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Voi~ VI 


















PREFACE, vii-xvi. 
INTRODUCTORY. Snorri Sturlasoii: 

I. THE CHIEF : Family, xvii Character of his father, xvii-xviii 
Fostering at Oddi, marriage, xviii-xx First entry on public 
life, xx Dealings with his uncle Thord Bodvarson, xxi 
With Thorkel Walrus, xxi-xxii Children in and out of wed- 
lock, xxii-xxiii Removal to Reykholt, xxii Acquisition of the 
godordof the Avellings, xxiii Speaker-at-lawfor the first time, 
xxiii Contest with Magnus the Good, xxii-xxiv Relations 
to Earl Hakon Galinn, xxiii-xxv In Norway for first time, 
honours and gifts lavished on him, xxv-xxviii Ssemund of 
Oddi and Sigurd Swinefelling, xx Saemund and the Biorg- 
vinians, xxv-xxvii Snorri's return to Iceland, hostility with 
Scemund's kindred, fickle treatment of Lopt Paulson, xxviii- 
xxx Snorri, Speaker again, friendship re-established with 
the family of Oddi, first meeting with Hallveig Orm's daughter, 
xxx-xxxi Snorri and Thorvald Snorrison of Waterfirth, 
xxxi-xxxii, xxxv Snorri gives his daughter Ingibiorg in mar- 
riage to Gizur Thorvaldson, brings Hallveig to his house, 
befriends Lopt Paulson, xxxii Snorri and Thord in conflict 
with their brother Sighvat and his son Sturla over the godord 
of the Snorrungs, xxxiii-xxxv Jon Snorrison, xxxvi-xxxvii 
Snorri's and Sturla Sighvatson's dealings in respect of 
the latter's slaying of the sons of Thorvald of Waterfirth, 
xxxvii-xxxviii, xli Snorri and Koibein the Young, xxxiv, 
xxxvii-xxxix, xlii-xlui Bishop Gudmund Arison, xxxix-xl 
Sturla Sighvatson's journey to Norway and Rome, xli-xlii 
His persecution of Snorri, xliii-xlvi Snorri second time in 
Norway, xlvi Sturla and Gizur Thorvaldson; Sturla's fall 

vi 'Contents 

at tl\e*. Battle of Orlygstead, xlvi-xlix Snorri's return to 
Iceflafop^xlix-l Snorri's last attendance at the Althing; 
deatfi *6f Hallveig; dispute with her sons, Mi Snorri's 
visit to his nephew Tumi Sighvatson; return to Reykholt, 
li King Hakon orders Kolbein the Young and Gizur 
Thorvaldson to send Snorri to Norway or else kill him; 
he is murdered by Gizur Thorvaldson's orders, 1-li His 
character, liii-liv. 

II. THE AUTHOR: The historical school of oral tradition, liv-lvii 
The era of letters; writers known before Snorri : Sa?mund 
Sigfusson Ari Thorgilsson Eric Oddson Odd Snorrison 
Gunnlaug Leifson, Ivii-lxv Snorri's works: Edda, Ixv-lxxiii 
Heimskringla: MSS. of, Ixxiii-lxxvi Sources, l\x\*i-Ixxx 
Egil's Saga, Ixxx-lxxxi Relation of the Saga of Olaf the 
Holy to the other Sagas of Heimskr., Ixxxii-lxxxv Snorri as 
historian and stylist, Ixxxv-xc. 

Kings of Norway, Denmark, and Sweden, xc-xcii. 

INDEX I. Names of Persons and Peoples, 1-238. 

II. Names of Places, 239-292. 

Ill Subjects, 293-515. 



AT last, ten years after the publication of the third volume of 
the Heimskringla, and nine after the death of the originator of 
the SAGA LIBRARY, the indexes to Snorri's work see the day. 
No one can regret the extent of this delay more keenly than I 
do myself, especially as I do not pretend to be personally free 
from all blame in the matter. In the main, however, it has been 
due to causes over which it was not in my power to exercise 
any control. 

The Saga Library was an idea conceived by William Morris, 
suggested to and taken up by the late Mr. Quaritch. The work 
on it was divided between Morris and myself in the following 
manner: Having read together the sagas contained in the first 
three volumes, Morris wrote out the translation and I collated 
his MS. with the original For the last two volumes of the 
Heimskringla the process was reversed, I doing the translation, 
he the collation ; the style, too, he emended throughout in ac- 
cordance with his own ideal. Morris wrote pp. v-xii ic of the pre- 
face to vol. i ; the rest of it was drawn up by me, as was also 
the preface to the second volume and submitted to Morris' 
revision. Indexes, notes, genealogical tables I took in hand, 
also the drawing of the maps which Morris had printed in his 
own way. 

As to the s/yk of Morris little need be said except this that 
it is a strange misunderstanding to describe all terms in his 
translations which are not familiar to the reading public as 
* pseudo-Middie-English.* l Anyone in a position to collate the 
Icelandic text with the translation will see at a glance that in 
the overwhelming majority of cases these terms are literal trans- 

1 Corpus poet, Boreale I, cxv. X will not attempt an analysis of the breath- 
less eloquence ot" the anathema of the Corpus, for the good reason that I 
fail to make out the sense of it* Middle-English scholars who in the 3rd 
ptur. pros* done (faciunt) detect led. *#>"=: clown, cad (Dictionary s.v. d6ni) 
are apt to have strange M. E. visions. 


viii Preface 

lations of the Icel. originals, <?,*., by-men byjar-menn = town's 
people ; cheaping kaupangr trading station ; earth-burg 
jarS-borg = earth-work ; shoe-swain sk6-sveinn = page ; out- 
bidding Tit-bo^ = call to arms, etc. It is a strange piece of 
impertinence to hint at '/.^^-Middle-English ' scholarship in 
a man who, in a sense, might be said to be a living edition of 
all that was best in M.-E. literature. The question is simply 
this : is it worth while to carry closeness of translation to this 
length, albeit that it is an interesting and amusing experiment? 
That is a matter of taste; therefore not of dispute. But when 
the terms complained of are indexed and explained as they now 
are the inconvenience to the reader, real or imaginary, is reduced 
to a minimum. 

A subject of great difficulty was the question how to deal with 
the proper names of places. We took the course of translating 
them wholly, when practical, or else, partly, or not at all; in 
which case the vernacular form is retained shorn of its inflective 
termination if it had one. This method, we were quite aware, 
was not satisfactory; but unless all attempt at translation was 
given up and the names were retained in their vernacular form, 
it seemed to be the only one open to us. To follow the latter 
alternative would serve two ends : it would present to the reader 
at first sight the native forms of the names, and it would ensure 
self-consistency throughout. But in an English translation the 
names in their native dress would jar on the reader's feelings ; 
to get out of them anglisized forms (without translating them) 
after the manner in which they are swedisized and danisized by 
modern Scandinavians is, I think, impossible on account of the 
more distant speech affinity. In the ' Origines Islandicae ' I see 
that a method almost identical with ours has been adopted. 

In respect of the present volume I have but a few remarks to 
make. Indexes I and II are meant to be complete as to matter 
and exhaustive as to references. Some people may find the 
former full to a fault ; I hope, however, not to the extent of 
materially interfering with its usefulness. For the benefit of 
those who are interested in the study of that extraordinary lore, 
the by- and nicknames of the Scandinavians, I have added to 
this index a list in alphabetical order of the vernacular forms. 
Presumably it adds a not unwelcome supplement to similar lists 
in Flatey book iii. 657-663 and Sturlunga ii. 467-468. With 

Preface ix 

regard to Index III, I must observe that a register or a dictionary 
of terms illustrative of the culture of the life of the ancient 
Scandinavians (and Icelanders) has been for a long time a 
keenly felt desideratum. This want, so far as the Heimskringla 
is concerned, ought now, approximately at least, to have been 
supplied; for I trust that nothing of real importance has been 
overlooked, nor any item included of no importance at all. 
General dictionaries do not supply this want. They are con- 
cerned with the meanings of words; not with the relations in 
which the things signified by the words stand to the environ- 
ment of life, or with the functions they perform in its organism. 
For the student of the history of human culture they are there- 
fore always insufficient guides, always, naturally, deficient in 
copiousness of references to the sources. In order to make this 
index still more useful I have added to it a complete list of the 
vernacular terms in alphabetical order. 

To these prefatory remarks I will add the following notices, 
illustrative of Morris' relation to Icelandic literature, as a supple- 
ment to the Memorial at the end. 

It will, no doubt, be remarked, how, in a great number of 
cases the rendering of the verses of Heimskringla presents a 
certain stiffness that was altogether foreign to Morris' fluent 
versification. The reason of this is twofold: In the verses he 
wanted to be as honestly literal as in the prose: This principle 
involved a literal rendering, as far as possible, of the various 
links that served to make up the ' Kennings/ or poetical peri- 
phrases, all the less obvious forms of which will be found ex- 
plained in the notes appended to vols. i.-iii. The quaint vivid- 
ness of fancy that manifests itself in these ' kennings ' appealed 
greatly to Morris' imaginative mind, and he would on no ac- 
count slur over them by giving in the translation only what they 
meant, instead of what they said. This, of course, renders it 
necessary to read the verses with some closeness of attention by 
the aid of the notes. A very similar treatment to the verses has 
been given by Dr. Hildebrand and Professor .Storm in their 
translations of Heimskringla. Morris was so taken with the 
workmanship of the * kenning ' that once we were doing the 
verses of the Eredwellers' saga he said it was a task we must 
address ourselves to to bring together a corpus of the kennings 
with a commentary on their poetical, mythical, legendary, and 

x Preface 

antiquarian significance, when we should find leisure for it. 
Through his manner of dealing with the 'kennings' in this 
saga, it is easy to see that his own version meant to be a fore- 
runner to such a work, for it is both a translation and a sort of 
commentary throwing out their picturesque points to the fullest 
extent ; hence his choice of the long metre in order to have a 
freer play with this element in the verses. 

Morris has described in an admirable manner his apprecia- 
tion of Icelandic literature in the preface to the first volume of 
the Saga Library. Through him more than anyone else interest 
for it has spread into wider circles, in this country, and will 
continue still to do so, for the * Lovers of Gudrun ' and ' Sigurd 
the Volsung ' will long continue to be read by Englishmen who 
delight in grand stories told with consummate skill. He always 
maintained that the realism of the Icelandic sagas would secure 
for them a perennial popularity in England and that here a 
much wider interest would always be taken in them than in 
romantic Germany, though the scientific study of the language 
would probably never be carried so far here as there. Personal 
feeling, however, may have unduly affected his judgement on 
this point 

That the Icelandic saga was such a constant source of pleasure 
to Morris was in a large measure owing to the vividness and re- 
tentiveness of his memory. This I will take the opportunity of 
illustrating here with a story from our travels in Iceland in 1871. 
The plan of our journey required going west to the extremity of 
Snsefells-ness along the southern shore of Broadfirth. Hearing 
this our host in Stykkisholm let fall words to the effect that he 
hoped none of us suffered from giddiness standing on the verge 
of a precipice, overhanging the sea, at an elevation of some 
350 feet. Morris felt nervous. He resolved at first to go with 
me a long circuit round so as to avoid the perilous place ; but 
afterwards made up his mind to run the risk. The place in 
question was the notorious headland of Biilandshbf &, which is 
only passable in summer. Along the ledge of the precipice runs 
a very narrow bridle-path. Above it is a scree, reaching up to 
the top of the mountain, only a few degrees out of the per- 
pendicular, composed of disintegrated loose conglomerate. We 
passed the perilous place and rejoicingly celebrated the event 
in a grassy dene on the side of safety and Morris was very merry 

Preface xi 

and full of good talk. We reached late at night the church- 
stead of Ingjaldshdll and made ourselves snug in the Church. 
After the day's excitement Morris was not inclined to sleep and 
proposed to tell us a story, and we were all ears at one. He 
began the short Saga of Bjorn, the champion of the Hitdale-men, 
and went on with it to the end, only once hesitating about a 
personal name. This was to me the more wonderful that we had 
only once read the saga together and he was not at all taken 
with it as a piece of literature. 

In the following obituary notice l on Morris I find nothing to 
alter. I give it a place here as a special Memorial on William 
Morris : 

I shall not attempt to assign to this truly great man his place 
in the literary and artistic life of England at the close of the 
nineteenth century. Others, far more competent than I am, 
have been, are still, and will yet for a while be busy on that 
problem. Mine shall be the more congenial task of recording 
a few facts illustrative of such phases of W. Morris' life as I had 
an opportunity of observing during a period of close intimacy 
extending over seven-and-twenty years. 

When I opened the paper on Monday, the 5th of October, 
and learnt that Morris' eye of ever-sparkling life was closed in 
death, I felt with Burnt Nial, when bereft of a dear relative, as 
if the * sweetest light of my eyes had gone out.' I had lost in 
him a friend 'true as the loadstar'; an instructor whose mind 
was a mine of information on the most heterogeneous subjects; 
a fellow-worker as utterly regardless of self as he was cheerfully 
congenial, untiring, considerate, and communicative of the most 
varied lore as we sped industriously on at our labour of love. 

I went up to see him after his relapse on the return from 
Norway, and found the stout and sturdy form of former days 
reclining on an easy chair in his beloved library, sadly reduced 
in body, but with a face the emaciation of which, it seemed to 
me, had added a still loftier grandeur to the expression of his 
always noble forehead. Now for the first time I heard him utter 
in a hollowly feeble voice the familiar greeting, c How are you, 
old chap?' I tried my best to be cheery. In an inexpressibly 
sad tone he sighed : * But this is such a weary work ! My left 

1 Printed in the " Cambridge Review" of November 26, 1896. 

xii Preface 

lung is gone and we are now trying to stop the mischief there 
by drying it up.' * But,' he added, as by way of self-comfort, 
* many a man lives comfortably enough with only one lung to 
breathe with.' His voyage to Norway had done him no good ; 
he had even lost flesh on it Still he was feeling better, he said, 
and seemed to cheer up when I remarked how very slight a 
change his illness had wrought in the features and expression 
of his face. He could not resist giving me' some impressions of 
his journey, and especially graphic was his description of the 
forbidding grimness of the black wall of precipices that hems in, 
in places, the waters of Sognef jord. I took the opportunity of 
congratulating him on the Kelmscott Press edition of Chaucer; 
and for the last time I saw a flash of enthusiasm fire the whole 
frame of my dying friend. He lifted his right hand and let it 
fall heavily on his knee, and said in a voice faltering with 
emotion: ' It is not only the finest book in the world, but an 
undertaking that was an absolutely unchecked success from 
beginning to end. On the day we went to press I came down 
in the morning and said to the chaps waiting: " I feel as if I 
had proposed a coach and four-in-hand journey to Norwich, and 
found on starting but four-and-twenty mice in the traces." ' He 
rose from his chair, as if he wanted to have a walk round in the 
old fashion, when the topic ran on an interesting subject, and 
went with his right hand through the still copious crop of his 
gray-besprinkled hair, a familiar habit of his when in an ex- 
hilarated mood, but he only stood still for a moment, then sank 
down again on his couch uttering in a whisper, as if talking to 
himself, a northern proverb that once greatly took his fancy: 
'Youth romps, said the Carline, she sprang over a " haulm- 
straw." ' My allowed time was up. We talked business for a 
while on the ' Saga Library,' and shook hands for the last time 
in life. 

Our acquaintance began first in August, 1869, through the 
medium of one of his partners whom I had accidentally met 
out at a party. I made my appearance on the day appointed, 
and met in the hall of 26 Bloomsbury Square my new acquaint- 
ance who, with a cordial ' come upstairs,' was off at a bound, I 
following, until his study on the second floor was reached. I 
had before me a ruddy-complexioned, sturdily-framed, brawn- 
necked, shock-headed, plainly dressed gentleman of middle 

Preface xiii 

stature, with somewhat small but exceedingly keen and spark- 
ling eyes ; his volubility of speech struck me no less than the 
extensive information he displayed about Iceland and Icelandic 
literature generally, acquired, of course, at second hand. Alto- 
gether, what with his personal appearance, his peculiarly frank 
manner, his insatiable curiosity, exuberant hilarity and trans- 
parent serious-mindedness, I felt I had never come across a 
more attractive personality. 

At dinner I had the first glimpse of Morris' family life, and 
wondered not how in all his ways he betrayed the air of a 
supremely happy man. The one unchanging life-long delight 
of his inmost heart were his truly charming wife, in the first 
instance, and his very clever two daughters in the second. This 
reminds me of a touching incident from our travels in Iceland. 
We were the cooks of the expedition, Morris head -cook, of 
course. Once as we were engaged in preparing dinner in the 
kitchen of a farmhouse, I observed my robust-minded friend so 
entranced in thought as not to heed what he was doing; on my 
asking what was the matter, he answered, with that inexpressibly 
sweet smile that transfigured his face when he was intensely 
delighted, e I was dreaming of my love-nest at home.' In the 
presence of Mrs. Morris' dignified calm and gentle demeanour 
the Thor of the study and the workshop, where, at times, 
thundering was not unknown, was always the tender, devoted, 
worshipping husband. His attachment to home and family was 
a passion, not a routine observance with him. And here among 
his treasures of art and literature he spent the happiest hours of 
his busy and almost abstemious life ; for as to food and drink 
he was a man of strict moderation. 

His first taste of Icelandic literature was the story of f Gunn- 
lung the Snaketongue.' I suggested we had better start with 
some grammar. 'No, I can't be bothered with grammar; 
have no time for it. You be my grammar as we translate. I 
want the literature, I must have the story. I mean to amuse 
myself.' I read out to him some opening passages of the saga, 
in order to give him an idea of the modern pronunciation of 
the language. He repeated the passus as well as could be ex- 
pected of a first beginner at five-and-thirty, naturally endowed 
with not a very flexible organ. But immediately he flew back 
to the beginning, saying : ' But, look here, I see through it 

xiv Preface 

all, let me try and translate.' Off he started, translated, blun- 
dered, laughed; but still, he saw through it all with an intuition 
that fairly took me aback. Henceforth no time must be wasted 
on reading out the original. He must have the story as quickly 
as possible. The dialect of our translation was not the Queen's 
English, but it was helpful towards penetrating into the thought 
of the old language. Thus, to give an example, lerStogi, a 
guide, became load-tugger (load way, in load-star, load-stone; 
togi from toga to tug (on), one who leads on with a rope) ; 
kvaenask (kv0ena sik from kvan = queen, woman) to bequeen 
one's self = to take a wife, etc. That such a method of acquiring 
the language should be a constant source of merriment, goes 
without saying. In this way the best of the sagas were run 
through, at daily sittings, generally covering three hours, already 
before I left London for Cambridge in 1871. And even after' 
that much work was still done, when I found time to come and 
stay with him. During the seven-and-twenty years over which our 
work on Icelandic literature extended never a high word was 
uttered; our differences, what few there were, found always a 
speedy settlement in appeals to grammatical logic, to adducible 
illustrative passages or other linguistic evidence of mutually ac- 
knowledged weight. To real cruxes we both respectfully bowed 
and passed on," leaving uncertain guess-work alone. 

What charmed Morris most was the directness with which a 
saga-man would deal with the relations of man to man ; the 
dramatic way in which he arranged the material of his story ; 
his graphic descriptions of the personal appearance of the 
actors, and of the tumultuous fray of battle; the defiant spirit 
that as unflinchingly faced wrong-doing as open danger, over- 
whelming odds, or inevitable death. In fact, he found on every 
page an echo of his own buoyant, somewhat masterful mind, a 
marked characteristic of which was a passionate intolerance of 
all interference with natural right and rational freedom, and 
especially of any contradictory attitude towards a subject of the 
reality or truth of which he felt convinced himself. 

Much delight as he took in the Sagas, the work that fetched 
Morris most was the Elder Edda, especially the cyclus of heroic 
lays that deals with the grim tragedy of the Volsungs and 
Gjukungs. In the death-fain sorrow of Brynhild, in Sigrun's 
death-ignoring love of Helgi, in Gudrun's lofty grief for Sigurd 

Preface xv 

and gruesome hate of Atli, passion measures on a scale that 
only the highest poetical genius knows how to handle so as, in 
spite of its enormity, to preserve an intensely human character. 
Many a time as we were struggling through these old lays Morris 
would rise and pace his room, discoursing on the high art these 
old poets possessed, in never allowing the description of these 
volcanic passions to pass into mere grandiose platitudes, al- 
though clearly the temptation lay near, seeing that hard and 
fast Fate, concealed in the background, was the real author of 
the huge-featured tragedy. 

From the very first day that I began work with William Morris 
on Icelandic literature the thing that struck me most was this, 
that he entered into the spirit of it not with the pre-occupied 
mind of a foreigner, but with the intuition of an uncommonly 
wide-awake native. I therefore soon made up my mind to per- 
suade him to give to certain subjects of the literature his own 
poetical treatment. When we had done the ' Story of the men 
of Salmon-river-dale 7 (Laxdoela), and when the lays on the 
Volsungs and Gjukungs were finished, I gave it him as my 
impression, that the life of Gudrun Osvifr's daughter, and the 
life of Sigurd Father's slayer were dealt with, in the old records, 
so fragmentarily and, at the same time, so suggestively, as to 
leave a poet like himself, steeped in the lore of the Middle 
Ages and possessed, at first hand, of full mastery of these sub- 
jects, a wide field open for poetical treatment after the manner 
of the tales of the Earthly Paradise. He was then too full of 
first impressions to entertain the idea. He even went so far as 
to say that these matters were too sacred, too venerable, to be 
touched by a modern hand. The matter dropped in each case, 
after some argument on either side, by my suggesting that he 
might think it over. After a month, or perhaps more, in either 
case, I had the pleasure of finding the poet, one day, unex- 
pectedly, in a state of fervid enthusiasm, declaring that he had 
made up his mind to write a new poem: 'The Lovers of Gudrun J 
c Sigurd the Volsung.' In each case the subject-matter had 
taken such a clearly definite shape in his mind, as he told me, 
that it only remained to write it down. This illustrates the 
poet's method of working and accounts for the fact, that the 
MS. of all his work shows such a slight amount of correction 
or alteration. In both these noble monuments to Morris 7 poet- 

xvi Preface 

ical genius, when critically compared with the original sources, 
there are many points of excellence yet undiscovered by his 

I have already proceeded to such a length that I must pass 
over our travels in Iceland in 1871. Those travels are best de- 
scribed in Morris* own yet unpublished diary of them. 

By his life's labour William Morris secured for himself a 
unique position in the whole Anglican world ; and about his 
labour he did not go after the ways of ordinary men. Of free 
choice he never spent time on any thing but what he embraced 
with interest. But taking interest in a matter meant with him 
throwing himself heart and soul into a subject and doing it 
altogether in his own way. Thus, in order to secure the highest 
excellence in the way of fast colours to his textile fabrics, he 
studied the subject of dyeing scientifically to the very bottom. 
One of the most interesting discourses he ever treated me to 
was one on dyeing-stuffs, delivered among dye-vats in the cellars 
of his old house in Bloomsbury Square. On heavy sabots of 
French make, aproned from the armpits, with tucked-up shirt- 
sleeves, his fore-arms dyed up to the elbow, the great man 
lectured most brilliantly on the high art of dyeing, illustrating 
his lecture with experiments in the various dyes he wanted for 
his silks and wools. In the afternoon of the same day I found 
him busy on illuminating a MS. he intended as a present for a 
friend, for he was a first-rate calligraphist ; and at night ' I must 
leave him alone* with his Sigurd the Volsung! He could never 
be idle, yet he always proclaimed himself as the most idle of 
men. But his work must be 'amusing*: it must have the char- 
acter of artistic beauty. And the key-note of Morris* life was 
1 amusement ' : enjoyment of what the world had to show in 
the way of beauty in the arts, in literature, life and nature. To 
some extent this accounts for the purity and guilelessness of 
his character, his broad-minded fairness towards adversaries 
enemies he could have had none, for he knew not how to hate 
his knightly frankness and conciliatory disposition which 
never deserted him, not even when he felt compelled to thunder 
down an unreasonable opponent. 


October, 1905. 


SNORRI STURLASON, statesman, poet, scholar and, above all, 
historian, was the youngest son of Sturla Thordson of Hvamm 
in Hvammsfirth, western Iceland, and his second wife, Gudny, 
the daughter of Bodvar Thordson, who was the ninth lineal de- 
scendant of Kveldulf the grandfather of Egil Skallagrimson. 
Sturla himself was also a man of good birth, and could claim 
relationship to the important family of the Thorsnessings, being 
sixth in descent from the ' deep ' magnate Snorri godi, 1 some of 
whose less recommendable traits of character had descended in 
an accentuated form on the aggressive lord of Hvamm. One 
incident in Sturla's life, at once illustrative of his character and 
explanatory of the event that was to determine the future 
destiny of Snorri, may be briefly touched upon. 

Sturla had taken sides with his father-in-law, Bodvar Thord- 
son, of Bse in Borgfirth, in a case of inheritance against the 
priest, Paul Solvison of Reykholt, who was married to Thorbiorg, 
the daughter of Biorn and sister to Helga the wife of Brand 
Saemundson, Bishop of Holar. After several futile attempts at 
settling the dispute the parties agreed to have a meeting at 
Reykholt, after Michael mass, 1180, for the purpose of peace- 
fully coming to terms. Sturla was present at the meeting and 
stubbornly supported his father-in-law although he had the law 
against him. Thorbiorg, a savage-tempered virago, losing patience 
over the slow progress of the proceedings, rushed at Sturla with 
a dagger, crying she would make him like to the one he wanted 

1 For the secular sovereign chiefs of the country we retain this vernacular 
title, or else ' chief,* the translation priest in the Christian age being mis- 

VI. b 

xviii Introductory 

most to resemble Odinn (one eyed), and wounded him in the 
face. Priest Paul was forced to agree to leaving it to Sturla to 
make his own award for the injury done. Sturla's terms, how- 
ever, proved so exorbitant, that the priest did not see his way 
to complying with them. 1 He took his case to the mightiest and 
most influential chief of the country, Jon Loptson of Oddi, and 
asked for his protection and award, to which Sturla, however 
reluctantly, had to consent. To smooth the way of the negotia- 
tion the diplomatic lord of Oddi offered to Sturla to take into 
fostering his youngest son SNORRI. From such a chief as Jon this 
was an offer most highly flattering to the vanity of the father, 
for in the ordinance of social precedence the common say held 
good in Iceland still, that f he who fosters a child acknowledges 
himself the father's inferior.' 2 Jon further invited Sturla to a 
banquet on the " Church-day," or anniversary of the consecra- 
tion of the church of Oddi (July 8th, 1181), requesting him to 
bring his son with him, an invitation which Sturla seems to have 
accepted readily so that from this date begins the period of 
Snorri's sojourn at Oddi. 8 Jon awarded Sturla but one twelfth 
part of his claim, and how the latter bore the humiliation came 
out when he heard the news of the death of Thorbiorg. As was 
his wont, when he took matters very sorely to heart, he went to 
bed, suffering with painful disappointment because the chief 
excuse for wreaking revenge on Thorbiorg's sons had now been 
removed. 4 

By common consent Sturla was a man of unscrupulous char- 
acter, masterful, vindictive, unfair, and grasping. 6 With his wife 
he had three sons, the famous 'Sturlusons,' Thord, born 1165, 
Sighvat, 1170, and Snorri, 1178. 

Three years of age, then, Snorri went, on the 8th of July, 1 181, 
into fostering at Oddi, a place made famous in the annals of 
Iceland by Ssemund Sigfusson the Learned, ' who has been the 
best clerk in Iceland.' 6 The school of Oddi, under Ssemund 
and his son Eyolf was perhaps the most popular centre of learn- 

1 He claimed 2 x 120 x 120=28,800 ells' worth which, if an ells' woith, 
at a low estimate, is calculated to equal is. 6d. in present money, would 
amount to ^2160. Sturlunga, Vigfusson's ed. i. 76-82. 

2 Cf. Heimskringla, i. i4O 2 -. a7 

3 SturL, i. 84, 195. * /^ 
6 Kristni Saga, Bisk. Sogur, i. 28. 

Introductory xix 

ing in the land, and is called the 'highest head-stead' by the 
author of Thorlak the Holy's saga, 1 a title that indicates both 
the wealth of the house and its educational illustriousness. That 
the tradition of the school was kept up by Jon Loptson is clear 
from what is stated about his bastard son. Bishop Paul, who 
was brought up at Oddi: 'He was of nimble mind and well 
educated (laerSr) already in the age of youth.' 2 That Snorri went 
here through a course of education is clearly to be inferred from 
his preface to the Heimskringla, where he says he has been 
* taught ' (besides other things, of course) ancient genealogical 
lore. 8 Critics have speculated a good deal as to whether he knew 
Latin. Taking into account the fact that hours were said and 
sung in Latin daily in the church, that Latin must have been 
the principal subject of instruction at the school of Oddi as at 
any other mediseyal school ; that the rich library at Oddi must 
have been principally in Latin, it would seem to be simply a 
foregone conclusion that such a brilliantly gifted boy as Snorri 
could not help learning Latin. 

Of Snorri's life during his status pufillaris we know absolutely 
nothing beyond the fact that, in 1183 when he was five years of 
age, he lost his father ; that his portion of the inheritance was 
left in the charge of his mother, a gay widow and a thriftless 
manager ; * and that his stay at Oddi covered the last sixteen 
years of his fosterfather's life, who died on the ist of November, 
1197, when Snorri was nineteen. 5 

From that time the sources of the story of Snorri's life flow 
abundantly ; chiefly from the Islendinga Saga (Sturlunga Saga, 
vol. i,, Vigfusson's edition), a most important record due to the 
great talent and industry of Snorri's own nephew, the justiciary 
(logma'Sr) Sturla Thordson ; and to some extent from Hakonar 
Saga (Icelandic Sagas, Rolls Series, vol. i.) ed. by Gudbrand 
Vigfusson, also due to the pen of Sturla Thordson, as well as 
from Biskupa Sogur (Stories of the early bishops of Iceland), 
vol. i. Space precludes that anything beyond a mere sketch of 
Snorri's life should here be attempted. 

After his fosterfather's death Snorri remained with his foster- 
brother Saemund, Jon Loptson's son, for another year or two 
until Ssemund in company with Thord, Snorri's eldest brother, 

1 Bisk. Sogur, i. 90. 3 Jbut. 9 i. 127. 3 Heimskringla, i. 3 12 

4 Sturl,, i., 165. 5 Ibid., i. 202. 

xx Introductory 

had successfully arranged a marriage between him and Herdis, 
the very rich daughter of Bersi the Wealthy, a priest of Borg, 1 
the well-known manorial seat of the descendants of Skallagrim. 
Snom himself was left without means, as his mother had dissi- 
pated all his inheritance ; but in return she now settled on him 
towards his marriage the land of the family manor of Hvamm. 
The wedding took place at Hvamm in 1199 and an under- 
standing was arrived at to the effect that Snorri should keep 
house at Hvamm conjointly with his mother. In the autumn 
following the wedding the newly married couple went on a visit 
south to Oddi where they tarried probably till i2oi. 2 

This year (1199) Snorri, now twenty years of age, got mixed 
up in public business for the first time. The east-country chief 
Sigurd Ormson of Swinefell had taken in hand the case of cer- 
tain of his liegemen who were the lawful heirs of a person 
named Glaedir. This Glaedir had settled his property on Jon 
Loptson, and to that bequest Saemund succeeded at his father's 
death and laid claim to it. On Glaedir's death, on the other hand, 
Sigurd had appointed as steward of the property a person named 
Kari, and relying on promises of support from Snorri's brother 
Sighvat, and his brother-in-law, the powerful north country chief, 
Kolbein Thumison, he refused at the Althing to accede to 
Ssemund's proposal to submit the case to arbitration. Late in 
the winter of 1200 therefore, Saemund, accompanied by Snorri, 
went with thirty men to the east, slew Sigurd's steward and ap- 
propriated the property in dispute. In the spring Snorri sum- 
moned Sigurd Ormson to the local Thing (court) of Thinghalls 
(Jpingskalar) on the eastern side of the river Ranga the Western- 
most, where Sigurd lost his case through the failure of support 
from his friends and through Snorri's energy in whipping up 
throughout Borgfirth the liegemen of Saemund, and marshalling 
them to the Thing. In execution of the judgement Saemund 
marched to the east at the head of a band of 700 men-at-arms, 
but Sigurd mustered only 200 to oppose to him. Through the 
prompt intercession of men of good will the end of the matter 
was that Saemund's brother, bishop Paul, by mutual consent, 
settled the case by arbitration, and in such a manner that his 
brother had the honour of it, but Sigurd was 'contented.* 3 

1 Sturl., i. 195, 202. 2 IHd. t i. 202. 

3 Ibid.) i. 202-203 ; Biskupa Sogur, i. 458. 

Introductory xxi 

Priest Berse, Snorri's father-in-law, died 1201, and Snorri 
through his wife stepped into all his wealth and set up house 
at Borg, where he remained for some winters. At that time 
there lived at Gardar on Akraness, the southern boundary of 
Borgfirth, Thord, son of Bodvar, of Bae, brother to Gudny, the 
mother of the Sturlusons. He had many liegemen about the 
countrysides neighbouring on his nephew Thord Sturluson's 
godord of Snsefellsness, and realized that Thord's influence on 
them had the effect of rendering them neglectful of debts owing 
and services due to their liege-lord, so he handed one half of his 
godord l (the godord of the Lund-men) to Snorri Sturlason on 
condition that he should protect his liegemen against Thord his 
brother. But when Snorri had taken this charge over, Thord 
deemed his liegemen were still more ill-used than ever they were 
before by Snorri's brother. 2 

While Snorri dwelt at Borg it happened that a merchant-man 
from Orkney, commanded by Thorkel Walrus, a son of Kolbein 
Carle and nephew of the Orkney Bishop, Biarni, a famous poet, 
hove into Whitewater-haven, in Borgfirth, and wintered in Ice- 
land. The Captain took quarters for the winter with Snorri, 
most likely at the latter's request, but failed to get on with his 
host. In the course of the winter Snorri seized a certain quantity 
of flour belonging to Thorkel and, in his capacity of godi, exer- 
cised the right of fixing the price of the article; but Thorkel 
claimed for himself the privilege of selling his own wares at his 
own price. The flour was taken from the store-house (at Borg) 
where it had been kept, and Thorkel stood by, making as if he 
knew naught of what was going on. Snorri's half-brother Svein, 
lying then on his deathbed, deprecated this proceeding severely, 
saying that such a thing would not have been done if he had 
been on his legs and adding that no honour would accrue to 
Snorri from this seizure. Next summer Thorkel Walrus slew 
the deacon Gudmund, who had been the most active executor 
of Snorri' s orders. The outraged godi answered by summoning 
to him his brothers Thord and Sighvat and urging them to set 
on the disrespectful Orkneyings who, in the meantime, had gone 

1 We use this vernacular technical term rather than attempting any Eng- 
lish translation of it, when the domain and jurisdiction of a secular chief, 
godi, is in question. 

3 Sturlunga, i. 209-2105 Bisk. S., i. 486. 

xxii Introductory 

on board their ship and lay ready to depart in mid stream in 
Whitewater. The attack failed, and the Sturlungs retired dis- 
comfited. Thorkel set sail for the main, but was driven by 
stress of weather in autumn back to Eyrar in Olfus, in the south 
of Iceland, an easy day's journey to the west of Oddi. Imme- 
diately on landing Thorkel rode to Oddi, praying for Saemund's 
protection, which was readily granted, chiefly on account of 
Ssemund's friendship for Thorkel's uncle, Bishop Biarni. Three 
hired assassins sent out by Snorri failed of their errand and 
Thorkel escaped from the country in the course of the next 
summer. 1 

After some years' sojourn at Borg Snorri, having taken great 
fancy to the church-stead of Reykholt, the family seat of priest 
Magnus, the son of the above-mentioned Paul Solvison, managed 
to obtain the consent of the heirs to the property to his securing 
the freehold of it. This he effected by persuading the ageing 
priest Magnus with his wife to become his pensioners, and by 
promising to help their sons to become men of such quality as 
circumstances should favour. 2 

With his wife, Herdis, Snorri had two children who reached 
years of maturity: Hallbera, the eldest, and Jon Murtr (Small 
Fry) the youngest. 8 The marriage was not a success ; they lived 
in a state of separation possibly from the time that Snorri re- 
moved to Reykholt, as Herdis is never mentioned in connection 
with that house. Snorri's biographer observes discreet silence 
on the subject. But in describing the unhappy Hallbera's move- 
ments in 1229 he states that she, having come from the north, 
probably in company with her husband Kolbein the Young, of 
Willow-moor (VTSimyrr), stayed in her father's booth at the 
Althing, and accompanied him to Reykholt, when her husband 
rode away and deserted her. After a while Snorri had her 
escorted to the north country and she stayed a short while at 
her home at Willow-moor and then left the North for Borg to 
live with her mother. This shows that at that time, at any rate, 
they had separated. 4 

Snorri must have removed to Reykholt before 1209, because 
that year Bishop Gudmund, of Holar, spent the winter there 
with him. 5 He now became a great chieftain with ample means. 

1 Sturl., i. 210-211. 2 Ibid., 211. 3 MM., i. an. 

4 Ibid., i. 293. s Ibid., 222-223. 

Introductory xxiii 

He was the greatest man of business (fjargeymsluma'Sr). He 
was fickle of mind in respect of women, and had children with 
other women besides Herdis: a son, named 'Orsekia by Thurid, 
daughter of Hall, son of Orsekia; several children by Gudrun, 
daughter of Hrein Hermundson, of whom Ingibjorg alone 
reached years of maturity; Thordis, by a woman named 
Oddny. 1 

About 1205 the chieftainship of Snorri was further increased 
by his receiving as a gift from Thorstein Ivarson his share in the 
so-called Avellings' godord, or chieftainship of Willowdale and 
Midfirth, in the north country. About 1214 Snorri was called 
upon to settle a silly quarrel between his liegemen (the Avel- 
lings) of Midfirth and of Willowdale, but so little account did 
they make of the authority of their godi that before his very face 
they fell to fighting, and some of his men heaped reproaches on 
him for not striking in and settling matters by force of weapons. 
However, his wary attitude resulted in his succeeding in award- 
ing justice to offenders and settling peace between the angry 
factions of the godord. 3 

In 1215 Snorri was elected speaker-at-law, at the early age of 
thirty-seven, for the usual term of three years. It was possibly 
during his first year of office, while attending to his duties at the 
Althing, that the following incident happened. Some of his men 
went to a heap of wood which belonged to Magnus the Good, 
a sister's son of Ssemund of Oddi, and cut for themselves clubs, 
' which then it was customary to carry in going to the courts.' 
The cook of Magnus objected to their making so free with his 
master's fuel, and a scuffle ensued. Magnus went to stay the 
brawl and was wounded. Ssemund, his uncle, now called upon 
his men to interfere, while, on the other hand, Snorri summoned 
his brothers to his support, and presently the whole assembly 
was in a state of great excitement, taking sides according to 
allegiances, but Ssemund showed as by far the most numerously 
attended chief. Thorvald Gizur's son of Hruni went between 
these madcaps and brought about a truce to last while the con- 
tending sides should call out a muster of men-at-arms from the 
country ! The end, however, of the silly affair was that it was 
agreed that Saemund should award fines on the misdemeanants, 

1 Sturl., i. 211-212; Bisk. S., i. 487. 2 Sturl., i. 229-231. 

xxiv Introductory 

outlawry being excluded. 'These brothers (the Sturlungs),' 
said Ssemund, when the matter was over, c are so overweening 
that scarcely any man is able fully to hold his own against 
them.' 1 

In 1216 Snorri took an opportunity of revenging himself on 
Magnus the Good. Jorun the Wealthy, a widow who lived at 
Gufuness, in the neighbourhood of Reykjavik, died intestate, 
and there were * no men of account ' lawfully entitled to her 
property as heirs. She had dwelt within the godord of Magnus, 
and he proposed to appropriate to himself the bulk of her 
property, but to leave the rest to such of her helpless heirs as 
he chose. On hearing of this, Snorri sent one Starkad Snorri- 
son south into the neighbourhood of Gufuness to find an heir 
to Jorun, and he returned with a certain vagabond called Kod- 
ran, ' whom Snorri called the heir of Jorun,' and who handselled 
Snorri his case in respect to his claim to Jorun's wealth. Coming 
with a band of eighty men suddenly upon Magnus, Snorri sum- 
moned him, declaring a guilt of full outlawry (skcSggangs sok) 
against him and charging him to take his trial at the Thing 
(local court) of Thvera, in Borgfirth, within Snorri's godord. At 
this Thing Magnus was condemned to full outlawry, but he 
appealed to the Althing, where Snorri himself appeared at the 
head of a band of six hundred armed men, eighty of whom were 
' all-shielded,' and where he was supported by his brothers with 
a large following. The bishop of Skalholt, Magnus Einarson, 
came forward to bring about peace between the parties, which 
was effected by Magnus the Good's giving up a property to which 
he had no right. With something like a sigh of relief Snorri's 
historian, his nephew, Sturla Thordson, remarks here : * Snorri 
reaped honour from this affair, and through this matter increased 
most the esteem he was held in here in the land. 7 2 

' Snorri,' remarks the historian further, c now became a good 
Skald. He was also deft at anything he put his hand to, and 
gave the best direction about anything that had to be done.' 
About this time he made a poem on the earl Hakon Galinn, 
and the earl sent gifts in return: a sword, a shield, and a byrny. 
The earl wrote to Snorri asking him to come abroad, and gave 
him to understand that he would do great honour to him if he 

1 SturL, i. 234-235. 2 2Kd. 9 L 235. 

Introductory xxv 

came. Snorri liked the idea very much, but just at the same 
time the earl died, and Snorri's journey abroad was deferred for 
some time. 1 

In the summer of 1218 Snorri went abroad to Norway, 
leaving his house of Reykholt to his mother to manage, and all 
his property and his godord in the charge of his eldest brother 
Thord. The year before he had married his daughter Hallbera 
to Ami Unready ('Orei'Sa), the son of Magnus Amundison, the 
newly married couple taking up their abode at Reykholt, as 
Hallbera would live nowhere else. They separated after seven 
years of unhappiness. 2 

In Norway Snorri was received with open arms by Earl (later 
Duke) Skuli, and he remained with the Earl through the winter. 
In the spring following he went east to Gautland to Lawman 
Askel and Christina his wife, who had been formerly the wife of 
Hakon Galinn. At the request of Hakon, Snom had wrought 
a poem on lady Christina, which he called ' Andvaka,' and the 
lady received Snorri very cordially, bestowing on him many 
gifts, amongst others the standard which once upon a time had 
belonged to the Swedish king, Eric Knutson. In the autumn 
Snorri returned to Earl Skuli and tarried another winter with 
him. During this stay the sovereign Icelandic godi J allowed 
himself to be appointed a page or gentleman in waiting at the 
tables of Earl Skuli and King Hakon, 3 apparently accounting 
the promotion a great distinction. 

In order to understand more clearly the attitude of Snorri at 
the court of Norway we must give a short account of incidents 
which brought the family of Oddi into a hostile relation with 
the commercial community of Biorgvin in particular. In the 
year 1215 Ssemund of Oddi and Thorvald Gizurson of Hruni 
had, according to law, set up a fixed price list for the wares 
that certain Norwegian traders from Biorgvin had brought to 
Eyrar, The merchants must have had some ground of com- 
plaint, for the matter roused much indignation in Biorgvin. 
Next year (1216) Paul, the son of Ssemund, went to Norway. 
In Biorgvin he was received with much insulting mockery. The 
Biorgvinians reproached him with aiming at becoming Earl, or 
even King, of Norway, and some of them assumed a threatening 

3 Sturl., i. 235. a Ibid., i. 237, 266. 3 Ibid., 237-238, 243. 

xxvi Introductory 

attitude, maintaining that it was unwise to wait in quiet until he 
should have got up one more revolutionary band in Norway. 1 
Of course, the young man was quite innocent of any such inten- 
tion, but the reproaches stung him the more keenly that it was 
a well-known fact that he was the great-grandson of Thora, a 
daughter of Magnus Barefoot, King of Norway. 

In order to escape further insults from the Borgvinians, Paul 
took berth in a ship of burden for Thrandheim, where he pro- 
posed to pay his respects to King Ingi Bardson. Overtaken by 
storm off the Cape of Stad the ship was lost with all hands on 
board. When Ssemund heard the news of his son's treatment 
and tragic end he was excessively grieved and incensed, and 
would have it that the men of Biorgvin had been instrumental 
in the fate of his son. At the time it so happened that some 
merchants from Biorgvin again were engaged in business at 
Eyrar. So Ssemund, at the head of a large gathering of armed 
men, peremptorily demanded of these innocent tradesmen that 
they should by way of atonement pay him as high a fine as he 
himself should fix. Many men of moderation and good-will in- 
terceded on behalf of the merchants, in particular, Saemund's 
noble-minded brother, Orm, e the fairest minded of all the men 
of Oddi.' This was of no avail, and Ssemund seized by force a 
large quantity of goods from the traders in compensation for his 
son. 2 In the year 1218 there hove into the Westmen's isles a 
large ocean-goer from Hardanger, in Norway, the masters of 
which were named Grimar and Sorli. f On these as on others ' 
(/.*., from Norway) Ssemund levied a fine that suited his lust for 
revenge and wealth. Sorli was a winter guest of Ssemund's 
brother Orm, who dwelt at Breiftabdlstaft (Broadlairstead) in 
the Fleet-lithe. He had bought from these men timber for 
church repairs, and when he went out to the islands to fetch his 
purchase, Grimar seized the opportunity of wreaking his revenge 
on the Oddi family, and slew Orm and his son, both not only 
perfectly innocent, but Orm noted for his intercession with his 
brother in favour of the Norwegians. 3 Grimar's misdeed natur- 

1 Sturl., i. 236. 

2 The goods confiscated amounted to the value of three-hundred hundreds 
of ells =3 x 120 ells x 120=43,200 ells, making in present currency, if the 
value of an ell of wadmal was is. 6^., the exorbitant fine of ^3,240. 

3 Sturl., i. 236-237; Hakon's Saga, pp. 49-50. 

Introductory xxvii 

ally served to add fuel to a fire which before was burning high 
enough. In revenge for Orm, his son-in-law, Biorn Thorvaldson, 
of Hruni, had a Norwegian who had sought asylum in the 
church of Bjarg, in Midfirth, dragged out of it and slaughtered. 1 
Snorri Sturlason knew nothing of the slaying of Orm till he 
came to Norway. In that country opinion was as severely con- 
demnatory of Ssemund's outrageous proceedings as those in 
authority were unwilling to make an atonement for Orm. The 
rulers of Norway now were Earl Skuli and his young son-in-law, 
Hakon Hakonson, the King (1217-1263). Indignation in Nor- 
way went so high that an armed naval expedition to Iceland 
was decided on by Skuli. But many of the wisest men in Nor- 
way were unfavourable to such an undertaking, and advanced 
many reasons against it; Snorri himself in particular. He main- 
tained that a wiser course would be to secure the friendship of 
the best men in Iceland, and added that he would be able to 
persuade the Icelanders that the best thing to do would be to 
yield obedience to the lords (rulers) of Norway. With the ex- 
ception of Ssemund, he averred, there were in Iceland no men 
of greater influence than his brothers, and they would readily 
follow his counsel when he came upon the scene. Earl Skuli's 
militant ardour was lulled by Snorri's persuasive language, and 
the Earl suggested that the Icelanders should ask King Hakon 
to pray him, on their behalf, to give up the expedition. The 
King was young, and Dagfinn, his chief counsellor, the greatest 
friend of the Icelanders, was got by Snorri and other Icelanders 
to persuade Skuli to desist from the proposed raid. A meeting 
between Skuli and the King was arranged, at which Hakon 
pleaded the cause of peace so earnestly that Skuli gave up his 
plan. The Earl and the King made Snorri their * landed-man/ 
and ' that was,' says the historian, his nephew, * chiefly arranged 
between Snorri and the Earl.' ' Now for the first time was it 
suggested by the Earl that Snorri should bring about the subjec- 
tion of Iceland to Norway,' and Snorri was charged with trying 
to bring the Icelanders into the obedience the Norwegian rulers 
wanted of them; he was also to send to Norway his son, Jon 
Small Fry (Murtr), to be a hostage with Skuli ' until that which 
was bespoken should come to an issue.' 2 

1 Sturl., i. 237. * JHd. 9 i. 243-244; Hakon's Saga, pp. 51-52, 

xxviii Introductory 

The statement that Snorri was created a landed-man (cf. index, 
iii, s. v.) at the same time that it was proposed to him * to bring 
about the subjection of Iceland to Norway' is much more 
significant than critics of the history of this period seem to be 
aware of. The bearer of the title was the highest administrative 
official in the state, and his principal duty was to watch over 
the political interests of the Kingdom (of course, he had other 
duties fiscal, military, etc. to attend to). Snorri's appoint- 
ment had nothing to do with Norway. The title seems never to 
have meant a mere honorary distinction with no official duties 
attached to it. The bestowal of it must have been closely con- 
nected with the political plan unfolded by Skuli and Hakon ; 
for how, from their point of view, could such an undertaking be 
embarked upon with a prospect of success but by one who was 
raised by the King himself to a state of dignity above the level 
of his fellow commoners? We know what happened when a 
landed-man was created. He took the landed-man's oath to the 
King, and in return for yielding the King certain services he 
received at his hands lands for his maintenance. In Snorri's 
case, where were the lands ? To this there seems to be only one 
answer: his own lands in'Borgfirth in Iceland, which, 'merely 
as a matter of form,' he gave up to the King who again instantly 
conferred them on Snorri, as a royal grant \ all in strict analogy 
with the precedence of Harald Fairhair's treatment of hersirs 
and kinglets who gave themselves up to him and became his 
landed-men. This would naturally explain both why Hakon 
accounted it a treason in Snorri to go to Iceland, 1239, in spite 
of the King's prohibition, and also why, after Snorri's death, he 
claimed as his Snorri's lands in Borgfirth and elsewhere. If this 
explanation of an hitherto entirely neglected incident in Snorri's 
life is true, it must be confessed that he committed something 
more than a blunder he forged his own fate. 

Snorri set sail for Iceland (1220) in a ship, the gift of Earl 
Skuli, who had honoured him with fifteen great gifts in all. 
In his ship, unmasted by stress of weather, he arrived m the 
Westmen's Isles late in the season. When the news spread of 
his arrival, and all the honours that had been heaped upon him 
in Norway, the men of the south country, especially the allies 
of Saemund, received him with much ill-will, suspecting that he 
was commissioned to oppose all endeavours on the part of the 

Introductory xxix 

kinsmen of Orm to obtain atonement for him. The south- 
landers made much mockery of the poems he had wrought in 
honour of Skuli, a parody of one stanza being still preserved. 
Snorri landed with twelve men all bearing fine ornamented shields 
and went on his journey to Skalholt where he was a guest of 
Bishop Magnus Gizurson. Here he was overtaken by Biorn 
Thorvaldson, Orm Jonsson's son-in-law, who went straight up 
to Snorri asking if he meant to debar his relatives from obtaining 
honourable atonement for Orm. Snorri disavowed any such in- 
tention ; but Biorn, not being satisfied with the answer, assumed 
a threatening attitude, whereat the Bishop interceded and 
averted acts of violence ; their parting greetings were curt and 
Snorri proceeded to his manor of Reykholt. 1 

It was a custom of Ssemund's to give a banquet every year on 
the day of the Patron Saint of the church of Oddi, St. Nicholas, 
December 6th, to the more notable men of the neighbourhood 
who were in friendship with him. Such a feast he also gave 
1 22 1 and invited to it, among others, Lopt, his nephew, the son 
of Bishop Paul, and Biorn, son of Thorvald, the son-in-law 
of Ssemund's brother Orm. The drinking was hard, and the 
tongue was loose; and between Lopt and Biorn there arose 
utterances and repartees of exasperating character, so much so, 
that they parted the greatest of foes. Lopt sent men to Snorri 
to complain of his case ' and it is the say of some men that 
Snorri letted Lopt but little from rising up against Biorn. 7 In 
the following spring Snorri sent his man Valgard, the son of 
Styrmir, south to Lopt where he tarried for a while. At that 
time Lopt sent a man to Biorn at BrerSabcSlsta^ to announce 
to him that he intended to pay him a visit in the second week 
of summer, when he proposed that an end should be put to their 
quarrel. Lopt kept his word, though not punctually as to time, 
fought with Biorn and slew him, June zyth. After this meeting 
Lopt went to see Snorri Sturlason who promised him his sup- 
port in the blood-suit, if Saemund, who was Lopt's uncle, and 
other chiefs should side with him. The reason for Snorri's atti- 
tude was that the family of Orm, the men of Oddi, in common 
with the majority of the Southlanders, were hated of him ever 
since their unfriendly reception of him on his return from Nor- 

1 Sturl., i. 244-245. 

xxx Introductory 

way. Snorri's action was, perhaps, also prompted by a desire to 
be able to report to Earl Skuli that he had effected revenge for 
the innocent Norwegian whom Biorn had killed north in Mid- 
firth, which would be taken as a proof of his looking after the 
interests of Norway in Iceland. But although Snorri had given 
his promise of support to Lopt, his brother Sighvat managed to 
persuade him to leave him in the lurch, and the end of the matter 
was that Lopt had to hand over to Thorvald Gizurson, Biorn's 
father, self-judgement in the case. 1 This fickleness on Snorri's 
part was evidently a topic of conversation and was looked upon 
as evidence of weakness of character, as his brother Sighvat 
even hinted afterwards to his friends : c When we met, Snorri 
had an axe aloft over his shoulder so keen that it looked as if 
it would cut everything through; then I took forth from my 
pouch a hone and drew it along the edge, and so blunt was the 
axe that it smiled on me before we parted.' 2 

This same year (1221) Snorri sent his son Jon Small Fry to 
Earl Skuli according to the compact of the preceding year. 
Jon was accompanied by Arni Unready, Snorri's son-in-law, 
and he proceeded to the court of King Hakon who was a bosom 
friend of Ami's. 3 

In 1222 Snorri was elected Speaker a second time and was 
re-elected three times successively, if not four, which shows in 
how high an esteem he was held for his knowledge of the law, 
and the impartiality of his decisions. 

In the autumn of this year, on the yth November, Ssemund 
Jonson died at Oddi, and declared as his last will that his 
daughter Solveig should take an equal share with his sons in 
his property. Solveig went to her mother, Valgerd of Keldur, 
and mother and daughter placed themselves under the guardian- 
ship of Thorvald Gizurson in respect of Solveig's heirship, while 
the many sons of Saemund agreed to ask Snorri Sturluson to 
share the property among them, binding themselves to abide 
by his decisions. He went to the south accompanied by a brave 
following, and on his way put up at Keldur, where he was 
lovingly entertained by mother and daughter. Solveig accom- 
panied him to Oddi, and Snorri took much delight in convers- 
ing with her. On their way they met a woman, accompanied 

1 Sturl., i. 245-250. 2 Ibid., i, 249. 3 Ibid.., i. 244, 251. 

Introductory xxxi 

by a single male attendant; she had on a felt cloak, the felt 
being 'sewed to her head' and serving for a hood. This 
woman was Hallveig, the daughter of Orm Jonson, a niece of 
Ssernund of Oddi, and widow of Biorn Thorvaldson, who, as we 
have seen, was slain by Lopt Paulson; she was accounted of 
as the wealthiest woman in Iceland. Snorri made merry over 
her odd way of travelling; but later on, Hallveig's wealth 
taught him to turn towards her more sympathetic regards. At 
Oddi Snorri treated Solveig with such favour that he allowed 
her to have whatever she chose of the inheritance within the 
limits of her share. 

The same year Solveig married Sturla, son of Sighvat, 
Snorri's nephew. 'And when Snorri heard of the marriage,' 
says the historian, e he was unpleasantly surprised (var^S far urn), 
and men would have it that his intentions had pointed in an- 
other direction,' a hint that Snorri had intended to marry the 
fascinating girl himself, perhaps more Danico^ 

This same year (1223) Snorri brought forward against the 
turbulent chief Thorvald Snorrison of Waterfirth a charge for 
brigandage. Snorri's son Orsekia, a lad of fourteen, prosecuted 
the case with such effect, that Thorvald was sentenced to out- 
lawry with forfeiture of all his property and his godord to boot. 
This, says the historian, was regarded as news of the gravest 
import, and likely to lead to the greatest trouble. Snorri's 
nephew, Sturla Sighvatson had entered upon the most intimate 
friendship with Thorvald, and now besought his father to inter- 
cede for the condemned brigand chief with Snorri, and have the 
sentence altogether annulled. In this Sighvat succeeded so well, 
that Snorri consented to full reprieve in respect of the outlawry, 
and to a private understanding with his brother, that Thorvald 
should neither pay fine nor forfeit his godord. Shortly after- 
wards (i 224) Thorvald sent friendly words to Snorri to the effect 
that his desire was to become allied to him by marriage, and 
thus bound to him by firm bonds of friendship. To this Snorri 
returned such a favourable answer that Thorvald deemed he 
understood that Snorri would be ready to advance his honours 
in every way, provided he would bind himself to do whatever 
Snorri demanded of him, no matter with whom they should 

1 Sturl., i. 262-263. 

xxxii Introductory 

have to deal. In the spring Thorvald went south to Borgfirth, 
Snorri's own country, and wooed formally Snorri's daughter 
Thordis, to which Snorri readily consented, and their marriage 
was celebrated with due pomp in the autumn of the same year. 1 

In the spring of this same year Snorri had ridden from Borg- 
firth into the south country, in which journey he paid a visit to 
Thorvald Gizurson of Hruni, e and much the two had to talk of.' 
Shortly before this had died the very wealthy magnate Kolskegg 
Ericson from Dale 'below the Isles'-Fells ' (undir Eyjafjollum); 
his sister and heiress was Thora who had been a concubine of 
the above-mentioned Orm Jonson, and with whom she had had 
a son, Jon, and the daughter Hallveig, whom Snorri had met 
the year before and made some fun of. Hallveig was to inherit 
her due portion of her mother's great property. The two chiefs 
bound themselves in mutual friendship, by Snorri promising his 
base-born daughter Ingibiorg in marriage to Gizur Thorvald's 
son, while Thorvald bound himself to persuade his widowed 
daughter-in-law, Hallveig, to join Snorri and become his house- 
keeper (fara til biis me^ h<5num). It was bespoken that the 
wedding of Gizur and Ingibiorg should take place at Reykholt 
in the autumn (1224). The wedding feast was a most glorious 
one. Just before the wedding took place Snorri brought to his 
house Hallveig and made a contract with her that each should 
own one half of their joint property. He also undertook to 
manage the property of her sons Klseng and Orm. Thord, 
Snorri's brother, was heavy of heart about this matter, prophesy- 
ing that from it Snorri would come to the end of his days, as 
indeed in a way came true. 2 

Lopt, who at the instigation of Snorri had set upon and slain 
Biorn Thorvaldson, and had consequently been banished from 
the country for three years, now came back again 'before having 
served his full term of exile; and finding the country-sides of his 
own kindred in the south too unsafe for him, still an outlaw, 
to sojourn in, he went to Snorri, who so managed Lopt's affairs 
as to find him an estate in the west country, and a purchaser 
to his own manor, Skard, in the South-land. 3 

At this time some estrangement prevailed between the brothers 
Thord and Snorri, the cause being their maternal inheritance. 

1 Sturl., i. 263-264. 2 IMd., i. 266. 3 Ibid., i. 265. 

Introductory xxxiii 

Gudny, their mother, who died in Snorri's house, had bequeathed 
all her chattels to her grandson, Sturla Thord's son (the author 
of Islendinga Saga), but the whole of it, which was of great 
value, Snorri had appropriated to himself. 

Snorri, knowing the peaceful ways of Thord, invited him to a 
feast after the Althing (1224), and told him he wanted to drop 
all estrangement and take up loving brotherhood, adding that 
they would never come to quarrel over money matters. But he 
hinted that his nephew Sturla Sighvatson stood in the way of 
their honour, in that Sighvat, who had kept to himself, ever since 
the death of their father, the godord of the 'Snorrungs' (Snorri 
godi's km), had now given it to his son Sturla as a marriage settle- 
ment. 1 The formal claim to the godord was made at the Althing, 
1225, by Snorri, who demanded his nephew's consent to his de- 
ciding the case in question alone. Besides by others, Snorri was 
supported by his brother Thord in this matter; but Sturla answered 
that he would not concede sole decision to his uncle, the less so 
that it came to his father to answer the claim, for from him he had 
received the godord. 2 Out of this great enmity arose between all 
these kinsmen. In 1227 Thord Sturluson formally c took up ' the 
ancestral godord of the Snorrungs, retaining one third of it for 
himself, but the other two thirds of it were appropriated by Jon 
Snorrison, his nephew. Thord's honest meaning was that he, with 
his two brothers Sighvat and Snorri, should share it equally. As 
he purposed not to ride to the Althing so as to be present at 
the beginning of it, he sent his son Sturla to his brother Snorri 
* with his godords,' i.e., leaving his thing- (or liege-) men in his 
brother's hands. On 24th June Sturla Sighvatson went with an 
armed band to the house of Thord, committing murderous out- 
rages on the household, but sternly enjoining respect for his 
uncle's person. Sturla, according to his own men, seemed 
heartily ashamed of his performance, and instead of carrying 
further his deeds of outrage he sent a proposal of truce to his 
uncle which was accepted and fixed to last till midsummer. 
Immediately after this Thord rode to the Thing and told his 
brother Snorri how he had been treated. Snorri offered him to 
proceed with an armed host at once against his turbulent 
nephew, but Thord declined the service while the truce was 

1 Sturl., i. 265. 2 Ibid.) i. 271-272. 

VI. C 

xxxiv Introductory 

still in force. 1 The affair was submitted to arbitration and Sturla 
had to pay heavy damages for what he himself even called ' a 
foolish outrage' (i228). 2 

In 1228 a new alliance by marriage gave fresh increase to 
Snorri's already wellnigh peerless power and influence. Kolbein 
the young, son of Arnor Tumison, a great chieftain in Skaga- 
firth in the north country, wooed for wife Snorri's daughter 
Hallbera, the divorced wife of Ami Unready, and they were 
married immediately after the betrothals. Hallbera went to the 
north with her husband and died after three years of another 
unhappy marriage. This year, Snorri, who had been a second 
time Speaker-at-law since 1222, and continued in office till 1231, 
rode ' as usual ' to the Althing. It was generally supposed that 
he and Sighvat would discuss the sore matter of the godord, 
but nothing happened, although Thorvald of Waterfirth, Snorri's 
son-in-law, made an attempt to bring the matter to a head. A 
story is told of Snorri, after his return to Reykholt how, when 
sitting with his favourites in his bath, he was congratulated on 
being a peerless chieftain in the land, no lord therein being 
in a position to contend with him on account of his powerful 
marriage alliances. Snorri accepted the compliment, saying that 
his kinsmen-in-law were no puppets. But when the priest, Sturla 
Bardson, who had kept watch at the bath, led Snorri home, he 
sang so that Snorri might hear: 

You have but such alliance 
As had in ancient story 
The famous lord of Hleidra 
Iniquity breeds evil. 8 

This summer Snorri made earnest of settling the affair of the 
godord and went to see his brother Thord and told him he 
purposed to march with a band into the Dales (up from Broad- 
firth), ^where Sturla Sighvatson held sway, and Thord agreed to 
join him in order e to mend matters between them.' Snorri went 
with some 360 men, but Thord sent word to Sturla who the 
year before had paid Thord the visit described above, to warn 
him not to be in his uncle's (Snorri's) way. Sturla took the hint 

1 Sturl , i. 276-277. 2 ibid., i. 278-279. 

3 Sturl., i. 279-280.* Lord of Hleidra' : Rolf Kraki, King of Denmark, 
betrayed by his vassal-King HjorvarS, through the machination of his wife 
Skuld, Hrolfs half-elfin sister, Fornaldarsogur, i. 96-109. 

Introductory xxxv 

and left his manor of Saudafell in good time. But Snorri sum- 
moned together a meeting of Sturla's Thingmen, and took oaths 
of them whereby they all declared themselves liegemen of Snorri. 1 

Thorvald Snorrison of Waterfirth, Snorri Sturluson's son-in- 
law, was about the vilest character in the Sturlung drama. His 
neighbouring godi, Hrafn Sveinbiornson of Eyr, in the west of 
Iceland, was without exception the noblest type of man in Ice- 
land at the same time. He was exceedingly popular, and very 
powerful through the multitude of his liegemen. Thorvald bore 
him implacable hatred for no other cause than his goodness 
and greatness, and after a long series of insulting acts, and at- 
tempts on Hrafn's life, succeeded at last to surround him in his 
house and slay him, 1213. For fifteen years the sons of Hrafn 
maintained themselves in spite of Thorvald's ceaseless endeavours 
to put an end to their existence, and this year, 1228, they suc- 
ceeded at last in ridding themselves of him by burning him to 
death within the homestead of Gilhstead. After the deed they 
set speedily off, throwing themselves under the protection first 
of Sturla Sighvatson, and then of Sighvat his father, in the north 
country. In revenge for this act of Sturla's, the sons of Thor- 
vald, Thord and Snorri, went with an armed band to Saudafell, 
Sturla's manor in the Dales, where, in his absence, they com- 
mitted the most brutal excesses, robbery, maiming, and man- 
slaughters. Sturla suspected his uncle of Reykholt to have had 
a hand in the dreadful deed, and Snorn's own and other poets' 
utterances on the event would tend to show that Snorri was not 
an utter stranger to the expedition from the beginning, though 
he must be acquitted of all responsibility for the execution of it. 
The sons of Hrafn were prosecuted under Snorri's auspices by 
his son Jon Small Fry and were sentenced guilty. The sons of 
Thorvald of Waterfirth were also proceeded against and sen- 
tenced guilty of brigandage. Execution courts were to finish 
these affairs, but were not called into action. 2 

The hostilities between the sons of Thorvald and Sturla con- 
cluded nominally by his inflicting heavy fines on them, under 
conceded self-award, at Holt in Onundfirth, 1230^ 

During the winter, 1229-1230, Sturla kept quiet and sat at 
home, and now the bitterest enmity between him and his uncle 

1 Sturl., i. 280-281. a Ibid., i. 181-186, 285-292. 3 Ibid., i. 297-298. 

xxxvi Introductory 

Snorri * began somewhat to abate.' That summer Snorri did not 
ride to the Thing, but sent as deputy with the speakership-at- 
law, priest Styrmir the son of Kari, historian and friend of Snorri, 
and perhaps an inmate of his house at this time. 'Now,' says 
the historian, Sturla Thordson, * matters began to amend between 
Snorri and Sturla, and Sturla was frequently at Reykholt and 
took great interest in having Saga-copies taken of the books 
which Snorri composed. 1 

In 1229 Snorri's son, Jon Small Fry, having had some dis- 
agreement with his father respecting a marriage settlement for 
him, for he had purposed to woo him for wife Helga the 
daughter of Ssemund Jonson, decided to go to Norway. His 
father gave in on the point of dispute, but Jon went abroad as 
he had purposed, and repaired to Earl Skuli, who received him 
in a right friendly wise, appointing him one of his body-guard 
and page-m-waiting at his table, thus distinguishing the young 
man of little worth in the same manner as his illustrious father 
some years before. Whether Jon acted under his father's advice 
or not, we cannot tell; if he did, his reception at Skuli's court 
would seem to indicate that the good understanding between 
Snorri and Skuli still held on, though the ' landed -man ' of 
Reykholt had done nothing in redemption of his pledge. This 
youth of intemperate habits had already before spent three years 
(1221-1224) at ti* 6 court of Earl Skuli, under the contract made 
by his father, 1220 (p. xxv). Jon and Gizur Thorvaldson, 
Snorri's son-in-law, spent the festive Yule season with King 
Hakon, and one evening, as they were going to bed, Jon, being 
drunk and disorderly, came to words with Olaf Black-Poet, who 
was living on what alms Jon, himself pinched for money, could 
afford him. Jon seized a stick and struck Olaf, whereupon Gizur 
laid hands on him and held him while Olaf, catching up a 
f hand-axe,' drove it into the head of Jon, and gave him a wound, 
'apparently not a great one.' Jon turned swiftly, asking Gizur 
* why he held him under blow.' Olaf escaped into the darkness 
of night. Heedless of himself Jon went on drinking, and wound 

1 *At lata rita soguboekr eptir b6kum >eim er Snorri setti saman,' 
literally: to have writ Saga-books after the books that Snorri put together. 
I do not see that this means anything more than that Sturla laid himself 
out for securing for his library copies of his uncle's historical (and other?) 
writings. SturL, i. 298-299. 

Introductory xxxvii 

up the day's doings by taking a bath ; thereupon the wound 
inflamed, and he died shortly afterwards. Gizur went to Iceland 
the next summer with the story of Jon's death and what things 
of value he left behind. He did not himself in person bring 
the news to the bereaved father, but sent a messenger to tell 
him the story. On hearing the messenger's tale reported again, 
Gizur considered it altogether unfair to himself. Rumour was 
busy with scandal, and when Thorvald heard thereof he arranged 
a meeting between Snorn and Gizur at which Gizur swore the 
so-called ' fifth-court oath ' (Gragas la, 78), to the effect that he 
had concerted no plan with Olaf against Jon, nor connived with 
him in any way. And Snorri was perfectly satisfied with Gizur's 

Ingibiorg and Gizur now went to live together. Their matri- 
monial life was alway a troublous one, and, according to rumour, 
more through her faults than his. Snorri and Thorvald did all 
they could to right matters between them, but to no avail. 1 

At the Althing in 1231 there was, at last, a brotherly entente 
between Sighvat and Snorri, and between Sturla and Snorri 
there was * dear friendship ' (all-ksert). At this Thing all three 
kinsmen made alliance against Orm Jonson, surnamed * Swine- 
felling,' who had caused to be slain by a hired assassin an out- 
law named Dagstyggr (Dayshy), to whom Snorri had extended 
his protection. The matter ended by Sighvat persuading Orm 
to handsel sole judgement to Snorri, who inflicted on Orm a 
fine of 4,000 ells' worth (by a low estimate = ^300). 2 

This same year Snorri entertained his brother Thord with his 
son Bodvar at a splendid feast, to which also Sturla Sighvatson 
was invited. He wanted to bind trusty friendship with Thord 
and Bodvar, because he had now a dispute with Kolbein the, 
Young relating to the estate of Hallbera and the godord in the 
north country. Behind the invitation to Sturla was the desire 
to ensure safety to the sons of Thorvald of Waterfirth, whom 
he wanted to see in the Lent season; for though Sturla was 
formally at peace with them after their having paid him the 
fines he imposed on them at Holt in Onundfirth, 1230, for their 
outrageous raid on Saudafell, 3 Snorri knew his nephew's temper 
well enough to misdoubt how far he thought full satisfaction 

1 Sturl., i. 299-300, 302. a Ibzd., i. 300-301. 3 Ibid., i. 298. 

xxxviii Introductory 

had been given to his pride and lust of revenge. Therefore 
Snorri wanted him to give him fresh assurance that he would 
not set upon them in their journey to him as arranged. Sturla 
replied that Snorri knew well enough they were at peace ; but 
Snorri objected that all sorts of rumours were floating to the 
effect that Sturla did not consider the peace of Holt holden to 
carefully in all points. { I see/ answered Sturla, c that it is your 
own conviction that they have not kept the peace in all things 
well, I will let you now see to the truce, and I give you my 
hand thereon.' So Snorri pronounced the formulary of truce 
and afterwards Thord, who was present at Snorn's pronounce- 
ment, said to his brother: ' I did not think our kinsman Sturla's 
expression was very satisfactory while the truce was being con- 
cluded. 7 e He will hold the truce, sure enough,' was the answer, 
and on the strength of the truce Snorri invited the Thorvaldsons 
to him, with the result that in their journey Sturla slew them 
both. 1 

For this breach of faith Sturla sent word to Snorri offering 
peace and asking for truce in return. Snorri gave truce as far as 
he himself and his heirs were concerned, but said he would not 
come to peaceful arrangement on behalf of the Waternrth family 
until he knew their views. They put their case into the hands 
of Snorri for arbitration with a view to peace, and he spoke 
favourably about making terms of peace between them, for he 
was anxious to retain the support of Sturla in view of the coming 
contest with Kolbein at the next Althing. In the spring the 
peace settlement was agreed upon, Snorri and Sighvat, his 
brother, being appointed arbitrators for either side. 2 

The case of Kolbein terminated on the whole in Snorri's 
favour. Snorri was to possess one half of such godord in the 
north as Kolbein was rightly owner of, but Kolbein should 
retain rule over them and yield his support to Snorri at Things; 
he should also pay at his ease money to Snorri if he claimed it. 
Further, Kolbein was to consent to giving his sister Arnbiorg in 
marriage to Snorri's son Oraekia, etc. As to this settlement it 
was remarked that, while Kolbein's assent to Snorri's terms was 
being sought by Thorvald Gizurson and Thord Sturluson, he 
was utterly unamenable to any terms, but suddenly came round 

1 Sturl., i. 303-312. 2 Ibid., i. 312-313. 

Introd^lctory xxxix 

when these peacemakers, hopeless of bringing about an agree- 
ment, had withdrawn from the case. Thorvald then asked 
Thord what his opinion was on this sudden change in the dis- 
position of Kolbein. c I know not surely,' said Thord, but it 
misdoubts me that brother Snorri has now made an exchange 
of friends and has sold the friendship of Sighvat and Sturla for 
that of Kolbein, from whom I fear we kinsmen will have to 
sustain the heaviest brunt ere all be over.' Thorvald answered: 
That seems a wonder to me that Kolbein is willing to give his 
sister of legitimate birth to the bastard son of Snorri , but true 
is the saw: Owners know best what kind of goods they sell.' 1 

After this Thing Snorri went west to Waterfirth, and all the 
goodmen through Icefirth became his liegemen. Olaf of Eider- 
isle came to Snorri to atone for misconduct with his daughter 
Thordis, resulting in the birth of a child; and for the disgrace 
inflicted on the family of a godi he had to pay as penalty his 
island property. 2 

In the autumn of this year (1232) Kolbein the Young was 
busy preparing the wedding feast of his sister and Orsekia, 
counting for certain on Snorn's attendance. But instead of 
putting in an appearance, he sent two deputies on his behalf, 
and omitted to confer on Orsekia the godord in Midfirth, which 
had been stipulated for at the peace-meeting in the last Althing. 
Kolbein was incensed at what he called betrayal all round on 
the part of Snorri; but Thorleif of Gardar, one of Snorri's 
deputies, handselled Kolbein on Snorri's behalf c two hundred 
hundreds ' and the manor of Stafholt, declaring that he had in 
commission from Snorri to make this offer in case Kolbein 
should complain of Snorri's pledges being broken. Kolbein 
agreed and the wedding took place/ 

This same autumn letters arrived from the new Archbishop 
of Nidoyce, Sigurd c Tafsi,' son of Eindndi Peini, summoning 
Sighvat and Sturla to his presence to answer for their high- 
handed dealings with the Bishop of Holar Gudmund Arison. 
This prelate had now for nearly thirty years been at constant 
feud with the chieftains of the land from various causes, chief 
among which being the immunity from the jurisdiction of secular 
courts which he claimed for his clergy, after the example of St. 

1 Sturl., i. 313-314. 2 JUd., i. 314. 3 -# i- 3H* 

xl Introductory 

Thomas of Canterbury. 1 This claim was in direct conflict with 
' the constitution of the land, according to which all breaches of 
the law must be dealt with by the judicial authority of the courts 
of the Althing. The chiefs who regarded themselves rightly as 
the guardians of the constitution opposed the prelate's pretences 
not only by argument, but, when he remained obdurate, with 
armed force as well. Bp. Gudmund was a man of singularly 
narrow mind and an ideal bigot. He had a singular fancy for 
the class of people he called ' God's alms,' meaning alms people, 
and they flocked to him in most embarrassing numbers whereso- 
ever he was and went. They were received by him without dis- 
crimination, and when they had devoured his own substance, 
made unceremoniously free with the means of his neighbours, 
for, indeed, a large proportion of them consisted of vagrants 
and vagabonds. Such treatment of their liegemen the neigh- 
bouring chiefs could not tolerate. But on remonstrating with 
the prelate and demanding the dismissal and dispersion of the 
' alms,' they were answered with instant excommunication. This 
punishment the prelate dealt out so mechanically and with so 
lavish a hand that its value sank to nothing ; it was disregarded 
and laughed at by priest and laic alike. The exasperated lords 
of the north country had fights with him and his men repeatedly, 
drove him from his see, and as a fugitive he wandered, accom- 
panied by his 'alms,' through the land, and sought the hospital- 
ity, now of one, now of another chieftain within the diocese of 
Skalholt, and always met with sympathy from Snorri Sturluson. 
This deadlock between the authority of state and church in the 
northern diocese suggested a mutual appeal to the archbishop 
of the province at Nidoyce, in Norway, who eagerly availed 
himself of the opportunity to further King Hakon's political 
plans in Iceland, which aimed at the subversion of the constitu- 
tion of the commonwealth and the submission of the island to 
the crown of Norway. 3 

While Sturla, in obedience to the archbishop's summons, was 
making arrangements for his journey abroad, which did not take 
place till the summer of 1233, Snorri was busy in settling affairs 
with his son Oraekia in respect of his matrimony. Orsekia 
desired above all things that his father should settle on him the 

1 See Thomas Saga (Rolls Series), ii. xxiv ff. 

2 Sturl., i. tasstm, Biskupasogur, i. 488-558. 

Introductory xli 

Manor of Stafholt, but Snorri ordered him to go to Waterfirth 
and to take possession of that property and the godord of the 
Waterfirth chiefs, to which Einar, son of Thorvald and Thordis, 
yet a minor, was the heir. And * as Snorri willed so things had 
to be.' Orsekia went with his wife to Waterfirth, forcing his half 
sister Thordis to quit the place. He gathered round him a 
multitude of retainers far beyond his means, and, as was usual 
in the house of Waterfirth, household provisions had soon to be 
procured by harsh methods. 1 

Snorri rode this year to the Thing as usual, c for he had the 
speakership-at-law.' After the Thing he invited to a feast his 
brother Sighvat with his son, Thord Kakali, and others. At this 
feast Snorri and Sighvat made a final award in Sturla Sighvat- 
son's affairs with the Waterfirthers and were well agreed,' and 
Snorri saw Sighvat off with the gift of a gold-adorned spear. 2 

This summer Sturla Sighvatson sailed for Norway, and on 
making land went first to the haven of Borgund, near where now 
is the port of Aalesund. Here he met Earl Skull's brother-in- 
law, Alf of Thornberg, who urged him much to go see the 
Earl : he would make him the most of men, seeing how greatly 
he excelled all other men, the Earl, moreover, being the greatest 
friend of the Icelanders, and of the Sturlungs in particular. 
Sturla, knowing that severely strained relations now existed 
between the King and the Earl, took his party and went to the 
King. After staying on in Bergen till the beginning of winter 
he went south to Rome, where he received absolution himself 
and procured the same for his father, having to undergo severe 
penances; for he was led from church to church in Rome and 
flogged before the door of most parish churches. He bore him- 
self manly. Most people flocked out wondering, smiting their 
breasts and sorrowing that so goodly a man was so grievously 
dealt with. Returning to Norway Sturla met King Hakon in 
Biorgvin and accompanied him to Tunsberg ; he was very well 
received by the King and he tarried here long; the second 
winter he spent in Norway (1234) he and K. Hakon were 
always conferring. 3 The King was much troubled on hearing 
from Sturla the account of the great disturbances that prevailed 
in Iceland. The King asked what obstacles there would be in ' 

1 Sturl., i. 315- 2 IN*., i- 3i6. 3 JMt., I 318. 

xlii Introductory 

the way of introducing a monarchical form of government in the 
island, for it seemed to him that there would be a more 
peaceful state of things in the land if there was one supreme 
ruler over it. The rash and reckless Sturla took the matter 
lightly, and said the difficulty would be slight, if he who under- 
took the charge was a man of resource and unsparing of hard 
dealings. The King then asked if he was ready to undertake the 
task. Sturla answered that he would risk it under the King's 
advice and direction, in the hope that in return he should be 
the recipient of such honours as the King deemed him worthy 
of in case of success. The King laid down that he should not 
attempt the subjection of the land by manslaughters; he should 
rather secure the person of the chiefs and send them abroad or get 
hold of their godord in some other way, if that could be brought 
about. Sturla was often with the King discussing this matter. 1 

Sturla returned to Iceland in the summer of 1235. In his 
absence the turbulent Orsekia had in various ways oppressed 
and mishandled his liegemen, and when at last he gave himself 
time to think of his day of reckoning, he saw it his wisest course 
to try to secure for himself peace from Sighvat. To this the 
latter was not adverse, but he made it an express condition that 
whatever Orsekia had done to offend Sturla should await settle- 
ment until he came back from Norway. Sighvat got secret news 
of the sudden arrival of his son and persuaded Oraekia to be off 
by a route where he should not meet Sturla. For Snorn Stur- 
luson these two years had been a season of anxiety and worry. 
He had taken in two fugitives from Kolbein the Young's domain 
whose death Kolbein had decided on, and at the Althing of 1234 
Kolbein would have settled matters with Snorri by the sword, 
if the bishop of Skalholt and other men of moderation and 
influence had not interceded and extracted from Kolbein a 
promise to keep peace at the Althing. 2 The affair thus stood 
open for further treatment In the course of this summer 
Kolbein and Sighvat, by the advice of mutual friends, agreed, at 
a meeting in Horgardale, to make up their differences and to 
desist from worrying each others' liegemen wherein Kolbein 
particularly had been busy of late. Sighvat was to declare the 
award m this case, but deferred it to another time. But this 

1 Hakon's Saga (Rolls ed.), p. 158. 2 Sturl., i. 326-328. 

Introductory xliii 

was not all. The two agreed that Kolbein, in company with 
Kolbein the son of Sighvat, should go with a band of more 
than 120 to the south country, and quarter themselves upon 
the manors owned by Snorri Sturluson at Dale c 'neath the Isles'- 
fells' and at Leira-bank, and elsewhere. 'They sat in the 
summer for a very long time at Leira-bank and behaved riot- 
ously in many ways and robbed far and wide.' This was the 
first outcome of Sturla's compact with King Hakon, and shows 
clearly that Snorri, in the first instance, was to be the special 
victim of Hakon's unscrupulous policy towards Iceland. As 
summer advanced Snorri sent for Orsekia to join him with as 
many men as he could muster, for he intended to march against 
the ' Northlanders,' who had quartered themselves upon his 
properties. He gathered himself a force of 600 men and went 
into the disturbed parts. Before Orsekia and other allies of 
Snorri had time to join their forces with his, a word came from 
him to say the two Kolbeins had left and gone to the north, 
after having inflicted very severe losses on Snorri and damage 
to his properties. 1 

After the session of the Althing, 1235, the two brothers 
Thord and Snorri had a very brotherly meeting at the place 
called Hraun in the district of M^rar; they talked together all 
day, and vowed to each other livelong friendship, and this 
bond was made still firmer by an arrangement whereby Thord's 
son Sturla, the future historian of the family, now twenty-one 
years of age, should go to live with his uncle Snorri. 2 

Snorri Sturluson must have suspected Sturla Sighvatson of 
having entered into some ominous alliance with King Hakon 
who, Snorri was well aware, meant to effect the subjection of 
Iceland to Norway by any means, fair or foul. He knew Sturla's 
impulsive and reckless character, his overweening ambition. He 
knew how brutally his son Orsekia had treated Sturla's liegemen 
while he was abroad, and that he himself would also have to 
pay the penalty for Oraekia's misdeeds. He was also conscious 
of having done nothing towards the fulfilment of the compact 
of 1220 with the rulers of Norway. So in the autumn of the 
year that Sturla returned Snorri sent word to his nephew 
Bodvar Thordson of Stad, requesting him to stay at Reykholt 

1 Slurl., i. 328, 329. 2 Ibid., i. 338. 

xliv Introductory 

during the ensuing winter. He came to Reykholt with eleven 
men and took up his quarters there. After Christmas, 1236, 
Sighvat and Sturla sent orders to their liegemen of Willowdale 
to shoe their horses and to be ready to take the field whenever 
the word of command should come to them. The Willowdale 
liegemen of Snorri sent him word of warning of what was going 
on. Then Snorri sent word to Oraekia in Waterfirth to say that 
Sighvat and Sturla were calling out a muster of men in the 
north; they had better bestir themselves lest each of them 
should be penned up by himself. Orsekia whipped up 600 men 
and went to his father's assistance, who had already been joined 
by his brother Thord and his cousin Thorleif of Gardar, At a 
counsel held by all these kinsmen Oraskia advocated an imme- 
diate march to the north, but Snorri 'was not prepared to 
march against his own brother m the season of the high 
festivals which were at hand ' (Easter). 1 

In Palm-Sunday week news came from the north to the effect 
that all the country there was up in arms. Snorri now desisted 
from calling out a levy of his men, but left Reykholt and went 
south to Bessastead on Alptaness leaving Reykholt in the 
charge of his brother Thord. Sighvat and Sturla came down 
on Borgfirth at the head of an army of 1,000 men. Thord went 
out from Reykholt to try to mediate peace. He was in an in- 
dignant temper and upbraided Sighvat severely for setting on 
his own brother with an armed force in the midst of the festive 
season of the church; he, an old man, would surely have to yield 
sore penalties to God for such things. Sighvat : * Neither of 
us need taunt the other with old age, or art thou turning out a 
prophet, kinsman?' Thord: 'I am not a prophet, but to thee I 
shall be one. So great as thou vauntest thyself now, trusting in 
the might of thyself and thy sons, there shall yet pass not many 
winters before it will be said that in your case a collapse of the 
greatest has befallen.' Sighvat: 'Wroth art thou, kinsman; angry 
words go for naught; perhaps we shall get better on anon when 
we are both in a better temper.' Thord went away. Sturla went 
to Reykholt and behaved as if the whole property was his own; 
he made his own the whole district of Borgfirth and Thorleif 
of Gardar assented to every order issued by Sturla. 2 

1 Sturl., i. 340-341. 

2 Ibid.) i. 341-342, Hakon's Saga, 158. 

Introductory xlv 

This unceremonious confiscation by Sturla of all his uncle's 
landed property in Borgfirth seems incomprehensible except on 
the ground that King Hakon explained to him that these lands 
he had conferred as a royal grant on Snorri when he accepted 
the position of the King's 'landed-man ' in 1220. At any rate, 
after Snorri's death Hakon c maintained that the former's herit- 
age had come to him together with all lands that he possessed 
on his dying day, and he charged Snorri's grand-nephew, 
Thorgils Skardi, to prosecute the case and to settle it in accord- 
ance with what the law should provide in respect of the manage- 
ment of that property.' l If Snorri held his lands of Hakon as 
a royal grant, the King's claim was legitimate. In no other case 
did he, while he was subduing the godar of Iceland, advance a 
claim of this nature. But possibly this was Hakon's own con- 
struction of the significance of the act of grace; it is scarcely 
conceivable, if it was frankly explained to Snorri that this was 
the meaning of the conference on him of the title, how he 
could ever have been vain and weak enough to consent to 
accepting it. If he did, then surely the dreadful penalty he in- 
curred was in a measure his own fault. 

When Snorri heard that Sturla had appropriated the whole 
Borgfirth district he left Bessastead and went first to his manors 
in the south country and then east to Orm Swinefelling, who 
dwelt at Skal, in what now is called western Skaptafells-sysla, 
and here Snorri spent the summer. In Snorri's absence Sturla 
dealt with men and matters in Western Iceland just as he 
pleased. Orsekia he forced to go abroad, 1236, after having 
dealt in a most masterful manner with him, though the story 
related of the mutilation inflicted on Orsekia at his behest must 
be a fiction. 2 

When Snorri heard, while he was still at Skal, that between 
Sturla and Thorleif of Gardar friendship was waning in conse- 
quence of the arduous services exacted by Sturla, he opened 
secret communications with Thorleif and with other relatives in 
the west. He himself left Skal first for his manor of Dale and 
then for Reykir in Olfus, the home of Gizur, his son-in-law ; he 
further extended his journey even west to Bessastead. But later 
he returned to Gizur and remained with him through Lent, I237. 3 

1 Sturl., ii. 116. 2 Ibid.* i. 345-346. 3 Rid.* i. 347. 

xlvi Introductory 

Sturla Sighvatson, suspicious of Snorri and Thorleif planning 
an up-rising against him, called a muster of his liegemen through 
the Westfirths and got together a band of 600 strong. During 
Passion-Week Snorn came from the south from Reykir, and he 
and Thorleif gathered men from all the Nesses south of Borg- 
firth, and had a force of 480. At Mid-Thwaites (MrSfitjar) in 
Borgfirth they held a counsel of war and Snorri was now all for 
a surprise night attack on Sturla. Thorleif feared that the great 
odds against them would tell disastrously. Then Snorri ad- 
vocated turning back, which Thorleif deprecated ; and when 
Snorri further asked him what plan he favoured, he suggested 
they should push up farther inland and there build them a fort, 
and defend themselves or attack as opportunity should serve. 
Snorri answered that he would take care not to fall into the 
power of Sturla, or of any other of his enemies whatever else 
might betide him. After much talk he parted from Thorleif and 
went south to the Nesses. 1 

All of a sudden he now resolved to go to Norway, and em- 
barked at Eyrar in the south of Iceland. It seems obvious that 
this resolve was taken because Snorri felt nowhere safe for 
Sturla. He may also have speculated in the chances that would 
open in Norway for supplanting Sturla whose course of violence 
was distasteful to King Hakon. 2 He remained through the en- 
suing winter at Nidoyce with Peter the son of Duke Skuli, while 
the Duke together with King Hakon spent the winter in Oslo ; 
but Orsekia dwelt the same winter in the house of Duke Skuli. 3 

After Snorri's departure Sturla Sighvatson had a busy time 
in Iceland, but we must pass over most of his doings, noticing 
briefly only those which in particular concern the man he now 
most feared in Iceland Gmir Thorvaldson, hitherto particularly 
noted for his inscrutable neutral attitude in his father-in-law's 
contests at the Althing. In the early winter of 1237 Sturla 
managed to get himself mixed up in affairs in which the still in- 
fluential family of Oddi were interested. The actual case con- 
cerned a man named Kol the wealthy. He had promised Orm 
Swmefelling a considerable sum of money for having Dagstyggr 
Jonsson slain by a hired assassin (p. xxxv), but when the deed 
was done he refused to pay. Orm appealed to Sturla for help, 

SturL, i. 352-353- a Hakons Saga, p. 167. 3 SturL, i. 356. 

Introductory xlvii 

but Kol threw himself under the protection of Biorn, son of 
Saemund (of Oddi), who sent men with friendly messages and 
goodly gifts to Sturla asking him not to undertake the case 
against Kol. Sturla refused the gifts and sent an angry and 
threatening answer. In the spring of the next year, 1238, he 
sent messages to Gizur to notify that he intended to come to 
the south country to exact from Kol the promised payment (for 
the assassination of Dagstyggr). His father, Sighvat, warned him 
seriously against this plan and said : c Thou hast an evil errand 
on hand, for here there is money in question from which great 
harm will befall many a man.' In due time, however, he set 
out with a band of 360 armed men, but when he came to 
Ravenbergs (Hrafnabjorg), east of Thingvellir, a messenger 
from Gizur brought him the information that the Kol affair was 
settled in a peaceful manner, and Sturla might therefore return, 
if it seemed good to him. Evidently Gizur was apprehensive 
lest sinister things might lurk behind Sturla's journey. Sturla 
said the Southlanders should not drive him about like a herd 
to pasture, and sent word to Gizur to meet him at Apewater. 
Sturla asked what news there were. c Peace/ said Gizur, ' and no 
need of going with a band of armed men to where there is no 
warlike gathering ' But Sturla pretended to have misgivings as 
to the trustiness of the Southlanders, and at last, after much 
deceitful talk on his part, he had Gizur laid hands on and his 
forty followers disarmed. On Gizur's wondering at this treat- 
ment in the circumstances, Sturla bade him have no doubt that 
he intended for himself a share of power greater than that of 
any other man in Iceland, ' and I deem when thou art over- 
come all the rest is, for thou art the only man in Iceland I fear 
if matters go not smoothly between us.' Then a book (a plenary, 
probably) was handed to Gizur, and Sturla ordered him to swear 
an oath that he would go abroad and remain faithful to him. 
Said Gizur : ' Shall I swear a Norwegian or an Icelandic oath?' 
Sturla said he might choose. ' Then / swear the Norwegian^ 
since to Norway I must go ; but with this promise I will preface 
my oath that, not being in drink, I shall never speak a dis- 
paraging word of you?- The Norwegian oath-formulary was not 
law in Iceland, so that in strict law no oath was sworn. What 
Gizur said about words slily excluded deeds, as time proved. 
1 Sturl., i. 357-361. 

xlviii Introductory 

Sturla handed Gizur over to Orm Swinefelling to keep him 
as a prisoner until he should go abroad. But Gizur managed to 
send letters to faithful friends that they should come and meet 
him if his kinsmen should be able to gather together any con- 
siderable force. They got together a company of eighteen who 
rode east to Orm Swinefelling and persuaded him to let Gizur 
off, once more a free man he departed with his friends riding 
west until he came to Beitiwalls (Beitivellir, east of Thingvellir) 
where he joined the forces of his kinsmen and those of Kolbein 
the Young who now was recruiting in the south country, open 
hostility having broken out between him and Sturla in the north. 
After various futile attempts at coming to blows with Sturla, 
Kolbein and his ally Gizur succeeded in drawing together an 
army of some sixteen hundred fighters with which they marched 
against the combined forces of Sighvat and Sturla stationed at 
the homestead of Willow-walls in Skagafirth, and fought on sist 
August, 1238, with them the memorable engagement of Orlyg- 
stead in which Sighvat and Sturla, besides three more of Sig- 
hvat's sons were slain and the dominion of these able, even 
popular, but reckless men was destroyed for ever. 1 

When the news of this event came to Norway it created a 
great impression. King Hakon was foiled once more in his 
attempt at subduing Iceland. But for so astute a politician as 
he was the experience gained by Sturla's failure was anything 
but discouraging. He could not mistake the fact that a wave of 
reckless ambition swept over the ' godar ' of the land. Left to 
themselves they would go on fighting, confiscating each other's 
properties and 'godord,' until the most successful of them should 
find himself one day in possession of all the 'godords' in the 
land, and in the position of supreme ruler. Even the sequel 
to the fight of Orlygstead gave an unmistakable hint in this 
direction. Kolbein the Young, now the most powerful chief in 
the north, ' laid under him ' the whole of the North Quarter of 
the island; 2 and had there been no Hakon Hakonson in Nor- 
way there is no telling how far Kolbein might have carried his 
conquest. Hakon saw the trend of the chiefs' aims and took 
his measures accordingly. 

On hearing the news Snorri took sorely and sincerely to heart 

1 Sturl., i. 362-381. a Ibid., i. 381. 

Introductory xlix 

the loss of his brother and four nephews, and in a verse he sent 
to Thord Kakali, Sighvat's son, he gives expression to his sym- 
pathy, and to his sorrow at the fatality that besets his family. 1 

During the winter, 1238-1239, Snorri, Orsekia and Thorleif 
of Gardar remained with Duke Skuli, while Thord Kakali stayed 
with King Hakon. The relations between the Duke and Snorri 
seem to have been as cordial as ever. 2 In the spring, by the 
Duke's advice, his guests chartered a ship for Iceland. But when 
they were ready and had gone from Nidoyce out to Monkholm in 
the bay of Thrandheim messengers came from the south with a 
letter from the King wherein it was written that he forbade all 
Icelanders to leave Norway that summer. They showed the 
letter to Snorri and received the laconic answer: 'I will out!' 
When they were c allboun ' the Duke invited them to a farewell 
banquet; and few men were present at the conversation of Snorri 
with the Duke. Arnfinn Thiofson, afterwards Skuli's marshal, 
and Olaf White-Poet, Snorri's nephew, were with the Duke, 
while with Snorri there were Orsekia and Thorleif. According 
to Arnfinn's relation, the Duke conferred the title of Earl on 
Snorri. 8 But Snorri's biographer, his nephew Sturla Thordson, 
the singularly accurate and impartial author of Islendingasaga 
(Sturl.), says: 'However, none of those Icelanders confirmed 
that to me.' 4 There is only one historical evidence which, in 
some way, seems to support the statement of Arnfinn. Sturla 
says that, in putting down the obituary of Snorri, Styrmir the 
historian, Snorri's friend, entered him as 'Snorri F61gsnarjarl,' 
which, by the spelling of the word, should mean 'Secret Earl;' 
but Vigfusson (Sturl., i. 384, footnote 4) takes Folgsnar to be the 
genitive of the name of the island of Folksn (Folkn, Folsn), 
now Stor-Fosen, outside the mouth of Drontheim Firth. Skuli 
should accordingly have made Snorri an earl of this small island, 
which, of course, is impossible. This story about Snorri's earl- 
dom tells of a most improbable if not an impossible act. No 
one could appoint an earl for Iceland except the King himself. 
Of course, Skuli could have given Snorri a promise of an earldom 
when he should be in a position to confer it on him, /.<?., when 
he should have succeeded in wresting the crown from Hakon. 
In such a case those in the secret might have given Snorri the 

1 Sturl., i. 381. 2 Hakon's Saga, pp. 171, 172-173. 

3 Sturl., i. 384; Hakon's Saga, 173. 4 Sturl. ,.i. 384-385. 

VI. d 

1 Introductory 

title ' Secret Earl.' But is it likely that Skuli should have given 
an outsider such a sure key to his harbouring treason against 
his king, and to one, moreover, who the next moment would be 
entirely beyond his control? On the whole this story seems 
deserving of no credit. 

Snorri with his companions set sail for Iceland and arrived 
in the Westmen's isles in due time. He next went to Brei^a- 
b61sta^5 in Fleetlithe and met there his partner Hallveig; they 
went together west to Reykholt and set up house there once 
more. The rest of this year Snorri spent in legal business 
arising out of Sturla's raids in the west country, and particularly 
out of an armed encounter which took place at By in Borgfirth, 
1237, in which Thorleif of Gardar, Snorri's faithful friend, had 
been defeated by Sturla. In these matters Snorri delivered his 
award in the spring of I240. 1 After the Althing of this year he 
helped Solveig, the widow of Sturla, to arrange her affairs in 
view of a journey abroad on which she had decided. 2 

This year Eyvind Bratt and Arni Unready came from Norway 
to Iceland, being bearers of a letter from King Hakon. At first 
6 this letter was held little aloft.' They also told the news of 
the turmoil there had been through the winter, and how Duke 
Skuli had been slain in his attempt to seize the crown of 
Norway. 3 

Before the Althing of 1241 words went between Snorri and 
Gizur Thorvaldson to the effect that Snorri should bring with 
him to the Thing Tumi the son of Sighvat and settle peace for 
him and award him atonement for his father. Snorri came to 
the Thing with a retinue of 120 men, but on the following day 
Kolbein the Young appeared suddenly at the Thing with a 
following 600 strong. Of this Snorri and Tumi had had no 
warning. They went forthwith into the church and spoke from 
the inside ^hatever they had to say; but Snorri's men stood in 
a crowd outside the church. Kolbein's men flew madly hither 
and thither about the thing-meadows, and behaved in a most 
riotous manner. Kolbein and Gizur had a long privy talk 
together, but nothing was said about peace. Kolbein's band 
did not unsaddle, and departed from the Thing the same even- 
ing. Thereupon Gizur went into the church and he and Snorri 

7 Sturl., i. 386. 2 Ibid., 387. 3 ibid. 

Introductory li 

held a long converse together, and everything went right orderly 
between them. 1 

Hallveig, Snorri's partner, died on the 25th of July this year 
and Snorri took his loss greatly to heart, ( as well he might,' 
adds his nephew. When her sons Klaeng and Orm heard of her 
death they repaired to Reykholt with a suite of retainers ; but 
when the talk came on the division of the property, divergences 
arose between them and Snorri. They held that one half of the 
whole property belonged to them in virtue of the settlement of 
1224 (p. xxx); but Snorri maintained, apparently unfairly, that 
Bluewood-heath (mountain ridge running S. and N. to the east 
of Thingvellir) should form the dividing boundary of the 
property (*'.<?., they should have all estates to the east, he all to 
the west of Bluewood-heath); other reservations to the dis- 
advantage of the young men Snorri carried through, taking 
advantage of his position and power. But books and trinkets 
they divided equally. Returning to their homesteads in the 
south country they called on Gizur and told him how things 
stood between them and Snorri. He said he considered it 
e unbecoming ' (6fallit) that they should not have their fair share 
of Snorri, and gave them to understand that he would be ready 
to lend them his support in the matter. 2 

Tumi Sighvatson took up his abode at Saudafell, formerly 
his father's, latterly his brother Sturla's manorial seat, in the 
Dales, and in the course of the summer, 1241, Snorri Sturlason 
rode west thither on a visit to his nephew. He sent word to 
Oraekia, who then happened to be east away in Ramfirth, not 
far from Saudafell, that he desired to have talk of him. Coming 
to the place Orsekia found his father in a merry mood. Snorri 
told them how matters had fared between him and the sons of 
Hallveigj he also brought with him a letter he had received 
from Odd Sveinbiornson of Alptaness, written in the character 
called 'Staff-carles' letters' which they could not make out, 
though they felt sure that it conveyed a warning of some kind. 
Snorri said he greatly distrusted the Southlanders (Gizur), e yet 
now I will ride south to see to my manors, and then I shall return 
to the west and stay alternately at Holar and Saurby. 3 And south 
he rode, but, apparently, no farther than Reykholt. 

1 Sturl., i. 390. * Mt. 9 391. 

lii Introductory 

Kolbein the Young and Gizur had a meeting about this time 
(late summer, 1241), in the upland wilderness called Keel, and 
there concerted their counsels, 'even as shortly became manifest. 3 
For when Gizur came down from the Keel he summoned his 
liegemen to him, and among those who obeyed the summons 
were his nephews^ the sons of Hallveig, Orm and Klseng. Now he 
held up the letter which Eyvind and Arni Unready had brought 
from King Hakon. In this letter the King ordered that Gizur 
should send Snorri abroad willing nilling, or else slay him, since 
he had presumed to leave Norway in spite of his prohibition; 
and the King described Snorri as traitor towards him. Gizur 
declared that on no account could he think of breaking the 
written orders of the King, but said he felt sure that Snorri 
would not go abroad of his free will. Thereupon Gizur gave it 
out that he meant to go e and seize the person of Snorri/ his 
own father-in-law ! Orm would have nothing to do with these 
counsels and rode away to his home at BreiSSabdlsta'S. Gizur 
whipped up men and sent spies west to Borgfirth, and rode off 
with a band of seventy men-at-arms. 

He arrived at Reykholt during the night following Mauritius 
mass (22-23 September, 1241). They broke up the bower where 
Snorri was sleeping. He sprang to his feet and got out of the 
bower into 'Little-Houses 7 which communicated with the bower. 
Here he met priest Arnbiorn ,and had word with him and they 
agreed that Snorri had better go into the cellar which was under 
the floor of those houses. Gizur and his men went through the 
houses searching for him. Meeting priest Arnbiorn Gizur asked 
where Snorri was; he said he knew not; Gizur said they could 
not come to terms of peace if they did not personally meet. The 
priest said that possibly he could be found if truce was promised 
him. Just about this nick of time they got to know where Snorri 
was hidden and entered the cellar, five together of Gizur's 
assassins: Markus, son of Mord, Simon Knout, Arni Bitter, 
Thorslein Gudinason, Thorarin Asgrimson. Simon charged 
Arni to strike him down. 'Strike not!' said Snorri. ' Strike i" 
said Simon. 'Strike not!' said Snorri. Thereupon Arni dealt 
him his death-wound, yea both of them, he and Thorstein, did 
for him. 1 

1 Sturl., i. 392-393> Hakon's Saga, p. 237. 

Introductory liii 

Such, in brief, is this terrible story, as written by Snorri's 
nephew, the justiciary, Sturla Thordson. To carry it further 
here answers no purpose, nor does space allow it. 

This martyr to treachery was the unfortunate child of an evil 
age. Right was superseded by might. Success by any means, 
fair or foul, was honour. Laxity of morals, blind lust for wealth, 
power, and revenge, were qualities that made a mighty godi. 
The very constitution of the c godar-doom ' (sit venia verbo) 
contained from the beginning the germs of the fatal disease that 
brought the so-called * free commonwealth ' into its grave an the 
thirteenth century; and would have done it anyhow, even if 
there had been no perfidious Hakon Hakonson of Norway. 
Personal rivalry among thirty-nine independent local chieflets, 
not devotion to law and order, was now the animating principle 
of that commonwealth. Patriotism had ceased to exist; family 
aggrandizement had taken its place. Purely insular, however, 
the process of dissolution was not. ' In this land all men deemed 
it a proper thing to follow the example set by Norway,' says the 
author of the Saga of St. Thorlak, in dealing with Jon Loptson's 
opposition, in the matter of jus patronatus, to the good bishop, 
whose own sister was one of Jon's sundry concubines. 1 It is not 
a pure accident that the social disorganization in Norway, brought 
about by the lawless factions with which one pretender after the 
other infested that unhappy land for a century, falls within the 
same period as the somewhat similar state of things in Iceland. 
It is not an accident that the concubinage of Norwegian Kings 
finds such a ready imitation among the little sovereign chiefs 
of Iceland. This state of social and moral decomposition was 
not a soil likely to bring forth healthy produce. 

Though a man of business, Snorri was not a man of action. 
There is nothing in him of the rowdy brutality that characterizes 
so many chiefs of his time. Circumstances, rather than choice, 
drew him into the vortex of political strife. Appeals to arms he 
avoided as much as he could, employing methods of arbitration 
and compromise instead. He was altogether a man of peaceful 
disposition. He was lacking in firmness at decisive movements. 
Vanity and adulation, coupled with weakness, seem to be the 
causes that underlie his fatal attitude to the Court of Norway. 

1 Bisk. Sogur, i. 284. 

liv Introductory 

The bestowal of the hand of his young daughter Thordis on the 
infamous Thorvald of Waterfirth just after Snorri had had him 
condemned for brigandage to full outlawry, and forfeiture of all 
his possessions together with his godord, a sentence which 
Snorri speedily remitted altogether as soon as Thorvald hinted 
at marriage alliance would be most reprehensible but for one 
reason: Snorri probably wanted to get rid of Thordis; for her 
after conduct proved that she was, even in her years of discre- 
tion, by no means a very heedful guardian of her own honour. 
Still the alliance does little credit to Snprn's sense of propriety 
in choosing means for the increase of his power and influence. 
Of the cause of the separation from the heiress Herdis nothing 
is known. Snorri's known relations to other women were a 
matter of aristocratic fashion at the time. His dealing with 
Thorkel Walrus was within the law. He had killed one of Snorri's 
men. Though not formally sentenced he was, if so facto a wood- 
man (outlaw) of forfeit life, whom any one was free to kilL 
That Snorri from love of money sometimes could act in a mean 
manner we have seen in his dealing with his mother's bequest 
in favour of Sturla Thordson, but he never enriched himself 
by the viking methods of raiding and plundering. Though not 
blameless as a citizen, he really compares very favourably with 
the leading contemporary godar of the land, exceptionally so 
in respect of his sympathy for the luckless bishop Gudmund of 
Holar. The great fault of his life, his countrymen maintain, 
was his promise to bring Iceland into subservience to Norway. 
He rued the mistake and did nothing. He paid the penalty 
with his life. 


SNORRI, as a writer, no less than as a chief, was a child but an 
exceptionally brilliant one of his age. 

He was born in the first century of the lettered era of Iceland 
the twelfth which, in respect of mental culture, stood, as we 
shall see, in a peculiar relation to the preceding the eleventh, 
which was a really illiterate period, though runes were known 
and used for lapidary inscriptions, and sometimes, as we learn 

Introductory lv 

from Egilssaga, 1 for memorial songs cut on logs of wood. How- 
ever, the illiterate eleventh century forms a period the most re- 
markable in the history of Icelandic literature ; for, in the course 
of it the art of truthfully and attractively telling a story is so 
carefully cultivated as to be raised to a classical standard. A 
few words in explanation of this statement are in place here. 
The colonists of the country settled in it without any plan, ex- 
cept so far that the ultimate abode was reared on the nearest 
habitable spot to that where the sacred high-seat pillars, when 
such were on board, were washed ashore. A dreadful solitude 
prevailed throughout the land for a long time while the process 
of colonization was going on which lasted for two-thirds of a 
century. 2 The result was an unquenchable curiosity for news 
from without, 3 which grew into a national characteristic and re- 
mains so in the sparsely inhabited land to this day. The chief 
settlers were men of high birth, who had seen better days. They 
left behind lands, homes, kindred, environment; they took with 
them family traditions, family pride, martial mettle, uncurbed 
ambition. In the widely-scattered homes the family circle be- 
came the centre of orally rehearsed family stories during the even- 
ings of the long winter. These stories were easily learnt by heart 
by mmbleminded listeners. They were the first nuclei of the Saga 
of Iceland. They were recited at religious festivals which were 
presided over and conducted by the temple godi \ at wedding- 
feasts, and at Thing-motes and other popular gatherings. In 
course of time the nucleus expanded into a complex saga re- 
cording the acts of the colonists themselves and their dealings, 
hostile or friendly, with one another. Ultimately the Althing 
at Thingvellir, where the elite of the little nation congregated 
yearly, became the great centre for the display of the story-teller's 

1 F. J6nsson's ed., p. 286. 2 Ari, Islendingab6k, ch. 3. 

8 Out of a great number of notices in the sources illustrative of this state- 
ment let me adduce one: Magnus Einarson consecrated Bishop of Skalholt, 
1134, came back to Iceland, 1135, and rode straight-way to the Althing. 
A contested case at law was being argued before the court. * Then some one 
came up to the court and said that now came Bishop Magnus riding up to 
the Thing. At this news all men were so glad that they went home (z.*., 
left the court). The Bishop stepped forth unto the pavement in front of the 
church and told all the people the tidings which had befallen in Norway 
while he was abroad and all the people marvelled much at his eloquence 
and lordliness.' Hungrvaka, ch. 13, Bisk. Sogur, i. p. 77. 

Ivi Introductory 

art, and from there the saga travelled into every part ^ of the 
country, more or less faithfully remembered and recited to 
curious listeners. 1 The interesting part of this business was that 
the teller of the story was, in most cases, placed face to face 
with critical audiences. The chiefs themselves, their children 

1 In illustration of the above review we may introduce here the remark- 
able story of the Icelandic Saga teller and Harald Hardready, Morkmskinna, 
p. 72-73 : So it befell, one summer, that a man of Iceland, young and brisk 
of gait, came to the King and prayed for his favour. The King asked ^if he 
knew any lore, and he said he knew some sagas. Then the King said he 
would take him in, but he must be ready to entertain (skemta) always who- 
soever should ask him. And this he does, and is befriended by the court- 
folk, who gave him raiments while the King furnished him with weapons 
for his hand. Thus time wears away until Yule. Then sadness fell on the 
Icelander, and the King asked him how that came about. He said it rose 
from his changeable temper. ' That will not be it,' said the King. * I will 
make a guess. I ween,* says he, ' that now thy sagas are at an end ; thou 
hast always entertained this winter any one who has asked thee, and thou 
art troubled of mind to think that they should give out just at Yule-tide.' 
* The matter is even as thou guessest,' said he. f There is left yet only one 
more saga, but that I dare not tell here, for it is the story of thy journey 
abroad.' The King said : ' That, of all sagas, is the one I most should like 
to hear ; and now you shall give no more entertainment until Yule ; besides 
now the men have much work on hand. But on Christmas day thou shalt 
begin this saga, and tell some part of it; but together with thee I shall see 
to it, that the saga shall hold out as long as the Yule-tide lasts. Now through 
Yule there are great drinkmgs going on, and people have but short time to 
sit listening to an entertainment ; but while thou art telling thou wilt not be 
able to find out whether I like it well or ill. 3 And now it comes to pass that 
the Icelander tells the story, beginning on Christmas day and goes on for a 
while until the King presently tells him to stop. The men fall to drinking 
and many of them make it a matter of talk that at any rate it is an over- 
boldness in the Icelander to tell this story, or, what would the King think 
about it ? Some of them thought the Icelander told the story well, others 
were less easily won over ; and thus the thing goes on through Yule-tide. 
The King saw to it carefully that the men should give heedful hearing (to the 
saga) and by the King's watchfulness it so happened that the saga and the 
Yule-tide came to an end together. And Twelfth-night evening, the saga 
having been finished while it was daylight, the King said: 'Art thou, Ice- 
lander, not curious to know how I like the saga ? ' ' I fear me of it, Lord,' 
said the Icelander. *I like it right well,' said the King, it is in no case 
worse than the deeds warrant; or, who taught thee the saga ? J He answers : 
' It was a wont of mine out in Iceland to go every summer to the Althing, 
and I learnt by heart each summer a part of the saga from Halldor Snorri- 
son.' ^Then it is no wonder,' said the King, 'that thou knowest it well ; 
this will make thy good luck; and be thou with me and be welcome; that 
offer thou avail thyself of whenever thou choosest. ' The King fetched him a 
good store of trading goods and he became a man of substance. 

Introductory Ivii 

and relatives would in most cases be numbered among the 
crowd of interested listeners, and would be certain, if necessary, 
to interrupt and correct the reciter, whenever his delivery failed 
in veracity as to facts, or offended against fairness. In fact, the 
story-teller was here at a school which enforced upon him the 
principle of impartiality and the duty of carefully collecting facts; 
for to them must be left the task of showing which side to a story 
was in the right, which in the wrong, and to what extent. In this 
manner it came about, that to tell a story fairly, 2.*?., truthfully, 
was a moral duty and the highest matter of honour, while telling 
a c leaning story ' (halla sogu) was regarded as the meanest of 
actions, and more than once cost the perpetrator his life. 1 In 
the relation existing between reciters and their audiences lies 
hidden the cause of the faithfulness of the oral saga tradition of 
Iceland. In the fact that, in a martial age, the home was the 
cradle of this tradition, we have the explanation of so many 
Icelandic women being mentioned as sources of historical in- 

In the year 1056 the Christian Church, organized under a 
bishop, landed, fen in hand, in Iceland, and set to teaching the 
use of it to its illiterate children with such a success, that in the 
beginning of the twelfth century writing in Roman characters 
seems to have become a common item of culture. And now is 
manifested the peculiar relation, alluded to above, in which the 
twelfth stands to the eleventh century : the twelfth copies down 
the polished oral tradition of its predecessor, and produces the 
great bulk of the saga literature of Iceland. It did more. It 
produced brilliant scholars in the science of history, the earliest 
of whom, Ssemund Sigfusson the Learned, and Ari Thorgilson 
the Learned stand out in their high appreciation of accurate 
chronology, as disciples of the oral tradition school, imbued 
with its enthusiasm for the accurate preservation of the 
memorials of the past. 

SJDMUND, son of Sigfus Lodmundson, a priest of Oddi, 
was born in 1056 and died 1 133 ; in early youth he went abroad 
and was lost sight of for a long time, until he was discovered, in 
1076, at Paris, studying under a great master of astronomy. 2 
In referring to this event the Benedictine monk of Thingeyrar 

1 Njala, 1875, ch. I5S 5 , Olaf Holy's Saga, Heimskr., ii. 222 14 . a9 

2 Jon's saga, Bisk, Sogur, i. 227-230. 

Iviii Introductory 

Gunnlaug Leifson observes, that Ssemund was c one of the most 
profitable of men to the church of God in this land,^ while the 
author of Hungrvaka describes him ' as exceeding wise and of 
all men the most learned' ; a and Odd Snorrison as : ' illustrious 
for wisdom ' (' agetr at speki'). 3 That Ssemund must have been 
a great authority on the history of Iceland as well as that of 
Norway is clear from the fact that Ari submits to his inspection 
the first edition of his ' Islendingabdk ' and relies on his chrono- 
logy in respect of the death of Olaf Tryggvison. 4 That 
Ssemund wrote a book, is attested to by Odd Snorrison: 'So 
has Ssemund written in his book (sva hefir Ssemundr rita^ . . . 
i sinni b6k), 5 but we are in possession of but few particulars as to 
the contents of that book. It can hardly be doubted, however, 
that it was an historical account of kings of Norway up to 
Magnus the Good, paying close attention to chronology. This 
would seem to be borne out by the panegyric poem ' Noregs 
konunga tal ' addressed to Jon Loptson, Ssemund's grandson, 
in which the poet enumerates the rulers of Norway with their 
regnal years, and declares in the fortieth stanza that for the 
regnal years of the first ten of them, Harald Hairfair Magnus 
the Good, both inclusive, he depends upon the authority of 
Ssemund. 6 That this book of Saemund's was in Latin may be 
inferred from Snorri's preface to Heimskringla, where he states 
that Ari the Learned was the * first man of this land, who wrote 
down lore, both old and new, in the speech of the North? This 
statement gains all the more weight when we consider that a 
copy of Ssemund's book must have been found in the Library 
of Oddi, and Snorri must have been aware of its existence, nay, 
must have studied it there. This we infer from Snorri's own 
words, where he says of Ari : ' I deem his lore altogether most 
noteworthy (]?ykki mer hans sogn 611 merkilegust).' 8 In the 
period of the preface to Heimskringla where these words occur, 
Snorri is dealing with Ari's historical (chronological) criticism. 
Before Snorri, only the two men Ari and Ssemund are mentioned 

1 Jon's Saga, Bisk. Sogur, i. 156-157. 

2 Hungrvaka, Bisk. Sogur, i. 67. 

3 Saga 01. Tryggv. s. ch. 32, Fornm. Sogur, x. 289. 

* Islendingabok, preface and ch. 7. 5 /. c. 

6 Fornm. Sogur, x. 422-427, Corpus poet ii. 310-315. 

7 Heimskringla, i. 5. 8 /. c. 

Introductory lix 

as in a special sense historical critics. Both were cited as 
historical authorities in sources which Snorri himself made use 
of, and Ssemund especially by Ari himself, as we have seen. It 
would then seem an obvious conclusion that by the superlative 
e most noteworthy ' Snorri gives inferentially to understand that 
he rejects Ssemund, as an historical guide, in favour of Ari, 
where their chronological calculations do not coincide. And, 
as a matter of fact, strange as it may seem, he never mentions 
Ssemund in Heimskringla, The statement here in question 
seems to point to Snorri's having understood Latin. In the re- 
verse case he would hardly have laid himself publicly open to 
the retort that he acted discreetly in discarding authorities he 
did not understand. The statement may also point another 
way. It may be a veiled, unkind hint of Snorri's to his family- 
proud foster-brother, that great as people may consider the 
authority of his great-grandfather, he is not to be compared 
with Ari. In that case the preface to Heimskringla would be 
written down after 1220, when the relations between Snorri and 
the kindred of Ssemund Jonsson took such a hostile turn, but 
hardly after 1222, when they were all at peace again. And it is 
agreed on all hands that first after his return from Norway in 
1220 Snorri must have set to work on the composition of 
Heimskringla. However, although Snorri did not use Ssemund 
as a guide in writing his history, it by no means follows that the 
perusal of Ssemund's book in his studious days at Oddi did not 
exercise a permanent influence upon him as historian. 

ARI THORGILSON the Learned (1067-1148) preceded 
Snorri by only thirty years. 1 For this, the most careful of all 
historians, Snorri professes the highest admiration. Ari's method 
was to ascertain facts from the highest authorities he had access 
to : old men and wise, of faithful memory, and who themselves 
or their informants were separated in time by the shortest dis- 
tance from the events they attested to. This, no doubt, was a 
method inherited from the oral tradition school, to which all 
Ari's authorities belonged with the exception, perhaps, of 

1 For the scanty information relating to his life we refer to Vigfusson's 
ed. of Sturlunga, I. xxvii-xxviia. Vigfusson knows, as he says, the name of 
his wife and that of a daughter's of his, but gives neither name, nor a refer- 
ence to any source which has supplied him with the information. Diligent 
research by scholars has failed to this day in unravelling this mystery. 

Ix Introductory 

Ssemund. We are here concerned only with his ' Islendingab6k,' 
of which only the second edition is still in existence, a tiny book 
of ten chapters besides preface and two genealogical appendixes 
of a later date than the rest. He tells in his severely concise 
manner the history of the origin of both editions as follows: * I 
wrought, for our bishops Thorlak and Ketil, Islendingab<5k, and 
I showed it to them and to priest Ssemund. And according as 
they were pleased to leave the matter as it was, 1 or to add 
thereto, I wrote this one for the same period, 2 leaving out 
genealogy and lives of Kings, and added what since (I wrote 
the first book) I came to know better, and which is now more 
fully set forth in this (book) than in that (other).'* 

It was the older edition, containing genealogy, in a collective 
sense, and lives of Kings, which Snorri depended upon when 
he wrote Heimskringla. When he says that he has written in 
this book besides tales of rulers in the north, 'also certain of 
their lines of kindred according as they have been taught to mej 4 
we may conclude that it is Ari's ' genealogy ' he is referring to, 
and that Islendingab6k I was used as a text-book at the school 
of Oddi. Here a question arises. In saying that he wrought 
this book for the bishops Thorlak of Skalholt and Ketil of 
Holar, does Ari not plainly indicate that he wrote it to their 
order? The answer must be in the affirmative. We have not to 
deal with an author's spontaneous product which, as a matter 
of literary curiosity he submits to interested friends in order to 
have their opinion about it. On the contrary, he shows it to 
the Bishops in order to know if it may stand as he has written 
it. They recommend excision of certain matters of foreign 
history, and Ari, in order that his book may the more properly 
answer the purpose for which it was required, undertakes the 
trouble of writing it over again on the lines indicated by the 
prelates. In a spontaneous product the excised matter would 
have been a most valuable addition to the information con- 
tained in the book, but in this instance it was not so, because 

1 <Sva at hafa'=so to have = to let what was written stand as it was. 

2 Of et sama far'= over, (covering) the same course (of events), cf. 
*aldarfar,' ratio temporum. 

3 'Isl.-b6k, pref. Libellus Islandprum in Origines Islandicae, i. 287, 
The translation of this passage in Orig. does not tally with the text. 

4 Heimskringla, i. p. 5. 

Introductory Ixi 

it did not answer the purpose for which the Bishops wanted 
the book. And what was that purpose? Obviously the Bishops 
commissioned the writing of the book in order to supply the 
need they felt of providing the youth at the cathedral schools 
with a primer in the history of their own land; and a primer, in 
the true sense, the book is throughout. For this purpose it was 
ordered ; corrected ; rewritten. Even its strange title Libellus 
Islandorum, with no indication of subject matter, points in the 
same direction. Lastly the list of chapters with contents indi- 
cated following the preface stamps the book formally as a school- 
book. Ths purpose this book was meant to serve must be 
allowed to account, to some extent, at least, for its accuracy, 
which is unsurpassed by any other literary monument from the 
classic era. 

Dr. Finsen, the great authority on the laws of the IceL 
commonwealth, drew in 1887 Vigfusson's attention to the un- 
technical nature of law-terms in this book, which no man 
familiar with the legal vocabulary could possibly have used. 
On grounds which deserve attention and further examination, 
Vigfusson came to the conclusion that Ari wrote his book 
originally in Latin (which seems also to have been Fmsen's 
idea), and that the translator was ignorant of law. 1 

Snorn's indebtedness to this author may be gleaned both 
from the preface to Heimskringla and from the references to 
his name in the body of the work. (See Index I, Ari Thorgilson.) 
To trace the actual amount of material Snorri may have fetched 
from Ari must be left unattempted here on account of want of 

Besides these two great historians of the twelfth century, four 
more older than Snorri are known by name, not as authorities 
on chronological criticism, which was regarded as settled for 
ever by Saemund and Ari, but as simply composers of historical 
narratives. Of these the earliest seems to be : 

ERIC ODDSON, a younger contemporary of Ari ; for aught 
we know he may have been his disciple ; as an historian, at any 
rate, he is a rigid adherent to Ari's method. Snorri calls him 
a wise man' (the author of Morkinskinna : 'a wise man and 
sagacious ; ) and avers that * he was a long time in Norway * 

1 Oiigines, i. 282-286. 

Ixii Introductory 

during the reign of the sons of Harald Gilli (1136-1161). He 
wrote a book called Hryggjarstykki (Backbone-piece), contain- 
ing the history of Harald, his two sons, Sigurd and Ingi, besides 
that of Magnus the Blind and Sigurd Slembi-Deacon, e some 
. . . from the telling of Hakon Maw, a landed-man of the sons 
of Harald; and Hakon and his sons took part in all their strifes 
and counsellings'; some from 'wise men and proven true who 
were anigh, so that they heard or saw the things that happened, 
but some he wrote down from his own sight or hearing.^ Here 
we see the method of Ari ideally realized in favourable circum- 
stances. For references to this source of Snorri's history, see 
Eric Oddson, Index I, p. 39; cf. also Morkinskinna, p. 210. 

KARL JONSSON, twice abbot of the Benedictine monastery 
of Thingeyrar in the north of Iceland ( 1 1 69-1 1 8 1 and again after 
the death of abbot Kari 1187, perhaps with a year's interval, 
till 1207, when he finally resigned the office and lived in retire- 
ment till his death, 1213, having been for thirty-five years a con- 
temporary of Snorri). He went to Norway in 1 185 and remained 
there, until he returned to his monastery, engaged in composing 
the saga of King Sverrir (1184-1202), the whole of which prob- 
ably is due to his pen. The first part was indited to him by the 
King himself, while the second was gathered from persons who 
remembered having themselves seen and heard the things that 
happened, while some of them had been present at the very 
battles described.' 1 That Snorri must have known this pecu- 
liarly interesting saga is proved by the reference to Sverrir, 
Heimskr. Ill, 396 ; but the recension he knew of Sverrir's saga 
seems to have differed from the present ; he had no occasion, 
however, to draw on it for the Heimskringla which terminates 
in 1177 on the very eve of Sverrir's appearance as claimant to 
the crown of Norway. Whether it served him as* a source of 
inspiration for his lost song or songs on Sverrir we cannot tell ; 
it is by no means improbable. 

Contemporary with abbot Karl was a monk of Thingeyrar 
ODD SNORRISON, about whose life but little is known, ex- 
cept that he was descended from a settler named Steingrim who 
gave name to Steingrimsfirth in the Strands in north-western 
Iceland and made his own all the lands thereof. Odd wrote a 

1 Sverrir's Saga, Fms. viii. 5 ; Konunga sogur, ed. Unger, 1873, P- * 

Introductory Ixiii 

saga of Olaf Tryggvison in Latin, the original of which is lost, 
but an Icelandic translation of it in three recensions still exists; 
of these recensions the two are defective, the third a mere frag- 
ment of two leaves. 1 He has made use of Ari and Saemund for 
chronological purposes. But the historical stuff he probably had 
from the same persons who told a story of Olaf Tryggvison to a 
fellow ' brother ' at Thingeyrar, Gunnlaug Leifsson. Those in- 
formants, again, must have known how to father their narratives 
on contemporary tellers of episodes in Olaf 's life ; of such Odd 
names several as witnesses to Olaf's sudden disappearance 
from his ship at the battle of Svold : Skuli Thorsteinson, Einar 
Thambarskelfir and Kolbiorn the Marshal ; 2 others, in support 
of the incredible stories that went about of Olaf's escape from 
death and sojourn as monk in Greece, Palestine, and Syria ; 
stories which Odd says he believes himself, though he knows 
that some old men ( = sound historians of the old school) dis- 
credit them ; of these witnesses he names the two Astrids, wives 
of Erling of Soli and Earl Sigvaldi, besides (Upsala fragment) 
c a wise man called Soti the Skald.' 3 The fact of the matter is, 
that monastic studies in legendary and miraculous lore warp the 
historical judgement of Odd throughout. As an historical critic 
he is therefore as worthless as the purely historical matter (the 
real tradition) in his book is valuable. Odd is one of the author- 
ities whom Snorri makes use of for his history, borrowing even 
some of his fantastic legends, but omitting the overwhelming 
mass of them, and in one instance giving plainly to understand 
that he does not regard them as history. 4 An analysis of Snorri's 
indebtedness to, and treatment of, this author would require 
much more space than is left at our disposal. 

GUNNLAUG LEIFSSON, who died in 1218 or 1219, was a 
man of learning and, as it would seem, a churchman of liberal 
views, as he advised the clergy in the diocese of Holar to dis- 
regard Bp. Gudmund's senseless excommunications and ana- 

1 They are all on vellum, Arnam. 310 4, Islandica, Royal Lib. Stockholm, 
20 4 Coll. Delagard. Upsala, 4-7 fol. (2 leaves). 

* A.M. 310, Fms. x. p. 365-366, Stockholm, 20, Olaf Tryggvisons Saga, 
ed. Munch, 1853, p. 6l, Upsala fragm., #., p. 69 (where Styrkarr a 
Gimsom is substituted for Einarr Thambarskelfir). 

8 A.M. 310, /.., p. 370, Stockholm 20, /.*., p. "63, Upsala fragm., $., 
p. 70-71. 

4 Heimsk., vol. i., 334. 

Ixiv Introductory 

themas. He wrote a saga of J6n Bp. of H61ar, 1106-1121, a 
c nova historia Sancti Ambrosii,' and translated into Icelandic 
verse the prophesy of Merlin. 1 He also wrote a saga of Olaf 
Tryggvison in Latin. Of that work only fragments in Icelandic 
translation now exist, inserted in the great Olaf's saga in 
Fornmannasogur (i-iii), and the recension of that saga in 
Flatey-book. Both recensions state that ' the brothers ' Gunn- 
laug and Odd aver that * these persons have told them most of 
what they have put together and set forth in story about Olaf 
Tryggvison'; namely: Gellir Jporgilsson, Asgrfmr VetrliSason, 
Biarni BergJ>6rsson Ingunn Arn6rsd6ttir, Herdis Da'Saddttir, 
J)orger^r J>orsteinsd6ttir.' 2 In the A.M. recension of Odd's 
saga, ch. 73 winds up with : * Here now comes to an end the 
saga of Olaf Tryggvison.' Nevertheless there follow four more 
chapters, in the third of which we read : ' This saga was told 
to me by abbot Asgrim Vetrli^ason and,' etc. (exactly the same 
persons as above). Originally this never belonged to Odd's 
saga, nor have these four additional chapters ever been com- 
prised in the recension represented by the Upsala fragment 
which exhibits the oldest text. This statement in A.M. 310 is 
therefore spurious, though it has found its way into MSS. of 
Odd's work already long before the sagas of Olaf in Flat. b. and 
Fornm. s. were compiled. It follows therefore that the above 
catalogue of informants is due to Gunnlaug only. It stands to 
reason, however, that two authors living at one and the same 
time under one roof engaged in one and the same literary pur- 
suit should, each in his turn, draw information from the same 
body of authorities which stood at the other's disposal. Besides 
these authorities, Gunnlaug professes to have in particular made 
a careful use of the * books' of Ari. 3 He also says that he 
showed his book to Gizur Hallson who kept it for two years ; 
on being returned to Gunnlaug he emended it in accordance 
with Gizur's suggestions.* 

Like Odd, Gunnlaug is too absorbed in legendary lore and 
belief in the miraculous and incredible to be able to realize that 
in the history of such a champion of Christianity as Olaf, the 

1 Bisk. Sogur, i. 151-212, 215-260, 502, ii. 77, Corpus Poet Bon. jL 

2 Fms., iii, 173, Flat, b., i. 517. Fms., iii. 163. 
4 Fms., iii. 173, Flat. b,,i. 517. 

Introductory Ixv 

dry, scientific method of Ari and Ssemund could do proper jus- 
tice to his hero. He copied the inditement of his authorities 
probably faithfully enough; but of criticism he was incapable, 
for he was writing not exactly in the interest of history, but espe- 
cially in that of the victoriously aggressive Christian cult. 
Snoiri must, in all probability, have known Gunnlaug's work, 
which hardly could have added much of historical value to 
that of Odd; whether he really made any extensive use of it for 
Heimskringla is a matter of uncertainty. 

There is no need for us here to enter into any special con- 
sideration of the vast body of anonymous saga-literature relat- 
ing to Iceland itself, which had found its way into writing before 
Snorri, or was committed to writing during his life-time; of 
the whole mass of these Sagas there is only one, the EgiPs 
Saga, that claims consideration in connection with Heimskringla. 
It will be most conveniently dealt with among the other anony- 
mous sources of that work, to which we draw attention further on. 

Of the works of Snorri, the first to be considered is the 

ED DA. The name as well as the authorship is attested to 
by old MS. authority. The codex Upsaliensis, 1 from ab. 1325, 
has the following heading to the whole work : ' This book is 
called Edda; it is put together by Snorri Sturlason after the 
manner herein set forth: First there is told of the Asfolk and 
Ymir, next comes Skaldskapar-mal (Language of poetry), and 
appellatives of many things, and last (the poem) 'Key to metres' 
which Snorri wrought on King Hakon and Duke SkutiV 

The meaning of the name Edda, as title of this book, is much 
disputed. Professor Konrad Gislason argued in ' Aarboger for 
nordisk Oldkyndighed,' 1884, that it was derivable from * <5SSr,' 
song, and meant * poetik,' a derivation tacitly accepted by profs. 
A. Noreen, Finnur J6nsson, etc. I have shown 2 that such a 
derivation is untenable, because J\Q genuine Icelandic root ( 6^S- 
can go into c edd-,' and have proposed, instead, a derivation from 
Oddi, according to which Edda must mean the book of Oddi, 
as, e.g., Vatns-hyrna meant the book of Vatns-horn, a homestead 
so called. This derivation has found favour with such authori- 
ties as profs. Sijmons of Groningen, E. Mogk of Leipzig, and 
the late profound scholar, Dr. J<5n Jporkelson, whose view of 

1 Edited in Edda Snorra Sturlusonar, Hafniae, 1848-87, vol. ii., 250-396. 

2 Saga-book of the Viking Club, 1896, vol. i., 2, pp. 230-232. 
VI. e 

Ixvi Introductory 

the matter I subjoin. 1 The derivation from Old High Germ. 
c Erda' (Corpus Poet. Bor., ii, 514) cannot be taken seriously. 3 
It is objected to my derivation that the ancient sources afford 
no evidence to show that the book ever was at Oddi, or was 
associated with that place. But these very sources state nothing 
to the contrary either; and at any rate show clearly enough that 
the nimbleminded author lived at that place from infancy until 
he was of age. We do not want to be told in so many words 
that during this period Snorri conceived the idea, and laid the 
foundation of his future literary labours. It is an historical fact 
that he did so, though history does not expressly state it. In 
support of the e 6^r ' derivation it is advanced that three poets 
of the fourteenth century, Eystein Asgrimson, canon regular of 

L In a letter, d. 'Reykjavik. I. jiini, 1896' he says : * Eg se ekkert >vi 
til fyrirstofcu fra mallegu sj6narmifci, a<5 orfcifc (Edda) se myndafc af Oddi. 
Hvort bredda er komii af broddr laet eg osagt. Fra malsins hlifc er ekkert 
a moti >vi. Me*r finst spurningin her vera, hvort o a undan tvefbldum 
samhlj6$anda geti me$ i-hljofcvarpi breytst 1 e. Pa$ finst mer J?u hafa sann- 
a$ met? j>eim dcemum, er J3ii hefir tilfoert, og fleiri doemi ma tilfoera, t.d. 
)>okki, J?ekkr, >ekkilegr; botfelottr, m., boSsletta, f., hrollr, hrella. A% 
kenna bok vift >ann bee, >ar sem hun atti heima, var alment. Par af eru 
nofnin Belgsdalsb6k, Bcejarbok, Kalfalcekjarbok, StaSarho'lsbok, Pmgeyra- 
b6k Ekkert er >vf eSlilegra, enn aft kenna J?a bok, sem atti heima i Odda vift 
J>enna boe. Oddabok hefiJi matt kalla hana, enn nafnitJ * Edda ' er styttra 
og handhcegra, eins og J?ti hefir tekift fram. Af * otfr ' getr * Edda 3 eigi veri?J 
komin, haS er moti ollum malreglum. Mig fur^ar a J>vi, aft KonraiS Gfs- 

from C 0ddi j . Whether e bredda' (big knife) comes from 'broddr 3 (goad) 
I leave undecided. Etymologically there is nothing against it. To me the 
questionhere seemstobe, whether0before a double consonant can, byz-umlaut, 
change into e. This, it seems to me, you have proved by the examples you 
have adduced, and more such can be added, *.-., * J?okki' (favour), ' J?ekkr ' 
(favoured), e j>ekkilegr' (acceptable); 'bo*slottr,' m., 'bofcsletta,' f. (a 
self-invited guest); * hrollr ' (shudder), * hrella * (to grieve). To name a 
book aftei the house which was its home, was common ; whence the names 
Belgsdalsbok, etc. Nothing is more natural, therefore, than to name a book 
that had its home at Oddi after that house. It could have been called 
' Oddab6k,* but the name * Edda ' is shorter and more convenient, as you 
have observed. From * 6$r ' Edda cannot be derived : it is contrary to all 
rules of language (etymological principles). I wonder how Konrad Gis- 
lason, usually such a clear-sighted man, could ever take it into his head to 
bring forward such a derivation. 

-book of the Viking Club, ib, 9 pp. 223-226. 

Introductory Ixvii 

Thykkvibser in eastern Iceland, t 1361, Arngrim, abbot of 
Thingeyrar, in northern Iceland, 1 1361 and Arni J6nsson, abbot 
of Munkafvera, northern Iceland, 1 1379, renounce respectively 
obedience to ' Eddu regla/ rule of Edda; * reglur Eddu/ rules of 
Edda; ' Eddu list,' art of Edda. We must first observe here that 
< regla/ 'reglur/' list/ are synonymous terms for 'kenning,* poetical 
periphrasis, the principles of which are taught in a portion of the 
second section of Edda, the ' Skaldskaparmal ' But the ' regla/ 
'reglur/ 'list, 7 excluded third section of the Edda, the 'Hattatal/ 
with its commentary, which is really the section that properly can 
be called 'poetics/ because it deals with the intricate details of 
Icelandic metre. This section the poets never dreamt of disavow- 
ing any more than of giving up-breathing the native air. Nor, after 
all, did they declare against the teaching of the ' Skaldskaparmal/ 
except so far that they, being Christian bards, were disinclined to 
make use of ' kennings ' made up of heathen elements. 1 It is for 
their abandonment, only to this extent, of Edda rules or Edda art 
that they apologize to their readers. Andas the terms 'Edda rules/ 
*Edda art/ only apply to certain details of one section of a book 
which for more than a century previous to these poets had gone un- 
der the name of Edda, it is an evident thing that by these terms 
the poets only mean rules, etc., found in the book called Edda. 

Snorri's Edda, as already indicated, falls into three parts: 
Gylfaginning (The Deception of Gylfi), Skaldskaparmal (Lan- 
guage of poetry), Hattatal (Key to metres), with an elaborate 

GYLFAGINNING (The Deception of Gylfi) is the first sec- 
tion of this book, and is so called because Gylfi, a king in Swe- 
den, ' a wise man and of many fold knowledge/ hearing of the 
wondrous cunning of the Asfolk, went, in the guise of an old 
man, to their city, Asgarth, in order to find out the cause of the 
irresistible success that attended this folk in all their undertak- 
ings. Coming to the city he gave himself the name of Gangleri 
(Wayworn); but the Asfolk were so cunningwise that they knew 
beforehand all about his plan and dealt with him accordingly. 
He was shown into a great palace, Hava-holl (High's-Hall), 
where he saw before him three high seats, in each of which a 

1 This was a tendency which already in the days of Olaf the Holy began 
to manifest itself. The quotation from Skaldskaparmal, below, shows that 
Snoiri also was familiar with it (p. Ixx). 

Ixviii Introductory 

person was seated; he who sat in the lowest seat being called 
Harr (High), the next Jafn-harr (Even-high), and he of the 
highest seat jpriSi (Third). Having asked if there was any man 
of knowledge inside, Gangleri gets the answer from High that 
he will not get out of the place but the wiser for coming. Then 
Gangleri starts his questioning. He is mostly answered by High; 
and the whole of the book consists of questions by Gangleri, 
and answers from the occupants of the high seats. 

Formally, therefore, Gylfagmning is framed on the pattern of 
the mediaeval schoolbook, and is evidently intended to serve 
the purpose of a text-book in northern mythology. And, as a 
matter of fact, the overwhelming mass of northern myths, 
mythic allusions and names are to be found in this singularly 
rich primer. 

Broadly speaking, the connecting thread on which are strung 
the stories that make up the contents of this work is somewhat 
the same as that which runs through the V6luspa from begin- 
ningtoend: chaos origin of things created giants gods 
man dwarfs elfs Yggdrasill catalogue of gods and god- 
desses origin of evil (Loki) Valhall and Einherjar (Death- 
less champions) [Sleipnir (Odin's horse) Sikftbla'Snir (Frey's 
ship) Thor's journey to Outgarth-Loki, to giant Hymir] 
the Baldr tragedy Loki's punishment Ragnarok (end of the 

The primer ends by Gangleri, like Thor at Outgarth-Loki's, 
being suddenly undeceived, standing in the midst of broad 
plains and seeing no hall nor any of the surroundings he had 
been facing during his deception. Whereupon he returned home 
to his Swedish realm, telling of his experience a tale that spread 
thenceforth from man to man. 

Snom's sources have been for the most part written records^ 
notably mythic songs such as we find in the collection currently 
know as the ' Elder ' or ' Poetical Edda ' ; we meet here with 
copious quotations from Voluspa, Grimnismal and Vafpnl'Snis- 
mal, besides single references to four more Older Edda poems; 
in one case the author has from memory made up a single verse 
out of verses 21, 29 and 47 of Lokasenna. In many cases he has 
told his stories without mentioning his authorities, some of 
which are verifiable in the still existing Edda songs, others in 
court poetry or mythic songs not found in the now existing 

Introductory Ixix 

Edda collection. One, an otherwise unknown poem, he men- 
tions, Heimdallargaldr (song or incantation of Heimdall), but 
tantalizingly supplies only two lines of it; however they are 
lines of importance, conveying Heimdall's own statement as to 
his maternity : 

I am nine mothers' child, 

I am nine sisters' son. 

Of importance it is to notice that Snorri, in Chap. I quotes 
from Thiodolf of Hvin lines which, when he wrote Heims- 
kringla, he had come to know were really by Thorbiorn Horn- 
klofi. This shows that, at any rate, this first part of Snorri's 
Edda was written down before Heimskringla, the Harald Hair- 
fair's story of which was penned when Snorri had learnt the 
truth about the authorship of the poem Hrafnsmal, from which 
the quotation in question is derived. It would also seem a 
result of later and fuller information that Snorri, in hisYnglinga 
Saga has so much more to tell than in Gylvaginning about the 
war between the Vanir and the As-folk, about the mutual host- 
ages exchanged at the end of that war, in particular Hcenir 
and Mimir, and, above all, about Odin and his divine attributes. 

As a literary product the Gylfaginning is a veritable master- 
piece, not only as regards the author's command of the con- 
fused mass of material he had to reduce to order and system, 
in which, for a thirteenth century writer, he had eminently suc- 
ceeded, but also as concerns his command of the language in 
which he wrote. His style is one of dignified simplicity through- 
out, direct and crisp; and in the long story of Thor's bewildering 
and exasperating failures at Outgarth-Loki's rises to a point of 
inimitable perfection in descriptive power and subdued delicate 

2. SKALDSKAPARMAL (Language of Poetry). The aim 
of this primer is best expressed in the words of the author 
himself: ' This I have now to impress on young poets who de- 
sire to learn the language of poetry, and to gather in a store of 
archaic terms, or are anxious to know how to unravel what is 
sung with a hidden sense, that they master this book for the 
improvement of their mind and for amusement. But it behoves 
not to unlearn or give the lie to these tales, in order to remove 
from poetry the ancient f kennings ' which the great poets have 

Ixx Introductory 

been pleased to make use of; not that therefore Christian men 
should believe in heathen gods or in the truth of these tales in 
any other way than the one indicated in the beginning of this 
'book 71 (/.., the Preface to Gylfaginning where Snorri appears 

as a sincerely professing Christian). 

This primer, as the foregoing, begins by taking the form of 
question and answer. ^Egir goes on a visit to Asgarth, and 
meets there, at a banquet given to him by the As-folk, Odin's 
twelve Diar, or supreme judges, and eight of the goddesses. 
Among the Diar Bragi the poet undertakes to entertain ^Egir 
with many tales of adventures which had befallen the As-folk, 
winding up with a long account of the events which lead up to 
the drink of poetry being robbed by Odinn from the giant 
Suttung for the everlasting benefit of the As-folk. 

Questioned ^Egir : In how many ways do ye vary expressions 
in poetry, or how many kinds of poetry are there? Answers 
Bragi: There are two kinds by which poetry divides. ^Egir: 
What two? Bragi: Language and metre. ^Egir: What 
kind of language is employed in poetry? Bragi: There is a 
threefold distinction applicable to the language of poetry. 
Which? First: calling things by their own name-, the second 
distinction is that which is called ' fornofn/ vicarious names, 
pronominations ; 2 the third is that which is called ' kenning ' 
periphrasis ... as when we say sig-Tyr (Tyr of victory) or 
hanga-Tyr (Tyr of men hanged), and mean by it Odin (having 
given to him the name of another god associated with his own 
attributes or predicates). 

The whole primer, consisting of three divisions, is a collection 
of illustrations of these distinctions of poetical diction. The 
first and longest, deals with ' kennings ' for certain personalities 
and a great variety of objects besides. We have kennings for 
Odinn, and other gods and goddesses, for man, kings, Christ, 
poetry, heaven, earth, sea, sun, summer, wind, fire, winter, gold, 
battle, weapons, etc. Secondly follows the section on dkend 
heiti, poetical appellatives, terms used in poetry for objects 
which commonly are called by other names, corresponding to 
Bragi's first distinction of the language of poetry. Such, e.g.> 

1 Snorri's Edda, ed. Finnur Jonsson, p. 74. 

2 As is, e.g., fafcir, sonr, broSir, freendi, standing for the actual names 
of the persons thus designated. 

Introductory Ixxi 

are the terms 'bragr,' 'hrd'Sr,' 'tf'Sr,' 'maer^,' <lof,' synony- 
mous with the common prose term ' skaldskapr,' poetry. A 
large number of examples are adduced in illustration of this 
synonymy. Thirdly follow the pronominations with no illustra- 
tions from poetry but plenty from prose. 

Snorri illustrates the 'kennings ' and the poetical appellatives 
with no less than 335 quotations, longer or shorter, from some 
seventy poets, which shows how well the library he had at his 
disposal was stocked with poetical literature, and how carefully 
he used it for a scholarly purpose. As a guide to young poets, 
this handbook must have admirably served the twofold purpose 
of stimulating their interest in collecting and preserving the 
old poetry, and of inspiring them with a desire to master the 
principles of the great coryphei from the age of court-minstrelsy, 
the golden period of which already now was on the wane. 

3. HATTATAL (literally ' Tale of metres ')* This is a poem 
(or rather three poems) by Snorri Sturlason himself, consisting of 
102 stanzas in as many different variations of metre, the most 
extraordinary poetical tour deforce from the classic time. It is 
accompanied by a commentary very elaborate up to the yoth 
stanza, less so for the rest of the poem. This poem forms a 
direct continuation of the subject of Skaldskaparmal, and illus- 
trates the second point of Bragi's second answer to -^Egir (above 
p. Ixx), namely, the formal side of poetry Metre (hattr, pi. 

The poem falls into the following three sections: 

1. Stanzas 1-30, an encomium on the young King of Norway, 
Hakon Hakonson. 

2. St. 31-67, an encomium on Earl Skuli Bardson (1189- 
1240), Hakon's father-in-law. This section winds up with a re- 
ference to the fall of Gunnar, son of Asa, whom Skuli over-came 
in a fight at Apaldrssetr (Appletree-seat), in Vetta-district of 
Ranrealm, in late autumn 1221 ; * so this poem could have been 
composed not before the summer of 1222, when the news of 
Skuli's victory first could have reached Iceland. 

3. St. 68-102, a panegyric on both lords. 

In the 6gth stanza Snorri says: J I wrought three poems, well 
known to people, on the brother of a king (/.<?., on Skuli, brother 

1 Hakon's Saga, p. 64. 

Ixxii Introductory 

to K. Ingi Bardson); now shall 'wade' forth the fourth song of 
praise on the [fight-merry disturber of the peace of the water's fiery 
sheen] ' = valiant scatterer of gold = bounteous lord = Earl Skuli. 
The third of his poems to which Snorri refers here as ' known 
to people,' must be that which makes the second section of 
Hattatal. For already on his return from Norway in 1220, we 
have it on the authority of his nephew, Sturla Thordson, that 
he had wrought two poems in praise of Earl Skuli. 1 And again, 
towards the end of the third section of Hattatal, Snorri himself 
says: 'In bringing the lord of the Mere-folk (Skuli), four 
poems, I was mindful of the bounteous lord's fifteen great gifts.' 2 
Thus the evidence is clear that Snorri wrought on Skuli two 
poems (lost except the 'split-refrain' Klofa-stef, of one) 3 before 
1220, and two more (Hattatal, sections 2 and 3) after that date. 
We have seen that the first and second poems of Hattatal can- 
not have been composed before the summer of 1222. The 
nearer limit for the composition of these poems may possibly 
be fixed by the fact that no allusion is made to the capitulation 
of Sigurd Ribbung to Skuli in the early spring of 1223. This 
was looked upon as ' the fairest victory won by Earl Skuli, as 
it established peace throughout all Norway. 4 Had Snorri been 
aware of this laudable deed of his much-lauded patron when he 
wrote Hatt. 2, he would certainly not have passed it over in 
silence. To do so would have amounted to an insult in a 
prot6g so tightly gift-bound to Skuli as Snorri was. The news 
of this event must have reached Iceland during the sailing 
season (summer + early autumn), of 1 2 23. Accordingly Hattatal 
2 must have been composed in the course of the months that 
covered the summer and winter of 1222, and the winter, spring 
and early summer of 1223. But as to his fourth poem on Skuli, 
Hatt. 3, we have the author's own statement, in the beginning 
of it, stanza 69, that he 'wrought on the king's brother (Skuli) 
three poems known to " the public " ' (kunn J3j6$). The third 
of these three must be Hatt. 2. That by the time Snorri begins 
his fourth song on Skuli he should state that the third was al- 
ready known to people (generally), can have no other meaning 
than that between the composition of the third (Hatt. 2) and 
fourth (Hatt. 3) poems some considerable time had intervened. 

1 Sturl., i. 244. a Cf. Sturl., tbid. 3 Ibid. 

4 Hakon's Saga, pp. 73-74, cf. Mobius, Hdttatal I, pp. 33-34. 

Introductory Ixxiii 

We cannot see how, in the face of this evidence, the opinion 
can be held that the whole of Hattatal was written at one sitting, 
as it were, in 1222 or 1223. We have no means of ascertaining 
when the fourth poem was wrought; we can only say with cer- 
tainty that its composition must have taken place before 1237, 
when Skuli was created Duke, for in the Hattatal he is only 
referred to as earl, several times so in Hatt. 3, which winds up 
in these words : 

Abide hail age, 
In halls of plenty, 
King and Earl! 
So close my song ! 

From Hattatal, as a poem, we learn what a peerless master 
of the technique of Icelandic poetry Snorri must have been; 
from his commentary to it, what a training he has in exposing 
the prosodic intricacies of the interminable varieties of metres 
in which that poetry could be expressed. But it is not an easy 
matter to deal with the technical terms of this commentary so 
as to make them understood by foreigners. Like Skaldskap- 
armal, this is a work of the first importance, not only as a 
primer for the use of the generation of poets contemporary with 
Snorri, who looked upon his enunciations as law, 1 but really for 
all time, on account of the insight it affords the student of the 
ancient poetry into the amazing wealth of technical detail with 
which the laboratory of the old ' song-smiths ' was furnished. 

In Skaldatal (Tale of Skalds), or catalogue of poets who in 
song commemorated the deeds of Princes, titled lords, and lesser 
Magnates in and out of Scandinavia down to the thirteenth 
century, 2 Snorri enters as a court poet of the Kings Sverrir 

1 Cf. Snorr. Edda, Hafniae, 1848-87, II. 8: ' We may well follow them 
(the old poets) in using * kennmgs ' no further spun-out (reknar) than Snorri 
allows.' Cf. also Snorri's rule, Hattatal, comm. to str. 8,: *the ninth 
(poetical licence) is to spin out a kenning to the fifth link (or constituent), 
but to carry it further is out of order ; which, even if it be found in works 
of ancient poets we now regard as of no worth J Sn. Edda, F. J6nsson, 
p. 153. 

2 Found in A. M. 761 4, copied by Arni Magnusson out of * Codex 
Academicus primus ' as he called the MS. ' Kringla, the best of the Heims- 
kringla MSS. (orig. lost); also in the Upsala Cod. of Snorri's Edda. Edited 
in 'SnorraEdda,' Hafniae, 1848-87, Vol. III., pp. 251-286, and Mobius' 
Catalogus librorum Islandicorum et Norvegicorum setatis mediae, Lipsiae, 
1856, pp. 169-194. 

Ixxiv Introductory 

(1184-1202) and Ingi Bardson (1203-1217) and of Earl Hakon 
Galinn (besides, of course, of King Hakon and Earl Skuli). Of 
his encomia on the first three lords no vestige is now preserved, 
nor of the poem c Andvaka ' he addressed to the wife of Hakon 
Galinn, the Lady Christina. Occasional verses by him still sur- 
viving, and two slight fragments from longer poems are collected 
by Professors Mobius l and Fmnur J6nsson. a 

HEIMSKRINGLA, 'The Round World,; is the title under 
which Snorri's great history of the Scandinavian races, the Nor- 
wegian in particular, has passed since about 1682. The most 
genuine text was preserved in a MS. to which in modern times 
were given the names KRINGLA (Round), and c Codex Aca- 
demicus primus' (being the property of the University of Copen- 
hagen), or e Heimskringla.' On internal evidence it can be 
proved that this MS. was written only some twenty years after 
the death of the author, between 1258 and I263. 3 To Copen- 
hagen this MS. had come from Norway at the end of the seven- 
teenth century, and there it perished in the great fire of Copen- 
hagen, 1728. Before that time, however, two transcripts had 
been made of it. The Icelandic calligraphist, Helgi Olafson, 
had copied the MS. on quarto foldings, from the beginning down 
to the end of the saga of Harald Hairfair, while the well-known 
scribe, Jon Eggertsson, had finished the rest by January 27th, 
1682, in Copenhagen. The first scribe gave his copy the title 
of c Heimskringla.' His and Eggertsson's transcripts served as 
printer's copy for the editio frinceps by the Swede, Johan Pering- 
skiold, entitled c Heims Kringla, eller Snorri Sturlusons Nord- 
landske Konunga Sagor, 5 Stockholmiae, 1697. This transcript 
is still preserved in No. 18 fol. among Icel. MSS. in the Royal 
Library at Stockholm. 4 The other copy was taken by the in- 
defatigable and careful scribe, Asgeir J6nsson, and is now pre- 
served in the Arnamagnaean Library at Copenhagen in three 
folio vols. Nos. 35, 36, 63. Strange to say, Prof. Finn. J6nsson's 
edition of Heimskringla, 1893-1901, is the first which recognizes 

1 Hattatal Sn. Sturl., Halle, 1879, i. 27-30. 

2 Snorri Sturluson Edda, K0benhavn, 1900, pp. 212-213. 

3 Gustav Storm, Snorri Sturlassons Historieskrivmng, 206. Prof. Storm 
in this work, and Prof. Finnur Jonsson in his preface to Heimskringla, give 
the best accounts of the MSS of Snorri's work. 

4 Storm, Lc. F. Jonsson, Heimskr. I. x-xiii. 

Introductory Ixxv 

the exclusive right of this MS. to represent Snorri's own text. 1 
Unger's edition, 1868, from which our translation was made, is 
based on 'Kringla,' but has added from other MSS. certain 
chapters to the sagas of Olaf the Quiet, Magnus Barefoot and 
Sigurd Jerusalemfarer. 

In the old MSS. the title of the work varies between ' Noregs 
Konunga sogur,' e Konungasogur,' and c Konungab6k ' (Codex 

Other MSS. containing Snorri's text, but added to and inter- 
polated, are: 

JOFRASKINNA (Kings' skin), so called by Torfauus because 
the MS. was illuminated by figures of Olaf the Holy and his 
son Magnus the Good. The original MS. came into the posses- 
sion of the University Library of Copenhagen in 1655, ^ ut 
perished in the fire, 1728. Fortunately, a copy of it had been 
taken by the head master of Oslo Grammar School, Jens Nielson, 
1567, which is now in the Arnamagnaean Library, No. 37 folio; 
and another copy by Asgeir J6nsson in idgS, 2 

GULLINSKINNA(Goldenskin), defective, contained Snorri's 
work only from Chapter 103 in Harald Hardredy's saga to the 
end, continuing with a fragment of Sverrir's saga, and the greater 
part of Sturla Thordson's Hakonar saga. As this latter saga 
was composed in 1265, Gullinskinna must date from a time 
posterior to that limit, Storm guesses at I27o-i28o. 8 The MS. 
met the same fate, 1728, as the preceding ones, but is preserved 
in a paper copy taken by Asgeir J<5nsson, which is now No. 42 
fol. in the Arnamagnsean library. 

EIRSPENNILL (Brazenclasp), defective, contains Heims- 
kringla from ch. 252 of the Saga of Olaf the Holy to the end, 
and besides the sagas of Sverrir and his successors till 1263, 
in abbreviated form. These abbreviated sagas are published by 
Unger, Christiana, 1873. The MS. is now in the Arnamagn. 
collection, No. 47 fol. and is supposed, by Dr. Kalund, to date 
from the first part of the fourteenth century, by Gustav Storm, 
from c, 1280.* 

CODEX FRISIANUS, so called from having once belonged 

1 F. Jonsson, /.., vi, cf. ii-iv, xlviii. 
a Storm, 207-208, F. J6nsson, /.., xxiy 
3 Storm, 209, cf. F. Jonsson, /.*., xxxii. 
* Ibid., 209-210, F. J6nsson, /.^., xxxii. 


ixxvi Introductory 

to a Danish noblarnan Otto Friis of Astrup (ob. 1699), but 
more properly named, according to its heading: 'Konungabdk * 
is a MS. of Heimskringla from about 1300, preserved in the 
Arnamagnsean library under No. 45 fol. It omits Ol. Holy's saga, 
but contains, at the end, the saga of King Hakon Hakonson. 
From the saga of Harald Hardredy, the Heimskringla text is 
largely fused with that of Morkinskinna, so that that portion of 
the MS. cannot properly be regarded as at all a text of Heims- 
kringla. The whole MS. was edited by Unger, Christiania, 
iS;!. 1 

HULDA, a fourteenth century MS., A. M. 66 fol., beginning 
in the sixteenth chapter of the saga of Magnus the Good, and 

HROKKINSKINNA (Shrunkenskin), a fifteenth century 
codex, No. loro fol., in the 'Old Collection 7 of the c Royal 
Library ' of Copenhagen, beginning with the saga of Magnus 
the Good, are really in no other sense Heimskringla texts than 
that they use the text as a source with which they mix stuff 
from other sources and thus produce a new variation of history 
on the period they cover. 2 

This brief review of Heimskringla texts will presumably not 
be unwelcome to readers of the Saga Library, though it may be 
regarded as not very intimately connected with Snorri in his 
capacity of author of Heimskringla. 

Above we have indicated (pp. Ivii-lxv) the works by known 
authors that served Snorri as sources for this great work of his. 
We shall now, as briefly as possible, notice the anonymous 
works which served him in the same manner. 

HISTORIA NORVEGIAE is the name of a Latin chronicle 
dating from the latter end of the twelfth (Storm) or the begin- 
ning of the thirteenth century, which deals with the history of 
Norway under her early kings down to the introduction of 
Christianity. It depends partly on older written records, partly on 
tradition. We mention it here because Professor Gustav Storm 
has shown that between this chronicle and the Ynglmg saga in 
Heimskringla there are such points of affinity as in his opinion 
to warrant the conclusion that Snorri has borrowed from this 
source the information that goes beyond the contents of Thio- 
dolfs verses (the Ynglingatal). 3 This becomes doubtful in face 

1 Storm, /.., 210, F. Jonsson, /.<:., xxi-xxiv. 2 Storm, Lc., 69-71. 
3 Storm, /.f,, 22-25. 

Introductory Ixxvii 

of Snorri's own words in the Prologus ': 'After Thiodolf's tale 
are the lives of the Ynglings first written, and matters added 
thereto from the tales of men of lore,' as it is uncertain whether 
by takS) sogn in the second instance, he means oral tradition 
or written record. It may even refer to information he drew from 

SKIOLDUNGASAGA (Story of the Skioldungs, or early 
rulers of Denmark). This is a saga which but for small frag- 
ments (A. M. i, e, /3, i, 1 and 20, 6, i, in folio) is now lost, but 
existed in Iceland even in the days of Arngrim J6nsson the 
Learned (IserSi) (i 568-1 648), who drew upon it for a work which 
he called ' Suplementum, historiae Norvegicae,' 2 at least for that 
part of it which treated of the mythic and legendary kings of 
Denmark. In his account of the great battle on the ice of 
Lake Vener between King Adils of Sweden and Ali the Up- 
lander, 3 Snorri says : c Concerning this battle is much told in 
the Story of the Skioldungs and also how Rolf Kraki came to 
Upsala,' etc. 4 This saga therefore has been one of his sources 
at least for the Ynglinga saga, but to what further extent cannot 
be stated with certainty. Both Storm and J6nsson agree that 
the episodes of Hugleik, Starkad and Haki, as well as the 
account of Ingiald Evilheart and Ivar Widefathom owe their 
origin to Skioldunga saga. 5 That the story of Rolf Kraki, both 
here and in Snorri's Edda, must come from the same source is 
pretty well proved by Snorri's own words cited above. The story 
of Sigurd Hart Snorri tells evidently on the authority of a written 
record: So tells the tale,' 'and long is the tale of him,' which 
most likely was the Skioldunga saga. 6 On this source of Snorri's 
work I refer for further information to Storm 7 and F. Jonsson. 8 

AGRIP af Noregs Konunga sogum, epitome of the sagas of 
the kings of Norway is a work preserved only in one MS., 
A.M. 325, ii. 4, dating from the first half of the thirteenth 

1 Edited as ' Sogubrot J in Fornaldarsogur Norfcrlanda, i. p. 363-388. 

2 Edited by Axel Olrik in Aarb0ger for nordisk Oldkyndighed og 
Historic, 1894. 

3 Also told of in Snorri's Edda, Jonsson's ed., 108. 

4 Story of the Ynglings, Heimskringla, i, 50. 

5 Ibid., i, 37-38. 39-40, 55-64. 

6 Story of Halfdan the Black, Heimskringla, i, 81. 

7 Storm, I.e., 66-67, 109-111. 

8 Den oldnord. og oldisl. litteraturs historic, ii. 2, 665-6. 

Ixxviii Introductory 

century, defective in capite et cake. It was first edited by Finn 
Magmisson in Fornmanna Sogur, x, 376-421, I835, 1 and diplo- 
matically by Verner Dahlerup, K0benhavn, 1880. This epitome, 
as we have it now, begins in the last chapter of the Saga of 
Half dan the Black, and goes down to the account of the sons 
of Harald Gilli, thus, in a way, covering the whole historical 
period of Heimskringla. The MS. is of Icelandic origin, a copy, 
according to Storm, of a Norse original ; the author, according 
to Storm, was a Norwegian ; according to Finnur J6nsson, in- 
dubitably an Icelander. In that case he must have been a 
resident in Norway for a long time, for his work shows clearly 
that he was particularly conversant with local Norwegian tra- 
ditions, specially such as were current in Thrandheim. For 
every saga contained in Heimskringla from Halfdan the Black 
down to Harald Gilli's sons, Snorri has made use of this source 
of information. 2 

MORKINSKINNA (Rottenskin), a vellum thus called by 
Torfaeus on account of its decayed state, is now preserved 
in the * Old Collection * of the Royal Library of Copenhagen, 
No. 1009 fol.; it dates from the close of the thirteenth cen- 
tury, and contains sagas of the kings of Norway from the ac- 
cession of Magnus the Good, 1035, to the death of Eystein 
Haraldson, U57- 3 This work depends for its contents upon 
older records, such as Agrip and Eric Oddson's Hryggjarstykki, 
besides a rich store of verses, the tenor, however, of which the 
author has not always been able to master. This is the first of 
the historical works relating to Norway which interlards the text 
with anecdotal matter mostly of a biographical character, the 
insertions sometimes going to a length which interrupts the 
historical nexus to a tantalizing degree. This is one of the 
sources on which Snorri has drawn for all the sagas of Heims- 
kringla, from that of Magnus the Good to that of Ingi Haraldson 
and his brethren. 4 

JARLASOGUR (Earl-tales 5 ), or the sagas of the Earls of 

1 Translated into Latin by Egilsson in Scripta historia Islandorum, x. 

2 See Storm, /.*., 25-28; Fmnur J6nsson, Litt. hist, ii. 2, 618-625. 

3 Edited by C. R. Unger, Christiania, 1867. 

4 Storm, /.*., 21-31; Finnur J6nsson, Litt. hist., 625-630. 

5 Olaf the Holy's saga, Heimskringla, ii. 188. 

Introductory Ixxix 

Orkney, commonly known as Orkneyinga saga, is yet a work 
which has served Snorri with historical material. He has drawn 
on it for the sagas of Harald Hairfair, Hakon the Good, Olaf 
Tryggvison, largely for that of Olaf the Holy, less for Harald 
Hardredy, Magnus Barefoot, Harald Gilli and Magnus Erling- 
son. About the authorship of the work nothing is known beyond 
the obvious fact that it must have been put together before 
Snorri began writing Heimskringla. It covers the whole period 
dealt with in Heimskringla, from Harald Hairfair to the year 
1158, the death of Earl Rognvald Kali. It is of Icelandic 
origin, and is best edited by Vigfusson. 1 

F^EREYINGA SAGA, which now is found split up into 
chronologically suitable sections in the Flatey book, but must, 
of course, have existed as a whole saga in Snorri's time, has 
been utilized by him for illustrating the uneven struggle that 
went on between K. Olaf the Holy and the Faro people in 
respect of the subjection of the islands to the Norwegian crown, 
1024-1026. It was edited by C. C. Rafn, Kjobenhavn, i832. a 

FAGRSKINNA (Fairskin) is a name by loose usage given 
to a work on the history of Norway, two recensions of which 
are now preserved in paper transcripts, A.M. 51 fol. 302, 4 
(B) and 52 fol. 301 and 303, 4 (A.); to the second of the two 
recensions (A) Torfseus applied this title on account of its fine 
binding; but the real title of the work was ' N6regs Konunga tal' 
(B), or perhaps rather ^Ettartal Noregs Konunga (A). The B re- 
cension, of which one vellum leaf still remains, is of the thirteenth 
century, the A one of the fourteenth. 3 The work has covered 
the time from Halfdan the Black to the reign of Magnus Erling- 
son, the same period as the historical Sagas of Heimskringla. 
There is much divergence of opinion as to whether this work 
has been a source for Heimskringla or the reverse. Storm came 
to the conclusion that the former was the case; 4 while Maurer 
held that Fagrskinna borrowed from Heimskringla, at least from 

1 Storm, /.., 61-64 Icelandic Sagas (Rolls Series), i. 1887 Finnur 
Jonsson, Litt. hist., ii. 2, 653-659. 

2 Cf. Storm, /.<:., 64-65, Finnur Jonsson, Litt. hist, ii. 649-653. 

3 The work has been twice edited: I, on the basis of A by Munch and 
Unger, Christiania, 1847. 2 * on the basis of B by Finnur J6nsson, K0ben- 
havn, 1902-1903. 

4 Storm, /.., 43-45. 

Ixxx Introductory 

the saga of Har. Hardredy and onward. Finnur J6nsson is of 
opinion that Fagrskinna could not have been written much 
before I240, 1 and there are certain chronological facts which 
point in that direction. Knut, son of Hakon, is called * Earl/ 
which he was created 1239-1240; Skuli is called a Duke, which 
title was conferred on him 1237. Valdimar, Valdimar's son, 
K. of Denmark, is mentioned in this way: 'The children of 
K. Valdimar and Suffia were , . . King Valdimar/ which, in 
genealogical language, generally means that children so referred 
to were dead at the time they were thus entered in a genealogy. 
This King Valdimar died in 1241, the same year as Snorri. 
The chronological evidence must therefore be regarded as clearly 
against the theory of Professor Storm. The close affinity between 
the texts of Heimskr. and Fagrsk. must consequently be ac- 
counted for by the latter being the borrower, or being independent 
of Heimskringla and depending on a common source. 2 One point 
we must regard as of striking significance. If Snorri, with his 
strong sense of the paramount importance of contemporaneous 
poems, made use of Fagrskinna, how could he have omitted 
from his text the magnificent Eiriksmal, especially when he was 
so badly off for poetical evidence for Eric Bloodaxe's exploits, 
and, moreover, honoured his brother Hakon with the whole of 
Eyvind's Hakonarmal, admittedly an imitation of Eiriksmal? 

To the foregoing sources may still be added the JOMS- 
VIKINGA SAGA, which originally took shape from the various 
narratives brought to Iceland by Icelanders who had taken part 
in the fight of Hiorungwick. Snorri has made use of this saga 
only for Earl Hakon's history. 3 

EGILSSAGA, commonly called EGLA has, till but very lately, 
been counted among the sources of Heimskringla. Now opinion 
in this respect has undergone a decided change. It was Dr. 
Vigfusson who first suggested the idea that this saga might be 
due to the pen of Snorri: 'The style is bold and vigorous, well 
suiting the subject, and resembling in a marked degree that 
of Snorri, who may well have felt an interest in the hero in 
whose home, Borg, he himself had dwelt, wielding the chieftain- 

1 Ueber die Ausdnicke altnordische . . . Sprache, etc., Munchen, 1867, 
4, Anm. 29. 

2 Litt. hist., ii. 2, 630-639. 

3 Cf. Storm, /.<:., 67-68; Litt. hist.,ii. 2, 659-665. 

Introductory Ixxxi 

ship of the district as Egil's political descendant.' 1 Since Vig- 
fusson wrote scholars have been half inclined to his idea (A. 
Gjessing, Finnur J6nsson); but it was reserved for the profound 
scholarship of Dr. Bjorn M. Olsen to find what probably will 
remain a lasting solution of the question. 2 He comes to the 
conclusion that Snorri himself is the author of Egilssaga. Egils- 
saga, he shows, on comparison with the texts of Landnama, 
gives to Skalla-Grim wider lands and lordship than, on critical 
examination the Landnama, in its oldest form, warrants. In the 
same manner Egilssaga deals with the lordship of Tongue-Odd 
as compared with Landnama. Ot both these chiefs Snorri was 
the 4 political descendant/ having acquired the former's and his 
descendants' manorial seat, Borg, by marriage, and the latter^ 
godord by the purchase of Reykholt. Historically enhancing the 
importance of the chieftainship of these his predecessors could 
have interested no one at the time that Egilssaga was wntten, 
Snorri's own life-time, more than Snorri himself. Style, interest 
for antiquarian subjects, method of using verses in support of 
historical statements, fondness for the members of the family of 
the Mere-men, especially those from whom Snorri traced his 
descent, striking parallels between the texts of Eg. s. and 
Heimskr., exactness of topographical knowledge of Borgfirth 
and the countrysides round Oddi, as well as of the geography 
of Norway, etc, all these matters, Dr. Olsen shows in detail, 
combine strongly in support of Snorri's authorship of Egla. A 
telling positive proof, too, he adduces from the Saga of Gunn- 
laug the Worm tongue; So say * frd&r ' (learned men) that many 
in the kin of the Meremen have been the goodliest of men, etc. 
The whole passage is borrowed from Egilssaga (Ch. 87, p. 321, 
F. J6nsson's ed.). An exactly analogous case is found in Land- 
nama (Sturla's recension, F. J6nsson's ed., ch. 90) : * so say 
"fhS&r" men that this summer xxv ships went to Greenland,' 
which in Hauk's book and Melabok texts, Landn., ch. 78, reads: 
'So says Ari Thorgilsson (hinn frdfci) etc.' The author of Egil's 
saga, then, was called 'hinn frtf&'j so even was Snorri called. 
Henceforward the Egilssaga will cease to be counted among 
outside sources supplying Heimskringla with historical material. 

1 Sturl., Prolegomena, xlviii. 

2 In a contribution to Aarb0ger for nordisk Oldkyndighed 1904, pp. 167- 

VI. / 

Ixxxii Introductory 

It is necessary to add here some few remarks on the peculiar 
position occupied by the Saga of Olaf the Holy (O. H.) alone 
among all the sagas of Heimskringla. From the manner in 
which certain events, already dealt with in the Sagas of Hairfair, 
Hakon the Good, and Tryggvison, are again treated in O. H., 
it seems to us that the conclusion is obvious that O. H. was 
written down before the historical sagas that precede it. 

In Hairfair J s Saga we have the account of Earl Turf-Einar's 
dealings with Hakon Highleg and of Hairfair's treatment, in 
consequence, of the Earl and the Orkney people (i. 122-123, 
125-127). In O. H. (ii, 168) we have the same events rehearsed 
more briefly, but without any saga cross-reference which in such 
a case is commonly employed, such as: c as is written before,' 
or the like. 

In Hakon the Good's Saga (i. 152) we have the story told 
how Eric Bloodaxe with wife and children fled to Orkney before 
Hakon. The same event is put on record in O. H. (ii. 169) but 
without any allusion whatever to a previous mention of it. 

In Olaf Tryggvison's Saga (i. 241) and in O. H. (ii. 169), the 
second flight of Gunnhild and her family to the Orkneys is told 
of, but" without any hint in the latter record to a previous men- 
tion thereof. 

Again in Tryggvison's Saga there is (i. 290-291) a lengthy 
account of his call at the Orkneys on his way to Norway from 
the west, and of his enforcement of Christinity on Earl Sigurd 
Hlodvirsson and his people. This account is derived from a 
source which has been identical with that vellum of the Orkney 
saga which Vigfdsson calls A., 1 which was rendered into Danish 
about 1570 by a Norweigan whose translation still survives in 
a transcript from 1615. The passage here in question will be 
found in Vigfiisson's re-translation into Icelandic of the Danish 
text in his edition of Orkneyinga saga, ch. 12 (p. 14). This 
same matter is put on record in O. H. (ii. i69 12 . 23 ), not only 
without any reference to its having been recorded already, but 
from a source different from the one already described. The 
two disagree in certain details. If the Sagas of O. T. and O. H. 
were written consecutively, surely Snorri would have drawn in- 
formation about one and the same event from one and the same 

1 A very fragmentary transcript by Asgeir J6nsson, A. M. 332 4, is the 
only remaining evidence of a former existence of this vellum. 

Introdiictory Ixxxiii 

source in both sagas, for the sake of self-consistency, unless he 
saw reason, on critical grounds, for modifying or altering in the 
second saga what, on insufficient knowledge, he had put down 
in the first. In this case the statement of the preceding saga 
shows ieself to be an expression of a fuller, more accurate 
knowledge than that of the succeeding, which therefore presum- 
ably was the first written down. 

In O. Tryggvison's Saga (i. 33S 13 . 15 ), Thorarinn Nefiulfson 
comes into the story as if he had been mentioned before. And 
in O. H. (ii. 133) he is introduced to the reader with the full 
saga ceremonial adopted when a new person makes his first 
appearance : ' There was a man named Thorarinn son of Nefiolf, 
etc.,' with no hint to the fact that he had been brought on the 
stage before. 

A telling case is that of Ketil lamti, whose tale is told in the 
Saga of Hakon the Good (H. G.) and O. H. 

H. G. (i. i62 19 .-). (O. H. (ii. 2763.-). 

After describing Eystein the c Ketil lamti hight a man, 

Evil-minded's war in, and ig- the son of Earl Onund of 

nominious treatment of the Spareby, in Thrandheim. He 

people of, Thrandheim, setting had fled before King Eystein 

up his dog Saur for their king, the Evilminded east over the 

the story goes on: Keel. He cleared the woods 

4 Ketil lamti, the son of and built there, whereas it is 

Earl Onund of the Spar-biders, now hight lamtland. Eastway 

went east away over the Keel, thither fled also crowds of folk 

and a great company of men from Thrandheim before that 

with him, who had their house- unpeace; for King Eystein 

holds with them. They cleared made the Thrandheim folk 

the woods, and peopled great yield him scat and setup for a 

countrysides there, and that king there his own hound hight 

was called sithence lamtland.' Saur.' 

In H. G. Ketil comes in as if he had been mentioned before ; 
while in regular saga fashion he is in O. H. brought on the stage 
as appearing there for the first time, with no hint whatever to 
the fact that the story had already been told in H. G. It seems 
difficult to account for this except on the supposition that O. H. 
was written before H. G. 



The most striking evidence in support of our theory is afforded 
by the story of Harek of Thiotta in Olaf Tryggvison's Saga 
(O. T.) as compared with that presented by O.H. 
O. T. O. H. 

(ii. 1 8930 ) ' Now there was 
a man named Harek, son of 
Eyvind Skaldspiller, who dwelt 
in the island of Thiotta, which 
lies in Halogaland.' Then the 
story goes on describing his 
land-grabbing in the island 
( l8 9 2 4-32) his wisdom and 
energy (18952-190!), his hon- 
ours and high descent age 
preferments friendly rela- 
tions with Olaf the Holy (i9o r 

(i- 30919-) ' King Olaf . . . 
stood north along the land, 
being minded for Halogaland 
to christen folk there. But 
when he came north to Bear- 
eres, then heard he of Haloga- 
land that they had an host out 
there and were minded to de- 
fend the land against the king. 
And there were captains of that 
host Harek of Thiotta . . .' 
(324-329) A long account of 
the kidnapping of Harek at 
Tryggvison's behest; how he 
enters into Olaf s service and 
how they become the best of 

Here it is perfectly evident that in O. T. Harek comes in as 
a person already properly introduced to the reader. That intro- 
duction took place when the author wrote O. H., the composi- 
tion of which, therefore, must precede in time that of O. T. 

On the other hand, the following passages from O. H. and 
the Saga of Magnus the Good (M. G.), would seem to yield an 
additional proof of the correctness of the theory here advanced : 

O. H. (ii. 267). 

' He (Knut the Mighty) set 
up behind him in Denmark 
Hordaknut his son, and with 
him Wolf the Earl, the son of 
Thorgils Sprakalegg. Wolf was 
wedded to Astrid, the daughter 
of King Svein and sister of 
King Knut, and their son was 
that Svein who was sithence 
King in Denmark.' 

M.G. (iii. 29). 

c A man is named Svein, the 
son of Earl Wolf, the son of 
Thorgils Sprakalegg. The 
mother of Svein was Astrid, 
the daughter of King Svein 
Twibeard. She was the sister 
of Knut the Rich, etc. 3 

Introductory Ixxxv 

If M. G. was written straightway on the conclusion of O. H., 
it does not seem in Snorri's style to repeat himself as he does 
here, introducing Svein as if he had never been mentioned 
before, which, as a matter of fact, he had been not only in the 
passage quoted, but also as intercessor for his father with King 
Knut (li. 319). The natural explanation seems to be that when 
the passage in M. G. was penned, the author had forgotten, for 
the moment, what he had written in O. H., which was natural 
if a considerable period divided the composition of the two 
sagas, but scarcely explainable if M. G. was composed con- 
secutively on O. H. 

On the whole the conclusion seems warrantable, that the 
Saga of Olaf the Holy was the first penned instalment to 
Heimskringla. Its relation to the larger Olaf s Saga l is far too 
wide a subject to be taken up to discussion here. Our own 
opinion is that this larger OlaPs Saga is Snorri's first edition, 
and that it was incorporated in Heimskringla revised and shorn 
of matters which were dealt with in the other sagas of that 
collection. But, even if it were an expanded edition of O. H, 
in Heimskringla, it would not affect the theory suggested 

When Snorri sets about writing the history of Norway, it 
presents to his mind the aspect of two great tableaux, the first, 
filled in with the progeny of Halfdan the Black down to Sigurd 
Jerusalemfarer, 1130; the second made up of that of Harald 
Gilli down to Eystein Maiden, 1177. These tableaux are fore- 
shadowed in dreams: the first, in dreams dreamt by Queen 
Ragnhild and her husband, Half dan the Black; hers indicating 
the greatness of her descendants in general; his pointing in 
particular to Olaf the Holy as the most glorious scion of the 
stock. The second tableau is unfolded in a dream of Sigurd 
Jerusalemfarer's : darkness scudding up from the main Norway- 
ward showing, on nearer approach, a tree, the roots of which 
wade through the deep, while the branches overshadow it, 
breaking, on landing, into pieces which drift into every creek 
along the shore, * most small, but some bigger.' Snorri's busi- 
ness is pragmatically to unravel the relations in which the 
characters that fill both tableaux stand severally to each other. 

1 Edited by Munch and Unger, Christiania, 1853. 

Ixxxvi Introductory 

The materials at Snorri's disposal were: oral tradition; 1 
written genealogical records; 2 old songs or story lays such as 
Thiodolf's Tale of the Ynglings and Eyvind's Haloga Tale; 3 
poems of court poets, /.<?., historic songs, which people knew 
by heart all from the days of Hairfair down to Snorri's own 
time. c And most store,' he says, ' we set by that which is said 
in such songs as were sung before the chiefs themselves or the 
sons of them; and we hold all that for true which is found in 
these songs concerning their wayfarings and their battles. 5 * Of 
the written prose sources he drew upon he only mentions Ari 
the Learned's 'book,' i.e., the first edition of c Islendingab6k,' 
probably, as it seems to us, because in the statements of that 
work he had as implicit a faith as in the other sources he men- 
tions, and found reason to alter nothing therein, while the 
sources he does not mention he silently criticises throughout, 
rejecting or altering them according as his ciitical faculty 

Before Snorri's time there existed only biographies, separate, 
disjointed biographical monographs, on Norwegian kings, 
written on the model of the family sagas of Iceland. Snorri's 
was a more ambitious task. Discerning that the course of life 
is determined by cause and effect, and that in the lives of kings 
widely ramified interests, national and dynastic, come into play, 
he conceived a new idea of saga-writing: the seed of cause 
sown in the preceding must yield its crop of effect in the suc- 
ceeding reign. This the writer of lives of kings must bear in 
mind. And so Snorri addresses himself to writing the first 
pragmatic history ever penned in any Teutonic vernacular the 

In illustration of what we have now said we may begin by 
drawing attention to the reigns of Hairfair and his son Eric 
Bloodaxe. Harald had his sons fostered away from home 
mostly with their mothers and their kindred. They knew, there- 
fore, one another not as brothers do who are brought up at 

1 Preface, i. 3 : * tales 3 . . . * even as I have heard men of lore tell the 
same ' ; matters added to the lives of the Ynglings by Thiodolf * from the 
tales of men of lore ' ; ifod., 4. Cf., however, p. Ixxvii. 

2 Ibid.: Telling up of Forefathers wherein Kings and other men of high 
degree have traced their kin. 

* Ibid., 3-4. * Ihd., 4-5. 

Introductory Ixxxvii 

home. What they knew well, and what their mothers and other 
fostering guardians did not fail to impress upon them, was that 
they were heirs to the great conqueror's power and possessions, 
each one considering his own birthright as good as that of any 
of his brothers. Most of them inherited the father's overween- 
ing ambition and physical prowess, and with irrepressible reck- 
lessness broke their father's laws as he had himself in youth 
ruthlessly broken the constitutional system of his nation. En- 
feebled by age he must pacify the unruly crowd and divide his 
realm among them. This caused a fatricidal state of things, 
with the effect that Eric, offending his brothers' kindred in every 
direction, loses all hold on the loyalty of the people and must 
seek safety in exile, when his youngest brother comes forward 
to claim the crown that Eric knew not how to wear with pro- 

Throughout the story of the sons of Eric we can see that the 
cause of their misfortunes is their mother Gunnhild, as she had 
been indeed to a large extent of those of her husband. At 
length she finds her match in Earl Hakon. Through her insti- 
gation her sons had murdered his father. For seven years he 
broods over his revenge and effects it in the end. That was 
the effect of Gunnhild's state-craft. 

Olaf Tryggvison slaps a dowager queen in the face with his 
glove. The result is a triple alliance against him and his fall in 
the battle of Svold. His saga forms the introduction to that of 
his kinsman and namesake Olaf the Holy, who becomes Nor- 
way's national saint merely by the accident that the body of 
Olaf Tryggvison was never found. At the horrible death of 
Earl Hakon of Ladir Snorri takes the opportunity of enunciating 
beforehand the text of both sagas in this way: ' Most evil hap 
had such a lord in his death-day. And this brought it most 
about that so it was, that the day was come, when foredoomed 
was blood-offering and the men of blood-offerings and the holy 
faith come in their stead and the true worship.' On this text 
hinge both sagas of the Olafs, in which Snorri unfolds his 
highest qualities both as stylist and narrator. Olaf Tryggvison's 
is the proudest figure drawn in Heimskringla; Olaf Haraldson's 
the most carefully and sympathetically worked out. One feels 
that Snorri has greater admiration for Olaf the Holy than for 
any other character he depicts. It may very well be on religious 

Ixxxviii Introductory 

grounds, although he makes no great parade of religious senti- 
ments, the passage quoted above being about the only one that 
can be pointed out in that sense. Perhaps OlaPs unswervingly 
evenhanded justice without regard of person was after all what the 
Icelandic lawyer and speaker-at-law admired most in his favourite 
hero. In his personal descriptions Snorri takes care to let the 
descendants of Hairfair present features of body or traits of 
character that remind of the ancestor Magnus the Blind, a 
drunkard even in youth, does not come into consideration. 
They are goodly of aspect, martial, energetic, and masterful, 
with, as a rule, great capacity for government, and some of them 
for legislation and reform. Harald Hardredy adds to the family 
traits the gift of poetry, and Olaf, his son, a strong taste for art 
and refinement. He patronizes architecture, reforms the ar- 
rangements of the hall, introduces luxurious fashions in dress, 
and takes great interest in fostering sociability by means of 
gilds and Scot-houses. He is the only one of Hairfair's suc- 
cessors who on principle is opposed to war, and favours popular 
freedom : Your freedom is my gladness ' are the proud words 
by which he enunciates the principles of his wise government. 

When the Gillungs, or race of Harald Gilli, come in, there 
comes also a change over Snorri's personal descriptions. No 
more do we find him alluding to kingly traits of character, nor 
even to any striking features of physical goodliness. With the 
exception of the cripple Ingi, for whom Snorri entertains sym- 
pathetic feelings, these Gillungs are mostly unprincipled rowdies 
and unkingly of conduct, with the result that as kings in the 
land they are a signal failure, and come to an end after an in- 
glorious run of seven and forty years. 

All students of Icelandic unite in admiration of Snorri's 
style. All through it is pervaded by an air of aristocratic dignity 
and that quietude and ease which result from supreme mastery 
of the subject. Yet with these qualities there goes a classic 
vigour unrivalled in the literature, except by the Nial's saga. 
The language is simple, but its simplicity is really due to clear- 
ness of thought and vividness of imagination. The periods are 
short; no involution is indulged in; they are graphic, pellucid. 
Speeches are abundant, after the fashion of the sources Snorri 
made use of, and are striking specimens of conciseness of argu- 
ment and concentration of point. Dialogue, too, is a device 

Introductory Ixxxix 

frequently made use of for the purpose of exhibiting a situation 
in stronger relief. This form of style Snorn handles with great 
skill, which especially shows itself in his tactful resistance against 
the temptation of out-running classical conciseness. We refer 
the reader to the masterpiece, vol. in. 279-283. One noticeable 
point in Snorri's art of writing history is the employment of 
silence^ where the piquancy of a situation cannot fail to rouse 
the reader's reflection as to what really took place. A telling 
example is the story of Harek's kidnapping, 1 and the mysteri- 
ous loss of two ships sent to Faro by Olaf the Holy, 2 for the 
purpose of persuading the people to give up their traditional 
independence. For humorous situations, too, Snorri has a keen 
taste, witness: Thorleifs advice to King Halfdan the Black 
how to procure a dream; 3 the story of the tongue-bound bon- 
ders at the Thing in Rogaland, intending to vindicate their old 
faith against Olaf Tryggvison: 4 Hallfred's conversion to Christi- 
anity; 6 the anecdote of the propensities of Olaf the Holy's 
half-brethren; 6 Thorarinn Nefiolfson's wager anent the ugliness 
of his foot; 7 the interview between Lawman Edmund and Olaf 
the Swede; 8 Thorarin Nefiolfson's tricks on Olaf the Holy for 
the purpose of saving the life of Asbiorn Sealsbane; 9 Harald 
Hardredy's casting of lots with Gyrgir; 10 Harald's girding at 
Earl Finn Arnison, where, by the way, Snorri shows his refine- 
ment of feeling, by making an excuse for repeating a clever but 
coarse repartee of the Earl; 11 Olaf the Quiet and the sooth- 
sayer; 12 Sveinki and Sigurd Woolstring; 13 King Magnus' negotia- 
tions for peace with Sveinki; 14 Gifford the Welsh knight; 15 the 
man-matching between Kings Eystein and Sigurd ; 18 King 
System's comforting of love-lorn Ivar Ingimundson; 17 Thorarin 
Curtfell at King Sigurd's court; 18 Harald Gilli's and Queen 
Ingirid's gifts to Bishop Magnus Einarson. 19 In dreams and 
wizardry Snorri seems to be an avowed believer (see Index 
III), as we must expect of a thirteenth-century author ; as a 

1 Heimsk., i. 324-326. 

2 Ibid., ii. 246-7, 249 so -25o r , 269 3 -274 12 . 

3 Ibid., i. 84. * Ibzd., i. 305. s Ibid., i. 337-339. 
6 Ibid., li. no-ill. 7 Ibid., ii. 133-134. 8 Ibid., ii. 155-160. 
9 Ibid., ii. 225-227. 10 Ibid., iii. 60-62. n Ibid., iii. 141. 

12 Ibid., iii. 199-201. 13 Ibid., iii. 214-217. w Ibid., iii. 217-220. 
15 Ibid., iii. 228-230. 16 Ibid., iii. 279-282. 1T Ibid., iii. 265-267. 
18 Ibid., iii. 286-288. l9 Ibid., iii. 334-335. 

xc Introductory 

good churchman, too, he believes in miracles when they are 
authenticated to his satisfaction. 

One striking quality of Snorri's style is impartiality. Abso- 
lutely faithful to the tenets of the school of oral tradition, he 
lets facts deliver the verdict in each case, keeping his own judg- 
ment for himself. In one solitary instance, however, he could 
not resist speaking out in decided condemnation of an act per- 
formed, namely the sentence passed at a Thing with all due 
formality of law on Earl Sigund of Reyr. 1 Even his unmistak- 
able patriotism does not lead him astray in this respect. But 
we can see that in his strikingly eloquent account of the suc- 
cessful resistance of the Icelanders to the political plans of 
Olaf the Holy, he wanted to read his countrymen a useful 
lesson in face of the aggressive attitude of King Hakon. 

But free from blemishes our historian is not. He has lacked 
chronicles both English, Francish, and others of still more 
distant lands, and therefore makes several mistakes in English, 
Norman, German, and Sicilian history, attention to which is 
called in the indexes. Want of space precludes any attempt at 
giving a comprehensive account of the shortcomings of Snorri; 
the wonder is that in so voluminous a work a thirteenth-century 
writer should escape with so few. 


Harald Hairfair 860 933 

Eric Bloodaxe 930 935 

Hakon the Good 934 961 

Harald Greycloak 961 970 

Hakon, Earl of Ladir 970 995 

Olaf Tryggvison 995 1000 

Eric and Svein, Earls, sons of Hakon 1000 1015 

Olaf the Holy 1015 1030 

Svein Knutson (Alfivason) 1030 1035 

Magnus the Good 1035 1047 

1 Heimsk., ni. 449-450. 

Introductory xci 

Kings and Earls of Norway, continued. 

Harald Hardredy 1045 1066 

Magnus Haraldson _ 1066 1068 

Olaf Haraldson, the Quiet 1067 I0 93 

Magnus Barefoot I0 93 1103 

Triple reign: 

Olaf | 11031116 

Eystein > Magnus' sons 1 1 03 1 122 

Sigurd ) 1103 1130 

Magnus the Blind 1130 1135 

Harald Gilli 1130 1136 

Triple reign: 

Sigurd Mouth j 1136 1155 

Eystein > Harald's sons 1142 1157 

Ingi j 11361161 

Hakon Shoulderbroad 1161 1162 

Magnus Erlingson 1162 1 184 

Sverrir Sigurdson 1 1 84 1202 


Gorm the Old t ab. 940 

Harald Gormson ab. 940 986 

Svein Twibeard 986 1014 

Knut the Mighty 1014 1035 

Horda-Knut 1035 1042 

Magnus the Good 1042 1047 

Svein Wolfson 104 7 1076 

Harald Hone 1076 1080 

Knut the Holy 1080 1086 

Olaf Hunger 1086 1095 

Eric the Good 1095 II0 3 

Nicolas 1103 1134 

Eric Everminded 1 134 1 137 

Eric Lamb 1137 1147 
Svein Ericson, 'Grathe' 1 

Knut Magnusson J I]C 47 ^57 

Valdimar I 1154 1182 

xcii Introductory 


Eric Emundson, died when Harald Hairfair had ruled in Norway 

for ten years 882? 

Biorn, said to have reigned for fifty years fab. 932 
Olaf Biornson (no dates) 

Eric Biornson, the Victorious t ab. 994 

Olaf the Swede ab. 994 1022 

(James) Onund Olafson ab. 1020? 1050 

Emund Olafson ab. 1050 1060 

Steinkel Rognvaldson 1060 1066 
Hallstein Steinkelson expelled. 
[Onund from Russia expelled. 
Hakon the Red, king for thirteen years; dates in both cases 


Hallstein Steinkelson again and 
Ingi I, his brother, who was deposed. 

(Dates in both cases uncertain.) 
Blot-Svein, for three years. 

Ingi Steinkelson again. fab. mo 
[Eric the Yearseely, said to have been king in Swede-realm 


Philip Hallsteinson mo 1118 

Ingi II, Hallsteinson 1 1 1 o 1 125 

Rognvald c Knaphofdi,' slain ab. 1130 

Magnus Nicolasson, slain 1134 

Sorkvir, in Gautland only, after 1150? ab. 1133 1155 

Karl Sorkvirson, in Gautland only till 1161 

Eric the Holy, in Swede-realm proper 1150 1160 

Magnus, son of Henry the Halt 1160 1161 

Karl Sorkvirson, for the whole of Sweden 1161 1167 

Knut Ericson 1167 1195 




ABSALON, Archbishop of Lund, in Skaney, 1178-1201, iii. 


ADALBRIKT, Priest, putative father to Sigurd Slembi- Deacon, 
by Thora, the daughter of Saxi of Wick, iii. 336 18 

ADILS (ASils), son of K. Ottar, King of Sweden, his invasion 
of Saxland and marriage with the bondswoman Yrsa, i. 493.2* 
his strife with Helgi, King in Denmark, 4937-504 his 
fight with King Ali of Norway, 5o ls . ls his death and burial 
in mound at Upsala, 5o 32 -5i 23 reference to, in "Biarklay 
the Old," ii. 4o7 26 

ADRIANUS IV., Pope, 1 154-1 159, see Nicolas, Cardinal. 

^EGIR, the god of the sea, ii. 29 28 

^ELFGIFU, see Alfiva. 

^SIR, the Icel. plur. of 'Ass, the generic term for the whole 
tribe of the heathen gods of Scandinavia, i. 19235 memorial 
cups Signed' to them, ii. 1937.3 see Asfolk. 

^ETHELRED (ASalraftr), see Ethelred. 

AFRAFASTI, a waylayer: he and his company offer their 
service to King Olaf marching from the east to reconquer 
Norway, who rejects them unless they become Christians, a 
condition they refuse, though they follow his host, ii. 3943- 
3952? they consent to be christened, 399 5 . 3 i A. falls in 
the first brunt of the battle at Sticklestead, 429! 

AGDIR (-folk, -people, folk of A., people of A., they of A.) 
(Eg&r), inhabitants of the folkland of Agdir, S.W. Norway, 
i. in 4 . 5 ii. 32319-20 SS^s 3<5o 16 36i ar iii. 72 6 74 16 76 

VI. B 

2 Index I [AGI ALF 

AGI, father of Ozur, who was the fosterfather of Thyri, the 

sister of Svein Twibeard, i. 349 2 o 
AGNAR (Agnarr), son of Sigtrygg, King of Vendil, father to 

Eric, King of Westfold, i. 68 20 . 22 
AGNAR, son of K. Yngvar of Fiadrundaland, i. 55 6 . 16 burned 

in a banqueting hall at Upsala by Ingiald Evil-heart, 58 4 . 10 

AGNI, son of Day the Wise, succeeded his father in the 
kingdom over the Swedes, i. 33 8 went with an armed host to 
Finland and slew in battle King Frosty, and had away with 
him his daughter Skialf and wedded her, but she hanged 
him by the fatal necklace of Visbur at Agnis-thwaite by 
Stock-Sound, 33n-34 29 after his death the Swede-realm was 
divided among his two sons, and from that time was the 
kingdom in Sweden divided among heirs until the days of 
Ingiald Evil-heart, 3S 3 . 4 57u'59r 

AKI ('Aki), a wealthy goodman of Vermland, entertains Kings 
Harald of Norway and Eric of Sweden, the former in a new 
hall, with all furniture and table-gear new, the latter in an old 
hall, with all fittings old, wherefor he was slain by King 
Eric, i. io6 15 -ioS 8 

AKI (son of Palnatoki, and lord in the island of Fion), 
married to Thorgunna (the daughter of Veseti) 4 of Borgund- 
holm, i. 27o 29 . 30 

ALFARIN (Alfarinn), King of Elfhome, i. 7o 28 

ALF ('Alfr), son of K. Alrek, King of the Swedes together 
with his brother Yngvi, i. 36 r 37 23 

ALF ASHMAN ('A. askma^r), son of Ozur and brother to 
Gunnhild, the wife of Eric Bloodaxe, fought and fell in the 
battle of Fitiar, i. i83 n . 14 i85 81 i86 19 

ALF the Red, read ^i the Ruffian. 

ALF the Ruffian ('A. hro'Si, or ro^i), son of Ottar Brightling, 
sees his father slain, and forthwith kills the murderer, iii. 
36919-25 surprises Bergliot of Elda and his brother Ogmund, 
and slays them, 416^ slain by Erling Askew, 468 28 . 2S 

ALF, son of K. Yngvar of Fiadrundaland, i. 55 6 approves 
himself of greater pith at sports than Ingiald Evil-heart, 
5514-28- burnt in a banqueting hall at Upsala by Ingiald, 

5 8 4 10 29"5 9r 

see also Elfhild. 

ALF ALL] Index I 3 

ALFHILD King's-bondmaid ('Alfhildr konungs ambatt), a 
serving maiden in King Olaf Haraldson's household, mother 
to King Magnus the Good, ii. 235 14 . 2r arrives at the court 
of her son Magnus in Norway, iii. n 19 . 23 jealousy between 
her and Queen Astrid, n 23 -i2 2 Sigvat advises her in song 
how to conduct herself, i5 30 .3 4 

ALFIVA (^Elfgifu), daughter of e Earl Alfrun ' [she was daugh- 
ter of ^Elfhelm, not of -^Elfmzer as the D.N.B. has it, ealder- 
man of Northumbria, Wulfruna being the name of her mother, 
which seems to reappear in 'Earl Alfrun'], concubine of 
Knut the Mighty, mother of Svein, son of King Knut, ii. 
449io S oes to Norway with her son Svein, 4503 views the 
body of Olaf Haraldson, but is reluctant to accept his holi- 
ness, 4563^7 her influence on the government of Norway, 
and unpopularity with the people, 46i 28 . 26 

ALFLING (Elfsi), nickname given to King Alf of Sweden, 

i. 3 6 n 
ALFRUN [Snorri's or a scribe's mistake for ^Elfhelm, an Earl 

in Northumbria], father of Alfiva, ii. 449 n 
ALFWIN (Alfvini), a great fighter at holmgangs, a disappointed 

suitor for the hand of Gyda, i. 26435-2653 overcome in a 

single combat by Gyda's chosen favourite, Olaf Tryggvison, 

ALGAUT (Algauti), King of West-Gautland, son of Gautrek 
the Bounteous, i. s6 5 . 6 married his daughter, Gauthild, to 
Ingiald Evil-heart, 56^2 burned to death by his son-in-law 
at a feast at Upsala, 583.3 29 -59 4 

ALI ('Ali), a legendary hero, i. i86 26 2o7 16 ii. 4O5 lg 31 

ALI, the father of Thiostolf, iii. 3i6 12 

ALI the Bold ('A. hinn frsekni), son of Fridleif, conquered the 
realm of the Swedes from K. Aun, and ruled it for five and 
twenty years; slain by Starkad the Old, i. 42 23 . 29 

ALI the Un-Skauned ('A. 6skeyndr), father to Munan, iii. 419^ 

ALI the Uplander ('A. hinn upplenzki), a Norwegian king; his 
war with King Adils of Sweden, and fall in the battle on the 
Vener Lake, i. 5o 13 . 18 

ALLOGIA, e queen ' of King Valdimar of Holmgarth, befriends 
Olaf Tryggyison, L 23o 20 -23i 21 (Allogia seems clearly to 
be the Latinized form of Olga, the Slavonic pronunciation of 
the Scandinavian Helga, and to be due to Odd Snornson's 

4 Index I [ALO AMU 

Latin life of Olaf Tryggvison, one of the early Icelandic 
translations of which Snorri has used for his Olaf s saga. 
Whether Vladimir (Valdimar), ruler in Novgorod, 970-977, 
and afterwards in Kiew, 980-1015, had among his many wives 
one named Olga is not known, but his grandmother's name 
was Olga, a very famous queen, ob. 969, who, during part of 
the reign of her son, Swjatoslav, 945-973, played a most im- 
portant part in the government of the State. If Olaf was born 
in 963, he could in his tenth year (as Odd avers) have come 
to the court of Vladimir in Novgorod; but as to the queen 
the northern tradition may have made of a famous grand- 
mother a famous wife of Vladimir. 

ALOF ('Alof), daughter of Asbiorn, and wife of Hersir Klypp, 
entertains King Sigurd Slaver, and is dishonoured by him 
against her will, i. 21532-25 30-32 

ALOF, Olof ('Alof, 'Olof), daughter of Bodvar the Hersir, son 
of Viking-Kan, and mother of Gizur the White, i. 334 28 - 2 9 ii- 

8 9s-9 

ALOF the Mighty ('A. hin rika), wife of Geirthiof, K. in Sax- 
land, but mother of Yrsa (q.v.) by Helgi, K. in Denmark, 

i- 49r5o 
ALOF ('A), daughter of K. Olaf the Farsighted, wife of K. 

Algaut and mother to Gauthild, wife of Ingiald Evil-heart, 

i- 565 65 2 r 

ALOF YEAR'S-HEAL ('A. arb6t), daughter of Harald Hair- 
fair, and, apparently, Gyda, daughter of King Eric of Horda- 
land, i. ii4 9 married to Thorir the Silent, Earl of Mere, 

I2 57 I 37 26 -26 

ALREK ('Alrekr), son of K. Agni, King of the Swedes together 
with his brother Eric, i. 35 1 . 30 

AMUNDI ('Amundi), son of Arni Arnmodson, ii. i98 18 

AMUNDI, son of Gyrd, the son of Amundi, and of Gyrid, the 
sister of Gregory Dayson, a boy of five years made prisoner 
of war at Vettland by Hakon Shoulderbroad, iii. 4203 

AMUNDI, son of Gyrd, the son of Law-Bersi, gives fostering 
to K. Ingi, son of Harald Gilli, iii. 347^ 21 defeats Earl 
Karl Sonason at Crookshaw, 35023-351! has to do with the 
torture of Sigurd Slembi-Deacon, 364^ 366 3 . 23 after his 
death the sons of Harald Gilli, Ingi and Sigurd, set up 
separate courts, 377 9 _ 16 

AMU ARI] Index I 5 

AMUNDI of Sandwick in Rossey, Orkney, ii. I7i 2 y. 29 i89 13 
his relations with Earl Einar Wrongmouth, I72 r i73 10 

AN the Shooter ('Ann skyti) of lamtland, a forecastle man on 
the Long-Worm, i. 3535 

ANDRE(A)S (Andres), son of Bruni, a priest at Cross Church, 
Kings' Rock, married to Solveig; his character and family, 
iii. 325^ exhorts his people to bear themselves manfully 
in face of the Kings' Rock's wonders, 325-^-3265 his 
dealings with Rettibur, King of the Wends, and his nephew, 
Dunimiz, at the sack of Kings' Rock, 326-333 saves the 
holy relics of Cross Church, 33 2 24-25 333s-25 

ANDREAS, son of Guthorm Graybeard, tortures an English 
priest, Richard, for an offence towards his sister, of which 
the priest was innocent, iii. 381^-384.^ 

ANDREAS, son of Simon son of Thorberg, fosterbrother of 
K. Hakon Shoulderbroad, iii. 373 20 . 24 a follower of King 
Hakon, 399 n dies at Cheaping-north, 4i6 10 . 12 

ANDRES the Deaf (A. daufi), son of Sigurd of Eastort, iii. 

ANDREAS WELLSHIT (A. kelduskitr), son of Grim, from 
Vist, flies away from King Ingi Haraldson, when revenging 
on Sigurd Slembi-Deacon the slaughter of his courtman, 
Bentein Kolbeinson, iii. 355 5 -3S6 14 

ANI, see Aun. 

ARI, the son of Einar, iii. 362 30 

ARI (Marson), of Reek-knolls, Iceland, iii. 35639 

ARI THORGEIRSON, an Icelander, the father of Gudmund, 
bp of H61ar in Iceland, 1203-1237, falls in the fight at 
Rydiokul, iii. 476 22 

ARI THORGILSSON the Learned (A. hinn fhKSi), 1068-1148, 
the first Icelander who wrote in the vernacular; the matter and 
manner of his writings, i. 5 16 -7 10 came seven years old (1075) 
to Hawkdale, 6 12 abode there fourteen years (1075-89), 6 1? 
had for teacher Teit, the son of bp Isleif, 6 27 . 38 drew historical 
information from Odd, the son of Kol, 6 5 Hall of Hawkdale, 
6 11 . 22 and Thurid, daughter of Snorri the priest, 7 X . 5 was 
a truthful historian of eager wit and faithful memory, 7 6 . 10 
cited as an authority on the chronology of the reigns of Earl 
Hakon of Ladir and King Harald Graycloak, as well as on 
the relations between Hakon and the sons of Gunnhild during 

6 Index I [ARI ARN 

the last six years of Graycloak's life, 239 25 . 34 likewise on the 
history of the reign of Olaf the Holy, ii. 367 n . 19 and on the 
age of Olaf when he fell, 460^-46 c 2 

ARINBIORN (Arinbjorn), son of Thorir, a hersir out of the 
Firths, fell with Harald Graycloak at Neck in Limbfirtfr in 
Denmark, i. 237 26 _ 2r 239^ 

ARNBIORN AMBI (Arnbjorn ambi), fights on the side of 
Magnus the Blind and Sigurd Slembi-Deacon in the battle of 
Holm-the-Gray; after their defeat he throws himself on the 
mercy of Jon Kauda, by whom he is ransomed from King 
Ingi, iii. 3 6l 24-3 6 3is 

ARNBIORN, son of Ami Arnmodson, ii. i98 19 slain, through 
misadventure, by Griotgarth Olvir's son, 344sr3453 374is 

ARNFINN of Sogn (Arnfinnr sygnski), stationed in the fore- 
hold on board the Long- Worm, i. 353 18 

ARNFINN, son of Arnmod, father to Kalf and Olaf, the 
'kinsmen,' i.e. first cousins, of Kalf, the son of Arni Arnmod- 
son, ii. 43i 28 cf. Flat. ii. 356^ 

ARNFINN, Earl, son of Thorfinn Scull-cleaver, by Grelad, d. 
of Dungad, Earl of Caithness, marries Ragnhild, the daughter 
of Eric Bloodaxe, i. i59 15 .i 6 2 4 r 25J where he is called Arnvid, 
cf. ii. 16831-1693 

ARNI ('Arni) (The sons of), ii. 19^5.20 3 6l o 453s-is 46322-24 

ARNI, son of Ami Arnmodson, ii. i98 19 refuses to aid his 
brother Thorberg in holding Stein Skaptison in King Olaf 
Haraldson's" despite, 2834.38 changes his mind and together 
with his other brothers aids Thorberg to come to terms with 
the King, 284 4 -286 21 swears oath of faith and fealty to the 
King, 285 14 . 20 286 n . 13 with King Olaf at Eidwood on his 
way to Holmgarth, 3694 his son Joan's family relations, iii. 

ARNI, the son of Arnmod, married to Thora, d. of Thorstein 
Gallows, ii. (24^) his children (24 27 ), i98 17 . 20 his position, 
and friendly relations with K. Olaf Haraldson, I98 21 -i99 3 
all his sons in K. Olaf Haraldson's service, much esteemed, 
333iM9 cfr. 3619 his son Kalf among K. Olaf s enemies at 
Sticklestead, 43*2529 see Arni ( The son s of). 

ARNI FICKLESKULL ('A. brigSarskalli), bailiff to King 
Hakon Shoulderbroad, slain by Erling Askew, iii. 438 31 

ARN] Index I 7 

ARNI FORESHORE-SKEW ('A. fjoruskeifr), tells falsely the 
Icel. poet Thorarin Curtfell that he is ordered by King Sigurd 
Jerusalem-farer to memorialize in a humorous verse Hakon 
Suet-neck, which he does. How Arm had to pay for his fib, 
iii. 286 25 -288 5 

ARNI, the son of Frirek, falls fighting for K. Ingi Haraldson 
before Oslo, iii. 4279 

ARNI of Stodreim, called King's, i.e. K. Ingi Haraldson's, 
stepfather ('A. a Sto^reimi, konungsmagr), married Queen 
Ingirid, K. Harald Gilli's widow, their children, iii. 37 o^ 
fights on the side of K. Ingi in Biorgvin against K. Sigurd 
Mouth when the latter fell, 389.7- waives, on behalf of his sons 
with Queen Ingirid, all claims to the kingdom of Norway, 
43 6 4-i5 J ouls K- Magnus and Erling Askew in their visit to 
K. Valdimar of Denmark, 437 20 urges the doom of Earl 
Sigurd Hallvardson of Reyr, 449 22 -45o<> 

ARNI STOUR ('A. sturla), son of Seabear, a supporter of 
King Eystein, son of Harald Gilli, iii. s68 6 . 14 undertakes, on 
behalf of K. Eystein, a disastrous mission to K. Ingi, 393^4.23 

ARNKEL (Arnkell), son of Turf-Einar, Earl of Orkney, which 
he held as feof of Eric Bloodaxe, joins Eric Bloodaxe's 
expedition against Edmund, K. of England, and falls in battle 
in the south of England, i. iS3 2 o- I 54i3~ cf. ii. i68 26 . 30 

ARNLIOT GELLINI (ArnljcStr Gelhni), a Swede, brother to 
Vikar of Tenthland, i. 353 2 an outlaw in lamtland together 
with his brother-in-law and sister, ii. 29832-299^ helps 
Thorod Snorrison to escape from his pursuers by a marvellous 
feat of snow-shoeing, 299^.33 a legend of him and a cannibal 
ogress (troll-wife), 29933-301^ his message to King Olaf 
Haraldson and present to him of a silver dish, 3oi 27 . 33 302 5 . 12 
4i5 26 comes to K. Olaf at Sticklestead personal de- 
scription conversion to Christianity, 4i5 8 -4r6 15 falls at 
Sticklestead, 42833 

ARNMOD (Arnm6^r), ancestor of the family of the Arnmod- 
lings, ii. i98 15 

ARNOR the Mereman (Arn6rr mcerski), stationed in the fore- 
hold on board the Long-Worm, i. 353i 5 -i 6 

ARNOR Earls' skald (A. jarlaskald), son of Thord, author of a 
drapa on Earl Thorfin of Caithness, Sutherland and Orkney, 
h. 170^22 l88 i6-ao 234 1S sings, in his Magnus drapa, of K. 

8 Index I [ARN ASA 

Magnus the Good's departure from Holmgarth to Aldeigia- 
burg, iii. 3^. 16 also of his journey to Sweden, 3 19 -4 4 of his 
arrival in Helsingland, 6 ir . 25 tells of the flight of King Svein 
on his arrival at Thrandheim, 7 2 . 1X of King Magnus's 
intention to conquer Denmark, 26 15 . 24 of King Magnus's 
stately sailing from Norway, 27 16 . 85 tells of the setting out of 
Magnus against the Wends, 32 10 . 19 and of his deeds of war 
at Jomsburg, 32 24 . 33 of the battle on Lyrshaw-heath, 36 15 . 22 
of the battle at Re, 38 20 . 24 the battle at Holy-ness, 46 n . 19 
47n-i5 of the fighting at Falster, 49 s r56 at Fion > 5 09-17 
of Magnus's battles in Denmark, 51^ of King Harald's 
war deeds in Fion, 121^ of the battle of Niz, i36 2S -i37 2 
of the battle of Stamford Bridge, i76 28 -i77 4 of the death 
of Harald Sigurdson, i78 2 . 10 

ARNVID, King of South-Mere, fights, in alliance with Audbiorn, 
King of Firthfolk, against Harald Hairfair at Solskel, and is 
defeated and slain, i. ioi n -io2 19 

ARNVID, son of Thorfinn Skullcleaver, Earl of Orkney, i. 241^ 
see Arnfin. 

ARNWITH the Blind (Arnviftr blindi), a counsellor of King 
Olaf the Swede; his comments on his king's dealings with 
Olaf of Norway in the matter of the betrothal to him of his 
daughter Ingigerd, ii. i6o 12 . 29 his eyesight and mental 
capacity, i6o 30 . 33 condition and quality, i6i 4 . 6 his advice 
to King Olaf the Swede, when his subjects were on the point 
of revolting against him, i62 20 -i63 4 joins his brother Frey- 
with in frustrating a revolt against King Olaf by having his 
(Olafs) son James (Onund) elected king, i63 16 -i65 23 

ASA EVIL-HEART ('Asa hin illraSa), daughter to King 
Ingiald of Sweden, married to Gudrod, King of Scania 
(Sconen), whom she caused to be killed, i. 62 30 -63 16 where- 
upon she fled to her father, and with him burned herself to 
death and all the court, in a banqueting hall, 63 22 -64 20 

ASA, daughter of Eystein the Terrible, King of the Uplands, 
married to King'Halfdan Whiteleg, i. 67 17 . 21 

ASA, daughter of Earl Hakon Griotgarth's son, married to King 

Harald Hairfair (his first wife), i. 98 21 . 22 no 26 
ASA, daughter of King Harald Redlip of Agdir, second wife of 
Gudrod, the Hunter-king, who seized her, after having slain 
her father for refusing him her in marriage, i. 71^7 causes 

ASA ASB] Index I 9 

her foot-page to slay her husband, 7i 2 r72 12 retires, after the 
murder of her husband, with her son, Halfdan the Black, to 
Agdir, which kingdom she ruled after her father's death, 77 6 . 12 

ASA the Light ('A. hin Ij6sa), the mother of two base-born sons 
(Finn and Sigurd) of Erling Askew, iii. 474 7 . 8 

ASBIORN ('Asbjorn), stationed in the forehold on board the 
Long-Worm, i. 353^ 

ASBIORN, one of King Magnus the Blind's landed-men, cast 
into the Sarp waterfall by order of King Harald Gilli, iii. 319^ 

ASBIORN, an earl of King Harald Hairfair's, slain in the 
second battle of Solskel, i. iO2 29 

ASBIORN of Forland, of King Hakon Shoulderbroad's host in 
his last battle, iii. 44i u 

ASBIORN MARE ('A. jalda), of Hakon Shoulderbroad's follow- 
ing, 'the greatest viking,' slain at Saur-Byes, iii. 4i9 llr . 24 

ASBIORN of Middlehouse opposes King Hakon the Good's 
attempt at Frosta-Thing to convert the people to Christianity, 

i. i67 n -i68 10 i7o 16 
ASBIORN, nicknamed Seal's-bane (Selsbani), ii. 23o 21 son 
of Sigurd of Thrandness, and of his wife, Sigrid, a sister 
to Erling Skialgson, 2i4 18 . 22 comes, eighteen years old, 
into his patrimony, when hard seasons and dearth set in 
in Halogaland, in spite of which, and in defiance of his 
mother's advice, he would keep up the great feasts of his 
father, 2i5 7 . 30 his case rendered still worse by King Olaf 
Haraldson's prohibition against exportation of corn from 
southern Norway, where it was plentiful, 2153^216! cf. 2ii 4 . 8 
his journey to the south in quest of corn and ruinous 
dealings with Thorir Seal, 2i6 1 -22o 11 his sorry plight on 
his return home, 220 12 . 33 takes revenge on Thorir Seal by 
slaying him standing before the King, 22i 3 -223 4 his rescue 
by the interference of his kinsmen, Skialg and Erling his 
father, 223^-22939 accepts from the King the stewardship 
of the manor of Ogvaldsness, on condition of being allowed 
to arrange his affairs at home first, 229^-2303 his journey 
to the north and breach of the covenant with the King, 230^- 
23i 14 slain on board his ship by the King's bailiff Asmund 
Grankelson, his body being brought north to Thrandness, 
238 14 -239 14 -his mother's egging-on of Thorir Hound to 
avenge him, 239 14 -24o 4 Thorir Hound advised as to who 

io Index I [ASB ASL 

was the slayer of Asbiorn, 24o 14 . 2r slays King Olafs partner 

Karli in revenge, 265 12 . 23 and completes his revenge at 

Sticklestead, 4 20 31 43i 30 -433n 
ASBIORN SNARE (A. snan), brother of Archbishop Absalon, 

sent by K. Valdimar of Denmark to Norway as hostage in 

return for Erling Askew, who gave himself as hostage to K. 

Valdimar on behalf of the King of Norway, iii. 47233-4732 
ASBIORN THORBERGSON of Varness, threatened by Olaf 

Tryggvison with being sacrificed to the gods, i. 3197 
ASBIORN of Yriar, father of Aiof, the wife of Klypp the Hersir, 

AS-FOLK (^Esir), Odin's divine tribe, i. i3 122 s X 42 is 152425 l6 is 
20 24 called Lay-smiths, as being authors of poetry, 1 7 24 also 
called smiths of wizardry, 18^ their ancient laws re-enacted 
on their coming to Sweden, 20 3 . 23 represented in carven 
images at the Hippodrome in Micklegarth, hi. 260^ 

ASGAUT ('Asgautr), an earl of King Harald Hairfair's, slain 
in the second battle of Solskel, i. io2 29 

ASGAUT BAILIFF ('A. armaSr), brother to Thorgaut Hare- 
lip and leader with him of a mission, from King Olaf the 
Swede, to Norway to gather the taxes K. Olaf the Swede 
laid claim to there, ii. 69 24 -7o 15 refuses to follow his brother's 
advice to return to Sweden when the 'bonders' would not 
comply with their commands, but takes the mission to King 
Olaf Haraldson's presence, effecting however nothing, 7o 16 - 
72 12 he parts from Thorgaut, and starts for Mere to push 
on the Swede's business, is pursued by King Olaf Haraldson's 
guests and hanged together with his followers, 72 14 . 2r 

ASHILD ('Ashildr), daughter of Ring Dayson of Ringrick, one 
of Harald Hairfair's wives, i. ii4 18 9! 

AS-HOST, see As-folk. 

ASKEL ('Askell), a forecastle man of King Eric Everminded, 
shot by Thiostolf Alison, iii. 352 25 . 30 

ASKEL, son of Olmod, the son of Horda-Kari, and father to 
Aslak Pate a- (Skull o') Fitiar, i. 303^ ii. 2i2 14 

ASLAK ('Aslikr) of Aurland, iii. 209 20 

ASLAK COCK ('A. hani), chides K. Sigurd Jerusalem-farer for 
breaking the law of the fast, and for his outspokenness is re- 
warded with three manors by the King, iii. 292^-294.^ 

ASLAK ERLENDSON, commander on the side of K. Ingi, 

ASL ASM] Index I 1 1 

son of K. Harald Gilli, in his last fight with his brother, K. 
Sigurd Mouth, iii. 3898 

ASLAK, son of Erlmg Skialgson of Soli and of Astrid, d. of 
Tryggvi Olafson, ii. 24 25 married (not Gunnhild, which is 
Snorri's mistake, 33 14 . 15 but) Sigrid, d. of Earl Svein, the son 
of Hakon the Mighty, 255^ iii. io6 23 . 2r two daughters of 
his became mothers respectively of Hakon Pungelta and 
Hakon Maw, iii. 356^ he receives at the hands of his 
father-in-law and his co-regent Earl Hakon Ericson the same 
grants that Olaf Tryggvison had conferred on his father Erling, 
ii. 33i2-is g es to K - Knut in England and gets into great 
favour at court, 25525.32 lives at Soli in the days of Harald 
Hardredy, iii. io6 24 

ASLAK of Finn-isle ('A. af Finneyju), oath-sworn to King Knut 
to take the life of K. Olaf Haraldson, ii. 39o 10 . 15 falls at the 
battle of Sticklestead, 434 8 

ASLAK Pate a-Fitiar, Skull o' Fitiar (A. Fitjaskalli), son 
of Askel, the son of Olmod, the son of Horda-Kari, i. 303 31 
a favourite of K. Olaf Haraldson, who enfiefed him in 
South-Hordland to counteract the great power of his cousin 
Erling Skialgson (Family relation : Horda-Kari Ogmund 
Thorolf Skialg Erling: Horda-Kari Olmod AskelAs- 
lak), ii. 212^9 after an unavailing struggle he has to clear 
out of his bailiwick, and put himself under K. Olaf s protection, 
2 12 19 . 28 2i3 3 . n ir . 19 kills Erling Skialgson, 35 8 ar so" K * Olafs 
real or pretended anger at the deed, 358 31 . 33 Aslak's reply, 
35 8 34-359s Sigvat's song on the act, 3 5 933-3 6o 14 takes his 
ship into Borgund, 362 r _ 9 is slain by Vigleik there, 362 9 . 13 

ASLAK HAKONSON, joins K. Magnus the Blind on being 
set free from the monastery of Monk-holm, iii. 3490, 

ASLAK HOLM-PILLPATE ('A. H61mskalli), 'foster-son of 
Bui/ killed by an anvil in the battle of Hiorungbay, i. 28o 9 . 16 

ASLAK THE YOUNG ('A. ungi), son of Jon, sent on a dis- 
astrous mission by King Eystein Haraldson to his brother 
King Ingi, iii. 393i 4 -23 

ASLAUG ('Aslaug), daughter of Sigurd Worm-in-Eye, wife of 
Helgi the Keen, and mother to King Sigurd Hart, i. 8i 4 . 9 

ASMUND ('Asmundr) [son of Biorn], fosterson and nephew of 
K.S vein Wolfson (not the son of his sister, as Heimskringla has 
it, but of his brother Biorn, as Flat hi. 37o 16 correctly states it) 

12 Index I [ASM AST 

an unprincipled filibuster, and great trouble to his fosterfather, 
in. iiy-nSg yielding to the people's complaints K. Svein 
charges his 'warden of the land,' Earl Hakon Ivarson, to 
put Asmund down, 1 183.^ Hakon attacks Asmund and slays 
him, and brings the King his head, for which deed he is dis- 
missed the King's service, n8 13 . 81 

ASMUND, son of Grankel, ii. 191^-31 K - O laf Haraldson's 
man and favourite, i92 6 . u appointed by K. Olaf to the 
one half of the bailiwick of Halogaland that Thorir Hound 
held already, 237 6 . 25 visits his father, 237%^ his con- 
nection with the brothers Gunnstein and Karli of Longisle, 
2 3728" 2 4 ar ^7 Karli's aid he slays Asbiorn Seal's-bane, 
2 38^-23 9 12 announces the fact to K. Olaf and is overheard 
by Asbiorn's friends, who bring the news to the latter's family, 
2 4i4-27 k as a quarrel with Harek of Thiotta over an out- 
lying island rich in fishing, seal-catch and eggs, and mis- 
handles the housecarles of Thorir for clearing it, 292-29334 
peace made by King Olaf between him and Thorir: the 
island being adjudged Asmund's property, and Thorir's house- 
carles left unatoned, 29335-2948 revenging his father, he 
slays Harek of Thiotta with an axe handed to him for the 
purpose by K. Magnus the Good, iii. i7 21 -i8 10 is given 
domain and bailiwick in Halogaland by K. Magnus, i8 16 . 19 

ASMUND, son of Ssemund Housewife, ruler at Kings' Rock, 
iii. 3254 in the battle at Kings' Rock, 33013-20 33*1-3 

ASOLF ('As61fr) of Reinir, son of Skuli King's fosterer and 
Gudrun Nefstein's daughter, married to Thora, the daughter 
of Skopti Ogmundson, iii. i84 10 n 

ASTA ('Asia), daughter of Gudbrand Kula, married to King 
Harald the Grenlander, i. 284^.9 2 %Sz8 on hearing of 
Harald's death she went to stay with her father, where she 

ave birth to a son, Olaf the Holy, 287 3 . 19 marries Sigurd 
yr, King of Ringrealm, and with him and her son Olaf be- 
comes a Christian at the instance of Olaf Tryggvison, 3113-17 
brings up her son Olaf at her second husband's house, ii. 
3 5 .7 fits Olaf out on his first viking cruise, 5 5 .g her and 
Sigurd's children, 3S 26 . 2 8 2 4^is her festive reception of Olaf 
on his return to Norway, 34^-3 7 8 partakes in a family counsel, 
where Olaf discloses his plans to fight for the kingdom of 
Norway, 37 2 i-4ii 2 her speech on that occasion, 

AST] Index I 13 

widow a second time, io9 27 makes a great banquet for her 
son after his overthrow of five Upland kings, io9 28 . 29 she 
shows her children of second marriage to the King, i io 3 -i 1 1 23 

ASTRID (AstrfiSr), daughter of Burislaf, King in Wendland, 
i. 252 10 married to Earl Sigvaldi, captain of the Jomsburg 
vikings, 27 1 4 . 5 36o }8 . 19 375 23 was a great friend of her brother- 
in-law Olaf Tryggvison (formerly a husband of her sister Geira), 
3 6o is-22 sent a war-galley to the battle of Svoldr, on board 
which some will have it that she took Olaf Tryggvison when 
defeated, 37522-23 *r37 6 5 

ASTRID, daughter of Eric Biodaskalli, married to K. Tryggvi 
Olafson, i. 2235.3 u - ^96-r ^ e( ^ ^ T0m home after the murder 
of her husband, and gave birth to a son, Olaf, in a small 
island in an unnamed lake, i. 223 8 _ n 16 . 21 betakes her, under 
cover of lengthening nights, to her father, where she is well 
cared for and her child, 223 22 -224 13 Queen Gunnhild makes 
inquiries about her and learns that she, with her son, is living 
with her father, 224 15 . 80 225 3 . 10 Astrid eludes Gunnhild's 
spies, and, by her father's counsel, gets away from Norway to 
Hakon the Old in Sweden, 225^227^ going across the sea 
to her brother Sigurd in Garthrealm she is captured by Wend- 
ish vikings and sold into slavery, 228 26 -229 8 she and her 
son separated, 229 8 . 9 2303^ found by Lodm in a slave-market 
in Esthonia and taken by him to Norway, where he marries 
her, 300^-30 1 6 her children, 3oi 6 . 9 

ASTRID, daughter of Ogmund, the mother of Earl Karl Sona- 
son, iii. 35i r . 8 

ASTRID, natural daughter of King Olaf the Swede, by Edla, 
a daughter of a Wendish earl, ii. 1393.7 l6o i9-22 brought up 
with Egill, a noble lord in West-Gautland, personal description 
and character, i39 19 . 2 5 visits Earl Rognvald at Skarar at 
the time that Sigvat arrives there to find out what is to become 
of the betrothal of Olaf of Norway to Princess Ingigerd of 
Sweden, i48 24 . 26 gives Sigvat and the Earl to understand 
that she is ready to marry Olaf of Norway without her father's 
consent, 1483,3-1494 by Sigvat's counsel Olaf Haraldson 
decides on marrying her, I5o 34 -i5i 9 married to K. Olaf 
Haraldson at Sarpsburg, 1 5 i 25 -i53 5 an act for which all those 
responsible for it incurred her father's wrath, 15517-19 her 
goodwill towards Biorn the Steward, 33817-22 34*2 accom- 

14 Index I [AST ATL 

panics the King on his flight from Norway to Sweden, 368 31 - 
369! left in Sweden while K. Olaf proceeds to Holmgarth, 
36928-30 meets the King at Riveroyce returning from the 
east on his attempted reconquest of Norway, 387-^4 she 
stays behind in Sweden, 39125-27 interests herself much on 
behalf of her husband's son Magnus, iii. 4 5 -5 35 goes to live 
at the court of Magnus in Norway: rivalry between her and 
Alfhild his mother, n 36 -i2 2 Sigvat, on their squabbles, 

ASTRID, daughter of King Svein Twibeard and Sigrid the 
Highminded, half-sister of King Knut the Mighty and K. 
Olaf the Swede, married to Earl Wolf, the son of Thorgils 
Sprakaleg, their son being Svein Ulfson, King of Denmark, 

ii- 26 7 2 3*26 &' 2 93-10 7722-23 

ASTRID, daughter of K. Tryggvi Olafson and Astrid, i. 301^ 
given in marriage by her brother Olaf Tryggvison to Erling 
Skialgson, 3o6 26 -3o8 6 her children, ii. 24^ 

ATHELSTANE (ASalsteinn), ^Ethelstane, 'called the Victori- 
ous (hinn sigrsseli) or Faithful (hinn triifasti),' King of England 
(925-940), i. 13837.30 his attempted ruse to make Harald 
Hairfair his vassal, i38 31 -i39 2S is tricked, in return, by 
Harald into fostering his son - Hakon, to whom he gives a 
Christian and a princely education, and a precious sword, 1 39 30 - 
I 4 1 i9 ^ ts Hakon out to claim the throne of Norway, i49 5 . 10 
on Eric Bloodaxe fleeing his country before Hakon and 
invading Northumberland Athelstane made peace with him, 
appointing him his vassal King of Northumberland, convert- 
ing him and his following to Christianity at the same time, 
i52 8 . 23 died in his bed when he had been king for 'fourteen 
years eight weeks and three days,' i53 n . 13 

ATLI [Hoskuldson, cf. Sturl. ii. 276 13 . 21 ], the father of Bard the 
Black of Selwaterdale, present at the battle on Lyrshaw-heath, 
apparently selected by K. Magnus to a surgeon's duty after 
the battle; his progeny talented leeches, iii. 37 28 . 25 
ATLI THE SLENDER (A. hinn mj6vi) [son of Earl Hund- 
olf, Landnama, 1900, p. 11435], Earl of Gaular, appointed 
viceroy over the folk of Sogn by Halfdan the Black, i. 79 28 - 
8o 8 resists Earl Hakon Griotgarthson's attempt to oust him 
out of Sogn, and fights with him in Staffness-bay, where he 
received wounds of which he died in Atli's-isle, io4 9 . 21 

ATT BAR] Index I 15 

ATTI THE FOOL (A. hinn dcelski), a fictitious personage, 
of Vermland, his hunt, as told by lawman Emund, ii. i56 ir 
i57 9 the moral of it, ii. i6i r i62 2 

AUDBIORN (Au^bjorn), King of Firthfolk, enters, on Solfi 
Klofi's persuasion, into alliance with King Arnvid of South- 
Mere against Harald Hairfair, and fights Harald at Solskel, 
where he fell, i. ioi ir io2 20 

AUD the Deeply-wealthy (Au^r djiipau^ga, so the ed., but all 
the Heimskringla MSS., with the exception of one, A. M. 
38 foL, where avdgu is a scribal mistake, favour the reading 
djjipii^ga^the Deepminded), queen of Olaf the White, 
King of Dublin, i. n6 20 

AUDE the Wealthy (Au^i hinn au=3gi), K. Visbur's father-in- 
law, i. 285 

AUDUN (Au'Sunn), personal name that Snorri, playmg at 
etymology, derives from the name of Odin, i. i9 24 

AUDUN, son of Hall, and father of Hall, the banner-bearer of 
Gregory Dayson, iii. 401^ 

AUDUN the Red, with Erling Askew on his Jerusalem journey, 
distinguishes himself in a fight with pirates, iii. 372 18 . 22 

AUN, son of King Jorund, King of the Swedes, first for 25 
years, an outlaw in West Gautland for the same length of 
time, again King of the Swedes for 25 years, and again an 
outlaw in West Gautland for 25 years; once more he returned 
to his realm and ruled it for 25 years, and, in addition, ten 
years for each of his eight remaining sons, whom he sacrificed 
for that purpose to Odin, attaining altogether an age of 
200 years, but, by the statements of the story, ruling for 205 
years! i. 4i 29 -44 6 

BALDER (Baldr), one of Odin's ' Diar, 7 abode, on coming to 
Sweden, at Broadbeam, i. i6 29 in kennings, iy3 15 iii. 2i3 25 

BALDWIN (Baldvini), B. I., King of Jerusalem, 1 100-1118, 
welcomes K. Sigurd at Jerusalem, and accompanies him to 
the Jordan, iii. 2 56^-2 5 7 8 makes a goodly banquet for King 
Sigurd, and gives him many holy relics, and amongst them 
a splinter of the Holy Cross, 257 12 . 27 arrays his host for 
Sidon, which town he and Sigurd take, 257 28 -3o Sigurd gives 
Baldwin the town, 2584 

BARD (Bar^Sr), a priest from the Westfirths in Iceland, so 
ignorant of the ritual that he would consent to performing 

16 Index I [BAR BER 

a baptismal ceremony only on condition that Stein Skapti- 
son should help him, ii. 28o 13 . 31 
BARD the Black (B. svarti) of Sel-waterdale, the son of Adi, 

BARD COCKTAIL (B. standhali or standali), son of Bryniolf, 
transfers his allegiance from K. Eystein Haraldson to his 
brother K. Ingi, iii. 392 30 . 32 charged with treason by Erling 
Askew, 4691-24 

BARD, son of Guthorm of Reinir, and father to K. Ingi, Duke 
Skuli and Sigrid, iii. i84 ls 336 26 . 2r 

BARD, son of Jokul of Waterdale in Iceland, ii. 373! 

BARD STANDTAIL. See Bard Cocktail. 

BARD the White (B. hviti), a steward of Earl Hakon Eric- 
son's manor of Angrar, ii. 48 18 . 20 

BARELEG (Berbeinn), one of the nicknames of King Magnus 
Barefoot, iii. 233 21 

BAUGEID (BaugerS), daughter of Day, and sister of Gregory 
Dayson, abbess of Gimsey, iii. 42i 29 . 30 

BENEDICT, a follower of Sigurd Slembi-Deacon, iii. 3499 

BENTEIN (Benteinn), son of Kolbein, a courtman of King 
Ingi Haraldson, slain by Sigurd Slembi-Deacon and Magnus 
the Blind at Listi, iii. 355 n . 31t his brothers Sigurd and Gyrd 
execute fearful revenge for him, 363 18 . 22 3664.5 

BERA, wife of K. Alf of Sweden, i. 36 15 -37 23 

BERG (Bergr), a companion of Sigvat the poet in a trading 
trip to Rouen, ii. 31331-32 3 J 48 

BERGLIOT (Berglj6t), daughter of Hakon, Earl of Ladir, and 
Thora, the daughter of Skagi Skoptison, i. 247.7. wedded to 
Einar Thambarskelfir, 247 7 . 8 ii. 2234.317, iii. io6 8 . 9 her dowry 
restored to Einar on his return from voluntary exile in 
Sweden, ii. 2ii 2r . 28 her revengeful grief after the slaying of 
her husband and son by K. Harald Sigurdson, iii. no 15 . 24 
she buries them in Olaf s Church, in Nidoyce, beside the 
tomb of K. Magnus the Good, no 26 . 28 her appeal to Hakon 
Ivarson frustrated by K. Harald's diplomacy, ir2 ls -ii4. 

BERGLIOT, daughter of Halfdan, the son of Sigurd Sow, and 
sister to King Harald Sigurdson, married to Finn Arnison, 
iii. in 5 . r 

BERGLIOT (Berglj6tr), son of Ivar of Elda, fights on the side 
of K. Ingi in the battle of the Elf against Hakon Shoulderbroad, 

BER BIA] Index I 17 

and on his way home to Thrandheim slays Nicolas Beard, 
Hakon's rentmaster in Biorgvin, 4 1 621.25 is slain by K - 
Hakon's orders by Alf Ruffian, 416^9 

BERGLIOT (Bergljdt), daughter of Earl Thorir the Silent 
and of Alof Year's-heal, married to Earl Sigurd of Ladir, i. 

1 3 724-26~ S ives birth > on the first ni S at of Yule, to Hakon, 

afterwards the Mighty, Earl of Ladir, i6i 5 . u 
BERGTHOR BESTILL (Bergptfrr bestill), stationed in the 

forehold on board the Long-Worm, i. 3531* 
BERGTHOR BUCK (B. bukkr), Hi. 424 2q 
BERGTHOR of Lund (Groves, Map), father to Gudrun one 

of Earl Hakon's minions, i. 2923 
BERGTHOR, the son of Mar (B. Masson), iii. 362 29 . 30 
BERGTHOR, son of Svein Bridgefoot, an accusing witness 

against Sigurd Hranison in his contest at law with King 

Sigurd Jerusalem-farer, iii. 275 21 . 24 
BERSI, the son of Skald-Torfa (Bersi Skaldtprfuson), Icel. 

poet, fought in the forehold of Earl Svein's ship in the battle 

of Nesiar, ii. 6o 32 . 33 Interchange of greetings between 

him and King Olaf Haraldson, 6o 33 -6i 15 his song when he 

came into King Olaf s power and abode in fetters on board 

of a war-galley, 6i 5 . 81 served as court-poet to K. Knut the 

Mighty, 254 8 . 20 
BERSI the Strong (B. hinn sterki), a fore-castle man on the 

Long- Worm, i. 3534 
BIADAK (Bja^ok), mother of Eystein, son of Harald Gilli, 

accompanies him from Scotland to Norway, iii. 368 20 2 i 
BIADMYNIA, daughter of Myrkiartan, an Irish king, taken 

to wife by Sigurd, the son of Magnus Barefoot, iii. 

22 Sl9-22 

BIARMS (Bjarmar), the Perms, inhabitants of the country 
round the White Sea, i. 2i5 14 ii. 26i 28 262 29 2635 10 their 
customs relating to inheritance, 26o 2S . 29 

BIARNI the Evil (Bjarni hinn illi), he and others rob and 
slay the friends of Erling Askew, iii. 459 6 . n hanged by order 
of Erling, 46o 2S . 30 Thorbiorn Skald- Askew's commemorative 
verse on the deed, 461,- 

BIARNI GOLDBROW'S-SKALD (B. Gullbrar-skald), Icel. 
poet his laudatory verses on Kalf, the son of Arni, ii. 36r 10 . 

37521-30 376i5. 2 3 43317-26 iu '- IO H-20 2I 3-13 
VI. C 

1 8 Index I [BIA BIO 

BIARNI SIGURDSON (B. SigurSarson), father of the priest 
Jon Tapard, iii. 3 8 Ss3-24 

BIORGVIN (The men of) (Bjorgynjarmenn), iii. 359 13 44134 

BIORN the Buck (Bjorn bukkr), son of Nicolas and Asa the 
sister of Erling Askew, FsL i45 23 married to Margaret, 
daughter of Arni of Stodreim by Queen Ingirid, iii. 37o 25 
4 I 726-2'7 ki s fight with Haldor Brynjolfson on the bridges at 
Biorgvin, 4i6 29 -4i8 23 

BIORN CHAPMAN (B. kaupmaSr) or Biorn the Sea-farer 
(B. farma'Sr), son of Harald Hairfair and Swanhild, daughter 
of King Eystein of Heathmark, i. 114-^ raised to kingship 
over Westfold by his father, i3i lg 1 34^. 18 resided at Tuns- 
berg, was peaceful, and encouraged trade, I34 19 . 3 o wedded 
well and meetly (wife not named), had a son Gudrod, i34 30 .3i 
had a dispute with his brother Eric for refusing to pay to 
him the dues owing to their father, and was slain by Eric, 1 35!. 19 
buried in Sea-farer's Mound at Seaham, i35 24 

BIORN CRIPPLEHAND (B. krepphendi), Icel. poet, author 
of a drapa on Magnus Barefoot, in which he sings of his 
warfare and great deeds of valour in Halland, iii. 2o8 19 . 2r of 
the hanging of Steig-Thorir, 2i3 4 . 13 of the punishments of 
the Thrandheim folk, 2i3 20 . 28 of K. Magnus' harrying in 
the South-isles and Ireland, 221^-22^ of Magnus' war- 
fare in Bretland and of the death of Hugh the Valiant, 

BIORN 2 EGILSON, a follower of Magnus the Blind, iii. 3497 
falls at the battle of Mouth, 349 21 -35o x 

BIORN, son of Eric Eymundson, King of Sweden after his 
father for fifty years, i. i24 5 . 6 contemporary of Lawman 
Thorgnyr's father, ii. I2o 31 -i2i 2 a powerful ruler and mild 
to his people, i2i 2 . 5 

BIORN POISON-SORE (B. eitrkveisa), refuses to harbour 
overnight Astrid with her infant son, Olaf Tryggvison, but 
entertains Hakon her pursuer, i. 225 30 . 32 226 1S . 14 30 

BIORN'S BROTHER = King Hakon the Good, brother of 
Biorn Chapman, q. v., i. i89 n 

BIORN the Steward (B. arma%r), a Gautlander, distant relative 
and friend of Queen Astrid, who presented him with steward- 
ship in the Upper Heathmark, ii. 338 15 . 22 not liked of King 
Olaf, 338 22 . 24 found out to be guilty of thefts with which he 

BIO] Index I 19 

charged others, 338^-34033 dismissed the King's service 
and exiled, 340 31 -34 I 2 
BIORN of Studla, stationed in the forehold of the Long- Worm, 

i- 3S3i2 

BIORN THE THICK (B. digri), Marshal at the Court of 
King Olaf Haraldson, occupied the high seat (ondvegi) 
opposite to the King's in his hall, ii. 67 22 _ 24 the spokesman 
of his King, 76 12 . 15 78 5 . 6 88 31 . 33 enters into friendship with 
Hialti Skeggison, 85 19 . 25 pleads on behalf of the people with 
King Olaf to take measures to bring about peace with Sweden, 
85 8 -86 18 is sent by King Olaf on a mission to Sweden for 
the purpose, 86 19 . 2 ^ ior 24 engages Hialti Skeggison to go 
with him, 86 31 -87 16 as well as Sigvat Thordson, 92 28 -94 15 
receives the King's instructions and parting gift, and a ring 
for present and tokens to Earl Rognvald of West Gautland, 
87 19 -88 I5 his journey to Skarar described by Sigvat, 92 28 - 
94 15 well received at Earl Roghvald's court, 8837.33 ^9io k e 
lays his plans before the Earl, who, through the urging of his 
wife, promises in the end to back him, 89^-915 tarries very 
long with the Earl, and getting weary of waiting takes counsel 
with the Lady Ingibiorg, 9t 3 . 5 9 . 13 accepts the proposal of 
Hialti who volunteers to go by himself to Sweden to find out 
the disposition of the Swede king towards Norway, 9i 14 . 28 
learns from Earl Rognvald that the mission from Norway 
was not likely to speed, yet urges the Earl to stand by his 
promise to go and meet the Swede king, ii4 16 . 21 he goes in 
Earl Rognvald's company to Sweden, visits Upsala, Ulleracre, 
is the guest of Lawman Thorgnyr and takes counsel with him, 
accompanies him to the Thing of Upsala and delivers the 
message he was the bearer of, H4 21 -ii9 13 after the Thing 
he returns back to Gautland with Earl Rognvald and proceeds 
to Norway, telling King Olaf the result of his mission, i22 23 . 31 
his speech at Olaf s court council on the relations of the 
realm of Norway to Sweden in general and West Gautland 
in particular, i42 26 -i43 15 leaves K. Olaf as he' flees from 
Norway, and goes home, 3695.3 accepting a bribe pressed 
upon him he swears fealty to King Knut and Earl Hakon, 
377 23 -379 21 hears of the death of Hakon and repents him 
of his broken faith to Olaf, 3 79 24 . 31 journeys to Olaf, confesses 
his treachery and swears him fealty to death, 380^ Olaf 

2O Index I [BIR BOR 

makes peace with him, sBo^.^ fights and falls at the battle 
of Sticklestead, 43 2 25"433i Sigvat's song on him, 43327-35 

BIRCHISLE MEN(Bjarkeyingar), the family of Birchisle whose 
chief representative was Thorir Hound, ii. 265 19 . 20 

BIRCHLEGS (Birkibeinar), the name given by the Norwegians 
to the followers of Eystein, son of K. Eystein Haraldson, who, 
to protect themselves against the cold, wrapped their legs in 
birch-bark, iii. 479i5 24 26 48o 12 ]9 482-^ 26 483! 4 r 10 14 4845 n 19 

s 10 23 4 13 
BIRGIR, a bailiff of K. Harald Gormson of Denmark, libelled 

by the Icelanders for inhuman treatment of a shipwrecked 

Icelandic crew in Denmark, i. 268 M9 
BIRGIR BROSA [s. of Bengt, the son of Folke], a Swedish 

Earl, ob. 1202, the fourth husband of Brigida, daughter of 

King Harald Gilli, iii. 378 81 -379 3 his children by her, 379 4 . 9 

abets the pretender to the Norwegian kingdom, Eystein, 
son of King Eystein Haraldson, 478 20 -479 3 

BLOOD-AXE (Bld'Sox), i. i8i 25 ii. 1695 see Eric Blood-axe! 
BLOT SVEIN, King of Sweden, an upholder of blood-offerings, 

iii. 2853 

BLUEMEN (Blamenn), Moors, iii. 254^ 282 14 
BODVAR THE HERSIR (Bo^varr hersir), son of Vikmg-Kari 

and father of Alof, the mother of Gizur the White, i. 334 28 . 29 

ii. 89 8 . 9 
BOLLI, son of Thorleik [the son of Hoskuld, the son of Dale- 

Koll, see Laxdselasaga], christened in Norway at the command 

of King Olaf Tryggvison, i. 33717-22 
BOLVERK (Bolverkr), son of Arnor, Icelandic poet, tells of 

Harald the Hardredy's meeting with King Jarisleif, iii. s8 19 . 2G 

and of his arrival at Micklegarth, 59 14 . 21 of the -precious 
gifts given by Harald to King Magnus, 87 5 . 14 of Harald's 
war on Denmark the next year after the death of King Mag- 
nus, 9S 8 . 10 

BORGHILD (Borghildr), daughter of Day Eilifson, married to 
Kari King's-brother; her sons Sigurd of Eastort and Day, iii. 

BORGHILD, daughter of Olaf o' Dale, a very fair woman, wise 
and full of lore and admired of K. Eystein Magnusson, 
iii. 277 18 . 27 hearing that men speak evil of her and King 
Eystein she clears herself by a successful ordeal at Burg, 

BOR BRU] Index I 21 

2 7 8 i4-i9 Kin s ig ur d Jerusalem-farer takes her as his con- 
cubine, 278 20 . 24 their son Magnus the Blind, 27835 

BORK (Borkr) of the Firths, stationed in the forehold on board 
the Long-Worm, i. 353 13 

BOTOLF (B6t61fr) of Olvirshowe, one of eight lords of 
Thrandheim combined to force Hakon the Good to join in 
the customs of heathen feasts, i. I7o 18 

BOVI (B6fi), fosterfather of Gauthild, queen of K. Ingiald, 
gave fostering to her son, Olaf Tree-shaver, i. 63^ 

BRAGI, Odin's son, one of the gods, i. i66 a ig2 12 28 

BRAND the Bountiful (Brandr hinn orvi) [son of Vermund the 
Slender], i. 335u-i5 

BRAND, son of Ssemund, Bishop of H61ar in Iceland, 1162- 
120 1, his consecration, iii. 46i 20 . 21 

BRAND [son of Thorgrim the priest], father of Thorleik, 

i- 335i5 

BRETLANDERS (Bretar), Welshmen, iii. 224 10 
BRIGIDA, daughter of King Harald Gilli, given in marriage to 

Ingi, son of Hallstein the Swede King afterwards to Earl 

Karl Sonason then to Magnus the Swede King finally to 

Earl Birgir-Brosa, iii. 378 31 -379 9 
BRIGIDA, daughter of Wolf Uspakson and Jorun daughter of 

Thorberg, her son Sheep- Wolf, iii. io4 n 
BRIMILSKIAR, a missionary earl sent by Harald Gormson 

to Norway, i, 30135-30 
BRISTLE (Bursti), a thrall in the household of Hakon the Old, 

in Sweden, insults the legate of Queen Gunnhild sent to secure 

the person of the infant Olaf Tryggvison, i. 228 20 . 22 
BRODD-HELGI [son of Thorgils], a chief in Weaponfirth in 

eastern Iceland, i. 269 22 . 23 
BRUNI, the father of Priest Andres, iii. 3253 
BRUSI (Brusi) (add after the name: at the place called Mere, 

ii. 36335), his differences with K. Olaf Haraldson on the 

practicability of passing across Skerf-scree up from Walldale 

to Lesiar in Gudbrandsdale, ii. 3 6335-3 66 U 
BRUSI, son of Sigurd the Thick, Earl of Orkney together 

with his brothers Summerlid and Einar Wrongmouth, ii. 

I ^93o sr 1 ? ! s-6 personal character, I7o 25 . 27 29 , 30 refuses to 

dispute his half-brother Thorfm's title to the third part of 

Orkney, which the latter claimed after the death of Summer- 

22 Index I [BRU BUD 

lid, ^IMO a wise and well-beloved ruler, 17122-24 makes 
peace between his brothers, Einar and Thorfin, whereby 
Thorfin obtained the third part of Orkney he claimed, 173 
31 -i74 4 leaves his dominion to the rule of Einar on con- 
dition that the longest-lived should inherit the other, i74 5 . n 

makes again peace between his brothers, bound by oaths, 
17632.25 possesses himself of two-thirds of the Orkneys, 
according to covenant, on the death of his brother Einar, 
17833.2^- refuses his brother Thorfin's proposal to share by 
halves with him the dominion in Orkney, i78 28 -i79 1 
seeks protection of King Olaf Haraldson in Norway, which 
he obtains on condition of holding his lands in feof of the 
king, and being his liegeman, I79i 9 -i3i 2 19913 n ^ s an< * n * s 
brother Thorfin's further dealing with King Olaf, 1815-183 
their case, including weregild for their brother Einar, pub- 
licly settled by the king, i84 4 . 31 on parting, King Olaf con- 
fers on him two-thirds of the earldom of Orkney, and retains 
his son Rognvald as hostage, i86 u -i87 ir his joint rule 
with Thorfin of the Islands, and death 'a little after the fall 
of K. Olaf the Holy,' i87 20 -i88 26 

BRUSI, son of Thormod, a fore-castle man of Sigurd Slembi, 
falls in the battle at Holm-the-Gray, iii. 362 19 . 20 

BRYNIOLF (Brynj61fr), one whose wife had been a victim of 
Earl Hakon's immorality, i. 29233-2933 

BRYNIOLF CAMEL, Elephant, hi. 1865,3 (B. lilfaldi), of Ran- 
realm; his speech in favour of the provinces claimed by King 
Olaf Haraldson owing allegiance rather to Norway than 
Sweden, ii. 76 15 -77 4 his statement in respect of the old 
boundaries between Norway and Sweden, 76 16 . 23 becomes 
a favourite with the King, 7 7 5 . 8 receives for a Yule-gift from 
him a gold-wrought sword and the manor of Vettland, 7928-^ 

King Olaf confers on him the title of landed-man, and he 
becomes a great friend of the King, 8o 5 .^ 

BRYNIOLF CAMEL, the younger, father to Skialdvor, iii. 

2 7 2 25-26 48l lo-is 

BUDLI (Bu^li), father of K. Atli and Brynhild, who was mar- 
ried to Gunnar, the son of GiukL Atli, ' son of Budli,' invited 
to him Gunnar and his brother Hogni, both of whom he 
treacherously slew. Hence sons-in-law J in the lines here 
cited should read 'brothers-in-law.' The lines form a refrain 

BUD CAL] Index I 23 

in Illugi's lay of the kind called ancient memories 3 (forn 
minni), iii. 63 20 _ 21 

BUDLI, a legendary sea-king, iii. 985 

BUI the Thick (Biii digri), son of Veseti of Borgundholm, a 
lord among the Jomsburg-vikings, i. 27o 2r . 2S 27i 2r _ 28 his vow 
at his father's and Harald Gormson's grave-ale, 272 28 _ 30 
raids the island of Hod and brings to the Jomsburg fleet 
news of Earl Hakon's whereabouts, 276 16 . 19 his fight in the 
battle of the Jomsvikings, 277 12 . 15 279^ 28o 3 . 31 jumps 
overboard with his chests of gold, 28o 24 . 31 

BULGARS (Bolgarar), Bulgarians, iii. 57 13 

BURIZ, son of Henry the Halt and Queen Ingirid, d. of Rogn- 
vald, ' brother of King Ingi,' iii. 43736-27 

BURISLAF (Bunzleifr), King in Wendland, father to Geira, 
who married Olaf Tryggvison, i. 252 9 . 10 joins Emperor 
Otho's expedition against Denmark, 255 14 returns to Wend- 
land, 26o n causes his captain Sigvaldi to kidnap Svein 
Twibeard of Denmark, who is forced to accept the Wend- 
king's daughter Gunnhild in marriage, and to promise Buris- 
laf his sister Thyri for wife, and to release Burislaf from pay- 
ing any tribute to Denmark, 27o 31 -27i 14 cf. 348 24 . 26 Thyri 
refusing the arrangement, Burislaf sends Sigvaldi for her, 
marries her against her will, with the result that she runs 
away from him after a few days, 3493-3 5 o 5 negotiations 
between him and Olaf Tryggvison in respect of Thyri's pos- 
sessions in Wendland, 358 15 . 21 (This Burislav must be meant 
for Mieczyslaw, Duke of Poland, 964-992, born 931. Neither 
Dlugoss nor Kadlubek, the Polish chroniclers, nor Ditmar 
of Merseburg know the names of his daughters. The story 
of his marriage with Thyri is chronologically impossible 
as the tale is told by Snorri, as ' Burislav ' had been dead 
for four years when Olaf came to Norway. Mieczyslaw 
was succeeded by his son Boleslaw I., King of Poland, 
992-1025, who indeed married Thyri.) 

BURNING-FLOSI (Brennu-Flosi), son of Thord Frey's priest, 
his name being derived from his having burnt in his house 
Nial, the hero of Nial's saga, i. 334^ 

CALF, see also Kalf. 

CALF CRINGLE-EYE (Kalfr kringluauga), slain by Sigurd 
Slembi-Deacon, iii. 3S8 5 . 6 

24 Index I [CAL cou 

CALF THE WRONG (K. hinn rangi), father to Jon Cake 

and Ivar Gaudhank, iii. 358 10 . n 3 62 3i-s2 
CECILIA, daughter of a mighty man, married to Kmg^Sigurd 

Jerusalem-farer, whilst Queen Malmfrid was still alive, iii. 

CECILIA, daughter of Gyrd Bardson, and wife of Jon Kauda, 

iii. 3633 

CHRIST (Kristr), 'the son of Mary,' i. i66 28 . 2g by northern 
heathens also called White Christ (Hvitakristr), probably 
because those baptized into His service wore white clothes, 
albce, on first taking that service, and frequently fought 
behind a white shield with the Holy Cross marked upon it 
cup drunk to Christ at commemoration feasts, 272 15 . 16 cf. 
cup Christ, refused belief in by Eyvind Rentcheek, 328 13 _ 15 
blasphemed by Raud the Strong, 33237.30 things told about 
Him found past belief by K. Roerek, ii. ^i^-si Gowk- 
Thorir refuses to exchange belief in his ' own might and 
mam' for that of Christ, 395 4 . 13 but later sees not 'why it 
should be worse to trow in him than in any other god/ 
399so-22 Arnliot Gellini takes Olaf Haraldson's word for it 
that Christ is such as Olaf describes him, 4i6 3 . i;i Christ 
and K. Olafs holiness, 458 28 . 29 459 12 Magnus the Good 
owes to Christ and his stepmother the recovery of his 
father's patrimony, iii. $ Z5 .#f Sigvat's imprecation to Christ 
on being charged with desertion from K. Olaf, i3 31 . 84 Christ's 
men (kristsmenn), K. Olafs watchword to his army at Stickle- 
stead, ii. 4oo 32 

CLEMENT, son of An, an Icelander, slain in the battle at 
Holm-the-Gray, iii. 362 30 

CONSTANTINE MONOMACHUS, King of the Greeks, i.e. 
Emperor of the East, 1042-1054, imprisons Harald the Hard- 
redy, iii. 73 10 . 12 escape of Harald to the Vaerings, who are 
enraged with the King, and lay hold on him and put out his 
eyes, ii. 73r74id 

(Here Snorri ascribes to Constantine the fate that befell his 
predecessor, Michael V., Kalaphates, whom Zoe, as her 
adopted son, raised to the purple in 1041, and who was 
deposed again in 1042, and blinded in a popular rising, 
April 2 1 st.) 

COURLANDERS, hi. 3 o 16 n6 24 

DAL DAY] Index I 25 

DALE-DWELLERS, Dale-folk (Dales, ii. 2os 26 should read, 
Dale-folk) (Doelir), inhabitants of the Eastern-Dales, Norway, 
ii. 2or 5 339 13 iii. 258 n 

DAN THE PROUD (Danr hinn mikillati), King of the Danes, 
the first king in Denmark buried with precious things and 
wealth, i. 4 23 . 2r Denmark named after him, 3134.05-423 

DANES, Danefolk, Danehost, Danemen, Dane-people (Danir, 
etc.), i. 4 23 4 2 2 45 2 2 24 47 9 484 8 19 5 I so 53i2 is 8 3n n6 M J 52i9 29 
^69 *57ir I 5 8 s 14. 17419 i7 8 8 l82 28 2363 24i 14 2683 27i 18 

34726 33 3 6 7s 5 12 ii- IZ 26 I2 21 23 I 3ll 13 17 l6 28 29 l8 l 2 &4 14 

42 6 7523 12 7 9 I 57i630 l8 7 2 r 3*3is 3i6 2330 3 20 i33 5 i2 449 25 
in. 28 20 22 3 o 13 384 399 47 24 49 33 78 21 79 10 Q2 12 94l 9 5 8 21 

974 11 9 8 17 I00 7 15 25 IOI 15 I2 O 28 I27 g 22 I 2 8 22 I 3 I M I 3 2 3 
I 34 9 22 J 3 6 7 8 11 18 24 I 37l8 25 J 44 2 ^630 I47 2 4 29 l6l !2 

l8 7i3 19 I 9 8 so J 99i 2 68 4 285 10 3383 3525, 36137 3623 463^ 

4 6 5i9 21 475 47*9 14 16 19 473io 47723 

DANP, son of Rig, who was the first who in the tongue of the 
Danes was titled King, i. 3i 14 . 15 

DAVID, King of Scotland, D. I. (1124-1153), entertains Sigurd 
Slembi-Deacon and holds him of great account, iii. 337 18 -2o 

DAY (Dagr), King of Westmere, i. 7o 6 

DAY EILIFSON, a landed-man of the Wick in K. Magnus 
Barefoot's service, iii. 2i4 22 joins King Magnus Barefoot 
in his expedition to Ireland, 238 28 . 29 one of the last to flee 
after the King's death, 242 19 . 22 referred to as a great swimmer, 
300^3 his children : Borghild, 336 22 . 23 Gregory, Water-Worm, 
352 6 Sigrid, 4i9 32 -42o ; Gyrid, 420^ Baugeid, 42i 29 

DAY, son of Harald Hairfair and Ashild, the daughter of Ring 
Day son, i. H4 18 . 2 o proclaimed king by his father, 13119 

DAY, son of Kari Kingsbrother, and Borghild, the daughter of 
Day Eihfson, iii. 33634 

DAY, son of Red, ii. 339 10 Biorn the Steward's speech against 
him, 339 16 . 18 summoned to King Olaf, who frees him of the 
charges brought against him by Biorn, 339 25 . 2 8 knows how 
to read a person's character and to bring home crime, as in the 
case of Biorn Steward, 340 14 . 34 joins the King's company, 
340 31 at a feast given by Thorir Olivirson Day instructs the 
King how to find out that Thorir was a traitor, proof of 
which the King discovers, and has Thorir slain, 3425-343^ 

DAY, son of King Ring whom K. Olaf Haraldson drove away 

2,6 Index I [DAY DUN 

from his kingdom in the Uplands, ii. io8 22 . 24 domiciled with 
his father in Sweden, 392j 8 . 26 King Olaf sends him word 
to join him and promises him dominion in Norway if success- 
ful he goes to meet Olaf with twelve hundred men, 392 26 - 
393i2 krs character, 393 6 . 10 appointed by Olaf to be on 
the right hand of his banner, 4oo 18 . 20 sets up his banner at 
the battle of Sticklestead, 43T 12 -i 4 Day's brunt, 434 1 . 14 he 
is himself set upon and,- being overborne by sheer might, 
turns to flight back to Sweden, 434i 4 -i6 437i 9 -24 443s 
DAY THE WISE (D. hmn spaki), or the Mighty (hmn riki), 
son of K. Dyggvi, succeeded him in the rule of the Swedes, 
i. 3137-28 so w * se tnat b- e 'knew the speech of fowl,' died 
by mischance on an expedition in revenge for a pet sparrow, 
3 I so"3 2 2i father of Daybright and ancestor of the Daylings, 

DAYBRIGHT (DagetfSr), d. of K. Day the Wise, wife of K. 
Alrek of Sweden, and mother to King Alf, i. 36 12 . 14 

DAYLINGS (Doglingar), descendants of K. Day the Wise of 
Sweden, i. 36 18 . 14 

DIXIN, the chief counsellor of Geira, brings about a friendly 
meeting between Olaf Tryggvison and her, resulting in their 
marriage, i. 252 18 . 25 

DOMALD (D6maldi), son of Visbur by his first (unnamed) 
wife, 'and his stepmother let sing unluck at him,'i. 28 10 _.Q 
succeeded his father in the rule of the Swedes, who, holding 
him guilty of the prevailing scarcity, slew him in the third 
year of his reign, 2$ 8 . BB 

DOMAR (D6marr), son of Domald, had for wife Drott, the 
daughter of K. Danp, i. 3i 13 . 15 succeeded his father in the 
rule of the Swedes, reigned in peace and plenty, and died in 
his bed at Upsala, and was burnt in the meads of Fyri, 30^ 

DOTTA, d. of Thorkel Gusher, punished by K. Harald Sigurd- 
son for making fun of his naval power, hi. 95 13 -96 3 

DRIFT (Drifa), daughter of Snow the Old, K. of Finland, wife 
of Vanland, K. of the Swedes, i. 26 26 -27 18 

DROTT (Dr6tt), d. of Danp the son of Rig, wife of Domar and 
mother to Dyggvi, K. of the Swedes, i. 3i 18 she was sister 
of K. Dan the Proud, 3i 24 . 25 

DUNGAD, Earl of Caithness, married to Groa, d of Thorstein 
the Red, their daughter Grelad, ii. 169^3 

DUN EDW] Index I 27 

DUNIMIZ, sister's son of Rettibur the Wend King, in company 
with whom he makes a descent on Kings' Rock, iii. 326 30 
rows with some of his uncle's host round Hising, and so 
comes down upon the town, 327^3 priest Andres gives him 
a finger-ring, 332 10 

DURNIR, a dwarf, i. a6 M 

DYGGVI, son of Domar and his successor in the rule of the 
Swedes, i. 3o 29 . 32 was the first of the rulers of the Swedes 
who bore the title of King (cf. Drottnar), which descended 
to him from his maternal great-grandfather Rig, i. 3i 1315 

EADRIC STREONA (Heinrekr Strj6na), kills King Edmund 
Ironside at Oxford, A.D. 1016, ii. 27 llr . ls 

EAST-COUNTRIES (Men of the) (Austrvegsmenn), inhabitants 
of the eastern and southern littoral of the Baltic, i. S3 12 iii. 3o 17 

EASTFIRTHER (austfirzkr), of a person hailing from the 
quarter of the Eastfirths in Iceland, ii. 177^ 

EASTMEN (Norwegians), iii. ioi 18 3393 6 9 

EAST-WAYS (folk of the) = East-countries (Men of the). 

EAST- WENDS, see Wends. 

EDGAR (Eatgeirr), son of Ethelred II. and Qu. ^Elfflsed, ii. 2i 29 

EDLA, daughter of an earl in Wendland, King Olaf the Swede's 
'bond-maiden' and concubine, mother of Edmund, Astrid 
and Holmfrid, ii. i39 3 . 8 

EDMUND (Saint), King of East Anglia, 855-870, ii. iz^ 

EDMUND (Jatmundr), brother to K. Athelstan, King of Eng- 
land, 940-946, an enemy of Northmen, his dealings with Eric 
Bloodaxe, i. I53i-*54i7 

EDMUND (Eadmundr) IRONSIDE, son of Ethelred II. and 
Queen ^Elfflaed, ii. 2i 26 _ 29 succeeds his father 'jointly with 
his brother Edward the Confessor,' Snorri's mistake, ii. i8 20 . 22 
makes peace with King Knut on the terms of ruling over 
one half of England, 27 15 . 16 slain by Eadnc Streona (at Ox- 
ford, A.D. 10 1 6), 27^. 18 

EDWARD THE GOOD (JatvarfSr hinn g6*i), i.e. E. the Con- 
fessor, K. of England, 1042-1066, son of Ethelred II. and 
Queen Emma, succeeds * jointly with his brother Edmund 
Ironside to the kingdom' of their father, ii. i8 21 _ 22 2i 29 iii. 
2 5u r 55n-i5 married Gyda, daughter of Earl Godwin by 
his wife Gyda, daughter of Thorgils Sprakalegg, ii. 326 10 . 14 iiL 

28 Index I [EDW EGI 

I S5i8-i9 ki fi attitude towards Magnus the Good when claim- 
ing, on treaty grounds, Hordaknut's share in the kingdom 
of England, iii. 5123-5310 I ^ I i-4 23 William Bastard founds 
his claim to England on his relationship to Edward, i8o r . 10 

EDWY (Eatvigr), son of Ethelred II. and Qu. ^Elfflaed, ii. 2i 29 

EGIL (Egill), a noble of West Gautland, fosterfather to Astrid, 
the daughter of K. Olaf of Sweden, ii. i39 19 . 21 

EGIL, son of Aslak of Aurland, a landed-man, married to Ingi- 
biorg, daughter of Ogmund Thorbergson, and sister to Skopti 
of Gizki, joins Steig-Thorir and Svein Haraldson in rebellion 
in the Uplands in Norway against K. Magnus Barefoot, iii. 
209 20 2 f the band, after marauding through Raumsdale 
and South-Mere (2io s . 6 ), held for Thrandheim, where they 
had a successful engagement with Sigurd Woolstring (2 io 5 . 20 ), 
but K. Magnus taking up the pursuit they fled to Halogaland, 
where Thorir and Egill were overtaken at Hesiatown and 
hanged, 2io 21 -2i3 13 

EGIL, the Foe of Tunni (E. Tunnad61gr), son of Aun, K. 
of the Swedes; his contests with the thrall Tunni, alliance 
with K. Frodi the Bold of Denmark, and death by being 
gored by a wild bull, i. 449-46 

EGIL, son of Hall o' Side, goes, in obedience to a message 
from King Olaf Haraldson by Thorarin Nefiolfson, to Nor- 
way and stays with King Olaf, ii. 249 19 . 29 is refused return 
to Iceland the next season by King Olaf, until the result of 
Gellir Thorkelson's mission to the island should be known, 
and is detained in a manner that c savoured of unfreedom,' 
274 15 -275 2 incurs K. Olaf's wrath by setting free distressed 
prisoners of war, but ultimately regains the King's favour, 

EGIL, son of Skallagrim, father to [Thorgerd] the mother of 

Kiartan Olafson, i. 334 ir 

EGIL, brother of Volund, a famous archer, i. 220 4 
EGIL WOOLSARK (E. ullserkr), a yeoman, once upon a time 
the standard-bearer of K. Harald Hairfair; his stout-hearted 
speech at K. Hakon the Good's council of war, i. iTSge' 1 ?^!! 

his speech, prophetic of his death, i76 18 . 23 his stratagem 
at the battle of Frsedisberg or Rast-Kalf, i77 9 . 12 18 . 32 cf. i78 2 . 5 

leading Hakon's men he got into hand-to-hand fight with 
Gamli Eric's son, wounded him sorely, but fell himself, i78 29 - 

EIL BIN] Index I 29 

i79 4 laid, with all his men, in a ship taken from the enemy 
and buried in a howe (at Fraedisberg) by K. Hakon's orders, 

l8 5-8 

EILIF (Eilifr), Earl in Sleswick, gives a great banquet to King 
Sigurd arriving at Sleswick on his return journey from Jerusa- 
lem, iii. 262 14 . 16 

EILIF, married to Ragnhild, d. of Earl Hakon the Mighty, 
their s. Earl Worm (for Orm), married to Signd, d. of Earl 
Finn Arnison, iii. 35i 5 . 6 ST^n 

EILIF THE GAUTLANDER (E. gauzki), a bailiff appointed 
by King Olaf the Swede over the northern part of Ranrealm, 
ii- 76 2 .8 keeps spying on King Olaf Haraldson's move- 
ments in the Wick, and has a band of thirty men hovering 
about the edge of the Marklands, 77 9 . 13 comes with a large 
following to meet King Olaf at a palaver at which he is be- 
trayed by Brynjolf Camel, and slain by the Captain of K. 
Olafs Guests, Thorir the Long, 77 16 789 

EILIF, Earl, s. of Rognvald Earl of West-Gautland and Ingi- 
biorg, the d. of Tryggvi, ii. i54 32 captain over the e land-war- 
ders ' of King Jarisleif, iii. 5^-w 59i-4 

EINAR (Einarr), see Turf-Einar. 

EINAR, married to Helga, daughter of Priest Andres, iii. 325.^^ 
brings to Castle Church, Kings' Rock, the news of the 
Wend King Rettibur's descent on the town, 327 8 . 14 

EINAR, son of Ari of Reek-knolls, iii. 356 29 

EINAR, son of Eyolf, and brother to Gudmund the Mighty of 
Maddermead, prevents by a great speech his own brother and 
his followers from complying with King Olaf Haraldson's re- 
quest to the Icel. Althing, to cede him the island of Grimsey, 
ii. 243 23 -244 30 his speech the cause why the chiefs of Iceland, 
invited to go to Norway to meet King Olaf, did not deem it 
safe to act on that invitation, 24S 26 . 30 

EINAR, son of Guthorm Graybeard, and brother to Thora, 
the mother of K. Sigurd, s. of Harald Gilli, a well-born and 
wealthy Uplander, iii. 38i n _ 16 his and his brother Andres' 
dealings with the priest Richard 38117-385^ 

EINAR of Hordland (E. horSski), stationed in the forehold on 
board the Long-Worm, i. 353 19 

EINAR JINGLESCALE (E. skalaglamm), the son of Helgi, 
an Icel. poet, author of the poem called Gold-lack, i. 2o6 31 - 

30 Index I [EIN 

20733 2i6 29 -2i7 6 24139-2423 8 . 27 245 18 . 29 24 4 . 12 18 . 27 

2 5 6 4 15-23 SO' 2 5 ?4" 2 5 96-30 

EINAR, son of Laxe-Paul, his home rifled during his absence 
by Sigurd Slembi-Deacon, iii. 358 20 . 30 tells himself to Eric 
Oddson, the historian, the story of Sigurd's robberies and 
manslaughters, 359 3 . 5 falls with his master, K. Sigurd Harald- 
son, in Biorgvin, 1155, 389-^5 

EINAR, son of Ogmund of Sand, in Halogaland, provides 
Sigurd Slembi-Deacon with provisions, while in hiding in 
Halogaland from K. Ingi Haraldson, iii. 356 26 _ 28 

EINAR SKULISON (E. Sktilason), Icelandic poet, cited as 
authority on events that happened in K. Sigurd Jerusalem- 
farer's journey to the East: his stay in England, iii. 249 10 . 18 
his stay at Galizialand, 249 24 . 32 his arrival in Jerusalem, 
2 5 621-2 5 7s ki s handing over of Sidon to King Baldwin of 
Jerusalem, 258^3 on the cruelty of Thora, mother of King 
Sigurd, to Kolbein, 302 ir . 2Q on King Magnus the Blind's 
dilemma at Biorgvin, 3233.7 on King Harald Gilli's battles 
in Denmark, 334n- 22 on King Magnus, fourth son of Harald 
Gilli, 36835-3693 on King Eystein's victory at Leikbergover 
the people of Ranrealm, and the dwellers of Hising, 374 6 . 22 
on the defeat of Earl Harald, the son of Maddad, by King 
Eystein Haraldson, 375 4 . 12 on Eystein's victories at Apar- 
dion, Hartlepool, Whitby, Skarpskernes, Pulwyke ancl Lang- 
ton, 375i6~376 28 n tne character of King Sigurd Haraldson, 
37^6-15 on the slaying of King System, 396 8 . 1S on the defeat 
of Hakon Shoulderbroad by K. Ingi at the battle in the Elf, 
4 T 4i8-35 h* s fl 00 ^ on Gregory Dayson called Elf-staves, 
4 I 5i 2 on tne ultimate whereabouts of Olaf s sword, Hneitir, 

EINAR THAMBARSKELFIR (E. }?ambarskelfir), son of 
Eindrid Styrkarson, i. 2i5 29 ii. 22 14 . 16 married to Bergliot, 
the daughter of Hakon, Earl of Ladir, i. 2473 ii. 22 34 . 26 iii. 
io6 8 . 10 stationed in the main hold on board the Long-Worm, 
in the battle of Svold, i. 3532i-23~ nis feats of shooting, 37i 8 . 30 
ii. 22 ir . 21 his famous repartee to the King, on his bow being 
shot in sunder, i. 37i 21 . 23 receives truce of life from Earl 
Eric after the battle of Svold, and accompanies the Earl to 
Norway, ii. 22 18 . 17 his prowess and lordly condition, 22 Jlr _ 34 
his wealth and power in consequence of his alliance by mar- 

EIN] Index I 31 

riage with the Earls Eric and Svein, 22 24 . 31 left by Earl 
Eric, on his departure for England, in charge of his son 
Hakon, as ruler of Norway, 26 ir . 22 summons a war-levee 
from Earl Hakon's dominion, to resist the advance of Olaf 
Haraldson, 46 14 . 28 hearing that Orkdale had fallen into 
Olaf s power, he sends messengers to Earl Svein, to warn him 
of Olaf s approach, 48^-494 sent for by Earl Svein, Einar 
holds a council of war with him in Frosta, and lays down 
plans for attacking Olaf, 492-r5i3 5 x i-2 marches together 
with Earl Svein, at the head of a large host on Nidoyce, 
which place he burns to the ground, Olaf seeking safety in 
flight, 532.27 joins Earl Svein's expedition against Olaf, 
which terminated in the engagement off Nesiar, 55^9 6o 26 . 31 
after the loss of that battle he counsels Earl Svein to flee 
from Norway to Sweden, and joins the Earl in the flight, 62 
11-20 i s friendlily received by King Olaf the Swede, 66 18 . 21 
remains with the Swede, well-beholden, till the latter's death, 
when he makes overtures for peace with Olaf of Norway, who 
reinstates Einar in all his possessions in Thrandheim, includ- 
ing Bergliot's dowry, 2 1 i 15 . gl his journey to England, meet- 
ing with Hakon Ericson, his brother- (or, rather, nephew-) in- 
law, and King Knut the Mighty, 235 3 . 8 his pilgrimage to 
Rome, and return home, 235 8 _ n sits in quiet at home in 
great state, yielding no service to King Olaf Haraldson, 
3 I0 ii-i7 on -K- Knut appointing Hakon Ericson Earl of 
Norway, Einar becomes the Earl's chief adviser, being loaded 
with gifts and honours, Knut promising him even a high 
dignity (earldom of Norway, 45222-24) in the future, 3492 5 -358 
denounced as traitor to K< Olaf by Biorn the Marshal, 
38 1 2 has the chief rule of Outer Thrandheim after Earl 
Hakon's death, 388 14 . 19 mindful of Knut's promises, he goes 
west to England to claim fulfilment of them, 388^-389! 
the King's disappointing answer, 389 2 _ n sails back to Nor- 
way, where he arrives after the fall of K. Olaf, 3 8 .9i2-24 452 15 . 2 2 
he is the first of Norw. chiefs to uphold the holiness of King 
Olaf, 452 24 . 26 visited by Bp. Grimkelin connection with that 
matter, 454 18 -455 15 his discourtesy to Alfiva for slighting 
certain tokens of K. Olaf s holiness, 456 24 . 27 he and Kalf 
Arnison combine to set up as king of Norway Magnus, son 
of Olaf the Holy, 4664-4674 gains, while Kalf Arnison loses, 

32 Index I [BIN 

favour with K. Magnus, iii. 1924-203 disapproves, much to 
the King's resentment, of Magnus appointing Svein Wolfson 
Earl of Denmark, 3o 2r . 32 refuses to aid Harald Hardredy 
towards possessing himself of the kingdom of Denmark 
(knowing, no doubt, that Magnus had bequeathed it to Svein 
Wolfson), 92 3 _ 28 brings the body of Magnus to Nidoyce, 
9 2 2(T937 his might, wealth, family relations, io6 3 . 18 his 
strained relations with K. Harald, io6 5 . 6 his advocacy of 
the cause of the people against Harald's masterfulness, io7 22 - 
io8 28 slain by Harald's men in his council chamber, 1093- 
no 2 buried in Olafs church, beside the tomb of K. Mag- 
nus, no 25 . 28 Hakon Ivarson's intention to avenge his death 
defeated by Harald's diplomacy, 113-11433 

EINAR WRONGMOUTH (E. rangmunnr), son of Sigurd the 
* Thick, Earl of Orkney, ob. 1020; set to rule with his brothers 
over Orkney when his father went to his last war, li. 16933- 
I 7e personal description, I7o 25 . 29 refuses, on his father's 
death, to give up to Thorfin, his brother, one third of the 
islands of which he possesses himself, i?^^ his war raids 
and unpopular rule, I7i 12 . 22 I 74i3-i5 his dealings with the 
spokesmen of his subjects, Amundi and Thorkel, 171^- 
I 73io his tyranny drives many of his subjects away, 173^.22 
Thorfin renews, and follows up with an armed host, his 
claim to one third of Orkney, which he obtains by the aid of 
Brusi, 17323-1744 obtains rule over his brother Brusi's share 
on condition that the longest lived of the two inherit as his 
own the other's share, i74 5 . n his defeat in Ulfreksfirth at 
the hands of the Erse King Konofogor, ii. i37 12 . 2 3 I 74is-22 
slays Eyvind Urochs-horn, King Olafs friend, 174^-175? 
drives from the islands Thorfin's tax-gatherer, renewing 
enmity with his brother, i75 8 -i76 2 peace again settled be- 
tween Einar and Thorfin, i76 19 . 29 murder of Einar by Thor- 
kel Fosterfather at Sandwick, I76 30 -i78 12 192^ his domin- 
ion, one third of Orkney, appropriated after his death by K. 
Olaf of Norway, i84 16 . 20 

EINDRID, son of Einar Thambarskelfir and Bergliot, daughter 
of Earl Hakon of Ladir, ii. 22 2r K. Knut holds out a 
promise to him of being made Earl of Norway, on the 
strength of which promise father and son laid claim to the 
earldom on Hakon Ericson's death, ii. 35o 4 . 6 388 18 . 19 has to 

EIN ELF] Index I 33 

wife Sigrid, daughter of Ketil Kalf and Gunnhild his char- 
acter, iii. io6 10 . 18 is stationed by Einar outside K. Har. 
Sigurdson's council chamber at a folk-mote in order to defend 
him, 10934 is slam by K. Harald's men, noj buried in 
Olafs church beside the tomb of King Magnus, no 26 . 28 
Hakon Ivarson's intention to avenge him defeated by Harald's 
diplomacy, 1141-23 

EINDRID of Gautdale, iii. 356 12 

EINDRID of Gimsar, son of Styrkar, and father of Einar 
Thambarskelfir, i. 2i5 28 ii. 22 15 . 16 commands his own ship 
in Olaf Tryggvison's expedition to Wendland, i. 36345 

EINDRID HEATHFILLY (E. herSafylja), coming upon K. 
Sigurd, son of K. Sigurd Haraldson, and Markus o' Shaw, he 
delivers them for execution, iii. 458^ 

EINDRID, son of Jon Suetneb, saves King Ey stein on board 
his ship from the pursuit of his brother, K. Ingi, iii. 394 15 . 18 
fights on the side of K. Hakon Shoulderbroad in the battle 
of the Elf, 407 8 . 9 4085 4145 when King Ingi is on the 
point of granting him pardon a son of Howard Butterbread 
gives him his death-wound, 4i5 6 . 14 

EINDRID THE YOUNG (E. ungi), goes to Jerusalem with 
Erling Askew, iii. 37i 16 . 18 after sailing through Norfisound, 
he parts company with Erling, 37i 26 . 28 to ^ on ^ s return to 
Norway, the story as to what ultimately became of K. Olafs 
sword Hneitir, 4283-42923 allies himself with King Hakon 
Shoulderbroad against Erling Askew, 441^ rights in the 
battle of Ve-isle, 444 22 ~446 6 takes in hand, with other chiefs, 
the lead of Hakon's partisans after his fall, leaving the ships 
and going to the Uplands, 447i 5 . 19 slain by Erling's men 
after the fall of Earl Sigurd Havardson, 455 U . 16 

ELDIARN, an Icelander, sings in dispraising humour of the 
valour of Gifford the Welshman, iii. 229^-2303 16 . 24 

ELFBIDERS (Elfarbyggjar), inhabitants of lands bythe Gautelf, 
iii. 215! 

ELFGEIR ('Alfgeirr), seizes the whole of Vingulmark (one 
half of which Elfhild, wife of Gudrod the Hunter-king, and 
mother of Olaf Geirstead-Elf, had brought her husband as a 
marriage dowry), 'and set thereover King Gandalf his son/ 
He and Gandalf seize the most part of Raumrick from Olaf 
Geirstead-Elf, i. 7 2 is-23 

VI. D 

34 Index I [ELF EMU 

ELFGRIMS (Elfargrimar), inhabitants of lands on the Gautelf, 

Hi. 2i5 16 33 220 3S 32i n 48o ls (= Elfbiders). 
ELFHILD ('Alfhildr), daughter of Alfarin, King of Elfhome, 

the first wife of Gudrodthe Hunter-king, i. 7o 2 ^ 28 her death, 


ELFSI, see Alfling. 

ELIZABETH, daughter of King Jarisleif, iii. 76 23 . 24 see Ellisif. 

ELLA, King of Northumberland, vanquisher of Ragnar Lod- 
brok (F.A.S., i. 280-283), his kindred: Englishmen, ii. i6 13 

ELLISIF, daughter of Jarisleif, King of Holmgarth, and Ingi- 
gerd, d. of K. Olaf of Sweden, scorns Harald Sigurdson's 
love, iii. 7533-76! given in marriage to him on his return from 
Greece, 76 22 . 29 77 2 o-22 her children, 9633-25 accompanies 
Harald on his expedition to England, i65 21 is left in the 
Orkneys, i66 4 returns from the west to Norway with her 
stepson Olaf and Ingigerd her daughter, i83 6 . 8 

EMMA, daughter of Richard I., Duke of Normandy, married i., 
Ethelred II., King of England, whom she bore four (!) sons, ii. 
2i 26 . 29 iii. 25 15 . 16 i55i4-i6~ 2 - Krmt the Mi g htv > their children, 
ii. 27 12 . 14 iii. 25^0 she issues forged letters under royal seal 
authorizing Earl Wolf, son of Sprakalegg, to have her son 
Hordaknut elected King of Denmark, ii. 3i6 21 -3i7 20 inter- 
ceeds in vain with King Knut for her son and Earl Wolf, 
3i8 a . 19 advises her son to leave his case unconditionally in 
his father's hands, 3i8 20 . 24 

(Snorri's statement, ii. 2i 24 26 that Emma was c the sister ' of 
two Earls of Normandy, ' William and Robert/ is incorrect, 
her brothers being Richard II. (996-1026) and Robert Abp of 
Rouen, 990-1037.) 

EMUND of Skarar, lawman in West-Gautland, his quality and 
character, ii. i55 3 . n undertakes to plead the cause of his 
people before King Olaf the Swede, i55 n . 31 goes to East- 
Gautland, where he draws to his side many mighty kindred, 
I55 31 -i56 5 proceeds to Swede-realm, and comes to Upsala, 
where he meets the King, i56 6 . 15 tells the King some 
enigmatic news from Gautland, 156^-15733 lures by a 
fictitious case at law a judgment from the King whereby he 
condemns his own conduct to the King of Norway, 158^ 
departs suddenly from the King's court, 15833-1592^ has to 
leave with the Up-Swedes, instead of the people of *Gautland, 

EMU ERI] Index I 35 

the election of a king of Swede-realm, i64 21 -i65 10 predicts 
that the succession of kings in Sweden will pass out of the old 
line of the Ynglings, i6s 10 . 16 

EMUND, natural son of King Olaf the Swede with Edk, 
daughter of a Wendish earl, ii. 1393.3 brought up in Wend- 
land among his mother's kin, i39 1W9 King in Sweden, when 
Magnus the Good set out from Garthrealm on the conquest 
of Norway, id. 4 8 lends aid to his kinsman Svein Wolfson, 
K. of Denmark, against Magnus the Good, 33 16 . 07 

ENGLISH (The), Englishmen (Englar), i. n8, 9 26i 31 ii. i2 2 

^31 2 5224 443i - *7 28 17131 ^^ 6 10 17 i?7 81 17819 27 
ERIC (Eirikr), son of Agnar, King of Westfold, father of Hild, 

the wife of Eystein King of Raumrick and Westfold, i. 68 17 . 20 
ERIC, son of K. Agni, King of the Swedes together with his 

brother Alrek, i. 3$i.$ Q 
ERIC ARNISON, husband of Skialdvor, daughter of Nicolas, 

the son of Sigurd Hranison, iii. 48i 19 . 21 warns Nicolas his 

father-in-law in vain of an imminent attack by the Birchlegs, 

ERIC 24 BIODASKALLI [Bioda-skull, ii. 89 6 ] (E. bj6askalli), 
son of Sigurd, the son of Vikmg-Kari, i. 33439.31 (but, son of 
Viking- Kari, ii. 89 5 . 6 ; cf. Olaf s saga Helga, ed. 1853, P- 5328-30 
Fms. iv. I3i 10 . 16 Flat. i. 65 30 . 31 ii. 593 5 Saga OL Tryggvasonar, 
Fms. i. 25i 18 . u Melab6k of Landnama, F. Jdnsson's ed. 
2 49i4-ie)j f at h er to Astrid, the mother of Olaf Tryggvison, i 
2235.3 224 4 . 5 225 15 228 26 . 27 2$^ 3oo 2Q hides his daughter 
with her new-born son, Olaf, from her pursuers, Gunnhild 
and her sons, 224 3 . 13 sends her with her child privily out 
of Norway to Hakon the Old in Sweden, 225 n . 24 2265 his 
sons, 228 26 229 23 3oi 9 . 10 

ERIC BLOOD-AXE (E. B16=S6x), King of Norway (93o)-93 4 , 
son of Harald Hairfair and Ragnhild, d. of Eric, King of Jut- 
land, i. H4 12 . 15 lost his mother when three years old and was 
fostered by I'horir, the son of Roald, a hersir in the Firths, 
119^3 128 18 . 20 K. Harald's favourite son, i28 20 . 21 fitted out 
by his father, when twelve years of age, with five longships for 
the wars, he harries for eight years Baltic lands, British 
dominions, finally going to Finland and the country of the 
Perms, i28 22 -i29 2 his marriage with Gunnhild, the daughter 
of Osur Tot, 1293-130 abode always with his father, 

36 Index I [ERI 

appointed King over Halogaland, Northmere and Raums- 
dale, 13130-31 aspired himself and was destined by his father 
to the head-kingship over his brethren, i33 3 . 6 burnt in his 
house, together with eighty wizards, at his father's behest, his 
brother Rognvald Straightleg, 13321-25 coming to Tunsberg 
from the Eastlands with his warships in need of provisions, 
which his brother Biorn Chapman refused to supply, he set 
upon Biorn and slew him at Seaham, i35i. 2 i guesting at 
Solvi in Northmere he is attacked by night by his brother 
Halfdan the Black, and barely escapes being burnt in the 
house, 1363^2 led by his father into the seat of supreme 
kingship over Norway, 14125-27 X 4 2 24 opposition by his 
brothers to the measure, 141^-142^ a son of his and 
Gunnhild's baptized by Har. Hairfair to his own name, 
namely, Harald Greycloak, afterwards King of Norway, i42 2r . 30 
Eric's contest with his brothers for the supreme power in 
Norway, 1443-30 I 49i2-u personal description, i44 81 -i45 1 
his children, i45 5 . 8 loses hold on and control of his 
subjects when Hakon, his brother, comes from England 
claiming the crown, and abolishing the feudal tenure of land 
introduced by his father, 150-1 5 1 13 finding that his people 
would not respond to his call to arms, he flees west-over-sea 
to England, 15 2 w 15527-32 l8 29-3o ne S oes first to Orkney, 
and gathers a host to him there; sets off for England, 
harrying Scotland on the way, and then invades north 
England, i52 6 . n comes to terms with K. Athelstan on 
agreeing to becoming his vassal over Northumberland and 
being baptized to Christianity with all his people, 152-^23 
resided at York, i52 25 having about him a host too 
numerous for his land to support, he eked out his income by 
making war every summer on Scotland, Sodor, Ireland or 
Wales, i53 310 in view of K. Edmund's hostility he quits 
Northumberland and makes war in the west, joined by the 
forces of the sons of Turf-Einar of Orkney, and by viking 
hosts in Sodor, with which he harried Ireland, Wales, and 
southern England, where he fell in a great battle against a 
vassal king of Edmund's called Olaf, iSSn^S^ (cf. i56 5 . 6 ) 
cf. ii. i68 28 . 30 1803.4 all his sons dead by A.D. 999, i. 34239.30 
ERIC, son of Emund or Eymund (E. Emundarson or Eymund- 
arson), King of Upsala, t882(?), i. 9339.30 94i5 his contests 


Index I 37 

with Harald Hairfair about the possession of Vermland, West 
Gautland, and the eastern Wick, resulting in the conquest by 
Harald of all the disputed territories, i. io5 12 -no 21 his 
dealings with Aki the Wealthy, goodman of Vermland, io6 20 - 
io8 8 dies when King Harald had reigned for ten years, 
1 23 30 -i 24 2 contemporary of Lawman Thorgnyr's grandfather, 
ii. I2o 22 _ 28 his conquests about the southern and eastern 
littoral of the Baltic, i2o 23 . 29 ready to listen to those who had 
errands with him, I2o 29 . 31 

ERIC EVERMINDED (E. eymuni), King of Denmark, 1134- 
1137, son of Eric the Good, K. of Denmark, his son Svein, 
iii. 2719 sends a shrine to King Sigurd Jerusalem-farer, 
which was placed in Castle Church at Kings' Rock, iii. 309 81 - 
310! receives King Harald Gilli after his defeat at the battle 
of Fynleif, and gives him presents, 31735.32 sends word to the 
folk of Kings' Rock to be on their guard against the Wends, 
326 ir . 21 yet is mistaken for their commander for a moment, 
3 2 7u-i6 * s visited by Magnus the Blind, who persuades him 
to attempt the conquest of Norway, which country he invades 
with six hundred (6 x 120) ships, 35124.33 arriving at Tuns- 
berg he is stoutly opposed by the landed-men of King Ingi, 
and makes for Oslo, where he burns Hallward's Church and 
the town, 3 5 24-3 5 3 6 puts off with his host on the approach 
of Thiostolf Alison, 3535 turns back to Denmark after a most 
humiliating attempt to conquer Norway, 353 15 . 24 

ERIC THE GOOD (E. hinn g<5^i), King of Denmark, 1095- 
1103, son of Svein Wolfson, hi. i94 26 271^ present at the 
meeting between King Magnus Barefoot and King Ingi at 
Kings' Rock, 232 6 . 10 the goodliest of looks of the three 
monarchs, 232 2r . 28 His sons, Eric Everminded, Knut the 
Lord and Harald Kesia, 271^ 9 283 15 _ 16 

ERIC, natural son of Hakon the Mighty of Ladir by a low-born 
woman of the Uplands; Earl over a large part of Norway, 
1000-1014, ob. 1016 his fostering by Thorleif the Sage, 
goodliness, great promise, and early relations to his father, i. 
20 9is-26 k* 8 q uar rel with, and slaying of Skopti of-the-Tidings, 
247 22 -249 n visits K. Harald Gormson, who appoints him to 
an earldom over Vingulmark and Raumrealm^ 249 13 . 2S 
hears of the conspiracy of the Jomsvikings against his father, 
* and joins him in calling northern Norway up to arms, and 

38 Index I [ERI 

unites his own with his father's fleet in HallkePs-wick, 273^- 
2 74i5 2 7^28-29 commands one wing of the fleet in the 'battle 
of the Jomsburgers,' and fights valiantly, 277^-28 1.7 ii. 26^ 
his noble conduct to the prisoners, 28i 80 -282 23 his kindness 
to Vagn Akison, 28330-2843 on his father's death, and Olaf 
Tryggvison's becoming King of Norway, he flies to Sweden, 
where he is well received by K. Olaf, 299 16 . 19 300^ 345 6 . 3 Q 
gathers round him followers from Norway, and goes warring 
to Gothland, Wendland and Garthrealm, where he won 
Aldeigia-burg and harried the country for five summers 
running, next going to Adalsysla and Isle-sysla, and winning 
the day everywhere, 345 3 r348 10 goes to Denmark and weds 
Gyda, the daughter of Svein Twibeard, 348 12 . 18 becomes a 
close ally of the kings of Sweden and Denmark, 348 31 . 38 at 
Svein Twibeard's request he joins his force to Svein's in order 
to meet Olaf Tryggvison in battle, 359 12 -36o 6 watches with 
the kings of Sweden and Denmark Olaf Tryggyison's ships 
sailing up to Svold, 36234-36431 settles terms with the kings 
as to the spoils in case of victory, 364 22 . 2S commands a 
great iron-beaked war galley, 36439.33 his part in the battle 

Of Svold, 3 6 7l2-16 23-24 S^arfd^ 10 . 13 27 . 29 376-23 37*3-18 

37 2 2r375i6 Norway being partitioned between the con- 
querors of Svold, he receives for his share four folklands in 
Thrandheim, Halogaland, Naumdale, Firths and Fialir, Sogn, 
Hordland, Rogaland, and North- Agdir to Lidandisness, 377 32 - 
3783 and besides from Svein Twibeard out of his allotment: 
Raumrealm and Heathmark, 378 21 . 2 2 ii. 25o 19 . 22 lets himself 
be christened, but leaves perfect freedom of worship to his 
subjects, observes laws and customs and e is well beloved/ 
37825-31 makes Ladir his capital and leaves Nidoyce to go 
into decay, ii. 5o 19 . 28 rules over Norway conjointly with his 
brother Svein, ii. 2i 19 . 2 j 25o 22 . 23 he and his brother give their 
sister Bergliot in marriage to Einar Thambarskelfir, 2 2 24 . 26 
his strained relations with Erling Skialgson of Soli, i. 378 4 . 6 
ii. 23 12 -25 2 cf. 7420.2,4 summoned by King Knut, he goes to 
England, leaving his son Hakon in the rule of Norway, and 
meets Knut when he won London, and west of London he 
met Wolfkel Snilling in battle and felled him, 25^-2634 25o 19 . 27 
died from blood-letting when he had been one winter in 
England, and was preparing for a pilgrimage to Rome, 27^5 

ERI] Index I 39 

shared with his brother Svein, while in rule of Norway, 

one-half of all revenues, including land-dues or sailing-fees, 

from Iceland ships. 52 19 . 22 
ERIC HEEL (E. hsell), son of Eindrid of Gautdale, a follower of 

Sigurd Slembi-Deacon, iii. 356 1S 
ERIC, King of Hordaland, father to Gyda, wife of Har. 

Hairfair, i. 93 16 .^ joins the kings of Rogaland, Agdir and 

Thelmark against Harald Hairfair and fights with him in 

Hafursfirth, where he fell, m 8 . 2r 
ERIC, son of Ivar Gaudhank, Archbishop of Nidoyce, iii. 

3 62 33 

ERIC, King of Jutland, father to Ragnhild the Mighty, a wife 
of Harald Hairfair, i. 1 14 12 . 13 

ERIC ODDSON (E. Oddsson), Icelandic historian, quoted as 
authority on an episode in Sigurd Slembi-Deacon's life, taken 
down from the mouth of Einar, son of Lax-Paul, iii. 3593 tells 
the story of the battle at Holm-the-Gray on the authority of 
Gudrid, Birgir's daughter, who averred she had it from Bishop 
Ivar, who himself was in the battle, 36337.29 relates the 
story of the end of Sigurd Slembi-Deacon on the authority of 
Hall, son of Thorgeir Leech, an eye-witness of what happened 
to Sigurd, 365 10 . 14 author of the historical work called 'Back- 
bone-Piece ' (Hrj^ggjarstykki), which tells the story of Harald 
Gilli, Magnus the Blind and Sigurd Slembi, ? 365^8 
further account of his authorities and method of writing 
history, 365^,^ on the authority of Dean Ketil of St. Mary's 
Church, Alaburg, Eric states that Sig. Slembi-Deacon was 
buried there, 36733.35 

ERICS SONS (Eirfks synir, synir Eiriks), otherwise also called 
Gunnhild's sons, the sons of Eric Bloodaxe and his wife 
Gunnhild (c i. i45 5 . 8 )j leave England with their mother 
after the fall of their father, and make themselves masters of 
Orkney and Shetland, residing in Orkney in winter and 
harrying Scotland and Ireland in summer, i. 15420-* 55s 
their diminished strength in the west leaves Hakon the 
Good free to operate where needful with his armed host, 
1 5 5 80 -i 56 9 hearing that K. Hakon was embroiled in war 
with K, Harald Gormson, they go to Denmark, where they 
are hospitably cared for, i59 6 . 28 some of them, age allowing, 
went on war raids in the East-lands, i59 28 -i6o 9 1749-10 

4O Index I [ERI 

personal prowess, i59 31 . 32 their raids on- Norway, i6o n , 16 
1 74 1(KL1 they defeat the governor of the Wick, King Tryggvi, 
at Sotaness, 17133-1725 are defeated in turn by Hakon in 
the battle of Ogvaldsness, i72 5 -i73 19 ' Eric's sons abode 
again in Denmark for a long time/ 17321-22 invade Norway 
with a large force supported by Denmark, and suffer a 
severe defeat by Hakon the Good at Rast-Kalf on the 
island of Frsedi, 174^-1805 again they invade Hakon's 
dominion, and are defeated in the battle of Stord, at which 
Hakon lost his life, i8o 2r i88 21 they take possession of 
the kingdom of Norway, i97 8 . 9 offer to Tryggvi Olafson and 
Gudrod Biornson to hold of them such share of the realm as 
they had held of K. Hakon, i97i 9 - 24 from fear of the men 
of Thrandheim and of the Wick, who were most devoted to 
K. Hakon, Eric's sons keep to the middle of the country, 
i99 9 . 14 peace, 'in words at least,' made between them 
and Earl Sigurd of Ladir, i99 15 , 23 all brothers were noted 
for miserliness, i99 24 -2oo 9 their characteristics as rulers and 
men, 20i 12 -202 4 they compass, with the aid of his own 
brother, Griotgarth, the death of Earl Sigurd of Ladir, 202 r 
2o5 22 they find in Hakon, the son of Earl Sigurd, such a 
foe that they are fain to make terms of peace with him all in 
his favour, whereon follows great, but sometimes guile- 
blended, intimacy between Queen Gunnhild and Hakon, 
20 526" 20 ^i2 the brothers, hearing that Hakon has allied 
himself with Tryggvi and Gudrod and Gudbrand a' Dale, 
2io 3 . 14 gather a host together against Hakon, 2i3 12 . llr and, 
on his escape, take full possession of Thrandheim, 2i3 18 - 
2i4 n cf. 232 2 . 4 they evacuate Thrandheim on Earl Hakon' s 
reappearance there, and are kept at bay south of Stad, 2 14 14 . 31 
their governor of Mere, Griotgarth, slain by his nephew, 
Earl Hakon, 216^-2175 the rule of Eric's sons signalized 
by great famine, 2i8 n . 22 their plots for the purpose of 
securing Olaf, the infant son of K. Tryggvi, 224 15 -228 24r 
Earl Hakon tells Harald Gormson plainly what reward he 
has received from Gunnhild's sons for all his support, 235 22 . 25 
on Ari the Learned's authority the sons of Gunnhild and 
Earl Hakon were at war for the last six years of K. Harald 
Graycloak's reign, 239^.34 the exiles of the sons of Gunn- 
hild return to Norway in the train of K. Harald Gormson, 

ERI ERL] Index I 41 

2 4i4-2o Earl Hakon being appointed to the rule of Norway 
by K. Harald Gormson, the sons of Gunnhild with their 
mother flee once again from Norway to Orkney, 24i 1 i r . 23 
the cost of now defending Norway against the sons of Gunn- 
hild defrayed by the tribute Earl Hakon was to pay to 
Denmark, 253 10 . 15 the rule of Gunnhild's sons described 
by the Upland King Roerek, ii. 42 16 _ 20 their relations to 
Harald Gormson described by Olaf the Swede, 973931 

ERIC THE RED (E. RauSi), [son of Thorvald,] the discoverer 
of Greenland, i. 34ii 6 .i7 displeased with his son Leif for 
bringing a Christian missionary to his abode, 355 13 . 1(r 

ERIC THE VICTORIOUS (E. sigrsseli), son of Biorn, King 
of Sweden, i. i24 6 .^ married Sigrid the Highminded, d. of 
Skogul-Tosti; their son Olaf the Swede, King of Sweden, 
2i3 8 . 8 284 12 . 14 his dealings with Hakon, Gunnhild's mes- 
senger, sent to secure the person of Olaf Tryggvison, 227 23 - 
228 24 overcomes and slays (in the battle of Fyri's meads) 
his nephew Styrbiorn, ii. 983.5 (cf. Flateybook, ii. 72 n -73 2 ) 
contemporary of Lawman Thorgnyr, went on many a war- 
faring, and increased the realm of Sweden, but was easy of 
access to his people, I2i 6 . 10 died at Upsala ten winters 
after Styrbiorn fell, 5 i. 2i3 89 

ERIC THE YEAR-SEELY (E. hinn arsseli), son of Blot- 
Svein, King of Sweden, an upholder of blood-offerings, iii. 

ERIC, son of K. Yngvi Alrekson, with his brother Jorund 
he overcame K. Gudlaug of Halogaland; he was slain by 
the usurping King Haki of Sweden in battle at Fyri's meads, 

- 39s-40n 

ERLAND, see Erlend. 
ERLEND (Erlendr) of Garth (iii. 37 1 6 ), see Erlend of 

ERLEND of Gerdi, paternal great-great-grandfather of Erling 

Askew, iii. 37i 3 . 6 traitor to Olaf the Holy in King Knufs 

pay, ii. 390 10 . 16 falls at Sticklestead, 434 8 
ERLEND, son of Earl Hakon of Ladir, commander of his 

ships at Vig, i. 293 10 . 13 18 cf. 2924.5 going by his father's 

orders down Thrandheim Firth towards Mere, he encounters 

Olaf Tryggvison coming up the firth, and, turning to flight, 

is slain by Olaf, 293 18 . 19 295 3 . 20 

42 Index I [ERL 

ERLEND HOMEBRED, see Erlend Sloven. 
ERLEND SLOVEN (E. hfmaldi), son of Joan the Strong and 
father of Eystein, Archbishop of Thrandheim, lii. io4 13 . M 

ERLEND, Earl of Orkney, son of Earl Thorfinn Sigurdson, holds 
the islands in feof of the King of Norway, iii. 248 14 _ 20 joins 
in King Harald Sigurdson's invasion of England, i66 3 left 
behind to guard the ships while Harald marched on York, 
I 720 arrested by King Magnus Barefoot and sent east to 
Norway, 221^ dies of sickness in Nidoyce and is buried 
there, 22$^ relations of his sons Magnus and Erhng to 
K. Magnus Barefoot, 239 2 . 9 his son Erling falls with K. 
Magnus in Ireland, 242 28 . 29 

ERLEND, son of Turf Emar, Earl of Orkney, which, with his 
brothers, he held in feof of Eric Bloodaxe, joins Eric's 
expedition against Edmund, K. of England, and falls in 
battle in the south of England, i. i53 2 (T I 54i3 f- i*. J 6826-30 

ERLING ASKEW (Erlingr skakki), son of Kyrping-Worm and 
Ragnhild, daughter of Sveinki, the son of Steinar, iii. 371! 
a wise man and a great friend of King Ingi Haraldson, by 
whose interest Erling obtains in marriage Kristin, the daugh- 
ter of King Sigurd Jerusalem-farer and Queen Malmfnd, 
37i n , u has a house at Studla in South-Hordland, 37135 
39 I 6-r n i s pilgrimage to Jerusalem, 37ii 5 -372 34 held of 
less account than his brother Ogmund Hammerer, 377 13 . 15 
takes prominent part in the battle of the Elf between K. 
Ingi and Hakon Shoulderbroad, 4o3 18 -4i5 20 plans off and 
on during the following winter an expedition to Thrandheim 
to secure the person of Hakon, but it comes to nought, 4i6 13 , 21 
takes part in the fray on the bridges at Biorgvin, 4i7 26 - 
4i8 20 warned by his wife not to trust Hakon Shoulderbroad, 
4 2 7i5-26 Erlmg's part in the election of a successor to K. 
Ingi, which falls on his son Magnus, 435 5 -437i 3 fares south 
to Denmark with his son K. Magnus, and secures for him 
the support of Waldimar on acknowledging the whole of the 
Wick north of Rygiarbit as Danish territory, 437ie-438 13 
returning from Denmark he goes on to Biorgvin slays 
Arni Fickleskull, King Hakon's bailiff goes east to meet 
Hakon, 438 13 -439 6 engagement with Hakon Shoulderbroad 
at Tunsberg, 439^-44033 takes all King Hakon's ships m 

ERL] Index I 43 

Tunsberg and lays all the Wick under the sway of King 
Magnus stays the winter in Biprgvin has Ingibiorn Sip 1, 
a landed-man of K. Hakon's, slain, 440^-441^ King Hakon 
arrays himself to move south to engage Erling, 44i 6 . 9 his 
last encounter with Hakon Shoulderbroad, who is slain on 
board Erling's own ship, 44i ls -447 12 he and Magnus fare 
with their host north to Nidoyce, and lay all the land under 
them, 447io-2i summons the Thing of Eres, where Magnus 
is taken for king over all the land, 447 22 . 2 4 mistrusts the 
Thrandheimers, 44 7 24 . 26 after a short stay in Biorgvm he 
sets up in Tunsberg and winters there, 448 2 g. 28 449 14 . 16 
organizes in the Wick a strong combination against the party 
of Sigurd, the brother of Hakon Shoulderbroad, led by 
Earl Sigurd of Reyr, 449 16 -45o 2 feasts folk through Yule 
at Tunsberg, 45 o 5Jr accepts, on his own terms, the surrender 
of some of the partisans of Earl Sigurd of Reyr, 450i 4 . 2 3 
Philippus, son of Gyrd, makes peace with him, 45o 23 his 
victory at Re over Earl Sigurd of Reyr, 45i s -455i 6 ousts 
Markus o' Shaw and his foster-son Sigurd (brother of Hakon 
Shoulderbroad) at Hising, 45Si -456 10 hearing that Markus 
and Sigurd had gone north to Thrandheim, he sets off with a 
fleet in pursuit, but falls in with contrary winds, 458 6 . 12 
advised that his captains in Biorgvin had slain Sigurd and 
Markus, he gives home-leave to the special levy, but holds 
east across the Fold with his own force, being informed that 
Markus's men are on the east of the firth, 459 n . 15 stays 
through the autumn at Kings' Rock, 459 15 . 1 - 7 punishes 
the people of Hising-isle for siding with Marcus and 
his party, 4^-^-460^ leaves Kings' Rock in pursuit of 
Markus's followers Frirek Cockboat and Biarni the Evil, and 
slays both, 460^-46 i s rests at Tunsberg for a while, and 
then goes on to Biorgvin, 46 i 14 _ 18 on mutual concessions he 
prevails with Archbishop Eystein to have his son crowned 
King of Norway, 46i 18 -464 31 with twelve landed-men he 
swears oath to the laws together with his son, 464 23 , 24 with 
his son he gives to the Archbishop, the Legate of Rome, 
five suffragans, etc., a glorious banquet on the occasion, 464 24 . 28 
Erling breaks his covenant with Valdimar, King of Den- 
mark, 465-46624 the Danes, incensed at Erling's conduct, 
threaten war on Norway in the spring, 466 3 . 30 Erling winters 

44 Index I [ERL 

in Biorgvin, 4663^4673 lays a snare for the Thrandheimers 
to test their loyalty to his son, into which, when they had 
fallen, he visits them with severe penalties, 4675-46934 re- 
turns to Biorgvin, 469 24 . 25 King Valdimar having made an 
abortive raid on Norway, resulting, however, in extensive 
robberies on outlying islands, Erling retaliates by an armed 
expedition to Jutland, where he falls on the Danish fleet, 
drives the Danes into flight, and plunders the ships of their 
booty, and the port of Deersriver as well, 46923-47133 by a 
clever move of his wife Kristin, { King's daughter,' Erling gets 
again into King Valdimar's good graces, he remaining as a 
hostage with the Dane-king, and the Danish noble Asbiorn 
Snare with King Magnus of Norway, 4713^4733 by persua- 
sive talk he becomes King Valdimar 's earl over the Wick in 
Norway, in which capacity he continued till his death, 4735- 
474s his base-born sons, 474 5 . 8 his daughter Ragnhild, 
474o-ii k* s dealings with the band which Sigurd Bait-hat 
and Olaf the Unlucky raised in the Uplands, 47437-47623 
goes into the Wick to his ships and stays the summer there, 
4774-6 victorious engagement with Olafs band at Stangs, 
477io-ir ki g dealing with Harald, the reputed son of Sigurd, 
son of Harald Gilli and Kristin Erling's wife, 47 7 26 -47 8 ir sits in - 
Biorgvin whilst the Birchlegs sail past unawares, 48o 18 . 20 his 
person, character, and attire, 48030-48 1 2 keeps in Biorgvin 
in readiness to oppose the Birchlegs should they fare west, 
484 6 the Birchlegs, after being defeated by K. Magnus at 
Re, harbour but slight hope of mercy from Erling, 487^3 
Erling deemed by all his people to have been breast and ward 
for himself and his son Magnus, 487^.9 

ERLING, son of Eric Bloodaxe and Gunnhild, i. 145^ 203 10 
in company with Harald Graycloak, and Griotgarth, the 
brother of Earl Sigurd, he burns the latter in his house, 2o5 3 . 20 
his rule over Thrandheim so oppressive that the people rose 
in rebellion and slew him, 218^9 232^3 

ERLING, son of Earl Erlend Thorfinson, accompanies King 
Magnus Barefoot from Orkney on his Irish expedition, in. 
2 39s &U S ' m Ireland with the King, 242 28 

ERLING, son of Hakon Earl of Ladir, said by some to have 
been offered up by his father to Odin for victory in the battle of 
Hiorungwick, i. 283^.39 

ERL] Index I 45 

ERLING of Jadar, see Erling of Soli. 

ERLING, son of Joan Arnison and Ranveig, daughter of Sigurd, 
the son of Thorir Hound, iii. 1 7 14 

ERLING THE OLD, one of King Sigurd Slaverer's men, slays 
'hersir 7 Klyp in revenge for his liege-lord, i. 2i6 1114 

ERLING OF SOLI (Erlingr af Sola), son of Thorolf Skialg the 
grandson of Horda Kari, usually called Erling Skialgson, i. 
33s8 obtains in marriage Astrid, the sister of Olaf Trygg- 
vison, 3o6 26 -3o8 5 in might and power like to Gudbrand a- 
Dales, ii. 2oo 21 _ 32 refuses the dignity of Earl, but is invested 
by Olaf Tryggvison with dominion over Hordland and 
Rogaland, between Sognsea and Lidandisness, i. 3o8 6 . 15 ii. 23 3 . r 
74 14 _ ir joins Olaf Tryggvison's expedition to Wendland, 
commanding his own ship, 358 r . 10 363 1]L . 12 after the partition 
of Norway between the victors of Svold, Earl Eric grudged 
Erling his dominion and the moiety of the King's revenues 
which Olaf had granted him of that dominion, whence arose 
strained relations between him and the Earls Eric and Svein, 
ii. 23 12 -24 4 74 22 -24 h e g es a-warring in summer-tide to eke 
out his means, 24 4 . g his prowess and lordly ways, 24 9 . 24 
his children, 24 24 . 2r his domestic ways body-guard, in 
peaceful and unpeaceful circumstances war galley, 24 28 -25 6 
his ways of dealing with thralls and freedmen, 25 9 . 25 
Earls Svem and Hakon make peace and family alliance with 
him, 3312.20 74ic-i l 7 ^ e ji ns Earl S vein's expedition against 
Olaf Haraldson, which terminated in the battle of Nesiar, 
55i2-i9 advises in vain Earl Svein, after the loss of that 
battle, to go north again, and levy fresh hosts against King 
Olaf Haraldson, 62 8 _ n parts from the Earl, and goes to his 
dominion in Rogaland, 62 20 . 24 surrounds himself with a 
large company of men, 62 23 . 24 64 ir . 19 arranges terms of 
peace with King Olaf in Whiting-isle, 74^-75 16 enjoys of 
royal grants less than before, but has undisputed authority 
over the commonalty from Sognsea to Lidandisness, and 
hence was called ' King of the Rogalanders/ 2i2 3 . u 217^ 
his cousin, Aslak Skull o ? Fitiar (they were second cousins 
and great-grandsons of Horda-Kari), being set up by King 
Olaf Haraldson to counteract his power, he drives Aslak out 
of his bailiffry, 2i2 12 . 28 meets the King at Tunsberg, and 
defends his action in this and other matters connected there- 

46 Index I [ERS ETH 

with, 2i2 29 -2i3 28 peace made between Erling and the King 
by friendly mediators, 2i3 29 -2i4 13 his action on behalf of 
his nephew Asbiorn Seal's-bane, which brought on him the 
full enmity of the King, 217^-2195 224^ 22^-229^ 23i l7 . 20 
kept, as rumour would have it, great gathering round 
him, in case the King might come upon him unawares, 268 
10 . 12 ; a rumour made fun of by Haldor Brynjolfson, 268 19 . 22 
at the request of his daughter Ragnhild, he lends his son- 
in-law, Thorberg Armson, prompt aid against King Olaf in 
the affair of Stein Skaptison, 283^-2843 leaves Norway, 
with four or five ships, and goes with his sons to join King 
Knut in England, 311^7 335c-s returns to Norway director 
of Knut's bribing operations, 335^9 J oms Knut at Eikund- 
sound, 348 19 . 22 Knut promises him the rule of all the land 
between Stad and Rygsbit, 348 22 . 25 his host on Jadar, 354 n 
sails after King Olaf, 355 3 . 2 4 is defeated and slain, 3563- 
358 30 his body is brought to Soli, 359 24 - Sigvat's song on 
the fall of Erling, 359 30 -36o 4 his sons take a leading part 
in the opposition against Olaf the Holy, 38^ his son Aslak, 
owner of the family seat in Harald Hardredy's reign, iii. 

ERSE 2 -FOLK, see Irish. 

ESTHONIAN FOLK, Estlanders (Eistr), i. 53 ir 22Q G 

ETHELRED (The sons of), their dealings with Knut the 

y, ii. 27 8 . n 19 . 24 their flight to Normandy and alliance 
with Olaf Haraldson, futile attempt to reconquer England, 
retirement to Rouen and parting from Olaf, 27 2r -29 2 
ETHELRED (ASalrfBr) (the Unready), son of Edgar, King 
of England, 979-1016; married Emma, daughter of Richard 
I., Duke of Normandy, ii. 2i 26 . 28 his deposition or death 
vowed by Svein Twibeard of Denmark, i. 272 5 . n flies away 
from England before Svein Twibeard into Valland (Nor- 
mandy), ii. i2 22 . 26 on Twibeard's death he returns to Eng- 
land, gathers together an army, and is joined by Olaf Harald- 
son and his Norwegians, 13^8 attack on and victory over 
the Danes in Southwark, i3 9 -i5 4 London subdued to his 
sway, 155.35^ victory over Wolfkel Snilling, and further ex- 
tension of his sway over England, 16 conquest of Kent, 
I 7s-24 further extension of his authority through OlaPs vic- 
tories, I7 25 "i8 15 his death, i8 20 . 21 27 n . 12 

EYJ EYS] Index I 47 

EYJOLF DADASKALD (Eyj61fr DaSaskald), Icel. poet, 
wrought the song Banda-Drapa on Earl Eric Hakonson, i. 

248 28 -249 12 20 . 28 34 6 S16 21-29 347i4-22 2T348 n 

EYOLF VALGERDSON, father to Gudmund the Mighty of 
Maddermead, i. 26933 iii, 153^ 

EYSTEIN (Eysteinn), a king, father of Swanhild, one of 
Harald Hairfair's wives, i. 1 i4 15 _ 16 

EYSTEIN, son of K. Adds, King of the Swede-realm, burnt 
with all his court by Solvi, King of Jutland, i. 5i 26 52 3 _ n 

EYSTEIN, Archbishop of Nidoyce, 1157-1188, son of Erlend 
Sloven, the son of John the Strong, the son of Wolf Uspak- 
son, the Marshal of Har. Hardredy, iii. io4 3 . 15 builds (i.e. 
extends) the cathedral of Nidoyce, and sets up the high altar 
where the tomb of King Olaf the Holy had been, ii. 457 13 . 15 
takes down Mary's church upon the Mel, 105^ chosen 
archbishop after the death of Archbishop Jon, 456 13 . 16 his 
popularity in Thrandheim, 456 16 . 23 obtains the consent of 
the people in his archdiocese to pay fines, etc., to the cathe- 
dral, not in the debased coin then current, which was 50 
pr. c. below par, but in pure silver, 45 633-45 7 10 4^ X 2S"4^ 2 4 
negotiations with Erhng Askew in reference to the coronation 
of K. Magnus Erlingson, 46i 18 -464 n performs the corona- 
tion amidst much festivity, 464 14 . 31 

EYSTEIN BLACKCOCK, see Eystein Heathcock. 

EYSTEIN, son of Eystein the Terrible, King of Heathmark, 
invades Raumrealm, newly conquered by Halfdan the Black, 
i. 78 6 . n thrice defeated by Halfdan, he makes peace with 
him, retaining half Heathmark for his dominion, 78 U ~79 4 

EYSTEIN GLUMRA (E. glumra), son of Ivar, father to Rogn- 
vald the Mere-Earl, i. ioo 21 and Sigurd, Earl of Orkney, 
n6 15 . 16 ii. i68 6 . 8 

EYSTEIN, son of Halfdan Whiteleg, King of Raumrick and 
Westfold, married to Hild, d. of Eric, King of Westfold, the 
son of Agnar. On the death of K. Eric, Halfdan and Eystein 
* took to them all Westfold,' which Eystein ruled to his death, 
i. 68 ir . 26 Eystein's war-raid upon King Skiold of Varna, in 
which he came by his death, brought about by King Skiold's 
witchcraft, 68 26 -69 26 

EYSTEIN, King of Norway, 1142-1157, son of Harald Gill 
and Biadak, an Irishwoman, married to Ragna, d. of Nicolas 

48 Index I [EYS 

Mew, iii. 378 20 . 21 comes from Scotland to Thrandheim, 
where, without an ordeal to prove his legitimacy, he is made 
king of one-third of Norway, his brothers, Sigurd and Ingi, 
consenting, 368 3 . 21 informed of the slaying of Ottar Bright- 
ling, he gathers a force to avenge the deed, but comes to 
terms with K. Sigurd his brother on his promising to prove 
by ordeal his innocence of the murder, 37o s _ 13 quells a 
revolt against him in Ranrealm and Hismg by defeating the 
rebels at Leikberg, 3733-7-3 7422 expedition to the west and 
warfare in Scotland and England, 374 25 -376 30 return to Nor- 
Wa 7> 37631-33 has a court for himself, being of full age, while 
his brothers, being minors, have a joint court, 377 6 . 9 his 
character and person, 377 2 .9-378 2 16-20 his marriage, 37 Vai 
4 2 625-27 differences with his brother Sigurd, 385 19 _ 26 which 
they make up over a plan to depose their crippled brother 
Ingi, a plan frustrated by the latter, 38527-38635 Ingi's men 
having slain Sigurd in an affray at Biorgvin, Eystein makes a 
futile attempt to avenge brother on brother, 39o n . 24 his 
raid on Gregory Dayson's home, 390^-39 1 16 2S . 24 suspected 
of having set fire to the great shipbuilding yard at Nidoyce, 
39 I 24-si comes to forced terms of peace with Ingi in Seal- 
isles, 392^22 continuance of strained relations between the 
brothers, 39^3-3933 deserted by his following when prepar- 
ing for a naval encounter with Ingi, he abandons his ships in 
Sogn and marches over-land to the Wick, 393 6 . 18 pursued by 
Ingi, he is caught and executed by Simon Sheath, 394 19 - 
39^13 buried at the church of Force; believed to be a holy 
man, as springs were discovered where he fell and where his 
body was waked, and miracles happened at his tomb until 
the broth of a sodden dog poured over it dispelled the 
charm, 395^-3963 ^ s followers make Hakon, his nephew, 
their chief, 3995.3 his cause ardently espoused by Earl Si- 
gurd of Reyr, 409 5-15 King Ingi's estimate of Eystein, 425 
16-20 n * s putative son, Eystein Maiden, 478 20 . 22 
EYSTEIN HEATHCOCK (E. orri), son of Thorberg Arnison 
by Ragnhild, daughter of Erling Skialgson, ii. 28i 10 . 13 
threatens to leave his father unless he accedes to his mother's 
request to save Stein Skaptison from K. Olaf Haraldson's 
revenge, 28i 31 . 33 left, with others, to guard the ships of K. 
Harald Sigurdson at the battle of Stamford Bridge, iii 1 7o 18 . 21 

EYS] Index I 49 

in exceeding great favour with K. Harald, who at this 
time had promised him in marriage his daughter Maria, 170 
21-24 ' Heathcock's brunt, 3 178^-1794 

EYSTEIN MAIDEN (E. Meyla), thus named from his small 
features (iii. 48o 15 . 1T ), ' called ' the son of K. Eystein, the son 
of Harald, his paternal aunt, Bngida, being the wife of Earl 
Birgir Brosa in Sweden, iii. 47830-22 25-27 turns up in Sweden, 
and requests the Earl to avail him towards obtaining the 
kingdom of Norway, a request readily, though insufficiently, 
responded to, 47833-4793 he goes into Norway, and gathers 
a strong band in the Wick, who proclaim him king, 479 3 . 8 
short of means he plunders, and short of raiment his 
followers dress their legs in birch-bark, whence their name 
Birch-legs, 479 8 . 15 his mode of warfare in the Wick for 
two years, 479 S . 2 ? the third year he takes to ships, and sails 
round up to Thrandheim with a numerous and well-armed 
following, eluding Erling AskeVs vigilance, 48o 6 . 20 he carries 
the town of Nidoyce by storm, killing Nicolas Ranison, 481 
24-48 3 15 taken to king in Thrandheim, he stays there for a 
year, and then marches over-land into Ringrealm with up- 
wards of two thousand followers, 483 18 . 30 he and K. Mag- 
nus Erlingson meet in battle at Re, where Eystein is slain, 

EYSTEIN, King of Norway, 1103-1122, baseborn son of K. 
Magnus Barefoot, his mother * of little kin,' hi. 2335.9 mar ~ 
ried to Ingibiorg, d. of Guthorm, the son of Steig-Thorir, their 
daughter Maria, 265^3 after the fall of his father, he shares 
the kingdom of Norway by thirds with his brothers, Olaf and 
Sigurd, 247 6 . 9 has, with Sigurd, the trusteeship of Olafs 
share during the latter's minority, 247 10 . 12 remains at home 
in charge of the kingdom during Sigurd's journey to Jerusa- 
lem, 247 22 -248 xl rules the land profitably in Sigurd's 
absence, 2633.-^ wins Jamtland e by wisdom/ 26335-26432 
his person and character, 26434-265! a reformer and student 
of law, 265 r . u his interest in Ivar Ingimundson's love-affair, 
265 n -267 22 interprets to Sigurd his brother his dream, 
268 10 -27o 25 his advocacy of Sigurd Hranison's case against 
K. Sigurd, 272^-27633 scandal talked about him and 
Borghild, Olaf o' Dale's daughter, proved by ordeal to be 
groundless, 277i 6 -278 19 * manmatching ' between him and 

VI. E 

50 Index / [EYS EYV 

Sigurd, followed by estrangement between the brothers, 
279-2833 has a large ship built in the fashion of the * Long- 
Worm,' 28320.3^ 393io-n builds great ship-sheds (dock-yards) 
at Nidoyce, 28337-2843 39134-27 his death and burial, 284 3 . 16 
praised for his kindness to 'us Icelanders/ 42i 25 . 26 
EYSTEIN THE TERRIBLE (E. harSraSi) (i. 6; 19 ), the 
Mighty (inn riki) (7233.34 i6i llr ), the Evil (inn illi) (i6i 18 ), 
the Evil-minded (illraSi) (ii. 276 6 ), 'King of the Uplands 
who ruled over Heathmark,' i. 67 I9 . 20 72 23 . 24 77 23 78^ Qi ir 
92 16 his conquests in Upper Thrandheim and ignominious 
treatment of the conquered for killing his son, i6i 16 -i62 16 ii. 

EYSTEIN TRAVAIL (E. trafali), iii. 387^ 
EYVIND BRAGGART (E. skreyja), brother to Gunnhild, the 
wife of Eric Bloodaxe, fought and fell in the battle of Stord, 

I- l8 3ll-14 l8 5 2 8- l86 28 

EYVIND ELBOW (E. olbogi), Marshal to King Magnus 
Barefoot accompanies the King on his warfare in Ireland, 
iii. 23839 warns him to be on his guard against possible 
treachery of the Irish, 240 16 . 20 marches with the king in 
front of the line of battle drawn up to meet the Irish in 
ambush, 2403^ description of him, 24033-2413 falls fight- 
ing with his king, 2415-24235 

EYVIND RENT-CHEEK (E. kinnrifa), a leader of revolted 
Halogaland against Olaf Tryggvison's project to christen 
the people, i. 309 19 . 24 entrapped by his friend, Harek of 
Thiotta, and sent to Olaf Tryggvison who, on Eyvind's stead- 
fast refusal to be christened, tortures him to death, 327.7- 

EYVIND THE SKALD-SPILL$R (E. skaldaspillir), son of 
Finn and Gunnhild the daughter of Earl Halfdan, author of 
the poem called Haloga-Tale, i. 4 8 39 12 . 29 io4 2J -io5 5 15 . 22 
2 77s2~ 2 7 8 i2 his wav of breaking the news of an impending 
attack to K. Hakon the Good, iBi lf iB2 1 his urging of 
K. Hakon the Good to make a stand against the attack of 
the sons of Eric at Fitiar, in which battle he fought, 182 
13-24 author of Hakon's song, Hakonar mal, verses of which 
are interspersed throughout the saga of Hakon the Good, to 
the end of which the whole poem is subjoined, i85 26 . 2lr 
i83 22 -i84 16 i8s 3 . 20 186 4 . 15 20 . 28 189-193 gets into disgrace with 

EYV FAR] Index I 51 

Harald Greycloak for a song in praise of Hakon the Good's 
victory over the sons of Eric; but is restored to favour again 
by mutual friends, i8o 12 . 22 198^1993 his song on the miser- 
liness of Eric's sons, i99 24 -2oo 9 his punishment by Harald 
Greycloak and final parting of the two, 2oo 10 2oi 8 -his com- 
memoration of Earl Sigurd of Ladir's death, 2o6 9 . 25 of hard 
season in Halogaland, 2 18 18 . 28 composed a song on 'all the 
men of Iceland/ who rewarded it by a clasp worth fifty marks, 
21 94-13 commemorates in song how he had to sell his clasp' 
and even his arrows, for fish to stave off hunger, 219 --220 
he dwelt in the island of Thiotta in Halogaland in poverty, 
but boasted high descent (he was by the distaff-line a great- 
grandson of Harald Hairfair), ii. i89 21 . 24 

EYVIND THE SNAKE (E. snakr), stationed in the forehold 
on board the Long- Worm, i. 353-,* 

EYVIND UROCHSHORN (E. ilrarhorn) of Agdir, a friend 

of King Olaf Haraldson, and a sea-rover, ii. 79 16 . 28 by 

order of King Olaf, he kills the Swedish steward, Roi 
Squinteye, in Howesound, 8i 5 . 19 goes sea-roving into the 
East-ways, 8 1 19 . 20 overtakes Thorgaut Harelip and slays 
him, and secures for King Olaf all the goods Thorgaut had 
plundered from Gudleik the Gautlander, 83 3 . 15 goes to Ire- 
land on viking raid and gets into friendly relations with the 
the Erse-king Konofogor, and fights with him against Einar, 
Earl of Orkney, i37io-23 next summer, putting into Asmund- 
bay in Orkney, on his return to Norway, he is attacked and 
slain by Einar, ly^s^TSg K^g Olaf of Norway seizes, as 
atonement for Eyvind, the third part of Orkney that belonged 
to Earl Einar, i84 15 . 20 

EYVIND WELLSPRING (E. kelda), son's son of Rognvald 
Straightleg, the son of Harald Hairfair, a wizard and spell- 
worker, escapes from a hall to which Olaf Tryggvison let 
set fire, and wherein he burnt a number of sorcerers, i. 312 - 
3 1 3 M fails in working spells at Olaf Tryggvison on Easter- 
feast at Ogvaldsness in Kormt-isle, and is taken with his 
fellows and tied to a tide-washed skerry, where they all 
perished, 3*328~3 I 425 

FALSTER (The folk of) (Falstrbyggvar), inhabitants of the 
Danish island of Falster, iii. 5o 2 

FAROE-MEN (Faereyingar), ii. 246^ 2473 , 20 26 27i( la ) M 

52 Index I [FAS FIN 

FASTI, an earl of Denmark, defeats and slays Ottar Vendilcrow, 

aided by Earl Vat, i. 47 28 -48 31 
FENIA (Fenja), one of K. Frodi's gold-grinding bondmaids, cf. 

Grott. pros., Nor. Fornkvse^i, 324-325, ii. 44i 2 
FENRIR and Fenrir's Wolf (Fenris-iilfr), Loki's son in the 

shape of a wolf, i, i8o 16 I93 21 *98 15 
FINN (Finnr), stationed in the forehold of the Long-Worm, i. 

FINN, an archer on board Earl Eric's ship in the battle of 

Svoldfi. 37 1 14 . 21 

FINN, a Finnish wizard, ill-treated by Halfdan the Black, and 
befriended by Harald his son (Hairfair), i. 85 19 . 2 7 

FINN, son of Arni Arnmodson, married to Bergliot, daughter 
of Halfdan, son of Sigurd Sow, and niece to Harald Hardredy, 
ii. i98 18 iii. nigj/ of King Olaf Haraldson's following, and 
much honoured, 19833.24 refuses to aid his brother Thorberg 
in protecting Stein Skaptison in the King's despite, 282^-2833 
but changes his mind, and takes a foremost part in bring- 
ing about peace and pardon for his brother and Stein, threat- 
ening that unless listened to he and his brothers would join 
King Knut, 284 4 -286 13 swears an oath of faith and fealty to 
King Olaf, 285 14 . 20 286 n . 13 he enters the King's service, 
2 8619.20 28 . 29 commissioned by the King to go to Halogaland 
and to raise there a general levy of men and ships, also to 
bring to justice Thonr Hound for his dealings with Karli, 
28639-2 8 7J3 his proceedings in respect of the first part of 
his commission, 287 18 -288 18 failure of his dealings with 
Thorir Hound, 288 14 -29i s returns to King Olaf and reports 
his journey to him, 29i 21 . 28 accompanies King Olaf in his 
flight from Norway, 3694 his advice at K OlaPs council of 
war at StafFmoor, 4oi 30 -402 15 the King, resting his head on 
Finn's knee at Sticklestead, has a dream which Finn disturbs 
by awaking him on the approach of the enemy, much to 
Olaf's regret, 41 4^.^ Finn's opinion on Kalf Amis on 's sin- 
cerity, 42 6 27 . 28 fells Thorstein Shipwright at the battle of 
Sticklestead, 4335 taken home wounded by his brother 
Kalf, whom Finn dislikes for his treachery to K. Olaf, 
43523*4365 453s.i3 takes truce of K. Svein, and settles down 
at home in quiet, 453ie-i8 K - K nut ^ breaking all his promises 
to Kalf Arnison, he changes his mind, and a rapprochement 

FIN] Index / 53 

with Finn is effected, 462 18 . 29 his estate, official position, 
marriage relations, and great favour with K. Harald, in s . u 
viking raids in the West, niu.^ Finn's outspoken esti- 
mate of Harald Hardredy's character on hearing of the 
murder of Einar and Eindrid, i r i 16 . 26 his diplomatic action 
on Harald's behalf averts a general rising against the King, 
iii 2r -ii4 29 Harald refusing to carry out the engagements 
on which Finn's diplomacy was based, the latter told the 
King in plain anger that he did not keep his word, ii5-n6 13 
Finn arranges terms of peace between his brother Kalf and 
King Harald, H9 21 -i2o 10 misdoubting him that Harald had 
compassed Kalf s death, he takes the matter so to heart that 
he leaves Norway and takes service with K. Svein of Den- 
mark, who creates him his earl, I2i 10 -i22 n 473 18 . 19 will not 
flee at the battle of Niz, and is captured, i37 2 i-si King Harald, 
after being most grossly insulted by Finn, gives him life and 
lets him go free back into K. Svein's service, I4i 2 -i42 8 his 
daughter Sigrid given in marriage to Earl Orm Eilifson, 35i 5 . 6 

FINN, base-born son of Erling Askew by Asa the Light, iii. 474.7. 

FINN THE LITTLE (F. litli), a former servant of King 
Rcerek, who, when his master became prisoner, served him 
on the sly in plotting against King Olaf 's men, and rescuing 
the blind King from his imprisonment, ii. I26 9 -I30 20 slays 
Thorir the Long, i3o 16 . 19 

FINN-FOLK (Finnlendingar) = Finns, ii. io 30 

FINNS (Finnar), inhabitants of Finnland, i. 27 10 33 13 ii. io 15 18 

24 26 30 . 

FINNS, inhabitants of Finmark, i. 85 21 24 86 4 (Swasi and Snow- 
fair), Ti9 6 -i2o; 2i8 26 328 16 32914"- 3*725 43tfi"- r 3 6 s 
255s SS^so 357i 2 19 

FINN, son of Sheep- Wolf, and brother to Peter Burdenswain, 
hanged by Sigurd Slembi-Deacon, iii. 359.7 avenged by his 
brother, 366 8 . 10 

FINN, son of Skopti, the son of Ogmund, iii. 225 31 one of 
King Magnus Barefoot's captains in the fortress on Kvaldins- 
isle, 227 6 King Magnus having a contest with Skopti on a 
matter of heritage, Finn proceeds to the King pleading his 
father's case in vain, 2353-236^ accompanies his father on 
a pilgrimage to Rome, and dies on the journey, 237 3 . 15 

54 Index I [FIN FRE 

FINN-WIFE, i. i2i 46 = Snowfair. 

FIOLNIR (Fjolnir), one of Odin's names, Odin, i. 27834 iii. 

2 S22 

FIOLNIR, son of Yngvi Frey and Gerd, ancestor of the race 
of the Ynglings of Sweden, i. 4 4 233 succeeded his father in 
the rule over the Swedes and the Wealth of Upsala, 24 18 . 20 
his death at Hleithra, when on a visit to King Frodi, by 
drowning in a vat of mead, described, 2424-2520 

FION-DWELLERS (Fj<5nbiiar, byggvar), inhabitants of the 
island of Fion, Denmark, iii. 389 I2i 6 

FIRTHS (Men of the) (FirtSir), inhabitants of the Norwegian 
Folkland, the Firths, i. 3o8 21 ii. 423 19 

FLEMINGS (Flaemingjar), inhabitants of Flanders, i. 26i u 
iii. 43o 15 

FLOSI, see Burning-Flosi. 

FOLI, the father of Thord, whose daughter Gudrun was the 
wife of Skopti, the son of Ogmund, iii. 225 30 

FOLKI, one of the four sons of Earl Birgir Brosa and Brigida, 
daughter of King Harald Gilli, iii. 3795 

FRANKMEN, Franks (Frakkar), Le. Franconians, i. 25633; 
Normans, iii. i8i 33 ; West-Europeans, 430 15 43i 20 

FREDERICK (Fri^rekr) Barbarossa, Roman Emperor, 1152- 
1190, iii. 2565 

FREDERICK II., grandson of the preceding, Emperor, 1215- 
1250, iii. 256 6 

FREY (Freyr), also called Yngvi-Frey, i. 4 4 and Yngvi, 239 son 
of Niord the Wealthy, of the Vanir tribe, given as hostage 
to the Asfolk, i3 25 -28 appointed by Odin temple-priest 
among the Asfolk, 1637 succeeded Niord in the rule of the 
Swedes, 22 22 . 23 reared a great temple at Upsala and endowed 
it richly, 22 26 . 28 his reign one of great prosperity and plenty, 
22 25 23 2 . 7 married Gerd, Gymir's daughter, 23 7 . 8 his death 
concealed for three years, during whichgreat offerings in gold, 
silver, and copper poured into the mound made for him, 
2 3is-22 worshipped as a god by the Swedes, 4 5 . 6 24 9 . 15 
not burnt at his death, 24 12 . 13 called by the Swedes the 
God of the World, 24 13 - the ' kenning } Frey's game (Freys 
leikr), ro9 6 is generally supposed to signify warfare (see also 
note, p. 388 31 ), but seeing that Yule was especially Frey's 
great festivity, and Hornklofi connects closely c Yule-drink- 

FRE FRO] Index I 55 

ing' and 'Frey's game/ but refers to no act of war, it may 
fairly be questioned whether e Frey's leikr ' does not refer to 
festive celebrations connected with Frey's special feast, con- 
sidering that part at least of the winter here referred to was 
spent in Ranrealm, a district fairly within the sway of the 
cult of Frey, Frey in other 'kennings,' i. 155^ 245 18 ii. 43o 31 

, , . ^ 18 . 31 

FREYA (Freyja), daughter of Niord, and wife of Odr, a 
temple priestess among the Asfolk, and the first to teach them 
wizardry, i. 1421-24 2 45 last survivor of the gods, 23 28 her 
great fame, 2339-243 shifty of mood, 24 4 mother of Hnoss 
and Gersemij 24 6 . 8 

FREYWITH THE DEAF (FreyviSr daufi), a counsellor of 
King Olaf the Swede; description, ii. i6i 3 . 6 his outspoken 
condemnation of the King's dealings with Olaf of Norway 
and with his own subjects in Sweden, ii. i6i 13 -i62 19 by 
dexterously manoeuvring the revolted people he, in company 
with his brother Arnwith, persuades them to elect James (On- 
und), Olaf's son, for king, i63 16 -i65 23 

FRIGG, the wife of Odin, married his two brothers when Odin 
was supposed to have vanished utterly, i. i3 14 . 10 

FRIDLEIF (FriSleifr), son of Frodi the Proud or the Peaceful, 
i. 42 5 . 6 and father to Ali the Bold, 42 23 

FRIREK (Frirekr), the bearer of the banner Landwaster in 
the battle of Stamford Bridge, lii. i72 6 

FRIREK COCK-BOAT (F.kcena), one of the notable followers 
of K. Hakon Shoulderbroad, who fought with him in his last 
encounter with Erling Askew, iii. 44i 14 joins with other 
partisans of Hakon to keep his band together after his fall, 
leaving their ships in Raumsdal, and marching overland east 
to the Uplands, 447 16 - 1 9 robs and slays the friends of Erlmg, 
4S95-H caught by Erling and cast overboard tied to an an- 
chor, a deed much resented in Thrandheim, where Frirek's 
was a prominent family, 46o 21 . 28 

FRISIANS (Frisar), i. 256^ 26i 8 367^ 

FRODI (Fr<5^i), a mythic King of Denmark, i. 199^ (perhaps 
the same who figures as a sea-king in S. E., i. 546^) 259 23 ii. 

FRODI THE BOLD (F. hinn fhekni), King of Denmark, lends 
K. Egil of Sweden armed assistance against Tunni, stipulating 
tribute from Sweden in return, which, not being paid by Egil's 

56 Index I [FRO GAU 

successor, Frodi invades Sweden and plunders it far and 
wide, i. 45 18 . 2 5 475-17 while on a war raid in the Baltic his 
land was invaded by K, Ottar of Sweden, 47^-48 

FRODI, son of King Eystein of Heathmark, joins Hogni his 
brother in war against Harald Hairfair, 9ii 3 . 1 < 7 both brothers 
slain at Ringsacre in Heathmark, 92 U . 19 22~932 

FRODI, son of Harald Hairfair and Gyda, daughter of King 
Eric of Hordaland, i. 1 14 10 proclaimed King by his father, 
I 3 I is warred in the West with his brother Thorgils, and 
was killed by poison, 13221-26 

FRODI THE PROUD or the Peaceful (hinn mikillati e^a 
hinn friftsami), son of Dan the Proud, i. 42 4 . 5 [but according 
to S. E., i. 374, he was son of Fridleif, the son of Skiold, the 
son of Odin], King of Denmark, creator of the universal pro- 
found peace, called 'the Peace of Frodi (Frc^afri^r),' which 
began in the days when Frey ruled at Upsala, i. 23 X had his 
seat at Hleithra, 24 22 cf. i6 2 was a great friend of Fiolnir, 
King of Sweden, who lost his life on a visit to him, 24^- 

FROSTY (Frosti), King of the Finns, felled in battle by Agni, 
K. of the Swedes, i. 33 14 . 1 7 

FULLA (Fulla), one of the goddesses, i. 2oo 3 

GAMAL (Gamall), one of King Harald Sigurdson's followers in 
his punitive raid on Earl Hakon Ivarson, succeeds in sending 
the Earl timely warning of the King's intention to slay him 
for having helped K. Svein Wolfson to escape alive from the 
battle of Niz, lii. I45 S . 15 

GAMLI, the oldest son of Eric Bloodaxe and Gunnhild, i. *45 6 
goes with his mother from Orkney to Denmark, i59 18 . 2 5 
his fight against K. Hakon the Good at Rast-Kalf in the 
island of Fnedi, and fall in that battle, 1780-17925 i8o 17 183^ 

GANDALF (Gandalfr), King of Vingulmark, son of Elfgeir 
(King of Elfhome ?), i. 72 20 loses one half of Vingulmark 
in a war with Halfdan the Black, 77 15 . 20 his sons take up the 
feud with Halfdan, 8o r . 26 made a war raid across the Fold- 
firth into Harald Hairfatfs realm at Westfold, and was routed 
by Harald and his general Guthorm, 9i 15 22 . 24 92^4 

GAUT (Gautr), 'after whom is Gautland named/ i. 56^ 

GAUT-FOLK, see Gauts. 

GAU GEI] Index I 57 

GAUT THE RED (G. hinn rau^i), a foster-son of Thrand o' 
Gate, in Faroe, joins in Sigurd Thorlakson's journey to Nor- 
way in pursuit of Thoralf of Dimon, ii. 269%^ 270^274^ 
hoots Karl o' Mere for refusing to accept his foster-father's 
bad money in payment of taxes, 307^-3085 slays Karl, 
aided by Thord the Low, 309 10 . 19 is outlawed for the deed, 


GAUTHILD (Gauthildr), daughter of Algaut, King of West- 
gautland, and Alof, daughter of Olaf the Farsighted, King of 
Nenck, married Ingiald Evil-heart, King of Sweden, i. 56 3 . 12 
6 526-28 ner children, Asa Evil-heart and Olaf Tree-shaver, 

6230-635 6 526-27 

GAUTI, son of Tovi (Gauti T6vason), his fight with some Dan- 
ish merchantmen, ii. i57 12 . 33 

GAUTLANDERS, see Gauts. 

GAUTLAND-FOLK, see Gauts. 

GAUTLAND-MEN, see Gauts. 

GAUTREK THE BOUNTEOUS (Gautrekr hinn mildi), son 
of Gaut ( after whom is Gautland named/ i. 56^ 

GAUTS (Gautar), inhabitants of East- and West-Gautland, in 
Sweden, i. io9 n 1630 no r 1583 14 259^3484- ii. 77278 n 79io 
84 10 86 n n 7 U ii9irso ^u iSSu 22 I 5^is 16413 iK- i46 n 

14931 I S16 22 r 5*3 15 228 31 23^9 13 24 30 3S32 35 1 15 

GAUTVID (Gautvr&r), son of Swipdag the Blind and foster- 
brother of Ingiald Evil-heart, i. 55 2 2-2T 6133-24 
GEFION (Gefjon), according to ' Gylfaginning,' S. E., i. 30, of 
the race of the Asfolk (and in ' Lokasenna,' 21, Odin declares 
her to know the fate of mankind as clearly as himself), sent 
by Odin to King Gylfi to seek new lands, and by aid of her 
giant-begotten four sons, four oxen, she ploughed out of Gylfi's 
land the island of Selund, i. i5 24 -i6 14 
GEFN-Freyja (S. E., i. ii4 23 35s 10 557 3 )> i* * 86 * 
GEI GAD (Geiga'Sr), the greatest of champions, i. 38 n 18 
GEIRA, daughter of King Burislaf in Wendland, ruling, in her 
own right, over a dominion in that country, the first wife of 
Olaf Tryggvison, i. 252 10 . 31 254 12 36o 21 . 22 her death, 26o 19 . 21 
GEIRFIN (Geirfinnr), an earl who commanded in the town of 
Gunvaldsburg, defeated and made prisoner by K. Olaf Harald- 
son, from whom the town ransomed him for twelve thousand 
gold shillings, ii. i9 24 . 28 

58 Index I [GEI GIS 

GEIRI, an Icelander, father of Thorkel, who was at the battle on 

Lyrshaw-heath, iii. 37 22 
GEIRMUND (Geirmundr), brings news to Earl Hakon of the 

approach of the fleet of the Jomsburgers, i. 274 25 -275 8 
GEIRTHIOF (Geir])j6fr), a king in Saxland, mamed to Alof 

the Mighty his country raided by Adils, K. of the Swedes, 

i. 49r-ir 

GEITIR, a legendary sea-king, i. i34 6 

GELLIR, son of Thorkel, grandfather of Ari the Learned, i. 
5 is oes > i n obedience to a message from King Olaf Harald- 
son, by Thorarin Nefiolfson, to Norway, and stays with King 
Olaf, ii. 249 19 . 29 is sent by the King m the following summer 
to Iceland in "order to negotiate with the Icelanders, by cajol- 
ery and threats, the subjection of Iceland to Norway, 274^- 
2 75u f 2 94n-i4 tne Icelanders having with one accord 
rejected King Olaf's proposals unconditionally, Gellir goes 
back to Norway and meets King Olaf as he returns to Norway 
after the defeat at the Holy River, 275 14 . 22 33319-21 

GERD (GerSr), d. of the giant Gymir, wife of Frey, i. 23 r . 8 
in c kennings ' for women, 278 2W8 iii. 75 33 94 20 23425 

GERSEMI, daughter of Odr and Freyja, i. 24 6 

GIFFOR.D (Gipar^r), a Welshman, offers his services to K. 
Magnus Barefoot and is well received, iii. 228 22 . 28 putting in 
an appearance at the fight of Foxern first when it was all over, 
he becomes an object of unflattering raillery, 229 10 . 28 Eld- 
iarn the Icelandic poet's fun with him, 229 28 -23o 29 

GILCHRIST, see Harald Gilli. 

GILL BACKRIFT (Gilli bakrauf), iii. 2i6 32 

GILLI, Speaker-at-law of the Faroes, goes to Norway in obedi- 
ence to an order of King Olaf Haraldson, together with many 
other representatives of the Faroe folk; becomes a member 
of the King's household and bodyguard, and with the rest 
promises that the islands shall become an integral part of the 
Norwegian realm, ii. 246-^-24724 summoned again to Nor- 
way by King Olaf, he agrees with other chiefs of Faroe to 
leave the mission to Thoralf of Dimon, 269 r , 18 his parti- 
cipation in the affair resulting from Karl o ? Mere's mission to 
the Faroes, 304 21 . 25 29 -305 8 takes up, together with Leif 
Ozurson, the bloodsuit after Karl, 309 21 _ 26 

GISL, son of Visbur and a daughter of Aude the Wealthy, i. 

GIU GOL] Index I 59 

2 83-7 disinherited together with his brother Ondur by their 
father, wherefore the brothers lay on him a spell of evil power, 

28 8-19 

GIUKUNGS, the family of the mythic King Giuki, represented 
in works of art at the 'Hippodrome in Micklegarth, iii. 26o 18 

GIZUR GOLDBROW (Gizurr gullbra), fosterfather of Temple- 
garth-Ref, an Icelandic poet, called Gizur the Swart at the 
court of Olaf the Swede-king, ii. 9i 19 . 20 4o49 receives Hialti 
Skeggison in a friendly manner, 92 7 . 22 94 18 . 19 introduces 
Hialti to the Princess Ingigerd, 95i6-24~ is let b Y Hialti into 
the secret of his mission to the Swedish court, ioi 4 . 6 is with 
K. Olaf Haraldson at the battle of Sticklestead, 404 20 his 
song of encouragement before the battle, 405 10 . 19 slain in 
the battle, 432 2 -34 

GIZUR THE SWART (G. svarti), the same as Gizur Goldbrow 

GIZUR 19 6F VALDRES, a captain in Earl Hakon's host in the 
battle of Hiorungwick, slain by the Jomsviking Howard Hew- 
er, i. 282^-2835 

GIZUR THE WHITE (G. hviti), son of Teit, the son of 
Ketilbiorn, an Icelandic noble, favourite with Olaf Tryggvison 
and chiefly instrumental in introducing Christianity in Ice- 
land, i. 33425-28 (" 8 9 9 ) 335 3 -6 339 2 r34 12 354i 3 -i5 20-25 

GLAMMI, a sea-king of fame, i. 239 16 iii. 38 22 

GLUM (Gliimr), son of Geiri, an Icelandic poet, i. i55 6 . 22 160.^0 

l8 12-13 Z 9 8 1-10 20I 26-31 2I 59-18 2 394-22 2 437-16 

GODGUEST (Go^gestr), King of Halogaland, died through fall 
from the horse Raven, a gift-horse from King Adils of Sweden, 

i- 526-31 

GODWIN (Gu^ini), Earl, son of Wolfnoth, married to Gyda, 
the daughter of Thorgils Sprakalegg, their children, ii. 326 10 . 14 
his daughter, Gyda, married to K. Edward the Confessor, 

iii- *55is-i9 his sons > I 57 2 5- T6 34 

GOLD-HARALD (Gullharaldr), son of Knut Gormson, and 
nephew of K. Harald Gormson, a great warrior, and deemed 
entitled to kingdom in Denmark, i. 2i7 12 . 18 becomes great 
friend of Hakon the Earl of Ladir, and confides to him his 
aspirations to kingly dominion in Denmark, wherein he is 
encouraged by Hakon, 232 14 . 26 broaching the matter to his 
uncle he receives an angry reply, 232^-233.7 234^ imparts 

60 Index I [GON GRA 

to Earl Hakon his intention to carry out his plan by force 
of arms, 233^ enters into Earl Hakon's wily plan of be- 
coming a candidate for the throne of Norway, 236 10 . 23 cf. 
2 3428" 2 3^i5 oes to att ack Harald Greycloak, K. of Norway, 
coming to Denmark on an invitation from Harald Gormson, 
and slays him in battle at the Neck in Limbfirth, 237 31 -238 2 
24~ 2 3922 ^ himself attacked in turn by Earl Hakon and 
hanged on a gallows, 240 3 , n cf. 2385.33 
GONDUL (Gondul), a ' Valkyrja,' i. 187331895 i9i w ii. S9 13 

I0 9i9 iii* 2 S4n 

GORM THE OLD (Gormr hinn gamli), son of Horda-Knut 
[the son of Arnfinn], sole King of Denmark, i. 83 10 . u 93 29 
94i5 ii. 253 17 _ 20 ; father of Knut and Harald, 217^ 2333 234^ 
Gorm's son, better G.'s descendant (attungr), a kenning for 
Knut the Mighty, his great-grandson, 31420 

GOTH-GOD (Gauta-Tjfr), the 'Goths' avail,' Odin, i. i8g e 

GOTLANDERS (Gotar), inhabitants of the island of Got- 
land, ii. 8 29 

GOWK-THORIR (Gauka-Jpdrir), a waylayer; he and Afrafasti 
go with their company and offer K. Olaf Haraldson their 
service, ii. 394 8 - 30 their offer being rejected on religious 
grounds, they follow the King's host on their own account, 
394sr39527 Gowk-Thorir, with his company, is christened, 
3995-si h- e f a ^ s i n t ^ ie ft rst brunt at the battle of Sticklestead, 

GRAM (gramr), in ancient days the name of a lord that went 
a-warring, i. 32 22 . 23 the warriors bore collectively the plural 
name gramir,'z. 

GRANI, an Icelandic poet, sings of the ransoming of the 
daughters of Thorkel Gusher, iii. 96 4 . n 

GRANKEL or Granketil (Grankell e^Sa Granketill), a goodman 
of Halogaland, personal description, ii. i9i 21 . 26 gives a 
goodly banquet to K. Olaf Haraldson on his visit to Haloga- 
land, 1923.5 owner of an island rich in produce, over the 
possession of which he and his son Asmund come to quarrel 
with Harek of Thiotta, and gain their case, 2924-2948 burnt 
in his house by Harek, 347 n . 2 7 42o 10 . 13 

GRANMAR (Granmarr), King of Southmanland in Sweden, 
escaped being burned at Upsala with other kinglets of Sweden, 
i. s8 6 . r hears of the burning and takes his counsel, 59 10 . 18 

ORE] Index I 61 

his entertainment of, and alliance with, the viking King 
Hiorvard, 59 13 -6o his wars with Ingiald, and death through 
the latter's treachery, 6i-62 22 
GREEKS (Grikkir, Girkir), iu 6i 13 62 2S 30 7 i 23 2 6o 8 43 o s 12 10 

GREGORY, son of Day Eilifson and of Ragnhild, the d. of 
Skopti Ogmundson, ill 35 2 6 takes service with King Ingi 
Haraldson and becomes his great favourite, 377 16 . 24 K. 
Sigurd Haraldson forming a plan with his brother Eystein to 
depose their crippled brother Ingi, Gregory defeats the plot, 
and puts an end to Sigurd's consequent policy of provocation 
by slaying him at Biorgvm, 385^-390^ is prevented by the 
people from falling upon Eystein, 39o n . 21 escapes from an 
attack by King Eystein on his manor of Bentberg, which Ey- 
stein destroys, live stock and all, 3 90^-39 i 24 he is awarded 
fifteen marks from K. Eystein for the destruction of his 
property, 392 ir . 18 he and Ingi win over from Eystein many 
of his supporters, 392 30 -3932 he takes command of the 
strong place of Kings' Rock on behalf of Ingi, 399 18 . 19 his 
dealings with Hakon Shoulder broad at Kings' Rock, 399 21 - 
4oi 29 his estimate of Icelanders as soldiers, 4oi so -402 2 
keeps with K. Ingi in the Wick watching an opportunity to 
fall on Hakon Shoulderbroad, 402 12 . 15 with K. Ingi in 
Biorgvin, where Hakon eludes his vigilance, 403-^ his part 
in the battle of the Elf against Hakon Shoulderbroad, 403 1S - 
4 I 5ir oes fr m tne battle north into the Wick and winters 
there, 4iS 18 . 2 o takes pledge of King Ingi that Sigurd of 
Reyr, his near relative, shall retain all his possessions, 41 5 2 ^. 29 
dissatisfied with Erling Askew's inactivity at Biorgvin in face 
of Hakon's uncompromising attitude in Thrandheim, 4i6 I6 . 21 
goes with K. Ingi to Biorgvin, 41634 25 accidentally drawn 
into a fight, on the bridges in Biorgvin, between his brother- 
in-law Haldor and Biorn, the nephew of Erling Askew, 4i6 29 - 
4i8 28 goes with K. Ingi east into the Wick in pursuit of 
Hakon, and takes up his station at Kings' Rock, 4i8 23 . 28 
his onset on Hakon at Saur-Byes, 4i9 3 . 26 in seeking to 
avenge on Hakon Shoulderbroad the slaying of his brother- 
in-law Haldor Bryniolfson, he is shot down crossing the river 
Befia, 1161, 419^-42 1 23 his character, 42i 21 . 26 next to 
Eystein the elder, the greatest friend of Icelanders in Norway, 

62 Index I [GRE GRI 

4 2I 26-2T k* s body taken to Hofund and buried at Gimsey at 
the nuns' seat there, 42i 3r . 30 King Ingi's grief at his fall, and 
devotion to his memory, 422 3 . 31 423^-4244 4259-10 Gregory's 
house-carles make common cause with Erling Askew against 
Hakon Shoulderbroad, 4355-12 437 2 3-25 

GRELAD (GreLo*), daughter of Dungad, Earl of Caithness, 
married to Thorfin Skull-cleaver, ii. i68 2r i69 2 

GRIMKEL (Grfmkell), the court bishop of King Olaf Harald- 
son, his and his clerks' seats in the King's hall, ii. 67 20 . 21 by 
his and other clerks' counsel, Olaf Haraldson draws up canon- 
law for Norway, 68 18 . 20 remained, at K. Olaf s request, 
at his missionary duty in the Uplands during the King's 
flight to Russia, 454 4 - 10 at the request of the people of 
Thrandheim he goes to Nidoyce to look after matters in con- 
nection with K. Olaf's holiness, 454 4 . 6 10 . 15 his conduct in 
the affair until, with K. Svein Alfiva's son's consent, he de- 
clares K. Olaf to be a verily holy man, 454i 8 -4572 

GRIM RAKE (Grfmr rusli),goes off to Micklegarth with Kris- 
tin, the wife of Earl Erling Askew, where they have sundry 
children together, iii. 474 11 . 14 

GRIM, son of Thorgils the son of Halma, aids his father in 
securing the body of K. Olaf Haraldson, ii. 444-445, 44 7 5 - 

4497 454 2 r455 4 

GRIM from Vist, father to Andres, a partisan of Sigurd Slembi- 
Deacon, iii. 356 14 

GRIOTGARD, read Griotgarth, 

GRIOTGARTH THE BRISK (G. roskvi), stationed in the 
forehold on board the Long-Worm, i. 353 20 

GRIOTGARTH (Grj6tgarSr) the elder, son of Earl Hakon 
Griotgarthson, of Ladir, slain in Harald Hairfair's second 
battle of Solskel, L io2 30 . 32 

GRIOTGARTH the younger, son of Earl Hakon Griotgarth- 
son, and younger brother to Earl Sigurd of Ladir ; having no 
title of honour he went in summer on viking raids, i. 203-^22 
plots with Gunnhild and Harald Graycloak against the life 
of his brother, 204 4 . 2 g in company with Harald and Erling 
he burns Earl Sigurd in his house at Oglo, 205 10 . 20 appointed 
by Harald Graycloak governor of North-Mere, and is slain 
in battle there by his nephew Hakon Sigurdson, Earl of 
Ladir, 2i6 20 -2i7 6 

GRI GUD] Index I 63 

GRIOTGARTH, son of Olvir of Eggja, rises in rebellion against 
K. Olaf Haraldson in order to avenge the death of his brother 
Thorir, 3447-11 K - Olaf bearing of it, attacks him in his 
house and slays him, 344is-34S 4 

GRIOTGARTH of Yrjar, father to Hakon, Earl of Ladir, i. 

GRITGARTH, read Griotgarth, the father of Hreidar, who was 
killed in the battle at Holm-the-Gray, iii. 36 2 r 

GROA (Gr6a), daughter of Thorstem the Red, married to Dun- 
gad, Earl of Caithness, their daughter Grelad, wife of Thorfin 
Skull-cleaver, Earl of Orkney, ii. i68 2r -i69 3 

GRYTING (Grjfangr), King of Orkdale, fights with Harald 
Hairfair, and, bemg defeated, swears fealty to him, i. 95 2 , OQ 

GUDBRAND (GuSbrandr), a ' hersir ' of the Dales, lends 
armed aid to Eystein, King of Heathmark, against Halfdan 
the Black, i. 78 22 . 24 enters an alliance with Hogni and Frodi, 
sons of King Eystein of Heathmark, and with Hogni Kara- 
son at Rmgsacre, against Harald Hairfair, who burns Gud- 
brand in his house there, 92 14 _ 30 

GUDBRAND A-DALE (Dala-Gu^brandr), makes an alliance 
with Earl Hakon Sigurdson of Ladir, Tryggvi Olafson, and 
Gudrod Biornsson against Gunnhild's sons, i. 2io 3 . u 

GUDBRAND A-DALES (Dala-Gu=Sbrandr), a ' hersir 7 over 
'the Dales,' i.e. over Gudbrandsdale, over which he bore sway 
like a king, ii. 2oo 19 . 32 in might and wide lands a peer of 
Erling Skialgson, 2oo 22 . 32 his unavailing struggle against K, 
Olaf Haraldson's missionary campaign in his dominion, 20 1 2 - 
2o8 31 converted to Christianity and baptized by the court 
bishop Sigurd, 2o8 31 -209 2 builds the first church in Gud- 
brandsdale, 2093.3 

GUDBRAND KULA (G. kula), father of Asta the wife of K. 
Harald the Grenlander, i. 2849 311! and of Isrid, wife of 
Thord Bigbelly, ii. 2493 fosters Olaf, son of Harald the 
Grenlander (O. Holy), his grandson, i. 287 14 _ 19 

GUDBRAND, son of Shavehew, married to Maria, daughter of 
K. Eystein Magnusson and Ingibiorg, d. of Guthorm, son of 
Steig-Thorir, iii. 2 6 5 4 falls on the side of King Ingi Haraldson 
in the battle of Oslo against Hakon Shoulderbroad, 426 18 
his son, Olaf Unlucky, 374 1 Mg 

GUDBRAND THE WHITE (G. hvfti), a captain in Earl 

64 Index I [GUD 

Eric's division of Earl Hakon's fleet in the battle of Hiorung- 
wick, L 277 15 

GUDLAUG (GuSlaugr), King of Halogaland, defeated and 
hanged by the sons of Yngvi Alrekson, i. 390-29 avenged by 
his son, Gylaug, 4i 2 . 26 

great trader in Russian goods, whence his by-name, enters 
partnership with King Olaf Haraldson, and takes his com- 
mission for procuring costly stuffs for the King's robes of 
state. On the return voyage he is slain by Thorgaut Hare- 
lip, who robbed all the goods for the benefit of King Olaf of 
Sweden, ii. 8i 23 -83 
GUDMUND (GuSmundr), son of Ari Thorgeirson, Bishop of 

Holar in Iceland, 1203-1237, iii. 47693 

GUDMUND THE MIGHTY (G. hinn riki) of Maddermead, 
son of Eyolf, i. 334 20 alternately singled out by King Olaf 
Haraldson as keeper of the blinded Upland King Rcerek, ii. 
1 3524-25 Roerek not feeling at home with Thorgils Arison 
requests to be taken to Gudmund, who entertains him for 
one year, and then rids himself of him by lodging him at the 
small tenement of Calfskin, i36 16 . 2 ^- his aid sought by King 
Olaf for obtaining possession of the island of Grimsey, 24239- 
243 8 Gudmund and his followers' compliance thwarted by 
his brother Einar's intervention, 2439-244^ invited, together 
with other chiefs of Iceland, by Thorann Nefiolfson, in the 
name of King Olaf, to come to Norway to meet the King, an 
invitation of which G. did not avail himself, 245-2 46 8 his 
death (1025), 249 24 . 25 genealogical reference to, iii. iS3 8 . 6 
GUDRID (GufcrfSr), daughter of Birgir and sister to Jon, 
Archbishop of Nidoyce, Eric Oddson's authority for his ac- 
count of Ivar Dint's execution, iii. 363^ 
GUDRID, daughter of Guthorm Steig-Thorirson, avers that 
she saw in her father's possession the mazer-bowl which 
Harald the Hardredy gave to Steig-Thorir, iii. 86^.39 87 3 . 6 
GUDROD (Gu^ro^r), son of King Biorn the Chapman, i. i34 81 
fostered, after his father's death, by his uncle Olaf, 1425 
flies, with his foster-brother, Tryggvi Olafson, to the Uplands 
after the fall of K. Olaf at Tunsberg in battle against Eric 
Bloodaxe, i44 29 . 30 joins Hakon the Good against Eric 
Bloodaxe, i5iy. n receives from Hakon the Good the title 

GUD] Index I 65 

of king, together with the dominion of Westfold, I5i 14 . 18 
confirmed in his title and dominion on the accession of 
Eric's sons to power, I97i 5 . 24 2 2 16 . 18 makes an alliance 
against Gunnhild's sons with Earl Hakon, Gudbrand a-Dale, 
and Tryggvi Olafson, 2io 3 . n while guesting up-country in 
the neighbourhood of Tuns berg he is set upon, at night, by 
Harald Greycloak and killed, 2ii 24 -2i2 2 (Of Gudrod, as of 
his father, Snorri says * he married well and meetly ' without 
mentioning the wife's name); he left a son, Harald the Gren- 
lander, 212^.9 

GUDROD (Go'Sro^r), son of Eric Bloodaxe and Gunnhild, i. 
J45 r hearing of Earl Hakon Sigurdson's alliance with the 
Upland lords, he gives out that next spring he will go on a 
war-voyage, 2io^. l8 at the ale of parting he and Harald, 
who was to join in the expedition, nearly came to blows over 
the drinking game ' man-likening/ and parted company, 2io 18 - 
2ii 4 sailing east to the Wick and across the Fold, he 
arranges with K, Tryggvi Olafson a tryst at Walls, east of 
Sotaness, and with his men falls treacherously on Tryggvi and 
slays him there, 2ii 4 _ 21 searches for Tryggvi's widow, 224 15 . 19 
with his brother, Sigurd Slaver, he is left in governorship of 
Thrandheim by Harald Greycloak, 2i4 4 . 8 clears, with his 
brother, out of Thrandheim on Earl Hakon's return in 
autumn, and abides in the Mere, 2i4 14 _ 24 gathers with 
Harald his brother fresh host for Thrandheim, which they 
occupy first when Earl Hakon leaves the countryfor Denmark, 
2i6 ir-22 2i7 21 _ 29 flies with his mother and Ragnfrod, his 
brother, to Orkney, on Hakon being appointed Harald Gorm- 
son's viceroy, 24i ir . 23 cf. 2435 leads a warfaring life in 
western countries until Olaf Tryggvison has been king in 
Norway for four years (999), when he returns with many 
ships to the Wick, where he is slain by the King's brothers- 
in-law Hyrning and Thorgeir, 34i 23 -342 30 

GUDROD GLEAM (G. Ij6mi), son of Harald Hairfair and 
Snowfair, daughter of Swasi, i. I2o 3 repudiated by his 
father, i2i 5 . 6 restored to favour at the instance of Thiodolf 
of Hvin, I2i r i22 3 with whom, at Harald's behest, he takes 
up his abode, 122-^ revolts against his father, and in 
company with his brother Halfdan Highleg burns in his 
house Rognvald the Mere-earl, and seizes the rule over his 

VI. F 

66 Index I [GUD 

dominion, i24 15 . 29 expelled by King Harald east to Agdir, 
I2 5i-5 appointed king by his father, 13120-22 perished by 
shipwreck off the Jadar, sailing from Agdir to Rogaland, 

2 8-i4 

GUDROD, a king of Gudbrandsdale, ii. 4i 25 joins the other 
Upland kinglets in supporting Olaf Haraldson's struggle for 
the crown of Norway, 4i 18 44 24 joins in a conspiracy with 
other four Upland kings against Olaf for his cruelty to heathen 
Uplanders, io3 n -io6 seized at Ringacre with his fellow- 
conspirators by King Olaf, who has his tongue cut out, io8 8 . 22 

GUDROD, son of Halfdan Whiteleg, i. 67 20 . 21 

GUDROD the Hunter-King, or the Proud (G. vei^ikonungr 
e^a hinn mikillati), son of Halfdan Eysteinsqn the Bounte- 
ous and the Meatgrudging, King of Raumrick and Westfold, 
and one half of Vingulmark, married, first, Elfhild, d. of King 
Alfarin of Elf home; secondly, Asa, daughter of K. Harald 
Redlip of Agdir, whom Gudrod slew, he being in turn slain 
by Asa's foot-page, in Stiflasound, i. 7o 24 -72 12 his sons lose 
a great part of the realm he left them, 72 18 . 28 

GUDROD, son of Olaf Butterbread, King of the South Isles, 
in the host of King Ingi before Oslo, iii. 424^.3^ flees before 
King Hakon's men, 425-^5 

GUDROD, King of Scania (i.e. of Skaney), married to Asa 
Evil-heart, who encompassed his death, i. 63 9 _ 16 

GUDROD SKIRJA (G. skirja), son of Harald Hairfair and 
Ashild, daughter of Ring Dayson, i. H4 20 . 2 i kept at his 
father's court, but was endowed with large grants about 
(Hordland(P) and) Sogn, 13137-29 

GUDRUN (Gu^nin), daughter of Einar son of Ari of Reek- 
knolls, married to Ogmund of Sand in Tentisle in Haloga- 
land, iii. 35 6 28-ao 

GUDRUN, daughter of Jarnskeggi or Iron Skeggi of Uphowe 
in Yriar, chosen in marriage by Olaf Tryggvison m atone- 
ment for her father's death, attempts his life the first night 
of the bridal and parts from him for ever, i. 322 6 _ 19 

GUDRUN, d. of Nefstein and of Ingirid (Ingigerd is a mis- 
print), the d. of K. Sigurd Sow and Asta, the parents of 
Harald Hardredy, Gudrun being thus a niece of Olaf the 
Holy, given by K. Olaf the Quiet in marriage to Skuli Tosti's 
son, 'king's fosterer,' iii. i84 4 . 9 

GUD GUN] Index I 67 

GUDRUN of Saltness, mother of John Kitten, Sigurd and 
William, all of whom joined the band of Eystein, c King ' 
of the Birchlegs, iii. 48335 

GUDRUN, Sun of Lund, should read Sun of the Groves (Map), 
(G. Lundasol), the daughter of Bergthor and wife of Worm 
Lyrgia, sent for by Earl Hakon of Ladir that he might 
dishonour her her reproachful reply, i. 292 r . 20 

GUDRUN, daughter of Thord the son of Foli, the wife of 
Skopti, son of Ogmund, her children, iii. 225 2931 

GUNN (Gunnr), a Valkyrja, ii. n 20 36o 32 

GUNNAR of Gelmin (Gunnarr af Gelmini), supporter of K. 
Olaf Haraldson in his strife for the kingdom of Norway, ii. 
48 15 

GUNNAR of Gimsar joins the following of Sigurd Slembi- 
Deacon and Magnus the Blind, iii. 349^ falls in the battle 
at Mouth, 349 2 i-35i 


GUNNHILD (Gunnhildr), the daughter of Burislaf, King in 
Wendland, i. 252 10 married to Svein Twibeard, King of 
Denmark, their sons: Knut the Mighty (Great) and Harald, 
2 7*n 15-17 34824.36 her death, 348 26 - 2 r [According to Dit- 
mar of Merseburg Svein put her away and sent her to Wend- 
land, and at his death her sons, Knut and Harald, restored 
her to her rights in Denmark.] 

GUNNHILD, daughter of Earl Halfdan and Ingibiorg, a 
daughter of Harald Hairfair, mother to Eyvind Skaldspiller, 

i- ^Sgr-sjs " *95-7 

GUNNHILD, daughter of Knut the Mighty and Emma, ii. 
2 7i4 wedded to Kaiser Henry (III.) of Saxland, iii, 25 18 . 20 
died three years afterwards (1040), 25 2S 

GUNNHILD, the reputed daughter of Ozur Tot, a lord in 
Halogaland, i. i29 5 . 8 found in a Finmark cot studying 
wizardry she is brought to Eric Bloodaxe, who, struck with 
her great beauty, obtains her in marriage, i. 1293-130 held 
by common rumour guilty of having caused K. Halfdan 
the Black of Thrandheim to be killed by poison, i42 14 . 18 
personal description, children, i45 2 . 8 ^ ees ^th her sons, 
after the fall of her husband, to Orkney, where she resides 
with them for a time, i54 2 o" I S522 on hearing that war had 
broken out between Norway and Denmark, she quits the 

68 Index I [GUN 

Orkneys and goes to K. Harald Gormson with all her family, 
and is received hospitably and provided with lands for her 
support, i59 12 -i5 ai-26 when her sons succeeded, after the 
death of Hakon the Good, to power in Norway, she meddles 
much in affairs of state and acquires the title c Kings' Mother,' 
i97g. 14 she urges her sons to rid them of Earl Sigurd of 
Ladir, 202^-203-^ her plotting with Griotgarth against the 
life of his brother, Earl Sigurd, 204 4 _ 28 her guileful love for 
Earl Hakon of Ladir, 2o8 8 . 10 takes counsel with her sons 
on hearing of Hakon the Ladir-Earl's alliance with Gud- 
brand a-Dale and the Wick Kings, Tryggvi and Gudrod, 
2I0 n-i4 concerts plans with her sons for the kidnapping of 
Olaf Tryggvison, 224 19 . 26 sends spies to find out the where- 
abouts of Astrid, Olaf's mother, and her infant son, 225 3 . 10 
sends Hakon, who fails, to secure the person of Olaf 
Tryggvison, 225 U -227 16 sends Hakon again on the same 
errand, with a request to the King of Sweden to further her 
purpose, 22733-2284 Hakon reports to her again his failure, 
2285.34 Her son ^" Harald Greycloak consults her as to the 
advisability of accepting Harald Gormson's invitation to 
Denmark, 237 4 . 6 Har. Greycloak having been treacherously 
slain in Denmark, Gunnhild leaves Norway again for Orkney, 

GUNNHILD, daughter of King Sigurd Syr (Sow) and Asta the 
daughter of Gudbrand Kula, ii. 3 fa given in marriage by 
her half-brother, King Olaf Haraldson, to Ketil Calf (Kalf) 
of Ringness, 248^.^ her daughter Sigrid, iii. io6 10 . 13 her 
son, Guthorm, m 14 

GUNNHILD, daughter of Earl Svein, son of Earl Hakon the 
Mighty, married (second time) to Svein Wolfson, K. of Den- 
mark, iii. io6 25 . 28 (The statement, ii. 33 12 -i 5 that she was 
married to Aslak, son of Erling Skialgson, is contradicted, iii. 
io6 24 . 26 where, in agreement with all other sources, Aslak's 
wife is said to have been Sigrid, Gunnhild's sister, see Sigrid, 
daughter of Earl Svein.) 

GUNNHILD, wife of Simon, son of Thorberg, foster-mother to 
K. Hakon Shoulder broad, iii. 373 20 causes a witch-woman 
c to sit out ' in order to find by what magic means victory can 
be secured to the arms of her foster-son, 4243 12 

GUNNHILD'S SONS. See Eric's sons. 

GUN GUT] Index I 69 

GUNNI FISS, son of Ssemund Housewife and Ingibiorg 
daughter of priest Andres Brunison, iii. 3253 

GUNNSTEIN (Gunnsteinn) of Longisle in Halogaland, an 
older brother to Karli, a man of great account and busy in 
husbandry, ii. 23723-2383 joins his brother in a trading 
voyage to Biarmland, and takes command of their ship after 
Karli's death, 258 16 -266 10 overtaken by Thorir Hound at 
Longwick, he and his crew desert the ship, and Gunnstem 
escapes death by the aid of a wizard woman, 266 10 . 1S he 
eludes in disguise Thorir's pursuit, reaches his home in Long- 
isle, from whence he sets out to meet King Olaf, to whom he 
tells the story of the expedition, the King taking him under 
his protection, 266 24 -267 6 288 23 . 24 289 15 

GUTHORM (Guthormr), a king who fell with Eric Bloodaxe, 

i- *54io 

GUTHORM, son of Asolf of Remir and Thora daughter of 
Skopti Ogmundson, father of Bard the father of K. Ingi and 
Duke Skuli, iii. i84 9 . 13 with his brother Ottar Balli he joins 
many Thrandheim chiefs in proclaiming as king Sigurd, son 
of K. Harald Gilli, 3484 

GUTHORM CINDER (G. sindri), of noble kin, and a famous 
poet both at Harald Hairfair's and his son Halfdan the 
Black's court, brings about peace between father and son 
when they were on the point of going into battle, i. i36 18 . 31 
wrought a song on K. Hakon the Good called Hakon's-drapa, 

I 56 25 -33 I 57io-i8 26-30 I 58 6 . 10 2 6- I 593 ^sriTSe I*** I7 9s-ir 
GUTHORM, son of Eric Bloodaxe and Gunnhild, i. i45 6 
falls at Ogvaldsness fighting against K. Hakon the Good, 

GUTHORM GREYBEARD (G. grabar^i), father to Thora 

the mother of K. Sigurd natural son of K. Harald Gilli, iii. 

3i4 28 the story of his sons Einar and Andreas, and another 

daughter not named, 38r n -385 15 
GUTHORM, son of Gudbrand hersir of Gudbrandsdale, falls 

in battle against Halfdan the Black in Mickle-isle (Eyin 

mikla) in the lake Miors, i. 7835-29 
GUTHORM, son of Harald Fletcher, a commander at Kings' 

Rock, iii. 324^ 
GUTHORM, * eldest 7 son of Harald Hairfair and Asa, daughter 

of Earl Hakon Griotgarth's son, i. no 26 . 27 sprinkled with 

jo Index I [GUT 

water by Duke Guthorm, who gave him his own name and 
brought him up east in the Wick, H4 32 -n5 5 appointed by 
his father governor over the dominion which Duke Guthorm 
had ruled over (Wick and Uplands), 124^3 and afterwards 
made King of Ranrealm, 13122-25 ^ s m battle with Solvi 
Klofi in the mouth of the Elf, i28 6 . n i32 16 . ir 

GUTHORM, son of Ketil Kalf of Ringness and Gunnhild, 
sister of K, Harald Hardredy, his character and relations with 
K. Harald, iii. i22 14 . 20 his warfare in the west, and dealings 
with Margath, K, of Dublin, in Bretland, I22 21 -i24 16 he 
bestows one tenth of the war-booty taken from Margath on 
Olaf s church at Nidoyce, in the shape of a huge rood of 
silver, 124^ 1W8 

GUTHORM, son of Sigurd, Earl of Orkney, succeeded his 
father and, in a year, died, leaving no issue, i. 1 1 6 28 . 30 ii. j 68 9 _ 10 

GUTHORM, son of King Sigurd Hart and of Thorny, daughter 
of Klack-Harald King of Jutland, i. 8i 17 83^.9 seized by 
the viking Haki of Hadaland, 8i 29 -82 3 rescued from Haki 
by Harek Wolf, and brought to the court of Halfdan the 
Black, 82 19 -83 r becomes captain of Harald Hairfair's body- 
guard, head of his government, and Commander-in-chief of 
his army, 9i 8 . 12 defeats the first combination of Hairfair's 
enemies: Haki Gandalfson, 92^ King Gandalf of Vingul- 
mark, 92 r . 14 the four upland lords, Hogni and Frodi, sons 
of King Eystein of Heathmark, Hogni Karason and 'hersir' 
Gudbrand, 92^-93.7 approves strongly of Hairfair's vow to 
conquer all Norway, 95 r _ 9 his expedition with Harald north 
over Dofrafell into the basin of Drontheim, and victory in 
Orkdale, 95^-29 appointed governor by Harald Hairfair over 
Vermland, no 20 . 21 sprinkles with water and gives his name 
to Harald Hairfair's oldest son, and brings him up, i. ii4 32 - 
ii5 5 had rule over the Wick, Ranrealm apparently in- 
cluded (cf. 131^,25), an( * the Uplands, when Harald was 
absent, 1155.7 an & as governor of these parts resided in 
Tunsberg, i23 24 . 28 died in his bed at Tunsberg, 1249 
GUTHORM, son of King Sigurd Syr (Sow) and Asta the 
daughter of Gudbrand Kula, ii. 35 26 . 2 7 his faintheartedness 
as a child, no 6 . 10 cornfields his great wish in childhood, 

riI l-5 

GUTHORM STEIG-THORIRSON, father to Gudrid, and 

GYD GYR] Index I 71 

Ingibiorg the queen of K. Eystein Magrmson, iii. 87 8 . 4 265^ 
his daughter Gudrid saw in his possession the mazer-bowl 
which Harald the Hardredy had given to Steig-Thorir, iii. 


GYD A ' the English' (Gy^a in enska), daughter of Olaf Kuaran, 
King of Dublin (i. 265 18 _ 19 ), a widow whose husband had 
been an earl, chooses at an assembly summoned by herself, 
Olaf Tryygvison for her husband, i. 264^-265 266 20 _ 21 
their son Tryggvi, ii 463^ 

GYD A, daughter of King Eric of Hordaland, fostered by a rich 
bonder of Valdres, personal description, i. 93 15 . 18 the wooing 
of her by Harald Hairfair, and her answer, 93 18 -94 1 r married 
to Harald Hairfair; her children, H4 4 . 10 

GYDA, daughter of Earl Godwin and his wife Gyda the 
daughter of Thorgils Sprakaleg, married to Edward the 
Confessor, ii. 3 26 io-u & I 55is-i9 

GYDA THE OLD (G. gamla), daughter of K. Harald God- 
winson, married to K. Valdemar of Holmgarth, their son 
Harald the father-in-law of K. Sigurd Jerusalem-farer, iii. 

GYDA, daughter of King Svein Twibeard, and sister to Knut 

the Great, married to Earl Eric, son of Hakon, i. 348 12 . 18 
GYDA, daughter of Thorgils Sprakaleg, married to Earl God- 

win, the son of Wolfnoth, mother to King Harald and Earl 

Tosti, etc., ii. 326 9 . 12 iii. iS9 16 . ir 
GYLAUG (G/laugr), King of Halogaland, son of Gudlaug, 

avenges his father on Jorund, K. of Sweden, i. 4i 2 . 26 cf. 

GYLFI (according to ' Gylfaginning } of the younger Edda, i. 
30, a king of Sweden), his dealings with Gefion, i. is 26 i6^. 14 
his dealings with Odin, i6 16 . 21 

GYMIR, a giant, father of Gerd, the wife of Frey, L 23^ *=^Egir, 
the god of the sea, 543 

GYRD (GyrSr), aboard King Harald Hardredy's ship in the 
Solund Isles his dream, i63 22 -i64 8 

GYRD, son of Amundi, K. Ingi Haraldson's foster-brother, 
married to Gyrid Day's daughter, sister of Gregory Dayson, 
iii. 4Q3 8 . n joins Gregory to attack Hakon Shoulderbroad at 
Kings' Rock, iii. 400^ is slain by Hakon Shoulderbroad, 
435-is Hakon's dealings with his son Amundi, 

72 Index I [GYR HAK 

GYRD BARDSON, father to Cecilia, the wife of Jon Kauda, 
iii. 3633 

GYRD GODWINSON, Earl, brother of K. Harald Godwinson, 
falls with his brother at the battle of Helsingport, iii. i8i n .i 7 

GYRD, son of King Harald Redlip, dies righting with his 
father against Gudrod the Hunter-king, i. 7i 18 . 14 

GYRD, son of Kolbein, brother to Bentein, whom Sigurd 
Slembi-Deacon slew, iii. 3564 refuses ransom for Ivar Dint 
as having taken part in the slaying of his brother Bentein, 
36318-22 one of the chiefs who insisted on Sigurd Slembi- 
Deacon being tortured to death, 366 6 . 8 

GYRD the Lawman, son of Gunnhild, a follower of K. Ingi 
Haraldson, made prisoner of war by K. Hakon Shoulder- 
broad, iii. 403ii-ie 

GYRD, son of Law-Bersi, father to Amundi, the foster-father 
of K. Ingi Haraldson, iii. 347^ 

GYRGIR (Georgios Maniakes), military commander under the 
Emperor Michael c Katalaktus,' iii. 59 24 . 33 he and Harald 
Sigurdson engaged in putting down piracy in the Greek 
Archipelago, 60^ his quarrels with the Vserings concerning 
certain privileges at encampments settled by Harald's sharp 
practice, 6o 17 -62 6 comparison of his and Harald's successes 
in war, 62 8 -63 23 

GYRID, the daughter of Day and sister of Gregory Dayson, 
married to Gyrd, the son of Amundi, iii. 403 8 . n their son 
Amundi, 42o 2 . 6 

HADD the Hardy (Haddr inn harSi), fought, together with his 
brother, Roald Rig, against Harald Hairfair in Hafursfirth, 
and, apparently, escaped by flight, i. m 12 -ii2 2 

HADDING, a legendary hero, son of Gram, K. in Denmark, 
his followers, called Haddings (Haddingjar) Haddingja 
valr, would be better translated 'fallen Haddings' than 'Had- 
ding's chosen,' i. 2o6 14 

HAFTHOR (Haf>6rr) and Steinthor (Stein]?6rr), examples of 
personal names derived from Thor 0?<frr), i. i9 2 r.28 

HAGBARD, a sea-king, i. 383.5 2564 iii. 3i9 23 (Sigar's foe). 

HAKI, a sea-king, and, after having slain K. Hugleik in battle, 
King of the Swedes, i 383.^ overcome by wounds in battle 
with the sons of K. Yngvi Alreksson, Jorund and Eric, he 
had balefire arrayed on board ship whereon he was laid, the 

HAK] Index I 73 

craft, with rudder shipped and sails set, going all ablaze into 
the main, 39sr424 

H AKI, one of the sons of Gandalf, King of Vingulmark, defeated 
by Halfdan the Black at the battle of Eid, he saves himself 
by flight, i. 8o 23 . 26 makes, with his father, a combined front 
and flank attack on Harald Hairfair in Westfold, 9i 18 _g 2 de- 
feated, and slain at Hakisdale, Q2 2Jr 

HAKI, bareserk of Hadaland, kills King Sigurd Hart and seizes 
his children, Ragnhild and Guthorm, and brings them to his 
seat in Hadaland, i. 8i 25 -82 3 prevented by his wounds from 
wedding Ragnhild, 82 3 . 8 is attacked by order of Halfdan the 
Black by Harek Wolf, who burns down his house and brings 
Ragnhild and Guthorm to Halfdan the Black, while Hafi, 
having to give up the pursuit of him, falls on his sword and 
kills himself, 82g. 31 

HAKON (Hakon), an agent of Gunnhild the Kings' mother, 
employed to try to get into her power the infant Olaf Trygg- 
vison; his mission an utter failure, i. 225 n -228 24 

HAKON, King of Sweden after King Steinkel, ui. 226^ [by 
the oldest authority, a series of Kings of Sweden attached to 
the West-Gautland code of laws, this King, under the name 
of Hakon rod, precedes Steinkel]. 

HAKON, son of Earl Eric the son of Hakon by his wife Gyda, 
i. 348 ir . 18 ii. 2i 22 . 23 255 29 . 30 rules Norway, after the departure 
for England of his father, conjointly with his uncle Svem, 
(1014-15), ii. 2i 21 . 22 25o 25 . 27 Einar Thambarskelfir com- 
missioned by his father to be his guardian and counsellor, 
26 ir . 22 capture of him in Saudungsound by Olaf Haraldson, 
3so"3 I 20 2 5 2T-so. ki s P^tey with Olaf and release on parole, 
3 I 2i"3 2 34 h e * ves U P to Otef his dominion in Norway, 

3 2 15-16 3915-19 47l9-29J 2 52y-30 leaVeS N rWa y and J inS K 8 

Knut, by whom he is held in much esteem and appointed to 
a great dominion, 33 8 . u 25030-251! visited by his kinsman- 
in-law, Einar Thambarskelfir, 235 3 . 6 lays against his uncle, 
King Knut, claim to a portion of Norway, 25i 10 .i 2 many 
fugitives from Norway assure him that the Norwegians were 
ready to revolt against King Olaf in favour of him and King 
Knut, 252 6 . 12 urges King Knut to take action for ousting 
Olaf from Norway, 252 mr holds the second command in 
the fleet with which Knut sets out to meet the invasion of 

74 Index I [HAK 

Denmark by Olaf of Norway and Onund of Sweden, 31325.33 

his dragon galley described, siS^s Erlmg Skialgson and 
his sons join Hakon's command in K. Knut's expedition, 
335e-9 i ncurs general blame for breaking his oath never to 
fight against K. Olaf Haraldson, 336 21 . 24 Poet Sigvat a great 
friend of his, 336 24 . 34 appointed Earl of Norway by K. Knut, 
349i3-i6 25-29 4 ]C 7i3-i6 some of Erling's sons with Hakon when 
their father was slain, 36o 17 . 18 leads out of Thrandheim an 
overwhelming force before which K. Olaf takes to flight, 
3^139-3632! short reign in Norway prophesied to him by 
K. Olaf, 368 20 . 25 his popularity in Norway, 372 n . 15 follows 
up the flight of K, Olaf and takes all his abandoned ships, 
37 2 is-30 favours conferred by him on Kalf Arnison, 374"375n 

K. Knut's view of his uprightness, 376 5 . 9 he and K. Knut 
succeed in winning over Biorn the Marshal by bribes, 37733- 
37921 his death ( lost at sea > I02 9)> 37628-37720 38630-3873 

i*iT i 

HAKON FAUK (H. faukr), son of Olaf o' Dale, and brother 
to Borghild, the concubine of K, Sigurd Jerusalem-farer and 
mother of K. Magnus the Blind, iii. 277 21 23 . 24 slain by order 
of K. Harald Gilli, 323^ 

HAKON the Good (H. g6^i), King of Norway, 934-961, son 
of K Har. Hairfair and Thora Most-Staff, afterwards called 
'Athelstan's fosterling,' or 'The Good;' kindred, birth, bap- 
tism, personal description, and early rearing, i. isS-^ cf. 
ii. 19138-192! sent by his father to King Athelstane in 
England to be fostered by him, 13929-14021 n * s &fe at tne 
court of King Athelstane; gift by the latter of the sword 
c Quern-biter,' I4i 4 . 19 hearing of the death of his father he 
fits out, by the aid of K. Athelstane, an expedition to Norway, 
I 49fi-n landing there he hears of the battle of Tunsberg and 
the fall of his brethren, Olaf, K. of the Wick, and Sigrod, K. 
of Thrandheim, and that his brother Eric was east in the 
Wick, 14910-u at the age of fifteen he is proclaimed by the 
Thrandheim folk King of all Norway on having declared that 
his father's feudal oppression should be abolished, 149^150^ 
the Uplands declare for him, 1 50^-1 5 i y the Wick likewise, 
and Tryggvi and Gudrod are reinstated in their kingdoms, 
I 5 I r-24. c; f- I 97i9-24 i n f ace f Hakon's popularity Eric Blood- 
axe quits the country and goes to Orkney, 15 t ar i52 6 all Nor- 


Index I 75 

way subdued after Eric's flight, but an army of observation 
maintained about the middle of the realm until the fall of 
Eric came to be known, i55 25 -i56 9 confers on his friend Earl 
Sigurd the dominion of Thrandheim, 156^ cf. i99 20 . 22 203 25 . 27 

to beat back attacks from Denmark, 158-^-1593 Hakon's 
happy reign (cf. 17411-14) an <* w *se legislation (cf. i73 25 -i74 r ): 
Gulathing ; s laws Frostathing's laws (Heidssevis laws al- 
ready codified by Halfdan the Black, his grandfather, cf. 

8 4 2 9- 8 52)> l6 19-32 Cf ' 20I 23-24 " 68 14-16 & 23C 2830 baptizes 

to his own name a son of Earl Sigurd, i6i s . 10 makes Jamtland 
a tributary province of Norway, i63 8 . 20 Jamtlanders and 
the Norwegian population of Helsingland acknowledge him 
their king, i63 21 . 22 ii. 276 21 . 31 hi. 2643.5 his Christian ways, 
I ^326" I ^4io measures adopted by him towards converting 
his people to Christianity, i64 n -i6s 8 the heathendom of 
Norway too strong for him to cope with, i66 20 -i7i 25 cf. 3i6 26 - 
3175 3i8 2 5_ 3() defeats Eric's sons at Ogvalcjsness, 171^-17322 
his ordinances in respect of ship-raths and war-beacons, 
I 7325~ I 747 27-so defeats Eric's sons at Fraedisberg, 1745-179 
again at Fitiar, where he is mortally wounded, i8o 27 -i87 
his last will, i88 8 . 19 his death and burial, i88 8 . 30 cf. 2o6 r . 8 
mourned by friends and foes alike, i88 22 . M he is succeeded 
by the sons of Eric, 1973.9 date of his death, 239 25 . 26 cf. 
2o6 7 . 8 Eyvind's song on him: c HakonarmaV 189-193 
Glum Geirison's and Eyvind Finson's memorial verses on him, 
I 9 8 i-2o k* s re ig n gratefully remembered, ii. 42 14 . 15 iii. 23 2 . 9 
HAKON, son of Griotgarth of Yrjar, allies himself with Har. 
Hairfair on his invading Thrandheim, i. 96 24 . 2 ^ after the 
victory in Gauldale he receives from Harald the lordship of 
Strindfolk (earldom of Ladir), 96^-972 gives his daughter, 
Asa, in marriage to Harald Hairfair, and is favoured by the 
King beyond all men, 98 21 . 23 137 12 . 16 ruled over all Thrand- 
heim m Har.'s absence, I37i 2 .i 5 cf. 156^ lost two of his sons 
in the second battle of Solskel, i. io2 30 . 32 appointed governor 
over Firthfolk by Harald, 104^ his quarrel with Earl Atli 
the Slender over the governorship of Sogn, fight with him in 
Staffness-bay and death, io4 10 . 19 I37i 6 -i7 Z 3 8 2o 

76 Index I [HAK 

HAKON, Earl, son of Ivar the White who was a daughter's 
son of Earl Hakon the Mighty, described, iii. i o5 19 . 25 married 
to Ragnhild, d. of K. Magnus the Good, 1199-12 his grand- 
aunt Bergliot's estimate of his character, no 2 i. 24: his viking 
cruises in the west in company with Finn Arnison, 111^5 
Finn Arnison's mission to him on behalf of K. Harald Sigurd- 
son after the murder of Bergliot's husband and son, 11*30-32 
ii2 18 . 24 ii3 26 -ii4 23 he makes it a condition of peace with 
Harald that he should give him in marriage his grand-niece 
Ragnhild, d. of K. Magnus the Good, 1 i4 15 . 23 Harald breaks 
his promise in the matter, 1 15-1 16 8 Hakon goes to Denmark 
and takes service with K. Svein Wolfson, his 'kinsman-in-law' 
(Svein was married to Gunnhild, grand-daughter of Earl 
Hakon the Mighty, while Hakon Ivarson was great-grandson 
of the Earl), n6 16 . 26 473 16 -i 9 slays in battle K. S vein's tur- 
bulent nephew, Asmund, i r 7-1 i8 2r leaves the King's service, 
n8 28 , 31 is created Earl by K. Harald, and marries, ii9 3 . 15 
his doings at the battle of Niz, i33 29 . 31 1365-22 I 4324-29 I 44i-s 
he saves the life of Vandrad, /.<<?., of K. Svein Wolfson, 138- 
I4o 6 K, Harald ; s wrath in consequence, and Hakon's flight, 
i44 6 -i45 24 continued feud between them, i46 3 . 24 Hakon's 
last encounter with K. Harald, 14913-15211 

HAKON, King of Norway, 1093-1094, son of K. Magnus 
Harald Hardredy's son, and first cousin toK. Magnus Barefoot, 
commonly called Thorir's fosterling, because he was fostered 
by Steig-Thorir, iii. i87 9 . 10 on the death of Olaf the Quiet 
the Uplanders take him for their king, 205 8 . 10 the Thrand- 
heimers at Ere-Thing proclaim him king of that moiety of 
the land over which his father had ruled, 205 10 _ 16 he gains 
popularity by relieving his subjects of certain imposts dating 
from Svein Alfivason's reign, and by reforming the laws, 205^- 
2o6 10 Magnus Barefoot's consequent rancour towards his 
cousin, 2o6 13 -207 18 Hakon's journey over Dovrafell towards 
the Wick, and sudden death on the way, 2o7 18 . 33 his body 
brought to Nidoyce and buried at Christchurch, 2o7 33 -2o8 6 
his age, popularity, and Biarmland war, 2o8 6 . 10 effect of his 
death on the fortunes of Svein, son of Harald Fletcher, and 
Steig-Thorir, 2 o9 2 -2 1 2 16 

HAKON the Mighty (H. hinn rfki), ruler of Norway, 975-995, 
on of Earl Sigurd and Bergliot, d. of Earl Thorir ; born Earl 

HAK] Index I 77 

of Ladir, i. 4 9 6 S . 9 derived his descent from Seeming, the 
son of Odin by Skadi, 2i 13 . u birth, baptism, etc., i6i 3 . ir is 
appointed their chief and earl by the Thrandheim people after 
the murder of his father, 205 26 -2o6 3 drives Harald Greycloak 
and his brother Erling out of Thrandheim, 2o6 3 . 6 holds 
Thrandheim for three years, in spite of Gunnhild's sons, paying 
no taxes; has many battles with them, with varying success, 
2o6 26 -2o7 83 friends of either party arrange peace between 
them on such terms that they should share the dominion in 
Thrandheim as had Hakon the Good and Earl Sigurd afore- 
time; and great love arose between Hakon and Gunnhild, 
2o7 34 -2o8 12 has a son, Eric, with a low-born woman of the 
Uplands, 209 13 . 22 personal description, 209 26 . 29 goes to the 
Uplands and makes a secret alliance against Gunnhild's sons 
with four lords of the land, 2io 3 . i:L on learning that Harald 
Greycloak and his brothers were drawing together an over- 
whelming war-host against him, he starts from Thrandheim, 
and visits Northmere, Raumsdale and Southmere with fire 
and sword, and while Harald lay weatherbound south of Stad, 
Hakon sailed off into the main and came to Denmark, and 
harried summerlongin the Eastlands, 2i3 12 -2i4 3 in autumn 
he goes to Helsingland, where he laid up his ships, marching 
west through Helsingland and Jamtland, and over the Keel 
into Thrandheim, 21 4 14 _ 18 thereupon Gunnhild's sons, Sigurd 
Slaver and Gudrod, leave Thrandheim for the Mere, and 
Hakon sways over Thrandheim alone, residing there in winter, 
in summer going to his ships in Helsingland and warring in 
the east, or else having his host out in Thrandheim and keep- 
ing Gunnhild's sons at bay south of Stad, 2i4 19 . 81 he antici- 
pates a fresh expedition to Thrandheim by Harald Greycloak 
and his brothers by carrying war into Mere, where he slays his 
own uncle Griotgarth, 2 i6 ir 2 r 7 6 whereupon he sails away to 
Denmark and stays through the winter with King Harald Gorm- 
son, 2 1 7^ from Denmark he stirs up revolt in Thrandheim 
against Gunnhild's sons, 232 2 _ 13 encourages Gold-Harald to 
lay open claim to kingly dominion in Denmark against his uncle 
Harald Gormson, 232^.35 but dissuades him from stirring 
up a rebellion against him, 233 9 . 30 pleads with Harald Gorm- 
son not to go to extremes with his nephew, who, in such a 
case, would find plenteous support from the Danes, 2 33 31 -2 

8 Index I [HAK 

counsels Harald Gormson to invite his fosterson Harald 
Greycloak to Denmark and betray him, and in the meanwhile 
to put Gold-Harald on the throne of Norway, 2^4^-2^ 
persuades Gold-Harald to acquiesce in the plan of winning 
for himself the kingdom of Norway, and promises his support 
thereto, 236 10 _ 2S Harald Greycloak, having accepted Harald 
Gormson's invitation, and come to the Limbfirth in Denmark, 
Gold-Harald goes with nine ships, arrayed for war, to attack 
him, whereupon Hakon discloses all the treasonable plans of 
Gold-Harald to his uncle, and prays for permission to go and 
attack and slay Gold-Harald, promising to Harald Gormson 
the kingdom of Norway, where he would be his loyal earl; 
and shortly after Gold-Harald had slam Harald Greycloak, 
Hakon attacked him, won the day, and had him hanged, 
23724-23833 24o 3 _ n had, on An Thorgilson's authority, ruled 
over his dominion in Thrandheim thirteen years when Grey- 
cloak died, 239 2r . 81 is appointed by Harald Gormson earl 
over seven maritime folklands of Norway from Rogaland to 
Northmere, and invested with revenues from them on the 
rules that Harald Hairfair followed when he shared Norway 
with his sons; other privileges being added, 240^-24X5 ii. 
2 5]5-i9 h e oes w ftk a war-host north along the land, and 
Gunnhild and her sons flee the land to Orkney, 24i m3 
cf. 34i 23 . 2 6 orders, on his progress north, temples and 
blood-oiferings to be sustained, and takes up his residence in 
Thrandheim, 24127-242^ his accession to power signalized 
by good year, both as to sea and land, 242 28 . 34 his deal- 
ings with Ragnfrod, son of Gunnhild, 2434-246 Hakon 
marries Thora, d. of Skagi Skoptison, 2473.4 their children, 
247 5 _ 8 cf. ii. 222 4 _ S6 iii. io6 8 . 15 37i 9 . n his relations with 
Skopti of the Tidings, i. 2479-248^ pays to Harald Gormson 
no taxes of Norway, 253 10 . 15 joins King Harald Gormson 
against the Emperor Otto II. with a great war-host from 
Norway, 253^-2543 is charged by K. Harald to hold the 
rampart of Dane-work against the Emperor, and defends it 
so stoutly that the Emperor is repulsed, 255^-25630 Hakon 
retires to his ships awaiting wind for Norway, 257 5 . 8 is 
christened at the instance of K. Harald against his will, 
25729-2587 departs from Denmark, casts aland all Christian 
missionaries, wars in Denmark and Sweden, and goes back 


Index I 79 

to heathen sacrifices, 258^-2593 fights his way through 
Sweden to Norway up to Thrandheim, 259 2 . 30 for his 
apostacy and war on Harald Gormson's kingdom, the latter 
carries fire and sword into Norway as far as Sogn, 267 19 . 29 
Hakon let build the land again, but paid no tribute to 
Denmark, 269 26 . 29 cf. ii. 4 2 28-ao fresh attack threatened by 
Harald's son, Svein Twibeard, 27i 1821 invasion of Norway 
avowed by the Jomsburgers at Harald Gormson's grave- 
ale, 27i 23 -273 14 informed of the conspiracy by his son Eric, 
Hakon gathers a fleet from all northern Norway, and assembles 
it in Hallkelswick, from whence, on hearing that the vikings 
were at western Hod, he rowed the whole fleet of nearly two 
hundred ships north into Hiorund-firth, 273^-274^ 276 10 - 
2 7?2 fig nts an< i wins the famous 'battle of the Jomsvikings,' 
277 3 -28i r ii. 26 5 . 6 42 23 . 25 returns to Thrandheim, 283 22 . 25 
alleged to have sacrificed his son to Odin for victory over the 
Jomsvikings, 283 26 . 29 his might and power, 287 21 -288 4 his 
luck in good years and his peaceful rule, 288 5 . 8 his reckless 
sensuality, 288 9 _ 19 he sends Thorir Klakka to the west to 
find out if Oli Garthrealmer be indeed Olaf Tryggvison, and, 
in that case, to betray him, 288 23 -289 16 his great unpopu- 
larity in Thrandheim, 288 16 . 19 29i 22 . 38 ii. 42^-43% his immoral 
conduct brings about the revolt of Worm Lyrgia with a host 
of neighbours, 2925-2935 Hakon is obliged to go into hiding: 
into EarlVdale, in Earl's-cave, and, at last, in a hole made for 
him under a swine-sty at Rimul, 2935-294^ 295 23 . 26 hidden 
here with his thrall, Kark, he hears the news of Olaf Trygg- 
vison's having arrived in Thrandheim and slain his son Erland, 
and next he hears Olaf come to Rimul in search of him, and, 
standing on a big stone beside the sty, put a price upon his 
head, 294 22 . 24 296 y . 19 his last night, the murder of him by 
the thrall Kark, 296 20 -297 21 cf. 299 21 . 23 his head, together 
with his thrall's, stoned in Kid-holm, 297 26 -298 7 his corpse 
dragged away (mutilated), 298 8 _ 9 the byname of 'Evil' 
given to him, 298 10 . 13 Snorri's estimate of his character, 
2 9 ^13-34 his sons flee from the land after his fall, 345 6 . 9 
HAKON MAW (H. magi), first cousin of Hakon Pungelta, 
their mothers being sisters, daughters of Aslak Erlingson of 
Soli, iii. 356 7 . 10 one of Eric Oddson's authorities for the his- 
tory of Harald Gilli, 365 19 , 22 his son Ivar, 4i2 15 . 26 

8o Index I [HAK 

HAKON THE OLD (H. hinn gamli), a man of might in 
Sweden, and friend of Eric Biodaskalli, who sends to him for 
ward and protection Astrid, his daughter, with her infant son 
Olaf Tryggvison, i. 225 21 . 25 he receives Astrid and Olaf, 
who dwell with him for a long while, 227^.30 ^ e refuses to 
give Olaf up to Gunnhild's agent, Hakon, 2285.^0 12 . 2 2 

HAKON, son of Earl Paul, Earl of Orkney, receives earldom 
and lordship in the Orkneys from Kings Sigurd, Eystein and 
Olaf, the sons of Magnus Barefoot goes west to the Orkneys, 
iii. 248 14 . 21 

HAKON PUNGELTA, son of Laxe-Paul and a daughter of 
Aslak Erlingson of Soli, first cousin of Hakon magi, their 
mothers being sisters, punished by K. Ingi Haraldson for 
siding with Sigurd Slembi-Deacon, iii 3S6 6 . n 

HAKON SHOULDERBROAD (H. herSibrerSr), King of Nor- 
way, 1161-1162, son of K. Sigurd Mouth, the son of Harald 
Gilh and of Thora, a workwoman of Simon Thorbergson, 
brought up by Simon together with his sons Onund and 
-Andreas, 373 3 . 24 399n-i2 m n * s uncle, K. Eystein's, following 
when his father was slam at Biorgvm, 39o n . 13 after the death 
of K. Eystein his party appoint Hakon, ten years old, their 
chief, and confer on him title of king, 399 5J3 (in consequence 
K. Ingi confiscates their property and makes them outlaws, 
399u-ie) a ^ ter a wiper's sojourn in Gautland, he comes 
down on Kings' Rock with a numerous host, where he is 
defeated by Gregory Dayson, commanding K. Ingi's army, 
3992i~4 02t r Hakon flees to Gautland, whence he went next 
winter to Thrandheim, where the people proclaimed him 
king over his father's heritage, one-third of the kingdom of 
Norway, 402 7 . 12 his war-raid from Thrandheim along either 
Mere, and expedition east to the Elf, 402 18 -403 81 defeated 
in the battle of the Elf, from which he escapes by flight, 
making his way to Thrandheim, where he winters, 404-4163! 
next, heard of in the Wick, whither his uncle Ingi goes in 
pursuit of him, he taking to flight again, 4i8 24 . 2r suffers 
severe beating at the hands of Gregory at Saur-Byes, but 
escapes, 4i9 3 . 25 slays Haldor of Vettland, the brother-in-law 
of Gregory Dayson, and burns the homestead, 41 9^-42 o 6 
his fight with Gregory on the river Befia, 4209-42X33 K. Ingi 
prepares to avenge his favourite, Gregory battle between him 

HAK HAL] Index I 81 

and Hakon at Oslo, where Hakon gained the day, 422-426^ 
4277-12 a^ K - In g i?s fal1 Hakon sets up as sole king in the 
land, 427-Lg.-^ Hakon's plans for dealing with Erling Askew, 
found out by Erling's wife, 427ir- 2 6 his relations to Erling, 
435s-i5 Hak. defeated and turned to flight by Erling in the 
battle at Tunsberg, 438^-440^ Hak. retires to Thrandheim 
and prepares an expedition against Erling, 440 23 . 27 44i 6 . 15 
Erling makes his counter-preparations, 441 ^-445 3 Hakon's 
last battle and fall, 445^447^ the burial of his body, 447 8 . 12 
personal description, 447^-4485 

HAKON SUET-NECK (H. morstrutr), son of Serk, his rela- 
tions to Arni Foreshore-skew and the Icelandic poet Thorarin 
Curtfell, iii. 286 25 -288 5 

HALDOR (Halld6rr), obtains speech and health by a miracle 
of King Olaf's, iii. 380^-38 i s 

HALDOR, son of Bryniolf Camel the elder, his humorous 
counsel to King Olaf Haraldson how, in doubtful weather, 
to sail about Jadar, ii. 268 18 . 22 his comparison of the char- 
acters of Olaf the Holy and Harald Sigurdson, iii. i86 7 . 31 

HALDQRj son of Bryniolf Camel the younger, iii. 48i 10 . 12 
married to Sigrid Day's daughter, the sister of Gregory, 41939- 
4203 goes over to the side of King Ingi in opposition to 
King Eystein,393 1 joins Gregory Dayson to fight K. Hakon 
Shoulderbroad at Kings' Rock, 4oo 10 dissension with Biorn 
Nicolasson at Biorgvin, which results in a general fight on the 
bridges, 4i6 so -4i8 20 King Hakon and Sigurd of Reyr go to 
his manor and burn the houses he and his house-carles are 
slain, 41937-31 422 14 

HALDOR GABBLER (H. skvaldri), an led. poet, his com- 
memorative verses on Sigurd Jerusalem-farer's victories : over 
vikings off the Spanish coast, iii. 25o 18 _ 27 at Cintra Castle, 
2 5 z i-8 at Lisbon and Alcasse, 25i ir . 21 2 9' 2 5 2 5 at Norvi- 
sound, 252 mlr at Forminterra, 25339-254^ atlvi;za, 254 58 . 33 
at Minorca, 2553.3 on Sidon being given to King Baldwin 
by Sigurd, 2585.9 on the battle at Fyrileif between K. Mag- 
nus the Blind and Harald Gilli, 3i6 28 . 32 on the casting into 
the Sarp of Asbiorn and the hanging of Nereid by K. Harald 

Gilli, 3 J 9i6-24 

HALDOR, son of Gudmund of Maddermead, one of the Ice- 
landers christened at Nidoyce by Olaf Tryggvison, i. 334 20 

VI. G 

82 Index I [HAL 

337iMs kept with other nobles of Iceland by Olaf Tryggvison 
as hostage to ensure the conversion to Christianity of Iceland, 

HALDOR SIGURDSON, a follower of Sigurd Slembi-Deacon, 
iii. 349 8 falls in the battle at Mouth, 34933-350^ 

HALDOR of Skerding-Stithy, joins Worm Lyrgia in revolt 
against Earl Hakon the Mighty, i. 292 29 . 31 threatened by 
Olaf Tryggvison with being sacrificed to the gods, 3i9 8 

HALDOR, son of Snorri the Priest, served under Harald 
Sigurdson when he commanded the Varangian host in the 
Greek army, quoted as authority on the history of Harald, iii. 
67 11 . 18 74 25 taunts Harald with cowardice, 68-^g wounded 
and disfigured for life, 68 23 . 25 imprisoned with Harald in 
Micklegarth, 73 23 his character, etc., io3 9 . 27 returns to 
Iceland and sets up a house at Herdholt, io3 25 . 28 

HALDOR the Unchristened (H. tikristni), Icel. poet, author 
of a song on Earl Eric, son of Hakon, celebrating his deeds 
in the battle of Svold, i. 3592r36o 3 3^2 10 . 18 3 6 9is-2i 29-37^4 

HALF (Halfr), (King of Hordland), a famous legendary sea- 
king, iii. i54 21 

HALFDAN (Hdlfdan), an Earl, married to Ingibiorg, a 
daughter of Har. Hairfair, their daughter Gunnhild the 
mother of Eyvind Skaldspiller, i. igB 2 ^ BO ii. i9o 5Jr 

HALFDAN, brother to King Gudrod of Scania, and father of 
Ivar Wide-fathom, slain by his brother at the instigation of 
Asa Evil-heart, i. 6^ u . u 

HALFDAN THE BLACK (H. svarti), ob. 860, son of Gud- 
rod the Hunter-King, i. 4 X and of his second wife, Asa, the 
daughter of Harald Redlip, King of Agdir, JI B .^ loses his 
father when one year old, 7%.^ 77 5 , 6 brought up by his 
mother in Agdir, 7 7 6 . n when he was eighteen years old he be- 
came King of Agdir, and shared the father's kingdom of West- 
fold with his half-brother, Olaf Geirstead-Elf, 72 28 . S2 77 n . 14 
at that age he made war on Gandalf of Vingulmark, and got 
the half of that dominion, 77 15 . 20 made war on Sigtrygg, the 
son of King Eystein, and won to him Raumrick and slew 
Sigtrygg, 77 21 -78 5 -Eystein, the brother of Sigtrygg, seized on 
Raumrick again, and a war broke out between him and Half- 
dan which ended by Halfdan becoming lord of Raumrick, 

HAL] Index I 83 

Thotn, Hadaland, Land, and one half of Heathmark, 785-79* 
married first, Ragnhild, d. of Harald Goldbeard, King of 
Sogn, and had a son with her, Harald, who was reared in 
Sogn, and to whom the grandfather gave his kingdom shortly 
before his death; the mother dying shortly afterwards, and 
the young king when he was ten years of age, Halfdan laid 
successfully claim to the kingdom of Sogn, 79 10 . 18 - and as 
Vice-roy (jarl) over this kingdom he appointed Atli the 
Slender, Earl of Gaular, 79 28 -8o 2 his fights with the sons of 
Gandalf, 8o 6 . 26 married, second time, Ragnhild, the daughter 
of King Sigurd Hart and Thorny d. of Klack-Harald, 829-83* 
his dream presaging the greatness of his race, 843 27 his 
wise laws referred % to i6o 31 as Heidssevis laws, q.v.; he in- 
stitutes the system of weregild by law, 84 28 -85 2 his son with 
Ragnhild, Harald Hairfair, 85 3 . 9 the loss from his table of all 
his Yule-fare, 85 12 -86 4 his death, 86 n . 22 - so beloved of his 
people that each of the four folklands he ruled over must 
have a portion of his body, 86 23 -87 5 his head was laid in 
mound at Stone in Ringrick, 87^ all the mounds where 
the four parts of his body were separately buried called 
Halfdan's mounds, 87 4 . 5 

HALFDAN THE BLACK (H. svarti), son of King Harald 
Hairfair and Asa, the daughter of Earl Hakon Griotgard's 
son, i. iiOtf fostered by his uncle, Earl Sigurd of Ladir, 
i37 20 followed the profession of a viking in the 'Eastlands/ 
i28 12 . u fought a great battle in Esthoma, in which his bro- 
ther Halfdan the White lost his life, i28 u _ 16 made king by 
his father, 13133-132! attacks at Solvi his brother, Eric Blood- 
axe, who barely escapes being burnt in the house, which was 
reduced to ashes, i36 5 . n Eric, complaining thereof to his 
father, the latter gathered a host against Halfdan, and both 
were on the point of battle, when atonement between them 
was effected by their mutual friend, the poet Guthorm 
Cinder, I36 n -i37 9 on hearing that his brother Eric was 
appointed supreme King of Norway, he assumed the same 
dignity in Thrandheim, I4i 2r -i42 2 died suddenly at a feast 
in Thrandheim, and it was the common talk that Gunnhild 
the Queen had caused poison to be given to him, i42 14 . 18 

HALFDAN the Bounteous and the Meat-grudging (H. hinn 
mildi ok hinn matarilli), the son of Eystein, King of Raumrick 

84 Index I [HAL 

and Westfold, gave in war-pay as many gold-pennies as other 
kings gave silver-pennies; a great warrior; married to Hlif, 
d. of King Day of Westmere; died at his manor, Holtar, in 
Westfold; was laid in mound at Borro, i. 69 30 -7o 21 

HALFD AN, son of Frodi the Proud, or the Peaceful, K. of Den- 
mark, conquered the realm of the Swedes from K. Aun, and 
ruled for five-and-twenty years at Upsala; died in his bed and 
was laid in mound, i. 42 5 . 16 

HALFD AN GOLD-TOOTH (H. gulltonn), son of Solvi, father 
of Solveig, the wife of Olaf Tree-shaver, i. 65 22 . 25 

HALFDAN HIGHLEG (H. haleggr), son of Harald Hairfair 
and Snowfair, Swasi's daughter, i. I2o 2 repudiated by the 
father after Snowfair's death, I2i 3 . 6 restored to favour 
through Thiodolf of Hvin, and assigned residence in Ring- 
realm, I2i 2s -i22 4 made King of Ringrealm by his father, 
i22 3 131^-22 revolts, in company with his brother Gudrod 
Gleam, against his father, and slays his earl, Rognvald o' 
Mere, and departs to the West, i24 15 . 28 his war with Turf- 
Einar in Orkney, defeat and death by torture at Einar's 
hands, I25 12 -i26 n i32 19 . 20 ii. i68 12 . 16 

HALFDAN, son of Sigurd a-Bush the son of Harald Hairfair, 
father of Sigurd Syr (or Sow), i. 3ir 6 . r 

HALFDAN, son of King Sigurd Syr (Sow) and Asta, the 
daughter of Gudbrand Kula, ii. 35^ his faintheartedness as 
a child, no 6 . 10 his childish propensity all for possessing 
many cows, in 8 . 13 

HALFDAN THE WHITE (H. hviti), son of King Harald 
Hairfair and Asa, the daughter of Earl Hakon Griotgard's son, 
i. no 27 . 28 followed the profession of a viking in the 'East- 
lands,' i28 12 . 13 fell in battle in Esthoma, i28 14 . 15 i32 18 . 19 

HALFDAN WHITE-LEG (H. hvftbeinn), son of Olaf Tree- 
shaver, reared in Solisles with Solvi, his mother's brother, i. 
6539-31 taken to king by the Swedish subjects of Olaf, he 
conquered Solisles and Raumrick, much of Heathmark and 
Thotn, and Hadaland, and part of Westfold j died in Thotn, 
but was laid in mound m Skaereid at Skiringsal, 67 13 -68 8 
had been King of Vermland from the death of his brother 
Ingiald, 68 12 . 14 

HALF (Halfr), a sea-king of fame, iii. 2oi 28 

HALL (Hallr), son of Audun the son of Hall, an Icelander, 

HAL] Index I 85 

Gregory Dayson's banner-bearer in the battle with K. Hakon 
Shoulderbroad, at Kings' Rock, iii. 4oi ml? praised by 
Gregory for valour, 4oi 30 -402 2 

HALL KODRANS-BANE, son of Utrygg, killed Kodran 
Gudmundson, first cousin of Jorun, the mother of Thormod 
Eindridson, when Thormod was one year old, is slain in re- 
venge by Thormod, on first hearing Hall's by-name Kodrans- 
bane uttered, iii. ^S3i-B 

HALL, son of Thorarin, the sage of Hawkdale, fosterfather of 
Ari the Learned and Teit son of bp Isleif, trading partner of 
King Olaf the Holy, born 995, set up house in Hawkdale 
(1025), died ninety-four years of age (1089), i. 6 18 . 31 

HALL, son of Thorgier Leech, a courtman of King Ingi, pre- 
sent at the capture and torture of Sigurd Slembi-Deacon, the 
account of which he dictated to Eric Oddson, iii. 365 10 -367 12 

HALL of the Side, son of Thorstein (Hallr af SftSu Jporsteins- 
son), i. 6 5 . 6 baptized by Thangbrand, S 2 Si5-iQ (Hall simply, 
ii. 2459 Hall o' Side, ii. 249 23 ) 

HALLAD (Halla^r), son of Rognvald the Mere-Earl and a 
concubine, i. ii7 22 sent by his father to take up the earldom 
of Orkney on trie death of Earl Sigurd, the brother of Rogn- 
vald, he got so weary of viking-raids that he resigned the 
earldom, became an ordinary franklin, and returned to Nor- 
way, i. i22 n . 22 

HALLANDERS (Hallandsfarar), inhabitants of the province 
of Halland (men of Halland, iii. 383), i42 r 

HALLFRED the Troublous-skald (Hallfre^r vandra&askald), 
son of Ottar, Icelandic poet, 25231*2531 forbidden by Olaf 
Tryggvison to sail away to Iceland, 335 14 28 his bargain with 
Olaf Tryggvison for allowing himself to be christened, 33725- 
339is sues > on behalf of Earl Rognvald of West-Gautland, 
for the hand of Ingibiorg, the sister of Olaf Tryggvison, 
35 6 i8-357e his drapas on Olaf Tryggvison quoted, 252 31 ~253 6 

2 54 S 0- 2 558 26 13-18 26- 26l 12 29- 2<52 12 3 6 525-33 3 68 5-13 3723-32 

3752-ie 37 6 M5 2<r377g 
HALLKEL of Fialir (Hallkell af Fjolum), stationed in the 

forehold on board the Long- Worm, i. 353^3 
HALLKEL HUNCH (H. hilkr), son of Joan Butter-Bear, and 

father to Simon Sheath and Jon, a landed-man in Mere, 

meets, in the Southisles, Gilchrist (Harald Gilli), and brings 

86 Index I [HAL HAR 


him together with his mother to Norway, iii. 295 16 . 26 379 n 

f K ' ' 

39 2 33 3932 29-30 

stein Haraldson, 39329-3942 
HALLSTEIN of the Firths (Hallsteinn or FjortSum), stationed 

in the forehold on board the Long- Worm, i. 353i 6 
HALLSTEIN, son of K, Steinkel [son of Rognvald], father of 

Ingi [the younger], King of Sweden, iii. 37833 
HALLWARD (HallvarSr) Gunnarson, one of K. Sigurd Harald- 

son's body-guard, slays Sigurd Gaud-axe, one of K. Ingi's 

body-guard, iii. 387^9 falls in the fight at Biorgvin between 

Kings Sigurd and Ingi, 389^ 
HALLWARD HAREKSBLESI, an Icelandic poet, celebrates 

K. Knut the Mighty in a song, ii. 35333.23 
HALLWARD HITCH (H. hikri), falls at Thralls' Berg in the 

battle of Oslo between K. Ingi Haraldson and Hakon 
, Shoulderbroad, iii. 426 19 . 23 
HALLWARD the Holy (H. inn helgi), shrine of, at Oslo, iii. 

HALLWARD (Hallvartfr), an Icelander, accomplice of Thor- 
kel in the murder of Earl Einar Wrongmouth, ii. i77 15 . 28 

HALWARD the Polisher (H. fsegir), slain in the battle at 
Holm-the-Gray, iii. 362 ]8 _ 22 

HALLWARD RASCAL (H. skalkr), a kinsman of King Eystein 
the son of King Eystein the Mighty of the Uplands, brings 
about a treaty of peace between K. Eystein Eystemson and 
Halfdan the Black, i. 78 81 -79 6 

HALOGALANDERS, Halogaland folk (Haleygir), inhabitants 
of Halogaland, Norway, i. 18^ i89 18 326 21 . 22 3S3e-r " X 93i5 

2I 7io 2l8 ir 220 3 42315 ^ 2 74 25 

HAMDIR, son of Jonakr and Gudrun d. of Giuki, in kennings 
a famed hero, i. 25o 15 

HANGI, the hanged one, Odin (doubtful), i. 278^ 

HARALD FLETCHER (Haraldr flettir), father of Svein and 
Guthorm, iii. 2093 324 31 

HARALD GILLI (called Gilchrist while in Ireland, iii. 295 20 ), 
K. of Norway (1130-1136), gave himself out for a son of K. 
Magnus Barefoot, 295 20 . 23 married Ingirid, d. of Rognvald, 
iii. 31423-25 their son Ingi, 347 15 his natural children: by 
Thora, d. of Guthorm Graybeard, Sigurd, 3i4 22 - 2 s by Biadak, 
an Irishwoman, Eystein, 368 4 . 6 20 by women not named: 

HAR] Index I 87 

Magnus, s68 22 ; Brigida, 378 81 ; Maria, 3799; Margaret, 
379is meets Hallkel Hunch in the Southisles, and discloses 
to him his descent, 295 16 . 23 Hallkel brings him and his 
mother to Norway, 295 23 _ 2r ---Sigurd Jerusalem-farer accepts 
him as a claimant for kingship in Norway after a successful 
ordeal, but not during his and his son's, Magnus's life, 295^- 
2 9 6 i9 Disliked by Magnus Sigurd's son, 296 20 . 23 description 
of him, 297 3 . 10 313^-24 his ski11 in running, 297^-2993 his 
narrow escape from being hanged, 300-^-3025 breaks the 
covenant made with K. Sigurd when he hears of his death, 
and is proclaimed king over one half of Norway, 31335-314,- 
his popularity forces K. Magnus to come to terms with 
him, 3i4 8 . 21 & Magnus breaks the peace with Harald and 
defeats him in the battle of Fyrileif, 315-31734 Harald flies 
to Denmark, and accepts from King Eric Halland to rule 
over, and eight unrigged, longships, 3i7 25 -3i8 r he gathers 
forces and comes to amiable terms with the men of Kings' 
Rock, marches north into the Wick punishing K. Magnus's 
adherents severely, 3i8 8 -3i9 27 K. Magnus's perplexity how 
to oppose Harald, 3 X 929-3 2I 22 battle between them in 
Biorgvin, defeat, deposition, and maiming of K. Magnus, 
32i 25 -323 2lr Harald causes Reinald, bp of Stavanger, to be 
hanged, 324 3 . 24 Harald now sole King of Norway, 324 24 . 25 
makes peace with K. Magnus's party, 334 8 . n warfare in 
Denmark attested to by Einar Skulison, 334 n . 22 his and 
Queen Ingirid's kindness to Magnus Einarson, bp of Skala- 
hplt, in Iceland, 334 25 -336 u his treacherous dealings with 
Sigurd Slembi-Deacon, 3403-34135 slain by Sigurd and his 
conspirators, 34i 28 -344 21 36222-24 buried at Christchurch the 
Old, 344 22 -23 ^e saga of K. Harald, written by Eric Oddson, 
365i2-i8 measures taken for the reigning in Norway of his 
sons, 347-34^11 

HARALD, son of Earl Godwin by his wife Gyda, King of 
England for nine months, ob. Oct. i4th, 1066, ii. 326 10 . n 
brought up at the court of K. Edward the Confessor, iii. 
1 5 522-26 h 1 " 8 Sta 7 at R uen an< i relations with the wife of 
William the Conqueror, 1563.^ asks the daughter of Wil- 
liam in marriage, and is betrothed to her, 1562^5711 returns 
to England and never came back for his bride, i57 14 . 18 
i8o 10 . 12 ever at the court of K. Edward, being guardian of 

88 Index I [HAR 

his treasures, 15^.3 the manner of his nomination to the 
throne of England, 158^.9 accepted king by a meeting of the 
lords of the land, and crowned at Paul's Church, is8 u . 19 
his relations with Tosti, i58 19 . 29 1593-10 I 7323- I 74 2 7 meefc s 
Harald Sigurdson at York with an overwhelming force, and 
defeats him at Stamford Bridge, 1733-1794 gives leave to 
Olaf, Harald's son, and the remnant of Harald's army, to 
return back to Norway, i8i 3 . 7 marches to the south of Eng- 
land and fights and falls in the battle of Helsingport (Hast- 
ings), i8i r . 15 his daughter Gyda married to K. Valdemar of 
Holmgarth, 27o 28 -27i 2 

HARALD GOLDBEARD (H. Gullskeggr), King of Sogn, 
father of Ragnhild, the first wife of Halfdan the Black, be- 
queathed, in old age, his kingdom to his grandson Harald, 
the son of Halfdan the Black, i. 79 n - ld 

HARALD GORMSON (H. Gormsson), King of Denmark 
(940-986), at enmity with K. Hakon the Good for his vic- 
torious raid upon Denmark, i. i59 6 . i:L receives Gunnhild 
and the sons of Eric, and furnishes them with lands ample 
for their support, and takes Harald Eric's son into fostering, 
'setting him on his knee,' 15912-15 21-28 supplies the sons of 
Eric with Danish levies for the invasion of Norway, I74 14 . 20 
gives a good welcome to Hakon the Mighty, Earl of Ladir, 
a fugitive from Norway, 217^ 2323.5 resists his nephew 
Gold-Harald's claim to kingly dominion in Denmark, 232^- 
2337 confers with Earl Hakon on Gold-Harald's claim, de- 
claring his readiness to slay him rather than yield, which 
resolve Hakon deprecates, 233 31 -234 18 his consultations with 
Hakon, 234-^-236.7, invites, at Hakon's suggestion, his foster- 
son, Harald Greycloak, to Denmark to receive from him the 
fiefs he and his brothers had formerly held there, 235^-23617 
24 -237 3 connives at Gold-Harald's attacking Harald of Nor- 
way, whom he slays, 236 10 . 23 237^-2384 26 -2 3 9 22 obtains, 
without any struggle, the kingdom of Norway, and appoints 
Hakon earl over the west and north, and Harald the Gren- 
lander king over the south of Norway, 240^-24 i n 11. 25o 15 . 19 
invests Eric, the son of Hakon, with earldom over Vingul- 
mark and Raumrealm, i. 249 13 . 2S receives no tribute of Nor- 
way from Earl Hakon, 253 10 . 15 ignoring a demand from the 
Emperor Otto to become a Christian together with his people, 

HAR] Index I 89 

his kingdom is invaded by the 'Keisar, 3 the national rampart 
of Danework turned, and he himself with his army driven up to 
Mars-isle in North Jutland, 253 18 . 25 2ss 11 -as7 19 is converted 
to Christianity together with all the host of the Danes by the 
Emperor and his bishop Poppo, 257 20 _ 28 -causes Earl Hakon 
and all his men to be christened at the same time, 25739-2587 
kept faithfully to and propagated Christian faith, "26 o 9 . 10 
3 OI i9-30 & oes on a P un iti v e expedition to Norway on hearing 
of Earl Hakon's apostacy, 267 19 . 29 cf. ii. 97 31 . 32 plans a similar 
expedition to Iceland for some atrociously "insulting rhymes 
on him, i. 267 30 -268 19 sends a wizard in the shape of a whale 
to find out how far feasible such an expedition might be, and 
on receiving the wizard's report, abandons the plan, 268 22 - 
2 6921 26-27 Hakon of Norway paid no more tribute to Den- 
mark after Harald's armed invasion than before, 269 28 . 29 ii. 
4 2 23-24 28-so on refusing to share the kingdom of Denmark 
with his son Svein, the latter raises a rebellion and gives 
battle to his father in Icefirth in the island of Sealand, where 
Harald was mortally wounded, i. 27o 3 . 1Q ruled over the whole 
of the Wick in Norway west to Rygsbit, iii. 438 10 
HARALD GREYCLOAK (H. grafeldr), K. of Norway, 961-965, 
son of Eric Bloodaxe and Gunnhild, i, i45 6 how he got his 
nickname, 2o8 14 -209 10 (for his sojourn in the west, see Eric 
Bloodaxe, Gunnhild, Eric's sons) comes with his mother 
from the Orkneys to Denmark, and is taken into fostering 
and ' set on his knee ' by K. Harald Gormson, at whose court 
he grows up, 15931-23 takes the lead of his brethren after the 
fall of his brother Gamli, i83 8 . 9 invades Norway with a great 
host, and is defeated in a great battle with Hakon the Good 
at Fitiar in the island of Stord, i8i 3 -i87 85 after the fall of 
Hakon, he, with his brothers, becomes King of the middle 
part of Norway (but is generally in his saga dealt with by 
Snorri as simply one of Gunnhild's sons, because Gunnhild, 
his mother, is the virtual ruler, though Harald is the actual 
sovereign of the country. For convenience' sake we group 
under Harald the events that Snorri connects with c the sons 
of Gunnhild,' who, in Harald Greycloak's saga, except in the 
very beginning, no longer figure as 'the sons of Eric'), and 
makes peace with K. Tryggvi in the Wick and K. Gudrod of 
Westfold, leaving to them the title and dominion they had 

90 Index I [HAR 

held under Hakon the Good, i97 8 . n ls . 24 1999-14 his pique 
against Eyvind Skaldspiller for lauding in a song K. Hakon 
the Good's defeat of Harald and his brothers, i98 12 . 33 they 
were appeased on condition that Eyvind should become his 
court poet, 19833-1993 terms of peace arranged between 
Harald (Gunnhild's sons) and Earl Sigurd of Ladir, i99 15 . 2 3 
miserliness of Harald and Gunnhild's sons, 19934-20 1 9 
being Christians, the sons of Gunnhild broke down temples, 
but advanced Christianity in no wise, 2oi 12 . 18 their reign 
signalized by famine, 2oi 18 23 and by upsetting of K. Hakon's 
laws when it suited them, 2oi 23 . 24 personal description of 
Gunnhild's sons, 20135-2024 the plot of Gunnhild and her 
sons against the life of Earl Sigurd of Ladir; the burning of 
the earl at Oglo by Harald and Erling his brother, 202^-20533 
on the Thrandheimers rising up as one man and appoint- 
ing Hakon, son of the Earl Sigurd, their lord, Harald (Gunn- 
hild's sons) retires to Raumsdale and Southmere, 205 26 -2o6 6 
Harald (Gunnhild's sons) gets no dues paid him from 
Thrandheim for three years after Earl Sigurd's fall, 2o6 26 . 29 
long feuds between Harald and Earl Hakon till they came to 
peace on the status quo under Hakon the Good, 207 34 -2o8 r 
this peace lasted for three years, 2o8 10 . 12 by wiser men's 
intervention Harald and Gudrod are prevented from coming 
to blows, both being drunk, in consequence of the provocative 
game of personal comparison, 2io 22 -2ii 4 Harald kills K. 
Gudrod, the son of K. Biorn the Chapman, 2ii 24 -2i2 2 he 
and Gudrod his brother possess themselves of the Wick, 
2i2 2 _ 4 keeps a close watch, with his brothers, on their ene- 
mies, 2i2 ir _ 20 Harald's (Gunnhild's sons') expedition against 
Earl Hakon of Ladir ; his escape to Denmark, 2i3 12 -2i4 2 
Harald and his brothers make themselves masters of Thrand- 
heim, from where Harald departs to the East Country, 2i4 4 . u 
Harald (Gunnhild's sons) kept at bay by Earl Hakon, 
2 i4 14 - 31 Harald makes war on Biarmland, 2 1 5 3 _ 18 at a Thing 
in Vors as the bonders fall on him he barely escapes away to 
Hardanger, 2i5 32 -2i6 5 Harald gathers a great host to go to 
Thrandheim against Earl Hakon, who escapes, 2i6 ir . 22 but 
Harald and his brothers make themselves at home in Thrand- 
heim, 2i7 21 . 29 Harald leaves in autumn for the South 
Country, 2i7 30 . 81 in Harald's (Gunnhild's sons') reign sea- 


Index I 91 

sons of scarcity and famine prevailed, 2 1 8 n _ 28 with his brother 
Gudrod, when he had slain Tryggvi Olafson, he searches the 
manors that had belonged to Tryggvi for Astrid his widow, 
224 16 . 19 concerts plans with his mother for the kidnapping of 
Olaf Tryggvison, 224 19 . 26 cf. Gunnhild his kingdom plotted 
against by Hakon, Earl of Ladir, and Harald Gormson of 
Denmark, 234^-2 3 6^ accepts an invitation from his foster- 
father, Harald Gormson, to come to Denmark and receive 
again his former fiefs at his hand, 23634-237^ sails to Neck 
in Limbfirth in Denmark with three longships, and receives 
news that Harald will speedily come to see him, 237 24 . 31 is 
attacked by Gold-Harald with nine longships, and slain with 
the more part of his men, 237^-2383 26 - 2 393 4 2 5i 5 -i9 
HARALD THE GRENLANDER (H. grenski), son of Gud- 
rod Biornson with a mother not named, sent to Roi the 
White in Grenland for fostering, i. 2i2.-. 13 fled after the fall 
of his father to the Uplands, and dwelt awhile with his 
kindred, 2i2 18 . ir quits Norway for Sweden to join vikings 
there, 2i2 20 _ 26 joins the war-host of Skogul-Tosti, and is 
accounted a doughty warrior, 2i2 26 -2i3 s joins Harald Gorm- 
son's expedition to Norway, 24o 16 . 18 is appointed by Harald 
Gormson king over Vingulmark, Westfold and Agdir on the 
same terms that his forefathers had held these fiefs of former 
kings, 24i 6 . 12 married Asta, d. of Gudbrand Kula, 284^.9 
his courtship to Sigrid the Haughty and death at her behest, 
284 15 -286 25 287 3 . 13 3ii 4 . 5 his posthumous son Olaf the Holy, 

HARALD 'GIJNNHILDSON = Harald Greycloak. 
HARALD, son of Hakon, Earl of Orkney, iii. 337^ 
HARALD HAIRFAIR (H. harfagri), King of Norway, 860- 
933, son of Halfdan the Black and of Ragnhild, d. of K. 
Sigurd Hart of Ringrealm, i. 85 S . 4 

Children in marriage* (i) by Asa, d. of Earl Hakon 
Griotgarth's son, 98 21 . 22 sons: Guthorm, Halfdan the Black, 
Halfdan the White, Sigfrod, no 26 . 28 (2) by Gyda, d. of K. 
Eric of Hordland, 93 15 .!7 H4 4 . 8 sons: Rcerek, Sigtrygg, Prodi, 
Thorgils, daughter: Alof Years-heal, H4 8 . 10 (3) by Ragnhild 
the Mighty, d. of K. Eric of Jutland, son: Eric Bloodaxe, 
U4 12 . 15 (4) by Swanhild, d. of K. Eystein, sons: Olaf Geir- 
stead-elf, Biorn, Ragnar Ryckil, H4 15 . 1S (5) by Ashild, d. of 

92 Index I L HAR 

Ring, sons: Day, Ring, Gudrod Skiria, daughter: Ingigerd, 
II 4is-2i (6) by Snowfair, sons: Sigurd a-Bush, Halfdan 
Highleg, Gudrod Gleam, Rognvald, Straightleg, ii9 29 -i2o 3 

Natural Children. By Thora Most-staff: Hakon Athel- 
stane ; s fosterson, 138^4 nis ver Y image, 14933-25 I 5i5-ir; b 7 a 
woman not named, Ingibiorg (?), i98 28 . 30 ii. 190^ 

Had for court skald Thiodolf of Hvin (amongst others), 
i. 3 20 Iceland settled in his reign, 4 31 described as child, 
85 4 . 9 915.9 intercedes with his father on behalf of a tor- 
mented Finn wizard, 85 19 . 27 runs away with the wizard and 
stays away till his father dies, 85 28 -86 8 succeeds his father 
at the age of ten, 91^ appoints maternal uncle, Guthorm, 
head of body-guard, first counsellor and commander of his 
forces, 9i 9 . 12 wars with Gandalf, the sons of Eystein, Haki 
Gandalfson and Hogni Karason, 9i 15 -93 10 Harald's wooing 
of Gyda, and vow, 93i5"959 

Conquest of Thrandheim. Occupation of Orkdale, 9S n . 2 9 cf. 
99r-26 Earl Hakon Griotgarthson of Yriar joins Harald in 
alliance, 9634.^ conquest of Gauldale and Strindfolk, 96 2lr . 80 
battle in and occupation of Stiordale, 97 2 . 4 defeat of the 
combined forces of the Kings of Verdale, Skaun, Sparebiders' 
folk and Isles' folk and annexation of these territories, 97 4 .i 3 
all Thrandheim won after the eight kings thereof had been 
slain, 97 13 . 16 these conquests of Harald's bring about the 
colonization of lamtland, ii. 276 14 . 18 

Conquest of Naumdale. King Herlaug buries himself alive 
in a stately mound, while his brother Hrollaug degrades him- 
self to an earl's degree and becomes Harald's man, retaining 
earlshipover Naumdale, 97 19 -98 13 Harald makes the manor 
of Ladir his residence, 98 16 . 20 

Naval conquests Har. builds a dragon-galley, 98 24 -99 6 
defeats and slays m his first battle at Solskel K. Hunthiof 
of Mere and K. Nockvi of Raumsdale, 99 15 ioo ]r appoints 
Rognvald the Mighty his earl over Northmere and Raums- 
dale, ioo 17 _ 29 defeats in a second battle at Solskel the com- 
bined forces of K. Arnvid of Southmere, K. Audbiorn of the 
Firths and Solvi Klofi, slaying Arnvid and Audbiorn and 
annexing Southmere, ioi 3 -io3 6 retires to Thrandheim for 
the winter, io3 9 . 15 Kari of Berdla becomes his man, io3 28 . 30 
goes with a fleet south to the Firths and annexes that folk- 


Index I 


land, io4 4 . 6 8 . 9 takes up his residence at Tunsberg in the 
Wick after four years' absence, io4 6 . 8 io5 8 . 12 

Contest with Sweden. Harald learns how King Eric Ep- 
mundson of Sweden had annexed Vermland (but cf. 72 26 . 28 ) 
and extended the territorial dominion of Gautland north to 
Swinesound, io5 12 . 2] also that disaffection in favour of Sweden 
was rife in Westfold, Raumrealm, and Vingulmark, and that 
the Swede King contemplated the conquest of these ter- 
ritories, io5 22 . 3 o he promptly puts an end to the sedition at 
home, io5 30 -io6 r he and King Eric in Vermland, io6 r io8 19 
annexes Vermland to his realm, io8 19 92 deals with disaffec- 
tion in Ranrealm and Vingulmark, 10833-109! his war in 
Gautland and annexation of all the territory north of Gautelf 
and Vener-lake, of which he appoints Duke Guthorm governor, 
I09 n -no 21 

Final Conquests and Consolidation of the Kingdom. Pro- 
ceeds through the Uplands and over Dofra mountains to 
Thrandheim, no 21 . 24 battle of Hafursfirth and the conse- 
quences of the crushing defeat of Harald's opponents there, 
iii s -ii3 32 expedition to the west, ii5 10 -n6 12 li. i68 24 . 25 
he annexes Orkney and Shetland, making one earldom of 
both groups of islands, n6 12 . 14 haircutting and surname, 
11 73-13 Harald's dealings with Rolf Wend-afoot, ii7 16 -u8 19 

marriage with Snowfair and bewitched state of mind, 1 

I20 21 Harald's disenchantment, i2o 22 . 33 Harald's dealings 
with the sons of Snowfair and Thiodolf of Hvin's intercession, 
I2i 3 -i22 8 his dealings with Halfdan Highleg and Gudrod 
Gleam after the murder by them of Rognvald the Mere-Earl, 
I24 15 -i25 9 he bestows the Earldom of Mere on Thorir, the 
son of Rognvald, i25 5 , 9 on hearing that Turf-Einar, Earl of 
Orkney, had slain Halfdan Highleg, King Harald went west 
with an armed force and took, in atonement for his son, sixty 
marks of gold and made peace with Earl Einar, I25 12 -i27 26 
cf. ii. i68 16 . 26 i79 32 i8o 2 

Harald shares the realm with his sons, etc. When Harald 
was fifty, and his sons were growing more and more trouble- 
some and dangerous to the peace of the land, he called a 
Thing together in southern Norway and sanctioned a law 
whereby all his kin on the sword-side should be kings, but 
his descendants on the distaff side should be earls, i3i s . 15 cf. 

94 Index I [HAR 

ii. 38 28 . 33 he divides the kingdom, bestowing on his sons 
one half of the revenue of their dominions, reserving the other 
half for himself, I3i 16 -i32 3 which arrangement was resorted 
to by later rulers, cf. 15*14-15 20-22 2 4i 6 -n 3 8 ii-i 5 each kinglet 
should sit in the high seat, but a step lower than the over- 
king, while a step lower than the kinglets' should be the seat 
of each earl, 1323.5 the over-kingship after him he intended 
for Eric, 1325-8 1333-5 unsatisfactory consequences of this 
arrangement, i32 8 . 14 instead of landed dominion Har. gave 
warships to his sons Thorgils and Frodi, who harried m the 
west, 13221.38 Harald's detestation of wizardry, i33 6 . 25 his 
interference" in the quarrel of his sons Eric and Halfdan the 
Black, 1363-1379 when seventy years of age Harald has a 
son, Hakon, with Thora Most-staff, and maintains both at his 
manors, 138-^24 King Athelstane sends a sword of honour 
to Harald, 13827-13923 Harald sends his son, Hakon, to be 
fostered by King Athelstane, i39 26 -i4i 19 Harald appoints 
his son Eric over-king over Norway, I4i 25 . 2 7 Harald's last 
years and death, i42 23 -i 434149^ his burial place, i43 4 . 16 
description of his person and character, 143^.33 Egil Wool- 
sark's estimate of him as a military commander, I75 80 -i76 n 
Olaf the Swede's estimate of him as king, ii. 97^.24 

Legislation and administration. He made all free lands 
his own, and caused all bonders (franklins) to pay land dues 
to him, 963.^ a highly unpopular policy, 150^^3 in each 
county or folk-land he appointed an earl who should main- 
tain law and right, collect fines and land dues, and have one- 
third of the royal revenues and the land dues for his board 
and costs, 96^ 28733.26 each earl was to have under him 
four hersirs or more, each of which was to have a salary of 
twenty marks, 96 n . 13 each earl was to supply at his own 
cost sixty men-at-arms to the army, each hersir twenty, 
9 6 i3-i5 ki s regulations in respect of sub-kings, earls, etc., 
followed as precedents in after reigns, I5i 14 . 16 1563.4 24o 25 - 
24i x 3o8 12 . 15 by Harald's fiscal law the state revenue was so 
increased that earls had more income than the dispossessed 
kings had had, 96 15 . 18 his ceremonial at the investiture of 
one who from a former kingly state* descended to the grade 
of an earl: girding him with a sword, hanging a shield round 
his neck, naming him an earl, and leading him to the earl's 


Index I 95 

settle in the high seat, 98 9 . 12 at the division of the realm he 
ordained that the over-king should occupy the first, the under- 
kings or folk-kings the second, the earls the third grade or 
step in the high seat, 1323.5 his ordinances in respect of 
selecting his body-guard and manning his war-galley, 98 26 -99 5 
J ^4iM9 ki s division of the realm among his sons, 131-132 
he appoints Eric Bloodaxe over-king in Norway, I4i 25 . 2 v 
his strenuous maintenance of peace in the land, H5i -i6 
n8 2 . r popular attachment to his family, 290 2 . 6 his name" a 
watchword in the family, 202 24 . 2r ii. 3529-36^ 3 8 9 18 31 4 o 7 . 8 

4 1 20-23 4 2 10-13 

HARALD HALBERD, see Harald Kesia. 

HARALD HARDREDY (H inn harSra^i), King of Norway, 
1045-1066, son of King Sigurd Sow and Asta, d. of Gudbrand 
Kula, ii. 35 28 married (i) Ellisif, d. of K. Jarisleif of Holm- 
garth, iii. 7622-24;' their children: Mary and Ingigerd, iii. 
9624-25; (2) Thora, d. of Thorberg Arnison; their children: 
Magnus and Olaf, 96 19 . 23 his dauntlessness and warlike pro- 
pensities already in childhood, ii. no 10 . ir 24 . 30 ni 15 . 22 (i88 24 ) 
Arnor Earls'-skald on him, 234 13 . 23 goes to meet his 
brother, K. Olaf Haraldson, in Sweden, 3 9o 18 _ sl fights in 
the battle of Sticklestead and is wounded, 4io 5 . 25 438^ iii. 
575-18 I ^523-26 healed of his wounds he makes his way out 
of Norway to K. Jarisleif in Garthrealm, 438 7 . 12 iii. 57 19 -58 26 
takes service with Jarisleif, 58 27 -59 10 leaves Garthrealm 
and enters the service of Queen Zoe and the Emperor 
Michael Katalaktus, 59 10 . 31 of him and Gyrgir, 59^-63! 
his African and Sicilian campaigns, 63-675 67 19 -7o 26 Haldor, 
son of Snorri the priest, served under Harald, and told in 
Iceland the saga of him, 67 n . 18 journey to Jerusalem, 70^- 
72 12 imprisonment in Micklegarth and escape, 72 16 -76 2 
return to Holmgarth and first marriage, 76 5 . 29 alliance with 
Svein Wolfson against his nephew Magnus the Good, 77- 
79 16 breaks faith with Svein through Magnus' adroit diplo- 
macy, and receives kingship over one-half of Norway, which 
Magnus confers upon him according to ancient custom, 79 19 - 
84is 88 3 _ 8 this act confirmed at a public assembly followed 
by a feast given by Harald, 84 21 -87 14 relations between nephew 
and uncle, 87 17 . 32 88 16 -9o 18 Harald's attitude at K. Magnus' 
death, 90^-93^ Harald formally acknowledged sole King of 

96 Index I [HAR 

Norway, 92 so -93 2 94 8 . 10 Harald and Svein Wolfson, 94 10 - 
9<5i6 26-97 4 6 ; i8 2 r I02 4" I20 i3- I2I r i27 3 -i28 26 War levee and 
battle at Niz, where Svein is utterly defeated, 129-140 
peace made between Harald and Svein, I46 2r i49 10 Harald's 
character and attitude towards Iceland and Icelanders, io2 r - 
I0 3e Harald and Haldor Snorrison, io3 9 . 28 Harald and 
Wolf Uspakson, io4 3 . 9 his church building, io4 2r io5 12 
strained relations with Einar Thambarskelfir and murder of 
him and his son, 92 13 . 80 io6 3 . 18 io7 5 -no 34 Harald averts 
rebellion for this misdeed by promising to give in marriage 
to Hakon Ivarson his grand-niece Ragnhild, 111-114 th e 
promise at first broken by Harald but afterwards carried out, 
ii5-n6 ls ii9 3 - 15 Harald's persecution of Hakon in conse- 
quence of saving the life of Svein Wolfson at the battle of 

Niz, 13329-31 *3<5j2 i3 8 2- J 4 6 ^Sw 1 ^ I 49i 3 - 1 5 2 n Harald 
and Kalf Arnison, H9 18 -i2i ? his relations to Finn Ajrnison, 

in 3 -ii4 H5 22 . 2r n6 10 . 13 H921-26 I2I io- I22 n *34 8 ^372i-?i 
1413-1423 Harald founds a town at Oslo, i27 3 . 10 his 
method of dowsing for water in an arid island, i27 23 -i28 6 
Harald and Thormod son of Eindnd, the slayer of Hall Kod- 
ran's-bane, I52 14 -i53 20 Harald's punitive dealings with the 
adherents of Earl Hakon Ivarson, i53 22 -i558 Harald, urged 
by Earl Tosti, prepares an expedition to England, and collects 
his fleet at the Solund isles, i6o 19 -i63 21 before starting he 
opens the shrine of Olaf the Holy, cuts his hair and nails, 
and locks the shrine and throws the keys into the river Nid, 
1 63s-i4 leaves his son Magnus behind as King of Norway 
and his one wife Thora, and takes with him his other wife, 
Ellisif, and the rest of his children, i65 l7 . 24 Harald's dream, 
1 ^Ss-u n ^ s journey west, i65 27 -i66 fights in Yorkshire, 
i67 s -i68 33 the battle of Stamford Bridge and fall of Harald, 
I 692~ I 794 r 9^i4-23 f- i- 6 8 the same day and hour that he 
fell his daughter Maria (Mary) died in Orkney, 183^3 his 
body brought to Nidoyce and buried at Marychurch, i84 16 . 20 
description of him, i84 20 -i86 4 Haldor Bryniolfson ; s com- 
parison of the brothers Harald and Olaf the Holy, i86 7 . 31 
Harald's and the earlier kings 7 manner of drinking in hall, 
I 93i6-i9 tne ^ ei g nt of his stature marked on the wall of 
Marychurch in Nidoyce, which he had built, 233 25 . 31 
HARALD GUNNHILDSON, see Harald Greycloak. 

HAR] Index I 97 

HARALD, son of Harald Kesia and Ragnhild, daughter of 

King Magnus Barefoot, lii. 283 14 . ir 
HARALD HONE (H. hein), King of Denmark, 1076-1080, 

son of Svein Wolfson, iii. i94 21 . 23 
HARALD KESIA, or Halberd, son of Eric the Good, King 

of Denmark, marries Ragnhild, daughter of King Magnus 

Barefoot their sons: Magnus, Olaf, Knut, Harald, 283^^ 


HARALD, King of England, 1035-1040, son of Knut the 
Mighty and Emma, ii. 27-^ becomes King of England on 
the death of his father, iii. 9 30 . 31 dies five years after his 
father and is buried in Winchester, 25 5 . 8 52 23 . 24 

HARALD, son of Knut, see Gold-Harald. 

HARALD, Earl, son of Maddad, surprised and captured by 
King Eystein Haraldson at Thurso, ransoms himself and 
departs, iii. 374 2 r375i2 

HARALD, son of K. Olaf Tryggvison with Thyri, d. of Harald 
Gormson, i. 355s2-3o 

HARALD REDLIP (H.hinn granrau'Si), King of Agdir, refuses 
to give his daughter, Asa, in marriage to Gudrod the Hunter- 
king, i. 71^5 attacked by night by King Gudrod, and slain, 
7*5-14 n * s kingdom taken over by Asa his daughter, 77 6 . 8 

HARALD, said to be the son of King Sigurd Mouth, the son 
of Harald Gilli and Kristin King's-daughter, handed over by 
Nicolas Periwinkle to Erling Askew, who has him executed 
on Northness by Biorgvin, hi. 477 26 -478 ir 

HARALD, the son of Svein Twibeard and Gunnhild, the 
daughter of K. Burislaf of Wendland, i. 27i 16 

HARALD, son of Thorkel the High, receives an earldom in 
Denmark from Knut the Mighty, ii. 375!7. 18 joins K. Svein, 
the son of K. Knut the Mighty and ALfiva, on mother and 
son going to Norway, 449 20 

HARALD (his Slavonic name was Mstislav), son of Valdimar 
(i.e. Wladimir Monomachus), prince in Holmgarth, 1095- 
1125 [Grand Prince of Kief, 1125-1132], iii. 27o 28 -27i 2 
father to Ingibiorg, the mother of K. Valdemar of Denmark, 
and Malmfrid, queen of Sigurd Jerusalem-farer, whose daughter 
Kristin was mother of K. Magnus Erlingson, 437 28 -438 2 

HARALD OF THE WICK, body-guard of K. Eystein, slain 
by Eystein's brother, K. Sigurd Mouth, iii. 385 20 . 2 i 

VI. H 

98 Index I [HAR 

HARALD THE YOUNG (H. ungi), son of Halfdan the Black 
by his first wife Ragnhild, the daughter of Harald Goldbeard, 
King of Sogn, inherited from his grandfather the kingdom 
of Sogn, but died when ten years old, i. 79 10 -22 

HAREK (Harekr), son of a King Guthorm, fell with Eric 
Bloodaxe in England, i. i54 n 

HAREK THE KEEN (H. hvassi), of Halogaland, a forecastle 
man on board the Long- Worm, i. 353 8 . 9 

HAREK OF THIOTTA (H. 6r J>j6ttu), son of Eyvind the 
Skaldspiller, ii. i89 20 _ 23 married to Ragnhild, d. of Arni, son 
of Arnmod, ii. i98 19 _ 20 captain of a rising in Halogaland 
against Olaf Tryggvison's project to christen the people, i. 
39i9-23 ta kes in the brothers Sigurd and Hawk, escaped 
prisoners of Olaf Tryggvison's, who, when occasion served, 
kidnapped Harek and brought him to Olaf, 3243-326^ he 
persistently refuses Olaf to become a Christian, yet is set free 
with much honour, and furnished by the king with a ship well 
found and thirty men, 326 10 . 29 returned home, he entraps, 
by means of the King's men, Eyvind Rentcheek, 327 r . 30 
entertains King Olaf on coming to christen Halogaland, lets 
himself be baptized and becomes the king's man, 329^ 
his landgrabbing in Thiotta, ii. 18920-190-,^ his connections 
and social position, 190^ his relations to King Olaf Harald- 

son, i9o u _ 22 favours received at King Olafs hands, 19113-18 
is deprived by King Olaf of one half of his bailiwick of 
Halogaland in favour of Asmund Grankelson, at which 
Harek, though obeying the King's order, is deeply offended, 
2 37e-25 k* s dispute w *th Asmund over an island rich in 
produce settled by King Olaf in his disfavour, 292-2943 his 
veiled threat to Asmund, 2945.3 parts company with K. Olaf 
after the battle of the Holy River and sails home, beginning 
to side with Knut, 33033-3 3 3 3 he burns in his house Grankel, 
the father of Asmund, 347n. 3 i becomes Knut's landed-man, 
receives grants and the Finn-fare from the King, 349^5 re- 
ported to K. Olaf by JBiorn the Marshal as one of the chief 
rebels against him in Norway, 3813 recruits a host of warriors 
to oppose Olafs return to Norway, 388 5 . 1]L declines, on the 
ground of old age, the chief command at Sticklestead, 420^- 
42 1 2 follows the banner of Kalf Arnison, 422 21 . 24: 4233 in 
the vanguard of the battle, 42 5 17 makes an onslaught on 

HAR HEL] Index I 99 

Day, son of Ring, at the battle of Sticklestead, 434 13 -slain 
by Asmund Grankelson, iii. 17x7-18^ 

HAREK WOLF (H. gandr), King Halfdan the Black's man, 
seizes from Haki the Bareserk the children of Sigurd Hart, 
Ragnhild and Gulhorm, and brings them home to his master, 
L 82 9 -8 3r 

HAWK (Haukr), a Halogalander imprisoned with his brother 
Sigurd by Olaf Tryggvison for refusing to be christened, 
vanishes from prison, turns up at Harek's in Thiotta, whom 
he betrays into the King's power, i. 3243-326^ thereupon he 
is baptized and becomes the King's servant, 327, 6 

HAWK OF THE FIRTHS (H. 6r FjorSum), stationed in the 
forehold on board the Long-Worm, i. 353 

HAWK HIGH-BREECH (H. habr6k), sent to King Athelstane 
by K. Harald Hairfair with his youngest son Hakon, to 
' knee-set ' him on Athelstane's lap, /.?., to make K. Athelstane 
thereby his fosterfather, c for men ever account the fosterer 
less noble than him whose child he fostereth/ a ruse which 
succeeded, i. i3926- I 4o 3 2 

HEATHMARKERS (Heinir), inhabitants of the folkland of 
Heathmark, ii. 6^ iii. *54tf 

HEDIN (He^inn), a legendary sea-king, i. 245 18 27 2599 ii. 

HEDIN HARDMAW (H. harSmagi), iii. 35 8 5 

HEIMDALL (Heimdallr), one of Odin's Diar, abode at Heaven- 
berg on coming to Sweden, i. i6 28 

HELGA, daughter of Priest Andres, and wife of Einar, 325 10 . n 

HELGI, son of Halfdan, King in Denmark, invades Sweden, 
and ousts King Adils, robs his queen Yrsa, who was Helgi's 
own daughter, though he knew it not, marries her, and begat 
with her Rolf Kraki; fell in battle when Rolf was eight 
winters old, i. 49zr5 i2 

HELGI THE KEEN (H. hinn hvassi), married to Aslaug, d. 
of Sigurd Worm-in-Eye, their son, King Sigurd Hart, L 8i 4 ^ 

HELGI, son of Stari, Hi. 36 3 9 

HELSING (Helsingr), son of King Gandalf of Vingulmark, feU 
with his brother Hysing in battle fighting against K. Halfdan 
the Black at Eid by the lake Eyir in S. Raumrealm, i. 

HELSINGS, Helsinglanders, folk of: they of Helsingland 

zoo Index I [HEM HIA 

(Helsingjar), the inhabitants of Helsingland, i. i63 6 21 ii. 

27630 2 7 7s 

HEMING (Hemingr), son of Hakon, Earl of Ladir, and Thora, 
the daughter of Skagi Skoptison, i. 24 7 6 377 19 

HEMING, son of Strut-Harald, i, 27o 23 . 25 

HENRY THE HALT (Heinrekr halti), son of the Danish 
King Svein, the son of Svein Wolfson, the first husband of 
Ingirid, d. of Rognvald, their sons : Magnus, K. of Sweden, 
Rognvald and Buriz, iii. 426^4272 437 26 -27 

HENRY THE BOUNTEOUS (H. hinn mildi), i.e. H. III., 
German Emperor, 1039-1056, married Gunnhild, the daughter 
of Knut the Mighty, iii. 25 20 

HENRY, son of Frederick Barbarossa, i.e. H. VI., Emperor, 
1190-1197, marries one of the daughters of William, K. of 
Sicily, the son of Roger ' the Rich,' K. of the same dominion, 
iii. 2565 slays the Duke of Cyprus and Margrit, ' the lord 
of corsairs,' 256.^ [The wife of Henry VI. was Constance, 
d. of Duke Roger II. of Sicily, afterwards R. I., King of Sicily 
and Naples, 1131-1154, not, as Snorri has it, of William I., 
1154-1160, his son.] 

HERDIS, the mother of Stein, the composer of Wolf's Flock, 
iii. i04 18 

HERLAUG (Herlaugr), son of Hakon, Earl of Ladir, slain in 
the second battle of Solskel, i. io2 30 . 32 

HERLAUG, King of Naumdale, on hearing of Hairfair's con- 
quest of Thrandheim, buries himself alive with eleven men in 
a howe he and his brother Hrollaug had been building for 
three summers, i. 9 7 19 29 

HERMOD (HermxS'Sr), one of the gods, son of Odin, i. 192^ 

HIALTI (Hjalti), son of Skeggi, married to Vilborg, the 
daughter of Gizur the White, converted to Christianity by 
Thangbrand, a favourite of Olaf Tryggvison, i. 335^6 J* ns 
with other Icelanders in Nidoyce to promise the King that 
Iceland should be converted to Christianity, 339 23 -34o 12 
sent together with his father-in-law by Olaf Tryggvison to 
convert the Icelanders, which mission they accomplished, 
354is-25 k as sent * kim twor ds an d tokens' from King 
Olaf Haraldson to come and meet him, ii. 73 8 . 9 he comes 
and has a good welcome of King Olaf, who invites him to 
stay with him ; having a seat at court appointed to him be- 

HIG HIL] Index I 101 

side Biorn the Marshal they become speedily friends, 85 19 . 25 
arranges to go with Biorn the Marshal on a mission of 
peace to Sweden, 86 31 -87 16 takes leave of the King and 
starts on his journey, 88 16 . 26 receives a loving greeting from 
Ingibiorg, the wife of Earl Rognvald of Gautland, she having 
known Hialti at the court of her brother, K. Olaf Tryggvison, 
and being a cousin of his wife: Viking-Kari- Eric Biodaskull 
Astrid Ingibiorg ; Bodvar Olof Gizur White Vilborg, 
8833-8 9 4 volunteers to go alone without Biorn to meet the 
King of Sweden, and to find out how matters stand at his 
court, 919.25 his journey to Sweden and reception at the 
court of King Olaf, 9i 26 -92 25 gets into great favour with the 
King for pretending to have journeyed all the way to Sweden 
to pay him the land-dues that Icelanders had to pay to the 
ruler of Norway, 94i 8 -95i 5 he gets him introduced to Ingigerd, 
King Olaf the Swede's daughter, and delivers to her message 
and tokens from Ingibiorg, Tryggvi's daughter, recommending 
him to the protection and friendship of Ingigerd, to whom he 
tells that Marshal Biorn's mission is purposed for settling 
peace if possible between the two kingdoms, 95 1 6-96 10 he 
broaches the matter of peace and family alliance between the 
two kings to the Swede, who returns an answer of stern re- 
fusal, 96 n -98 25 next he persuades Ingigerd to try to soften 
her father's mind in the matter, 98 26 -99 2 watching his oppor- 
tunity he gives Ingigerd a glowing description of Olaf of 
Norway and his ways, and ascertains from her that she would 
be willing to become his queen if he should woo her, ioo 8 - 
ioi 3 he confides the secret to two Icelandic poets at the 
court, and together with them converses at all times with her 
on the subject, ioi 4 . 12 having thus far ascertained how 
matters stood in Sweden, he sends his attendants with letters 
to the lady Ingibiorg in Gautland, ioi 12 . 21 ii4 5 . 8 his ride 
with princess Ingigerd to Ulleracre to meet Earl Rognvald 
of Gautland, his exchange of civilities with the Swede King 
on the occasion, 115^7 returns to Iceland and is seen off 
by Olaf Haraldson with friendly gifts, i37 6 ^ 
HIGH-ONE (Har) = Odin, i. 207 33 ii. 432?. iii - 334i 9 
HIGH, the hard-gripping (H har&greipi), ii. 40737 
HILD (Hildr), daughter of Eric Agnar>s son King of Westfold, 
married to Eystein, son of Halfdan Whiteleg, i. 68 l7 . 20 

102 Index I [HIL HOG 

HILD, daughter of Hogm, King of East-Gautland, i. 6i 12 . 13 
married to Granmar, King of Southmanland, 6o 20 . 21 

HILD, daughter of Rolf Nefia, married to Rognvald Mere- 
Earl, i. ii7 18 . 2 o P^ads, in vain, with King Harald Hairfair 
for mercy to her son, Rolf Wend-afoot, ii8^ 19 

HILDA, HILD, a Valkyrja, i. 249^ ii. 407^ iii. 63 15 i75 23 

HILDIBRAND (Hildibrandr), abareserk slain by King Sigurd 
Hart, i. 8i 10 . 13 

HILDIGUNNA (Hildigunnr), daughter of King Granmar of 
Southmanland and of his wife Hild: bears ale to her father's 
viking-guests, and toasts them, i. 6o 1 . 8 sits, against viking 
custom, and drinks with King Hiorvard, and becomes his 
wife, 6o 9 . 26 

HILDIR, son of King Hogni of East-Gautland, i. 6i n 62 22 . 26 

HIORVARD (HjorvarSr), called the Ylfing (Ylfingr), a sea- 
king, comes with his host to Sweden and allies himself with 
King Granmar, whose daughter Hildigunna he marries, i. 
59 13 -6o 28 fights in company with his father-in-law against 
Ingiald Evil-heart and makes peace with him, 6i 5 -62 6 slain 
through treachery by Ingiald Evil-heart, 62 14 . 20 

HISING-DWELLERS (Hisings-btiar), the inhabitants of the 
island of Hising, iii. 373 30 455 26 4$6 l 459 19 4604 

HLIF (Hlif), daughter of King Day of Westmere, wife of King 
Half dan the Bounteous and the Meatgrudging, i. 7o 6 

HLODVER, LODVER (HloSver), son of Thorfmn Skull- 
cleaver Earl of Orkney and Grelad, daughter of Dungad Earl 
of Caithness, i. i2S l 24i 25 ii. i68 31 -i69 2 was the longest-lived 
of his brothers, ruling the earldom alone when his brothers 
were no more, ii. i69 10 . 12 his son Sigurd the Thick, ii. 

I6 9l2-18 

HLOKK (Hlokk), a Valkyrja, i. 207 242 16 iii. 5i 3 96, 175^ 

HLORRID (H16rri^i)-Thor, i. 2 4 2 12 

HNOSS, daughter of Odr and Freya, i. 24 6 

HCENIR, a chief among the Asfolk, given in hostage to the 

Vanir, as one meet to be a lord, i. i3 2S -i4 2 made lord in 

Vanhome, he proved a failure, wherefor his counsellor Mimir 

must pay with his head, i4 5 . 15 

HOGNI (Hogm), a legendary sea-king, iii. 234 10 28735 
HOGNI, King of East-Gautland, father to Hild, the queen of 

King Granmar, i. 6i u . 18 his dealings with K. Ingiald as the 

HOG HOR] Index I 103 

ally of Granmar, 6i 10 _ 29 his raids into Swede-realm in revenge 
for Granmar, 62 22 . 29 

HOGNI, son of Eystein the Mighty, King of the Uplands, 
conquered f all Heathmark, Thotn and Hadaland' from Olaf 
Geirstead-Elf, i. 7233-26 plans, with his brother Frodi, an 
invasion of Hairfair's dominions, 9i 13 . 1 ' 7 the brothers make 
an alliance with Hogni Karason and Hersir Gudbrand, 92 14 . 19 
Harald makes a night attack on them and slays them, 

2 2- 2 

HOGNI KARASON (H. Karuson), invaded Ringrick, a por- 
tion of Harald Hairfair's kingdom, and made an alliance at 
Ringsacre in Heathmark with the sons of King Eystein of 
Heathmark and Hersir Gudbrand against King Harald, who 
burnt Hogni in his house at Ringsacre, i. gi^g 92 14 -93 2 

HOGNI, of Niord's-isle, i. 52 4 

HOLMFRID (HdlmfrfSr), natural daughter of King Olaf the 
Swede with Edla, daughter of a Wendish Earl, ii. 139^ 
married to Earl Svein, the son of Earl Hakon, i. 377 21 . 22 

HOLMROGA PEOPLE (Holmrygir), such of the Rogaland 
people as dwelt in the islands belonging to the folk-land of 
Rogaland (cf. Holmfolk, i. 11427), i. 1843 a poetical fars- 
pro-toto expression for Norwegians, iSg ig " 

HOLTI THE NIMBLE (Holti hinn frsekni), son of Jarisleif, 
King of Holmgarth, and Ingigerd, daughter of Olaf, the Swede 
King, ii. 15437 

HOODSWAINS (Hettusveinar), the followers of Olaf the Un- 
lucky, iii. 4773 

HORDA-KARI (HorSakari), a great hersir of Hordland, i. 
21521 ki s descendants, 303 24 . 31 

HORDA-KNUT (HorSakniitr) [son of Earl Arnfinn], King in 
Denmark, father to Gorm the Old, i. 2334.5 

HORDAKNUT, King of Denmark, 1035-1042, of England, 
1040-1042, son of Knut the Mighty and Emma, ii. 27 14 
appointed by his father viceroy of Denmark, under the 
guardianship of Earl Wolf, the son of Thorgils Sprakaleg, 
26721-23 3 l ^ie-21 by authority of letters forged by his mother 
under the royal seal, he is elected King of Denmark, 
Earl Wolf being the queen's agent in the affair, 3i6 21 .3i7 20 
with the aid of Earl Wolf he levies forces by land and 
water to meet the invasion of the allied Kings of Norway 

104 Index I [HOR HRE 

and Sweden, 31721-33 finding that his father resented deeply 
his treasonable act of setting up as King of Denmark, he 
follows his mother's advice to lay his case in his father's 
hands, who quietly relegates him to his former position, 318- 
319.7, appointed King of Denmark by his father, 349 16 .!9 
offers rule in Denmark to his brother, Svein Alfrva's son, 
when he was turned out of Norway, iii. 9 14 . 16 peace made 
between him and Magnus the Good, each settling, in case 
of death without male issue, on the longest-lived of them his 
kingdom, io 2S -n 14 26 3 . 24 5i 29 . 38 52^ 161^ King of England 
for two years, buried at Winchester, 25 8 . 13 26 3 . 4 i55 12 
HORDS, Hordfolk, Hordlanders, Hordmen, men of Hord- 
land (HorSar), i. m 4 i42 10 25o 12 255 27 303-^ ii. 360^ 423^ 

43% * 3i5 3^17 i54so 2o8 23 22 4 22 344i6 

HORN (Horn), one of Freya's names, Freya, iii. 302 19 

HORNKLOFI, see Thorbiorn Hornklofi. 

HOSKULD (Hdskuldr), son of Koll o' Dales and father to 
Olaf Peacock, i. 334is-i6 

HOUND (Hundi), variant of Whelp, the name of a son of 
Sigurd the Thick, Earl of Orkney, i. 291^ 

HOWARD BUTTERBREAD (HavarSr kliningr, the transla- 
tion of c klfningr ' is a guess-work based on the fact that the 
word is used in the sense in the East of Iceland still ; less 
likely seemed the sense ' dab of cow's dung' dried for fuel), 
a captain in K. Ingi Haraldson's fleet, iii. 403 12 slain by 
Hakon Shoulderbroad, 403 14 his son kills Eindrid Jonson 
because he had ruled it that his father was slain, 4i5 9 . 18 

HOWARD HEWER (H. hoggvandi), a Jomsviking, i. 28o 16 
shoots Gizur of Valdres dead, and is killed in turn, 282 OG - 

HOWARD, of Orkdale, a forecastleman on board the Long- 
Worm, i. 353io-ii 

HOWARD, son of Thorfmn Skull-cleaver, Earl of Orkney, and 
of Grelad, the daughter of Dungad, Earl of Caithness, ii. 
i68 82 -i69 2 

HRAMMI, a legendary sea-king, iii. 42 13 

HRANI, see Rani. 

HREIDAR (Hrei^arr), father of Styrkar, the father of Eindrid, 
the father of Einar Thambarskelfir, i. 2i5 2r . 29 

HREIDAR, son of Erling Askew, see Reidar. 

HRE HYR] Index I 105 

HREIDAR, son of Gritgarth, read Griotgarth, slain in the 
attempt of rescuing K. Magnus the Blind, in the battle at 
Holm-the-Gray, ni. 362^ 

HRIST, a Valkyrja, iii. 2s8 14 

HROLLAUG (Hrollaugr), King of Naumdale, on hearing of 
Hairfair's conquest of Thrandheim, degrades himself from the 
dignity of king to that of earl, by the ceremony of arraying 
on the top of the family howe a kingly throne, and beneath 
it a pillowed foot-pace whereon earls were wont to sit, and to 
let himself roll from the upper unto the lower seat ; where- 
upon he went to King Harald and became his earl, i. Q7 19 - 

HROLLAUG, son of Rognvald the Mere- Earl and a concu- 
bine, i. ii7 23 i25 so 

HUGH THE THICK (Hugi hinn digri), of Avranches, Earl 
of Chester, ob. noi, defeated in Anglesey Sound by K. 
Magnus Barefoot, iii. 223 2r . 31 224 25 

HUGH THE VALIANT (H. pnttSi), of Montgomery, Earl of 
Shrewsbury and Arundel, ob. 1098, shot dead through the 
eye by K. Magnus Barefoot in a battle in Anglesey Sound, 
where Magnus won the victory, iii. 223^-224^ 

HUGLEIK (Hugleikr), son of K. Alf, and King of the Swedes, 
a man fond of peace, music, jugglery and witchcraft, L 

HULD THE WITCHWIFE (Huldr sefSkona, yolva), em- 
ployed by Drift to kill her husband, K. Vanland, i. 27 2 . 33 and 
by the sons of Visbur (Gisl and Ondur) to give them power 
to slay their father, whereto she added the spell that parricide 
should ever go with the blood of the Ynglings, i. 28 1 y. 2e 

HULVID (HulvrSr), son of Swipdag the Blind, i. 6i 24 

HUNTHIOF (HtSnJ>j6fr), King of Northmere, married to the 
daughter of Nockvi, King of Raumsdale; these two allied 
themselves against Harald Hairfair when he set out on the 
conquest of the coast kingdoms of Mid- and South-Norway, 
and had a battle with him at the island of Solskel, where both 
fell, i. 99 30 -ioo l7 

HYRNING (Hyrningr), a Lord of the Wick, married Ingigerd, 

the d. of Lodin and Astrid, OL Tryggvison's mother, i. 3oi 14 . 16 
aids Olaf Tryggvison in christening the Wick, 302i 2 -332~r 
with the combined forces of himself and his brother Thorgeir 

io6 Index I [HYS ING 

he slays K. Gudrod, son of Eric Bloodaxe, 34123-342 joins 
Olaf Tryggvison's expedition to Wendland, 358 1(H2 repels 
Earl Eric's boarding of the Long -Worm in the battle of 
Svold, 37 2 27-373i2 

HYSING (Ktysingr), son of Gandalf, King of Vingulmark, 
attacks, together with his brother Helsing, King Halfdan the 
Black by night and routs him, but having brought together 
a fresh host Halfdan gave the brothers a battle at Eid and 
slew both, i. 8o r . 26 

ICELANDER, Icelanders, Iceland men, men of Iceland 
(Islendingr, Islendingar), i. 2i9 4 . 5 2683 334 U 335^ 3362529 
3392025 & 6 9 ? I 77ir 24 2 4h* 2 4 2 i 2 452so 2 49i726 2 74i 3 25-20 

2758 40920 25 U1 - I02 23 2 9921 26 28 3^9 4OI 32 4 2 *26 

ILLUGI, Bryndalers* skald, an Icel. poet, on Harald Hard- 

redy's deeds in Greek service, iii. 63 17 . 21 
INGI, son of Arni of Stodreim and Queen Ingirid, iii. 37034 
INGI, the son of Bard, King of Norway, 1203-1217, iii. i84 18 


INGI, son of K. Hallstein, King of Sweden, ob. 1125, first 
husband of Brigida, the daughter of King Harald Gilli, iii. 

INGI, son of K. Harald Gilli and of Queen Ingirid d. of 
Rognvald, King of Norway, 1136-1161, jointly with his half- 
brothers, Sigurd, Eystein, and Magnus; fostered in the Wick 
by Amundi, the son of Gyrd, hi. 347 15 -i7 taken for king on 
the death of his father, 347 19 defeats Magnus the Blind and 
Sigurd Slembi-Deacon at Mouth, 349 2 r35o 12 Earl Karl Sona- 
son of Gautland's projected invasion of Norway defeated by 
Ingi at Crookshaw, 35o 28 -35i 20 his successful defence of 
Norway against Eric, K. of Denmark, 35 i 23 -353 2 4 his dealings 
with Sigurd Slembi-Deacon, 35337-35910^36124-367 his letter 
to K. Sigurd his brother, calling on him to take his due share 
in the cost of defending the realm, 359i 3 -36o 18 Ingi's terms 
accepted by Sigurd, 36o 21 -36i 21 with K. Sigurd he concedes 
Eystein, his brother's, claim to a due share in the kingdom, 
a similar concession extended to the infirm brother, Magnus, 
3683-3693 Ingi's kind stepfather, Ottar Brightling, murdered 
at the instigation of K. Sigurd, 369 6 -37o 15 -Ingi's relations to 
Erling Askew, 37i u . u Ingi and Sigurd set up a separate 
court, each for himself, Gregory Dayson becoming Ingi's first 

ING] Index I 107 

counsellor, 377s-24 In g i?s personal characteristics, 378 21 . 31 
a great favourite with Card. Nicolas (Ereakspeare), 379 26 -28 
at his and his brothers' request the Card, raises Nidoyce to 
an archbishopric, 37928"3 8 4~ In 1 defeats his brothers' plot 
to depose him, 385^-38635 after repeated provocations K. 
Ingi consents to fighting his brother Sigurd, who is slain, 
386 28 -39o 10 Eystein, arriving too late to afford any aid to 
Sigurd, makes a hollow peace with K. Ingi, 39o u _ 24 Eystein 
commits various deeds of violence against his brother, who 
forces him to accept his own terms of peace at Seal-isles, 
39 I iQ-39 2 2o their last encounter and fall of Eystein, 3935- 
39 6 i3 * n &i an< * ^ e partizans of Hakon Shoulderbroad, 
3995-19 ne an d Gregory Dayson put Hakon to flight at Kings' 
Rock, 399 2 i-402 15 King Ingi's men suffer severely at Hakon's 
hands, 402 18 -403 16 battle with Hakon in the Gautelf, 403 1S - 
41520 K. Ingi and Sigurd of Reyr, 4152^-39 Jng 1 ' 5 dealings 
with Erling Askew and Gregory in the Biorgvin riot, 41634- 
4i8 28 Ingi's sorrow at the fall of Gregory, 422-423^ kst 
encounter with Hakon and fall, 423^-427^ 456 16 his party 
advocate the cause of Erling and his son Magnus, 4355-43 7 13 
his fleet in Hakon's hands, 438 ir . 20 lost to Erling at the 
battle of Tunsberg, 44o 24 _ 27 his death avenged by Erling, 
440~i8-25 4522-4554 his popularity the main cause of Erling's 
favour with the public, 449 10 . 14 

INGI, King of Sweden, 1080-^. mo, son of K. Steinkel, father 
of Margaret Frithpoll, queen of Magnus Barefoot, id. 232 ig . 21 
and of Kristin, queen of K. Harald Valdemarson of Holm- 
garth, 27o 28 -27i 4 and of Rognvald, the father of Ingirid, the 
queen of K. Harald Gilli, 31433-25 his strife with Magnus 
Barefoot about the boundary between Norway and Sweden, 
226 9 -228 19 236 2 _ 10 battles>t Foxern, 228 29 -229 26 2313-2323 
peace made and family "alliance arranged between them, 

INGIALD EVIL-HEART (I. illraSi), son of K. Road-Onund, 
King of Sweden, fostered by Swipdag the Blind, a kinglet of 
Tenthland, who, in order to increase the boy's pith, gives 
him to eat the roasted heart of a wolf, wherefrom he grew the 
most cruel-hearted of men, i. 55 3 -56 2 he married Gauthild, 
daughter of King Algaut of West Gautland, 56 8 . 12 had 
burned in one hall at Upsala six kinglets of Sweden and 

io8 Index I [ING 

seized their lands, 579-59^ his war with Granmar and Hior- 
vard, 6i 5 -62 6 his treachery to these kings, 62 14 . 22 his 
dealings with King Hogni, 62 22 . 29 his children, 62 30 -63 5 
slew twelve kings through treachery, whence his by-name, 
63 6 . 9 burned himself with all his men to death, 63 19 -64 20 

INGIALD (Ingjaldr), son of Olaf Tree-shaver, i. 65 29 King 
of Vermland, 68 n . 12 

INGIBIORG (Ingibjorg), daughter of Priest Andres the son of 
Bruni, wife of Ssemund Housewife, iii. 325 a 

INGIBIORG, daughter of Guthorm the son of Steig-Thorir, 
married to K. Eystein Magnusson, their d. Maria married to 
Gudbrand, son of Shavehew, iii. 265^ 

INGIBIORG, d. of Harald Hairfair, married to Earl Halfdan, 
their d. Gunnhild mother to Eyvind Skaldspiller, i. i98 28 _ 30 
ii. I9o 5 . 7 

INGIBIORG, daughter of Harald (Mtzislav) Valdimarson of 
Holmgarth and sister of Malmfrid, whom Sigurd Jerusalem- 
farer had to wife, married to Knut the Lord, iii. 27i 4 . 5 

INGIBIORG, daughter of Ogmund, son of Thorberg, wife of 
Egil, the son of Aslak of Aurland, iii. 2o9 23 

INGIBIORG, daughter of Thorkel Leira, i. 2733.4 given b 7 
Earl Eric in marriage to Vagn Akison, 283 32 . 83 

INGIBIORG, daughter of K. Tryggvi Olafson and Astrid, 
i. 3oi 8 ii. 83 24 personal description, i. 3563^ her fondness for 
Icelanders, especially Kiartan Olafson, 356^3 her betrothal 
to Earl Rognvald of West-Gautland bespoken, 356 18 ~357 28 
their wedding spoken of as effected in King Olaf s lifetime, 
ii. 23 r _ 10 brings about friendship between her husband and 
King Olaf Haraldson of Norway in spite of the Swede-king's 
hostility to Olaf, 83 22 -84 16 gives good cheer to Olaf Harald- 
son's messengers of peace, Biorn the Marshal, Hialti Skeg- 
gison (Sigvat Thordson, etc.), 88 27 -9i 5 urges her husband 
to be of avail to Olaf s messengers, 89 10 . 14 9o 4 . 20 agrees to 
Hialti's proposal to go by himself and find out how matters 
stand at the court of Sweden, and fits him becomingly out for 
his journey with tokens to Ingigerd of Sweden to speed his 
errand, 919-92,3 receives messages from Hialti Skeggison and 
the princess Ingigerd of Sweden relating to prospects of 
peace and family alliance between the Kings of Norway and 
Sweden, 1 14 5 . 16 her sons, 15431-32 


Index I 


INGIBIORN SIPIL (Ingibjorn sipill), a landed-man of King 
Hakon Shoulderbroad, slain by command of Erling Askew, 
iii. 441 6 

INGIGERD (IngigerSr), iii. i84 G . r read Ingirid. 

INGIGERD, daughter of Earl Birgir Brosa and Brigida, daughter 
of King Harald Gilli, iii. 3795 -married to Sorkvir, the Swede- 
king, 3797 

INGIGERD, daughter of Harald Hairfair and Ashild, the 
daughter of Ring Day son, i. 1 14 18 . 91 

INGIGERD, daughter of Harald Hardredy and Queen Ellisif, 
iii. 96 23 . 25 accompanies the King on his expedition to Eng- 
land, i65 22 kft behind in the Orkneys, i66 5 leaves the 
west with Queen Ellisif, her mother, i83 8 married to K. 
Olaf of Denmark, the son of Svein Wolfson, 194^-1959 

INGIGERD, daughter of Lpdin and Astrid, the mother of Olaf 
Tryggvison, i. 301^ married to Hyrning, a wealthy man in the 
Wick, soi 14 . 16 

INGIGERD, daughter of Olaf, King of Sweden, married to 
Jarisleif, K. of Holmgarth, her children : Valdimar, Vissivald, 
Holti the Nimble, ii. i54 26 . 2 r and Ellisif, iii. 76 2324 77 20 . 21 
receives from Ingebiorg Tryggvi's daughter message and 
tokens to speed Hialti Skeggison's mission of peace to 
Sweden, ii. 92 2 . 6 receives Hialti in audience and their 
acquaintance soon develops into intimate friendship, 95 16 - 
96 10 at Hialti's suggestion she pleads for peace with her 
father and receives a stern rebuke, 98 26 -ioo 2 her account 
to Hialti of the interview, ioo 3 ^ her converse with Hialti 
and the court poets on the question of being wooed by King 
Olaf Haraldson, ioo 10 -ioi n she sends, by Hialti's messen- 
gers to West-Gautland, letters to Earl Rognvald and Ingibiorg 
his wife -concerning the proposed wooing on behalf of Olaf 
of Norway, ioi 15 . 20 at the request of Earl Rognvald she 
receives him at Ulleracre to talk over matters relating to 
peace and especially to family alliance between the Kings of 
Norway and Sweden, ii4 25 -n6 14 her father, yielding to 
pressure by Lawman Thorgnyr, promises her in marriage to 
Olaf of Norway, entrusting Earl Rognvald with the betrothal 
arrangements, 1 2 1 19 . 22 1 22 140 she sends Olaf of Norway costly 
gifts, 1 2 2 20 . 22 theappointed wedding-feast of herandKing Olaf 
comes to nought, i23 8 . 13 i37 26 -i3 8 I 3926- I 4 3 whereat many 

no Index I [ING 

people grew dissatisfied and Ingigerd particularly troubled in 
mind, I4o 4 . 26 her father refuses her peremptorily his consent 
to her marriage with Olaf of Norway, I4o 28 -i42 2 she sends 
messengers to Earl Rognvald to tell him the truth about her 
father's change of mind, I42 5 .j 3 she informs Earl Rognvald 
that she is being wooed by King Jarisleif of Holmgarth, and 
that her father is all in favour of the match, i48 18 . 24 (*5o 25 . 28 ) 
she is formally wooed by and betrothed to King Jarisleif; 
her consent being granted on condition that Earl Rognvald 
accompany her to Garthrealm, and receive there the earldom 
of Aldeigia-burg, I53i2- I 542o sne oes * n company with Earl 
Rognvald to Russia, and marries King Jarisleif, i54 2 o-26 sne 
confers on Earl Rognvald Aldeigia-burg and the earldom 
appertaining thereto, 15427.39 receives K. Olaf of Norway a 
fugitive in Russia, 369 25 . 28 urges him to accept K. Jarisleif s 
offer of Bulgaria as a dominion for him, 38i 9 . 12 a similar 
offer repeated in vain, 385^-386^ 

INGIMAR (Ingimarr), of Ask, son of Svein, gets his bane- 
wound at the battle of Fyrileif, iii. 31730-22 

INGIRID (IngirfSr), daughter of Lodin and Astrid, the 
mother of Olaf Tryggvison, i. 30 i r married Thorgeir, a 
wealthy man of the Wick, 3oi 12 . 15 

INGIRID, d. of Rognvald, the son of Ingi Steinkelson K. of 
Sweden, iii. 31423-25 married : i. to Henry the Halt, issue: 
Magnus, K. of Sweden, Rognvald, an earl there,' 426 29 , 3l and 
Buriz, 437 2 6-27 2 - to ^- Harald Gilli, issue: Ingi, K. of Nor- 
way, 3*423^25 342i 6 347i4-i5 3- to Ottar Brightlmg, 3696-* 4- 
toArniofStodreim, issue: Ingi, Nicolas, Philippus, Margaret, 
3722-2T k as a son > Worm King's brother, with Ivar Skewer, 
37is-2o k er measures for securing the succession in Norway 
to the sons of Harald Gilli, 347-348 n incites her son Ingi 
to put down his brother Sigurd's repeated acts of provocation, 
3^7i4-25 betakes her to Denmark in company with Erling 
Askew, 437i6-27 

INGIRID, daughter of King Sigurd Syr (Sow) and Asta, the 
daughter of Gudbrand Kula, ii. 35 28 married to Nefstein; 
their daughter Gudrun, wife of Skuli King's fosterer, iii. 

INGIRID, daughter of Svein Wolfson, K. of Denmark, married 
to King Olaf the Quiet of Norway, iii. 194^ 

IRI IVA] Index I in 

IRISH, Erse-folk (Irar), i. 132^ 155^ 2 62 6 iL i74 21 iii. 24 o 13 19 

2 4*8 13 23 2 42 26 

IRON SKEGGI, see Jam Skeggi. 

ISLE-DANES (Eydanir), Danes from the islands of Denmark, 

Danes generally, i. 18935 
ISLE-FOLK (Eynir), the inhabitants of the folkland Eynafylki 

(Isle-folk) in Thrandheim, i. 362 n ii. i96 31 
ISLEIF (Isleifr), son of Gizur, the first bishop of Iceland, born 

1006, bishop 1056-1080, i. 6 19 23 29 

ISLE-SYSLINGS (Eysjtelir), inhabitants of Isle-sjtela, ii. 9 5 13 
ISRID ('IsrfSr), daughter of Gudbrand Kula, married to Thord 

Bigbelly, ii. 249^ 
I VAR DINT ('Ivarr dynta), son of Stari, in the battle of Holm- 

the-Gray, iii. 363 8 his execution, 363 18 . 27 
I VAR OF ELD A, father to Bergliot and Ogmund, iii. 41522-23 

IVAR 6 GAUDHANK ('I. skrauthanki), son of Calf the Wrong, 
bishop of Nidoyce after 1139, iii. 358 n 362 31 . 3S his peril 
at the battle of Holm-the-Gray, 362 31 -363 18 tells to Gudrun 
Birgir's daughter, and she again to Eric Oddson the story of 
the execution of Ivar Dint, 363^.33 

IVAR, son of a king Guthorm, fell with Eric Bloodaxe in Eng- 
land, i. i54 n 

IVAR, son of Hakon Maw, a captain in Hakon Shoulderbroad's 
host, at the battle of the Gautelf, against Ingi Haraldson, 
1159, iii. 4i2 15 -4i3 5 

IVAR INGIMUNDSON, an Icelandic poet at the court of K. 
Eystein Magnusson, and much beloved of the King, iii. 265 
15-18 k cured of love sickness by the King, 265^-26^^ 
sings in the poem called Sigurd-balk of the trial by ordeal of 
Sigurd Slembi-Deacon for his paternity, 33735.33 and of his 
acceptance as king by Hordlanders and Sogners, 344 18 . 2 i 

IVAR, son of Kolbein, one of the slayers of Harald Gilli, iii. 
343e 36 2 22-24 fells in the battle at Holm-the-Gray, iii. 362^.22 

IVAR, son of Ozur, a follower of Magnus the Blind, captured 
at Biorgvin by K. Harald Gilli's men and bunded, iii. 

3 2 3l3 26-27 

IVAR, son of Rognvald the Mere-Earl, fell in Harald Hair- 
fair's warfare in the Scottish isles, i. u6 n . 12 
IVAR, son of Sigtrygg, of Nerick, ii. 369^ 

1 1 2 Index I [IVA JAR 

IVAR SKEWER ('I. sneis), by Queen Ingirid Rognvald's 
daughter the father of Worm King's Brother, iii. 37o 18 . 20 

IVAR SMETTA ('I. smetta), stationed in the mainhold of the 
Long-Worm, i. 353 24 

IVAR WIDEFATHOM ('I. VfSfaSmi), son of Halfdan of 
Scania, i. 63 18 . 14 went to Sweden to avenge the death of 
his father and uncle, and pressed so hard on King Ingiald 
that he burned himself with all his court in a banqueting 
hall, 63 19 -64 20 his conquests, 64 23 . 26 of his kin are all who 
since his day have been kings in Denmark, and all who have 
been sole kings of Sweden, 64 26 . 29 many people fled his 
realm of Sweden and joined Olaf Tree-shaver in Vermland, 

IVAR THE WHITE ('I. hviti), a Norwegian, slays Earl 

Wolf at the behest of King Knut the Mighty, ii. 32y ri5 
IVAR THE WHITE, daughter's son of Hakon the Mighty, 

a landed-man of the Uplands, father to Earl Hakon (the 

White), personal description, in. io5 15 _j 9 
JADAR (The folk of) (Jadarbyggjar), ii. 268 n ; men of J., 

specially alluding to the family of Erling Skialgson, 2855 
JALFAD, one of Odin's names, Odin, ii. 44o 9 
JALK, one of Odin's names, but Jalk of snowshoes = Uller, i. 

246 n Odin, ii. 2oo 25 
JAMES (Jakob), King of Sweden, son of K. Olaf the Swede, 

born on the vigil of St. James, ii. i39 8 -n which name he 

retained until he was elected king, i63 10 18 165^ 18 when he 

was renamed by the Swedes Onund, i65 20 , q.v. 
JAMTLANDERS, see Jamts. 
JAMTS (Jamtr), inhabitants of Jamtland, i. 254 25 2553 ii. 276 24 

2 77s 13 23 25 2 9425 2 9^2o * u '- 26 3s5 2 64s n u 
JARISLEIF (Jarizleifr), Jaroslav, King of Holmgarth, *".*., 
Grand Prince of Kief, i o 1 6-1 054, sues for the hand of Ingigerd, 
K. Olaf the Swede's daughter, ii. i48 18 . 24 i5o 2r . 28 sends an 
ambassade for her and marries her in due course, i53 12 - 

I S4 2 6 their children, 15426-27 ffi - 7 6 24 77 2 o-2i g lves a hearty 
welcome to K. Olaf Haraldson on coming to Russia a fugitive 
from his kingdom, 369 23 . 28 31 -37o 4 presses King Olaf in vain 
to take up his abode in Russia, and become ruler of Bulgaria 
or some other suitable dominion, 381^ 385^-3865 gives 

JAR JOH] Index I 113 

K. Olaf a most kindly send-off, 386 5 . n 15 . 21 on K. Olaf s de- 
parture he retains at his court Magnus This son, 386 22 his 
negotiations with Einar Thambarskelfir and Kalf Arnison with 
a view to putting Magnus Olafson on the throne of Norway, 
466 19 -467 24 receives Harald Sigurdson, K. Ol. Haraldson's 
half-brother, and appoints him to command in his land forces, 
438 10 -i2 iii- 5 8 i5-59ip ta ^ es care of tn e wealth Harald sends 
him during his service with the Greek Emperor, 63^-643 76 5 _ 12 
receives Harald most kindly on his return from (Greece, and 
gives him in marriage his daughter Ellisif, 76 5 . r 22 . 29 

JARNSKEGGI (Jarnskeggi), son of Asbiorn, from TJphowe m 
Yriar, i. 2i5 26 commands in Svein Hakonson's division of 
Earl Hakon's fleet in the battle of Hiorungwick, 277 21 
opposes Olaf Tryggvison at Frostathing on behalf of the 
bonders on the question of Christianity, 3i7 26 . 31 leads the 
opposition against Olaf at the Thing of Mere, and is slain 
by the king's men, 32o 6 . u 3 p-32i 3 ^ in atonement for the 
slaying of him, Olaf Tryggvison weds his daughter Gudrun, 
322 3 . 9 his body, brought out to Yriar, lies buried in Skeggi's- 
howe by Eastairt, 322^-3232 

JARTRUD (Jar^fniSr), daughter of John Arnison and Ran- 
veig, daughter of Sigurd, the son of Thorir Hound, iii. 17 14 

JESUS CHRIST, see Christ. 

JOAN, see under John. 

JOHN (J6n), son of Arni, wedded to Ranveig, the daughter of 
Sigurd, the son of Thorir Hound, iii. i7 11 flees from Birch- 
isle with his son Vidkunn from Steig-Thorir, and seeks the 
protection of K. Magnus Barefoot, 2ii 1J>0 

JOHN BUTTER-BEAR (J. smjorbalti), - the father of Hall- 
kell Hunch, iii. 295^ 

JOHN BYRGISON, first Archbishop of Nidoyce 1152-1157, 

& 36323 379so 45^i 5 

JOHN of Eastort, son of Sigurd of Eastort, the son of Kari 
King's-brother, had to wife Sigrid, daughter of Bard, sister 
of King Ingi and Duke Skuli, iii. 336 25 . 26 

JOHN, son of Hallkel Hunch, married"to Margaret, daughter 
of King Harald Gilli, iii. 379 13 goes over to the side of King 
Ingi in opposition to King Eystein, 3933 80 gathers a bonder 
host and sets upon Hakon Shoulderbroad's men takes 
Kolbein the Woode, 402 23 . 25 wounded in a further pursuit 

VI. I 

ii4 Index I [JOH 

of Hakon's men, 402 31 declines the proposal of Erling 
Askew to set his nephew, Nicolas, son of Simon Sheath and 
Maria d. of Har. Gilli, on the throne of Norway, 435 16 . 2 i 
Erling Askew seizes Nicolas out of John's house, and secures 
his person, 443 25 . 31 is given truce by Nicolas, son of Sigurd, 

JOHN KAUDA (J. kau^a), son of Calf the Wrong, brother 
to bishop Ivar Gaudhank, sent by K. Sigurd, son of Harald 
Gilli, in search of Sigurd Slembi- Deacon, an errand of which 
he acquitted himself ignommiously, iii. 358 r . 18 married to 
Cecilia, d. of Gyrd Bardson, 3633 ransoms his brother 
Ivar and Arnbiorn Ambi from the hands of the victors at 
Holm-the-Gray, 36315-18 

JOHN KITTEN (J. ketlingr), son of Gudrun of Saltness, 
joins the band of Eystein Maiden, iii. 483 18 . 25 

JOHN, son of Lopt the son of Ssemund and Thora the 
daughter of Magnus Barefoot, fostered by Priest Andres at 
Kings' Rock, iii. 325,7 his royal descent acknowledged at 
Biorgvin, 1162, by K. Magnus Erlingson and other relatives, 

JOHNKUTIZA, son of Sigurd Stork, journeys with Erling 
Askew and K. Magnus to Denmark to meet King Waldimar, 

iii. 437 2 i 

JOHN, Swedish King, 1216-1222, son of Sorkvir, King of 
Sweden, and Ingigerd, d. of Earl Birgir Brosa by Brigida, d. 
of K. Harald Gilli, iii. 378 31 -379 8 

JOHN THE STRONG (J. sterki), of Rasmead, son of Wolf 
Uspakson and Jorun, d. of Thorberg Arnison, iii. io4 6 . 10 
father of Erlend Homebred, who was the father of Abp. Ey- 
stein, io4 13 . 14 

JOHN SPARROWHAWK (J. smyrill), Priest, delegated by 
K. Sigurd, son of Harald Gilli, to give chase to Sigurd Slembi- 
Deacon in company with Jon Kauda, iii. 358 12 . 18 

JOHN SUETNEB (J. mornefr), iii. 394 16 

JOHN, the son of Svein, the son of Bergthor Buck, on the side 
of K. Ingi before the beginning of the battle of Oslo; he 
afterwards deserts him and joins the army of Hakon Shoulder- 
broad, iii.424 28 . 29 425 6 . 10 426 3 . 6 fights on the side of Hakon 
in his last battle, 44i 9 . 10 falls with Earl Sigurd Hallwardson 
of Reyr in the battle of Re, 4S5 2 . 3 

JOH JOR] Index I 115 

JOHN TABARD (J. tapar^r), Priest, son of Biarni Sigurd- 
son, slain by King Sigurd, son of King Harald Gilli, iii. 

38 5 19-24 

JOHN, son of Thorberg from Randberg, wedded to Ragnhild, 
daughter of Erling Askew and Kristin King's-daughter, iii. 

JOKUL (Jokull), son of Bard Jokulson, out of Waterdale,an Ice- 
lander in Earl Hakon Ericson's host when pursuing K. Olaf 
Haraldson, ii. 3 7 2 sr 3 733 appointed captain of K. OlaPs 
captured warship the Bison, 373 3 . 13 falls in with OlaPs host 
in Gotland, on Olaf s return from"Garthrealm, 1030, and is 
laid hands on, and by the King's orders lead to execution, 
but receives from the executioner only a mortal wound, and 
sings of his dying state, 373is-33 

JOMALI, god of the Biarms, placed within a fenced clearing in 
a wood, six men being charged with watching the place at 
night; on his lap a silver-bowl full of silver money, round his 
neck a great necklace; robbed and destroyed by Thorir 
Hound and Karh of Long-isle, ii. 261 9-262^ 

JOMSBURGERS, Jomsburg vikings, etc. (Jdmsvfkingar), the 
celibate band of vikings who held Jomsburg, the castle of 
Jom, and more particularly the captains of them, Palnatoki, 
Sigvaldi and his brethren, the sons of Strut-Harald, Bui and 
Sigurd, the sons of Veseti, and Vagn, the son of Aki, put 
Svein Twibeard on the throne of Denmark, i. 27o 9 . 21 their 
intervention between K. Svein and K. Burislaf of Wendland, 
2 7o 31 -2 7 ijy at the grave-ale after Strut-Harald and Veseti and 
Harald Gormson vows were made from which followed the 
invasion of Norway by these vikings, and of England by K. 
Svein, 27133-2 73-^ the Jomsburgers collect in Limbfirth a 
host of sixty ships and set out for Norway, ravaging and 
wasting the country till they meet Earl Hakon in Hiomnd- 
firth, 274 18 -276 25 the battle of the Jomsburgers, 276^-28233 
36i 20 ii. 26 56 42 23 . 28 

JON, see under John. 

JORUN (J6runn), daughter of Valgerd the sister of Gudmund 
the Mighty of Maddermead, Iceland, married to Eindridi; 
their son Thormod, iii. 1535 

JORUN the Skald-maiden (J. skaldmaer), author of a poem 
called Sentbit (Sendibitr), i. 

1 1 6 Index I [JOR KAL 

JORUN, daughter of Thorberg Arnison, and sister of Thora 
the wife of Harald Hardredy, given in marriage by Harald to 
Wolf Uspakson, iii. 104^ her children, io4 9 . 15 

JORUND (Jorundr), son of K. Yngvi Alrekson, overcame, in 
company with his brother Eric, King Gudlaug of Halogaland 
and hanged him at Streamisle-ness in Denmark, i. 39 3 . 2 9 
became King at Upsala, having defeated K. Haki at Fyris- 
mead; is defeated in Jutland by K. Gylaug of Halogaland 
and hanged there, 39sr4i 26 

JOSTEIN (J6steinn), son of Eric Biodaskalli, i. 3oi 10 is in 
command with his brother, Thorkel Dydnl, on the Crane in 
the battle of Svold, 354 2 . 3 

JULIAN the Apostate, Eastern Emperor, A.D. 361-363, ii. i2 31 

JUTE-FOLK, Jutes (J6tar), i. 52 26 is6 18 28 iii. 38 10 i 3 6 34 (cf. 
Jute- in Jute-lord, ii. 31418 32321)- 

KALF (Kalfr), see also Calf. 

KALF, son of Arnfinn Arnmodson, stationed beside his uncle 
Kalf Arnison at the battle of Sticklestead, ii. 43i 25 . 2 9 

KALF, son of Arni Arnmodson, ii. i98 18 a much honoured 
henchman of King Olaf Haraldson, i98 22 . 24 obtains in 
marriage through the King's power Sigrid, d. of Thorir, 
the wealthy widow of Olvir of Eggja, 19835-1993 is made 
a landed-man by the King and appointed administrator of 
Upper Thrandheim, 1994.7 renders his brother Thorberg 
prompt aid against K. Olaf in the affair of Stein Skaptison, and 
brings about terms of peace for both, 28333-2 8 6 21 intercedes 
on behalf of his stepson, Thorir Olvirson, 34i 6 343is-3o 
celebrated in song by Biarni, son of Goldbrow, 36i 10 . 28 his 
counsel to Olaf Haraldson to fight Earl Hakon Ericson over- 
ruled, 36133-363^ abandons Olaf Haraldson and goes over 
to Earl Hakon, 363 13 . 16 372 20 . 25 goes to Thrandheim and by 
the insistence of his wife becomes Earl Hakon's liegeman, 
374-375n goes to meet K. Knut in England, and, on Knuf s 
promising to make him an earl of Norway, he engages to 
raise a general revolt against K. Olaf, 375i2-376 25 38o 32 -38i 3 
proposes in vain that Harek of Thiotta should take the 
chief command of the army levied against K. Olaf, 420^. 15 
assumes the chief command at Sticklestead, 42133-4233 his 
disposition of the forces, 423 6 _ 19 his harangue to the peasant 
army, 4243.7-42 5 n altercation between him and K. Olaf on the 

KAL KAR] Index I 117 

field of battle, 426 14 -427 6 gives Olaf one of his death-wounds, 
433ii-26 repulses Day's brunt, 434ia-i his Dealings with his 
wounded brothers, 43523-4365 settles down in quiet under 
King Svein Alfiva's son, 45 3 3;18 finds it soon out what a 
mistake he had made in listening to K. Knut's persuasions, 
all of whose promises were broken, 462 18 . 29 refuses to lend 
armed aid to Svein Alfiva's son, 463^-464,3 his reply to K. 
Knut's request for a supply of axes, 466 4 _ 15 leaves Norway 
for Garthrealm and places himself at the service of Magnus 
Olafson, 466 19 -467 24 strained relations with K. Magnus, iii. 
i8 21 -i9 20 forced by the King to go to Sticklestead and to con- 
fess where he stood at K. Olaf' s fall, he swiftly takes his de- 
parture from Norway and goes on a viking raid in the west, 
i9 23 -2i 13 peace made between himand K.Harald Hardredy, 
whose service he enters, 119^-120^ betrayed by Harald, 
he falls in battle in the island of Fion in Denmark, I20 13 - 



KALF SCURVY (K. skurfa), a viking defeated and slain by 
Turf-Einar, Earl of Orkney, i. 123^3 

KAR (Karr) of Griting, offended at K. Hakon the Good's 
reluctance to join in the customs of heathen feasts, i. i69 18 
joins seven other lords of Thrandheim to force him to it, 
I 7i5-i6 threatened by Olaf Tryggvison with being sacrificed 
to his own heathen gods, 3194.7 

KARI OF BERDLA (BerSlu-Kari), joins Earl Rognvald after 
the burning of King Vemund of Firthfolk, and goes north to 
Thrandheim and becomes King Harald Hairfair's man, i. 

KARI 23 KINGSBROTHER, son of Sigrid, the d. of Saxi in 
Wick, and brother to K. Olaf, son of Magnus Barefoot, 
married Borghild, d. of Day Eilifson ; their sons, Sigurd of 
Eastort and Day, iii. 336 20 . 24 

KARK, a thrall of Earl Hakon of Ladir, i. 293 21 . 22 (born on the 
same day as the Earl, 29635.37), the sole attendant on the 
Earl in his last days, and his murderer, 293^-294, 296^- 
2 9 ?2i beheaded by Olaf Tryggvison's order, 297^3 his 
head stoned on Nidholm, 297^-2987 

KARL, a goodman of Halland, friend of Earl Hakon Ivarson, 
at whose request he helps Vandrad, i.e K. Svein Wolfson of 
Denmark, to save his life after the battle of Niz, iii. 

1 1 8 Index I [KAR KET 

is sent for by King Svein, who rewards him royally for his 
avail, I42 15 -i43 10 

KARL, King of Sweden, ob. 1167, son of Sorkvir, marries 
Kristin, the daughter of S tig Whiteleather by Margret daughter 
of Knut the Lord and sister of Waldimar I of Denmark, m. 

2 7*n 

KARL O' MERE (Karl mserski), volunteers to King Olaf 
Haraldson to go to Faroe to gather in the King's taxes of the 
islands, ii. 3035-3045 personal description, 304 11 . 16 journeys 
to the Faroes and is slain at the instigation of Thrand o' Gate, 
34i7-39i9 the unsatisfactory result of the blood-suit after 
him, 309 21 _ 26 that case re-opened later on, 310^5 

KARL, the son of Soni by Astnd, d. of Ogmund Ormson, iii. 
35i 3 . 8 Earl in Gautland, is persuaded by King Magnus the 
Blind to attempt the conquest of Norway, and goes into the 
Wick, 35o 9 . 2r is met and opposed in Crookshaw by King 
Ingi and defeated, 350.23-351! marries Brigida, d. of Harald 

Gilh, 37S 3 i-379i 

KARLI of Longisle in Halogaland, brother of Gunstein, personal 
description of, ii. 237^-2384 his fellowship with Asmund 
Grankelson, by whose recommendation Karh becomes one of 
King Olafs body-guard, 238^-240^ goes on a trading jour- 
ney to Biarmland in even partnership with King Olaf Harald- 
son, takes his brother Gunstein with him and agrees to Thorir 
Hound in a ship of his own going on the trading journey with 
him, 2583-2603 his successful marketing, 26o 3 . 9 his share 
in the robbing of the holy place of Jomali, the god of the 
Perms, 260^-263^ his homeward journey and dealings with 
Thorir, who slays Karli at Geirsver, 263^-26533 Finn Arni- 
son's attempt to obtain atonement for him, 288 14 -29o S2 

KATRIN, daughter of Knut the Lord and Ingibiorg, the daugh- 
ter of K. Harald Valdemarson of Holmgarth, iii. 27i 10 

KETIL (Ketill), Provost, ward of Mary-church, Alaburg, tells 
Eric Oddson that Sigurd Slembi-Deacon was buried at his 
church, iii. 367^ 

KETIL CROOK (K. kr6kr) [son of Earl Tosti Godwinson], 
brother to Skull Kmg's-fosterer, accompanies K. Olaf, son of 
Harald Hardredy, from the west a noble man, and dear to 
the King fares north into Halogaland, where Olaf gets him 
a good wedding, 

KET KIN] Index I 119 

KETIL THE HIGH (K. hafi), of Inner-Thrandheim, a fore- 
castle man on board the Long-Worm, i. 353 9 , 10 

KETIL JAMTI (K. Jamti), son of Earl Onund of the Spar- 
biders, fled from King Eystein of the Uplands east over the 
Keel and cleared woods there with a large following, which 
countryside was afterwards called Jamtland, i. i62 1924 ii. 
276 3 . 8 his grandson Thorir Helsmg colonizes Helsingland, 

KETIL^KALF (K kalfr), of Ringness, married to a half-sister 
of Olaf the Holy, Gunnhild, d. of K. Sigurd Sow and Asta, 
ii. 248 132 7 their children, Sigrid, wife of Emdrid, son of 

Einar Thambarskelfir, iii. io6 10 .i 3 an d Guthorm, i22 14 . 16 
joins King Olaf Haraldson against Earl Svein and Einar 
Thambarskelfir, ii. 54 9 . 10 partakes in the battle of Nesiar 
and is handsomely rewarded by Olaf, 64 r . 10 betrays the five 
Upland kings who had conspired to fall on King Olaf, and 
assists in taking them by surprise at Kingacre, 1073-108^ 

KETIL of Rogaland (K. rygski), stationed in the forehold of 
the Long-Worm, i. 353 19 . 20 

KETILBIORN THE OLD (Ketilbjorn hinn gamli), an Ice- 
landic settler, grandfather of Gizur the White, i. 334 2 7, 28 

KIARTAN (Kjartan), son of Olaf Peacock, the son of Hoskuld 
and of Thorgerd, the daughter of Egil Skallagrimson, L 
334M-19 hi s swimming strife with Olaf Tryggvison, 33535- 
33634 he and his fosterbrother Bolli let themselves be 
christened at the King's request, 3363^-33732 opposes Thang- 
brand's account of the heathen stubbornness of the Icelanders, 
and with other chiefs of Iceland undertakes to bring about 
the conversion of the country, 339i^34o 12 kept with other 
nobles of Iceland as hostage, by Olaf Tryggvison, to ensure 
the conversion to Christianity of the island, 354 1 < r . 20 

KIMBI, of the rebels against K. Olaf the Holy, his and Thor- 
mod Coalbrowskald's dealings after the battle of Sticklestead, 

KINGS' MOTHER (Konungam63ir), a by-name given to 

Gunnhild, the widow of Eric Bloodaxe, after her and her sons' 
return to Norway on the death of Hakon the Good, i. 202^ 
KING'S STEPFATHER, by-name given to Ami of Stodreim 
after his marriage with Queen Ingirid, d. of Rognvald, K. 
Harald Gilli's widow, iii. 37o 2s 

J20 Index I [KIO KNU 

KIOTVI THE WEALTHY (Kjotvi hinn au^gi), King of Ag- 
dir, joined the alliance of the Kings of Hordland, Rogaland 
and Thelmark against Harald Hairfair, and fought against 
him in the battle of Hafursfirth, and fled to a certain holm 
where there was vantage ground (his ultimate fate is not 

tOld), i. IIIg-112! g 

KIRIALAX, i.e. Alexis I., Comnenus, Eastern Emperor, 
1081-1118, his and K Sigurd Jerusalem-farer's mutual festive 
entertainments, iii. 259-^-2 6 i 23 provides K. SigUrd with 
horses and guide for his overland journey to the north and 
receives in exchange all his ships, 26i 26 . 28 has K, Olaf's sword 
Hneitir placed in Olaf's Church in Micklegarth, 429 14 . 20 
his campaign against the Vlakmen and battle of Petzina won 
by Varangian valour, 429^-431 

KIRIALAX, /.<?. Alexis II., Comnenus, Eastern Emperor, 
1180-1183, son of Kaiser Manuel (i.e. Manuel I., Comnenus) 
in Micklegarth and *a daughter of Roger, King of Sicily' 
[mistake; his mother was Maria, daughter of Raymund of 
Poitou, Prince of Antioch], iii. 2^6 U 

KISPING, (an English? or Scotch?) foot-page of Queen Gunn- 
hild, supposed to have given K. Hakon the Good his death- 
wound in the battle of Fitiar, i. i87 2 . 8 

KLACK-HARALD, King of Jutland, father of Thorny the 
grandmother of Harald Hairfair and of Thyri Denmark's 
Weal, i. 8 37 _ 9 

KL^ENG (Klsengr), son of Brusi, ii. 5323-23 

KLERK (Klerkr), an Esthonian who buys for slaves Olaf 
Tryggvison and Thorgils Thorolfson, paying a goodly he- 
goat for them, i. 229 14 . 15 

KLERKON, an Esthonian, buys Olaf Tryggvison for slave, 
together with Thorolf, his mother's fosterfather, and Thorolf s 
son Thorgils, i. 22g 6 . 1B sells Olaf and Thorgils to Klerk for a 
good he-goat, 229 14 _ 15 killed in Holmgarth by Olaf Tryggvi- 
son, 23o mo 

KLYPP (Klyppr), a ' hersir,' son of Thord, the son of Horda- 
Kari, i. 2 15 20 . 21 3oo 24 . 29 revenges on K. Sigurd Slaver the dis- 
honour done to his wife and slays him at Alrekstead, 2i5 19 . 24 
30 -2i6 14 303 29 and is himself slain on the spot, 2i6 12 . u 

KNUT (Kniitr) [known as K. Danaast, Danes' Darling], son 
of K. Gorm the Old, and father to Gold- Harald, i. 2 1 7 12 . 14 


Index I 121 

KNUT, Earl, son of Earl Birgir Brosa and Brigida, daughter of 
King Harald Gilli, iii. 3795 

KNUT 3 son of Harald Kesia and Ragnhild, daughter of King 
Magnus Barefoot, iii. 283^ 

KNUT, son of Knut the Old. &* Hordaknut 

KNUT LORD (K. lavar^r), ti 131, son of Eric the Good King 
of Denmark, married to Ingibiorg, d. of K Harald Valdimar- 
son of Novgorod, iii. 2 7 1 4 . 5 their children, 2 7 i r . 10 his daugh- 
ter Margret married to Stig Whiteleather, 27i 10 another 
daughter, Kristin, married to K. Magnus the Blind, 3i4 25 . 2 7 

KNUT, son of Svein of Jadar, married to Rimhild; their son, 
Svein, iii. 299 16 . 17 

KNUT THE MIGHTY, or the Rich, the Old, or the Ancient 
(Kniitr hinn riki), King of Denmark 1014-1035, England 
1014, 1016-1035, and Norway 1028-1035, son of Svein Twi- 
beard and Gunnhild, d. of Burislaf, King of the Wends, i. 
2 7 I IT (ii. 2 1 23 2 5 o 10 . 14 ) summons his brother-in-law, Earl Eric 
of Norway, to join him in an expedition against England, ii. 
2 5sr 2 ^i c f- iii- I 5926" 3C ^6 ^ e w i ns London, ii. 26 22 . 24 comes 
to England the year that Ethelred died, and marrfed Emma, 
his widow; their children, 27 n . 14 had many battles with the 
sons of Ethelred, 27 8 . n made peace with Edmund Ironside 
that each should have one half of England for dominion 
drives, after the murder of Edmund, all the sons of Ethdred 
out of the land, 27 15 _ 24 cf. iii. 52 21 . 23 repels an invasion from 
Normandy by the sons of Ethelred in company with Olaf 
Haraldson, 28 27 -29 1 receives honourably and advances his 
nephew, Earl Hakon of Norway, 333 n his enmity to Olaf 
Haraldson urged by K. Sigurd Syr on the latter as of formidable 
import, 4o 22 26 resides mostly in England and rules Denmark 
by means of chieftains (viceroys), i67 2 g. 30 (i88 8 25 25o 10 . 12 iii. 
3o 24 . 26 ) receives kindly, and speeds with good gifts on de- 
parture, Einar Thambarskelfir, 235^ having conquered 
England after many battles and secured his position there, he 
turns his attention to Norway, claiming as his own the whole 
of it, though his nephew Hakon Ericson considered he had a 
just title to some of it, 25i 2 . 12 abstained from giving effect 
to his claim while King Olaf 's popularity and power were in 
the ascendant, 2Si 12 . 18 lavished gifts on disaffected fugitives 
from Norway, and thus won much popularity in that kingdom, 

122 Index I [KNU 

2 5 I is" 2 5 2 6 k^ lordliness and wealth much famed, 25i 26 . 30 
a masterful but just ruler, 2523.5 receives assurances from 
Norwegian fugitives to the effect that the Norwegians were 
ready to transfer their allegiance to him, 252 6 . ir sends an 
ambassade to Norway to propose to King Olaf the alternative 
of giving up his kingship altogether or to hold Norway as fief 
of the English King, 252 20 -253 16 at King Olafs peremptory 
refusal, the ambassade returns to England, and gives K. Knut 
a report of its journey, 253^-2545 255 18 . 18 his generous dis- 
position towards those who submitted to him, 25433-2 5 5 S 
avows determined enmity to Olaf, 255 19 . 24 gives lordly wel- 
come to the sons of Erling, 255 25 . 32 alliance, offensive and 
defensive, against him between the Kings of Norway and 
Sweden, 256-2575 goes to Denmark and makes a futile at- 
tempt to undo the Swedish alliance with Olaf of Norway, 
2 579-30 S oes back to England, leaving Horda-Knut regent in 
Denmark, 267^ defection to him openly threatened by 
the sons of Arni to bring pressure to bear on Olaf of Norway 
in the affair of Stein, 285 10 . 13 receives in his service Stein 
Skaptison, 286 22 . 25 gives welcome to Thorir Hound, 29i 5 . 28 
is joined by Erling Skialgson and his sons, 3113.7 335ir-w 
his realm of Denmark invaded by the allies, Kings Olaf of 
Norway and Onund of Sweden, 3io s -3ii 26 3123-313^ hear- 
ing this, King Knut gathers a war-host in England, second in 
command of which he placed Earl Hakon, 31321-23 Knut's 
Dragon and great muster of warships, 3i5 13 . 2 4 he brings his 
whole fleet safe to Limfirth in Denmark, 3i6 9 . 13 his way of 
dealing with his brother-in-law Earl Wolf, whom he causes to 
be murdered in the church of St. Lucius in Roiswell, for 
having, m secret concert with Queen Emma, had elected King 
of Denmark his son Hordaknut, whom he promptly deposes, 
3i6 16 -3i9 16 325 2 9-3 26 9 ir3 2 7i6 on his coming to Denmark 
his people renounce allegiance to the Kings of Norway and 
Sweden, 3i9 18 -320 4 his fight with the allies off the Holy 
River, 321-323^ his spies keep watch on the movements of 
the allies, while he himself returns to Denmark, 325 19 . 31 
3 2 724-25 28-30 ^ atonement for the murder of Earl Wolf he 
endows richly St. Lucius 7 church, 327 16 . 2S his far-reaching 
bribery of K. Olafs subjects, 329^ 335^-336,, 342 20 -343;r 
37 2 9 Knut's attitude towards Harek of Thiotta and Thorir 

KNU KOL] Index I 123 

Hound, 33 I sr33 2 24 349i- 5 Knut and Sigvat the Skald, 313^- 
3*510 33324-33431 H 1 - 3C 3u-i5 Olaf deserted by Sweden, having 
to abandon his ships and retreat to Norway, Knut goes into 
winter quarters, 335io-ie Knut prepares for invading Norway, 
345i9-24 346-3478 Knut in Norway, Hakon Encson appointed 
Earl, Hordaknut made King of Denmark, etc., 348-35333 cf. 
37 2 n-i5 t ne chiefs f Norway hoodwinked by his promises, 
37 2 9-n confers an earldom in Denmark on Harald, son of 
Thorkel the High, 375ir-i9 promises an earldom to Kalf 
Arnison for undertaking to organize a rising in Norway should 
Olaf Haraldson attempt a reconquest of it, 375 12 -376-> 3 Knut 
breaks his promises to Einar Thambarskelfir, 388 14 -389 24 
45 2 22-24 chieftains of Norway bound by oath to Knut to take 
the life of K. Olaf, 3 8 92r39i5 42o 24 . 31 - bishop Sigurd's way 
of pleading the cause of Knut in Norway, 4i7 16 -4i9 26 454^4 
Knut appoints his son Svein King of Norway, 449 10 -45o 8 
Knut's popularity speedily dwindles in Norway, 461^-462^ 
Kalf Arnison refuses Knut's request for a supply of axes,466 7 . 15 
Knut dies, is buried at Winchester, iii. 9 23 _ so family rela- 
tions, 25 5 . 24 29 3 . 15 

KNUT THE HOLY, King of Denmark, 1080-1086, son of 
Svein Wolfson, King of Denmark, iii. 19423.34 friendship 
with Olaf the Quiet meets him in the Elf suggests an 
avenging expedition to England, which Olaf declines to lead, 
though he supplies sixty ships well fitted out, 19737-19833 
how the expedition came to nought, 1983^-1993 

KNUTLINGS or Knytlmgs, the kinsmen of Knut the Mighty, 
their unpopularity in Norway, ii. 45i 10 . 19 463^-4643 

KODRAN (Ko=Sran), son of Gudmund Eyolfson the Mighty of 
Maddermead, iii. i53 3 . 8 

KOL, son of Hall of the Side (Kollr Si$u-Halls son), i. 6 W 

KOLBEIN (Kolbeinn), a young man whose tongue Thora, the 
mother of King Sigurd Jerusalem-farer, had had cut out, mir- 
aculously healed by King Olaf the Holy, iii. 3029-303,3 

KOLBEIN HEAP (K. hrtiga), an Orkney noble, and follower 
of Eystein, son of Harald Gilli, iii. 3687 

KOLBEIN THE STRONG (K. sterki), one of King Olaf 
Haraldson's following; description of his arrayal, ii. 206^0 
his iconoclastic service in the King's missionary campaign 
through Gudbrundsdale, 207 14 . 19 3() -2o8 6 

1 24 Index I [KOL KRI 

KOLBEIN, son of Thord Prey's priest, an Icelander converted 
to Christianity in Nidoyce by Olaf Tryggvison, i, 334 21 kept 
a hostage with other Icelanders by Olaf Tryggvison to ensure 
the conversion to Christianity of Iceland, 354x7-20 

KOLBEIN THORLIOTSON of Batald, lost from Sigurd 
Slembi-Deacon's ship, iii. 35 5^ 

KOLBEIN THE WOODE (K. hinn 6i), a partisan of Hakon 
Shoulderbroad, seized by Jon, son of Hallkel Hunch, iii. 

KOLBIORN (Kolbjorn), son of Arni Arnmodson, ii. i98 18 . 1() 

KOLBIORN KLAKK (K. klakki), a chieftain of the Wick, 

iii. 2 i4 22 speech at a Thing summoned by Sigurd Wool-string, 

21 85-10 19-25 2I 9r-2o invites King Magnus Barefoot to a feast, 

220 22 . 23 manages as royal property the lands K. Magnus 

forced Sveinki Steinarson to give up, 220 24 . 29 

KOLBIORN THE MARSHAL (K. stallari), one of Olaf 

Tryggvison' s captains on board the Long-Worm, i. 352 30 

jumps overboard, at the same time as Olaf Tryggvison, from 

the Long-Worm, is caught and pardoned by Earl Eric, 

a-6 i4-3i 
KOLLI, an Icelandic poet, celebrates in song the battles at 

Mouth, iii. 35o 3 . 12 and at Crookshaw, 35i 12 . 20 
KONOFOGOR (Conochbhar), an Irish King, gives a severe 

defeat to Earl Einar Sigurdson of Orkney in TJlfreksfirth in 

Ireland, ii. i37i 2 - 23 I 74is-22 

KORMAK (K6rmakr), son of Ogmund, Icel. poet, i. i66 r . ir 
KRAKI, "al. Rolf Kraki, see below, p. 173, his scattering of 

gold over Fyris-mead a frequent element of kennings, iii. 

96 45 cf. note, p. 497. 
KRISTIN, daughter of Earl Birgir Brosa by Brigida, daughter 

of King Harald Gilli, iii. 3799 
KRISTIN, daughter of Ingi (the elder) King of Sweden, m. to 

Harald (Mstislav), son of Valdemar, Grand Prince of Kief, 

their daughter Malmfridwhom Sigurd Jerusalem-farer married, 

iii. 2713 
KRISTIN, daughter of Knut the Lord and Ingibiorg, d. of 

K. Harald Valdemarson of Holmgarth, iii. 2719 the wife 

of King Magnus the Blind, 31426-99 
KRISTIN, called c King's-daughter,' d. of King Sigurd Jerusalem- 

farer and Queen Malmfrid, married to Erling Askew, iii. 

KRI LEI] Index I 125 

Syzis-M ives a ooci welcome to Gregory Dayson at Studla, 
39 I s-i6 is minded to leave Oslo, but persuaded by King 
Ingi to remain there, 42 3 2 . 16 lays out the body of King Ingi, 
4 2 7s-4 sends word to her husband, Erlmg Askew, not to trust 
King Hakon and his men, 42720-25 goes to Denmark and 
prepares peace between her husband and King Valdemar, 
47i 26 -472 5 leaves Norway with a paramour, Grim Rake, 
lives and has children with him in Constantinople, 474 9 . 14 
said to have had a son, Harald, with K. Sigurd Mouth, son 
of Harald, 477 2 s-478 2 

KRISTIN, daughter of Stig Whiteleather b 7 Margret, the 
daughter of Knut Lord and sister to Valdemar I. of Den- 
mark, iii. 27i n married to Karl, the son of Sorkvir, King of 
Sweden, 27i n _ 12 

KRISTROD, brother to King Harald Gilli by the same mother, 
iii. 31527 fights without a byrny in the battle at Fyrileif, 
where he is slain by a bonder, 3i6 29 . 24 3i7 418 

KYRPING-WORM (Kyrpinga-Ormr), son of Svein Sveinson 
and Ragna, whose parents were Earl Worm Eilifson and 
Sigrid, d. of Earl Finn Arnison; Kyrp.-Worm's wife: Ragn- 
hild, d. of Sveinki, son of Steinar; their son Erling Askew, iii. 
37 J B-9 h e i ves fostering to Magnus, the fourth son of 
Harald Gilli, 368 22 _ 23 

LATINS (Latinumenn), men of Romance nationalities, iii. 62^ 

LAW-BERSI (Log-Bersi), the father of Gyrd, whose son 
Amundi was the fosterer of King Ingi, son of King Harald 
Gilli, iii. 34715 ir 

LAWMAN (Logma^r), son of Gudrod, King of the South Isles, 
or Sodor, charged with the defence of the northern group of 
the islands, flees from one place to another before King 
Magnus Barefoot, but is finally taken and put in irons, iii. 

LAXE-PAUL (Laxa-Pall), father of Einar, iii. 358^ 389^ 
LEIF THE LUCKY (Leifr hinn heppni), son of Eric the Red, 
christened by Olaf Tryggvison, i. 34i 16 . 20 sent to Greenland 
accompanied by a priest to christen the country, in which 
journey he saved a shipwrecked crew, and discovered Vine- 
land the Good (North-America), 355 3 . 13 to him King Olaf 
Haraldson wanted to send his kinsman, the blinded King 
Rcerek, so as safely to get rid of him, ii. 13430-32 

126 Index I [LEI LOD 

LEIF (Leifr), son of Ozur, of Faroe, summoned by King Olaf 
Haraldson, goes to Norway with many representatives of the 
islanders; becomes a member of King Olaf Haraldson's 
household and bodyguard, and agrees to the subjection of 
the islands to Norwegian rule, ii. 246-^-24734 is summoned 
again to Norway by King Olaf, but, in concert with other 
chiefs of Faroe, he leaves the mission to Thoralf of Dimon, 
2 ^94-is receives Karl o' Mere at King Olafs request, and 
entertains him through the winter, gathering in for him the 
taxes of the Southern Faroes, 304 21 -3o5 33 his dealings with 
Thrand o' Gate over the bad money the latter wanted to palm 
off on Karl o 7 Mere as payment of the King's taxes, 306-308 
Thrand's people having slain Karl o' Mere while Leif 
was temporarily absent, he takes up the bloodsuit, and, 
refusing settlement by weregild, outlaws the perpetrators, 

LESI AR (the folk of) (Laesir), inhabitants of part of the upper 

reaches of Gudbrand's dale, ii. 204 18 
LESIARS (Lsesir), the Liachs (Poles), iii. 59^ 
LEWIS, son of Thorfmn Skull-cleaver, see Hlodver. 
LEYFI, a sea-king of fame, i. 376 n 
LIOT (Lj6tr), son of Thorfinn Skull-cleaver, Earl of Orkney, 

by Grelad, daughter of Dungad, Earl of Caithness, i 24i 25 

ii. 16832-1693 
LODBROK'S SONS (Lo^br6kar synir), the sons of Ragnar 

Lodbrok, see Ragnar Lodbrok. 
LODIN (Lo^inn), c a wealthy man of the Wick and of good 

kin/ finds, in a merchant journey to Estland, Astrid, the 

mother of Olaf Tryggvison, in a slave-market, buys her (at 

her request), brings her home to Norway and marries her; 

their children, i. 300^-30 1 6 aids Olaf Tryggvison in christen- 

ing the Wick, 30213-3033 
LODIN, son of Erling Skialgson of Soli and Astrid, daughter 

of King Tryggvi Olafson, ii. 24 26 
LODIN SUP-PROUD (L. sauppriiSr), of Linestead, falls in 

the battle at Holm-the-Gray, iii. 362 18 his body brought to 

Tunsberg, 367^ 
LODIN of Vigg (L. af Viggjum), a supporter of Olaf Harald- 

son in his strife for the kingdom of Norway, ii. 48 16 . 17 his 

son, Sigurd Wool-String, iii. 2io 9 . la 

LOD MAG] Index I 127 

LODIN VIGG-SKULL (Lodinn Viggjar-Skalli), see Lodin of 

LODVER, son of Thorfmn Skull-cleaver, see Hlodver. 
LODVIR THE LONG (Hlo^vir langi), from Saltwick in 
Halogaland, a forecastle man on board the Long-Worm, L 

LOFT (Loptr), one of the names of Loki, his friend = Odin, i. 

2*7 2 

LOGI, son of Frosty, lord of the Finns, i. 33 21 

LOPT, Priest, son of Ssemund, staying at Kings' Rock with his 

son Jon when the wonders there befell, iii. 3257.9 goes to 

Biorgvin with all his belongings, 326 13 . 15 
LOTHAIRE (Lozarius), Duke of Saxony, 1106, afterwards 

Roman Emperor, the second of the name, 1125-1137, wel- 

comes and treats most hospitably Sigurd Jerusalem-farer, iii. 

LUCIUS (Saint), 2ist Bishop of Rome (25 Sept. A.D. 252 
4th or 5th March, 253), patron saint of the church of Rois- 
well (Roiskelda), in Sealand, ii. 327,5 

MADDAD (Madda'Sr), the father of Earl Harald, who was cap- 
tured by King Eystein at Thurso, iii. 374 28 

MAGNI, Bishop of Biorgvm, intercedes with King Sigurd 
Jerusalem-farer on behalf of Sigurd Hranison, iii. 276 16 . 19 
remonstrates with the King against marrying Cecilia, whilst 
Queen Malmfrid was still alive, 307 9 . 26 goes home happy in 
mind because he has done a sacred duty, 3o8 114 

MAGNUS BAREFOOT (M. berfoettr), King of Norway, 1093- 
1103, son of K. Olaf the Quiet and Thora, d of Joan, iii. 
1 9 52-6 a ^ so ca ll e< i Bareleg (berbeinn), or the High (havi), or 
S tour-whiles-Magnus (Styrjaldar-Magniis), 233^22 married 
to Margaret Frithpoll, d. of Ingi, K. of Sweden, 232^^ 233^ 
284 21 . 2 2 their daughter Ragnhild m. to Harald Kesia, 283 U . 15 
354n-i2 his natural sons, Eystein, Olaf, Sigurd Jerusalem- 
farer, Harald Gilli, 233 8 . 14 29$^.^ and Sigurd Slembi-Dea- 
con, 33617-20 3377-s 3 6 5s-7 taken to king over all Norway 
after the death of his father, 2055.^ strained relations between 
him and K. Hakon Magnusson, his cousin, 2o6 1? -207 23 
his warfare in Halland, burning of Viskdale, return with much 
booty, 2o8 18 . 2l7 he punishes Steig-Thorir and Egil for raising 
up a rebellion against him by having both hanged in Wamb- 

1 28 Index I [MAG 

holme, 209 2 -2i3 13 stamps out treason with ruthless punish- 
ments, 2i3 16 . 28 maintains his power with great vigour, 2i4 3 . 8 
K. Magnus and Sveinki Steinarson, 2 i4 10 -2 2 1 9 K. Magnus' 
expedition to the West. Orkney, 22i 12 . 19 South-Isles, 22i 1<r 
222 12 Holy Isle, Islay, Cantyre, Man, 222 15 -223 23 Angle- 
sea, 223 26 -224 29 -peace with Malcolm, K. of Scotland, 224 29 - 
22 5i2 tk e whole of Sodor incorporated in the dominion of 
Norway, 225 15 . 19 gets to his son Sigurd for wife Biadmyma, 
d. of Myrkiartan, K. of Connaught, 225 19 , 22 return to Norway, 
22 528-24 strife w frh * n g*> K-. f Sweden occupation of 
Kvaldins-isle, resulting in disaster, night attack at Foxern, 
battle of Foxern, 2269-2323 peace and family alliance be- 
tween Magnus and K. Ingi of Sweden, 232 6 . 21 233^ his 
height marked on the stone wall of Mary's Church in Nidoyce, 
2 3323-32 * ove son g s to tne Kaisar's daughter attributed to 
him, 234 his dealings with Skopti Ogmundson and his 
sons, 235-237^ his second expedition to the West and fall 
in Ireland, 23833-242 247 6 248 14 . 15 24 personal description, 
and relations to^Vidkunn Jonson, 243 

MAGNUS THE BLIND, King of Norway, 1130-1135, son of 
King Sigurd Jerusalem-farer and his concubine Borghild, 
daughter of Olaf o'Dale, iii. 278 20 , 25 married to Kristin, d. 
of Knut Lord, 31435.^ sent for fostering into Halogaland 
to Vidkunn, son of Jon, 278 25 . 29 Harald Gilli bound by 
treaty not to claim the kingdom while Magnus lives, 296^ 
his wager with Harald Gilli, 297 10 -299 8 being in Oslo on his 
father's death he takes to himself all the king's treasures, 
3 I0 i2-i4 ^ken to king at Oslo; his description and character, 
3 1 30-16 a rees to share the land with Harald Gilli, 3143-13 
retains to himself the ships, chattels, etc., of Sigurd his father, 
3 3[ 4i32i discards his wife and sends her back to Denmark, 
3 z 425-31 ^ e an< ^ Harald Gilli always on the point of open 
breach, 3153.7 gathers a host to drive Harald Gilli from his 
kingship, 3153-16 battle between him and Harald at Fyrileif, 
3 z 5sr3 * 7 24 becomes solelord of the kingdom, 3 18 2 . 4 against 
the advice of his counsellors he leaves the Wick open to 
Harald's operations and goes into winter quarters in Biorgvin, 
3i8 8 . 16 hearing that the Wick had rallied to the standard 
of Harald he takes counsel with his advisers and, refusing 
them all, abides Harald in Biorgvin, 31929-321^ he is de- 


Index I 129 

feated, captured, maimed and deposed, 32i 25 -323 26 his 
friends are searched for his treasure and hardly dealt with, 
3 2 329"3 2 42i Magnus retires to a monastery, 3343 r he is 
taken out of the monastery of Holme by Sigurd Slembi-Deacon, 
34823-3493 g es into ttie Uplands and gets followers there, 
349i6-20 King Ing* defeats him in the battle at Mouth, 349 21 - 
35i2 h e ^ ees to Gautland and so to Denmark; persuades 
Karl Sonison, Earl in Gautland, to invade Norway, 35o 13 . 77 
prevails with K. Eric Everminded of Denmark to attack Nor- 
way, himself joining in the ill-starred expedition, 35i 23 -3533i 
joins Sigurd Slembi-Deacon in a fresh raid on Norway from 
Denmark, 355 n . 32 flees with Sigurd to Halogaland, wintering 
in Birch Isle, 356^15 proceeding south along the coast from 
Halogaland he and Sigurd commit a series of cruel outrages 
and go to Denmark, 357 18 -359 10 leaves Denmark with Sigurd 
on a fresh raid on Norway, and is killed in the battle of 
Holm-the-Gray, 36i 24 -362 14 his life, written by Eric Oddson, 
S^Su-ir kis body taken by Thiostolf Alison to Oslo and 
buried beside his father's, 367 26 . 28 

MAGNUS, son of Earl Birgir Brosa and Brigida, daughter of 
King Harald Gilli, iii. 379 6 

MAGNUS EINARSON, Bishop of Skalaholt in Iceland, 1134- 
1 148, well received and honoured by Harald Gilli on his com- 
ing from Iceland for bishop's consecration, 334 26 -335 3 his 
conversation with the King and Queen and their presents to 
him, 335 4 . 2 r goes back to Iceland to his chair, 335 28 has a 
chalice made from the beaker, and copes made from the pall 
which the King and Queen gave him, 336^ 

MAGNUS, son of Earl Erlend of Orkney, forced into his 
service by K. Magnus Barefoot, iii. 239 4 . 5 escapes by night 
from the King's ship to the court of the King of the Scotch, 

2 39e-9 

MAGNUS, King of Norway, n62-(u84), son of Erling Askew 
and Kristin, d. of Sigurd Jerusalem-farer, taken for king, iii. 
43 6 6"437i8~~g es w * tn Erling into Denmark to meet King 
Valdimar, who undertakes to support Magnus in the kingdom 
of Norway on Denmark's old dominion in the Wick being re- 
stored to him in return, 437 16 -438 13 leaves Denmark and sails 
out from Vendilskagi, 433 13 . 15 with Erling his father in the 
battle of Ve-isle, where Hakon Shoulderbroad fell, 443 19 -447 r 

VI. K 

130 Index I [MAG 

he and Erling go with the host north to Cheaping (Nidoyce) 
and lay all the land under them, Magnus being proclaimed 
king of all the land, 447 19 .2> r always kept in his father's 
company; goes with him to Biorgvin and thence to Tunsberg, 
exercising royal sway over the Wick, 448 28 . 28 the men of 
Wick his friends, 449 10 . u crowned by Abp Eystein, 463^ 
46431 King Valdimar demands fulfilment of the promises 
given to him in respect of dominion over the Wick, but the 
people refuse it utterly, 4653-4672 pleads in vain with his 
father for the life of Harald, the reputed son of King Sigurd 
and Kristin Kmg's-daughter, 478 n . 16 K. Magnus and the 
Birchlegs, 478 20 -48o 20 484-486-^ (battle at Re), 486^-4873 
much renowned for his victory over the Birchlegs, 4875.^ 
personal description, 4815.* 

MAGNUS THE GOOD (M. hmn g6i), King of Norway, 
1035-1047, and of Denmark, 1042-1047, natural son of K. 
Olaf Haraldson by Alf hild King's-bondmaid, ii. 23535 h* s on ly 
child a daughter named Ragnhild (baseborn), in. ii4 19 , 20 
baptized by the order of Sigvat the Skald, who stood gossip and 
named the apparently dying child after Karla-Magnus ( Carlus 
Magnus'), ii. 235 14 -236 9 24 . 28 soon a hopeful child, 237 2 . 3 
taken by his father to Holmgarth when he had to flee from 
Norway, 3693 29-30 left behind in Holmgarth when his father 
sets out for the re-conquest of Norway, 38633 Einar Tham- 
barskelfir and Kalf Arnison invite him to assert his king- 
ship over Norway, which invitation he accepts on their 
becoming his liegemen, Kalf undertaking his fostering, 466 19 - 
467 24 iii. io n . 20 his journey to Norway, iii. i-7 n pro- 
claimed king, 7 14 , 23 straightway he gathers a host to fall on 
Svein Alfiva's son, who speedily fled to Denmark, 7 23 -9 16 
IO 2-io ^ e * s confirmed in the kingdom all over the land, 
9io-23 peace with Hordaknut of Denmark to the effect that 
the realm of him who should die without male issue before 
the other should be the survivor's lawful inheritance, io 13 -i i 14 
his stepmother, Queen Astrid, went with him from Sweden 
to live with him in Norway, n 16 . 19 i5 15 Sigvat enters into 
service with K. Magnus, 1431-32 x 5 3-28 K. Magnus enshrines 
his father and institutes Olafs mass, i6-i7 4 K. Magnus and 
Harek of Thiotta, 1 7x7-1819 K. Magnus and Kalf Arnison, 
i8 21 -2i 19 he proceeds with relentless severity against his 


Index I 

father's enemies, and disaffection becomes widespread, 2i 16 - 
22 15 he relents through Sigvat's 'Staves of naked says/ and 
becomes universally popular and styled Magnus the Good, 
22 is" 2 52 causes the law-code called 'Greygoose' to be 
written, 24 33 . 35 becomes King of Denmark in virtue of the 
peace treaty with Hordaknut, 26-28 Svein Wolfson, later 
King of Denmark, becomes K. Magnus's man and is ap- 
pointed by him earl over Denmark, 29 23 -3i 25 his suc- 
cessful punitive expedition to Jomsburg, 3i 2s -33 6 his great 
victory over the Wends at Lyrshawheath, 34 6 -37 32 bis vic- 
torious dealings with his rebel earl, Svein Wolfsbn, 339-343 
38-5 i lg K. Magnus' claim to the kingdom of England 
sternly refused by Edward the Confessor, 5* 2 2~53i6 cf. i6o 31 - 
i6i 6 on hearing of the alliance of his uncle Harald Sigurd- 
son with Svein Wolfson he prepares an armed expedition to 
Denmark, 77 23 . 25 79i9-32 k e breaks up their alliance and 

guarded and kept the keys of his father's shrine and clipped 
the saint's nails and hair every twelve months, 87 23 . 2S 
strained relations between nephew and uncle, 87^.33 88 ir 
90 18 they go a joint expedition to Denmark against" Svein 
Wolfson, 88 ir . 18 9o 21 _ 2r K. Magnus' death, 9o 28 -9i 2g his 
funeral, 9 2 is-93r 2 i-24 94 8 -io 95i ?7 6 -7 I 54 2 4-25 2 8 4 9 -i 3 personal 
description, 93 8 . 14 on his dying day he bequeathed Den- 
mark to Svein Wolfson, sending his brother Thorir with his 
last will to Svein, 9ii . 15 c 93i7-94 6 his building under- 
takings, io4 21 . 30 K. Magnus' appointments in respect of 
Einar Thambarskelfir adhered to by Harald Sigurdson, io6 88 
Einar and his son buried beside K. Magnus, no 26 . 28 his 
daughter's lament at being bereft of his protection, ii5 14 . 2 i 
his banners come into the possession of his son-in-law, Earl 
Hakon Ivarson, i5o 20 . 21 

MAGNUS, son of Harald Gilli, taken to king has his share of 
the realm, diseased in his feet, dies, iii. 36832-3695 

MAGNUS, King of Norway, 1066-1069, son of King Harald 
Hardredy by Thora, daughter of Thorberg Arnison, iii. 96 ms 
I 4 I is-i6 commands one of Harald's ships at the battle of Niz, 
I4i 16 . 18 and in the fight of Vener-water against Earl Hakon 
Ivarson, 1 5 2 20 . 33 is made King of Norway by his father before 

132 Index I [MAG MAR 

he himself sets out for England, i6s ir . 20 rules over Norway, 
first by himself and then jointly with King Olaf his brother, 
z83 4tj i87 38 they make peace with King Svein of Denmark, 
i87 10 -i8S 8 Magnus dies of the ringworm plague at Nidoyce, 
i88 w 

MAGNUS, son of Harald Kesia the son of K. Eric the Good 
of Denmark and Ragnhild, daughter of King Magnus Bare- 
foot, iii. 283^ 

MAGNUS, King of Sweden, 1160-1161, son of Henry the Halt 
and Ingirid, the d. of Rognvald; M was the third husband of 
Brigida, daughter of K. Harald Gilli, iii. 3783^379! 426 29 . 31 

MAGNUS THE STRONG (M. inn sterki), son of the Danish 
K. Nicolas, the son of Svein Wolfson and Margaret Frithpoll, 
daughter of Ingi Steinkelson, whose former husband was 
King Magnus Barefoot, iii. 284 19 . 24 

MALCOLM (Melk61mr) II., King of Scotland, 1005-1034, 
father-in-law of Sigurd the Thick, Earl of Orkney, ii. i69 28 

MALCOLM (Melk61mr) III., King of Scotland, 1058-1093, 
made peace with King Magnus Barefoot, iii. 2 24^-22 $ 8 

MALMFRID, daughter of King Harald (Mstislav), son of 
Valdemar of Holmgarth (Kief), marries K Sigurd Jerusalem- 
farer, iii. 27o 28 their daughter Kristin, mother of K. Magnus 
Erlingson, 37i 13 4383 intercedes with her husband for 
Sigurd Hranison, 276^ 

MAN-FOLK (Manverjar), inhabitants of the Isle of Man, 

MANI (Mani), son of Mundilfceri, a giant, i. 179,5 
MANUEL, Kaiser, in Micklegarth (1143-1180) [son of Kalo- 
Johannes], married to the * daughter of Roger, King of Sicily, 7 
iii. 256 10 (a mistake; his second wife was Maria, d. of Ray- 
mund of Poitou, Prince of Antioch, cf. Kirialax). 
MARGARET, daughter of Ami of Stodreim by Queen Ingirid 
d. of Rognvald, iii. 37o 25 married first to Biorn the 
Buck, 37o 26 . 26 and afterwards to Simon, the son of Kari, 

MARGARET FRITHPOLL (M. frrSkolla), daughter of King 
Ingi, son of K. Steinkel of Sweden, and wife, first, of King 
Magnus Barefoot, iii. 232 mi 233^ their daughter Ragnhild, 
wife of Harald Kesia, 283 14 . 17 secondly, of Nicolas, K. of 

MAR MEL] Index I 133 

MARGARET, daughter of King Harald Gilli, married to Jon 
son of Hallkel Hunch, iii. 379 13 . 15 

MARGATH, King of Dublin, 1035-1038, 1046-1052, allows 
Guthorm, the son of Ketil Kalf, c a land of peace ' in Dublin, 
and has him in great favour, iii. i22 2325 in a joint war-raid 
into Anglesea they come to blows over the division of their 
booty, in which affray Margath falls, 1234-124 

MARGRET, daughter of Earl Birgir Brosa and Brigida, daugh- 
ter of King Harald Gilli, iii. 379 9 

MARGRET, daughter of Knut the Lord and Ingibiorg, d. of 
King Harald (Mstislav) Valdemarson of Holmgarth, married 
to Stig Whiteleather, iii. 27i 9 . 10 

MARGRIT, the lord of corsairs, marries one of King William 
of Sicily's daughters, iii. 256 8 slain by Kaiser Henry, 2569 

MARIA, daughter of a brother to Queen Zoe who refuses to 
consent to her marrying Harald the Hardredy, iii. 72 2 9-73s 
is taken away by Harald at night to Seawood-sound, and sent 
back with an escort to Queen Zoe, 7439-7531 

MARIA, daughter of King Eystein Magnusson and Ingibiorg, 
the daughter of Guthorm the son of Steig-Thorir, married to 
Gudbrand the son of Shavehew, iii. 2653 4 her son Olaf the 
Unlucky, 474iM 9 

MARIA, daughter of King Harald Gilli, and wife of Simon 
Sheath, iii. 379g-ii her s n Nicolas, 44328-29 

MARK-MEN, men of the Marklands, Woodland men (Marka 
menn), the inhabitants of the Marches between Sweden and 
Norway, ii. 39537 4*9r iu '- 226 ss 228 ie 48o 13 

MARKUS O' SHAW, a kinsman of Earl Sigurd Hallwardson of 
Reyr, fosters Sigurd, the son of K. Sigurd Haraldson, whom 
the Uplanders take for king, iii. 448 8 . 14 his and his foster- 
son's contests with Erling Askew, 455 19 -458 24 are both 
caught in the island of Skarpa and executed, 458 2r . 31 

MARY, the mother of Christ, i. i66 29 

MARY al. Maria, daughter of King Harald Sigurdson and 
Queen Ellisif, iii. g6 24 accompanies Harald on his expedition 
to England, i65 22 left in the Orkneys, i66 5 dies the same 
day and hour that her father falls, 183^ 

MATILD (Mathildr), Mathildis, a Kaiser's daughter, iii. 2343 

MEITI, a legendary sea-king of fame, i. 245^ 248 31 

MELBRIGSA, see Tusk-Melbrig^a. 

134 Index I [MER NER 

MERCURY (St), ii. i2 31 For the legend referred to see ^Elfric's 
Lives of Saints, ed. W. W. Skeat, iii. 241-276. 

MERE (They of) (Mserir), inhabitants of the folkland of Mere, 
i. 16437 t" ut Meres (in a verse), iii. 46 

MICHAEL (Mikjall), Archangel, i. 2 7 2 19 

MICHAEL (Mikjall) IV., Katalactus (Money-changer), other- 
wise: the Paphlagonian, Eastern Emperor, 1034-1041, rules 
over Greekland with Zoe the Rich, iii. 59 25 63 18 . 23 

MIMIR, the wisest of men, sent with Hcenir as hostage from 
the Asfolk to the Vanir, i. i4 2 . 3 taught all good counsel to 
Hoenir, i4 6 . 12 beheaded by the Vanir and his head sent back 
to the Asfolk, i4 u . 16 his head, embalmed and enchanted by 
Odin, told him many hidden things, i4 16 . 19 i8 16 . 18 

MORKAR (Morukari), Morcere, Earl, son of Earl Godwin by 
his wife Gyda, ii. 326 10 _ 12 iii. 15531 comes down upon King 
Harald Sigurdson when lying in the Ouse with a great host, 
i67 5 . 9 a battle ensues in which his army is defeated and he 
is slain, i67 23 . 24 168^ (Morcere was son of ^Elfgar, an Earl 
in Mercia, 1057; and was Earl of Northumberland 1065; 
died after 1087). 

MULL-FOLK (m)flsk fttfS), the inhabitants of the island of 
Mull, Scotland, iii. 222 U 

MUNAN, son of Ali the Un-Skauned, slain at Saur-Byes by 
Gregory Dayson, iii. 41912-16 

MUNAN OGMUNDSON, brother to the mother of Earl Karl 
Sonison, falls in the battle at Crookshaw, iii. 3513 

MYRKIARTAN (Myrkjartan), son of Thialfi, i.e. Muirkertach, 
son of Tirdelvagh, Irish king, 1086-1119, not f Connaught, 
as Snorri states, but of Munster; father of Biadmyma, the 
first wife of Sigurd Jerusalem-farer, iii. 225 19 . 22 his and K. 
Magnus Barefoot's warfare as allies in Ireland, 239 10 . 20 he 
betrays K. Magnus, 23933-242^ 

NANNA, one of the goddesses, Balder's wife, ii. i48 13 

NARFI of Staff, one of eight lords of Thrandheim who com- 
bined to force Hakon the Good to join in heathen festivals, 

i- 17^19 

NARVI, son of Loki, i. 2469 
NAUMDALE-FOLK, Men of Naumdale (Naumdselir), i. i6 34 

ii. I9o 30 276^ iii. 274 25 
NEREID THE OLD (NereiSr hinn gamli), an Earl (called 

NER NIC] Index I 135 

in one recension of Landnama 'the Old and the Miserly;' in 
Fagrskinna, io 14 'the Redewise,' hinn raSspaki, and a kins- 
man of Harald Hairfair), ii. 363 

NEREID, of the landed-men of King Magnus the Blind, hanged 
by King Harald Gilli, lii. 3i9 10 . 24 

NICOLAS (Nikolas), son of Ami of Stodreim and Queen Ingirid, 
d. of Rognvald, iii. 3?o 24 

NICOLAS BEARD (N. skegg), slain by Bergliot and his 
brethren, the sons of Ivar of Elda, iii. 4i5 2125 

NICOLAS (Breakespeare), Cardinal, afterwards Pope Adrian IV., 
sent by the Pope into Norway, 1152, iii. 379 2124 his attitude 
towards the sons of Harald Gilli, Sigurd, Eystein and Ingi, 
37924-28 consents to the consecration of Jon Byrgison, Abp 
of Thfandheim, 379 3 o-38o 4 his reforms and personal charac- 
ter gained immense popularity for him, 38o 5 . 12 his election 
as Pope, and fondness for the people of Norway, 38o 12 . 23 
landed in Norway half a month before the latter Olaf s mass, 
re. July 20, 38i 6 . s 

NICOLAS MEW (N. Masi), the father of Ragna, wife of King 
Eystein, son of Harald Gilli, iii. 378 21 426 25 . 26 

NICOLAS, son of the Danish King Nicolas Sveinson and of 
Margaret Frithpoll, whose former husband was King Magnus 
Barefoot, iii. 28435 

NICOLAS PERIWINKLE (N. kiifungr), son of Paul, the son 
of Skopti, a landed-man of K. Magnus Erlingson, lays hands 
on Harald, who was said to be the son of King Sigurd Harald- 
son and Kristin King's-daughter brings him to Biorgvin and 
hands him over to Earl Erling, who has him beheaded in 
Northness by Biorgvin, iii. 47726-478^ 

NICOLAS, son of Sigurd, the son of Rani, by Skialdvor, 
the daughter of Bryniolf Camel and Thora Joan's daughter 
(the mother of K. Magnus Barefoot), a follower of Hakon 
Shoulderbroad, iii. 407^ commands a ship in Hakon's fleet 
in the battle of the Elf, 4084 after the battle he is pardoned 
by King Ingi, under whom he served for the rest of his life, 
4 I 53-6 i s one f t ^ ie captains charged with the defence of 
Biorgvin, 45 7 26 declines to put up for the kingdom of Norway, 
435 21 -436 3 scatters the fleet of Markus o 5 Shaw and King 
Sigurd off Biorgvin, seizing their ships, 4S8 16 ^ 6 his dealings 
with Markus and his followers, 458 25 . 31 his family connec- 

136 Index I [NIC NOR 

tions, wealth and influence, 48i 9 . 18 of him and Eric Arnison, 
his son-in-law, 48i 24 -482 22 surprised and slain by the Birch- 
legs, 482 24 ~483 14 

NICOLAS, son of Simon Sheath and Maria, daughter of King 
Harald Gilli, iii. 379 9 . 12 taken from home by Erlmg Askew 
and secured on board his ship the Beechboard, 443 28 -3i s * am 
by Erling's men on board the Beechboard, 446 4 . 6 (He had 
the same title to the kingdom of Norway as Magnus Erlingson ) 
NICOLAS SKIALDVORSON, or son of Skialdvor, ' sister's 
son to King Magnus Barefoot ' = Nicolas, son of Sigurd, the 
son of Rani, q.v. 

NICOLAS, King of Denmark 1103-1134, son of K. Svein 

Wolfson of Denmark, married to Margaret Frithpoll, d. of K. 

Ingi Steinkelson of Sweden, the former wife of K. Magnus 

Barefoot; their sons: Nicolas and Magnus the Strong, iii. 

284 19 . 24 welcomes K. Sigurd Jerusalem-farer at Heathby, 

262 10 . 20 invokes K. Sigurd's aid towards converting the 

people of the Small-lands in Sweden to Christianity, 284 24 - 

' 2 85 3 cause of K. Nicolas giving up the enterprise, 285 4 . 19 

NIORD THE WEALTHY (NjorSr hinn au=Sgi), one of high 

degree among the Vanir, given as hostage to the As-folk, i. 

i3 2 5- made by Odin a temple priest and 'Dii' among the 

As-folk, 1420-21 was > while among his tribe, the Vanir, married 

to his sister, i4 25 . 2 6 abode, on coming to Sweden, in Noa- 

town, i6 2r wedded Skadi and was deserted by her for Odin, 

2o 26 ruled the Swedes after Odin, and was worshipped by 

the Swedes as the giver of plenty of the year and the wealth- 

hap of mankind, 22 14 .j 5 in his day died the more part of 

the Diar, 22 15 . 16 he died in his bed, marked himself unto 

Odin, and the Swedes bewailed him sorely, 22 18 . 20 his name 

in 'kennings,' 17335 i82 15 187 33 2563 S39i 348 3 ii. 2i 10 52 n 

NOCKVI (Nokkvi), King of Raumsdale, allied with King 

Hunthiof of Northmere against Harald Hairfair, when he 

first invaded the mid-Norway kingdoms, fought against H. 

at the island of Solskel, and fell, L 993 3 -io ir 

NOKKVI, son of Paul, one of the warders of Biorgvin, iii. 457 26 

NORN (norn, pi. nornir), fairy dispensers of fate, i. i26 16 

NORTHLANDERS (NorSlendingar), the inhabitants of the 

North Quarter of Iceland, cf. Saga Lib. i. xxxiii-xxxiv, ii. 


NOR GDI] Index I 137 

NORTHMEN (NorSmenn, NorSme^r), Norwegians, Norse- 
men, Norway men, i. 4 30 5* 3 o "Sis 11631 n8 24 i52 2829 T 53 4 i 5 
I 54 8 u l6 3is ^r l8 4 53 3 ^Su 2 3* 2 r 3<57ic u- i3s Mai 22 5e 
99io J 3722 l6 25 l8 7 2 7 2 9 4 32% 33w335i5 39% 394s 45 1 * 
4673 12 in- 4i9 *3r 383.0 39s 45i2 4^ 9 76 24 9 2 n 33 9325 I00 i629 

IOI M I20 2g I22 n 125x5 I30a9 I 32 418 1 3^ I 39l8 ^SIl 
14^30 I 528 I S I 2S18 Z 5932 l6 2t> l6l !3 l66 l7 l6 7i922 l68 72* 

1707 1 73i222 I 74u 1 76 4<510 i3 i77 2 s W^w ^ISSD l8 7i 3 2i 22 7i 42 o 

22$ 112 230 10 23I 1024 237 1G 24I 1427 242 2526 247^ 252 3031 

2 53i52b27 28 5n 3^% 372 10 3So U22 4^27 

NORTHUMBRIANS (not, as in the text: ' Northumbria ') 
(Nor^imbrar), i. 26i 33 

ODD (Oddr), Kikina-skald, an Icelandic poet, sings of the 
battles of K. Magnus the Good in Denmark, iii. 5o 23 . 32 of 
the death of Magnus, 9i 19 . 28 

ODD, son of Kol (O. Kolsson), a grandson of Hall of the 
Side, a saga-teller; after his telling Ari the Learned wrote the 
lives of the kings of Norway, which Odd himself had learnt 
from the Norwegian Thorgeir Afradskoll of Nidness, i. 6 3 9 

ODIN ('OSinn), after his death called Odin the Old (OSinn 
hinn gamli), i. 25 24 Odin of the As-folk ('Asad&nn), i. i7 3 
sire of As-folk ('Asa ni^Sr), 2i 2 chief of Asgarth, which 
he ruled by twelve ' Diar,' i2 n . 21 his divine nature and 
qualities, I2 21 -i3 6 he lays hands upon and gives blessing to 
his warriors, I2 2l7 . 30 his fondness for wandering, i3 4 . 16 his 
dealings with the Vanir, I3 19 -i4 19 he and Mimir's head, i4 15 
i8 16 made Niord and Frey temple priests, i4 20 was wise in 
wizardry, r 5 13 migrates with his Diar to the North, leaving his 
brothers Ve and Vili in charge of Asgarth, 15^-16^ his 
dealings with Gylfi, i5 24 -i6 21 being the source and author 
of the useful arts, he and his Diar teach them to mankind, 
1 7 3 . 9 beautiful in peace, terrible in war, 1 7 12 . 15 could change 
shape at will, i7 15 i8 5 . 10 he and the Diar spoke in verse and 
brought the art of skald-craft first to the North, i7 21 ^ 6 his 
magic powers, i7 26 i8 n -i9 3 Bareserksgang due to his spell- 
working, i7 29 -i8 3 his converse with the dead, i8 18 . 21 his 
ravens, i8 22 . 24 his mastery in runes, wizard songs and spell- 
craft, i8 25 -i9 8 the power of his enchantments, iQg-aa child- 
ren named after Odin, i9 24 his legislation, 20 3 . 23 his mili- 
tary and pontifical expenditure defrayed by a polltax on all 

138 Index I [ODR OGM 

Swedes, 2o 20 . 23 had many sons with Skadi, 2o 26 -2ip died 
in his bed in Sweden, 2i 20 let himself, at point of death, be 
marked with a spear-point and claimed as his all men dead 
by weapons, said he would go to Godhome and welcome his 
friends there, 2i 22 . 25 believed to have gone to t Asgarth of 
old days, 7 zi^ then began anew the worship of Odin, 2i 28 
often seen in visions by the Swedes, 2i 29 , 33 was burned 
in the seemliest wise, 22 X unto him Niord marked himself 
before his death, 22 10 K. Swegdir with twelve men goes on 
a pilgrimage to Odin the Old in Godhome, 25 22 . 24 human 
sacrifices made to him, 42 1S . 21 81 -43 1C King Olaf Treeshaver 
sacrificed by his subjects to him for plenty of the year, 66 16<20 
sword-smitten hosts sent to him, 15 5 n . 14 207 28 . 29 259^ 
2 9^25-26 Odin's cup drunk at sacrificial feasts for victory to 
the king and increase of his power, i65 28 . 29 i^9 14 . 16 Odm as 
lord of his Elect (valr), and host in the Hall of the Elect 
(Val-holl), i89 6 . 17 I9i 13 -i93 12 Odin's acceptance of a sacrifice 
for victory signified by the appearance of two croaking ravens, 
2 5 8 21 . 2 f Earl Hakon the Mighty of Ladir alleged to have 
sacrificed his son to Odin, 2833^9 Odin's attempt to beguile 
Olaf Tryggvison, 3i4 28 -3i6 14 worshipped in Gautland still 
in the days of Olaf the Holy, li. i46 17 . ]9 Odin in ' kennings,' 
i. 1913 207 4 24933 iii. 4o 13 

ODR ('OSr), Freya's husband, i. 245 

OGMUND (Ogmundr), baseborn son of Erling Askew, iii. 

474 6 
OGMUND, son of Foli, ii. 413! 

OGMUND HAMMERER (O. dengir), brother of Erling Askew 
(presumably, therefore, son of Kyrping-Worm and Ragnhild, 
d. of Sveinki, cf. iii. 37i 3 . 5 ), so much superior to his brother 
that he was held of little account while Ogmund lived, 377 13 . 15 

OGMUND, son of Horda Kari, i. 303^ 

OGMUND IVARSON, slain at Elda, iii. 4167 

OGMUND SANDY (O. sandi) of Halogaland, a forecastle man 
on board the Long- Worm, i. 3537.3 

OGMUND, son of Skopti the son of Ogmund Thorbergson, 
his marriage and children, iii. 22^. 91 his act of devotion 
towards K. Magnus Barefoot, 231^-2323 in the dispute of 
Skopti with K. Magnus he goes to the King to plead for his 
father, and, offended at the King's obstinacy, he leaves his 

OGM OLA] Index I 139 

service and goes south to Rome, and dies on the journey, 

OGMUND SWEEP (O. sviptir), one of the counsellors of K. 

Sigurd son of Harald Gilli, iii. 359 23 377 13 
OGMUND, son of Thorberg Arnison, father of Skopti of Gizki, 

and of Ingibiorg, wife of Egil, s. of Aslak, iii. i84 n 209^ 225^ 
OGMUND, son of Earl Worm the son of Eilif, and Signd, the 

d. of Earl Finn Arnison ; his children Munan and Astrid, the 

mother of Earl Karl Sonison, iii. 35i 3 . 8 
OGVALD (Ogvaldr), a mythic king after whom Ogvaldsness 

was named, worshipped a certain cow which he took with 

him wheresoever he went, and of whose milk he always 

would drink for his health (the tale told by Odin), i. 3i5 5 . 18 

cf - 3i6io-i4 
OLAF ('Olafr), bonder. See Olaf the Quiet. 

OLAF, a king, * whom Edmund had set there (in the South of 
England) for the warding of the land,' defeats Eric Bloodaxe 
in a great battle, i. 15333- I54i 5 

OLAF [son of Arnfinn Arnmodson, and brother to Kalf Arn- 
finnson], stationed by the side of Kalf Arnison his kinsman, 
/.., first cousin, in the battle of Sticklestead,ii. 43% receives 
his death-wound from King Olaf, 432 82 

OLAF, son of the Swedish king Biorn, brother to K. Eric the 
Victorious, and father to Styrbiorn, i. 124,7 

OLAF BUTTERBREAD ('O. kliningr), father to Gudrod 
King of the South-isles, iii. 424^ 

OLAF THE FARSIGHTED ('O. hinn skygni [second- 
sighted?]), King of Nenck, father of Alof, the mother of 
Gauthild wife of Ingiald Evil-heart, i. 65 9r . 98 

OLAF O J DALE ('O. 1 Dali), a wealthy goodman dwelling in 
Aumord in Mickle-dale, iii. 277 18 . 21 his children Hakon 
Fauk, son, and Borghttd, daughter, 277^.22 his stay in 
wintertide at Burg with his children leads to his becoming 
maternal grandfather of Magnus the Blind, 277 24 -278 25 

OLAF GEIRSTEADELF ('O. GeirstaSaalfr), son of Gudrod 
the Hunter-king and his first wife Elfhild, i. 3 23 70^.30 half- 
brother to Halfdan the Black, 7o 32 -7i ir father to Rognvald 
Higher-than-the-Hills, 3 23 -4 x succeeds his father and shares 
the kingdom with Halfdan, 72 15 . 31 his death, 73^9 cf. 77 n , 14 
OLAF GEIRSTEADELF ('O. GeirstaSaalfr), son of Harald 

140 Index I [OLA 

Hairfair and Swanhild, the daughter of King Eystein (Eystein- 
son of Heathmark ?), i. 1 14^ proclaimed king by his father, 
i3i ls succeeded to the kingdom of Guthrod his brother, 
J 3 2 iM8 threatens vengeance on his brother Eric for the 
murder of their brother Biorn Chapman, i35 31 -2 8 - -after whose 
fall he possessed himself of his dominion in Westfold, and 
took his son Gudrod into fostering, 1423.5 made sovereign 
king by the Wick-men when they heard of Eric Bloodaxe's 
elevation to that dignity, i42 9 . 13 his contest with Eric and 
fall in the battle of Tunsberg, i44 6 . 26 his howe on the brent 
east of Tunsberg, where he fell, 14435-26 

OLAF, son of Harald Kesia and Ragnhild, daughter of King 
Magnus Barefoot, and sister to Sigurd Slembi- deacon, iii. 
2$3 17 Sigurd Slembi-deacon defeats him in the Elf, 354 10 -i3 

OLAF KUARAN ('O. kvaran), t98o, king of Dublin, father 
(not brother, as Snorri has it) of Gyda, who married Olaf 
Tryggvison, i. 264 22 . 23 entertains at his court Olaf Tryggvison 
(266 20 . 21 ) 289(p. 13 ) ^ This is impossible, as Olaf left Wend- 
land for Britain not "till about 986. 

OLAF THE LAD ('O. drengr), stationed in the forehold of the 
Long-Worm, i. 353^ 

OLAF, King of Norway 1103-1115, son of King Magnus Bare- 
foot and of Sigrid, the daughter of Saxi in Wick, iii. 233 n . 13 
33^20-21 shares with his brothers Eystein and Sigurd the 
kingdom of Norway after the death of Magnus, and, being a 
minor, his share of the realm is looked after by his brothers, 
2 4?T-i2 cf. 262 26 . 2? personal description, 268^3 his short 
life foreshadowed in a dream to his brother Sigurd, 26933 
2703.5 falls sick and dies, 277 3 . 12 

OLAF (Peacock) ('O. pai), son of Hoskuld, and father of 
Kiartan, i. 33415-16 

OLAF THE QUIET ('Olafr hinn Kyrri), King of Norway 1067- 
1093, son of King Harald Sigurdson by Thora, daughter of 
Thorberg Arnison, surnamed * Quiet ' or ' Bonder/ married 
to Ingirid, d. of K. Svein Wolfson of Denmark, no issue; 
had a son, Magnus (Barefoot), by Thora, d. of Joan, iii. 96 19 . 23 
i94 27 -i95 6 accompanies his father on his expedition to 
England, i6s 22 . 24 with him at the battle on the Ouse, i68 18 ^ 9 
one of those left behind to guard the ships when his father 
landed his army at Stamford Bridge, i7o 18 _ 19 allowed by 


Index I 141 

King Harald Godwinson to go on his way after the battle at 
Stamford Bridge, 1 8 i 3 . r brings his host away from England 
and arrives in the Orkneys, where he stays through the winter, 
i82 27 -i83 4 in the summer he goes east to Norway and is 
taken to king with Magnus his brother, i83 4 . 6 gets Ketil 
Crook a good wedding in Halogaland, i83 14 . 16 his relations 
with Skuli the King's fosterer, i83 8 -i84 4 gives Skuli in 
marriage Gudrun, daughter of Nefstein, 184^ rules over 
Norway jointly with Magnus his brother for three years, i87 3 . 8 
K. Svein Wolfson's threatened breach of peace and invasion 
of Norway averted and secure peace arranged, i87 n -i88 8 - 
sole king of Norway after the death of Magnus his brother, 
i88 9 1914.5 personal description, I9i 5 . 22 first to move the 
high-seat from the middle of the side-bench of the hall to the 
dais at the end of it: to introduce stoves in halls, and to lay 
floors with straw in winter as well as in summer, 1923 
founds the mercantile port of Biorgvin, *92 m3 builds 
churches, I92 15 . 18 i95 9 . 1 7 promoter of Guilds and Scot-houses, 
I 9 2 i8-26 encourages new fashions, i92 2G -i93 3 his courtly 
life and body-guard, I93e-i94i6 his peaceful ways, wise and 
sympathetic rule, 19630-19734 his relations to his brother-in- 
law, K. Knut the Holy of Denmark, 197^195^ K - O laf 
and the soothsayer, 1994-201 his death and burial, 202. 

OLAF [Hunger], King of Denmark 1086-1095, son of Svein 
Wolfson, King of Denmark, iii. i94 25 married to Ingigerd, 
daughter of K. Harald Hardredy, I94 28 o9 

OLAF THE SWEDE ('O. scenski), K. of Sweden, ob. 1024, 
son of K. Eric the Victorious and of Sigrid the Highminded, 
d. of Skogul Tosti, i. 2i3 3 . 9 284 12 . 14 356 23 . 24 ii. 23^3 -iii. 2p 8 
tenth King of Upsala of them that have taken that kingdom 
one after the other, ii. 97 10 .n his children; in wedlock: 
James (Jacob, afterwards called Onund, i39 8 . 13 ) and Ingi- 
gerd; by Edla, a concubine: Emund, Astrid, Holmfnd, 1397-8 
gives harbour to the sons of Earl Hakon of Ladir when 
Olaf Tryggvison sets up for king of Norway, i. 299^ 
cf. 300^ 3450.30 on his mother marrying King Svein Twi- 
beard of Denmark, close political relations follow between 
Sweden and Denmark, 348 28 . 32 at K. Svein's request he 
allies himself with him against K. Olaf Tryggvison, 359 12 - 
36o 6 watches with Svein Twibeard and Earl Eric the 

142 Index I [OLA 

fleet of Olaf Tryggvison sailing out to Svold, 36234-364^ 
arranges terms with King Svein and Earl Eric for the spoils 
of war in case of victory, 364 22 . 28 ta ^es part in the battle of 
Svold, 367 21 . 23 368 27 . S1 369 8 . 10 gives his daughter Holmfrid 
in marriage to Earl Svein, son of Earl Hakon the Mighty, 
37721-22 confers, on tributary terms, on Earl Svein the share 
of Norway that fell to him after the fall of Olaf Tryggvison, 
37725-si his defensive measures against Olaf Haraldson (the 
Holy) on his viking invasion of Sweden, ii. 7 6 -8 26 his enmity 
to Olaf Haraldson urged by K. Sigurd Syr as a formidable 
obstacle to Olaf's gaming the kingdom of Norway, 40 22 . 24 
he receives Earl Svein, his son-m-law, after his defeat at 
Nesiar, and promises to restore him to his dominion in Nor- 
way, 65 11 . 23 receives Einar Thambarskelfir as fugitive from 
Norway and entertains him at his court, 66 18 . 21 2 1 1 15 . 20 is 
deeply offended at Olaf Haraldson's appropriation of Earl 
Svein's dominion which the latter held as fief of his father-in- 
law, 66 21 -67 1 sends a mission to Norway to gather the taxes 
he laid claim to there, which ends in failure, 69^-7 2 33 
moreover, by King Olaf Haraldson's conquest of "the sea- 
board and islands of Ranrealm (1017), 78 22 . 25 by the com- 
plete loss of that province to Norway through Eyvind 
Uroch shorn J s victory over Roi Squinteye, 8i 10 . 19 and byThor- 
gaut Harelip's discomfiture at the hands of Eyvind Urochs- 
horn, 83 3 . n the Swede King was so enraged that no man 
durst mention Olaf of Norway as king to him, 84 23 . 2S 96^ 
97e-7 King Olaf Haraldson, pressed by his own people, 
85 3 _ 18 2c"^^27 having sent a mission to Sweden to open 
negotiations for peace between the two realms, 86 19 -9i 6 re- 
ceives an angry reply in return from the Swede king, and 
an equally decided refusal of marriage alliance, 96 n -98 22 993- 
ioo 2 his relations to Hialti Skeggison of Iceland, and to his 
Icelandic court poets, 9i 14 . 20 92 r . 25 94i S -95i 5 96 n -98 25 his 
bombastic account of the relations between Sweden and Nor- 
way from the reign of Harald Hairfair to that of Olaf Harald- 
son, 97tf-98 22 his angry refusal to his daughter Ingigerd to 
listen to counsels of peace with Norway, threat to invade 
Norway^ 9923- ioo 2 his attendance in state at Upsala-Thing, 
n8 14 . 16 his insolence to King Olaf Haraldson's messengers 
of peace, H9 10 .i2 29" I20 9 cowed by Lawman Thorgnyr's 

OLA] Index I 

threatening speech, he agrees to settlement of peace between 
the two realms and promises his daughter Ingigerd in marriage 
to Olaf of Norway, charging Earl Rognvald with the execution 
of all the affairs relating to the betrothal, I22 1 _ 18 breach of 
the covenant as to Ingigerd's marriage, i 3 8 9 " 06 13930-14033 

n - 5 

His character, i39 26 -3o a successful fowling sport made 
light of by Ingigerd as compared with Olaf Haraldson's capture 
of five Upland kings at one swoop, whereto the father's answer 
was blank refusal to marry her to Olaf of Norway, 140^-142^ 
receives in a friendly manner a message from King Jarisleif 
of Holmgarth soliciting in marriage his daughter Ingigerd, 
1 4813.24 he formally engages Ingigerd to K. Jarisleif and 
consents to her conditions including the transfer of Earl 
Rognvald of West-Gautland to the Earldom of Aldeigiaburg, 
1 53 12 - 1 54 31 disaffection in West-Gautland after the departure 
of Earl Rognvald, i55 n . 30 his dealings with Emund lawman 
of West-Gautland, 1 56^-15 9^ customs at his court, i59 6 . 9 
his councillors, 159^-19 his zeal for justice, I59 19 . 22 ex- 
planation of Lawman Emund's enigmatic law cases which 
the king unwarily had decided against himself, I59 2r i62 2 
his three faithful advisers, Arnwith, Thorwith and Freywith 
allay disaffection in the realm and save him his crown, i6o 30 - 
i66 7 his son James proclaimed king and co-regent by Frey- 
with's prudent diplomacy, 164-16617 Olaf to remain king on 
condition of keeping on friendly terms with Norway, i65 31 - 
i66 2 peace settled at last between the two Olafs at Kings' 
Rock, i66 u -i67 8 his death, 2io n 

OLAF THE THICK, the Holy ('O. hinn digri, hinn helgi), 
King of Norway, 1015-1030, son of Harald the Grenlander 
and Asta, d. of Gudbrand Kula, i. 6 20 . 2I 84 2<J _ 27 287 14 . 19 
married to Astrid, natural d. of K. Olaf the Swede, ii. 1534.5 
iii. 4g, 10 their daughter Ulfhild, ii. 369! iii. 34 n . 32 has by 
Alf mid, king's bondmaid, a son, Magnus (the Good), ii. 235^ 
His future greatness taken to have been revealed to his 
ancestor Halfdan the Black, i 84 n . 19 25 . 27 christened, when 
three years of age, Olaf Tryggvison^ being gossip to him, 
3ii 14 . l7 lives in childhood first with his grandfather, Gud- 
brand Kula and then with K. Sigurd Syr, his stepfather, 
3 IJ 9-i2 ii- 3s-7 n i s foster-father being Rani the Widefaring, 

144 Index I [OLA 

3,^ personal description, 3 9 _ 12 4 14 . 31 deals contemptuously 
with his stepfather, 3 10 -4n takes to the profession of Vikings 
at twelve years of age, with Rani for captain, himself being 
king of the host, 5 3 . 16 wars in Denmark, ^.^ harries 
Sweden, in revenge of his father whom Sigrid the Haughty 
had caused to be slain, victory in Sotisker, warfare in the 
Low and escape by Agnisthwaite; submission of Gotland, 
5ss~9s f- 9815-20 war an ^ victory in Islesysla, 9 5 _ 31 his warfare 
in Finland, io-n 4 his raid on Denmark and victory in 
Southwick, 1 1 7 . 26 attack on Frisian d, 1 2 3 . 15 goes to England, 
12 is 26 allies himself with Ethelred against the Danes, breaks 
down London Bridge, and carries the Danish positions in 
Southwark, I2 18 -i5 4 i . 35 his victory on Ringmar-heath, i6 3 . 25 
capture and burning of Canterbury, 1 7 3 . 24 commands the 
fleet and gains victory over the Thingmen (Danes) at New- 
mouth, i7 25 -i8 4 collects Ethelred's tribute, i8 5 . 15 his wars 
and victories in France, i8 20 -2o ls 2 r 2I i3 ^ as a dream tnat 
designates him King of Norway, so he turns northward to 
Rouen in Normandy, 2o 13 . 24 2 t j^-2B l he undertakes to re- 
instate the sons of Ethelred on the throne of England and, 
on failing to oust the Danes, parts company with the princes, 
sailing to Northumberland and fighting victoriously at Wald, 
28 x -29 r 

Sails from Northumberland to Norway and lands at the 
island of Sele, 29 10 -3o ir sails south to Saudungsound and 
overcomes Earl Hakon, son of Eric, and gives him pardon 
on oath that he will never again bear weapons against him, 
3is"3334 v* 3 ^ to > anc * reception by, his mother and stepfather, 
33 22 -37 ls -he discloses his plans at a family council, 37 2 r4 I i i r 
the kings of the Uplands, at his stepfather's counsel, declare 
for him and give him the title of King of Norway, 4i 20 -45 9 
Olaf s progress through the Uplands, Gudbrandsdale and 
north over the mountains into Middledale in Thrandheim, 
where a meeting of the franklins accepts him as king, 45 12 - 
469 coming to Orkdale he takes, after some trouble, oaths 
of allegiance from the liegemen of Earl Hakon Ericson in 
four folklands of Thrandheim, 46 26 -48 10 goes down to the 
sea, where he gets together a small fleet of three longships and 
four or five cutters, and starts up Thrandheim firth for Steinker, 
where Earl Svein Hakonson was banqueting, 48 13 -49 21 


Index I 145 

finding the earl gone from Steinker Olaf plunders the place 
and repairs for Nidoyce, which, neglected by the earls, he sets 
to restoring, in order to spend Yule there, 5o 14 -5i x King 
Olaf and the poets Thord Sigvaldi's skald, and Sigvat his 
son, 5i 6 -52 Olafs flight before Earl Svein and Emar Tham- 
barskelfir from Thrandheim south over the mountains to the 
Dales, 53 he gathers a host from the Uplands and arrays 
a fleet in the Wick, 542-is~ Olaf s victory in the battle of 
Nesiar, Earl Svein's and Emar Thambarskelfir's flight, 55 21 - 
64 10 io5 5 . 6 lets himself be proclaimed king at Things all 
through the western Wick unto Lidandisness, and proceeds to 
Thrandheim, where the people, except Earl Svein's liegemen, 
submit to his sway, and he sets about rebuilding Nidoyce 
which Earl Svein had burnt, 64^-6^ on the death of Earl 
Svein all Thrandheim yields fealty to King Olaf, whence 
sprang great enmity from Olaf the Swede king, 6 6^-6 7 13 
King Olafs court arrangements, 67 16 -68 5 daily habits, 68 8 . 14 
his manners and character, 68 29 . 31 his interest in legislation 
secular and ecclesiastical, 68 14 . 28 his concern for Christianity 
in the Norwegian colonies, 69^ his dealings with the 
messengers of Olaf the Swede king claiming suzerainty over 
Norway, 69^-72 his messages to Hialti Skeggison and Skapti 
the speaker-at-law, and to the people of Iceland concerning 
amendments of Christian law there, 73 4 . 15 he journeys south 
along the land promulgating Christian law to his subjects, 
73 16 -74 3 he is proclaimed king at every * Law-Thing,' 74^ 
he makes peace with Erhng Skialgson, 74y-75i5 c f- 55i2-i9 ^ 2 a-n 
he sails to the Wick and brings under his sway all the eastern 
part thereof from Swinesound south to the Gautelf, 75^-78 25 
he founds the fortified town of Sarpsburg and forbids exports 
from the Wick to Gautland, 78 2 e-79 13 King Olafs bounty to 
Eyvind Urochshorn and Bryniolf Camel, 79 16 -8o^ highly 
offended with the Swedes for slaying his tax-gatherer in Jamt- 
land, and confiscating the tribute, 8o 10 _ llr canon law promul- 
gated through the Wick, 8o 20 -8i 3 commissions Eyvind 
Urochshorn to slay Roi Squint eye, an encroaching tax-gatherer 
from Sweden, 8i 5 _ 19 procures from Russia robes of State and 
costly table-service, 8i 28 -83 15 settles with Earl Rognvald of 
Gautland peace between his dominion and Norway, 83 19 -84 16 , 
becomes master of the whole of Norway south to Gautelf,, 

VI. L 

146 Index I [OLA 

84 20 . 23 incurs the implacable hatred of Olaf of Sweden, 
$$423-28 Accedes to a proposal of Biorn the Marshal to make 
overtures for peace to the King of Sweden, 8s 3 -86 2 ^ sends 
Biorn and his companions with messages of peace to Sweden, 
8719-8838 goes through the Uplands enforcing Christian law 
with severe cruelty where he meets resistance, ioi 24 -io2 con- 
spiracy by five Upland kings detected and cruelly punished 
by Olaf, 103-109^ on the death of Sigurd, his stepfather, 
Olaf alone bears the title of king in Norway, 10937.30 King 
Olaf entertained by his mother : his converse with her sons, 
I09 28 -in 23 Biorn the Marshal returns from his mission to 
Sweden, which had been so successful through the adroitness 
of Hialti Skeggison, the backing up of Earl Rognvald and the 
masterfulness of Lawman Thorgnyr, that peace was established 
between the two kingdoms, and Ingigerd the daughter of the 
Swede king was promised Olaf of Norway in marriage, 88 27 - 
ioi 21 113.^-122 King Olaf, on receiving the news, summons 
to him a great and noble company to go east to Gautelf, where, 
in autumn of the year, he was to be married to Ingigerd of 
Sweden, i23 8 . 13 King Olaf s dealings with King Roerek the 
blind, I23 14 -i37i King Olaf and Thorarin Nefiolfson, 1335- 
1373 King Olaf sees Hialti Skeggison off with friendly gifts, 
I 37r^ ne ges with a brave company to Kings' Rock for his 
bridal, but learns there, after a long tarrying, that the King of 
Sweden has broken his covenant, advised by his counsellors 
not to avenge the snub with war, he goes back to the Wick 
and takes up winter quarters at Sarpsburg, i37 2 6" I 3^26 I 3926" 
I4o 25 i4i n -i44 5 he accedes to Sigvat the Skald's offer to 
go to Earl Rognvald to find out what the intention of the 
King of Sweden was, i44 15 . 21 on Sigvat's return Olaf learns 
that his bride, Ingigerd, has been betrothed to King Jarisleif 
of Holmgarth, i48 18 . 24 I5o 25 . 29 but hearing that her sister, 
Astrid, who was staying at the court of Earl Rognvald, was 
in every way an equal to her sister, Olaf, encouraged by Earl 
Rognvald, married her without asking the father's consent, 

I 532- I 539 Olaf of Sweden's anger hereat, i54 6 -i 2 I 55i5-i9 
peace settled between the two Olafs at Kings 5 Rock, i66 u - 
i67 8 Olaf of Norway goes back to Tunsberg and thence to 
Thrandheim, wintering in Nidoyce, and now bore as King of 
Norway as extensive a sway as Harald Hairfair ever did, 


Index I 147 

l6 7ii- 3 <r l8 93-ii Kin S 9 laf aven ges the death of Eyvind 
Urochshom on Earl Einar Wrongmouth of Orkney, 1 74 28 - 
I 7 8 ao nis cte alm s wittl the brothers of Einar, Brusi and 
Thorfmn, who both acknowledge him liege lord of Orkney, 
i7823- l8 7ir his journey to Halogaland and enforcement of 
Christian law there, return to, and wintering in Nidoyce, 
189-192 King Olafs dealings with the heathen worshippers 
~ of Upper-Thrandheim, slaying of Olvir of Eggja, 193-198^ 
he gives the widow of Olvir in marriage to Kalf, son of Arni, 
I 9 8 is" I 99r missionary expedition to Lesjar, Dovrar, Lora- 
dale, and other countrysides in the upper Uplands, I99 10 -2oo 16 
King Olaf brings about Gudbrand a-Dales* conversion to 
Christianity, 2oo 19 -209 3 christening of Heathmark, 209^: 
of Thotn and Hathaland, 209 15 . 17 : of Ringrealm, 209 17 . 19 : 
of Raumrealm, 209-^-2105: of Solisles 3 2io 7 . 8 

K. Olaf sets up the legislative assembly of Heidsaevi for all 
the Uplands, 2io 15 . 21 thereupon he betakes himself out to 
Tunsberg in the Wick, whence he issues an order forbidding 
export of cereals from Agdir, Rogaland and Hordland, and 
then goes east to the land's end, 2io 22 -2ii u makes peace 
with Einar Thambarskelfir, 2ri 15 . 28 ^- O^ > oes to Sarps- 
burg and resides there into the early part of winter, 2ii 28 . 3I 
K. Olaf rebukes Erling Skialgson for his masterfulness, 
2i2-2i4 18 K. Olafs dealings with Asbiorn, son of Sigurd, and 
his uncle Erling Skialgson anent the murder of Thorir Seal, 
222 6 -230 15 full enmity between K. Olaf and Erling, 23i ir _ 20 
K. Olaf christens Vors, 231^-2324 christens Valdres after 
wasting it with fire and sword, 232^-234.33 hence he goes 
north through the Dales unto Thrandheim, and spends the 
winter (loth regnal year) in Nidoyce, 234 24 . 29 to K. Olaf is 
born a natural son baptized without his leave by Sigvat the 
Skald, 235 14 -237 3 K. Olaf appoints Asmund, son of Grankel, 
to the half of the bailiwick of Halogaland against Harek of 
Thiotta, the real object being that Asmund should slay, as 
he did, Asbiorn Sealsbane for having broken the covenant of 
Ogvaldsness, 237 6 -24o 27 in the spring of this year he goes 
along the land atoning litigants and mending the religious 
ways of his people all the way to the lands' end (Gautelf), 
24i 2 . 10 cultivates friendship with Iceland for a deep-laid 
political purpose, 24i 13 -242 2 sends a message to Iceland 

148 Index I [OLA 

praying that the island of Grimsey should be given to him 
the Icelanders' cautious reply, 242^-246.^ having made friends 
in Faroe (24i 1315 ) chiefs from those islands go to King Olaf 
at his request and give the islands into his power, 246^-247^ 
but a ship sent with the king's tax-gatherers on board never 
reached its destination, 247 20 _ 32 from the eastern land's end 
(2415) K. Olaf went, in the autumn, to the Upper Wick and 
the Uplands settling law and right among the people and 
amending Christian law, 248 3 . 12 he marries Gunnhild, his 
half-sister, to Ketil Calf, and Isfid, his aunt, to Thord Guth- 
orm's son, 248 13 -249 Q thereupon he goes south over Thotn, 
Hathaland, Ringrealm, to the Wick, and, in the spring, tarries 
long in the market-town of Tunsberg, 249 10 . 14 in the summer 
several sons of Icelandic chiefs enter the king's service, 
2 49id-29 tnat summer King Olaf heard of the loss of his first 
tax-gathering ship sent to Faroe another sent, on receipt of 
the news, had the same fate as the first, and much misgiving 
this caused in Norway, 249^-2507 King Olaf s masterfulness 
drives many out of the land to King Knut of England, 25 1 12 . 25 
2 5 2 e-i2 Olaf repels in bold language King Knut's claim to the 
crown of Norway, 252^-2545 255^.34 King Olaf concludes 
in autumn an alliance with K. Onund of Sweden, 256-2575 
he spends the winter following in Sarpsburg, 2583.4 sends 
Karli the Halogalander to the north country with his errands 
and on a trading trip to Biarmland, which Thorir Hound 
brought to a disastrous end, 2 584-2 6 7 6 Kings Olaf and 
Onund of Sweden meet at Kings' Rock, taking privy counsels 
together, whereupon Olaf goes back to the Wick, then west 
to Agdir and north to Hordland, 267 9 . 19 28 -268 King Olaf 
and the misdoers of Faroe, 269-274^ failure of attempt to 
get himself acknowledged king over Iceland, 274-^-27533 
this winter, the thirteenth year of his kingdom, he spends in 
Nidoyce, 275 24 . 29 Olafs relations to Sweden concerning the 
possession of Jamtland, 276-277 King Olafs dealings with 
Stein the son of Skapti, and Thorberg Arnison, 278-28635 
Olaf sends Finn Arnison to Halogaland to call out a muster 
for next spring, and to punish Thorir Hound for the slaying 
of Karli and the robbery of the king's goods, 28635-29 1 King 
Olafs adjudication of a dispute between Harek of Thiotta and 
Asmund son of Grankel, 2p2-294 8 he sends Thorod, the son 


Index I 149 

of Snorri, to gather taxes from Jamtland, with the result 
that the mission failed utterly, 294 U -302 ?6 King Olaf sends 
Karl o' Mere to the Faroes to claim tribute thereof, but at 
Thrand o' Gate's instigation he is slain, and King Olaf never 
lived to avenge him of this wrong, 302^-310! 

King Olaf sets out on his expedition against Knut the 
Mighty, gathering forces from Thrandheim and the country 
north thereof, as well as North-Mere, Raumsdale and South- 
Mere, awaiting the concentration of the northern fleet at Her- 
isles, 302 19 _ 27 every landed man from the North-Country 
joined him except Einar Thambarskelfir, 3io s . l7 the King 
commanded a new built war-galley, the Bison, the greatest of 
all ships, and made with his fleet south past Stad into Hord- 
land, 3io ls . 32 cf. iii. 2y 12 learns that Erling Skialgson and 
his sons had left the land and gone to join Knut in England, 
3 1 1^7 being informed that Knut is still in England, but 
preparing for war, he sends home the less fightworthy part of 
his host and makes for Denmark with the rest, 3117.33 
harries Sealand in Denmark, and hearing that K. Onund of 
Sweden, according to the covenant of Kings' Rock (pp. 267- 
268) was warring on Skaney, he takes his fleet to the east 
and joins Onund, whereupon they proclaim their intention of 
subduing Denmark to their sway, 3123-313^ on hearing 
that Knut had arrived from the west with an overwhelmingly 
strong fleet, Olaf and Onund turn their war eastward and 
ravage Skaney on their way till they come to the Holy River, 
where they make a halt, 31913-320^ the battle of the Holy 
River and retreat of Kings Olaf and Onund, 32o r 323 26 
they sail along the coast of Sweden to Barwick, where, at a 
council of war, Onund declares that he has given up all idea 
of continuing the war, and Olaf decides to wait and watch 
King Knut's movements, 32339-325^ learning that King 
Knut had gone back by the Eresound to Denmark, King 
Onund steered home with all his host, K. Olaf abiding behind, 
3 2 728~3 2 ^6 decides to go back to Norway overland through 
Sweden, and to leave his ships in charge of his brother-in- 
law, 32935-33035 his arrayal for the journey, SShwur"*" 8 
ships hauled ashore in Kalmar, 33i 19 . 22 Olaf s journey, ar- 
rival at Sarpsburg in the Wick, furlough given to many of his 
host, 3336-21 O laf a- 11 ** Sigvat his marshal, 333s4-335s 337s-28 

150 Index I [OLA 

King Olaf receives from many sources news how, with Erling 
Skialgson returning to his estates, messengers from K. Knut 
loaded with money came into the land and went wide about 
bribing, 335ir336 20 after Yule he breaks up on a journey 
through the Uplands to Thrandheim from where no dues had 
yet been paid him this year, 337 29 -338 14 Olaf's dealings with 
Biorn, the steward of Queen Astnd, and Red of Eastern Dales 
and his sons, 3 3 8-^-34 1 2 finding out that Thorir the son of 
Olvir of Eggja had received a bribe of Knut to take his life 
King Olaf has him executed, 3415-34330 Griotgard, the 
brother of Thorir, set upon by King Olaf and slain, 344-3455 
Olaf gives up the journey to Thrandheim, goes back to 
Tunsberg in the Wick and calls out a host, but speeds slowly 
with that muster and finds that he cannot avail himself of 
the ships left in Sweden on account of King Knut's fleet, 
3458-24 on hearing that K. Knut was preparing an invasion 
of Norway, Olaf takes counsel with his diminishing followers 
and Sigvat advises flight, 346-3473 while Knut invades Nor- 
way and sails for Agdir and the northern folklands, K. Olaf 
awaits in Tunsberg the arrival of his ships which followed in 
the wake of the Danish fleet going to the north, and with these 
ships K. Olaf sailed through Oslo firth into Drafn and lay 
there till Knut had gone south again to Denmark, 348 15 . 16 
352 21 -353 4 learning that Knut had gone to Denmark he 
sails down to Tunsberg with thirteen ships and thence along 
the coast towards the north, staying a long while in the Seal- 
isles and some while in Eikund-sound, 353 2 6-354i6 ^ r ? m 
here he sails for the north past Jadar, pursued by Erling 
Skialgson unto Bokn, where he defeats Erling, who is slain by 
mishap, 354 2 o-359s hence he sailed north past Stad unto 
Her-isles and learnt that Earl Hakon was out with a great 
host, he goes on to Stonebight, thence to Nyrfi, past Hound- 
ham, Borgund, and in through Waysound and Skot, holding 
on till he came to a place called Suit in Todarfirth, where he 
landed and beached his ships, 36o 26 . 38 36i 29 . 82 362^363^ 
from Suit he causes a road to be opened through Skerf-skree 
and gets over the mountains to Lesiar, 363^-36724 he goes 
unto Gudbrandsdale and Heathmark and finds all people 
turned away from him by reason of the slaying of Thorir the 
son of Olvir of Eggja, 367^-368,5 he gives furlough to his 


Index I 151 

following who were anxious about the fate of their homes and 
families, 368 7 _ n he breaks up with a chosen company and 
his queen and children and leaves Norway by the Eidwood, 
goes through Vermland and Nerick, where he tarried through 
the spring and, when it was summer, sailed to King Jarisleif 
in Garthrealm, where he was well entertained, with his com- 
pany, 368 12 -47o 4 his religious devotion in adversity, and 
plans to right his own and his country's cause, 37o 4 . 18 main- 
tenance of evenhanded justice the cause of K. OlaPs down- 
fall, 37o 22 -372 15 Biorn the Marshal's defection from and re- 
turn to the allegiance of Olaf, 377 23 -38i 4 by the advice of 
his counsellors Olaf declines the offer by Jarisleif of vice- 
royalty over Bulgaria, 38 1^ he halts between the alterna- 
tive of going back to Norway, or into some monastery, 38i ir 
3^ 2 ii k e k as a dream (cf. 2o i:i _ 24 ) on which he decides 
to win his kingdom of Norway again, 382^-38324 King 
Olaf's healing powers, 3832^-3852 his self-inflicted penance 
for not heeding holy hours, 3855.33 when he makes his re- 
solve to regain mastery over Norway known to King Jarisleif 
every assistance is promised him, 38534-3 86 n he leaves 
Garthrealm after Yule and sails to Gotland, and then to the 
Low and to Riveroyce, and meets his brother-in-law and 
Queen Astrid, 386 15 -387 16 on hearing that Olaf had come 
to Sweden the chiefs of Norway called out a war-levy through- 
out the land, to oppose him, 389^-390^ 4i6 20 -4i7 10 at the 
same time Olaf's faithful men to the number of 720 join 
the standard of his brother Harald Sigurdson and go to meet 
him in Sweden, 39o 18 . 31 King Olaf tarries through the spring 
in Sweden, is supplied with 480 picked men by King Onund, 
39 z 3-24 ne meets i* 1 Ironstone-land his auxiliaries from Nor- 
way and then had a host of 1,440 strong, 392315 Day son 
of Ring joins King Olaf's standard with another 1,440 men, 
39 2 i8~393is ^ e sen( is out invitations to mercenaries to join 
him, and makes his way to Jamtland, marching in three 
columns, himself with his Northmen, Day with his band, and 
the Swedes by themselves, 393 15 -394 5 King Olaf refuses the 
help of non-Christian auxiliaries, 3943-39525 his vision when 
from the Keel mountain Upper-Thrandheim opened to the 
view, 396 King Olaf's arrival down from the mountain to 
Sula in Upper Veradale, and his dealings with Thorgeir Fleck 

152 Index I [OLA 

and his sons, 397~398 16 he marches from Sula to Staff 
(Stave) and musters his forces and christens heathen auxili- 
aries and sends away such as would not become Christians, 
398is~399 his address to the army, 400-40 1 10 he holds a 
council of war and decides, against his men, not to burn and 
plunder the country, 401-^-4045 King Olaf charges his skalds 
to stand next to him in the battle, in order that they may 
sing of coming events as eye-witnesses and not from hear- 
say, 4.045-4065 King Olafs offering for the repose of the 
souls of his enemies, 4o6 8 -4o7 3 King Olaf calls on Thormod 
Coalbrowskald to sing at the dawn of the day of the battle of 
Sticklestead, 407 6 -4o8 28 King Olaf charges the Icelanders in 
his host to slay Ram of Vigg and his band of spies, 409 3 . 28 
he arrives at Sticklestead and makes a halt, awaiting the 
company of Day, 40939-4104 42^-426^ he orders the Up- 
landers to carry his banners and his young brother Harald to 
withdraw, which he refuses to do, 4io 425 King Olafs behest 
to the goodman of Sticklestead to look after the wounded, 
4 z 0-33-4 1 1 u his charge to the troops and explanation of his 
tactics, 41 i 14 -4i 2 20 his standard borne by Thord son of Foli, 
4i2 23 -4i3 4 his armour and weapons in the battle, 4137.24 
King Olaf has yet a dream, which Finn Arnison aredes as be- 
tokening the king's death, 41337-414 Olaf accepts the war 
service of Arnliot Gellmi after having christened him, 415- 
416^ altercation between Olaf and Kalf son of Arni, 426 14 - 
42 7 6 the battle of STICKLESTEAD, fall of OLAF, 427^-434 
4423531 Thorir Hound gives him lyke-help and is healed by 
his blood, 4353-20 n * s body is hidden away in an outhouse 
at Sticklestead by Thorgils son of Halma and his son Grim, 
444s-u ^en, lest it should be discovered, they hide it away 
in a neighbouring meadow, 44524-31 they next make a chest 
for it and carry it on board a boat, hiding it below deck, placing 
a dummy coffin on deck filled with straw and stones, 447 5 -44.8 8 
at Nidoyce they hand the false chest to K. Olafs enemies, 
who sink it into the deep of the Firth, while Thorgils and his 
son take the chest with the king's body up the river Nid and 
land it at the spot called Saurlithe, and wake it in a lonely out- 
house, 448 8 . 28 failing to persuade friends of the dead king to 
take charge of his body, they bring it further up the river and 
bury it by night in a sandhill on the bank, and go back to 

OLA] Index / 153 

Sticklestead, 44839-4497 the holiness of K. Olaf begins to take 
hold of peoples' minds, 45 2 3 _ 12 24 . 26 453 2 i-2r 454 4 -i5 King OlaPs 
body is unearthed and * buried in earth at Clement's Church/ 
455-4-ir * an( * wnen twelve months and five nights were worn 
from the death * of the king c his holy relic was taken up ' 
(translatio) and his body was placed over the high altar in 
Clement's Church, 455ir4572 iii 935.7 churches reared on 
sites where the body of the king had been placed, 457 5 . 25 
miracles reported by Thorarin Praisetongue, 458 14 -46o 14 
calculation of OlaPs regnal years, 460^-4612 his miracles to 
be written in chronological order (not in a bulk), 46i 16 . 18 
Queen Astrid's devotion to his memory, iii. 4 13 -5 35 Swedes 
discontented at the result of their alliance with Olaf, 4 31 . 3S 
Sigvat's lament on the fall of Olaf, I2 5 . 14 enshrinement, 
many miracles at the shrine, i6 3 -i7 4 Thorgeir Fleck's re- 
flections on OlaPs death, i9 5 . 15 OlaPs traitors punished, 
2I i6-26 OlaPs holiness and miracles known over all lands 
(A.D. 1042), 28 14 . 16 ' Glad,' a bell given by K. Olaf to St. 
Clement's Church in Nidoyce, 35 24 . 26 K - OlaPs axe 'Hell' 
borne by Magnus, his son, 36 19 K. Magnus' trust in the 
power of his father as intercessor, 39 24 . 2 appears to Harald 
Hardredy when taken to prison in Constantinople, promising 
his help, 73i 5 .i7 a chapel built and hallowed to Olaf, in the 
street where he appeared to Harald, 73 1 7. 2 o ave ^ s S 9 n 
Magnus a ring for a parting gift, 86 18 . 20 his hair and nails 
clipped by K. Magnus, 87 23 ^ 8 foreshadows in a dream King 
Magnus' death, 90^-91 r K. Magnus 1 dead body brought to 
his father, 92 13 . 18 933.7 K. OlaPs relic kept in OlaPs church 
while Mary church was building, io5 6 _ 8 the evil resulting 
from the treason against Olaf held out as a warning to people 
driven to despair by Harald Hardredy's tyranny, H3 10 -i2 
K. OlaPs rule to have only one earl in the country followed 
as a principle by K. Harald, n6 3 . 5 OlaPs wake, i24 2 4677,5 
miracle at the battle between K. Margath and Guthonn 
Gunnhild's son, 1 24 3 . 28 a certain count in Denmark struck 
blind by a miracle of OlaPs, 125-^0 OlaPs mass in Den- 
mark, i25 31 a cripple of Valland healed by going, at 
OlaPs behest, to a church consecrated to him in London, 
12 <$i-30 OlaPs shrine never opened after A.D. 1066, when 
Harald Hardredy threw the keys of it into the river Nid, 

154 Index I [OLA 

i63 10 . 14 OlaPs age when he died, i63 15 . 16 Haldor Bryniolf- 
son's estimate of Olaf's character, 186^ Olafs shrine re- 
moved to Christ's Church, miracles, I95 14 -i96 1 7 380-^ 
miracle on a disbelieving scoffer, 23720-2384 on a crippled 
woman, 238^ splinter of the Holy Cross given to K. Sigurd 
Jerusalem-farer, to be placed where K. Olaf rested, 257 I4 _ 2r 
K. Olaf appears to K. Sigurd Jerusalem-farer in a dream, 
269 ir -27o 24 miracle on Kolbein, whose tongue had been cut 
out, 3Q2 9 -303 6 miracle on a Danish captive in Wendland, 
3039-306 vow made to K. Olaf by Harald Gilli, 322 12 _ 15 
miracle on Haldor mutilated by Wends, 380^-38 1 8 miracle 
on priest Richard, 38i n -385 16 miracle, whereby K. OlaPs 
sword 'Hneitir' came to be hung up in OlaPs Church in 
Constantinople, 4283-42934 K. Olaf gives a miraculous vic- 
tory to the Vserings on the fields of Pezina, 429^-431 K. 
OlaPs canon law debated by Abp Eystein and Erling Askew, 

OLAF 5 TREE-SHAVER ('O. tr&elgia), son of K. Ingiald 
of Sweden, sent by his mother into fostering at Bove, her 
foster-father's, in West Gautland, i. 62 30 -63 5 was refused 
succession to his father's kingdom by the Swedes, and so 
became the colonizing King of Vermland by clearing the wild- 
woods and was nicknamed Tree-shaver for his trouble, 65 3 . 21 
married Solveig, daughter of Halfdan Goldtooth of Solisles, 
65 0295 his children, 65 28 _ S1 his death, 66 S _ 32 

OLAF" TRYGGVISON ('O. Tryggvason), King of Norway, 
995-1000, son of Tryggvi the son of Olaf Geirsteadelf and 
of Astrid, d. of Eric Biodaskalli, i. 223^ 16 , 21 ii. 89^ married, 
i, Geira, d. of K. Burislaf in Wendland, 252 25 . 31 2, Gyda 
the English, 266 20 , 21 ; their son Tryggvi, ii> 463^ 3, Gudrun, 
d. of Jarnskeggi, 322 6 . 19 4, Thyri, d. of K. Harald Gormson, 
352r-so t* 1611 son Harald, died in childhood, 355 23 . 30 
founder of the town of Nidoyce, 6 10 fell wellmgh eighty 
years before the death (1080) of bp Isleif, 6 24 

Born on a holm in a certain water where his mother kept 
in hiding from Gunnhild's sons after the murder of her hus- 
band, 223 16 . 21 lives his first year in hiding with his mother 
at his grandfather's, 223 28 -224 13 adventurous flight out of 
Norway to Sweden to Hakon the Old, where Olaf was wel- 
comed and where he sojourned for a time, 225 21 -227 20 


Index I 155 

failure of Gunnhild's plan to fetch Olaf from Sweden in order 
to be fostered by her, 227 23 -228 24 taken captive on a journey 
to Russia and sold for a slave when three years old, in 
which condition he lived for six years, 228 26 -229 20 he is ran- 
somed from slavery by Sigurd, his mother's brother, and 
brought to Holmgarth, 22933-2309 he slays Klerkon, the 
murderer of his foster-father, and is protected by the queen 
of Holmgarth, Allogia, who atones the manslaughter and 
brings it about that King Valdimar entertains Olaf at his 
court for nine years, till he was eighteen years old, 230 12 - 
23i 24 personal description, 2^25-21 youth and manhood: 
held in high favour at court, he was appointed captain of the 
king's forces, had some battles and his command was success- 
ful, 25o 4 . 19 his free living and bounty to his men, 25o 18 . 23 
slandered to the King, he loses favour and leaves Russia, 
dropping his proper name and calling himself Oli the Garth- 
realmer, 25033.33-25123 262 29 . 31 makes a raid on Borgund- 
holm and gains a battle there, 25i 23 . 27 driven from Borgund- 
holm by storms he sails to Wendland and in the winter weds 
Geira, the daughter of K. Burislaf, 252 3 -253 6 he subdues 
certain countries in Wendland that had broken away from the 
rule of his wife, 254 9 . 18 next spring he carried war into Skaney 
and came off victorious, 254^.33 thence he sailed east to the 
island of Gothland and gained the day in two engagements, 
2 5424" 2 55s Ok-f J oms tne Emperor Otto II. on an expedition 
against Denmark, 255 n . I5 26o n _ 12 when he had been three 
winters in Wendland Geira, his wife, died and Olaf took to his 
ships, warfaring in Friesland, Saxland and Flanders, 26o 21 - 
26i 12 

Olaf in the West. From Flanders he sailed to England, 
northward to Northumberland, thence to Scotland, to the 
Southern Isles, to Man, to sundry parts of Ireland, to Wales, 
to Cumberland, to Valland (N.W. of France), and carried 
war into all these lands for four years, 26i 15 . 26 sails back to 
England and comes to the Scilly Islands, where he falls in 
with a soothsayer who converts him to Christianity, 26i 26 - 
264 12 leaves the Scillies and goes to the mainland of England, 
where he meets Gyda, a daughter of K. Olaf Kuaian of 
Dublin, to whom, after a successful duel with a rival, Alfwin, 
he is married, and they abide in turn in England and 

156 Index I [OLA 

Ireland, 264 15 -266 21 Olaf purchases the dog Vigi for a golden 
ring in a foraging raid in Ireland, 266 24 -267 15 Earl Hakon 
commissions Thorir Klakka to betray (5laf, 288 28 -289 16 Olaf 
Tryggvison and Thorir Klakka, 289^-291 

Olaf, King of Norway. From information received from 
Thorir Klakka, Olaf broke up from Dublin and set sail for 
the east, touching Sodor, the Orkneys, where he christened 
Earl Sigurd Hlodverson, and making Mostisle, off South- 
Hordland in Norway, 28934-291^ cf. ii. i69 15 . 2r i8o 5 . 10 
keeping bis identity and errand secret, he sailed north day 
and night till he hove into Thrandheim-firth and encountered 
and slew Erland the son of Earl Hakon, 29i 14 . 21 295 3 . 26 
Olaf proclaimed king provisionally by the yeomen of Thrand- 
heim flocking to him, zg6 3 . 6 goes to Rimul in Gauldale, 
where Earl Hakon was hiding in a hole beneath a swme-sty, 
and from a stone close by that sty harangues his following, 
and sets prize on Hakon's head, 296^ has Hakon J s thrall 
Kark beheaded at Ladir for the murder of his master, the 
Earl, 297 823 Olaf proclaimed legally at Ere-Thing king 
over all Norway, 299 3 . 8 went that winter and the next summer 
through the land receiving the allegiance of the people, 2999- 
3oo 4 he christens the people of the Wick, dreadfully mis- 
handling those who opposed him, 302 6 -303 13 thence he went 
west to Agdir, and christened the people there, 303 16 . 23 from 
Agdir he went north into Rogaland, and had a meeting with 
the * bonders ' whose pre-concerted opposition failed, and all 
those who attended the meeting were christened, 304 16 -305 27 
next he proceeded to the Gulathing in Hordland to meet 
the mighty kindred of Hordakari, who had made among them- 
selves a plan to resist all forced conversion, but accorded to 
the king's will when he consented to marry his sister Astnd 
to Erling of Soli, the great-grandson of Hordakari, 303 16 - 
34is 3 ^3"3 7so ^ e confers on Erling dominion from Sogn 
to Lidandisness on Harald Hairfair's terms, 3o8 6 . 15 ii. 23^ 
in the same autumn Olaf summons to a meeting at Dragseid 
on the peninsula of Stad, the representatives of Sogn, the 
Firths, Southmere and Raumsdale, and awes them into con- 
version to Christianity by superiority of force, 308-^-3094 
then he christens the folk of North- Mere, 309^ he breaks 
down and burns the temple of Ladir, and appropriates all 


Index I 157 

the wealth thereof, and burns the ruin, 309^0 rebellion 
threatened in Thrandheim, 309 13 . 15 Olaf sets "sail out of 
Thrandheim for Halogaland to chnsten people there, and 
on hearing that a war-host was out there to meet him he 
turns south along the land all the way to the Wick, 309 16 . 29 
Olaf and Queen Sigrid the Haughty of Sweden become be- 
trothed, 3io 3 . 9 Olaf sends her the great gold ring he had 
taken from the temple door of Ladir, and, to Sigrid's great 
indignation, it proves all brass inside, 3io 929 betrothal 
violently broken off, 31 r 2 4-3 I2 i2 Ringrealm christened, King 
Sigurd Syr and his family converted, Olaf Haraldson (the 
Holy) baptized, 3io 30 -3ii 17 from Ringrealm Olaf goes into 
residence at Tunsberg in the Wick, 31127.00 his dealings 
there with wizards and spellworkers, 3i2 18 -3i3 14 he levies a 
war-host out from the Wick to go into the north country (Le., 
Thrandheim), and, passing through Agdir, proceeds, late in 
Lent, to Rogaland, and arrives at Ogvaldsness for his Easter- 
feast, with nigh 360 men, 313x7.26 his dealings with his kins- 
man the wizard Eyvind Wellspring (they were both great- 
grandsons of Harald Hairfair), 3 I2 i8"3 I 3u as'S^as King 
Olaf and Odin (a legend), 3i4 28 -3i6 14 he draws a host 
together against the Thrandheimers, but being faced at 
Frosta-Thing by an overwhelming armed multitude, and 
stoutly opposed, especially by Iron-Skeggi, he temporizes 
with the franklins, putting matters off till the midsummer 
sacrifice at Mere, 316^-3183 gives a great feast at Ladir 
to the mightiest men of Thrandheim, and at a hustmg de- 
clares that at the forthcoming sacrifice at Mere he will have 
eleven (or rather twelve) chiefs of Thrandheim sacrificed 
to the gods, so all the assembled guests took Christianity on 
oath, and gave hostages in security of their good faith, 3185- 
3 r 9 22 At the Thing of Mere the bonders through Iron-Skeggi 
declared they would not be christened; so Olaf agreed to go 
with them into the temple, where he and his men smote down 
the images, slew Iron-Skeggi, and made ready to fight, where- 
upon all the heathen congregation let itself be christened, 
giving hostages to the king, and in a short time all Thrand- 
heim was converted to Christianity, 31 935-32 1 18 Olaf founds 
the town of Nidoyce, 6 9 . u 32i 21 . 29 ii. 50^33 atones the slay- 
ing of Iron-Skeggi by marrying his daughter Gudrun, who 

158 Index I [OLA 

makes an attempt on his life the first night of their bridal 
and never joined the king again, 322 3 _ 19 Olaf causes a great 
war galley, c The Crane/ to be built, 32232-29 Olaf sends 
Thangbrand to Iceland to christen the people, 323 5 . 26 King 
OlaPs way of kidnapping Harek of Thiotta and Ey vind Rent- 
cheek, 324-328 20 Olaf christens Halogaland, 3 2833-3 2 9r 
33 1 3-5 33327-3343 his dealings with Thorir Hart and Raud 
the Strong, 3 2 9icr3326 33V33326 returns from Halogaland 
in autumn, and spends the winter in Nidoyce, 333 31 -334q 
King Olaf and the Icelanders in Nidoyce, 334i<r34i2 King 
OlaPs accomplishments and character, 34o 15 -34i 13 cf. ii. I9i 28 - 
J 9 2 2 Olaf christens Leif the son of Eric the Red, 34i 16 . 20 
causes the Long- Worm to be built, 3434-3453 cf. iii. 283 20 . 23 
Olaf marries Thyri the sister of K. Svein Twibeard, the run- 
away queen of K. Burislaf, 35o 331 is urged by Thyri to 
claim her dominions in Wendland, to which he reluctantly 
consents, 35033-351^ his levy for the Wendland expedition, 
35 2 s"354r sends Gizur the White and Hialti Skeggison to 
christen Iceland, and Leif Ericson the Lucky on the same 
errand to Greenland, 354 10 .25 3553-17 k* s son Harald dies a 
year old, 355 2 o-3o ^ e arranges for the betrothal of his sister 
Ingibiorg to Earl Rognvald of West-Gautland, 356^-35 7 29 
marriage effected in his lifetime, ii. 23^0 he goes with sixty 
longships to Wendland and settles his claims with King 
Burislaf, and spends much of the summer there, i. 358 3 _ 23 
alliance against Olaf, at the instigation of Sigrid the Haughty, 
arranged between Sweden and Denmark, joined by Earl Eric 
the son of Hakon, 35. 8 26~366 3 6 4 2 2-28 cf - " 9 8 s-s Olaf led 
into a trap by Earl Sigvaldi of Jomsburg, 360^362^ his 
enemies' comments on the appearance of his fleet, 362 24 -364 21 
King Olaf scorns flying away for overwhelming odds, 365 15 . 33 
the battle of Svoldr, 366-3 74 14 ii. 26^7 King Olaf jumps 
overboard, various theories about his end, 3 74^-3 7 7 8 cf. ii. 
2i 19 22 13 985.3 his example urged as a warning to Olaf 
Haraldson by K. Sigurd Syr 4o 30 _ 33 as an encouragement by 
his mother Asta 4i7. 10 adverse comments on his reign by 
Rcerek King of Heathmark, 432-17 his policy copied by Olaf 
Haraldson, 47 29 . 31 cf. 87 26 . S1 but his example serves him as 
a warning not to engage too rashly in a fight, 33o 9 . 12 he 
counsels Olaf the Holy in a dream to reconquer Norway, 382 14 - 

OLA OLV] Index I 159 

3?3n Sigvat presses his example on K. Magnus the Good, 
iii. 23 10 , ir 

OLAF THE UNLUCKY ('O. 6gefa, lit. Ill-luck), son of Gud- 
brand the son of Shavehew and Maria, d. of K. Eystein the 
son of K. Magnus Barefoot, fostered by Sigurd Bait-hat in 
the Uplands, iii. 474ir-2o 9* af an< * Gudbrand raise the 
standard of revolt against Erling Askew and his son K. Mag- 
nus, Olaf being proclaimed king by the Uplanders, 47400-24 
his dealings with Erling, fights at Rydiokul and Stangs, in 
both of which Olaf is worsted, 474 24 -477 2 o his death and 
burial-place, 47720-23 

OLAF THE WHITE ('O. hvfti) (King of Dublin), I n6 1920 
OLI GARTHREALMER (OH gerzki), an incognito name 
assumed by Olaf Tryggvison, i. 262 31 26s n 288 25 29 289^ 20 

23 25 

OLMOD (Olmtf^r), son of Horda Kari, i. 30330 treats with 
Olaf Tryggvison to have Hordland converted to Christianity 
on condition of his grand-nephew Erling Skialgson obtaining 
in marriage Astrid, the king's sister, 304 3 . 13 3o6 3 -3o7 30 

OLVER (Olvir), the name of three goodmen in West-Gautland, 
who, each in his turn, refused night quarters to Sigvat, ii. 

I 46 24 .34 

OLVIR MICKLEMOUTH (O. mikilmunnr), his deed of 
valour at the siege of Kings' Rock by the Wend King Rettibur, 
iii. 32825-32932 

OLVIR OF EGGJA (O. a Eggju, nom. Egg, a form which for 
obvious reasons was discarded), son of Thrand o 3 Chin, married 
to Sigrid d. of Thorir, ii. i98 25 . 26 ; their sons: Thorir, 3415 
and Griotgarth, 3443 heads a number of goodmen sum- 
moned from Upper-Thrandheim to answer charges of per- 
formances of heathen sacrifices brought against them by King 
Olaf Haraldson, 1933-1949 meets the King again on similar 
charges, I94i 3 -i95 2 o set upon at Mere by King Olaf and 
killed, 19633-1974 15 . 18 the King judges that he shall not be 
atoned for, and confiscates all his property, 198^ his widow, 
Sigrid, given by the King in marriage to Kalf, son of Arm 
Arnmodson, 19835-1993 his slaying made use of by Sigrid for 
turning Kalf into a traitor to K. Olaf, iL 374 2 -376 14 

OLVIR THE SAGE (6. hinn spaki), King Halfdan the Black's 
foster-father, falls in fight with the sons of Gandalf, i. 8o 19 

160 Index I [ONA ONU 

ONAR ('Onarr), the father of Earth (therefore a giant), i. 158^ 
cf. S.E., i 320 13 

ONUND (Onundr), earl of the Sparbiders and father of Ketil 
Jamti, i. i62 19 . 20 , ii. 2764 

ONUND, son of Eystein the Mighty or the Evil, set ruler over 
Isles'-folk and Spar-biders-folk, when they were subdued by 
Eystein, slain by the Thrandheimers, i. i6i 16 . 21 

ONUND, a name given to James or Jacob, son of K. Olaf the 
Swede, on the day he was elected king when ten or twelve 
years old, ii. 165^3 (cf. James) surrounds himself with a 
bodyguard, appoints captains, etc., 16534.28 remained joint 
king of Sweden with his father till the latter's death, i65 29 -i66 7 
2io n enters an alliance with Olaf Haraldson of Norway, 
offensive and defensive, against Knut the Mighty, 2564-2575 
resists King Knut's attempts to draw him from that alliance, 
2 5 79-so ki s progress with 3,000 men over West-Gautland and 
arrangement with Olaf of Norway to have a tryst next spring 
at Kmgs'-Rock, 267 11 . 16 cordial meeting with Norway's king 
at Kings'-Rock secret treaty of alliance in view of King 
Knut of Denmark's attitude, 267 16 . 21 28 -268 6 return into 
West Gautland, 268 6Jr harries the east coast of Skaney 
with a large fleet at the same time that Olaf of Norway in- 
vades Sealand, 3i2 12 . 15 he and Olaf join forces, declare their 
intention to take Denmark, and subdue wide tracts of that 
realm, 3i2 15 -3i3 18 hearing of Knut's arrival from the west 
they harry Skaney, 319^-3204 battle at the Holy River, 3205- 
3 2 326 ^ e ret i res from the war with Knut after being deserted 
by the mam body of his fleet, 32329-325^ 327 28 -328 6 meets 
K. Olaf on his return from Russia and gives him cordial wel- 
come, 3S7 4 . 16 his somewhat tardy aid to his brother-in-law 
for the re-conquest of Norway, 391^^5 

ONUND, by-named ROAD-ONUND (Braut-Onundr), King 
of Sweden, son of K. Yngvar, and father of Ingiald Evil- 
heart, avenged his father on the Esthonians, caused wild 
woodlands to be colonized, made roads throughout the 
country, whence his by-name, and built royal manors in every 
shire, i. 54r- 32 -55 1 ruled over many shire or district kings, 

557-9 his death 5 6 i5-57c 

ONUND, son of Simon the son of Thorberg, iii. 373 22 a 
foster-brother and follower of Hakon Shoulderbroad, 399 9 . 12 

ORK OTT] Index I 161 

with Hakon when defeated in the battle of Tunsberg, 43933- 
440 12 takes an active part in Hakon's last expedition against 
Erling Askew, 44*6-11 44 2 252s 444i5-ir * s one f tne chiefs 
who keep together the following of Hakon after his fall, 447 15 . 1S> 
(he joins the party of Markus o' Shaw and Sigurd, the brother 
of Hakon Shoulderbroad, and on its dispersion by Erling) 
took to the main sea, but turned to land when opportunity 
offered, and robbed and slew Erling's men, 459-. n entrapped 
by Erling in a certain haven, he escapes and flies to Den- 
mark, 46o 21 -46i n 

ORKDALERS, Orkdale folk, men of Orkdale (Orkndcelir, 
Orkdoelir), inhabitants of Orkdale, in Thrandheim, Norway, 
i. 99 9 ii. 47 24 48 2S 

ORKNEYINGS (Orkneymgar), n. i68 ls 

ORM, the son of Eilif, iii. 3515; see Worm, son of Eilif. 

ORM King's-brother, iii. 4753 476 26 ; see Worm King's-brother. 

ORNOLF RIND (Orn61fr skorpa), he and others rob and 
slay the friends of Erling Askew, iii. 459 6 . 10 caught by Erling 
in a certain harbour in the Wick he escapes and flees to 
Denmark, 46o 22 4619.10 

OSPAK, see Uspak. 

OTTA (Otta), ?*.<?., Ordulf, Duke of Saxland, i.e., of Brunswick, 
1062-1073, married to Ulfhild, d. of K. Olaf the Holy, joins 
K. Magnus the Good, his brother-in-law, with a large follow- 
ing, to fight the Wends at Lyrshaw-heath, iii. 34 10 . 14 urges 
the King to fight the Wends in spite of their overwhelming 
odds, 34 28 . 29 

OTTAR BALLI ('Ottarr balli), the son of Asolf of Rein and 
Thora d. of Skopti, joins other chiefs of Thrandheim in pro- 
claiming Sigurd, the son of Harald Gilli, king, iii. 34733.3485 

OTTAR BRIGHTLING ('O. birtingr), a bonder's son, and a 
candleswain at the court of K. Sigurd Jerusalem-farer, receives 
high reward from the King for fearlessly rebuking him and 
unflinchingly braving a threatened punishment for it, iii. 288^- 
29 1 6 joins other chiefs in Thrandheim in proclaiming king 
Sigurd the son of Harald Gilli, 347 28 -348 2 his conciliatory 
reply to K. Ingi's appeal to his brother to share with him in 
due measure the cost of safe-guarding the peace of the realm, 
35922-36 i s married Queen Ingirid, the widow of Harald 
Gilli, 369^ disliked by K. Sigurd for his leanings towards 

VI. M 

1 62 Index I [OTT ozu 

his brother, K. Ingi, 3^9s-i2 his fall > 3 6 9is-i9 377i 2 ~ his son, 
Alf the Ruffian, 369^ 

OTTAR SWART ('O. svarti), or the Black, the son of a sister 
of Sigvat Thordson, ii. i48 29 . 30 an Icel. poet, sang a song on 
King Olaf the Holy (HoftrSlausn, head-ransome), ii. 5 18 . 27 

6 1-14 8 32-98 X 59-26 l6 17-25 J 7tt5 l8 M5 2O 3<T 2I 4 2 9l8-26 28-34 3*12-20 

a favoured court poet to Olaf, King of Sweden, 9i 1G . 20 
i48 29 . 32 receives Hialti Skeggison with great kindness, and 
together with Gizur the Swart introduces him to the King, 
927-22 94i8-i9 as wel1 as to Ingigerd, the king's daughter, 95 16 . 24 

backs eagerly Hialti's suit for the hand of Ingigerd on be- 
half of the King of Norway, ioi 4 . 10 he was bold of speech 
and fond of great lords, ioi 6 . 7 his song on the overthrow of 
the conspiring Upland kings by Olaf Haraldson, io8 28 -io9 20 

in the year following on the death of King Olaf of Sweden 
he comes to King Olaf of Norway praying to be allowed to 
become his henchman, 2io 9 _ n his drapa on Knut the Mighty 
quoted, 323^ 

OTTAR VENDILCROW ('O. Vendiikraka), son of K. Egil, 
King of Sweden his dealings with K. Frodi, invasion of 
Denmark, and ignominious end, i. 47 8 -i7 19-48 

OTTAR, Earl of East-Gautland, falls in a battle with Earl 
Hakon of Ladir, i. 25839-2593 

OTTO ('Otta), Bishop, (half-) brother of William the Bastard, 
accompanies William on his expedition to England, lii. i8o 28 

OTTO ('Otta) II., Roman emperor (973-983), invades Denmark 
to force Christianity on that kingdom, i. 253 18 . 23 25S U . 18 2565- 
2 57 4 12-10 peace concluded and the Danes and Earl Hakon 
of Ladir's host christened, 257^-2589 reported to have been 
gossip to Svein, the son of Harald, from whom he parted 
friends, 26o 3 . 8 

OTTO SVEIN, the name that some people say was given by 
Kaisar Otto to Svein Twibeard at his baptism, i. 26o 8 

OUTER-THRANDHEIMERS (Ut-J>rsendir), i. I7o 26 ( 15 22 ) 

OZUR (Ozurr), Archbishop of Lund in Skaney, sends word to 
the people of Kings 7 -Rock to be on their guard against the 
Wends, iii. 326 l7 . 21 

OZUR, a rich bonder of Hising, speaks up for the Hising- 
dwellers at a Thing held by Erling Askew, iii. 45932-24 Erling 
sets fire to his house and burns him therein, iii. 460^ 

ozu PHI] Index I 163 

OZUR, son of Agi, the foster-father of Thyri, sister of Svein 
Twibeard, accompanies her to her forced marriage with King 
Burislaw in Wendland, and aids her in running away from 
her husband, i. 349i9-35i3 

OZUR, the father of Ivar who was taken prisoner by King 
Harald Gilli's men, iii. 323^ 26 

OZUR TOT (O. toti), of Halogaland, the father of Gunnhild 
Kings'-mother, i. i29 6 . s I3o 25 . 28 

P ALN ATOKI (/.<?. T6ki son of Palni), a lord among the vikings 
of Jomsburg, aids Svein Twibeard, son of Harald Gormson 
in his rebellion against his father, and fights with him the 
battle in which Harald came by his death, i. 27o 7 . ir 

PAUL (Pall), son of Andreas, charged with treason by Erling 
Askew, iii. 469^4 

PAUL, married to a daughter of Aslak the son of Erlmg of 
Soli, father of Hakon Pungelta, iii. 3567 

PAUL FLIP (P. flipr), son of Saemund Housewife and of 
Ingibiorg, d. of priest Andres, iii. 3253 

PAUL, son of Skopti, father of Nicoai Periwinkle, iii. 477 27 

PAUL, son of Thorfin, Earl of Orkney, father to Hakon his 
successor in the earldom, when Sigurd Jerusalem-farer suc- 
ceeded to the kingdom in Norway, iii. 248 14 . 20 joins King 
Harald Hardredy's expedition to England, i66 2 . 4 one of 
those left behind to guard the ships at Stamford Bridge when 
Harald marched out for York, I7o 18 . 20 arrested by King 
Magnus Barefoot and sent east to Norway, 22i 16 . l5 - buried 
in Biorgvin, 225^5 

PEACE-FRODI (FrtfSfWSi), see FrodL 

PERMS, inhabitants of lands round the White Sea, see Biarms. 

PETER (Petr), the Apostle, iii. 307^ 

PETER BURDENSWAIN (P. burSarsveinn, for the origin of 
his nickname, cf. iii. 36i 9 _ n ), son of Sheep- Wolf, father of Wolf 
Fly and Sigrid, iii. io4 12 . 13 one of the chiefs in Thrandheim 
who combined to proclaim Sigurd, the son of King Harald 
Gilli, king on the death of his father, 34733-3483 carries the 
Child-King Sigurd Haraldson to a Thingmote at Nidoyce, 
36i 9 . n one of the torturers of Sigurd Slembi-Deacon, 366 8 ^ 

PHILIPPUS, the son of Seed-Gyrd, iii. 329^-330! foster-brother 
of K. Sigurd Mouth, son of Harald, 39*30-31 outlawed for 
having abetted King Eystein, son of Harald, in acts of arson, 

164 Index I [PHI RAG 

39 2 i(H3 fig nts n the side of Hakon Shoulderbroad in his 
last battle with Erling Askew, 44i 12 . 13 makes peace with 
Erling Askew, but is afterwards slam by the men of Earl 
Sigurd of Reyr, 45033-26 

PHILIP, Earl, son of Earl Birgir Erosa and Brigida, d. of 
King Harald Gilli, iii. 379 4 . 5 

PHILIPPUS IN HERDLA, son of Arni of Stodreim and 
Queen Ingirid, iii. 37o 20 

PHILIPPUS, the son of Peter, fights on the side of Hakon 
Shoulderbroad in his last battle with Erling Askew, iii. 44i 12 

POPPO, missionary bishop, converts Harald Gormson to 
Christianity under the segis of the Roman Emperor, i. 257 22 . 28 

QUASIR (Kvasir), the wisest of the Vanir, given in hostage^to 
the Asfolk, i. 14$ 

RAGNA, daughter of Nicolas Mew, the wife of King Eystein, 
s. of Harald Gilli, iii. 378 202 i after System's death betrothed 
to Worm King's-Brother^ the son of Ivar, 42635 

RAGNA, daughter of Earl Worm Eilifson and Sigrid, the 
daughter of Earl Finn Arnison, married to Svein, the son of 
Svein who was a son of Erlend of Garth; the son of Svein 
and Ragna : Kyrping-Worm, the father of Erling Askew, iii. 

RAGNAR LODBROK (R. Lo=Sbr<5k), i. 8r 9 son of Sigurd 
Ring, io5 24 . 25 his sons, conquerors of Northumberland, 

I 5 2 25-29 2 335-o 

RAGNAR RYCKIL (R. rykkill), son of Harald Hairfair and 
Swanhild, daughter of Eystein, King of Heathmark, i. i I4^. l8 
proclaimed king by his father, 13120 

RAGNFRID, i. 247 10 read Ragnhild. 

RAGNFROD (Ragnfro^r), son of Eric Bloodaxe and Gunn- 
hild, i. i45 b flies, together with his mother and Gudrod his 
brother, to the Orkneys, when Hakon, the Earl of Ladir, 
becomes Harald Gormson's viceroy of Western and Northern 
Norway, 240^-241 5 lir , 23 2434.17 a ^ er one winter's stay he 
goes back with a war-host to Norway and has an indecisive 
battle with Earl Hakon in South-Mere, 243^-244^ goes 
south beyond Stad and makes himself master of Firthland, 
Sogn, Hordland and Rogaland, 244 2 i-ai loses a battle with 
Hakon at Thingness in Sogn, and flies away from Norway, 
2454-246 ' 

RAG] Index I 165 

RAGNHILD (Ragnhildr), daughter to Ami Arnmodson, 
married to Harek of Thiotta, ii. i98 19 . 20 

RAGNHILD, d of Day and sister to K. Ring the son oi 
Day,' who had fled his land in Norway before Olaf Harald 
son, consequently was one of the five dispossessed Uplanc 
kings, and had taken up his abode in Sweden, from where 
Red, Ragnhild's husband, states he had run away with her, 

ii- 339s-io 34 4 -r cf 392 18 . 26 

RAGNHILD, daughter of Eric Bloodaxe and Gunnhild, i. 145,; 
given in marriage to Arnfinn Thorfinson, Earl of Orkney! 

I 59u-is 

RAGNHILD, daughter of Erling Askew and Kristin King's 
daughter, wedded to Jon, the son of Thorberg, 474 9 . n 

RAGNHILD, daughter of Erling Skialgson of Soli and Astrid 
daughter of King Tryggvi Olafson, married to Thorberg, sor 
of Arni, ii. 2426-27 28o g . 4 receives with open arms Steir 
Skaptison seeking refuge at her home after slaying one o 
King Ol. Haraldson's stewards, 28o 4 -28i 13 threatens he: 
husband to leave him unless he protect Stein from the king 7 * 
wrath, 28i u -282 15 sends messengers to her father to com* 
to her husband's aid with his folk, a request promptly com 
plied with, 28325-284! 

RAGNHILD, a natural daughter of Earl Hakon the Mighty o 
Ladir, married to Skopti, the son of Skagi, i. 247 10 . 12 mothe] 
to Earl Worm Eilifson, iii. io6 n 37i 9 . n 

RAGNHILD, daughter of Harafd Goidbeard, King of Sogn 
first wife of Halfdan the Black, with whom she had a sor 
Harald; she died nine years after her marriage, i. 79 10 . 22 

RAGNHILD, daughter of K. Magnus Barefoot, given ir 
marriage to Harald Kesia, son of Eric the Good, K, of Den 
mark; their children, iii. 283^.^ 354 11 .. 12 

RAGNHILD, daughter of K. Magnus the Good, asked for ir 
marriage by Hakon Ivarson as a condition of peace wit! 
Harald Hardredy, iii. H4 15 . 2 i she refuses to marry an un 
titled man, n5 10 -2i on the death of Earl Worm Hakon is 
made earl and she becomes his wife, 1197^3 

RAGNHILD THE MIGHTY (R. bin rika), daughter of Eric, 
King of Jutland, one of Harald Hairfair's wives, i. H4 m5 2 ; 
lived for three years after she came to Norway, 11833- 119^ 

RAGNHILD, d. of K. Sigurd Hart and of Thorny, d, of Klack 

1 66 Index I [RAG RAN 

Harald, K. of Jutland, seized by the bareserk Haki when he 
had slain her father; marriage with her put off pending the 
healing of Haki's wounds; but in the meantime she is robbed 
from Haki by the order of K. Halfdan the Black, who straight- 
way marries her, i, 8i 15 -83 9 ner dream, 83 14 . 31 her son 
Harald Hairfair, 85 3 . 

RAGNHILD, daughter of Skopti Ogmundson, married to Eilif, 
their son Day father to Gregory, iii. 377i C -is 

RAGNHILD, daughter of Sveinki the son of Steinar, married 
to Kyrping-Worm, their sons Erling Askew and Ogmund 
Hammerer, iii. 37i 3 . 5 

RAGNIR (Rognir), one of Odin's names, i. 2S6 18 iii. 99 4 

RAKNI, a legended sea-king, i i82 21 iii. 97 28 

RAM OF VIGG (Hnitr af Viggju), approaching the host of 
K. Olaf at Sticklestead, is slain by Olaf s orders by the 

Guests, 49ic-2S 

RAN (Ran), a goddess, wife of the sea-god ^Egir, i. 29833 
RANFOLK (Rgenir), inhabitants of Ranrealm, iii. 374 19 
RANI THE GAUTLANDER (Hrani gauzki), an earl of the 
Swedish King Eric the son of Eymund, appointed to rule over 
the lands between Swinesound and Gaut-elf (the Elf), which 
Eric incorporated in West Gautland, i. io5 19 . 21 falls in battle 
against Harald Hairfair, iio 13 _ ll7 
RANI THIN-NEB (H. m]6nefr), father of the mother of King 

Sigurd Syr (Sow), ii. 363.3 

RANI THE WIDE-FARING (H. hinn vfWorli), also called 
King's fosterer (konungs f6stn), ii. 5 6 the son of Roi the 
White, and foster-brother of Harald the Grenlander, with whom 
he flees from Grenland to the Uplands to (Harald's) kin, i. 
2I2 n-i7 teft i n command of the ships of Harald, when he 
was murdered by Sigrid the Haughty, Rani brings the survivors 
and the ships to Norway and tells Harald's wife Asta the news 
of his death, 286 31 -287 8 he gives fostering to Olaf, son of 
Harald, ii. 3 r _ 9 commands Olaf s force when he sets out on 
his viking warfare, 5 5 . 8 ^ sent from Normandy by Olaf 
with the charge of securing in England the support of the 
people for the sons of Ethelred against Knut the Mighty, 
2 85-16 ki s w i ttv interpretation of King Olafs stumble on 
landing in Norway, 3o 15 . 16 
RANVEIG, daughter of Sigurd son of Thorir Hound, married 

RAU RIC] Index I 167 

to Joan son of Ami, their children Vidkunn of Birchisle, 
Sigurd Hound, Erling, and Jartrud, iii. i7 n . 14 

RAUD, see also Red. 

RAUD THE STRONG (RauSr hinn rammi), of God-isle in 
Salpt-firth in Halogaland, a wizard who had wind at will 
wherever he wanted to sail, defeated by Olaf Tryggvison in 
a great sea-battle in Halogaland, whence he fled to his home 
in God-isle, i. 3 2 9i(f33 T cruelly put to death by Olaf Trygg- 
vison for refusing to be a Christian, 33i 14 -333 10 his property 
confiscated by Olaf, 333 n . 26 

RAUMSDALE (The folk, they, of) (Raumsdcelir), inhabitants 
of the folkland of Raumsdale, Norway, i. i64 27 3o8 22 

RAUMFOLK, Raumrealm folk (Raumar), the inhabitants of 
Raumrealm, ii. 209 19 iii. 1543 378 13 

RAUMI, father of Vakr of the Elf, i. 3 5 34 

RAZ-B ARD (Raza-BarSr), a disaffected Thrandheimer charged 
with treason by Erling Askew, and heavily fined on being 
brought to book, iii. 469^4 

RE AS, an Esthonian, buys Olaf Tryggvison as slave for a good 
coat, i. 229 15 . 16 sells Olaf and Thorgils Thorolfson to Olaf's 
uncle Sigurd, son of Eric Biodaskalli, 230^ 

RED (Rau^r), a Swede of high degree, a dweller in the Eastern 
Dales, married to Ragnhild the daughter of Day, their sons 
Day and Sigurd, ii. 339 8 -34r receives visit from K. Olaf 
Haraldson, 33929-31 gives the king a stately feast and relates 
his history, 340-^ sees the king off with great gifts, 34o 39 . 31 

REIDAR (Hrei^arr), base-born son of Erling Askew, iii. 474 

REINALD, Bishop of Stavanger, an Englishman, charged by 
Harald Gilli with having in his keep much wealth which had 
belonged to K. Magnus the Blind; denying the charge Harald 
fines him heavily and on his refusing to pay the fine, has him 
hanged, iii. 324^ 

REKON, wife of Reas the Esthonian, i. 229 16 . ir 

REKONI, son of Reas and his wife Rekon, Esthonians, i. 229 ir 

RETTIBUR, King of the Wends, /.*., Ratibor, son of Mistevin, 
Duke of Citerior Pomerania, ob. 1151, his expedition to, and 
siege of, Kings' Rock, iii. 3 26 2 r333- 

RICHARD (Rikar^r), a priest, fearfully mutilated and mira- 
culously healed by Olaf the Holy, iii. 38i u -385 1G 

RICHARD I., Duke of Normandy, 942-996, son of William I., 

1 68 Index I [RIC ROA 

Duke of Normandy, 927-942, i. n8 27 ii. 2i 30 . 31 father to 
Queen Emma, iii. i55 15 

RICHARD II., son of the preceding, Duke of Normandy, 996- 
1026, i. n8 27 ii. 2i 25 80 the 'father' of Queen Emma, who 
f was the mother of King Edward,' is a mistaken statement 
by Snorri; he was the brother, not the father of the Queen, 

RIG (Rfgr), father to Danp, the first who bore the title of king 
in the tongue of the Danes, i. 3i 14 . 15 

RIMHILD, married to Knut, son of Svein of Jadar, and mother 
to Svein, iii. 299 16 . 17 

RING (Hringr), son of Day, who was the son of Ring, the son 
of Harald Hairfair, ii. 34o 6 . r 392 20 . 23 brother to K. Roerek, 
whom Olaf the Holy blinded, both of the kin of Harald 
Hairfair, joint kings of Heathmark, ii. 4i 20 -24 declares m 
favour of Olaf Haraldson, whom he urges the other Upland 
kings to aid towards obtaining the over-kingship of Norway, 
4328"44is J ms tne otner f ur Upland kings in a conspiracy 
against Olaf for his cruelty to heathen Uplanders, io3 18 -io6 
is laid hands on together with his fellow-conspirators at 
Ringacre by King Olaf, who banished him from the land to- 
gether with two of the Upland kings, io8 8 . 24 he goes to 
Sweden and secures for himself dominion there, 392 24 . 26 
after taking up his abode in Sweden, his sister Ragnhild runs 
away from him with Red of the Eastern Dales, 339 9 . 10 34o 6 . r 

RING DAYSON of Ringrealm, father to Ashild, one of Harald 
Hairfair's wives, i. 1 14 19 

RING, son of Harald Hairfair and Ashild daughter of Ring 
Dayson, i. ii4 20 made king by his father, I3i 20 father to 
Day, whose son was King Ring of Heathmark, whom K. Olaf 
Haraldson drove away, ii. 392 18 . 23 

RINGFOLK (Hringar), the inhabitants of Ringrealm, ii. 4134 
iii. i54 19 

ROAD-ONUND, see Onund. 

ROALD (Hrdaldr), father of Thorir ' hersir ' the foster-father of 
Eric Blood-axe, i. ii9 3 i28 19 

ROALD LONGTALK (H. langtala), Priest, sent by the 
people of Tunsberg to obtain a truce for them from Erling 
Askew, iii. 439 24 - 2 s ur es the condemnation of Earl Sigurd 

ROA ROE] Index 2 169 

RO ALD RIG (Roald and Rig, I r 1 1 n is a misprint), (H. hryggr), 
lord of Thelmark, joined the kings of Hordland, Rogaland 
and Agdir, and fought against Harald Hairfair in the battle of 
Hafursfirth, from which he apparently escaped by flight, i. 

III n -II2 2 

ROBERT LONGSWORD (Ro^bert longumspaSi), i.e. R.I., 
the 'Magnificent 7 or e le Diable, J duke of Normandy, 1027- 
1035, son of Richard II., 996-1026, nephew to Queen Emma 
and fatherof William the Conqueror,! ii8 2s ii.2i 24 . 25 iiL i55 14 . lc 
The by-name ' longumspa%i ' (longspade), a mistranslation 
of * Longa spatha ' (longsword) Snorri transfers from duke 
William I. to his great-grandson. The statement ii. 2i 3S . 2G that 
while the Earls Eric and Svein sons of Hakon, and Hakon 
Ericson ruled in Norway, i.e. 1000-1015, there reigned in 
Normandy 'two Earls, William and Robert,' is incorrect, 
during that period there ruled in Normandy Richard II. 
alone, 996-1026. His brother Robert was Abp of Rouen, 

ROD I (R6&), a legendary sea-king, ii. 57 28 

RCEREK (Hroerekr), (son of Day, who was the son of Ring, 
the son of Harald Hairfair), brother to K. Ring, ' both of the 
kin of Harald Hairfair,' and joint kings over Heathmark, Ii. 
4 x 20-24 refuses to join the four kings of the Uplands in lend- 
ing his kinsman, Olaf Haraldson, his aid towards obtaining 
the over-kingship of Norway, 42^-433* roused by Olaf s mis- 
handling of heathen Uplanders, he joins the other four Up- 
land kings in a conspiracy to slay Olaf, for which purpose they 
kept assembled at Ringacre in Heathmark, 103-106 betrayed 
by Ketil of Ringness, and laid hands on at Ringacre together 
with his fellow-conspirators by King Olaf, who had him blinded 
and kept a prisoner at his court, io7-io8 21 I23 14 . 19 his un- 
happy stay at Olaf s court and plottings against Olaf s men 
and his life, I23 u -i26 6 9-132 his journey to Iceland, stay 
at Thorgils Anson's, at Gudmund of Madderm eads', at Calf- 
skin, where he died, 13430-13633 'the only king that rests 
in Iceland,' 13633 i37 x 

RGEREK, son of Harald Hairfair and, apparently, Gyda, the 
daughter of King Eric of Hordland, i. 1149 was kept at his 
father's court, but had large bailiwicks about Hordland (and 

1 70 Index I [ROG 

ROGALANDERS, men of Rogaland (Rygir), inhabitants of 
the district of Rogaland, i. m 4 ii. 2i7 21 2i8 18 423^ 43i 19 
iii. 3oi 21 

ROGER, King of Sicily, gives King Sigurd Jerusalem-farer a 
hearty welcome on his arrival in Sicily is given the title of 
King of Sicily by Sigurd, 255 12 . 24 wins all Apulia and many 
other islands in the Greekland main called Roger the Rich, 

Roger II. bore the title of Count of Sicily, 1 1 o r-i 1 30 ; he was 
crowned King of Sicily in 1130 by the Antipope Anacletus 
II., he reigned, as K. Roger L, till 1 154. On the death of his 
cousin William, Roger secured the possession of the dukedom 
of Apulia, 1127. At the time of K. Sigurd's visit in Sicily, 
1109, Roger was only twelve years of age and a ward of the 
regent Count Robert of Burgundy. This is the Roger to which 
our text refers by mistake. But the Roger that entertained K. 
Sigurd and by him was proclaimed king on New Year's Day 
1 1 10, was Roger Bursa, son of Rob. Guiscard by a second 
wife, Duke of Apulia, who died 1 1 1 1. In the ' Man-matching ' 
between Kgs. Sigurd and Eystein the Cod. Frisianus, 29410-12 
makes Sigurd say: 'I went to Jerusalem and touched at 
Apulia ... I gave the title of king to Earl Roger the Mighty; 7 
Morkinskinna (1873) and Hulda (Fms. vii. i23 5 . 6 ) have: 'I 
went to Jerusalem and touched at Apulia, 3 no mention being 
made of Sicily. Cf. Munch, N.F.H., ii. 579, note 4. 

ROGNVALD (Rognvaldr), one of 'five' kings who fell with 
Eric Bloodaxe, i. *54 12 

ROGNVALD of .^Erwick, commands in Svein Hakonson's 
division of Earl Hakon's fleet in the battle of Hiorungwick 
against the Jomsvikings, i. 277 21 

ROGNVALD, son of Brusi, Earl of Orkney 1012-1045, " 
i74 10 goes with his father to Norway, i79 24 . 25 left at the 
court of K. Olaf Haraldson when Brusi became the King's 
Earl over Orkney, i86 21 . 26 187^2 personal description, i87 2 _ r 
accompanies K. Olaf in his flight out of Norway, 3693 
removes Harald Sigurdson wounded from the battlefield of 
Sticklestead to a * bonder' to tend his wounds, 438^! iii. 
5 7 19-21 sojourned in Sweden for a time after the battle of 
Sticklestead, 589 

ROGNVALD, son of Henry Halt and Queen Ingirid, brother 

ROG] Index I 171 

of Worm King's Brother and of K. Magnus of Sweden, iiL 

haeri), King of Westfold, son of Olaf Geirstead-Elf, i. 3 21 ^ 

ROGNVALD, son of K. Ingi of Sweden, the son of Steinkel, 
father to Ingirid the Queen of Harald Gilli, iii. 3140495 

ROGNVALD KALI, son of Kol [by Gunnhild d. of the Ork- 
ney Earl Erlend Thorfinson], Earl of Orkney, 1135-1158, 
Joins Erling Askew on his pilgrimage to Jerusalem, iii. 37i 20 - 

373 28 

ROGNVALD KUNTA, fights on the side of Hakon Shoulder- 
broad in his last encounter with Erling Askew, and loses his 
life, iii. 441 1S 4475 

ROGNVALD MERE-EARL (R. Masrajarl), called the Mighty 
(hinn riki), or the keen-counselled (hinn ra^svinni), son of 
Ey stein Glumra, i. ioo 21 . 29 ii. i68 7 . 8 appointed King's Earl 
over North-Mere and Raumsdale after Har. Fairhair's first 
victory at Solskel, i. ioo 21 . 29 whereto was added Southmere 
after HaraUTs second naval victory at Solskei (see Arnwid), 
I0 3n-i2 hi 8 win* 61 " expedition against, and burning in his 
house of, King Vemund of the Firths, 103^3 receives from 
Harald Hairfair as a gift the Orkneys and Shetland, which 
he again gives to his brother Sigurd, n6 u _ 16 cf. ii. i68 6 _ 8 a 
most beloved and honoured friend of King Harald, 1 1 7 1C . 18 
married Hild, daughter of Rolf Nefia and had with her two 
sons, Rolf and Thorny ii7 18 - 20 f- ** 2I 3s~ 22 i nao ^ three 
sons 3 Hallad, Einar, Hrollaug, by concubines before marry- 
ing, ii7 30 . 2 5 confers on Hallad the Earldom of Orkney on 
the death of Sigurd, i22 13 . 16 Hallad failing to maintain him- 
self in the earldom Rognvald gives it to Einar, whom he fits 
out with a longship, I22 20 -i23 6 burnt in his house with sixty 
men by Halfdan Highleg and Gudrod Gleam, sons of Harald 
Hairfair, 124^^ 

ROGNVALD, son of Wolf who was the brother of Sigrid 
the Haughty, foster-son of Thorgnyr, the famous lawman of 

Tenthland, ii. 23 8 . 12 ii3 25 H7 20 Ear 1 of West Gautland fora 
long time, ii. 239 sues for the hand of Ingibiorg, sister of Olaf 
Tryggvison, i. 356 18 -357 28 their wedding effected in Olaf J s 
lifetime, ii. 23 r . 10 sides with King Olaf Haraldson against 

172 Index I [ROG 

the Swede King, through the pleading of his wife Ingibiorg, 
King Olafs cousin, 83-^844 has a friendly meeting with 
King Olaf, from which they part with mutual gifts, Rognvald 
presenting the king with a sword, 84 4 . 16 which sword King 
Olaf gave to Marshal Biorn next summer, 88 8 . 9 gives good 
welcome to Biorn as King Olaf's messenger of peace to 
Sweden, who brings him for gift a ring from Olaf, 88 9 . 15 27 . 20 
8 9io holds a family council with King Olaf s messengers 
and through his wife's insistance promises to back them up, 
^9io"9 I 3 receives messengers from Hialti Skeggison and 
Ingigerd, King Olaf the Swede's daughter, with letters in- 
forming him how matters relating to peace stood at the court 
of Sweden, ioi 12 . 21 n4 5 .i G the Earl imparts the news to 
Marshal Biorn, 1 1410-21 he goes with Biorn the Marshal and 
a following of sixty men to Sweden and at Ulleracre meets 
Princess Ingigerd who lays the matter of her betrothal to 
King Olaf of Norway in his hands, ii4 21 -n6 12 goes to meet 
lawman Thorgnyr, who gives the Earl a good welcome and, 
after a while, promises to stand by him so that he may give 
a fearless utterance in the face of the King to his pleading of 
Olaf Haraldson's cause, n6 13 -ii8 n his attendance at the 
Upsala-Thing and dealings there with King Olaf of Sweden, 
Il8 Mi 16-20 II 9i4- I20 9 through lawman Thorgnyr's interven- 
tion he settles peace between Norway and Sweden, and is 
charged by the Swede King to arrange the betrothals of the 
Princess Ingigerd and Olaf of Norway, i22 8 . 18 returns to 
his dominion of Gautland, i22 23 . 24 arranges with Olaf of 
Norway, through Marshal Biorn, to come east to the Elf in 
autumn after the Upsala-Thing to marry Ingigerd of Sweden, 
i22 23 -i23 13 his explanation of the King of Sweden's default 
in that matter, i37 26 -i38 ne incurs heavy ill-will of the 
Swede King for the disrespectful treatment he received at the 
Upsala-Thing, 13920-30 he is informed by Ingigerd of Sweden 
that her father has broken off the intended match with Olaf 
of Norway, i42 5 . 13 Earl Rognvald warns his people of Gaut- 
land of the unsettled state of affairs, and opens negotiations 
for peaceful relations with Olaf of Norway, i42 14 . 22 the Earl's 
sincerity towards King Olaf*Haraldson called in question in 
Norway, i44 8 . 14 but Sigvat the Skald would reassure the 
King of the EarPs fidelity, and goes as the King's ambassador 

ROG ROLJ Index I 173 

to the Earl, with whom he tarries long, and learns true tidings 
from the Swedish Court, I44 15 -i48 24 151^. the Earl receives 
a visit from Astrid, the daughter of the~Swedish King, and 
entertains her in a grand manner and, with her consent, re- 
solves to give her in marriage to King Olaf, with which plan 
he sends Sigvat back to Norway, 148.^-149^ on knowing 
that King Olaf accepted the match, Earl Rognvald, accom- 
panied by one hundred and twenty men, brings the bride to 
Sarpsburg, where he gives her away under the terms of the 
marriage contract of her sister Ingigerd, and then returns to 
Gautland with great gifts from King Olaf, 15135-153,, he 
leaves Sweden, in attendance on Queen Ingigerd, for Novgorod, 
and receives for his maintenance Aldeigia-burg and the earl- 
dom thereto appertaining, i53 19 . 22 24- I 54 3 i I 55n-ij his sons, 

1 5431-32 m - 5 8 20-30 

ROGNVALD STRAIGHTLEG (R. rettilbeini), son of Harald 
Hairfair and Snowfair, the daughter of Swasi, i. I2o 3 3i2 27 . 28 
repudiated by the father after Snowfair 's death, I2i 3 .^ 
restored to favour by Thiodolf of Hvin, I2i 2s -i22 4 appointed 
King of Hadaland, i22 4 13120-22 became "a great wizard and 
was burnt in his house, together with eighty wizards, by his 
brother, Eric Bloodaxe, i33 6 . 8 17 . 25 

ROI SQUINT-EYE (Hr6i skialgi) a bailiff of King Olaf the 
Swede over the southern portion of Ranrealm, a man of high 
degree and much wealth, iL 76 37 goes with a band of 
armed men about Ranrealm, gathering in taxes on behalf of 
Olaf the Swede King, and is attacked and slain by Eyvind 
Urochshorn in Howesound, 8i 10 _ 19 

ROI THE WHITE (Hr6i hvfti), ii. 8i ir = Roi Squinteye. 

ROI THE WHITE (H. hinn hvfti), a landed man ' of Gren- 
land, foster-father of Harald the Grenlander, i. 2i2g. u 

ROLF KRAKI (Hrolfr Kraki) son of Helgi, K. in Denmark 
by his daughter Yrsa, i. 50^ was proclaimed a king at 
Hleithra when eight winters old, 5o n . lg his journey to Up- 
sala alluded to, 5o 19 . 21 (told at length in S. E. i. 394-398) 
fell at Hleithra in the days of Eystein the son of Adils, 5i 28 
a toast to his memory drunk by Hildigunna, daughter of 
King Granmar, 6o 6 . r 

ROLF NEFIA (H. nefja), father to Hild who wedded Rognvald 
the Mere-Earl, i. ii7 19 n8 I2 

174 Index I [ROL SAX 

ROLF OF THE SHOOTING (H. skj6tandi), ii. 40733 

ROLF WEND-AFOOT (Gongu-hr61fr), Duke of Normandy, 
t93i son of Rognvald Mere-earl and his lawful wife Hild, 
Rolf Nefia's daughter, called Wend-afoot because * no horse 
might bear him/ a great Viking who harried much in the 
Eastlands, i. H7 20 26 . 30 cf. 11. 2132-22! makes a raid on the 
Wick, for which Harald Hairfair made him an outlaw from 
Norway notwithstanding the intercession of his mother, 1 1 7 30 - 
n8 19 went west-over-sea to the South-isles, thence to Val- 
land, where he won a great earldom and peopled the land 
with Northmen, whence its name Normandy, 1 18 20 . 25 of his 
kin are come the earls of Normandy and kings of England, 
11836.33 ii. 22^ 

ROMAN FOLK (Rtimverjar), i. 159 

RUNOLF THE PRIEST (Run61fr goi), son of Wolf, a mighty 
chief in the south of Iceland when Christianity was introduced, 

SEEMING (Ssemingr), son of Odin and Skadi, i. 2o 2g back to 
him Earl Hakon the Mighty traced his descent, 2i 13 

SEEMING, son of Yngvi-Frey, i. 4 n identical with the preced- 

SJEMUND HOUSEWIFE (Ssemundr htisfreyja), ruler at 
King's Rock, married to Ingibiorg, d. of pnest Andres 
Brunison, their sons Paul flip and Gunni fiss, id. 324 29 - 
3253 has a baseborn son Asmund, 3253.4 33i3-20 fi g hts 
and falls in the siege of Kings' Rock by Rettibur, 1135, 

33i3-ic 33 J 32 
SAXI; in the phrase of Sigvat : ' The son of mighty Saxi Nought 

found I,' which means : I did not find the son of mighty Wolf 
I did not find Earl Rognvald, who was the son of Wolf, 
the son of Skogul-Tosti, seems to be either a by-name that 
Wolf bore, or to be meant for a poetical synonym for Wolf, 

& J 47iM8 

SAXI THE SPLITTER (Saxi flettir, perhaps Fletcher, maker 
of flint arrows), son of Bovi of West-Gautland, i. 634.5 

SAXE, or Saxe of Wick, father to Sigrid, concubine of Magnus 
Barefoot, iii. 233^3 and to Thora the mother of Sigurd 
Slembi-Deacon, iii. 336 20 

SAXOLF (Sbxolfr), an Icelander, iii. 354^ 

SAXONS (Saxar, North-Germans), i. 2573 26i 4 ii. i27 8 iii. 3o ir 

SCA SIG] Index I 175 

SCANINGS, SKANINGS (Skanungar), inhabitants of Skaney, 
i. 362 ir li. 32333 iii. 3i 15 43 32 45 32 4 7 12 4 8 22 

SCOTCH (The), Scotchmen, Scot-folk, Scot-host (Skotar), 
i. n6 7 2623 ii. i69 28 iii. 222 12 2399 

SEABEAR (Ssebjorn), father of Arni Stour, who was a partisan 
of King Eystein Haraldson, iii. 393 16 

SEAL-THORIR, see Thorir Seal. 

SEED-GYRD (Sa^a-Gyr^r), son of Bard, fosterer of Sigurd the 
son of King Harald Gilli, iii. 347i 3 fails in having Sigurd 
Slembi-Deacon caught, 358 r . 18 King Ingi addresses a letter 
to him amongst others, requesting that his brother should 
pay his share of the cost of the defence of the realm, 359 02 - 
36o 18 unwholesome relations arise between the Kings Ingi 
and Sigurd (Harald's sons) after the death of Gyrd, 377 3 . 16 

SERK OF SOGN (Serkr or Sogni), one of the followers of King 
Magnus Barefoot on his warfare in Ireland, iii. 23839 286 31 
2 8 7r 

SERKMEN (Serkir), inhabitants of Serkland = North-Africa, 
Saracens, hi. 63 14 254 6 

SHAVEHEW (Skafhogg), father of Gudbrand who married 
Maria, d. of K. Eystein Magnuson, iii. 2654 426 18 474 18 

SHEEP-WOLF (SauSa Ulfr), son of Brigida the daughter of 
Wolf, the son of Uspak, iii. io4 n . 12 Sheep- Wolf's son Peter 
Burden-Swain, io4 12 36i 9 . 10 

SHETLANDERS (Hjaltlendingar), ii. i87 10 

SHIELDING (Skjoldungr) descendant of Skiold, King of Den- 
mark (Saxo Gramm. i. 23-26), hence used by the poets as a 
synonym for prince, ii. 357 16 iii. 337^ 

SHOCK-HEAD (Lilfa), Harald Fairhair's by-name, i. ii2 31 

SHOULDER-BROAD, the nickname of King Hakon, its 

origin, iii. 447 31 
SIGAR (Sigarr), legendary king who hanged Hagbard for 

seducing his daughter, iii. 31933 
SIGARD (SigarSr), a landed man, goes to Skurbaga with two 

hundred men to fight the Wends besieging King's Rock, and 

is slain with all his men, iii. 330^ 
SIGAR'S FOE, see Hagbard. 
SIGFROD (Sigfro^r) or Sigrod (SigroSr), son of K. Harald 

Hairfair and Asa, the daughter of Hakon Griotgard's son, i. 

1 76 Index I [SIG 

no 28 fostered first by his grandfather, Earl Hakon, and, 
after his death, by his son, Sigurd, Earl of Hladir, i37 21 . 23 
made king by his father in the Thrandheim district, i3T 32 - 
1323 proclaimed supreme king by the Thrandheim people 
on the death of his brother Half dan the Black, t42 18 _ 20 his 
contest with Eric Bloodaxe for the supreme power in Thrand- 
heim, alliance with K. Olaf of the Wick, fight at Tunsberg 
and fall, 1447.35 his howe on the brent east of Tunsberg, 

1 4425-26 

SIGRID (SigrfSr), daughter of Bard, sister to K. Ingi Bardson 
and Duke Skuli, married to Jon Sigurdson of Eastort, 111. 

SIGRID, daughter of Day, and sister to Gregory Dayson, wife 
of Haldor Bryniolfson, illtreated by Hakon Shoulderbroad, iii. 

SIGRID, daughter of Earl Finn Arnison, married to Earl Worm 

Eilifson, iii. ii3 21 . 23 35i 5 . G 371*9 

stdrra^a), daughter of Skogul-Tosti, married to Eric Vic- 
torious, King of Sweden, their son Olaf King of Sweden, i. 
2i3 3 . s 284 12 . 14 ii. 23 n . 12 her dealings with, and murder of, 
Harald the' Grenlander, i. 284^-28635 287 5 . 13 accepts Olaf 
Tryggvison's suit, but resents his present of a ring supposed 
to be all gold, but found to be but brass inside, 3io 3 . 29 the 
suit broken off in an insulting manner by Olaf on her refusing 
to become a Christian, 3ii 24 -3*2 16 marries King Svem 
Twibeard, their daughter Astrid mother of K. Svein Wolfson 
of Denmark, 34838.3! 358 26 . 2 y iii* 29 3 . 10 her implacable hatred 
of Olaf Tryggvison, i. 312^.^ 35838-359! eggs King Svein 
on to avenge him on Olaf for having married his sister Thyri 
unlawfully, and brings about his alliance with Olaf of Sweden 
and Eric the Earl against Tryggvison, 35 Q^ 
SIGRID, daughter of Ketil Kalf and Gunnhild d. of K. Sigurd 
Syr (Sow), (ii. 3537), wife of Eindrid, the son of Einar Tham- 
barskelfir, iii. io6 n 

SIGRID, daughter of Peter Burden-Swain, iii. io4 13 
SIGRID S^ETA, entertained at drink in her house K. Sigurd, 
son of Harald Gilli, when he was attacked and slain, iii. 

SIGRID, daughter of Saxi of Wick, 'a noble man in Thrand- 

SIG] Index I 177 

helm, 7 concubine of K. Magnus Barefoot, mother of K. Olaf 
Magnusson, iii. 233n-i 4 33^21 ^ and of Kari King's-brother, 

SIGRID SKIALG'S daughter, see Sigrid d. of Thorolf Skialg. 

SIGRID, daughter of Earl Svein, the son of Hakon, married to 
Aslak, son of Erlmg Skialgson, ii. 33 14 . 15 (Gunnhild is a mis- 
take) 255 2S iii. io6 24 . 26 

SIGRID, daughter of Thorir, and sister to Thorir Hound, first 
married to Olvir of Eggia, whom K. Olaf had slain, as well 
as their sons Thorir and Griotgarth, 11. i98 25 . 29 34i 5 . 9 344 3 . 5 
secondly wedded to Kalf Arnison, 19839-1993 bewailing 
the troubles she had had to endure at K, Olaf s hands, she 
prevails upon her husband to join K. Olafs enemies, Earl 
Hakon Ericson and K. Knut, under certain conditions, and 
informs Hakon of her endeavours, 374 8 . 31 

SIGRID (SigrfSr), daughter of Thorolf Skialg and sister to 
Erlmg Skialgson of Soli, married to Sigurd Thorison, brother 
of Thorir Hound, their son Asbiorn Seal's-Bane, ii. 2i4 18 . 22 
2. 1 7 1S . 19 her vain endeavours to bring her son to saving habits 
in seasons of distress, 2i5 19 . 20 27-23 '^ er 6 SiP n on f Thorir 
Hound, her brother-in-law, to avenge the slaying of her son, 
Asbiorn, 239^-2404 

SIGTRYGG (Sigtryggr), a noble of Nerick in Sweden, befriends 
K. Olaf Haraldson in his flight from Norway, ii. 369 20 . 93 

SIGTRYGG, son of King Eystein the Terrible of the Uplands, 
King of Heathmarkand Raumrealm, i. 77 22 . 24 on hearing of 
Halfdan the Black having conquered Raumrealm, he goes out 
to fight him, and is defeated and slain, 77 21 -78 4 

SIGTRYGG, son of Harald Hairfair and, apparently, Gyda, 
daughter of Eric King of Hordland, i. ii4 10 proclaimed 
king by his father, I3i 18 

SIGTRYGG, King of Vendil, father of Agnar, the father of Eric 
KingofWestfold, i. 68 21 

SIGURD (SigurSr), Olaf Tryggvison's court bishop (who had 
come with him from England), with the king at Ogvalds- 
ness, i. 31521-28 accompanies Olaf on his missionary expedi- 
tion to Halogaland, 3283-3349 his way of defeating Raud 
the Strong's witchcraft, 33i 2 5~33 2 is 

SIGURD, court bishop of K. Olaf Haraldson, accompanies the 
king on his missionary journey through Gudbrandsdale, ii. 

VI. N 

178 Index I [SIG 

202 4 , 8 2O5 22 -2o6 3 208^-209! commands King Olaf to make 
peace with Erling Skialgson in the affair of Asbiorn SeaFs- 
bane, and dictates the terms, 229 15 . 29 

SIGURD, a bishop appointed to Earl Hakon Ericson's court 
by his uncle K. Knut, a great enemy of K. Olaf the Holy, 
ii. 4i7 10 . 2 4 his inflammatory speech against K. Olaf, 4183- 
4i9 24 Thorgils of Sticklestead delivers to him the coffin 
containing the body of Olaf the Holy which body, however, 
was but a collection of stones and by the bishop's orders 
the coffin is sunk into deep water in Thrandheim firth, 448 11 . 21 
as the belief in Olafs holiness takes hold of the people, 
the bishop's unpopularity increases so that he must leave 
Norway, 453j-454 4 

SIGURD, a priest, afterwards bishop in Biorgvin, present with 
Bishop Magni when he forbade King Sigurd Jerusalem-farer 
to contract marriage with the lady Cecilia, his queen being 
yet alive, iii. 37n-i 2 20-32 3 oS 5 -s 

SIGURD, one of ' five ' kings who fell with Eric Bloodaxe, i. 

I 54i2 

SIGURD BAITHAT (S. agnhottr), the fosterer of Olaf Un- 
lucky, gathers with his foster-son a band in the Uplands 
against K. Magnus Erlingson, iii. 474^-27 Erling Askew goes 
in search of them, 474^-4754 Sigurd falls in the battle at 
Stangs, 477 17 

SIGURD, son of Bergthor, a priest from Iceland, falls in the 
battle at Holm-the-Grey, iii. s62 29 

SIGURD BILL (S. bfldr), stationed in the forehold on board 
the Long- Worm, i. 3S3i S . 19 

SIGURD, base-born son of Bui the Thick, i. 28i 30 -282 9 

SIGURD A-BUSH (S. hrfsi), son of Harald Hairfair and Snow- 
fair, Swasi's daughter, i. 1 20 2 repudiated by his father after 
Snowfair's death, I2i 3 . 6 restored to favour through Thiodolf 
of Hvm and assigned residence in Ringrealm, I2i 28 -i22 4 
proclaimed King of Ringrealm by his father, i22 3 I3i 20 . 22 
his son Halfdan father to Sigurd Syr, 311^ 

SIGURD CAPE (S. kapa), a follower of Hakon Shoulderbroad, 
iii. 44i 13 slain, 4475 

SIGURD, son of Eric Biodaskalli, and brother to Astrid, the 
mother of Olaf Tryggvison, long in King Valdimar's service 
in Garthrealm, i. 228 26 . 31 finds, on a taxgathering expedition 

SIG] Index I 179 

in Estland, Olaf Tryggvison in a slave market, and buys him 
and his companion Thorgils from their master Reasand brings 
them with him to Holmgarth, 22933-2309 saves Olaf Trygg- 
vison from the penalty of his first manslaughter, 230^-23 1 21 
a noble man and a wealthy, 3oi M2 the by-name in the 
text, 'Carlshead' (KarlshofuSS), is a mistake; it was a name 
borne by one of Sigurd's brothers. Cf. Olaf's saga by Odd, 
Fms. and Flat. 

SIGURD CAUL (S. hjiipa), a follower of Hakon Shoulder- 
broad, in. 44^13 slain, 4475 

SIGURD of Eastort, son of Kari King's-brother and Borghild 
daughter of Day Eilifson; Sigurd's sons: Jon of Eastort, 
Thorstein and Andres, iii. 336 22 . 27 

SIGURD, base-born son of Erlmg Askew by Asa the Light, 
iii. 474 7 . 8 

SIGURD, son of Erling Skialgson of Soli and Astrid, daughter 
of King Tryggvi Olafson, ii. 24 26 goes in a craft of twenty 
benches to aid his brother-in-law Thorberg against Olaf 
Haraldson, in the affair of Stein Skaptison, 283^-2843 18 . 20 

SIGURD, son of Eystein Glumra, and brother to Rognvald 
Mere-Earl, receives Orkney and Shetland as gift from his 
brother, and is confirmed in the Earldom of Orkney by Harald 
Hairfair, i. n6 14 . 18 cf. 11. i68 6 . 8 harries Scotland in company 
with Thorstein the Red, n6 18 _ 22 his death and burial-place, 
n6 22 . 28 (i22 12 ). 

SIGURD, son of Eystein Travail, one of the slayers of Sigurd 
Gaud-axe of King Ingi's bodyguard, iii. 38 7^ 

SIGURD GAUD-AXE (S. skrtfShyrna), one of K. Ingi Harald- 
son's bodyguard, slain by two of K. Sigurd his brother's 
bodyguards, iii. 387^ 

SIGURD, son of Gudrun of Saltness, joins the band raised by 
K. Eystein Maiden the son of Eystein, iii. 483^ 

SIGURD Gyrdson, a landed man, goes to Skurbaga with six 
hundred men to fight the Wends besieging Kings' Rock, but 
returns without venturing a battle, iii. 32933-3304 

SIGURD, son of Earl Hakon Griotgardson, after his father 
Earl of Ladir, i. i37 16 . 19 was from his father's death the 
fosterer of Halfdan the Black, and of Sigfrod, sons of K. 
Har. Hairfair, I37 19 . 23 married Bergliot, the daughter of 

i8o Index I [SIG 

Earl Thorir the Silent, and of Alof Year's-heal, d. of Har. 
Hairfair, and was the wisest of men, 13734.27 I 49i5-i6 as ne 
is bringing on board his ship to King Hairfair Thora Most- 
staff, she gives birth to a son, Hairfair's youngest child, whom 
Sigurd baptizes to the name of his own father, Hakon, i38 15 . 20 
he adopts K. Hakon's cause, when he comes back from 
England to claim the throne of Norway, 14914-150^ appointed 
by K. Hakon earl over all Thrandheim, 156^ assists K. 
Hakon in framing the Frosta-Thing's Law, i6o 28 . 30 was King 
Hakon's dearest friend, i6i 1213 a man much given to blood- 
offerings, i65 5 . entertained at his own cost all worshippers 
at a sacrificial feast at Ladir, 1 6 6 4 . 17 mediates peace between 
K. Hakon the Good and the assembled men of Frosta-Thing, 
who refused to be converted to Christianity, i68 n . lt 18 . 29 
acts in a like manner between the king and his heathen sub- 
jects in the matter of blood-offerings, i69 4 -i7i 19 fights with 
K. Hakon the Good against Eric's sons at Ogvaldsness, i72 5 . 30 
terms of peace arranged between him and Eric's sons after 
the fall of Hakon the Good, i99 16 . 2 3- his rule over Thrand- 
heim the cause of deadly hatied on the part of Gunnhild and 
her sons, 202 18 -203 12 receives friendly gifts from, and a kind 
invitation to come on a visit to, Harald Greycloak, but declines 
the invitation, 20333-2044 his life plotted against by K. Harald 
Greycloak and Gnotgarth, Sigurd's own brother, 204 4 _ 28 
burnt in his house at Oglo by Harald and Erling, in company 
with Griotgarth, two winters after the fall of Hakon the Good, 
20 5s-20 2o6 7 . 8 -date of his death, 23935.37 
SIGURD, Earl, son of Hallward Freeholder of Reyr, a follower 
of Hakon Shoulder-Broad, iii. 399 10 400^ 407 6 speech to 
Hakon's host before the battle in the Elf, 408^-409^ Hakon, 
being defeated, Gregory Dayson obtains King Ingi's pardon 
for Sigurd, 4153529 escapes with Hakon from Gregory's 
attack on them at Saur-Byes, 4193.35 he and Hakon burn 
Vettland, slaying Haldor Bryniolfson and mishandling the 
household, 41937-4205 created Earl by Hakon, 438 22 . 28 
sent to Kings' Rock by Hakon to defend it against Erling, 
43 8 2*r4394 envied by Hakon's followers, 439s2-442 sails 
by the deep sea course to meet King Hakon at Thrandheim, 
44034-26 S oes south with him to fight Erling Askew, 44i 10 
sent by King Hakon into Raumsdale to gather up men and 

SIG] Index I 181 

ships, 442 26 . 28 keeps the band of Hakon together after his 
death; leaves his ships in Raumsdale and fares to the Up- 
lands, 447 15 .i8 k* s means run short, 44839-4492 condemned 
'to the devil' at a formal Thing, 449 19 -45o 5 goes with the 
flower of his host about the Wick; some of his men seek 
truce privily from Erling, 4509-15 -his men slay Philippus 
the son of Gyrd who had made peace with Erling, 45o 23 . 26 
goes with his host to Re, where he is set upon and slain" by 
Erling, 45*i 2 -455i2 

SIGURD, a Halogalander, imprisoned together with his brother 
Hawk by Olaf Tryggvison, for refusing to be christened ; 
they vanish from prison, and turn up at Harek's in Thiotta, 
whom, by a ruse, they kidnap and bring into Olaf 's power, i. 
324 3 -326 10 thereupon Sigurd is christened and becomes the 
king's servant, 327^ 

SIGURD HART (S. hjortr), King of Ringrealm, son of Helgi 
the Keen and Aslaug, daughter of Sigurd Worm-in-Eye slew 
Hildibrand with other twelve bareserks, when twelve years of 
age, i. 8i 4 . 14 had two children, Ragnhild and Guthorm, 
81 u-18 ki g ^S^ lt w ^^ t ^ ie bareserk Haki, and death, 8i 18i29 

SIGURD MOUTH (S. munnr), King of Norway, 1136-1155, 
baseborn son of Harald Gilli by Thora, daughter of Guthorm 
Greybeard, iii. 31422-23 fostered north in Thrandheim with 
Seed-Gyrd, son of Bard, 347 13 proclaimed king at the re- 
quest of Queen Ingirid, 347 6 . n 348^! he and Seed-Gyrd 
fail to catch Sigurd Slembi-Deacon, 358^ receives formal 
request from his brother Ingi to bear his share of the cost of 
defending the realm, 35922~36o lg he accedes to the request 
and they join company, 36i n . 2 i k tn brothers defeat Sigurd 
Slembi-Deacon at Holm-the-Gray, where Magnus the Blind 
is slain, 36i 28 ~363 16 after ruling jointly for six years, he and 
Ingi share the kingdom with their brother Eystein, 3683.^ 
hates Ottar Brightling for his kindness towards K. Ingi; is 
suspected of having caused Ottar's death, of which charge 
he promises to clear himself by ordeal, which he never per- 
forms, s6g I0 . u 370^5 has a son, Hakon (Shoulderbroad), 
by Thora, a workwoman of Simon Thorbergson, 373 3 . 24 he 
and Ingi set up separate court each for himself, 377 C . 16 
Sigurd's character and appearance, 377 2 r37^is Sigurd's 
violence gets him into trouble with Eystein, his brother, but 

1 82 Index I [SIG 

they make up their quarrel by agreeing to depose their crippled 
brother Ingi, 385^-3864 failure of the plan, K. Sigurd's fall, 
3865-390- his burial place, 390 7 . 8 

SIGURD HOUND (hundr), son of Joan the son of Arm and 
Ranveig the daughter of Sigurd son of Thorir Hound, iii. 
Z 7ioi4 outlawed by Magnus Barefoot, 242 9 . 10 

SIGURD HRANISON, married to Skialdvor, the daughter of 
Bryniolf Camel and Thora the mother of K. Magnus Bare- 
foot, their son Nicolas, iii. 4819 13 a follower of King Magnus 
Barefoot in his warfare in Ireland, 238^ one of the last to 
flee after the fall of the king, 242 22 his contest at law with 
K. Sigurd Jerusalem-farer (brother of his wife), or * the Tale 
of the Things,' 271^-276 

SIGURD JERUSALEM-FARER (Crusader) (S. j6rsalafari), 
King of Norway, 1103-1130, natural s. of K. Magnus Bare- 
foot and Thora, iii. 233^ marries, i. Biadmynia, d. of K. 
Myrkiartan of Connaught, 225 20 . 21 : 2. Malmfrid, d. of K. 
Harald Valdemarson of Holmgarth and Kristin, d. of Ingi, 
K. of Sweden, 27o 283u 27i 2 . 4 ; their daughter Kristin, wife of 
Erling Askew, 37i 13 r 3. Cecilia, 307-3096 has by Borghild, 
d. of Olaf O'Dale, a son, Magnus (the Blind), 278 20 . 25 

Is appointed lord of the Orkneys by his father, 22i 16 . 19 
hearing of his father's death, he leaves the Orkneys for his 
kingdom in Norway, 242 29 . 83 he succeeds, at the age of 
thirteen or fourteen, to one third of the realm against his 
brothers Eystein and Olaf, 247 6 . 14 he leaves Biadmynia be- 
hind in the west, 247 14 . 16 puts himself at the head of a 
company of Norwegian adventurers bound for Jerusalem, 
2 47s2" 2 4^ii ^ e expedition, consisting of sixty ships, starts 
four years after the fall of K. Magnus Barefoot, 24834-2493 
the story of the crusade, 249 7 -26i 23 the return journey, 26i 26 - 
262^ K. Sigurd's person and character, 267 24 . 31 with his 
brothers he removes many of the burdens which K. Svem, 
'son of Alfiva,' had imposed upon the people, 268 3 . 7 his 
dream foretelling the duration of the reign of each of the 
three brothers interpreted to him by K. Eystein, 268 10 -27o 25 
his contest at law with Sigurd Hranison, ' the Tale of the 
Things,' 271^-27635 coolness between him and his brother 
Eystein in consequence of the latter's advocacy of Sigurd 
Hranison's cause, 276 26 . 2S on the death of K. Olaf, Ks. Sigurd 

SIG] Index I 183 

and Eystein share the kingdom by halves, 277 3 _ 12 they re- 
side alternately in the north or in the south, 277 15 . 30 K. 
Sigurd takes great interest in making Kings' Rock a strong 
and wealthy place, 278^3 309^-3103 his dealings with Borg- 
hild, d. of Olaf o'Dale, 278 14 . 29 'Man-matching' between 
him and Eystein, 2793-2833 having a bath at a feast in the 
Uplands, he shows symptoms of mental derangement, 283 6 . 1S 
after the death of K. Eystein, Sigurd sole king in the 
land, 284 14 . 16 his negotiations with K. Nicolas of Denmark 
in respect of conversion to Christianity of the Smallands 
in Sweden, the * Kalmar Hosting,' 284^-285 K. Sigurd 
and Thorarin Curtfell, 286-288 14 K. Sigurd's fit of madness 
one Whitsunday, 288 1T -289 12 how the King rewarded the 
candle page Ottar Brightling for bringing him to his senses, 
289 13 -29i 6 his dream foreboding the arrival of the pretender, 
Harald Gilli, and the founding of his dynasty, 2919-292^ 
K. Sigurd in a fit of mental derangement corrected by Aslak 
Cock, 292 18 -294 18 another fit on Yule Eve, 294^-2 9 5 13 
K. Sigurd allows Harald Gilli to prove by ordeal that he was 
the son of Magnus Barefoot, 295 16 -296 19 the ordeal being 
a success, K. Sigurd acknowledges Harald as his brother, 
2 9620-21 causes his son, Magnus, to be sworn king in succes- 
sion to himself, 296 23 . 2r rebukes Magnus for his animosity 
against Harald, 298 30 -299 8 K. Sigurd's swimming contest 
with an Icelander, 299 11 -3oo 14 his dealings with his landed 
man Sigurd Sigurdson, 299 30 -3oo 14 3oi 12 -302 5 saves Har. 
Gilli from the gallows, and outlaws his would-be executioner, 
Svein Rimhildson, 3oi 19 -302 2 in defiance of the Church he 
marries the lady Cecilia without his marriage with queen 
Malmfrid being dissolved, 307-309 6 he takes much interest 
in strengthening and enriching the town of King's Rock, 
39io"3 I0 3 his death, burial place, length of reign, etc., 

SIGURD KOLBEINSON, brother to Bentein who was slain 
by Sigurd Slembi-Deacon, iii. 3564 tortures Sigurd Slembi- 
Deacon to death, 366 8 . 23 

SIGURD, son of Red in the Eastern Dales, ii. 339 10 is ac- 
cused by Biorn the Steward of theft, 338 24 -339 25 summoned 
to King Olaf and declared free of the charges brought against 
him by Biorn, 339 25 . 28 declares his accomplishments to the 

184 Index I [SIG 

King, who tests them and finds Sigurd's declaration to be 
correct, 340 10 , 14 informs the king that Biorn himself is the 
person guilty of the crime he charges on others, which turns 
out to be true, 34020-33 

SIGURD RING (S. hringr), father to Ragnar Lodbrok, King 
of Raumrealm and Westfold, Vingulmark 'and thenceaway 
south/ i. 1 052^ 

SIGURD SCRIP (S. hit), a whilom banner-bearer of K. Rcerek 
the son of Day, rescues him from imprisonment at King Olaf s 
court, ii. 1283,9 but being overtaken by Olaf's men, leaves the 
blind Rcerek to his fate and saves himself with his followers 
by flight, I30 6 . 20 

SIGURD SIGURDSON, a landed man of K Sigurd Jerusalem- 
farer, rescues from the king a swimmer and forfeits the king's 
favour, iii. 299 30 -3oo 14 regains the king's favour by giving 
him a timely warning that Harald Gilli was in imminent peril 
of being hanged, 3oi ir 302 5 advises King Magnus the Blind 
in vain to keep his war host in the Wick after the battle of 
Fyrileif, 3i8 8 . 12 King Magnus refusing to listen to all his 
proposals as to how to deal with Harald Gilli, he leaves him 
to his own devices, 320^32132 

SIGURD, son of King Sigurd the son of Harald Gilli, and 
brother to K. Hakon Shoulderbroad, fostered by Markus 
O'Shaw, taken to king by the Uplanders, iii. 448 8 . 14 is sup- 
ported by a large following led by Markus and Earl Sigurd 
of Reyr, 448 14 . 19 2 9~4492 ne an ^ Markus are attacked by 
Erling Askew at Kings 7 Rock and Hisingisle and driven off 
into the upland forests, 4551Q-456JQ from there they march 
overland to Thrandheim, where Sigurd is taken for king at 
the Eres' Thing, 457 13 . 19 they gather a fleet, go south to 
Mere, where they lay hold of all the king's dues, then pro- 
ceed south unto Listi, where they turn northward again on 
hearing that Erling had a strong naval force in the Wick, 
45720-24 2f45 8 15 making for Biorgvin they are attacked by 
Erling's lieutenants and slain, 458 16 -459 2 

SIGURD SLAVER (S. slefa), son of Eric Bloodaxe and Gunn- 
hild, i. 145^ together with his brother Gudrod he was left 
by Harald Greyfell in occupation of Thrandheim, when Earl 
Hakon was ousted therefrom, 2i4 4 . 8 but in autumn they 
had to clear out of Thrandheim before Hakon; spent the 

SIG] Index I 185 

winter in the Mere, 2i4 14 . 23 dishonours the wife of Klypp 
the Hersir, wherefore the hersir slays him at Alrekstead, 

2T 5l9-24 3(T 2l6 12 3329 

SIGURD SLEMBI-DEACON (S. slembidjakn), < called the 
son of Priest Adalbrikt, 3 but declared by his mother, Thora 
the d. of Saxi of Wick, to be the son of K. Magnus Barefoot, 
& 33617-21 337r-s he and his followers averred that he had 
proved by ordeal in Denmark that he was the son of K. Mag- 
nus Barefoot, a discredited story, 337 20 . 33 SsS^ his person 
and character, 33<V3376 his foreign travels^ 337 . 20 his 
stay and doings in Iceland, 3384-339 escapes treason laid 
against his life by Harald Gilli, 340-341^ organizes a con- 
spiracy against K. Harald and slays him in his bed, 34i 98 - 
343u hi 8 Demand to be proclaimed king angrily refused, he 
and his followers declared outlaws, 343 14 -344 4 he is pro- 
claimed king by the bonders of North-Hordland and those 
of Sogn and the Firths, 344 5 . 21 he is repudiated by North- 
mere and Thrandheim, takes the maimed and blinded King 
Magnus out of his monastery and goes with his following 
south to Northmere and Raumsdale and there parts from 
Magnus and goes west over sea, 348 14 -349 16 returns from 
the west to Norway, whence speedily he makes for Denmark, 
where he has some successful fighting with Wendish vikings, 
353 2r 354 7 his adventures in the Elf, at Kings' Rock and 
about the Wick, 3547.33 goes to Denmark, 355 5 . n raids 
the district of Listi in company with Magnus the Blind, and 
is chased away by K. Ingi Haraldson and flees to Halogaland, 
where he winters, 35511-3573.7 marauding in Halogaland and 
Northmere, 357 18 -358 18 robs in Hordland and drifts south 
along the land into the Wick, working havoc on K. Ingi's 
folk, and sets thence once more out for Denmark, 358 19 -359 10 
returns to Norway next spring in company with K. Magnus 
and, with a fleet of thirty sail, fights with Kings Ingi and 
Sigurd at Holm-the-Gray, where he is defeated, laid hands on 
and tormented to death, 36134-367 his body fetched by 
Danish friends of his and buried at Mary Church in Alaburg 
in Jutland, 36720-25 

SIGURD STORK (S. storkr), son of Eindrid of Gautdale, a 
partisan of Sigurd Slembi-deacon, iii. 356 12 has a son, Jon 
Kutiza, 43721-22 

1 86 Index I [SIG 

SIGURD SYR, or Sow (S. s#r), King of Ringrealm, son of Half- 
dan the son of Sigurd a-Bush the son of Harald Hairfair, i. 
6 3 married Asta the widow of Harald the Grenlander and 
mother to Olaf the Holy, i. 3 1 i s 8 lets himself with wife and 
Olaf his stepson be christened by Olaf Tryggvison, S^mr 
he brings up Olaf the Thick, his stepson, n. 3 5 . 7 is held 
of little account by Olaf, 3 19 -4 n hi* household ways, 3 12 . 16 
his ordinary arrayal and business relating to husbandry, 
353-25 his children, 35 2628 248 15 his reception of Olaf 
Haraldson on his return to Norway from his viking raids 
abroad, 34 4 -37i 8 his state arrayal, 3631-29 partakes in a 
family council together with his wife at which Olaf declares 
his intention to fight for the kingdom of Norway, 3721-4*12 
his speech on the occasion, 39 24 -4O 33 his manner of enter- 
taining Olaf and his company, 4i 14 . 15 r his pleading on behalf 
of Olaf to the folk-kings of the Uplands, 4i 20 -42 10 joins 
Olaf with a large following against Earl Svein and Einar 
Thambarskelfir, 54 12 . 13 partakes in the battle off Nesiar and 
unavailingly advises King Olaf, on the flight of Earl Svein, to 
follow up his victory and undo the Earl utterly, 62 2r _63 8 
receives good gifts from Olaf at their parting, 64 5 . 6 his death 
(1018), io9 27 

SIGURD THE THICK (S. digri), son of Hlodver, earl of 
Orkney, restored to the people of Orkney the ' odal ' rights 
they had given up to Turf-Einar, i. izi^iz^ cf. ii. i69 12 . 14 
made prisoner by Olaf Tryggvison in Rognvaldsey ; set free on 
allowing himself to be christened; becomes Olafs man and 
gives his son Hound or Whelp as hostage to Olaf, i. 2go 2l - 
29 i s ii. i69 15 . 23 did no homage to Olaf after his son's death, 
ii. 16934.2*- married the daughter of Malcolm (II.), king of the 
Scotch, and had with her a son, Thorfin, his older sons being 
Summerlid, Brusi, Einar Wrongmouth, i69 27 . 31 went on a 
war-raid to Ireland, leaving his elder sons in rule over Orkney, 
but placing Thorfin with the Scottish king, and fell in the 
Brian battle (battle of Clontarf, 1014), *69 31 -i7o 3 . 
SIGURD, son of Thorir ( c and brother to Thonr Hound of 
Birchisle '), married to Sigrid, daughter of Thorolf Skialg and 
sister to Erlmg Skialgson, ii. 2i4 16 . 19 abode at Thrandness 
In Omt on Hmnisle in Halogaland, not doing homage (as 
his brother had done) to K. Olaf Haraldson, 2i4 22 . 24 his 

SIG] Index I 187 

character and lordly household ways, 2i4 22 . 94 27 . 28 on be- 
coming Christian he held the custom Christianwise to have 
three great feasts a year at the same time at which he had 
observed the heathen feasts, 214^-2153 died 'of sickness,' 

SIGURD, son of Thorir Hound, father to Rauveig the wife of 
Jon, son of Arni, iii. I7 10 -i2 

SIGURD, son of Thorlak who was brother to Thrand O'Gate 
in Eastisle in the Faroes, ii. 269 25 . 29 is sent by Thrand after 
Thoralf of Dimon, who sails for Norway at the summons of 
K. Olaf Haraldson, in order to see that Thoralf should not 
inform the king too clearly of the fate of the two disastrous 
political missions he had sent already to Faroe, 27o 1 . 12 
Sigurd keeps Thoralf sailing company across the sea and 
makes land at the island of Herna, a short distance from 
where Thoralf came to anchor, 27o 13 . 26 here Thoralf is slain, 
and Sigurd, suspected of the deed, denies it on oath, offering 
to clear himself by ordeal, to which K. Olaf agrees admitting 
him to bail, but under cover of night he sails forthwith back 
to Faroe, 270^-27330 Thrand feigns displeasure with the 
journey, 273^-2742 heavy suspicion now fell on Sigurd and 
his mates, who, however, escaped unpunished, 274 2 _ 12 
made an outlaw for wounding a liege-man of Gilli the speaker- 
at-law of Faroe, 309^ 23 . 25 

SIGURD, son of Veseti and brother to Bui, a lord among the 
Joms vikings, i. 27o 28 . 29 27i 28 his vow at the funeral feast 
after his father and Harald Gormson, 272^.33 commands, 
with his brother Bui the Thick, one wing of the Jomsburg 
fleet in the Battle of Hiorung-wick, 277 12 . 13 

SIGURD, son of Viking-Kari and father to Eric Biodaskalli, 
i. 334 30 (but ii. 89 6 Eric Biodaskalli is, in accordance with 
other records, stated to be the son of Viking-Kari, see Eric 

SIGURD WOOL-STRING, son of Lodin Viggskull, a landed 
man of K. Magnus Barefoot, foiled in his attempt to quell 
the rebellion against K. Magnus which was led by Svein, 
son of Harald Fletcher and Steig-Thorir, iii. 2io 9 . ir his 
mission to Sveinki son of Steinar, 214^-21732 his defence of 
the castle on Kvaldin's-isle, 227^-228^ 

SIGURD WORM-IN-EYE (S. ormr-i-auga), son of Ragnar 

1 88 Index I [SIG 

Lodbrok and father to Aslaug, the mother of Sigurd Hart, i. 
8i g ^ King in Denmark, 2335 

SIGVALDI, son of Stnit-Harald, brother to Heming and 
Thorkel the High, married to Astrid, d. of K. Burislaf in 
Wendland, i. ^^ ZM (cf. ii. n 8 . 9 ) 27i 4 . 5 cf. 36o 18 . iq 37523 
captain over Jomsburg in Wendland, 27023-23 kidnaps K. 
Svein Twibeard of Denmark, and forces him to make peace 
with K. Burislaf, whose daughter he should marry, ^ and to 
whom Svein in return should give in marriage his sister 
Thyri, 27o 31 -27i 14 he and K. Svein hold jointly a funeral 
feast after their fathers, at which the Jomsvikings bound them 
by vows to drive Earl Hakon the Mighty out of Norway, 
2 7 I 26" 2 7 2 4 20-24 ne l ea ds the famous raid of the Jomsvikings 
on Norwayfaiid is utterly defeated by Earl Hakon in Hiorung- 
wick, 274^-279 fetches from Denmark Princess Thyri 
against her will to be married to K. Burislaf, 349 3 . 29 makes 
a compact with Svein to betray Olaf Tryggvison into the 
power of him and his allies, 36o 9 . 14 his guiles towards and 
betrayal of Olaf, 3 6o u-3 62 2i S^Ss-is 375i9-2i 24-27 his cou rt 
poet Thord, 'Sigvaldi's skald, 7 ii. 5i 6 . 8 

SIGVAT (Sigvatr), King of Eighth-land, burned in a banquet- 
ting hall at Upsala by Ingiald Evilheart, i. 58 5 . 10 29-5 9r 

SIGVAT, son of Thord, by-named 'Sigvaldi's skald,' like his 
father an Icelandic poet; fostered at Apewater in southern 
Iceland, he went young abroad and joined his father at the 
court of K. Olaf Haraldson, ii. 5i 14 . 24 his songs on Olafs 
various exploits before he became King of Norway, ii. 

6 ar74 923-31 I0 2r II 4 18-20 I2 M5 I 5ar-35 l6 M6 I 7i6-24 so" :r8 4 26-34 
1 98-14 16-20 3<r 20 s 2I 5-is - n Olaf Tryggvison, Erlmg Skialg- 
son and Earl Rognvald Wolfson, 23 23 _ 31 on Erling, 24 14 . 22 
on Knut, 2720-24 on Earl Hakon's disaster in Saudung- 
sound, 32^.34 his first acquaintance with and song to K. Olaf 
Haraldson, 5i 2 4-5 2 6 his song-reward and appointment as 
body-guard, 52 7 _ 18 prays the K. to remit half the sailing fees 
due from the craft he came in to Norway, S2 25 . 35 his song 
on the battle of Nesiar 5724 . 32 S 8 W ]3 . 21 26 . 34 59lo . 18 21 . 29 31 -6o 6 
17-25 6 3i3~ 6 44 on K. Olafs legislation, 68 24 . 28 informs K. 
Olaf of the state of Christianity in Iceland, 69^3 his journey 
to Sweden with Biorn the Marshal commemorated, 92 2 s~94i5 
his device how to break important news to the king in the 

SIG] Index I 189 

middle of the night contrary to express prohibition, i28 10 - 
I2 9s2 ki s niission to Earl Rognvald, and report thereof to 
K.Olaf, I44i 5 -i5 1 2i the result of the mission, I5i 25 -i52 10 
his comparative estimate of Gudbrand a-Dales and Erling 
Skialgson, 2oo 19 , 32 baptizes K. Olafs son Magnus, 235^- 
237! with Knut in England, from whom he receives good 
gifts, 254 6 -255 12 his song on the figureheads of the great 
war-galleys, Ol. Tryggvison's Longworm and Ol. Haraldson's 
Bison, 3io 24 _ 32 commemorates in Knut's Drapa the warfare 
in Denmark of Kings Olaf and Onund, 3i2 32 -3i3 ls his west- 
faring and second meeting with Knut, 31329-31423 his song 
about Knut's expedition against K. Olaf of Norway, 3i4 24 - 
3165 31927-320^ 27 . 35 on the point of falling into disfavour 
with K. Olaf on account of having been well received by 
Knut, Sigvat puts matters right with a song, 333 24 -335 3 his 
songs on the growing disloyalty of K. Olafs subjects, 336^ 
song on K. Olafs yule-gift to Sigvat of a gold-hilted sword, 
3377-28 sin S s of K - Olafs waning forces, 34612-20 347i- 8 &s 
song on Erling Skialgson's fight and fall, 35 6 i4-ar 3r357<j 13-21 
31-35^6 11-20 359 2 8-3 6o u sm S s of K - Olafs unswerving stern 
maintenance of justice, 37i s , 2 8 his absence from the battle 
of Sticklestead provokes adverse remarks from Thormod 
Coalbrowskald, 40435-405 6 4o8 15 . 19 incidents of the battle of 
Sticklestead recorded in Sigvat's songs: the king's standard- 
bearer, 4i2 23 -4i3 4 ; K. Olafs dauntlessness, 4i3 15 . 24 ; K. 
Olafs inferiority in numbers, 426 3 . n ; fierceness of the landed 
men's attack, 428 10 _ 24 ; K. Olafs rushing out of the shield- 
burg to head the attack, 429 10 -430 6 ; total eclipse of the sun, 
43i 3 . n ; the fall of K. Olaf, 432 3 . 24 ; the fall of Biorn the 
Marshal, 43337.35; Day's brunt, 443 1 _ 1 7 commemorates the 
growth of the dead king's hair, 457 2 6~45^2 s ^ n s of the dura- 
tion of Olafs reign, and of his battles and Christian zeal, 
46033-46 r n praises Queen Astrid's kindness towards Mag- 
nus the Good, iii. 5^.35 his return from Rome: memorial 
verses on Olaf, i2 4 -i4 14 goes to Sweden and joins company 
with Magnus, and becomes his man, 1415-1524 commemor- 
ates miracles at the shrine of Olaf and the feast-day in his 
memory, i6 15 -i7 4 his pleading with K. Magnus for milder 
treatment of his subjects, boldly censuring the king in his 
c Staves of naked Says,' 22 4 -24 28 

190 Index I [SIM SKE 

SIMON (Simon), the son of Kari, married to Margaret, the 
daughter of Queen Ingirid d. of Rognvald, and Arni of Stod- 
reim, iii. 37o 22 . 2 r 

SIMON, son of Thorberg, a mighty man, the owner of a stead 
in Wick, married to Gunnhild, their sons Onund and An- 
dreas, 'the sons of Simon, 7 iii. 407^ brings up Hakon 
Shoulderbroad, 373 5 . 24 

SIMON SHEATH (S. skalpr), son of Hallkel Hunch, married 
to Maria, daughter of King Harald Gilli, their son Nicolas, 
iii. 379 9 . 12 goes over to the side of King Ingi, 392 32 hits 
upon King Eystein Haraldson in his hiding place, and has 
him cruelly slain, 394 30 -3952o becomes most unpopular for 
the deed, 396 3 . 13 joins Gregory Dayson going in pursuit of 
Hakon Shoulderbroad east unto Kings'-Rock, 4oo 10 Sigurd 
of Reyr's opinion of his title to kingship in Norway, 409 5 . 
fights on the side of K. Ingi in the battle of Oslo, and falls, 

SKADI (Ska^i), giantess of kin, i. 2i 4 married to Niord, 
whom she left for Odin, with whom she had many sons, 

20 J6 2I 8 

SKAGI, the son of Skopti, Earl Hakon the Mighty's father-in- 
law, i. 2474 

SKANINGS (Skanungar), inhabitants of the province of Skaney, 
i. 3 62 17 ii. 3 23 23 iii. 3i 15 33 28 383 43 32 45 32 4 7 12 48 22 

SKAPTI, son of Thorod, Speaker-at-law in Iceland, 1004-1030, 
ii. 69^2 receives, together with those who bore most rule 
in Iceland, a message from King Olaf Haraldson, enjoining 
amendment of the Christian law of the land (cf. 69^9), 73 9 _ 15 
designated by King Olaf Haraldson as keeper of the 
troublesome Upland king Rcerek in case of need, 13524-26 
invited, together with other chiefs of Iceland, by Thorarin 
Nefiolfson, to go to Norway to meet King Olaf, an invitation 
on which S. did not act, 245-2465 249 21 makes a drapa on 
King Olaf Haraldson which he teaches to his son Stem, 
charging him to recite it to the king, but the latter refused to 
hear, 278 9 . 12 20 .g 2 

SKARDI (Skar^i), a Jomsviking, i. 282 18 . 16 

SKAUN-FOLK (Skeynir), inhabitants of the district of Skaun 
in Thrandheim, Norway, ii 19633 

SKEGGI, see Jarnskeggi, son of Asbiorn. 

SKE SKO] Index I 191 

SKEGGI of Uphowe, see Jarnskeggi. 
SKEGGI (son of Thorgeir), father of Hialti, i. 33^ 
SKIALDVOR (Skjaldvor), daughter of Bryniolf Camel and 
Thora (d. of Joan), the mother of Magnus Barefoot, had for 
husband Sigurd son of Hrani (Rani), their son Nicolas, in. 

2 7 2 25-26 4^ 1 9-13 

SKIALDVOR, daughter of Nicolas, the son of Sigurd Hranison, 
wife of Eric Arnison, iii. 48i 19 _ 01 

SKIALF (Skjalf ), daughter of Ffosti, lord of Finland, taken in 
war by Agm, K. of the Swedes, and wedded by him, whom, 
however, she hanged by the fatal necklace of Visbur, i. 33 20 - 

34 29 
SKIALG (Skjalgr), see Thorolf Skialg. 

SKIALG, son of Erling Skialgson of Soli and Astrid, daughter 
of King Tryggvi Olafson, ii. 24^ enters (apparently as a sort 
of hostage), King Olaf Haraldson's household, ii. 2i4 89 his 
efforts to save his cousin Asbiorn Seals'-bane's life after the 
murder of Thorir Seal, 223.7-224 227^-2283 goes to England 
into the service of King Knut, where he is handsomely ad- 
vanced, 255 25 . 32 

SKIALG, a mighty and wealthy man who joined the revolt of 
Steigthorir and Svein, son of Harald Fletcher, against K. 
Magnus Barefoot, iii. 20993-2 10^ 

SKIOLD (Skjdldr), son of Odin, King of Selund, married 
to Gefion, and had his seat in Hleithra, i. 16^ 

SKIOLD, King of Varna, a mighty wizard; his dealings with 
Eystein, King of Westfold, i. 68 26 -69 26 

SKIOLDUNGS, descendants of K. Skiold, saga of them (Skjold- 
unga saga), i. 5o 18 

SKOGUL, or Geir-Skogul (Skogul), a ' Valkyr ja/ i. io2 23 1895 

29 27 16 . so 

SKOGUL-TOSTI, or simply Tosti (Skoglar-Tosti), a mighty 
yet untitled lord in Sweden, a great warrior, receives into his 
fellowship Harald the Grenlander, i. 2i2 2e -2i3 3 his daughter 
Sigrid the Haughty, 2i3 3 . 5 356 22 . 23 his son Wolf, Earl of 
West Gautland, 35 6 2o-23 

SKOPTI, the father of Skagi, i. 2474 

SKOPTI of Gizki, son of Ogmund, married Gudrun, d. of 
Thord Folison ; their children: Ogmund, Finn, Thord, Thora, 
wife of Asolf Skulison of Rein, and Ragnhild, wife of Eilif, 

192 Index I [SKO SNO 

Hi. i84 n 20903 22537-2263 377H7-J8 his and his sons' dispute 
with K. Magnus Barefoot about a heritage, 2351-236 he and 
his sons all die on a pilgrimage to Rome, 237 3 . 15 said to be 
the first Norwegian to sail through Norvisound, 337i 5 . 1 7 

SKOPTI OF-THE-TIDINGS (TiSinda-Skopti), son of Skagi 
Skoptison, married to Ragnhild, the daughter of Hakon, 
Earl of Ladir, L 24^^.^ held m great favour by Hakon, 
who gave him great fiefs in Mere, and ordered his ship always 
to be berthed next to his own, 247 m9 he was ever to be 
the bearer of the latest news to Hakon, whence his byname, 
2 4&i4-i7 his quarrel with Eric, Hakon's son, about the berth 
privilege, 247,->-248 18 slain by Eric, 248 18 -249 n 

SKULI (Skiih'XDuke, the son of Bard, the son of Guthorm 
the son of Asolf of Rein and Thora d. of Skopti Ogmundson, 
iii. i84 18 33637 

SKULI, the King's fosterer (S. konungsfdstn) [son of Earl 
Tosti Godwinson, Fms. vi. 42 8 ir _ 19 ] accompanies K. Olaf the 
Quiet from England to Norway, great favourite of the king, 
marries his first cousin, Gudrun, d. of Nefstein, their son 
Asolf of Rein, iii. 1839-184^ 

SKULI, Earl of Orkney, son of Thorfinn Skull-cleaver and of 
Grelad, daughter of Dungad, Earl of Caithness, i. 24i 26 ii. 

SKULI, son of Thorstein the son of Egil Skallagrimson, an 
Icelandic poet, author of a poem on the great fight with the 
Jomsburg vikings, i. 3 6 72tf3 68 4 

SKYLFINGS, better SKILFINGS (Skilfingar), name of a royal 
line in ' Eastern ways ' from K. Skelfir (cf. Snorra Edda, i. 
5 22 r*-i9)< hence princely race, i. 463,, 

SLAYING GLUM (Viga GliSmr), i. 28o 6 

SLEMBI, or Slembi-Deacon ( = bad Deacon), nickname of 
Sigurd, reputed son of King Magnus Barefoot, iii. 3374 33934 26 

SMALLAND FOLK (Smalendingar), inhabitants of the 
Swedish province of Smalland, iii. 285^ 

SNORRI THE PRIEST, son of Thorgrim (Snorri Jjorgrfmsson 
go^Si), near thirty-five when Christ's faith came to Iceland 
(1000), and died one winter after the fall of King Olaf the 
Holy (1031) (cf. Eredwellers' Saga), i. y^receives by 
Thorarin Nefiolfson a pressing invitation from K. Olaf 
Haraldson to go to Norway to meet the King, an invitation 

SNO SOL] Index I 193 

viewed with suspicion and not acted upon by Snorri, ii. 245- 
246 8 249 22 

SNOW THE OLD (Snjar hinn gamli), mythic K. of Finland, 
i. 26 30 

SNOWFAIR (Snaefrf^Sr), daughter of Swasi, a Finnish wizard, 
brews to Harald Hairfair a love-potion, c a cup full of honey- 
mead,' and he makes her his wedded wife, loving her so much 
that he neglects all his kingly duties, i. ii9 21 -i2o 1 her 
children, and disenchanting removal for burial, 120. 

SOGNERS, Sognfolk, folk of, men of Sogn (Sygnir), inhabi- 
tants of the folkland of Sogn, Norway, i. 3o8 21 ii. 147^ 423^ 
iii. 22 24 27 31 2i3 6 34416 

SOKM IMIR (Sokmimir), a giant ( = Sokkmimir, Grm. 49), i. 26 2S 

SOLVA (Solva), see Solveig. 

SOLVAR (Solvarr), son of Solvi the Old, i. 6 24 

SOLVEIG (S61veig), wife of Andres Brunison,a Priest of Christ's 
Church at Kings 1 Rock, iii. 325^ flees away from Kings' 
Rock up country unto the stead of Sunberg with tidings of 
the Wendish sack of Kings' Rock, 328 21 

SOLVEIG or Solva, d. of Halfdan Gold-tooth, married to K. 
Olaf Tree-shaver, i. 65 23 . 23 their sons Ingiald and Halfdan, 

i- 6 528-29 

SOLVI (Solvi), son of Halfdan Gold-tooth, King of Sol-isles, 
slain by Swedish invaders, i. 65 30 67^ 

SOLVI, son of Hogni of Niord's-isle, a sea-king, and also pos- 
sessed of a realm in Jutland; burnt King Eystein of Sweden 
in his house; became King of the Swedes, who ultimately 
betrayed him, i. 52 3 -53 4 

SOLVI KLOFI, son of King Hunthiof of Northmere, fights 
together with his father against Harald Hairfair in his first 
battle at Solskel, and saves himself by flight, i. 9930-10025 
keeps up viking-raids during the next winter throughout 
Northmere, and stays at times with his kinsman King Arnvid 
in Southmere, ioi 6 . 13 brings about an alliance between K, 
Arnvid of Southmere and K. Audbiorn of Firthfolk against 
Harald, with whom they fight at Solskel, where they fell, and 
Solvi saved himself by flight, ioi ir io2 20 thereafter Solvi 
was a viking for a long time, and did much harm to Harald's 
realm, io2 3S -io3 2 slays in battle, at the mouth of the Elf, 
Guthorm, son of K. Har. Hairfair, i28 9 . 1:l i32 16 . 17 
vi. o 

194 Index I [SOL STE 

SOLVI THE OLD (S. hinn gamli), who first cleared the dis- 
trict of Sol-isles, i. 65^ 

SOLVI, the son of Solvar, father to Halfdan Gold-tooth, i. 6^ 
SORKVIR (Sorkvir, Swed. Sverker) II., King of Sweden, pb. 

1 2 10, son of Karl (the son of Sorkvir I ), iii. 27i 12 married 

to Ingigerd daughter of Earl Birgir Brosa and Brigida, 

daughter of King Harald Gilli, 379* 

SORLI (Sorli), son of Jonakr, a mythic hero, i. 259^ 278 29 
SOTI (S6ti), captain of a viking-band with whom Olaf the Holy 

had his first battle amidst the islands afterwards called Soti- 

sker, ii. 6 llf 7 4 
SOTI, an earl, brother to Sulki King of Rogaland, fought 

against Harald Hairfair, and fell in the battle of Hafursfirth, 

i. ni g28 
SOUTHMERE (the folk of) (Sunnmserir), inhabitants of the 

folkland of S. M., i, 3o8 21 
SPAREBIDERS (Sparbyggjar), inhabitants of Spareby, one of 

the folklands of Thrandheim, ii. i96 31 
SPORSNIALLR (Sporsnjallr), King of Nerick, burned in a 

banqueting hall at Upsala by Ingiald Evilheart, i. 58 5 . 10 29 - 


STARKAD THE OLD (Starka^r hinn gamh), one of the 
champions of K. Haki, i. 38 13 . 16 slew Ali the Bold at Upsala, 

4 2 27-29 

STEIG-THORIR, see Thorir of Steig. 

STEIN (Steinn), son of Herdis, an Icel. poet, author of a 
'flock,' or a short drapa on Wolf, K. Harald Hardredy's mar- 
shal, iii. io4 19 lines on the meeting of Harald's and S vein's 
hosts in Lo fa-firth, when Harald's men wished to flee, i32 14 . 31 
on board Wolf the Marshal's ship in the battle of Niz, 
I 33so 28 son on tne h st f ^^ n g Svem in that battle, i34 19 . 2S 
on the battle of Niz, 1355-25 his drapa on K. Olaf the 
Quiet quoted, i68 9 . 20 i87 29 -i88 6 19115-23 20I 5-so 

STEIN, son of Skapti Thoroddson, goes in obedience to 
King Olaf Haraldson's message by Thorarin Nefiolfson, 
to Norway, and stays with the king, ii. 249^.39 * s refused 
return to Iceland next season by King Olaf, until the result 
of Gellir Thorkelson's mission to the island should be known, 
and is detained in a manner that savoured of unfreedom,' 
2 his discontent at this treatment given vent to in 

STE STU] Index I 

speech and song, 2783- 12 . 19 personal description, 278^ 
K. Olaf refuses to listen to a laudatory poem by Stein's father, 
on account of the son's refractory conduct, 2789.^ ,, . s > he 
runs away from the court of the king, slays a steward of his 
in Orkdale, and seizes a horse and sleigh and makes for the 
south, 2 79 1 . 38 arrives at Giski, where Ragnhild, daughter of 
Erling Skialgson, in the absence of her husband Thorberg 
Arnison, gives him the best of cheers out of gratitude for 
former kind service, 280^-28 1 18 by the aid of Thorberg and 
the family of Erling, Stein is delivered from the king's wrath 
and leaves Norway for England, where he remains for a long 
time in King Knut's service, 28i 14 -286 25 

STEINAR, the father of Sveinki, iii. 214^ 

STEINKEL [son of Rognvald], King of Sweden, ob. c. 1066; 
receives Earl Hakon Ivarson flying away from K. Harald 
Hardredy's persecution, and appoints him ruler of Vermland, 
iii. 14521-24 Hfy-io gives support to him in his contest with 
Harald (Vener campaign), 150^ 152^ dies near the time 
of the fall of the two Haralds (Godwinson and Hardredy), 226 

STEPHANUS, legate from Romeburg, at Biorgvin with Abp 
Eystein and other bishops, iii. 46i 18 

STEPHEN (Stefnir), King of England, iii. 376,- 

STIG WHITELEATHER (S. hvitaleSr), married to Margret, 
daughter of Knut the Lord and Ingibiorg the d. of K. Harald 
Valdemarson of Holmgarth; his and Margret's daughter 
Kristin, wife of the Swedish K. Karl, s. of Sorkvir, iii. 27o 28 - 

STONEGARTH, i. io4 32 = Griotgard, q.v. 

STOUR-WHILES MAGNUS (Styrjaldar Magmis), one of the 
nick-names of King Magnus Barefoot, iii. 233^ 

STRADBIARNI, foUower of K. Hakon Shoulderbroad, iii. 

STRUT-HARALD (Striit-Haraldr), King of Skaney, father to 
Earl Sigvaldi, Heming and Thorkel the High, i 270^- 
grave-ale feast after him, 27x3^273^ 

STUF THE SKALD, son of Thord, sings of Harald Hardredy's 
doings in Palestine, iii. 7i ir . 2r 724-12 of Harald's warring, 
summer after summer, to Denmark, 97^ on Harald's war- 
raid on Vendii-Skagi and Thioda, 983^ on the kind recep- 
tion given to himself by Harald at Howe, 193^.38 

196 Index I [STY SVE 

STYRBIORN (Styrbjorn), son of Olaf the son of the Swedish 
king Biorn (son of Eric), i. 1 24 8 2 139 subdued Harald Gorm- 
son of Denmark so that he became Styrbiorn's man, ii. 97^- 
98 2 overcome and slain by his father's brother, King Eric 
the Victorious, 983 5 (cf. Flatey book, ii. 72 n -73 2 ) his con- 
quests in the East-lands (the southern and eastern literal of 
the Baltic) referred to, 99 18 . ai 

STYRKAR (Styrkdrr), marshal of King Harald Sigurdson, his 
adventure after the battle of Stamfordbridge, iii. 1797.39 

STYRKAR OF GIMSAR, son of Hreidar and grandfather of 
Einar Thambarskelfir, i. 2i5 28 commands in the centre of 
Earl Hakon's fleet in the battle of Hiorungwick, 277^ 
threatened by Olaf Tryggvison to be sacrificed to the heathen 
gods, 3i9 4Hi 

STYRKAR GLOSSY-TAIL (S. gtesirdfa), slain by Sigurd 
Slembi-Deacon, ni. 357 28 "358i 

SULKI (Siilki), King of Rogaland, joins the kings of Hord- 
land, Agdir and Thelmark, against Harald Hairfair, and fights 
against him in the battle of Hafursfirth, where he falls, i 1 1 I 8 . 2 r 

SUMMERLID (SumarlrSi), son of Sigurd the Thick, Earl of 
Orkney, ii. i69 30 rules over the Orkneys after his father's 
death as co-Earl with his two brothers, 16933-170! 3 . 6 his 
death, 170^-171! 

SVEIDI (Svei&), a sea-king of fame, i. 27335 

SVEIN (Sveinn), an attendant on the blinded Upland King 
Rcerek, at whose instigation he attempts the life of King Olaf, 
but failing, was caught and allowed by Olaf to leave the land 
in peace, ii. i23 38 -i25 16 

SVEIN, son of Bergthor Buck, iii. 424 28 

SVEIN BRIDGEFOOT (S. bryggjuf6tr), a landed man of the 
Wick, assists Sigurd Woolstring in his mission to obtain the 
allegiance to K. Magnus Barefoot of Sveinki Steinarson, iii. 
2i4 21 2i7 12 his son Bergthor a witness in the law-case of 
Sigurd Hranison, 275^^ 

SVEIN, son of Eric Everminded, King in Denmark 1152-1157, 
iii. 2719 

SVEIN, son of Earl Eric Hakonson, rules Norway after the death 
of his father conjointly with Hakon his brother, ii. 21^^ 
Snorri's, or probably rather a scribe's, mistake; Earl Eric had 
no such son. 


Index I 197 

SVEIN, son of Erlend of Garth and father of Svein the father 
of Kyrping-Worm, iii. 371^ 

SVEIN, Earl, son of Earl Godwin by his wife Gyda, ii. 326 1(HS 
Hi- I 55is-22 witn Kin S Harald his brother at the battle of 
Helsingport, i8r 12 

SVEIN OF JADAR, son of Aslak the son of Erling Skialgson 
of Soli, iii. 299^ 

SVEIN, Olaf the Swede king's Earl in Norway, 1000-1015; 
son of Earl Hakon of Ladir and Thora, the daughter of 
Skagi Skoptison, L 247^ commands a division of his father's 
fleet in the battle of Hiorungwick, 277is-22 2 793& >fiies > witn 
his brother Eric, to Sweden, when Olaf Tryggvison becomes 
king of Norway, 299 1(H9 345 6 -o married to Holmfrid, daughter 
of King Olaf the Swede, 37731-22 receives, on tributary terms, 
at the partition of Norway, after the fall of Olaf Tryggvison, 
his father-in-law's share, and holds that dominion as an Earl 
of Sweden, 377 2 5-3i 37^23-24 proves a liberal, enlightened and 
a popular ruler, 378 25 . 31 rules Norway conjointly with his 
brother, Eric, ii. 2i 19 _ 21 25o 22 . 24 gives his sister Bergljot in 
marriage to Einar Thambarskelfir, 22 24 . 26 weds his daughter 
Sigrid to Aslak, son of Erling Skialgson, and confers on him 
the same grants as Olaf Tryggvison had conferred on Erling, 
33i2-is cf - 2 552S-29 iii - io6 23 . 26 his kindred opposed King Olaf 
Haraldson on coming to Norway, 3325-2? OlaPs estimate of 
him as antagonist, 39 19 . 2 3 flies from his residence at Steinker 
on hearing of OlaPs approach, and escapes detection by hid- 
ing his ship under the branches of trees that grew by the 
water's edge, 48 2S -49 24 council of war with Einar Thambar- 
skelfir in Frosta; the Earl goes to Stiordale, 49^-5 o 13 $1^ 
Earl Svein and the Icelanders' sailing-fees, 52^3 having 
gathered a large host, the Earl and Einar Thambarskelfir 
march on Nidoyce, whence Olaf had to flee while they burn 
the place to the ground, 53 2 . 2 r a ^ ter ^ u ^ e ^ e c ^ s out a rotister 
of men and ships from Thrandheim, and has a large host, 
which he still recruits, going south along the land, joined by 
Einar Thambarskelfir and Erling Skialgson, and towards the 
end of Lent arrives with his fleet off Nesiar, 54 21 -55 1 g the 
battle of Nesiar and Svein's defeat, S7 s -6o sl cf. io5 5 . ? i5o ls . 16 
he resolves, against Erling Skialgson's advice, to flee the 
land and resort to the avail of his father-in-law, King Olaf of 

198 Index I [SVE 

Sweden, 62 5 .. JO cf. 418.^! having collected the remnant of 
his fleet outside the firth where he fought, King Sigurd Sow 
advises King Olaf, his stepson, to make a fresh attack on the 
Earl, which counsel Olaf did not follow, and so Earl Svein 
escaped, 62 2r 63 3 9 . 10 he goes to King Olaf of Sweden, who 
promises to" supply him with men and means to reconquer 
Norway from Olaf, 65 11 . 33 he plans an invasion of Thrand- 
heim next year and goes in the meantime warring about the 
Baltic, 6534.^ returning in autumn to Sweden, he dies of 
sickness, and his company of Norwegians make their way 
over Jamtland to Thrandheim and bring the news of his 
death, 66 3 . 16 2ii 16 . ir chronology of his and K. Olaf Harald- 
son's reigns, 3673 1923 46o 18 . 20 

SVEIN, son of Harald Fletcher, a Dane, raises, together with 
Steig-Thorir, after the death of K. Hakon Magnusson, the 
standard of revolt against K. Magnus Barefoot, iii. 209 2 -2io 6 
they defeat K. Magnus' commander, Sigurd Woolstring, at 
Viggj 2io . 20 pursued by K. Magnus, they go north to 
Halogaland, plundering and burning, 2io 21 -2ii lt j turning 
south in the same manner, they encounter K. Magnus in the 
firth called Harm, where Svein escapes by flight, 2ii ld . 2s 
Svein flees to Denmark, and ultimately gets into peace and 
favour with King Eystein, son of Magnus, 2i3 29 -2i4 2 

SVEIN, King of Norway, 1030-1035; son of K. Knut the 
Mighty by his concubine Alfiva, designated ruler over Nor- 
way by Knut while K. Olaf Haraldson was yet alive, ii. 3893.5 
receives, as ruler over Wendland, an order from his father 
to be king over Norway, 449 10 . 18 repairs to Norway in com- 
pany with his mother and Earl Harald, son of Thorkel the 
High, 449^.33 proclaimed king in Norway at every Law- 
Thing, 450^ his unpopular laws, 4So 11 -45i 26 cf. iii, 268 3 . 6 
he, and in particular his mother, generally disliked, 45i 26 . 30 
the sons of Arni make terms of peace with K. Svein, and 
go into private life,453 3 _ 18 K Svein gives leave to bpGrimkel 
to take the body of K. Olaf out of the grave, and is present 
at the translation, 455 4 -456 30 K. Svein's deeds sung by 
Thorarin Praisetongue, 458 3 -459 36 Svein's growing unpopu- 
larity, 461^-462 his successful expedition against Tryggvi, 
463-46535 reigns thereafter in peace, 465 26 . 28 his officials, 
on hearing of the arrival in Norway of Magnus the Good, 

SVE] Index I 199 

take to flight everywhere, iii. 6 20 -7 U Svem flies away from 
Norway, and accepts from his brother Hordaknut dominion 
in Denmark, 8-9 16 io r . lu 1H6 he dies in Denmark, 9^-iOj 
his relations to Sigvat the Skald, i3 12 . 16 

SVEIN, son of Knut Sveinson of Jadarby Rimhild, commands 
a galley in K. Sigurd Jerusalem-farer's fleet, iii. 299 mr his 
quarrel with Harald Gilli, 3oo ir 302 2 
SVEIN, a Priest, slain together with his two sons by Sigurd 

Slembi-Deacon and King Magnus the Blind, iii. 357 2i 
SVEIN, son of Rimhild, see Svem son of Knut Svemson of 


SVEIN, the son of Svein the son of Erlend of Garth, iii. 37i 6 
SVEIN, 'King of Denmark,' son of K. Svein Wolfson, iii. 427^ 
SVEIN TWIBEARD (S. tjuguskegg), King of Denmark, 986- 
1014, son of K. Harald Gormson, said to have been baptized 
to the name of Otto Svein, given him by his gossip, the Em- 
peror Otto II., i. 26o 5 . s cf. ii. 25o 12 _ 15 married, i, Gunnhild, d. 
of K Burislaf of Wendland, i. 27i 10:11 16 . 16 ; their sons Harald 
and K. Knut the Mighty, 27i 16 . ir ii. 25o 12 . u ; 2, Sigrid the 
Haughty, 348 28 . 313 their daughter Astnd, wife of Earl Wolf, 
s. of Thorgils Sprakalegg, ii. 26723.25 *& 2 9s-io father to Gyda 
(by what mother not stated), the wife of Earl Eric Hakonson, 

* 34812-18 

Svein demands of his father a share in the kingdom, and 
on refusal rises in rebellion, giving his father battle in Icefirth 
in Sealand, where K. Harald is mortally wounded, i. 27o 3 . 19 
Svein becomes K. of Denmark, 27o 20 . 21 kidnapped by Earl 
Sigvaldi he is forced to marry Gunnmld d. of K. Burislaf of 
Wendland, and to betroth to him his sister Thyri, 27o 31 -27i 14 
34834.20 vows, at the famous grave-ale after his father, to con- 
quer England, 2 7 1 23 -272 12 marriage alliances, 348^* 35 8 2fr2r 
forced by Earl Sigvaldi to hand over to him his sister Thyri 
to be married to K. Burislaf, 349 3 ^ cf. 35o 3 . 10 settles on Thyri 
the domains in Wendland that had belonged to his deceased 
(in reality repudiated) queen, Gunnhild, 34931-25 & tne insti- 
gation of his queen, Sigrid the Haughty, he summons his allies, 
King Olaf the Swede and Earl Eric, to join battle with Okf 
Tryggvison when going to Wendland, 359!. 2 i ii. 98 r _ 8 they join 
their forces with him when Olaf had already sailed by to Wend- 
land, 359 22 -3 6 6 k e employs Earl Sigvaldi to lead Olaf Trygg- 

2oo Index I [SVE 

vison into a trap, where he and his allies should be ready to 
attack him, 36o y . 14 awaits King Olaf at the ' island 3 of Svoldr, 
where the latter is defeated and drowned, 362 24 -374 21 cf. iL 
98 58 Svein treats with his allies for the spoils of eventual 
victory, 364 22 . 28 his poor share in the battle as Olaf Trygg- 
vison had guessed, 367^ 19 . 21 368 ]8 , 26 receives, for his share 
of Norway after the fall of Olaf Tryggvison : the Wick, Raum- 
realm and Heathmark, but bestows the latter two folklands 
on Earl Eric, 378^.33 n. 2^0^.^ cf. iii. 438 8 . 12 his presence 
in England; K. ^thelred flies to Normandy, ii. i2 19 _ 20 his 
sudden, legendarily accounted for, death, I2 2(J . 31 praised by 
King Rcerek of Heathmark for his mild and liberal rule in 
Norway, 43iws 

SVEIN WOLFSON, King of Denmark, 1047-1076, son of Earl 
Wolf the son of Thorgils Sprakalegg by Astrid, d. of Svein 
Twibeard and Sigrid the Haughty (Svein's mother being thus 
half-sister of Knut the Mighty and aunt of K. Onund of 
Sweden), ii. 267 28 . 2tf 31939 iii 29 3 . 10 married Gunnhild, d. 
of Earl Svein Hakonson, iii. io6 26 . 28 his children, i94 21 . 2 9 

27*6 2 ^4]0-20 

His father having offended K. Knut, Svein intercedes and 
offers himself a hostage for him, ii. 3197-16 K. Knut hav- 
ing murdered his father, Svein betook himself to his cousin 
Onund, K. of Sweden, and dwelt with him for a long time, 
iii. 29 10 . 16 personal description, 29 17 _ 22 becomes K. Magnus 
the Good's man and is appointed by him Earl of Denmark, 
2 923"3 I 25 breaks his allegiance to K. M. and sets up as King 
of Denmark, 33 914 hearing that K. Magnus was coming with 
a host from Norway he flees to Sweden, collects an army and 
goes to Denmark to oppose Magnus, 33 14 -34 3 severely de- 
feated by K. Magnus off the island of Re (Rugen) he flees 
to Skaney, gathers a fresh host and takes it to Riveroyce 
in Jutland, where he suffers an overwhelming defeat, being 
chased by Magnus through Denmark, 38-4437 Svein flees 
to Sweden, gathers an army once more and goes to Denmark, 
where he is defeated once again by Magnus at Holiness and 
driven to Sweden, 44^-45 j go'4923 ThiodolFs commemora- 
tion of the three battles Svein fought with Magnus, 5i 10 -as 
Svein makes acquaintance with Harald Sigurdson (Hardredy) 
and enters an alliance with him for reconquering Denmark 

SVE SWA] Index I 201 

and ousting K. Magnus the Good out of Norway, 77!y-8o 13 
sudden end of the alliance with Harald, 817-83^ 88 3 .- puts 
himself in possession of Denmark once more, "88,, 14 flees 
away from Denmark once again before the combined forces 
of Kings Magnus and Harald, 9o 2123 receives by Thorir the 
last will of K. Magnus, whereby he confers on Svein the 
kingdom of Denmark, 9i 10 . ir 93i7-94 b Svein's relations to K. 
Harald Hardredy, 94io-i697o" I02 4 z 2O i3- 1 2 17127-128 receives 
into his service Hakon Ivarson, ii6 1G . 26 473 1G10 likewise 
Finn Arnison, whom he creates Earl, i22 M1 473 1(H , battle 
with Harald off the Niz (river) in Lofafirth, Svein* signally 
defeated, i29 14 . 19 1323-137 escapes under the name of Vand- 
rad by the aid of Hakon Ivarson, 138-140,5 ml20 . 25 i44 15 - 
I 45is Svein and Karl the goodman who aided him in escap- 
ing, 1395-10 33- J 4o 4 I42i 3 -i43n peace made between Svein 
and Harald, 14637-149^ K. Svein and his cousin, earl Tosti, 
I59 u -i6o 16 after the death of Harald, Svein breaks the peace 
with Norway, but comes to terms with the sons of Harald, 
1 8711-18853 his death, offspring and family connections, i94 I9 - 

1954 46323-25 

SVEINKI, son of Steinar, father to Ragnhild the mother of 
Erling Askew, iii. 37i s . 5 fosterer of Hakon the son of Mag- 
nus the son of Harald Hardredy, before Thorir of Steig took 
over his fostering, 2i4 1(HU his contest and peace with K. 
Magnus Barefoot, 2i4 16 -22i 8 

SVERRIR,' King of Norway (reputed son of K. Sigurd Mouth 
s. of Harald Gilli), quoted as an authority for one account of 
the death of King Eystein, s. of Harald Gilli, iii. 3965 takes 
the body of King Hakon Shoulderbroad, his 'brother,' to 
Cheaping, i.e. Nidoyce, and laid it in the stone-wall in Christ's 
church, 4479-12 

SVERTING (Svertingr), son of Runolf the priest, an Icelander 
converted to Christianity by Olaf Tryggvison in Nidoyce, i. 
33422-23 kept as hostage with other nobles of Iceland by Olaf 
Tryggvison, to insure the conversion to Christianity of Ice- 

land, 354i7- 2 < 

(Svanhildr), daughter of King Eystein of Heath- 
mark, one of Harald Hairfair's wives, L 1 14 15 - 18 
SWASI (Svasi), a Finnish wizard, father of Snowfair, inveigles 
Harald Hairfair into his daughter's power, i. 1197.39 

2O2 Index I [SWE THA 

SWEDES (Svfar), properly the name of the race that ruled in 
the middle part of modern Sweden especially round the Malar 
lake, and were distinguished from the Gauts their southern 
and western neighbours With the extension of the sway of 
the Upsalakings the term Svfar underwent a similarly extended 
application, i. 4 5 80 2i 25 3 22 9 10 18 19 23 2 3s is 2 4o 19 2 7is 2 9io 

11 17 3726 3822 24 4 8 4*gO 43l6 45l7 47s 4&j 12 5*6 5 2 14 19 25 5320 

2s 55n 6 S({ 10 66 u 6 7s l6 3r 3 6 7s 9 3 6 9s is is 1L SSL 7io 8 ir ?o 24 
88 4 91 w 98 20 99 28 ii2 2 lo 32 

326 ar 3283 39i 14 3944 413^ iii. 4 18 31 5 21 6 16 19 49 1 
SWEGDIR, son of Fiolnir, and his successor in the rule of the 
Swedes, i. 25 22S3 spent five years in a journey to Godhome, 
came to Turkland and Sweden the Great (Magna Scythia), 
found there friends and kindred, and married Vana of Van- 
home, 25 24 . s ^ went again to visit Godhome, and in that 
journey was inveigled by a dwarf to enter his hollow rock in 
which he was shut up and he never came back again, 25 32 - 
26 24 cf. i59 x and 39X35.33 see also K. Gislason's Udvalg af 
oldnordiske Skjaldekvad, 64 29 . 35 
SWINE-GRIM (Svina-Grimr), maimed by Sigurd Slembi- 

Deacon, iii. 3583.3 

SWIPDAG (Svipdagr), the greatest of champions, i. 38 10 . 12 18 
SWIPDAG THE BLIND (S. blmdi), a kinglet who ruled 
over Tenthland, fosterer of Ingjald Evilheart, i. 559-563 his 
sons, 58^-594 his death, 6i 2S . 24 

SWOLNIR (Svolnir), one of Odin's names, Odin, i. 2i8 25 
TEIT, son of Isleif (Teitr 'Isleifsson), fostered by Hall of Hawk- 
dale, where he lived after his fosterer's death, was the teacher 
of Ari the Historian, and told him manifold lore, i. 6 29 , 33 
TEIT (Teitr), an Icelandic noble, son of Ketilbiorn, father to 

Gizur the White, i. 334*7-23 

TEMPLEGARTH-REF,"foster-son of Gizur Goldbrow, an Ice- 
landic poet, stationed, together with the other poets at his 
court, by the side of K. Olaf Haraldson within his shield-burgh 
in the battle of Sticklestead, so that they might be eye-wit- 
nesses of the events they would sing of afterwards, ii. 404 14 . 21 
sings of the fall of his foster-father in the battle of Stickle- 
stead, 4321-33 

THANGBRAND (frangbrandr) 'Dankbrand,' a Saxon (German) 
priest in Olaf Tryggvison's service, sent by the king to 

THE THO] Index I 203 

convert Iceland to Christianity, i. 6 15 323-^ stayed three 
winters in Iceland, converted many chieftams'and slew three 
men, 323 12 . 2<i comes back to Norway and assures Olaf Trygg- 
vison that the country will never be converted to Christianity, 
339ir-23 Dut the Icelanders in the king's confidence convince 
him that Thangbrand's failure was owing to the violence of 
his missionary method, 34o r . 10 

THELMARK (They of) (Jtflir), inhabitants of the folkland of 
Norway now called Telemarken, i. 1 1 1 5 

THIAZI (frjazi), a giant, i. i66 n 

THICK MAN (Hinn digri maftr), mocking name by which 
only King Olaf Haraldson might be named at the court of 
King Olaf of Sweden, ii. 84 2r 97 6 $S 15 

THIODOLF, son of Amor, called 'Earls' skald' (jarla-skald), 
an Icelandic poet at the court of K. Magnus the Good and K. 
Harald Sigurdson his songs on events of K. Magnus's reign: 

Hi. 6-^Q -tf.25 72-11 I0 2-10 2 ^15-24 2 7*2-10 16-25 27-35 3 * 10-18 3 2 10-ll 24 33 
3^1422 30~37(J 3^20-24 47-15 22~4 I 4 14-18 28~4 2 8 10-18 20-24 20-33 43s-13 22~ 
446 11-27 454-20 4^lM9 22-31 472-15 1726 31*4^0 8 . 16 is'497 11-19 5 * 10-18 

his songs on events of Harald's reign: 57 1018 63 7 . 16 7i 2 . 10 
74n-i9 7729-78 6 8o 4 . 12 83 WO io7 10 . 18 129^-130^ 10 . 34 I3i 4 . 12 u .^ 

20-34 J 332-6 8-16 I 352S- I 3 6 4 I 37l3-17 24-31 I 47o-24 28-35 I 48 8 . 2 3 I49l-8 
I 5 2 3-ll 1 54i 8 13-22 27-31 I 55l-8 I 75283tJ I 77l6-24 J ^426-30 I ^5c-14 18-22 

THOR (J^drr), one of Odin's 'Diar, 7 dwelt, on coming to Sweden, 
at Thundermead, i. i6 28;29 his name given to children, 1935.30 
making the sign of his hammer (hamars-mark) over a cup 
before drinking it, done only by such as trust in their own 
might and main, i. i69 20 . 2 2 regarded as the chief god of the 
Norwegian people by the poet Einar Jingle-scale, a court poet 
to Earl Hakon, when he says that Earl Hakon left all temple- 
lands ofEinridi ( = Thor) and the other gods, once harried, free 
for the people's religious exercises, 242 g. n cf. 2oi 1 ^ 18 in the 
temple of Mere he sat ' the most honoured of all the gods, 
adorned with gold and silver, 7 which image Olaf Tryggvison 
smote down, his men doing the same to the images of other 
gods, 32o 28 . 30 a temple consecrated to him at Hof in northern 
Gudbrandsdale, ii. 2oi 19 ^ 3 32 & s image there and daily cult 
described, 2o5 T . 15 destruction of image and worship together, 
207 30 -2o8 6 12 . 22 

THORA ()>6ra), has by K. Magnus Barefoot a son, Sigurd 

204 Index I [THO 

Jerusalem-farer, iii. 233 10 . n her cruelty to the serving lad 
Kolbein, 3029 2d 

THORA, a workwoman of Simon, son of Thorberg, becomes, 
by K. Sigurd s. of Harald Gilli, mother to K. Hakon Shoulder- 
broad, iii. 373 C19 

THORA, daughter of Guthorm Greybeard, becomes by K. 
Harald Gilli mother to K. Sigurd Mouth, iii. 3142223 

THORA (6ra), daughter of K. Hakon the Good, i. i88 n 

THORA, daughter of Joan, had by K. Olaf the Quiet a son, 
Magnus Barefoot, iii. i95 8 . 5 married (?) Bryniolf Camel, and 
with him had issue, Skialdvor and Haldor, 48i 10 . 13 

THORA MOST-STAFF (]>. mostrstong), of the kin of Horda- 
kari, a native of the island of Most, and a serving maid at 
K. Har. Hairfair's court, mother of Hakon, afterwards K. H. 
the Good of Norway, i. 138^ 

THORA OF RIMUL, 'a wealthy dame,' one of Earl Hakon; S 
greatest favourites, i. 292 1921 hides Earl Hakon from his 
enemies at her manor of Rimul in a hole dug out under a 
pigsty, 2 94r . 29 

THORA, daughter of Saxi in Wick, the mother, on her own 
evidence, by K. Magnus Barefoot of Sigurd Slembi-Deacon, 

& 33619.30 3377-g 
THORA, a daughter of Skagi Skoptison, married to Hakon, 

the Earl of Ladir, i. 2473 
THORA, daughter of Skopti Ogmundson, wife of Asolf of 

Rein, iii. i84 1(H1 225^ 
THORA, daughter of Thorberg the son of Arni and of Ragnhild 

daughter of Erling Skialgson, baptized by Bard, and held at 

the font by Stein Skaptison, who gave her a finger-ring, ii. 

28o 6 . 31 married to Harald Sigurdson, their sons, iii. 96 19 _ 23 

remains in Norway on Harald's going on the expedition to 

England, i6s 20 
THORA, daughter of Thorstem Gallows, married to Arni, son 

of Arnmod, ii. 198^.^ 
THORALD (]?6raldi), a king's steward at the manor of Howe, 

his report to K. Olaf Haraldson, as to the heathen life of the 

men of Upper-Thrandheim, ii. I95 30 -i974 
THORALD CHAPS (J>. keptr), slain by Sigurd Slembi-Deacon, 

hi- 35727 
THORALF (}?6ralfr), [son of Sigmund Brestison], of Dimon 


Index I 205 

goes, summoned by Olaf Haraldson, with many representatives 
of the Faroe people to Norway and becomes one of the king'b 
household and bodyguard, and with the rest agrees to the 
subjection of Faroe to Norwegian rule, ii. 246^-24734 goes 
again at the summons of the king to Norway, followed by the 
foster-sons of Thrand o' Gate in another ship; both ships 
landing, at a short distance from each other, at the island of 
Herna in Norway, Thoralf is slain there, after nightfall, the 
suspicion falling on Thrand o'Gate's foster-son Sigurd Thorlak- 
son, 2693-2722 

Skolmsson), (his father's full name was J?orbjorn Skolmr), 
fought beside K. Hakon the Good in the battle of Fitjar, i. 

1 84l9-33 J ^5l-3 l 14-16 19 

THORAR (Jp6rarr), a 'lawman' in Jamtland, ii. 295^1115 
dealings with Thorod Snorrison and his following, 2953-2983 

THORARIN (J>6rarinn), the origin of the name, i. ig 25 ^ Q 

THORARIN CURTFELL (Jx stuttfeldr), an Icelandic^ poet, 
sings of K. Sigurd Jerusalem-farer's departure for Palestine, 
iii. 248 26 -249 6 of the king's successful stratagem before a 
cave in the island of Forminterra occupied by Africans, 254^22 
the origin of his nickname, 286 7 _ 14 his adventures at the 
court of K. Sigurd, 2865-2885 gets into K. Sigurd's favour 
for a 'drapa 7 on him, 288 e . 14 

THORARIN, son of Nefiolf, one of the captains of Icelandic 
ships whom Olaf Tryggvison christened together with Kiartan 
Olafson, i. 335 13 . 2 o 337i5-is personal description and char- 
acter, ii. i33 3 . 12 his stay at Tunsberg with King Olaf Harald- 
son, a wager laid by the king and taken by Thorarin, on the 
ugliness of the latter's foot, 13313-13439 losing his wager he 
has to bring the blind King Rcerek to Greenland or Iceland 
as chance might decide, and hands him over to Thorgils 
Arison of Reek-knolls in Iceland, 13430-136^ appointed 
one of King Olafs bodyguard, 1357.^ abets the family of 
Erling Skialgson in saving Asbiom SeaPs-bane from King 
Olafs wrath, 224 S -227 12 sent by King Olaf on a political 
mission to Iceland, with the object of incorporating the island 
in the realm of Norway, a plan which, though favoured by 
Gudmund the Mighty, was foiled by the opposition of Einar 
Eyolfson, Gudmund's brother, 242^-244 again Th. brings 

206 Index I [THO 

forth another message from King Olaf to the effect, that cer- 
tain chief men of the island should go abroad to meet King 
Olaf, an invitation to which no effect was given by the 
suspicious chieftains of Iceland, 2453-246^ 

THORARIN PRAISETOUNGE (J> loftunga), an Icelandic 
poet, spent long time with kings and other lords (as their court 
poet), and comes to K. Knut the Mighty, whom he offends 
by composing a short poem on him, a fault he makes amends 
for by composing * Head-ransom/ a longer poem, ii. 35o n . 28 
wrought on Knut's expedition from Denmark to Norway 
the song called Togdrapa, 35o 29 -352 18 wrought on Svein 
Alfiva's son the song called 'SeacalmVlay,' wherein he also 
celebrates the miracles taking place at Holy Olafs tomb, 
44921-33 45*V46o u 

THORARIN SKEGGISON, Icelandic skald, author of a drapa 
on K. Harald the Hardredy, iii. 74 5 . 10 

THORBERG (6rbergr), son of Ami Arnmodson, married to 
Ragnhild, d. of Erling Skialgson of Soli, iL 2430.37 198 18 their 
children : Thora, queen of Harald Hardredy, iii. 96 19 . 22 and 
Eystein Heathcock, I7o 20 , 21 in his absence from his home 
in the isle of Giski Stein Skaptison, K. Olafs criminal, turns 
up and receives promise of protection from Ragnhild which 
it cost Thorberg much trouble to fulfil, ii. 280^3 28i 9 . 10 u - 
286 17 obtains, by the aid of his brothers, pardon for Stem 
and himself and swears an oath of faith and fealty to the king, 
284 4 -286 21 accompanies K Olaf on his flight from Norway, 
3693.4 wounded in the battle of Sticklestead and taken care 
of by his br. Ami at Eggja, 43533-4365 convalescent, he re- 
turns home and makes peace with K. Svein Alfiva's son, 
4S3s-i8 ii ns ki s brothers in covert opposition to K. Svein, 
46210-29 assembled at Giski they take counsel together for 
the future, 46320-24 

THORBERG SHAVE-HEWER (Jx skaf hogg), a master ship- 
wright, the builder of the Long-Worm, Olaf Tryggvison's 
great war galley, i. 3439~344 2 5 

THORBERG of Varness (Jx af Varnesi), one of eight lords of 
Thrandheim who conspired to force K. Hakon the Good to 
join in heathen sacrifice, i. I7o 1617 

THORBIORN (jjorbjorn), son of Gunnar Rentmaster, a fol- 
lower of K. Hakon Shoulderbroad, iii. 44i 14 . 15 

THO] Index I 207 

THORBIORN HORNKLOFI, one of King Harald Fairhair's 
court poets, author of Glymdrapa, L 99 ry , ioo ti . u io9 vio ^ 

II0 210 II2 4 -II3 H424-30 Il6 2-I0 

THORBIORN RENTMASTER (gjaldken), in command of 
K. Magnus Erlingson's forces at Biorgvin, iii. 457 

THORBIORN SKALD-ASKEW (J>. Skakka skald^or rather 
Askew's skald, author of a drapa on Erling Askew, iii. 372 8ir 
44i4 22 460^-46 i s 

THORD 0*5rSr), on board a ship in Harald Hardredy's fleet 
lying bound for England, his dream, iii. i64 n . 33 

THORD BIGBELLY (Jx istrumagi), a captain of the folk of 
Gudbrandsdale in their strife against King Olaf Haraldson's 
missionary activity, ii. 203 24 . 2r 205^-2063 

THORD, son of Bork (son of Thorstein Codbiter, see Ere- 
dwellers' saga, Saga Library, 2 Genealogies, I.), for some time 
a member of King Olaf Haraldson's household, ii. 24i 222b 

THORD, son of F61i (]). Fdlason), King Olaf Haraldson's 
banner-bearer, ii. 1 2833-130! 4 1 2 23 -4i3 4 4294 8 his fall, 43o 18 . 21 
father of Gudrun, who was married to Skopti, son of Og- 
mund r iii. 225^ 

THORD FREY -7 S priest (]>. Freysgo^i), father of Kolbein and 
Burmng-Flosi, i. 33431-22 

THORD, son of Guthorm, of Steig in northern Gudbrandsdale, 
the mightiest man of those parts, woos and obtains in marriage 
Isrid, d. of Gudbrand, K. Olaf's aunt, and becomes K. Olaf's 
dearest friend, ii. 24839-2499 [same as Th. Bigbelly?] 

THORD, son of Horda-Kari, father of Klypp the Hersir, 

THORD 2 HOUSEWIFE, courtman of King Sigurd son of 
Harald Gilli, slain at Biorgvin in an affray between Kings 
Sigurd and Ingi, iii. 389 2r . 31 

THORD, son of Kolbein, an Icel. poet, author of Eric's drapa, 

1- 2 7323-3Q 2 74 4 -12 2 75l4-22 2 77 2 3-31 2 9920-34 3451430 3735-12 

3782-19 ii- zfy-iz 26-34 spends some time in the household 
(bodyguard) of K. Olaf Haraldson, 241^^ 
THORD THE LOW (J>. hinn lagi), son of Thorlak the brother 
of Thrand o' Gate, personal description, ii. 2 6935.33 goes with 
his brother Sigurd, at Thrand's egging-on, to Norway in pur- 
suit of Thoralf of Dimon, who on landing in Norway is mys- 
teriously murdered, 270^274^ aids Gaut the Red in taking 

208 Index I [THO 

the life of Karl o j Mere, 309 10 . 19 is outlawed for the mis- 
deed, 30920-% 

THORD of Niordlow, stationed in the fore-hold of the Long- 
Worm, i. 353 14 

THORD SIAREKSON (Jx Sjareksson), Icel. poet, author of 
a drapa on Thoralf Skolmson, i. i84 23 . 33 i87 19 . 35 and of a 
death-song on King Olaf Haraldson, ii. 323 ir _ 20 

THORD SIGVALDFS SKALD (]) Sigvaldaskald), an Ice- 
landic poet, father to Sigvat the poet and trusted counsellor 
of K. Olaf Haraldson, spent a long time with Earl Sigvaldi 
of Jomsburg and later with his brother Thorkel, fell in with 
K. Olaf Haraldson in his western warfare and remained with 
him ever afterwards, ii. 5i G24 iii. i2 10 

THORD, son of Skopti Ogmundson and Gudrun d. of Thord 
the son of Foli, iii. 225 2r . 81 accompanies his father on his 
pilgrimage to Rome and" dies in Sicily, 237 7 . 15 

THORD SKOTAKOLL(skotakollr), a sister's son of Sigvat the 
Skald, sent on a secret mission to Earl Rognvald to advise him 
of King Olaf Haraldson's acceptance of the Earl's proposal to 
take Astrid, d. of K. Olaf of Sweden, for wife, ii. 15125-1523 

THORD THE YELLER (J> gellir, son of Olaf Feilan), a chief 
of Broadfirth in Iceknd, i. 269^ 

THORDIS SKEGGJA (j?6rdis skeggja), a sorceress, got by 
Gunnhild, K. Hakon Shoulderbroad's fosterm other, to 'sit 
out ' in order to find out, how Hakon might come off victori- 
ous in his contest with K. Ingi, iii. 424 5 . 12 

THORFIN EISLI (Jporfmnr eisli) of Inner-Thrandheim, a fore- 
castle man on board the Long- Worm, i. 353 10 

THORFIN MOUTH ()?. munnr), an Icelandic poet with K. 
Olaf Haraldson at the battle of Sticklestead, ii 404 21 sings a 
stave, 4o5 20 .o 8 slain in the battle, 43o 22 

THORFIN, Earl of Caithness, Sutherland and Orkney, 1*1064, 
son of Sigurd the Thick, Earl of Orkney, by his second wife, a 
daughter of Malcolm II., King of Scotland, 11. i69 2r . 29 
[married Ingibiorg, d. of Finn Arnison, called 'Earls' mother,' 
niece of Kalf Arnison, their sons] Paul and Erlend,iiL i66 8 . 4 cf, 
1 19 18 . 21 placed, five years old, with his grandfather, when Earl 
Sigurd went on his ill-starred expedition to Ireland, ii. 170^3 
made by his grandfather Earl of Caithness and Sunderland, 
I 7s-i2 personal description, I7o 12 . 22 on the death of his 

THO] Index I 209 

brother, Summerlid, Thorfin lays claim to his share, one third, 
of Orkney, but Einar, his brother, possesses himself thereof 
with a high hand, ijii-u bestirs himself with an armed force 
to follow up his claim to his share in Orkney, which by Brusi's 
intervention, is peaceably covenanted to him, I73 l7 -i74 13 
feud renewed between Thorfin and Einar on the latter's driv- 
ing away from the islands Thorfin's tax-gatherer, i75 820 
Thorfin brings the matter to the cognisance of, and goes him- 
self to see, the King of Norway, 1 7 5 20 -i76 19 - returning to 
Orkney he comes, by Brusi's intervention, again to peaceful 
terms with Einar, i76 19 . 25 Thorfin's and Brusi's dispute over 
the sharing of Orkney after the death of Earl Einar, settled 
by Olaf of Norway, so that both held their respective shares 
in fief of Norway's king, 17803-1850 I99 n . 13 Thorfin forgives 
Thorkel Amundson the murder of his brother, Earl Einar, 
and appoints him commander of his forces, 1 853-1 86 S Thor- 
fin undertakes the defence of Orkney against vikings by 
Brusi ceding to him one half of his dominion, i87 20 -i88 10 
his character, length of his reign, his death, 188^ Kalf 
Arnison with him in the Orkneys, iii. H9 is . 2 i 

THORFIN SKULL-CLEAVER (Jx hausakljiifr), earl of Ork- 
ney, son of Turf-Einar, dispossessed by the sons of Eric Blood- 
axe, i. 15439-1555 ii. i69 4 . 7 resumes the earldom of Orkney 
on Gunnhild, with her sons, leaving the isles for Denmark, 
I 59iG-is c f- " J 6 837-31 died of sickness, his sons ruling over 
the land after him, L 24134-20 " I ^9s-9 

THORFIN THE SWART (Jx svarti), of Snos, a partisan of 
Eystein the son of K. Eystein the son of Harald Gilli, iii. 
48322 falls at Re > 486 9 . 10 

THORGAUT HARELIP (Jjorgautr skartSi), a joint leader with 
his brother, Asgaut Bailiff, of a mission of four-and-twenty 
men sent by K. Olaf the Swede to gather the taxes he laid 
claim to in Norway, ii, 69^.28 failure of their negotiations 
with the Thrandheimers, 69 28 -7o 15 unavailing interview 
with King Olaf, 7o 16 ~72 4 refused further interviews by King 
Olaf, 72 5 . 12 Thorgaut returns with some of his following back 
to Sweden, 72^.^ hears, before he quits Thrandheim how 
his brother with his following was hanged by K. Olaf s Guests 
and brings the news east to King Olaf the Swede, 7237-31 
attacks Gudleik the Garthrealmer and slays him and robs his 

VJ. P 

2io Index I [THO 

and King Olaf Haraldson's goods, 82 23 . 32 but is attacked in 
turn by Eyvind Urochshorn and slain, and the robbed pro- 
perty is restored to Olaf Haraldson, 82 21 -83 16 

THpRGEIR AFRADSKOLL (J?orgeirr aftibskollr), lived at 
Nidness, 995, Odd Kelson's source for the history of the 
Kings of Norway, Odd being, in turn, the source of Ari the 
Learned's c Lives ' of Norw. Kings, i. 6 6 9 

THORGEIR, a lord of the Wick, married Ingirid the d. of 
Lodin and Astrid K. Olaf Tryggvison's mother, i. 3oi 12 . 16 
aids Olaf Tryggvison in christening the Wick, 302^-3032 
joins Olaf Tryggvison's expedition to Wendland, 358 10 . 12 

THORGEIR, chaplain of John's Church, Nidoyce, iii. 48i ir 

THORGEIR, a steward of a royal manor in Orkdale, witnesses 
how King Olaf Haraldson rebuked Stein Skaptison for his 
disloyalty, ii. 278^-2795 slain by Stein for refusing him 
means of travelling on running away from the King's court, 

THORGEIR FLECK (Jx flekkr), a goodman of Sula in Vera- 
dale, devoted to the cause of K. Olaf Haraldson, ii. 3973-398 15 
exposes the traitors at K. Magnus Olafson's court, and re- 
ceives the King's friendship in return, iii. i8 21 -i9 20 

THORGEIR, son of Havar, for a while a member of king 
Olaf Haraldson's household, ii 24i 22 . 2 y 

THORGEIR of Kviststead, a landed-man, his altercation with 
K. Olaf Haraldson at Sticklestead, ii. 426^-42 7 G slam by K. 
Olaf in the battle, 430 10 . 17 his lands confiscated by K. Mag- 
nus the Good, iii. ai^.jg 

THORGEIR LEECH, the son of Stone, iii. 365^ 

THORGILS (Jtorgfls), son of Ari, a renowned lord [of Reek- 
knolls] on the northern side of Broadfirth in Iceland, keeps 
the blinded king Rcerek for one winter, as King Olaf Harald- 
son's prisoner, ii. i36 9 . 22 

THORGILS, son of Gelhr (Jx Gellisson), father to Ari the 
Learned, i. 5 17 . 18 . 

THORGILS, son of Halma, the goodman of Sticklestead, offers 
to fight on the side of Olaf Haraldson, but is requested by 
him to help the wounded rather and, in case of his falling, 
to do the needful service to his dead body, ii. 410^-41 i n 
he and his son remove the body from the battlefield to a 
little out-house, wash it, swathe it in linen, and cover it up 


Index I 211 

with wood (faggots), 4443 14 again, in consequence of an 
accident which they feared might lead to the discover)* of it 
by the king's enemies, they remove it into the meadow and 
hide it there, 445 2 *-3i they make a coffin to the body, and a 
dummy coffin as well, filled with stones and straw, the weight 
of a man, 447 2 2 3 y they take both coffins down to Nidoyce 
on board a boat, and deliver the dummy chest to bishop 
Sigurd's men, but under cover of the darkness of night, 
they rowed up the river Nid to Saurlithe, and bore the chest 
into a waste shed there, and waked over the bodv through the 
night, 44730*44^28 next ^ey took the body still further up 
the river and buried it in a sand-hill near the bank, and 
went back to Sticklestead, 4480^-4497 at bishop GrimkeFs 
request, they give evidence as to what happened to the body 
while in their charge, 454ar455* 

THORGILS, son of Harald Hairfair and, apparently, Gyda, 
daughter of Eric, King of Hordland, i. H4 10 proclaimed 
king by his father, I3i 18 furnished with warships by his 
father, he warred in Scotland, Wales and Ireland, and won 
Dublin, and became king thereover, and was betrayed by the 
Irish, i32 21 . 2S 

THORGILS ODDISON of Saurby in Western Iceland, his re- 
lations to Sigurd Slembi-Deacon, iii. 3384-33933 

THORGILS, son of Snorri, c said that he saw "the altar-cloth 
which was made ' of a cloak that Haraid Hardredy gave to 
Steig-Thorir, iii. 86 31 -87 3 

THORGILS SPRAKALEGG, father of Earl Wolf, the brother- 
in-law of King Knut the Mighty, ii. 26722.33 

THORGILS, son of Thorolf Lousebeard, six winters old when 
Olaf Tryggvison was born, i. 224 n . 12 seized by vikings, and 
sold into slavery in Esthonia, together with Olaf Tryggvison, 
22 95-ia bought, together with Olaf, by the fetter's uncle, 
Sigurd Ericson, and brought to Holmgarth, 230^7 

THORGNY R (porgnjhr), a lawman of Tenthland, grandfather of 
Thorgnyr the famous lawman, ii. ii3 19 

THORGNYR, son of Thorgnyr, lawman of Tenthland, father 
to the following, ii. 113^ 

THORGNYR, son of Thorgnyr, a mighty lawman of Tenth- 
land in Sweden, an old man, surrounded by a court, the 
wisest man in Sweden, akin to and foster-father of Earl 

212 Index I [THO 

Rognvald of West-Gautland, ii. 113^-25 description of his 
manorial residence, household ways and person, n6 l7 . 31 his 
reception of Earl Rognvald and Biorn the Marshal, n6 ir . 22 
20-si conference on the question of peace between Norway 
and Sweden, Thorgnyr giving the Earl his word that the 
Swede-king shall listen to their pleadings, 1 1 7 3 - 1 18 he ndes 
to Upsala-Thing, where he sits opposite to the King, sur- 
rounded by his house-carles, and supported by the throng of 
the bonders, n8 7 . 23 his famous speech to his king, which 
resulted in Olaf the Swede's giving way, so as to consent to 
peace being established between the two countries, and his 
daughter Ingigerd being betrothed to Olaf of Norway, I20 12 - 

I22 18 

THORGRIM SKINHOOD (Jporgrimr skinnhiifa), one of King 
Magnus Barefoot's landed men, runs away from the king in 
his last and fatal action with the Irish, iii. 241^-242^ 

THORGRIM, son of Thiodolf of Hvin, stationed in the fore- 
hold on board the Long-Worm, i. 353 13 

THORGUNNA (Thorgunnr, daughter of Veseti of Borgund- 
holm), married to Aki Palnatoki's son, their son Vagn, i. 

THORIR (J>6rir), origin of the name, i. 1925-26 

THORIR, an outlaw in Jamtland, married to the sister of 

Arnlj6t Gellini, befriends Thorod Snorrison when flying for 

his life from Thorar, lawman of Jamtland, ii. 298^-299^ 
THORIR, (half-)brother of King Magnus the Good, sent by 

Magnus with his last will to Svein Wolfson conferring on him 

the kingdom of Denmark, iii. 9i 10 -i5 94i^ 
THORIR BARNACLE (. helsingr), captain of the Veerings 

in Constantinople, iii. 43o 25 30 
THORIR BEARD ()?. skegg), one of eight lords of Thrand- 

heim combined to force K. Hakon the Good to join in 

heathen festivals, i. i7o 20 
THORIR, son of Erling Skialgson of Soli and Astrid, daughter 

of King Tryggvi Olafson, ii. 24 26 goes in a craft of twenty 

benches to aid his brother-in-law, Thorberg, against Olaf 

Haraldson in the affair of Stein Skaptison, 283^-2843 286 21 . 22 
THORIR FAXI (Jx faxi), a thrall of King Eystein the Mighty, 

or the Evil, i. i6i 25 
THORIR, son of Gudbrand, sent by King Olaf Haraldson with 

THO] Index I 213 

a message of peace to the franklins assembled from Orkdale 
and Gauldale to oppose his advance into Thrandheim, ii. 47* r 

THORIR HART (f>. hjortr), of Vogar, of Halogaland, com- 
mands in the centre of the fleet in the battle of Hiorung- 
wick, i. 277 10 leads a revolt in Halogaland against Olaf 
Tryggvison's project to christen the people, 309^^ fights 
Olaf on coming into Halogaland, is arrested in his" flight by 
the dog Vigi, and slain by the king, 329^-330,3 

THORIR HELSING (Jx helsingr), a son's son of Ketil Jamti, 
fled to the east from Jamtland on account of manslaughters, 
and was the first to colonize the countrysides afterwards 
called Helsingland, i. i62 ... 30 ii. 276^4 

THORIR HOUND (jp. hundr), son of Thorir (cf, 'Sigurd, son 
of Thorir and brother to Thorir Hound,' ii. 2 i4 lrH -), a landed 
man of Birchisle in Halogaland, ii. i92 1 -. ir 2i4 ir . 18 father 
of Sigurd, the father of Ranveig, wife of Joan Arnison ; their 
children Vidkum, Sigurd Hound, Erling, Jartrud, iii. i7 1014 
Thorir's sister Sigrid married to Olvir of Eggia, ii. 341^ 
more accounted of than his brother (Sigurd) because he 
was the king's landed man, 2 14 25 . 26 jeers his nephew Asbiorn 
for the outrageous treatment he received at the hands of Seal- 
Thorir, 22o 13 . 33 persuades Asbiorn to break covenant with 
King Olaf Haraldson, 2300^231^ has to give up, by order 
of the king, one half of his bailiwick over Halogaland into 
the hands of Asmund Grankelson, 237^ egged on by Si- 
grid, his sister-in-law, to avenge the slaying of her son Asbiorn, 
2 39i3~ 2 44 learns in time that Asbiorn's slayer was the king's 
bailiff, Asmund Grankelson, 240^.^ awaiting his chance of 
revenge, when he hears of Karli's trading voyage to Biarm- 
land in partnership with the king, Thorir joins him unbidden 
with a longship manned with some eighty men, 25832-2590 
incidents of the journey until he slays the king's partner, 259 r 
26523 his dealings with Gunnstein, Karli's brother, after the 
slaying of the latter, 26524-26635 his dealings with Finn Ar- 
nison when brought to justice by him in the king's name, 
28723-29x3 he leaves Norway with all the proceeds of his 
journey to Biarmland, and joins King Knut in England, 
2 9 J 4-28 w ^ n Knut in England in much favour, 3359.10 
10-20 accompanies K. Knut in his expedition to Norway, is 
present when he is proclaimed king in Thrandheim, and be* 

214 Index I [THO 

comes Knut's landed man, 348-3493 reported by Biorn the 
Marshal to King Olaf as a leader of the general revolt in 
Norway, 3813 gathers measureless wealth by his * Finn- 
journey,' 387 19 _24 his reindeer coats wrought with wizardry, 
38733.28 brings a great muster of men out of Halogaland 
against K. Olaf, 387o -388 4811 refuses to take the chief com- 
mand in the battle of Sticklestead, 420^-42 1 20 ranges him- 
self and his men under the standard of Kalf Arnison, his 
brother-in-law, 422 21 . 24 423 . 18 Thorir and Thorstein Ship- 
wright, 424^2 marches in' the rear to the battle in order to 
prevent desertions, 425 22 . 2G marches to the front and leads 
the attack at Sticklestead, 427 10 . 14 Thorir's fight with King 
Olaf and his guards, deals the king his death wound, 43i 30 - 
433i5 takes part in the fight with Day Ring's son, 434 12 -u 
deals reverently with the dead body of K. Olaf, whose blood 
heals a wound Thorir had received, 435 3 . 15 the first of K. 
Olafs foes to uphold his holiness, 435ie. 20 m * s P uf suit, at the 
request of the Verdalers, of the Swedish fugitives from the 

battle, 43^24-43 7 2 r he retums to his shl P s ' 43727-29 44 6 ?i-88 
inquires in vain for K. Olafs body, 446 goes on a pilgrimage 
to Jerusalem, from which he never returned, iii. i7 6 . 9 his 
descendants, i7 10 . 14 

THORIR HVINANTORDI, defeated by Sigurd Slembi- 
Deacon, iii. 3547-11 

THORIR, son of Ingirid, counsels K. Magnus the Blind in 
vain to keep his force in the Wick to observe the movements 
of Harald Gilli after the battle of Fyrileif, iii. 3i8 9 . 10 

THORIR KLAKKA, sent by Earl Hakon to the West to 
ascertain who Oli the Garthrealmer might be, and to betray 
him in case he was Olaf Tryggvison, i. 289 fi . 16 finds Olaf 
out, persuades him to go to Norway, and joins his company, 
but finds, on his return, Hakon gone into hiding, and all 
Thrandheim in revolt against the Earl, 289^-29133 

THORIR THE LONG (]). langi), the captain of King Olaf 
Haraldson's constabulary, the Guests, assassinates, at the 
King's bidding, Eilifthe Gautlander, ii. 77 25 -78 9 is despatched 
in pursuit of the escaped blind king Roerek, whom he cap- 
tures, losing his life at the same time, I3o 623 

THORIR LONGCHIN (p. haklangr), fought against Harald 
Hairfair in the battle of Hafursfirth, and fell there, i. iii 10 -3i 


Index I 215 

THORIR, son of Olyir of Eggia and of Sigrid, d. of Thorir, 
and sister to Thorir Hound, a man of great promise and 
popularity, ii. 34*5-12 entertains King Olaf at a great feast, 
34*1298 the King inquires of Day, son of Red, concerning 
Thorif, who declares him to be a traitor to the King, which 
is proved by a massive ring of gold on his arm, given him, as 
he confesses, by Knut, and a prompt execution follows, 3423- 


THORIR, son of Roald, a 'hersir 3 in the Firthfolk, fosters 
Eric Blood-axe from three years old, i. ii9 14 i28 ltk>y 

THORIR SEAL (Jx selr), or Seal-Thorir (Sel-j)6rir), a" steward 
of King Olaf Haraldson over his manor of Ogvaldsness, de- 
scription of his personal characteristics, ii. 213,^ 2i6 LV22 
his masterful dealings with Asbiorn SeaPs-bane, 2i6 M . 13 o 8 -22o n 
slain by Asbiorn before the face of the king, 22i-223 4 

THORIR, father to Sigurd, Thorir Hound and Sigrid of Eggja, 
ii. 2i4 16 . l7 374 68 

THORIR THE SILENT ()x fegjandi), son of Rognvald Mere- 
Earl and his lawful wife, Hild, daughter of Rolf Nefia, i. 1 1 7 20 
married Alof Year's-heal, d. of Har. Hairfair, 125* 13735-26 
appointed Earl of Mere after the death of his father, 125^* 

THORIR of Steig (son of Thord Guthormson), father of Guth- 
orm, the father of Gudrid, ill. 87 S . 4 gives the King's name to 
Harald the Hardredy at a Thing summoned by King Magnus, 
iii. 84 25 . 26 receives many presents from Harald, 862733 
brings up Hakon Magnusson, K. Harald's grandson, 187^ 
after the death of Olaf the Quiet, the Uplanders proclaim 
Hakon king, and Thorir goes with him to Thrandheim, where 
he is proclaimed king at Ere-Thing, 205^5. 20 ^6 K. Magnus 
Barefoot, disliking the liberal laws of his cousin, throws the 
blame on Thorir, 2o6 31 -207 5 Thorir, after the death of 
Hakon, raises the standard of revolt against K. Magnus, is 
defeated and hanged, 209-2 12^ 

THORIR WOODBEARD (J>. treskegg), a viking defeated and 
slain by Turf-Einar Earl of Orkney, i. 1235.11 

THORKEL (jDorkell), a goodman of Apewater, in Iceland, gave 
fostering to Sigvat, the poet, till he was well-nigh a full grown 
man, ii. 5i 14-ir 

THORKEL DYDRIL (Jx dy^riU), son of Eric Biodaskalli, i. 
3oi 10 commands the Crane in Olaf Tryggvison's expedition 

2i 6 Index I [THO 

to Wendland and the battle of Svoldr, 354 2 . 3 3633033 36415.17 

THORKEL FOSTER-FATHER (Jxttstri), son of Amundiof 
Sandwick, of all men the doughtiest in Orkney, ii. 17127.31 
advocates the cause of the oppressed subjects of Einar Wrong- 
mouth, Earl of Orkney, I72 15 -i73 flies from Orkney to Earl 
Thorfin of Caithness to escape Einar's persecution, i737- 10 
gets so fond of Earl Thorfin that therefrom he was by- 
named Foster-father, i73i . 14 sent ky Thorfin to collect 
revenue of the third part he claimed of Orkney, Thorkel has 
to fly for safety from Earl Einar's wrath, i7S 8 . 15 goes to 
Norway and lays the state of things in Orkney before K. Olaf 
Haraldson, 17510-1763 i89 12 . 13 goes back to Orkney, and 
by Earl Brusi's intervention makes peace with Earl Einar, 
1 7615-18 25-29"~gi ves a f east to Earl Einar at which he murders 
him, 1 76^-1 78 12 goes forthwith to Norway, and King Olaf 
was 'well pleased 'with what he had done, i78 13 . 20 *9 2 22-24: 
sends word privily to Earl Thorfin, who had come to N.orway to 
settle his dispute with his brother Brusi, not to attempt leaving 
Norway without coming to terms with Olaf, i82 30 -i83 3 
King Olaf, having received homage from Thorfin and Brusi, 
demands of them to desist from avenging on Thorkel the 
slaying of their brother. Earl Einar, i84 20 . 28 Thorkel places 
his head in Earl Thorfin's lap and receives his pardon, 1853- 
i86 8 

THORKEL FOSTERLING (J>. fSstri), son of Summerlid, slain 
in the presence of Harald Hakonson, Earl of Orkney, Sigurd 
Slembi-Deacon being accused of the deed, iii. 337^8 34o n -i9 

THORKEL, son of Eyolf (the Gray, son of Olaf Feilan, son 
of Thorstein the Red, son of Olaf White, King of Dublin, 
see Laxdaela Saga), for a while one of King Olaf Haraldson's 
household, ii. 24i 24 . 25 invited, together with other chiefs of 
Iceland, by Thorarin Nefiolfson, to go to Norway to meet 
King Olaf, an invitation on which Th. did not act, 245-2468 

2 4923 

THORKEL, son of Geiri of Lings, an Icelander, at the battle 
on Lyrshaw-heath, apparently selected by K. Magnus to do 
a surgeon's duty, his progeny talented leeches, iii. 37 22 . 25 

THORKEL GUSHER (]). geysa), a Danish chief, whose house 
K. Harald Hardredy burns down and whose daughters he 


Index I 217 

takes captive on board, setting them free for enormous ran- 
som, iii. 95i 3 -96 n 

THORKEL HAMMERSKALD (J>. hamarskald), an Icelandic 
poet, author of a drapa on K. Magnus Barefoot, iii. 209*-- 

2I0 " 

THORKEL THE HIGH (Jx hinn hafi), son of Strut-Harald, 
i. 2 7o 23 . 20 his vow at his father's and Harald Gormson's grave- 
ale, 272 252r his war-raid in Denmark in company with King 
Olaf the Holy, ii. n r . 13 his son Harald receives an earldom 
from Knut, 375ie-i9 

THORKEL LEIRA (Jx leira), a lord of the Wick, L 273^ 
one of the captains in Eric's division of the fleet in the 
battle of Hiorung-wick, 2^ IQ ^ 28i 10 slain by Vagn Akison 
while engaged in executing the prisoners after the battle, 

THORKEL NEFIA, or Nosy ({?. nefja), son of Lodin and 
Astrid, the mother of Olaf Tryggvison, i. 3oi 57 was captain 
of the Short- Worm in Olaf Tryggvison's expedition to Wend- 
land and the battle of Svoldr, 354^ 363^.33 364 15 _ ir 3 6 5n-is 
3665.5 3^18-2$ jumps last of all overboard from the Long- 
Worm, 375^3 14 


THORKEL SKALLISON (Jx Skallason), an Icelandic poet, 
author of e Walthiof 's-flock/ iii. 18125.33 i82 12 . 20 

THORKETIL, i. 375 14 the unsyncopated form of the name 
Thorkel: see Thorkel Nefja. 

THORLEIF (Jporleifr), son of (Asgeir) Redfell, Icel. poet, 
author of a laudatory poem on Earl Hakon the Mighty, i. 

2 9 8 20-28 

THORLEIF, son of Bryniolf, a follower of Eystein son of 
Harald Gilli, iii. 368 6 

THORLEIF THE SAGE Q). hinn spaki), son of Hordakari, 
i. 3O3 26 cures King Halfdan the Black of dreamlessness, 
84 6 . 1 p aredes a dream of his, 843^25 cures Harald Hairfair 
of his infatuated mourning for Snowfair, I20 10 . 8S assists K. 
Hakon the Good in framing the Laws of Gula-Thing, 160^.23 

THORLEIF THE SAGE, fosters, at his house of Middledale, 
Eric the son of Earl Hakon of Ladir, 209^23 his dealings 
with Skopti-of-the-Tidings, 247 21 -248 13 fits out his foster-son, 
Eric, son of Earl Hakon, against Skopti, 

2 1 8 Index I [THO 

THORLEIF SKEP (Jx skjappa), a follower of Sigurd Slembi- 
Deacon, Hi. 356 13 . 27 

THORLEIK (Jporleikr), son of Bolli (cf. i. 337 17 . 20 ) and Gudrun 
Osvifrsdaughter (^^Laxdsela, ed. 1891), for a time a member 
of King Olaf Haraldson's household, ii. 24i 25 

THORLEIK, son of Brand [the son of Thorgrim the priest], 

1 335i5 
THORLEIK THE FAIR (Jx hmn fagri), author of a flock' 

on K. Svein Wolfson of Denmark, in. 97 20 -32 9 8 i-o 99i-n 23-32 

101 16-24 30" I02 4 

THORLIOT BRUSHSKULL (J?orlj6tr skaufuskalli), at the 
head of King Hakon Shoulder-Broad's host aboard the mer- 
chant ships off Kings'-Rock, iii. 4oo 22 . 25 Gregory Dayson's 
ships drifting down upon him he springs overboard, 4ot 3 . 8 

THORMOD (J?orm6^r), a priest sent by Olaf Tryggvison with 
Gizur the White and Hialti Skeggison to christen the Ice- 
landers, i. 354i5-itj 

THORMOD COALBROWSKALD (]>. Kolbnlnarskald), the 
son of Bersi, an Icelandic poet, in the body-guard of K. 
Olaf Haraldson, ii. 24122-27 backs Finn Arnison's advice 
at K. Olaf s council of war in Veradale to visit the rebellious 
Thrandheimers with fire, sword, and plunder, 402 22 . 30 gives 
vent to his envy of Sigvat, the king's favourite, 404 19 -405 6 
4 8 i5-23 Ji ns t ^ ie king's other poets in encouraging the army 
with a song of his own, 40529-4064 early in the morning of 
the day of the battle of Sticklestead, in answer to the king's 
request, * Tell us some song/ he sings * out right high ' Biark- 
lay the Ancient,' receiving thanks from the army and gifts 
from the king, which he acknowledges with much devotion, 
4o7 15 -4o8 14 19 . 28 his fighting in the battle, wounds, death, 

THORMOD, son of Eindridi and of Jonin the d. of Valgerd 
the sister of Gudmund the Mighty, slays Hall son of Utrygg, 
who, when Thormod was one year old, had killed his mother's 
first cousin Kodran, the son of Gudmund, iii. iSSi-^ 

THORNY, daughter of Klack-Harald and sister to Thyri Den- 
mark's- Weal, wife of King Sigurd Hart and mother to Ragn- 
hild the mother of Harald Hairfair, i. 83^.3 

THOROD ()?6roddr) [son of Eyvind], a chief of Olfus in 
southern Iceland, i. 


Index I 


THOROD, son of Snorri the Priest, goes, in obedience to 
King Olaf Haraldson's message by Thorarin Nefiolfson, to 
Norway, and stays with the king, ii. 249^ -M| is refused return 
to Iceland the next season by King Olaf, and detained in a 
manner that * savoured of unfreedom,' until the result of 
Gellir Thorkelson's mission to the island should be known, 
2 74i5' 2 752 his chafing under this treatment, 278.., 15 . 19 
2 94ii-ir m or der to obtain release from his constraint ''at 
court, he undertakes to go, with a following of twelve men, 
to Jamtland to collect the taxes claimed by King Olaf, 294^.^ 
his adventurous journey, miraculous escapes, and safe" re- 
turn to King Olaf, 294 31 -302 12 return to Iceland, 3Q2 13W 

THOROLF (jidrdlfr), stationed^in the mam hold on board the 
Long-Worm, i. 353 24 

THOROLF DRYLLR, captain of a company of soldiers 
garrisoned by Erling Askew in Biorgvin, iii. 45707 

THOROLF LOUSE-BEARD (Jx liisarskegg), thelfoster-father 
and faithful servant of Astrid, the mother of Olaf Tryggvison, 
i. 223 n -224 13 caught by vikings and sold into slavery, and 
killed off as a useless mouth, 229^3 

THOROLF SKIALG [SQUINTER] (Jx skjalgr), son of Og- 
mund, the son of Horda-Kari, father to Erling of Soli, i, 
3o 32r ii 2i2 13 2i 4ls . 19 

THORSTEIN (Jtorsteinn), goodman of Attwood, harbours and 
entertains Astrid and her child, Olaf Tryggvison, and saves 
them from being caught by Gunnhild's emissaries, i. 225^- 

THORSTEIN OF AUDSHOLT, in Iceland, a daughter of 

his married to Arnbiorn Ambi, iii. 363^ 
THORSTEIN GALLOWS (Jx galgi), father to Thora, the wife 

of Ami Arnmodson, ii. I98 15 . ir 
THORSTEIN, son of Hall of the Side, invited, together with 

other chiefs of Iceland, by Thorarin Nefiolfson to go to 

Norway to meet King Olaf Haraldson, an invitation on which 

Th. did not act, ii. 245-246 8 249 24 
THORSTEIN HLIFARSON Qx Hlifarsson), stationed in the 

main hold on board the Long-Worm, i. 353*4 
THORSTEIN THE LEARNED (Jx fr6$i), cited as authority 

for a tale of miraculous dice-play between K. Olaf Haraldson 

and K. Olaf of Sweden, ii. 16633-1678 

22O Index I [THO THR 

THORSTEIN MIDLANG (Jx mi^langr), one of Earl Eric's 
men in the battle of Hiorung-wick, smitten asunder in the 
midst by Bui, i. 28o 1923 

THORSTEIN OXFOOT Qx uxafdtr) [son of 'Ivar Lj6mi], an 
Icel. champion on board the Long-Worm, i. 35230-353! 

THORSTEIN THE RED (Jx rairSr), son of Olaf the White 
(King of Dublin) and Aud the Deeply- wealthy, joins Sigurd, 
Earl of Orkney in a war-raid on Scotland, i. n6 1822 his 
daughter Groa m. Dungad Earl of Caithness, ii. 1693.3 

THORSTEIN SHIPWRIGHT (Jx knarrarsmi^r), enemy of 
K. Olaf Haraldson, joins Thorir Hound's ranks in the battle 
of Sticklestead, ii. 42^-424^ wounds K. Olaf severely with 
an axe, and is himself laid low by Finn Arnison, 433 3 . 6 

THORSTEIN, son of Sigurd of Eastort, Hi. 336^ 

THORSTEIN THE WHITE (Jx hviti), of Oprustead, stationed 
in the forehold of the Long- Worm, i. 353 15 

THORVITH (JtorviKr), lawman of the Gauts, delivers a brave 
harangue to Earl Hakon Ivarson's Swedish auxiliaries before 
the engagement with K. Harald Hardredy near the Vener- 
water, and speedily runs away, iii. I5o 22 . 33 1514.9 

THORWITH THE STAMMERER (Jx stami), a counsellor 
of King Olaf the Swede; description, ii. i6o 33 -i6i 6 his in- 
terpretation of lawman Edmund's tale of Atti the fool's hunt, 
u*. i6i 10 . 13 remains at the king's side while his brothers allay 
a revolt against him, i63 9 . 13 

THR AND E RS, Thrands, fhrand-folk, Thrandheimers,Thrand- 
heim-folk, Thrandheim men, Thrand-men, they, the men, of 
Thrandheim, (frsendir, frsendr, Jrsenda her, frsenzk dr<5tt), i. 

*37l6 J 42l 19 15^11 16 l6 30 I6l 20 23-24 l62 13 l6 3s l6 4 2 8 
24-25 J 72 10 .n *99ll 203 3 r 2I 323 2 32i 2 288 18 2 9 8 n 3 O Ol 

ii. 20l 43 2 65 4 67 ; i 93w 276 10 17 40527 42i 6 42314-15 428 22 454 4 
46i 30 4624 rio 111. 40 31 44 20 5i 15 92 23 93 5 II2 3 i34i iQ^ie 20517 
2o8 24 2i3 22 223 18 2874 347 U 368 10 402 10 447 25 456 20 462 19 

THRAND^O'CHIN (Jprandr haka), one of eight lords of 
Thrandheim combined to force Hakon the Good to join in 
heathen festivals, i. I7o 19 

THRAND O' GATE (p. i Gotu) [son of Thorbiorn Beard-o'- 
Gate] summoned by King Olaf Haraldson to Norway, to- 
gether with many other representatives of the people of Faroe, 

THR THY] Index I 221 

but falls (conveniently) ill, and goes nowhere, ii. 246^ t 
his egging-on of his foster-sons to undo Thoralf of Dimon's 
mission to Norway (conveyed to them in Thrand's own 
mysterious way), 269 21 -27o 12 his treacherous dealings with 
Karl o' Mere, 3427-39is escapes due penalty at the hands 
of King Olaf by reason of the revolt against him in Norway, 

THRAND RENT-MASTER (Jx gjaldkeri), commanding a 

ship in K. Ingi Haraldson's fleet at the battle of Holm-the- 

Gray, receives the captured Sigurd Slembi-Deacon, and hands 

him over to his tormentors, iii. 3640.^ 
THRAND SQUINT-EYE (Jx skjalgi), of Halogaland, a fore- 

castle man on board the Long- Worm, i. 353^ 
THRAND THE STOUT (Jx rammi), of Thelmark, a forecastle 

man on board the Long- Worm, i. 353-. G 
THRAND THE WHITE (Jx hvfti), King Olaf Haraldson's 

taxgatherer in Jamtland, slain, together with his company of 

twelve, by the men of King Olaf the Swede, ii. 8o 101(7 294 21 . 34 
THRIDI (J)ri^i = Third-one), one of Odin's names, Odin, 1 

25 31 

THROTT (J^rottr), one of Odin's names, Odin, i. 25 > j l ii. 
43 2 21 iii. 254 10 

THUND (Jpundr), one of Odin's names, Odin, ii. 405^ 

THURID, daughter of Snorri the Priest (JiurfiSr Snorraddttir 
go'Sa), a wise woman, who told An much saga lore, i. 7^3 

THYRI (]?yri), daughter of King Harald Gormson, promised 
by her brother Svein Twibeard in marriage to King Burislaf 
in Wendland, i. syi^g fulfilment of the promise deferred 
through her refusal to consent, 3493^4 on Burislaf 's claiming 
her through Earl Sigv^ldi, she is delivered against her will to 
the Earl, who takes her to Wendland, where she is married 
to Burislaf, but from whom she runs away after a few days, 
first to Denmark, and then to Norway, where she marries 
Olaf Tryggvison, 349 15 -35o 3 i the dominions which Gunnhild 
Svein Twibeard's first wife owned in Wendland, Svein had 
settled on Thyri, and these same she urged Olaf Tryggvison 
to claim, for which purpose he, yielding unwillingly, fitted 
out a great expedition to Wendland, 35032-3547 35 8 s.2s7-^? r 
only child with Olaf Tryggvison, called Harald, died within 
a year of his birth, 

222 Index I [THY TRY 

THYRI DENMARK'S WEAL (J>. Danmarkar bot), daughter 
of Klack-Harald, King of Jutland, and queen to Gorm the 
Old, King of Denmark, i. 83 10 

TIND (Tindr), son of Hallkel, an Icel. poet, i. 278 20 . 32 283^ 21 

TOSTI (Earl), son of Earl Godwin by his wife Gyda, and 
brother to Harald, afterwards K. of England, li. 326 10 . 12 iii. 
I 552o commander-in-chief of the land forces in England 
and ranking above all other earls, 15720-158]. disputes his 
brother's title, to the exclusion of himself, to the kingdom, 
1 5819-20 Harald removes him from the command of the 
army, whereupon he goes abroad to solicit alliances against 
Harald, and failing in Denmark, secures one at length in 
Harald Hardredy, K. of Norway, 159-1629 goes from Nor- 
way to meet his English followers in Flanders, 163-^ joins 
his forces with Harald Hardredy when he lands in England, 
and fights in all his battles, including that of Stamfordbridge, 
refusing to make peace with his brother, i69 2 . 27 I7o n -i78 10 

TOVI VALGAUTSON, his humane act to prisoners of war 
viewed by K. Olaf Haraldson as a capital offence, but is con- 
doned through the intervention of his father, ii. 328 8 . 31 

TRYGGVI, calling himself son of Olaf Tryggvison and of Gyda 
Olaf 's English wife, invades Norway while Svein Alfiva's son 
was king and is defeated and slain in a great battle at Bokn 
in Sokensound, ii. 4633-46505 

TRYGGVI, son of Olaf the son of K. Harald Hairfair, i. i42 5 . 9 
flies, together with his foster-brother Gudrod (son of K. 
Biorn the Chapman), to the Uplands after the fall, in battle 
against Eric Bloodaxe at Tunsberg, of his father, i44 20 . 30 
joins Hakon the Good against Eric Bloodaxe, 151^ re- 
ceives from Hakon the title of King, with the dominion of 
Ranrealm andVingulmark, 15114-17 goes on warfare in Ireland 
and Scotland, 158^.^ appointed commander of K. Hakon 
the Good's forces in the Wick against incursions from Den- 
mark, and for the purpose of collecting tribute from Danish 
lands conquered by Hakon, 158^-1593 his dealings with the 
sons of Eric raiding the Wick, i6o n . 16 ousted by the sons 
of Eric at Sotaness, 1723 comes to terms with Eric's sons as 
to his share in the realm after the death of Hakon the Good, 
J 97i4-i6 19-24 202 i5-i8 a ^ es hiniself against Gunnhild's sons 
with Hakon, Earl of Ladir, Gudbrand a-Dale and Gudrod 

TUN UNI] Index I 223 

Biomson, 2io 3 . n coming at the invitation of Gudrod Gunn- 
hild's son to a tryst with him at \ValIs, east of Sotanes, he is 
treacherously slain by Gudrod, 2ii njo 224 1510 lies in the 
place *now called' Tryggvi's Cairn, 2ii L0 . 21 

TUNNI, treasurer of K. Aun the Old, relegated to other thralls 
by K. Egil; his theft of K. Aun's treasure, rights with K. Egil 
and falls, i. 44^-4$*? 

TURF-EIN AR (Torf-Einarr), son of Rognvald Mere-Earl by a 
concubine, i. H7 22 cf. 11. i68 10 . 1;i becomes Earl of Orkney, 
defeats vikings and teaches the islanders how to use turf for 
fuel, 1 22^-1 23 ir his personal appearance, i23 11K3 his feud 
with, defeat and torture of Halfdan Highleg in Rinan's isle, 
i2S 12 -i26 u cf. ii. i68 1He his songs, 125^-1 26, 1S202sir , 127^,, 
his flight from Orkney before K. Harald Hairfair's punitive 
expedition, i27 3 . r ii. i68 16 . l7 pays for the people of Orkney 
the fine of sixty marks of gold imposed by K. Harald as 
atonement for the slaughter of Halfdan, i27 17 . 25 cf. ii. i68 ls>2t 
takes, as security for the refunding to him of the fine, all 
odal j lands in Orkney, i27 23 . 29 but cf. ii. i68 isio the fate 
of his sons, Arnkel and Erland, I53ig- I 54i3 and of his third 
son, Thorfinn Skull-cleaver, 15409-155^ cf. ii. i68., n -i69 3 

TUSK-MELBRIGDA-Gael. Maelbrighde (MelbngSi tonn), 
a Scottish earl slain by Sigurd, Earl of Orkney, i. 11632^ 

TYR (Tjfr), one of the ^Esir, counted as ancestor of K. Egil of 
Sweden, i. 46^ and of the Earls of Ladir, 2o6 25 used in 
kennings to signify a man, a warrior, i85 10 (i9O 14 )"259 I8 262^ 
378^ Burden-Tyr (Farma-T^r), a periphrastic name for 
Odin, 2o6 10 

ULFHILD ('Ulfhildr), daughter of King Olaf Haraldson and 
Queen Astnd, with the King and Queen at Eidwood, ii. 369 X 
left with the Queen in Sweden when the King fares to 
Holmgarth, 369^ 39125-27 married to Duke Otta (Ordulf) of 
Saxland, id. 34io-is 

ULLER (Ullr), one of the gods, a son of Sif and stepson of 
Thor, used only in kennings, i. 199^ 2oo 4 245^ 

ULLI, a pet name for Erland (Erlendr, *>., Erli, Elli, Ulli), 

i- 2 93si 
UNIBUR, a commander of Wendish forces at the siege of 

Kings'-Rock, iii. 3263^27^ his speech to his men on attack- 
ing the castle, 

224 Index I [UPL VAK 

UPLANDERS, Upland-men (Upplendingar), i. i3i n i32 n 
ii. 6333 io7 2 I32 20 2io 18 36854104 46o 21 iii. H2 3 1449 H&UJ 

19 I553 2 5s448 12 474 22 

UP-SWEDES (Uppsvfar), the Swedes, as it appears, inhabiting 
the old realm of Upsala, or Tenthland, ii. i6o l7 164? ( 9 19 ) 31 

UP-THRANDHEIMERS, Up-Thrandfolk, dwellers of Upper- 
Thrandheim, they from Inner-Thrandheim, men of Upper- 
Thrandheim (Inn-J?raendir), the inhabitants of the folklands 
round the head of Thrandheim-Bay, i. I7o ir . 18 3539 ii. 65 6 

7*1 I945-G 14 42 29 43G 45114"!- 9726 

URGUTHRIOT (UrguJ?rj6tr), an Earl sent as Christian mis- 
sionary to Norway by Harald Gormson, i. 3oi 25 . 30 

USPAK ('Uspakr), son of Usvif the Wise, the father of Wolf 
King Harald Hardredy's marshal, iii. 67,5 

USVIF THE WISE (Usvifr spaki) [son of Helgi], grandfather 
of Wolf Harald Hardredy's trusted marshal, iii. 67 15 

UTHYRMIR ('U>yrmir), brother to Thrand the Stout, a fore- 
castleman on board the Long-Worm, i. 35 3 

VEERINGS, foreign, chiefly northern mercenaries, in the ser- 
vice of Byzantine emperors, iii. 6o 2 5 12 19 27 6i 13 62 l ar 63^ 65 28 
31 66 2i 6 7 23 68 i 6 9 2 s-7o 2 i 30 73i 74i 33 7^ 15 428 18 21 429^ 430^ 
33 43 r 5 15 is 22 25 nicknamed by the Greeks the Emperor's 
* Wineskins ' (vinbelgir), iii. 43o 21 _ 22 

VAFAD (VdfaSr), the waverer, the shifty god, Odin, i. 185^ 

I 95 

VAGN, the son of Aki (Palnatoki's son) and Thorgunna, the 
sister of Bui the Thick, a Jomsviking, i. 27o 2930 his vow at 
the grave-ale after Harald Gormson, Strut Harald and Veseti, 
2 73i-4: commands one wing of the Jomsburg fleet in the 
battle of Hiorung-wick, 277 18 . 19 his fight in the battle, 279 5 . 10 
21-25 taken prisoner by Earl Eric and fettered with thirty of 
his men, 28i 3 . 16 escapes being executed by Thorkel Leira, 
whom he slays; is pardoned by Earl Eric, 282 10 . 20 goes to 
the Uplands with Earl Eric, who gives him in marriage 
Ingibiorg, the daughter of Thorkel Leira, whereupon he goes 
to his estates in Denmark, well found in all things by the 
Ear], 28330-2844 

VAKR OF THE ELF (Vakr elfski), son of Raumi, a forecastle 
man on the Long-Worm, i. 


Index I 225 

VALDIMAR (Valdamarr, Vladimir), Prince of Holmgarth, 
1036-1052, son of King Jarisleif and Ingigerd, daughter of 
Olaf the Swede-king, ii. 154,* lii. 437 mi possibly the same 
(born 1020) to whom Sigvat refers as having been healed by 
Olaf the Holy, ii. 4581-2 

VALDIMAR, Vladimir the Great, Prince of Novgorod, 970- 
977, of Kief, 980-1015 resides at Holmgarth, i. 228.^^ 
22904 contrary to the law of the land, he allows weregild to 
be paid for Olaf Tryggvison's manslaughter of Klerkon, and 
takes him up and treats him as a royal prince (Nestor ex- 
pressly states that Vladimir abolished the * vira ' or weregild), 
2 32" 2 3 I 24 2891-2 appointed Olaf to the command of his 
land forces, and bestowed much favour upon him, 25o t . 17 
withdrew his favour through slander, and Olaf departed the 
realm, 250*3-25 1 22 his land invaded and harried by Earl 
Eric Hakonson, 347c-22 

VALDIMAR THE GREAT, King of Denmark, 1157-1182, 
son of Knut Lord and Ingibiorg, d. of Harald Valdimarson 
of Holmgarth (Novgorod), lii. 270.^-2715 brother-in-law of 
K. Magnus the Blind, 3143537 an< ^ Stig Whiteleather, 271^ 
first cousin to Kristin, the mother of K. Magnus Erlingson, 

2 728-30 2 7* 4 7-9 37*11-14 437 3 r43 8 2 47i 28 -29 treaty of alliance 
between him and K. Magnus Erlingson, 437 14 -438 15 the 
treaty broken by Erling wilfully failing to persuade the men 
of the Wick to become Danish subjects, 465-4673 Erling 
forges letters in the name of K. Valdimar in order to try the 
loyalty of the Thrandheimers to his son, 4675-469^ K. Val- 
dimar's abortive expedition to Norway, 469^-470 suffers 
defeat at the hands of Erling at Deersriver in Jutland, 4713^ 
peace made with Erling on condition that he hold the 
Wick in Norway as an earldom of K. Valdimar, 47%- 

474 5 

VALGARD OF THE MEAD (ValgarSr af Veffi), Icelandic 
poet, commemorates the journey of Harald the Hardredy 
from Holmgarth to Sweden, iii. 77 5 .i 4 tells of the journey of 
Harald and Svein from Sweden to Denmark, 78^-79^ 

VALGAUT (Valgautr), the father of Tovi, intercedes with King 
Olaf on behalf of his son, is christened by the king, and dies 
immediately afterwards, ii. 328^^ 

VALGERD ( ValgerSr), daughter of Eyolf, sister of Gudmund 

VI. Q 

226 Index I [VAL VEM 

the Mighty of Maddermead, and mother of Jorun, the mother 
of Thormod, iii. iS3 4 . 6 

VALI (Vali), a sea-king, or, according to others, a son of Odin 
and Rind, i. 346 13 

VALKYR (Valkyrja, from val, stem of valr, a collective term 
for those fallen in battle, but meaning the * elects/ *>., Odin's 
collective choice, and kyrja, from stem kur- in kunim 1. pi. 
pret. of kj6sa, to choose, a she-chooser, she who chooses), 
c elect-choosers, 7 Odin's maidens, who out of the fallen host 
in battle, the * Elect, 7 chose the worthy, i.e., the bravely fallen^ 
for the joys of Valhall, i. i55 10 17233 i89 5 . 10 they ride on 
horseback in helmet, wield a spear, and carry shield before 
them, I9i 14 20 . 24 

VANA, a woman out of Vanhome, married to Svegdir, K. of 
the Swedes, i. 25 S0 . 31 

VANDRAD (Vandra&r, z*.<?., he who is in trouble for counsel, 
embarrassed), name assumed by K. Svein Wolfson, and under 
which he managed to save his life by the aid of Earl Hakon 
Ivarson after the battle of Niz, iii. I38-I40 6 

VANIR, the people of Vanland, their dealings with Odin, i. 
I 3i8" I 4i9 authors of the art of wizardry, i4 22 . 24 

VANLAND (Vanlandi), son of Svegdir and Vana, i. 25 31 took 
rule over the Swedes after his father, warred far and wide, 
abode in Finland with Snow the Old, and wedded his 
daughter Drift, whom he deserted, and who, in turn, caused 
him to be trodden to death by a night-mare at Upsala, 26 26 - 

VARIN (Varinn), a legendary king, i. 3i5 12 -is 

VATT (Vottr), an earl of Denmark, i. 47 28 -4 8 3i 

VE (V), brother of Odin; he and his brother Vili marry Frigg, 
Odin's wife, during the latter's absence from home so pro- 
longed that all hope of his return had been given up,i, i3 8 . 15 
left in rule over Asgarth when Odin and his migrated to the 
north, i5 15 

VEMUND (V&nundr), brother to Audbiorn, king of Firthfolk, 
succeeded to his brother's kingdom after the latter's fall at 
the second battle of Solskel, i. 103^ burnt in his house 
whilst feasting at Naustdale, by Earl Rognvald of Mere, 
10 3i6-23 kis S ^P S an( * chattels confiscated, io3 25 . 27 

VEMUND KNUCKLE-BREAKER (V. volubrj<5tr), captain 

YEN vis] Index I 227 

of the band collected by Klypp the Hersir to slay King 
Sigurd Slaver, i. 2i6*.. n 

VENDS. See Wends. 

VERDALERS, folk of, they of, Verdale (Verdzdir), dwellers 
in Verdale, Upper-Thrandheim, ii. 196^ 405.23 437 1S 

VESETI, a lord in Borgundholm, i. 271^ ^ 

VIDKUNN OF BIRCHISLE(Vi^kunnrfBjarkey),sonof Joan 
Arnison and Ranveig, d. of Sigurd, s. of Thorir Hound, iii. 
I 7io-is attacked and robbed by Steig-Thorir, father and son 
flee to K. Magnus Barefoot for protection, 211^ joins K. 
Magnus Barefoot's expedition to Ireland, 238 JS -^-one of the 
last to flee from the fallen king, whose sword r Legbiter ? and 
banner he saves on board ship, 242 1021 slays in the battle 
the man who killed K. Magnus, for which he got into great 
favour with his sons, 243^3 Magnus, s. of K. Sigurd Jeru- 
salem-farer fostered by him in Birchisle, 27805.^ he shelters 
for one winter Magnus (already deposed, maimed and blinded) 
from the sons of Harald Gilli, 356 ir . 18 

VIDUR (VrSr), one of Odin's names, Odin, i. 207^ 256^ 278^ 

VIGFUS (Vigniss), son of Slaying Glum, fights on board Earl 
Hakon's ship in the battle of Hiorung-wick, i. 28o 519 

VIGLEIK (Vigleikr), son of Ami, slays Aslak Skull o' Fitiar, 
ii- 362^3 363 5 . 10 

VIKAR (Vikarr), of Tenthland, a champion on board the 
Long-Worm, i. 353! 

VIKING-KARI (Vi'kingakari), father of Sigurd, the father of 
Eric Biodaskalh, i. 33439.31 (but see Sigurd, son of Viking- 
kari) a landed man of Vors, in Norway, ii. 89^ 

VILBORG, daughter of Gizur the White, second cousin of Olaf 
Tryggvison, married to Hialti, the son of Skeggi, i. $^Si-$ 
ii. 8p 4 9 

VILI, brother to Odin, i. i3 9 . 15 i$ 15 see Ve* 

VIRVIL (Virvill), a sea-king, i. 346 14 

VISBUR (Visburr), son of Vanland and Drift his Finnish wife, 
i. 273 wedded an unnamed daughter of Aude the Wealthy, 
and deserted her, having had two sons with her, Gisl and 
Ondur, and took to him another, also unnamed, with whom 
he had a son, Domald; was burned in his house by his sons 
of first marriage, 283-295 

VISSIVALD (Vissivaldr), />., Vsevolod, Grand Prince of Kief, 

228 Index I [vis WEN 

1078-1093, son of Jarisleif, King of Holmgarth and Ingigerd 
daughter of Olaf the Swede-king, ii. 1 54 27 

VISSAVALD (Vissavaldr), Vsevolod, a 'king ' from Garthrealm, 
comes to Sweden to woo Sigrid the Haughty, who burns him 
alive together with Harald the Grenlander, 995, i. 286 9 . 25 (? 
son of Vladimir the Great, who died 995). 

VITGEIR (Vitgeirr), a wizard of Hordland, i. 1339 20 

VOLSUNGS (Vblsungar), the family of Volsung, the grand- 
father of Sigurd the Slayer of Fafnir, represented in carven 
images at the Hippodrome in Constantinople, iii. 26o 16 . 20 

VORS-FOLK (Vorsar), inhabitants of the district of North- 
Hordland called Vors, iii. 2o8 00 

WALDEMAR, see Valdimar. 

WALTHEOW, also WALTHIOF (Valp J6fr), 1066, Earl, son of 
Earl Godwin by his wife Gyda, ii 326 10 . 12 iii. 15531 ^th Mor- 
car on the Ouse in opposition to King Harald Sigurdson, i67 6 . 
flees into York, i68 30 with his brother K. Harald Godwin- 
son at the battle of Helsingport, i8i u . 12 gets away by flight, 
but coming upon a company of a hundred Normans, he burns 
them to death in an oak forest, i8i 18 . 33 William, now King 
of England, sends word to him to come to terms of peace, 
and gives him a safe conduct to the meeting, i82 46 he goes 
to the meeting with a small following, is met on his way by two 
king's bailiffs and a company of men, who put him in fetters 
and slay him, i82 r . u held for holy by Englishmen, i82 n 12 
(Waltheow was not, as Snorri has it, a son of Godwin and 
brother to Harald, but the son, in first marriage, of Earl 
Siward of Deira, who died 1055. By order of the Conqueror, 
Waltheow was executed 31 May, 1076, at Winchester. Steen- 
strup, Normannerne, iii. 437-440, makes it clear that Siward, 
father of Waltheow, and Wolf, father to K. Svein of Den- 
mark, were first cousins.) 

WATERWORM (Vatnormr), son of Day Eilifson by Ragnhild, 
d. of Skopti Ogmundson, commands in Tunsberg under K. 
Ingi, and repels a Danish attack on the town, iii. 3523.3 his 
misadventure at Portyria, 354 24 -3552 

WENDS, Wend-folk, Wendland-folk (Vindr), inhabitants of 
Wendland, i. i57 29 1583 2553 256,3 27i 68 34 7 26 ii. i 7l8 Hi. 

3^16 3 2 2 19 347152127 352141* 3^25 37 3 9 526 59s Il6 23 3 s6 19 
32722 26 3 2 8 3 -33333 354f 3 8 28 

WES WIL] Index I 229 

WEST-GAUTLANDERS ( Vestrgautar), ii. 

WEST-GAUTS, jw West-Gautlanders. 

WHELP (Hvelpr), son of Earl Sigurd son of Hlodver of Ork- 
ney, given for hostage to Olaf Tryggvison, i. 291^ ii. 169^.33 
tarried with K. Olaf for some winters and died in Norway, 

WHITE-CHRIST, see Christ. 

WICK-DWELLERS, -folk, -men, -wights, folk, men of the 
Wick (Vikverjar), Inhabitants of the Wick in Norway i. i32 10 
13520 I 42 9 15139 I 99iM2 ii- 8o 23ar 8 4io & 359i 3 374$ 395 3 j 
42 2 o 4i7 18 31 449io 13 4<56 18 

WILLIAM (Viljalmr), the V. Earl of Poitiers and III. Duke of 
Aquitaine, 994-1030, ii. i9 n . u 

WILLIAM, ' son of Richard,' earl of Normandy during the 
thirteen winters that had worn from the fall of Olaf Tryggvi- 
son, i.e. A.D. 1000-1013, has no existence, ii. 2i 18 _, 4 

WILLIAM THE BASTARD (V. bastarSr), son "of Robert 
6 Long-sword ' ( !) Duke of Normandy, afterwards K. of England, 
1066-87, i. 11839 receives as chance visitor, Harald Godwin- 
son, to whom he promises his daughter in marriage, iii. 156- 
I 57n incensed at Harald's breaking off the betrothal, and 
claiming that his title to the crown of England was superior to 
Harald's, he invades and conquers England, i8o-i82 28 his 
dealings with Earl Walthiof, i8i 18 i82 20 

WILLIAM, Bishop of the Orkneys, accompanies Erling Askew 
on his Jerusalem journey, iii. 37i I8 . 2 i 

WILLIAM, son of Gudrun of Saltness, iii. 483^ 

WILLIAM LONGSPEAR, see the following. 

WILLIAM LONGSWORD (V. langaspj<3t, mistranslation of 
e longaspatha 7 ), son of Rolf Wend-a-foot, Duke of Normandy, 
927-942, i. n8 24 ii. 2i sl 

WILLIAM, King of Sicily, son of K. Roger the Rich, had war 
with Micklegarth's Kaiser, iii. 256^3 had three daughters and 
no son, the daughters married to Kaiser Henry, to a Duke of 
Cyprus, and to Margrit, lord of Corsairs, 2563^ 

(The William here referred to is made up of three persons. 
His daughter, who married Kaiser Henry, Le. the sixth of 
Germany, was Constance, daughter of K. Roger I. The two 
daughters who married the Duke of Cyprus and the Admiral 

228 Index I [vis WEN 

1078-1093, son of Jarisleif, King of Holmgarth and Ingigerd 
daughter of Olaf the Swede-king, ii. T 54*,.- 

VISSAVALD (Vissavaldr), Vsevolod, a 'king' from Garthrealm, 
comes to Sweden to woo Sigrid the Haughty, who burns him 
alive together with Harald the Grenlander, 995, i. 286 9 . 25 (? 
son of Vladimir the Great, who died 995). 

VITGEIR (Vitgeirr), a wizard of Hordland, i. 1339-20 

VOLSUNGS (Volsungar), the family of Volsung, "the grand- 
father of Sigurd the Slayer of Fafnir, represented in carven 
images at the Hippodrome in Constantinople, iii. 26o 162u 

VORS-FOLK (Vorsar), inhabitants of the district of North- 
Hordland called Vors, iii. 208.,,, 

WALDEMAR, see Valdimar. 

WALTHEOW,also WALTHIOF (Valpj6fr), 1066, Earl, son of 
Earl Godwin by his wife Gyda, ii. 326 1(Hy iii. 15531 with Mor- 
car on the Ouse in opposition to King Harald Sigurdson, i67 6 9 
flees into York, 168^ with his brother K. Harald Godwin- 
son at the battle of Helsingport, iSi^^^-gets away by flight, 
but coming upon a company of a hundred Normans, he burns 
them Jo death in an oak forest, i8i 1833 William, now King 
of England, sends word to him to come to terms of peace, 
and gives him a safe conduct to the meeting, i82 4 . G he goes 
to the meeting with a small following, is met on his way by two 
king's bailiffs and a company of men, who put him in fetters 
and slay him, i82 7 , n held for holy by Englishmen, i82 n 12 
(Waltheow was not, as Snorri has it, a son of Godwin and 
brother to Harald, but the son, in first marriage, of Earl 
Siward of Deira, who died 1055. By order of the Conqueror, 
Waltheow was executed 31 May, 1076, at Winchester. Steen- 
strup, Normannerne, iii. 437-440, makes it clear that Siward, 
father of Waltheow, and Wolf, father to K. Svein of Den- 
mark, were first cousins.) 

WATER WORM (Vatnormr), son of Day Eilifson by Ragnhild, 
d. of Skopti Ogmundson, commands in Tunsberg under K. 
Ingi, and repels a Danish attack on the town, iii. 352 3 . s his 
misadventure at Portyria, 354 2 4~3552 

WENDS, Wend-folk, Wendland-folk (Vindr), inhabitants of 
Wendland, i. 157^ 1583 2553 256^ 27i 68 347 26 2- *7i 8 & 

316 3 2 2 19 3471521 27 3521417 3 6 5 25 37 8 9 526 59s 

3^722 26 3283-33333 3547 

WES WIL] Index I 229 

WEST-GAUTLANDERS (Vestrgautar),ii. 1 i 7u i i 9ir , 142 n r , 
1550:5 i64 w iii. 229! 

WEST-GAUTS, ^ West-Gautlanders. 

WHELP (Hvelpr), son of Earl Sigurd son of Hlodver of Ork- 
ney, given for hostage to Olaf Tryggvison, i. 291,^ ii. 1690.33 
tarried with K. Olaf for some winters and died in Norway, 

1 6924-25 

WHITE-CHRIST, see Christ. 

WICK-DWELLERS, -folk, -men, -wights, folk, men of the 
Wick (Vikverjar), inhabitants of the Wick in Norway i. i32 10 
J 35ao J 42 iS^o I 99n-i2 ". 8o 2327 8 4lo iii. 359^ 374s 3953, 
42 20 4i?is si 449io is 46 18 

WILLIAM (Viljalmr), the V, Earl of Poitiers and III. Duke of 
Aquitaine, 994-1030, ii. i9 n . 14 

WILLIAM, ' son of Richard, 1 earl of Normandy during the 
thirteen winters that had worn from the fall of Olaf Tryggvi- 
son, i.e. A.D. 1000-1013, has no existence, ii. 2i 18 , 4 

WILLIAM THE BASTARD (V. bastarSr), sonV Robert 

* Long-sword * (!) Duke of Normandy, afterwards K. of England, 
1066-87, i. n8 29 receives as chance visitor, Harald Godwin- 
son, to whom he promises his daughter in marriage, iii. 156- 
I 57n incensed at Harald's breaking off the betrothal, and 
claiming that his title to the crown of England was superior to 
Harald's, he invades and conquers England, i8o-i82 23 his 
dealings with Earl Walthiof, i8i 18 i82 20 

WILLIAM, Bishop of the Orkneys, accompanies Erling Askew 

on his Jerusalem journey, iii. 37i 18 . 2 i 
WILLIAM, son of Gudrun of Saltness, iii. 483^ 
WILLIAM LONGSPEAR, see the following. 
WILLIAM LONGSWORD (V. langaspjdt, mistranslation of 

* longa spatha '), son of Rolf Wend-a-foot, Duke of Normandy, 
927-942, i. n8 24 ii. 2i si 

WILLIAM, King of Sicily, son of K. Roger the Rich, had war 
with Micklegarth's Kaiser, iii. 256^3 had three daughters and 
no son, the daughters married to Kaiser Henry, to a Duke of 
Cyprus, and to Margrit, lord of Corsairs, 2563^ 

(The William here referred to is made up of three persons. 
His daughter, who married Kaiser Henry, i.e. the sixth of 
Germany, was Constance, daughter of K. Roger I. The two 
daughters who married the Duke of Cyprus and the Admiral 

230 Index I [WIL WOL 

Margarito were daughters of William I., 1154-1166. The 

William who waged war with Greece was his son, William II., 

WILLIAM THE SKINNER (V. skinnari), slain by Sigurd 

Sltinibi-Deacon, iii. 357,,,. 
WINTERLID THE SKALD (VetrliSi skald), slain by Thang- 

brand the missionary for an insulting lampoon, i. 32322.34 
WOLF FLY ('Ulfr fty), son of Peter Burden-Swain, iii. io4 12 
WOLF HRANISON, accompanies King Magnus Barefoot on 

hiswarfarein Ireland, iii. 238u r 239 1 falls with theking, 24233.04 
WOLF THE RED ('U. hinn rau$i), the bearer of K. Olaf 

Tryggvison's banner on board the Long-Worm, i. 3S2 27 . 29 

altercation between him and Olaf Tryggvison before the 

battle of Svoldr, 366^ 2J 
WOLF, son of RognvaldTEarl of West-Gautland and Ingibiorg 

the daughter of Tryggvi, ii. 23 31 15433 
WOLF, son of Skogul-Tosti and brother to Sigrid the Haughty, 

father to Rognvald Earl of West-Gautland, i. 356 20 .. 24 ii. 23 9 . 12 

J 54;> 

WOLF, an earl in Denmark, son of Thorgils Sprakalegg, 
married to Astrid, sister of King Knut the Mighty, who set 
him, together with his son, Hordaknut, to rule over Denmark 
in his absence in England, ri. 2673^7 3 l6 ie-2i & 324-26 3*5 
by virtue of letters forged by Queen Emma under royal seal, 
of the spuriousness of which Earl Wolf was aware, he causes 
Hordaknut to be elected King of Denmark at a public Thing, 
ii. 316^-31 7^ levies forces by land and sea to meet invasion 
by Sweden and Norway combined, 31721-33 fearing Knut's 
anger he sends messengers to Queen Emma to ascertain the 
king's mind, 3i8 1 . 5 deserted by the influential people of 
Denmark, 31804-319! he leaves his case in the king's hands, 
sending his son, Svein, to intercede for him, and to offer 
himself an hostage to the king on his father's behalf, King 
Knut answering that Wolf should go on levying forces, after- 
wards they could talk about peace, 3i97- 16 commands in the 
battle of the Holy River, where he fights valiantly, 322^9 
his endeavour to appease the king, 32539-3269 his fatal chess- 
play with King Knut, 3265^ 1? . 81 the murder of him in the 
church of Roiswell, 327^5 iii. 29 14 . 15 the atonement for the 
murder and sacrilege, 327 IG . 28 

WOL WOR] Index I 231 

WOLF, son of Uspak, the son of Usvif the Wise, K. Harald 
Hardredy's marshal, married Jorun d. of Thorberg Arnison 
(and sister to K. Harald Hardredy's Queen Thora), their 
children and descendants, iii. ic>4 3 . 15 with K. Harald while 
in Greek service, 67 u . ir 73 2231 his character and favour with 
Harald, 6y 15 . l7 1043-0 15 . 10 commands a ship in the battle off 
Niz, i33 1 - r .2s ' m favour of Harald's expedition to England, 
i62 19 . 28 his death and Harald's parting words at his grave, 


WOLFHEDIN, son of Saxolf, an Icelander, falls at Kings'- 

Rock, iii. 354is 
WOLFKEL SNILLING ('Ulfkell sniHingr), earl in East Anglia, 

ob. 1016, defeated in battle by Ethelred and Olaf Haraldson, 

ii. i6 4 . 25 slain by Earl Eric of Norway in battle to the west 

of London, 26 04 . 34 
WOLFNOTH, misprinted Wolfroth ('UlfnaSr), father to Earl 

Godwin, ii. 3 26 io-n 
WORM (Ormr), stationed in the forehold of the Long-Worm, 

i- 353u 
WORM (mispr. Orm, iii. 35 1 4 ), Earl of the Uplands, son of 

Eilif and Ragnhild, d. of Hakon the Mighty, married to 
Sigrid, d. of Earl Finn Arnison, their children: Ogmund and 
Ragna; created Earl by Harald Sigurdson, iii. io6 20 . 23 11321-23 
n6 8 . 8 ii9 5 . 6 12 . 13 35 I s-5 37*Mi 

WORM LYGRA (O. lygra), of Middlehouse, on the river Gaul 
in lower Gauldal, threatened by Olaf Tryggvison with being 
sacrificed to the heathen gods, i. 3ig 4 . 6 

WORM LYRGIA (O. lyrgja), a wealthy goodman of Buness, 
married to Gudrun, daughter of Bergthor of Lund, raises the 
standard of revolt against Earl Hakon on account of his in- 
sult to the honour of his wife, i. 292^293^ 

WORM, of Lioxa, one of eight lords of Thrandheim bound 
together to force Hakon the Good to join in the customs 
of heathen festivals, i. i7o ir threatened by Olaf Tryggvison 
with being sacrificed to the gods, 3194.3 

WORM (mispr. Orm, iii. 475,, 476 26 ) KING'S-BROTHER (O. 
konungsbrd^ir), son of Ivar Skewer and Queen Ingirid, d. of 
Rognvald and mother of K. Ingi Harald Gilli's son (whence 
the by-name), iii. 37o 18 .22 his valiant fight at the battle of 
Oslo, 1161, in which his half-brother, K. Ingi Haialdson 

232 Index I [WOR YRS 

fell, 426 ]M5 23 .o, betrothed the winter before to Ragna, cL of 
Nicolas Mew, the widow of K. Eystein Haraldson, 42623-28 
flees from Oslo to his brother K. Magnus of Sweden, 4 2 6 23 . 2 4 
j KJI w fch Erling Askew in Biorgvin, 443i frl6 with Erling 
again in search of the band of Olaf Unlucky, 474or-4752 
severely wounded in the fight at Rydiokul with Olaf Unlucky, 
4?6. tf fights with K. Magnus Erlingson in the battle of Re 
against Eystein Eysteinson, 484-4863 

WORM SHAWNEB (O. sk6garnef), stationed in the main- 
hold on board the Long-Worm, i. 35324-25 

YGG (Yggr, the Terrifier), Odin, ii. i5 n 81 6o 24 iii. 7 4 i8i 20 

YLFING (Ylfingr), see Hiorvard the sea-king. 

YLFINGS (Ylfingar), the followers of Hiorvard, who was called 
Ylfing, i. 6o rt cf. S9i:> 

YNGLINGS (Ynghngar), the earliest race of thekings of Sweden, 
descendants of Frey, who was also called Yngvi, i. 4 6 1418 
2 3s-i> 3*ss 4a (cf. u *- 1<5o i HO 20-29) Huld, the Finnish witch, 
lays the spell on the race, that parricide should be for ever 
a besetting curse of their blood, 28 19 . 23 after Ingiald Evil- 
heart, the dominion of Upsala fell from the direct line of 
descent in the Yngling race, 6409.33 

YNGVAR (Yngvarr), King of Fiadrundaland, i. 554.7 15 27 
burned in a banqueting hall at Upsala by Ingiald Evil-heart, 

YNGVAR, son of K. Eystein, King of the Swedes, had war 
with Denmark and Esthonia, and fell in battle with the 
Esthonians, i. 53 7 -54 4 

YNGUNI = Yngvi, i. 3 i 2t 

YNGVI, another name by which Frey was called, i. 23^ 
Yngvi's people, the Swedes, 3i 10 ; Yngvi's kindred = Ynglings 
= the Norwegian branch from Olaf Treeshaver, 1893 
synonymous for king, 3 M1 3o ls 3i 21 . 23 iii. 7B 14 

YNGVI, son of K. Alrek, King of the Swedes, together with 
his brother Alf, L $6 r ^ tt3 

YNGVI-FREY (Yngvi-Freyr), see Frey. 

YRSA, d. of Helgi, King of Denmark, by Alof the Mighty, 
apparently before her marriage with K. Gerthiof of Saxland; 
left in her mother's charge, she grows up with shepherds (in 
Saxland), and in a war raid on that dominion by K. Adils of 
Sweden, is carried off captive, and in the end is married 

ZOE DIG] Index I 233 

to K, Adils. K. Helgi makes war on Adils, carries off his 
queen, not knowing she was his daughter, and marries her; 
their son: Rolf Kraki. Yrsa's mother, coming to Denmark, 
discloses her paternity, whereupon she joins her former hus- 
band, i. 49-5n 

ZOE THE RICH, Eastern Empress, 1028-1052, 'rules over 
Greekland * with Michael Katalaktus, in. 59*. engages for 
war-service Harald the Hardredy, 59^,37 enraged at the idea 
of Harald leaving the service of the"King of the Greeks, she 
brings false accusations against him, as she had wished to have 
him for her husband, 72 2 r744 Harald sends her a derisive 
message by Maria, the maid whom he had wooed and taken 
by force from the palace, 7ao-73i 75i7- 2 i 


Afra/Sskollr (Thorgeir) 
Agnhottr (Sigurd) 
Ambi (Arnbiorn) 
'Arb6t (Alof) 
'Arma^r (Asgaut) 



'Arsseli (Eric) 
AskmaSr (Alf ) 
'A Sk<5gi (Marcus) 
AuSgi (Au) 


Bakrauf (Gilli) 
Balli (Ottar) 
BastarSr (William) 
Berfsettr (Magnus) 
Bestill (Bergthor) 
Bildr (Sigurd) 
Birtingr (Ottar) 
Bj6Baskalli (Eric) 

Blindi (Arnvid) 




B16^6x (Eric) 
Brig^arskalli (Ami) 
Brosa (Birgir) 
Bryggjuf6tr (Svein) 
Bryndcelaskald (Illugi) 
Bukkr (Biorn) 
Byr^arsveinn (Peter) 
DaSaskald (Eyolf) 
Danmarkarb<5t (Thyri) 
Daufi (Andres) 


Dengir (Ogmund) 
Digri (Biora) 





Digri (Sigurd) 
DjiipauSga (Aud) 
Drengr (Olaf) 
Dryllr (Thorolf) 
Dynta (Ivar) 
DyBrill' (Thorkel) 
Doelski (Atti) 
Eimuni (Eric) 
Eisli (Thorfinn) 
Eitrkveisa (Biorn) 
Elfski fVakr) 
Fagri (Thorleik) 
Faukr (Hakon) 
Faxi (Thorir) 
Fiss (Gunni) 
Fitjaskalli (Aslak) 
Fjoruskeifr (Arni) 
Flekkr (Thorgeir) 
Flettir (Harald) 

Index I 


Flipr (Paul) 
Fly (Wolf; 
Frey's priest (Thord) 
Fri'Skolla (Margret) 
FriSsami (Fr6$i) 
Si (An) 

li (Ali) 



Fsegir (Hallward) 
Galgi (Thorstein) 
Gamla (Gyda) 
Gamli (Bragi) 


Gamli (Solvi) 
Gandr (Harek) 
Gauzki (Eilif) 


Geirsta^aalfr (Olaf s. o. Gud- 

(Olaf s. o. Harald) 

Gellini (Arnhot) 
Gellir (Thord) 
Gerzki (Gudleik) 
Geysa (Thorkel) 
Gilli (Harald) 
Gjaldkeri (Thorbiorn) 
Glumra (Eystein) 
Glsesir6fa (Styrkar) 


GrabarSi (Guthorm) 
Grafeldr (Harald) 
Granrau'Si (Harald) 
Grenski (Harald) 
Gullbra (Gizur) 
Gullbrdr-skald (Biarni) 
Gullskegg (Harald) 
Gulltonn (Halfdan) 
Habr6k (Hawk) 
Haka (Thrand) 
Haklangr (Thorir) 
Haleggr (Halfdan) 
Haiti (Henry) 
Hamarskald (Thorkel) 
Hani (Aslak) 
HarSgreipi (High) 
HarSi (Haddr) 
Har^magi (Hedin) 
HarSraSi (Eystein) 


Hareksblesi (Hallward) 
Hdrfagri (Harald) 
Hauldr (Hallward) 
Hausakljiifr (Thorfin) 
Havi (Ketil) 


HerSumhseri (Rognvald) 
Hein (Harald) 
Helgi (Edmund) 


(Olaf ) 

Helsingr (Thorir) 
Heppni (Leif) 
HerSibreiSr (Hakon) 
Hikri (Hallward) 
Hfmaldi (Erlend) 
Hft (Sigurd) 
Hjiipa (Sigurd^ 
Hjortr (Sigurd) 


Holmskalli (Aslak) 
Hornklofi (Thorbiorn) 
Hringr (Sigurd) 
Hrisi (Sigurd) 
HroSi (Alfr) 
Hriiga (Kolbeinn) 
Hryggr (Roald) 
Hiikr (Hallkel) 
Hundr (Sigurd) 


Hiisfreyja (Ssemund) 


Hvassi (Harek) 


HvinantorSi (Thorir) 
Hvinverski (Harald) 
HvftaleSr (Stig) 
Hvftbeinn (Halfdan) 
Hviti (BarSr) 

Index I 


Hviti (Gudbrand) 









Hsell (Eric) 
Hbggvandi (Howard) 
HorSski (Einar) 
Illi (Biorn) 


Illra^i (Ingjald) 
'Istrumagi (Thord) 
Jalda (Asbiorn) 
Jamti (Ketil) 
Jarlaskald (Arnor) 
Jdrsalafari (Sigurd) 
Kalfr (Ketil) 
Kali (Rognvald) 
Kapa (Sigurd) 
Karkr (Thormod) 
Kau'Sa (John) 
Kaupma^r (Biom) 
Kelda (Eyvind) 
Kelduskftr (Andres) 
Keptr (Thorald) 
Kesja (Harald) 
Ketlingr (John) 
Kikina-skald (Odd) 
Kinnrifa (Eyvind) 
Kkkka (Thorir) 
KlakH (Kolbiorn) 
Kliningr (Howard) 


Klofi (Solvi) 

Knarrarsmi^r (Thorstein) 
Ko^ransbani (Hall) 


Index I 


Kolbninar-skald (Thormod) 
Konungamc/8ir (Gunnhild) 
Konungsambatt (Alfhild) 
Konungsbro&r (Kari; 
Konungsf6stri (Skiili) 
Konungsmagr (Arni) 
Kraki (Rolf; 
Krepphendi (Biorn) 
Kringluauga (Kalf) 
Kn5kr (Ketil) 
Kufungr (Nicolas) 
Ktila (Gudbrand) 
Kunta (Rognvald) 
Kutiza (John) 
Kvaran (Olaf) 
Kyrri (Olaf) 
Kcena (Frirek) 
Lagi (Thord) 
Langatala (Roald) 
Langaspjdt (William) 
Langi (Hlodver) 


Mikillati (Dan) 
Miklimunnr (Olvir) 
Mildi (Gautrek) 

Mj6nefr (Ram) 
Mj6vi (Atli) 
Mostrstong (Thora) 
Munnr (Sigurd) 


Mcerski (Amor) 
Mornefr (John) 
Nefja (Rolf) 


Nf<5ingr (Julian) 
'O^i (Kolbein) 
Onnr-f-auga (Sigurd) 
Orri (Eystein) 
Prii^Si (Hugh) 
Pungelta (Hakon) 
Rammi (Raud) 
Rangi (Kalf) 
Rangmunnr (Einar) 
RauSi (Arnor) 

( An/'ln'n^ 

Ldvar%r (Knut) 
Leira (Thorkel) 
Litli (Finn) 
Lj6mi (Gudrod) 
Lj6sa (Asa) 
Lodbr6k (Ragnar) 
Loftunga (Thorarin) 
Lilfa (Harald) 
Lundasdl (Gudrun) 
Liisarskegg (Thoralf) 
Lygra (Worm) 
Lyrgja (Worm) 
Magi (Hakon) 
Masi (Nicolas) 
MatarilH (Halfdan) 
Meyla (Eystein) 
Mi^langr (Thorstein) 




RauSr (Thorstein) 
R6ttilbeini (Rognvald) 
Rika (Ragnhild) 
Riki (Eystein) 

^TTnlrnn Fnrl\ 


Rusli (Grim) 
Rygski (Ketil) 


Rykkill (Ragnar) 
Roskvi (Griotgarth) 
Sandi (Ogmund) 
Saupprti^r (Lodin) 
Selr (Thorir) 
Selsbani (Asbiorn) 
Sigrsaeli (Athelstane) 


Sigvalda-skald (Thord) 
Sindri (Guthorm) 
Sipill (Ingibiorn) 
Skafhogg (Thorberg) 
Skakka-skald (Thorbiorn) 
Skakki (Erling) 
Skalaglamm (Einar) 
Skaldaspillir (Eyvind) 
Skaldmser (Jorun) 
Skalkr (Hallward) 
Skalpr (Simon) 
SkarSi (Thorgaut) 
Skaufuskalli (Thorliot) 
Skegg (Nicolas) 


Skeggja (Thordis) 
Skinnari (William) 
Skmnhrifa (Thorgrim) 
Skirja (Gudrod) 
Skjalgi (Hroi) 



Skjappa (Thorleif ) 
Skj6tandi (Rolf) 
Sk6garnef (Worm) 
Skorpa (Ornolf ) 
Skotakollr (Thord) 
Skrauthanki (Ivar) 
Skreyja (Eyvind) 
Skurfa (Kalf) 
Skvaldri (Haldor) 
Skygni (Olaf) 

Index I 


Skyti (Ann) 

Slembi-djakn (Sigurd) 
! Sleva (Sigurd) 
' Smetta(Ivar) 

Smjorbalti (John) 

Smyrill (John) 

Snakr (Eyvind) 

Snara (Asbiorn) 

Sneis (Ivar) 

Snillingr (Wolfkel) 

Spaki (Olvir) 


Sprakaleggr (Thorgils) 
Stami (Thorwid) 
Standali (Bard) 
Sterki (Bersi) 




Storkr (Sigurd) 
Stdrra^a (Sigrid) 
Strj6na (Eadric) 
Sturla (Arni) 
Stuttfeldr (Thorarin) 
Styrjaldarmagmis (Magnus 

Svarti (Bard) 


(Halfdan s. o. Gudrod) 

(Halfdan s. o. Harald) 



Sviptir (Ogmund) 
Sygnski (Arnfin) 
S^r (Sigurd) 
Saeta (Sigrid) 
Tapar%r (John) 
Tjifguskegg (Sveinn) 
Toti (Ozur) 
Trafali (Eystein) 

238 Index I [TR ORV 

Treskegg (Thonr) 
Tre'telgja (Olaf) 
Trtffasti (Athelstane) 
Torm (Melbrigd) 

Uxafdtr (Thorstein) 
VandrseSaskald (Hallfred) 
Vei&konungr (Gudrod) 
Veili (Thorvald) 

'Ukristni (Haldor) ' Vendilkrdka (Ottar) 

'Ulfaldi (Br>'niolf) VftSfaSmi (Ivar) 

Ullserkr (Egil) j VflSforli (Hrani) 

Ullstrengr (Sigurd) ! Viggjarskalli (Lodin) 

Ungi (Aslak) | Vfkverski (Harald) 

(Eindrid) Volubrjdtr (Vemund) 

(Harald) Ylfingr (Hiorward) 

Upplenzki (AH) J ^ambarskelfir (Einar) 

'Urarhorn (Eyvind) 1 Olbogi (Eyvind) 

'Uskeyndr (A15) | Qrvi (Brand) 



ACRE, Acre-burg (Akrsborg), a sea-port of Palestine, iii. 256^ 

ADALSYSLA (A^Sals^sla), a district of Esthonia, facing the 
island of GEsel, i. 53 23 347 2 s 

^EGISFIRTH (^Egisfjor^r), now Oksfjord, a bay that, furthest 
to the west, cuts into the southern side of the island of Hin, 
in Halogaland, Norway, iii. 356 20 

BERWICK ( JSrvfk), now Errik, a manor on the south side of 
Stad in Firthfolk, Norway, i. 277^ 

AFRICA, see Serkland. 

AGDANESS, Agdirness (Ag^Sanes), now Agdenes, the west- 
ernmost promontory on the south side of Thrandheim-firth, 
i. 1365 29i 22 ii. 2$3 26 284 13 287 13 iii. 263 U 282 10 467^ 468 13 

AGDIR (AgSir), a coast district of southwestern Norway, 
bounded to the west by Rogaland, to the north by Hordland 
and Thelmark, to the east by Grenland (and Westmarar), 
now 'Nedenes, Lister og Mandals Fogderier/ i. 71^ 7 

IJI 5 10 I2 5s I 72i 8 i73s 17422 2 4i<r 2 74 2 i 33is S^Sas 37 
11. 589 64 19 2ii 5 268 8 323 20 3483 36033 3905 4 64 10 iil 

AGNIS-THWAITE (Agnafit), in the eastern part of the district 
in Sweden, called Taur (q. v.), i. 34 15 ; p. 33^ the word 
'strand' should read 'thwaite' as the original reads 'fit/ 
evidently pointing to the same place as 'Agnafit,* ii* 7^ 

ALABURG, Alburg ('Alaborg), now Aalborg, a seaport on the 
inlet to the Limbfirth in North-Jutland, Denmark, iii. 355 n 
36722 477 2 o 

240 Index II [ALC AS-L 

ALCASSE ( Alkasse), now Alcazer do Sal, a town on the river 

Sadoa that, coming from cast, falls into the bay of Setubal in 

southmost Portugal, iii. 25i 2432 
ALDEIGIA, Aldeigia-burg (Aldeigjuborg), now Old Ladoga, 

a town on the river Volcho, a short distance inland from the 

south-eastern end of the lake of Ladoga, N. Russia, i. 347 10 10 

ii. 153,,, 154^ 466o S iiL 3 5 77* 
ALPS (Munt, in Sigvat's verse == mont-, the stem of montes, 

KO.T* ifpxfiVi the Alps), iii. 12 (I 
ALREK-STEAD ('Alreksstatfir), one of K. Har. Hairfair's 

manors, in Hordland, now called Aarstad, a short distance 

south-east of Bergen, i. 137^ i88 tj 2i6 a 
ANCIENT-SIGTOVVN (Fornu Sigtdnir), see Sigtown. 
ANGELNESS (Engilsnes), Cap S. Angelo or Malea, the south- 

easternmobt point of Morea, Greece, iii. 25833 
ANGRAR, now Hangran, a manorial place on Ness, now 

Byneset, q.v., ii. 48 1S 
ANGLE-ISLE (Onguli), now Engelo, in the mouth of Sagfjor- 

den, an eastward offshoot from the Vestfjord in Halogaland, 

iii. 48i l: , 

ANGLESEA (Ongulsey), iii. 224^. 2S 
ANGLESEA-SOUND(Ongulseyjarsund), Menai Strait, between 

Anglesea and the main land, iii. 123^ 223 28 
APARDION, Aberdeen, iii. 375 LW 
APEWATER (Apavatn), a homestead within the commune of 

of Grimsness in Arnessysla, southern Iceland, ii. 5i ic 
APULIA (Pull), Italy, iii. 255 28 
AS-GARTH ('Asgar^r), the chief abode in As-land, the original 

seat of Odin, a great stead of blood-offerings, i. i2 14 . 16 left 

in the rule of Vili and Ve when Odin migrated away from it, 

i5 mr after Odin's migration to the north called ' Asgarth 

of old days ' ('Asgar^r hinn forni), hither Odin was supposed 

to have gone after his death (cf. Godhome, Valhall), 2i ofi 
ASHOME, ^Asland. 
ASIA (Asia), i. n 12 i2$. n 
ASK (Askr), 'a large manor in Norderhov district, in Ring- 

realm 7 (Storm), iii. 3i7 22 

AS-LAND ('Asaland) or "As-home ('Asaheimr), the land and 
home of the Anses, '^Esir/ the gods of the Northmen, lying 
to the east of Tanabranch, i. 1 2 12 

ASM BIA] Index II 241 

ASMUNDBAY, ii. 17437 = ASMUNDSWICK ('Asmundar- 
vagr), * now Osmondwall, on the south end of the island of 
Hoy' (Anderson, Orkneyingasaga, 1873, p. 3, n. i;, i. 290,, 
ii. 174,,, 

ATLIS-ISLE (Atley), now Atleo, on the northern side of the 
mouth of DalsfjorfSr (Dalsfjord) in the Folkland of Fialir, 
Norway, i. io4 21 

ATTWOOD (i VrSum), an unidentified homestead, i. 226* 

AUDSHOLT (Au^shplt), a homestead in Olfus-Comrnune^ on 
the western side of Olfus-river, lower 'Arness> sla, Iceland, Hi. 

AUMORD (Aumor^), a countryside on the eastern side of 

the Raumelf (Glommen) where it enters the sea, in the 

southernmost reaches of Vingulmark, now the district of 

Borge near Frederiksstad, Norway, iii. 277^ 
BALAGARTH-SIDE (BalagarSssfSa), a coas't district of south- 

western Finland, ii. io 24 n 3 
BARWICK (Barvik), a place, uncertain which, on the coast of 

the province of Blekmg in southern Sweden, ii. 323^ 
BATALD (Bataldr), now Batalden, an island off the coast of 

Firthfolk, belonging to the administrative district of Nordfjord, 

Norway, iii. 3553 
BEAR-ERES (Bjarnaurar), now Bjornor, homestead and 

countryside in the north of North-Mere, i. 309 19 
BEAR-ISLE (Bjarney), now Bjorno, in the parish of Borgund, 

South-Mere, Norway, ii. 362 24 
BEFIA (Befja), now Bafvera, a river running through the town 

of Uddevalla in Bohuslan, S. W. Sweden, iii. 420 21 
BEIARS (Land of the) (Beiaraland), Bavaria, iii. 2<2 9 
BENTBERG (Brattsberg), the manor of Gregory Dayson, 

situated in the countryside of Hofund, now Gierpen, where 

the modern town of Skien is situated, S. Norway, iii. 390^ 
BERDLA (BerSla), now Berle, an ancient manor-house on 

the south-eastern coast of the large island of Brimangrsland, 

now Bremanger, lying in the mouth of the Nordfjord, Firth- 

folk, Norway, i. io3 23 . 28 
BERGEN, see Biorgvin. 
BIARMLAND (Bjarmaland), the land of the Perms, round the 

basin of the White-Sea, i. i29 x 2i5 4 ii. 25S 12 34.35 

288^ 29i 15 iii. 2089 

VI. R 

242 Index II [BIG BRO 

BIGHTBOTTOM (Vagsbotn), the head of the 'Vaagen,' 
Bergen, Norway, in. 322^ 

BIORGVIX (Bjorgvin, Bjurgyn), now Bergen, Norway, founded 
by K. QIaf the Quiet, iii. 192^ iS^ 225^ 2635 272 9 2$2 14 
30/u 3^u 3^9^ 3" H, iH 3 2 34 324n 326 10 * 13 34o 342 X 359 4 
i,i 3<*5aj & 386 rt 39i4 39** 15 394 7 43i 4 o 4iSai 4*6 14 10 25 so 
4^7-, 43#so 44ig IH -4 44w a2 443- 44&> 3 457 a5 30 45S 17 20 46i ir 
466 4l 467^ 4692,-, 4783 4Bo 18 484,, 

BIRCHISLE (Bjarkey), now 'Bjerko i Throndenes i Senjen,' 
an island of Halogaland, ii. i92 lt - 2i4 ls 239^ 240 I3 26603 2 r 
287^ 289 ;il ill i7 33 211 2 >t 278^ (where the words fc m Birch- 
isle ' have fallen out) 356 17 

BIRCHSTRANI) ( Birkistrond), now Berkestrand, a manor of 
K. Hakon the (rood, on the eastern side of the island of 
Fnedi, North-Mere, Norway, i. 175^.^ 

BISHOPSHAVEN (Byskupshofn), Bispehavn, a harbour about 
a mile north of Biorgvin, iii, 4687 

BLACK SEA (Svartahaf), L "n iar rt . iii. 75 15 

BLUELAND THE GREAT (Blaland hit mikla), Africa, i. 

"ir jo 
BOKN (Bokn), now Bukkeno, 5n the mouth of the great Bay 

of Bukkenfjord, in the province of Rogaland, Norway, ii. 


BOJ-GARS ^Land of the), Bulgaria, iii. 2627 

BORG, see Sarpsborg. 

BORCJUND, homestead and country-side, on the south-western 
side of the peninsula now called Oxeno, in South-Mere, a 
short distance east of the mod. town of Aalesund, ii. 362 8 


BORGUND-HOLM (Borgundarhdlmr), now Bornholm, an 
island in the Baltic belonging to Denmark, i. 25i 23 . 24 2523 

253-, 37i!K 2 7%-2S 

BORRO (Borr6), now Borre, on the Christiania-firth, i. 69 12 

BREOTLITHE (BrattahliS), Eric the Red's abode in Eric's- 

firth in Greenland, i. 3S5 12 

BRENTRIDGE (Brattsass), by Kings'-Rock, iii. 32 7 7 M 
BRETLAND, Wales, i. 128^ 13233 i53 10 25 26i 28 ii. i 74l6 iii. 

BROAD (Brei^a), now Breden or Bredebygden, a small country- 

BRO CRO] Index II 243 

side on the river Low in Upper Gudbrandsdale, ii. 201^ 

202 13 

BROADBEAM (BreiSablik), Balder's Swedish home, i. 16*. 
BROADFIRTH (BreiSifjorSr), the largest bay in western Ice- 

land, i. 2697 04 ii- *36 
BRUNSWICK (Bninsvik), iii. 3 4 n 
BUNESS (Btines), a homestead in Upper Gauldalt: on the river 

Gaul, within the Thrandheim district, i. 292 7 
BURG, see Sarpsburg 
BYRDA (Byr^a;, an island marking the boundary point be- 

tween North-Mere and Naumdale, now Boro, i.' 245* 328^ 


CAITHNESS (Katanes), district and earldom of North-eastern 
Scotland, subdued by Sigurd, Earl of Orkney and Thorstein 
the Red, I n6 21 125^ 127. 290^ ii 1693 i7o lt) 1713 173102028 
*74is *75i3 l8 7 2 3 377iu m - 374 27 

CALFSKIN (Kalfskinn), a < little stead ' (Htill bser), and a still 
existing farmstead in the rape ? of Arnarnes, 7 in the bailiwick 
(sjfela) of Islefirth (Eyjafjor^r), in northern Iceland, where 
the blinded Upland King Rcerek spent the last days of his 
life, and died, ii.i36 26 .2T 

CANTERBURY (Kanfarabyrgi), taken and burnt by Olaf 
Haraldson, ii. i7 4 . 24 

CANTIRE (Satiri, Santiri), Scotland, iii. 22i 25 222^ 2233 

22 5 4 s 
CANTIRE-NECK (Satiris-er'S), the Tarbert of Cantire, iii. 

22 55 

CASTLEBRIDGE (Kastalabryggja), in England, iii. i82 8 
CHARLES-WATER (Karlsa), a river, apparently of Spain, 

uncertain which, ii. 20 12 14 
CINTRA CASTLE, now Cintra, due north of, and not far 

distant from, Lisbon, Portugal, iii. 250^ 
CLEUCHFIRTH (Gljtifrafjor&r), apparently the present Kan- 

stadfjord running up from S. W. into the southern Hindb in 

northern Halogaland, iii. 356^ 

CLEVELAND, (Kliflond), in east Riding, Yorkshire, iii. i66 8 
CONNAUGHT (Kunnuktir, Kunnoktir), in Ireland, iii. 225^ 

2 39l5 20 

CROOKSHAW (Kr6kask6gr), in the province of Bohuslan, 
Sweden, iii. 35033 35 i r ls 

244 Index II [CRO DRA 

CROSS-BRENT ( Krossbrckka;, now Langbrekke, in Valdalen, 
on the north side of Todarfirth in northernmost South-Mere, 
ii. 364, , 

CYPRUS f ( Kipr), in. 258^ 

DALES ( I Jalar), s<?e GudSrandsdale. 

DANE-WORK or, shorter, Work (Danavirki), now Danevirke 
in South-Jutland, a great rampart wall along the borderline 
from Slcswickfirth to Eiderfirth, i. 2532423 2 55 mi 2565-13 24 . 29 

DEERSRIVER (Dyrsa), now Diursaa, Jutland, Denmark, lii. 

DENMARK, Dane-realm (Danmork, Danaveldi), i. 4 29 5 29 3i 25 
39*. 43 >, 45n 47ji:*i 5, 6 4 8 3n 93ao 94i, I2 8 24 J 342s T S7 2 o 

2 3<V 237, l4U(J , f 24c; 14 254, 255i>r>2u 26o is 2(58 r 26 9 2 r 270721 
^7'i, 274, v 277^ 2$4 J 348^. ltt 349is 35^7 35 8 i 4 359 25 S 6l i~ 

" 5n-JJ 6 J IX 7 40j, f 75s!5 8l l 97 L >7 l6 7 2 729 2 51215 2 532023 

*5&, 257i.267 111Jlat ,3ri 11( 3123,, 3i6 n 172582 3171 25 3i9 2 9 
3*M:, 3^. 335m 34Sai as 34<5 5 348 31 35^2 35 2 i2 353i2i828 
375:. r, 3^9i 449u is 45i3" 1 "" L 9ia if. '-'7 as I0 i w 26 o 11 is 24 28 3 & 
3 2 is 3321020 39o 452124 465 4843933 
.2s 7 2 si 7 8 12 792030 8o 25 9o 2225 
96isi,-.2s 97r,is Il6 i823 JI 9 3 I20 i4 
5 X 4 2 i4 I 46 28 1483739 1 59i5203i32 

iNai '94" 3i3s,t 22I ii *6* 1: , 2 7i t s 3i4 2 o 3^20 3^8 21 334 X2 337ao 
350; i 35 i.j 3S3n 354i 355 359io 36i 20 367^1 437 25 


3.n 466,1, 469^ 470^, 47^1038 473ia 474ai 477i9 
DIMOX, the * (Jrcat Diamond,' an island in the southern group 

of the Faroes, between Sando to the north, and Sudero to 

the &outh, ii. 246^ 26% 270^ 
DOFRAR, now the parish of Dovre, on the southern incline 

of Mid-Dofrafell in northern Gudbrandsdale, i. 255 20 ii. 199^ 

iii. ii3> 
DOVRAFELL (Dofrafjall), a mountain range running S. W. to 

N. E. dividing, amongst other districts, that of Dofrar in 

Gudbransdale, from Update in the Orkdalefolk of Thrand- 

heim, Norway, i. 95 14 uo 23 ni. ri3 20 2o6 20 207 29 
DRAFN (Drofn), now Drammensfjord, S. Norway, ii. 3533 
DRAGSEID, an isthmus on the peninsula of Stad, in South- 

Mere, i. 

DUB EAS] Index II 245 

DUBLIN (Dyflinn), first conquered of Norsemen by Thorgils 
and Frodi, sons of K. Har.-Hairfair, i. i32 2 -. 26 264^3 2$9 n ^ 
h. i88 18 iii. i22 24 239^ 26 

DUBLINSHIRE, iii. 2 39l3 

DWINA, VINA (Vina), the great river Dvina that runs into the 
bay of Archangel, i. 2i5 ois ii. 26o u 

EARL'S-CAVE (Jarlshellir), apparently a cave west of the river 
Gaul, in Gauldale, in the neighbourhood of Rimul, i. 293^ 

EARL'S-D ALE (Jarlsdalr), a spot somewhere in the neighbour- 
hood of Middlehouse,in Gauldale, to the east of the river Gaul, 
one of Earl Hakon's hiding-places in his last days, i. 293^ 
(cf. Hakon's movements till he passes the Gaul and gets to 
Rimul on its western side, 293^2943) 

EARL'S-ISLE (Jarlsey), now Jerso in the Christiania-firth, out- 
side the town of Tonsberg, i. 6g 7 

EASTERN DALES (Eystridalir), now Osterdalen, to the east 
of, and running parallel with, the Gudbrands-dale, ii. 33832 

339i 9 

EAST-AGDIR, see Agdir. 

EASTAIRT, see Eastort 

EAST-COUNTRIES, see Eastway, Eastways. 

EASTFIRTHS (AustfirSir), a collective term for the indented 
eastern seaboard of Iceland from Langanes in the north to 
Starmjfrartangi, on the southern side of Swanfirth, in the 
south, i. 323 14 . 15 

E ASTISLE (Austrey), one of the middle group of the Faroes, 
ii 2693330535 

EASTLANDS (Austrlond), see Eastway. 

EAST-REALM (Austrriki), a general term for dominions bor- 
dering on the eastern Baltic, i. 64 26 specially the east of 
Europe, vaguely comprising what now is understood by Russia 
in Europe, iii. 75 23 

EASTORT (Austratt), now Osteraat, a manor on the eastern 
side of Yrjar (Orlandet) on the northern side of the rnouth 
of Thrandheimfirth, i. 323,, iii. in 4 ir 336^ ^ 

EAST-SALT, Eastsalt-sea (Eystrasalt), the Baltic Sea, i. 251^ 
ii. 6 4 

EASTWAY ways (Austrlond, Austrvegr, Austrvegar), gener- 
ally lands to the east of the Baltic Sea, exceptionally in- 
cluding even Sweden, L 3234 (Sweden) 47 18 525 (Sweden) 

246 Index II [EDN ELD 

2143 s.s 2 84ii 285^ (Sweden) -n. 6s 31 79^ 8i 10 82 16 9 9l8 
120^ 121^ isi j( (Sweden) Hi. 3o ir 59 10 77* sa T 

EDSiI (E^Sni), now Etne, a country-side in South-Hordland, 
on the boundary of Rpgaland, iii. 391^ 

EGGIA (Egg, gen. Eggjar, dat. Eggju), now Egge, in Spare- 
bidersfolk at the head of Thrandheim-firth, a short distance 
north of Steinker, the seat of Thrand o'Chm, i. I7o 20 and 
(of his son?)Olver, ii. 193^, 198,,- 286 1U 3415 374 5 4S344 6 3i5 
4644 iiL 2o tl3W 2i 1H 

1. EID (Er3), ii. ioQ 17 ^ Eidshaw. 

2. EID, a manor situated a short distance south of the Lake 
Miors on the western side of its river outlet, the Verma 
(Vormen), near the present Eidsvold, ii. io7 l7 here was 
the meeting-place of the ' Heidssevis-Thing,' first established 
by Halfdan the Black, L i6o 8() . 3i > under Olaf the Holy 
the meeting-place was moved to the Eidswalls or Eids-plains, 
* Eidsvold/ on the east side of the river (cf, summoned a 
thronged Thing in the place where, ever since > the Heidssevis 
Thing has been holden), ii. 2To i;nr 

3. EID, or the Inner-Eid, the upper part of the isthmus 
which connects the peninsula of Stad, q.v., with the main- 
land on the northern side of Nordfjord in Firth folk, now 
called Mandseid, i. io3 17 175^ 275 12 

4. EID, better than Eydi. a country-side east of Vingulmark 
and south of the lake Eyjir (Oieren), now called Askim, i. 8o 22 

5. EID (ErSar), possibly what now is known as *Stora Ed,' 
below Yanersborg on the Gotaelf (Hildebrand), ii. i4S 13 ^ 28 

EIDSHAW, EIDWOOD (Eiask6gr), i. a wooded heathland 
rise, forming a part boundary between Vermland to the east 
and Solisles to the west, i. 673 io6 13 ii. 76 22 109^ 277 4 , 5 368 3S 

2. A woodland tract east of Eid below Vanersborg, iL i45 24 

X 47l4 32 

EIGHTH-LAND ('Attundaland), now the south-eastern part 
of the Swedish province of Upland, i. 58^ 6i 10 ii ii2 25 

EIKUNDSOUND (Eikundasund), now Egersund, in southern 
Rogaland, ii. 268 10 34 8 10 3Si 24 3 54i 5 

ELDA, now Elden, a manor on the isthmus called Elduei^, 
which is formed by the Lyngenfjord from the north in Naum- 

ELF ERR] Index II 247 

dale and the northernmost inlet from Beitstadfjord in Thrand- 
heim, iiL 415.33 4*6 X 

ELF, see Gautelf, 

ELFHOME (Alfheimar), the maritime district on the east side 
of the Wick, the northern boundary of which was the Raumeif, 
and the southern the Gautelf, i. 7o., 8 31 8o >; 

ELLIPALTA, uncertain, perhaps Kerson Bay, from where an 
inland waterway much frequented by the *Pwc or Russian 
Scandinavians led by the Dnieper up to their northern do- 
minions, iii. 75 22 Munch, * Samlede Af handlinger,' ii. 221, 
shows that Ellipalta is a corruption of Ele palus ("^Xiyr palu- 
dem) Jordanes, ch. 23, stating that "EX?/ alone = Palus Maeotis, 
the sea of Azof, which, however, cannot be meant by our text. 

ENEA, another name for Europe, i. u u 

ENGLAND, L 5 29 64^ 13837 *39 2 r si *49 6 *5 2 s 11 x *53i4 >r 

15429 ^67 l6 4 23 20I 13 2 6li3 27 2<5 4lG 17 24 266 4 20 2 ?2lO 3-'.: 
3 2 4r 34^9 u - I2 18 20 23 27 I 3 2 X 7 2 C l8 9 26 1 23 2 7 X 5 9 II I s8 4 
5 10 21 293 335 40*fi 8l! l6 727 2g 2 3 5 5 2 5 12 24 25I 2 252 21 2532J 
25521 25^8 11 267 2 i 23 286 23 29^24 3^7 11 31321 39 3^7 3^ 13 

3179 334 2 346 13 353is 375is ir 21 37 6 v 29 31 377ir 3 88 26 45 2 i a 
454 3 in. 9s4 28 31 25 9 n 12 3036 5i 25 523428 si 53 9 ^SSia J 57ir 

19 26 r 5 8 9 X 5923 27 28 l6 l 24 25 27 l6l l 4 22 24 32 J ^ 2 6 14 1(5 3s l6 4l5 
l66 r l6Q 4 7 1745 9 17 19 l8 7 9 23 l8l 9 10 14 l82 4 lg 21 ^ l83 12 

i8 4l8 198! 33 22 929 249 r 37533 376 n 12 32 46331 22 
ENGLAND'S-MAIN (Englandshaf), the North-Sea, ii. 29 i n 
i. ERES (Eyrar), the harbour now known as that of Eyrabakki, 

on the east side of * Olfusa,' in Arnessjfela, southern Iceland, 

2. ERES (Eyrar), the shingly shores on the western side of the 
mouth of the river Nid, by the sea, a short distance below 
the old town of Nidoyce a a Thingstead, part of which was 
used as a ship-building yard, iii. 1295 zo7 16 468 31 (where the 
rendering of the text should read, * out to the Eres, for a 
Thing 0,482, 20 

ERESOUND (Eyrarsund), see Eyre-sound. 

ERNENESS (Arnarnes), an unknown locality, and apparently 
a mistake for Trondness (Jprandarnes), which some other re- 
dactions of the Kings' Stories have, iiL 273 13 

ERRI, now ^Erd, an isknd of Denmark, south of the island of 
Fion, and west of that of Langeland, iii. 354^ 

248 Index II [EST FIN 

ESTHONIA, Estland (Eistland), i. 53 10 S4n *2 8 i4 *3 2 iu 22 9 2 o 23 

300 w ii* 120^7 
ESTLAXD, $w Esthonia. 
EUROPE (Europa), i. n ls i2 9 
EYDI, ^ Eid, 3. 
EYI, the lake Ojer(en) in southern Raumrealm, formed by the 

Raumelf, i. 8o kJ2 According to the reading of the best MSS. 

of Hdmskringfa, this is the form of the name (cf. F. J<5nsson's 

ed., i. go & footnote), but Eyjir seems to be the form war- 

ranted by Norw. charters, and on that form depends the 

modern 6jer. 
EYJAFIRTH (Eyjafjor^r), in the north of Iceland, i. 2693 23 

ii. 2432 

EYNA-SKERRIES (i. 8o w ), dele skerries, and for Eyna, see Eyi. 
EYRE-SOUND, Eresound (Eyrarsund), the sound between the 

Danish island of Sealand and the Western coast of Sweden, 

now Oresund, or Sundet, i. 47*4 X 57o 2 5 8 io 35 8 is H - 3 2 5sr 

327:>- 33o 4 33^11 35 2 ^ "i- J 47n 2855 3543 
FALSTER fFalstrj, a Danish island south of Sealand, m. 49as 

5L* 97i 
FAROE, Faroes (Fsereyjar), according to Snorri, discovered 

and peopled in consequence of Harald's conquests in Norway, 
i. 113,^ ii. 6 9lo 24% 2 4 6 18 ^ 2 4 7 1T 26 31 249 31 2503 2694 6 9 

27 % 273sj 33i 304 22 at 3 J i 2 
FETTLEFIRTH (FetlafiorSr), in France, ii. 1915 w 
FIADRUNDALAND (Fja^rundaland), now Fjerdhundra, a 

part of Upland in Sweden, 5. 55 5 583.4 6i 18 ii. H2 23 
FIALIR ( Fjalirj, the south-western part of Firthfolk, Norway, 

i. 104,, ^ 353 1S 37733 ii. 30^ 
FIFE (Fin;, 'kingdom* of eastern Scotland, tributary to Knut 

the Mighty, ii. (253^) 2S4 33 -2S5 7 
FINN-ISLE (Finney), an island off the coast of Rogaland, 

some distance north of the town of Stavanger, Norway, ii. 

39 u 434 S 

FINLAND (Finnland), i. 2 6 30 27 6 8 33 12 18 . 19 ii. io 2 I20 26 
FINM ARK (Finn-mork), the northernmost part of Norway from 
Malangfirth, east to the White-sea, boundaries however very 
uncertain (the Egilsaga says that the eastern (inland) Finmark 
stretched as far south as did Halogaland in the west), i. 1293 
ii. 7633 258^ 

FIG FR-fE] Index II 249 

FION (Fj6n), now Fyen, Engl Funen, the next largest island 
of Denmark, i. is 28 iii. 34i 389 39i 44; 32 45a 4^ 2 5r n 

783431 I20 i<3 * ? 

FIRTHS (FirtSafylki, FirSir), now Nord-og Sondfjord in 

Bergens-Stift, a petty maritime kingdom of old Norway, i. 

ioiis *3r I0 4c 2I 32s 2 372? 2 4o J7 244^ 275^ 3 o8 21 3S3 16 

377 3S ii. 2o6 r 4 2 3i<> m - 344 i2 394s 44*o 443a> 447: 
FITIAR (Fitjar), one of K. Har. Hairfair's manors, on the 

north-western side of Stord, off South Hordaland, i. i37 30 

18^ i84 20 iii. 23 2 
FLANDERS (Flaemingjaland), i. 26o 28 ii. 13* 8i x iii. 159^ 16^ 

1693 2379 
FLORU-BIGHTS (Floruvagar), now Florevaagen, an inlet on 

the eastern side of the island anciently called Fenhringr, now 

Askoen, outside the city of Bergen, Norway, iii. 32i 20 39o 14 
FOLD (Fold, Foldin), now Christiania fjord, with the adjacent 

literal, Norway, i. 106! io8 30 2ii 10 ii. 34 4 62 19 75 31 34 8 S 16 

3539 jii - 39421 459i4 
FOLD, short for Westfold, q.v. 
FORCE (Fors), now Foss, in the district of Tunge ; at the head 

of Gullmarsfjard in Bohuslan, Sweden, iii. 31530 395 21 2 * 
FORCE (Fors), now Fossum, on the river Befja, near" to the 

town of Uddevalla, Bohuslan, S.W. Sweden, iii. 420 13 
FORLAND, now Folland, a manor on the island of Avero, off 

the coast of North-Mere, iii. 44 i w 
FORMINTERRA, now Formenterra, the most south-westerly 

of the Ballearic islands, iii. 252 20 25333 
FOXERN (Foxerni), a homestead on the eastern bank of the 

Gautelf, in the countryside called Flundreharad, Sweden 

(Hildebrand), iii. 229 n 23o 18 231,5 
FRANKLAND (Frakkland), Franconia, i. 255 13 
FREK-ISLE SOUND (Frekeyjarsund), a sea-strait between 

Frek-isle (Frekey), now Froko, and Stim, on the north side 

of Raumsdale mouth, Norway, ii. 362 15 18 463^ 
FR^EDI (Frae'Si), now Frsedo or Fredo, an island off North- 

mere, Norway, i. I75 17 
FR^EDISBERG (Frse^arberg), a crag formation in the island 

of Frsedi, abutting on Sheppey-Sound on the east of the 

island, i. i76 ai 1773 i8o n 

250 Index II [FRI GAU 

FRISLANI), or Friesland (Frfsland), i. i28 24 . 25 255^ 26o 27 

ii. 12.5 79 J( , iii. i59 M 
FROST A, a peninsula running from the east into Thrandheim 

firth, within the Folkland of Strind, the site of the Frosta- 

Thing, i. i66 !M 316^ 318.^ ii. 49^ iii. 334,, 
FVRI, now Fyrisa, a river running through Upsala into the lake 

of Malaren, Sweden, i. 3o u 
FVRILEIF, now Farlof, in the district of Tunge at the head of 

Gullmarsfjard in Bohuslan, Sweden, iii. 3*61 3*7 1 3 2 44 
FYRIS-MEAD (Fyrisvellir), alluvial plains on either side of the 

Fyri, i. 30^ 37 rl 38 lfl 40* 5o 21 
GALIZ1 ALAND, Galicia, Spain, iii. 24903 
GARTH (ii. 434,,), read Gerdi, q.v, 
GARTH REALM, GARTHS (GarSanki, Gar=Sar), Russia 

generally, i. i5 ls 228^ 23i 1023 250,, 13 2535 262 30 286 10 288 30 

2 #9l 347ia Si* J4 "' 66 4 8l ii7 82 2 X 4933 I53S2 24 ^5446 3^9215 

375*4 3&V 3^t, 1S s 3^328 3 8 9ao 4i6 24 438 n 454 S 466 ar m. 3 36 

4rt io ls i4jr i5 4 w 5 8 ir? 23 59o 75s* 77io 32 437 2 9 
GATE (Gata), the abode of Thrand, on the eastern side of 

East-isle in the Faroes, ii. 246 21 269^ 27333 3429 3^i 3 I0 s 
GAUL, now Gulelven, the main" river of Gauldale in Thrand- 

heim, i. 293^3 
GAULAR, a countryside round the inner part of Dalesfirth in 

the folkland of Fialir, part of the present Sondfjord, Norway, 

L 79, V| io4 t , jr, 
GAULT)ALE'(Gaulardalr), now Gaul- or Gul-dalen, a folkland 

of Southern Thrandheim to the east of Orkdale, i. 95 18 96 28 

i67 12 2924 296,, 298 8 3i8 12 ii. 46 22 49 2T 53 4 8 72 18 
GAULDALE-FOLK, i. 96 3{) ii. 47 24 
GAULEDGE, (}aulridge (Gaularass), properly the highland 

boundary between Gauldale to the west and Strindfolk to the 

east, but by Snorri only referred to m the narrower sense as 

the ridge that bounded the township of Nidoyce by W. and 

N.W., now called Byaasen, ii. 53.- 72^,4 279 8 
GAUTELF, or, short, Elf (Gautelfr, Elfr), now Gotaelf, the 

ancient boundary between Norway and West Gautland, i. 65^ 
o5 21 io9 10 10 no 15 18 I28 10 I3i 23 132^ 3io 15 37727^ 

78 2 4 33 21 84^ ^ I23 13 I57 15 2II 28 267 80 3I2 ir 111. I0 25 
2 924 3^12 97l4 23 99 8 I2 9l6 I3I26 28 J 47 4 ^4923 J9729 2l6 17 

23 i s 2325 3543 4 o3 20 4394 

GAU GIM] Index II 251 

GAUTLAND, now Gotland, originally a kingdom stretching 
from the western to the eastern sea, bounded by north by the 
dominion of the Sviar, Svij?j6^, i. 56 r by the lake * Vettern ' 
it was divided into West- and East-Gautland (Gautland it 
vestra, it eystra), which distinction is frequently ignored by 
Snorri, who by Gautland now means the one now the other 
division. Here they are classed according as the context 
seems to warrant: 

West-Gautland. i. 42 n 13 2r 6i ]S . 10 633 io5 10 ioS 14 , IIO M 
12328 2 59 3 22 (either Gautland, all Gautland) 356^ 21 3 r-ii. 

23lO 790 93ll 29 9 6 25 97 26 * OI 25 II2 13 I22 23 *&1G *39& 14*8 

i43 12 I442G J 45s4 J 533 *5*2s J 53e *554 10 12 l6 &23 2 57 4 2<5 7i2 
2 68 r 27S 22 33o 20 333 8 345^ 352 S2 111. 146^ 14919 226 *j 20 
22 ^30 35^13 is 399u 399u 22 402 r 46 i u 
East-Gautland \. 6i 12 158^ 258 EO (2593 22 ) ii. ii2 1T 154^ 

iSSsr^i iiL 33ir( ? )38ir(?) 4434( ? )49 2 o( ? )- In th ^se queried 
cases presumably East-Gautland is meant rather than West- 

GAUT-SKERRIES (Gautasker), the archipelago off the coast 
of East-Gautland, i. 258^ 

GEIRSTEAD (GeirsstaSir), the seat of King Olaf Geirstead- 
Elf, in Westfold, now called Gjerstad, on the bay of Laurvik, 

* 323 73l 2 IT 

GEIRSVER, now Gjesvser (Munch), a fishing station C N.W. of 
Magero ' (G Storm) which lies on the western side of the 
mouth of Porsanger Fjord in Western Finmark, ii. 264^ 

GELMIN (Gelmin), now Gjolme, a manor m lower Orkdale 
on the western side of the Ork river, Thrandheim, Norway, 
ii. 48 15 

GERDI (Ger^i), now Gerde, a homestead on a south-east 
going inlet from the Skoneviksfjord, in the district of Etne, 
South-Hordland, Norway, ii. 39o u 434 g iii. 3715 

GIANT-HOME (Jotun-heimar), i. i5 2r 

GIANT-ISLES (J?ursasker), rocks supposed by some to be in 
Shetland, by others outside Thurso, or north of Caithness, in 
Scotland; but perhaps the Giant's Causeway in Ireland is 
meant, ii. i88 18 

GILLING (Gylling), one of the islands belonging to the group 
of God-isles, q.v., i. 333^ 

GIMSAR, now Gjemse, a manor on the western bank of the 

252 Index II [GIM ORE 

Gaulelf in the lower part of Gauldale, i. 277 n 3195 3635 iii. 

349s 35i 

GIMSEY, a nuns 5 seat in Hofund, q.v., S. Norway; situated 
on a small island below the town of Skida, mod. Skien, and 
was founded A.D. mo, hi. 42i 29 

GISKI (Gizki), now Gisko, an island off the coast of South- 
mere, in Norway, ii. 28o x 9 463^ iii. 2O9 23 225 29 

GODHOME (go^heimar) = Sweden the Great, i.e., Scythia, i. 
2i 16 25 24 32 apparently = Valhall, 2i 24 

GOD-ISLE (GoSSey, or -ar), in singular the name of the single 
island, now called Godo, in plural comprising also the sur- 
rounding group of lesser isles in the mouth of Salpt-firth, 
now Saltenfjord, in Halogaland, i. 329 n 3307 332 13 333 29 

GOD-ISLES' STREAM (Go^eyja-straumr), a sea-current be- 
tween Godisles 5 group and the mainland, i. 333 S1 

GODNFIRTH (Go^narfjorSr), now Randersfjord, on Eastern 
Jutland, Denmark, iii. 94 16 21 

GOLDPORT (Gullvarta), the Golden Port in Constantinople, 
iii. 259 U 18 

GOTHLAND, see Reith Gothland. 

GOTHLAND, Gotland, the large island Gotland off the S.E. 
coast of Sweden, i. 254^ 29 2SS 6 3463 15 ii. 8 2r 9 2 82 n ii2 19 
373is 386 28 

GREENINGS (Groeningar), now Groning, a homestead up land 
above Skerf-scree, q.v., 11. 366 12 

GREENING-SOUND (Grceningjasund), a sea-strait between 
the island of Sartoro and the Lyderhorn peninsula, S.W. of 
Bergen, Norway, iii. 393 14 

GRAVEDALE (Grafdalr), now Gravdal, on the eastern side 
of Kvarven, the northernmost spur of the Lyderhorn, S.W. of 
Bergen, Norway, iii. 458 30 

GREECE ^Greekland. 

GREEKLAND (Grikkland), Greece, ii. 35o 26 iii. 59^ M 6o 6 

MAIN, Greekland's Sea (Grikklandshaf), the 
eastern Mediterranean, iii. 59 30 255 30 256 16 
GREEKLAND'S SALT-SEA (Griksalt), id., iii. 256^ 
GREENLAND (Greenland), i. 34i ir 18 3554 10 16 ii. i34 81 33 

GRE HAK] Index II 253 

GREENLAND MAIN (Grsenlandshaf), the sea between Ice- 
land and Greenland, li. 1363 

GRENLAND, a part of the folkland later called Groenafylki 
(see Hunch's ' Historisk-geographisk Beskrivelse over Kon- 
genget Norge,' p. 179-180), i. 2i2 10 ii. 3 5 hi. 2229 

GRENMAR (Grenmarr), now Langesundsfjorden, in Southern 
Norway, i. io5 26 -ii 55 19 

GRIMSBY (Grimsboer), not in Northumberland, as Snorri 
seems to think, but in Lincolnshire, i 15233 

GRIMSEY (Grimsey), an island in the Arctic Ocean some 
twelve miles north of the mouth of Eyjafirth, Iceland, ii. 2433 
244 20 * common property,' according to Gudmund Eyolfson's 
statement, when, in 1024, K. Olaf Haraldson asked the Ice- 
landers to concede it him, ii. 242^-2435 10 . 15 

GRIOTAR (Grj6tar), a homestead on the eastern side of the 
main river of Orkdale, about midway up the valley, ii. 46 29 

GRISLA-POOL (Grislupollar), a place apparently in France, 

ii. 194 9 
GRITING (Grytingr), a homestead in Orkdale, possibly the 

same as the above Griotar, q.v., i. i69 18 i7o ]6 319^. 
GUDBRANDSDALE, Dales, (GuSSbrandsdalir, Dalir), now 

Gudbrandsdalen in Norway, i. 78 22 30 935 95 13 i3i 19 ii. 4i 24 

4Sie 5320 54 3 I0 3i2 I0 5 25 I0 9 24 200 i6 20 20 % 20 3 2 6 20 9a 2 34 25 

24$28 3^729 

GUNVALDSBURG (Gunnvaldsborg), a place in France (?), 

ii. i9 23 2o 6 
HAD ALAND, Hathaland (Ha^aland), one of the folks of the 

Uplands in S.E Norway, now called Hadeland, t i. 67 23 72 26 

790 8l 25 82 2713 8 5l3 86 12 93 6 I22 4 I 3Iffl I 33rS8 " 4% 29 

45io I0 3is T 4io I0 9 2 o 2 9i6 2 49n m. I54i 2 4 8 3 3 o 

HIRING, one of the islands belonging to the group of God- 
isles, q.v., i. 333 28 

HAFURSFIRTH (HafrsfjorSr), now Hafsfjord, in Jadar, in 
Rogaland, Norway, i. m 23 ii2 5 1133 

HAKISDALE (Hakadalr), now Hakedalen, a valley anciently 
forming a portion of the boundary between south-eastern 
Hadaland and north-western Raumrick, the locality of King 
Harald Hairfair's first battle, i. 92^ 

HAKON'S-CRAG (Hakonarhella), now generally called Helle- 
ren, the rock on which King Hakon the Good was born and 

254 Index II [HAL HEA 

where he died, situate on a promontory of a peninsula S.W. 
of Bergen, i. i38 ir , where the locality is indicated as on the 
flat stone, 'a hellunni,' i88 7 20 -2i 

HALLAND, a province in the south-west of Sweden, bearing 
still the same name as of old, i. is6 13 i6o 16 ii. 3255 iii. 385 
i22 10 i32 13 i 3 5 13 i 4 2 15 2o8 15 21 3i8j 47321 . 

HALLKELL'S-WICK (Hallkelsvik), a small inlet into the 
mainland in Southmere, due south of Hodisle, q.v., i. 27639 

HALOGALAND (Halogaland), now commonly called Helge- 
land, the northernmost division of Norway, corresponding 
about to what is now meant by the term e Nordland(ene), 3 i. 
39 8 4i 3 527 si I2 9r *3 2 6 I 3*si *74r 2i8 18 245,5 2743 277^ 
39is 20 328 2S 32921 33i 343 4 344 2S 35 s o 355 2 2 377 3 3 n - 
* 8 9is 22 1 9>ii 21 I 9 I is ^212 19 2 37 8 28 2 5 8 i6 287 n 21 2r 288 4 
2925 333 2 347 12 29 397 2 5 1U - l8 i^ l8 3i5 2I0 3o 2II 22 26 3ir 
2741322 27836 35^iG 48i 15 

HAMMERFIRTH (Hamarsfjor^r), the outer part of 'Ostrar- 
fjorSr (now Osterfjord), which bounds by N.W. the large 
island of Ostero, North-Hordland, Norway, iii. 358 21 

HANGRAR, a place, uncertain where exactly, in Sweden, iii. 

HARD AN G, Hardanger (HarSangr), the modern Hardanger, 
the country along either side of Hardang-firth in Hordland, 
i. 2o8 l72 o 2I ^5 Snorri's etymology of the name, 237 8 . 13 iii. 

HARM, Harmfirth (Harmr), now called Velfjord, which from 

N.W. cuts into southernmost Halogaland, in. 2ii 93 2139 
HARTLEPOOL, Hiartapool (Hjartapollr), iii. 375.^ 2S 
HATHALAND, see Hadaland. 
HAWKBY (Haukbser), now Hakeby, m the north of Bohuslan, 

Sweden, iii. 202 G 
HAWKDALE (Haukadalr), a homestead within Arness^sla in 

southern Iceland, 28 miles N.E. of Thingvellir, i. 6, oo!r o n 
HAWKFLEET (Hauksflj6t) ? i. 15233 
HEADEY, Headisle (Hofu=Sey), now Hovedoen, an island out 

in the firth, off Christiana, Norway, iii. 352^ 424 19 
HEATHBY (HeiSaby, -b^r), now Schlesvig, N. Germany, i. 

26o 18 iii. 34 18 9835 28 gg r 262 17 
HEATHMARK (Hei^mork), petty kingdom on lake Miors, 

southern Norway, i. 67 20 22 72 25 77 24 783 19 20 24 79 3 82 io 86 ss 

HEA HIN] Index II 255 

921519 93 5 I 3ii9 37g2 - 4i 23 54 4 r I0 3o u 17 
i9 2 25 2 9rni3 2 48 U 33 8 2i 34*10 344r 367301"- iS4 9 

HE AVENBERG (Himmbjorg), the seat of Heimdall in Sweden, 
i. i6 28 

HEAVEN-FELL(S) (Himinfjoll), i. 56 29 = Heavenheath. 

HEAVENHEATH (HiminherSr), a mountain tract in Sweden, 

* 5 6 is 
HEDALE (Hedalr), now Hedalen, a valley south of Vagi in 

northern Gudbrandsdale, Norway, ii. 2oo n 
HEFRING (Hefringr), now Hovringen, a promontory on the 

north-western side of the bight at the head of which lay the 

city of Nidoyce, iii. 2079 2io 25 
HELSINGLAND (Helsingjaland), now the Swedish province 

of Helsmgland, i. ii3 16 162^ 31 i6 3e 2i4 15l7 2Y ii. 6s 2b 66 10 

2761319 277r 4i5 2 2 466 25 m. 6 le I4i 6 5 8 s 
HELSINGPORT (Helsingjaport), Hastings, iii. i8i u 
HERD ALES (Herdalir), a countryside of Finland, ii. io 881 
HERDHOLT (Hjar'Sarholt), in Salmonriverdale, in the baili- 

wick of ' Dalas^sla/ western Iceland, iii. 103^ 
HER-ISLES (Hereyjar), now Hero, a group of small islands 

situate N. of Gursko and W. of Hareidland, in South-Mere, 

Norway, i. 275 28 ii. 302 27 36i 30 
HERDLA (Hernia), now Herloen, a small island in the archi- 

pelago N.W. of Bergen, North-Hordland, Norway, hi. 

HERNA, an island of the group called Hernar, now Hennoer, 

outside the coast of North-Hordland in Norway, ii. 270^ 
H ERNE WICK (Hegravik), now Sandviken, at Bergen, "Nor- 

way, iii. 322 24 
HESIATOWN (Hesjutdn), now Hestun (al. Estun or Ostun), 

a homestead on the island now called Havnb, north of the 

mouth of Harmr, or Velfjorden, in southern Halogaland, 

Norway, iii. 211^ 
HJALTLAND, see Shetland. 
HILL-ISLE (Hillar), now Hillb, an island off the coast of East- 

Agdir, a short distance to the S.W. of the present town of 

Mandal, iii. 139 
HILL-SOUND (Hillarsund), the strait between Hill-isle and 

the mainland, iii. 133 
HIN (Hinn), now Hinno, a large island in northern Halogaland 

256 Index II [HJO HOL 

forming part of the northern sea-board of the large Vestfjord, 

& 35 6 2i 
HJORNAGLI (Hjornagli), now Tjsernaglen, a place in the 

southernmost part of South-Hordland (Storm), ii 35i 31 

HIORUND-FIRTH (HjorundarfjorSr), a bay that by east 
divides the island of Hod (Hodisle) from the mainland of 
middle Southmere, Norway, i. 276 13 

HIORUNGWICK (Hjorungavagr), an inlet on the north- 
eastern side of Hodisle, now called Lid-Vaag or Hjormg- 
Lid-Vaag (Munch), or Liavag (Storm), i. 2773 286 30 

HIPPODROME (Pa^reimr), in Constantinople, iii. 26o x 12 

HISING, a large island m the mouth of the Gautelf, Sweden, 
ii. 76 6 8i 9 i66 24 iii. 3273 3744 403^ 407 22 455 25 456! 3 459 1S 

HLEITHRA (HlerSr), now Leire, m the Danish island of 
Sealand, i i6 2 24 22 49 28 503 13 5i 28 iii- *34 2 G 

HLESISLE, see Leesisle. 

HODISLE, Hod (Ho=3, gen. Ha^ar), now Hareid-Land, a 
large island off the southern part of Southmere, on the eastern 
side of which is Hiorungwick, i. 2j6 1 24 277 X 

HOF, a homestead in West-Gautland, now Stora-Hof, ii. i45 35 

HOF, now Hove, or Thorhoven, a homestead with a Thor's 
temple, situated in the landscape called Broad, q.v., in north- 
ern Gudbrandsdale, ii. 2oi 32 (cf. 19 . 2 ^) 

HOFUND (Hofund), now the countryside called Gjerpen 
about the town of Skien, S. Norway, iii. 390^ 391,, 42i os 

HOLDERNESS (Hellornes), the south-easternmost country- 
side of the East Riding of Yorkshire, in. i66 24 

HOLM, Holme (Holmr), now called Holmen, by Bergen, 
Norway, iii. 322 X 324^ 386 13 3903 

HOLM, Holme (H61mr), now Munkholmen, an island one 
English mile N. of the city of Trondhjem, iii. 2763 348 20 

HOLME = Borgundholm, q.v. 

HOLMGARTH (HolmgarSr), now Novgorod in Russia, i. 
22 9 24 2 3Q 8 26 ^ 82 ie ^820 I53i4 4^6 29 467 n iii. 3s 63 28 7635 
77 2 27o 30 

HOLM-THE-GRAY (H61mr inn grai), an islet southernmost 
among the Whale-isle archipelago, S.W. of Swinesound, off 
the northernmost part of Goteborgs och Bohuslan, Sweden, 
iii. 6r 

HOL HOU] Index II 257 

HOLSETALAND, Holstein, i. 255^ 

HOLTAR, now Holtan, the manor of King Halfdan the Boun- 
teous and the Meatgrudging on Westfold, i. 7o 7l5 

HOLY ISLE (Eyin helga), lona, hi. 222 16 

HOLY-NESS (Helganes), near Riveroyce, on the east coast of 
Jutland, Denmark, iii. 463 13 24 77io 79ai 

HpLY RIVER ('Ain Helga), now Helgaan, a nver in Skaney, 
in south-western Sweden, ii. 32o r 12 26 323^ 325. 3263, 

HORD ALAND, Hordland (HorSaland), now Sondre Bergen- 
husamt, was bounded from N. by Sognfolk, E. and S.E. by 
Haddingdale, Numdale and Thelmark, S. by Rogaland, i. 
9 3ir ni 48 I3i 29 1339 i37 29 J4226 156x181! i88 26 2o8 14 2 4 o 2r 
2 4426 2 4 6 15 30334 3o 4l 3o8 25 378^1. 1233 2 n 6 2i2 16 2 3 i 22 
268 28 3U! 36o 23 3905 42 3l8 43 i 19 4 64 19 in. 8 4 22 8 344^ 358^ 

HORNBORUSOUND (Hornborusund), now Hummersund, 
the strait which divides the island of Hornbora, now Hom- 
bergson, from the mainland of Ranrealm, or the present 
Bohuslan, Sweden, iii. 353 13 

HORNSHAW (Hornsk6gr), woodland tract in Jutland, Den- 
mark, iii. 9617 

HORSENESS (Hrossanes), the northmost headland on the 
island of Njdtarey, now Nottero, south of Tunsberg, Norway, 

iii- 439s. ' 

HOUNDHAM (Hundsver), a group of small islands on the 
northern side of the westernmost part of the peninsula of 
Oxeno, called Borgund, northern South-Mere, Norway, ii. 

HOUNDTHORP (Hundforp), now Hundorp, a homestead on 
the northern side of Low-water in northern Gudbrandsdale, 
the seat of the 'hersir' Gudbrand a-Dales, ii. 2oi 6 

HOUSEBY (Hiisabser), now Hustad, a homestead on the neck 
of the peninsula called Inner-Isle, now Inderoen, within the 
Isles'-folk of Upper-Thrandheim, i. I7o 20 

HOUSEBY (Hiisabser), now Huseby, in the countryside of 
Skaun, on the eastern side of lower Orkdale, one of Einar 
Thambarskelfir's mansions, ii. 46 15 

HOUSE-STEAD (Hiista^ir), now Hustad, on the broad penin- 
sula of Stim, just within the northern boundary of Raums- 
dale, iii. 2843 
VL s 

258 Index II [HOW IN-I 

HOWE (Haugr), a king's manor in Verdale in Upper-Thrand- 
heim, ii. 196! lii. i9 24 20 28 57 12 i93 28 

1. HOWE-SOUND (Haugasund), the northern part of Kormt- 
sound outside the homestead of Howes, Rogaland, i. 1435 

2. HOWE-SOUND (Haugasund), now Hogasund, a strait near 
the western branch of the Gautelf, by the coast of the parish 
of Torsby, in southern Bohuslan, Sweden, ii. 8i 14 

HOWE-THING, see Thing. 

HOWES (Haugar), a homestead in Rogaland, on the eastern 
side of the sound that divides the island of Kormt from the 
mainland towards the northern inlet to it, the burial-place of 
King Harald Hairfair, i. 1434 (Here a memorial column of 
granite was erected in 1872.) 

HOWES (Haugar), a place now called Mollebakken, in Tuns- 
berg (Storm), iii. 4709 

HRAFNISTA, now Ramso, an island to the north-west of the 
mouth ofFolden-fjord, in the parish of Os in Bjornor (Storm), 
in Naumdale, Norway, iii. 274 26 

HUMBER (Humbra), in England, iii. 1673 

HUNGARY REALM (Ungararfki), iii. 262^ 

HVEDN (Hve^n), now Hveen, an island in the Sound, Den- 
mark, iii. 334 12 17 

HVIN (Hvinir), now Kvinesdalen, a valley formed by the river 
Hvin, in North-Agdir, i. 3 20 13339 353 14 

IAMTLAND (Jamtaland), now Jamtland, a province of N.W. 
Sweden, i. H3 16 i62 24 26 1635 811 2i4 l7 3535"- 6 5 2 e 66 ii 8o n 
2763-277 294 20 31 39329 4i5 al 25 4 i6 26 438^ iii. 6 26 i4 16 58 8 

ICEFIRTH (IsafjorSr), a bay running into northern Sealand, 
Denmark, i. 27o 12 

ICELAND (Island), i. 4 32 5 21 25 6 18 7 4 1 13 22 2o8 18 26S l 4 23 323^ 
15 17 25 334i5 19 25 339i7 34s 6 354i 4 i7 22 24 " 6 94 ii 73n 8 5i0 
9 2 25 94ar X 33ir I 3Sso 24 I 3 6 5 8 19 X 37i y 8 2 4iu ie 23 as 2 4 2 ^ 14 
2 45 2 5 2 46 13 249 19 274 16 24 2r 2754 280^ 2 94l4 3 02 15 333 20 409^ 
45i 5 in. 97 19 io2 26 28 io3 26 26s 15 266 13 334^ 335^ 33 8 G 

ILAWALL (Iluvellir), flats between the bend of the Nidelf and 

the sea, on the western side of Nidoyce, now the suburb lien 

or Ihlen, by Throndhjem, iii. 2769 
IN-ISLE (Inney), so the text, but seemingly by mistake, as 

INN JON] Index II 259 

many MSS. give the reading ' inni = homesteads,' and an 

Inney seems not to be known, ii. 402 24 
INNER-ISLE (Eyin-innri, or -rSri), now Inderoen, a peninsula 

in upper Thrandheimfirth within the confines of Isles'-folk, 

i. 979 i62 4 i7o 21 
IRELAND (Irland), i i28 27 132^ i 539 24 i 5S5 15 8 20 i 592 2 6i 22 

26433 26 5io 2(56 2i 24 28 9i9u- *37i2 1( 59 3 3 1 74ui924 i88 15 iiu 

T ^^J 22 ^ 22I 25 22^ 22 3l3 239 n 24233 3Q 2 9 5 2() 2 9 7 1213 u 26 29 

IRONSTONE-LAND (Jarnberaland), supposed to have been 
part of the present province of Dalarne, Sweden, ii. 3929 

ISLAY ( 7 I1), an island in Sodor, iii. 222^22^ 

ISLES'-FOLK (Eynafylki), deriving its name from the localities 
called the Inner- and the Outer-isle, now Inder og Ytteroen, 
a petty kingdom on the northern side of Upper Thrandheim- 
bay, conquered by Harald Hairfair in his fourth battle in 
Thrandheim, i. 97 10 i6i 19 ii. 47 25 

ISLE-LAND = Isle-sysla. 

ISLE-LAND (Eyland), now Gland, an island on the eastern 
coast of southern Sweden, ii. 82 23 83^ ii2 19 

ISLE-SYSLA (Eysfsla), the island in the Bay of Riga now 

called Osel, i. 347 25 so 9n n 26 

IVIZA, now Ibiza, an island of the Mediterranean, iii. 254 26 32 
JADAR ( Ja^arr), the western coast district of Rogaland south 

of the Boknfirth archipelago, i. m 22 H2 8 113^ i34 n 14 ii. 

2I7 2r 2l8 13 220 24 2249 2 S52T 268 11 17 21 26 28 328 3S4ll 24 25 31 

357 4 3^o 31 38^ 39o s iii. io6 24 291^ 299^ 
JAMES' LAND, poetical * kenning ' for Spain, iii. 249^ 
ISLE-LAND-SOUND (Eyjasund), a strait by the island of Osel, 

i. 347 30 cf. Isle-sysla. 
JERUSALEM, Jerusalem Town (JcSrsalir, J6rsalaborg), ii. 

38i w iii. i7 8 7i M 256^ 21 2$^ 337^ 
JERUSALEM-LAND, -WORLD ( J6rsala-land, -heimr), Palses- 

tine, i. u 9 ii. 20 16 iii. 7o 28 JI M 16 21 7 2 i ^ 2 47i8 2 5<5i 6 is 

2 57 9 2 5^o 337i2 37*18 37 2 24 
JOM (J6m), probably the island of Wollin in the mouth of the 

Stettiner Haff in Pomerania, iii. 32 29 
JOMSBURG (J6msborg), a fortress on Jom, reared by Danish 

kings from the beginning, i. 27o 23 2723 36o 16 ii 449 12 iii. 

JONS ME ADS (J6ansvellir), on Northness, which now forms a 

260 Index II [JOR KOR 

part of the city of Bergen, Norway, deriving their name from 
a monastery dedicated to St. John, iii. 3225 21 
JORDAN, the river, iii. 7i 30 723 8 256^ 2577 282 1S 293 13 337^ 

JUTLAND (J6tland), in Denmark, i. 40 31 47 26 52 6 839 ii4 13 

1 S6 1B ir I 73u 2 37s 2 57i 6 ii- 3172430 3 20 28 & 2 7 2 rs3 3324 
34io 3^18 39s 9 2 r 94 i4 9*it ia7 M I28 2o 2<52 i9 47*15 47 2 s 

JUTLAND SEA, -main (Jdtlandshaf), now the Kattegat, iii. 

99l3 IOI 22 

JUTLAND-SIDE (J6tlandsi : Sa), the western coast of Jutland, 
ii. n 12 

KALMAR (Kalmarnir), a seaport in Kalmar Ian, on Kalmar- 
sound, which runs between the island of Oland and the main- 
land, S.E. Sweden, ii. 33i 20 iii. 28; 2229 

KEEL or Keels (Kjolr or Kilir), the mountain ridge forming 
the boundary between northern Norway and northern Sweden, 
i. 2i4 18 ii. 66 12 69 29 76 22 276 631 277 6lV 393^ 395^ 396, 41 6^ 
466 24 m. 6 27 i4 16 57 24 

KINGS'-ROCK (Konungahella, Kings' Slab), now Kungalf, a 
town on the northern side of the branch of the Gautelf that 
flows on the N.W. side of the island of Hising, Sweden, i. 
3ii 25 ii. 1385 12 i66 13 267 1680 iii. 149^ i83 32 2 3 2 r 278^ 3 o9 u 
3 l8 i9 3 2 4 29 3 2 5i2 354i4 399i 82 2 4oo 15 4i6 l7 4i8 28 4 i 926 4 2o n 
43^26 45S24 45 6 5 459ie 46o 9 ir 

KING'S SOUND (Konungssund), name of the dyke which 
King Olaf the Holy dug through Agni's-thwaite into the Baltic, 
and by which he escaped out of the Low or Malar lake in 
Sweden; locality, most probably, where the lake Skarfven 
passes by the narrow sound Almare Stake, generally called 
Staket, into the Malar lake, ii. 8 14 

KINNLIM-SIDE, Kmnlimaside (KinnlimasfSa), a coastal 
district of Friesland, ii. i2 411 

KIRIALALAND, now Karelen, the eastern part of Finland, 
ii. i2o 26 

KNOLLS (H61ar), a place in 'Ringfirth' in France, ii. i8 24 

KNOLLS (H61ar), locality on the south-westernmost projection 
of Skaney, S.W. Sweden, ii. 33i 25 

KORMT-ISLE, Kormt (Kormt), now Karm or Karmoen, an 
island off Rogaland, on the northern side of the mouth of the 

KOR LAW] Index II 261 

Boknfirth, due north of Stavanger, i. 137^ i72 19 313^ ii. 
2i6 14 22i 15 227 30 iii. 41437 

KORMTSOUND (Karmtsund), the narrow sound dividing 
Kormt-isle from the mainland of Rogaland, i. 143^ ii. 74^ 

2l6 12 2I9 7 22I 32 

KURLAND (Kiirland), Courland, one of the Baltic provinces 

of Russia, ii. I2o 2(r 
KVALDINSEY, island in the lake of Venern, Sweden, iii. 22^ 

KVALDIN'S-ISLE, see Kvaldinsey. 

KVILDS (Kvildir), a countryside on the coast of Bohuslan, 

Sweden, iii. 3593 
KVISTSTEAD (Kviststa^ir), now Kvistad, a homestead on 

the Inner-Isle, Thrandheim, Norway, ii. 42633 43o 10 iii. 2i ir 
KYMRY (Land of the) (Kumraland), Cumberland, harried by 

Olaf Tryggvison, L 26i 24 
LADIR (Hlaftir), seat of the famous c Earls of Ladir/ now 

Lade, a short distance N.E. of the city of Throndhjem, i. 

9 8 so I 37isi9 X 49i5 I6l 5 l66 6 l6 9 5 17*8 2I 4 2 2 2 97iis 39r 
3 1 o n 3183 8 n n. 5o 23 

LADIR-CLIFFS (Hla'Shamrar), a rocky rise between the 
manor of Ladir and the sea, i. 3435 

Lu#RADALE (Laeradalr), now Lserdalen, the countryside round 
the head of Lseradale's-firth, an offshoot, in a south-easterly 
direction, from the upper Sognfirth, i. 267^ 

LAKTIARN (Laktjarnir), a Norse corruption of the name 
Blackernse of a palacfe in Constantinople, iii. 259 19 

LAND, a district of Hadaland, round the northern end of Rand- 
water, Norway, i. 79 5 

LANGTON (Langatun), an unverified place in England, iii. 

37^26 29 

LAUPANDANESS (Hlaupandanes), not Lopness in Sandey, 
but the peninsula on south-eastern Mainland, Orkney, now 
called Deerness (Anderson, e Orkneyinga saga,' p. 5, n. 2), 

LAW-BURG (Logberg), the rock at Thingvellir from which 
proclamations and enunciations to the Althing, the old Folk- 
mote of Iceland, relating to matters of public concern, legis- 
lative, judiciary and administrative, were given out, ii. 242 15 16 

262 Index II [LEE us 

LEESEY (Hl&sey), now Laesso, an island in the strait of Katte- 
gat, belonging to Denmark, ii. i57 26 iii. looj ioi 20 i3i ir 

LEIKBERG, a locality apparently in Bohuslan, Sweden, iii. 

374 8 ir 
LESIAR (Lesjar), now Lesje or Leso, a countryside in northern 

Gudbrandsdale, by the Low-water (Logr), now Logen, which 

flows N.W. into Raumsdale, ii. i99 18 19 26 202 l 2O4 18 363^ 

367^ (where Nesiar is a misprint). 
LESISLE, see Leesey. 
LEWIS (Lj6^hiis), in Sodor, iii. 22i 28 
LIDANDISNESS (LfSandisnes), the most southern point of 

North-Agdir in Norway, i. 241^ 3o8 18 _ 14 3783 ii. 64^ 123^ 

1363 2i2 5 2133.3 iii. 3925 4719 
LIDSTEAD (Li^ssta^ir), now Listad, a homestead in the 

neighbourhood of Gudbrand a Dales' seat, Houndthorp, ii. 

2 4l3 

LIMAFIRTH, Limbfirth, see Limfirth. 

LIMFIRTH (Limafjor^r), Limfjord, a large bay in the north 
of Jutland, Denmark, i. 4^ 18 4 7 25 32 237^ 238^ 239^ 
2 57 8 19 2 74i9 ii- 3i6 8 12 31732 3i8 2 3484 35*8 # 39a 

LIMGARTHSIDE (Limagar^ssi^a), now Lungaards-siden y 
the eastern littoral of Agdir, Norway, iii. 354 22 

LINESTEAD (Linusta^ir), now, according to"some, Linstad 
in the parish of Stange, in Heathmark (Aall, Munch, F. 
J6nsson), according to others, Lmnstad, in the parish of 
Ramnes, in Westfold (Storm), iii. 362 18 

LINGS (Lyngar), possibly one of two homesteads distinguished 
now as 'Eystri' and 'Vestri Lyngar 3 in the commune of 
Lei^vallarhreppr, West-Skaptafells-sysla, in Eastern Iceland, 
iii- 37as where, after Thorkel, f of Lings ' has fallen out. 

LIOXA (Ljoxa), now, according to Munch and linger, Lexdalen 
in Stiordale-folk, according to G. Storm, Lexviken on the 
western side of Thrandheim-firth opposite the peninsula of 
Frosta, i. i;o l7 3193 

LISBON (Lizib6n), iii. 25 i n 21 

LISTI, now Lister, a district in West-Agdir, north of Hvin, ii. 
93is I Ss (where it stands vs> fars pro toto for Norway) 
iii- 355i3 45^13 

LIT LYG] Index II 263 

LITHE (HltfS), now Lien, a homestead of the parish of Brats- 
berg in the district of Strind, Thrandheim (Storm), iii, 302 26 

LOAR (L6ar), now Lom, a countryside on either side of the 
river Otta in Gudbrandsdale, Norway, ii. 199^ 2oo u 20 1 3 u 

202 2 5 204 18 

LOFUND, supposed by some to correspond to the island now 
called Lofo, Farentuna harad, in the Malaren Lake, by others 
taken to represent ' Laghunda hundari ' in Fjadrundaland, in 
the present Uppland, Sweden, i. 529 24 

LOFA-FIRTH (L6fufjor3r), now Laholmsbugten in the south 
of Hallands Ian, W. Sweden, iii. i32 14 

LOIRE (Leira), in France, ii. 2i 9 

LONDON (Lundilnir, Lundiinaborg), i. 140! ii. 139 26 24 25 28 
376 20 iii. i26 n i57 20 

LONDON BRIDGE (Lundtina bryggjur), description of, ii. 
I 3i9-28 destruction of, by Olaf Haraldson (1009), i4 6 -i5 2 

10-13 28-30 U1> I2 ^14 

LONGISLE (Langey), now Lango, an island in Halogaland, 

west of Hinn-isle, ii. 237 29 259^ 266 29 
LONGWICK(Lengjuvik), now Lenviken, running from Malang- 

firth into the N.E. side of the island of Senia, in northmost 

Halogaland, ii. 266 12 288 18 
LORADALE (Lorodalr), now Lordalen, a valley opening from 

the south into upper Lesiar in Northern Gudbrandsdale, ii. 

LOW (Logrinn), now the lake Malaren in Sweden, i. i6 3422 

4o 5 ii. 7r as 29 8 i 98 ir 16230 l6 3i5 3^75 
LOW (Logr), now Laagen (var. Logen, Lougen), a river having 

its sources on Drofrafell in northern Gudbrandsdale and 

flowing southward through the greater length of that valley, 

emptying itself into the lake of Miors, ii. 2oi 9 
LOWSBROAD (LusbreftS), now the island of Livo, or Livo- 

bredningen in Limfirth, Denmark, iii. i28 18 
LUND (Lundar, Le. the Groves), now Lunde, a manor on the 

eastern side of the Gaul river in lower Gauldale, i. 292 8 9 
LUND (Lundr, i.e, the Grove)^ now Lund, in Skaney, the 

southern university town of Sweden, ii. 332 29 iii. 44 2 48 15 

2 ^5 2 i 
LYGRA, now Lyren, or Lygren, an island on the coast of 

North Hordland, Norway, ii. 2719 2y3 811 

264 Index II [LYR MER 

LYRSHAW-HEATH (HtyrskdgsherSr), in the locality about 
the present Lurschau, north of Sleswick, iii. 34 20 

manor on the eastern side of the main river that runs into 
the head of Eyjafirth in northern Iceland, i. 33420 & J 3 6 22 2 43& 

MANHOME (mannheimar), Sweden proper, as Snorri will 
have it, i. 2i 615 

MAN (Mon), the Isle of Man, harried by Harald Hairfair, i. 
H5 2r ii6 10 by Olaf Tryggvison, 26i 21 by Magnus Bare- 
foot, iii. 222cj 8 225 10 

MAN (Mon), now Moen, a Danish island off the southern end 
of the island of Seeland, iii. 354 6 

MARS-ISLE (Marsey), now Morso, a large island in the 
Limfirth in North Jutland, i. 257 19 23 80 

MARKLANDS, MARKS (Markir), the marches between 
Sweden and Norway from the Vener lake north to Eidshaw, 
ii. 76 21 ii2 13 i44 26 390 30 (Woodlands), iii. 2 2 6 20 456 6 474 26 
47 7 8 48o 13 486 28 

MASWICK (Masarvik), now Mosviken, a bight on the western 
side of Thrandheim-firth a short distance down below Skarn- 
sound, and opposite the northern part of Outer-isle, ii. 49 13 

MEADS (Vellir), see Jonsmeads. 

MERE (Maerin), now Mseren, a homestead with a heathen 
temple within Sparbiders'-folk, ' a great chief stead and big 
houses,' Upper Thrandheim, i. 170-^ 29 3i7 21 3 l8 ioso 3 I 9 2 r 
ii. i94 ;5 195. i 9 7 215 

MERE (Mserin), a homestead in Wall-dale on Todarfirth, q. v. 
ii. 36335 where the text should read: l Now there dwelt at 
Mere a goodman hight Brusi.' 

MERE (Maerr), now More, a maritime folkland of Norway 
stretching from Naumdale, in the north, to Firthfolk in the 
south, but divided into North and South Mere by the inter- 
vening folkland of Raumsdale. Besides signifying the whole 
folkland the name (Mere) may, according to circumstances, 
also mean North Mere or South Mere. A few cases admit of 
doubt as to which is meant. All references to the folkland 
whole and divided are gathered below : 

1. The whole folkland : i. io3 12 i22 n i25 6 1264 21335 2 47ie 2 74i 
377 2 6 ^ 72 10 I99 16 iii. 402^ 442 28 457 22 

2. NORTH-MERE (NorS-maerr) : i. 99 30 ioo 24 ioi s I3i 31 1364 

MIC MUC] Index II 265 

T 75i6 2 3io.. 2 5a2 2I 3 2 i 2 *4 2 3 2l6 22 2 4o 28 2 47 29 ( ? ) 
293 19 11. 242 U 279 28 302^ 372^ lii. rt2 26 

ir 3i6 349i2 35^ 4 
3. SOUTH-MERE (Sunnmserf), i. ioi 6 io3 525 ii7 3 2 o6 5 240^ 

2 44 2 2 77 28 3 8 2i ii- 3 02 2 e 37 2 i9 4 2 6 ir 46321 

2io 4 225 29 29S ir (?), 442 J5 
MICKLE-DALE (Dalr mikli), now Store Dal, a homestead 

within the district of Aumord, the present Borge, in south- 

easternmost Norway, iii. 277 20 278 22 
MICKLEGARTH (MikligarSr), Constantinople, iii. 59 13 19 27 

62 si 7 26 7 2 isi6 7327 7Suir ^QU 2 47i 9 24 2 5 6 2 n 2 593isi6 

26o 12 2623 37205 42817 42920 43*2 474is 
[MICKLE-ISLE] (Eyin mikla er liggr i Mjors, 'a great island 

that lies amidst the lake of Miors '), now called Helgo, i. 78 25 
MIDDLEDALE (Me'Saldalr), a homestead in Orkdale in 

Thrandheim, i 209 22 ii. 46 l 
MIDDLEHOUSE (Me^alhits), now Melhus, a homestead on 

the eastern side of Gaulriver in lower Gauldale, in Thrand- 

heim, i. i67 n I7o 16 292^ 2935 6 
MIDGARTH (Mi^gar^r), the mid-earth strong work erected 

by the gods against assaults from the giants; hence central 

earthly abode, earth = the world, iii. 99 26 
MINORCA (Manork), the most north-easterly of the Balearic 

Islands, iii. 2553 r 
MIORS (Mjors), now Mjosen, the next largest lake of Norway, 

reaching from Gudbrandsdale to Raumrick, i. 78 26 ii. 64 10 

(called the Water, io6 12 107^ 12 27 82 io8 r and its southern- 

most end Watersend, io7 14 ) 
MIRKFIRTH (Myrkva-fjpr^r, Fogfirth), now Morko-fjard in 

Sodermanland, Sweden, i. 59 16 

MONKBRIDGE (Munkabryggja), in Bergen, Norway, iii. 3224 
MOST, Most-isle (Mostr), now Mostero, on the western side of 

the sound called Bommelen (the main inlet from the south- 

west to Hardangerfirth), South-Hordland, Norway, i. 1383 14 

29*10 iii- 393is 
MOUTH (Mynni), now Minne, a place on the western side of 

the river Varma, where it issues from the southern end of 

the Miors lake in Raumrealm, Norway, iii. 349 2 2-356 
MUCH-HERNES (Hernes mikla), now Store Hernes, an estate 

on the peninsula of Frosta in Thrandheim, Norway, iii. 

266 Index II [MUL NID 

MULI-THING (Miila-Jing), in this form an unverified locality 
in Sweden (but ' Miila ' seems merely a corruption for 'Mora,' 
a locality on the highway ab. 12 km. S.E. of the present 
Upsala, where, in ancient times, Swedish kings used to be 
elected (and deposed ?) by the people in a public assembly, 
Thing), ii. i2i 29 

NAUMDALE, Naumdale-folk (Naumudalr, Naumdsela-fylki), 
a maritime folkland of northern Norway, extending from 
Northmere to Halogaland, now Namdalen, i. 97 19 98 12 1634 

2 45r 377s3 u- X ^9i9 2 7^ir 

NAUSTDALE (Naustdalr), now Naustdal, in the parish of Eid, 
in Nordfjord, in the northern parts of Firthfolk, Norway, i. 

NECK (Hals), now Hals, a town on the southern side of the 

mouth of the Limfirth in Jutland, i. 237 29 238^ 239 20 
NERICK (Nserfki), now Narike, a province of Sweden, i. 585 

6l i9 6 5g 28 u. 3 6 9io 

NESIAR, the peninsular formations between the bay of Tuns- 
berg and Grenmar, or mod. Langesundsfjord, in southern 
Norway, ii. 55 19 57 2 79 22 (367^ misprint for Lesiar, q.v.) 

NESS (Nes), now Sonstenes, a manor in the countryside of 
Loar in Gudbrandsdale, ii. 2oo 5 

NESS (Nes), now Bynsesset, a broad but small peninsula jutting 
out into Thrandheimfirth between Orkdalefirth in the west 
and the bay of Nidoyce in the east, ii. 48 18 72 23 

NESS, see Caithness and Streamisle-ness. 

NEWMOUTH (Nyjamd^a), a sea-port in England, uncertain 
which; Newhaven in Sussex? ii. 17^34 

NID (Ni^), the main river of Stiordalefolk, running to the 
north-west and through Strind emptying itself into Thrand- 
heim bay, i. 3185 32203 ii. 5o 26 29 53 25 313^ 352 G iii. io9 is 

I2 9 2 6 I6 3l3 2 6 18 34^26 

NIDAROS, see Nidoyce. 

NID-BANK (Ni^arbakki), the portion of the bank of the river 
Nid whereon Olaf Tryggvison founded the town of Nidoyce, 
i. 32i 23 , see Nidness. 

NID-HOLM (NrSarhdlmr), now Munkholmen, an islet out- 
side the city of Drontheim, i. 297^ 335 12 ii. 284^ 

NIDNESS (NftSarnes), a homestead on a ness of the same 
name by the mouth of the river Nid, where Olaf Tryggvison 

NID NOR] Index II 267 

afterwards founded the town of Nidoyce, the present Trond- 
hjem, i. 6 8 . n ii. 5o 21 
NIDOYCE (NrSar6ss) 

1. The mouth of the river Nid, i. 3i6 20 32i 22 

2. The name of the town founded, on the western side of 
the river on a peninsula formed by a sharp bend of it on one 
side and the sea on the other, by Olaf Tryggvison in 996. 
In the middle of the sixteenth century the old name was re- 
placed by the modern name of Trondhjem, i. 32i 22 . 29 326^ 
32730 334 8 14 353i 354n 355si 357i 29 u '- 48 31 5^19 53 5 21 6 4 28 
6 7n ir l8 9io ^ir *9*si i9^ 12 234^ 2583 275^ 2 94l9 

375s 448 10 in- i7 2 * 35 22 87 23 93 5 I2 9 4 l6 3io ^5 4 

18 l 

28331 28 32 2 r 334 4 2 16 26 
NIORDLOW (Njar^arlog), now Tysneso, ofif South-Hordland, 

i- 3S3u 

NIORD 7 S-ISLE (Niamey), now Nsero, off the coast of Naum- 
dale in the northern part of the governorship of Trondhjem, 

i- 52 4 
NIORVI'S SOUND, read NORVISOUND (Niorvasund, Nor- 

vasund, better rendered Narrow-sound), the Strait of Gibraltar, 

i. n 9 ii. 20 15 iii. 237 U 1(J 2529 15 37i 25 
NITIA (Nitja), now Nitelven, an affluent of the Raumelf, ii. 

NIZ, NIZI (Niz), the river Nissan joining the sea by Halmstad 

in Hallands Ian, S.W. Sweden, iii. i33 15 i 3 5 2 i4 3]L5 22 i54 25 
NOATOWN (Nois, i, i6 2r read Noa-, N6atiin, which means 

really Ships'-Town, Ship ton), Niord's Swedish abode, 22 8 
NORFISOUND, see Niorvi's sound. 
NORMANDY (Nor^mandi), i. n8 2532 -ii. 2i 26 22 6 8 28! iii. 

iSSir ^^s i8o 14 
NORTHDALE (Nor'Sdalr), a district on the western side of 

Vener Lake, northern Dalsland, Sweden, iii. 226 19 
NORTH-ISLES (NorSreyjar), the group of six islands lying 

E.N.E. of Eastisle, the northernmost part of the Faroe archi- 

pelago, ii. 30535 3 o6 2S 307^ 
NORTHERN ISLES (Norftreyjar), the northern or Lewes 

group of the Hebrides, iii. 223 9 

dinavia and Denmark (England, in one instance, apparently 

268 Index II [NOR 

included), i. 3 9 i7 4 26 ii. z6 4 96^ 97 15 i6o 18 25133 253^ 

iii- 37 8 7 2 is 85 29 io2 10 i6i 29 
NORTH-MERE, wtf Mere. 
NORTHNESS (NorSnes), now Nordnses, on which is built a 

large part of the town of Bergen, Norway, iii. 2635 3224 17 

NORTHUMBERLAND (NorSimbraland), 'accounted the fifth 
part of England,' i. i52 18 24 2r 153^ 15415 25 26 *i7 " 28 s 2 9 3 
iii- 17328 

NORWAY (Noregr), Norge, i. 431 5 2 2s 6 4 5i5 737 S6 8 93 28 

94u 954 II 3l221242S **4 5 ** 8 7 Ir 9l * 22 2231 I2 4 2 I26 2 

I40 25 I4i 18 i43 33 i 49n 16 i5 3r i55 26 i59 14 i6o 19 i63 2 

17320 I 74iO!215 l8 28 * 88 24 J 97 9 20I 14 2O2 27 2l8 12 3 23 

2 3 2 3 2 35l2 16 25 31 2 3 6 14 16 25 2 37lO 2 3 8 9 13 17 2 419 25 2 43l9 21 

2 4 5 26 24639 249^ 253 10 1S27 257 6 258 r 259 4 267 23 27i 19 27233 

26 29 32 2 732 28 5l2 18 28 7 5 22 288 5 28 9 2 5 2 914 2 9 r 7 11 28 2 99lO 

3oo 81 3oi 6 26 302 2720 3o6 29 3n 20 323 6 32 4g 33335 3345 34Qio 
34*1827 28.34 2 2 345s si 35n 35*25 3^5 37*23 37^8 377 2 3 

37 8 15 27 " 20 21 2I 20 22 3 17 18 2 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 528 34 6 10 3 2 22 33l2 
3523 4*9 4 2 1S 25 4331 44 4 23 54 2 4 55 2 8 6 523 6 7 3 7*14 75lO 7^15 
S 3l 12 16 8 4s 9*15 9427 28 32 95s 9 6 20 25 97l5 25 31 9 8 5 9 99l2 13 
17 30 Io8 24 I0 930 IJ 7l2 **9 2 821 I2I 16 T22 25 ^531 ^730 I 5 2 9 
J 54 9 *55l9 l66 ll 25 l6 7 3 l68 28 l6 95 24 ^321 *7425 *75l 21 37 

i76 10 I78 17 i8i 15 i88 9 I9i 31 i99 n 24333 2 45 24 2 46 x r 2 5ia 20 

25 28 2 5 I 9 10 14 2 5 2 7 10 21 25 2 53s 9 11 33 2 5525 2 5 6 19 21 26 9s 2 7328 

2 75o 2 76 22 2 94i2 30931 3**i3 so 3*4 9 3*7 2 s 3 2 4 2 7 3 2 5i9 3 2 9io 
335 21 30 334 4 5 335n is 22 34^ 3 6 34 8 e 31 349n 26 3524 35*2 

35 2 10 18 28 35312 22 35 8 32 3592 27 3 6 7 6 20 3 68 20 22 3 6 9l6 3722 
37 2 12 3765 24 3772 4 20 3799 3 8 9 12 14 27 3 8 % 24 3 86 6 30 3 8 7l 
20 3 8 9l 6 22 23 27 3918 39*5 15 393l 5 39^19 23 4*7 2 14 449l5 

17 is.45i 45*7 45 2 23 454 8 46o 18 46i u 2r 32 462 8 2S 463^ 4673 

20 iii- 4l5 32 58 11 929 I0 6 IJ 1730 I2 30 I 49 I 5l6 26 l6 24 2 72 28 29 

324 3*29 336 16 4526 5*23 5 2 7 7 2 21 7920 26 27 8 32 8 42 5 12 8 5l9 

8 7is 88 ii is 9*16 9 2 io 27 30 932 94 9 11 9 6 i5 97io 22 *3n *52i 
io6 29 ii 94 19 25 29 12933 I 3 i 29 I 4 i 6 i 4 2 9 I43 10 i46 28 I48 27 28 

*49 9 * 6 3 20 * 62 8 l6 520 l8 3 5 22 * 8 7 4 17 J 9*4 J 9 2 3 10 *9 8 16 
33 202 8 13 2 57 2o6 8 2o8 8 22I 17 22 4 2 7 22 5l9 24 226 12 22 7 2 3 

228 ie 2 33 S 2 3 8 24 27 2 39 24 2 4 2 33 2 43s 2 47 8 23 2 4 8 2 <j 2 62 20 

24 26 3ll 2 <54 2 5 7 2<58 3 2 7322 2 74 33 28 4n 14 28 56 28 920 2 9*5 

2 9 2 5 2 94 24 2 9524 2 96i 5 297 19 309^ 3io 15 313^ 32435 333^ 

NUN QLF] Index II 269 

33 6 is 3373 343 5 15 3517 35*25 26 2T 23 31 35328 31 

366 25 3683 13 21 372 28 37632 377s 37922 24 3 8 4 9 10 

402 n 4094 42i 25 425 26 429^ 4363 438 8 9 462 24 465^ 13 16 20 22 

466 30 469 31 47*22 23 473l 8 12 19 24 474 S 4794 

NUNSEAT (Nunnusetr), St. Mary's convent for Cistercian 

nuns, Bergen, Norway, iii. 322 28 
NUNS'-SEAT (Nunnusetr), St. Mary's convent for Benedictine 

nuns, Oslo, Norway, iii. 42420 

NYRFI, the island of Norvo in South-Mere, Norway, ii. 3634 
OAK-ISLES (Eikreyjar), a group of islands off the western 

branch of the Gautelf, now called Ockero, ii 8i 9 157^ 29 
ODDSOUND (Oddasund), a strait between the southern point 

of the peninsula of Thyholm in the Limfjord and the main- 

land, Denmark, i. 4i 2 
ODIN'S-ISLE ('O&nsey, al. 'O'Sinsve' = Odin's holy place), now 

Odense, the chief town of the island of Fion, q.v., formerly 

apparently an island, i. i5 233 i 
OFRUSTEAD, OPRUSTEAD (OfrustaSir, OprustaSir), ac- 

cording to Aall, Munch and Unger the present Offig- or 

Offrig-stad, in the parish of Oier in the Gudbrandsdale, but 

by Storm identified as Obrestad in Jadar, Rogaland, i. 2233 

2243 22S 15 19 226 7 353 15 
OGLO (6gl6), now Skatval parish in lower Stiordale in Thrand- 

heim, i. 2055 1V 2o6 ir 
OGVALDSNESS (Ogvaldsnes), one of K. Har. Hairfair's 

manors, situate on the north-eastern side of the large island 

of Kormt, the south end of which is watered by the mouth of 

Boknfirth, i. 13731 J 7 2 2i 3*324 3*4 5 29 ( ori g in of th e name, 

3 I 5 5 -i 8 ) u< - 23c6 is 15 2I 9? 22I 32 222 s 22 4 24 22 7so 

OIKE^-B ANK (Ekkjals-bakki), in Sutherlandshire in Scotland, 

i. n6 22 as 

OLAFS BOOTHS ('Olafs biiSir), ii. 393 2r 
OLAFS CAVE ('Olafs hellir), a grotto down below the Skerf- 

scree, in Walldale, Norway, ii. 3663 
OLAFS-LITHE, ii. 457 2 o 
OLFUS (Olfus), a countryside on the western side of the lower 

Whitewater (Hvfta), the main river of Arness^sla m Southern 

Iceland, i. 269^ 

270 Index II [OLV OUT 

OLVIRSHOWE (Olvishaugr), now Alstahougen or Alstad- 

haugenin Skaunfolk, Thrandheim, i. i7o 18 
OMD (6md), the eastern part of the island Hin, now called 

Hindo in Halogaland, Norway, i. 5o 31 33i 12 ii- 2i4 22 
ONEBY (Einbiii), a homestead in the countryside of Lesjar in 

the northernmost part of Gudbrandsdale, ii. 3674 
OPRUSTEAD (Oprustaftir), see Ofrustead. 
ORDOST (OrSost), now Orust, a large island in the southern 

part of Goteborgs och Bonus Ian in Sweden, ii. 8i n 
ORKDALE, Orkdalefolk (Orkadalr, Orkdoelafylki), now Orke- 

dalen, the westernmost of the folklands or petty kingdoms 

on the south side of Thrandheim-firth, i. 95 18 22 28 2 93i6 
- 22 2 s 46 10 22 2r 47 2 4 48 28 53ir w 7 2 i9 2 79 2 9 ih - 

H3i 8 43 2 r 

ORKDALE-FOLK, see Orkdale. 

ORKNEY, -S (Orkneyjar), i. ii3 27 n6 u I22 16 18 i23 r ir i25 18 
i26 21 1275 22 31 I32 20 1527 i53 19 15430 iS5s J 59ir 2 4i 2S 243is 
2 9si " 6 9ie J 37i4 is l68 4 r u ir l6 9r ir 22 I 74 I 7 I 2 e si 

17318 21 25 174^12 I75ll I 76 19 I78 2429 17933 l8 4 25 l8 I 2 * 

i8 4s 10 i85 15 w 25 i86 31 i87 21 28 31 i88 13 14 199^ 2 4 i 12 hi. 
J i920 l6 5so l66 2 l82 so 22I ie 2 39s 2 42 3 o 2 43 161S2 i 337ie 

OSLO^X&S), a c cheaping-stead, ? founded by K. Har. Hardredy, 
the site of which is now occupied by the eastern portion of 
Christiania, the present capital of Norway, iii. i27 4 i42 10 143 14 
14^17 i3 3s3 2 9 7 82 3 io 8 3 i3 r 352 10 23 353 6 36737 4i8 28 422 4 

4233 474so 
OSLOFIRTH (Osldarfjor^r), the northernmost part of the 

Chris tianiafjord, Norway, ii. 3532 

OSTERFIRTH('OstrarfjorSr), now Osterfjord, a bay in North- 
Hordland, ii. 232 13 

OTTA ('Otta), now Ottaelv, an affluent, from west, of the Low 
(Logr), now Laagen, the main river of Gudbrandsdale, 
Norway, ii. I99 29 

OUSE ('Usa), river of eastern Yorkshire, England, iii. i67 s 

OUTSTONE ('Utsteinn), one of K. Har. Hairfair's manors, 
situate on the western, or Boknfirth, end of an island of the 
same name, now called Utsteno, or sometimes Klostero, off 
Rogaland ; the modern name of the homestead is Utsten or 
Utstens Kloster (from having in Catholic times been a con- 

PAN RAU] Index II 271 

vent of Augustinian regulars); the manor: i. ii2 23 i37 30 ; the 

island: ii. 358 19 s6i 24 
PANNONIA, western Hungary, iii. 262 8 
PEITA, Peita-land, Peita country (Peita, Peituland), Poitou in 

France, ii. 2o 2S 2i 2 13 
PENTLANDFIRTH (PetlandsfjorSr), between Caithness and 

Orkney, i. 290^ ii. 377 12 
PORTYRIA, in Limgarthside on Eastern Agdir, now Portor, a 

small sea-port in Nedenes Fogderi, Norway, iii. $54^ *cc 
PEITA-LAND, see Peita. 
PEZINA (Fields of), in Wallachia, hi. 429^ 
PULWYKE (Pilavik), probably quite a different place from 

Pulwyke on Windermere, although K. Eystein ' harried far 

and wide about England ' after burning Whitby. Pulwyke is 

a mere guess, iii. 376 19 24 
QUISTSTEAD, see Kviststead. 
EVENING (Rseningr), a royal manor, probably the place 

Rseninge, which in mediaeval records is mentioned on the 

island now called Toster-on in the Melaren Lake, in Soder- 

manland (Hildebrand), i. 63 25 645 
RAND, Randwater (Rond), now Randsfjorden, a lake in Ha- 

daland, i. 86 14 iii. 382 n 
RANDBERG (Randaberg), a manor on the peninsula in 

which the district of Jadar terminates towards north, situated 

to the N.W. of Stavanger, iii. 474 n 
RAND-OYCE (Randardss), now Randers, on the east coast of 

Jutland, Denmark, iii. 47 2 q 
RAN-REALM (Ranriki), a folkland on the eastern side of the 

Wick, the northern boundary of which was Swinesound, the 

southern, at least at one time, the Gautelf, now the Swedish 

province called Goteborgs och Bohuslan, i. lOQj I3i 24 isi^ 

(where Van-realm is a misprint), 377 27 ii. 7<5 9 iii. 2025 

RASMEAD (Rasvollr), now Rosvold, a homestead of Verdale 

(Storm), iii. io4 10 
RAST-KALF (Rastar-kalfr), a locality on the east side of the 

island of Frsedi, i. i77 5 q 
RAUMELF, Raumriver (Raumelfr), now Glommen, the largest 

river of Norway, running from north to south into the eastern 

side of the Christianiafirth, i. 7o 32 93 12 ii. 64 10 

272 Index II [RAU RIN 

RAUMDALE, see Raumsdale. 

RAUMREALM (Raumariki), now Romerike, Norway, L 67 ia 
68 18 7232 77 2 i 24 78 5< 10 15 16 86 27 93 6 io5 25 io6 6 io8 24 i 3 i ir 
2 49i8 2 73is 378 21 11. 4% 54ii i<> 2 22 I0 3 4 15 21 32 I0 5 3 3 Io6 5 
*7i8 I0 9 2 6 2io 18 iii. i46 n i53 23 ^53i 2 425i4 

RAUMRICK, see Raumrealm. 

RAUMSDALE, Raumdale (Raumsdalr), now Romsdalen, 
Norway, between North-Mere and South-Mere, i. 99 33 ioo 24 
i3i2 I 3 I si l6 4 2 y 2065 2I 325 2 428 2 4Sio 2 74i 38 22 377 2 6 
ii- I 99i6 3 2 25 ixi - 2I0 4 442 2 6 447 9 is 

RAVENNESS (Hrafnsnes), now Raninses, a homestead in Re, 

Westfold, Norway, ih. 45i 2r 485^ 

RAVEN'S-ERE (Hrafnseyrar), now Ravenseer on Holderness, 
England, iii. i82 29 

1. RE (R^), now the island of Rugen, off the coast of West 
Pomerania, iii. 38 12 23 

2. RE (R6), now the parish of Ramnaes, N.W. of Tunsberg, 
Norway, iii. 45i 13 26 484^ 13 

REEK-KNOLLS (Reykjah61ar), a homestead on the south- 
eastern peninsula called Reykjanes (Reekness), which be- 
tween J^orska-firth in the west and Beru-firth in the east, 
shoots south into Broadfirth, western Iceland, iii. 35639 

REEKNESS (Reykjanes), the south-westernmost promontory 
of Iceland, i. 269 U . 12 

REINFIELD (Reinsl&ta), a locality in the parish of Rissen, 
within the countryside of Stadsbygden, on the northern side 
of outer Thrandheim-firth, i. 136^3 

REINI, Reynir, better Rein (Rein), now Reinskloster, in the 
countryside of Rissen on the northern side of outer Thrand- 
heim-firth, iii. i84 10 3484 

REITH-GOTHLAND (RerSgotaland), this name, which gener- 
ally signifies Jutland in Denmark, must here refer to* some 
other country, the island of Gotland ? i. S 2 ig 

REYNIR, see Reini. 

REYR, now Ror, a homestead in the countryside of Ringsacre, 
Heathmark, Norway, iii. 399^ 4oo ir 407^ 4o8 10 415^ 43833 

RIMUL, now Romol, a manor on the river Gaul in lower 
Gauldale, i. 292^ 2943 

RINAN'S-ISLE (Rinansey), now North-Ronaldsay, in the 
Orkneys, i. i25 24 u. i68 16 

RIN ROU] Index II 273 

RINGACRE (Hringisakr), now Rmgsaker, a manor and locality 
on the eastern side of the western arm of the lake Miors that 
runs north toward Gudbrandsdale by the west of Heathmark, 
ii. io 3l8 io5 32 io8 8 . 9 

RINGFIRTH (HringsfjorSr), in France, ii. i8 2429 

RINGMAR-HEATH (HringrnaraherSr), now Ringmere, in 
East-Wreatham, Norfolk, ii. i6 51421 

RINGNESS (Hringunes), now Ringnses, in the countryside of 
Skaun, now the parish of Stange, in Heathmark, Norway, ii. 
54 10 64 8 1073 24814 iii. i22 15 

RINGREALM (Hringarfki), now Ringerike, Norway, i. 8i 5 86 26 

87 2 9*is 93 5 "4i9 I22 s I 3^2i 3io 3 i 31*6 13 " iQQas 20 9is 
249 n iii. iS4 ia 48330 

RINGRICK, see Ringrealm. 

RINGSTEAD (HringstaSir), now Rmgsted, a township in the 
island of Seeland, Denmark, iii. 43 31 

1. RIVEROYCE ('Ar6ss), the mouth of the river Fyri, on the 
lake Malaren, ii. i62 28 387^ 

2. RIVEROYCE ('Ar6ss), ,now Aarhus, a city on the eastern 
coast of Jutland, Denmark, iii. 3835 39 U 5o 30 

ROGALAND, a folkland of S.W. Norway, bounded by Hord- 
land in the N. and Agdir in the E., and for the rest by the 
sea, now Stavangeramt, i. m s i34 x i42 26 1433 i56 x 2o8 16 
2 4 o 2r 2 4 4 26 274 21 3 o4 ir 30835 31334 353 20 378! ii 2 3ir 55 13 

2II 6 2I 75 3 6 23 395 4^41021 

ROGNVALDSEY (Rognvaldsey), South Ronaldsey, Orkney, 

i. 29033 ii. i6g ir 
ROISWELL, see Roskild. 

ROME (Riim, Riimaborg), Rome, ii. 27 S 2359 iii. i2 4 14^ 
288 12 3 79 21 3 8o 15 20 4 6i 19 


ROSKILD (Roiskelda, Hroiskelda), now Roskilde, Cathedral 

town of Seeland, Denmark, ii. 325^ iii. 29 16 793 
RYDIOKUL (Ry^jokull), a homestead in Raumrealm, Norway, 

iii. 47 5 r 4763 
ROSSEY (Hrossey, Horse-isle), now Mainland, Orkney, ii. 

ROUEN (Rti^a, RitfSuborg), the capital of Normandy, ii 2i 25 

2 ?28 2 9l 


274 Index II [RYG SAU 

RYGIARBIT, now Jernestangen, a district between l Nedenes 

og Bratbergs Amter ' (Storm), ii. 348 25 iii. 438 12 46512 
RYGSBIT, see Rygiarbit. 
RYKINSWICK (Rykinsvik), now Rokensviken, on the east 

side of the lake Rand, i. 86 16 
SACK (Sekkr), now Ssekken, an island in the Molde- or Roms- 

dalsfjord, Raumsdale, Norway, iii. 445 13 
SALLOWWHARF (Seljuhverfi), now the parish of Josund, in 

the lower reaches of Texdal on the N.W^side of the large 

peninsula of Fosen, North-Mere, Norway, iii. 2io 28 
SALPT (Salpti, or Salfti), now Salten, the inlet to Skjserstadfjord 

in mid Halogaland, Norway, i. Z 2 9n 33*5 14 
SALTWICK (Saltvik), a homestead in the present parish of 

Ofot, in the bay of the same name in Halogaland, Norway, 

i- 353s 
SALTNESS (Saltnes), a homestead on the ness that divides 

Orkdale-firth into two arms, Norway, iii. 48335 
SAND (Sandr), a homestead on Tentisle (Tjaldey) in Haloga- 

land, iii. 3S6 28 

SAND-BRIDGE (Sandbrii), in Bergen, Norway, iii. 3893 
SANDEY, now Sanda or Sanday, a small island south of Can- 

tyre, iii. 222 32 
SANDVER, a fishing station on the northern side of the mouth 

of Malangfirth, Finmark, ii. 2599 
SANDWICK (Sandvik), the homestead of Amundi on the east 

coast of the peninsula now called Deerness, Mainland, Ork- 

ney, ii. 17139 17639 
SARP (Sarpr), a waterfall in Raumelf, now called Sarp, ii. 7833 

. 12 1419 

SARPSBURG (Sarpsborg), or, short, Burg (Borg), a fort and 
market town on a ness cutting into the Raumelf from the 
north, by the great waterfall Sarp, founded by Olaf the Holy 

ii- 7838-794 I02 i *44 2 35 Z 49 6 *5 2 9 2II so 2 57 5 2 5 8 s 26 7io 333ia 

334 6 353 9 ui. 18333 2 77is 24 2 78 17 3*98 4<56 5 
SAUDUNGSOUND (SauSungssund), now Sauesund, the 

southern inlet to Dalefirth in the district of Fialir, between 

Atli's isle and the mainland, ii. 303^ 32 30 
SAURBY (Saurbser), a countryside within the bailiwick of 

Dalasysla, Western Iceland, iii. 338 r 
SAURBYES(Saurbseir),now Sorbo, a homestead in the northern 

SAU SEA] Index II 275 

part of middle Bohuslan, towards its eastern frontier, Sweden, 
iii. 4195 

SAURLITHE (SaurhlfiS), slope by the river Nid, near the 
southern boundary of Nidoyce as it was in 1030, ii. 448 25 

SAUR'S HOWE (Saurshaugr), now Saxhougen (Sakshauger) 
on Inner-Isle, Thrandheim, i. i62 5 . 6 

SAXLAND, the land inhabited by Saxons, North-western Ger- 
many, i. i $19 20 49r 6 4 2 5 I28 25 I 34 24 2 53is 2 55i 2 2(5 4 23 3 02 i 
ii. Si! in. 25 22 34 n 

SAXON-LAND, see Saxland. 

SCILLY, Scillies (Syllingar), the Scilly Islands, i. 26i 28 262 15 19 

SCANIA, see Skaney. 

SCARBOROUGH (SkafSaborg), Yorkshire, iii. i66 u 
SCOTLAND (Skotland), i. ii5 26 29 n6 21 i28 27 i32 23 1529 1539 
i55c 12 ^ao 2 6i 18 ii. i68 l7 25 I74 15 i8o 12 i87 24 i88 15 2S3 24 

254 34 ill. 2I 2 l66 222 2 y 22 4si 32 225 n 2 39(5 33 7 18 3685 

SCOTLAND'S-FIRTHS (SkotlandsfirSir), iii. 22i 24 225 17 
SCRATCH-SKERRY (Skrattasker, from skratti, a sorcerer, a 
fiend, cf. Engl. * old Scratch '), a tide- washed rock by the isle 
of Kormt, where Olaf Tryggvison caused Eyvind Wellspring 
and his fellow wizards to be engulfed by the tide, i. 31435 
SEAHAM (Sseheimr), now Saem, or, more commonly, Jarls- 
berg, a homestead a short distance to N.W. from Tunsberg, 
Norway, i. i 3 s ls 15 24 

SEAHAM (Sseheimr), one of K. Har. Hairfair's manors, now 
Seim (or Saeim), on the north side of the Osterfirth (north 
of Bergen), almost opposite Hammer on the island of Ostero, 
i. i37ao J 33 14 i88 25 

SEAHOME-DERNE (SseheimruS), uncertain, iii. 383^ 
SEALAND (Sjaland), the later name for Selund, q.v., of the 
Danish island of Saelland, i. 27o 12 ii. 3124 12 3253^ 29 iii. 33 80 

3^8 39i 42 84 43i? 24 44s 4^ 73 22 98 12 i3 2 s I 4 2 26 3i7 28 
SEALAND (Sjaland), the littoral on the Bothnian Bay of the 

part of Svijjjd^ (Sweden in a narrow sense) called Upland, 

ii. ii2 26 
SEAL-ISLES (Seleyjar), a group of islands N.W. of Lidandis- 

ness, Norway, ii. 354^ iii. 3924 
SEAL- WOUND (Sel-mem), a poet's etymology of the name of 

276 Index II [SEA SIL 

the Danish, island Selund, q.v. (sel = seal, mein = und = 
wound), i. i57 18 

SEAWOODSOUND (SjavrSarsund), the Golden Horn, Con- 
stantinople, iii. 75! 

SEINEWATER (Signa), now Seine, river in France, ii. 22 9 
SELE (Saela), now Saelo (Sselo kloster), on the south side of 

Cape Stad, Norway, ii. 30^ 9 

SELI APOOL (Seliupollar), uncertain where in France, ii. i g 2l 2o 3 

SELUND, the oldest name of the Danish island of Saelland (cf. 

Silund, Sjaland), i. i5 31 i6 5 24^ 4 5 14 47^ 1574 22 as l6o i6 

SEL-WATERDALE (Selardalr), a homestead on the western 
side of ArnarfjorSr in the bailiwick of Barftastrandar-sjfsla, 
North-western Iceland, iii. 37 24 

SERKLAND THE GREAT (Serkland hit mikla), the great 
land of the Saracens, North Africa, i. n 16 iii. 634 5 10 70*- 

252 19 28l 82 282 15 287 34 

SHAW (Sk6gr), now Skog, a homestead on the eastern shore 
of the western branch of Lake Miors near its northern term- 
ination, in the extreme north of Heathmark, Norway, iii. 

44^8 455i9 
SHEPPEY-SOUND (Fdeyjarsund), the sound between the 

island of Frsedi and the island Fey (Sheppey), now Flad- 

seto, west of the former, i. 176^-1?^ 
SHETLAND (Hjaltland), i. ii3 24 ii5 19 n6 14 iS5 3 -ii. 69 10 

i84 10 i87 31 i88 13 iii. i65 29 
SHIFTSAND (Skiptisandr), on the eastern side of the lake 

Rand or Randwater, in the district of Land, iii. 3S2 13 
SHIP-CROOK (Skipakr6kr), a locality by Nidoyce, i. 321^ 
SHOOTER'S FORD (Skjdtansva^), a ford over a river in 

Jutland, i. 32 16 cf. Weaponford 
SICILY (Sikiley), iii. 6 3ri6 64,. 75 2r 2 3 7 16 255 1127 
SIDON (Ssett), iii. 2 5 7 30 2 5 8 12 
SIGTOWN, SIGTUN (Sigtiinir), name both of the territory 

Odin secured in Sweden and of the capital thereof (Ancient 

Sigtown, near the present Signildsberg on the Sigtunaf jard, 

Malaren), i. i6 22 26 52 12 ii. 7 9 hi. 4 3 v 6 14 77 5 14 
SIL (Sil), now Sel, a small countryside on the north side of 

Low-water opposite to Vagi, in northern Gudbrandsdale, 

Norway, ii. 202 6 

SIL SKA] Index II 277 

SILI, an island, now possibly Selaon in the Malaren Lake, 

62 16 

SILUND, see Selund. 

SILWALLS (Silvellir), plains in the countryside of Sil, ii. 202 12 

SINHOLMSOUND (Smhplmssund), a strait between ' Senhol- 
men ' and the ' mainland in the district of Ask void in northern 
Bergenhus governorship' (Storm), iii. 282 18 

SKJEREID (SkaerefS), e at Skiringsal,' i. 67 2G 68 5 'Where 
this Sksereid has been located is not known with certainty 
now. But seeing that one MS. in this passage also has the 
reading SsererS (i.e. Ssevar-ei^), one is led to think of the 
homestead Sjavaristra or Saevaristra (now Sorist) in Thjoling. 
. . . This homestead lies even on the "eid" ( = isthmus) be- 
tween ViggVfirth and Sand-firth. Not far from there, at the 
mouth of the Vigg's-firth the port of Skirmgsal must have 
been situated, where even to this day the name of Kaupang 
(Cheaping) reminds of it.' Munch, * Hist.-geogr. Beskrivdse 
over . . . Norge,' 171. 

SKALHOLT (Skalaholt), the then southern cathedral see of 
Iceland, in the district of Biskupstungur, within 'Arnessysla 
in Southern Iceland, iii. 3363 u 

SKANEY (Skaney, Skani), nowSkane, the southernmost province 
of Sweden, Danish possession till 1660, i. 63 1119 i55 10 i57 30 
25420 2 55s2724 27*27 2734^31215 3*922 32o 3 325 728 33i 24 

ni - 33ir 27 3 8 io 44 3 4 45si 4727 48 6 u 49s 28 7 8 is 923 93is 29 
SKANEY-SIDE, side of Skaney (Skaneyjarsi^a), the eastward 

sea-board of Skaney, i. i57 30 81 258^ iii. 49 10 ie 88 
SKARAR, now Skara, a city of West Gautland, Sweden, ii. 

SKARNSOUND (Skarnsund), the sound which divides the 
Inner-isle in Thrandheim-firth from the western shore, ii. 

SKARPA, now Skorpo in Korsfjord (the broad north-western 
outlet from Bjornefjord), a small island east of the southern 
end of the large isle called Stor Sartor in southern North- 
Hordland, Norway, iii. 45834 

SKARPSKERRIES (Skorpusker), on the east coast of Eng- 
land, apparently; unknown? iii. 376 1318 

r. SKAUN, now 'Skogn i Indherred,' Upper Thrandheim, i. 

97s ii- 7H) 

278 Index II [SKA SMA 

2. SKAUN, now the parish of Stange, on the eastern side of 
the lower Miors lake in Heathmark, Norway, i. 225^ 226 14 

3. SKAUN, now Skogn or Borse-Skogn, a countryside in lower 
Orkdale on the eastern side of the valley, ii. 46 10 15 

SKERDING-STITHY (SkerSingssteBja), a manor on the river 

Gaul in lower Gauldale, i. 292^ 3193 
SKEGGI'S-HOWE, by Eastairt in Yriar, Outer Thrandheim, 

i- 3 2 3i-s 
SKERF-SCREE (Skerfsur^S), now Skjers-Urden, in Waldale 

in Todarfirth, Southmere, Norway, ii. 36333 36521 
SKIRINGSAL (Skiringssalr), Othere's Sciringesheal (cf. 
Alfred's 'Orosius,' introd.), a trading port in the south of 
Norway situated in a locality of the same name. * Properly 
it was the name of a district in the south-western part of 
Westfold, now called Thioling-parish, between the mouth of 
the river Laagen and Sandf jord, but the locality of the trad- 
ing port is still recognizable by the name Kaupang (Kaup- 
angr = Cheaping) of a farmstead by the firth called Viksfjord, 
which cuts eastwards out from Larviksfjord.' Cf. Munch, 
* Hist.-geogr. Beskrivdse over . . . Norge,' p. 30, and his 
c Sarnlede Afhandlinger,' ii. 352 foil., i. 67 26 68 6 Cf. Sksereid. 
SKOT, now Skot, Skottet, a homestead on a promontory where 
the eastward continuation of Storfjord, the Nordfjord, takes 
a sharp bend to the south into Slyngsfjord, Southmere, 
Norway, ii. 363^ 
SKOTBURG-WATER (Skotborgara), now Kongeaaen, South 

Jutland, iii. 34 19 
SKURBAGA (Skiirbagar), a homestead, uncertain which, in 

the neighbourhood of Kings' Rock, hi. 328 23 329^ 330,, 
SKULI'S-GARTH(Skiilagar^r),aresidenceinNidoyce,iii.2o62 1 
SKUTA (Skiita), a river, beside which Vanland was burned, i. 

SKY (SkfS), the Isle of Skye, Invernesshire, Scotland, iii. 222^ 
SLESWICK (Stesvik), now Schleswig, N. Germany, iii. 262 14 
SLESWICK, read rather Sleswickbay (S16), now Slienfjord, a 

long narrow inlet running in south-westerly direction in 

from the southern end of the Broad-Belt up to the town of 

Sleswick, i. 257 13 
SMALLANDS (Smalond), now Smaland, a province of Sweden 

on the south of Oster-Gotland, ii. 3335- iii. 28433 28533 24 25 

SMA SOT] Index II 279 

SMALSHORN (Smalsarhorn), now Hornelen, a sheer crag at 
the easternmost point of the island called Brimangrsland, now 
Bremanger, divided by the outer reaches of Nordfjord from 
the southern extremity of the peninsula of Stad in Firthfolk, 

- i9 
SNOS (Snos), a homestead at the head of a lake of the same 

name, in north-eastern Thrandheim, the countryside about 

the lake also bearing the same name; all three now called 

Snaas(en), ii. 48333 486 10 
SOGN, Sognfolk (Sogn, Sygnafylki), a folkland of Norway ex- 

tending over the basin of the Sogn-sea (Sogn-firth), i. 79 12 14 

22 25 3i I0 4i2 u 15 I 3 I 29 I 5 6 i 2 4o 2 r 244 26 245^ 246 15 2 67 28 

38 21 353is 37^1n. 3020 232^111. 22 10 238 29 3449 394l7 
SOGN-FIRTH, see foil. 
SOGN-SEA (Sognsser), the Sognefjord, Norway, i. 245 32 3o8 13 

ii. 2i2 5 2133 
SOKENSOUND (S<5knarsund), now Sokkensund (Munch), the 

sound which bounded on the south by the peninsula of 

Tungunes, now Tungenes, affords a N.W. passage into 

Stavanger harbour, ii. 46435 
SOLI (S61i), now Sole, the manor of Erling Skialgson, situate 

on the isthmus between the head of Hafursfirth and the 

ocean, in the district of Jadar in Rogaland, Norway, i. 303 28 

ii. 2i7 15 2i8 n 26833 35934 hi. io6 24 3$6 8 
SOL-ISLES (S61eyjar), now Solor, a district of Norway on the 

north-east of Raumrick, i, 65 28 25 30 6y 9 12 ii. 210^ 
SOLSKEL, now Solskelo, in ^do parish, off the coast of the 

southern part of Northmere, i. ioo 4 io2 5 
SOLUNDS (S61undir), now Sulendoer, a group of islands off the 

mouth of Sognfirth in Norway, i. 267 26 iii. 1633 22 
SOLVI (Solvi), now Selven, a manor south-east from Agdanes 

on the southern shore of outermost Thrandheim, i. 1364 
SORRELDALE (Siirnadalr), now Surendal, a valley in the 

southern part of Northmere, running N.E. up from Siirna- 

fjorSr (Sorrelfirth) toward Orkdale, ii. 279^ 
SOTANESS (S6tanes), now Sotenaset, a ness in Ranrick, or 

the present Goteborgs och Bohuslan, on the east side of the 

Wick, i. 1723 211^ 
SOTISKER (S6tasker), islands in the Swedish archipelago 

(Sviasker) off the coast of Southmanland (Sodermanland), 

280 Index II [sou STA 

where King Olaf the Holy fought his first battle with the 

viking Soti, from whom, apparently, the skerries got their 

name, ii. 6 ir 7 3 
SOUTHDALE (Sunndalr), a district bordering on the Vener- 

lake, southern Dalsland, Sweden, lii. 226 19 
SOUTH-ISLES, Southern isles (SuSreyjar), Sodor, Hebrides, 

i. 113^ ii5 23 u8 21 153 921 2 6i 20 2Qo 19 ii. i88 14 -in. 2i 3 22i 20 

22 3s 10 22 5o 16 2 39 5 2 9Sio 37* 2 2 424 3 r 
SOUTHLAND (SuSrland), Sutherland in Scotland, i. n6 22 

ii. i7o lc 1713 in the latter two cases Sunderland is a mistake. 
SOUTHLANDS (SuSrlond), Mediterranean countries, iii. .63 18 
SOUTHMANLAND (Suftrmannaland), now Sodermanland, a 

province of Sweden on the south side of the lake Malaren, 

i. 58 6 . T ii. ii2 21 

SOUTH-MERE (Sunnmaeri), see Mere. 
SOUTHROP (SuSaforp), now Suderup, S. Jutland, iii. 9i 10 
SOUTHWARK (Su^rvirki), in London, fortified by the Danes, 

SOUTHWICK^Su^rvik), a bight in the island called Holmen 
in the bay of Ringkobing on the western coast of Jutland, 

u '- "IB SB 
SPAIN (Spdnn), iii. 25o 12 13 30 2513 n 13 37i 26 

SPAREBY, Sparbiders-folk (Sparabii, Sparbyggja-fylki), now 
Sparbuen, a folkland round the head of Thrandheim-firth, 
i. 97 9 i6r 19 i62 20 ii. 2764 

SPAREBIDERS, see Spareby. 

1. STAD (Sta'Sr), now Stadtlandet or Cap Stadt, the western- 
most peninsula and promontory of Southmere, i. io3 10 m 18 

I 7 2 ^ I75 25 17^2729 2I 3262930 23C 4 3 1 2 44l8 25 2 45s 31 2 7528 

2 77 22 3oS 20 309^ ii. 3O 7 2io 29 3io 19 348^ 35135 36i 30 iii. 348^ 

2. STAD (Sta^Sr), now Stadsbygden, parish in the bailiwick of 
Fosen, on the northern side of Thrandheim-firth, i. i36 16 

STAFANGER, see Stavanger. 

STAFF (Stafr), a homestead, now disappeared, in Verdale, 

i. I70 19 ii. 398 18 4 4 6 21 
STAFFBRENT (Stafabrekka), now Stavebrekke, a mountain 

pass south-east of Loradale m the northern parts of Gud- 

brandsdale, ii. i99 28 
STAFFMERE (Stafamyrar), bog-lands at the homestead of 

Staff in Verdale, Upper Thrandheim, ii. 398 19 

STA STI] Index II 281 

STAFFNESS-BAY (Stafanessvagr), now Stangfjord, the north- 
westernmost baylet in the district of Fialir, i. ic>4 18 1053 

STAMFORD BRIDGE (StanforSa-bryggjur), on the river 
Derwent, N.E. of York, iii. i69 13 

STAUR (Staurrinn), uncertain; the south-eastern point of the 
island of Femern (off the north-easternmost point of Wagrien 
in Holstein), which is called Staver or Staber (huk) has been 
suggested, as well as the north-easternmost point of Rugen, 
Stubben-Cammer, i. 346 18 

1. STAVANGER (Stafangr), now Byfjorden, on which is the 
city of Stavanger, Norway, iii. 27 23 

2. STAVANGER (Stafangr), the city of Stavanger, on the 
eastern side of the northernmost peninsula of Jadar, Roga- 
land, Norway, iii. 3o8 18 324^ 

STEADS (Bies on the map, Bsear), now Bo, cluster of home- 
steads in Lesiar, Gudbrandsdale, Norway, ii. i99 26 

STANGS (Stangir), now Stange, homestead and countryside in 
Vingulrnark, now Smaalenene, Norway, iii. 477 16 

1. STEIG, a manor on Angle-isle in Halogaland, iii. 48i 15 

2. STEIG, a manor-house in the southern countryside of Froen 
on the northern side of the Low-water, Upper Gudbrandsdale, 
Norway, ii. 248 31 iii. 84 25 

STEINKER, an ancient trading station at the head of Thrand- 
heim-firth (favoured by the earls Eric and Svein, to the dis- 
advantage of Nidoyce, which Olaf Tryggvison founded), ii. 

4^26 492 58 14 

STICKLESTEAD (StiklastaSir), now Stiklestad, a homestead 
in lower Verdale, Upper Thrandheim, Norway, ii. 409 6 30 
4io 81 4154 425 16 428 18 433 23 440^ 4463 447 81 4497 4505 454 28 

4^716 I"- I2 5 l8 25 *9sz 26i4 2i 22 ^ 5^ 12 i85 20 4283 42912 
STIFLA-SOUND (Stfflusund), some inlet near the royal manor 

of Geirstead and the old market-place of Skiringsal, on West- 

fold, i. 71^ 72 U 
STIM (Stimr), a peninsula which marks the boundary between 

Romsdale and Northmere, ii. 3523 iii. 2843 
STIORADALE, see foil. 
STIORDALE (Stj6radalr), now Stjordalen, Mid-Thrandheim, 

i- 97 2 20 5 4 " 5i3 ^^is 

STIORNVELTA, an unknown place, but apparently north 
of, and not far from, Biorgvin, iii. 4033 

282 Index II [sxo SUN 

STODREIM (StcxSreimr), a manor situated in the neighbour- 
hood of Naustdal on the northern shore of Eidsfjord, an 
eastern continuation of Nordfjord, Firthfolk, Norway, iii. 

STOCK-SOUND (Stokksund), supposed to be the narrow out- 
let from the lake Skarfven into the Malar Lake, called Staket 
(or Almare-Staket), i. 33 24 34 16 ii. 7 15 19 32 

1. STONE (Steinn), a homestead on the Ness (Bynsesset), in 
Thrandheim, ii. 72 23 

2. STONE (Steinn, at Steini), a place in Ringrick, Norway, i. 

8? 2 

3. STONE (Steinn), a place in 'the east parts of Sweden,' /.*., 

Scythia Magna, Godhome, i. 26 2 

4. STONE (Steinn, at Steini), a district in Esthonia, i. 53 ir 81 
STONEBIGHT (Steinavagr), a strait running between the 

islands of Aspo and Heso near Aalesund, Norway, ii. 362^ 

iii. 4442 
STONEBERG (Steinbjorg), cliffs in the neighbourhood of 

Nidoyce, iii. 207^ 
STORD (StorS), an island, now called Stord-oen, off South- 

Hordland, i. iSij I9O 26 
STREAMISLE (Straumey) now Stromo, one of the middle 

group of the Faroe isles, ii. 304^ 30533 
STREAMISLE-NESS (Straumeyjar-nes), unknown locality in 

Denmark, i. 39 10 24 26 
STRIND, the principal district of Strindfolk, in Thrandheim, 

east of Nidoyce, i. 3i8 12 ii. 72-^ Q3 16 (where, as pars pro toto, 

it stands for Norway). 
STRIND-FOLK (Strindafylki), a petty kingdom on the south 

side of Thrandheim-firth, i. g6 BQ 97 X ii. 47 25 
STRIND-LAND - Strind. 
STUDLA (Stu^la, al. Sto^la), now Stole, a manor in the district 

of Etne in South-Hordland, i. 353 12 iii 37 J i5 39 r 6 
SULA (Siila), a homestead in uppermost Verdale, ii. 3975 437 2 o 

iii. i8 31 
SULT, now Sylte, at the head, or nearly so, of TodarfjorSSr, 

now Tafjord, the easternmost offshoot of Storfjord, Raums- 

dale, Norway, ii. 36333 3735 
SUNBERG (S61bjargir), a homestead apparently a short way 

to the north-east of the town of Kings' Rock, iii. 32833 333 24 

SUN swi] Index II 283 

SUNDERLAND, ii. I7o 10 17x3 read Southland, q.v. 
SVAVA (Svafa), Schwaben, Swabia, Germany, iii. 2623 
SVIMR-OYCE (Svimrar6ss), now Simrishamn on the east coast 

of Southern Skaney, Sweden, iii. 285^ 
SVOLD-MOUTH (Svoldrar mynni), the mouth of a river which 

the poet Skuli Thorsteinson knew by the name of Svold, i. 

SVOLD (Svold, Svold), not an island, as Snorri supposes, but 

a river port (cf. Svold-mouth) a short distance west of the 

island of Rugen (Storm), i. 3615 $62 6 
SWANFIRTH the Southmost (AlptafjorSr hinn sySri), the 

southernmost bay of the bailiwick of South-Miilas^sla in 

Eastern Iceland, i. 323^ 
SWEDEN (Svfyjd*): 

1. SWEDEN the Great or Cold (Svi]?j6 : S hin mikla e^a 
hin kalda), Scythia, Svifjd^ being a mere imitative corrup- 
tion of Scythia, by means of folk-etymology, qs. Svia $6%, 
Scythia Magna of the ancients, i. n u -i2 9 155 also called 
Godhome, 2i 16 2533-26! 

2. SWEDEN, Swede-realm, in a limited sense (Svtyjdft, 
Sviaveldi, once Svfariki; terms mostly synonymous, though 
of different extent of meaning at different times: anciently 
the land and dominion of the Sviar, as distinguished chiefly 
from the Gautar, their neighbours to the south and west ; 
later the land over which the dominion of the master-kings 
of Upsala extended, when the tribal kingdoms had been 
turned into tributary earldoms or provinces), i. 2o 21 2i 15 20 
2 4i2 2529 27 4 3 2 21 3 6 4 383 3934 4 o 2 42 9 24 44 10 45 18 28 4 7 1S 4 8 12 

4923 29 59 5*27 80 5 2 7 18 53s-0 11 S4g 10 15 16 if 27 31 55s 5 6 12 
57 12 14 15 81 59l5 6 39 6 4 2 2-S4: 66 28 94l5 2I2 22 26 22 524 22 7l8 25 

28 4i2 16 2 %5u 21 28 7i2 2 99is 3 I2 i4-i5 345io-28 347s 34^3 20 

35924 81 u - 529 6 14 18 7e 27 6 5ll 66 79 916 97l3 IJI 2631 II2 3 6 
12 20 25 29 IJ 324 IJ 426 II 523 I3C 92 8 I2O 21 Z 4925 J 5320 I 54i 6 17 

i56 6 i6s 18 2io 12 256 16 22 257 16 3335 368^ 369^ 386 29 3874 
3 8 9 2 s 39i 20 so 39i s 27 39 2 25 27 4oo 28 4i6 26 466 25 m. 3 ir 4 7 8 
6 ]6 io 4 i4ft 153 33 

22< 5 8 12 2 33 6 28 4 2 7 si 42639 4 28 10 47 8 24 4*i 
SWEDE-SKERRIES (Svfasker), the archipelago to the east of 

Stockholm, Stockholms skargSrd, ii. 83^ 
SWINESOUND (Svinasund), now Svinesund, the narrowest 

284 Index II [SYR THI 

part of Hringdals-fjorSr, which cuts into the land from 
Whaleisles between Vingulmark and Elf home or Ranrealm, i. 

iSi7 21 13128 377 2 r " 7^i 25-26 
SYRIA-LAND (Borland), Syria, iii. 2S7 80 

SYSLA, see Adals^sla. 

TANABRANCH (Tanakvisl) = Tanais, q.v., i. i2 4 u 

TANAIS, the river Don of Southern Russia, i. i2 4 . 9 

TAUR (Taurr), now Sodertorn, a peninsula south of Stock- 
holm, between Morkofjard to the west and the Baltic to the 
east, i. 34 16 26 

TENTHLAND (Tiundaland), O.Sw. Tiohundareland, (?) the 
land of 'ten hundreds 7 '; Snorri erroneously supposes that the 
name meant ' Tithe- land * : a part of the Swedish province 
of Upland, i. 43 16 55 10 353i " ** 2 24 23 IX 3i4 ir 20 

TENTSOUND (Tjaldasund), now Tjeldesund, a strait on the 
eastern side of Hin island in Halogaland, dividing from it the 
island now called Tjeldo, iii. 356 01 

THAMES (Temps), ii. i3 10 15^ 

THEKSDALE (Jpeksdalr), now Teksdalen, a valley formed by 
the river now called Bredes Elv, running north to Jossund 
through the western parts of the Fosen peninsula, north of 
Outer Thrandheim-firth, iii. 2io 28 

THELMARK (JJelamork), now Telemarken, an island folk- 
land of Norway surrounded by Hordaland N.W,, Numdale 
N.E. and E., Grenland E. and Agdir S. and W., i. in 6 n 
I 3iir 353 6 SL 39^4 48o 14 486 29 

THINGNESS (]?inganes), now Dingenes, the ness on which the 
great folk-mote of Gulathing was held, on the south side of 
the mouth of the Sognfirth, i. 246^ 

THING-WALL (Jpingvollr), name of the lava-plains where the 
Althing of Iceland congregated yearly from 930-1800, ii. 241^ 

THIODA (JPjd^a), now Ty or Tyland, tracts in north-western 
Jutland, Denmark (not in the east, as Snorri surmises), iii. 

9 8 18 21 

THIOTANDI (Jbj6tandi), 'a point of the mainland ' (the pen- 
insula of Okseno) 'jutting out just opposite Nyrvi ' (the island 
now called Norve) (Munk), north-west of Borgund, in South 
Mere. ' In the older saga more correctly Jprj6tshverfl, now 
Kverven, the westernmost ness on Ellingsoen' (suggests 
Storm), ii. 3633 

THI THU] Index II 285 

THIOTTA ()Pj6tta), now Tjotto, island in Southern Haloga- 
land, i. 309^ 324 24 3273 8 10 21 3293 ii. i89 22 25 190^ I9i 13 
19830 237s 2 ? 2 n 332s 33 2 i7 333s 347 12 349i 38i 4 3885 4203 
423 8 434i3 m - *7i7 

THORSHAVEN (J?6rshofn), now Thorshavn, the capital of 
the Faroe islands, situated on the eastern side of Stromo 
(Straumey) towards the southern end of it, ii. 304^ 

THORSCLIFF (J?6rsbjorg), now Thorshaug, in the parish of 
Stadsbygden in Fosen, on the northern side of Thrandheim- 
firth, i. i36 16 

THOTN ()?6tn), a district on the west side of Miorswater, in 
southern Norway^ i. 67 22 24 68 3 72 25 79 4 9 3 6 i 3 i 21 ii. 4 ! 2(J 
209 15 234 12 249 10 iii. 483^ 

THRALLS' BERG (Jpraelaberg), by the town of Oslo, Norway, 
iii. 42435 426 21 

THRANDHEIM (Jprandheimr), the basin of Thrandheim-firth, 
anciently containing eight folklands or petty kingdoms: Isle- 
folk, Spareby, Verdale, Skaun, Strind, Stiordale, Gaudale, and 
Orkdale, i. 96 19 97 14 16 98 17 99 29 ioo 21 31 ioi 4 io3 14 28 io5 n 
n23 29 13133 i37 13 18 14130 142 15 144-r *49i4 I Si 24 i5S 2 9 ^^ 

1<5l 4 18 22 1<5 4l9 30 l6 7] 5 I 7H 17^0 15 19 21 I 97l7 I 99l'7 21 
202 12 w 203 28 205 2r 29 2o6 g 26 28 2o8 4 2I3 W 23 2I4 5 ^ 25 30 2l6 20 

2I 7 2 3 2T 2 32 23930 2 4I 3 28 2 43S2 24423 2 59 5 2 73 2 1 32 283^ 

2994 3* 6 i<>..25 3i9g 28 32^15 326 32739 3345 345^ 3 5 3g 3545 
37726 32 n - 22 30 47i9 23 4&J5 5^8 21 5 2 22 54 22 63 22 64 21 25 65 2r 
66 12 675 d 68 16 72 2S 73 6 8o u i67 16 i89 8 20 i 9 2 21 26 31 i 934 ir 
I94 20 1982 1995 2ii 2C 234 2(5 240 15 242 10 266 82 274 16 27535 2764 
91723 28 3 2 4 28 4i 2 287 15 302 21 343^ 347 18 348^ 36o 18 3 6i 32 34 
372io 374 3 37Su 388 16 396 22 397^ 4Oo ir 402 29 4 i6 28 4i7 8 

45r 45 2 4 10 454 4 c 45 8 9 46312 m - 6 2 r 7 5 24 ^20 4o 3 2 8 7 23 
io6 4 io7 24 in 10 H4 8 24 I28 26 I45 20 i65 ir 2os u 17 2063 19 
2io 623 2ii x 2i3 22 2I 7ir 2 74i6 3 2 *8 347s 23 34832 3^8 10 37 
3922 39 2 22 402 40710 4*5u 25 4i6 20 43813 440 24 4417 457i7 

THRANDHEIM-MOUTH (Jprandheims-mynni), between Ag- 

dirness and Yrjar, iii. 3584 359^ 
THRANDNESS (^randarnes), now Trondenses, on the N.E. 

side of the Hinnisle in Halogaland, ii. 2i4 22 239 14 
THUMLA, better Thumli (>umli), locality on the island of 

Rising, iii. I3i 31 

286 Index II [THU UPD 

THUNDERMEAD (ftrii'Svangr), Thor's Swedish home, i. i6 29 

THURSO (J?6rsa), a town at the mouth of Thursowater, north- 
western Caithness, Scotland, iii. 374 28 

TIREY (Tyrvist), Tiree, island west of Mull, Argyleshire, Scot- 
land, iii. 222 8 

TODAR-FIRTH (ToftarfjorSr), now Tafjord, the innermost 
part of Norddalsfjord, which, in its turn, is the continuation 
of Storfjorden, South Mere, Norway, ii. 363-^ 372^ 

TOFTS (Jpoftar), now Tofte (Toftemoen ?), in the parish of 
Dovre, in north Gudbrandsdale, Norway, i. 1199 

TONGUES (Tungur), islands off Tungenses, north-west of Star 
vangar, ii. 3573 17 

TRYGGVFS CAIRN (Tryggva-hreyr), the mound raised over 
K. Tryggvi Olafsson on Tryggvi's-isle (Tryggvaey), on the 
western side of Sotaness, Bohuslan, Sweden, i. 2ii 20 . 21 

TUMATHORP (Tumaforp), now Tommarp, a village a short 
distance S.W. of Simrishamn (Svimr-oyce), Sweden, iii. 285^ 

TUNSBERG (Tiinsberg), now Tonsberg, the chief trading sta- 

tion in Westfold, i. 1059 io8 28 i23 25 1249 i34 20 21 144^ a 

2ii 26 24033 3i2 18 ii. 5 4l8 75 30 1275 130^ i 3 3 13 i67 M 2io 24 

2i2 30 249 13 25235 345 8 348 15 352 31 353 26 m. i83 33 31335 319^ 

352 4 354 2 4 36729 43 8 25 44Qir so 448 24 45e 455is 46^15 4^6 4 

47o 8 4849 487 6 
TURKLAND (Tyrkland), the Seldjukian empire of Asia 

Minor, established 1073, i. 15^ 25 26 
TUSKALAND (Tiiskaland), Tourrame in France, ii. 2i 4 
ULFREKSFIRTH ('Ulfreksfjor^Sr), Lough Larne, in north- 
eastern Ireland, ii. i37 14 i74 20 
ULLERACRE (Ullarakr), the seat of Princess Ingigerd, existing 

no more, was situated near the spot where the present castle of 

Upsala stands, ii. ii4 29 iiSwis l6 3is 
ULLERS-ACRE, see Ulleracre. 
ULSTER ('Ulaztir), Ireland, iii. 239^ 19 26 
UNARHEIM, now Onereim, a homestead on the eastern side 

of Tysnseso in Bjornefjord, South-Hordland, Norway, iii. 

UPDALE (Updalr), the uppermost part of Orkdale in Thrand- 

heim, Norway, ii. 45 30 
UPDALE-WOODS (Uppdals-sk6gr), the woodland of Updale, 

the highest part of southern Orkdale, i. 999 ii. 

UPH VAL] Index II 287 

UPHOWE (Upphaugr), now Ophaug, a manor in Yrjar, i. 277 21 

UPLANDS (Uplond), a collective term for the five folklands: 
Hadaland, Heathmark, Raumrick, Gudbrandsdale and East- 
dales, in Norway: i. 67 20 72 24 78 29 8o 3 9 2 2426 95 12 uo 22 115^ 

II9 8 I2I n I33 22 T 44 3 I 51525 I 5I 4 ?4 20 9l4 2I0 4 2I2 15 22 5 4 

2 73 2 o 2 77i6 28 3so 28 7 9 28 9 2 <> 2 99n u- 4o 10 4i 2 i 45 2 3 IOI sa28 so 
io 32 i26 18 i 9 2 30 I99 17 2io 20 234 14 2 4 8 5789 2 5 8 r 337^ 33 8 8 

34326 3927 4i6 4* 8 23 454 5 in- 8 7 2 o I0 5i7 ro< 5 2 o II]c 3i *447 
I 4 6 4 1 49l4 205 22 2io 3 2794 28 3e 315^ 349^ 19 3 8i n 385^ 447l9 

448 ld 457 16 474 20 25 477^ 4 8 3 2 9 

UPSALA (Upsalir), now Gamla Upsala, some 3^ miles to the 
N.E. of the present university town, i. 4 20 i6 28 22 2629 24 20 

2 6 28 2 7s 2 9l2 17 311 3 6 18 40 6 28 4 2 2 12 14 15 17 22 27 30 43l5 18 4<5 W 
.519 5 I 5 22 S5lO 15 57lO 11 14 25 27 5 8 12 6l 25 62 7 66 31 93 3 2I 39~ 

ii. 97 U 98 X in 28 H2 r303233 ii3 12 ii4 2r is6 10 
VADLA (Va^la), a river, uncertain which, running by Borro, 

Norway, i. 69 13 25 
VAGA, see foil. 
VAGAR (Vagar), now Vaagen, on the south of the island now 

called Ostvaago, on the S. W. side of Hmn isle in Halogaland, 

Norway, i. 3093311. 238^ 288 4 m. 263^ 357 20 
VAGI (Vagi), a countryside along the lake Vagi ( Vaage Vand), 

formed by the river Otta in northern Gudbrandsdale, ii. 2oo 10 

202 2 5 204 19 

VAGI-ROOST (Vagarost), the countryside between the eastern 
end of the lake Vdgi (Vaage Vand), and the Low river, through 
which the lower Otta flows, Upper Gudbrandsdale, Norway, 

ii. 202 6 

VALDRES (not Valldres), now Valdres or Valders, a district 
east of Sognfolk bounded to the north by Gudbrandsdale, to 
E. by Land and Ringrick, to S. by Haddingdale, i. 93 18 282 29 
ii. 4i 27 232^ 233 n 

VALHALL (Valholl), the Hall of Odin's Elect, i. 20^ i88 80 189 310 

VALLAND, France, chiefly Normandy, i. n8 22 128^ 26i 25 ii. 

I2 20 2I ir 23 2 7 2 s 2 9 2 31330 334iiii- i 2(5 3 I S7 18 2 37io 2 49 2 2 

VALSNESS (Valsnes), a place in the parish of Josund, lower 
Theksdale, on the N.W. side of the Fosen peninsula, North- 
Mere, Norway, iii. 3583 

288 Index II [VAN VET 

VANABRANCH (Vanakvf si) = Tanais, i. i2 5 
VANAMOUTHS, the outlets of the river Tanais into the Black 

Sea, i. i2 6 
VANG (Vangr), now Vossevangen, a homestead in the district 

of Vors in North-Hordland, Norway, ii. 23135 
VANHOME, see Vanland. 
VANLAND (Vanaland), or Vanhome (Vanaheimr), the land of 

the Vanir, between the mouths of the Tanais, i. 12^ i4g 25 81 
VARDYNIAR (VarSynjar), now Valbo (harad), a district m 

Dal or Dalsland, Sweden, iii. 226 19 
VARNA, now Rygge parish, in the so-called Smaalenene, Nor- 

way, i 68 26 28 
VARNESS (Varnes), now Vgernes, a homestead in Stiordale, in 

Upper Thrandheim, i. 170^ 319^ 
VEAR (Vear), now Vedbo harad, on the N.W. boundary of 

Northdale, in Dalsland, Sweden, in. 226 19 
VEBIORG (Vbjorg), now Viborg, a town in central Jutland, 

Denmark, iii. 28 20 923 
VEIGA, now Vegeno, an island in southern Halogaland, i. 

VE-ISLE (Vey), now Veo, in the mouth of the Langfjord, 

Raumsdale, Norway, iii. 442 25 445! 16 
VENDIL (Vendill and Vindill), now Vendsyssel, a district of 

North- Jutland, Denmark, i. 47 26 4833 68 29 i74 21 
VENDILSKAGI, now Skagen, the northernmost part of Jut- 

land, Denmark, iii. 98 18 99 S4 4s8 15 
VENER-LAKE, Vener-Water (Vsenir), now Venern in Vester- 

gotland, Sweden, i. 5o 16 65 13 66 20 no is ii. 76 20 iii. 149^ 

22 ^1618 31 22 7l8 

VERADALE, Verdale (Veradalr), now Vaerdalen, in Upper 
Thrandheim, i. 97^ i7o 19 ii. 69 29 I95 80 397 6 409^ 4i6 30 436^ 
437 1S 4463 

VERMLAND, Wermland (Vermaland), part of the present 
Swedish province of Varmland, a petty kingdom colonized 
out of wild woods by K. Olaf the Tree-shaver, i. 65 18 66 G 

68 12 13 ?2 26 I0 5l4 I0(5 9 14 16 Io8 19 20 IIO 19 ^ II2 13 15*19 

3*917 3929 U1 - J 46 r 226^ 

VETTLAND (Vettaland), a manor in northern Ranrealm, now 
Vattlanda, in the northern part of Goteborgs och Bohuslan, 
8o 4 iii, 

VIG WAL] Index II 289 

VIGG (Vigg), now Viggen, a homestead on the eastern side of 
Gaular6ss, the small bay that runs S.E. into Gauldale, Outer 
Thrandheim, Norway, i. 2925 

VIGG, now Viggen, in Borsen parish, on the eastern side of the 
Orkdale-firth, Outer Thrandheim, Norway, ii. 48 17 409^ iii. 

VIKARS-SKEID (VikarsskeiS), now SkeKS, which a sandy shore 
stretching westward from the mouth of Olfus-river (Olfusa) 
the main river of 'Arness-s^sla in Southern Iceland, is called, 

VIMUR (Vimr), a mythic river, iii. 

VINA, see Dwina. 

VINELAND THE GOOD (Vinland hit g6a), part of North 

America, discovered by Leif the Lucky, son of Eric the Red, 

VINGULMARK (Vingulmork), a district round the Oslo- or 
Christiania-firth, bounded east by the Raumriver, i. 7o 29 72 20 

77ie 20 8o r 25 93t I0 52T Io8 3o I 3 I ie I 5iiy 2 4ir 2 49is " 

I02 i 
VISKDALE (Viskardalr), a valley formed by the river Visk, 

now Viskan, in northern Halland, Sweden, iii 2o8 16 2r 
VIST (Ivist), now Uist, in Sodor (the text comprises under th$ 

name probably both North and South Uist), iii. 222 2 
VIST, now Viste, a place c in the northernmost tracts of Jadar* 

(Storm), Norway. F. J<5nsson localizes it in Raumsdale, iii. 

35 6 i4 

VLAKMEN'S LAND (B16kkumanna-land),Wallachia, iii. 42 9^ 
VOGAR, see Vagan 
VORS (Vors), a part of North-Hordland now called Voss y 

Norway, i. 2i6 2 ii. 89 6 23i 22 

VORVI (Vorvi), a place in Reith- Gothland, i. ^2 l 8 10 29 
VULGARIA, Greater Bulgaria, on the Volga, iii. 38 i n 
WAINWICKSTRAND (Vagnvikastrond), the coastal tract 

about the place now called Vagnvik in Stadsbygden on the 

northern side of outer Thrandheim-firth, North Mere, Nor- 

way, iii. 2io 26 
WALD (fyrir Valdi), a sea-port of Northumberland (?), ii. 295 

c Fyrir Valdi ' would seem to point to: 'off the Weald/ or 

* off the Wold.' Locality unverified. 
WALES, see Bretland. 

vi. u 

290 Index II [WAL WES 

WALL-DALE (Valldalr), on the northern side of Todarfirth, 
South Mere, Norway, ii. 363^ 372 2r 

WALLS (Veggir), now Vagga, on the south (east) side of Sota- 
ness, Sweden, i. 211^ 

WAMBHOLME (Vambarholmr), now Vomma or Vomba, a 
small island on the western side of Havnoen off the mouth 
of the Velfjord, Halogaland, Norway, lii. 2i2 6 

WARRAND (Varrandi), a trading town of Poitou, according 
to the saga, but = Guarande, a landscape in Southern Brit- 
tany? ii. 2o 80 2i n 

WATERBY (Vatsbii), now Vadsbo, a district in north-eastern 
West Gautland, Sweden, ii. 369^ 

WATERDALE (Vatsdalr), the midmost of three valleys which 
from south open into the HiinafjorSr in Hiinavatnssjfela, 
Northern Iceland, ii. 3732 

WEAPONFIRTH (Vapnafjor^r), a firth in north-eastern Ice- 
land, i, 268 29 26933 

WEAPONFORD (Vapnava'S), another name for Shooter's-ford, 

WAY-SOUND (Vegsund), now Vegsund, strait between the 
islands of Sula (Sulo) and Okseno, in South Mere, Norway, 

ii- 3^313 
WEATHER-ISLE (Ve^rey), now Vaderoarna, off the district of 

Kvildir (Qville) in Goteborgs och Bohuslan, Sweden, ii. 332 25 . 28 
WENDLAND (Vindland), the southern seaboard of the Baltic, 

from the river Weichsel west to Holstein, inhabited by the 

Slavonic race the Northmen called Wends (Vindr), i. 252 6 9 

2 54io 12 2 55 3 is 26o n 22 25 z6z u 2 7M 2 7*i 34^ 34923 2r 
35io 35.i 3 3S8 15 359ie 36o 10 15 3614 10 3 7S 21 33 3764-11. 1395 

17 449l2 11L 3 2 2 9 13 20 34 33ll 33327 2 

WESTP'IRTH (Vestfjor^r), in northern Halogaland, ii. 29i 6r 
WESTFOLD (Vestfold), folkland on the western side of the 

Fold, q.v., and its western offshoot, the Drafnfirth, i. 67 23 25 

68 is 20 25 707 7 2 i 8 77is 7S 9 86 2r 9i 20 24 929 io5 26 131^ 134^ 

1354 i 4 2 4 i5i 18 i 9 7 16 2 4 i r 28 48 ii. 33 30 3 4 4 
WESTLAND (Vestland), a seaside district on the island of 

Rugen, iii. 38 12 24 
WESTLANDS (Vestrlond), generally the British Isles in the 

widest sense, in a narrower sense the north British isles, i. 

"59 28 9s 34*24 iii- I22 22 

WES WOL] Index II 291 

WESTMANLAND (Vestmannaland), a province of Sweden 

on the west of Upland, ii. H2 22 
WESTMERE (Vestmarar), seemingly the coast district between 

Langesundsfjord in the east and East Agdir in the west, S. 

Norway, i. 7o 6 73 8 
WHALEISLES (Hvalir), now Hvaloerne, west of the mouth 

of Swinesound, belonging to Smaalenene, Norway, iii. 36i so 
WHARFNESS (Hvarfsnes), now Kvarven, the northern spur 

of the mountain now called Lyderhorn, west of Bergen, iii. 

WHITBY (Hvitabjfr), in Yorkshire, iii. 376! 6 

WHITING-ISLE (Hvitingsey), now Hvidingso, an island-group 
in the mouth of the large B^knarfjor^Sr, now Bukken-firth, 
N.W. of Stavanger, Norway, ii. 74 10 268 27 

WICK, The Wick (Vik, Vikin), a general territorial term for 
the folk-lands bordering on the bay of Fold, now Christiania- 
fjord, viz., Grenland, Westfold, Vingulmark and Elf homes, 
i. 1047 ios 9 12 24 ii5 4 6 nSj 3 i23 26 i 2 8 7 i 3422 i 4 2 9 12 

151827 15*8 I 56 9 loI5Si322 l6 ll 16 ^l* J 99ia 2O2 15 2 

2i2 4 2i3 13 2254 237 28 24o 22 242^ 299^ 3oo 8 3oi 132 g 
33i 4 is ir 3929 3"is 3i2 14 3i3 18 20 342 4 23 373 20 ii. 33ss 

547 16 SSl6 18 22 6 4l5 7522 26 30 77g 78 2r 799 8 21 8l 8 8 4 2 8 5g 

86 3 i26 29 i27 i44 2 i67 18 2io 2S 2ii ls 29 2483 249 12 
268 8 275 21 33 3ll 12 3 52 30 3 s 331 3 s6 15 4504 4 6 4l2 iii. 93l 

I 3 I 2 J 4527 Z 49l3 l6 21 20 57 2 7l9' 2o8 14 2I 4 8 2I 5l 

220 30 226 25 227 2323 3i5 18 24 31735 3 i8 n 3194 320 2S 

16 is 3526 35 2 2 354 2 i 28 3597 is 3<5i 2 o 373^28 & 6 io 39<zz 
39 2 2i 23 394i 8 20 399i7 4o 6 8 402 13 403^ 4i5 19 4 i6 27 28 
43 8 n 25 44*i 44 8 io 24 26 45io 45521 45 8 s n is 4 6 Ois 46*11 
4^5 n 25 27 4^6 4 46930 47 J 4 11 47 2 e 474i 25 23 477s o n 479s 7 26 
48o q 4843 
WICK (Vik), now Saxvik, in the district of Strind, Thrandheim, 

iii- 2 33is 336 2 o 
WICK, better Wicks (Vikar), now Vik, in the district of Brono 

on the Velfjord in southern Halogaland, iii. 3S7 24 
WILLIAM'S-BY (Vilhialmsbaer), a place in France, ii. 195 12 , 13 
WINCHESTER (Vmcestr), iii. 9 26 25 8 18 
WITCHWICK (Gandvik), the Whitesea, ii. 263^ 
WOLFKELSLAND (Ulfkelsland), dominion of Wolfkel 

Snilling in East Anglia, ii. i6 5 u 

292 Index II [WOL YRI 

WOLF-SOUND ('Ulfasund), between Vagey, now Vaagsoen, and 
the mainland, in Northfirth (Nordfjord) in Firthfolk, Norway, 

i- 17514"- 3 19 iii- 23 25 
WORK = Danework, q.v. 
WORLD-RIDINGS (heimsfrrSjungar), the three parts of which 

the known world consists, Europe, Asia, Africa, i. ii 12 
YORK (J6rvik), capital of Northumberland, i. i52 25 hi. i6y 5 

YOUNGFORD (JungufurSa), an English town? ii. 28 22 
YRIAR (Yrjar), now Orlandet, a peninsula on the northern 

side of the mouth of Thrandheim-firth, North Mere, Norway, 

i- 9635 2i5 26 2 7 7 21 3 i7 28 3 2 3l iii. ur 4 



All matters relating to Dress, House, Ships, Weapons, will be 
found grouped together, classified where needful, and arranged 
in alphabetical order, under these headings. In technical mat- 
ters more or less beyond the reach of the language of the trans- 
lation, such as certain articles of dress, names of, and terms 
relating to houses, appellatives for ships, the Icelandic word 
takes precedence of that of the translation. At the end will be 
found a complete list of Icelandic terms (phrases mostly omitted) 
dealt with in the Index, with a cross-reference to the leading 
word of each particular entry. 
ABBESS (abbadis, O.E. abbodesse), of the Benedictine convent 

of Gimsey, iii. 42i 30 

ACRE-GARTH (akrgerSi), a fenced-in cornfield, iii. 3i6 21 
ADDER (e'Sla = viper, or perhaps lizard, lacerta), crawling out 
of the hollow image of Thor, when smashed to pieces by Olaf 
the Holy's order at Hof in Gudbrandsdale, ii. 2o8 x 16 (na'Sr, 
poet, term for ormr) used by the poets to designate the two 
1 Worms ' Dragonships, the ' Short ' and the ' Long ' in Olaf 
Tryggvison's navy, i. 37o 20 375 6 377^ 
AGE (old) i. age of burning (brunaold) 2, age of barrows 

or howes (hauga-old). See Burials. 

ALE (ol), the national drink of the Scandinavians. Borne 
round to guests even by kings' daughters, i. 6o x . 3 worshippers 
at the temple of Ladir must bring with them their own ale 
and victuals, i65 9 . u ale should be drunk by litten fires at 
Olaf the Holy's court, ii. 67 26 and should be carried round 
the long-fires in the hall to the consumers, i. i65 25 . 26 iii. i93 19 
3 2 9i (mungat), homebrewed, small beer, iii. 3573 
ALL-BYRNIED (albrynja^r), in full armour, iii. 17333 i78 15 
of horses, i73 28 

294 Index III [ALL ANG 

ALL-FOLK-HOSTING (almennings lei^angr), levy of all the 
force which by law was liable to naval military service 
(lei^angr), which, by the provision of the Older Gula-Thing 
Law, ch. 297 ( c Norges Gamle Love,' i. 97), amounted to 
'every seventh nose,' or 14 per cent, of the population, iii. 
i29 23 187^8 cf. 4715.7 all-men war-muster, id., one half of, 
iii. i62 8 . 9 

ALTAR (altari), ii. 131^ 45633 4S7 10 18 ir 459^ 46o 4 iii. 19512-16 
30937 429 20 altar-table (tabula) of Byzantine workmanship, 
3928-si altar-cloth (altarisklae^Si), made of a cloak of brown 
purple given to Steig-Thorir by K. Harald Sigurdson, iii. 87 2 

ALTHING, see Thing. 

ANGELICA (hvann-njdli), made present of to Queen Thyri by 
Ol. Tryggvison, i. 351x1.33. As the story of this gift is told in 
all sagas relating to Ol. Tryggvison: Odd Snorrison's 'Christi- 
ania,' 1853, p. 47i7-3<M Fms - x - 336 28 -337 2 o cf - Scripta hist. 
Islandorum, x. 3i022~3 XI i6J Ol. s. Tryggv. Fms. ii. 244 19 - 
245 12 cf. S. h. I. ii. 2283-2293; Fris. *S5ir*S6*'> Flat - * 447ie- 
4483, the king's act becomes apiece of aimless, puerile civility, 
and its real historical significance is utterly lost. But through 
the whole we can see what really must have taken place. The 
queen considered herself wrongfully deprived of the income 
which her possessions in Denmark and Wendland should 
yield her. She urged her husband to get these possessions 
restored to her. He and his council were utterly disinclined 
to embark on the adventurous undertaking advocated by the 
queen, and so resolved to settle on her such a dowry as 
Norway could afford. This the king offered her, and in ac- 
cordance with ancient custom observed when landed dominion 
was conferred on a princely recipient, presented her with the 
plant which symbolized an irrevocable right of possession, 
cf. reed. The queen, considering the offer insufficient, spurns 
' the symbol of acceptance, remarking that her father Harald's 
gifts to her used to be a good deal greater, a remark which 
cannot possibly refer to the insignificant plant, but must have 
alluded to the difference between the appanage offered by 
Olaf and the dowry settled on Thyri by her father in Den- 
mark, in the shape of landed dominion. This seems to be the 
true historical meaning of this interesting incident of which 
the Christian admirers of Olaf lost sight, thinking that he 

ANG ARS] Index III 295 

wanted to show his spouse a signal token of the divine favour 
which blessed his reign with seasons of miraculous fertility. 

ANGELICA STALK (the hollow part of) (hvann-njdla trumba), 
used for an instrument of torture, i. 33300 

ANVIL, see Snout-anvil. 

APOSTLES' CHURCH, see Church. 

ARCHBISHOP'S CHAIR (erkibiskups st611), at Upsala, 
erected 1176, ii. ii2 31 K. Sigurd swears in Jerusalem that 
he will set up one in Norway, iii. 25723-24 which was estab- 
lished first in the reign of K. Ingi Haraldson at Christ's 
Church in Nidoyce, AD. 1152, 380^3 

ARCHERY: Einar Thambarskelfir the hardest shooter of 
men, i. 37i 5 . 6 ii. 22 18 . 21 Finn, on board Earl Eric's war-galley 
the Ironbeak, the greatest of bowmen, i. 37i 15 . 16 Olaf 
Haraldson knew well the craft of the bow (kunni vel vi'S 
boga), ii. 4 2122 

ARROW, see Weapons, offensive. 

ARROW-BIDDING (or-bo'S), the promulgation of the sum- 
mons which were attached to a war-arrow, q.v., ii. 46 21 . 22 

ARROW-SHEARING (orvar-skur^r), the cutting-out of a war- 
arrow, q.v., iii. 2io n 

ARROW-THING, see Thing. 

ARSON (brenna), we group under this, for want of a better 
heading, the burning of human habitations together with the 
inmates. The sons of Visbur fall upon their father unawares 
at night, and burn him in his house, i. 28 I1 . 26 King Solvi 
came unawares on (t6k hiis a) K. Eystein of Sweden, and 
burnt him in his house, $z g ^ K. Ingiald burned six kings in 
one hall at Upsala, 57 2 r59 4 and took the house over (t6k 
htis a), and burnt within it, kings Granmar and Hiorvard, 
62 U , 20 the Swedes took the house over (t6ku hiis d), and 
burnt in his hall, K. Olaf Treeshaver, 66 16 . 19 ^-Solvi Klofi 
burnt K. Har. Hairfair's men out of house and home in 
winter warfare, ioi 10 Rognvald Mere-Earl took the house 
over the head of K. Vemund of Firthfolk, and burnt him 
within with ninety men, io3 16 . 28 two sons of Hairfair took 
the house over (t6ku hiis a) Earl Rognvald, and burnt him 
within with sixty men, i24 22 . 26 Eric Bloodaxe burnt in his 
house, together with eighty wizards, Rognvald his brother, 
took the house over (t6k hiis a) the head of his 

296 Index III [ASC BAI 

brother Biorn, i35 16 Halfdan the Black (s. o. Har. Hairfair) 
took the house over the head of (t6k hiis a) his brother Eric, 
who escaped, while all Irishmen were burnt within, is6 r . u 
Harald Greycloak burns Earl Sigurd and all his men in his 
house at Oglo, 205^ the same Harald takes the house 
over the head of his first cousin, Gudrod, and slays him, 
2ii 24 -2i2 2 Harek of Thiotta burns Grankel in his house 
with thirty men, ii. 347 18 . 2 r Thorir of Steig burns the house 
of John in Birchisle, and a longship of his besides, iii. 2ii 4 . 5 
10-16 K- Ey stein Haraldson burns down the residence of 
Gregory Dayson in his absence, 39i 23 -24 an d is accused of 
having burnt down the fine dockyard at Nidoyce, together 
with ships belonging to his brother Ingi, 39i 24 . 31 Gregory 
Dayson sets fire by night to the manor of Saur-Byes, 4199 
Erling Askew takes the house on Ozur in Rising and burns 
him within ; burns three homesteads beside, and slays one 
hundred people, 46o 5 . 10 

ASCENSION DAY, see Feasts. 

ASHES (aska), of dead men burnt under Odinic law should be 
carried out to sea or buried in the earth, i. 2o u .i 2 something 
resembling ashes was kept by Gunnhild in a linen sack and 
made use of by her for the purpose of leading wizard Finns 
off their scent, i29 25 . 32 the same stuff kept in the same 
manner by Thorir Hound, and used for the same purpose 
against pursuing Biarms, ii. 262^-263% 

ASK (askr), a measure for liquids holding 4 * bollar ' bowls or 
1 6 ' justur ; ? we have not the means of comparing it with an 
English measure ask of honey, iii. 342 16 

ATONEMENT (bcetr), see Weregild. 

AUN'S SICKNESS ('Anas6tt), painless sickness unto death 
from old age, i. 4319.^ 

AXE (ox), an executioner's, in the phrase: to lead under the 
axe (lei^a undir oxi), to execute by the axe, iii. 36335 

BACKBONE-PIECE (Hryggjarstykki), the name of a book 
written by the historian Eric Oddson, containing the history 
of Harald Gilli, his sons, Magnus the Blind and Sigurd 
Slembi-Deacon, iii. 365 14 . 2r 

BAILIFF (s^sluma^r), an official whose business it was to 
gather in a king's or an earl's dues, fines, etc., and to main- 
tain law and justice in his district (sjfela), ii. 23 15 . 21 763 

BAI BAN] Index III 297 

2. (arma^r), in England, iii. i82 9 where, however, the 
persons in question seem to have been engaged in military 
service. Cf. Steward. 

BAILIFFRY (armenning), the office executed on the king's 
behalf by an arma'Sr, a bailiff or steward of royal estates, i. 
354is cf- steward 2. (s^sla), the office of a tax-gatherer and 
justiciary, ii. 75 28 . 24 2i2 25 213^ 237^ 

BAILIWICK (sj7sla), the district over which a ' syslumaSr ' is 
appointed, ii. 78^ 79s i95io-is 2 37r u 17 24 29^5 33B 21 345o 
348 13 in. 7 23 i8 ir 28 2r Harek of Thiotta had the b. of Ha- 
logaland part as 'grant' part as 'fief,' ii. 237 9 . 10 Bailiwicks, 
i. I3i 29 should rather read grants (veizlur), cf. grant. 

BAKE (baka), bread baked in heated ovens, hi. i2S 15 . 29 

BALE (bal), funeral pyre, i. 20^ 8 

BANESMEN (bana-menn), slayers, iii. no 23 

BANNER (merki), war-standard: King Eric and Jorund's in 
the battle of Fyris-meads, i. 4o n King Egil's, 44 31 K. 
Guthorm Ericson's, i72 26 K. Har. Hairfair's in the stem of 
his dragon, 98 29 his banner long borne by Egil Woolsark, 
1763,3 Hakon the Good's banners in the battle of Rast- 
kalf, 1779-16 is 25 and in that of Fitiar, 1835 1853 i89 14 
K. Gamli Ericson's at Rastkalf, 1785 Earl Sigvaldi's at the 
battle of Hiorungwick, 277 3 . 6 Olaf Tryggvison's on board 
the Long Worm, 352 28 banners set up before captains on 
board ship, 366^-367! 6 Olaf Haraldson visits his mother 
with his banner flying forth, ii. 37 3 . 4 his banner in the battle 
of Nesiar white with a snake drawn on it, 57 9 set up, on 
going into fight, 57 20 borne in front of the king in battle, 
59 7 . 14 the pole of it gilt, 59 n K. Olaf's banner at STICKLE- 
STEAD set up in the centre of the army and supported by the 
bodyguard and the guests, 399 30 4i 8 .i8 424 8 o 4295 e 433s* 
438 16 Day Ringson's stationed on the right, 4oo l7 . 20 43 1 14 
on the left the banner of the Swedish mercenaries, 4oo 20 . 24 
cf. 4io 2 5 4i2 23 4i6 15 Kalf Arnison's banner in the centre 
of the rebels (facing K. Olafs), 42 3 6 10 424 29 427 12 428 21 
the banner of the men of Rogaland, Hordland, and Sogn on 
Kalf s left (facing Day Ringson's), 42313-19 434 orders issued 
by commanders in each army to the rank and file how to 
heed the banners they served under, 4oi 6 424 15 . 21 Svein 
Wolfson's banners, iii. 44 3 i37 3 K. Magnus the Good's, 48 10 

298 Index III [BAN BAR 

5n > ot i n * ^6 possession of his son-in-law, Hakon Ivarson, 
I5o 20 . 21 lost into Harald Hardredy's hands in the engage- 
ment on Vener Lake, and recaptured by the Earl, isi 15 20 .23 37-31 
Harald Hardredy's banners, 68 I]L . l7 7o 4 the Landwaster, 
8i u _ 20 IIO IQ in the battle of the Humber, i67 16 168! at 
Stamfordbridge, iy2 6 17 i77 18 Morcar's banner, i67 23 
Tosti's banner, I72 19 Magnus Barefoot's banner, 241^ 
saved by Vidkunn when Magnus fell,242 19 _ 21 Harald Gilli's 
at Fyrileif, 3i6 21 K. Ingi's at the battles of Mouth, Kings' 
Rock, and Oslo, 34935-26 4*3 2 6 4269 Gregory Dayson's at 
Kings' Rock, 4oi n . 15 Hakon Shoulderbroad's at the battle 
of Kings' Rock, 40935 Erling Askew's at the battle of Re, 
45326 Ear j- Sigurd of Reyr's in the same fight, 454 26 Ey- 
stein Eysteinson's at the battle of Re, 484^ 

BANNER-BEARER (merkismaSr), i. 1763 ii. 1284 28 412^ 
iii. 68 12 40i 12U15 

BANNER-STAFF (merkistong), ii. 4053 4133 430 28 . 2 9 iii. 68 14 

I 5ia9 

BANQUETS (veizlur), see Feast. 

BARESERK (berserkr), a name given to Odin's own men-at- 
arms, who, Snorri says, 'went without byrnies' (coats of 
mail), whence the inference has been drawn that they fought 
in bare shirts (serks, sarks), and so got this name; this, it 
would seem, was Snorri's idea of the origin of the name, i. 
i7 29 -i8 3 noted bareserks: Hildebrand and his company of 
eleven, 8i 10 . 12 ; Haki, 8 i 25 . 2r 82 r ; Kari of Berdla, io3 28 . 31 ; Thorir 
Lpngchin, m 30 Harald Hairfair manned his dragon-ship 
with bareserks, 98 26 . 31 bareserks and wolfcoats (tilfh^nar), 
i.e , men who instead of coats-of-mail wore jackets of wolf- 
skin, are grouped together by Hornklofi, 1 1 2 ir . 19 . It may be 
noted that BEAR-SERK = Bear(skin)-coat may possibly come 
nearer to the origin of the name, seeing that the bearserks 
of Harald are called 'Ulf h3nar Wolf-jackets in ' Vatnsdoela- 
saga' (1860), p. i7 1H3 ; moreover the personal name Bjarn- 
hdftmn = Bear-coat seems most likely once upon a time to 
have been an appellative for a 'berserkr.' 

BARE-SERK'S-GANG (berserksgangr), described, i. i7 29 -i8 8 

BARN, see House, i. 

BARROW (haugr), burial mound, i. 4 20 21 see also Burial and 

BAR BAT] Index III 299 

BARS (slar), of red-hot iron to be walked over for an ordeal, 
iii. 2962 

BAR-SPEAR, see Weapons, Offensive, Spear. 

BASTARD, see Weapons 2. 

BATH (laug), i. ii7 6 iii. 283^ cf. Tub. 

BATH-DAY (laugar-dagr), Saturday, iii. 4 2o ir cf. Wash-day. 

BATHING (at lauga sik), in Jordan, ' done after the fashion 
of other palmers,' by Harald Sigurdson, iii. 7i 30 . 31 by Sigurd 
Jerusalem-farer, 256^ 257^ 282 18 293 13 . 14 

BATTLES AND WARS, excluding the story of the Yng- 

Halfdan the Black's war with Gandalf of Vingulmark, 
77is-2o wit* 1 ^ Sigtrygg of Heathmar-Raumrealm, 77 21 -78 4 
with K. Eystein, brother of Sigtrygg, 784-794 with the 
sons of Gandalf, 8o 6 . 26 fight between K. Sigurd Hart and 
Haki, 8i 23 . 29 Harek Wolfs raid on Haki's house, 82 14 _ 22 

Battle in Hakisdale between Harald Hairfair and Haki 
Gandalfson, c. 86 1, 91^-92.7 Harald's with Gandalf in West- 
fold, 92M4 Harald's war with Hogni and Frodi, sons of 
Eystein, and their allies, Hogni Karason and Hersir Gud- 
brand, c. 862, 92 14 -93 2 Harald's battle with K. Gryting in 
Orkdale, 866, 95 21 . 29 his fight with the kings of Gauldale 
and Strind, 96 2r30 his fight in Stiordale, 97^ fight with 
four Up-Thrandheim kings, 97 4 . 13 his sea-fight at Solskel, 
868, 99 28 -ioo 14 his second battle at Solskel, 869, io2 2 . 32 
battle in Staffness-bay between Earls Hakon Griotgarthson 
and Atli the Slender, 870, 1043-1055 Harald's war with the 
Gautlanders, 871, io9 15 -no battle of Hafrsfirth, 872, m- 
113$ Harald's war in the Westlands, ii5 10 -n6 battle in 
Orkney between Turf-Einar and Halfdan Highleg, 890, 125 12 - 
i26 20 ii. i68 12 . }6 battle in the Elf between Guthorm Harald- 
son and Solvi Klofi, i. i28 6 . n great battle in Esthonia in 
which fell Halfdan the White, I28 m6 

Eric Bloodaxe's viking wars, 908-18, i28 21 -i29 2 fight at 
Seaham between the brothers Biorn Chapman and Eric 
Bloodaxe, i3S 148 battle at Tunsberg between Eric Blood- 
axe and his brothers Sigrod and Olaf, 934, i44 16 -26 ^ c 
Bloodaxe's wars in Western lands and last battle, c. 935-50, 

I 5 2 6-n ] cS3i4- I S4ir 
Hakon the Good's war in Jutland, 952, i56 5 . 33 his battle 

3OO Index III [BAT 

with Danish vikings in Eresound, iS7 3 . 18 his further warfare 
in Denmark, I57 21 -i58 10 raid of Erie's sons on Norway, 
953 5 I ^n-i6 Hakon gives battle to them at Ogvaldsness, 
I 7 I 28" I 73i9 Hakon has a battle again with Eric's sons at 
Frsedisberg, 955, I74 14 -i79 29 his fight with Eric's sons at 
Fitjar, 961, 1803,7-187 

Harald Greycloak invades Biarmland and rights a battle 
on the river Dwina, c. 965, 2i5 3 . 18 Earl Hakon of Ladir 
fights a battle in Mere with his uncle Grjotgarth, 969, 216^- 
2i7 6 Harald Greycloak fights a battle and falls at Neck in 
Jutland, 970, 23830-23934 

Earl Hakon has a battle with Goldharald in Jutland and 
hangs him, 970, 240^ Earl Hakon overcomes Ragnfrod 
Ericson in a battle in South-mere, 971, 244.1^ and again in 
an engagement at Thingness in Sogn, 972, 2454-246 the 
Emperor Otto II. invades Denmark and is repulsed in a 
battle at the Danework, 974, 253 18 -256 30 renewing the fight 
he turned the Danish position at Sleswick and routed the 
Danes, 257 12 . 19 Earl Hakon fights a battle with Earl Ottar of 
Gautland, 258^-259 Harald Gormson ravages Norway, 975, 
26 7i9-29 battle at Icefirth in Denmark between Har. Gorm- 
son and his son Svein, 986, 27o s . 19 battle in Hiorungwick 
between Earl Hakon and the Jomsburg vikings, 986, 27i 23 - 
2844 Earl Eric's warfare in the Eastlands, 347 8 -348 u 

Olaf Tryggvison's war-raids in Britain, 26i 15 -262 15 battle 
of Svold, 1000, 367i 9 ;375i6 

Olaf the Holy's viking battles : at Sotisker, ii. 6 16 . 26 in 
Isle-sysla, 9 10 . 22 in Herdales in Finland, io 2 . 15? in Southwick 
in Denmark, n^ off Friesland, i2 3 . 15 at London Bridge, 
i4 6 -i5 36 at Ringmar-heath, i6 3 . 25 at Canterbury and New- 
mouth, 17-184 in Ringfirth in France, i8 22 . 34 at Grisla-Pool 
and Seliapool, I9 3 -20 8 at Charleswater, 20 n _ 13 at Warrand, 
20 27" 2I i3 at Youngford, 28 19 . 26 at Wald, 29 2 . 7 battle off 
Nesiar, 1016, between Olaf the Holy and Earl Svein Hakon- 
son, 57 3 -6i battle in Ulfreksfirth, 1019, between K. Kono- 
fogor and Earl Einar of Orkney, i37 6 . ?3 Olaf the Holy's and 
K. Onund of Sweden's war-raid on Denmark, 1027, 312-313^ 
3 I 9i8"24~ t)attle ff tne H ty River, 1028, 321-323^ fight 
between Olaf the Holy and Erling Skialgson, 1028, 355^- 
36o 14 battle of Sticklestead, 1030, 409-434 battle of Soken- 

BAT] Index III 301 

sound between K. Svein Alfivason and Tryggvi Olafson, 
1033, 464^-465 

Magnus the Good's battles: at Joms burgh, 1043, i*i. 3i 28 - 
32 23 at Lyrshawheath, 28 Sept, 1043, 36-37 at Re, 1043, 
3 8 2-24 at Riveroyce, 18 Dec., 1043, 3 8 2r43is at Holyness, 
followed up by a punitive raid, 1044, 45so"5ir 

Harald Sigurdson's battles : many in Africa^ 62 8 -64 2 four 
in Sicily, 64 5 -7o 21 his raids on Denmark, 1048, 94 8 -96 16 
1049, 97i2- I02 4 I 5 I J I2o 13 -i2i r 1061, I27 n -i 2 8 battle 
of Niz, 1062, i35-i42 n battle by the Vener-water, 1064, 
I49i3-*5 2 n battles of Scarborough, of the Ouse, and of 
Stamford-bridge, 1066, i66 10 . 21 i67 r i68 ir 176-1794 

Battle of Anglesey sound, between Guthorm and K. 
Margath, 1052, 123-124^ battle of Hastings, 181^33 

Magnus Barefoot's battle in Anglesey, 1098, 223 26 -224 29 
battle in Kvaldinsisle, noo, 226 6 -228 19 battle of Foxern, 
noi, 231-2323 battle near Ulster, in which K. Magnus 
Barefoot fell, 1103, 239 23 -242 27 

Sigurd Jerusalem-farer's seafight with pirates in Spanish 
waters, 1 109, 25o 13 . 2 ij- battle at Cintra, 25033-2513 at Lisbon, 
2 5 I io-?i at Alcasse, 25132-2525 in Norvi-sound, 252 8 . ir at 
Forminterra, 252^-25433 in Iviza and Minorca, 25435-255^ 
atSidon, mo, 25733-258^ 

King Magnus the Blind and Harald Gilli : battle at 
Fyrileif, 1134, 3 I 5sr3 I 724 battle of Biorgvin, 1135, 3 2*25- 
3 2 327 battles at Kings' Rock, 3 26 8-3 2 8 n 3 2 8 13 -333 

King Ingi and his brothers : battle at Mouth, 1137, 349 21 - 
35u at Crookshaw, 35o 28 -35i 20 ^battle at and burning of 
Oslo, 352 9 -353 12 Sigurd Slembi-Deacon's fights at Erri, Man 
(Denm.), and the Elf, 354 ? . 18 battle at Holm the Gray, 1139, 
36 1 24 -363 29 battle at Leikberg, 1153, 3732r37422-~ at A P ar ' 
dion, 375i3-2o at Hiartapoll, 37521-32 at Whitby, 37533- 
376 10 at Skarpskerries, 376i 2 .i 8 at Pulwyke(P), 1 153, 376 19 . 28 
at Langton, 376 29 . 33 battle in Biorgvin, fall of K. Sigurd 
Haraldson, 1155, 3893-390^ Ingi and Hakon Shoulder- 
broad: battle at Kings' Rock, 1158, 4oi 3 . 29 battle m the 
Elf, 1159, 412-414 fight at Saurbyes, 1160, 4i9 3 . 26 battle 
of Oslo, 1161, 42 3^-42 7 12 Hakon and Magnus Erlingson: 
battle in Tunsberg, 438 ir 44o 22 battle at Ve-isle, 1162, 445 6 - 
447 r battle of Re, 1163, 45V455i6 "77. 48411-48521 

302 Index III [BEA BEL 

BEACON (viti), lighted fires, on high hills, so that each could 
be seen from the other, to announce the advent of a hostile 
invasion, first introduced in Norway by K. Hakon the Good 
(on English pattern?), i. 1743.7 kindling of any such beacons 
without due cause strictly forbidden, i74 23 -r75 n 

BEARD (skegg), Thorgny's so long that it lay on his knees 
and was spread out all over his breast, ii. n6 26 . 28 growing 
after death, 4563 10 . 13 

BEAVER-SKINS (bj6rr), ii. 26o r 29i 19 

BEDESMAN (olmusuma^r, alms-man), a beggar, ii. 1243 

BEER-CASK (mungats-bytta), i. 325^ 

BELIEF (trii), in one's 'might and main 7 characteristic of 
certain irreligious heathens, i69 20 . 23 ii. 395 6 -r 4*5 3 o 

BELIEFS : Odin must gam the victory in every battle, i2 24 . 26 
Odin's laying hands on people and giving them his blessing, 
a sure warrant of victory, i2 27 . 8 j calling on Odin in trouble 
brought help, 13^ Odin believed to have gone after his 
death to Asgarth the Old to live for ever, 2i 25 . 2lr Swedes 
thought he showed himself in dreams before battles, 2i 29 . sl 
victory specially the gift of Odin, 2i 31 he would appear 
to favourites, inviting them to come to him (when death was 
near), 2i 32 the height to which the column of smoke arose, 
when a dead body was burnt, a sign and measure of that 
person's exalted state ' in heaven,' i. 22 2 . 5 treasure buried 
with the dead made him correspondingly wealthy in the other 
world, 22 5 . 6 peace and plenty of the year believed to be 
owing to the ruler of the land, 22 n . 15 24 . 25 23-^ 24 9 . 15 20 . 21 
bad harvests and hard times likewise, 29 10 . 25 30^ * wont of 
the Swedes to lay upon their kings both plenty and famine, 7 
66 9 . 12 Swedes believed that lukewarm interest in blood- 
offerings brought about hard times, 66 13 . 16 the people of 
Thrandheim see in the failure of harvests the anger of the gods 
because K. Olaf Haraldson had converted Halogaland to 
Christianity (1021), ii. i93 8 . 16 

BELL (klukka), the sound of bells an attractive novelty for 
heathen Icelanders at Nidoyce, i. 336 80 . 31 a great bell sent 
by K. Olaf Haraldson to the church of Thingwall in Iceland, 
which was still in existence when Snorri wrote Olaf s saga, 
ii. 24i 15 . 19 bells ring of their own accord round Olaf the 
Holy, 459i-9 4 6 2-4 K - Harald Sigurdson sends a bell to the 

BEL BLO] Index III 303 

church of Thingwall to which Olaf his brother had given the 

timber, iii. 103^3 

"BELL-RINGER (klukkari), ii. i2 924 . 26 
BELT-SHAFT (fetilstingr), see Weapons 2, Sword. 
BENITHE (nifta), to heap abuse upon, iii. 230 10 
BILLETS (skflS), fuel of wood, ii. 44 i 9 
BETROTH, betrothal, plighted troth (fastna, festar), i, ii9 2S29 

ii. I22 15 . llr *5 2 28 

BEWITCH, see Wizardry. 


BIRCH-BARK (nsefrar), used for leggings as protection against 
cold by the Birchlegs, iii. 479u-i5 

BIRCHISLE-RIGHT (Bjarkeyjarrdttr), the law regulating the 
administrative and judiciary affairs of towns and market-places, 
especially in respect of trade and commerce, bye-laws, iii. 

2 73e 
BISHOP (biskup), the first in Norway called in from England 

by K. Hakon the Good, i. i64 23 . 24 K. Olaf Tryggvison's 
court bishop, Sigurd, 31521-28 33 I ir33 2 i5~ Olaf Haraldson's 
court bishops: Grimkel, ii. 67 20 _ 21 1314-8 4344.4561', Sigurd, 
202 8 . 4 205 22 . 88 207 4 . r 229 16 . 24 Earl Hakon Ericson's court 
bishop Sigurd, 417^-419 45330-4544 bishops and bishoprics 
in Sweden, ii. H2 14 . 23 Bishop Magni and K. Sigurd Jerusa- 
lem-farer, 3078"3^i4 Bishop Reinald of Stavanger and Kings 
Sigurd Jerusalem-farer and Harald Gilli, 3o8 1 ^-309 324 fi . 25 
Bishop Magnus Einarson of Skalholt specially honoured by 

/ K. Harald Gilli, iii. 3342c"33S20 Archbishop Eyslein of Ni- 
doyce and his relations to the crown of Norway, 461^-464 

BISON, see Ships. 

BIT (bitull), the rival horse-trainers, Alrek and Eric, sons of 
K. Agni, killed each other with bridles, i. 35 16 

BLAZING FIREBRANDS (logandi brandar), used for shoot- 
ing at a besieged garrison, hi. 228 10 . 12 

BLESSING (bjanak, from Gael bennact, beannachd, Lat. 
benedictio), ceremoniously given by Odin to his people before 
starting for the wars or on other business under his orders, 

BLOOD-BOWLS (b!6t-bollar, lit. sacrificial bowls), i. 3679 cf. 

BLOOD-FEASTS (b!6tveizlur), religious festivities in Upper 

304 Index III [BLO 

Thrandheim accompanying the great blood-offering cere- 
monies, ii. 19633 197^ 

BLOOD-LETTING (b!614t, lita bl6), fatal to Earl Eric 
Hakonson, ii. 27 4 iii. 417^ 


i. Sweden. Blood-offerings of the c ^Esir' derive their origin 
from Asgarth (the Ancient), Odin's eastern residence, where his 
twelve Diar did the service of officiating at sacrifices, i. i2 l5 . ig 
on coming to the end of his northern migration at Old-Sig- 
toun in Sweden, Odin set up there the sacrificial rite on the 
old pattern of that of Asgarth, i5 16 .^ i6 15 . 18 21-27 blood-offer- 
ings were made to all Odin's Diar after their death, and men 
called them their gods, I9 21 . 23 22 16 . ir they were upheld by 
Niord after Odin's death, 22 9 . 10 at Upsala by Frey after 
Niord's death, 22 26 by Freya, when all the other Diar had 
passed away, 23 27 . 28 the Swedes sacrificed to Frey (the 
national god) for a long time after his death, 4 6 24 14 . 15 in 
his cult the chief ceremony was the * s6narb!6t,' the sacrifice 
of the ' S6nar-goltr,' the largest boar that could be found 
(Longobard. Sonorpair: verres qui omnes alios verres in 
grege batuit et vincit, Sievers, 'Beitrage,' xvi. 540-44) cf. 
Helg. HjorvarSs., Bugge 1 760^5, Hervar. s. ch. 10. The 
usual translation atonement sacrifice, is etymologically mis- 
leading (cf. O.E. sunor, herd of swine), 32 6 it is to this 
primitive divinity of the Swedish race that Odin undertakes 
to sacrifice on behalf of the Swedes, 2o 23 blood-offering 
festivals ordained by Odin: against winter (in autumn) for 
good year, 2o 17 . 18 in midwinter for the growth of the earth, 
20 i8-i9 at summer = against summer, i.e. in spring, for vic- 
tory (sigrbl6t), 2o 19 . 20 cf. 62 6 . 9 ; for this seems to be the same 
festival that Snorri refers to as 'the chief blood-offering 7 
which 'should be at Upsala in the month of Goi (Feb.- 
March); then should be done blood-offering for peace and 
victory to the king, 5 ii. in 26 . 30 blood-offerings in special 
cases : at Upsala, in the reign of Domald, to avert persistent 
famine, oxen were sacrificed the first year, human beings the 
second, the king himself the third, the seats of the gods 
being reddened with his blood, i. 29 8 . 83 K. Aun sacrificed 
his nine sons for long life to himself, 4i 31 . 32 42 18 -43 16 K. 
Olaf Treeshaver, 'little given to blood-offerings,' i.e.> an un- 


Index III 305 

believer, was in time of famine sacrificed by his own subjects 
for the year's increase, 66 16 . 19 Olaf the Holy's tax-gatherers, 
as intruders in Swedish Jamtland, are designated for blood- 
offering, ii. 295 15 . 16 blood-offerings still in vogue in Sweden 
under Blot-Svein and Eric Year-Seely, end of eleventh and 
beginning of twelfth century, iii. 285^3 only in Sweden are 
sacrifices to the goddesses, disabldt, mentioned, i. 5o 32 . 38 

2. Norway. Here the ancient temple of Mere at the head 
of Thrandheim-firth is the chief centre of heathen worship 
(Odinic cult), although Ladir, first built by Hairfair about 
868, through the religious zeal of the Earls Hakon Gnot- 
garthson and Sigurd his son, had become a centre of worship 
for the men of Outer-Thrandheim, already before the reign 
of Hakon the Good (934-61). For the blood-offerings of 
Ladir, see i. 1655-166^ 168^.2! 169-170.7. at the temple of 
Mere, in Hakon the Good's time, blood-oiferings were carried 
out under the auspices of eight lords, respectively representing 
the eight folklands of Thrandheim, i. I7o 10 -i7i 25 . But this 
statement is in conflict with others relating to the sacerdotal 
constitution of this temple, the oldest, apparently, in Norway; 
for in Olaf the Holy's time ' twelve men took upon themselves 
to carry out the blood-feasts ' (bl<5t-veizla), (which recalls the 
temple constitution of Odin, Diar), ii. i96 32 . 33 the same 
constitution of the temple service must have prevailed in Ol. 
Tryggvison's days; for when, at Mere, he threatens to offer 
the ' noblest of men ' in a great sacrifice to the gods, he de- 
signates twelve Thrandheimers thereto, seven of whom (ace. 
to the best MS. authority) Snorri mentions by name, adding 
that 'other five he named withal,' i. 318^ 29-3*912 here 
the seasonable arrangement of blood-offering festivals was 
the same as in Sweden: at winter-nights (Oct. 14), /.*., in 
autumn, *for the booting [bettering] of the year,' c to wel- 
come the winter/ 'cups signed to the ^Esir after ancient 
wont,' 'neat were slaughtered there and horses, and the 
stalls reddened with blood,' ii. I933-X2 J 9^-^B at midwinter, 
for peace and good winter-season, i94 13 . ]8 29-31 r 9 6 s 29 m 
spring (at sumri = towards summer) for the welcoming of 
summer, 19630 the midsummer offering (mr3sumars-bl6t) 
at Mere, i. 3i7 19 . 28 3i3 10 was obviously to be a sort of 
show-festival, arranged out of ordinary course, at Ol. Trygg- 

VI. X 

306 Index III [BLO BOD 

vison's special request blood-offerings of human beings, 
frequent in Sweden, are rare in Norway: Olaf Tryggvison 
refers to sacrifice of thralls and evil-doers as a matter of 
custom, i. 3193.4 Earl Hakon is alleged to have sacrificed 
his son Erling to Odin, for victory over the Jomsvikings, 
2833.7 individual sacrifices : Raud the Strong c busy in 
blood-offerings,' 329^ Sigurd of Thrandness held the three 
blood-offering festivals every year, ii. 2i4 29 . 31 blood-offering 
houses (b!6t-hils), private temples, 204 18 . 20 01. the Holy's 
punishments for blood-offerings, 403.^ 

BLOW (blasa), a technical term variously applied to indicate 
signalling by trumpet: blow up (blasa), to give the signal, ii. 
362 80 blow the warblast (blasa herblastr), to give signal for 
attack, i. 1785^ ii. 57 13 321,3 iii. 364 7o 7 . 8 i67 29 . 80 24i 18 3i6 19 
444 26 45 1 9 blow (people) together (bl. monnum, her, saman), 
i. 339 24 . 25 i& i32 19 blow for departing (bl til brottlogu), i. 
36x34 blow up for the gathering together of ships (bl. til 
samlogu skipum), i. 366 3 . 4 blow a gathering for the guard 
(bl. til hirSSstefnu), ii. 1303.3 blow to a thronged assembly 
(bl. til fjolmennrar stefnu;, ii. i84 6 . 6 blow for a Thing 
(bl. til Jnngs), ii. 203^ 288 10 iii. 84 21 . 22 386 12 blow the 
host for the ships (bl. fiftSi til skipa), ii. 354 28 iii. 468 9 . 10 blow 
to landwending (blasa til landgongu), iii. I7o 12 blow folk 
up after (the leader) (blasa IrSi upp eptir . . .), 3oi 24 . 25 
blow the host to a husting (blasa li$i til hiisfings), 4043 
blow the host up (for a muster) (blasa lifti upp), 423 19 . 20 
blow folk out (to confront an enemy) (bldsa li'Si lit), 207 12 . 13 

BOARDING (of a ship) (uppganga), i. 372 ii. 59 6 6o 9 
coll.), the household troops of a king or magnate : Harald 
Hairfair's, i. 90 10 98^ 99!. 5 Hakon the Good's, iso 14 r83 ? 
Earl Hakon Sigurdson's, 338 n Olaf Tryggvison's, consisting 
both of natives and foreigners, 352 21 . 24 Olaf Haraldson's, 
numbering sixty, their service and wages being regulated by 
special laws, ii. 67 28 . 29 their great dormitory within the king's 
residence, 68 2 . 3 many shared dormitory with the king himself, 
I2 5i9-2o cf - 1 3320-22 murder of, by blind K. Rcerek's plotting, 
I:2 925 31-32 signalled to gather on an emergency, 1303 Thor- 
arinn Nefjolfson incorporated in K. Olafs guard, i35 10 14 

BOI BON] Index III 307 

so also Gowk-Thorir and Afrafasti on being baptized, 399 5 . 31 
K. Olaf takes frequent counsel with his body-guard when K. 
Knut threatens invasion, 346 2 r3478~ K - Olaf s guard in the 
centre at Sticklestead, 4oo 14 K. Olaf the Swede's guard at- 
tend him at Upsala Thing, nS^ 15 . 16 - as does Earl Rogn- 
vald's him on the same occasion, n8 19 K. Onund of 
Sweden, on being elected ten years of age, surrounds himself 
with a body-guard, i6s 24 he places officers of it at Olaf 
Haraldson's disposal for the reconquest of Norway, 39i 18 . 21 
K. Magnus the Good, eleven years of age, establishes his 
body-guard on being proclaimed King of Norway, iii. 7 21 as 
Earl of Denmark Svein Wolfson surrounds him with a body- 
guard, 3131 Asmund, a prince of the blood royal, punished 
for ribaldry by being relegated to the body-guard of K. Svein 
Wolfson, H7 19 Harald Sigurdson's in his ill-starred raid 
on Jutland, 98 14 Olaf the Quiet's body-guard, commanded by 
Skuli 'the son of Tosti, 7 i83 19 . 20 consisted of one hundred 
( = 120) persons, 1943 K. Hakon Magnuson's body-guard, 
20 5ai Harald Gilli's, 3143 sixty of whom fell in the battle 
of Fyrileif, 31734 recruited by many of the followers of Mag- 
nus the Blind, 334i refuse to acknowledge Sigurd Slembi- 
Deacon king after the murder of their lord, 344^ they settle 
with Queen Ingirid the succession after Harald J s death, 347^3 
Magnus the Blind's former body-guard gather round him 
again on his leaving the monastery of Monkholm, 349 10 
K. Ingi Haraldson's, 355 387,* 3880 K. Sigurd Harald- 

_ Olaf the 
Holy, ii. 3 8 3 2 9-384 3 o 
BONDER, GOODMAN (biiandi, b6ndi), a free householder, 
husbandman; took in Norway rank in the social scale below 
the ' franklin,' holdr, q.y. The copious references are due to 
the consideration that in Norway particularly the history of 
the country is so intimately bound up with the traditional 
rights and customs of this originally the most powerful class 
of society, which steadily declines in importance as royal 
power and hierarchical supremacy gain in ascendancy, L 68 S1 

9315-18 9^ 105^-106! 15 ~I07 6 82 -Io8 6 I49l9- I 50 2 8 l6 19-28 

i66 21 . 22 26 1673 18 29 38 i68 6 12 16 18 24 r69 10 26 

21334 2I 7 25 2l8 3-9 14-16 

308 Index III [BON BOO 

(2i9 6 Iceland) (229^ Esthonia) 24233 273 26 2765 7 12 288 ir 
2 9i4-i5 2 9 I 24 32 2 9 2 6 2 93frio 20 2 94n 29524 2963 7 2 9726-27 

3321 34l8 26 356 12 16 21 22 392 3 l6 23 27 31 3*77 9 17 22 26 30 
3 l8 2 26 3*9l3 17 80 3 2 7 12 17 23 3 2I 5 8 34 2 15 - " 3324 4<5 2 3 6 7 

47s 4 8 13 16 33 48 3 9 ii Si3 54 9 SSs 9 6 5i 68 23 6 9so 7 9 14 73is 

7527 76 i3 16 77l3 14 17 25 29 7*11 15 17 79l2 8 527 86 8 IO(5 8 Io8 25 
I0 9 2 3 JI 34 10 Il8 l 22 I20 13 I2I 19 X 5 2 7 I SSsO l6 528 ^M X 7 2 3 
20 27 32 33 I 732 l8 925 29 I 931 I 9 I 11 22 *935 18 24 26 J 94s 21 23 27 
30 r 95l 3 13 18 25 202 9 16 2O 44 6 14 2O 524 2 6 13 23 24 26 30 2O 730 
2"08 X 7 209 28 30 226 16 23% 39 232 20 25 233 4 6 10 ir 2 3 32 2 34 4 8 

2 37 2 o 28 7 22 2 95 2 7 33 8 is 24 34Si3 346 10 34 8 d 13 354i 2 359i 5 -22 
3632 25 27 364io 36S 2 15 366 22 367! 3979 13 3982 7 21 4oo 5 4oi 10 
23 402 5 18 33 403 16 404! 4o6 16 21 31 409^ 4io 29 41 1 2 7 22 26 

4 J 328 4144 8 15-16 4l6 21 4I7 6 23 4 22 26 4 2 4l5 4 2 5l4 19 27 4 26 X 3 i 
4 2 7l3 19 22 4 28 2 3 6 7 25 4347 43 6 7 437lO 14 28 43 8 5 6 439l4 44318 

4465 32 447io so 4527 iu- 7ir 8 7 12 ie 19 26 27 9s 2I i6- 2 42s 

26 29 4731 S720 23 9 8 1316 IO2 1 TO 723 29 Io8 2 IIO 411193133 I]CI 29 

ii5 16 n8 8 i32 n i 3 8 21 140 19 i42 16 1455 

17921 I 99 9 2 5i5 222 4 2 43s 2 4 8 8 -9 3o6 15 

344 8 10 37o 6 9 373i5 so 374 4 4oo x 4O2 31 41919 

449s 17 20 45624 so 45925 27 so 460! 10 46i 30 32 479 10 15 19 2S 

BONDFOLK (anau'Sigt f61k), slaves employed as herds and 

herdesses, i. 49 13 . 16 
BONDMAID, see Bondwoman. 
BOND-SLAVES (state of, anaifS), i. 2293 
BONDWOMAN (ambdtt), i. 49 19 ii. i6o 21 iii. i25 4 . 32 
BOOK (b6k), all written in golden letters, /.<?., the plenary 
brought from the East to Norway by Sigurd Jerusalem-farer, 
iii. 288 23 . 29 2893 9 16 . 18 310^3 

BOOTH (biift), literally a dwelling, but specially a shed gener- 

ally tilted over (tjoldu^) at a ' Thing-stead,' where, during the 

business of the Thing, q.v., the chief men with their retainers 

took up their abode, ii. 243 18 305^ 28 3o6 iq 3073 3o8 24 3093 18 

booth tilted, 3065 9 10 12 dais (pallr) in a booth, 3073 31 308,, 

BOOTH-FELLOWS (biiSarlrS), attendants on a chief during 

the session of a Thing, when a booth is his habitation, ii. 309^ 

BOOTH-MAN (bii'Sarma'Sr), one of such an attendance, ii. 309^ 

BOOTH-MATE (bitfSunautr), a fellow-inmate of a booth, ii. 


BOR BUL] Index III 309 

BORROWS (gislar), mutually given and taken on peace being 
established between the kings of Norway and Denmark, iii. 
i48 34 -i498 S iven b 7 Hising bonders to Eyst. Haraldson, 
374 6 u cf- Hostage. 

BOUNDARY disputes between Norway and Sweden: under 
Harald Hairfair, i. io5 12 -io8 22 I09 15 -no 19 under Hakon 
the Good, i63 6 . 22 ii. 276 21 . 31 under Olaf the Holy, ii. 76 r 
78 25 u8 29 -H9 2 7 . 10 276 81 -277 27 cf. iii. 263^-264^ 

BRAGI-CUP (Bragafull), a cup which an heir should empty at 
a heirship-feast on succeeding to his father's lordship; the 
ceremony described, i. 58 12 . 28 

BRAND (dill), an indelible mark, Lat. stigma, iii. i6i u 

BRASS (eir), more correctly copper, iii. 30939 

BREAD (brau^), baked in heated ovens, iii. i25 15 . 29 

BREAD-BASKET (brau^S-kass), i. 325^ 

BRIBE (miita), ii. 307^ 

BRIBERY by Knut the Mighty, ii. 329^ 33Sai-33^ao 27-34 

342<r343i6 37 V37921 

BRIDAL ESCORT, described, ii. 1523.3 13 . 24 
BRIDAL FEAST (veizla, brullaup), to drink a (drekka), ii. 


BRIDGE (brii), across water, iii. 42o 28 4S3 26 
BRIDGES (bryggjur): 

1. Piers at which ships could be berthed (also, less ac- 
curately^ translated 'gangways'), i. i3 8 iMs 3352224 " I 9529 

2<5 425 26 Ui' 3 2 7l9 29 426 4O*9 18 4^72 12 39 43930 

2. Gangways, movable, carried on board ship, ii. 265^ 
iii. 4oi 10 

BRIMSTONE (brennisteinn), mixed with wax, used for tinder, 
iii. 643.7 

BROTH (80=3), of horseflesh drunk at blood-offerings, i. i69 2r 
of a sodden dog (hundsso'S) cast upon the tomb of King 
Eystein Haraldson to put a stop to miracles taking place 
there, iii. ^g6 1 

BULL (gri'Sungr), fed up for sacrifice, grew wild and killed 
many people, King Egil of Upsala the last, i. 45 28 -46 16 re- 
presenting the guardian spirit of the family of Thord the 
Yeller, in Western Iceland, 269^ 

BULL'S-HORN (djfrs horn), drinking horn, used when Bragi's 
cup was emptied, i. 58 28 . 28 

3 1 o Index III [BUR BY-M 

BURG (borg), a fortress made of turf and timber with a mote 
round it in Kvaldin's-isle, iii. 227 2 . 3 c Sarpsburg burgs 
distinguished from castles, 259^ 

BURIALS : burning (brenna) the dead, ordained by Odin, i. 
2o 6 the dead should be burnt on a bale-fire together with 
some of their chattels, standing stones being set up for 
monuments over them, 417-19 2o 5 _ u the ashes were carried 
out to sea, or buried in the earth, a mound being raised over 
noble lords, and standing stones over men of fame, 2o u _ 16 
the higher the smoke rose the more exalted ' in heaven' would 
be the dead, and the richer, the more treasure was buried 
with him, 22 3 . 6 burning the dead on a pyre on board ship, 
a very famous funeral rite enacted on himself by K. Haki of 
Sweden, 40 13 _ 24 burning of Odin, 22 a . 6 of Vanland, 27^ 
of Domar, 3o 12 . 26 of Agni, 34 14 BURNING AGE (brunaold) 
the period during which the dead were disposed of by burn- 
ing their bodies, 4 ir . 22 lasted in Sweden and Norway long 
after the mound age came into vogue, 439.30 MOUND AGE 
(haugaold), the era when laying the bodies of the dead in a 
barrow or mound (haugr) came into fashion, originated in 
Sweden with Frey being laid in barrow at Upsala, 4i 9 _ 22 23 13 . 22 
and in Denmark when Dan the Proud was laid in mound 
with all his kingly raiment, armour, horse and saddle gear, 
besides plenteous wealth, 4 2B . 29 burying one's self alive in a 
howe with a chosen company and plentiful store of victuals and 
drink, an alternative preferred by K. Herlaug of Naumdale 
to giving himself into Hairfair's power, 97^.39 Earl Sigurd 
of Orkney buried in a howe at Oikel-bank in Scotland, u6 28 
fallen warriors buried in ships with mounds heaped over 
them at Frsedisberg, i8o 5 . 1]L Hakon the Good buried in a 
great howe, all armed with the best of his array, but with no 
wealth beside, and his men spake such words over his grave 
as heathen men had custom, wishing him welfare to Valhall, 
i88 25 . 80 Halfdan the Black's body divided and laid in mound 
in four separate folklands, 86 23 -87 3 

BURIED TREASURE (jarSte), where hidden, known by 
Odin, i. 19^ 

BUTTER-KEG (smjor-hlaupr, cf. prov. EngL leap, basket), i. 

3 2 5i9 
BY-MEN (bft'ar-menn), towns-folk, iii. 400^ 

BYR CAV] Index III 311 

BYRNY (brynja), see Weapons, i, defensive. 

CABLE (ka^all), drawn between two ships, and pulled in when 
a third craft passed, so as to capsize it, ii. 30 30 (tengsl) 
whereby ships where lashed together in action, 6o 12 

CALDRON (ketill), in which the flesh of sacrificed animals 
was cooked over fires on the floor of the temple, i. i65 22 . 25 

CALTROPS, see Weapons, 2, offensive. 

CAMP-FOLLOWERS: many staff-carles (stafkarlar), *.<?., old 
men leaning on sticks, followed either army, as well as poor 
people, who begged their meat, at Sticklestead, ii. 444 15 . 16 

CANDLE (kerti), for use in holy worship, i. 331^ a large, 
given by thralls in Jamtland as song-reward to a guarded 
prisoner, ii. 297 12 light of a, seen burning over the spot 
where the body of Olaf the Holy was secreted at Stickle- 
stead, 44715.20 candles light of their own accord on the altar 
where Olaf the Holy was enshrined, 46o 3 . 4 cf. 459 . 12 

CANDLE-PAGE, CANDLE-SWAIN (kertisveinn), servant in 
the king's court, whose duty it was to hold a lighted candle 
before the king's table during meals, and while drinking went 
on, iii. i93 10 289^ 

CANON-LAW (kristinn rttr), for Norway framed by Olaf the 
Holy, with the assistance of his court bishop Grimkel, ii. 

CAPITULATION, of a garrison, having to run the gauntlet 

on evacuating the fort: as they went out each of them was 

whipped with twigs (er Jeir gengu lit, fa var hverr feira sleginn 

limahogg), iii. 228^5 

CARTING (aka), carting corn, ii. 35 8 279^ 
CASK OF MEAD (mja^ar-bytta), ii. 1264 i27 lg 
CASTING OUT of children (at bera lit born), a heathen 

usage in Iceland, permitted after the conversion of the island 

to Christianity, ii. 69^3 
CASTLE (kastali), a great, erected by K. Sigurd Jerusalem- 

farer at Kings' Rock of turf and stone, with a great dyke 

(mote, diki) round it, iii. 278^ 32733 328 14 329^ 3303 33% 

332 y Cf. Burg. 
CATTLE, neat, oxen (naut) slaughtered for heathen sacrifices, 

i. i6s 16 ii. i93 8 . 10 
CAVALRY (riddarar, hestalrS), in Kaisar Otto's army invading 

Denmark, i. 255 16 in Harald Godwinson's army at Stam- 

3 1 2 Index III [CAV CHE 

ford-bridge, iii. i7i 25 17219-22 I 73s-5 ' m ^ e heathen army at 
Pezina, 430! 

CAVE (hellir), in the island of Forminterra, occupied as a 
stronghold by Moorish pirates, iii. 252^-2533.7 in the pre- 
cipices on Cleughfirth in Halogaland, winter abode of Sigurd 
Slembi-Deacon and his band, 356 23/24 

CENSER (gld'Sar-ker), usfed for testing the inflammability of 
Olaf the Holy's hair cut after death, ii. 4S6 18 . 30 

CHAFFER-FARINGS (kaupferSir), merchant voyages, ii. 8o 28 

8l 26" 8 3ii 2 5 8 i2" 2<5 5 iii- 33 8 s 

CHAINS, of gold and silver (vi^jar or silfri ok gulli), made 
for the dog-king Saur, i. 162-,^ of iron (jam), drawn across 
Stocksound to stop thoroughfare from the lake Malar, ii. 
7i4-is f i ron (j^rn-rekendr), across the strait of the Golden 
Horn at Constantinople in Harald Sigurdson's time, iii. 75 2 . 3 
of iron, with wooden spars (sumt me^ vi^um), laid across 
the bight at Bergen to bar Harald Gilli's approach to the 
town, 322-^ 323! 

CHAIR, STOOL (st611), provided at the open-air Thing of 
Upsala for the king and the chief men, ii. n8 15 18 21 28 

CHALICE (kalekr), belonging to the cathedral of Skalaholt, 
formerly a drinking cup, 'board-beaker' (bor^ker), in K. 
Harald Gilli's possession, and presented by him to bishop 
Magnus Einarson, iii. 335 12 . 15 3361-3 


CHAMPIONS (kappar), warriors peerless in skill of arms, 
seem to have been the class of men who afterwards, in Harald 
Hairfair's army, went under the names of Bareserks and Wolf- 
coats; twelve such in sea-king Haki's company (Harald's 
bareserks were also twelve), i. 38 10 . 19 25 . 2 7 4o l 45^ 

CHAPEL (kapella), erected to Olaf the Holy in a street in 
Constantinople where he had appeared to his brother Harald 
and promised him delivery from prison, iii. 73i 8 . 20 

CHAPMEN (kaupmenn), i. 2293 ii. 345 8 423^ iii. 192^ 327 22 . 25 
merchant men (kaupskip), 299 18 3283 6 

CHARACTER READING, an accomplishment possessed 
by Dale Redson of Eastern-Dales, Norway, ii. 34o 14 . 29 8r 


CHEAPING, Chippingham, Cheapingstead (kaupangr), the 
market place, the trading town, a current term for Nidoyce 

CHE CHR] Index III 313 

from the days of Olaf Haraldson, ii. 275 28 3025 454 24: 46617 
& 7i 5 35 2 6 I0 4 2 2 2o6 i4 21 2 7i 3 208! 2io 18 233^ 237 20 238 r 
26 9 2 o 2 75i5 28 4s 3IS5-6 348 2 5 357so 359i 5 20 36914 379 39 I 2o 
25-26 4i5so 4i6 10 43821 44i 2 i 447n 20 48i 18 
CHE APING-SHIPS (kaupskip), merchant men, i. 254^ iii. 

CHEAPING-STEADS (kaupsta^ir), rose much in Norway and 
flourished in the reign of Olaf the Quiet, iii. i92 912 

CHEAPING VOYAGES (kaupferSir), i. 2893 n 3 oo 9 u 

CHECK, v. (sksekja), of a move in the game of chess: c sksek^i 
(skaJb/Si) riddara af konungi,' not, as translated, c checked 
the king's knight,' but gave check and took the king's (Knut's) 
knight, ii. 32618-19 

CHESS (skak-tafl), played by King Knut and his brother-in- 
law, Sept. 2Qth, 1028, ii. 326^ ir . 21 

CHESSBOARD (taflborfS), ii. 32 6 6 21 

CHEST, i (arka), an ark, a large chest on feet, ii. 297 20 . 21 2. 
(kista), a portable chest, i. 28o 24 . 26 iii. 394! 3. (lik-kista, or, 
shorter, kista), lyke-chest, a coffin, ii. 447 25 2 f 29 4485, 6 2 i 

455l4 16 20 21 

CHIPS (spsenir, sing, spann), whittled from a wooden pin on 
a Sunday by Olaf the Holy, burnt by himself in the hollow 
of his hand for penance, ii. 385 6 . 20 

CHOIR (kdrr), the chancel in a church, ii. 1313 327 10 iii. 3io n 

CHOIR-COPE (kantara-kapa), cf. A.S. cantercappa, a bishop's 

cope, ii. 20533 
CHRISTIANITY (kristni), K. Athelstan had Hakon the Good 

christened in England, and he was a good Christian, i. 1414.5 

13 also Hakon's brother, Eric Bloodaxe, with his wife and 

children, I52 22 . 23 2oi ms 

Propagation of: 

i. In Norway. Hakon the Good has to keep secret his 

Christian observances, all his subjects being heathen, i. i63 26 - 

164.7 bis endeavours to convert the people of no avail, i64 u - 

J 7l25 

The sons of Eric Bloodaxe broke temples and images, but 
made no converts, i. 2oi m8 

Harald Gormsson of Denmark, having become King of 
Norway after Harald Greycloak, takes active interest in con- 

314 Index III [CHR 

verting the Norwegians, but when Svein, his son, succeeded, 
a general lapse back to paganism followed, i. 30*19-3025 

Olaf Tryggvison converts the people of the Wick, i. 302 12 - 
33i3 of Rogaland, 304^-305^ of Hordland, 3063-307 of 
Sogn, Firths, South-Mere, Raumsdale, 3o8 18 ~309 4 of North- 
Mere, 309 5 . 6 of Ringrealm, 3io 30 . 31 S^mr" of Thrand- 
heim, 3185-321^ of Halogaland, 3 2 4-334 6 

The Earls Eric and Svein Hakonsons, though pagans 
themselves, let every one do as he liked with regard to 
Christianity, ii. 73 22 . 24 

Olaf the Holy has a court bishop and court clergy, ii. 
6720-21 he frames church law for Norway by the counsel of 
the bishop and other clerks, 68 18 . 22 ultimately the ' bonders' 
submitted to these laws, 68 22 . 24 these laws he has read out 
at every public assembly in 1017 on his progress south along 
the land, ii. 73 18 , 2 o when he began his reign, the maritime 
folklands were Christian, but ignorant of canon law, while 
inland the people were all heathen, 73 26 -74 8 reasons why 
Christianity sped better in the Wick than elsewhere in Nor- 
way, 8o 20 -8i 2 Olafs ways with stubborn heathens, 73 32 -74 3 
I02 i-27 King Rcerek's disbelief in the gospel, 13117-21 0^ 
finds Christianity in a most backward state from Upper 
Thrandheim to Halogaland, i89 14 . 20 has the law of the 
church promulgated in these parts accompanied by the in- 
fliction of severe penalties where called for, 19 1^3 Haloga- 
land christened again, i92 12 _ 14 all Thrandheim converted, 
I 97i8' I 9^4 Gudbrandsdale christened, 2oo 19 -209 8 Heath- 
mark, Thotn, Hadaland, Ringrealm, Raumrealm, Sol-isles, 
converted, 209 6 -2io 8 Vors, 231^-2324 Valdres, 232^-2344 
Olaf ready to accept military service at Sticklestead from 
robbers and waylayers provided they let themselves be bap- 
tized, 394s.ii 24'395is 399s-3i ne turn s away five hundred who 
refused baptism, 39833-3995 

2. Denmark. Keisar Otto converts, at the point of the 
sword, K. Harald Gormson and his host to Christianity, A.D. 
975, i. 2S3 18 . 23 255 n -257 28 Harald's way of converting his 
subjects, 30119-25 

3. Sweden. Snorri is silent about propagation of Christi- 
anity in Sweden, knowing only the military conversion of the 
Smallands by K* Sigurd Jerusalem-farer, iii. 28424-285333-25 

CHR CHU] Index III 315 

4. Orkney, Shetland, Faroe: Olaf Tryggvison converts 
Earl Sigurd, son of Lodver, and his Orkney subjects to 
Christianity, i. 29o 22 -29i 8 ii. i69 mo Olaf the Holy keenly 
interested in the progress of Christianity in all these islands, 


5. Iceland. Olaf Tryggvison's measures for converting the 
people: mission of Thangbrand, i. 323^ 339 ir 34o 10 Ice- 
landers baptized in Norway, 334 u -338 8 Christianity made 
law in Iceland, 5 ?5 6 1V 7 3 i 354i . 2 5 9. laf the Holv earnestly 
interested in Christianity in Iceland, ii. 69^ 

6. Greenland. LeifEricson, christened by Olaf Tryggvison, 
undertakes to convert Greenland, i. 34i 16 . 20 SSSs-tf 

CHRIST'S SCATHE (kristni-spell), offence against Christian 

ordinances, such as eating horseflesh, casting out children, 

etc., ii. 68 22 69 6 . 9 
CHRIST'S MEN (Krists men), part of the watchword in Olaf 

the Holy's army at Sticklestead, ii. 4oo 81 427 18 
CHURCHES (kirkjur), first erected in Norway by Hakon the 

Good, i, i64 2829 three of these burnt down in Northmere 

by the incensed heathens, I7o 26 . 28 localities where churches 

are mentioned : 

AGDIRNESS: church erected there by K. Eystein Magnusson, 
iii. 263 n . 12 

ALBURG, Jutland; Mary's church, burial place of Sigurd 
Slembi-Deacon, iii. 367 20 . 26 and of Olaf the Unlucky, 


BIORGVIN : Apostles' church, erected within the King's garth' 

by K. Eystein Magnusson, iii. 2635.9 

Christ's church 'the Old,' 'Ancient,' 'the Old out on the 
Holme,' the earliest cathedral, a wooden fabric, com- 
pleted by K. Olaf the Quiet, iii. 192^.^ burial place 
of K* Harald Gilli and his son, K. Sigurd, 344 22 . 28 

Christ's church, the later cathedral, a great stone church, 

* reared from the ground sill by Olaf the Quiet) but little 

was done of it' in his lifetime, 1 92^47 
Michael's church on Nordness, burial place of the hanged 

bishop Reinald, 324 22 . 28 
Nicolas church, 4i8 18 
Olaf's church, K* Harald Gilli vowed to build a church 

3i 6 Index III [CHU 

dedicated to Olaf the Holy, if he should gain the day 
over K. Magnus the Blind, Jan. 7, 1135, 322 12 . 15 
CONSTANTINOPLE: Olaf's church, built and maintained by 
Veerings, to which ultimately Olaf the Holy's sword 
'Hneitir' found its way, iii. 429^4 43 * 1-5 
Olafs chapel, 73 15 . 20 
FORCE, the church of, burial place of K. Eystein Haraldson, 

& 39521-25 

GUDBRANDSDALE: Gudbrand-a-Dales being converted by 
Olaf the Holy, builds a church 'there in the Dales,' ii. 


IONA : Columbkill church the Little = St. Oran's chapel visited 

by K. Magnus Barefoot, iii. 222 15 . 23 
KINGS'-ROCK: Castle church, see the following: 

Cross church (Kross kirkja), a wooden building erected by 
K. Sigurd Jerusalem-farer within the castle of the town, 
consecrated 1127, rich in ornaments and relics, among 
which was a chip of the Holy Cross, brought by the king 
from Jerusalem, iii. 278 4 . 6 309 20 -3io 3 7 3255 3279 robbed 
and destroyed by Wends, 332^ 26 . 31 
LONDON: Olafs church, iii. i26 10162225 
Paul's church, burial place of Edward the Confessor, iii. 


MOST (Island of): Olaf Tryggvison builds there his first 
church in Norway, i. 29i 12 

NIDOYCE: Christ's church, the Cathedral. Thorgils Hal- 
mason and his men, on bringing the body of Olaf the Holy 
to Nidoyce, waked it night-long in a waste outhouse on 
Saurlithe, ii. 448 22 . 2q before the dawn of next day they 
had moved further up along the river, and buried it in a 
sandhill, where it lay from Aug. 1030, till the next summer, 
when it was dug up and buried at Clement's church here, 
on Aug. 3, 1031, the translation of the remains of Olaf to 
the high altar took place where the body had first been 
buried (in the sandhill) a well sprang up and was built 
over that building soon gave way to a chapel, the altar 
of which occupied the spot where the saint's grave had 
been, 448s8-449 4 45 SIMS 45 7 5 -n th e chapel again gave place 
to Christ's church c the Ancient,' erected by Olaf the Quiet, 
the altar of which stood where the altar of the chapel had 


Index III 317 

been, 457i 6 . 1 ' r iii. * 959-14 on tne occasion of the consecra- 
tion of this church, K. Olaf 's shrine was removed thither 
from Clement's church and placed over the high altar, 
I 95u-i6 Archbishop System's great minster which now 
standeth (*.<?. his extension of the cathedral) left undis- 
turbed the position of the altar, ii. 457 12 . 16 the spear with 
which King Olaf fought at Sticklestead now standeth be- 
side the altar of Christ's church,' 4i3 1(XL1 the burial place 
of Olaf the Quiet, iii. 202 1(KL2 ; of K. Olaf Magnusson, 
2 773-i2; of K - Ey stein Magnusson, 284^; of Hakon 
Shoulderbroad, 447 9 . 12 

Clement's church, the first church built in Nidoyce by Olaf 
Tryggvison, restored by Olaf the Holy, ii. 64 29 . 30 his 
body removed from the sandhill where it had been first 
buried, and laid in earth in Clement's church, 455n.iv 
twelve months and five days after the death of the king, 
it was translated to the high altar in this church, 455 ir 
4572 (here K. Magnus the Good placed the shrine he 
made for his father, iii. i6 3 . 23 ) the bell called Glad 
given to the church by K. Olaf, 35 24 . 26 K. Magnus the 
Good laid in earth at Clement's chuich, where then was 
the shrine of his father, 93 5 . r 2o6 22 
Gregory's church, built by Harald Hardredy, iii. io5 n . 12 
John's church, iii. 481-^ 
Margaret's church, built of stone by the Drinking Guild in 

Nidoyce, iii. i92 23 . 24 

Mary's church, reared by Harald Hardredy on 'the Mel,' 
nigh where the body of K. Olaf had lain in earth the 
first winter after his fall, iii. I04 30 -io5 3 broken down 
by Archbishop Eystein, io5 3 . 6 the holy relic of K. Olaf 
removed to this church when it was finished, io5 6 . 8 the 
burial place of Harald Hardredy, i84 18 . 20 by the north 
door of this church were cut in the stone marks show- 
ing the height of the three kings, Olaf the Holy, Harald 
Hardredy his brother, and the latter's grandson, Magnus 
Barefoot, 233 28 . 32 

Nicolas church, built by K. Eystein Magnusson within the 
4 king's garth,' and done with much care, both of carvings 
and other work, iii. 263 18 . 16 
Olaf 's church, built on the spot where stood the waste out- 

318 Index III [CLE COL 

house within which the body of Olaf was waked by 

Thorgils Halmason and his men the night after it arrived 

to Nidoyce, ii. 45737.20 the building of it begun by 

Magnus the Good, and completed by Harald Hardredy, 

iii. io4 21 . 24 26-28 to ^is church was removed from 

Clement's church the holy relic of St. Olaf, and here it 

was kept while Mary's church was building, io5 6 . 8 

probably the body of Magnus the Good was moved here 

from Clement's church at the same time, for here, beside 

the tomb of K. Magnus, were buried Einar Thambar- 

skelfir and Eindrid his son, 1049, no 26 . 28 

OSLO : Hallward's church, burial place of K. Sigurd Jerusalem- 

farer, iii. 3io 10 . 12 burnt down by Danes, 3535 rebuilt, it 

received the body of K. Magnus the Blind, 3673^ and of 

K. Ingi Haraldson, 4273.5 used for a council-chamber by 

K. Hakon Shoulderbroad and his party, 427-^9 

ROSKILD: Lucius church, richly endowed by K. Knut, in 

atonement for the murder of his brother-in-law, Earl Wolf, 

SARPSBURG: Mary's church, reared within the castle by Olaf 

the Holy, ii. 79 2 

THINGWALL in Iceland: (Olaf's church), built of timber 

given for the purpose by Olaf the Holy, wherewith he also 

sent 'a great bell which is there still,' ii. 24i 16 . 19 K. Harald 

Hardredy also presented a bell to this church, iii. 103^3 

VAGAR: church erected by K. Eystein Magnusson, iii. 26^.^ 

VALDRES : churches built and consecrated about the district 

by Olaf the Holy, ii. 234 9 . 10 

CLEARING WOODS (rySja mork, r. markir), K. Olaf Tree- 

shaver's method of colonization, i. 65 14 . 1? a task which Erling 

Skialgson set his freedmen that they might set up a house of 

their own, ii. 25 22 _ 26 

CLOISTER (klaustr), monastery (at Holme, in Thrandheim 

bay), iii. 3345 34833 30 
CLOTH, fit for royal robes of state (pell), obtained from 

Novgorod, ii. 8s 1W8 
CLOTHES, see Raiment Robes. 
CLUB (klubba, rudda), a weapon of attack, always borne by 

Kolbein the Strong, K. Olaf the Holy's attendant, ii. 2o6 9 . 10 
COLLAR (men), of precious metal round Jomali's neck, robbed 

COL COR] Index III 319 

by Karli of Longisle, ii. 262^.^ claimed by Thorir Hound 
it becomes the cause of Karli's death and falls into Thorir's 
possession, 263^-264^ 265 12 . 2S 289 10 . 25 

COLONIZATION : of wild woodlands in Sweden by K. Road- 
Onund, i. 5 4^.^ likewise by a number of younger sons of 
kings of Sweden from the days of Agni to those of Ingiald 
Evilheart, 57is of Vermland, by Olaf Treeshaver, 65 U . 21 
66 6 by Norwegians of Iceland and the Faroes, partly of 
Shetland, 11322-24 of lamtland, 113^ i62 19 . 24 i63 4 . 6 8 . 19 ii. 
2 76 3 . 12 14 . 18 cf. ni. 26325-26433 of Helsingland, i. n 3l6 i62 25 . 29 
cf. i63 6 . 8 21 . 22 ii- 2 7 6 i2-i4 19-20 

COMBING HAIR (grerSa har), the famous act by Rognvald of 
Mere on Harald Hairfair, whose hair had not been cut or 
combed for ten years, i. ii7 6 

CONFIRM (biskupa), to perform the ecclesiastical act of con- 
firmation ; in the case of K. Olaf s converts to Christianity on 
the eve of the battle of Sticklestead, confirmation followed 
immediately on baptism, ii. 399 28 

CONSECRATE (vigja), 'hallow': Jon Byrgison consecrated 
first Archbp. of Nidoyce, 1152, iii. 379 29 . 80 Eystein, his 
successor, 4S6 16 Bishop Brand to Holar, 46i 21 Cross 
church, Kings 7 Rock, consecrated, 309^ 3io 6 . r 

COOK (steikari), i. 316! 

COPPER-PENNIES (eir-penningar), current in Sweden in 
the days of Frey, were poured into his howe through one 
of the three windows in it, in payment of Frey's scat, i. 

2 322 

CORN (korn), grown all over Norway up to Halogaland \ great 
failure of, in the reign of the sons of Gunnhild, i. 2i8 16 . 22 
plenteous harvests of, when Earl Hakon succeeded to the 
rule of Norway, 24 2 30 . 34 ~ cutting of, and harvesting described, 
ii. 357. 10 c f- 2 79i4-i5 g reat scarcity of, through northern 
Norway in Olaf the Holy's reign, 19235-29 2I0 29-so 2II 4-n 
2I 5i2-is 25;2r s<T 2I(5 8 so-32 2I 70 33- 2I 922-^ corn packed in skin 
(belgr), iii. 2i; r 

CORONATION (konungs vfgsla), Harald Godwinson's in 
St. Paul's, iii. i58 16 . 1 i r performed for the first time in Nor- 
way, 1165, when Archbishop Eystein crowned K. Magnus 
Erlingson, iii. 4625-464. 

CORPSE-FARE (HkferS), the journey of Thorgils Halmason 

320 Index III [COR cou 

with the dead body of K. Olaf the Holy from Sticklestead 
down to Nidoyce, ii. 4473-449^ 

CORSAIRS (kussari, Low Lat cursarius), pirates of the Medi- 
terranean, iii. 60.7 

COT-CARLE (kotkarl), a cottier, iii. 28930 

COT-STEAD (biikot), a small farmstead, iii. 1435 

COUNCIL (ra^uneyti), appointed by K. Magnus Barefoot for 
his young son Sigurd as Earl of Orkney, iii. 22i 19 

COUNCIL-CHAMBER, thing-house (stofa, Jringhiis), one of the 
principal buildings at a king's court, ii. 68 4 7o 29 iii. io9 ir . 20 26 29 

COUNTY (hera'S), administrative division (undefined) in Den- 
mark, iii. 28 28 

COUNTY-KINGS (heraSs-konungar), in Sweden under K. 
Road-Onund, i. 5S r . 10 

COURT (hirS), see Body-guard. 

COURT-COUNCILS (stefna, hirSstefna), assemblies of the 
king's bodyguard summoned by himself and held under his 
own presidency in the council-chamber, ii. 68 4 . 5 225 16 226 15 

COURT-CUSTOMS, see Court-manners. 

COURT-HALL (hirSstofa), K. Olaf the Holy's, with a door at 
either end, the king's high-seat being placed up against the 
middle of one of the long walls of it, and the other (lower) 
high-seat in the same manner up against the other wall, ii. 
^7ir-2o 22-23 f ree figh* anc * manslaughter in K. Hakon 
Shoulderbroad's court hall, iii. 41530.33 Cf. House holl, 

COURT-MANNERS (hirS-si^ir, hirS-venja), Norwegian: under 
Olaf Haraldson (the Holy) : his hall, disposal of seats, ale 
drunk by lit fires, court appointments, body-guard, 'guests,' a 
division of the guard subject to special laws, housecarles, 
thralls, dormitory for body-guard, council-chamber, ii. 67 10 - 
68 5 K. Olafs personal habits: rising, dressing, attendance 
at church, transaction of public affairs, 68 8 . 14 under K. Olaf 
the Quiet: the high-seat in the hall removed from the middle 
of the long wall up to the high dais at the upper end; ovens 
in hall introduced by him, and the custom of covering the 
floor with rushes in winter as well as in summer, iii. 1923.3 
K. Olaf interests himself much in the guild life of Norway, 
and introduces many new fashions in dress, 192^-1933 in 
his hall trencher-swains (skutil-sveinar) poured out for the 
king into board-beakers (bortSker), and to all men of high 

cou CRO] Index III 


degree, 1 9 3 6 . 10 candle-swains (kertisveinar) held lighted 
candles before the king's table as many as men of distinction 
were present, 19310-13 a 'trapeza 1 was placed on the hall 
floor, apparently, reserved for washing of hands, i93 18 the 
marshal's chair (stallarast611) was so placed that the occupant 
should turn towards the king's high-seat, i93 14 . 16 before K. 
Olaf's days the kings of Norway drank out of horns, had ale 
borne round the fires, and toasted whomso they pleased, 
1 93 16 . 19 K. Olafs body-guard numbered one hundred (=120), 
the guests sixty, the house-carles sixty, these latter being em- 
ployed in bringing into court what goods were wanted, and 
to do whatever the king wanted done, i94 3 . v 

Swedish : K. Hugleik had in his court all kinds of minstrels, 
harp-players, jig -players, fiddlers, spell-workers, and all kind 
of cunning folk, i. 3733-382 Olaf the Swede had attending at 
dinner in his hall players with harps, gigs, and other musical 
instruments, and special servants to pour out the drink, ii. 
1 59e-9 ne a * so na 4 a l wavs at n * s court twelve counsellors as 
assistant assessors in adjustments of cases at law, 159^.22 

Russian: The Queen Allogia, as was the wont in those 
days, had one half of the expenses of the body-guard to sus- 
tain, due amount of the revenue of the state being allowed 
her for the purpose, i. 25*1-8 
COURT-MEN (hirSmenn), persons of the body-guard, q.v. ii. 

3 62 14 

COW (k^r), worshipped by King Ogvald and laid in howe near 

Ogvaldsness, i. 3157-12 IMS 
CROSS (kross), the sign of the 

be Christian cross made over cups 

at heathen festivals so like unto that of Thor's hammer as to 
be allowed by jealous heathens to pass for the latter on the 
plea that such was the sign used by all who believed in 
nothing but their might and main, i. i69 16 . 24 most of Olaf 
the Holy's men had the holy cross laid in gold on their white 
shields at the battle off Nesiar, ii. 57 5 . 6 a cross was painted 
in white on the front of the helmets of his warriors in the 
same battle, 57 r . 8 in Snorri's time two crosses were still 
standing at Cross-brent where K. Olaf had rested on his way 
through Wall-dale, ii. 3643^2 K. Olaf orders the helmets 
and shields of his army at Sticklestead to be marked with the 
Holy Cross in white, 4oo 2r . 2 g on his own white shield the 
vi. y 

322 Index III [CRO CUD 

Holy Cross was done in gold, 4i3 8 . 10 Harald Sigurdson be- 
stowed much wealth on the Holy Cross at Jerusalem, iii. 7i 31 - 
72 a a splinter of the Holy Cross at Jerusalem given by K. 
Baldwin and the Archbishop to K. Sigurd, who swore to place 
it where Olaf the Holy rested, 257^ 24 . 25 illadvisedly he 
placed it in Cross Church, built by himself, at Kings' Rock, 
2785.? 9-13 3925-26 ^ was k<> rne before Magnus the Blind in 
the battle of Fyrileif, 3172-3 guarded by Magnus until he 
was deposed, when it was not forthcoming, and he would give 
no information about its whereabouts, 3243.5 but it must 
have been found again, as it was seized by the Wends in the 
sack of Kings' Rock, 332 13 . 14 who, however, restored it to 
priest Andreas, 332 25 being taken on board K. Rettibur's 
ship, such heat spread through the ship that the crew stood 
in dread of burning, 333^7 priest Andreas hides it in his 
bosom on being set free from Rettibur's ship, and directs the 
boat he was put into to be taken round the ship of Rettibur, 
an act supposed to be productive of evil luck (cf. Howard the 
Halt, Saga Lib. i. 27j 5 -28 2 ), but the cross priest Andreas 
brought into safe keeping (how or where not stated), 333^.25 

CROSS-MEN (kross-menn), term signifying K. Olaf s men at 
Sticklestead, ii. 4oo 32 427 18 

CROW (kraka), made of wood and sent by the Danes to Sweden 
as an ignominious emblem of the fallen Swede-king, Ottar 
Vendilcrow, i. 48^5 three crows, flying past in succession, 
indicate to an old interpreter of bird language where stolen 
property of his is hidden on board Olaf the Quiet's ship, in*. 

200g-20I 2 

CRUPPER (slagalar), i. n6 24 . Not an exact translation. 
Slagdlar were straps attached to the saddle on either side, so 
as to be behind the rider's legs, and to which were attached 
objects the rider wanted to carry with him; 'saddle-straps,' 
for want of a more technical term, would be a closer transla- 
tion. (Egilson translates it lora ephippii postica, ' Scrip, hist. 
Island.,' i. 224^) 

CUB (rnlnn), the young of a bear, =bersi, the name of the Ice- 
landic poet Bersi Skald-Torva's son, whom Sigvat pettingly 
calls a * bear-cub,' ii. 254 13 

CUDGEL (refSi). This seems to have been a stick that could be 
used as a walking stick, with an iron spike at one end of it 

CUN DAN] Index III 323 

and an axe at the other. Such a stick made of cane with a 
runic calendar engraved on it we have seen in the National 
Museum of Stockholm. It may have been, like the /5a/3&>e, 
a staff of office, the axe, necessarily a small one, being rather 
emblematic of authority, than doing the service of an actual 
weapon. In Heimskringla the use of this object is that of a 
striking rod ('rod gold-wrought'), i. 320^ of a cudgel, ii. 308 
28 30-33 39io-i7 of a (cudgel ? or) staff of authority, iii. 2i5 16 
of a staff or rod of state, being * done with silver and gilded/ 
and treated as a suitable gift to a king, 332 9 . 10 (ri^volr; rr5, 
from rfiSa to knit, weave, volr a stick) prop, a piece of wood 
by which the meshes of a net, when being bound, are measured, 


CUNNING (kunnusta), knowledge of sorcery, see Wizardry. 

CUNNING FOLK (fjolkunnigt f61k), wizards, i. 3 8 2 

CUP (ker), full of honey-mead, a bewitched love-potion, given 
by Snowfair to Harald Hairfair, i. 1 19 23 (full) see health-cup 
(minni) memorial toasts, ' signed tcTthe JEsir after ancient 
wont,' ii. 193^ 

CURSES : the sons of Visbur imprecate that his gold necklace 
should be the bane (death) of the best man of his kin, i. 28 
15-16 an d the witch Huld undertakes by spell-working to 
effect that e slaying of kin by kin should ever follow the blood 
of the Ynglmgs,' 28 19 . 23 

CURTFELL, Drapa by, see Poems. 

DAIS (pallr) a raised platform on which the two high-seats on 
either side of a hall were arrayed as well as other seats to 
left and right of the high-seats, i S9z^i dais * n Thorkel 
Fosterfather's hall at Sandwick, Orkney, ii. i77 28 in Thrand 
o' Gate's Thing-booth in Faroe, 3073 81 3o8 n Olaf the Quiet 
moved the high-seat from the side wall of the hall to the 
high dais athwart it (at the upper end), iii. ig2 l 

DALE (dalr) : in the allegorical phrase ' dale meets knoll 7 the 
meaning is that Earl Thorfin will find out that it will be as 
vain for him to endeavour to baffle the power of K. Olaf 
Haraldson as it would be for a knoll to rebel against the 
valley that encompasses it (cf. Olaf's saga, 1853, 97si Flat. & 
i79 S4 Fms. iv. 22$^ Laxd. 1343), ii. i82 19 . 20 

DANE-TONGUE, Danish tongue, tongue of the Danes (donsk 
tunga), the tongue spoken by the North-Germanic races before 

324 Index III [DAY DRE 

the languages of Sweden and Denmark had developed a 
"special form of their own, i. i 9 3i 15 used by Sigvat almost 
as a geographical term for the lands inhabited by those 
races, ii. 32 34 

DAYMEAL (dagverSr), breakfast, ii. soi 21 iii. I7o 12 

DEADLY DRINK (bana-drykkr), poison; given to Frodi, son 
of Har. Hairfair, in Ireland, i. i32 25 . 26 Queen Gunnhild al- 
leged to have dealt in a similar manner with her brother-in- 
law, Halfdan the Black, i42 u . 18 

DESERTION by husband of his wedded wife : by Vanland of 
Drift, i. 26 31 -27 6 by Visbur of his first wife (not named), 28 8 
of nine wives by Harald Hairfair when he married Ragn- 
hild from Jutland, ii4 22 -3o ^Y K. Sigurd Jerusalem-farer of 
his queen, Malmfrid, iii. 307-3090 by K. Magnus the Blind 
of his queen, Kristin, 31425-31 by wife of her husband: 
Kristin of Earl Erling Askew, iii. 474n-i3 

DIAR, an Irish word, dia=god, the name, which only occurs 
in the plural, is collectively given to the twelve temple priests 
of Asgarth, who were among Odin's people the highest in 
sacerdotal and judicial authority, i. i2 14 . 21 Niord and Frey 
of the Vanir were raised to the position of Diar among the 
Asfolk, i4 20 . 21 all the Diar joined Odin in his emigration 
from Asgarth to the North, i5 ir the more part of them died 
in the days of Niord, 22 15- - 16 

DIE (teningr), play and miraculous winning at, by Olaf the 
Holy, ii. 16623-167.7 

DOMAIN, see Fief. 

DOWER (mundr), given by the bridegroom to the bride : Vis- 
bur's to his first wife, three 'great towns/ or rather great 
manors, and a gold necklace, i. 28^ 13 (heiman-fylgja, what 
follows with the bride from home), the dower bestowed on 
the bride by her guardian (father, or other nearest relatives), 
ii. I52 30 2ii 27 . 28 iii. ii4 20 

DOWN-PILLOW (diinn), or down-bolster, is the meaning of ' a 
diini,' on which Thorleif the Sage says King Harald Hairfair 
honours and worships his dead spouse, i. i2o I6 

DRAKE (dreki), a winged legendary monster, looked upon as 
a guardian spirit of a family, i. 268 S1 dragons (drekar), 
wondrous great, in Great Sweden, i2 a 

DREAMS (draumar), Odin would appear to the Swedes in 


Index III 325 

dreams before great battles, i. 2i 29 . 33 dreaming procured by 
sleeping in a swine-sty, 84 7 . 10 Queen Ragnhild's dream, 83 
14-31 1 43 2 i-33 King Halfdan the Black's, 84 3 . 27 Thrall Kark's, 
i. 293 2l7 . 32 294 2 .0 2963^2973 Earl Hakon's accompanied by 
violent convulsions, 297 8 . 12 K. Olaf the Holy's, ii. 20 16 . 24 
382 14 ~383 n 3863.5 4i4 9 _ 32 K. Magnus the Good's, iii. 35 
9-19 9028-91? Gyrd's, i6 322 -i6 4s Thord's, i6 4ll . 33 K. 
Harald Hardredy's, 165^4 many dreams and forebodings 
went before K. Harald's expedition to England, i65 15 . 16 
K. Sigurd Jerusalem-farer's, 2694-27034 2919-292-^ Erling 
Eskew's at Rydiokul on point of being betrayed, 475 22 . 29 
interpretation of dreams a highly esteemed accomplishment, 
ii. 34o 10 -n 
DRESS : i. Women's. 

SMOCK (serkr), i. 83 18 night-sark (natt-serkr), iii. 4203 
DRESS : 2. Men's. 
BOOT (b6ti), iii. 324 21 

BREECHES (brsekr), linen b., strait-laced to the bone, ii. 308 
29-so *? w * tn footsole-bands (ilbandabrsekr) used in run- 
ning, iii. 2984.5 blue b., 340 27 34131-22 
CAP (hiifa), silken, gold-embroidered, iii. 3653.4 
CAPE (kapa), grey, an over-garment, probably with sleeves, see- 
ing that the wearer was engaged in fieldwork, ii. 35^ iii. 


CLOAK, for want of more technical terms, serves as translation of: 
i. FELDR,' a square kind of rug, generally about 2 yards 
by about i, of coarse homespun, or of skins, and was 
thrown over the shoulder like a shawl, or over the body 
in lying posture like a rug cover, ii. 297 18 307 32 Sigvat's 
phrase : Hideous it is when Thingmen . . . thrust down 
nose into the cloak ' (stinga nosum niftr i feldi), refers to a 
habit among Norsemen to cover up, partly at least, the 
face when beset by cares or trouble; in casu it refers to 
the general discontent of the king's subjects, iii. 24-^9 
' VARAR-FELDR,' rug for sale, was practically the same thing; 
we have translated it 'grey cloaks,' because the king's by- 
name shows that the rugs in question were made of home- 
spun and undyed (grey) wool, black and white mixed, i. 

2 8 19 23 30 20 9l-2 4 6-7 six . f theSe rU & S Or Cloaks + SlX ells 

of wadmal (va&mdl), equal in value to half a mark of silver, 

326 Index III [DRE 

constituted proper payment of the e land-dues ' or c sailing 
fee ; which in Norway every free man, e in his full right ' 
(/.<?., who was entitled to proper atonement for any offence 
or injury done to his person), landing there from Iceland, 
had to pay; hence Sigvafs expression, 'If now for the 
cloaks I pray me,' i.e., if now I pray for the remission of 
the land-dues/ ii. 52 30 

2. HEKLA, an over-cloak or cape without sleeves, green, 

3. KAPA, an over-cloak, with or without sleeves : of scarlet, 
probably without sleeves, being a raiment of state, ii. 36 26 
cf. Cape. 

4. Lo^S-KAPA, shag-cloak, with the hair or fleece on the 
outside, i. 2654 cf. Fleece-cope below. 

5. KILTING, not exactly a piece of garment, but an ar- 
rangement of the kirtle whereby a receptacle for slipping 
portable things into was made of it above the belt in front: 
Thorir Hound poured the spoils of Jomali's wealth into his 
cloak (kilting), ii. 262 4 . 7 Thiostolf All's son carried the 
infant king Ingi inside his f kilting' at the battle of Mouth 
(where the translation ' kilt ' is misleading), iii. 34924-25 

6. MOTTULL, cf. mantle, a sleeveless over-garment, i. 695 
iii. 67 25 472 14 short m, 2985 Welsh, 4813 custom, when 
men of high degree obeyed nature's errands on board ship, 
that their attendants should hold out their mantle for a 
shelter, 34i 5 . r 

7. SKIKKJA, a sleeveless cape cast over the shoulders, i. 
37 2 ii. 3652^ of purple, lined with white skins, iii. 86 31 . 32 
red, with tucked-up skirts, 45330-31 

8. SLOE'SUR, a robe, or gown, a trailing garment of state; 
one made of pall, much gold-embroidered, sent by Princess 
Ingigerd of Sweden to Olaf the Holy, ii. i22 20 , 21 

9. VESL, a sleeveless over-raiment, blue v., iii. 2i6 c . y 

10. YFIRHOFN, over-cloak, a general term for over-alls, 
especially those without sleeves, ii. i25 4 10 1319 24 28 in. 

2 33 2 o 342s 

CLOAK-CLASP, -BUCKLE (feldar-dalkr), one worth fifty marks of 
refined silver presented by the Icelanders to Eyvind the 
Skaldspiller for a drapa he had composed on the Icelandic 
people, i. 21 9 4 . 1331 281^ 

DRE] Index III 327 

COAT (bjalfi), made by Finns of reindeer skin (hreinbjalfi), 
which through the thickness of the fur formed a protective 
kind of armour of great excellence, a quality which Snorri, 
following Sigvat, attributes to Finn-wizardry, ii. s87 25 . 28 
4321-15 (hjupr) red, worn over the byrny (sur-coat), hi. 
2 3 I i5 19 20 21 ft re<i > of silk > worn over the shirt (sur-coat), 
with a lion on it, cut out in silk, on back and breast, gules, 
2 429-30 33 f or ^inary skin, see Doublet. 

COPE (kapa), see Fleece-cope. 

DOUBLET (kosungr), a jacket without sleeves, lined, iii. i79 16 
ir = skin-coat (skinn-hjiipr), i79 28 

FLEECE-COPE (lo'Skapa), a cape of skin with the fleece or hair 
on, iii. 2i5 ir 

HAT (hottr), i. I2i 2(5 worn over helmets for disguising pur- 
pose, i. 1853^ " 77as u 'i- 6 725 47 2 i 4 wide-brimmed, vtfSr, 
grey, grar, ii. 35 15 slouch, sfSr, 22i 28 30833 a wide, iii. 
1389 13 a bowl-hat (skal-hattr), peculiarity uncertain, 215^ 
Irish, 2985 

HOSE (hosur), blue, ii. 35 13 Cordovan hose (kordiinahosur), 
3623.24 pride hosen (dramb-hosur), laced to the bone, i.e., 
quite tight fitting, iii. 19237.28 

JERKIN, long (langr upphlutr), corset, or waistcoat, instead of 
jerkin, would better express the original, which means that 
Erling set the fashion of wearing kirtles with long corsets 
or waistcoats, and with long sleeves, iii. 481! 

KIRTLE (kyrtill), short, red, worn over a coat of mail, i. 366 28 
blue, ii. 35 13 36 25 239^ iii. i73 14 red, ii. 33io red ' 
ag-kirtle (drag-kyrtill), c l 

scarlet, iii. 2i6 7 . 8 drag-kirtle (drag-kyrtill), c laced to the 
side/ where ' drag ' probably refers to these kirtles being 
laced (drawn) tight with cords provided for the purpose, iii. 
I 9 2 293o~ short 2 33io browned, /.<?., dyed deep blue, 453 80 
kirtles worn over byrnies to disguise warlike intention, 

ii- 77 28 
MANTLE (mottull), a sleeveless over-garment: m. with cords 

(mottull a tyglum), otherwise called 'tugla-mottull,' tied 

round the neck with cords, iii. 34o 28 341,3 
MITTEN (vottr), lined with down, i. io9 10 
RAIMENT (klse'Si, biina'Sr), also translated robes and clothes, 

general terms, collectively designating dress, especially of 

persons of high degree and their household company: 

328 Index III [DRI 

robes of state (tignar-klse^i), K. Sigurd Sow's, ii. 34 23 best 
raiments (beztr biina^r), ordered by Asta to be worn by 
her household on Olaf, her son's, first visit to her after re- 
turning from his viking cruises, 34 SO good clothes (gd'S 
klse'Si) she lent to those who had none, 3430-31 costly 
raiment (pells-klse^i), 36 26 raiment of gold-broidered 
scarlet (skarlatsklaeSi bum gull-hlo^um), the ordinary wear 
of the outlaw Arnliot Gellini, 2993 

SARK (serkr), apparently only another term for kilting; for 
Arnliot must have kept the silver dish which he took out 
of c his sark * concealed above the belt under the ' gold- 
broidered garment ' he wore, ii. 3005 
SEAT-GORE (setgeiri), iii. 34i 22 

SHIRT (skyrta), red, silken, worn as an overall by K. Magnus 
the Good in the battle of Lyrshawheath, iii. 369 the only 
piece of clothing left on Styrkar's body after the battle of 
Stamfordbridge, i79 12 Harald Gilli's only upper garment 
when racing with Magnus the Blind on horseback, 2984 
with long sleeves, 4813 

SHOES (sk<5r, pi. skiiar), high, laced to the leg, ii. 35i 3 . 14 high, 
'all sewn with silk and some embroidered in gold,' a fashion 
in vogue in Norway during Olaf the Quiet's reign, iii. I92 82 - 
I 93s f shanks' leather (fit-skiiar), 453^^ high-laced 
(upphdir), 4813 

SLEEVES (ermar), of the drag-kirtles, five ells long and so 
tight that they must be drawn by an arm-cord (hand-tygill, 
dat. hand-tugli) and trussed all up to the shoulder, iii. 
I 9 2 3o-3? l n sleeves to kirtles and shirts, a fashion revived 
by Erling Askew, iii. 48 1^3 
SPUR (spori), gilded, ii. 36 24 

DRINK (drykkr), strong, served out to persons destined for be- 
trayal : Olaf Tryygvison invites wizards to a feast, makes them 
drunk by strong drink, and then burns them all in the ban- 
queting chamber, i. 31239-3133 the priest at Rydiokul in- 
vites Erling Askew to a banquet, giving him strong drink 
through the evening and right much of it while he warns his 
enemies to set upon him, iii. 4757-47632 
DRINKING (drykkja), by measure, customary at Erling Skialg- 
son's day-meal, each participant of the meal receiving a 
'measure' (mal) of drink, while at night-meal the drink was 
not measured out, ii. 24 29 . 31 


Index III 329 

Drinking as social custom : in company (sveitar drykkja) j 
vikings, when invited to feasts, followed the custom of drinking 
in company by themselves even where * drinking in pairs' 
was habitual, i. 59 2 y. 29 ?io-i2 tn i s custom broken by K. 
Hiorvard, 6o 12 . l7 in pairs (tvimenningr), men being paired 
with women and spending the evening drinking, a custom 
observed by kings who abode at home (i.e. did not go out on 
viking cruises), i. 5922-37 ^ Hiorvard and Hildigunna drink 
paired and become man and wife, 6o 10 . 26 highborn ladies 
partake otherwise also in drinking: Hildigunna drinks to 
toasts of K. Hiorvard and his Ylfings in memory of Rolf 
Kraki, i. 6o 4 . 7 Sigrid the Haughty drank through the evening 
with K. Harald the Grenlander, i. 284 2 i_ 2S Ingigerd, d. of 
Olaf the Swede, sat in her chamber drinking with many men ; 
Gizur and Ottar are entertained at drink by her, ii. 95 21 . 22 80 
drinkings turn and turn about, see Gilds. 

Drinking to excess : drinking a man off his settle (drekka 
mann af stokki), ii. i25 31 . 32 great drinkings going on when 
season was abundant, 1 2 7 n . 12 drinking bouts at winter nights 
Le. at the great autumn festivals, i93 6 at Yuletide, i9S 2 . 6 
champion drinking (kapp-drykkja), 2963 drinking heavily 
the ale of departure (brottferSarol) before going on a viking 
cruise, L 2io 20 . 22 

Personal drunkenness: K. Fiolnir fell dead drunk (dau'Sa- 
drukkinn) into a vat of mead and was drowned, i. 25^ K. 
Swegdir and his men, very drunk, 26 6Jr Agni's wedding, a 
drunken feast, 33 32 -34 4 K. Yngvi's habit to sit long over 
drink at night, 36 17 . 20 his men very drunk with him, 3633 
K. Ingiald Evilheart made all his court dead drunk and 
then burnt them together with himself in his hall, 64j. 20 K. 
Gudrod, Hunter king, had great drinkings on board his ships, 
7 1 17-21 Great drinking by K. Sigurd Slaver and his men, 
21 524 Ok-*" Tryggvison feasts Thrandheim notables at Ladir 
and men were very drunk, 3i8 16 . lV K. Harald the Gren- 
lander full merry with drink, and exceeding drunk, 285! ^ 
made drunk together with his men by Sigrid the Haughty, 
who then burnt them all to death, 286 14 . 21 Olaf the Swede 
merry and very drunk, ii. 96 12 .^ Olaf the Quiet a mickle 
drinker (drykkjuma^Sr mikill), iii. I9i 12 -i 8 the courtiers of 
K. Sigurd Jerusalem-farer sing evensong drunk outside a 

330 Index III [DRO EAR 

church, 286 5 . r Magnus the Blind a drunkard, 297 20 . 21 299^ 
3i3 15 he and Harald Gilli both drunk, 29720-21 Harald Gilli 
slain drunk, 343,, Alf Ruffian comes upon Bergliot and 
Onund, sons of Ivar of Elda, both drunk, and slays them, 4165 

DROTT (drdtt), the company that formed the host, body-guard, 
of a dr<5ttinn or ruler of a whole people, i. 3130-21 

DROTTNAR (dr6ttnar, plur. from drtfttinn, lord of the host, cf. 
O.E. dryhten, O.H.G. truhten), the title appertaining to each 
of the twelve temple priests of Asland, i. i2 20 and to the 
rulers of Sweden from Odin to Domar (Odin Niord Frey 
Fiolnir Swegdir Vanland Visbur Domald Domar), 

DROTTNING(AR) (plur. of drdttning), the wife of a dr6ttinn, 
a lady, queen, i. 3i 20 

DUES (skyldir, tekjur), royal revenues; conferred by halves on 
his sons on being made kings, by Har. Hairfair, i. i32 2 . 6 
withheld from Eric's sons throughout Thrandheim by Earl 
Sigurd, i. i99 15 .tf and by Hakon his son, 2o6 26 . 29 

DUKE (hertogi), a title borne only by two persons in Norway: 
Guthorm, the uncle of Harold Hairfair, i. 92j 8 no 20 ii4 32 
H5 5 i24 9 and Skuli Bardson, the fifth in descent from Earl 
Tosti, iii. i84 13 

DWARFS (dvergar), found in Scythia, i. u 24 a dwarf shuts 
K. Swegdir up in his hollow rock at Stone in Sweden the 
Great, or Scythia, 26 3 . 24 

EARL (jarl), appointed by Harald Hairfair in every folkland, 
his duties and rights defined, i. 96^3 investiture of an earl 
described, 98 9 . 12 hi. 3i 1 . 10 the dignity of earls at court 
lowered by the division of the kingdom among Hairfair's sons, 
i. i32 2 . 5 the policy of Olaf the Holy, Magnus the Good, 
and Harald Hardredy to have only one earl in the land, iii. 

EARTH-BURG (jartSborg), fort, earth-work, built at Sarps- 
burg by Olaf the Holy, ii. 78 30 -79 4 K. Eric Emundson's 
earth-burgs about the Eastlands, ii. I2o 2m one in Kvaldins- 
isle of turf and timber with a dyke round it, iii. 227^3 

EARTH-HOUSE (jarTS-hiis), an underground tunnel or mine, 
carried from the camp of a besieging army into the town be- 
sieged, iii. 65 9 . 26; 'dyke' in line 10 would be better rendered 
by tunnel (groptr). 

EGG FAI] Index III 331 

EGG-LAIR (egg-ver), an outlying island or rock where sea-birds, 
especially eider-ducks, gather in the hatching season, ii. 2Q2 ft 

ELF-WORSHIP (41fa-bl6t), ii. i 4 6 14 22 

ELL (oln, alin), i, a measure of lengtfi, 18 inches, iii. i24 24 
1854 2, a unit of value, an ell of wadmal or homespun 
cloth (alin va^mals) Olaf the Holy, attempting to incorpor- 
ate Iceland in his realm, proposed that the Icelanders should 
pay him 'nosegild' or poll-tax, 'for every nose a penny, 10 
whereof should go to an ell of wadmal, } i.e. equal it in value, 
ii. 275 9 _ n an ell of wadmal, value 10 pennies, was equal to 
of the ounce, eyrir, then (1027) current in Iceland, called 
the six ells' ounce, sex alna eyrir, which equalled 60 pennies, 
being -| of a mark of silver weighed, which contained 480 
pennies. The nosegild demanded therefore amounted in 
value to -^j- of the standard currency, the ounce of silver 

EMMA, a coat of mail, so called, see Weapons, defensive. 

ERNE (orn, otherwise blood-eagle, bld'Sorn), the opening of a 
man's body from the back in the form of an eagle; a cruel 
execution of a vanquished foe, described, i. 1 26 6 10 an eagle, 
Hi. i63 30 

EVENSONG ^aptan-songr), vespers, ii. 1253 sung in a riotous 
fashion outside a church by intoxicated courtiers, hi. 286 4 . r 

EXPORT of corn, malt, and meal, from Southern Norway to the 
north, where dearth prevailed, forbidden by Olaf the Holy 
in order that his ordinary feasting in the south should not be 
interfered with, ii. 2ii 4 . n 2i5 31 -2i6 1 2i8 2 this law eluded 
with impunity by Erling's thralls as being beyond the pale 
of land's law and right, 2i8 29 -2i9 8 

FAFNIR = dragon, = ' Worm 7 = The Long Worm, Olaf Trygg- 
vison's war- galley, i. 370^ 

FAGGOT-FENCE, f.-garth (skiSgartSr), wooden fence round 
the sanctuary of the Biarmland divinity Jomali, ii. 26i 10 10 . ir 

FAI& (kaupstefna), held at Upsala for six days in the month 
of Goi, while Sweden was heathen; after the introduction of 
Christianity it was moved back to Candlemas, and lasted for 
three days only in the time of Snorri, ii. ii2 2 . 3 6 . 9 at Vagar 
in Halogaland, 238^ at Tunsberg, 2io 2S . 2 ^ 

33 2 Index III [FAL FEA 

FALCONRY, see Sports. 

FAMINE (hallsen), great in Iceland (1047), generously allevi- 
ated by K. Harald Sigurdson, iii. io2 24 . 32 

FASTING (fasta) : Friday fast first introduced in Norway by 
Hakon the Good, i. 1643 i66 82 sanctity of that fast, iii. 
292 18 -294 18 fasting unto iron, preparation for the ordeal 
of bearing, or walking over, red-hot iron, 278 17 . 19 296 13 
fasting observed on Christmas eve in Norway, 294 25 

FEASTS (veizlur), banquets: a great given by K. Frodi at 
Hleithra in Denmark to entertain K. Fiolnir of Sweden, and 
to which people were invited from many lands, i. 24 25 _ 27 
great feast given at Upsala by K. Ingiald in celebration of 
his father's memory, but with the treacherous intent, which 
was even carried out, of burning seven kings in the feast- 
chamber, 5724-594 Aki, the Vermland magnate, feasts 
Kings Harald of Norway and Eric of Sweden, io6 15 -io7 5 
feast arrayed at Ogvaldsness for Olaf Tryggvison and a 
company of three hundred, 313^7 Olaf Tryggvison gives 
heathen notables of Thrandheim a magnificent feast at Ladir, 
3i8 10 . 18 Asta gives a most splendid feast of welcome to her 
son Olaf, ii. 33 22 -37 18 and another in celebration of his 
victory over the Upland kings, ic>9 28 . 30 on the kings' pro- 
gress through the country, feasts were prepared for them by 
their stewards (armenn) at the royal manors, 45 12 . 26 cus ~ 
tomary for the kings to appear at such a banqueting (guest- 
ing) in the same district once in three years with a retinue 
of sixty or seventy, never exceeding one hundred, until 01. the 
Holy came out with 300 = 360, ioi 26 . 31 io2 20 . 22 five Upland 
kings banquet together at Ringacre, drinking in c gild-brother- 
hood,' io5 31 _ S3 great banquet arrayed to welcome Astrid, d. 
of K. Olaf the Swede, at the court of Earl Rognvald, i48 25 . 20 
stately feast at the bridal of Olaf the Holy and Astrid, i52 13 - 
1539 goodman Grankel of Halogaland entertains his king 
at a noble feast, i92 3 . 5 Sigurd of Thrandness as well as 
his son Asbiorn continue as Christians to celebrate three 
feasts a year at the customary heathen seasons, 214^-215^ 
Olaf the Holy entertained at a three nights' feasting by 
Red of Eastern Dales, 339 28 . 2 9 Olaf feasted in a brave man- 
ner by Thorir Olvirson, 34112-22 Magnus the Good entertains 
his uncle Harald at a banquet of state, which Harald returns 


Index III 333 

by another the next day, iii. 83 ir . 2r 84 2r 86 26 Magnus and 
Harald visit the Uplands feasting, 87 20 Magnus Barefoot 
goes banqueting about his manors in the Wick, and is feasted 
by Kolbiorn, 220 22 . 26 30 great feast given to K. Sigurd Jeru- 
salem-farer by Roger, Duke of Sicily, 255^ K. Sigurd's 
feast in entertainment of the Emperor of the East, 26o 26 - 
26i 13 Kings Eystein and Sigurd (Jerusalem-farer) entertain 
each other turn about, 2793-2833 banquet of great mag- 
nificence given on the occasion of K. Magnus Erlingson's 
coronation, 464 14 . 29 banquet chamber on the occasion de- 
scribed, 46415-17 

FEASTS (hati^ir), ecclesiastical festivals: 
ASCENSION DAY (Uppstigningardagr), ii. 1313 iii. 325^ 4 68 3a 
BARTHOLOMEWS ASS (Bartholomeusmessa), iii. 24o x 
BLAISEMASS (Blasiusmessa), iii. 42 3^ 426 28 
CANDLEMASS (Kyndilmessa), ii. ii2 6 . 9 i52 10 22i 5 iii. 207 6 

45r 4759 

EASTER (Paskar), n. i27 6 195^ 26 30 22i 16 ni. 339^ 438 18 
Easter-eve (Paska-aptann), i. 313^ Easterpeace (Paska- 

the sanctity of Holy Week, ii. 223 15 Easter-week 
(Paska-vika), iii. 325^ 
JOHN BAPTIST, mass of (J6ns messa), iii. 390$ 
LAWRENCE WAKE (Lafranzvaka), vigil of St. Lawrence, iii. 

3*532 3 2 ^15-16 26 

LUCIAMASS (Liiciumessa), in. 342 n 

MARTINMASS (Marteinsmessa), iii. 36i 31 

MARYMASS (Mariumessa), Annunciation of the Virgin, Mar. 

25, iii. 3io 9 c In autumn ' is a mistake in the oldest text; 

other MSS. read: 'in lent,' with which the obituaria prac- 

tically agree. 
MARYMASS, the latter (Mariumessa hin si^ari), Nativity of 

the Virgin, Sept. 8th, iii. 48i 24 
MATTHEWMASS (Mattheusmessa), iii. i68g 8 
MICHAELMASS (Mikjalsmessa), i. 336^ ii. 325 30 iii. 3 

OLAF J S MASS (Olafs messa), the Nativity of St. Olaf, July 29th 
established by law throughout Norway in the reign of 
Magnus the Good, iii. i6 24 -i7 4 introduced in Denmark,, 
I2 Ss-B2 Olafs wake (Olafs vaka), the vigil of Olafs-mass,. 

334 Index III [FEE FIN 

ROGATION-BAYS (gangdagar), iii. 46730 4684 cf. Ganging days, 
THOMASMASS (Tumasmessa), 'before Yule,' ii. 354 2 o 

FEE-BOOT (Jfebcetr), offer of money in atonement for man- 
slaughter, ii. 30933 

FELL (feldr), the short or curt of Thorarinn Curtfell, an object 
of mirth at K. Sigurd Jerusalem-farer's court, iii. 286 r . 2G cf. 

FETTERS (fjotrar), ii. 224 28 225 12 14 226,5 227^ 2283 

FIDDLER (rrSlari), much in request at K. Hugleik's court at 
Upsala, i. ^ 

FIEF, Domain (len), lands conferred by a sovereign as a 
personal grant on earls or landed men on terms dictated by 
custom or circumstances, ii. i68 21 3io 16 . llr iii. i8 16 ii7 10 i22 10 
distinction is drawn between le*n and veizla (see Grant), ii. 

2 37 9 -io 
FIGUREHEADS, see Ships. 

FIGHTING by night looked upon as an infamous mode of 
warfare: Thordis Skeggja, a wizard woman, advises Hakon 
Shoulderbroad to fight K. Ingi only by night, iii. 424 5 . 12 
following the advice he defeats and slays K. Ingi by night, 
424 13 -426 n but manslaughter by night being accounted a 
foul murder, Hakon's deed was upheld as villainy, for which 
his party, and notably earl Sigurd of Reyr, were legally 
sentenced to hell, 449 19 -45o 2 452 7 . 14 

FILLETS, silken (silki-rsemur), possibly 'ribands' would be 
a better translation; for these silken bands may have been 
intended to tie the robe of state they accompanied round the 
neck of the wearer, ii. i22 21 . 22 

FINE (gjald), of five and forty marks of gold inflicted by his 
brother Ingi on K. Eystein Haraldson for arson and cattle- 
lifting, iii. 392f. n of three hundred (360) head of cattle in- 
flicted by Erling Askew on the farmers of Hising for disloyalty 
to his son, 459^.30 (leiftviti) which really means: a fine im- 
posed upon a person who fails to respond to summons to a 
naval expedition (lerSangr). The translation of the passage: 
c mi veit ek eigi, nema v&r r6im leftSangrinn ok gjaldim lerS- 
vitit,' * Now I see nought but that we are both pressed to row 
and paying the fine,' is, necessarily, obscure. The meaning is, 
' Now I fear we may be rowing (going on) the expedition, and 
(yet) be paying the penalty (of defaulters none the less).' In 

FIN FLO] Index III 335 

Hakon's thought, ' going on the expedition ' meant : furnishing 
Gold Harald with means to overcome and slay the King of 
Norway, and thus, according to covenant, becoming King 
of Norway himself ; by 'paying the penalty 5 as if they were 
defaulters, Hakon hints at Gold Harald's vow to slay Harald 
of Denmark, whose life then would be the fine that, after 
having expedited him to the throne of Norway, Gold 
Harald would exact as if his uncle had done nothing for 

FINGER-RING (fingr-gull), ii. 88 G14 . 15 2 8o 31 hi. 33 2 10 cf. Ring. 

FINN-CHEAPING (finn-kaup), trade monopoly in Finmnark, 
a prerogative of the King of Norway, which he carried out 
generally in partnership with some Halogaland official (landed 
man), as did Olaf the Holy with Harek of Thiotta, ii. igo 12 
and Thorir Hound, 387 20 _ 25 and Sigurd Jerusalem-farer 
and his brothers with Sigurd Ranison, iii. 27i 16 this involved 

FINN-FARE, Finn-journey (finnferS), in the course of which, 
besides trading, the king's partner called in the royal taxes, 
Finn-scat, ii. 349^ 387 21 a lucrative and much envied em- 
ployment, iii. 27i 20 . 31 

FINN-SCAT (finn-skattr), the income that trade with, and 
taxation of, Finnmark yielded to the treasury of the Norw. 
king, ii. 271^ 275 24 

FINN-WIZARDRY (finngaldr), see Wizardry. 

FIRES (eldar), made along the midst of the floor of heathen 
temples, i. i65 23 . 24; made in the same manner in kingly and 

other halls, ii. m^-is cf - * l6 Ss6 " 6 7a6 ^ I 9 2 5-e I 93i9 3 2 9i 
FISHING in Norway, great failure of, in the reign of the sons 

of Gunnhild, i. 2i8 16 . 18 herring fishing, 2i9 16 . 29 242 28 . 30 ii. 

2 522-23 herring as article of trade, 79 10 332 X 
FISH-LAIR (fiski-ver), an outlying island where fishermen 

congregate for the pursuit of their trade, ii. 292 9 
FLAKE-HURDLES (flakar, sing, flaki), of willow twigs (vflSi- 

tagar), borne up by stout and close-set uprights, made by 

Olaf the Holy in order to serve his ships as^a protecting roof 

while he was demolishing London Bridge, ii. i4 6 . 14 
FLAX (horr), see Bowstring under Weapons, 2, offensive. 
FLOCK (flokkr) i. a band, company, party 2. spec, a short 

poem without a refrain, or burden, also called 'drapling' 

336 Index III [FLO FOS 

(drseplingr), a little 'drapa'; to offer such to a king was re- 
garded as disrespectful, though it might do for an earl or an 
untitled magnate. Hence K. Knut's anger with Thorarin 
Praisetongue, ii. 35o u . 22 Sigvat's ' flock ' on Erling, 356 ir . 2r 
(one strophe out of ten). 
FLOCK-MEN (flokksmenn), those of a band, partisans, iii. 


FOLK-MOTE (m6t), see Mote. 
FOOD. K. Sigurd Sow entertains his stepson Olaf the Holy to 

fish and milk fare one day, and to flesh meat and ale the 

next, turn and turn about, ii. 4i 16 . 1 " r 
FOOT (f6tr), to clasp the foot of an offended person, a form of 

praying for pardon, ii. 38o 18 _ 24 iii. 2;6 14 Thorarin Nefjulfson's 

misshapen feet, ii. I33 16 -i3427 
FOOT-BROAD (fetbrerSr), see Weapons, offensive Swords in 


FOOT-MEN, see Infantry. 
FOOT-PACE (f6tpallr), footstool (ftftskor), the low seat in front 

of a king's-high seat which was occupied by earls awaiting 

investiture, i. 983 iii. 305 
FOOT-PAGE, i. 7% id. qu. 
FOOT-SWAIN (skdsveinn), a page, manservant, ii. i23 22 i28 12 

19-20 I2 9s 4 3 2 ?2 cf - Shoe-swain. 
FORE-MASS (formessa), missa nocturna, matutina, matutin- 

alis, a service immediately following the ottusongr, hora 

matutina, iii. 4433 

FORE-SONG COPE (fyrir-songs kapa) ?, iii. 436 10 
FOSTER-BROTHERS (fdstbrceSr), Gautvid and Ingiald 

Evilheart, i. 55 2S Tryggvi Olafson and Gudrod Biornson, 

i42 6 Rani the Widefaring and Harald theGrenlander, 2 1 2 11 . 13 
spending some time in youth with Skogul Tosti in Sweden, 
Harald became the foster-brother of Sigrid the Haughty, 2 1 2 30 - 
2135 284 16 . 19 Sigurd Thorlakson and Thoralf of Dimon (pos- 
sibly pretended), ii. 272 13 . 16 to shelter a foster-brother who 
had committed a criminal offence from the king's justice, an 
excusable matter, 283 10 . 12 Philip Gyrdson and K. Sigurd 
Haraldson, iii. 39i 30 . 31 Andreas and Onund, sons of Simon, 
foster-brothers of Hakon Shoulderbroad, 399 n . 12 4i6 n Gyrd, 
son of Amundi, foster-brother of K.Ingi,4oo n . 12 403^ in the 
above cases foster-brotherhood existed in virtue of the persons 

FOS FRA] Index III 337 

having been brought up together ceremonially entered, or 
sworn brotherhood, is only mentioned in the case of Harald 
Gilli and K. Eric Everminded of Denmark. 3179*0/1 

FOSTER-FATHER (f6str-fa3ir), he who either of his free will 
set another's child on his knee, or on whose knee such a 
child was set without a previously obtained leave; in this latter 
case, to kill the child was not manslaughter, but murder, i. 
3C 40i8-20 to brin U P the 'knee-set child' was the bounden 
duty of him on whose knee it had once been set Swipdag 
the Blind, foster-father of Ingiald Evilheart, i. 55 24 6i 23 
Bovi of Gauthild, the wife of Ingiald, 63^ Duke Guthorm 
set Harald Hairfair's eldest son on his knee and became his 
fosterer, ii4 32 -i i5 3 Thiodolf fosters Gudrod, son of Harald 
Hairfair, 121^ cf. u -i22 5 Hawk High-breech set Hakon 
the Good on Athelstane's knee, saying when the king grew 
wroth at the affront, ' Thou hast set him on thy knee and 
mayst murder him if thou wilt,' i4o i;i _ 2() a foster-father, as a 
rule, looked upon as inferior in rank and position to him 
whose child he fostered, I4O 26 . 27 K. Harald Gormson takes 
into fostering and sets on his" knee Harald Greycloak, i59 26 -2r 
23520-21 Thorolf, foster-father of Queen Astrid and her son 
Olaf Tryggvison, i. 223 n . 12 230^ an infamous deed to betray 
a foster-son, 235^-2363 butcf. 23630-239^ Thorleif the Sage, 
Earl Eric's foster-father, 209 21 . 22 248 18 . 19 Rani Widefaring 
fosters Olaf Haraldson (the Holy), ii. 3 8 Lawman Thorgnyr 
Earl Rognvald's foster-father, ii7 20 Edward Confessor 
HaraldGodwinson's, iii. i55 22 . 2C 

FOWL (fugl), of preternatural size, representing a guardian 
spirit of the land and a family fetch at the same time, i. 269^ 
wild sea-birds, the catch of which gives value to outlying 
rocks and islands, ii. 2923 the speech or voice of fowl (fugls 
rodd) was a language which it was given to but few to under- 
stand, and understanding it was a sign of marvellous wisdom. 
K. Day the Wise (like his ancestor Rig, cf. Rfgsfula, O. Edda, 
Bugge, 44) possessed this wisdom, i. 3i 2 9- 8 o an< * a certain 
'bonder '-carle, who made good use of it to convict K. Olaf 
the Quiet of felony, iii. 1994-2015 

FOWLER (fuglari), his services in aid of one of K. Harald 
Sigurdson's war stratagems, iii. 64 ls . 2r 

FRANKLIN (hauldr, holdr), an untitled person who takes 
vi. z 

338 Index III [FRE GAL 

rank in the social scale above the 4 bondi,' and is a freeholder 
by birth (6^Salsma : Sr, d^alborinn) ; the earl's was the next 
rank above him in Orkney, as is evidenced by Earl Hallad 
becoming a 'holdr' on renouncing the dignity of earl, i. 
i22 20 _ 22 i27 13 in Norway the next grade above holdr was the 
hersir's, later the landed man's, whose next superior again 
was the earl. 

FREED-MEN (frelsingjar, the Icelandic law term, leysingjar, 
the Norwegian, which Snorri uses promised), men who in a 
formal manner (generally by drinking their ' ale of freedom,' 
frelsis-61) have exchanged the status of slavery for that of 
conditional or limited freedom; ninety such always in at- 
tendance on Erling Skialgson, ii. 24 28 . 29 his treatment of 
them, 25 22 . 25 socially the freedman constituted in the scale 
of weregild the lowest grade of free citizens, while his son 
ranked one grade higher, next to the ' b6ndi.' 

FREE LAND (63al), see Odal lands. 

FREYA (freyja), a term for a woman who disposes in her own 
right over her own, i. 24^ 

FRIDAY-FAST (frjadagsfasta), first observed in Norway by 
Hakon the Good, i. 1643 its great sanctity, iii. 292 18 -293 16 

FRIST (frestr), delay, stay, respite, iii. i23 28 

FRUVOR (plur. of frilva, an older form oflfnl, from still older 
frauja), a title derived from the name of the goddess Freyja, 
and given to ladies of high degree, i. 23 S0 . 31 

FUNERAL-FEAST, grave-ale (erfi), held by Agni at the re- 
quest of his queen Skialf for her father Frosti, i. 3307-3420 
celebrated at Upsala by K. Eystein Evilheart in memory of 
his father, at which he burnt to death six tributary kings of 
Sweden, 57 24 -58 10 29 -59 4 the interesting ceremonial of such 
a feast described, 58 12 . 28 joint feast held by K. Svein, the 
brothers Bui and Sigurd, and Sigvaldi of Jomsburg, in memory 
of their respective fathers K. Harald Gormson, Veseti of 
Borgundholm and Strut-Harald of Skaney, 271-273^ 

FURS (skinn), costly, obtained from Russia (Novgorod), ii. 
82 10 (gravara, 'grey wares') 15633 

GAG (kefli), employed as an instrument of torture by Olaf 
Tryggvison for effecting the conversion to Christianity of 
Raud the Strong, i. 332^ 

GALLERY (svalir, loptsvalir, also translated porch ; loft-swale, cf. 

GAL GIF] Index III 339 

'swale, a shady place,' Halliwell's Diet.), a passage along the 
side of a house, under roof, but open to the front. It was of 
two kinds: i. 'svalir,' in front of the ground-floor, the eaves 
of the roof being supported by uprights, perhaps joined by 
arches; to this architectural peculiarity Snorri refers in his 
description of the shrine of Olaf the Holy when he says that 
under it there were svalir, or open arches as I take it, iii. i6 7 
to this kind seems to belong the 'porch,' or laterally open 
archway, which is mentioned, ii. 1253 and 225^ 2. 'loft- 
svalir,' a laterally open gallery running along the front of the 
first storey, access to which was obtained by means of a flight 
of steps (rrS) at one end, i. 25^ 9 iii. r,7 24 . 25 io8 ls 

GALLOWS (galgi), i. 4112 2 4 8 u "- 7 2 2 5 * 2I2 9 is 2I 3i 3% 

GALLOWS-TREE (galga-tr), natural tree used for gallows, 
execution taking place either by hauling the victim up by the 
rope to the branch he was hanged on, i. 34 9 . 12 or by bending 
the branch down, and, when the rope was adjusted, let it 
spring with the condemned body back to its natural position, 
iii. 2i2 13 . 16 

GANG under one's hand (ganga a hond einhverjum), to do 
homage to, ii. 358 21 . 22 

GANGING-DAYS' Thing (gangdaga-fing), Rogation days' pro- 
cession, iii. 35833 368 12 467 30 4684 

GARTH (garSr) i. an enclosed space, a court, in front of a 
homestead of the better class, especially in towns, ii. 34 21 37 2 8 
iii. io9 20 14330 4^ 2 3i 4^32 2 - t ^ ie homestead itself to which 
such a court belonged, town residence, ii, 64 81 iii. 325^ 3893 6 
4i7 13 48i 16 3. spec, a., the royal residence (konungsgarSr), 
iii. io4 25 . 26 io5 8 . 10 io8 ls io9 18 iro 18 b., the royal court as 
centre of the administrative and fiscal interests, public treasury, 
ii. 158^ iii. 2i 20 

GEMSTONES (gimsteinar), precious stones, iii. 309 80 . 81 

GHOST (andi), meaning an evil spirit out of the realms of 
darkness quickened in a man's body by Finnish wizardry: 
Eyvind Rentcheek's own account of his origin, i. 328 15 . 18 

GIANTS (risar), found in Scythia, i. n 28 

GIFTS (gjafir), cf. also Yule-gifts, had anciently a far greater 
significance than in modern times: *ey sr til gildis gjof,' gift 
always looks to requital, was a maxim always present to the 
mind of the men of old. Therefore, for the receiver, it was a 

340 Index III [GIF 

matter of honour to return a gift, if not in kind, at least in 
deed. The acceptance of a gift by an equal in social standing 
meant insurance of mutual goodwill; acceptance of it by an 
inferior involved recognition of the duty of paying it off by 
service rendered, when occasion should demand. It goes 
without saying that, in certain circumstances, this custom 
should degenerate into bribery for corrupt purposes: K. Egil 
of Sweden, breaking his treaty obligation to K. Frodi of 
Denmark, sends the latter good and great gifts every year in 
lieu of the covenanted tribute, i. 45 16 23 . 25 Aki gave great 
gifts to Har. Hairfair 'and therewithal they kissed,' io7 18 . 20 
Aki gives 'good' gifts to K. Eric of Sweden, io7 23 K. 
Har. Greycloak sends friendly gifts to Earl Sigurd, 203^ 
and to Griotgarth his brother, 2047 26 . 28 -Queen Gunnhild: 
good gifts to K. Eric of Sweden, 227^ Earl Eric: a goodly 
longship to Vagn Akison, 283 32 . 34 Sigrid the Haughty sees 
her foster-brother Harald Grenlander off with great gifts, 285-^ 
gifts and bailiffries offered by K. Ol. Tryggvison to Eyvind 
for abjuring paganism, all to no purpose, 328 5 . 6 Harek of 
Thiotta: good gifts to K. Ol. Tryggvison, 329^ K. Ol. 
Tryggvison gives a cloak to Kiartan Olafson, 336 22 . 24 K. 
Ol. the Holy: a well- wrought sword to Marshal Biorn, ii. 
88 6 9 a finger-ring to Earl Rognvald, 88 6 14 . 15 sends Hialti 
Skeggison off with friendly gifts, 1379 Earl Rognvald: a 
golden ring to Sigvat, 148,- Olaf the Holy bestows good 
gifts and great on Earl Rognvald, 153^ gives Earl Thorfinn 
a longship great and good with all gear, i76 13 . 1 p Grankel 
sees Olaf the Holy off with great gifts, 1924.- Erling sees his 
nephew Asbiorn off with friendly gifts, 2i9 4 . 5 Einar Tham- 
barskelfir got great gifts (bribes) from K Knut, 235^ Sigrid 
of Thrandness sees off with gifts friends who had attended 
the funeral of her son Asbiorn, 239-^ Olaf the Holy sent 
friendly gifts to many chiefs in Iceland, behind which lurked 
political designs on the island, 241^-2422 Einar Eyolfson 
recommends suitable gifts, such as hawks, "horses, tilts, sails, 
to the Norwegian king instead of 'scat,' 244-^7 Olaf the 
Holy gives friendly gifts to chiefs of Faroe who had become 
his men, 247 21 . 23 Knut gives to Sigvat a ring weighing half 
a mark, 254 6 . 8 19 and to Bersi Skald-Torvason two gold rings 
weighing half a mark each and an ornamented sword, 

GIG GIL] Index III 341 

17 . 18 Knut sends great gifts to K. Onund of Sweden (to win him 
over from the alliance with Olaf of Norway), 257 16 Kings 
Onund and Olaf exchange gifts, 2685 Stein Skaptison gives 
gifts to Ragnhild of Giski and her son Ey stein, 28i 12 . 13 - 
Karl o' Mere's interpretation of the meaning of friendly gifts 
from a king, 303^ Red of East-Dales sees K. Olaf off with 
great friend-gifts, 34039-31 K - Knu t gives a thick gold ring to 
Thorir Olvirson, 342 26 343u-i5 and two thick such to Marshal 
Biorn, 379 12 Kalf Arnison receives most honourable gifts 
(bribes) from K. Knut, 376 14 -K. Olaf gives a gold ring to 
Thormodfor singing 'Biarklaythe Ancient,' 4o8 4J7 439 19 . 2 ^ 
Thormod dying gives it again to the woman surgeon attending 
him, 442 n . 15 ten marks of burnt (refined) silver given to Sigvat 
by K. Onund of Sweden, iii. i4 20 -2i Magnus the Good's gifts 
to his uncle Harald's following on the occasion of the division 
of Norway between them, BSgo-av Harald's return gifts to 
Magnus' following in clothes, weapons, and other precious 
things, 85 4 . 8 K. Harald gives Steig-Thorir two gold rings 
weighing together one mark, 86 80 . 31 K. Sigurd Jerusalem- 
farer gives all his ships to the Emperor of Constantinople, 
26i 2r . 2 g K. Nicolas of Denmark gives K. Sigurd a ship to 
take him to Norway, 262 16 . 20 K. Sigurd gives three manors 
to Aslak Cock for warning him against breaking the Friday 
fast, 294 18 K. Eric Everminded gave a shrine to K. Sigurd 
Jerusalem-farer for Cross Church at Kings'-Rock, 309 31 -3io x 
the Patriarch of Constantinople gave a plenary written in 
golden letters to K. Sigurd, 3io 2 . 3 K. Eric Everminded gave 
to Harald Gilli eight longships, unrigged, 3i7 32 Harald Gilli 
gives to bishop Magnus Einarson a board-beaker which after- 
wards served as chalice in the Cathedral of Skalaholt, 
335i2-i5 s<r33 6 s & Harald and Queen Ingirid give the bishop 
the bolsters they sat on done over with pall, of which were 
made fore-song's copes, which were still to be seen in Skala- 
holt in Snorri's days, 335^.^ 336 8 . u K. Ingi Haraldson gives 
Gregory Dayson a ship his brother K- Sigurd had owned, 
390 9 . 10 many and great gifts given on K. Magnus Erlingson's 
coronation day, 464 28 . 29 

GIG (gfgja), fiddle, played at court dinners in Sweden in Olaf 
the Swede's reign, ii. 1593 

GILDS (gildi) i. convivial assemblies, of which drinking was 

342 Index III [GLA GOL 

the prominent feature. Before the days of K. Olaf the Quiet 
these assemblies had no fixed meeting place, or club, but 
apparently met at private houses, being, in Nidoyce at least, 
called together by the guild bell called 'Town-boon,' iii. 
I 9 2 2i-23 t ^ ie *ld * tse lf bore the name of 'hvirfingr,' a round, 
circle, coterie, or club, translated, with a view to the constant 
changing of meeting place, 'turnabout-drinking, 7 192^ and 
the members of it, collectively, were called Gild- or Drinking- 
Brothers (hvirfingsbrse^r), 19233 while the act of so meeting 
together for drinking purposes was called ' drekka hvirfing,' 
to drink 'Gild-brother-wise,' ii. io5 S2 . 33 in respect of the 
manner in which store was supplied to such a drinking mote 
it was called samburSar-bl,' or 'ale brought together,' trans- 
lated 'gild-ale drinking,' 'gild-drinking/ because each of the 
partakers of the conviviality brought his own provisions to it, 
ii. 19335-29 u 'i- 32834 4604 2. a gild-house, guild-hall, first estab- 
lished in Norway during the reign of Olaf the Quiet, who 
'set up 7 in Nidoyce the 'Great Gild 7 (mikla gildi), which 
was hallowed or consecrated to Olaf the Holy, i92 19 . 20 1974 
9 .^ 286 4 386-^ these clubs bore the general name of skyt- 
ningar, ' skot-houses,' i92 25 

GLAD (glo$), the name of the bell that Olaf the Holy had 
given to St. Clement's Church in Nidoyce, iii. 35 24 

GODDESS, -es (dis, disir), or rather fairies, sacrifice to, i. 5o 32 
the hall hallowed to them at Upsala, 5o 33 -5i 6 

GOI, the eighth month of the heathen year, corresponding to 
Feb. 8-15 March 10-16, ii. iu 29 

GOLD (gull), poured through one of the three windows of 
Frey's mound at Upsala in payment of taxes, i. 23 21 K. 
Halfdan Eystein's son paid in war wages as many pennies of 
gold as other kings paid pennies of silver, 69 30 -7o 3 used for 
ornamenting idols, ii. 2o5 8 . 14 2o6 23 . 26 2o8 14 19 and figure-heads 
of warships, see Ship much wealth of gold appropriated by 
Olaf Tryggvison from E.aud the Strong after torturing him to 
death, 333n-i2 

GOLDENHILT (gullinhjalti), a name sneeringly given by 
Thormod to the sword K. Olaf the Holy had given to Sigvat 
as a Christmas present, ii. 4o8 19 cf. 337^-28 

GOLDPORT (Gullvarta, ?/ xpn voprrj), 'the gate of honour 7 
through which the Emperor had to enter Constantinople 
when he returned in triumph to the city, iii. 

GOL GRA] Index III 343 

GOLD-RING (gullhringr, for the arm, while a finger-ring is 
called fingrgull, < fingergold '), given by Olaf Tryggvison to 
an Irish peasant for the dog Vigi, i. 267 12 . 13 a golden ring, 
taken by Olaf Tryggvison from the door of the temple of 
Ladir, and presented by him to Sigrid the Haughty, found 
out, much to her indignation, to be all of base metal inside, 
39io-n 3 I0 9-i2 16-29 Earl Rognvald gives a golden ring to Sig- 
vat, ii. 148- a thick gold ring K. Knut's gift to Thorir Ol- 
virson, 34235 343i4-i5 two sucn > his gifts to Marshal Biorn, 
379 12 two rings weighing together half a mark given by 
Harald Hardredy to Thorir of Steig, ni. 86 30 . 81 Magnus the 
Blind lays down as a wager against Harald Gilh's head his 
gold ring, 297 21 , 24 2 996-8 a golden ring of K. Magnus's hidden 
in bishop Reinald's boot, 324 01 

GOLDSMITHS (gullsmftir), their way of distinguishing be- 
tween base and precious metals, i. 3io 16 _ 2 ^ 

GOOD HANDS (hendr g6=Sar), * said about those men who are 
much endowed with ; the art of healing 6 that they have good 
hands/ ii. 38433.33 

GOODLY WEB (gu^vefr), the costly stuff which in O.E. is 
known as godweb, in O. Sax. as goduwebbi, Fris. godwob, 
O.H.G. gotawebbi, goduweppi, gottweppe, terms which cover 
a variety of Latin appellatives for costly fabrics, i. I20 16 

GOODMAN, see Bonder. 

GOSSIP, to become, to be (gera gu'Ssifjar vr$, veita guSsifjar, 
to be sponsor, pater spiritualis, in baptism), Olaf Tryggvison 
acting as such at the baptism of Olaf the Holy, i. 3ii 16 and 
Hallfred the poet, 3385 

GRAM (gramr), name given to leaders of armed followers in 
old days, while the host they commanded were called 'gramir,' 
infestus, iratus, saevus, i. 32 22 . 23 

GRAITHE (grerSr), expeditious, iii. ai3 u 

GRANTS (veizlur) i. landed properties belonging to the king 
placed at the disposal of favourites, and as a rule chiefly of the 
so-called * landed men,' for their maintenance, in return for 
which they yielded the king military and other services. Of 
exceptional character were the large grants conferred by K. 
Olaf Tryggvison on his brother-in-law Erling Skialgson, the 
hersir, i. 3o8 12 . 15 ii. 74 15 25 cf. 212^ and also the grants con- 
ferred by the Earls Eric and Svein on their brother-in-law Einar 
Thambarskelfir, 22 2r . 28 likewise, probably, the * great grants ' 

344 Index III [GRA GRO 

bestowed on him by King Olaf of Sweden, 2ii ir _ 18 Aslakand 
Skialg, sons of Erling, received at the hands of K, Knut * large 
grants ' in England, but of what nature is not stated, 25530-32 
Harek of Thiotta became Olaf the Holy's landed man, and 
received from him the same grants as he had held before, 
I 9 I i5-i8 c f- i- 3 2 9e-r he, together with Thorir Hound, on be- 
coming Knut's landed men, received 'great grants' from him, 
andFinnfare besides, 349^ Kalf Arnison had a landed man's 
grants and other honours besides, 2853! iii. i2o s . 10 K. Olaf 
the Holy conferred on Aslak Skull o' Fitiar * a large fief (le*n) 
and great grants,' the 16n meaning administrative, chiefly 
fiscal, jurisdiction in addition to the landed property for per- 
sonal usufruition, ii. 2i2 a g 18 Magnus the Good made grants 
to men of might on coming to the throne of Norway, iii. 28 28 
with landed man's right Wolf the Marshal received from 
K. Harald Sigurdson a grant of twelve marks and half a folk- 
land in Thrandheim beside, io4 15 . 18 Hakon Ivarson received 
great grants from Svein Wolfson and took over command of 
his army, n6 20 _ 23 Harald Gilli gives fiefs (ten) and grants 
(increased grants) to landed men in order to secure their 
services of war, 31 83.^319! 2. Of different kinds were the 
grants, 'veizlur,' which K. Harald of Denmark bestowed on 
the sons of Eric Bloodaxe, they were appanages, and there- 
fore we have translated, ' veizlur,' by ' lands,' and, less exactly, 
by < fiefs,' i. i59 24 2 37i 

GRAPNEL (stafnle'), perhaps better, 'hook,' Lat. falx, ii. 6o 14 
iii. 4is ir 

GRASS-GARTH (grasgarSr), an orchard, a garden, i. 83 17 

GRAVE (grof), the, of our Lord, see St. Sepulchre. 

GRAVE-ALE (erfi), see Funeral feast. 

GREVE (greifi), sheriff, iii. 2$o u 

GREYGOOSE (gragas), the name of the code of law which 
K. Magnus the Good caused to be written, and which was 
still in Snorri's days in existence in Thrandheim, iii. 24*0.0,. 

GREY SKINS (gra skinn) = grey wares. 

GREY-WARES (gra-vara), calabar skins, skins of the squirrel 
as distinct from beaver and sable, ii. 26o G 29i 18 . zo 

GRIPPING-TONGS (spenni-tong), a kind of pair of pincers 
used in surgery, ii. 44^4 10 

GROUT (grautr), a mess, porridge, a name given in scorn by 

GUA HAL] Index III 345 

Thormod the poet, at the point of death, to a decoction of 
leek and other herbs for medicinal purposes, ii. 4423 

GUARD, see Body-guard. 

GUARD ON HORSEBACK (hestvorSr), ii. 53r 

GUESTS (gestir), a division of the king's household, so called 
because they were self-bidden guests wheresoever the king 
chose to send them on his errands, which frequently were of 
obnoxious and hazardous nature. They were commanded by 
a 'captain of the guests' (gestahoftfingi), ii. 77^ they were 
under special regulations, and had fixed wages, 67 29 . so Olaf 
the Holy had thirty of these men at his court, while Olaf the 
Quiet had sixty, 67 29 iii. 1944 Olaf the Holy has Swedish 
tax-gatherers hanged by his guests, ii. 72 21 . 27 ne sends six of 
them to slay Eilif the Gautlander, 77 25 -78 9 a party of them 
told off at Sticklestead to slay Ram of Vigg, 409 ir . 28 Sigurd 
Sigurdson's advice to Magnus the Blind to send his guests 
to slay any landed men that should hang back from coming 
to the king's aid, iii. 32O 25 . 30 K. Har. Gilli's guests attempt 
the life of Sigurd Slembi-Deacon, 340 19 -34i 25 

GUILD, see Gilds. 

HAILSTONE (hagl-korn), weighing an ounce, i. 279 18 . 19 

HAIR (har), Harald Hairfair's, oy vow, left uncombed and un- 
cut for ten years, i. 95^4 ii7 c . 9 Olaf the Holy's growing 
after death, ii. 455 81 regarded by Alfiva a holy rehc if it did 
not burn in fire, especially if unhallowed, 456 14 . 2 5 cut by 
bishop Grimkel, 457 24 by K. Magnus the Good, iii. $7 26 
and the last time, slx-and-thirty years after death, by K. 
Harald Sigurdson, i63 n 

HAIR-DRESSING performed by Earl Rognvald on Harald 
Hairfair, i, 1173-18 

HALL OF THE GODDESSES (dfsar salr; dfsar, gen. sing., is 
probably a scribal error, which dfsa b!6t (dfsa, gen. plur.) 
immediately preceding seems to show, apparently a temple 
where the goddesses, or rather the fairies, female guardian 
spirits, Norns, or even 'valkyrjur' were worshipped i. 5^ 

HALLOWED, ' that there it was hallowed ' (at far var heilagt), 
/.*., that worship of the gods was going on, that it was a 
'holy-tide;' the place where this happened was called Hof, 
Temple, ii. 1463 

HALLOWED FIRE (vfg^r eldr), set to tinder which was fixed 

346 Index III [HAL HAR 

to the point of an arrow that was shot at a heathen Wend on 
whom on account of his sorcery ' no weapon bit,' took such 
an effect that he fell down dead, iii. 33o 31 -33i 3 

HALLOW, Hallowing, see Consecration and Coronation. 

HALSE (hals), the neck of the stout and aged Thorir Hound 
torn asunder when 'up-reared the gallows-tree* on which he 
was hanged, iii. 2i2 13 . 16 

HAMMER (hamarr) of Thor: men who confessed believing in 
nothing but their ' might and main ' were in the habit, before 
quaffing festive cups, to make over them the sign of Thor's 
hammer, i. i69 20 _ 23 cf. ii. 395 5 . 8 the image of Thor at the 
temple of Hof in Gudbrandsdale held a hammer in its hand, 

ii- 25io 

HAND-BATH (hand-laugar), washing of hands, a habit of Olaf 
the Holy as he dressed in the morning, ii. 68 9 

HANDFASTING (handfestr), taking hands, in the presence of 
witnesses, for an assurance of faithful execution of a verbal 
promise, iii. H2 17 

HANDSEL (hand-sal), formally agreeing by joining hands to 
an oral contract, covenant, or demand (in most cases accom- 
panied by oaths), ii. 47^ 18533 iii. 43:4 459^ 

HAND-SHOT (hand-skot), hurling a cast-weapon, opp. to 
'bow-shot/ a feat at 4 which Olaf the Holy excelled all men, 
ii. 4 23 his son, Magnus the Good, 'shot hand-shot' all 
through the night at the battle of Holy-ness, iii. 46 01 .o 2 

HANGING, see Gallows and Gallows-tree. 

HANGINGS (tjold), of costly web done round the body of 
Olaf the SHoly on the occasion of his translation, ii. 45633- 

HARALD'S STICK (Haralds stikki), a short poem on K. 

Harald Sigurdson of the kind called * stikki J (meaning of the 

term uncertain), iii. i68 2l , 29 
HARBOUR (hofn), a fortified, built by K. Eystein Magnusson 

at Agdirness, iii. 263 m3 
HARP (harpa), played at court dinners in Sweden in Olaf the 

Swede's time, ii. i59 8 
HARP-PLAYERS (harparar, sing, harpari), at the Swedish 

court already in the ancient times of the Ynglings, i. 37^3 
HARP-SHELL (harpa, short for horpu-skel, in order to" give 

enigmatic brevity to Sveinki's proverbial utterance), the 

HAU HEA] Index III 347 

scallop, pecten, iii. 2is 18 the point of the saying, 'No need 
of roller, quoth fox, drew harp-(shell) o'er ice,' as applied 
by Sveinki to Sigurd Woolstring is this: as the feeble vain 
fox boasts of wanting no roller to drag a scallop along smooth 
ice, so you come swaggering hither with the light message of 
the king; but you are the feeble vain fox all the same.' 
HAUNT (ver, also, for want of a better word, translated ' lair/ 
the Icelandic term is applied to islands out at sea, where, in 
consequence of the absence of man, seals congregate and 
breed, sel-ver, and birds gather and lay their eggs (egg-ver), 
and where, also, in the season, fishermen take up a tem- 
porary abode for the pursuit of their industry (fiski-ver), ii. 

2 9 2 4-io 2 93s-o 
HAWK, see Sports. 

HAWKS (haukar), considered suitable gifts for kings, ii. 244^ 
HAYFORK (hey-tjiiga), shot by a thrall at K. Day, killing him, 

i- 3 2 ir 
HAZELLED FIELD, to pitch a (hasla voli), to stake off a field 

with hazel poles, and thus mark it off for a field of battle, i. 

HEARTH-INGLE, see Annn under House, B. 

HEALTH-CUP (full), i. 59 22 6o 67 drunk at blood-offerings, 
signed by the temple lord: Odin's cup for victory and kingly 
dominion ; Niord's and Frey's, for plentiful seasons and peace ; 
Bragi's cup; kinsmen's cup, called 'memories' (minni) to 
departed noble relatives, i. i65 26 -i66 s i69 14 . 16 i7i 5 . 6 Svein 
Twibeard's memory CUJD to his departed father, 272 6 . 8 the 
Jomsburg lords' to their deceased fathers Strut Harald of 
Skaney and Veseti of Borgundholm, 272-^.33 all cups signed 
to the Msir at heathen religious festivals, ii, 1937.3 CU P to 
Christ, i. 272 10 cup to Michael, 272 18 . 20 

HEATHCOCK (orri, tetrao tetrix), hunted by hawk, ii. I4o 28 - 

HEAT HCOCK'S BRUNT (orrahrfiS), the last effort of the 
Norwegians to retrieve the disaster of Stamfordbridge, lead 
by Eystein Heathcock, iii. I78 18 -i79 8 

HEATHEN BLUEMEN (hertSmr bldmenn), blackamoors, iii. 

25 2 si 2 54i 

HEATHEN FOLK, MEN (heftit f61k), the Moors of Spain, 
} 25 2523 

348 Index III [HEA HLA 

HEATHEN SPAIN (Spann herSni), the part of Spain occupied 
by Moors, iii. 25i 13 . 16 23 Heathen Sidon, by Saracens, 

HE-GOAT (bukkr), saddled as a riding horse by Olaf Haraldson 
for his stepfather, Sigurd Sow, ii. 3 19 -4 8 

HEIDS-ffiVI'S LAWCODE, see Laws. 

HEIDS^VI'S THING, see Thing, 

HEIRSHIP FEAST (erfi), see Funeral feast. 

HELL (hel), the name of Olaf the Holy's battle-axe, used by 
Magnus the Good at the battle of Lyrshawheath, iii. 36^ 16 19 

HERSIR, the head of a ' her,' /.<?., of a hundred (120 families?), 
whose dominion was a ' hera^/ the territory inhabited by his 
1 her/ or tribe. His dignity was hereditary, cf. Erling's answer 
on being offered an earldom by his brother-in-law, * Hersirs 
have all my kin been,' i. 308^.3 the ' hersir ' seems to have 
combined in his person the offices of war-commander and 
religious head of his tribe, i. 78 23 28 92 ir ii. 2oo 19 . 21 foil. 
his position, duties, and rights under Harald Hairfair de- 
fined, i. 96 U . 16 cf. 207^ 3785 hersirs mentioned: Gudbrand 
of Gudbrandsdale, i. 78 22 28 Thorir Roaldson, i28 19 Klyp, 
2I 5so Arinbiorn, 237 26 Skopti Skagison, 24833 Thorolf 
Skialg and Erling his son, 3o8 6 . 10 Bodvar, 334 2 $ Gudbrand 
a-Dales, ii. 2oo 21 foil. 

HEWING-BLOCK (hoggstokkr), c block,' ii. 223 19 

HIERARCHY in Norway making itself felt for the first time 
in bishop Magni's dealings with K, Sigurd Jerusalem-farer, 
iii. 307-309 6 

HIGH-MASS, see Mass. 

HIGH-TIDE (hdtflS, O.E. hefih-tld), church festival, feast-day, 

HIPPODROME (pa^reimr, ^Wo^ / 0o / uoe), at Constantinople, 
description of the place and the games performed there, iii. 

HLAUT, the blood of animals sacrificed at blood offerings, 
which was let run into a special bowl or basin, called hlaut- 
bolli. The word seems to mean * lot,' that which is allotted 
to the temple, the altars of the gods and the worshippers, all 
of which were besprinkled with the hlaut by means of a 
sprinkler, the hlaut-teinn. This explanation of hlaut is sup- 
ported by the regular c ablaut ' relation in which it stands to 

HLA HOL] Index III 349 

the verb ' hlj6ta,' to get by lot, to obtain by allotment, i. 

HLAUT-BOWL (hlaut-bolh), see Hlaut. 

HLAUT-TEIN (hlaut-teinn), made in the shape of a sprinkler 
(stokkull), see Hlaut. 

HNEITIR, c Striker,' the name of the sword its grip wrapped 
about with gold with which Olaf the Holy fought at Stickle- 
stead, and which he threw away on receiving his mortal 
wound, ii. 4*3i2-H 42 6 T 43 2 i-a .10-11 ( in poetry an appellative 
for sword, ni. 3 10 47s) Eindrid the Ypung's account of the 
history of the sword until it found its way to St. Olaf's church 
in Constantinople, where it was put up as a trophy, 4283- 

4 2 924 

HOGMANY NIGHT (hokun6tt) it is, of course, very doubtful 
how far hokun6tt, defined as midwinter night, corresponds 
to Hogmany night, the last day of the year. Another form is 
hoggundtt, Fris. 7% which comes nearer to the English 
form. But as midwinter night in Norway was the 9th of Jan- 
uary, it is possible that the resemblance between the Engl. 
and Icel. term is accidental, yet hoku, hoggu defies etymo- 
logical explanation, and has all the appearance of a loanword, 
i. 1643 

HOLM-GANG (h61mganga), lit. ' the going on to the holm or 
islet,' the standing term for a wager of battle, a duel, fought 
out under recognized formalities, no matter whether the action 
took place on a holm or not. These formalities the Kormak 
saga, ch. x., sets forth in the following manner: "This 
was the law of holmgang; there was a rug (feldr) five ells 
between each skirt, with loops in the corners through which 
should be driven pegs with a (human ?) head at one end, the 
which were called tjosnur (plur. of tjasna). He who made 
things ready should go to the tjosnur m such a manner that 
he might see the sky between his legs holding to the lobes of 
his ears, and should utter the formulary which since (si^an) 
is imitated in the rite (b!6t) called u the sacrifice of the tjasna 
(tjosnubl6t)." L Round the rug there must be three borders, 

1 The wording of the passage : e He who made things ready,' etc., shows 
that once upon a time it was the custom, when the tjosnur were adjusted, to 
utter some sort of a formulary, what it was like is unknown. This formulary, 
we arc told, was afterwards imitated m that rite which was called tjosnublot, 

350 Index III [HOL 

each a foot in width, and outside the borders there must be 
four poles, which are called hazels (hoslur). 1 This being 
done, that is a hazelled field. Each man shall have three 
shields, and when they are done for they shall step upon the 
rug, though before they should have happened to leave it. 
Thenceforth their weapons shall be shield to them. He who 
is challenged shall have the first blow. If one of them be 
wounded so that blood falls on the rug, there is no need of 
further fighting If either step with one foot outside the 
hazels, he " fares a-heel," if with both, he " runs " (away). Be- 
fore each fighter his own man shall hold a shield. He who is 
the more wounded shall pay as "holm-ransom" (h61mlausn) 
three marks of silver." 

Concerning Egil's holmgang with Liot the Bleak the Egil's 
saga, ch. LXIV, says : " So they break up and go to the island 
of Vors. There was a fair field (fagr vollr) a short way up 
from the sea, where the ' holm-meeting ' (h61m stefna) should 
be. A 'holm-spot' (h61m sta^r) = space for duelling, was 
marked off there, and stones were laid down around it. 
These were the laws of 'holm-gang' at the time that he, 
who challenged any man for anything, and should the chal- 
lenger gain the day, then should he have that as a trophy of 
victory on which the challenge had been issued, but should 
he bide defeat, he must ransom himself with as much money 
as had been settled beforehand; but should he fall on the 
holm, he had forfeited all his property to him who felled him 
on the holm." These loci classici on holm-gang show clearly 
that there is no ' holm ' in question. The record from Kor- 
mak's saga shows that the law there stated does not apply to 

a lite obviously a later outgrowth of an earlier ceremony, and clearly a 
cancature of it in the form of some popular game, in which the master of 
the ceremonies went through the clownish performance which never could 
have formed an item in the serious ritual of real duelling. What the real 
meaning is of the stem tjas- in tjas-na, is, we beheve, unknown. Formally 
it seems to be identical with tjos- in tjos-ull, Slum, mal 39, of uncertain 
meaning. Possibly there is etymological relationship between tjasna 
(=tjastna ?) and Norw. dial, tist, tistn, ' a little thin splinter,' 'a fibre torn 
loose on a tree,' * a small sliver torn up in the skin* (Aasen, cf. Ross). 

1 This shows the foreign (Norwegian) origin of this description. No hazel 
ever grew in Iceland, so no duelling field could ever be hazelled off in that 
country, while in Norway and other foreign lands the hazelling-in 
) not of a duelling spot, is common enough. 

HOL HOR] Index III 351 

Iceland at all, where there never grew a hazel from which 
hazel poles could be made. The Egilssaga holmgang is 
avowedly a Norwegian performance. A wager of battle being 
contested somewhere inland on an island did not make it a 
holm-gang an island was no more a holm than a mountain 
was a knoll though it was a duel. The fact is that hdlmganga 
is a purely Icelandic term, derived from the holm or tiny islet 
in the Axe river at Thingvellir, where, until the abolition of 
duels, A.D. 1006, it was lawful and customary to decide certain 
cases by judicial combats. The public sanction of this spot 
for the purpose was probably as old as the establishment of 
the Althing, A.D. 930, which would naturally account for the 
use Icelandic writers make of holmgang for any formal duel 
under any local conditions. From the holmgang mentioned 
in Heimskringla, i. 264^ 266 6 . 17 which took place in Eng- 
land, we gather no information as to the nature of the locality. 
See Single fight. 

HOLY-DAY (helgr), Lat festum, church festival, ii. 22633 

HOLY-TIDE (helgr), id., rung in before canonically it began, 
in order to save a criminars life, ii. 226 24 30 

HOLY WATER (vfgt vatn), sprinkled over things in order to 
counteract the effects of sorcery on them, i. 33X30-332! 

HOMAGE (handganga), done in due form when he, whose 
homage was desired, took by the grip the sword reached him 
on behalf of him who desired to be his liege lord, i. i38 27 - 

*39i5 n - x ^ 2 a 2I 424 
HONEY (hunang), hi. 342 15 

HORN (horn). 

1. A drinking vessel: used for infants to drink of, i. 43 12 
ordinary drinking cup, sometimes adorned with gold, 
io6 29 . 30 and fair graven and shining as glass, 107^ used at 
sacrificial feasts, i69 16 customary for kings of Norway to 
drink of deer-horns until the days of Olaf the Quiet (when 
beakers were introduced), iii. i93 16 .ir 2 86 26 

2. Instrument for blowing signals (lii'Sr), also translated 
trumpet: in use among the Biarms, ii. 262 25 war-signal, 
424 22 iii. 35 18 7o 8 3oi 80 3443 4434 445ir 

HORN-SWAIN (hl^rsveinn), trumpeter, iii. 3oi 24 
HORSE i. (hross), occurs in Heimskringla only when the 
animal is treated as a victim at sacrificial feasts (in one case, 

352 Index III [HOR HOS 

iii. i99 28 25 27 28 f a mare (merr), 2oo 34 wantonly cut down 
at a king's behest), i. 165^ ii. i93 9 . 10 

HORSE 2. (hestr), always signifies the animal living and active 
in the service of man horses fit for presents to a king, ii. 
244 17 horses of Gautland known for swiftness, iii. 298 15 . 16 
horse-guard (hestvorSr), mounted guard, i. 8o 10 iii. 316^3 
horse training for riding purposes (rfSa hesta), a kingly feat 
i. 35 6 . 10 horse trappings: forgilded saddle (gyltr so'Sull), 
ii. 34 28 . 24 bit % beset with smalts and done with gold (bitull 
settr smeltum steinum ok gyltr), 34 24 .25 crupper, or rather 
saddle-straps, i. n6 24 girth (gagntak), iii. 298 14 horses 
named: Slmger (Slongvir), Raven (Hrafn), the sire of another 
Raven, all owned by King Adils of Upsala, i. 5o 24 _ 2S black- 
blazed horse, K. Harald Sigurdson's charger at the battle of 
Stamfordbndge, iii. i73 8 

HORSE-FLESH (hrossa-slatr), with heathen worshippers a 
favourite repast at sacrificial festivities, to Christians an 
abomination, as was also the broth (so^) and the dripping 
(flot) thereof, i. 16934-170^ 1713.5 ii. 69^ horseliver (hrosslifr), 

i- 1715 
HORSE- WARD, see Horse-guard, Horse, 2. 

HOSPITALITY. Thorgnyr's servants receive Earl Rognvald, 
taking charge of his horses and baggage, ii. n6 20 . 22 he is 
welcomed by his host, Thorgnyr, and led to the s"eat where, 
while he was at fostering with Thorgnyr, he used to sit, n6 29 
ii7 2 Ragnhild, daughter of Erling Skialgson,' shelters and 
entertains the gossip of her daughter Thora, Stein Skaptison, 
in spite of his being the slayer of a king's official, and in 
defiance of her own husband, ii. 280^28635 the outlaw 
Thorir's hospitality to Thorod Snorrison, 298^-299^ Kristin 
kmgVdaughter offers to Gregory Dayson, a fugitive from K. 
Eystein's revenge, whatever he wishes for, providing him with 
a longship for his journey, iii. 3913-15 

HOST, see Hosting. 

HOSTAGE (gisl, gislar), exchanged between the As-folk and 
the Vanir, i. 1333-145 Earl Sigurd, on conversion to Christ- 
ianity, gives his son as hostage to Olaf Tryggvison, 29i os 
Upper Thrandheim chiefs, accepting Christianity, give Olaf 
Tryggvison in hostage a son, or brother or other near kins- 
man, i. 319^-22 Olaf the Holy takes hostages from newly-con- 

HOS HOU] Index III 353 

verted chiefs about Lesiar and Dofrar, ii. i99 22 . 24 K - 
exacts hostages from Norwegian bonders in pledge of their 
loyalty, 348 18 and from landed men and mighty yeomen 
sons, brothers and near kinsmen, 349 19 . 23 45i 24 K. Harald 
Sigurdson receives hostages from the men of Yorkshire in 
guaranty of loyal subjection, iii. 16933.35 in guaranty of 
peace between Norway and Denmark Erling Askew abides a 
hostage with K. Valdimar, who sends Asbiorn Snare in the 
same capacity to K. Magnus Erlingson of Norway, 472 82 -473 2 
HOST-BOUND MEN, hosting-bound folk (lerSangrsmenn), 
men summoned out for a naval expedition, iii. 443,^, 459 13 

HOSTEL, see Saluhiis under House. 

HOSTING (lerSangr), a levy of the service-bound naval arma- 
ment of the country, ii. 2874 iii. 26 2 ' 5 . 31 129 28 (IrS-samna'Sr), 
a host of disaffected subjects, iii. 22 5 

HOUND (hundr), see Saur. 

HOURS (tf^ir), horae canonicae, ii. 57 10 2o6 20 cf. 2o5 182a 

i. NAMES. 

DYNGJA, ' bower 7 [the translation (i. io9 9 ) should read: 
Loathed warm bower, varma dyngju] the women's apart- 
ment, which the poet's epithet varma indicates as the warm 
house of a homestead. Etymologically it must be connected 
with M.H.G. tune, c hypogeum, textrina, gyneceum,' a term 
which still survives in southern Germany and Switzerland 
for 'under-ground weavers' shops.' Already, speaking of 
the spinning and weaving of flax, Pliny, XIX. i, 2, avers, In 
Germania autem defossi atque sub terra id opus agunt; and 
Tacitus, Germ. 19, i, says: solent et subterraneos specus 
aperire eosque multo insuper fimo onerant suffugium hiemi 
et receptaculum frugibus, a statement which has given rise 
to the possibly correct etymology that M.H.G. tune, EngL- 
Germ. dung, and Icel. dyngja, are all cognate terms. In 
Icel. dyngja means a heap, not necessarily of dung, repre- 
senting the shape of a flattened beehive; dyngju-fjoll is the 
name given in Iceland to flatly dome-shaped volcanoes; 
some of these mountains go under the name of trolladyngja, 
i.e. trollwives' bower, which must be of early date. This 

VI. A A 

354 Index III [HOU 

form of house seems to come down from times when man 
had not yet discovered the art of building overground, i. 
109^ This kind of house is unknown to the authors of the 
Eddie poems. 

HERBERGI, 'chamber/ 'lodging' (not a purely Scandinavian 
term, though it is common to all the Scand. idioms: Norw. 
her-byrge, O.Sw. har-barghe, O.Da. hser-bserghe, O.E, here- 
beorga, O.H.G. heri-berga) does not indicate any particular 
room, but merely room or apartment in general, i. 351^ 
ii. i25 19 2oo 6 passim 

HIRSTOFA, see Stofa. 

HLA^A, KORNHLA^A, 'barn,' 'cornbarn,' in Jamtland, ii, 
2 9^6-7 at Sticklestead turned into a temporary hospital 
for wounded men, ii. 4393 31 

HOLL, e hall ' .(O.E. heal, orig. shelter, from helan, to cover) 
occurs only as a name of palatial residences of kings: K, 
Alf s at Upsala, i. 36^; King Olaf the Holy's at Sarpsburg, 
ii. i49 8 and K. Eystein Magnusson's great hall erected at 
Bergen, iii. 263^ 

HUSKYTJA, 'house-cot,' a small outhouse; the body of Olaf 
the Holy hidden in one such at Sticklestead immediately 
after his fall, ii. 444^ 

LOPT, 'loft,' an upper storey, the first floor; also a compart- 
ment or division of such a storey. In K. Frodi's great home- 
stead at Hleithra, Fiolnir, K. of Sweden, slept in one 
division or compartment of the first storey, and in the dark 
of night lost his way by an outside gallery into another 
division, loft, of the same, and there, falling through an 
open trap-door, found his death in a great mead-vat, i. 24 2r 
2 Sao Raud tn e Strong was sleeping in a loft in his house 
in Godisle when Olaf Tryggvison surprised him, i. 332 17 
at Ness, in Upper Gudbrand's dale, K. Olaf the Holy slept 
' in a certain loft . . . which stands yet to-day and nought 
hath been done to it since/ ii. 2oo 6 _ 7 Erling slept in a loft 
at his manor of Soli when Skialg his son brought the news 
of the peril of his nephew Asbiprn at Ogvaldsness, ii. 224 10 
loft on tie-beams in a hostel in the Wilderness, ii. soo 9 . 10 
Nicolas Skialdvorson chooses the loft in his residence at 
Nidoyce for a fort wherefrom to defend himself against the 
Birchlegs, in. 48239-4837 


Index III 355 

MALSTOFA, see Stofa. 

NAUST, see Boat-shed under Ships, 4. 

OFNSTOFA, see Stofa. 

SALERNI, 'privy,' large, on posts, admittance by a flight of 
steps, ii. i27 23 . 2 5 

SALR, 'hall' (O.H.G. sal, G. saal, O.E. salu, sele, Fr. salle, 
It. and Sp. sala), a large, palatial building, a royal hall. 
The typical hall with this name was 'Upsalr,' i. 57^. 28 58 12 
in imitation of which Ingiald Evilheart erected the seven 
kings' salr at Upsala, 57 2G . 30 5 8 s 10 as as a synonym for 
holl, a king's palace, ii. i49 n 

SALUHUS, ' hostel,' lit. ' salvation house,' a shanty erected by 
the roadside in wildernesses to serve as shelter for benighted 
travellers, ii. si 9-11 3 *s.8 

SEL, ii 364^ and 

SETR, 'mountain-bothy,' where, in summer, a part of the family 
went from the homestead to keep the dairy stock on 
mountain pasture, and to store up dairy pr