Skip to main content

Full text of "Stories from Aulus Gellius"

See other formats

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A pubHc domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrainfrom automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http : //books . qooqle . com/ 


arg ^assxjts 



", H. NALL M. A. 





of Malden, Massachusetts 
The Gift of 

Miss Alma M. Brown 


Mr. & Mrs. George Qianning Lawrence 


- Digitized by VjOO^IC 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 




€lementats €hBmB 

Stories from 

Aulus Gellius 

Being Selections and Adaptations from the 

Noctes Atticae 

Ediied^ with Notesy Exercisesy and Vocabularies for the 
Use of Lower Forms^ by the 

' Rev. G. H. Nall, M.A. 

Assbtmnt Master at Westminster School 



Macmillan and Co., Limited 

New York : The Macmillan Company 

_, . , DimtzedbyGoOQle 

Au ngkts reserved o 





APRIL12, 1S22 


First Editlon 1888. 

Reprinted 1892. 

Be-isaue, with illustrations, 1902. 




It is hoped that this series of short stories from A. 
Gellius may serve as a pleasant change to young boys 
after a course of Cornelius Nepos, Eutropius, etc. 
The language of the original has been simplified in 
parts, and some rare or late words and constructions cut 
out The Notes have been made, with few exceptions, 
as short as possible ; " a few more lengthy digressions, 
such as those upon the ablative absolute and the 
gerundial constructions, will need no apology, if they 
succeed in leading boys to think out for themselves 
the difficulties which these constructions present Some 
simple Exercises have been added at the request of 
the Publishers, and for these an English-Latin Voca- 
bulary has been compiled. In this Vocabulary the 
words are arranged in alphabetical order, since the 
Exercises are intended principally for viva voce drill in 
form, and the Editor^s experience does not confirm the 


theory of some Editors, that a boy'8 knowledge of a 
language is increased in proportion to the time that 
he spends in hunting for words that he does not 
know ; he considers that the " paragraph " vocabu- 
lary makes the lazy boy take refuge in guessing, 
whilst it wastes the time of the industrious boy. 

The Editor acknowledges his obligations to the 
Latin Grammars of Dr. Kennedy and Mr. Roby, 
and to Dr. Smith's Dictionaries of Biography and 
Antiquities, and to similar works which lie at every 
schoohnaster's elbow. 




Preface, v 

Life of Aulus Gellius, ix 

Text of the * * Stories from Aulus Gellius," ... 1 

Notes on the Text, 33 

Exercises, 75 

Latin-English Vocabulary, 98 

English-Latin Vocabulary, 137 

Table showing the order of the "Stories" compared 

with the Books of the *' Noctes Atticae," . . 147 

Index to Notes, . . 148 

Index to Proper Names, 152 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


NaU'8 Auliu CMUus 


Statne of Menander (?) in the Vatioan, 
Bnst of Socrates in the Villa Albani, - 

Lesson on the Flute, 

Scipio Afrioanus Major (?),- 
Coin of Antiochus, with Portrait, 
Head and Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, - 
Torc on a Goin of L. Manlius Torquatns, - 

Gaulish Torc, 

Portrait of Antiochus the Great (?) at Paris, 
Aesop : Ideal Portrait in the Villa Albani, 

Celtic Armlet, 

Statue of Demosthenes in the Vatican, 

Arion on Bolphin, 

Coin struck by Pyrrhus in Italy or Sicily, - 
Coin of Mithridates the Great, with Portndt, 


Facepage 1 







NoTHiNG is kndwn about the life of A. Gellius 
beyond what can be gathered from occasional hints 
in his own writings; it has oven been disputed 
whether his name was Agellius or A. Gellius. Pro- 
bably he was a Eoman by birth, of good family and 
connections. He seems to have spent his early years 
at Rome, studjring under the celebrated teachers, 
Sulpicius Apollinaris, T. Castricius, and Antonius 
Julianus (cf xxxiv. 1) : to have continued his studies 
at Athens, where he lived on terms of familiarity 
with Herodes Atticus, Calvisius Taurus, Peregrinus 
Proteus, and other famous philosophers of that day: 
and after the lapse of many years to have returned to 
Eome, and devoted the remaining years of his life to 
literary pursuits and the society of a large circle of 
friends. The dates of his birth and death are un- 
known, but from the names of his teachers and 
friends it is certain that he lived during the reigns of 
Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius, 
117-180 A.D. 




The only work of A. Gellius that has reached 
us, possibly the only one that he wrote, is the 
'*Noctes Atticae," so called because it was begun 
during the long nights of winter in a country 
house in Attica {longinquis per hiemen nodibus in 
agro terrae Atticae), It consists of numerous ex- 
tracts from Greek and Eoman writers on subjects 
connected with history, philosophy, philology, and 
antiquities, illustrated by abundant criticisms and 
discussions. These extracts are thrown together 
without any attempt at order or arrangement, and 
divided into twenty books. He had been accustomed 
whilst reading, he says, to make notes upon anything 
which struck him as worth remembering. These 
notes he embodied with little change in his work, in 
the same haphazard order in which they had been 
made {im autem sumus ordins rerum fortuito guem antea 
in excerpendo feceramus). 

Naturally the various parts of such a * Miscellany ' 
vary greatly in quality. Some portions of it are 
highly valuable and interesting. For instance, many 
quotations are preserved from ancient authors whose 
works have perished, some of which throw Kght upon 
questions of constitutional and antiquarian interest, 
which would otherwise have remained obscure ; many 
literary and historical anecdotes are given which are 
valuable in themselves; and some important gram- 
matical usages and theories are noted. But the 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


author's appetite was omnivorous. He is as eager to 
tell the story of a marvellous African serpent, 120 
feet in length, whose destruction required the utmost 
efforts of a whole Roman army, with their baUistae and 
caiajnUtae {magna toHtis exercitus conflictione, ballistis 
atque catajpvltis diu oppugnatum, — N. A. vii. 3), or to 
discuss some absurd etymology, such as that of 
avarus from avidus aeriSy as to preserve some really 
vaJuable detail of senatorial procedure, or record the 
use and origin of obscure constitutional phrases. His 
own criticisms, moreover, are as a rule worthless, and 
his translations are feeble ; but in spite of all these 
defects his work is exceedingly interesting, and we 
could ill afford to lose it. 

His Latin style shows the defects of his age, an age 
in which the Romans had ceased to feel the full 
meaning of the words which they used, and en- 
deavoured to gain emphasis by employing obscure 
phrases and unnatural tums of expression. But 
these peculiarities are even more noticeable in the 
writings of his contemporaries. 




NaU'8 AuluB Gellius— Face page 1. 

Statue of Menander (?) in the Vatican. 
Arndt-Brunn-Bruckmann, Grieefi. und Mm. Portr&ts, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


L Vergil and His Poems. 

VergHt who tpetU much Idbour in polishvng his verses, used to com- 
pare himself to a bear, which licka its cubs into ihape, 

DiCEBAT P. Vergilius, ut aniici eius familiaresque 
ferunt, se parere versus more ursino. " Namque ut 
illa bestia " inquit, " fetum edit informem lambendoque 
postea conformat et fingit, sic ingenii quoque mei 
partus primum rudes et inperfecti sunt, sed tractan- 5 
do corrigendoque reddo iis oris et vultus liniamenta." 

IL Menander and Philemon. 

TJiepoet Menander, meeting hia successful rival PhUemon, asked 
him if he did not fed ashamed to defeat him, 

Menander a Philemone, nequaquam pari scriptore, 
in certaminibus comoediarum ambitu grati^ue 
saepenimiero vincebatur. Ei forte obviam factus 
est Menander, et " Quaeso " inquit, " Philemo, bonS 
veni4 dic mihi, cum me vincis, nonne erubescis ? " 5 

» A 


III. The Palm Tree. 

The palm has been niade the emblem of vietorp, beeauae its wood 
does not yieldf when heavy weighta are placed upon H, 

Rem hercle inirandain Aristoteles et Plutarchus 
dicunt. " Si super palmae arboris lignum " inquiunt 
"magna pondera imponis, non deorsum palma cedit 
nec intra flectitur, sed adversus pondus resurgit et 
5 sursum recurvatur ; propterea in certaminibus palma 
signum victoriae facta est, quoniam urgentibus oppri- 
mentibusque non cedit,'* 


Socrates, when cuiked why he endured his quoArreUome wife^ replied 
that to bear her temper vm good disdpline, 

Xanthippe, Socratis philosophi uxor, admodum 

morosa et litigiosa fuisse fertur, irisque muliebribus 

per diem perque noctem scatebat. Quam rem in 

maritum Socraten Alcibiades demiratus, "Cur mu- 

5 lierem " inquit " tam acerbam domo non exigis 1 ** 

" Quoniam,"responditSocrates, "cum illam domi talem 

perpetior, insuesco et exerceor, ut ceterorum quoque 

foris petulantiam et iniuriam facilius feram." 

V. The Self-Discipline of Socrates. 

Socraies uaed to train himMdf to bearfatigue by standing mjotion' 
less for twenty-four houra at a time. Hie health was always perfed, 

Inter labores voluntarios corporis firmandi caus4 

id quoque accepimus Socraten facere insuevisse : 


NaU's Aulus Gellius— Face page 2. 

Bust of Socrates in the Villa Albaiii 
(Baumeister.) (P. 2.) 

Lesson on the Plute. Prom a Oreek Vase. 
(P. 4.) 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



stabat per diem perque noctem a lucis ortu ad solem 
alterum orientem immobilis, iisdem in vestigiis, et ore 
atque oculis eundem in locum directis, cogitans, tam- 5 
quam quodam secessu mentis atque animi facto a 

Temperanti^ quoque tant^ fiiisse traditus est, ut 
omnem fere vitam valitudine integrH vixerit. In e4 
etiam pestilenti4, quae in belli Peloponnensiaci prin- 10 
cipiis Atheniensium civitatem depopulata est, dicitur 
vigorem corporis retinuisse. 

VI. Alexander and Bucephalas. 

H(yw Alexander ohtained his famouB charger BucephalaSy how it 
aaved his life in baUle, and hov> the King ihomd hi8 gratUvde, 

Equus Alexandri regis nomine Bucephalas fuit. 
Emptum Chares scripsit talentis tredecim et regi 
Philippo donatimi; hoc autem aeris nostri summa 
est sestertia trecenta duodecim. De hoc equo haec me- 
mori4 digna accepimus. Ubi omatus erat armatusque 
ad proelium, haud umquam inscendi sese ab alio, nisi 
ab rege passus est. Bello Indico cum insidens in eo 
Alexander facinora faceret fortia, in hostium cuneimi, 
non satis sibi providens, inmisit. Coniectis undique 
in Alexandrum telis, vulneribus altis in cervice atque 10 
in latere equus perfossus est Moribundus tamen ac 
prope iam exanguis e mediis hostibus regem citato 
cursu retulit atque, ubi eum extra tela extulerat, ilico 
concidit et, domini iam superstitis secunis, animam 



15 expiravit. Tiim rex Alexander, part4 eius belli 
victori^ oppidum in iisdem locis condidit idque ob 
equi honores Bucephalon appellavit. 

VIL Alcibiades and the Pipes. 

AlciJbiades, when a, boy, r^used to leam to play thepipes, hecause 
they distorted the player^t mouth, 

Alcibiades Atheniensis apud avunculum Periclen 
educatus est, qui artibus ac disciplinis liberalibus 
puerum docendum curavit. Inter alios magistros 
tibicinem arcessi iussit, ut eum canere tibiis doceret, 
5 quod honestissimum tum videbatur. Traditas sibi 
tibias Alcibiades ad os adhibuit inflavitque ; sed ubi 
oris deformitatem vidit, abiecit infregitque. Cum ea 
res percrebuisset, omnium tum Atheniensium con- 
sensu disciplina tibiis canendi desita est 

VIIL Fabricius and the Samnite Gold. 

Fahricius refused rich presents, which the Samnites offered him, 
saying that, whiU he retained command over hia senses, he had all 
that he needecL 

Legati a Samnitibus ad C. Fabricium, imperatorem 
populi Romani, venemnt et, memoratis multis mag- 
nisque rebus, quae bene post redditam pacem Samni- 
tibus fecisset, dono grandem pecuniam obtulerunt. 
5 " Quae facimus " Samnites inquiunt, " quod multa ad 
splendorem domus atque victus defieri videmus." 
Tum Fabricius manus ab auribus ad oculos et infra 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


deinceps ad nares et ad os et ad gulam deduxit, et 
legatis ita respondit : " Dum his omnibus membris, 
quae attigi, imperare possum, numquam quicquam lo 
mihi deerit; quamobrem hanc pecimian^ qu4 nihil 
mihi est usus, a vobis, qui e^ uti scitis, non accipio." 

IX. Hannibal's Jest. 

Antiochus, prmid of his army, asked Bannibal if they were 
* enoughfor the Boma/ns,* * Quite enough, ' replied Hannibal, * hoiO' 
ever greedy the Bomans areJ* 

Antiochus ostendebat Hannibali in campo copias 
ingentis, quas bellum populo Komano facturus com- 
paraverat, convertebatque exercitum insignibus ar- 
genteis et aureis micantem; inducebat etiam currus 
cum falcibus et elephantos cum turribus equitatumque 5 
frenis, ephippiis, monilibus, phaleris fulgentem. Atque 
ibi rex HannibaJem aspicit et " Putasne " inquit " satis 
esse Romanis haec omnia ? " Tum Poenus, eludens 
ignaviam militum eius tam pretiose armatorum, "Satis, 
plane satis esse credo Eomanis haec omnia, etiamsi 10 
avarissimi sunt." 

X. The Death of Milo. 

MHo, when enfeebled by a^e, tried to tear a tree open, bui the wood 
elosed on his hands and he perished miserably, 

Milo Crotoniensis, athleta inlustris, exitum habuit 
e vita miserandum et mirandum. Cum iam natu 
grandis artem athleticam desisset iterque faceret forte 



solus in locis Italiae silvestribus,quercum vidit proxime 
5 viam rimis in parte medid hiantem. Tum experiri 
etiam tunc volens, an ullae sibi vires adessent, 
inmissis in*cavemas arboris digitis, diducere et re- 
scindere quercum conatus est Ac mediam quidem 
partem discidit divellitque; quercus autem in duas 
lo diducta partis, cum ille manus laxasset, rediit in 
naturam, manibusque eius retentis inclusisque dilacer- 
andum hominem feris praebuit. 

XI. A HoAX: — The Story of Papirius 

The young Papiriua, prmed hy Jm mother to reveal the secretpro- 
ceedings of ihe Senate^ told her that they had debated whether it waa 
betterfor one hwiband to have two toives, or one wife two hitsbands, 

Mos antea senatoribus Eomae fuit, in curiam 
cum praetextatis filiis introire. Forte res maior 
quaepiam consultata et in diem posterum prolata est, 
placuitque ut eam rem ne quis enuntiaret, priusquam 

5 decreta esset. Sed mater Papirii pueri, qui cum patre 
suo in curi^ fuerat, percontata est filium, quidnam in 
senatu patres egissent. Puer respondit tacendum 
esse neque id dici licere. Mulier autem fit audiendi 
cupidior, ac tandem puer matre urgente lepidi men- 

10 dacii consilium capit. Actum in senatu dixit, utrum 
videretur utilius exque republica esse, unusne ut duas 
uxores haberet, an ut una duobus nupta esset. 


XII. The Eesult of the Hoax. 

The constemation of the Eoman MatronSf the betoilderment of the 
SenettorSt the confeuion ofPapiriiLS, and the rewardfor hia discre- 

Ubi illa hoc audivit, domo trepidans egreditur, ad 
ceteras matronas se adfert. Pervenit ad senatum 
postridie matrum famiKae caterva. Lacrimantes atque 
obsecrantes orant, ut una potius duobus nupta fieret 
quam ut duae uni Senatores in curiam ingredientes 5 
mirabantur, quae illa mulierum insania et quid sibi 
postulatio istaec vellet. Puer Papirius in medium 
curiae progressus, quid mater audire institisset, quid 
ipse matri dixisset, denarrat. Senatus fidem atque 
ingenium pueri laudat et consultum facit, uti posthac 10 
pueri cum patribus in curiam ne introeant, praeter 
illum unum Papirium, cui postea cognomen honoris 
grati^ datum *• Praetextatus." 

XIII. Sertorius. 

The eoetraordinarp infiuence that SertoiHua exercised over the minds 
of his soldierSf and themeans hy which he maintained this influence. 

Sertorius, vir acer egregiusque dux, et utendi et 
regendi exercitus peritus fiiit. Is in temporibus 
difficillimis et mentiebatur ad milites, si mendacium 
prodesset, et litteras compositas pro veris legebat, et 
somnium simulabat, et falsas religiones conferebat, si 5 
quid istae res eum apud militum animos adiuvabant. 
Haec hominum barbarorum credulitas Sertorio in 



magnis rebus maguo usui fuit. Memoria prodita est, 
neminem umquam ex his nationibus, quae cum Ser- 
lotorio faciebant, cum multis proeliis superatus esset, 
ab eo descivisse, quamquam id genus hominum esset 

XIV. Sertorius and the Doe. 

Sertorius pretended that divine revelations were made to him 
ihrough a whUe doe. This doe onee ran atoay, bttt was soon found 
again. The use which Sertoriua made of this incident, 

Huic Sertorio cerva alba eximiae pulchritudinis et 
celeritatis a Lusitano quodam dono data est. Hanc 
persuasit omnibus, oblatam sibi divinitus et instinctam 
Dianae numine, conloqui secum et monere et docere, 

5 quae utilia factu essent, ac, si quid durius videbatur, 
quod imperandum militibus foret, a cerv^ sese moni- 
tum praedicabat. Id cum dixerat, universi, tamquam 
si deo, libentes ei parebant. Ea cerva quodam die, cum 
incursio hostium esset nuntiata, tumultu constemata 

10 in fugam se proripuit atque in palude proxim^ delituit, 
et postea requisita periisse credita est Neque multis 
diebus post inventam esse cervam Sertorio nuntiatur. 
Tum eimi qui nuntiaverat iussit tacere ac, ne cui palam 
diceret, interminatus est praecepitque, ut eam postero 

15 die repente in eum locum, in quo ipse cum amicis 
esset, inmitteret. Admissis deinde amicis postridie, 
cervam ait, quae periisset, visam esse in quiete 
ad se reverti et, ut prius consuerat, quod opus esset 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


facto praedicere ; tum servo quod imperaverat signifi- 
cat, cerva emissa in cubiculum Sertorii introrupit, 20 
clamor factus et orta admiratio est 

XV. Tarquin and the Sibylline Books. 

A Sibyl offered to sdl King Tarquin nine booksfor a large mm, 
On his scomfvZ refusal she bumt threef arid offered the remainingsix 
for the same mm^ hut he again refused. She lui^ th/ree more and 
offered the remainvng three for the same sum : these the King hought 
and deposited in the * Sacristy.* 

In antiquis annalibus haec memoria de libris Sibyl- 
linis prodita est : Anus hospita atque incognita ad 
Tarquinium Superbum regem adiit, novem libros 
ferens, quos divina oracula esse dicebat; eos velle 
vendere. Tarquinius pretium percontatus est. Mulier 5 
nimium atque inmensum poposcit : rex, quasi anus 
aetate desiperet, derisit. Tum illa foculum coram cum 
igni apponit, tris libros ex novem deurit et, ecquid 
reliquos sex eodem pretio emere vellet, regem inter- 
rogavit Sed enim Tarquinius id multo magis risit, 10 
dixitque anum iam procid dubio delirare. Midier 
ibidem statim tris alios libros exussit atque id ipsum 
denuo placide rogat, ut tris reliquos eodem illo pretio 
emat Tarquinus ore iam serio atque attentiore 
animo fit, eam constantiam confidentiamque non con- 15 
temnendam intellegit, libros tris reliquos mercatur 
nihilo minore pretio, quam quod erat petitum pro 
omnibus. Sed ea muher tunc a Tarquinio digressa 
postea nusquam loci visa est. Libri tres, in sacrarium 



20 conditi, " Sibyllini " appellati ; ad eos qnasi ad oracu- 
lum quindecimyiri adeont, cum di immortales publice 
consulendi sunt. 

XVI. SciPio Africanus Impeached : His 
. Answer. 

Sdpio wa» accused of having received brtbes from Antiochus. 
Seoming to answer sttch a charge, he reminded the people that this 
toas the anniversary of hia great victory at Zama, and caUed upon 
them tofoUow him to the Capitol and there retum thanks to the gods, 

M. Naevius tribunus plebis accusavit Scipionem ad 
populum, dixitque eum accepisse a rege Antiocho 
pecuniam, ut condicionibus mollibus pax cum eo 
populi Romani nomine fieret, et quaedam item alia 

5 indigna tali viro addidit. Tum Scipio pauca prae- 
fatus, quae dignitas vitae suae atque gloria postulabat, 
**Memori4" inquit, "Quirites, repeto, diem esse 
hodiemum, quo Hannibalem Poenum, imperio vestro 
inimicissimum, magno proelio in terrS. Afric^ vici, 

10 pacemque et victoriam vobis peperi praeclaram. Non 
igitur simus adversum deos ingrati et, censeo, re- 
Hnquamus nebulonem hunc, eamus hinc protinus lovi 
optimo maximo gratulatum." Id cum dixisset, avertit 
et ire ad Capitolium coepit. Tum contio universa, 

15 quae ad sententiam de Scipione ferendam convenerat, 
relicto tribuno Scipionem in Gapitolium comitata, 
atque inde ad aedes eius cum Iaetiti& et gratulatione 
soUenmi prosecuta est 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Nall's Atilus GelUus— Face page 10. 

Scipio Africanus Major (?X 



Nall's Avdus Gellius— Face page IL 

Coin of Antiochus, with Fortrait 

Head and Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus. Torc surrounding the Head of 
(Coin of M. Volteius, 78 b.c.) Roma on a Coin of L. Manhus 

^ Torquatus (b.c. 99-94). 

Oaulish Torc. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



XVli. SciPio Africanus: Another 

Scipio <m anotJier occasion was accused of emhezding the monep 
paid hy Antiochns as a war indeTimUy : ke answered the charge by 
tearing his accounts in pieces before the eyes of the Senatora, 

Item aliud est factum eius praeclarum. Petilii 
quidam tribuni plebis a M., ut aiunt, Catone, inimico 
Scipionis, comparati in eum atque inmissi, desidera- 
bant in senatu, ut pecuniae Antiochinae praedaeque 
in eo bello captae rationem redderet : fuerat enim L. 
Scipioni Asiatico, fratri suo, imperatori in e^ provincia 
legatus. Ibi Scipio exurgit et, prolato e sinu togae 
libro, rationes in eo scriptas esse dixit omnis pecuniae 
omnisque praedae; allatum, ut palam recitaretur et 
ad aerarinm deferretur. **Sed enim id iam non 
faciam" inquit, "nec me ipse afl&ciam contumeli4," 
eumque librum statim coram discidit suis manibus, 
aegre passus, quod, cui salus imperii ac reipublicae 
accepta referri deberet, ab eo ratio praedae posceretur. 

XVIII. SciPio Africanus and the Gods. 

Sdpio believed that he toas a spedaZ favov/rite ofthe gods : before 
entering on any important work he used to spend houra of quiet 
meditation in the temple on the Capitol, A story is given ahowing 
hitpower of foreBeeing thefuture. 

Id etiam dicere haut piget, quod ii, qui de vit4 et 
rebus Africani scripserunt, litteris mandaverunt. 
Solitus est noctis extremo ante primam lucem in 
Gapitolium ventitare ac iubere aperiri cellam lovis, 




5 atque ibi solus diu demorari, quasi consultans de 
republicd. cum love. Aeditumi eius templi saepe 
admirati, quod in eum solum id temporis in Capitoli- 
um ingredientem canes, semper in alios saevientes, 
neque latrarent neque incurrerent. Has volgi de 

10 Scipione opiniones confirmare atque approbare vide- 
bantur dicta factaque eius pleraque admiranda. Ex 
quibus est unum huiuscemodL Assidebat oppugna- 
batque oppidum in Hispanil, situm, moenibus defen- 
soribusque validum et munitum, re etiam cibari4 

15 copiosum, nuUaque eius potiundi spes erat. Quodam 
die ius in castris sedens dicebat, atque ex eo loco id 
oppidum procul visebatur. Tum quispiam e militi- 
bus,qui in iure apud eum stabant, interrogavit ex more, 
in quem diem locumque vadimonium promitti iuberet : 

20 et Scipio manum ad ipsam oppidi, quod obsidebatur, 
arcem protendens, perendie sese sistere illo in loco 
iussit. Atque ita factum : die tertio, in quem vadari 
iusserat, oppidum captum est eodemque eo die in arce 
eius oppidi ius dixit. 


How a marif when trying a friemd wJuo was guiUy, tucceeded in 
reconcUing the claims of duty and offriendshipf by himaelf votnmg for 
condemnationf Imt persuading hiafellow iudicestovotefor acquUtal, 

Super amici capite iudex cum duobus aliis fui. Ita 

lex fuit, uti eum hominem condemnari necesse esset. 

Aut amico igitur caput perdendum aut adhibenda 

fraus legi fuit. Multa cum animo meo ad casum tam 


Nall*s Aulus Gellius— Face page 12. 

Portrait of Antiochus the Great (?) at Paris. 
Arndt-Brunn-Bruckmann, Portrdts. 




ancipitem medenduin considtavi ; tandem hoc, quod s 
feci, visum est optimum. Ipse tacitus ad condemnan- 
dum sententiam tuli, iis qui simul iudicabant, ut absol- 
verent, persuasi. Sic mihi et iudicis et amici officium 
in re tant4 salvum fiiit. 

XX. AvoiD Obsolete Language. 

Favorinus rebuhed a young manj who affected the use qf archaie 
language, hy telling him to hold his Umgue aUogether if he did not 
unsh to be understood : if he admvred the purity of the good old Hm^s 
he should imitate thevr toays, not their words, 

Favorinus philosophus adulescenti, veterum ver- 
borum cupidissimo et plerasque voces nimis priscas et 
ignotas in cotidianis sermonibus expromenti, " Curius" 
inquit " et Fabricius et Coruncanius, antiquissimi viri, 
et his antiquiores Horatii illi trigemini plane ac ^ 
dilucide cum suis locuti sunt, neque Auruncorum aut 
Sicanorum aut Pelasgorum, qui primi coluisse Italiam 
dicuntnr, sed aetatis suae verbis usi sunt ; tu autem, 
proinde quasi cum matre Euandri nunc loquare, ser- 
mone abhinc multis annis iam desito uteris, quod lo 
neminem vis scire atque intellegere quae dicas. Nonne, 
homo inepte, ut quod vis abunde consequaris, taces ] 
Sed antiquitatem tibi placere ais, quod honesta et 
bona et sobria et modesta sit. Vive ergo moribus 
praeteritis, loquere verbis praesentibus : atque id, 15 
quod a C. Caesare scriptum est, habe semper in 
memori^ atque in pectore, ut tamquam scopulum 
sic fugias insolens verbum.'' 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




In one of the struggUs between the Bomans and the Oavls in 361 
B.O. a gigantic Oaul chaUenged the Boma/ns to aend out a champion 
to meet him : all hdd hack except the young T, Manlius. 

Titus Manlius summo loco natus fuit. Ei cogno- 

men factum est Torquatus. Causa cognomenti fuisse 

dicitur torquis, quam ex hoste, quem occiderat, detrac- 

tam induit. Quis hostis fuerit et qualis pugna ita 

5 accepimus. 

Galli contra Romanos pugnabant, cum interim Gal- 
lus quidam nudus praeter scutum et gladios duos, tor- 
que atque armilKs decoratus, qui et viribus et magni- 
tudine et adulescentii, et virtute ceteros praestabat, 

loprocessit et manu significare coepit utrisque, ut quie- 
scerent. Extemplo silentio facto voce maxima concla- 
mat, si quis secum depugnare vellet, uti prodiret. 
Nemo audebat propter magnitudinem atque inmanem 
faciem. Deinde Gallus inridere coepit atque linguam 

15 exertare. Doluit Titus Manlius, tantum flagitium 
civitati adcidere, e tanto exercitu neminem prodire. 
Processit ipse scuto pedestri et gladio Hispanico cinc- 
tus et contra Gallum constitit 


In the stmnggle which foUotoed MamXius disconcerted the Oaul hy 
suddenly vnth his ahield dashing him ba^kfrom his posture of defence; 
?ie then came to doae quartera wiih the Oaul, and slew him, Ht 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


pui on hia awn neck the neeklace Vfhich the OatU had worn ; Jience 
he was named Torquatua. This tame Manlitis execiUed hie ton for 
disobeying ordera and slaying an enemy who had challenged him, 

Metu magno ea congressio in ipso ponte, utroque 
exercitu inspectante, facta est. Gonstitit Gallus ank 
disciplin^scuto proiecto cunctabundus; Manlius, animo 
magis quam arte confisus, scuto scutum percussit atque 
statum Galli conturbavit. Dum se Gallus iterum eodem 5 
pacto constituere studet, Manlius iterum scuto scutum 
percutit atque de loco hominem iterum deiecit; eo pac- 
to ei sub Gallicum gladium successit atque Hispanico 
pectus hausit; deinde continuo umerum dextrum in- 
cidit neque recessit usquam, donec subvertit. Ubi eum 10 
evertit, caput praecidit, torquem detraxit eamque 
sanguinulentam sibi in coUum inponit. Quo ex facto 
ipse posterique eius Torquati sunt cognominati. 

Ab hoc Tito Manlio imperia et aspera et immitia 
Manlia dicta sunt, quoniam postea, cum belloadversum 15 
Latinos esset consul, filium suum securi percussit, qui 
speculatum ab eo missus, pugn^ interdict^ hostem, a 
quo provocatus fuerat, occiderat. 

XXIII. Valerius Corvinus : — The Origin of 
His Name. 

On another occasion the young VcUerius accepted the chaUenge of a 
gigantic Oatd, During the fight a raven aided the Boman hy at- 
tacking his enemy with ifa talons ; thus Mped Valeritu slew the 
Cfavlf and received the name of Corvinus. 

Gopiae Gallorum ingentes agrum Pomptinum in- 



sederant instruebanturque acies a consulibus. Dux 
interea Gallorum, vast^ proceritate armisque auro 
praefulgentibus, manu telum vibrans incedebat perque 
5 contemptum et superbiam circumspicit despicitque 
omnia, et venire iubet et congredi, si quis pugnare 
secum ex omni Romano exercitu auderet. Tum 
Valerius adulescens, tribunus iam militaris, ceteris 
inter metum pudoremque ambiguis, impetrat a con- 

10 sulibus, ut in Gallum pugnare sese permitterent, et 
progreditur intrepidus obviam. Et congrediuntur et 
consistunt et conserebantur iam manu& Atque ibi 
vis quaedam divina fit: corvus repente advolat et 
super galeam tribuni insistit atque inde in adversarii 

15 os atque oculos pugnare incipit, eius manum unguibus 
laniabat atque, ubi satis saevierat, revolabat in galeam 
tribuni. Sic tribunus, spectante utroque exercitu, et 
8u4 virtute nixus et oper4 alitis adiutus, ducem hostium 
ferocissimum vicit interfecitque, atque ob hanc causam 

20 cognomen habuit Corvinum. 

Statuam Corvino isti divus Augustus in foro suo 
statuendam curavit. In eius statuae capite corvi 
simulacrum est, rei pugnaeque, quam diximus, moni- 

XXIV. Aesop. 

Aesop in hisfables give» good advice in a pleasant way, and hence 
men attend to him. An instance of this is his fabk of the Uvrky which 
has been put into verae hy Ennius, 

Aesopus ille e Phrygia fabulamm scriptor haud 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Kall's Aulus Gellius— Face page 17. 

Aesop. Ideal Portrait in the Villa Albani. 

Geltic Armlet from Caimmorvah. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


inmerito sapiens existimatus est; quae enim utilia 
monitu suasuque erant, non severe praecepit, ut 
philosophis mos est, sed hilares iucundosque apologos 
commentus, in mentes hominum cum audiendi qu4dam 5 
inlecebr^ induit. Velut haec eius fabula de parvae 
avis nidulo lepide praemonet spem fiduciamque rerum, 
quas efficere quis possit, haut umquam in alio, sed in 
semetipso habendam. Hunc Aesopi apologum Q. 
Ennius in satiris versibus quadratis composuit, quorum lo 
duo postremi hi sunt : 

H6c erit tibi drgumentum s6mper in promptii situm, 
N6 quid expect^s amicos, qu<Sd tute agere p6ssies. 

XXV. A Fable of Aesop : — ^The Lark and the 

A eertain larkfound the com, in which it had built, ripefor cutting 
brfore its young were fledged. It therefore ordered them to report 
anythvng unusudl which might happen in Us aJbsence, Theflrst day 
they announced that the master had been to the fleld and had sent to 
ask hi8 friends to hdp him io reap the com. On heaHng this the 
mofther said that there was no immediate need for them to leave the 

Avis est parva, nomen est cassita. Habitat in sege- 
tibus, id ferme temporis ut appetat messis pullis iam 
iam plumantibus. Ea cassita in sementes forte con- 
gesserat tempestiviores ; propterea frumentis flave- 
scentibus pulli etiam tunc inplumes erant. Dum igitur 5 
ipsa iret cibum pullis quaesitum, monet eos, ut, si 
quid ibi rei novae fieret dicereturve, animadverte- 




rent idque sibi, ubi rediisset, nuntiarent. Dominus 
postea segetum illarum filium adulescentem vocat et 

10 «• Videsne " inquit " haec maturuisse et manus iam 
postulare ? idcirco cras, ubi primum dilucescit, fac ami- 
cos eas et roges, ut veniant operamque mutuam dent 
et in hac messi nos adiuvent." Haec ubi ille dixit, et 
discessit. Atque ubi redit cassita, puUi tremibundi 

15 orare matrem, ut iam statim properet inque alium 
locum sese asportet : "Nam dominus " inquiunt " misit, 
qui amicos roget, uti luce oriente veniant et metant." 
Mater iubet eos otioso animo esse ; "Si enim dominus " 
inquit " messim ad amicos reiicit, cras seges non 

20 metetur, neque necesse est hodie uti vos auferam." 

XXVI. The Lark and the Eeapers (Contimoed). 

Neost day the young ones reported thai the master, finding hia 
friends had not come, had sent to ask the aid of his relations, The 
mother still tdU them tobeinno fear, and next day again goes out 
to seekfood. This time the young ones report that the master, finding 
his relations lingered, had determined to cut the com himself. On 
hearing this the mother announces that they must go at once. 

Die postero mater in pabulum volat. Dominus, 
quos rogaverat, opperitur. Sol fervit, et fit nihil ; it 
dies, et amici nulli eunt. Tum ille rursum ad filium 
"Amici isti" inquit " cessatores sunt. Quin potius imus 
5 et cognatos adfinesque nostros oramus,ut adsint cras ad 
metendum ? " Itidem hoc pulli pavefacti matri nun- 
tiant Mater hortatur, ut tum quoque sine metu ac sine 
curd. sint ; cognatos adfinesque nuUos ferme tam faciles 



esse ait, ut ad laborem capessendiun nihil cunctentur 
et statim dicto oboediant : " Vos modo " inquit " ad- lo 
vertite, si modo quid denuo dicetur." Ali4 luce ort4 
avis in pastum profecta est. Cognati et adfines 
operam, quam dare rogati sunt, neglexerunt. Ad 
postremum igitur dominus fiKo "Valeant" inquit 
" amici cum propinquis. Afferes prim^ luce falces 15 
duas ; unam egomet mihi et tu tibi capies alteram et 
frumentum nosmetipsi manibus nostris cras metemus." 
Id ubi ex puUis dixisse dominum mater audivit, 
" Tempus " inquit " est cedendi et abeundi ; fiet nunc 
dubio procul quod futurum dixit. In ipso enim iam 20 
vertitur cuia res est, non in alio, unde petitur." Atque 
ita cassita e nido migravit, seges a domino demessa 

XXVII. Pyerus and Fabricius. 

A frimd of King Pyrrua came to the Roman generaZ Fahricius 
and offered to poison tJie Kingfor a hribe. Fdbricius reported tke 
maUer to the Senate, who wamed Fyrrus tobeonhis guard. Fyrrua 
Bhoioed hi» gratitude by sending back all the Boman prison&rs. 

Cum Pyrrus rex in terr^ Itali^ esset et unam atque 
alteram pugnas prospere pugnasset et pleraque Italia 
ad regem descivisset, tum Ambraciensis quispiam 
Timochares, regis Pyrri amicus, ad C. Fabricium con- 
sulem furtim venit ac praemium petivit et, si de 5 
praemio conveniret, promisit se regem venenis neca- 
turum ; idque facile esse factu dixit, quoniam filius 
suus pocula in convivio regi ministraret. Eam rem 



Fabricius ad senatum scripsit. Senatus ad regem 
10 legatos misit mandavitque, ut de Timochare nihil pro- 
derent, sed monerent, uti rex cautius ageret atque a 
proximorum insidiis salutem tutaretur. Quamobrem 
Pyrrus populo Eomano laudes atque gratias scripsisse 
dicitur captivosque omnes, quos tum habuit, vestivisse 
15 et reddidisse. 

XXVIIL Androclus and the Lion : Scene in 


At the games in the Circus a lion ofgigantic size was seen tofavm 
upon one of the condemned slaves exposed in tke arena. 

In circo maximo venationis pugna populo dabatur. 
Multae ibi ferae, sed praeter alia omnia leo corpore 
vasto terrificoque fremitu et sonoro animos oculosque 
omnium in sese converterat. Introductus erat inter 

5 compluris ceteros ad pugnam bestiarum datos servus 
viri consularis ; ei servo Androclus nomen fuit. Hunc 
iUe leo ubi vidit procul, repente quasi admirans stetit 
ac deinde sensim atque placide, tamquam familiaris, 
ad hominem accedit. Tum caudam more adulantium 

10 canum blande movet cruraque et manus hominis, 
prope iam exanimati metu, lingu4 leniter demulcet. 
Homo Androclus inter illa tam atrocis ferae blandi- 
menta amissum animum recuperat, paulatim oculos ad 
contuendum leonem refert. Tum quasi mutu4 recog- 

15 nitione fact^ laetos et gratulantes videres hominem et 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


XXIX. Androclus and the Lion : — the 
Slave's Story. 

Wken questioned hy the Emperor the slave explained that he had 
fiedfrom his master into the African desert, that he had by accident 
taken refuge in this lion'8 cave, and, when the lion had retumed to its 
home Ume, he had extracted a thom from itsfoot, 

Haec tam mira res maximos populi clamores ex- 
citat et Caesar Androclum vocat quaeritque causam, 
cur illi uni atrocissimus leo pepercisset. Ibi Androclus 
rem mirificam atque admirandam narrat. " Cum pro- 
vinciam " inquit " Africam proconsulari imperio meus 5 
dominus obtineret, ego ibi iniquis eius et cotidianis 
verberibus ad fugam sum coactus et, quo mihi a 
domino, terrae illius praeside, tutiores latebrae forent, 
in locos desertos et remotos concessi ac, si defuisset 
cibus, consilium fuit mortem aliquo pacto quaerere. 10 
Tum die medio sole flagrante specum quemdam nanc- 
tus remotum latebrosumque, in eum me recondo. 
Neque multo post ad eundem specum venit hic leo, 
debili uno et cruento pede, gemitus edens et mur- 
mura ob dolorem cruciatumque vulneris. Atque illic 15 
primo quidem conspectu advenientis leonis territus et 
pavefactus sum ; sed postquam introgressus leo videt 
me procul delitescentem, mitis et mansuetus accessit et 
sublatum pedem ostendere mihi et porrigere quasi opis 
petendae grati^ visus est. Ibi ego stirpem ingentem, 20 
vestigio pedis eius haerentem, revelli conceptamque 
saniem volnere intimo expressi et sine magn4 iam for- 



midine siccavi penitus atque detersi cruorem. 1114 
tunc me4 oper4 levatus, pede in manibus meis posito, 
25 recubuit et quievit. 

XXX. Androclus and the Lion : — ^the 
Slave's Story {corUinued), 

For three years he and the lion had lived together, At last he had 
grown weary of the savage life, but as 8oon aa he had retumed to the 
haunte of men he had been captured, condemned, and sent to Bome 
to be exposed to the wild beaste in the cvrcuB, Androclue was par- 
doned and the lion toas given to him, 

" Ex eo die triennium totum ego et leo in eodem 
specu eodemque et victu viximus. Nam, quas vena- 
batur feras, membra opimiora ad specum mihi ferebat^ 
quae ego, ignis copiam non habens, meridiano sole 
5 torrens edebam. Sed ubi me vitae ilHus ferinae iam 
pertaesum est, leone in venatum profecto, reliqui 
specum et, viam ferme tridui permensus, a militibus 
visus adprehensusque sum et ad dominum ex Afric4 
Romam deductus. Is me statim rei capitalis damnan- 

10 dum dandumque ad bestias curavit Intellego autem" 
inquit " hunc quoque leonem me tunc separato 
captum, gratiam mihi nunc beneficii et medicinae 

Haec dixit Androclus ; quae cum scripta essent cir- 

15 cumlataque populo et declarata, cunctis petentibus 
dimissus Androclus et poenS solutus et leone suffragiis 
populi donatus. Postea Androclus et leo, loro tenui 
revinctus, urbe tot& circum tabemas ibat : donatus 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


est aere Androclus, floribus sparsus est leo, omnesque 
ubique obvii exclamant^ " Hic est leo hospes hominis, 20 
hic est homo medicus leonis.'' 

XXXI. The Actor Polus. 

Poltts, having toactthe part of Electra soon after his onlysonhad 
died, appeared on the stage holding the um which contained tke re- 
mains o/ hia aon, and over this he wept the tears of real gruf, 

Histrio in terra Graeci^ fuit fam4 celebri, cui nomen 
erat Polus. Is unice amatum filium morte amisit, 
sed ubi eum satis visus est luxisse, rediit ad quaestum 

Eo tempore Athenis Electram Sophoclis acturus, 5 
gestare umam quasi cum Oresti ossibus debebat. Ita 
compositum fabulae argumentum est ut, veluti fratris 
reliquias ferens, Electra comploret interitum eius 
existimatum. Igitur Polus, lugubri habitu Electrae 
indutus, ossa atque umam e sepulcro tulit filii et, 10 
quasi Oresti amplexus, opplevit omnia non simulacris 
sed luctu atque lamentis veris. Itaque cum agi fabula 
videretur, dolor actus est 

A Cfreek orator—some say DemostheneSt others Demades—at first 
opposed a request of the Milesiamfor aid, but took a bribe to with' 
draw his opposition. When the matter was a^ain discussed he an" 
nounced that he was sufferingfrom an injlamed throat, and so could 
not speak. He afterwards openly boasted tkat he had been paid to 
hold his tongue, 

Legati Mileto auxilii petendi caus4 venerunt 



Athenas. Tum qui pro sese verba facerent advoca- 
yerunt ; hi, uti erat mandatum, verba pro Milesiis ad 
populum fecerunt, sed Demosthenes Milesiorum pos- 

5 tulatis acriter respondit ; neque Milesios auxilio dig- 
nos neque ex republic^ id esse contendit Kes tandem 
in posterum diem prolata est Tum legati ad Demo- 
sthenen venerunt oraveruntque, uti contra ne diceret. 
Is pecuniam petivit et quantam petiverat abstulit. 

^oPostridie, cum res agi denuo coepta esset, Demo- 
sthenes, lan4 multd collum circumvolutus, ad popu- 
lum prodit et dixit se synanchen pati; eo contra 
Milesios loqui non quire. Tum e populo quidam ex- 
clamavit, non synanchen eum pati sed argyranchen. 

15 Ipse etiam Demosthenes non id postea celavit, quin 
gloriae quoque hoc sibi adsignavit. Nam cum inter- 
rogasset Aristodemum, actorem fabularum, quan- 
tum mercedis, uti ageret, accepisset, et Aristodemus 
talentum respondisset, " At ego plus " inquit " accepi, 

20 ut tacerem." 

Quod hic diximus de Demosthene, id nonnulli 
scriptores in Demaden contulerunt. 


. Cicero once horrotoed money to buy a houte, hub aftertoards denied 
that he had ever taken the monep or had intended topurchaae thepro- 
perty. He did buy the houH, andf when reminded of wfiat he had 
gaid, replied ihat a prudent man alwaye concealed his intended 

Cicero cum emere vellet in Palatio domum neque 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

NaU's Aulufl Gellius— Face page 24. 

Statue of Demosthenes in the Vatican. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



pecuniam in praesens haberet, a P. Sulla, qui tum reus 
erat, mutua sestertium viciens tacita accepit Ea res 
tamen, priusquam emeret, prodita est et in vulgus 
exivit, obiectumque ei est, quod pecuniam domus 5 
emendae caus& a reo accepisset. Tum Cicero inopinat4 
obprobratione permotus accepisse se negavit ac do- 
mum quoque se empturum negavit. Sed cum postea 
emisset et hoc mendacium in senatu ei ab amicis 
obiiceretur, risit satis atque inter ridendum : "aKotvo- lo 
vorfToi'^ inquit " homines estis, cum ignoratis prudentis 
et cauti patrisfamilias esse, quod emere velit^ emptu- 
rum sese negare propter competitores emptionis." 


" Property in Jtomet** said a friend, " would be toorthfar more if 
the riak from fire toere not so great " "Archelaus, ** replied JtUianus, 
*'pre8erved hia defensive ovAworka from flre hy covering them with 

Declamaverat Antonius luUanus rhetor quam feli- 
cissime, eumque nos familiares eius circumfusi undique 
prosequebamur domum, cum subeuntes montem Cis- 
pium conspicimus insulam quandam multis, arduisque 
tabulatis editam, igni occupatam et propinqua iam 5 
omnia flagrare vasto incendio. Tum quispiam ibi ex 
comitibus luliani, "Magni" inquit "reditus urbanorum 
praediorum, sed pericula sunt longe maxima. Si quid 
autem posset remedii fore, ut ne tam adsidue domus 
Romae arderent, venum hercle dedissem res rusticas lo 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


et urbicas emissem." Atque illi lulianns "Si annalem" 
inquit ''undevicensimum Q. Glaudi legisses, docuisset 
te profecto Archelaus, regis Mitridati praefectus, quo 
remedio ignem defenderes. In eo enim libro scriptum 

15 inveni, cum obpugnaret L. Sulla in terrd Attic& Pirae- 
um et contra Archelaus regis Mitridati praefectus ex 
eo oppido propugnaret, turrim ligneam defendendi 
grati4 structam, cum ex omni latere circumplexa igni 
foret, ardere non quisse, quod alumine ab Archelao 

20 oblita fuisset." 

XXXV. Arion and the Dolphin. 
1. The Eobbery. 

Arion^ having gained much money in Italy and SicUy, took ship to 
retmm to Corinth, hut was robhed and made to leap overboard hy the 

Vetus et nobilis cantor Arion fuit. Is oppido Me- 
thjnnnaeus, terr^ Lesbius fuit. Eum Arionem rex 
Corinthi Periander amicum habuit artis gratia. Is 
inde a rege proficiscitur, ut terras praeclaras Siciliam 
5 atque Italiam viseret. Ubi eo venit aures omnium 
mentesque in utriusque terrae urbibus delectavit, et 
postea grandem pecuniam adeptus Gorinthum instituit 
redire. Navem igitur et navitas, ut notiores amicior- 
esque sibi, Gorinthios delegit. Sed ei Corinthii, 
10 homine accepto navique in altum provectd, praedae 
pecuniaeque cupidi, consilium de necando Arione ce- 
perunt. Tum iUe pecuniam ceteraque sua eis dedit 


Nall's Aulus Gellius— Face page 26, 

Arion on Dolphin. 
(Ck>in of Methynma in Lesbos. 

Coin struck by Pyrrhus in Italy or Sicily. 
Head of Zeus and Figure of Dione. 

Coin of Mithridates the Great, with Portrait. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



vitam modo sibi ut parcerent oravit. Navitae per vim 
suis manibus eum non necaverunt, sed imperaverunt, 
ut iam statim coram desiliret praeceps in mare. Homo 15 
ibi territus, spe omni vitae perdit^ id unum postea 
oravit, ut, priusquam mortem obpeteret, induere per- 
mitterent sua sibi omnia et fides capere et canere car- 
men. Quod oraverat impetrat, atque ibi mox de 
more cinctus, amictus, omatus stansque in summ4 20 
puppi, carmen, quod "orthium" dicitur, voce sublat- 
issim4 cantavit. Ad postrema cantus cum fidibus 
omatuque omni, sicut stabat canebatque, iecit sese pro- 
cul in profundum. 

XXXVI. Arion and the Dolphin. 
2. The Eesoue. 

A dolphin carried him safely to Taenarum ; thence he traveUed to 
Corvnth, and told his adventure to the King. The aailore on their 
a/rrvoaZ were confronted hy Arion and convicted of thevr crime. 

Navitae, hautquaquam dubitantes, quin periisset, 
cursum, quem facere coeperant, tenuerunt. Sed 
novum et mirum et pium facinus contigit. Delphinus 
repente inter undas adnavit, fluitantique sese homini 
subdidit, et dorso super fluctus edito vectavit inco- S 
lumique eum corpore et ornatu Taenamm in terram 
Laconicam devexit. Tum Arion prorsus ex eo loco 
Corinthum petivit talemque Periandro regi, qualis 
delphino vectus fiierat, inopinanti sese optulit, eique 
rem, sicuti acciderat, narravit. Bex istaec parum 10 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


credidit, Arionem, quasi falleret, custodiri iussit, 
navitas inquisitos, ablegato Arione, dissimulanter 
interrogavit, ecquid audissent in his locis, unde venis- 
sent, de Arione 1 Dixerunt hominem, cum inde irent, 

15 in terr4 Itali^ fuisse et illic bene agere. Tum inter 
haec eorum verba Arion cum fidibus et indumentis, 
cum quibus se in salum deiecerat, extitit, navitaeque 
stupefacti convictique ire infitias non quiverunt. Hanc 
fabulam dicunt Lesbii et Corinthii, atque fabulae argu- 

20 mentum est quod simulacra duo aenea ad Taenarum 
visuntur, delphinus vehens et homo insidens. 

XXXVII. The Thracian Husbandman. 

A Thracian havmg hea/rd thai trees required cutting and prun- 
ing, proceeded to chop the tops off his vines and oliveSj and thus in 
his ignorance destroyed aU his property, 

Homo Thracus ex ultim4 barbari^ ruris colendi 
insolens, cum in terras cultiores migrasset, fundum 
mercatus est oleo atque vino consitum. Qui nihil 
admodum de vite aut arbore colend^ sciret, videt forte 
5 vicinum rubos alte atque late obortos excidentem, 
fraxinoB ad summum prope verticem deputantem, 
suboles vitium e radicibus super terram fusas revel- 
lentem, stolones in pomis aut in oleis proceros ampu- 
tantem ; acceditque prope et cur tantam ligni atque 
10 frondium caedem faceret, percontatus est. Et vicinus 
ita respondit : " Ut ager " inquit " mundus purusque 
fiat, eius arbor atque vitis fecundior." Discedit ille a 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


vicino gratias agens et laetus, tamquam adeptus rei 
rusticae disciplinam. Tum falcem ac securim capit ; 
atque ibi homo miser imperitus vites suas sibi omnis i5 
et oleas detruncat, comasque arborum laetissimas 
uberrimosque vitium palmites decidit, et virgulta 
simul omnia, pomis gignendis felicia, cum sentibus et 
rubis purgandi agri grati4 conveUit. 


MUridcUes hy tke u»e of antidotes made himselfproof againtt jx)i- 
8ons : hence when he wished to kiU himselfhehad to use his sword, 
He could speak perfecUy the languages of the tioenty4wo naUons over 
which he nUed. 

Mitridates illePonti rexmedicinae rei et remediorum 
sollers erat, quorum adsiduo usu a clandestinis epul- 
arum insidiis cavebat ; quin et ultro ostentandi grati& 
venenum rapidum et velox saepenumero hausit, atque 
id tamen sine nox4 fuit. Quamobrem postea, cum 5 
proelio victus in ultiriia regni refugisset et mori de- 
crevisset, venena festinandae necis caus4 frustra 
expertus, suo se ipse gladio transegit 

Quintus Ennius tria corda sese habere dicebat, quod 
loqui Graece et Osce et Latine sciret. Mitridates 10 
autem duarum et viginti gentium, quas sub dicione 
habuit^ linguas percalluit, earumque omnium gentium 
viris haut umquam per interpretem conlocutus est, 
sed lingu^ et oratione cuiusque, non minus scite quam 
si gentis eius esset, locutus est. 15 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

XXXIX. The Philosopher and His Pupil. 

EvAxthlua agreed to pay Prota^/oras a certain sum of money on ihe 
day when he won hisfirst case, He never undertook one, so at last 
Protagoras brought an action against him to recover the money, 
** You are vn thia dHemvna,*' said the philosopher : **if you lose this 
actumt the court wHl award me the money ; if you mn it, you will 
have won yowrfirst cate, and wiU owe me the fee according to our 
agreement. ** ' * Nay, " replied the pupil, "ifl win the action, I shall 
owe you nothing a^xording to the sentence of the court ; if I lose, I 
ahaU owe you nothing accordvng to our agreement," 

Euathlus, adulescens dives, eloquentiae discendae 

causarumque orandi cupidus fuit. Is in disciplinam 

Protagorae sese dedit daturumque promisit mercedem 

grandem pecuniam, quantam Protagoras petiverat, 

5 dimidiumque eius dedit iam tunc pepigitque, ut re- 

liquum dimidium daret, quo primo die causam apud 

iudices orasset et vicisset. Postea cum diu auditor 

Protagorae fuisset, causas tamen non reciperet, tem- 

pusque iam longum transcurreret et facere id videretur, 

lo ne relicum mercedis daret, capit consilium Protagoras, 
ut tum existimabat, astutum : petere institit ex pacto 
mercedem, litem cum Euathlo contestatur. 

Cum ad iudices venissent, tum Protagoras sic exor- 
sus est : **Disce," inquit "stultissime adulescens, 

15 utroque id modo fore, uti reddas quod peto, sive 
contra te pronuntiatum erit sive pro te. Nam, si 
contra te lis data erit, merces mihi ex sententi^ 
debebitur, quia ego viceroj sin vero secundum te 
iudicatum erit, merces mihi ex pacto debebitur, quia 

20 tu viceris." 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Ad ea respondit EuatUns : '^ Disce igitur tu quoque, 
magister sapientissime, utroque modo fore, uti non 
reddam quod petis, sive contra me pronuntiatum 
fuerit siye pro me. Nam, si iudices pro caus4 me& 
senserint, nihil tibi ex sententid debebitur, quia ego 25 
vicero ; sin contra me pronuntiaverint, nihil tibi ex 
pacto debebo, quia non vicero." 

Tum iudices hoc inexplicabile esse rati, causam in 
diem longissimam distulerunt. Sic ab adulescente 
discipulo magister doctissimus suo ipse argimiento 30 
confutatus est 

XL. EoMAN Eespect for an Oath ; The Story 
OF the Ten Captiyes. 

HannHbal, after the hattle of Cannae sent ten captivea to JRome to 
propose an exchange ofprisonerSy hut hound thetenhy an oath to re- 
tum, if the Senate did not a^xept his offer. The Senate r^ected it, and 
eight otU ofthe ten retumed, hut twOf yidding to the entreaties of their 
friendt, and aileging that they had hy a trick freed themsdves from 
the obligation of the oathf remained behind, These two were treated 
vnth such scorn that they found life unbearahle and committed 

Post proelium Cannense Hannibal ex captivis 
nostris electos decem Eomam misit, mandavitque eis 
pactusque est, ut, si populo Eomano videretur, per- 
mutatio fieret captivorum et pro his, quos alteri 
plures acciperent, darent argenti pondo libram et 5 
selibram. Hoc, priusquam proficiscerentur, iusiuran- 
dum eos adegit, redituros esse in castra Poenica, si 
Eomani captivos non permutarent 



Veniunt Eomam decem captivi. Mandatum Poeni 

lo imperatoris in senatu exponunt. Permutatio senatui 
non placet. Parentes, cognati adfinesque captivorum 
amplexi eos postliminio in patriam redisse dicebant, 
statumque eorum integrum incolumemque esse, ac, ne 
ad hostes redire veUent, orabant. Tum octo ex his 

15 postliminium iustum non esse sibi responderunt, quo- 
niam iure iurando vincti forent, statimque, uti iurati 
erant, ad Hannibalem profecti sunt. Duo reliqui 
Eomae manserunt solutosque se esse ac liberatos 
reUgione dicebant, quoniam, cum egressi castra hos- 

20 tium fuissent, commenticio consilio, tamquam ob 
aliquam fortuitam causam, eodem regressi sunt, atque 
ita rursum iniurati abissent. Haec eorum fraudulenta 
calliditas tam esse turpis existimata est, ut contempti 
vulgo sint censoresque eos postea omnibus ignominiae 

25 notis adfecerint. 

Multis autem in senatu placuit, ut datis custodibus 
ad Hannibalem deducerentur, sed ea sententia numero 
plurium, quibus id non videretur, superata Usque 
adeo tamen invisi erant, ut taedio vitae necem sibi 




1. P. VergUlUB Maro, the greatest of Roman epic poets, was 
born 70 B.c. near Mantua, in the N. of Italy, and died 19 b.o. 
at Brundusium, in the S.E. of Italy. His chief works were 
the Bucdllcd {pov-Ko\€(o, 1 tend cattle), or Ecldgae (* Selec- 
tions/ from iK-Xkyw^ I choose out), a series of short poems, 
chiefly pastoral ; the Q^gicd {yq ipyoy), a poetical treatise 
on agriculture ; and the AeftmSy or story of Aeneas, a poem in 
twelve books, relating the adventures of Aeneas after the fall 
of Troy 

2. 86 parere versus, <that he produced his verses like a 
bear,* lit. * in a bear-like manner.' 

p&rSre, from pdrio. Distinguish three words, {l^pdrOy -avi^ 
'Oiumy -arCy *I prepare,' (2) pdreo, -m», •itumf -ere, *Iobey,* 
gov. dat. case, (3) pdriOf pSp^ri, partum^ or parltum, 2re, * I 
bring forth.' 

3. lambendo, abl. of the gerund, * by licking it ' ; so trac- 
tando corrlgendoque, * by polishing and correcting them.' 

5. partus, nom. pl., best translated by the English sing., 
*the oflfspring of. . .' 

6. reddo, compound of re and do. BM is used f or re in red' 
dmx), redarguo, reddo, redeo, redhibeo, redigo, redimo, redoleo, 
redundo, In composition the re is short except in ... religlo 
(often spelt reUigio), rellqulae (often spelt relUquiae), and the 
perfects of rtpello, rtperio, and r(&fero, viz. , repuli (or reppvli), 
reperi (or repperi), and retuli (or rettvli), Refert, the imper- 
sonal verb, * it concems,' is a compoimd of res-jfert : rtfero, 

C 33 


34 NOTES. 

makes 3rd sing. r^ert, Be or red in composition has two 
principal meanmgs, (1) *back* or * backward/ as redeo^ *I 
go back/ (2) *again/ as rejicioy *I make again, repair.' It 
also frequently denotes (3) *duty* or ^obligation/ so reddo 
here means ' I give as is due/ ' render.' 


1. Menander (342-291 b.o.), an Athenian comic poet, famous 
as the model of Koman dramatists, especially Terence. 

Philemon, also an Athenian comic poet, the contemporary 
and rival of Menander 

2. in certaminlbUB comoediamm. In Athens dramas were 
represented at the great festivals in honour of Dionysus, at 
which ** every citizen was present, as a matter of course, from 
daybreak to sunset " (Donaldson). Judges were appointed by 
lot to decide upon the merits of the rival plays. The success- 
ful poet was crowned with ivy, and his name was proclaimed 
before the audience. 

ambitUB, * bribery,* from amhio ; properly a * going round * 
to canvass for votes, etc, especially by bribery. Ambitio, 
from the same verb, is used both in this sense and also as * a 
desire for power,' etc., our * ambition.* 

4. quaeso, used parenthetically like our * pray I ' 

honk veni&, * apologizing f or the question * ; lit. * with your 
good leave ...* t.«. * pardon me, but ...* 

5. nonne introduces a question expecting the answer * Yes,' 
e.g. nonne erubesciSj * do you not blush ? * Num introduces a 
question expectiug the answer * No,' e.g. num erubescix, *you 
ao not blush, do you ?' -ne is used when the answer is doubt- 
f ul, e. g. erubeacimef * do you blush ? ' 

erubesco. The termination -sco shows that the verb is incep- 
tive or inchoative, i.e. denotes the beginning {incepfum) of an 
action or state. Such verbs are always of the 3rd conjngation, 
and form their perfects and supines (if they have supines, but 
in most inceptives the supine is wanting) from the simple verb 
or stem from which they spring, e.g. pcUleaco (from pcUleo), 
palluif (no supine), paHescere^ I begin to grow pale ; viU^ira^co 
(from old form v^^er, classical v^ua, -^is), -ravi, no sup., 
veteraadire, * I grow old.' 


NOTES. 35 


1. ArlBtoteleB, the Greek philosopher, was born at Staglra, 
m Macedonia, 384 b.c. He Uved for twenty years at Athens, 
where he was a pupil of Plato ; afterwards he returned to 
Macedonia, and became tbe tutor of Alexander. When Alex- 
ander succeeded to the throne, Aristotle again went to Athens 
and taught philosophy for 13 years in the Lyceum, a gym- 
nasium sacred to ApoUo Lyceus. He died in 322 b.c. at 
Chalcis in Euboea. Many of his writings upon logic, moral 
and political philosophy, natural history, etc., have reached us. 

PlatarcliUB was bom at Chaeronea in Boeotia about 50 a.d. 
He came to Kome at an early age, and spent many years there 
and in other parts of Italy. Li his old age he retumed to 
Chaeronea, where he died at an unknown date. His works 
were written in Greek : the most famous of them is the Parallel 
Lives of forty-six Greeks and Romans, arranged in pairs, a 
Greek and a Roman together {e,g. Alexander and Caesar, 
Demosthenes and Cicero), the life of each pair being followed 
by a short discussion of their comparative merits. 

hercle is a nominative form ; the similar exclamations 
mehercvles, meherculey meherde, herciUeSy hercule, and hercle are 
all abbreviations f or * me Hercvlea juvet ! * * may Hercules 
helpme!' Cf. the interjectional phrase, * m^dius Jidiua,* for 
*me deu8 Fidiusjuvet, * so help me the God of Faith 1 ' 

2. 8l Buper..., the order is * 8% imponis magna pondera 
super lignumpalmae arboris,* 

3. non deorBum, the wood does not yield and bend in- 
wards beneath the weight, but rises up against it and bends 

6. Tirgentibas opprlmentibasque, dat. after cedit, * it does 
not yield to....' 


1. Socrates was bom at Athens 469 b.c. His father was a 
statuary, and in early life Socrates followed the same profes- 
sion, but he soon abandoned it and devoted himself entirely 
to philosophy. He did not foUow the usual custom of giving 
public lectures or opening a school, but went about in the city 
talking to men wherever he met them, and endeavouring to 
tmake in them a love of tme knowledge. By his attacks upon 


36 NOTES. 

the popular theories and his free discnssion of religious ques- 
tions he roused a strong ant9>gonism ; at last he was impeached 
on the three charges of corrupting the Athenian youth, de- 
spising the gods of the State, and introducing new deities, and 
was executed by a draught of hemlock poison, 399 b.c. He 
left no written works, so that our knowledge of him is derived 
from the writinss of his pupils and contemporaries, chiefly 
Plato and Xenophon. 

3. IrlB ... Bcatebat, lit. * bubbled over with,* *overflowed 
with ....' Cf. Hor. Od. iii. 27, 26, * scatentem hduis pontum,* 
*the ocean teeming with monsters ' ; and Aulus Gellius, N.A, 
1. 15, uses * acatere verbis.* 

quam rem ... demiratas, 'having expressed his astonish- 
ment at this fact to her husband Socrates.' 

4. AldbiadeB, 450-404 b.c. , was a brilliant but unprincipled 
Athenian statesman, who became famous during the Pelopon- 
nesian war. He enjoyed the friendship of Socrates, was saved 
by Socrates at the battle of Potidaea, 432 b.c, and saved the 
life of Socrates at the battle of Delium, 424 b.c. 

5. &cerbum, dcer-hus from dceVy as sUper-bus from sUper, 
Usually words retain the quantity of the word from which 
they are derived, but there are many exceptions, e.g. ?idm>o 
and hwmanuSf notus and cog-nituSy so rex, gen. regis, but r^go, 
dux, gen. diicis, but duco. 

7. insuesco. Cf. note on erubeaco, ii. 5. 

ezerceor, in a middle sense, * I exercise myself.* Ctfaciunt 
idem, cum exercentur, athletae (Cic. Tusc. ii. 23, 56), * athletes 
do the same when they exercise themselves.* Many Latin 
passives have thus a * middle ' force ; cf . vertor, I tum my- 
self ; lavor, I wash myself ; and the deponents glorior, I 
boast myself ; vescor, I feed myself , etc. 

8. ut ... feram, * so that I bear more easily.' Ut used in a 
consecutive sense, i.e. denoting the consequence or result. 

1. corporlB flrmandi caaB&, '(undergone) for the sake of 
strengthening his body * — the gerundive attraction. Cf. note 
xiii. 1. 

3. ad BOlem altemm orientem, *till the next sunrise.' 
Sol oriem is used for sunrise, i.e. the rising of the sun, as 


NOTES, 37 

^mmmua mona ' for * the top of the mountain/ Caesar m^- 
tvus for * the death of Caesar,' etc. 

5. tanqoam ... facto, lit. a certain withdrawal, as it were, 
of mind and feeling from the body having taken place, i.e. 
*mind and feeliog having, as it were, left his body.' He stood 
in seeming unconsciousness. Animus, when contrasted with 
mena, is the mind as the seat of the passions, etc. ; mms 
the higher reasoning faculty, the intellect. 

secessu ... facto, the abl. absolute. 

AblcUive Ahaolutey *absolute' {absoliUus, fr. aJb'8olvo, *I 
release ') here means * released ' from government by any 
word in the principal sentence. 

The construction is one of many varieties of the adverbial 
ablative ; e.g. the abl. of time, the abl. of place where, the 
abl. of manner, etc. ; but it differs f rom these ablatives — 

(1) In being equivalent to a complete clause, e.g. Caesa/r 
hoc dixit, convocatis militibus is equivalent to cum milites con- 
vocati esaent. 

(2) Or, to express the same fact in another way, it consists 
of two words each in the ablative, one of which stands to the 
other in the relation of predicate to subject; the *subject* 
being a substantive or pronoun, the * predicate ' a participle, 
adjective, substantive, or, more rarely, a pronoun. 

Exceptions : But (a) sometimes the subject is not expressed, 
and a participle is used impersonally by itself in the abl. 
absol. — the participle here being equivalent to a clause con- 
taining an impersonal verb, e.g. mihiy errato, nulla venia, 

* there is no pardon for me, ii I blunder * {errato=8i erratum 
erit a me). 

(6) Sometimes a whole clause is substituted for the abl. of 
the *subject * : e.g. excepto quod non simvlesses, cetera la^tvs, 
*happy in all respects, except the fact that you were not 
with me' (lit. *the fact that you were not with me being 
excepted '). 

Examplea : (1) Subst. and participle, Tvllio regnante vix- 
erunt, ' they lived whilst Tullius was king.' (2) Subst. and 
adj., Hannibale vivo Romani semper Poenos timuerunt, *the 
Komans always feared the Carthaginians whilst Hannibal 
lived.' (3) Subst. and subst., Nil desperandum Teucro duce, 

* there is no cause f or despair whilst Teucer is our leader. ' 
(4) Subst. and pron., quid hoc populo obtineri potest, *what 
can be maintained with such a people as thisf' (5) Pron. 


38 N0TE8. 

and participle, ew occim ceteri domum redierunt, * when those 
men had been slain the rest retarned home.' (6) Pron. and 
adj., me invito id /ecity *he did it contrary to my wishes.* 
(7) Pron. and subst., eo rege tuti erant, * they were safe 
whilst he was king.' 

Note, — (1) The abl. absolnte sometimes expresses merely 
time (e.g. inita aestate, *at the beginning of summer'), but 
more often attendant circumstances, or cause. 

(2) The abl. absol. cannot be used when the ' subject ' of 
the clause is the same as tbe subject or object of the principal 
clause. This rule is sometimes, but rarely, violated. 

(3) In Greek the genitive is the absolute case: in most 
modem languages the nom. is thus used : but the acc. is 
sometimes used absolutely in German, and in Old English the 
accusative (representing the dative of Anglo-Saxon) was used 
absolutely. Milton uses both nom. and acc : cf. '* Us 
dispossessed," Par. L,, vii. 140; **I extinct," id. ix. 994. 

10. pestilentia, the famous plague of Athens, which raged 
during the second and third years of the Peloponnesian war. 
This was a war betweeu Athens with her allies and Sparta 
with her allies, which hsted for 28 years, from 431 to 404 B.a, 
and ended in the def eat of Athens and the loss of her maritime 


1. Alezander III. (356-323 b.c.), sumamed the Great, 
ascended the throne of Macedonia on the death of his father 
Philip, 336 B.O. In the 13 years of his reign he conquered the 
greater parb of Eastem Europe and Asia Minor, and marched 
even into Northem India and Egypt. The incident here men- 
tioned happened in his Indian campaign. In 327 he crossed 
the Indus, entered the Punjaub, defeated and captured the 
Indian king Poms in a great battle on the banks of the 
Hydaspes, and founded there two towns — Bucephalon and 
Nicaea. He continued his proeress as f ar as the banks of the 
Hyphasis, but here his wearied troops mutinied and refused 
to advance any further. 

BfLoepli&l&B (/3ov/c6^dXas, poOs ice^aXi^), *ox-head,' 80 called 
from the breadth of its f orehead. 

2. emptiim, ' Chares has stated that it was bought for 13 
talents.* takntis, abl. of price. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

NOTES. 39 

Ghares was an officer at Alexander^s court, who wrote a 
series of anecdotes about the life and exploits of the king. 

3. Iioc autem, tbe order is Jioc est nostri aeria summa tre- 
centa duodecim ae^ertia, * this is in (lit. of ) our money the sum 
(of) 312 sestertia.* Sestertium = 1,000 sestertii, about £8 at 
this time. Therefore 312 8estertia=£312x8=£2,496. For 
sestertium cf. xxxiii. 2. 

6. Iiaud unquam, etc. , ' it never allowed itself to be mounted 
by any one except the king.' 

8. faceret, subj. after cum, 

Cum ( = wben), like other temporal conjunctions, takes as a 
mle the indic. mood ; but the subj. is required when the time 
of the cum clause is regarded as depending on the time of the 
principal clause. This is usually the case in past time, hence 
the rule is that cum in past time requires the imperf. or plup. 
subj., unless ( 1 ) it is used in a frequentative sense, e.g. *&b often 
as * (but later writers, e.g. Livy, often use the subj. even in this 
sense), e.g. cum palam ejus anuti adpalmam converteratt a nullo 
videhatur (Cic. Off,), * as often as he tumed the bezel of that 
ring to his palm, he was seen by no one,* cf. xiv. 7, id cum 
dixerat, * as often as he had said that ' ; (2) it is simply 
equivalent to et tum, e.g. castra ibi posila, cum svhito advcnere 
Samnitium legionea (Livy), * the camp had been pitched there, 
when the Samnite legions suddenly arrived * ; (3) the two 
clauses^mark strictly contemporaneous events, (um being often 
added in the principal clause to mark this fact, e.g. vos tum 
paruiafis cum paruit nemo (Cic. %>. Lig. 7), * you were obedient 
at a time when no one (else) was obedient.* 

9. non satiB sibi providens, * without sufficient forethought.' 
. inmisit used absolutely , t. e. without au object ; this, if 

expressed, would be ' equum,' * spurred it forward against.' 

11. moribundUB. The termination bvndus, or cundus, 
denotes fulness, e.g. vagabundua, * wandering ' ; iracundus, 
• wrathful.* Cf. L, Primer, p. 68, § 70 b. 

12. e mediis hostibus, 'from the midst of the enemy.* In 
many phrases the adj. is used in Latin where in English we 
use a subst. with another subst. depending on it, and vice 
versa : e. g. summus monsy * the top of the mountain ' ; but 
animi dolor, * mental pain * ; cf. v. 3, 8ol oriena. 

14. domini iam superstitis Becurus, * relieved from anxiety 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

40 NOTES. 

for its master, now safe.' For the genitiye domini after 
aecurm^ cf. aScurdfiUuri, Ovid; sScurus p^dgi atque wici, Verg. 


1. Aldblades. Cf. iv. 4. note. 

PerlcleB was a great Athenian statesman. He was bom 
about 490 b.c. (the year of the battle of Marathon), and 
first took part in pnblic affairs in 469, when Athens was be- 
ginninjZ to develop rapidly after the Persian wars. From this 
time till his death in 429 he was the recognised leader of the 
democratic party. Under his guidaDce Athens became the 
most powerful state and the most beautiful city in Greece. 

&yunoiilu8 (deminutive of dvus, a grandfather) is an onole 
on the mother's side — a mother^s brother ; pdtruua {pdter), an 
uncle on the father*s side — a father's brother. 

3. puenim docendum onravlt, ' had the boy educated.' 
This use of the genmdive in a final sense, as * an obllqae predl- 
cate * with the direct object of certain transitive verbs, 
e.g. curo, dOf macipio, etc., is common in Latin writers, 
especially Caesar. Cf. pontem fcbciendum curavit, * he had a 
bridge made ' ; agros eis habitandoa dedit, * he gave them lands 
to dwell iD.* ; me dandum ad bestia^ curavit (xxx.), * he had 
me given to the wild beasts.* Cf. Note xiii. 1. iv., on the 

4. oanere tibiis, ' to play on the pipes.' Both Greeks and 
Romans usually plaved on a double pipe, composed of two 
instruments not unlike flageolets, joined at the mouth-]^iece, 
and spreading out in the form of a V; hence the plural tibiae. 
Tibia means originally the shin bone, and then a musical 
instrument, pipes or flutes being at first made of bone. 


1. C. FabrloiaB Lusclnus was one of the most popular 
heroes in Roman history. He was regarded as the type of 
the old-fashioned honest warrior, who was proof against the 
luxury and corruption of the rising eeneration. In his first 
consulship, 282 B.c, he defeated the Lucsmians, Bruttians, 
and Samnites ; in 280-278 B.C. he served with distinction 
against Pyrrus (cf. xxvii.). 

The Samnites were a powerful people living to the east of 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

NOTES, 41 

Kome. The Romans first came into contact with them in 
343 B.o. ; for 50 years there was war between the two 
nations ; at laat the Samnites were conquered, but they still 
maintained their love of freedom, and once more proved 
formidable opponents to Rome in the Social War, 90 B.o. 

2. memoratis ... rebus, abl. absolute, * after mentioning the 
many great services which he had rendered {rehm qtuae bene 
/ecisset) to the Samnites after the restoration of peace ....* 

3. poBt redditam pacem. Pax reddita, * the restoration of 
peace.' Cf. 8ol oriem, * the rising of the sun,' v. 3. note. 

4. dono, as a gift, the predicative dative, or dative of pur- 
pose used as a complement. Cf. Hor. eontio est avidum mare 
nautiSf * the greedy sea is [as] a destruction to sailors.' 

11. qa&, abl. after tLsua, * for which I have no use.' 


1. Haxmlbal, the famous general of the Carthaginians in 
the second Punic war, was bom in 247 b.o. In 218 he began 
his march from Spain into Italy, crossed the Alps, and 
defeated the Romans in N. Italy on the Ticinus and the 
Trebia ; then f ollowed the great victories at Lake Trasimenus, 
217, and Cannae, 216. In 203 Hannibal was compelled to 
retum to Africa to oppose Scipio, who had defeated the 
Carthaginian troops and their ally Syphax. A decisive battle 
was fought at Zama, October 19tn, 202, in which Scipio 
gained a great victory over Hannibal. In the foUowing year 
peace was made. Hannibal now set to work to prepare 
Carthage for a fresh stmggle, but his political enemies de- 
nounced his designs to the Komans, and ne was compelled in 
193 B.C. to take refage at the court of AntioclmB the Great, 
King of Syria, who was on the eve of war with Bome. 
On the defeat of Antiochus the surrender of Hannibal 
was made one of the conditions of peace ; but he fled to 
Pmsias, King of Bithynia, 188 b.c. The Romans still pur- 
sued him, and sent messengers to Pmsias demanding his sur- 
render. Fearing that Pmsias would be unable to resist this 
demand, and not knowing whither to flee to escape the ven- 
geance of his enemies, he took poison, 183 B.O. 

2. ixigentlB. The acc. pL of -i nouns of the 3rd decl. varies 
in tbe mss. between -i«, -eis, and es, All three forms seem to 
have been used tUl the Augustan age, af ter which period the 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

42 NOTES. 

form in -ea prevailed. A nom. pl. also in -m and -eis is fonnd 
sometimes in the mss. of Plautus and Lucretius and in old 

popnlo Romano, dat. of the ^Bemoter Object' after 
facturuSt the * nearer object ' being bdlum, 

4. cnrruB cum faldbus. The wheels of these chariots were 
armed with projecting scythes or hooks, which kept the 
enemy at a distance, or cut them down, as the charioteers 
drove at fuli speed through their ranks. These war choriots 
were in use among the Assyrians, Persians, Medes, and 
Syrians in Asia, and in Europe among the Gauls and Britons. 
Some have supposed that tnese are the ' chariots of iron ' 
referred to in tne books of Joshua and Judges ; but Xenophon 
{Cyrop.^ vL i. 30) says that * scythe chariots * were not intro- 
duced into Asia Minoi till the time of Cyrus. 

5. elepliantOB cum turribOB, small turrets placed on the 
backs of the elephants, and carrying a few soldiers. 

6. &enlB. The bits were sometimes made of silver and gold, 
and the bridles decorated with jewels, etc. 

ephippilB. The saddles in use among Eastem nations, the 
Greeks and the Bomans, consisted sometimes of a mere skin or 
cloth, sometimes of a wooden frame, upon which padded cloth, 
etc., was stretcbed ; from either side cloths hung down, often 
dyed with bright colours, and decorated with fringes, etc. 

monilibUB, necklets (consisting of strings of beads, discs of 
metal, etc. ), used as ornaments f or horses as well as f or men 
and women. 

phaleriB, bosses of metal attached as omaments to the har- 
ness of horses and the armour of men. They were sometimes 
hung as pendants to the horse^s saddle, and jangled loudly 
as it charged forward against the enemy. For these military 
omaments cf. the well-known passage in Verg., Aen, viL 276-— 

Omntbua extemplo Teucris jubet ordine duci 

Jnstratoa ostro alipedes pictiaque tapetis ; 

Aurea pectoribua demiaxa monilia pendent ; 

Tecti aurOf fulvum mxindunt stib dentibua aurum. 

7. pntasne. Cf. ii. 5. note. 

8. PoenuB [Poenicus or Punicus), properly Phoenician, but 
applied by Roman writers especially to the inhabitants of 
Carthage, which was founded about 850b.o. by Phoenician 
colonists, who came probably f rom Tyre. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

NOTES. 43 

I. Ullo was the most famons wrestler in Greece ; he was 
six times victor in wrestling at tbe Olympic games and seven 
times at the Pythian games. Many stories are told abont his 
great stren^h : he is said to have carried a heifer fonr years 
old on his snoulders tbrough the stadium (or race course, a dis- 
tance of about 40 yards), to have then killed it with a blow of 
his fist, and eaten the whole of it the same day. He was a 
pupil of the great philosopher Pythagoras, at Crotona. One 
day the pillar on which the roof of the school rested suddenly 
^ve way, but Milo supported the whole wei|;ht of the build- 
ing, and gave the philosopher and his disciples time to 

Crotona was a Greek city on the S.E. coast of Italy, 
founded 740 B.c. by the Achaeans. It became the most 
important city in S. Italy, owing to its trade with the £. 
Mediterranean. It attained its ffreatest power in 510 by the 
defeat of its neighbour and rivu Sybaris : on this occasion 
Milo commanded the army of Crotona. 

CrotonienBiB. Note the use of the adj. where we employ 
a subst. and prep., 'Milo of Crotona'; so pugna Cannenais 
(xL 1.), ' the battle of Cannae,* etc. 

3. artem atbleticam desisset, 'had given up athletics.' 
The acc. after desino is rare, and chiefly poetical ; but Cicero 
{Fam, vii. 1. 4) nses artem desinere, 

5. xlmis in parte medii liiantem, lit. ' gaping open with 
cracks in the middle.' 

6. an nllae... adesBent. Adesaent is the subj. after the 
dependent interrogative word an ; the construction is called 
the Indirect or Dependent Question, Inferrogaiio OUiqua, 
Thus * who are you ? ' is * quia ea ? * but * I ask you who you 
are * is * inlei-rogo quie sis.* 

nllae. Quisquam (pronoun) and idlus (adjective) are nsed 
for * any ' in comparative and negative sentences, in questions 
expecting the answer No, and in hypothetical sentences. 

II. redlit in natnram, * retumed to its natural (ie. former) 

12. feris, dat. aiter pra^buit, 'gave the man to tho beasts 
to tear to pieces.' For this ose of the gemndive cf. xiii. 1. 




1. Romae, 'at Rome/ the locative case. This case, which 
had almost died out in classical Latin, originally ended in -t 
for the singiilar and -8 for the plural. In some forms it still 
survived, viz., (1) in such words as militiae (earlier Trtilitiai), 
belli, * in the field,' * at the war ' ; domif at home ; humif * on 
the ground * ; vesperi (or -6), * in the evening ' ; ruri^ * in the 
country'; luciy *in the light'; and the adverbs «6», *in which 
place'; »6», *in that place,' etc. ; (2) in the names of towns — 
Romae (earlier Bomai)^ * at "Rome ' ; Tarentif * at Tarentum * ; 
Carthagini (or Carthagine)^ *at Carthage,' etc. ; (3) in such 
phrases as animi angor, * I am vexed in mind ' ; maturus a^vif 
* advanced in age,' etc. 

Curlam. The word Curia is connected with Ciires, thc 
chief town of the Sabines, and Qulrltes (or Ctirltes), the inhabi- 
tants of Ctires. It originally denoted one of the 30"divisions 
into which the Romans and Sabines were divided when they 
united in one community. The word was then applied to the 
building used for the religious service of a Curia, and after- 
wards especially to the building in which the Senate met. 

2. praeteztatis, i,e. wearing the toga praetexta, a white 
toga with a broad purple border, worn under the Republic by 
the higher magistrates,by persons engaged in paying vows,and 
by free-bom children. It is said to have been adopted from 
the Etruscans, and made the royal robe by TuUus Hostilius ; 
and to have been wom with the hulla by boys after the 
reign of Tarquinius Priscus, whose son at the aee of fourteen 
slew an enemy with his own hand in the Sabine war, and 
was allowed as a reward to wear the royal robe. 

maior, more important than usual. 

4. placultqne ut eam rem ne quis .... *It was resolved that 
no one should mention the matter until a decision had been 
arrived at ' (lit. until it had been decreed). 

ut ... ne quis, or ne quis, * that no one,' is always used in a 
final sentence instead of ut nemo ; so ne quid^ ne idlusj and ne 
unquam, instead of ut nihUy ut nuUua^ ut nunquam. The 
indefinite pronoun quis is, as a rale, used for * any ' or * some * 
in relative sentences, and after m', nisi, num, ne, and cum; but 
aliquia is sometimes found after 8>, more rarely after ne. 

5. decreta esset. The subj. is required, because this is a 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

NOTES. ib 

dependent sentence forming part of the OrcUio Ohliqua 
after placuit, 

7. eglBsant, subj. after the dependent interrogative quidnam, 
Cf. X. 6. note. For the same reason videretur, line 11, is in subj. 

9. lepidl mendacil conslliiixn capit, ' bethought himself of 
an amusing falsehood.' 

10. ntrum ... unusne ... an .... The -ne is ' pleonastic,' i.e, 
more than is required, for the sentence woufd be complete 
without it — utrum videretur utUius ut unus {videretur 
utiliua) ut una .... This idiom is chiefly ante-classical (found 
often in Plautus), but Cicero uses it, * est etiam iUa distinctio, 
utrum Uludne non videatur aegre ferendum ... a» ...' {Cic. Tusc, 
iv. 27, 59). Translate *He said the Senate had discussed 
whether it seemed more useful and advantageous to the 
State that one man should have two wives, or that one 
woman should be married to two men.' 


3. matnun familias, gen. plur. of mater /amilia^. When 
familia is compounded with patery mxiter^ filiuB^ and filiay the 
old gen. sing. familiaA is usually found, but famUiae also is 
frequently used by Cicero and other writers, by Livy always. 
In Sallust and later writers even patreafamiliarum is found. 

4. nna potiUB ... doae. The order is ut una {uxor) nupta 
fieret duohus viria potiua quam ut duae {uzores nuptae fierent) 
uni {viro), 

6. essat, vellet, subj. after the dept. interrogatives quae 
and quid ; so institiBset and dizisBet. Cf . x. 6. note. 

qoid sibi poBtnlatio istaec vellet, 'what that demand of 
theirs meant.' Quid aibi rea vult, ^what does the thing 
mean ? ' lit. * what does it wish for itself V 'what is its object 
or drift ? ' so quid tibi vis, * what do you mean, or want ? ' 
and, more rarely, quid mihi volo, ' what do I mean, or want ?' 


1. SertorinB was a Roman general, who first distinguished 
himself in Gaul. On the outbreak of civil war in 88 b. c. between 
Marius and Sulla he joined the former. At first the Sullan 
party were victorious, but when their leader went to the East 


46 NOTES. 

to fiffht againflt Mitridates they were defeated, and from 87-82 
the Marian party were supreme. In 83 (or, according to an- 
other writer, 82) Sertorius was sent to Spain as govemor in 
the Marian interest. Finding himself unable to hold his 
ground against the Sullan generals, he crossed to Africa, and 
gained various successes there. The Lusitani, who inhabited 
the westem part of the Spamsh peninsula, then invited him 
to become tneir leader against the Komans. He retumed 
with a small force of 2,600 men, one third of whom were 
Libyans, and then by his extraordinary influence over the 
natives, and his great powers of organisation, succeeded in 
forming an army which for years set at defiance every eflfort 
made by the generals of the SuUan party, which was now in 
the ascendant. In 76 Pompeius was sent to Spain with a 
large army to reiiiforce the Sullan generals, but for five years 
more Sertorius held his ground. At last, in 72 B.O., he was 
assassinated by Perpema and other of his own Roman officers, 
who were jealous of his power. 

et ntetidi et regendi ezercitus, the gemndial attraction. 
When an object is expressed after a gemnd, the coustruction 
called the gemndial, or gerundival attraction is preferred. 
In this ccnstmction the object is attracted (if it differs) into 
the case of the gerund, and the gerund, taking adjectivaJ in- 
flections (and then called the gerundive), is made to agree 
adjectivally with the object in number and gender. 

Exaniples : — 
a. The Acc, praemisit milUes ad Oalloa inaequendoa, *he 

sent the soldiers forward to pursue the Gauls. ' 
6. The Gen., causd urbis delendae, *for the sake of destroy- 
ing the city.* 

c, The Dat., bello gerendo m>e praeferAstiSy *you placed me 

in command of the management of the war.* 

d, The Abl., in vestigiis persequsndis operam consumpsi, 

* I spent labour in foUowing their tracks.' 
The Gerandival Attraction is of course only used with 

transitive verbs which govem a direct object in the acc. case. 

The words fungor, fruor, utor, vescor, potior are exceptions ; 

they are used both in this constmction and in the constmc- 

tions explained in ii. and iii. below, because they were origin- 

ally transitive, and govemed an acc. 
The genmds and genmdiveB are the substantival and adjec- 

tival forms respectively of a participle in 'Udus, Under the 


N0TE8, 47 

gerund are incladed the snbstantival fonns in -ndum^ -ndi, 
•ndo; onder tbe gerundiye tbe full adjectival declension in 
-ndusy a, um, etc. 

The 11868 of the gemnd and gemndiye may be divided 
tinder four beadings. 

i. By its oblique cases tbe gerund (and tbe gerundive in tbe 
construction mentioued above — tbe * gerundival attraction *) 
completes tbe active infinite verb-noun, wbicb is only used in 
tbe nom. and acc, e.g. haec ad iudicandum sunt Jacillima, 

* tbese matters are very easy to decide * ; atnor agendi, can- 
endiy etc., *love of acting, singing,' etc. ; cav^d agendi, *for 
tbe sake of acting * ; aqua utUis bibendo, * water useful for 
drinking * ; mens alitur disceTido, ' tbe mind is nourisbed by 

ii. Tbe nom. (and in ora^io obliqua tbe acc.) of tbe gerund 
is used intransitively witb parts of tbe verb sum [esty erat,fuit, 
esse, etc. ), as an impiersonal verb to denote necessity, duty, or 
Buitabilily, e.g. nunc est bibendum, * now it is rigbt to drink*; 
eundum eaty * there is a necessity to go * ; parendum. est legibus, 

* it is necessary to be obedient to the laws.' Tbe person on 
wbom the duty falls is expressed by the dat. case, the 'Dative 
of the Agent,' except after verbs whicb govem a dative ; after 
these, to avoid ambiguity, the agent is expressed by a or a& 
with tbe abl., e.g. eundum est mihi, * I must go,' hutparen- 
dum est ei a te^ * you must obey him. * 

iii. Tbe gerundive is used (1) personally as a verb, nsuaJly 
witb a passive signification, e.g. aqua bibenda est, *water 
ought to be drunk ; (2) as a mere epithet, e.g. ridenda poe- 
maXay * poems to be laughed at.' 

iv. The acc. of tbe gerundive is used in a final sense as an 
oblique predicate, or complement, agreeing with the direct 
object of certain transitive verbs — curo, dOy svscipio, haheoy 
etc., e.g. Caesar pontem fadendtim curavit, *Caesar bad a 
bridge made * ; a^^/ros eia hahitandoa dedity * be gave tbem tbe 
lands to dwell in. * Cf . vii. 3. note. 

8. usui, predicative dative or dat. of purpose. Cf. dono, 
viii. 4. note. 

memoria, etc. Tbe order is memoria prodita est nemtTiem 
ex his nationibuSy quae cum 8, faciebant (* wbo served witb 
Sertorius*), cum multis proeliis auperatus esset (^altbougb he 
bad been defeated in many battles *), unquam ab eo descivisse, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

48 NOTES. 

9. neminem, The gen. of this word, nemtnfs, is only f ound in 
writers before Cicero, the abl. nemine in late writera {e,g, 
Tacitas and Suetonius), and once in Plautus ; the plural is 
not used. Hence we have 

Nom., nem/), nuUi^ etc. 

Acc, neminemt rndloSj etc. 

Gen., nullius, mdlorum, etc. 

Dat., nemini, nvllia. 

AbL, mdlo or nvlldf nvUis, 


1. alba. Strictly, alhvji is a dull white as opposed to ater, 
dull black ; candidus, shining white, opposed to nigerf shining 
black. But this distinction is often not observed. 

ezlniiae pnlchritadiniB et celeritatiB, genitives of quality. 

2. dono, predicative dat., or dat. of purpose. Cf. dono, 
viii. 4. note. 

5. factu, the supine in -u, used as an abl. of respect. Cf. 
foedum dictu est, * it is horrible to state ' (lit. *in the saying'), 
and xxiv. 2, utilia monitu suamqv^. 

quld, the indef. pron.; so cuiy line 13. For its use after 
si cf. xi. 4. note. 

7. dixerat, indic. af ter cum in a frequentative sense, ' when- 
ever he had said that.' Cf. vi. 8. note. 

10. ln fugam se prorlpuit, ' took to hasty flight.' 

18. consuerat, indic, because it is not part of what Ser- 
torius said, but a statement made by the author. 

quod opus esset SGUito, 'what had to be done.' Fa^to is 
the abl. of the perf. part. pass. ; for this use cf. m^turojto, 
properato opus est, * there is need of haste ' ; and the similar 
construction with the abl. of the supine, dictu opus eat 
(Terence), * it is necessary to speak ' ; qvx)d scitu opus eat 
(Cicero), *what has to be known.' 


TarquininB SuperbuB, according to tradition, was the seventh 
and last of the Roman kings (535-510 B.C.), the others being 


NOTES. 49 

Bomalus, Numa Pompilius, Tullus Hostilius, Ancus Martius, 
Tarquinius Priscus, Servius Tullius. 

1. librls Sibyllinls. Little is known about the famous 
Sibylline books. They were probably derived from Cumae in 
Campania, the seat of a celebrated oracle. At Rome they 
were kept in a stone chest {sacrarium) beneath the temple 
of Jupiter Capitolinus, under the charge of certain officers 
{quinaecimviri), and consulted only by the special command 
of the Senate. In 82 b.c. this temple was burnt and the 
books destroyed. A fresh collection of oracles was made by 
ambassadors sent to the chief cities of Italy, Greece, and Asia 
Minor. When the temple was rebuilt these were deposited 
in the same place, but many spurious prophetic books, pur- 
porting to be Sibylline oracles, seem to have got into circula- 
tion at Rome, and several revisions of the books were ordered 
from time to time. Christian writers frequently appeal to the 
Sibylline oracles as containing prophecies of the Messiah. 

2. hOBpita, feminine form of hoBpea, Cf . antistea and sa/ier' 
do8, priest, antistita and sa^cerdota (in inscriptions), priestess, 
sospes and aospita, saviour, etc. 

4. eoB yelle Tendere, '(she said) that she wished to sell them.' 

6. nimium atqne inmensum, 300 pieces of gold, according 
to one form of the legend. 

quasi ... desiperet. Qvaai, 'as if,^ introducing a state- 
ment which is not a fact, naturally govems the subj., ' as if 
she were mad ' (but she was not). In seatences of compari- 
son introduced by such conjunctions as tanquam, ceu, quasi, 
velut, etc, the subj. is usually found, because the state- 
ment is usually not true ; but when the statement is a 
fact the indic. is employed, e.g. Fuit olim, quasi nunc 
ego 8um, senex (Plautus). Frequently qmisi, etc. , are used, 
not as conjunctions introducing the senten6e, but adverbi- 
ally with a single word ; in such cases they do not affect 
the mood, e.g. servia respvblica et quasi civitas domua est 
{PL Ep. viiL 16), * to slaves their home is a state, and, as it 
were, a city.* Cf. xviii. 5, quasi consultans cum Jove, 

7. foculum. FdciUu^f deminutive of /Scus (a hearth). Cf. 
riviUus, a rivulet, and rivu>s, a river. 

9. yellet, subj. after the dependent interrogative ecquid. 
Cf. X. 6. note. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

50 NOTES. 

10. B6d enlm, 'but indeed.' Cf. the use of d\X3b yhp in 

14. ore ... flt, 'now becomes serious and more attentive ' 
(lit. ' of a serious countenance and more attentive mind *). 
Ore and animo are ablatives of quality. 

19. nusquam lod, 'nowhere in the world.' The genitives 
lodt locorum, gentium, and terrarum are frequently used with 
adverbs of place — ubi, quo, utide, mquam, nusquam, etc., e.g. 
vbi terrarum aumus (Cic), * where on earth are we ?* 


1. Pabliiui ComeliiiB Sdplo Afrlcaniui Malor was bom in 
234 B.a He is first mentioned in 218 b.c. at the battle 
of the Ticinus (cf. ix. 1. note), in which he is said to 
have saved the life of his father P Scipio. He fought at 
Cannae, 216, and was chosen with App. Clandius to com- * 
mand the remains of the Roman army after that^reat 
disaster. In 212 he was unanimously elected aedile. When 
the tribunes objected to the election, because he was under 
the le^al age, he replied, ' If all the Quirites wish to make 
me aeaile, I am old enough." In 210, at the age of twenty- 
four, he was appointed to command tho army in Spain, hav- 
ing come forward as a candidate for the post which all the 
old generals f eared to accept. Bv 207 he nad conquered al- 
most the whole of that country from the Carthaginians. In 
205 he was elected consuL He was anxious to cross over to 
Africa and end the war by a blow at Cartha^ itself, but the 
Senate, partly from jealousy, partly from timidity, opj^sed 
his plans and would only grant him the province of Sicily, 
with power to cross over to Africa if he thought it in the 
interests of the State ; but this permission they endeavoured 
to render useless by refusing him an army. Volunteers how- 
ever flocked from every part of Italy to his standard, and in 
204 he was able to land in Africa with a larce force. In 203 
he defeated Hasdrubal and his ally Syphax, and in 202 
brought the second Punic war to an end by a great victory at 
Zama over Hannibal, who had been recalled from Italy. In 
201 peace was made, and Scipio, retuming to Rome, received 
the agnomen Africanus, and was overwhelmed with every 
mark of honour. In 190 he served as legate under his brother, 


NOTES, 61 

Lnciiis Scipio Asiaticus, in the war against Antiochus (cf. ix. 
and xvii.) On their retum the accusations mentioned in xvL 
and xvii were made against the brothers. In 185 Scipio re- 
tired into private lif e, and died soon af terwards, probably in 

I. trHranoB plebis. The tribuni plebis were appointed in 
494, after the secession to Mons Sacer, to protect the plebei- 
ans against the patrician magistrates. At first they were two 
in number, afterwards they were increased to ten. 

3. ut condlcionibaB, etc., 'that peace might be made with 
him (>'. e. Antiochus) on favourable conditions in the name of 
the Roman people.* 

7. dlem esse hodlemuin, ' that this is the day on which ...' 
(lit. ' that it is to-day on which ...'). 

9. pro611o. The battle of Zama, Oct. 19th, 202 b.c. 

II. Blmas, 'let us not be ungrateful therefore to the 
godfl ....' 

12. censeo, used parenthetically, 'I propose.' Cf. quneso, 
u. 4. 

13. gratulatmn, the supine in -um, used to express purpose 
after the verb of notion, eamua, 

17. aedes, in sing., a ' temple ' (a single room), in the plur. , 
a 'house* (a coUection of rooms). As distinguished from 
templum, aedes is a simple building without division into 
rooms ; templum is a large edifice consisting of many rooms, 
consecrated by the augurs, and belonging often to several 

18. sollenmi. Sollemnis, from soUua (cf. SXos, salvua), whole ; 
prop. taking place every year, * established,' especially of 
festivals ; then, with the religious force predominating, 
* religious,' * festive,* * solemn.* 


2. M. Pordus Cato, known as the Censor (234- 1 49), first distin • 
guished himself in the second Punic war ; in 204-3 he served 
as Quaestor to Scipio Africanus in Sicily and Africa. From 
this time forward he became the declared enemy of the Scipios 
and their friends, who were introducing, he said, into Kome 


62 NOTES. 

the Inxury and refinement of degenerate Greece and minmg 
the simple and honest Roman character. He served with dis- 
tinction in Spain, 195-4, and against Antiochus, 191. In 184 he 
was censor, and applied himself strenuously, but in vain, to 
stem the tide of Greek luxury. He was one of the ambassa- 
dors sent to Africa to arbitrate between Masinissa and the 
Carthaginians, andwas so struck by the flourishing condition of 
Carthage, that on his return he insisted that, whilst that city 
existed, Rome would never be safe. Whenever he was called 
upon for his vote in the Senate, whatever the subject before 
the house was, he always concluded his remarks by * And I 
f urther am of opinion that Carthage must be destroyed {delen- 
dam €886 Carthaginem).* The third Punic war, which broke 
out soon after his death, was largely due to his influence. 

5. L. Comelias Sdpio AsiaticaB served under his brother 
Africanus in Spain, and in 190 defeated Antiochus at Monnt 
Sipylus. Cf. xvi. 1. 

3. comparati in eom. Comparare hominem in cUiquem is the 
regular phrase f or procuring a man to attack another. * Having 
been set upon him ....' 

4. pecimiae ...rationem redderet, *to give an acconnt of 
the money paid by Antiochus, and the spoil ....' 

9. aJlatimi, i.e. dixit lihrum aUatum esse, 'he said that it 
had been brought.' 

10. aerarium, the public treasury at Rome, in which, besides 
the State treasure, the standards of the legions and copies of 
all decrees of the Senate were kept. After the expulsion of 
the kings the Temple of Saturn, at the head of the Fonim, 
was used for this purpose. 

10. sed enim, *but indeed.' Cf. xv. 10. 

11. nec me ipse affldam contumelid., * nor will I insult my- 
self with my own lips {ipse)/ 

12. coram, *before their eyes.' 

13. qnod cul. The ordor is quod ab eo ratio praedae po* 
sceretur, cui salua ... deheret^ * indignant that an accoimt of the 
booty was demanded from a man, to whom the safety of the 
State and constitution ought to be ascribed. * 

Acceptum aliquid referre alicui, lit. * to put down a thing as 
received to a man's account,' ' to credit him with it'; a meta- 
phor from banking. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

NOTES. 63 


2. Sdpio AfrlcanuB *' was unqnestionably one of the greatest 
men of Kome, and he acquired at an early age the confidence 
and admiration of his countrymen. His enthusiastic mind 
led him to believe that he was a special favourite of the gods ; 
and he never engaged in any public or private business 
without first going to the Capitol, where he sat some time 
alone, enjoying communication from the gods. For all he 
proposed or executed he alleged the divine approval ; and the 
Koman people gave credit to his assertions, and regarded him 
as a being almost superior to the common race of men. 
There can be no doubt that Scipio believed himself in the 
divine revelations, which he asserted to have been vouchsafed 
to him, and the extraordinary success which attended all his 
enterprises must have deepened this belief. " — Smith's Classical 

3. noctls extremo, 'at the end of night.' The neuter 
extremum is used as a substantive, meaning 'the end.' Cf. 
extremo anni, Livy, xxxv. 11. 1 ; sub extremum noctis, SiL 
4. 88. 

4. ventltare. Ventito is the frequentative form of venio. 
Frequentative or iterative verbs denote repeated action : 
they are of the first conjugation, and formed by adding -to, 
-80, -ito, or -itor to the supine stem, or, more rarely, to the 
clipt stem, as can-to, *I sing often'; cur-so, *1 run often'; 
rog-ito, * I ask often ' ; min-itor, * I threaten often * ; haes-ito, 
* 1 stick f ast. " Sometimes one f requentative verb is f ormed 
from another, as cant-ito from canto. 

ac iubere ... lovis, <and to order the temple of Jupiter to 
be opened.' 

5. quasi consultans. Cf. xv. 6. note. 

7. id temporis. For this * genitive of the thing measured,* 
depending on a neuter pronoun, expressing quantit^, heuce 
often calkd the *partitive genitive,' cf. cUiquid veri, falsi; 
id aetaiia; nihU reliqui facere, *to leave nothiug undone' 
(Caes.) ; quarUum mercedis (xxxii 17.) ; si quid remedii 
(xxxiv. 8.), and such phrases as navium quod ubique fuerat 
in unum locum coegerant (Caes.). Id in this phrase is in the 
accusative. Similar adverbial accusatives are — hoc noctia, 
magnam partem, suam vicem, mtUtum, etc. The nse of the 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

54 NOTES. 

acc. has arisen from an extended use of the cognate acc. after 
intransitive verbs (e.g. aervire servitatem, aormire noctem, 
dolere aXiquidy etc. ). 

quod iXL eum solum ... Incurrerent, the order is aeditumi... 
admirati^ quod canes^ semper in alios saevlentes, neque latrarent 
neque incurrerent in eum solum id temporis in Capitolium in- 
gredientem^ *because he was the only man who entered the 
temple at that time, at whom the dogs, that always attacked 
others, did not bark and fly.' 

14. re ci1)aTia copiosum, * well supplied with provisions.' 

15. eius potiundi. Gerundival attraction, cf. xiii. 1. note. 

16. ius dicebat, ' he was administering justice,' the technical 

18. Jn iure stare, or es«e, *to stand,* *present oneself 
before a magistrate ' ; in ius ire, * to go before a magistrate.' 

19. Tadimonium promittere, to promise or give security 
(bail) for a man's appearance, ' for what day and what place ' 
(t.e. for his appearance on what day and place) *he would 
order security to be given.' 

iuberet, subj. after the dependent interrog. quem, Cf. x. 6. 

21. sese, object. of sistere, 'ordered him to present himself 
on the third day in y onder place. * 

22. atque ita factum, *and so it happened.' 

▼adarl. Vador aliquem= * I bind a man over by bail * : the 
object. of vadari here is militem : ** on the third day, on which 
he had ordered (them) to bind (the man) over to appear.'' 


1. capite. CaptU denotes the legal status ^i a citizen : he 
lost it ** as much if he were struck off the roU of citizens as if 
his head were struck off his shoulders" (Wilkins, R. Lit, 
Prim^r). **I and two others were trying a friend on a 
capital charge." 

4. ad casum ... medendom, * to remedy so perilous a mis- 

6. ad oondemnandum, sc. hominem, *I gave my vote in 
silence for condemning the man.' 


NOTES. 55 


1. FaTOrlnnB was a native of Arles, in Gaul ; he was a 
famous philosopher, and resided at different periods of his 
life in Roine, Greece, and Asia Minor (about 110 — 130 A.D.), 

3. Curius. M' Ourius Dentatus, consul in 290, 275, and 
274 B.C., distinguished himself in the Samnite wars. He was 
a favourite hero of the Romans, and celebrated as a type of the 
old-fashioned virtue and frugality. The Samnites, it is said, 
once sent an embassy to him with costly gifts. The messen- 
gers found the great general sittingby hishearth, and roasting 
tumips. They proffered their gifts, but he rejected them, 
saying that he would rather rule over those who possessed 
gold than possess it himself. 

4. FabrlciiiB. Cf. viii 1. note. 

Coroncanlus, consul 260 b.c, fought with success against 
the Etruscans and against Pyrrus (cf. xxvii. 1. note) ; he was 
ako a distinguished lawyer, and the first plebeiau who 
became Pontifex Maximus. 

5. liis, abl. after the comparative antiqidorea* 
antlqiius, * former,* * ancient,' is used of what has existed 

in past time as opposed to novuSy what has not previously 
existed, new. Vetm denotes what has existed for a long 
time, old, aged, opposed to ri&cenSf what has not existed for 
long, recent. 

HoratiL The three brothers of the Horatian gens, who, ac- 
cording to the legend, in the reign of Tullus Hostilius, fought 
against the Curiatii, three brothers from Alba, to determine 
whether Rome or Alba was to exercise the supremacy. 

6. Auruncorum, etc., genitives depending of verbia^ *used 
the language of the Aurunci,' etc. The Aurunci, Sicani, and 
Pelasgi were old Italian races. 

9. quasi loqoare. Cf. xv. 6. note, * qmsi desiperet,* 

EuandrL The legend says that Euander, son of Hermes and 
an Arcadian nymph, about 60 years before the Trojan war, led 
a Pelasgian colony from Arcadia in Greece to Italy, and built 
the town of Pallantium at the foot of the Palatine hill. Vergil 
represents Euander as still alive when Aeneas came to Italy. 
{Aeneid, viii. 51.) 

10. abliinc multis annis, 'many years ago.' To express 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

56 NOTES. 

*how long ago/ ahhinc and ante are used with either abl. or 
acc. case. Cf. abhinc triennium huc commigravit, * she came 
hither three years ago* (Ter. An. i. 70). 

11 quae dicaB, * anything that yoa say.' The subj. (a con- 
secutive subjunctive) after the relative marks the statement 
as indefinite ; quae dicis would mean the particular words 
which you are actually using. 

14. sit, subjunctive, because a dependent sentence in the 
oratio obliqua after ais. 

16. C. JullUB Caesar, the Dictator, 100-44 b.c. This quota- 
tion is from his lost work Z>e AncUogia, written, it is said, 
when he was crossing the Alps. 

18. nt tamquam, * that you should avoid a rare word, as 
(you would avoid) a rock.' 


1. T. Manllus ImperlosuB TorqnatUB was another of the 
favourite heroes of Roman history. His exploit here men- 
tioned happened in 361. In 353 and again in 349 he was 
Dictator; m 347, 344, and 340, Consul. In this last year 
Tor(][uatus and P. Decius Mus gained a great victory over the 
Latins near Mt. VesuviuSj and established the Roman 
supremacy in Latium. It was shortly before this battle that 
the disobedient act of his son occurred, mentioned at the end 
of xxii. 

3. torqulB, a * twisted neck chain/ as opposed to monile 
(cf. ix. 6), which was made of beads, stones, etc., strung 

ez hoste detractam Induit, ' he had taken from an enemy, 
and put on himself.' A participle and verb are frequently 
used m Latin where in English two verbs are employed, e.g. 
scripait se profectum celeriter adfore, * he wrote (to say) that 
he had set out and would soon arrive.' 

4. ftierit, subj. after the dependent interrogative quis, Cf. 
X. 6. note. 

6. cum ... processlt, etc. The indicative is used in past 
time after cum, when the conjunction is purely temporal, and 
equivalent to et tum, Cf. vi. 8. note. 

7. nudOB, *unarmed.' Nudvs is used in many senses be- 
sides its usual one of 'imclothed,' 'naked': e,g, 'withouta 


NOTES. 57 

toga^* ue, 'in a tunic only/ nudtu ara, sere nudua (Verg. O. 
i. 299); *uncovered by turf,' ailex nuda (Verg. E. i. 15); 
Meafless/ tiudum nemus ; 'without a garrison/ urbs nuda 
praesidio (Cic. J tt. vii. 13- 1 ) ; * destitute/ nuda senectua ( Juv. ) ; 
*unadorned,' nuda oratio (Cic), etc. 

12. Bi qnlB ... vellet, uti prodlret, 'that if any one was 
willin^ to fight him, he should step forward.' The tenses are 
historic, because con^amant is the historical present, and 
therefore equivalent to a past tense. Primary tenses are 
sometimes used after a historic present, but historic tenses are 
more common. 

17. Bcato pedestri. The scutum was an oblonc; or oval 
shield (4 ft. by ^^ft., Polybius), made of wood or wickerwork. 
It was borrowed from the Sabines and made the shield of the 
whole Homan army, supersedine the large circular dipeus, 
when the Roman soldiers first beean to receive pay, and 
to form a permanent army instead of an irregular militia 
(livy, viii. 8. etc. ), 

dnctas in this connection is properly ' surrounded * with a 
girdle to support a shield or sword, hence ' armed with.' 


1. meta magno, 'amid great anxiety.' An ablative of 
manner, closely akin to the ** ablative absolute." 

2. sna disolpllna, 'according to his custom,' i.e. way of 
fighting. Cf. eadem nos disciplina tUimur, 'our habits are 
tne same ' (Plaut. ^«. i 3. 49), and disdplina militiae, bellica, 
mUitaris, etc., ' the art of war.' 

3. cunctabundus. Cf. morihundus, vi. 11. note. The Gaul 
stood on the alert ready to parry a blow, and waiting his 

. opportunity. Manlius (usconcerted him by suddenly dashing 
him backwards. 

7. 60 paoto ei ... , etc., 'in that way he got to close 
quarters with him {ei successit) under his Gallic sword, and 
wounded his chest with his Spanish sword (sc. gladio).* The 
''Spanish sword" was a short weapon, fitted for thrusting 
and stabbing at close quarters; the **Gallic sword" a much 
longer and heavier weapon. 

9. pectus hausit. Haurire of a weapon in the sense of 
' wounding,' * tearing open/ is found in Lucretius, Vergil, and 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

58 N0TE8. 

often in Ovid : probably the sword, etc., is regarded as 
devouring the flesh or dnnking the blood (Conin^n). Cf. 
Verg. Aen, x. 313— 

Huic gladio perqtie aerea suta, 
Per tunicam squalentem auro, latus haurit apertum, 

* With his sword, through brazen coat of mail and tanic stiff 
with gold, he wounded his unguarded side.' 

17. Bpecalatuin. The supine is -um, expressing purpose 
after a verb of motion. 

pugna Interdlcta, ' though he had been forbidden to fight.' 
AbL absolute. 


I. Agrum Pomptinum. The Ager Pom^tinns was a low 
plain on the coast of Latium, between Circeii and Terracina ; 
it was originally a fertile comland, but after the third cen- 
tury B.C., it became more and more marshy, till at last the 
Pomptine marshes were the most malarious district in Italy. 
They were partially drained from time to time, but no per- 
manent relief was afforded till the time of Pius VL (1778). 
The district is stili the most unhealthy in Italy. 

3. Tasta proceritate, abl. of description. 
armis anro fulgentibus, abl. abs., *a man of enormous 
stature, with armour gleaming with gold.' 

5. per oontemptum et superbiam, 'scomfuUy and haugh- 
tily.' Cf. per vimf * forcibly,* etc. 

6. venlre iubet, etc., * bids anyone out of the whole Roman 
army who dares to fight, to come forward and meet him,' lit. 
'bids (him) come, if anyone dares.' Auderet ia in historical 
time, because iubet is the historic present, standing for a past 
tense. Cf. xxi. 12. note. 

8. tribunuB militaris. The tribuni mUitum, or militareSf were 
the chief officers of the legion ; there were originally three, 
afterwards six, to each legion. 

oeteris ... ambiguis. Abl. absol., 'since the rest hesitated.' 

II. prog^reditnr ... obviam, * advances to meet him.' 

13. vi8 quaedam dlvlna flt, 'a miracle happens': lit., a 
divine power is manifested. 


NOTES, 59 

16. lanlatet ... revolabat, the imperfects denote repeated 

21. statnam statuendam cnraTlt, *had a statue set up' : 
for this use of curo cf . xiii. 1. 4. note. 

AngaBtUB. Gf. xxix. 2. note. 

In foro 8U0, the * Forum Augusti. * There were three great 
fora at Rome, the F. Augusti, the F. Magnum, Vetus, or 
Romanum, and the F. Julii. 

23. monimentnxn, in apposition to aimvlacrum, 


1. AesopuB lived about 570 b.c. Little is known about 
his life. He was a slave, but was freed by one of his masters, 
ladmon of Samos. He is said to have visited Croesus, king 
of Lydia, and Pisistratus of Athens, and to have been sent 
by the former to Delphi to distribute a gif t of money among 
the citizens. A dispute however arose, and he refused to give 
any of the money, so the angry men of Delphi threw him 
over a precipice. Later stories, without good authority, 
represent him as deformed. 

e Phrygia. Cotioeum in Phrygia, Mesembria in Thrace, 
Samos, and Sardis each claimed to be the birthplace of 

2. utUla monltu suasuque. The abl. of the supine in -tt is 
regularly used as an abl. of respect. Cf. n^cw visu, turpe 
dictUyfa>cilefa/:tu (xxviL 7.), etc. 

5. cum audlendi quadam Inlecebra, lit. ' with some charm 
of hearing.' 

7. spem, etc. , * that in matters (rertm) which a man can 
manage himself, hope and trust ought never to be placed 
in another, but in hmiself,' i.e. that a man ought not to rely 
upon another f or what he can do himself. 

10. Q. Ennlus. Cf. xxxviii. 9. 

satiris. Satira or aatura («a<Mr=full), properly a mixture 
of all sorts of thingp, originally denoted a work which dealt 
with many subjects ; then the title was applied to poems 
which treated 'didactically ' the foUies and vices of numkmd. 

versilius quadratis, versua quadrati (square) are those oon- 
taining eight or seven feet. These lines of Ennius are cidled 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

60 NOTES, 

Septenomi or Tetrameter Caialectic verses. The principal 

feet in them are the trochee , and spondee , 

Hoc er|lt tlb(i)| arga | mgnttim | sSmp^r | In prdmpjta 8Y|tum, 
Ne quXd | €xpSc|te8 d,|mlcds, | qnod ttLt(e) | ftgerd | possI|e8. 

12. semper In prompta Bitum, ' ever ready at hand.' 

13. ne qnid. etc., * not to wait for your friends at all {quid) 
in a matter which {quod) you yourself can do.' 

poBBies, old form of posaie, pres. subj. of possum. 


2. id temporiB. Cf. xviiL 7. note, ' at such a time, as a 
rule, that the harvest is at hand when its young ones are 
just becoming fledged.' 

3. ea casBlta, that particular lark about which the story is 

congeBBerat, used absolutely {i.e. without an object) in the 
sense of making a nest, as we used the word * to build.' Cf. 
Verg. Ecl. iii. 69, locum aeriae quo congeasere columhae. 

5. dom tret. Dumy like other temporal conjnnctions, 
takes the indic. (in Oratio R.) when stricUy temporal, but the 
subj. is required when the notion of time is complicated with 
that of purpose, consequence, etc. In other words, dum, 
*whilst,* always takes the indic, dum^ *until,* the indic. 
usually, the subj. sometimes, viz., when the idea of expecting 
or waitmg f or something comes in. Here purpose is expressed : 
* to enable her to meanwhile go ...,'' till she should go.' Cf. 
priusquam emeret, xxxiii. 4. note. 

6. qnaeBitnm, *to seek for food... '; the supine in -um 
expressing purpose after a verb of motion. Cf. xvi. 13, xxil 17. 

7. Bi qnld, etc., *if anything unusual happened.' For the 
genitive quid rd, cf. id temporis, xviii. 7. note. 

11. f!ao eas et rogeB, a less peremptory wav of expressing 
a command than the simple imperative. Cf. scrtbaa velim, 
cura ut scribas, scribe sis (for « rw), instead of acribe, 

12. venlant, etc., subj. after rogea, * ask them to come ...' 
15. orare, the historical inflnite, used instead of a finite 

verb. In this construction, which is frequent in an animated 
desoription of a scene, the pres. inf . only is nsed (besides the 
two pe^ects odisse and meminisse^ which have a present 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

NOTES. 61 

meaniog). Dr. Eeiinedy (Pub. Sch. Lat. Gr., 332) treats it 
as analogous to the omission of parts of the verb sum (e.g. 
ocdaus for occistts est), as it leaves out the expression of time, 
number, and persou. * It is used to express the occurrence 
of actions without marking the order of time.' (Roby.) 

17. mlslt qui amicos roget. Boget is in subj., because the 
relative expresses purpose : *has sent me to ask ... .' AlisU 
is tbe perfect proper, * has sent/ a primary tense, hence roget 
is in the pres. subj. 

18. otioso anlmo esse, abl. of quality, lit. ' bids them be 
of an easy mind,' i.e, * bids them be easy in mind.* 


4. isti, ironical, ' those friends of yours are laggards.' 

quln ... imu8, ' why do we not rather go ... ?' The con- 
junction quin (=quif an old ablative, and -ne) is thus used in 
exhortations and remonstrances (a) usually with the pres. 
indic, e.g. quin conscendimua equos f (Livy), ' wby do we not 
moimt V i.e, * nay, mount at once' : {b) sometimes with the im- 
perative, quin aspice me, 'nay, look at me'*; quin dic uno 
verbo, * just answer in a siogle word. * 

5. oognatOB. Cognatus is a kinsman by blood, either on 
the father's or the mother's side ; agnatus, a blood relation on 
the father^s side ; gentiliSy a member of the same gensj and 
bearing the same gentile name, e.g. Ck>melii, Fabii ; all these 
three classes were conmnguinei, related by blood ; adfinia, a 
relation by marriage, or sometimes merely a neighbour. 

8. cognatOB adflnesque nuUos ferme .. , lit. 'as a rule no 
kiusmen and neighbours were so good-natured/ she said, * as to 
make no delay in undertaking work, and to obey orders at once. ' 

14. valeant, 'good-bye to ... ,* t.e. let us have no more to 
do with 

18. idubi..., the order is, ubi mater audivit ex ptUlia do- 
minum dixisse id .... 

19. tempoB cedendi et abeundi, * it is time to go and be off.' 

20. in ipso enlm. The order is, vertitur enim iam in ipsOf 
euia rea est, non in alio, unde petitur,* lit. *for (the work) 
now depends upon the man himself, whose the property is, 


62 NOTES. 

not upon another, from whom (the work) is asked/ t.e. wha 
is asked to do the work. 


1. Pymis (318-272 b.o. ), king of Epims, was one of the most 
famous generals of his age. In 280 he was invited to Italy 
by the Tarentines to aid them in their struggle with Kome. 
He defeated the Romans in two great battles, near Heraclea 
on the Siris in 280, and near Asculum in 279, but his own 
troops sufifered so severely that he concluded an armistice, 
and m 278 crossed to Sicily to help the Greek colonies in that 
island against the Carthaginians. The incident mentioned in 
this selection afiforded the pretext for the truce. In 276 
Pyrrus retumed to Italy, but he was decisively defeated by 
Curius Dentatus near Beneventum and compelled to leave 
Italy. He went back to Epirus, and engaged in many new 
warlike enterprises. In 272, when retreating f rom Argos, he 
was stunned by a tile thrown by a woman, and slain by the 
pursuing soldiers. Hannibal is reported to have said, that of 
all the great generals the world had seen, Alexander was the 
greatest, Pyrrus the second, himself the third ; or, accordin^ 
to another version, Pyrrus the first, Scipio the second, and 
himself the third. 

In terra Italta, ' in the land of Italy ' ; cf. xxxi. 7, in terra 
Qraeda^ so urha Roma, etc., the two substantives being in 

4. Fabrldiui. Cf. viii. 1. note. 

7. facile factu, 'easy to do.' Cf. xxiv. 2., utUia monitu et 
suasUf note. 

12. salutem tutaretnr, 'should protect himself from...y' 
' be on his guard against ; ' lit. *protect his safety.' 

13. laudes ... Bcripsisse, Mt is said that Pyrrus wrote to 
the Roman people, praising and thanking them ...,' lit. *wrote 
praises and thanks. 

populo Bomano. Cf. ad amaZum acripsU, line 9. The 
rule is that, if the verb expresses or implies motion, ad with 
the acc. is used to express the remoter object ; if no motion 
is implied, the dative is used ; so, misit hoc ad me^ but dedit 
hoc mihi. Hence many verbs admit both constructions, as 
they fall on the line between expressing motion and not 
exnressing it. Scribo is one of these, f or the letter has to be 


NOTES. 63 

sent, 80 motion is implied, but the verb itself expresses no 
motion. This rule, however, is not always observed even in 
prose, and far less so in poetry. 


1. In drco mazlmo. The early Roman legends say that 
when Tarquinius Priscus had taken the town of Apiolae from 
the Latins, he commemorated his success by holding races 
and games in the Murcian Valley, between the Palatine and 
Aventine hills. Round the valley temporary platforms and 
stands were erected, and the course with its surroundings 
was called ' Circvs^* either because the spectators stood in a 
circle, or because the races went round m a circle. Soon a 
permanent building was erected in this valley. This was 
enlarged and beautified from time to time, and Known as the 
Circus Maximus, to distinguish it from the many similar 
buildings which were erected in various parts of Bome. la 
the time of Julius Caesar the Circus Maximus was about 
600 yards in length, and 200 in width, and held 150,000 
people : a century later it could hold twice as many. The 
building was used chiefly for chariot-racing ; but sometimes 
the area was fiooded, and naval battles were represented, and 
often beasts were let loose in it to fight with one another, or 
with men, either condemned criminals and captives, or bestiari, 
specially trained for the purpose. This latter exhibition was 
called venatiOf or pugna venationis. Animals were brought 
in almost incredible numbers from all parts of the Bx)man 
world to be thus slaughtered. Julius Caesar once tumed 
500 lions into the arena together, and Augustus, in the 
Monimentum Ancyranum, boasts that he had thus killed 
3,500 elephants during his reign. 

2. multae ibi ferae, sc. erant, 

7. qnasi admirans. Cf. qtLosi deaiperet, xv. 6. note. 

16. videres, *you might have seen.' Cf. Livy, maeati, 
crederea victos, redeunt in castra^ * you would have thought 
they had been defeated.' This use is confined to the second 
person singular (*y^ou' indefinite = one) ; the subjunctive is 
explained by treatmc; the expression as part of a conditional 
sentence, the condition understood being the reality of the 
Bubject. * If you had been there, you might have seen ... •' 


64 NOTES, 


2. Caesar, probably Claudius, emperor 41-54 a.d. ; he was 
the fourth emperor — Augustus being the first, Tiberius the 
second, aod Oaligula the third. Caesar was originally the 
name of a patriciau family of the Julian gem, Tbe name was 
taken by Augustus (Octavianus). as the adopted son of the 
Dictator, C. Julius Caesar : by Tiberius, as the adopted son 
of Auffustus Caesar : and it continued to be used by Caligula, 
Claudms, and Nero, as members, by adoption, or female 
descent, of Caesar's family. This family became extinct with 
Nero, but succeeding emperors employed the name as part of 
their official title. 

3. iiiil with 1111, ' had spared him alone.* 
peperdsset, subj. after the dependent interrogative ctir. 

6. procoiuialarl Imperlo. The Proconaulare Imperium is 
the power held by a man who acts pro consule, * in the place 
of a consul.* As the number of Roman provinces increased, 
it became the custom under the Republic for men, who had 
held the office of consul, toacceptthe govemment of provinces 
for a year, and rule these with the ^* Imperium Proeon- 
aularef** which was conferred by a special decree of the 
Senate and of the people. Under the Empire the provinces 
were divided into two groups : (1) the Senatorial Provinces 
(the more peaceful ones in which no large armies were main- 
talned), which were govemed with Imperium Proconsulare hy 
men who had been consuls or praetors: (2) the Imperitu 
Provinces, which were govemed with Praetorian power by 
Legati Caeaaria, who acted as the Emperor*s deputies. 

AfMcam, the Roman name for the district round Carthage. 

10. congniHTn fult, ' my plan was,' * 1 purposed.' 

14. deUli ... pede. Abl. absoL, 'with one foot lame and 

22. yeinere Intlmo expressl, ' I pressed out from the bottom 
of the wound.' Words compounded with a&, cum, de^ and 
ex usuaUy govem an abL, either with or (less frequently in 
prose) without the preposition repeated. 

23. oraorem: cruor is 'gore,' t.e. blood which has flowed 
from a wound ; wnguia^ eiuier 'gore,* or blood circolating in 


NOTES. 66 


1. trlenniimi totmn, acc. of dnration of time; 'for three 
whole years.' 

2. eodemque et Tlctn, abl. of matter ; * on the same f ood aleo. ' 
nam qnas, etc. The order is — ^ferehai ad specum mihi (to 

the cave for me), membra opimiora ferarum quas veruibaiur,* 
the antecedent ferarum being attracted into the relative 
sentence, and so becoming /ero^. 

7. viam . . . permensnB, ' having travelled a joumey of almoet 
three days.' 

9. rei capitalls, the genitive of the charge nsed after 
verbs of condemning and acquitting. Sea capitalis is a crime 

Eunishable by death or loss of civil rights, captU denoting 
oth life and civil statns. Cf. xix. 1. note. 

10. damnandnm cnravit. Cf. xiii. 1. 4. note. 

11. qnoque, the lion, as well as I, having been captured. 


1. In terra Oraecia. Of. in terra Italia, xxvii. 1. note. 

llEuna c^etoi, abL of quality, ' of great reputation.' 

5. Athenis, ' at Athens,' the locative case. Cf. xi. 1. note. 

Electram, etc. The order is— oc^rt» Mectram Sophodis, 
dehebai gestare umam quasi cum Oresti ossibus, * beinff about 
to play the part of Sophocles' Electra (».e. the part of Electra 
in the play of Sophocles called * the Electra ') he had to carry 
an nm, supposed to contain {quaM cum) the bones of Orestes.'* 
Women's characters were played by men both on the Greek 
and on the Boman staffe. 

When Agamemnon, Idng of Argos and M^cenae, retumed 
from the Trojan war, he was murdered by his wife Clytaem- 
nestra. Electra, their dau^hter, contrived to save her young 
brother Orestes, and send him to the court of Strophius, king 
of Phocls. After some years Orestes retumed in company 
with Pylades, the son of Strophius. At first he pretended to 
be a messenger from Strophius, who had come to announce 
the death of Orestes in a chariot race, in token of which he 
brought an um containing, he said, the ashes of the dead 
mau. FinaUy, he made himself known to Electra, and then 
slew Clytaemnestra and her lover Aegisthns. 

Digitized by VjOOQ lC 

66 NOTES. 

Sophocles, 495-406, tlie great Athenian tragic poet, was 
thirty years younger than Aeschylus and fifteen years older 
than Euripides. He is said to hlive written 130 plays, but of 
these seven only have reached us, of which the *Electra,* 
here mentioned, is one. 

6. OrestL The gen. sing. of Greek proper names in -ea of 
the third declension ususlly ends in -i, sometimes in -18, 
Hence we have nom. and voc., Orestes ; acc, Oresten and 
Orestem ; gen., Oresti and Orestis ; dat., Oresti ; abl., OrestS, 
rarely Oreste. The plural, when used, foUows the first 

11. quasi Oresti amplexas. Oreati is the gen. depending 
on 088a understood. 

12. itaque, etc, lit. *and so when a play seemed to be 
represented, (true) grief was represented. * 

When the great English actor Macready played the part of 
Virginius, soon after the death of his own daughter, he 
declared that his recent experience of real grief gave a new 
force to his acting. Diderot, on the other hand, in his famous 
Paradoxe sur le (Jom4dien, maintains that the emotions of the 
actor must be artificial, not real, to produce an artistic efiect. 


2. qul pro se ... advocavenmt, * they engaged men to plead 
their case ' ; lit. * who should speak for them,' qui being used 
in a final sense, and hence the subj. For this sense of 
adwcaverunt cf. the English word * advocate.' 

4. Demosthenes, the greatest of Athenian orators, was 
bom in 385 and died in 322 B.C. As a statesman his whole 
policy was directed to resisting the aegressions of the Mace- 
donian kings Philip and Alexander (ct. vi. ). He made many 
bitter enemies, of whom Demades (line 22) was oue of the 
most important. Demades was a warm supporter of the 
Macedonian party,«and, as he is Imown to have been an 
unprincipled man, this story probably applies to him, and 
not to Demosthenes. 

11. lana multa ... circnmvolatus, lit. ' wrapped round as to 
his neck with much wool.' Collum is the acc. of respect. 

12. eo, for that reason, therefore. 

14. non synandien ... sed argyranchen, *that his throat 


NOTES. 67 

was inflamed not by cold, but by gold.* Argyranche 
{dpyvpdyxv) ^ & sarcastic word coinea to imitate synanclie 
{(rvvdyxv)» * mi infiamed throat.' 

15. quin ... quoque, 'nay he even prided himself upon it,* 
lit. ascribed it as a glory (dat. of purpose or complement, cf. 
viii. 4. note) to himself . Quinetiam is more common than the 
simple quin in this sense. 

17. quantum mercedis. For this 'genitive of the thing 
measured,' usually called the *partitive genitive,* depending 
of a neuter pronoun, cf . id temporis, xviii. 7. note ; * how 
much pay he had received for acting.' Accepisset is subj. 
after tne dependent interrogative quantum. 

18. uti ageret, lit. in order to act ; a final sentence. So 
^iit ta,cerem.* 

19. talentum, the Attic talent, £243 15s. 


1. Karcus TnlliaB Cicero, the famous Roman orator, was 
bom near Arpinum on Jan. 3rd, 106 B.C. He was consul in 
63 B.C., and was murdered Dec. 7th, 43 B.c, by the emissaries 
of M. Antonius. 

In Palatio, the Palatium or Mons Palatinus was the hill on 
the S.W. of the Roman Forum. On it the original city is 
said to have been built. 

2. in praesens, sc. tempus, * for the present.* Praesena, the 
pres. participle of praesum, and absena, the pres. participle of 
absumy are the only forms in which the pres. participle of 
sum is found. 

P. Sulla, the nephew of the g^reat Dictator, L. Sulla, was 
accused of complicity in the Oatilinarian conspiracy. He was 
defended by Cicero and Hortensius — the lamous rival of 
Cicero, and, though certainly guilty, was a&quitted, 62 b.c. 
mutua ... tadlta accepit, * accepted as a secret loan ... .' 
sestertiam vicieng, 2,000,000 aestertii, i.e. about £19,000. 
The unit for reckoning large sums was the sestertius or 
nummus (| of a denartu>8, the ordinary silver coin in use, 
or 2J asses), in value about 2Jd. Up to 2,000 the cardinal 
numbers were prefixed, e.g. cen^um aeatertiif miUe sestertiif 
etc. The gen. plur. of seatertius is sestertium ; so 2,000 
sestertii is duo miUia aestertium. This form seatertium in 


68 N0TE8, 

time became treated as if it were a neuter singular. Hence 
for duo millia aestertiwniy duo or bina seetertia was written, 
as the ' distributiYe ' formof tbe numeral was often used. 
Hence for sums from 2,000 up to L, 000, 000 sestertii we have 
duo or bitia aeatertia, sexaginta or aexagena seatertiaf etc. For 
snms above 1,000,000 aestertii the numeral adverb was 
generally employed : thus, 2,000,000 seatertii was written 
viciens centena (or centum) millia aeatertium, which was gener- 
ally contracted into viciens seatertiumf or viciens alone. 

4. prlaBquam emeret. Priusquam and antequam, like other 
temporal conjunctions, usually govern the indicative; but 
when they introduce an event which is expected, and its 
occurrence prevented, i.e. when they convey any idea of 
purpose, they usually require the subjunctive. Cf. note on 
dum iret, xxv. 5. Translate, "before he could buy." 

quod ... accepisset, 'that he had accepted.' Fees to 
lawyers were iUegal at Rome; but the law was evaded in 
many ways. 

10. Inter ridendum, 'amidst his laughing.' Cf. note on 
the gerund, xiii. 1. 

6LKowov6rYro},{akoindnditoi)f &-koivos-vo7itos {v67j<ris)j not having 
common sense. The word is not found in extant Greek works. 

11. cum ignoratis, 'because you do not know that' This 
use of cum with the indic. , giving a reason, is common in 
early writers {e.g, Plautus), but only used by Cicero after 
such words as laudo and gratulor, Later writers do not 
employ it. 

12. patris famntas, 'it is the custom of a prudent and 
caref ul master of the household to say that he is not ^oing to 
buy what he wishes to purchase ... .' For the genitive, cf. 
cuiiisvis hominis est errarCy * it is any man's nature to err,' etc. 
The genitive may be explained by saying that it depends 
upon Bome such word as indoleSy * nature, oj^tMm, *duty,* 
etc., understood. 


3. Mons Gispius was one of the peaks of Mons Esquilinus, 
on the E. of the Forum. 

BUbeuntes montem. Man^ intransitive verbs, especially 
verbs of motion, gain a semi-transitive or transitive force 
by being compounded with prepositions, chiefly prepositions 


NOTES. 69 

which gOYem an acc, e.g. adire, circumvenire, acUtare, 
cuUoqui, oppvgnare, etc. Sut maDy of these compounds 
govem a dative, instead of, or as well as, an accusative, e.g. 
adlabi, succedere, Some verbs compounded with prepositions 
which govem an ablative take an accusative, e.g. convenire, 
expugnare, etc 

4. Insiilam. Ivmla was a honse for poor people, let out in 
rooms or flats to several f amilies ; as opposed to domus, the 
large mansion of a single wealthy family. 

multls ... editam, built to a great height ift^ith many floors. 

7. mag^, nominative, *the profits of city property are 

8. 8i quid remedli. For the gen. cf. id temporis, xviii. 7. 
note, ' if any remedy could have been found to prevent houses 
boming so constantly at Rome, I would have sold ... .* 

10. venam dedissem. Venum (neuter) is only found in the 
classical period in the acc. sing., but Tacitus uses veno, and 
still later writers venui, Venum do — often written as one 
word, venumdo, contracted into vendo — is * I give for sale ' ; 
venum eo — often written veneo — is * I am for sale.* For the 
acc. cf. pessum dare, * I give to destruction,* and peasum h'e, 
*I go to destruction.' 

12. aimalem undevlcenslmum, ' the nineteenth book of the 
history (annals) of Q. Claudius ... .' 

13. Mitridatl, genitive ; cf. Oresti, xxxi. 6. note. 

14. defenderes, subj. after the dependent interrogative gt<o. 

15. L. Ck>mellaB Snlla, sumamed Felix, was bom in 138 and 
died 78 b.c. He first distinguished himself in Africa, when 
serving under Marius in the campaign against Jugurtha (107- 
106). In 88 he was appointed to the command of the war 
against Mitridates, but Marius, eager to obtain this for him- 
self, got a new law passed transferring the command to him- 
self . SuUa thereupon marched upon Kome with his troops, 
and Marius fled, only to retura and deluge the streets of 
Rome with blood, when his rival had saiied for the East. 
The siege of Athens here referred to took place in 86 : in 83 
Sulla retumed to Rome, and quickly overthrew the remains 
of the Marian party, Marius having died in 86. In 81 Snlla 
was appointed Dictator. He devoted two years to reforming 
the State, and restoring the power of the senate and aristo- 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

70 NOTES, 

cracy, and then retired into private life in 79. In the 
following year he died. 

Piraeom. Piraeus, Munychia, and Phalerum were the 
three harbours of Athens. 


1. Arlon. This story about Arion comes from the Greek 
historian Herodotus. Periander was **tyrant" of Corinth 
from 625 to 585 B.c. Like most of the Greek ** tyrants " he 
was a patron of art and literature. 

nobilis is common in the sense of ' famous/ as well as in 
its technictJ use of one whose ancestors had held curule ofice. 

Methsmmaeus. Methymna was a town at the northem 
extremity of Lesbos. 

5. Yiseret, the imperf. subj., because proficiadtur is the 
' historical present ' standing f or a past tense. Cf . xxi 12. note. 

8. ut notiores, * as better known ... .' 

10. In altom, < the deep sea.' 

11. de necando Arione, gerundial attraction. Cf. xiii. 7. 

21. carmen ... ortMom, Greek i^d/tos ipOioi, lit. the loud, 
high song, was the name f or a shrill, stirring air. 


2. cnrsam ... tenaerunt, * held on their course.' 

4. fLuitanti sese homini subdidit, * placed itself under the 
fioating man.' 

5. incolumique corpore et omatu, abl. absol., ' carried him 
to land {devexit) at Taenarum, in tbe country of Laconia, with 
body and clothes unharmed.' TaeTiarum is the acc. of 'place 

in terram Laconicam, lit. ' to Taenarum into the land of 
Laconia. * So * he set out for Carthage in Africa ' is ^profectua 
€8t Carthaginem in Africam,* 

6. Taenarum was a promontory and town in the S.W. of 
Laconia, now Cape Matapan. 

7. deyezit, ' carried doum,* ».e. to land. The Greeks and 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

N0TE8. 71 

Komans spoke of the coast line as lower than both the inland 
country and the *high' sea. Cf. the nses of dva^lpw and 

8. talemque, etc. , lit. 'presentedhimselfto KingPeriander, 
not expecting him, in the same guise (tcUem) as he had been 
in {qualis) (when) carried on the dolphin.' 

quasi falleret. Cf . qtuisi desiperety xv. 6. note. 

12. diSBlmiilanter, secretly, hiding the truth ; simtUantery 
f eignedly, pretending what does not exist (the f orm simulanter 
is post-classical). This distinction between aimtdo and dis- 
aimulo is expressed in the pentameter — 

** Quod non ea simtUas, disaimvlasque quod ea" 
'you pretend what you are not, and hide what you are.' 
.13. audissent, subj. after the dept. interrogative ^ecquid.^ 
unde venisBent, subj. because a dept. sentence in the 
interrogatio ohliquay after interrogavit, 

18. Ire infitias, * to deny.' For the phrase, cf. ire exequias, 
'to attend a funeral.' The acc. in these phrases must be 
compared with the * acc. of place whither * after a verb of 
motion, e.g. Jfomam, domum, rus ire ; and the acc. of the 
supine used to express purpose after a verb of motion, e.g. 
IvMtm it MaecenaSi dormitum ego (Horace), * Maecenas goes to 
play, I to sleep.' 

20. quod, *the fact that ... ,* introduces the substantival 
sentence * simvlacra ... visuntur * which is the subject of est. 

21. delpliinnB and liomo are in opposition with simulacra. 


1. ruris colendi insolens, 'ignorant of agriculture. ' For 
the gerundial attraction, cf. xiii. 1. note. 

3. qui ... sciret, 'since he knew ... ,' the relative when 
used in a causal sense goverus the subjunctive. 

10. f^ceret, subj. after the dept. interrogative cur ; *he 
asked why he was making ... .* 

13. gratias agens. The plural gratias is always used with 
a^ere ; but after referre^ dehere, sentire, etc, the singular, 
gratiam, is most commonly found. 

15. ImperitUB goes closely with detruncat. In English we 


72 NOTES. 

should use the adverb, ' ignorantly (or, in his ignorance) cuts 
the tops off ' 

vlteB suas slbl omneB et oleas, *all the vines and olives 
that he possessed.' 

18. pomis glgnendlB feUda, lit. all the twigs 'productive 
for bearing fniit,' i.e. *all the fruit-bearing twigs.* Pomis 
gignendis is the dative after felicia. For the gerundive at- 
traction cf. xiii. 1. note. 

fellcia. The root oi/elix is the same as the root oi/ecundtis 
(fruitful), /etus (offspriDg), etc. Hence the earliest meaning 
of /elix is fruit-bearing : in this sense it is used in Lucretius, 
Ovid, Livy, etc, and the &dverh /eliciiLs in Verg. {hic segeteSf 
Ulic veniurU /elicius uvae. — Georg. L 54.) 


1. MitrldateB VI., king of Pontus, 120-63 B.C., was the 
most powerf ul f oe whom the Romans encountered in the East. 
The nrst Mitridatic war was brought to a successful con- 
clusion by SuUa in 84 B.o. ; the second, 83-82 b.c., was 
uneventful ; the third, 74-63 b.c, in which Pompeius dis- 
tinguished himself, ended in the flight and suicide of the 
king, as described in line 8. 

2. quorum ... cavebat, *by the continual use of which he 
protected himself from secret attempts at banquets ' ; epularum 
is a descriptive genitive depending on insidiis. 

3. qoln ... est. Cf. quin quoque, xxxii. 15. note, 'nay, he 
even ... .* 

OBtentandl gratla, * to show off.' 

6. In nltlma regni, * to the most distant parts of his kingdom. * 

9. Q. Ennius (239-169 b.c), though a Greek by birth, spent 
his life at Kome, and was regarded by the Romans as the 
father of their poetry, alter Bomerus (Horace). His most 
important work was the Annales, an epic poem upon the 
history of Rome. Only a few fragments of his writings have 
reached us. 

10. Osce. The Osci were a primitive people who lived in 

14. lingna locntaB est, *he spoke in the tongue and lan- 
guage of each as skilfully as if he had been of that nation.' 


NOTES. 73 


1. eloquentlae dlscendae cauBanunque orandl capldas, 
lit. * was anxious to leam eloquence and to plead causes. ' 

cansanun orandl, the genitive oramli depends upon 
cupidua, and causarum is a genitiye depending on the gerund 
orandi. This construction (instead of the gerundial attrac- 
tion, or the ordinary acc. after the gerund) is very rare ; but 
cf. ncibis fuit exemplorum eligendi potestas (Cic de Juv. iL 2), 

• we had the power of choosing examples.* 

In discipllnani .. sese dedit, * entered himself as a pupil of 
Protagoras/ lit. gave himself to the teaching of Protagoras. 

3. Protagoras, of Abdera, in Thrace, was bom about 480 b.c. 
and died 411 B.c. He came to Athens before the year 445, 
and there established a school. He was the first Greek 
philosopher who called himself a 'Sophist,' and tanght for 

datnmmqne, etc. The order ia—promisit se daturum 
esse grandem pecuniam mercedem, *promised to give a large 
sum as a remuneration ... .' Merceaem is in apposition with 

6. qno prlmo die, 'on the first day on which he pleaded 
and won a case ' ; the antecedent primo die is attracted into 
the relative clauses, a common constmction in Latin. Cf . xxx. 2. 

8. cansas ... redperet, 'did not undertake cases,' i.e, take 

12. lltem ... contestator is the technical phrase for setting 
a suit on foot by calling witnesses ; * he brings an action 
against Euathlus. 

17. ex Bententia, in accordance with the votes of the 
jndges. ^Sententia* is an expressed opinion, hence our 

* sentence.' 

18. secnndnm te, ' in yonr favour.' 

24. pro cansa mea genserint, 'shall have pronounced in 
my favonr.* 
29. longissimam, most distant. 

1. proelium Cannense, 216 b. c. Cf. ix. 1. Note the use of the 
adjective, whereweuseasubst. and prep., ' thebattleof Cannae.' 


74 NOTES. 

2. electos ... mlslt, 'sent to Rome ten men chosen out of our 
captives,* t.e. * selected ten of our captives and sent them to 
Rome.' Cp. xxi 3. note. 

3. vlderetur, * if it seemed good to the Roman people.' 

4. quos alteri plures acdperent, 'whom the one side 
received more (than the other)' ; plv/rea is acc. qualifying quo8. 

5. argenti, etc, 'a pouud and a half of silver by weight.' 

6. lioc iusinrandum eos adegit, * bound them by this oath.' 
Adigere cUiqiiem itmurandum, or ad iuaiurandumy Is literally 
to drive a man to an oath, i. e. to make him take it. After 
the time of Livy the construction adigere aliquem iure iurando^ 
* to bind a man by an oath,' was more common. 

12. poBtlimlnio, ^bytherightofpos^tmimttm.* Postliminium 
is " the recovery of rights by a person returned from captivity, 
or the recovery of rights over a person or thin^ recovered 
from hostile possession " (Poste's Gaius, § 129), smce a man 
by hostile capture became the slave of the enemy, and so 
during the interval of captivity his rights as a free cltizen were 
suspended. The usual derivation given is from post and 
liTnenj * a returning behind the threshold ' ; others derive the 
poat f rom the same root as poteataa and possessio. 
li1)eratOB religione, * freed from their obligation.' 
19. quoniam, etc., lit. 'since, when they had left the 
enemy's camp, they had retumed to it {eofiemy lit. to the same 
place) on an imaginary pretext, as if for some accidental 
reason, and so had again left (the camp) not bound by an 

24. cenBores. Two censors were elected ever^ five years 
{Imtrum) ; they held office for 18 months. Their duties 
were (1) to take the cenaus, i,e. the register of the citizens 
and their property; (2) to exercise a supervision over the 
morals of the citizens, and punish defaulters by the nota 
censoriay and degrade them in various ways. The consequence 
of the nota was ignominia. 



[The words in brackets are not to be transkUed,} 

1. Vergil used to produce his verses like a bear. 

2. The verses of Vergil were at first rough and un- 


3. He used to polish and correct his rough verses like 


4. That animal by licking gives features to its shape- 

less oflFspring. 

5. All the verses of Vergil were afberwards polished 

and corrected. 

6. The oflFspring of that animal is at first rough and 


7. It produces a shapeless oflfspring, but afterwards 

licks and forms it. 

8. The rough verses were polished and corrected by 

VergU, as (its) oflfspring is licked and formed by 
that animal. 





1. Philemon was an author by no means equal to 


2. Do you not blush, whenever you defeat me in such 

contests ? 

3. Philemon did not blush when he met Menander. 

4. Philemon often defeated Menander in those con- 


5. Menander will meet Philemon by chance. 

6. Menander, a writer of comedies, defeated Philemon 

by bribery. 

7. Menander and Philemon were by no means equaL 

8. How do you defeat me in these contests? 


1. A wonderful thing is told by Plutarch about the 


2. Great weights were placed by the philosophers on 

the stem of that palm tree. 

3. The tree will not yield, but will rise against the 

great weight. 

4. They have made the palm the emblem of victory. 

5. Why is this tree an emblem of victory in battle? 

6. The stem of the tree was not bent by the weights 

placed upon it. 

7. Philosophers tell many wonderful tales about this 


8. This tree was made by the Greeks the emblem of 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 



1. It is said that Xanthippe was the wife of Socrates 

the philosopher. 

2. Socrates had a very bad-tempered wife, Xanthippe 

by name. 

3. He did not drive his quarrelsome wife from home. 

4. I can bear the impertinence of the others more 


5. The wife of Socrates was very quarrelsome both 

day and night. 

6. The friends of Socrates wondered at his bad-tem- 

pered wife. 

7. Why has your quarrelsome and bad-tempered wife 

not been driven from home? 

8. Alcibiades, the friend of Socrates, wondered at 

Xanthippe, the quarrelsome wife of that philo 


1. Voluntary labours used to strengthen the body of 


2. He used to stand day and night motionless. 

3. Socrates lived in perfect health for almost his 

whole life. 

4. A plague ravaged the city of Athens in the 

Peloponnesian war. 
6. Socrates kept his bodily vigour during the plague 

which ravaged Athens. 
6. He used to stand with his eyes directed to the 

same place. 



7. Socrates bore very many labours to strengthen 

his body. 

8. He directed his eyes to the same place from one 

suniise to the next sunrise. 


1. King Alexander had a wonderful horse called 


2. No one, except King Alexander, could mount this 


3. The king, seated on this horse, performed many 

brave deeds in the Indian war. 

4. Darts were thrown from all sides at King Alex- 


5. The king was carried back at full speed by the 

dying horse from the middle of the battle. 

6. A town, called Bucephalon, was built by Alexander 

in that place. 

7. The horse was pierced by many wounds and fell 

down ahnost lifeless. 

8. Alexander built a town in India, which he called 

Bucephalon in honour of his wonderful horse 


1. Alcibiades was educated by his uncle Pericles. 

2. A flute-player endeavoured to teach Alcibiades to 

play the flute. 

3. The flute was handed to Alcibiades by his master. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


4. The flute was thrown away and broken by the boy 


5. The Athenians unanimously ceased to play the 


6. The uncle caused the boy to be taught to play the 


7. The wise uncle caused many masters to be sum 


8. Flute-playing was formerly considered by the 

Athenians a most honourable accomplishment. 


1. The Samnites sent ambassadors to C. Fabricius, 

the Eoman generaL 

2. They oflfered the Roman general a large simi of 

money as a gift. 

3. Many things were lacking to the magnificence of 

his home. 

4. Fabricius could control his eyes, mouth and ears. 

5. Fabricius was unwilling to receive the money from 

the Samnites. 

6. The Samnites know (how) to use the money. 

7. Fabricius did many things for the Samnites afber 

peace had been made. 

8. The Roman general was unwilling to use the 

Samnite money. 


1. The king had collected his forces on the plain. 

2. King Antiochus was about to make war on his 

enemies, the Roman people. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


3. The army of the king was glittering with gold and 

silver trappings. 

4. He mancBUvred his chariots, cavalry and elephants. 
6. These things will be enough for the greedy 


6. Many elephants had been collected by Antiochus. 

7. Hannibal jeered at the cowardice of Antiochus' 


8. The king had collected chariots with sickles and 

elephants with turrets. 


1. The death of Milo was wonderful and pitiabla 

2. Athletics were abandoned by Milo (when) ad- 

vanced in age. 

3. A large oak was standing near the road. 

4. He thrust his fingers into the hollows of the tree. 

5. Milo endeavoured with his fingers to tear open the 


6. The tree retumed to its natural position and shut 

in his hands. 

7. The man was torn to pieces by wild beasts. 

8. The oak was tom open by the hands of Milo. 


1. The Eoman senators used to enterthe senate-house 

with their sons. 

2. The senators were consulting about a very impor- 

tant matter. 



3. No one spoke about the matter, (which had been) 

adjourned to the next day. 

4. The mother of the boy Papirius was very anxious 

to hear the matter. 

5. It is advantageous tq the state for one man to have 

two wives. 

6. The boy was unwilling to tell his mother those 


7. In that city one woman was not married to two 


8. I must be silent, for I am not allowed to tell you 



1. On hearing this she betook herself in alarm to the 

other women. 

2. Next day a crowd of women came to the senate- 


3. What is this crowd of women, and what do these 

demands mean? 

4. The boy advances into the middle of the senate- 

house and says these things. 

5. Afberwards no boy entered the senate-house except 


6. The name (of) "Praetextatus** was given to the 


7. The women were frightened and surrounded the 

senate-house weeping and praying. 

8. The senators wondered, when they saw the crowd 

of matrons. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 



1. Sertorius was an energetic general, skilled in com- 

manding an army. 

2. In times of difficulty he used to pretend dreams 

and tell lies to the soldiers. 

3. A certain man gave Sertorius a white doe of re- 

markable beauty. 

4. This doe has been presented to me by heaven. 

5. The doe used to converse with Sertorius and ad- 

vise him. 

6. He announced that the doe had given him this 


7. The soldiers willingly obeyed Sertorius as if (he 

were) a god. 

8. The doe, which had been given him as a gifb, was 

of remarkable beauty and extraordinary speed. 


1. The doe, alarmed by an inroad of the enemy, took 

to flight. 

2. The doe one day hid in a neighbouring marsh, and 

was searched for in vain. 

3. It was believed that Sertorius' doe had perished. 

4. Sertorius ordered the man, who found the doe, to 

be silent. 

5. The doe appeared to me in the middle of the night 

and foretold what must be done. 

6. The doe was suddenly let loose into the room, in 

which Sertorius and his friends were sitting. 



7. The credulity of these barbarians was very useful 

to the general. 

8. No one deserted Sertorius, though he was often 



1. An old woman brought nine books to King Tarquin. 

2. She said that she wished to sell the books, which 

she had brought. 

3. The woman demanded an immense (sum of ) money, 

and therefore the king laughed. 

4. Three out of the nine books were burnt before the 

king's face. 

5. The king said that tiie old woman was certainly 


6. She sold these books for the same price that she 

had demanded for all. 

7. Tarquin at first despised the old woman, but 

afterwards bought the three remaining books. 

8. The books, which this old woman sold to Tarquin, 

are called the Sibylline (books). 


1. Scipio Africanus did not receive money from King 


2. Scipio made peace with Antiochus on favourable 


3. Many charges were made against Scipio by M. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 


4. This is the day on which Scipio conquered Hanni- 

bal in a very great battle in Africa. 

5. This victory of Scipio in the land of Africa was 

very famous. 

6. They went to the Capitol, to give thanks to Ju- 


7. The assembly did not pass sentence on Scipio. 

8. They all foUowed Scipio to his house with rejoio- 

ings and congratulations. 


1. Cato, Scipio's enemy, won over a certain tribune, 

named Petilius. 

2. He was unmlling to give an account of the money 

and spoil to the senate. 

3. Scipio produced a book, in which was written an 

account of the money and the spoiL 

4. He tore the book to pieces with his own hands. 

5. The safety of the state ought to be ascribed to 


6. He rose and produced a book, in which were the 


7. I will not read the accounts to you, for I am 

unwilling to insult myself. 

8. Scipio had taken much money and spoil in the 

war against Antiochus, and had written an 
account of it in a book. 


1. Old writers have told many (tales) about the life 
and deeds of Africanus. 



2. Before dawn Scipio used to go to the temple of 


3. The dogs did not attack Scipio as he went to the 


4. The attendants of the temple wondered that the 

dogs did not bark at Scipio. 
^. Scipio was attacking a very strong town, situated 
in Spain. 

6. There was small hope of taking this strong town. 

7. He ordered bail to be given by the soldier for 

(his appearance on) the third day. 

8. Scipio stretched out his hand towards the town, 

which he was attacking. 


1. The man must be condemned by the law. 

2. I consulted about the life of my friend with the 


3. I persuaded the other judges to acquit my friend. 

4. He silently gave his vote for condemning the man. 

5. The duty of a friend and of a judge was thus safe. 

6. He consulted with himself about the life of his 


7. Two out of the three judges acquitted my friend. 

8. It is the duty of a judge to condemn a man, who 

ought by the law to be condemned. 


1. A certain young man was very fond of old words. 

2. In his daily conversations he used old-fashioned 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 


3. The Pelasgi were the first who inhabited Italy. 

4. He used old-fashioned words, as though he were 

talking with the mother of Evander. 

5. He did not wish any one to iinderstand what he 


6. You ought to be silent, and thus you would gain 

what you wish for. 

7. You ought to use modern expressions, if you wish 

to be understood. 

8. I love the old Aurunci, for they were honourable 

and good. 


1. Titus Manlius took a necklace from an enemy, 

whom he had killed. 

2. He was named Torquatus in honour of a necklace, 

which he had taken from an enemy. 

3. A certain Gaul advanced with a shield and two 


4. A Gaul advanced, who surpassed the other in 

height and strength. 

5. He beckoned with his hand, and cried with a very 

loud voice. 

6. The others dared not fight against this enemy, on 

account of his dreadml appearance. 

7. The barbarian began to jeer at them, because no 

one dared to advance. 

8. T. Manlius was grieved that the others dared not 

fight against the Gaul. 




1. The two soldiers, the Koman and the Gaul, fought 

on the bridge in the sight of both armies. 

2. Manlius trusted in his courage, the Gaul in his 


3. The enemy's shield was struck again by Manlius. 

4. Manlius wounded the Gaul's shoulder with his 

Spanish sword. 

5. The Roman threw his enemy down and cut off his 


6. The bloodstained necklace was taken from the neck 

of the Gaul by Manlius. 

7. The son of Manlius killed an enemy, who had 

challenged him, although he had been forbidden 
to fight by his father. 

8. Harsh commands are called **Manlian," because 

this Manlius beheaded his own son. 


1. The consul drew up the Roman lines facing the 

vast forces of the Gauls. 

2. The arms of the Gallic leader shone with gold. 

3. The Gaul, a man of enormous height, advanced 

shaking his spear. 

4. He haughtily ordered any Roman to come, who 

dared to fight against him. 

5. Whilst the others were wavering between shame 

and fear, Valerius advanced boldly against the 

6. A raven suddenly attacked the eyes^ of the Gaul. 



7. The raven, having tom the hands and face of the 

Gaul, perched on the head of Valerius. 

8. Thns, helped by the bird, he killed his enemy, and 

in honourof the victory was named Corvinus. 


1. Aesop, who lived in Phrygia, was a very wise 

writer of fables. 

2. He invented amusing stories, and thns gave useful 


3. Philosophers give useful advice, but what they say 

is not amusing. 

4. Aesop invented an amusing story about a larL 

5. This fable about the lark wamed men that their 

hopes ought to be placed in themselves. 

6. Q. Ennius composed many verses about this story 

of Aesop. 

7. This is a proof that our confidence ought to be 

placed in ourselves. 

8. It is the custom with philosophers to give useful 

advice, with writers of fables amusing advice. 


1. It is said that a lark built in the com. 

2. The com was ripening when the young ones were 


3. The lark went to search for food, and lefb her 

young ones in the nest. 

4. If anything unusual happens, said she, tell me 

when I retum home. 



5. The young ones saw the owner of the crops calling 

his son. 

6. The owner's friends were unwilling to assist him in 

the harvest. 

7. Make haste, mother, and carry us to another nest. 

8. The lark said that it was not necessary to take her 

young ones to another home. 


1. When the mother had flown to seek food, the 

owner retumed to the field with his son. 

2. He told his son that the friends were loiterers, for 

they had not come. 

3. Let us go, said he, and ask our relations to help us 


4. The young ones told their mother that the master 

had sent for his relations. 

5. The master said that he would himself reap the 

corn with his sickle. 

6. The relations neglected to come, and so the master 

and his son themselves reaped the com. 

7. The mother said that it was time to go ; for what 

he had ordered would now be done. 

8. The matter now depends on the master himself, 

not on his friends. 


1. Pyrrhus fought many battles with success in the 

land of Italy. 

2. Timochares, a friend of Pyrrhus, wished to kill the 

king by poison. 



3. If we agree about the reward, I promise to kill the 

king by poison. 

4. My son is the king's cup-bearer, and so he will 

easily be able to give poison to the king. 

5. Fabricius wrote to the Eoman Senate, that Timo- 

chares wished to kill King Pyrrhus by poison. 

6. The Senate advised the king to act more cautiously. 

7. Your friends wish to kill you by poison ; therefore 

it is necessary to act very cautiously. 

8. The king wrote to the Eoman Senate, thanking 

and praising them, and restored all the prison- 
ers whom he had taken. 


1. A lion of enormous size was brought into the circus. 

2. Many slaves had been given by their masters to 

fight wild beasts. 

3. An enormous and terrible lion attracted the atten- 

tion of all by its roaring. 

4. It is said that the lion, seeing Androclus, suddenly 

stood still. 

5. It is said that the lion wagged its tail like a dog, 

and licked the man's hands. 

6. The slave recovered his lost courage and tumed 

his eyes on the lion. 

7. You might have seen the lion licking the legs and 

hands of the slave. 

8. A mimic hunt was giveu in the circus, for which 

many wild-beasts had been sent from Africa. 




1. Loud shouts were aroused by this wonderful sight. 

2. Caesar asked why the lion spared Androclus alone. 

3. A wonderful and marvellous story was told Caesar 

by the slave. 

4. The slave, driven to flight by his master's daily 

blows, took refuge in the desert. 
6. At mid-day the slave hid in a cave, to which a lion 

6. An enormous lion was coming to the cave, with one 

foot lame, groaning and sighing. 

7. He was at first terrified by the sight of the Kon, 

but soon recovered his courage. 

8. The slave pulled a large thorn out of the lion's foot ; 

the lion then placed its foot in his hands and 


1. He said that for three years he had lived in the 

same cave as the lion. 

2. I used to cook my food by the mid-day sun, 

because I had no fire. 

3. I am weary of this wild-beast*8 life, and I will leave 

the cave. 

4. His master arrested him and sent him from Africa 

to Eome. 

5. My master had me condemned to death and given 

to the wild-beasts in the Circus. 

6. The lion, afber I was separated from it, was taken 

and sent to Rome. 



7. Androclus, after telling this wonderful tale, was 

pardoned and presented witb the lion. 

8. They gave money to the slave and flowers to the 

lion, which had been the host of the man. 


1. Polus, a famous actor in Greece, had a well-loved 


2. Polus lost his son, and mourned for him many days. 

3. Polus was about to act the '*Electra" of Sophocles. 

and to carry the bones of Orestes in his hands. 

4. Electra carried the remains of her brother in an 

um, and wept for his death. 

5. Electra, the sister of Orestes, was dressed in 

mouming and carried the remains of her 

6. She took the um from the tomb and carried it in 

her hands. 
7- The um, which Electra was carrying, had been 

placed in a tomb. 
8. Polus carried in his hands the remains of his own 

son, and wept for his, not Orestes', death. 


1. It is said that ambassadors came f^m Athens to 

Miletus to ask for help. 

2. They pleaded for the Milesians, but Demades 

replied that help ought not to be given to them. 

3. Demades maintained that the Milesians were not 

worthy of help. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


4. He said that it would not be adyantageous to the 

state to give help. 

5. It is said that Demades received from the Milesian 

ambassadors as much money as he asked for. 

6. I am suffering from an inflamed-throat and there- 

fore I cannot oppose the Milesian demands. 

7. He did not conceal what he had done, but said he 

had received much money. 

8. You received three talents for acting, I received 

more for being silent. 


1. Cicero wished to buy a house on the Palatine, but 

had no money at the time. 

2. P. Sulla lent Cicero 5,000,000 sesterces secretly. 

3. You have received, said they, money from Sulla 

for buying a house. 

4. Cicero af terwards bought the house with the money 

which he had received from Sulla. 

5. I said that I did not wish to buy that house, 

because I was a cautiouis father of a family. 

6. Cicero*s friends reproached him with this Ke. 

7. Cicero told that lie, because he had received money 

from a defendant. 

8. Cicero wished to buy that house, but he said that 

he did not wish to buy it. 


1. Many friends accompanied Julianus home. 

2. A block, many stories high, was blazing. 



3. He said that property in the city gave great retums. 

4. There is no remedy to prevent houses at Rome 


5. He sold all his country property and bought city 


6. The philosopher said that alum was the best 

remedy for fire. 

7. A wooden tower, which had been built to defend 

the city, was smeared with alum by Archelaus. 

8. Q. Claudius says that this tower, smeared with alum, 

could not bum. 


1. Arion of Lesbos lived at Corinth, and was loved by 


2. Arion went to Italy and charmed the ears of all in 

that land. 

3. He gained much money by playing, and afterwards 

wished to return to King Periander at Corinth. 

4. He chose a Corinthian ship, because he thought 

the sailors would be more friendly to him. 

5. Arion gave all his money to the sailors, but prayed 

them to spare his life. 

6. The sailors ordered Arion to spring down into the 

sea, in order that they might take possession of 
his money. 

7. In a loud voice he sang this song, and then threw 

himself into the sea. 

8. He took his lyre in his hand and, standing on the 

stem, began to sing a song. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



1 . Tbe sailors thought that Arion had perished in the 

sea, and held on their course to Corinth. 

2. It is said that a dolphin carried the man safe to 


3. Arion went from Taenarum to Corinth and related 

what had happened to himself. 

4. The king believed that Arion was deceiving bim, 

and ordered bim to be guarded for two days. 

5. The king ordered the sailors to be sent for, and 

asked tbem if they had heard anything about 

6. The sailors told the king that Arion was living in 


7. Arion stood forth before the astounded sailors, who 

tbought that he had perished in the sea. 

8. At Taenamm two bronze figures stand as a proof 

of this tale. 


1. A certain barbarian bought a large farm planted 

with olives and vines. 

2. The Thracian saw bis neighbour pruning his trees. 

3. He asked bis neighbour wby he pulled up the vine 


4. The trees of bis neighbour were more fruitful than 

bis own. 

5. He thanked his neighbour and went home rejoicing. 

6. The ignorant Tbracian took a sickle, and began to 

cut off the most luxuriant foliage of the trees. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


7. He cut off all the fruitful twigs of the apple-trees. 

8. The ignorant man thought that he was pruiung 

his trees, as his neighbour had done. 


1. The Eahg of Pontus was very skilled in medicine. 

2. It is said that these medicines are good for dissipa- 

ting poisons. 

3. The King of Pontus for his whole life was on his 

guard against secret treachery. 

4. Mitridates ofben drank poison to show that it was 

harmless to him. 

5. He slew himself with his own sword, (after) having 

in vain tried the strongest poisons. 

6. Ennius could speak Greek, Latin and Oscan, and 

so he used to say that he had three hearts. 

7. The King of Pontus knew the languages of all the 

nations under his dominion, twenty-two in 

8. Mitridates used to talk with the men of each 

nation, whom he had under his dominion, in the 
language of that nation, and not through an inter- 


1. He gave Protagoras half of the money which he 

asked for, and promised to ^ve the remaining 
half afberwards. 

2. I will give you, said he, the remaining half on the 

first day on which I win a case. 

3. He was a pupil of Protagoras for a long while, but 

did not undertake any case. 



4. He did not undertake any case, in order to avoid 

paying the rest of the money. 

5. Protagoras thought that his plan for gaining the 

money was very clever. 

6. If the verdict is given in your favour,* it will be 

necessary for you to pay me the money. 

7. The judges left the matter unsettled, because they 

did not know what sentence they ought to give. 

8. The wise judges adjoumed the law-suit to a very 

distant day. 


1. Hannibal chose ten prisoners and sent them to 


2. He wished after the battle of Cannae to make an 

exchange of prisoners with his enemies. 

3. The Eoman prisoners promised with an oath to 

return to Hannibal. 

4. They told the senators what Hannibal had said 

about an exchange of prisoners. 

5. Their relations embraced them and prayed them 

with tears not to retum to Hannibal. 

6. Of the ten prisoners eight returaed to Hannibal, 

and two only remained at Eome. 

7. The two prisoners, who remained at Eome, were 

despised by alL 

8. The censors branded with every mark of infamy 

the prisoners, who had refused to rctum to 

• The verdict is given in my favour : pronantiatmn est pro me. 



Tht parts ofregtdar verbs are not ghen, 
A dot occurring in a word aeparates the parts ofa compound. 

A. for Aulns, -L 

a, ab, prep. gov, aW., from, by. 

ab'eo, -Ivi or -ii, -Itam, -Ire, 

4 v. n., I go away. 
ab*liiiic, adv,f henceforward, 

abiido, -iSci, -iectum, 3 v.a,, 

I throw away, throw from. 

ablego, V, a, 1, 1 send away. 
ab 'solYO, -solvi, -8dlutam,3 V. a. , 

I set loose, I acquit. 
&bimd6, adv.y abundantly, suf- 

ficiently. (ab^undo, I over- 

flow ; cf. unda, a wave.) 
ac, conj,, and. 
accedo, -cessi, -cessum, Sv.n., 

I go to, I approach. (ad, c5do. ) 
accido (or adcldo), -cldi, no 

sup., 3 V. n., I fall to, fall 

out, happen. (ad, c&do.) 
&oi6B, -ei,/., line-of-battle (lit. 

sharp edge). (acer, &cus.) 
acclplo, -cgpi, -ceptum, 3 v. a., 

I receive, leani, hear. (ad, 

o&pio. ) 

acofLso, 1 V. a., I impeach, 

ftcer, acris, acre, adj., sharp, 

eager, energetic. 
&C6rbu8, -a, -um, adj., bitter, 

bad-tempered. (acer. ) 
&crlter, adv,, sharply, keenly. 

actor, -oris, m,, actor. (figo.) 
actnnts, fut, part. , f r. figo. 
&d, prep, gov. acc. , to, f or. 
ad'cldo. Cf. accido. 
ad-do, -dldi, -dltum, S v. a., 

I bring to, add. 
&d'eo, -ivi or -ii, -Itum, 4 v. n., 

I go to, approach. 

ad'e5, adv., thus far ; usqne 
adeo, to such an extent. (ad, 
is; cf. quoad.) 

ad'f§ro (orafi^ro), -ttOi, -latum, 
3 V. a., Ibriii^ to. 

ad'flclo. Cf. afficio. 

ad'flnl8 (or affinis), -e, adj., 
neighbouring to, related to 
(by marriage) ; as a «*6«^, 
neighbour, relation. 




ad'Igo, -Sgi, -actum, 3 v. a., 

1 drive to. adigo aliquem 
(ad) iusiurandum, I arive 
a man to an oath, make 
him Bwear. (&go.) 

ad'hibeo, -hlbui, -hibttum, 

2 V. a., I bring to, employ. 

ad'ipiBCor, -eptus, 3 v, dep,, I 

obtain. (d,piscor. ) 
adlilYO, -iuvi, -iutum, 1 1?. a., 

I assist. 
adiniiiltio, -onis,/., wonder. 
ad*niiror, 1 v. dep,, I wonder 

ad^mltto, -mlsi, -missum, 3 v, 

a, , I bring to, bring in, admit. 
ad'm5dimi, adv,, lit. to a mea- 

sure, in a high degree, very. 

ad^no, l V, n,,l swim to. 
ad^prehendo (or apprehendo), 

-prShendi, -pr6hensum, 3 v, 

a.,1 seize. 
adsiduuB, -a, -um, adj,, con- 

stant, eager, diligent. (ad- 

sideo : cf. continuus, fr. con- 

adsidue, adv., constantly. (ad- 

ad'signo, l v, a,,l attribute to. 

(signum. ) 
ad'8um, -fui, -esse, v, n,, 1 am 

adnlescens (or ad5lescens), 

entis, c, young man, young 

woman. ( ad '6lesco. ) 
adHlescentia, -ae, /., youth, 

manly strength. (ad'olesco.) 
adillor, 1 V. dep,, I fawn on, 

ad'YSnio, -veni, -ventum, 4 v. 

n., I come to, approach. 

adTers&riuB, -a, -um, adj., 

tumed towards, opposed 

to ; STibst., antagonist. (ad, 

ad'vennim, or ad^versuB, adv., 

and prep, gov, acc, towards, 

adTerto, -verti, -versum, 3 v, 

a,, I tum towards, observe 

(generally in phrase * animum 

aSverto *). 
ad'v5co, 1 V. a., I call to my aid. 
adTdlo, 1 V. w., I fly towards. 
aedes (or aedis), -is, /., a 

building, temple ; in ;7^., a 

aeditfimus, i, m., keeper of 

temple, sacristan. (aedes.) 
aegre, adv,, with difficulty, 

scarcely. aegre passus, dis- 

pleased. (aeger. ) 
aeneuB, -a, -um, adj., brazen. 

aerarium, -ii, n., treasury. 

(aes. ) 
aes, aeris, n., copper, brass, 

AesdpuB, i, m. , Aesop. {AtffUTos. ) 
aetas, -atis, /., age (for aevltas, 

fr. aevum, aldjy), 
affero. Cf. adfero. 
af'ficio, -feci, -fectum, 3 v. a,, 

1 affect in some way : afficio 

contumeli&, I affect, brand 

with disgrace, i.e. I disgrace, 

insult. (f&cio.) 
Afirica, -ae, /., Africa, t.e. the 

land round Oarthage. 
AfiricanuB, -i, m., agnomen of 

&ger, agri, m., land, territory. 

{&yp6s, cf. English acre, 

German Acker. ) 



&go, §gi, actum, 3 v. a., I 

drive, do, act ; pf the 

Senate, I transact, I discuss : 

ago gratias, I give thanks ; 

bene ago, I f are well, prosper. 
aio, V. w., defective, I say. 
&KOivov<ST)TOi (cf. xxxiii. 10, 

note), deficient in common 

&la, 'B^tf.t wing. 
albus, -a, -um, adj,, white. 
Alclbl&des, -is or-i, m,, Alcibi- 

ades. (^AXKLpidSrjs. ) 
&les, -Itis, adj.y winged ; as 

svbsty c, a bird. (Ila.) 
Alezander, -dri, m., Alexander. 

(* AKi^avBpos. ) 
&lj[qiiis, aliquid, mhst, pron., 

some one, any one. (alius, 

quis. ) 
&llter, adv., otherwise. (^lius.) 
&lius, -a, -um, adj.f other, an- 

other. (Cf. AWos.) 
alte, adv., deeply. (altus.) 
alter, -6ra, -6rum, adj., the one 

(or other) of two. (C^. &lius. ) 
altus, -a, -um, adj, , deep ; as 

mbst,, altum, i, n,, the deep 

sea. (&lo, I nourish.) 
&lumen, -Inis, n., alum. 
amblguus, -a, -um, adj, , waver- 

ing, hesitating. (ambigo, fr. 

ambi, Gr. dfi<t>l, &go.) 
ambitus, -us, m,, lit. a going 

round, bribery. (ambio, fr. 

ambi, Gr. dfjuf^l, eo.) 
Ambr&denslB, -e, adj,, Am- 

bracian, belonging to Am- 

br&cia, town in S. of Epirus. 
&m*lcio, -icui or -ixi, -ictum, 

4 V. a. , I wrap around, clothe. 

(am or amb, Gr. d/Kpl, and 

iacio. Cf. dfKpipdWu),) 

&mictuB, -a, -um, part, fr. 

amicio. As subat,, amictus, 

Os, m., dothing. 
&ml0U8, -a, -um, adj., friendly ; 

subst. , &mlcus, i, m., a friend. 

(&mo. ) 
a'mltto, -mlsi, -missum, Zv.a,, 

I send away, let go, lose. 
&mo, 1 V. a. , I love. 
am*plector, -exus, 3 v, dep,, I 

embrace. (am, cf. am'icio, 

plecto, I plait.) 
amplltfldo, -inis, /., dignity. 

(amplus. ) 
am*puto, 1 V. a., I lop off. 
&n, conj., or, whether (in dis- 

junctive interrogations). 
an'ceps, -cipitis, adj., two- 

hesuied, doubtful, dangerous. 

(an, cf. am*icio, caput.) 
Androdus, -i, m., Androclus. 
&n!ma, -ae, /. , soul. (animus, 

dj/cfios, that which breathes. ) 
&nim*ad*verto, -ti, -sum, 3 v.a., 

I direct my attention to, 

notice. (animus, ad, verto. ) 
&nlmu8, -i, m,, mind. (Cf. 

anima. ) 
annalis, -e, adj,, belonging to a 

year. As suhst., annalis, -is, 

m, (sc. liber), chronicle, 

annal. (annus. ) 
annus, -i, m., year. 
ante, adv,, and^Jrep. gov, acc,y 

antSa, adv,, before. 
aiLtS'quam, conj,, before that. 
Antlodiinus, -a, -um, adj,, be- 

longing to Antiochus. 
Antlddms, -1, m,, Antiochus 

antiqultas, -atis,/., antiquity, 

oldtimes. (antiquus.) 



antiqiiltaB, adv. , from of old, in 

former times. (antiquus.) 
anUquuB (or anticus), -a, -um, 

adj,y ancieut. (ante.)^ 
Antonlus, -ii, m., Antonius. 
&nu8, -U8,/., old woman. 
&p§rlo, -6rui, -6rtum, 4 t?. a., 

I open. 
' &p5l5gaB, -i, m., fable. (dir6\o- 

ap-pello (or ad'peUo), 1 v, a., 

I accost, appeal to. 
appSto (or ad*peto), -ivi and 

-ii, -itum, 3 v. a. and n., 

I seek for, long for, ap- 

ap'pono (or ad'pono), -pdsui, 

-p6sltum, 3 V. a., I place 

ap*pr5bo (or ad* prSbo), 1 v. a., 

I approve, I confirm. 
aptns, -a, -um, part. fr. &po, 

&pere, I fit to ; fit, suited. 

(Cf. apiscor, &ttu.) 
&p11d, prep. gov. acc., near to, 

at the house of . 
arbor, -6ris,/., a tree. 
arceBBO, -ivi, -Itum, 3 v, a., I 

send for. 
ArdiSl&UB, -i, m., Archelaus. 
ardeo, arsi, arsum, 2 v, n., I 

am on fire, bum. 
arduuB, -a, -um, ac^*., steep, 

argentum, -i, n., silver. 
argflmentum, -i, n., proof, ar- 

gument, plot. (arguo.) 
argyramdie {dpyvpdyxv)' ^f. 

xxxii. 14, note. 

Arlpn, dnis, m., Arion. 
ArlstSdSmus, -i, m., Aristo- 

Arl8t5t5leB, -is or -i, m., Aris- 

arma, -orum, n., plur. ordy, 

armilla, -ae,/. , bracelet. (arma. ) 
armo, 1 v. a., I arm, equip. 

(arma. ) 
ars, artis, /., art, skill. (Cf. 

arx, arclB,/., citadel. (arceo.) 
a*Bcendo, -ndi, -sum, 3 v. n., I 
^ mount up. (scando, I climb. ) 
AsUtlcus, -a, -um, adj.y be- 

longing to Asia. 
aBpectUB,-us,m.,look. (aspicio.) 
asper, -6ra, -^rum, adj., harsh, 

a' spemor, 1 v. dep., I despise. 

(ab, spemo. ) 
a'splclo, -exi, -ectum, 3 t; a., 

I behold, look at. 
as* porto, 1 t?. a. , I carry away. 

(abs, porto.) 
as'Bldeo, -sedi, -sessum, 2 v. n., 

I sit by; I besiege. (ad, 

assum. Cf. adsum. 
astfltuB, -a, -um, adj.^ skiUed, 

clever. (astus. ) 
&t, conj., but. 
Athenae, -arum, /. plur, only, 

AthenlenslB, -e, adj. , Athenian. 
§.tlileta, -ae, m., wrestler, 

athlete. (&e\rrHis.) 
athletlcus, -a, -um, adj., ath- 

letic. ars athletica, ath- 

atque, conj., and. 
&troz, -ocis, adj., frightful, 

fierce. (&ter, black, gloomy.) 
Attlca, -ae,/., Attica. 



attentS, adv.^ comp., attentius, 

attentively. (attendo. ) 
at-tlngo, -tigi, -tactum, 3 v. a., 

I touch. (ad*tango.) 
auctor, -oris, m., author. 

audeo, ausus, 2 v, a, and n., I 

audlo, 4 t;. a., I hear. (Cf. 

auris, ear.) 
auditor, -oris, m., hearer. 

(audio. ) 
au*fero, abs*ttdi, ab*latum, 

au*ferre, 3 v. a., I carry 

away, take. (ab, fero.) 
aureus, -a, -um, adj,, golden. 

auris, -is,/., ear. 
aurum, -i, n., gold. 
Aurunci, -orum, m., the Au- 

aut, co?2;., or. aut...aut, either 

... or. 
autem, c<mj., but, however, 

auzilium, -ii, 71., help. (augeo.) 
&TaruB, -a, -um, adj., covetous, 

greedy. (&veo, I longfor.) 
&Yer8U8, -a, -um, part. from 

averto, tumed away. 
a*yerto, -ti, -sum, 3 v. a., Itum 

&yl8, -is,/., bird. 
&yunci&lU8, -i, m., maternal 

uncle. (Biminutive of &vus, 


tiarbaria, -ae,/., foreign coun- 

try. (barb&rus. ) 
barb&rus, -a, -um, adi.^ foreign. 

{^ppapos : cf. balbus, stiun- 

bellum, -i, n., war. 

bell&tor, oris, m,, warrior. 

bSnS, adv., welL bene facio, 

I benefit. 
bSnSficlum, -ii, n., kindness. 

(bene, facio.) 
bestla, -ae,/., wild beast. 
blande, adv,, gently. (blandus). 
blanitimentum, -i, n., blandish- 

ment. (blandior, I caress. ) 
bSnus, -a -um, oc^'., good. 
BfLceph&las, -ae (Bovice^dXas), 

m., Bucephalas. Cf. vi 1. 


C. for Caltis or Galtis. 

caedes, -is, /., lopping off, de- 

stmction. (caedo.) 
Caesar, -&ris, m., Caesar. 
CaitUi, -i, m., Caius. 
callldltas, -atis, /, skill, cun- 

ning. (calUdus.) 
campus, -1, m., plam. 
c&nis, -is, c, dog. (iciW.) 
CannenBis, -e, adj., of Cannae 
c&no, c^clni, cantum, 3 t;. a., l 

sing, I play. cano tibiis=I 

play the iiute. 
canto, 1 V. n. and a., I sing, I 

play (frequentative form of 

cantor, -5ris, m., singer, musi- 

cian. (c&no.) 
cantus, -us, m., song, melody. 

(cSno. ) 
c&pesBO, -ivi or -ii, -Itum, 3 v. 

a., I strive for, undertake. 

(desiderative form fr. c&pio. ) 
c&pio, cepi, captum, S v. a.,I 

take. capio consilium, I form 

or adopt a plan. 
C&pitolium, -u, n., the CapitoL 





c&pitUls, -e, adj,, relatiDg to 

the caput, t.e. life or civil 

rights, capital. res capitalis, 

capital ofTence. (c&put. ) 
captiyiu, -i, m. ,captiye. (cllpio. ) 
c&put, -Itis, n.j head, life, civil 

rights. (Cf. icc<^aXTj.) 
carmen, -Inis, n., song. (c&no.) 
cassita, -ae,/., the crested lark, 

&lauda cristata, L. (cassis, a 

helmet. ) 
castmm, -i, n., fort ; in plur.f 

a camp. (Cf. c&sa, hut. ) 
c&sos, -us, tn., accident, case. 

(c&do, I fall, happen.) 
c&terra, -ae, /., troop, band, 

body of men. 
C&to, -dnis, m., Cato. (c&tus, 

shrewd. ) 
caiida, -ae,/., taiL 
causa, -ae, /., cause, reason, 

can8&, ahl, of causa, for the 

sake of , with genitive, 
cautS, adv.y cautiously. (cau- 

caatos, -a, -um, part, from 

c&veo, careful. 
c&veo, c&Tl, cautum, 2 v, »., I 

am on my guard, cautious. 
o&vema, -ae, /, cave, hollow. 

(c&vus, hollow.) 
cedo, cessi, cessum, 3 v, n, 

and a., I yield, go away, 

cilSber, -bris, -bre, adj,y nu- 

merous, famous. 
cSlSritas, -fttis, /., speed. 

cSlla, -ae, /., shrine, part of 

temple in which the image of 

the god stood. 
cSlo, 1 V. a., I conceaL 

censeo, -ui, censum, 2 v. a., 

I assess, think, vote for, 

decree, resolve. 
censor, -oris,m. ,censor. (censeo. ) 
centum, indecl, num. adj.f one 

cert&men, -inis, n., contest, 

competition. (certo, Istrive.) 
cerva, -ae,/., doe. 
cervlx, -icis,/., ueck. 
cessator, -oris, m., loiterer. 

[cetSroB], -a, -um, the other, 

the rest. The nom. sing. 

masc. is not in use. 
Ciai5,-dnis, m., Chilo. {XeiXw.) 
cib&rlus, -a, -um, adj., belong- 

ing to food (clbus). res ci- 

baria, provisions. 
cibos, -i, m., food. 
cic&triz, -Icis, /., scar. 
CicSro, -onis, w., Cicero. 
dngo, -nxi, -nctum, 3 v. a , I 

surround, gird on, clothe. 
cixcum,adv., QJidprep,gov,acc,, 

drcom-fSro, -ttdi, -latum, 3 v. 

a., I carry round, report. 
circum*ftindo, -ftldi, -msum, 3 

V. a., I pour around, sur- 

drcamplector, -plexus, 3 v. 

dep, a., I embrace, surround. 
circum*8picio, -spexi, -spectum, 

3 V. n, and a., I look around, 

circum*volvo, no perf., -vdlti- 

tum, 3 V. a., I roU round. 
drcuB, -i, m, {KlpKos), circus. 
Clspius (mons), the Cispian hill. 
cit&tas, -a, um, part, fr. clto, 

urged on. citato cursu, at 

full speed. 



cito, 1 V. a., I urge on. (fre- 
• quentative f orm of cieo. ) 
clvl8, -is, c, citizen. 
(dvitas, -atis,/., state. (clvis.) 
d&mor, -dris, m., shout, noise. 

(cUmo. ) 
clandestlnuB, -a, -um, adj,, 

secret. (clam.) 
Claadlos, -ii, m., Olaudius. 
Olaudo, -si, •sum, 3 v. a., I 

shut. (Cf. clavis, key, icXcifw.) 
coepl, coepisse, 3 t7. a., defec- 

tive (the pre8, coepio only 

in ante-classical writers. ) 

per/". with pre8, signific, I 

cOgito, 1 V. a., I meditate upon. 

(co, agito.) 
co*gnatUB, -a, -um, ac2;.,related 

by blood ; as svhst. , a kins- 

man*. (co, gnatus for natus.) 
co'grnomen, -Inis, n., sumame. 

(co, nomen.) 
co*gn5mIno, 1 v. a., Isumame. 
co'gno8CO, -gnOvi, -gnltum, 3 

V, a., I become acquainted 

with, investigate a case. 

c5go, c5egi, cdactum, 3 t;. a., I 

drive together, compel. (co, 

col*l5quor, -I5cutus, 3 v, dep,, 

I talk with. 
c5lo, c51ui, cultum, S v, a,, I 

cultivate. (Cf. agri-c5la.) 
collum, -i, n., neck. 
c5ma, -ae, /., hair, foliage. 

comes, -Itis, c, companion. 

(com, eo.) 
commenticlUB, -a, -um, adj., 

pretended, false. (commin- 


cSmitor, 1 V, dep,y I accom* 

pany. (c5mes.) 
commentuB, -a, -um, part. fr. 

com*minlscor, -mentus, 3 v, 

dep., I devise. invent. (Cf. 

c5moodia, -ae,/.,comedy. {KWfi- 

(fidla,) certamina comoedia- 

rum, dramatic competitions. 
com'p&ro, l v,a., prepare, pro- 

compStitor, -oris, m,, rival, 

competitor. (com •peto. ) 
com*plOro, 1 t;. a., I bewail 

com*pltreB, -a, rarely -ia, adj., 

com^pOno, -p5sui, •pSsItum, 3 
"* V. a., I place together, ar- 

range, compose. litterae 

compositae, forged letters. 
con*cedo, -cessi, -cessum, 3 v. a, 

and n,, I yield, grant, retire. 
con'ddo, idl, no sup., 3 u n,,l 

fall down. (c&do. ) 
con'ciplo, -cepi, -ceptum, 3 

V, a.,I take to myself. con- 

cepta sanies, matter which 

has gathered in a wound. 

(c&pio. ) 
con'clamo, 1 v, a. and n,, I cry 

out, shout togetheror loudly. 
con*demno, 1 v. a., I sentence, 

condemn. (damno. ) 
condido, -onis, /., agreement, 

conditions, terms. (con'dico. ) 
con*do, -dldi, -dltum, 3 v. a., I 

bring together, baild, lay up, 

con*fSro, -ttlli, -latum, or col* 

latum, 3 V. a., I bring to 

gether, employ; attribute. 




eon*flclo, -f6ci, -fectum, 3 v. a., 

I execute, fiiiish. (f&cio.) 
conndentla, -ae, /., boldness, 

confidence. (confldo.) 
con^fldo, -fisus, 3 V. n.,I trust in. 
con'flrmo, 1 v. a., I establisb, 

connsos, -a, -um, part, fr. 

confido, confident. 
con*fomio, 1 t;. a., I shape. 
oon'fCLto, 1 V. a., I restrain, 

silence. (futo, inUna, form 

of f6veo.) 
con'gSro, -gessi, -gestum. 3 

V. a. , I bring together. Ab- 

solutely (sc. nidum), I build 

a nest. 
con'grSdlor, -^essus, 3 v. dep,, 

I mee# as mend, or foe, I 

attack. (gradior. ) 
confinreBSlo, -onis, /., meeting, 

attack. (congredior. ) 
e5n*iXcio, -ieci, -iectum, 3 

V. a., Ithrow together, hurl. 

(i&cio. ) 
conitlr&tlo, -5nis,/. , conspiracy. 

c5nor, 1 v. dep, , I attempt. 
con*scl8CO, -sclvi, or -scii, -scl- 

tum, S V, a., I approve of. 

conscisco aliquid mihi, I 

adjudge something to my- 

self ; conscisco necem, mor- 

tem, mihi, I kill myself . 
eonsensus, -us, m., consent, 

agreement. (consentio. ) 
eon*BSquor, -sScatus, 3 v, dep., 

I follow after, attain, gain. 
con*BSro, -sSvi, -sltum, or 

-s&tum, 3 V. a., I sow, 

eon*8ldo, -sSdi, -seBsum, Zv.n., 

I sit down, encamp. (sSdeo.) 

consUium, 'U,n., plan,purpo8e. 

(con, root sul ; cf. consul.) 
conBlsto, 'Stlti, stltum, 3 v. n. 

and a., I halt. 
consitas, -a, -um, part. fr. 

conspectus, -us, m., sight, view. 

(consplcio. ) 
con*spIclo, -spexi, -spectum, 3 

V. a. and n., I look at with 

attention, see. 
con'stemo, 1 1;. a., I stretch on 

groimd, terrify. 
con*Btituo, -ui, -atum, 3v. a., 

I place (a thing) somewhere, 

station. (st&tuo.) 
con*stle8CO, -suevi, -suetum, 3 

V. n., Igrow accustomed. 
consnl, -llfis, m., consul. (Cf. 

consllium. ) 
consiilarls, -e, adj., consular. 
consiilo, -lui, -Itum, 3 v. n. and 

a. , I reflect, I consult with. 

(Of. consilium.) 
consulto, 1 V. a., I deliberate 

upon, I debate. (frequent- 

ative form of constQo.) 
conBUltom, -i, n., decision, de- 

cree. (consttlo. ) 
con*temno, -mpsi, -mptum, 3 

v.a., I despise. 
con*tendo, -di, -tum, 3 v. a. and 

n., I strain after, strive for, 

con*teBtor, 1 v. dep., I call to 

witness. Contestor litem, I 

introduce a lawsuit by call- 

ing witnesses. (testis.) 
con*tlngo, -tlgi, -tactum, 3 

v. n., I touch, reach to, 

happen. (tango. ) 
contmuo, adv,, immediately. 

(continuus, fr. con'tineo.) 




contlo, bmz, /., meeting, as- 

sembly. (for con*ventio, a 

coming together.) 
contr&, odv., prep. gov, acc., 

against. contra dlco, I ob- 

ject to, appeal against sen- 

oon*tueor, -tuitns, 2 v, dep,, I 

gaze upon. 
contiimSlla, -ae, /., disgrace, 

ignominy. (root tem : cf. 

con-turbo, 1 v. a., I throw into 

disorder. (turba.) 
oon-yello, -velli (rarely -vnlsi), 

-vulsum, 3 V. a., I tear away, 

con*vSnlo, -veni, -ventnm, 4 

V. n. and a., I come together, 

agree with, meet. 
con*verto, -ti, -sum, S v. a., I 

tnm round, manceuvre. 
con*vlnco, -vlci, -victum, 3 

V. a., I completely conquer. 

I convict of (a crime). 
convlvlum, -ii, »., banquet. 

(vlvo. ) 
c5pia, -ae, /., plenty, supply ; 

in plur.f forces. (co, ops.) 
cdpldsuB, -a, -um, adj. with 

abl., well supplied with. 
cor, cordls, n», heart. (Cf. 

Kapdla. ) 
coram, adv. , and prep. gov. abl. , 

in the presence of . 
CSrlnthios, -a, -um, oc^'., 

CSrintlms, -i,/, Corinth. 
cdrdna, ae, /., wreath, garland. 

c5r5no, 1 v. a,, I crown. 

corpus, -5ris, n. body. 

cor-rlgo, -rexi, -rectum, Zv.a., 

I make straight, correct. 

(con, rego.) 
C5runc&niu8, -ii, Coruncanius. 
Corvlnus, -i, m., Corvinus. 

corvuB, -i, m. , raven. {K6pa^. ) 
cStldianus (or quStidianus), 

-a, -um, adj., daily. (cdtldle.) 
cras, adv., to-morrow. 
CrasBUB, -i, m., Crassus. 
credo, -dldi, -dltum, 3 v. a., I 

entrust, I trust in, I believe. 

Used absolutely, I sup- 

crSdftlXtaB, -&tis,/., easiness of 

belief, credulity. (credtQus, 

credo. ) 
crimen, -Inis, n., ch%rge, ao- 

CrStdniensiB, -e, adj., of Cro- 

or&ci&tUB, -us, m., torture. 

(crttcio, crux.) 
cruentUB, -a, -um, adj., stained 

with blood. (cruor.) 
cruor, -ori8,m. ,gore, blood which 

has flowed from wounds. 
cruB, crtLriB, n., leg. 
ctlbiciilum, -i, m., a resting or 

sleeping room. (ctibo. ) 
cuiUB, -a, -um, interrog. and 

relat. adj. pron., whose? or 

whose. (qui.) 
cnltUB, -a, -um, part. fr. colo, 

cultivated, civilized. 
cum (or quum), conj,, when, 

since, if, although. 
cum, prep. gov, aJU. , with. 
cunct&bunduB, -a, -um, linger- 

ing. (cunctor. ) 
cunctor, 1 v. dep., I loiter, 





eimctas, -a, -um, adj,, all in a 

body, all. (for coniunctns.) 
c&ieas, -i, m., wedge, wedge- 

shaped body of troops. 
ciipIdaB, -a, -nm, adj.^ eager, 

desirous, proud of (with 

gen.) (ctipio.) 
ctlr, adv. and conj,^ why, 

ctai, -ae,/., care, anxiety. 
cfiria, -ae, /., senate-house. 

(Quiris, Cures.) 
CtiriaB, -ii, m., Curius. 
cHro, 1 V. a., I take care of. 

With gerundive, cf. vii. 3. 

note. Curo puerum docen- 

dum, I get the boy taught. 

(cura. ) 
corras, -us, m. , chariot. (curro. ) 
carsuB, -us, m., running, race, 

course. Cltato cursu, at f ull 

speed. (curro. ) 
castodlo, 4 V. a., I guard. 

(custos. ) 
castOB, -odis, c, guard. 

damno, 1 v, a., I condemn. 

(damnum, hurt, loss.) 
de, frep. gov. dbl., conceming, 

debeo, 2v. a. , I owe. (de, h&beo. ) 
dibllis, -e, adj., lamed, feeble. 

(de, habilis.) 
dScem, numer., ten. 
de'cemo, -crevi, -cretum, 3 

V. a. and n., I determine, 

decide ; of the senate, I pass 

a decree. 
de*cIdo, -cldi, -clsum. 3 v. a., 

I cut off. (caedo.) 
dcdamo, 1 v. n. and a., I 

exercise myself in speaking, 


dcd&ro, 1 v. a., I show, pro- 

dScdro, Iv. a. , I adom. (d^cus, 

omament, glory.) 
deditlo, -onis, /., surrender. 

de*daco, -xi, -ctum, 3 v. a., I 

lead away, withdraw, bring 

de'fendo, -di, -sum, 3 v. a., I 

ward off, keep off. 
dSfeoBor, -oris, m., defender. 

(def endo. ) 
dS*f8ro, -ttlli, -latum, 3 v. a., I 

bring down, hand over. 
de^flo, -fectus, -fI6ri, v. n. (used 

as passive of deflcio), I am 

wanting, I fail. 
deformitas, -atis, /., ugliness, 

deformity. (de'formis, ugly. 

Cf. forma.) 
de'iicio, -ieci, -iectum, 3 v. a., 

I throw down. (i&cio. ) 
deinceps (dissyl.), or deinceps, 

arfv., next, following. 

(deinde. ) 
deinde (dissyl. ), or dSindS, adv. , 

then, thereupon. 
delecto, 1 v. a., I delight. 

(intens. of dellcio.) 
de'ligo, -legi, -lectum, 3 v. a., 

I choose out, select. (l^go. ) 
de'liro, 1 v. w., I rave. (de, 

lira, out of the f urrow. ) 
de'lite8C0, -tui, 3 v. n., I lie 

hid, conceal myself. (l^tesco, 

inceptive of l&teo. ) 
delphinas, -i, m., dolphin. 

Demades, -is, m., Demades. 

(Arifiddris. ) 
de*m§to, -messni, -messum, 3 

t;. a., I reap, mow. 




dSmlror, 1 v. dep, a., I wonder 

dS'mdror, 1 v. dep.^ I lin^er. 
DemoBthenes, -is and -i, m., 

Bemosthenes. (ArifxoaO^ris. ) 
de*miilceo, -mulsi, -malctom, 

2v. a.,i stroke down, caress. 
dSmum, adv.y at last. (de.) 
denique, adv.f andthen, finally. 

Dentatos, -i, m., Bentatus. 
denuo, adv., again. (For de 

de^pdpiLlor, 1 v. dep. a., I 

dS^ptlto, 1 V. a., I cnt off, prune. 
dOTideo, -si, -sum, 2 v. a., I 

laugh at. 
de*8Ci8C0, -ivi or -ii, -Itum, 3 

V. n., I withdraw, revolt 

from, abandon ; with prep, 

ab and abl. 
dS'8§ro, -rui, -rtum, 3 v. a., I 

desert, abandon. (lit., I 

undo, sever ; sero, I join.) 
de8erta8, -a, -um, part. fr. 

des^ro, lonely, desert. 
dS'8ldSro, 1 V. a. , I long for. 
de'8i]io, -flui, -ultum, 4v. n., I 

leap down. (sSlio. ) 
dS'8mo, -sii, rarely -slvi, -sltum, 

3 V. n. and a., I give up, 

dS*Blpio, no perf. or sup., -ere, 

V. n., I act foolishly, I am 

foolish. (s&pio. ) 
dSBUuB, -a, -um, part. of de- 

slno, obsolete, disused. 
dS*spIcio, -exi, -ectum, 3 v. a. 

and n., I look down upon, 

dS'8am, -fui, -esse, v. n., I am 


dS^tSgo, -xi, -ctum, 3 v. a., 1 
' uncover, discover. 
dS^tergeo, -si, -sum, 2 v. a., 

I wipe off. 
dS'tr&lio, -xi, -ctum, 3 v. a., I 

take away. 
dS*tranco, l v. a., I lop, cut 

dS'11ro, -ussi, -ustum, 3 1^. a., I 

bum up. 
deos, -i, m., god. 
dSTSho, -xi, -ctum, 3 w. a., I 

carry away, carry down. 
dS TSnio, -veni, -ventum, 4 v. n. , 

I ctfme from, I go to, arrive 

dexter, -tSra, -tSrum, and tra, 

trum, adj. , on the right side, 

right. (5€^c6s.) 
Di&na, -ae,/., Biana. 
dicio, -onis, /„ rule, jurisdic- 

tion. (Cf. dico, condicio.) 
dlco, -xi, -ctum, 3 V. a., I say, 

tell, calL 
dictum, -i, n., saying, com- 

mand. (dlco. ) 
dI*dflco, -xi, -ctum, 3 v. a., I 

draw apart, separate. 
dies, -ei, m. (in sing. eom.), 

dif'fero, distttli, dllatum, 3 

V. a. , I carry away , put off. 
difficHiB, -e, adj.f difficult, 

hard. (f&cllis.) 
dlgSro, -gessi, -gestum, Sv. a., 

I separate, oisperse, dissi- 

dlgitas, -i, m., finger. 
dignitas, -&tiB, /., rank, dig- 

nity. (dignus. ) 
dignos, -a, -um, adj., worthy. 
dI'grSdior, -gressuB, 3 v. d^., 

I go away. (gr^or.) 




di*l&oSro, 1 V, a.f I tear to 

dilfLcesco, luxi, no sup., Sv,n,, 

I beein to grow light. (In- 

ceptive form of diluceo. ) 
dntlclde, oc^v., clearly. (dilaceo, 

dimldlmn, -ii, n., half. (di, 

medius. ) 
dl 'mltto, -mlsi, -missum, 3 v. a. , 

I send away, dismiss. 
dlTlgo, -rexi, -rectum, S v. a., 

I arrange in a straight line, 

I direct to. 
di8'cedo, -cessi, -cessum, 3v.n., 

I depart, go away. 
di*8Cindo, -scldi, -scissum, 3 

V. a., I tear asunder, cut 

difli^pllna, -ae, /, teaching, 

knowledge, tactics, custom. 

(disclptdus, disco.) 
disdpiilaB, -i, m., disciple, 

follower. (disco. ) 
disco, dldici, no sup., 3 v. a., 

I leam. (Koot da: cf . dtdd(r/co>, 

diBBTmttlanter, adv., secretly. 

(disslmtdo. ) 
dlfL, adv., for a long time. (dies. ) 
dlTello, -velli, rarely -vulsi, 

-vulsum, 3 V. a., I tear 

dlyes, -Itis, adj,, rich. 
dlylnltuB, adv,, from heaven, 

by divine providence or in- 

fluence. (aivus, deus.) 
dlylniu, -a, -um, adj., divine. 

(dlvus, deus.) 
do, d6di, d&tum, d&re, v. a., I 

give. (Cf. dldMfu, donum.) 
d5eeo, -cui, -ctum, 2 v. a., 

I teach. (Cf. disco.) 

ddleo, -ui, -Itum, 2v.n. anda., 

I grieve, I grieve f or. 
dSlor, -5ri8, m., pain, grief. 

dSmi, adv. , at home. Locative 

case of dOmus. 
dSmus, -us, /., home, house. 

{dd/ios, root dem, to build. ) 
ddnec, conj., until. 
d5no, 1 v. a., I give, I present. 

ddnum, -i, n., sift. (do.) 
dorsum, -i, n., back. 
d&blto, 1 v. a., I hesitate. 
dtlbiaB, -a, -um, adj., doubt- 

ful. Diibio pr6cul, without 

dum, conj., whilst, until. 
du6, -ae, -6, numer., two. (5i5o.) 
dtLd'de*vIginti, numer.^ eight- 

dtaiB, -a, -um, ad^., hard, 

dux, dticiB, m., leader. (duco.) 

e, ex, jtrep, gov. ahl., out of, 
from. Ex republica, to the 
advantage of the state. 

Sdo, Sdi, Ssifhi, Z V. a., I eat. 
(Cf. 6dax, idta, iaBiw.) 

ecquls, ecquld, interrog, svhst. 
pron., whether any ? 

e'do, -dldi, -dltum, 3 v. a., 1 

five forth, bring forth, pro- 
uce, utter, form, raise. 
S'dflco, l V. a.,I rear, educate. 
ef'fero, ex*ttili, g'latum, 3 v. a., 

I bring out. 
ef *fIcio, -feci, -fectum, 3 t;. a., 

I bring to pass, accomplish. 

(ex, facio.) 
8g6, per8. pron., T. 
6g5'mSt, I myself. 



S*grSdior, -gressus, 3 v. dep., I 
go out, I leave. (gr&dior.) 

eg^gios, -a, -mn, ctdj., dis- 
tinguished, eminent. (e, 

_ grex, chosen from the herd. ) 

Electra, -ae, /., Electra. 

SlSphantas, -i, m., elephant. 

eldqnentia» -ae, /., eloquence. 

elfLdo, -si, -sum, 3 v. a., I 

mock, jeer at. 
emltto, -mlsi, -missum, 3 v. a., 

I send out. 
Smo, Smi, emptnm, 3 t;. a., I 

emptio, -onis, /., purchase, 

buying. (6mo.) 
Snim, conj., for. sed enim, 

but indeed. 
EnniUB, -ii, m., Ennius. 
enuntio, 1 V. a., I declare, 

eo, Ivi or ii, Itum, Ire, 4 v. »., I 

go. (Rooti; cf. ctfu.) 
eo, adv., thither, for that rea- 

son, therefore. (is.) 
Spliippium, -ii, n.t saddle, horse 

caparison. {ciplvirioVf from 

iirlf iwos.) 
SptUae, arum, /., feast, ban- 

quet. (In sing. Sptdum, 

i, n.) 
Squit&tas, -us, m., cavalry. 

Squtui, -1, m.f horse. {trros.) 
ergo, adv. , theref ore. 
Srilbesco, -bui, nosup., 3v. n. 

ineep. , I grow red, blush. 
St, conj.f and. 
Stlam, conj.f also, even. 
$t!am*8i, cmij.f even if. 

Eaander, -dri, ni., E^vander. 
Baatblus, -i, m., Euathlus. 
Sverto, -ti, -snm, 3 1;. a., I over- 

ezangraXs, or eTnangnis, .-e, 

adj.f bloodless, lifeless. (ex, 

ex'&nun&ta8, part. from ex- 

&nXmo, lifeless. 
ex*&nXmo, 1 v. a., I deprive of 

life. (anima.) 
ex*(ddo, -cldi, -clsum, 3 v. o., I 

cutout, oflF. (caedo.) 
exdto, 1 1;. a., I arouse. (Freq. 

form of excio.) 
ex*clamo, 1 v. a. and n., l cry 

out, exclaim. 
ex*eo, -ivi or ii, -Itum, -ire, 4 v. 

n.f I go out. 
exeroeo, -ui, -Itum, 2 v. o., I 

drive on, I practise. (arceo.) 
exercUus, -us, m., army. (ex- 

exerto, or exserto, no perf . and 

sup., 1 V. a.f I thrust out. 

(ex, serto, freq. of sSro.) 
ex*!go, -egi, -actum, 3 t\ a., I 

drive out. (ago.) 
ei^um, or exsiUam, -ii, n., 

exile. (exul.) 
esdtmioB, -a, -um, adj.f extra- 

ordinary, uncommon. (eximo, 

I take out of the mass. ) 
ex^istibno, 1 1;. a., I judge, con- 

sider. (aestimo. ) 
eidtaB, -us, nk, going out, de- 

parture. (exeo.) 
ex*ordior, -orsus, 4 v. dep. a., I 

ex^p^sto, or ex*8pecto, 1 v. o., 

I look for. (ex, specto.) 
ex*pSrior, -pertus, 4 v. dep., I 





ex'pIro, or ex*spIro, 1 t;. a., I 
breathe out. (ex, spiro.) 

ex 1)5110, -p58ui, -pttsltum, 3 v, 
a.y I set forth, explain. 

ex'primo, -pressi, -pressum, 
3 V, a., I press out. 

ex*prdmo, -mpsi, -mptum, 3 v. 
a., I bring forth, utter. 

extemplo, adv., immediately. 

ex*to, or ex'Bto, no perf. and 
sup., -are, v. n., I stand 
forth, appear. (ex, sto.) 

extr&, prep. gov. acc, outside. 
Extra tela, out of range. 

extremus, -a, -um, adj.,, outer- 
most, furthest. Extrem& 
nocte, at the very end of 
night. Superl. degree from 
[exter and extgrus, post-clas- 
sical], ext6rior,exixSmus,and 
extlmus. (ex. ) 

ex*nrgo, or ex'Burgo, exurrexi, 
no sup., 3 V. n., I rise up. 
(ex, surgo.) 

exllro, -ussi, -ustum, 3 v. a., I 
bum up. 

F&MaB, -ii, m., Fabius. 
F&brlciOB, -ii, m., Fabricius 
fibiila, -ae, /., fable, story. 

(fari, tosay.) 
f&cillB, -e, adj., easy, good- 

natured. (f&cio.) 
f&cXnoB, ^ris, n., deed, crime. 

f&cio, fSci, factum, f&c6re, 3 v. 

a., I make, do. Facio cum 

aliquo, I take part with any- 

fiactnm, -i, n., deed. (f&cio.) 
fftonndla, -ae, /., eloquence 

(ffiri, to say.) 

I fallo, fefelli, falsum, 3 v. a., I 

deceive. (cr^dXXw, d'<r0aXi^.) 
falBUB, -a, -um, adj., false. 

falx, falcis, /., sickle. 
f&ma, -ae,/., renown. (fari,to 

tiunula, -ae (old gen. -as), /., 

the slaves in a honsehold, a 

^unXll&riB, -e, adj., belonging 

to a household (f&mllia), inti- 

mate ; as svhst., friend. 
F&vorlnuB, -i, m., Favorinus. 
fScimdaB, -a, um, adj., fruit- 

fSUciter, happily : f gllcius, f§- 

llcissime. (felix.) 
fSlix, fellcis, adj., happy, rich. 
fSra, -ae,/ , wild beast. (f erus. ) 
fSre, adv., almost. 
fSrlnoB, -a, -Um, adj., of wild 

beasts. (f^rus.) 
fermS, adv., nearly, about, 

usually. (Cf. fere.) 
fSro, ttili, latum, ferre, Sv. a., 

I bear ; I tell, say. {<f>4p(0y 

fSrox, fSrdclB, adj., fierce. (Cf. 

f erus. ) 
fSmB, -a, -um,.ac2y.,wild. (Cf. 

f erox. ) 
fervo, -vi, no sup., 3, v. n., I 

grow hot ; commoner form, 

ferveo, -bui, no sup. , 2. 
festlno, l. V, n. and a., I has- 

fStuB, -us, m., brood, offsprinff. 
fldOB, -ei, /., faith, trustworthi- 

nesfl. (fldo.) 
fldOB, -is, /., string, stringed 

instrument, lyre ; usually in 

plural only. 




fidfLda, -ae,/, trost, courage. 

fiUos, -ii, m., son. 
flngo, -nxi, -nctum, 3 v. a., 

I form, fashion. 
fio, factuB, fI6ri, v. n., (used as 

pass. of facio), I am made, 

flrmo, 1 V. a., I strengthen. 

(firmus. ) 
fl&gitlum, -ii, n. , shameful act, 

^disgrace. (flaelto. ) 
fl&gro, l V. n., I burn, blaze. 
flaveBCO, no perf. and sup., 

3 V. n., ^I become yellow. 

(Inceptive f orm of flaveo. ) 
flecto, -xi, -xum, 3 v. a., I 

flds, -Sris, m., flower. 
flactUB, -us, m., wave. (fluo.) 
flulto, 1 V, 71., I float. (In- 

tensitive form of fluo.) 
fdciilaB, -i, m., little hearth, 

brazier. (diminutive of 

forls, adv.f out of doors. (fOris, 

a door. ) 
formido, -Inis,/., fear. 
fors, fortlB,/, chance. 
fortl, cbdv.f by chance. (abl. of 

fortls, -e, adj., brave. 
fortlter, a(2i;., bravely. (fortis.) 
fortltfldo, -Inis, /., bravery. 

fortaltas, -a, -um, adj., acci- 

dental. (fors. ) 
tr&ter, -tris, m., brother. 

yippdnfjp, clansman.) 
araadi&lentaB, -a, -um, adj., de- 

ceitful. (fraus.) 
tnxLB, fraudis,/, deceit. 
finudnuB, -i,/, ash tree. 

firSmltas, -us, m., roaring 

(f r6mo. ) 
firenam, -i, n., bridle, bit. 
firons, frondis,/, leafybranch, 

frflges, -um. Cf. frux. 
firflmentam, -i, »., com. (For 

fruglmentum, cf . frux, f ruor. ) 
firustra, adv., in vain. (Cf. 

f raus. ) 
firax, frugis, /, fruit. Kom. 

sing. rare ; more common in 

plural. (Cf. fruor.) 
f^ia, -ae, /., flight. (fttgio, 

f&gitayaB, -a> -um, adj., fugi- 

tive. (f iigio. ) 
fiilgeo, fulsi, no sup., 2v. n.,I 

glitter . (Cf . f ulgur,lightning. ) 
fundo, fudi, fusum, 3 v. a., I 

pour out, scatter. 
ftmdaB, -i, m, farm. 
ftartim, adv., secretly. (for, 

fflBUS. Cf. fimdo. 

g&lea, -ae,/, helmet. 
Oallicafl, -a, -um, adj., belong- 

ing to Gaul, Gallic. 
Oallas, -i, m., a Gaul. 
OelliaB, -ii, m., Gellius. 
ggmitas, us, ttl, groan. (gSmo.) 
gens, gentis, /, clan, race, 

nation. (Cf. gigno, genus.) 
gSnas, -6ris, n., race, kind. 

{y4vos, gens, gigno.) 
gSro, gessi, gestum, 3 v. a., I 

bear, I carry on. 
gesto, 1 V. a., I carry. (Intens. 

of ggro. ) 
gigno, gSnui, g^nltum, 3 v. o., 

I produce. (Cf. gens, genus.) 
gl&dluB, -ii, m., sword. 




glSrla, -ae, /., renown, glory. 
Graeqe, adv, , in Greek. 
Oraeda, -ae,/., Greece. 
grHmen, -Inis, n., grasfi. 
gr&mineas, -a, -um, adj,^ made 

of grass. (gramen. ) 
grandls, -e, adj,, great, large, 

abundant. Grandis natu, ad- 

vanced in age. 
gratla, -ae, /., favour, in- 

fluence, gratitude, thanks : 

"with agere in plural only. 

In abl. grati^, for the sake 

of, with gen. (gratus.) 
gratillatio, -onis, /., rejoicing, 

congratulation. (gratillor.) 
gratiilor, 1 v, dep,, I congratu- 

late, give thanks. (gratus. ) 
gnila, -ae,/., throat. 

h&beo, 2 v. a., I have. 
h&blto, 1 V. a, and n., I in- 

habit, dwell in. (Intensitive 

of h&beo.) 
haereo, haesi, haesum, 2 v. n. , 

I stick to. 
Hamnlbal, -&lis, m., Hannibal. 
haud, adv., not. 
haurlo, hausi, haustum, 4v. a., 

I draw up, drink, tear open, 

haut (or haud), adv., not. 
haat'qaa-qaam, or haad'qaa*- 

quam, adv. , by no means. 
Hercles (or Herctiles), -is and -i. 

m.t Hercules. For form 

Hercle, cf. iii. 1. note. 
h!c, haec, hoc, demonstr, pron., 

hlc, adv., here. 
hil&rls, -e, adj.f merry, amus- 

hinc, adv., hence. (hic.) 


hlo, 1 V. n,, I open my mouth, 

gape. Rimis hiantem, with 

wide open clefts, lit., gaping 

open with clefts. 
HlBp&nia, -ae,/., Spain. 
HiBp&nlcas, -a, -um, adj,, 

histrio, -onis, m,, actor. (Etrus- 

can word hister, an actor.) 
hSdle, adv., to-day. (hocdie.) 
hddiemas, -a, -um, adj., of this 

day. (h5die.) 
hdmo, -Ynis, m., man. (Cf. 

humanus. ) 
hSnestas, -a, -um, adj., honour- 

able, proper, respectable. 

(h5nor. ) 
hSnor, or honos, -oris, m., 

HSratias, -ii, m., Horatius. 
hortor, 1 V, dep,, I encourage, 

urge. (Cf. 6pvvfu, hpfiii,) 
hospes, -Itis, m., host, guest, 

stranger. (Cf. hostis, stran- 

ger, enemy.) 
hosplta, -ae,/., (feminine form 

of ho8pes,)female host, guest, 

hostis, -is, c, enemy. 
hfLia8'cS'm5di, andhiUaB*m5dl, 

of this kind. (Cf. m6dus.) 
hfimSruB, -i, m., shoulder. 
hamilis, -e, adj., low, humble, 
insignificant. (htlmus, groimd. ) 

i&cio, iSd, iactum, 3 t;. a., I 

lam, adv., already, now. 
Xbi, adv., there, thereupon. (is.) 
ibidem, adv., in the same place, 

immediately. (ibi, dem. cf. 

idem. ) 



ictns, -ns, 771., blow, stroke. 

(Obsolete preserU, ico and icio, 

I strike. ) 
Iddroo, adv,, therefore. (id- 

idem, S&dem, Idem, pron,, 

same. (is, and sufiSx dera.) 
IdSneos, -a, -um, adj.t fit. 
igitur, conj., then, therefore. 

(is, and suffix tur.) 
Ign&vla, -ae, /., cowardice. 

(in-gnavus, kizy, cowardly ; 

from navus, or gnavus, 

Ignis, -is, m., fire. 
Igndminia, -ae, /., disgrace. 

(in-nomen, or gnomen, loss 

of good name.) 
Igndro, 1 V. a. and n., I am 

ignorant of. (ignarus, for 

in-gnarus or -narus. 
l*g^OBCO, -novi, notnm, 3 v. a., 

I pardon, overlook. (in- 

gnosco or -nosco.) 
I*grndta8, -a, -um, adj., un- 

known. (in*gnotusor notus.) 
Qez, -Xcis, /., holm-oak, or 

great scarlet oak. Quercus 

Uex L. 
Uico (or illico), adv,, on the 

spot, immediately. (in, 

1118, ill&, illiid, demonstr, pron.y 

that, he. 
illic, cbdv. , in that place, there. 

(ille, ce.) 
im*md1)iliB, -e, adj., motion- 

less. (in, m6veo.) 
impSdio, -Ivi or -ii, -Itum, 

4 p, a., I hinder. (in, 

impSr&tor, -dris, m., general. 


impSrinm, -ii, n., command, 

empire. (imp^ro. ) 
impSro, 1 t;. a., I command, I 

rule over (dat.). 
impetro, 1 v. a., I acoomplish, 

impetns, -us, m., attack, force. 

(in*peto, I rush upon.) 
im*miti8, -e, adj,, stem. 
in, prep. gov. acc. and ahl.y in, 

into, on, against. 
in*cedo, -cessi, -cessnm, 3 v. n., 

I approach. 
incendinm, -ii, n., fire. (in- 

cendo, fr. in, candeo.) 
in*<^do, -cldi, -clsum, 3 v. o., I 

cnt into, cut through, open. 

(in, caedo.) 
ln*dplo, -cSpi, -ceptum, 3 1?. o., 

I begin. (in, c&pio, I seize 

in'clfldo, -si, •sum, 3 v, a., I 

shutin. (claudo.) 
in'cognita8, -a, -um, adj,^ nn- 

known. (in*cognosco.) 
ln*c5lilmlB, -e, (mj,^ uninjured, 

in*craentas, -a, -um, adj,^ 

bloodless. (cruor.) 
ln*carro, -curri or -cticurri, 

cursum, 3 v. n., I rush into, 

rush against, attack. 
InoarBlo, -onis, /., inroad, at- 

tack. (in*curro.) 
indS, adv., thence, thencefor- 

ward. (is. ) 
ln*^co, -xi, -ctnm, 3 v. a., I 

Indicns, -a, -um, adj., Indian. 
in*dignaB, -a, -um, adj., un- 

ln*dflco, -xi, -ctum, 3 v. a., I 

bring in, exhibit. 



Induo, -ui, -atum, 3 v. a., I 

put on. (hb^Kt).) 
Ineptus, -a, -um, adj.y unsuit- 

able, foolish. (in, aptus.) 
Xn^ezplXc&bllls, -e, adj.<, hard 

to unfold, understand, intri- 

cate. (in, ex, plico, I fold.) 
infitiae, -arum,/., denial. Only 

used in acc, plur. in phrase 

infitias ire, to deny. (in- 

ln*flo, 1 V. a., I blow into or 

tnformls, -e, adj.^ shapeless. 

lnfr&, adv.^ and 2>r6p. gov. ooc., 

below. (Forinfer^, «:. parte.) 
in*fringo, -frSgi, -fractum, 3 

V. a. , I break in upon, 

break. (frango.) 
IngSnium, -ii, n., nature, 

talent, genius. (in, gigno.) 
Ingens, -entis, adj.^ immense. 
In'gr&ta8, -a, -um, adj.^ un- 

ln'grS<Uor, -gressus, 3v. dep.^ I 

step into, a^vance. (gr&dior. ) 
Xn*inilcu8, -a, -um, ad;., hos- 

tile ; as subst., an enemy. 

(in, &mlcus.) 
ln'IquaB, -a, -um, unequal, un- 

f air, dangerous. (in, aequus. ) 
Inlflr&tuB, -a, -um, adj.y un- 

swom, relieved from oath. 

(in, iOro.) 
Inilirla, -ae, /, wrong, insult. 

(in, ius.) 
InlScSbra, or UlScSbra, -ae, /., 

attraction, allurement. (il- 

Inlustris, or lllaBtris, -e, adl, 

famous. (inlustro, I make 


Inmanis, or Inmianis, -e, adj,, 

fierce. (in, manus, old Latin 

word=bonus : cf. manes, 

good spirits. ) 
Inmensns, -a, -um, adj., im 

measurable. (metior. ) 
inmerito, adv., undeservedly. 

(in, mereo.) 
in*mitto, -mlsi, -missum, 3 

V. a., I send in, thrust in, 

carry in, incite or subom 

against. Used absolutely, 

sc. equum, urge horse for- 

ward, vi. 9. 
ln*mort&li8, or im^mort&lis, -e, 

adj., immortal. 
in*dpin&tas, -a, -um, adj,, un- 

expected. (in, 6plnor.) 
In*perita8, -a, -um, unskilled. 
in^perfeotus, -a, -um, adj., not 

thorouffhly finished, un- 

finished. (f&cio.) 
in^plflmis, -e, adj. , unfeathered, 

unfledged. (pluma.) 
inpdno, -pdsui, -pdsltum, 3 

V, a.,I place on. 
inqaam, v. n., defective, I say. 
ln'qairo, -slvi, -sltum, 3t;. a., I 

search into, examine. (in, 

ln*rideo, -risi, -rlsum, 2 v. a. 

andn., I laugh at. 
ins&nla, -ae,/ , madness. (sanus. ) 
ln*8cendo, -endi, -ensum, 3v.a., 

I climb up, mount. (scando.) 
in'8ideo, -sedi, -sessum, 2v.n., 

I sit on, occupy. (s6deo. ) 
ln*8idlae, -arum, /., plur. oiily. 

ambusb, treachery. (in- 

Insig^ne, -is, n., badge, oma- 

ment. (in^signis, disting- 

uished by a mark, signum.) 



in*Bi8to, -stiti, no sup., 3 v. n., 

I stand on, rest on, per- 

in*85lens, -entis, ck^'., unac- 

customed to, with gen. (in, 

sOleo. ) 
InsSlenter, adv,^ haughtily. 

in*Bpecto, 1 v. a., I look upon. 

(Frequentative of in'spicio, 

from specio. ) 
Instinctus, -a, -um, part, fr. in- 

instingao, -nxi, -nctum, 3 v. a., 

I incite. (Only in perf . part. 

pass. in classical writers. ) 
in*stUuo, -ui, -atum, 3 v. a., 

I determine. (st&tuo.) 
in*sto, -stlti, no sup., 1 v. n., I 

stand upon, press upon, in- 

in*stmo, -xi, -ctum, 3 v. a., I 

build upon, I draw up, ar- 

In-snesco, -evi, -etum, 3 v. n., 

I am accustomed. 
Insiila, -ae, /., island, lodging- 

intSger, -gra, -grum, adj,^ un- 

touched, sound. (tango.) 
intelllgo, -exi, -ectnm, 3 v. a., 

I perceive, understand. 

(inter, l6go.) 
inter, frep. gov. aec, between, 

lnt§r'§&, adv,, meanwhile. 

(inter*ea, from is.) 
lnter'dico, -xi, -ctum, 3 t;. a., I 

lntSr'eo, -ii, -Itum, 4 v. n., I 

die. (Lit., I go among 

several things, and so, dis- 


InterTido, -feci, -fectum, 3 v, 

a., I kill. (f&cio, lit., I put 

between. ) 
IntSrim, adv., meanwhile. 

(inter, im old acc. of is. ) 
Interltos, -us, m., rtdn, death. 

(intereo. ) 
Inter 'mlnor, 1 v. dep. , I threaten. 
lnter*pres, -etis, com., inter- 

Inter *r5go, 1 V. a. , I question, ask . 
Intlmus, -a, -um, adj., inmost, 

superlative f rom [intfirus, not 

found ; cf. inter and intra], 

intra, adv., Skndprep. gov. acc, 

in*trepidas, -a, -um, adj., fear- 

intrG*dfloo, -xi, -ctum, 3 v. a., 

I bring in, introduce. 
lntr5*eo, -ivi or ^ii, -Itnm, 4 

t7. n. , I go in, enter. 
lntr5'gredlor, -gressu8,3t;. dep., 

I step in, enter. (gr&dior. ) 
lntro'nunpo, -rupi, -ruptnm, 3 

V. n.,I burst into. 
in'v5nlo, -veni, -ventum, 4v.a., 

I come upon, find. 
In*vi8as, -a, -um, adj., hated. 

(in-vldeo, I look at with evil 

eye, hate.) 
Ipse, -a, -um, demonstr. pron.^ 

himself, herself, itself. 
ira, -ae,/., anger. 
l8, ea, id, devnomtr. 2?^on., that, 

he, she, it. 
Iste, -a, -tid, demonstr.- pron. , 

that of yours, that near 

Isttc, -aec, -oc or -uc, demonstr. 

pron., that of yours, that 

nearyou. (For iste*ce.) 




ita, adv., thus, so. 

itaiia, -ae,/.,Italy. 

item, adv.y likewise, also. (is.) 

iter, itXngris, ti., joumey. (eo.) 

iteroxn, adv.y a second time, 

again. (Acc. sing. of com- 

parative f orm f rom is. ) 
itidem, adv,y in like manner. 

(ita, dem.) 
liibeo, iussi, iussum, 2 v. a., I 

iflcojide, adv,<t pleasantly. 

(iticundus. ) 
IfLCundus, -a, -um, adj.y plea- 

sant, delightful. (i5cus.) 
iudez, -lcis, m., judge. (ius, 

ifldico, 1 V. a., I judge, decide. 

(ius, dlco.) 
Ifllianus, -i, m., Julian. 
lupiter (or lupplter), I6vis, m., 

Jupiter, Jove. (Iovis*pater : 

cf. ZeiJs TraHip. lovis from 

root div, bright. ) 
iuro and iuiOT{dep,), l v, a., 1 

swear. (ius.) 
IflB, iOris, 71., right, law, jus- 

tice. (Root lu, join : cf. 

^^(fyvviu. ) 
iusiurandum, iurisiurandi, n., 

oath. (ius, iuro.) 
iustiis, -a, -um, adj.^ right, 

fair. (ius.) 

L. , f or Lucius. 

l&bor, -oris, m., toil, labour. 

L&cldaemdniuB, -a, um, adj.y 

Lacedaemonian, Spartan. 
L&conicuB, -a, -um, adj., La- 
^ conian, Lacedaemonian. 
l&crimo, 1 v. n., I weep. 

(lacrima : cf. HKpv^ tear. ) 
laetitla, -ae,/., joy. (laetus.) 

laetuB, -a, -um, adj.^ glad, rich. 
lambo, -bi, -bltum, 3 v. a., I 

lamenta, orum, n., plur. only, 

wailing, lamentation. 
lana, -ae,/., wool. 
l&nio, 1 V. a.y I tear, mangle. 

(Cf. lacer, tom to pieces. ) 
latf, adv.y widely. (latus.) 
l&tebra, -ae, /., hiding place. 

(mteo, Iliehid.) 

l&tibroBUB, -a, -um, adj., fuU 

of hiding places ; hidden, re- 

tired. (latlbra. ) 
L&tine, adv. , in Latin. 
L&lanus, -a, -um, adj.y Latin. 
latro, Iv.n.y I bark, bark at. 
l&tUB, -a, -um, adj.y broad. 
latUB, -a, -um, part, of f6ra 
l&tus, ^ris, n., side. 
laudo, 1 V, a.f I praise. (laus.) 
lauruB, -us,/., bay tree, laurel 

lauB, laudis,/, praise. 
lazo, l V. a.f I loosen, relax. 

(laxus ; cf . languidus. ) 
legatuB, -i, m., ambassador, 

lieutenant. (lego, -are, I send 

with a charge, depute. ) 
lego, lexi, -ctum, 3 v. a., I col- 

lect, choose out, read. (X^w, 

X670S, dilegens.) 
leniter, ac^t^., gently. (lenis: 

cf. lentus.) 
leo, -onis, m., lion. {Xicjy.) 
iSpide, adv.f charmingly, hu- 

morously. (I6pldus.) 
lepidUB, -a, -um, adj., charm- 

ing,humorous. (lgpos,cbarm.) 
LeBbiuB, -a, -um, adj., Lesbian, 

of Lesbos. 
l8vo, 1 V. a. , 1 raise up, relieve. 

(Cf. Ifivis, light.) 




lex, leglB,/., law. 

Ubenter, a^v.,gladly,willingly. 

Uber, -bri, m., book. (Lit«, 

inner bark of tree.) 
Ublr&llB, -e, adj.y befitting a 

freeman, decorous, noble. 

Ubero, 1 v. a., I set free. 

Hbra, -ae, /., pound. (Cf. 

Ucet, Ucuit and Ucltum est, 2 

V. 71., defective, it is allow- 

UgneuB, -a, -um, adj.^ wooden. 

(lignum. ) 
Ugnum, -i, 71., what is gathered 

(l€go) as firewood, wood. 
lineamentum, -i, 7i., feature. 

(llnea, a line. ) 
llnBnia, -ae, /. , tongue. 
lis, lltis,/, lawsuit. 
litlgiOBUB, -a, -um, quarrel- 

some. (lis.) 
llttera(orHtera), -ae,/., letter. 

l5cuB, -i, nom. plur. -i and -a, 

m. , place, position, rank. 
longe, adv.y far oflF, by far. 
longuB, -a, -um, ac^'.,long,faroff. 
Idquor, -cutus, 3 v. dejp.f I 

speak, say. 
lorum, -i, ti., thong, leash. 
LuduB, -ii, 771., Lucius. 
luctus, -us, m., mourning. 

Ifigeo, -xi, [-ctum], 2 v. n. and 

a., I mourn, moum for. 
Iflgr&brlB, -e, adj., mournful. 

LtLsltanuB, -a, -um, adj., of 


lux, lacis,/., light, day. Lucis 
ortu, at sunrise ; primllluce, 
at dawn. (luceo.) 

M., for Marcus. 

m&glB, adv., more : compara- 

tive degree from magndp^re, 

magis, maxime. (Root magh : 

cf. fi^as.) 
m&glBter, -tri, 9»., master. 

(m^gis and comparative 

sufG^ ter.) 
magnitfldo, -Inis, /, size. 

magnuB, -a, -um, adj., great. 

(Koot magh : cf. fUyas.) 
malor, maiuB, adj., compara- 

tive degree of magnus, maior, 

mandatum, -i, »., command. 

(mando. ) 
mando, 1 v. a. , I entrust, com- 

mand, enjoin upon. Mando 

litteris, I commit to writing. 

(manus, do.) 
maneo, -nsi, -nsum, 2 v, n., I 

Manlius, m, m., Manlius. 
mansiletuB, -a, -um, part. from 

mansuesco, tamed, gentle. 
mansileBco, -stlevi, stletum, 3 v. 

a. and »., I tame, grow tame. 

(Manus, suesco, I accustom to 

the hand. ) 
m&nus, -'00,/, hand, band. 
MarcuB, -i, m., Marcus. 
m&re, -is, n., sea. (Root mar, 

to shine : cf . marmor. ) 
m&ritimuB, -a, -um, belonging 

to the sea, maritime. (mare.) 
marituB, -i, m., husband. 

(mas. ) 
mater, -tris/*. , mother. {fi^^vp' ) 




m&ter t&mlllaB, matris 'f ^lmilias, 

/. , mother of a f amily, m atron. 
m&trimdnlum, -ii, n., marriage. 

matrona, -ae, /., matron. 

xnatl&reBco, -mi, no sup., 3 v. 

n, inceptivet 1 become ripe. 
maxtmuB, -a, -um, adj., great- 

est; superlative degree, from 

magnus, maior. 
mSdeor, no perf., 2 v, dep., I 

mSdX<^a, -ae, /., medicine, 

remedy. (From adj. mSdX- 

clnus, 8C. ars.) 
mSdXcInuB, -a, -um, adj., medi- 

cal. (Cf. mfideor.) 
mSdlcuB, -i, m., doctor. (Cf. 

mSdiuB, -a, -um, adj., middle. 

membrum, -i, n., limb. 
memorla, -ae, /., memory, re- 

collection, story. (m^mor.) 
mSmdro, l v. a., I call to re- 

membrance, I relate. (Cf. 

HSnander, -dri, m., Menander. 

mend&dum, -ii, n., lie. (men- 

dax, mentior.) 
meuB, mentis,/., mind. (Root 

mem ; cf . memini. ) 
mentior, 4 v. dep., I tell lies. 

(Lit. , I invent, root men : 

cf. mens.) 
merces, -edis,/.,price. (m6reor, 

I eam.) 
mercor, 1 v. dep. a., I buy. 

(merx, merchandise, m^reor.) 
mSreor, 2 v. dep., I deserve, 

eam. {fJ^po$, share.) 

merldianuB, -a, -um, adj., of 

mid - day. (merldies for 

medi- dies, from m^dius, 

meBslB, -is, acc. -em and -im, 

/., harvest. (m6to.) 
Metb^annaeuB, -a, -um, adj., of 

Methymna. (Mi^^u/xj^a.) 
mSto, messui, messum, Sv. a., 

I reap. (Cf . messis. ) 
metUB, -us, m.y fear. 
meuB, -a, -um, adj., my. 
mico, -ui, no sup., 1 v. n., 1 

migro, l V. n.y I depart from, 

quit. (CJf . meo, I go. ) 
miles, -Itis, c, soldier. 
MileBlUB, -a, -um, adj,, of 

MIletUB, -i,/., Miletus, a town 

in Asia Minor. ( 'M.LXtitos. ) 
militarlB, -e, adj,, military. 

MUo, -dnis, m., Milo. 
ministro, l v. a., I wait upon, 

serve up, hand. (mlnister, 

mlnor, -us, adj., less. compara- 

tive of parvus. (Root min : 

cf . minuo, I lessen. ) 
minor, 1 v. dep., I threaten. 

(minae, threats.) 
miranduB, -a, -um, wonderful : 

ger. of mlror. 
miriflcuB, a, -um, adj., caus- 

ing wonder, marvellous. 

(mlms, f&cio.) 
miror, 1 v. dep., I wonder at. 

(Cf. mlrus.) 
miruB, -a, -um, adj., wonder- 

miser, -era, -emm,a(i/.,wretch- 

ed. (Rciot mi : cf . mlnuo. ) 



xnXseTanduB, -a, -um, pitiable : 

gerundive of mlseror. 
mlseror, \v. dep. , 1 pity. (mlser. ) 
mitlB, -e, adj., gentle. 
Mitrld&tes, -is and -i, m., Mit- 

ridates or Mithridates. 
mitto, mlsi, missum, 3 v. a., I 

mdbilis, -e, adj. , movable, fickle. 

(For movibilis, from m5veo.) 
mddestuB, -a, -um, adj., mod- 

erate, virtuous, discreet. 

m5d5, adv,y only. (Lit., by 

measure, m5dus.) 
mSdas, -1, m., measure, man- 

ner. hniusmodi, of this sort. 
moenia, -ium, n., plur. only, 

defensive walls, ramparts. 

(Cf. mOnio.) 
moHis, -e, adj., easy, soft. 

m5neo, 2v,a.,I wam, advise, 

mdnlle, -is, n., collar, necklace. 
monimentum, -i, n., monu- 

ment. (m5neo, I remind.) 
mons, montis, m., mountain. 
m5ribundu8, -a, -um, adj., 

dying. (m5rior. ) 
mdrior, mortuus, 3v.n.,I die. 
mordsuB, -a, -um, adj., bad- 

mors, mortis, /., death. 

(Cf. m5rior.) 
moB, moris, m., manner, 

custom. More ursino, like a 

bear. De more, according to 

custom, as usual. 
mox,^adv., soon. 
miiliebriB, -e, adj., womanly. 

(mtilier. ) 
mlllier, -8ris,/., woman. 

multo (or mulcto), 1 v, a., I 

punish, fine. 
multUB, -a, -um, adj., many, 

much. Comp. , plus ; sup., 

munduB, -a, -um, adj., clean, 

manlmentum, -i, n., fortifica 

tion. (munio. ) 
mflnio, 4 V. a., I fortify. (Cf. 

moenia, murus.) 
murmur, -tiris, n., complaint. 
mOruB, -i, m., wall. (Root mu : 

cf. mtlnio, moenia.) 
mfituuB, -a, -um, adj., bor- 

rowed, lent. (muto, I change. ) 

nam, conj,, for. 

nanciBcor, nactus, and nanctus, 

3 V. dep,, I obtain, reach. 
nfiris, -is, /., nostril, nose; 

usually in plural. 
narro, l v. a., 1 teU, relate. 

(Cf. i'gnarus, nosco ; root 

gna, know.) 
nascor, natus, 3 v. dep., I am 

born, springup. 
n&tio, -onis, /., race, nation. 

(nascor. ) 
n&tfira, -ae,/., nature. Rediit 

in naturam, it retumed to its i 

natural position. (nascor.) j 

n&tUB, -us, m., birth, age. 

Natu grandis, advanced in 

age. (nascor.) 
nauta. Cf. navita. 
n&v&lis, -e, adj., naval. (nSvis.) 
n&vis, -is,/., ship. {vavs.) 
n&vita (or nauta), -ae, m., 

sailor. (nSvis. ) 
n§, adv. and conj., not, in order 

that not, lest. 
-n8, endUic interrog. particle. 




AebiLlo, -Onis, m., worthless 

fellow. (n^btda, mist: cf. 

ntlbes, cloud.) 
nSc, neither, nor, and not. 
nScesse, adi,y nom, and acc. 

neuter only, necessary. 
nSco, 1 V. a., I kill. (Cf. viKvs, 

corpse. ) 
neglXgo, and neglegro, -exi, 

-ectum, S V, a., I neglect. 

(nec, l6go, I do not pick up.) 
nSgo, l V. n, and a., I deny, 

n§mo, -Inis, pron,, no one. (ne, 

nS-quft-qQam, adv,, by no 

nSquS, neither, nor, and not. 
nez, ndcis, /., violent death. 

nldtUns, -i, m.., a little nest. 

(demin. of nldus.) 
ntliYl, nll, n,, inded., nothins. 
nSliXlo, by nothing; cf. n£l- 

lum. Used with compara- 

tives, nihilo minus, none the 

niliilum, -i, n,, nothing. 
nXmis, ddv. , too much. 
nTmfam, adv. and subst,, too 

ni*8l, conj., unless. 
nltor, nlsus and nixus, 3 v, 

dep. , I strive. 
nSbXlis, -e, adj., celebrated, 

noble. (For gnobilis, from 

noscoor gnosco.) 
nSmen, -Inis, n,, name. (Cf. 

non, adv., not. 

non'n§, interrog, adv., is not? 
non^nullas, -a, -um, adj,, some, 


nos, jiilwr, of ego, we. (Cf . v(b, ) 
nos-meflpBl, we ourselves. 
nosco, novi, n5tum, 3 v. a,,\ 

know. (Or gnosco, root gno : 

cf . n5men, n5bilis. ) 
noster, -tra, -trum, adj,, our. 

(n5s. ) 
ndta, -ae, /., mark, brand. 

(nosco. ) 
n5tUB, -a, -um, known, part. 

from nosco. 
n5yem, numjer., nine. 
ndyus, -a, -um, adj., new. 
nox, noctis,/., night. (vi)^.) 
noza, -ae, /., injury, harm. 

ntlbo, -psi, -ptum, Zv,n., lam 

married (of the woman), with 

daiive, (Lit., I veil myself : 

cf. nHbes.) 
nfldUB, -a> -um, adj,, bare, un- 

nullOB, -a, -um, adj,, none. 

nflmen, -Inis, n,, nod, will, divi- 

nity. (nuo.) 
nflmmB, -i, m,, number. (Cf. 

v^iua, I distribute, nummus.) 
nnnc, adv,, now. (num'ce : 

cf. vw.) 
nnnqaam, adv., never. (ne- 

unquam. ) 
nuntlo, 1 V. a., I announce, 

report. (Cf. n5vus.) 
nusquam, adv., nowhere. (ne- 

usquam. ) 

5l>, prep. gov. occ, on account 

ob*lXclo, and 5bIcio, obieci, 
obiectum, 3 v, a,, I throw 
before, I reproach with. 




ol>*liiLO, -levi, •Utum, 3 V. a., I 

smear over. 
5b'oedlo, 4 r. n., I obey, with 

dative. (ob, audio.) 
$l>'5rior, -ortus, 4 v, dep., I 

grow, spring up. 
ol>*peto (or op*peto), -Ivi or 

-ii, -Itum, 3 V. a., I en- 

ob^pugno (or op^pngno), 1 v. a., 

I fight against, attack. 
ol>*BSaro, 1 V. a., I beseech, 

entreat. (sacro, lit., I ask 

on religious grounds, ob 

ob*8ideo, -sSdi, -sessum, 2v. n., 

I besiege. (s^deo. ) 
obsidlo, -onis, /., siege. (ob- 

ob'B6rvo, 1 r. a., I notice, 

attend to. 
ob*tIneo, -ui, -tentum, 2 v. a., 

Ihold. (t6neo.) 
obTSnio, -veni, -ventum, 4 

V, n,,l come in way of, fall 

to lot of . 
ob*vlam, adv,, with dative, in 

the way. Obviam ire, pro- 

gredi, etc., alicui, to meet 

anyone. (via. ) 
ob^vlos, -a, -um, adj,f in the 

way. (via.) 
occido, -cidi, clsum, 3 v. a., I 

kill. (caedo. ) 
occilpo, 1 V. a., I seize, take 

hold of . (ob, c&pio. ) 
octo, num,j eight. {6KT(b.) 
octogfinta, num.t eighly. 
octUus, -i, m., eye. (Cf. dffffc, 

the two eyes ; 6ff<rofuii, 

I see.) 
of'fSro, obttili, oblatum, 3 

V, a,,l offer, present. 

ofllcinm, -ii, n., service, work, 

duty. (For opificium, opus, 

6lea, -ae, /. , olive tree. {iXala. ) 
5le&g!nens, -a, -um, adj., of 

the olive. (5lea.) 
5leuni, -i, n., olive oiL. {(\(uop.) 
5initto, -mlsi, -missum, 3 1;. a., 

I neglect. (ob, mitto, I let 

oninis, -e, adj., all. 
6pSra, -ae,/., work. (Cf. 5pus.) 
6plma8, -a, -um, adj.t rich, fat, 

6pInio, -onis, /., opinion, sup- 

position. (oplnor.) 
opp6rlor, -peiltus and -pertus, 

4 t;. dip., 1 wait for. (Cf. 

experior and perltus, from 

obsolete perior.) 
oppldum, -1, n., town. 
opTleo, -Svi, -§tum, 2 v. a., I 

op*primo, -essi, -essum, 3 1;. a., 

I press against, oppress, 

crush. (prdmo.) 
[ops], 5pis, /., nom. sing. not 

used, power, wealth, help. 

(Cf. 5pulentus.) 
optlmus, -a, -um, superlative 

of b5nus. (Cf. ops.) 
opto, 1 t;. a., I wish for. 

(Boot op, pick out : cf. 

optHUt (or obtillit), fr. ofi^ro. 
dractilum, -i, n., oracle. (6ro.) 
oratlo, -onis,/., speech. (oro.) 
drestes, -is or -i, Orestes. 

5rlor, ortus, 4 v. dep., I arise. 

Sol oriens, sunrise. (C^. 6pwfu. ) 
om&tns, -us, m., attire. (omo.) 
omo, 1 17. a., I adom. 




5ro, 1 V. a., I pray for, beg. (6s.) 
ortMuB, -a, -um, tidj.y high. 

Oarmen orthiam, vbjMs 6pdios: 

cf. note XXXV. 21. 
ortOB, -U8, m., rising. (drior.) 

solis ortu, at sunrise. 
5b, oris, n., mouth, face. 
ds, ossis, n., bone. {dar^op,) 
OBce, adv.f in Oscan. 
Ofltendo, -di, -sum and -tum, 3 

r. a., I show. (obs^tendo.) 
OBtento, l V. a. , I show ; f req. 

form fr. ostendo. 
OtldBUB, -a, -um, adj,^ unoccu- 

pied, free, quiet. (otium.) 

P. for Publius, -ii, m., Publius. 
pabtUum, -i, n., food. (pasco.) 
p&dBCor, -i, pactus, 3 t;. dep., 

a, and n., I agree, bargain. 

(Cf. pax, pactum.) 
pactum, -i, n., agreement, 

manner. (p^iscor.) 
p&lam, adv., openly. 
P&l&tlum, -ii, n., the Palatine 

palma, -ae,/., palm. 
palmes, -Itis, tn., vine-shoot. 

(pahna. ) 
P&IHLb, -udis,/., marsh. {'ini\6st 

pango, p^plgi, pactum (also 

panxi and pegi, panctum), 

Sv. a., I settle. (Cf. pax.) 
P&pIriuB, -ii, m., Papirius. 
p&r, p&ris, ck^'., equaL 
parco, pfiperci, rarely parsi, 

parcltum and parsum, 3 

V. n., with dat., I spare. 
p&rens, -entis, c, parent. 

p&reo, 2 V, n,, with dative, 

I obey. 

p&rio, pSpSri, p&rltum and par- 

tum, 3 V. a., I beget, pro- 

pars, partis,/., part, side. 
partuB, -us, m., birth, offspring. 

p&riun, adv., too little. (Cf. 

parvus. ) 
parvuB, -a, -um, adj., small. 

(Cf. paucus.) 
pastuB^ -us, m., food, pasture. 

p&ter, patris, m., father. 

{iraHipy root pa : cf. 

p&tlor, passus, 3 v. dep., I 

suffer, allow. Aegre passus, 

paucoB, -a, -um, adj., few. 

(Root pau : cf. iraOpos, 

paulus. ) 
paul&tim, adv., by degrees, 

gradually. (paulus, li^le.) 
P&tSI&cIo, -feci, -factum, 3 

V. a.,1 terrify. (pftveo.) 
pax, pacis, /, peace. (Root 

pac, make firm : cf . paciscor, 

pango, iHiyvvfu.) 
pectus, -dris, n., breast : 

pSciLnia, -ae,/., money. (pScus, 

cattle being the original 

standard of value. ) 
pSdester, -tris, -tre, adj., on 

foot ; in plur. assubst., foot- 

soldiers. (pes.) 
PllaBgUB, -a, -um, adj., Pelas- 

PSl5ponnenBi&cuB, -a, -um, adj., 

plnitUB, adv., deeply, thor- 

per, prep. gov. a>cc., through. 




percalleBCo, -lui, no sup., 3 v, 

a., I am well versed in, know 

well. (Inceptive form from 

per'calleo I cf. callldus.) 
per'contor, 1 v. dep.y I enquire. 
per^crebesco (orper^crebresco), 

bui (orbrui), nosup., 3 v. n., 

I spread abroad. (creber. ) 
per-cutio, cussi, cussum, 3 v. a., 

I strike. securi percutio, I 

behead. (qu^tio. ) 
per-do, -dldi, -dltum, 3 v. a., I 

pSren-die, adv.y on the day 

after to-morrow. (iripaLVy 

pSr '60, -ii or -Ivi, -Itum, 4 v. n. , 

I pass away, die. 
per^fodlo, -f5ai,-fossum, 3 v. a;, 

I dig through, piercethrough. 
PSrlander, -<&. w., Periander. 
PSrldeB, -is or -i, wi., Pericles. 
pSrlcHlum, -i, n., danger. 
pSxitus, -a, 'um, adj.^ skilled. 

{Part. fr. obsoiete perior: 

cf. op*perior.) 
per*m6tior, -ensus, 4 v. dep. a. , 

I measure through, travel 

permitto, mlsi, missum, 3v.a., 

I suffer, allow. 
permdveo, -movi, -motum, 2 v. 

a.f I move thoroughly , rouse, 

per'mut&tio, -onis,/., exchange. 

(per'mtito. ) 
per^mtlto, 1 v. a., I exchange. 
p6r*petior, pessus, 3 v. dep. n. 

and a., I suffer, endure. 

(pS>tior. ) 
P6r'8u&d60, -suasi, suSsum, 2 

V. a,, I convince, per- 


per*taedet, -taesum est, 2v. n., 
impersonal ; it thoronghly 
wearies. (Acc. of person 
affected, and gen. of thing or 
person causing the weari- 

per*v§nio, -vSni, -veutum, 4 v. 
n., I arriveat. 

pes, p^dis, m., foot. (Cf. iroOs, 

pestllentia, -ae, /., plague. 
(pestis. ) 

PStlliuB, -ii, m., Petilius. 

p8to, -Ivi or -ii, -Itum, 3 v. 
a., I seek, ask for. (Lit., to 
f all upon : cf . ir/irrw. ) 

pStlUantia, -ae, /., impudence. 
(Obsolete pettUo : cf. p^to.) 

pli&lSrae, -arum,/., plur. only, 
omaments for chests and 
f oreheads of horses. {<l>d\apa. ) 

PlillSmon (or Phllemo), -5nis, 
w., PhiLemon. {^^iMjfuop.) 

phlldBdplias, -i, m., philo- 
sopher. {<f>i\6(ro<f>os. ) 

Plirygia, -ae,/, Phrygia. 

plget, plguit and plgltum est, 
2 V. n. (rarely used person- 
ally), it troubles, displeases. 

pinna, or penna, -ae, /., 
feather. (Root pet : cf. iri- 
TOfMif I fly. ) 

PlraeuB, -i, the Piraeus, port of 

pins, -a,-um, adJ.ydvLtifvl, kind. 

pl&ceo, 2 V. n. , I am pleasing ; 
often used impersonally, 
placet mihi, it pleases me, 
seems good to me, is my 
opinion ; of the senate, it is 
resolved, determined. 

pl&cld§, adv., gently, quietly. 
(plftcldus, pl&ceo.) 




jfl&nS, adv.f dearly, plainly. 

(plSnus, level.) 
plebs, plebis (or plebes, -ei 

and -is), /., the common 

plera8'que, -aqae, -umque, 

adj.y very many, most. 

(plerus : ci. plenus, root ple, 

pliUno, 1 V. a. and n., I cover, 

or am covered with, feathers, 

am fledged. (pluma. ) 
pltlB, pliiris, adj.f more : com- 

parative of multus. 
PltLtarchUB, -i, m., Plutarch. 
poc^um, -i, n., cup, goblet. 

(Cf . potus, a draught. ) 
PoenlcuB, -a, -um, adj. Cf. 

Poenus, -a, -um, Punic, Car- 

thaginian. Cf. ix. 8 note. 
poena, -ae, /., punishment, 

penalty. (irowij, punio, 

poeniteo. ) 
PdlUB, -i, m.y Polus. 
Pomptinus, -a, -um, adj., 

Pomptine, i.e. near Pometia, 

in Latium. 
pomum, -i, n., fruit or apple. 
pondo, adv,, in or by weight. 

pondus, -6ris, n., weight. 

(pendo, I hang up. ) 
pono, pdsui, pdsltum, S v. a., 

I place. 
pons, pontis, m. , bridge. (prop, 

a path, irdTos, German Pfad, 

esp. across a river : cf . Pon- 

Pontus, -i, m., district in Asia 

p5pillU8, -i, m.y people. 
porgere. Cf. porrigo. 

porrigo, -rexi, -rectum, 3 v. a., 

I stretch out. (Several con- 

tracted forms, porgere, 

porge, porgite, etc.) (pro, 

posco, pdposci, no sup., 3 v. a., 

I demand. 
poBsles, old pres. subj. of pos- 

sum, for possis. 
poBBum, pdtui, posse, v. 

n.f I am able. (p6tis, 

post, adv., andprep. gov. acc^ 

afterwards, after. 
pOBtea, ocft;., afterwards. (post, 

ea, from is.) 
poBterior, -us, comparative fr. 

poBtSruB, -a, -um, adj., coming 

after ; as svhat., descendant. 

(post, com-p. postfirior, aup. 

poBt 'hac, adv. , af ter this, hence- 

poBtHminlum, -ii, n., retum 

to rank and privileges. 

Cf. note xl. 13. (post, 

limen, usual derivation. ) 
poBt'quam, conj.y after that. 
poBtremuB, -a, -um, last; super- 

lative from posterus. ad 

postremum, at last. 
poBtridie, adv., on the next 

day. (postgrus, dies.) 
postulatio, -onis, /., demand. 

(posttdo. ) 
poBttilatum, -i, n., demand. 

(posttdo. ) 
poBttilo, l V. a., I demand. 

p5tior, 4 V. dep. , I obtain pos- 
. session of ; with gen. and abl. 
I (pdtis, able.) 




p5tlU8, <idv,y rather ; only used 

in comparative pdtius, and 

superl. p5tissime. (fr. pdtis, 

-e, adj., p6tior, pdtissimus.) 
praebeo, 2 v, a., I offer, give. 
praeceps, -Ipltis, adj., head- 

first, headlong. (prae, c&put. ) 
pxue'(ddo, -cldi, -cisum, 3 v. a., 

Icutoff. (caedo.) 
praexipio, -cepi, -ceptum, 3 v, 

a.y I take beforehand, I in- 

struct. (capio. ) 
prae-d&ms, -a, -um, adj., 

praeda, -ae,/., booty, spoil. 
prae'dico, 1 v. a., Iproclaim, 

declare publicly. 
praedium, -ii, n., farm, estate. 
praefectUB, -i, m., a man placed 

over, overseer, prefect. (prae, 

prae*for, 1 v. dep., I say be- 

prae'falgeo, -si, no sup., 2 v. 

n., I glitter. 
praemium, -ii, n., reward. 
prae'm5neo, 2v. a.,I forewam, 

admonish beforehand. 
praesenB, -entis, adj,, present. 

prae'BeB, -Idis, adj., protect- 

ing ; as mbst,, nder. (prae, 

prae 'Bto, -Iti, -Itum (rarely -avi, 

-atum), 1 V. n. and a., I am 

superior, I surpass. 
praeter, prep. gov. acc., be- 

sides, except. (prae, and 

sufi^ ter. ) 
praeterXtuB, -a, -um, part. fr. 

praetereo, past. 
praetSr'eo, -ii or -Ivi, Itum, 4 

V. n. and a., I pass by. 

praeteztatus, -a, -nm, adj., 

wearing the toga praetexta. 
pretidBe. adv., expensively» 

splendidly. (prStiosus : cf. 

prgtium. ) 
pretium, -ii, n., price. 
primum, adv., at first. Ubi, or 

cum, primum, as soon as. 
pnmus, -a -um, adj., first, 

superl. ; uo positive ; comp. 

prior. (Cp. priscus.) 
princlpium, -ii, n., beginning. 

(princeps. ) 
prior, -us, adj. , f ormer, comp. ; 

(Cf. prlmus.) 
priuB, adv., before. (prior.) 
prius'quam, conj., before that. 
pro, prep. gov. abl., before, for, 

in proportion to. 
prd'cedo, -cessi, -cessum, 3 v, 

n. , I advance. 
procerltas, -atis, /., height. 

procSruB, -a, -um, adj., tall. 

pr5*conBtU&ris, -e, adj., procon- 

sular, acting insteaa of a 

pr5ciil, adv,, absolutely, or 

with ahl., with or without 

' ab ' ; at a distance, far from. 

Bubio procul, without doubt. 
pro'curo, 1 v. a. and n., I take 

care of . 
prod'eo, -ii, -Itum, -ire, 4 v. n., 

I come forward. (pro, eo.) 
pro'do, -dldi, -dltum, 3 v, a., 

I give f orth, reporfc, relate ; 

I betray, 
proelium, -ii, n., battle. 
pro'fero, -tiili, -latum, 3 v. a., 

I bring forth, I prolong. 




pr$*fXclBCor, -fectus, 3 v. dep. 

n., I set out. (pro, 

f &cio. ) 
pr5'fimdaB, -a, •nm, adj,^ deep; 

as svbst.y profundum, -i («c. 

mare), deep sea. 
Ixro'gredior, -essus, 3 v, dep, 

n., I advance. (gr&dior.) 
pr5inde, adv,, just so, just as. 
pr5'iicio, or pr$'icio, -iSci, 

-iectum, 3 t7. a., I throw for- 

ward, tlirust f orward. (i&cio. ) 
prG*niitto, -mlsi, -missum, 3 v, 

a., I send forth ; I say he- 

forehand, promise. 
prd*m5yeo, -movi, -mStum, 2 

V, a.,1 move forward, cause 

to advance. 
promptus, -us, m., readiness. 

in promptu esse, to he at 

hand, ready. (promo, I take 

pr5'nmitlo, 1 1^. a., I proclaim, 

pr6pe, adv., a,nd prep. gov. acc, 

near, almost : prdpe, prdpius, 

propSro, 1 V. a. and n., I 

hasten. (pr6p6ru8, quick.) 
prdplnquus, -a, -um, near, 

neighhouring ; as mbst.f a 

neighhour. (pr6pe. ) 
propter, prep. gov. acc.y on ac- 

count of. (for propiter, fr. 

propter'e&, adv., on account of 

those things, therefore. 
propugno, 1 V. n., I fight in 

front of, fight for, defend. 
proTipio, -rlpui, -reptum, 3 v. 

a., I drag forth ; se pro- 

ripere, to rush forth, toke 

refuge in. (r&pio. ) 

pronnui, a<iv., forward, directly, 

(pro, versus.) 
pr5'8equor, -ctltus, 3 v. dep. a. 

I follow. 
proBpectuB, -us, m., view. (pro 

prosplre, adv., successfully, 

(prospgrus, from prospe, an- 

swermg to hope. ) 
pr5*Bum, -fui, prddesse, v. n., I 

am of use to. 
Pr5t&g5raB, -ae, m., Prota- 

pr5-tendo, -di, -sum and -tum, 

3 V. a. , I stretch forth. 
pr5*tinaB, adv., forthwith. 

(t6nus, prep.f as far as.) 
pr5*T5lio, -xi, -ctum, 3 t^. a., I 

carry forward; in pass.f I 

go forward, I sail, etc. 
provldenB, -entis, part. of pro- 

video, careful. 
pr5*yld60, -vldi, -vlsum, 2v. n. 

and a., I foresee, I am care- 

pr5vincia, -ae, /., sphere of 

duty, province. 
pro'vooo, 1 V. a., I call forth, 

proidm§, arfv., and prep. with 

acc. , very near : super. fr. 

proidmuB, -a, -um, adj., very 

near : [pr6pi8 obsolete], 

pr6pior, proxlmus. (Cf. 

prfLdens, -entis, adj.f foresee- 

ing, discreet. (For pro*vI- 

publlce, adv., in behalf of the 

ptLdor, -5ris, m., shame, 

modesty. (plideo.) 




pner, -6ri, m., boy. 

pugna, -ae, /., battle, contest. 

(Root pag, strike : cf. pagil, 

pngno, 1 v. o., I fight. (pugna.) 
pulchrltfldo, -Inis, /., beauty. 

pullUB, -i, m., young animal or 

pflnio, -Ivi or ii, Itum, 4 v. a., 

I punish. (poena.) 
pnpplB, -Ib, /., stem, poop of 

purgo, 1 V. a., I make clean, 

clear. (pOrus, &go.) 
ptLto, 1 v. a., I think. (Lit., I 

trim, arrange, and so reckon, 

think ; root, pu, cleanse : cf. 

purus. ) 
Pyrrlius, -i, m., Pyrrhus. 

qu&dr&glntft, nttm., forty. 
quaero, -slvi or sii, sltum, 3 

V. a., I seek, in<]|uire for, ask. 
quaeso, -Ivi or -ii, no sup., 3 

V. a.y I seek, beg. Used 

parenthetically, *pray.* 
quaestus, -us, m., gain, busi- 

ness. (quaero. ) 
qualis, -e, adj, pron,, of what 

kind ; talis . . . qualis, such . . . 

as. (quis.) 
quam, conj. and oc^v., than, as. 

quam 'ob Tem, adv. , rekuive and 

interrog.y wherefore. 
quam*quam, conj., although. 
quantus, -a, -um, adj., how 

ereat, as great. (quam. ) 
quasi, adv., as if, just as. 

(quamsi. ) 
quattuordecim (or qnatuor- 

d^cim), numer,f fourteen. 

-qvAy encliiic conj,, and. 

qulo, -Ivi and -ii, -Itum, -ire, 

4 V. n., I am able. 
quercus, -us,/., oak. 
qul, quae, quod, rel, pron,, 

indej, adj. jn-on, and inter, 

adj, pron,, who, what. 
quX&, coT^,, because. (For qui- 

am, qul-iam, whereby now.) 
quldam, quaedam, quoddam 

(and quiddam, suibst, ), indrf, 

pron., a certain one. 
qmdem, adv,, indeed. 
qules, -etis, /., rest. 
qulesco, -evi, -etum, 3 v. n,,I 

rest. (^uies.) 
quln, conj., that not, but that, 

butindeed, rather; interrog,, 

why not? (qui, ne.) 
quin*dScim*Yir, -i, a quindecim- 

vir, one of the college of 15 

men who had charge of the 

Sibylline books. 
qulnquS, numer., five. 
qulnqules, adv., five times. 
quls, quid, inter, pron,, who? 

whicn ? 
quis, qua, quid, indef. pron,, 

qui8'nam,quidnam, inter, pron, , 

who, which, what pray? 

whoever ? 
qui8'plam, quaepiam, quod- 

piam (and aubat., quidpiam 

or quippiam), inde/, pron,, 

any, some. 
quls'quS, quaeque, quodque 

(and subst., quidque or quic- 

que), ind^. pron., each, 

quls'quam, quaequam, quic- 

quam or quidquam, indef, 

pron,, anyone. 





qno, adv, and conj, , f or which 
reason, in order that, so 
that. (qui.) 

quod, conj. , because, that. (qui. ) 

qa5idam, adv., since, because. 
(qnom f or cum, iam. ) 

quoqnS, conj., also. 

radiz, -lcis, /., root. (Cf. 

ramus, branch ; ^l^, root. ) 
r&pidus, -a, -um, adj., swift. 

r&tlo, -onis,/., reason, account. 

rS'c§do, -cessi- -cessum, Zv.n,, 

I fall back, withdraw. 
rS*dplo, -cgpi, -ceptum, 3v. a., 

I take back, receive. (c&pio.) 
rS*dto, 1 V. a., I read out, 

rS'condo, -dldi, -dltum, 3 1;. a., 

I put back, hide. 
rScordatio, -onis, /., recoUec- 

tion. (re*cordor : cf. cor.) 
rS*cumbo, -ctibui, 3 v. n., Ilie 

down again. 
r8*ctLpSro, 1 v. a., I recover. 

rS*car70, no perf., -atum, 1 

V. a.,1 bend back. 
red*do, -dldi, -dttum, 3 v. a., I 

give back, render, impurt, 

restore. (re, do.) 
rSd*eo, -Ivi or -ii, -Itum, -ire, 

4 v. n., Igo back. 
rSdXtUB, -UB, m. , retum. (rSdeo. ) 
r8*fSro, rettlli (and retttlli), 

rMStum, 3 V. a., I bring 

back, retum, tum back, 

rS*ffiglo, -ftlgi, no sup., 3 v. n. 

and a. , I flee back, nee away, 


regnum, -i, n., kingdom. (rex.) 
rego, -xi, -ctum, 3 v. a., I rule, 

direct. (rex.) 
rS*gr§dior, -gressus, 3 v.dep, 

n., Iretum. (gr&dior.) 
reidt, for reiicit. 
re^liolo, or rSXdo, -i6ci, -iec- 

tum, 3 V. a., I throw back, 
^ posl^ne. (i&cio. ) 
reucos. Cf. reliquus. 
rllXgio, -5nis, /., religious 

scmple, obli^tion. 
rS *llnqao, -llqui, -lictum, 3 v. a. , 
^ I leave behind. 
relXquXae, -arum, pl. only, 

remains. (r^llquus. ) 
rSlXqaos (or relicus), -a, -um, 

adj., remaining. (r^linquo.) 
rSmedium, -ii, n. , remedy, cure. 

(re, mCdeor.) 
re*m5tu8, -a, -um, part. from 

remdveo, retired, distant. 
rS*m5veo, -movi, motum, 2 

V. a.f I move back, with- 

reor, rfttus, 2 v. dep. a., I 

bdieve, think. 
rSpentS, adv., suddenly. 

(rSpens, sudden.) 
re*peto, -Ivi or -ii, -Itum, 3 

17. a. , I seek again. Memori& 

repeto, I call to mind. 
rS*qaIro, -sivi or -sii, -situm, 

3 V. a., I seek again, seek for. 

rSs, rei,/., thin^, deed. 
re'8Clndo, -Bcldi, -scissum, 3 

v.a., 1 tear open. 
re^Bcrlbo, -psi, -ptum, 3 t^. a., 

I write back. 
re*Bpondeo, -di, -sum, 2 v. n., 

I reply. (Lit., I promise in 





re8l>uUlXoa, reipublicae, /., 

rS'Biirgo, -surrexi, -surrectum, 

3 V. n., I rise again. 
rS^tlneo, -ui, -tentum, 2 v. a., 

I hold back, keep. (t6neo.) 
rStLs, -i, m., defendant in an 

action, culprit. (res.) 
rS-yello, -velli, -vulsum and 

-Yolsum, 3 v. a., I pull away, 

puU out. 
re'verto, -ti, -sum, 3 v. w., I 

tum back, retum. 
rSvertor, -versus, 3 v. dep, n., 

I tum back, retum. 
rS'vincio, -nxi, -nctum, 4 t7. a., 

I bind back, fasten. 
rST^lo, no perf. or sup., are, 

1 V. n., I ny back. 
rex, rggis, m., king. (r6go.) 
rhetor, -5ris, m., teacher of 

oratorjr, rhetorician. {M^<ap. ) 
rideo, -si, -sum, 2 v. n. and a., 

I laugh, laugh at, mock. 
rima, -ae,/., crack, cleft. 
rit§, adv.f duly, fitly. (ritus, 

religious observance. ) 
rdgo, iv.a.,I ask for, ask. 
^toma, -ae, /. , Rome. 
Rom&nus, -a, -um, a^y.,Roman. 
rostnim, -i, n., beak, prow. 

(rodo, I guaw. ) 
rtLlmB, -i, m. , bramble. (r&ber, 

rtLdlB, -e, adj., rough. 
rursnm and rursas, adv., 

again. (For revorsum, from 

rustlcns, -a, -um, adj.f of the 

country, mral, mstic. (ms.) 

B&cr&rlum, -ii, n., shrine, sac- 
risty. (s&cer, sacred.) 

saepS, adv., often. (Obsolete 

adj. sae^is, frequent.) 
Baep$'niimer5, adv., often. 
Baevlo, -ii, -Itum, 4 t;. n., I 

rage, am fierce. (saevus. ) 
8&lnm, -i, n., the open sea. 

(<rdXos. ) 
B&luB, -utis, /., safety. (Cf. 

salvus. ) 
BalvuB, -a, -um, adj.t safe. 
SanmiB, -Itis, adj., Samnite. 
sancrnlndlentUB, -a, -um, blood- 

stained. (sanguis. ) 
B&nles (-em, -e, no genitive nor 

plural), /., corrapted blood, 

matter. (sanguis.) 
B&pienB, -entis, adj., wise. 

8&tira, or B&tiira, -ae, /., a 

s&tiB, adv., sufficiently. 
BC&teo, no perf. or sup., -6re, 

2 V. n., I Dubble, flow forth ; 

bubble over with : with abl. 
BOlo, -Ivi, -Ttum, 4 1;. a., I know. 
Scipio, -onis, m., Scipio. 
8<ut§, adv., cleverly, skilfuUy. 

(scio. ) 
BcSptilUB, -i, m., rock. {ffK&rcXos. ) 
Bcribo, -psi, -ptum, S v. a., I 

write. {ypdtfxa, schreiben.) 
Bcriptor, -6ris, m., writer, 

author. (scrlbo.) 
Bcfltmn, -i, n., shield. {ckvtos.) 
86, and sesS, gen. sui, r^x. 

pron., himself, herself, itself. 
BScesBUB, -us, m., withdrawal. 

Be'cnm, for cum se, with him- 

self, etc. 
BScnndum, prep. gov. acc, fol- 

lowing after, according to. 

(s6quor. ) 




secimdns, -a, -um, adj.^ fol- 

lowing, second, favourable. 

(s6quor. ) 
seonris, -is, /., axe. securi 

percutio, I behead. (s6co. ) 
sScQras, -a, -um, adj.y freefrom 

care. (se, =8ine, cura.) 
sed, conj.j but. sed enim, but 

sedeo, sedi, sessum, 2 v. n., I 

sit. (sedes, insldiae.) 
seges, -6tis,/., comfield. 
se-libra, -ae, /., half pound. 

(semi, libra.) 
sementlB, -is, /., seed, crop. 

se *mSt, strengthened f orm of se. 
semper, ctcfv., always. (Of. 

sln&tor, -oris, m., Senator. 

senatns, -us, m., Senate. 
sen&tns conBultnm, -i, n.y de- 

cree of Senate. 
sensim, adv.f slowly. (sentio, 

lit., perceptibly. ) 
sententia, -ae,/, way of think- 

ing, opinion, decision. (sen- 

sentio, -si- -sum, 4 v. a. , I per- 

ceive, judge, decide. 
sentiB, -is, m., rarely/, thom. 
8e'orsum, adv.y separately. (se, 

Be'p&ro, 1 V. a., I separate. 

septem, numer.f seven. (Cf. 


sSpnlcrum, -i, n., tomb. 

(s6p6lio. ) 
sermo, -onis, m.,8peech. (s6ro.) 
SertoriuB, -ii, m., Sertorius. 
servo, 1 V. a. , I preserve. 

servus, -i, m., slave. 
sestertium, -ii, n., a thousand 

sestertii. Cf. note vi. 4. 
seyer%adv. ,austerely,8everely. 
sex, numer.^ six. 
sex&ginta, numer.y sixty. 
si, conj., if. 
SibyllinuB, -a, -um, adj., of the 

Sibyl, Sibylline. (Slbylla.) 
sic, adv., so, thus. ut...8ic, 

correlatives, as . . . so. 
Slc&ni, -orum, m., the Sicani. 
sicco, 1 V. a., I dry. (siccus, 

Sicilia, -ae,/, Sicily. 
slcilt, adv.f just as, so as. 
Bignifico, 1 V. a., I show, make 

known, signify, beckon. 

(signum, f^cio.) 
signnm, -i, n., sign, emblem. 
silentinm, -ii, n. , silence. (slleo. ) 
silvestriB, -e,a<i;. , woody. (silva.) 
simtll, adv., at once, at same 

simHl&cnun, -i, n., image, re- 

presentation, appearance. 

(slmilis, slmttlo.) 
simillo, 1 V. a., I pretend. 

Bin, conj. , but if . (si, ne. ) 
sinS, prep. gov. abl, without. 
sino, slvi, situm, 3 v. a., I set 

down ; I allow. 
sinns, -us, m.,fold8 of garment, 

sisto, stlti, 8td.tum, 3 v, a. and 

n., I cause to stand, I stand. 

Se sistere, to present oneself, 

appear. (sto, tcTrifu.) 
sitns, -a, -um, part. from slno, 

sive (or sen), conj., or if. Sive 

... sive, whether ... or. 




85brlii8, -a, -am, adj,^ not 

dnink, sober, moderate. 
S5cr&te8, -is or -i, m., Socrates. 

851, solis, 971., sun. 

851emni8 (or 80lemii8 or 80llen- 

ni8), -e, adj.j annual, stated, 

cnstomary, solemn. (soUos, 

whole, cf. SKoi.) 
85leo, -itus, 2 v. n., I am ac- 

80ller8, -ertis, adj., skilled: 

with gen. (sollus, whole.) 
851n8, -a, -um, adj.y alone. (Cf. 

80lyo, -Ivi, -lutum, 3 v. a., I re- 

lease, set loose. (se'luo.) 
sonmium, -ii, n., dream. (som- 

nus, Hirvos.) 
85n5ru8, -a, -um, adj., loud. 

(sdnus. ) 
85pliocIe8, -is and -i, m., So- 

phocles. (So^icX^s. ) 
Sp. for SpnriuB, -i, m., Spurius. 
8pargo, -si, -sum, 3 v. a., I 

sprinkle, strew. 
gpgciilor, -atus, 1 v. dep. a., I 

spy out, reconnoitre. (spScio, 

spictlla, watch tower.) 
speoto, 1 v. a., I gaze at. (In- 

tens. f orm of s^cio. ) 
Bp5cn8, -us, m., cave. 
8pe8, -ei,/., hope. (Cf. spero.) 
splendor, -oris, m., magnifi- 

ceQce. (splendeo, I shine.) 
Bp5liam, -ii, n., spoil, booty, 
8t&tim, ndv. , immediately. (sto. ) 
8t&ta8, -us, m., position. (sto.) 
8tirp8, stirpis, /., rarely m., 

stem, root. 
8to, steti, st&tum, st^e, 1 1;. n., 

I stand. {Urripu. ) 
8t5lo, -onis,m., sucker of tree. 

8tr5naii8, -a, -um, adj., active, 

energetic. (Cf. (rrepeSSf hard.) 
8tmo, -xi, -ctum, 3 v. a., 1 

build u^. 
8t&deo, -ui, no sup., 2 v. a., I 

am eager, I strive. 
8t11diuni, -ii, n., zeal, study. 

8talta8, -a, -um, adi.f foolish. 
8tilp5*f&cio, -feci, -factum, 3 v. 

a., I make stupid or sense- 

less ; I amaze. (stdpeo. ) 
8a&deo, -si, -sum, 2 v. n. and 

a., I persuade. (Cf. suavis.) 
8&1), prep, gov. ace, and ahl,, 

8al)'do, -dldi, -ditum, S v. a,, 

I place under. 
snblatisslmas, superl. of sub- 

latus, from toUo, very high. 
8&l)5le8, -is, /., shoot. (sub, 

dlesco, grow.) 
8al)'yerto, -ti, -sum, 3 v. o., I 

saccSdo, -cessi, -cessum, 3 v. 

n. , I go under, go from under, 

ascend, advance. (sub, c3do.) 
safflr&giam, -ii, n., vote. 
Salla, -ae, m., SuUa. 
sam, f ui, esse, v. n. , I am. 
8aiiimus, -a, -um, adj.f highest ; 

superl, fr. sttpSrus, stlpdrior, 

suprSmus or summus. 
siip^, adv.t and prep. gov, oax. 

and ahl,t above, over, on, 

sftperbia, -ae, /, pride. 

(stiperbus. ) 
sftperbns, a, -um, adj,, proud, 

haughty. (stLper.) 
B&p5rior, -us, adj., higher, 

former ; comp. fr. stlpirus, 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 



silpSro, 1 v. a., I overcome. 

(stiper. ) 
sftperstes, -Itis, adj.^ surviying. 
BupplXcluiii, -ii, n., puniBhment. 

(supplex. ) 
sursum, adv., from below. 

(sub-versum. ) 
BUUB, -a, -um, reJUx. adj. pron., 

hia own, her own, its own. 
syiiancbe, -es, /., ((rvydyxv)» & 

sore throat. 

T., for Titus, -i, m., Titus. 
t&bema, -ae, /., shop. (Cf. 

t&bttla, plank.) 
t&blil&tlUn, -i, n., floor. 

(t&btila, plank.) 
t&ceo, 2 V. n. and a., I am 

silent, pass over in silence. 
t&cUus, -a, -um, part. from 

taceo, not spoken of , silent. 
taedium, -ii, n., weariness. 

Taen&rum, -i,n., andTaen&rus, 

-i, m. and/, Taenarum and 

t&lentum, -i, n., talent (sum of 

money,£243 15s. ).* (rdXavTov. ) 
t&Us, -e, adj., of such a kind, 

tam, adv., so. 
t&men, adv., however. 
tam*quam adv.j just as, as if, 

as it were. 
tandem, adv., at last. 
tantus, -a, -um, adj.f so great. 
TarquXniUB, -ii, m., Tarquin. 
telum, i., 7?., dart. 
tempgrantia, -ae, /., modera- 

tion, temperance. (temp^ro, 

tempus. ) 
tempestivus, -a, -um, adj., 

seasonable, ripe. (tempus.) 

templum, -i, n., temple. 
tempus, -dris, n., time. 
tSneo, t^nui, tentum, 2 v. a., 

I hold, keep. Oirsum teneo, 

1 hold on a course. 
tSn&is, -e, adj.f drawn out, 

thin, slender. (tSneo.) 
terra, -ae, land, country. 
terreo, 2v. a., lalarm. (rp^w.) 
terriflcus, -a, -um, alarming, 

terrible. (terreo, facio.) 
tertiUB, -a, -um, adj., third. 

testis, -is, <;., witness. (testor.) 
Thr&cus, -a, -um, adj. , Thracian. 
Tlb., for TlberiuB, -ii, m., Ti- 

tlbia, -ae,/, pipe, flute. 
tlblcin, -Inis, m., flute-player. 

(For tlbllcen, fr. tlblft, 

c&no. ) 
nmSch&res, -is and -i, m., 

t5g^, -ae, /., a garment, a toga. 


toUo, susttlb, Bublatum, 3 v. a. , 

I raise. (Cf. ttdi, t5l6ro.) 
Torqu&tUB, -i, m., Torquatus. 
torques (and torquis), -is, m. 

and / , twisted necklace or 

coUar. (torqueo. ) 
torreo, torrui, tostum, 2 v. a., 

I roast. 
tStus, -a, -um, adj., all, 

tracto, l v. a.fl handle, treat, 

polish. (Intens. of trftho.) 
trado, -dldi, -dltum, 3 v. a., I 

hand over, give up, hand 

down, relate. (trans, do.) 
transxurro, -curri and -ctl- 

curri, -cursum, 3 t;. n., I run 

pajst, I pass. 




tran8'Igo, -egi, -actum, 3 v .a., 
I drive tnrough, I pierce. 


tranB!llo, -ivi or -ni, no sup., 

4 V. a. and n. , I leap across, 

leap over. (trans, s&lio.) 
tremibundas, -a, -um, adj., 

fuU of trembling. (tr6mo.) 
trSpidans, -antis, part, fr. tre- 

pido, trembling. 
trepido, 1 v,n,t I am in astate 

of confusion or alarm. (Gf. 

Tpixta. ) 
trSs, tria, numer.i three. (rpetj, 

tribtlnas, -i, m., tribune. 

(Lit., the chief of a tribe, 

tribus. ) 
triduam, -i, n., space of three 

days. (tres, dies, 8C. sp&- 

tium. ) 
trlennium, -ii, n. , space of three 

years. (tres, annus, 8C. spS,- 

tium. ) 
trlgeminas, -a, -um, adj.t three 

bom at a birth. (tres, gemi- 

triampho, 1 v. n. and a., I 

triumph. (triumphus.) 
trlamphas, -i, m., a triumph. 

{dplafiQoif procession in hon- 

our 01 Bacchus. ) 
ta, per^. pron. , thou. (<riJ. ) 
tam, adv., then. 
tilmaltas, -us, m. , disturbance. 

(ttlmeo. ) 
tunc, adv.f then. (tum-ce.) 
turba, -ae,/., uproar, crowd. 
tnrpis, -e, ac?;., oase. 
turris, -is,/., turret, tower. 
tHte, adv., safely. (tutus.) 
tfltor, 1 V. dep. a., I watch, 

defend. (tueor.) 

tfLtas, -a, -um, adj., safe. 

(tueor. ) 
taas, -a, -um, adj., thy. (tu.) 

tlber, -eris, adj.^ rich, fertile. 
ftbi, adv., relat. and interrog., 

where, when. Ubi primum, 

as soonas. 
ftl)i*qa8, adv., wherever, every- 

where, anywhere. 
ollas, -a, -um, adj. , any. (For 

untilus, demin. of unus.) 
altima8,-a, -um, adj., farthest, 

super. fr. [ulter, obsolete ; 

cf. ultra] ulterior, ultimus. 
altrft, adv., and prep. gov, a>ce,, 

beyond. (Cf. ultimus.) 
altro, adv., beyond, besides, 

of one's own accord. (Cf. 

ultimus. ) 
unda, -ae,/., wave. 
an-deYicesimaB, -a, -um, adj.y 

undiqaS, adv.^ from or on all 

sides. (unde-que.) 
ungrals, -is, m., nail or talon. 

flnice, adv.y solely, especially. 

(unicus, unus.) 
tlniversaB, -a, -um, adj., all 

together. (unus, verto, 

tumed into one.) 
anqaam, or amqaam, adv., at 

any time, ever. 
flnas, -a, -um, numer., one. 
arb&nas, -a, -um, adj., of the 

city. (urbs.) 
arbicuSj -a, -um, adj., of the 

city. (urbs.) 
arbs, -is,/., city. 
urgeo, ursi, no sup., 2v. a., I 

press on, press hard upon, 





nma, -ae, /., um. (Properly 

a vessel of bumt clay ; uro, 

I bum.) 
urBinas, -a, -um, adj., like a 

bear. (ursus.) 
ngquam, adv», anywhere, in 

anythin^. (For ubs^quam, 

from tLbi.) 
nsquS, adv.j all the way, al- 

ways. Usque adeo, to such 

an extent. (For ubs*que, 

f rom tibi. ) 
118118, -us, m., use, advantage. 

fit, Htl, with indic.^ as, when; 

ut . . . sic, correlaiives, as . . . so ; 

with stiJtj,, in order that, so 

that. , 
fiter*qiiS, atr&que, atramque, 

adj. pron.i both, each. 
HLtllls, -e, adj.f useful. (ator.) 
HLtor, Osus, 3 V. dep,, I use ; 
^ with abl. 
atmm, interrog. adv., whether. 

uxor, -oris,/., wife. 

Y&dimdniiim, -ii, n., baiL (v&s, 

a surety . ) 
y&dor, 1 V, dep. a., I bind over 

by bail. (vfts. ) 
y&leo, 2 V. n., I am strong, I 

am of value. In leave- 

taking, v&lS, etc, farewelL 
V&lSriU8, -ii, m., Valerius. 
y&lidus, -a, -um, adj,^ strong. 

y&UtHdo (ory&ietfldo), -Inis,/., 

health. (v&leo.) 
yalliim, -i, n., a rampart with 

palisades. (vallus, a stake. ) 
y&rius, -a, -um, adj.^ diverse, 


yftstfLs, -a, um, adj.f emply, 

-y8, enditiCf or. 
yecto, 1 1;. a., I carry. (tn^en^. 

of v6ho.) 
y8lio, -xi, -ctum, 3 v. a., I 

yeloz, -ocis, oc^'., swift. (Gf. 

v5lo, -are, I ny.) 
y8l*ftt,ySl*11ti,a(£t;. , just as, as if . 
yen&tlo, -onis, /., hunting. 

yendo, -dldi, -dltum, 3 v. a., I 

selL (venum, do.) 
yenenum, -i, n., poison. 
ySnla, -ae, /., pardon. Bonft 

veni&, by your kind leave. 
ySnio, v§ni, ventum, 4 v. n., I 

y§nor, 1 v. dep. a., I hunt. 
ygnum, -i, n.,8ale. Inclassical 

writers only in acc. sing. 
yentlto, 1 v. n., I come fre- 

quently. (Intens. of v6nio. ) 
yerber, -6ris, n., scourge, blow. 
yerbum, -i, n., word. 
Vergllins, -ii, m., Vergil. 
yer5, adv., in truth, but in- 

deed. ( verus. ) 
yersns, -us, m., a line, verse. 

(verto. ) 
yertez, -Xcis, m., whirlpool, 

top, head. (verto.) 
yerto, -ti, -sum, 3 v. a., Itum ; 

in pa^. also with abl., I 

tum upon, depend upon. 
ySms, -a, -um., adj., true. 
yester, -tra, 'tmm, poss. pron., 

your. (vos.) 
yestlglum, -ii,n.,footprint, sole 

of foot. (vestlgo, I track. ) 
yestlo, 4v. a., I clothe. (vestis, 




TStns, -dris, adj», old. 
Yla, -ae,/., road, way. 
vibro, 1 V. a. and n., I brandish, 

I shake. 
Tloies, adv.y twenty times. 
TlGlnuB, -a, -um, arf;., neigh- 

bouring; as aubat.y a neigh- 

bour. (yIcub, hamlet.) 
victGrla, -ae, /., victory. 

(victor, vinco.) 
vlctus, -us, m., food, way of 

life. (vlvo. ) 
vXdeo, vldi, vlsum, 2 v. a., I 

see; inpaM., Iseem. Imper- 

Bonaliy, videtur mihi, it 

seems good to me. 
vlglnti, nuTTier., twenty. 
vigor, Cria, m., force, strength. 

(vlgeo, Iflourifih.) 
vincio, -nxi, -nctum, 4 v. a., I 

vlnco, vlci, victum, 3 v. a., I 

vindlco, 1 V, a., I avenge. 

(vim-dico, lassertauthority. ) 
vlnnm, -i, n., vine, wine. {otvos,) 
viSlens, -entis, adj., impetuous. 

vlr, vlri, m., man, husband. 
virgultnin, -i, n.,twig. (Forvir- 

gtUetum, fr. virgifla, demin. 

of virs^a, branch, twig.) 

virtlUi, -atifl, /., valour. 

vis (vim, vi, no gen, sing., plur. 
vlrea, etc.), /., strength, 
force. (fj.) 
vlso, -si ,-sum, 3 V. a. , I behold. 

(Intens. of vldeo.) 
vita, -ae,/., life. (vlvo.) 
vitls, -is,/., vine. 
vivo, -xi, -ctUm, 3 v. n., I 

v8oo, 1 V. a., I call. (vox.) 
TQljms (or vnlgus), -i, n., 
rarely m. , common people ; 
in M.i volgo, as adv.^ com- 
v5lo, -ui, no sup., velle, 3 v. 
a., I wish for. Quid hoc sibi 
vult, what does this mean. 
v5lo, 1 V. n., I fly. 
v5luntftrin8, -a, -um, adj.^ vo- 

luntary. (v6lo, I wish.) 
vos, plur. of tu, you. 
vox, vdcis, /., voice, expres- 

sion. (v6co. ) 
vulgns and vnlgo. Cf . volgus. 
vnlnns, or volnns, -gris, n., 
wound. (Cf. vello, I tear.) 
vnltns, -us, m., countenance. 

Xanthippe, -es, /, Xanthippe. 
(ScwWiTTiy. ) 



F<yr details abotU LcUin wcrda tum to the Latin-EnglUh 

abandon, desino. 

aUe, I am, possnm. 

about, de. 

accomiMuiy (home), proseqaor^ 

accompllslmient, disciplina. 

account, ratio. 

acconnt, on account of , propter. 

acquit, absolvo. 

act, ago. 

actor, histrio, actor. 

a4]onm, profero, differo. 

admlnlBter (justice), dico (jus). 

advance^incedo, procedo, prod- 

eo, progredior. 
advanced (in age), grandis 

adyantageons to, e, ex. 
adylse, moneo. 
after, post. 

afterwards, postea, postliac. 
again, denuo, iterum. 
agalnst, adversus, adversum, 

age, natus. 
agree, convenio. 
alarm, in, trepidans. 
all, omnis. 

aUowed, it is, licet. 

almost, fere, prope. 

alone, solus. 

alum, alumen. 

ambassador, lej^tus. 

amnsing, hilaris, iucundus. 

and, et,'atque, -que. 

anlinal, bestia, f era. 

announce, praedico. 

another, ahus. 

anziona, cupidus. 

appear, videor. 

appearance, aspectus. 

apple-tree, pomum. 

approye, probo. 

arms, arma. 

army, exercitus. 

aronse, excito. 

arrest, adprehendo. 

as, ut, yefut. 

as if, as thongh, quasi. 

ask, interrogo, rogo ; peto, oro. 

ask for, peto, oro. 

ascribe, acceptum refero. 

assembly, contio. 

assist, adiuvo. 

astonnd, stupefacio. 




at, in. 

athletlos, ars athletica. 

attack, oppugno, pngno in, 

attendant, aeditumus. 
attract attention, converto 

oculoB, animum. 
author, scriptor. 

back, in the, aversus. 
bad-tempered, morosus. 
bail, vadimonium 
barlMurian, barbarus. 
bark, latro. 

battle, puffna, proelium. 
bear (v.), fero. 
bear-Uke, ursinus. 
beauty, pulchritudo. 
because, quod. 
beckon, significo. 
before, ante, coram. 
begln, coepi. 
bebead, securi percutio. 
believe, credo. 
bend, flecto. 
besiege, obsidea 
betake, adfero. 
blrd, avis. 
Uaze, flagro. 
block, insula. 
blood-etalned, cruentus. 
blow, verber. 
blusli, erubesco. 
bodily, genitive o/corpus. 
body, corpus. 
boldly, intrepidus. 
bone, os. 
book, liber, 
both, uterque. 
botb ... and, et ... et. 
boy, puer, 

brand (with mark of infamy), 

brave, fortis, strenauB. 
brazen, aeneus. 
break, inf rin^o. 
brlbezy, ambitus. 
brldge, pons. 
brlng, fero. 
brlng In, introduco. 
brother, frater. 
bulld, struo, condo, congero. 
bum, ardeo, deuro. 
but, sed, at. 
bny, emo, mercor. 
bynomeans, nequaquam,haud- 

caU, appello, voco. 

called, nomine. 

camp, castra. 

can, possum. 

carry, fero, vecto. 

carry back, ref ero. 

carry to, asporto. 

case, causa, res. 

cause, (v.), cvLTotmthgervaidive^ 

cantlous, cautus. 

cavalry, equitatus. 

cave, specus. 

cease, omitto. 

censor, censor. 

centre, media pars. 

certain, a {inde/.), quidam. 

certalnly, procul dubio. 

challenge, provoco. 

cbance, by, forte. 

chariot, currus. 

charm, demulceo. 

choose, deligo, eligo. 

dtizen, civis. 

city, urbs. 

city, In the {adj), urbanus, 

clever, astutus. 
coUeot, compafo. 




oome, veoio. 
come to, perYenio. 
comedy, comoedia. 
command, imperium. 
command (army), rego. 
conceal, celo. 

condemn, condemno, damno. 
confldence» confidentia. 
congratulatlon, gratulatio. 
conquer, vinco, supero. 
coneider, habeo; I am con- 

sidered, videor, habeor. 
consplracy, coniuratio. 
consult, consulo, consulto. 
contest, certamen. 
control, impero. 
conyersation, sermo. 
converse wltli, coUoquor. 
cook, torreo. 
com, sementes. 
correct, corrigo. 
country (adj,)^ rusticus. 
courage, animus. 
course, cnrsus. 
cowardice, ignavia. 
credulity, credulitas. 
crop, seges. 
crowd, ^rba, caterva. 
crown («.), corona. 
crown (v.), corono. 
cry, conclamo. 
custom, mos. 
cut off, decido, praecido. 

dally, quotidianus. 

dare, audeo. 

dart, telum. 

daughter, filia. 

dawn, prima lux. 

day, dies. 

death, mors, exitus e vita; (con- 

demn to) death, capitis 


deceive, fallo. 

deed, facinus, factum. 

defeat, vinco, supero. 

defend, defendo. 

defendant, reus. 

demand («.), postulatum, postu- 

demand (v.), posco. 
depart, digredior. 
depend on, vertor in. 
desert {s. ), locus desertus. 
desert (v.), descisco ab. 
desire, opto. 
despise, contemno. 
difflculty, of{adj.\ difficilis. 
dlrect, dirigo. 
discoYer, detego. 
dissipate, digero. 
dlstance, at a, procul. 
distant, longus. 
divlne, divinus. 
do, facio. 
doe, cerva. 
dog, canis. 
dolphln, delphin. 
dominion, dicio. 
draw up, instruo. 
dreadfnl, inmanis. 
dream, somnium. 
dresB, induo. 
drlnk, haurio. 

drive, cogo; (fromhome),exigo. 
duty, officium. 
dsrlng, moribundus. 

eacb, quisque. 
ear, auris. 
easlly, faciliter. 
educate, educo. 
eight, octo. 
eighty, octoginta. 
elepliant, elephantus. 
emblem, signum. 



exnbraoe, amplector. 
endeayour, conor. 
enemy, hostis, inimious. 
energetlo, acer. 
enormoas, ingens, vastas. 
enongh, satis. 
enter, introeoi ascendo in. 
eqnal, peur. 
ezoept, nisi, praeter. 
excliange, permutatio. 
exile» exilium. 
expresslon, vox. 
extraordlnary, egregius. 
eye, oculus. 

fable, fabula. 

fiace, os. 

facing, adversum, adversus. 

fall down, concido. 

f^ons, praeclarus, fam4 ce- 

farm, fundus. 

fiitlier, pater, paterfamilias. 
fayonrable, mollis. 
fear, metus. 
feature, lineamentum. 
field, ager. 
flglit, pugno. 
flgure, simulacrum. 
flnd, invenio. 
flne, pecunia. 
flnger, digitus. 
flre, ignis, incendium. 
flrst, primus. 
flrst at, primum. 
flt, aptus. 
flve, quinque. 
flye times, quinquies. 
flight, fuga. 
flower, flos. 
flute, tibiae. 
flnte-player, tibicen. 
fly, volo. 

foliage, comae. 

follow, prosequor. 

fond, cupidus. 

food, cibus, victuB, pabulnm. 

foot, pes. 

for, enim, nam. 

forMd, interdico. 

forces, copiae. 

foretell, praedico. 

form, conformo, fingo. 

formerly, antea. 

fortify, munio. 

free, libero. 

frlend, amicus, familiaris. 

frigliten, constemo. 

ftom, e, ex ; a, ab. 

ftom all sides, undique. 

firont, in, adversus. 

fknitful, felix, fecundus, uber. 

foll speed, at, citato cursu. 

gain, adipiscor, mihi obvenit. 
galn possession of, potior. 
general, imperator. 
grlft, praemium, donum. 
giye, do, reddo. 
giye account of, rationem reddo. 
giye advloe, praecipio, moneo. 
give bail, vadimonium dare, 

give thanks, gratias a^o. 
give vote, sententiam fero. 
gUtter, mico. 
go, eo, cedo. 
god, deus. 
gold {adj.)t aureus. 
good, bonus. 
good for, I am, valeo. 
grass, gramen. 
great, magnus. 
greedy, avarus. 
grieye, doleo. 
groan, gemitus edo. 




gronnd, locus. 

g^row, nascor. 

goard, custodio. 

gniard, I am on my, caveo. 

lialf, dimidium. 

liand, manus. 

liand to, trado, 

liappen, fio, accido. 

IxarmleBs, sine noz&. 

liarsli, asper. 

harvest, messis. 

liaste, make, propero. 

lianglitily, per superbiam. 

liaye, habeo. 

head, caput. 

hear, audio. 

healtn, valetudo. 

heart, cor. 

heaven, by, divinitus. 

heiglit, proceries, magnitudo. 

belp {8. ), auxilium. 

h^p (v.), adjuvo. 

herself, ipsa, se. 

lilde, recondo, delitesco. 

liigli, many storieB, multis 

tabulatis editus. 
niB, Buus, ejus. 
ndld on, teneo. 
hoUow, cavema. 
home, domus. 
lionour, honor; in honour of, 

ob honorem. 
hononraUe, honestus. 
hope, spes. 
liorse, equus. 
host, hospes. 
honse, aedes. 
now, quomodo. 
hnndred, centum. 
nnnt, venatio. 

Ignorant, imperitus. 

immedlately, statim. 
immenBe, inmensas. 
impertinence, petulantia. 
important, magnus. 
in, in. 

in honour of, ob honorem. 
infiEuny, ignominia. 
inflamed-throat, synanche. 
inliabit, incoio, colo. 
Inroad, incursio. 
Insult, contumelift afficio. 
interpreter, interpres. 
invent, oonmdniscor. 

Jeer at, eludo, inrideo. 
Judge, iudex. 
JUBtice, ius. 

keep, retineo. 

klll, occido, interficio. 

Idng, rex. 

know, scio, percallesco. 

labonr, labor. 
laok, desum. 
lame, debilis. 
land, terra. 
language, lingua. 
large, magnus, ingens. 
large sum of; grandis. 
lark, cassita. 
laugn at, derideo. 
lanrel («.), laurus. 
lanrel {adj,)^ laureus. 
law, lex. 
law-BUlt, Ub. 
leader, dux. 
leaf, frons. 
leave, relinquo. 
leg, crus. 

lend, dare ... mutuum. 
Uok, lambo, demulceo. 
lie, mendacium. 



Ues, teU, mentior. 

llfe, yita, caput. 

Ufeless, exan^is. 

Uke, more {vnth adj. or gen,), 

line (of battle), acies. 

llnger, demoror. 

lion, leo. 

Uve, vivo. 

lolterer, cessator. 

long wMle, for a, diu. 

loose, let, emitto. 

lose, amitto. 

loud, sublatns, magnus. 

love, amo. 

luznrlant, laetus. 

lyre, fides. 

mad, I am, deliro^ 

magnlficence, splendor. 

maintaln, retineo, contendo. 

make, facio, reddo. 

make haste, propero. 

man, homo. 

manoeuvre, converto. 

many, multus. 

many sorts of, varius. 

mark, nota. 

marrlage, matrimonium. 

married to, I am, nubo. 

marsb, palus. 

marveUous, mirandus. 

master, dominus, magister. 

matron, materfamilias. 

matter, res. 

mean, what does tbis, quid hoc 

sibi vult. 
medicine, medicina, res medi- 

meet, obviam fio. 
mid-day, («), dies medius. 
mid-day, {adj), meridianus. 
middle, medius. 
militaiy, militaris. 

mimic hnnt, pugna venationis. 

modem, praesens. 

money, pecunia. 

mother, mater. 

motionless, immobiUs. 

monnt, inscendo. 

monm for, lugeo. 

mouming, habitus Ingubris. 

montli, os. 

much, multus, grandis. 

much, as much as, tantus .. 

muBt, necesse est. 
my, meus. 
myself, ego ipse. 

name, nomen, cognomen. 

nation, gens. 

natural position, natura. 

near, prope. 

necessary, necesse. 

neck, coUum. 

neQk-lace, torquis. 

neglect, negUgo. 

neighbour, vicinus. 

nelghbourlng, proximus. 

nest, nidus. 

never, nunquam, nusquam. 

nezt, posterus. 

nezt-day, postridie. 

night, nox. 

nine, novem. 

no one, nemo, nuUus. 

not, non, haud. 

number, numerus. 

oak, quercus. 
oath, msiurandum. 
obey, pareo. 
offer, offero. 
offspring, fetus. 
often, saepe. 
! old, antiquus, vetus. 




old days, In, antii^uitas. 

old-£EUdiioned, priscus. 

old woman, anus. 

oliye, oleum. 

on, in, super. 

one, unus. 

one day, quodam die. 

only, modo. 

oplnlon, 1 am of, censeo. 

oppose, loquor contra. 

oraOle, oraculum. 

order, jubeo, impero. 

order tbat, In, ut, quo. 

otlier, alius. 

others, the, ceteri. 

oufflit, debeo, or gerundive, 

out of, e, ex. 

own, hls, SUU8. 

owner, dominus. 

palm, palma. 

pardon, poen^ solvo. 

pasB (sentence), fero (senten- 

pay, do, solvo. 
peace, pax. 

people, populus, vulgus. 
perch on, msisto. 
perfect, inte^er. 
perform, facio. 
perish, pereo. 
persuade, persuadeo. 
philosoplier, philosophus. 
pierce, perfodio. 
pitlable, miserandus. 
place, («.), locus. 
place (hope), habeo (spem). 
place in, condo. 
place on, impono, pono. 
plague, pestilentia. 
plain, campus. 
plan, consuium. 
plant, consero. 

play, cano. 

Idead, verba facere. 

poison, venenum. 

polish, tracto. 

position, natnral, natura. 

poBsession, take, potior. 

pralse, laus. 

pray, obsecro, oro. 

present, dono, offero. 

pretend, simulo. 

preyent, to, ut ne, ne. 

price, pretium. 

prisoner, captivus. 

prodnce, pario, edo, profero. 

promise, promitto. 

proof, argumentum. 

property, praedium. 

propose, censeo. 

proyided with, copiosus. 

prune, amputo. 

pnhlicly, publice. 

pull ont, revello. 

pull np, revello. 

puniBh, vindico, punio, multo. 

pupil, auditor. 

qnarrelsome, litigiosus. 

ravage, depopulor. 
rayen, corvus. 
read, recito. 
reap, meto. 
receive, accipio, fero. 
recover, recupero. 
reftise, nolo. 
re)oicing(«.), laetitia. 
rejoicing [adj,), laetus. 
relate, narro, trado. 
relation, cognatus. 
remain, maneo. 
remalning, reliquus. 
remains, reliquiae. 
remarkahle, eximius. 
remedy, remedium. 



reply, respondeo. 
reproach, obiicio. 
restore, reddo. 
retum, redeo. 
retnms («.), reditus. 
reward, praemium. 
rise, exurgo, resurgo. 
road, via. 
roarlng:, fremitus. 
room, cubiculum. 
rough, rudis. 

safe, salvus, incolumis. 

safety, salus. 

sallor, nauta. 

same, idem. 

save, servo. 

say, dico, narro. 

scom, aspemor. 

sea, mare. 

searcli for, quaero, requiro. 

seated on, insidens. 

secret, clandestinus, tacitus. 

secretly, tacite. 

see, video. 

sell, vendo. 

senate, senatus. 

senate-honse, curia. 

senator, senator. 

send, mitto. 

send for, arcesso. 

sentenoe, sententia. 

separate, separo. 

sliake, vibro. 

sliame, pudor. 

shapeless, informis. 

sMeld, scutum. 

shlne, praefulgeo. 

sUp, navis. 

shoolder, humerus. 

Bhout, clamor. 

diow, ostendo. 

shut In, includo. 

tihut up, claudo. 
sidde, falx. 
siege, obsideo. 
sigh, murmura edo. 
slght, aspectus. 
slght, In my, me inspectante 
sllent, I am, taceo. 
silently, tacite. 
sllver \adj,)y argenteus. 
Bin£^, cano. 
sister, soror. 
sit, sedeo.. 
sitnated, situs. 
8iz, sex. 
size, corpus. 
sldll, ars, disciplina. 
sldlled, peritus, sollers. 
slaye, servus. 
slay, transigo. 
sleep, quiesco. 
small, parvus. 
smear, lino. 
80, ita, itaque. 
soldier, miles. 
son, filius. 
song, carmen. 
soon, mox. 
spare, parco. 

speak, loquor, dico, enuntio. 
spear, telum. 

speed, at ftai, citato cursu. 
speed, celeritas. 
spoil, praeda. 
spring Into, transilio. 
sprlng down, desilio. 
stand, sto. 
standforth, exto. 
stand still, consisto. 
state, respublica. 
8tem, lignum. 
stem, puppis. 

stery, tabulatum (of house); 
apologus (taie). 




strength, vis. 

Btrengtlien, firmo. 

stretch out, protendo. 

strlke, percutio. 

stron^^, validus, violentus. 

success, wlth, prospere. 

such, talis, ejusmodi. 

Bucker, suboles. 

Buddenly, repente. 

suffer £rom, patior. 

snmmon, arcesso. 

Bunrise, lucis ortus, sol oriens. 

supply, copia. 

surpass, praesto. 

Burround, cingo. 

sword, gladiiis. 

tail, cauda. 

take, capio, fero. 

take ftom, detraho. 

take to fUght, in fugam me 

take posseBBion of, potior. 
take refuge In, concedo iu. 
tale, fabula. 
talent, talentum. 
talk wlth, coUoquor. 
teach, doceo. 
tear, lanio. 
tear In pleces, dilacero, di- 

tear open, rescindo, divello. 
tell, dico, narro, enuntio. 
tell lies, mentior. 
temple, templum. 
ten, decem. 

term, condicio. * 

terrihle, terrificus. 
terrlfled, territus. 
thank, grates ago, gratias ago. 
thanks, grates, gratiae. 
that, ille, is. 
thelr, suus, eorum, illorum. 


therefore, itaque. 

thing, res. 

think, puto. 

third, tertius. 

this, hic. 

thom, stirps. 

though, cum. 

three, tres. 

three years, triennium. 

through, per. 

throw, iacio, coniicio. 

throw away, abiicio. 

throw down, everto. 

thUB, ita, sic. 

time, tempus. 

time, at the, in praesens 

tomh, sepulcrum. 

to-morrow, cras. 

towards, ad. 

tower, turris. 

town, oppidum. 

trappings, insignia. 

treachery, insidiae. 

tree, arbor. 

tribune, tribunus. 

triumph (8.), triumphus. 

triumph [v. ), triumpho. 

truBt in, confido. 

try, experior, cognosco. 

tum to or on, ref ero. 

turret, turris. 

twenty, viginti. 

twenty-timeB, vicies. 

twig, virgultum. 

two, duo. 

unde, patruus. 
understand, intellego. 
undertake, recipio. 
unfinlBhed, inperfectus. 
unfledged, iuvolucris. 
unsettled, iniudicatuo. 
unuBual, novus. 



unwUlliig, I am, nolo. 
HTH, urna. 
use, utor, expromo. 
usefol, utilis, magno usii and 
magno usui. 

yain, In, frustra. 

vast, ingens. 

verdict, I glve a, pronuntio. 

yerse, versus. 

very, admodum. 

vlctory, victoria. 

vigour, vigor. 

vine, vinum. 

voice, vox, 

voluntary, voluntarius. 

vote, sententia. 

wag, moveo. 

war, bellum. 

wam, moneo, praemoneo. 

wairior, bellator. 

waverlng, ambiguus. 

weary, I am, of tlils, pertaedet 

me huius. 
weep, lacrimo. 
weep for, comploro. 
weight, pondus. 
weU-loved, amatus. 
wliat, quis. 
wliatever, quicumque. 
wlien, ubi, cum. 
wheaever, ubicumque, cum. 

whidi, quL 

wliite, albus. 

who, quis, qui. 

whoever, quicumque. 

whole, totus. 

why, cur. 

wife, uxor. 

wild-beast, fera, bestia. 

wild-beast, of a, {adj).^ ferinus. 

willingly, libenter. 

win, vinco. 

win over, comparo. 

with, cum. 

wise, sapiens. 

wiBli, volo. 

woman, mulier. 

woman, old, anus. 

wonder at, miror, admiror, de- 

wonderfol, mirus, mirandus, 

wooden, ligneus. 
word, verbum. 
wortby, dignus. 
wound {8. ), vulnus. 
wound (v. ), haurio. 
write, scribo. 
writer, scriptor. 

you, tu, vos. 

young man, adulescens. 

young ones, pulli. 









1. . . . xvii. 10 

21. ... ix. 13 


xvu. 4 


ix. 13 


xiii. 6 


ix. 11 


i. 17 


ii. 29 


ii. 1 


ii. 29 


V. 2 


ii. 29 


XV. 17 


iii. 8 


i. 14 


V. 14 


V. 5 


V. 14 


XV. 16 


V. 14 


i. 23 


vi. (vii) 6 


i. 23 


xi. 9 


XV. 22 


xii. 12 


XV. 22 


XV. 1 


i. 19 


xvL 19 


iv. 18 


xvi. 19 


iv. 18 


xix. 12 


vi. (vii.) 1 


xvii. 16 


i. 3 


V. 10 


i. 10 


vi. (vii.) 18 




The Roman Jigures give the number ofthe sdecUon^ Ihe Areibie 
figures the number of the line in the seUction, 

ahhinc mvlU» annis, xz. 10. 
ahlative absolute, v. 9. 
aeceptum referre, xviL 13. 
OMuaative plurcd of 3rd declen- 

sion in -is, ix. 2. 
acerbus, v. 5. 
adfines, xxvi. 5. 
adigere aliquem insiurandom, 

adjective for English substan- 

tive and preposition, x. 1 

(Milo Crotoniensis) ; xL 1 

(proelium Cannense). 
advocare, xxxii. 2. 
aedes, xvi. 17. 
aerarium, xvii. 10. 
Aesopusj xxiv. 1. 
ager Pomptinus, xxiii. 1. 
&koivov6t)toi, xxxiiL 10. 
albus, xiv. 1. 
Alcibiades, iv. 4. 
Alexander, vL 1. 
ambituJiy ii. 2. 
animus and mens, v. 5. 
Antiochus, ix. 1. 
antiquiis, xx. 4. 
argyranche^ xxxii. 14. 
Arion, xxxv. I. 
Aristoteles, iii. 1. 

attraetion of antecedent into 
relative clauRe, xxx. 2 ; 
xxxix. 6. 

Aurunei, xx. 6. 

avunculus, vii. 1. 

BucephaUu, vi. 1. 

-&i£ndtM and -ctmr^tM, vi. 11. 

Gaesar, C. lulius, xx. 16. 

Cacsar, Claudius, xxix. 2. 

canere tibiis, vii. 4. 

Cannoe, ix. 1. 

capitalis res, xxx. 9. 

caput, xix. 1. 

Cato, xvii. 1. 

censeo (parenthetically), xvi. 

censores, xl. 24. 

Chares, vi. 2. 

Cicero, xxxiii. 1. 

cinctus, xxi. 17. 

Gircus Maximus, xxviiL 1. 

Cispius Mons, xxxiv. 3. 

cognati, xxvi. 6. 

comoediarum certamina, ii. 2. 
I comTTamr^ horaineminaliqnem, 
j xvii. 3. 

congerere (absolutely), xxv. 3. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



amtecution of tenses after his- 

toric present, xxi. 12 ; xxiiL 

6 ; XXXV. 6. 
coTtteatari litem, xxxix. 12. 
Coruncanimi xx. 4. 
Crotoniensis, x. 1. 
Crotona, x. 1. 
cruor, xxix. 23. 
cwm (conj.), vL 8 ; with indic. 

(1) frequentative, xiv. 7 ; 

(2)=et tum, xxi 6; (3)= 

because, xxxiii. 11. 
curiaf xi. 1. 
Curiua Dentatus, xx. 3. 
curo with gerundive, vii 3 ; 

xiiL 1. 

cUUive of purpose (predicative 

dat.), viii. 4. 
Demades, xxxii. 4. 
Demosthenes, xxxiL 4. 
c?e2?en(ien^ interrogatives, x. 6. 
desinere artem, x. 3. 
deveho (de=to land), xxxvi. 7. 
disciplina, xxii, 2. 
dissimulanter, xxxvi. 12. 
dum with subj., xxv. 6. 

Mectra, xxxi. 5. 

Ennius, xxxviii. 9. 

ephippium, ix. 6. 

Euander, xx. 9. 

ea;erceor, in middle sense, iv. 7. 

Fabriciua, viii. 1. 

fa>c eas, xxv. 11. 

facto ... opus est, xiv. 18. 

falcibua (currus cum), ix. 4. 

familiaa, xii. 3. 

#atH)rtnti«, xx. 1. 

feUx (fruitful), xxxvii. 18. 

foculua, XV. 7. 

forum, xxiii 21. 

frequentcUive verbs, xviii. 4. 
frenis . . . f ulgentem, ix. 6. 

genitive denoting "nature," 
" duty " of , xxxiii. 12. 

genitive after gerund (causarum 
orandi cupidus), xxxix. 1. 

gerunds ajia gerundives, xiii. 1. 

gratiae, xxxvii. 13. 

Hannibal, ix. 1. 
hauHre pectus, xxii. 9. 
herde, iii. 1. 

Hiapanicua gladius, xxii. 7. 
hisUyric infinitive, xxv. 15. 
Horatii, xx. 5. 
hospita, XV. 2. 

idtemporis, xviii. 7. 
imperium proconsulare, xxix. 

inceptive or inchoative verbs, 

ii. 6. 
ingentia, (acc. plur.), ix. 2. 
tn iure stare, xviii. 18. 
tnmt^ere (absolutely), vL 9. 
instda (lodging-house), xxxiv. 

interrogativea, dependent, x. 6. 
ire injitias, xxxvi. 18. 
iu8 dicere, xviii. 16. 
iusiurandum aliquem adigere, 

xl 6. 

loccUive case, xi. 1. 
loci (nusquam), xv. 19. 

(e) mediis hostibus, vL 12. 
Menander, ii. 1. 
mma and animus, v. 5. 
Methymna, xxxv. 1. 
middle signification of passive 
voice, iv. 7. 





mihi and ad me after verbs, 

xryii. 13. 
Mih, X. 1. 

MitAdate8f zxxyiii. 1. 
monUiaj ix. 6. 

-ne pleonastic» xi. 10. 
ne... quis, xi 4. 
nemOj xiv. 9. 
nobiliSf xxxv. 1. 
noctis extremo, xviii. 3. 
nonnCy numy -ne, ii. 6. 
nudus, xxi. 7. 
nusquam loci, xv. 16. 

Oreates, xxxL 6. 
Ore«<» (genitive), xxxi. 6. 
orthium carmen, xxxv. 21. 
Oace, xxxviii. 10. 

Palatiumy xxxiii. 1. 
pareo, pario, parOy i. 2. 
participle and verb in Latin= 

two verbs in English, xxi. 

3 ; xl. 2. 
partitive genitive, id temporis, 

xviii. 7 ; quantnm mercedis, 

xxxii. 17. 
pansivea with middle significa- 

tion, iv. 7. 
Pekisgi, xx. 6. 
per contemptnm, xxiii. 5. 
Periander, xxxv. 1. 
PericleSy vii. 1. 
phaleras, ix. 6. 
Philemon, iL 1. 
Piraevs, xxxiv. 16. 
plagw of Athcns, v. 10. 
Plutarchua, iii. 1. 
Poenus, ix. 8. 
Pomptinua ager, xxiii. 1. 
possiea, xxiv. 13. 
poatliminium, xl. 12. 

(in) prassens, xxxiii. 2. 
j?rae^to^tt«, xi. 2. 
predicative dative, viii. 4. 
prepositions, verbs compounded 

with, xxix. 22 ; xxxiv. 3. 
priusquam with subjunctive, 

xxxiii. 4. 
proconauldre imperium, xxix. 6. 
ProtagoraSy xxxix. 3. 
purpose, dative of, viii. 4. 
Pyrrus, xxvii. 1. 
Pytha^goras, x. 1. 

quadrati versus, xxiv. 10. 
qtiae dicaa (indefinite), xx. 11. 
quaeso (parenthetically), iL 4. 
quasi, XV. 6. 

qui with subjunctive (final), 
XXV. 17 ; (causal) xxxviL 3. 
quid ... sibi vult, xii. 6. 
(si) quid rei, xxv. 7. 
quin with indicative, xxvi. 4. 
quis (indefinite), xL 4. 
quisquam and te^/t£«, x. 6. 

re in composition, L 6. 

Samnites, viii. 1. 

8a^«ra, xxiv. 10. 

scOtebat iris, iv. 3. 

«S^ctpu) AfricanuB, xvi. 1 ; xviii. 2. 

Scipio Asiaticus, xviL 5. 

scutum, xxi; 17. 

securtis with genitive, vi. 14. 

sed enim, xv. 10. 

sequence of tenses after historic 

present, xxL 12 ; xxiii. 6 ; 

XXXV. 6. 
aestertii and sestertium, vi. 3; 

xxxiii. 2. 
Sertorius, xui. 1. 
Sibyllini libri, xv. 1. 
Sicani, xx. 6. 




Socratea, iv. 1, 4. 

8ol oriens, v. 3. 

sollemnis, xvi. 18. 

SophocleSy XXX. 6. 

SuUa, L., xxxiv. 15. 

SvUa, P., xxxiii. 2. 

mpine in -um, xvi. 13 ; xxii. 

17 ; XXV. 6. 
supine in -u, xiv. 6 ; xxiv. 2 ; 

xxvii. 12. 

Ta^narurk, xxxvi. 6. 
talentum, xxxii. 19. 
Tarquinius Superbus, xv. 1. 
temporaZ conjunctions with 

Bubjunctive, cum, vi. 8 ; 

dum, XXV. 5 ; priusquam, 

xxxiiL 4. 

tibiaei vii. 4. 

Torqtwius, xxi. 1. 

torquis, xxi. 3. 

trihunua militaris, xxiii. 8. 

tribunus plebis, xvi. 1. 

turribua (elephanti cum), ix. 5. 

ulluSi X. 6. 

vadarif xviii. 22. 
vadimonium, xviii. 19. 
venum dare, xxxiv. 10. 
Vergilius, i. 1. 
vertituriDy xxvi. 20. 
videres, xxviii. 16. 
vult, quid sibi, xii. 6. 

Zama, ix. 1. 



The Roman Figures give the number ofthe Selectio% ihe AraJbk 
Figurea the number of the line in the SeUetion, 

Aesopns, xxiv. 1, 9. 
Alcibiades, iv. 4 ; vii. 1, 6. 
Alexander, vi. 1, 8, 10, 15. 
A.ndrocla8, xxviiL 6, 12; xxix. 

2, 3 ; XXX. 14^ 17, 19. 
Antiochus, ix. 1; xvi. 1; xvii. 4. 
Archelaas, xxxiv. 13, 16, 19. 
Arion, xxxv. 1, 2, 11 ; xxxvi. 

7, 11, 12, 14, 16. 
Arlstodemus, xxxii. 17, 18. 
Aristoteles, iii. 1. 
Augustus, xxiii. 21. 

Bucephalas, vi. 1. 

Caesar, C. Julius, xx. 16. 
Caesar, Claudius, xxix. 2. 
Cato, xvii. 2. 
Chares, vi. 2. ' 
Cicero, xxxiii. 1, 6. 
Claudius, Q., xxxiv. 12. 
Coruncanius, xx. 4. 
Corvinus, xxiii. 8, 20, 21. 
Curius (Dentatus), xx. 3. 

Demades, xxxii. 22. 
Demosthenes, xxxii. 4, 7, 10, 
16, 21. 

Diaoa, xiv. 4. 

Electra, xxxL 5, 8, 9. 
Ennius, xxiv. 10 ; xxxviii. 9. 
Euander, xx. 9. 
Euathlus, xxxix. 1, 12, 21. 

Fabricius, viii. 1, 7 ; xx. 4 ; 

xxvii. 4, 9. 
Favorinus, xx. 1. 

Hannibal, ix. 1, 7 ; xvL 8 ; xL 

1, 17, 27. 
Horatii, xx. 5. 

lulianus, Antonius, xxxiv. 1, 

Manlius, cf. Torquatus. 
Menander, iL 1. 
Milo, X. 1. 

Mitridates, xxxiv. 13, 16; 
xxxviii. 1, 10. 

Naevius, xvi. 1. 




Orestes, xxxi. 6, 11. 

Papirius Praetextatua, xi. 5; 

xii. 7, 12. 
Periander, xxxv. 3 ; xxxvi. 8. 
Pericles, vii. 1. 
Petilii, xvii. 1. 
Philemon, ii. 1. 
Philippus, vi. 3. 
Plutarchus, iii. 1. 
Polus, xxxi. 2, 9. 
Protagoras,xxxix.3,4, 8, 10,13. 
Pyrrus, xxviL 1, 4, 13. 

Scipio Africanus, xvi. 1, 5, 15, 
16; xvii. 3, 7; xviii. 2, 10, 20. 

Scipio Asiaticus, xvii. 6. 
Sertorius, xiii. 1, 7; xiv. 1, 

12, 20. 
Socrates, iv. 1, 4, 6 ; v. 2. 
Sophocles, xxxi. 5. 
Sulla, L., xxxiv. 15. 
SuUa, P., xxxiii. 2. 

Tarquinius Superbus, xv. 3, 5, 

10, 14, 18. 
Timochares, xxvii. 4, 10. 
Torquatus, xxi. 1, 15 ; xxii. 

3, 6, 13, 14. 

Vergilius, i. 1. 
Xanthippe, iv. 1. 


GUayow : Bobtrt MAc1ebua«, Priut«r t« thv Universtty. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



^ . 18mo, Eighteenpence each. 

the following contain Introductions, Notes, and Vocabularies, and in 
sod& cftses Exfifci.sfis * 
ADOIDENOE, LATIN,' AND EXERCISBS. Arranged for Beglnners. By 

W. Welch, M.A., and C. G. Duffield, M.A. 
AescliylUB.— PROMETHEUS VINCTUS. By Rev. H. M. Stephenson, M.A. 
Arrian.- Selections. With Exercises. By Rev. John Bond, M.A., and 

Rev, A. S. Walpole, M.A. 
AulUS Qellius, Stories trom. Adapted for Beginners. With Exercises. 

By Rev. G. H. Nall, M.A., Assistant Master at Westminster. 
Caesar.— THE HELVETIAN WAR. Being Selections from Book L of The 
Gallic War. Adapted for Beginners. With Bxercises. By W. Welch, 
M.A., and C. G. Dqffield, M.A. 
THE INVASION OF BRITAIN. Being Selections from Books IV. and V. 
of The Gallic War. Adapted for Beginners. With Exercises. By W. 
Welch, M.A., and C. G. Duffield, M.A. 
SCBNBS FROM BOOKS V. and VI. By C. Colbbck, M.A. 
THE GALLIC WAR. BoOK I. By Rev. A. S. Walpolb, M.A. 
BooKS II. and III. By the Rev. W. G. Rutherford, M.A., LL.D. 
BooK IV. By Clbmbnt Brtans, M. A. , Assistant Master at Dulwich CoUege. 
BooK V. By C. CoLBBCK, M.A., Assistant Master at Harrow. 
BooK VI. By the same. 

BooK VII. By Rev. J. Bond, M.A., and Rev. A. S. Walpole, M.A. 
THE CIVIL WAR. Book I. By M. Montqomrey, M.A. 
Clcero.— DE 8BNBCTUTE. By E. S. Shuokbcrqh, M.A. 
DB AMICITIA. By the same. 

STORIES OP ROMAN HISTORY. Adapted for Beginners. With 
Exercises. By Rev. G. B. Jbans, M.A., and A. V. Jones, M.A. 
Euripldes.— ALCBSTIS. By Rev. M. A. Bayfirld, M.A. 
MEDBA. By A. W. Vbrrall, Litt.D., and Rev. M. A. Bayfield, M.A. 
HECUBA. By Rev. J. Bond, M.A., and Rev. A. S. Walpole, M.A. 
EutropiUS.— Adapted for Beginners. With Bxercises. By W. Wbloh, M.A., 

and C. G. Duffield, M.A. 
Herodotus: Tales from Herodotus. Atticised by G. s. Farnbll, m.a. 
Homer.— ILIAD. Book L By Rev. J. BoND, M.A., and Rev. A. S. Walpolb, 
BooK XVIII. By S. R. Jahbs, M.A., Assistant Master at Eton. 
ODYSSBY. BooK I. By Rev. J. Bond, M.A., and Rev. A. S. Walpolb, M.A. 
Horace.— ODES. Book I. By T. E. Paob, M.A., Assistant Master at the 
Charterhouse. Each Is. 6d. 
BooK II. By the same. 
BooK III. By the same. 
BooK IV. By the same. 
livy.— BooK I. By H. M. Stbphenson, M.A. 
BooK V. By M. Alford. [In the Press. 

BooK XXI. Adapted from Mr. Cape8*s Edition. By J. E. Melhuish, M.A. 
BooK XXII. By the same. 
THE HANNIBALIAN WAR. Being part of the XXI. and XXIL Books 

of LivT. Adapted for Beginners. By G. C. Macaulay, M.A. 
THB SIBGE OP SYRACUSK Being part of the XXIV. and XXV. Books 
of LivT. Adapted for Beginners. With Bxercises. By G. Richards, 
M.A., and Rev. A. S. Walpolb, M.A. 
LEGENDS OP ANCIBNT ROME. Adapted for Beginners. With 
Exerdsefl. By H. Wilkinson, M.A. 




Maomillan*b Elembntabt OLABBtC8^C<mtmued. 

l.UClaiL-EXTRACTi?FROJi LUJIAN. With Bxercises. By Re 

M.A., atid liev. A. E. WALi-tiLi:, M.A* 

Hl!5T0RY. WHJi Exerciaas, Uv G. S. Farxell, M.A. 
0l?ia."9ELEGTIONS, iiy E. B. anb criiBfROH, M.A. 

Exerclaea. Bv H* WilKIM90N, M.A. ^ 


J. Bosru, M.A.S mid Et;v. A. si Wali^ole, M.A. 
PliaedniS,— SELECT FABLEB, Adapted for Beginners. With Exercisc 

By Rlv, A. S. VValpole, M.A. 

crH. !^y-n7 iviid "22a-2aS. Witt Exemises. By F. H. Colson, M.A. 
Yitm. -H liLECTIOSii. Bj E. a, ShickbuRGH. M. A. 
nmOiAVS. By. T. E. Faoe, M.A* 
OEORGICa, BoOK I. Bj T. E. Paok, M.A. 

BQnK IL By Rtjv. J. H. BiiAiNE:, M.A. 
AENELD- BoQK I. Bj Hev, A, 6. WALroLE, M.A. 

BooE IL By. T. E. Paoc, M.A. 

BooK TIL By T. E, W/^^f., M.A. 

t^nnK IV. By lt(jT. H. M. BTiLi'Mj:.sM.irf, M.A. 

Bouit V. By Kev. A. Calvpbt, M.A. 

BofJK VL By T. E. Pao*, M.A, 

BooK V[I. By Rbv. A. Oalvert, M,A. 

B™k VI [L By Rnv. A. Calvkkt, M.A. 

BoQ}^ IX, By Rev^ H. M. STEPHKNrSOSij M.A. 

BooK X. By 9. G, OwEiff, M.A. 
XenopllOn.— ANABASIS. Selections, adapted for Beginners. Wit 

ExerciBes. By W. Welch, M.A., and C. G. Dopfield, M.A. 

BooK I. By Rev. A. S. Walpole, M.A. 

BooK I. With Bxercises. By B. A. Wells, M.A. 

BooK II. By the same. 

BooK III. By Rev. G. H. Nall, M.A. 

BooK IV. By Rev. E. D. Stone, M.A. 

Selections from Book IV. With Exercises. By the same. 

C00B.B, M. A., Fellow and Lecturer of King'8 College, Cauibridtfe. 
The following contain Introductions and Notes, bui no Vocabulary :— 
Clcero.— SBLECT LETTERS. By Rev. G. E. Jeans, M.A. 
HerodOtUS.— SBLECTIONS FROM B00K8 VIL and VIII. The Expbditio 

OF Xerxbs. By A. H. Cookb, M.A. 
Horace.— SBLBCTIONS from thb satires and epistles. b 

Rev. W. J. V. Bakbr, M.A. 

Assistant Master at Winchester, 
Terence.— SCBNBS FROM THB ANDRIA. By F. W. Cornish, M.A. 

Assistant Master at Eton. 

The Oreek Qegiac Foets.— FROM callinus to CALLiMACHUg 

Selected by Rev. Herbert Eynaston, D.D. 
Thucydides.— BOOK IV. Chs. 1-41. The Capturb of Sphaotbbia. B, 
G. B. Gravbs, M.A. 

*,* OtJier Volumes tofollow, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



i ♦ 

* - >}i xiJ 



Tliis book ahould be retnriied to 
the Library on or before the last date 
Btamped below, 

A flne of flve eents a day is inciirred 
by retainmg it beyond the specifled 

Please retnrn promptly* 

ML Ju^' -U 3J 



Digitized by VjO(bQlC