wide, and If inches thick, and ground to a 


rounded edge at the butt, instead of being truncated like Fig. 122. The 
shaft-hole, like that of all the others, tapers inwards from both faces, 
in this instance from If inches to | inch. This specimen was found at 
South Dalton, near Beverley, and was formerly in the possession of 
Mr. E. Tindall, of Bridlington. 

Another implement of the same class, 9 inches by 4 inches, flat on 
one face, and much like Fig. 122, is in the Antiquarian Museum at 
Edinburgh. It is of greenstone, much decomposed, and was found at 
Ormiston Abdie, Fife. 

Another, in outline more like the celt. Fig. 57, though sharp at 
the sides, is also in the collection of the Rev. W. Greenwell, F.8.A. 
It is formed of red micaceous sandstone, and is 6f inches long and 
3f inches broad at the edge. It was found at Bcackleton, in the 
North Riding of Yorkshire, and a rough sketch of it has been published 
by Mr. Monkman.* In the same collection is another, rather narrower 
in its proportions, being 7^ inches long and 3 inches broad, found at 
Pilmoor, and one 6 inches long and 2g inches broad, found at Nunnington. 

Another, 5^ inches long, square at both ends, found near Whitby, is 
in the Museum at Leeds. 

The form is known in Denmark, but is rarely found. A more celt- 
shaped specimen is engraved in Worsaae.f He terms it a hoe {luikke), 
and it is, of course, possible that these instruments may have been used 
for digging purposes. 

Two short, broad hoes [hachen), of Taunus slate, found near Mayence, 
are given by Lindenschmit.| Another is in the Museum at Brunswick. 

Some hoe-like, perforated stone implements from Mexico are in the 
Ethnological Museum at Copenhagen. The so-called stone hoes of 
North America § are not perforated, though sometimes notched at the 
sides. Dr. Keller|| has suggested that a circular perforated disc from 
one of the Swiss Lake-settlements may have been a hoe. 

In the Museum of the Deutsche Gesellschaft at Leipzig is a green- 
stone implement resembling these adzes or hoes at its broader end, 
but at the other, instead of being square or rounded, presenting an axe- 
like edge. 

A narrow, thick adze of this character, flat on one face, rounded on 
the other, 4:1 inches by 1^ inches, and 1^ inches thick, found at Scudnitz, 
near Schweinitz, Prussian Saxony, is in the Berlin Museum. 

An intermediate form between a hammer and an adze will be sub- 
sequently described at p. 206. 

A perforated adze in the Museum of the Cambridge Antiquarian 
Society, Fig. 123, is more truly celt-like in character, and appears, 
indeed, to have been made from an ordinary celt by boring a shaft-hole 
through it. It is formed of a hard, green, slaty rock, and was found in 
Burwell Fen. I believe that another, but larger, specimen of the same 
type was found in the same district in Swaft'ham Fen. 

Mr. G. W. Ormerod, F.G.S., has communicated to me another 

* Jottrn. Ethnol. Soc, vol. ii. pi. xvi. 14. 

t Nordinkc Oldsager, No. 50. 

X "Alt. u. h. Vorz.," vol. i. Heffc ii. Taf. i. 10 and 12. 

§ Smithsmiinn Iteport, 1863, p. 379. 

II " Anz. f. Schw. Alt.," 1870, p. 141. 



specimen found, in 18G5, at North Bovey, Devon, It is of greenstone, 
about 3f inches long, 2^ inches broad, and 1t1- inches thick. The 
sides taper towards the butt-end, which is rounded, and the hole in the 

middle appears to be only about h inch in diameter, but bell-mouthed 
at each face. 

It is now in the Museum of the Eoyal Institution of Cornwall. 

The implement shown in Fig. 124 seems to be an unfinished 

Fig. 124.— Stourton. 

specimen belonging to this class. It is formed of greenstone, portions 
of the natural joints of which are still visible on its surface. It seems 



[chap. VIII. 

to have been worked into shape by picking rather than by grinding ; 
but the hole appears, from the character of the surface, to have been 
ground. Had it been continued through the stone, it wouhl probably 
have been considerably enlarged in diameter, and if so, the implement 
would have been much weakened around the hole. It seems possible 
that it was on this account that it was left unfinished. It was found 
near Stourton, on the borders of Somerset and Wilts. 

The tliird of the classes into whicli, for the sake of convenience, 

Fig. ll.'.5.— B:ird\vell. l 

I have divided these instruments, consists of axe-heads with a 
cutting edge at one end only, the shaft-hole being near the other 
end, which is rounded. 

Fig. 125 represents an elegant specimen of this class, found at Bard- 
well, in Hutfolk, and formerly in the collection of Mr. Joseph Warren, of 
Ixworth, but now in my own. The material appears to be felstone. 
The edge is slightly rounded, the shaft-hole carefully finished, and the 
two faces ground hollow, probably in the manner suggested at p. 240. 



In the Museum at Newcastle is preserved a very similar specimen of 
mottled green stone, beautifully finished ; the faces are, however, flat 
and not hollowed. It is 6^ inches long, 1§ inches wide, and If inches 
thick ; the sides are rounded, and the hole, which is about | inch in 
diameter, tapers slightly from each face. It was found in the river 
Wear at Sunderland. Another of the same character, formed from a 
beautifully veined stone, was found with a bronze dagger in a barrow 
near East Kennet, Wilts,* and is to be figured in the AnJiccului/ia. 

I have another axe of the same kind, with both faces flat, 6g inches 
lo-ng and If inches broad, formed of porphyritic greenstone, and found 
near Colchester. Another, formed of basalt, 0:[ inches long and 2^ inches 
broad, the faces slightly hollowed, was found at Chesterford, Cambridge,! 
and is in the possession of Mr. Joshua Clarke, of Saflron Walden. 

Another, 5 inches long and 2 inches broad, was found in the Thames 
ofi" Parliament Stairs, and passed with the Roach Smith Collection into 
the British Museum. One, 5| inches long, from Cumberland, is in the 
Christy Collection. 

The Rev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A., possesses one of greenstone. Of inches 
long and 2k inches broad, found at Millfield, near Sunderland. The 
hole is somewhat oval, and tapers inwards from each face. He has also 
one of basalt, 4:^ inches long, with an oval hole and slightly convex 
faces, found at Holystone, Northumberland. The edge, as usual, is blunt. 

An axe-head of this kind, found in a chambered tumulus or dolmen 
at Craigengelt, near Stirling, Scotland, is engraved by Bonstetten.]: 

Implements or weapons of this character are 
occasionally found in Ireland, § but the faces are 
usually flat. 

The exact form is rare in Denmark and North 
Germany. Lindenschmit || engraves a thin speci- 
men from Liineburg. It occurs also in St5a'ia. 
A specimen from Lithuania, more square at the butt, 
is engraved by Mortillet.lf I do not remember to 
have met with it in France. 

In one of the barrows on Potter Brompton Wold, 
Yorkshire, explored by the Rev. W. Greenwell, 
F.S.A., accompanying an interment by cremation, 
he found a beautifully formed axe-head of serpen- 
tine ('?), the surface of which was in places scaling 
ofl' from decomposition, arising from its having been 
partly calcined. A single view is given of it in Fig. 
126. It is 5 inches long, and 2f inches broad ; 
the edge is 2 inches wide, as is also the butt ; at the 
perforation the thickness is only 1^ inches, both 
faces being hollowed longitudinally. The hole is 
about 1| inches in diameter on each face, but rather 
smaller in the middle. The cutting edge has been rounded as well as 

Fig. 126.— Potter Biompton 
Wold, i 

* Froc. Soc. Ant., 2nd S. vol. iv. p. 339. 
Arch. Journ., vol. xxiv. p. 29. 

t Arch. Assoc. Journ., vol. xxv. p. 272. 
§ Wilde, " Cat. Mus. K. I. A.," p. 79. 
if " Materiaux," vol. i. p. 462. 

Salisbi(ri/ vol. Arch. Inst., 18-19, p. 110 ; 

X " Essai sur les Dolmens," pi. iv. 1. 
" Alt. u. h. v.," vol. i. Heft i. Taf. i. 18. 



[chap. VIII. 

the angles round the foces, but this process has been carried to a greater 
extent on one than the other ; possibly this was the outer face. 

A somewhat similar, but rather broader, axe-head of basalt, 5:^ inches 
long, was found by the late Mr. T. Bateman in a barrow called Carder 
Low,* near Hartington, in company with a small bronze dagger, and 
near the elbow of a contracted skeleton. 

Another, expanding rather more at the edge, was found in a barrow 
in Devonshire,! and is in the Meyrick Collection. 

A somewhat similar axe-head, more rounded at the butt and rather 
more expanded at the cutting edge, was found in Annandale in 1870, 
and was communicated to me by Mr. Joseph Clarke, F.S.A. 

In the same barrow at Rudstone, near Bridlington, as that in which 
the block of pyrites and flint scraper subsequently to be described, 
Fig. 223, were found, but with a difl'erent interment, the Rev. W. Green- 
well, F.S.A., discovered the beautifully formed axe-hammer shown in 
Fig. 127. It is 5;^ inches long, 2^ inches broad, and 1| inches thick, of 

Fig. lL'7.— lUulsluiie. I 

very close-grained, slightly micaceous grit, and presents the peculiarity 
of having the rounded sides slightly chamfered all round the flat faces. 
The shaft-hole is Ig inches in diameter at each face, and slightly smaller 
in the middle. The edge is carefully rounded, and the broad end some- 
what flattened. It lay behind the shoulders of the skeleton of an old man 
lying on his left side, with his right hand on his head, and his left to his 
face. Before the face was a bronze knife 4 inches long, with a single 
rivet to fasten it to its handle, and close to the axe-hammer lay a pointed 
flint flake re-chipped on both faces. 

An axe-head, 6^ inches long, with convex sides, rounded at the butt, 
and with an oval shaft-hole, was found in the Thames at London,! and 
is now in the British Museum. 

* " Vest. Ant. Derb.," p. G3. Cat., p. 6, No. 49. 
t Skelteii's " Meyrick'a Armour," pi. xlvi. 3. 

" Iloraj Fcrales," pi. iii. 4. 



The careful manner in which the edges of these instruments are 
blunted shows that they cannot have been intended fur cutting tools, 
but that they must have been weapons of war. A blow from a battle- 
axe with a blunted edge would be just as fatal as if the edge had been 
sharp and trenchant, while the risk of accidental injury to the scantily- 
clothed warrior who carried the axe was next to none when the edge of 
the weapon was thus blunted. The practice of removing the edge by 
grinding was, no doubt, introduced in consequence of some painful 

Fig. 128.— BoiTO wash. a 

Fig. 128 is of a still more ornamental character, having a beaded mould- 
ing towards each edge of the sides, and following the curvature of the 
faces. The drawing is taken from a cast in the Museum of the Society 
of Antiquaries, presented by Sir W. Tite, M.P.-'- The original is said 
to have been found near Whitby. A fine axe-head " of red granite, 
ornamented with raised mouldings," was, however, found with human 

Proc. Soc. Ant., 2nd S., vol. ii. p. 295. 



[chap. VIII. 

bones near Borrowash, Derbyshire, in 1841',* and is in the Bateman 
Collection. To judge from the woodcut in the Catalogue, the cast must 
have been taken from this specimen. 

"A very elegant axe-head, 5 inches long, of reddish basalt, beauti- 
fully wrought, with a slight moulding round the angles, and a perfora- 
tion for the shaft," is described by Mr. Bateman f as having been found 
on a barrow eleven miles east of Pickering, Yorkshire. 

It seems almost indisputable that these elegantly formed axe-heads 
belong to the period when bronze was in use, and from their occurrence 
in the graves, and from the edge being usually rather blunted than cutting, 
they appear to have been destined for battle-axes. 

Mouldings of various kinds occur on Danish and German axe-hammers 
of the Bronze Age,| but this form of small axe with a rounded butt is of 
rare occurrence. The small axe-heads from Germany § are wider at the 
butt, and more like Figs. 118 and 120 in outline. 


Fig. 129. — Crichie, Aberdeenshire. 

The beautiful battle-axe, formed of fine-gi'ained mica schist, found 
placed on burnt bones in a " Druidical " circle at Crichie, near Inverary, 
Aberdeenshire,]] and presented by the Earl of Kintore to the Antiquarian 
Museum at Edinburgh, has deeply incised lines round the margins of the 
hollow faces at the mouth of the shaft-hole. This weapon is 4 inches in 
length, and is considerably sharper at the broader end than at the other, 
though the edge is well rounded. For the loan of Fig. 129 I am indebted 
to the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. In general character this 
weapon approximates to a somewhat rare Irish form, shortly to be men- 
tioned, of which I possess a specimen. The battle-axe from the barrow 

* "Vestiges of Ants, of Derbyshire," p. 7; Oat., No. 36; Brigg's " History of 
Melbourne," p. 16 ; Wright's "Celt, Koman, and Saxon," p. 09. 

t "Ten Years' Diggings," p. 227. Cat., p. 25, No. 2o6. 

X Worsaae, J\^ord. Olds., No. 109; Lindenschmit, Alt. u. h. V., vol. i. Heft iv. 
Taf. i. 0, 6. 

^^ Lindenschmit, o/>. cif., vol. i. Heft i. Taf. i. 8, 9, and 10. 

II J'roc. Sor. Ant. iSrot., vol. ii. p. 306; "Cat. Arch. Inst. Mus. Ed.," p. 19; 
" Hora; Ferales," pi. iii. 20; "Sculpt. Stones of Scot.," vol. i. p. xx. ; Wilson, 
"Preh. Ann. of Scot.," vol. i. pi. iii. 



at Selwood, Fig. 140, is also slightly ornamented by lines on tlio sides, 
and that from Skelton Moors, Fig. 139, is fluted. 

An axe-head of porphyritic greenstone, 7J inches long, one end 
obtusely pointed, and the other shaped to a sharp edge, round, and 
5 inches in breadth, was found at Stainton Dale, near Scarborough,* 
and is said to resemble in form an Irish axe-head engraved in the Vlster 

■Ml % h^. 

Journal of Archaolom/A If so, the faces through which the hole is bored 
were hollow, as in Fig. 129, and there was also a moulding round them. 
Axe-heads of a much more clumsy character than any of those last 
described are of more frequent occurrence in this country. The one 
I have selected for illustration as Fig. 130 is rather small of its kind. 
* Aic/i. Jouni., vol. xii. p. 277. •*• Vol. iii. p. 234. 


It is made of greenstone, the surface of which has considerably suffered 
from weathering, and was found in draining at Walsgrave-upon-Sowe, 
near Coventry. It was presented to my collection by Mr. J. S. Whittem, 
F.G.S. The shaft-hole, as usual, tapers inwards from both faces ; its 
surface is more polished than that of the exterior of the implement. 
A small portion of the end of the butt is flat, but this appears due to 
accident rather than design. 

I have a rather longer axe-head, of porphyritic greenstone, which was 
washed out of the ground by a brook at Ayside, near Newby Bridge, 
Windermere, and was given to me by Mr. Hai'rison, of Manchester. 
It is considerably rounded in both directions at the butt, the edge is 
narrow, and one face, probably the outer, much more rounded than the 
other. The edge is carefully ground, but further up the side the surface 
shows that it has been picked into form. The shaft-hole is much like 
that of Fig. 130. 

I have another specimen from Plumpton, near Penrith, 9^ inches long, 
and 2f inches Avide. It is rounded at the butt, but unsymmetrical, owing 
to a natural plane of cleavage interfering with the shape, and, as it were, 
taking off a slice of the stone. The shaft-hole is oval, the longer diameter 
being lengthwise of the blade, and the edge is oblique. The faces are 
flatter than those of Fig. 130. Mr. Llewellynn Jewitt, F.S.A., has a 
flatter and longer specimen of this form, found at Winster, Derbyshire. 
It appears to be formed of close-grained grit, and is about 10 inches 
long, coming to a narrow rounded edge at the pointed end. Imple- 
ments of this character, but often approximating in form to Fig. 131, 
have been found in considerable numbers, though as isolated speci- 
mens, in the North. One found in Aberdeenshire, of this class, but 
having the butt-end slightly hollowed, and a well-marked shoulder 
on each face, as if from continual reduction by sharpening at the 
edge, is engraved in the Archaological Journal.* It is Qh; inches in 
length, and 5^ inches in extreme breadth. One from Scotland,! 
10;^ inches long, was exhibited by the Marquis of Breadalbane at Edin- 
burgh, in 1856, and one 12 inches long, from Alnwick. | Others have 
been found at Tillicoultry Bridge, § Clackmannan; Kelton,l| Kirkcud- 
brightshire ; in Wigtonshire ; ^ Silvermine,'''* Torphichen, Linlithgow ; and 
Laurie Street,! f Leith; another from the coast of Scotland is engraved 
in Skelton's "Meyrick's Armour, "|| but is there regarded as having 
been brought over by Danish invaders. One of the same form as 
this, 9| inches long, was found at Dean,§§ near Bolton, Lancashire, and 
others at Hopwood and Saddleworth, in the same county. One of grit, 
7i inches long, was found at Siddington,|l || near Macclesfield. Another, 
8 inches long, found at Kirk Oswald, Cumberland, is in the Museum at 
Newcastle, together with a similar specimen from Haydon Bridge ; and 
others have been found at Thirstone, Shilbottle, and Hipsburn,1I1[ North- 
umberland ; and in Yorkshire.*** They occur also in more southern 

* Vol. viii. p. 421. f " Cat. Arch. Inst. Mus. Ed.," p. 6. 

I Ibid., p. 45. j Arch. iSrof., vol. iii. App. p. 121. 

II Froc. Soc. Atit. Kent., vol. vii. p. 478. 11 Ibid., vol. iv. p. 55. 
** Ibid., vol. vi. p. 86. ft Ibid., vol. iv. p. 379. 

XX PI. xlviii. 1. ^§ Arrh. Assoc. Jonrn., vol. xv. p. 232. 

nil Geologist, vol. vii. p. 56. 1I"1I "Cat. Arch. Inst. Mus. Ed.," p. 38. 

**"* Arch. Journ., vol. x. p. 35. 



districts. Mr. Fitcli, F.S.A., has a fine specimen, 8 inches long, with the 
faces somewhat hollowed, found at Tasburgh, Norfolk. It seems to be 
formed of a compact sandstone. Another of greenstone, 5^ inches long, 
and rather curved longitudinally, was found in the same parish. Other 
specimens from Norfolk are mentioned in the Norwich volume of the 
Archaeological Institute. I have one of serpentine from Chatteris Fen, 
which has been broken, and has had a fresh edge ground on one side, 
instead of in the middle. The Rev. S. Banks has one of hard sandstone, 
7f inches long, found in Cottenham Fen. Its sides are more parallel, 
so that the edge is more obtuse. I have seen one, found near Stourton, 
Somersetshire, straighter at the sides, and having the angles rounded. 
It is of compact sandstone, 9^ inches long, 3f inches broad, and 
2 J inches thick. The hole tapers both ways, from 2 inches to 1^ inches. 
An axe of the same kind, but smaller, found near Imola, has been 
engraved by Gastaldi.''' 

Perhaps the more common variety, in Cumberland, is that which is 
somewhat flattened at the butt, like Fig. 131, and which is, more properly 
speaking, an axe-hammer. This specimen was found near Red Dial, 
Wigton, Cumberland, and is in my own collection. The two faces are 
nearly flat and parallel, and the edge appears to have been re-sharpened 
since the axe-head was first formed, as it is ground away to a shoulder 
a little below where it is perforated. It is formed of an igneous rock. 
A very symmetrical example, 8^ inches long, with the edge 2f inches 
wide, and the sides nearly flat, from Aikbrae, Culter, Lanarkshire, is 
engi'aved in the Journal of the Archmoloriical Association, j- 

A very similar specimen, 11 inches long, found in a turf moss near 
Haversham, Westmoreland, is engraved in the Arch(Eologia,l as is 
another from Furness.§ Another, with the faces more parallel and 
rounder at the end, 8 inches in length, was found near Carlisle upwards 
of a century ago, and forms the subject of an interesting paper by Bishop 
Lyttelton.jl Two also were found at Scalby, II near Scarborough. The 
Rev. W. Greenwell possesses several implements of this character, 
found in the North of England. They are 8 to 9 inches long, and 
4 to 5 inches broad. In the same collection is one 10 inches long, and 
5^ inches broad, from Helton, in the parish of Chalton, Northumberland ; 
and another, of nearly the same size and form as Fig. 131, from 
Castle Douglas, Galloway. He has also one, 10 inches long, of grit, 
from Castle Douglas, Kirkcudbrightshire ; another of greenstone, 6 inches 
long and 3 inches wide, with the cutting edge much worn away and 
re-sharpened, found at Brompton Carr, Yorkshire ; and others, var}ang 
inform, from Ousby Moor, Cumberland, and Heslerton Wold, Yorkshire. 

In the British Museum are several axe-heads of this form. One, 
9 inches long, of a porphyritic rock, is said to have been found in a 
barrow on Salisbury Plain. Another, of compact felspathic material, 
BJ inches long, is from the parish of Balmerino, Fife. A third, of similar 
material, 8 inches long, is from Llanbrynmair, Montgomeryshire.*''' It 
is worked to a flat oval at the butt-end, but with the angles rounded. 

* "Mem. Eeal. Ace. delle Scienze, &c., di Torino," 8ei-. ii. vol. xxvi. ta. i. 1. 

t Vol. xvii. p. 20. X Vol. ii. p. 125. 

§ Vol. xxxi. p. 452. II Arch., vol. ii. p. 118. 

11 Arch., vol. XXX. p. 459. ** "Horae Ferales," pi. iii. 3. 

N 2 



[CHAr. Vlll. 

The hole, as usual, tapers inwards from each face, but is not at right 
angles to the central line of the axe. I have a fine implement of this 
class, but larger and narrower than the figure, and concave on the 
faces, so that the edge is wider than the butt. It is of basalt, much 
eroded on the surface, and was found at Hardwick, near Bishop's Castle, 


Fig. 131.— Wigton. | 

Shropshire. It is 10^ inches long, and about 4:^ inches wide at the 
butt, where it is 3 inches thick. The shaft-hole is nearly 2 inches in 
diameter, and almost parallel ; the weight, Si lbs. 

One, 9^ inches long and 4 inches broad at the butt, was found at 
Grimley,* Worcestershire. Another, of porphyry, nearly triangular in 

* Allies' " Ants, of Wore," p. 150, pi. iv. 10. 


outline, 7 inches long, and 4 inches broad at the butt, was found at 
Necton, Norfolk, and is in the Norwich Museum. The shaft-hole, in this 
case, is jjarallel, but in most it tapers both ways, contracting from about 
1^ or 2 inches on each face to about 1:^ inches in diameter in the middle. 
One of greenstone, 6 inches long and 3 inches broad, found near Ely, has 
an oval hole. Mr. Llewellynn Jewitt, F.S.A., has an axe-hammer of this 
class, but still more flattened at one end, found in Cambridgeshire. It 
is of trap, the surface of which has begun to shell otf by expansion in 
decomposition. It is 7 inches long, by 3J inches broad, and 3 inches 
thick. The shaft-hole is nearly parallel, and If inches in diameter. 
The sides form an angle of 45° to each other at the edge, and there is 
little doubt that the implement has lost much of its original length 
through continual shai'pening. 

Mr. Llewellynn Jewitt, F.S.A., has kindly lent me for engraving the 
curious axe-hammer shown in Fig. 132, and has made use of my woodcut 
in his " Grave Mounds and their Contents." * It is formed of a very fine- 
grained, hard, and slightly micaceous grit, and its weight exceeds 7f lbs. 
It is somewhat rounded at the hammer end, which appears to have lost 
some splinters by use, though the broken surface has since been partially 
re-ground. The blade is slightly curved longitudinally, and both the 
outer and inner face have been hollowed from the point, as far as the 
perforation. The sides have each four parallel grooves worked in them, 
so that they are, as it were, corrugated into five ribs, extending from 
near the edge to opposite the centre of the hole. The hollows on the 
face also show two slight ribs parallel with the sides of the blade, the 
angles of which are rounded. The shaft-hole tapers slightly from each 
face towards the centre, where it is about If inches in diameter. The 
grooves seem to have been produced by picking, but have subsequently 
been made smoother by grinding. It was found at a spot known as the 
Sand Hills, in Lord Middleton's Park,f near WoUaton, Notts. The 
Rev. W. C. Lukis, F.S.A., has a closely similar specimen, 10 inches long, 
found at Jervaux, near Bedale, Yorkshire. It is not, however, fluted at 
the sides. 

Some of these instruments are so heavy that they can hardly have 
been wielded in the ordinary manner as axes, though they may have 
served for splitting wood, either by direct blows or by being used as 
wedges. Bishop Lyttelton thought they might have been battle-axes, 
but Pegge| pointed out that they were too heavy for such a purpose, or 
for use as missiles, and came to the conclusion " that these perforated 
stones were not originally applied to any warlike purpose, but rather to 
some domestic service, either^as a hammer or beetle for common use." 
Professor Nilsson,§ at a later date, has arrived at the same conclusion, 
and considers them most suitable for being held in the left hand by a 
short handle, and driven into wood by blows from a club held in the 
right hand. He has suggested for them the name of " handled wedges." 
In some parts of France I have seen extremely heavy iron axes, much 
resembling these stone implements in form, used for splitting wood. It 

* P. 111. 

t Proc. Sor. Ant., 2nd S., vol. iv. p 349. 
X Arch., vol. ii. p. 127. 
j " Stone Age," p. 73. 



[chap. Till. 

seems possible that in old times these heavy stone implements may also 
have been employed in agriculture. 

Axes of this character, usually formed of greenstone, are very common 

Fig. 132.— Wollatuii Park. i 

in Denmark and Northern Germany. They are much rarer in France, 
partly, no doubt, in consequence of the less abundance of suitable 
Asmall spccimcnof the same form, but rathermore square at the butt than 



Fig. 131, made of dark serpentine, and onh' 3;! inches long, was found at 
Tanagra, in Boeotia, and is in the collection of Dr. G. Finlay,*of Athens. 

Some of the forms last described, liaving square butt-ends, might, 
perhaps, with greater propriety have been included in the fourth 
class into which I have proposed to divide these instruments, viz., 
axe-hammers, with an edge at one end and more or less hammer- 
like at the other, and with the shaft-hole usually about the centre. 

Fig. 133.— Eucktliorpe. ^ 

One of the simplest, and at the same time the rarest varieties of this 
class, is presented by an implement of the form of an ordinary celt, like 
Fig. 69, but bored through in the same du-ection as the edge. Fig. 133 
represents such a specimen, in the collection of Messrs. Mortimer, of 
Fimber. It was found at Buckthorpe, Yorkshire, and is formed of close- 
grained greenstone. The butt-end is circular and flat, and the shaft- 
hole, which is oval, tapers considerably both ways. 

An axe-hammer of diorite, of nearly similar form, found at Groningeu, 
in the Netherlands, is in the Museum at Leyden. 

* " Cat. of Objects foimd in Greece," fig. 3. 




Another simple form is that exhibited in Fig. 134, taken from a specimen 
in greenstone found at Aldro', near Malton, Yorkshire, and in the posses- 
sion of Mr. Hartley, of Malton. Its principal interest consists in its 
having been left in the nnfinishcd state previous to its perforation. We 

thus learn that the same practice 
prevailed here as in Denmark — 
of working the axe-heads into 
shape before proceeding to bore 
the shaft - hole. In Denmark 
numerous specimens have been 
found, finished in all respects ex- 
cept the boring, and in many 
instances this has been com- 
menced, though not completed. 
It would appear from this circum- 
stance that the process of boring 
was one which required a con- 
siderable amount of time, but that 
it was most satisftictorily per- 
formed after the instrument had 
been brought into shape ; the 
position of the hole being ad- 
justed to the form of the imple- 
ment, and not the latter to the 
hole. In the rich collection of 
the Rev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A., 
is the cutting end of an axe which 
has been broken half-way across 
the hole, which, though commenced on both faces, was never finished. 
The conical, cup-shaped depressions produced by the boring instrument 
extend to some depth in the stone, but are still ^ inch from meeting. 
The fragment is 3i inches long, 2 inches broad, and 1^ inches thick, and 
was found at Sprouston, near Kelso. 

In the same collection is a small unfinished axe-head of greenstone, 
4 inches long, in which the hole has not been commenced. It was found 
at Coxwold, in the North Riding of Yorkshire. 

An unpierced axe-head of greenstone, 4 inches long, in form much 
like Fig. 136, but with the hollowed face shorter, was found in a 
grave in Btronsay, one of the Orkney Islands, and is now in the Anti- 
quarian Museum at Edinburgh. There are slight recesses on each face, 
sTiowing the spots at which the perforation was to have been com- 

A perforated axe of serpentine, of the same character as Fig. 134, but 
wider at the butt, was found in the Thames, and is now in the British 
Museum, It is 4 inches long and 2| inches wide, with a shaft-hole | inch 
in diameter. It has the peculiarity of being much thicker at the cutting 
end than at the butt, the two faces tapering from 11 inches at the edge 
to 7 inch at the butt. 

A similar feature is to be observed in another axe of hornblende 
schist, and of rather more elongated form than Fig. 134, found at Cawton, 
in the North Riding of Yorkshire, and in the collection of the Rev. W. 



Greenwell, F.S.A. It is 5f inches long, 2 J inches broad, and 2g inches 
thick at the cutting end. 

A partially finished axe-head, with one face and about two-thirds of 
the width of the sides worked into form, is engraved in the " Horae 
Ferales." '•' It is not a British specimen, but its place of finding is 

A rather more elaborate form, having the two faces curved longitudi- 
nally inwards, and the edge broader than the hammer end, is shown in 
Fig. 135. The original, which is of porphyritic greenstone, was dis- 
covered by the Rev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A. , in a barrow at Cowlam,! 
near Weaverthorpe, Yorkshire. It lay in front of the face of a contracted 
skeleton, the edge towards the fiice, and the remains of the wooden 

Fig. 1:j5. — Cowlam. J 

handle still grasped by the right hand. The cutting edge is carefully 
removed, so that it was probably a battle-axe. Connected with this 
grave was that of a woman with two bronze earrings at her head. 

Another, of much the same form, but of coarser work, and heavier, was 
found near Pickering, and is preserved in the Museum at Scarborough. 

I have seen a small axe of similar type, but with the edge almost 
semicircular, and the hole neai'er the butt, found at Felixstow, Suffolk. 
It is of quartzite, 4.V inches long, 2| inches broad, and 1| inches thick. 
The hole, though 1^ inches in diameter at the faces, diminishes to 
^ inch in the centre. In this respect it resembles some of the hammer- 
stones shortly to be described. 

* n. iii. 24. 

t Proc. Sor. Ant., 2n(i S., vol. iv. p. 61. 



[chap. VIII. 

Fig. 136 presents a rather more elaborate form, which is, however, partly- 
due to that of the flat oval quartzite pebble from which this axe-hammer 
was made. The hammer end seems to preserve the original form of the 
pebble almost intact ; it is, however, slightly flattened at the extremity. 
The original is in the collection of the Rev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A., and 
was found in a cist at Seghill,''' near Newcastle, in 18G6. The bones, by 




ii^. l^tj. — .Scgiilli. § 

which it was no doubt originally accompanied, had entirely gone to 

It was an axe-head somewhat of this character, but sharper at the 
hammer end, that was found in an urn, near Broughton in Craven, in 
1675, and with it a small bronze dagger (with a tang and single rivet 
hole) and a hone. It is described and figured by Thoresby.f Hearne | 

* 2^roc. Soc. Ant., 2nd 8., vol. iv. p. 60. 

t Thoresby's Cat. in Whitaker's ed. of " Ducatus Leod.," p. 114. 

X Leland's " Coll.," vol. iv. vi. 



regarded it as Danish. It is described as of sjieckled marble polished, 
6 inches long and 3^ inches broad, with the edge at one end blunted 
by use. 

A still greater elaboration of form is exhibited in Fig. 137, from an 

Fig. 137. — Kiiklington. 

implement found at Kirklington, Yorkshire, and in the collection of the 
Rev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A. It is of basalt, worked to a flat oval at the 
hammer end, and to a curved cutting edge at the other. The two faces 
are ground concave, and the shaft-hole is nearly parallel. This axe- 



[chap. VIII. 

hammer is of larger size than usual when of this form, being 8 inches in 

Nearly similar weapons have been frequently found in barrows. One 
such, of greenstone, about 4 inches long, was found by Mr. Charles 
Warne, F.S.A., in a barrow at Winterbourn Steepleton, near Dorchester, 
associated with burnt bones. He has given a figure* of it, which, 
by his kindness, I here reproduce as Fig. 138. 

An extremely similar specimen, found near Claughton Hall, Garstang, 
Lancashire, is engraved in the Arelu/olui/ical Juiirnal.i It is said to 
have been found in a wooden case, together with an iron axe, spear-head, 
sword, and hammer, in cutting through a tumulus in 1822. There must, 
however, be an error in this account ; and as an urn, containing burnt 
bones, was found in the same tumulus with the Saxon or Danish interment, 
it seems probable that the objects belonging to difi'erent burials, primary 
and secondary in the barrow, became mixed during the twenty-seven 
years that elapsed between their discovery and their communication to 
the Archaeological Institute. Another weapon of much the same shape, 
but 4| inches long, and formed of dark greenstone, is in the British 


\\ iiiteibouiii .Sttepleton. 

Museum. It was found in the Thames, at Loudon. The process by 
which these hollow faces appear to have been ground will be described 
at page 240. 

Hir E. Colt Hoare has engraved two axe-hammers of this form, but 
slightly varying in size and details, from barrows in the Ashton Valley,]: 
In both cases they accompanied interments of burnt bones, in one 
instance placed beneath an inverted urn ; in the other there was no urn, 
but an arrow- head of bone lay with the axe. 

An axe, 5^^ inches long, of nearly the same form, but having a small 
oval projection on each side opposite the shaft-hole, was found in the bed 
of the Severn, at Eibbesford, Worcestershire, and is now in the Museum 
of the Society of Antiquaries. It has been somewhat incorrectly figured 
by Allies, § and rather better by Wright. || 

An axe-head, 5/o- inches long, of the same character as Fig. 138, 
but in outline more nearly resembling Fig. 137, was found at Stanwick, 
Yorkshire, and is now in the British Museum."! 

" Celtic Tumuli of Dorset," p. G3. 
"Houth Wilts," Tumuli, pi. viii. 

t Vol. vi. p. 71. 

'J "Ants, of Worcestershii-c^," pi. iv. 5, p. 140. 
II " Celt, Roman, and Saxon," p. 70. 
11 "IIorsB Ferales," pi. iii. 15. 



Another axe-liammer of greenstone, with projections on the sides 

opposite the centre of the hole, and with a hollow fluting near each 

margin, and carried round 

on the faces below the holes, 

is shown in Fig. 139. The 

original was found by the 

Rev. J. C. Atkinson, who 

has kindly lent it me for 

engraving. It lay in an urn 

about 17 inches high, con- 
taining burnt bones and some 

fragments of burnt flint, in a 

large barrow on the Skelton 

Moors, Yorkshire. In the 

same barrow were found eight 

other urns, all containing 

secondary interments. In 

another barrow, on Wester- 
dale Moors, Mr. Atkinson 

found a second axe-hammer 

of nearly the same size and 

form, but more hammer-like 

at the end. This also has 

the channels on the sides. 

It is of fine-grained granite, 

and lay in an urn with 

burnt bones, a small " incense-cup," and a sort of long bone bead, having 

a spiral pattern upon it, and a transverse orifice 

into the perforation, about the centre. In this case, 

also, the interment was not that over which the 

barrow was originally raised. In another barrow, 

on Danby North Moors, also opened by Mr. Atkin- 
son, a rather larger axe-hammer, of much the same 

outline, lay with the hole in a vertical position, 

about 15 inches above a deposit of burnt bones. 

It is of basalt, much decayed. 

A longer and more slender form has also occa- 
sionally been found in tumuli. Sir R. Colt Hoare 
has engraved a beautiful specimen from the Sel- 
wood Barrow,* near Stourton, which is here repro- 
duced as Fig. 140. It is of syenite, 5tV inches long, 
and lay in a cist, in company with burnt bones 
and a small bronze dagger, which in the description 
is erroneously termed a lance-head. Parallel with 
each face, there appears to be a small groove worked 
on the side of the axe-head. 

In the Christy Collection is a similar but longer 
specimen, 7 inches long and 2+ inches wide, formed 
of dark greenstone. It also has the grooves along 
the margin of the sides, and has an oval flat face about 
* " South Wilts," Tumuli, pi. i. 

■skelton Moors, i 

Selwood BaiTow.J 

1 inch by 



[chap. VIII. 

I inch at the hammer end. The hole, which is 1^ inches full in diameter 
at one side, contracts rather suddenly to 1 inch at the other. This 
weapon was formerly in the Leverian Museum, and is said to have been 
found in a barrow near Stonehenge, which, from its similarity to Sir 
R. C. Hoare's specimen, there seems no reason to doubt. 

An axe-hammer of claystone porphyry, 4f inches 
long, about 1:^ inches across its cutting edge, with a 
shaft-hole ^ inch in diameter, and in form the same 
as those last described — except that there appears 
to be moi'e of a shoulder at the hammer end — was 
found in a barrow at Winwick,* near AVarrington, 
Lancashire. It was broken clean across the hole, 
and had been buried in an urn with burnt bones, and 
with them was also a bronze dagger with a tang, 
and one rivet-hole to secure it in the handle. 

An axe-hammer of much the same proportions, 
but more square at the hammer end, was found in a 
dolmen near Carnac,! in Brittany. 

Another variety of form is shown in Fig. 141, 
reduced from Sir R. Colt Hoare's great work.| In 
this case the hammer end would appear to be lozenge- 
shaped, as there is a central ridge shown on the 
face. It was found in the Upton Lovel barrow, on 
the breast of the larger skeleton, near the feet of 
which the flint celts, polished and unpolished, and 
various other objects in bone and stone, were found, as previously men- 
tioned. § The engi-aving of this weapon in the Arch aologi a differs con- 
siderably from that given by Sir R. C. Hoare. 

In Fig. 142 is shown another form, in which the hammer end, though 

Fig. 141.— Upton Lovel. A 

flat in one direction, forms a semicircular sweep, answering in form to 
the cutting edge at the other end. The two sides are ornamented with a 
slight groove, extending across them parallel to the centre of the shaft- 
hole. The material of which this axe-hammer is made appears to be 
serpentine. It was found in the Thames at London, and is in the British 

The very neatly formed instrument represented in Fig. 143 seems to 

* ArehcEol. Journ., vol. xviii. p. 168. Arch. Assoc. Journ., vol. xvi. p. 295, 
pi. XXV. 8; Trans. Hist. Soc. Lane, and Chesh., vol. xii. p. 189. 
t " Guide des Touristes, &c., dans le Mortihan, " 1854, p. 43. 
X " South Wilts," Tumuli, pi. v. ; Arch., vol. xv. pi. v. 1. § Supra, p. 75. 



occupy an intermediate place between a battle-axo and a mace or fighting 
hammer. It is rounded in both directions at the butt-end, but, instead 
of having a sharp edge at the other end, it is bi'ought to a somewhat 
rounded point. The inner face is concave, though hardly to the extent 
shown by the dotted line in the wood- 
cut. The shaft-hole is nearly paral- 
lel, though somewhat expanding at 
both faces. The material is green- 
stone. This weapon was found in 
the middle of a barrow, or rather 
cairn, formed of stones, in the 
parish of Pelynt, Cornwall."'" It 
lay among a considerable quantity 
of black ashes, which had evidently 
been burnt on the natural surface 
of the ground at the spot. There 
was no urn, nor any other work of 
art in company with it. In another 
barrow, in the same field, a bronze 
dagger with two rivets was found. 
I have never seen any other stone 
hammer of this form found in Bri- 
tain, nor can I call to mind any 
such in continental museums. The 
nearest approach to it is to be 
found in some of the Scandinavian 
weapons, in which the outer face 
is much more rounded than the 
inner, but in these there is usually 
an axe-like edge, though very nar- 
row. The concave face of the Pelynt weapon is so much like that of 
some of the battle-axes, such as Fig. 137, as to suggest the idea that 
originally it may have been of this form, but having in some manner 
been damaged, it has been re- worked into its present exceptional shape. 

It will have been observed that instruments, such as most of those 
engraved, have accompanied interments both by cremation and inhuma- 
tion, and have, in some cases, been found in association with small 
daggers, and pins or awls of bronze. Other instances may be adduced 
from the writings of the late Mr. T. Bateman, though sometimes the exact 
form of the weapons is not recorded. In the Parcelly Hay Barrow, f near 
Hartington, an axe-head of granite, with a hole for the shaft, and a 
bronze dagger, with three rivets for fastening the handle, had been buried 
with a contracted body above the covering stones of the primary inter- 
ment. | The axe-head is 4 inches long and nearly 2 inches broad, with 
a perfectly round hole, -po- inch in diameter. The sides are rounded, 
the long faces hollowed, and the edge curved. 

Another, of basalt, apparently like Fig. 120. broken in the middle, is 
said to have lain between two skeletons at full length, placed side by side 

* Twenty-seventh Report Roy. Inst, of Coriiw., 18-16, p. 35. I am indebted to the 
Secretaries of this Institution for permission to eniirave the specimen. 

+ " Ten Years' Diggings," p. 24. I " Crania Brit.," vol. ii. pi. ii. p. 2. 

Fig. 143.— Pelynt, Cornwall. 


in a barrow at Kens Low Farm," opened by Mr. W. Bateman. On the 
breast of one lay a circular brooch of copper or bronze. With the axe 
was a polished porphyry slate pebble, the ends of which were ground flat. 

Looking at tlie wliole series of instruments, it seems probable 
that they were intended to serve more tban one purpose, and that 
wbile those of adze-like form were probably tools either for agri- 
culture or for carpentry, and tlie large heavy axe-hammers also served 
some analogous purpose, the smaller class of instruments, whether 
sharpened at both ends or at one only, may with some degree of 
certainty be regarded as weapons. That the perforated form of 
axe was of later invention than the solid stone hatchet is almost 
self-evident ; and that many of the battle-axe class belong to a 
period when bronze was coming into use is well established. That 
all instruments of this form belong to so late a period there is no 
evidence to prove, but probability is much in favour of a contrary 
view ; for in other countries where perforated axes al-e common, 
as in Scandinavia and Switzerland, those who have most carefully 
studied the antiquities find reason for assigning a considerable 
number to a period when the use of bronze was unknown. On 
the other hand, it is possible that in some instances the large 
heavy axe-hammers may have remained in use even in the days 
when bronze and iron were well known. Sir W. Wilde mentions 
one in the Museum of the Eoyal Irish Academy, lOf inches long, 
which is said to have been recently in use. Mr. Greenwell has 
another which was used for felKng pigs in Yorkshire. Such, 
however, are but instances of adapting ancient implements, acci- 
dentally met with, to modern uses. 

I have already, in the description of the various figures, men- 
tioned when analogoiis forms were found in other parts of Western 
Europe, so that it is needless again to cite instances of discoveries 
on the Continent. I may, however, notice a curious series from 
Itiissia, principally from the Governments of Olonetz and Minsk, 
which were sent to the Paris Exhibition of 1867, some of which 
were casts, and are now in the Christy Collection. They are for the 
most part pointed at one end, the other being sometimes carved to 
represent the head of an animal. Some are pointed at each end. In 
three examples there is a projection on both sides of the shaft-hole, 
designed to add strength to a weak part, but at the same time 
made ornamental. Out of Europe this class of instruments is 
almost unknown. 

* " Vest. Ant. Doib.," p. 29. Smith, "Coll. Ant.," vol. i. pi. xx. 3. 


Turning to modern savages, the comparative absence of per- 
forated axes is strildng. In North America it is true that some 
specimens occur, but the material is usually too soft for cutting 
purposes, and the haft-holes are so small that the handles would 
be liable to break. Messrs. Squier and Davis,* and Mr. Stevens,! 
therefore infer that they were probably used as weapons of parade. 
They are, however, occasionally formed of quartz.* School- 
craft,§ moreover, regards the semilunar perforated maces as actual 
weapons of war. One of them, pointed at each end, is described 
as 8 inches in length, and weighing |lb. The more hatchet- 
like forms he considers to be tomahawks. In some instances || 
the hole does not extend through the blade. 

In Central America, Southern Africa, and New Zealand, where 
the art of drilling holes through stone is, or was, Avell known, 
perforated axes appear to be absent. I have, however, heard of an 
instrument of the kind having been discovered in New Zealand, 
but have not seen either the original or a sketch. Some per- 
forated hoe-like implements have also been found in Mexico. 

The nearest approach to such instruments is perhaps afforded by 
the sharp -rimmed perforated discs of stone, mounted on shafts so 
as to present an edge all round, which are in use, probably as 
weapons, in the southern part of New Guinea and in Torres Straits. 
Of these there are two specimens in the Christy Collection. 

The cause of this scarcity appears to be, that though it 
might involve rather more trouble and skill to attach a solid 
hatchet to its shaft, yet this was more than compensated by the 
smaller amount of labour involved in making that kind of blade 
than in fashioning and boring the perforated kind. These latter, 
moreover, would be more liable to break in use. Looking at our 
own stone axes from this point of view, it seems that with the 
very large implements the shaft-hole became almost a necessity ; 
while with those used for warlike purposes, where the contingencies 
of use and breakage were but small, it seems probable that the 
possession of a weapon, on the production of which a more than 
ordinary amount of labour had been bestowed, was regarded as a 
mark of distinction, as is the case among some savages of the 
present day. 

* " Anc. Mon. of Miss. VaU.," p. 219. t " Flint Chips," p. 506. 

X " Indian Tribes," vol. iv. p. 174. 

§ "Indian Tribes," vol. i. p. 92; vol. ii. pi. xlviii. || Op. cif., vol. iv. p. 167. 




Closely allied to the axe-hammers, so closely indeed that the 
form^s seem to merge in each other, are the perforated hammer- 
heads of stone, which are found of various shapes, and are formed 
of several different kinds of rocks. In many instances the whole 
of the external surface has been carefidly fashioned and ground 
into shape, but it is at least as commonly the case that a symme- 
trical oval pebble has been selected for the hammer-head, and has 
been thus used without any labour being bestowed upon it, beyond 
that necessary for boring the shaft-hole. By some antiquaries 
these perforated pebbles have been regarded as weights for sinking 
nets, or for some such purpose ; but in most cases this is, I think, 
an erroneous view — firstly, because the majority of these imple- 
ments show traces, at their extremities, of having been used as 
hammers ; and, secondly, because, for such purposes as weights, 
there can be no doubt that the softer kinds of stone, easily suscep- 
tible of being pierced, would be selected ; whereas these perforated 
pebbles are almost invariablj^ of quartzite, or some equally hard 
and tough material. 

There are some instances, indeed, in which the perforation 
would appear to be almost too small for a shaft of sufficient strength 
to wield the hammer, if such it were ; but even in such cases, where 
hard silicious pebbles have been used, they must, in all probability, 
have been intended for other purposes than weights. I am inclined 
to think that some means of hafting, not now in use, may have been 
adopted in such cases, and that possibly the handles may have been 
formed of twisted hide or sinews, passed through the hole in a wet 
state, secured by knots on either side, and then allowed to harden 
by drying. Such shafts would be more clastic and tough than any 
of the same size in wood ; but it must be confessed that there is 
no evidence of their having been actually employed, though there 


is of the stones having been in use as hammers. I have an Irish 
specimen, 3f inches long and 2^ inches wide, with the perforation 
tapering from about If inches diameter on either face, to less than 
I inch in the middle, and yet each end of the stone is worn 
away by use, to the extent of j inch below the original oval 
contour. It is possible that these deep cavities may have been 
intended to assist in keeping a firm hold of the stone when used 
in the hand as a hammer without any shaft, in the same manner 
as did the shallow indentations which occasionally occur on the 
faces of pebbles thus used ; but this is hardly probable when the 
cavities meet in the centre to form a hole exactly like the ordinary 
shaft-holes, except in its disproportionately small size. It is 
worthy of notice that even in axe-hammers the shaft-hole appears 
to be sometimes absurdly small for the size of the implement. I 
have a Danish specimen of greenstone, carefully finished, 6f inches 
long, and weighing 1 lb. 15 ozs. avoirdupois, and yet the shaft- 
hole is only f inch in diameter on either face, and but ^ inch 
in the centre. The axe from Felixstow, already mentioned, 
presents the same pecidiarity. 

It has been suggested that one of the methods of hafting these 
implements with the double bell-mouthed perforations was by 
placing them over a branch of a tree, and leaving them there until 
secured in their position by the natural growth of the wood, the 
branch being then cut off at the proper places, and serving as a 
handle. I have, however, fomid by experience that even with a 
fast-growing tree such a process requires two or three years at the 
least, and that, when removed, the shrinkage of the branch in 
drying leaves the hammer-head loose on its haft. Such a system 
of hafting would, moreover, imply a fixity of residence on the part 
of the savage owners of the tools, which appears hardly compatible 
with the stage of civilization to which such instruments are pro- 
bably to be referred. 

It has also been suggested that some of these pierced stones 
were offensive weapons attached by a thong of leather to a handle,* 
and used as " flail stones," after the manner of the " morning 
stars " of the Middle Ages. Such a method of mounting, though 
possible, appears to me by no means probable in the majority of 
cases, though among the Esquimaux f a weapon has been in use, 
consisting of a stone ball with a drilled hole, through which a strip 
of raw hide is passed to serve as a handle. 

* Arch. Assoc. Journ., vol. xx. p. 102. t Stevens, "Flint Chips," p. 499. 




[chap. IX. 

The first specimen I have selected for iUustration, Fig. 144, might, with 
almost equal propriety, have been placed among the perforated axes, 

though it has three blunt edges 
instead of one or two. It was 
found at Balmaclellan, in New Gal- 
loway, and it is now in the Anti- 
quarian Museum at Edinburgh. It is 
of very peculiar triangular form, H 
inches in thickness, and with a per- 
foration expanding from 1 inch in 
diameter in the centre to If inches 
on each face. An engraving of it 
is given in the Proceedinr/s of the 
Society of Antiquaries of Scotland,* 
which I have here reproduced on a 
larger scale, so as to correspond in its 
proportions with the otherwoodcuts. 
A curious hammer, 
of brown haematite, not 
quite so equilateral as 
the Scotch specimen, 
and much thicker in 
proportion, found in 
Alabama, has been en- 
graved by Schoolcraft, f 
The holes, from each 
face, do not meet in 
the middle. 

The specimen shown 
in Fig. 145 was found 
in the Thames, at Lon- 
don, and is now in the 
r>ritish Museum. In 
form it is curiously like 
a metallic hammer, 
swelling out around the 
shaft-hole, and tapering 
down to a round flat 
face at each extremity. 
So far as I know, it is 
unique of its kind in this 
country. It is more 
probably the head of a 
war mace than that 
of an ordinary hammer. 
A somewhat similar 
hammer, of porphyry, 

Fig. 145.-Tliames, London. i is in the Museum of the 

Deutsche Gesellschaft at Leipzig. It is, however, shorter in its proportions. 

Vol. vii. p. 385. 

t "Indian Tribes," vol. iv. p. 168. 



The instrument shown in Fig. 146 is, perhaps, more like a blunted axe- 
hammer than a simple hammer. It has at one end a much-rounded 
point, and at the other is nearly straight across, though rounded in the 
other direction. It would appear to be a weapon rather than a tool. It 
is formed of greenstone, and was found near Scarborough, and is now in 
the Museum at the Leeds Philosophical Hall. 

A beautifully finished hammer-head, cross-paned at both ends, and 
with a parallel poHshed shaft-hole, is shown in Fig. 147. It is of pale 
mottled-green gneissose rock, Avith veins of transparent pale green, like 
jade, and was found in a barrow in Shetland. It is preserved in the 
Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh, where is also another of the same 
form, but broader and much more weathered, which was found at 
Scarpiegarth,* also in Shetland. A remarkably elegant instrument of 

Fig. 146. — Scarborough. 

Fig. 147.— Sliedand. 

this kind, formed of a quartzose metamorphic rock, striped green and 
white, and evidently selected for its beauty, is in the collection of the 
Rev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A. It was found in Caithness. It is polished 
all over, and 4^ inches long. If inches wide, and 1^ inches thick, of 
oval section, with the ends slightly rounded. The shaft-hole is 
parallel, ^ inch in diameter, and about f inch nearer to one end 
than to the other. Mr. Greenwell has another specimen, rather more 
elongated in form, and of more ordinary material, found near Harome, 
in Yorkshire, in a district where a number of stone implements of rare 
types have been discovered. It is of clay-slate, 5:^ inches long, and of 
oval section, 1| inches by 1 inch. The shaft-hole tapers from 1 inch at 
the faces to -^\- inch in the centre. A shorter hammer, of gneiss, 3f inches 
long, and of similar section, If inches by 1^ inches, with a parallel 
shaft-hole | inch in diameter, was found near Blair-Drummond, and is 

* Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. vi. p. 327. 



[chap. IX. 

now in the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh. It has a thin rounded 

edge at one end, and is obtuse at the other, as if it had been broken and 

subsequently rounded over. 

Another polished hammer, of grey granite, 
4 inches long, with curved sides, and narrower 
at one end than the other, was found in a 
cairn in Caithness,* in company with a flint 
knife ground at the edge, some arrow-heads, 
and scrapers. By permission of the Society 
of Antiquaries of Scotland, it is shown in 
Fig. 148. A somewhat similar form of ham- 
mer has been found in Denmark. t 

The hammer-head shown in Fig. 149 re- 
sembles the Shetland implements in character, 
though, besides being far less highly finished, 
it is shorter and broader, and shows more 
wear at the ends. The hole, also, is not 
parallel, but tapers from both faces. It is 
stated to have been found 12 feet deep in 
gravel, while sinking for foundations for the 
works of the North Eastern Railway in Neville 
Street, Leeds. It is formed of greenstone, and has all the appearance 

of having been made out of a portion of a celt. 

I have a somewhat smaller hammer-head, of much the same foi'm. 

Fig. 148.— Caitlmess. 

Fig. l-i9.— Leeds. i 

found in Reach Fen, Cambridge, which has also the appearance of having 
been made from a fragment of a broken celt. I have seen another of the 
same kind, found near Brixham, in Devonshire. 

* I'roc. Soc. Ant. Scut., vol. vii. p. 499. t Ant. Tidsk., 1858—60, p. 277- 



I have another specimen, in which a portion of an implement of larger 
size has also been utilized for a fresh purpose. In this case the sharper 
end of a large axe-head of stone, probably much like Fig. 131, having 
been broken otf, the wedge-shaped fragment, which is about 3 inches 
long and 2 inches broad, has been bored through in a direction at right 
angles to the edge, and probably to the original shaft-hole, and a some- 
what adze-like hammer-head has been the result ; what was formerly the 
edge of the axe being rounded and battered. 

Fragments of celts which, when the edge was lost, have subsequently 
served as hammers, but without any perforation, have not unfrequently 
been found, both here and on the Continent. The Esquimaux hammer, 
already mentioned, has much the same appearance and character as if it 
had been made from a portion of a jade celt. 

The form of hammer shown in Fig. 150 may be described as a 
frustum of a cone with convex ends. The 
specimen here figured is of quartzite, and was 
found near Rockland, Norfolk. It is preserved 
in the Norwich Museum. The hole, as usual 
with this type, is nearly parallel. The lower 
half of a similar hammer, but of flint, 2 inches 
in diameter, and showing one half of the shaft- 
hole, which is f inch in diameter, is in the 
British Museum. It was found at Gruudisburgh, 

A more conical specimen, tapering from 2| 
inches to Ij inches in diameter, and 3 inches 
long, with a shaft-hole | inch in diameter within 
J inch of the top, is in the collection of the 
Rev. W. G-reenwell, F.S.A. It is of basalt, and 
Avas found at Twisel, in the parish of Norham, 
Northumberland . 

Some rather larger and more cylindrical in- 
struments of analogous form have been found in 
Yorkshire. One such, about 4 inches long, and 
with a small parallel shaft-hole about f inch in 
diameter, was found with an urn in a barrow at 
Weapon Ness, and is in the Museum at Scar- 
borough. With it was a flint spear-head or Fig. 150.— Rockiami. j 
javelin-head. It is described as rather kidney-shaped in the Arclucoloijui:'-' 
I have the half of another, made of compact sandstone, and found on 
the Yorkshire Wolds. 

The same form is found in Ireland, but the sides curve inwards 
and the section is somewhat oval. Sir W. AYilde f describes two 
such of polished gneiss, and a third is engraved in Shirley's 
"Account of Farney."+ Sir WilUam suggests that such imple- 
ments were, in all probability, used in metal-working, especially 

* Vol. XXX. p. 461. t "Cat. Mus. R. I. A.," p. 80. 

+ P. 94. See also Arch. Journ., vol. Hi. p. 94 ; and Worsaae's " Prim. Ants, of 
Den.," p. 15. 



[chap. IX. 

in the mauufacture of gold and silver. Certainly, in most cases, 
they can hardly have been destined for any ordinary purposes 
of savage life, as the labour involved in boring such shaft-holes in 
quartzite, and especially in flint, must have been immense. It 
seems quite as probable that these were weapons as tools, and in 
that case we can understand an amount of time and care being 
bestowed on their preparation such as in modern days we find 
savages so often bestomng on their warlike accoutrements. 
Another argument in favour of these being weapons may be 
derived from the beauty of the material of which they are some- 
times composed. That from Farney is of a light green colour 
and nicely polished, and one in my own collection, fomid near 
Tullamore, King's County, is formed of a piece of black and 
white gneissose rock, which must have been selected for its 
beauty. One in the British Museum, from Lough Gvir, is of black 

The type with the oval section is not, however, confined to Ireland. 

The Rev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A., possesses a beautiful hammer of this 

class, which is represented in Fig. 151. It is made of a veined quartzose 

— — — gneiss, and was found on Heslerton Wold, Yorkshire. 

As will be seen, it is somewhat oval in section, the 

two diameters at the longer end being If and 1| 

inches. The sides are straight, but the faces from 

which the hole is bored are somewhat hollow. 

A smaller hammer-head, curiously like those from 
Farney and Tullamore both in form and material, 
was found with a small " food vessel " accompanying 
an interment near Doune.''' It is 2| inches long, 
with a parallel shaft-hole f inch in diameter. 

Another, of small-grained black porphyry neatly 
polished, and about 3^ inches long, similar in outline 
to Fig. 150, but of oval section, and little more 
than an inch in thickness, was found in the Tidal 
Basin at Montrose, and is preserved in the local 

Another variety, allied to the last, has an egg- 
shaped instead of a quasi-conical form, the shaft- 
hole being towards the small end of the egg. The 
specimen here engraved. Fig. 152, is apparently of serpentine, and 
was found at Hallgaard Farm, near Birdoswald, Cumberland. It is 
in the collection of the Rev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A. I have a smaller 
but nearly similar specimen in greenstone, procured by Mr. E. Tindall, 
from the neighbourhood of Flamborough, Yorkshire. The hole in this is 
more bell-mouthed than in the other specimen, and a little nearer the 
centre of the stone. 

Fig. 151.— Heslerton 
Wold. J 

* Proc. Sov. Ant. Scot., 12th June, 1871. 



One of nearly similar form, but rather flatter on one face, 3^ inches 
long, found in Newport, Lincoln, is engraved in the Archaoloijical 

An egg-shaped hammer, 3 inches long, of mica schist, and found in 
the Isle of Arran,f is in the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh. The 
shaft-hole is in the centre. 

Sometimes these hammer-heads are, in outline, of an intermediate form 
between Figs. 151 and 152, being oval in section, and more rounded at 
the smaller end than the lai'ger, which is somewhat flattened. One such, 
in the Christy Collection, is formed of granite, and was found at Burns, 
near Keswick, Cumberland. Another, of quartzite, 8:^ inches long, found 
on Breadsale Moor, is in the Museum at Derby. Neither of them pre- 
sents the same high degree of finish as Fig. 151. They seem, indeed, 
to have been made from pebbles, which were but slightly modified in 
form by their conversion into hammer-heads. 

Occasionally, though rarely, flint pebbles naturally perforated have 
been used as hammers. In excavating a barrow at Thorverton,! 

Fig. 152. — Birdoswald. a 

near Exeter, the Rev. R. Kirwan discovered a flint pebble about 3f inches 
long, with a natural perforation rather nearer one end than the other, 
but which on each face has been artificially enlarged. Each end of the 
pebble is considerably abraded by use. No other relics, with the excep- 
tion of charcoal, were found in the barrow. Mr. Kirwan suggests that the 
stone may have been used by placing the thumb and forefinger in each 
orifice of the aperture ; but not improbably it may have been hafted. 
In the Museum of Northern Antiquities at Copenhagen are one or two 
axes of flint, ground at the edge, but with the shaft-holes formed by 
natural perforations of the stone ; and in M. Boucher de Perthes' collec- 
tion § were two hammer-heads with central holes of the same character. 

* Vol. xxvii. p. 142. t P>'oc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. v. p. 240. 

X Trans. Devon. Assoc, vol. iii. p. 497. 

\ " Ant. Celt, et Anted.," vol. i. pi. xiii. 9, p. 327. 


The beautiful and elaborately finisbed hammer-head found at Maes- 
more, near Corwen, Merionethsbh-e, and now in the Antiquarian 
Museum at Edinburgh, is to some extent connected in form with those 
like Fig. 152. It is shown in Fig. 153, on the scale of | inch to 
the inch, but a full size representation of it is given in the AvcIkbo- 
loijical Journal/'- and in the Arcltaologia Cnmbrensis.\ It is of dusky 
white chalcedony, or of very compact quartzite, and weighs 10^ 
ounces. " The reticulated ornamentation is worked with great pre- 
cision, and must have cost great labour. The perforation for the 
haft is formed with singular symmetry and perfection ; the lozengy 
grooved decoration covering the entire surface is remarkably sym- 
metrical and skilfully finished." The Rev. E. L. Barnwell,! who 
presented it to the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, has observed 
that "the enormous amount of labour that must have been bestowed 
on cutting and polishing would indicate that it was not intended 

Fig. 15:?. — JIaesmore, Coiwen. \ 

for ordinary use as a common hammer." " Some have considered it 
as the war implement of a distinguished chief ; others, that it was 
intended for sacrificial or other religious purpose, or as a badge of high 

Other conjectures are also mentioned which it is needless to repeat. 
My own opinion is in favour of regarding it as a weapon of war, such as, 
like the jade merai of the New Zealander, implied a sort of chieftainship 
in its possessor. At the time of its discovery, it was unique of its kind. 
But since then a second example has been found, though in an unfinished 
condition, at Urquhart, near Elgin, and has also been placed in the 
Museum at Edinburgh. It is rather smaller, but of similar type and 
material to the Welsh specimen. The shaft-hole is finished, but the 
boring process has not been skilfully carried out, the meeting at the 
centre of the holes bored from either face not having been perfect ; and 
though the hole has been made straight by subsequent grinding out, 
there is still a lateral cavity left. The faceted pattern is complete at 
the small end, and commenced on both sides. Along the edge of the face 
small notches are ground, showing the manner in which the pattern was 
laid out before grinding the hollow facets. Numerous arrow-heads, 

* Vol. xix. p. 92. 

t 3rd S., vol. vi. p. 307. 

X I'roc. fioe. Ant. Scot., vol. vi. p. 43. 


scrapers, and other forms of flint instruments liave been found in the 
same neighbourhood. 

A very peculiar hammer, discovered by Sir Richard Colt Hoare,* in 
Bush barrow, near Normanton, Wilts, is reproduced in Fig. 154. It lay 
on the right side of a skeleton, which was accompanied by a bronze celt 
adapted for insertion in its handle, but without side flanges ; a mag- 
nificent bronze dagger, the handle of which was ornamented with 
gold ; a lance-head of bronze ; and a large lozenge-shaped plate of 
gold. The hammer-head is " made out of a fossil mass of tuhu- 
laria, and polished, rather of an egg form," or " resembling the top 
of a large gimlet. It had a wooden handle, which was fixed into the 
perforation in the centre, and encircled by a neat ornament of brass, part 
of which still adheres to the stone." As it bore no marks of wear or 
attrition. Sir Richard hardly considered it to have been used as a 
domestic implement, and thought that the stone, as containing a mass of 
serpularia, or little serpents, might have been held in great veneration, 
and therefore have been deposited with the other valuable relics in the 
grave. Judging from the other objects accompanying this interment, it 
seems more probable that this hammer was a weapon of ofi"ence, though 

Fig. lot.— Nunuantoii, Wills. \ 

whether the material of which it was formed were selected from any 
superstitious motive, rather than for the beauty of the stone, may be an 
open question. I have already mentioned instances oi serpula-\ limestone 
having been employed as a material for celts of the ordinary character. 
The hole in this instrument appears to be parallel, and may possibly 
have been bored with a metallic tool. The occurrence of this hammer 
in association with such highly finished and tastefully decorated objects 
of bronze and gold shows conclusively that stone remained in use for 
certain purposes, long after the knowledge of some of the metals had been 

In another barrow at Wilsford,;]: examined by Sir Richard Hoare, a 
massive hammer of dark-coloured stone lay at the feet of a skeleton, 
accompanied by a plain bronze celt, a curious object of twisted bronze, 
with part of a chain attached to a tube of bone, and several articles of 
the same material, amongst which was the enormous tusk of a wild 

The hammer-heads of the next form to be noticed are of a simpler cha- 
racter, being made from ovoid pebbles, usually of quartzite, by boring 
shaft-holes through their centres. The specimen I have selected for illus- 

* " South Wilts," p. 204. t Supra, p. 116. 

X Hoare's " South Wilta," p. 209. 




tration, Fig. 155, is in my own collection, and was found in Redgrave 
Park, Suffolk. According to the account furnished to Mr. Joseph 
Warren, from whom I obtained it, it was found 10 feet below the 
surface, by men digging stone in Deer's Hill. The jDebble is quartzite, 
probably from one of the conglomerates of the Trias, but more immediately 
derived from the gravels of the Glacial Period, which abound in the 

Fig. 155.— Redgrave Park. 4 

eastern counties. The hole, as usual, tapers towards the middle of the 
stone. The pebble is battered at both ends, and slightly worn away by 
use. I have another rather smaller and more kidney-shaped hammer, 
also slightly worn away at the ends, found at Willerby Carr, in the East 
Riding of Yorkshire. 

The Rev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A., possesses a large specimen, made 
from a flat pebble, 7i inches long and 4J inches broad, and found at 
Salton, in the North Riding. 

Fig. 156 shows a smaller variety of the same type, but rather square 

in outline, and with the shaft-hole much 
more bell-mouthed. The original is in my 
own collection, and was found in Redmore 
Fen, near Littleport, Cambridgeshire. Ham- 
mers of this and the preceding type are by 
no means uncommon. One of quartzite, 
5 inches long, was found in a vallum of 
Clare Castle, Suffolk,* and is in the 
Museum of the Society of Antiquaries ; 
another, 4^ inches by 3 inches, at Sun- 
ninghill, Berks ;t another, 2^ inches by 
One, in form like Fig. 156, was found in 
Furness.§ Another was found at Pallingham Quay, Sussex, || 4^ inches 
by 3 inches. Another, circular in outline, and 3 inches in diameter. 

Fig. 156. — Piedmore Fen. 

If inches, near Reigate.| 

* Archceologia, vol. xiv. p. 281, pi. Iv. 
t Arch. Journ., vol. ix. p. 297 
^ Arvhtcologia, vol. xxxi. p. 452. 

Cat., p. 14. 
X Ibid., vol. X. p. 72. 
II Sussex Arch. Coll., vol. ix. p. 118. 



Fig. 157.— iStifford. 

^vas found at Stifforcl," near Gray's Thurrock, and is engraved in the 
Arch(Fological Journal.^ I have here reproduced the figure (Fig. 157), 
though the scale is somewhat larger than that of my other illustrations. 

In the British Museum is a specimen, originally about 3^ inches by 
2J inches, and f inch thick, with the end battered, which was found in 
a tumulus at ClifTe, near Lewes. Another in the same collection. 
3J inches in diameter, was found in the Thames. 

In the Norwich Museum are two 
hammer-heads of this type, one from 
Sporle,near Swafi"ham, 3^- inches by 1^ 
inches, of quartzite ; and the other of 
jasper, from Eye, Sufiolk, 5 inches 
by 2J inches. 

Mr. R. Fitch, F.S.A., has also 
specimens from Yarmouth, 3^ inches 
by 2f inches ; from Lyng, 5 inches 
by 3^ inches ; and Congham, Norfolk, 
6 inches by 5:^ inches, as well as a 
fragment of one found at Caistor. 
The Rev. C. R. Manning, of Diss, has 
one of quartzite, 3^ inches long, found 
at Harlestone, also in Norfolk. 

Mr. Warren, of Ixworth, has one from Great Wratting, near Haverhill, 
4 inches by 3 inches ; and Mr. James Carter, of Cambridge, one, 
SJ inches in diameter, from Chesterton. 

In the Museum of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society is one of 
irregular form, found near Newmarket. A thin perforated stone, 
6 inches by 3 inches, found at Luton, | in Bedfordshire, may belong to 
this class, though it was regarded as an unfinished axe-head. 

The Rev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A., has one in his collection, found at 
Coves Houses, Wolsingham, Durham, 3^ inches by 2^ inches, and 
another of quartzite, 4^ by 3| inches, with both ends battered, from 
MUdenhall Fen. He discovered another of small size, only 2:^ inches 
in length, with the perforation not more than i\r inch in diameter in 
the centre, in the soil of a barrow at Rudstone, near Bridlington. 

Mr. H. Durden, of Blandford, has two fragments of these hammers 
made from quartzite pebbles, one of them from Hod Hill, Dorset, and 
the other from the same neighbourhood. A perforated oval boulder of 
chert was also found near Marlborough. § 

Besides quartzite and silicious pebbles, these hammer-heads were made 
from fragments of several other rocks. The Rev. S. Banks has one of green- 
stone, 5^ inches by 3 j inches, found at Mildenhall. A disc of dolerite, [j with 
convex faces, about 4 inches in diameter, and perforated in the centre 
in the usual manner, was found at Caer Leb, in the parish of Llanidan, 
Anglesef^. Several hammer-stones of this kind have been found by the 
Hon. W. 0. Stanley, M.P., in his researches in the island of Holyhead, 
and two have been figured by him in the ArcJuroluj/ical Journal.' One of 
them, now in the British Museum, is of trap, 4^ inches long and 3 inches 

t Vol. xxvi. p. 190. 

§ Arch. JoHrn., vol. xxv. p. 250. 

If Vol. xx^^. p. 321 ; vol. xx\'ii. p. 

Proc. Soc. Ant., 2ud S., vol. iii. p. 406. 
Proc. Soc. Anf., 2nd S., vol. ii. p. 400. 
Arch. Assoc. Journ., vol. xxii. p. 314. 




[chap. IX. 

broad, somewhat square at the ends ; the other is of schist, 3| inches 
long, and much thinner in proportion. Both were found at Pen-y-Bonc. 
A fragment of another, formed of granite ('?), was found at Ty Mawr, in 
the same island, and one of circular form, 4:^ inches in diameter, was 
found at Caer Leb.* One of granite(?),f found at Titsey Park, Surrey, is in 
the possession of Mr. G. Leveson Gower. A small one of " light grey 
burr stone," 2| inches in diameter, was found at Haydock,| near Newton, 
Lancashire. The Scottish specimens seem to be mostly of other 
materials than quartzite. A circular " flailstone," found at Culter, 
Lanarkshu-e, is engraved in the Journal of tlic Archtpoloi/ical Association,^ 
but the material is not stated. The same is the case with an oval one, 
4 inches long, found near Longman, 1| Macduff, Banfi'; another from 
Forfarshire ;1[ and another, 4 inches by 8 inches, from Alloa.-'"'' 

A curious variety of this type, flat on one face and convex on the 
other, is shown in Fig. 158. It is made from a quartzite pebble, that 

has in some manner been split, and 
was found at Sutton, near Wood- 
bridge. It is now in the collection 
of Colonel A. Lane Fox, F.S.A. 

In the Christy Collection is 
another implement of much the 
same size, material, and character, 
which was found at Narford, Nor- 
folk. The ends are somewhat hol- 
lowed, after the manner of a gouge, 
but the edges are rounded. It 
seems to occupy a sort of inter- 
mediate position between a ham- 
mer and an adze. 

One of similar, but more elon- 
gated form, foundat Auquemesnil,f t 
in the Seine Inferieure, has been 
figured by the Abbe Cochet. 

It is difficult to say for what 
purpose hammers of this perforated 
kind were destined. I can hardly 
think that such an enormous amount 
of labour would have been bestowed 
in piercing them, if they had merely 
been intended to serve in the manufacture of other stone implements, 
a service in which they would certainly be soon broken. If they 
were not intended for weapons of war or the chase, they were pro- 
bably used for lighter work than chipping other stones ; and yet the 
bruising at the ends, so apparent on many of them, betokens their having 
seen hard service. We have little, in the customs of modern savages, 
to guide us as to their probable uses, as perforated hammers are almost 

* Arch. Camb., 3rd S., vol. xii. p. 212. 

t Surrey Arch. Coll., vol. iv. p. 237 ; 1868, p. 24. 

X Arch. Assoc. Jotirn., vol, xv. p. 233. ^ Vol. xvii. pi iv. 5. 

II Froc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. vi. p. 41. II Ibid., vol. iii. p. 437. 

* * Ibid., vol. iv. p. 55. tt " Seine Inf.," 2nd ed., p. 313. 

Fig. 158.— Sutton. 


unknown among them. The perforated spheroidal stones of Southern 
Africa " act merely as weights to give impetus to the digging-sticks, and 
the perforated discs of North America appear to be the fly-wheels of 
drilling-sticks. Some quartz pebbles with small central holes, and brought 
from the African Gold Coast, f appear to have been worn as charms. 

In Ireland perforated hammer-stones are much more abundant than in 
England. They are usually formed of some igneous or metamorphic 
rock, and vary considerably in size, some being as much as 10 or 
12 inches in length. Sir AV. Wilde observes that stone hammers, and 
not unfrequently stone anvils, have been employed by smiths and tinkers 
in some of the remote country districts until a comparatively recent 
period. If, however, these hammers were perforated, there can be but 
little doubt that they must have been ancient tools again brought into 
use, as the labour in manufacturing a stone hammer of this kind would 
be greater than that of making one in iron, which would, moreover, be 
ten times as serviceable. If, however, the stone hammers came to hand 
ready made, they might claim a preference. For heavy work, where 
iron was scarce, large mauls, such as those shortly to be described, 
might have been in use rather than iron sledges ; but the more usual 
form of stone hammer would probably be a pebble held in the hand, as 
is constantly the case with the workers in iron of Southern Africa. 
Even in Peru and Bolivia, Mr. David Forbes, F.R.S., informs me that 
the masons skilful in working hard stone with steel chisels make use of 
no other mallet or hammer than a stone pebble held in the hand. 

The anvils and hammers used in Patagonia I in working silver are 
generally of stone, but the latter do not appear to be perforated. 

In Germany, as already § incidentally remarked, anvils formed of 
basalt were in frequent use in the sixteenth century. 

In Scandinavia and Germany the same forms of hammers as those found 
in the British Isles occur, both in quartzite and in other kinds of stone. 
They are not, however, abundant. Worsaae does not give the type in 
his " Nordiske Oldsager," and Nilsson gives but a single instance. || 
LindenschmitH engraves a specimen from Oldenstadt, Liineburg, and 
another from Gelderland.** 

In Switzerland they are extremely rare. In the Neuchatel Museum, 
however, is a perforated hammer, formed from an oval pebble, and found 
in the Lake-habitations at Concise ; another, 2 inches in diameter, with 
a small perforation deeply countersunk on each face, has been regarded 
by M. de Mortilletff as a sink-stone for a net. 

A perforated stone, possibly a hammer, is recorded to have been 
found in the Jubbulpore district. Central India.]: | Such stones are used 
for maces in the Solomon Islands. 

I have seen in the collection of the Rev. W. Sparrow Simpson, F.S.A., 
a perforated spheroidal ball of hard red stone of a difterent type from any 
of those which I have described, and which came from Peru. It is about 

* AVood, "Nat. Hist, of Man," vol. i. p. 2o4. 

t Sir J. Lubbock, in Joiirn. Anth. Inst., vol. i. p. xcv. 

X Journ. Anthrop. Inst., vol. i. p. 198. § Supra, p. 57. 

II " Stone Age," pi. i. 12. II " Alt. u. h. V.," vol. i. Heft i. Taf. i. 4. 

** Op. clt., vol. i. Heft viii. Taf. i. G. ft " Or. de la Navig.," &c., fig. 20. 

XI Proc. As. Soc. Benrj., 1866, p. 135. 


3 inches in diameter, with a parallel hole an inch across. Around the 
outside are engraved four human faces, each surmounted by a sort of 
mitre. It may be the head of a mace. 

In this place perhaps it will be well to mention a class of large 
hammer- stones, or mauls, as they have been termed, which, though 
belonging to a period when metal was in use, are in all probability 
of a high degree of antiquity. They consist, as a rule, of large 
oval pebbles or boulders, usually of some tough form of greenstone 
or grit, around which, somewhere about the middle of their length, 
a shallow groove has been chipped or "picked," from J inch to 
1 inch in width. On the two opposite sides of the pebble, and 
intersecting this groove, two flat or slightly hollowed faces have 
often been worked, the purpose of which is doubtless connected 
with the method of hafting the stones for use as hammers. This 
was evidently by means of a withe twisted round them, much in 
the same manner as a blacksmith's chisel is mounted at the present 
day. In the case of the mauls, however, the withe appears to 
have been secured by tying, like the haft of one form of Austra- 
lian stone hatchets (Fig. 105), and then to have been tightened 
around the stone by means of wedges driven in between the withe 
loop and the flat faces before mentioned. 

In many of the Welsh specimens about to be mentioned the flat 
faces are absent, and the notch or groove does not extend all 
round the stone, but exists only on the two sides through which the 
longer transverse axis of the pebble passes. In this case the wedges, 
if any, were probably driven in on the flatter sides of the boulder. 

The ends of the pebbles are usually much worn and broken by 
hammering, and not unfrequently the stone has been split by the 
violence of the blows it has administered. It is uncertain whether 
they were merely used for crushing and pounding metallic ores, or 
also in mining operations ; but they seem to occur almost exclusively 
in the neighbourhood of old mines, principally copper mines. 

In some copper mines at Llandudno,* near the great Orme's 
Head, Carnarvonshire, an old working was broken into nearly 
forty years ago, and in it were found a broken stag's horn, and 
parts of what were regarded as two mining implements or picks 
of bronze, one about 3 inches and the other about 1 inch in length. 
In 1850 another ancient working was found, and on the floor a 
number of these stone mauls, described as weighing from about 2 lbs. 
to 40 lbs. each. They had been formed from water- worn boulders, 

* Arch. Jo)a-»., vol. vii. p. 68 ; Geiitrs Mag., 1849, p. 130. 


probably selected from tlie beacli at Pcnmaen Mawr. One of the 
mauls in the Warrington Museum* is 6f inches long, and weighs 
3 lbs. 14 ozs. One of basalt, measuring nearly a foot in length, 
was found in ancient workings at Amlwch Parys Mine,t in 
Anglesea, A stone hammer, from some old workings in Llangyn- 
felin Mine,+ Cardiganshire, was exhibited to the Cambrian 
Archaeological Association in 1850. 

A ponderous ball of stone, about 5 inches in diameter, probably 
used in crushing and pounding the ore, a portion of stag's horn, 
fashioned so as to be suited for the handle of some implement, and 
an iron pick-axe, were found in some old workings in the Snow 
Brook Lead Mines, Plinlimmon, Montgomeryshire. § 

Two of these hammer- stones, 4|^ and 5 inches in length, were 
foimd by the Hon. W. 0. Stanley, F.S.A., within hut-circles, 
possibly the remains of the habitations of copper miners in ancient 
times, at Ty Mawr, in the island of Holyhead. Some of them 
are figured in the Archceological Journal,\\ and are of much the 
same form as Fig. 159, the original of which probably served 
another purpose. Others of the same character, formed of 
quartzite, were foimd at Pen-y-Bouc,^ Holyhead, and Old Geir,** 

A boulder, like those from Llandudno, but found at Longlow, 
near Wetton, Stafibrdshire, is in the Bateman Collection. ft 

They are of not uncommon occurrence in the South of Ireland,++ 
especially in the neighbourhood of Killarney, where, as also in 
Cork, many of them have been found in ancient mines. They 
have, in Ireland, been denominated miners' hammers. One of 
them is engraved in " Flint Chips." §§ 

They have also been found in ancient copper mines in the 
province of Cordova,lil| at Cerro Muriano, Yillanueva del Pey,^! 
and Milagro, in Spain ; in those of Buy Gomes,*** in Alemtejo, 
Portugal ; and at the salt mines of Hallstatt,ttt in the Salzkam- 
mergut of Austria. 

* Arch. Assoc. Journ., vol. xv. p. 234. f Arch. Journ., vol. vii. p. 69. 

X Arch. Camh., 2nd S., vol. i. p. 331. § Arch. Journ., vol. xvii. p. 66. 

II Yol. xxvi. p. 320, figs. 10, 11. H Arch. Journ., vol. xxra. p. 161. 

** Arch. Journ.. vol. xxvii. p. 164. f f Cat., p. 28, No. 293. 

XX "Cat. Mus. E. I. A.," p. 85. The chisel-edged specimens there described are 
not improbably American. §^ P. 557. 

nil Mortillet, "Materiaux," vol. iii. p. 98; vol. iv. p. 234. Tubino, " Estudios 
Prehistoricos," p. 100. 

nil Eev. Arch., vol. xiii. p. 137. 

*** Journ. de Sci. Math. Phys. et Katur., 1868, pi. viii. 

ttt Simony, " Alt. von Hallstatt," Taf. vi. 5. 


A large liammer of the same class, but witli a deeper groove all 
round, has been found in Savoy.* 

They are not, however, confined to European countries, for simi- 
lar stone hammers were found by Mr. Bauerman in the old mines 
of Wady Maghara,t which were worked for tvirquoises (if not also 
for copper ore), by the ancient Egyptians, so early as the third 
Manethonian Dynasty. 

And what is more remarkable still, in the New World similar 
stone hammers are found in the ancient copper mines near Lake 
Superior.+ As described by Professor Daniel Wilson, § "many of 
these mauls are mere water- worn oblong boulders of greenstone or 
porphyry, roughly chipped in the centre, so as to admit of their 
being secured by a withe around them." They weigh from 10 to 
40 lbs., and are found in enormous numbers. M. Marcou || has 
given an account of the discovery of some of these mauls in the 
Mine de la Compagnie du Nord-Ouest, at Point Kievenau, Lake 
Superior. He describes them as formed of leptynite (quartz and 
felspar), quartz, and porphyry, and weighing from 5 to 8 lbs. each ; 
and mentions having seen one of quartz weighing about 5 lbs., 
which was in the possession of some Kioway Indians, and was 
bound to a handle with a strip of bison skin. 

This similarity or identity in form of implements used in 
countries so wide apart, and at such different ages, does not, I 
think, point of necessity to any common origin, nor to any so- 
called "continuity of form," but appears to offer another instance 
of similar wants with similar means at command, resulting in 
similar implements for satisfying those wants. Grooved hammers 
for other purposes, as evinced by their smaller size, and a few 
grooved axes, occur in Scandinavia. An example among one of 
the lower races in modern times is afforded by a large crystal of 
quartz, with its terminal planes preserved at both ends, which has 
been slightly grooved at the sides for the j)urpose of attaching it 
to a handle, and was brought by Captain Cook from St. George's 
Sound, where it appears to have been used as a hammer or pick. 
It is now in the British Museum, and has been described by Mr. 
Henry Woodward.H 

* Perrin, "Et. Prehist. sur la Savoie," pi. xv. 17. 

f Quart. Joitrn. Gcol. Soc. (1869), vol. xxv. p. 34. 

X Schoolcraft, "Indian Tribes," vol. i. p. 96; Squier's " Ab. Mon. of New^ 
York," p. 184 ; Laphiim, "Ants, of "Wisconsin," p. 74. 

§ " Pn^hist. Man," vol. i. pp. 246, 253. 

II Comptcti lio/d/iK, 18G6, vol. Ixii. p. 470 ; Gcol. Mag.., vol. iii. p. 214; Mortillet, 
"Mat.," vol. ii. pp. 331, 401 ; vol. iii. p. 99. U Brit. Asuoc. Report, 1870, p. 158. 



Even in Britain the hammer-stones of this form are not abso- 
Intely confined to mining districts. The Rev. W. Greenwell, 
F.S.A., in one of the barrows at E,udstone, near Bridlington, 
found on the lid of a stone cist two large greenstone pebbles 8 and 
9f inches long, each with a sort of "waist" chijoped in it, as if to 
receive a withe, and having marks at the ends of having been in 
use as hammers. 

Closely connected in form and character with the mining 
hammers, though as a rule much smaller in size, and in all pro- 
bability intended for a totally different purpose, are the class of stone 
objects of which Fig. 159 gives a representation, reproduced from 
the Archceological Journal* 
This specimen was found 
with two others at Burns, 
near Ambleside, Westmore- 
land ; and another, almost 
precisely similar in size and 
form, was found at Perry's 
Leap, and is preserved in 
the Museum of Antiquities 
at Alnwick Castle. Another, 
from Westmoreland, is in 
the Mayer Collection at 
Liverpool, and they have, I 
believe, been found in some 
numbers in that district. A 
stone of the same character, 
but more elaborately worked, ^'s- i^o.-AmWeside. j 

having somewhat acorn-shaped ends, was found by the Hon. 
W. O. Stanley, F.S.A., at Old Geir,t Anglesea. They were 
originally regarded as hammer- stones, but such as I have ex- 
amined are made of a softer stone than those usually employed 
for hammers, and they are not battered or worn at the ends. 
It seems, therefore, probable that they were used as sinkers for 
nets or lines, for which purpose they are well adapted, the 
groove being deep enough to protect small cord around it from 
wear by friction. They seem also usually to occur in the neigh- 
bourhood either of lakes, rivers, or the sea. A water- worn nodiJe 
of sandstone, 5 inches long, with a deep groove round it, and 
described as probably a sinker for a net or line, was found in 
* Vol. X. p. 64. t Arch. Journ., vol. xxvii. p. 164, pi. xi. 6. 



Aberdeensliire,* and is in the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgli ; 
and I have one of soft grit, and about the same length, given me 
by Mr. R. D. Darbishire, F.G.S., and found by him near Nantlle, 

Many of these sink-stones are probably of no great antiquity. 

The Fishing Indians of Vancouver's Island f go out trolling for 
salmon in a fast canoe, towing behind them a long line made of 
tough seaweed, to which is attached, by slips of deer hide, an oval 
piece of granite perfectly smooth, and the size and shape of a goose's 
egg. It acts as a sinker, and is said to spin the bait, A net-sinker, 
formed of a pebble slightly notched or grooved, is among the 
antiquities from Lake Erie engraved by Schoolcraft.+ Others 
have been found in the State of New York.§ 

Sink-stones are by no means rare in Ireland, and continue in use 
to the present day. One of the same class as Fig. 159, but grooved 
round the long axis of the pebble, is engraved by Sir W. Wilde. || 
Similar stones occur in Denmark, and are regarded by WorsaaeH 
as sink-stones, though some of them, to judge from the wear at 
the ends and the hardness of the material, were used as hammers. 
I have seen, in Sweden, the leg bones of animals used as weights 
for sinking nets. 

Another form of sink-stone, weight, or plummet was formed by 
boring a hole towards one end of a flattish stone. Such a one, 
5j inches long, and weighing 14| ozs., was found in. the Thames 
at Battersea, and is engraved in the Journal of the Archceological 

Another, of oval form, pierced at one end, found at T3'rie,tt 
Aberdeenshire, is in the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh ; and 
a wedge-shaped perforated stone found at Culter, Lanarkshire. ++ 
Both these were probably intended for the same purpose, and may 
have been in use for stretching the warp in the loom when 
weaving. They are found of this form with Boman remains. §§ 

* Proc. Soe. Ant. Scot., vol. vi. p. 209. 
t Mem. Anthrop. Soc. Lond., vol. iii. p. 261. 

X "Ind. Tribes," vol. ii. pi. xxxix. § Oj). cit., yol. ii. p. 90. 

II "Cat. Mus. R. I. A.," p. 9.5, fig. 77. 
II Nord. Oldsag., fig. 88. Nilsson, " Stone Age," pi. ii. 34. 
** Vol. xiv. p. 327. tt Froc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. iv. p. 489. 

%l Arch. Assoc. Journ., vol. xvii. p. 19. 

§§ See a Paper on " An tike Gewicht-steine," by Prof. Ritschl, in the Jahrb. d. Vcr. 
V. Alterthums-fr. im Rheinl., Heft xli. 9 ; also xliii. 209. 



Under this head I propose to treat of those implements which 
have apparently been used as hanmiers, but which, for that purpose, 
were probably held in the hand alone, and not provided with a shaft, 
as the groove or shaft-hole characteristic of the class last described 
is absent. At the same time there are some hammer- stones in 
which there are cavities worked on either face, so deep and so 
identical in character with those which, in meeting each other, 
produce the bell-mouthed perforations commonly present in the 
hammers intended for hafting, that at first sight it seems difficult 
to say whether they are finished implements, or whether they 
would have become perforated hammer-heads had the process of 
manufacture been completed. Certainly in some eases the cavities 
appear to be needlessly deep and conical for the mere purpose of 
receiving the finger and thmnb, so as to prevent the stone slipping 
out of the hand ; and yet such apparently unfinished instruments 
occur in dififerent countries, in sufficient numbers to raise a pre- 
sumption that the form is intentional and complete. There are 
some instances where, as was thought to be the case with a quartz 
pebble from Firth,* in Orkney, the imfinished implements may 
have been cast aside owing to the stone having cracked, or to the 
holes bored on each face not being quite opposite to each other, so 
as to form a proper shaft-hole. 

In other instances, as in Figs. 160 and 161, the battering of 
the end proves that the stone has been in actual use as a hammer. 
It is of course possible that these cavities may have been worked 
for the purpose of mounting the stones in some other manner than 
by fixing the haft in a socket. A split stick may, for instance, 
have been used, with a part of the wood on each side of the fissure 
worked away, so as to leave projections to fit the cavities, and 

* Proc. Soc. Ant., 2n(l S., vol. ii. p. 274. 



[chap. X. 

have tlien been bound together so as to securely grasp the stone. 
A stone mallet, consisting of a large pebble mounted between two 
curved pieces of wood, somewhat resembling the hames of a horse 
collar, and firmly bound together at each end, is still used by the 
quarrymen of Trichinopoly,* in India. Another method of hafting 
stones, by tying them on to the side of a stick with little or no 
previous preparation, is j)ractised by the Ajnnara Indians of 
Bolivia and Peru.f Mr. D. Forbes, P. U.S., in his interesting 
account of this people, has engraved a stone thus mounted, which 
was in use as a clod crusher. One of them is preserved in the 
Christy Collection. Among the Apachees,+ in Mexico, hammers 
are made of rounded pebbles hafted in twisted withes. 

A remarkable hammer-head, found at Hehnsley, in the North Riding of 
Yorkshire, is in the collection of the Rev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A., and is 
shown in Fig. 160. It has been made from a rather coarse-grained 
quartzite pebble, both ends of which have, 
however, been worn away by use to an extent 
probably of an inch in each case, or of 2 
inches in the whole i)ebble. The worn ends 
:ire rounded, but somewhat hollow in the mid- 
lie, as if they had at that part been used for 
striking against either a cylindrical or sharp sur- 
face. The funnel-shaped cavities appear almost 
too deep and too sharp at their edges to have 
been intended merely to assist in holding the 
hammer in the hand, and it seems possible that 
their original purpose may have been in con- 
nection with some method of hafting. The 
hammer has, however, eventually been used in 
the hand alone, for the wear of the ends extends 
over the face, quite to the margin of one of the 
cavities, and at such an angle that it would have 
been almost impossible for any handle to have 
been present. If, however, the stone be held 
in the hand, with the middle finger in the cavity, 
the wear is precisely on that part of the stone which would come in 
contact with a flat surface in hammering upon it. What substance it 
was used to pound or crush it is impossible to determine, but not impro- 
bably it may have been animal food ; and bones as well as meat may 
have been pounded with it. 

The specimen engraved as Fig. IGl has been made from a quartzite 
pebble, and has the conical depression deeper on one face than the other. 
It was found at Winterbourn Bassett, Wilts, and is now in the British 

In the Norwich Museum is a similar pebble, found at Sporle, near 

* Mem. Gcol. Htirv. hid., vol. iv. pi. i. p. 203. Trans. Frch. Cou(j., 18G8, p. 238. 
t Joiirn. Etlnwl. Soc, vol. ii. p. 263, pi. xxi. 7. 
I Catlin's "Last Kambles," p. 188. 

Fig. 160.— Helmsley. 



Swaffham. It is 3^ inches by 2f inches, and If inches thick, recessed 
on each face, with a conical depression, the apex rounded. These cavi- 
ties are about 1| inches in diameter on the face of the stone, and about 
f inch in depth. The Kev. AV. C. Lukis, F.S.A., has a hammer- stone 
of this kind, 3 inches long, found at Melmerb3% Cumberland. 

A circular rough-grained stone, 3 inches in diameter, with deep cup- 

Fig. 161. — Winterbourn Bassett. J 

like indentations on each face, found on Goldenoch Moor, Wigtownshire,* 
is in the Edinburgh Antiquarian Museum ; Avhere is 
also another hammer formed of a greenstone pebble, 3^ 
inches long, with broad and deep cup-shaped depres- 
sions on each face, and much worn at one end. It 
was found at Dunning, Perthshire. There are other 
examples of the same kind in the same museum. 

The method in which these funnel-shaped 
cavities were finally polished, if not altogether 
ground into the faces of the pebbles, is illustrated 
by the pointed instrument shown in Fig. 162, 
which I have reproduced from the Sussex Arc/ice- '*'' 
ological Collecfw)is,f on the same scale as the other figures. It is 
described as being of silicious stone highly poKshed, and as having 

* Proe. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. iv. p. 440. t Vol. ix. p. 118. 


been found in tlie ruins of St. Botolpli's Priory, Pembrokesliire, 
a few yards from a water- worn pebble of similar material, 4^ inches 
long, in which, a hole had been bored to the depth of ^ inch, 
apparently by friction with the pointed end of the smaller pebble. 
In some cases the depressions are shallower, and concave rather 
than conical. I have a flat irregular disc of greenstone, about 2j 
inches in diameter and ^ inch thick, thinning ofl" to the edges, which 
are rounded, and having in the centre of each face a slight cup-like 
depression, about f inch in diameter. It was found in a trench at 
Ganton, Yorkshire. The Rev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A., has a some- 
what larger disc of sandstone, worn on both faces and round the 
whole edge, and with a slight central depression. It was found 
in a cairn at Harbottle Peels, Northumberland. In form these 
instruments are identical with the Tilhiiggersteene * of the Danish 
antiquaries, and it is possible that some of them, especially those 
of the circular form, may have been used for the purpose- of 
chipping out other instruments of flint. 

The form is not of uncommon occurrence in Ireland. f It is rare in 
France, but a broken example from the neighbourhood of Amiens is in 
the Blackmore Museum. 

I have a specimen which might be mistaken for Danish or Irish, but 
wbich was brought me from Port Beaufort, Cape of Good Hope, by 
Captain H. Thurburn, F.G.S. It must have been in use there at no very 
remote period. 

An oval stone, with what appears to be a cup-shaped depression on 
one face, f inch deep, is engraved by Schoolcraft I as a relic of the 
Congarees. Another, from the Delaware Kiver, of the Danish form, is 
described by Nilsson § as a tool for making arrow-points. He also 
engraves one from Greenland. Other so-called hammer-stones in the 
same plate are more probably whetstones, and under any circumstances 
belong to the Early Iron Period. 

Highly polished and deep cup-shaj)ed or conical depressions are 
occasionally to be observed occurring on one or both faces of large 
pebbles, usually of quartz, and sometimes in two or three places 
on the same face. Though very similar to the hollows on the 
hammer-stones, they are due to a very difierent cause, being 
merely the results of stone bearings or journals having been 
employed, instead of those of brass, for the upright spindles of 
corn mills. It seems strange that for such a purpose stone should 

* WorRaae'8 " Nord. Oldsager," No. 32, 33. Nilsson's " Stone As^e," pi. i. 14. 
A Liinchui-g specimen, with deep conical depressions, is given by Lindenschmit, 
" Alt. u. h. v.," i. Heft viii. Taf. i. 4. 

t Wilde's " Cat. Mus. 11. I. A.," fig. 75. 

I " Ind. Tribes," vol. iv. p. 165. § " Stone Age," p. 12, pi. i. 2, 3. 



have gone out of use, it being retained, and indeed regarded as 
almost indispensable for durability, in the case of watches, the 
pivot-holes of which are so frequently "jewelled." 

I have not seen the St. Botolph's Priory specimens, already 
described, but it seems barely possible that, instead of being a 
hammer-stone and boring tool, they may be a stone socket and its 

A stone, with a well-polished cavity, found on the site of an old mill 
near Carluke, Lanarkshire,''' was exhibited at Edinburgh in 1856. Another 
was found in Argyllshire, and I have seen other specimens from Ireland. 
The socket of the hinge of the great gate at Dunnottar Castle is said to 
have consisted of a similar stone. 

As has already been observed at page 199, it is by no means uncom- 
mon to find portions of polished celts which, after the edge has been by 
some means broken away, have been converted into hammers. Very 
rarely there is a cup-like cavity worked on either face in the same manner 

Fig. 163.— Bridlington. ^ 

as in the celts shown in Figs. 87 and 88. A specimen of this character, 
procured from the neighbourhood of Bridlington by Mr. E. Tindall, is 
shown in Fig. 163. It is of close-grained greenstone, and, to judge from 
the thickness of the battered end, the celt, of which this originally formed 
the butt, must have been at least half as long again as it is in its present 
form. The cavities have been worked out with some kind of pick or 
pointed tool, and, from their position so near the butt-end, it seems pro- 
bable that they did not exist in the original celt, but were subsequently 
added when it had lost its cutting edge, and was destined to be turned 
into a hammer-stone. The Rev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A., possesses a 
similar specimen, 4 inches long, found at Wold Newton, in the East 
Riding of Yorkshire. In the celts with cup-shaped depressions on their 
faces, but still retaining their edge, the depressions are nearer the centre 
of the blade. 

* "Cat. Arch. Inst. Mus. Edin.," p. 12. 



[chap. X. 

This hollowing of a portion of the surface is sometimes so slight as to 
amount to no more than such a roughening of the face as would enable 
the thumb and fingers to take a sufficiently secure hold of the stone, 
to prevent its readily faUing out of the hand when not tightly grasped ; a 
certain looseness of hold being desirable, to prevent a disagreeable jarring 
when the blows were struck. If, as seems probable, many of these 
hammers or pounders were used for the purpose of splitting bones, so as 
to lay bare the marrow, we can understand the necessity of roughening 
a portion of the greasy surface of the stone, to assist the hold. 

In Fig. 164 I have represented a large 
quartz pebble found by Mr. E. Tindall, in 
Easton Field, Bridlington, which has the 
roughening depression on both faces rather 
more strongly marked than usual, espe- 
cially on the face here shown. It is more 
battered at one end than the other, and 
has evidently been long in use. It shows 
some traces of grinding at the lower end 
in the figure, as if it had been desirable 
for it to have a sort of transverse ridge at 
the end, to adapt it to the purpose for 
which it was used. 

The Kev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A., found 
in a barrow at Enthorpe, Yorkshire, a 
hammer-stone of this kintl, but nearly 
circular in form. It is a flat quartz peb- 
ble, about If inches in diameter, battered 
all round, and broken at one part, and having the centre of one face 
artificially roughened. 

To the same class belongs the hammer-stone shown in Fig. 165, also 
found by Mr. E. Tindall at Huntow, near Bridlington. It has been 
made from a quartz pebble, of the original surface of which but little 
remains, and has a well-marked depression about ^ inch deep in the 
centre of each face. The periphery is much worn away by use. 

A fine-grained sandstone pebble, in 
form like a small cheese, about 3 inches 
in diameter, having the two faces smooth 
and perfectly flat, was found at Red 
Hill,* near Reigate, and was regarded 
as a muller or pounding-stone, used 
possibly for husking or bruising grain, 
or even for chipping flint, its surface 
bearing the mark of long-continued use 
as a pestle or hammer. f "Precisely 
similar objects have been found in 
Northumberland, and other parts of England." 

Mr. Greenwell informs me that about twenty such, differing in size 
and thickness, were found on Corbridge Fell, together with several 
stone balls. He thinks they may possibly have been used in some game. 

Fig. 164.— Bridlington. 



* Fruc. Hoc. Ant., 2iiil S., vol. i. p. 71- t Arcli. Joiirii., vol. xvii. p. 171- 


The circular stone from Upton Lovel Barrow,* engraved by Sir R. Colt 
Hoare, appears to be a hammer, or, more probably, a rubbing-stone, but 
it is worn to a ridge all round the periphery. I have a precisely similar 
instrument from Ireland. Several such discoidal stones, somewhat 
faceted on their periphery, were found by the Hon. W. 0. Stanley, 
M.P., in his examination of the ancient circular habitations in Holyhead 
Island, and some are engraved in the ArcJueoloi/ical Journal, j: 

An almost spherical stone, but flattened above and below, where the 
surface is sHghtly polished, was found in Whittington Wood, Gloucester- 
shire, and exhibited to the Society of Antiquaries in 1866. | It is of 
quartzite, about 3 inches in diameter. Another, of the same size, of 
depressed spherical form, was found in Denbighshire,! and another flat 
disc of quartz in Aberdeenshire. || Pebbles that have been used in this 
way, as pounders or mullers, belong to various ages and ditFerent degrees 
of civilization. I have one such, worn into an almost cubical form, which 
was found with Roman remains at Poitiers, and I have seen several 
others said to be of Roman date. A pounding-stone of much the same 
form as Fig. 165, found on the summit of the Montd'Or, Lyonnais,1i has 
been engraved by M. Chantre, with others of the same character. 

I have a flat granite pebble, about 3^ inches by 3 inches, the sides 
straight, the ends round, and with well-marked circular depressions in 
each face, from Cayuga County, New York, It has certainly been used as 
a hammer-stone. Some of the American '''* stone discs, which are occa- 
sionally pierced, appear to have been more probably used in certain 

Cup-shaped cavities occasionally occur on stones which, have not 
apparently been intended for use as hammers. In the soil of one 
of the barrows at Rudstone, near Bridlington, Mr. Greenwell 
found a fragment of a greenstone pebble, nearly flat on one face, 
in which a concave depression, about an inch over, and j inch 
deep, had been picked. In the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh 
is a subquadrate flat piece of grit, 1 inch thick and about 3 J inches 
long, on each face of which is a cup-shaped depression about 
Ij inches in diameter. It does not appear to have been used as a 
hammer. Mr. James Wyatt, F.G.S., possesses a piece of close- 
grained grit, in shape somewhat like a thick axe-head, 4| inches 
long, 3 inches wide, and 3 inches thick, with four concave depres- 
sions, one on each face and side, found at Kempston Road, near 
Bedford. What purpose these hollows served it is difficult to 
guess. The stones in which they occur may, however, have been 
used as a kind of anvils or mortars on which to hammer or pound ; 
or the cavities may have served to steady objects of bone, stone, or 

* " South Wilts," Tumuli, pi. vi." t Vol. xxvi. p. 320, figs. 14, 15. 

I Proc. Soc. Ant., 2nd S., vol. iii. p. 396. \ Arch. Journ., vol. x. pp. 64, 160. 

II Froc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. vi. p. 208. U " Etudes Paleoethnol.," 1867, pi. iv. 1. 
** Squier and Davis, " Anc. Mon. of Mississ. Valley," p. 222. 


wood in the process of manufacture. I have seen analogous 
cavities produced, on a larger scale, on blocks of granite which 
have been used as anvils, on which to break road materials. The 
cup and ring cuttings * common on ancient stone monuments, 
especially in Scotland, do not come within my province. Flat 
stones, with cup-shaped markings upon them, sometimes as many 
as seven on a stone, were found in considerable abundance in some 
of the Yorkshire barrows examined by the Rev. W. Green- 
well, F.S.A. 

The stones with cup-shaped f depressions in them, found in the 
caves of the Reindeer Period of the South of France, have the 
hollows, in nearly all instances, upon one of their faces only, and 
have therefore more probably served as mortars than as hammers. 
The pebbles from the same caves, which have been used as 
knapping or chipping stones, are usually left in their natural con- 
dition on the faces, though worn away at the edges, sometimes 
over the whole periphery. A very few of the hollowed stones show 
signs of use at the edges. 

Stones with cup-shaped + depressions, like those from the French 
caves, are in use in Siberia for crushing nuts and the seeds of the 
Cembra Pine, and among the natives of Australia § for pounding a 
bulbous root called beUilah, and the roasted bark of trees and 
shrubs for food. Some Carib examples of the same kind are in 
the Ethnological Museum at Copenhagen, as well as some from 
Africa, used in the preparation of poison. 

Some of the so-called corn-crushers || and mealing-stones from 
the Swiss Lake-dwellings have shallow depressions on the faces, 
but for the most part they belong to the class to be subsequently 
described. I have one of granite, from Nussdorf, with a depression 
on one face in which the thumb can be placed, while the fore- 
finger lies in a groove like that of a pulley, which extends about 
half round the stone. The opposite part of the edge is much worn 
by hammering. It approximates in form to the pulley-like stones 
to which the rather absurd name of sKng-stones has been given, 
but the use of which is at present a mystery. 

A hammer-stone, curiously similar to that I have engraved as 

* See Sir J. Y. Simpson, Proc. Soe. Ant. Scot., vol. vi, App. 
t See " ReliquiiB Aqiiit.," p. 60. 

I "Itel. Aquit.," p. 108. 

§ Arch. Assoc. Journ., vol. vii. p. 84. See Eyre's " Central Australia," vol. ii. 
pi. iv. p. 14. 

II Keller's "Lake Dwellings," p. 137. Lindenschmit, " Hohenz. Samml.," pi. 
xxvii. 8. 



Fig. 165, is among those found in the settlements of the Lac du 
Bourget,* figured by M. Rabut. 

A hammer-stone, if so it may be called, of bronze is among the 
antiquities from Grreenland in the Ethnological Museum at Copen- 

Occasionally the depression is reduced to a minimum, and con- 
sists of merely a slight notch or roughening on one or both faces 
of the pebble which has served as a hammer or poimding stone. 

The irregular, flat, greenstone pebble, worn away at both ends, shown 
in Fig. 166, has, on one face only, a notch, apparently intended to receive 

Fig. 166.— Scamridge. J 

the thumb. It was found at Scamridge, Yorkshire, and is in the collec- 
tion of the Rev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A. It will be observed that it is 
worn into a curved ridge at one end. In the same collection is an oval 
quartzite pebble, 4+ inches by 3 inches, battered at both ends, and with 
a slight diagonal ridge at that most worn away. This was found in 
a barrow at Weaverthorpe, with an unburnt body. I have a flat green- 
stone pebble from Scamridge, Yorkshire, worn away at one end to a 
curved ridge somewhat oblique to the faces of the pebble, one of which 
is slightly polished as if by constant rubbing. Mr. Greenwell has 
a granite pebble, 3^ inches by 27V inches, from the same place, bat- 
tered at one end, and the other much worn away by use, which also has 
one face flat and slightly polished. In the camp at Little Solsbury Hill,! 
near Bath, I found two implements of rudely quadrangular prismatic 
form, each having one end worn away to a ridge. Another quartzite 

* " Hab. Lac. de la Savoie," lat Mem. pi. xi. 2. 
t Trans. Ethnol. Soc, N. S., vol. iv. p. 242. 


pebble, rubbed to an obtuse edge at one end, was found by Colonel A. 
Lane Fox, F.S.A.,* within an ancient earthwork at Dorchester, Oxford- 

Among the specimens just described there are three peculiarities 
which, though not occurring together on all, are worthy of notice — 
the notch on the face, the ridge at the end, and the polished face. 

There can be no doubt of the notch on the face being, like the 
cup-shaped depressions, merely intended as an aid in holding the 
stone. On the hammer-stones discovered by Mr. J. W. Flower, 
F.G.S., in a post-Roman kjokken-modding in the island of Herm,t 
there were usually one or two rough notches or indentations on 
each face, exactly adapted to receive the ends of the thumb and 
some of the fingers ; and, curiously enough, I have a pebble notched 
in precisely the same manner from Delaware Water Gap, Pennsyl- 
vania, and no doubt intended for a hand-hammer or pounder. 

In the same kjokken-modding at Herm were several + celt-like 
implements of porphyry and greenstone which, instead of an edge, 
had the end blunt, but with a ridge obliquely across it, as on these 
pebbles. Somewhat similar pounding- stones have been found by 
the Hon. W. 0. Stanley, F.S.A., at Pen-y-Bonc,§ Holyhead, 
in some instances provided with a depression fitting the thumb or 
finger, and several having the ridge at the end. 

The same sort of ridge occurs on pounding-stones from Denmark, 
Portugal, II Spain,1I Ireland, and elsewhere, and occasionally extends 
all round the stone when it hajDpens to be disc-shaped, like those 
already mentioned from Upton Level and elsewhere. It would 
appear that the face of the hammer was ground away, either by a 
rocking motion on a flat stone, or by the blows given with it being 
administered alternately from the right and from the left, so as to 
keep any matter that was being pounded with it from being driven 
out of position. 

I have, lastly, to notice the more or less polished condition of 
one of the faces of these stones, which may be due to their being 
used for grinding the material already pounded by their edges to 
a finer powder on the slab which served instead of a mortar. One 
of the flat pebbles found in the Cave of La Madelaine, Dordogne, 

* Journ. Ethnol. Soc, vol. ii. p. 413. t Joitrn. Anth. Soc, 1869, p. cxvii. 

X The burnishinf^ stones in nse among pc^^erers are, when dismounted from 
their setting, curiously like these blunt-ended celt-like instruments. They have no 
ridge, however, at the truncated end. Some of the stone burnishers used by book- 
binders are also in form like celts, but have a flattened edge. 

§ Arch. Journ., vol. xxvii. p. 161. || Trans. Ethn. iSoc, N. S., vol. vii. p. 48. 

II De Gongora, "Ant. Preh. do Andalusia," p. 108. 


appears to hare been used as a sort of mullcr for grinding the 
haematite used as paint. 

Sometimes these hammer-stones are mere pebbles without any previous 
pi'eparation, and indeed it is but natural that such should have been the 
case. The Rev. W. GreeuAvell, F.S.A., has found pebbles of quartz and 
greenstone, worn and battered at the ends, accompanying interments on 
the Yorkshire Wolds, and such are also occasionally found on the sur- 
face, though they are of course liable to escape observation. A quartzite 
pebble that has served as a hammer-stone, and is much worn and fractured 
by use, was found at Ty Mawr, and is figured in the Archirological Journal/'' 
as are also several from hut-circles in Holyhead and Anglesea. f A large 
sarsen-stone pebble, weighing 4f lbs., and which had obviously been used 
as a hammer, was found in the long barrow at West Kennet,| Wiltshire. 
A large conical sort of muller of sarsen-stone, § weighing 12^^ lbs., was 
found with twenty-two skeletons, various animal remains, and pottery, 
in a large cist, in a barrow near Avebury. 

On the Downs of Sussex, in the pits of Cissbury, in Yorkshire, Suffolk, 
Dorsetshire, and other counties, hammer-stones of flint, apparently used 
for chipping other flints, have been found, but, from their rudeness, it 
seems hardly worth while to engrave any specimens. At Grime's Graves 
the hammer-stones consisted principally of quartzite pebbles, though some 
were of flint. In many instances the hammers made of flint seem 
to be cores from which flakes have been struck, but which, proving to be 
of refractory stone, have been found more serviceable as hammers. 
Some of the cores found at Spiennes, near Mons, have been thus used, as 
well as fragments of celts, and some of the hammer-stones from the French 
caves consist also of such cores. Stone muUers are in common use in 
most countries at the present day for grinding paint and similar purposes. 
They occur, with other articles made from stone, at the Cape of Good 
Hope. II 

The general character of the chipped flint hammer- stones will be 
gathered from Figs. 167 and 168, both from the Yorkshire Wolds. Neither 

Figs. 1(57 and 16S. — Yorkshire Wulds. 

of them shows any trace of the original surface or crust of the flint from 
which it has been fashioned. The larger one has been chipped with nume- 
rous facets somewhat into the shape of a broad bivalve shell, and is 
much battered round the margin. Fig. 168 is much smaller than usual, 
and is more disc-like in character. 

* Vol. xxiv. p. 251. t Vol. xxvi. p. 320 ; xxvii. 147. 

X Arch., vol. xxx%Tii. p. 416. ^ '• Cran. Brit.," vol. ii. pi. Iviii. p. 2. 

II Trans. Treh. Cong., 1868, p. 70. 



[chap. X. 

More commonly, perhaps, the form is approximately spherical. Fig. 169 
is, however, a more symmetrical specimen than usual. It was found by 
Mr. E. Tindall at Grindale, near Bridlington, and its surface is battered 

all over by continual pounding. I 
have others of similar character from 
Icklingham, Sufiblk ; Jordan Hill, 
Weymouth ; and elsewhere. Two 
from Old Geir, Anglesea, are engraved 
in the Archa:nJogical Journal.^' 

One of chert, 3 inches in diameter, 
was found in the Isle of Portland, + 
and several have been found in Dorset- 
shire]: which were supposed to have 
Fig. 169.— Bridlington. i been uscd in fashioning flint imple- 

ments ; and balls of chert, 1\ inches and 1\ inches in diameter, found 
at West Coker, Somersetshire, § and another from Comb-Pyne, Devon- 
shire,!] have been thought to have been " intended for the sling, or else 
to be tied up in a leather thong attached to a staff, and employed as a 
sort of mace." 

A globular nodule of flint, 1 lb. in weight, and chipped all over, 
found with numerous flint flakes in the long-chambered barrow at West 
Kennet,1I appeared to Dr. Thurnam to have been used in their produc- 
tion. Several others found together in the parish of Benlochy,** near 
Blairgowrie, were regarded as sling-stones. A lump of red flint found in 
a barrow near Pickering,! f in company with a flint spear-head and two 
arrow-heads at the right hand of a skeleton, was considered by Mr. Bate- 
man to have been used as a hammer for chipping other flints. A more 
highly decorated class of stone balls will be described at a subsequent 

Judging from tlie battered surface of the spherical stones now 
under consideration, there can be no doubt of their having been 
in use as hammers or pounders ; but they were probably not in all 
cases used merely for fashioning other imj)lements of flint, but also 
for triturating grain, roots, and other substances for food, in the 
same manner as round pebbles are still used by the native Aus- 
tralians. ++ One siich root, abundant in this country, is a principal 
article of food among the Ahts§§ of North America. Among 
them "the roots of the common fern or bracken are much used 
as a regular meal. They are simply washed and boiled, or beaten 
with a stone till they become soft, and are then roasted." The 
corn-crushers and mealing- stones found in the Swiss Lake-dwell- 
ings have evidently been intended for the purposes which their 

* Vol. xxvii. pi. xi. 2, 3. f Arch. Joiirn., vol. xxv. p. 47- 

X Proc. Soc. Ant., 2nd S., vol. ii. p. 265. ^ Arch. Assoc. Journ., vol. xviii. p. 393. 

II Ibid., vol. xxiii. p. 391. II Arch., vol. xxxviii. p. 416. 

** Arch. Assoc. Journ., vol. xxiii. p. 391. ft "Ten Years' Diggings," p. 223. 

tX Trans. Ethn. Soc, N. S., vol. iii. p. 278. 

§§ Sproat's "Scenes and Studies of Savage Life," p. 55. 



names denote ; and at tlie present day, among many savage tribes, 
the only form of mill that is known is that of a flat or slightly 
concave bed-stone, with a stone rolling-pin or midler. Among the 
Kaffirs * and in West Africa the mill is of this character, the bed- 
stone being large and heavy, slightly hollowed on its upper sur- 
face ; the muller, a large oval pebble, which is used with a peculiar 
rocking and grinding motion. The corn (maize or millet) is often 
boiled before grinding. In Abyssinia f the bed-stone of gneiss or 
granite is about 2 feet in length and 14 inches in width. The face 
of this is roughened by beating it with a sharp-pointed piece of 
harder stone, such as quartz or hornblende, and the grain is reduced 
to flour by repeated grinding or rubbing with a stone rolling-pin. 
tSucli mealing-stones are also in use in South America.^ They 
have been occasionally^ found in Britain, and the amiexed figure. 


Fig. 170.— Holyhead. 

kindly lent me by the Hon. W. 0. Stanley, F.S.A., shows a pair 
found in a hut- circle at Ty Mawr,§ in the island of Holyhead. 
Others have been found in Anglesea. II Similar specimens have been 
obtained in Cambridgeshire and Cornwall, and Mr. Tindall has a 
pair found near Bridlington. A pair of stones from the Fens*l[ is 
in the Museum of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society. Some largo 
blocks of flint, having a flat face bruised all over by hammering, 

* Wood, " Nut. Hist, of Man," vol. i. p. 152. 

t Baker, " Nile Tributariesi of Abyssinia," p. 78. See also " The Albert Nyanza," 
vol. i. p. 65. Klemm's " Cult.-Wiss.," p. 88. 

X Egv. Dr. Hume, "Hlust. of Brit. Arits. from Objects found in S. Amer.," p. 69. 

1^^ See Arch. Joitrn., vol. xxiv. p. 244, where much information is given concerning 
such stones. 

II Arch. Journ., vul. xxvii. p. 160, ifcc. Arch. Camb., 2nd S., \<j\. iii. p. 210 : 3rd 
S., vi. 376 ; vii. 40; viii. 157. 

H Arch. Camb., 3rd y., vol. vii. p. 245. 



have also been found in tlic Fens, and may liavc served as 

The same form of mill is found also in Ireland,* and not impro- 
bably remained in occasional use until a comparatively late period. 
Fj^nes Morysonf mentions having seen in Cork "young maides, 
stark naked, grinding cornc with certaine stones, to make cakes 
thereof;" and the form of the expression seems to point to some- 
thing different from a hand-mill or quern, which at that time was 
in common use in England. The name of saddle-quern has been 
given to this form of grinding apparatus. In the Blackmore 
Museum is one from the pit-dwellings at IIighfield,+ near Salis- 
bury, which are not improbably of post-Roman date. 

They are also laioAvn in Scotland. One of granite, found near 
Wick,^ is in the Edinburgh Antiquarian Museum ; as is also 
another 20 inches by 12 inches, with a rubber 12 inches by 
8 inches, found in a cave near CuUen, 

Saddle-querns of the same character occur also in France.H I 
have a small example from Chateaudun. 

Some were likewise found in the Genista Cave at Gibraltar.** 
A German saddle-quern, from the ancient cemetery at Monsheim, 
has been engraved by Lindenschmit.ff Others are mentioned by 

It will have been observed, in the instances I have cited, that 
the movable muller or grinding-stone is not spherical, but elon- 
gated ; but what is possibly the more ancient form approached 
more closely to a pestle and mortar in character, and consisted of 
a bed- stone with a slight concavity in it, and a more or less 
spherical stone for a pounder. 

A gi-inding- stone of granite, with a cavity apparently for bruising grain 
by a globular stone, was found in Cornwall, §§ and undressed slabs with 
concavities of the size and shape of an ordinary soup-plate are frequently 
found in the Hebrides. || || Others have been found, in company with stone 
balls, in the ancient habitations in Anglesca. 

Fig. 171 shows a trough of stone, found atTyMawr,1I*!I Holyhead, by the 
Hon. W. 0. Stanley, who has kindly lent me the woodcut. The cylin- 

* Wilde's " Cat. Mus. R. I. A.," p. 104. t Itinernry, 1617, part iii. p. 161. 
X "Flint Chips," p. 62. § Froc. 8oc. Ant. Hcot., vol. ii. p. 377. 

II P. S. A. S., vol. vii. p. 9. 

II Garrigou et Filhol, " Age dc la Pierre polie," &c., p. 27. Arch. Camb., 4th S., 
vol. i. p. 292. 

**• Tra»s. Pnh. Cong., 1868, p. 15,5. 

ft -'Alt. 11. h. V.,"'vol. ii. Heft viii. Taf. i.l6. %% " Cult.-AViss.," p. 88. 

^ Arch. Camb., 3rd S., vol. iii. p. 356. |i|| Froc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. iv. p. 117. 
iiH Arch. Journ., vol. xxvii. p. 100, pi. ii. 1. 



drical grinding-stone or mullcr was found witliin it, and is formed with 
a central cavity on each face, to give the hand a better hokl in grinding. 
A similar appliance was found at Pen-y-Bonc,'-' in the same island. 

Hand-mills of granite formed in much the same manner have been in 
use until lately in Brandenburg. The lower stones are described as from 
2 feet to 4 feet long, and nearly as wide, with channels, after long use, 
as much as 6 inches deep ; the muller is either spherical or oval, and 
of such a size that it can be held in the hand.f 

A large sandstone, %vith a small bowl-shaped concavity worked in it, 
was found near burnt bones in a barrow at Elkstone,]: Staffordshire ; and 
two others in barrows near Sheen. § Another, with a cup-shaped con- 
cavity, 21- inches in diameter, occurred in a barrow near Pickering ; ]| and 
in other barrows were found sandstone balls roughly chipped all over, 
from 4 inches to 1 inch in diameter, in one instance associated with a 
A ball of sandstone, 2^ inches in diameter, was found 

Fig. I71.-Ty JIawr. 

with flint instruments accompanying a contracted skeleton in a barrow 
near Middleton.H A round stone like a cannon ball was also found in 
a barrow near Cromer,'"''' and three balls of stone, from 2^ inches to 
If inches in diameter, were found in a camp at Weetwood,f f Northum- 

There arc two other forms of grinding apparatus still in use — the 
pestle and mortar, and the rotatory mill — both of which date back to 
an early period, and concerning which it will be well to say a few 
words in this place. The ordinary form of pestle — a frustum of a 
very elongated cone with the ends rounded — is so well known that 
it appears needless to engrave a specimen on the same scale as the 

* Arch. Jouni., vol. xxlv. p. 217. 
X " Ten Years' Diggings," p. 172. 
II Ibid., pi>. 213, 224, 226. 
** Arch. Journ., vol. vii. p. 190. 

t Kircliner, " Thoi'a Donnerkell," 1853, p. 97. 
§ Ibid., p. 177- 

•il " Vestiges Ant. Derb.," p. 99. 
ft ^Lrch. Jouni., vol. xxiv. p. 81. 

Q 2 



[chap. X. 

other objects. In Fig. 172 is shown one of a more club-shaped 
form, 11 inches long, found in Holyhead Island.* 

This cut originally appeared in illustration of an inte- 
resting paper by Mr, Albert Way, F.S.A., on some relics 
found in and near ancient circular 
dwellings explored by tbe Hon. W. 
0. Stanley, F.S.A., in Holyhead Is- 
land, in which paper some of tbe 
otber discoveries about to be men- 
tioned are also cited. A pestle like 
a small club, 9i inches long, was 
found in a gravel-pit near Audley 
Endjf with a Roman cinerary urn. 
Another, of grey granite, more cylin- 
drical in form, and flatter at one 
end, 11^ inches long and 2 inches 
in diameter, was found at Pulbo- 
rough,"!" Sussex, and is engraved in 
Fig. 173. A limestone pestle of the Fig- i"2--Hoiyiieaei. 
same character, 12 inches long and 2| inches in 
diameter, found at Cliff Hill, is in the Museum at 
Leicester. Anotber of greenstone, probably a na- 
turally formed pebble, lO.i inches long and 2^7 inches 
in diameter, rounded at both ends, was found with 
three porphyry celts in a cairn at Daviot,§ near 
Inverness. It is now in the Antiquarian Museum at 
Edinburgh. Another of greenstone, 16 inches long, 
was found near Carhslo;|| and Mr. J. W. Flower, 
F.G.S., has one of tbe same material 10 inches long, 
tapering from 2 inches in diameter to 1| inches, 
found in Hilgay Fen, Norfolk. A similar pestle-like 
stone, 6 inches long, found in Styria, is engraved by 
Professor Unger.'t Anotber of tbe same length was 
among the objects found in the Casa da Moura, '■"''' 
Portugal. Many pestles, more or less well finished 
iig. ij^ foj,jjj^ j^^^.g i^ggj^ discovered by the late Dr. Hunt, 

Dr. Mitchell, Mr. Petrie, Mr. Long, and others in the Orkney and Shet- 
land Isles, and in different parts of Scotland. 

Those who wish to make themselves thoroughly acquainted 
with the different circumstances of these discoveries, and with 
the various forms of rough implements brought to light, 

* Ai-ch. Journ., vol. xxiv. p. 2o2. 

t Arch. Joiirn., vol. xiv. p. 357 ; xvii. 170. 

X Sms. Arch. Coll., vol. ix. p. 117. Chich. vol. Arch. Inst., p. 63. This cut has 
been kindly lent me by the Sussex Arch;T3olog:cal Society. 

_^^ See I'roc. Hoc. Ant. Scot., vol. vi. p. 179, where the measurements hardly agree 
wilh mine. 

II Arch. Journ., vol. xxiv. p. 2o3. 

II Hitzumjsh. dcr K. Akud. clcr lFi.<<s. Wicn, vol. Iv. p. 528. 

** T)-ans. Ethn. Soc, N. S., vol. vii. p. 49. 


will have to consult the original memoirs* which have 
been written concerning them. Both in cists or graves, 
and in the remains of ancient circular habitations, have 
numerous hammer-stones and pestles been found, associated 
with various other articles manufactured from stone and 
bone. Some of these are extremely rude, and appear hardly 
deserving of the names of spear-heads, knives, chisels, battle- 
axes, &c., which have been bestowed upon them. There 
can, however, be no doubt of their being of human manufac- 
ture, whatever purpose they may have served. A few well- 
formed and polished stone celts were found in company with the 
objects of this class in the " Underground House of Skaill," 
Orkney, which, however, was not, strictly speaking, subterranean. 
In the building, and in the midden around it, were a very large 
number of oval sandstone pounding-stones and of large sandstone 
flakes, probably a rude sort of knives, a pebble with a groove 
round it like a ship's block, and a few celts. In Shetland these 
rude stone implements have been foimd with hmnan skeletons 
interred in cists, sometimes with polished weapons.! A very 
curious implement, somewhat T-shaped, with pointed extremities, 
and grooves round the transverse part, was found in the brook 
of Quoyness,+ Sanday, Orkney, and has been engraved. 

Many of the pestle-like stones are merely chipped into a 
somewhat cylindrical form, but others have been picked or gromid 
all over, so as to give them a circular or oval section. The ends 
in many instances arc more or less splintered, as if by hammering 
some hard substance rather than by pounding, and the exact 
purpose to which they were applied it is extremely difficult to 

Four of them are shown, on a small scale, in Figs. 174 to 177. 

] ifC 1"J — MiLlliiil 20^ in 

* See liaing's "Prehistoric Remains of Caithness," 18C6. Pror. Soe. Ant. Scot., 
vol. vii. jMssim; viii. 64, pi. vi. Mem. Aiithrop. Soc. LovcL, vol. ii. p. 294; iii. 
216. I am indebted to the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland for the loan of figs. 
174 to 179. 

t Froc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. vii. p. 136, 

+ P. S. A. S., vol. vii. pp. 358, 400. 



[chap. X. 

Some are more cluh-like * in character, as in Fig. 178, and are 
even occasionally wroug-lit to a handle at one end, as was the case 

Fig. 177.— Shetland. 

with one found in the heart of a bnrnt stone tumulus at Bressay f 

Fig. 178.— Shetland. 

(Fig. 179), so as to give them much of the appearance of the short 
batting-stafF used in the primitive mode of washing linen, &c., 

Fig. 179.— Shetland. 

such as still so commonly prevails in many parts of the Con- 
tinent. Is it possible that these stone bats can have served a 
* P. S. J. S., vol. vii. p. 125. t Ibid., vol. vii. p. 127- 


similar purpose ? In tlie nortliern counties * a large smootli-faced 
stone, set in a sloping position by the side of a stream, on wliicli 
washerwomen beat their linen, is still called a battling-stono,t and 
the club is called a batter, batlet, battledore, or battling-staiF. 

A stone club from St. Isabel,+ Bahia, Brazil, is described as 
13-|- inches long, 2| inches wide, and 1^ inches thick. It may, 
however, be a celt, like the supposed clubs from Lancashire § and 

There can be no doubt of several of the pestles, though 
probably not all, belonging to the same period as stone implements 
of other forms. The mortars in which they were used were pro- 
bably merely depressions in blocks of stone, or even of wood. 
Some rude mortars have, as already mentioned, been found in 
Holyhead Island and Anglesea, but it is vmcertain to what age 
they belong. A portion of a mortar of granite, with a channelled 
lip, found with fragments of iirns and calcined bones in a grave at 
Kerris Vaen, Cornwall, is engraved in the ArclKcoIoghi, Cam- 

Very similar stone pestles to those from Orkney were in use 
among the North American Indians ^f for pounding maize, and 
some are engraved by Squier and Davis.** 

They also employed ft a small form of mortar for pounding- 
quartz, felspar, or shell, with which to temper the clay for pottery. 
Stone mortars and pestles were in use among the Toltecs and 
Aztecs in making tortillas, and are found in South Carolina, ++ 
and elsewhere in the United States. Among the ancient Penna- 
cooks§§ of the Merrimac Valley, the heavy stone pestle was sus- 
pended from the elastic bough of a tree, which relieved the operator 
in her work ; and among the Tahitians ||{| the pestle of stone, used 
for pounding the bread-fruit on a wooden block, is provided with 
a crutch-like handle. 

Some large circular discs of stone, apparently used for grinding, 
and others with deep cup-shaped depressions in them, found on 
Dartmoor, and probably connected with some ancient metallurgical 

* See Whitaker's " Hist, of Craven," 2nd ed., p. 468. 

f Wright's " Prov. Diet.," s.v. Cotgrave translates the v.-oid Jjcitov a laundress's 

t ArcJi. Assoc. Joiini., vol. xx'ix. ]}. 65. § Op. elf., vol. xv. p. 232. 

II 3rd S., vol. iii. p. 3o8. If Schoolcraft, " Ind. Tribes," vol. i. p. 80. 

** "Anc. Mon. of Miss. Val.,"p. 220. ft Schoolcraft, " Ind. Tribes.," vol. i. p. 90. 

XX Op. cit., vol. ii. p. 89. \^§ Op. cit., vol. iv. p. 175. 

III! Cuming in Arch. Assoc. Jou)-»., vol. vii. p. 83, whez'e some interesting informa- 
tion relating to mortars will bo found. 


operations on the spot, have been engraved and described in the 
Transactions of the Bcronshire Association* 

The hand-mill formed with an upper rotatory stone is a mere 
modification of the pestle and mortar, and dates back to a very 
early period, though it has continued in use in some parts of the 
British Isles even unto our own day. The name quern, by which 
such mills are usually known, occurs in closely similar forms in 
all the Teutonic dialects. In Anglo-Saxon it appears under the 
form Cweorn or Cwyrn, and in modern Danish as Qvocrn. An 
excellent example of this instrument, which had been, up to 1850, 
in use in the cabin of a Kilkenny peasant, was presented by the 
Rev. J. Graves to the Archaeological Institute, and is described 
and engraved in their Journal, f The upper stone is of granite, the 
lower of millstone grit. The lower stone is recessed to receive the 
upper, and has a central depression, in which a small block of oak 
is fixed, from which projects a small pin — also of oak — to carry 
the upper stone. This is about 2 feet in diameter, and is perforated 
at its centre with a hopper-like hole, across the bottom of which a 
small bar of oak is secured, having a recess in it to receive the pin, 
but only of such a depth as to keep the upper stone at a slight 
distance from the lower. Througli the upper stone, and near its 
verge, a vertical hole is drilled to receive a peg, which forms the 
handle for turning it. When in use it is worked, as in ancient 
times among the Jews, by two women seated opposite each other, 
who alternately seize and propel the handle, so as to drive the stone 
at considerable speed. The corn, highly dried, is fed by handfuls 
into the hopper in the runner or upper stone, and the meal passes 
out by a notch in the rim of the nether stone. Pennant, + in his 
" Tour in Scotland," describes querns as still in use in the Hebrides 
in 1772. They were said to cost about fourteen shillings, and to 
grind a bushel of corn in four hours, with two pairs of hands. He 
gives a representation of a quern at work, with a long stick, 
hanging from the branch of a tree, inserted in the hole in the 
runner, so as to form the handle. A somewhat similar method 
of dri\dng the hand-mill indoors, taken from a German MS. of the 
fourteenth century, has been reproduced from a work by Drs. von 
Hefner and Wolf in the ArcJi(coIogical Journal.% 

A sketch of a hand-mill in use at the present day at Abbeville 
is given in C. Roach Smith's " Collectanea Antiqua." || 

* Vol. iv. p. 130. t ^irdt. Journ., vol. vii. 393. + Vol. ii. p. 323. 

\^ " Dio I'urtv Tanncnborg," &c., Arch. Journ., vol. vii. p. 404. |! Vol. iii. p. 130. 


Even in the neighbonrhoocl of water-mills, wlien the charge for 
ffrindins: was at all high, we find these hand-mills in use in 
medioDval times. Such use, by the toA^Tismen of St. Albans, was, 
in the beginning of the fourteenth century, a fruitful source of 
litigation between them and the abbots, who claimed the monopoly 
of grinding for their tenants.* Thirteen of these, however, main- 
tained their right of using hand-mills, as having been enjoyed of 
old, and some claims were raised to the privilege of grinding oat- 
meal only, by means of a hand-mill. 

It seems probable that these mediaeval hand-mills were of large 
size, and with comparatively flat upper stones, like the modern 
Irish form, which is sometimes 3 feet 6 inches in diameter. One 
3 feet in diameter, found near Hollingbourne,t Kent, was probably 
of no great antiquity. The same may be said of a six-sided quern, 
with an iron pivot, found in Edinburgh.* A quern, found at West 
Coker,§ Somerset, with a fleur-de-lis over the passage by which 
the meal escaped, has been assigned to the thirteenth century. 
The lower stone of a quern accompanied an apparently Saxon 
interment at Winster, || Derbyshire. It was of the beehive II shape, 
and made of millstone grit. Similar querns, with iron pins, have 
been found at Breedon,** Leicestershire, as well as others with the 
upper stone more conical. One of this class was also found near 
Rugby. ft They frequently accompany Roman ++ remains, but are 
usually of smaller size, and of a more hemispherical form, the 
favourite material being the Lower Tertiary conglomerate, or 
Ilcrtfordshire pudding-stone. Those of Andernach lava, from the 
Rhine, are usually flat. 

Querns of various forms are of frequent occurrence in "Wales, 
especially in Anglesea. In some districts §§ they have been in use 
until quite recent II 

In Scotland, querns are of frequent occurrence in the ancient 
" Picts' houses " and hill forts. In one of the former, at Kcttle- 
burn,^1[ Caithness, a stone in preparation for a quern was found ; 
in another, in Aberdeenshire, an upper stone, 18 inches in diameter, 

* " Gesta Abb. Mon. S. Alb.," vol. ii. p. 249. 

t Arch. Astioe. Journ., vol. vii. p. 175. X I't'oc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. iii. p. 203. 

^ Arch. Assoc. Journ. , vol. xv. p. 339. i| " Ten Years' Dig.," p. 99. 

II Arch. Assoc. Jo/irn., vol. xiii. p. 227. ** Ibid., vol. xv. p. 337. 

tt Arch. Journ., vol. v. p. 329. 

XX Smith's " Coll. Ant.," vol. i. p. 112. Arch., vol. xviii. p. 435 ; xix. 183 ; xxx. 
128. Froc. Bury ami W. Stiff. Arch. I., vol. i. p. 230, &c. Froc. Soc. Ant., 2nd S , 
vol. iii. p. 259. 

§§ Arch. Camb., 2nd S., vol. iii. p. 210. {{|| Lee's "Isca Silurum," p. 114. 

IIU Froc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. i. p. 267. 



[ciiAr. X. 

was discovered. Anotlier stone of the same size, surrounded by- 
four border stones to prevent tbe scattering of tbe grain in grind- 
ing, was discovered in a subterranean chamber in a liill fort at 
Dunsinane,* Perth. A curious pot-quern, the lower stone de- 
corated with a carved human face, was found in East Lothian, 
and is engraved by Wilson. f 

The upper stone, ornamented with raised lines, shown in 
Fig. 180, from a cut kindly lent me by the Society of Antiquaries 

of Scotland, was found in trench- 
ing a moss in the parish of Bal- 
maclellan. New Galloway, with 
some curious bronze objects of 
"late Celtic" workmanship. + 

Some ornamentally carved up- 
per stones of querns, one of them 
with spiral and leaf-shaped pat- 
terns upon it, much like those on 
the bronze ornaments of the "late 
Celtic " Period, have been dis- 
covered in Anglesea.^ 

Querns of green sandstone are 
to be numerous in British villages 
and pit-dwellings in Wiltshire, as indeed they are in other coun- 
ties,*|[ though formed of various kinds of grit. They rarely occur 
in barrows, though burnt granite querns have been found with 
burnt bones in cromlechs in Jersey.** 

Some interesting remarks on querns are published by the 
Rev. Dr. A. Hume in the Arcliceologia Cambrensis.ff As these 
utensils belong, for the most part, to Roman and post-Roman 
times, I have thought it needless to enter into any more minute 
description of their forms, or of the circumstances under which 
they have been found. 

Fig. 180.— Balmaclellan. 

stated, by Sir R. Colt Hoare, 

JP. aS'. a. S., vol. ii. p. 97. See also vol. 

Freh. Annals of Scot., vol. i. p. 214. 

P. S. A. S., vol. iv. p. 417. 

A^-ch. Vamb., 3rd S., vol. vii. p. 38. 

" South Wilts," p. 3G. 

"Vest. Ant. Derb.," p. 127- 
** Arch., vol. XXXV. p. 246. 
tt -ud S., vol. ii. p. 89. 


p. 30. 



Before proceeding to the consideratiou of other forms of imple- 
ments, it will be well to say a few words witli regard to those 
which have been employed for grinding, polishing, or sharpening 
tools and weapons, and more especially such as there is every 
reason to suppose were emploj^ed to give an edge or finish to other 
materials than metal, though the whetstones of the Bronze Period 
must not be passed by unnoticed. 

I have already mentioned the fact that the grindstones on 
which stone celts and axes were polished and sharpened were not 
like those of the present day, revolving discs against the peri- 
phery of which the object to be ground was held, but stationary 
slabs on which the implements to be polished or sharpened were 
rubbed. Considering the numbers of polished implements that 
have been discovered in this country, it appears not a little 
remarkable that such slabs have not been more frequently noticed, 
though not improbably they have, from their simple character, for 
the most part escaped observation ; and even if found, there is 
usually little, unless the circumstances of the discovery are pecu- 
liar, to connect them with any particular stage of civilization or 
period of antiquity. In Denmark and Sweden, however, these 
grinding- stones, both of the flat and polygonal forms already 
described, are of comparatively frequent occurrence. Specimens 
are figured by Worsaae,* and were also given by Thomsenf so 
long ago as 1832. He states that they have been found in Scan- 
dinavia, in barrows and elsewhere in the groimd, with half-finished 
stone celts lying with them, so that there can be no doubt as to 
the purpose for which they were intended. They are also de- 
scribed by Nilsson.+ Both slabs and prismatic pieces of sand- 

* " Nord. Olds.," Nos. 35 and 36. 

t "Tidskrift for Oldkyndighed," vol. i. pi. ii. p. 423. 

I « Stone Age," p. 16. 


stone have been found in tlie Swiss Lake-dwellings,* several of 
the former with, concavities on one or both faces, resulting from 
the stone hatchets having been ground upon them.t 

In France the discovery of numerous 2^oIissoirs has been 
noticed, some of them of very large dimensions. One nearly 
3 feet long, with hollows of different characters, apparently for 
grinding different parts of tools and weapons, is figured by M. 
Peigne Delacourt ; + one oval concavity upon it is 2 feet 3 inches 
long by 1 foot wide, and seems well adapted for grinding the faces 
of large celts. Another fine example is in the possession of Dr. 
Leveille, § at Grand Pressigny ; and a large specimen, also from 
Poitou, is in the Musee de St. Germain. 

Flat grinding-stones of smaller dimensions have been found 
in the turbaries of the Somme.ll A narrow sharpening-stone 
5 inches long is recorded to have been found, with stone hatchets 
and other implements, in the Cueva de los Murcielagos, in Spain.H 

The Carrcg y Saelhau,** or Stone of the Arrows, near Aber, 
Carnarvonshire, has numerous scorings upon it, a quarter or half 
an inch in depth ; but, though doubtless used for sharpening tools 
and weapons of some kind, it seems to belong to the Metallic Age. 
The Eev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A., informs me that he observed a 
rock close to a camp on Lazenby Fell, Cumberland, with about 
seventy grooves upon it from 4 to 7 inches long and about 1 inch 
wide and deep, pointed at either end, as if from sharp-ended tools 
or weapons having been ground in them. The grooves are in 
various directions, though sometimes in groups of four or five 
together which are parallel with each other. In the course of his 
investigations in the barrows on the Yorkshire Wolds he has 
found a few of the flat slabs for grinding or polishing, though of 
small size. One of them, formed of a flat piece of red sandstone 
about 4J inches by 3| inches, with both faces bearing marks of 
having been in use for grinding, lay close to a deposit of burnt 
bones at Enthorpe. Another somewhat similar fragment of 
sandstone (2f inches by 2| inches), which also bore traces of 

* Keller's "Lake Dwell.," p. 24. 

t Keller, " Pliihlbauton," ler Berieht, Taf. iii. 19 ; 3er Ber. Taf. ii. 2. 

X " Notice sm- tleux Instruments," &c., p. 4. Mortillct, " Materiaux," &c., vol. ii. 
p. 420. 

§ 8ee " Ant. Celt, et Anted, clu Poiton," pi. xxx. 

II B. (le Perthes, "Ant. Celt, et Anted.," vol. ii. p. 1G5. Mortillct, "Prom, au 
]\lus. de St. Germain," p. 148. 

II De Gongora y IMartine;?, "Ant. Preh. do Andalusia," p. 34. fig. 19. 

** Sec Arch, Journ., vol. xxi. p. 170. 


attrition, was found in a barrow at Ilclpcrtliorpc. In another 
barrow at Cowlam was a rough piece of grit, 2.^ inches long, 
with one end slightly hollowed, apj^arently by grinding celts, 
and a large flat compact laminated red sandstone pebble, about 
8f inches by 3 inches, with both faces groimd away, the one 
being evenly flat and the other uneven. In the same barrow 
occurred one of the flint rubbers to be subsequently described, and 
also a quartzite pebble (2| inches long) that had been used as a 
hammer-stone. A portion of a whetstone of Pennant or Coal- 
measure sandstone was found in the long barrow at West Kennet, 
Wiltshire,* in which also occurred a thin ovoidal knife of flint 
ground at the edges. 

I have in my own collection a very interesting specimen of this 
kind from Burwell Fen, near Cambridge, It is a thin slab of 
close-grained micaceous sandstone, about 5| by 4 inches, slightly 
hollowed and polished on both faces by grinding. With it were 
found two celts of flint, 4J and 5 inches long, of pointed oval 
section, one of them polished all over, and the other at the edge 
only, which in all probability had been sharpened on this very 
stone. In the same place were two long subangular fragments of 
greenstone of the right form, size, and character to be manufac- 
tured into celts, and which had no doubt been selected for that 

On the Sussex Downs I have found flat pebbles 3 or 4 inches 
long, which have evidently been used as hones, but whether for 
stone or metallic tools it is impossible to say. Fragments of 
polished celts and numerous flakes and "scrapers" of flint were, 
however, in their immediate neighbourhood. Among the modern 
savages of Tahiti, f who used hatchets of basalt, a whetstone and 
water appear to have been always at hand, as constant sharpening 
was necessary. It seems probable, therefore, that there must have 
been a constant demand for such sharpening-stones in this country, 
and that many of them ought still to exist. AYith flint hatchets, 
the constant whetting was, however, no doubt less necessary 
than with those of the difierent kinds of basalt. Their edges, if 
carefidly chipped, will indeed cut wood without being ground 
at all. 

Mr. Bateman mentiotis " a flat piece of sandstone rubbed hollow 
at one side" as having been found in a barrow at Castern, Staf- 

* Areh., vol. xxxviii. p. 417- 

t " Cook's Voyages," quoted by Tylor, " Eaily Hist, of Mank.," 2nd ed., p. 201. 


fordshire,* but it is uncertain whether this was a grindstone. It 
may have been used only as a mortar, for with it was a roimd 
piece of ruddle or red ochre, " which from its abraded appearance 
must have been in much request for colouring the skin of its 
owner."! In a barrow on the west coast of Cantyre there also 
occurred a piece of red Lancashire or Westmoreland iron ore or 
haematite worn flat on the side, apparently by having been rubbed 
upon some other substance. Nodules of ruddle are also said to 
have occurred, interspersed with the charcoal in a barrow at 
Broad Down, near Honiton.+ 

In one of the ancient habitations in Holyhead^ explored by 
the Hon. W. 0. Stanley, F.S.A., was a large stone 11 inches long, 
probably used for grinding hoomatite, with which it was deeply 
tino-ed ; and a small stone box found with celts and other relics at 
Skara, Skaill, Orkney, || contained a red pigment. 

There can be little doubt of this red pigment having been in 
use for what was considered a personal decoration by the neolithic 
occupants of Britain. But this use of red paint dates back to a 
far earlier period, for pieces of haematite with the surftice scraped, 
apparently by means of flint flakes, have been found in the French 
and Belgian caves of the Eeindecr Period, so that this red pigment 
appears to have been in all ages a favourite with savage man. The 
practice of interring war-paint with the dead is still observed 
among the North American Indians : ^ — 

" The paints that warriors lovo to use 
Place here within his hand, 
That he maj* shine with ruddy liues 
Amidst the spirit land." 

Some few of the grinding- stones found in this country resemble 
those of polygonal form found in Denmark,** in so far as they are 
symmetrically shaped and have been used on all their fiices. 

In the Christy Collection is such a sharpening-stone, nearly square in 
section, about 9| inches long, and of the form shown in Fig. 181. 
Both the faces and sides are worn slightly concave, as if from grinding 
convex surfaces such as the edges of celts, though it is impossible to 
say with any degree of certainty that this was really the purpose to 
which it was aj)pUed. It is said to have been found near Barcoot, in 
the parish of Dorchester, Oxon, in 1835, not far from a spot where a 
stone celt had been found a few years previously. In the same collection 

* "Ten Years' T)ig.," V- 169. t -^lirf'- >S(vt., vol. iii. p. 43. 

+ Arch. Join-ii., vol. xxv. p. 295. § Ibid., vol. xxvii. p. IGl. 

II I'roc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. vii. p. 219. If ^cc Lyoll, " Ant. of Man," 3rd cd., p. 189. 

** Worsaae, "Nord. Olds.," tig. 3G. Kilssou, " Htone Age," pi. ii. 15. 



is a Danish whetstone of precisely similar character, but rather broader 
at 1)1)0 end than at the other. 

Fig. 181.— Dorchester. 

In Fig. 182 is shown, fall size, a very 
curious object formed of compact mica schist, 
which has the appearance of having served 
as a whetstone or hone. It has been ground 
over its whole surface. The flatter face is 
towards the middle somewhat hollowed — 
rather more so than is shown in the section — 
and shows some oblique scratches upon it as 
if from rubbing a rather rough object upon it. 
It was found in 1870 by the Rev. W. Green- 
well, F.S.A., with other relics accompanying 
an unburnt body in a barrow at Rudstone, 
near Bridlington.''' About midway between the 
head and the knees was a series of articles in 
this descending order. On the top was this 
whetstone — if such it be — resting on a carved 
jet ring, like Fig. 372, which lay on the boss 
of a large jet button. Below this was another 
jet button, like Fig. 371, face downwards. 
Close by lay a half-nodule of pyrites and a 
round-ended flint flake, which will be sub- 
sequently noticed. Nearer the face was a 
dagger-knife of bronze, with three rivets 
through it, and two more for fastening to- 
gether the two plates of ox-horn of which the 
hilt had been composed. The whetstone may 
have been that used for sharpening this in- 

Two pieces of a dark-coloured slaty kind of 
stone, of nearly the same form and size as 
this Yorkshire specimen, and lying parallel 
with each other, were found by Sir R. Colt 
Hoare f at the feet of a skeleton, together 
with a little rude driuking-cup, in a barrow 
12, 1870. t " South Wilts," p. 118, pi. xiv. 


near Winterbourn Stoke. A stud and ring of jet, probably of the same 
cbaracter as those from Rudstone, and a piece of flint rudely chipped, 
as if intended for a dagger or spear, were also found. No bronze objects 
were discovered, but the cist appears to have been imperfectly examined. 

I liave already mentioned* that in grinding and polishing 
the concave faces of different forms of perforated stone axes, it is 
probable that stone rubbers were used in conjunction with sand. 
Even the smaller flat and rounded faces may have been wrought 
by similar means. That rubbers of some kind must have been 
used is, I think, evident from the character of the surfaces, espe- 
cially of those which are hollowed ; and the most readily available 
material for the formation of such rubbers was doubtless stone. 
There is, therefore, an d priori probability of such stone grinding 
tools having been in use ; and if we find specimens which present 
the conditions which such tools would exhibit, we are almost 
justified in assuming them to have served such purposes. Now 
in the collection of Messrs. Mortimer, of Timber, Yorkshire, are 
several pieces of flint and portions of pebbles of schist, flint, and 
quartz found in that neighbourhood, which are ground at one end 
into a more or less rounded form, and exhibit strigc running along, 
and not across, the rounded surface. They have, in fact, all the 
appearance of having been used with coarse sand for grinding a 
concavity in another stone, such, for instance, as the concave face 
of the stone axe shown in Fig. 125. I am indebted to their kindness 
for the specimen shown in Fig. 183, which consists of a short piece 
of a conical nodule of flint, the large end of which 
has been used for grinding in ancient times, the 
striated face being now considerably weathered. Mr. 
Greenwell has a rubber of the same kind from Weaver- 
"" be'r. I thorpe, on the Yorkshire Wolds. A polisher of some- 
what similar character, but made of serpentine, has been found in 
the 'Lake of Varese, near Milan, where a number of stone imple- 
ments have been discovered. 

Some long narrow rubbers, apparently intended for grinding out 
the shaft-holes of perforated axes, have been found in the Swiss 
Lake-dwelhngs ; and I have a slightly conical stone, about an inch 
in diameter, from Mayence, which may have been used for the 
same purpose. 

In the barrow at Cowlam, already mentioned, besides the grinding- 
stones of grit, there was a piece of flint roughly chipped into a cubical 

* P. 39. 



form, and having one face partly ground smooth. It may have been 
used for poUshing the surfaces of other stone implements, or possibly 
merely as a mullcr. It is shown in Fig. 184. The stria3 run diagonally 
of the square face. 

In the collection of the Kev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A., there is also a 
sandstone pebble, 2^ inches in diameter, which has been " picked " into 
shape, and has one face smooth as if used for grinding. It was found 
in a barrow on Ganton Wold, East Riding. A roughly conical piece of 
oolitic sandstone, 2^ inches high, in places "picked" on the surface, 
and with the base apparently used for grinding, was found, with a con- 
tracted body and some flint flakes, in another barrow on Ganton "Wold. 

In the Wiltshire barrows several rubbing-stones (or what appear to be 
such) of a peculiar form have been found, of which one is shown in 

Fig. 184.— Cowlam. 

Fig. l86.— Amesbury. 

Fig. 185. It is of close-grained grit, possibly from the Lower Green- 
sand, and was discovered with two others in a barrow on Normanton 
Down, near Amesbury. Two more are in the collection of the Rev. 
Edward Duke, of Lake, near Salisbury, to whose kindness I am indebted 
for the loan of the specimen. These instruments vary but little in 
shape, size, or character, being usually of a truncated half-ovoid form, 
"with a rounded groove along the flat surface, and formed of sand- 

One was found in a barrow at Upton Lovel,''' with flint celts, a per- 
forated stone axe-head, various implements of bone, a bronze pin or awl, 
and other objects. Another occurred in a barrow at Everley,f with a 
bronze chisel, an unused whetstone of freestone, and a hone of bluish 
colour ; and another with a skeleton, a stone hammer, a bronze celt, a 
bone tube, and various other ai'ticles in a barrow at Wilsford.j Two 
or three of these sharpening-stones, found in a barrow at Roundway, 
near Devizes, are in the Museum of the Wilts Archaeological Society. 

Sir R. C. Hoare considered whetstones of this kind to have been used 
for sharpening and bringing to a point pins and other implements of 
bone, and they seem well adapted for such a purpose, and are still so 
used by the Esquimaux. They may also have served for smoothing the 
shafts of arrows. 

The Rev. W. C. Lukis, F.S.A., found a similar stone, 4j inches long, 
in a barrow in Brittany. Stones of the same form have been found in 

* Hoare's " South Wilts," p. 75. 
t Hoare, "S. W.," p. 182. 

Arch., vol. XV. p. 125. 
X Op. cit., p. 209. 


Germany, two of which from the cemetery near Monsheim * are preserved 
in the Museum at Mainz. They are rather more elongated than the 
EngHsh examples. An object found with polished stone instruments in 
the cave Casa da Moura, Portugal,! not improbably belongs to this class 
of grooved sharpening- stones. 

From their association with bronze objects, they appear to belong to 
the Bronze rather than to the Stone Period, and the same holds good 
with the more ordinary form of whetstone, of which an example is given 
in Fig. 186. The original was found in the tumulus at Hove,| near 

Brighton, which contained the stone axe- 
head already mentioned, a beautiful amber 
cup, and a bronze dagger. Another, of com- 
pact red sandstone, 3f inches long, with the 
Fig. i86.-Hove. i perforated end rounded, was found in a 
barrow on Bow Hill,§ Sussex, and is now in the British Museum. 
Another, 3 inches long, bluish grey in colour, was found with a bronze 
dagger and a stone axe-hammer in an urn at Broughton || in Craven, in 

Two perforated whetstones were found with a bronze dagger and pin 
in the Silk Hill barrow, H Wilts. Another, with the perforation in a sort of 
loop at the end, occurred with two daggers and a crutched pin of bronze, 
associated with burnt bones in a barrow at Normanton.'''* Whetstones, 
in some cases not perforated, have occurred in other Wiltshire barrows, 
associated with bronze daggers at Wilsfordff and Lake,|| and with flint 
daggers or spear-heads at Durrington.§§ The smooth stone found with 
a flint dagger in a barrow near Stonehenge || |1 may also possibly have 
been a whetstone. 

Two of greenish stone (chlorite ?), one 2t inches long, perforated at 
the end, were found at Drewton,1I1I near North Cave, Yorkshire ; and 
another of similar material, 2 inches long, was found near some Picts' 
houses,*** Shapenshay, Orkney. Half of a whetstone was found with a 
bronze dagger and numerous flint flakes by Mr. Morgan in a barrow at 
Penhow,|ff Monmouthshire; and a much-used whetstone was found in 
a barrow near Scarborough,]:.]:! but the form of neither is specified. It 
appears possible that some of the stones found in Scotland, and per- 
forated at one end, described by Wilson §§§ as flail-stones, may after all 
be merely whetstones. The perforated form is common in Ireland, and 
is usually found in connection with metal objects. |1 1| || I have a narrow 
hone of ragstone, perforated at one end, which was found with a curious 

* Lindenschmit, A. u. h. V., vol. ii. Heft viii. Taf. i. 2. " Zeitsch. des Vereins 
fiir Rhein. Geschichte, &c., in Mainz," vol. iii. " Archiv fiir Anthrop.," vol. iii. 
Taf. ii. Bev. Arch., vol. xix. pi. x. 2. 

t Trans. Ethnol. Soc, N. S., vol. vii. p. 49. 

X Sussex Arch. Coll., vol. ix. p. 120, from whence the cut is borrowed. Arch. 
Journ., vol. xiii. p. 184 ; xv. 90. 

\ Arch. Journ., vol. x. p. 356. Chich. vol., p. 52. 

II Thoresby's Cat. in Whitaker's " Due. Leod.," p. 114. 

H Hoare's " South Wilts," p. 194. ** Ibid., p. 199. ft Ibid., p. 209. 

XX Ibid., p. 211. §§ Ibid., p. 172. |||| Ibid., p._164. 

IIU Arch. JoHrii., vol. xxi. p. 101. *** Proc. Soc. Avt. Scot., vol. iv. p. 490. 

ttt Arch. Journ., vol. xviii. p. 71. Lee's "Tsca Silurum," pi. xlii. p. 108. 

XXX -^i'cf>- Assoc. Journ., vol. iv. p. 105. §§§ Preh. Ann. of Scot., vol. i. p. 188. 

mill Wilde's " Cat. Mus. R. I. A.," p. 87. 



hoard of bronze objects, including moulds for socketed celts and for a 
gouge, in the Isle of Harty, Sheppey. 

Whetstones perforated at one end have occurred in the Swiss Lake- 
dwellings/'' Most of those found in the ancient cemetery of Hallstatt,f 
in the Salzkammergut, were perforated in the same manner, and in some 
cases provided with an iron loop for suspension. They are usually of 
sandstone, and not formed from slaty rocks. 

A whetstone, 5| inches long, the two flat faces of which had evidently 
been used for sharpening flat blades, while in the centre of each is a deep 
groove, probably caused by sharpening pointed tools, such as awls or 
needles of bronze, was found at Ty Mawr, Anglesea, near a spot where a 
number of bronze celts, spear-heads, &c., had previously been found. It 
has been figured by the Hon. W. 0. Stanley, F.S.A.,]; who has kindly 
lent me the block for Fig. 187. The ends of the stone are somewhat 
battered from its having been also used as a hammer. 

Fig. IS7.— Ty Mawr 

The same explorer discovered in hut-circles in Holyhead Island § 
other whetstones of the same character, in one instance with two prin- 
cipal grooves and minor scorings crossing each other at an acute angle, 
and in another with three parallel grooves in the face of the stone. 
There can be little doubt that these sharpening-stones belong to a period 
when the use of metal for cutting and piercing instruments was fully 

There are frequently found in Ireland flat pebbles of quartz and 
quartzite, sometimes ground on the edges or faces, or on both, and 
having on eacb face an indentation running in a somewhat oblique 
direction to the longer axis of the pebble. Specimens || have been 
figured by Sir William "Wilde, who describes them as sling-stones. 
They were, howeyer, in all probability whetstones. The flat faces 
of some have all the appearance of having been used for sharpen- 

* Perrin, " Et. Prehist. sur la Savoie," pi. xv. 12. 

t Von Sacken, " Grabf. von Hallstatt," Taf. xix. Simony, " Alt. von Hallstatt," 
Taf. vi. 6, 7. 

X Arch. Journ., vol. xxvii. pi. iii. 1. 

j Arch. Journ., vol. xxvi. p. 321, figs. 18, 19. || " Cat. Mus. E. I. A.," p. 7.5. 



ing the edges of cutting instruments, such as knives ; and the 
grooves, as Sir William himself points out, are such as might have 
been effected by rubbing with a metal tool. They are probably 
the result of grinding some pointed tool, as the stones on which 
shoemakers sharpen their awls are liable to become grooved in a 
similar manner. I have never met with this form in England, 
though in the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh is a grooved 
pebble exactly like those found in Ireland, but which was picked 
up at Kintradwell, Sutherlandshire. 

This form of whetstone is rarely found in Scandinavia, but 
another and probably rather later form, in which the pebbles have 
been wrought into a long shuttle-like form, is abundant. This 
kind is provided with a groove along the sides, which would admit 
of a cord being fastened round it, by which to suspend it from 
the girdle. On one or both faces there is often a similar indenta- 
tion to those on the Irish specimens, on which, however, it is, as 
a rule, deeper than on the Scandinavian. On the latter the 
grooves have sometimes more the appearance of having been 
produced by repeated slight blows than by friction, as if the stone 
had been used to cut against, as well as for sharpening. Specimens 
are engraved by Worsaae* and Nilsson.f The latter regards them 
as belonging to the Stone Age. They occurred, however, with 
numerous objects of the early Iron Age at Thorsbjerg,+ and have 
even been found with remains of both bronze and iron bands 
around them, instead of any more perishable cord. 

Whetstones are of course commonly found with Roman remains ; 
with Saxon antiquities, which are usually of a more purely sepul- 
chral character, they are rarely discovered. The Rev. W. Green- 
well, F.S.A., found, however, two whetstones, one as much as 
24 inches long, in graves of Saxon date, at Uncleby, Yorkshire. 

In one of the German cemeteries on the Rhine, corresponding 
with ours of Anglo-Saxon date, a small rubbing or sharpening 
stone, almost celt-like in form, was found.§ 

In Dutch Guiana II a small form of grinding- stone of quartz, 
apparently of the same age as the stone hatchets of that country, is 
known as a thunder -stone, and great medicinal powers are ascribed 
to it by the natives. I must, however, return to the sharper forms 
of stone implements. 

* "Nord. Okb.," fig. 343. f Plate i. 

t Engolhardt, " Thorsbjcrg Mosefund," p. 51, pi. xii. 12. 

§ " Jahrl). d. Vcr. v. Alt. fr. im Rheinl.," Heft xliv. p. 139, Taf. vi. 21. 

II Notes and Queries, 2nd S., vol. viii. p. 92. 



It will have been seen tliat tlie diiFerent forms of implements 
and weapons treated of in the preceding pages have, for the 
most part, been fabricated from larger or smaller blocks of 
stone, reduced into shape by chipping ; the chips having appa- 
rently been mere waste products, while the block from which they 
were struck was eventually converted into the tool or weapon re- 
quired. As to the majority, though by no means all, of the forms 
which we still have to pass in review, the reverse holds good ; for 
the raw materials, if I may so term them, from which the bulk of 
them were made, were flakes or splinters of flint struck ofi" from 
larger blocks, in such a manner that it was the splinters that were 
utilized. The block from which they were struck, instead of 
being the object of the manufacture, became, when all the available 
flakes had been removed from it, mere refuse, to be thrown away 
as useless. 

Before considering any of the various tools and weapons into 
which these flakes or splinters were converted by subsequent or 
secondary working, it will be well to say a few words about the 
simpler forms of flakes, and the cores or nuclei from which they 
were struck. 

I have already, in speaking of the manufacture of stone imple- 
ments, described the manner in which flakes or spalls are, at the 
present day, struck ofi" by successive blows from the parent block 
or core, and have suggested the probable methods employed in 
ancient times for producing similar results. Remarks on the 
method of production of flint flakes have also been made by Sir 
W. Wilde,* Sir John Lubbock,t Mr. S. J. Mackie,:J: Mr. T. McK. 
Hughes, § and others. I need not, therefore, reopen the subject, 

* " Cat. Mus. R. I. A.," p. 7. t " Preh. Times," 2nd ed., p. 79. 

X " Geol. and Nat. Hist. Rep.," vol. i. p. 208. 

§ " G. and N. H. Eep.," vol. ii. p. 128 ; Proc. Soc. Ant., 2nd S., vol. iv. p. 9o. 


thougli it will be well again to call attention to some of the dis- 
tinctive marks by whicli artificially formed flakes may be distin- 
guished from mere splinters of natural origin. The formation of 
these latter is usually due either to the flint, while still embedded 
in the chalk, having received some violent shock from disturbance 
of the stratum, or to unequal expansion, which sometimes causes 
flints to split up into rudely prismatic forms, much like those 
assumed by starch in drying, and sometimes causes cracks on the 
surface, which enable water and frost to complete the work of 
spKtting them. Occasionally nearly flat planes of fissure arc 
caused by the expansion of some small included particle of u 
difierent mineralogical character from the surrounding flint. In 
such cases a series of concentric and more or less circular rings may 
usually be traced on the surface surrounding the central particle, 
which apparently mark the intervals of repose, when its expansion 
had ceased for a time to exert sufficient force to continue the 
fissure. This kind of fracture is most prevalent in flints upon or 
near the surface of the ground, such as those in drift-deposits. 

In hardly any instances of natural fracture does the surface of 
the splinter show any trace of its having been produced by a blow, 
though the violent impact of one stone upon another, by means of 
a fall from a clifi", or of other natural causes, might produce a 
splinter of the same form as if struck ofi" by a hammer. There 
would, however, be the mark of the blow on one face only of such 
a splinter, whereas in a perfectly artificial flake the traces of the 
blow by which each facet was produced would be discernible. 
On the seashore, natural splinters of flint, resulting from the blow 
of one wave-borne pebble on another, may occasionally be found. 

If a blow from a spherical-ended hammer be delivered at right 
angles on a large flat surface of flint, it comes in contact with a 
minute portion of the surface, which may be represented by a 
circle of very small diameter, and which it tends to drive inwards. 
If flint were malleable, instead of being slightly elastic, a dent 
would be produced ; but, being elastic, this small circle is driven 
slightly inwards into the body of the flint, and the result is that 
a circular fissure is produced between that part of the flint which 
is condensed for the moment by the blow, and that part which is 
left untouched. As each particle in the small circle on which the 
hammer impinges may be considered to rest on more than one 
other particle, it is evident that the circular fissure, as it descends 
into the body of the flint, will have a tendency to enlarge in 


diameter, so tliat the piece of flint it includes will be of conical 
form, the small circle struck by the hammer forming the slightly 
truncated apex. That this is not mere theory will be seen from 
the annexed woodcut, Fig. 188, showing a cone of 
flint produced by a single blow of a hammer.* 

Sometimes, as has been shown by Mr. T. McK. 
Hughes, F.G.S., the sides of the cone are in steps, j-jg i^.-Truficmi 
the inclination varying from 30'" to 110^. This coneW Finn. 
is probably to some extent due to the character of the blow and 
the form of the hammer. 

If the blow be administered near the edge, instead of in the 
middle of the surface of the block, a somewhat similar efiect will 
be produced, but the cone in that case will be imperfect, as a 
splinter of flint will be struck ofi", the fissure probably running 
along the line of least resistance ; though, owing to the suddenness 
of the blow, the conical character of fracture is at first produced at 
the point of impact. This will vary to some extent in accordance 
with the angle at which the blow is given, and the character of 
the hammer ; but in all cases where a splinter of flint is struck ofi" 
by a blow, there will be a bulb or projection, of a more or less 
conical form, at the end where the blow was administered, and a 
corresponding hollow in the block from which it was dislodged. 
This projection is usually known as the " bulb of percussion," a 
term, I believe, first applied to it by the late Dr, Hugh Falconer, 
F.R.S. ; and on every flake, all the facets of which are purely 
artificial, this bulb will be found at the butt-end of the larger flat 
face, and the hollow depressions, or portions of depressions, on all 
the other facets. If on a splinter of flint such a bulb occurs, it 
proves that it must have resulted from a blow, in all probability, 
but not of necessity, given by human agency ; but where the 
bulb is on the principal face, and analogous depressions, or portions 
of them, are visible on the several other faces, and at the same end 
of a flake, all of them presenting the same character, and in a 
definite arrangement, it is in the highest degree probable that 
such a combination of blows must be the result of design, and 

* I first learnt the art of producing these cones from the late Rev. J. S. Henslow, 
F.R.S., and have since then instructed many others in the process, among them the 
late Dr. Hugh Falconer, F.R.S., whose account of the manufacture of flakes 
(" Palseont. Mem.," vol. ii. p. 605) is, I find, curiously like what I have written 
ahove. He insists rather more strongly on the difi"erent characteristics of " iron- 
struck" and " stone-struck " facets than I should be inclined to do. There is, how- 
ever, in all probability a difference in the fracture resulting from hammers of dif- 
ferent degrees of hardness and elasticity. 


the features presented are almost as good a warrant for the 
human origin of the flake as woukl be the maker's name upon 
it. When, however, several of such flakes are found together, 
each bearing these marks of being the result of several successive 
blows, all conducing to form a symmetrical knife-like flake,* 
it becomes a certainty that they have been the work of intelligent 

In size and proportions, flakes vary considerably, the longest 
EngKsh specimens that I have seen being as much as 8 or 9 inches 
long, while some, which still appear to have been made use of as 
tools, are not more than an inch in length. Their proportional 
breadth is almost as variable. 

With regard to the classification and nomenclature of these 
objects, I would suggest that the name of flake should be limited 
to such artificial splinters of flint as, either in their section or out- 
line, or in both, present a certain amount of symmetry and appear- 
ance of design ; and that the ruder forms, such as would residt 
from chijDping some large object into shape, without any regard 
to the form of the parts removed, shoidd be called chips, or 
spalls, t Such as show no bulb of percussion may be termed 

The inner, or flat face of a flake, is that produced by the blow 
which dislodged it from the parent block, core, or nucleus. The 
outer, ridged, or convex face comprises the other facets. The 
base, or butt-end of a flake, is that at which the blows to form it 
were administered ; the other end is the point. 

Flakes may be subdivided into — 

1. External, or those which have been struck ofi* by a single 
blow, from the edge of a nodule of flint. Many of these are as 
symmetrical as those resulting from a more complicated process of 
manufacture, and they have frequently been utilized, especially for 
scraping tools. 

2. Ridged flakes, or those presenting a triangular section. One 
face of these sometimes presents the external crust of the flint, as 
in Fig. 190. In others, the ridge has been formed by transverse 
chipping, as was the case with the long flakes from Pressigny 
(Fig. 6), but this method appears to have been almost unknown in 

* Archa-ologia, vol. xxxix. p. 76. 

t Spalls, or broken pieces of stones that come off in hewing and graving.—" No- 
menclator," p. 411, quoted in Halli well's "Archaic Diet." Spalle, or chyppe, 
quisquilia, assula. — " Promjitorium Parvulorum," p. 467. 


3. Flat, where the external face is nearly parallel to the 
internal, and the two edges are formed by narrow facets, as in 
Fig. 200. 

4. Polygonal, where the external face consists of many facets, 
as in Fig. 192. 

These several varieties may be long or short, broad or narrow, 
straight or curved, thick or thin, pointed or obtuse. The character 
of the base may also vary, being rounded or flat, thick or thin, 
broad or narrow. 

The cores from which flakes have been struck are, of course, of 
various forms, some having had only one or two flakes removed 
from them, and others several. In the latter case they are often 
more or less regularly polygonal, though only few of the facets will 
be of the full breadth of the flakes, as the external face of every 
successive flake carries ofi" some part of the traces of those pre- 
viously struck ofi". Not unfrequently some of the facets are 
arrested at a little distance from the end where the blows were 
struck, in consequence of the flake having broken short ofi", instead 
of the fissure continuing to the end of the block. Occasionally, 
and more especially on the Yorkshire Wolds, the nuclei are very 
small, and much resemble in character those found, with numerous 
flakes, in India, in the neighbourhood of Jubbulpore.* 

That here engraved of the full size in Fig. 189 was found by myself 
at Weaverthorpe, Yorkshire. I have already sug- 
gested that in striking off such small flakes as 
those removed from this core, some sort of punch 
must have been used, instead of the blows being 
administered directly by a hammer. "We have no 
conclusive evidence for what purpose such minute 
flakes were used in this country, unless it may 
have been as drills or boring tools, some of which 
are of very diminutive size. Such small objects Fig. i89.— weaverthorpe. \- 
are so liable to escape observation, that though they may exist in 
considerable numbers, they are but rarely found on the surface of 
the ground. Numerous flakes, however, quite as minute, have been 
found among the refuse left by the cave-dwellers of the Reindeer Period 
of the South of France, and their edges show evident signs of wear. 
The flint barbs of the bone harpoon-heads occasionally found in Scania 
are also made from extremely small flakes. 

Among the Australians f we find very minute splinters of flint and 
quartz secured to wooden handles by " black boy" gum, and forming 
the teeth of rude saws and the barbs of javelins. Some remarkably small 
flakes have also been found in the diamond diggings of South Africa, 

* Froc. Soc. Ant., 2nd S., vol. iii. p. 38. Froc. As. Soc. Beng., 1867, p. 137. 
f Wood, "Nat. Hist, of Man," vol. ii. pp. 36—38. 


in company with fragments of ostrich egg-shell, such as with the aid of 
the flakes might have heeu converted into the small perforated discs 
still worn as ornaments by the Bushmen. 

There are but few published notices of the discovery of English cores 
of flint, though they are to be found in numbers over a considerable 
tract of country, especially where flint abounds. 

I have recorded their finding at Kedhill,* near Reigate, and at Little 
Solsbury Hill,i near Bath. I have also numerous specimens from 
Gloucestershire, Sussex, Bedfordshire, Suffolk, and Yorkshire. In 
several instances two series of flakes have been struck off, the one set 
at right angles to the other. More rarely the flakes have been obtained 
from both ends of the block. 

A core from the Fens '[ is in the Museum of the Cambridge Anti- 
quarian Society, and several were found, with other worked flints, in the 
chambered long barrow at West Kennet, "Wiltshire. 

Numerous specimens from Peter's Finger, near Salisbury, and else- 
where, are in the Blackmore Museum ; and a number were found by 
Colonel A. Lane Fox in his researches at Cissbury, Sussex, and by the 
Rev. W. Greenwell at Grime's Graves. § Mr. Joseph Stevens has also 
described specimens from St. Mary Bourne, Hants. 

A long bludgeon-shaped nodule of flint, from one end of which a suc- 
cession of flakes had been struck, was found in a grave, with a contracted 
skeleton, in a barrow near Winterbourn Stoke, || Wilts. 

Illustrations of cores, and of the manner in which flakes have been 
struck from them, have been given by various authors. II 

The existence of flakes involves the necessity of there having been 
cores from which they were struck ; and as silicious flakes occur in 
almost all known countries, so also do cores. Those of large size and 
of regular jjolygonal form are rare in Britain and Ireland, and, indeed, 
generally in Europe. Some of the largest and most regular occur in 
Scandinavia. I have also some good examples from Belgium. Many of 
the cores from Spiennes, near Mons, were subsequently utilized as celts ; 
and the same was the case to some extent at Pressigny, the large cores 
from which have already been described. The Mexican** and East 
Indian ft forms, in obsidian and cherty flint, have also been mentioned. 
They are unsurpassed for symmetry, and for the skill exhibited in remov- 
ing flakes from them. 

It is worthy of remark that cores and flakes of obsidian, almost 
identical in character with those from Mexico, have been found in 
Greece.;}: I Specimens are in the Christy Collection. 

Simple flakes and splinters of flint have been found in considerable 
numbers over almost the whole of Britain. Of the four here shown, 

* Proc. Soc. Ant., 2nd S., vol. i. p. 73. 
t Trans. Ethn. Soc, N. S., vol. iv. p. 241. 
J Arch. Journ., vol. xvii. p. 170. 
§ Journ. Ethnol. Soc. Loud., vol. ii. p. 430, 

II Mem. Anthru]}. Soc. Land., vol. i. p. 142. 

U See Worsaae, " Nord. Olds.," No. GO ; " Guide to North. Arch.," p. 39 ; and the 
authors already citod at p. 245. 

** P. 25. See also Tylor, " Anahuac," p. 96. 

tt Geol. Mag., vol. iii. p. 433 ; iv. 43. 

XX Dr. G. Finlay, "Objects found in Greece," 1869. 



Fig. 190 was found near Newhaven, Sussex ; Fig. 191 near Reigate, Surrey ; 
Fig. 192 near Icklingham, Suffolk ; and Fig. 193 at Seaford, Sussex. At 
each of these places they occur in great numbers on the surface, and 
near Reigate some thousands were collected by Mr. Shelley, of whose 
discoveries I some years ago gave an account to the Society of Anti- 
quaries.* The counties in which they principally abound are perhaps 
Devonshire, Dorsetshire, Wilts, Hants,! Sussex, Suffolk, Norfolk, Derby- 
shii'e, and Yorkshire; but they may be said to be ubiquitous. In some parts 
of De.vonshire, and especially near Croyde, they occur in great numbers, 
so great, indeed, as to have led Mr. Whitley j to suppose them to have 
been formed by natural causes rather than by human agency. Far 
more rational accounts of them have been given by Mr. Townshend M. 
HaII,§ Mr. H. S. Ellis, || and Mr. C. Spence Bate, F.R.S.^f 

Fig. 190.— Newhaven. ^ Fig. 191.— Eedhill, Reigate. i Fig. 192.— Icklingham. f Fig. 193.— Seaford. i 

Flakes and splinters of flint frequently occur in and around ancient 
encampments and settlements, as well as in association with inter- 
ments both by cremation and inhumation. Many of the immense 
number of "spear-heads" collected by Mr. Bateman in his investigations 
were of the simple flake form, and others were flakes with but slight 
secondary working at the edges, such as will hereafter be noticed. 
Many other instruments which he discovered were merely flakes, such 
as the thick-backed cutting instrument of flint 3 inches long, with a 
bronze dagger and two small balls of stone, in a barrow containing a 
skeleton near Pickering,** which would appear to have been of this 
character. They occurred with burnt bones in cinerary urns at 
Broughton,ff Lincolnshire, in one case with a flat bronze arrow-head; 
and at Summer Hill, J | near Canterbury ; with burnt bones and bronze 
daggers in a barrow at Teddington,§§ Middlesex; at Penhow,]||| Mon- 

* Froc. Soc. Ant., 2iid S., vol. i. p. 69. See also Arch. Journ., vol. xvii. p. 171- 

t "Flint Impts., &c., found at St. Mary Bourne," Jos. Stevens, 1867. 

I Journ. R. Inst. Cornicall, Oct. 1864. § Froc. Soc. Ant., 2nd S., vol. iii. p. 22. 

fj Trans. Freh. Cong., 1868, p. 89. Tr. Devon. Assoc, vol. i., part v. p. 80. 

H Op. cit., p. 128. ** "Ten Years' Dig.," p. 226. 

ft Arch. Journ., vol. viii. p. 343. jj Arch. Assoc. Journ., vo\.7is.i\. p. 241. 

§§ Arch., vol. xxxvi. p. 176. |||| Arch. Journ., a'oI. xviii. p. 71- 


mouth ; and in the Gristhorpe barrow,* near Scarborough ; with 
burnt bones in a circle of stones near Llanaber,! Merionethshire, where 
no Hint occurs naturally ; with burnt bones in an urn beneath a tumulus 
at Brynbugeilen,! Llangollen ; in a barrow near Blackbury Castle, § 
Devon ; and at Hollingsclough and Upper Edge, |1 Derbyshire. Flakes, not 
of flint, but of a hard silicious grit, occurred in a cist with burnt bones 
near Harlech ; II and of some other hard stone in a cist in Merioneth- 
shire.** Other instances have been cited by Colonel A. Lane Fox, 
F.S.A.,f f who found several rough flakes and splinters of grit and felspathic 
ash in cairns near Bangor, North Wales. Some of these showed signs of 
rubbing and use on their edges ; in some cases they had the appearance 
of having been scraped by metal. Whether they were the weapons and 
tools of the people buried in the cairns, or merely votive ofi'erings, 
appeared to be somewhat doubtful. The urns associated with them 
were such as might well belong to the Bronze Period. 

Flint flakes are described as found in graves with contracted inter- 
ments at Amble, || Northumberland; at Driflield,§§ Yorkshire; BalUdon 
Moor, II II Derbyshire; Littleton Drew,11ir and Winterbourn Stoke,*** 
Wilts. The Eev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A., has also found them in great 
numbers with interments of different characters. They occurred with ex- 
tended burials at Oakley Park,ttt near Cirencester. In some of the long 
barrows they are especially numerous, upwards of three hundred having 
been found by Dr. Thurnam at West Keimet,|]:| while there were three 
only in that of Rodmarton,§§§ and two were found at the base of the 
cairn in the chambered tumulus at Uley,|||||| Gloucestershire. Another 
was found with a skeleton in a long barrow near Littleton Drew.liHH 
Sir Pdchard Colt Hoare speaks of a great quantity of chipped flints, pre- 
pared for arrows or lances, as having been found in barrows on Long 
Street Down,**** Wilts, and at Brigmilston ;f f f f but, as a rule, he 
seems not to have taken much notice of such simple forms. Others have 
been found with ashes at Helmingham,|||| Suffolk. 

It is, however, needless to cite more instances of their occurrence 
with interments belonging to the Stone and Bronze Ages, as the presence 
of flakes and chippings of flint is in such cases the rule rather than the 

In Scotland, where flint is a scarcer natural product, they are also 
found. As instances I may cite one found in an urn within a cist at 
Tillicoultry,§§§§ Clackmannanshire; and in a cist in Arran.|||||l|| In 
some parts of Aberdeenshire IlllHlf and Banffshire they are numerous, and 

* Meliquanj, vol. vi. p. 4. f Arch. Jonrn., vol. xii. p. 189. 

X Arch. Camb., 2ndS., vol. i. p. 331; ii. 222. § Arch. Assoc. Jonrn., vol. xviii. p. 58. 
II Reliquary, vol. iii. p. 162. IT Arch. Journ., vol. ix. p. 92. 

**• Arch. Camb., 2nd S., vol. iii. p. 102. 

tt Journ. Ethnol. Soc, vol. ii. p. 306. H Arch. Journ., xiv. p. 281. 

§§ Arch., vol. xxxiv. p. 252. |{|| " Cran. Brit.," vol. ii. pi. 1, p. 2. 

ff " Or. Br.," vol. ii. pi. 24, p. 3. *** Mem. Anthrop. Soc. Loud., vol. i. p. 142. 

tft Arch. Assoc. Jouru., vol. xvii. p. 73. Xtt Arch., vol. xxxviii. p. 416. 
§^ Froc. Soc. Ant., 2nd S., vol. ii. p. 278. |{||{| Arch. Jonrn., vol. xi. p. 322. 
HHH Wiltsh. Mag., vol. iii. p. 170. **** " South Wilts," p. 193. 

tttt Ibid., p. 195. + +++ Arch. Journ., vol. xxi. p. 172. 

\\\\ Cat. Arch. Inst. Mus. Edin.,p. 20. |{|||{|| I'roc. Hoc. Ant. Scot., vol. iv. p. 507. 
llHHIf Op. cit., vol. iv. p. 385, and vi. 234, 240. Quart. Jonrn. Geol. Soc, 1865, 
vol. xxi. p. 192. 


in the Bucban district are associated witli shell mounds, or kjcikken- 
mciddings. They occur also in Lanarkshu-e and Elgin." In Orkney! 
they abound ; as also at the Bin of Cullen,| where a manufactory of 
arrow-heads seems to have existed. In cists in Roxburghshire § 
were sepulchral urns and numerous flint flakes ; and in Argyllshire || 
there were in a cist with a skeleton flint flakes in such numbers as to 
form a heap from 18 inches to 2 feet in height. Some of white 
quartz have been found associated with arrow-heads in Banfi"shire.1i^ 
Little heaps '''* of six or eight were found in each corner of a grave at 
Clashfarquhar, Aberdeen. 

As ancient encampments or settlements where flint flakes occur in 
numbers, I may mention Maiden Bower, near Dunstable ; Pulpit Wood, 
near Prince's Risborough ; Cissbury,ii Beltout Castle, and other encamp- 
ments in Sussex; Little Solsbury Hill, near Bath; Castle Ring,];:|: Can- 
nock Chase ; Avebury,§§ Wilts; and Callow Hill,|||| Oxfordshire. They 
have been found in wonderful abundance on the surface in the counties 
already mentioned, and their occurrence has been noticed near Bradford 
Abbas ;1l1i near Folkestone ;*** at Possingworth Manor,tff Uckfield ; 
near Hastings ; | ]: | Stouham§§§ and Icklingham, Suffolk; near Grime's 
Graves, Norfolk; |||1J| St. Mary Bourne, Him Hants ; and in a turbary at 
Heneghvys, '■'■'"''''■' Anglesea, an island in which no flint occurs naturally. 
Two from Carno, Montgomeryshire, are engraved in the ArcJucologia 
Cimihrensis.Wii They have also been found under a submerged forest 
on the coast of West Somerset. |:[:]:| 

In districts where flint was an imported luxury, other stones, usually 
containing a large proportion of silica, and when broken presenting a 
conchoidal fracture, served, so far as the material allowed, the same 
purposes as flint. Of this a few instances have already been given. In 
some cases even laminated sandstones, shales, and slates seem to have 
been utilized. Numerous relics of this kind, some so rude that their 
purposes may appear doubtful, were found by Mr. S. Laing, M.P.,§§§§ in 
Caithness. Large oval flakes, made from sandstone pebbles, were found 
in very great numbers in and around the ancient dwelling at Skaill, 
Orkney. In form, however, these approximate more nearly to the Pict's 
knives, of which hereafter, than to ordinary flakes. The method of 
their manufacture has been described by Mr. Laing. || || |] || 

A curious stone knife or dagger, found beside a stone cist in Perth- 
shire, lili HIT is described as a natural formation of mica schist, the peculiar 
shape of which has suggested its adaptation as a rude but eflicient 

* P. S. A. S., vol. vi. p. 251, and v. 61. t Arc7t. Journ., vol. xx. p. 35. 

X AntJiroj). Bcv., vol. ii., Ixiv. § Wilson, "Preh. Ann. of Scot.," vol. i. p. 177. 

II Ibid., p. 178. \ Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. v. p. 13. 

** Arch. Scot., vol. iii. p. 46. ft Arch., vol. xlii. p. 64. 

XX Arch. Journ., vol. xx. p. 198. f§ " Salisb. vol. Ai'ch. Inst.," p. 106. 

llll Journ. Ethn. Soc, vol. i. p. 10. 

irH Arch. Jour?t.,Yo\. xxiii. p. 300 ; vol. xxv. p. 155. *** Geol. 3Taff., vol. vii. p. 443. 

ttt Arch. Journ., vol. xxii. p. 68. XX+ 'S'wss. Arch. Coll., vol. xix. p. 53. 

$§§ Arch. Assoc. Journ., vol. xxiv. p. 182, &c. |||||| Journ. Eth. Soc, vol. ii. p. 421. 

HHH " Flint Impts.," Jos. Stevens, 1867. **** Arch. Journ., vol. xxi. p. 168. 

tttt 3rd S., vol. iii. p. 304. XXtX Journ. Eth. Soc, vol. ii. p. 141. 

§^^§§ " Prehist. Kem. of Caithness," Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. vii. p. 37. 

Illlllll P. S. A. S., vol. vii. p. 73. HIIIIII Ibid., vol. i. p. 101. 


Some rude spear-heads of flint and greenstone are said to have been 
found near Pytchley,* Northamptonshire ; and some of Kentish rag at 
Maidstone, f 

Flakes of quartzite have been found, together with some of flint and 
quartz, and with polished celts, in some of the caverns inhabited during 
the Neolithic Period in the Pyrenees of the Ariege,]: and also in the 
Lake-settlement of Greug.§ 

When we consider how well adapted for cutting purposes were 
these simple flakes of flint, and how they constituted, as it were, 
the raw material for so many of the more finished forms, such as 
arrow-heads, of which the consumption in ancient times must 
have been enormous ; and when, moreover, we take into account 
that in producing a well-formed flake many waste flakes and mere 
splinters must probably have been struck off, and that in forming 
the large implements of flint almost innumerable chips or spalls 
must have been made, their abundance on the sites of ancient 
dwelling-places is by no means surprising, especially as the 
material of which they are formed is almost indestructible. 

Such fragments of flint must have been among the daily necessities 
of ancient savage life, and we can well understand the feeling which 
led the survivors of the departed hunter to place in his grave not 
only the finished weapons of the chase, but the material from which 
to form them, as a provision for him in " the happy hunting 
grounds," the only entrance to which was through the gate of 

The occurrence of flint chips and potsherds in the soil of which 
barrows are composed may in some cases be merely the result 
of their being made up of earth gathered from the surface of the 
ground, which from previous occupation by man was bestrewn 
with such remains. It is, however, often otherwise, especially 
when the flakes are in immediate association with the interment. 
The practice of throwing a stone on a cairn is no doubt a relic 
of an ancient custom. The "shards, flint, and pebbles" which 
Ophelia should have had thro\^Ti on her in her grave may, as has 
been suggested by Mr. Greenwell,|| point to a sacred Pagan 
custom remembered in Christian times, but then deemed irre- 
ligious and unholy. 

The presence of flint flakes in ancient graves is not, however, 
limited to those of the so-called Stone and Bronze Periods, but 

* Arch. Assoc. Journ., vol. ii. p. 203. f Arch. Assoc. Journ., vol. xiii. p. 319. 

X Garrigou ct Filhol, " Age de la Pierre polie," &c., pi. vii. and viii. 
^ De Bonstetten, 2nd Supp. au Rec. d'Ant. Suisses, pi. i. 
II Arch, Journ., vol. xxii. p. 116. 


they occur with even later interments. It seems probable that 
the flint was in some cases buried as a fire-producing agent, 
and not as the material for tools or weapons. In a cist at 
Lesmurdie,* Banffshire, apparently of early date, were some 
chips of flint which appeared to the discoverer to have 
been originally accompanied by a steel or piece of iron and 
tinder. The oxide of iron may, however, have been merely the 
result of the decomposition of a piece of iron pyrites. At Worle 
Hill,t Somersetshire, " flint flakes, prepared for arrow-heads," 
were found with iron spear-heads and other objects, though it is 
very doubtful whether they were in true association. In Saxon 
graves,+ however, small nests of chipped flints are not unfrequent, 
and the same is the case with Merovingian and Frankish inter- 
ments, sometimes accompanied by the steels or briquets,^ at other 
times without them. I have a wrought flint of this class, curiously 
like a modern gun- flint, from an early German grave near Wies- 
baden. Occasionally flakes of other materials than flint occur. Their 
presence in graves is regarded by M. Baudot as due to a reminis- 
cence of some ancient rite of sepulture. In the Anglo-Saxon 
burial-ground at Harnham IIill,|| near Salisbury, and at Ozengal, 
steels were also fomid. The Rev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A., found 
a steel, in form much like those of modern date, in a Saxon 
grave at Uncleby, in the East Riding of Yorkshire. As has been 
pointed out by Mr. Akerman, SchefferU informs us that so late 
as the seventeenth century the Lapps were buried with their axe, 
bow, and arrows, and a flint and steel, to be used both in a future 
life, and in finding the way to the scene of their future existence. 

Flakes and rudely chipped pieces of flint are also of very common 
occurrence on the sites of Roman occupation, as, for instance, at 
Hardham, Sussex,** where Mr. W. Boyd Dawkins, F.R.vS., foimd 
them associated with Roman pottery. At Moel Fenlli,tt also, in 
the Vale of Clwyd, there occurred with Roman pottery some flint 
flakes which have been figured as arrow-heads, and with them what 
is termed a stone knife, but which is, however, more probably a 

* Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. i. p. 210. t -Arch. Assoc. Journ., vol. xii. p. 299. 

+ See Arch. Journ., vol. xi. p. 211, and xx. 189; Wright, " Rems. of a Prim. 
Peop. in Yorksh.," p. 10. 

§ See Cochet, " Normandie Souterr.," p. 258 ; Baudot, " Sep. des Barbares," p. 
76; Troyon, " Tombeaux de Bel- Air ;" Liiulenschmit, " Todtenlager bei Seltzen," 
p. 13. 

II Arch., vol. XXXV. p. 267. 

If " Hist of Laplaud," ed. 1704, p. 313 ; Keysler, "Ant. Sept.," p. 173. 

** Sussex Arch. Coll., vol. xvi. p. 63. ff Arch. Camb., 2nd S., vol. i. p. 88. 


whetstone used to sharpen those of steel. I have myself noticed 
flint flakes at Regulbium (Reculvers), Verulamium (St. Albans), 
and on other Roman sites. Many of them were no doubt used for 
producing- fire, but the more finished flakes may possibly have 
served as carpenters' tools for scraping, in the same way as frag- 
ments of glass are in use at the present day. 

There is, however, another cause why rude splinters of flint 
should accompany Roman remains, especially in the case of villas 
in country districts, for the trihulum, or threshing implement 
employed both by the Romans and other ancient civilized nations, 
was a " sharp threshing instrument having teeth," * in most cases 
of flint. Yarrot thus describes the trihulum: — "Id fit e tabula 
lapidibus aut ferro exasperata, quae imposito auriga aut pondere 
grandi trahitur jumentis junctis vit discutiat e spica grana." 
Another form of the instrument was called traha or trahea. In 
the East, in Northern Africa, Madeira, Tenerifie, and probably 
other parts of the world, threshing implements, which no doubt 
closely resemble the original trihula, are stiU in use. The name is 
stiU preserved in the Spanish trilla and the Portuguese trilho, but 
survives, metaphorically alone, in our English tribulation. Drawings 
of various trihula have been given by difierent travellers, + and the 
implements themselves from different countries may be seen in the 
Christy Collection and in the Blackmore Museum. They are flat 
sledges of wood, five to six feet in length, and two or three in 
breadth, the under side pitted with a number of square or 
lozenge-shaped holes, mortised a little distance into the wood, and 
having in each hole a flake or splinter of stone. In those from 
Madeira this is a volcanic rock, but in that from Aleppo — preserved 
in the Christy Collection, § and shown in Fig. 194 — each flake is 
of cherty flint, and has been artificially shaped. Occasionally there 
are a few projecting ribs or runners of iron along part of the 
machine, but in most instances the whole of the armature is of 
stone. As each trilho is provided with some hundreds of chipped 
stones, we can readily xmderstand what a number of rough flakes 
might be left in the soil at places where they were long in use, in 
addition to the flakes and splinters which for centuries have been 
used for striking a light. 

Flakes and splinters of silicious stone, whether flint, jasper, 

* Isaiah, chap. xli. ver. 15. t Be Re Rust., lib. i. cap. 52. 

X Smith's "Diet, of Gk. and Rom. Ant.," n.v. Trihulum. Wilkinson's " Anc. 
Egyptians," vol. ii. p. 190; iv. 94. 

§ For tho use of this cut I am indebted to Mr. A. W. Franks, F.S.A. 



chert, iron-stone, qiiartzite, or obsidian, are to be found in 
almost all known countries, and belong to all ages. They are, in 

rio-. 194.— Tribiilum from Aleppo. 

fact, the most catholic of all stone implements, and have been in 
use " semper, ubique, et ab omnibus." Whether avg look in our 


old river-gravels of the age of tlie mammoth, in our old cave- 
deposits, our ancient encampments, or our modern gun-flint manu- 
factories, there is the inevitable flake. And it is almost universally 
the same in other countries — in Greenland or South Africa, on 
the field of Marathon or in the backwoods of Australia, among 
the sands of Arabia * or on the plains of America, — wherever such 
flakes and splinters are sought for, they are almost sure to be found, 
either in use among the savage occupants of the coimtry at the 
present day, or among civilized nations, left in the soil as memo- 
rials of their more or less remote barbarian ancestors. 

Flint flakes are found in great abundance in Ireland, especially in 
Ulster, where the raw material occurs in the chalk. At Toome Bridge, 
on the shores of Lough Neagh, many thousands have been found, and 
they occur in abundance in slightly raised beaches along the shores of 
Belfast Lough. They are rarely more than 4 or 5 inches in length ; 
and symmetrical, flat, parallel flakes are extremely rare. Many pointed 
flakes have been slightly trimmed f at the butt-end, and converted into a 
sort of lance-bead without further preparation. They are occasionally 
formed of Lydian stone. 

In Scandinavia the art of flaking flint attained to great perfection, and 
flat or ridged symmetrical flakes, as much as 6 inches long, and not 
more than f inch wide, are by no means uncommon. Occasionally 
they are as much as 8 or 9 inches long.j. The ridge is sometimes formed 
by cross-chipping. The bulk of the flakes from the kjokken-moddings 
are of a rude character, though very many show traces of use. 

In Germany long flakes of flint are rare, but one about 6tV inches 
long, found in Bhenish Hesse, is engraved by Lindenschmit.§ 

In some parts of France they are extremely plentiful, especially on and 
around the sites of ancient flint (itelicrs. Borne flakes, like those pro- 
duced at Prcssigny, were of great length. One no less than lii\ inches 
long, and not more than ll- inches broad at the butt, found at Pauilhac, 
in the Valley of the Gers, has been figured in the lievue de Gascogne.W 
A flake from Gergovia, 9 inches long, is in the Museum at Clermont 

Long flakes found in France have been engraved by numerous 
authors,^ and some from Belgium by Le Hon.'-"'' 

Obsidian cores and flakes have been found in Lorraine,! f the material 
having been brought from Auvcrgne. 

Flakes occur, but not so abundantly, in Spain and Portugal. A frag- 
ment of a ridged flake of jasper, found in the cave of Albunol in Spain,]: j 

* Tfor. Snc. Ant. Scot., vol. vi. p. 253. 

t Arch., vol. xli. p. 404. Soo also Wilde, " Cat. Mus. E. I. A.," p. 10. 
j Sec ]iul)l)Ock, " Preh. Times," 2n(l cd., p. 80. 

§ Alt. u. li. v., vol. ii. Heft viii. Taf. i. 4. || Tom. vi. 1865. 

If Chanti'O, "Etudes Palcocthnol.," 1867. AVatclet, " L'Ai^e de ricrro dana lo 
Dep. de I'Aisne," 1866. De Ferry, " Ane. de I'llommc dans le Macoimuis," 1867. 
** " I/lIoTiiiuo Fossile," 2ik1 ed., p. 150. 

tt Complcis llemlus, 1866, vol. Ixii. p. 347; 1867, vol. Ixv. p. 116. 
Xl Do Grongora, " Aiit. I'ruh. do Andalusia," p. 49, fig. 60. 


is 1^ inches long. In one of the Genista Caves '■' at Gibraltar there was 
found one of the long flakes, but of which a part had been broken 
off. Another, Q}, inches long and ^ inch wide, was also found. 

In Italy they are by no means uncommon, sometimes of great length. 
One, 7 inches long, is figured by Nicolucci.f 

Among the Swiss Lake-dwcllcrs considerable use was made of flint 
flakes, not only as the material for arrow-heads, but for cutting tools. 
So great was the abundance of flint left on the site of some of their 
habitations, as at Nussdorf,:|: that in after ages the spot was resorted to 
for generations, in order to procure flints for use witla steel. It was by 
their being thus known as flint-producing spots that some of the Lake- 
dwellings were discovered. A flake nearly 7 inches long, from peat, in 
the Canton de Vaud, has been engraved by De Bonstetten.§ 

In Egypt |[ flakes of flint have been found in considerable numbers in 
certain localities, some of them associated with polished stone hatchets ; 
others are possibly of no very remote antiquity, though undoubtedly of 
artificial origin, and not of merelj'' natural formation, as has been sug- 
gested by Lepsius.*! That distinguished antiquary has, however, found 
a number of well-formed ridged and polygonal flakes in Egypt, some of 
them in a grave which he has reason to assign to about 2500 u.c. 

The presence of numerous flakes, scrapers, and other forms of flint 
instruments has also been noticed in Algeria.''"'' They are for the most 
part rude and small. 

In Southern Africa,! f near Capetown and Grahamstown, flakes abound 
on the surface of the ground, sometimes of chert or flint, but often of 
basaltic rock. I have one from Grahamstown 8 inches in length. 

Their occurrence in India has already been noticed. The flakes from 
Jubbulpore .j | are for the most part of small size, but some of the 
flakes removed from the cores found in the river Indus must have 
been at least 5 or G inches long. 

In America, flint, or rather hornstone flakes, are not uncommon, 
though not so often noticed as the more finished forms. Some found in 
the mounds of Ohio are of considerable length, one engraved by Squier 
and Davis § § being 5^ inches long, and some of the Mexican flakes of 
obsidian being fully 6 inches in length. 

In ancient times the Ichthyophagi are clcscriLcd by Diodorus |||| as 
using antelopes' horns and stones broken to a sharp edge in their 
fishing, " for necessity teaches everything." They are still in some 
cases used without any secondary chipping or working into form. 

* Trmis. rrch. Cong., 1868, pi. viii. 3. 

t " Di aleuni Armi cd Utensili in Pietra," 18G3, tav. ii. 

X Keller, " rfahlbauten," Gtor Ber. p. 272. 

^ " Siipp. au Hoc. d'Ant. Suisses." pi. i. 5. 

II Bcv. Arc/i., vol. xx. p. 441. '' Matcriaux," vol. v. p. 399 Us. Comptcs Bcudus, 
1869, vol. Ixix. p. 1312. Arcelin, "Ind. ])rim. en Egypte et en Syrie," 1870. 

H " Zeitschiift fiir iEgypt. Sprache," &c., Juli, 1870. 

** Comptcs Itcndiis, 1869, vol. Ixviii. pp. 196, 345. 
■ tt Trans. Com;. Preh. Arch., 1868, p. 69. Gcol. Mag., vol. v. p. 532. 

XX Proc. Sac. Ant., 2nd S., vol. iii. p. 38. Jotirn. of Ant. Soe. of Cent. Prov., vol. i. 
p. 21. 

^^§ " Anc. Mon. of Mississ. Vail.," p. 215. |||| Lib. iii. c. IJ. 




[chap. XII, 

We find, for instance, flakes of flint or obsidian 
employed almost in tlic condition in which they 
were strnck off from the parent block, as lance 
and javelin heads, among several savage people, 
such as the natives of Australia, the Admiralty 
Islands, and New Caledonia.* One of those said 
to be in use among the latter people is shown, 
half size, in Fig. 195,t and exhibits the method 
of attachment to the shaft. The butt-end of 
the flake is let into a socket in a short taper- 
ing piece of wood, into the other extremity of 
%vhich the end of the long light shaft is in- 
serted ; both flake and shaft are next secured 
by tying, and then the whole of the socket 
and ligatures are covered up with a coating of 
resinous gum. Some of the long parallel flakes 
appear to have been haftcd. One such, probably 
from Mexico, has been engraved by Aldrovandus 
as a ciiUer lapideus.t A tool in use among the 
natives of Easter Island consisted of a large flake 
of obsidian, with a roughly chipped tang, which 
was inserted in a slit in the handle to which 
it was bound, i\\e binding being tightened by 
means of wooden wedges driven in under the 

But to return to the flakes of flint which 
were used in this country for scraping or cutting 
purposes at an early period, when metal was 
either unknown or comparatively scarce. Each 
flake, when dexterously made, has on either side 
a cutting edge, so sharp that it almost might, 
like the obsidian flakes of Mexico, be used to 
shave with. As long as this edge is used 
merely for cutting soft substances it may remain 
for some time comparatively uninjured, and even 
if slightly jagged its cutting power is not im- 

Fig. 195.— New Caledonia. 

* Wood, "Nat. Hist, of Man," vol. ii. p. 38. "Rel. 
Aquit.," part ii. p. H. 

t For the use of this block I am indohted to the executors 
of iiw latft ]\Ir. Ilenrj^ Christy. See also lAihbock, " Treh. 
Times," 2nd od., p. 8.5. 

+ "JIus. Metall.," p. L57. 

THE rSES or FLAIvES. 261 

paired. If long in use, tlio sides of the blade become rather polished 
by wear, a-nd I have specimens, both English and foreign, on which 
the polish, thus produced, can be observed. If the flake has 
been used for scraping a surface, say, for instance, of bone or wood, 
the edge will be found to wear away, by extremely minute portions 
chipping off nearly at right angles to the scraping edge, and with 
the lines of fracture running back from it. The coarseness of 
these minute chips will vary in accordance with the amount of 
pressure used, and the material scraped, but, generally speaking, I 
think I am right in saying that they are more delicate, and at a 
more obtuse angle to the face, than the small chipping produced 
by the secondary working of the edge of a flake, of which I shall 
presently speak. In all cases where any considerable number of 
flakes of flint occur, such as there appears to be good reason for 
attributing to a remote period, a greater or less proportion of them 
will, on examination, be found to bear these signs of wear upon 
them, extending over some portion of their edges. 

It is, however, difficult, if not impossible, always to determine 
whether the chipping away of the edge of a flake is merely 
the result of use, or whether it is intentional. There can be no 
doubt that for many purposes the acute edge of a flake, as originally 
formed, was too delicate and brittle, and that it was therefore 
re-worked by subsequent chipping, so as to make the angle more 
obtuse, and thus strengthen the edge of the tool. It is curious to 
observe how rarely the edges of flakes were sharpened by grinding. 
It was probably considered less troublesome to form a new flake 
than to sharpen an old one ; in the same way as it is recorded that 
the Mexican barbers threw away their obsidian flakes as soon as 
they were dull, and made use of new ones. Mr. E. B. Tjdor, in 
the free translation of the passage in Torquemada relating to 
these razors, appears, as has been pointed out by Messrs. Daubree 
and Eoulin,* to have fallen into a mistake in representing them to 
have been shari^cned on a hone, the original author having merely 
said that the edge of the obsidian flakes was as keen as if they 
had been forged in iron, ground on a stone, and finished on a 

A large proportion of the British flakes with ground edges that have 
hitherto come under my observation have been found on the Yorkshire 
Wolds, where, nevertheless, they are by no means common. Several 
have, however, been found in other districts. One from Yorkshire, in my 

* Coiiiptcs Rcudus, 1868, vol. Ixvii. p. 1296. 


own coUectiou, is a tliin, flat, external flake, having both edges 
(which are parallel) ground from both faces to an angle of about 60*. 
It has unfortunately been broken square across, about 2 inches from the 
butt-end, and is 1 inch wide at the fracture. Another, from Bridlington, 
is an ovate flat external flake, produced, not by art, but by natural frac- 
ture, and having one side brought to a sharp edge by grinding on both 
faces. With the exception of its being partially chipped into shape at 
both ends, this grinding is all that has been done to convert a mere 
splinter of flint into a serviceable tool. It is an interesting example of 
the selection of a natural form, where adapted for a particular purpose, 
in preference to making the whole implement by hand. The small celt, 
Fig. 31, afibrds another analogous instance, Mr. Greenwell has also 
two or three very rude flakes from the Yorkshire Wolds, which are 
ground at some portion of their edges. 

A flake from Charleston, in the East Riding, is shown in Fig. 19G, and 
was presented to me by the Eev. W. Greemvell, F.S.A. It is of rather 
thin, triangular section, slightly bowed longitudinally, having 
one edge, which appears to have been originally blunt, 
sharpened by secondary working. The other edge has been 
sharpened to an angle of about 45° by grinding, both on the 
inner and outer faces of the flake. The point, which is 
irregular in shape, is rounded over either by friction or by 
grinding. It seems well adapted for use as a knife when 
held between the ball of the thumb and the end of the first 
linger, without the intervention of any handle. 

Another and finer specimen, 4 inches long and 1,\ inches 
wide, ground to a very sharp edge along one side, is in the 
collection of Mr. J. AV. Flower, F.G.S. It was found near 
Thetford. In the same collection is a flake from High Street, 
■=^SS2r> near Chislet, Kent, with both edges completely blunted by 
Fig. 196.— grinding, perhaps in scraping stone. 

Charleston. | j j^^^,^ another ridged flake, 2| inches long, pointed 
at one end and rounded at the other, one side of which has been 
carefully ground at the edge. I found it in a field of my own, in 
the parish of Abbots Langley, Herts, The Rev, W, Greenwell, F.S.A., 
has another 2^ inches long, ground on both edges, from Mildenhall 

I have seen a flake about 3 inches long, with the edge ground, 
that had been found on the top of the clifi's at Bournemouth ; and 
another, from a barrow near Stonehenge, in the possession of Mr. Frank 

A flat flake, with a semicircular end, and ground at the edges so as to 
form " a beautiful thin ovoidal knife three and a half inches long," was 
found by Dr. Thurnam," with many other worked flints, in the chambered 
long barrow at West Kennct, Wilts. 

An oval knife, about 2 inches long, ground at the edge and over a great 
part of the convex face, found at Micheldean, Gloucestershire, is in the 
Museum at Truro. 

A cutting instrument, with a very keen edge, nicely polished, is 

* Arch., vol. xxxviii. p. 417- 


recorded as haviug been found, with twenty other flint implements or 
tools of various shapes, with a skeleton, in a barrow near Pickering.* 
A so-called spear-head, nicely chipped and rubbed, was found with burnt 
bones in another barrov/ near the same place. t 

Irish flakes are rarely sharpened by grinding. I have, however, 
one of Lydian stone, | found in Lough Neagh, and ground to an edge 
at the end. 

In form the Charleston flake. Fig. 190, much resembles some of the 
Swiss flakes, which, from examples that have been found in the Lake- 
dwellings, are proved to have been mounted in handles. One of these, from 
Nussdorf, in the Uebcrlinger See,? is in my own collection, and is shown in 
Fig. 197. It is fastened into its yew-wood handle by an apparently bitu- 
minous cement. The edge has 
been formed by secondary chip- 
ping on the ridged face of the 
flake, I am unable to say whe- 
ther the edge of the flake still 
embedded in the wood is left as 
originally produced or no, but 
several unmounted flakes from ^''t'- if*:-— Ni'ssdorf. * 

the same locality have been re-chipped on both edges. In some instances, 
however, only one edge is thus Vv'orked. In the case of some of the 
small narrow flakes from the Dordognc caves, one edge is much worn 
away, and the other as sharp as ever, as if it had been protected by 
being inserted in a wooden handle. A similar peculiarity has been 
observed on some flakes from English caves. 

From the hole in the handle, this form of instrument would appear to 
have been carried attached to a string, like a sailor's knife at the present 
day — a similarity probably due to the somewhat analogous conditions of 
life of the old Lake-dwellers to those of seamen. In some French flakes 
which seem to have been used in a similar manner, the ends are squared, 
and a central notch worked in each, apparently for the reception of a 
cord. In this case a loop at the end of the cord would answer the 
same pm-pose as the hole in the handle, which with these flakes seems to 
have been needless. 

Some of the Swiss handles are not, however, bored, and occasionally 
they are prolonged at one end to twice the length of the flint, so as to 
form a handle like that of a table-knife ; the flint flake, though let in to 
a continuation of the handle, projecting and forming the blade. In some 
cases there is a handle at each end, like those of a spokeshave. The 
handles are of yew, deal, and more rarely of stag's-horn ; and the imple- 
ments, though usually termed saws, are not regularly serrated, and may 
with equal propriety be termed knives. 

Su' Edward Belcher has shown me an Esquimaux "flinching knife," 
from Icy Cape, hafted in much the same manner. The blade is an ovate 

* " Ten Years' Dig.," p. 230. t Ibid., p. 224. | Airli., vol. xH. p. 404. 

^ Others are engraved in Keller's " Pfahlbaut.," ler Bericht, Taf. iii. 8. 
Lindenscbmit, "Alt. u. h. V.," vol. i. Heft xii. Taf. i. 15. " HohenzoUornsch. 
Samml.," Taf. xxvii. IS. Macldc, "Nat. llist. Rep,," vol. i. p. 139. Lo Hon, 
"L'Hommo Fobs.," 2nd ed., p. 17'5. 


piece of slate about 5 inches long, and is let into a handle made of 
several pieces of wood, extending along nearly half the circumference, 
and secured together by resin. Other specimens of the same kind are 
in the British Museum, and in the Ethnological Museum at Copenhagen. 
The stone blades are more like the flat Picts' ■■'■ knives, such as Fig. 263, 
than ordinary flint flakes. An iron blade, hafted in a nearly similar 
manner by the Esquimaux, is engraved by Nilsson. t 

As already mentioned, some of the Australian savages about King 
George's Sound make knives or saws in a somewhat analogous manner ; 
but, instead of one long flake, they attach a number of small flakes in a 
row in a matrix of hard resin at one end of a stick. Spears are formed 
in a similar manner. 

In other cases Australian flakes are differently hafted, one of which is 
shown in Fig. 198, from an original in the Christy Collection. One edge 

Fig. 19S. — Australia. * 

of this flake has been entirely removed by chipping, so as to form a thick, 
somewhat rounded back, not unlike that of an ordinary knife-blade, 
though rather thicker in proportion to the width of the blade. The butt- 
end has then had a portion of the hairy skin of some animal bound over 
it with a cord, so as to give it a sort of haft, and eftectually protect the 
hand that held it. The material of the flake ajjpears to be hornstone. 
Another knife of the same character, from Queensland, is in the Museum 
of the Hartley Institution at Southampton. 

Occasionally flakes of quartz or other silicious stone were mounted at 
the end of short handles by the Australians, so as to form a sort of 
dagger or chisel. One such has been engraved by the Rev. J. G. Wood.| 
Another is in the Museum of the Hartley Institution at Southampton. 

In the Berlin Museum is a curious knife, found, I believe, in Prussia, 
which shows great skill in the adaptation of flint for cutting purposes. 
It consists of a somewhat lanceolate piece of bone, about 7i inches 
long, and ^ inch wide at the utmost, and \ inch thick. The section 
is approximately oval, but along one of the narrow sides a groove has 
been worked, and in this are inserted a series of segments of thin flakes 
of flint, so carefully chosen as to be almost of one thickness, and so 
dexterously fltted together that their edges constitute one continuous 
sharp blade, projecting about three-sixteenths of an inch from the bone. 

* Keller's "Lake Dw.," ]il. iii. 1 ; xxi. 10 ; xxviii. 9, 10. PfaWbauten, 2ter Ber. 
Taf. iii. pi. xl. Troyon, " Hub. Lac," pi. v. 11. Dcsor, " Palafitti'S," fig. 12. 
t "Stone Age," x)l. v. 8G. +: "Nat. Hist, of Man," vol. ii. p. 32. 



In some instances from Scandinavia the flint flakes arc let in on both 
edges of the blade." 

The Mexican f swords, formed of flakes of obsidian attached to a blade 
of wood, were of somewhat the same character, and remains of what 
appears to have been an analogous sword, armed with flint flakes, have 
been found in one of the mounds of the Iroquois country. 

Another use to which pointed flint flakes have occasionally been 
applied is for the formation of fishing-hooks. Such a hook, the stem 
formed of bone, and the returning point made of flint bound at an acute 
angle to the end of the bone, has been engraved by Klemm.]: It was 
found in a grave in Greenland. Fish-hooks formed entirely of flint, and 
found in Sweden, have been engraved by Nilsson,§ and others, presumed 
to have been found in Holderness, by Mr. T. Wright, F.S.A. || These 
latter are, however, in all probability, forgeries. 

Besides the flukes wliicli may be regarded as having been used 
merely as tools for cutting or scraping, there are some which may 
with safety be regarded as saws, 
their edges having been inten- 
tionally and regularly serrated, 
though in other resj)ects they have ,) 

been left entirely unaltered in form. 

A specimen, found in a pit which 
appeared to have been excavated by 
the primitive inhabitants of the dis- 
trict, at Brighthamptou, Oxon, has 
been engraved in the ProceedtiKjs of 
the Societij of Antiquaries ;'' *i\ and 
another oblong flint flake, with a 
regularly serrated edge, but the teeth 
not so deep or defined as in this in- 
stance, was found by Dr. Thurnam in 
a chambered long barrow at West 
Kennet, Wilts, with numerous flakes 
and " scrapers." '■"■' 

Figs. 199 to 201 represent similar 
instruments in my own collection 
procured from the Yorkshire Wolds 
by the Rev. F. Porter. The largest 
has been serrated on both edges, but 
has had the teeth much broken and 
worn away on the thinner edge. 

Fig. 200 is very minutely toothed on both edges, and has a line of 

Itm.— AViUerby 

Fig. 200.— Yorkshire 

* Worsaae, " Prim. Ants, of Den.," p. 17. Nilsson, " Stone Age," pi. vi. 125, 
126. Madsen, "Afb.," pi. xl. 

t Wilson's " Preh. Man," vol. i. p. 225. " Anc. Mon. of Missias. Valley," p. 
211. Squier, " Abor. Mon. of New York," p. 180. 

X "Cultur-Wiss.," vol. i. p. 01. § " Stone Age," pi. ii. 28, 29. 

II " Eemains of a Primitive People, &c., in Yorkshire." H Vol. iv. p. 233. 

** Arch., vol. xxxviii. p. 411. 



[chap. XII. 

brilliant polish on each margin of its flat face, showing the friction the 
saw has undergone in use, not improbably in sawing bone or horn. 

Fig. 201 is more coarsely serrated, and shows less of the characteristic 
polish which is observable on so large a proportion of these flint saws. 
The teeth are on many so minute that without careful examination they 
may be overlooked. Others, however, are coarsely toothed. The Rev. 
W. GreenwcU has found saws in considerable numbers, and varying in 
the fineness of their serration, in the barrows on the Yorkshire Wolds, 
near Sherburn and elsewhere. In the soil of a single barrow at Rud- 
stonc there were no less than seventy-eight of these saws. Some have 
also been found by Mr. E. Tindall in barrows near Bridlington,* as well 
as on the surface. Mr. Grecnwell has a finely toothed saw, made from a 
curved flake, found at Kenny Hill, Mildenhall. 

The teeth are usually, but not universally, worked in the side edges 
of the flakes. In Fig. 202 it is the chisel-like broad end of a flake that 
has been converted into a saw. This specimen was found by Mr. J. W. 

Fig. 201.— Scamridge. 

Fiff. 202.— West Cranmorc. 

Flower, F.G.S., in a barrow at West Cranmore, Somerset, in company 
with numerous flint flakes and some of the round-ended tools known as 
" scrapers." A bronze dagger was found in the same barrow. 

Near Newhaven, Sussex, I found on the downs a flat flake, about 
2\ inches long, and sHghtly curved sideways towards the point. At this 
part the inner curve is neatly worked into a saw, and the outer curve 
carefully chipped into a rounded edge as a scraping tool. 

A flint knife serrated at the back to serve as a saw was found by 
Mr. Bateman in Lifi"'s Low, near Biggen.t 

In Ireland, flakes converted into saws have not as yet been observed ; 
they occur occasionally, though but rarely, with neolithic interments in 
France. In the Museum at Le Puy is a very good specimen of a flat 
flake, neatly serrated with small teeth, found with a skeleton near that 
town. Another, found in a dolmen in Poitou,:[ has been published by 
M. de Longuemar. 

Similar saws to those first described, and made from flakes more or 

" Arch. Jonrn., xxvii. p. 74. t "Vest. Ant. Deri).," p. 43. 

X la Soc. dea Ant. do f Quest, 4 Trim., 1863, fig. 13. 


less coarsely tootlied, have been found in tlie cave-deposits of the Kein- 
deer Period of the South of France ; but in some caves, as, for instance, 
that at Bruniquel explored by Mons. V. Brun, they were much more 
abundant than in others. In the Vicomte de Lastic's cave at the same 
place but few occurred, and in most of the caves of the Dordogne they 
appear to be absent. An irregularly notched flake was probably almost 
as efficient a saw as one more carefully and uniformly toothed. 

Flakes of flint, carefully serrated at the edge so as to form saws, have 
been found in the Danish kj(ikkeu-m6ddings.''' 

Among the more highly finished Scandinavian stone implements there 
is some difficulty in determining exactly which have served the purpose 
of saws. The flat, straight, tapering instrument, with serrated edges, 
which, from its many teeth at regular distances from each other, Nilssonf 
is disposed to think has probably been a saw, Worsaaej. regards as a lance- 
point. I am inclined to think they were not saws, for on such speci- 
mens as I have examined minutely I find no trace of the teeth being 
polished by use. They cannot, however, in all cases have been lance- 
heads, as I have one of these serrated instruments, 8.]; inches long, with 
the sides nearly parallel and both ends square. 

Some of the crescent-shaped § blades have almost similar teeth on the 
straight edge, and some of these are polished on both faces as if by being 
worked backwards and forwards in a groove, and have no polish between 
the teeth, such as would result from their being used crossways like 
combs. From this I infer that such specimens at all events have been 
used as saws, and not, as may have been the case with others, as instru- 
ments II for dressing skins, or heckling flax or hemp. As has been pointed 
out by Professor J. J. Steenstrup, many of these crescent-shaped blades 
seem to have had their convex edges inserted in wooden handles, which 
would render them convenient for use as saws. Their action on wood, 
though not rapid, is eflectual, and with the aid of a little water I have cut 
through a stick of dry sycamore seven-eighths of an inch in diameter in 
seven minutes. In Thomsen's*1i opinion these implements with teeth 
were intended for saws. Nilsson '''"■' also regards some of them in the 
same light. The form seems to be confined to the North of Germany 
and Scandinavia. if They are frequently found in pairs, one being smaller 
than the other. Mr. Wright, |]: after engraving one of these Danish saws 
as a British specimen, remarks that several have been found in difterent 
parts of England. I believe this statement to be entirely without founda- 
tion so far as this particular form is concerned ; and I pass on to another 
kind of instrument, as to the abundant occurrence of which in Britain 
there can be no doubt. 

* Madsen, " Afbildningcr," pi. i. 15. 

t "Stone Age," p. 80, pi. v. 93. 

X "Nord. Olds.," No. 56. 

§ "Nord. Olds.," No. 58. 

II Lutbock, " Preh. Times," p. 95. "Flint Chips," p. 74. 

H " Nordisk Tidskrift for Oldk.," 1832, p. 429. 

** " Stone Ag-e," p. 42. 

tt Franks, "Hone Ferales," p. 137. Lisch, " Frederico-Francisc," p. 145. 

X+ "Celt, Koman, and Saxon," jj. 70. 



One of the simple forms into which flakes are susceptible of being 
readily converted has, in consequence of its similarity in character 
to a stone implement in use among the Esquimaux for scraping 
skins and other purposes, received the name of a " scraper," or, to 
use the term first, I believe, employed by the late Mens. E. Lartet, 
a grattoir. A typical scraper may be defined as a broad flake 
the point of which has been chipped to a semicircular bevelled 
edge round the margin of the inner face, similar in character to 
that of a " round-nosed turning chisel." 

Fig. 203. — Esquimaux Sci-aper. | 

A very good specimen of an Esquimaux scraper of flint, mounted 
in a handle of fossil ivory, is preserved in the Christy Collection, 
and engraved in the " Pteliquitc Aquitanictc." * For the loan of the 
woodcut, Fig. 203, there given, I am indebted to the representatives 

* Part II. p. U. 


of tlie late Mr. Christy. Sometimes the hafts are of wood, and they 
have frequently indentations intended to receive the ends of the 
fingers and thumh, so as to secure a good grasp. In the collection 
of Sir John Lubhock is another specimen, much like Fig. 203, with a 
flint blade almost like a lance-head in character, but with the more 
pointed end inserted in the handle ; there is also another short 
straight- sided blade of jade bound in a wooden haft, which is 
notched along one side to receive the fingers, and recessed on the 
face for the thumb. This latter seems well adapted for use as a 
knife or chisel ; in fact. Sir John Lubbock, who has figured the 
instruments in his " Prehistoric Times," * terms them both knives. 
Another example has been engraved by the Rev. J. Gr. Wood.f 

These instruments are said to be used for scraping skins, + for 
which indeed they seem well suited, if the flat face of the stone 
be held vertically to the hide that is to be scraj)ed. The handles, 
however, are better adapted for pushing the scrapers forward on a 
flat surface, and judging from the wear upon them, they must have 
been so used. Sir Edward Belcher § has described them as 
Esquimaux planes, and has informed me that they are used in the 
manufacture of bows and other articles of wood. 

A form of skin-scraper, straight at the edge, was in use among 
the Pennacook tribe 1 1 of North America, and though some of 
the Esquimaux instruments were used as planes, no doubt many 
were employed in dressing hides. 

But whether the instruments were used vertically as scrapers, 
or horizontally as planes, the term "scrapers" seems almost equally 
adapted for them ; and there appears no valid reason why, for the 
sake of convenience, the same term should not be applied to their 
ancient analogues, especially as their edges, as will subsequently be 
seen, are in many cases worn away in a manner indicative of their 
having been used for scraping. 

The names of " thumb-flints " and " finger-flints," which have 
sometimes been applied to the shorter and longer varieties of these 
instruments, though colloquially convenient, appear to me not 
sufficiently definite in meaning to be worthy of being retained. 

Scrapers may be classified and described, firstly, in accordance 
with the character of the flakes from which they have been made ; 
and, secondly, in accordance with the outline of the portion of the 

* " Prehist. Times," 2nd ed., p. 490, figs. 214—6. 

t "Kat. Hist, of Man," vol. ii. p. C99. J "Eel. Aquit.," p. 13. 

^ Froc. Ethn. Soc, N. S., vol. i. p. 137. 

il Schoolcraft, " Ind. Tribes," vol. iv. p. 17o. 



[chap. XIII. 

margin which has been chipped into form, and the general contour 
of the implement. 

Their outline is in some cases horseshoe-shaped or kite-shaped, 
in others it is discoidal or nearly circular, and in others again it 
may be compared to that of a duck's bill or of an oyster shell. 
To these may be added side scrapers, or sucli as are broader than 
they are long. 

When the flakes have been chipped into the scraper form at 
both ends they may be termed double-ended scrapers — to which 
class circular scrapers also belong; where a sort of handle has 
been worked they may be termed spoon- shaped, and where the 
butt has been chipped to a sharp chisel edge, at right angles to 
the flat face, they have been called tanged scrapers. 

In sjDeaking of the sides as right or left, I do it with reference 
to the flat face of the scraper, as shown in the first of the three 
views of Fig. 204. 

It will be well to pass some of the forms in review before entering 
into any more general considerations. 

They are all figured full size. Fig. 204, from Weaverthorpe, on the 

Fig. 204.— Weaverthorpe. 

Yorkshire Wolds, is a good example of a symmetrical horseshoe-shaped 
scraper. _ It is made from a broad flat flake of rather pink flint, with the 
point chipped to a neat semicircular bevelled edge, and one of the sides 
trimmed so as to correspond with the other. The bulb of percussion 
visible on the flat face and side view has been slightly splintered by the 
blow. It gives a graceful ogee curve to the face longitudinally, which 
brings forward the scraping or cutting edge at the end. In the centre 
this is slightly rounded and worn away by use. 

I have other specimens almost identical in form from other parts of the 
Yorkshhe Wolds, from Sufiblk, Sussex, and Dorsetshire. They are 
abundantly found of smaller dimensions, and occasionally of larger. 



Fig. 205 is another horseshoe-shaped scraper, which has becomo white 
and grey by exposure. I found it on the Downs near Bcrling Gap, on 
the Sussex coast, a few miles west of Eastbourne — a district so prolific, 

Fig. 205. — Sussex Downs. 

that I have there found as many as twenty of these instruments, of various 
degrees of perfection, within an hour. In this case the scraper has been 
made from a broad ridged flake, and it will be observed that not only the 
end, but the left side (the right of the ridged face shown in the cut), has 
been carefully trimmed, while the right has been left untouched, and has, 
moreover, a flat facet on it, as shown in the side view. It would appear 
from this that probably the side as well as the end was used for scraping 
purposes, that whoever used it was right-handed and not left-handed, 
and, moreover, that it is doubtful whether the implement was ever in- 
serted in a handle, at all events at the butt-end. I have a nearly similar 
specimen, but trimmed at the end only, which I found in the raJlum. of 
the camp of Poundbury, near Dorchester, Dorset. I have smaller instru- 
ments of the same form which I have found on the surface of the ground 
at Ouudle, Northamptonshire, and in the ancient encampment of Maiden 
Bower, near Dunstable. 

The form is of common occurrence in Yorkshire, in all sizes from 2i 

Fig. 206.— Yorkshire. 

inches to 1 inch in length. To show the great range in size, and the 
variations in the relative thickness of the instruments, I have engraved, 
in Fig. 20G, a small specimen from the Yorkshire Wolds. 



[chap. XIII. 

. "When the chipping to an edge is continued beyond a semicircle, in the 
case of scrapers made from broad short flakes, an almost circular instru- 
ment is the result. These discoidal scrapers are of extremely common 
occurrence on the Yorkshire Wolds. Fig. 207 shows a specimen from 

They are not unfrequently formed from external flakes or splinters, 
and are sometimes made from fragments broken from long flakes, inas- 

Fig. 207. — Helpertliorpe. 

Fig. 203. — AVeavertborpe. 

much as there is no bulb of percussion on the flat face. In rare cases the 
flat face is the result of a natural fracture, and more rarely still, it is the 
external face of a flint nodule. 

When the instrument is broader than it is long, it has been termed a 
side scraper. One in what is now white flint, made from a portion of a 
flake, and showing no bulb on the flat face, is engraved in Fig. 208. It 

Fig. 209.— Sussex Downs. 

was found at Weavcrthorpe. Occasionally the arc is flatter and longer 
in proportion to the height than in this instance. 

Fig. 209 may be called a long horseshoe-shaped scraper. It bas been 



made from a thick flat flake, whicli there had evidently been some 
difficulty in shaping, as at least two blows had failed of their desired 
cff"ect before the flake was finally dislodged. The back of the scraper is 
disfigured by the marks of the abortive flakes produced by these two 
blows. The end, and part of the right side, are neatly trimmed into form. 
This specimen also I found on the Sussex Downs, near Berling Gap. 

The implements of this form are often neatly chipped along both 
sides as well as at the end. An example of the kind is given in Fig. 210, 
the original of which is in milky chalcedonic flint, and was found on the 
Yorkshire Wolds. 

I 1*1 

i-irr. -111.— Yorkslure Wolds. 

Fig. L'll. — Yoi-ksliire Wolds. 

Fig. 211 shows another specimen from the Yorkshire Wolds. It is 
made from a flat flake, considerably curved longitudinally, and trimmed 
at the end as well as along a small portion of the left side. Some are 
more oval in form, and have been chipped along the sides, and somewhat 
rounded at the butt. In several instances the chipped edge at the butt- 
end is slightly worn away by friction, the edge of the rounded end 
being unworn. 

Fig. 212 is a kite-shaped scraper from Yorkshire, also made from a 


Fig. 212.— Yorkshire Wolds. 

flat flake, but showing a considerable extent of the original crust of the 
flint of which it was made. It comes almost to a point at the butt-end, 
and both edges are somewhat chipped away, as if the instrument had 




[chap. XIII. 

at that end been used as a boring tool. The point is somewhat rounded 
by friction. Occasionally scrapers of this form are chipped on both faces 

at the pointed base, so as to make them 
closely resemble arrow-heads. It seems 
possible that this pointing was for the 
purpose of hafting the tool more readily 
in wood. 

Fig. 213 shows one of what may be 
termed the duck-bill scrapers. It is made 
from a flat flake as usual, somewhat 
curved, and showing all along one edge 
the original crust of the flint. It is neatly 
worked to a semicircular edge at the point, 
but the sides are left entirely untouched. 
I found it on the Sussex Downs, near 
Cuckmare Haven. 

A smaller analogous instrument, from 
the Yorkshire Wolds, is shown in Fig. 
214. It is made from an external flake, 
struck from a nodule of flint of small 
diameter. The end alone is trimmed. 
Scrapers made from such external flakes 
and splinters of flint are by no means uncommon. I have one which 
appears to have been made from a splinter of a hammer-stone, a portion 
of the surface being bruised all over. 

In Fig. 215 is shown another duck-bill scraper, with parallel sides, 

Fig. 213. — Sussex Downs. 

21 I. — yorkshire Wolds. 

Fig. 215. — Sussex Downs. 

found by myself on the Sussex Downs, near Berling Gap. It is a thick 
instrument, with both sides and end trimmed into form, the flake from 
which it is made having in all probabflity been originally much broader 
and more circular. The bulb of pei'cussion is not central of the butt, 
but within three-eighths of an inch of the left side. 

Anoilior fcn-m of these instruments is not unlike the flat valve of an 



oyster shell, being usually somewhat unsymmetrical either to the right 
or to the left. 

A specimen of this class from the Sussex Downs, near Berling Gap, is 

Fig. 216. — Sussex Downs. 

shown in Fig. 216. The end is neatly chipped to an almost elliptical 
sweep, but the sides in this instance are left untrimmed ; the right 
side, shown in the side 

view, being flat and xf^Hi'^'-sj^^ ^T' '> 

almost square with the 
face. In some instances 
the trimming of the 
sides extends all the 
way round to the butt. 
Occasionally, though 
rarely, one of the sides, 
either right or left, is 
trimmed in such a man- 
ner that its more or 
less straight edge meets 
the curved edge of the 
end at an angle, so as 
to form an obtuse point. 
An example of this kind 
is shown in Fig. 217, 
from the Downs, near 
Berling Gap. This in- 
strument is made from an external splinter of flmt, the edge at the end 
and front of one side alone being carefully chipped into shape. 

T 2 

Fig, 217. — Sussex Downs. 




In most scrapers, the bulb of percussion of the flake from which they 
have been made is, as has ah-eady been said, at the opposite end to that 
which has been trimmed to the curved edge ; but this is by no means 
universally the case, for sometimes the bulb is at the side of the scraper, 
and sometimes, though more rarely, it has been at the end which has 
been worked to the scraper edge. 

It seems needless to engrave examples of these varieties, which are 
only indicative of the manufacturers of the implements having made use 
of that part of the piece of flint which seemed best adapted to chip into 
the form they required. For the same reason we find scrapers of an 
endless variety of forms, some of them exceedingly irregular, as any one 
who has examined a series from the Yorkshire Wolds will know. I have 
not, however, thought it necessary to give representations of all these 
minor varieties, as even more than enough are engraved to show the 
general character of the instruments. It is perhaps worth mentioning 
that the flakes selected for conversion into scrapers are usually such as 
expand in width at the point. It is doubtful whether the long narrow 
flakes worked to a scraper-like termination at one or both ends properly 
come under the category of scrapers. I shall consequently treat of them 
under the head of wrought flakes. 

I therefore pass on to the consideration of the forms showing a 
greater extent of trimming at the edge than those hitherto passed in 
review. Of these the double-ended scrapers, or those presenting a semi- 
circular edge at either end, first demand notice. They are of by no 
means common occurrence. Those I have seen have been for the 
most part found in Yorkshire and Suffolk. Fig. 218 exhibits a specimen 

Fig. 218.— Bridlington. 

Fig. 219.— Biidliiigtoi 

from Bridlington, procured by Mr. E. Tindall. As is not unfrequently 
the case, it is rather thinner at the end nearest to what was the butt-end 
of the flake. The sides are left almost untrimmed, but each end is 
worked to an almost semicircular curve. The Rev. W. Greenwell 
has a specimen from one of the barrows at Rudstone, and a large one 
from Lakenheath, besides others from Suffolk. Occasionally the length 
and breadth are so nearly the same, that the scraper assumes the form 
of a disc with sharp edges — ^a sort of plano-convex lens. A specimen 
of this form from Bridlington is shown in Fig. 219. It is, however, 
exceptionally regular in form. I have another smaller specimen, not 
quite so circular or so well chipped, which I found on the Downs 



between Newhaven and Brigliton. Such a form was probably not 
iuttnded for insertion in a haft. 

Sometimes, where the scraper has been made from a flat flake, the 
trimmed edge curves slightly inwards at one part, so as to produce a sort 
of ear-shaped form. I have such, both with the 
inward curve on the left side, as shown in Fig. 
220, and also with it on the right side. I have 
met with this form nowhere but on the Yorkshire 

A deeply notched tool, to which the name of 
hollow scraper has been applied, will be subse- 
quently mentioned.* 

There are some scrapers which at the butt-end 
of the flake are chipped into what has the appearance of being a sort 
of handle, somewhat like that of a short spoon. That engraved in 
Fig. 221 is from the Yorkshire Wolds, and is in the collection of Messrs. 
Mortimer, of Fimber. It is chipped from both faces to an edge at each 
side in the handle-like part. I have an implement of the same character, 
found by Mr. E. Tindall, of Bridlington, at Sewerby, the handle of which is 

Fig. 220.— Yorkshire Woldsi. 

Fig. 221.— Yorkshiru Wolds. 

slighter, but less symmetrical. I have from the same district another large 
discoidal scraper, If inches in diameter, and chipped all round, with a 
rounded projection, about f inch wide, left at the thicker end of the 

The Rev. W. Greenwell has specimens of the same character as 
Fig. 221, found near Rudstone. 

A nearly similar implement, in the Museum of the Royal Irish Aca- 
demy, has been engraved by Sir W. Wilde. f 

Some of the large Danish scrapers are provided with a sort of handle, 
and have been termed by Worsaae | " skee-formet," or spoon-shaped. 

It will be well now to refer to some of the published notices of the 
discovery of these implements, which seem to have met with little atten- 
tion from antiquaries until within the last few years. There is, how- 
ever, in the British Museum a fine horseshoe-shaped scraper, which was 
found by the late Dr. Mantell, in company with broken urns and ashes, 

* P. 287 

t "Cat. Mus. E. I. A.," fig. 8. 

+ " Nord. Olds.," No. 29. 

278 SCRAPERJ5. [chap. XIII. 

in a barrow on Windore Hill, near Alfriston, Sussex. In the same col- 
lection are four or five others of various sizes from barrows on Lam- 
borne Downs, Wilts. Sir R. Colt Hoare has also recorded the discovery 
of what appear to be two discoidal scrapers, with a flint spear-head or 
dagger, a small hone or whetstone, and a cone and ring of jet, like a 
pulley, accompanying an interment, near Durrington Walls.* He terms 
them little buttons of chalk or marl ; but from the engraving it would 
seem that they were scrapers — probably of flint, much weathered, or 
altered in structure. It seems probable that many more may have 
escaped his notice, as they are of common occurrence in the tumuli in 
Wiltshire, as well as in the other parts of Britain. The late Dean 
Merewether f found several in barrows on Avebury Down, together with 
numerous flint flakes. 

Ten or twelve were also found by Dr. Thurnam in the chambered 
long barrow at West Kennet,| with about three hundred flint flakes. 
There was no trace of metal, nor of cremation in this barrow. 

In the Yorkshire barrows they abound in company both with burnt and 
unburnt bodies, § without any metal being present. The Rev. AV. Greenwell, 
F.S.A.,has in some cases found them with the edge worn smooth by use. 

Mr. Bateman found many in Derbyshke barrows, as, for instance, at 
the head of a contracted skeleton on Cronkstone Hill,l| and with another 
contracted skeleton with two sets of Kimmeridge coal beads, at Cow Low, 
Buxton,* and with four skeletons in a cist, in a barrow near Monsal Dale.*'-' 

They not unfrequently occur with interments in association with 
bronze weapons. In a barrow on Parwich Moor, Stafl'ordshire,f f called 
Shuttlestone, Mr. Bateman found a skeleton, with a bronze dagger at 
the left arm, and a plain flat bronze celt at the left thigh, and close to 
the head a jet bead and a " cu-cular flint." As before stated, Mr. J. W. 
Flower, F.G.S., also found three, and a bronze dagger, in the same 
barrow as the saw engraved at p. 266. 

They are frequently found on the surface of the ground. One such, 
found by Mr. C. Wykeham Martin, F.S.A., at Leeds Castle, Kent, J J has 
been figured by the Society of Antiquaries. Others from the neigh- 
bourhood of Hastings, §§ the Isle of Thanet, |||| and Bradford Abbas, 
Dorset, 1i*i have also been engraved. Many of the latter are said to have 
a notch on the left side, but I am doubtful whether it is intentional. 
Colonel A. Lane Fox, F.S.A., has found them at Callow Hill, Oxon. "■'='"'= 

I have found them in considerable numbers in and near ancient en- 
campments. At Maiden Bower, near Dunstable, a party of three or 
four have, on more than one occasion, picked up upwards of forty speci- 
mens. I have specimens from Hod Hill, Badbury Rings, and Pound- 
bury Camp, Dorsetshire ; from Little Solsbury Hill, near Bath ; and 

* " South Wilts," p. 172, pi. xix. t " Salisb. vol. Arch. Inst.," p. lOG. 

j " Cran. Brit.," vol. ii. pi. 60, p. 2. Arch., vol. xxxviii. p. 416. 
§ Arch. Journ., vol. xiv. p. 83 ; xxii. p]). 116, 245, 251 ; xxvii. p. 74. Iteliquary, 
vol. ix. p. 69. " Ten Years' Dig.," pp. 205, 208. 
II " Ten Y. D.," p. 66. H " Vest. Ant. Derb.," p. 92. ** " T. Y. D.," p. 78. 
tt " T. Y. D.," p. 35. Arch. Assoc. Journ., vol. vii. p. 217. 

XX Troc. Hoc. A>if., 2ndS., vol. iii. p. 76. §§ Sussex Arch. Coll., vol. xix. p. 53. 

11 II Journ. Elh. Soc, vol. i. pi. i. 
HU Arch. Journ., vol. xxv. p. 155. 
*** Journ, Eth. Soc, vol. i. p. 4. 


Pulpit Wood, near Wendover, Bucks. On the Yorkshire Wokls and the 
Sussex Downs, and in parts of Suffolk, they are extremely numerous ; 
but in any chalk country where flint is abundant, this form of implement 
can be found. In other districts, into which flint has to be imported, 
they are of course more scarce. They seem, however, to occur in greater 
or less abundance over the whole of England. 

They are not very numerous in Scotland, but specimens from Elgin 
and other counties are to be seen in the Antiquarian Museum at 

They are found of nearly similar forms in Ireland, but are there com- 
paratively much rarer than in England. 

In the North of France the same form of instrument occurs, and I 
have a number of specimens from diflerent parts of Belgium. 

In Denmark, also, scrapers of various forms are found, and are not un- 
common in the kjiikken-muddings and coast-finds. Sir John Lubbock''' 
records having picked up as many as thirty-nine scrapers at a spot on 
the coast of Jutland, near Aarhuus. 

In the Swiss Lake-dwellings they occasionally occur. I have a fine, 
almost kite-shaped, specimen from Auvernier, given me by Professor 
Desor, and others from Nussdorf. Some are engraved by Keller. They 
are also found in Italy. I have a small sjiecimen from the Isle of Elba. 

I possess specimens formed of obsidian from Mexico ; and instruments 
of jasper, of scraper-like forms, have been found at the Cape of Good 

Instruments of the same character date back, however, to a period 
still more remote, for numbers have been found in the cave-deposits 
of the Reindeer Period of the South of France, as w^ell as a few in 
our English bone caves, as will subsequently be mentioned. A some- 
what similar form occurs, though rarely, among the implements found in 
the ancient River Gravels. 

Besides being used for scraping hides and preparing leather, it 
has been suggested by the Rev. "W. Green well, F.S.A.,+ that they 
might have served for making pins and other small articles of bone, 
and also for fabricating arrow-heads and knives of flint. As to 
this latter use I am doubtful, but before entering into the question 
of the purposes which implements of the " scrajaer " form were in 
ancient times intended to serve, it will be w^ell to examine the 
evidence of wear afforded by the implements themselves. This 
evidence is various in its character, and seems to prove that the 
implements were employed in more than one kind of work. 

Among some hundreds of scrapers, principally from the York- 
shire Wolds, I have met with between twenty and thirty which 
show decided marks of being worn away along the circular edge 
by friction. In some, the edge is only worn away sufficiently to 

* " Preh. Times," p. 81, 2nd ed. p. 102. 

t Trans. Frch. Conrj., 1868-69. Journ. Ethnol. Soc, vol. i. p. 52. 

X Arch. Juurn., vol. xxii. p. 101. 

280 SCRAPERS. [chap. XIII. 

remove all keenness or asperity, and to make it feel smooth to tlie 
touch, and this perhaps along one part only of the arc. In others, 
the whole edge is completely romided, and many of the small 
facets by which it was originally surrounded, entirely effaced. 
The small striae, resulting from the friction which has rounded 
the edge, are at right angles to the flat face of the implement, and 
the whole edge jDresents the appearance of having been worn away 
by scraping some comparatively soft substance — such, for instance, 
as leather. When we consider what an important part the skins 
of animals play in the daily life of most savage tribes, and 
especially of those exposed to a cold climate ; and when we re- 
member the amount of preparation, in the way of dressing and 
scraping, the hides require before they can be available for the 
purposes of clothing, or even tent-making, it becomes evident that 
some instruments must have been in use by the ancient occupants 
of the country for the purpose of dressing skins ; and the pro- 
bability of these scrapers having been devoted to this purpose is 
strengthened by their being worn in just such a manner as they 
would have been, had they been in use for scraping some greasy 
dressing off not over-clean leather. The scrapers thus worn away 
are for the most part of the horseshoe form. There are some, 
however, which have the edge worn away not at the circular end, 
but along the edge towards the butt. In this case also they 
appear to have been employed for scraping, but the evidence as to 
the character of the substance scraped is not so distinct. It is, 
however, probable that in the fashioning of perforated axes and 
other implements, made of greenstone and other rocks not purely 
silicious, some scraj)ing as well as grinding tools may have been 
employed, and possibly the wear of the edge of some of these tools 
may be due to such a cause. Even among the cave-dwellers of 
the Dordogne we find scrapers bearing similar marks of attrition, 
and we also know that flint flakes were used for scraping the hard 
haimatitic iron ore, to produce the red pigment — the paint with 
which the men of those times seem to have adorned themselves.* 

It will of course be urged that it is, after all, only a small 
proportion of these implements which bear these unmistakable 
marks of wear upon them. It must, however, be remembered, that 
to produce much abrasion of the edge of an instrument made of so 

* A3 another purpose to which these iustrumej:ts may have heen applied, Dr. 
Keller (" Lake Dwellings," pp. 34, 97) has suggested that some of the scrapers found 
in the Hwitss Lake-dwellings may have heen in use for scaling fish. 


hard a material as flint, an enormous amount of wear against so 
soft a substance as hide woukl be necessary. It is, indeed, possible 
that the edge would remain for years comparatively unworn, were 
the substance to be scraped perfectly free from grit and dirt. If 
we find identically the same forms of instruments, both worn and 
Tin worn, there is a fair presumj^tion that both were intended for the 
same purpose, though the one, from accidental causes, has escaped 
the wear and tear the efiects of which are visible on the other. 

There are, however, circumstances which in this case point 
to an almost similar form having served two totally distinct 
purposes ; for, besides those showing the marks of use already 
described, we find some of these instruments with the edge 
battered and bruised to such an extent that it can hardly have 
been the residt of scraping, in the ordinary sense of the word. 

To account for such a character of wear, there seems no need of 
going so far afield as among the Esquimaux, or any other semi- 
civilized or savage people, to seek for analogies on which to base 
a conclusion — how far satisfactory it must be left to others to 
judge. Among the primary necessities of man (who has been 
defined as a cooldng animal) is that of fire. It is no doubt a 
question difficult of solution whether our primitive predecessors 
were acquainted with any more ready means of producing it than 
by friction of two pieces of wood, esj^ecially at a time when there 
is reason to suppose they were unacquainted with the existence of 
iron as a metal. I have, however, already mentioned * that for 
the purpose of producing sparks, pyrites is as efiective as iron, and 
was, indeed, in use among the Bomans. Now the lower beds of 
our English chalk are prolific of pyrites, though not to the same 
extent as the upper beds are of flint ; and it is not impossible that 
the use of a hammer- stone of pyrites, in order to form some 
instrument of flint, gave rise to the discovery of that method of 
producing fire, the invention of which the old myth attributed to 
Pyrodes, the son of Cilix. When exposed upon or near the surface 
of the ground, pyrites is very liable to decomposition, and even if 
occurring with ancient interments it would be very likely to be 
disregarded. This may account for the paucity of the notices of 
its discovery. Some, however, exist, and I have already men- 
tioned t instances where pj^rites has been discovered on the 
Continent in association with worked flints, both of Neolithic and 
Palaeolithic age. 

* P. 14. t Ilji'l. 

282 SCRAPEKS. [chap. XIII. 

There arc also instances of its occurrence in Britisli barrows. 
That careful observer, the late Mr. Thomas Bateman, found, in 
the year 1844, in a barrow on Elton Moor,* near the head of a 
skeleton, " a piece of sj^herical iron pyrites, now for the first time 
noticed as being occasionally found with other relics in the British 
tumuli. Subsequent discoveries," he says, " have proved that it 
Avas prized by the Britons, and not unfrequently deposited in the 
grave, along with the weapons and ornaments which formed the 
most A^alued part of their store." With the same skeleton, in a 
"drinking- cup," with a small celt and other objects of flint, was a 
flat piece of polished iron ore, and twenty-one " circular instru- 
ments." In another barrow. Green Low,t Mr. Bateman discovered 
a contracted skeleton, having behind the shoulders a drinking-cup, 
a splendid flint dagger, a piece of spherical pyrites or iron ore, and 
a flint instrument of the circular-headed form. Lower down were 
barbed flint arrow-heads and some bone instruments. In a barrow 
at Brigmilston + Sir B. Colt Hoare found, with an urn containing 
ashes, some " chipped flints prepared for arrow-heads, a long piece 
of flint, and a pyrites, both evidently smoothed by usage." 

Nodules of pyrites occurred in such numbers in a barrow at 
Broad Down,^ near Honiton, as to suggest the idea of their having 
been placed there designedly, but none of them are described as 

We have here, at all events, instances of the association of lumps 
of iron pyrites with circular- ended flint instruments in ancient 
interments. Can they have been in use together for producing 
fire ? In order to judge of this our best guide will probably be, 
so far at all events as the flints are concerned, the form in use for 
the same purpose in later times, and even at the present day. 

The Abbe Cochet II describes some of the flints found with 
Merovingian interments as resembling gun-flints : one of these was 
apparently carried at the waist, in a purse with money and other 
necessaries. A similar practice of carrying in the pocket a piece 
of flint and some prepared tinder prevails in some parts of Europe 
to the present day ; and, as I have before remarked, flints for this 
purpose are articles of sale. Fig. 222 shows a modern " strike-a- 
light," or gun-flint, which I purchased some years ago at Pontlevoy, 
in France. It is made of a segment of a flake, one edge and the 

* " Vest. Ant. Derb.," p. 53. 

t Op. cif., p. 59. "Roliq.," vol. iii. p. 176. " Cran. Brit.," vol. ii. plate 41. 

I "Soutli Wilts," p. 195. ^ Arch. Jourii., xxv. p. 295. 

II " Normandie Souterraine," p. 258. 


sides of which have been trimmed to a scraper-like edge, and the 
other merely made straight. The resemblance between this and 
some of the ancient " scra^Dcrs " is mani- -j''*^'^^ 

fest. Another strike-a-light, which I k 
lately bought at a stidl in Treves, is about 
2 inches long by If inches broad, and i - 
made from a flat flake, trimmed to ; . 

nearly square edge at the butt-end, and ■ j W 

to a very flat arc at the point, both the fi^;. ;ijj.-t il-hcIi •■ strike-a-iight." 
trimmed edges being of precisely the same character as those of 
scrapers. I find, moreover, that by working such a flint and a 
steel or briquet together, much the same bruising of the edge is 
produced as that apparent on some of the old "scrapers." I 
come, therefore, to the conclusion, that a certain proportion of these 
instruments were in use, not for scraping hides like the others, but 
for scraping iron pyrites, and not improbably, in later days, even 
iron or steel for procuring fire. Were they used for such a pur- 
pose, we can readily understand why they should so often present 
a bruising of the edge and an irregularity of form. We can also 
find a means of accounting for their great abundance. 

Looking at the question from a slightly difierent point of view, 
this method of solution receives additional support. Every one 
will, I think, readily concede that, putting for the moment pyrites 
out of the question, the inhabitants of this country must have been 
acquainted with the method of producing fire by means of flint and 
steel or iron, at all events so long ago as when their intercourse 
with the Homans commenced, if not at an even earKer period. We 
may, in any case, assume that flints have been in use as fire- 
producing agents for something like two thousand years, and that 
consequently the number of them that have thus served must be 
enormous. What has become of them all ? They cannot, like 
some antiquities, be "only now rare because they were always 
valueless," for in their nature they are almost indestructible. Many, 
no doubt, were mere irregular lumps of flint, broken from time to 
time to produce such an edge as would scrape the steel ; but is it 
not in the highest degree probable that many were of the same 
class as those sold for the same purpose at the present day — flakes 
chipped into a more or less scraper-like form at the point ? 

There is yet another argument. In many instances these 
circular-ended flints, when found upon the surface, have a com- 
paratively fresh and unweathered appearance ; and, what is more, 

284 SCRAPERS. [chap. XIII. 

have the chipped part stained by iron-mould. In some cases 
there are particles of iron, in an oxidized condition, still adherent. 
Such iron marks, especially on flint which has weathered white, 
may, and indeed commonly do, arise from the passage of harrows 
and other agricultural implements, and of horses shod with iron, 
over the fields ; but did the marks arise merely from this cause, it 
appears hardly probable that in any instance they should be con- 
fined to the chipped edge, and not occur on other parts of the flint. 
I had written the foregoing pages when, in November, 1870, an 
interesting discovery, made by the Rev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A., in 
his erxploration of a barrow at E-udstone, near Bridlington, in York- 
shire, came to corroborate my views. I have already described a 
whetstone found with one of the interments in this barrow, and 
mentioned that between the knees and the head were found, with 

Fig. 223.— Rudstone. 

other objects, the half of a nodule of iron pyrites, and a long 
round-ended flake of flint which lay underneath it. They are 
both represented full size in the accompanying figure (Fig. 223). 
A portion of the outside of the pyrites has been ground smooth, 
and a projecting knob has been ground down, so as to bring it 
to an approximately hemispherical shape, and adapt it for being 
comfortably held in the hand. The fractured surface, where the 
nodule was broken in two, is somewhat oval, and in the centre, in 
the direction of the longer diameter, is worn a wide shallow groove, 
of just the same character as would have been produced by constant 
sharp scraping blows from a round-ended flake or scraper, such as 
that which was found with it. The whole surface is somewhat 
worn and striated, in the same direction as the principal central 
groove ; and the edge of the flat face of the pyrites is more worn 



away at the top and bottom of tlie groove than at the other 

The scraper is made from a narrow thick external flake, the end of 
which has been trimmed to .a semicircular bevelled edge : a portion 
of one side has also been trimmed. At the end, and along some 
parts of the sides, this edge is worn quite smooth, and rounded by 
friction, and there are traces of similar wear at the butt-end. In 
a second grave in the same barrow there lay, behind the back, two 
jet buttons and a similar pyrites and flint. There can, I think, 
be no reasonable doubt of their having been, in these instances, 
fire-producing implements, used in the manner indicated in the 
annexed figure. The finding of the two materials together, in two 

Fig. 224. — Method of using Pyrites and " Scraper " for Striking a Light. 

separate instances, in both of which the pyrites and the flint pre- 
sent the same forms and appearance, establishes the fact of their 
connection ; and it is hard to imagine any other purpose for which 
pyrites coidd be scraped by flint excej)t for producing fire. It 
cannot have been merely for the purpose of producing a paint or 
colour, as though the outer crust of a nodule of pyrites might, if 
ground, give a dull red pigment, yet the inner freshly broken face 
would not do so ; and, if it would, the colour would be more readily 
procured by grinding on a flat stone than bj^ scraping. It would 
be interesting to compare these objects with the pyrites and pebbles 
in use among the Fuegians,* who employ dried moss or fungus by 
way of tinder, but appear to find some difiiculty in producing fire. 
Mr. Franks has called my attention to another half nodule of 
pyrites preserved in the British Museum, which is somewhat abraded 
in the middle of its flat face, though not so much so as that from 
Yorkshire. It was discovered, with flint flakes, in a barrow on 
Lamborne Down, Berkshire, by Mr. E. Martin Atkins, in 1850. A 

* Wood, "Nat. Hist, of Man," vol. ii. p. 522. 

286 SCRAPERS. [chap. XIII. 

nodule of pyrites, with a deep scoring upon it, and found in one of the 
Belgian bone caves, tlie Trou de Chaleux, has been engraved by 
Dr. E. Dupont,* who regards it as having been used as a fire- 
producing agent. The flint that produced the scoring appears to 
have had a pointed rather than a rounded end. Possibly the 
wearing away of the ends of certain flakes, for which it has been 
difiicult to account, may be due to their having been used in this 
manner for striking a light. 

There are yet some other long flakes which are trimmed to a 
scraper-like edge at one or both ends, but in which cases this 
trimming appears to have been rather for the purpose of enabling 
the flake to be conveniently held in the hand, so as to make use 
of its cutting edge, than with the intention of converting the 
trimmed end into a scraping or cutting tool. The ends of some of 
the hafted knives or saws found in the Swiss Lake-dwellings are 
thus trimmed. 

On the whole, we may conclude, with some appearance of pro- 
bability, that a certain proportion of these instruments, and more 
especially those of regular shape and those of large size, were 
destined to be used as scrapers in the process of dressing hides and 
for other purposes ; that others again, and chiefly those of moderate 
size with bruised and battered edges, were used at one period with 
iron pyrites, and at a subsequent date with iron or steel, for the 
production of fire ; and some others, again, have had their ends 
trimmed into shape, so as to render them symmetrical in form, or 
to enable them to be conveniently handled or hafted. 

There are still one or two other forms to which, from the character of 
their edge, the designation of scraper may be given. The instrument 
from the Yorkshire Wolds, shown in Fig. 225, may, for instance, be 

Fig. 225.— Yuikshire Wolds. 

called a straight scraper. It is made from a broad flat flake, with a well- 
developed bulb of percussion on the face, and the counterpart of another 
at the back, so that the section at the base is much curved. The point 
t " Los Cav. de la Belgique," vol. ii. pi. ix. 2. " L' Homme jjendant les Ages 
de la Pierre," 1871, p. 74. 


of the flake and its left side have been chipped away, so that they are 
nearly straight, and form between them an angle of about G0°. The 
edge is sharper, and the form, I think, more regular than if it had been 
used in conjunction with pyrites or steel, and I am therefore inclined to 
regard it as a tool. Mr. Charles Monkman, who gave me this specimen, 
has also given me another, more crescent-shaped in form, the base being 
roughly chipped to a regular sweep. I have another larger flint, 
similar to Fig. 225, found by the late Mr. Whitbourn, F.S.A., in the neigh- 
bourhood of Godalming. Before pronouncing definitely as to the degree 
of antiquity to be assigned to such instruments, it will be well to have 
authenticated instances of their discovery in association with other 
remains, and not merely on the surface. In character, however, they 
much resemble other flint instruments of undoubtedly high antiquity, 
though they present the peculiarity of having the edge at right angles 
to the axis of the flake from which they are made, instead of being 
parallel to it. 

To another of these forms, of which a not very first-rate example is 
given in Fig. 226, the designation of hollow scraper may be applied, 

Fig. 226.— Yorkshire Wolds. 

the scraping edge being concave instead of, as usual, convex. This 
specimen also is from the Yorkshire Wolds. I have, however, found 
analogous instruments on the Sussex Downs, the hollowed edges of 
which appear to have been used for scraping some cylindrical objects. 
In Ireland this form also occasionally occui's. I have two specimens 
with the hollow as regular in its sweep as any of the scrapers of the 
ordinary form. Tools of this kind seem well adapted for scraping into 
regular shape the stems of arrows or the shafts of spears, or for fashion- 
ing bone pins. Among modern artificers in wood, bone, ivory, or metal, 
scraping tools play a far more important part than would at first sight 
appear probable, looking at the abundance and perfection of our cutting 
tools and files. The latter, indeed, are merely compound forms of 
" scrapers." 



Another of the purposes to wliich flint flakes were applied appears 
to have been that of boring holes in various materials. Portions 
of stags' horns, destined to serve either as hammers or as sockets 
for hatchets of stone, had either to be perforated or to have recesses 
bored in them ; and holes in wood were, no doubt, requisite for many 
purposes, though in this country we have but few wooden rehcs 
dating back to the time when flint was the principal, if not the 
only material for boring tools. To form some idea of the character of 
the objects, in the preparation of which such tools were necessary, 
we cannot do better than refer to the vivid picture of ancient life 
placed before us by the discoveries in the Swiss Lake-dwellings. 
Besides perforated stone axes and hammers, such as have been 
already described in these pages, we find stag's-horn and wooden 
hafts or helves, with holes and sockets bored in them, plates of 
stone, teeth of animals, bone and stag's-horn instruments, and 
wooden knife handles pierced for suspension, and portions of bark 
perforated, so as to serve like corks for floating fishing-nets. 

Even in the caverns of the Reindeer Period of the South of 
France we find the reindeer horns with holes bored through them 
in regular rows, and delicate needles of hard bone with exquisitely 
formed eyes drilled through them — one of which has also been 
I'ound in Kent's Cavern — as well as teeth, shells, and fossils per- 
forated for suspension as ornaments or amulets. So beautifully are 
the eyes in these ancient needles formed, that I was at one time 
much inclined to doubt the possibility of their having been drilled 
by means of flint flakes ; but the late Mons. E. Lartet demon- 
strated the feasibility of this process, by himself drilling the eye of a 
similar needle with a flint borer found in one of the French caves. 
I have myself bored perfectly round and smooth holes through 
both stag's horn and wood with flint flakes, and when a little water 


is used to facilitate the operation, it is surprising to find how 
quickly it proceeds, and how very little the edge of the flint suffers 
when once its thinnest part has been worn or chipped away, so as 
to leave a sufficient thickness of flint to stand the strain without 
being broken off. 

The most common form of boring tool, to which by some writers the 
name of awl or drill* has been given, is that shown in Fig. 227, from 
the Yorkshire Wolds. It is formed from a flat splinter 
of flint, and shows the natural crust of the stone at 
the broad end. At the other, each edge has been 
chipped away from the flat face, so as to reduce it 
by a rapid cux've on each side to a somewhat tapering 
blade with a sharp point. The section of this portion 
of the blade is almost of the form of half a hexagon 
when divided by a line joining opposite angles. A V' 
borer of this kind makes a very true hole, as whethei' 
turned round continuously, or alternately in each direc- 
tion, it acts as a half-round broach or rimer, enlarginL; 
the mouth of the hole all the time it is being deepened iig. .'.j?.— iwkbhire 
by the dialling of the point. The broad base of the ° ^oifi^- t 
flake serves as a handle by which to turn the tool. Several boring instru- 
ments of this form were found in the pits at Grime's Graves,! already so 
often mentioned. 

Borers of the same character occur in Ireland.]: I have also seen 
several found near Poutlevoy, France, in the collection of the Abbe 

Similar boring instruments of flint have been found in Denmark, in 
company with scrapers and other tools. Two of them have been 
engraved by Mr. C. F. Herbst.§ 

Sometimes the borer consists of merely a long narrow pointed flake, 
which has had the point trimmed to a scraping edge on either side. A 
specimen of the kind, found by Mr. E. Tiudall, near Bridlington, is 
shown in Fig. 228. The point, for about a sixteenth of an ^ 

inch in width, has been ground to a nearly square edge, so 
that it acts like a drill. Such a form was probably attached 
to a wooden handle for use, but I doubt whether any 
mechanical means were used for giving it a rotatory motion 
as a drill, and regard these borers rather as hand tools to 
be used much in the same way as a broach or rimer. 

Some implements from the Lake-settlement at Meilen, 
regarded by Dr. Keller || as awls or piercers, are perforated ; 

at one end, and appear to be ground over their whole sur- '-tMn 

Occasionally some projecting spur at the side of the 
flake has been utilized to form the borer, as is the case in '^'ungtmi. " 1 

* Lubbock, "Preh. Times," p. 96. Monkman, Tories. Arch, and Top. Jotirn., 1868. 

f Jotirn. Ethnol. Soc, vol. ii. pi. xxviii. 2, 3. 

+ See Archaol., vol. xli. pi. xviii. 6. 

§ " Aarboger f. Nord. Oldk," 1866, p. 311. 

II "Lake Dwellings," p. 25. " Pfahlbauten," Iter Bericht, p. 76. 




[chap. XIV. 

Fig. 229, also from the Yorkshire Wolds. In this instance, the two 
curved sweeps, by which the boring part of the tool is formed, have 
been chipped from the opposite faces of the flake, so that the cutting 
edges are at opposite angles of the blade, which is of rhomboidal section. 
Such a tool seems best adapted for boring by being turned in the 
hole continuously in one direction. In some instances the projecting 
spur is so short that it can have produced but a very shallow cavity in 
the object to be bored. 

Fie. 229.— Yorkshire Wolds. 

Fig. 230.— Bridlington. 

The tools, of which a specimen is shown in Fig. 230, also appear to 
have been intended for boring. It is, however, possible that after all 
they may have served some other purpose. That here engraved was 
found at Boynton, near Bridlington, by Mr. E. Tindall, and is weathered 
white all over. It is made from a flake, and the edge of the blade on 
the left in the figure is formed as usual by chipping from the flat face. 
The other edge is more acute, and has been formed by secondary chip- 
ping on both faces. The spur to the left, which may have served as a 
handle for turning the tool round when in use, has originally been longer, 
but the end has been lost through an ancient fracture. The edges of 
the point of the tool are somewhat worn away by friction. 

I am uncei'tain whether the instruments shown in Figs. 231 and 282 
can be with propriety classed among boring tools, as it is possible that 
they may have been intended and used for some totally different purpose — 
such, for instance, as forming the tips of arrows, for which, from their 
symmetrical form, they are not ill adapted. Though the points of those, 
like Fig. 231, are much rounded, it is possible they were mounted like 
the Egyptian flint arrow-heads, of which hereafter. A few instruments 
of this form have been found in Derbyshire and Suffolk, but that here 
figured was found on the Yorkshire Wolds, and has been made from a 
part of a thin flat flake, one edge of which forms the base opposite to 
the semicircular point. The side edges, which expand with a sweep to 
the base, are carefully chipped to a sharp angle with the face of the 
flake ; but in some instances this secondary working extends over a 
greater or less portion of both faces. Some specimens are also much 
longer in their proportions. The original edge of the flake, which 


extends along the base, is usually unworn by use, so that if these objects 
wei-e boring tools it may have been protected by being inserted in a 
notch in a piece of wood, which in such a case would serve as a 
handle for using the tool after the manner of an auger. The same form 
has been found in the Camp de Chassey (Saone et Loire), France.* 

I' Is 

Fig. 231.— Yuikshire Wolds. { Fig. 232.— Yorkshire Wolds. A 

Fig. 232, also from the Yorkshire Wolds, was presented to me by 
Mr. Charles Monkman, of Malton. Though more acutely pointed than 
Fig. 231, it seems to have been intended for much the same purpose, 
and it has been formed in a similar manner. The secondary working is 
principally on the convex face of the flake, but owing to an irregularity 
in the surface of the flat face, a portion of it has been removed by 
secondary chipping along one edge, so as to bring it as nearly as 
possible in the same plane as the other. For whatever purpose this 
instrument may have been designed, its symmetry is remarkable. 

I have a somewhat similar instrument from Bridlington, but triangular 
in form, with the sides curved slightly inwards, and the two most 
highly wrought edges j^roduced by chipping almost equally on both faces 
of the flake. Such a form approximates most closely to some of those 
which there appears reason for regarding as triangular arrow-heads. 

* Perrault, " Note sur un Foyer," &c., pi. ii. 15. 

U '^ 



Besides being converted into round-ended scrapers and pointed 
boring tools, flint flakes were trimmed on one or both faces into 
a variety of forms of cutting, scraping, and piercing tools and 
weapons. In one direction these forms pass through daggers and 
lance-heads, into javelin and arrow-heads ; and in another through 
cutting tools, wrought into symmetrical shape, and ground at the 
edges, into hatchets or celts adapted for use in the hand without 
being hafted. 

The first I shall notice are flakes trimmed 
into form by secondary working on both edges, 
but only on the convex face, the flat face 
being left either almost or quite intact. The 
illustrations of these forms are no longer full 
size, but on the scale of one-half, linear measure. 

The simplest form of such instruments is when 
merely the edge of the flake is worked, so as to 
reduce it to a regular leaf-like shape. A beautiful 
specimen of this kind is preserved in the Christy 
Collection, and is shown in Fig. 233. It was 
probably found in the neighbourhood of Cam- 
bridge, having formed part of the collection of the 
late Mr. Litchfield of that town. It is of grey 
flint, curved lengthwise, as is usually the case 
with flint flakes, and worked to a point at each 
end, though rather more rounded at the butt-end 
of the flake. Such instruments have sometimes 
been regarded as poniards, though not impro- 
bably they were used for various cutting and 
scraping purposes. 

They rarely occur in Britain of so great a length 
^^^^V as this, which is 5| inches long, but those of 

c ^;> shorter proportions are not uncommon. In Ireland 

FiR. 233.— CamUridRP, (?^. ^ , L^ \ a ^ 

^ ^ V . a ^jgQ i^Q jpjjg flakes are scarce. 

In France they are more abundant, though still rare. Some of those 


formed from the Pressigny flints were in the rough state as much as 1 2 
inches long, but none have as yet been found of this length. One, trimmed 
on both edges, and 8:^ inches long, was found in the bed of the Seine,* at 
Paris, and is now in the Musee d'Artillerie, with another nearly as long 
found about the same time m the same place. Both appear to be of 
Pressigny flmt. A beautiful flake, 8f inches long, trimmed on its external 
face, and found near Soissons,f was in the collection of M. Boucher de 
Perthes. I have one of the same character, 8^ inches long and 1^ inches 
broad in the middle, most symmetrically shaped and perfectly uninjured, 
which was formerly in the collection of M. Meillet, of Poitiers. It is 
said to have been found at Savanseau, and in places has a red incrusta- 
tion upon it, as if it had been embedded in a cave. In the Grotte de St. 
Jean d'Alcas I was found a blade of the same kind, together with some 
lance-heads of flint worked on both faces. Occasionally they are found 
in the dolmens. The Allee converted of Argenteuil furnished one 7i 
inches long ; and one of the dolmens in the Lozere || another, 8 inches 
in length. One almost 10 inches long and 1 broad, found at Neuilly-sur- 
Eure,1T has on the convex face the delicate secondary working, like ripple 
marks, such as is seen in perfection on some of the Danish blades of flint. 

Curiously enough, the long flakes found in some abundance in Scan- 
dinavia are rarely, if ever, worked on the convex face alone, but are 
either left in their original form, or converted, by secondary working on 
both faces, into some of the more highly finished tools or weapons. 

In the Swiss Lake- dwellings flakes trimmed at the edges and ends are 
of not unfrequent occurrence. Some of these, as already described, have 
been regarded as saws. 

A remarkably fine Italian specimen of a ridged flake, 11 inches in 
length, and carefully trimmed along both edges, is in the British Museum.** 
It is stated to have been found near Paestum. 

Many of these trimmed flakes, as well as in some cases those entirely 
untrimmed, have been called by antiquaries spear-heads and lance-heads. 
They have frequently been found with interments in barrows. 

Not to mention numerous mstances recorded by Mr. Bateman, I may 
cite a flake found in company with a barbed flint arrow-head at the foot 
of a contracted skeleton in a barrow ff at Moukton Down, Avebury, and 
a " triangular spear-head of stone curiously serrated at the edges," found 
with a flint arrow-head and perforated bone tusk, in an urn at the foot of 
a skeleton, in a barrow on Ridgeway Hill,|| Dorsetshire. 

Among the flint implements occurring on the surface of the Yorkshire 
Wolds and elsewhere, flakes trimmed to a greater or less extent along 
both edges, and over the convex face, are frequently found. The point 
as well as the base is often neatly rounded, though the former is some- 
times chipped to a sharp angle. 

There is a considerable difference in the inclination of the edge to the 

* Eev. Arch., N. S., vol. ii. p. 129. t "Ant. Celt, et Anted.," vol. i. p. 379. 

X Cazalis de Fondouce, "La Grotte sep. de St. J. d'Alcas," pi. i. 1. 

§ Met'. Arch., N. S., vol. xv. pi. ix. 26. 

II Mortillet, "Materiaux," vol. v. p. 321. 

m Eev. de la Soc. Lit. de VEurc, 3rd S., vol. v. 

** "HorfB Ferales," p. 137, pi. ii. 32. ft -:irch. Inst. Salisb. vol., p. 105. 

IX Arch., vol. XXX. p. 333. 



[chap. XV. 

face, it being sometimes at an angle of 60° or upwards, like the edge of 
some scrapers, at other times acute like a knife-edge. 

There is so great a range in the dimensions and proportions of this 
class of instruments that it is almost impossible to figure all the varieties. 
I have, therefore, contented myself with the selection of a few examples, 
and will commence with those having the more obtuse edges. 

Fig. 234, from the Yorkshire Wolds, is an external flat flake, weathered 
white, and trimmed all round the face showing the 
natural crust of the flint, to a point in form like a Gothic 
arch. A part of the edge is bruised, but it is impossible 
to say for what purpose such an instrument was in- 
tended. It can hardly have been for a javelin-head, 
though from the outline it would seem well adapted for 
such a purpose ; for in that case the edge would not 
have become bruised. It may possibly be an abnormal 
form of scraper. 

A nearly similar specimen, but narrower in its propor- 
tions, was found by the late Lord Londesborough* in a 
barrow near Driffield, and is described as a spear-head. 
Another form, usually very thick in proportion to its breadth, and 
neatly worked over the whole of the convex face, is shown in Fig. 235. 
This specimen, also from the Yorkshire Wolds, is in the 
collection of the Rev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A. I have seen 
another found in a barrow near Haj^, Breconshire ; and in 
the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh is a specimen found at 
Urquhart, Elgin. In an implement of the same form in my 
own possession some small irregularities on the flat face have 
been removed by delicate chipping. We have nothing to 
guide us in attempting to determine the use of such instru- 
ments, but if inserted in handles they would be well adapted 
for boring holes in wood or other soft substances. The 
same form occurs in Ireland. Mr. Greenwell has an Irish 
specimen which is ground all along the ridge, and over the 
whole of the butt-end. 
Another much coarser but somewhat similar form is shown in Fig. 
236. The instrument in this case is made from a 
very thick curved flake, roughly cbipped into a boat- 
like form, and then more carefully trimmed along 
the edges. It may possibly have been used as a 
borer, as the edges near the point show some signs 
of attrition. It is of flint weathered grey, and was 
found by Mr. E. Tindall near Bridlington. I have 
found a similar scaphoid form in Ireland.! 

A rather thick external flake, worked over nearly 
the whole of its convex face and reduced to about 
half its breadth for about a third of its length from 
the point, is shown in Fig. 237. The narrower part 
^^ is nearly semicircular in section. It is difficult to 

Fig. 236.— Bridlington. J imagine a purpose for this reduction in width ; and 
it hardly seems due to wear. I have, however, another specimen, also 
* Arch., vol. xxxiv. p. 253. t Ibid., vol. xli. jil. xviii. 6. 

Fig.2:::5.— Ycrk 
sliire. ;. 



from the Yorkshire Wolds, reduced in the same manner along fully 
three-quarters of its length. 

Some of the worked flakes from the Dordogne caves * show a some- 
what similar shoulder, but it seems possible that with them the broader 
part may have been protected by some sort of handle, as the original 
edge of the flake is there preserved. 

I now come to the instruments with more acute edges, made by 
dressing the convex face of flint flakes. Of these the form shown in 
Fig. 238 is allied to that of Fig. 235, but is considerably flatter in section, 
and more distinctly oval in outline. The original was found by Mr. E. 
Tindall, near Bridlington. A hard particle of the flint has interfered 
with the regular convexity of the Avorked face, but in some specimens 
the form is almost as regular as a slice taken lengthwise ofi" a lemon, 
though in others the outline presents an irregular curve. The flat face is 

Fig. 237. — ^Yorkshire. 


Fig. 23'<.— Budlington. a 

Fig. 239 —Castle Carrock. 

generally more or less curved longitudinally, and the ends are sometimes 
more pointed than in the specimen engraved, I have an exquisitely 
chipped and perfectly symmetrical implement of this character, 3 inches 
long and 1 inch broad, from the neighbourhood of Icklingham, Sufiblk, 
in which county the type is not uncommon. The flaking on the convex 
surface is very even and regular, and produces a slightly corrugated 
surface, with the low ridges following each other like ripple marks on 
sand. The edge is very minutely and evenly chipped, and is very 
sharp. The instrument may perhaps be regarded as a sort of knife. 

The form is well known in Ireland, but I do not remember to have 
seen it in foreign collections. 

The beautifully wrought blade of flint, shown in Fig. 239, presents a 
more elongated variety of this form. It was found by the Rev. W. 
Greenwell, F.S.A., with a burnt body, in a barrow at Castle Carrock, 
Cumberland. Another blade, curiously similar in workmanship and 
character, was found by the same explorer in a barrow near Rudstone, 
Yorkshire, but in this case the body was unburnt. Another, with 
both ends rounded and the edges more serrated, was found in a 
barrow at Robin Hood Butts, near Scarborough, and is preserved in the 

* "Eeliq. Aquit.," p. 18. 



[chap. XV. 

Museum of that town. On the same card with it are arrow-heads — 
leaf-shaped, lozenge-shaped, and stemmed and barbed. Mr. Carrington* 
describes a flake flat on one face, and laboriously 
chipped to a convex shape on the other, as found 
with burnt bones in a barrow at Musdin, Stafford- 
shire. A similar specimen in Ribden Low accom- 
panied a contracted interment. Mr. Bateman terms 
them lance-heads. Mr. Greenwell has a leaf-shaped 
blade of this kind, flat on one face, found in Burnt 

The skilful character of the surface chipping on 
these blades is perhaps better shown in Fig. 240, 
which is drawn full size from another specimen, 
also in Mr. Greenwell's collection, Avhich was found 
in a cist with the remains of a burnt body, on Ford 
Common, Northumberland.! 

In some instruments, evidently belonging to the 
same class, the secondary flaking does not extend 
over the whole of the convex surface of the blade, 
but some of the facets of the original flake are still 
visible, or if it has been an external flake, some 
portion of the original crust of the flint remains. 
This is the case with the blade engraved in Fig. 
241, which was found by the Rev. W. Greenwell, 
F.S.A., in a barrow near Weaverthorpe, Yorkshire. 
In another barrow at Rudstone, Yorkshire, also 
opened by him, was a rather smaller but similar instrument, very neatly 
formed, and somewhat serrated at the edge. It lay at the feet of a 
skeleton. Colonel A. Lane Fox, F.S.A., found one nearly similar in a 
pit in the Isle of Thanet. | 

Knives of much the same form, but more rudely chipped, from Udney, 
Aberdeenshire, and Urquhart, Elgin, are in the Antiquarian 
Museum at Edinburgh. 

Some of these blades are left blunt at the butt-end of 
the flake, or else not so carefully worked round at that 
part but that the square end of the original flake may be 
discerned. A very fine specimen of this kind was found 
by the Rev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A., in a barrow on Wyke- 
ham Moor, Yorkshire, § and is shown in Fig. 242. It was 
found lying side by side with a fluted bronze dagger, 
alfording, as Mr. Greenwell observes, a valuable illustration 
of the contemporaneous use of bronze and stone. He has 
found others, both with burnt and unburnt bodies, in bar- 
rows in Yorkshire and Northumberland. I have a beautiful 
blade of the same general form, but rather more rounded at the point and 
curved slightly in the other direction, and but little more than half the 
length of this, which was found by Mr. E. Tindall, with another nearly 
similar, in a barrow near Bridlington. 

• " Ton Years' Dig.," p. 151. See also p. 227, and "Vest. Ant. Derb.," p. 105. 

t " Hist, of licrwicksh. Nat. Club," 1863—68, pi. xiii. 4. 

I Journ. Ethn. ISoc, vol. i. ])1. i. 14. \ Arch. Journ.y vol. xxii. p. 243. 

240.— rord, Northumber- 
land, i 

Fig. 241.— Wea- 
verthorpe. i 



I have also a thin flake, 4^ inches long and H inches wide, somewhat 
curved laterally, and ti'immed along both edges and rounded at the 
point, found in Burwell Fen, Cambridge. Another from the same locality, 
and 3f inches in length by about 1 inch in breadth, is even more curved 
on the concave edge. A recurved flake or knife of flint, 3^ inches long, 
finely chipped at the sharp convex edge, was found with jet ornaments, 
and an ovoid instrument of serpentine, accompanying a skeleton, in a 
cist in a barrow near Avebury, Wilts.* I have another, straighter and 
smaller, from the surface, near Icklingham, Sufi'olk, In a larger instru- 
ment from the same neighbourhood both edges are worn smooth and 
rounded by use, as if in scraping some soft but gritty substance, possibly 
hides in the process of preparation as leather. 

Fig. 242. — Wykeham Moor. 

Fig. 243.— Potter Brompton Wold. 

In some of these instruments the point is sharp instead of being 
rounded. One of them, in the collection of the Rev. W. Greenwell, 
F.S.A., found in a barrow on Potter Brompton Wold, is shown in 
Fig. 243. 

I have a more triangular form of implement, of the same kind, 
3J inches long, showing the crust of the flint at the base, and found 
near Icklingham, Sufi'olk. Another from the same locality is of the 
same form as the figure. 

Instruments of the same character as these have been discovered by 
the late Mr. Bateman in many of the Derbyshire barrows. What 
appears to be one of the same kind was found with a flake and burnt 
bones in an urn at Broughton, Lincolnshire, and is engraved in the 
Archaeological Journal, j; It may, however, have been convex on both 
faces. A fragment of another was found at Dorchester Dykes, | Oxford- 
shire, by Col. A. Lane Fox. 

* " Cran. Brit.," vol. ii. pi. 58, p. 2. 

t Vol. viii. 344. J Joani. Ethnol. Sue, vol. ii. p. 414. 


The sharp-edged instx'uments of the forms last described seem to have 
been intended for use as cutting, or occasionally scraping tools, and may 
not improperly be termed knives, as has been proposed by Mr. Greenwell.* 
Even the last, though sharply pointed, cannot with certainty be 
regarded as a spear-head. To regarding the other form, Fig. 242, as 
such, Mr. Greenwell objects that " the people who fashioned the arrow- 
heads so beautifully, if they fabricated a spear-head in flint, would not 
have made one side straight, the other curved, and carefully rounded it 
off at the sharper end." 

Sometimes the secondary working extends over part of both faces of 
the flake, the central ridge of which is still discernible. 
The Kev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A., found a fine instrument 
of this kind, 3^ inches long and 1 inch broad, made from 
a ridged flake, with neat secondary chipping along both 
sides, and on both faces, with a burnt body, in a barrow 
on Sherburn Wold. The flint itself is partially calcined. 
It is difficult to determine the claims of such an instru- 
ment to be regarded as a knife, or as a lance-head. 

The pointed instrument from Snainton Moor, York- 
shire, which is shown in Fig. 244, and was kindly lent 
£] to me by Mr. C. Monkman, of Malton, has more the 

ff appearance of having been a lance-bead. A fragment of 

Wf^ / another weapon of this kind was found in Aberdeenshire.! 

\ A closely similar javelin-head, found at Vercelli, has been 

' engraved by Gastaldi, | as well as another longer and 

more distinctly tanged, from Telese.§ Another from 
<^;;^ Tuscany has been engraved by Cocchi.|| Another of 

Fig. 244.— Snainton the Same form, but slightly notched on each side near 
Moor, i tjje base, was found with skeletons in Andalusia. II In 
the English specimen the secondary flaking extends over the whole, or 
nearly the whole, of both faces of the original flake ; and the same 
^1^ is the case with the other instruments of this class 

mu^' which I am now about to describe. 

f Fig. 245 represents an implement of dark grey, 

A' \ almost unweathered flint, in the collection of the Kev. 

/ \.'\ ^^- Greenwell, F.S.A., and found in a barrow with 

C^ r'^ burnt bones at Ford, Northumberland. It has been 

V . n made from an external flake, subsequently brought into 

shape by working on both faces. Judging from its 

iorm only, it would appear to have been a lance-head ; 

xXj,*^ • = but there are some signs of wear of the edge at the 

butt-end, which seem hardly compatible with this 

assumption, unless, indeed, like the natives of Tierra 

del Fuego,** who are said to make use of their 

Fig. 245.-Ford. i arrow-heads for cutting purposes, its owner used it 

* Arch. Jonrn., vol. xxii. p. 243. f Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. vii. p. 102. 

J " Mem. Ace. R. delle Sc. di Torino," xxvi. tav. v. 1. 

§ Op. cit., tav. viii. 20. || Le Hon, " L'Homme Foss.," 2nd ed., p. 184. 

IT De Gongora, " Ant. Preh. de And.," p. 78, fig. 92. 

** Nilsson, "Stone Age," p. 44. See Col. A. Lane Fox, "Prim. "Warfare," pt. 
i. p. 11. 



Tindall at West 

Fig. 246.— Bridling- 
ton, i 

also as a sort of knife. Mr. C. Monkman has a blade of this character, 
3| inches long, from Northdale, Yorkshire. 

The original of Fig. 246 was found by Mr. E. 
Huntow, near Bridlington. It is boldly chipped on 
both faces, so that hardly any portion of the original 
surface of the flake remains. It has a shai-p edge all 
round, which is, however, slightly abraded at the 
blunter end : a small portion of the point at the other 
end has been broken off. In character it so closely 
resembles a leaf-shaped arrow-head that there seem 
some grounds for regarding this form as that of a 
lance-head, though, from the doubtful character of 
other specimens of nearly similar form, I have thought 
it better to place it here. A much larger specimen of 
brown flint, 3f inches long by 2| inches wide and ^V 
inch thick, but of much the same form and character, 
has been found by the Rev. J. C. Clutterbuck, at 
Hounslow Heath. The Rev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A., has one of almost 
the same dimensions found on Willerby Wold, and others not quite so 
large fi'om Rudstone, Yorkshire. 

Some blades, similar in general form, were found, with various other 
stone implements, in sand-beds, near York, and have been described by 
Mr. C. Monkman.* Two of them are 3| inches and 8f inches in length, 
and 1| inches and 2:^ inches in breadth, respectively. 

I have found several somewhat similar blades to that here engraved, 
though of rather smaller dimensions, in the ancient encampment of 
Maiden Bower, near Dunstable ; and I have one precisely similar to the 
figure, but only 2| inches long, found on the 
surface near Lakenheath, Sufi^olk, as well as ; ■ a s 

another from the same district, butofruderwork- 
manship, 3 inches long. I have also a rather /= 

thick specimen, 3i- inches long, from Ickling- 
ham. I have seen one of the same character 
which was found near Ware. Colonel A. Lane 
Fox, F.S.A., found in the Isle of Thanetf two 
lance-heads, curiously like this and the pre- 
ceding figure. 

A far more highly finished blade, but still 
preserving the same general character, is shown 
in Fig. 247. The original, of brown flint, was 
found in the Cambridge Fens, and is now in 
my own collection. Though ground on some 
portions of both faces, apparently for the pur- 
pose of removing asperities, the edges are left 
unground. They are, however, very carefully 
and delicately chipped by secondary working '^'S- 2i7.-Cambridge Fens. ^ 
to a regular sweep. I think this instrument must be regarded rather 
as a form of knife than as a javehn or lance-head. In size, and 

* Journ. FJhn. Soc, vol. ii. p. 159, figs. 12, 13, 16. 
t Journ. Ethn. Soc, vol i. pi. i. 15, 17. 



[chap. XV. 

to some extent in shape, it corresponds with the more crescent-like or 
triangular tools described under Fig. 256. 

This correspondence is still more evident in a blade now in the 
Blackmore Museum, of nearly the same shape but somewhat less 
curved on one edge than the other, which has been ground along 
the more highly curved edge. It was found at Hamptworth, near 

A narrower form of blade is shown in Fig. 248. The original, of 
flint weathered nearly white, was found at Bcamridge, Yorkshire, and 
is in the collection of the Kev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A. It is, as will be 
observed, slightly unsymmetrical in form, so that it would 
appear to have been intended for a knife rather than for a 
lance-head. A remarkably fine specimen, in the same 
collection, found at Flixton, Yorkshire,* and 5^ inches 
long by If inches wide, is in form much like that from 
Scamridge. A part of the edge towards the point on the 
flatter side is slightly worn. There is a considerable 
diversity of form amongst the instruments of this character, 
some having the sides almost symmetrical, while in others 
one side is much more curved than the other, so much 
so as to make the instrument resemble in form some of 
the crescent-shajjed Danish blades. In one specimen 
which I possess, from Ganton Wold, one side presents the 
natural crust of the flint along the greater part of its 
length, and has been left unworked ; the other side has 
been chipped to an obtuse edge, which is considerably 
bruised and worn. Another blade from the neighbour- 
hood of Bridlington, also in my collection, is symmetrical 
in outline, but curved longitudinally. It is pointed at one end, but 
rounded at the other, where also the edge is completely worn away by 
attrition. In the case of another symmetrical and flat blade, from 
Icklingham, 3| inches in length and If inches in breadth, rather more 
convex on one face than the other, the edge on one side at the more 
pointed end is also completely rubbed away. I have as yet been 
unable to trace on the face of any of these pointed specimens any of 
those polished markings which occur so frequently at a little distance 
within the more highly curved margin of the Danish semi-lunar blades, 
and from which Professor Steenstrup has inferred that they were inserted 
in handles of wood or bone. 

A blade of the same kind as Fig. 248, S^ inches long, found in the 
Department of the Charente, is engraved by De Rochebrune.f Others of 
larger size were found in the Grotte des Morts, Durfort (Gard).J 

The view that many of these blades were used as knives rather than 
as lance-heads seems to be supported by a specimen from Burwell Fen, 
in the Museum of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society, and engraved in 
Fig. 249. This blade is rather more convex on one face than the other, 
and shows along half of its flatter face the original inner surface of the 
flake from which it was made. One of its side edges has been rounded 

* Yorksh. Arch, and Top. Joitrn., 1868, fig. 46. 
t "Mem. sur les Restos d'Indust.," &c., pi. x. 6. 
X "Materiaux," vo]. v. p. 219. 



by grinding along its entire length, so that it can be conveniently held 
in the hand ; the other edge is left sharp, and is polished as if by use. 

A remarkably large specimen of this kind, but with no traces of grind- 
ing upon it, was found in digging the foundations of a house on Wind- 
mill Hill, Saffron Walden, and is in the possession of Mr. William Tuke,* 
of that town. It is shown in Fig. 250. One face is somewhat flatter 
than the other, but both faces are dexterously and symmetrically chipped 
over their whole surface. The small flakes have been taken off" so skilfully 
and at such regular intervals, that so far as workmanship is concerned, 
this instrument approaches in character the elegant Danish blades. The 
form seems well adapted for a lance-head, but on examination the edges 
appear to be slightly chipped and worn away, as if by scraping some 

Fig. 219.— Burwell I'en. A 

Fig. 2.:iu.— .Surt'ion Wulden. i 

hard material. It would appear, then, more probably to have been used 
in the hand. In the collection of the Rev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A., is a 
blade of grey flint, also 5f inches long, but rather narrower than the 
figure, and straighter on one edge than the other, found in Miidenhall 
Fen. In the same collection is a large thin flat blade of flint, 8| inches 
long and 8 inches broad, more curved on one edge than the other, and 
rounded at one end. The straighter edge is also the sharper. It was 
found at Cross Bank, near Miidenhall. In general outline it is not 
unlike some of the Danish lunate implements. It may, however, be 
only the result of a somewhat unskilful attempt to produce a symmetrical 
dagger or spear-head, such as Fig. 264. 

A lance-head of almost the same size and form as Fig. 250, found in 

Kindly communicated to me by Mr. Joseph Clarke, F.S.A. 



[chap. XV. 

the neighbourhoocl of Brescia, has been engraved by Gastaldi.* They 
are also said to be found in Greece.! 

They sometimes occur among American antiquities. One of them, 
11 inches in length, pointed at each end, is engraved by Squier and 
Davis.]: I have a beautiful blade of pale buff chalcedony, acutely 
pointed at one end and rounded at the other, which was found, in com- 
pany with a second of the same size and character, near Comayagua, in 
Spanish Honduras. It is 6f inches long and 1^ inches broad. 

Messrs. Mortimer, of Fimber, Yorkshire, have in their collection a 
remarkable specimen belonging to this class of instrument, which, 
instead of being pointed, is almost semicircular at both ends. They 
have kindly allowed me to engrave it in Fig. 251. It has been neatly 
chipped from a piece of tabular flint, and not from a 
flake, and is equally convex on both faces ; some of 
the salient parts along both edges are polished, as 
if by wear, and on either face are some of the 
polished Steenstrup's markings, possibly arising from 
its having been inserted in a handle. This form is 
perhaps more closely connected with some of those 
which will shortly follow than with those which 
precede it. A somewhat similar oval blade, 3f inches 
long and 2| inches wide, found in the Thames at 
Long Wittenham, and belonging to the Rev. J. Clut- 
terbuck, is ground along both sides. 

A blade of the same form was found in the Grotte 
des Morts, Durfort (Gard).§ 

In none of the specimens hitherto figured in 

*^^<*^_ _^.^-^ this chapter have the edges been sharpened by 

Fig 2oi— iimbei. I grinding; in the only instance where that pro- 
cess has been used, it has been for the purpose of removing, not 
of sharpening the edge. In the case of the next examples which 
I am about to describe, one or both edges have been ground, and 
in some the whole of both faces. 

I have already mentioned instances of untrimmed flakes of flint having 
been ground on the edge, but knives of a similar character made from 
carefully chipped blades also occur, though, so far as I have at present 
observed, only in Scotland. 

One of these, carefully worked on both faces, and with one edge 
sharpened by grinding, was found at Lochfine, Strachur, Aberdeenshire, 
and is shown full size in Fig. 252. Another, 2^ inches long and ^ inch 
broad, with less grinding on the surface, was found at Cromar, in the 
same county. A third, of almost the same size, with the edge nearly 
straight and the back curved, and with neatly chipped faces but little 
ground, was found in a chambered cairn at Camster,|| Caithness. 
A nodule of iron ore was found with it, but whether this was for fire- 

* JVuovi Cenni, &c., Torino, 1862, pi. vi. 16. t liev. Arch., a'oI. xv. p. 17. 

X " Anc. Men. of Mississ. Vail.," p. 211, fig. .3. § " Materiaux," vol. v. p. 249. 

II Mem. Anthrop. Soc, vol. ii. p. 218. ]'roc. Soc. Aid. Scot., vol. vii. pp. 320, 499. 



producing purposes is not apparent. A fragment of another knife of 
the same kind was found, in 1865, hy Messrs. Anderson and Shearer in 
a cairn at Ormiegill Ulbster, Caithness ; and among the numerous 


Fig. 252.— Aberdeensliii-e. 

Fig. 253. — Urquhart. 

articles of flint found at Urquhart, Elgin, is a very perfect knife 
of this kmd, 2J inches long and ^ inch broad, which is shown in 
Fig. 253. All five specimens are in the Antiquarian Museum at 

The sharpened ends of stone celts, when 
broken off", have occasionally been converted ^^ 

into knives. One such, from Gilling, York- ' ^^ 

shire, with the fractured surface rounded by [ 

gi'inding, is in the collection of the Rev. W. 
Greenwell, F.S.A. 

Another form of knife closely allied to the 
type of Fig. 251 is broader, and has all its 
edges sharpened. The instrument shown in 
Fig. 254 was procured in the neighbourhood 
of Bridlington by Mr. E. Tindall. It is made 
from a large broad flake, the outer face of 
which has been re-worked to such an extent 
that not more than one-fourth of the original 
surface remains intact. The inner face, on the 
contrary, remains almost untouched, except ri>;. 254.— Badiuigion. 1 
just at the two ends. As will be seen from the engraving, a portion of 
the original edge has been chipped away, apparently in modern times, 



[chap. XV. 

by the first finder having used it as a " strike-a-hght " flint. What 
remains of the original edge has been carefully sharpened, and the 
angles between some of the facets on the convex face have also been 
removed by grinding. 

A nearly similar instrument, from Sweden, has been engraved by 
Nilsson,* but its edges are not described as ground. 

A more highly finished form of the same implement is shown in Fig. 255. 
The original was found at Pick Rudge Farm,f 
Overton, Wilts, in company with the large barbed 
arrow or javelin-head, Fig. 305, and both are now 
in the Blackmore Museum. Like Fig. 254, it is 
Hatter on one face than the other ; it is, however, 
polished all over as well as ground at the edges. 
These are rather sharper at the two ends than at 
the sides. Another specimen of the same form, 
and of almost identically the same dimensions, was 
found at Pentrefoelas,| Denbighshire. A third 
specimen, 3| inches long and 2-^ inches wide, was 
found at Lean Low, near Newhaven, Derbyshire, 
and is in the Bateman Collection, § 

In my own collection are two very fine and 
perfect specimens of this class of instrument, both 
from the neighbourhood of Cambridge. The 
larger of these is 4j; inches long, 2J inches broad 
at one end, and 2| inches at the other. The ends are ground to a regular 
sweep, and the sides are somewhat hollowed. It has been made from a 
very broad thin flake, and is ground over nearly the whole of the outer 
and over part of the inner face, and brought to a sharp edge all round. It 
was found in Burwell Fen. The smaller instrument has been even more 
highly finished in the same manner, every trace of the original chipping of 
the convex face having been removed by gi'inding. The edge is sharp all 
round, but the ends are more highly curved than in the larger instrument. 
It is Sj inches long, 2 J inches broad at one end, and 1| inches at the 
other, and was found in Quy Fen. The Rev. W. Greenwell has a 
portion of what appears to have been another of these instruments, 
ground on both faces and sharp at the edges, from Lakenheath. 

I have the half of another, 2 inches wide, found near Bridlington, and 
one of the same character, but oval in outline, from the same place. The 
latter has lost one of its ends. Its original dimensions must have been 
about 3 inches in length by 1| inches in extreme breadth, and -fV inch in 
thickness. Both faces are coarsely ground, the stria? running crossways 
of the blade. The edges appear to have been sharpened on a finer stone. 
It has been supposed that these instruments were intended to serve for 
dressing II the flesh side of skins, or for flaying H knives. Mr. Albert 
Way has called attention to the analogy they present to an unique bronze 
implement found at Ploucour, Brittany, and figured in the Archaologia 

Fig. : 

5. — Uveituii. i 

* " Stono Af^o," pi. X. 205. t Arch. Journ., vol. xii. p. 285. 

X Arch. Journ., vol. xi. p. 414 ; xvii. p. 171. § " Cat.," p. 66, No. 18. 
IJ Bateman, "Cat.," p. 66. H Arch. Journ., vol. xi. p. 414; xvii. 171. 

** 3rd S. vol. vi. p. 138. 



The beautifully formed instrument shown in Fig. 256 belongs apparently 
to the same class. It was found at Kempston, near Bedford, and was 
kindly lent to me for engraving by Mr. James Wyatt, F.G.S., who has 
since presented it to the Blackmore Museum.* It is of dark flint, the 
two faces equally convex, and neatly chipped, but not polished. Regard- 
ing it as of triangular form, with the apex rounded, the edges on what 
may be described as the two sides in the engraving have been carefully 
sharpened, while that of the base has been removed, by grinding. In the 
same field was found a flint lance-head or dagger of fine workmanship, 
which will subsequently be mentioned. 

Messrs, Mortimer, of Fimber, possess an instrument of the same 
character found near that place. It is more equilaterally triangular in 
form than the Kempston specimen, though the sides are all curved and 
the angles rounded. It is polished all over on one face, though some 
traces of the original flaking are still apparent. On the other face, which 
is rather more convex, the giinding is confined to two sides of the triangle. 



Fig. 256. — Kempston. 

which are thus brought to a sharp edge. The edge on the third side, 
which is rather straighter than the others, is very slightly rounded. It 
seems probable that this blunter edge was next the hand when the instru- 
ment was in use. 

I have seen another specimen, even more triangular in outline, which was 
found in the Thames at Windsor, and is in the possession of the Rev. F. 
J. Rawlins, of that town : it is of ochreous flint, and the base, which is 
3f inches long, exhibits the natural crust of the flint ; each of the other 
two sides, which are ground to a sharp edge, is about 2| inches long. 

I have an implement of this kind, much like that from Kempston, but 
more curved at what is the base in the figure. All along this sweep the 
edge produced by chipping out the form has been removed by grinding. 
All round the other sweep the edge has been carefully sharpened by the 
same means. A portion only of each face is ground. This specimen 
was found near Mildenhall. Mr, Henry Prigg, of Bury St. Edmunds, 
possesses another somewhat bell-shaped in outline, and also found in 
Suff'olk. Other specimens found in Derbyshire are preserved in the 
Bateman Collection. 

The Rev. W. Greenwell has a nearly circular tool, about 2 inches in 
diameter, ground to an edge along most of the periphery. It was found 
in Yorkshire. Another rather smaller disc, in the same collection, and 

* " Flint Chips," p. 75. 



[cHAr. XV. 

found at Huntow, near Bridlington, is partially ground on both faces, but 
not at the edge. 

Mr. Greenwell has also an implement, about 2 inches in diameter, 
found at Sherburn Carr, Yorkshire, and in outline like a scraper, but 
with the greater part of the semicircular edge sharpened by grinding. In 
character it much resembles some implements occasionally found both in 
Britain and Ireland, of which an example is given in Fig. 257. This is a 
horseshoe- shaped blade of flint, 3 inches over, with the rounded part of 
the circumference ground to a fine cutting edge, so that " it was probably 
used as a knife." It is in the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh, 
and was presumably found near IGntore, Aberdeenshire. In the same 
Museum is another instrument of the same kind, but somewhat kidney- 
shaped in outline, found in Lanarkshire. It is 3| inches in length, and 
2f inches in extreme width. On a part of the hollowed side it shows 

Fis. 257.— Kiiitore. 

Fig. 25S.— Newhaveu, Derbyshire. 

the natural crust of the flint, but the rest of the periphery is ground to 
a sharp edge, and the projections on the faces have been removed by 
grinding. Mr. C. Monkman, of Malton, has a knife much like Fig. 257, 
2| inches across, which was found at Huntow, near Bridlington. I have 
an Irish specimen from near Ballymena very like that from Kintore. 

In the collection of Mr. J. F. Lucas is an instrument of this kind, 
3 inches over, found at Arbor Low, Derbyshii-e, in 1867 ; and he has 
kindly presented me with another, closely resembling Fig. 257, and 
found at Mining Low. He also possesses a remarkably fine knife of 
this form, but with the edge unground, which was found at Newhaven, 
Derbyshire, and is shown in Fig. 258. 

In all the specimens with the circular edge sharpened by grinding, the 
flat side has been purposely made blunt, as if for being held in the hand. 

Though not formed of flint, but of a hard slaty rock of the nature of 
hone-stone, an implement of much the same form as that from Fimber may 
be hero described. It was found at Harome, in Rvedale, Yorkshire, and 



is in the collection of the Rev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A. As Avill be seen 
from Fig. 259, it approximates in form to an equilateral spherical triangle 
with the apices rounded. It is care- .^, 

fully polished over the whole of both -.. 

faces, except where small portions have 
broken away, owing to the lamination of 
the stone. Each of the three sides is 
ground to a cutting edge, which, how- 
ever, is not continued over the angles ; 
these are rounded in both directions, 
as each would probably be in contact 
with the palm of the hand when the 
opposite edge was used for cutting. 

There can be no doubt that all these 
triangular instruments, whether of flint 
or other material, were used as cutting 
tools ; and the name of skinning-knife, 
which has been applied to them as well 
as to the quadrangular instruments, not 
improbably denotes one of the principal 
purposes for which they were made. 

Mr. Greenwell has another very curious instrument, from the same 
locaHty as that last described, which is shown in Fig. 260. It is formed 
of a hard slaty stone, having one side ground to a regularly curved and 
sharp edge, and the others rounded by grinding. The two faces, which 
are equally convex, are also ground to such an extent that but little of 
the original chipped surface can be discerned. In the face shown in the 

Fig. 259. — Harome, Yoikshiie. 

Fii;. 2i}V. — Harome, Yorksliire. j 

figure there is a slight central depression, and on the other face two such 
at about 2 inches apart, and in a line parallel with the top or back of 
the instrument. When it is held in the right hand, with the forefinger 
over the end, the thumb fits into the depression on the one face, and the 
middle and fourth fingers into those on the other, so that it is firmly 
grasped. It is evident that this must have been a cutting or chopping 
tool ; but the materials on which it was employed would seem to have 
been soft, as the edge is by no means sharp, and is also entirely unin- 

X 2 


jured by use. These depressions for the thumb and fingers resemble in 
character those on the handles of some of the Esquimaux* scrapers and 
knives already described. 

Another implement, of nearly the same form, but rather longer and 
narrower, is in the same collection, and was found in Ryedale, York- 
shire. It is of hard clay-slate, 5^ inches long at the edge and 2i inches 
wide, with a curved sharp edge, and a straight back rounded transversely. 
It is bevelled at one end, which is flat, apparently from a joint in the stone, 
and rounded at the other, where it fits the hand. Neither in this nor 
in a third instrument of the same class, also from Harome, are there any 
depressions on the face. This latter has been formed from a flat kidney- 
shaped pebble of clay-slate, the hollow side and one end left almost in 
the natural condition so as to fit the hand, and the convex side ground to 
a sharp edge, which is returned round the other end almost at a right 
angle. The edge at the end is polished as if by rubbing, and looks as if it 
might have been used in the same manner as bookbinders' tools for indent- 
ing lines on leather. This instrument is 6 inches long, 3 inches wide at 
the butt-end, and 2^ inches at the sharp end. It is nearly 1 finches thick. 

Besides the three which I have mentioned, several other instruments 
of the same description have been found in the same part of Yorkshire. 

I have never seen any specimens of precisely this character from other 
localities ; but they were apparently destined for much the same purposes 
as the " Picts' knives," shortly to be mentioned, unless possibly they 
were merely used in the manner just indicated. It is very remarkable 
that the form should appear to be limited to so small an area in England ; 
and though they occur under the same circumstances as polished celts, 
it seems probable that for stone antiquities they belong to a late period. 

The large thin flat blades, usually subquadrangular or irregularly oval 
in form, of which many have been found in the Shetland and Orkney 
Islands, and which are known as " Pechs' knives," or "Picts' knives," 
apparently belong to the same class of instruments as the quadrangular 
and triangular tools lately described, and this would therefore appear to 
be the proper place for making mention of them. They are never formed 
of flint ; the principal materials of which they are made being slate and 
compact greenstone, porphyry and other felspathic rocks, and madreporite. 
Their usual length is from 6 inches to 9 inches, and the breadth from 
3 inches to 5 inches ; their thickness is rarely more than | inch in the 
middle, and sometimes not more than -/o- of an inch. They are usually 
polished all over, and ground to an edge all round. Sometimes, how- 
ever, the edge on one or more sides is rounded, and occasionally an end 
or side is left of the full thickness of the blade, and rounded as if for 
being held in the hand. I have a specimen, 4^ inches long and 3^ inches 
wide at the base, formed of porphyritic greenstone, and found at Hills- 
wick, in Shetland, which was given me by Mr. J. Gwyn Jeffreys, F.R.S. Its 
cutting edge may be described as forming nearly half of a pointed ellipse, 
of which the thick side for holding forms the conjugate diameter. This 
side is rounded and curved slightly inwards ; one of the angles between 
this base and the elliptical edge is rounded, and a portion of the edge is 
also left thick and rounded, so that when the base is applied to the palm 

* P. 269. 



of the hand the lower part of the forefinger may rest upon it. When thus 
held it forms a cutting tool not unlike a leather-cutter's knife. Instru- 
ments of this character are extremely rare in England, but in the rich 
collection of the Rev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A., is a specimen which I have 
engraved as Fig. 261. It was found at Crambe, in the North Riding of 

Fig. 261.— Crambe. ^ 

Yorkshire, and is formed of an oolitic shelly limestone, a material also 
used for the manufacture of celts in that district. Though smaller, and 
rather more deeply notched at the base than my Shetland knife, it is 
curiously like it in general form. The sharp edge, however, only extends 
along one side, and is not carried round the point. 


Fig. 262.— Walls, Shetland. i 

The specimens I have engraved as Figs. 262 and 263 are both in the 
Museum of the Society of Antiquaries. They are formed of thin laminae 




of madreporite, and are sharp all round.* They are said to have been 
found with fourteen others at the depth of six feet in a peat-moss, the 
whole of them being arranged in a horizontal line, and overlapping each 
other like slates upon the roof of a house. There are several specimens 
formed of felspathic rocks, and from various localities in Shetland, pre- 
served in the British Museum. A note attached to one of them states 
that twelve were found in Easterskild, in the parish of Sandsting. An 
engraving of one of them is given in the " Horae Ferales."f 

In the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh;]: are other examples, also 
from Shetland. Professor Daniel Wilson § states that a considerable 





Fig. 263.— WulLs, .slielhiiiJ. 

number of implements, mostly of the same class, were found under the 
clay in the ancient mosses of Blair-Drummond and Meiklewood. There 
are some fine specimens from Shetland in the Ethnological Museum at 

There can be little doubt of these implements having been cutting 
tools for holding in the hand, though they have been described by Dr. 
Hibbert and the Rev. Mr. Bryden, j] in "The Statistical Account of Zetland," 
as double or single-edged battle-axes. They appear, however, as Mr. 

* " Cat. Ant. Soc. Ant.," p. 14. " Cat. A. I. Mus. Ed.," p. 7. t PL ii- 15. 

X J'roe. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. iii. p. 437; iv. p. 52. ^ " Preh. Ann.," vol. i. p. 184. 

II " Statist. Account of Zetland," 1841, p. 112, cl xcqq., quoted at length in Mem. 
Anlhrop. Soc. Lond., vol. ii. p. ?.1.5. The lute Dr. Hunt appears to have thought 
that the passage referred to rude pestle-like stone implements such as he found iu 
Orkney, and not to these knives. 


Albert "Way''' has pointed out, to be too thin and fragile for any warlike 
purpose. Those Avith the cutting edge all round were probably provided 
with a sort of handle along one side, like the flinching-knife from Icy 
Cape in the possession of Sir Edward Belcher, of which mention has 
already been made. This is a flat thin blade, about 5 inches long, and 
of subquadrangular form. It is sharp at the edge, but has a guard or 
handle along the opposite side, made of split twigs attached by resinous 
gum. In some Esquimaux knives of the same kind in the Christy Col- 
lection and in the Ethnological Museum at Copenhagen the wooden back 
is tied on by a cord which passes through a hole in the blade: It is 
possible that the " Picts' knives" may in some cases have been used, 
like those of the Esquimaux, for removing the blubber from whales. 

It is diificult to assign a date to these instruments, which are almost 
peculiar to the Shetland and Orkney Islands. There are traditions 
extant of their having been seen in use within the'present century, in one 
instance by an old woman for cutting kail, and in Lewis, in 1824, for 
cutting out a wedding dress. In the latter case the reason assigned was 
the want of scissors, but it would appear to have probably been merely 
an experimental trial of the cutting powers of these primitive knives. 
Their occurrence under so thick a deposit of peat shows, however, that 
they do not belong to any very recent period, though five or six feet of 
peat do not of necessity indicate any very high degree of antiquity. 

Stone knives of any form, having the edges ground, are of extremely 
rare occurrence on the Continent. A peculiar knife, with a rectangular 
handle, much like a common table-knife, has, however, been found in the 
Lake-settlement of Inkwyl.f 

A North American knife,;]: with a somewhat similar handle, has a curved 
blade very thick at the back. 

An ancient Egyptian § knife of polished stone has already been men- 

To return to tlie implements made of flint. Those wliicli I have 
next to describe have been termed spear-heads, lance-heads, knives, 
and daggers. Their ordinary length is from 5 to 7 inches, and 
their extreme width from 1^ to 2 J inches. Their general form is 
lanceolate, but the greater breadth is usually nearer the point of 
the blade than the butt, which is in most instances either truncated 
or rounded. They exhibit remarkable skill in the treatment of 
flint in their manufacture, being as a rule symmetrical in form, 
with the edge in one plane, and equally convex on the two faces — 
which are dexterously chipped into broad flat facets — while the 
edges are still more carefully shaped by secondary working. 
Towards the butt, the converging sides are usually nearly straight, 
and in many the edge at this part has been rounded by grinding, 
and the butt-end has had its angles removed in a similar manner. 

* " Cat. Arch. Inst. Mus. Ed.," p. 7. 

t De BoDstetten, " Supp. au Rec. d'Ant. Suisses," pi. i. 1. 

+ Schoolcraft, "lad. Tribes," vol. ii. pi. xlv. 1. § P. 8. J 



[chap. XV, 

This may have been done either with the view of rendering the 
instrument more convenient for holding in the hand, or in order 
to prevent the blade from cutting the ligaments by which it was 
attached to a handle. For the latter purpose, however, there 
would be no advantage in rounding the butt-end ; and as this, 
moreover, is frequently the thickest part of the blade, it seems 
most probable that the majority of the instruments were intended 
for holding in the hand, so that the term dagger appears most 
appropriate to this form. 

Other blades, with notches on the opposite sides, seem to have 
been mounted with handles or shafts, and may have served as 
daggers, or possibly as spear-heads. 

I have figured four specimens showing some difference in shape, 
mainly in consequence of the different relative positions of the 
broadest part of the blades. This in Fig. 265 may be, to some 
extent, due to the point having been chipped away by successive 

sharpening of the edge by secondary 
chipping, in the same manner as we 
find some of the Danish daggers worn 
away to a stump by nearly the whole of 
the blade having been sharpened away. 

In Fig. 264 is shown a beautiful dagger 
of white flint, which was found in a bar- 
row on Lamborne Down, Berks, in com- 
pany with a celt and some exquisitely 
finished stemmed and barbed arrow-heads 
of the same material. It is now in the 
British Museum. Its edges are sharp all 
along, and not blunted towards the butt- 
end. It may have been an entirely new 
weapon, buried with the occupant of the 
barrow for use in another state of exist- 
ence, or it may have had moss wrapped 
round that part, so as to protect the hand, 
like the blade* of flint with Hijpniim bre- 
virostre wrapped round its butt-end to 
form a substitute for a handle, which was 
found in the bed of the river Bann, in 
Ireland. Some North American imple- 
ments of similar character are, as Mr. 
Franks! has pointed out, hafted by in- 
sertion into a split piece of wood into which they are bound by a cord. 
One from the north-west coast, thus mounted, is in the British Museum. 

* Arch. Journ., vol. viii. p. 329. Brist. vol. A. I., p. lix. Proc. E. I. A., vol. v. 
p. 176. f "Her. For.," p. 137- 



Fig. 264. — Lambonie Down. J 



Professor Nilsson* has engraved another American knife in the same 
collection, but eri'oneously refers it to New Zealand. 

The blade shown in Fig. 265 is also in the British Museum, having been 
formerly in the Roach Smith Collection. It is of nearly black flint, and 
was found in the Thames. Its length is still 7 inches, but from the form 
of the point it seems possible that it may, as already suggested, originally 
have been even longer. There is in the Museum another specimen from 
the Thames,! 5f inches long, in form more like Fig. 264. Both of these 
have the edges towards the butt rendered more or less blunt, and have 
had any prominences removed by grinding. The same is the case with 

Fig. 265.— Thames. i 

a blade, 6 inches long and 2f inches wide, found in Quy Fen in 1849, 
and now in the Museum of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society. In the 
same collection is a smaller specimen, 4f inches long and If inches wide, 
from Burwell Fen. This has its edges sharp, and shows the natural 
crust of the flint at the butt, as does also one 7 inches long by 2^ inches 
wide, found at Jackdaw Hill, near Cambridge. | 

A remarkably fine spear-head of the notched class, 6f inches long and 
2| inches broad, is in the possession of Mr. Bard, of Ely. It was exhi- 
bited some years ago to the British Archaeological Association, and their 
Proceedings,^ without giving any information as to the size, shape, or 

* " Stone Age," p. 38, pi. iii. 65. 
X Arch. Journ., vol. xvii. p. 170. 

t " Hor. Fer.," pi. ii. 27. 

§ Arch. Assoc. Journ., vol. vi. p. 441. 



[chap, XV 

character of the specimen, record as an interesting fact that it weighs 
nearly 4 ozs. It was found in Burnt Fen, Prickwillow, Ely, and by 
the kindness of Mr. Bard I have been enabled to engrave it as Fig. 
266. It is of black flint, and has in the first instance been boldly 
chipped into approximately the requisite form, and then been carefully 
finished by neat secondary working at the edges, no part of which has 
been rounded by grinding. On either side, at rather less than half-way 
along the blade from the base, are two deep rounded indentations not 
quite half an inch apart, in character much like 
the notches between the barbs and stem of one 
form of flint arrow-heads. The same peculiarity 
is to be observed in a somewhat smaller spear- 
head found at Carshalton,* in Surrey, and 
forming part of the Meyrick Collection. Of 
this it is observed that it was let into a slit in 
the wooden shaft, and bound over with nerves 
diagonally from the four notches which appear 
on the sides. There can, I think, be little 
doubt of the correctness of this view, nor of 
the method of attachment to the shafts or 
handles having been much the same as that in 
use among the American tribes for their arrow 
and lance-heads with a notch on either side. 
Whether the British blades were mounted 
with a short handle or a long shaft we have 
no means of judging ; but if those with the 
edges rounded towards the butt were knives 
or daggers, there seems some probability of 
these also having served the same purpose, 

though provided with handles like the North 

American and Mexican examples, and of their 
not having been spear or lance-heads. 

I have another blade of this kind found in 
Burwell Fen, Cambridge, about 5| inches in 
length and 1^ inches in width. At about 3^ 
inches from the point there is on either side a 
slight notch ; beyond this there is a narrow 
projection, and then the width of the blade is suddenly reduced by 
a full eighth of an inch on either side, so as to leave a sort of shoulder. 
Between this and the butt, at intervals of about an inch, there are on 
each side two other notches, as if to assist in fastening the blade into 
a shaft or handle. There has in this case been no attempt to remove 
the edges by grinding. 

In the Christy Collection is another of these blades, 5| inches long, 
with a notch on either side about Itl inches from the butt. It is un- 
certain where it was found. 

One with a notch at each side about mid length was found at Hare 
Park,t Cambridge. 

A beautifully formed blade, chipped square at the base, and with a 


.Skeltoir8 "Mcyrick's Armour," vol. i. ]il. xlvi. ,5. f -4n-h. Jovrn., vol. xvii. p. 170. 





series of notches along the sides towards the butt, was found at Arbor 
Low, Derbyshire, and is in the collection of Mr. J. F. Lucas, who has 
obligingly lent it to me for engraving, as Fig. 207. It has been 
engraved full size by Mr. Llewellynn Jewitt.* 

In the Wiltshire barrows, explored by Sir E. 
Colt Hoare, were several of these daggers. One,f 
6| inches long and If inches wide, was found 
with a skeleton beneath a large " sarsen stone "' 
near Durrington Walls, in company with a small 
whetstone, a cone and ring of jet like a pulley, 
and two small discoidal scrapers. Another,]: of 
much the same form and size as Fig. 264, oc- 
curred in company with a drinking- cup, and what 
was probably a whetstone of " ligniformed as- 
bestos," at the feet of a skeleton in a barrow near 

Others have also been found in the barrows of 
Derbyshire and Yorkshire. In Green Low, on 
Alsop Moor,§ a dagger-blade of flint, 6 inches 
long, stemmed and barbed arrow-heads, a bone 
pin, and other bone instruments, were associated 
with a contracted interment. It was in this bar- 
row also that the pyrites and scrapers, previously 
mentioned at p. 282, were found. Another leaf- 
shaped dagger of white flint, 4^ inches long, with 
the narrower half curiously serrated — as boldly 
as Fig. 266, but with many more notches — was 
found by Mr. Bateman beneath the head of a con- 
tracted skeleton in Nether Low,|| near Chelmorton. 
Another, 4 J inches long, was found with burnt 
bones in one of the Three Lows,1i near Wetton. 

A flint dagger,'''* elegantly chipped, 5^ inches long, was found on Blake 
Low, near Matlock, in 1786. Fragments of similar daggers have been 
found with interments in barrows near Pickering; If and in Messrs. 
Mortimer's rich collection is a fine specimen from a barrow on the York- 
shire Wolds. 

One like Fig. 264, but of coarser workmanship, Sf inches long and 
2| inches wide, was found, in 1862, with a skeleton and an earthen vessel, 
at Norton, near Daventry, and has been communicated to me by Mr. S. 
Sharp, F.S.A., F.G.S. ; and what would appear to have been an instru- 
ment of the same character, 8 inches long, was found near Maidstone.]! 
A very good specimen, of fine workmanship, is in the Museum at Canter- 
bury, but its place of finding is unknown. 

Another, more like Fig. 267, but not serrated, 6| inches long and 


* " Grave Mounds," fig. 155. f "South Wills," p. 172, pi. xix. 

X Tbid., p. 164, pi. xvii. 

§ "Vest. Ant. Derb.,"p. 59. "Cran. Brit.," pi. 41, p. 3. "Reliq.," vol. iii.p. 177. 

II "Ten Years' Dig.," p. 52. H Ibid., p. 16". Bateman's " Cat.," p. 38. 

** "Vest. Ant. Derb.," p. 5. 

ft "Ten Years' Dig.," p. 228. Bateman, " Cat.," p. 43. 

XX Arch. Assoc. JoH)-)!., vol. x. p. 177. 


2 inclies broad, was found with an urn at Ty ddu Llanelieu,* Brecon, 
and has been engraved. 

The Eev. AV. Greenwell, F.S.A., has a blade like Fig. 264, 6 inches 
long and 2 J inches wide, finely chipped along the edges for 4 inches from 
the point, which was found at Kempston, near Bedford, in the same field 
as Fig. 256. He has also a specimen rather more rudely chipped, and 
pointed at each end, from Irthington, Cumberland, which has more of 
the character of a spear-head. Mr. R. Fitch, F.S.A., has a fine but 
imperfect dagger from the neighbourhood of Ipswich, and I have one 
in similar condition from Pease Marsh, near Godalming. 

In Scotland one has been found in a cairn at Guthrie, Forfarshire, 
6| inches long and 1^ inches wide, and is engraved in the Gentleman's 
Magazine, i Professor Daniel Wilson | also mentions one 15 inches long, 
found in a cairn at Craigengelt, near Stirling, but I think there must be 
some error as to the length. 

Though occurring in so many parts of England, these daggers appear 
to be extremely rare in Scotland, and quite unknown in Ireland. On part 
of the Continent, and especially in Denmark, Sweden, and Northern Ger- 
many, similar weapons are, however, far more abundant than here. The 
shape is somewhat diiferent, for the English specimens are, as a rule, 
broader in proportion and more obtusely pointed than the Scandinavian. 
These latter frequently exhibit the blunting at the edges towards the butt- 
end, such as has been already mentioned. Occasionally they have the 
notches at the sides. Daggers with square or fish-tailed handles, like 
Worsaae, Nos. 52 and 53, some of which present delicately ornamented 
and crinkled edges, have not as yet been found in Britain. 

Nearly similar blades to those from Britain are found in other parts of 
Europe. Two lance-heads, 5^ inches and 5f inches long, made from flakes, 
more or less worked on both faces, and reduced in width at the butt, so 
as to facilitate insertion in a handle, were found in the sepulchral cave of 
St. Jean d'Alcas,§ in the Aveyron. Another, worked on both faces, about 
7 inches long and 1 J inches broad, notched in two or three places on each 
side at the base, was found in one of the dolmens of the Lozere.|| 
Another, shorter and broader, but also notched at the base, was found 
in the dolmen H of Grailhe (Gard). 

A lance-head of flint, 9 inches long and 2^ broad, tanged at the butt, 
and with a notch on each side of the tang, has been figured by Gastaldi** 
from a specimen in the Museum at Naples, found at Telese. 

I have seen a finely worked, somewhat lozenge-shaped blade of flint, 
10| inches in length, which was found near Mons, in Belgium. 

In Egypt, associated with other objects betokening a considerable 
civilization, have been found several thin blades of flint, of much the 
same character as the more highlj' finished European specimens. They 
are, however, usually thick at the back, and provided with a tang like a 
metallic knife. Two of these in the Berlin Museumff are 7| inches and 

* Arch. Camh., 4tli S., vol. ii. p. 327. t March, 1797, p. 200. 

I " Preh. Ann. of Scot.," vol. i. p. 182. 

§ Casalis de Fondouce, "La Gr. sep. de St. J. d'Alcas," 1867, pi. i. 

II " Materiiiux," vol. v. p. 321. H Ibid., vol. v. p. 538. 
** " Moui. II. Ace. deUe Sc. di Torino," xxvi. tav. viii. 24. 

ft "Zeitschr. I'iir ^Egypt. Spraclic," ice, July, 1870. Wilkinson, " Anc. Egyp- 
tians," vol. iii. p. 2G2. 



6| inches long respectively, and 2^ inches and 2 inches wide. There are 
other specimens in the Egyptian Museums at Leyden and Turin, and in 
the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh. A larger blade, and even more 
closely resembling some of the Scandinavian lunate instruments in form, 
being leaf-shaped, but more curved on one edge than the other, is 
also in the Berlin Museum.* It is 9 inches long and 2^ inches wide. 
Another blade, of ovate form, and without tang, 2 J inches long and 1 inch 
wide, is preserved in the Mayer Collection in the Museum at Liverpool. 

A dagger-blade of flint, still mounted in its original handle, is in the 
British Museum,! and has already been described. 

Some of the dagger-blades in use in Mexico in ancient times were of 
much the same character as these, being in some cases of flint, in others 
of obsidian. A beautiful blade of chalcedony, 8 inches long, found at 
Tezcuco, is in the Christy Collection, as well as another of chert ; but the 
most remarkable is of flint, still in its original wooden handle, in form of 
a kneeling figure, incrusted with precious materials, including turquoise, 
malachite, and coral. An almost similar specimen was engraved by 

I now come to a form of curved knife — 
for as sucli it would seem the instrument 
must be regarded — which, so far as I know, 
may be considered as almost peculiar to 
Britain, though a somewhat similar form is 
known in Denmark,^ of which a more highly 
finished variety is engraved by Worsaae || from 
an almost, if not quite, unique example. As 
the form has not hitherto received much at- 
tention from antiquaries, I have engraved 
three specimens slightly diifering in form and 
character, and found in different parts of 

Fig. 268 represents a beautifully formed knifi-. 
with a curved blade tapering to a point, and found 
in draining at Fimber, Yorkshire. It is preservcl 
in the collection of Messrs. Mortimer, of FimbfV. 
who have kindly allowed me to engrave it. It i-< 
about 7 inches in length, formed of flint, which 
has now become ochreous in colour, and exhibits 
a portion of the natural crust at the butt- end. 
The blade is almost equally convex on the two 
faces, but thickens out at the butt, which seems 
to have formed the handle, as the side edges, which 
are elsewhere sharp, are there slightly blunted. 
It presents no signs of having been ground or polished 

26S.— Yorkshire. ^ 

* "Zeitschr. fiir Mg. Sp.," July, 1870. t See fig. 1, p. 8. 

j " Musseum Metallicum," p. 156. § Madsen, pi. xxxvi. S. 

II " Nord. Olds.," fig. 51. Mem de la Soc. des Ant. du Kord, 1845 — 49, p. 




[chap. XA' 

I have two or three fragments of similar knives also from the York- 
shire Wolds ; and one almost perfect, but only 4^ inches long, from 
Ganton Wold. The Rev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A., has a fragment of one 
from Wetwang, and the point of another from Rudstone. 

Fig. 269 represents a nearly similar knife, which has, however, been 
already described, though not figured, in the ArclKBolor/ical Journal'^' and 
in the Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries. \ It was found on Gorton 
Beach, midway between Yarmouth and Lowestoft, and belonged to the 
late Mr. C. Cory, of Yarmouth, who kindly lent it to me for engraving. It 
has been suggested that it was afiixed to a haft, possibly of stag's horn or 

Fig. 269.— Yarmouth. 

Fig. 270. — Eastbourne, i 

of wood, but there are no indicia of this having been the case, though 
the side edges are blunted towards the butt-end, where also remains a 
considerable portion of the crust of the long nodule of flint from which 
the instrument was chipped. 

For the loan of the original of Fig. 270 I am indebted to the late Mr. 
Caldecott, of Mead Street, near Eastbourne, near which place it was 
found. It is of grey flint, and presents the peculiarity of having one 
face partially polished by grinding, which extends to the point, but 

* Vol. xxii. p. Id. 

t 2nd S., vol. iii. p. 19, where it is erroneously stated to be only 5 inches in 


does not touch the edges, which, as in the other instances, are produced 
by chipping only. It is rather more convex on the polished face than 
on the other, and it appears probable that recourse was had to grinding 
in order to remove a hard projection of the flint which had been too 
refractory to be chipped off. As usual, there is a portion of the crust of 
the original flint visible at the butt, where also the side edges have been 
blunted, in this case by grinding. This instrument has already been 
described and figured in the Proceedinf/s of the Society of Antiquaries.* 

In the British Museum is a beautifully chipped knife, 8:^ inches long, 
without any traces of grinding, and much of the same form as this, but 
with the point more sharply curved. It was found in the Thames, at 
London, in 1868. 

The Rev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A., has an implement of this class, but 
of broader proportions, 4 inches long and 1| inches wide, with a portion 
of the natural crust of the flint left on the convex side, not far from the 
point. It is sharp at the base, which is semicircular, and the edge shows 
signs of wear. It was found on Heslerton Wold. 

The point of what appears to have been a curved knife of this character 
was found in the Lake-dwelling of Bodmann.f 

Some curved knives of polished slate, about 5 inches long, notched at 
the base as if for suspension by means of a string, have been found in 
Norway. Mr. Greenwell has a curved knife of slate sharpened on the 
concave side, found in Antrim. 

It is difficult to assign any definite use to this form of knife, but 
as the curvature is evidently intentional, and as probably it was 
more difficult to chip out such curved blades than it would have 
been to make them straight, there must have been some advantage 
resulting from the form. As both edges of the blade are sharp, it 
is hard to say whether the convex or concave edge were the 
principal object. As, however, the convex edge might more readily 
be obtained, and that twice over, in a leaf-shaped blade, it appears 
that the concave edge was the desideratum. The blunting of the 
edges at the butt-end suggests the probabiHty of the instruments 
having been held immediately in the hand without the intervention 
of any form of haft ; and the view of the concave edge being the 
principal one is supported by the circumstance that in the short 
knife from Ganton Wold, already mentioned, a considerable por- 
tion of the crust of the round- ended nodule of flint from which it 
was made is left along the convex side at the butt-end, while on 
the opposite side the edge extends the whole length, so that it 
cannot be comfortably held in the hand except with that edge 
outwards from the palm. It seems, indeed, adapted for holding in 
the hand and cutting towards rather than from the operator ; and 

* 2nd S., vol. iii. p. 210. 

t KeHer, '■ Pfahlbaiiten," Cter Ber. Taf. ^•ii. 32. 


looking at the form universally adopted for reaping instruments, 
wliicli seem to require a concave edge, so as to gather within them 
all the stalks that have to be cut, I am inclined to think that 
these curved flint knives may not impossibly have supplied the 
place of sickles or reaping-hooks, whether for cutting grass to serve 
as provender or bedding, or for removing the ears of corn from 
the straw. We know that among the inhabitants of the Swiss 
Lake-dwellings some who were unacquainted with the use of 
metals had already several domesticated animals, and cultivated 
more than one kind of cereal, and it is not unfair to infer that the 
same was the case in Britain. 

The analogy in form between these flint blades and those of the 
bronze reaping-hooks occasionally found in Britain is striking, 
when we leave the sockets by which the latter were secured to 
their handles out of view. These also have usually the outer edge 
sharp as well as the inner, but for what purpose I cannot say. 



I ^'ow come to a series of flint weapons, small but vaiying in size, 
which, thongh presenting a general resemblance in character to 
each other, are still susceptible of being classified under several 
types. The similarity is probably due to their having been all 
intended for the same purpose — that of piercing the skin, whether 
of enemies in war or of animals in the chase ; the differences may 
result from some of the weapons having served for warlike, and 
others for hunting purposes. The variation in size probably arises 
from some of them ha\ing tipped sj^ears to be held in the hand 
for close encounters, while others may have been attached to 
lighter shafts, and formed javelins to be thrown at objects at 
some distance ; and the majority of the smaller kind were, beyond 
doubt, the heads of arrows discharged from bows. 

The possibly successive ideas of pointing a stake as a weapon of 
offence, of hardening the point by means of fire, and of substi- 
tuting a still harder point made of horn, bone, or stone, must have 
occurred to mankind at the earliest period of their history, and 
weapons of one or all of these kinds are to be found among savage 
tribes in all parts of the world. The discovery of the bow, as a 
means of propelling javelins on a small scale to a distance, seems 
to belong to a rather higher grade of culture, and its use is not 
miiversal among modern savages. The use of the bow and arrow 
was totally unknown to the aborigines of Australia,* and even the 
Maories f of New Zealand — who were by no means in the lowest 
stage of civilization — had, when first discovered, no bows and 
arrows, nor even slings ; in fact, no missile weapon except the 
lance, which was thrown by hand. 

In Europe, however, the use of the bow seems to date back to a 

* Trans. Ethn. Soc, N. S., vol. iii. p. 206. 
t See Lubbock, " Preh. Times," p. 3G8, 2ncl cd. p. 4-53. 


very remote period, for in some of tlie cave-deposits of tlie Hcindccr 
Period of the Soiitli of France, what appear to be undoubtedly 
arrow-heads occur. In other caves — possibly, though not cer- 
tainly, inhabited at an earlier period — such arrow-heads are 
absent, though what may be regarded as harpoon-hcads of bone 
occur ; and in the E-iver Gravel deposits, nothing that can 
positively be said to be an arrow-head lias as yet been found, 
though it is barely possible that some of the pointed flakes may 
have served as such. 

The G-reelc myth * that bows and arrovv's wore invented by 
Scythes, the son of Jove, or by Perses, the son of Perseus, though 
pointing to an extreme anticjuity for the invention, not improbal)ly 
embodies a tradition of t\io skill in archery of the ancient Scythians 
and Persians, t 

The simplest form of stone-pointed spear or lanco at present 
in use among savages consists of a long sharp flake of obsidian, 
or some silicious stone attached to a shaft, like that shown in 
Fig. 195 ; and arrows tipped with smaller flakes, having but little 
secondary working at the sides beyond what was necessary to 
complete the point, and to form a small tang for insertion into the 
shaft, may also be seen in ethnological collections. Between 
these almost simple flakes and skilfully and symmetrically chij^ped 
lance and arrow-heads, all the intermediate stages may be traced 
among weapons still, or until quite recently, in use among savages, 
as well as among the worked flints which once served to point the 
weapons of the early occupants of this country. 

It is, indeed, probable that besides these stone-tipped weapons 
other seemingly less efiective, but actually more deadly missiles, 
were in use among them in the form of poisoned arrows ; but as 
these at the present day are usually tipped with hard wood or bone, 
as better adapted than stone for retaining the poison, the same was 
probably the case in ancient times ; and while those of wood have 
perished, those of bone, if found, have not as yet been recognized. 
Such arrow-heads of bone were also in use without being poisoned, 
as, for instance, among the Finns or Fenni, as Tacitus calls them, 
whose principal weapons were, for want of iron, bone-pointed 
arrows.+ The use of poisoned arrows had, among the Greeks and 
Romans, long ceased in classical times, ^ and is ahvays represented 

* riiuy, " Nat. Hist.," lib. vii. cap. 06. 

t Ilorodot., lil). iv. cap. 132 ; v. 49 ; vii. Gl. 

X " Sola in sagittis spes, quas inopiil ferri ossibus aspsrant." — Germ., cap. 46. 

§ Smitli's "Diet, of Ant.," s.v. Sagitta. 


by authors, from the time of Ilomer downwards, as a characteristic 
of barbarous nations ; and yet, in our own language, a word in 
common use survives as a memorial of this barbarous custom 
having been practised by the Greeks probably long before the 
days of Ilomer. For from to^ou, a bow (or occasionally an arrow*), 
was derived to^ikov — toxiciun — the poison for arrows ; a term which 
gradually included all poisons, even those of the milder form, 
such as alcohol, the too free use of which results in tluit form of 
poisoning still known among us as infoxication. 

One of the first to mention the discovery of flint arrow-heads in 
Britain was Dr. Plot, who, in his " a^atural Ilistor}' of Stafford- 
shire " t (1686), speaking of the use of iron by the Britains in 
Caesar's time, observes : " We have reason to beleive that, for the 
most part at lest, they sharpen'd their warlike instruments rather 
with stones than metall, cspeciall in the more northerly and inland 
countries, where they sometimes meet with flints in shape of arrow- 
heads, whereof I had one sent me by the learned and ingenious 
Charles Cotton, Esq., found not far from his pleasant mansion at 
Beresford, exactly in the form of a bearded arrow, jagg'd at each 
side, with a larger stemm in the middle, whereby I suppose it 
was fixt to the wood." "These they find in Scotland in much 
greater plenty, especially in the prefectury of Aberdeen, which, as 
the learned Sr Robert Sibbald + informs us, they there call Elf- 
arrows — Lamianon Sagittas — imagining they drop from the clouds, 
not being to be found upon a diligent search, but now and then 
by chance in the high beaten roads." " Nor did the Britans 
only head their arrows with flint, but also their matarcc or British 
darts, which were thrown by those that fought in essedis, whereof 
I guess this is one I had given me, found near Leek, by my worthy 
friend Mr. Thomas Gent, curiously jagg'd at the edges with such- 
like teeth as a sickle, and otherwise wrought upon the flat, by 
which we may conclude, not only that these arrow and spear-heads 
are all artificial, whatever is pretended, but also that they had 
anciently some way of working of flints by the toole, which may 
be seen by the marks, as well as they had of the Egyptian por- 
phyry ; which, as the aforesaid worthy Gent. Sir Robert Sibbald, 
thinks, they learned of the Romans, who, as Aldrovandus § assures 
us, anciently used such weapons made of stones. However, still, 

* Homer, Iliad, viii. 296. f P. 396. 

i *' Prod. Nat. Hist. Scotite," pt. ii. lib. iv. c. 7. 

§ " Mus. Met.," lib. iv. c. 17. 



it not being- hence deducible, but tliey may be British, they are not 
ill-placed here, whatever original they have had from either nation." 

Plot gives engravings both of a stemmed and barbed arrow-head, 
and of a leaf-shaped lance-head or knife. 

It will be observed that he alludes to different opinions regarding 
these instruments, it being a matter in dispute whether they Averc 
artificial, natural, or partly natural ; in the same manner as at the 
present day we find doubts expressed, by a few presumably educated 
persons, as to the artificial origin of the flint implements from the 
River Gravels, which some are pleased to regard as fossils of 
natural formation ; while others carry their unconscious Mani- 
chneism so far as to ascribe all fossils, and wc may presume these 
included, to diabolical agency. The old Danish collector, Olaf 
Worm, speaks of a flint of a dark colour* exhibiting the form of a 
spear-head with such accuracy that it may be doubted whether it 
is a work of art or of nature, and of others like daggers, Avhich, 
as being foimd in ancient grave-hills, are regarded by some as the 
arms of an earl}^ people ; while others doubt whether they are the 
work of art or nature ; and others consider them to be thunderbolts. 
One reason in former times for doubting the artificial origin of 
the most highly finished instnmients was ignorance of how such 
objects could have been chipped out. After describing one of the 
beautiful Danish daggers, with the delicately "ripple-marked" 
blade and the square ornamented handle. Worm remarks — "Si 
silex ullo mode arte foret tractabilis, potius Arte quam Natura 
elaboratum esse hoc corpus jurares." f 

Aldrovandus + engraves a flint arrow-head as a Glossopetra — 
a stone which, according to Pliny,^ "resembleth a man's tongue, 
and groweth not upon the ground, but in the eclipse of the moone 
falloth from heaven," and which "is thought by the magicians to 
be verie necessarie for those that court faire women." But 
perhaps one of the most curious of these early descriptions of flint 
arrow-heads is that given in the " Catalogue and Description of 
the Natural and Artificial Rarities belonging to the Royal Society 
and preserved at Gresham College," II made by Nehemiah Grew, 
M.D., F.R.S. In Part III., Chap. V., Of Regular Stones, Dr. 
Grew speaks of " The flat Bolthcad — Anchorites. Of afiinity with 
that well described by AVormius *11 with the title of Silcv vcnahuH 
ferreum ciispirhm cxacte rcferens. By Moscardo** with that of 

* "Mus. Wormiumim" (16o5), p. r,9. f L.c. 85. % "Mus. Met.," p. 604. 

v^i «' Nat. Hist.," lib. xxxvii. c. 10. || London, 1G81. H " Mus.," lib. i. sect. iii. c. 13. 
** " Mus.," lib. ii. c. 50. 



Pietre Ceraunie ; who also figures it witli throe or four varieties. 
This like those is a perfect Flint and semiperspicuous. 'Tis like- 
wise, in the same manner, pointed, like a Spcer, having at the 
other end, like those of Moscardo, a short handle. But, moreover, 
hath this peculiar, that 'tis pointed or spiked also backward on 
both sides the Handle, with some resemblance to an Anchor or 
the head of a Bearded Dart, from whence I have named it. 'Tis 
likewise tooth'd on the edges, and the sides as it were wrought 
with a kind of imdulated sculpture, as those before mentioned. 
Another different from the former, in that it is longer, hath a 
deeper indenture, but no handle. Both of them strike fire like 
other Jlinfs." There is a representation given of this Anchorites, 
which shows it to have been a common barbed arrow-head with a 
central stem. 

Mention has already been made of the superstition attaching to 
flint arrow-heads in Scotland, where they were popvdarly regarded 
as the missiles of elves. In speaking of them Dr. Stewart* quotes 
Robert Gordon of Straloch, the well-known Scotch geographer, 
who wrote about two centuries ago. After giving some details 
about elf-darts, this writer says that these wonderful stones are 
sometimes found in the fields and in public and beaten roads, but 
never by searching for them ; to-da}^ perhaps one will be found 
where yesterday nothing could be seen, and in the afternoon in 
places where before noon there was none, and this most frequently 
under clear skies and on summer days. lie then gives instances 
related to him by a man and a woman of credit, each of whom while 
riding found an arrow-head in their clothes in this unexpected way. 
Mr. F. C. Lukis, F.S.A.,t draws a 
distinction between the elf-shot or 
elf-arrow and the elf- dart, the lat- 
ter being of larger dimensions and 
leaf-shaped. He gives an engrav- 
ing of one which has been mounted 
in a silver frame and worn as a 
charm. By the kindness of INIr. 
Llewellynn Jewitt, F.S.A., the cut 
is here reproduced as Fig. 271. 
The initials at the back are pro- 

* rroc. Sor. A)tt. Scot., vol. iv. p. G6. Sibbald's " Prod. Nat. Hist. Scot.," pt. ii. 
p. 49. In the Theatrum Scotim of lUacuw's "Atlas" is a plate of armw-hcads 
found in Aberdeenshire. This has been pointed out to me by Dr. J. Hill liurton. 

t Beliquanj, vol. viii. p. 207- 

Fig. 271.— Elf-Shot. 


bably those of the OAvner, who mounted the amulet in silver, and 
of his wife. It was worn by an old Scottish lady for half a century. 
Others thus mounted were exhibited in the Museum of the Archae- 
ological Institute at Edinburgh in 1856.* 

Another arrow-head, also thvis mounted, is engraved by Douglas,! 
but in this instance it was found in Ireland, whore " the peasants 
call them elf-arrows, and frequently set them in silver, and wear 
them on their nocks as amulets against the AITHADH or elf- 
shot." Others are engraved in the PhUosopJtical TransactionsX and in 
Gough's " Camden's Britannia." § Sir W. Wilde || informs us that 
in the North of Ireland, when cattle are sick and the cattle doctor 
or fairy doctor is sent for, he often says that the beast has been 
elf-shot, or stricken by fairy or eliin darts, and by some legerde- 
main contrives to find in its skin one or more poisonous weapons, 
which, with some coins, are then placed in i}ic water which is given 
the animal to drink, and a cure is said to be effected. The same 
view of disease being caused by weapons shot by fairies at cattle, 
and much the same method of cure, prevailed, and indeed in 
places even now prevails, in Scotland.^ 

Dr. J. Hill Burton informs me that it is still an article of faith 
that elf-bolts after finding should not be exposed to the sun, or 
they are liable to be recovered by the fairies, who then work 
mischief with them. 

Mr. Llewellynn Jewitt records a similar elf-arrow superstition** 
as obtaining in Derb3"shiro, where flint arrow and spear-heads 
are by some regarded as fairy darts, and supposed to have been 
used by the fairies in injuring and wounding cattle. It was with 
reference to discoveries near Buxton, in that county, that Stukeley 
wrote — " Little flint arrow-heads of the ancient Britons, called 
elfs'-arrows, are frequently ploughed up here." ft 

Professor Daniel AVilson ++ gives many interesting particulars re- 
garding the elf-bolt, elf-shot, or elfin-arrow, which beai's the synony- 
mous Gaelic name of ScUd-hce, and cites, from Pitcairu's "Criminal 

* "Cat.," pp. Sand 127. 

t " Nicnia," pi. xxxiii. G, p. l-;t. .Seo Yallancey, " Coll. de Eeb. TUbcrn.," 
N. xiii. pi. xi. 

X Part iv. pi. iv. fig. 11. § Vol. iv. p. 232, pi. xviii. 

II " Cat. Mus. K. I. A.," p. 19. Sio also Arcli. Ansoc. ,/ui<rii., vol. xxi. p. 323, 
and xxii. 316. 

H J'nnifDifs Jo)i)-»., vol. i. p. 115. " Slat. Account of Scotland," vol. x. p. 15 ; xxi. 
148. Collin's " Odo on Pop. Snperst. of the Highlands." Allan Kamsay's Poems, 
ed. 1721, p. 224. Brand's " Pop. Ant.," 1841, vol. ii. p. 285. 

** RcUqnarij, vol. viii. p. 207. ft " Itin. Cur." (cd, 177G), vol. ii. p. 28. 

X% " Prch. A.un. of Scot.," vol. i. p. 178, d ficQq. 


Trials," the description of a cavern where the arch-fiend carries on 
the manufacture of elf-arrows with the help of his attendant imps, 
v.'ho rough-hewed them for him to finish. Ho also mentions the 
passage in a letter from Dr. Hickes * to PejDys, recording that my 
Lord Tarbut, or some other lord, did produce one of these elf- 
arrows which one of his tenants or neighbours took out of the heart 
of one of his cattle that died of an usual death (sic). Dr. Hickes 
had another strange story, but very well attested, of an elf-arrow 
that was shot at a venerable Irish bishop by an evil spirit, in a 
terrible noise louder than thunder, which shaked the house where 
t]ui bishop was. 

Similar superstitions prevailed among the Scandinavianf nations, 
by whom a peculiar virtue was supposed to be inherent in flint 
arrow-heads, Avhich was not to be found in those of metal. 

The fact, already mentioned, of an arrow-head of flint being 
appended to an Etruscan necklace of gold, apparently as a sort of 
charm, seems to show that a belief in the supernatural origin of 
these weapons, and their consequent miraculous powers, was of 
very ancient date. It has still survived in Ital}',^ where the 
peasants keep flint arrow-heads to preserve their houses from 
lightning, believing that the lightning comes down to strike with 
a similar stone — a superstition which Professor Gastaldi also found 
prevalent in Piedmont. In some instances they are carried on 
the person as preservatives against lightning, and in parts of the 
Abruzzo § they are known as liiiffiie di S. Paoio, and the coimtry- 
man who finds one devoutly kneels down, picks it up with his own 
tongue, and jealously preserves it as a most potent amulet. In 
the Foresi Collection li at the Paris Exhibition were some arrow- 
heads mounted in silver as amulets, like those in Scotland, but 
brought from the Isle of Elba. Another has been engraved by 
Dr. C. Ptosa.^ 

It is a curious circumstance that necklaces formed of cornelian 
beads, much of the shape of stemmed arrow-heads, with the perfora- 
tion through the central tang, are worn by the Arabs of Northern 
Africa at the present day, being regarded, as I am informed by 

* Pcin-s' Diary and Cor. (ed. 1849), vol. v. p. 366. 

t See Nilsson's "Stone Age," p. 197. Wilson's "Preh. Ann. of Scot.," vol. i. 
p. 180. 

% Gastaldi, " Lake Habitations of ISTorthern and Central Ital}-." Chambers's 
transl., p. 6. 

§ Xicolucci, "Di Alcune Armi ed Utonsili in Pictra," 18o3, p. 2. 

II MortiUet, " Mat.," vol. iii. p. 319. 

^ Archivio per rAnfrojjolonia, vol. i. pi. xv. 8. 


the Rev. J. Greville Chester, as good for the blood. Similar 
charms arc also worn in Turkey. I have a necklace of fifteen 
such arrow-head-like beads, with a central amulet, which was 
purchased by my son in a shop at Kostainicza, in Turkish Croatia. 
Enough, however, has been said with regard to the superstitions 
attaching to these arrow-heads of stone. The existence of such a 
belief in their supernatural origin, dating, as it seems to do, from 
a comparatively remote period, goes to prove that even in the days 
when the belief originated, the use of stone arrow-heads was 
not known, nor was there any tradition extant of a people whose 
weapons they had been. And yet it is probable that of all the 
instruments made of stone, arrow-heads would be among the last 
to drop out of use, being both well adapted for the purpose they 
served, and at the same time formed of a material so abundant, 
that with weapons so liable to be lost as arrows, it would be 
preferred to metal, so long as this was scarce and costly. In this 
country, at all events, the extreme scarcity of bronze arrow-heads 
is remarkable, while we know from interments that flint arrow- 
heads were in common use by those who employed bronze for 
other weapons or implements. There appears to be some doubt as 
to whether the flint arrow-heads, or rather the flakes of black flint 
which have been found in considerable numbers associated with 
bronze arrow-heads on the field of Marathon, were made in Greece, 
or whether they were not rather in use among some of the bar- 
barian allies of the Persian king. M. Lenormant * is clearly of 
the opinion that they are not of Greek origin,! but this is contested 
by others, and probably with reason. Whatever their origin, there 
is a strong argument against stone arrow-heads having been in 
use among the Greeks at so late a period as the battle of Marathon, 
B.C. 490, in the fact that Herodotus, + writing but shortly after- 
wards, records, as an excejstional case, that in the army of Xerxes, 
circa «.c. 480, the arrows of some of the iEthiopian contingent 
were tipped with stone, while those of some Indian nations were 
even pointed with iron. )So early as the days of Homer the arrow- 
heads of the Greeks were of bronze, and had the three longitudinal 
ribs upon them, like those in that metal found at Marathon, for 
he speaks of the '^aXKtjpt oiaTov,^ and applies to it the epithet 
rpi\y(i)-^ii/. II 

* Arch., vol. xv. p. M5. Leake, "Demi of Attica," p. 100. Dodwell's 
" Class. Tour," vol. ii. p. loO. Arch. Joiirti., vol. vii. p. 86. 
t See Smith's "Geog. Diet.," vol. ii. p. 2G8. 
X Lib. vii. cap. C9. ^^ Iliad, xiii. GOO. || Ibid., v. 393. 


Even among sucli rude tribes as tlie Massagetae and Scytliians, 
the arrow-heads, in the days of Herodotus, wore of bronze ; and he 
records an ingenious method adopted by one Ariantas,* a king of 
the Scythians, to take a census of his people by levying an 
arrow-head from each, all of which were afterwards melted and 
cast into an enormous bronze vessel. 

Besides the ^Ethiopians there was another nation which made 
use of stone-pointed arrows in Africa, as is proved by the arrows 
from Egyptian tombs, of which specimens are preserved in several 
of our museums. The head, which is of flint, differs, however, from 
all the ordinary forms, inasmuch as it is chisel-shaped rather than 
pointed, and in form much resembles a small gun-flint. The tip 
of one of these, secured to the shaft by bitumen, is shown in 
Eig. 272. The original is in the British Museum. It is pro- 
bable that arrow-heads of similar character may have been in use 

Fig. 272.-Egypt. 1 

in Britain, though they have hitherto almost escaped observation, 
owing to the extreme simplicity of their form. To these I shall 
subsequently recur. 

The better-known forms which occur in Britain may be classed 
as the leaf-shaped, the lozenge-shaped, the tanged or stemmed, 
and the triangular, each presenting several varieties. The arrow- 
heads of the third class are in this country usually barbed ; those 
of the fourth but rarely. 

Whether the forms were successively doveloj^ed in this order is 
a question difficult of solution ; but in an ingenious paper by Mr. 
W. C. Little, of Liberton, being "An Inquiry into the Expedients 
used by the Scots before the Discovery of Metals," f published 
early in this century, the lozenge-shaped are regarded as the 
earliest ; next, those barbed with two wittcrs,+ but no middle 

* iv. 81. t ArclKeologia Seotica, vol. i. jj. 389. 

X This word, still in use in Scotland for the harl)s of a fishine:- spear or hook, 
is a p:ood old English term derived from the Saxon pi'Seji. Withthcr-hooked, 
= barbed :— 

" This dragoun hadde a long tailo 
That was withther-liooked saun failo." 

" Arthoui' and Merlin," p. 210. 
— Ilalliwell, " Arch. Diet.," s.r. 


tang- ; and last, tlie tanged. The same antlior argues from analogy 
that the ancients could extend this flint manufacture to other pur- 
poses, " as the same ingenuity which formed the head of an arrow 
could also produce a knife, a saAV, and a piercer." 

Colonel A. Lane Fox, in his second lecture on " Primitive War- 
fare," * arranges the forms of arrow-heads in the same manner as I 
have here adopted, and shows that the transition from one form to 
the other is easy and natural. There are, indeed, some arrow- 
heads of which it would be impossible to say whether they were 
leaf-shaped or lozenge-shaped, or whether they were lozenge- 
shaped or tanged. 

Sir William Wilde has adopted a somewhat different arrange- 
ment, and regards the triangular as the primary form, and the 
leaf-shaped and lozenge-shaped as the last. 

But whatever may have been the order of the development of 
the forms, it would, in my opinion, be unwarrantable to attempt 
anv chronological arrangement founded upon mere form, as there 
is little doubt of the whole of these varieties having been in use in 
one and the same district at the same time, the forms being to 
some extent adapted to the flake of flint from which the arrow- 
heads were made, and to some extent to the purposes which the 
arrows were to serve. The arrow-heads in use among the North 
American Indians,! when intended for hunting, were so contrived 
that they could be drawn out of the wound, but those destined for 
Avar were formed and attached to the shaft in such a manner that 
wlicn it was attempted to pull out the arrow, its head became 
detached, and remained in the wound. The poisoned arrows of 
the Bushmen of South Africa + are, in like manner, made with 
triangular heads of iron, which become detached in the body if 
an attempt is made to withdraw the arrow from the wound it 
has caused. 

I have alread}^ remarked on the difficulty of distinguishing 
javelin and arrow-heads ; but, from their size, I think Dr. Thurnam 
was justified in regarding those engraved as Figs. 273, 274, 275, 
as heads of javelins ; and they may, therefore, be taken first in 
order. Two of them have already been engraved. § Their beau- 
tifully worked surfaces had, however, hardly had justice done them, 
and, b}^ the kindness of Dr. Thurnam, I have been able to have 

* Jown. R. V. Scrv. Inst. 
t Schoolcraft, " Ind. Tribes," vol. i. p. 212. 
+ Wood's " Nat. Hist, of ,AIan," vol. i. p. 2b4. 
§ rroc. Soc. Ani., 2ud S., vol. ii. p. 429. 



them engraved afrcsli. They were found in 18G4, in company 
with another ahnost identical in form with the middle figure, close 
to the head of a contracted skeleton, in an oval barrow on Win- 
terbourn Stoke Down, about a mile and a half north-west of Stone- 
henge. They are most skilfully chipped on both faces, which 
are equally convex, and they are not more than a quarter of an 
inch in thickness. As will be observed, three are leaf-shaped, and 
one lozenge-shaped, and this latter, though larger, is thinner and 

Fig, 273. 

Fig. 274. ■ 
Winterbourn Stoke. 

more delicate. They have acquired a milky, jDorcellanous surfice 
while lying in the earth. As has been remarked by Dr. Thurnara, 
objects of this description have rarel}^ been found in barroA^'s. 
The two javelin-heads, if such they be, found by Mr. Mortimer 
in the Calais Wold barrow, near Pocklington, Yorkshire,* are 
lozenge-shaped and much more acutely pointed, and were accom- 
panied by two lozenge-shaped arrow-heads. By the kindness 
of Mr. Llewellynn Jewitt they are all four here reproduced 

* Proc. Soc. Ant., 2nd S., vol. iii. p. 321. BcUquanj, vol. vi. p. 18y. 





as Figs. 276 to 279. "What apj^ears to be a similar javelin-lieaci 
to Fig. 277, 2f inclies long, was found by tlie late Lord Londes- 
borougli in a barrow on Seamer Moor, near Scarborougli.* Javelin- 
heads of much the same form as those from Winterbourn Stoke 
and Calais Wold occur not unfrequently in Ireland, but are rarely 
quite so delicately chij^ped. The class having both faces polished, 
though still only chipped at the edges, like Wilde's Fig. 27, has 
not, to my knowledge, as yet occurred out of Ireland. A few 

Fig. 276. 

Fig. 277. lig. 27?. 

Calais Wold Barrow. 

Fig. 279. 

of these may have served as knives or daggers, as they are in- 
tentionally rounded by grinding at the more tapered end, which 
at first sight appears to have been intended for the point, and not 
for the liandle. 

Largo lozenge-shaped lancc-heads were occasionally in use among 
the North American Indians ;t but the more usual form is a long 
blade, notched at the base to receive the ligature which bound it 
to the shaft. 

*■ Arcli. Assoc. Joiirii., vol. iv. p. lOH. 

f ychooknil't, " Iiid. Tiiljes," vol. i. jil. xxvi. A. 



Of leaf- shaped arrow-lieads, which form the first class now to 
be described, there are several minor varieties, both in outline 
and section, some being longer in proportion to their breadth than 
others, rounder or more pointed at the base, thicker or thinner, or 
more carefully chii:)ped on one face than the other. A few typical 
examples are given, full size, in the annexed woodcuts. The originals 
are all in my own collection, unless otherwise specified. 

Fig. 280 is from the neighbourhood of Icldingham, Suffolk, of flint 
become nearly white by weathering, and carefully 
chipped on both faces, one of which is, however, more 
convex than the other. I have a larger but imperfect 
specimen of the same form from Oundle. A nearly 
similar arrow-head, of yellov/ flint, from Hoxne, Suf- 
folk, is engraved in the ArchanJo<jical Journal.'-'- It 
was supposed to have occurred in the same deposit as 
that containing large palaeolithic implements and ele- 
phant remains, but nothing certain is known on this 
point ; and from the form there can be little hesitation 
in assigning it to the Neolithic Period. A rather smaller 
arrow-head, but of much the same character, found ai 
Bradford Abbas, Dorset, is engraved in the same 
Journal, i' Professor Buckman has several leaf-shaped 
arrows from the same neighbourhood. Some of them 
are long and slender, more like Fig. 286. 

In Fig. 281 is shown an arrow-head of rather broader 
proportions, from Gunthorpe, Lincolnshire, which has 
been engraved in the lieHquani \ by Mr. Llewellynn Jewitt, F.S.A., who 
has kindly lent me the block. I have a specimen of the same form, 
delicately chipped on both faces, and found near Lakenheath, Suftblk. 
Occasionally^ one face of the arrow-heads of this form is left nearly flat. 

Fig. 2S0.— IcklinKham. 

Fig. 2S1.— Gunthorpe. 

Fig. 2S2.- Yoikshne Wolds 

Fig. 282 shows a smaller specimen in the collection of the Eev. W. 
Greenwell, F.S.A. In this instance the flake from which the arrow-head 
was made has been but little retouched on the flat face. It is slightly 

Vol. xvii. p. 261. 

t A^ol. XXV. p. 156. 

Vol. vi. pi. xvi. 5. 



curved lougitucliually, but probably not to a sufficient extent to afiect 
the flight of tlic arrov/. This form is of common occurrence on the 
Yorkshire Wokls, though very variable in its proportions, and also in 
point of symmetry, both as regards outline and similarity of the two faces. 
In Fig. 283 is shown another and broader form, from Butterwick, on 

Fjg. 2b._.— iu.k..l.iic V.'ukL-. riy;. 2S4.— Little Sulsbury Hill. 

the Yorkshire Wolds. It is in the same collection, and is Avorkcd on 
both faces, and the sides are slightly ogival, so as to produce a sharper 

Occasionally, instead of being sharply pointed, arrow-heads are more 
oval in form. An instance of this kind is given in Fig. 281, the original 
of which was found by Mr, Francis Galton, F.R.S., on the occasion of a 
visit with me to the camp on Little Solsbury Hill, near Bath. It is of 
flint that has become white from exposure, equally convex on the two 
faces, and rather thick in proportion to its size. I have a somewhat 
similar but broader specimen from the camp of Maiden Bower, near 
Dunstable, and others even more rounded at the point, and larger and 
thinner, from AVillerby Wold, Yorkshire, and from Icklingham. I have 
one Yorkshire specimen, which is almost circular in form, and bears 

rig. 2S.3.— Yuikshire Wolds 

Fig. 28(5.— Bridlington. 

traces of grinding on one of its faces. Mr. Grccnwell possesses speci- 
mens of almost all intermediate proportions between an oval, like Fig. 
284, and a perfect circle. 

More lanceolate forms arc shown in Figs. 285 and 286, both from 



Yorkshire. Fig. 285, thougli worked on both faces, still exhibits por- 
tions of the original surface of the llake from which it was made ; but 
Fig, 286, from Griudale, near Bridlington, is of transparent chalcedonic 
flint, beautifully and symmetrically worked over its whole surfiice. This 
elongated form is not of common occurrence. I have a beautiful ex- 
ample, of the same general character, but pointed at either end, found 
near Icklingham, Suffolk. A large ex- 
amjile of this form, from Derbyshire, 
in the Bateman Collection, may have 
been a javelin-head. 

Other and shorter forms are shown 
in Figs. 287 and 288, the former of 
which has been made from a flat flake, 

the original surface of Avhich remains ^^^^^^^ "^-^g 

intact on a large portion of each face. ijjt ana I'ss.— Y..iKM;iic 
Fig. 288, on the contrar}', is carefully chipped over the whole of both 
faces, which are equally convex. It has a slightly heart-shaped form. 

It will have been observed that in all those specimens the base 
of the arrow-head is much more rounded than the point. This, 
however, is by no means universally the case with the leaf-shaped 
arrows, the bases of which are in some instances almost, if not 
quite, as acute as the points. It is, in fact, sometimes difficult to 
say which of the ends was intended for the point. 

Fig. 289 shows a large arrow-head from Lakenheath, Suffolk, in the 
collection of Mr. J. W. Flower, F.Gr.S. It is equally convex on both 
faces, and almost equally sharp at both ends. Mr. Greenwell has 
similar specimens from Burnt Fen. Others of the same character, but 

Fiff. 2S9.— Lakenheath. 

Figs. 290 and 291.— Yorkshire Wokls 

of smaller size, arc engraved in Figs. 290 and 291. Both the originals 
are from the Yorkshire Wolds. 

Fig. 290 is in the collection of the Ecv. W. Greenwell, F.S.A. It is 



[chap. XTI. 

Figs. 292 and 293.— Yorkshire "Wolds 

thin, slightly curved longitudinally, and very neatly worked into shape 
at the edges. It is a form of not unfrequent occurrence in the Yorkshire 
Wolds, sometimes of larger dimensions, and more roughly chipped, hut 
more commonly of smaller size. I have a beautifully-made arrow-head 
of nearly the same size and shape, found at Lakenheath, Suffolk. It is 
not more than one-eighth of an inch in thickness. Mr. Greenwell has 
one of wider proportions from Burnt Fen. Fig. 291 is thicker in pro- 
portion to its width, more convex on one face than the other, and less 
acutely pointed at the base. 

In Figs. 292 and 293 arc shown some more or less unsymmetrical 

varieties of form. Fig. 292 is, toAvards 
the point, equally convex on each face ; 
but at the base the flat inner face of the 
original flake has been left untouched, so 
that the edge is like that of a *' scraper," 
or of a round-nosed chisel. Though the 
point is, in all respects, identical with 
that of undoubted arrow-heads, and 
though I have placed it here among 
them, it is possible that that end may, 
after all, have been intended for insertion 
in a handle, and that it was a small cut- 
ting tool, and not an arrow-head. There can be no doubt of the purpose 
of Fig. 293, which is of white flint delicately chipped, and is equally 
convex on the two faces. On one side the outline is almost angular, 
instead of forming a regular sweep, so that it shows how easy is the 
passage from the leaf-shaped to the lozenge form. There are often 
instances like that afforded by the arrow-head engraved in Fig. 294, 
where it is hard to say under which form a specimen 
should be placed. The original of this figure is in the 
collection of the Rev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A., and is neatly 
worked on both faces. I have a somewhat broader arrow- 
head of the same character, which I found in the camp of 
Maiden Bower, near Dunstable. Colonel A. Lane Fox, 
F.S.A., found one of the same form, and one like Fig. 811, 
within an earthwork at Callow Hill,''' Oxfordshire. Another 
was found Avith a perforated hammer, a flint knife ground 
rip. 294.— Y(irk- at the edge, some scrapers, and other objects, in a cairn in 
ehire Wolds. (Caithness.! Another, very thin, found at Urquhart, Elgin, 
is in the Edinburgh Museum. 

It is to arrow-licacls of tliis leaf-sliaped form, but approximating 
closely to the lozenge-sliapcd, that I)r. Thuniam + is inclined to 
assign a connbction with tlic class of tmnuli known as long 
harrows ; and in support of this view he has cited several cases 
of their discovery in this form of barrow, in which no barbed 
arrow-heads have hitherto been found. 

* Journ. EthnoL Soc, vol. i. p. 5. 

t r. S. A. S., vol. vii. p. 500. 

X Froc. Soc. ^l)it., 2iilI S., vol. iii. p. 170. 



The annexed cut, kindly furnished by the Society of Antiquaries, 
shows an arrow-head from a long barrow near Fylield, Wilts. It is 
delicately chipped, and weighs only forty-three grains. Another, 1^ 
inches in length, from a long barrow on Alton Down, is of surprising 
thinness, and weighs only thirty grains. Others, 
it would seem purposely injured at the point, were A 

found in the long-chambered barrow at Rodmarton, / \ 

Gloucestershire."'' Others, again, were found by Mr. 
Bateman in long barrows in Derbyshire and Statford- 
shire. One of these, from Ringham Low, is 2:^ 
inches long and 1 inch broad, yet weighs less than 
forty-eight grains. In Long Low, AVetton,f were 
three such arrow-heads and many flakes of flint. 
Dr. Thurnam, in speaking of the leaf-shaped as the 
long-barrow type of arrow-head, does not restrict it ' 
to that form of tumulus, but merely indicates it as 
that which is alone found there. ; , .1 

The Calais Wold barrow, ;[ already mentioned as "-, , 
having produced four lozenge-shaped javelin and 'v/: 
arrow-heads, is circular, while that on Pistle Down, 
Dorsetshire, S which contained four beautifully *^' 

1 • T 1 T !• J.1 • J. -11 Fig. 295.— Fyfield. 

chipped arrow-heads oi this type, is oblong. 

Leaf-shaped arrows are mentioned as having been found with burnt 
bones in Grub Low, Staffordshire. |1 The same forms, more or less care- 
fully chipped, and occasionally almost flat on one face, are frequently 
found on the surface in various parts of Scotland,^ especially in the 
counties of Aberdeen, Banfi", El- 
gin, and Moray. They are com- 
paratively abundant in Yorkshire 
and Derbyshire, but much rarer 
in the southern counties of Eng- 
land. I have seen specimens 
found at Red Hill, near Rei- 
gate ; '''* near Bournemouth ; at 
Prince Town, Dartmoor ; and \. 
near Oundle ; besides the locali- ['^ 
ties already mentioned. 

Typical lozenge-shaped arrow- 
heads are, in Britain, and, in- 
deed, in other countries, rarer 
than the leaf-shaped. That shown 

• -m- on/» 1 1 1 A„,„ Fie. 296.— Bridlington. Fig. 297-- >ewton Kettoii. 

m Fig. 296 has been made irom ^'fe -''" fa ^ 

a flat flake, and is nicely chipped on both faces, though not quite straight 

longitudinally. It was found at Northdale Farm, Grindale, Bridlington, 

* Proc. Soc. Aiif., 2nd S., vol. ii. p. 278 ; iii. p. 168. t ReUqiianj, vol. v. p. 28. 

X Op. cit., vol. ^■i. p. 185. 

§ Warne's " Celtic Turn, of Dorset," Hrrata, p. 15, and p. 27. 

II "Ten Years' Dig.," p. 148. 

IT See Froc. Soc. Ant., 2nd S., vol. i. p. 20. Arch. Journ., vol. x. p. 362. Froc. 
Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. iii. p. 362 ; iv. 64, 377, 553 ; v. 13, 185 ; vi. 41, 208, 234 ; 
vii. 500 ; viii. 10. 

** I'roc. Soc. Ant., 2nd S., vol. i. p. 74. Afch. Journ., vol. xvu. p. 171. 




[chap. XVI. 

by Mr. E. Tindall. The original of Fig. 297 is in the collection of the 
Rev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A., and has been made from a very thin, trans- 
parent flake. It is rather less worked on the opposite face to that here 
shown. It was found at Newton Ivetton, Durham. A regularly chipped 
arrow-head of lozenge shape is said to have been found at Cutterly 
Clump, Wilts ; * and I have seen a few specimens from Derbyshire. 
Those from the Calais Wold barrow have already been mentioned. 

A more elongated form is shown in Figs. 298 and 299, taken from 
specimens found on the Yorkshire Wolds. 
Both of them are neatly chipped on either 
face, and have but little left of the original 
surface of the flakes from which they were 
formed. One of the shorter sides of Fig. 
299 is somewhat hollowed, j)ossihhj to give 
a slight shoulder, and thus prevent its being 
driven into the shaft. 

This is more evidently the case with the 
arrow-head represented in Fig. 300, which, 
like so many others, comes from the Wolds 
of Yorkshire. It is made from a slightly 
curved flake, and is more convex on one 
face than the other, especially at the stem 
or tang. 

In the collection of Messrs. Mortimer, of 
Fimber, is another Yorkshire arrow-head, 
which is leaf-shaped, but provided with a slight tang. 

Leaf-shaped arrow-heads, with a decided stem like that of the leaf, 
found in Arabia and Japan, will be mentioned at a subsequent page. 

Another of these stemmed but barbless arrow-heads, from the same 
district, is shown in Fig. 301. It was found at Amotherby, near Malton, 

and w^as given to me by Mr. Charles 
Moukman, of that place. It has been 
made from a flat flake, and has been 
worked into shape by a slight amount of 
chipping along the edges, which does not 
extend over the face. There are nu- 
merous arrow-heads of the same class, 
though not of the same form, which have 
been made from flakes of the proper 
thickness, by a little secondary working 
to give them a point, and by slightly 
trimming the butt-end of the flake. They 
usually approximate to the leaf shape in 
form, but, as might be expected, vary considerably in size, proportions, 
and the amount of symmetry displayed. It seems needless to engrave 

The weapon-point shown in Fig. 302 is so large that possibly it may 
be regarded as that of a javelin, and not of an arrow. It is in the col- 
lection of Mr. H. Durden, of Blandford, and was found on Iwerne Minster 

Yorkshire 'VV'olds. 

Fig. 301.— Amo- 

Arr/i. Jown., vol. xviii. p. 7'J- 



Down, Dorsetshire. It is boldly and symmetrically chipped, thick in 
proportion to its breadth, and equally convex on both faces ; though 
distinctly stemmed, it can hardly be said to be barbed. It much 
resembles an Italian specimen in the Arsenal of Turin.* 

A somewhat more distinctly barbed arrow-head from the Yorkshire 
Wolds is represented in Fig. 808. Its thickness, vV inch, is great in 

Fig. tiu2. — Iwenie llinster. Fig. .303. — Yurkshue WolJs. 

loiksliiie Wolds. 

proportion to its size ; the two faces are equally convex, and the stem 
widens out slightly at the base. The same is the case with a smaller and 
thinner arrow-head in my collection, of somewhat similar form, found 
near the camp of Maiden Bower, Dunstable. A third, from the York- 
shire Wolds, presents the same peculiarity, which is still more apparent 
in an arrow-head from a barrow on Seamer Moor, near Scarborough,! 
if, indeed, it has been correctly figured. 

A magnificent specimen of much the same type as Fig. 803, but nearly 
twice as long, has been kindly lent me for engraving by Messrs. Mor- 
timer, of Fimber, Yorkshire, in the neighbourhood of which place it was 
found. It is shown in Fig. 304. It is neatly chipped over both faces, 
which are equally convex, and the stem is carefully shaped and of 
considerable thickness. The edges, as is not unfrequently the case, are 

* Mortillet, " Mat.," vol. ii. p. 89. 
t Arch. Assoc. Journ., vol. iv. p. 10£ 

z 2 



[CHAr. XVI. 

The fine arrow-head engraved as Fig. 305 shows the barbs or " witters " 
still more strongly developed. One of them is, however, less pointed 
than the other. From its size, this and others may have formed the 
heads of javelins rather than of arrows, though arrow-heads as large 
are still in use among some savage tribes. It was found at Pick Rudge 
Farm,''" Overton, Wilts, in company with the oblong implement engraved 
as Fig. 255. It is now in the Blackmore Museum, the trustees of which 
kindly allowed me to figure it. 

Fig. 306 represents another unusually large specimen, found on Sherburn 
Wold, Yorkshire. It is nicely worked on both faces, and the end of the 
stem or tang has been carefully chipped to a sharp semicii'cular edge, 
well adapted for fixing into the split shaft. Barbed arrow-heads of 
various forms and sizes are of frequent occurrence in some parts of the 




Fig. 305. — Overton. 

Fig. 306.— Slieibui-n Wold. 

Yorkshire Wolds and Moors, and in parts of Suifolk and Derbyshire. 
It would be tedious to attempt to exhibit all the different varieties, 
but specimens of the more ordinary forms are given in Figs. 307 to 
312, from originals principally in the collection of the Rev. W. Greenwell, 
F.S.A. As a rule, there is but little difference in the convexity of the 
two faces, though very frequently one face is decidedly flatter than the 
other ; and occasionally the fiat face of the original flake has been left 
almost untouched. Fig. 311 aftbrds an example of this kind, being neaidy 
flat on the face not shown, while the other face still retains part of the 
crust of the flint nodule from which the flake was struck. The central 
stem or tang varies much in its proportions to the size of the arrow- 
head, and occasionally forms but an inconsiderable projection, as in 
Fig. 309, making the form approximate to the triangular. Sometimes, 
as in Fig. 312, the ends of the barbs are carefully chipped straight, as 

* Arc/i. Journ., vol. xii. p. 285. "Cat. Mus. Arch. Inst, at Ed.," p. 40. 



is the case with many arrow-heads from the more southern parts of 
England, some of which will shortly he noticed. 

Before quitting the arrow-heads of the Yorkshire Wolds I must 

Fig. 309. 

FifT. 3U. 
Yorkshire Wolds. 

insert figures of two other specimens illustrative of another form. Of 
these, that shown in Fig. 313 was found by Mr. E. Tindall, at Northdale 


Figs. 313 and 314.— Yorkshire Wolds. 

Farm, Grindale, Bridlington. It is thick in proportion to its size, and 
skilfully chipped on both faces. The tang is thin and slight. The other 
arrow-head (Fig. 314) is not so thick in proportion. In both, if the 
sweep of the outline were continued past the barbs, it would about meet 
the extremity of the tang, and give a leaf-shaped form ; so that it seems 
probable that this class was made by first chipping out the simple leaf- 
shaped form, and then working in a notch on either side to produce 
the tang and barbs. The same type sometimes occurs in Sufiblk. 



[chap. XYI. 

The next specimen I have selected for engraving, Fig. 315, is from 
another part of the country, having been found by myself in 1866 on the 
surface of a field, at the foot of the Chalk escarp- 
ment between Eddlesborough and Tring, Herts. 
It can hardly be regarded as unfinished, though 
one of the surfaces is very rough, and the outline 
far from symmetrical. It shows rather how rude 
were some of the appliances of our savage pre- 
decessors in Britain. Curiously enough, some 
barbed flint arrow-heads of nearly similar form, 
and but little more symmetrical (to judge from the 
engravings), were found in 1763 at Tring Grove, 
Herts, with an extended skeleton. They lay be- 

^,315.-Eddlesborougl,. ^^^^^^ ^^^ j^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^.^ ^^^^ ^£ ^^^ 

perforated plates of greenish stone of the character of Fig. 354. An 
arrow-head of much the same form was found in a barrow near Tenby,"'' 
with bones and a part of a curious ring-shaped ornament, 
supposed to be of ivory. The long tapering arrow-head 
shown in Fig. 316 affords a contrast to this broad form. 
Its barbs are unfortunately not quite perfect, but the 
form being uncommon I have engraved it. It was found in 
Reach Fen, Cambridgeshire. A longer specimen, almost 
as acutely pointed, and with square-ended barbs, found 
on Lanchester Common,! Durham, is in the Museum of 
the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle. I have others 
of the same type from Suftblk, and one with the sides 
curved slightly inwards, found near Lakenheath. 

The next figure (317) is illustrative of the extra- 
ordinary amount of care and skill that was sometimes 
bestowed on the manufacture of objects so liable to be 
broken or lost in use as arrow-heads. This specimen 
was found at Isleham, Cambridgeshire, and has un- 
fortunately lost its central stem, the outline of which I 
have restored from a nearly similar arrow-head found at Icklingham, 
Suflblk, which has lost both its barbs. It is very thin, so much so that 
its weight is only thirty- eight grains, but it is 
neatly chipped over the whole of both faces. No- 
thing, however, can exceed the beautiful regularity 
of the minute chipping by which the final outline 
was given to the edges, extremely small flakes 
having been removed at regular intervals so close 
to each other that there are twenty of them in an 
inch. The inner sides and ends of the barbs are 
worked perfectly straight, the ends forming right 
angles to the sides of the arrow-head, and the 
inner sides being nearly parallel with each other, 
so that the barbs are somewhat dovetailed in form. 
The broader, but almost equally beautiful arrow- 
head shown in Fig. 318 was found in front of the face of an unburnt 

Fig. 316 

* yhr/i. Cainb., 2nd S., vol. ii. p. 292. 

t Arch. Joitni., vol. xvii. p. CO. 



body, in a barrow at Rudstone, near Bridlington, by the Rev. W. Green- 
well, F.S.A. 

The ends of the barbs thus chipped straight sometimes, as in Fig. 312, 
form a straight line. Occasionally, as in the arrow-heads found by Sir 
R. Colt Hoare in one of the Everley barrows,''' the base of the barbs 
forms an obtuse angle with the sides of the arrow-head, so that there is 
a sharp point at the inner side of the barbs. In others the end forms 
an acute angle with the sides of the arrow-head, so that the point of each 
barb is at the outer side. A beautiful specimen of this kind is shown in 
Fig. 319. It is one of six, varying in size and somewhat in shape, but 
all beautifully worked, found in barrows on Lamborne Down, Berks, 
and now in the British Museum. In some few instances the sides of 
the arroAV-head are rather ogival in form (like the Scotch specimen. 

Fig. ai8.— Rudstone. 

Fig. 319. — Lamborne Duwn. 

320.— Foviint. 

Fig. 326), which adds to the acuteness of the point. In one of this 
character from a barrow on the Ridgeway Hill,f Dorsetshire, and others 
from one of the Woodyates barrows, | the barbs are also acutely pointed 
at the outer side. I have a rather smaller specimen than that figured, 
from Lakenheath, Suflblk, and others from Thetford and Reach Fen, 
with the sides even more ogival than in Fig. 326. Others of the same 
character, found in Derbyshire, are in the Bateman Collection. In some 
of the arrow-heads § from the Wiltshire barrows the barbs are inor- 
dinately prolonged beyond the central tang, which is very small. 
Fig. 320, copied from Hoare, || gives one of those from a barrow near 
Fovant, found with a contracted interment, and in company with a 
bronze dagger and pin and some jet ornaments. One of similar 
character was found in a barrow on Windmill Hill,*^ Avebury. but its 
barbs are not so long. An arrow-head with equally long barbs, but with 
the central tang of the same length as the barbs, was found in a dolmen 
in the Morbihan, and is in the Musee de St. Germain. 

Before proceeding to notice one or two Scottish specimens I must 
devote a short space to an exceptional form of arrow-head shown in 

" South Wilts," pi. xxii. p. 183. 
" South Wilts," pi. xxxiv. 
" South Wilts," pi. xxxiv. 

t " The Barrow Diggers," p. 7o, pi. ii. 
§ "The Barrow Diggers," pi. ii. 6. 
II Salisb. vol. of Arch. Inst., p. 94. 




Fig. 321.— Yorkshire 

Fig. 321. Like so many others, it is from the Yorkshire Moors, and was 
probably either barbed on both sides or intended to have been so. But 
one of the barbs having been broken off, possibly in the 
course of manufacture, the design has been modified, 
and the stump, so to speak, of the barb has been rounded 
off in a neat manner by surface -flaking on both faces. 
The one-barbed arrow-head thus resulting presents some 
analogies with several of the triangular form, such as 
Figs. 336 to 338, about to be described. 

Arrow-heads either accidentally lost before they were 
finished, or thrown away as " wasters," in consequence 
of having been spoilt in the making, are occasionally 
found. Examples, apparently of both classes, are 
shown in Figs, 322 and 323. The originals are in the 
collection of the Kev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A. Fig. 322, 
from Sherburn Wold, appears to have been completely finished, with the 
exception of the notch on one side of the central tang. The face not 

shown in the figure exhibits on the 
left side a considerable portion of 
the surface of the original flake, the 
edge of which has been neatly 
trimmed along the right side of the 
face here shown. The base has 
V, been chipped on both faces to a 
■, sharp hollow edge, in which one 
notch has been neatly worked to 
Figs. 322 and 323.-Yorkshiie Wolds. f^y.-^ the barb and one side of the 

stem. There is no apparent reason why the other notch should not 
have been formed, so that the probability is that the arrow-head was lost 
just before completion. In the other case the arrow-head, after being 
skilfully chipped on both faces into a triangular form, has had one of 
the notches worked in its base ; but in eflecting this the tool has been 
brought so near the centre of the head as to leave insufficient material 
for the tang, and the barb has also been broken ofi\ In this condition it 
appears to have been thrown away as a waster. 

Whether these views be correct or not, one deduction seems allowable, 
viz., that the barbed flint arrow-heads were, as a rule, finished at their 
points, and approximately brought into shape at their base, before the 
notches were worked to form the central tang and develop the barbs. 

I must now give a few examples of the stemmed and barbed flint 
arrow-heads found in Scotland, which, however, do not essentially differ 
in character from those of the more southern part of Britain. First 
among them I would place a remarkably fine specimen found in the Isle 
of Skye,''' which has already been published more than once. It is very 
acutely pointed, and expands at the base so as to give strength to the 
barbs, which are slightly curved inwards. From its size it may have 
served to point a javelin rather than an arrow. 

The edges of some of the Scottish arrows are sometimes neatly ser- 

* Wilson's " Preh. Ann. of Scot.," p. 127 (2nd ed. p. 182, pi. ii. 15). " Cat. Mus. 
Arch. Inst. Ed.," p. 6, fig. 9. For the loan of this block I urn indebted to Messrs. 
Macniillan and Co. 



rated. An example of this kiud is given in Fig, 325, from a specimen in 
the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh. It is formed of chalcedonic flint, 
and was found with others at Urquhart, Elgin. 

Fig. 325.— Ui-quliart. 

Fig. 324 Isle of Skye. 

Fig. 326.— Aberdeenshire. 

The original of Fig. 326 is in the Museum of the Societ}^ of Antiquaries 
of London, and was found in Aberdeenshire. Its sides (like those of 
some in the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh) are 
slightly ogival, so as to give sharpness to the point. /'K 

The sides of Fig. 327 are curved outwards. This arrow- 
head was found in Glenlivet, Banff, a district where ."%. 
arrow-heads are common, and is in the collection of '''&>, 
the Rev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A. „ ' ^^^ 

I have already mentioned the counties of Scotland 
in which " elf-bolts " are most abundantly found. I 
may now mention a few of the spots, and the characters 
of the specimens of this form. One much like Fig. 327, 
but wdth the barbs more pointed, is figured by Wilson,''' as well as 
* " Preh. Aun. of Scot.,"' vol. i p]. ii. 14. 



Fig. 327.— Glenlivet. 


another -'= like Fig. 305, found in a tumulus at Killearn, Stirlingshire. 
One from the Isle of Skye,f like Fig. 316, has been figured by the Society 
of Antiquaries of Scotland. Others, found with burnt bones in an urn 
deposited in a cairn in Banff', have been engraved by Pennant,]: and some 
from Lanarkshire are given in the Juarnal of the Arclucological Asso- 

Stemmed and barbed arrow-heads are recorded to have been found in 
Aberdeenshire at the following localities: — Mains of Auchmedden,|| 
Edenli and Bowiebank, King Edward; Forgue;*''' Kintore;ff Kil- 
drummy;|| Strathdoni;§ and Cruden;ll]| one 3 inches long and 2i 
inches wide, at Tarland,1i^ and a large number at Cloister-Seat Farm,''''''* 

In Banff, at Cullen of Buchan,fit Glen Avon, + Jt Alvah,§§§ Long- 
man, II 11 II and Macduff. 

In Elgin, at St. Andrew's, Lhanbryd,1i1I^ Urquhart, and elsewhere. 

In Forfershire, at Carmy Hie '''"''""'' and elsewhere. 

They have also been found near Gretna Green ff ft and Linton,]:]:]]: 
Peebles, and in numbers on Culbin Sandhills,§§§§ Morayshire, and Kil- 
learn, || II II II Stirlingshire. 

Other specimens, of which the form is not mentioned, were exhibited 
in the temporary Museum of the Archteological Institute at Edinburgh 
from the following localities : — Caithness, HITIi 11 Cruden, Cromar, Kinellar, 
Aberdeenshire ; Robgill, Ruthwell, Dumfriesshire ; Arbuthnot, Bervie, 
and Garvoch, Kincardineshire ; Braidwood and Carluke, Lanarkshire ; 
and Burgh-head, Wigtownshire. 

Others have been found at Elchies, Keilth, *'■'**'•' and Oldtown of 
Roseisle,f ft ft Morayshire ; Abernethy, ]:]:]: 1 1 Inverness; and at Mort- 
lach § § § § § and Lesmurdie, || || || || || Banff. 

In this place, also, it will be well to mention some of the discoveries 
of stemmed and barbed flint arrow-heads in England which have not 
already been cited. The following have been engraved : — One much like 
Fig. 303, found in the Kielder Burn,1[1l1i1i1i North Tyne ; one like Fig. 
327, found with burnt bones in an urn on Baildon Common, "'■"'''''**'•' 
Yorkshire ; another from Lake, Wilts.ff f f ff Others, like Figs. 312 and 
319, from the Green Low barrow, ]:]]:]:]: | Derbyshire ; one lilie Fig. 308, 

* " Preh. Ann. of Scot.," vol. i. p. 182. f Ace. of Inst., ^r., of S. A. Scot., p. 389. 

X " Tour in Scot.," vol. i. p. 156, pi. xxi. § Vol. xvii. p. 19. 

II P. 8. A., 2nd S., vol. iii. p. 19. H lb., 2nd S., vol. i. p. 20. 

** lb., 2nd S., vol. ii. p. 294. ff P. S. A. S., vol. vi. p. 208. 

II lb., vol. vi. p. 234, ^ lb., vol. iv. p. 54; vii. 105. 
III! lb., vol. viii. p. 10. HH lb., vol. vi. p. 89. 

*** lb., vol. iy. p. 54 ; v. 185. tl^t lb., vol. iv. p. 54 ; v. 13. 

III Arch. Journ., vol. x. p. 362. ^\\ Proc. Soc. Ant., 2nd S., vol. i. p. 20. 
mill p. S. A. S., vol. vi. p. 41. IfHH lb., vol. iii. p. 362. 

**** lb., vol. v. p. 326 ; iii. 438 ; viii. 50. fttt yireh. Scot., vol, iii. App. 135. 

XXXt P- '^- A. S., vol. iv. p. 55. §§§^^ lb., vol. iv. pp. 67, 377. 

lillllll Wilson's " Preb. Ann. of Scot.," vol. i. p. 182. 

U^lfli " Cat. Arcb. Inst. Mus. Ed.," pp. 11, 12, 14, 16, 17, 20. 

***** P. -S'. A., vol. iii. p. 224. ftttt ^- S. A. S., vol. iii. p. 490. 

XXXtX Geologist, vol. i. p. 163. ^§^^ P. S. A. 6'., vol. i. p. 42. 

Illlllllll lb., vol. i. pp. 67, 190. HHIi'llll Arch. Journ., vol. xvii. p. 60. 

****** Arch., vol. xxxi. p. 304. York vol. of Arch. Inst., p. 1. 

tttttt Hoare's " Soutb Wilts," pi. xxx. 

IXtXll Reliquary, vol. iii. p. 177. Cran. Brit., vol. ii. pi. 41, p. 3. 


from Hastings;" one like Fig. 307, found near urns, scrapers, &c., at 
Wavertree, near Liverpool;! some like Fig. 307, with ashes, at Carno,| 
Montgomeryshire; and several others from barrows in Wilts, § Dorset- 
shire, and Derbyshire. A considerable number of flint arrow-heads are 
engraved in a plate in the Transactions of the Historical Society of 
Lancashire and Cheshire. \\ They are, however, for the most part for- 
geries. Besides the discoveries recorded by Hoare and Bateman, and 
those made in Yorkshire, such arrow-heads are mentioned as having 
been found in the Thames; IT in the cemetery at Stanlake,*" Oxon ; 
at Horndean,tt Hants; and in large numbers in Derbyshire, especially 
on Middleton Moor. + t 

Arrow-heads, of which the form is not specified, have been found at 
Wangford,§§ Suftblk ; Clifle,|[i| near Carlebury, on the Yorkshire side of 
the Tees ; Priddy,"!^ Somerset ; Sutton Courtney,*** Berks ; Lingficld 
Mark Camp,f f t Surrey; near Ramsgate ; m Bigberry Hill,§§§ near 
Canterbury; Manton,j| j[ || Lincolnshire; Anstie Campli^H and Chart 
Park, Dorking. 

Besides specimens already cited, and many from the Yorkshire Wolds 
and Moors, there are in my collection stemmed and barbed arrow-heads 
from the following localities : — One much like Fig. 307, from Staunton, 
near Ixworth, Suffolk ; others from Lakenheath and Icklingham, in the 
same county ; from Brassington, Derbyshire, and Turkdean, Gloucester- 
shire, much like Fig. 308 ; one like Fig. 327, from Abingdon ; and one 
from St. Agnes, Truro, of the same form as Fig. 317, but not so 
delicately worked ; and others from Wicken and Reach Fens. 

In the British Museum is a stemmed and barbed arrow-head, rather 
more curved at the sides than Fig. 307, found at Hoxne, Suffolk. Another 
of the same class, from Necton, Norfolk, is in the Norwich Museum, 
together with a smaller specimen like Fig. 308, from Attleborough. Li 
the Cambridge Antiquarian Society's Museum is one like Fig. 306, but 
with one of the barbs square-ended. It is 2| inches long and 1^ inches 
wide, and very thin, and was found in Burwell Fen. Another like it, 
but 2^ inches long, was found near Aldreth, Cambs., and is in the 
collection of the Rev. S. Banks. The Rev. W. Greenwell has one of 
somewhat similar character, but narrower, from Barton Mills, Suffolk ; 
and the Rev. C. R. Manning found one like Fig. 311 on a tumulus near 
Grime's Graves, Norfolk. One of the same class is in the Penzance 
Museum ; and Mr. Spence Bate, F.R.S., has shown me a broken one like 
Fig. 308, found under six feet of peat at Prince Town, Dartmoor, where 
also a leaf-shaped arrow-head was found. Prof. Buckman has one much like 

* Sus. Arch. Coll., vol. xiii. p. 309. 

t 2'r. Hist. Soc. Lane, and Chesh., N. S., vol. viii. p. 131. 

X Arch. Camb., 3r(i S., vol. iii. p. 303. 

§ Hoare's "South Wilts," the "Barrow Diggers," Bateman's "Vestiges," Arch. 
vol. XXX. p. 333. 

II Vol. xiv. pi. iii. H Proc. Soc. Ant., 2nd S., vol. i. p. 64. 

** Arch., vol. xxx\di. p. 369. ft Arch. Joiirfi., vol. xx. p. 372. 

XX Bateman's Cat., 47, f^ se^?. See also ih.e York, Norwich, atid Li)icoln volumes of 
the Arch. Inst. 

§§ Arch. Joiirn., vol. x. p. 354. |||| lb., vol. xiv. p. 79. 

illT lb., vol. x\'i. p. 151. *** Arch. Assoc, journ., vol. i. p. 309. 

ttt Trans. Arch. Assoc, at Glouc, p. 94. XXX -^' -^- -^v vol. iv. p. 152. 

§^S^ lb., vol. xviii. p. 272. |||||| lb., vol. iv. p. 396. fHH Arch., vol. ix. p. 100. 


Fig. 327, found at Barwick, Somersetshire. One like Fig. 309, from Milton, 
near Pewsey, Wilts, is in the collection of Mr. W. H. Penning, F.G.S. 
Mr. Durden has one rather smaller than Fig. 308, from the neighbourhood 
of Blaudford. I have seen them both stemmed and barbed, and leaf- 
shaped, found near Bournemouth. Sir John Lubbock has one with 
square-ended stem, and barbs separated from it by a very narrow notch, 
found at Shrub Hill, Feltwell, Norfolk ; and numerous specimens exist in 
other collections. 

Before entering into the circumstances under which flint arrow-heads 
have been discovered, it Avill be well to describe the remaining class — 
the triangular. Some of these difier only from those last described in 
the absence of the central stem. Although this form is very common in 
Ireland and in Scandinavia, it occurs but rarely in Britain. The arrow- 
head shown in Fig. 328 was found near Icklingham, Sufiblk, and was 
kindly lent me for engraving by Mr. H. Prigg, of Bury St. Edmunds. 
Messrs. Mortimer possess a very similar specimen from the Yorkshire 
Wolds near Fimber. One has also been figured by Mr. C. Monkman ''' 
as from Yorkshire. An arrow-head from Forfarshire, and one or two 
others of this type, are in the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh. 

Fig. 328.— Icklingham. Fig. 329.— Laiiydale End. Fig. 330.— Aniotherby. 

A beautiful specimen of another double-barbed triangular form is 
shown in Fig. 329. It was found at Langdale End, on the Mooi's of 
the North Riding of Yorkshire, and is in the collection of the Rev. W. 
Greenwell, F.S.A. It has been surface-chipped over part of one face, 
but on the other it still shows the central ridge of the flake from 
which it was made. The sides are neatly serrated. 

Fig. 330 represents a broader and less distinctly barbed form. The 
original was found at Amotherby, near Malton, and is chipped over both 
faces. I have another longer specimen from Sherburn, the base of which 
is less indented. Allied to this longer form, but having the sides more 
curved, is that shown in Fig. 331. The original was found by the Rev. 
W. Greenwell, F.S.A. , in one of the barrows examined by him at 
Weaverthorpe, Yorkshire. Varieties of this form, with the sides more or 
less straight, are of not unfrequent occurrence in Yorkshire. 

The more perfectly triangular form shown in Fig. 332 is of rare 
occurrence. This arrow-head was found near Lakenheath, Suftblk, and 
is now in Mr. Grecnwell's collection. It is neatly chipped over both 
faces, which are equally convex. Some arrow-heads of the same shape 
from Guelderland are in the Christy Collection. 

* Yorksh. jlrch. cmd To}:). Joiirn., 18G8, fiy. .0. 



In many instances rude triangular arrow-heads have been formed 
from flakes and splinters of flint, which were evidently selected as 
being nearly of the desired form, and were brought into shape by 
the least possible amount of subsequent chipping. The secondary 

Fig. ii31.— ^\ eavertliuii'c. Fjg. 3^2.— Lakenheatli. Fig. 333.— Yorkshire Wolds. 

working on Fig. 333 nowhere extends back so much as an eighth of an 
inch from the edges, and the bulb of percussion of the splinter of flint 
from which it was made is at the right-hand angle of the base, but 
not on the face here figured. 

In Fig. 33J: the bulb is at the back of the left-hand angle, but this 
specimen is much thicker, and shows a considerable amount of skilful 
chipping on both faces. The angle at the bulb is rounded, while on the 
opposite side of the base it is somewhat curved downwards, so as to 
form a kind of barb. This obliquity of the base is more apparent in 
Fig. 335, though the barb is less pronounced. The flat face of the 

Fig. 334.— Yorkshire Wolds. 

Fig. 335. — Yorkshire Wolds. 

original flake is in this instance left nearlj- untouched, but the ridged side 
has been neatly wrought by removing a series of minute parallel flakes. 
This form occurs in Ireland,* and has been regarded as rather a knife 
than an arrow-head. I have seen an arrow-head of much the same form 
found at Bournemouth. 

The character of surface-flaking observable in Figs. 835, 836, and 387, 
is almost peculiar to Yorkshire ; and one of the most beautiful examples 

* Wilde, " Cat. Mus. R. I. A.," p. 15, fig. 7. 


that I have seen of it is on the arrow-head engraved as Fig. 336, which 
was found by Mr. E. Tindall on Northdale Farm, Grindale, BridUngton. 
The ripple-hke flaking extends over nearly two-thirds of one face, the 
remainder of which is a flat portion of the original surface of the flake 
from which the arrow-head was made. On the other face a rather larger 
portion of the original surface is left, but the surface-chipping, though 
neat, is not of this regular character. The base is chipped on both faces, 
so as to leave a sharp edge with a delicate projecting barb at one angle 
only. The other angle is perfect, and has never been continued so as 
to form a barb. I have fragments of other arrow-heads of the same 
kind, from the same neighbourhood, and on some the fluting along the 
base is as regular as that on the side, and the two series of narrow 
shallow grooves " mitre " together with great accuracy. I have arrow- 
heads of the same general form and character from the neighbourhood 
of Icklingham, Suftblk ; and Mr. Greenwell has a small and elegant 
example from Lakenheath ; but they are devoid of the parallel flaking, 
as are also some of the Yorkshire specimens. Mr. J. F. Lucas, however 

Fig. 336.— Bridlingtuii. Fip;. 337.— Bridlington. 

has an arrow-head of this form, and with the fluted chipping, from Middleton 
Moor, Derbyshire. Such regular fluting can, I think, only have been 
produced by pressure, probably with a pointed instrument of stag's-horn, 
as before described. It comes nearer in character to the wonderful 
"ripple-mark flaking" on some of the Danish daggex's or lance-heads 
than the workmanship of any other British specimens. 

The same style of work is observable on another arrow-head, Fig. 837, 
found by Mr. Tindall on the same farm, though it is not of equal delicacy. 
In this case, however, the flaking extends along 1)oth sides, and the two 
series meet in the middle of the face, where but a very small portion of 
the original surface of the flake is visible. The face, not shown, is 
chipped in the same manner, but less neatly. One of the angles at the 
base has unfortunately been broken off", but there is no appearance of 
there having been more than one barb. 

More rudely executed arrow-heads, with a long projecting wing or 



barb at one of the angles of the base, are of common occurrence in 
Yorkshire. They usually retain a considerable portion of the surface of 
the flakes from which they have been manufactured. 

An unusually well-finished specimen of this class is engraved as 
Fig. 838. It was found in the neighbourhood of Fimber, Yorkshire, and 
is in the collection of Messrs. Mortimer, who have kindly allowed me to 
figure it. It has been made from an external flake, as there is a portion 
of the crust of the flint visible on one of the faces, both of which are 
neatly chipped. It is barbed at both angles of the base, though the 
projection is far longer and more curved on the one side than on the 
other. In most instances, however, there can hardly be said to be any 
barb at ail at one of the angles. 

The form with the long single barb appears to be common on the 
Derbyshire Moors. In one instance a rectangular notch has been worked 
in the curved side, with what object it is hard to say. This specimen, 

Fig. 338.— Fimber. 

Fig. 339.— Hungry Beiitley. 

Fig. 340.— Caithness. 

shown in Fig. 339, was found in a barrow at Hungry Bentley, Derby- 
shire, by Mr. J. F. Lucas, in whose collection it is preserved. It had 
been buried together with a jet ornament and beads, subsequently 
described, in an urn containing burnt bones. 

The single-wunged form is of rare occurrence in Scotland, but what 
appears to be an arrow-head of this kind, from Caithness,''' has been 
engraved by the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, and the cut is here, 
by their kindness, reproduced. Another from Urquhart is in the Edin- 
burgh Museum. The same form is found in rather greater abundance 
in the North of Ireland. A somewhat analogous shape from Italy has 
been figured by Dr. C. Kosa.-j- 

The varieties hei'e engraved of single-barbed triangular arrow-heads 
are, I think, enough to establish them as a distinct class, though I am 
not aware of their having been observed among the antiquities of any 
other country than the United Kingdom, nor among modern savages. 
Many of the early bone harpoons, as well as of those in use among the 

* P. S. A. S., vol. vii. p. 500. 

t Archu-io per VAntroj)., kc, vol. i. pi. xii. IG. 




\P. XVI. 

Esquimaux, are barbed along one side only ; and some of the Persian 
iron arrow-heads, as well as those of the Mandingoes '" and of some South 
American tribes, are also single-barbed. The same is the case with some 
arrow-heads of iron belonging to the Merovingian period.! 

Another form of triangular arrow-head is round instead of hollow at 
the base, and bears an affinity with the leaf- shaped rather than the barbed 
variety. One of these, from the neighbourhood of Lakenheath, in the 
collection of the Eev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A., is shown in Fig. 341. It is 
surface- chij)ped on both faces. 

The chisel-ended form in use among the ancient Egyptians has 
already been mentioned, and a specimen engraved in Fig. 272. 
Flints chipped to the same form occur in Britain, and probably 
served the same purpose. 

In Fig. 342 is shown what appears to be a large arrow-head of 

Atn ' 


Fig. 341. — Lakenheath. 

Fig. 342.— Urqiihart. 

the chisel-ended type, which was found at Urquhart, Elgin, and 
is in the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh. The edge is formed 
by the sharp side of a flake, and the sharp angles at the two 
sides of the arrow-head have been removed by chipping, pro- 
bably to prevent their cutting the ligaments that attached it to 
the shaft. I have no doubt the form will be recognized in other 
parts of Britain. A small specimen from Suffolk has, indeed, 
been recently added to the Christy Collection ; and Mr. Greenwell 
informs me he has others from Yorkshire. It is questionable 
whether the Yorkshire specimens, like Fig. 231, ought not also 
to have been classed as arrow-heads. 

A similar form to Fig. 342 occurs in France. In one of the 
dolmens on the plateau of Thorns, near Poitiers, I found a small 

* Wood, " Nat. Hist, of Man," vol. i. p. G79. 
f An7i. de la Soc. ArcJi. de JVamur, 1850, pi. ii. 9. 


cliisel-ended wrought flint, closely resembling tlie Egyptian arrow- 
heads ; and I have observed in the collection of the Rev. W. C. 
Lnkis, r.S.A., others of the same form from chambered tumuli in 
Brittany. They have been discovered with ancient interments in 
other parts of France,* and I have specimens found on the surface 
of the soil near Pontlevoy, and given me by the Abbe Bourgeois. 

One from St. Clement's, Jersey, is in the British Museum. 

Two arrow-heads of this class, fovmd in Denmark, have been 
engraved by Madsen ; t one of them, to which I shall again refer, 
still attached to a portion of its shaft. 

Nilsson + has also engraved some specimens of this form found 
in Scandinavia. A considerable number of them Avere found at 
Lindorma-backen in Scania, § some of which, by the kindness of 
Mr. Hans Hildebrand, of Stockholm, are in my collection. I have 
also specimens from Denmark. There are others from the same 
countries in the Christy Collection, where is also an example of the 
same form from Southern Italy. In Col. A. Lane Fox's collection 
are some Persian arrows with chisel-edged tips of iron. Crescent- 
like il arrow-heads or bolt-heads, with a broad hollowed edge, Avere 
used in hunting in the IMiddle Ages, and some are preserved in 
museums. The Emperor Commodus H is related to have shown his 
skill in archery by beheading the ostrich when at fiill speed with 
crescent-headed arrows. 

There still remains to be noticed another form of triangular 
arrow-head, of which, however, I have never had the opportunity 
of seeing a specimen. It has a notch on either side near the base, 
which is slightly hollowed, and in general form closely resembles a 
common type of North American arrow-heads. A specimen of this 
form, said to have been found at Hamden Hill,** near Ilchester, 
has been engraved. Another, described as of much the same 
shape, was fomid in a barrow in Eookdale, Yorkshire. ft A broken 
specimen, with the base flat instead of hollowed, and foimd in 
Ijanarkshire,++ has also been figured. 

I am not, however, satisfied that this triangular form, -vAith 
notches in the sides, is a really British type, though lance-heads 
notched in this manner have been found in France. 

* Rev. Arch., vol. xv. p. 367. t " Afbild.," pi. xxii. 18, 19. 

X " Stone Age," pi. ii. 36, 37- 

§ " Antiq. Tidskr. fiir Sverige," vol. iii. fig. 3. 

II Airh. Journ., vol. ix. p. 118. Lee's " Isca Silurum," p. 112. 

^ Herodiar, lib. i. c. 15. ** Arch. Jotcrn., vol. x. p. 247. 

ft Arch. Journ., vol. x. p. 69. 4+ Arch. Assoc. Journ., vol. xvii. p. 19. 

A A 


Having now described the principal types of arrow-heads found 
in Britain, it will be well to notice some of the circumstances of 
their discovery in barrows and with interments, which throw light 
on the manners and the stage of civilization of those who used them. 

I am not aware of any well-established discovery of flint arrow- 
heads in this country in association with iron weapons, and cer- 
tainly such a mixture of materials would require careful sifting 
of evidence to establish it. And yet we can readily conceive con- 
ditions mider which flint arrow-heads might be present in Saxon 
graves, either from their having been dug in barrows of an earlier 
period, in which case a flint arrow-head might readily be present 
in the soil with which the grave was filled ; or from the occupant 
of the tomb having carried an "elf-bolt " as a charm, or even as the 
flint for his briquet a feu. In the Frankish cemetery of Samson,* 
near Namur, a broken flint arrow-head, almost of a lozenge form, 
accompanied a human skeleton with an iron sword and a lance ; 
and another stemmed arrow-head (now in the Namur Museum) was 
found in the soil. Even in modern times flint arrow-heads have 
served for this fire-producing purpose. The Earl of Enniskillen 
informs me that with flint-guns and muskets in Ireland the gun- 
flint was, and, indeed, is, frequently neither more nor less than an 
" elf-bolt," often but slightly modified in form. 

The occurrence in Northern Italy of a flint arrow-head, in com- 
pany with ten of the degenerate imitations of the gold coin of 
Philip II. of Macedon, known by the Germans as Regenbogen- 
schiisseln, recorded by Promis,t may also have been accidental. I 
have in my own collection a stone celt which is said to have been 
found with a hoard of Anglo-Saxon coins of the tenth century in 
Ireland, + but which can hardly be regarded as contemporaneous 
with them. There are, however, as I have already observed, 
many well-attested instances in which flint arrow-heads have 
been discovered in this and other countries in true association 
with weapons of bronze. Sir R. Colt Hoare records several such 
in his examination of the barrows of South "Wilts. In one near 
Woodyates§ a skeleton in a contracted position was buried with a 
bronze dagger and pin or awl, a jet button and piilley-like orna- 
ment, four arrow-heads (one of them engraved as Fig. 320), and 
" some pieces of flint, chipped and prepared for similar weapons ; 

* An)i. de la Soc. Arch, de Namur, 1859, p. 361. 

t "Berliner Blatter," vol. iii. p. 172. 

X Num. Chron., N. S., vol. iii. p. -51. § " South Wilts," p. 239. . 


ill another bowl-shaped barrow at Wilsford an interment of burnt 
bones was accompanied by a small bronze dagger, some whetstones, 
and instruments formed of stag's horn, an arrow-head of flint, and 
another in an unfinished condition." 

It is stated in the Arcluvologia* that with the well-known 
interment in the hollowed oak trunk found in the Gristhorpe 
tumulus, near Scarborough, were " a brass and a flint spear-head 
and flint arrow-heads," &c. The flints t were, however, in this 
instance, merely flakes, and the "spear-head " a bronze dagger. 

In Borther Low,+ near Middleton, Derbyshire, JNIr. Bateman 
found by the side of a skeleton a flint arrow-head, a pair of canine 
teeth of fox or dog, and a diminutive bronze celt ; and in a barrow 
on Roundway IIill,§ North Wilts, a barbed flint arrow-head, like 
Fig. 327, was found close to the skull of a skeleton in a contracted 
posture, with a tanged bronze dagger at its left hand. Another 
bronze fragment, and a small plate of chlorite slate engraved as 
Fig. 355, were found at the same time. Similar plates, as well 
as flint arrow-heads, accompanied the skeleton at Tring Grove, || 
Herts, and an interment at Cruden, Aberdeen.^ 

A stemmed and barbed arrow-head of calcined flint was found 
in one of the urns containing burnt bones in the cemetery at 
Stanlake,** Oxfordshire. In another urn was a spiral finger-ring 
of bronze, the only fragment of metal brought to light during the 

Flint arrow-heads have been so frequently found in barrows 
containing both burnt and unburnt interments, and in company 
with other implements of stone and with pottery, that it seems 
needless to adduce all the recorded instances of such discoveries. 
I give a few references below. ft 

The stemmed and barbed variety is of the most common occur- 
rence in tumuli ; but, as has already been shown, one leaf-shaped 
form appears to be, to some extent, peculiar to a class of long- 
barrows, though the stemmed and barbed, J+ lozenge and 

* Vol. XXX. p. 460. t See Cran. Brit., pi. 52, p. 2. 

X "Vest, of the Ant. of Derbysh.," p. 48. 

\ Cran. Brit., vol. ii. pi. 42, p. 3. Wilts Arch, and N. H. Mar/., vol. iii. p. 185. 

II Arch., vol. viii. p. 429 ; supra, p. 342. 

II " Cat. Arch. Inst. Mus. Ed.," p. 11. Wilson, "Preli. Ann.," vol. i. p. 224. 

** Arch., vol. xxxvii. p. 369. 

ff Arch. Journ., vol. xvi. p. 151 ; xxii. p. 249. "Ten Years' Diggings," pp. 60, 
95, 96, 116, 127, 148, 167, &c. Arch. Assoc. Journ., vol. iv. p. 103 ; \'ii.'p. 215. Arch., 
vol. xxxi. p. 304. Salisb. vol. Arch. Inst., ■^^. 94 — 105. Hoare's "South Wilts," 
pp. 182—211. 

XX "Ten Years' Dig.," p. 223. Arch. Assoc. Journ., vol. iv. p. 103. 

A A 2 


leaf-shaped forms liave been found in the soil of the same 

In several instances stemmed and barbed arrow-heads have been 
found with skeletons, accompanied also by the finely chipped leaf- 
shaped knife-daggers of flint. In Green Low,* Alsop Moor, 
Derbyshire, the dagger-blade lay behind the shoulders, and three 
arrow-heads behind the back; in one near Scarborough f "two 
beautifully formed knives and spear-heads of flint," and four 
flint celts, accompanied " beautifully formed arrow-heads of 
flint;" and the dagger (Fig. 264) appears to have been found in 
the same barrow as the arrow-heads, on Lamborne Down. 

Occasionally arrow-heads are found in the " drinking-cups " 
accompanying the skeleton, as in Mouse Low, + Staffordshire. 

It remains for me to say a few words as to the points of differ- 
ence and resemblance between the arrow-heads of Britain and 
those of other countries, and also as to the method of shafting in 
use in ancient times. 

In comparing the arrow-heads of Great Britain with those of 
what is now the sister kingdom of Ireland, we cannot but be 
struck, in the first place, with the far greater abundance found in 
Ireland, especially in its northern parts. How far this is due to 
their use having come down into later times, and how far to the 
character of the country, it is difficult to say. It is, however, 
e\ident that over so large an area of morass and bog, the number 
of arrows lost in the chase during a long series of years must 
have been enormous ; that when once lost they would be preserved 
uninjured, and remain undiscovered until the operations of drain- 
ing and obtaining peat for fuel again brought them to light ; and 
further, that the former of these operations has only been carried 
on to a large extent within the last few years, while the latter has 
also in all probability increased. On hard and stony soil, on the 
contrary, even assuming an originally equal abundance of arrow- 
heads, agricultural operations, after being carried on for a few cen- 
turies, would infallibly destroy a large niimbcr of them, and what 
were left would not be so instantly apparent to the eye as those in 
a peaty soil, and would consequently be found in fcAver numbers. 
Even on land but recently enclosed, and where arrow-heads and 
worked flints may exist in abundance, unless some unusual induce- 
ment is offered, they remain imnoticcd by the farm-labourers, and it 

* " Vest. Ant. Dorb.," p. 59. Cran. Brit., vol. ii. pi. 41, p. 3. 

t A. A. J., vol. jv. p. 105. X " T. Y. D.," p. 116. A. A /., vol. vii. p. 215. 


is only owing to tlie diligence of local collectors that such, numbers 
have been found on the Yorkshire Wolds, the Derbyshire Moors, 
and in parts of Suffolk which are unenclosed. There seems, how- 
ever, either from the character of the game pursued, or from some 
different customs of the early occupants of the country, to have 
been a far greater production of arrow-heads in these districts than 
in some other parts of Britain ; such, for instance, as the Sussex 
Downs,* where, on land but recently enclosed, almost innumerable 
flakes, scrapers, and other instruments of flint may be found, but 
where I have hitherto never succeeded in finding a single arrow- 
point. It is possible that in some districts bone may have been 
preferred to stone. 

Apart from this greater general abundance in Ireland, there is 
a far greater relative abundance of some particular forms, espe- 
cially of the barbed triangular arrow-heads without a central stem, 
and of the elongated form with the stem and barbs. Lozenge- 
shaped arrow-heads are also more frequent, and some of the 
varieties of this form do not appear to occur in Britain. As a 
rule, Irish arrow-heads are also of larger size than the British. 

In France, flint arrow-heads are at least as rare, if not rarer, 
than in England. In some of the dolmens of Brittany explored 
by the Rev. W. C. Lukis, r.S.A.,t he has fovmd them both leaf- 
shaped, and stemmed and barbed. Among the latter there arc 
some of extremely neat workmanship, and closely resembling in 
form Fig. 312. I have seen the same form from the Cotes du Nord. 
It is to be remarked, as exemplifying the difficulty of finding such 
objects by incompetent observers, that whereas the Societe Poly- 
mathique du Morbihan has succeeded in finding two only, after 
fifteen years' labour, Mr. Lukis has found at least twelve in less 
than a quarter of the time. The more common French form is 
like Fig. 311, but with both stem and barb rather longer, and the 
sides straighter. Specimens have been engraved from the neigh- 
bourhood of Londinieres, + from a dolmen at Villaigre, Poitou ; § a 
Lake-habitation atLaPerusell (Charente) ; the Valley of the Sa6ne,1[ 
the Department of the Aisne,** and the Camp de Chassey.ff 

* Dr. Mantell, however, found ca flint arrow-head in a barrow near Lewes. York 
vol. of Arch. Inst., p. 1. t Arch. Assoc. Jonrn., vol. xxiv. p. 40. 

X Cochet, " Seine Inferieure," 2nd ed., p. 528. 
§ "Epoques Antedil. et Celt, du Poitou," p. 102, pi. iv. his, 3, 4, 5. 
II De Rochebrune, "Mem. sur les Restes d' Industrie," &c., pi. x. 8, 9. 
If Chantre, "Etudes Paleoethn.," pi. xiii. 7. 
** Watelet, " L'Age de Pierre," &c., pi. iv. 2. 
tt Pen-ault, "Note sur un Foyer," &c., Chulon, 1870, \A. ii. 


I have several tanged and stemmed and barbed arrow-beads from 
Poitou, as well as some of triangular form, botb witb a segmental 
base and witb barbs. I bave also leaf-sbaped, lozenge-sbaped, 
and tanged and barbed examples from the neighbourhood of 
Clermont Ferrand. Twenty-two of the latter form were found 
together, in company with a bronze dagger, in a cist in Brittany.* 

Another common variety is stemmed, and but very slightly 
barbed. Some of these approximate in form to a lozenge, with 
two of its sides curved inwards. Specimens from the dolmen of 
Bernact (Charente),theGrotte de St. Jeand'Alcas,+ and Argenteuil 
(Seine et Oise),§ and the dolmens of Taurine, Pilande, and des 
Oostes (Aveyron), maybe cited. In several of the latter both leaf- 
shaped and lozenge-shaped specimens were also found. Many are 
neatly serrated at the edges, sometimes so as to form a sort of 
regular pattern, with only two or three projections on each of the 
sides. Leaf-shaped and stemmed arrows without barbs, from 
Hasledon and Yvoir, are in the Museum at Namur, in Belgium. 

The same varieties, as well as some triangular arrow-heads, 
occurred in the Camp de Chassey : II some of them are barbed with- 
out having the central tang. 

A large arrow-head from the dolmen of Bornac, with pointed 
barbs, has a strongly dovetailed central stem. I have seen other 
much more elongated javelin-heads, four and five inches long, and 
an inch or inch and a quarter broad, with similar tangs, but with- 
out barbs, the tang being formed by notches on either side at the 
base, as is the case with so many North American specimens, 
which these resemble in form. They were found at Corente, in 
Auvergne, and are in the collection of M. Aymard at Le Puy, 
where is also a leaf- shaped arrow-head with side notches, from 
Clermont. Another of the same kind, 4 inches long, with a 
more dovetail-like tang and better-developed barbs, has been found 
near Laon.H Others of smaller size were found in the Grotte des 
Morts, Durfort (Gard).** 

A somewhat similar form has occurred among the Lake-habita- 
tions of the Ueberlinger 

A type much like Fig. 314 also occurs in the Lake-habitations of 

* Rei\ Arch., vol. xx. p. 359. f I^c Rochebrune, pi. xiii. 2. 

X p. Cazalis de Fondouce, "La Pierre j)olio dans I'Aveyron," pi. i. 9 and 10; 
pi. iv. 2, 3, &c. Trans. Preh. Cong., 18G7, p. 189; 1868, p. 351. Mortillct, 
" Matcriaux," vol. ii. p. 146 ; vol. iii. p. 231. 

^ Jicv. Arch., vol. xv. p. 364. || " Maloiiaiix," vol. v. p. 395. Pcrrault, 02). cit. 

i[ Watelet, "Ago de Pierre dans le Dept. do rAiHiio," ])1. iv. 4. 

** " Matcriaux," vol. v. p. 249. ft In the Wossenborgische Sammlung, Constance. 


Switzerland,* where, as miglit have been expected, a large number of 
stone arrow-heads have been found. Some few of them are stemmed 
and barbed, much like Fig-. 311, but with the tang and barbs rather 
longer and sharper. More of them are tanged only, or but slightly 
barbed, and in many the tang has so slight a shoulder that the 
outline is almost, and in some quite, lozenge-shaped. The most 
common form, however, appears to be the triangular, with the 
sides slightly curved outwards, and the base flat, or even slightly 
rounded outwards. Many are a little hollowed at the base, so 
much so, in some cases, as to be distinctly barbed. At Nussdorf 
one arrow-head was formed of serpentine, and another of trans- 
lucent quartz. One or two specimens are of bone. 

In the Lake-dwellings of Northern Italy, t as, for instance, at 
Mercurago, near Arena, and Cumarola, near Modena, the tanged 
arrows prevail, though leaf and lozenge- shaped also occur. The 
same is the case in the South, Avhere numerous discoveries of 
arrow-heads have been recorded by Nicolucci.+ At Cumarola § 
some skeletons vrere found interred with flint arrow-heads and 
weapons of stone, in company with others of copper and bronze. 

In the Yalley of the Vibrata,|| in the Abruzzo, Dr. C. Rosa has 
found numerous arrow-heads, principally stemmed and barbed, 
but some also triangular and leaf-shaped. One specimen appears 
to be barbed on one side only, and a lance-head has a notch on 
each side near the base, like those from Auvergne. 

In the Lake of Varese,^ where the site of a manufactory of 
arrow-heads was discovered by Captain Angelucci, the principal 
forms were leaf-shaped, and with a pointed tang and barbs. A 
fine specimen like Fig. 302, but rather longer, was found near 
Ci\dta Nova** (Piceno). A long leaf-shaped arrow from Italy is 
engraved by Lindenschmit,tt as well as a tanged form without 
barbs. The latter form occurs in the Isle of Elba.++ I have a 
series of ten, from near Bergamo, all of which are tanged, but only 

* Keller's " Pfahlbauten," jij«ss»«. Desor's " Palafittes," p. 17- Troyon, " Hab. 
Lac," pi. V. 

t Keller, oj). cit., 4ter Bar. Taf. i. and ii. Strobel, Avanzi Freromani, Parma, 
1863, 1864. 

X "DiAlcune Armi ed Utensile in Pietra." Atti delle B. Accad. delle Scicnze, 
Napoli, 1863 and 1867. 

'5 Gastaldi, " Lake Habs. in Italy," p. 7. Nuovi C'eiuii, &c., Torino, 1862, p. 10. 
Mem. Ace. R. dl f>c. di Torino, vol. x'x^•i. (1869). 

II Archivio per V Antropol, &c., vol. i. p. 457. 

If Mortillet, " Materiaux," vol. ii. p. 87. " Promenades," p. 152. 

** Mortillet, op. cit., p. 89. 

tt " Alterth.uns.heid.Vorz.," vol.i. Heft vi. pi. i. 9. " Ilohenz.Samml.," Taf.xIIii. 

iX Mortillet, " Mat.," vol. iii. p. 319. 


one distinctly barbed. Tbe stone arrow-lieads frequently cited as 
having been found on the plains of Marathon * appear to be only 
flakes, t 

In a dolmen in Andalusia, + a broken arrow-head of flint, with 
pointed stem and barbs, was found ; and as the fragment is en- 
graved by Don Manuel de Gongora y Martinez as the head of a 
three-pointed dart, it appears that the form is not common in 

Returning northwards, I may cite a small series of flint arrow- 
heads in my collection, found near Luxembourg, where they appear 
to be not uncommon. They present the following forms : leaf- 
shaped, tanged, tanged and barbed, triangular with a straight 
base, and the same with barbs. 

Numerous arrow-heads of flint have also been found in Guel- 
derland, and a collection of them is to be seen in the Leydeu 
Museum. Some are also in the Christy Collection. The most 
common forms are triangular, with barbs, or with a somewhat 
rounded base, and stemmed and barbed. Leaf- shaped and tanged 
arrow-heads appear to be rarer. Some scarce triangular forms 
are equilateral, and others long and somewhat expanding at 
the base. 

In Central and Southern Germany, flint arrow-heads appear to be 
scarce. Lindenschmit § engraves specimens, like Figs. 311 and 327, 
from the Rhine and Oldenburg, and a tanged arrow-head of ser- 
pentine from Inzighofen, near Sigmaringen, on the Danube. || 
Lisch also engraves a few specimens from North Germany,^! 
which resemble the Scandinavian in character. Near Egenburg,** 
in Lower Austria, a considerable number have been found. Some 
Austrian ft arrow-heads are barbed, but without the central tang. 

Considering the wonderful abundance of flint implements in 
Denmark and Southern Sweden, it is not a little singular that 
arrow-heads should be there comparatively so rare. The leaf- 
shaped form is extremely scarce, but a triangular form, resembling 
the leaf-shaped in all respects but in having a rounded notch at 
the base in lieu of a rounded end, is more common. Stemmed and 

* Dodwcl], "Class. Tour in Greece," vol. ii. ji. 159. Leake, "Donii of Attica," 
p. 100. 

t F. Lenormant in Rev. Arch., vol. xv. p. HG. 

X " Antigiicdiides Prehistoricas do Andalusia," p. 101. 

\ " Alterth. u. h. Vorzeit," vol. i. Heft vi. pi. i. " Uohenz. Samml.," Taf. xliii. 17. 

II "Hoheiiz. Saminl.," Taf. xliii. 25. II Firdcrico-Fraiicisceiim, 1837, tab. xxvii. 

** Von Sackeu, " GraLfeld von Ilalstatt," p. 3«. 

ft Kenncr, A)xh. Funde. i. d. Oeslerr. Mon., 18G7, p- 41. 


barbed arrow-beads are also very scarce, and those merely tanged 
are usually flakes simply trimmed at tbe edges, with tbe exception 
of tbose of equilateral triangvilar section, wbicb are peculiar to 
Scandinavia. The lozenge shape appears to be unknown ; and by 
far the greater number of arrow-heads are of the triangular form, 
sometimes but slightly, if at all, hollowed at the base, though 
usually furnished with long projecting wings or barbs. Occa- 
sionally the notch between the barbs is square, and the ends of 
the barbs worked at an angle of about 45*^, like Fig. 319, without 
the central stem. In some rare instances the barbs curve outwards 
at the points, gi^ang an ogee form to the sides. In others the 
barbs curve inwards. In many the sides are delicately serrated, 
and in most the workmanship is admirable. What appear to be 
lance-heads are sometimes notched on either side near the base, 
like the common North American forfn, and like those already 
mentioned as occurring occasionally in France.* 

In Norway,! and more rarely in Sweden, + stemmed and acutely 
barbed arrow and lance-heads, made of hard slate ground on the 
surface, are occasionally found. Knives of the same material also 
occur. They much resemble some of those from Greenland. 

Triangular arrow-heads of flint, more or less excavated at the 
base like those from Scandinavia, are also sometimes found in Russia. 
Specimens from Ekaterinoslav in the south, and Olonetz in the 
north, were exhibited at Paris in 1867. Others from Archangel 
approach more nearly to the North American form. 

In Northern Africa but few arrow-heads have been discovered, 
but both the leaf-shaped and tanged and barbed forms have been 
found in the dolmens of Algeria.^ 

But little is at present known of the stone antiquities of a great 
part of Asia ; bvit an arrow-head from India || is in the possession 
of Prof. Buckman, who has obligingly furnished me with a sketch 
of it. It is acutely pointed, about 2^ inches long, and tanged and 
barbed, though the barbs are now broken off. Mr. Bauerman, 
F.G.S., found at Ghenneh, in Wady Sireh, Sinai, a flint arrow-head, 
neatly chipped on both faces, of a very peculiar form, being leaf- 
shaped, with a tang attached. It is in all nearly 2 inches long, 

* Conf. Madsen's " Afbildninger," pi. xxxvii. and xxxix. Worsaae, "Nord. 
Oldsager," fig. 69, ct seqq. Nilsson's " Stone Age," j)!. iii. and v. Antiq. TidskriJ't 
for Sveri(je, 1864, pi. xxiii. 

t Foreni)igen til Norske Fortidsmindcsmerkcrs Bevcn-'uig, Aarsbcr., 1867, pi. i- ; 1868, 
pi. iii. 8. 

X Nilsson, " Stone Age," pi. iii. 59. 

§ Bonstetten, " Essai sur les Dolmens," pi. iv. || Arch. Assoc. Joxir., vol. xvii. p. 74. 


of whicli tlie leaf-shaped part occupies about 1| inclies, and the 
slender tang or stalk the other ^ inch. It lay in a tomb * with a 
lance-head of flint, a bracelet of copper, and a necklace of spiral 
shells. A very similar arrow-head, 2^ inches long, from Wady 
Magarah, was presented by Major Macdonaldf to the British 
Museum. The form seems also to occur in North America.* 
One of the arrow-heads from Japan, § now in the Christy Col- 
lection, described by Mr. Franks (Fig. 4), appears to have been 
originally of the same form, but it has lost a part of its stem. 
Other arrow-heads from Japan are curiously like those from 
Europe, being triangular with barbs, and stemmed and slightly 
barbed. A larger form in slate is notched on either side, like one 
of the North American forms, and a javelin-head in flint resembles 
the leaf-shaped form common in Denmark. Besides these, the 
lozenge-shaped, the leaf-shaped, and a peculiar form with broad- 
ended barbs and no central tang, occur. There is a fine series in 
the Museum at Leyden. 

A prevailing type in North America,ll viz., that with a notch at 
the base on either side, has already been mentioned more than 
once. This form shades off into that with a central dovetailed 
tang, sometimes with well-developed barbs. Others, again, have 
merely a central tang, with little or no attempt at barbs. 
The triangular form, usually but little excavated at the base, is 
also common. A rare form terminates in a semicircular edge. 
The leaf-shaped form is very rare. For the most part the chipping 
is but rough, as the material, which is usually chert, hornstone, or 
even quartz, does not readil}^ lend itself to fine work. They were 
made of various sizes, the smaller for boys, and those for men 
varying in accordance with the purpose to which they were to be 
applied. H 

As we proceed southwards in America, the forms appear more 
closely to resemble the European. Some of the obsidian and chal- 
cedony arrow-heads from Mexico are stemmed and barbed, and 
almost identical in shape Avith English examples ; and in Tierra 
del Fucgo ** the natives still fashion stemmed arrow-heads tanged 

* Quart. Jour. Gcol. Soc, 18G9, vol. xxv. p. 35. f Proc. Soc. Ant., 2nd S., vol. i. p. 322. 

i Schoolcraft, " Ind. Tribes," vol. i. pi. xvii. 9. 

§ Trn».s. I'reh. Co)ii/rcs,i, 1808, ]). 206. See also Jlidl. tie la Soc. Eoi/. des Ant. du 
Nord, 1843—45, p. 26. 

II Douglas, " Naniia Brit.," pi. xxxiii. 8. See Squior and Davis, " Anc. Mon. of 
TVIiss. Valley," p. 212. Schoolcraft, " Ind. Tribes," vol. i. pi. xvii., xviii. ; vol. ii. 
pi. xxxix. 

H Schoolcraft, op. cit., vol. i. p. 77. Catlin, " N. A. Ind.," vol. i. pi. xii. 

** Lubboclf, " Preh. Times," 2nd ed., p. 99. Douglas, " Najnia Brit.," pi. xxxiii. 



and barbed, or of a triangular form, witli a tang extending from 
the centre of tbe base. In Patagonia,* triangular, stemmed, and 
stemmed and barbed arrow-heads occur in deposits analogous to 
the Danish kj okken-moddings. One brought from Eio Grande, 
and presented to me by Lieut. Musters, R.N., has a broad stem 
somewhat hollowed at the base, and appears to have had its original 
point broken off, and to have been subsequently re-chipped. 

A tanged arrow-head, with a well-marked shoulder at the base 
of the triangular head, so that it might almost be called barbed, 
found in Araucania, is engraved by the Rev. Dr. Hume.f It is 
much like an Italian form. 

Stemmed arrow- or harpoon-heads of quartz are found in Peru 
of much the same form as Fig. 303. The barbs, if such they mav 
be called, are usually at rather more than a right angle to the 
stem, and occasionally project considerably from the side of the 
blade, giving it a somewhat cruciform appearance. I have several 
which were dug out by Mr. David Forbes, F.R.S., from graves 
close to the shore, about two miles south of Arica. In some 
instances they are still attached to their shafts, which are unlike 
those of ordinary arrows, being shorter and clumsier. I have 
them of two sizes, the larger lOJ inches long, about f inch in 
diameter at the end, where the head has been inserted in a socket, 
increasing to | inch towards the other end. At a distance of two 
inches from this, however, there is an abrupt shoulder, where the 
diameter is increased by at least i inch, and the shaft then rapidly 
tapers in the contrary direction. The shafts have thus a stoj)per- 
like termination, which Mr. Forbes suggests may have been in- 
serted in the end of a longer shaft of bamboo, so that the whole 
weapon was a sort of spear or javelin, and not, strictly speaking, 
an arrow. The smaller kind of shaft is of the same character, 
but only 6 inches long, and proportionably smaller. This may 
possibly have served as part of an arrow. The wood of all has 
been coloured with a red pigment. 

One arrow-head from the same spot is of remarkably elegant 
form, and of wonderfully good workmanship. In general outline 
it is not unhke Fig. 324, but the blade expands more rapidly to 
form the barbs, which stand out well from the stem, and are sepa- 
rated from it by a slight hollow. It is much smaller in size, being 
If inches long. Its greatest width is at the barbs, and is but 

* Strotel, Mat. di Palctnolor/ia comj^nratn, Paimfi, 1868. 

t " 111. of Brit. Ant. from Objects found in South America," 1869, p. 89. 



[chap. XYI. 

I inch ; and tlie extreme acuteness and delicacy of the point may 
be judged of from the fact, that at a distance of an inch from the 
apex the width is less than l inch. The heads appear to have 
been secured in their sockets by binding with thread formed 
of vegetable fibre. In some instances the wooden shaft is 
furnished with a barb made of bronze, tied on a little distance 
behind the stone point. 

It will, however, be thought that enough, and more than enough, 
has been said as to the forms of arrow-heads occurring in various 
parts of the world. Allowing for local differences, the general 
correspondence in form is so great that we cannot wonder at Dr. 
Woodward's * suggestion that the first model of flint arrow- 
heads was probably brought from Babel, and preserved after the 
dispersion of mankind. To most, however, it will appear that 
this general similarity affords another proof that in all places, 
and in all times, similar circumstances and similar wants, with 
similar materials only at command for gratifying them, result 
in similar contrivances. 

I must, in conclusion, say a few words as to the method of 
mounting these arrow-heads on their shafts ; and here we are not 
left absolutely to conjectvire, though, so far as I am aware, there 
has as yet been but one recorded instance of the discovery of a 
stone arrow-head still attached to its shaft in any part of the 
United Kingdom. This discovery took place in Ireland, where, in 
Ballykillen Bog, King's County, a stemmed 
and barbed flint arrow-head was found, still 
remaining in a part of its brier-wood shaft, 
and with a portion of the gut-tying by which 
it had been secured still attached. It has 
been figured by Sir W. Wilde. f It is in the 
museimi of Mr. Murray, of Edenderry. Speci- 
mens have also been found both in Switzerland 
and Germany. One from the former country 
has been figured by Dr. Keller, + whose engrav- 
Fig. 3i3.-swit/.criaiui. t ^^^g. J ]^gj.^, reproduce in the full size of the 

oriffiiud arrow, instead of on the scale of one-half. It was foimd, 
not in any of the Lake-habitations, but in the moss of Geissboden. 
The arrow-heads found among the ancient Swiss Lake- 
dwellings often bear on their surface some portion of the bitu- 

* " Method of Fossils" (1728), p. 43. t " Cat. Mus. R. T. A.," p. 254, fig. 164. 
X " rfahlbauten," 2ter Ber. Taf. i. 5. " Lake Dwellings," pi. xxxix. 15. 



rainous cement whicli helped to attach tlicm to tlie shafts. Dr. 
Clement * possessed one, apparently tanged but not barbed, the 
base of which is completely incrusted with bitumen, with traces of 
the wood of the shaft upon it, and of the cord by which 
the whole was bound together. The attachment of a 
conical bone arrow-head to its shaft is similar in its 
character. Some single-barbed f arrows were made by 
tying a bone pin, pointed at each end, to the extremity 
of the shaft. 

Another specimen has been engraved by Madsen,+ who, 
however, does not appear to have recognized it as an 
arrow-head. He describes it as " a flint instrument, 
fastened by means of fine bast-fibre to a wooden shaft, of 
which only 1| inch remains." I have here reproduced 
his engraving, and there can, I think, be little doubt 
that it represents the point of an arrow of the same 
character as those in use among the ancient Egyptians. § 
It was foimd in a peat-moss in the parish of Vissenberg, mark. ' a 
Odense, in the Isle of Fiinen. 

Among modern savages we find the stone points sometimes 
attached to the shafts by vegetable fibre, not unfrequcntly aided 
by some resinous gum, and also by means of 
animal sinew. The annexed woodcut, kindly sup- 
plied by the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, || 
shows an arrow-head, stated to be from one of the 
South Sea Islands, but more probably from Cali- 
fornia, attached by means of tendon to a reed shaft. 
The Indians of California certainly afiix their 
arrow-heads in a similar manner ; but commonly 
there are notches on either side of the head at the 
base, to receive the sinew or split intestine, which 
is in the form of tape about | inch wide. The 
binding extends about an inch along the shaft, and 
is of the neatest description. North American H 
arrow-heads, fastened in this manner, have been 
engraved by Sir John Lubbock and the Rev. J. G. 
Wood. The end of the shaft has a shallow notch in it to receive 
the flint, which is cemented into the notch before being bound on. 

Mortillet, "Mat.," vol^ii. p. 512. Mackie, "Nat. Hist. Rep.," vol. i. p. 137. 

2nd ed., p. 184. J '^Afbildninger," pi. xxii. 19. 


Fig. 34r,.— Jlodem 
Stone Arrow-head. 

t Le Hon, " L'Homme Foss. 

^ See p. 329. 

il " Preh. Times," 2nd ed., p. 99. 

Proc, vol. 
" Nat. Hist, of Man," vol. ii. 



Among tlie Kaffirs* the iron heads of the assagais are usually- 
bound to the shafts with strips of wet hide, which contract and 
tighten in drying. 

The shafts are frequently of reed, in which case there is often a 
longer or shorter piece of solid wood joined on to the reed, to 
which the head is attached. This is the case with the ancient 
Egyptian arrows, and with those of the Bushmen, f in which, how- 
ever, bone and ivory replace the wood ; and the shaft generally 
consists of three pieces — reed, ostrich bone, and ivory, to which 
latter the head of iron is attached. In other cases the shafts con- 
sist of straight-growing shoots of trees. Among the Esquimaux, 
where wood is so scarce, a peculiar tool — formed of bone, with an 
oval or lozenge-shaped hole through it — is used for the purpose of 
straightening arrow-shafts. The tang of the arrow-head is inserted 
in a socket, and bound fast with sinew. 

In most countries the shafts are feathered at the bow-string end, 
and such was the case in the earliest historical times. Hesiod + 
describes the arrows of Hercules as feathered from the wings of a 
black eagle, and Homer § speaks of the TrrepoevTe^ oiaTot — if 
indeed, as Mr. Yates suggests, this latter refers to the plumes. || 
Herodotus,1[ however, mentions, as a remarkable fact, that the 
arrows of the Lycians in the army of Xerxes, like those of the 
Bushmen and some other savages of the present day, had no 
feathers, so that this addition to the shaft was not indispensable. 
Some North American arrow-heads are said to be "bevelled** off 
on the reverse sides, apparently to give them a revolving motion," 
so as to answer the same purpose as plumes. 

It is uncertain from what kind of wood the bows in Britain 
were made at the time when flint-pointed arrows were in use ; the 
yew, however, which is probably the best European wood for the 
purpose, is indigenous in this country. It is not probable that 
the cross-bow was known in those early times, though it was in 
use during the Roman period, as may be seen on a monument 
in the Museum at Le Puy. 

It is, however, needless to enter into further details with regard 
to arrows, and I therefore proceed to the consideration of other 
forms of stone implements, including those by which it seems 
probable that some of the arrow-heads were fashioned. 

* Wood, "Nat. Hist, of Man," vol. i. p. 103. f lb., vol. i. p. 284. 

I "Scut. Ilerculis," V. 131. § Iliad, v. 171. || Smith's "Diet, of Ant.," p. 1002. 

^ Lib. vii. cap. 92. ** rroc. A'oc. Ant. Scot., vol. i. p. 85. 



In treating of the manufacture of stone implements in prehistoric 
times I have already (p. 37) described certain tools of flint with 
a blunted, worn, and rounded appearance at one or both ends, as 
if resulting from attrition against a hard substance, and I have 
suggested that their purpose may have been for chipping out 
arrow-heads and other small instruments of flint. As, however, it 
was not desirable to introduce unnecessary details when dealing 
only with the processes adopted in the 
manufacture of stone implements, the 
more particular description of some of 
the tools was deferred until after an 
account had been given of the objects in 
the making of which they had probably 

In Fig. 346 is shown, full size, a 
characteristic specimen of the tool to 
which I have provisionally assigned the 
name of "flaking tool," or fabricator. 
It is symmetrically chipped out of grey 
flint, and is curved at one extrenrity, 
probably with the view of adapting 
it for being better held in the hand. 
The side edges, which were originally 
chipped sharp, have been slightly rounded 
by grinding, apparently from the same 
motive. The angles at the curved end 
have been smoothed off", but the other 
end is completely rounded, and pre- 
sents the half-polished, worn appearance characteristic of these 
tools. The curvature lengthways to some extent resembles that 

Fig. 346.— Yuiksliir.' Wolds. 



of the Esquimaux arrow-flakers engraved as Figs. 8 and 9, and 
is of common occurrence among tliese tools. They vary much, 
in the amount of workmanship they display ; some being mere 
flakes with the edges rounded by chipping, and others as carefully 
wrought into form as any flint hatchet or chisel. These skilfully 
chipped specimens are frequently much more convex on one face 
than the other. They vary in length from about 2 to 4 inches. 
The rougher kinds are usually clumsy in their proportions, as if 
strength were an object, and they not unfrequently show a certain 
amount of abrasion at each end. An instrument of this coarser 
description is shown in Fig. 347. It is worn away and rounded, 

not only at the point, but for a 
considerable distance along the sides, 
the abraded surface having a some- 
what bruised appearance. It is re- 
markable that many of the Danish 
flint knife-daggers, especially those 
which have been so long in use that 
their blades have been much dimi- 
nished in size by having been fre- 
quently re-chipped, present at the 
end and sides of the handles pre- 
cisely the same kind of worn surface. 
At one time I thought it possible 
that constant contact Avith hard hands, 
not free fi'om sand and dirt, might 
have produced this rounding of the 
angles ; but closer examination proves 
that this cannot have been the only 
cause of the wear, as it is some- 
times the case that at a certain distance from the end of the 
hilt the abraded character disappears entirely, and, with the 
exception of a slight polish, the angles are as fresh as on the 
day when the daggers were first manufactured. This feature is 
most observable in the poniards with the beautifully decorated 
handles. I possess one of this kind — like Worsaae, No. 52 — with 
the sides near the blade exquisitely ornamented with a delicate 
wavy edging, and with a line of similar ornament running along 
the centre of one focc of the handle, the butt-end having also been 
edged in a similar manner ; but for an inch and a half from the 
end the whole of this ornamentation is completely worn away, and 

Fig. 347."-linJliiigton. 


the sides are battered and rounded. To sucli an extent lias this 
part of the handle been used, that one of the projecting points of 
the original fishtail-like end has entirely disappeared, and the 
other is completely rounded. The blade is probably now not more 
than one-third of its original size, so that we may infer that it 
must have been long in use for its legitimate purposes. But during 
all this time the hilt must have been made to serve some other 
and less appropriate purpose than that of a handle, by which its 
original beauty of ornamentation has been entirely destroyed ; and 
I think that this purpose must have been the chipping, or rather 
the re-working, of the edges of other flint instruments. 

Whether this was effected by pressure or by slight blows it is hard 
to say; but it appears probable that the ancient possessor of two 
such daggers used the hilt of the one for re-chipping the blade of 
the other, and, it may be, for re-chipping other implements. An 
indirect inference deducible from this disfigurement of the beauti- 
fully wrought handles is that they were not originally made by the 
owners who thus misused them — though they also must have been 
fairly accomplished workers in flint — but that the daggers were 
procured by barter of some kind from the cutlers of the pei-iod, 
whose special trade it was to work in flint. For we can hardly 
conceive that those who had bestowed so much time and skill in 
the ornamentation of these hilts should afterwards wantonly dis- 
figure their own artistic productions. In Britain, where the larger 
forms of finely wrought instruments are scarcer, it seems most 
likely that these flakers were principally used in the making of 
arrow-heads, though probably hard bone or stag's horn was also 
employed, as already suggested. 

Against regarding the ends of these tools as having been worn 
away in the manufacture of other instruments of flint, it may be 
urged that the butt-ends of some chisels present a similar appear- 
ance, and therefore that the wear may be the residt of hammering 
with some kind of hard mallet. It must, however, be remembered 
that no hammering at the ends would produce the wearing away 
apparent on the sides of the tools, and that the chisels which present 
the worn ends are in form and size much the same as the " flaking 
tools," and may, like the Danish daggers, have served a double pur- 
pose. It is also worthy of notice that these "flaking tools " are most 
abundant in districts where flint arrow-heads occur in the greatest 
numbers, as, for instance, on the Yorkshire Wolds. In parts of Suf- 
folk where arrow-heads are by no means rare, they too are present. 

B B 



I have also found them in the camp at Maiden Bower, near 
Dunstable, in company with arrow-heads. 

In the case of the straight implements, like Fig. 347, it is by no 
means improbable that they were used with a mallet, as punches 
or sets, to strike off flakes in the manufacture of arrow-heads and 
similar articles. As already described, some of the American 
tribes use a bone punch for this purpose. 

In Figs. 348 and 349 I have engraved two Yorkshire instruments, 
the one from Sawdon, and the other from Acklam Wold, both in 
the collection of the Rev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A. At first sight 
they seem chisel-like in character, but the edge in both is semi- 

Fig. 348. — Sawdon. 

Fig. 349.— Acklam Wold. 

circular, and not ground, but merely chipped. Fig. 348 is worked 
on both faces, though more convex on one than on the other. 
Fig. 349 is merely a flake with its edges chipped towards its outer 
face, so that it resembles a long narrow scraper. The butt-end in 
that from Sawdon is much worn and rounded; its sides are also 
woi'n away for about f inch at that end : the butt of that from 
Acklam Wold is also rounded, but principally towards the flat 
face. The edges of both are sharp and uninjiired. It therefore 
appears probable that these tools were also made with a view to 
being used at the blunt, and not at the sharp end; and it is 
possible that the semicircular sharp ends may have been for inser- 
tion in some form of wooden handle, in which the instruments 
were tightly bound, and their projecting ends then used, it may be, 


for flaking other flints. On referring to page 35 there will be seen 
an Esquimaux arrow-flaker of reindeer horn attached to a wooden 
handle; and the instrument from Acklam Wold seems well adapted 
for similar attachment, with its flat side towards the wood. I 
must, however, confess that the suggestions I have offered with 
regard to the use of these tools are by no means conclusive. I can 
only hope that future discoveries may throw more light upon the 

The Rev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A., who has figured a specimen — ■ 
like Fig. 346 — in the ArcJmological Journal* was incHned to think 
that the other form of instrument, like Figs. 348 and 349, was "used 
in dressing hides, the sharp end for removing the loose parts of the 
skin, the smooth end for rubbing down the seams when the leather 
was made up into a garment." I do not think that this can really 
have been their purpose, as for smoothing down the seams a natviral 
pebble would probably be preferable, and for cutting or removing 
the loose parts a flint flake would answer better. Still, I have 
seen a somewhat pointed concretionary nodule of stone, the end 
and point of which were polished from use by a glovemaker, in 
recent times, in smoothing down the seams of coarse leather gloves. 
Mr. C. Monkman,t like myself, regards these instruments as 
punches or fabricators, used for chipping arrows and delicate 
flint weapons into shape. This is also Mr. Greenwell's present 
opinion. In Yorkshire they are known as " finger-flints." 

The worn appearance of the pointed end of some flakes is not 
improbably due, as has already been observed, to their having 
been employed in "picking" into shape implements — such as 
hatchets or axes — formed of greenstone and other rocks of a 
somewhat softer nature than flint. The ends of the flaking tools, 
punches, or fabricators are, however, usually far too blunt for 
them to have been applied to such a purpose. 

Another of the causes of the blunted and worn-away appearance 
of the ends, and even sides, of originally sharp flint flakes and 
instruments, I have already described when treating of scrapers — 
namely, the striking off" by their means particles from a block of 
pyrites, with a view of procuring fire. 

* Vol. xxii. p. 246, 101, note. 

t Yorksh. Arch, and Top. Journ,, 1868. 

R B 2 



Passing on from flint arrow-heads and the tools which were pro- 
bahly used in the process of their manufacture, we come to another 
form of missile weapon — the sling-stone — which also appears to 
have been in use in Britain. It is needless here to enter into 
details as to the early use of the sling among the more civilized 
nations of antiquity, especially as comprehensive articles on the 
subject have already been published in this country by Mr. Walter 
Hawkins* and Mr. Syer Cuming. f 

A stone thrown by hand doubtless constituted the first missile 
weapon, and some form of sling must probably have been among 
the earliest inventions of mankind. What appears to be the 
simplest kind, and one which, like Nilsson+ and Strutt,§ I frequently 
used as a boy, consists of a stick split for a short distance down 
one end, so as to form a notch, in which the stone is placed ; the 
elasticity of the two halves of the stick, which are kept asunder by 
the stone, retaining it there until the proper moment for its discharge. 
Nilsson cites Lepsius as engraving in his great work on Egypt a 
representation of a man armed with such a sling, which he appears 
to use very actively in fight. At his feet there is a heap of small 
stones in readiness for use. Nilsson || also suggests that it was 
with such a sling that David was armed when he encountered 
Goliath, who addresses him : " Am I a dog that thou comest to 
me with staves ?" H that is, with the shepherd's stafi" and the sling 
handle. The most ancient form, hoAvever, recorded by classical 
writers is that of the ribbon sling, with a central receptacle for the 
stone, and with strings on either side. The neatly plaited or 
knitted cup or strap of a sling, with a portion of its cord, both 
formed of flax, was among the objects discovered in the Lake- 

* Archceol., vol. xxxii. p. 96. Proc. Soc. Ant., vol. i. p. 157. 
t Arch. Assoc. Journ., vol. xx. p. 73. See also " Flint Chips," p. 302. 
X "Stone Aj?e," p. 49. § "Sports and Pastimes," ed. 184.5, p. 74. 

II "Stone Ago," p. 49. H 1 Saiil. xvii. 43. 


settlement of Cortaillod,* wliicli was remarkably rieli in bronze 
objects. This probably is the most ancient sling now in existence. 
The staff-sling reappears in Roman times in a somewhat modified 
form, with a receptacle for the stone attached to the end of a staff". 
To this weapon the name of fustihulus was given. 

The earliest sling-stones were, no doubt, like those used by 
David against Goliath, the '* smooth stones out of the brook ; " 
but in after-times, among the Greeks and the Romans, sling-bullets 
of an almond or acorn-like form were cast in lead, and flattened 
ovoid missiles were formed in terra cotta ; the latter, from their 
uniformity in size, insuring greater precision of aim than could 
be secured with stones, however carefully selected, and the former 
also offering the advantages of less resistance from the air, and 
greater concentration of force when striking the object. We find 
the advantages of this uniformity of size and form recognized 
among some savage tribes who make use of the sling at the 
present day ; the sling-stones, for instance, of the New Caledo- 
nians being carefully shaped out of steatite, and, what is worthy 
of remark, approximating closely in form to the Roman glandfSy 
being fusiform or pointed ovoids. The same form on a larger scale, 
about 3 inches in diameter and 4 inches long, has been adopted by 
the natives of Savage Island for missiles thrown by the hand, which 
are wrought from calc-spar almost as truly as if turned in a lathe. 
Nilssont has engraved a sling-stone of this same form, found in 
Sweden, where, however, they are by no means common, as he 
cites but five specimens in the Museums at Lund and Stockholm. 

Artificially fashioned sling-stones are not, however, confined to 
this fusiform shape ; those that were in use among the Charruas of 
Southern America having been of a lenticular form, though slightly 
flattened at the centre of each face. One in my collection is about 
3 inches in diameter and 1 finches thick in the middle. It has 
been ground over the whole of both faces, and has the edge at its 
periphery slightly rounded. 

The objects so frequently found in the Swiss Lake-dwellings, 
and to which the name of sling-stones has been commonly given, 
were, as Keller + has pointed out, probably intended for some very 
different purpose. Many of the objects described by Sir William 
Wilde, § under the name of sling- stones, may also, I think, be 
more properly placed in some other category. The carefully 

* Keller's " Lake Dwellings," pi. Ixxxvi. 2. f "Stone Age," pi. v. 115. 

% " Lake Dwellings," p. 135. ^ " Cat. Mus. R. I. A.," pp. 18, 74. 


polislied lenticular disc of flint (Wilde, Fig. 9) seems better adapted 
for a cutting tool ; and the flat oval stones, usually with, "a slight 
indentation, such as might be efiected by rubbing with a metal 
tool," are, as I have already observed, more probably a kind of 
whetstone, of the same class as those belonging to the early Iron 
Age of Denmark,* which they much resemble in character. 

The objects to which in this country the name of sling-stone 
has been generally applied are more or less roughly chipped, and 
approximately lenticular blocks of flint, varying considerably in 
proportionate thickness, and usually from about 1^ to 3 inches 
in diameter. An average specimen from the Yorkshire Wolds is 
shown in Fig. 350. The contour is frequently more truly circular 

or oval, and the faces somewhat more 
carefully chipped. They are found 
in considerable numbers on the York- 
shire Wolds, in Sufiblk, Sussex, and 
other counties where chalk flints are 
abundant. Occasionally also they 
occur in Scotland, f Similar forms 
are also abundant in the Danish 
. Fig. 350.-Yorkshire Wolds, i kjokkeu-moddiugs and "coast-finds." 

In this latter case it appears quite as probable that they may have 
served for net-sinkers as for sling-stones ; but, as Sir John Lub- 
bock + has remarked, "that some have really served as sling-stones 
seems to be indicated by their presence in the peat-mosses, which 
it is difficult to account for in any other way." 

Prof. Nilsson§ objects that they are so irregular and sharp- 
cornered, " that they would soon wear out the sling, even if it were 
made of leather." He presumes " that these sharp- cornered stone 
balls were the first hand-missile weapons of the earliest and rudest 
savages, and used by them to throw at wild animals or enemies." 
This objection to regard them as sling-stones seems hardly well 
founded, especially if we consider them to have been in use with 
a stick-sling, in which case their angularity would have been of 
some service in retaining them in the notch, while their lenticular 
form adapts them well for this kind of sling. A more valid 
objection raised by Prof. Nilsson is that no one "would give him- 
self all this trouble to fashion sKng-stones which were to be thrown 

* Enp;clhardt, " Nydam Mosefundet," pi. xiii. 65. Supra, p. 243. 

t Wilson, "Preh. Ann. of Scot.," vol. i. p. 197. 

X " Preh. Times," 2nd ed., p. 98. § " SLone Age," p. 51. 


away the next moment, when he could find many natural pebbles 
quite as suitable." But to this it may be replied, that at the pre- 
sent day we actually find the New Caledonians, the Tahitians, and 
other tribes carefully fashioning their sling-stones ; and also that 
this flat lenticular form is better adapted for the stick-sling than 
a natural pebble of the usual oval form. As a fact, however, I 
think it will be found that these flint discs, to which the name of 
sling-stones is applied, are most abundant in those districts where 
natural rolled pebbles happen to be scarce. If the case be really 
so, we can readily understand why the cores, from which flakes 
had been struck for conversion into arrow-heads and other instru- 
ments, should have been themselves utilized as slingstones. If 
these missiles were necessary, it would be a question of which 
would involve the least trouble, whether to chip into the required 
form a certain number of flints which came readily to hand, at 
the same time making use of the resulting chips ; or to select and 
bring together, possibly from a distant sea-coast, a bed of a stream, 
or some uncovered patch of gravel, a number of pebbles of the 
right size and form for slinging. In the camp at Hod Hill, near 
Blandford, the latter course seems to have been adopted, as several 
heaps of rounded flint pebbles, either derived from the sea-coast 
or from some bed of Lower Tertiary Age, have been found there, 
and were in all probability the munition of the slingers of the 
camp. In Polynesia,* besides pebbles, sharp, angular, and rugged 
stones were used for slinging. These were called Ofai ara, faced 
or edged stones. 

Mr. C. Monkman f has remarked that he has in Yorkshire always 
found the small globular sling-stones most plentiful at a short 
distance (fifty to two hundred yards away) from old entrenchments, 
and is inclined to class under the head of sling-stones nodules 
chipped over their whole surface, and varying from an almost glo- 
bular form to all degrees of flatness, and in size from \ inch to 
3 inches in diameter. This is perhaps too wide a definition, as most of 
the larger globular forms appear to have been destined for hammer- 
stones ; and pebbles but \ inch in diameter would be almost too 
light for missiles. It is, however, impossible to say with certainty 
that any given specimen was undoubtedly a sling-stone, as the 
flatter forms, which were more probably missiles, merge in the form 
of a roughly chipped oval celt like Fig. 17 at one end of the series, 
and in that of a discoidal scraper with a broken edge at the other. 
* Ellis, "Polj-nesian Researches," vol. i. p. 291. t Yorh. Arch, and Top. Jour., !%&'?>. 



[chap. XVIII. 

Many may be merely cores, from both faces of wbich flakes have 
been struck, so that the term " sling- stones," if employed for 
these roughly chipped discs, must always be used in a somewhat 
doubtful sense, and for convenience rather than precision. 

Another class of objects in stone which may possibly have 
served for the purposes of the chase or of war, consists of balls 
with their surface divided into a number of more or less projecting 
circles, with channels between them. They seem, so far as is known, 
to be confined to Scotland and Ireland. 

That shown in Fig. 351 was found in Dumfriesshire,* and has been 

engraved by Prof. Daniel Wilson. It pre- 
sents six circular faces. Others, almost 
identical in form, have been found at 
Biggar,f Lanarkshire; Dudwick,;!: Aber- 
deenshire; and Montblairy,§ Banffshire. 
Another, about 3 inches in diameter, with 
three faces only, was found on the TuUo 
ofGarvoch.JI Kincardineshire; and one, 
with four faces, in a cairn at East 
Braikie, Forfarshire. This latter is in 
the Montrose Museum. H One of green- 
stone, 2^ inches in diameter, found at Ballater,** Aberdeenshire, has 
six plain circular discs, with the interspaces partially cut into small 
knobs or studs, the ornaments being possibly in course of formation. 
Stone balls, tf about 2^ and 3 inches in diameter, covered over the sur- 
face with small rounded projec- 
tions, like enormous petrified mul- 
berries, have been found in the 
Isle of Skye, in Orkney, and at 
Garvoch Hill, Kincardineshire. I 
presume the latter to be a different 
specimen from that with three faces, 
previously described. Others are 
in the Perth Museum. || One 
formed of hornblende schist, with 
six strongly projecting circular 
faces, was found near Ballymena,§ § 
CO. Antrim, in 1850, and is now in 
the British Museum. 

But the most remarkable of all 

these balls is that shown in Fig. 

Fig. 352.-Towie. 352, from a block kindly lent me by 

Fig. 351. — Dumfriesshire. 

* "Proh. Ann. of Scot.," vol 
and Co. for the loan of this block. 

X Froe. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. vii. p. 102 
II " Cat. Arch. Inst. Mus. Ed.," p. 14. 
** Froc. Soc. Ant. Scot. ,\ol. v. p. 340 

195. I am indebted to Messrs. Macmillan 
t Arch. Assoc. Journ., vol. xvii. p. 20. 
^ lb., vol. vi. p. 11. 

H Report Montrose Nat. Hist. Soc, 1868. 
tt lb., vol. iv. pp. 186, 292; vii. p. 209. 

Xt Wilson, " Preh. Ann. of Scot.," vol. i. p. 195. §§ Arch. Journ., vol. xi. p. 58. 


the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. It was found at Towie,* Aber- 
deenshire, and is about 2^ inches in diameter, with four rounded projec- 
tions, three of which are ornamented with different incised patterns, 
while the fourth is smooth and undecorated. From the character of 
the patterns, this object would seem to belong to the Bronze Period 
rather than to that of Stone. 

These balls appear to me to differ most essentially from tlie 
ordinary " sink-stones " found in Denmark and Ireland,t with 
which they have been compared. It is not, however, by any 
means easy to suggest the purpose for which they were intended. 
The only such suggestions that I have seen are, that they were 
used in some game or amusement ; + or for defence when slung in 
a long thong or line ; or else for purposes of divination. § I miist 
confess that I hardly see in what manner the last purpose can 
have been served, especially as in most instances all the faces of 
the ball are alike. Nor do I see in what manner they can have 
been used in games, though of course such a use is possible. It 
seems more probable that they were intended for use in the chase 
or war, when attached to a thong, which the recesses between the 
circles seem well adapted to receive. Among savage nations of 
the present day we find the use of the holas, or stones attached to 
the end of thongs, over great part of the southern continent of 
America ; || while the principle is known to the Esquimaux, whose 
strings of sinew, weighted with bunches of ivory knobs, are 
arranged to wind themselves round the bird at which they are 
thrown, in just the same way as the much stouter cords weighted 
at the ends with two or three heavy stone balls which form the 
bolas,^ twist round, and hamper the movements of larger game. 

The bolas proper, as in use on the Pampas, consist of three 
balls of stone, nearly the size of the fist, and covered with 
leather, which are attached to the ends of three thongs, all 
branching from a common centre. Leaden balls have now 
almost superseded those of stone. The hunter gives to the bolas 
a rotary motion, and can then throw them to a great distance, in 
such a manner that the thongs entwine round the legs, neck, and 
body of his prey, and thus render it helpless, so that it can then 
be easily dispatched. A bola of small size, but of lead or copper, 

* Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. iii. p. 439. "Wilson, " Preh. Ann. of Scot.," vol. i. 
pi. iii. 

t AVorsaae, " Xord. Olds.," figs. 87, 88. j Beport Montrose X.H. and Ant. Soc, 1868. 

§ Arch. Assoc. Journ., vol. xvii. p. 20. || Tylor, "Early Hist, of Mank.," p. 179. 

il Klemm, " Cultur-Gesch.," vol. ii. p. 17- "Azara," vol. ii. p. 46. Catlin's 
" Last Rambles," p. 265. " Cult.-Wiss.," vol. i. p. 55. 


with a single thong about 3 feet long, forms botli tlie sling and 
its stone, and is also used as a weapon for striking in close 
encounter. Among tlie Patagonians * the same two varieties are 
used, but those for hunting have usually only two stones, and not 
three. They sometimes throw the single hola at the adversary, rope 
and all, but generally they prefer to strike at his head with it. 

Assuming a difficulty in securing a ball of stone in a leather 
case, and that therefore it would be necessary to fasten it by 
means of a thong, some channelling of the surface woidd become 
a necessity ; and the natural tendency of savages to decorate 
their weapons might lead to regular circular discs being left 
between the channels on the ball, and even to their being 
engraved in patterns, the disc next the cord being, as in 
Fig. 352, left undecorated. In the Christy Collection is a hola 
formed of a polished spherical red stone, mounted in such a 
manner as to show a considerable portion of its surface, which 
has evidently been regarded as too handsome to be entirely 
concealed by the leather. These stones are sometimes "wrought 
so as to present a number of rounded protuberances. Of these 
there are specimens in the Christy Collection and in that of Mr. 
J. Bernhard Smith. Even if the use of the holas or the 
single hola were unknown, there is a form of military flail or 
" morning-star," a sort of modification of the stafF-sling, though 
the stone never quits the cord by which it is attached to the stafi", 
for which such balls as these might serve. A mediaeval weapon f 
of this kind, in the Meyrick Collection, consists of a staff, to which 
is attached by a chain a ball of wood with numerous projecting 
iron spikes. The citizens of London will be familiar with the 
same weapon in the hands of the giant Gog or Magog at Guildhall. 
The Calmucks, Mongols, and Chinese + still use a flail of this sort, 
with an iron perforated ball about two pounds in weight attached 
to the end of the thong. Substituting one of these stone balls 
for the spiked morning-star, and a leather thong carefully adjusted 
in the channels of the stone for the chain, a most eflective form of 
weapon for close encoimters would result. Among the North 
American tribes a somewhat similar weapon was lately in use, 

* Lubbock, "Preh. Times," 2nd ed., p. 523. Falkner's "Patagonia," p. 130. 
A sot of these Patagonian bolas is engraved by the Kev. J. G. Wood, " Nat. Hist, 
ijf Man," vol. ii. p. 529. 

t Skelton's " Meyrick's Arm.," pi. xciii. 1. 

X Klemm's " Cultur-Wiss.," vol. i. p. 129. " Cult.-Gesch.," vol. x. pi. iii. 4. 


and is thus described by Lewis and Clarke, as quoted by Squier 
and Davis :* — " The Shoshonee Indians use an instrument which 
was formerly employed among the Chippeways, and called by 
them pogamoggon.f It consists of a handle 22 inches long, made 
of wood covered with leather, about the size of a whip-handle. 
At one end is a thong 2 inches in length, which is tied to a stone 
weighing two pounds, enclosed in a cover of leather ; at the other 
end is a loop of the same material, which is passed around the 
wrist to secure the implement, with which they strike a powerful 
blow." Another form of club in use among the Algonquins con- 
sisted of a round boulder sewn in a piece of fresh skin and 
attached to the end of a long handle, to which, by the drying of 
the skin, it became firmly attached. An engraving of a drumstick- 
like club of this character is given by Schoolcraft. + Unfortunately, 
however, the existence of such a weapon in early times is not 
susceptible of proof. Whatever the purpose of these British balls 
of stone, they seem to belong to a recent period as compared with 
that to which many other stone antiquities may be assigned. 

* " Anc. Mon. Mississ. Valley," p. '^19. 

t The same name, ])oga)iiagan, is applied by the Indians of the Mackenzie Elver 
to a different form. See " Reliq. Aquit.," p. 52. 
\ " Ind. Tribes," vol. i. pi. xv. 



Another object in stone, not nnfrequently found in graves, but 
of which, the use is not absolutely certain, is a rectangular plate 
usually round on one face, and hollow on the other, with perfora- 
tions at either end. These plates are commonly formed of a close- 
grained green chlorite slate, are very neatly finished, and vary 
considerably in length and proportions. 

The specimen shown in Fig. 353 is in the Museum of the Society of 
Antiquaries of Scotland, and has ah'eady been engraved by Wilson,* and 
roughly figured in the Wiltshire Archaological Maga- 
zine. It was found alongside of a human skeleton, 
in a rudely vaulted chamber in a large tumulus on the 
shore of Eroadford Bay, Isle of Skye. It is formed 
of pale green stone polished, and has at one end an 
ornamental border of slightly indented ovals. In the 
same museum f is another of longer proportions, 
being 4^ inches by \\ inches, formed of fine-grained 
greenish-coloured stone, and having at each corner a 
small perforation. It was found, together with an 
urn and the remains of a skeleton, in a short cist on 
the farm of Fyrish, Evantown, Ross-shii-e. It is 
shown in Fig. 354. There is also, in the same museum, 
a fragment of a flatter specimen formed of indurated 
clay-slate of a lightish green colour, perforated at one end with three 
small holes. It was found in a stone circle called " The Standing Stones 
of Rayne."! In the Arbuthnot Museum, Peterhead, is another object of 
this class, 4.^ inches long, with a hole at each corner, and slightly rounded 
on one face and hollow on the other. It was found at Cruden,§ Aber- 
deenshire, in a cist surmounted by a small tumulus. In the cist were 
the skeletons of an adult and a youth, as well as portions of that of a 
dog. They were accompanied by two rude urns, seven flint arrow-heads, 
and two flint knives. 


Fig. 353.— Isle of Skye.i 

* " Preh. Ann. of Scot.," vol. i. p. 223. 

t rroc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. vi. p. 233. 

+ Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. ii. p. 429. " Cat. Mus. Arch. Inst. Ed.," p. 20. 

§ Wilson, " P. A. of S.," vol. i. p. 76. " Cat. Mus. A. I. Ed.," p. 11. 



The earliest recorded discovery of these objects in England is that 
^vhich has ah-eady been mentioned as having taken place at Tring Grove, 
Herts, about 1763.* In this case a skeleton was found in sinking a 
ditch in level ground ; between the legs were some flint arrow-heads, 
and at the feet " some small slender stones, polished, and of a greenish 
cast; convex on one side, and concave on the other; the larger were 
four inches long and one broad ; the smaller not quite four inches long 
nor one inch broad, somewhat narrower in the middle, with two holes 
at both ends," The interment was accompanied by two urns, and a ring 
of jet, perforated for suspension at the edge. To judge from the plate 
and description, the longer of the " slender stones " had not been bored 
with holes at either end. 

An oblong piece of chlorite slate, 5| inches long. If inches broad, and 
-} inch thick, rounded on one face and hollowed on the other, was found 
in a gravel-pit at Aldington, Worcestershire.! It has four holes through 

Fig. 354. — Evantown. | 

Fig. 355.— Devizes. | 

it, one at each corner, just large enough on the i-ounded face to allow a 
fine ligament to pass through, and countersunk on the other face. The 
plate of chlorite slate shown in Fig. 355 is flat instead of hollowed, and 
the holes at the corners are countersunk on both faces. It was found in 
a barrow on Rouudway Hill, I near Devizes, in front of the breast of a 
skeleton, between the bones of the left forearm, and had, when found, a 
small fragment of bronze, possibly the tang of a knife, much corroded, 
adhering to it. In the same barrow were a flint stemmed and barbed 
arrow-head like Fig. 327, and a tanged bronze dagger. This plate has 
been kindly lent to me by Mr. Cunnington, of Devizes, who discovered it. 
A somewhat similar example, formed of a green-coloured stone, was 
found in a gravel-pit at Lindridge, Worcestershire. § It is about 4 J inches 

* Archmol., vol. viii. p. 429, pi. xxx. f IViltshire Arch. Mag.,\o\. x. (1867), pi. vi. 
X Wiltsh. Arch. Mag., vol. iii. p. 186. Cran. Brit., vol. ii. pi. 42, p. S. 
^ Arch. Journ., vol. vi. p. 409. Allies' " Worcestersh.," p. 149. Arch. Journ., 
vol. xviii. p. 160. . ■ 


by 1 inch, and I inch thick ; but it has been perforated at one end only, 
with a countersunk hole in each of the two corners, a third hoJe 
between them being only partly drilled. The other end is somewhat 
sharper and undrilled. 

In the Christy Collection is a plate of pale green stone, 4^ inches 
long, with both faces somewhat rounded, one of them polished, and the 
other, which is rather flatter, in places striated transversely by coarse 
grinding. At each end are three small countersunk perforations in a 
line with each other. It was found with two small ornamented urns 
near Brandon, Sufl"olk. 

In a barrow near Sutton "^^ Sir R. Colt Hoare found, under the right 
hand and close to the breast of a contracted skeleton, a plate of blue 
slate 4^ inches long and 2J inches wide, with three small countersunk 
holes arranged in a triangle at either end. Near it were two boar's tusks 
and a drinking-cup. 

Another variety has but one hole at each end, and is flat and broadest 
in the middle. In a cist in a barrow on Mere Down, Wiltshire,! were 
two skeletons, near the left side of the larger of which was a small 
bronze dagger, with a tang for insertion in the hilt, and a piece of grey 
slaty stone about 4 inches long, and 1^ inches broad in the middle, per- 
forated at the ends. A drinking-cup, and an instrument of bone, and 
two circular ornaments of gold accompanied the interment. A similar 
curious thin stone, pierced with a hole at either end, was found with 
part of a bronze spear and other objects, associated with burnt human 
remains in a barrow at Bulford, Wilts. | Another, 3| inches long, nearly 
an inch broad in the middle, and only the fifth part of an inch in thick- 
ness, was found near the tumulus at Broadford Bay, Isle of Skye,§ 
already mentioned, and is shown in Fig. 356. 

A few specimens of the same 
character as Figs. 353 and 356 have 
been found in Ireland. In that coun- 
try, also, the same slaty material 
was used, sometimes green, and 
Fig. 356.-isie of skye. | sometimes red in colour. 

The curious plate of fine soft sandstone, 4 inches long and perforated 
at each end, found in the Genista Cave at Gibraltar, || may possibly 
belong to this class, but it is by no means certain. 

The material of which this class of objects is formed is not ex- 
clusively stone. A plate of bone, (to judge from the engraving,) 
about 3j inches by f inch, bored through at each end from the 
sides and back, so as not to interfere with the face, was found 
with a small bronze celt, mounted as a chisel in stag's horn, and 
with bone pins and two whetstones, in a barrow near Everley.H 
It is doubtful whether the richly ornamented flat plate of gold, 

• " South Wilts," p. 103. t Hoare's " South Wilts," p. 44. 

X Arch. Journ., vol. vi. p. 319. 

^ Wilson, " P. A. of S.," vol. i. p. 223. I am indebted to Messrs. Macmillan and 
Co. for the use of this block. 

II Trans. J'reh. Cong., 1868, pi. viii. 2. t Hoare's "South Wilts," p. 182. 


with a hole at each corner, found with a bronze dagger in a barrow* 
at Upton Lovel, was destined for the same purpose. It led, however, 
Sir E,. C. Hoare to regard the slate plate from, the barrow near Sutton 
as a mere ornament, " an humble imitation of the golden plate 
found at Upton Lovel." Others have regarded these stone plates 
as amulets or charms ; t as destined to be affixed to the middle of a 
bow;+ or as personal decorations.^ Wilson has called attention to 
their similarity to the perforated plates of stone, of which such 
numerous varieties are found in North America. 1 1 The holes in 
these, however, are very rarely more than two in number, and 
sometimes only one, and these almost always near the middle 
of the stone ; their purpose possibly being to serve as draw-holes 
for equalizing the size of cords, in the same manner as twine is 
jjolished and rendered uniform in size by being drawn through a 
circular hole by European manufacturers at the present day. 
They may, however, have served as ornaments, or even in some 
cases as guards. One engraved by SquierU is much like Fig. 356, 
but thinner, and with the holes rather farther from the ends. 
Schoolcraft ** suggests their employment to hold the strands or 
plies apart in the process of twine or rope-making. 

The Rev. Canon Ingram, F.G.S.jtt has, however, suggested 
that these British plates were bracers or guards, to protect the 
left arm of the wearer against the blow of the string in shooting 
with the bow, like those in use by archers at the present day. In 
corroboration of this view, he cites the position of the plate in the 
Roundway barrow, between the bones of the left forearm, and the 
fact of so many of them being hollowed in such a manner as to 
fit the arm, while he argues that the similarity in the character 
and position of the perforations, in the hollowed and flat varieties, 
affords presumptive evidence that the use of both kinds of tablets 
was the same. I am inclined to adopt Canon Ingram's view, 
though, unless there was some error in observation, plates of this 
kind have been occasionally found on the right arm. In a barrow 
near Driffield,++ examined by the late Lord Londesborough in 1851, 
was a chamber containing a contracted skeleton, the bones of the 

* Hoare's " South Wilts," p. 99. 

t Jrch. Journ., vol. vi. p. 319. Craii. Brit., vol. i. p. 80. 

+ " Cat. Mus. Arch. Inst. Ed.," p. 11. § Wilson, " P. A. of S.," vol. i. p. 224. 

II " Anc. Men. Mississ. Valley," p. 237. "H " Abor. Mon. of New York," p. 79. 

** " Ind. Tribes," vol. i. p. 89. ft T^i^ts Arch. Mag., vol. x. (1867), p. 109. 

XX -^rch., vol. xxxiv. p. 254. Since this was written I have had an opportunity 
of examining this bracer, and find that it is of the same green kind of stone as the 


right arm of wliich " were laid in a very singular and beautiful 
armlet, made of some large animal's bone, about 6 inches long, and 
the extremities, which were a little broader than the middle, 
neatly squared ; in this were two perforations about half an inch 
from each end, through which were bronze pins or rivets, with 
gold heads, most probably to attach it to a piece which had passed 
round the arm and been fastened by a small bronze buckle, which 
was found underneath the bones." In the cist were also a bronze 
dagger, with a wooden sheath and handle, some large amber 
beads, a drinking-cup, and the upper part of the skull of a hawk. 
Possibly this ancient warrior was left-handed, like the seven hun- 
dred chosen men of Benjamin, every one of whom could yet sling 
stones at an hair breadth, and not miss. Certainly this oblong 
plate strapped upon the arm is curiously similar in character to 
the bracer in use in England in the sixteenth century, which, 
though sometimes of other materials, consisted, according to 
Paulus Jovius,* of a bone tablet. A bracer of carved ivory, of the 
sixteenth century, is in the Meyrick Collection, t Among the 
archers of ancient Egypt + we find that similar guards were in use 
for the left arm. These were not only fastened round the wrist, 
but secured by a thong tied above the elbow. The material of 
which they were formed appears to be unknown. On a Roman 
monument § found in the North of England a soldier is repre- 
sented with a bow in his hand, and a bracer on his left arm. 
The Esquimaux II of the present day also make use of a guard, 
to save the wrist from the recoil of the string. It is usually 
composed of three pieces of bone, about 4 inches in length, but 
sometimes of one only, and is fastened to the wrist by a bone 
button and a loop. An ivory guard, attached by a strap and buckle 
to the arm, is still worn in India. Whatever was the purpose of 
those in stone, they seem to belong to the latter part of the Stone 
Period, and to have continued in use in that of Bronze. 

These bracers have occasionally been found in Denmark. One 
of red stone, 4 inches long, and with four holes, was found in a 
dolmen near Assens. It is ornamented with parallel lines along 
the ends, and part of the way along the sides. Another, 3 inches 
long, from a dolmen in Langeland, is of bone, with but two holes, 

* " Desc. Aug].," ap. Bale, Ed. Oporin, vol. ii. p. 21. 
t Skolton's " Meyrick's Annour," pi. xxxiv. 
X Wilkinson's " Aiic. Eg.," vol. i. j). 306. 
§ Bruce, "Koman Wall," 3rd ed., p. 197. 
II Wood, " Nat. Hist, of Man," vol. ii. p. 710. 


and is ornamented wltli cross bands of zigzag lines. Botli 
are engraved in tlie " Guide Illiistre du Musee des Antiqiiites dn 
Nord." * What appears to be one of bone, found with, two skeletons, 
but with no other objects, in a barrow in Denmark,! has also been 
engraved. A second was found under similar circumstances. 

Although, possibly, not strictly within the scope of the present 
work, it will be well here to make a few observations relating to 
the other articles formed of bone which are occasionally found in 
association with those of stone. More than three dozen bone 
instruments were found in the Upton Level barrow, + already 
frequently mentioned. Most of them were pointed, varying in 
length from about 3 to 9 inches, and formed apparently from the 
leg-bones of different mammals. They, for the most part, show a 
portion of the articular surflice at the end which has not been 
sharpened, at which also they are perforated. Mr. Cunnington, 
their discoverer, was of opinion that they had been used as arrow 
or lance-heads ; and possibly some of the larger specimens served 
as javelin-points, even if the smaller were merely pins to aid in 
fastening the dress, to which they were secured by a string passed 
through the hole, so as to prevent their being lost. I have what 
is decidedly a lance-head, 5f inches long, made from a leg-bone, 
probably of a roe- deer, which has been pointed by cutting the 
bone obliquely through, so as to show a long elliptical section ; 
while the articular end has been excavated into the cavity of the 
bone, so as to form a socket for the shaft, which was secured 
in its place by a pin, jDassiug through two small holes drilled in 
the bone. It was found in Swaffham Fen, near Cambridge. 
Other spear-heads of much the same character, from the same 
district, from Lincolnshire, § and from the river Thames, are in 
the British Museum, and some of them have been described and 
figured by Mr. Franks. 

A pin or awl of bone,|| 4| inches long, made from the fibula of 
some small animal, probably a roe-deer, split, and then rubbed to 
a point, was among the objects found by the Rev. W. Greenwell, 
F.S.A., at Grime's Graves, Norfolk, as well as the rounded piece of 
bone already mentioned at p. 31. 

Bone pins or skewers, closely resembling those from British 
barrows, are of frequent occurrence on the sites of Boman occu- 

* 2nd ed., 1870, p. 7. " Aarbog. f. N. 0.," 1868, p. 100. 
t "Ann. for Nord. Oldk.," 1S4U-1, p. 166. Madsen, "Afbild.," pi. xxv. IC. 
X Arch., vol. XV. p. 122. Hoarc's "South Wilts," p. 75. 
§ Proc. Soc. Ant., 2nd S., vol. i. p. 162. || Joitrn. EtJni. Soc, vol. ii. p. 429. 

C C 


pation. In the name of fihnla, as applied to tlie small bone of tlie 
leg, we have an acknowledgment of its adaptability for making 
suck pins ; in the same way as the name of its concomitant tihia 
designates the bone best adapted for making into flutes. 

Bone pins, perforated at one end, were found in several 
of the barrows explored by the late Mr. Bateman,* both with 
burnt and unburnt bodies. Mr. Greenwell has also found them 
in the Yorkshire tmnuli ; in three instances with burnt bodies. 
I found one also in a disturbed barrow at Sutton Cheney, 
Leicestershire, which I opened in ISCl. Others without the 
hole, some of which are termed spear-heads by Mr. Bateman, 
were found in Derbyshire and Staffordshire barrows, f with burnt 
and unburnt bodies, associated with instruments and arrow-heads 
of flint. Another was fovmd with burnt bones in a barrow at 
Hacpen IIill,J Wilts ; and part of one in the long barrow at 
West Kennet.§ 

It seems probable that many of these pointed instruments may 
have been used as awls, for making holes in leather and soft 
materials. Others, as Mr. Bateman aJid Mr. Greenwell suggest, 
may, with the unburnt bodies, have fastened some kind of shroud ; 
and with the burnt, have served to pin a cloth in which the ashes 
were placed, after being collected from the funeral pile. 

In the Heathery Burn Cave, where so many interesting bronze 
relics were found, there also occurred a large number of bone pins 
or awls, a cylindrical bone bead tV inch long, a bone tube 1^ inches 
long with a small perforation at the side, a pierced disc of bone 
If inches in diameter and \ inch thick, and a flat bone blade, 
somewhat resembling in form a modern paper-cutter, 7f inches 
long and \\ inches broad. This same flat form of instrument, 
about 6| inches long and f inch broad, occurred in the Green 
Low barrow, II Derbyshire, but then in company with a fine flint 
dagger and stemmed and barbed arrow-heads, and with a bone 
pin. Mr. Bateman If thought that these instruments might have 
served as modelling tools for making pottery, or as mesh rules for 
netting. One, 12 inches long, with a drinking-cup and various 
instruments of flint, accompanied a contracted interment in a 
rock-grave on Smerrill Moor,** Derbyshire. With a similar inter- 

* "Ton Years' Diggings," pp. 75, 114. Gran. Brit., vol. ii. pi. 60, p. 2. 

t "Ten Years' Dig.," pp. 44, 77, 83, 112. % ISalisb. vol. Arch. Inst., p. 91. 

§ Arch., vol. xxxviii. p. 413. 

II Cr««. i?)-ii;.,vol. ii. pi. 41, p. 3. " Vest. Ant. Derb.," p. 60. H Catalogue, p. 5. 

«* "Ten Years' Dig.," p. 103. 


ment in a barrow on Hadclon Field* was one Gj inches long, cut 
from the horn of a rcd-decr, a flint arrow-head, and a small bronze 
awl. Two others, cut from the ribs of a larg-e animal, and two 
barbed flint arrow-heads, were found inside a " drinking-cup " at 
the head of a contracted skeleton in Mouse Low ; t and others, 
again, with barbed flint arrow-heads, occurred with calcined bones 
at Hibden Low.+ They have also been found in Dorsetshire, per- 
forated. § Whether these instruments really served the purposes 
suggested by Mr. Bateman it is impossible to determine ; but they 
seem well adapted either for finishing off" the surface of clay ves- 
sels, or for netting, an art with which the Swiss Lake-dwellers of 
Robenhausen 1 1 were acquainted, though in that settlement but 
slight traces of a knowledge of metal are exhibited. 

Although needles of bone, carefully smoothed all over, and 
having a neatly drilled eye, have been found in the cave-deposits 
both of Britain and France, but few such instruments have, as 
yet, been discovered in these countries with any objects of the 
Neolithic Period. 

A bodkin or needle of wood, 6 inches long, and of the ordinary 
form, was, however, found in company with a small bronze 
dagger-blade, in an urn containing burnt bones near Tomen-y-mur, 
Carnarvonshire. It is engraved in the ArehwoJocjical Journal.^ 

Needles of bone, both with the central hole (like some of those of 
the Bronze Age) and with the eye at the end (like those of the 
present day), have also been found in the S^ass Lakes.** One of 
the latter class was discovered in the Genista Cave at Gibraltar. ft 
It is hard to say to what period it belongs. 

Needles of both forms have been found, with arrow-heads and 
other articles of flint, in Danish grave-chambers. ++ 

The pins or awls, already described, are so rude and clumsy, 
and so large at the perforated end, that they could never have 
been intended for use as needles ; and when we consider that the 
principal material to be sewn mxist have been the skins of animals, 
and that, even at the present daxy, needles are hardly ever emploj'cd 
for sewing leather, but bristles are attached to the end of the thread, 
and passed through holes prepared by an awl, it seems possible 
that needles, if ever they were used for this particular purj)ose, may 
have been superseded at a very remote period. The small bronze 

* "T. Y. D.," p. 107. t Oj). cif., p. 116. Arch. Assoc. Journ., vol. vii. p. 215. 

X Op. cit., p. 127. § Arch. Jour., vol. v. p. 3-52. || Keller, "LakeDwell.," p. 328. 
IT Vol. xxiv. p. 17. ** " Le Hon, " L'Homme Foss.," 2nd ed., p. 186. 

tt Tram. Preh. Conq., 1868, pi. ix. p. 126. ++ Madsen, "Afbild.," pi. xvii. 



awl, SO frequently found in barfows, is singularly like the " cob- 
ler's awl " of the present day, tbougb straight, and not curved. 

Among the Danish * antiquities of bronze we find a remarkable 
form of needle or bodkin, about 2| or 3 inches long, bluntly 
pointed at each end, and provided with an oval eye in the centre, 
so that it could be passed tlirough a hole in either direction. 
This, with a bronze awl for boring the holes, and a pair of 
tweezers to assist in dra^Nang the needle through, appears to have 
constituted the sewing apparatus of that day. I mention this form 
of needle because in Ribden Low,t Staffordshire, Mr. Carrington 
found, together with a burnt interment, some instruments and 
barbed arrow-heads of flint, and some bone implements "pointed 
at each end" and "perforated through the middle," which may 
possibly have served such a purpose. I cannot, however, speak 
as to their size, for no dimensions are given by Mr. Bateman. In 
another barrow, at Bailey Hill,+ some calcined bones were accom- 
panied by a pair of bone tweezers, neatly made and perforated for 

Some of the needles of horn or bone in use amonfj the Indians 
of North America § were in shape much like miniature elephants' 

Another bone implement appears to have been a chisel, of which 
a good specimen was found by the Rev. "VV. C. Lukis, F.S.A., in 
a chambered barrow at Temple Bottom, || Wilts. It is formed of 
a portion split from a leg-bone of some mammal, about 3j 
inches long, and f inch wide, sharpened from both faces to a seg- 
mental edge at one end. A broader instrument of the same 
character was found with some long bone pins or awls near Caw- 
dor Castle;^ and "a celt- shaped instrument, 5 inches long, with 
a cutting edge, made from part of the lower jaw of a large qua- 
druped, rubbed down," was found with calcined bones in a barrow 
near Monsal Dale.** 

As has already been mentioned, bone instruments in the shape 
of a chisel have been found in considerable numbers in the Swiss 
Lake-dwellings and elsewhere, and have been regarded as having 
been used in making and ornamenting earthen vessels. ft That 
bone chisels are, however, susceptible of more extensive use, is 
proved by the practice of the Klah-o-quat Indians of Nootka 

* Worsaac, " Nord. Olds.," No. 275. f " Ten Years' Dig.," p. 127. t lb., p. 169. 
§ .Schoolcraft, " Fiid. Tribo,s," vol. i. pi. xxvii. " Anc. Mon. of IMiss. Vail.," p. 220. 
II I'ror. ,Soc. ^hii., 2n(l 8., vol. iii. p. 21o. H Proc. Sor. Ant., 2nd S., vol. i. p. 395. 
** " Ten Years' Dig.," p. 77. ft Keller, " Lake Dwellings," p. 26. 


Sound,* who, without the aid of fire, cut down the large cedars 
for their "dug-out" canoes with chisels formed from the horn of 
the Wapiti, struck by mallets of stone hafted in withes, and some- 
what like dumb-bells in shape. 

The only other form of implement I need mention is that of a 
hammer formed of the lower end of a stag's horn, cut off and per- 
forated. One of these was found with a skeleton in Coj) Head 
Ilill barrow, t near Warminster, together with fragments of flint 
"polished by use;" and another in a barrow near Biggin, + with 
a contracted interment, and in company with flint celts, arrow- 
heads, and knives. The Hex. W. Greenwell has likewise found one 
in a barrow at Cowlam, Yorkshire, with an unburnt body. They 
have also been found in some numbers in the Thames, near Kew. 

I have already spoken of the use of stags' horns for pick-axes, 
and for sockets for stone hatchets; occasionally, also, the horn 
was brought to a sharp edge and used as an axe or hoe.§ Stag's- 
horn axes occur in various countries on the Continent. They are 
by no means rare in Scandinavia, except in the case of their having 
ring- ornaments and other figures engraved upon them.ll On an 
adze of this kind, in the Stockholm Museum, is engraved the 
spirited representation of a deer. In one instance^ an axe has 
been made from the nina of a whale. Lindenschmit** has en- 
graved several of horn, principally from Hanover. They occur 
also in Beads and buttons of bone++ have been found 
with early interments ; but the curious bone objects discovered in 
a pit at Leicester,!! and in the caves at Settle, Yorkshire, II II belong 
apparently to too recent a period to be here discussed. Some 
beads and ornaments formed of bone will be mentioned in a sub- 
sequent chapter. 

* Catlin's " Last Rambles," p. 101. f Hoare's " Soutli Wilts," p. 68. 

; "Vest. Ant. Derb.," p. 42. 

§ Sproat, "Scones and Studies of Savage Life,"^ 1SC8, p. 8G. Trans. Eth. Soc, 
N. S., vol. V. p. 250. 

II Aiit. Tidsk., 1852—54, p. 9. Mem. cle la Hoc. dcs Ant. uu KorJ, 1850—60, p. 29. 
Madsen, "Afb.," pi. xxv. 

H Mini, de la S. d. A. duN., 1845—49, p. IGS. 

** "Alterth. u. heid. Vorz.," vol. i. Heft v. Taf. 1. See also " Hora3 Ferales," 

tt Bouclier de Perthes, "Ant. Celt, et Anted.," vol. i. pi. u. 5, /. 

IX Arch., vol. XXX. p. 330. Hoare's " S. W.," p. 103. 

§^ Proc. Soc. Ant., 2nd S., vol. i. p. 246.^ |||| Smith's " Coll. Ant.," vol. i. p. 69. 



Besides tlie weapons and implements used in warfare and tlie 
cliase, as well as for various constructive purposes, there were in 
ancient times, as at present, numerous implements and utensils of 
stone devoted to more purely domestic uses. Some of these, such 
as corn-crushers, mealing-stones, querns, pestles, and mortars, have 
been treated of in other parts of this work, where, from the con- 
nection of these instruments A^ith other forms adapted for some- 
what different purposes, it appeared appropriate to describe them. 
There are, however, other classes, connected principally with 
domestic occupations, such, for instance, as spinning and weaving, 
about which it will be necessary to say a few words. 

At how early a period the introduction of the spinning-wheel 
superseded to some extent the use of the distaff and spindle it is 
difficult to say. It is by no means improbable that it was known 
in classical times, as tStosch thinks that he has recognized it on 
antique gems. The distaff and spindle remained, however, in use 
in many parts of this country until quite recently, and are still 
commonly employed in some remote parts of Britain, as well us 
over a great part of Europe. To hoAV early a date this simple 
method of spinning goes back we have also no means of judging. 
We know that it was in use in the earliest times among the 
Egyptians and Greeks ; and we find, moreover, in the Lake-habita- 
tions of Switzerland* — even in those which apparently belong to 
a purely stone age — evidence of an acquaintance with the arts 
both of spinning and weaving, not only in the presence of 
some of the mechanical appliances, but also in the thread and 
manufactured cloth. The principal fibrous materials in use in 
the Lake-dwellings were bast from the bark of trees (chiefly the 
lime) and flax. No hemp has as yet been found in any Lake- 

__ * Keller, "Lake Dwellings," p. 326. Dcsor, "Les Palafittcs," p. 30. ' 


dwelling. It seems probable tbat the raw materials employed in 
Neolithic times in Britain must have been of the same character ; 
but we have here no such means of judging of the relative anti- 
quity of the textile art as those at the command of the Swiss 
antiquaries. Woven tissues have, however, been found with 
ancient interments by the Rev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A.,* and 
Messrs. Mortimer, but made of wool, and not of vegetable fibre. 

In sj^inning with the distaff and spindle, the rotatory motion of 
the latter is maintained by a small fly-wheel or " spindle- whorl," 
very generally formed of stone, but sometimes of other materials, 
with a perforation in the centre, in which the wooden or bone 
spindle was fastened, the part below the whorl tapering to a point 
so as to be readily twirled between the finger and thumb, and the 
part above being also pointed, but longer, so as to admit of the 
thread when spun being wound round it, the j'arn in the act of 
being spun being attached to the upper point. These spindle- 
whorls are, as might be anticipated, frequently found in various 
parts of the country ; and though, from the lengthened period 
during which this mode of spinning was practised, it is impossible, 
under ordinary circumstances, to determine the antiquity of anv 
specimen, yet they appear to have been sufiiciently long out of use 
for local superstitions to have attached to them, as in Cornwall 
they are commonly known by the name of " Pisky grinding- 
stones," t or " Pixy's grindstones." In North Britain + they are 
also familiarly called Pixy- wheels, and in Ireland § " Fairy-mill- 
stones." In Harris and Lewis II the distafi'and spindle are still in 
common use, and yet the original intention of the stone spindle- 
whorls, which occur there as elsewhere, appears to be unknown. 
They are called clach-nathrach, adder-stones or snake-stones, and 
have an origin assigned them much like the ovimi angninum of 
Pliny. "When cattle are bitten by snakes, the snake-stone is 
put into water, with which the afiected part is washed, and it is 
cured forthwith." This is the less miracidous from there beina- 
no venomous snakes in the islands. Glass beads ^ with spirals on 
them seem to have been regarded as even more efiicacious. 

Spindle-whorls vary considerably in size and weight, being 
usually from an inch to an inch and a half in diameter, but 
occasionally as much as from two to three inches. They are some- 

* Arch. Journ , vol. xxii. p. 253. t It-? xxvi. p. ISi. + lb., xxvi. p. 184. 

§ Wilde, " Cat. Mus. E. I. A.," p. IIG. || I'roc. .S. A. Scot., vol. iv. pp. 72, 119— "^SG 
•n Froc. 8. A. Scot., vol. v. p. 313. 



times flat at tlie edge or cylindrical, but more frequently rounded. 
They difier much, in the degree of finish, some appearing to 
have been turned in a lathe, while others are very rough and 
not truly circular. 

The specimen I have selected for engraving as Fig. 357 is one of the 
more highly finished class, and rather flatter than usual. 
It was found in draining, at Scampston, Yorkshire, and 
is formed of a hard slaty stone. It has been turned 
in a lathe on one face, and at the edge ; the other 
face is irregular, and seems to have been polished by 
hand. What was evidently the upper face is orna- 
mented with two parallel incised circles, and there are 
Fig. 257.-ScampstoTi. J two more round the edge. The hole seems to have 
been drilled, and is quite parallel. One of the cheese-like spindle -whorls, 
of red sandstone, and another, rounded at the rim, shown in Figs. 358 and 
359, found in hut-circles in Holyhead and 
Anglesea,''' are engraved in the Arch. Journal. 
Another, of sandstone, found in Thor's Cave, 
Derbyshire, with various objects, some of them 
of iron, is engraved in the lidiquary .\ One of 
lead, 1^ inches in diameter, convex on one 
face, was found in the same place. One found 
at Ty Mawr, Holyhead,! by the Hon. W. 0, 
Stanley, F.S.A., who has kindly lent me this 
and the preceding blocks, is shown in Fig. 360. 
Numerous other specimens were discovered in the same place. They 
are sometimes decorated with incised radial lines and shallow cavities 

I'ig. 358.— Holyliead. i 

Fig. 3")9.— Holyhead. 

Fig. 360.— Holyliead. 

more or less rudely executed. 
nethshire,§ has been figured. 

One such, found near Carno, Merio- 
Several others are recorded as having 

* A. J., vol. xxiv. p. 250; xxAai. p. IGO. 
j Arch. Journ., vol. xxvi. p. 304. 

t Vol. vi. pp. 207, 211. 

^^ Arch. Cainb.j 3rd S., vol. iii. p. 305. 


been found in the Principality." In Cornwall f they seem to be 
especially numerous, occasionally occurring in subterranean chambers. 
Tbey have also been found in considerable numbers in Scotland. :|: 

Mr. Franks § has suggested tliat some of these perforated discs 
may have been used as dress-fasteners or buttons, and mentions 
that very similar objects have been found in Mexico, which there 
is every reason to believe have been used as buttons. He also 
instances a specimen from South Wales, which has evidently had 
a cord passed through it, as the edges of the hole in the centre arc 
much worn by friction. Such a view carries much probability 
with it, so far as it relates to the thin discs of stone with small 
central holes not parallel, but tapering from both faces, especially 
if they are in any way ornamented. Some of the rougher kind, 
however, may have served some such purpose as that of plummets 
or net-sinkers, as has been suggested by Professor Nilsson.H In 
Samoa, flat circular discs of stone, about 2 inches in diameter, 
with central holes, are used by the natives to prevent rats from 
reaching provisions, which are for that purpose suspended in 
baskets by a cord, on which one of these discs is strung. Mr. 
Franks has called my attention to one of them preserved in the 
Christy Collection. Their use is analogous to that of the flat stone 
on the staddles on which corn-stacks are built in this country, 
though in that case the stones are to prevent the ascent and not 
the descent of the rats. 

Judging, however, from all analogy, there can be little doubt 
that in most cases where the holes are parallel, the perforated discs 
found in Britain were spindle-whorls. As has been already 
observed, they are frequently formed of other materials than stone ; 
and both the spindles of wood and the whorls of bone have been 
found with Roman remains. H They are also frequently formed of 
lead and earthenware. Spindles of ivory also occur both with 
Roman and Saxon relics. I have several such, foimd with 
whorls of slaty stone in Cambridgeshire. The Saxon whorls are 
of the same materials and character as those of Roman age. 
Spindles of wood havebeenfound in the Lake-settlements of Savoy.** 
An interesting and profusely illustrated chapter on spindle- whorls 
will be found in Hume's "Ancient Meols." ft 

* A. J., vol. viii. p. 427. Arch. Camb., 2nd S., vol. iii. p. 223 ; 3rd S., vi. p. 376. 
t Froe. Soc. Ant., 2nd S., vol. iv. p. 170. Jonrn. R. I. Corn., vol. ii. p. 280. 

I Proc. S. A. Scot., vol. iv. p. 54 ; v. pp. 15, 82 ; vi. p. 208. A. J., vol. x. p. 219. 
§ Arch. Journ., vol. ix. p. 11 ; xxiv. p. 250. || " Stone Age," p. 81. 

II C. E. Smith's "Cat. Lend. Ant.," p. 70. Lee's "Isca Silurum," p. 47. 
** Eabut, " Hab. Lac. de la Sav.," 2me Mem., pi. vii. 1. ft 1863, p. 151. 


Allied to these objects, but evidently destined for some otber 
purpose, is a flat disc of slielly limestone, now in my collection, 
found at Barrow, near Bury St. Edmunds. It is 5j incbes in 
diameter, f incb thick, groimd from both faces to an edge all 
rovmd, and perforated in the centre with a hole f inch in dia- 
meter, countersunk on each face, so as to leave only a narrow 
edge in the middle of the hole, which is much polished by friction. 
The edge of the periphery is also worn smooth. I am at a loss 
to assign a use to this object. Mr. Greenwell has a similar 
disc from the North Eiding of Yorkshire, showing polish on one 
face. An instrument of similar form, engraved by Lindenschmit,* 
has a parallel shaft-hole. Among the North American Indians,! 
perforated discs, but with broad and not sharp peripheries, appear 
to have been used as a sort of quoits. 

Some flat imperforate discs of stone, from 2 to 9 inches in 
diameter, roughly chipped round the edges, and in one instance 
oval, were found, with bronze tweezers and articles of iron, in a 
Pict's house at Kettleburn, Caithness.^ Others of large size 
occurred in another Pict's house in Orkney, § and were regarded 
as plates. Six black stone dishes, all about 2j inches thick, and 
varying from 1 foot 8 inches to 10 inches long, were found 
with numerous other objects, among them a copper needle, 
in a circular building in South Uist.H Other similar dishes have 
been found near Sand Lodge, in Shetland. Possibly such stones 
may have been used in cooldng oatmeal cakes or bannocks — 
like the stones on which formerly "pikelets" or crumpets were 
cooked in Leicestershire and other midland counties, where 
their modern iron substitutes arc still called "pikelet-stones." 

Another purpose to which stone implements seem to have been 
applied, in connection with weaving and the preparation of leather, 
is that of burnishing or smoothing, somewhat in the same manner 
as is now efiected by the flat-iron. Sir W. Wilde, speaking of a 
quite recent period, observes that "it is well known that weavers 
in the North of Ireland used a smooth celt, whenever they could 
find one, for rubbing on the cloth, bit by bit, as they worked it, to 
close the threads and give a gloss to the surface." ^ Mr. Green- 
well has a celt from Yorkshire, which was used by a shoemaker 
for smoothing down the scams ho made in leather. The old 

* " Alt. u. h. v.," vol. i. Heft ii. Taf. 1, fig. 11. 

t Schoolcraft, " Iml. Tribes," vol. i. p. 83. 

X I'roc. Soc. Ant. 8coi., vol. i. p. 268. Arch. Joiirn., vol. x. p. 219. 

\ Arch., vol. xxxiv. p. 136. |1 i'. S. A. S., vol. iii. p. 125. H "Cut. Mus. 11. 1. A.," p. 45. 


English name for the smooth stones used for such purposes is 
" slickstone." In the " Promptorivim Parvulonim," * written in 
the fifteenth century, a slekystox or slekenstoxe is trans- 
lated, linitorium, lucibrinnculum, licinitoriiim — terms unknown to 
classical Latinity. Mr. Albert Way, in a note on the word, after 
giving its various forms as slyke-stone, sleyght-stono, sleeke-stonc, 
&c., remarks, "In former times, polished stone implements inform 
of a muUer were used to smooth linen, t paper, and the like, and 
likewise for the operation termed calendering. Gautier de 
Bibeles worth says, — 

' Et priez la dame qe ta koyfe luche (slike) 
De sa luchicre (sliking stone) sui- la huche.' 

In directions for making buckram, &c., and for starching cloth, 
(Sloane MS., 35-i8, f. 102,) the finishing process is as follows : 
* Cioii lapide sli/cstone Icn'fica.' Slickstones occur in the Tables of 
Custom-House Hates on Im2)orts, 2 James I., and about that 
period large stones inscribed with texts of Scripture were occa- 
sionally thus used. (See Whitaker, ' Hist. Craven,'+ p. 401, n.) 
There was a specimen in the Leverian Museum. Bishop Kennett, 
in his ' Glossarial Collections,' v. ' Slade,' alludes to the use of such 
an appliance 'to sleek clothes with a sleekstone.' " Cotgrave, in 
his French Dictionary, translates caJendrine ov jJi'errc caIciidn'ne,iX8 
a sleekstone; and under the word "lisse" makes mention of "a 
rowler of massive glasse wherewith curriers do sleeke and gloss 
their leather." This, probably, was a substitute for a more 
ancient instniment of stone. Sir Thomas Browne mentions slick- 
stones among electric bodies, and implies that in his time they 
were of glass. "Glass attracts but weakly though clear; some 
slickstones and thick glasses indifierently." $5 

A four-sided implement of stone, fashioned with considerable care, the 
sides flat and smooth, and with an edge at one end, was found by the 
Hon. W. 0. Stanley, F.S.A., at Pen-y-Bonc,l| and is shown in Fig. 861, 
the block for which he has kindly lent me. It has been regarded as a bur- 
nisher or polishing-stone. A similar specimen is iu the Blackmoro Museum. 

Mr. Syer Cuming^ mentions the discovery, at Alchester, Oxfordshire, 
of a flat pyriform piece of red sandstone, 3^ inches long, 3], inches wide, 
and 1 inch thick in the middle, with the edges rounded, and the whole 
surface, Avith the exception of the obtuse end, polished ; and he inclines to 

* I^d. CiiDid. Soc, p. 458. 

t A polished flint is still used for producing a lirilliant surface on some kinds of 
coloured papers which are known as flint-glazed. See "Flint Chips," p. 101. 
X 2nd ed., p. 468. § " Vulg. Errors," lib. ii. c. 4. 

II Arch. Joun/., vol. xxvi. p. 321. *[[ Arch. Assoc. Jourii., vol. xii. p. 177. 



the belief that it was employed in smoothing hides and rendermg them 
pliant for clothing. Another " slickstone for tawing or softening hides 
by friction," formed of quartz, 6^ inches broad by 2h inches in height, 
with a depression on either side to admit the finger and thumb, and 
having the surface rounded and polished by use, was found at a depth of 
three feet in the ground at Culter, Lanarkshire.''' Three flint pebbles 
found with late Celtic enamelled bronze horse-trappings at Wcsthall, 
Suffolk, f and having one or both of their sides much rubbed down, may 
possibly belong to this class of objects. Sir R. Colt Hoare | speaks of 
" the hard flat stones of the pebble kind, such as we frequently find both 
in the towns as avcII as in the tumuli of the Britons," but does not sug- 
gest a purpose for them. Polished pebbles have not unfrequently been 
found in tumuli with stone arms and implements. One tapering towards 
the ends, v/hich are rubbed flat, was found by Mr. Bateman.§ Another 

Fig. 361.— Holyhead, i 

was found in a barrow near Ashford-in-the-Water. II It is possible they 
may, as subsequently suggested, have been ornaments or amulets ; but 
some pebbles, polished on part of their surface, as if by use, have been 
found in tumuli by the Rev. W. Grecnwell. 

A " smoothing-stone" of hard grey stone, with a short tang apparently 
for fixing it in a handle, has been engraved by the Rev. Dr. Hume.i! 
He does not, however, state where it was found. A somewhat similar 
implement is engraved in Schoolcraft,'''" which he thinks may have been 
designed for smoothing down seams of buckskin. I have seen a stone 
which had been used for this purpose in England. 

Dr. Keller ft has shown that, in connection with what was pro- 
bably the earliest form of loom, weights were employed to stretch 
the warp. These, however, in Switzerland, seem to have been for 
the most part formed of burnt clay, though possibly some of the 

* Arc?/. Asxoc. Journ., vol. xvii. p. 20, pi. v. 1. t Arcli., vol. xxxvi. p. 456, 
X « South Wilts," p. 124, § " Vebt. Ant. Derb.," p. 29. 

II Arch., vol. xii. p. 327. M "Ancient Mcols," p. 314. 

** "Ind. Tribes," vol.ii. pi. uO. tf " Lake Dwellings," p. 331. 


stones wliicli have been regarded as sinkstones or plummets were 
used for this purpose. Some of these have already been described. 

Another domestic use to which stones were applied was as 
weights for the balance or scales, though we have no evidence at 
present that in this country, at all events, any weighing apparatus 
was known so early as the Stone or even the Bronze Period. 
Among the Jews the same word pW {Ehen) denoted both a stone 
and a weight ; and we have a somewhat similar instance of 
customs being recorded in language in the case of our own 
"stone" of eight or fourteen pounds. Discoidal weights formed 
of stone are not unfrequently found on the sites of Roman 

The moulds in which bronze celts, spear-heads, swords, and 
other weapons and tools were cast, were often made of stone, but 
any account of them woidd be more appropriate in a work on 
bronze antiquities than here. I therefore content myself vdih. 
appending some references to works in which such moulds are 

Another class of domestic utensils, frequently found in Scotland 
and the adjacent islands, consists of cup-like vessels formed of 
stone, of various degrees of hardness, and usually provided with a 
small projecting handle. 

Fig. 862, borrowed from the Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries 
of Scotland, \ will serve to show their general character. Of the two 
cups here engraved, one was found 
near a megalithic circle at Crook- 
more, Tullynessle, Aberdeenshire, 
and the other in another part of 
Scotland. The material is de- 
scribed as a soft calcareous stone. 
One of steatite or "pot-stone," 
with a large unpierced handle, 
was found in a cairn at Drum- 
kesk,| near Aboyne, Aberdeen- 
shire ; and two others, one with 
the handle projecting from the Fig. 362.— scotiaiui. 

side, and the other with a long straight handle, at Strathdon,§ in the 
same county. Two others, one of them of micaceous sandstone, orna- 
mented with a band of rudely cut projecting knobs, and the other with 

* Arch. Jourii., vol. iii. p. 257 ; iv. p. 327 ; vi. p. 385 ; ix. p. 185 ; x. p. 2 ; xviii. 
p. 166. Proc. Soc. Ant., vol. iv. p. Ii8. Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. i. p. 45 ; ii. 
p. 33; iv. p. 383; v. p. 109; vi. pp. 48, 209. Jourii. -Ethnol. Soc, vol. ii. p. 341. 
Arch. JEliana, vol. iv. p. 107. "The Bairow Diggers," p. 77. 

t Vol. i. p. 117. Wilson's " Prch. Ann. of Scot.," vol. i. p. 207. 

t Proc. Soc. Ant., 2nd S., vol. iii. p. lOQ. J Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. v. pp. 30, 83. 



incised lines in zigzag herring-bone patterns, were dug out of a large 
cairn on Knoekargity," and others at Cromar, f also in Aberdeenshire. 
^^^^._ ^^^^ Others have been found in cairns 

.^(^^^^- ■isifr. in Banfishirc,]: Morayshire, § and 

Sutherlandshire,|| the engraving 
of the last of which is here re- 
produced as Fig, 363. It is 6^ 
inches in diameter. They have 
also been found in Picts' houses 
in Caithness, *! Shetland,'''''' and in 
a " fort" in Forfarshire.! t Stone 
cups have been discovered under 
Fig. ao;.— Silt htiiunii^iiiio. various circumstances in Aber- 

deenshire,! | ^t Balmoral, S§ and in Forfarshire, || I ] Perthshu-e,^*! and the 
Isle of Skye,""" as well as in the Isle of Man. iff They occur, though 
rarely, in Ireland.!!^ 

In former times these cups were regarded as "Druidical patera.;'' but 
Prof. Daniel Wilson § § § has pointed out that in the Faroe Islands a 

similar kind of vessel is still in 
use as a lamp, or as a chafing- 
dish for carrying live embers. 
He has engraved one of them 
in the cut here reproduced. The 
same kind of rude lamp or cresset 
is in use in Ceylon. |j |]|| These 
Scottish vessels probably belong 

Fig. G61.-Faroe Islands.^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^.^ ^^^^^^ antiquity. 

A shallow one-handled saucer or stand of Kimmeridge shale was found 
at Povington, Dorset,1I^^ but was probably intended for some other pur- 
pose than the Scottish cups. It has been suggested that it was for holding 
the flakes of flint supposed to have been used for turning the armlets 
and other objects of Kimmeridge coal, many fragments of which, as well 
as numerous pieces of flint, were found with it ; but it seems more 
probable that the turning tools were of metal. It may be an unfinished 
lamp-stand, or possibly a lamp. 

Cups, however, formed of slialc, and most skilfally made, have 
occasionally been found in barrows. The most remarkable is that 
whicli was discovered in a tumulus at Broad Down,**** near 

t " Cat. Arch. Inst. Mus. Ed.," p. 20. 

T. S. A. S., vol. i. p. 267. 

H Arch. Scot., vol. iii. App. 50. 
■ft ^'- ''>'• -4. /S'., vol. ii. pp. 64, 71. 

' " l!il Ibid. 

* F. A'. A. S., vol. vi. p. 89. 
t P. S. A. S., vol. i. p. 138. 

I "Cat. A. I. Mus. Ed.," p. 18. 

II Arch. Jotirii., vol. xxvi. p. 186. 
** A. S., vol. iii. App. 89. 

Xt P- ''^- A. 8., vol. vii. p. 320. §§ Ibid., vol. v. p. 82. 

Hlf Ibid., vol. vi. p. 12. *** Ibid., vol. i. p. 180. 

ttt Arch. Jouni., vol. xiii. p. 104. " Cat. A. I. Mus. Ed.," p. 47. P. S. A. >S., 

vol. ii. p. 330. Arch. Camb., 3rd S., vol. xi. p. 429. 

lit Wilde, "Cat. Mus. E. I. A.," p. 114. 

§§§ P. S. A. 8., vol. i. p. 118. " Prch. Ann. of Scot.," vol. i. p. 208. 

IIIJII Arch. Jour., vol. xiii. p. 104. HH^ Engraved in Arch. Jour., vol. xvi. p. 299. 

**** Arch. Jot(rn.,\o\. xxv. p. 290. Trans. I'rch. Cong., 1868, p. 363. Trans. 
Devon. Assoc, vol. ii. p. 619. 



Honiton, by tlie Rev. Ricliarcl Kirwan, to whom I am indetted for 
the loan of the fiill-sized figure (Fig. 365) below. The woodcut 

Fig. 365.— Broai Dowd, near Honiton. 

gives so perfect a representation of its form that any detailed descrip- 


tion is needless. Its height is 3f inclies, and its greatest diameter, 
whicli is at the mouth, 3 inches. Its capacity is about a giU. 
The material of which it is formed appears in all probabiKty to be 
Kimmeridge* shale, though it is difficult to pronounce on this 
point with certainty. In another barrow, also on Broad Down,t 
Mr. Kirwan came upon a bronze spear-head, or rather dagger, 
which had been attached to its haft by rivets, lying on a deposit of 
burnt bones ; and at a distance of about three feet he discovered 
a drinking-cup of shale, of almost similar form and size to that 
previously found. It is about 31 inches high, and 3 inches in 
diameter at the mouth, and is now preserved in the Albert 
Museum at Exeter. One very remarkable feature about these cups 
is that they have been turned in the lathe, and not made by hand ; 
and it has been siiggested that by the use of the pole-lathe, the 
great apparent difficulty of leaving the projection for the handle 
would be entirely removed. I had already arrived at this conclu- 
sion before seeing, in Mr. Kirwan's paper, the views of a " skilful 
practical turner " on this point ; but it may be well to describe the 
simple instrument known as a pole-lathe, with which most of the 
constituent parts of a "Windsor chair are turned at the present day.+ 
On the bed of the lathe, which usually consists of two pieces 
of squared wood nailed to two standards fixed in the ground, 
are two wooden ''heads," both furnished with pointed screws 
passing through them, to form the centres on which the piece of 
wood to be turned revolves. The piece of wood to be turned is 
chopped into an approximately cylindrical form, and placed 
between the two centres, and above the lathe is fixed a long 
elastic pole of wood, to the end of which a cord is attached, 
connecting it to the end of a treadle below the lathe. The cord 
is hitched round the wood, and adjusted to such a length as to keep 
the treadle well ofi" the ground when the pole is at rest. When 
the treadle is pressed down with the foot, it draws down the 
pole, and the cord in its passage causes the piece of wood to 
revolve. When the pressure is relieved, the elasticity of the 
pole draws it back in the opposite direction, so that the 
workman by treading causes an alternate rotatory motion of 
the wood. He turns this in the ordinary manner, except that 

* See Pengelly in Tr. Lev. Assoc, vol. iv. p. 105. 

t Trans, jjcvon. Assoc, vol. iv. p. 302, pi. iv. 2. 

X The polo-lallic is also still in nso in the manufacture of metallic cocks in which 
the revolution of the barrel being turned has to be stopped before the complete 
circle has been gone through, fcjee Timmina's " Birmingham and Mid. Hardware 
District" (1806), p. 291. 



his tool can cut only intermittently, that is, at the time the 
revolution is towards, and not from him. If, now, a projecting 
stop were attached to the object in the lathe, so as to prevent 
its making a complete revolution, it is evident that a portion 
like that forming the handle of the cup might be left unturned. 
Still, in the case of these cups, something more than the 
ordinary pole-lathe with two "dead" centres must have been 
used, as with such a lathe it would be almost impossible to bore 
out the hollow of the cup. It appears probable, therefore, that a 
mandrel-head with a live centre. Like that of our ordinary lathes, 
must have been used, though probably the motion was commu- 
nicated by a pole and treadle, and not, as with modern foot-lathes, 
by a large pulley on a cranked axle. 

"We shall subsequently see that the waste pieces of Kimmeridge 
shale, to which the unwarrantable name of " coal-money" has been 
applied, testify to the use of such a lathe. Whatever may be the 
date to which the manufacture of this shale into bracelets and other 
objects was carried down, it seems probable that, assuming this cup 
to have been of home manufacture and not imported, the use of 
the lathe was known in this country in pre-Roman times. In 
the Broad Down barrow no other object accompanied the burnt 
bones, and in the trunk interment in the King barrow, Stow- 
borough,* near "VYareham, cited by Mr. Kirwan, where a somewhat 
similar cup appears to have been found, there was no weapon nor 
trace of metal, unless it were what was imagined to be some gold 
lace. The ornamentation of this cup is different from that of the 
Devonshire specimen, and the workmanship appears to be ruder. 
It was described at the time as of wood, but was probably of 
shale, as has been suggested by Dr. Wake Smart, t 

It is, however, but right to mention that a wooden cup which 
had been turned in a lathe, and had a handle at the side, and was 
found in a barrow in Slesvig,+ in a coffin made from a trunk of 
an oak, together with a skeleton wrapped in woollen cloth, a bronze 
dagger, and other objects. Professor Worsaae attributes these 
objects to the Early Bronze Age. Mr. Kirwan has cited another 
instance of a somewhat similar cup, found with " coal-money." 

It is true that these instances afford no actual guide as to date, 
but the interments were clearly not Roman. Some clue, however, 

* Hutchin's " Dorset," vol. i. p. 38. Gough's " Camden's Brit.," vol. i. p. 70, 
pi. ii. Wame'a " Celtic Tumuli," § 3, p. 4. 
f Wame, I.e. 
X Arch. Journ., vol. xxiii. p. 35. 

D D 



is afforded by tlie discovery of the gold cup shown in Fig. 366, not 
unlike this in form, in a harrow at Rillaton,* Cornwall, accompanied 
by what appears to have been a bronze dagger ; f but the best 
evidence as to the date to be assigned to this class of cups is pro- 
bably that of the very remarkable and beautiful specimen formed 
of amber, and found in a barrow at Hove,+ near Brighton. 

Bottom of Cup. 
Fig. 36C.— Gold Cup— Rillaton, height SJ inclips. 

In this instance an interment in an oaken coffin was accom- 
panied by the amber cup, here, by the kindness of the Sussex 
Archaeological Society, reproduced, a double-edged battle-axe of 
stone (see Fig. 119, p. 165), a bronze dagger, and a whetstone. 
This cup is 3| inches in diameter and 2^ high, about iV inch in 
thickness, and its capacity rather more than half a pint. It is 

* Arch. Jourii., vol. xxiv. p. 189, whence the cut is borrowed. 

t Erroneously called a celt by Mr. Kirwan. 

I Arch. Jouni., vol. xiii. p. 183; xv. p. 00. Sussex Airh. Coll., vol. ix. p. 120. 



perfectly smooth inside and out, and, so far as I could judge from 
seeing it through glass in the Brighton Museum, it was turned 
in a lathe. It has heen suggested hy Mr. Barclay Phillips that 
some process like that of boiling amber in spirits of turpentine 
may have been known, by which it would be rendered plastic ; 
But this seems hardly probable. 

It is, of course, possible that such an object as this may 
have come by commerce into Britain; and, indeed, amber is 
one of the articles mentioned by Strabo as exported from Celtic 

Handle of Cup. 
Pig. 367.— Hove. 

Gaul to this country. In the case of the shale cups, hoM^ever, 
the evidence seems in favour of their having been articles of home 
manufacture, and we shall shortly see to what an extent jet was 
used here in early times for ornamental piu'poses. 

Vessels without handles were also occasionally formed of stone. 
Six or seven of these, of various sizes and forms, were discovered 
in a "kist-vaen" in the island of Unst,* and are now for the most 
part in the British Museum. Four of them were of a rvide quad- 
rangular form, with flat bottoms, and from 3| to 7 inches in 
Mem. A)itJi>-oj}. Soc. Zand., \ol. i. p. 296, pi. i. Froc. Soc. Ant., 2nd S., vol. iii- 

p. 51. 

D D 2 


height. The other three were oval. They were formed of schistose 
rock, and some of them still bear traces of the action of fire. 
Mr. Franks, with reference to these Tessels, has stated that stone 
vessels of a rude type are still in use in some remote parts of 
Norway. One is engraved, as ancient, by Nilsson.* 

Several were found in the ancient dwelling at Skara, Orkney,! one of 
which is hexagonal. 

A small stone cup, found by the Hon. W. 0. Stanley in an ancient 
circular habitation at Ty Mawr, Holyhead, is, through his kindness, 
shown in Fig. 368.]: A more oval cup, somewhat broken, was also found. 

A circular cup or mortar, barely 4 inches in diameter, from Anglesea, 
is engraved in the Archoiological Jonnud.^ 

Fig. 368.— Ty Mawr. 

Some small cup-shaped vessels of chalk, probably used as lamps, were 
found by the Kev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A., in the excavations at Grime's 
Graves. 11 

A cylindrical stone vessel, 5 inches high and 6| inches in diameter, 
with a cup-shaped cavity above, and a small hole below, as if for fixing 
it on a stand, was found at Parton, Kirkcudbrightshire.^ Another, found 
with a polished stone hatchet in a cairn in Caithness,'''* is of circular form, 
ribbed externally like a melon. 

In a cist in a barrow in Orkney f f the cinerary urn was formed of 
" mica stone," about 19| inches high and 22^ inches in diameter, and 
covered with a lid of undressed stone. Another stone urn and two stone 
dishes, with handles or ears, were found in a grave in Forfarshire yH and 
two stone urns, one within the other, were turned up by the plough near 
Wick.§§ One of these was 13 inches high and 21 inches in diameter, 
with two handles rudely cut in the sides. The other was 8 inches in 
height and 11^ inches in diameter, and was provided with a stone lid. 

Stone vessels have been found in the Shetland Isles, one of them with 
a movable bottom, and partly filled with burnt bones. |||| 

* "Stone Age," pi. x. 210. t Froc. Soc. Ant. &o<., vol. vii. p. 213. 
X Arch. Jour., vol. xxvii. p. 160, pi. ii. 2. § Vol. xxvi. p. 288. 

II Journ. Eth. Soc, vol. ii. p. 430. If rroc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. vii. p. 478. 

** 1\ S. A. S., vol. vii. p. 502, fig. 7. ft /'• S. A. S., vol. ii. pp. 4, 59. 

Xt !'■ ^- A. S., vol. ii. p. 191. §§ Ibid., vol. i. p. 149. 

nil Wilson's "Pieh. Ann. of Scot.," vol. i. p. 200. HibLert's "Shetland," 
p. 412. "Cat. Mus. Soc. Ant. L.," p. 18. 


Stone vessels have also been discovered, though rarely, in barrows in 
England. One such was found by Mr. Bateman, in company with a small 
bronze bucket with an iron handle, in a barrow at Wetton.''' It is only 
4 inches high, and carved in sandstone, with four grooves running round 
it by way of ornament. It is probably of late date. 

A few urns formed of stone have also been found in Ireland. 

One of the varieties of steatite has long been in use for the formation 
of hollow vessels for cooking and other purjioses, and is still known by 
the name of Pot-stone in English. Many of the cooking vessels of the 
Esquimaux are made of this material. 

I now pass on to the consideration of personal decorations formed of 

* " Ten Years' Dig.," p. 173. 



Among all savage tribes tlie love of ornament and finery is very 
great, thougli it cannot well be greater than tliat exhibited by 
more highly civilized races. It has, however, to content itself 
vnth decorations of a simpler kind, and requiring fewer mechanical 
appliances in their production ; so that shells, feathers, and trophies 
of the chase, and ornaments wrought from bone and the softer 
yet showy kinds of stone, usually replace the more costly pro- 
ducts of the loom and the jeweller's art. 

The ornaments commonly found in this country associated with 
interments belonging to the period when stone implements were 
in use are, for the most part, formed of jet, shale, and amber, and 
occasionally, as has already been mentioned, of bone, and possibly 
ivory, and even gold. Nearly all, however, appear to be charac- 
teristic of the time when stone was already being superseded 
by bronze for cutting purposes, and on this account, as well as 
from their not being imjalements, but personal decorations, some of 
them but slightly differing from those in use at the present day, 
I had at first some scruples in including them in this work. 
It would, however, appear incomplete were I not to take a 
short review of some of the principal discoveries of such objects ; 
and this will also incidentally be illustrative of some of the 
funeral customs of prehistoric times and of the use of amulets of 

The simplest form of ornament, if indeed it can be properly so 
called, is the button, which not unfrequently accompanies inter- 
ments of an early date. The usual shape is that of an obtusely 
conical disc, in the base of which two converging holes are drilled 
so as to form a V-shaped passage, through which the cord for 
attachment could be passed. These buttons are formed of dif- 
ferent materials, but most commonly of jet or shale. 



In Fig. 3G9 a ruder example than usual is shown, full size. It is 
formed of a fine-grained limestone, and was found by the Rev. W. 
Greenwell, F.S.A., with a contracted body, in a barrow at Butterwick. 
Yorkshire, in company with five buttons of jet, from 1:^ to IJ inches in 
diameter, of which one that is pierced in an unusual manner is engraved 

Fig. 369.— Butterwick. \ 

as Fig, 370. With the body w^ere a small dagger-knife, awl, and flat 
celt of bronze, and a flint flake trimmed along one edge. The cruciform 
ornament on the stone stud would at first sight suggest the possibility 
of its being the Christian symbol. It is, however, so simple a form of 
ornament, that it maybe said to belong to all time. Numerous instances 

Fig. 370.— Butterwick. 

of its occurrence at an early period have been collected by M. de Mor- 
tillet." Another instance of the kind is aflbrded by two jet studs found 
in two barrows near Thwing and Eudstone, Yorkshire, by the Rev. W. 

* '• Lc Signe de la Croix avant le Chriptianismc," 18G6. 




iiAr. XXI. 

Greenwell, F.S.A., one of which is engraved as Fig. 371. In one case the 
button lay about the middle of the right arm, and with it a highly orna- 
mented ring of jet pierced at the sides. In 
the other instance there was a second jet 
button, as well as a ring of the same character, 
a bronze dagger-knife, and other objects, 
some of Avhich have been already described."" 
One of the rings is shown in Fig. 372. In 
both there are two V-shaped perforations 
close together, and formed in the body of 
the ring by drilling two converging holes. 
There can be little doubt that the ring and 
stud together formed some sort of clasp or 
fastening, but in what manner the string 
which passed through the perforation was 
managed it is difficult to say. 

A very highly ornamented jet ring of this 
class, square in section, and with a sort of 
bead at each angle, the two faces and periphery engraved with fine raised 
lines, and with three perforations as if for suspension, has been engraved 
in the " Crania Britannica." f It was found with the skeleton of a man, 

in a cist in a barrow near Avebury, 
Wilts, with one small and two large 
jet studs, the largest almost 3 inches 
in diameter, a flint flake, and an ovoid 
implement of serpentine subsequently 
to be noticed. 

The specimen engraved as Fig. 373, 
on the scale of one-half, is of jet, and 
was found on Crawfurd Moor, Lanark- 
Fig. 372.— Kudstone. i shire. :J It is now in the Antiquarian 
Museum at Edinburgh. It shows the most common form of button, 
and the woodcut has been made use of frequently. One of the same 

Fig. 371. — Rudstone. 

Fig. 373.— Crawfurd Moor. h 

character. If inches in diameter, and found in a barrow on Lamborne 
Down, Berkshire, is preserved in the British Museum. It has a rounded 
projection at the apex of the flat cone. In two of Kimmeridge shale, 
from Net Low, Alsop Moor, Derbyshire, § there is a similar projection, 

* Antcft, p. 239. f Vol. ii. pi. 58, p. 2. 

J Wilson's " Prch. Ann. of Scot.," vol. i. p. 442. I'roc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. ii. 
p. .307. " Cat. A. I. M. Ed.," p. 22. 
§ " Vest. Ant. Dcrb.," p. 68. 


and also a slightly raised bead round the edge. They accompanied a 
large bronze dagger, which lay close to the right arm of an extended skele- 
ton. A button of jet, If inches in diameter, was found near the shoulder 
of a contracted skeleton, in a barrow near Castern, Derbyshire.'''- A small 
piece of calcined flint lay near. Several studs or buttons of polished 
Kimmeridge coal, of the same character, but slightly more conical than 
Fig. 373, were found by Mr. F. C. Lukis in a barrow near Buxton. f A 
flint celt accompanied another interment in the same barrow. What 
appears to be a small stud of jet, but which is described as a cone, was 
found with a ring, like a pulley, of the same material, and a fine flint 
dagger and other objects, buried with a skeleton at Durrington Walls, 
Wilts. I A larger ring and disc, perforated with two holes for suspension, 
together with some beautifully formed stemmed and barbed flint arrow- 
heads (see Fig. 820) and a bronze dagger, accompanied a contracted 
interment in a barrow near Fovant, in the same county. § In four cists 
at Tosson, near Rothbury, Northumberland, || were contracted skeletons, 
two of them accompanied by an urn. In one of the cists were three 
of these buttons, described as of cannel coal, and 2 inches in diameter ; 
and in another was an iron javelin-head. They are sometimes much 
smaller in size. One of this character, found in the Calais Wold barrow 
by Messrs. Mortimer, has been figured full size in Mr. LI. Jewitt's 
ReJiqiianj.*^ He has kindly lent me the woodcut. Fig. 874. 

Occasionally we find conical studs ( i tl form perforated by two con- 
verging holes in the base, forming 
what were, in some cases, appa- 
rently the terminations of necklaces 
or gorgets. It seems possible that 
these were not made to clasp the 
whole neck, but were merely at- ^ig. 374.— Calais woid Banow. }- 

tached in some manner between the shoulders in front, as is supposed to 
have been the case with some of the Anglo-Saxon necklaces. Two of 
these studs were found with other beads of a necklace in Holyhead 
Island,""'' and are mentioned at p. 412. With other necklaces, however, 
the studs are more numerous, and seem to have been a form of beads. 

These studs or buttons are occasionally of amber. In a stone cist in 
a barrow near Driflield, Yorkshire,! f a contracted skeleton was found, 
and with it, the bracer before described (p. 384), a bronze dagger, and 
three conical amber studs, about 1 inch in diameter, flat on the under 
side, and pierced with two converging holes. 

Conical studs or buttons perforated at the base, formed of wood 
covered with gold, and of bone or ivory, have been found in the Wilt- 
shire barrows. 11 The jet studs are sometimes concave at the base, with 
a knob left in the centre for attachment, instead of being perforated. 
Five such were found with urns at Stevenston, Ayrshire. 5§ They are 
about 1 inch in diameter. 

* "Ten Years' Diggings," p. 152. f ReJiq., vol. viii. p. 86. 

X Hoare's " South Wilts," p. 172. § L.c, p. 239. 

II Proc. Soc. A»t. Scot., vol. iv. p. 60. " Cran. Brit.," vol. ii. pi. 54, p. 2. 

II Vol. xi. p. 188. ** Arch. Journ., vol. xxiv. p. 257. 

tf Arch., vol. xxxiv. p. 256. They seem to be incorrectly represented in pi. xx. 

Xi Hoare's " South Wilts," pi. x. and xii. Arch., vol. xv. pi. vii. 

^ "Wilson's "Preh. Ann. of Scotland," vol. i. p. 441. 


The rings of jet with perforations at the edges, such as have been 
before mentioned as found in connection with buttons or studs, are 
sometimes found without them. One such, nearly 2 inches in diameter, 
perforated in the centre with a hole ^ inch in diameter, and with " two 
deep grooves in the edges, and four holes near together, two communi- 
cating with each other and capable of admitting a large packthread," 
was found with the skeleton at Tring Grove,'" Herts, with which had 
been buried the flint arrow-heads and "wrist-guards" before described.! 
Two rings of jot, one punctured with two holes as if for suspension, the 
other with one hole only, were found with an urn and two " spear- 
heads " of flint in a barrow near Whitby, j A pulley-like ring, described 
as of cannel coal, with four perforations through the sides at irregular 
intervals, was found in a cist near Yarrow, Selkirkshire, § and has been 
engraved. A part of a stone hammer was found in another cist at the 
same spot. A portion of Avhat appears to be a similar ring was found 
near Lesmahago, Lanarkshire. || 

A jet ring notched on the outside, or ornamented with imperfect 
circles, was found in the Upton Lovel barrow, H together with doubly 
conical and cylindrical beads. There were both stone and bronze objects 
in the same barrow, many of which have already been mentioned. 

A ring of Kimmeridge shale, !§ inches in diameter, was found with a 
penannular ring of bronze, flint flakes and arrow-heads, a perforated 
Avhetstone, a bead of glass and of boue, in examining a series of 
barrows at Afflington, Dorset.'''''' 

Auothcr form of ornament, of which, numerous examples have 
been found with ancient interments, is the necklace, consisting of 
beads, usually of jet, amber, or bone, generally of jet alone, but 
sometimes of two of these materials together. It is, of course, 
almost impossible to rearrange a group of beads, frequently more 
than a hundred in number, in the exact order in which they were 
originally worn ; there are, however, frequently a certain set of 
peculiarly formed plates among them which seem susceptible of 
being arranged in but one particular order, so that it seems pro- 
bable that the manner in which some of these necklaces have been 
reconstructed, as in Fig. 375, is not far from being correct. 

The original was found in an urn within a barrow at Assynt, Ross- 
shire, ff and is here represented about one-fourth size, in a woodcut from 
Wilson's " Prehistoric Annals of Scotland," kindly lent me by Messrs. 
Macmillan. The flat beads, which are perforated obliquely from the 
edges towards the back, are studded in patterns with minute spots of 
gold. Besides those engraved, there were a number of irregularly oval 
jet beads. The skill with which the gold pins have been inlaid in the 

* Arch., vol. viii. p. 429. f P. 38L + Proc. Soc. Ant., vol. iii. p. 58. 

j Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. ii. p. 484 ; vi. 62. || Arch. Ansoc. Jour., vol. xx. p. 304. 
"IT Arch., vol. xv. p. 122. Hoare, " South Wilts," pi. vii. _, 
■** "Cran. Brit.," vol. ii. pi. 45, p. 3. 

tt Wilson, "P. A. of S.," vol. i. p. 435. Arch. Scot., vol. iii. p. 49, pi. v. Proc. 
S. A. S., vol. iii. p. 47. " Cat. A. I. Mu8. Ed.," p. 15. 



jet is perfectly surprising ; but a similar instance is afforded by the 
handle of a bronze dagger discovered in a barrow at Nornianton, Wilts/'= 
by Sir R. Colt Hoare. Near the shoulder of a skeleton was a flat or pal- 
stave-like celt of bronze, but without side flanges ; and near the right arm 
a spear-head of bronze, 13 inches long, and a large bronze dagger ; while 
by the side lay the hammer of stone already cited at p. 203. The handle 
of the dagger is described as of excellent design and execution, such as 
"could not be surpassed (if indeed equalled) by the most able workman 
of modern times." Its lower part is positively incrusted with minute 
gold pins arranged in chevronny patterns between straight bands ; the 
pins, to judge from the engraving, having each been carefully pointed, 
and then driven into the wood so close to one another as almost, if not 
quite, to touch. 

In most cases the flat beads of these necklaces are not, however, orna- 
mented by iulajdng, but by having dotted or striated patterns worked 
upon them by means of some sharp-pointed instrument. These mark- 

rig. 375.— Assyiit, R 

ings also occur on the bone or ivory portions, when the necklace, as is 
sometimes the case, is formed of a mixture of bone and jet or Kim- 
meridge shale. 

A necklace ornamented in this manner was found, with a female 
skeleton, by the late Mr. Bateman, in a barrow near Margate Wall, 
Derbyshire.! He describes the flat plates as being of ivory. Two other 
somewhat similar necklaces were found by the same explorer with a 
contracted female skeleton in a cist in a barrow at Cow Low, near 
Buxton ; I but the plates in this case are described as of Kmmeridge 
coal. A most elaborate necklace, consisting of no less than four hundred 
and twenty-five pieces, was found by Mr. Bateman in a barrow near Arbor 
Low.§ They consisted of three hundred and forty-eight thin lamina) 
of jet, fifty-four cylindrical beads, and eighteen conical studs and per- 
forated plates of jet and bone, some ornamented Avith punctured patterns. 

In another barrow, called Grind Loav, at Over Haddon,|l the ornaments 

* " South AVilts," p. 203. 

t "Vest. Ant. Derb.," p. 89. Arch. Assoc. Journ., vol. ii. p. 234. 
; «' V. A. D.," p. 92. A. A. J., vol. ii. p. 23^. 

§ "Ten Years' Dig.," p. 25. A. A. J., vol. vii. p. 216. " Cran. Brit.," vol. ii. pi. 
35, p. 2. 

II "T. Y. D.," p. 46. « Cran. Brit.," vol. ii. pi. 35, p. 3. 



were seventy-three in number, of which twenty-six were cyHndrical beads, 
thirty-nine conical studs of jet, pierced at the back by two holes meeting 
at an angle in the centre, and the remaining eight dividing plates orna- 
mented in front with a punctured chevron pattern superficially drilled. 
Of these, seven are of jet, laterally perforated with three holes ; and the 
eighth of bone, ornamented in the same style, but with nine holes on one 

Fig. 376. -Pen-y- Bone. 


side, diminishing to three on the other by being bored obliquely. 
Worked flint accompanied several of these Derbyshire interments. The 
skeletons are all reported by Mr. Bateman to have been those of females, 
but possibly he may have erred in some instances. Jet ornaments of a 
similar character have been found in Yorkshire barrows, near Pickering * 
and Egton,! with flint flakes ; and some from Soham Fen are in the 

* " Ton Years' Dig.," p. 228. t Arch. Assoc. Journ., vol. vi. p. 4 ; xx. p. 5 04. 



British Museum. A very fine set of beads of jet, or possibly cannel coal, 
found at Pen-y-Bonc, near Ty Mawr, Holyhead, has been engraved in 
the Archcrological Journal,-'' and is, through the kindness of the Hon. 
W. 0. Stanley, shovra in Figs. 376 and 377. The flat beads were not 
engraved with any patterns. Armlets of bronze are said to have been 
found with them. In Scotland several necklaces of this class have been 
discovered, as, for instance, near Aberlemno,+ Forfarshire; at Rothie,^ 
Aberdeenshire, with two beads of amber, fragments of bronze, and burnt 
bones; at Rafibrd,§ Elginshire; Houstoun,|| Renfrewshire; Fordorin 
House, ^ Kincardineshire ; and Leuchland Toll, near Brechin. Some 
found at Letham,*''-' Forfarshire, are described as having been strung 
together with the fibres of animals. 

The plates were occasionally of amber ; a set of six such, together 
7 inches by 2| inches in extreme length and breadth, perforated and 

Fig. 377.— Probable ArrdngemeDt of the Jet Necklace found at Pen-y-Bonc, Holyhead. 

accompanied by upwards of forty amber beads, some of jet, two of 
horn, and others of " the vitrified sort called pully-beads," representing 
seven spherical beads joined together, were found with burnt bones in a 
barrow at Kingston Deverill,tf Wilts. Another ornament of the same 
character, formed of eight tablets, together upwards of 10 inches by 
3 inches, with numerous amber beads and some gold studs (?), was 
found with a skeleton in a barrow near Lake. Many of the beads were 
round pendants, tapering upwards, and slightly conical at the bottom. A 
necklace composed of small rounded beads, and somewhat similar pend- 
ants of amber, was found near the neck of a contracted skeleton at 
Little Cressingham,4| Norfolk, By the side lay a bronze dagger and 
javelin-head, and on the breast an ornamented oblong gold plate. Near 

Vol. xxiv. p. 257- See also Froc. Soc. Aiif., vol. i. p. 34. J 

t P. S. A. S., vol. iii. p. 78. 

§ Wilson, "P. A. of S.," vol. 

II Wilson, " P. A. of S.," vol. 

** Wilson, "P. A. of S.," vol. i". p. 436 

XX "Norfolk Archseology," vol. iii. p. 1. 

+ lb., vol. vi. p. 203. 
p. 434. "Cat. A. I. Miis. Ed.," p. 17- 
p. 435. H " Cat. A. I. IMus. Ed.," p. 15. 

tt Hoare, " youth Wilts," p. 46. 


it were part of a gold armilla, a very small gold box, and remains of two 

In one of the Upton Lovel barrows examined by Mr, Cunnington a 
burnt body was accompanied by somewhat similar little boxes of gold, 
thirteen drum-like gold beads perforated at two places in the sides, a 
large plate of thin gold highly ornamented, the conical stud covered 
with gold already described (p. 409), some large plates of amber like those 
from Kingston Deverill, and upwards of one thousand amber beads. A 
small bronze dagger seems to have belonged to the same deposit. I am 
inclined to think that the so-called gold boxes may have been merelj- 
the coverings of some discs of wood perforated horizontally, and thus 
forming large flat gold-plated beads. The gold itself is not perforated, 
but the edges appear in the engraving to be much broken. Possibly the 
supposed lids and boxes were in both cases the coverings of one face only 
of a wooden bead.'" From the occurrence of the weapons in these inter- 
ments, it seems probable that this class of decoration was not confined 
to the female sex, but that, like most savages, the men of Ancient 
Britain were as proud of finery as the women, even if they did not excel 
them in this particular. 

I am not aware of the discovery of any such jet necklaces on the 
Continent, but a few flat plates of amber perforated in several places 
horizontally have been found in the ancient cemetery at Hallstatt, in the 
Salzkammergut of Austria. 

In several instances jet necklaces do not comprise any of the flat 
plates, but consist merely of a number of flat discoidal beads with one 
larger piece for a pendant. In a barrow at Weaverthorpe Ling, York- 
shire, E. R., the Rev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A., discovered a contracted 
skeleton of a young person buried with a plain urn and a necklace of 
one hundred and twenty-two flat beads of jet, with a flat, spherically tri- 
angular pendant, perforated at the middle of one of its sides, a short dis- 
tance from the edge. The beads vary in size from a Httle under to a little 
over i inch in diameter, and the sides of the pendant are about f inch long. 

In a barro'w near Fimber,f Yorkshire, Messrs. J. R. and R. Mortimer 
found, with other interments, a female skeleton in a contracted posture, 
with a small food-vase near the hand, a small bronze awl in a short 
wooden haft behind the shoulders, and on the neck a necklace almost 
identical with that found at Weaverthorpe, and of which, by the kind- 
ness of Mr. Llewellynn Jewitt, F.S.A., I am able to give a representation 
in Fig. 378. One of the beads, the pendant, and the bronze awl, and 
part of its wooden handle, are numbered 2, 3, 4, and 5. 

Another form of jet bead is long, sometimes cylindrical, and some- 
times swelling in the middle, and in a few instances almost square in 
section. Fourteen of those with a round section, and from 1 inch to If 
inches long, and one of those with the square, had been strewn among the 
bones, after they had been burnt, in an interment found by the Rev. W. 
Greenwell, F.S.A., in a barrow near Egton Bridge, Whitby. Two are 
here reproduced (Fig. 379) from the Arclurological JoHrnal.\ In another 

* In the Archaolotjia, vol. xv. pi. vii., the rim and the top or bottom of the box 
are shown as (juite distinct. Mr. Cunnington thought they might have covei-ed the 
ends of staves. 

t llcUqnnry, vol. ix. p. G7. + Vol. xxii. p. 112. 


Yorkshire barrow the same explorer found, also Avith burnt bones, a small 

Fig. 378.— Fimber. I 

flake of flint, a portion of a bronze pin, and four jet beads, two of which 



are barrel-shaped and one oblong, while the fourth is a small stud, like 
those already described. They are shown full-sized in the annexed cut 
(Fig. 380), borrowed from the Archaolofiical Journal.-^' 

Small barrel-shaped beads, accompanied by smaller disc-shaped beads, 
and two small studs, were found by the late Mr. Bateman in Hay-Top 
barrow, Monsal Dale,f accompanying the skeleton of a woman. With 

Fig. 379.— Yorkshire. \- 

them was a curious bone pendant of semicircular outline, widening out 
to a rectangular base somewhat like a modern seal. 

Jet beads, long and thin, but larger at the middle than at the extremi- 
ties, and others barrel-shaped, were found with buimt bones in a 
barrow examined by the Kev. Greville J. Chester, near Cromer ; % and a 
magnificent necklace of jet beads, ranging from 1 to 5 inches in length, 
some of them expanding very much in the middle, and with a sort of 
rounded moulding at each end, and having a few rough beads of amber 

Fig. 380.— Yoi-k,sliire. } 

intermingled with them, were found with a polished celt of black flint at 
Cruden,§ Aberdeenshire, in 1812, and are preserved in the Arbuthnot 
Museum, Peterhead. 

Some curious jet beads, one of them in the form of a ring perforated 
transversely, were found with bronze buttons, rings, armlets, &c., in 
Anglesea,|| and are now in the British Museum. 

A flat circular bead of jet, a flint scraper, and a bronze dagger and 
celt were found by the late Mr. Bateman in a barrow near Bakewell.H 
A large pendant, apparently of jet, pear-shaped, and perforated near the 
smaller end, was found in a barrow on Stanton Moor,"-'' Derbyshire ; and 
a rudely made bead of Kimmeridge shale in the long-chambered barrow 

* Vol. xxii. p. 241. t "Ton Years' Dig.," p. 74. "Cran. Biit.," vol. ii. pi. 60, p. 2. 

+ Arch. Joum., vol. vii. p. 190. § " Cat. A. I. Mus. Ed.," p. 10. 

II Areh. Joum., vol. xxii. p. 74. Arch. Camb., Srd H., vol. xii. p. 97. 

If Arch. Assoc. Joum., vol. vii. \). '217. ** Arch., vol. viii. p. 59. 



at West Kennet,* Wilts. Another pendant, consisting of a flat pear- 
shaped piece of shale 2^ inches long and 2 inches broad, and perforated 
at the narrow end, was found along with querns, stones with concentric 
circles and cup-shaped indentations worked in them, stone balls, spindle- 
whorls, and an iron axe-head, in excavating an underground chamber at 
the Tappock, t Torwood, Stirlingshire. One face of this pendant is 
covered with scratches in a vandyked pattern. Though of small size, 
this seems to bear some analogy with the flat amulets of schist, of which 
several have been discovered in Portugal, | with one face ornamented 
in much the same manner. 

Pendants of jet of other forms are also occasionally found with inter- 
ments. That shown in Fig. 381 was discovered in a barrow at Hungry 
Bentley, Derbyshire, by Mr. J. F. Lucas, 
who has kindly let me engrave it. It 
lay in company with a globular and a 
barrel-shaped bead in an urn containing 
burnt bones. In character, this orna- 
ment recalls to mind the bronze pendants 
of which so many occurred in the ceme- 
tery at Hallstatt, though this is of far 

simpler design. Fig. 381.-Hungi-y Bentley. J 

Armlets manufixetured from a single piece of jet are not uncommon 
among Roman antiquities. They seem, however, also to have been made 
in this country in pre-Roman times. Portions of jet or lignite armlets of 
almost semicircular section, and " evidently turned on the lathe," were 
found with numerous bronze and bone relics in the Heathery Burn Cave,§ 
Stanhope, Durham ; and in the cromlech of La Roche qui sonne,\\ Guernsey, 
Mr. F. C. Lukis discmered a remarkable oval armlet of jet, ornamented 
on its outer surface, and with countersunk perforations in several places. 
With it was found a bronze armlet of whitish colour. By the kindness 
of the Council of the British Archaeological Association, figures of both, 
on the scale of one-third, are here reproduced. With them were found 

rig. 382.— Jet— Guenisey. 

Fig. 383.— Bronze— Guernsey. 

pottery and stone instruments, mullers and mills of granite. Armlets of 
bone ^ or ivory are also found with ancient burials, but hardly come 
within my province. 

The use of jet for personal ornaments in pre-Roman times in Britain 
is quite in accordance with what might be gathered from the testimony 

* Arch., vol. xxxviii. p. 413. t P- S. A. S., vol. vi. p. 112. App., p. 43. 

I Trans. Jithn. Soc, vol. vii. p. 50. § Proc. 6'oc. Ant., 2nd S., vol. ii. p. 131. 

II Arch. Assoc. Journ., vol. iii. p. 344, Arch., vol. xxxv. p. 247. 
H Hoare, " South Wilts," p. 124. 

E E 


of early historians. Soliuus {circ. a.d. 80) mentions the abundance in 
this country of jet, which, he relates, burns in water and is extin- 
guished by oil, and which, if excited by friction, becomes electric like 
amber. His statements are repeated by other authors. The occur- 
rence of amber on our coasts does not appear to have been observed in 
ancient times, unless possibly by Sotacus.''' It is, however, occasionally 
found at the present day. 

Beads formed of selected pebbles of quartz or other material are rarely- 
found accompanying interments of the Stone Age in Britain. In 
France f they seem more common. Some neatly pierced pebbles of 
rose-quartz, bored in the same manner as the perforated stone hammers, 
were found in the AlJee couverte of Argenteuil. 

It is rather doubtful whether the discs of liimmeridge shale, so abun- 
dantly found in Dorsetshire, and to which the absurd name of Kim- 
meridge coal-money has been given, date back to pre-Koman times. 
These discs, as is well known, have on the one face a centre-mark 
showing where they revolved on the centre of the "back poppet" in 
the course of being turned; and on the other face a square recess, | or 
occasionally two or three smaller round holes, showing the manner by 
which they were attached to the chuck or mandrel of the lathe. Very 
rarely they occur with a portion of an armlet, which has broken in the 
process of turning, still attached to their edges. One such has been 
engraved in the Archa:olo(iical Journal, § and another is in my own col- 
lection. There can, therefore, be no doubt, that instead of their having 
been expressly made for any purpose, such as for use as money, they 
are merely the refuse or waste pieces from the lathe. They all appear 
to me to have been worked with metal tools, and, from a mass of 
them having been found " conglomerated by the presence of irony 
matter," || these would appear to have been of iron or steel ; at the same 
time, however, numerous chippings of flint were found, which, if used at 
all in the turning process, may have served for roughing out the discs. 
I have, however, not had an opportunity of personally examining these 
flint chippings. 

Rings of different sizes formed of stone are occasionally found, but 
their purpose is unknown. In a barrow at Heathwaite H in Furness, 
half a stone ring, about a couple of inches in diameter, and apparently 
of circular section, was found. A ring of diorite, 4j inches in diameter, 
with a central hole of 1:^ inches, sharp at the edge, but If inches thick at 
the border of the perforation, and of nearly triangular section, was found 
at Wolsonbury, Sussex, and is in the collection of Mrs. Dickinson, of 
Hurstpierpoint. A somewhat similar ring of serpentine, 5^ inches in 
diameter, is in the Museum at Clermont Ferrand. A ring of black 
stone, found above the stalagmite in Kent's Cavern, is shown in Fig. 384. 
It is slightly rounded at its edges. 

Five small rings, about an inch in diameter, of a brown colour, and 
apparently made of lignite, were found in an urn with burnt bones and 
a bronze pin in a barrow near Winterbourn Stoke.*''"' One of them 
was perforated near the edge as if for suspension. 

* Plin., "Nat. Hist.," lib. xxxvii. c. 2. t Ro'- Arrh., vol. xv. p. 364. 

X See Arch. Assoc. Jour»., vol. i. p. 325. { Vol. xvi. p. 299. || Ibid., p. 300. 

II Arch., vol. xxxi. p. 452. ** Hoare's " South Wilts," p. 11-4, pi. xiii. 


A flat ring, from one of tlie ancient circular habitations at Ty Mawr,* 
in Holyhead Island, is shown, full size, in Fig. 385. It was 
found by the Hon. W. 0. Stanley, F.S.A., who has obligingly lent me 
the block. It is supposed to have been used as a brooch. There is a slight 
notch on each side, which might have served to catch the pin. 

Another form of personal ornament, or, more probably, amulet or 
charm, consisted of pebbles usually selected for their beauty or some 
singularity of appearance. They are veiy frequent accompaniments of 
ancient interments, and are sometimes, though rarely, perforated. In a 
barrow near Winterbourn Stoke t there had been deposited near the 

Fig. 384.— Kent's Cavern, i Fig. 385 Ty Mawr. A 

body " a perforated pebble-stone, about 2 inches long, and very neatly 
polished," which Sir R. Colt Hoare thought might have been sus- 
pended as an amulet from the neck. 

In another barrow in the same group j the interment comprised 
" a pair of petrified fossil cockleshells, a piece of stalactite, and a hard 
flat stone of the pebble kind," besides a brass or bronze pin and other 

In a third, near Stonehenge,§ there was at the left hand of the skeleton 
a dagger of brass, and close to the head a curious pebble described as 
" of the sardonyx kind, striated transversely with alternate spaces that 
give it the appearance of belts ; besides these stria;, it is spotted all over 
with very small white specks, and, after dipping it in water, it assumes a 
sea-green colour." 

In another barrow near Everlej^ || a heap of burnt bones was sur- 
rounded by a circular wreath of horns of the red deer, within which, and 
amidst the ashes, were five stemmed and barbed flint arrow-heads and a 
small red pebble. 

A beautiful pink pebble, supposed to have been placed with the body 
as a token of aftection, was found in a sepulchral cist at Breedon,1[ 
Leicestershire. Some querns and an iron knife appear to have accom- 
panied the interment, so that it may belong to a comparatively late 
period. Quartz pebbles are, however, very frequently found with ancient 
burials, and Mr. Bateman has recorded numerous instances of their occur- 
rence. Three such, one red, the others of a light colour, together with 
a ball of pyrites, a flat piece of polished iron ore, a flint celt, and various 

* Areh. Journ., vol. xxvi. p. 304. f Hoare, "South Wilts," p. 124. 

+ Ibid. § Op. cit., p. 165. || Op. cit.,-p. 183, pi. xxii. 

il Arch. Assoc. Journ., vol. xv. p. 337. 



other instruments of flint, were found with a skeleton in a barrow on 
Elton Moor.* In opening Carder Low,i near Hartington, about 
eighty quartz pebbles and several instruments of flint, including a barbed 
arrow-head, were found ; and with the body, a bronze dagger and an axe- 
hammer of basalt. Mr. Bateman has suggested that the pebbles were 
possibly cast into the mound during its construction, by mourners and 
friends of the deceased, as tokens of respect. Numerous quartz pebbles, 
supposed to be sling-stones, were found in a barrow near Middleton.| 
In the same barrow was a porphyry-slate pebble, highly polished, "the 
sides triangular and tapering towards the ends, which are rubbed flat." 
A stone from a barrow near Ashford-in-the-Water § is said to have been 
of the same character. 

In a barrow near Avebury, |] already mentioned, there were in a cist, 
with a male skeleton, three studs and a ring of jet, a flint knife, and a 
beautifully veined ovoid implement of serpentine, 4 inches long and 2 
inches broad, the apex at each end ground flat. Dr. Thurnam does not 
attempt to assign any purpose to this implement, if such it were. 

Sometimes, however, the pebble appears to have been actually placed 
in the hand of the deceased, as was the case in a barrow near Alsop,1T 
where a round quartz pebble was found in the left hand of the skeleton ; 
and in another barrow on Readon Hill,** near Ramshorn, where a small 
pebble was found at the right hand. A quartz pebble lay among a 
deposit of burnt bones, accompanied by a bronze pin, in another barrow 
near Thro In another Derbyshire J | barrow, a quartz pebble, 
found near an urn, was regarded as a sling-stone. 

Pebbles have been found with interments in other parts of the country, 
as in the long barrow at Rodmarton,§§ Gloucestershire, where were a 
small round white pebble and flint arrow-head. An ovoidal stone, 4 by 2^ 
inches, occurred in a grave at Athelney ; || || and one of chert, 8^ by 5s- 
inches, in a barrow on Petersfield Heath. HIT The Rev. W. Greenwell has 
also found large pebbles or boulders in some of the Yorkshire barrows. 
They seem to come under another category than that of the smaller 
ornamental pebbles. 

At Caer Leb,*** Anglesea, two silicious pebbles, one black and the 
other red, with a band of little pits round it, were found in 1865, and 
supposed to be amulets. 

Mr. Kemblef + t has observed that in Teutonic tombs stones occur, 
deposited apparently from some supposed virtue or superstition, and has 
instanced two egg-shaped objects, apparently of Carrara marble, fi'om 
Liineburg tumuli. It has also been stated that in Penmynydd church- 
yard, |:[ J Anglesea, numerous skeletons were found with a white oval 
pebble, of the size of a hen's egg, near each. It is doubtful whether 
the bones were those of Christians or not ; but the Rev. T. J. Williams, in 

* "Vest. Ant. Derb.," p. 53. t Op. eit., p. 63. 

X Op. ciL, p. 29. C. R. Smith, " Coll. Ant.," vol. i. p. 55. 

§ Arch., vol. xii. p. 327. || " Cran. Brit.," vol. ii. pi. 58, p. 2. 

II " Vest. Ant. Derb.," p. 67. ** " Ten Years' Dij;.," p. 123. 

tt "Ten Years' Dig.," p. L30. H Reliquan/, vol. iii. p. 206. 

§§ Froc. Soe. Ant., 2nd S., vol. ii. p. 278. 

Illl Arch. Jourii., vol. xvi. p. 90. KH A. J., vol. xiii. p. 412. 

*** Arch. Assoc. Jour»., vol. xxii. p. 314. ftf A. /., vol. xiii. p. 413. 

XiX Arch. Camb., 3rd. S., vol. vii. p. 91. Arch. Assoc. Journ., vol. xvi. i>. 326. 


describing the fact, has suggested that the stones might bear reference to 
the passage in Revelation (ii. 17) : — " To him that overcometh will I 
give to eat of the hidden manna, and will give him a white stone, and 
in the stone a new name written, which no man knoweth saving he that 
receiveth it." 

In interments of an earlier date, such instances seem to point to some 
superstitious custom, possibly like that in India, whei'e " the mystic 
Salagramma pebble, held in the hand of the dying Hindoo, is a sure 
preservation against the pains of eternal punishment." * This pebble, 
however, was black. 

Among the Tasmanians f sacred pebbles play a not unimportant part ; 
and crystals, or sometimes white stones, are frequently worn in bags 
suspended from the neck, and women never allowed to see them. 

The symbolism of a white pebble, as representing happiness or a happy 
day, was widely known. The " calculi candore laudatus dies" | was not 
confined to the Romans, but known among the Thracians ; and the 
" black balls" at ballots of the present day carry us back to the times 

" Mos erat antiqiius niveis atrisque lapillis 
His damnarereos, illis absolvere culpa." § 

Occasionally fossil echini of flint are found buried with bodies. In a 
tumulus on Ashey Down,|| in the Isle of Wight, one appears to have 
accompanied an interment of burnt bones, together with a bronze dagger. 
Douglas also found one with an amber bead by the side of a Saxon 
skeleton near Chatham. He regarded it as an amulet, and states that 
in Scotland the peasants still have a belief in the virtue of these fossils. 
I have seen cidares forming part of Saxon necklaces after having been 
perforated, and others converted into spindle-whorls. 

In fact, the use of stones as amulets still lingers on in the northern parts 
of this country. There is in the Antiquarian Museum at EdinburghU a flat 
oval pebble, 2^ inches long, which was worn as a charm in a small bag hung 
by a red string round the neck of a Forfarshire farmer, who died in 
1854, set. eighty-four. In the same museum are a curious heart-shaped 
nodule of clay iron-stone, with a copper loop for suspension, and heart- 
shaped and oblong pendants of copper and silver, engraved with a name 
and date, which appears to be 1580. 

The custody of charms sometimes became hereditary. Martin ** de- 
scribes a stone in Arran possessed of various mu-aculous virtues. " The 
custody of this globe is the peculiar privilege of a little family called 
Clan Chattons." Other charm-stones and curing-stones have been 
described in an interesting paper by Sir J. Y. Simpson, Bart.f f 

Among the Scandinavian nations 1 1 the possession of certain stones 
was believed to secure victory in encounters, and the belief is constantly 
mentioned in ancient poetry. 

* Bonwick, "Daily Life of the Tasmanians," p. 194. 

t Bonwick, I.e., pp. 193—201. X Plin., " Nat. Hist.," lib. vii. cap. 40. 

§ Ovid, " Met.," lib. xv. v. 41. || Arch. Assoc. Journ., vol. x. p. 164. 

^ Froc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. v. p. 327. 

** " Desc.of West. Isl. of Scot.," 1703, p. 226, quoted by Stuart, " Sculpt. St. of 
Scot.," vol. ii. p. Iv. 

tt P- S. A. S., vol. iv. pp. 211—279. 

Xt De Bonstetten, Mec, d'Ant. Suisses, p. 8. Kilsson, "Stone Age," p. 215. 


A belief in the virtues of " lucky stones," or pebbles with a hole 
through them, or with a band ai'ound them, is still widely spread, and I 
well remember the incantation — 

" Lucky-stone, lucky-stone, bring me some luck, 
To-day or to-morrow by twelve o'clock." 

In Scotland such a stone is often called a witch-stone,* and hung up 
in the byres as a protection for the cattle. The same is the case in some 
parts of England. In the Museum at Leicester is a " witch-stone" from 
Wymeswold, a pebble with a natural hole towards one end, which has 
been preserved for many generations in one family, and had great virtues 
attributed to it. It prevented the entrance of fairies into the dairy ; it 
preserved milk from taint ; it kept off diseases, and charmed off warts ; 
and seems to have been valuable alike to man and beast. In the 
Western Islands f ammonites are held to possess peculiar virtues as 
" cramp-stones " for curing cramp in cattle. 

Stones remarkable either for their colour or shape appear at all times 
to have attracted the attention of mankind, and frequently to have 
served as personal ornaments or charms among those to whom the more 
expensive and civilized representatives of such primitive jewellery, siich 
as now rank as precious stones, were either unknown or inaccessible. 

Among the cave-dwellers of a remote age, both of France and Belgium, 
fossil shells appear to have been much in use as ornaments, numbers 
having been found perforated for suspension. Pendants of stone occur in 
some abundance with interments in the dolmens of France ; I occasionally 
the living fornas of shells also were perforated and worn as ornaments, 
both in the days when the reindeer formed the principal food of the 
cave-dwellei's, and in more recent yet still remote times. A black polished 
oval pebble, found in the Lake-dwelling of Inkwyl,§ has been regarded 
by De Bonstetten as an amulet. 

In Merovingian and Teutonic interments we find occasionally pend- 
ants of serpentine || and other materials, balls of crystal, and sometimes 
of iron pyrites. IT 

A peculiar stone with a groove round it, not unlike in form to the 
Danish sharpening-stones of the early Iron Age, was in use for divining 
purposes among the Laplanders, and has been engraved and described 
by Scheffer.** 

Numerous amulets, commonly formed of various kinds of stone and 
teeth of animals, usually perforated for suspension, were worn by the 
North American Indians.! f Indeed, among almost all savage nations 
such charms and ornaments abound. 

As I am not treating- of the hidden virtues of stones and gems, 
nor of their use as amulets, it is needless to say more in illustra- 
tion of the causes why selected pehbles may have been placed in 

* P. S. A. S., vol. V. p. 128. J/i/J/rop. Rev., vol. iv. p. 401. 

•f Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. v. p. 315. 

j Arch. Assoc. Journ., vol. xxiv. p. 40. "Materiaux," vol. v. pp. 118, 249, &c. 

^ Si<pp. au Rec. d'Ant. Sinsses, pi. i. 2. || Baudot, " Sep. des Barb.," p. 78. 

11 Lind(m8chmit, yl. u. h. V., vol. ii. Heft xii. Taf. vi. 12. 

** " Lapland," cd. 1704, p. 277. ft Schoolcraft, "Ind. Tribes," vol. i. p. 86. 


ancient graves. Before proceeding, however, to tlie next part of 
my subject, whicli carries me back from comparatively recent times 
to those long anterior not only to the use of metals, but to that of 
the various stone implements of which I have been treating, it will 
be well to say a few words as to the results of the general survey 
which, so far as regards the antiquities of the Neolithic or Sur- 
face Stone Period, is now complete. 

These results, I must acknowledge, are, to my mind, by no 
means completely satisfactory. ; It is true that regarding the 
various forms of objects described from a technological, or even a 
collector's point of view, the series of stone antiquities found in 
Britain does not contrast unfavourably with that from any other 
country. We have hatchets, adzes, chisels, borers, scrapers, and 
tools of various kinds, and know both how they were made and 
how they were used ; we have battle-axes, lances, and arrows for 
war, or for the chase ; we have various implements and utensils 
adapted for domestic use ; we have the personal ornaments of our 
remote predecessors, and know something of their methods of 
sepulture, and of their funeral customs. Indeed, so far as external 
appliances are concerned, they are almost as fully represented as 
would be those of any existing savage nation by the researches of 
a painstaking traveller. And yet, when we attempt any chrono- 
logical arrangement of the various forms, we find ourselves almost 
immediately at fault. From the number of objects found we may, 
indeed, safely infer that they represent the lapse of no inconsider- 
able interval of time, but how great we know not ; nor, in most 
cases, can we say, with any approach to certainty, whether a given 
object belongs to the commencement, middle, or close of the 
Polished Stone Period of Britain. 

True it is that there are some forms which, from their associa- 
tion together in graves, we know to have been contemporaneous ; 
and some which, from their occasionally occurring with interments 
belonging to a time when bronze was beginning to come into use, 
we must assign to the later portion of the Neolithic Period of this 
country ; yet it is impossible to say of these latter forms that they 
may not have been long in use before bronze was known ; nor of 
the former, that certain kinds were not introduced at a much 
earlier period than the others, which at a later date became asso- 
ciated with them. The utmost that can "wdth safety be affirmed is, 
that some forms, such as the perforated battle-axes, the skilfuUy 
chipped lance-heads or daggers, the cups fashioned in the lathe, 


and the ornaments of jet, appear to liave been of later introduction 
than most of the others. Moreover, though we may regard these 
particular objects as comparatively late, the bulk of the others — such, 
for instance, as celts, and possibly arrow-heads — were subject to so 
little modification during the whole of the Neolithic Period, that it 
is almost impossible, from form onl}^, to assign to indi\ddual speci- 
mens any chronological position. The light reflected by foreign 
discoveries, such as those in the Swiss Lakes, and by the habits and 
customs of modern savages, enables us, to some extent, to appre- 
ciate the relations and bearings of our native stone antiquities ; but 
Ihe greater part of them have unfortunately been discovered as 
isolated examples, and without attendant circumstances calculated 
to fvirnish data for determining their exact age, or the manners of 
those who used them. 

Enough facts, however, are at our command to show that, pre- 
ceding the use of metal in this country, there was a time when 
cutting instruments and weapons were made of stone, either 
chipped or ground to an edge ; and to encourage a hope that 
future discoveries may throw more light on the length of the 
period through which those who used them lived, and on the 
stage of culture they had reached. It will, I trust, be of some 
service to those who are labouring, and will yet labour, in this 
field of research, to find in these pages a classification of the 
forms at present known, a summary account of the discoveries 
hitherto made, and references to the books from which farther 
details may be gathered. 

I now turn to the relics of a still earlier period, when the art of 
•grinding stone to an edge appears to have been unknown, and 
when man was associated in this country with a group of animals 
which has now for the most part disappeared, either by migration 
to other latitudes, or by absolute extinction of the race. 




In this second division of my subject I must pass in review a 
class of implements of stone which, though belonging to an earlier 
period than those already described, it appeared to me to be better 
to take second rather than first in order. My reasons for thus 
reversing what might seem to be the natural arrangement of my 
subject, and ascending instead of descending the stream of time, 
I have already to some extent assigned. I need only now repeat 
that our sole chronology for measuring the antiquity of such 
objects is by a retrogressive scale from the present time, and not 
by a progression of years from any remote given epoch ; and that 
though we have evidence of the vast antiquity of the class of 
implements which I am about to describe, and may at the present 
moment regard them as the earliest known works of man, yet we 
should gravely err were we for a moment to presume on the 
impossibility of still earlier relics being discovered. Had they 
been taken first in order, it might have been thought that some 
countenance was given to a belief that we had in these implements 
the first efibrts of human skill, and were able to trace the pro- 
gressive development of the industrial arts from the very cradle 
of our race. Such is by no means the case. The investigators 
into the early history of mankind are like explorers in search of 
the source of one of those mighty rivers which traverse whole 
continents : we have departed from the homes of modern civiliza- 
tion in ascending the stream, and arrived at a spot where traces of 
human existence are but few, and animal life has assumed strange 
and unknown forms ; but further progress is for the moment denied, 
and though we may plainly perceive that we are nearer the source 


of which we are in search, yet we know not at what distance it 
may still be from iis ; nor, indeed, can we be certain in what direc- 
tion it lies, nor even whether it will ultimately be discovered. 
Whether or no, traces of human existence will eventually be found 
in deposits belonging to Miocene, or even earlier times, I may 
take this occasion of remarking that the evidence hitherto adduced 
on this point by French geologists is, to my mind, after full 
examination on the spot, very far from satisfactory. At the same 
time, judging from all analogy, there can be but little doubt that 
the human race will eventually be proved to date back to an 
earlier period than the Pleistocene or Quaternary, though it will 
probably not be in Europe that the evidence on this point will be 

The instruments of stone, found in ossiferous caves and in 
ancient alluvial deposits, associated with remains of a fauna now 
in great part extinct, belong to a period which has been termed 
by Sir John Lubbock the Palfeolithic, in contradistinction to the 
Neolithic Period, the relics of which are usually found upon, or 
near, the surface of the soil. By others, the more familiar, even if 
less accurately discriminative, terms of Cave Period and River- 
Drift, or even Drift Period, have been adopted. 

Though I propose in these pages to treat of th