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Full text of "The story of the embarkation of Cromwell and his friends for New England"

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1^. 



! i 



<^ta'i^j yc/ji 'V/riTn^. 



THE STORY 



EMBARKATION OF CROMWELL 



AND HIS FKIENDS 



FOR 



NEW ENGLAND 



[Reprinted flrom the Nbw Bhqland Histobioal axd Obrialogical Rioutbb.] 



BOSTON: 

PRINTED BY D. CLAPP & SON. 

1866. 



THE STORY 



EMBARKATION OF CROMWELL 



AND HIS FRIENDS 



NEW ENGLAND. 



[Beprlnlad flram the N>w Xsgluo) Histoucal im]> Oouaxxmical Bnana.] 



' ^ /•*- v^; . ; V? ^J^^^'^ '>. 



BOSTON: 

PBINTEB BY D. CLAPF & SON. 

1866. 



REPORTED 



EMBARKATION OF CROMWELL. 



Thr story of the embarkation of Cromwell, Hampden, Ilaslerig 
and others for New England, and their prevention, by an order of 
Council, from proceeding on their voyage, has obtained so wide a 
currency that we have thought it would interest the readers of the 
Register to bring together the different accounts of it, that we have 
met with, in the exact language of their authors, beginning with the 
simple statement of Dr. Bates, that Cromwell at one time made pre- 
parations for emigration to New England, and proceeding to the fully 
developed story as it appears in the pages of tho Rev. Mr. Ncal. 
Those who find the story in any other book or document are requested 
to communicate the fact to the Register. 

The earliest writer that we have seen brought forward as an autho- 
rity in favor of the story is Dr. George Bates, who was physician 
to Charles I. when at Oxford, to Oliver Cromwell while Protector, 
and to Charles II. after the Restoration. The second part of his 
Elenchus Moluum Nuperorum in Anglia, which is referred to in 
it^ support, was first published in Latin in 1660/ We have not been 
able to find the Latin edition, but an English translation appeared in 
1685, of which we have a copy. Dr. Bates speaks of Cromwell's squan- 
dering his own and his wife's estate, then " playing the penitent," and 
hiring a brew-bouse and plying " the Brewing trade and Husbandry ' 



tf 



\ 



4 CromweWs reported EmharJcation for N. England. 

" After that," says Bates, " by means of Sir Robert Steward some 
Royalists and Clergy-men, he was reconciled to his Uncle, who could 
not before endure him, so that he made him his Heir. But shortly 
after, having again run out all, he resolved to go to New England, and 
prepares all things for that end. In the mean time, by the help of 
Sectarians, he was chosen a Member of Parliament,"* Ac. Ac. 

The next writer, iu order of time, that we have seen referred to is 
William Lilly, the astrologer. His Ilistory of his Life and Times was 
written in 1667, but was not published till 1715. He states that Crom- 
well " in his youth was wholly given to debauchery, quarrelling, drink- 
ing, &c., quid nan ; having by these means wasted his patrimony, he 
was enforced to bethink himself of leaving England, and go to New 
England ; he had hired a passage in a ship, but ere she launched out 
for her voyage, a kinsman dieth, leaving him a couEiderable fortune ; 
upon which he returns, pays his debts, became affected to religion ; 
is elected in 1640 a member of Parliament, "f &c. kc. 

The next writer brought forward in support of the story is the 
famous antiquary. Sir William Dugdale. His Short View of the Late 
Troubles in England was published at Oxford in 1681. In it he speaks 
of Cromwell as follows : — 

" Having attempted his Uncle Steward for a supply of his wants, 
and finding that by a smooth way of application to him, he could not 
prevail, he endeavoured by colour of Law to lay hold of his Estate, 
representing him as a person not able to govern it. But therein fail- 
ing, for lack of better maintenance, his aim was for New England, 
purposing there to fix, as is very well known. Observing therefore, 
that most of those unquiet Spirits, who were refractory to the Church- 
Discipline by Law Establisht here, were the principal persons which 
had stored that new Plantation ; and that none but such Schismatics 
were welcome guests thither ; for his better furtherance from those of 
that gang, and the fairer acceptance on his arrival there, through the 
recommendation of those Godly Brethren -, he forthwith quitted his 
old Companions, and betook himself to the acquaintance of the pre- 
tended Holy Tribe ; most formally canting in the demure Language 
and affected tone, and frequenting the Sermons of the fiercest Boute- 

feus.":]: 

The three writers quoted were enemies of Cromwell, and not very 
generous ones. The next writer, Mather, may be ranked among his 
friends. It will be noticed that Bates, Lilly and Dugdale do 
not mention any of the Puritan leaders as intending to accompany 
Cromwell. 

Cotton Mather, in his Magnalia, the first edition of which was pttb- 
lished in 1702, thus writes : — 

'* It was for a matter of Twelve Years together, that Persons of all 
Ranks, well affected unto Church-reformation kept Dropping and some- 
times Flocking into New England, tho' some that were coming into New 
England were not suffered so to do. The Persecutors of those Pitri- 
tans, as they were called, who were now Retiring into that Cold 



• Elencb. Mot. Nnp. In AngUa, or The Rise ond Progress of the Late Trembles in Eng* 
land, Part ii. p. 238. 
t WUliam LlUy'B Hlstozr of hU Life and Times (I^ondoiW 1S22}, fip. 176-6. 
t Dagdale'n Tronbles in England, pp. 459-6a 



CromwdVs reported E/niharTca;timfor N. England. 6 

dmrdry from the Heat of their Persecution, did all that was possible 
to hinder as many ae was possible from enjoying of that Retirement. 
There were many Oounlermands given to the Passage of People that 
were now steering of this WeBtem Course ; and there was a sort of 
Uproar made among no small part of the nation, that this People 
should not be lei go» Among those bound for New England, that were 
80 stopt, there were especially Three Famous Persons, whom I sup- 
pose their Adversaries would not have so studiously detained at 
Home, if they had foreseen Events ; those were Oliver Gromwel, and 
Mr. Hamhden, and Sir Arthur Baselrig ; Nevertheless, this is not the 
only instance of Persecuting Church-mens not having the Spirit of 
Prophecy.*'* 

The next writer whom we have found relating the story is John 
Oldmixon, who in his British Empire in America, published in 1708, 
adds new names and new particulars. 

'' The Troubles of the Dissenters continuing at home. Sir Maiihew 
Boynton, Sir WiUiam Gonstablef Sir Arthur Haslerig, John Hampden, 
Esq., Oliver Cromwell, Esq., Names too well known in the Histories 
of England, and several other Gentlemen, were preparing to remove 
to New-England ; at which both the Church and State were alarmed ; 
and on the 30th of April [" 163*7 '* in margin] a Proclamation was 
isstt'd forth, to restrain (he disorderly transporting hisMc^esty^s Subjects 
to the Plantations, without a Licence from his Majesty's Commissioners ; 
And an Order was made in Council, ITuU the Lord Treasurer of Eng^ 
land shotdd take speedy and efectual Course to stay eight Ships in oie 
Biver q/* Thames, bound for New-England, and commanded thcU aU the 
Passengers and Provisions should be, landed. All Unconformable Minis- 
ters were also to be stopped ; which proceeding, says a Doctor of our 
Church, increas'd the Murmurs and Complaints of the People thus re- 
strained and raised the Cries of a double Persecution ; to be vex'd at home 
and not suff'er'd to seek Peace or a Befuge abroad.' '-^ 

In 1741, the year before his death, Oldmizon published a " Second 
Edition, Corrected dnd Amended.^' The account of this event is 
altered and enlarged ; but it will not be necessary to quote more than 
the beginning of it. Referring to the grant to Lord Say and Sele, 
Lord Brooke and their associates, he writes : — 

" The Honourable Persons just now mention'd having, by their 
procuring the Patent for Lands, discover'd their Inclinations to quit 
Old-England and remove to New, the Court began to conceive Um- 
brage, and take the Alarm at such a Desertion ; especially upon a 
Report that Sir Matthew Boynton, Sir WiUiam Constable, Sir Arthur 
Haslerig, and OUver Cromwell, Esq., were actually preparing to em- 
bark for America, and no doubt the Lords and Gentlemen nam'd in 
the Patent were come to the same Resolution, till the Tyranny that 
drove them to it, compelled them to give it over. To this End out 
comes a Proclamation, as ridiculously worded as ever was State 
Fa,per, To restrain the disorderly Transporting,' 'X Ac. 

The reader will notice that Oldmixon does not say that Sir Matthew 
Boynton and others had embarked for America, nor that they intended 

• Magnalla, bk. i. chap. y. sect. 7 ; page 23 of the first edition, 
t British Empire in America, Ut ed. ToL L pp. 42-3. 
t Ibid. 2d ed. toI. L p. 68. 



6 CrormjodVs reported EmbarTcationfor N, England. 

to come in the eight ships that were stayed by order of the Council. 
In the second edition he omits the name of Hampden. 

Before Oldmixon's second edition appeared, Rer. Daniel Neal had 
issued his History of New England (2 vols., 1720), and his History 
of the Puritans (4 vols., 1732, 1733, 1736, 1738), in both of which 
works the story is found. In the History of New England it appears, 
imder the year 1637, as follows : — 

" The Ecclesiastical Authority being screwed up to such a Height, 
and the Point of it directed chiefly against the Puritans, 'tis no Won- 
der that vast Numbers, both Ministers and People, transported them- 
selves to New England, 'till the Government at length took Umbrage 
at it, and Published a Proclamation bearing Date April the 30th,* 
' To restrain the disorderly Transporting of his Majesty's Subjects to 
the Plantations in America without a Licence from his Majesty's Com- 
missioners, because of the many idle and refractory Humours, whose 
only or principal End was to live without the Beach of Authority,' And 
the next dayf an Order was made in Council, ' That the Lord Trea- 
surer of England should take speedy and effectual Course for the stay 
of 8 ships now in the River of Thames prepared to go for New England, 
and should likewise give Order for the putting on Land all the Passen- 
gers and Provisions therein intended for the Voyage.' In these Ships 
were J Sir Matthew Boynton, Sir William Constable, Sir Arthur Bazlerig, 
Mr. John Hampden, and Oliver Cromwell, who with several other 
Gentlemen were removing to New England ; and because several of 
the Clergy under Ecclesiastical Censures were willing to accept of the 
same Protection and Refuge, therefore another Order of Council was 
directed to the Lord Admiral, ' To stop all Ministers unconformable 
to the Discipline and Ceremonies of the Church, who frequently trans- 
port themselves to the Summer Islands, and other his Majesty's Plan- 
tations abroad ; and that no Clergyman should be suffered to go over 
without Approbation of the Lords Arch-Bishop of Canterbury and 
Bishop of London. §' " 

In his History of the Puritans, Neal gives a similar account under 
1638, as follows : "It deserves a particular notice, that there were 
eight sail of ships at once this spring in the river of Thames bound 
for New England, and filled with puritan families, among whom (if we 
may believe Dr. George Bates and Mr. DugdaU, two famous royalists) 
were Oliver Cromwell, afterwards protector of the Commonwealth of 
England, John Hampden, Esq., and Mr. Arthur Haselrigge, who, seeing 
no end of the oppressions of their native country, determined to spend 
the remainder of their days in America ; but the council, being in- 
formed of their design, issued out an order dated May 1, 1638, to 
make stay of those ships, and to put on shore all the provisions intended 
for the voyage. And to prevent the like for the future, his Majesty 
prohibited all masters and owners of ships, to set forth any ships for 
New England with passengers, without special licence from the privy 
council ; and gives this remarkable reason for it, ' Because the people 

* " Compleat Hist, of England, vol. iU. p. 83."— JVbte by Neal. 

t The order was passed March 30, 1638.— Compare N. E. Hist, and Gen. Register, vol. 
viii. p. 138. with Rushworth's Hist. Collections, vol. il. p. 408. 

t " Mather, Book L p. 23,"— iVbte by Need. In the second edition of NeaVs work, pub- 
lished in 1747, p. 168, the following authorities are added : " Bates Eknch. Mot. Nup., Par. 
il. p. 219. Dagdale's View of the Troubles of England, p. 459." 

f Neal'B History of New England, voL i. ; Ut edition, p. 151. 



CromwdVs reported Embarkation for N. England. ^ 

of New England were factious and unworthy of any support from 
hence, in regard of the great disorders and want of government 
among them, whereby many that have been well aflfected to the 
church of England have been prejudiced in their estates by them/ "* 

In 1764, Hutchinson published the first volume of his History of 
Massachusetts Bay, in which he alludes to the story, as follows : 

" In the year 1635, there was a great addition made to the number 
of inhabitants ; among others Mr. Vane, afterwards Sir Henry Vane, 
was admitted to the freedom of the colony on the Sd of March ; and 
at the same time Mr. Harlakenden, a gentleman of good family and 
estate. There were many others, as Mr. Bellingham, Mr. Dummer, 
of the magistrates ; Mr. R. Mather, Mr. Norton, Mr. Shepard and Mr. 
Peters of the ministers, who came over this and the last year to take 
up their abode, and many other persons of figure and distinction were 
expected to come over, some of which are said to have been prevented 
by express order of the King, as Mr. Pym, Mr. Hampden, Sir Arthur 
Hasleri gg, Oliver Cromwell, &c. I know this is questioned by some 
authors, but it appears plainly by a letter from Lord Say and Sele to 
Mr. Vane, and a letter from Mr. Cotton to the same nobleman, as I 
take it, though his name is not mentioned, and an answer to certain 
demands made by him, that his Lordship himself and Lord Brooke 
and others were not without thoughts of removing to New England, 
and that several other persons of quality were in treaty about their 
removal also, but undetermined whether to join the Massachusetts or 
settle a new colony." f 

Hume, in his History of England, briefly reports the story, and adds 
that Hutchinson " puts the fact beyond controversy.''! But though 
Hutchinson's familiarity with the history of those times, and his 
access to documents not now in existence, entitles his opinion to re- 
spect, he furnishes no proof of the story ; for the fact which he brings 
forward in its support, that Lord Say and Sele, Lord Brook and other 
persons of quality were in treaty about their removal to New Eng- 
land,! ^^^^ ^^^ touch the question, and besides this occurred some 
years before the date that Neal assigns to the embarkation. There 
was, however, a previous stay of ships by government in February, 
1633-4.11 

The story has been repeated with various modifications by Bel- 
knap,ir Chalmers,** Brook,tt Godwin,!! Grahame,§§ Hallam,||l| 
Russell,T[T[ Lord Nugent,*** Lord Macaulay,ttt Thornton,!!! and 

• History of the Puritans (Boston, 1817), vol. II. pp. 342-5. 

t History of Massachusetts Bay, voL i. pp. 41-2. \ 

I History of England, chap. 52. 

f The letter of Cotton is pnnted by Hutchinson in his first volume, Appendix iii.. and . ' 

the Proposals of Lord Say and others with the answers thereto, in tne same volnme, / 

Appendix il. 

II New England Hist and Gen. Register, vol. viii< pp. 186*7. 
1 American Biography, vol. ii. p. 22^-30. 

•♦ Political Annals, pp. 160-1. 

ft Lives of the Puritans, vol. i. p. 84; History of Religions Liberty, vol. L p. 449. 
tt History of the Commonwealth, vol. i. p. 11, 
6f History of the United States (ed. 1836), vol. i. p. 252. 
Bl) Constitutional History of England (New York, 1851), p. 270. 
im Life of OUver Cromwell (Edinburgh, 1829), vol. i. pp. 59-60, 
•♦• Memorials of Hampden (3d edj, p. 110. 
ttt Edinburgh Review, Oct 1831 (Boston ed.). vol. Uv. p. 526. 

ttt Lives of Heath, Bowles and Eliot, pp. 138-58. This work oontaixu an elaborate aign- 
ment in &vor of the story. 



8 Cremwdrs reported EfnAarkaiimfor N, England. 

others. It has been doubted or denied by Aikin,* Forster^f Bancroft,^ 

Toiing,§ and others. 

I The arguments brought forward to disprove the story are, first, the 

character of the earliest authorities ; second, the moral improbability 

. of the story ; third, the fact that the vessels were allowed to proceed 

' on their voyages ; and fourth, the absence of any mention of the 

L Btory in the publications of the day. 

The first objection is that Bates and Dugdale were " zealous royal- 
ists, '^ and therefore not to be believed in their statements about their 
opponents. To us this seems one of those indifferent subjects where 
the temptations to falsehood would not be very strong on either side. 
The story has been repeated as often by the admirers of Hampden, 
Pym and Cromwell as by their enemies. 

The next argument, that persons in their situations would not be 
likely to emigrate, is mainly adduced in regard to Hampden, Pym and 
Cromwell. Of the two former, Porster remarks : " The mind cannot 
bring itself to imagine the spirits of such men as these yielding so easily 
^ to the despair of country ; and at this moment Hampden was the ' ar- 
gument of all tongues ' for his resistance to ship-money, while to Pym 
the vision of the fatal meeting to which he had summoned Went- 
worth, became daily more and more distinct. ''|| Bancroft thinks the 
pretended design " unlike Hampden,'^ and that had he " designed to 
emigrate, he whose maxim in life [Nulla vestigia retrorsum] forbade 
retreat, and whose resolution was as fixed as it was calm, possessed 
energy enough to have accomplished his purpose."^ 

Another objection urged against the story is, that the vessels were 
afterwards permitted to sail, and therefore the embarkation could not 
have taken place, for says one writer, ' ' aU who embarked for New Eng- 
land onboard these vessels must have actually proceeded thither."** 
Another writer says : " There is no reason for supposing that a/2 who 
embarked for New England on board the eight ships alluded to did not 
proceed to New England. No doubt they did.^ff This sweeping 
assertion certainly could not safely be made of the passengers in the 
vessels, even if there had been no stay by government. But if the 
order of March 30 was really carried out, and the passengers were 
put on shore, it would not be strange if some of the more wealthy, 
who had comfortable homes, returned to them before the order was 
rescinded. They had subsequent opportunities, it is true, to leave 
the country. 

The objection that no mention is made by writers of the day who 
would be likely to notice the story, has weight ; though it would not 
be conclusive against positive contemporary evidence if such should 
be produced ; for equally unaccountable omissions could be brought 
forward. But as no such evidence has yet been produced, we are 
certainly justified in doubting the story. 

• Court of Charles I., by Lucy Aikin, toI. i. p. 300. 

t lives of Eminent Britisb Statesmen, yol. ilL p. 81, and voL tL p. 54 ; Statesmen of the 
Commonwealth, pp. 81, and 409-10. 
"^ t Histonr of the United States, vol. i. pp. 411-12. 
6 Chronicles of the Pilgrim Fathers, pp. 314-15. 

Eminent British Statesmen, vol. iii. p. 81 ; Statesmen of the Com. p. 161. 
II History of the United States, vol. 1. p. 411-12. 
•• Court of Charles I., vol. i. p. 300. 
tt Eminent British Statesmen, vol. iii. p. 82 ; Statesmen of the Com. p. 161. 



CromwdTs reported EmharJccaion for N. England. 9 

The foil story does not make its appearance till nearly a century ■ 
after its alleged occurrence. The combined evidence of the first three j. 
authorities, and the only ones belonging to the seventeenth century ^ 
produced, amounts only to this, that Cromwell at one time in his life 
designed to emigrate to New England, and that he made preparations 
for the voyage and engaged his passage. The next writer, who was 
born nearly a quarter of a century after the event and resided on this 
side of the Atlantic, two thousand miles from London, adds the 
names of Hampden and Haslerig to that of Cromwell, and states that 
they were prevented by one of tiie ''countermands to the passage of 
people " to New England, of which there were " many." We are not 
certain that the word " countermand " here refers to the stay of ships 
by government, though it is not unlikely that it may. Oldmixon, the 
next authority, gives other names, while Neal states that they really 
embarked, and fixes the time and place. 

Mr. Forster not only refoses to believe that Cromwell embarked for 
New England, but also that he ever entertained the idea of emigrating 
to this country. " I do not pause,'' he writes, " to tell the reader 
that the idea of Cromwell himself having ever entertained the notion 
of leaving England to seek a safer home in America, is incredible, and 

supported by no worthy evidence Such was not the cast 

of his mind or temper. To leave England, where everything heaved v' 
with the anticipation of such a foture — when the name of Hampden 
filled all mouths, and his quiet attitude of immovable resolution dur- 
ing the great trial of ship money had made gi'ateful ail hearts — ^when 
the harvest of what had been sown by suffering, approached to be 
reaped in triumph — ^nay, when the very com was ripe and only wait- 
ing for the glancing sickle I The bare thought is of ridiculous un- 
likelihood."* 

Thouffh Mr. Forster asserts it to be impossible that Cromwell 
"ever " entertained the idea of emigrating, his whole argument is 
directed against the probability of his having entertained that idea at 
a particular time ; and perhaps that is all he means to contend for. 
The question whether he harbored such a design at any time is, how- 
ever, worth examining. " The learned Dr. Bates," as Mr. Foster 
calls him,t whose relations to Cromwell afforded him excellent oppor- 
tunities to learn the details of the Protector's life — though it must 
be admitted that his statements relative to him are a medley of fact 
and fiction — asserts this positively ; and so do Lilly and Dugdale. 
As " zealous loyalists" and unscrupulous enemies of Cromwell their 
testimony in a matter prejudicial to Cromwell should be received 
with caution ; but is this such a matter t Men of as much distinction 
and infiuence as Cromwell in his early manhood, came to New Eng^ 
land, and those of higher rank and prestige entertained the idea. 
Winthrop tells us that in 1634, " some persons of great quality and 
estate "I proposed terms on which they would be likely to settle in 
Massachusetts ; and Hutchinson as we have seen mentions Lord Say 
and Sole and Lord Brooke as among the persons who thought of 
coming here. 

* Emineiit British Statesmen, toI. tI p. 64 : Statesmen of the Commoiiwealth, pp. 40imO. 
t Bmlnent British Statesmen, toL tL pp. 20 sad IBS; Statesmen of the Commonwealth, 
pp. 898 and 453. 
tWhithrop's Journal, TOLL; 2ded.p. 186, Sd ed. p. 161. 
2 



10 CromweIVs reported Efnhatkaiion for N. England. 

The fact that such a rumor was carrent at an earlj daj — for Dag- 
dale informs us that the fact was " well known '' when he wrote, 
which at least means that it was currently reported — ogives probabilitj 
to the story. Miss Aikin says, under the year 1636, though she does 
not give the authority on which she makes the statement : *' There is 
good proof that both Cromwell, who had given some proof of his 
power in the last parliament, and Haselrig, were publicly mentioned 
as preparing for their departure. '''*' 

The remark which Clarendon attributes to CromWell, after the pas* 
sage of the " Grand Petition and Remonstrance,'^ Monday, Nov. 22» 
1641, has generally been considered as an intimation that the latter de^ 
signed to emigrate to New England had that measure failed. Glaren* 
don says that after the passage of the bill, Cromwell whispered to 
Lord Falkland, as they went out of the House, " That if the Remon* 
strance had been rejected, He would have sold all he had ihe next 
morning, and never have seen England more ; and he knew there 
were many other Honest Men of the same Besolution.^'f Carlyld 
calls this a " vague report, gathered over dining tables long after, to 
which the reader need not pay more heed than it merits.''^ 

A story that is often coupled with the preceding is to the effect that 
the patriot John Hampden was actually in New England in the year 
1623. This story arose from a conjecture of Rev. Jeremy Belknap, D.D., 
in his American Biography, vol. ii. page 220. He found in Winnlow's 
" Good News from New England,'^ published at London in 1624, this 
passage in the account of Winslow's visit in March, 1623, to Packano- 
kick, where Massasoit was dangerously sick, and a Dutch vessel was 
stranded : — 

" To that end, myself having formerly been there, and understand- 
ing in some measure the Dutch tongrue, the Governor again laid this 
service upon myself, and fitted me widi some cordials to administer 
to him ; having one Master John Hamden, a gentleman of London, 
who then wintered with us, and desired much to see the country, foi: 
my consort, and Hobbamock for my guide. ''§ 

Rev. Dr. Belknap in giving an account of this visit to Massasoit, in 
his Life of Gov. Bradford, appends tiiis foot-note to tiie name of " Mr. 
John Hamden : " — r* 

" In Winslow's Journal, Mr. Hamden is said to be ' a gentleman 
of London, who then wintered with us and desired much to see the 
country.' I suppose this to be the same pei'son who distinguished 
himself by his opposition to the illegal and arbitrary demands of King 
Charles I. He had previously (1637) embarked for New England 
with Oliver Cromwell, Sir Arthur Haslerig and others ; but they weire 
prevented from coming by the King's ' proclamation against disorder- 
ly transporting his Majesty's subjects to the plantations in America.' 
Hamden was bom in 1594, and was 29 years old at the time of hk 
being at Rymouth, in 1623. 

'<See Neal's Hist. N. E. voL i. p. 151. Hazard's State Pi4>enl, 
vol. i. 421. Northouok's Biographical Dictionary, Haic."|| 



• Coart of Charles I., vol. i. p. t 
f CIiureiid( 
1 Carlyle'i 
$Gok>d K 



Clarendon's Hlstoiy of the Rebellion (Oxford, 1720), vol. 1. p. 312. 
'^ ' " 's Cromwell (New York, 1846), vol. i. p. 119. 



News from New England, reprinted in Toong's ChMBldM of the FOgifni 
Fathers, pp. 813-14. 
I Belknap's American Biography, vol. it pp. 229-4MK 



CromwdTB reported Embarkation for N. England. 11 

According to Forster, Mr. John Towill Butt, the able editor of Bor- 
ton^s Diary, communicated to the Examiner, a well-known London jour- 
nal, Bome years previous to 1887, an article in favor of Dr. Bellmap's 
conjecture, which article Mr. Forster presents to his readers in a foot- 
note to Life of Hampden. The article is filled with historical details 
that are familiar to i^e New England reader, the only new argument 
in favor of the hypothesis being this : " It appears, in the Far- 
Kamentary History, that from Feb., 1621-2 to Feb., 1628-4, Hamp- 
den's senatorial duties must have been entirely suspended. Thus, 
there would be abundant leisure for the visit to America/'* Bay- 
liesf and some other writers assume that it was he who was then 
at Plymouth. 

Bev. Alexander Toung, D.D., in his Chronicles of the Pilgrim 
Fathers has examined this question in a very thorouffh manner, and 
concludes that the conjecture is ** highly improbable. '^|; Dr. Savage 
expresses the same opinion in his Genealogical Dictionary of New 
England.§ 

Bradford and Morton, in their accounts of the events of this year, 
including the visit to Massasoit, do not mention the name of Hamden, 
which they would be likely to do if so distinguished a person as the 
patriot Hampden had resided among them. Dr. Toung remarks : '' On 
publishing his Oood News from New England, immediately on his 
arrival in London, in 1624, one object of which was to recommend the 
new colony, how gladly would Winslow have appealed for the correct- 
ness of his statements to this member of parliament who had passed 
more than a year in their Plantation. ''|| Mather, whose zeal in col- 
lecting the memorabilia of New England was rewarded with remarka- 
ble success, does not even hint that Hampden was ever in New Eng- 
land, nor do Prince and Hutchinson. It is unsafe, we know, to give 
much weight to negative evidence like this ; but against a coi\jecture 
it is surely sufficiently conclusive. 

Notwithstanding the inherent improbability of this conjecture, we 
presume there will always be some to uphold it, unless the Mr. John 
Hamden, then at Plymouth, is proved to be another person ; and even 
if this should be done it is doubtful whether there may not be some 
who will still cling to the delusion. 

• Eminent British Statesmen, vol. ill. pp. 323-4 ; Statesmen of the Commonwealth, p. 246. 

f Historical Memoir of the Colony of New Plymoath, toL i. p. 110. 

1 Chronidee of the Pilgrim Fathers, pp. 314-15, noie. 

I Gen. Diet, of N. £., yoI. ii. p. 343. 

I Chronicles of the Pilgrim Fathers, p. 814, note. 



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