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STORY 



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• - » , * » 



« • » _ 4> 






GOVERNMENT. 






I • •■ ^ 



* -, 



From Savagef5^to Civilizatfon. 



RUDIMENTS AMONG ANIMALS. — TRACB5 AMONG GYPSIES, BRIGAND5 AND 

THIEVES. — EMPIRES AND OLIGARCHIES. — MONARCHIES, FEUDAL AND 

CONSTITUTIONAL. — THEOCRACY OR PRIESTLY RULE. — WOMAN IN 

OOVERNMENT.-riASONRY AND SECRET ORDERS.— REPUBLICS. 



•. 'X- 



Henry Austin, Editor. 




Illustrated with over 350 engravings and many double-page plates by 

the best American and European Artists. 



1893: 
A. M. THAYER & CO., PublUhers, 

BOSTON AND LONDON. 






/ 



THE SKW YOIIK 
PrBI.IC I.imiARY j 



TiLl.KN AT.ONg 

B 1MI L 



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• • . • • -.'• .• •* • 

• *■ •■ •■ .. > 



Copyrishty 1893. 
By a. M. Thayer & Co. 



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SOLD ONLY BY SUBSCRIPTION. 



Typography and Prcsswork by 
Thb Barta Press, Boston. 




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WHO reads a preface ? Not the public as a rule, and yet 
this preface is written in the hope of being the excep- 
tion that proves the rule — an exception made in favor, 
of this book by a majority of thinking people. For this cause : 
it has no excuse to ofifer for its existence, but a reason and a right. 

Last winter, the publishing firm, A. M. Thayer & Co., of 
Boston and London, realizing that the people lyere beginning to 
show a deep and deepening interest in questions of government, 
and that they were studying how to improve the American republic 
in spite of the politicians, conceived the idea of having a book 
that should show as picturesquely as possible all the forms of 
government under which mankind has lived, so that the people 
could study governmental problems by the light of comparison. 

Chosen to compose this work, I have been embarrassed from the 
start by the riches of the mines from which my material was to be 
drawn, and I am conscious that many other journalists might have 
done this selection, connection and addition of thoughts and pic- 
tures much better than I. Yet, as one of the Titans of this age 
has said : " What is writ is writ. Would it were worthier ! " 

If it were, I would like to have paid my friend, Hezekiah But- 
terworth, of The Youth^s Companion^ that deservedly popular 
paper, the slight compliment of inscribing his honored name 
on a dedicatory page. As it is, I make no dedication of my 
labor, except to those men and women who find attraction in 
these pages. 



rv 



6 PBEFACE. 

Well aware how much more might have been put between 
the covers, I still hope and believe that this book will not merely 
feed the temporary curiosity of the average mind, but will stim- 
ulate the toiling men and women of America to desire, to demand, 
and to obtain better conditions of environment if not for them- 
selves, at least for their children. 

As to the help I have had in composing this book let me 
say a few words. Several chapters, perhaps the weightiest, were 
written by the veteran Irish journalist, O'Neil Larkin, and one, 
the Sixteenth, by Frederick Haynes, with only slight additions 
from my pen, and in some other chapters I have used so freely 
the work of other writers, English, French, and German, that I 
feel myself rather an editor than an author in this case. 

Nevertheless, I dare to hope that some critics who are familiar with 
former work of mine may find some original and suggestive obser- 
vations scattered through this book. In that hope I rest. 

Very sincerely, 

Henry Austin. 



During th.e composition of this book, Mr. Austin, at our sug- 
gestion, for tlie sake of ensuring accuracy, cheerfully submitted 
most of th.e chapters to various authors ^vho are authorities on 
certain subjects. We reproduce of the letters received by him 
just a few, — one from Gen. Douglas Frazar, the well-known 
traveller and author of "Perseverance Island," "The Log of the 
Maryland, '* *' Practical Boat^sailing, " etc., etc.; and one from 
Mrs. Mary A. Livermore, the famous author and lecturer, and 
one from the true philanthropist and world-renowned author 
of "The Man Without a Country," etc., etc., the Rev. Edward 
Everett Hale. These letters indicate to the public, better than 
any amount of advertising could, the character- value of this 
book. 

A. M. THAYER & CO., 

Publishers. 







9 







^M. ^A^MuCyyit UMsUZZ^ ^/^nWJ^- 





u 



■DWARD E. HALB. 




39 HIGHLAND ST 
ROXBURY. MASS \Jt4~^.^0^^^.xB^ 









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13 




CHAPTER I. 

ORIGIN OF GOVERNMENT. 

Great Antiquity of Man — Periods of development classified as Savagery, 
Barbarism, and Civilization — How pottery came to be made — The 
invention of an alphabet — An approximate Table of Centuries showing 
the great, slow steps of the race — Definition of the word Government 
— The family as the germ — Different forms, such as the Consanguine, 
the Punaluan, Syndyasmian, the Patriarchal, and the Monogamic — 
Development of the single family into the Gens — Growth of the Gens 
into the Phratry — Development as shown by a tribe of American In- 
dians — The American Indian^s true character — Incident in the life of 
Wamsutta — Division of the Seneca-Iroquois into Gentcs, Phratries, and 
Tribes — Political rights of the Gens — Duties of the Sachem, or peace- 
governor — Installing a Sachem — Horns as an emblem of office and 
authority — The election and confirmation of the War Chief — Safe- 
guards to prevent usurpations — Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity the 
cardinal principles of Iroquois government — A council of Indian chiefs 
the germ of a modern congress — The first stage of tribal government a 
one-power government — The second stage a double government — 
Creation of a three-power government — The Iroquois' further step — 
Striking resemblance in sentiment between the American Indians and 
Homeric Greeks 35 

CHAPTER II. 

RUDIMENTS AMONG ANIMALS. 

Instinct," as a mysterious line of separation between man and other 
animals, wiped out — Opinions of Descartes and Bonjeant on dogs — 
The brain of the ant as a wonderful atom — Political and Industrial 
equality a feature of the ant republic — Slavery among ants far gentler 
tlian that among men — Only larvae and pupa) stolen by Ant- kidnap- 
pers to bring up as regular slaves — Government among the Termites — 
Their architectural talent — Buildings from ten to twenty feet high — 
A Termite town an example of cooperation — Possession of a standing 
army — The Bee state a communistic monarchy — The Queen the nec- 
essary centre and bond of the hive — Labor among bees offering the 
highest ideal of Communism, free, voluntary, and uncompulsory— 
Many work themselves to death, thus disproving 'Mnstinct " again — 

15 



16 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

Qualifications for office among animal leaders — The donkey as a leader 
of a caravan of camels — Mares as leaders of mules in Central America 
The principle of appointment among animal leaders — Ample evidence 
of self -appointment to leadership among social animals — Street-dog 
republics of Constantinople — Division of labor and duty among ani- 
mals — Strength in Union a recognized principle — Cooperation clearly 
evidenced in animal conventions, conferences, etc. — Trials by jury 
witnessed among rooks and storks — Public punisliment among spar- 
rows and apes 61 

CHAPTER III. 

TRACKS AMONG GYPSIES, BRIGANDS AND THIEVES. 

A people opposed to order or authority from outside — Physiognomy and 
habits of the Gypsy — Their beauty — Known to Europeans for eight 
centuries and still conundrums — Disputed origin — *' Dukes of Little 
Egypt'' — Halcyon times followed by persecutions — The passion for 
wandering — A study of their language — Extremely unwilling to unfold 
themselves to strangers — A warm family affection — Superstitions and 
customs — Odd reasons for swearing off from liquor or tobacco — 
Curious burial rites — Seven hundred thousand pure blooded gypsies — 
Ineffectual attempts to civilize them — Tlie Abb^ Liszt and a Gypsy 
boy — **Five florins for hanging a man'' — The real home of the 
continental gypsy — Odd specimen of Gypsy poetry — The Camorra — 
History as remarkable as a fable — The Camonistic treasury supplied 
from every quarter — Violence, robbery, and murder their weapons — 
Many names in different places — The Mafia or Maffia — Suppressed in 
Italy it plants itself in America — Mysterious murders — Singular 
stories from New Orleans — Its suppression in March, 1891 — The beam 
in our own eye in the shape of Pinkerton's band — A certain tendency 
to order among thieves in London and Paris — Hank — The common 
pickpocket not recognized publicly by the ** swell mobsmen," or by 
house-breakers — Fascinating interview with a retired pickpocket and 
brief sketch of his life in his own words — '* Thieves' Latin " — ** Sus- 
picion always haunts the guilty mind" painfully illustrated in the 
thieves' quarter — Pathetic remarks of a professional thief — Difficulty 
of a discharged prisoner in escaping from old habits — The boy thief 
gets a fourth of the value of what he steals — Infinitely worse in their con- 
sequences than petty larceny or burglary are some of the ways of 
commerce — The adulteration of food — The Juggernaut of Avarice 
and Ignorance 89 

CHAPTER IV. 

FEUDALISTIC MOXARCHY. 

A Gk>vemment of Chiefs with a loose or elastic allegiance to a Head Chief or 
King — The **Rundo" — Affectation of political modesty among the 
Banyai — A curious Waliuman law — Treatment of women in Central 
Africa — Killing a wife a mere trifle — A hundred wives buried alive 
with one king in the bed of a river — Captives reserved for slaves — 
The immortality of the soul generally believed — Curious cu8t*>m of 
cementing friendship by mixing blood and butter — The African idea of a 
Fetish — The Priest of the Nile — Horrible devices of magicians — 
Human sacrifice — The rain-maker a popular figure — Baker's amusing 
interview — The "Gold Coast" — Fanti women —• Innocence tested by 
means of ** ordeals" — Morals — European influence corrupting — Belief 
in a mysterious child ** who has existed from the beginning of the 
world" — The women the more intellectual and energetic sex on the 
Gold Coast — The man who buries another succeeds to his property, 
^Isahis debts ~ Statesman-like ability and military skill in the Ashanti 



r.» 



r^ CONTENTS. 17 



V 



kingdom — Women a regular article of merchandise reckoned by cows — 
The powers of the '* Ko toko," or council — An Ashanti king — Gold 
mining — "Three hundred ounces of gold taken in a single day" — 
Industries apai-t from mining — The Ashanti army — In battle the women 
stand behind their husbands — The *' Encouragei's " — Police regulations 
in Coomassio — The King as head of the Fire Department — The skull 
of Governor Sir Charles Macaithy, killed in the iirst war, kept in the 
Bantama, the mausoleum of the kings, as a drinking cup — " By Wednes- 
day and Macarthy " a sacred Ashanti oath — The *' Customs'* in Ashanti 
and Dahomey — Decapitation as a fine art — The Yam and the Adai 
customs — "Kra," the soul of man — The kingdom of Dahomey — Odd 
origin of the ** bush-king," or double of the real monarch — Tlie ** Nin- 
gan," or prime minister — The *'Meu," the second minister — The 
soldiei*s divided into several corps; each soldier equipped at the expense 
of the government — Tlie corps of Amazons, or female wamors — Origin 
of these Amazons — Their number at present four thousand; divided 
into three brigades — The Dahoman eminently religious — Tlie worship 
of Danli-gbwe — The Danh-hweh, or fetish snake-house — Tlie Danhsi, 
or snake priests — " Atinbodun " — Tlie Dahoman *' Neptune " — Khevy- 
osoh, the Thunder-god — Missionary failure in Africa — The reasons — 
A better field for effort suggested 141 

CHAPTER V. 

ABSOLUTISM. 

Persia a perfect type of despotism — Chai-acter of the courtier — Many 
public functionaries selected by the Persian monarchs from the order of 
Mirzas, or *' men of business " — The Collector of the public revenue — 
Small salaries of government officials — Precarious life of a courtier — 
The pardoned rebel of one province appointed to the supreme command 
in another — No official, however high, sure of his life — The Gholams, 
or king's guards — The mooshteheds, the highest order of priests, the 
supreme pontiffs of the kingdom — The Sheik al Islam — The character 
of the moUalis or priests — ** To cheat like a mollali " a frequent saying 
in the mouth of a Persian — Persian women believed not to have souls 
by some Moslem priests — An Eastern seraglio a "gilded cage" — De- 
scription of harem life — The gala dress of a lady of high rank — Mar- 
riage ceremonies — Ungovernable temper of Persian women — Persia 
no longer the granary of the world — The population of Persia less than 
8,000,000 — No navigable rivers, and railways a thing of the future — 
The whole revenue of the empire considerably less than $10,000,000 — 
The Koran as the basis of civil and criminal law — The t/r/*, or " common 
law" — The goverainj^ principle in Mohammedan law, an eye for an eye, 
and a tooth for a tooth — Ancient religion of the Persians — The Par- 
sees, like the Jews, a persecuted race — Learning of Persia — The stone 
and seal cutters of Shirazand Ispahan famous for their skill — Literature 
— Adoption of European habits 197 

CHAPTER VI. 

TFIE RULE OF CASTE. 

A marvel and a mystery to Western minds — Religious despotism still flour- 
ishing throughout India — The Vedas, or Hindoo Scriptures — The 
foundation of Brahminism — Compared with the Greek mythology, that 
of India infinitely deeper, more mysterious, and vastly more sublime — 
AVater- worship — Self-drowning in the Ganges — Brahmins propitiated 
with divine honors — Siva and Vishnoo — Vishnooism a sort of reformed 
Sivaism — In addition to the» Hindoo Trinity many inferior gods — 
Animals also venerated — The two aspects of Brahminism — Caste every- 
where an essentia] part of religion — In the " Institutes of Menu" four 




18 THB STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

castes defined as composing the nation — For three thousand years by 
means of caste the Brahmins have preserved their ascendency — ^No other 
example of such a lease of power — The life of a Brahmin divided into 
four periods — The high caste man defiled by the low caste man — Tlie 
Brahmin *'can cook for every man, whilst no one can cook for him'* — 
The home of human horrors — The Hindoo Fakir preeminent among 
cranks — Strange self -martyrdoms — Remarkable municipal institutions 
of Hindostan — The famous " village system " — Thieving and burglary 
raised to the rank of science — The riches of India — Anecdote of Mali- 
moud, the idol-breaker — Temples and shrines — The sacred rivers — 
The idol of Juggernaut and its procession — Pinkerton Thugs; the 
word and comparison taken from India — Origin of the religious crime. 
Thuggee — Early training of Thugs — Secrecy one of the essentials of 
their work — Manner of strangling and burying their victims — Account 
of the founder of Buddhism — Buddhism now closely studied by Eu- 
ropean scholars — Marriage customs — Qualifications for a Brahmin's 
bride — Elaborate festival rites and ceremonies — Celibacy a disgrace 
both to men and women — The Hindoo women's taste for ill-treatment 

— The women of Northern India trea«^ed with respect and devotion — 
The ** Festival of tlie Bracelet" — A whole province often accompanies 
the return of the pledge — The temple- women — The Suttee — Laws of 
inheritance — Education — Architecture and the manufacture of jewelry 

— Snake-charming — The moral character of the Hindoo — The Indian 
not the same all over India — A Bengalee the most despicable — Macau- 
lay on the character of the Bengalee — Political future 225 

CHAPTER VII. 

A SCHOLASTIC OLIGARCHY. 

Oldest and oddest of nations and governments — An eclipse calculated 2155 
years before our era — Topography of China — Division into eighteen 
provinces; each province into poos, counties, and prefectures — The 
great wall — The gate of honor — Chicese streets — The umbrellaed side- 
walks — The sewerage system — High-sounding titles of streets — Shops 

— Monumental arches — Hoo Chow Foo — Governmental precaution 
against fires — The Emperor of China assisted in the management of his 
government by a cabinet of four ministers; in addition to this, six 
supreme tribunals — Duties of each tribunal — The Empress, or head 
wife, is the representative of Mother Earth — The choice of an empi-ess 
and of sub-wives — A formidable ari-ay of officials in each province — All 
supposed to be appointed by the Emperor on recommendation of the 
Board of Ceremonies — Nine marks of distinction by which the rank of 
a Chinese officer may be recognized — Dress — Custom of an officer 
approaching the Imperial presence — The army made up of the lowest 
class — Government residences for all officials — A curious sort of lot- 
tery adds a certain spice to the life of convicted criminals — Justice in 
China a ''Serial Story of Torture" — The process in civil cases — 
Another peculiarity of Chinese government — Imperial clemency extends 
to all offenders who are crippled — Religion of China interfuses with its 
laws — The original i*eligion — No hereditary nobility — Rank graded by 
literary examinations — Every office except that of the Emperor deter- 
mined by these — Severity of the examinations — Fifteen candidates suc- 
cessful out of five hundred considered remarkable — The degree of 
Han-lin; the few who attain it become membei*s of the Han-lin College and 
receive fixed salaries — The greatest care taken that these examinations 
shall be fair — Daring devices of the candidates to elude the lynx-eyed 
examiners — Ancestral worship — The penalty of striking or cursing 
parents — Ideas of beauty — Deformed feet of the women and leavings of 
Chinese poets thereon — The Kow-tow — Modesty of the ladies — 
Chinese handmaids — Seven different reasons for divorce — Amusing 



^♦. 



CONTENTS. 19 

contrariety of Chinese customs — Curious census anecdote — History of 
Confucius and his doctrines — The five canonical hooks — Tlie writings 
which ranlc next — Chinese literature — All classes read — Proverbs . 281 

CHAPTER VIII. 

PATERNAL SOCIALISM. 

A system of government especially worthy of study — Difference in the mean- 
ing or value of the word Socialism twenty years ago and to-day — The 
electric shock of a new idea — Tlie chief moral argument of modern 
Socialism — Men to-day in tlie mass becoming too much like the 
machines tliey tend — Tlie ultimate economic proposition of Socialism 
— The Post-office a shining example — The best illustration on a na- 
tional scale — A miraculous land in which the sum of human happiness 
was large and increasing —Vast extent and singular shape of Peru — 
The naturally barren coast fertilized by a system of canals and under- 
ground aqueducts — The Maguey suspension bridges — Cuzco the chief 
capital — A miniature of the empire — The decimal system used by the 
Incas of Peru with remarkable results — The whole empire arranged in 
departments of ten thousand with a special governor appointed from the 
Inca nobility — Officialism prevented from being an evil by being all- 
pervasive — Few laws and crime a rarity — Worship of the Sun — Fable 
of the founding of the City of the Sun by the children of the Sun-God — 
Personal pomp of an Inca — Magnificence of his palaces — The Baths of 
Yucay — Burial customs — Remarkable skill in embalming — Fiscal 
regulations and the laws of property — The cultivation of the king's 
lands a holiday performance — The llamas — Idleness a crime and indus- 
try a matter of public honor and reward — The Peruvians had a chance 
to cultivate the graces and dignities of life — Two orders of nobility — 
Superior method of taking the census — The <irtisan provided by the 
government with his materials, and only required to give a certain por- 
tion of his time to public service — Peruvian literature — Method of 
preserving thought — Description of the quipus — Anecdote of Atah- 
ualpa 325 

CHAPTER IX. 

THEOCRACY OH PRIESTLY GOVERNMENT. 

Basic principle of theocracy — The Pythoness or Priestess of Delphi, how 
inspired — Pagan priests the first librarians — The crystallization of the 
Hebrew nation — Singularity of the Mosaic laws — Strikinj^ anecdote of 
Solomon — The Sanhedrim — The functions of the Levite — The syna- 
gogues as schools — Caiphas the head of the theocracy — Crucifixion of 
Jesus — Jerusalem battered down by Titus thirty-seven years later — 
Dispersion of the Jewish nation — Meeting of the Apostles and framing 
of the Apostles' Creed — St. Paul before the Sanhedrim — Condition of 
the world at this period — ** Eat, drink, and be merry, for to-morrow we 
die," the motto of the Roman Empire — Frightful persecution of the 
Christians by Xero — The infant church driven to underground refuges — 
Christian theocracy assuming shape — The Cross a<lopted by Constivntine 
as the imperial standard — The combat practically closed by the imperial 
decree, A. D. 313 — Two sovereignties recognized and proclaimed, that 
of Pope and Emperor — The heresy of Arius of Alexandria — Ecumeni- 
cal council summoned at Nice by Constantine — Summary of the Apos- 
tolic Canons — Endeavors of Julian, the apostate, to restore the worship 
of the Pagan gods — Decline of the Roman Empire — Attila, **the 
Scourge of God" — Meeting between Saint Leo I. and Attila — Roman 
empire of the West extinguished — A universal Papal protectorate — 
Simoniacal bishops — *'Tlie poisonous viper of the Church" — Extent 
of Simony — Struggle between Henry IV. and Hildebrand opened by the 
election of Pope Alexander II.— The election of Alexander II. declared 



20 THE STORV OF GO\'ERXMENT. 

nail bjT Henrj, who nominates Honorios IL as mn anti-pope — Death of 
Alexander IL and election of Hildebrand — Decree issued against im- 
moral priests — Attempt of Henry to imprison and depose the Pope — 
Gregory pronoonces the famous sentence of excommunication and depo- 
sition against Henry — Decisive battle of spiritual service reform begun 

— Gregory YIL deposed by the simoniacal bishops, and Gilbert of 
Ravenna elected as Pope Clement III. — Conflict between Pope Innocent 
III. and Philip Augustus on the marriage question — Ferdinand and Isa- 
l>ella establish the *' Spanish Inquisition" — Cause of the Great Schism 

— Luther — The Peasants' War — Cause of the Reformation in England 

— Tlie " Society of Jesus " founded by Ignatius of Loyola — Summary of 
the constitution of the Jesuits — The onder dissolve<i by Pope Clement 
XIV. under pressure of Catholic Governments — Emperor Xapoleon 
crowned in Paris by Pope Pius VII. — Reestablishment of the order of 
the Jesuits by Pius VII. — Explanation of the administration of the 
Catholic Church — Religious feeling expressed in architecture — Macau- 
lay on the Church — Future of the Church in America 357 

CHAPTER X. 

SIMPLE REPUBLICAKISM. 

Switzerland, the democracy most near to perfection — Her history a polit- 
ical romance of intense interest — The First Federal Constitution — 
** Each for all and all for each " — The growth of the national germ — 
Gradual union of the different cantons — Battle of Sempach — The last 
attempt of Austria to subdue the confederation — Capture of the town 
of Grandson by Charles the Bold — A new treaty signed — The federal 
H^>vereignty much strengthened — The Helvetic Republic established in 
Switzerland by the French directory — A new constitution called the Act 
of Mediation drawn up by Bonaparte — A federal declaration lasting 
until 1848 takes the place of the Act of Mediation — Two legislative 
chambers created by tlie new constitution — Government ownership and 
management of postal, telegraphic, and telephonic systems — No stand- 
ing army — Rules of the Federal Assembly — Democratic character of 
the executive — The Council of States — The National Council — The 
Federal census the basis of representation to the National Council — 
Method of voting — The right of initiative — Tlie famous Swiss Referen- 
dum — Meaning of the referendum — If the initiative and referendum 
systems prevailed in the United States, what then ? — Professor Ely's 
illustration — The ancient Land sgeraeinden, or open-air assemblies — A 
lively interest taken in national and communal affairs by Sw^iss voters — 
Socialistic undertakings of the Communes — The local self-govei*nment 
of the commune the cradle and the schoolhouse which evolved the 
present Swiss Confederation — Swiss traditions — Industries — Switzer- 
land ti>o small for the support of its population — The ** playground of 
Europe *' — Peasant proprietors numerous — A passion for borrowing 
on mortgage — The Vaudois peasant — Poverty in Canton Vaud almost 
UAiknown — Education free of cost 435 

CHAPTER XI. 

CONSTITUTION AX MONARCHY. 

England — The growth of constitutional monarchy a story full of the most 
startling contrasts — Military despotism of William the Norman — 
The reign of Henry 11. the first in which the people came into promi- 
nence — One of the greatest and saddest of regal histories — A true step 
toward the equalization of all men before the law — Henry's character 
— King John as the most expensive dentist on record — The signing of 
the Great (Charter at Runymede — One of the most curious reigns in 
England — Great gains made for the people in the development of con- 



CONTENTS. 21 

stitutional government — Magna Charta revised, and Lord Pembroke 
made Protector — Amusing episode of tlie Sicilian throne — Simon de 
Hontfort^s check upon the regal power the germ of the present Britisli 
Ministry — Tlie first parliament in which the people had any real share 
summoned by De Montfort in 1205 — ** Sir Simon the Righteous'' — 
Prince Edward's return from a successful crusade and public ovation — 
Royal schemes for raising money — Germ of the phi-ase ** Taxation 
witliout representation is tyranny" — King Edward's attempt to unite 
Scotland, Wales, and England in one country, and lay the foundation of 
English unity — The Welsh insurrection — Origin of the title *' Prince 
of Wales" — The rising of the popular tide and the eating away of 
tlie stubborn rocks of royal privilege and prerogative — Lawless career 
of Edward IL — Appointment of a Committee of Government to connect 
abuses in the State — Gaveston beheaded by order of the nobles — A 
new encroachment on royal power — Deposition of Edward — Institu- 
tion of the poll tax — Insurrection of Ihe peasants under Wat, the Tiler 

— Attempt of Wat, the Tiler, to abolish tlie cruel forest laws — Defeat 
of the insurgents; The beginning of the custom of hanging in chains — 
Quarrel between Parliament and King Richard — Richard impeached 
and deposed by Bolingbroke, Duke of Hereford — The reign of Boling- 
broke distinguished for its brilliancy and for an extension of the power 
of law — Insurrection of the people under Jack Cade during the reign 
of Henry VI. — Beginning of the Wars of the Roses — Edward IV. ex- 
torts money from the citizens of London in the form of loans, or ** benevo- 
lences" — Quickening of popular intelligence in the reign of Henry VII. 

— The power of the baronage broken — The reign of Heniy VIII. that 
in which the monarchy reached its worst pitch of cruel absolutism — 
The religious agitation of this time productive of immense intel- 
lectual results — Publication of More's Utopia — The society of his 
time defined by Sir Thomas as ** Nothing but a conspiracy of the 
rich against the poor" — The obsequious Parliament simply a tool of 
regal power — Beginning of the English Reign of Terror — Thomas 
Cromwell beheaded, the first victim of his own law — The dogma of 
divine right originated by Henry VIII. — A slavish devotion to a man 
replacing the old loyalty to the law — The reign of Elizabeth and epoch 
of Shakespeare and Bacon — Defeat of the Spanish Armada and rise of 
England to the position of a first-class power — The feeling of nation- 
ality intensified — The impetus given to the minds of men by the revival 
of learning produces an intellectual harvest — Puritanism the first polit- 
ical system which recognized the grandeur of the people as a whole — 
Greneral conception of kingship modified by the events of the sixteenth 
century — Charles raises his revenue by unjust taxation in all direc- 
tions — The trial of Hampden the first declaration of independence on 
the part of an English gentleman — John Pym, the first and finest of 
parliamentary leatiers — Charles' minister, Strafford, impeached by the 
Commons for high treason — Execution of Strafford, a faithful servant 
to a bad king — The battle of Edge Hill the beginning of the grandest 
era of English history — Oliver Cromwell comes into prominence as a 
leader at the battle of Marston Moor — A man of surpassing greatness 

— Modern England as a political entity beginning with the triumph of 
Cromwell at the battle of Naseby — For the first time a conscious 
struggle between political tradition and political progress — Execution 
of King Charles — The monarchy formallv abolished and the govera- 
ment provided for by the creation of a Council of State selected from the 
Commons — Dissolution of Parliament by Cromwell — Cromwell's pro- 
tectorate a simple tyranny — ** A time of great peace and prosperity" 

— Cromwell refuses the crown and is formally inaugurated Protector — 
His sway over the minds of men mighty even in death — Eager royal- 
ists greatly disappointed with the reign of Charles II. — Charles II. the 
cleverest of the Stuarts — A crisis between King and Parliament pre- 
cipitated by the impeachment of Danby — Consent of Charles to the 
Habeas Corpus Act — The two years' struggle between King, Parlla- 



22 THE STORY OF GOVERXMETr. 



meiit, and CofninoBi resnltiiis in the rise of m nev partj called the Whig 
— The rise of orgBoizad parties in Pariiaaient the most important erent 
sinee the restoraticyn — Polrdeal acts of Charles IL daring the last three 
jears of his Ufe — The stor^r of the mistakes of James IL — Flight of 
King James, and transference of the crown to William of Orange — 
DechmUions of the Bill of Righto — The Triennial Act of William III/s 
parliament — James I. a learned bat weak king — Parliament occapied 
onljT with the reassertion of ito former righto — Illegal monopolj insti- 
tuted hj Cliarles I. the germ of present trasto and sjndicates — First 
eifecto of pariiamentary freedom — Change in the character of the 
Ministry — The goTemment acquiring a corporate character — * Repre- 
sentatires of the people " — The Whig nobles the most powerful ctoss 
in the kingdom — The reign of the nobility a beneficent despotism — 
Haphazard method of the House of Commons in the days of George 
IlL — The society of the '* Friends of the People ^* — Apparently hope- 
less entanglement of the legislative, ezecutiTe and judicial functions — 
Determination of Victoria to know the doings of her ministers — System 
of the British Cabinet — Pointo of difference between the American and 
English systems of government — Qualities needful to a minister in 
England — Summary of the development of English government . • . 475 

CHAPTER Xn. 
A GOYSRXMEXT OF MT3TERT A!n> FBATESXITT. 

An odd incident connected with one of the secret signs of Masonry — 
Legendary Masonry of profound ethical interest — The legend of the 
Temple a fascinating myth — Curious claim set up by Freemasonry — 
The aim of all secret societies of the past — Freemasonry the com- 
pendium of all primitive accumulated human knowledge — The history 
of the order divided into two periods — Records of a lodge of 1648 — 
The name *' masonic" adopted by the society in the last century — 
Freemasonry a tree whose roots are spread through many soils — The 
masonic alphabet — Description of a Lodge — A relic of astrology — 
Initiation of a novice into the first or Apprentice degree — The second 
degree of symbolic Freemasony, the Fellow-Craft —Supposed significance 
of the letter G seen in the lodge — The degree of Master Mason — 
Another version of the legend of Osiris — The degree of the Holy Royal 
Arch — The Omnific Word — The emblem of emblems — Masonry at its 
height in France during the revolutionary period — Napoleon and 
Masonry — Masonic titles bestowed upon Cambacer^s — The Grand 
Orient Lodge — Its half yearly words of command were Napoleonic for- 
mulae — The fall of Napoleon attributed to Masonry — History of 
Joseph Balsamo, alias Count Cagliostro — The Egyptian rite invented 
by Cagliostro — Adoptive Masonry — First lodge of adoption — Anec- 
dote of the Jew and the Parsee — Speculative or Philosophical Masonry 
not derived from Operative — Historic uncertainty of Masonry — First 
appearance of the name ** Freemason " — ^* Masons made here for 12 
shillings** — A complete change and rebirth in the year 1717 — The true 
character of Freemasonry in the history of the operative sodalities and 
successive ages of architects — The *• New Constitution" the Freemasonry 
of the present day — The touch of Masonry penetrating all the scenes 
of the Revolution — Repeated attempts to make Freemasonry a union of 
States and a union of Grand Lodges — A Grand Lodge territory sacred 
from invasion — Washington as a Mason — Temporary setback to Ma- 
sonry — The golden era of Freemasonry — The comer-stone of Bunker 
HiU monument laid by the Grand Lodge — Anti-masonic excitement — 
The famous ''Declaration" — The '* Masonic Education and Charity 
Trust" — Boston Masonic Temple — The Masonic Temple, Philadelphia, 
the finest and largest in the world — Plan of the Chicago building — 
Masonry developed from a simple secret society into a great interna- 
tional bond, a government within government ^> The purest of democra- 



CONTENTS. 28 

cieB in theory and practice — One of the most binding oaths and obliga- 
tions — Review of history in the United States— -A Grand Lodge of 
Masons in every State of the Union — Templar Masonry a semi-military 
organization — Degrees and rites of the order — The true essence of 
Fieemasonry 567 

CHAPTER XIII. 

EXPERIMENTAL BEPUBLICANISM. 

The Republic of France the offspring of revolution — Condition of the 
people prior to the Revolution of 1793 — The peasantry merely beasts of 
burden — Liberty of speech and of the press non-existent — Three gen- 
eral classes — Inequality even in the family — The taxes all paid by the 
peasantry and artisans — Misery of the common people — Immorality 
the fashion — View of mai-riage — Tremendous political influence of 
Voltaire, Montesquieu and Rousseau, or dramatist, lawyer and novelist 

— Louis XVI. attempts reform — Turgot's plans for financial retrench- 
ment — Turgot and Malesherbes forced to resign — The famous **Account 
Rendered " — Neckar deposed — Calonne exiled — Neckar recalled to ofiice 
—Convocation of the States-General — Platform of principles adopted 
by the Third Estate — First difficulty arising in the assemblage Icacls to 
a live weeks' contest — ** National Constituent Assembly " — First for- 
mal session of the Assembly — The inviolability of its membei*s solemnly 
proclaimed — Committees for business organized — Dismissal and exile 
of Neckar — Storming of the Bastile — Curious anecdotes prophetic of the 
flood — Cagliostro, the Wizard — The Revolution baptized in blood — 
Feudalism abolished, and the first plank in the platform of the Third 
Estate, the equality of man, a reality — Many beneficent laws passed by 
the National Assembly — Dissolution of the Assembly after two years' 
term of office — New and formidable difficulties before the Legislative 
Assembly — Twenty-three years' war — Lafayette proscribed — Sacking 
of the Tuilleries — The Assembly powerless — France invaded by the 
Duke of Brunswick — Louis XVI. guillotined — A huge political blunder 

— The Reign of Terror legalized — Strange anecdote of the institution 
by Carrier of Republican marriage — Conflict with the Kings — The 
Republic definitively established — The Revolution succeeded by the 
military dictatorship of Napoleon — Charles X. a true type of the 
Bourbon prince — Louis Philippe chosen king by the Chamber of 
Deputies — Universal suffrage decreed by the National Assembly — 
Napoleon III. deposed by the Chamber of Deputies and the Republic 
proclaimed — The Constitution of France — The present Republic the 
offspring of 1793 031 

CHAPTER XIV. 

GOVEBNMENT AMONG SECRET ORDERS. 

Every secret society with a political aim an act of collective conscience — 
A legitimate hatred of evil the salvation of nations — Order of the 
Chauffeurs, or Burners — Rites of initiation — Marriage customs of the 
order — Their detection by the cunning of one of their victims and their 
extinction — The Society of the Carbonari — Ceremonies of the Lodge — 
A mixture of Masonry and Catholic mysticism — Initiation into the 
different degrees — Real object of the association — The Carbonari 
played no small part in general European politics — Ambition of the 
Carbonari to obtain a constitutional government for their country — 
Influence of the order — Carbonarism introduced into France — Why 
of special historic interest — Combination with young Italy, a society 
with identical aims — Society of " American Hunters " — Lord Byron 
said to have been its head — The society an ethical as well as practical 
one — Object of the revolutionary society of Nihilists — Articles of their 



24 THE STORY OP GOVERNMENT. 

belief — **From the United to the Isolated" — Sentences on early 
prisoners mild in comparison to those of recent date — The Fenians one 
of the most active of political secret societies — Indications that the 
association is not extinct — Founding of Fenianism in America — Cou- 
yentions at Chicago and Cincinnati — Traitors within tlie organization — 
Report of tlie Investigating Committee — Origin of the word Fenian — 
Extracts from the Patriotic Litany of Saint Lawrence O* Toole — The 
term Tammany first applied to the Columbian order — Evolution of the 
title — A striking characteristic — Record of the organization — Early 
history — Part played in national affairs — Intricate relations with New 
York politics — A survivor of several defeats — The Tammany legend, 
a very amusing and instructive tradition — The supreme trait of Tam- 
many's character — Symbols of the thirteen tribes — Statistics of 
Tammany Hall — The leader of the Tammany forces — The General 
Committee — Salaries — Outline of the plan of organization — The work 
of the committee — Assembly district organizations — Qualifications 
necessary for a district leader — Strict discipline 605 

CHAPTER XV. 

WOMAN IN GOVERNMENT. 

Equal citizenship of sexes first recognized during the French Revolution — 
Partial citizenship in early American colonies — Wyoming the first real 
political democracy of large area — England moving faster than America 
towards full female suffrage — Proofs of the interest taken in it by intelli- 
gent women — Stain on the history of the State of Washington — How 
women have voted and are likely to vote — Woman's political status all 
over the world — The next step from a political must be an industrial 
democracy — The general stream of human happiness — The world's 
debt to women of simple lives — Sudden possession of excessive power — 
Depraved women not so much the cause as the result of the corruption of 
the middle ages — Sex equality among primitive races — Respect shown to 
women by New England Indians — Feminine leadership in modem Africa 

— Number of Beiiangin's female warriors — Peculiarities of Polyandrous 
tribes — An odd incident illustrative of the working of an Eastern mind — 
Condition of woman in the age of Homer — Degradation of woman in the 
palmy days of Athens — Sparta alone the cradle of great women — The 
HetairsB — Aspasia and the government of Athens — Orientalized Athens 
corrupts her conqueror, the Roman — The character of Cleopatra — Zeno- 
bia — Rome overrun by Grermans — Effect of feudalism and the Catholic 
church on women — The age of chivalry — Joan D' Arc and Agnes Sorel 
— Decency in eclipse for three centuries — Isabella of Castile — Mary A. 
Livermore's opinion about her — John Knox and his Trumpet Blast — 
Elizabeth, the greatest of England'^ queens — Madame de Maintenon — 
Madame de Pompadour and her deluge — The crowned women of Russia 

— Striking feminine figures of the present century — The real queens of 
to-day, where found 721 

CHAPTER XVL 

SEMT-MILITARY CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY. 

Reflections arising from wandering through the galleries of Versailles — 
The most dramatic of recent historical events — Proclamation of Em- 
peror William — Legislative functions of the empire — The executive 
power in the hands of the Emperor — The Bundesrath and its com- 
mittees — The Reichstag — Officers of State — Historical growth of 
the Grerman empire — Earliest, recorded Teutonic invasion — Ger- 
mans in the Roman armies — Characteristics of the different tribes 

— Assemblies of the freemen — Important victory of the German 
tribes under Herman — Migratory instincts of the Grermanic tribes 



CONTENTS. 26 

again showing itself — History of the Franks in Gaul — The treaty 
of Verdun — The Huns conquered by King Henry — Beginning of 
town life among the Germans — Alliance of Church and State sovereign- 
ties — Origin of Germany*8 claim to Italy — Revival of learning — Di- 
vision of large duchies into small principalities the beginning of 
individualism — Quarrel of Guelph and Gliibeline — Conflict between 
Emperor and Pope — Effect on Germany — Power of the Emperors 
shattered — Extincti(mof the house of Hohenstaufcn — The Interregnum 

— The robber castles of tlie Rhine — Growth of cathedral towns — 
Election of Rudolf, founder of the house of Habsburg — Charles IV. 
issues the Golden Bull — Invention of gunpowder — Revolution in the 
art of war — Invention of printing — Attempt of the rulers to check 
the intellectual awakeninij — The edict of Perpetual Peace — The 
House of Habsburg at the culmination (►f its power — The Diet at Worms 

— Martin Luther placed under the ban of the empire — His translation 
of the Bible — Spirit of the times — Beginning of the *' Thirty Years' 
War" — Militiry tactics of Gustavus Adolphus — The Peace of West- 
phalia — The question of the Rhine provinces made a permanent issue — 
Change in the character of the German — Louis XIV. of France signs 
the Peace of Utrecht — The Great Elector the 11 rst to keep a standing 
army in time of peace — Accession of Frederick the Great — The 
"Seven Years* War" — Frederick in the front rank of great com- 
manders — Wisdom and energy of Frederick's government — Im- 
portant changes in the internal affairs of Germany — Separation of the 
spiritual and secular power — Wars with Napoleon — War of Liberation 
followed by a season of peace — Constitutions granted by the kings 
to their subjects — Unilication of Italy under Victor Emanuel — Otto 
Von Bismarck made Prime Minister by King William of Prussia — 
Beginning of the end of the small principalities — War between Prussia 
and Austria — Formation of the North German Confederation — Defeat 

of the French — Political unification of Germany , 753 

CHAPTER XVIL 
COMPLEX REPUBLICANISM. 

Rrst movement toward Home Rule by the Colonists — Complex Republi- 
canism still an experiment — Congress of the United States and Parlia- 
ment of Great Britain the models of government for other countries — 
The Congress of the republics of Central and South America — Form of 
government in Germany, Denmark, and other countries — Three coordi- 
nate branches in the government of the United States — The first coor- 
dinate branch: the legislative — General powers of Congress — Article 
I., Section 2 of the Constitution — Number of population required to 
constitute a congressional district — Election of members — The great 
power which the House of Representatives exclusively possesses — An- 
other power exclusively exercised by the House — Trials of impeachment 

— Power of the Speaker of the House — Importance of the jiosition — 
Committees of the House — Duties of the different committees — A 
member prohibited from holding any other governmentid office — Pro- 
hibited also from voting on measures in which their private interests are 
affected — The Senate of the United States — Officers of the Senate — 
Exclusive power of ** consent" possessed by the Senate — Notable ex- 
ception to the general rule of the Senate durimx the administration of 
President Cleveland — An executive session — ** The billionnaireclub " — 
Movement agitated for the election of senators by a direct vote of the 
people — Reasons in favor — The second coordinate branch of govern- 
ment: the executive — The Electoral College — Election of the President 

— Chief duty of the President — Power to pardon — Right of veto — 
Reason for so much legislative power in the hands of the Executive — 
The Cabinet — Duties of the Secretary of State — Assistant Secretaries 



24 THE STORY OP GOVERNMENT. 

belief — **From the United to the Isolated*' — Sentences on early 
prisoners mild in compaiison to those of recent date — The Fenians one 
of the most active of political secret societies — Indications that the 
association is not extinct — Founding of Fenianism in Ameiica — Cou- 
yentions at Chicago and Cincinnati — Traitors within tlie organization — 
Report of the Investigating Committee — Origin of the word Fenian — 
Extracts from the Patriotic Litany of Saint Lawrence O' Toole — The 
term Tammany first applied to the Columbian order — Evolution of the 
title — A striking characteristic — Record of the organization — Early 
history — Part played in national affairs — Intricate relations with New 
York politics — A survivor of several defeats — Tlie Tammany legend, 
a very amusing and instructive tradition — The supreme trait of Tam- 
many's character — Symbols of the thirteen tribes — Statistics of 
Tammany Hall — Tlie leader of the Tammany forces — The General 
Committee — Salaries — Outline of the plan of organization — The work 
of the committee — Assembly district organizations — Qualifications 
necessary for a district leader — Strict discipline dd5 

CHAPTER XV. 

WOMAN IN GOVERXMENT. 

Equal citizenship of sexes first recognized during the French Revolution — 
Partial citizenship in early American colonies^ — Wyoming the first real 
political democracy of large area — England moving faster than America 
towards full female suffrage — Proofs of the interest taken in it by intelli- 
gent women — Stain on die history of the State of Washington — How 
women have voted and are likely to vote — Woman's political status all 
over the world — The next step from a political must be an industrial 
democracy — The general stream of human happiness — The world's 
debt to women of simple lives — Sudden possession of excessive power — 
Depraved women not so much the cause as the result of the corruption of 
the middle ages — Sex equality among primitive races — Respect shown to 
women by New England Indians — Feminine leadership in modem Africa 
— Number of Beliangin's female warriors — Peculiarities of Polyandrous 
tribes — An odd incident illustrative of the working of an Eastern mind — 
Condition of woman in the age of Homer — Degradation of woman in the 
palmy days of Athens — Sparta alone the cradle of great women — The 
Hetairffi — Aspasia and the government of Athens — Orientalized Athens 
corrupts her conqueror, the Roman — The character of Cleopatra — Zeno- 
bia — Rome overrun by Grermans — Effect of feudalism and the Catholic 
church on women — The age of chivalry — Joan D' Arc and Agnes Sorel 

— Decency in eclipse for three centuries — Isabella of Castile — Mary A. 
Livermore's opinion about her — John Knox and his Trumpet Blast — 
Elizabeth, the greatest of England'^ queens — Madame de Maintenon — 
Madame de Pompadour and her deluge — The crowned women of Russia 

— Striking feminine figures of the present century — The real queens of 
to-day, where found 721 

CHAPTER XVL 
REMT-MILITARY CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY, 

Reflections arising from wandering through the galleries of Versailles — 
The most dramatic of recent historical events — Proclamation of Em- 
peror William — Legislative functions of the empire — The executive 
power in the hands of the Emperor — The Bundesrath and its com- 
mittees—The Reichstag — Officers of State — Historical growth of 
the German empire — Earliest recorded Teutonic invasion — Ger- 
mans in the Roman armies — Characteristics of the different tribes 

— Assemblies of the freemen — Important victory of the German 
teftM under Herman — Migratory instincts of the Grermanio tribes 




CONTENTS. 25 

again showing itself — History of the Franks in Gaul — The treaty 
of Verdun — The Uuns conquered by King Henry — Beginning of 
town life among the Germans — Alliance of Church and State sovereign- 
ties — Origin of Germany's claim to Italy — Revival of learning — Di- 
vision of large duchies into small principalities the beginning of 
individualism — Quarrel of Guelph and Giiibeline — Conflict between 
Emperor and Pope — Etfect on Germany — Power of the Emperors 
hiiattcied — Extinction of the house of lloheustaufen — The Interregnum 

— TJie robber castles of tlie Rhine — Growth of cathedral towni^i — 
Election of Rudolf, founder of the house of Ilabsburg — Charlej? IV. 
issues the Golden Bull — Invention of gunpowder — Revolution in the 
art of war — Invention of printing — Attempt of the rulers to check 
the intellectual awakeuinif — The edict of Perpetual Peac« — The 
House of Habsburg at the culmination of its power — The Diet at Womih 

— Martin Luther placed under the ban of the empire — His tran*ilat](>zi 
of the Bible — Spirit of the times — Beginning of the ** Thirty Yean»' 
AVar" — Military tactics of Gustavus Adolphus — Tlie Peare of West- 
phalia — The question of the Rhino provinces m.ide a permanent ihsue — 
Change in the char.icter of the German — Louis XIV. of Franre Kiini*^ 
the Peace of Utrecht — The Great Elector tlie first to keep a KLauoixic 
army in time of peace — Accession of Frederick the Great — 'J'iit: 
"Seven Years' War" — Frederick in the front rank of great c'.»ur- 
manders — Wisdom and energy of Frederick's government — luu- 
portant changes in the internal atfairs of Germany — Separation <A uit 
spiritual and secular power — Wars witli Napoleon — Wai of LibeniiuiJ 
followed by a season of peace — Constitutions granted by the kium*- 
to their subjects — Unification of Italy under Victor Emauuel — Oin 
Von Bismarck made Prime Minister by King William of PruKbia — 
Beginning of the end of the small principalities — War l>etwe*»L PruMu 
and Austria — Formation of the North German ConfederaUoii — i>vle«' 

of the French — Political unification of (Termany 'Z^, 

CHAPTER XVIL 
COMPLEX KEPUBLICAXISM. 

First movement toward Home Rule by the Colonists — Compler htewur*- 
canism still an experiment — Congress of the United Staiw Mjji tnzt^ 

ment of Great Britain the models of government for uiij*ft cuiiiit:*^ 

The Congress of the republics of Central and South Amtrrjui i'-.-n.. • 

government in Germany, Denmark, and other countrieh - - '1 iir«^ 
nate branches in the government of the United Stater — 'In- ia* 
dinate branch: the legislative — General powers of C^^mis^w^— 
I., Section 2 of the Constitution — Number of popuiviiuj Paius^r . 

constitute a congressional district — Election of nifiuuri "^L**- 

power which the House of Representatives excluhiv«>i- 
other power exclusively exercised by the Houm.' — '1 rnur- «•: 

— Power of the Speaker of the Hijuse — lmjiortaii4-K« «i u^ 
Committees of the House — Duties of the diflvreis- 
member prohibited from holding any other gtiv- 
hibited also from voting on measures in wiiifji tli«i' 
affected — The Senate of the Uniled Stat^iK — CiHiB^, ♦* 
Exclusive power of ** consent" possessed liv li«* 
ception to the general rule of the Senate duhm: tm-^, 
President Cleveland — An executive session — "Tj 
Movement agitated for the election of seuaim •9.«ht 
people — Reasons in favor — The secimd 
ment: the executive — The Electoral Col _ 

— Chief duty of the President — Paw«r tD 
Reason for so much legislative poww k 
The Cabinet — Duties of the 






26 THE 8TOBY OF GOYERNXENT. 

— Daties of the Secretary of the Treasurr luid his assistauits— The 
Commiuioner of Castoms'— The Treasurer of the United States — The 
Begister of the Treasurr — Comptroller of the Currency — Director 
of the Mint — Commissioner of Internal Revenue — Solicitor of the 
Treasury — Superintendent of the Coast and Geodetic Survey — 
Other officials of the Treasury Department — Publications of the 
Bureau of Statistics — Bureau of Printing and Engraving — Secretary 
of War— Secretary of the Xavy — Secretary of the Interior — Im- 
portant officials of this department — Office of Postmaster-General — 
Attorney-General and assistants — Secretary of Aj^ricnlture — Commis- 
sioner of labor — Interstate Commerce law — The form of State gov- 
ernment similar to that of the national government — Duty of a State 
legislature — State elections — The annual political campaign a great 
educator of the masses — Necessity for the people to keep the closest 
supervision over the doings of their representatives — The Constitution 
the organic law of each commonwealth — Government in the sparsely 
settled districts of the country — The power of Congress over the Terri- 
tories — Good reasons for popular discontent, and remedies suggested . d23 




I. 

Origin of Government with Man 35 

Making Fire by Friction 37 

A Savage of the Seoond Period 39 

Two Mothers in the Days Before the Flood 41 

The Bow and Arrow or Second Stage of Sav^ery 43 

The First Potter 45 

The Ffrst Weaver 47 

Early Agriculture in Europe 49 

Meeting of Massaaoit and the Pilgrims 51 

One of King Philip's Hunting Lodges 53 

Philip, the Last New England King 55 

A Haman Heart Offered up to the Sun-God (4 p. fnlder) ... 56a 

Wigwam Building Among the Iroquois 57 

A Sachem Rendering Judgment 59 



From a Picture by Sir Edwin Landseer 63 

The Police of the Alps 65 

A Vill^e of Beavers 67 

Natives of South Africa Fighting Termites 69 

Hiving a Bee-Cloud 71 

A King of Beasts Who Has No Regular Subjects 73 

A City of Sea Birds 77 

Kangaroos Led by an Axis Deer 79 



28 THE STOEY OP GOVEENMBNT. 

A Mutiny in the Cage (4 p folder) 80a 

A Prairie Dog Town 81 

A Royal Bengal Tiger 83 

The Wild Horse 85 

A Convention of Seals 87 

III. 

A Gypsy Queen 90 

Roumanian Gypsies Begging 91 

A Gypsy Camp 95 

In Prison 97 

A Group of Turkish Gypsies 99 

A French Gypsy Selling Baskets 103 

Pleading for Freedom 107 

Zigani Pleading before Philip III. of Spain Ill 

A Camorristic Tramp 114 

Mob of Gentlemen Storming the Parish Prison at New Orleans . 117 

A Gypsy Circus (4 p. folder) 123 

Thieves' Den 181 

A Young London Thief 189 

IV. 

Punishing a Wife Beater 143 

Dragging a King's Wives to His Funeral 149 

Making a Fetish of a Foeman's Head 151 

King M'Teza, a Friend of Stanley 158 

Taking a Prisoner for Slavery 158 

Two Fanti Ladies 159 

A Criminal Decapitated 161 

Ashanti Girls Producing Fetish 165 

A Fetish Temple 173 . 

An Expert at the " Customs " Asking Applause 175 

A Town in Dahomey 181 

A Boy's Head, part African — part Arab of the Lower Nile . . 188 

Stanley 185 

The Hill of the Holy Monkeys 189 

BanyaiHuts 198 

V. 

Absolutism 197 

The Shah 199 



LIST OF ILLUSTBATIONS. 29 

Barracks of the Gholams 203 

A Market Scene in Meshed 205 

An Elocutionist in the Harem 207 

A Persian Village Belle 210 

Musicians in Ispahan Saluting the Sunrise 213 

A Marriage Procession 215 

A Persian Caravansary or Hotel 219 

A Parsee Burial in Northern India 221 

A Guebre Making Himself Known by a Secret Sign .... 223 

VI. 

Benares from the Ganges 227 

The Banyan or Sacred Tree 231 

High Caste Brahmins 235 

A Rich Fakir 237 

A Low Class Fakir 239 

A Village Sutar 241 

Punishment of a Thief in Village India 243 

The Temple of Soma 247 

The Car of Juggernaut 249 

Rushing to Juggernaut 251 

Thuggery 253 

Thugs Burying a Victim Alive 255 

A Siesta in the Jungle 257 

A Jeweller in the Shadow of the Temple 259 

The Water Carrier 261 

Rapid Transit in Northern India 263 

The Egg Dancer at a Marriage Celebration 265 

A Travelling Barber 267 

Husbandry in Northern India 269 

Sowing the Seed 271 

Two Peasant Women 273 

A Snake Charmer 275 

Mount^n Travel 277 

VII. 

A Scholastic Oligarchy 281 

A GUmpse of the Great Wall 282 

Opium Smokers 283 

A Street of Hongs in Canton 285 

Canton on the River Side 287 



22 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

ment, and Commons resulting In the rise of a new party called the Whig 
— The rise of organized parties in Parliament the most important event 
since the restoration — Political acts of Charles II. during the last three 
years of his life — The story of the mistakes of James II. — Flight of 
King James, and transference of the crown to William of Orange — 
Declarations of the Bill of Rights — The Triennial Act of William UI.'s 
pai'liament — James I. a learned but weak king — Parliament occupied 
only with the reassertion of its former rights — Illegal monopoly insti- 
tuted by Charles I. the germ of present trusts and syndicates — First 
effects of parliamentary freedom — Change in the character of the 
Ministry — The government acquiring a corporate character — ** Repre- 
sentatives of the people ** — The Whig nobles the most powerful class 
in the kingdom — The reign of the nobility a beneficent despotism — 
Haphazard method of the House of Commons in the days of George 
III. — The society of tlie " Friends of the People '* — Apparently hope- 
less entanglement of the legislative, executive and judicial functions — 
Determination of Victoria to know the doings of her ministers — System 
of the British Cabinet — Points of difference between the American and 
English systems of government — Qualities needful to a minister in 
England — Summary of the development of English government . . . 475 

CHAPTER XII. 

A CM)VEBNMENT OF MYSTERY AND FRATERNITY. 

An odd incident connected with one of the secret signs of Masonry — 
Legendary Masonry of profound ethical interest — The legend of the 
Temple a fascinating myth — Curious claim set up by Freemasonry — 
The aim of all secret societies of the past — Freemasonry the com- 
pendium of all primitive accumulated human knowledge — The history 
of the order divided into two periods — Records of a lodge of 1G48 — 
The name ** masonic'* adopted by the society in the last century — 
Freemasonry a tree whose roots are spread through many soils — The 
masonic alphabet — Description of a Lodge — A relic of astrology — 
Initiation of a novice into the first or Apprentice degree — The second 
degree of symbolic Freemasony, the Fellow-Craft —Supposed significance 
of the letter G seen in the lodge — The degree of Master Mason — 
Another version of the legend of Osiris — The degree of the Holy Royal 
Arch — The Omnific Word — The emblem of emblems — Masonry at its 
height in France during the revolutionary period — Napoleon and 
Masonry — Masonic titles bestowed upon Cambacenis — The Grand 
Orient Lodge — Its half yearly words of command were Napoleonic f or- 
mulse — The fall of Napoleon attributed to Masonry — History of 
Joseph Balsamo, alias Count Cagliostix) — The Egyptian rite invented 
by Cagliostro — Adoptive Masonry — First lodge of adoption — Anec- 
dote of the Jew and the Parsee — Speculative or Philosophical Masonry 
not derived from Operative — Historic uncertainty of Masonry — First 
appearance of the name ** Freemason '* — ** Masons made here for 12 
shillings^* — A complete change and rebirth in the year 1717 — The true 
character of Freemasonry in the history of the operative sodalities and 
successive ages of architects — The *• New Constitution*' the Freemasonry 
of the present day — The touch of Masonry penetrating all the scenes 
of the Revolution — Repeated attempts to make Freemasonry a union of 
States and a union of Grand Lodges — A Grand Lodge territory sacred 
from invasion — Washington as a Mason — Temporary setback to Ma- 
sonry — The golden era of Freemasonry — The comer-stone of Bunker 
HiU monument laid by the Grand Lodge — Anti-masonic excitement — 
The famous "Declaration** — The ** Masonic Education and Charity 
Trust" — Boston Masonic Temple — The Masonic Temple, Philadelphia, 
the finest and largest in the world — Plan of the Chicago building — 
Masonry developed from a simple secret society into a great interna- 
tional bond, a government within government ^> The purest of democra- 



CONTENTS. 28 

cies in theory and practice — One of the most binding oaths and obliga- 
tions — Review of history in the United States — A Grand Lodge of 
Masons in every State of the Union — Templar Masonry a semi-military 
organization — Degrees and rites of the order — The true essence of 
Freemasonry 567 

CHAPTER XIIL 

EXPERIMENTAL BEPUBLICANISM. 

The Republic of France the offspring of revolution — Condition of the 
people prior to the Revolution of 1793 — The peasantry merely beasts of 
burden — Liberty of speech and of the press non-existent — Three gen- 
eral classes — Inequality even in the family — The taxes all paid by the 
peasantry and artisans — Misery of the common people — Immorality 
the fashion — View of marriage — Tremendous political influence of 
Voltaire, Montesquieu and Rousseau, or dramatist, lawyer and novelist 

— Louis XVI. attempts reform — Turgors plans for financial retrench- 
ment — Turgotand Malesherbes forced to resign — The famous "Account 
Rendered" — Neckar deposed — Calonne exiled — Neckar recalled to office 
— Convocation of the States-General — Platform of principles adopted 
by the Third Estate — First difficulty arising in the assemblage leads to 
a five weeks' contest — ** National Constituent Assembly '* — First for- 
mal session of the Assembly — The inviolability of its membere solemnly 
proclaimed — Committees for business organized — Dismissal and exile 
of Neckar — Storming of the Bastile — Curious anecdotes prophetic of the 
flood — Cagliostro, the Wizard — The Revolution baptized in blood — 
Feudalism abolished, and the first plank in the platform of the Third 
Estate, the equality of man, a reality — Many beneficent laws passed by 
the National Assembly — Dissolution of the Assembly after two years' 
term of office — New and formidable difficulties before the Legislative 
Assembly — Twenty-three years' war — Lafayette proscribed — Sacking 
of the Tuillerles — The Assembly powerless — France invaded by the 
Duke of Brunswick — Louis XVI. guillotined — A huge political blunder 

— The Reign of Terror legalized — Strange anecdote of the institution 
by Carrier of Republican marriage — Conflict with the Kings — The 
Republic definitively established — The Revolution succeeded by the 
military dictatorship of Napoleon — Charles X. a true type of the 
Bourbon prince — Louis Philippe chosen king by the Chamber of 
Deputies — Universal suffrage decreed by the National Assembly — 
Napoleon III. deposed by the Chamber of Deputies and the Republic 
proclaimed — The Constitution of France — The present Republic the 
offspring of 1793 031 

CHAPTER XIV. 

GOVEENMENT AMONG SECRET ORDERS. 

Every secret society with a political aim an act of collective conscience — 
A legitimate hatred of evil the salvation of nations — Order of the 
Chauffeurs, or Burners — Rites of initiation — Marriage customs of the 
order — Their detection by the cunning of one of their victims and their 
extinction — The Society of the Carbonari — (Ceremonies of the Lodge — 
A mixture of Masonry and Catholic mysticism — Initiation into the 
different degrees — Real object of the association — The Carbonari 
played no small part in general European politics — Ambition of the 
Carbonari to obtain a constitutional government for their country — 
Influence of the order — Carbonarism introduced into France — Why 
of special historic interest — Combination with young Italy, a society 
with identical aims — Society of ** American Hunters *' — Lord Byron 
said to have been its head — The society an ethical as well as practical 
one — Object of the revolutionary society of Nihilists — Articles of their 



24 THE STORY OP GOVERNMENT. 

belief — ** From the United to the Isolated '' — Sentences on early 
prisoners mild in comparison to those of recent date — The Fenians one 
of the most active of political secret societies — Indications that tlie 
association is not extinct — Founding of Fenianism in America — Cou- 
ventions at Chicago and Cincinnati — Traitors within the organization — 
Report of the Investigating Committee — Origin of the word Fenian — 
Extracts from the Patriotic Litany of Saint Lawrence O' Toole — The 
term Tammany first applied to the Columbian order — Evolution of the 
title — A striking characteristic — Record of the organization — Early 
history — Part played in national affairs — Intricate relations with New 
York politics — A survivor of several defeats — The Tammany legend, 
a very amusing and instructive tradition — The supreme trait of Tam- 
many's character — Symbols of the thirteen tribes — Statistics of 
Tammany Hall — Tlie leader of the Tammany forces — The General 
Committee — Salaries — Outline of the plan of organization — The work 
of the committee — Assembly district organizations — Qualifications 
necessary for a district leader — Strict discipline 665 

CHAPTER XV. 

WOMAN IN GOVERNMENT. 

Equal citizenship of sexes first recognized during the French Revolution — 
Partial citizenship in early American colonies — Wyoming the first real 
political democracy of large area — England moving faster than America 
towards full female suffrage — Proofs of the interest taken in it by intelli- 
gent women — Stain on Uie history of the State of Washington — How 
women have voted and are likely to vote — Woman's political status all 
over the world — The next step from a political must be an industrial 
democracy — The general stream of human happiness — The world's 
debt to women of simple lives — Sudden possession of excessive power — 
Depraved women not so much the cause as the result of the corruption of 
the middle ages — Sex equality among primitive races — Respect shown to 
women by New England Indians — Feminine leadership in modem Africa 

— Number of Behangin's female warriors — Peculiarities of Polyandrous 
tribes — An odd incidentillustrative of the working of an Eastern mind — 
Condition of woman in the age of Homer — Degradation of woman in the 
palmy days of Athens — Sparta alone the cradle of great women — The 
HetairsB — Aspasia and the government of Athens — Orientalized Athens 
corrupts her conqueror, the Roman — The character of Cleopatra — Zeno- 
bia — Rome overrun by Germans — Effect of feudalism and the Catholic 
church on women — The age of chivalry — Joan D' Arc and Agnes Sorel 

— Decency in eclipse for three centuries — Isabella of Castile — Mary A. 
Livermore's opinion about her — John Knox and his Trumpet Blast — 
Elizabeth, the greatest of England'^ queens — Madame de Maintenon — 
Madame de Pompadour and her deluge — The crowned women of Russia 

— Striking feminine figures of the present century — The real queens of 
to-day, where found 721 

CHAPTER XVL 
SEMI-MILITARY CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY. 

Reflections arising from wandering through the galleries of Versailles — 
The most dramatic of recent historical events — Proclamation of Em- 
peror William — Legislative functions of the empire — The executive 
power in the hands of the Emperor — The Bundesrath and its com- 
mittees — The Reichstag — Officers of State — Historical growth of 
the German empire — Earliest recorded Teutonic invasion — Ger- 
mans in the Roman armies — Characteristics of the different tribes 

— Assemblies of the freemen — Important victory of the German 
tribes under Herman — Migratory instincts of the Germanic tribes 



CONTENTS. 26 

again showing itself — History of the Franks in Gaul — The treaty 
of Verdun — The Huns conquered by King Henry — Beginning of 
town life among the Grermans — Alliance of Church and State sovereign- 
ties — Origin of Germany's claim to Italy — Revival of learning — Di- 
vision of large duchies into small principalities the beginning of 
individualism — Quarrel of Guelph and Giiibeline — Conflict between 
Emperor and Pope — Effect on Germany — Power of the Emperors 
shattered — Extinction of the house of Uohenstaufen — The Interregnum 

— The robber castles of the Rhine — Growth of cathedral towns — 
Election of Rudolf, founder of the house of Habsburg — Charles IV. 
issues the Golden Bull — Invention of gunpowder — Revolution in the 
art of war — Invention of printing — Attempt of the rulers to check 
the intellectual awakeuin*^ — The edict of Perpetual Peace — The 
House of Habsburg at the culmination of its power — The Diet at Worms 

— Martin Luther placed under the ban of tlie empire — His translation 
of the Bible — Spirit of the times — Beginning of tlie ** Thirty Years' 
War" — Military tactics of Gustavus Adolphus — The Peace of West- 
phalia — Tlie question of the Rhine provinces made a permanent issue — 
Change in the character of the German — Louis XIV. of France signs 
the Peace of Utrecht — The Great Elector the first to keep a standing 
army in time of peace — Accession of Frederick the Great — The 
*' Seven Years' War" — Frederick in the front rank of gi-eat com- 
mandei-s — Wisdom and energy of Frederick's government — Im- 
portant changes in the internal affairs of Germany — Separation of the 
spiritual and secular power — Wars with Napoleon — War of Liberation 
followed by a season of peace — Constitutions granted by the kings 
to their subjects — Unification of Italy under Victor Emanuel — Otto 
Von Bismarck made Prime Minister by King William of Prussia — 
Beginning of the end of the small principalities — War between Prussia 
and Austria — Formation of the North German Confederation — Defeat 

of the French — Political unification of Germany 753 

CHAPTER XVIL 
COMPLEX REPUBLICANISM. 

First movement toward Home Rule by the Colonists — Complex Republi- 
canism still an experiment — Congress of the United States and Parlia- 
ment of Great Britain the models of government for other countries — 
The Congress of the republics of Central and South America — Form of 
government In Germany, Denmark, and other countries — Three coordi- 
nate branches In the government of the United States — The first coor- 
dinate branch: the legislative — General powers of Congress — Article 
I., Section 2 of the Constitution — Number of population required to 
constitute a congressional district — Election of members — The great 
power which the House of Representatives exclusively possesses — An- 
other power exclusively exercised by the House — Trials of impeachment 

— Power of the Speaker of the House — Importance of the position — 
Committees of the House — Duties of the different committees — A 
member prohibited from holding any other governmental office — Pro- 
hibited also from voting on measures in which their private interests are 
affected — The Senate of the United States — Officers of the Senate — 
Exclusive power of '* consent" possessed by the Senate — Notable ex- 
ception to the general rule of the Senate durini; the administration of 
President Cleveland — An executive session — " The bllllonnaire club " — 
Movement agitated for the election of senators by a direct vote of the 
people — Reasons in favor — The second coordinate branch of govern- 
ment: the executive — The Electoral College — Election of the President 

— Chief duty of the President — Power to pardon — Right of veto — 
Reason for so much legislative power in the hands of the Executive — 
The Cabinet — Duties of the Secretary of State — Assistant Secretaries 



26 THE STORY OP GOVERNMENT. 

— Duties of the Secretary of the Treasury and his assistants— The 
Commissioner of Customs — The Treasurer of the United States — The 
Ba^ster of the Treasury — Comptroller of the Currency — Director 
of the Mint — Commissioner of Internal Revenue — Solicitor of the 
Treasury — Superintendent of the Coast and Geodetic Sxu-vey — 
Other officials of the Treasury Department — Publications of the 
Bureau of Statistics — Bureau of Printing and Enji^raving — Secretary 
of War— Secretary of the Navy — Secretary of the Interior — Im- 
portant officials of this department — Office of Postmaster-Creneral — 
Attomey-Greneral and assistants — Secretary of Agriculture — Commis- 
sioner of labor — Interstate Commerce law — The form of State gov- 
ernment similar to that of the national government — Duty of a State 
legislature — State elections — The annual political campaign a great 
educator of the masses — Necessity for the people to keep the closest 
supervision over the doings of their representatives — The Constitution 
the organic law of each commonwealth — Grovemment in the sparsely 
settled districts of the country — The power of Congress over the Terri- 
tories — Good reasons for popular discontent, and i^emedies suggested . 823 




I. 

Origin of Government with Man 35 

Making Fire by Friction 37 

A Savage of the Second Period 39 

Two Mothers in tlie Days Before the Flood 41 

The Bow and Arrow or Second Stage of Sav^ery 43 

The First Potter 45 

The First Weaver 47 

Early Agriculture in Europe 49 

Meeting of Massasoit and the Pilgrims 51 

One of King Philip's Hunting Lodges 58 

Philip, the Last New England King 55 

A Human Heart Offered up to the Sun-God (4 p. folder) ... 56a 

Wigwam Building Among the Iroquois 57 

A Sachem Rendering Judgment 59 

IL 

From a Keture by Sir Edwin Landseer 63 

The Police of the Alps 65 

A Village of Beavers 67 

Natives of South Africa Fighting Termites 69 

Hiving a Bee-Cloud 71 

A King of Beaata Who Has No Regular Subjects 73 

A City of Sea Birds 77 

Kangaroos Led by an Axis Deer 79 



28 THE STOEY OP GOVEBNMBNT. 

A Mutiny in the Cage (4 p folder) 80a 

A Prairie Dog Town 81 

A Royal Bengal Tiger 83 

The Wild Horse 85 

A Convention of Seals 87 

III. 

A Gypsy Queen 90 

Roumanian Gypsies Begging 91 

A Gypsy Camp 95 

In Prison 97 

A Group of Turkish Gypsies 99 

A French Gypsy Selling Baskets 103 

Pleading for Freedom 107 

Zigani Pleading before Philip III. of Spain Ill 

A Camorristic Tramp 114 

Mob of Gentlemen Storming the Parish Prison at New Orleans . 117 

A Gypsy Circus (4 p. folder) 123 

Thieves' Den 181 

A Young London Thief 189 

IV. 

Punishing a Wife Beater 143 

Dragging a Bang's Wives to His Funeral 149 

Making a Fetish of a Foeman's Head 151 

King M'Teza, a Friend of Stanley 153 

Taking a Prisoner for Slavery 158 

Two Fanti Ladies 159 

A Criminal Decapitated 161 

Ashanti Girls Producing Fetish 165 

A Fetish Temple 173 . 

An Expert at the " Customs " Asking Applause 175 

A Town in Dahomey 181 

A Boy's Head, part African — part Arab of the Lower Xile . . 188 

Stanley 185 

The Hill of the Holy Monkeys 189 

BanyaiHuts 198 

V. 

Absolutism 197 

The Shah 199 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 29 

Barracks of the Gholams 203 

A Market Scene in Meshed 205 

An Elocutionist in the Harem 207 

A Persian Village Belle 210 

Musicians in Ispahan Saluting the Sunrise 213 

A Marriage Procession 215 

A Persian Caravansary or Hotel 219 

A Parsee Burial in Northern India 221 

A Guebre Making Himself Known by a Secret Sign .... 223 

VI. 

Benares from the Ganges 227 

The Banyan or Sacred Tree 231 

High Caste Brahmins 235 

A Rich Fakir 237 

A Low Class Fakir 239 

A Village Sutar 241 

Punishment of a Thief in Village India 243 

The Temple of Soma 247 

The Car of Ju2C£fernaut 249 

Rushing to Juggernaut 251 

Thuggery 253 

Thugs Burying a Victim Alive 255 

A Siesta in the Jungle 257 

A Jeweller in the Shadow of the Temple 259 

The Water Carrier 261 

Rapid Transit in Northern India 263 

The Egg Dancer at a Marriage Celebration 265 

A Travelling Barber 267 

Husbandry in Northern India 269 

Sowing the Seed 271 

Two Peasant Women 273 

A Snake Charmer 275 

Mountain Travel 277 

VII. 

A Scholastic Oligarchy 281 

A Glimpse of the Great Wall 282 

Opium Smokers 283 

A Street of Hongs in Canton 285 

Canton on the River Side 287 



80 THE STOBY OF GOVBBNMBNT. 

Ancient Chinese Soldier 289 

The Fruit Girl Who Became an Empress 293 

An Officer 294 

A Culprit in the Cangue Fed by His Wife 295 

Executing a Parricide 297 

Hearing a Civil Case 299 

Crushing a Rebel 801 

A Public Whipping 302 

Escorting a Pirate to Execution 303 

The Chinese Judgment Day 305 

A Great Scholar 307 

A Schoolmaster of Pekin 309 

On a Fashionable Footing 313 

A Sail Wagon 815 

A Rat Peddler 319 

A Buddhist Temple 321 

vm. 

A Castle in Spain 327 

A Chimuan Palace About the Time of Pizarro 329 

Pizarro Drawing the Line 331 

A Maguey Suspension Bridge 333 

Front View of a Maguey Bridge 335 

Modem Cuzco 337 

Early Peruvians Worshipping the Sun 339 

Lighting the Sacred Fire 340 

An Early Inca and His Queen 341 

An Inca Travelling 343 

A Grovemmental Hotel 344 

A Temple of the Sun 345 

Peruvian Boys Guarding a Grain Field 347 

Modern Llamas as Beasts of Burden 349 

A Chimuan Princess 351 

Peruvian Viceroy Receiving Reports by Quipus 353 

The Quipu 355 

IX. 

Theocracy or Priestly Government 357 

Priestess or Pythoness of Delphi (4 p. folder) 859 

Moses and the Tables of the Law 367 

King Solomon Deciding a Case 870 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 81 

The Crucifixion 876 

The Holy Family 377 

Paul Pleading His Case at Rome 379 

Lions Fed with Christians 381 

The Stoning of St. Stephen 383 

Constantine after His Conversion 386 

The Scourge of God 387 

St. Austin Converting the English to Christianity 391 

A Marriage among Ancient Jews (4 p. folder) 395 

Charlemagne Crowned by the Pope 401 

Priests in Prayer at the Deathbed of Columbus 403 

An Officer of the Papal Household 406 

The Queen of Philip Augustus Appealing to Rome 410 

The Trial of a Dead Pope 413 

Burial of a Monk 417 

Elevation of Pope Pius VII 419 

A Jesuit Missionary 421 

Pope Leo XIII 425 

St. Peter's, Rome 429 

Oldest Church in United States 431 

James Cardinal Gibbons 433 

X. 

Simple Republicanism 435 

A Switzer of Ancient Days 437 

A Swiss Village 439 

Napoleonic Cavalry Crossing the Alps 443 

Crystal Seekers on Mont Blanc 445 

Election of a President (4 p. folder) 449 

The President Delivering His Inaugural Address 455 

The Government Buildings at Berne 457 

The Great St. Bernard 463 

Tell Escaping in the Storm 465 

A Giri of Berne 469 

The Peasant's Friend 471 

The Swiss Senate Chamber 473 

XL 

Constitutional Monarchy 475 

Harold the Saxon Taking the Oath of Office 477 



80 THE STORY OF GOVERHMENT. 

Ancient Chinese Soldier 289 

The Fruit Girl Who Became an Empress 298 

An Officer 294 

A Culprit in the Cangue Fed by His Wife 295 

Executing a Parricide 297 

Hearing a Civil Case 299 

Crushing a Rebel SOI 

A Public Whipping 802 

Escorting a Pirate to Execution 308 

The Chinese Judgment Day 806 

A Great Scholar 307 

A Schoolmaster of Pekin 309 

On a Fashionable Footing 818 

A Sail Wi^on 315 

A Rat Peddler 319 

A Buddhist Temple 321 

vni. 

A Castle in Spain 327 

A Chimuan Palace About the IHme of I^zarro 329 

Pizarro Drawing the Line 331 

A M^uey Suspension Bridge 333 

Front View of a Ms^uey Bridge 335 

Modem Cuzco 337 

Early Peruvians Worshipping the Sun 339 

Lighting the Sacred Fire 340 

An Early Inca and His Queen 341 

An Inca Travelling 848 

A Governmental Hotel 844 

A Temple of the Sun 846 

Peruvian Boys Guarding a Grain Field 847 

Modern Llamas as Beasts of Burden 349 

A Chimnan Princess 851 

Pemviao Viceroy Receiving Reports by Quipus 858 

The Qnipu 865 

IX. 

ci-aoy or Prio«ly Government 867 

» or PytbmiMB of Delphi (4 p. folder) 859 

"■"*"" " I Uw 867 

870 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 81 

The Crucifixion 875 

The Holy Family 377 

Paal Pleading His Case at Rome 379 

Lions Fed with Christians 381 

The Stoning of St. Stephen 383 

Constantine after His Conversion 385 

The Scourge of God 387 

St. Austin Converting the English to Christianity 391 

A Marriage among Ancient Jews (4 p. folder) 395 

Charlemagne Crowned by the Pope 401 

Priests in Prayer at the Deathbed of Columbus 403 

An Officer of the Papal Household 406 

The Queen of Philip Augustus Appealing to Rome 410 

The Trial of a Dead Pope 413 

Burial of a Monk 417 

Elevation of Pope Pius VII 419 

A Jesuit Missionary 421 

Pope Leo XIII 425 

St. Peter's, Rome 429 

Oldest Church in United States 431 

James Cardinal Gibbons 433 

X. 

Simple Republicanism 435 

A Switzer of Ancient Days 437 

A Swiss Village 439 

Napoleonic Cavalrj- Crossing the Alps 443 

Crystal Seekers on Mont Blanc 445 

Election of a President (4 p. folder) 449 

The President Delivering His Inaugural Address 455 

The Government Buildings at Berne 457 

The Great St. Bernard 463 

Tell Escaping in the Storm 465 

A Giri of Berne 469 

The Peasant's Friend 471 

The Swiss Senate Chamber 473 

XL 

Constitational Monarchy 475 

Harold the Saxon Taking the Oath of Office 477 



24 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

belief — *»From the United to the Isolated*' — Sentences on early 
prisoners mild in comparison to those of recent date — The Fenians one 
of the most active of political secret societies — Indications tliat tlie 
association is not extinct — Founding of Fenianism in America — Con- 
ventions at Chicago and Cincinnati — Traitors within tlie organization — 
Report of tlio Investigating Committee — Origin of the word Fenian — 
Extracts from the Patriotic Litany of Saint Lawrence O' Toole — Tlie 
term Tammany first applied to the Columbian order — Evolution of the 
title — A striking characteristic — Record of the organization — Early 
history — Part played in national affairs — Intricate relations with New 
York politics — A survivor of several defeats — The Tammany legend, 
a very amusing and instructive tradition — The supreme trait of Tam- 
many's character — Symbols of the thirteen tribes — Statistics of 
Tammany Hall — The leader of the Tammany forces — The General 
Committee — Salaries — Outline of the plan of organization — The work 
of the committee — Assembly district organizations — Qualifications 
necessary for a district leader — Strict discipline 665 

CHAPTER XV. 

WOMAN IN GOVERNMENT. 

Equal citizenship of sexes first recognized during the French Revolution — 
Partial citizenship in early American colonies — Wyoming the first real 
political democracy of large area — England moving faster than America 
towards full female suffrage — Proofs of the interest taken in it by intelli- 
gent women — Stain on the history of the State of Washington — How 
women have voted and are likely to vote — Woman's political status all 
over the world — The next step from a political must be an industrial 
democracy — The general stream of human happiness — The world's 
debt to women of simple lives — Sudden possession of excessive power — 
Depraved women not so much the cause as the result of the corruption of 
the middle ages — Sex equality among primitive races — Respect shown to 
women by New England Indians — Feminine leadership in modern Africa 

— Number of Bebangin's female warriors — Peculiarities of Polyandrous 
tribes — An odd incident illustrative of the working of an Eastern mind — 
Condition of woman in the age of Homer — Degradation of woman in the 
palmy days of Athens — Sparta alone the cradle of great women — The 
Hetairaa — Aspasia and the government of Athens — Orientalized Athens 
corrupts her conqueror, the Roman — The character of Cleopatra — Zeno- 
bia — Rome overrun by Germans — Effect of feudalism and the Catholic 
church on women — The age of chivalry — Joan D' Arc and Agnes Sorel 
— Decency in eclipse for three centuries — Isabella of Castile — Mary A. 
Livermore's opinion about her — John Knox and his Trumpet Blast — 
Elizabeth, the greatest of England';^ queens — Madame de Maintenon — 
Madame de Pompadour and her deluge — The crowned women of Russia 

— Striking feminine figures of the present century — The real queens of 
to-day, where found 721 

CHAPTER XVI. 

8EMT-M1LITARY CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY. 

Refiections arising from wandering through the galleries of Versailles — 
The most dramatic of recent historical events — Proclamation of Em- 
peror William — Legislative functions of the empire — The executive 
power in the hands of tlie Emperor — The Bundesrath and its com- 
mittees — The Reichstag — OflBcers of State — Historical growth of 
the German empire — Earliest recorded Teutonic invasion — Ger- 
mans in the Roman armies — Characteristics of the different tribes 

— Assemblies of the freemen — Important victory of the German 
tribes under Herman — Migratory instincts of the Grermanic tribes 



CONTENTS. 26 

again showing itself — History of the Franks in Gaul — The treaty 
of Verdun — The Huns conquered by King Henry — Beginning of 
town life among the Germans — Alliance of Church and State sovereign- 
ties — Origin of Germany's claim to Italy — Revival of learning — Di- 
vision of large duchies into small principalities the beginning of 
individualism — Quarrel of Guelph and Ghibeline — Conflict between 
Emperor and Pope — Effect on Germany — Power of the Emperoi*s 
sliatteied — Extinction of the house of Hohenstaufen — The Interregnum 

— The robber castles of the Rhine — Growth of cathedral towns — 
Election of Rudolf, founder of the house of Habsburg — Charles IV. 
issues the Golden Bull — Invention of gunpowder — Revolution in the 
art of war — Invention of printing — Attempt of the rulers to check 
the intellectual awakening — The edict of Perpetual Peace — The 
House of Habsburg at the cuhnination of its power — The Diet at Worms 

— Martin Luther placed under the ban of the empire — His translation 
of the Bible — Spirit of the times — Beginning of the ** Thirty Years' 
War" — Military tactics of Gustavus Adolphus — Tlie Peace of West- 
phalia — Tiie question of the Rhine provinces made a permanent issue — 
Change in the character of the German — Louis XIV. of France signs 
the Peace of Utrecht — The Great Elector the lirst to keep a standing 
army in time of peace — Accession of Frederick the Great — The 
** Seven Years* War" — Frederick in the front rank of great com- 
mandei-s — Wisdom and energy of Frederick's government — Im- 
portant changes in the internal affairs of Germany — Separation of the 
spiritual and secular power — Wars witli Napoleon — War of Liberation 
followed by a season of peace — Constitutions granted by the kings 
to their subjects — Unification of Italy under Victor Emanuel — Otto 
Von Bismarck made Prime Minister by King William of Prussia — 
Beginning of the end of the small principalities — War between Prussia 
and Austria — Formation of the North German Confederation — Defeat 

of the French — Political unification of Germany 753 

CHAPTER XVIL 
COMPLEX REPUBLICANISM. 

First movement toward Home Rule by the Colonists — Complex Republi- 
canism still an experiment — Congress of the United States and Parlia- 
ment of Great Britain the models of government for other countries — 
The Congress of the republics of Central and South America — Form of 
government in Germany, Denmark, and other countries — Three coordi- 
nate branches in the government of the United States — The first coor- 
dinate branch: the legislative — General powers of Congress — Article 
L, Section 2 of the Constitution — Number of population required to 
constitute a congressional district — Election of members — The great 
power which the House of Representatives exclusively possesses — An- 
otlier power exclusively exercised by the House — Trials of impeachment 

— Power of the Speaker of the Hcmse — Importance of the position — 
Committees of the House — Duties of the different committees — A 
member prohibited from holding any other governmental office — Pro- 
hibited also from voting on measures in which their private interests are 
affected — The Senate of the United States — Officers of the Senate — 
Exclusive power of '* consent" possessed by the Senate — Notable ex- 
ception to the general rule of tlie Senate durinjx the administration of 
President Cleveland — An executive session — " The billionnaire club " — 
Movement agitated for the election of senators bv a direct vote of the 
people — Reasons in favor — The second coordinate branch of govern- 
ment: the executive — The Electoral College — Election of the President 

— Chief duty of the President — Power to pardon — Right of veto — 
Reason for so much legislative power in the hands of the Executive — 
The Cabinet — Duties of the Secretary of State — Assistant Secretaries 



26 THE STORY OP GOVERNMENT. 

— Duties of the Secretary of the Treasury and his assistants — The 
Commissioner of Customs — The Treasurer of the United States — The 
Bflgister of the Treasury — Comptroller of the Currency — Director 
of the Mint — Commissioner of Internal Revenue — Solicitor of the 
Treasury — Superintendent of the Coast and Geodetic Survey — 
Other officials of the Treasury Department — Publications of the 
Bureau of Statistics — Bureau of Printing and Engraving — Secretary 
of War— Secretary of the Navy — Secretary of the Interior — Im- 
portant officials of this department — Office of Postmaster-General — 
Attorney-General and assistants — Secretary of Agriculture — Commis- 
sioner of labor — Interstate Commerce law — The form of State gov- 
ernment similar to that of the national government — Duty of a State 
legislature — State elections — The annual political campaign a great 
educator of the masses — Necessity for the people to keep the closest 
supervision over the doings of their representatives — The Constitution 
the organic law of each commonwealth — Government in the sparsely 
settled districts of the country — The power of Congress over the Terri- 
tories — Good reasons for popular discontent, and i*emedies suggested . 823 




Origin of Government with Man 35 

Making Fire by Friction 37 

A Savage of the Seuond Period 39 

Two Mothers in the Days Before the Flood 41 

The Bow and Arrow or Second Stage of Savagery 43 

The First Potter 45 

The Flrat Weaver 47 

Early Agriculture in Europe 49 

Meeting of Massasoit and the PilgrimH 51 

One of King Philip's Hunting Lodges 53 

Philip, the Last New England King 55 

A Human Heart Offered up to the Sun-God (4 p. folder) ... 56a 

Wigwam Building Among the Iroquois 57 

A Sachem Rendering Judgment 59 

II. 

From a Picture by Sir Edwin Landscer 63 

The Police of the Alps 65 

A Village of Beavers 67 

Natives of South Africa Fighting Termites 69 

Hiving a Bee-Cloud 71 

A King of Beasts Who Has No Regular Subjects 73 

A City of Sea Birds 77 

Kangaroos Led by an Axis Deer 79 



28 THE STOEY OP GOVEENMBNT. 

A Mutiny in the Cage (4 p folder) 80a 

A Prairie Dog Town 81 

A Royal Bengal Tiger 83 

The Wild Horse 85 

A Convention of Seals 87 

III. 

A Gypsy Queen 90 

Roumanian Gypsies Begging 91 

A Gypsy Camp 95 

In Prison 97 

A Group of Turkish Gypsies 99 

A French Gypsy Selling Baskets 103 

Pleading for Freedom 107 

Zigani Pleading before Philip III. of Spain Ill 

A Camorristic Tramp 114 

Mob of Gentlemen Storming the Parish Prison at New Orleans . 117 

A Gypsy Circus (4 p. folder) 123 

Thieves' Den 181 

A Young London Thief 139 

IV. 

Punishing a Wife Beater 143 

Dragging a King's Wives to His Funeral 149 

Making a Fetish of a Foeman's Head 151 

King M'Teza, a Friend of Stanley 153 

Taking a Prisoner for Slavery 158 

Two Fanti Ladies 159 

A Criminal Decapitated 161 

Ashanti Girls Producing Fetish 165 

A Fetish Temple 173 . 

An Expert at the " Customs " Asking Applause 175 

A Town in Dahomey 181 

A Boy's Head, part African — part Arab of the Lower Nile . . 188 

Stanley 185 

The Hill of the Holy Monkeys 189 

BanyaiHuts 198 

V. 

Absolutism 197 

The Shah 199 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 29 

Barracks of the Gholams 203 

A Market Scene in Meshed 205 

An Elocutionist in the Harem 207 

A Persian Village Belle 210 

Musicians in Ispahan Saluting the Sunrise 213 

A Marriage Procession 215 

A Persian Caravansary or Hotel 219 

A Parsee Burial in Northern India 221 

A Guebre Making Himself Known by a Secret Sign .... 223 

VI. 

Benares from the Ganges 227 

The Banyan or Sacred Tree 231 

High Caste Brahmins 235 

A Rich Fakir 237 

A Low Class Fakir 239 

A Village Sutar 241 

Punishment of a Thief in Village India 243 

The Temple of Soma 247 

The Car of Juggernaut 249 

Rushing to Juggernaut . . 251 

Thuggery 253 

Thugs Burying a Victim Alive 255 

A Siesta in the Jungle 257 

A Jeweller in the Shadow of the Temple 259 

The Water Carrier 261 

Rapid Transit in Northern India 263 

The Egg Dancer at a Marriage Celebration 265 

A Travelling Barber 267 

Husbandry in Northern India 269 

Sowing the Seed 271 

Two Peasant Women 273 

A Snake Charmer 275 

Mountain Travel 277 

VII. 

A Scholastic Oligarchy 281 

A Glimpse of the Great Wall 282 

Opium Smokers 283 

A Street of Hongs in Canton 285 

Canton on the River Side 287 



28 THE STOEY OP GOVKBNMENT. 

A Mutiny in the Cage (4 p folder) 80a 

A Prairie Dog Town 81 

A Royal Bengal Tiger 83 

The Wild Horse 85 

A Convention of Seals 87 

III. 

A Gypsy Queen 90 

Roumanian Gypsies Begging 91 

A Gypsy Camp 95 

In Prison 97 

A Group of Turkish Gypsies 99 

A French Gypsy Selling Baskets 103 

Pleading for Freedom 107 

Zigani Pleading before Philip III. of Spain Ill 

A Camorristic Tramp 114 

Mob of Gentlemen Storming the Parish Prison at New Orleans . 117 

A Gypsy Circus (4 p. folder) 123 

Thieves' Den 181 

A Young London Thief 139 

IV. 

Punishing a Wife Beater 143 

Dragging a King's Wives to His Funeral 149 

Making a Fetish of a Foeman's Head . . . 151 

King M'Teza, a Friend of Stanley 153 

Taking a Prisoner for Slavery 158 

Two Fanti Ladies 159 

A Criminal Decapitated 161 

Ashanti Girls Producing Fetish 165 

A Fetish Temple 173 . 

An Expert at the " Customs " Asking Applause 175 

A Town in Dahomey 181 

A Boy's Head, part African — part Arab of the Lower Nile . . 188 

Stanley 185 

The Hill of the Holy Monkeys 189 

BanyaiHuts 198 

V. 

Absolutism 197 

The Shah 199 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 29 

Barracks of the Gholams 203 

A Market Scene in Meshed 205 

An Elocutionist in the Harem 207 

A Persian Village Belle 210 

Musicians in Ispahan Saluting the Sunrise 213 

A Marriage Procession 215 

A Persian Caravansary or Hotel 219 

A Parsee Burial in Northern India 221 

A Guebre Making Himself Known by a Secret Sign .... 223 

VI. 

Benares from the Ganges 227 

The Banyan or Sacred Tree 231 

High Caste Brahmins 235 

A Rich Fakir 237 

A Low Class Fakir .239 

A Village Sutar 241 

Punishment of a Thief in Village India 243 

The Temple of Soma 247 

The Car of Jucjcjernaut 249 

Rushing to Juggernaut . . 251 

Thuggery 253 

Thugs Burying a Victim Alive 255 

A Siesta in the Jungle 257 

A Jeweller in the Shadow of the Temple 259 

The Water Carrier 261 

Rapid Transit in Northern India 263 

The Egg Dancer at a Marriage Celebration 265 

A Travelling Barber 267 

Husbandry in Northern India 269 

Sowing the Seed 271 

Two Peasant Women 273 

A Snake Charmer 275 

Mountain Travel 277 

VII. 

A Scholastic Oligarchy 281 

A Glimpse of the Great Wall 282 

Opium Smokers 283 

A Street of Hongs in Canton 285 

Canton on the River Side 287 



80 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

Ancient Chinese Soldier 289 

The Fruit Girl Who Became an Empress 293 

An Officer 294 

A Culprit in the Cangue Fed by His Wife 295 

Executing a Parricide 297 

Hearing a Civil Case 299 

Crushing a Rebel 301 

A Public Whipping 302 

Escorting a Pirate to Execution 303 

The Chinese Judgment Day 305 

A Great Scholar 307 

A Schoolmaster of Pekin 309 

On a Fashionable Footing 313 

A Sail Wagon 315 

A Rat Peddler 319 

A Buddhist Temple 321 

VIII. 

A Castle in Spain 327 

A Chimuan Palace About the Time of Pizarro 329 

Pizarro Drawing the Line 331 

A Maguey Suspension Bridge 333 

Front View of a Maguey Bridge 335 

Modem Cuzco 337 

Early Peruvians Worshipping the Sun 339 

Lighting the Sacred Fire 340 

An Early Inca and His Queen 341 

An Inca Travelling 343 

A Governmental Hotel 344 

A Temple of the Sun 345 

Peruvian Boys Guarding a Grain Field 347 

Modern Llamas as Beasts of Burden 349 

A Chimuan Princess 351 

Peruvian Viceroy Receiving Reports by Quipus 353 

The Quipu 355 

IX. 

Theocracy or Priestly Grovemment 857 

Priestess or P3rthone8s of Delphi (4 p. folder) 359 

Moses and the Tables of the Law 367 

King Solomon Deciding a Case 870 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. ^1 

The Crucifixion 875 

The Holy Family 377 

Paul Pleading His Case at Rome 379 

Lions Fed with Christians 381 

The Stoning of St. Stephen 383 

Constantine after His Conversion 385 

The Scourge of God 387 

St. Austin Converting the English to Christianity 391 

A Marriage among Ancient Jews (4 p. folder) 395 

Charlemagne Crowned by the Pope 401 

Priests in Prayer at the Deathbed of Columbus 403 

An Officer of the Papal Household 406 

The Queen of Philip Augustus Appealing to Rome 410 

The Trial of a Dead Pope 413 

Burial of a Monk 417 

Elevation of Pope Pius VII 419 

A Jesuit Missionary 421 

Pope Leo XIII. / 425 

St. Peter's, Rome 429 

Oldest Church in United States 431 

James Cardinal Gibbons 433 

X. 

Simple Republicanism 435 

A Switzer of Ancient Days 437 

A Swiss Village 439 

Napoleonic Cavalry Crossing the Alps 443 

Crystal Seekers on Mont Blanc 445 

Election of a President (4 p. folder) 449 

The President Delivering His Inaugural Address 455 

The Government Buildings at Berne 457 

The Great St. Bernard 463 

Tell Escaping in the Storm 465 

A Giri of Berne 469 

The Peasant's Friend 471 

The Swiss Senate Chamber 473 

XI. 

Constitutional Monarchy 475 

Harold the Saxon Taking the Oath of Office 477 



82 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

Hubert, an early English judge, killed at the Horns of the Altar 

(4 p. folder) 479 

Magna Charta Island 483 

King John in Anger 485 

A Crusader 487 

Edward I. the Successful Crusader ^ . . . 489 

Coronation Chair of Edward IH. with the Stone of Scone . . . 497 

Windsor Castle, the Queen's Favorite Residence 501 

Interior of the House of Commons ... 507 

Block, Ax, and Mask of Headsman in Days of Sir Thomas More 511 

Execution of Lady Jane Grey 513 

Shakespeare's Birthplace before Restoration 515 

Shakespeare Reading before Queen Elizabeth 517 

" My Lord, we've time to finish the game and beat the Spaniards 

too" 519 

Death of Queen Elizabeth 521 

Charles 1 525 

The Trial of Hampden 529 

Cromwell Refusing the Crown 539 

William Ewart Gladstone 543 

Westminster in 1647 545 

An American Bible Presented to the Queen. (4 p. folder) . . . 553 

The Great Seal of England 561 

The Cabinet Room in Downing St 563 

Queen Victoria 565 

XII. 

Albert Pike 571 

Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, in Masonic Dress 575 

The Cathedral, Baptistry, and Leaning Tower of Pisa .... 579 

A French Lodge for the Reception of an Apprentice, 1745 . . 583 

A French Lodge for the Reception of a Master ... .587 

The Cathedral at Rheims 591 

Old Tun Tavern at Philadelphia, where the first American Lodge 

was organized 595 

Napoleon's Retreat from Leipsic (4 p. folder) 599 

Green Dragon Tavern, Boston, where the first Boston Lodge was 

organized 607 

Brother George Washington's Masonic Apron 615 

George Washington 625 

A Female Crusader Saving a Knight Templar 627 



LIST OP ILLUSTRATIONS. 38 

XIII. 

Napoleon Crossing the Alps 633 

Assassination of Gustaviis III. (4 p. folder) 639 

Turgot Pavilion of the Louvre 647 

Hotel des Invalides 651 

A French Monastery During the Revolution 657 

Assassination of Julius Cajsar 659 

A Woodman's Hut at Ardennes, on the Way to Waterloo, 1815, 661 

xrv. 

An Initiation Among the Chauffeurs 667 

Chauffeurs Disguised as Musicians and Flower Peddlers (4 p. 

folder) 671 

A Travelling Cardinal Apprehensive of Carbonari, Italy in 1 800 . 679 

Russian Political Exiles in Siberia (4 p. folder) 685 

John Boyle O'Reilly 693 

Richard Croker 099 

Meeting of Tammany and Manco Capac 705 

Carbonari Making Merry in a Monastery Cellar (4 p. folder) . . 711 

XV. 

A Head Dance by Squaws 723 

The Female Soldiers of Dahomev Fiirhtinc: tlie French . . . 727 

Hetaira} of Ancient Athens 729 

The Present Empress of Russia ' . 735 

Isabella Receiving Columbus 739 

Women Watching the Outbreak of Vesuvius 743 

Wilhelmine, the Child Queen of the Netherlands 745 

Mary A. Livermore 751 

XVI. 

Colossal Statues of the Genii or War and Peace at ^Munich (4 j). 

folder) 757 

Brunhild Beholding her Rival, Guthrun, at the Side of Siegfried 

(4 p. folder) 765 

An Early German Warrior 769 

Two Games — A German Scene in the 17th Century (4 p. folder) 773 
Wittikind the Saxon Received into Baptism with Charlemagne 

for Sponsor 779 

Modem German Artillerymen 781 



82 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

Hubert, an early English judge, killed at the Horns of the Altar 

(4 p. folder) 479 

Magna Charta Island 483 

King John in Anger 485 

A Crusader 487 

Edward I. the Successful Crusader ^ . . . 489 

Coronation Chair of Edward III. with the Stone of Scone . . . 497 

Windsor Castle, the Queen's Favorite Residence 501 

Interior of the House of Commons ... 507 

Block, Ax, and Mask of Headsman in Days of Sir Thomas More 511 

Execution of Lady Jane Grey 513 

Shakespeare's Birthplace before Restoration 515 

Shakespeare Reading before Queen Elizabeth 517 

" My Lord, we've time to finish the game and beat the Spaniards 

too" 519 

Death of Queen Elizabeth 521 

Charles 1 525 

The Trial of Hampden 529 

Cromwell Refusing the Crown 539 

William Ewart Gladstone 543 

Westminster in 1647 545 

An American Bible Presented to the Queen. (4 j). folder) . . . 553 

The Great Seal of England 561 

The Cabinet Room in Downing St 563 

Queen Victoria 565 

XII. 

Albert Pike 571 

Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, in Masonic Dress 575 

The Cathedral, Baptistry, aiid Leaning Tower of Pisa .... 579 

A French Lodge for the Reception of an Apprentice, 1745 . . 583 
A French Lodge for the Reception of a Master .... 587 

The Cathedral at Rheims 591 

Old Tun Tavern at Philadelphia, where the first American Lodge 

was organized 595 

Napoleon's Retreat from Leipsic (4 p. folder) 599 

Green Dragon Tavern, Boston, where the first Boston Lodge was 

organized 607 

Brother George Washington's Masonic Apron 615 

George Washington 625 

A Female Crusader Saving a Knight Templar 627 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 38 

XIII. 

Napoleon Crossing the Alps 633 

Assassination of Giistavus III. (4 p. folder) 639 

Turgot Pavilion of the Louvre 647 

Hotel des Invalides 651 

A French Monastery During the Revolution 657 

Assassination of Julius Cneaar 659 

A Woodman's Hut at Ardennes, on the Way to Waterloo, 1815, 661 

XIV. 

An Initiation Among the Chauffeurs 667 

Chauffeurs Disguised as Musicians and Flower Peddlers (4 p. 

folder) 671 

A Travelling Cardinal Apprehensive of Carbonari, Italy in ISOO . 679 

Russian Political Exiles in Siberia (4 p. folder) 685 

John Boyle O'Reilly 693 

Richard Croker 099 

Meeting of Tammany and Manco Capac 705 

Carbonari Making Merry in a Monastery Cellar (4 p. folder) . . 711 

XV. 

A Head Dance by Squaws 723 

The Female Soldiers of Dahomey Figliting tlie French . . . 727 

Hetaira? of Ancient Athens 729 

The Present Empress of Russia ' . 735 

Isabella Receivinij Columbus 739 

Women Watching the OutVireak of Vesuvius 743 

Wilhelmine, the Child Queen of the Netherlands 745 

Mary A. Livermore 751 

XVI. 

Colossal Statues of the Genii or War and Peace at Municli (4 p. 

folder) 757 

Brunhild Beholding her Rival, Guthrun, at the Side of Siegfried 

(4 p. folder) 765 

An Early German Warrior 769 

Two Games — A German Scene in the 17th Century (4 p. folder) 773 
Wittikind the Saxon Received into Baptism with Charlemagne 

for Sponsor 779 

Modem German Artillerymen 781 



84 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

The Makers of Modem Germanv 783 

Robber Knights Stealing on a Hamlet 785 

The Crowning of a Poet with Laurel 787 

Grerman Monks Copying 3Ianuscript Before the Invention of Type 789 

The Return of Herman After Beaming the Romans 793 

John of Gutenberg 795 

German Soldiers of Modem Days 797 

Beethoven 799 

German Children of To-dav 801 

Frederick the Great lieturning from the Battle <»f Prague . . . 805 

Frederick the Great Holding a War Council 807 

The Xun and the Flowers 811 

Louise of Prussia and Her Two Sons, Afterwards Frederick 

William IV. and Kaiser William 813 

The Surrender of Paris 815 

The 3Iakers of Modern Italy 819 

XVII 

Complex Republicanism 823 

The Discoverer of America 825 

The Pilgrims' First Sunday in America 827 

The White House 833 

Thomas Jefferson 835 

Ben Franklin 837 

Faneuil Hall, Boston 839 

Bunker Hill Monument at Charlestown, Mass 841 

Custom House, Xew Orleans 845 

Naval Heroes of the Late War 847 

Military Heroes of the Late War 849 

Wall Street, New York 853 

Grand Army Parade at Washington at Close of War (4 p. folder) 855 

New York Post-Office 861 

The Capitol at Washington 863 

Lincoln 865 

Grant 869 

A Daughter of the Republic 873 

The Spirit of Home (4 p. folder) 877 



PROPERTY OF 
1ME Onv OF NEW YORK 







To come as near as possible to an 

:./' understaiidiiig of the origin of govem- 

■■ ment we need the iviiigs of imagination 

adilwl to the nimlile foet of science, as we 

move along the stmnge, the marvellous track 

tliat goes bick to the very dawn of human life on tliis jJanet. 

Tlie great antiquity of man is a fact on which scientists are 
agreed, though only in the last forty years has it been estal)- 
lished beyond a doubt, but the exa<"t amount i>f time man has 
been on earth will probably never be settled. It is tolerably 
certain, however, that man existed before the glacial period, 
and that the age of the liuman mee dates back for over one 
hundred thousand and possibly three hundred thousand years. 
The different periods of hnnian develoimieiit liave been styled 
by men of science, Savagei-y, liarbarisni, and Civilization, and 
the first two have been divided into three grades. 

The first or lower period of savagery dates from the infancy of 
the race to the time when man began to catch fish for a living 
and discovered the making of fire by simple friction, as depicted 
in our first illustration. " More light ! " was the dying exclama- 
tion and aspiration of Goethe, the greatest of German thinkers. 



86 TCE STORY OF GOVERNMENT, 

to 

to «> 

How stmnge that 'xKe^waterial element, fire, which is the source 
of light, which is* vhe ^ign or synlbol of progress, should mark 
scientifically the jJractical beginning of the enlightenment of man- 
kind I This" first period lasted many .thousand years, and during 
that space, marjjs only weapons were clubs and stones rubbed into 
a rude resemblaiicQ to ax -heads, and tiet^ to sticks by thongs of 
tough grass. - 5^.c-second picture repr^^^sents a man of this period 
at the door of hit; ^cay^-hQnie in th^ wildh of ancient Switzerland. 
And the third pi^'ttite/ 'i"Two mbtlicrs in the days before the 
flood," shows how thlb-c^w-honjci ©f primitive man in Europe was 
often invaded by the cave-bear, against whose attacks our savage 
ancestors were practically powerless, unless they happened to hit 
with an early blow a certaui part of the animal's head. Next came 
the middle period of savagery, which is scientifically dated from the 
invention of the bow and arrow, that by its use in hunting gave 
man a new kind of food and a new means of defence against 
enemies. 

The second stage of savagery, which is indicated by the fourth 
illustration, lasted an almost equal space until the discovery of 
the art of making pottery which marked a new step in human 
development and introduced the first stage of barbarism. This 
period stretched a weary, dreary length of many centuries until 
man began, on the Eastern Hemisphere, to domesticate cattle and 
live by flocks and herds ; or, on the Western Hemisphere, as among 
the Pueblo and Zuni tribes of this continent, to plant maize, to 
build an excellent system of irrigation (from which our govern- 
ment might take a hint to-day) and to make houses of adobe 
brick. 

Goquet, in the last century, fii*st propounded the notion that 
the way pottery came to be made was that some wooden vessel, or 
some basket woven of bark, was daubed with damp clay to protect 
it from the fire and then the people, finding the clay harden into 
a durable state, conceived the idea of making vessels of clay 
instead of wood. Goquet says that Captain Gonneville, who 
visited the natives of southeastern South America in 1502, found 
their household utensils plastered with a kind of clay to the 
thickness of a finger which prevented the fire from burning them. 

This second stage of barbarism extends also for ages till, on 



to 



• • • 



THE OEIGIN OP GOVERNMENT WITH MAN. 87 

the slow Upward journey pt-ti^:iace, wfj-rcjch the third elation 
of barbarism which is laax^i^a-lly'thfe'disKJpT^rjrcit the process of 
Btneltiiig iron and the use of ii-on tools and weapons. This, like- 
wise, endures with slightly increasing degrees of refinement for 
ages and ages until v^ha^.i;^ called the first period of civilization, 
chaiacterized by the ^njiention of an alphabet Jo'eSpress to the 
eye the sounds of the "(dl^iie or, in fine, tlie «fc£ .writing. 




If we stop to consider liow many thousand j-cars elapsed from 
the invention of the art of writing to tlie invention of the print- 
ing-press, during wliicli many sepiuuto so-t>alled civilizations flour- 
ished and faded, we shall be more able to undei-stand that many 
thousands of years must have intervened between the invention of 
the bow and arrow by some early savage of tlie third period to 
the invention of a jar of pottery. The following approximate 
table may help to fix in the memory the great, slow steps of the race. 



88 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

TAB lb:- 



. • • * • • • 

:ABLB:-jbF H^lMk -PROGRESS. 



/ ••.JRrtiSt STAGE (SF- alVAGERY. 
. **V ' ■ ^ 1^ 



i From the Infancy* of the race and a diet of 
42,700 years. • > Nuts, Roots, *and Fi^iits to catching fish and 

• I learning the u8<ift|^Rre. 



,^*_ 



• ••• 



-** — * , ■ •• 



the invention of the 




TIVIRD CTAGE OB'SATAGERY. 



42,007 years. 



• • From llie Bow and An-ow to the invention of 
an Earthen Pot for cooking. 



FIRST STAGE OF BARBARISM. 



Q"i nnA mroo«, i From the Art of Pottery to the Herding or 

j»,uuu years. j Domestication of Cattle, etc 

SECOND STAGE OF BARBARISM. 



21,000 years. 



From Herding Cattle, Planting Maize, Build- 
ing of Irrigating Canals and Houses of Stone 
and Adobe Brick, to the discovery of a process 
of Smelting Iron Ore. 



THIRD STAGE OF BARBARISM. 



7,000 years. 



From the Smelting of Iron and Making of 
Iron Tools and Weapons to the invention of an 
Alphabet. 



FIRST STAGE OF CIVILIZATION. 



From the Invention of Writtijn Signs to ex- 
press the sounds of the human tongue and the 
consciousness of thinking, as a thing of value 
in itself, to be treasured up or recorded, to 
some time in the future, when government of, 
for, and by the people shall be an established 
fact all over the world, and when poverty and 
material misery shall be merely a dim memory 
of the past, i)08sibly the year 2,100 of our 
present reckoniug. 



« Ernest George RavenRtein, F. R. G. S.. of LoihIoii, fipirlnj; the fertile regions of the 
earth at 28,209,000 xqiiure miles, and fl^irini; the worltl't* i)Oi)ulation at 1.407,600.000, 
or 31 to a sfiuare mile, an<l takin;; as a basts for estimate the standard of living, as 
exLning to-<iay in va^iou^ climates, reckons that the world, if brought to its maximnm 
of cultivation, can supply 5.9!H,()00.000 nersons with f(K)d. The increase of iM)pulatlon 
might l)e materially alTvcted by many unforeseen new conditions, social or meteorological: 
but weighing all the data, and considering all the causes likelv to hasten or retard 
growth of iK>iiulatioii in various <iuarters, Mr. R. assumes that the increase each decade irlll 
be ten per cent. A<'cei>ting those figures as correct, in IJKK) the present population will have 
increased to 1,.'«7,«0(),0(K). In IIKW, there will Ihj 2,332.000.000; in 2000, 3.420,000,000; and in the 
year 2072, there would Ikj .').l)77,000,000. or within a few millions of what the earth can support. 
Consequently in the next 1H2 vears Civilization must have learned myriad new lessons, or 
else a cataclysm must occur, destroying the present human race to a great extent, and per- 
haps starting man on the second stage of Civnization. 




A OAVASB op THE BFrroiTO PERIOD. 



40 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

The marked decrease in years indicated by the preceding table 
from the third stage of savagery to the invention of pottery, and 
the still greater decrease to the second stage of barbarism, are 
estimated on the principle that every additional invention has 
a power of stimulation on the inventive faculty. But while 
studying such a table as this, though we cannot help feeling how 
slow the evolution has been, it must not dishearten us, nor need 
it fill us with a profound sadness for the vanished millions, since 
the progress, though slow, has been sure, and with a promise of 
evei higher certainties in the future. The history of the race, as 
revealed to us by the most recent reseai'ches of science, points 
conclusively to the fact that man in the mass, as well as man the 
unit, is destined to develop the animal, and probably to become 
something more. 

The final findings of science are growing to coincide with the 
fundamental sense of all intelligent religions ; that man's life is 
not merely summed up in the verbs, to eat, drink, sleep, think, 
propagate, and die. For it is now beyond dispute that in the slow 
process of this development from the naked savage of few words 
and equally few ideas, who toiled in caves and fished with his 
paws in streams, to the avemge man of to-day, who uses a vocabu- 
lary of ten thousand words to express his ideas, or to the scholar 
who uses twenty thousand, many races of animals that were on the 
eaith with the early man liave entirely disappeared. Does not this 
seem to imply that man is not merely a cooking animal, an inventing 
and a^spiring one, but that he is pre-eminently a surviving animal? 

There is also another reflection that naturally arises from a study 
of the ascending struggle of humanity, which is, indeed, that we 
are what we are to-day, not merely on account of our individual 
struggles and difficult development amid adverse circumstances, 
or our fortunate location and easy development in pleasant circum- 
stiinces, but largely in either case, because many millions, through 
the countless ages of savagery, barbarism, and early civilization, 
have toiled and suflfered to make possible our present average of 
collective comfort (still, alas ! a pitifully small one) as well as 
our individual approximations towards a wise, kindly, dignified 
existence ; in short, towards the happiness of refinement and the 
refinement of happiness. 



40 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

The marked decrease in years incUeated by the preceding table 
from the third stage of savagery to the invention of pottery, and 
the still greater decrease to the second stage of barbarism, are 
estimated on the principle that every additional invention has 
a power of stimulation on the inventive faculty. But while 
studying such a table as this, though we cannot help feeling how 
slow the evolution has been, it must not dishearten ns, nor need 
it fill us with a profound sadness for the vanished millions, since 
the progress, though slow, lias been sure, and with a promise of 
evei higher certainties in the future. The history of the race, as 
revealed to us by the most recent researches of science, points 
eonelusivelv to the fact that man in the mass, as well as man the 
unit, is destined to develop the animal, and probably to become 
something more. 

Tlie final findings of science are gro\iing to coincide with the 
fundamental sense of all intelligent religions : that man's life is 
not merely summed up in the verl>s, to eat, drink, sleep, think, 
projxigate, and die. For it is now beyond dispute that in the slow 
process of this development from the naked savage of few words 
and equally few ideiis, who toiled in eaves and fished with his 
paws in streams, to the average man of t<>-ilay, who uses a vocabu- 
lary of ten thousand wonls to express his ide;^, or to the scholar 
who uses twenty ihous;ind, manv races of animals that were on the 
eanh with the e;u*ly man have entirely disapjvared. Does not this 
setr-m TO imply tliat man is not merely a civkii^ir animal, an inventing 
and aspiring one, but that he is pre-eminenily a surviving animal? 

Tiiriv is also another refle^nion that naturally ;\rises f n^m a study 
of the ;\scendin£r stniiTfirl^ of humaniiv. which is. indeed, that we 
ai>e wiiai we are to-dav. not mcn^lv on acconn; of our individual 
simiTiries and diificult development amid adverse cin'umstances, 
or our fortunate ltx\ition and e;isy development in ple^isant cireum- 
star.ovs. but lars^-Iv in either c^uk*. Ixvanse manv millions, thxougfa 
the eoTir-:!ess ac^« of Siwa^erw Iwrlwrisrn. aini eariv civilization, 
have toiled ar.d suffered to make jy^ssiKo or4r pivtseni average of 
collective comfon (^s::ll, ai:is ! a pitifully small one^ as well as 
our individual api^rvxiniations tow^nis a wise, kir.tilv. di^rnified 
exis:er.L-^: in shon. towanis the hap;>iues5> of T^fir.cment and the 
ivirir^jr::! of hav'V-ir-ess. 




TWO MOTTTERS 



HEFOBE THE FLOOB. 



42 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

Having thus briefly outlined the large steps of the race during 
which government has had its slow evolution, suppose we try for 
a definition of our own for this word. Suppose we say « Govern- 
ment is the condition resulting from an attempt to live together 
under some rule or order." 

As to its origin, some scholars consider the family as the germ 
of it, though some find it rather difficult, when considering how 
promiscuous were the relations of the sexes in the early days of 
the race, to say \vith certainty that government developed from 
the family. Indeed, the opposite has been ably maintained, that 
family, as we understand it now, developed from government and 
the sense of property.^ The weight of likelihood, however, seems 
to be on the side of those who regard the family as the germ, 
and this being so it becomes necessary to consider how many kinds 
of family relations have been invented or accepted by the human 
race. 

Fii*st is the Consanguine family, in which brothers and sisters 
freely intermarried. This form to-day seems to us a most horrible 
thing and is. punished by the laws of every civilized State. 
Nevertheless it lingered so long in the minds of men that the 
great empire of Egypt, which was in the dawn of civilization and 
not in the scientific period of barbarism, not only countenanced it, 
but made it conspicuous by the example of the royal family. 

The Second form of the family, or of the married relation, has 
heen called the Punaluan, and was extant until recently in the 
Hawaiian Islands. The missionaries, in 1820, found it prevalent, 
and not being scientists or philosophei*s were disproportionately 
shocked by it. This consists in all the brothers of a family being 
the husbands of each other's wives, or in the sisters being the 
wives of each sister's husband; and brother was a term, with 
them, of wide significance, comprehending cousins to the third or 
foui-th degree. 

Caesar, the maker of so much histoiy, and the historian of his 
own creations, the profound observer as well as the practical 
statesman, makes a note of finding Punaluan marriage among 
the ancient Britons in groups of ten or twelve. 



» Some scholars hold that Government, modelled after the exercise of authority in the 
family unit, is made necessary by the existence of property. 



THE OEIGTN OP GOVERNMENT WrTE MAN, 




AmongtlieCicn 
Indi.iiis,dlbo,!iiel 

of this PuiIllllXTI 

marriage still Itii 
ge„,-anm„«h„ 
mAiTies the eldeit 
(Imghter lii^nng \ ngl t f 
all her sisiters, if la tti-.ln. 
to support theni But it is 
hardlv nece'jsarj to add thit tiu I 
exhibitions of amorous indust i 
are exceedingly rare among the ' 



K OP BAVAflBRT. 



42 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

Having thus briefly outlined the large steps of the race during 
which government has had its slow evolution, suppose we try for 
a definition of our own for this word. Suppose we say " Govern- 
ment is the condition resulting from an attempt to live together 
under some rule or order." 

As to its origin, some scholars consider the family as the germ 
of it, though some find it rather difficult, when considering how 
promiscuous were the relations of the sexes in the early days of 
the race, to say with certainty that government developed from 
the family. Indeed, the opposite has been ably maintained, that 
family, as we understand it now, developed from government and 
the sense of property.^ The weight of likelihood, however, seems 
to be on the side of those who regard the family as the germ, 
and this being so it becomes necessary to consider how many kinds 
of family relations have been invented or accepted by the human 
race. 

Firet is the Consanguine family, in which brothers and sisters 
freely intermarried. This form to-day seems to us a most horrible 
thing and is. punished by the laws of every civilized State. 
Nevertheless it lingered so long in the minds of men that the 
great empire of Egypt, which was in the dawn of civilization and 
not hi the scientific period of barbarism, not only countenanced it, 
but made it conspicuous by the example of the royal family. 

The Second form of the family, or of the married relation, has 
been called the Punaluan, and was extant until recently in the 
Hawaiian Islands. The missionaries, in 1820, found it prevalent, 
and not being scientists or philosophers were disproportionately 
shocked by it. This consists in all the brothel's of a family being 
the husbands of each other's wives, or in the sisters being the 
wives of each sister's husband; and brothei*s was a tenn, with 
them, of wide significance, comprehending cousins to the third or 
fourth degree. 

CaBsar, the maker of so much history, and the historian of his 
own creations, the profound observer as well as the practical 
statesman, makes a note of finding Punaluan marriage among 
the ancient Britons in groups of ten or twelve. 



* Some scholars hold that Government, modelled after the exercise of authority in the 
family unit, is made necessary by the existence of proi)erty. 



THE ORIGIN OP GOVERNMENT WITH MAN. 




AmoiigtlieCio\\ 
Indians,also a relit, 
of this Punaluin 
marriage still lui 
gere, — a man « ho 
marries the eldest 
daughter hi\ing i iigl t t 
all her sisters, if lie \i aliLs 
to support them But it a, 
hardly necessary to add tlwt sueli 
exhibitions of amorous iiidusti i 
are exceedingly rare among tl e ( i 

THE BOW AND AUBOW Olt BK(. 



44 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

In South America, likewise, among certain tribes where women 
are not regarded as mere beasts of burden traces of a similar 
practice still exist. 

The Thiid form of family which has been called the Syndyas- 
mian, still extant among some of the Indian tribes on this conti- 
nent, is a step upward in morals as we regard them. It consists 
in the pairing of one woman and one man, not, however, with the 
intent or with the absolute promise of continuity, because divorce 
at will ^vas a right felt to be inherent in both parties. This 
form of family has almost entirely vanished from the world as 
a national or tribal characteristic, though it crops up quite 
frequently in individual cases. 

The Fourth kind of family has been styled the Patriarchal. 
This is the marriage of one man to several women, or polygamy^ 
and still flourishes among some Asiatic nations, yet by no means 
to the extent that it once did ; and the attempt to revive it in our 
occidental civilization has proved a priestly failure, although the 
Mormon colony of Utah, perhaps because of its co-operative 
features, has been conspicuous as a commercial success. 

The converse of Polygamy, or Polygjmy as it should be called 
— that is Polyandry, or the marriage of one woman to several 
men, though existent to-day in Ceylon, Australasia and Tibet, 
appears to be rather an exceptional sidegro^vth than a regular 
grade of development. 

The Fifth form of family, or the Monogamic, is that which 
flourishes to-day among all civilized races, and that seems to be 
the ultimate, the last word of advice which nature has to give 
concerning human happiness ; for nearly all the higher animals, 
as well as man, develop to the having of only one mate. 

Does it not seem, on the whole, rather a reasonable inference 
that the moment when absolute promiscuity in the fundamentally 
necessary and fundamentally righteous relations of the sexes 
ceased to prevail, and the idea ensued of limiting marriage to 
certain members of a clan or aggregation of human individuals, 
the idea of rule and order arose from such instinctive limitation 
and then the idea of authority^ to enforce rule or order, dawned 
on the dull brain of the primeval savage ? 

We thus grasp the ideas of order and of authority, as twin 



THE ORIGIN OF GOVERNMENT WITH MAN. 45 

elements of a concrete concept of government : order desired by 
the general mind, and authority devised and then lodged some- 
where to maintain and increase it. 



ilHil^ '1^ 


p 




IHr'^M ^M 


y 


'" • >Mj0# 


■P'f 


1 


t^l 


Bfi'-at 


p 


^^^ 


Imp ^fw|t^^HH 


m 


^^^^', 


m^\ 1 fft»^^^ 


^^m 


BS^^^^^w 


m'J/^r^^^^,% 


\ '^M 


IBg^i^^f^^^Tj^^ 


mmtWi 


m 


^H 


HriflHuHS 


g 


fe' raK 




5 


*f3 



Starting, then, with the single family, we arrive at the Gens> o 

•Oeru, LMtn j fAiOi, Greek ; (mnaa, S»iMcrit; oar word JMn belag tbe sauie root. 



46 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

kindred, a small body of blood-relations living together, bearing 
the same name. This gens, as it throws out branches that settle 
in adjacent places, keeps itself connected with these branches by 
ceilain customs. 

The inter-associations which practise these customs are scien- 
tifically called Phratries, from a word of Greek origin, signifying 
brotherhood, and indicating their relationship to the nucleus-gens. 
As others at a distance come into the same relationship, either 
by extension of the original family or by juncture with other fam- 
ilies, the tribe is fonned ; and after the tribe, the confederacy, 
which was the nearest approach the barbaric mind made to our 
present idea of a nation. 

The phratry is a brotherhood and an organic growth from the 
gens, and among the Greeks and Romans, as among the Iroquois, 
it was generally an association for certain religious or social 
objects of two or more gentes of the same tribe. The Roman 
curia, or cury, was the analogue of the Indian and Grecian 
phratry. There were ten gentes in each curia, and ten curiae 
in each of the three Roman tribes, making three hundred gentes 
among the Romans. The governmental functions of the Roman 
curia became much more complex and political than those of the 
Greek or Indian, but the primary principle of association for social 
or religious purposes was identical. And this tendency to asso- 
ciate in phratries or lodges appears to be as strong in the masculine 
mind of to-day as it ever was ; of which statement abundant 
testimony offers itself in the shape of our numerous fraternities, 
such as Masonry, Pythian, and other societies. 

All these phratries and tribes and confederacies are evolutions 
of the family, and their status is founded on a social rather than 
a territorial and property relation. A separate and sharply-marked 
domain, and the possession of property, were ideas that only took 
root in the minds of men in the very latest dtiys of barbarism, 
and to enter upon the second plan of government it was necessary 
to supersede the gentes and phratries by townships and city 
wards. 

The decline of the gens and the rising of the organized town 
make the dividing line between barbarism and civilization, between 
ancient and modem society. 



48 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

It is well established, though but recently, that Man all over 
the world has a common scientific evolution ; the story of one race 
is the story of all. Humanity is a unit in source, in experi- 
ence, in progress; and, in the faith of science we may add, 
one also in the certainty of an immortal and imperial destiny. 
So, if we take the condition of development shown by a tribe 
of American Indians, we shall have a fairly approximate picture 
of just how the beautiful civilization of Greece, or the majestic 
empire of Rome under Augustus, developed through the gens, 
phratry, and tribe. 

Too many of us derive our idea of an Indian from Buffalo Bill's 
Wild West Show, or from the straggling specimens that sell 
baskets and beadwork in the summer. But these bear no more 
real resemblance to the Indian as he is historically than do the 
fawning, flattering, fortune-telling gypsies to the ancient Egyptian 
coui*tiers who exchanged elegant compliments amid the roseate 
shadows of the perfumed audience chamber of Cleopatra. 

Nationally, we have done great material wrong to the original 
possessors of this country. Is it not becoming then that we 
should at least make some attempt to do justice to them histori- 
cally, since we have never, or rarely, done it to the living 
individuals ? 

Moreover, our ideas of the Indian have always been colored by 
conflict. We have inherited a distrust of him, and it is only of 
late that scholars generally have begun to appreciate his virtues. 
Even large-hearted ti-avellers like Dickens have been misled into 
regarding him as merely a dirty and drunken ruflian, glad to live 
in laziness and be supported by the government. The trouble is 
we are looking upon the Indian, not as God made him, not as 
he developed under the kindly eye of nature, but as we white 
men have unmade him by the almost off-setting brutality that 
accompanies our present civilization. The American Indian, 
sitting in council near the banks of some winding water, under 
the mellow harvest moon, was a very different being from those 
we see to-day, who have exchanged the virtues of barbarism for 
the vices of civilization; those to whom we have given of our 
Morst instead of our best. 

Metacom and Wamsutta, the last Indian kings of prominence 



THE ORIGIN OP GOVERNMENT WITH MAS. 



4& 



in Ifew England, were t^^s, it is true, of the third Btage of 
barbarism. They were birbarians, but they were gentlemen. In 
fiueneas of feeling, in regard for the rights of others, in statesmanr 




like qnallties, anil netsdlesa to say in daring, they would compare 
with any of the early Saxon chiefa except possibly Alfred the 



48 THE STORY OF GOVERXMENT. 

It is well established, though but recently, that Man all over 
the world has a common scientific evolation ; the story of one race 
is the story of all. Humanity is a unit in source, in experi- 
ence, in progress; and, in the faith of science we may add, 
one also in the certainty of an immortal and imperial destiny. 
So, if we take the condition of development sliown by a tribe 
of American Indians, we shall have a fairly approximate picture 
of just how the beautiful civilization of Greece, or the majestic 
empire of Rome under Augustus, developed through the gens, 
phratrj-, and tribe. 

Too manv of us derive our idea of an Indian from Buffalo BlU's 
WQd West Show, or from the straggling specimens that sell 
baskets and beadwork in the summer. But these bear no more 
real resemblance to the Indian as he is historically than do the 
fawning, flattering, fortune-telling gypsies to the ancient Egyptian 
courtiers who exchanged elegant compliments amid the roseate 
shadows of the perfumed audience chamber of Cleopatra. 

Nationally, we have done great material wrong to the original 
possessors of this country. Is it not becoming then that we 
should at least make some attempt to do justice to them histori- 
cally, since we have never, or rarely, done it to the living 
individuals ? 

Moreover, our ideas of the Indian have always been colored by 
conflict. We have inherited a distrust of him, and it is only of 
late that scholars generally liave begun to appreciate his "virtues. 
Even large-hearted titivellers like Dickens have been misled into 
regai-ding him as merely a dirty and drunken ruffian, glad to live 
in laziness and be supported by the government. The trouble is 
we are lookmg upon the Indian, not as God made him, not as 
he developed under the kindly eye of nature, but as we white 
men have unmade him by the almost off-setting brutality that 
atcorapanies our present civilization. The American Indian, 
sitting in council near the banks of some winding water, under 
the mellow harvest moon, i^-as a very different being from those 
we see to-day, who have exchanged the virtues of barbarism for 
the vices of civilization; those to whom we have given of our 
Morst instead of our best. 

Metacom and Wamsutta, the last Indian kings of prominence 



THB ORIGIN OF GOVERNMENT WITH MAN. 



4& 



in New England, were types, it is true, of the third stage of 
bftrbarism. They were barbarians, but they were gentlemen. In 
JinenesB of feeling, in regard for the rights of others, in statesman- 



|l:'j#^|g||^SM| 


H|f>"ll^ J 


ii|||M^^Sij 


SM 1 


mmf^m 


ml 


M^**^ 


^K^^X 


m 


R*^^ 


*i--:|^S 


'^^^m 


'■■"-;- ;a.ta3.ii 



like qaalities, anjl neesUess to say in daring, they would compare 
with any of the early Saxon chiefs except possibly Alfred the 



50 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

Great. For instance, what could be finer than the feeling shown 
in the following incident ? 

Wamsutta was the chief king of Eastern New England during 
the early colonial days. His father, Massasoit, had heaped kind- 
nesses on the Pilgrims, fed them when starving, saved them from 
the assaults of other tribes. After his death, Wamsutta was one 
day at breakfast in one of his many hunting lodges, with several 
of his nobles and their wives. A party of Pilgrims surprised 
them, seized their weapons that had been stacked outside, and told 
the king that he was under arrest and must come to Plymouth 
to answer certain charges. The leader of this party offered the 
outraged monarch a horse to ride on, but the king refused with 
these words : " I could not ride and let these women walk." 

This is but one of the many incidents which a certain un- 
conscious or subconscious candor lias forced unfriendly historians 
to record. Wamsutta died from the effect on his proud nature of 
the indignity done him by this arrest, and his brother, Metacom, 
or Philip, as he was called by the Pilgrims, for years nursed plans 
pf vengeance against the race who had been the cause of his 
brother's early death, who had spoiled him of his lands, wantonly 
burned many of his hunting-lodges, and tried even in his own 
home to curtail his powers. 

Philip made war on our English ancestoi-s during the fall of 
1675 and the following winter and spring; and though like 
Napoleon, a personal failure finally, the results of his well-planned 
war on our ancestors were felt for fifty years after his death, or, as 
their writers agreed, he retarded the development of New England 
for that space. 

Yet he, too, with every reason to detest our race, was not only kind 
in many instances to the prisoners he captured, but was uniformly 
courteous. Mrs. Richardson, who lived as his prisoner for many 
months before she was finally restored to her husband, tells us that 
this great soldier (even his enemies admitted his military genius) 
was a most kindly captor. He asked her one day to make a shirt 
for his little son, and when she had made it, expressing his 
pleasure, he not only thanked her, but paid her an English shillmg 
for it. 

Our tardy scholarship is beginning to see that such conduct 



THE ORIGIN OP GOVEltNMENT WITH MAN. 



more fairly represents the Indian character as it was at the best 
period of development than the ravages occasionally committed by 




the degenerate tribes of to-day, too often goaded to fury by dis- 
honest goTemment agents. 

It is a pity that we have not sufficient data concerning the 



62 THE STORY OF GOVEKNMENT. 

political condition of the New England Indians to show how they 
developed to the production of such men as those just named, but 
by examining another Indian tribe, the Seneca-Iroquois, we shall 
see the evolution of government among barbarians up to hereditary 
monarchy as clearly as if we went through a long course of Greek 
or Roman history. 

The Seneca-Iroquois were divided into gentes, phratries, and 
tribes. The chiefs in each gens were usually proportioned to the 
membei-s. Among the Iroquois there is one to about every fifty 
persons. The Iroquois in New York now number three thousand, 
and have eight sachems and about sixty chiefs. 

The first question, then, that suggests itself is, what were the politi- 
cal rights of the gens. First of all, with the basic right of having 
a council of its own, the right of electing and deposing its sachem 
and its chiefs. Here we have at once a fact that contradicts the 
old historical assumption that the democratical form of govern- 
ment is a late invention, and that the monarchical was the one 
most natural and most adapted to the evolution of human society. 
For the right of electing and deposing the head of the gens 
shows that man started in a rude way to have what we are trying 
to-day to have in a complete, though perhaps too complex, way ; 
namely, a government of the people. 

Another right of the gens was the inheritance of property. If 
a man died his property would not descend to his son or his 
daugliter, but to the gens in common. The feeling here seems to 
be identical with that which our most republican millionnaire, 
Andrew Carnegie, has recently expi-essed, that a man's material 
acquisitions, being largely the result of the co-operation of others, 
should at his death revert to whence they came. Mr. Carnegie's 
mind, however, has expanded since his firet declaration, for he now 
maintains that a rich man in his life-time should restore to the 
people, in the shape of libraries, parks, and hospitals, the money 
he has made out of them. 

Of course, another right of the gens was that of bestowing 
names on its members, and of adopting strangers by naming them. 
There were obligations, likewise, of help and defence and redress 
of injuries, and, in time, an obligation among most not to marry 
in the gens. Common religious rites, a common burial place and, 




THE ORIGIN OF GOVERNMENT WITH UAN. 58 

as a necessary basis for the election of a sachem, the right to call 
a council, were dbtinctive marks of the Iroquois gens. 

As to the election of sachems and chiefs, it is probably a new 
fact to most readers that neirly ill tlie American Indiin tribes as 
well as tie Seueca-Iroquois hid t vo grades of cl eftainsl ip u 
other words, thej had a pea e go\e no and a a ch ef 




The sachem, or wise-man, was elected in each gens fi-om among 
its membere. A son could not be chosen to succeed his father if 
descent was in the female line, which made the son belong to a 
different gens. 

The duties of a sachein were confined to the affairs of peace. 
He settled disputes, advised the time of planting corn, or the 
location of the camp, or any matter that demanded personal 
adviceior sympathy. It was analogous in some respects to the 



64 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

post of father confessor, though among many of the tribes this 
function was rudimentary in spite of the semi-religious character 
with which the sachem was invested. The relation of the sachem 
was primarily to the gens of which he was the official head, while 
that of the chief, who was chosen for personal bravery or for 
eloquence, was primarily to the tribe or large organization of the 
council of which he as well as the sachem were members. The 
sachem was so much an officer of peace that he could not go to 
war as a sachem, but simply as a private individual in the ranks 
under the leaderships of the cliiefs, whose functions were purely 
military or advisory in military matters in the general council of 
the tribe. 

The office of sachem was hereditary in the sense that it was 
filled from the same gens as often as a vacancy happened, but it 
was filled by election from different relatives of the deceased or 
deposed chieftain. Though the office was nominally for life, it 
was practically for good behavior, because of the power to depose. 
The ceremony of installing a sachem was very picturesque. It 
was accompanied by song and dance and the final act was 
symbolized by the putting on a headdress of buffalo horns, as his 
deposition was symbolized by taking off the horns. 

It is one of the little facts that cumulate to show the substan- 
tial relativity of mankind that, even among tribes widely separated, 
horns have been made emblems of office and authority from time 
immemorial, and even of sanctity, as in the Catholic church we 
have the horns of the altar, which were invested with a peculiar 
siicrediiess. The killing of Thomas k Becket, for instance, in the age 
of Henry II. of England, when assassination wiis a common crime, 
was accounted especially heinous because the victim was not only 
a priest, but was killed while holding one of the horns of the altar. 

Horns, also, by tlie imagination of the middle ages, are assigned 
to his Satanic Majesty, probably as a token of his power, and the 
horn as a sign of plenty is another emblem, derived possibly from 
the Scandinavian drinking-horn, though it is also credited with a 
Roman and Greek derivation. Tylor intimates that the command- 
ing appearance of buffalos and such animals as wear horns may 
have suggested to the general mind this thing as a token of 
dignity and authority. i 



48 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

It is well established, though but recently, that Man all over 
the world has a common scientific evolution ; the story of one race 
is the story of all. Humanity is a unit in source, in experi- 
ence, in progress; and, in the faith of science we may add, 
one also in the certainty of an immortal and imperial destiny. 
So, if we take the condition of development shown by a tribe 
of American Indians, we shall have a fairly approximate picture 
of just how the beautiful civilization of Greece, or the majestic 
empire of Rome under Augustus, developed through the gens, 
phratiy, and tribe. 

Too many of us derive our idea of an Indian from Buffalo Bill's 
Wild West Show, or from the straggling specimens that sell 
baskets and beadwork in the summer. But these bear no more 
real resemblance to the Indian as he is historically than do the 
fawning, flattering, fortune-telling gypsies to the ancient Egyptian 
courtiers who exchanged elegant compliments amid the roseate 
shadows of the perfumed audience chamber of Cleopatra. 

Nationally, we have done great material wrong to the original 
possessors of this country. Is it not becoming then that we 
should at least make some attempt to do justice to them histori- 
cally, since we have never, or rarely, done it to the living 
individuals ? 

Moreover, our ideas of the Indian have always been colored by 
conflict. We have inherited a distrust of him, and it is only of 
lata that scholars generally have begun to appreciate his virtues. 
Even large-hearted ti-avellers like Dickens have been misled into 
regarding him as merely a dirty and drunken ruflian, glad to live 
in laziness and be supported by the government. The trouble is 
we are looking upon the Indian, not as God made him, not as 
he developed under the kindly eye of nature, but as we white 
men have unmade him by the almost off-setting brutality that 
atcompanies our present civilization. The American Indian, 
sitting in council near the banks of some winding water, under 
the mellow harvest moon, was a very different being from those 
we see to-day, who have exchanged the virtues of barbarism for 
the vices of civilization; those to whom we have given of our 
M'oret instead of our best. 

Metacom and Wamsutta, the last Indian kings of prominence 



THE ORIGIN OF OOVERNHENT WITH HAN. 



49 



in New England, were t^pes, it is true, of the third stage of 
barbarism. They were barbarians, but they were gentlemen. In 
fineness of feeling, in regard for the rights of others, in statesman^ 




lite qualities, aod needless to say in daring, tliey would compare 
with any of the early Saxon chiefs except possibly Alfred the 



60 THE STORY OF GOVERNT^IENT. 

Great. For instance, what could be finer than the feeling shown 
in the following incident ? 

Wamsutta was the chief king of Eastern New England during 
the early colonial days. His father, Massasoit, had heaped kind- 
nesses on the Pilgrims, fed them when starving, saved them from 
the assaults of other tribes. After his death, Wamsutta was one 
day at breakfast in one of his many hunting lodges, with several 
of his nobles and their wives. A party of Pilgrims surprised 
them, seized their weapons that had been stacked outside, and told 
the king that he was under an-est and must come to Plymouth 
to answer certain charges. The leader of this party offered the 
outiuged monarch a horee to ride on, but the king refused with 
these words : " I could not ride and let these wonjen walk." 

This is but one of the many incidents which a certain un- 
conscious or subconscious candor has forced unfriendly historians 
to record. Wamsutta died from the effect on his proud nature of 
the indignity done him by this arrest, and his brother, Metacom, 
or Philip, as he was called by the Pilgrims, for years nursed plans 
pf vengeance against the race who had been the cause of his 
brother's early death, who had spoiled him of his lands, wantonly 
burned many of his hunting-lodges, and tried even in his own 
home to curtail his powers. 

Philip made war on our English ancestoi-s during the fall of 
1675 and the following winter and spring; and though like 
Napoleon, a personal failure finally, the results of his well-planned 
war on our ancestors were felt for fifty years after his death, or, as 
their writers agreed, he retarded the development of New England 
for that space. 

Yet he, too, with every reason to detest our race, was not only kind 
in many instances to the prisoners he captured, but was uniformly 
courteous. Mrs. Richardson, who lived as his ^Drisoner for many 
months before she was finally restored to her husband, tells us that 
this great soldier (even his enemies admitted Iiis military genius) 
was a most kindly captor. He asked her one day to make a shirt 
for his little son, and when she had made it, expressing his 
pleasure, he not only thanked her, but paid her an English shilling 
for it. 

Our tardy scholarship is beginning to see that such conduct 



THE ORIGIN OF GOVEiENMENT WITH MAN. 



more &irly represents the Indian character as it was at the best 
period of development than the ravages occasionally committed by 




the degenerate tribes of to-day, too often goaded to fury by dis- 
honest government agents. 

It is a pity that we have not sufficient data concerning the 



60 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

Great. For instance, what could be finer than the feeling shown 
in the following incident ? 

Wanisutta was the chief king of Eastern New England during 
the early colonial days. His father, Massasoit, had heaped kind- 
nesses on the Pilgrims, fed them when starving, saved them from 
the assaults of other tribes. After his death, Wanisutta was one 
day at breakfast in one of his many hunting lodges, with several 
of his nobles and tlieir wives. A party of Pilgrims surprised 
them, seized their weapons that had been stacked outside, and told 
the king that he was under an-est and must come to Plymouth 
to answer certain charges. The leader of this party offered the 
outraged monarch a horse to ride on, but the king refused with 
these words : " I could not ride and let these wonjen walk." 

This is but one of the many incidents which a certain un- 
conscious or subconscious candor has forced unfriendly historians 
to record. Wamsutta died from the effect on his proud nature of 
the indignity done him by this anest, and liis brother, Metacom, 
or Philip, as he was called by the Pilgrims, for years nursed plans 
pf vengeance against the race who had been the cause of his 
brother's early death, who had spoiled him of his lands, wantonly 
burned many of his hunting-lodges, and tried even in Ids own 
borne to curtail his powers. 

Pliilip made war on our English ancestoi-s during the fall of 
1675 and the following winter and spring; and though like 
Napoleon, a personal failure finally, the results of his well-planned 
war on our ancestors were felt for fifty years after his death, or, as 
their writers agreed, he reta,rded the development of New England 
for that space. 

Yet lie, too, with every^ reason to detest our race, was not only kind 
in many instances to the prisoners he captured, but was uniformly 
courteous. Mrs. Richardson, who lived as his prisoner for many 
months before she was finally restored to her husband, tells us that 
this great soldier (even his enemies admitted his military genius) 
was a most kindly captor. He asked her one day to make a shirt 
for his little son, and when she had made it, expressing his 
pleasure, he not only thanked her, but paid her an English shilling 
for it. 

Our tudy tftllMlllfffrlP. J* |)fgin][jipg to see that such conduct 



THE ORIGIN OP GOVBitSMENT WITH MAN. 



more fairly represents the Indisn character as it waa at the best 
period of development than the ravages occasionally committed by 




the degenerate tribes of to-day, too often goaded to fury by dis- 
honest government agents. 

It is a pity that we have not sufBcient data concerning the 



62 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

political condition of the New England Indians to show how they 
developed to the production of such men as those just named, but 
by examining another Indian tribe, the Seneca-Iroquois, we shall 
see the evolution of government among barbarians up to hereditary 
monarchy as clearly as if we went through a long course of Greek 
or Roman history. 

The Seneca-Iroquois were divided into gentes, phratries, and 
tribes. The chiefs in each gens were usually proportioned to the 
members. Among the Iroquois there is one to about every fifty 
persons. The Iroquois in New York now number three thousand, 
and have eight sachems and about sixty chiefs. 

The first question, then, that suggests itself is, what were the politi- 
cal rights of the gens. First of all, with the basic right of having 
a council of its own, the right of electing and deposing its sachem 
and its chiefs. Here we have at once a fact that contradicts the 
old historical assumption that the democratical form of govern- 
ment is a late invention, and that the monarchical was the one 
most natural and most adapted to the evolution of human society. 
For the right of electing and deposing the head of the gens 
shows that man started in a rude way to have what we are trying 
to-ilay to have in a complete, though perhaps too complex, way ; 
namely, a government of the people. 

Another right of the gens was the inheritance of property. If 
a man died his property would not descend to his son or his 
daughter, but to the gens in common. The feeling here seems to 
])G identical with that which our most republican millionnaire, 
Andrew Carnegie, has recently expi-essed, that a man's material 
acquisitions, being largely the result of the co-operation of others, 
should at his death revert to whence they came. Mr. Carnegie's 
mind, however, has expanded since his fii*st declaration, for he now 
maintains that a rich man in his life-time should restore to the 
people, in the shape of libraries, parks, and hospitals, the money 
he has made out of them. 

Of course, another right of the gens was that of bestowing 
names on its members, and of adopting strangers by naming them. 
There were obligations, likewise, of help and defence and redress 
of injuries, and, in time, an obligation among most not to marry 
in the gens. Common religious rites, a common burial place and. 



THE OBIGIN OF GOVERNMENT WITH MAN, 



5S 



as a neceseaiy baats for the election of a sachem, the right to call 
a council, were distinctive maiks of the Iroquois gens. 

As to the election of sachems and chiefs, it is piohably a new 
fact to most readers that neaily all tl e Ameiican Indiin tribes as 
well as the Seneca-lroquois hid tvo grades of chieftainship m 
other words they had a pc ice governor and a w ii chief 




The sachem, or wise-man, was elected in each gens fi-oni among 
its members. A son could not be chosen to succeed hiH father if 
descent waa in the female line, whicii made the son belong to a 
different gens. 

The duties of a sachein were confined to the affaii-s of peace. 
He settled disputes, advised the time of planting corn, or the 
location of the camp, or any matter that demanded personal 
advice, or sympathy. It was analogous in some respects to the 



64 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

post of father confessor, though among many of the tribes this 
function was rudimentary in spite of the semi-religious character 
with which the sachem was invested. The relation of the sachem 
was primarily to the gens of which he was the oflScial head, while 
that of the chief, who was chosen for personal bravery or for 
eloquence, was primarily to the tribe or large organization of the 
council of which he its well as the sachem were members. The 
sachem was so much an oflBcer of peace that he could not go to 
war as a sachem, but simply as a private individual in the ranks 
under the leaderships of the chiefs, whose functions were purely 
military or advisory in military matters in the general council of 
the tribe. 

The office of sachem was hereditary in the sense that it was 
filled from the same gens as often as a vacancy happened, but it 
was filled by election from different relatives of the deceased or 
deposed chieftain. Though the office was nominally for life, it 
was practically for good behavior, because of the power to depose. 
The ceremony of installing a sachem was very picturesque. It 
was accompanied by song and dance and the final act was 
symbolized by the putting on a headdress of buffalo horns, as his 
dei)osition wjis symbolized by taking off the horns. 

It is one of the little facts that cumulate to show the substan- 
tial relativity of mankind that, even among tribes widely separated, 
horns have been made emblems of office and authority from time 
immemorial, and even of sanctity, as in the Catholic church we 
liave the horns of the altar, whicli were invested with a peculiar 
siicredness. The killing of Thomas k Becket, for instance, in the age 
of Henry II. of England, when assassination was a common crime, 
was accounted especially heinous because the victim was not only 
a priest, but was killed while holding one of the horns of the altar. 

Horns, also, by the imagination of the middle ages, are assigned 
to his Satanic Majesty, probcably as a token of his power, and the 
horn as a sign of plenty is another emblem, derived possibly from 
the Scandinavian drinking-horn, though it is also credited with a 
Roman and Greek derivation. Tylor intimates that the command- 
ing appearance of bufifalos and such animals as wear horns may 
have suggested to the general mind this thing as a token of 
dignity and authority. » 



64 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

post of father confessor, though among many of the tribes this 
function was rudimentary in spite of the semi-religious character 
with which the sachem was invested. The relation of the sachem 
was primarily to the gens of which he was the oflScial head, while 
that of the chief, who was chosen for personal bravery or for 
eloquence, was primarily to the tribe or large organization of the 
council of which he as well as the sachem were members. The 
sachem wiis so much an officer of peace that he could not go to 
war as a sachem, but simply as a private individual in the ranks 
under the leaderships of the chiefs, whose functions were purely 
military or advisory in military matters in the general council of 
the tribe. 

The office of sachem was hereditary in the sense that it was 
filled from the same gens as often as a vacancy happened, but it 
was filled by election from different relatives of the deceased or 
deposed chieftain. Though the office was nominally for life, it 
was practically for good behavior, because of the power to depose. 
The ceremony of installing a sachem was very picturesque. It 
was accompanied by song and dance and the final act was 
symbolized by the putting on a headdress of buffalo horns, as his 
deposition was symbolized by taking off the horns. 

It is one of the little facts that cumulate to show the substan- 
tial relativity of mankind that, even among tribes widely separated, 
horns have been made emblems of office and authority from time 
immemorial, and even of sanctity, as in the Catholic church we 
liave the horns of the altar, which were invested with a peculiar 
sacredness. The killing of Thomas k Becket, for instance, in the age 
of Henry II. of England, when assassination was a common crime, 
was accounted especially heinous because the victim was not only 
a priest, but was killed while holding one of the horns of the altar. 

Horns, also, by the imagination of the middle ages, are assigned 
to his Satanic Majesty, probably as a token of his power, and the 
horn as a sign of plenty is another emblem, derived iK)ssibly from 
the Scandinavian drinking-horn, though it is also credited with a 
Roman and Greek derivation. Tylor intimates that the command- 
ing ai:)pearance of buffalos and such animals as wear horns may 
have suggested to the general mind this thing as a token of 
dignity and authority. » 



48 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

It is well established, though but recently, that Man all over 
the world has a common scientific evolution ; the story of one race 
is the story of all. Humanity is a unit in source, in experi- 
ence, in progress; and, in the faith of science we may add, 
one also in the certainty of an immortal and imperial destiny. 
So, if we take the condition of development shown by a tribe 
of American Indians, we shall have a fairly approximate picture 
of just how the beautiful civilization of Greece, or the majestic 
empire of Rome under Augustus, developed through the gens, 
phratrj^ and tribe. 

Too many of us derive our idea of an Indian from Buffalo Bill's 
Wild West Show, or from the straggling specimens that sell 
baskets and beadwork in the summer. But these bear no more 
real resemblance to the Indian as he is historically than do the 
fawning, flattering, fortune-telling gypsies to the ancient Egyptian 
couitiers who exchanged elegant compliments amid the roseate 
shadows of the perfumed audience chamber of Cleopatra. 

Nationally, we have done great material wrong to the original 
possessors of tliis country. Is it not becoming then that we 
should at least make some attempt to do justice to them histori- 
cally, since we have never, or rarely, done it to the living 
individuals ? 

Moreover, our ideas of the Indian have always been colored by 
conflict. We have inherited a distrust of him, and it is only of 
late that scholars generally have begun to appreciate his virtues. 
Even large-hearted ti-avellers like Dickens have been misled into 
regarding him as merely a dirty and drunken ruffian, glad to live 
in laziness and be supported by the government. The trouble is 
we are looking upon the Indian, not as God made Iiim, not as 
he developed under the kindly eye of nature, but as we white 
men have unmade him by the almost off-setting brutality that 
accompanies our present civilization. The American Indian, 
sitting in council near the banks of some winding water, under 
the mellow harvest moon, was a very different being from those 
we see to-day, who have exchanged the virtues of barbarism for 
the vices of civilization; those to whom we have given of our 
M'oret instead of our best. 

Metacom and Wamsutta, the last Indian kings of prominence 



THB ORIGIN OP GOVERNMENT WITH MAN. 



in New England, were types, it is true, of the third stage of 
barbarism. They were barbarians, but they were gentlemen. In 
a of feeling, in regard for the rights of others, in statesman!- 



^-'ili 




|K^ 


Ir 




^« "'-. 


wR 


HKSSlS^^^^^k 


^^V v! 


IS 




^m 


^M 


^H ^<'.^^9&^J^ 


\mk;' 


M 


yS|^^^^^ 


^sl. 


m 




^^m 


m 




^H 



like qualities, and needleas to say in daring, they would compare 
with any of the early Saxon chiefs except pobsibly Alfied the 



60 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

Great. For instance, what could be finer than the feeling shown 
in the following incident ? 

Wamsutta was the chief king of Eastern New England during 
the early colonial days. His father, Massasoit, had heaped kind- 
nesses on the Pilgrims, fed them when starving, saved them from 
the assaults of other tribes. After his death, Wamsutta was one 
diiy at breakfast in one of his many hunting lodges, with several 
of his nobles and their wives. A party of Pilgrims surprised 
them, seized their weapons that had been stacked outside, and told 
the king that he was under arrest and must come to Plymouth 
to answer certain charges. The leader of this party offered the 
outraged monarch a horse to ride on, but the king refused with 
these words : " I could not ride and let these wonjen walk." 

This is but one of the many incidents which a certain un- 
conscious or subconscious candor has forced unfriendly historians 
to record. Wamsutta died from the effect on his proud nature of 
the indignity done him by this an-est, and his brother, Metacom, 
or Philip, as he was called by the Pilgrims, for years nursed plans 
pf vengeance against the race who had been the cause of his 
brother's early death, who had spoiled him of his lands, wantonly 
burned many of his hunting-lodges, and tried even in liis own 
home to curtail his powers. 

Philip made war on our English ancestoi-s during the fall of 
1675 and the following winter and spring; and though like 
Napoleon, a personal failure finally, the results of his well-planned 
war on our ancestors were felt for fifty years after his death, or, as 
their writers agreed, he retarded the development of New England 
for that space. 

Yet he, too, with every reason to detest our race, was not only kind 
in many instances to the prisoners he captured, but was uniformly 
courteous. Mrs. Richardson, who lived as his prisoner for many 
months before she was finally restored to her husband, tells us that 
this great soldier (even his enemies admitted his military genius) 
was a most kindly captor. He asked her one day to make a shirt 
for his little son, and when she had made it, expressing his 
pleasure, he not only thanked her, but paid her an English shilling 
for it. 

Our tardy scholarship is beginning to see that such conduct 



THE ORIGIN OP GOVBRNSIENT WITH MAN. 



more fairly represents the Indian character as it waa at tlie beat 
period of development than the ravages occasionally committed by 




the degenerate tribes of to-day, too often goaded to fury by dis- 
honest government agents. 
It is a pity that we have not sufficient data concerning the 



60 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

Great. For instance, what could be finer than the feeling shown 
in the following incident ? 

Wamsutta was the chief king of Eastern New England during 
the early colonial days. His father, Massasoit, Iiad heaped kind- 
nesses on the Pilgrims, fed them when starving, saved them from 
the assaults of other tribes. After his death, Wamsutta was one 
day at breakfast in one of his many hunting lodges, with several 
of his nobles and their wives. A party of Pilgrims surprised 
them, seized their weapons that had been stacked outside, and told 
the king that he was under arrest and must come to Plymouth 
to answer certain charges. Tlie leader of this party offered the 
outraged monarch a hoi-se to ride on, but the king refused with 
these words : " I could not ride and let these women walk.** 

This is but one of the many incidents which a certain un- 
conscious or subconscious candor has forced unfriendly historians 
to record. Wamsutta died from the efifect on his proud nature of 
the indignity done him by this arrest, and his brother, Metacom, 
or Philip, as he was called by the Pilgrims, for years nursed plans 
pf vengeance against the race who had been the cause of his 
brother's early death, who had spoiled him of his lands, wantonly 
burned many of his hunting-lodges, and tried even in liis own 
tome to curtail his powers. 

Philip made war on our English ancestoi*s during the fall of 
1675 and the following winter and spring; and though like 
Napoleon, a personal failure finally, the results of his well-planned 
war on our ancestors were felt for fifty years after his death, or, as 
their writers agreed, he retarded the development of New England 
for that space. 

Yet he, too, with every reason to detest our race, was not only kind 
in many instances to the prisoners he captured, but was uniformly 
courteous. Mrs. Richardson, who lived as his prisoner for many 
months before she was finally restored to her husband, tells us that 
this great soldier (even his enemies admitted his military genius) 
was a most kindly captor. He asked her one day to make a shirt 
for his little son, and when she had made it, expressing his 
pleasure, he not only thanked her, but paid her an English shilling 
for it. 

Our tardy scholarship is beginning to see that such conduct 



THE OBIGIN OP GOVERNMENT WITH MAN. 51 

more fairly represents the Inditui character as it was at the best 
period o£ development than the ravages occasionally committed by 




the degenerate tribes of to-day, too often goaded to fury by dia. 
honest government agents. 

It is a pity that we have not sufficient data concerning the 



62 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

political condition of the New England Indians to show how they 
developed to the production of such men as those just named, but 
by examining another Indian tribe, the Seneca-Iroquois, we shall 
see the evolution of government among barbarians up to hereditary 
monarchy as clearly as if we went through a long course of Greek 
or Roman history. 

The Seneca-Iroquois were divided into gentes, phratries, and 
tribes. The chiefs in each gens were usually proportioned to the 
membere. Among the Iroquois there is one to about every fifty 
persons. The Iroquois in New York now number three thousand, 
and have eight sachems and about sixty chiefs. 

The first question, then, that suggests itself is, what were the politi- 
cal rights of the gens. First of all, with the basic right of having 
a council of its own, the right of electing and deposing its sachem 
and its chiefs. Here we have at once a fact that contradicts the 
old historical assumption that the democratical form of govern- 
ment is a late invention, and that the monarchical was the one 
most natui-al and most adapted to the evolution of human society. 
For the right of electing and deposing the head of the gens 
shows that man started in a rude way to have what we are trying 
to-day to have in a complete, though perhaps too complex, way ; 
namely, a government of the people. 

Another right of the gens was the inheritance of property. If 
a man died his property would not descend to his son or his 
daughter, but to the gens in common. The feeling here seems to 
be identical with that wliich our most republican millionnaii'e, 
Andrew Carnegie, has recently expressed, that a man's material 
acquisitions, being largely the result of the co-operation of others, 
should at his death revert to whence they came. Mr. Carnegie's 
mind, however, has expanded since his fii^t declaration, for he now 
maintains that a rich man in his life-time should restore to the 
people, in the shape of libraries, parks, and hospitals, the money 
he has made out of them. 

Of course, another right of the gens was that of bestowing 
names on its members, and of adopting strangers by naming them. 
There were obligations, likewise, of help and defence and redress 
of injuries, and, in time, an obligation among most not to marry 
in the gens. Common religious rites, a common burial place and, 



THE OBIOIN OF GOVERNMENT WITH HAH. 68 

as A necessary basis for the election of a sachem, the right to call 
a council, were distinctive marks of tlie Iroquois gens. 

As to the election of sachems and chiefs, it is probably a new- 
fact to most readers that nea ly 11 tl e Ame a I V n tr'bes as 
well as tl e Seneca-1 oquo s h 1 t o g ■ades f cl efta ship 
other words, they 1 ad a pe e go emo and a a el ef 




The sachem, or wise-man, was elected in each gens from among 
its members. A son could not be chosen to succeed his father if 
descent was in the female line, which made the son belong to a 
different gens. 

The duties of a sachem were confined to the affaii-s of peace. 
He settled disputes, advised the time of planting corn, or the 
location of the camp, or any matter that demanded personal 
adviceior sympatiiy. It was analogous in some respects to the 



62 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

political condition of the New England Indians to show how they 
developed to the production of such men as those just named, but 
by examining another Indian tribe, the Seneca-Iroquois, we shall 
see the evolution of government among barbarians up to hereditary 
monarchy as clearly as if we went through a long course of Greek 
or Roman history. 

The Seneca-Iroquois were divided into gentes, phratries, and 
tribes. The chiefs in each gens were usually proportioned to the 
membei*s. Among the Iroquois there is one to about every fifty 
persons. The Iroquois in New York now number three thousand, 
and have eight sachems and about sixty chiefs. 

The first question, then, that suggests itself is, what were the politi- 
cal rights of the gens. First of all, with the basic right of having 
a council of its own, the right of electing and deposing its sachem 
and its chiefs. Here we have at once a fact that contradicts the 
old historical assumption that the democratical form of govern- 
ment is a late invention, and that the monarchical was the one 
most natural and most adapted to the evolution of human society. 
For the right of electing and deposing the head of the gens 
shows that man started in a rude way to have what we are trying 
to-day to have in a complete, though perhaps too complex, way ; 
namely, a government of the people. 

Another right of the gens was the inheritance of property. If 
a man died his property would not descend to his son or his 
daughter, but to the gens in common. The feeling here seems to 
be identical with that which our most republican millionnaire, 
Andrew Carnegie, has recently expressed, that a man's material 
acquisitions, being largely the result of the co-operation of others, 
should at his death revert to whence they came. Mr. Carnegie's 
mind, however, has expanded since his fii*st declaration, for he now 
maintains that a rich man in his life-time should restore to the 
people, in the shape of libraries, parks, and hospitals, the money 
he has made out of them. 

Of course, another right of the gens was that of bestowing 
names on its members, and of adopting strangers by naming them. 
There were obligations, likewise, of help and defence and redress 
of injuries, and, in time, an obligation among most not to marry 
in the gens. Common religious rites, a common burial place and, 



THE OBIGIN OP GOVERNMENT WITH MAN. 



58 



as a necessaiy basis for the election of & sachem, the right to call 
a council, were distinctive marks of the Iroquois gens. 

As to the election of sachems and chiefs, it is probably a new 
fact to most readers that nearly ivll tlie American Indiin tribe'' as 
well as the Seieca-Iroquo s had t o grades of cl efta slip i 
other words, they had a peace go\ernor and a vai cl ef 




ONE OF KINO 



The sachem, or wise-man, was elected in each gens from among 
its members. A son could not be chosen to succeed his father if 
descent was in the female line, which made the son belong to a 
different gens. 

The duties of a sachem were coniined to the affairs of peace. 
He settled disputes, advised the time of planting corn, or the 
location of the camp, or any matter that demanded personal 
advice, or sympathy. It was analogous in some respects to the 



64 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

post of father confessor, though among many of the tribes this 
function was rudimentary in spite of the semi-religious character 
with which the sachem was invested. The relation of the sachem 
was primarily to the gens of which he was the official head, while 
that of the chief, who was chosen for personal bravery or for 
eloquence, was primarily to the tribe or large organization of the 
council of which he as well as the sachem were members. The 
sachem was so much an officer of peace that he could not go to 
war as a sachem, but simply as a private individual in the ranks 
under the leaderships of the chiefs, whose functions were purely 
military or advisory in military matters in the general council of 
the tribe. 

The office of sachem was hereditary in the sense that it was 
filled from the same gens as often as a vacancy happened, but it 
was filled by election from different relatives of the deceased or 
deposed chieftain. Though the office was nominally for life, it 
was practically for good behavior, because of the power to depose. 
The ceremony of installing a sachem was very picturesque. It 
was accompanied by song and dance and the final act was 
symbolized by the putting on a headdress of buffalo horns, as his 
deposition was symbolized by taking off the horns. 

It is one of the little facts that cumulate to show the substan- 
tial relativity of mankind that, even among tribes widely separated, 
horns have been made emblems of office and authority from time 
immemorial, and even of sanctity, as in the Catholic church we 
have the horns of the altar, which were invested with a peculiar 
siicredness. The killing of Thomas h Becket, for instance, in the age 
of Henry II. of England, when assassination was a common crime, 
was accounted especially heinous because the victim was not only 
a priest, but was killed while holding one of the horns of the altar. 

Horns, also, by the imagination of the middle ages, are assigned 
to liis Satanic Majesty, probably as a token of his power, and the 
horn as a sign of plenty is another emblem, derived possibly from 
the Scandinavian drinking-horn, though it is also credited with a 
Roman and Greek derivation. Tylor intimates that the command- 
ing appearance of buffalos and such animals as wear horns may 
liave suggested to the general mind this thing as a token of 
dignity and authority. » 



66 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

Among the Iroquois Indians, whose attempt at government we 
are considering, the nomination of a sachem by a gens was not 
complete until it had received the assent of the seven remaining 
gentes. If these gentes, who met for this purpose by phratries, 
refused to confirm it, the original gens had to make another 
choice ; and even when they had confiimed it, it was still neces- 
sary that the new sachem, to use their own peculiar phrase, should 
be " raised up^*^ that is, should be inducted into his office by a 
council of the confederacy before he could enter upon his duties. 
The same method of election and confirmation applied to chiefs, 
yet a general council never convened to " raise up " chiefs below 
the rank of a sachem, but waited for some time when a sachem 
was to be confirmed. 

The principle of democracy manifested itself here in the reten- 
tion by the gent-i-les,^ or members of each gens, of the right of 
electing their most immediate rulers, and also proved itself in 
the safeguards thrown around the oflBces to prevent usurpations 
by the check on the election which the other gentes held in their 
hands and by the additional check held by the whole tribe. We 
can see in this ceremonial of " raising up " by the tribe an 
analogue of the administration to our President of the oath of 
office by some one else, as we can see also in the checks devised 
by the Indian mind against the seizure of power by unscrupulous 
ambition the same working principle that led the founders of this 
republic to put various checks on the power of individuals, and 
even of popular assemblies, such as the check of the Senate on the 
House of Representatives. 

It is worthy of note that in this democratic assembly, or coun- 
cil of the gens, which elected a sachem, not merely every man, 
but every married woman, had a voice upon great questions, 
probably in many cases very much of a voice on little ones, like- 
wise. Thus it is evident that the great ideas. Liberty, Equality, 
and Fraternity, which were the torch-words of the French Revolu- 
tion, though never formulated into sounding phrase by Indian 
orators, were cardinal principles of their system of government. 

Looked at carelessly, a council of Indian chiefs, scantily clad, 

> Oent-i-les — the members of a gens or family group. A word to be distinguished from 
Gentiles as used in the Bible. 



THE OKIGIN OP GOVERNMENT WITH HAK. 67 

with paint-daubed faces, armed with rude weapons and amoking 
clumsy pipes, is of little importance except as a ptctureijqueneBs 
of the past. Studied by the light of science, it is seen to be the 
germ of the modern congress, and thus to have a bearing of great 
importance on the histoiy of mankind. 

The first st^ge of tribal government was a council of chiefs 
elected by the gentes and may be styled a one-power government ■ 
— not a one-raan power, for that was to come later. 







, -'^ 


^-A'^'/^H 






^^.„ '^ TEbs 








«S*>^0*!^ 


^^^hM^H 


Hg 


fii^^'^^^ 


bb^ 


^^9 


^ 


^%i: 


w^M 


^H 


^ 


r' 


■■^^F~^ 


pra^w 






^^1 


hH 



The second stage was a govei'nment divided, or balanced, be- 
tween a council of chiefs, or sncliems, and a general ; one repre- 
senting the civil, and ^he other the military necessities of the 
people. 

The general, called War Chief among the Iroquois, Rex among 
the Romans, and Basileus among the Oreeks, was the germ, or 
suggestion, of a chief executive magistrate. King, Emperor, or 
President. This office was elective and not hereditarj' among the 
Iroquois and other Indians, as likewise among the Romans, and 
later light seems to show that the Spaniards, and the great 
historian Prescott following their lead, were mistaken in thinking 



68 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

that among the Aztecs the office was hereditary. It is also 
extremely doubtful whether among the Greeks of the traditionary 
period, — that is, those who figure as heroes in the world's 
greatest poems, the Iliad and Odyssey, — the office of king was 
not elective, instead of Iiereditary, as most scholars have hitherto 
assumed. 

This double government of an elective council and elective 
general, or two-power government, naturally unfolded into a third 
stage: a tribal government, with a council of chiefs, a general 
commander, and an assembly of the people, since the establishment 
of tribes in walled cities, and the creation of wealth in lands, 
flocks and herds and in private property necessitated a popular 
assembly. 

The council of chiefs, to retain their power, found it needful to 
submit the most important measures to this popular assembly for 
approval or the reverse. It does not appear that this assembly 
originated measures, but was content to let the chiefs do their 
thinking for them, retaining only the right of rejection or final 
action. This was a creation then of a three-power government, 
namely the preconsidering council, the popular assembly to sanc- 
tion or reject the plans of their accepted thinkers, and the general 
to carry them out, if called upon. 

The Iroquois went one step further in the development of gov- 
ernment than most of the Indians, for one of tlieir wise men, 
Ha-yo-went-ha, whom our poet Longfellow has celebrated as 
Hiawatha, conceived the idea of uniting their different tribes and 
some others into a confederacy mth marked limitations of territory 
which was almost an arrival at the conception of a nation. The 
Iroquois tradition tells us that the council for this purpose met on 
the north shore of the beautiful Onondaga Lake near the present 
site of Syracuse, and that the organization was perfected. 

The great Edinburgh scholar. Prof. John Stuart Blackie, 
remarks that the American Indians and the Greeks of the Homeric 
poems bear to each otlier in sentiment a wonderfully striking 
resemblance. This is especially true as to the basis of government 
indicated by their political or official titles. The Iroquois name 
for a sachem (Ilo-yar-na-go-war), which signifies " a counsellor of 
the people," has its duplicate in many Greek names for military 



[ OBIQIN OF GOVEKNMENT WITH MAN. 



59 



leaders, which betokens that botli barbaric governraents were based 
on the people (as is not the case to-day with the barbaric govern- 
meots of Russia and of China) and were, indeed, a rude kind of 
free democracy. 

Since scientists are agreed that all mtn liave developed in very 
nearly similar ways, tliere is contained in this jiarticular picture a 
general one also of the way in which all races probably began, 
by the slow adding of new featnres to the machinery of their 
social system, to evolve tlie idea of government from the family. 
What is averagely true of the American Indian applies roundly, 




and the different kinds of gfiveninicnt wliicli wo chilli bii led to 
study further on, by means of brief historical illustrations, will l>e 
seen to be growths upon this primal stock i>f df/mncraticul govern- 
ment, excrescences caused citlier hy tlio cleverness of priests, or 
the ambition of individual chiefs, who, tenii«>i-arily clothed with 
power by the [leople, managed to perpetuate their power in them- 
selves and their descendants. But these excrescencfs^ on the fair 
growth of the original democratic idea are gradually losing their 
vitality and must before long drop awa)-. 

■ It 1b believeil by Gome BtaJsnts at liintnry tint tlia iiei>iilB liave Bimrrcly itcvelojieil die 
moDaTchiual form as preferable to Oic umiTtalnty.che Hiictiiaiii clmrai-ifr.cjf an <.lii-ar>:lii'! '>r 
democratic fomi. PosbIUI; nionaTcliy it part or a natural onlrr. jiwt as a dinorder In chilil- 
bood may be a Htfeguatd againat a mure dan^roua disease later— a sort of unconscious 
■all'TSCcinaUon on Uie part of a people •levelopin;;. 



60 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

We have now had a brief outline of the simplest form of tribal 
government, a form adapted to meet only the needs of barbarians. 
We shall see in a later chapter how perfect in its mechanism, 
and how marvellous in its power has been, and still is, the theo- 
cratic, or priestly government, which the great French scholar, 
Fustel de Coulanges, seems to think was more strong in the begin- 
ning of ancient society than to-day. For de Coulanges maintains 
that among ancient races every family had a separate religion ; 
that every hearth was the altar of a personal god, and that con- 
sequently every attempt at closer association between different 
families for the pui^j^ose, or towards the end, of establishing a 
joint government was not merely colored, but controlled, by the 
theocratic or priestly idea ; was dominated always by the shadow 
of the unseen world. 

It sometimes happens, however, that great scholars who adopt 
certain ideas as genei-al explanations of any problem are tempted 
to twist even the simplest fact into an apparent substantiation of 
their theories. For example, this great Frenchman just mentioned, 
whose lust book had the extraordinary honor of being crowned 
three times by the French Academy, takes a very simple passage 
from Homer's beautiful poem, " The Odyssey." Ulysses, when 
offered countless treasures and immortality likewise, wishes instead 
to see once more the flame of his own hearth-fire. The scholar, 
often too eager to prove his case and so tempted into becoming 
a special {^leader, seems to see in this a proof of the worship of 
home and the household fire-god rather than a simple, though 
profound, idea put by the greatest of poets into the mouth of his 
wisest character. 

For should not the wise man's words really be taken as 
merely an outburst of the charmingly simple and profoundly true 
feeling that human affection outshines all treasures, and that to 
see once again, after long separation, one's beloved wife and child 
would be more to a man than immoitality away from them ? 



II. 




f{udin)cr)is 




/Kn)or)^ /Kt)itr)clls^ 




THE beginnings of human government, as of the human 
family, if we accept tlie doctrine of Darwin, are 
unquestionably found among the lower animals. But 
whether we believe the Darwinian theory or not, which 
the most eminent pathologist Virchow has recently declared to be 
still far from final, we cannot reasonably refuse to admit that 
" instinct," as a mysterious line of separation between man and 
other animals, has been wiped out. The word, instinct, comes 
from the Latin verb, instinguere^ to excite or urge on, and by 
logical necessity implies a conscious exciter behind the excitement 
exhibited. Hence, very justly from this point of view, Ciesalpinus, 
an ancient author, remarks : — " Deus est anima brutorum.^^ " God 
is the mind (or moving principle) of animals." 

Most of the early philosophers, and especially the Christian 
fathers (who were almost unanimous in regarding all animal 
life as something necessarily coarse, gross and contemptible), 
assumed that animals were mere automata. In the middle ages 
those who sought an explanation for the manifold manifestations 
of reason among the brutes were, however, slightly at variance in 
their opinions, for some attributed such tokens to the all-powerful 
and ever-ready devil ; while others referred them to the agency of 
God, through the medium of instinct — which was defined as a 



61 



62 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

guiding, inborn, unchangeable and irresistible propensity, inde- 
pendent of experience or training or heredity, and acting appro- 
priately without consciousness of the object aimed at. 

According to Descartes, the great French philosopher, the 
feelings and emotions of animals are an empty show — a welcome 
bit of philosophy for animal tormentors. This extreme opinion, 
coming from a man so famous, had a great vogue in its time, but 
some voices here and there were lifted against it, and even the 
Jesuit father, Bonjeant, who found so much intelligence in ani- 
mals that he thought most of it must be due to the help of the 
devil or devils, turned against Descartes with the words : " All 
the Cartesians in the world will never persuade me that a dog is 
a mere machine. Imagine a man who should love his clock as 
he loves his dog, and who should pet it because he believed it 
loved him and was of opinion that it struck the hours con- 
sciously and out of friendship for him. Yet, if Descartes be right, 
that is exactly the absurdity committed by all those who believe 
that their dog is faithful to them and loves them. I see how my 
dog runs to me when I call him, caresses me when I coax him, 
trembles and runs away when I threaten him, obeys when I order 
him, and how he exhibits all the outward signs of the distinct 
emotions of joy, grief, pain, fear, desire, love and hate. And if 
all the philosophers in the world should try to convince me, I 
should never be able to persuade myself that an animal is a 
machine." 

But, in contradiction of the doctrine that animals are automatic, 
it has long been recognized that the power and practice of organi- 
zation among the lower animals include a series of phenomena 
of the highest interest — phenomena that involve the possession 
and application of high mental and even moral faculties. For 
instance, there are forms of government and respect for consti- 
tuted authority. « If men," wrote the pagan Celsus in the second 
century after Christ, " think themselves dilBferentiated from ani- 
mals, because they inhabit towns, make laws and set up govern- 
ments, they prove themselves in error, for bees and ants do the 
same." Celsus also noted that ants talk with each other when 
they meet, and offered an opinion, which recent investigation has 
confirmed, that they had regular burying-grounds. 



EUDIMENTS AMONG ANIMALS. 68 

When an animal is very minute, people are apt to think its 
oi^nization must be very simple and its intelligence very small, 
for the influence of the prejudice of mere size over the majority is 
very great. The gigantic dimensions of a whale, or a reptile of 

the fossil age, attract general attention, while equal attention is 
not easily aroused by the most wonderful phenomena exhibited in 




the life of a flea or an ant. Yet the exti-aordinary capabilities of 
an apparently lowly creature may yield to a philosopher the most 
valuable results. 

The cerebral ganglia of the ant — which ganglia in invertebrate 
animals take tlie place of tlie bmin proper to tlie vertebrate — are 
no larger than a quarter of a pin's head. " Under this point of 
view," as Darwin says, "the brain of the ant is one of the most 
wonderful atoms of matter in the world, perliaps more so than 
the brain of a man." And this fact shows that tliere may be 



64 THE STORY OF GOYEBNHENT. 

marvellously great mentality in. a maryellonslj small mass of 
nervous matter. 

Ants live in a republic, in the fullest sense of the word, that 
is, in a state on the widest democratic foundations ; and is it not 
significant that the most intelligent family among socially living 
insects has made for itself a polity which is regarded among men 
as the relatively best and most ideal, while a step lower, among 
bees, there is a distinct inclination to the form of so-called consti- 
tutional monarchy ? Among men, even among many college-bred 
Americans, it is frequently said that while the republican form of 
government, from a theoretical standpoint, best represents the 
ideal of the state and the principles of justice, nevertheless, on 
account of the ineradicable weakness of human nature, and the con- 
sequent impossibility of self-government, it is not practically 
realizable. 

Were this true, ought we not to look up to and regard 
with profound admiration the little ant-nation that lives at 
our feet, since every tribe of those apparently petty creatures 
finds itself intelligent and civilized enough to live easily and 
happily under the principles of universal equality and liberty? 
Shall we not have to revise Solomon's saying, " Go to the ant, 
thou sluggard ! " somewhat after this fashion, " Go to the ant, 
thou political economist, or college professor who inculcatest 
monarchism " ? 

But the ant republic has not merely political equality ; it has 
gone a step further than that and evolved industrial equality. 
It has developed from the social the socialistic republic, and 
is indeed in all its industrial, though not in all its social features, 
what our most idealistic politiconsocial refonners are wont to put 
forward as the last and mightiest aim of human efforts after 
governmental perfection ; the ideal of Plato, and Sir Thomas More, 
of Edward Bellamy and a growing host of thinkers and 
workers now in eveiy place. The ant state is a " Proletariat 
State " in the truest sense of the word, since only the wingless, 
sexless worker-ants, which have no families of their own to look 
after, take part in directing the business, while the winged males 
and fertile females are kept as prisoners in the nest, and are fed 
and nurtured for the sake of their progeny. 




"^^.^ ^'Hb' L^W 



THE POLICE C 



66 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

Tlje expression " sexless " is really not appropriate to the men, 
or rather \vonien-workei*s, for these are really undeveloped feinalai^ 
so that the state is truly under a rule completely feminine. 
Huber remarks that these are women whose moral qualities 
have been developed at the cost of their physical, — a tiling which 
ought not to happen among mankind, for the most perfect devel- 
opment of a human being is that wliich is symmetrical. As Alcott 
said, Friendship is globular, Love is spherical, and the loss or de- 
pression of any element of God's creation is not a superior purity 
but an imperfection. 

The individual ant does not possess a family, for the principle 
of public and state training of children — such as the philosopher 
Plato is known to have desired in his republic, and which would 
be necessary in a fully organized " Proletariat State " — is thor- 
oughly carried out in the ant republic. 

There is one singular contradiction to the equality regnant 
among ants and this is, that for an unknown length of time they 
have had a politico-social institution which has played and still 
plays a great part in the history of human nations and civilizations. 
This institution, indeed, seems at first sight not to harmonize with 
the otherwise social-democratic arrangements of the ant republic ; 
but when we remember that slavery existed in the republics of 
antiquity, and not only well agreed with the rest of the polity, 
but was even an essential support of the same, we can scarcely 
deny to the ant republic its democratic character on account of 
slavery. And this the rather since slavery among ants is as mild, 
if not milder, than it was in Greece, where freed slaves were often 
known to rise to the highest offices and dignities of the State, 
or even than in Rome, where Greek slaves were the tutors of the 
young, and slavery, odious as it may be in and for itself, neverthe- 
less apparently contributed to the general advance of civilization. 

Besides, slavery among ants, in a very important point, is 
far superior to that among men, and it may be said without 
question that in this resj^ect ants tliink and act more humanely 
than men themselves. For instance, they never allow grown-up 
membei"s of their race, who have come to their full antly 
consciousness, to l)e enslaved, whereas human slave-makers are 
known never to have the smallest scruple on this head. For the 



RODIMENTS AMON(i ANIMALS. 67 

ant-kidnappers only atea! larvie iind pui)io, which tliey bring up as 
regular slaves within their dwellings, so that these last have never 
tusted the sweetness of freedom. Only young aiitH, one or two 
days old, recognizable by their clear color, which are not yet out 
of their long clothes ami do not yet know what is " manly or 
wommily pride before the throne of a king," are sei/.ed and made 
into slaves, and these aceuatoni themselves <]nickly and easily to 
their new position. 

The slaves of tlie ants, moreover, do not seem to lie conscious 
of the lo.ss, or rather of the absence of freediwn, and, as a rule, 
work willingly and uncorapelled, in common with tlicir masters 
at all the tasks necessary for the maintenance of the colony, such 




as building the dwellings, searching for plant-lice, tendance and 
feeding of larv-e and pupse, and so on, and even fight against 
members of their own species in company with their robber-lords. 
■They are regarded more as frientls, brothel's, or heljiei's than as 
real slaves. They never think of escaping from slavery by flight, 
although the naturalist, Forel, once observed a revolt among them. 
This rule applies at least to the Swiss species ohseiTed by Huber, 
while in the south of England colonies* have been seen in which 
the slavee never leave or venture to leave the nest, and are thus, 
in the true sense of the word, domestic slaves. 

Ants also show a strong resemblance to men in the development 
of their character. Their great attachment and self-sacrifice for 
the commonwealth and for each member of it are accompanied 



68 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

generally by a hasty temperament, a proneness to furious anger, 
and an unquenchable hatred against all foreign or hostile colonies. 
Therewith are blended industry, perseverance, and too often 
cruelty. Gluttony also is one of their chai-acteristics, and their 
love for a good meal is so great that it is thus possible to restrain 
their otherwise unconquerable desire to fight. Nothing is more 
interesting than to watch this struggle of two passions. If honey, 
of wliich ants are inordinately fond, and for which they will 
generally leave all other food, be placed on a battlefield between 
two contending parties, as for instance red and turf ants, some of 
the warriors will be seen approaching and tasting it. They never 
stay by it long, but quickly return to the fight. Sometimes these 
same ants will turn back longingly twice or thrice. 

Government among the Termites, who are wrongly named 
ants, has some highly interesting points. They belong to an 
entirely different order of the Insecta, the Orthoptera, are related 
most nearly to our Blattae or cockroaches, and are three or four 
times as large as our black ants. Their polity seems to be almost 
more developed than that of the ants, and their architectural talent 
is also superior. They raise, in Africa at least, fine buildings of 
from ten to twenty feet high, out of the earth, clay, pieces of 
plants, stones, etc., fastening together these materials by a kind 
of gummy saliva. 

So firm does this make their towns, built in the shape of a cone 
or of a large liaycock, that several men can stand on tlieir surface. 
Antelopes and buffaloes are wont to use these giant ant-liills for 
sentries or watchtowers to look over the wide plains and guard 
against the approach of enemies. They do not break through 
even under the tread of an elephant or the weight of a heavily 
laden wagon. In Senegal their size and number are often so large 
that at a distance they frequently resemble human dwellings, the 
similarly conical huts of the negro villagei*s, and travellers are 
sometimes thereby led in a wi'ong direction. Jol)Son, in his 
'' History of Gambia," says that many of these towns are twenty 
feet high, and that he and his companions often hid behind them 
when out hunting. 

At first the buildings are only small, and resemble pyramids 
scarcely a foot high. Gradually, as tlie population increases, new 



RUDIMENTS AMONG ANIMALS. 



69 



and similar hills lise up all around. The partition walla are then 
broken througli, t^e new dwellings are united to the old, a dome 
is added, and a symmetrical roof is built over all. Tims a perfect 
objectrlesson of mankind's greatest principle, co-operation, is con- 
tinually I'epeated, until the mound of twelve or twenty feet high 
is made. The outer covering consists of a firm-domed vaulted 
layer of clay, which is exceedingly strong, so as to withstand in- 
juries from weather, attacks of enemies, and other accidents. 




The astonishment felt at the capabilities of these creatures who 
are sometimes a scourge to the human inhabitants of the countries 
where they live becomes even greater wlien we investigate the 
interior of the hills that .serve as their dwellings. Tliese internal 
aiTvmgements are so various and so complicated that pages of des- 
cription might be written about tliem. Tliere are myriads of 
rooms, cells, nuraeries. })rovisiou i-hamltei-s, guard-ninms, passages. 
corridors, vaults, bridges, subterranean streets and vanals, tunnels, 
arched ways, steiw, smooth inclines, domes, etc., etc., all arranged 
on a definite, coherent, ami well-considered plan. In the middle 
of the building, sheltered as far as possible fnim outside dangers, 
lies the stately roj-al dwelling, resembling an arclied oven, in which 



70 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

the royjil pair reside, or rather are imprisoned, for the entrances 
and outlets are so small that although the workei-s on service can 
pass easily in and out, tlie queen cannot, for during the egg-laying 
her lx)dy swells out to an enormous size, two or three thousand 
times the size and weight of an ordinary worker. 

The tjueen, therefore, never leaves her dwelling, and dies therein. 
Round the palace, which is at first small, but is later enlarged in 
proportion as tlie queen increases in size, until it is at last a yard 
long and half a yard high, lie the nurseries or cells for the eggs 
and larvae ; next these the servants' rooms or cells for the workers 
who wait on the queen ; then special chambers for the soldiers on 
guard, and between these are numerous store-rooms, filled with 
gums, resins, dried plant-juices, meal, seeds, fruits, worked-up wood, 
etc. According to Bettziech-Beta, there is always in the midst 
of the town a large common room, which is used either for 
popular assembliei or as the meeting and starting point of the 
countless piissages and cliambers of the town. Other naturalists 
believe that this space serves for purposes of ventilation. 

It is by no means easy to investigate accumtely the interior 
of a Termite town, owing to the interdependence of the several 
parts — tlie destruction of one room, arch, or passage causing the 
breaking down of many, and in addition to tliis the energetic resist- 
ance of the Termite soldiers, armed with very sharp and strong 
mandibles, puts great obstacles in the way of the observer. " They 
fight," says tlie English traveller Smeath man, to whom we owe the 
fullest information about these creatures, " thev figrht to the last 
man, and they defend so energetically every inch of their projierty 
that they often drive away the unshod negroes, while the blood of 
the European runs through his stockings. We were never able to 
itudy the interior of a nest in peace ; for while the soldiei*s 
attacked us, the workers stopped up as quickly as possible the 
rooms and passages laid open." They do this especially in the 
neighborhood of the royal dwelling, for which they show the great- 
est care, and that so cleverly that from the outside it only looks 
like a formless heap of clay and cannot be distinguished from its 
surroundings. Nevertheless, it is not hard to iind, partly from its 
situation in the midst of the building, and partly because it is sur- 
rounded by great crowds of workers and soldiei-s, willing to risk 



KUDIMENTS AMONG ANIMALS. 



71 



their lives in its defence. Tlie interior aUo, besides containing the 
royal pair, is found filled with hundreds of tlie workers serving the 
latter. These faithful servants do not desert their sovereigns even 
in utmost need and peril. " For wlien I," says Smeathman, " took 
out such a royal dwelling and kept it in a lai^e glajss vessel, all of 
the servants busied themselves witli the greatest care about their 
sovereigns, and I saw some of them engaged about the head of 
the queen, as t)iough they wei-e giving her something. Then they 





m 


M.W-^Af 


m 




^H 


s 



took awav from her abdomen the eggs laid by her, and carried tliem 
carefully into some unbroken parts of the building, or hid thein 
between scraps of clay as well as they could." 

The Termites shun the light nf day : " having light, they ]>i-cfer 
darkness rather." Thi;* is also shown to some extent in their state 
polity, which, as ahvaily sjiid, otherwise much resembles the Ant 
Republic, except that it favow the nionareliical idea by passessing 



72 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

a standing army and having genemlly only one queen. By this 
possession of a standing army the Termites' state is rendered 
more monarchical even than the famous Bee polity, so often re- 
garded as the prototype of a monarcliy, or the rule of one indi- 
vidual. The Bee government, indeed, generally has only one 
queen, but instead of a standing army it carries out to the fullest 
extent the purely republican or democratic principle of univei-sal 
national arm-bearing in a fashion that leaves far behind it all 
human arrangements. 

Yet not in this alone, but in all its affairs, the Bee state must be 
characterized as a monarchy with very democratic institutions. It 
may, indeed, be called a communistic or social-democratical mon- 
archy — such as Napoleon III. for a time, while coquetting 
with the working-classes, appears to have had the notion of intro- 
ducing in France. It may also be called an elective monarchy, for 
no direct hereditaiy line is followed, but the queen is in each case 
chosen by the workers, and selected or rejected as they please. 
The queen in return relies wholly upon the workers, or the neuter 
working bees, who, by the possession of their terrible poisoned sting, 
unite in their own pereons the functions of workers and soldiers. 
The privileged condition of the non-working, pleasure-loving males, 
or drones, is only suffered by the worker just so long as .their 
services are thought necessary. 

On the other hand, the monarchical principle is very plainly 
manifested in the fact that the whole life of the hive revolves 
more or less round the queen ; where she is wanting, dies, or is 
not succeeded by another, the hive falls into disorder, and in a 
longer or shorter time infallibly perishes. Single members of the 
hive, if they scatter, cither die or become useless, lazy vagabonds 
and mischievous higliwaymen. The monarchical principle of the 
Bee nation is still more strikingly manifested in comparison with 
the other social insects, in that only one ruler or queen is permit- 
ted, and that where several accidentally come together the super- 
fluous ones are either killed or are compelled to go out and found 
new colonies. 

Nevertlieless an old and aMicated queen, no longer able to lay 
any fertilized eggs, is out of mercy sometimes suffered to remain 
for a while in the hive near her successor, and receive some 





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li THK STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

measure of tlu? bread of charity. Pfarrer Calminius observed a 
case ill which two queens lived peaceably and well tended near 
each other on two tables hanging side by side. But these are rare 
exceptions. The workers genemlly sting the old useless queens 
unmei'ci fully to death, or suffocate them by surrounding them 
closely on all sides. Sometimes they are merely driven out of the 
hive and left to perish. 

The wond(Mful ol)servation has been made that a queen who, 
through age or vsome other weakening circumstances, l)ecomes con- 
scious of her exhaustion, and has communicated this consciousness 
to her people, provides in common with them for the safe succession 
to the throne, and soon as this is done gives back the throne and 
sceptre into the hands of the people, that is, either voluntarily 
leaves the hive in order to die outside, or is killed by the bees and 
thrown out. 

As a matter of fact there is no small resemblance between the 
l)ee system and that of constitutional monarchy in so far as the 
l>ees appear to lay no stress on the pei-son of their queen, and are 
perfectly contented so long as they have one, that is, some one 
capable of discharging the royal or rather maternal duties. They 
change the sovereignty as a rule eiisily and quickly, and thoroughly 
practise the well-known maxim of constitutional royalty : " Le roi 
est mort — vive le roi.'' (The king is dead — long live the king !) 
A hive robbed of its queen either doe« homage to a fresh queen 
introduced into it just as her predecessor, or brings up a sovereign 
by its own efforts ; while a hive long left queenless falls* into sloth 
and riot, and sooner or later perishes. 

The queen, since all revolves round her, is the necessary centre 
and bond of the hive, but without herself taking any personal part 
in the business and proceedings. She therefore, in reality, exactly 
answers to the foundation-stone of constitutionalism, and is what 
Napoleon I. declared he would not be, in reply to the famous 
constitutional reproach of Si(^yes : '*The prize-pig of the nation." 
She is indeed widely and honorably different from her human 
antitype in that she is not simply "representative,'' giving to high 
and low merely an empty show, but really discharges actual and 
essential duties, without which nothing could exist. 

Apart from this, the queen in the simplicity and uniformity of 



KUDINrENTS AMONG ANIMALS. 75 

her work, and in the half, though respectful, imprisonment in 
which she is kept, is a complete contrast to her intellectually and 
physically developed and active subjects, so that here, as so often 
among men, it might seem fair to say that stupidity or narrowness, 
or perhaps only mediocrity, rules over reason. 

In any case this sovereignty is nuich restricted by the subjects 
who, indeed, seem to indemnify tliemselves for the compulsory 
endurance of a monarchical head by observing otherwise the 
maxims of the most extreme democraciy, of the widest Socialism 
and Comnuuiism. For among l)ees One is as good as another and 
the beautiful princi[)le is unconditionally obeyed: '^ Eacli for all 
— all for each." They have no private property, no family, no 
private dwelling, but liang in thick clumps within the common 
room in the narrow space between the combs, taking turns for 
brief nightly repose. The building, cleansing, and working are 
also carried on partially through the night. All stores are com- 
mon ; there is only the state magazine, and all are fed from this 
without distinction of person. If want and hunger enter, all die 
alike. The queen here is an exception and has the privilege of 
dying last. The bees are, however, egotists in such times of need, 
and in threatening famine from continued bad weather, throw the 
larvie, the drone larvje first, out of the cells. Tliis also happens 
likewise, when lack of place for storing provisions occurs, owing 
to very successful foraging. The larvie are then thrown out, or 
the nuraing nairowed down to the uttermost. 

In the matter of labor the bees have realized the liiijhest ideal 
of Communism, for it is perfectly free, voluntary, and uncompul- 
soiy. Each does its much or as little as seems to it good ; but 
there are no sluggards among them, for the universal example acts 
as an incitement ; and in a society wherein all work, idleness is 
really an unthinkal)le and impossible thing. Wliereas, on the 
contmiy, in the much-jHaised opposite condition of human society 
the idleness of the few is not onlv favored but seems to be abso- 
lutely unavoidable. 

Truly, in a communistic foi-m of society the individual must 
have the consciousness, as among the l)ees,that, in so far as he is a 
member of the whole, he is not working for otliers but for the 
common good and therewith for himself. This consciousness 



76 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

makes the bees such busy and eager workers that many of them 
work themselves to death in a few weeks during the foragmg 
season, whereas working bees usually reach an age of nine or ten 
months, so tliat the great Roman poet, Virgil, whose genius tlirew 
light on the commonest human labors, wrote truly : 

** Ofttimes in a mistaken fliglit they tear 
Their wings, and even generously die 
Before they drop the precious load, so high 
The fame of getting honey, and so strong 
The love they feel for flowers." 

The " instinct " philosopliers will probably say that this work- 
ing themselves to death in behalf of the community is only the 
result of an inborn, irresistible, heaven-implanted tendency in the 
little bee mind from which the insect cannot voluntarily iree 
itself, and that we therefore cannot liere speak either of merit or 
design. But in the first place is it believable that " instinct " 
should impel an animal to do that wliich will finally lead to its 
destruction ? Secondly that opinion does not agree with the 
already often mentioned experience that the inhabitants of a 
queenless hive, which in losing their queen have lost the object of 
their society, cejuse to work and fall into idleness and riot. 

Now the same form of government which by one naturalist is 
termed a monarchy, with a king or ([ueen at its head, is by another 
described as a republic, witli a male or female president. But the 
essential feature — one of importance in many ways — is the 
government of a community or society, of a band or troop, 
flock or herd, family or other group of individuals, species or 
genera, large or small, by a leader or chief. 

The consideration of this embraces the following features of 
interest : — 1. The principle of selection and election or appoint- 
ment. 2. Competition and ambition for rule and their results. 
3. The subjection of the weak to the strong in body, mind and 
will. 4. The use and abuse of authority, including the power 
of command. 5. The appreciation of insignia of office or status. 
6. The value attached to the possession of power and place. 

In various forms leaders, governors, chiefs, commanders, pa- 

triar<,^hs, mastei-s, rulers, or lieads, are to be found in many social 

,' "^TliJhnlil^l^d^'ecting and defending tlie groups into which they are 



r .: 






78 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

divided. They occur, for instance, among wild, military-, and 
pack horses, Eskimo dog teams, or dogs in Turkish towns, 
beavers who build villages, camels, deer, oxen, mules, seals who 
hold conventions, buffaloes, kangaroos, goats, among certain sea- 
birds which appear to live in regular cities and certain of the 
quadrumana (such as the siamang gorilla, spider, howling, araguata, 
guereza, and other monkeys), cranes, swallows, wild geese, cocks 
and hens. 

These leaders are, as a general rule, males of middle age, some- 
times elderly or old, and possessing as qualifications for office : — 

1. Physical superiority ; being frequently above the average in 
size and strength, or at least so robust and active that they have 
proved themselves successful in combat and otherwise. 

2. Mental superiority. They are distinguished, moreover, for 
their courage, cautiousness, sagacity, power of command, ability 
to act in emergency, so as to protect, defend, or direct their fol- 
lowers ; for their experience ; special knowledge of enemies or 
of ground ; power of self-control, especially control of temper ; 
interest in the common weal ; enterprise ; ingenuity and perae- 
vei*ance in the overcoming of difficulties — in other words, adapt- 
iveness. Their superiority must be twofold, physical and mental ; 
for a merely huge, strong animal, without the requisite intelligence 
to adapt its strength to circumstances, would be useless as a leader. 

Generally speaking, leadei*s are of the same species as the ani- 
mals they command ; belong, perhaps, to tlie same small family or 
group, as in the case of certain patriarchs or mere heads of fam- 
ilies or tribes. But in other cases tlie chief belongs to a diffei^ent 
species or genus. Thus the axis deer, as depicted on the opposite 
I)age, sometimes leads **• mobs'' of kangaroos in Australia. The 
(lonkev in the district of Smyrna, in Broussa, and the Asiatic 
Olympus in Anatolia, and other parts of Asia Minor, is frequently 
employed as leader of a caravan of camels; for contrary to the 
prejudices of the West, in Oriental lands "Long Eai-s" enjoys the 
reputation of being the most intelligent of lioofed betists. Mares 
are employed as leadei-s of droves of mules in Centrtil America, 
the latter animals having a liigh respect for and pride in the 
hoi-se as a ^'distinguished relative," and thus willingly accepting 
a mare as their queen. 




BAHOAHODS I.ED BY AN J 



80 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

Man himself frequently becomes the leader of his flocks or his 
herds, as in the case of shepherds of the East, who literally 
" lead," do not drive, as ours do, their flocks. Man is recognized 
literally and figuratively as its " governor " by the dog ; his right 
to command is freely acknowledged, and the propriety of his 
orders or actions, as a rule, not disputed. Here it should be 
noted that in this case it sometimes, at least, happens that man 
gains and wields his wonderful power over other animals by the 
exercise of kindness, not of terrorism ; by the supremacy of love, 
not of fear; by the greatest of all forces, a patient gentleness. 
Thus the command of the shepherd over his sheep in primitive 
countries, where the use of the sheefxlog is unknown — for 
instance, in Palestine — is acquired by his constant association 
with his sheep, by his habitual kindly usage, whereby confidence 
in, and attiicliment to, liis person or pei-sonality are produced. 
King Theodore of Abyssinia with his pet lions was an excellent 
example of what a King can accomplish by gentleness instead 
of crueltv. 

The principle of appointment in the case of all kinds of animal 
leadei's is that the strongest, boldest, best in every way, should be 
called to the front and invested with supreme power ; and this 
principle actuates man equally with other animals in tlie selection 
of an animal chief for his flocks or herds. Man chooses and 
installs a leading mule, hoi*se, dog, or i-am on the very same prin- 
ciple that makes a flock or herd acquiesce in the self-appointment 
of some victorious young male. In human emergency of a serious 
kind, and on a large and public scale, how frequently it happens 
that some man gf marked individuality, but previously unknown, 
comes to the fi*ont as a volunteer leader, no one kno\\^ how, and 
his supremacy is at once, by tacit consent, acknowledged. Average 
people feel that he is the *' right man for the right place." He 
has the requisite force of character and the ability to command 
universal confidence. Universal confidence is forthwith accorded 
for the time. 

The man of the time, however, is as liable to be discarded by a 
fickle 2X)pulaee i\s the proud and splendid stallion, when he begins 
to lose that most indefinable of all qualities, popularity. So in 
animal panics, for instance, some pi-eviously unobserved or undis- 



RUDtMENTS AMONG ANIMALS. 



81 



tinguisbed individual starts, liteiully, in this case, to tlie front, and 
is followed, for weal or woe, by tlie rest of a troop, herd or flock. 
There is ample evidence to show that self-appointment to the 
leadership is common among social aiiimaLj ; that the ambition of 




DOO TOWN. 



some young, energetic, vigorous male urges it to challenge and 
defeat the reigning chief, a defeat that is equivalent to the com- 
pulsory deposition of the one and the self-instalment of the other. 
Thia new appointment, however, is, under the circumstances. 



82 THE STOUY OF GOVERNMENT. 

ratified by the general assent, so that, in one sense, it may be 
deemed a unanimous election. There is a practical and tacit 
acknowledgment of the fitness of things, the excitement being 
confined mainly to the combatants themselves, though the specta- 
tor, no doubt, look on with a varying degree of interest. 

There is, liowever, a strong probability, although no direct 
evidence, that, in eases where no such candidate presents himself 
and takes the law of competition and succession into his o^vn hands, 
selection is made by universal suffi-age — by pushing into a posi- 
tion of command that individual among them best qualified to 
exercise the supreme power. There is very distinct appointment, 
certainly, and by a kind of univereal sufifrage, in the street-dog 
republics of Constiintinople, for they sometimes select as their 
leader some animal belonging to a dififerent quarter of the town 
— -from among their natural enemies, therefore — the motive of 
such choice being signal bravery displayed by the favored individ- 
ual, either in attack or defence. 

The usual function of animal leadei*s seems to be that of a piT»- 
tector, to direct meiisures of defence in assault, of extrication 
or escape in danger. But there are other Ciises in which their 
duties are i-ather those of regulatoi*s of the civil, social, or domes- 
tic economy of tlie communities over which they preside. Thus 
Houzeau describes mayors of toAvns or villages among prairie dogs 
— mayor's who grant audiences, receive visits as to administrative 
affairs, — in sliort, discharge and regulate public business — and he 
tells us, moreover, tliat these governors or presidents of commu- 
nities, ()C(^asionally, at least, excel their fellows in size and strength, 
as well as in force of character. In the case of animal leaders of 
all kinds tliere is a distinct specialization of duty, work, or busi- 
ness, a vcrv de^'ided division of labor. But this division of labor 
occui-s among the lower animals in a great many other even more 
familiar forms. Tims it is illustrat^ul in the appointment from 
amont' members of a communitv of 

1. Sentinels, sentries, videttes, outposts, ])atrols, guards, or 
watchmen of all kinds. 

2. Soldiers, laborei-s, artisans, nui'ses, or foragei"s. 

3. Different ninks of officers among their soldiei*s, including 
generals, aides-de-camp and adjutants. 



84 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

4. Delegates, ambassadoi-s, or other forms of representatives 
or reportei"s, spies, scouts, commissioners, pioneei's. 

5. Officers of justice — including executioners, advocates, 
judges, and jury. 

6. Royal personages, with their officers or courtiei's, body-guard, 
and other attendants. 

7. As well as in the relative duties or occupations of male and 
female parents, and 

8. In the appropriate and harmonious playing of its part by 
eacli individual of the group. 

Such appointments imply, in certain cases, at least, the assigna- 
tion of a special duty to each of a group of animals, there being 
evidence further that there is frequently an adaptation of the 
special work to be performed to the special ability of a given indi- 
vidual to perform it. 

Sentinels or guards are regularly posted at appropriate times 
and places by a large number of animals, such as the prairie dog, 
wild horse, swan, cockatoo of Australia, rooks, and many other birds, 
zebra, moufilon, and other sheep, Alpine marmot, certain monkeys, 
Greenland and otlier seals, wild African cattle, chamois and other 
antelopes, Texan and other ants, and certain wasps. 

These guardians of the public safety are appointed usually for 
some of the following reasons, or under some of the following 
circumstances : 

At night, or during the sleep of the flock or herd, to guard 
against surprise. During feeding, rest on a march, or pastimes. 
In war, on the march or halt, in camp or bivouac. — here also to 
prevent surprise. 

In connection with the appointment of sentinels the following 
points have to be noticed: that, as in the case of leaders, the 
animals selected are almost invariably males: that every advan- 
tage is taken of elevated ground commanding a view on all sides : 
that the animal appointed is implicitly trusted by the rest, has 
a specific duty to discharge, and performs it conscientiously. 
Must there not, therefore, be an appreciation of the different 
kinds of danger, as well as an idea of duty in relation to that danger? 

Certain African antelopes place sentries — generally bulls — 
while they are grazing, and these sentries take up their posts on 



BODIMENTS AMONG ANIMALS. 85 

the summits of the huge ant-hilla which we mentioned before and 
which form the only heights in certain parts of the plains of tlie 
Nile. The occupancy of such watch-towers is, however, unfor- 
tunate for themselves in presence of tlie sportsman to whom they 
thus readily become a shining mark. 

Tlius, in a great variety of ways many of the lower animals rec- 
ognize and act upon the principle that union is strcngtli. Tliey 




THE wii.n n 



form combinations, associations, or alliances, teinponirv or i^n- 
manent, for a great number of very specific pnrpiises. They I'O- 
operate willingly, intelligently and successfully, nut only with 
each other, but with man. One of the most obvious effects ni 
such union, indeed even of the simplest form of union, that of 
marriage, is the inspii-ation of courage and confidence, the ability 
to dare and do, in behalf of themselves or their young, things that 
they would never attempt in their incUvidual capacities. Even 



86 THE STOUY OF GOVERNMENT. 

timid sheep, in combination under a leader, do boldly what they 
would never do, individually face a dog, for instance, or hav^e even 
been known to chase it ignominiously from a pasture. The meek cow 
and many gentle peace-loving birds are capable of similar feats 
of courage under similar circumstances. 

Various baboons and other apes, spider and other monkeys 
apply the principle of co-operation very actively and picturesquely 
by making diains, suspension bridges, and laddei's of their own 
bodies, joining hands or clinging to each other by various concat^ 
enations of paws and tails, and use such living bridges to cross 
rivers. Virtually the same thing mechanically, and a greater thing 
morally, is done by ants, for on bridges composed of the bodies of 
the latter, voluntarily sacrificed for the purpose, whole armies of 
their fellows sometimes cross rivei-s or streams. 

Co-operation on a large scale — on the part of large numbers of 
individuals, whether of the same or of different species and 
genera, includes the convention, at special times and places, of 
convocations, conferences, congregations, or assemblies for the fol- 
lowing or other specific ends : — 1. Judicial — for the trial and 
punishment of the offenders. 2. Military — for the holding of 
councils of war. 3. Recreational — for the celebration of 
pastimes, sports, or games of various times. 4. Migrational — 
for conference as to the time and manner of migmtion. 5, Defen- 
sive — for mutual protection, security, or safety. 6. Industrial 

— for the repair of damage to public property. 7. Marauding 

— for the acquisition of plunder or booty. 8. Food-seeking or 
foraging. 9. Emigration and colonization. 10. Nuptial — 
for courtship and murriage. 11. Hibernation. 12. The rescue 
of their fellows from captivity or danger. 

One of the evidences commonly adduced of the reign of law 
among the lower animals, as in man, is the fact that certain birds, 
have what are, or what a[)pear to be, regular judicial proceedings, 
regular trials by judge and before juiy of culprits against law. 

A trial among rooks in England has been thus described by an 
eyewitness. In the middle of the assemblage in one case " was 
one bird lookin<^ verv downcast and wi'etched. Two more rooks 
took their })lace at its side, and then a vast amount of chattering 
went on. Ultimately, the unfortunate central bird was pecked 



88 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

nearly to pieces and left mangled and helpless on the ground/* 
In such a case, we are led to infer, though our conclusions may be 
erroneous, that the spectacle was that of an accused, convicted, 
condemned criminal, official accusers, and the summary execu- 
tion of a judicial sentence. 

The stork, too, is represented by the naturalist Watson as 
having, or holding, trial by jury, public conventions at which 
harangues or speeches are delivered, accusations made, defences 
offered, by public oratoi-s and other officials, while the mass of the 
audience takes a lively interest in the proceedings. Consulta- 
tions are held, sentence is pronounced, and capital punishment 
inflicted for such supposed crimes, for instance, as the hatching 
of a gosling instead of a stork, which, of course, would be a 
shock to public sentiment in storkdom. The sparrow is another 
bird that administer public punisliment to offenders, after holding 
general councils the proceedings of which are marked by much 
agitation, tumult and clamor ; and the public trial of a prisoner 
before a court by the aid of advocates has also been mentioned as 
occurring among Barbary apes. 

From all of which evidences of law and order, of family and 
government among the lower animals, is it not clear that the 
higher animal might take a few lessons, if the humility and 
docility of Science could become attributes of the mass or could be 
the guiding principles of politicians or statesmen ? For, indeed, 

** If earnest lives in search of truth are noble, 
If sacrilice of self to swell the sum 
Of human knowledjre and cooperant good 
Aro very noble, Science can compare 
Her warriors, workers, martyrs, with Religion's. 
Yet Science has no pride, because no fear. 
She stooi)s to learn as woman yields to love, 
Instinctive that the action of surrender 
Will crown her empress of a nobler realm." 




Ill 



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'W^'mry:^'J!'w 



Traces /Kn}or)^ Qypsics^ 



Brigarjds arjd Tl;)icvcs. 




IN singular contrast with tlie orderly animals deseril)ed in 
the ])recedinnr chapter are the people usually called Gypsies, 
who appear to l)e not only opposed to any idea of order 
or authority from outside, hut to have among themselves 
at the present day very little goverinnent discoverahle hy students 
of their habits. We need not m) far in search of tliese Asiatic 
wanderei-s. They are found in almost every European coun- 
try, and of late are frequently seen in the United States and 
Australia. 

Wherever sighted, they are never to be mistaken. The most 
untravelled rustic instinctively knows that the dark-skinned, 
black-haired, snaky-eyed, lithe vagal)ond whom he sees in front 
of a ragged tent on a connnon, or who camj)s hy the roadside 
to boil a kettle, which it is prol):djle contains no poultry of his 
own mising, is not a child of the land in which he seems so 
much at liome. 

Once seen, a typical wandering gyi>sy is as marktMl a })ei'son- 
alitv in the memorv as a Jew of the ])urer caste, or a meml)er of 
any other nationality which has preserved itself as a distinct 
element in the surrounding population. His brown skin stamps 
him as none of us, wliile his dark, glittering, serpent-like eye 
iiLstinctively recalls some of the faces one meets on the London 
Docks, when a steamer from India has arrived. The small hands 

89 



90 THE SrOKY OF GOVERNMENT. 

and feet seem out of keeping with the finely proportioned, sinewy 
figures to which they are attached, while the aquiiine nose, 
pearly, regular teeth, high cheek-bones, strongly marked bniw, 
often knit as if in thought, and general air of secret! veness, 
are features of gypsy physiognomy that strike the least observant. 
As a rule, the gypsies are not a tall race, though men and women 
of uncommon stature are sometimes met, Tlie young female 
gypsy has quite often the distinction of a ])eauty singularly fine. 
But the beauty is short- 
lived. Like all Orien- 
tivls, they soon fade ; and 
grow old, so far as the 
face is concerned, when a 
Northern woman is in 
lier prime. The hard 
work, the squalor of 
their habits, their expos- 
ure to all weathers, and 
their unsettled, precari- 
ous — in brief, "gypBy" 
— life, help to age them 
iKjfoi-e years ought to tell 
OIL a healthy person. A 
i-emavkable revenge which 
Nature takes for her lav- 
ishness at the outset is 
the siipeniatural hideous- 
ncss which she often 
l>estows (111 tlu> wiilii'rud fiy|wy crone at a period when hercivilized 
sisU-'r is nu-llu\viiiir into the comeliness of riiKt matronhood, or 
even near Ihv. fated llireescore and ten. Still, after all to the 

contrary, tlni gypsy must indnbitidily l)ear the jMilni for a species 
of wild Ix'iiuly, which is adniiralily set off l)y his often romantic 
surroundini;.-; — liis Tarlar-like eneainpineiit. Ills stick fire and 
ragged tent — wliicli hiiiks so well at a distance, — and the showy 
coloi's in wliii-li. like his kindred on tlie other side of the Hima- 
layas, he takes s.> in<irdin;iti- a delight. 

lie"', then, is a )ieiiple known tn Knr()]>eanK for at least 





MAMAS UVPSIES DEliUIS"- 



92 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

eight centuries, yet who have managed to conceal many of 
their ways and modes of life from the inquisitive scrutiny of the 
hundreds who liave made these aspects of their cult a part of their 
life's study\ who are to this day the pariahs they were in their 
earliest homes, wlio have in their roamings picked up scraps of 
tlio hiJisxuagcs religion, and civilization of the countries they 
have passed through, but yet sijeak a tongue unintelligible to the 
" whites " around them, wlio with a few exceptions are vagabonds 
on the face of tlie eartli, despising a fixed life, a roofti*ee, or any 
of the ordinary i*estraints of well-ordered society. 

When they fii-st came under the notice of civilized people they 
were for some careless cause decided to be Egyptians, and as 
such were described by the earliest wTiters, and this name, under 
various forms, exists in our word, gyi)sy, and in the designations 

attached to them hv manv other nations. As for themselvas, thev 

• • »• 

either knew nothing alxiut their origin, or were sharp enough to 
ehime in with the current fancv bv stvlinij themselves "Dukes of 
Little Kgyi>t," ivs did a lionle who ap{)eared in 1418 at Zurich, 
iissuming the rank of knights, and, among other ** marks of 
nobility," carrying with them s[Kirting dogs and a good supply 
of monev. 

The fii-st notice of them whieh we {>ossess, written about the 
year 112*2, eharaoterizes them as " Ishmaelites^ who go -peddling 
thiough the wide world, Iwving neither house nor home, cheating 
the people with their trieks," a tleseription whieh might l)e fairly 
enouL^h aj»;>lied to their doseemlants who aiv at present squatted 
untliT ir.aiiv a hedin*. 

At lii-st these wanden^rs wen* n^eeiveil with great liospitality, 
their supposi'd orio^in and misfortunes obtaining for them an 
anunnii of svniuithv o{ whieli tlieir own n>sruen\ ratlier than Jinv 
km^wlediro of the aetnal state of mattei-s, very soon deprived 



' Mon* :h.*n :!:nv hnntlntl soimmto Morks lnvo J«<H»n urilten on the gjp«ie9. Some of 
this liirratnrt* i- ,.f li:tlo nui«.»r:;»n,v: l»ui anxono >\:u> imjijriDe< lliat the pvpsies can be 
exluiuv:!'.! in .\ ;\w |v\cos h..,l Ivror ^nmi-^uIi Potts' stxip^ndoxts ••Pi*' Zi^reuner in Earoiia 
un.l AMon. * or l.u; i, h > " l>io Zij;vunor in T.mMu Wosc'n und ihner Sprache.'' 

» TIio r,i:.n:i , r /ini.ili of Siviin. tho ,loxk of AlhitniA, the Zinpini of lOUy, the Pharo 
noiM-k l\Mr.»o:i X ,M«.- K- of Hn:v-ir>. tho T,r.:,»r.» of S^^^ntlinaxidu ::k^ IVthemiens of Pnmoe. 
:!>c Zi^ounor .^f (;or:n.in>, t^o Tinklor or Tii.kor^ of S^N^ilaml, the Fiiruwni vPhormoites) of 
Ti;rko>. ::..> i u»-u» ,m s: nonu*. tlu* Oiirany of Uo;n«;»ni.i, tlie t;u:«htor of Greece, the Hey- 
*Wti- Hra:..,n^ ,«f Uoll.ia.l. .uul >o forth. Thox o,»U thomsoUv* ;?...H,thait i». Men, people, 
oaa their l.»n.r«.»p\ .Vom , . tk^ . -^...; ,,j ;;„,^ i^ ;;,„^^,^ ,1^ feminine JRmmmi, 




TRACES AMONG GYPSIES, BRIGANDS AND THIEVES. 93 

them. They wei*e — so tliey said, or some one having said it for 
them, they echoed the agi-eeable fiction — Egyptians, four thou- 
sand of wliom, in passing tlirough Hungary, had been compelled 
by the sovereign of that countr}^ to l)e baptized, and were con- 
demned to seven vears' wandcTinn^s, wliile the remainder of tlie 
travellers had l)een slain. Another story was that tliey wei-e 
Egyptians, wlio, having been subdued by the Saracens, were 
forced to renounce Clu'istianity ; but having been reconquered 
by the Christians, tliey were doomed by l*opc Martin V. to a 
penance, which consisted of wandering for the space of seven 
years, by which time their renunciation of the faith having l>een 
atoned, thev would l)e sent into a fine and fertile land. 

A third version of the cause of this vagal windage wjis, that 
thev had l)een sentenced t^) roam the world for their want of 
hospitality to Joseph and Mary, when to save the young child, who 
was to save the world, this pair fled into Egyi)t. If wi? are to credit 
the historians of the period, these '"Egyptians '' travelled in great 
state, headed by " Counts " splenchdly drcsscMl, and luuler the com^ 
mand of a "Duke," who bore lettei*s of safe conduct from the 
Emperor Sigismund. The men were on foot, and the women and 
children brought up the rear in wagons, while the *' nobles" rode 
on horses with dogs whicli apparently were trained to trespass on 
game preserves. They camped outside the walls of towns during 
the night and thieved during the day, the consequence being that 
several were taken and slain. It would appear that then, as now, 
they were fond of tickling the fancy of their dupes l)y assuming 
grandiose titles — king, duke, earl, and count. But, except that 
some powerful or wealthy individual managed to gain temporary 
or j)ennanent control over the band with whicli he travelled, it is 
more tlian doubtful whether the gypsies have, or ever had, any 
oificial in tlie remotest way deserving theses distinctions. 

In the iu»ws})apers ^ we occasionally hear of the death of a gypsy 
"King" (U* "Queen," and of his or her burial with pompous 
obsequies. The people themselves very naturally like to mystify the 
public by keeping up the belief in such dignitaries, and possibly 



1 For instance, thi» recent despatch to the Boston Ilenild : — 

Elizabctii, N. J., April 14, 18^2. The Iwdy of Annie Lovell, the (Jypsy Queen, who died 
in St. I»uij«on Momlay, vrill lie buried in the same prave in Mt. Olivet cemetery, in this city, 
in which her grandmother, a fonuer queen, was burietl. The Oypnies have a plot an<l impos- 
ing monument. 



94 THK STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

having so often lieiird tliein designated by royal titles, adopt 
the name and idea. Except, however, in the limited sense men- 
tioned, there is no ground for the popular belief, though certain 
families, like the Faas and Blyths in Scotland, and the Stanleys 
and Hemes in Enjrland, liavinfj always been i-egfarded as aristo- 
crats among them, have sometimes been elected to a j>osition of 
authority, and liave even received a kind of hereditarj' respect, 
due to some traditional story that certain sovereigns had recog- 
nized one of their ancestoi^s as a brother monarch. James IV. 
of Scotland gave, in looO, '*Anthonius Gagino, Count of Little 
Egypt," a letter of recommendation to Christian III. of Den- 
mark, wliile James V. granted a writ giving "oure louit Johnne 
Faw, lord and erle of Litill Egipt" authority to hang find other- 
wise discipline "all p]gyptians" within the realm. ^ This, how- 
ever, simply means tliat the Scottish king, like so many other 
people, had l)een deceived regarding the origin and status of the 
vagalx)n(ls whom he thus recognized, though it is by no means 
proved that any corresponding dignities were known before he 
thus conferred on the leading men these sweeping powere. 

At first, "the Egyptians " were well received, as the facta men- 
tioned clearly show; but their popularity was naturally brief. 
Within a year of James Y. making "Johnne Faw" and his son 
and successor refjea in rejuo^ an act of the Scottish Parliament 
was passed, commanding him and his tribesmen to i)ass "furth 
the realm," under pain of death. Already, indeed, Germany, 
Spain, Fi-ance, England, Denmark and Moravia, had found it 
necessary to take similarly drastic mccosures, and before long a 
perfect hue and v.vy was raised all over Eui*ope against the ^un- 
baptized heathens," who had so recently l)een gulling the simple- 
minded Westerns with tlie fables about Joseph and Mary and the 
Saracens. 

The glitter of the romance with wliich they had been early 
invested was nipidlv rul)l)e(l off, after tlie loixls and counts of 
Little Egypt had been convicted of harrying a succession of hen- 
roosts, and it was hard to j)reserve confidence in the penitence of 
a people who had no external symbols of any religion, and lived 



» In MalmoHlmrv Ahhoy hiil*' by siil»» witli Atllcl^tau — lies the body of a Ojpsy, "King 
John Huollo," ^aill l«> iiu\»' boi'ii hii.l \\\vtv ia IC'.T. 





Mi 



96 THE STORY OF GOVERNldENT. / 

a life about as bereft of morality as it was deficient in that virtue 
which then, perhaps, less than now, was rated next to godliness. 
Worst of all, " the Egyptians " were discovered to have none of 
the wealth which at first they were supposed to own, and were there- 
fore a people who could neither be *' squeezed" nor cozened. 

After this, we hear little about their pei'secution in Egypt, or 
of their '"kings " carrying any letters, except the summary notices 
which were duly served on them by tlie constables of every dis- 
trict. 

Edicts out of number were fmmed for their discomfort, and no 
more humiliating reading exists than the different acts, decrees 
and writs, which were hurled at these brown-faced wanderers, 
ostensibly because in addition to being " diviners and wicked 
heathens" they plundered fann-yards and had oceult "trafficke 
with the deville." 

Our illustration of Zigani pleading to Philip III. of Spain, 
early in the year 160C, shows how the church, having ceased its 
futile efforts to conveiij them, strove to have them banished. The 
general Spanish heart, however, luis always had a kindly comer 
for this joyous race, and into many a Spanish song and story the i 
gypsy entei-s with a charm of pathos and mystery that always 
touches a responsive popular chord. Our great romancer, Walter 
Scott, was attracted by tliis race, and into three of his most 
powerful novels, Guy Mannering, Quentin Durward, and Peveril 
of the Peak, he introduced a strikingly vivid g}T)sy character. 

In the middle of the last century there appears to have been a 
tendency to treat the gypsies a trifle more mildly, though in 1748 
Frederick the Great renewed the law that every gypsy l)eyond the 
age of eighteen, found within the Prussian l)ounds, should be 
hanged fortliwith, and to this day it is in Germany ipso facto an 
indictable offence to 1^ one of the prescribed "zigeuner" unless 
specially licensed as such. 

Even in Roumania — where they swarm — the condition of 
serfdom to which they were reduced was not completely abro- 
gated until 18oB, though both Maria Theresa and Joseph II. 
tried — with very partial success — to settle them as "New 
Peasants " on lands specially set aside for the purpose. 

But the passion for wandering is so innate, that just as 



TRACES ASIONG GYPSIES, IHtlGANDS AND THIEVES. I 

wild (lucks hatched by a bune fitster-iiiothor will take to the 
lakes as soon aa they can fly, so a joung gyx'sy, even when reared 
away from the influence of the tents of its tril)e, is apt sooner or 
later to "kick tlie traces " of culture, and esciqx; to the squalor, 
the liberty, and the endless skirmish with society which is the 
nonnal life oi its ancestral nomads. 

A study of their language soon confirms their Eastern origin, 
for though mixed with words from almost every country tln-ough 



wliich they have [jassed 

i-i»rnii)ted, it is an East 

Indian dialect so 

marked that, as one of 

the most celebi-.ited of 

its titudent-t says, it is 

]ilca.saiit to I)e able to 

study a Hindoo tongue 
T witliout stining out of 
S Eui-OjK'. A gypsy talks, 
^ as does an Oriental, of 
111 his "kismet" (fate), 

and when he uses the 

word "{inran" (koi-an) 

he I'l'fei'S to no b<)t>k 

Siicred or otherwise, but 

to the a<-t of taking an 

oatli. "Sliali giv" is 

in Itoniany "small 

grain-corn "; in Ilindo- 

staui "shaii" means 

rice. Tlie Engli.sli gypsies 

the Hindoo "shaster," the 

lx>oks. 

In India many sects reganl a cup witl. 

Germany tlie gypsies will never touch a 

fallen to the ground; ever after 



which they reside, and often sadly 




■all thelUble "shaster,' 
word thcv use to descri 



which is simply 
« their religious 



timihir 



ni. 



In 



a cup which lias once 
it is sacred; and in I-higland 
many of them can never l>e induced to use a white lx>\vl. The 
same antipathy to horse flesh is exhibited among the gypsies that 
several Indian tribes display, amj^i n b i i iyit,.^iere can lie no liesi- 



f&mAL^mti^\ 



98 THE STORV OF (K)VERNMENT. 

tation in accepting the now generally received opinion of their com- 
paratively recent Indian origin. The gypsies are a singularly 
secretive race, and keep their language, as far as they can, con- 
cealed from those in wliora they have little trust; hut in course 
of time, partly througli intermarriage with vagabond whites, 
or through* the association of "travellers" with the real gy^Dsies 
a host of Romany words have gotten mixed up with English, 
slang. For example, '* jockey is derived from chuckni (a whip); 
jockeyism really meaning the scientilic use of a Avhip in speed- 
ing a hoi"se; "cove" is from cava (a tiling), thou^^h tlie term 
is almost indefinite in its applicability; "shindy" is probably 
from chln{/areey which means the same; "cliivy" is from chiv^ one 
of the meanings of which is to scold; "shavers," as applied to 
little children, is from shavies (children); a "rum'un" is from 
Jftiim or Rom (a gn)sy), or a man literally. 

In regard to the disposition and traits, good and bad, of the 
gypsies, there is alwa^'s, of couree, a wide difference of opinion, 
according to the prejudices of the critics, the kind of gypsies 
with whom they have come in contact, or the capability of the 
judges for arriving at an opinion on the subject. Gypsies are 
extremely unwilling to betray themselves to strangers, though 
wlien they have confidence in anyone they are ready enough 
to answer questions, and as far as lies in their power to shun 
the ever-present temptation of "humbugging" the questioner. 
Among them, as among every other body of people, there are 
good and bad, though, as always happens when a pure or almost 
pure-blooded race is concerned, it is easier to arrive at some 
general conclusions regarding their disposition and abilities than 
those of a mixed people;. 

Light-hearted and wonderfully courteous in their conduct 
towards strangei*s, and even towards each other, they are capable 
of violent passions and cruel vindictiveness. At the same 
time, they are ready to forgive, their childish vanity being easily 
tickled by a show of affability or an ai)proach to renewed friend- 
ship on the part of those by whom they have been offended. The 
war which the gypsy has for ages waged against society, and 
society against him, has left indelible traces on his character. To 
protect himself from the vengeance of the law he has recourse to 




A UIU)I:P of TUKKI81I OYI' 



ii"A^-;^i\ 



k 



100 THE 3rroRY or •4i>V 

that profoiiii<l irnnnin.g' which. hik-» grown to be with him a second 
nature, while the indolence that strike* one who sees him asleep 
under a he<lgen>w. more than anjr «>cher characteristic, is the out- 
come of a life without ambitioOr a eareer with4>ut a goal. 

It is an article «>f almi:i6t uniTersal i^jreement with students of 
^^grpsYoloj^^" ih:\t if oQi.^c^ a gypsy gives his word he will keep it, 
and that they huve preserved thn>ugh many centuries the old 
Oriental, or rather the ireneral vasabi^nd idea of inviolable honor 
towards the wavfarer within their tents. Tlie children receive 
scarcely any training: vet no {)et>ple are kinder to their old parents 
and rebitives than the gyjisies. Jetsam and flotsam of society, 
they find tliat unless they tie ver}* tightly the bonds which unite 
them, they would l)e {xiwerless to ht>ld their own. Hence, j)erhaps, 
the warm faniilv affection which distini^uishes these nomads. A 
parent never chastises a young child, yet it is quite common f(»r 
a gro\\ni-up son to acv^pt meekly a thrashing fn>m his ;iged 
father. 

A gyi»sy entertains no s^-ruples reganling the methml in which 
he supplies his lanler, or, indeed, as to how he acquires property; 
])Ut he will just as reailily i>art with what he has to a friend in 
worse case than himself. '*I have fimnd tliem/' savs one writer, 
""more cheerful, pt)lite and grateful than the lower ordei-s of 
other races in Eun)[)e or America, and I Ijclieve that when tlieir 
respect and sympathy ai*e secuivd they are quite as upright. Like 
all people who are reganletl as outciists, tliey are very proud of 
being tiiisted, and under this influence will commit the most 
daring acts of honesty." Tliere is no more independent epicm^e 
than the g}'psy. He eats ever^'thing that is edible, except hoi-se- 
flesli, and sleeps Avherever he lights on a s^mt well sheltered 
from the wind, and tolerably safe from the only appanage of 
society which he dreads — the i)oliceman. He has, moreover, 
a tact and delicacy which many in far loftier stations might well 
iinitat(;, and a love of nature which makes mere life a joy. 

C)f religion they have little. ''The gypsies' church," they are 
in the lialiit of saying, ''was made of pork, and the dogs stole it." 
Whcro the alwolute non-observance of the forms of any creed 
(•ntailn no diniculty, the gypsies are usually untroubled by a 
regard for the faith of the countrj' in which they live. If, on the 



TRACES AMONG GYPSIES, BRIGANDS AND THIEVES. 101 

other Iiand, they find it to their profit to profess a belief in some 
religion, they never hesitate to pick up as much of it as suits 
their convenience, their wonderful art of conforming themselves 
to the ways of the i)articiilar community into which they are 
thrown serving them here in good stead. Here and there may be 
detected, mixed up with endless superstitions and crude bits of 
Cliristianity, fragments of nature-worship and veiy early pagan- 
ism, though how far serpent- woi-ship and the adoration of a moon- 
god, which Sundt fancied he found among the g}'psies of Norway, 
exist in reality, or in the too easy conclusions of a student bent 
on finding something new is scarcely worth discussing here. 

The three great gypsy clans of Gennany, according to Liebich, 
Avorship the fir, tlie bii-ch and the hawthorn, and the Welsh 
Uomany, certain ftisciated growtlis in trees. The " Phara(^li peo- 
ple " of Turkey keep a fire continually burning, and on the first 
of May they all go to the seacoast or the banks of a river, where 
they thrice throw water on their temples, invoking the invisible 
spirits of the place to gi*ant their wishes. Another custom 
observed with equal consistency is that of annually drinking some 
potion, the secret of whose pi-eparation is known only to the wisest 
and oldest of the tribe. This drink is said to render them invul- 
nerable to snake-bites, and ceitainly according to trustworthy 
travellers the "Chinguins," as they are also called, catch serpents 
and handle them with an impunity which is not vouchsafed to any 
j)er8ons not of the gypsy i*ace. 

They have scai-cely any idea of a future state, the only trace of 
such a l)elief which Liebich ever detected being in a gyi^y crone, 
who dreamed that she wiis in heaven, which to her appeared to be 
a very large garden full of fine fat hedgehogs, the dainty which 
Romany gourmands or gluttons most esteem. In Scandinavia, 
according to Sundt, who spent yeai-s in studying the vagabonds of 
the North, the gyj>sies assemble once a year, and always at night, 
for the purpose of unbaptizing all of tlieir children who duiing the 
year have been baptized by the Gorgios, or Avhites. On this 
occasion the jmrents, whose acquiescence in the Christian rite has 
l)een obtained by the jxirsuasive power of gifts, worship a small 
idol, which is preserved until the next meeting with the greatest 
care and secrecy. This is a good story, but, like many others 



102 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

in circulation, had better be accepted with considerable caution. 
It would argue for the gypsy the possession of a keen moral sense 
— the terror that the baptism was dreadfully wrong. Now tliis 
is just what the Indian nomad does not possess. He is indif- 
ferent. His moral sense is formed by custom, and morality seems 
to be at times a question of latitude and longitude. A fearful 
crime in one section of human society is a virtue in another a few 
degrees farther north or south. 

For instance, in the island of Borneo, a Dyak is, or was, in- 
eligible for the Immble position of a prospective husband until 
he had decapitated a fellow-man; we should have hanged him. 
The civilized father is overwhelmed with sorrow when his boy 
is detected pilfering other men's property, but an Apache parent 
thanks all the heaven he knows of that the lad who has man- 
aged to steal a horse before he was ready to take a wife promises 
to prove a comfort to his old age. 

So with the gypsy. Ever poor, often'hungry, always liated, it 
seems to him the most natural thing in the world that he should 
temporarily enrich himself and satisfy his appetite at the expense 
of those who, in his eyes, are burdened with superfluities. He 
knows it is against the law, for there are legends ever present to 
his memory and experience which tell of the policeman's illiberal 
ways ; but, as for any moral crime, that is an tispect of the matter 
on which the gypsy hivs never heen taught to reflect. 

Yet there is hardly a race or tribe — no matter what ill-informed 
travellers may say to the contrary — Avhich is entirely without 
religion, and the gypsy is no exception to this rule. His feelings 
of reverence find vent in an inordinate respect for the dead, 
an outcome, it may be, of the intense love he bears his kindred 
when alive. The corpse is waked and tlie effects of the deceased 
p'ji-son are burned. '* The Annual Register " for 1773 records tliat 
'Uhe clothes of tlie late Diana Boswell, queen of the gypsies, 
value <£50, were burnt in the Mint, Southwark, by her principal 
courtiers, according to ancient custom," and to this day the same 
I'ite is observed on the deatli of any of the tribe, though most 
probably this is one of tlie ancient rites which are on the wane. 
Certain tribes of North American Indians adopt the same 2)lan, 
j)ix)bably for the same reason, to put out of sight anything which 



TRACES AMONG GYPSIES, BRIGANDS AND THIEVES. 



lOS 



might recall tht; ineiiioiy of tlie dead, or tempt tlieni to inoiiounce 
his or her name. 

In England a gypsy will, with wondioua t^elf-denial, often 
abstain from spirits for years, because a dead brother was 
fond of liquor, or will iibandrm some favorite pureuit because the 




deceased when last in liiw company was t'lijrayed in this hasiness 
or pastime. Again, a wife or child will often renounce the deli- 
L-acy most liked by the dead husband or father. They will never 
mention the dead one's name, and if any of the survivors linppeu 



104 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

to bear one of the names they will change it for another less apt 
to recall the loved one. A gypsy declined a cigar offered to him 
by Mr. Leland, the famous American student of their habits, 
because in the pockets of his nephew some cigai-s were found after 
his death. The same man ceased using snuff after his wife's 
deatli. '^Some men/' said a gypsy once, "won't eat meat 
because th(» brother or sister that died was fond of it; some 
won't drink ale for five or six years; some won't eat the favorite 
fish that the child ate; some won't eat potatoes, or cb-ink milk, or 
eat apples, and all for the dead. Some won't play cards or the 
fiddle — 'that's my poor boy's tunc' — and some won't dance. 
*No, I can't dance; the last time I danced was witli poor wife 
that's been dead this foiu* yeai*s.' 'Come, brother, let's go and 
have a droj) of ale.' 'Xo, brother, I never drank a drop of ale 
since my aunt went.' *Well, take some tobacco, brother ? ' 'No, 
no; I have not smoked since mv wife fell in the water, and never 
came out again alive.' " 

This is Oriental entirely, and in Germany, where the gypsies 
are even nearer akin to tlie primitive conditions of the race than 
in England, the respect for tlie dead is even more profound. " By 
my father's head!" is a very binding oatli, but to swear by "the 
dead " is even more so. Even in England a gypsy who declares 
that he will do anything — "muUo juvo " — tliat is, by liis dead 
wife, is pretty sure to keep his word, though he never reads the 
Bible, and regards the founder of oiu' faith only in the light of some- 
thing to lend strength to an affirmation. In Germany it is said that 
Avhen a maiden called Forella died, lier entire tribe ceased calling 
the trout bv it« old name of Fore lie. In Engfland this rule is 
veiy generally observed, thougii it is not universal. At one time 
they put new shoes and even money in the coffin with the corpse, 
or decked tlie lx)dy with gay clothes and ornaments of value. 

In the coui-se of their wanderings the gypsies have, as might 
have been expet^ted, picked up a good many snatches of tlie Chris- 
tian religion. For iiLstance, some of them burn an ash fire on 
Christmas Day in honor of Christ, "because He was born and 
lived like a gypsy." Among otlier of their supei"stitious sciiiples 
is a dislike to wash a table-cloth with other clothes. A German 
gypsy woman must not cook for four months after the birth of a 




TBA0E8 AMONG GYF8IBS, BBIGANOS AlO) THIEVES. 105 

child, and any vessel touched by a woman's skirt is defiled, while 
one of their most widespread and most Indian practices is to leave 
at a road-corner a handful of leaves or grass, or a heap of stones 
or sticks, to guide any of the band who may follow. 

Though until lately almost entirely without school learning — 
the civilized gypsies of Yetholm are of course excepted — they 
are far from being a dull or unreceptive race. Many of them are 
persons of great natural shrewdness, though, except as musicians, 
few of the race have ever attiiined much celebrity. The Ilun- 
garians owe their national music to the Zigani. ilaiiy of them 
display considerable skill as metal workers, and one or two have 
develoj^ed talents of a certain kind as Methodist preachers. The 
late Rev. Dr. Gordon, a clergyman of the Church of Scotland, 
was always imderstood to be of pure gypsy stock. Lord Jeffrey 
and Christopher North (Professor John Wilson) were also said to 
be of the wandering folk, and it has long Ixicn aflirmed, though 
the asseition has been stoutly disputed, that John IJunyan, 
author of "Pilgrim's Progress," belonged to the gypsy stock. 
Half of the tramps, the "tnivellei-s," as they are called, of 
England, are tinctured Avith Romany blood. These "half- 
scrags '^ are an ever-incrcjising class. They are ti-amps and beg- 
gai-s, proprietoi-s of tmvelling shows, hoi'se-dealei's, tinkei-s, cheap 
Jacks, "Pimclics," iiddlei-s, pottery dealei-s, sellers of vskewers 
and dothespegs. 

In England the numl)er of house-dwelling <i;y[)sies is on the 
increa^se, but it is rare to lind any who have for two generations 
ceased to find slielter luider tents, or who do not at intervals take 
to their old kind of life. The Sfvp-^v lias nowhere nowadays a 
distintttive dress, but he or slie can generally be picked out in 
a crow<l bv reason of the crav coloi-s s*^ loved bv the race, and the 
heav}' rings on the women's fingei-s. In some parts of the con- 
tinent the Avomen wear a peculiar pattern of earrings, and in Hun- 
gary the male gypsy is fond of decking his coat with silver 
buttons bearing a serpent for a crest. 

In the country the gypsy follows nearly all callings, from those 
of chimney-sweei)s and factory hands, to those of actors and quack 
doctors, but as tinkers, or workere in metal, horse-dealers, 
makers of baskets, brooms, clothes-pegs, and pottery sellers. 






106 THE STOllY OF GOVERNMENT. 

they are pre-eminent. The Calderari, or copper-smitlis of Hun- 
gary, travel all over Europe, and sometimes reach as far as 
Algeria. In Transylvania they are well known as gold workers, 
and no tourist who has ever visited the Alhanibra but must 
remember the gypsy smiths whose anvils were placed in the caves 
of Oranada. 

Altogether, according to Mr. Simson, there cannot be much 
fewer than 4,000,000 gypsies in existence, but if pure bloods are 
meant, this estimate is probably far over the mark, since Von 
Miklosich reckons that number at somewhere in the vicinity of 
700,000. In Hungary there are, according to a rough estimate, 
about 150,000 gypsies — vagabonds who wander over the countrj- 
with their carts and horses, accompanied by their women and chil- 
dren, and though at one time pei-secuted as unbelievers, and 
hunted to death as sorcerei-s and poisoners, the cruel edicts which 
enjoined such treatment wei*e never approved by the Hun- 
garian people. The result is, that the gypsies have increased, 
and, in their own thriftless, squalid fashion, prospered, despite 
the hard usage they have experienced at the hands of their rulers. 

Indeed, as we have seen, the Hungarian kings have more than 
once protected them as a ''poor wandering people without a coun- 
try, and whom all the world rejected," and granted them safe 
conducts to go wherever seemed good to them, with their ti'oops 
of donkeys and hoi-ses. Joseph II. of Austria tried to settle them 
as agriculturists, and had huts built for them, but instead of 
occupying the comfortable dwellings themselves they stabled their 
cattle in them, and pitched their tents outside. 

Then to prevent their corn from sprouting they boiled it before 
sowing, and though their children were taken from them and 
trained up into habits of work under Magyar and German peas- 
ants, these wildlings soon escaped and joined their parents, with- 
out having learned anything from their forcible fipprenticeship to 
civilization. It is affirmed that a gypsy, who had actually risen 
to the rank of an officer in the Austrian army, disappeared one 
day, and was found six months afterwards with a band of Zigani 
encamped on the heath. A young Slovack peasant fell in love 
with and married a gyi)sy girl, but in his al)sence she escaped to 
the woods, and when discovered was living under a tree and 



TRACES AHOMU QVPSIES, BKIQANDS AND THISVE8. 



lOT 



feasting on hedgehog after the fashion of the race from whom she 
bad been taken. 

The Abb^ Liszt, cliarmed with the talent for muaic dispkyed 




by a gypsy boy, took him to Paris and tried to traiu the little 
lad. But all in vain. The moment he saw his own x>eople in 
Vienna his delight was indescribable ; there was no loiiger any 
hope of keeping him under the velvet bonds of polite life. 



108 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT, 

Like all their kindred, the Hungarian g3'^psy has a horror of 
restraint and of continuous labor. His vocabulary contains no 
"woi-d signifying "to dwell;" hence he follows any trade which 
admits of his wandering about the country — farriers, nail-makers, 
horse-dealers (and horse-stealers), bear-tamei"s, and beggars. In 
the last capacity the Zigani are irrepressible. Time to them is no 
object. They will follow the traveller for half an hour, pouring 
forth their whine in fluent Magyar or gypsy until a piece of 
money is thrown to them, and then they will whine again to the 
next likely pusser-by. Indeed, so deeply rooted is tliis love of 
mendicity and its twin, mendacity, tliat it is nothing uncommon 
for gypsies Avearing gold cliains and rings, carrying gold-headed 
canes, and leading race-lioi-ses, to hold out tlieir liands for alms 
to all whom tliev meet. 

No people are more skilful as horse-doalci's ; a Vermont Yankee 
is miles behind them. In truth, so skilful are they, that Josejih 
II., who occupied a good deal of his time in devising means for 
the reformation of tliis section of his su])jects, al)solutely foiI)ade 
tliem to trade in a specfies of mercliandise wliich gave them an 
undue advantage over tlieir neighboi-s, and put templ^ition in the 
gypsy's way of which he was not at all l)a(^kward to avail him- 
self. The women, like tlieir sistei*s everywhere, tell fortunes, 
sell clianns, })ly the trade of jugglers and dancers, and, it is said, 
not without truth, act as go-l)etweens and supply })oisons. 

Manv rustics iu lands besides Ilunorary have still a firm 
belief in their power in these respects, and will tell how by magic 
formuLnD they have* extinguished Jires, preserved horses from the 
flames, discovtMcd hidden tri'asures or springs of watci* hitherto 
unsus[)ecte(l, and cured diseases which have defied the regular 
faculty. It may be added, though the contraiy has been asserted, 
that the moi-als of the women are, if possible, woi-sc tlian 
those of the men. Among the g^qjsies, however, as among tlie 
people of ev(^rv other race, exceptions are occasionally found 
which }»rovc the rule, the rule ])cing that they are vagabonds. The 
ex(!eptions are tlu^ few who in Transylvania carry on the tmdes of 
wood-carvers, brush-makei's, tile-makei*s, rope-makei>>, ropei"S, 
chinmey-sweeps, gold-workers, dentists, and musicians — as they 
all are more or less — not to mention the Zigani who are always 




TRACES AMONG GYPSIES, BRIGANDS AND THIEVES. 109 

ready to perfonn the hideous function of the public executioner. 
** Five florins for hanging a man ! " a gypsy is said to have 
exclaimed when offered this fee for his services. ** Why, I would 
hang all those gentlemen,'* pointing with an affable grin to the 
judges, **for that sum of money I " One or two Zigani have tried 
their hand at play-writing and acting, and now and then may be 
met a gypsy marionette manager, or even a comedian of the race. 
In Hungary they can hardly he said to profess any regular 
religion. They are not even pagans, for tliey worship nothing, 
though everywhere they show great respect for the dead, never 
passing a grave of their relatives witliout pouring on it a few 
drops of beer, wine, or bmndy. 

They adopt any i-eligion which promises most profit or the 
greatest immunity from discomfort. Hence it will sometimes 
happen that the children of a wandering gypsy will be baptized 
four or five times, and l)e quite ready, so far as their pirents are 
concerned, to be baptized a fifth if the nomad liapi)en to come into 
a region where religious fervor runs high. How far they acknowl- 
edge any head nowadays is an ojien question. At one time they 
were governed by four "voivodes," or chiefs, who were elected by 
universal suffrage, and proclaimed amid music and applause. A 
three-cornered braided hat was placed on the chief's head, and a 
pitcher of wine on a j)late covered with flowers presented to him. 

This he drained at a draught, then broke the flask in pieces, 
after which he harangued the assembly, and shook hands with each 
of his subjects in turn. Every seven years the people gathered 
round the supreme chief to receive his orders, and those washing 
the auriferous sands of the Transylvanian rivers, whatever might 
have been the habit of the othera, paid a florin per annum to the 
voivode under whom they worked. But in these days the chief 
exercises little, if any, visible authority. In Hungary, as in 
England and America, the policeman has long since replaced this 
gypsy Govereign. 

More than any people, save the poor artisans confined to the 
vile tenements of our great civilized cities, the gypsies exemplify 
the doctrine of the "survival of the fittest." A weakling soon 
perishes during the life of hardship which he must endure, but the 
strong survive to become the fine specimens of humanity which are 



110 THE STOllY OF GOVERNMENT. 

seen among them. Epidemics pass over them scatheless. Gout and 
rheumatism are to tliem unknown mahidies. Their wounds heal 
with wonderful rapidity and, if perchance disease does attack 
them, brandy, onions and safifron are the only medicines which 
they tolerate. In short, their life ift an animal one. A gypsy 
condemned to be hanged will always ask as a last favor to ]>e 
allowed a smoke, and a pipe is, perhaps, the fii-st thing wliich is 
put into a child's mouth after it is weaned. 

Roumania is, however, the rcal home of the continental gypsy, 
for there he numlxirs, according to different estimates, from 130,- 
000 to 300,000 in spite of the fact that until recently he was a 
mere serf, bought and sold with the land on which he squatted. 
They were nominally free in 1848, though it was not till eight 
years after this that the Zigani could be said to be absolutely 
beyond the power of their former owners, and as late as 1845 the 
following advertisement appeared in a Bucharest newspaper: — 

" The sons and Iieirs of the late Sirdar Nicka of Bucharest will 
expose for sale two hundred gypsy families. The men exercise the 
trades of locksmiths, goldsniitlis, shoemakers, musicians, and farm 
laborers. Not less than four families will be sold in one lot. As a 
set-off, the price asked is a ducat cheaper than the ordinary figure. 
Facilities for payment/' 

In 1825, according to Walsh, if a gypsy l)elonging to a Boyard, 
or noble, was killed by his master, no notice was taken of the 
circumst^^nce, but if the murder wfis committed by a stmnger a 
fine of eighty florins was exacted. Slight faults were punished 
by the bastinado applied to the soles of the feet, or by the appli- 
cation of an iron mask, in wliicli the head was shut up for a 
longer or shorter period, preventing the offender from eating or 
drinking. Those who had committed theft were fastened by the 
neck and arms to a plank, wliich they carried on their shouldei"s 
in the fashion of the Chinese cangue, which we illustrate i|t our 
Chinese chapter. They are still in Roumania the hewers of wood 
and the drawei*s of water. All rough, unpleasant work is 
allotted to them. There the men, women, and children are the 
drudges who cany bricks and mortar to the masons, meantime 
cooking and sleeping in the building on which they are at work, 




112 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

their main food being mamaliga, or maize-meal, boiled and 
seasoned with salt. Or, as in other countries, they mend pots and 
kettles, shoe horses, or play the medola. But though the tawny 
face of the Frenchified Roumanian bears distinct evidence that 
his forefathers were not so callous to the charms of the lithe young 
gypsy, the so-called whites affect an unutterable scorn for the 
Zigani, ranking them as little better than the lower animals. 
The philosophy of gypsy life is summed up in the following little 
poem composed by a gypsy of Spain in which country these mystic 
strollers are regarded with a sort of tender tolerance like naughty 
but amusing children. 

** Poniqucl liichipen abajo *' There runs a pig down yonder liill 

Abillcla iiri balichoro As fast as e^er he can» 

Abillela a fjoli goli, And as he runs he crieth stiU : 

Ustilame Caloro." ' Come steal me,' gypsy manl" 

But the gypsies are injured innocents compared with the extraor- 
dinar}^ clandestine clan of robbei*s and assassins called the 
Camorristi, whose original home and habitat were the two 
Sicilies and lower Italv, but who have followed the Italian i-ace 
in its em ignitions and whose dark tracks can Ije discovered in 
every city of magnitude in this country. The Camori-a, as this 
brotherhood of brigands is termed, affords a remarkable insight 
into the subtlety of the Italian character, its wonderful capacity 
for devising extraordinary means for the accomplishment of 
ordinary ends, and that less amiable aptitude for playing the 
conspirator or s[)y which has given the Italian nation an evil odor 
in the nostrils of other mces which as a whole it does not deserve. 

The recent trouble in New Orleans is tmceable to the Camorra, 
for the JLifia is only a branch of that tremendous tree, like the 
banyan in its tendency to burrow back into the earth, and like the 
upas in its pestilent powers. The history of the Camorra is as 
remarkable as any fable, for the Camorristi during the misrale of 
the Bourbons were not only tolerated, but were actually permitted 
to ply their infamous trade, in the hope that this permission to 
plunder the })cople might influence them in favor of the gov^^m- 
ment. The result Avas what might have been expected, for when 
FraiK-is II., terrified at the measureless assurance of the society 
he had favored and fostered, attempted its suppression, the mem- 



TBACE8 AMOKG GYPSIES, BRIGANDS AND THISVBS. 118 

bers who escaped the wholesale capture and transportation decreed 
against them entered into alliance with tlie Garibaldians, and 
materially aided in the expulsion of King Bomba. 

Meantime, and for many years, they had a festival time of it. 
Knowing that their exactions were winked at, they boldly pre- 
sented themselves in the markets, at places of public amusement, 
and at the street spectacles by which the Neapolitan rulers tried 
to make their subjects forget the manner in which they were mis- 
governed. If a cab were engaged, the Camorra expected its 
share; if the fare were disputed, a hangdog-looking individual 
would step up and say with sinister quietness how much the 
signer ought to pay, and tlie coachman then knew that the 
Camorra had intervened, and would in due time render its 
account. Differences between men and masters were referred to 
the Camorristi — or taken to another tribunal at the risk of the 
recalcitrants regretting their nushness. The Camorristi extracted 
their percentage of whatever money passed from hand to hand in 
buying property or in making any open or even private purchase, 
for the Camorra was everywhere, and showed itself in the most 
unlikely quartei's. Rents, Avages, prizes in lotteries, winnings of 
gamblers — everything which could be taxed had, willy nilly, tO 
contribute to tlie Camorrist treasurj-. There was nothing which 
the society could not accomplish, from the ruin of a minister to 
the dismissal of a lalx)rer. For a consideration they undertook to 
convey smuggled goods to their destination, and if a hravo were 
required, the Camorni — for a consideration — would provide the 
stiletto. 

Violence, robbery and murder were their machinery. Terrorism 
kept the members together, and so dreaded Avas their vengeance, 
that when thrown into gaol they would often succeed in 
exacting money from their fellow-prisoners, and even from the 
turnkeys, who dreaded the company committed to their charge, 
Tlie ** Camorra" has been repressed i\i Naples, but in Sicily it 
flourishes still, not so open and insolent as of yore, but yet potent. 

Protean in form, it had many names or aliases also. In Ravenna 
and Bologna it was called the "Squadraccia," in Turin the 
**Gocca;" and those who have studied this strange cancer in the 
social life of Italy say that the Roman " Sicorii, " the " Accoltella- 



•. * 



114 THE STORY OK GOVERNMENT. 

tori " of the Romagna diatriet, and the PmineHaii " Pugnalatori," 
were only tho Ncajjolitaii Cainorristi under other names. It was 
a State within a State, and at the time wlien the government 
flattered itjjelf that the organization was actiuilly exterminated, 
there were upwards of 200,000 persons belonging to it, and 
addressing eacli other in a language unintelligible to more honest, 
or at least to less lawless, people. Recent revelatioas prove that 
if they are no longer able to weaken the power of the autliorities, 
and to modify the operations of economic laws by exacting that 
share of the national wealth of which 
they were deprived either by idleness 
or the badness of their rulers, they 
are not less a t«rror in certain stiiita 
of society, anil a means of paralyzing 
confidence in tlie capability of the 
law to protect all classes equally. 

As the branches of the banyan 
tree, hiding themselves in the earth, 
re-rooting, burrowing back into si- 
lence and shtwlow, are more remark- 
able than the original trunk or stem, 
so the Mafia, or ^IiifDa, is more sin- 
gular than the Caniorm Inseause Jnoiv 
3ecretive and subtle. 

This society still flourishes in 
Sicily, and has biiinches in nearly 
every large city on this continent, 
Boston, San Francisco, Chicago, 
A lAMoRHisTK TRAMi'. ^''"' Vork. foi' cxample. But New- 

Orleans especially, by reason of lier 
attractive Italian climate, has ]irovcd a magnet to Alafian t-nii- 
gmnts. 

. New Orleans for many j-eai-s has had a large Sicilian popula- 
tion, and for manj' j'eara the jiolice of the Crescent City liave 
noticed odd coincidences of crinu*. If a Palermo man was found 
dead or dying with a stiletto stab near his heart or in his 
stomach, a favorite stabhing-place, a Alessina man soon followed, 
tetimes the murder was committed in hnNid day, but when 




TBAGES AMONG GYPSIES, BRIGANDS AND THIEVES. 116 

the case came up for trial, the witnesses from the Sicilian quarter, 
where such things generally happened, seemed to experience an 
epidemic of stupidity, for the most searching questions failed to 
strike from their stony silence a scintilla of evidence tliat could 
light the way to a conviction for th3 crime. Out of the court the 
munlerer stn)lled witli a smile, rolling a brown paper cigarette. 

In 1873 a characteristic ease occurred. Two young Sicilians 
quarrelled in the French market; out flushed a knife, and one was 
completely disembowelled in a moment. His wife saw the hor- 
rible deed, and ran round and round shrieking, and pointing at 
the murderer whom the police, coming up, appreliended. 

But two days later the woman swore in court that she could 
not tell who stabbed her husband. La Mafia had whispered in her 
ear, and she knew better than to know. A case occurred when 
the present writer lived in New Orleans more striking still. 

A Sicilian lay in wait for another and fired at him an old blun- 
derbuss loaded to the muzzle with nails, small stones, and buck- 
shot. The murderer was seized by the quick police with the 
weapon in his hand, and brought before the victim for still more 
certain identification. 

The dying man darted one glance of hatred at the captive, 
then shook his head and said, "It is not the man, but another. 
This fool must have i)icked up the empty gun." Then he died, 
knowing he would be avenged by his branch of the Mafia, or by 
his family clan, jis, indeed, was done not many months after. 
But the Mafia did not confine its operations to quarrels and 
personal vengeance. Blood wtus its drink, but money was its 
meat. 

Rich Italians who, by reason of their national knowledge of 
Mafian or Camorran methods, could Ikj more easilv intimidated 
than citizens of other races living in that charming cosmopolitan 
city, veiy often received notices that they must make La Mafia a 
little present, the amount of whi(;h, with time and place for 
delivery, was obligingly specified. 

That for many years these merchants complied is not singular. 
They could not give up business and go away to escape the tax. 
To whatever city they might fly, the dark feet of the Mafia could 
follow them. 



116 THE STORY OP GOVERNMENT, 

Unlike its parent, the Camorra, the Mafia appears to have no 
central head, but to have a dozen or more gangs, sometimes at 
variance with each other, but all agreed as against general society 
or government, and never willing to bear witness against Mafians. 
These bands are governed by councils of three which meet in 
secret places, not twice successively in the same spot, plan out 
the murders or intimidations and give instructions to the members 
what they are to do. 

Poison is sometimes used, the shotgun is a frequent means, 
but the stiletto is considered the most creditable and stylish 
instrument for the removal of an enemy or a man who has 
neglected to pay tribute. 

The world knows how Police Inspector Henessy, having made 
a close study of the Mafia, intended to expose it completely and 
bring it to an end, and how he was murdered by Mafians in front 
of his own house. 

The world knows also how the men, by bribery of the jury, 
were acquitted, and how a mob of the most respectable citizens 
of New Orleans, headed by W. S. Parkerson, John C. WickliflFe, 
and Col. W. P. Curtis, three of the most brilliant and popular 
men of that city, met around the Clay statue, went to the old 
Parish Prison, seized the eleven acquitted men, of whose guilt 
there was no shadow of a doubt, and executed them as a warn- 
ing to the Mafia. But the Mafia was untamed. A few days 
after Mr. Parkerson received the following paper: — 

MAFIA WARNING. 

" You a domed man and God Amity can't save you. We have it 
sworn. Our comrades you murdered and we kill you and you family. 
You will be poison. The styleto will do for the wrest." 

Other gentlemen, prominent in this respectable and perhaps 
justifiable mob, received similar sentences, but up to the present 
writing they have remained scathless, and it is likely that the 
Mafia will choose hereafter some safer place than New Orleans, 
since if any of these men or others connected with that uprising 
were to meet with violent or suspiciously sudden deaths, such is 
the spirit of New Orleans that probably within twenty-four hours 
every Italian would be requested to leave the city forever. 



118 THE STORY OF GOVERlOrENT. 

The initiation ceremonies of the Mafia, according to the con- 
fessions of Caruso, are very simple. Caruso said that the chief 
who presided was di*essed in a black domino, that he lield up a 
skull in his left hand, and a dirk in his right, speaking solemnly, 
but briefly, of the dread power of tlie Mafia. The candidate for 
crime then swore, with uplifted hands, to abide by the orders of 
the order. 

The letters of demand for money or of intimidation which thev 
send are generally written in blood, and sealed with a peculiar 
rude seal consisting of an owl perched on a skull above cross-bones. 

This is a sort of grim, unconscious parody on Poe's raven sit- 
ting on the bust of Pallas, and, indeed, a rather more classic 
combination, since according to ancient Italian mythology, the 
owl was the favorite bird of Pallius, goddess of wisdom, who, 
still following the antique, i>erhaps subtly antic, fable was not 
born of any feminine creature, but si)rang full grown and armed 
from the brain of Jove, king of the gods. 

It seems clear that the Mafia exists no longer in its birthplace, 
Sicily, for Guido Pantatori, now superintendent of the Missouri 
Electric Light Co. at St. Louis, who was formerly an officer in the 
Itiilian army, makes the following statement : 

In 1860, the Italian government took the first steps looking to the 
suppression of this band of cut-throats, and sr) effectual were its efforts 
in this direction, that within one voar the Mafia as an orij^anization was 
exterminated, and it does not exist in Italy or Sicily to-day. There 
was no silly or sickly sentiment about the measures taken there. Ex- 
tirpation was the object. We began by arresting every man carrying 
concealed weapons, and every suspicious character. These were sent 
to prison for six months, even if no other evidence could be found 
.against them. 

If any further evidence could be found, the prisoners were sentenced 
to be executed. The culprits were taken out, stood in a line and shot 
down bv the score. Several thousand of the members of the Mafia 
were thus executed and the result was })eace in Sicily." 

And yet while wc may perhaps ]ye amazed at and disgusted 
with a government like that of Italy, which Wiis so slow in ex- 
terminating such a society, root and branch, we nnist not forget 
the beam in our own eye; we nuist rememljer that, although 



TRACBS AMOKa 6TPSIES, BRIGANDS AND TmBVES. 119 

there are certain more civilized States of this Union which do 
not permit Mr. Pinkcrton's choice collection of assassins to cross 
their borders, the great State of New York a few years ago 
allowed a railroad corporation whose oppression of its employees 
had led to a strike, to employ the Pinkerton desperadoes, not 
merely as guai'ds to its property, but as intimidators of the strikers. 

Some of the newspapera protested agjiinst this wrong; but 
the next day their pi*otest was hushed — how and why anyone who 
stops to reason well knows. But these things will not last for- 
ever, for the American people are beginning to wake up and break 
off their former party ties, and sliake off the chains of that abom- 
inable old custom of letting the politicians do their thinking for 
them. 

Just as traces of government are discernible among the Camor- 
risti and Mafians, so among thieves in Iiuge cities like London and 
Paris, promoters of disorder and profiters by it thougli they be, a 
certain tendency to order crops out. Tliat i-ank among thieves is 
i-ecognized lias been proved Ix^yond question. The common pick- 
pocket would not dare, in a tavern, to force liis acquaintance or 
even his uninvited presence on a jovial gathering of "swell mobs- 
men " or of house-breakers. The crimes in which one's life is risked 
are accounted of more aristocratic quality, and their perpetrators 
exercise an autocratic rule over tlie smaller fry of the republic of 
thiever}\ But the average condition of professional thieves in 
a city like London is really not quite so good as that of our 
honest working classes. 

There are forty thousand professional thieves in London, 
Roughly estimating the population of the world's metropolis as 
numbering six millions, this statistic means that amongst Lon- 
doners one person in every hundi-ed and fifty is a forger, a house- 
lireaker, a pickpocket, a shoplifter, a receiver of stolen goods, or 
in short, a human bird of prey. 

Almost eveiy meml^er of this formidjible liost is known to the 
"police," but unfortunately this advantage is almost counter- 
balanced by the fact tliat the police are as well known to the 
majority of the twenty thousand. To their exi^rienced eyes it is 
not the helmet and the blue coat that make the policeman. In- 
deed, they appear to depend not so much on visual evidence as on 



120 the' stoky of government. 

some subtle power of scent, such as the fox possesses, in discover- 
ing the approach of their natural enemy. They can divine the 
detective in his innocent-looking smock-frock or bricklayer jacket, 
while he is yet distant the lengtli of a street. Tliey know him by 
his step, or by liis clumsy affectation of unofficial loutishness. 
They recognize the stiff neck in the loose neckerchief. Tliey 
smell "trap," and are superior to it. 

The following brief life of an adroit London pickpocket, who 
had reformed and become a street singer, shows how thieves are 
trained, and how they are oi-ganized in bands. This pickpocket 
was about the average height, of sallow complexion, with a rich, 
dark, penetrating eye, a moustache and beard. He was a man of 
tolerably good education, and liad a mind well fumLshed. 

Had he not started so young as a pickpocket, he might have 
ripened into a banker — a Naix>leon of finance, but at the time he 
told his life history, he was i-ather melancholy and crushed in spirit, 
which he stated was the result of repeated imprisonments. Yet, 
while narrating some of the exciting passages, liis countenance 
lighted up with intense interest and adventurous expression, 

I was born in a little hamlet, five miles from Shrewsbury, in the 
county of Shropshire. My father was a Wesleyan minister. We 
had a very happy home, though strict in the way of religion. I 
believe my father would on no account have tolerated such a thinj? as 
any of us children stopping out after nine o'clock at night, and I have 
heard my mother often say that all the time she was wedded to him, 
she never had known him the worse for liquor. My father had family 
worship every night between eight and nine o'clock, when the curtains 
were drawn over the windows, the candle was lighted, and each of the 
children was taught to kneel and pray out loud. 

We often had ministers to dinner and supper at our house, and always 
after feasting the conversation turned into discussions on different 
points of doctrine. I can recollect as well now as though it were yes- 
terday the texts used on the various sides of the questions, and the stress 
that was laid on different passages to uphold their arguments. 

At this time I greedily drank in every word that was uttered, and 
soon as they were gone I would fly to the Bible and examine the differ- 
ent texts they had quoted. This practice produced a feeling in my 
mind that any religious opinions could be plausibly supported out of 
the Bible by citing detached passages, and not regarding it as a whole. 




TRACES AMONG GYPSIES, BRIGANDS AND THIEVES. 121 

These continual discussions finally seemed to steel my heart com- 
pletely against religion, and led to my falling out with my grandfather, 
who had a good deal of property that was expected to come to our 
family. For my grandsire found out that I looked on our family relig- 
ion with.douht, and he bitterly resented it, and when he died, it was 
found, on opening his will, that I was not mentioned in it. The whole 
of his property was left to my father, with the exception of four houses, 
which he had an interest in till my brothers and sister arrived at the 
age of twenty-one. Moreover, the property that was left to my father 
for his life, he had no power to will away at his death, but it was to go 
to a distant relative of my grandfather. 

This was the first cause of my leaving home, for the singularity of 
my grandfather's will was attributed to my conduct, and, after a while, so 
harsh were the family comments, it began to rankle in my boyish mind 
that I was a black sheep, something (liferent from my brothers and sis- 
ter. After being several times chided by my father for quarreling with 
my brothers, I threatened, in a fit of passion, to burn the house down 
the fii*st opportunity I got. This threat, though not uttered in my 
father's hearing, came to his ear, and he gave me a severe whipping for 
it. This was the first and last. 

I detennined to leave home, and took nothing away but what be- 
longed to me. I had four sovereigns of pocket money, the suit of clothes 
I had on, and a shirt. I walked to Shrewsbury and took the coach to 
London. When I got to London I had neither friend nor acquaintance. 
I first put up in a coffee shop in the Mile End Koad, and lodged there 
for seven weeks, till my money was nearly all spent. 

During this time my clothes had been getting shabby and dirty, as I 
had no one to look after me. Then I went to a meaner lodging house at 
Field Lane, Holborn, where I met with such characters as I had never 
seen before, and heard language that I had not formerly heard. 

The landlady here, however, took pity on me as a poor country boy 
who had been well brought up, and kept me for some days longer after 
my money was gone. During these few days, I had very little to eat, 
except what was given me by some of the lodgers when they got their 
own meals. Finally, the landlady's husband objecting to my continued 
presence, I was turned out of doors, a little boy in the great world of 
London, with no friend to assist me, and perfectly ignorant of the 
ways and means of getting a living. 

After wandering about for several days half starved, I was taken by 
several poor ragged hoys whom I met, to sleep in the dark arches of the 
Adelphi. I think I lived with them, sharing all they ha<l, for over a 



112 THE STORY OF GOVERNBiENT. 

their main food being mamaliga, or maize-meal, boiled and 
seasoned with salt. Or, as in other countries, they mend pots and 
kettles, shoe horses, or play the medola. But though the tawny 
face of the Frenchified Roumanian bears distinct evidence that 
his forefathers were not so callous to the charms of the lithe young 
gypsy, the so-called whites affect an unutterable scorn for the 
Zigani, ranking them as little better than the lower animals. 
The philosophy of gypsy life is summed up in the following little 
poem composed by a gypsy of Spain in which country these mj'^tic 
strollers are regarded with a sort of tender tolerance like naughty 
but amusing children. 

*' Poraquel luchipen abajo *' There runs a pig down yonder hill 

Abillela uri balichoro As fast as e^er he can» 

Abillcla a goll goli, And as he runs he crieth still : 

Ustilamo Caloro." ' Come steal me,' gypsy manT* 

But the gypsies are injured innocents compared with the extraor- 
dinarj' clandestine clan of robbers and assassins called the 
Camorristi, whose original home and habitat were the two 
Sicilies and lower Italv, but who have followed the Italian race 
in its emigrations and whose dark tracks can be discovered in 
every city of magnitude in this country. The Camorra, as tliis 
brotherhood of brigands is termed, affords a remarkable insight 
into the subtlety of the Italian character, its wonderful capacity 
for devising extraordinary means for the accomplishment of 
ordinary ends, and that less amiable aptitude for playing the 
conspii-ator or spy which has given the Italian nation an evil odor 
in the nostrils of other races which as a whole it does not deserve. 

The recent trouble in New Orleans is traceable to the Camorra, 
for the Mafia is only a branch of that tremendous tree, like the 
banyan in its tendency to burrow back into the earth, and like the 
upas in its pestilent powers. The history of the Camorra is as 
remarkable as any fable, for the Camorristi during the misrule of 
the Bourbons were not only tolerated, but were actually permitted 
to ply their infamous trade, in the hope that this permission to 
plunder the people might influence them in favor of the govern- 
ment. The result was what might have been expected, for when 
Francis II., terrified at the measureless assurance of the society 
he had favored and fostered, attempted its suppression, the mem- 



TBACE8 AMONQ OYPSIB8, BBIGANDB AKD THIEVBS. 118 

1)619 who escaped the wholesale capture and transportation decreed 
against them entered into alliance with the Garibaldians, and 
materially aided in the expulsion of King Bomba. 

Meantime, and for many years, they had a festival time of it. 
Knowing that their exactions were winked at, they boldly pre- 
sented themselves in the markets, at places of i^ublic amusement, 
and at the street spectacles by which the Neapolitan rulers tried 
to make their subjects forget the manner in which they were mis- 
governed. If a cab were engaged, tlie Camonu expected its 
share; if the fare were disputed, a hangdog-looking individual 
would step up and say with sinister quietness how mucli the 
signor ought to pay, and the cojiehman then knew that the 
Camorra liad intervened, and would in due time render its 
account. Differences between men and masters were referred to 
the Camorristi — or taken to anotlier tribunal at tlie risk of the 
recalcitrants regretting their i-ashness. Tlie Camorristi extracted 
their percentage of whatever money passed from liand to hand in 
buying property or in making any open or even private purchase, 
for the Camorra was everywhere, and showed itself in the most 
unlikely quartens. Rents, wages, prizes in lotteries, winnings of 
gamblers — everything which could l>e taxed had, willy nilly, tO 
contribute to the Camorrist treasuiy. There AVtis nothing which 
the society could not accomplish, from the ruin of a minister to 
the dismissal of a Liborer. For a consideration they undertook to 
convey smuggled goods to their destination, and if a hravo were 
required, the Camorra — for a consideration — would provide the 
stiletto. 

Violence, robbery and murder were their machinery. Terrorism 
kept the members together, and so dreaded was their vengeance, 
that when thrown into gaol they would often succeed in 
exacting money from their fellow-prisoners, and even from the 
turnkeys, who dreaded the company committed to their charge. 
Tlie "Camorra" has been repressed iit Naples, but in Sicily it 
flourishes still, not so open and insolent as of yore, but yet potent. 

Protean in form, it had many names or aliases also. In Ravenna 

and Bologna it was called the " Squadraccia, " in Turin the 

"Gocca;** and those who have studied this strange cancer in the 

.social life of Italy say that the Roman "Sicorii," the " Accoltella- 



• 9 



114 



THE STORY OP GOVERNMENT. 



tori" of the Tlomagiia district, and tlie Paniiesftii "Fugnaktori," 
were only the XeajjoliUm Camorristi under other names. It was 
a State within a State, and at the time wlien the government 
flattered itself that tlie organization was actually extemiiiiated, 
there were upwaitls of 200,000 pei'sons iKdouging to it, and 
addressing each other in a language unintelligihlc to more honest, 
or at least to less lawless, jjeople. Recent I'evelations prove that 
if they arc no longer able to weaken the power of the autliorities, 
and ti> modify the operations of eeonomic laws by exacting that 
sliare of tbo national wealth of which 
they were deprived either by idleness 
or the badness of their rulers, they 
ai-e not less a tent>r in certain sti-ata 
of society, and ii means of paralj"zing 
confidence in tlie capabilitj- of the 
law to [irotect all classes equally, 

jVs the In-anches of the banyan 
tree, hiding themselves in the earth, 
I'e-rooting, buiTowing lofk into si- 
lence and shadow, are more remark- 
able than the original trunk or stem, 
so the Matiii, or Maffia, i:i more sin- 
-■ gular than the Caniorr.i Ijecause nioif 
, secretive and subtle. 
) Tliis society still flimrishes in 
Sicilj', and has bimiches in nearly 
cver\' lai^e city on this continent, 
Boston, Sun Fi-antisco, ('liicago, 
New York, for example. But New 
(^)rleaiw esjreciaUy, hy reason of her 
attractive Itiiliaii climate, hiis proved a magnet to Mafiaii cmi- 
ginntft. 

New Orleans for many yean* hiis liad a large Sicilian popula- 
tion, and for many yeai-s the police o£ the Crescent City liave 
noticed odd coincidences of crime. If a Palenno man was found 
dead or dying with a stiletto stab near his heart or in his 
stomach, a favorite stiibbing-place, a Messina nuin soon followed. 
Sometimes the murder w.is committed iu broad day, but wlien 




TRACES AMONG GYPSIES, BRIGANDS AND THIEVES. 115 

the case came up for trial, the witnesses from the Sicilian quarter, 
where such things generally happened, seemed to experience an 
epidemic of stupidity, for the most searching questions failed to 
strike from their stony silence a scintilla of evidence that could 
light the way to a conviction for th3 crime. Out of the court the 
murderer strolled witli a smile, rolling a brown paper cigarette. 

In 1873 a characteristic case occuned. Two young Sicilians 
quarrelled in the French market; out flashed a knife, and one was 
completely disembowelled in a moment. His wife saw the hor- 
rible deed, and ran round and round shrieking, and pointing at 
the murderer whom the police, coming up, apprehended. 

But two days later the Avoman swore in court that she could 
not tell who stabbed her husband. La Mafia had whispered in her 
ear, and she knew better than to know. A case occurred when 
the present writer lived in New Orleans more striking still. 

A Sicilian lay in wait for another and lired at him an old blun- 
derbuss loaded to the muzzle with nails, small stones, and buck- 
shot. The murderer was seized by the quick police with the 
weapon in his hand, and brought before the victim for still more 
certain identification. 

The dying man darted one glance of hatred at the captive, 
then shook his head and said, " It is not the man, but another. 
This fool must have picked up the empty gun." Tlien he died, 
knowing he would 1k^ avenged by his branch of the Mafia, or by 
his family clan, as, indeed, was done not many montlis after. 
But the Mafia did not confine its operations to quarrels and 
personal vengeance. Blood wius its drink, hut money wius its 
meat. 

Rich Italians who, by reason of their national knowledge of 
Mafian or CamoiTan methocLs, could l)e more easily intimidated 
than citizens of other races living in that charming cosmopolitan 
city, very often received notices that tliey must make La Mafia a 
little present, the amount of which, with time an<l place for 
delivery, was obligingly specified. 

That for many years these merchants complied is not singular. 
They could not give up business and go away to escape the tax. 
To whatever city they might fly, the dark feet of the Mafia could 
follow them. 



116 THE STORY OP GOVERNMENT. 

Unlike its parent, the Camorra, the Mafia appears to have no 
central head, but to have a dozen or more gangs, sometimes at 
variance with each other, but all agreed as against general society 
or government, and never willing to bear witness against Mafians. 
These bands are governed by councils of three which meet in 
secret places, not twice successively in the same spot, plan out 
the murders or intimidations and give instructions to the members 
what they are to do. 

Poison is sometimes used, the shotgun is a frequent means, 
but the stiletto is considered the most creditable and stylish 
instrument for the removal of an enemy or a man who has 
neglected to pay tribute. 

The world knows how Police Inspector Henessy, having made 
a close study of the Mafia, intended to expose it completely and 
bring it to an end, and how he was murdered by Mafians in front 
of his o^vn house. 

The world knows also how the men, by bribery of the jury, 
were acquitted, and how a mob of the most respectable citizens 
of New OrleJins, headed by W. S. Parkerson, John C. Wickliffe, 
and Col. W. P. Curtis, three of tlie most brilliant and popular 
men of that city, met around the Clay statue, went to the old 
Parish Prison, seized the eleven acquitted men, of whose guilt 
there was no shadow of a doubt, and executed them as a warn- 
ing to the Mafia. But the Mafia was untamed. A few days 
after Mr. Parkerson received the following paper: — 

MAFIA WAHXIXG. 

" You a domed man and God Amitv can't save vou. We have it 
sworn. Our comrades you murdered and we kill you and you family. 
You will be poison. The styleto will do for the wrest." 

Other gentlemen, prominent in this respectable and perhaps 
justifiable mob, received similar sentences, but up to the present 
writing they have remained scathless, and it is likely that the 
Mafia will choose hereafter some safer place than New Orleans, 
since if any of these men or others connected with that uprising 
were to meet with violent or suspiciously sudden deaths, such is 
the spirit of New Orleans that probably within twenty-four hours 
every Italian would be requested to leave the city forever. 



118 THE STORY OF GOVERJOfENT. 

The initiation ceremonies of the Mafia, according to the con- 
fessions of Caruso, are ver^' simple. Caruso said that the chief 
who presided was dressed in a black domino, that he held up a 
skull in his left hand, and a dirk in liis right, si>eaking solemnly, 
but briefly, of the dread power of the Mafia. The candidate for 
crime then swore, with uplifted hands, to abide by the orders of 
the order. 

The lettei-s of demand for money or of intimidation which they 
send are genei-ally written in blood, and sealed with a peculiar 
rude seal consisting of an owl perched on a skull above cross-bones. 

This is a sort of grim, unconscious parody on Poe's i*aven sit- 
ting on the bust of Pallas, and, indeed, a rather more classic 
combinaticm, since according to ancient Italian mythology, the 
owl AVJis the favorite bird of Pallas, goddess of wisdom, who, 
still following the antique, ixiriiaps subtly antic, fable was not 
Ixirn of any feminine creature, but sprang full grown and armed 
from the brain of Jove, king of the gods. 

It seems clear that the Mafia exists no longer in its birthplace, 
Sicily, for Guido Pantatori, now superintendent of the Missouri 
Electric Light Co. at St. Louis, who wiis formerly an officer in the 
Italian army, makes the following statement : 

In 1860, the Italian government took the first steps looking to the 
suppression of this band of cut-throats, and s.) effectual were its efforts 
in this direction, that witliiu one vear the Mafia as an organization was 
exterminated, and it does not exist in Italy or Sicily to-day. There 
was no silly or sickly sentiment about the measures taken there. Ex- 
tirpation was the object. We began by arresting every man carrying 
concealed weapons, and every suspicious character. These were sent 
to prison for six months, even if no other evidence could be found 
against them. 

If any further evidence could be found, the prisoners were sentenced 
to be executed. The culprits were taken out^ stood in a line and shot 
down by the score. Several thousand of the members of the Mafia 
were thus executed and the result was i)eace in Sicily." 

And yet while wc ma}' perhaps be amazed at and disgusted 
with a government like that of Italy, which Wiis so slow in ex- 
terminating such a society, root and bmncli, we nnist not forget 
the beam in our own eye; we must remember that, although 



TBAC1CS AMOKa GYPBIBS, BRIGANDS AKD THIEVES. 119 

there are certain more civilized States of this Union which do 
not permit Mr. Pinkerton's choice collection of assassins to cross 
their borders, the great State of New York a few years ago 
allowed a railroad corporation whose oppression of its employees 
liad led to a strike, to employ the Pinkerton desperadoes, not 
merely as gmuds to its property, but as intinndatora of the strikers. 

Some of tlie newspapei's protested against this wrong; but 
the next day their pi*otest was hushed — how and why anyone who 
stops to reason well knows. But these things will not last for- 
ever, for the American people are beginning to wake up and break 
off their former party ties, and shake off tlie c.hains of that abom- 
inable old custom of letting the politicians do their tliinking for 
them. 

Just as traces of government are discernible among tlie Camor- 
risti and Mafians, so among thieves inliuge cities like London and 
Paris, pi-omoters of disorder and profiters by it though they be, a 
certain tendency to order crops out. Tliat nink among thieves is 
recognized has l)een i)roved Ixiyond question. The common pick- 
pocket would not dare, in a tavern, to foi-ce liis acquaintance or 
even his uninvited presence on a jovial gathering of "swell mobs- 
men " or of house-breakei-s. The crimes in wliich one's life is risked 
are accounted of more aristocratic quality, and their perj^etrators 
exercise an autocratic rule over the smaller fry of the republic of 
thievery. But the average condition of professional thieves in 
a city like London is really not quite so good as that of our 
honest working classes. 

There are forty thousand professional thieves in London. 
Roughly estimating the population of the world's metropolis as 
numbering six millions, this statistic means that amongst Lon- 
doners one i>erson in every hundi-ed and fifty is a forger, a house- 
breaker, a i)ickpocket, a shoplifter, a receiver of stolen goods, or 
in short, a human biixl of prey. 

Almost eveiy meml)er of this fonnidable host is known to the 
"police,'* but unfortunately this advantage is almost counter- 
balanced by the fact that the i>olice are as well known to the 
majority of the twenty thousand. To their experienced eyes it is 
not the helmet and the blue coat that make the policeman. In- 
deed, they appear to depend not so much on visual evidence as on 



120 the' story of GOVEnK^tENT. 

some subtle power of scent, such Jis the fox possesses, in discover- 
ing the approach of their natuml enemy. Tliey can divine the 
detective in his innocent-looking smock-frock or bricklayer jacket, 
while he is yet distant the length of a street. They know him by 
his step, or by his clumsy affectation of unofficial loutLshness. 
They recognize the stiff neck in the loose neckerchief. They 
smell "ti-ap," and are superior to it. 

The following brief life of an adroit London pickpocket, who 
had reformed and become a street singer, shows how thieves are 
trained, and how they are organized in bands. Tliis pickpocket 
was about the average height, of sallow complexion, with a rich, 
dark, penetrating eye, a moustache and beard. He was a man of 
tolerably good education, and had a mind well furnished. 

Had he not started so young as a pickpocket, he might have 
ripened into a banker — a Napoleon of finance, but at the time he 
told his life history, lie was ratlier melancholy and crushed in spirit, 
which he stated was the result of repeated imprisonments. Yet, 
while narrating some of the exciting passages, liis countenance 
lighted up with intense interest and adventurous expression. 

I was horn in a little hamlet, five miles from Shrewsbury, in tlie 
county of Shropshire. My father was a Wesley an minister. We 
had a very happy home, though strict in the way of religion. I 
believe my father would on no accoimt have tolerated such a thing as 
any of us children stopping out after nine o'clock at night, and I have 
heard my mother often say that all the time she was wedded to him, 
she never had known him the worse for liquor. My father had family 
worship every night between eight and nine o'clock, when the curtains 
were drawn over the windows, the candle was lighted, and each of the 
children was taught to kneel and pray out loud. 

We often had ministers to dinner and supper at our house, and always 
after feasting the conversation turned into discussions on different 
points of doctrine. I can recollect as well now as though it were yes- 
terday the texts used on the various sides of the questions, and the stress 
that was laid on different passages to uphold their arguments. 

At this time I greedily drank in every word that was uttered, and 
soon as they were gone I would fly to the Bible and examine the differ- 
ent texts they had quoted. This practice produced a feeling in my 
mind that any religious opinions could be plausibly supported out of 
the Bible by citing detached passages, and not regarding it as a whole. 



TBACE8 AMONG GYPSIES, BRIGANDS AND THIEVES. 121 

These continual discussions finally seemed to steel my heart com- 
pletely against religion, and led to my falling out with my grandfather, 
who had a good deal of property that was expected to come to our 
family. For my grandsirc found out that I looked on our family relig- 
ion with doubt, and lie bitterly resented it, and when he died, it was 
found, on opening his will, that T was not mentioned in it. The whole 
of his pro|)erty was left to my father, with the excei)tion of four houses, 
which ho had an Interest in till my brothers and sister arrived at the 
age of twenty-one. Moreover, the property that was loft to my father 
for his life, he had no power to will away at his death, but it was to go 
to a distant relative of my grandfather. 

Thb was the first cause of my leaving home, for the singularity of 
my grandfather's will was attributed to my conduct, and, after a while, so 
harsh were the family comments, it began to rankle in my bo^-ish mind 
that I was a black sheep, something di^erent from my brothers and sis- 
ter. After being several times eluded by my father for quarreling with 
my brothers, I threatened, in a fit of passion, to burn the house down 
the first opportunity I got. This threat, though not uttered in my 
father's hearing, came to his ear, and he gave me a severe whipping for 
it. This was the first and last. 

I determined to leave home, and took nothing away but what be- 
longed to me. I had four sovereigns of pocket money, the suit of clothes 
I had on, and a shirt. I walked to Shrewsbury and took the coach to 
Tx^ndon. When I got to London I had neither friend nor acquaintance. 
I first put up in a coffee shop in the MUe End Road, and lodged there 
for seven weeks, till my money was nearly all spent. 

During this time my clothes had been getting shabby and dirty, as I 
had no one to look after me. Then I went to a meaner lodging house at 
Field Lane, Holborn, where I met with such characters as I had never 
seen before, and heard language that I had not formerly heard. 

The landlady here, however, took pity on me as a poor country boy 
who had been well brought up, .and kept me for some days longer after 
my money was gone. During these few days, I had very little to eat, 
except what was given me by some of the lodgers when they got their 
own meals. Finally, the landlady's husband objecting to my continued 
presence, I was turned out of doors, a little boy in the great world of 
London, with no friend to assist me, and perfectly ignorant of the 
ways and means of getting a living. 

After wandering about for several days half starved, I was taken by 
several poor ragged l>oys whom I met, to sleep in the dark arches of the 
Adelphi. I think I lived with them, sharing all they had, for over a 



122 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

month, and during this time I often saw the boys follow the male pas- 
sengers, when the half-penny boats came to the Adelphi stairs, i. e., the 
part of the river almost opposite the Adelphi Theatre. 

I could not at first make out the meaning of this, but I soon found 
they generally had one or two handkerchiefs when the passengers left. 
At this time there was an old j)rison van in the Adelphi arches, without 
wheels, in which we used to sleej), and there we used to meet a man 
my companions called " Larry," who gave the boys almost what price 
he liked for the handkerchiefs. 

My companions, all this time, had been very kind, sharing what they 
got with me, but often asking why I did not try my hand at the trade, 
till at last I was ashamed to live any longer upon the food they gave me 
without earning my share. So, when I gave expression to this rather 
natural, and as it seems to me, somewhat commendable feeling, one of 
the boys, Joe Muckraw, said to me, that when the next boat came in, if 
any man came out likely to carry a good handkerchief, he would let me 
have a chance at it. 

Next day I saw an elderly gentleman step ashore, and a lady with 
him. They had a little dog, with a string attached to it, that they led 
along. Before Joe reminded me of my determination, he stole up and 
"fanned" the gentleman's j»ocket, i. e., felt it to be sure there was a 
handkerchief inside. Then he whispered '* Now, Dick, have a try." 

I went to the old gentleman's side, trembling all over, and Joe 
keeping close to me in the dark, encouraging me all the time, while the 
old gentleman was engaged with the little dog. Lifting up the tail — of 
the coat, not the dog, T mean — I took out a green "kingsman " ( hand- 
kerchief ), next in value to a black silk handkerchief. 

I did it so quietly, quickly, and naturally, I might say, that the gen- 
tleman di<l not perceive his loss. We immediately went to the arches 
and entered the van where Larry was, and Joe said to him, "This is 
Dick's first trial, and you must give him a 'ray' for it," i. e., one shilling 
and sixpence. After a deal of pressing, Larry gave us a shilling. 

After that I gained confidence, and in the course of a few weeks I 
was considered the cleverest of the little band, never missing one boat 
coming in, and getting one or two handkerchiefs each time. When we 
knew there were no boats coming we used to waste our money on 
sweets and fruits, and went often in the evenings to the Victoria The- 
atre and Bower Saloon, and other places. When we came out at 
twelve or half-past twelve at night, we went to the arches again and 
sle])t in the j>rison van. I led this life — and a jolly one it seemed to 
mc? then — for a year. 



TBAGE8 AMONG GYPSIES, BBIGANDS AND THIEVES. 127 

One day sereral men came to visit tis, and they oame again, telling 
us pleasant stories of high life and fine ladies whom they knew. I 
afterwards learned they were brought by " Larry " to study me, as he 
had been speaking of my cleverness at the "tail,'' i. e., stealing from the 
tsuls of gentlemen's coats. They used to make me presents and speak 
very kindly to me, but at that time they were not quite satisfied as to 
my abilities or capacity for taking higher rank in the order. 

One day, having grown a little careless in my methods, I was seized 
by a gentleman who caught me with his handkerchief in my handy 
and I was sentenced to Bridewell for two months. The day of my re- 
lease I felt touched and honored to find at the gate a cab waiting for 
me, and two of the men standing by who had often made me presents 
and spoken to me in the arches. They took me to their own home. One 
of them had the first floor of a house, the other had the second, 
and both had wives, women exceedingly pretty, very kind-hearted, and, 
though you may not believe me, very refined. 

I found out shortly afterwards that these men had lately had a boy 
with them, but he had been caught., sentenced, and transported to Aus- 
tralia about that time, though I did not know this then. They gave 
me plenty to eat, and one of the women, by name " Emily," washed and 
cleansed me — I was wonderfully dirty — and gave me new clothes 
to put on. For three days I was not asked to do anything, but in 
the meantime they had been talking to me of going with them and 
having no more to do with the boys at the Adelphi or with the 
" tiul," but instead to try the finer, more difficult and aristocratic work 
of picking ladies' pockets. 

I thought it more difficult at first, but found afterwards that it was 
more satisfactory to work on a woman's pocket than upon a man's, for 
this reason ; more persons work together, and the boy is well sur- 
rounded by companions older than himself, and is shielded from the 
eyes of the passers-by. Besi<les, it pays better. 

As this was my first essay in having anything to do in stealing from 
a woman, I believe they were nervous themselves, but they had well 
tutored me during the two or thr^e days I had been out of prison. 
They had stood against me in the room while Emily walked to and fro, 
and I had practised on her by taking out sometimes a lady's clasp 
purse, termed a " portemonnaie," and other articles out of her pocket, 
and thus I was not quite ignorant of what was expected of me. 

On the day of my first attempt one walked in front of me, one on 
my right hand, and the other m the rear, and I had the lady on my 
left hand. I immediately <' fanned" her (felt her pocket), as she 



128 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

stopped to look in at a hosier's window, then I took her purse and gave 
it to one of them, and we immediately went to a house in Giltspur 
Street. We there examined the purse and found about two sovereigns 
in it. The purse was thrown away, as is the general rule, and that 
afternoon I found four more purses and then we went home to a good 
supper, after which we laid aside entirely the cares of business and went 
to the theatre. I recollect how they praised me that night for my 
cleverness, and how my cheek glowed with pride at their praise. 

The following day we reaped a still better harvest. It amounted to 
about 19£. (nearly $100) each. These organized gangs always take 
care to allow the boy to see what is in the purse, and to give him his 
proper share, equal with the others, because he is their sole support. 
If they should lose him they would be unable to do anything until they 
got another. Out of my share, I bought a silver watch an<l a gold 
chain, and about this time I also bought an elegant little overcoat and 
carried it on my left arm to cover my movements. 

But men devoted to monetary pursuits — even the most adroit and 
careful financiers, — for instance, think of Baring Brothers just lately — 
sometimes have their turns of ill-luck and get caught on the wrong 
side of an investment. My day came. I saw a gentleman stuff a roll 
of bank notes in his waistcoat pocket and, brushing up against him, I 
attempted to relieve him. It landed me in prison for three months. 
During that time, however, I did not grow thin on prison diet, but 
was kept on good rations supplied to me through the kindness of my 
comrades out of doors bribing the turnkeys. 

When I came out we began to attend the theatres professionally, 
and I have often taken as many as six or seven ladies' purses during 
the crowding, while they were coming out. We also used to go to 
the great races on business, and one day I was induced by my comrades, 
much against my will, for I thought it was too risky, to turn my hand 
upon two ladies as they were stepping into a carriage. I was detected 
by the ladies and there was immediately a tremendous outcry and 
rush for me, but I was got clear by two of my comrades, the other 
throwing himself in the way, and keeping the pursuers back; for which 
he was taken up on suspicion, committed for trial, and not being able 
to explain satisfactorily who he was and why he stumbled in the way 
of persons trying to seize a young pickpocket, my pal got four months 
imprisonment. 

We got another man in his j)lace and when his time expired, 
went down to meet him, and he did not go out hunting with us for 
some time afterwards — nearly a fortnight. After awhile one of the 




%taf^- -''^r'^--^-^-T=^ 



TRACES AMONG GYPSIES, BBIGANDS AND THIEVES. 129 

men w;is seized with a (lecline, and died at Brompton, in the hospital. 
Like the other stalls, as men are called who help in a quiet way as the 
support while one thief plays the star part, he usually went well- 
dressed and had a good appearance. His chief work was to guard me 
and to get nie out of difficulty when I was detected, as I was the 
mainstay of the band. 

One time w^hen I was caught, liowcver, my imprisonment was so 
long that the band had to get another boy in my place, and when I 
came out I decided to go into business by myself. I went to live 
in Charles Street, ])rury Lane, and I stopped there, working all 
alone for five or six months, till T got accjuainted with a young 
woman, who has ever since been devoted to me. She was not a 
thief then, but soon after she got acquainted with me, she divined that 
I was. At first it troubled her terribly, but after awhile she accepted 
it as destiny and became one herself, even more expert than I, although 
she had not i)een regularly educated in stealing as I was when young. 
We married after the usual fashion of thieves — that is, for as lonjx as 
we should agree. Then we took a cou])le of rooms and went to house- 
keeping. I soon got acquainted with sonu^ of the swell mob at the 
Seven Dials, and began working along with three of them upon tlie 
ladies' ])urses again. 

We WQre frequently watched by the j)olice and detectives, who 
followed our track, and were often in the same places of amusement 
with us. Hut we knew them as well as thev knew us and often 
eluded them. Still their followini? us was sometimes the cause of our 
doinjj nothing on manv of these occasions, as we knew their eve was 
upon us. 

But whether I became too well known to the police, or whether in 
the course of time my hand lost some of its cunning, the fact stared 
me in the face that I got caught more frequently, and also the addi- 
tional fact that my imprisonments broke down my health, so I decided 
to quit stealing and earn what I conld as a street ballad singer. Sally, 
however, kept on stealing, which troubled me. So after trying to be 
honest for several months, I told her if she was not satisfied with 
what I was earning as a singer I would resume my former employ- 
ment. I did this for a year, but was arrested three times. Each time 
the prosecutor did not apjjcar and I was acquitted. 

Such luck, I felt certain, could not happen a fourth time running, 
and I took it as a sign of my last chance to lead an honest life. I 
came home and told Sally I would never engage in stealing again, and 
I have kept my word. Had I been tried at this time, as there were so 



130 THE STORY OP GOVERNMENT. 

many former convictions against me, I should very likely have been 
transported. I have since then got my living by singing in the streets. 
I earn my 28. or 2s. 6d. in an hour or an hour and a half in the even- 
ing, and can make a shift. It's a poor calling, but it's honester than 
most vocations, isn't it, since I take only what people choose to give 
me? 

For six or seven years, when engaged in business, I earned perhaps 
a larger amount of money than most of the pocket- picking profession. 
Our house expenses many weeks would average from 4£ to 5£, for we 
lived on the l)est fare, and besides we went to theatres, dressed well, 
and bought the best editions of the best authors. I was always very 
much interested in the attempts of writers to depict thieves. Very 
few of the popular novelists come anywhere near a knowledge of the 
natures of thieves, or can even give a fair descnption of the incidents 
of their lives. The truth is, a pickpocket, till he rises fo the rank of a 
burglar, differs very little in his moral and mental makeup from your 
average merchant in any large city like London. Why so? 

Well, I maintain that unless you give a man a full equivalent for 
what he gives you, you pick his pocket. To make a profit — to get 
something for nothing or to get more than you give — is it not 
stealing ? When a pickpocket graduates into burglary, another element 
comes in, — the risk of life and limb is added — and the possibility, the 
probability of becoming a murderer, completes the criminal natare, 
and makes the man a man-wolf. Consider a moment. In my life, I 
have picked about four thousand pockets, mostly from people who 
could afford once in their lives to be thus taxed. Will you not admit 
that nearly every very great manufacturer or commercial speculator 
takes, under cover of law, more out of the pockets of the honest, hard- 
working, producing class in the course of his life than all the pick- 
pockets of London put together could amass? 

Or even take a burglar for the sake of argument. I don't aspire to 
be one, for I am timid and shrink at the thought of risking or of 
taking human life. But say that an industrious burglar in his business 
life kills two or three men. What does that amount to, compared with 
the thousands which my dear native country, England, has killed in 
Africa during this century just for the sake of extending her com- 
merce ? Indeed, I think I'd rather be the worst of London burglars 
than Napoleon the Great, if quantity as well as quality counts in a 
consideration of murder. Yes, j)ickpockets generally the world over 
know each other, for there's a kind of free masonry among thieves. I 
ean pick out a thief as quick as a pocket, whenever I see him. 



TRACES AMONG GYl^IES, BRIGANDS AND THIBVES. 181 

IHckpockets in any large city are generally well acquainted with 
-each other, go visiting like or(]inary people, and liave their parties at 
which times they generally " sink the shop," and except for an 
occasional phrase you might not know their occupation. They help 
iheir comrades in difficulty. They frequently meet with the burglars 
bat do not associate with them, unless they join tlieni formally and 
give up pockets. Most of the women of pickpockets and burglars are 
shoplifters, as they often have to support themselves when their Ims- 
hands are in prison. Then, too, a woman would not he considered a 
Jielpmeet or fair, square mate for a man, unless she were able to 




procure legal counsel for iiim whfri c;mght, and to keep him in clover 
for a few days after he gets out of jirison, which she does by shop- 
lifting or picking pnckels. I have associated a good deal with the 
pick-pockets over London in different districts. You cannot easily cal- 
culate their weekly income, as it is so precarious, jicrhaps one day get- 
ting 20£ or 30£, and another day being totally unsuccessful. They are 
in general very superatitious, and if anything cross them, they will do 
nothing. If they see a person they have formerly robbed, they expect 
bad luck, and will not attempt anything that day. 



182 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

They are very generous in helping each other, when they get into 
difficulty or trouble, but have no societies, as they could not be kept 
up. Many of them may be in prison five or six months of the year; 
some may get a long penal servitude, or transportation ; or they may 
have the steel taken out of them, and give uj) this restless criminal life. 

They do not generally find stealing gentlemen's watches so profita- 
ble as picking la<lies' pockets, for this reason, that the purse can be 
thrown away, some of the coins changed, and they may set to work 
again immediately ; whereas, when they take a watch, they must go 
immediately to the fence ^ with it ; it is not safe to keep it on their per- 
son. A good silver watcli will now bring little more than 25s., or 
30s., even if tlie watch has cost G£. A good gold watch will not fetch 
above 4£. I have worked for two or three hours, and have got, per- 
haps, six different purses during that time, throwing the purses away 
at once, so that the rol)l>ery might not be traced. Suppose you take a 
watch, and you place it in your pocket, while you have also your own 
watch. If you hap|>en to bo detected you are searched, and there 
being a second watch found on you, the evidence is complete. 

The trouser8-]>ocljets are seldom picked, except in a crowd. It is 
almost impossible to do this on any other occasion, such as when walk- 
ing in the street. The cleverest of the native London thieves, in 
general, are the Irish cockneys, that is, London children of Irish 
])arenta£re. 

I never learned any business or trade, and never did a hard day's 
work in my life excej)t in prison. When men in my position take to an 
honest employment, they are sometimes i)ointed out by some of the 
police as having been formerly convicted thieves, and are often dis- 
missed from service, and are driven back into criminal courses. 

There is to some natures anjong us thieves, for we are not all alike, 
a certain zest in our criminal life, an intense ple:isure in liberty because 
we do not know how lont^ we may enjoy it. This cruel uncertaintv 
strengthens very often the attachment between pickpockets and their 
women, who, I believe, have a stronger liking to each other, in many 
cases, than married ]>eople engaged in safer businesses. 

Would I rather be honest than j)ick pockets? Yes, I think I would, 
though occasionally, when I see a fine silk handkerchief gently bulging 
out a gentleman's coat-tail-pocket, my fingers have a momentary twitch 
and itch that carries me back on memory's express train to the days of 
my boyhood when I slept in the dark arches of the Adelphi and was 
the cleverest of my gang at "the tail." 

Their tenu for a receiver of stolen ptxKi?*. 



TBACBS AMONG GYPSIES, BRIGANDS AND THIEVES. 138 

There is a language current amongst them that is to 1x3 met 
with in no popular dictionary. Probably not even the "slang dic- 
tionary*' contains more than a few of the following instances that 
may be accepted as genuine. It will he seen that the prime essen- 
tial of "Thieves' Latin" is brevity. By its use, much in one or 
two words may be conveyed to a comrade wliile rapidly passing 
him in the street, or, should opportunity serve, during a \'i8it to 
him while in prison. 

For instance, to erase the original name or numlxjr from a stolen 
watch and substitute one that is fictitious is called christenhig 
Jack. To take the works from one watch and case them in 
another, churching Jack. Poultry' stealing is styled beak hunthig. 
One who filches from a shopkeeper while j)i-etendin^ to effect an 
honest purchase is a bouncer. 

One who entices another to play a game at which cheating 
rules, such as card or skittle sharping, is a butfoner. The treadmill 
of a prison is named a shin scraper, possibly ou account of the 
operator's liability, if he is not careful, to get his shins scraped 
by the ever-revolving wheel. 

To commit burglary is to crack a cane or break a drum. The 
van that conveys prisoner to jail is a Black Maria. A thief 
who robs cabs or caiTiages by climbing up Ix^hind, and cutting the 
stra{)B that secure the luggage on the roof is a firaf/nman^ while 
he who trains young thieves, like Fagiii in *M)liver Twist," is a 
kidsman. 

Breaking a square of gliuss is (!alled »tarring the glaze. To be 
transported or sent to penal servitude is being Jagged. Tlii'ee 
years' imprisonment is a stretchy while by some defect in thieves' 
arithmetic a half stretch is only six months. A confederate in the 
practice of thimble-rigging is a nobler. To rol) a till is to pinch 
a hob. 

One who assists at a sham street row for the purpose of creat- 
ing a mob and promoting roblxjry from the person is a jolly. A 
thief who secures goods in a shop while a confederate distracts 
the attention of the shopkeeper is entitled a palmer. A person or 
place marked for plunder is denominated a plant. Going out to 
steal linen that is drying in gardens is picturesquely phrased 
as going 9nowing. Stolen property generally is sicag. To go 



184 THE STORY OP GOVERNMENT. 

about half naked to excite compassion is to be on the shallow. 
Stealing lead from the roofs of houses is technically termed flying 
the blue pigeon. Coiners of bad money are hit fakers^ while mid- 
night prowlers who rob drunken men are facetiously nicknamed 
Img hunters. Entering a dwelling-house while the family have 
gone to church is a dead lark. When a man is convicted of 
thieving he is in for a vamp. A city missionary or Scripture 
reader is a gospel grinder. When hidden from the police a thief is 
said to be laid up in lavender. Forged banknotes are queer screens. 
To receive a whipping while in prison is called having scroby or 
claws for breakfast. Long-fingered thieves, expert in emptying 
ladies' pockets, are fine wirers. The condemned cell is the salt 
box. The prison chaplain is rather aptly styled Lady Green. A 
boy thief, lithe and thin and daring, such a one as house-breakers 
hire for the purpose of entering a small window at the rear of 
a dwelling-house, is a little snakesman. 

So pertinaciously do the inliabitants of criminal colonies stick 
to their "Latin," that a well-known Avriter suggests that special 
religious tracts, suiting their condition, should be printed in this 
language, as an almost certain method of securing their attention. 
But if an acquaintance with the thieves' quarters reveals to one 
the amazing subtlety and cleverness of the pilfering fraternity, it 
also teaches the guilty fear, the wretchedness, the moral guilt, and 
the fearful hardships that fall to the lot of the professional thief. 

They are never safe for a moment, and this unceasing jeopardy 
produces a constant nervousness. Sometimes when visiting the 
sick, a minister who spent his life among them would gently lay 
his hand on the shoulder of one, who happened to be standing in 
the street. The man would "start like a guilty thing upon a 
fearful summons," and it would take him two or three minutes 
to recover his self-possession. The adage, "Suspicion always 
haunts the guilty mind," is painfully illustrated in the thieves' 
quarter by the faces of gray-haired criminals, whose hearts liave 
been worn into hardness by the dishonoring chains of transpor- 
tation. When, in the dusk, one speaks to a London thief in a 
low tone, the guilty start as the man l^nds forward, anxiously 
peering into the speaker's face, is a thing frightful to behold. 

He is never at rest, the wretched professional thief. He goes 



TRACES AMONG GYPSIES, BRIGANDS AND THIEVES. 135 

about with the tools of war perpetually in his hands, and with 
enemies in the front and the rear, to the right and the left of 
him. "Anybody, to hear 'em talk," a thief once remarked (he 
was a thief at that time in possession of liberty ; not an incar- 
cerated rogue plying "gammon" as the incarcerated rogue loves 
to ply it, for the sake of securing sympathy as a stepping-stone to 
something else), "anybody would think to hear 'em talk, that it 
was all sugar with us while we were free, and that our sufferin's 
did not begin until we were caught and 'put awa:; Them that 
think so know nothin' about it. Take a case, i)*> ^j, of a man who 
is in for gettin' his livin' 'on tlie cross,' and wi^o luis got a 'kid' 
or two, and their mother, at home. I don't ^.ay it is vvj cjise, but 
you can take it so if you like. She isn't a thief. Ask her what 
she knows about me and she'll tell you that, wuss luck, I've got 
in CO. with some bad uns, and she wishes that I liadn't. She 
wishes that I hadn't, p'r'aps, — not out of any Goody-two shoes 
feelin', but because she loves me. That's the name of it; we 
haint got any other word for the feelin' ; and slie can't bear to 
think that I may, any hour, be dragged off for six montlis, or a 
year, p'r'aps. And them's my feelin's too, and no mistake, day 
after day, and Sundays as well as week days. She isn't fonder of 
me than I am of her, I'll go bail for that; and as for the kids, 
the girl especially, why, I'd skid a wagon Avhecl with my l>ody 
rather than her precious skin should be grazed. WtOl, take my 
word for it, I never go out in the morniir, and the young un sez 
'good-by,' but what I think 'good-by, — yes I p'r'iips it's good-by 
for a longer spell than you're dream in' about, you poor little 
shaver!' And when I get out into the street, how long am I 
safe? Why, only for the straight length of that street, as far as 
I can see the coast clear. I may find a stopper at any turnin', or 
at any corner. And when you r/o feel the hand on your collar I 
I've often wondered what must be a eha})'s feelin's when the 
white cap is pulled over his })eepers, and old Caleraft is j)awin' 
about his throat to get the rope right. It must be a sight woi-se 
than the other feelin', you'll say. Well, if it is, I wonder how 
long the chap manages to hold up till he's let go! " 

Many a thief is kept in reluctant bondage to crime from the 
difficulties he finds in obtaining honest employment and earning 



186 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

honest bread, yet some thieves are fond of their criminal calling. 
They will tell you plainly that they do not intend to work hard 
for five dollars a week when they can easily earn five times as 
much by thieving, in less time, and live like gentlemen. But 
some are utterly weaiy of the hazard and disgrace. They were 
once pure, honest and industrious, and when sick, or in jail, they 
are frequently filled with bitter remorse, and make the strongest 
vows to have done with a guilty life. 

Suppose a man of this sort in jnison. His eyes are opened, 
and he sees before him the gulf of utter ruin into which he will 
soon be plunged. He knows well enough that the money earned 
by thieving goes as ftist as it comes, and that there is no prospect 
of his ever being able to retire on his ill-gotten gains. He comes 
out of prison det^jrmined to reform. But where is he to go? 
What is lie to do? How is he to live? Whatever may have 
been done for him in prison is of little or no avail, if as soon iis 
he leaves the jail he must go into the world branded with crime, 
unprotected and unhelped. 

The discharged prisoner must be friendly with some one, and 
he must live. His criminal friends will entertain him on the 
understood condition that they are to be repaid from the Ix)oty of 
his next depredation. Thus the first food he eats, and the firet 
friendly chat he has, lK»conie the half-necessitating initiative of 
future crime. Frequently the newly discharged prisoner passes 
through a round of riot and drunkenness immediately on his 
i-elease from a long incareeratioi), as any other man might do in 
similar circumstances who has no fixed principles to sustain him. 
And so ])y reason of the rebound of newly fioquired lil)erty, and 
the influence of the old set, the man is agiiin demoralized. 
The discharged prisoner may leave jail with good resolves but 
the moment he enters the world there arises before him the dark 
and specti*al danger of l)eing hunted down by the police, of 
l^eing recognized and insulted, of being shunned and despised 
by his fellow-workmen, of being everywhere contemned and 
forsaken. 

One cannot live amongst the thieves many months and study 
them closely, without discovering the fa till fact that they have 
no faith in the sincerity, honesty, or goodness of human nature ; 






TRACES AMONG GYPSIES, BKIGANDS AND THIEVES. 187 

and that this last and saddest scepticism of the human heart 
is one of the most powerful influences at work in the continua- 
tion of crime. They believe people in general to be no better 
than themselves, and that most people will do a wrong thing if 
it serves their purpose. They consider themselves better than 
many "square" people who practise commercial frauds, and in 
this point, perhaps, they are nearly right. 

Not having a spark of faith in human nature, their case is all 
but hopeless, and only those who have tried the experiment can 
tell liow difficult it is to make a thief believe that you are really 
disinterested and mean him well. But thieves, the worst of 
them, speak gloomily of the prospects of the fraternity, just as a 
red Indian might complain of the dwindling of his tribe I^efore 
the strong march of advancing civilization. 

Although, as most people are aware, the great thief tribe 
reckons amongst its number an upper, a middle and a lower 
class, pretty much as corresponding grades of station are recog- 
nized amongst the honest community, it is doubtful, in the former 
case, if promotion from one stage to another may be gained by 
individual entei-prise, talent and industry. The literature of * 
the country is from time to time enriched by bragging autobiogra- 
phies of confessed villains, as well as by tlie penitent revelations 
of reclaimed rogues, but it does not appear tliat pei*severance in 
the humbler walks of crime leads to the highway of infamous 
prosperity. 

This, indeed, seems to be an idea too preposterous even for 
the pages of Newgate romance, daring in their flights of fancy as 
are the authors affecting that delectable line. There is no sinister 
antithesis of the well-known honest boy Whittington, who tramped 
from Bristol to London with twopence-halfpenny, or five cents, in 
his pocket, and afterwards became lord mayor. No low-browed 
ragged little tliief, who began his career by purloining a turnip 
from a costemionger's barrow, is immortalized in the pages of the 
Newgate Calendar as having finally arrived at the high distinc- 
tion of wearing fine clothes and ranking as the first of swell 
mobsmen, or as a brilliant and fashionable burglar. 

On the contrary it is a fatal fact, and should have weight with 
aspirants for the convict's mask and badge, that the poor, shabby, 



188 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

hard-working thief so remains till tlie end of his days. There is 
no more chance of his carrying his shameful figure and miserable 
hangdog visage into the tip-top society of his order, than there is 
of a camel threading his way through the eye of a needle or a Jay 
Gould repenting and restoring his legalized plunder to the people. 

Shocking enough is it to contemplate the white-haired tottering 
criminal holding on to the front of the dock 'because he dares not 
trust entirely his quaking legs, and with no more to urge in his 
defence than Fagin liad when it came to the last, — " an old man, 
my lord, a very old man" ; and we give him our pity ungrudg- 
ingly, because we are no longer troubled with fears of his hos- 
tility as regards the present or the future. It is all over with 
him or very nearly. The grave yawns for him, and we cannot 
help feeling that after all he has hurt himself much more than us. 

No, it is not those who have run the length of their tether 
of crime that society has to fear, but those who by reason of their 
tender age are as yet but feeble toddlera on the road that leads 
to the hulks. It would \)e instructive iis well as of great ser- 
vice to humanity, if reliable infonnation could be obtiiined as 
to the beginning ct tlie down-hill journey by our juvenile 
criminals. Without doubt it would l>e found that in a lament- 
ably large numlxir of cases the iK^ginning did not arise in the 
present transgressoi-s at all, but that they were bred and nurtured 
in it, inheriting it from their parents as certain forms of phys- 
ical disease are inlierited. 

One tiling, at least, is certain ; it would come much cheaper to 
every country if these Inidding burglai's and pickpockets were 
caught up, Ixjfore their natures l^ecame too thoroughly pickled in 
the brine of rascality, and caged away from the community at 
large. Boy thieves are the most mischievous and wasteful. 
They will mount a house roof, and for the sake of appropriating 
the thirty cents' worth of lead that forms its gutter, cause such 
damasfe as only a builder's bill of a hundred dollars or so will set 
right. 

The other day a boy stole a family Bible valued at twelve dol- 
lai-s, and after wrenching off the gilt clasps, threw the book into 
a sewer; the clas[)s he sold to a marine store dealer for five cents. 
It may be fairly assumed in the ciuse of boy thieves, who are so 



TBAOE8 AMONQ GTPBrES, BRIGANDS AND IHIBVXS. 189 

completely in the hands of others that, before they can " make " 
ior themselves five dollars in cash, they must, as a rule, steal 
goods to the value of at least forty dollars, and sometimes double 
as much. But let us put the loss by exchange at its lowest, and 
say that the hoy thief gets a fourth of the value of what he steals; 
before he can earn by Odeving as umch as fifty cents a day, he must 
rob to the amount of twelve dollars a week, — allowing him his 
Sunda^-3 off — or, in short, to live as decently as our common 
laborers, the hoy must steal to the value of $624 per annum. 
Now, whatever less aura than this it would cost the State to edu- 
cate, clothe and teach him, the [>eople 
at large would be in pocket. 

Yet infinitely worse in its conse- 
quences than the \yetty larceny or the 
burglaiy thsit are the precarious profes- 
sions of outlawed unfortunates Ja our 
great cities is the theft which goes on 
right under the noses of neiirly every 
community in the "way of commerce; 
the theft, and sometimes slow munler, 
which is called adultei-ation of fond. 
Possibly this commen;ial robbery is not 
so common in this country as in Enfj- 
land, but there is good ground for 
believing that in many places adulter- 
ation is sj-stematic and inerciisiiig, and 
recently a bill has been introduced in Congi-ess for an extension 
of the Bureau of Agriculture by tlie appointment of fiwid in- 
spectors, whose duties should be the buying of foml in ilifferent 
shoiM, and the having such specimens chemically analyzed. 

In addition to the fact that bad bread niadi; by private enter- 
prise sa^js the national health, chithing made in tenement houses 
spreads fevere, and the jiiMnly built, imperfectly ventilated houses 
in which the jwior and the lower middle class live cause diseases 
ht>m which occasionally the rich die as well jw the \Mor ^-ictima 
of plutocratic greed or stupidity. We shall read in a laterchapter 
about the Ju^emaut o£ India, but it is merely a toy monster com- 
pared to the Jug^niaut of Avarice and Ignorance, under whose 




140 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

wheels the masses are being crushed in many nations that have 
the amazing effrontery to call themselves civilized. Even in free 
and supposedly prosperous America between the years 1850 and 
1880, the percentage of criminals more than trebled, and the 
percentage of lunatics more than quadrupled. Does not this fact 
seem to imply that there is something wrong somewhere in our 
present industrial system? Why, in a land so blessed by nature, 
should such cui-ses as these be on the increase? Will the reader 
study for a few moments these figures and facts from the last 
census, and then draw a just conclusion? Our population is 
alKmt 04,000,000. Our national wealth is about $65,000,000,000 
— sixtv-five billions. 

This wealth is divided among three cliisses as foUo'vs : 

182,000 rich families own $43,000,000,000 

l,20f),000 middUsclass familieK own . . 7,500,000,000 
11,(520,000 working-class families own . . 11,200,000,000 

Allowing five i)ei*sons to a family, the usual method amor^g 
stiitisticuans, each rich pei-son averages a having of $47,253, each 
middle class man or woman owns on an average $1,250, and each 
meml)er of the toiling legion which composes the bulk of the 
poj)ulation and produces the bulk of the wealth, possesses $193. 

These figures and calculations are not those of any wild-eyed, 
wide-mouthed demagogue, but are put forth by Mr. Thomas G. 
Sheannan, a New York millionnaire. What do they mean? Do 
the}' not suggest a reasonable cause for the spread of pauperism, 
the rise of crime and the possibly near fall of our civilization, as 
many a si)lendid but unbalanced society has fallen — witness 
Kabylon, Athens, and Home I — into corruption and chaos? 

Wlmtever politicians of any party may say, national wealth is 
not national health, unless it is well distributed. Let the reader 
ask himself not once, in reading these lines, but often in the 
future, two questions : Is there not something wrong somewhere, 
no matter how personally prosperous or successful I, juM this 
momf'jit, miy ba; and is not "this wrong something" our present 
industrial system which enriches the few at the expense of the 
many ? 



IV. 




THE kind of government of which the eliief idea is em- 
bodied in the word feudalism, imd which w^as once 
the prevalent form in Eiiroi)e, as we see it to-day in 
Central and Western Africa, presents many features of 
intense interest. Iloughly speaking, it is a government of chiefs 
witli a sort of loose or elastic allegiance to a liead chief or king. 

European feudalism gi*ew to be a much more elaborate system 
than that which Africa now exhibits, and an explanation of it will 
be found in a note to the chapter on constitutional monarchy ; but 
the essential marks are the same, the deg-ree of alleuriance to the 
central chief, that is, the power possessed by the king, varying 
considerably among the different tribes, probably according to the 
length of time of their divergence from the sim[)le democracy of 
original tribal government as outlined in chapter first. 

All the Central Afric!an governments, for instance, though 
feudal, are more or less despotic. Among tluj Manganja the 
country is divided up into a number of districts, each of which 
has under its control some villages; but each of these districts, or 
"Rundos," as they are called, is independent of the other, not 
even acknowledging a common chief. Each village pays tribute 
to the Rundo, which in its turn protects and assists it in time of 
trouble. In fact, the system is not unlike that of the Swiss can- 

141 



142 THK STOKY OF GOVEKNMENT, 

tons, or the American states; "state riglits," however, being i-ather 
further advanced in the Black-kingly Republic than in the 
European or Transatlantic democratic one. A woman may also 
be chief of a Rundo, and they are said to exercise their authority 
veiy judiciously. 

The Banyai, a trilxi on the southern bank of the Zambesi, elect 
their chiefs, but always out of ^ne famil}', though they never select 
the immediate descendants ot the late monarch, but always some 
relative, sucli as a nephew or brother. It is ficcounted etiquette 
for the newl}' elected chief to affect an air of modesty, and a seem- 
ing desire to decline the i)roflfered honoi-s as too great for a man 
of his rank, ability and ambition. In fact, he expects to be 
"thrice," or a greater numl)er of times, offered the "kingly 
crown " ; but, unlike his Roman prototype, there is no case on 
record in which the honor was eventuall}' refused. 

The new chief not only inherits the property, but also the 
wives and children of his predecessoi-s, though often one of the 
sons of the former chief considei-s, quite mituiully, that he is not 
to be kept iii su])servienct) to tlie new monai-ch, and attempts to 
set up as a i)etty chief for himself, an attempt whicli generally 
results in his having his village burnt alxmt his eai-s, Jis a gentle 
hint that he had better receive liis superior in a proj>er man- 
ner — viz., by clapping of hands, the common method of salutii- 
tion amont^ most of these African tril)es. 

Among tlie lianyai it is the custom for wealthy men to send 
their sons to be educated, under some man of eminence, in all 
the duties and accomplishments of Banyai gentlemen, just as in 
former times in Europe the sons of gentlemen were sent as pages 
and escpiires to be trained in the laws of cliivahy under some 
jmissant knight. 

Among the Wahunuis a cuiious law ])ie vails. If anyone 
becomes a slave — whicli it is uiniecessary to say is always an 
involuntiiry act — he or she is ])ut to deatli when caught again by 
their own people, becaust? b}' so doing they have broken one of the 
laws of their country. Speke witnessed an instance in which 
some women were actually put to death b}^ their own husbands. 

Theft is generally severely punished in Africa, if it is committed 
on any of their own tribe. The Karagues punish this crime with 



144 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

imprisonment in the stocks, often for months at a time. Let a 
man strike another with a stick, and he can expiate the offence 
by paying ten goats ; but if a spear, or any other deadly weapon 
is used, then he is deprived of all his property — one half of the 
forfeit going to the crown, the other to the person assaulted. 

In case of murder, the entire goods of the murderer are for- 
feited to the relatives of the slain. The laws against adultery 
are curiously at once both lax and severe. If a wife offend, she 
only loses an ear; if a slave, or the daughter of the chief, is the 
guilty party, both she and her paramour are executed. 

Among some tribes a man is very severely punished for hurting 
his wife, as our striking illustration shows, where two wife-beat^rs 
are dealt with in no ordinary way, but are whipped till the blood 
runs. The old crone is telling the culprit who is bound and 
waiting his turn what an artistic flagellation he is going to 
receive. 

Indeed, women in Central Africa are l)etter trea,ted than gen- 
erally among barbarians. Among the Banyai the wife is the 
husband's equal. Tlie husband not only regards her with pro- 
found respect, but is expected to consult her before concluding 
any bargain, and to let her know his most private business 
transactions. The women even do business on their own account, 
and visit distant towns to effect commercial transactions for their 
husbands. 

Unlike many women who attempt business, they can S3e that 
there are two sides to a bargain. The Banyai system of mamage 
is quite in keeping with this region of the strong-minded woman. 
Among them there is none of the barter of cows for wives as else- 
where. 

The bridegroom goes humbly to live at the house of his 
father-in-law and meekly submits to be bullied and ordered alxiut 
by his mother-in-law, not a more amiable lady than usual, probii- 
bly. He has to carry water, cut wood, and altogether demean 
himself as becomes his position in life. If lie objects to this 
arrangement he may leave, but his wife and children must remain, 
unless he can pay as much as will compensate the wife's parents 
for the loss of her services. 

In unpleasant contrast with this supremacy of woman, let us 



FEUDALISTIG MONARCHY. 145 

look at Uganda, where she is taught her place with the sharp 
logic of the rod. A special Icind of whip made of plaited strips 
of hippopotamus hide, with hard, sharp, horny edges, which cut 
into the flesh at every stroke, is reserved for the administration 
of wifely chastisement. Killing a wife, or a few wives at a time, 
is a mere trifle in Uganda. Polygamy is the universal custom. 

The King of Uganda has seven thousand women in his palace.^ 
Often thirty or forty girls will be offered him in a single morning 
as brides. If he orders them to fall upon their knees, and 
embraces them, then the ceremony of marriage is complete, 
the fortunate damsels are received into the number of his wives, 
and the parents prostrate themselves before their sovereign, 
ejaculating the word ''N'yanz" (thanks) repeatedly, in such 
a manner that the ceremony of thanking the sovereign for any 
favor is described by those travellers who have visited the Uganda 
court as "n'yanzigging." Koffee, the late King of Ashanti, is 
said to have had 3,333 wives. 

The M angan ja looks upon the burial places of his race as sacred, 
and keeps the graves neatly. They are arranged north and south, 
and on the surface are laid the implements which the sleeper 
beneath used during life. 

As amongst the North American Indians these tools are broken 
perhaps to prevent their being stolen by irreverent marauders of 
their own or other tribes. By the nature of the implements the 
passerby can thus tell the occupation, sex, or rank of the dead. 

As mourning, the relatives wear strips of palm tied round their 
heads, necks, breasts, arms, and legs, and allow them to remain 
lutil decay, and the wear and tear to which they are subject, cause 
them to drop off. 

In other tribes — among the Karague people, for example — 
the place and mode of a man's burial are regulated by his rank. 
If low, his body is sunk in the lake near which tliey live; 
but if of noble caste (or as he is styled, a " Wahuma "), then a 
sacred island is the place of its deposit, and the vicinity of the 
place of sepulture marked by the symbol of two sticks, tied to a 

iThls Is probably a groBS exaggeration, due partly to the desire of the King to Impress 
stimngers with his great power and pomp as a hnsband and paitly to the savage inability to 
flgnvB oonectly beyobd a certain namber. 



144 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

imprisoDment in the stocks, often for months at a time. Let a 
man strike another with a stick, and he can expiiite the offence 
by paying ten goats ; but if a spear, or any other deadly weapon 
is used, then he is deprived of all his property — one half of the 
forfeit going to the crown, the other to the j>erson assaulted. 

In case of murder, the entire goods of the munlerer are for- 
feited to the relatives of the slain. The laws against adulterj- 
are curiously at once both lax and severe. It a wife offend, she 
only loses an ear; if a slave, or the daughter of the chief, is the 
guilty party, hoth she and her paramour are executed. 

Among some tribes a man is very severely puiiished for hurting 
his wife, as our striking illustration shows, where two wife-beat«rs 
are dealt with in no ordinary way, but are whipped till the blood 
runs. The old crone is telling the culprit who is bound and 
waiting his turn what an artistic flagellation he is going to 
receive. 

Indeed, women in Central Africa are better treajed than gen- 
erally among barbarians. Among the Banyai the wife is tlie 
husband's equal. Tlie husband not only regards her with pi-o- 
found respect, but is expected to consult her before concluding 
any bargain, and to let her know his most private business 
transactions. The women even do business on their own account, 
and visit distant towns to effect commen:ial transactions for their 
husbiinds. 

Unlike many women who attempt business, they can see that i 
there are two sides t>i ;i bitrgain. The Banyai system of mari'iage i 
is quite in keeping uitb this region of the strong-minded wommi. j 
Among them there is none of the barter of cows for wives as else- 
where. 

The bridegroom goes humbly lo live at the 
father-in-law and meekly submita to be bullied B 
by his mother-in-law, not a more amiable Uiiy.% 
hly. He has to carry wattr, iiit wood, auflj 
himself as becomes Lis [» 

arrangement he may leave, buth 

unless he can pay as mtiol^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^ 

for the loss of her ae 

In unpleasant c 




146 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

stone, lying across the pathway. No one seeing this mark would 
dare to go along the holy path ; at any inconvenience he would 
turn aside to I'eacli his destination. 

Tlie kings are buried like the nobles, Imt with this addition, 
that their l)odies are fiist roixsted for a month, until they are like 
sun-dried meat, when tlie lower jaw is cut off, preseived, and 
covered with beads. The royal tombs are put under the charge 
of special officei-s who occupy huts erected over them. 

On the death of any of the great ofticei-s of state, the finger- 
lK)nes and hair are also preserved; or, if tliey died shaven, as 
sometimes occui-s, a bit of tlieir "mbiigu " dress will be preserved 
in place of the liair. Their families guard their tombs. Among the 
Wanyoro the dead are buried — the men on the left, the women 
on the right of the door. 

The Bari bury their dead within the enclosure of their kraal or 
homestead, the grave being marked with poles, on whicli are luing 
skulls and bonis of cattle, and the top decorated with a tuft of 
cocks' feathei's, tlie national "crest" or distinction of a memljer 
of that tribe, and which they wear on their heads during life. 
The Musgu, one of the rather more civilized African races, are 
singular in this respect, that they erect mounds with urns over 
their dead, a custom which obtained extensive popularity among 
the primitive races of Europe and other countries. 

Among the Bongo, soon as life is extinct, the corj)ses are 
placed in a crouching j)osture, with the knees forced up to 
the chin, and are firmly l)ound round the head and legs. Then, 
after the body has been thus compressed into the smallest 
possible comj^ass, it is sewn into a sack made of skins, and placed 
in a deep grave. A shaft is then sunk perpendicularly about four 
feet, and a niche hollowed in the side, so that the bag containing 
the corpse should not Iiave to sustain any vertical pressure from 
the earth which is thrown in to fill up the grave. 

The Bongo have the striking custom of bur}^ing men with the 
face turned to the north and women to the south. After the 
gmve is filled in, a heap of stones is piled over the spot in a short 
cylindrical fonn, and this is supj)Oii:ed by strong stakes, which are 
driven into the soil all i-ound. A i)itcher or urn is placed on the 
middle of the pile, and the graves are always close to the huts, 



FKUDALISTIC MONAliCHY. 147 

their site being marked by a number of long forked branches, 
carved, by way of ornament, with numerous notc;hes and incisions, 
and having their points sharpened like horns. 

The typical meaning of these stakes is unknown even to the 
natives, the assertion made by tlie traders, that each notch denotes 
an enemy killed in biittle by the deceased, being denied by the 
Bongo theuLselves. The neiglil)oring Mittoo and Madi adopt a 
similar style of sepultiu"e, and the memorial urns erected over tlie 
graves of the Musgu remind the traveller of the pitchei"s on tlio?;e 
of the Bongo. 

When a funeral takes place, all the neiglilx)!^^ attend, and after 
being freely entertained with native beer, help to form the grave, 
rear the memorial urn, and erect the votive stakes. When the 
ceremony is finished, they shoot at the stakes with arrows, which 
they leave sticking in the wood. 

The Ddre, or Dyooi*s, of the White Nile arniuge their graves 
close to their houses, and mark them bv a (drcular mound three or 
four feet high, which in a few yeai-s is obliterated by the tropical 
rains, and is not renewed. 

Among the cannilml Niam-Niam grief, as is frequent among the 
African and other trilx?s, is denoted by shaving the head. The 
corpse is ordinarily dyed with red wood and adorned with fine 
skins and feathers. Men of rank, after l^eiiig attired with their 
common aprons, are interred either sitting on their benches or ai*e 
enclosed in a kind of coffin made from a hollow tree. 

Like the Bongo, the Niam-Xiam bury their dead with a scrupu- 
lous regaid to the points of the compass ; but commonly enough 
they reverse the iiile of the fonner tribe, the men I)eing deposited 
with their faces towaixls the east, the women towards the west. 
After the grave has been well stamped down, a hut is erected 
over it, though, owing to its fragile character, it rarely long 
survives the weather or the annual burning of the steppe 
pasture. 

. A Wagogo chief, on dying, is washed, and his cori)se placed in 
an upright jKwition in a hollow tree, to which the people come 
daily to mourn and pour l)eer and ashes on the corpse, indulging 
themselves meanwhile in a kind of wake. This ritual goes on 
until the body is thoroughly decomposed, when it is placed on 



148 THE STOBY OF GOVERNMENT. 

a platform and exposed to the effects of the weather, that speedily 
reduces it to a heap of bones — which ai-e then duly buried. 

At one time slaves were sacrificed to heighten the dignity of such 
occasions ; but in marked conti-ast with the elaborate rites attend- 
ing a great man's sepulture, the bodies of commonei's are thrown 
into the nearest jungle to be devoured by beasts of the field and 
fowls of the air. 

Among some tribes the first step taken when a king expires is 
to divert the course of a stream, and to dig an enormous pit in its 
bed. This cavern is then lined with living women. At one end 
a woman is placed on her liands and knees, and upon lier back the 
corpse of the dead king, covered witli l>eads and other ornaments, 
is seated, supported on each side by one of his wives, while his 
second wife sits at his feet. 

The earth is then shovelled in over living and dead alike, all 
the women being buried alive except tlie second wife, who is 
graciously permitted the privilege of being slaughtered, instead, 
before the huge grave is filled in. Finally, forty or fifty slaves 
are killed, and their blood poured over the sepulchi-e, after which 
the river is allowed to resume its course. 

A pitiable sight is the di-agging of a king's wives to his 
funeral. They are generally stolid as cattle driven to the 
shambles, but in our illustration one can ])e noticed making an 
eloquent, though vain, appeal to a former sweetheart in the crowd 
to attempt her rescue. The man would like to, but he does not 
dare : the superstition of royalty is too strong. 

It is said that as many as a hundred women have been buried 
with one great chief or king, though smaller men have to be sent 
to their long home with only two or three, and their gi-aves 
drenched with the blood of as many slaves, while the vulgar herd 
have to be content with solitary sepulture, the corpse being placed 
in a sitting posture, with the right forefinger pointing heaven- 
wards, just level with the top of the mound over his grave. 

Eating, smoking, sleeping, fighting, dancing, gambling a little, 
and wrestling, may l^e said to form in outline tlie list of a Cen- 
tral African's amusementii. Wrestling is about the only manly 
sport tliey care for, as hunting and fishing are their daily occupa- 
tions, and thei*efore cannot be looked upon as amusements. 



150 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

Wrestling, however, is only practised among tlie moi-e civilized 
races, such as tlie Birghami. So keenly do they contest in tliis, 
that it is not an unfrequent occurrence for one of the contestants 
to be left dead on the ground. Great men among this people will 
keep in their pay, or as slaves, powerful wrestlei-s, on whose 
prowess they highly pride themselves. A Avrestler once beaten is 
looked upon as no good, and, if a slave, would l)e sold for a mei-e 
fraction of the ])rice he was valued at before meeting with this 
i*everse of fortune. 

In addition, all tlie Birghami, particularly the women, are good 
dancers, being active and yet gi-aceful in all their movements. 
Their dancing is a sort of acting in dumb show, and all the while 
they keep up a low plaintive song, which adds wondrously to the 
pleasant impression the scene makes on the onlooker. Music and 
dancing are passions throughout Africa. 

Fighting, in a more or less disciplined manner, either to avenge 
some old feud, some recent wrong, or simply for the sake of plun- 
dering the cattle and other property of the weaker tribes, or to 
capture them for slaves, is to a great extent the normal state of 
most Cent ml African kingdoms. 

In dress and general appeamnce, the chief object of the African 
warriors seems to be to strike teiTor into the l)eholdei's. Want of 
courage is not a failing that can iLsually be ascribed to a savage, 
though a display of bravery, unless attended with a corresponding 
success, does not seem to be valued ; nor, on the other liand, is a 
coward so despised as among civilized nations. 

A monarch who "showed the white feather" in Europe, or even 
among the semi-civilized pe()2)le of Asiti, would forever incur the 
contempt of the meanest of his subjects. Not so in Africa, 
apparently. The kingdom of Unyoi-o, ruled by Kamrasi, was 
threatened with inviusion. Instead of the king pre^mring to defend 
his kingdom as well as he could, his own brother counselled him 
to take refuge in flight. 

Though fond of display and practical braggadocio — in this 
respect l)eing not unlike the Chinese — yet, on occasion, the Cen- 
tral Africans have shown themselves, even in warfare against the 
Amb slavc-robl)ei's, a far from unworthy enemy — desperation giving 
them the courage and force which they might not naturally possess. 



PEDDAilSTIC MONARCHY. 



151 



Of war as a science they know nothing. Indeed, they resort 
to most unstrategic methods of going about it — such, for 
instance, as the ridiculous Iiabit of the Latookas in sounding a 
drum — or nogara — before attacking a village, which can but 
give the enemy warning of the intended onslaught. 

Captives in %var are usually reserved for slaves. Among the 
D6r tribes of the White Nile, the bleached skulls of slain foemen 




)eman'k head. 



are suspended to the branches of a great tree in the oi>en spai-e of 
the village, under which the huge nogaras, iir war-drums, are 
placed to be ready for sounding as occasiun may ie<[uiri;. Tlie 
I'onciusionof a successful fight is celebnt ted with a wild war-dance, 
iliffering but little in general chanicter from those so common 
among other savages after their murdemus foiiij-s, except that as 
in our illustration of ;i double rain-storm tbey sometimes make a 



142 THE STOUY OF GOVEliNMENT. 

tons, or the American states; ''state rights," however, being mther 
further advanced in the Black-kingly Republic than in the 
European or Tmnsatlantic democratic one. A woman may also 
be chief of a Rundo, and they are said to exercise their authority 
veiy judiciously. 

The Banyai, a tribe on the southern bank of the Zambesi, elect 
their chiefs, but always out of '^ne fanuly, though they never select 
the immediate descendants ot the late monarch, but always some 
relative, such as a nephew or brother. It is Jiccounted etiquette 
for the newly elected chief to affect an air of modesty, and a seem- 
ing desire to decline the proffered honoi's jis too great for a man 
of his rank, ability and ambition. In fact, he ex2)ects to l>e 
"thrice," or a greater numl)er of times, offered the '"kingly 
crown " ; but, unlike liis Roman prototype, there is no ca«e on 
record in which the lionor was eventually refused. 

Tlie new chief not only inherits the property, but also the 
wives and children of his predeccssoi-s, though often one of tlie 
sons of the former chief considei's, quite naturally, that he is not 
to be kept in subservience to the new monarch, and attempts to 
set up as a petty chief for himself, an attempt which generally 
results in his having his village burnt alnnit his ears, as a gentle 
hint that he had better receive liis superior in a projjer man- 
ner — viz., by clapping of hands, the connnon method of saluta- 
tion among most of these African tril)es. 

Among the Banyai it is the custom for wealthy men to send 
their sons to be educated, under some man of eminence, in all 
tlie duties and accjomplishments of Banyai gentlemen, just as in 
former times in P2ui*ope the sons of gentlemen were sent as pages 
and escpiires to be trained in the laws of t:liivalry under some 
puissant knight. 

Among the Wahunuis a cm-ions law pievails. If anyone 
becomes a slave — Avhicli it is inniecessaiy to say is always an 
involuntary act — he or she is put to death when caught again by 
their own people, because by so doing they have broken one of the 
laws of their country. Speke witnessed an instanc^e in which 
some women were actually put to death by their own husbands. 

Theft is generally severely punished in Africa, if it is committed 
on any of their own tribe. The Karagues punish this crime with 



144 THE STORY OP GOVERNMENT. 

imprisonment in the stocks, often for months at a time. Let a 
man strike another with a stick, and he can expiate the offence 
by paying ten goats; but if a spear, or any other deadly weapon 
is used, then he is deprived of all his property — one half of the 
forfeit going to the crown, the other to the person assaulted. 

In case of murder, the entire goods of the murderer are for- 
feited to the relatives of the slain. The laws against adulteiy 
are curiously at once both lax and severe. If a wife offend, she 
only loses an ear; if a slave, or the daughter of the chief, is the 
guilty party, both she and her paramour are executed. 

Among some tribes a man is very severely punished for hurting 
his wife, as our striking illustration shows, where two wife-beaters 
are dealt with in no ordinary way, but are whipped till the blood 
runs. The old crone is telling the culprit who is bound and 
waiting his turn what an artistic flagellation he is going to 
receive. 

Indeed, women in Central Africa are better trea^d than gen- 
erally among barbiirians. Among the Banyai the wife is the 
husband's equal. Tlie husband not only regards her with pro- 
found respect, but is expected to consult her before concluding 
any bargain, and to let her know his most private business 
transactions. The women even do business on their own account, 
and visit distant towns to effect commercial transactions for their 
husbands. 

Unlike many women who attempt basiness, they can S3e that 
there are two sides to a bargain. The Banyai system of marriage 
is quite in keeping with this region of the strong-minded woman. 
Among them there is none of the barter of cows for wives as else- 
where. 

The bridegroom goes humbly to live at the house of his 
father-in-law and meekly submits to l)e bullied and ordered about 
by his mother-in-law, not a more amiable lady than usual, pi'oba- 
bly. He has to carry water, cut wood, and altogether demean 
himself as becomes his position in life. If he objects to this 
arrangement he may leave, but his wife and children must remain, 
unless he can pay as much as will compensate the wife's parents 
for the loss of her services. 

In unpleasant contrast with this supremacy of woman, let us 



FEUDALISTIC MONARCHY. 145 

look at Uganda, where she is taught her place with the sharp 
logic of the rod. A special Icind of whip made of plaited strips 
of hippopotamus hide, with hard, sharp, horny edges, which cut 
into the flesh at everj'- stroke, is reserved for the administration 
of wifely chastisement. Killing a wife, or a few wives at a time, 
is a mere trifle in Uganda. Polygamy is the imiversal custom. 

The King of Uganda has seven thousand women in his palace.^ 
Often thirty or forty girls will be offered him in a single morning 
as brides. If he orders them to fall upon their knees, and 
embraces them, then the ceremony of marriage is complete, 
the fortunate damsels are received into the number of liis wives, 
and the parents prostrate themselves before their sovereign, 
ejaculating the word "N'yanz" (thanks) repeatedly, in such 
a manner that the ceremony of thanking the sovereign for any 
favor is described by those travellers who have visited the Uganda 
court as "n'yanzigging." Koffee, the late King of Ashanti, is 
said to have had 3,333 wives. 

The Manganja looks upon the burial places of his race as sacred, 
and keeps the graves neatly. They are arranged north and south, 
and on the surface are laid the implements which the sleeper 
beneath used during life. 

As amongst the North American Indians these tools are broken 
perhaps to prevent their being stolen by irreverent marauders of 
their own or other tribes. By the nature of the implements the 
passerby can thus tell the occupation, sex, or rank of the dead. 

As mourning, the relatives wear strips of j)alm tied round their 
heads, necks, breasts, arms, and legs, and allow them to remain 
until decay, and the wear and tear to which they are subject, cause 
them to drop off. 

In other tribes — among the Karague people, for example — 
the place and mode of a man's burial are regulated by liis rank. 
If low, his body is sunk in the lake near which they live; 
but if of noble caste (or as he is styled, a " Wahuma "), then a 
sacred island is the place of its deposit, and the vicinity of the 
place of sepulture marked by the symbol of two sticks, tied to a 

^Thit is probably a gross exaggeration, due partly to the desire of the King to impress 
strangers with his great po-vrer and pomp as a husband and pai tly to the savage inability to 
figure oorvBOtly beyoiid a certain number. 



146 THE STOKY OF GOVERNMENT. 

stone, lying aci-oss the pathway. No one seeing tliis mark would 
dare to go along the holy path ; at any inconvenience he would 
turn aside to reach his destination. 

The kings are bmied like the nobles, but with this addition, 
that their bodies are fii"st roasted for a month, until they are like 
sun-dried meat, when the lower jaw is cut off, preseived, and 
covered with beads. The royal tombs are put under the charge 
of special officei"s who occupy huts erected over tliem. 

On the deatli of any of the great oflicei-s of state, the finger- 
bones and hair are also preserved; or, if they died shaven, as 
sometimes occui-s, a bit of their *' mbiigu " dress will be preserved 
in place of the hair. Their families guard their tombs. Among the 
Wanyoro the dead are buried — the men on the left, the women 
on the right of the door. 

The Bari buiy their dead within the enclosure of their kraal or 
homestead, the grave being marked with poles, on which are liung 
skulls and bonis of cattle, and tlie top decorated with a tuft of 
cocks' feathei's, the national " crest " or distinction of a member 
of that tribe, and which they wear on their heads during life. 
The Musgu, one of the i-ather more civilized African races, are 
singular in this respect, that they erect mounds with urns over 
their dead, a custom which obtained extensive popularity among 
the primitive races of Europe and other countries. 

Among the Bongo, soon as life is extinct, the corj>ses arc 
placed in a crouching postiu-e, ^vith the knees forced up to 
the chin, and are firmly l)ound ix)und the head and legs. Then, 
after the body has been thus compressed into the smallest 
possible compass, it is sewn into a sack made of skins, and placed 
in a deej) grave. A shaft is then sunk perpendicularly about four 
feet, and a niche hollowed in the side, so that the bag containing 
the corpse should not have to sustiiin any vertical pressure from 
the eaith which is thrown in to fill up the grave. 

The Bongo have the striking custom of burying men with the 
face turned to the noith and women to the south. After the 
gmve is filled in, a heap of stones is piled over the spot in a short 
cylindrical foi-m, and this is supported by strong stakes, which are 
driven into the soil all round. A pitcher or urn is placed on the 
middle of the pile, and the graves rae always close to the huts, 



FEUDAUSTIC IHONARCHY. 147 

their site being marked by a number of long forked branches, 
carved, by way of ornament, with numerous notches and incisions, 
and having their points sharpened like horns. 

The typical meaning of these stakes is unknown even to the 
natives, the assertion made by the tmders, that each notc'h denotes 
an enemy killed in battle by the deceased, being denied by the 
Bongo themselves. The neighlx)riiig Mittoo and Madi adopt a 
similar style of sepultui-e, and the memorial urns ei-ectcd over the 
graves of the Musgu i*emind the tniveller of the j)itchei*s on those 
of the Bongo. 

When a funeral tiikes place, all the neighlK^i-s attend, and after 
being freely enteitained with native beer, help to form the gitive, 
rear the memorial lU'n, and erect the votive stakes. When the 
ceremony is finished, they shoot at the stakes with arrows, which 
they leave sticking in the wood. 

The D6rs, or Dyooi-s, of the White Nile arrange their graves 
close to their houses, and mark them by a circular mound three or 
four feet liigh, which in a few yeai-s is obliterated by the tropical 
rains, and is not renewed. 

Among the cannikil Niam-Niam grief, us is frequent among the 
African and other tril)es, is denoted by shaving the head. The 
corpse is ordinarily dyed with red wood and adorned with fine 
skins and feathers. Men of rank, after being attired with their 
common aprons, are interred either sitting on their Ix^nehes or are 
enclosed in a kind of coffin made from a hollow tree. 

Like the Bongo, the Niam-Niam bury their decad with a scrupu- 
lous regard to the points of the compass ; but commonly enough 
they reverse the rule of the former tribe, the men being de£X)sited 
with their faces towaitls the east, the women towards the west. 
After the grnve has been well stamped down, a hut is erected 
over it, though, owing to its fmgile chai-acter, it rarely long 
survives the weather or the annual burning of the steppe 
pasture. 

. A Wagogo chief, on dying, is washed, and his coi-pse i)laced in 
an upriglit jHwition in a hollow tree, to which the i)eople come 
daily to mourn and pour beer and ashes on the corpse, indulging 
themselves meanwhile in a kind of wake. This ritual goes on 
until the body is thoroughly decomposed, when it is placed on 



148 THE STOBY OF GOVBRKMENT. 

a platform and exposed to the effects of the weather, that speedily 
reduces it to a heap of bones — which are then duly buried. 

At one time slaves were sacrificed to heighten the dignity of such 
occasions; but in marked contrast with the elaborate rites attend- 
ing a great man's sepulture, the bodies of commoners are thro^vn 
into the nearest jungle to be devoured by beasts of the field and 
fowls of the air. 

Among some tribes the first step taken when a king expires is 
to divert the course of a stream, and to dig an enormous pit in its 
bed. Tliis caveni is then lined with living women. At one end 
a woman is placed on her liands and knees, and upon her back the 
corpse of the dead king, covered with beads and other ornaments, 
is seated, supported on each side by one of his wives, while his 
second wife sits at his feet. 

The earth is then shovelled in over living and dead alike, all 
the women being buried alive except the second wife, who is 
graciously permitted the privilege of being slaughtered, instead, 
before the huge grave is filled in. Finally, forty or fifty slaves 
are killed, and their blood poured over the sepulchi-e, after which 
the river is allowed to resume its course. 

A pitiable sight is the dragging of a king's wives to his 
funeral. Tliey are generally stolid as cattle driven to the 
shambles, but in our illustration one can be noticed making an 
eloquent, though vain, appeal to a former sweetheart in the crowd 
to attempt her rescue. The man would like to, but he does not 
dare : the superstition of royalty is too strong. 

It is said that as many as a hundred women have been buried 
with one great chief or king, though smaller men have to be sent 
to their long home with only two or three, and their graves 
drenched with the blood of as many slaves, while the vulgar heixl 
have to be content with solitary sepulture, the corpse being placed 
in a sitting posture, with the right forefinger pointing heaven- 
wards, just level with the top of the mound over his grave. 

Eating, smoking, sleeping, fighting, dancing, gambling a little, 
and wrestling, may be said to form in outline the list of a Cen- 
tral African's amusements. Wrestling is about the only manly 
spoilt they care for, as hunting and fishing are their daily occupa- 
tions, and therefore cannot be looked upon as amusements. 



150 THE STORY OF GOVEllNMENT. 

Wrestling, however, is only practised among the more civilized 
races, such as the Birghami. So keenly do they contest in this, 
that it is not an unfrequent occurrence for one of the contestants 
to be left dead on the ground. Great men among this people will 
keep in their pay, or as slaves, powerful wrestlei"s, on whose 
prowess they highly pride themselves. A Avrestler once beaten is 
looked upon as no good, and, if a slave, would Ihj sold for a mei-e 
fraction of the price he was valued at before meeting witli this 
reverse of fortune. 

In addition, all the Birghami, pai-ticuhirly the women, are good 
dancers, being active and yet graceful in all their movements. 
Their dancing is a sort of acting in dumb show, and all the while 
they keep up a low plaintive song, which adds wondrously to tlie 
pleasant impression the scene makes on the onlooker. Music and 
dancing are passions throughout Afiica. 

Fighting, in a more or less disciplined manner, either to avenge 
some old feud, some recent ^vrong, or simply for the sake of plun- 
dering the cattle and other property of the weaker tribes, or to 
capture tliem for slaves, is to a great extent the normal state of 
most Central African kingdoms. 

In dress and general appearance, the cliief object of tlie African 
warrioi-s seems to be to strike terror into the lieholdei's. Want of 
courage is not a failing that can usually be ascribed to a savage, 
though a display of bravery, unless attended with a corresponding 
success, does not seem to be valued ; nor, on the other liand, is a 
coward so despised as among civilized nations. 

A monarch who "showed tlie white feather" in Europe, or even 
among the semi-civilized peo2)le of Asia, would foi-ever incur the 
contempt of the meanest of his subjects. Not so in Africa, 
apparently. The kingdom of Unyoro, ruled by Kamrasi, was 
threatened with invasion. Instead of the king preparing to defend 
his kingdom as well as he could, his own brother counselled him 
to take refuge in flight. 

Though fond of display and practical braggadocio — in this 
respect being not unlike the Chinese — yet, on occasion, the Cen- 
tral Africans have shown themselves, even in warfare against the 
Amb slave-robbers, a far from unworthy enemy — desperation giving 
them the courage and force which they might not naturally possess. 



PE0DAI.ISTIC MONARCHY. 



151 



Of war as a science they know nothing. Indeed, they resort 
to most unstrategic methods of going about it — such, for 
instance, as the ridiculous habit of the Latookas in sounding a 
drum — or nogSra — before attacking a village, which can but 
give the enemy warning of the intendsd onslaught. 

Captives in war are usually reserved for slaves. Among the 
DSr tribes of the White Nile, the bleached skulls of slain foemen 




are suspended to the branches of a gi-eat tree in the open 8pR<'e of 
the village, imder which the liuge nogaras, iii' Wiir-<lrunis, are 
})laced to be ready for sounding as occiision may rt-quire. Tlie 
conclusion of a successful fight is celebiiited with a wild war-dance, 
differing but little in general cliameter from tliose so common 
among other 8a\'age8 after their nmnlei-ous fomj-s, except tliat as 
in our illustration of a iloiilile rain-storm they SDUictimes make a 



152 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

fetish of a foemaii's head when he has displayed unusual bravery, 
by blowing water at it from their mouths. 

With all the African tribes religion is superstition and super- 
stition religion. Both are equally dark and gross, though in 
justice to the Central Africans it must be said that, so f;ir as we 
have yet learned, neither their religious nor their superstitious 
deeds are disfigured by the abominations that abound in similar 
rites among the West Coast tribes. 

Few of the Central African tribes believe that, psychologically, 
the black man and the white have anything in common. Chris- 
tianity, they say, for instance, is good enough for the whites, but 
won't do for the blacks. Most of them believe in the immortality 
of the soul, as is proved by the fact that nearly all of the tribes 
— very strongly the Mangan jas — hold that their relatives come 
and speak to them in their dreams. 

The spirits of the dead, they believe, can aid and protect them. 
Under this belief the Banyai people will, when hunting, pour 
out the contents of their snuff-boxes as an offering, which may 
have the effect of so far propitiating their dead friends as to 
induce them to render the hunting prosperous. 

Unlike more irreverent people — savage and civilized — the 
Banyai relies quite as much upon his prayers and snuff, as hunt- 
ing appliances, as upon his more phyisical weapons. A belief 
in a superintending Providence, or in other words in the gods 
("Barima"), interfering in the affairs of mortals, is thus dis- 
played. 

Of the great wisdom of hyaenas and other wild animals they 
possess the usual savage high estimate. A hyaena, for instance, 
heard "laughing" in the woods at night after an elephant is 
killed, is chuckling at the idea that the huntera will not be able 
to eat all the flesh, but must perforce leave some to them. 

An idea, not widely different from the Polynesian custom of 
taboo^ prevails among the Banyai. To guard property left in the 
woods, or some such unprotected place, a strip of palm leaf, 
smeared with some sticky substance, and decorated with roots, 
twigs, leaves, etc., is attached to the property, under the belief 
that no one could attempt to pilfex it without being seized with 
sickness resulting in speedy death. 



FEUDALISTIC MONARCHY. 



158 



Many of the tribes have no idols, and found their religiouB 
belief on a fear of evil spirits, which are, however, under the 
control of wizards, whose powers of exorcisinjf them can lie pur- 



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llliMH 111 ill 11 


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citased by a few goats, generally. If a pei^on falls sick it is 
believed that lie must have been bewitched. The punisliment 
for this is death, and if the hyaenas refuse to touch the body after 
execution, then it is believed that the sentence must have been 



164 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

superlatively just. About nearly eveiy animal they have the 
most extraordinary superstitions. The antelope bears the reputa- 
tion of causing ulcers if its saliva but touches the skin, while the 
fingers and toes will fall off if its flesh is eaten. 

Lynx and lion skins are a monopoly of the king; accordingly, 
no one but he can decorate his person or his dwelling with these 
royal peltries. The fat which is skimmed off the water in which 
a lion's flesh is boiled is looked upon as a valuable medicine, but 
no one must walk around the dead body of a lion, otherwise the 
spell which prevents these ferocious animals from entering villages 
would be broken. 

Two men cement their friendship by making an incision in 
each other's body and mixing the blood which flows from the 
wound on a leaf with butter. The mixture is then inibbed into 
the wound, and the mixed blood and butter is supposed to make 
them brothel's for life. 

A fetish is, in African idea, almost anything to which super- 
natural qualities attach, or which is considered to bring good 
fortune or prevent evil. King M'tesa (who was a friend of 
Stanley) and liis mother used to set apart certain days for con- 
sulting their fetishes, in order to see that nothing was amiss in 
the kingdom of Uganda. 

It was something like an inquiry into the ecclesiastical con- 
dition of the country, and being a religious ceremony is appro- 
priately gone into on the fii'st day after the new moon appears. 
On the third moon by account the king and all the court shaved 
their heads, the king, however, redlining his "cock's comb," and 
the pages their double cockades, these being marks of their 
official ranks. 

Tlierc are certain priests who preside over and direct the rites 
of religion — at least, in some cases. Such a one is the priest of 
the Nile, who lives in a liut decoi-ated with many mystic sym- 
bols — amongst othei-s a paddle, the badge of his high oflBce — 
on an island in the lake whicli forms one of the Nile sources 
(Victoria Nyanza). 

This ecclesiastic is only the deputy or familiar of M'gussa, the 
spirit who presides over the water, and his office is to interpret 
the secrets the spirit has to tell to the king. There is even a 



FEUDALISTIC MONARCHY. 165 

tract of land dedicated in some mysterious manner to the gods, or 
to one of them. 

It is a kind of "church estate," for although the king exercises 
authority over some of the people who live on it, others seem to 
l)e viewed in a sacred light, and to ba exempt from the control of 
the civil power; neither has the king any right to disi)ose of the 
land. In this sacred territory there are vilhiges only every fifth 
mile, and no roads run through it. 

These priestly magicians (M'ganga) are a sad cui-se to African 
explorei's, for so thorough is tlicir hold on the minds of the people, 
that if they wish to hamper the movements of the traveller, all 
they need do is to prophesy all sorts of calamities — drought, 
famine, wai-s — as the consecjucnce of his being allowed to pro- 
ceed, and the creduloasly superstitious i)eople will believe tliem, 
and do their best to avert such dire misfortunes by preventing 
the white man from ever setting his eyes on the soil likely to be 
so cui-sed by his presence. 

Their implement of divination, simple as it may appear, is a 
cow's or antelope's horn (Uganga), wliich they stuff with magic 
]>owder, also called Uganga. Stuck into the ground in front of 
the village, it is supposed to ward off the attacks of an enemy. 

By simply holding it in the hand the magician jn-etends he can 
discover anything that has been st<3len or lost, and instances have 
l)een told of its dragging four men after it with irresistible 
imjHjtus up to a thief, when it belabored the culprit and drove 
him out of his senses. 

So imbued are the natives' minds with belief in the power of 
channel's, that they i)'-iy the magician for sticks, stones, or mud 
which he has doctored or fetished for them. Tliev believe certain 
flowei'S held in the hand will conduct them to anvthiniif lost, iis 
also the voices of certain wild animals, birds, or beasts, will ensui'e 
them good luck or warn them of danger. 

They have many other and horrible devices. For instance, in 
times of tribulation, the magician, if he ascertains a war is pro- 
jected by inspecting the blood and bones of a fowl which he has 
flayed for that purpose, flays a young child, and having laid it 
lengthwise on a path, directs all the warriora on proceeding to 
battle to step over his sacrifice and ensure themselves victory. 



166 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

These extremes, however, are not often resorted to, for the 
natives are usually content with simpler means, such as flaying a 
goat, instead of a child; while, to prevent any evil approaching 
their dwellings, a squashed frog, or any such absui*dity, when 
placed on the track, is considered a specific. 

Human sacrifice, disgustingly common among the West Coast 
tribes, is, with the exceptions mentioned, rather a rare feature in 
the religious rites of the interior tribes. The Waganda, when 
they go to war, in addition to the sacrifice of a child for the pur- 
pose of the warriors stepping over its dead body, use also another 
and still more inhuman method of divination in which a child 
and a fowl bound together are smothered in the steam of pots, one 
inveited over the other. 

The min-maker is'also another popular figure in Africa, but the 
office is mther a perilous one, for, if the rain-maker fail in his 
methods, liis life is in danger. Baker's description of one of these 
rain-makers is very amusing. The hero was half chief, half magi- 
cian, at Obbo, and, at the time the incident happened, old Katchiba, 
the individual in question, called on the famous explorer and 
remarked that there had been a dreadful drouth for a fortnight. 

" Well," I rei)lie(l, *' you are the rain-maker, why don't you give 
your people rain ? " • 

" Give my people rain ! " said Katchiba ; " I give them rain if the}'- 
don't give me goats ? You don't know my people ; if I am fool enough 
to give them rain before they give me goats they would let me starve ! 
No, no ! let them wait ; if they don't bring me supplies of corn, goats, 
fowls, yams, and all that I require, not one drop of rain shall ever fall 
again in Obbo. Impudent brutes are my people ! Do you know they 
liave positively threatened to kill me unless I bring the rain. They 
sha'n't have a drop ; I will wither the crops, and bring a plague upon 
their flocks. I'll teach these rascals to insult me ! " 

With all this bluster I saw that Old Katchiba was in a great 
dilemma, and that he would give anything for a shower, but that he 
did not know how to get out of the scrape. 

Suddenly altering his tone, he asked, " Have you any rain in your 
country?" I replied that we had every now and then. "How do you 
bring it? Are you a rain-maker ? " 

I told him no one believed in rain-makers in our country, but that we 
understood how to bottle lightning (meaning electricity). 



FEUDALISTIC MONARCHY. 167 

^ I don't keep mine in bottles ; I have a houseful of thunder 
and lightning," he most coolly replied ; ^« but if you can bottle 
lightning yon must understand rain-making. What do you think of 
the weather to-day ?" 

I immediately saw the drift of the cunning Old Katchiba ; he 
wanted professional advice. I replied that he must know all about it, 
as he was a reguLar rain-maker. 

" Of course I do," he answered, " but I want to know what you think 
of it." 

" Well," I said, *' I don't think we shall have any steady rain, but I 
think we may have a heavy shower in about four days." (I said this 
as I had observed fleecy clouds gathering daily in tlie afternoon.) 

" Just my opinion," said Katchiba, delighted, " in four, or ])erhaps 
in five days, I intend to give them one shower, just one shower ; yes, 
ni just step down to them now, and tell the rascals that if they will 
bring me some goats by this evening, and some corn to-morrow morn- 
ing, I will give them, in four or five days, just one shower." 

To give effect to this declaration he gave three toots on his magic 
whistle, inquiring : " Do you use whistles in your country ? " 

I only replied by giving so shrill and deafening a whistle on my 
fingers that Katchiba stopped his ears and, relapsing into a smile of 
admiration, took a glance at the sky from the doorway to see if any 
sudden effect had been produced. 

" Whistle again," he said ; and once more I performed like the whistle 
of a locomotive. " That will do ; we shall have it," said the cunning 
old rain-maker, and proud of having so knowingly obtained " counsel's 
opinion " on his case, he toddled off to liis impatient subjects. 

In a few days a sudden storm of rain and violent thunder added to 
Katchiba's renown, and after the shower horns were blowing and 
nogaras, or drums, were beating in honor of their chief. Entre 7ious^ 
my whistle he considered infallible. 

Along the feverish coiist of West Africa stretches a range of 
country about three hundred miles in length, from the Assinie 
River to the River Volta, or a little beyond, to the fi-ontier of 
Dahomey. This is the "Gold Coast," low and sandy, bounded 
on the east by the dense malarious tropical jungle which rises 
gradually from the shore to the height of about fifteen hundred 
feet, the whole territory which goes by this attractive name being 
about two hundred miles in breadth. 

Visited as early as 1364 by French adventurers from Rouen 



1S8 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

and Dieppe, it is now ruled as a crown colony by Great Britain. 
The chief establishments for trade are at Cape Const Castle, 
Elinina, and a few other places. Cape Coast being at present the 
seat of government. In the interior, and on both sides of the 
River Prah, which flows through it, are several tiibes or nations 
of kindred mce sjeaking the same langu-ige or dialer t and gov- 
erned bj native kings of a moral c n plexion scarcely less 
dusky than their ikins 




These ure the Wassaws, Denkeras, Assin, Akem, Aquapims, 
Aquamo, Adangme, Krolw, and many other "nations," subdivided 
into different tribes. All of them are very familiar with Eui-o- 
peans, though thej' have gained little by this intercourse, except 
the vices of tlieir visitors. 

This coast was long, in common with that lying north and 
Houth of it, the active scene of the infamous slave ti'ade. Under 
the stimulus of the riches or influence acquired through it, some 
of these petty kingdoms rose into impoitance, formed new com- 
binations, or fell, as rapidly as they had risen, into obscurity, 
after the decay of the trafRc m human flesh. 



FBODALI8TIC MONARCHY. 



But by far the most 
important of all these 
kingdoms are those of 
the F»nti» and AstiaiitiH, 
s e ]> )i r ii t e (I from eacli 
other by the River Prah ; 
the one, Fanti, lying 
on the coast, while the 
other in in the interior. 
Apparently one people, 
and speaking almost ex- 
ai-tly the same language, 
they have, since the 
Euj-o[iean3 made their 
acquaintance, been po- 
litically separated, raor- 
til enemies and rivals, 
and mainly owing to 
continued disputes in 
regard to a claim on the 
[lart of the Ashantis for 
free aet-ess to the coast, 
[leriodically at war with 
each other. 

On two of these oc- 
casions the British gov- 
ernment has been foit^ed 
to [n-ntect the Fantis 
from their more warlike 
e 11 c m i c s, and at the 
same time to guard their 
own commercial inter- 
ests, and tlms the names 
of the Fantis and 
Ashantis liave iM^come 
familiar to us. 

Tlie Fantis are a lazy, good-for-nothing set at present, what- 
ever they may have been before British influeuee. They live 





160 THE STORY OP GOVERNMENT. 

along the coast, and chiefly at Cape Coast Castle. They are well 
made, muscular, and are chocolate colored rather than black. 
Their dress is a cloth round the waist and another over their 
shouldera when outside their houses, the upper garment being 
taken off when a superior passes them. 

The women are not good looking, but have fine figures, spoilt, 
however, by the "dress improver" or "cankey" (a name also 
applied to a loaf of bread), which they wear behind, jind which is 
used as a sort of saddle for carrying their children. The cloth 
round her waist a woman allows to hang down in the form of a 
petticoat; and, if she is married, there is an end, or another 
piece, to cover her lx)som. 

She is mentally much superior to the man, being lively and 
keen with eyes, hands, and tongue. In the last Ashanti war tlie 
women did most of the porter work, or carrying of the baggage. 
Both sexes prefer as their " cloths " the gaudiest blue, yellow, 
or red striped calico. A girdle or string of beads, made of glass, 
clay, or gold, according to the wealth of the wearer, is always 
worn around the waist. 

Their head dress is peculiar. The woolly hair, combed out with 
great patience until it may attain a maximum length of nine to ten 
inches, is then ti-ained up in the form of a ridge, suppoiiied by 
means of a comb, and satiirated with grease. Their skin is diy 
and rough, lips verj" thick, ears large, chin protruding, but the 
nose scarcely so flat as that of the typical negro. 

The head is round, but the face long, and ornamented with a 
very scanty beard, while the limbs are large-jointed, bony and 
muscular, and (if possible) the women are uglier than the men, 
tliat is, when they get old; and age among this people means 
fc^ome period near or very little over thirty. 

When young, the girls are bright-eyed, lithe of limb and, after 
custom liiis familiarized the stranger witli the blackness of their 
skin, are not absolutely displeasing. But when age comes, the 
face assumes a monkey look, the breasts become pendent, and the 
whole pei-son extremely repulsive. 

The Fanti territory is divided into four districts, stretching 
about thirty miles inland, and each of these districts is governed 
by a king, or sometimes by two joint kings. Succession to the 



FBVDALISTIC MOHAROHY. 



161 



headship of the tribes is hereditaiy and has been in some cases held 
by women. The king, however, of the confederation of tribes is 
elected hy the tribal chiefs. 
Their laws are despotic, each 
chief ruler having jmwer over 
the life and deiith of liis sub- 

Crimiuals ai'e puiiislied hy 
decaiiitation, slavery, foi-feit- 
ure of goods, or by Ireing ex- 
pelled and exposed to s\mv 
death by famine in the wil- 
derness. Inuoeeijce or fpiilt 
is tested, a.s in many other 
portions of Africa, by meiins 
of "oi-deals." 




A CBIUIMAI, DECAPTTATBD. 



For instance, a suspect is ordered to drink a decoction of some 
poisonoiu plant, or to chew a handful of dry rice, when his inno- 
cence or guilt is tested hy the effect of the "ordeal" on his 



162 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

stomach or his saliva. When the " ordeal " is a poison, he is con- 
sidered innocent if his stomach rejects it, but guilty if it does 
not, and death, of course, happening in such cases, the man is 
considered properly punished. They have, however, one redeem- 
ing quality, — they provide for their aged parents. 

As to morals among the Fanti, they have long mingled with 
Europeans, and European influence on the Gold Coast, as in other 
portions of black Africa, has been invariably coiTupting. The 
slave trade was at one time almost the only branch of commerce ; 
at best its influence on the native character was pernicious. 

It has disappeared now, but has not been succeeded by any other 
branch of legitimate traffic that suffices to stimulate the possible 
latent industiy of the people. Rum and other articles which tend 
to corrupt the morals of the people are almost the only articles of 
import. 

In return for the moral loss sustained by the presence of the 
English, attempts have been made to administer an antidote to the 
vices introduced among them by traders, in the shape of large 
doses of missionary instruction. Probably no set of savages have 
ever been more vigorously plied with good advice at certain places, 
or entirely neglected at others, than have the Fantis. Ceiiainly 
none have ever profited less by it. 

But what they lack in religion, they make up in the quantity 
and quality of their superstitions, not the least astounding of 
which is their belief in a child "who hiis existed from the begin- 
ning of the world," and yet has neither eaten nor drunken during 
all this time, and of course cannot be expected to grow. 

To represent this child they bonow a baby, when anyone is 
found rich enough to pay for the gratification of his curiosity, and 
the guardian of the sacred Ixibe paints it with colored clays in such 
a style tliat it cannot be recognized as belonging to this world. 
This guardian is genei-ally a hideous old woman, who must be 
quite cognizant of the swindle she is perpetrating, though, 
strange to say, Fantis of fair education have been known to 
believe in this ridiculous impostuix3. 

Cannibalism does not now exist among the Fantis or Ashantis, 
though, when General Sir Charles Macarthy was killed in the 
first Ashanti war, his heart was eaten by the latter people in order 




FEUI iacistic MONABOHT. 168 



to give them a share of his courage. ITuinan sacrifices, though 
very common among the Ashantis, have now fallen into dianse 
among those tribes living along the seaboard; there is, however, 
little doubt hut that at one time they were as common among the 
fantis ns they are now among their ferocious neighboi's, the 
Dahomans or Ashantis. 

Polygomy is permitted, though, for financial reasons, is not 
often practised. The Women, as the more intellectual and ener- 
getic sex of the Gold Coast, maintain the right of divorcing a 
husband if he shows cowaixjice in battle. 

A Fanti lives to a good old age ; white hair is nothing uncom- 
mon amongst them ; but die he must in due course by rum, or the 
natural order of events. Great pomp is the rule on such occasions- 
Professional mourners — negro mutes — are hired for the cere- 
mony ; a slieep is killed for the funeral feast, and the shoulder blade 
laid on the grave, where it is permitted to remain for some time. 

The man who buries another succeeds to his property, hut 
he also succeeds to his debts. In the fii'st case the heirs take veiy 
good care to put their deceased i-elative under ground, but with 
the defaulting debtor there is not the same stimulus on the part 
of his relatives to perform the funeral obsequies. Accordingly, 
in the vicinity of every Fanti village, corpses will be found lying 
exposed on a platfoim, merely covered with a cloth, nobody hav- 
ing beHi found financially courageous enough to bury them. 

As on every other occasion of Fanti mirth, grief, or piety, 
insufferable noise accompanies the funeml rites. If the deceased 
has been a man of any note, all his friends — and the great man, 
as all the world over, has in Fanti land an infinitude of friends, 
even after he is dead — squat in front of the house and celebrate 
the inauspicious event by drinking, yelling, singing, smoking, 
and firing muskets. 

A dog is sacrificed before the hut, after which the corjwe is 
buried along with considerable sums of money, gold, and jewels 
of some value. The firet thing an enemy does on entering the 
Fanti country is, accordingly, to rifle the graves, though, indeed, 
this is occasionally done by the relatives themselves, in spite of 
all the tenors of fetish and demon, for avarice is at times stronger 
than superstition. ""^ '*-'"' ' '' ""'-— ^^ 



164 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

The amusements of the Faiitis are few. Yelling and dancing- 
seem to be the only exertion. Laziness is the salient minor vice 
of the Fantis. In this they excel, nor can anything better be 
expected of them. They live under a tropical sun; they have an 
example of lassitude in the European comnmnity, and, above all, 
exertion can scarcely be expected of people whose olily ambition 
is to provide for their daily wants. 

Now on the Gold Coast a native can live luxuriously on two 
cents a day, and the exertion of a few houi-s per week will supply 
him with all he requires in the way of rum, gaudy Manchester 
goods, and tobacco. Even then, so runs Fanti logic, what 
necessity is there for his exerting himself to procure even that? 
Sis wife can do so. Accordingly in Fanti land thei-e is an equit- 
able division of labor, the wife earns the living and the husband 
consumes it. 

Whatever the Fantis may have been, the Ashantis are now, at 
all events, a much superior people, intellectually, and, if cour- 
age is a virtue, morally also. Barbarous no doubt they are, but 
it is almost an abuse of the term to call them savage. In their gov- 
ernment they display no little force and order, and a well-estab- 
lished system of political institutions, the history of which can be 
tmced for at least two centuries. 

Statesman-like ability and military skill are distinguishing 
marks of the aristocnxcy of the kingdom, and the common people 
display so much coui-age in battle there is little doubt but thjit 
within the Ashanti kingdom lies the element of a great African 
military empire, provided the people were efficiently trained and 
supplied with the appliances of modem warfare. 

And among such strong-minded men there is liope tliat under 
moral influences, stronger than those they liave yet come in con- 
tact with, the very" supei'stitions — black jind cruel though they 
be — which at present give them a pre-eminence over their 
neighbors, might be transmuted to something noble, pure, and 
sweet. 

Though not so powerfully made ns the Fanti, the Ashanti war- 
riors are infinitely more courageous; and the women are much 
better looking than their Fanti sistei-s. But women are looked 
upon as a rpgular arllclo ut nierchdiidise, and nothing astonished 



KEDDALISTIC M((NAIICHY. 



lfi.5 



the Ashanti warriofs more than that, when the English captured 
in the late war a couple of women, they let them go free. 

"What a curious people these white men are to send the 
women awayl Whtf^ this i» moneif.'" was their cnnimentjiry, A 
woman among them is always worth at Icitst twentj- or thirty 
doU'irs ind a very attractive damsel may fetch ti much is thirty 
five n tl e n atr mon il i ket 

Government among tl e A 1 a t s s more absolute r less feu 
dal stic than amo g other tnbes The s iccess o lo not n 




in a direct line but to a brother or neiihew, in wliich latter case 
the nephew is not the son of tlio king's brother, but of lils sister, 
who (and this is a strange oonnncntar)' on savage moral-s) iiei'd not 
be married, the only requisite Ix'ing th;it the prolKihU; father l)e 
strong, good looking, and of repuliible oiigiii. 

The reason they give for this depurture fi'om the dimct line in 
the succession to the Ashanti emwn is tliat one can never be sure 
tliat the king is the father of tlic i]UCTit*s son, and that as, more- 
over, the queens are almost invarinbly of humljle origin, making 
the son of the "princess royal " the licir secures tliat at least there 
should be some kingly blood in the occupant of the throne. 



/ 



166 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

Failing the brother or the nephew, the sou can occupy the 
throne ; failing all three, the chief slave of the dead king. But 
the unwritten constitution of Ashanti, though allowing very 
8ummaiy powers to the sovereign, controls him in many ways. 

The powers of the "Kotoko," or council, curb the tyranny 
of the king, for he is bound to consult them in all questions of 
foreign policy, and war or peace. He also voluntarily, in times 
of trouble, summons to his aid a few chosen councillors, whose 
advice he takes or rejects, as seems good to him. 

His civil list is great: tribute is paid by the vassal princes, 
taxes are levied on all the villages, or "crooms," while tolls and 
custom dues make up the rest of the revenue. He hiw also in his 
own hands various gold mines, and levies a handsome percentxige 
on all the gold found in his country, to which, indeed, he makes 
a formal claim, not, however, except in rare cases, enforced. 
All nuggets, however, strictly escheat to the king as his special 
property. 

But where every man is a soldier, and the king is dependent on 
the good-will of his subjects — warlike though they be — before 
he can cany out any of his ambitious schemes, he is not veiy 
apt to unnecessarily irritate them. 

From this point of view there is much to be said in favor 
of a feudal monarchy, such as that of Ashanti. Yet between the 
highest nobles and the king there is a wide gulf; as in Dahomey 
the prime minister, or even greatest general, will humble himself 
in the dust when entering the dread presence of roj'ulty. A des- 
cription of an Ashanti king, by a great African traveller, gives 
an excellent example of the richness of the kingdom as well 
as the bill baric pomp of a feudal sovereign : — 

His manners, says Bowdich, were majestic, yet courteons, and 
he did not allow his surprise to beguile him for a moment of the com- 
posure of a monarch. He appeared about thirty-eight, inclined to 
corpulence, and of a benevolent countenance ; he wore a fillet of aggry 
beads round his temple, a necklace of gold cockspur shells strung by 
their largest ends, and over his right shoulder a red silk cord suspend- 
ing three sapphires cased in gold. His bracelets were the richest mixture 
of beads and gold, and his fingers were covered with rings ; his cloth 
was a dark green silk ; a pointed diadem was elegantly painted in white 



FEUDALISTIO HONABCHY. 167 

on hiB forehead, also a pattern resembling an epaalet on each shoulder, 
and an ornament like a full-blown rose, one leaf rising above another 
until it covered his whole breast; his knee-bands were of aggry beads, 
and his ankle-strings of gold ornaments of the most delicate workman- 
ship, small drums, swords, guns, and birds clustered together. His san- 
dals, of a soft white leather, were embossed across the instcp-band with 
small gold and silver cases of sapphires ; he was seated in a low chair, 
richly ornamented with gold ; and he had a pair of gold castanets on his 
finger and thumb, which he clapped to enforce silence. The belts of 
the guards behind his chair were cased in gold, and covered with small 
jaw-bones of the same metal. 

The elephants' tails, waving like a small cloud before him, were 
spangled with gold, and large plumes of feathers were flourished amid 
them. His eunuch presided over these attendants, wearing only one 
massive piece of gold about his neck ; the royal stool, entirely cased in 
gold, was displayed under a splendid umbrella, with drums, horns, 
and various musical instruments, cased in gold, about the thickness of 
cartridge paper. 

Large circles of gold hung by scarlet cloth from the swords of state, 
the sheaths as well as the handles of which were also cased ; hatchets 
of the same were inter-mixed with them ; the breasts of the Ochras 
and various attendants were adorned with large stars, crescents, and 
gossamer-wings of solid gold. 

The profusion of gold in this picture brings us to a considera- 
tion of the principal Ashanti industiy, namely, the gold mines 
with which they allow no white man to interfere. When the 
Creator first made the world, according to their philosophy. He 
created a black man and a white man. 

To the black man He offered a calabash of gold, rich soil, a 
mud hut, and all the fruits of the earth in abundance ; but the 
white man preferred a quantity of paper, pens, and ink, and 
having got knowledge, prospered over the black man, who in his 
ignorance pi*efeiTed the apparent natural riches. Yet having 
made their choice, they say, they intend sticking to it; let the 
white man keep to his ink and paper. 

A license is exacted from every one in the kingdom of Ashanti 
wearing gold ornaments. Strictly speaking, all the gold found 
belongs to the king; and when a nobleman or rich man dies the 
gold he may leave behind him becomes his majesty's property. 



168 THE STORY OF GOVEKNMENT. 

Moreover,' it is forbidden for anyone but the king's servants 
to sweep the market place at Coomassie, for among the sweep- 
ings may be found some particles of dust which have been 
dropi)ed in the course of barter, gold dust being the ordinary com- 
merce of the country. 

When the king dies, his treasures are buried with him in the 
Bantama, or sepulchre of the Ashanti monarchs; and no doubt, 
had Sir Garnet Wolseley, as was originally his intention, de- 
stroyed this sacred enclosure, much of the treasure, the absence 
of which 80 disappointed the English soldiers, would have been 
found. 

" Aggry beads " are ornaments highly prized by the Ashantis. 
Their origin is rather obscure, and though the artists of Birming- 
ham have attempted to imitate them, they have hitherto failed to 
produce a sham which will impose upon the art connoisseurs of 
the Gold Coast. 

It is probable that they are glass mosaics, and of Egjrptian or 
PhoBnician manufacture. The Egyptians or Phcenicians might 
have sold their goods to the Berbei-s, and by them the aggry beads, 
among other manufactures of these ingenious dwellers in Tyre 
or on the Nile banks, might have been passed from tril)e to tribe 
until they reached far away Ashanti. 

By Ashanti law if an aggry beiul is broken in a scuffle, seven 
slaves must be paid to the owner, or in other words, upwards of 
$225. They are usually found at some distance from the sea, and 
though only picked up now and then by accident, are yet plenti- 
ful, proving that during the times these beads readied the 
Ashantis, in far away ages, the trade of the Gold Coast must 
have been flourishing. 

The Ashanti method of extracting the gold from the soil is verj^ 
primitive. A quantity of the earth, sand, and gravel through 
which the scales and little bits of gold are scattered, is dug up by 
means of a hoe, and washed in a calabash by a sharp rotiiry move- 
ment, which gradually tosses off the earth and sand, and allows 
the heavier gold to remain at the bottom of the vessel. 

It is, in fact, exactly the same method of washing gold as that 
known in California as "panning out," a plan only adopted in 
that coiuitry for the purpose of testing the richness of a "placer " 



FEUDALISTIC MONABCHy. 169 

or gold deposit. . The g^Id saved by this method of washing is 
then put into quills for safe keeping. 

So thickly impregnated is the soil with gold that even by this 
iiide mode of extraction great quantities ai-e obtained. After 
eveiy shower of i-ain the streams carry down sand Ifiden with the 
precious metal, which on their subsiding is found mixed up 
with the alluvium left behind on the banks. 

With the improved appliances now used in gold washing 
immense quantities might, no doubt, be obtained ; an experienced 
Ashanti gfold washer calculates tliat in the coui-se of a year he 
will obtain about twenty "minkali," in value two slaves, or 
about *80.00. 

Gold-buying on the west coast of Africa is not a trade that an 
inexperienced hand need take up. The weights are black seeds 
called "telekessi," and each bu3'er has his own weights and 
scales, so it is a pitched battle between seller and purchaser as to 
who can cheat the other. 

" Bogus dust " is marnifactured by preparing nuggets of copper 
and silver mixed, and the fine dust gold is simulated by copper 
filings and red conil powder. The "telekessi" weights are 
soaked in butter to make them heavier, and imitation ones of 
pebble are even put in their place, from which it is evident that 
some of the business devices of our modern industrial sjrstem are 
in vogue among the savages. 

Mr. Skertchly mentions that in a small factory on the Gold 
Coast he hiis seen as much as three hundred ounces of gold taken 
in a single day. At all the factories there are professed "gold- 
takew," whose duty it is to assay all the gold before it passes 
into the ti*ader\s hand, so as to detect and reject the " Brummagem 
nuggets" which fire continually offered them. 

A half naked savage will arrive in the factory with gold dust 
to exchange for guns, powder, or cloth. The dust is carefully 
tied up in small pieces of paper in one corner of his waist cloth, 
or often enough conccjiled in the intricate mazes of his wool. 
The small packet is opened, and the gold-taker empties it into 
a copper blow pan, shaped like a banker's sliovel without a 
liandle, and with a dexterous movement of the wrist separates 
the large from the small particles. 



170 THB STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

With a feather-tip he then picks out all the suspicious par- 
ticles and bits of dust, and with a wonderfully regulated pufif 
blows off the specks of mica and pyrites which would otherwise 
have escaped unnoticed. The blown gold is then weighed and 
handed over to the trader. 

The wages of a good gold-taker are very high, and some over- 
acute, but penny-wise-and-pound -foolish j)ersoiis, who have dis- 
pensed with the services of these gold-takers, and liave relied upon 
the efficiency of aquafortis and touchstone, have found, on con- 
veying the gold dust to England, that they have been buying 
silver gilt, or even gold dust made in Birmingham itself. 

The dress of the Ashantis consists of a tunic of colored calico 
or some other cloth, while for higher occasions, or for the clothes 
of rich men, silk woven in the native looms is substituted. Oma^ 
ments of gold, silver, and "aggry beads" are worn, either as 
decorations or as charms against illness, witxjhci-aft, or other mis- 
fortune. 

The grandees, when in full uniform, add "jujus," or breast- 
plates of gold, and other glittering omjiments, and cover their 
heads with horned helmets of an cxtraordinarj'^ shape, and waving 
feather plumes. They frequently decorate their faces with deli- 
cately painted imtterns in green or white paint on the cheeks and 
forehead. They have seveml musical instruments, and are fond 
of dancing, mimicry, story-telling, songs, and all sorts of fun. 

Each nobleman has his own band of minstrels and heralds, 
who used to patrol the city at stated houi*s of certain days, 
playing the tunes which belong to their respective mastei-s. 
Feudalism is apt in all countries to have the same belongings, 
and hence we see in Africa much wliicli will remind the reader 
of similar scenes in Europe during the sway of the mediaeval 
chivalry. 

The industries of the Ashantis, apart from mining, though 
limited, are interesting. Their looms are formed on the same 
principle as ours. Their cloths, in fineness, brilliancy, and size, 
are, when we consider the appliances by which they have been 
produced, and the innate laziness of the native AfricJin, admira- 
ble. They also paint, with great ease and rapidity, white cloths, 
and excel in pottery and goldsmith's work. 



FEUDALISTIG MONARCHY. 171 

Their weights are very neat brass casts of almost every animal, 
fruit, and vegetable known to them, though the original ones iu 
the shape of seeds are still occasionally used, and univei*sally so 
on the coast for weighing gold. They also do good work in iron^ 
tan leather, and are skilful carpentei-s. 

The Ashanti army is recruited from all able-bodied men, and 
is very numerous. Bowdich calculated that there wei^e 150,000 
ready forces, and 204,000 fit to bear arms. The number has 
been calculated somewhat higher since his day, viz., at 300,000. 

Looking at the Ashanti army, as compared with the fierce 
rabbles which go under that name in other portions of Africa, it is 
almost in a state of discipline. War is begun, if not with all 
the foiins, yet with much of the crnft, diplomatic duplicity, and 
wholesale lying prevalent in more civilized communities^ 

When the Ashanti monarch proposes to invade another tribe or 
nation, he despatches envoys, laden witli rich presents, to the 
neighboring powers, appealing with one hand to their sense of 
justice, by pointing out how great hjis Ixjen the pi-ovocation, and 
what a " jutt and holy war " is the systematic murder in which 
he is about to engage; and with the other, while assuring them 
of his friendship and affection, he takes care to point out how 
they can be benefited, if not by helping, at least by not impeding 
him in his proposed operations. 

He has generals, if he does not command himself, who are 
accomplished in all the tactics of savage warfare, ambuscade, 
flanking attacks, and feigned retreats. The craft of the diplom- 
atists in the council is equalled by the courage of the troops iu 
the field. 

Every man knows his place, and as soon as war is declared he 
accouties himself with musket and cartouch box, and provisioning 
himself for a time with a few kalo nuts and a little maize meal, 
joins the company to which he belongs. 

The enemy will supi)ly the rest of his commissariat, for, like 
Stonewall Jackson, his motto is "Always forage on the enemy." 
As soon as the army is on the march, the women, daubing them- 
selves with white clay, and stripping themselves, march through 
the towns, beating the drum and belaboring any wight who may 
have remained at home. 



172 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

Carpenters, blacksmiths, and other ai-tisans accompany the 
army, sutlei-s sell provisions and cheat like sutlers the world 
over, while money lendera advance casli to impecunious soldiera 
at an interest of 120 to 300 per cunt. Lastly, in the van 
follow the women bearing pots, calabashes, and other cooking 
utensils. 

In battle the women stand behind their husbands, supply them 
with powder, and animate them with songs. When the battle 
begins skirmishers advance ; these are slaves whose lives are of 
little value. The secondaiy captains fight in the front ranks, 
while the great nobles and the king sit behind on stools, shaded 
by the huge umbrellas which denote their rank. 

They are like the officei-s in some Spanish-American republics, 
who, after the battle has commenced, take to the rear of their 
troops, and shout valiant conmiands to them, inculcating in 
sonorous language how glorious it is to fight, or even, if neces- 
sary, to die for one's country, while they at the same time are 
preparing to falsify their maxim by flight. 

Hence they are called *' encoumgei's " by the cynical soldiery. 
In the same manner the Ashanti encoumgers remain in the rear, 
sunt)unded by young men who cut down those who attempt to 
reti*eat. "It is," says the Ashanti soldier, "just iis well to die 
fighting, for if we attempt to escape we are killed anyhow." 

The commander-in-chief, while the battle is raging, sits on his 
stool playing some kind of musical instrument, as if to impress the 
bystandei-s that he is so confident of victoiy as to be perfectly 
easy as to the result. In case of defeat, the captains are expected 
to commit suicide. 

When the day is lost they seat themselves calmly on casks of 
gunpowder, and blow themselves up into the air, that the Aslianti 
proverb may be fullilled, "It is shame which. causes the chief to 
die.'* If victorious, they never pui-sue the enemy when it is near 
sunset. 

During the active part of the campaign the anny is forbidden 
all other food except meal, a quantity of which each soldier carries 
in the bag by his side, and mixes with the fii*st water he finds. 
No fires are allowed to be lit. 

They eat a little bit of the heart of the first enemy slain, and 



FEUDALISTIC MONARCHY. 



173 



wear ornaments of liis teeth and bones. The wliolc fcinial system 
of Ashanti is favorable to military discipline, anil at the same 
time conducive to fostering the war spirit and the greed of mili- 
tary glory and gain. 

The ))eople are a nation of soldiers as well disciplined as a 
barbarous amiy can lie. To the neighboring jiowers tliey were, 
until their late reveise at the hands of the British, a name of 




terror. The Fantis cnnHidered it useless to oppose them; the 
verj' name of "Shanti" Wiw almost suiliciciit to make tlieni rmi. 
But though the Asliaiitis could con<|iier, thev ccmid not govern, 
and one tribe after aiiotlifi lias revolted from their rule, and 
either assei-te<l their piistiiu- inde[>endence, or formed a new com- 
bination fatid ti> tlieir cojKpu'iois. Since the monarchy sustained 
its last shock, at tlie hands of the British, sevenil other tributaries 
have revolted fi'om under its sway, tliough they are likely, before 
long, to be i-econquered. 



174 THE STORY OP GOVERNMENT. 

Police i-egulations are strictly followed out in Coomassie, the 
capital of this feudal kingdom; none, except with the sanction 
of the king, can go out of doors at night, and policemen — wild- 
looking beings with heads half shaved, long hair falling over 
their foreheads, and with lances in their hands — patrol the 
btreets to see that this tyrannical regulation, apparently a bit of 
military despotism to prevent the chance of plots or revolts, is 
carried out with i-elentless rigor. 

Another curious regulation, which shows that the Ashanti laws 
are not the poitentous gro^vth of mere wantonness uncontrolled by 
the people, or undirected by some sound underlying principle, is 
that the king must attend all fires. This is a wise provision, 
though in a town where fires must be common, a severe tax upon 
such a luxurious monarch, for under the eye of the royal dis- 
penser of life and death the acting firemen will not be apt to be 
dilatoiy in their duties when the fire horn is blown. 

When an Ashanti dies his body is buried, and along with it a 
quantity of the gold he may have possessed; a similar cus- 
tom to one prevalent among the Fantis. The Bantama is the 
mausoleum of the kings, as well as a place of human sacrifice, 
and the great spiritual stronghold of the priests. In this sacred 
place is kept the skull of Governor Sir Charles Macarthy, who 
was killed in the fii-st war. "By Wednesday and Macarthy" is 
a sacred Ashanti oath. 

This skull the Ashanti kings have converted into a drinking 
cup, out of which, on solemn occasions, they quaff their nim. 
Into this Bantama no stranger is allowed to set his profane foot. 
A trusty chief and a jiowerful guard watch it day and night. It 
is, according to the varying accounts, from half a mile to a mile 
and a half from Cooma^isie, and is connected with the capital by 
a broad road. 

On tlie decease of any pei-son of rank, numerous human lives 
are sacrificed, tlie number being proportionate to the dignity of 
the deceased. On the death of the mother of tlie king who ruled 
the country in Bowdicli's time, no less than tluee thousand 
human beings were butchered; and on his own death, though 
we have no certain information, most probably the number was 
doubled. 



176 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

The funeral rites of a great captain are often repeated regularly 
every week for two or three months at a stretch, and on each 
occasion about two hundred persons sacrificed. These victims are 
usually slaves or culprits, and principally females, but it is usual 
to "wet the grave " with the blood of a freeman of respectability. 

Among the rites of the Ashanti and Daliomey nations few are 
more familiar in name to the most cui-sory reader of books of 
West African travel than the so-called murdei-ous ceremonies 
kno\VTi as the customs. 

The word is an Anglicized or corrupted form of the French 
coutume^ a general habit — the "general habit "in this case both in 
Dahomey and Ashanti — being the slaughter, in a more or less 
cruel manner, and accompanied with immense pomp and state 
ceremonial, of vast numbers of people, chiefly slaves and criminals, 
at certain seasons of the year. Long habit has rendered the per- 
formance of these ceremonies imperative. 

Abominable though they are, they have even met a faint, half- 
hearted defence or apology from white men as political necessities, 
for they say that in Ashanti or Dahomey the alx)lition of human 
sacrifice would deprive the people of one of their great annual 
spectacles, and thereby endanger the very monarc^hy itself. A 
parallel piece of political management is to be found in the bloody 
gladiatorial shows with which the Roman despots appeased the pas- 
sions of the populace. The ruling idea throughout seems to lx> 
to send messengers to the dead or to the gods in the persons of 
those who are killed. They Ijelieve tJiat the body contains a 
spirit or ghost which exists after death, and which flits alx)Ut 
the neighborhood of the grave, and even revisits its old home, and 
holds converse with those it formerly loved, or plays pranks on 
those it disliked; is, in fact, an ethereal, disembodied human being, 
subject to all the passions and whims of such a one in the flesh. 

By the grave of the dead man are accordingly placed food that 
he may eat, or rather that he may eat the " spirit " of the food, 
and vessels tliat he may cook it. 

For food and vessels, in fact all objects animate or inaniniJite, 
liave equally souls or spirits which live in an after world, and 
which can ticcompany their spirit master on his journeys to and 
from that shadowy land. They also believe in a hades, a country 



FEUDALISTIG MONARCHY. 177 

below the ground wliere the '^dead dwell in a life that shall have 
no end/' 

In the other world only kings, princes, and nobles enjoy all 
voluptuous delights ; the poorer people wait on them and share 
a little in their pleasures. Not only in this hades, or heaven — 
for what its exact character is, is somewhat dubious even in their 
own philosophy — do men come to life and revel in palm wine 
and wives, but they also believe tliat all garments a man has woiti 
out will then come to life again — a resurrection of old clothes. 

Besides this, liis relations display their affection by giving 
him an outfit of weapons, ornaments, new cloth, crockery ware, 
etc., so that, like the son of a modem rich man, he may go to the 
devil like a gentleman. But who is to carry these things and look 
after them? Evidently his wives and slaves. Therefore, a num- 
ber of these are killed to keep him company, and often a slave is 
killed some time after his de<ith to tivko liim a message, or as 
an addition to his houseliold. 

In Dahomey this custom of sending messengera is organized 
into a system. Thus originated human sacrifice which is, grant- 
ing the truth of the theor}' on which it is based, a most mtional 
custom. Death is disagreeable to us because we do not know 
where we are going, but to the widow of an African chieftain it 
is merely a sui'gical operation and a change of existence. That 
explains why Africans submit to death so quietly. 

A woman at Akropong selected for the sacrifice was stripped 
according to custom, but only stunned, not killed by the blows. 
She I'ecovered her senses and found hei-self lying on the ground 
surrounded by dead bodies. She rose, went into the town where 
the elders were seated in council, and told tliem she liad been to 
the "Lord of the Dead," and had ])een sent back, because she was 
naked ; tlie elders must dress her finely and kill her over again. This 
was accordingly done. 

But there is another kind of human sacrifice, the slaying of 
men and women as gifts to the gods. In Ashanti the first form 
of sacrifice is pi-actised. When one of the royal family dies, 
slaves are killed by the hundred. Horrible as it may seem that 
such a thing should still exist, yet it is true that human sacrifices 
have become in Ashanti, as in Dahomey, public entertainments. 



178 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

The sight of an executioner, in a shaggy cap of black monkey 
skin, the same kind that is used for ladies' muffs, chopping off the 
bead of a slave, is to the Ashantis what the sports of the amphi- 
theatre were to the Romans, or bull tights to the Spaniards of the 
present day. 

Public executions in all countries draw large crowds of specta- 
tors, and in Ashanti this penchant of the multitude has been culti- 
vated and developed into an artistic feeling. Decapitation has 
become with them an art as various as music. There are two 
movements in vogue, tlie allegro^ in which the head is twisted away 
by a sharp knife with a dexterous turn of the wrist and the 
adcyio^ in which the head is sawn off in slow time. 

So common had this spectacle become in the days prior to the 
fall of Coomassie, that when the little son of one of the German 
missionaries — who was freed by King Coffee on the approach of 
the English troops — was angiy at anyone, he would exclaim, 
'* Your head will fall to-morrow I " 

Slicing off heads had been one of the most common sights that 
the child had seen, and was in his eyes the punishment for the 
most trifling offence. The place where the bodies are cast is a 
swampy place near the town, and when the English troops 
visited it the effluvia from swollen, putrefying bodies filled the 
air with a carrion stench. 

The whole of the blood-stained town had the odor of death, and 
every breeze that was wafted over it bore on it the smell of decay- 
ing humanity, wliile piles of skulls and human bones testified to 
the long continuance of these horrible sacrifices. In Ashanti the 
two great seasons of sacrifice are the Yam and tlie Adai customs. 

The Yam custom occui-s in the beginning of September, at the 
season when the yams are ripe, and is the greatest of the two 
customs; it consists in the sacrifice, with much ceremony and 
many rites, of large numbers of human beings before the yams are 
allowed to be gathered. 

The Adai customs, divided into the "Great" and ''Little," are 
celebrated every three weeks, though with less expenditure of life 
each time than during the Yam celebration. In November, 1881, 
a report reached Europe that Mansah, King of Ashanti — a brother 
of Koffee, who was deposed by his irat« subjects — had slain two 



FEUDALISTip HOKAROHT. 179 

hundred girls in order to mix their blood with the '^ swish/' or 
clay, for his new palace. 

The story proved unfounded, though quite in accord with 
Ashanti ideas and customs, and a widespread superstition of all 
countries and ages. In PoljTiesia, for example, the foundations 
of some of the temples were laid amid human bodies ; under the 
gates of Mandalay "spirit watchera" were buried, and not long 
ago a panic pervaded the native quarter of Madras out of the 
rumor that the English government were about to ensure the 
safety of the new harl)or works by sacrificing a number of human 
beings. 

The religion of the Ashantis^is as rude as their rites in honor of 
it are bloody. "Nyonmo" is their Supreme Being, and nearly 
evjpry heavenly or terrestrial phenomenon is one of his manifesta- 
tions. They worship the earth and the sky as separate deities, 
which exercise their influence over mankind; while trees auid 
rivers, which are also manifestations of their gods, can only exer- 
cise a limited power over particular towns, districts, or men. 

**Kra," or the soul of man, existed, in their belief, before the 
body, and is transmitted from one man to another, so that the 
soul which left the body of an old man may liave entered the body 
of the child just born. The priest will augur in regard to the 
destiny of the babe yet unljoni, by asking its future Km to tell 
one as to its foitune in life. 

This Ki-a is distinct from the body, and can give advice, either 
good or bad, according to its sex (for there are male and female 
Kras), to the body which it inhabits. Evil spirits and ghosts are, 
however, what the Ashantis, like the other West Africans, mostly 
fear; and to avert their displeasure, resort is had to charms or 
fetishes, which may be anything, from a human sacrifice to a pot 
of filth compounded by the fetish priest. 

> Mr. Reade who lived long among the Ashantis says : It is a mistake to suppose that these 
Africans are a stupid people because they liave no books, and do not wear many clotlics. Tlie 
children do not go to school, but they sit round the fire at night, or beneath tlio town tree in 
the day, and listen to tlieir el<ler5, who discuss ]>o1itics, and matters relating to government* 
law, and religion. Every man in a tribe, and every slave belonging to a tribe, has learned at 
an early age the constitution by which he is governed, and the policy pursued towards foreign 
tribes. In such a land as Ashanti the kings and chiefs are profoundly skilled in the arts of 
diplomacy. Their weapon of offence is treachery ; the weajMu of defence, suspicion. They^ 
hare no aoiiiples and no delusions. They never hesitate to betray, and always hesitate to 
beliflTO* 



180 THE STORY OP GOVERNMENT. 

At the entrance of towns, dwellings, and all places of public 
resort, are fetislies to avert evil ; and the pathway of the English 
army, all the way from the Pi-ah to Coomassie, was strewn and 
littered with fetishes to avert calamity to tlie nation, and to pre- 
vent the sacred city being reached by them. 

A fetish is indeed something which is popularly supposed to com- 
bine in itself the god or his attributes. Fetishism is defined by 
Lubbock as "the stage in which man supposes he can force the 
Deity to comply with his desires," and Comte has used it to 
express a genei-al theory of primitive religion, in which external 
objects are regarded "as animated by a life analogous to man's.'' 

Fetishism thus includes the woi-ship of "stocks and stones," 
and thence passes by an imperceptible gradation into idolatry. 
A bit of rag, the claw of some animal, peculiarly shaped stones, or 
I'oots, bones, birds' beaks, anything, constitutes a fetish, and 
"making fetish" consists mainly in yelling or dancing. 

■ The government of Dahome or Dahomey, as it is usually spelled, 
presents some very singular points. The monarchy is absolute 
within certain limits, yet a wise king always takes care not to inin 
counter to the wishes of his subjects in any matter of national 
imi)ortance, or when the public sentiment has been firmly and 
unmistakably expressed. 

But the curiousness lies in the fact that the monarchy is of a 
dual character, the authority of the real sovereign being theoreti- 
cally supposed to be shared by a "bush-king," an idea which wa.^ 
the offspring of the brain of Gfou, the eighth king of the present 
line. 

This bush-king, though a mythical peraonage, has all the 
honors, privileges, and appurtenances of a regular sovereign, and 
the annual "customs " are prolonged to nearly double their former 
length in order to do him honor. He has a palace where looms 
are at work, making cloth for his household, pipes, and other 
manufactures, a monopoly of which is granted by the king to the 
landlord or keeper of the palace of this shadowy being. In addi- 
tion, he has his officers of state. 

In a word, he is the "c7ow5Ze" of the real king or "akhosu"; 
and whatever is done for the king in public has to be thrice 
repeated ; once for the Amazons, or female guards, then for Ad- 



FEUDALWTIU MONARCHY. 



c]okpoii, the Imsli-kiiig, and lastly fov Addok- 
pcin's Amazons. The ohject of the iiiHtitution 
of this bush-kmg is amuaing- 

G»?zu was anxious to share in the profits of 
the palm oil, imd other trades, hut could not 
consent to demean liis royal hands hy mingling 
in commercial transactions. Aecoi-dingly the 
idea of a "donhle" who should he 
the tinding monarch, while the real 
sovereign should have all the pleas- 
ure of spending the proceeds, was 
seized upon. G^zu's douhle was 
called Gahqpweh, or "Market-day 
coming." 

The king makes most of tlie laws, 
after submitting them to his priiici- 
[wl ministers, whose opinion is always 
accepted; and if they approve of the 

^* 




182 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

"Act of Parliament," hei-alds are sent around and proclaim it to 
the people. The people have, however, the privilege of pro- 
posing an amendment on an old law, when the 'pro% and c<yn» are 
discussed fully in public, without any fear of offence. So on the 
whole, the legislative element is in mther a high state of perfec- 
tion in the kingdom of Dahomey. Minor offences are judged 
by the caboceers, or nobles, but all crimes involving capital 
punishment are heard by the king, who alone has the power of 
life or death. Many of the laws are very just and appropriate 
to the kingdom, but others are mere caprices of a despotic and 
whimsical monarch. 

Take a few examples : — No person is allowed to marry a wife 
imtil he has fii-st asked permission of the king, who can, if he 
likes, enlist her in the Amazonian corps; no subject is allowed 
to sit on a chair in public, to wear shoes, or to ride in a hammock ; 
no goods landed at Wliydah can be I'eshipped; no Dahomey 
woman is permitted to leave the country, and so on. 

Every man is liable to serve as a soldier, and consequently each 
individual in the country is esteemed according to his -military 
rank, and the position which that i-ank entitles him to hold in 
the different wings of the army, these being of unequal honor in 
public esteem. 

The "Ningan" is the prime minister and commander-in-chief 
of the kingdom, in addition to being chief magistrate, superin- 
tendent of police, and principal executioner. No visitors, unless 
they are created war captains, can hold any convei'sation with 
him; and though prime minister, he has no dealings with civil 
business. 

All such contemptible *affairs as trade palavera and diplomacy 
are beneath the dignity of an official whose sole business in life is 
death. He alone, of all the Dahoman subjects, can address the 
king with tlie prefix " Asah," a word supposed to resemble a lion's 
roar. Like all the high dignitaries, he perfonns most of his 
duties by deputies, who are, liowevcr, men of mark. 

The second minister of the realm is the "'Meu," whose duties 
are onerous and multifarious. All the visitoi-s to the court are 
placed under his care. He is the executioner of all the bush- 
kind's victims at the annual customs, and collector of the 




184 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

revenue. Next to the Meu is the Avogan or Viceroy of Whydah. 
In addition, there are several other officials whose positions do 
not seem to be very settled and who perform various offices. 

The eunuchs rank next to the ministers. They superintend 
the Amazons' quarters, and have many privileges not accorded to 
other subjects. The night guards of the palace, and the town 
police, are also officials of high rank. The trade captains, or 
" Akhisin," inspect, if at Whydah, all ships' cargoes, and receive 
the customs' duties. Last of all come the commanders of the 
various towns, who form alx)ut one fifth of the whole army. 

The soldiere are divided into several corps, distinguished by 
different uniforms. Each soldier is equipped at the government 
expense, but they receive neither pay nor rations, and on the 
march are expected either to cany their own provisions, to pur- 
chase them, or to forage for them upon the enemy's country. 
Fresh elephant steaks on such mai-ches are frequently eaten raw, 
being supposed to impart cunning as well as courage. 

Every soldier is expected to bring back a head or a prisoner; 
and at the conclusion of the campaign the prisoners and heads are 
delivered over to the king, who pays each man a fixed price for 
his human plunder. Sometimes, in war time, the king will, at 
his own charge, ransom captives of his people taken by the enemy. 

Surprise is the chief tactic practised in war, and so secret is 
eveiything kept that, on the declaration of hostilities, it is rare 
that the king tells even his first minister which town he intends 
to attack firet. The ai-my marches in silence, not along the 
regular coast, but by pathways cut in the bush; no fires are lit; 
and all stragglei's are taken prisoners. 

In the dead of night the town is surrounded, and just before 
daybreak, when all is quiet, the town is assailed, and all the 
inhabitants, if possible, captured, the object of all such attacks 
being not to kill, but to take prisonei-s, who are either reserved 
for the annual customs, or sent as slaves to different parts of the 
kingdom, or enlisted in the Dahoman army, where the highest 
offices are open to them. 

The women are made servants to the Amazons, and reside 
witliin the precincts of the palace. The town itself is usually 
destroyed, with all its other living inhabitants. If resistance is 



^yj^^N::?^) 




186 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

attempted, then the struggle is bloody, but short, for African 
aboriginal courage is but a spasmodic quality; once let it evap- 
orate, it never returns in time to enable the scattered army to 
rally. The first repulse is the last. 

Disease and hardship decimate the army while on these slave- 
hunting expeditions more than the sword. If small-pox breaks 
out the mortality is something dreadful; three out of the nine 
kings of the present dynasty have fallen victims to this disease. 

Perhaps the most extraordinaiy feature in Dahoman economy 
is the corps of Amazons or female warriors. This word long ago 
got incorporated from the Greek into our language as expressing 
a masculine woman, but what these Amazons really ai-e is not so 
generally known. Their origin among the Africans dates from 
1728, when the exigencies of war compelled the then king to 
organize a regiment of women, with whom he attacked and 
defeated the old Whydahs. Since then they liave been a marked 
feature in the military establishment of the Dahoman kingdom. 

Under Gdzu the corps attained its maximum of gi*eatness. With 
that acuteness which distinguished him he raised the Amazonian 
body from being merely a subordinate establishment to an equal 
level with the male soldiers, and created female officers, so that, 
by surrounding himself with a band of viragos, bound to him 
by all the ties of gratitude and interest, he could at once put a 
check on too ambitious subjects, and nip in the bud the first signs 
of rebellion. 

On a certain day, once in three years, every subject must pre- 
sent himself, with his daughtens above a certain age, before the 
king. The most promising of those belonging to the higher 
classes he selects as officers, the poorer ones b^ing chosen as sol- 
diers, while the children of slaves become the servants of the 
Amazons who reside within the palace. 

This done, the other daughters are returned to their parents to 
be disposed of as they may find proper. Some of the selected 
girls are "dashed" or presented to the most meritorious soldiers 
as wives, and all the female children of these Amazonian wives 
are Amazons by birth-right. The king, too, takes several Ama- 
zons as concubines, under the name of "leopard wives," who 
enjoy many privileges. 



ISUDALISTIG MONARCHY. 187 

With these exceptions, every Amazon is a celibate; but as 
military discipline is not always equal to preventing the little 
god Cupid from his mischievous work, a fetish — called ihe 
Demen — is erected over one of the palace gates, which by its 
power at once discovers any Amazon who is unfaithful to her 
military oath in the matter of celilxicy. 

Tlie infoimera also — who in these cases are generally jealous 
of the culprits — ai-e never backward in causing the misdemeanor 
of the erring soldieress to reach the ears of the king, and her fears 
being worked on, she almost invariably confesses the name of her 
lover. The result is that botli are punished, he assuredly by a 
cruel death, and she in all likelihood by blows from the hands of 
her comrades. 

Though the flower of this coi-ps of female soldiers perished 
under the walls of Abeokeuta in 1864, their number may be yet 
about four thousand. They are divided into three brigades, each 
of which has a peculiar head dress or method of dressing the hair. 

Each of these brigades is commanded by female officers and sul>- 
officers, and is again divided into Agbaraya, or Blunderbuss 
women, the veterans of the aimy only called into action in case of 
urgent need; the Gbeto, or Elephant-huntresses, one of the most 
celebrated corps in the army, who on hunting expeditions 
are exposed to great danger from the infuriated animals; the 
Nyekpleh-hentoh, or Razor women, of whom there are only a few 
to each wing. 

Their special object of attack is the king of the enemy, and the 
huge razors which they carry are especially intended for the decapi- 
tation of this monarch. Lastly, there are the Gulonentoh, or 
Musketeei's, and the Gohento, or Areheresses, who are all young 
girls, and more of a show coi^ps, their weapons being of compara- 
tively little use in active warfare. 

In addition there are troops of camp-followers, hewers of wood, 
and drawers of water. Even they enjoy certain privileges. If 
met with in the pathway, headed by a beldame ringing a bell, 
every man, unless bearing the "king's stick" as insignium of 
rank, must instantly disappear to the right or left. To look upon 
them would be a crime. Accordingly they are exceedingly self- 
important and arrogantly jealous of their prerogatives. 



188 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

All the corps of Amazons, with the exception of the Aivh- 
eresses, are armed with muskets or blunderbusses, kept scrupu- 
lously clean, but though these female warrioi-s are brave to 
fei-ocity, they are poor markswomen, hitting a haysfcick being 
about the sum of their rifle accomplishments. 

The bush-king has also his Amazons, and every official, high 
and low, has also his '"' double " among them. If an officer is 
elevated to a higher rank, an Amazon within the pilace also gets 
a similar title. The mothei-s and wives of deceased kings have 
also their representatives among the Amazons, who are called 
Akhosusi (king's wives or Mi no, mothei-s). 

The term "mother" in Dahomey is, however, a term of i-e- 
spect, and does not mean a maternal relative. Though the value 
of the Amazonian corps has been justly celebrated as winning 
victories for the Dahoman king, yet at the same time we must 
remember that its existence is one of the causes of the slow de- 
cadence of that kingdom. The pix)portion of celibates is too gi-eat 
for the populfition, being somewhei-e about three to one. 

Four thousand women represent twelve thousand children, 
the greater numlxjr of whom are lost to the State, which cannot 
afford such a drain. This, combined with the losses by disease 
and war, is one of the fertile sources of the national loss of pres- 
tige, which is only too true; and ere long, unless there is a 
change, Dahomey will l)e classed among the nations of the past. 
A special decoration is reserved for Amazons who have slain 
enemies in battle. This is a cowry, glued by the blood of the 
slain man to the butt of the musket, one cowTy for each enemy slain. 

Until Burton's time we knew almost nothing of the fetishism 
which constitutes the religion of the Dahomans. The tradei*s in 
charge of the ''factories*' on the coast could tell little. Their 
tiilk was of oil, dust, and ivory, and they were more concerned 
about how much was to l)e made, honestly or dishonestly, out of 
the "black ivory," than what their religion or customs w^ere. So 
though for two centuries we have had intercourse with Dahomey, 
we are still much in the dark in regard to the nature of their 
deities and forms of worship. This we know, however, that they 
believe in a Supreme Being, and in a host of minor deities. 

Mau, the Supreme Being, resides in a wonderful dwelling above 



PKUDALI8TIC MONARCHY. 189 

the flky, and is of so exalted a nature as to care very little for 
men and their trials. To obtain his aid, special invocation must 
he directed to him. Even then he commits the care of human 
heinga to monkeys, who in one place frequent a natnntlly teiTaced 
river- bluft to ivhich pilgrimages are made and wliicli is called the 
Hill of the Holy Monkeys. (Juaixliansliip of human beings is 
also entrusted to leopai'ds, snakes, locusts, alligatoi's, and inanimate 




objects — stones, rags, cowries, leaves of certain trees — in a 
word, to anything and everything. 

Man's assistiint keeps a record of the good and evil deeds of 
every pei'son by means of notches on a stick; and when anyone 
dies his Itody is judged according to tiie records on this monvl 
tally. If his good deeds predominate he joins his spirit in Kut-o- 
men or the "Dead-land"; but if, on tlie contrary, his evil deeds 
pre[>onderate, tlien his Ixxly is entirely desti"oyeil, and a new one 
created for the habitation of his spirit or soul. 



190 THE STORY OP GOVERNMBNT. 

In this belief the spirit has no concern with the body; it is 
released, whether the deeds of the person have been good or evil, 
immediately after; and whatever is the social condition of a per- 
son when he leaves this world, the same will be his social con- 
dition in the next. 

The slave on earth is the slave in the spirit land; the 
king is still the monarch there. The ghosts of parents or rela- 
tions take great interest in the affairs of their kin on the 
earth, advising them as to their conduct and affairs out of the 
depth of knowledge which their residence in the spirit world has 
given them. If, however, the misconduct of those on earth is 
great, then this protection may be taken from them and given to 
entire strangers. 

The " customs ** are compliments paid to these guardian spirits, 
and to stop them would l)e to insult these all-powerful and useful 
beings. When the Dahoman monarch requires special advice, he 
applies to the Bassajeh or holy women, who consult the oracle and 
obtain an answer. The common people in the same way apply to 
a fetish priest, who will act as a medium between the gods and 
men. 

To every man is assigned at birth a certain number of deeds, 
good and bad. He ^is not to blame for those bad deeds allotted 
to him, but he can avoid committing them by making certain 
offerings to the deity through the medium of the fetish priest. 
The Dahoman is thus an eminently religious man. Every action 
of his life is mixed up -with his religious ideas, and is mingled 
with the desire of obtaining a status in eternity. 

Certain priests pi*etend to have seen this far away land of 
Kutomen; and if a person is dying he will often pay a handsome 
fee to the priest to pay a visit to Kutomen, with a view to beg 
the spectral ancestor to excuse the sick man attending the sum- 
mons. If the patient recovers, the priest gets the credit of per- 
suading the ghost to jirolong his residence on the earth ; but if 
not, then he has always the excuse that the spirit will accept of 
no subterfuge, and commands immediate i)resence. 

Upon one occasion, says Mr. Skertchly, I saw a priest who was 
about to depart on a visit to Hades. He received his fee beforehand, 
cautious fellow, and went into an empty shed near the patient's 



I'EITDALISTIC MONARCHY. 191 

house. He then drew a circle on the ground, and took oat of his 
M possible sack" a number of charms, all tied up in blood-stained rags. 

Squatting down in the centre of this magic circle, and bidding us on 
no account to step within it, he covered himself with a large square of 
grey baft, profusely and elaborately ornamented. In a few minutes he 
commenced to mutter some unintelligible sounds in a low voice, his 
body and limbs quivering like an aspen. Half an hour of this farce 
ensued, when the fetisher uncovered himself and prepared to deliver 
the message. 

He said that he had found considerable difficulty in obtaining access 
to the ghost who had summoned the patient, as when he knew that a 
priest was coming he hid in the bush. He said that the ghost was that 
of Nuage (one of the sick man^s dead uncles), and that he was much 
offended by this summons not being answered in person ; but in con- 
sideration of certain sacrifices offered to Guh, he would think over the 
matter. Rather an ambiguous answer, but just in the prevaricating 
manner affected by all priests, whether in Japan or on the Yellowstone. 

From the statement of these priests it appears that life in the other 
world is much the same as in this — wars, palavers, feasts, dances, and 
other incidents going on in the same way as on eartli. It appears that 
the clothes in which the deceased is buried accompany him to Kuto- 
men, for sometimes a priest will bring back with him a necklace, bead, 
or other small article known to have been buried with the corpse of 
the person who summons the sick man. 

Sir Richard Burton mentions the case of a priest who, " after 
returning with a declai-ation that he had left a marked coin in 
Dead-land, drop{>ed it from his waistcloth at the feet of the payer 
while drinking rum." A singular belief is that a spirit may be m 
moi*e places than one at the same time. Hence it is believed that 
a spirit may remain in spirit land, and yet be in the person of a 
newly bom infant. 

Thus all the king's children are inhabited by the tmnsmigrated 
spirits of former kings, their ancestors. The African cannot gi-asp 
the idea of a deity omniscient and omnipresent; accordingly he 
has a number of media between himself and Mau, the Supreme 
Being. 

The Dahoman denies that his Supreme Being has bodily foim, 
but yet he ascribes to him human passions ; a sti*ange medley of 
contradictions. They are not polytheists ; they worship but one 



192 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

god, who is approached, not through minor deities, but through 
go-betweens, viz., fetishes. These are, in a word, like the saints 
or angels of Christendom, "beings who have powerful influence 
for good or evil with Mau." 

The most powerful fetish is Danh-gbwe, the tutelary saint of 
Whydah, which is pei-sonified by the harmless snake so named. 
Its worship was introduced into Dahomey when the kingdom of 
Whydah was conquered and annexed. In Whydah, hidden from 
eyes profane by a thick grove of fig trees, is the famed Danh- 
hweh, or fetish snake-house. 

This is nothing more than a circular swish hut, the very model 
of the Parian inkstand to be seen in every toyshop. From the 
roof depend pieces of cotton yarn, and on the floor, which, in com- 
mon with the walls, is whitewashed, are several pots of water. The 
pythons, to the number of twenty-two, are coiled on the top of 
the wall, or twined around the rafters. All these hideous reptiles 
are sacred. 

To slay one, even by accident — for to do so purposely would 
not be dreamt of — used to entail instant sacrifice to the gods^ 
and confiscation of all the offender's property to the fetish priests. 
Nowadays his punishment is not so severe, but still exemplary 
enough. The offender, after a meeting of all the fetishers of the 
neighborhood is convened, is seated within a hut of stick, 
thatched with dry grass, and built in the enclosure in front of 
the snake-house. His clothes and body are well daubed with 
palm-oil, mixed with the fat of the murdered snake god. 

At a given signal the hut is fired, and the materials being like 
tinder, the unfortunate offender against tlie majesty of the snake 
is enveloped in flames. In excmciating torture he rushes out of 
the flames, his clothes on fii-e, to the nearest water, pursued by 
the infuriated priests, who belabor liini with sticks, stones, and 
all sorts of rubbish. 

If he reaches the water he is free, and should he survive has ex- 
piated his crime. Few are able to run the gauntlet, and gener- 
ally expire before reaching the cooling water, clubbed to death 
l)y the fetishnien, the Danh-yhive-no^ or snake -mothers, as they 
are called. 

As the door of the snake temple is always open, the snakes fre- 



FEDDALISTIC MONAKCHY. 193 

quently wander out after nightfall. If any peraon meets one, he 
must prostrate himself before it, carrying it tenderly in his anna to 
the temple, where his humanity to the snake-god is rewarded by 
his being fined for meeting the 
snake; and, if lie cannot or will 
not j)ay, he is imprisoned until 
the uttemiost cowry' is ex- 
tracted from him. 

Ordiniiry snakes may be killf<l 
with impunity, but woe to him 
who injures the Danli-gbw 
The snake priests have viirio 
neophytes or pupils, who are 
instructed in the mysteries jiei- 
taining to ophio logical theology. 

Tliese neophytes are re- 
cruited in the following ivay: 
If a child is tjmcheil by one of 
these snakes in his nocturnal 
excursions, it it devoted ever 

after to the priesthood of the snake, and its jnirents are forced to 
pay large fees for its lengthy instruction in the rites of the fetish 
after which he is allowed to practi.se for liiniHt'lf. 

Snake worship is one of the most widespii.'iid forms of animal 
worship known, hiiviiig been pnictised by must nf the nations of 




of eichange. They maile iivi 
Ilie »ilB of a aixvie* o( /'yj 
•e'.tlcni ibemiielves ui'eil It. I 



H been practiced by 
i-oninuin " hiir>l-!>liell 
•irini; InUlanK 



!eorcowiies, or sheUs, as media of eichanjH'.o 

j^ nations. The I'ilerttn Fathers at Plyiuoiilh 

K the nelKhl- 

vliile froi 
ciinclitlie" white tFiiin/fr()»'' wan manufactured. The 
tunce. In inTI. John ni(^ln«m bad £IGO voted him " In 
cuuniry produce." which he wu:i;;lad toeii^tianin! fcirClin Mdlilcnuh. SolM dL-ih incliiilud 
beaver AInt, black and white uiintpnm, IwailH, and inuiikut-l>all», value one fartliliig. Il'ttm- 
jiuni was also made ot tlie whelk-Bhell (Bm-rinuai). In Xew MfxIco the ear-eliell (lln'lolla 
ni/ucciw), the rotmnnn Catirnmlan " AhaliHie," Is used ax ni'iiiey. The Indians wlw re- 
iilde<l in [lie vicinity iif tlie old Ituulan u'ttleiuent ot Boilei.'a, on tlie nnrllicrn roa«t of Call- 
lomla, uMd at one time jileceH of a clain-Bhell (.•iitTlilomiig aniliiK, <;itt.} aa money. To 
retnm to the African cowry. It U the Cm-nra monria of natiiiallHO, a native of the 
Indian rapine walen. It In utillzB.1 ax money by the native* nl xmie |urt» of Ilindcwtan. 
and is exported lor twrtcr wllh the WR>t African trllwa. In former time II wo-i eiten- 
*lvely used In Illnilostan. Rfwu nientlmis that agenllcman rei'ldlngat CuIIauk Utald to 
hoiepaldrortlieerecilonof hts/mn/jofrw entirely In these ocjwrleK. The IniMilInK ciwi about 
4.«oa nipeei ilcni i£(oa Bterllii);) ; and as Klxty.four ot the»e sheUs are eituLvalent In value to 
one iHo!, be paid for It with over K.OOD.OOO of lliene pliell.i. Tons are annuall; nent out from 
Ureipool to the Coast ot Africa for trading purposes, and employed in the manner described. 



194 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

antiquity, and at the present time by many barbarous or savage 
tribes. 

Sir John Lubbock considers that the widespread worship of 
snakes points us to the fact of the worship having originated 
spontaneously in many different places and at different times, and 
that the worship of the seipent-god commenced originally as a 
malevolent being, who was flattered, as cruel rulera ever are, but 
that in process of time this flattery, at first only an expression of 
fear, came to be an article of faith. 

In ancient times Mr. Fergusson shows that serpent worship 
prevailed in Egypt, India, Phoenicia, Babylonia, Greece, and, 
to a smaller extent, in Italy. In more modern times tmces have 
been found in Persia, Cashmere, Cambodia, Thibet, India, China, 
Ceylon, America, and among the Kalmucks. In Africa serpents 
were adored among the Abyssinians, and in Upper Egypt. All 
along the Gold and Slave Coasts, viz., Guinea, this snake-worship 
prevailed at one time. 

Bosman, an old writer on Guinea, mentions that some English 
sailors who had killed one of these serpents, which they found in 
their house, were attacked and killed by the natives. Not to 
enumerate other instances, even among the Mahommedan, Foulahs, 
and Mandingoes, and among the Christianized people of Sierra 
Leone, traces of ophiolatry are said to exist. 

The given reason why the snake is so reverenced in Whydah 
is because, during an attack on Ardra, it appeared to the army, 
and so stimulated it tliat the victory wiis secured. It is still 
looked upon with equal veneration, notwithstanding the fact that 
it did not avail against the conquering Dahomans, into whose 
kingdom Whydah is now incorporated. 

Frequently young women who are ill are taken to the snake 
temple to be cured and high fees ai*e exacted for this service. In 
Astley's "Collection of Voyages and Travels" is figured "Agoye 
an Idol of Whiddah," the "God of Councils," in the form of a 
human being with serpents and lizards coming out of the top of 
its head. 

Though nowadays the snake is looked upon as equally powerful 
in obtaining favors for its worshippers, yet in Whydah, at least, it 
has no visible representation m the shape of an image, its worship 



FEUDAUSTIC MONARCHY. 195 

being confined to an adoration of the living snakes kept in the 
snake-houses in all the principal towns, and which, wandering 
about at night, are a perfect nuisance to all who dwell in the 
vicinity of the snake-temples. 

The Danhsi, or snake-priests ("'snake-mothers" and '* snake- 
wives *' they ai*e also called), number upwards of one thousand, 
and are of both sexes, married and single. They generally com- 
mence with a coui-se of preliminary instruction at Whydah, and 
finish off at the great fetish town of Somome. 

Another deity, almost as important, is Atin-bodun, personified 
by various trees, but who resides in some curious specimen of 
ceramic ware, such as an upturned pot, or red cullender. He is 
worshipped by offerings of water poured into the little pot, and 
is especially powerful in averting and curing diseases, especially 
fevers. He also inhabits any tall tree, such as the Loko or 
poison tree, a decoction of the leaves of which is used to detect 
any hidden crime. Atin-bodun is served by almost as many 
priests as the snakes, but they are not of such high rank. 

Another deity is Hu, '"the Dahonian Nei)tune,'* who has the 
sea at Whydah in his charge. Canoe men woi-ship and offer up 
donations of food to him to induce him to save them from the 
rolling surf. Formerly the king was accustomed to send a man 
dressed as a caboceer, with umbrella, stool, beads, and other 
insignia of his rank, to the beach, where he was j^laced in a 
canoe by the Huno [priest], and, after sundry offerings and 
prayers, caiTied out to sea and thrown overboard. This practice 
is now happily discontinued. 

Khevyosoh, the thunder-god, is the last of the four principal 
Dahoman deities. He is tlie Slave Coast Jupiter, who presides 
over the weather, and slays all wlx) offend him with his thunder- 
bolts, t. «., abi^ the lightning. 

In considering such governments as those of Ashanti and 
Dahomey with, their dreadful religious rites, and their curious, 
appalling superstitions, one is tempted to wonder, when taking 
into account the vast sums which have been subscribed in the last 
hundred years for missionary purposes, why Christianity has made 
so little impression on the African mind. 

We see in this country that the gentle and beautiful teachings 



196 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

of Him who was born on the wood of a manger and died on the 
wood of a cross — the carpenter's son of Galilee — have from the 
earliest days of slaveiy been peculiarly attractive to the natures 
of our colored brethren, and that since the abolition of slavery 
Christianity has been a most potent factor in the gradual eleva- 
tion of that i-ace which politicians have been wont to regard as 
furnishing the most perplexing problem of our American attempt 
at civilization. 

Why, then, have so much noble endeavor and so much wealth 
been wasted in Africa? Why has the missionary business been 
a most pathetic failure? The i)mctical man answers these ques- 
tions by affirming tliat tlie African aborigines must be commercially 
transfonned and held under the dominion or at least the protector- 
ate of some Euroi>ean power, before any efforts to plant Chris- 
tianity can be crowned with a satisfactory harvest. 

The French are engaged at present in attempting to convert 
Behanzin, the King of Dahomey, ])y force of anns, to certain com- 
mercial views which they think he ought to liold, and this has 
been the English method with all African tril)e8. As one brilliant 
writer i)uts it, commercialization or extermination fire tlie only 
stepping-stones to civilization in interior Africa and, indeed, 
while the Cliristian powei-s of Europe, for the sake of extending 
commerce or acquiring territoiy, maintain a martial attitude 
towards the unfortuncate natives, there would seem to be slight 
chance for the successful dissemination of the doctrines of the 
Prince of Peace. 

Is it not tlien prolwible that those niinistei-s are quite right 
who in the recent meetings of missionary societies have coun- 
selled the expenditure of less money for foreign missions jvnd more 
for the improvement of the environment of the less pictui-esque 
but equally needy heathen in our great cities? If the churches 
all over the country would club together and cooperate in 
abolishing the tenement-house rookeries or the sweating shops 
of just one city every year, it would not be long before the foun- 
dations of the Temple of Univei>;al Brotherhood would be fairly 
and firmly laid. 




Pehsia ii'i>reseiitji, perhajw, more 
perfectly than niiy existing natioui 
except posaibly some small kingdom among 
barbarians, tlio principle of alisolutiani, or iiTe- 
lon^ible antl fetterless power in the hands of one 
man, inid tliis has been so for inanj' centaries, although 
the ]ireaent Pei'sians tire no more descended from the 
famous Medes and Persians, or from the i-ice who defeated 
Xenophon and his ten thousand, tlian the present inliabitants of 
our cosmopolitan country ai'e from tha men who sketched au 
outline of practical socialistic goveniment in the cabin of the 
Mayflower. 

Persia has been so often invaded, and so many iiiecs have con- 
tributed to the empire, that it is now difficult, if not impossible, 
to trace the original elements. Rivera flow into the sea; you may 
trace their currents for a little way, but soon they ))h'nd with the 
ocean and their elements defy a chemic auivl}-sis. 

So with nearly all ancient realms, Thero has been a blending 
of namerons nationalities; yet the philologist and ethnologist 
may now and then detect them in certain eddies of the einpire, 
where they have feept more unmixed than elsewhere, by a turn 




198 THE STORY OP GOVBEKMENT. 

of speech, or a cast of countenance. In no province of the 
country is the population wholly Persian; everywhere there are 
alien elements. 

The ancient Persians were celebrated for their handsome per- 
sons, rather tall stature, and the beauty of their women. The 
modern race, or "Tadjiks," as they call themselves, have a fair 
share of good looks; their features are regular, their countenances 
oval, hair glossy and luxuriant, and their eyes dark and soft. 
Witty, cheerful, frivolous, idle, luxurious, and fond of dress and 
display is the character which has been given them, an opinion 
that is rather too sweeping to be time. 

A people made up of such diverae elements is difficult to char- 
acterize without making so many exceptions thiat the rule is not 
proved, except to have no existence. However, in progress of 
time, notwithstanding the original differences of the people, some 
few general chai-acteristics will be found to have become common. 

These we may briefly sketch. There are two great classes, 
the fixed and the wandering; but the nomad tribes have little 
voice in the country, and it is from the fixed inhabitants of the 
cities and country seats that the ruling classes and those who 
properly constitute the stronghold of the country are selected. 

We may, for convenience, divide them into (1) the civil and 
military functionaries, including those connected with the couit, 
(2) the inhabitants of the towns, such as the merchants, shop- 
keepers, artisans, membei"s of the I'eligious orders, men of learn- 
ing, and of all kinds of business; (3) the agriculturists or 
cultivators of the soil; and lastly (4) there may be added the wild 
wanderers or "Eeliauts." 

The Persian court is a perfect type of despotism. Every officer 
owes his elevation to the favor or caprice of the monarch, and is 
liable at any moment to dismissal without a chance of appeal 
either to his superioi-s, to a court of law, or to that greater public 
opinion which controls tyranny and injustice in other countries. 

Treated in a capricious manner by his sovereign, he, in 
his turn, rides roughshod over all his inferiors. Knowing that 
he may fall as suddenly as he was raised by the whim of the 
monarch, he endeavors, during his uncertain tenure of office, to 
amass, by every means known in a country where justice and right 



200 THB STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

are merely high sounding words for poets to mouth, enough 
wealth to support the extravagance which his ix)8ition necessarily 
entails, to bribe his enemies when his evil day arrives, or to retire 
upon to a quiet comer of the empire if he be fortunate enough to 
escape the bowstring in the hour of his fall. 

Deceitful, treacherous, venal, aiTogant, dishonest and overbear- 
ing, the Persian courtier possesses the art of concealing his true 
character under a polished manner, and a lively, courteous, and 
mild countenance which rarely betrays the workings of his mind. 

Add to this, he is often an acute diplomatist, well informed, 
and skilful in business. A court so constituted camiot but be 
hated by all the poorer classes, who are the chief sufferers by it, 
and its pernicious example spreads the contagion of venality, petty 
rascality, and other evils throughout the community. 

But all the high officere of State are not selected from the class 
of nobles. No doubt, as in most countries, the ** upper classes " 
have more than their fair share of power and place ; yet many of 
the public functionaries and ministers in Persia belong to the 
order of Mirzas, secretaries, or "men of business." 

For the policy of the monarchs is to select some of their officers 
from the humblest class of life, under the idea that men thus 
luised to dignity by the favor of the king alone will be, through 
gratitude, more attached to his person than a military noble, 
whose rank would, as much as his sovereign's favor, have obtained 
for him power, and who, at the beck of ambition or offended pride, 
might summon to his aid a host of warlike retainei's and plunge 
the country into civil war. * 

These Mirzas, though the equals of the nobles in treachery and 
immorality, are yet in general more accomplished than they, 
being well versed in all state-ci-aft, mild and sulxlued in their 
address, and differing from the nobles in not indulging in martial 
or athletic exercises, and wearing, instead of a sword or dagger, a 
eulumdaun^ or ink horn, attached to their girdle. 

Any pei-son can get access to the king to lay his complaint 
before him ; but, unless there be a desire to push the affair, the 
comi)laint only is heard. However, it is treasured up to be 
brought forth in due time when the functionary complained of 
^ets into disgrace, and an excuse is desired for his degradation* 



ABSOLUTISM. 201 

The olBoe of collector of public revenue is a poor one. The 
people, knowing that the taxation only goes to enrich the court 
and pays for no work of public utility, are unwilling to satisfy the 
just demands of the collector, and frequently even threaten to take 
his life. This unwillingness to meet their public obligations is in- 
tensified by the fact that taxation falls chiefly on the toilers. 

The great nobles, foreigners and wealthy native merchants are 
exempt from contributions to the Shah's exchequer, though the 
first and last named are subject to irregular extortions which are 
sometimes even less bearable than the systematic bleeding of the 
collector. 

On the other hand, the rapacious officials at the capital do every- 
thing in their power to extort more taxes, and frequently threaten 
the collector with punishment on the plea that he has withheld 
taxes, so as to induce him to " squeeze " the population still more 
thoroughly. 

Thus, between the rebellious j^eople at large who object to being 
bled, and the officials close to the Shah who have a thirst for the 
silver sweat and golden blood of a peo])le (which is commonly 
called taxes), it is easy to see that a revenue collector in Persia 
needs the stubbornness of a mule, the persistency of a gadfly, and 
the nine lives of a cat. 

Such, however, is the accui"sed thirst for gold — so intense, al- 
though it is an artificial or accidental and not an innate passion, so 
insanely intense is the desire to acquire property — that, even in 
the most dangerous districts of the Shah's dominion, this post of 
danger is eagerly sought. 

Many anecdotes are current in Persia concerning the collector, 
his cunning, and tlie ill luck that often attends him like a shadow. 
Yet, although the Prince of Sliiraz once in irony ordered a 
notorious thief to be punished by being made manager of the 
i*e venue of a district, as he could conceive of no crime for which 
that appointment would not be an adequate punishment, there is 
little doubt that between the people and the public treasury not a 
little of the public cash clings to the fingers of the collector, and 
that many of them accumulate gi*eat wealth. 

Notwithstanding the power of the nobles, the people, either 
through a natura\ly high spirit, not effaced by long oppression, or 



202 THE STOBY OF GOVEBNMENT. 

more probably owing to long custom which allows them to do so 
with impunity, loudly proclaim their wrongs at court, if they 
consider themselves injured; yet, on account of the difficulty and 
expense of travelling, this is denied to the residents in the more 
distant parts of the country. The common people are frugal and 
industrious. Few are in actual want, and many of the trading 
class amass considerable wealth, which by cunning and deceit 
they manage to save from the hands of the rapacious courtiers. 

**Eveiy one," says Sir John Malcolm, "complains of poverty, 
but this complaint as often pi-oceeds from a desire to avoid oppres- 
sion as from its actual privations." The government officials are 
paid wretchedly small salaries, and even these payments are most 
unpunctually made. To meet his daily expenses money has to be 
borrowed at a high rate of interest, debts accumulate, and in a 
few years a government servant, if honest, would be ruined. 

Xo position can be more ignominious than that of a Pereian 
courtier in disgrace. Should he incur liis master's displeasiu^, 
without the slightest warning he is deprived of his property, 
offices, dignities and honors. His slaves are sold or handed over 
to the favorite of the hour, his wives and childi-en are insulted or 
even exposed to the brutality of his grooms and guards, while he 
himself is beaten with a stick or mutilated by the executioner's 
knife. Tiie new favorite is often a mere boy, as in our picture. 

Yet these revei-ses of fortune are not final. Tliey are philo- 
sophically accepted as accidents which must always happen to one 
who embraces the precarious life of a courtier, and by the Orien- 
tal, who considei-s every misfortune as pre-oidained by fate and 
impossible to be prevented, are viewed in a way not widely differ- 
ent from that in which a European Secretary of State might i-egard 
an official announcement that his sovereign had been pleased 
to dispense with his services, or an unfavorable expression of 
public opinion in the shape of a severe newspaper article on his 
policy. 

Indeed, though Persian sovereigns express veiy savagely their 
displeasing at the policy of a minister, he may, after experiencing 
the infelicity of being disgraced, be received again into royal favor. 
His family in such a case is sent back to him, with as many of his 
slaves as can be recovered ; and his property, pruned of all danger- 



204 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

ous exuberance, is returned. A bath mollifies his bruised feet, 
a cap conceals his cr()[)ped ears, and the white-washed culprit is 
often reinstated in the very government he has lost, perhaps 
carrying with him a sentence of disgi^aee to his successor to whose 
inti'igues he owed his temponiry fall. 

It is indeed surprising how carelessly the king and his ministers 
l)estow situations of confidence on strangers, or on men who, from 
having been the sufferei-s of great injustice, might be dreaded as 
their bitterest enemies ; yet the management of a conquered state 
is frequently intrusted to the khan or prince who before possessed 
it in his own right. The pardoned rebel of one province is 
appointed to the supi-eme command in another; and the disgraced 
noble or governor is sent to take charge of a district where the 
utmost fidelity and zeal are required. 

No official, however high, can be sure of his life; it lies in the 
hands of the king as nmch as does the life of the meanest subject. 
The death of an official is detennined, the warrant for his execu- 
tion is made out, and an officer is despatched to execute it. The 
man rides as fast as horses pressed into his service can carry him 
until he arrives at the city where the doomed man lives. He 
exhibits his mandate to the governor or chief man of the city, and 
commands him to assist him. As soon as the door of the victim's 
house is opened, the executioner rushes in, and, di*awing his 
scimitar, falls on the unfortunate man with the exclamation, "It 
is the king's command," cuts him down, and strikes off his head. 
Karely is any resistance offered. 

Cases have biien known in which a powerful man has attempted 
to waylay the messenger oji the road, when he knew his errand, 
and, depriving him of the warrant, has delayed his fate until 
another could be got, or until he has had time to obtain paidon. 

But usually, suc^h is the awe of the king's name that no atttn:pt 
is made by the victim to escape his fate. He calmly submits* 
"It is the (lecrcc; of Allah — it is fjite — Allah be praised! " As 
for his nearest kin, they fly from him as from a thing accui«ed. 
The dependcmts whom an hour ago he could have made happy 
Avith a smile desert him as one whose touch would defile. He is 
like an infected creature. "All nature seems to be roused againitt 
liim," are the woi-ds of an ancient writer in Persia. 




206 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

The Gholams are the king's guards, and ate composed of young 
men held in favor by him. Generally they are young Circassian 
or Georgian captives, and accordingly their condition is that of 
slaves, though, the ]X)sition being one of honor and emolument, 
the sons of tlie highest noblemen may be found there. 

The Gholam Corps numbers three thousand or four thousand 
men, and, in addition to acting as escorts to the king and guards 
to his palaces, they are often despatched on delicate missions, 
such as that we have described in relation to the execution of a 
disgraced ofScial. In the execution of these errands they often 
amass large sums by extortion ; and the surest pi-oof of the in- 
vidious character which they bear is the fact that their very name 
carries terror. The arrival of a gholam e shahee is enough to 
throw a whole district into alaim; it has even depopulated a 
village for a time. 

The inhabitants of different districts differ considerably in 
character, and in their reputation for courage or cowardice. 
The inhabitiints of the towns, or ShehereSs^ are even moi-e mixed 
than those of the countrj-^ districts. In general, though by no 
means to be held up as models for young men, they are of a better 
character than the higher ehisses, and are, as a rule, industrious, 
polite, sociable, good servants and indulgent masters, though 
largely imbued with deceit and greed. 

The merchants are often wealthy, and in general are intelligent 
and cultivated. The small sliopkeepers are more distinguished 
for insincerity and cunning, both vices, though inherent in the 
race, being fostered by their constnnt diead of the caprice of their 
superiors. The merchants, on the other hand, are, as all through 
the East, held in more considenitiou, being looked upon not only 
as a source of revenue, but also as a useful medium for main- 
taining friendly relations with foreign stiites. 

The ecclesiastical law is administered by a numerous body of 
priests of all ^rrades, from the Sudder al Suddoor down to the 
lowest of the moUahs. The niooshteheds are the highest order, 
and are the supnmie pontiffs of the kingdom, who, subject to the 
approbation of the sovereign, nominate all the principal judges. 
They usually number three or four, and are elected by the people 
count of their acknowledged sanctity. 




aOo THE STORY OF €K>VEENMENT. 

The Sheik al Islam, or niler of the faith, ranks next^to the 
mooshteheds. He is a salaried judge, his duty being to admin- 
ister the written law. He is often a man of quite as great 
influence as the mooshteheds, his official superiors. The other 
ecclesiastical ofiicials are those ooanected with the mosques. 

Eveiy mosque, except the very inaigniiicant ones, has a 
staff of three, viz., tlie mostwuUa, who manages its temporal 
affairs, and who may be said to be a kind of churchwarden ; the 
muezzin, or caller to prayers (the "beadle "), and the mollah, or 
priest proper, who conducts the ceremonial of the Mohammedui 
religion. They also preach a sort of sermon on texts from the 
Koran — the Mohammedan Bible, 

Besides these, there are in every city, and connected with all 
seminaries of learning, a crowd of moUahs, who live by their arts, 
and have Httle of the priest but the name. They practise astrol- 
ogy, write letters and contracts for those who are ignorant of pen- 
manship, and thus contrive to prolong a miserable life. 

Nothing can be lower than the character of these people. 
Their hypocrisy, profligacy and want of principle, are the sub- 
jects of stories, epigrams, and proverbs without end. "Take 
care," says one adage, "of the face of a woman and the 
heels of a mule; but with a mollah be on your guard at all 
points." "To hate like a mollah," and "to cheat like a mollah '* 
are sayings of frequency in the mouth of a Persian. 

It is not the moUahs alone who are the subject of Pereian 
jocularity. All classes who are concerned in the administration 
of the law or Mohammedan religious ceremonies are proverbial for 
their dishonesty and trickery. Chief among these are the seyeda, 
or descendants of the prophet, who are accounted rogues hy 
nature i but after they have made a pilgrimage to Mecca, to the 
birthplace of Mohammed, are considered to have graduated in all 
dishonesty and rascality. In the repertory of Peraian jests, nine 
tenths hinge upon what a mollah or a hadji (Mecca pilgrim) did, 
and the anecdotes are told with a grave humor peculiarly charac- 
teristic of the East. The aUtivatorg of the sail, in Persia, though 
^-M«ires.<;ed. ;ire hospitable, active, and intelligent, and are more 
^^^^fortiibli- in their lives than the average woikman in any 
^^^^kr overgrown cities. 



AB80LT7TIS1C . 209 

Penian wameti, like those of all other Mohammedan countries, 
aie not looked upon as the equals of the men. They are hy some 
Moslem priests even belieTed not to have souls, and in every case 
are mere slaves who minister to the pleasure of their haughly 
lords. In many cases, however, their sharp wit enables them to 
gain an ascendency over their more lethargic husbands, and even 
to sway the affairs of the court at their own sweet will. 

An Eastern seraglio is yet a "gilded cage,'* tenanted by 
uneducated women, whose only thoughts are to please their mas- 
ter and amuse their aimless existence. Intrigue, discontent and 
crime are the natural sequence of such a state of matters. The 
harem life has been often described, but by none, it is said by 
those acquainted with the subject, in more faithful colors than by 
the French writer Chardin. 

The seraglio of the king, says M. Chardin, is most commonly a 
perpetnal prison, from whence scarce one female in six or seven has 
the good fortune to escape, for women who have become the mothers 
of living children are provided with a small establishment within the 
walls, and are never suffered to leave them. But privation of liberty 
is by no means the worst evil that exists in these melancholy abodes. 

Except to that wife so fortunate as to produce the firstborn son, 
to become a mother is the most dreaded event that can happen to the 
wretched favorites of the king. When this occurs, not only do the 
mothers see their last chance of liberty and marriage cut off, but 
they live in the dreadful anticipation of seeing their children de- 
prived of life or sight, when the death of their lord shall call a new 
tyrant, in the person of his son, the brother of their offspring, to the 
throne. 

Should they escape having children, by an assiduous court paid to 
the king's mother, or to the mother of his eldest son, it sometimes 
happens that they obtain the good fortune of being bestowed upon 
some of the officers about the court; for the ministers and grandees, 
who are always intriguing with these influential ladies, seldom fail of 
soliciting a female of the royal harem either for themselves or their 
sons. 

Indeed, it is no uncommon thing for the king liimself to bestow 
one of these fair captives upon one of his favorites, or his courtiers; and 
sometimes, when the harem gets crowded, this is done to a great extent 
as a measure of economical expediency. Happy the woman thus freed 
from, her prison, for she at once exchanges the situation of a slave for 



202 THE 8T0BY OF GOVEBNMENT. 

more probably owing to long custom which allows them to do so 
with impunity, loudly proclaim their wrongs at court, if they 
consider themselves injured; yet, on account of the difficulty and 
expense of travelling, this is denied to the residents in the more 
distant parts of the country. The common people are frugal and 
industrious. Few are in actual want, and many of the trading 
class amass considerable wealth, which by cunning and deceit 
they manage to save from the hands of the rapacious courtiers. 

**Evei7 one," says Sir John Malcolm, "complains of poverty, 
but this complaint as often pi-oceeds from a desire to avoid oppres- 
sion as from its actual privations.'* The government officials are 
paid wretchedly small salaries, and even these payments are most 
unpunctually made. To meet his daily expenses money has to be 
borrowed at a high rate of interest, debts accumulate, and in a 
few years a government servant, if honest, would be ruined. 

No position can be more ignominious than that of a Persian 
courtier in disgrace. Should he incur his master's displeasure, 
without the slightest warning he is deprived of his property, 
offices, dignities and honors. His slaves are sold or handed over 
to the favorite of the Iiour, his wives and childi*en are insulted or 
even exposed to the brutality of his grooms and guards, while he 
himself is beaten with a stick or mutilated by the executioner's 
knife. The new favorite is often a mere boy, as in our picture. 

Yet these revei-ses of foi-tune are not final. They are philo- 
sophically accepted as accidents which must always happen to one 
who embraces the precarious life of a courtier, and by the Orien- 
tal, who considei-s every misfortune as pre-oniained by fate and 
impossible to be prevented, are viewed in a way not widely differ- 
ent fi'om that in which a European Secretary of State might regard 
an otlicial announcement that his sovereign had been pleased 
to dispense with his services, or an unfavomble expression of 
public opinion in the shape of a severe newspaper article on his 
policy. 

Indeed, though Persian sovereigns express veiy savagely their 
displeasure at the policy of a minister, he may, after experiencing 
the infelicity of being disgraced, be received again into royal favor. 
His family in such a case is sent back to him, with as many of his 
slaves as can be recovered ; and his property, pruned of all danger- 



196 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

of Him who was born on the wood of a manger and died on the 
wood of a cross — the carpenter's son of Galilee — have from the 
earliest days of slavery been peculiarly attractive to the natures 
of our colored brethren, and that since the abolition of slavery 
Christianity lias been a most potent factor in the gradual eleva- 
tion of that race which politicians have been wont to regard as 
furnishing the most perplexing problem of our American attempt 
at civilization. 

Why, then, have so much noble endeavor and so much wealth 
been wasted in Africa? Why has the missionary business been 
a most pathetic failure? The pmctical man answers these ques- 
tions by aflRrming that the African aborigines must be commercially 
transformed and held under the dominion or at least the protector- 
ate of some European powei-, before any efforts to plant Chris- 
tianity can be crowned with a satisfactory harvest. 

The French are engaged at present in attempting to convert 
Behanzin, the King of D«ahomey, by force of anus, to certain com- 
mercial views which they think he ought to hold, and this has 
been the English method with all African tril)es. As one brilliant 
writer puts it, commercialization or extermination «are the only 
stepping-stones to civilization in interior Africa and, indeed, 
while the Christian powei's of Europe, for the sake of extending 
commerce or acquiring temtoiy, maintain a martial attitude 
towards the unfortunate natives, there would seem to be slight 
chance for the successful dissemination of the doctrines of the 
Prince of Peace. 

Is it not then probable that those niinistei-s are quite right 
who in the recent meetings of missionary societies have coun- 
selled the expenditure of less money for foreign missions and more 
for the improvement of the environment of the less pictui-esque 
but equally needy heathen in our great cities? If the churches 
all over the country would club together and cooperate in 
abolishing the tenement-house rookeries or the sweating shops 
of just one city every year, it would not be long before the foun- 
dations of the Temple of Univei*sal Brotherhood would be fairly 
and firmly laid. 




Peusia i-e]i reset its, perhaps, more 
perfectly tliaii any existing nation, 
except possibly some small kingdom iimong 
barbarians, the pfinciple of absolutism, oi- irre- 
sponsible ami fetterless power lit tlie lianilw nf one 
man, and tliis has been so for many centuries, iilllumgli 
the present Persians are no moiB descended fmni l!ie 
famous Medes and Persians, or fi'om the i.iee who defeated 
Xenophon and his ten thousand, than tlie present inliabitants of 
our cosmopolitan country are from ths men who slcet(!bed an 
outline of practical socialistic government in the cabin of the 
Mayflower. 

Pemia has been so often invaded, and so many nun's have eon- 
tribnted to the empire, that it is now difficult, if not impossible, 
toti-ace the original elements. Rivew flow into the sea; you may 
ti-ace their currents for a little «-a\-, but soon thi'v blend with the 
ocean and their elements defy a ehemic analysis. 

So with neatl)- all ancient realms. Tliere has been a blending 
of nnmerons nationalities; yet the philologist and ethnologist 
may now and then detect them in certain eddies of the empire, 
where they have tept more unmixed than elsewhert-, by a turn 




198 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

of speech, or a cast of countenance. In no province of the 
country is the population wholly Persian; everjrwhere there are 
alien elements. 

The ancient Persians were celebrated for their handsome per- 
sons, rather tall stature, and the beauty of their women. The 
modern race, or "Tadjiks," as they call themselves, have a fan- 
share of good looks; their featui'es are regular, their countenances 
oval, hair glossy and luxuriant, and their eyes dark and soft. 
Witty, cheerful, frivolous, idle, luxurious, and fond of dress and 
display is the character which has been given them, an opinion 
that is rather too sweeping to be true. 

A people made up of such diveree elements is difficult to char- 
acterize without making so many exceptions that the rule is not 
pi-oved, except to have no existence. However, in progress of 
time, notwithstanding the original differences of the people, some 
few genei'al chai-acteristics will be found to have become common. 

These we may briefly sketch. There are two great classes, 
the fixed and the wandering; but the nomad tribes have little 
voice in the country, and it is from the fixed inhabitants of the 
cities and country seats that the ruling classes and those who 
properly constitute the stronghold of the country are selected. 

We may, for convenience, divide them into (1) the civil and 
military functionaries, including those connected with the comt, 
(2) the inhabitiints of the towns, such as the merchants, shop- 
keepers, artisans, merabei-s of the religious ordei*s, men of learn- 
ing, and of all kinds of business; (3) the agriculturists oi 
cultivators of the soil ; and lastly (4) there may be added the wild 
wanderers or "Eeliauts." 

The Persian couit is a perfect type of despotism. Every officer 
owes his elevation to the favor or caprice of the monarch, and is 
liable at any moment to dismissal without a chance of appeal 
either to his superioi-s, to a court of law, or to that greater public 
opinion which controls tyranny and injustice in other countries. 

Treated in a capricious manner by his sovereign, he, in 
his turn, rides roughshod over all his inferiors. Knowing that 
he may fall as suddenly as he was raised by the whim of the 
monarch, he endeavors, during his uncertain tenure of office, to 
amass, by every means known in a country where justice and right 



198 THE STOEY OF QOVKEMMEKT. 

of speech, or a cast of countenance. In no province of the 
country is the population wholly Persian; everywhere there are 
alien elements. 

The ancient Persians were celebrated for their handsome per- 
sons, rather tall stature, and the beauty of their women. The 
modern race, or "Tadjiks," as they call themselves, have a fair 
aliaits of good looks; their featui'es are regular, their countenances 
oval, hair glossy and luxuriant, and their eyes dark and soft. 
Witty, cheerful, frivolous, idle, luxurious, and fond of dress and 
display is the character which has been given them, an opinion 
that is rather too sweeping to be ti-ue. 

A people made up of such diverse elements is difficult to char- 
acterize without making so many exceptions that the rule is not 
proved, except to have no existence. However, in progress of 
time, notwithstanding the original differences of the people, some 
few general ehai-acteristics will be found to have become common. 

These we may briefly sketch. There are two great classes, 
the fixed and the wandering; but the nomad tribes have little 
voice in the country, and it is from the lixed inhiibitants of the 
cities and country seats that the ruling classes and those who 
properly constitute the stronghold of the country are selected. 

We may, for convenience, divide them into (1) the civil and 
military functionaries, including those connected with the couit, 
(2) the inhabitants of the towns, such as the merchants, shop- 
keepers, artisans, membei'S of the religious orders, men of learn- 
ing, and of all kinds of business; (3) tlie agriculturists or 
cultivators of the soil ; and lastly (4) there may be added the wild 
wanderers or "Eeliauts." 

The Persian court is a perfect type of despotism. Every officer 
owes his elevation to the favor or caprice of the monarch, and is 
liable at any moment to dismissal without a chance of appeal 
either to his superiors, to a court of law, or to that greater public 
opinion which controls tyranny and injustice in other countries. 

Treated in a e^ricioua manner by his sovereign, he, in 
his turn, rides rqil^h<{ ^^*iyt Br all his inferiors. Knowing that 
^ liu may fnil w iu(Uutiu^!jlrjre was laised by the whim of the 
[ bis utiifrtain tennri' of office, to 
Inhere justice and right 




200 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

are merely high sounding words for poets to mouth, enough 
wealth to support the extravagance which his position necessarily 
entails, to bribe his enemies when his evil day arrives, or to retire 
upon to a quiet corner of the empire if he be fortunate enough to 
escape the bowstring in the hour of his fall. 

Deceitful, treacherous, venal, aiTogant, dishonest and overbear- 
ing, the Persian courtier possesses the art of concealing his true 
character under a polished manner, and a lively, courteous, and 
mild countenance which rarely betrays the workings of his mind. 

Add to this, he is often an acute diplomatist, well informed, 
and skilful in business. A court so constituted camiot but be 
hated by all the poorer classes, who are the chief sufferers by it, 
and its pernicious example spreads the contagion of venality, petty 
rascality, and other evils throughout the community. 

But all the high officei's of State are not selected from the class 
of nobles. No doubt, as in most countries, the *' upper classes '' 
have more than their fair share of power and place ; yet many of 
the public functionaries and ministers in Persia belong to the 
order of Mirzas, secretaries, or "men of business." 

For the policy of the monarchs is to select some of their officers 
from the huni])lest class of life, under the idea that men thus 
raised to dignity by the favor of the king alone will be, through 
gratitude, more attached to his pereon than a military noble, 
whose rank would, as much as his sovereign's favor, have obtained 
for him power, and who, at the beck of ambition or offended pride, 
might summon to his aid a host of warlike i*etainera and plunge 
the country into civil war. • 

These Mii-zas, though the equals of the nobles in treachery and 
immorality, are yet in general more accomplished than they, 
being well versed in all state-ci*aft, mild and sulxlued in their 
address, and differing from the nobles in not indulging in martial 
or athletic exercises, and wearing, instead of a sword or dagger, a 
cuhimdaun^ or ink horn, attached to their girdle. 

Any pei-son can get access to the king to lay his complaint 
before him ; but, unless there be a desire to push the affair, the 
complaint only is heard. However, it is treasured up to Ix? 
brought forth in duc^ time when the functionary complained of 
gets into disgrace, and an excuse is desired for his degradation. 



ABSOLUTISM. 201 

The office of collector of public revenue is a poor one. The 
people, knowing that the taxation only goes to enrich the court 
and pays for no work of public utility, are unwilling to satisfy the 
just demands of the collector, and frequently even threaten to take 
his life. This unwillingness to meet their public obligations is in- 
tensified by the fact that taxation falls chiefly on the toilers. 

The great nobles, foreigners and wealthy native merchants are 
exempt from contributions to the Shah's exchequer, though the 
first and last named are subject to irregular extortions which are 
sometimes even less bearable than the systematic bleeding of the 
collector. 

On the other hand, the rapacious officials at the capital do every- 
thing in their power to extort more taxes, and frequently threaten 
the collector with punishment on the plea that he has withheld 
taxes, so as to induce him to " squeeze " the populati6n still more 
thoroughly. 

Thus, between the rebellious people at large who object to being 
bled, and the officials close to the Shah who have a thirst for the 
silver sweat and golden blood of a people (which is commonly 
called taxes), it is easy to see that a revenue collector in Persia 
needs the stubbornness of a mule, the persistency of a gadfly, and 
the nine lives of a cat. 

Such, however, is the accui*sed thirst for gold — so intense, al- 
though it is an artificial or accidental and not an innate passion, so 
insanely intense is the desire to acquire property — that, even in 
the most dangerous districts of the Shah's dominion, this post of 
danger is eagerly sought. 

Many anecdotes ai-e current in Persia concerning the collector, 
his cunning, and the ill luck that often attends him like a shadow. 
Yet, although the Prince of Shiraz once in irony ordered a 
notorious thief to be punished by being made manager of the 
revenue of a district, as he could conceive of no crime for which 
that appointment would not be an adequate punishment, there is 
little doubt that between the people and the public treasury not a 
little of the public cash clings to the fingers of the collector, and 
that many of them accumulate gi*eat wealth. 

Notwithstanding the power of the nobles, the people, either 
through a natura\ly high spirit, not effaced by long oppression, or 



202 THE STOBY OF 60VEBKMENT. 

more probably owing to long custom which allows them to do so 
with impunity, loudly proclaim their wrongs at court, if they 
consider themselves injured; yet, on account of the difficulty and 
expense of travelling, this is denied to the residents in the more 
distant parts of the country. The common people are frugal and 
industrious. Few are in actual want, and many of the trading 
class amass considerable wealth, which by cunning and deceit 
they manage to save from the hands of the rapacious courtiers. 

**Eveiy one," says Sir John Malcolm, "complains of poverty, 
but this complaint as often pit)ceeds from a desire to avoid oppres- 
sion as from its actual privations." The government officials are 
paid wretchedly small salaries, and even tliese payments are most 
unpunctually made. To meet his daily expenses money has to be 
borrowed at a high rate of interest, debts accumulate, and in a 
few years a government servant, if honest, would be ruined. 

No position can be more ignominious than that of a Peraian 
courtier in disgrace. Should he incur his master's displeasure, 
without the slightest warning he is deprived of his property, 
offices, dignities and honors. His slaves are sold or handed over 
to the favorite of the hour, his wives and childi-en are insulted or 
even exposed to the bi-utality of his grooms and guards, while he 
himself is beaten with a stick or mutilated by the executioner's 
knife. The new favorite is often a mere boy, as in our picture. 

Yet these revei-ses of fortune are not final. They are philo- 
soi^hically accepted as accidents which must always happen to one 
who embraces the precarious life of a courtier, and by the Orien- 
tal, who considei's every misfortune as pre-oidained by fate and 
impossible to be prevented, are viewed in a way not widely differ- 
ent from that in which a European Secretary of State might regaixl 
an otlicial announcement that his sovereign had been pleased 
to dispense with his services, or an unfavorable expression of 
public opinion in the shape of a severe newspaper article on his 
policy. 

Indeed, though Persian sovereigns express veiy savagely their 
displeasure at the policy of a minister, he may, after experiencing 
the infelicity of being disgraced, be received again into royal favor. 
His family in such a case is sent back to him, with as many of his 
slaves as can be recovered ; and his property, pruned of all danger- 



k 



202 THE STOBY OF 60VEBKMENT. 

more probably owing to long custom which allows them to do so 
with impunity, loudly proclaim their Avrougs at court, if they 
consider themselves injured; yet, on account of the difficulty and 
expense of travelling, this is denied to the residents in the more 
distant parts of the country. The common people are frugal and 
industrious. Few are in actual want, and many of the trading 
class amass considerable wealth, which by cunning and deceit 
they manage to save from the hands of the rapacious courtiers. 

**Eveiy one," says Sir John Malcolm, "complains of poverty, 
but this complaint as often proceeds from a desire to avoid oppres- 
sion as from its actual privations." The government officials are 
paid wretchedly small salaries, and even tliese payments are most 
unpunctually made. To meet his daily expenses money has to be 
borrowed at a high rate of interest, debts accumulate, and in a 
few years a government servant, if honest, would be ruined. 

No position can be more ignominious than that of a Persian 
courtier in disgrace. Should he incur liis master's displeasure, 
without the slightest warning he is deprived of his property, 
offices, dignities and honors. His slaves are sold or handed over 
to the favorite of the hour, his wives and childii>n are insulted or 
even exposed to the brutality of his grooms and guards, while he 
himself is beaten with a stick or mutilated by the executioner's 
knife. The new favorite is often a mere boy, as in our picture. 

Yet these revei-ses of fortune are not final. They are philo- 
soi^hically accepted as accidents which must always happen to one 
who embraces the precarious life of a courtier, and by the Orien- 
tal, who considei-s every misfortune as pre-oi*dained by fate and 
impossible to be prevented, are viewed in a way not widely differ- 
ent from that in which a European Secretary of State might regaixl 
an official announcement that his sovereign had been pleased 
to disi^ense with his services, or an unfavorable expression of 
public opinion in the shape of a severe newspaper article on his 
policy. 

Indeed, though Persian sovereigns express veiy savagely their 
displeasure at the policy of a minister, he may, after experiencing 
the infelicity of being disgraced, be received again into royal favor. 
His family in such a case is sent back to him, with as many of his 
slaves as can be recovered ; and his property, pruned of all danger- 



196 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

of Him who was born on the wood of a manger and died on the 
wood of a cross — the carpenter's son of Galilee — have from the 
earliest days of slavery been peculiarly attractive to the natures 
of our colored brethren, and that since the abolition of slavery 
Christianity has been a most potent factor in the gitidual eleva- 
tion of that itice which politicians have been wont to regard as 
furnishing the most perplexing problem of our American attempt 
at civilization. 

Why, then, have so much noble endeavor and so much wealth 
been wasted in Africa? Why has the missionary business been 
a most pathetic failure? The pi-actical man answers these ques- 
tions by affirming that the African aborigines must be commercially 
transformed and lield inider the dominion or at least the protector- 
ate of some European power, l)efore any efforts to plant Chris- 
tianity can be crowned with a satisfactoiy harvest. 

The French are engaged at present in attempting to convert 
Behanzin, the King of Dahomey, l)y force of arms, to certain com- 
mercijil views which they think he ought to hold, and this has 
been the English method with all African tribes. As one brilliant 
writer puts it, commercialization or extermination are the only 
stepping-stones to civilization in interior Africa and, indeed, 
while the Christian powers of Europe, for the sake of extending 
commerce or acquiring temtory, maintain a martial attitude 
towards tlie unfortunate natives, there would seem to be slight 
chance for the successful dissemination of the doctrines of the 
Prince of PeJice. 

Is it not then ])rol)al)le that those ministei's are (juite right 
who in the recent meetings of missionarj^ societies have coun- 
selled the expenditure of less money for foreign missions and more 
for the improvement of the environment of the less ])i(itui'esque 
but equally needy heathen in our great cities? If the churches 
all over the country would club together and coiiperate in 
abolishing the tenement-house rookeries or the sweating shops 
of just one city every year, it would not be long liefore the foun- 
dations of the Temple of Univei-sal Brotherhood would be fairly 
and firmlv laid. 




Peusia it'prfseiits, perliaps, more 
perfectly than any fsisting nation, 
except jiosaibly some small kingdom Eimonff 
barbarians, the primjipie nf alisolutisin, or iiTC- 
sponsiblL' and fetterless i>owcr in llie hands nf one 
man, and this has been sn for many ociituries, although 
ihf ]iresent PersiaiiH Hre no more descended from the 
famous Medes and Persians, or fniin the i.u'c hIio defeated 
Xenoplion and his ten thousiind, than i\iv prt-sent inhabitants of 
our cosinoix>litiin country are fi-oni th^ men who sketched .111 
outline of pi-actical socialistic goviTiimi'iit in the i-ahin of the 
Mayflower. 

Persia has Ix'cn so often invaded, and so niiiny races have con- 
tributtid to the empire, that it is now dilheull. if not impossible, 
to tince the original elements. Hiveis flow into the sea; you may 
tiTice their cuiTents for a little w;iy, hut soon they lilenil with the 
ocean and their elements defy a chemii- analysis. 

So with nearly all ancient realms. Thci-c lias lx?en a blending 
of numerous nationalities; yet the philologist and ethnol^^^ist 
may now and then detect them in certain eddies of the cmpii'e. 
where they have kept more unmixed than elsewhere, by a turn 




198 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

of speech, or a cast of countenance. In no province of the 
country is the population wholly Persian; everjrwhere there are 
alien elements. 

The ancient Persians were celebrated for their handsome per- 
sons, rather tall stature, and the beauty of their women. The 
modern race, or "Tadjiks," as they call themselves, have a fair 
sliare of good looks; their featui'es are regular, their countenances 
oval, hair glossy and luxuriant, and their eyes dark and soft. 
Witty, cheerful, frivolous, idle, luxurious, and fond of dress and 
display is the character which has been given them, an opinion 
that is rather too sweeping to be tiTie. 

A people made up of such diverse elements is difficult to char- 
acterize without making so many exceptions tliat the rule is not 
pioved, except to have no existence. However, in progress of 
time, notwithstanding the original differences of the people, some 
few general chamcteristics will be found to have become common. 

These we may briefly sketch. There are two great classes, 
the fixed and the wandering; but tlie nomad tribes have little 
voice in the country, and it is from the fixed inhabitants of the 
cities and country seats that tlie ruling classes Jind those who 
properly constitute the stronghold of the country are selected. 

We may, for convenience, divide them into (1) the civil and 
military functionaries, including those connected with the couit, 
(2) the inhabitants of the towns, such as the merchants, shop- 
keepers, artisans, merabei*s of the i*eligious orders, men of learn- 
ing, and of all kinds of business; (3) the agriculturists or 
cultivators of the soil ; and lastly (4) there may be added the wild 
wanderers or "Eeliauts." 

The Pei-sian couit is a perfect type of despotism. Every officer 
owes his elevation to the favor or caprice of the monarch, and is 
liable at any moment to dismissal without a chance of appeal 
either to his superioi-s, to a court of law, or to that greater public 
opinion which controls tyranny and injustice in other countries. 

Treated in a capricious manner by his sovereign, he, in 
his turn, rides rouglishod over all his inferiors. Knowing that 
he may fall as suddenly as he was raised by the whim of the 
monarch, he endeavors, during his uncertain tenure of office, to 
amass, by every means known in a country where justice and right 



200 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

are merely high sounding words for poets to mouth, enough 
wealth to support the extravagance which his ix)sition necessarily 
entails, to bribe liis enemies when his evil day arrives, or to retire 
upon to a quiet corner of the empire if he be fortunate enough to 
escape the bowstring in the hour of his fall. 

Deceitful, treacherous, venal, arrogant, dishonest and overbear- 
ing, the Persian courtier possesses the art of concealing his true 
character under a polished manner, and a lively, courteous, and 
mild countenance which rarely betrays the workings of his mind. 

Add to this, he is often an acute diplomatist, well informed, 
and skilful in business. A court so constituted camiot but be 
hated by all the poorer classes, who are the chief sufferers by it, 
and its pernicious example spreads the contagion of venality, petty 
rascality, and other evils throughout the community. 

But all the high officei*s of State are not selected from the class 
of nobles. No doubt, as in most countries, the '* upper classes " 
have more than their fair share of power and place ; yet many of 
the public functionaries and ministers in Persia belong to the 
order of Mirzas, secretaries, or "men of business." 

For the policy of the monarchs is to select some of their officers 
from the 1 nimblest class of life, under the idea that men thus 
rnised to dignity by the favor of the king alone will be, through 
gratitude, more attached to liis person than a military noble, 
whose rank would, as much as his sovereign's favor, have obtained 
for him power, and who, at the beck of ambition or offended pride, 
might summon to his aid a host of warlike retainei's and plunge 
the country into civil war. • 

These Mirzas, though tlie equals of the nobles in treachery and 
immorality, are yet in geneml more accomplished than they, 
being well versed in all state-craft, mild and sulnlued in their 
address, and differing from tlie nobles in not indulging in martial 
or athletic exercises, and wejiring, instead of a sword or dagger, a 
cuhimdaun^ or ink horn, attached to their girdle. 

Any pei-son can get access to the king to lay his complaint 
before him ; but, unless there be a desire to push the affair, the 
complaint only is heard. However, it is treasured up to l)e 
brought forth in duo time when the functionarv complained of 
gets into disgrace, and an excuse is desired for his degradation. 



ABSOLUTISM. 201 

The office of collector of public revenue is a poor one. The 
people, knowing that the taxation only goes to enrich the court 
and pays for no work of public utility, are unwilling to satisfy the 
just demands of the collector, and frequently even threaten to take 
his life. This unwillingness to meet their public obligations is in- 
tensified by the fact that taxation falls chiefly on the toilers. 

The great nobles, foreigners and wealthy native merchants are 
exempt from contributions to the Shah's exchequer, though the 
first and last named are subject to irregular extortions which are 
sometimes even less beai*able than the systematic bleeding of the 
collector. 

On the other hand, the rapacious officials at the capital do every- 
thing in their power to extort more taxes, and frequently threaten 
the collector with punishment on, the plea that he has withheld 
taxes, so as to induce him to " squeeze " the population still more 
thoroughly. 

Thus, between the rebellious people at large who object to being 
bled, and the officials close to the Shah who have a thirst for the 
silver sweat and golden blood of a peoj)le (which is commonly 
called taxes), it is easy to see that a revenue collector in Persia 
needs the stubbornness of a mule, the persistency of a gadfly, and 
the nine lives of a cat. 

Such, however, is the accursed thirst for gold — so intense, al- 
though it is an artificial or accidental and not an innate passion, so 
insanely intense is the desire to acquire property — that, even in 
the most dangerous districts of the Shah's dominion, this post of 
danger is eagerly sought. 

Many anecdotes are current in Persia concerning the collector, 
his cunning, and the ill luck that often attends him like a shadow. 
Yet, although tlie Prince of Sliiraz once in irony ordered a 
notorious thief to be punished by being made manager of the 
revenue of a district, as he could conceive of no crime for which 
that appointment would not be an adequate punishment, there is 
little doubt that between the people and the public treasury not a 
little of the public cash clings to the fingei-s of the collector, and 
that many of them accumulate great wealth. 

Notwithstanding the power of the nobles, the people, either 
through a naturally high spirit, not effaced by long oppression, or 



202 THE 8T0EY OF OOVEBNMENT. 

more probably owing to long custom which allows them to do so 
with impunity, loudly proclaim their wrongs at court, if they 
consider themselves injured; yet, on account of the difficulty and 
expense of travelling, this is denied to the residents in the more 
distant parts of the coimtry. The conmion people are frugal and 
industrious. Few are in actual want, and many of the trading 
class amass considerable wealth, which by cunning and deceit 
they manage to save from the hands of the rapacious courtiers. 

"Eveiy one," says Sir John Malcolm, "complains of poverty, 
but this complaint as often proceeds from a desire to avoid oppres- 
sion as from its actual privations." The government officials are 
paid wretchedly small salaries, and even these payments are most 
unpunctually made. To meet his daily expenses money has to be 
borrowed at a high rate of interest, debts accumulate, and in a 
few years a government servant, if honest, would be ruined. 

No position can be more ignominious than that of a Pei-sian 
courtier in disgrace. Should he incur his master's displeasure, 
without the slightest warning he is deprived of his property, 
offices, dignities and honors. Ilis slaves are sold or handed over 
to the favorite of the hour, his wives and chilcb-en aro insulted or 
even exposed to the brutality of his grooms and guards, while he 
himself is beaten with a stick or mutilated by the executioner's 
knife. The new favorite is often a mere boy, as in our picture. 

Yet these revei-ses of fortune are not final. They are philo- 
sophically accepted as accidents which must always happen to one 
who embraces the precarious life of a comtier, and by the Orien- 
tal, who considei-s every misfortune as pre-oidained by fate and 
impossible to be prevented, are viewed in a way not widely differ- 
ent from that in which a European Secretary of State might regard 
an official announcement that his sovei-eign had been pleased 
to dispense with his sei*vices, or an unfavorable expression of 
public opinion in the shape of a severe newspaper article on his 
policy. 

Indeed, though Persian sovereigns express veiy savagely their 
displeasure at the policy of a minister, he may, after experiencing 
the infelicity of being disgraced, be received again into royal favor. 
His family in such a case is sent back to him, with as many of his 
slaves as can be recovered ; and his property, pruned of all danger- 



204 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

ous exuberance, is returned. A batli mollifies his bruised feet, 
a cap conceals his cropped ears, and tlie white- washed culprit is 
often reinstat(Kl in the very government he has lost, perhaps 
carrying with him a sentence of disgmce to his successor to whose 
inti'igues he owed liis temporary fall. 

It is indeed surprising how carelessly the king and his ministers 
bestow situations of confidence on strangers, or on men who, from 
having been the sufferei-s of great injustice, might be dreaded as 
their bitterest enemies ; yet the management of a conquered state 
is frequently intrusted to the klian or prince who before possessed 
it in his own right. The pardoned rebel of one province is 
appointed to the supreme command in another; and the disgraced 
noble or governor is sent to take charge of a district where the 
utmost fidelity and zeal are required. 

No ofiicial, however higli, can Ixj sure of his life; it lies in the 
hands of the king as mucli as does the life of the meanest subject. 
The death of an official is determined, the warrant for his execu- 
tion is made out, and an officer is despatched to execute it. The 
man rides as fiust as horses pressed into his service can carry him 
until he arrives at the city wliere the doomed man lives. He 
exhibits hil^ mandati^ to the governor or chief man of the city, and 
commands him to tissist him. As soon as the door of the victim's 
house is opened, the executioner rushes in, and, diawing his 
scimitar, falls on the unfortunate man with the exclamation, "It 
is thj king's connnand," cuts him down, and strikes oflf his bead. 
llarely is any resistance offered. 

Cases have IxM^n known in which a powerful man has attempted 
to waylay the* messenger on the road, when he knew his errand, 
and, depriving him of the warrant, has delayed his fate until 
another could be got, or until he has had time to obtain paidon. 

But iLsually, such is the awe of the king's name that no Htttn:pt 
is made; In' the victtim to escape his fate. He calmly submit^. 
"It is the decrci* of Allah — it is fate — Allah be praised! " As 
for his near(\st kin, they fly from him as from a thing accursed. 
The dependent's whom an hour ago he could have made happy 
witli a smile desert liim as one whose touch would defile. He is 
like an infected creature. "All nature seems to be roused againut 
him," are the words of an ancient writer in Persia. 



206 THE 8T0EY OF GOVERNMENT. 

The Gholams are the king's guards, and ai-e composed of young 
men held in favor by him. Generally they are young Circassian 
or Georgian captives, and accordingly their condition is that of 
slaves, though, the position being one of honor and emolument, 
the sons of tlie highest noblemen may be found thei'e. 

The Gholam Corps numbers three thousand or four thousand 
men, and, in addition to acting as escorts to the king and guards 
to his palaces, they are often despatched on delicate missions, 
such as that we have described in relation to the execution of a 
disgraced official. In the execution of these errands they often 
amass large sums by extortion ; and the surest pi*oof of the in- 
vidious character which they bear is the fact that their very name 
carries terror. The aiTival of a gholam e shahee is enough to 
throw a whole district into alaim; it has even depopulated a 
village for a time. 

The inhabitants of different districts differ considerably in 
character, and in their reputation for courage or cowardice. 
The inhabitants of the towns, or Shehere^s^ are even more mixed 
than those of the country districts. In general, though by no 
means to be held up as models for young men, they are of a better 
character than the higher chisses, and are, as a rule, industrious, 
polite, sociable, good servants and indulgent masters, though 
largely imbued with deceit and greed. 

The merchants are often wealthy, and in general are intelligent 
and cultivated. The small shopkeepers are more distinguished 
for insincerity and cunning, both vices, though inherent in the 
race, being fostered by their constant diead of the caprice of their 
superiors. The merchants, on the other hand, are, as all through 
the East, held in more consideration, being looked upon not only 
as a source of revenue, but also as a useful medium for main- 
taining friendly relations with foreign states. 

The ecclesiastical law is administered by a numerous body of 
priests of all grades, from the Sudder al Suddoor down to the 
lowest of the mollahs. The mooshteheds are the highest order, 
and are the supreme pontiffs of the kingdom, who, subject to the 
approbation of the sovereign, nominate all the principal judges. 
They usually number three or four, and are elected by the people 
cunt of their acknowledged sanctity. 




208 THE STORY OF OOVBRNMENT. 

The Sheik al Islam, or ruler of the faith, ranks next* to the 
mooshteheds. He is a salaried judge, his duty being to admin- 
ister the written law. He is often a man of quite as great 
influence as the mooshteheds, his official superiors. The other 
ecclesiastical officials are those connected with the mosques. 

Eveiy mosque, except the very insignificant ones, has a 
staff of three, viz., the mostwuUa, who manages its temporal 
affairs, and who may be said to be a kind of churchwarden ; the 
muezzin, or caller to prayers (the " beadle "), and the mollah, or 
priest proper, who conducts the ceremonial of the Mohammedan 
religion. They also preach a sort of sermon on texts from the 
Koran — the Mohammedan Bible. 

Besides these, there are in every city, and connected with all 
seminaries of learning, a crowd of moUahs, who live by their arts, 
and have Uttle of the priest but the name. They practise astrol- 
ogy, write letters and contracts for those who are ignorant of pen- 
manship, and thus contrive to prolong a miserable life. 

Nothing can be lower than the character of these people. 
Their hypocrisy, profligacy and want of principle, are the sub- 
jects of stories, epigrams, and proverbs without end. "Take 
care,'' says one adage, "of the face of a woman and the 
heels of a mule; but with a mollah be on your guard at all 
points." "To hate like a mollah," and "to cheat like a mollah ** 
are sayings of frequency in the mouth of a Persian. 

It is not the mollahs alone who are the subject of Persian 
jocularity. All classes who are concerned in the administration 
of the law or Mohammedan religious ceremonies are proverbial for 
their dishonesty and trickery. Chief among these are the seyeds, 
or descendants of the prophet, who are accounted rogues by 
nature ; but after they have made a pilgrimage to Mecca, to the 
birthplace of Mohammed, are considered to have graduated in all 
dishonesty and rascality. In the repertory of Persian jests, nine 
tenths hinge upon what a mollah or a hadji (Mecca pilgrim) did, 
and the anecdotes are told with a grave hiunor peculiarly charac- 
teristic of the East. The cultivators of the soil^ in Persia, though 
oppressed, are hospitable, active, and intelligent, and are more 
comfortable in their lives than the average workman in any 
of our overgrown cities. 



AB80LUTIS1C 209 

Penian wamen^ like those of all other Mohammedan countries, 
are not looked upon as the equals of the men. They are bjr some 
Moslem priests even belieyed not to have souls, and in every case 
are mere slaves who minister to the pleasure of their haughty 
lords. In many cases, however, their sharp wit enables them to 
gain an ascendency over their more lethargic husbands, and even 
to sway the affairs of the court at their own sweet will. 

An Eastern seraglio is yet a "gilded cage," tenanted by 
uneducated women, whose only thoughts are to please their mas- 
ter and amuse their aimless existence. Intrigue, discontent and 
crime are the natural sequence of such a state of matters. The 
harem life has been often described, but by none, it is said by 
those acquainted with the subject, in more faithful colors than by 
the French writer Chardin. 

The seraglio of the king, says M. Chardin, is most commonly a 
perpetual prison, from whence scarce one female in six or seven has 
the good fortune to escape, for women who have become the mothers 
of living children are provided with a small establishment within the 
walls, and are never suffered to leave them. But privation of liberty 
is by no means the worst evil that exists in these melancholy abodes. 

Except to that wife so fortunate as to produce the firstborn son, 
to become a mother is the most dreaded event that can happen to the 
wretched favorites of the king. When this occurs, not only do the 
mothers see their last chance of liberty and marriage cut off, but 
they live in the dreadful anticipation of seeing their children de- 
prived of life or sight, when the death of their lord shall call a new 
tyrant, in the person of his son, the brother of their offspring, to the 
throne. 

Should they escape having children, by an assiduous court paid to 
the king's mother, or to the mother of his eldest son, it sometimes 
happens that they obtain the good fortune of being bestowed upon 
some of the officers about the court; for the ministers and grandees, 
who are always intriguing with these influential ladies, seldom fail of 
soliciting a female of the royal harem either for themselves or their 
sons. 

Indeed, it is no uncommon thing for the king himself to bestow 
one of these fair captives upon one of his favorites, or his courtiers ; and 
sometimes, when the harem gets crowded, this is done to a great extent 
as a measure of economical expediency. Happy the woman thus freed 
from her prison, for she at once exchanges the situation of a slave for 



210 



THB STOEY OP GOVERNMEH's- 



that of a legitimate and 
inflaential wife, and the 
head of a domestic estab- 
lishment, where uhe ia 
ever treated with the at- 
tention due to one who 
has been the favorite of 
a king. 

In the case of the 
women of villagers and 
laborers the veil is en- 
tirely dispensed with, 
and they may be seen 
following their occupa- 
tions like women of 
their class in Europe, 
or other parts of the 
world where the Mo- 
hammedan faith has not 
instilled the idea that 
the females of the na- 
tion are to be carefully 
watched and excluded 
from the gaze of all but 
their loids. Most of 
the harem women are of 
Circassian, Georgian, or 
Armenian blood, and 
are often fair in com- 
plexion, well formed, 
and handsome, with 
large black languish- 
ing eyes, rich red lips 
and pearly teeth. Their 
natural c It a r m s are, 
however, often de- 
stroyed by the custom they have of painting their cheeks with 
various colors, by constantly smoking, which spoils their teeth, 




I PEBBIAM TILLAGE BELLE. 



ABSOLUTISM. 211 

and by the habit of tattooing on their persons various fanciful 
figures. A fine head of hair is looked upon as indispensable to 
a harem beauty. If nature denies this adornment, it is supplied, 
either wholly or in part, by artificial means, a custom which is 
not absolutely unknown in a certain civilized (country, of whicli 
Teheran is not the capital. 

A shift find trousei-s of colored silk or cotton constitute the 
dress worn within doors, supf)lemente(l, if the weather be cold, by 
a jacket, shawl, cloak, or fui-s. The head is enveloped in a silk 
handkerchief, so arranged as to form a kind of turban. When 
the women go outside, they fold themselves in a wrap[)er of *'blue 
checked stuff," which covei-s them from head to foot, only leaving 
a small laced opening for their eyes, through which it is impossi- 
ble for even the lady's husband to detect the pei"souality. 

Like the Peruvian Ladies, the Pei'sians ding to their incognita 
with the keenest relish, as one of the few fragments of personal 
liberty which they possess. Frankish civilization is slowly pen- 
etrating Iran, a,s the empire of Persia is called; but it has not 
yet progressed so far as to induce the women to wear gowns. 
These they call '' trousers with one leg," and prefer to possess 
this garment with the nonnal number of divisions. 

The following description of the gala dress of a lady of high 
rank as given by Lady Slieil, who spent much time in Persia, will 
be read with relish by all women who take a natural, innocent and 
commendable interest in dress: — 

The Shah's mother wore a pair of trousers made of gold brocade. 
These Persian trousers are always very wide, each leg b^ing, when the 
means of the wearer permit it, wider than the skirt of a govn, so that 
they have the effect of an exceedingly ample petticoat ; and, as crino- 
lines are unknown, the elegatites wear ten or eleven pairs of trousers, 
one over the other, in order to make up for the want of the above 
important invention. But to return to the Shah's mother. Her 
trousers were edged with a border of pearls embroidered on braid ; she 
had a thin blue crepe chemisette, also trimmed with pearls. This 
chemisette hung down a little below the waist nearly meeting the top 
of the trousers, wliich are always fastened by a running string. A 
small jacket of velvet was over the chemisette, reaching to the waist, 
but not made close in front, and on the head a small shawl pinned 



204 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

ous exuberance, is returned. A batli mollifies his bruised feet, 
a cap conceals his cropped ears, and tlie white-washed culprit is 
often reinstated in the very government he has lost, perhaps 
carrying with him a sentence of disgmce to his successor to whose 
intrigues he owed his temporary fall. 

It is indeed surprising how carelessly the king and his ministers 
bestow situations of confidence on strangers, or on men who, from 
having been the sufferei-s of great injustice, might he dreaded as 
their bitterest enemies ; yet the management of a conquered state 
is frequently intrusted to the khan or prince who before possessed 
it in his own right. The pardoned rebel of one province is 
appointed to the supreme command in another; and the disgraced 
noble or governor is sent to take charge of a district where the 
utmost fidelity and zeal are required. 

No ofiicial, however high, can be sure of his life; it lies in the 
hands of the king as nmcli as does tlie life of the meanest subject. 
The death of an official is determined, the warrant for his execu- 
tion is made out, and an officer is despatched to execute it. The 
man rides as fast iis horses pressed into his service can carry him 
until he arrives at the city where the doomed man lives. He 
exhibits liis mandate to the governor or chief man of the city, and 
commands him to assist him. As soon as the door of the victim's 
house is opened, the executioner rushes in, and, drawing his 
scimitar, falls on the unfortunate man with the exclamation, "It 
is the king's command," cuts him down, and strikes off his bead. 
Rarely is any resistance offered. 

Cases have Ix^en known in which a powerful man has attempted 
to waylay the messenger on the road, when he knew his errand, 
and, depriving him of the wantint, has delayed his fate until 
another could be got, or until he has had time to obtain paidon. 

But usually, such is the awe of the king's name that no atttffpt 
is made by the victim to escape his fate. He calmly submit^. 
*'It is the decree of Allah — it is fate — Allah be praised! " As 
for his nearest kin, they fly from him as from a thing accursed. 
The dependents whom an hour ago he could have made happy 
with a smile desert him as one whose touch would defile. He is 
like an infected creature. "All nature seems to be roused agaiimt 
him," are the words of an ancient writer in Persia. 



206 THE 8T0EY OF GOVERNMENT. 

The Gbolams are the king's guards, and are composed of young 
men held in favor by him. Generally they are young Circassian 
or Georgian captives, and accordingly their condition is that of 
slaves, though, the position being one of honor and emolument, 
the sons of tlie highest noblemen may be found there. 

The Gholam Corps numbers three thousand or four thousand 
men, and, in addition to acting as escorts to the king and guards 
to his palaces, they are often despatched on delicate missions, 
such as that we have described in relation to the execution of a 
disgraced official. In the execution of these eiTands they often 
amass large sums by extortion ; and the surest proof of the in- 
vidious character which they bear is the fact that their very name 
<}arries terror. The aiTival of a gholam e shahee is enough to 
throw a whole district into alaim; it has even depopulated a 
village for a time. 

The inhabitants of different districts differ considerably in 
character, and in their reputation for courage or cowardice. 
The inhabitiints of the towns, or Shehere^s^ are even more mixed 
than those of the country districts. In general, though by no 
means to be held up as models for young men, they are of a better 
character than the higher classes, and are, as a rule, industrious, 
polite, sociable, good servants and indulgent masters, though 
largely imbued with deceit and greed. 

The merchants are often wealthy, and in general are intelligent 
and cultivated. The small shopkeepers are more distinguished 
for insincerity and cunning, both vices, though inherent in the 
race, being fostered by their constant dread of the caprice of their 
superiors. The merchants, on the other hand, are, as all through 
the East, held in more consideration, being looked upon not only 
as a source of revenue, but also as a useful medium for main- 
taining friendly relations with foreign stixtes. 

The ecclesiastical law is administered by a numerous body of 
priests of all grades, from the Sudder al Suddoor down to the 
lowest of the mollahs. The mooshteheds are the highest order, 
and are the supreme pontiffs of tlie kingdom, who, subject to the 
approbation of the sovereign, nominate all the principal judges. 
They usually number three or four, and are elected by the people 
on account of their acknowledged sanctity. 



208 THE STORY OF eOVERNMENT. 

The Sheik al Islam, or ruler of the faith, ranks next* to the 
mooshteheds. He is a salaried judge, his duty being to admin- 
ister the written law. He is often a man of quite as great 
influence as the mooshteheds, his official superiors. The other 
ecclesiastical officials are those connected with the mosques. 

Every mosque, except the very insignificant ones, has a 
staff of three, viz., the mostwulla, who manages its temporal 
affairs, and who may be said to be a kind of churchwarden ; the 
muezzin, or caller to prayers (the "beadle"), and the mollah, or 
priest proper, who conducts the ceremonial of the Mohammedan 
religion. They also preach a sort of sermon on texts from the 
Koran — the Mohammedan Bible. 

Besides these, there are in every city, and connected with all 
seminaries of learning, a crowd of mollahs, who live by their arts, 
and have Kttle of the priest but the name. They practise astrol- 
ogy, write letters and contracts for those who are ignorant of pen- 
manship, and thus contrive to prolong a miserable life. 

Nothing can be lower than the character of these people. 
Their hypocrisy, profligacy and want of principle, are the sub- 
jects of stories, epigrams, and proverbs without end. "Take 
care,** says one adage, "of the face of a woman and the 
heels of a mule; but with a mollah be on your guard at all 
points.'* "To hate like a mollah," and "to cheat like a mollah '' 
are sayings of frequency in the mouth of a Persian. 

It is not the mollahs alone who are the subject of Persian 
jocularity. All classes who are concerned in the administration 
of the law or Mohammedan religious ceremonies are proverbial for 
their dishonesty and trickery. Chief among these are the seyeds, 
or descendants of the prophet, who are accounted rogues by 
nature ^ but after they have made a pilgrimage to Mecca, to the 
birthplace of Mohammed, are considered to have graduated in all 
dishonesty and rascality. In the repertory of Persian jests, nine 
tenths hinge upon what a mollah or a hadji (Mecca pilgrim) did, 
and the anecdotes are told with a grave humor peculiarly charac- 
teristic of the East. The cultivators of the soil^ in Persia, though 
oppressed, are hospitable, active, and intelligent, and are more 
comfortable in their lives than the average workman in any 
of our overgrown cities. 



ABSOLUTISM. 209 

Penian wamen^ like those of all other Mohammedan countries, 
are not looked upon as the equals of the men. They are hj some 
Moslem priests even believed not to have souls, and in every case 
are mere slaves who minister to the pleasure of their haughty 
lords. In many cases, however, their sharp wit enables them to 
gain an ascendency over their more lethargic husbands, and even 
to sway the affairs of the court at their own sweet will. 

An Eastern seraglio is yet a ** gilded cage,'* tenanted by 
uneducated women, whose only thoughts are to please their mas- 
ter and amuse their aimless existence. Intrigue, discontent and 
crime are the natural sequence of such a state of matters. The 
harem life has been often described, but by none, it is said by 
those acquainted with the subject, in more faithful colors than by 
the French writer Cliardin. 

The seraglio of the king, says M. Chardin, is most commonly a 
perpetual prison, from whence scarce one female in six or seven has 
the good fortune to escape, for women who have become the mothers 
of living children are provided with a small establishment within the 
walls, and are never suffered to leave them. But privation of liberty 
is by no means the worst evil that exists in these melancholy abodes. 

Except to that wife so fortunate as to j)roduce the firstborn son, 
to become a mother is the most dreaded event that can happen to the 
wretched favorites of the king. When this occurs, not only do the 
mothers see their last chance of liberty and marriage cut off, but 
they live in the dreadful anticipation of seeing thoir children de- 
prived of life or sight, when the death of their lord shall call a new 
tyrant, in the person of his son, the brother of their offspring, to the 
throne. 

Should they escape having children, by an assiduous court paid to 
the king's mother, or to the mother of his eldest son, it sometimes 
happens that they obtain the good fortune of being bestowed upon 
some of the officers about the court ; for the ministers and grandees, 
who are always intriguing with these influential ladies, seldom fail of 
soliciting a female of the royal harem either for themselves or their 
sons. 

Indeed, it is no uncommon thing for the king himself to bestow 
one of these fsur captives upon one of his favorites, or his courtiers; and 
sometimes, when the harem gets crowded, this is done to a great extent 
as a measure of economical expediency. Happy the woman thus freed 
from her prison, for she at once exchanges the situation of a slave for 



210 



THE STOEY OP GOVBENMENI- 



that of a legitimate and 
inflnential wife, and the 
head of a domestic estab- 
liabment, where she ia 
ever treated with the at- 
tention due to one who 
has been the favorite of 
a king. 

Ia the case of tbe 
wotneD of villagers and 
laborers the veil is en- 
tirely dispensed with, 
and they may be seen 
following their occupa- 
tions like women of 
their class in Europe, 
or other parts of the 
world wliere the Mo- 
hammedan faith has not 
instilled the idea that 
the females of the na- 
tion are to be carefully 
\vatched and excluded 
from the gaze of all but 
their loids. Most of 
the harem women are of 
Circassian, Georgian, or 
Armenian blood, and 
are often fair in com- 
plexion, well formed, 
and hand!st»nie, with 
large black languish- 
ing eyes, rich red lips 
and pearly teeth. Their 
natural charms are, 
however, often de- 
stroyed by tbe custom they have of painting their cheeks with 
various colors, by constantly smoking, which spoils their teeth. 




A PEBSIAH TILLAGE BELLE. 



ABSOLUTISM. 211 

and by the habit of tattooing on their pei*sons various fanciful 
figures. A fine head of hair is looked upon jis indispensable to 
a harem l)eauty. If nature denies this adornment, it is supplied, 
either wholly or in part, by artificial means, a custom which is 
not absolutely unknown in a certain civilized countrv, of which 
Teheran is not the capital. 

A shift and trousens of colored silk or cotton constitute the 
dress worn within doors, sup[)lementc(l, if the weather be cold, by 
a jacket, shawl, cloak, or fui-s. The head is enveloped in a silk 
handkerchief, so arranged as to form a kind of turban. When 
the women go outside, they fold themselves in a wrapi)er of "blue 
checked stuff," which covei-s them from head to foot, only leaving 
a small laced opening for their eyes, through which it is impossi- 
ble for even the lady's husl)and to detect the pei-sonality. 

Like the Peruvian ladies, the Pei*sians cling to their incognita 
with the keenest relish, as one of the few fragments of i)ersonal 
liberty which they possess. Frankish civilization is slowly pen- 
etrating Iran, as the empire of Persia is called; but it has not 
yet progressed so far as to induce the women to wear gowns. 
These they call ''trousers with one leg," and j)refer to possess 
this garment with the nonnal num])er of divisions. 

The following description of the gala diess of a lady of high 
rank as given by Lady Slieil, who s})ent much time in Pei-sia, will 
be read with relish by all women who tak(j a natural, innocent and 
commendable interest in dress: — 

The Shah's inother wore a pair of trousers made of gold brocade. 
These Persian trousers are always \qv\ wide, each leg being, when the 
means of the wearer permit it, wider than the skirt of a govyn, so that 
they have the effect of an exceedingly ample petticoat ; and, as crino- 
lines are unknown, the elegantes wear ten or eleven pairs of trousers, 
one over the other, in order to make up for the want of the above 
important invention. But to return to the Shah's mother. Iler 
trousers were edged with a border of pearls embroidered on braid ; she 
had a thin blue cr^pe chemisette, also trimmed with pearls. This 
chemisette hung down a little below the waist nearly meeting the top 
of the trousers, which are always fastened by a running string. A 
small jacket of velvet was over the chemisette, reaching to the waist, 
but not made close in front, and on the head a small shawl pinned 



212 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

under the chin. On the 8hawl were fastened strings of large pearls and 
diamond sprigs. Her arms were covered with handsome bracelets, 
and her neck with a variety of costly necklaces. Her hair was in 
bands and hung down under the shawl in a multitude of small plaits. 
She wore no shoes, her feet being covered with cashmere stockings. 
The palms of her hands and the tips of her fingers were dyed red with 
an herb called henna, and the edges of the inner part of the eyelids were 
colored with antimony. All the Kajars [the Tartar tribe to which the 
present dynasty belongs] have naturally large arched eyebrows, but 
not satisfied with this, the women enlarge them with great streaks of 
antimony. Her cheeks were well rouged, as is the invariabla custom 
among Persian women of all classes. In fact, like their contemporaries 
in Europe, the Persian ladies 

*' With carious artft dim charms revive, 
And triumph in the bloom of lifty-five. '* 

Ignorant, sensual, frivolous, with no intellectual resources to 
fall back upon, except the occasional introduction of some femin- 
ine elocutionist or story-teller, the conversation of a harem party 
is wearisome in the extreme. 

All that delicacy which we associate with a woman is absent 
from their discourse; scandal and gossip are the only subjects 
of conversation, and on every topic they express themselves with 
the most disgusting grossness. A friendly tete-d-tSte is every now 
and then broken up by a violent quarrel among the beauties, when 
invective and abuse, the indecency of which would bar their 
repetition almost in a police court or the pages of some of our 
*' progressive " daily papers, are said to flow from their Eastern 
tongues with a fluency which long practice and a freedom from 
anything like shamefacedness can only supply. 

The marriage ceremonies are elaborate and peculiar. Like all 
other Mohammedans, they are not allowed more than four legal 
wives, but they can have as many concubines as they can purchase. 
A girl is often l>etrothed to her future husband in infancy, and never 
sees him until they stand before the priest to complete the bargain. 
She has, however, the option of refusing to do so ; but this is a 
privilege so hedged round with difficulties as to be practically 
useless. Of late, however, it has become customary to allow the 
future husband and wife to see each other, but only "under the 



214 THE STOEY OF GOVEENME^'T. 

rose." The marriage can be witnessed by two men, or by one 
man and two women. The certificate is carefully preserved by 
the woman, for in case there be a divorce, the possession of it is 
the only means by which she can recover her dowry. 

Great rejoicings take place at every marriage, and in the case 
of even the middle classes ai-e accompanied by an expenditure so 
profuse as to be often almost ruinous. The feasting will hist 
from three to forty days, according to the mnk of the contract- 
ing parties; thi*ee, at least, are necessary. On the first, the com- 
pany assembles; on the second, the bride's hands are stained with 
henna ; on the third, the rite takes place, with much ceremony 
and not a little humor. This brief account of the conclusion 
of a wedding by an eye-witness is full of curious points. The 
bride has retired to her room. 

The husband, who in this case is a middle-aged widower, makes his 
ap])earance, and a looking-glass is immediately held up in such a posi- 
tion as to reflect the face of his bride, whom he now for the first time 
sees unveiled. It is a critical and anxious moment, for it is that in 
which the fidelity of his agents is to be proved, and the charms of his 
beloved to be compared with those pictured to him by his ardent 
imagination, while the young ladies in attendance, as well as the 
gossiping old ones, are eager to catch the first glimpse, and communi- 
cate to all the world their opinion of her claims to beauty. 

Then the bridegroom takes a bit of sugar-candy, and biting it in two 
eats one half himself, and presents the other to his bride, a custom 
apparently traceable to the ancient confarreatio^ <»r ^' eating together," 
a portion of the marriage ceremony in an early state of society, of 
which the modern bridecake is a remnant. On tlie present occasion 
he had no teeth to bite with, jin<l so he broke the sugar with his 
fingers, which offended tlie yoiuig woman so much tliat she cast her 
portion away. He then took her stockings, threw one over his left 
shoulder, placed the other under his ri^lit foot, and ordered all the 
spectators to withdraw. They retired accordingly and tlie happy 
couple were left alone. 

One passage in this descri})lioii illustrates a f(^atuie in the Per- 
sian women that we have not yet mentioned, namely, that, though 
little better than slaves, they exert their rights in a manner 
sometimes far fron; agreeable, (^f ungovernable temper, and with 
no moral training wliieli would teacli them to resti*ain their pas- 



AB80LTTTI8H. 816 

sions, they exert their will in a most pronoimoed maonei', go in 
and out of the harem when it pleases them (that is, the harems of 
the middle clasises), and when their deaii-es aiB thwiirted, will not 
unfrequently give forcible expi'eaaiou to their opinion with the 
sharp point of their slipijur on their husband's body. Slaves, 
generally Circassians and Georgians, lire sometimes so far admitted 
to their master's good graces as to liecome inmates of the harem ; 
but slavery in Persia is of im exceedingly mild character. In 
all Peraian families of consequence, the major domo, or person in 




PKOCESDIOH. 



trust — the house steward in faet^will generally be found to be 
a khanezadeh, or slave bom in tJie house — the offspring of domestic 
slaves, bought when young, and reared and manicd under their 
owner's auspices. 

The third mode of union noticeable in Persia is accounted dis- 
reputable in most Moslem countries, namely, that of a woman 
living with a man as his wife for a specified {wriod. This insti- 
tution, peculiar to Persia, is not looked upon even there as com- 
mendable in the highest degree. Only men of rank make these 
limited marri^;es and, practically, such marriages are for life, 
the contract being for ninety years, and the children of such mar- 
riages enjoying all the privileges of those of the regular wives. 



216 THE STORY OF GOVEENMENT. 

Divoi-ce, however, can be at any time had by the man, yet most 
husbands hesitate to adopt this mode of disposing of a bad matri- 
monial bargain. The scandal, and, above all, the necessity of 
returning her dowry, are motives which eflfectually restrain him. 

If the wife, through ill-usage or other cause, sues for divorce 
and obtains it, she forfeits all right to receive back any part of 
her dowry, and cases, as might be expected, are not unknown in 
which the baser sort have taken advantage of this law to force, by 
continued ill-usage, the wife to demand a divorce. Bad temper, 
extravagance, and such like, are the usual pleas brought forwai*d 
as grounds for a divorce. Adultery is never one of these, for if 
this were proved to have been committed, capital punishment, 
without recourae to legal proceedings, would be the fate of the 
unhappy delinquent. 

Harassed by repeated invasions, plunderings, and long ages of 
misrule, Persia has fallen from the position she once occupied as 
the granary of the world. Her irrigation works, and other means 
by which the arid ground was made to blossom with heavy crops, 
have been long allowed to fall into decay. 

Famine is often a visitor in the land. Few manufactures 
flourish, and a countr}' which has great capabilities is allowed to 
lie half waste, a few miserable cultivatoi-s, or petty artisans, 
being the only source from which the taxes to supply the luxury 
and extravagance of the court can be extracted. In modern 
Persia there is no more a Darius or a Xerxes than there are the 
hosts whom they led to victory or to spoil. No longer do the 
Medean cohorts advance, "all gleaming in purple and gold.", 

There are scarcely any roads in the countrj- fitted foi wheeled 
carriages, and nearly all the goods are borne on the backs of 
horses, mules, or camels ; accordingly, the di-awbacks of bad 
government put one side, it is hardly possible for a dense 
population to subsist. From all accounts, the population of Per- 
sia, though the wandering tribes, or Eeliauts, it is impossible to 
give with anything like accumcy, is less than 8,000,000. In 
Chardin's day, the population of Ispahan, the then capital, was 
estimated to be upwards of 700,000. In 1800, Sir John Malcolm 
considered that it could not contain more than 100,000 souls; 
and owing to the devastation it has suffered from famine since that 



ABSOLUTISM. 217 

date, it is probable that a census would now show a much smaller 
number of inhabitants, perhaps 60,000. Teheran has 200,000, 
Meshed 60,000, and Tauris is credited with 165,000 inhabitants. 

Mention has been made of bad roads. Navigable rivers there 
are none ; and, although telegraphs have been erected, railways 
are a thing of the future. They may be built after the coal fields 
are developed. Every imported, or even home-produced, article 
which has to be carried any distance, is thus necessarily dear. 
Silk, cottoft, tobacco, rice, a little grain, dried fruits, sulphur, 
horses, wax, and gall nuts, are the chief exports. Of manu- 
feustured articles, she exports a little gold and silver brocade, and 
some silk and cotton stuffs, chiefly to Russia. 

The whole revenue of the empire is considerably less than $10,- 
000,000, and is expended by the court, the cost of which is great, 
tiiough, in justice, it ought to be mentioned, that during the 
reign of the present Shah the income has increased $3,500,000 
per annum. Notwithstanding the Mohammedan law, Persian 
kings often marry more than four wives. The late Shah had thirty. 

The military force varies, the standing army being usually 
about 50,000 men, in addition to about 30,000 irregular cavalry, 
who are called out in case of necessity ; but, on an emergency, 
the Persian monarch could put into the field 150,000 men, 
exclusive of camp followers. 

How well this army was equipped in former times may be 
inferred from the story told regarding the Sliah who besieged 
the mud-walled town of a Kurdish chief. A big gun was brought 
up against it, but it was found that only three balls could be pro- 
cured which would fit it. After two were tired, the town was 
summoned to surrender; but the only result was a request to his 
Persian majesty to *'fire his third ball, and be done, and leave 
them alone in peace I'* 

In modem times European arms have been obtained, and the 
whole military force is being drilled after the modern methocb, 
by English and other officers in the service of the present Shah. 
The system may be more satisfactory to the Persian government 
than to the officers concerned, as they find that, beyond specious 
promises, they have considerable difficulty in rescuing any of their 
pay out of the hands of the officials through which it has to pass. 



218 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

The average pay of a private is about $20 per annum, in 
addition to a ration of three pounds of bread. A captain receives 
about sixty tomans, and a lieutenant-colonel commanding a regi- 
ment 500 tomans ; while the colonel commanding two regiments, 
the highest rank in the army, only enjoys pay to the extent of 
about 1,000 tomans. A toman is at present worth about $2.15. 

The monarch is known as the Shah^ and lias been from the 
earliest times an absolute sovereign, having despotic authority 
over the lives and property of all his subjects, from the highest to 
the lowest. Though usually his eldest legitimate son succeeds 
him, yet he has the power to put any of his male oflEspring — the 
son of a slave it may be — on the throne; and at one time it was 
common for the reigning sovereign either to destroy or to put out 
the eyes of all his other sons, so that the heir might reign in 
peace. 

If the new sovereign proves weak, some of his enemies soon 
discover this, and the most probable result is that, after a 
rebellion and a series of murders, a new dynasty, in the person of 
a successful soldier, is established. It thus follows that, though 
the Shah of Pei-sia is absolute, yet he has to keep his power by the 
force of circumstances, and, if a wise man, will hesitate to exercise 
it in a manner which would excite the hatred of his subjects. 

The Koran and the numerous traditional sayings of the 
immediate successors of Mohammed form the basis of the whole 
civil and criminal law, as administered by the priests in Persia, 
as in other Mohammedan countries. But in Pei^sia there is also 
the urf^ or "common law," administered by secular magistrates. 

The Sheik-al-Islam is the head of the first-named court, though 
greatly controlled by the mooshteheds, or high priests, while 
the urf is administered by the king in person, by his lieuten- 
ants, governors of provinces, chief magistmtes of towns, col- 
lectors of the revenue of districts, and by thqt officials who act 
under them. The power of life and death rests with the king, 
who rarely delegates it, except to princes of the blood royal, or to 
governors of remote provinces. The governing principle in 
Mohammedan law is what has been called the lex talionis^ an eye 
for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth. Murder, though a capital 
offence, can yet be compounded with the heirs of a murdered 



ABSOLUTISM. 



219 



man. The punishment of death is often aggravated by the bar- 
barous methods in which it is inflicted. Decapitation, strangling, 
or stabbing i:3 the common mode of execution ; but impalement, 
or tearing asunder by horses or by the bent boughs of trees, is not 
uufrequently practised when, in the opinion of the judge, the 
offence warrants this addition to the punishment. Tortures are 
sometimes introduced with a view to the discovery of hidden 




treasure, but rarely in any other case, Tim loss of the eyes is the 
common penalty for political offences. Mutilation is the punish- 
ment meted out to a tliJef, tliiiugli he may be forgiven or his sen- 
tence lightened at the option of the injured party. The king's 
relatives fill nearly all the chief posts, such as the governorships 
of provinces; while the other offices of state are given, as already 
related, to persons of lowly rank, whose influence miglit there- 
after be expected through gratitude to l)e exeix;ised in the kinjf's 



220 



THE STOBY OF GOVERNMENT. 



behalf. Every province has a sum fixed for which it is taxed. 
Accordingly, the governor and his agents use every means to 
squeeze this sum, and whatever more they can, out of the i)eople. 

The overplus remains in the official's hands as his salary or 
perquisite. At all events, no one troubles him so long as the 
royal treasury in Teheran receives the quotum at which the pro- 
vince his been rated. Extortion, therefore, as might be expected, 
flourishes in Persia, especially if the district be far removed from 
the capital and in a soil congenial to it. 

The ancient religion of the Persians (the religion of the Magi) 
long ago gave place to Mohammedanism and now lingers only 
among the Guebres, a persecuted sect in Persia, and among the 
Parsees of India — an ancient colony of Persians who have almost 
monopolized the financial business of Bombay and other cities. 

It was an extremely elaborate system, the central principle 
being the worship of fire and of light. In its main features it was 
reformed and restored by Zoroaster who seems to have lived about 
five or six hundred years before Christ and whose " Zendavesta " is 
one of the most ancient books in the Persian language. 

The Parsees and the Guebres never willingly throw filth into 
fire or water. The trade of a smith is proscribed among them by 
custom though not by law. They use no firearms as a rule, nor 
extinguish a fire, though in cases of very destructive fires they 
have been known to assist in putting them out. A Parsee or a 
Guebre is rarely found as a sailor, his fear of defiling the sea 
deterring him from following this occupation. When a person is 
dying, they keep a dog near to drive away the evil spirits. 

They neither bury nor burn their dead, but inter the body in 
a circular tower called dockmetis^ or dokhma. In these towers 
are inclined planes on which the corpses are deposited, and the 
birds of the air are invited to devour them. They even augur 
as to the happiness or misery of the deceased, according as the 
left or right eye is fii-st pecked out by the vultures. Our illus- 
tration represents the burial of a Parsee traveller on the plains of 
Hindostan. 

The Parsees, like the Jews, are a persecuted race, and both 
have daily the mortification of seeing their saci*ed lands in the 
possession of the Mohammedans. The former are, nevertheless. 



222 THE STORY OP GOVERNMENT. 

much fewer than the latter, for, except the colony which has found 
an asylum in India, and the few thousands who still cling to 
Persia, it is rare to find one in any other country. 

Our picture shows a persecuted Guebre making himself known 
to others by a secret sign. He has been wandering from village 
to village to elude the attentions of Mohammedan priests who 
have suspected his pockets of being as full of gold as his head 
was of heresy. At last, on the edge of Kurdistan, he has found a 
town where he can safely rest. In India, the Parsees would 
be lost in the vast sea of people inhabiting that empire, were it 
not for their distinctive dress and other peculiarities which mark 
them out prominently from the Mussulmans or Hindoos. 

Their high, brimless hats, set a little back so as to form an 
angle with the head, at once proclaim the nationality of the wearer, 
be it seen in any Indian city, or in the streets of London or Liver- 
pool ; for, though not a widely scattered people, no fear of caste 
pollution stands in their way should they desire to seek fortune 
in countries beyond the sea, albeit, theoretically at least, they ought 
not to pass any length of time on the surface of water. 

But the Parsee, though a monotheist, is the worshipper of a 
second god, and that is the rupee. He despises, he loathes, the 
hideous idolatry of the Hindoos; but he bows do\vn before the 
silver image which Victoria, Kaisar-i-Hind, has set up in her 
Indian dominions. 

With the Mohammedan religion all the learning of which 
Persia can boast came into the country; but that is little. Logic, 
metaphysics, judicial astrology, astronomy, mathematics and medi- 
cine, are about the only branches of knowledge cultivated with 
any degree of success. Much of their astronomy, as well as their 
logic and metaphysics, is puerile in the extreme. Geography is 
little understood, though mathematics is taught on much better 
principles, owing to their possessing the works of Euclid. 

Alchemy is a favorite study, but chemistry is unknown. Their 
knowledge of medicine is on a par with the state of the science as 
left by Galen and Hippocrates, whose disciples they profess to be. 
A few colleges have been established, but are not very prosperous, 
and the experiment of sending promising young men to be edu- 
cated in Europe does not meet with much approval. 



ABSOLUTIBM. 22& 

Sine art; is at a low ebb, it being repugnant to the Mohammedim 
&ith to make tepresentations of any created thing. The stone 
and seal cutters of Shiniz and Ispahan are, however, famous for 




A OnXBHB MAKIMQ IIIMBBLF KlIOWIT BY A SECRET SIGH. 

their skill, as Cashan is for lacquered tiles. Herat, Meshed, and 
Shiniz are equally celebrated for sword-blades and steel work 
generally. Their coins were at one time struck by the hammeT, 
but in 1872 a mint was established at Sultanet-Abed. near 
Tdunui. 



S24 THE BTORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

The literature of Persia consists chiefly of writings on theology 
and polemics, and some works of history, romance, and iKwtrj-. 
Some of their manuseriptjj are Ixjautifully illuminated. Persia, 
indeed, was once noted for her bai-ds, and the flowurj-, historical 
songs of Meerkhond and Khoudeniir are sung to this day. 

We have been pictiu-ing Persia as it is ; but, as elsewhere in the 
East, European habits are creeping in. French millinery can be 
seen in Teheran, and Krupp guns in Shiraz. 

Telegraph lines worke<l by Europeans span the kingdom, greatly 
to the amusement of the Shah, though with less diversion to the 
distant officials, especially about the time that the taxes are 
due. 

How "a dog, witli its tail in Teheran and its muzzle in Lon- 
don, can bark in the one place, when it is pinched in the 
other," is not easy to explain to the averse Persian mind, though 
regarding the fact of the case there is painfully little doubt. 

In a few more decades probably the absolutism of Persia will 
be a darkness of the past and over the markets of Meshed and 
t^e gardens of Ispahan Progress m'IU throw tlie radiance of elec- 
tric light. 




VI. 



f{ulc of Castc^ 



INDIA, whicli is regarded by biologistij aa the birth-place of the 
human race, has been for centuries a marvel and a mystery 
to western minds, and its government, before the East India 
Company took possession of many of the provinces, was a 
curious mixture of absolutism such as we have depicted in Persia, 
and of a kind of religious despotism. 

The absolutism has ceased, even in those provinces which, 
though not exactly under British rule, are yet, by their adjacency, 
under British eye; but the religious despotism still flourishes 
thi-oughout the vast domain which liails Victoria as Empress. 

This religious government within a government is the rule of 
caste, and is what we shall examine in this chapter; Ixicause, 
although India is nominally and (tonmiercially under Englisli dom- 
ination the tyranny of caste is still paramount there and is liable, 
as in the Indian mutiny, if sufficient provocation be given, to cause 
a tremendous popular outbreak. 

For, though Disraeli cleverly souglit to enlist tlie loyalty of the 
Oriental fancy })y making Victoria Empress of India, that is, lunk- 
ing her higher in relation to her Indian than to her English subjects, 
yet her natural distance from India cannot be overcome in the 
popular mind by a mere juggle of words, and it must Jbe admitted 
that, despite tlieir governing India the English are a mere fringe 

225 



226 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

on its vastness — a dewdrop on a lion's mane, liable to be shaken 
off if his dormant majesty should awake. 

So with Christianity, which has made but little headway against 
the dominant Superstition of the Hindoos, whose religion is one of 
the few Pagan faiths that liave had sacred books. In these books 
are embalmed sound maxims of morality, and sentiments of such 
nobility that in this fact alone the Indian faith soars above those 
of ancient Greece, Home, or Assyria, where ideas of religion were 
bounded by the erection of temples and statues to deities Avho 
spoke to their worshippers in no higher form than what appealed 
to the eye. 

The Vedas, or Hindoo Scriptures, describe a state of society 
widely at variance with Hindoo life and the religious tenets 
of the present; so that if these sacred books are to be viewed 
as the foundations of the prevailing religions of India, much of 
Hindooism must have been invented by the Brahmins of a later 
date. 

The " Code of Menu " is another of the sacred books of Hin- 
dooism. It is of a much more recent date than the Vedas, though 
at the time it was written the Hindoo race had not extended 
beyond the Vindhya Mountains. It is one of the deepest and 
most subtle of all holy books, and though now " olwolete in many 
respects," is really the foundation of modem Hindooism — legal, 
social and political. 

The religion of the Hindoos, like nearly every other form of 
worship, savage and civilized, has altered much since their Bible 
was written. It was purer in former times, but it appears to have 
adopted from time to time the deities of the black-skinned 
aborigines whom they had conquered, and to have imbibed many of 
their superstitions. 

The foundation of Braliminism consists in a triad, or "trimurti," 
in which Brahmd ii the creator, Vishnoo the preserver, and Siva 
the destroyer. Beneath these there seems to lie the idea of "an 
Unspeakable Unity, Brahm or Brihm." These three members of 
the Hindoo Trinity were not, however, coeval. Vishnoo worship 
is of a much younger date than that of Siva, whose popularity 
was near its height at the birth of Christ. 

Hindoo woi"ship is now almost entirely concentmted on Vishnoo 



THE BULE OV CABIB. 



227 



and Siva, aiid the female divioities associated with tbem, and 
BrahmA is now little regarded, having but one existing temple 
in India. Unlike the gods of Greece and Rome, Avho took upon 
themselves the form of mankind, only to gratify some passion, as 
a rule, or at best to &vor some frieud, the great Hindoo deities 
only do so for some good and beneficent purpose. They are 
generally sculptured and worshipped in human form, more or less 




UKMAKKH FKOU Till 



altered according to the idealistic tendencies of the priest or tlie 
aiiists. 

Thus Vishnoo undertakes ten "avatars," or incarnations, in 
iirder to save the world. These incarnations form the subject of 
one of tlie loftiest portions of Hindoo theology, and under one 
of these forms — that of the beautiful Krishna, or Kama tlie Hero 
— he is moat frequently adored by his devotees. 

When the "Rig- Veda" was written, Siva — ^who is now a most 
frightful and revolting deity — was looked upon as aomethii^ 



228 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

very different, namely, as the " god of prayer and religfious asceti- 
cism, perfect, infinite ; the refuge of worlds, the succorer of mis- 
fortune, the spring of wealth, monarch of the world, lord of 
Brahmd himself, yet giving in his own person the example of pen- 
ance and pain." Compared with the Greek mythology, that of 
India is infinitely deeper, more mysterious, and vastly more sub- 
lime.^ 

Much, however, of the most beautiful portions of Hindoo 
theology dates from a period subsequent to the Christian era. 
Accordingly, some writers of good repute — Wilson in England, 
and Lassen in Germany, for example — are of the belief that 
traces of Christian influence may be detected in it. Most of the 
grosser forms of materialism exist among the modern Hindoos, 
mingled with the brighter and more excusable worship of the 
elements. 

For instance, water^vorship^ a form of religion widely spread 
among nations both savage and civilized, is a part of their faith. 
To this day, the Brahmin prays to the Ganges as the Roman 
offered up his petition to Father Tiber, and the devout children 
of a believer consider his soul safe, if he dies by its l)anks, choked, 
it may be, by the Ganges mud. The dead are thrown into the 
stream, and mothers even offer up their children to the Holy 
River. 

No place is with the Hindoo so appropriate for piuyer as the 
banks of " the river," which to him is what the Nile is to the 
Egyptian. Here they bathe and offer up. their vows, their prayers, 
and their offerings of fruit, flowei's, rice and sweetmeats. Even 
in places where the liver is of considerable breadth, garlands of 
flowers are suspended across it. 

Though all of the sue red river is holy to the devout Hindoo, 
yet so peculiarly sanctifying is one particular spot, near the eon- 
Iluence of the Ganges with the Jumna, that all who bathe therein 



1 "I cannot help saying," remarks Ludlow, •* that when I compare Greek mythology with 
Hin('.oo I am reminded of the saylnj? of the old Egyptian prteftt, that the Greeks were 
mere children; so immca.su rably decider does the Hindoo mind api)ear to go in Hounding the 
mysteries of the universe, of our own selves. The pervading yearning which manifests itself 
for an abiding union with God, the linu hold wliich it has of what I take to l>e the truth of 
truths for mankind — that God must take flesh for the salvation of the world —appear to me 
principles which make the noblest of Greek myths seem but as babbling nursery rhymes 
beside the Hindoo." 



THE KITLB OF CASTK. 229 

must of necessity — their souls l)eing purified from every sinful 
taint — go straight to the gates of Paradise. To ensure this 
blissful end of life, every year numbers of devotees commit suicide 
by drowning themselves in the river, and so systematically is this 
superstition fostered that the Bnihmins keep lK)ats for the pur- 
ixjse of assisting their clients to perfonn this last holy office. 

The intending suicide rows into the stream, into which, after 
fastening to his legs jai-s full of stones, he tlirows himself, or he 
simply walks into the 8tre«am with jars fastened in front and 
behind his body, and reaching the middle of the stream, he 
leisurely fills the jars with water. The jard have hitherto buoyed 
him up, but as they fill the bearer sinks into the sacred sti-eam. 
Corpses ai-e sunk in the same manner, the devont relfitives towing 
the body into mid-stream, after its purification hy a quantity of 
straw ignited round it. 

What becomes of the body after bein^ sunk concerns no one ; 
the alligator may devour it, or the hungry jatrkal tear it to pieces 
as it strands on the muddy shore ; but the sacred Ganges has . 
received it, and the soul has Ixjen wafted to Paradise. This method 
of sinking bodies is, however, only pi-actised by those too poor to 
bear the exjKjnse of a funeral pile ; the richer classes invariably 
bum the body and thi-ow the ashes into the river. At Benares, 
where self-immolation by drowning was once common, the police 
now have orders to prevent it as far as possible. 

All the Bi-ahmins, but especially the priests, are propitiated 
with divine honors ; and, indeed, at certain seasons of the year, 
the Brahmin is himself worshipped by his wiie. Their daughters 
under eight years of age are worshipped as forms of the goddess 
Bhavani, and gifts of flowere, fruit, water, garlands, and incense 
are offered to them. 

The wives of Brahmins are worshipped by other men, and it is 
not uncommon for a hundred of these ladies to he invited to the 
house of a rich man, who, after having rei>eated prayers and pmise 
before them, concludes the ceremony by offering them rich gifts. 
These people of Brahminic caste are venerated as descendants of, 
and endowed with some of the divine substance of, their progeni- 
tor Brahm&, who was at one time worshipi)ed as the Creator. 

On the decay of the worship of Brahm&, Siva and Vishnoo came 



280 THE STOBY OF GOVERNMENT. 

into vogue as deities ; the worship of Siva being supposed to be 
the more ancient in date. Siva is represented in various ways. 
Sometimes his images represent liim as a silver-colored man with 
five faces, in each face thi'ee eyes, of which the third is in the 
forehead ; he is seated on a lotus, and clad in a garment of tiger 
skin. 

In other images he is represented as having only one head, but 
still a third eye, with the figure of a half moon on the forehead, 
and is riding upon a bull, naked and covered with ashes, his eyes 
inflamed with intoxicating drugs ; in one of his hands carrying a 
horn, in the other a drum. 

Vishnooism may l)e considered as a sort of i-e formed Sivaism, 
more refined and spiritual than that of the destroying and renova- 
ting god ; its progress has, however, been slow, and its popularity 
by no means so gi-eat as that of Sivaism. Its followers are divided 
into several sects, each of which is distinguished by its secrets, 
sacrifices, and particular signs. 

To Vishnoo are offered no bloody sacrifices ; fruits, flowers, 
water, clarified butter, sweetmeats, cloths, ornaments, and such 
like, are accounted appropriato gifts to a god who is the " preserver 
of all things.'' He is a household god. Little images are made 
for sale, and worshipped whenever a person enters into a new 
house, or to procure tlie removal of family misfortunes. 

The heaven of Vishnoo is a region so glorious, that the vivid 
fiastern imagination revels in devising terms glowing enough in 
which to describe it. All destruction of life is to him abhorrent. 
In addition to the Hindoo Trinity there are many inferior gods^ 
such as Kamadcva, the god of lives, and Krishna K&madeva, the 
son of Brahmd, who is represented as a beautiful youth, holding 
in his hand a bow and arrow made of flowers. His constant com- 
panions are his wife, Rati, the goddess of pleasure, the cuckoo, 
the humming bird, and the gentle breezes. 

He is continually wandering through the " three worlds," con- 
versing with his mother and wife, in gardens and temples, or 
riding by moonlight on a parrot or lor}', attended by nymphs or 
dancing girls, the foremost of whom bears his standard — a fish 
painted on a red ground. 

Animals are also venerated hv the Hindoos. As the ancient 



THB BULK OP CASTE. 281 

I worshipped Atiior, the Celestial Yeiius, under the fona 
of a cow, BO the modem Hindoos pay court to Bhavani under the 
repreaenta t ion of the same animal. The religious beliefs, as well 
as the superstitions of the lower classes, vary much in different 
locaiities, and have often little in common with the Hindooism of 
tlie Brahmins. 

Brahminism has two aspects, separated by a vast chasm. One 
is philosophical, the other popular ; one is for the few, the other 
for the many. In its original or highest form it is extremely 




simple, being a kind of spiritual pantheism, in wliich nothing 
really exists except Brnhmfi ; in other words, nothing exists but 
God, and everything existing is God. 

But between this faith as found in the Ycdas and the corrupt 
polyUieism of the Puranas there is an immense gulf, which, 
however, is bridged over by the word "emanation." In the 
philosophical creed, ever3rthing is identified with Brahmfi ; in the 
popular, everything emanates from Brahm&. Stones, plants, ani- 
mals, men, gods, demons, every conceivable object, issue from this 



232 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

one self-existent nnivei-sal soul, as drojKs from the ocean, sparks 
from the fire. 

Yet, into these stones, plants, and animals, the spirit of man 
may pass, or they nuiy rise to 1x5 gods, and the personal gods are 
direct emanations^ from the Supreme Being. Tliis leads to tlio 
doctrine of inc«arnation. 

Vishnoo, for example, as preserver and pervader, passes into 
men to deliver the world from the power of evil demons, while 
Kama and Krishna are among the more popular incarnations. In 
other words, men, animals, plants, stones, piiss through innumer- 
able existences, and they can rise to be gods. But gods, men, 
animals, plants, and every conceivable emanation fi-om the supreme 
soul, aim at and must end in ieal^oii)tion into their source, 
Brahmd. 

Caste is everywhere an essential part of religion. Xo longer, as 
it once was, a bond of union among large Ixxlies of men, it now 
splits up the social fabnc into numerous communities, and thus 
prevents all natural or patriotic combinations. In the present 
day the family iKmd in India is even stronger than that of caste, 
and as both are connected with religion, they weld those con- 
cerned so firmly together that Hindoos, as a rulo, have few sym- 
pathies and little disposition to co-operate with othei"s, beyond the 
circle of their own families, and none at all Ix^yond the limits of 
their own immediate castes. 

What, then, in detail is this caste, which compels six laborers 
camped under one tree, and otherwise undistinguished from each 
other in dress or peraon, to build six choolas or cooking places. 



» When the following lines from " I'ope'H Ks»ay on Man " were reitlted to a Brahmin priest, 
he enthusiastically exclaimed that the poet must liaro been a lirahmin priest in one of his 
incarnations. 

" All are but parts of one stui>endous whole, 

Whose body Nature is, and Ood the soul ; 

That, clianp;ed thnmgh all, and yet in all the Mime, 

(treat in the earth as in the ethereal frame, 

Warms in the sun, refreshes on the breeze, 

Glows in the stars, and blossoms on the trees ; 

Lives through all life, extends through all extent, 

Spreads undivided, operates unspent; 

Hreathes in our soul, informs our mortal part, 

As full, as i>erfert, in a hair as heart; 

As full, as perfect, in vile man who mounis, 

As the rapt seraph who adores and bums. 

To Him no high, no low, no great, no small ; 

He Alls, He lK)unds, connects, and equals all." 



TH£ BVLE OF CASTE. 288 

and eat as jEat apart as if they were men of different races, liabits 
and antipathies, instead of being near neighbors, perhaps fellow- 
villagers, speaking the same tongue and worshipping the same 
gods? 

CiUfte is the division of the j>eople into certain classes, between 
wlioni liard mid fast lines are drawn, and who, theoretically at 
least, follow from one generation to another the same pursuits, 
do not intennany with each other, and, so far as commingling 
Avith each other is concerned, might almost be said to be distinct 
nices. Though much has been written on the subject of caste, 
great misimderstanding still exists regarding its nature. 

In the "Institutes of Menu, ' a work which lays down the 
earliest ari-angements of Hindoo society, the niles of caste are very 
distinctly defined. In this code we find four castes defined as 
composing the nation, though the existence of mixed castes is also 
mentioned. These four main divisioni are: 1, The Brahmin, or 
priest ; 2, The Kshatriya, Cliuttree, or soldier ; 8, The Vaisya, or 
husl)andman ; and 4, The Soodriv, or servant, in which were doubt- 
less comprised most of the (converted aborigines. 

In modern times tlu» A'aisya caste has disappeared, the Kshatriya 
mainly subsists among the warlike Rajpoots of the northwestern 
fi'onticr, and the Soodm chiefly, if not entirely, among the J&ts 
and Mahnittius, unless, indeed, we take the hauglity Bmhminical 
view of the question, and include fis Soodras all who are not 
Bndimins. Tlie Bmhniiu is the pinnacle of this social edifice, and 
l)eneath him are endless castes, vaiying according to locality, but 
seldom less than seventy, and sometimes reaching as high as 170 
iu number. 

For three thousand yeais, by means of this powerful instrument 
<»f caste, the Brdlnnins liave preserved their ascendency over their 
fellows in India, and it must be acknowledged that tlie men, who 
could so long hold their sway over turbulent races, speaking many 
languages, and obeying few laws, must have l)een wise, prudent, 
and firm in their iK)lie3'. 

The world can show no other example of such a lease of power. 
Had the Brahmin attempted to mauitain his influence by mere 
bmte force, he would long ago liave been swept from the earth. 
But lie rules without affecting sovereignty; he enjoys many of 



234 THE STORY OF GOVBBNMENT. 

the prerogatives of priesthood without separating himself from 
human society. His original superiority was at first above all 
moral and intellectual ; his privileges, even now hemmed round 
with numberless disadvantages, were originally bound up with the 
severest austerities. 

The life of a Brahmin, as set foilh in the holy books, is divided 
into four periods. During the first, he must perform the most 
menial offices for a superior, to whom he attaches himself as a 
disciple. During the second only lie mixes fully in social life, 
maiTies and begets children. During the third, he devotes him- 
self to religious pi-actices and acts of austerity. The fourth is a 
period of entire self-abstraction, till he leaves the body, as a bird 
leaves the branch of a tree. 

The Bi-ahmin owes his supremacy mainly to the fact that till 
recently he only of the Indian castes was acquainted with Sanscrit, 
in which language are stored the treasures of Hindoo faith and 
philosophy. Every trade, every art in India, is carried on by rules 
laid down in these sacred books, the meaning of which is unknown 
to the practitioners thereof; but still they blindly obey them, for 
the Brahmins have so ordered. 

Medical secrets are hereditary in certain Brahmin families, and 
to them the sick have to resort. Music will bo traditional in one 
family, and geometry in another ; so that the intellectual qualities, 
to which of all others the hereditary principle is so unfavorable, 
are influenced by caste. 

If a man of any caste becomes defiled so that he is no longer 
capable of mingling among his fellow-men, he cannot go to those* 
of his own class for purification, but must apply to the Brahmins; 
who alone possess the power of reinstating him in society ; though 
even " the outcasts " have their own priesthood, composed mainly 
of devotees, whom a long life of holiness and meditation upon 
the Godhead have raised to such a rank above ordinary mortals, 
that they seem to become almost capable of ridding themselves of 
" the dreary progress of transmigration from shape to shape during 
millions of years." 

Here again theory does not always agree with practice, for of 
late yeare the grip of the Brahmins has been gradually slacken- 
ing, and their character for piety and learning deteriorating. In 



THK ItULK OF CASTE. 285 

earlier days the Brahmin was treated with the reverence befitting 
his reputed descent; he \vas regarded as a divine being sprung 
from the mouth of Bralim& the Creator, accoriling to the Hindoo 
Triad. But biii traditional reputation as a sage and saint, his 
single-minded devotion to his religious doties, his mental abstrao 




lion, the purity of Km iliiumter, bis babituilc and mude of living 
have undergone a nidical cliange. 

He is no longer an ascetic, dev'otctl to n;ligiou3 contempUtion. 
renouncing all the pleasures of the world, living to a patriarchal 
age in some sequestered retreat, and regiirdeil by prince and [jcasant 
as the embodiment of autboritj-, alike in law ami religion. 



236 THK stohy of government. 

On the contrarj', the majority are extremely worldly, and not 
a few shockingly immoral individuals, wlio i)ractise few austerities, 
and in spite of their notorious poveily engage in secular occupa- 
tions for the purpose of gi-atifying their greed of gain. Even 
their old monopoly of Sanscrit learning has been ruthlessly 
invaded by low caste men and Western scholars, man}' of whom 
are infinitely more learned than the majority of the sacerdotal 
order. 

The endless r.imificationb of the four original cJistes deprived 
them of much of their power, and the consequence is that to 
compensate themselves for their loss from this source they have 
engaged in almost evciy calling, and their cupidity is so great that 
every principle of law and morality is shamefully compromised in 
their dealings with mankind. 

Still, until ca:;te vanishes, perhaps not even then, the "thrice 
born " and his poita^ or sacred cord, Avill be an object of awe to 
millions of those whom the ancient law of India has oi-dained to 
be his social inferioi's. This fact of a low caste entailing a social 
ban is, however, tempting many parialis to become Mohammedans, 
since within the pule of Islam all men are equals. 

Below the Brahmin there are many castes, no caste associating 
with that which is lower than it in the social scale. So strictly 
is this carried out that in cases where castes, widely distinct from 
one another, live in the same district, the very low caste people 
are excluded from the highways. This is the system ; the princi- 
ple is something different altogether. 

It is, in tli'j eye of the Hindoo, a God-appointed system of 
society in which every man shall have his settled place, with 
which he must rest and be content, no matter what may \ye his 
discomfort therein ; and it cannot be denied tliat thouorh the 
practice is productive of much evil, yet at tlie same time it has 
kept a people, wlio liave no higher controlling principle, from 
sinking into a materialism so gro.^s tliat the morals and the whole 
fabric of their national and social life would have been shaken 
thereby. 

Pi»rhaps it is better that the Hindoo should look upon the 
Brainniu as his head, than that lie should have no one whom he 
can legard as the supreme director of his faith. 



THB BULB OF CASTK. 



287 



The high caste man is deSled hy the low caste man, hat the Iot 
caste man is not defiled by contact with anyone beneath him. 
Thus, the higher you ascend in the scale of caste, the more di£G- 
cult does it become to keep from pollution. 

Hence, the Brahmin, who is the highest of all, most cook his 
own food, draw bis own water, and, like every high caste man, 
perform for himself every duty by the performance of which it 
is possible for him to be pol- 
luted. Theoretically, at least, 
the Brahmin is i)oIluted if the 
shadow of a low caste man fulls 
upon him, or if he glances into 
the high caste man's pot, let 
alone his being touched by such 
an unholy being. 

A Brahmin will even turn 
aside and sjiit if a low caste 
man should pass him in the pub- 
lic street or highway, liow 
caste is not therefore, without 
its comi)ensating ad vantage. 



The low caste 



may go 




about careless as to who touches 
him, or whose shadow falls on "^ 
his vile person ; lie cannot be 
defiled. He can, if wealth v 
enough, hire a liigh caste man 
— for high caste by no means 
implies wealth-^to do any 
oiDce for him, and enjoy the 
fruits of the work of liis sujw- 
rior in the Hindoo social scale, wliile those above him are practi- 
cally debarred fmm sharing in hi.s labors. 

Hence, the high caste man finds it proiitAble to become the 
servant of the low caste man wlio may be able to i>ay for his 
menial offices. Brahmins are, therefore, gi-catly run after as 
cooks, food being the medium through which pollution can be 
most easily imiarted. A Brahmin cook is greatly in demand 



288 THE STouy of goveunmknt. 

in native Indian regiments, some of the men of which are often 
of high castes. 

In a word, the Brahmin " can cook for every man, whilst no 
one can cook for him"; and the food proceeding from his hands 
is always pure. The caste system is not, tlierefore, an unmitigated 
evil. To use the words of a thoughtful student of India, there 
is nothing in it so very oppressive, inhuman, and monstrous, and 
on the bulk of the Hindoo people it weighs but slightly. 

India is emphatically the land of human horrors, where freaks 
of superstitious fantasy encounter the traveller in nearly every 
village. Preeminent among cranks of all nations is the Hindoo 
Fakir, and the amount of self-torture which these fanatics will 
embrace and yet live, is almost incredible. 

Having the tongue bored with a red-hot iron was at one time 
a self-torture so popular, that under a clump of banyan trees, near 
the temple of the bull god at Chinsurah, the devotees used to 
range themselves in a long line, in order to get the operation 
performed by a blacksmith, who bore the reputation of not only 
doing it effectually, which was well, but also — what was equally 
important among the poverty-stricken Fakirs — cheaply. 

To walk with parched peas in your shoes was, in the days of 
severe penance in Europe, held to be a most reputable punishment 
for sins divers and many. But the Hindoo Fakir quite outstrips 
the European one. A case is on record, doubtless only a specimen 
of many, of a Fakir who walked up and down in front of a mosque 
gaily chanting a hymn, with his sandals nailed to his feet by iron 
spikes, which projected above the instep. 

Others will make the pilgrimage to a shrine, not on foot, but 
by rolling their bodies along the ground the whole waj-, by ad- 
vancing on their backs, pushing themselves along by their heels, 
on their hands and feet, and by various other equally inconve- 
nient methods of progression. 

Others will sit motionless in one place until the joints of their 
limbs get so stiff that they cannot bend them, or with hands 
clenched until the nails grow through the flesh, or by holding the 
arm, by means of support, in such a position that in time it 
withei-s. There is really no end to the ingenuity of these devotees 
in inflicting long and lasting tortures on themselves without pre- 



ran ItULE OF CASTE. 2S9 

vipitating deatli, wIucIl would be a pleasure in coni|iftrison, and 
hence not bo meritorious in the eyes of the goda. 

Anothei- method of torture, which must be well known to most 
readers by means of the illustmtions of it, Ls that in wliich hooks 
are inserted in the muscles of the devotees' backs, and then a 




number of them are swung in an appiiratus not unlike the 
"merry-go-round" seen at fairs, only in this case the solo sup- 
port by which the victim iu suspended in mid-air is the hook and 
cord inserted in his living flesh. 

One of the most curious parts of this business is that, if a per- 



240 THE STORY OF GOVERNME^*T. 

son wishes to reap the benefits that the gods are supposed to 
shower on the meritorious people who practise this species of 
torture, he has no difficulty in procuring a substitute who will 
submit to it for a small sum, though self-torture is now pro- 
hibited by the British authorities. 

As remarkable as the Fakirs, though in a far better way, are the 
municipal institutions of Hindostan, which date from a period long 
before the dawn of history. Their principle is the famous " village 
system," the leading idea in which is, that the people of a partic- 
ular community do not consist of individual units, but are a body 
corporate, for the regulation of whose affairs certain functionaries 
are required, and which, as a body, enjojrs certain rights over the 
soil. These rights, and the method of administering them, vary 
infinitely, but, nevertheless, over all Hindoo India the village sys- 
tem in a more or less defined fonn exists. 

The land is not the land of any individual ; it belongs in common 
to the village, and each is only entitled to his share of the produce 
— in kind or in money — of the soil, as a component member of 
the body corporate which holds the land in common. These lands 
are sometimes worked by the villagers, at other times by hired 
lalxDrei-s, or are let out to temporary tenants. 

In most cases the former rule — which seems to liave been tlie 
general one in early times in India — prevails. The office-bearei-s 
of the village, including all the artificei's, form an institution which 
has undergone no alteration from time immemorial, and they also 
enter into calculations connected with the stiitistics of an agricul- 
tural village. 

The patel^ or head of the village, has freehold land, or special 
rights ; and the kulkarni^ or accountant, Jilso receives remuneration 
in various ways. These two officers supply the machinery in ever}- 
village for collecting statistical details. The Barra Balloota von- 
sists of twelve hereditiiry office-bearei-s, including the patel and 
kulkarni^ who receive certain fees or renmneration from the village 
in exchange for professional services. 

Thus the sutar^ or carj^enter, the lohar^ or smith, the chamhar^ 
or shoemaker, are paid by each villager, and they mend all imple- 
ments for agricultural purposes, the owners finding the materials. 
Some of the office-bearers have a right to a certain number of 



THE BULB OF CASTE. 



241 



rows in the crops, and all the fees form items in the calculations. 
It is a system so admirable that one can scarcely conceive any- 
thing more suited to the peculiar conditions of Hindoo life and 
character. By means of it, India is a collection of little, indepen- 
dent, self-governing states, each under its potail, or head-man, 
which can survive, and have survived revolutions out of number, 
to which they are all-impassive ; thus the people, though slaves so 
far as political freedom is concerned, are yet municipally in poi^ 




session ot the most jierfect independence. Tliey want nothing 
from any higher state, so long as it wants nothing from them. 

This village system must have been devised by men of long heads 
and great, honest hearts, since, after the trial of every conceivable 
system of administration — for which experiments there were no 
earthly reasons except vanity and that i^culiar Anglo-Saxon con- 
tempt for everything not emanating from British brains — they are 
returning to the system devised so many thousand years ago by 
the village wortiiies of Ilindostan. 



242 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

Lord Metcalf says that if a district remains for a series of yeai-s 
the scene of continued pillage and massacre, so that the village 
cannot be inhabited, the scattered villagers, nevertheless, return 
whenever the power of peaceful possession revives. A generation 
may pass away, but the succeeding generation will return ; the 
sons will take the place of their fathers, the same site for the 
village, the same position for the liouses, the same lands will 
be occupied by the^ descendants of those who were driven out 
when the village was depopulated. 

The quarrels arising out of the village system are settled by 
a Punchaijct^ or jury of five or more, who decide both tlie fact 
and the law ; and though the Hindoo, when before an English 
tribunal, is often too apt an example of the duplicity and fraud 
which alloy the characteristics of the race, yet he has little chance, 
if bound by oaths which he respects, or which custom has led him 
to believe sacred, of escaping from the meshes of the legJil net 
with which the Punchayet surrounds all those who come before it. 

While considering the matter of native administration of jus- 
tice, the subject of Hindoo thieves is apt to obtrude itself. In 
very old civilizations, and in overcrowded communities, the trade 
of stealing advances with the other arts and sciences, until, as in 
India and China, thieving and burglary have grown to be, not the 
vulgar, clumsy handicrafts they are in America, or Europe, but 
really capable of being ranked among the fine arts. 

The Hindoo thief is an expert. For example, a burglar will 
bore a hole through the wall, and as Indian village huts are often 
built of mud his labors are greatly lightened. Tlie hole being 
big enough to allow of his body entering, he does not immediately 
take this step, having learnt by long experience that, no matter 
how cautious he may be, the quick-eared owner may have heard 
his movements, and be ready the moment his head protrudes 
through the hole his hands and crowbar have made, to descend 
upon it with a pickaxe or a drawn sword. 

The burglar, therefore, adopts the precaution of inserting a 
stick with a bunch of grass the shape and size of a human head. 
If a blow descend on the feeler^ the burglar instantly decamps, 
knowing that the house is on the watch and alarmed. If no such 
i*esult follows, he enters himself, picks up all he can, and hands 



THE r.lILB OF CASTK. 



243 



the plunder through the hole to his partner outside, wlio preimres 

it for being carried f>IT. mid gives the alarm shoiihl tlic least sign 

of danger appear. 

Then there is tlie thie£ wlio inuies under a house until he comes 

to the women's apartment, knowing that so sei'urely is thia 

guarded by the rooms on either side that little care is exerted to 

protect the inmates' abundant jewelry scattered round. Having 

arrived at the scene of his depredations lie gently raises the floor 

and admits himself 

noiselessh '"tn this d<i 

mestic holj of holies 

Silently he absorlw 

about his person the 

metallic treiisures of the 

Zenana, and will even 

abstract the bantjles ind 

bracelets from the limbs 

and the iings from tht 

noses and eirs of the 

sleeping beiuties with- 
out awaking them 

There >re thieves not 
less courageous, who 
will entei i cnmp vt 
night, jKiss the sentnes 
and even step o ^ i r 
sleeping dogs, until the\ 
reach the officei-s' teiit-s, 

these gentlemen Ijeing quiti; unaware of the presence of midnight 
visitors until in the morning they timl themselves clothed witli 
nothingness. A superior hand will even tiike the blanket from 
around a sleeper without rousing liini. 

Then there are the many different kinds of [.ickpocketa and 
"cut-purses," who will enter the crowded hizaar aimed with a 
sharp little knife, with which they relieve the girdles of the buyers 
and sellers of the purses concealed in the folds of that universal 
Oriental article of dress ; or the more dangerous thief, wlio will 
gain access to a house in the dark, liis naked body well oiled. 




244 THE STORY OF OOVEBNMEKT. 

If seized, his supple body slips through the victim's hands, or if 
he is likely to be caught, the sharp knife which hangs by a string 
around the thicFs neck inflicts an ugly wound on the wrists or 
other portions of the person of the captor. 

The riches of India have for ages been proverbial. " The 
wealth of Omus or of Ind," has been a magnet to many an advent- 
urer, from Turkish Sultans to English lords, like Clive, and the 
quantity of their spoils has been almost incalculable. 

When Mahmoud of Ghazni plimdered Muttra, the fabled birth- 
place of Krishna, he obtained, during an orgy of rapine and mass- 
acre lasting twenty days, an incredible amount, the gift of 
millions of devotees. 

Among the loot which he bore to his Alpine home were 
huge idols of pure gold, with eyes of rubies and decorations of 
sapphires and diamonds, the spoil taking 850 elephants to trans- 
port it. 

At a later date, when he sacked Somnauth, where for forty 
centuries had stood the Temple of Soma, " lord of the moon," 
piles of diamonds and sapphires, rubies and gold, streamed 
from the hollow interior of the idol, which the Brahmins had 
earnestly endeavored to ransom. The Mohammedans entertain a 
strong repugnance to image-worship, and Mahmoud had been 
famous for destroying such stumbling-blocks of offence to Moliam- 
medan eyes. 

The ransom of their chief idol offered by the priests was a tre- 
mendous temptation, but principle prevailed, and the religious 
warrior with one blow from his mighty battle-axe sent the idol 
reeling to the ground among the groaning priests. His piety was 
well rewarded. In a few hours the accumulations of ages changed 
hands. James Russell Lowell, one of our most American of poets, 
has put this striking stoiy into vivid verse. 

THE SULTAX MAHMOUD. 

Mahmoud once, the idol-breaker, spreader of the faith, 
"Was at Somnauth sorely tempted, so the legend saith. 
In the great pagoda's centre, monstrous and abhorred, 
Granite on a throne of granite, sat the temple's Lord. 
Mahmoud paused a moment, silenced by that silent face, 
Wliich, with eyes of stone unwavering, awed the ancient place. 




THE BULE OF CASTE. 246 

Then the Bnihmiiis knelt before him, by hig doubt made bold, 

Offering for their idol* a ransom countless gems and gold. 

Oold was yellow dirt to Mahmoud, but of precious use, 

Since from gold the roots of power suck a magic juice. 

*' Were yon stone alone in question, this would please me well, ** 

Mahmoud said, ** but, with that block there, I my truth must sell. 

Wealth and rule slip down with Fortune, as her wheel turns round; 

Ho who keeps his faith, he only, cannot be discrowned. 

Little were a change of station, loss of life or crown; 

But tlie wreck wore past retrieving, if the man fell down.** 

Saying this, his mace ho lifted, smote with might and main, 

And the idol, on the pavement tumbling, burst in twain. 

Luck obeys the downrijlit striker. From the hollow core 

Fifty times the Brahmins* offer flooded all the floor. 

In addition to such temples reared for the worship of tlie gods, 
there are in India many holy places, in some of which shrines are 
erected and in others not. To these places great numbers of pil- 
grims throng, and reside for a time, in the hope of imbibing from 
the surroundings something of the sanctity which is connected 
with them. 

Others, whose lives have been spent in the pursuit of gain 
or in the neglect of religion, resoit liere towards the evening 
of their days, so as to die in a sacred locality. They even erect 
temples and tanks for water at these places, so that by such meri- 
torious deeds they may secure repose for their souls. It is, how- 
ever, to the Ganges, the Jumna, the Indus, the Cavery, the Krishna, 
and otlier more or less sacred rivers, that the Hindoo chiefly makes 
his pilgrimages. 

Water is, according to liis belief, the best means of moral 
as well as physical purification — a belief which according to 
Homer was held by the ancient Greeks. Of these holy Hindoo 
places, the city of Benares is the holiest. What Jerusalem was 
to the Crusader, and Mecca to the Mahometan. Benares is to 
the Hindoo. 

According to Brahminic pliilosophy, Benares is too holy to 
be a part of this world, and instccad is situated on the point 
of Siva's trident. Hence, no earthquakes are ever exi^erienced 
there. From this city there is a way direct to heaven — a 
royal road to salvation. A very short breathing of its holy air is 
sufficient to secure this, provided the pilgrim visit the shrines and 
pay for the privilege of so doing. 



246 THE ST»>Rr •►r ootebsuest. 

All things ar»f ^x:«k(ible t« j in«r ;?J*i> ; Jind it even lies within the 
pOB?<*ib£litIe^ that the - l-ee wacin:? ** Englishman who resorts 
thither to Lre^ithe hL* Ll^^r mnj occiZn ** afa^rption into Brahmi." 
And it niivr be mention*^ L a* *:cjc of the curiosities of religious 
fanaticLsm, tliat the H:::«I»>?s aiErm that one Englishman actually 
avuileil hiaaself of this j»rivil«e<^- 

Extni«>rdLnarr thoimrh this statement mav seem, it is believed 
that Job Chamock, who in loV^> Liid the foundation of the East 
India C«>uijKiny*s power ia Bengal, absolutely became a Hindoo, 
and yearly sacrificed a cock oa his natire wife's tomb, and that 
General Ste\»"art also et^raged a Brahmin to perform daily wor- 
ship among the c^^llection of iilols which he had arranged on the 
portico of his house. Night and d:iy. at all seasons of the year, 
everj' dusty nxul leading to Benar&i is thronged with pilgrims 
wendiu*:: their wav t«» this centre of Hindoo devotion. 

But the Hindoo shrine which is most known in Europe is that of 
Juggernaut, Juggernauth. or Jagannat*h. Wlien we speak of a 
person crushing himself untler the Juggernaut wheels of custom, 
we mean to express that the indi^-iduaFs fear of the opinion 
of otliers is irreater than the strenirth of his own vrilh and we but 
borrow a simile from one of the mivst famous of Indian supersti- 
tions or relicrious rites. 

The temple is situattnl in Pooive. or Juggernaut, in the province 
of Orissa, about two lunuln.Hl and lifty miles southwest of Calcutta, 
and is cliieflv remarkable for the idol containe<l in it, which is 
annually dragged in its car in procession. 

Indeed, were it not for this annual procession, and tlie crowds 
wliich come t^) witness or tiike pLxrt in it, the whole affair would 
>>e of little imi>ortance, and command no attention from anyone 
not immediatelv interested. The town in which this celebrated 
prfKjession is held is mean, dirty and badly built. The streets 
are fTowded with sacred oxen, who ai*e trained to attack with 
their Ju^niH any intrudei-s on the Siicredness of the route. 
VnrumH kinrls of monkeys may l)e seen perched on the houses, 
wallH, and treses ; and in the water-tanks are tame crocodiles, which 
are objer^t^ of woi'ship. 

The Pagoda of Juggernaut is at the end of the principal 
ittreet, whidh is \i:ry wide and composed almost entirely of reli- 




248 THE STORY OF GOVKKXMENT. 

gious establishments with low-piUared verandas in front, and plan- 
tations of trees interposed. The temple stands \vithin a square 
space inclosed by a lofty stone wall, and measuring 650 feet on a 
side. 

The principal entrance is crowded with the baskets and 
umbrellas of the natives, and the hute of dried leaves and 
branches which serve as a shelter for a number of Fakirs, and it 
opens on a vestibule witli a pyramidal roof. On eacli side is a 
monstrous figure, representing a kind of crowned lion. 

In front is a column of dark-colored basalt, of very light and 
elegant proportions, surmounted by the figure of the monkey-god 
Hanuman, the Indian Mercury. The great pagoda rises from 
twenty feet high within the outer inclosure ; from a base thirty 
feet square it rises 180 feet, tapering slightly from bottom to top, 
and rounded off on the upper part, being crowned with a kind of 
dome. The temple is dedicated to Krishna, who is the principal 
object of worsliip in the character Juggernaut, and as an incarna- 
tion of Vishnoo, but is held in joint tenancy with Siva and with 
Sabhadra, the supposed sister and wife of Siva. There are idols of 
each, consisting of rudely sculptured blocks of wood about six feet 
in height. 

Krishna is dark blue, Siva wliite, and Sabhadni of a yellowish 
hue. In front of the altar on which these idols are placed is a figure 
of the hawk-god, Garounda. A repast is daily served to these idols ; 
it consists of 410 lb. rice, 225 lb. flour, 350 lb. clarified butter, 
(ghee), 167 lb. treacle, 65 lb. vegetables, 186 lb. milk, 24 lb. spices, 
84 lb. salt, and 41 lb. oil. During the meal the doors are closed 
against all but a few favored individuals sanctified by long fasts 
and a habit of asceticism and penitence. Loud strains of peculiar 
music drown all other sounds while the gods are consuming their 
daily rations. 

About a mile and a half from the temple is a tank, to which the 
gods are brought by their attendants to pass a few days annually, 
devoted to bathing in the cool watei^s of the sacred pool. Each 
idol has its own car, but that of Juggernaut is the i)rincipal one. 

It is al)Out thirty feet square, mounted on sixteen wheels, each 
more than six feet in diameter, and the whole construction is 
upwards of forty feet high. It is i)lentifully adorned externally 




THE RULE OF CASTE. 



'with sculptniea ot the usual Indian tvpe, and is conTentionally sup- 
posed to he drawn hy two wooden horses, which are only attached 




to it on the day of procession when two stout cables itre attaclied 
to the car. These are seized hy thousands, or hy as many as can 
obtain a place to hold Ity, and formerly when it went along the city. 



260 THK STORY OF GOVEUNMENT. 

there were many that offered themselves as a sacrifice to the 
idol, and despei-ately lay down on the ground that the chariot- 
wheels might crush them. 

But as the British Government no longer makes profit out of the 
pilgrims by the tax put upon them, it is doing all it can to dis- 
courage the annual religious pandemonium. Instead of hundreds 
immolating themselves before the idol's car, only occasionally now, 
and even these are rare occasions, a poor decrepit wretch, weary 
of life, or drugged by the priests with Indian hemp or opium, 
will madly throw himself before the wheels in spite of the efforts 
of the police, who have orders to prevent such suicide. 

The Hindoo is beginning to be wonderfully cautious of that 
swarthy skin of his, even in the service of the gods, and with 
a view to his salvation. On a late occasion, indeed, instead of 
thousands of devotees struggling to get at the ropes, not a single 
hand assisted to drag the car along ; and to the hoiTor and chagrin 
of the Brahmins, for the fii*st time in history, the idols of Jugger- 
naut came to a standstill in the streets of Pooree. But yet in 
civilized America we are di-agging along many a crushing Jugger- 
naut in the shape of colossal corporations which plunder the 
people and debauch the politicians. Let us hope, however, not for 
long. 

Speaking of the Juggernaut car of custom or of conventionality 
which crushes the individuality of so many recalls another meta- 
phor borrowed from India. Most readei-s know of the Pinkerton 
men who can be hired in some states by any rich man or corpora- 
tion to fire on striking employees. During the last strike on the 
New York Central the indignation of the public was aroused by the 
murderousness of one of these gangs, and many newspapers 
referred to them as Pinkerton thugs. 

This word and comparison come from India, where murder used 
to be not merely a fine art, but an article of faith among some 
fanatics, the surest way not merely of sending but of going to 
heaven. " Thuggee," as this religious crime is called, originated 
in this manner: The goddess Kali, as well as those of Devee, 
Doorga, or Bhavani, by all of which she is known, is looked upon 
as Siva's wife. 

She is represented in her statues as many-handed, her hands full 



THE Biri.B OP CASTE. 



251 



of varioos kinds of wenpons, and arouud her neck a stiing of 
human skolls ; and in old times, according to Hindoo mythology 
she made war upon a race of giants, from every drop of whose 
blood sprang a demon, 
which blood again had 
the power of propagat- 
ing other demons, 
until the land wa» 
overrun with diablerie- 

At Lost tlie goddess 
created two men to 
whom she gave hand- 
kerchiefs to destroy 
the demons. When 
they had [(crfoi-med 
this tiisk, slie presented 
them with the hand- 
kerchiefs, iiml, hi ad- 
dition, the ]>nvilege of 
using tlitMn against 
human beings for their 
livelihood Hence 
arose the caste of 
Thug^ 

The J aie known to 
hive existed during 
the seventeenth ceii 
tui), T\hen they used 
female decoys for tht 
uiiwirj tnvcUer, as 
thtj did ^Mtlun the 
pi esent ct ntUM 
though these decoys 
are of a much older 
use than that j^eriod. The fmteriiity is not emiipoNed of men 
of one caste, but of people of different castes and religions, and 
living in different districts ; liaving secret signs and a peculiar 
dialect known to all those who are initiated into the fraternity. 




252 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

Strange to say, however, the majority of them are nominally not 
Hindoos, but Mohammedans, and their tradition is that they origi- 
nally sprang from seven tribes, all of that religion, living in the 
neighborhood of Delhi, from which they were dislodged in the 
seventeenth century. 

The Hindoos, however, say that the caste was in existence long 
before Mohammed's time ; but as they all agree in worshipping 
the Hindoo god Kali, observe the Hindoo fe?.sts in her honor, 
make offerings at her temples, and, especially after any murder, 
present to her a piece of silver and some sugar, they may be said 
to be a Hindoo sect. 

Those who are initiated into the body are taught the secret 
signs, but only those who apply the noose receive the sacred 
wafer of Thuggee, which is believed to change a man's whole 
nature. From boyhood to mjinhood they are taught to look upon 
the strangulation of uiwffending victims as their calling in life, into 
which they are gradually initiated. 

First, the neophyte is employed as a scout, or sotha^ only^ 
his duty Ijcing to give warning of the approach of a traveller. 
Sometimes the women and children, jis less ai)t to be suspected, 
are employed in this work ; then lie is allowed to see the corpse 
after it has been strangled, and to assist at the interment ; lasth% 
after a solemn initiation bv means of the sacred sujrar, he is 
elevated to the rank of a hhuttote^ or st rangier, and allowed to use 
the noose, or roomal^ by which the victims are dispatched. 

The whole gang is governed by a jamadar^ sirdar , or chief, and 
has attached to it a ffitru^ or teacher. Nothing about their unholy 
calling is in the Thug's eyes unholy ; on the contrary, everything 
is sacred. The liufhaees^ or gravediggers, constitute one of the 
highest grades in the order. The pickaxe with which tlie gravt* 
is dug is solemnly forged and consecrated. It is considered as a 
gift from Kali, and looked upon accordingly with great veneration. 

Every seventh day this pickaxe is brought out and worshipped^ 
and, no matter how pressing the necessity, the grave for the victim 
can be dug by no other instalment. All the Thugs follow some 
ostensible trade, but travel about from place to place, under 
various disguises, straggling into villages in twos and threes, and 
meeting as strangers. Secrecy is one of the essentials of their 




I'HB ItlTLK OF CASTE. 



work ; never Mill tliey knowingly Htraiigle a, victim in the presence 
of anyone not belonging to tlieir order. 

One of them sometimes passes as a man of rank, with numerous 
attendants, and liis women in palanquins, which in realit> contaut 




generally the implements of their calling. Tliey fall in with 
other travellers as it liy accident, or for mutvial iimtection. Suil- 
dunly, at the favoi-able spot, one throw-s the waisthaiid or tinlKiii 
round the victim's ncok. another draws it tight, both pnsliing Iiini 
forward witli their other hiinds, a third aeizL-H hiiii hy tlie legs 
and throws him on the ground. 



254 THE STORY OF GOVERN^IENT. 

To strangle a man single-handed is accounted a rare feat, and 
one so transcendent that it will ennoble the strangler's descen- 
dants for generations to come. If the locality is dangerous, 
a canvas screen is thrown up as if to conceal women, and the body 
buried behind it ; or one of them will distract the attention of 
travellers by pretending to be in a fit. If a stranger approaches, 
nevertheless, they weep over the body as over a dear comrade. 
The traces of the murder are quickly obliterated. 

Such is their expertness that one hundred Thugs have been 
known to slaughter on an average eight hundred persons in a 
month, and keep up this record for several years. They always 
go forward, never passing through towns or villages through 
which their victims have passed. If they kill a man of note, they 
take care to dispose of all his attendants. They have implicit 
faith in omens ; but when the omens are once favorable, they look 
upon the victim as an appointed sacrifice to the deity, so that if 
he is not slain, Devee would be wroth with them. So they eat, 
drink, and sleep without remorse upon new-filled graves. 

Before the body is buried, it is pierced with holes to prevent it 
swelling, and the grave is so neatly smoothed over that it is next 
to impossible for any one of the uninitiated to point out where 
one exists, even though newly made. This last rite over, the 
Thugs seat themselves round a white cloth, on which are laid the 
sacred pickaxe, fresh from digging the grave, a salver of silver, 
and some coarse sugar. The sugar is distributed to all present, 
and eaten in silence. The silver is supposed to be dedicated to 
Kali, as is also the sugar. 

This done, the cloth is folded up, the plunder divided, after 
shares have been set aside for religious and charitable purposes, in 
accordance Avith the ranks of the members of the gang, and the 
Thugs go on their way again in the guise of simple traders, 
artisans, or travellers. The victims they do not consider killed 
by them. It was God who allowed them to be killed, and con- 
science never seems to trouble them. 

Remorseless murderers, their hands steeped in human blood, 
they might, in their own villages, be good fathers, faithful friends, 
and be respected in their community as skilful artisans, agricul- 
turalists, or traders, whose real calling was never suspected, though 



THE HTTLE OP CASTU. 



sse 



the eommiinity, of ooune, profit I^ their wealth. Generally, how- 
BTer, thej take the precantlon of paying tribute to the Zemindar, 
or to the police officials, whose very near relatives were often 
members of the infamous gang. 

Some Thugs, it is said, were even in the employ of the govern- 
ment itself. Even when discovered, superstition often protected 




them, for there was a title that such and t, 1 a njal v is struck 
with leprosy for having had two Th iga tnmpled to death hy ele 
phants. Indeed, so openly even long after tl e Bnt sh rule was 
established in India, was Thuggee practised, that meichants came 
from a distance to purchase the plunder of ivhicli the murderers 
had robbed their victims. 

Though the murders are uondncted ^vith Meci-ecy, yet it ought 



256 THE 8TOBV OF GOVERNMENT. 

to be mentioned that this is only part of the system, and not really 
from any fear of the consequences, for the Thug exults in his 
crime, and if caught never attempts to defend himself, but boasts, 
as he is being led to the scaffold, of the number and quality of the 
victims whom he has jissisted in sacrificing to the goddess of 
destruction. 

The Thugs believe that at one time Kali assisted them in 
their work by devouring the bodies of the victims, but that one 
of the fraternity having indiscreetly pried into her proceedings, 
she took offence, and left them in future to bury their victims. 
She, however, so far assisted them that she presented one of her 
teeth for a pickaxe, a rib for a knife, and the hem of her lower 
garment for a noose. Hence the sacredness of all these implements. 

Though the existence of this horrible caste was well known to 
the natives, and even to the native officials, with such secrecy was 
their business conducted that the working of the system has only 
been thoroughly understood of late. Such were the pleasant possi- 
bilities of travelling in India, in addition to such iis are shown in 
the suggestive picture of a siesta in the jungle, where an American 
explorer is vividly depicted saving the life of his servant by the 
dexterous use of a bit of cord. Between snakes, tigers, and 
TImgs, the secret places of India are very alluring to the adventur- 
ers but not nice winter resorts for quiet citizens. 

Yet though India is the home of many a dark and horrible su- 
pei-stition, it is also the lionie of a religion gentle and beautiful, 
which of late years has l)een spreading in European countries, and 
has even quite a strong following in the United States. Tliis re- 
ligion is Buddhism, and a brief account of the founder of this in- 
teresting faith may be of value. 

Buddha was a rajah's son, heir to a throne, but in the midst 
of the pleasures of the sensual court of Kapilavastu, the young 
[)rince Siddhartha (his original name) found that there was no 
happiness, and that outside his palace gates there were misery 
and crime, and suffering and death, such as in the days of his 
frivolous life he had never dreamt of. Life inanimate alone pre- 
sented to him pictures which were not those of desolation. The 
Brahmins afforded him no consolation ; their creed gave the young 
prince no comfort, nor did it conform to what he believed were 



' THE BULB OF CASTS. 257' 

the designs of the beneficent Creator of the uitiverHe. Mi» resolve 
vma made. 

"I am determined," he said, "that in disftppearing from here 
below I will not be any more sabjeot to the vicissitudes of traii»- 
migration. I will find the way to put an end to birtli and death, 
and when I have discovered it 1 will impart it to the world. I 
will teach the law of grace to everyone." 

He was then twenty>nine years of age ; but he separated from 
father and motlier, wife and children, and set out to visit the 
schools of the masters of the laws at Manoii. and gave up six 




years to the study of the religious system, as well an tu tlie ascetic 
exercises enjoined on the Brahmins. He was not long in artiving 
at the conclusion that this road was not the one calculated ti) load 
to the goal he had in view. 

Breaking loose from all the old faiths, he fimnded ii new one, 
sod believed tumself to be imbued with tlie (qualities of Buddha. 
and in the possession of ]>erfect wisdom. Commencing his preach- 
ing at Benares, in the thirty<8ixth year of liis age, he i-eturned to 
Kapilavastn, and converted to the new faith his father. Win wife, 
and family. His name was soon known all over Central India. 

Nov commenced his contests with the Iti-alimins, which several 



268 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

times imperilled his life. But for more than forty years he con- 
tinued his bloodless crusade without other protection than what 
was afforded him by the love of his followers, the austerity of his 
morals, and the perfection of his wisdom. Feeling his end approach- 
ing, this great and good man took a tender leave of his companions 
in labor, and seating himself under a tree expired. In the year 
543 B. c. his followers met and settled the dogmas of their master, 
for he, like the sweet-souled Son of the Cai-penter, liad himself com- 
mitted nothing to writing.^ 

The religion of Buddha, or Fo, as it is sometimes called in China, 
may well be styled one of the best forms of religion ever invented 
by man. It inculcates benevolence, humility, piety, and in all 
things moderation. It has no sacrifices, and none of its rites are 
secret or cruel. Its sacred books are open to the perusal and study 
of everyone, and this fact alone is one of the guarantees of the 
good faith of its originator. 

But in the more corrupt state into which it fell after the death 
of its founder, it had images of all kinds in tlie temples. There 
are images representing gods of the hills, woods, valleys, etc., as 
well as household deities, to whom offerings, but not sacrificas, 
are made. Li the temples, which are very numerous, there are 
altars, bells, and beads, jewels and exquisite gem-work. In the 
shadow of the temple walls the native goldsmiths and jewellers ply 
their craft, making relics to sell to the pious. Incense and tapers 
burn day and night in these buildings, around the images, some of 
which are of colossal size ; and the utes of the religion are celebra- 
ted by singing, processions of priests, and such-like ceremonials. 

The trausmignition of souls is, now at least, a leading doctrine 
among the Buddhists, and accordingly it follows, from their hold- 
ing tliis belief, that they avoid animal food and the act of sacrifice, 
either of which might involve the killing of some human being 
who was performing one of the states of transmigration. In Tibet 

> '• His doctrine," writes M. Aim<^ Hambert, •' which he never intended to have any other 
end tlian that of working a moral reform in the Brahmin worship, and substituting a reign of 
duty for that of the gods, and the practice of good for that of vain ceremonies, became in 
its turn a dogmatic system, accompanied by a superstitious and idolatrous worship. Buddhism 
is now the principal religion in the Island of Ceylon, the Burman Empire, the Kingdoms of 
Siam and Annara, Tonquin, Til)et, Tartar>', Mongolia, China, and Japan. It reignod for some 
time in the whole of India, Java, and other islands, and still exists in Cashmere and Nepaul, 
the number of its adherents exceeding four hundred millions of souls, an amount which no 
other religion on the globe has attained. 



THE BDIjE of CjLSIE. 



269 



they hava monastflries, containing numerous monlu, who pass their 
tune in religious exerciaes and study. 

The head of tlie faith is the Dala'i Larna, or Grand Lama, 
vho resides at Lhasa, which is accordingly the capital of the 
northern Buddhist world. This person^e has di%-ine honora paid 
to him, and is also the nominal sovereign of the country, though 
the real governing power is vested in the Chinese governor and 
a Tibetan minister. Lamaism, or the " Great Vehicle," is, bow- 




ever, so amplified a form of the fiuth of Gautama as to be really 
a new religion, or sect. 

Buddhism is now closely studied by European scholars. The 
Brahmins called the Buddhist» Sangataa, or atheists. This can 
only be in ita very corrupt state, for eucli a doctrine could surely 
never maintain its hold upon one third of the human race, com- 
priang nationalities so varied as the keen-trading Chinese, the 
energetic Tibetans, tlie gentle, dispassionate Hindoos, and the war- 
li^, intelligent Burmese and Siamese. 

It was a protest against idolatry and Brahminism by a man 
irilo was not a Brahmin but a rajah's son. It abolished caste, 



260 THE STOEY OF GOVERNlklENT. 

and hence, independently of other reasons, tlie violent opposition 
it meets with from the Brahmins. It is really somewhat difficult 
to understand its actual doctrines ; but whatever they are. Buddh- 
ism has been a power in the world, and it would be a nish 
assertion to make that it has not been on tlie whole for good. 
In India, thougli not properly the national religion — Bmliminism 
being so — it probably, in the number of its followers, at one time 
far outstripped those holding tlic indigenous faith of the country. 

The marriage customs of a nation like the Hindoo, or indeed 
any of the older nationalities, arc so much a part of their govern- 
mental status that a full description of them cannot rightly l>e 
considered out of place, and will doubtless l>e intensely interesting 
to all whose thoughts ever turn to the important subject of mar- 
riage, which ought to be the abiding rock — the firm foundation of 
human society. 

In the " Institutes of Menu " the most clatomte directions ai-e 
laid down in regard to the choice of a Bmhmin's wife, and to the 
ceremonies that must be undergone by a Brahmin's son before 
wedlock. He must sit, for instance, on a stately bed, decked with 
a garland of flowers. His father then presents him with a copy 
of the Vedas, and a cow, the symbol of Venus. The father next 
reads the youtli a grave lecture on his coming duties, and how 
he ought to select a wife. 

The qualifications for a Brahmin's bride are many and strict, if 
the code of the great Hindoo legislator is followed. Not only is 
a girl with red hair — a rare case among the Hindoos — to be 
avoided, but care must also be taken to shun one with little hair 
or with too much. The bride elect must not Ix) immoderately 
talkative, nor must she have inflamed eyes. 

The young Brahmin must avoid one " with the name of a con- 
stellation, of a tree, or of a river, of a barbarous nation, or of a 
mountain, of a winged creature, a snake, or of a slave, or one with 
any name raising an image of terror. Let him choose for a wife 
a girl whose form has no defect ; who has an agreeable name ; 
who walks gracefully, like a young elephant (strange comparison I) ; 
whose teeth are small, whose hair is modemte in quantity, and 
whose body has an exquisite softness." 

The siege of the girl's parents is not decided upon until a fortu- 



THE RTTLE OF CASTE. 281 

nate da^ has boen ftzed. The father of the young man then takes 
a number of small presents, and proceeds to the house of tlie 
bride-elect, but will immediately tarn back if any animal of evil 
omen, such as a fox, a cat, or a serpent should cross his path. 
But even if all go well with the ambassador at the house of tlie lady 
whom he hopes to make his daughter-in-law, the fatlier of the girl 
does not give his consent until he hears the chirp of one of the 
small lizards that creep aboutold walls. When this favorable omen 
occurs the bride's father &&• 
sents, and the marriage day is 
fixed. 

The four summer months 
usually chosen are the most 
Incky in the whole calendar; 
and, probably on account of 
the field-labors being suspended 
during that i)eriod, because of 
the great heat, some leisure is 
aftortled for tlie performance , 
of the ceremony. During the 
night preceding the nuptial 
flay, the houses of bride and 
bridegroom resound witli 
music, and buniing Inm[» are 
placed at the door l»y women 
who utter wishes for their wel- 
fare. Balls of rice are made 
hj' the women, who towards 
the close of the night eat rice 
with the bride and bridegi-oom. 

Next raoniing tlie wimien '""^ hatek <; 

again assemble, and men v-raaking recommences. With buniing 
lamps in their lirt:ids, ii " ^es-sel uf pure water, balls of rico-flour, 
and a quantity of l»etel, tliey i>i-oceed to visit the neighboring 
families, and present tlieni with the plant." On their return liome 
the marriage rites ai-e continued. 

After placing^the future husband and wife upon a framework, 
or wicket of bamboo, and thrice waving around their feet a wisp of 




262 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

lighted straw, the women taking a ball of thread, and encompass- 
ing the bamboo fi-amework four times, bind the betrothed pair 
together, fastening one end of the thread on the right arm of the 
youth, and the left arm of the maiden, with a few blades of durva- 
grass. 

The bodies of the bride and bridegroom are next anointed with 
fragrant unguents. When these ceremonies are completed, little 
offerings, intended to secure the happiness of the betrothed, are 
made at the houses of both parents to the manes or spirits of their 
deceased ancestors. Presents of betel, fruit, and sweetmeats are 
then exchanged between the bride and bridegroom; and in the 
course of the afternoon their heads are shaved. 

Immediately after the performance of this part of the ceremony, 
a large stone is placed in the midst of a small aitificial pond of 
water, surrounded by trees, in which are suspended lamps with 
wicks, made of the fruit of the thorn-apple. Upon this stone the 
bridegroom stands, and the women, with the burning lamps, rice- 
Imlls, etc., in their hands, approach him in single file, and success- 
ively touch his forehead with the various objects which they bear. 
The bride, bridegroom and all the principal personages concerned 
fast until the whole ceremony of the nuptials is completed. 

Rich people, and even those who cannot afford such display, 
often spend large sums on their weddings, and conduct the cere- 
monies with the pomp, splendor, and lavishness so dear to the 
Oriental, and sometimes to the Occidental, heart. At night, the 
bridegroom, superbly dressed, glittering with gold and silver orna- 
ments, and with a crown on his head, is carried in a golden palan- 
quin to the bride's dwelling. 

Before him n^ove a long procession of servants bearing silver 
staves, and open carriages containing singers and dancing-girls, 
some of whom, later on, perform the celebrated egg-dance. All 
along the line of march attendants, carrying lighted flambeaux, dis- 
charge fireworks as they advance ; and scattered amongst them 
are musicians who play on various instruments. It is not a little 
significant that, since the English conquest of India, these musi- 
cians arc frequently Europeans, and European guns are also fired, 
every now and then, as accompaniments to this marching — 
sometimes martial — musics. 



THE BULB OF CASTE. 268 

OccaaionaUy these midnight marriage processiona, when passing 
through the vilhige, are playfully attacked by the boys and young 
people. But these encounters, commenced in sport, not unfre- 
quently end in dread earnest mth the loss of many lives. 

The ceremonies which follow when the bridegroom has reached 
the bride's house — sucli as h is being undressed by the bride's father 
a:td clothed in new garments, such as standing on a stool beneath 
which a cow's head and other sacred things have been buried, such 
as covering the bride with old gaiments and carrying her seven 
times round her future lord, then letting them gaze on each other. 



"is4*!ii>' 




f soiiTiiEiiy ixiiiA. 



and approacli and sit down together, take up so much time that 
once in one's life would seem a festive sufficiency on this question 
of marriage d la Hindoo. But we must remember that time has 
little meaning or value to an Eastom mind whose constant concept 
is eternity, and a stretch of eei-emony that would be tremendously 
tedious to us is to them but a soft and agreeable recreation. 

The father-in-law next presents the bridegroom with fourteen 
blades of the fragrant kusa grass, pours water into the palm of his 
right hand, and reads a mantra, or incantation, over it. Water is 
then spilt upon the ground, and the officiating Brahmin, having 



264 THE STOliY OF GOVERNMENT. 

directed the youth to dip his fingers into a vessel of water, 
approaches with tlie girl, and placing her hand upon that of her 
husband, binds them together with a garland of flowers. 

When the bride has been formally given and received, the garland 
of flowers is removed, while the father of the bride repeats tlie 
Gdyairi^ or lioliest vei'se of the Vedas. A kind of curtain is then 
drawn over the heads of the married pair, who once more regard 
each other, after which they are directed to bow to the priest and to 
the company, and to invoke the blessings of the gods and Brahmins. 

During these ceremonies, portions of the Misra — work on the 
various onlers of the Hindoos — are reheai'sed by the Ghatakas, 
and the foreheads of the guests are marked with sandal-wood 
powder. The bride and bridegroom are finally fastened together 
by their garments in token of union, and led back into the midst 
of the family. 

Celibacy is accounted a disgrace both to men and women. If 
a man loses his wife he immediately looks out for a second, but if 
she also dies he has difficulty in getting a third, owing to the be- 
lief that some bane is upon him. To avoid this supposed cui-se, 
he betrotlis himself to a tree^ on which the threatened evil falls. 
Fifty is the age wliich the sacred books fix as the period beyond 
which a man should not marry, but the Brahmins disregard this 
injunction. 

Though Indian women are not treated with the same courtesy 
and consideration as they are in Western society, and are in many 
respects even degraded, yet it is erroneous to suppose that they 
are mere slaves, or are sunk as low as thev are in Mohammedan 
harems. 

Still a Hindoo woman is not considered the equal of a man. 
She is looked upon with small consideration, and is supposed to 
be incapable of acquiring that degree of mentality which would 
allow of her ascension in the social scale. If a man does anything 
reprehensible, it is usually said that he has acted in the spirit of 
a woman, and she, on the other hand, as the excuse for any fault 
she has committed, lays all the blame on the natural inferiority of 
her sex. 

The Ahh6 Dubois, a well-known and much esteemed writer 
on the Hindoos, considers that from some strange perversity 




THB BOLE. OF CASTE. 265 

of taste, or from tlie effect of custom, the Hindoo women have 
absolutely imbibed a taste for ill-treatment " They would," he 
assumes, "despise tlieir husbnnds if they treated them with famil- 
iarity. I have 



t wife in a 
rage with her 
li us band for 
talking with her 
in an easy strain. 
'His behavior 
covera me with 
shame,' quoth 
she, * and I dare 
no longer show 
my face, Sutli 
conduct among 
OB was nevci- 
seen till n o w , 
Is he become 
a Paranguaif 
(Frank), and 
does he sui>- 
pose me to lie a 
woman of that 
caste?' '" 

Yet, if tht-y 
are despiseil in 
private, they are 
treated with the 

highest respect iuk Kn(i-nAN<Fii at a m ajumm^k i i:i.KiiiiArlox. 

in public. 

Among the ryott, or peasants, thaw is wo sepiiration of the 
women. Both sexes sit at night round the lamp, engaged in 
cheerful conversation, weaving, spinning, cocking, or jilaying a 
kind of game of dominoes. 

Among the martial tribes of India, sucli as the Iiaji>oots, the 
opinion of the women is taken in all affairs of moment ; and before 
■n-ar is decided upon, the chief and his wife first agitate the sub- 




266 THE STORY OP GOVERNMENT. 

ject in private, after which it is confided to the tribal council 
which, in turn, petitions the ruling princes in regard to the decision 
at which they have arrived. 

The wife is also the guardian of the heir to the chieftainslii[> 
during his minority. Among them the women arc everywhere 
treated with great delicacy, i-espect, and even affection. Among 
these people — the Rajpoots — Colonel Tod describes a curious 
festival, wliich is known as the " Festival of the Bracelet." 

The Festival of the Bracelet is in spring, and whatever its ori- 
gin, it is one of the few occasions where an intercourse of gallan- 
try of the most delicate nature is established between the fair sex 
and the cavaliei-s of Rajast'hin. Though the bracelet may be sent 
by maidens, it is only on occasions of urgent necessity or danger. 

The Rajpoot dame bestows with the rakhi (bracelet) the title 
of adopted brother ; and while its acceptance secures to her all the 
protection of a cavalier servante^ scandal itself never suggests any 
other tie. He may hazard his life in her cause, and yet never 
receive a smile in reward, for he cannot even see the fair objec^t 
who, as brother of her adoption, has constituted him her defender. 

But there is a charm in the mystery of such a connection nevcM* 
endangered by close observation ; and the loyal to the fair may 
well attach a value to the public recognition of being the rakhi- 
bund bhdcy the ' l^mcelet-bound brother,' of a princess. 

The intrinsic value of such a pledge is never looked to, nor is 
it requisite it should be costly, though it varies with the means and 
rank of the donor, and may be of floss-silk and spangles, or gold 
chains and gems. Tlie acceptance of the pledge and its return is 
by the katcJdl^ or corset, of simple silk or satin, or gold brocade 
and pearls. In shape or application there is something similar in 
Europe ; and, for defending the most delicate part of the struc- 
ture of the fair, it is peculiarly appropriate as an emblem of de- 
votion. 

A whole j)rovince has often accompanied the katchli ; and the 
monarch of India was so pleased with this courteous delicacy in 
the customs of Rajiist'han, on receiving tlie bmceletof the Princess 
Kurnavati, which invested him with the title of brother, and uncle 
and protector to her infant, Oody Sing, that he pledged himself to 
her service, ' even if the demand were tlie Castle of Rent'uml)or.' 



THE BTTLB OF CASTE. 



26T 



Hnmaiooo proved himself a true knight, mid even abandoned his 
conquests in Bengal when called on to redeem his pledge, and 
succour Cheetore and the widows and minor sons of Sanga Raria. 

Certainly the women of Northern India are not slaves, nor in a 
menial position in the households of their huslands. They have 
ever been treated with resi^ct and even devotion, and, like women 
in the Western World, Iiave been the inspiring causes of nohle 
deeds on the part of their admirers and pi-otectors. To win their 
unseen smiles the Hindoo 
warrior toils and bleeds ; 
for tliere is no recess of 
the harem into which the 
renown of a manly char- 
acter and gallant actions 
will not i>eiictrate. 

The hards, who re- 
semble the troubadours 
of the Middle Ages, and 
the minstrels of ancient 
Greece, are everywhere 
admitted, to the palace as 
well as to the cott^e; I 
and the youth of their 
country decorated in their 
glowing songs with all 
the ornaments of poetrj-, 
are presented to the 

ardent imaginations of the fair in a light highly calculated to in- 
spire admiration and love. 

In general, the women of India enjoy complete liberty ; only 
the women of the higher classes, or those in pjirts of the country 
where Mohammedanism prevails, are at all secluded. Among the 
lower class, indeed, they have to assist in domestic affairs, in busi- 
ness, and in the labors nf agriculture. 

But the most extraordinary custom is that which prevails in 
some parts of India — Mysore, for example. If a woman of any of 
the four pure castes tii-e of her husband, or, being a widow, is 
wearied of a life of celibacy, and goes to the temples and eats some 




268 THE STORV OF GOVERNMENT. 

of the rice offered up to the idol, she is, if of Brahmin caste, offered 
the option of either living in the temple or out of it. 

If she chooses the former she receives a daily allowance of food, 
and a piece of cloth annually. She must in return sweep the 
temple, fan the idol with a yak's tail, and perform the duties of 
a wife to the attendant Bnxhmins. The male children of these 
women are termed moylar^ hut are fond of wearing the Brtihmin- 
ical thread . 

The daughtei's are usually hrought u[) to live like their mothers, 
and the remainder given in marriage to the moylars — who are 
either employed in menial offices about the temple, or engage in 
agriculture or otlier occupations. These temple-women are not 
looked upon as following a disgraceful life, but are, on the con- 
trar>', treated with profound resi)ect by the visitors to the shrines. 

The women of this chai-acter were formerly the only educated 
females in India, and it is remarkable that while a woman bom 
into this disreimtable ti-ade, or adopted in a family of tliis kind, is 
not Ivvild to pursue a shameless vocation, other women who have 
fallcMi from \irtue are esteemed to have discrraced themselves and 
their families. 

A Hindoo woman's time does not hang heavily on her hands. 
If belonging to an industrious family, she rises early in the morn- 
ing, lights her lamp, and s[)ius some cotton for the clothing of her 
faniilv ; she next feeds and attends to the children. This done, 
she s[)rinkles and purifies the floor. Next she sweeps the house 
and the yard. She now breakfasts, cleins the bmss and the stone 
vessels with straw, ashes, and water. Her next duty is to cleanse, 
bruise, and boil rice. About ten or eleven o'clock she tiikes 
a towel, and accompanies the women, her neighl)oi's, to the tank, 
or river, to bathe. 

The last incident in the life of the Hindoo woman is the famous, 
or infamous, but now almost abandoned, Suttee, When a Hindoo 
dies he is burned on a funeral pile, composed of faggots of wood 
drenched with inllaminable substances, and so built as to allow 
a free drau'Wit of air to plav from beneath. 

His ashes are then thrown into the Ganges, or, if the place of 
cremation is at a disUmee from the sacred river, into a liver which 
is S2i])posed to be the Ganges. For instance, when a young Indian 



THB KTJLE OF GABTK. 269 

prince died some yeara ago at Florence, hia body was, by permission 
of tiie autboritiea, burned on the banks of the Amo. 

If the deceased is of Brahminio rank, or a man of wealth, the 
cremation takes place with gi-eat and costly pomp ; but if poor, 
and moreover of low caste, his wretched corpse is disposed of as 
soon OS possible. The burning of the corpse is a widely spread 
custom, and one which, in the interest of public liealth, is highly 
to be commended in tropical countries. 

But, for the chief wife of the deceased to voluntarily become a 




"Suttee " is something revolting. Yet, formerly, until auppi-essed 
by the British Government, nothing was more common. The wife 
mounted the funeral pile and laid herself down by her dead hus- 
band. The faggots were lighted, and in a few minutes the smote 
rolled in volumes around the dead and the living. 

If through pain the living victim attempted to escape, she was 
secured by bamboo rods laid across her body, and held at either 
side. Generally her sufferings were short, tlie smoke choking her 
before the fire seized upon her flesh. But sometimes they were 
unneoesBarily prolonged by the faulty construction of the pile; 



270 THE STOKY OF GOVERNMENT. 

and cases have even been known in which the poor creature has 
attempted, and even made good, her escape from the torments to 
which, unaware of her own powers of endurance, she had volun- 
tarily submitted. 

In most cases, however, the stupefied body soon consumed, and 
mingled its ashes with those of the form beside it. Sometimes, 
no doubt, the " Suttee " was stupefied with drugs, such as opium, 
before ascending the pile, though this has been denied, on the 
gi'ound that as the woman has to undergo certain forms and repeat 
certain prayei*s before she ascends the pile, it requires tlie pos- 
session of all her senses unimpaired to perform these aright. 

It is not compulsory on the Hindoo woman to perform tliis 
" Suttee ''; it is only regarded as a pious act on her part, and it 
may be noted that it is generally the Brahmins' widows who per- 
form it. The reason is obvious. 

A woman of that high cjiste is left a widow ; from being es- 
teemed as a goddess, worshipped by those beneath her as part 
of Brahma, the giver of life — before whom kings were abject 
slaves — who could commit any crime so long as it did not infringe 
the sacred laws of caste — in a word, one of the chosen of the 
earth, she sinks, by her refusal to become a " Suttee " with her 
husband, to be an unclean thing, loathed, despised, and treated 
with contempt by the very Pariahs, for whose shadows to fall upon 
lier a few hours before was contamination the most vile. 

For a delicate girl like her to lose all caste is misery compared 
with which the agony of a few minutes is nothing. These facts 
we must tiike into account if we would justly estimate the motives 
which induce a Hindoo widow to be burned with her husband, or 
in default of burning to be buried alive. 

In 1829, Lord William Bentinck, among the many other excellent 
reforms which he was the means of introducing into India, forbade 
the performance of *' Suttee " within the British dominions, under 
severe penalties. Notwithstanding the passive resistance of some 
of the Indian conservatives of those days, and the presentation of 
a petition to the Privy Council in favor of it by some rich Hindoos, 
the action of the Governor-General was supported by the Home 
Government, and '' Suttee " is now rare, or conducted with great 
secresy, in the British Territories as well as in the Protected States. 



THR BULK or CA8TE. 271 

3%a law» of inheritance among tlie Hindoos are very curious. 
The momeitt a son ia born he acquires a vested right in his 
father's property, which c-annot be sold without the recognition 
of this right of joint ownership. It is, in fact, simply a sort of 
Hindoo law of entail, with, however, muny viiriations on the 
' European system. 

For instance, when a hou comes of age, he can, even agiuust 




the will of the jmrent, coniijel a divisiDn of tlie piofMirty ; and, 
should the parent acquiesre, one sou can always have a division of 
the property against the will of the others. On such a division 
taking pWe. the father lias no advaiitaj^- ovf;r his childrt'n, except 
that he has two shares iiislea<l of nni;. 

Sir Henrj' Maine, the great English livwyv", oh:seives that the 
ancient law of the German tribes ^vas very similar ; the atloil, or 
flomoin, of ihe family being the joint iiro^ierty of the father and 
his sona. Among the Hindoos, also, there are cases in which the 
law of primogeniture is followed as i-egards politii^al office and 
power, but not regarding property, a singular distinction. 



272 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

JSducation is at a low stand in Hindostan. Tlie child generally 
begins to acquire the elements of knowledge in its fifth year, being 
then taught the alphabet, or sent by its father to school. With the 
exception of architecture and the manufacture of jewelrj', the fine 
arts have never greatly prospered in India, the grinding despotisms 
which from time immemorial have crushed the country, having 
been unfavorable to the progress of painting and other branches of 
art. In architecture even, it is probable that they never attained 
any great perfection until the Moliammedans came among thorn. 

For instance, arched bridges are believed to have been unknown 
to the native engineers. The art of sculpture early occupied the 
Hindoo mind, and most of their designs were influenced by theii* 
religious opinions, the gods and their mythology being the solitary 
subject in which the minds of the artists revelled. Hence the 
appalling sameness in most of their figures. 

Painting has been less Jissiduously cultivated than the sister art 
of sculpture. The color in their pictures — generally frescoes — 
is often good, but the drawing is bad, and the style hard, and 
lacking in light and shade. The modem artists, though minutely 
copying tlie object on which they are at work, have no idea of 
middle tints or of the harmonies of hues. 

Music is at an equally low standard or rather ebb, fur it is clear 
that formerly the Hindoos' skill and taste in this art were higher 
than now ; but some of their poems, such as those in tlie " Vedas," 
are of a very high literary value. 

Jewelry is manufactured with the sim[)lest appliances, in very 
beautiful patterns — frequently by plaiting wire-work in dainty forms, 
though, of course, with much of that brilliant barbarism which is 
associated with everything Oriental, and in Delhi a jeweller pur- 
suing his ti-ade in the street used to l>e no uncommon sight. 

Agriculture varies in different partis of India, as might l)e 
expected from a people so various in i*ace. Horses are never 
employed, their places in all the labora of the field being supplied 
by cows, bullocks, or oxen. The illustrations which we give of 
Indian husbandry show how primitive, even to tliis day, are the 
methods and machines in vogue. 

Of the many extraordinary sights which are common in India 
none, perhaps, is more wonderful and fearfully fascinating to a 




THB HULK UF CA8TB. . 178 

stranger than an exhibdtion bf snake-charming. For a couple of 
rupees — about eighty cents — one can witnesa this spectacle in 
almost any Indian village, for there are numerous strolling vaga- 
bonds who seem able to handle the most deadly snakes with ajtparent 
impunity hy meant of music. 

It is said that tliese snakes have their fangs extnicted. This, no 
doubt, is often the caav; but not invariably so, for men ai« now 
and then bitten by these cobras and die in frightful contortions. 
Some of the iierfomiances of these serpeiit-cliarnicrs are remark- 
jd)lc, as will Ik- 
seen by the follow- 
ing |>assage from 
Oeneral C'anii>- 
liell's Indian Jour- 
nal : — 

When I was on 
General I>alryra- 
j>lc'a staff at Tri- 1 
chinopoly, there m 
a dry well in the I 
garden, whiph ■ 
the favorite iutunt | 
of snakes and 
wliich I shot se 
era). One morning 9 
I discovered a large ] 
o>bra-di-capcllo 
the bottom of this I 
well, basking in the ' 
Miin; but while I 
ran to fetch my gnn, 
some of the native 

servants began to pelt him with Atones, nml drove him into liis hole 
among the brick-work, T therefore sent f<ir the snake-cliamifni to get 
hitn out. 

Two of these worthies liaving arrived, we lowere<l tliem into the well 
by means of a rope. One of them, after performing sundry incan- 
tations, and sprinkling himself and his companion with ashes prepared 
from the dung of a saorcd cow, began to play a shrill monotonous 




274 THE 8TORV OF GOVERNMENT. 

ditty upon a pipe ornamented witli shells, brass rings, and beads, while 
the other stood on one side of the snake's hole, holding a rod furnished 
at one end with a slip noose. 

At first the snake, who had been considerably annoved before he 
took refuge in his hole, was deaf to the notes of the charmer; but 
after half an hour's constant playing, the spell began to operate, and 
the snake was heard to move. In a few minutes more he thrust out 
his head ; the horsehair noose was dexterously 8lij)j)ed over it and 
drawn tight, and we hoisted up the men, dangling their snake in 
triumph. Having carried him to an open 8[>ace of ground, they 
released him from the noose. 

The enraged snake immediately made a rush at the bystanders, 
])utting to flight a crowd of native servants who had assembled to wit- 
ness the sport. The snake-charmer, tapping him on the tail with a 
switch, induced him to turn up<m himself, at the same time sounding 
his pipe. 

The snake coiled himself up, raised his head, expanded his liood, 
and appeared about to strike ; but instead of doing so, he remained 
in the same position, as if fascinated by the music, darting out his 
slender forked tongue, and following with his head the motion of the 
man's knee, which he kept moving from side to side, within a few 
inches of him, as if tempting him to bite. 

N"o sooner did the music cease, than the snake dashed forward with 
such fury that it required great agility on the part of the man to avoid 
him, and then immediately the snake made off as fast as he could go. 
The sound of the pipe, however, invariably made him stop, and obliged 
him to remain in an upright position as long as the man continued to 
play. 

^Vfter repeating this experiment several times, :i fowl was placed 
within its reach, which he instantly dashed at and bit. The fowl 
screamed out the moment it was struck, but ran off, and began picking 
among its companions as if nothing had happened. 

I pulled out my watch to see how long the venom took to operate. 
In about half a minute, the comb and wattles of the fowl began to 
change from a red to a livid line, and were soon nearly black, but no 
other symptom was apparent. In t\yo minutes it began to stagger, was 
seized with strong convulsions, fell to the ground, and continued to 
struGfccle violently till it expired, exactly three minutes and a half after 
it had been bitten. 

On i)lucking the fowl, we found that it had merely been touched on 
the extreme ])oint of the pinion. The wound, not larger than the 




276 THE STORY- OP GOVERNMENT. 

puncture of a needle, was surrounded by a livid spot ; but the remain- 
der of the body, with the exception of the comb and wattles (which 
were of a dark livid hue), was of the natural color; and I afterwards 
learned that my coachman (a half-caste) had eaten it. 

Thq charmer now offered to show us his method of catching snakes, and 
seizing the reptile (about five feet long) by the point of tlie tail with his 
left hand, he slipped the right along the body with lightning swiftness 
and, grasping him by the throat with his finger and thumb held him fast, 
and forced him to open his jaws and display his poisonous fangs. 

Having now gratified my curiosity, I proposed that the snake should 
be destroyed, or at least that his fangs might be extracted, an operation 
easily performed with a pair of forceps. But the snake being a remarka- 
bly fine one, the charmer was unwilling to extract his teeth, as he said 
the operation sometimes proved fatal, and begged so hard to be allowed 
to keep him as he was, that I at last suffered him to put him in a basket 
and carry him off. 

After this he frequently brought the snake to the house, still with 
his fangs entire, as I ascertained by personal inspection, but so tame 
that he handled him freely without fear. But one day the snake 
bit the charmer and ended his life. 

The moral character of the Hindoo has been much misrepre- 
sented by ignorant men, incapjible through prejudice, or from the 
want of that habit of making duo allowance for the different cir- 
cumstances under which the Hindoo is placed, of forming a calm 
and charitable judgment on the mce. 

The Hindoo must not be weighed in an American balance, any 
more than an American should be measured according to Hindoo 
standards. Morality may be absolute, not comparative or relative ; 
but, at the same time, putting mere philosophical ethics aside, 
we must, for the sake of arriving at something like an intelligible 
estimate, adoi)t a standard somewhat elastic. 

The perfectly moral nation is a poet's dream of the future, as 
the utterly wicked is a something which has not yet existed. The 
Hindoos, it must be remembered, notwitlistanding the magnifi- 
cence of their courts, the gorgeousness of their shrines, and even the 
high state of some of the arts among them, are a comparatively bar- 
barous people. Their sacred books may be exalted in tone ; but their 
religion is nevertheless gross, licentious, and cruel in many of its 
^ain featui-es. 



THE RULE OF CASTE. 



277 



Their paseions are excited by art and by religious pageantries, 
and their religious fanaticLsm by a cunning, unscrupulous priest- 
hood, ^vhich his, by the aid of that most ingeniously devised 
legend of caste, 
Imund all beneath 
it, and there iti no 
one above it, in 
iron b o 11 d t as 
merciless jind un 
Ijreakable as tlioso 
<if fate according 
to the old Oieek 
idea. 

But tlie Indian 
is not the sinie 
(dl over India 
The fierce wild 
men of the lonei 
Himalayan liilU 
who used to be 
Imnted like wild 
Iteasts by the Eng- 
lish, seem haidly 
the Hjvme race as 
the polished, po- 
lite and subtle 
denizens of the 
j^reat cities. The 
bold mountain 
tribes are vastly 
superior in manly 
virtues to the peo- 
ple of the plains, 
and even the 
dwellers in the mountain t 




low lands and in the valley of the Lower Ganges differ in charao- 
ter. Yet, wherever we find the Hindoo he is deceitful and sUppery, 
full of adulation and compliment, treacherous and rather wicked. 



278 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

He excels in etiquette and courtesy. He has at least five 
different ways in which he will make obeisance, according to 
the circumstances of the case, or the person before whom he 
desires to debase himself, and he runs a close race with the 
Spaniard in the skill with which he can invent and pour forth 
high-sounding titles and cringing flatteiy to the person addressed. 

Of all the races of India a Bengalee is the most despicable. 
Lord Macaulay, who had lived among them and knew them well, 
long ago expressed their character thoroughly. Speaking of the 
men with whom Warren Hastings had to deal, he says : — 

What the Italian is to the Englishman, what the Hindoo is to the 
Italian, what the Bengalee is to other Hindoos, that was Nuncomar 
[a native minister] to other Bengalees. The physical organization 
of the Bengalee is feeble even to effeminacy. 

He lives in a constant vapor .bath; his pursuits are sedentary, his 
limbs delicate, his movements languid. During many ages he has been 
trampled upon by men of bolder and more hardy breeds. Courage, 
independence, and veracity, are qualities to which his constitution and 
his situation are equally unfavorable. 

His mind bears a singular analogy to his body. It is weak even to 
helplessness for purposes of manly resistance ; but its suppleness and 
tact move the children of sterner climates to admiration not un mingled 
with contempt. All those arts which are the natural defence of the 
weak are more familiar to this subtle race than to the Ionian of the 
time of Juvenal, or to the Jew of the dark ages. 

What the horns are to the buffalo, what the paw is to the tiger, 
what the sting is to the bee, what beauty — according to the old Greek 
song — is to woman, deceit is to the Bengalee. Large promises, smooth 
excuses, elaborate tissues of circumstantial falsehood, chicanery, per- 
jury, and forgery, are the weapons, offensive and defensive, of the 
people of the Lower Ganges. . . . 

As usurers, as money-changers, as sharp legal practitioners, no class 
of human beings can bear a comparison with them. With all his soft- 
ness, the Bengalee is by no means placable in his enmities, or prone 
to pity. TheT[)ertinacity with which he adheres to his purposes yields 
only to the immediate pressure of fear. Nor does he lack a certain 
kind of courage which is often wanting in his masters. To inevitable 
evils he is sometimes found to oppose a passive fortitude, such as the 
Stoics attributed to their ideal sage. 



THE «ULE OF CA8TK. 279 

A European warrior, who rushes on a battery of cannon with a loud 
hurrah, will sometimes shriek under the surgeon^s knife, and fall in an 
agony of despair at the sentence of death. But the Bengalee, who 
would see his country overrun, his house laid in ashes, his children 
murdered or dishonored, without having the spirit to strike one blow, 
has yet been known to endure torture with the Hrraness of Mucins, 
and to mount the scaffold with the steady step and even pulse of 
Algernon Sidney. 

The general lack of kindness with which the Hindus are treated 
by their Anglo-Saxon masters strikes the most careless and unob- 
servant traveller in every corner of Victoria's Oriental possessions. 
Nor does time nor the frightful warning given by the Sepoy Rebel- 
lion seem to soften in any w<ay the English habit of oppression. 

An English clergyman not long ago saw the following sight, 
A passing Hindu, he says, was rudely taken to task by a petty 
captain for not making a salaiim, or profound bow, on the street 
to him. 

" Why should I ? " said the man. ^^ You have conquered our 
race, but I won't salaam." " I'll take you to the general," said 
the captain, "and see if you will then." This was done, and the 
geneml, as brutal as his inferior officer, roared out : " Make a 
salaam, sir." The num still firmly but calmly refused, whereupon 
the general seized him by the neck, tlirew him to the ground, 
buried his face in the dust, and ordered fifty lashes to be given 
him. 

Thus by sheer brute force was this Hindu punished for an inde- 
pendence which did him honor. But the mild Hindu, as a rule, 
submits to the English as to a superior race, and all he can do is 
to bide his time. Yet, if not subdued by justice and kindness, 
will he not seek his revenge some day, especially as his intelligence 
increases ? 

What, then, is to l)e the immediate future of this empire of many 
mysteries, which is regarded by our scientists as the original birth- 
place or 8tarting-ix)int of humanity ? The question is involved, 
apparently, not so much in the evolution of the present East 
Indian race, as it is in several European questions of political, 
racial, and governmental quality, now pressing forward for answer. 



280 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

For, as hinted in the beginning of this brief pen-picture, the 
English, though now dominating India, are merely a light fringe 
on her vast darkness. Underneath the supple servility shown to 
them, a keen-eyed traveller cannot help detecting an intense 
bitterness — an immense hate. 

But the East Indians, thanks to their system of caste, have little 
cohesion or faculty of continuous cooperation. They might by a 
sudden uprising drive their present ownei-s into the ocean, but in 
a few yeai-s, very likely, some other predatory nation would be 
again setting the heel of conquest or of commerce upon their 
necks. 

With the Russians restlessly pushing south, and with a collision 
between Russia and England, as is probable, in the early part of 
the twentieth century, India might possibly achieve a temporary 
independence, but it would seem far more liable, if it had a chance, 
to welcome the Russian invasion and glide from English under 
Russian sway, simply as a change of evils. 

Yet it is difficult for even the heartiest hater of England's 
commercial civilization to see how the East Indian people could 
benefit by any such change. Russia is still only a barbarism very 
lightly gilded, and Russo-Indian rule would be more likely to ravage 
ruthlessly what remains of India's former splendor in the way of 
palaces and temples than to restore or maintain what the Anglo- 
Saxon has spared. And, as for the masses of the people, they 
would find individual Russians as cruel or more so than the average 
English officer or private of to-day. 





Pekhaps tlie oddest kind of government — a 
icholastic oligarchy^ with a figurelieud en]i)eror 
^f — ia tliiit furnished hy the vast Empire of China 
vhich may be regarded an the most compact country in the world, 
since it encloses an area of nearly 4,000,000 square milea. That 
China is the oldest of nations of which we have anj'thing like a 
continuous and tolerably correct history, little doubt can be 
entertained. 

The researches of antiquarians have jH-oved that in Babylon 
astronomical observations and calculiitious were mada 2,231 years 
liefoie Christ, and Chinese records speak of an eclipse calculated 
2,155 years before our em of reckoning. That this eclipse 
really occurred was proved by the Jesuit missionaries who visited 
China in the sixteenth century. 

Gaubil, a Jesuit preeminent for his mathematical attainments, 
examined the series of thiily-six ecliiKes, tt) whit-li the Chinese 
philosopher, Confucius, alludes in his writings, and the Catholic 
scholar decided that thirty-two of these were absolutely correct, 
two uncertain, and two false. But the chronology of the Chinese 
extends far back of the flnjt of these eclipses whose occurrence 

rernmcnt by « Itv, Hnil In >U agai bu been one o( IIib 



THE BTOKY OF GOVEllNMENT. 



the scientific priest declared to be established as evidence of the 
accuracy of Chinese history. 

Before considering the form of government among this mysteri- 
ous people, perhaps a brief sketch of the countrj' and some of its 
customs might furnish good stepping-stones to an underatanding 
of its political peculiarities. China proper lies Ijetween 18° and 
41° north latitude. Its eastern extremity bordering on Corea is 
marked by 124° east longitude, and iia western boundary on 
Burraah and Western Thibet is cut by 98° east longitude. Its 
seaboard extends over 2,500 miles with many bays and estuaries, 
so thickly studded wth islands that from this geographical fact is 

derived one of 
the titles of the 
emperor, "Lord 
of ten thousand 
isles." 

This e n o r - 
mous territory is 
divided into 
eighteen prov- 
inces varying in 
size. Each prov- 
ince is sub-di- 
vided into poo», 

A. QLIMPBE OF THE OREAT WALU . , 

counties, and 
pi-efectures. A poo, the capital of which is a market town, con- 
sists of a number of towns and villages. A county, the capital 
■ of which is a walled city, consists of a number of poos; and a 
prefecture, the cajiital of which is also a walled city but larger, 
is a collection of counties, the province being several prefectures 
with a still larger walled city taken genciiilly iis its capital. 

Tluis the eighteen provinces contain about four thousand walled 
cities, the walls in some cases being so broad that two carriages 
can lie driven abreast. The great wall of China, built to keep 
out the Tartars, runs hundreds of miles across the country. It is 
now in ruins. Tiie wall around Nankin is eighteen miles in 
hmgth. These Avails, as a rule, are crowned with castles and 
iiave embra-surcs for artilleiy and loopholes foi' musketry, and on 




A 8CH(;lasti(! oligarchy. 283 

Uie ramparts huge tttoiica me luoisely piled to be mlled dowu on 
Iiesiegers. During the war in which Chribtiau England forced 
opium as an article of nieicliandise nn the Cluneuc, this primitive 
kind of warfare (that seern» to belong more to the tlays when 
PjTi'hus was killed at Aigos hy a tile from the hands of a woman) 
came into uae, and some English soldiera were killed by these stones. 
At the north, eiust, west, mid south sitles of eiich Chinese city 




are folding gates of great strength which are fui-tlirr secured hy 
equally massive inner giites. The south g;ite is called the gate 
of honor, being regarded as especially governmental. Jtv it the 
officials always enter and depart, and no funerals, or unclean 
men'handise are allow.'^d ti. go thmugh; and the simlh gate of 
I'ekin is genenilly kept I'losed except for the einpeiin-. 



284 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

The streets are wider iu the north than in the south of 
China, and those of Pekin are very broad — and diity beyond 
description or conception. They must be smelt to be idealized. 
The narrowness of the streets makes them cool in the summer 
months and in many towns they are partially roofed by the 
residents with canvas, matting, or thin planks of timber. Many 
of the towns also in the north of Formosa are ])rotected in this 
way. 

The sidewalks to the shops are arched over, and as they are 
frequent!}' constructed in rude arcades, it is possible to pass 
from one end of the town to tfie other withcmt annoyance from 
sun or rain, thus furnishing a model for the umbrellaed streets 
of that reformed Boston which Bellamv l)eheld in his vision, 
"Looking Backward." The streets are paved with granite slab;, 
bricks, or cobblestones ; Canton, for iiLstancje, being entirely 
slabbed, while Soochow is l)artly, and partly cobblestoned. 

But the sewerage system may be best descril)ed as a mai-vellously 
successful scheme to produce an intolerable stench in the summer 
montlis, which the high-sounding titles of the streets might 
seem by force of sarcasm to render still more exasperating, for 
one encountei-s sucli names as "The Street of (iolden Profits, the 
Street of Benevolence and Love, of Saluting Dmci^oiis, of Refresh- 
ing Breezes, of Five Happinesses, of Ninefold Brightness, of 
Accumulated Goodness," and so forth. Other streets are simplv 
numbered Fii-st, Second, Third, etc. 

Chinese shops, which are called Hongs, are built of bricks, as 
a rule, and arc entirely open in front. Very few of them have 
glass windows, except in tlie city of Pekin. At tlie door stand 
very long signboards on each side of which, in bright letters of 
gold, orange, and other gay coloi-s, are painted thc^ name of the 
hong, and of the various commodities which it contains. 

In some cases the shopkeeper placets above the door a small sign- 
board in shape of some pailicular article which he has for sale; ius, 
for instance, a boot-maker might display a boot; or a spectacle- 
maker a i)air of spectacles. Some shopkeepei-s, not satisfied with 
the enormous signboards, advertise themselves still further by 
painting their names and a list of their wares in large characters 
on the outer walls of the cities in which thev live. 





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286 THE STORY OF GOVERXMENT. 

In the rural districts, on the outer wall of their dwelling 
houses, is a board recoixling the name of each person residing 
within, and this custom extends to some of the towns. Above 
the entrance of each hong lanterns are suspended and from the 
rooi lamps of glass or of thin liom, on which are gaily colored 
images of players and pagodas. 

These numerous bright signboards and lanterns lend a Chinese 
street a most cheerful and animated look. The hongs are not 
distributed promiscuously throughout Chinese towns but are con- 
fined to certain quartera, each branch of tmde having its special 
place. No members of the tradesman's family reside either above 
or behind the shop, and in the evening when the shutters are put 
up, the tradesman hastening to his home in another part of the 
town leaves his stock in the care of his apprentices. 

In the streets where the gentry reside, the houses are very well 
built, but of one story only. As the walls which front the street 
have no windows, they present in many cases the appearance of 
encampments. Chinese houses, also, have no fireplaces and in 
cold weather the occupants keep themselves warm by wearing 
much clothing, or by means of bi-aziers in which charcoal embers 
are kept burning. As the houses and shops which form the 
streets of a Chinese city are rarely of the same height, or 
an-anged in straight lines, every t^)wn has a strikingly in^egular 
appearance. 

The streets or squares are not adorned like thase of Euro- 
pean cities with stone, marble, or bronze statues of the learned, 
the brave, and the good, but instead, in nearly all the chief 
cities of China monumental arches arc erected in honor of re- 
nowned warriors, illustrioiLs statesmen, public-spirited citizens, 
learned scliolars, and last, but not least, virtuous Avomen Such 
monuments are built of brick, marl)lo, and old red sandstone, or, 
more commonly, of granite. 

A monument of this kind consists of a triple arch or g<iteway, 
that is, a large centre gate and smaller gate on each side. On a 
large smooth-shining slab above the middle gateway are sculp- 
tured figures, or cliai-acters, setting forth the object for which the 
citizens, by Inq)crial permission, raised the arch. One of the 
largest of these monuments is in the city of Toong-Ping Chan, 




288 THE STORY OF GOVERXMENT. 

ill honor of a scholar who, at the fige of eighty-two, took the firat 
place at the examination for the Hanlin, or Doctor's degree. 
As Baltimore with us is called the City of Monuments, IIoo 
Chow Foo in China is called the City of Arches. When the 
traveller entei-s this city by the south gate, a vista of arches very 
impressive greets his gaze, each of them being of vast dimen- 
sions and riclily s(?ulptured. 

riie Chinese tiike many precautions to save their cities from 
conflagrations. Wells are sunk in many streets, and the law 
lequires that in various parts of the cities large tubs of water 
nnist be kept. On the tops of the houses, also, they frequently 
place earthen jai-s containing water, and in all large cities there 
are several fire brigades maintained entirely by public contribu- 
tions. Tlie engines, water-buckets and lanterns of these brigades 
are usually kept in different temples. The officers and men have a 
unifonn, and on their hats in large characters the name or num- 
l)er of their brigade, and the words " Kow-Fow " or fire-quencher. 

Besides these provisions by tlie citizens, the members of the 
local government of each city are called on to render their help. 
For instance, in Canton each luagisti-ate hixs in his employ sevend 
men whose special duty it is to prevent robberies when fires occur, 
and under the connnand of the governor are two hundred men 
whose duty consists in helping lirenien. 

In addition to this, from the forty-eight guardhouses of the 
ritv, in the event of a fire, two men are instantly told off to 
hasten to the scen(;, and at the close of every month the prefect 
and provincial tn^asurer, who are very high ofiicials, are required 
to inspect all the goverjimcnt servants whose duties lie in the 
<li reaction of extinixuisliin<r fires. 

Moreover, with the view of keeping all officials thoroughly 
awake to their duties, it is the law that in case eighty houses 
are destroyed bv a conflairration, all the officials where it 
occurred arc reducecl in rank one decrree, and even when ten 
houses are destroyed, the matter is reported to the centml govern- 
ment at Pekin. 

A few days after a fire, the firemen of each brigade present 
receive tis a reward for their services roast pig — a great Chinese 
delicacy — jars of choice wine, and small sums of money, the men 




A SCHOLASTIC OLIOABCHY. 289 

who hokl the hcnie receiving more thaii otheiv, anil those who }uij>- 
pen to receive wouikIh during this puhlie duty being still more 
liberally remunerated. Persons who cause fires ]>y carelessness, 
or otherwise, when caught, ai'e severely punislie<I. It i^ only just 
to add that the Chinese are excellent firemen; i[nick to an'ive . 
at the !ice>ie of action, and very daring. 

The jKipulation of Oliiniv, according to SacliarofF fifty years ago, 
liad reached the 3tU{>endoiis figure of 414,68t!,9(t4. During the 
next twenty years a great 
rebellion occun'ed, in wliich 
many cities, towns, and vil- 
lages with all their inliabi- 
tants were blotted out. This 
rebellion covered a i>eriod of 
fifteen yeara, but in spite of 
Bocli reduction and cheek of 
population, it is probable 
that tlie empire contains to- 
day 450,000 000 

Of the moml diaracter of 
this people whase i normon'* 
number tempts us to liken 
them to the sands on the sea 
shore, it is not eii.s> to speik 
justly; for tins tliaracter !■< 
a book written lu strange let 
ters more complex to one of 
another race, religion, aiul 
language, and more difficult 

to decipher than the ofldly <ni>Ksi-, mujuku. 

shaped word-symbols that compose their written language. 

In the same indivi<luals, virtues and vices almost incompi-e- 
hensibly incompatible are found side by side. Oentleness, 
modesty, industry, cheerfulness, politeness, filial affection and 
reverence for old age are in one and the same Cliinaman the 
comi>anionB of insincerity, cruelty, jealousy, ingratitude, and 
avarice. 

But inatanees of moral inconsistencies might be found among 




290 THE 8TORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

other nations; and if a native of the Flowery Kingdom, for 
the purpose of acquiring a thorough knowledge of the American 
people, should familiarize himself with the records of our police 
and other law courts, and with the curious transactions that occur 
in our commercial circles, and the scandals that so often drag our 
society do\vn from its dollar-shining pinnacle, sucli a Chinese 
traveller might give his countrymen at home a very one-sided and 
dei)reciatory account of this country. 

Besides, we should not forget that we possess tlie manifold bless- 
ings of Christianity of many kinds, fnmi Catholicism to Univer- 
salism, and that we have a fonn of government, under which we 
are, at least, invited to tlream that we are free. So that, when 
we consider the political and social condition of China and her 
institutions, it would seem to us rather extraordinary that such 
an amount of good can be found in the national characiter. 

The government, to be sure, is an irresponsible despotism; 
their judges are bribable; their judicial procedure places its 
whole reliance on the infliction of torture. Their police are dis- 
honest and their prisons dens of cruelty. Their social life lalx)rs 
under the blight of polygamy and of slavery; and their customs 
hold women in a state of degmdation. Yet, notwitkstanding the 
conditions so unfavorable to the development of civil and social 
virtues, the Chinese may l>e fairly characterized as a courteous, 
orderly, industrious, sober, patriotic and j^eace-loving people. 

The Emperor of China is taught to regard himself as the inter- 
preter of the decrees of heaven, and he is recognized by the people 
as their connecting link with the gods, l)eing designated by 
such titles as the ^^Son of Heaven," the '*Lord of Ten Thousand 
Yeai-s," and the "Imperial Supreme." This mighty potentiite is 
assisted in the management of his government by a cabinet of four 
ministers. In addition to which general council are six supreme 
tribunals for the conduct in detail of all governmental business. 

Tlie first of these tribunals is termed Loo Poo, and divided into 
four departments; the first of which selects officers to fill the 
various places in the respective provinces and districts. The 
second takes cognizance or keeps watch on all such officials. 
The tliird affixes the imperial seal, along side of which the em- 
peror sometimes makes marks in lettei's of red with what is styled 




A SCHOLABTLC OLKiARUHY. liSl 

the vermilion pencil, to all books and pnrchmente; and the fourth 
keei« the record of the j^od service and merits of distinguished 
men. 

The second Boai-d ia termed Hoo Poo, and has the care of the 
imperial revenues. The third, called Lee Poo, superintends the 
religions rites of the people and keeps in order all temples 
endowed by the imperial government. The fourth Board, Ping 
Poo, has charge of all the naval and military establishments. 
The fifth. King Poo, supervises all criminal proceedings. The 
sixth, which is termed Ling Poo, superintends all public works 
such as mines, manufactories, highways, canals, bridges, etc. 

The chief minister of each of these tribunals lays the decisions 
or the information secured by his particular board before the 
cabinet and when the cabinet lias thoroughly discussed them, they 
are submitted with due reverence to his Imperial Majesty. 
The power of these ministers is apparently nominal, since the 
emperor holds himself responsiUe to none but the gods, and looks 
upon the people ae his childi-en. 

But while outwardly a Chinese sovereign might manifest con- 
tempt for the suggestion of his cabinet, as a rule, in practice 
mnch heed is given to their advice; very few, indeed, of the 
sovereigns of China feeling themselves sufficiently endowed with 
the wisdom of this world to be able to rule without the advice 
of others. Besides tlie.se councils, there are two others — the Too- 
Cha Yum and the Tsung-Pin Fow. 

The former as a Board of Censors is supposed to attend the 
meetings of the councils just described for the purpose of ascer- 
taining whether plots are being concocted against the stability of 
^e government; and the members of this boaid are also frequently 
sent into the provinces to watch the way things are going there. 
Or, in other words, the Absolutism of China depends almost as 
much for its safety on the service of spies as the Plutocracy of 
America- is beginning to depend on the Pinkertons. 

The second of these two extra Boards consists of six high offi- 
cials, who keep a register of the births, deaths, marriages, and 
relations of the princes of the blood royal, and make reports upon 
their conduct. These records are referred to the emperor everj- 
-decade, on which occasion he confers titles and rewards. 




292 THE STORY OP GOVERNMENT. 

These titles are of four kinds — hereditary, honorary, for state 
service, and for literary attainments, and it is imperative on the 
ministers of this Board to furnish at frequent intervals to the first- 
named tribunals repoits on the conduct of the emperor's different 
sons, so that it may be discerned which one possesses in the high- 
est degree the essentials of a good sovereign. These repoils, like 
all others, finally come to the emperor who has the power of 
naming his successor. As a general rule, however, the eldest son 
succeeds. 

As every emperor of each <lynasty had many Avives, the scions 
of imperial houses are numerous, and once it was the custom 
to give official employment to each of them. But this custom 
caused so much trouble and gave rise to so many conspiracies and 
rebellions that it was abandoned, and each prince nowadays lias 
to rest satisfied with the high-sounding but empty title of his 
rank, and he is liable to be deprived of that, if any act on his 
part is deemed beneath the family dignity. 

While the emj^eror is regarded by his people as the representa- 
tive of heaven, the Empress, or head wife, on the other hand, is 
the representative of Mother Earth, and is sup[)ose(l to exercise 
some peculiar influence over nature, one of hc^r chief duties 
being to sec that woi'shi[) i:; duly paid to the tutelary deity of 
silkwomis. It is also her official function to examine carefullv 

« 

the weaving of the silk stuff which the ladies of the Imperial 
harem make into garments for c(?rt;iin state idols. 

She is supposed to know no politics, but there are instances on 
record of Chinese empresses who have been as familiar tis some of 
the noted French dames of the bust century with the minutest 
details of State intrigues. The choice of an empress and of the 
sub-wives of the sovereign depends solely on their beauty or per- 
sonal qualities, and not on their family connections. Tliey ai-e 
chosen in the following fashion. 

The (laughter of the empress-dowager, or in her alwence a royal 
lady invested with authority for the purpose, liolds what might W 
fashionably termed a "'drawing-room," and invites Tartar ladies 
and daughtei*s of Bannermen, that is, oi those Ixvronial houses 
which have a right to carry banners from various paiis of the 

ipirc. The belle of this assembly is chosen to be itiised to the 



A SCHOLuUTIC OLIGA&GHT. 298 

dignity of empreas, and those next in personal attractions am 
selected for the rank of sub-wivea. 

But BOmetiniea a woman of the lower orders attains to this 
lofty rank. The mother of the Emperor Hien-Fung was the 
keeper of a fruit store and, like Nell Gwynne, the orange girl 
who attracted the attention of Charles II., and from whose liaison 
with him are descended some of the peers of England, her grace 
and beauty raised her to a power in the state. 

In each of the 
piDvinces there is a 
formidable army of 
officials, namely: 
govemor-g e n e r a 1 , 
governor, treasurer, 
special commissioner, 
literary chancellor, 
chief justice ; the last 
fonr being of equal 
rank; six tautaie of 
equal rank ; ten pre- 
fects of equal rank; 
and s e V e n t y-t w o 
comity rulers of 
equal rank. 

Each of these offi- 
cials has 11 council to 
assist him in the dis- 
charge of \\\A duties, 
and besides these of- 
ficials every town and village has its governing body, so tliat 
the empire may be said to be honey-combed with officialism. All 
these officials, as it was in ancient Peni, are subordinate to the 
one above them; it is a continuous chain. Officials of certain 
grades are not allowed t« hold office in their native province, nor 
without Imperial permission to marry in the province where they 
have been appointed to office; and to prevent the possibility of 
acqniiing too much local influence, they are removed in some cases 
ereiy tluee years and in other cases every six to other posts of duty. 




THE FRmr a OIL wuo 



294 



THE STORY OP GOVERNMENT. 



All officials are supposed to be appointed by the emperor on 
recommendation of the Board of Ceremonies, and candidates for 
office, according to law, have to be men who have graduated at 
great literary examinations. But the memberij of the Board of 
Ceremonies sometimes submit to the notice of his majesty the 
names of men whose literary rank has been bought. 

There are nine marks of distinction by which the rank of a 
Chinese officer may be readily recognized; A member of the first 
class wears on the band of 
his cap a dark red coral 
ball or button ; for the 
second class tliis button is 
light red; for the third, 
light blue ; for the fourth, 
dark blue; the fiftli class 
wear a ball of crystal, 
while mother of pearl is 
the ball of the sixth class 
mandarin. Members of 
the seventh and eighth 
cluss wear a golden ball, 
in one case smaller, and 
for the ninth class, a sil- 
ver ball. Each official 
may be further distin- 
guished by a decoration of 
peacock feathers. This 
feather runs from the base 
of the ball on the hat slop- 
ing downwards at the back. The first of the outer garments 
worn by an officer is a long loose robe of blue silk, richly em- 
broidered with threads of gold. It reaches the ankles of the 
wearer, and is bound around his waist by a belt. Above this 
robe is a violet tunic with very wide sleeves, but usually thrown 
back over the wrists, 

When an officer approaches the Imperial presence for the pur- 
pose of conferring with the emperor or performing the kowtow, 
which in China is the usual act of obeisance, etiquette prescribes 




A 8CH0L.ASIIC OLIOABCHT. 



295 



that the sleeres of tiiis tunic should be stretched over the hands, 
which action of course renders him helpless. This custom was 
originally adopted to preclude any attempt on the life of the 
emperor by those whose duties call them into his presence. A 
similar one prevails in the Court of Peraia. 

The army is made up uf the lowest class io the empire, and 
used to he uniformed so as to frighten the beholder. Govern- 
ment residences are provided for all Chinese officials. These 
buildings are called yamum and sometimes are extensive, cover- 




A OULPBTT 



BY HIS WIFE. 



ing acres. Fi-om the i-oofs of the halls iu many of these official 
dwellings riclily gilded boai-ds are hung on which are set forth 
moral maxims from Confucius and other of tlie great ^vriters; 
some of these illuminated niottoen being the gifts of the emperor to 
former officers distinguished for faithful service. To these 
l/amun» are attached public office:*, and to thase occupied by dis- 
trict ruletij, chief justices, etc., large prisons are attached. 

County rulere, prefects, and chief justices are the officials 
specially appointed to preside in the courts of law; and whether 
it be of civil or criminal character, a judge is assisted by deputies 
or a deputy. To explain fully how justice, so-called, is admin- 



296 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

istered in China, it is necessary to state that the accused person is 
first brought before the gentry or elders of his village or county. 

These punish him, if the crime be of a criminal nature, either by 
imprisonment or by exposing him for some time in what is called 
a cangue at the corner of one of the most frequented thorough- 
fares, or right near the place where the crime was committed; or 
by ha/ing him whipped through the streets with a crier reciting 
his crime, 

One form of the cangue is a box, through the top of which the 
head protrudes, and through the sides of which both hands, with a 
chain connecting them, are thrust. Tlie illustration represents a 
loving Chinese wife feeding her cangued, or canned, husband, 
who has committed some slight offence against the peace and 
dignity of the emperor — possibly, by fighting near the temple. 
A commoner form of the cangue is just the wooden collar alone of 
a proportion to the man as in the illustration. 

Should a case, however, appear of importance, the prisoner, 
with the depositions and the comments on his case, is forwarded 
for the mandarin or ruler of the Poo to which the village belongs. 
If the mandarin finds the case within his jurisdiction, he pun- 
ishes the prisoner; if not, he sends him up to a still higher official, 
the county ruler, Avho might send up the case to the prefect of 
his department, who in turn might send it up to the provincial 
capital, where the chief justice, who only tries capital cases, has 
his residence. 

The chief justice will then submit his decision to the governop- 
gencral and, before a sentence of the chief justice can be carried 
into effect, it would be necessary that the criminal in the pres- 
ence of the governor-general should make an acknowledgment of 
his guilt. If the prisoner were convicted of treason, piracy, or 
highway robbery, the governor-general could order his execution at 
once. But if lie were guilty of parricide, matricide, or fratricide, 
the governor-general must bring the case to the notice of the King 
Poo, or Board of Punishments, at Pekin; the president of Avhich 
would submit it in turn to the cabinet, who, after brooding 
over it, would lay it before the emperor, who, it is said, carefully 
examines the depositions on all such cases before confirming the 
sentence. 



A. SCHOLASTIC OLIQABCHY. 



297 



A cnriouB sort of lottery adds a certain spice to the life of con- 
victed criminals, for at the close of each year the governor-general 
forwardj to Pekin a register of the names of those condemned to 
death. The emperor, after inspecting each registiT, with liis 
vermilion pencil makes a mark against three or fuur names on 
each page. Tlie registers are then returned to tht! provincial 
governor and the law takes its course against the marked men. 

Those, however, whose names have been jxtsaed over do not obtain 
a free pardon; bat the second and third year go up with names 
of fresh offenders to lie passed Upon by the emperor. Should they 




e8ca]>e the mark of the vermilion pencil on the third occasion, 
their death sentence is then commuted to trauijportatioii for life. 

The mode of trials in China is startlin;; to all who live in lands 
■where the sj-stem of giving a prisoner every opportunity to defend 
and explain liiinsclf i»revaih; for trials in Cliincso courts of 
law are conducted by torturi;. P.nt then we who jiridc ourselves 
on our advance in civilization must remcnilHir that only two hun- 
dred ycara ago our ancestoi-s were torturing, not only [Kilitical 
prisoners, but also women and young girls, to uhtain confessions 
of their pr!u;tii'e of witi-Iicraft. Young girls praci isi^ just as much 
witchcraft to-diiy, hut they jia^ not the ones who ai-e tortured on 
account of it. 

Chinese court« arc open to the general public, but (heir cruel- 
ties keep away all visitors except those personally interested in 
the case. A calendar of '•^•^■^ '» l- tiF'"'' "''*'' *'"' prisoners' 
names subjoined, used tg^^^ffiuM'^Al^^Spnter gates of the 




298 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

yamun^ but this custom has lapsed into disuse and the list is now 
placed on a pillar in one of the inner courts, where it has no 
chance of attracting public attention. 

The judge sits behind a large table covered with a red cloth, 
and the prisoner is made to kneel in front as a mark of respect to 
the court, by whom he is accounted guilty until proved innocent. 
Secretary and turnkeys stand on each side, no one sitting but the 
judge. The charge is read aloud and the prisoner called upon 
to plead either guilty or "not guilty." As the prisoner rarely 
pleads guilty, trials are very numerous. 

The prisoner is asked a great many leading questions, and 
should his answers be evasive, torture is at once applied to him as 
a means of extracting truth. The commonest form of this torture 
is a beating over his neck and shoulders with a double cane 
in the hands of the state turnkey. Should he continue to gfive 
evasive answers, he is likely to be beaten about the jaws with 
two thick pieces of leather, shaped not unlike the sole of a 
slipper. 

Sometimes this latter instrument is applied with such force as 
to loosen his teeth and cause his mouth to swell to such a degree 
that for days he is unable to speak or masticate. If he still main- 
tains his innocence, he is beaten over the ankles with pieces of 
hard wood, and sometimes as a result of this the ankle bones are 
broken. If he still persists in refusing to plead guilty, a severer 
torture is applied. The present writer saw the following pun- 
ishment administered in Canton in 1873. 

A large trestle was placed perpendicularly, and the prisoner in 
a kneeling posture was made to lean against it. His arms were 
then pushed backward and stretched into the upper legs of the 
trestle from the ends of which they were suspended by cords 
fastened around the thumbs of each hand. The legs were then 
pushed backwards and drawn, his knees resting on the ground, 
toward the upper legs of the trestle by cords around the large toe 
of each foot. « 

When he had thus been bound, the questions were again put 
to him, and his answers being unsatisfactory he was whipped 
up and down his thighs by a split bamboo cane till the blood 
ran down and the man fainted. Whereupon he was untied, 




292 THE 8TOKY OF GOVERNMENT. 

These titles ai-e of four kinds — hereditary, honorarj-, for state 
service, and for literary attainments, and it is imperative on the 
ministers of this Board to furnish at frequent intervals to the first- 
named tribunals reports on the conduct of the emperor's different 
sons, so that it may l^e discerned which one possesses in the high- 
est degree the essentials of a good sovereign. These reports, like 
all others, finally come to the emperor who has the power of 
naming his successor. As a geneml rule, however, the eldest son 
succeeds. 

As every emperor of each dynasty had many wives, the scions 
of imperial houses are numerous, and once it was the custom 
to give official employment to each of them. But this custom 
caused so much trouble and gave rise to so many conspimcies and 
rebellions that it was abandoned, and each prince nowadays has 
to rest satisfied with the high-sounding but empty title of his 
rank, and he is liable to be deprived of that, if any art on his 
part is deemed beneath the family dignity. 

While the emperor is regarded by his people as the representa- 
tive of heaven, the Empress, or head wife, on tlie other hand, is 
the representative of Mother Earth, and is su})posed to exercise 
some peculiar influence over nature, one of her chief duties 
being to sec tliat woi-sliij) i:; duly paid to the tutelaiy deity of 
silkwonns. It is also licr official function to examine carefully 
the weaving of the silk stu(T wliidi the ladies of tlie Imperial 
harem make into garments for certain state idols. 

Slie is supposed to know no polities, but there are instances on 
record of Chinese empresst^s who have been as familiar jus some of 
the noted French dames of the bust century with the minutest 
details of Stiito intrigues. The choice of an empress and of the 
sub-wiyes of the soyereign depends solely on their l)eauty or j)er- 
sonal qualities, and not on their family connections. Tliey are 
chosen in the following fashicm. 

The daughter of the empress-dowager, or in her absence a royal 
lady invested with authority for the puri)ose, liolds wliat might Ih^ 
fashionably termed a *' drawing-room, " and inyites Tartar ladies 
and daughters of Bannermen, that is, of those baronial houses 
which hayc a right to carry banners from various parts of the 
empire. The l)elle of this assembly is chosen to be raised to the 



A SCHOLASTIC OLIOA&CHT. 29S 

dignity t£ empiess, and tiiose next in personal attractions are 
selected iat the rank of sub-wives. 

But sometimea a woman of the lower orders attains to this 
lofty rank. The mother of the Emperor Hieu-Fuug was the 
keeper of a fruit store and, like Nell Gwynne, the orange girl 
who attracted the attention of Charles II., and from whose liaison 
with him are descended some of the peers of England, her grace 
and heauty raised her to a power in the 8tat«. 

In each of the 
provinces there is a 
formidable array of 
ofBcials, namely: 
governor-g e n e r a 1 , 
governor, treasurer, 
special commissioner, 
literary chancellor, 
chief justice; the last 
four being of equal 
rank; six tautais of 
equal rank; ten pre- 
fects of equal rank; 
and a e V e n t y-t w o 
coonty rulers of 
equal rank. 

Each of these offi- 
ciah) has a council to 
assist him in the dis- 
chai^ of his duties, 
and besides these of- 
ficials every town and village has its governing body, so that 
the empire may be said to be honey-combed with officialism. All 
these officials, as it was in ancient Peru, are subordinate to the 
one above them; it is a continuous chain. Officials of certain 
grades are not allowed to hold office in their native province, nor 
without Imperial permission to maiTy in the province where they 
have been appointed to office; and to prevent the possibility of 
acquirii^ too much local influence, they are removed in some cases 
ereiy Uiroe years and in other cases every six to other poets of duty. 




THE FRurr 



294 



THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 



All officials are supposed to be appointed by the emperor on 
recommendation of the Board of Ceremonies, and candidates for 
oEGce, according to law, have to be men who have graduated at 
great literary examinations. But the members of the Board of 
Ceremonies sometimes submit to the notice of his majesty the 
names of men whose literary rank has been bought. 

There are nine marks of distinction by which thu rank of a 
Chinese officer may be readily recognized : A member of the first 
class wears on the band of 
his cap a dark red coral 
ball or button ; for the 
second class this button is 
light red; for the third, 
light blue ; for the fourth, 
dark blue; the fifth class 
wear a ball of crystal, 
while mother of pearl is 
the ball of the sixth class 
mandarin. Members of 
the seventh and eighth 
class wear a golden ball, 
in one case smaller, and 
for the ninth class, a sil- 
ver ball. Each official 
may be further distin- 
guished by a decoration of 
peacock feathers. T li i s 
feather runs from the base 
of the ball oil the hat slop- 
ing downwards at the back. The first of the outer garments 
worn by an officer is a long loose robe of blue silk, richly em- 
broidered with threads of gold. It reaches the ankles of the 
wearer, and is bound around his waist by a belt. Above this 
robe is a violet tunic with verj- wide sleeves, but usually thrown 
back over the wrists. 

When an officer approaches the Imperial presence for the pur- 
pose of conferring with the emperor or performing the kowtow, 
which in China is the usual act of obeisance, etiquette prescribes 




A SCHOLASTIC OLIQARCHT. 296 

that the sleoTes of this tunic should he stretched over the hands, 
vhich action of course renders him helpless. This custom was 
originally adopted to preclude any attempt on the life of the 
emperor by tliose whose duties call them into his presence. A 
similar one prevails in the Court of Pereia. 

The army is made up of the lowest class in the empire, and 
used to be uniformed so as to frighten the Iwholder. Govern- 
ment residences are provider! for all Chinese officials. These 
boildings aie called yamum and sometimes are extensive, cover- 




ing acres. Fiom the i-oofs of the balls in many of these official 
dwellings richly gilded boards are hung on which ai-e set forth 
moral maxims from Confucius and oilier of the great writers; 
some of these illuminated mottoes I>eing the gifts of the emperor to 
former officers distiiiguislied for faithful ser\-icc. To these 
yavmn» are attached publit; offices, and to those occupied by dis- 
trict rulers, chief justices, etc., large prisons are attached. 

County rulci-s, prefects, and chief justices are the officials 
specially appointed to preside in the courtit of law ; and whether 
it be of civil or crimiiml cliaracter, a judge is assisted by deputies 
or a deputy. To explain fully how justice, so-called, is admin- 



296 THE STOBY OF GOVERNMENT. 

istered in China, it is necessary to state that the accused person is 
first brought before the gentry or elders of his village or county. 

These punish him, if the crime be of a criminal nature, either by 
imprisonment or by exposing him for some time in what is called 
a cawpie at the corner of one of the most frequented thorough- 
fares, or right near the place where the crime was committed; or 
by ha/.ing him whipped through the streets with a crier reciting 
his crime. 

One form of the cangue is a box, through the top of which the 
head protrudes, and througli the sides of which both hands, with a 
chain connecting them, are thrust. The illustration represents a 
loving Chinese wife feeding her cangued, or canned, husband, 
who has committed some slight offence against the peace and 
dignity of the emperor — possibly, by fighting near the temple. 
A commoner form of the cangue is just the wooden collar alone of 
a proportion to the man as in the illustration. 

Should a case, however, appear of importance, the prisoner, 
with the depositions and the comments on his case, is forwarded 
for the mandarin or ruler of the Poo to which the village belongs. 
If the mandarin finds the case within his jurisdiction, he pun- 
ishes the prisoner; if not, he sends him up to a still higher official, 
the county ruler, who might send up the case to the prefect of 
his department, who in turn might send it up to the provincial 
capital, where the chief justice, who only tries capital cases, has 
his residence. 

The chief justice will then submit his decision to the governop- 
general and, before a sentence of the chief justice can be carried 
into effect, it would Ix) necessary that the criminal in the pres- 
ence of the governor-general sliould make an acknowledgment of 
his guilt. If the prisoner were convicted of treason, piracy, or 
highway robbery, the governor-general could order his execution at 
once. But if Tie were guilty of parricide, matricide, or fratricide, 
the governor-general must bring the case to the notice of the King 
Poo, or Board of Punishments, at Pekin; the president of which 
would sul)nnt it in turn to the cabinet, who, after brooding 
over it, would lay it before tlie emperor, who, it is said, carefully 
examines the depositions on all such cases before confirming the 
sentence. 



A SCHOLASTIC OUOABCHT. . 297 

A cmioos sort of lottery adds a oertain spice to the life of cod- 
Ticted criminals, for at the close of each year the governor-general 
forwards to Fekin a register of the names of those condemned to 
death. The emperor, after inspecting eacli register, with his 
vermilion j>encil mnkes a mark against three or four names on 
each page. The renters are then returned to the jirovincial 
governor and the law takes its course against the marked men. 

Th(»e, however, whose names have been passed over do not obtain 
a free pardon; but the second and third year go up with names 
of fresh offenders to be passed upon by the eniperor. Shonld they 




A PABRICIDE. 



escape the mark of the vermilion pencil on the third occasion, 
their death sentence is then commuted to tranajwrtatinn for lite. 

The mode of trials in China is startling to all who live in lands 
where the system of giving a prisoner cveiy opportnnity to defend 
and explain himaclE prevails; for trials in Chinese courts of 
law are conducted by tortui-e. lint then we who i)ride ourselves 
on our advance in civilization must remember that only two hun- 
dred years ago our aniiestora were torturing, not only political 
prisoners, but also women and young girls, to obtain confessions 
of tlieir practice of witchcraft. Young girls practise Just as much 
witchcraft to-day, but they arc not the ones who are tortured on 
account of it. 

Chinese courts are open to the genenil public, but their cruel- 
ties keep away all visitors except those personally interested in 
the case. A calendar of casg^,ii^J^^ried, with the prisoners' 
names subjoined, used ^0^v»ih(M'<it£^0Sputer gates of the 




298 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

yamun^ but this custom has lapsed into disuse and the list is now 
placed on a pillar in one of the inner courts, where it has no 
chance of attracting public attention. 

The judge sits behind a large table covered with a red cloth, 
and the prisoner is made to kneel in front as a mark of respect to 
the court, by whom he is accounted guilty until proved innocent. 
Secretary and turnkeys stand on each side, no one sitting but the 
judge. The cliarge is read aloud and the prisoner called upon 
to plead either guilty or "not guilty." As the prisoner rarely 
pleads guilty, trials are very numerous. 

The prisoner is asked a great many leading questions, and 
should his answers be evasive, torture is at once applied to him as 
a means of extracting truth. The commonest form of this torture 
is a beating over his neck and shoulders with a double cane 
in the hands of the state turnkey. Should he continue to gfive 
evasive answers, he is likely to be beaten about the jaws with 
two thick pieces of leather, shaped not unlike the sole of a 
slipper. 

Sometimes this latter instrument is applied with such force as 
to loosen his teeth and cause his mouth to swell to such a degree 
that for days he is unable to speak or masticate. If he still main- 
tains his innocence, he is beaten over the ankles with pieces of 
hard wood, and sometimes as a result of this the ankle bones are 
broken. If he still persists in refusing to plead guilty, a severer 
torture is applied. The present writer saw the following pun- 
ishment administered in Canton in 1873. 

A large trestle was placed perpendicularly, and the prisoner in 
a kneeling posture was made to lean against it. His arms were 
then pushed backward and stretched into the upper legs of the 
trestle from the ends of which they were suspended by cords 
fastened around the thumbs of each hand. The legs were then 
pushed backwards and drawn, his knees resting on the ground, 
toward the upper legs of the trestle by cords around the large toe 
of each foot. • 

When he had thus been bound, the questions were again put 
to him, and his answers being unsatisfactory he was whipped 
up and down his thighs by a split bamboo cane till the blood 
ran down and the man fainted. Whereupon he was untied, 



800 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

thrown like a log of wood into a large flat basket, and carried by 
two men from the Court of Justice into the prison attached to it. 
As soon as his skin healed over suificiently to be flayed again, 
the judicial examination would continue. 

Justice in China may be rightly called a "Serial Story of 
Torture," and there are other forms of judicial investigation more 
frightful than these described, which must be left to the imagina- 
tion of the reader, for the pen refuses to paint them. But 
are there no witnesses? Yes, but as they are also in some cases 
subjected to torture it is a task of some difficulty to distinguish 
which of the unfortunate men kneeling before the judgment seat 
is the prisoner, and which the witness ; for anyone suspected of 
having a knowledge of another's guilt, and manifesting any un- 
willingness to give evidence, would be likely to receive a pre- 
liminary beating by way of encouragement. 

The process in civil cases is somewhat different. If a dispute 
arises between two persons with regard to houses or lands, at first, 
as a rule, they have recourse to arbitration, the arbitrators being 
generally the principal elders of the street or neighborhood. But 
if either party is dissatisfied with their decision, the matter is 
taken into the law court and goes before the county ruler. 

But the person thus appealing has to incur great expense in 
bribing the miderstrappers about the yamuns to bring his petition 
to the eyes of the judge, for in China briber}^ is the only avenue 
to success in anything. By liberally paying these underlings he 
is allowed to stand at the folding doors of one of the inner courts, 
and when the ruler passes he falls upon his knees in front of the 
sedan chair of the magistrate who calls upon one of his chair 
bearers to hand him the suj)pliant\s petition and, having read it, 
appoints a day for the case. In these civil cases, also, it is not 
uncommon for the judge to inflict torture. 

If of great importance, the case would be appealed to higher 
tribunals, but not as in criminal cases to the provincial chief jus- 
tice, but to the provincial treasurer, and from his court an appeal 
lies to that of the governor or governor-general of the piovince. 
But the decision of this viceroy is not final, for the next appeal 
lies to the governor-general of the adjoining province, and from 
him to the emperor through the Cabinet. 




A SCHOLASTIC OLIQABCHY. 



801 



Formerly civil suits were appealed from the highest tribunal 
of t^heir province to the emperor in person, but now another 
wall of protection to the sovereign against the annoyance of too 
much litigation has been built up by making the governor of 
the adjoining province an intermediate tribunal. 




Another peculiarity of Chinese government is that registers are 
kept in which are recorded the merits and demerits of the various 
civil and military officials. This custom, which is of great 
antiquity, was also practised by other nations. The records of 
the Persians and the Greeks contain frequent allusions to it. 
Although Chinese officials are, perhaps, as a class, the most cor- 



302 THE 6T0HY OP GOVERNMENT. 

rapt Btate servants in the world, there are exceptional men of 
high integrity -who are held in great esteem by the people. 

When Ache-Ong was governor over the province of Kwang- 
Tung, at his departure from Canton tlie citizens gave him a 
most in:pressive ovation. An imposing procession which took 
twenty minutes to pass a given point escorted him to tlie place of 
embarkation, carrying silk umbrellas and three hundred painted 
boards of praise which had been presented to him by the people. 
The way was spanned at frequent intervals by arches, and on hang- 
ing banners were painted or 
embroidered in large letters 
Buch titles as " Friend of the 
People," "Bright Star of 
the Province," "Benefector 
of the Age." 

Deputations of different 
trade-guilds awaited his ar- 
rival at various temples, 
where he alighted from his 
A PUBLIC WHIPPING. sedan chair to exchange fare- 

well compliments and par- 
take of refreshments. But it was cot the formal arrangements 
that Bpoke of his popularity so much as the enthusiasm of the 
people; for the silence generally keptj' when a Chinese ruler 
passes, was continuously broken by hearty exclamations of "When 
will your excellency come back to us?" and at many points the 
crowd was so great as to interrupt the line of march, and almost 
upset his chair of state. 

Though the penal code of China is so extremely severe, 
especially in cases attacking the safety and stability of the throne 
or the peace of the empire, it has some verj- humane traits. 
Thus, a judge may grant a free pardon to an only son who has 
been sentenced to transportation. This pardon is, of course, 
granted for the sake of the parents, and shows how the religion 
of China interfuses with its laws. 

Or, for another instance, when three brothers, the only sons of 
their parents, have committed a crime deserving of decapitation 
or tiaiuiportation, the two youngest would be punished, and the • 




804 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

first bom pardoned. Or, if a father be transported, the law per- 
mits his son to accompany him into exile, and the wives of 
convicts are allowed to sojourn with their husbands in penal 
settlements. 

Imperial clemency also extends to all offenders who are crip- 
pled ; nor does the law allow convicts to be sent into banishment 
during the first month of the year, which is regarded as a month 
of rest and indulgence ; nor during the sixth month, as the heat 
is supposed to render travelling very uncomfortable. 

Reference to the religion of China having been made, perhaps 
a little information concerning it would not be out of place. 
According to their fable of creation, in the beginning there came 
out of a vast egg a Being, who has always been known in Chinese 
annals as Poon-Koo-Wong. Of the upper part of his cast-off 
shell he formed the hollow heavens; of the lower, the convex 
earth. To dispel the darkness, with a wave of his right hand he 
made the sun, and with his left, the moon, and, of course, the 
stars also. 

Then he called into existence the five elements: earth, 
water, fire, metal, and wood; and then in order to people the 
world, Poon-Koo-Wong caused a cloud of vapor to rise from 
a piece of gold, and a similar cloud from a piece of wood. 
Breathing on the gold vapor he made the male principle ; and on 
the wood vapor, the female. From the union of these two human- 
shaped clouds, or spirits, sprang a son and daughter — Ying-Yee 
and Cha-No-We — whose descendants over-spread the whole 
country. 

In honor of Poon-Koo-Wong there are many temples through- 
out China. The idol of this hero of antiquity is an almost naked 
figure made of wood or clay, wearing an apron of leaves. This 
was probably their original religion, for their present one is a 
mysterious mixture of several creeds. At one time they appeared 
to have worshipped a supreme being with attributes of omni- 
science, omnipotence, and immutability, whom they sj^eak of as 
Shang-Te. They appear to have some ideas of a Judgment Day, 
and a picture of their method of dividing the sheep from the goats 
after death may amuse the reader. 

But this primitive monotheism has become associated with the 




E CHIKESB JUSOKEHT DAT, 



806 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

worship of departed ancestors and of spirits supposed to preside 
over the various operations of nature : and with this combination 
that still holds its place as a national religion, the name of their 
great philosopher, Confucius, is associated. 

Dark as the despotism of Chinese government may seem at a 
first casual glance (which is generally careless unless tlie eye be 
naturally full of sympathy), some stars of promise light up its 
present, and tempt believers in man to expect for the vast yellow 
race an evolution as rich and fair to look upon as is their chosen 
imperial or national color, charming one's eye so often with its 
infinite varieties which no custom stales. 

For nowhere in this gold- adoring world is wealth less courted, 
and caressed, and cringed to. In China power and honor spring 
from learning. Hence, mere wealth must be always vulgar, and, 
if undistinguished by any other qualities, the mere possessor of 
riches must rank as inferior to the mandarin, who, by his knowl- 
edge, can rise to the highest offices of the state, next to the 
emperor himself; and in many cases, the learned man can finally 
achieve a wealth also to which "Money-bags," who has made his 
fortune by buying and selling, huckstering and cheating it may 
be, can never aspire. The unlearned rich man is not held in 
respect; he is valued infinitely less than the poorest scholar who 
has taken a degree at the great competitive examinations. 

There is no hereditary nobility in the empire, unless the 
descendants of the Imperial family can be considered such, thougli 
these do not constitute the real aristocracy of the country, which 
is official and not heredita^}^ 

Rank is graded by literary examinations. Every office except 
that of the emperor, is determined by these, which are accordingly 
of extreme interest, especially since we in this country have lately 
adopted a similar method of appointing the minor officers of state, 
and have thus been imitating the civil service system of the 
Chinese, with all its good and bad points. 

To obtain the first degree three examinations must be under- 
gone ; the preliminary one taking place in the chief town of the 
district where the candidate is native. There are always great 
numbers of candidates, and the examinations are severe. In 1832, 
out of 4,000 who competed in the two districts around Canton, 



A SCHOLASTIC OLIQAKCHT. 



SOT 



•only iTtrenty-seTen were successful. Indeed, for fifteen to be suc- 
■oessful out of five hundred is reckoned rather remarkable. 

The next examination is h< Id in tlio depirlinciital ( ity, and the 
zuimber of candidates who [ircsr nl th< inselves arc of course much 




fewer. At the first examination the roa«ls leading to the district 
towns are crowded with candidates on foot, on horseback, in carts, 
or in palanquins. After this departmental examination another 
sifting occura. Those who liave [Kissed liave their names placarded 
aa having gained "a name in the department," just as at the pre- 
vious examination they had obtained "a name in the village." 
The next examiuation is severer still, being hehl under the 



806 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

worship of departed ancestors and of spirits supposed to preside 
over the various operations of nature : and with this combination 
that still holds its place as a national religion, the name of their 
great philosopher, Confucius, is associated. 

Dark as the despotism of Chinese government may seem at a 
first casual glance (which is generally careless unless tlie eye be 
naturally full of sympathy), some stars of promise light up its 
present, and tempt believers in man to expect for the vast yellow 
race an evolution as rich and fair to look upon as is their chosen 
imperial or national color, charming one's eye so often with its 
infinite varieties which no custom stales. 

For nowhere in this gold- adoring world is wealth less courted, 
and caressed, and cringed to. In China power and honor spring 
from learning. Hence, mere wealth must be always vulgar, and, 
if undistinguished by any other qualities, the mere possessor of 
riches must rank as inferior to the mandarin, who, by his knowl- 
edge, can rise to the highest offices of the state, next to the 
emperor himself; and in many cases, the learned man can finally 
achieve a wealth also to which "Money-bags," who has made his 
fortune by buying and selling, huckstering and cheating it may 
be, can never aspire. The unlearned rich man is not held in 
respect; he is valued infinitely less than the poorest scholar who 
has taken a degree at the great competitive examinations. 

There is no hereditary nobility in the empire, unless the 
descendants of the Imperial family can be considered such, though 
these do not constitute the real aristocracy of the country, whicli 
is official and not hereditarj'. 

Rank is gi^aded by literary examinations. Every office except 
that of the emperor, is determined by these, which are accordingly 
of extreme interest, especially since we in this country have lately 
adopted a similar method of appointing the minor officers of state, 
and have thus been imitating the civil service system of the 
Chinese, with all its good and bad points. 

To obtain the first degree three examinations must be under- 
gone; the preliminary one taking place in the chief town of the 
district where the candidate is native. There are alwajrs great 
numbers of candidates, and the examinations are severe. In 1832, 
out of 4,000 who competed in the two districts around Canton, 



A SCHOLASTIC OLIGABCHT. 307 

■only twenty-fleven were successful. Indeed, for fifteen to be auc- 
oessful out of five hundred is reckoned rather remarkable. 

The next examination is held in the departmental city, and the 
aamber of candidates who present themselves are of course much 




fewer. At the first examination the roads lejuling to tlie district 
towns are crawded with candidates on foot, on horseback, in carts, 
or in palanquins. After tliis departmental examination another 
sifting occurs. Those who Iiave passed liave their names placarded 
as having gained "a name in the department," just as at the pre- 
vious examination they had obtjiined "a name in the village." 
The next examination is severer still, being held under the 



808 THE STORY OP GOVERNMENT. 

supervision of an imperial examiner, who visits every department 
twice in three years. The "bachelor degree," if one may use 
this term, is gained by this, and is only given to a certain num- 
ber of the successful candidates in proportion to the population of 
the respective districts. Most men do not think of going beyond 
this degree, unless they intend to seek official employment. The 
possession of it confers many privileges ; amongst others exemp- 
tion from corporal punishment. 

The next examination occurs every three years at the j)rovincial 
capital in September, and is sometimes attended by as many as 
ten thousand bachelors, anxious to compete for the degree of 
licentiate. It is conducted by two examiners from Pekin. At 
Nankin, on one occasion, twenty thousand men competed, and the 
degree of licentiate was awarded to less than two hundred. 

Out of seventy-three candidates, who on one occasion obtained 
this degree at Canton, five were under twenty-five years, eight 
between twenty and twenty-five, fifteen between twenty-five and 
thirty, eighteen between thirty and thirty-five, nine between 
thirty-five and forty, twelve between forty and forty-five, three 
between forty-five and fifty, while three were over fifty. 

Hence it appears that few attain this degree till well advanced 
in life. However, all these are not fresh candidates; many are 
unsuccessful and, until rendered hopeless by being "plucked" 
year after year, will regularly, as the examinations come round, 
make attempts to obtain the coveted distinction. 

On an average from twelve hundred to seventeen hundred 
may annually obtain the degree in all the eighteen provinces. 
At these examinations each student is placed for several suc- 
cessive days in a little cell, so uncomfortable that it does not 
admit of the occupant lying down at full length. Every candi- 
date must have a cell to himself, and the number of competitors 
being so great, regard has to be had to economy of space, 
especially as all Chinese cities are very crowded. 

The third, or examination for the doctor's degree, is held at 
Pekin, and thither all the competing licentiates must go. These 
seldom exceed from two hundred to three hundred. The highest 
degree is that of "Han-lin." It is also held at Pekin, and the 
few who attain it become members of the Han-lin College, and 



A BCHOLASnO OLIOABCHT. oQil 

leoeive fixed Balaries. The licentiates are on tlie high load for 
preferment as vacancies occnrj the doctots are ensured an imm^ 
diate and important ofiBce, Trhile from the select Han-lin College 
are chosen tlie 
emperor's minis- 
ters. 

The greatest 
care is taken that 
these examina- 
tions shall be 
foirly conducted. 
Tlie building in 
which they are 
held is specially 
constructed for 
the purpose, with 
double Avails, be- 
tween which sen- 
Iries are continu- 
ally pacing. The 
gates are strictly 
watched, and 
when the candL 
dates enter the 
examination hall 
they are searched 
for books or 
BcntpB of paper 
that might assist 
them in writing 
tlieir essays, and the most ticrupulous precautions are taken to 
prevent communications between the canditlates. 

Their food they take with them, and the government provides 
a pitcher of water for eacli. Three sets of themes are given, each 
occupying two days and a night. Until that time has expired no 
one is allowed to leave his examination cell. 

When the essays are written, they are iiist scrutinized as to 
dieix oonfomuty with the regulations, for they most not exceed 




i. aCHOOLMABTKK 



810 THE 8T0BY OF OOVERKMENT. 

seven htmdred characters, nor must there be any character written 
over the ruled red lines of the examination paper which all have 
to use ; nor is erasure or correction of any kind allowed. Nor, 
although the theme might be the same, can anyone repeat with 
improvements an essay of a former examination. 

Any obvious fault in composition observed by the officers who 
superintend this department would prevent the essay from being 
placed in the hands of the higher examiners. These latter then 
select the best essays, to the number of two or three hundred, and 
subject them to the judgment of the two chief examiners, who 
finally decide which are best, and arrange them in the order of 
merit. In granting offices the emperor follows the order of 
names. In addition to these precautions equal care is taken that 
the examiners shall not abuse the confidence reposed in them by 
showing favoritism, or having any chance to gratify malice against 
any candidate. 

The examiners are brought from a distance, and surrounded by 
troops, as much to keep them from being tampered with, as to do 
them honor in the eyes of the populace. They are not allowed to 
see the actual examination papers, but only copies made by official 
transcribers, until they have passed a paper as satisfactory, when 
the original is brought to them to compare with the copy, and 
then, if all be right, the candidate's name is seen which up to this 
point is unknown, having been pasted between two sheets of 
paper. 

Yet when such great things are staked upon these trials of 
intellect, it can be readily believed that the ingenuity of the 
Chinese literati manages sometimes to elude the most lynx-eyed 
examiners. Most amusing are some of the ways in which this is 
attempted. 

The American undergraduate who takes into the examination 
hall a series of notes on his shirt-cuffs, and half a dozen problems 
of Euclid on his capacious palms, is a bungler compared with his 
Chinese brother in academical iniquity. The trick of employing 
a learned substitute — himself a graduate — to enter under the 
name of a candidate, perfoim the exercises and, on leaving the 
building, substitute his essays for those of the real candidate, is 
a well-worn device in China. 



A SCHOLASTIC OUGABGHY. 811 

Now and then it happens that a friend in the building learns 
the themes of the expected essays, writes them in tiny characters 
on slips of paper, and drops them enclosed in wax into the water 
supplied to the candidate whom he wishes to favor. But the 
most daring plan which the reminiscences of the Chinese Dons 
can recall was that of a candidate who engaged a friend to tunnel 
under the walls of the examination hall, and thus convey to him 
through the floor of his cell the documents and other information 
needed. 

The ancestral worship of China, to which allusion has been 
made, is carried in certain practical ways to an exti'eme frightful 
to contemplate. A parent has absolute control over the lives of 
his children. If he kills one intentionally, he is subject only 
to a year's imprisonment, and the chastisement of the bamboo; 
if the child struck him previously, there is no punishment 
whatever. 

As among the Hebrews, the penalty of striking or cursing 
parents is death, and so tenacious of order are the Chinese, that 
for one person to strike another with hand or foot is accounted 
not only a private but a public offence. Hence the common 
spectacle of two Chinese quarrelling with endless gesticulations, 
but without coming to blows, the surrounding crowd also taking 
care to see that the quarrel does not lead the disputants to close 
quarters. This instinct has now become hereditary with the 
Chinese, for even in the foreign countries to which they have 
emigrated they carry this wholesome habit of allowing the tongue 
rather than the fist to act as their safety-valve. 

Some of their habits of life and modes of thought are closely 
interwoven with their governmental system, and are full of inter- 
est. A Chinese debtor, for instance, is allowed a reasonable time, 
fixed by law, to discharge his obligations ; but if, after the expira- 
tion of these da)rs of grace, he fails to pay, he is liable to the 
punishment of the bamboo stick. A creditor sometimes quarters 
himself with his family ujx)n a debtor, and though this is not 
recognized by the law, no one interferes, provided it be done with- 
out tumult or violence. 

Death is looked upon by a Chinaman with the utmost uncon- 
cern, and suicide is adopted as a means of freeing himself from the 



812 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

most trifling worry. Yet death is rarely mentioned directly in 
their ordinaiy conversation, but is alluded to in a round-about 
fashion. Ancestors are worshipped, and in every rich man's 
house is a chamber dedicated to this filial duty. Here are pre- 
served tablets inscribed with the names of the deceased, and at 
stated seasons, and according to forms prescribed in that huge 
etiquette code of China — the " Book of Rites " — prostrations 
and ceremonies are perfonned before them. 

When a person dies it is said that "he has made his salutation 
to the age," or has *' ascended to the sky." "To be happy on 
earth," they say, "one must be born in Soo-chow, live in Canton, 
and die in Lianchan ; " Soo-chow being famous for pretty women, 
Canton for luxury, and Lianchan for furnishing excellent wood, 
for that last important article which a Chinese sets so much store 
by — his coffin. 

The Chinese idea of beauty, or at least of the figure that suits a 
person of fashion, is rather peculiar. A woman should, for 
instance, be extremely slender in appearance, while a man should 
be corpulent, or what we understand as "aldermanic." 

Both men and women of rank, or at all above the laboring 
class, wear their finger-nails long, as a sign that they are not com- 
pelled to stoop to manual labor ; and to such an extent are these 
nails allowed to grow, that cases of ivory, silver, and even of gold, 
ornamented with precious gems, are used to preserve them from 
being accidentally broken. Even servants now and then attempt 
this bit of foppery and, to preserve them from being broken, splice 
them onto thin slips of bamboo. 

The small feet of the Chinese women are caused by the curi- 
ous inverted ideas of beauty which Fashion in all nations some- 
times succeeds in inspiring and maintaining. In China, this 
monstrosity must have prevailed for a thousand years, because 
the Tailar women do not favor it, and have never adopted it. 
Hence the argument that it antedates the Tartar invasion. 

It is produced in early childhood by cramping the feet arti- 
ficially by means of bandages ; and though it renders those thus 
mutilated incapable of walking, except by holding on to walls, or 
by very skilfully tottering along, it is regarded as exceedingly 
"genteel," probably from the idea of its being associated, 



A SOHOIiASTIC OUQAROBir. 



818 



like the correBponding case of long nails, with exemption from 
lahor. 

The Chinese poets rave of such deformed feet as "golden 
lilies," and describe the rocking of the women in attempting to 
walk as the "waving of a willow." The muscles of the leg from 
not being in use dwindle away, so that the space from the ankle 
to the knee is not so thick as the wrist. Women who have not 
this deformity of the feet will sometimes hobble along the street 




FARIIIONABLK FOOTINO. 



in a manner intended to deceive the observers into believing thftt 
the fashionable foot is theint. 

Ridiculous as this custom is, the student of strange methods 
for "improving" the person gets habituated to otliers equally 
strange: and we who have seen, in the course of our studies of 
mankind, jKople flattening their foreheads, tattooing their persons, 
cutting off their lingers, filing their teeth or dyeing them black, 
painting their bodies, slitting their ears, compressing the waist, 
putting stones, hones, or metal through the lips, cheeks, or ears, 
or in a dozen other ways interfering with nature, have only a 
gentle compassion instettd of profound contempt for such exhibits 



814 THE STORY OP GOVERNMENT. 

of feminine vanity on the part of Cliinese ladies, as depicted in 
our illustration of a belle resting her fashionable understanding 
on a table. 

Never was there a more elaborate code of etiquette than that of 
China. It is not alone a court etiquette, but one regulated by the 
State in the elaborate "Book of Rites," preserved through ages; 
an etiquette which is never altered by fiishiou — for fashion never 
changes — and which controls the every-day action of all the 
Chinese from the emperor to the coolie. Their prescribed cei-e- 
monial usages are three thousand in number. The most abject 
method of showing respect to a superior is by performing the 
Kow-tow^ and is that by which a vassal signifies his obedience 
to his superior. 

When an audience is about to be obtained of the emperor, this 
prostration is previously made before a yellow screen, and though 
it has been performed by the ambassadors of the Dutch — a nation 
which in the East has submitted to any indignity which promised 
to result in profit — it has been always refused by the English 
and Russian ambassadors, and of late years has not been expected 
from the representatives of any nation except such as owe vassal- 
age to China. 

There are various grades of the Kow-tow. For instance, standing 
and bending the head is less submissive than kneeling on one or 
both knees, and putting the hands and forehead to the ground. 
Doing this once is not so humble an act of acknowledgment of 
inferiority as doing it three, six, or nine times. Abject as it is, 
such is the innate filial obedience in China, that the emperor will 
perform it before his mother. 

Chinese ladies are taught to paint on silk, to embroider, and to 
acquire some skill in music; and though cases of learned ladies 
are not unknown, yet they are not as a rule studiously inclined. 
The better class of them are modest. To such an extent is this 
carried that it is accounted indecorous in a lady to show her 
hands, and accordingly they are covered with long sleeves. 
When they have been shown pictures of the very dScolletS dress 
worn by fashionable European ladies, they very natiually ex- 
press themselves much shocked at such immodest and indecent 
costumes. 



■Ililllllllllllllllllllllilllll) 




816 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

Polygamy is not, as frequently described in books, sanctioned 
by the law. Every man is limited to one wife, but " left-handed " 
marriage is permitted to any extent that a man may feel justifiable 
according to his purse. But the first wife is regarded as the 
social head of the household, and the bickerings which naturally 
follow the practice of polygamy render it less common thaii it 
would otherwise be. 

If the wife has no family, then the taking of a handmaid is con- 
sidered as natural — the Chinese looking upon the want of a son 
as a terrible affliction. These handmaids are generally bought for 
a sum of money from the lowest ranks of the population, and 
really enter the family as domestic slaves. 

No man is allowed to marry any woman with the same surname 
as himself, all people of the same surname being considered kin, 
and no government official can marry an actress. Not only is 
such a mairiage, if contracted, void, but both parties are punish- 
able 'with sixty blows; though, if the official hold the degree 
of licentiate, this punishment must be remitted for one of cor- 
responding severity, into which corporal punishment does not 
enter. Finally, though the legal wife is small-footed, the brevet 
ones are not. 

A man may divorce his wife for seven different reasons: 1. 
Barrenness, though this is generally never taken as an excuse, as 
he has his remedy in legal concubinage. 2. Adulter}'. 3. Dis- 
obedience to the husband's parents; the mother-in-law being more 
kindly regarded in China than in Europe. 4. Talkativeness, 
5. Thieving. 6. Ill-temper. 7. Inveterate infirmities. 

Any of these, however, may be set aside by three circum- 
stances: the wife having mourned for her husband's parents; the 
family having acquired wealth since the marriage ; and the wife 
being without parents to receive her back. It is in all cases dis- 
reputable, and in some (as those of a particular rank) illegal, for 
a widow to marry again. 

Whenever a widow is herself unwilling, the law protects her; 
and should she act by the compulsion of parents or other rela- 
tions, these are severely punishable. Widows, indeed, have a 
very powerful dissuasive from second wedlock, in being absolute 
mistresses of themselves and children so long as they remain 



A 80HOLA8TI0 OUGABOHY. 817 

widows. Marriage is predestined, the Chinese believe, and early 
marriages are greatly encouraged. ^^ There are three great acts of 
disobedience to parents, and to die without progeny is the chiefs'** 
is a Chinese maxim. 

The amusing contrariety of Chinese customs as compared with' 
ours has been thus epitomized by a traveller : — 

On inquiring of the boatman which way Macao lay, I was answered, 
** in the west-north"; the wind, as 1 was informed, being east-south. 
** We do not say so in Europe," thought I ; but imagine my surprise 
when, in explaining the compass, the boatman added that '^ the needle 
pointed to the south I " 

Desirous to change the subject, I remarked that I supposed he was 
going to some high festival, or merrymaking, as his dress was com- 
pletely white. He told me, with a look of much dejection, that his 
only brother had died the week before, and that he was in the deepest 
mourning for him. 

On my landing, the first object that attracted my attention was a 
military mandarin, who wore an embroidered petticoat, with a string of 
beads round his neck, and who besides carried a fan ; and it was with 
some dismay that I observed him mount on the right side of his horse. 
Another strange sight was a wagon impelled partly by a sail. I was 
surrounded by natives, all of whom had the hair shaven from the fore 
part of the head, while some of them permitted it to grow on their faces. 

On my way to the house prepared for my reception, I saw two 
Chinese boys discussing with much earnestness who should be the pos- 
sessor of an orange. They debated the point with a vast variety of 
gesture, and, at length, without venturing to fight about it, sat down 
and divided the orange equally between them. At that moment my 
attention was drawn to several old Chinese, some of whom had gray 
beards, and nearly all of them huge goggling spectacles. 

A few of them were chirruping and chuckling to singing birds, which 
they carried in bamboo cages, or perched on a stick ; others were catch- 
ing flies to feed the birds \ the remainder of the party seemed to be 
delightedly employed in flying paper kites, while a group of boys were 
gravely looking on, and regarding these innocent occupations of their 
seniors with the most serious and gratified attention. . . . 

Resolute in my determination to persevere, the next morning found 
me provided with a Chinese master, who happily understood English. 
I was fcdly prepared to be told that I was about to study a language 
without an alphabet, but was somewhat astonished, on his openin g the 

Public 



818 THE STORY OP GOVBRNMBNT. 

Chinese volume, to find him begin at what I had all mj life preirioosly 
considered the end of a book. He read the date of publication — 
** The fifth year, tenth month, twenty-third day." " We arrange our 
dates differently," I observed ; and begged that he would speak of their 
ceremonials. 

He commenced by saying, " When you receive a distinguished guest, 
do not fail to place him on your left hand, for that is the seat of 
honor ; and be cautious not to uncover the head, as it would be an un- 
becoming act of familiarity." Hardly prepared for this blow to my 
established notions, I requested he would discourse of their philosophy. 

He reopened the volume, and read with becoming gravity, " The 
most learned men are decidedly of opinion that the seat of the 
human understanding is the stomach."* I seized the volume in despair, 
and rushed from the apartment. 

Speaking of stomachs, the Chines^ gourmands seem to excel in 
inventing extraordinary dishes. One of the most remarkable of 
these consists of young crabs thrown into a vessel of vinegar some 
time before dinner is served. The vinegar corrodes their delicate 
shells, so that when the lid of the vessel is removed, the lively 
young crabs scramble out and run all over the table until their 
career is cut stort by each guest snatching up what he can. 

The Chinese population is said to be decreasing, though whether 
this is owing to the terrible destruction of life caused by the 
Taeping Rebellion, when, through massacre, and famine, and dis- 
ease whole provinces were decimated, or to an exhaustion of 
vitality in the race, the lack of anything like a regular census 
renders all theories of purely personal value. Mr. Colbome 
Baber, Chinese Secretary of the British Legation at Pekin, tells 
a story which may, perhaps, explain this deficiency of statistics. 

In very early times the city of Wa-ming-hsien was governed by 
a prefect of more than usual discrimination and energy. Having 
directed a census to be taken by two independent officials he was 
not astonished to find that the two reports exhibited such an enor- 
mous discrepancy that they had to be cancelled, and the deputies 
reported to the governor for punishment. The prefect then 
appointed two other olBcers to number the people. 

• This is a mistake for they place it in the heart. It is an old maxim amon^ good house- 
wives that the way to keep a man's heart lies through his stomach, but this, like many a pro- 
verb, is a libel on human nature. 



A SCHOLASTIC OLIGARCHY. 819 

But they, taking warning by the fat« of their predecessors, com- 
pared notes, and in due time announced Wa-ming-hsien to contain 
exactly 20,401 souls. However, being unable to agree whether 
the odd figure referred to a male or a female, they, in their turn, 
were reported to the governor for punishment. The prefect then 
determined to t,ike the census himself and set out for the city. 
But, in the meantime, the timid citizens, alarmed at the perti- 
nacity of the prefect, and apprehending that he was coming to 




levy some oppressive tax, fled from the town and hid themselves 
in the fields. 

The astonished satrap, finding the place deserted, and fearing 
to be "reported to the governor for punishment," lianged himself 
in the gate, and when his body was discovered, there was found 
firmly clenched in his grasp a paper containing the following 
words: "Return of census of the city of Wa-ming-hsien, in the 
department of Mu-yu-fu: men, none; women, none; children 
under fourteen years of age, of both sexes, none — grand total, 
none." 

In China now are three great religions, if they can be bo called, 
Confucianism, Taouism, and Buddhism. The first two are 
indigenous; the last is an importation from India. Koon-foo-tse, 
or, as his name has been latinized in the M'ritings of the early 
miBBionaries, Confucius, was bom about 551 b. c, and is now 



320 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

accounted the great sage and teacher of China. He was the son 
of a statesman, and chief minister in his native kingdom, one of 
the many into which China was then divided. 

Despising the amusements and gaieties common to his age, he 
devoted himself to study and reflection in moral and political 
science; but, unlike the Greek philosopher Aristotle, he investi- 
gated none of the branches of natural science, nor did he interfere 
with the common superstitions. His doctrines, therefore, form a 
code of moral and political philosophy rather than a religious 
system, and his followers are really philosophers more than reli- 
gious sectarians. He endeavored to correct the corruptions which 
had crei)t into the state, and to restore the maxims of the ancient 
kings, who are celebrated in traditional history. 

Unswayed by personal ambition, he promulgated his doctrines 
with a singleness of purpose that, even in conservative China, 
gained him respect and multitudes of followers; and after being 
employed' in high offices of state he retired in the company of his 
chosen disciples to compile those collections of philosophical 
maxims which have now become the sacred books of China. 

Nor can it be denied that, though erroneous in some respects, 
they deserve much of the honor which has been paid them. 
"Treat others according to the treatment which thou wouldst 
desire at their hands," and "guard thy secret thoujhtSy^^ were 
among his favorite maxims. Filial affection he taught, and even 
enjoined it to such an extent, that he ordered that the slayer of a 
father should be put to death by the son; that "he should not live 
under the same heaven," were the words in which lie urged this 
application of the lex talionis. 

He was modest in his demeanor, though this virtue has not 
descended with his doctrines to his modern disciples, who are self- 
sufficient and overbearing to all who do not profess the state 
religion of Cliina, as Confucianism really is. 

Confucius began early in life to labor as a public teacher and 
gathered around him a large circle of disciples. He devoted 
himself to reducing the traditions and reigning records of antique 
Chinese wisdom, gathered l)y the emperors Yaou and Chun, into 
a more perfect form, and before his death had compiled and edited 
the five canonical books of the Chinese. 



822 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

The first, the "Yih King," or the "Book of Changes,*' treats of 
the beginning of things and of morals, and may be called a cos- 
mological and ethical treatise. The second, "Choo King,** was a 
book of histories. The third, "Chee-King,** was a book of poetry, 
a collection of ballads, to which things Confucius attached great 
value as means of moulding the national chaittcter. 

The fourth, the "Lee-Ke," was a "Record of Rites,'* and is an 
account of the national ceremonials and religious usages, a knowl- 
edge of which is considei*ed essential among the Chinese for the 
maintenance of social order and the promotion of virtue. The 
fifth, the "Chum-To-Ew," or Spring and Autumn, is a history by 
Confucius of his time and of a few preceding reigns. The others 
are compilations, though containing much original matter, but 
the fifth is said to be the work of the sage himself. 

The writings which rank next to these books in popular estima- 
tion are the "Four Shoos," which consists mainly of records of his 
early sayings gathered by his disciples, except the fourth which 
contains the works of Mencius, a celebrated writer of the Con- 
fucian school. 

These books of Confucius liave had a curious destiny, having 
survived imperial jealousy; for in the third centurj'- Che-IIwang- 
Te, who had established the supremacy of tlie Tsin Dynasty, 
ordered the sacred books of Confucius to be destroyed because 
they suggested unfavorable comparisons between his own and 
former reigns. 

This order was tremblingly obeyed, the first alone being 
exempted from general destruction. As it was then customary 
for the literati to memorize the writings Qi the various philoso- 
phei-s, this cruel emperor tried to perfect his infamous scheme by 
putting four hundred Confucian pliilosophers to death. But 
under succeeding sovereigns, these lost works of Confucius were 
rescued from where they had been hidden by the philosophers or 
restored by those who had been trained and had trained others to 
keep them in memory. 

"The kings," said Confucius on his death-bed, "will not 
hearken to my doctrines; I am no longer of use on earth, and it 
is time for me to go." But to-day, while tenets of other national 
philosophers liave been superseded, those which came from the 



A BGHOLASTIO OLIGABCHV. 828 

lips of Confucius are admired and embraced by one third of the 
great human family. 

Throughout the empire his works are regarded as the standard 
of moral and political wisdom. Only by a knowledge of them 
can literary and political distinction be won; and filial piety 
which has assumed the form of ancestral worship and which was 
the pivotal point of the system of Confucius may be regarded as 
the chief religion of the Chinese; for the doctrines of Taouism 
and of Buddhism have but a very small percentage of followers in 
comparison with those of Confucius. 

The Chinese li^^rature is certainly the most extensive and com- 
prehensive in Asia. The printed catalogue of the emperor's 
library is contained in 122 volumes, and it is said that a collec- 
tion of the Chinese classics, with scholia and commentaries, com- 
prises 180,000 volumes. In addition to the "classics," such as 
the writings of Confucius and Laoutsze there are the codes of the 
law of China, and a rich series of works on medicine, natural 
history, agriculture, music, astronomy, etc., and numerous dic- 
tionaries. 

There are also various encyclopaedias and geographical works, 
as well as a series of the national annals from the year B. c. 2698 
to A. D. 1645, comprising 3,706 books. Poetry and the drama 
are also cultivated, and they have now so far thrown off their 
national pride and reserve as to have translated several of the best 
English works on medicine, surgery, etc., into the Chinese lan- 
guage. Book-sellers' shops are common in every town, and books 
can be bought cheap. 

All classes read; even the coolie, resting on his burden for a 
minute or two, will pull out a book, it may be a i-omance or a 
volume of popular songs, and commence reading. Such is the 
respect for written or printed paper that any waste material of 
that sort is burnt daily in front of the door, or collected by men 
who go about from house to house in case any of it should be 
profaned. 

A few Chinese proverbs may show the character of the people 
and their way of thinking better than any mere description: "A 
wise man adapts himself to circumstances, as water shapes itself 
to the vessel that contains it;" "Misfortunes issue out where 



824 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

disease enters in — at the mouth ; " " The error of a moment 
may become the sorrow of a lifetime ; " V Disease may be cured, 
but not destiny;" "A vacant mind is open to all suggestions, as 
the hollow moimtiiin rctuins all sounds;" "He who pursues the 
stag regards not hjires ; " " If the roots be left the grass will grow 
again " (this is the reason given for exterminating a tmitor's 
family); "Tlie gem cannot be polished without friction, nor the 
man perfected without trials ; " '* A wise man forgets ohl 
grudges ; " " Riches come better after poverty than poverty after 
riches;" "A bird can roost but on one branch;" '*A horse can 
drink no more than its fill from a river " (Enough is as good as a 
feast); "When the port is dry the fishes will be seen" (When 
the accounts are settled, the profits will appear); "Who swallows 
quick can chew but little" (applied to learning); "You cannot 
strip two skins off of one cow;" "He who wishes to rise in the 
world should veil his ambition with the forms of liumility;" 
"The gods cannot help a man who loses opportunities; " "Dig a 
well before you are thirsty" (Be prepared against contingencies); 
"The full stomach cannot comprehend the evil of hunger;" 
" Eggs are close things, but the chicks come out at last " (Murder 
will out); "To add feet to a snake" (Superfluity in a discourse 
when the subject is altered) ; " Who aims at excellence will be 
above mediocrity; who aims at mediocrity will fall short of it; " 
"To win a cat and lose a cow" (consequences of litigation); "I 
will not try my porcelain lx)wl against his earthen dish ; " 
"Though the life of man fall short of a hundi-ed yeai*s, lie gives 
himself as much anxiety as though he were to live a thousand." 



N'(i^^ 



VIII. 




Patert;)al 



Socialisn;)^ 



ASYSTEM of government that reduces material misery 
to a minimum ; that makes sober habits of industry 
characteristic of the people ; that converts chaos into 
order and wreathes order with beauty, is surely 
worthy of study, although it lui^ j)erished from tlie face of the 
earth and lives to-day only in the annals of the more forcible 
civilization which is trying to build upon its ruins. 

It would seem, too, especially worthy of attention at this time 
in this country, because the unnecessary inequalities between man 
and man, the vast and intricate problem that stret^-hes between 
the two extremes of tramp and millionnaire, the foolish waste of 
energy and mat^n*ial which marks our present industrial state, are 
pressing on the minds of all candid students and are forcing a 
path into our politics with the tremendous, too often misdirected, 
energy of those whose thinking is rather a rude ])iussionate feel- 
ing than an orderly outcome of ripe reason. 

Time, the best, though slowest, of teachei's, brings about many 
changes in the meaning or value of words. Twenty years ago if 
a man in this country called himself a Socialist, he would have 
been looked ui)on Avitli grave suspicion either as a cmnk or an 



32' 



B26 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

enemy to society. To-day a man who has been professor of inter- 
national law at one of our leading colleges permits himself to be 
nominated on a Socialist ticket in New York, and actually receives 
over thirteen thousand votes. Nor is this an exceptional fact. 
In many State legislatures bilk are being introduced which are 
either openly or veiledly socialistic in their tendencies. 

Socialism to many of us comes with the electric shock of a new 
idea, and at first some are unable to decide whether the shock is a 
pleasant one or the reverse. The question, of course, at once 
arises what is it ? what does it mean ? And the answer is rather 
difficult, because in modern days there are a great many varieties. 
The fundamental ethics of it, however, are not new. They are 
expressed or implied in every great religion, and especially are 
they marked with strength in the teachings of the founder of 
Christianity and in the early development of that belief. 

Probably the purest expression of the ethical side of Socialism is 
that implied by Christ in the parable of the vineyard. The master 
paid those who came in to work at the eleventh hour just the same 
as the workers who had borne the heat and burden of the day, and 
rebuked those wlio grumbled at the apparent unfairness of this. 
The surface argument is that the first had no cause to complain 
because they received all they had bargained for, and the employer 
had an inherent right to pay just lus much as he wished to the 
others who worked less. 

But a comparative study of all Christ's attitudes towards the 
economic conditions of his time is likely to draw a candid mind 
to the conclusion that, under the superficial argument of the em- 
ployer's inherent right to do as he pleased with his own, lies the 
intended suggestion that those men who only had the opportunity 
or ability to work one hour were paid the same by the just and 
tender taskmaster on the broad ground that their human needs 
were the same. 

The modern phrasing of this doctrine is that society should 
demand from each a measure of work in accordance with ability, 
and should give to each a measure of comfort according to indi- 
vidual need; or, in other words, the philosophic Socialist aims to 
equalize men as much as possible materially, being cognizant, of 
coui-se, that vast moral and mental inequalities must continue to 



328 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

prevail for ages; must always, indeed, persist within certain 
degrees, else there would be no difference of character, but one 
vast dead-sea level of monotony. 

Briefly stated, the chief moral argument of modem Socialism, 
and perhaps the strongest plea that could be put foi*th in its favoi*, 
is that, by doing away with the sordid pressure of materijil in- 
equalities, a greater opportunity will be afforded for the develop- 
ment of finei, more original individualities. 

Men to-day in the mass are becoming too much like the 
madiines which they tend. Our civilization seems to be reduc- 
ing itself to an absurd play of mere materialistic forces, and to be 
bringing forth, on an average, as its children, a mere concatena- 
tion of echoes, — not men, but sounding brasses and tinkling 
symbols of men. 

But some individuals are inclined to recoil, when brought face 
to face with the ultimate economic proposition of Socialism, 
namely, that every business necessary to the general welfare 
should be managed by the people collectively; that is, that 
every municipality should have its public bakeries, shoeshops, 
etc., and supply its citizens with the necessaries of life at cost, 
instead of allowing private citizens to make fortunes at the 
expense of the majority of workers by the accidents or the chica- 
neries of trade. 

Socialism, it is true, already operates as an active element in 
the Government of the United States, — the post-office being a 
shining example of it on a national scale and the ownership by 
some cities and towns of their water supplies, gas and electric 
light, being instances also of its advance into popular favor. 

But while all sensible men who have ever given the matter 
sufficient study agree as to the advisability of socializing the 
larger businesses of the country such as railroads, telegraphs, tel- 
ephones, expressage, mines of all kinds, lighting and water sup- 
plies, and possibly meat, bread, and ordinary clothing, yet some 
cautious thinkers are inclined to feel that Socialism might 
become too much like a monstrous monotonous despotism, if it 
were permitted to permeate all the avenues of human activity. 

Still there would be a vast difference in a Socialism like that 
of ancient Peru, which emanated from an authority above, forcing 



330 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

itself down on a people, and the Socialism that grows up from a 
democratic community superseding the old fancy of government 
as a power independent of the governed, and making it mean 
a simplified administration of the business of the people con- 
sidered as an organic whole. 

Many small examples of democratic Socialism have existed, and 
in the chapter on Switzerland its political aspects are fully presen- 
ted. There are to-day certain communities in the United States 
which are Socialistic in character, though religious in name ; but 
there have been very few examples in the world of Socialism on 
a national scale. The present Emperor of Germany is, indeed, 
giving spread to a belief that he intends to socialize his empire as 
much as possible, but it can liardly be called an example of national 
Socialism, though it presents many of its features. 

To find our best illustration, therefore, we are forced to look in 
the early history of the new world, for when Pizarro, with a mere 
handful of greedy adventurers, conceived the audacious project of 
wresting the empire of Peru from the grasp of the Incas, he foimd 
himself face to face with a system of government more strange to 
the European mind of that epoch than any of the physical marvels 
which the Europeans who followed Colimibus had gazed on in 
Mexico or Panama. 

Pizarro, of whom we present a picture in one of his most famous 
attitudes, was a wonderful man, although he could neither read 
nor write. Nearly every schoolboy remembers how in his day of 
apparent weakness and disaster, he diew a line in the earth with 
his sword, saying, "On this side lies Panama with it^ poverty, on 
that, Peru with its untold treasures. Those who will follow me, 
step across that line," and a famous little band, whose names the 
Spanish historian proudly records, crossed the line, after which 
there was no hint of turning back. 

The Government of Peru was an absolutism, but not in the sense 
with which we apply that word to Russia or China, because under 
the beneficent rule of the Peruvian kings the country from the 
Andes to the ocean had been transformed into a garden, and the 
government, apart from tlie necessary maintenance of the emperor 
and the national religion, was essentially the Inisiness of the peo- 
ple, wisely administered and witli very little friction. 



PATERNAL SOCIALISM. 



331 



That n vast coantry in which the term, national wealth, really 
meant national health — a polity which had largely multiplied and 
then fairly divided the sum of human happiness — should have 
succumbed so easily to so smiill a band as Pizarro led, might seem 
to imply some inherent weakness in the socialistic scheme as a 
hasis for permanent government. 

For two hundred men to seize such an empire — what a miracle I 
But Fate fought on the Spanish side. 




DltAWINO TUE L 



Coming as they did partly on the lioi-se, a new and monstrous 
sight to Peruviau eyes, and clad in shining armor, and having 
strange and terrible weapons full of thunder and lightning, the 
Spanish invadera seemed unnuestionably tlie diviiie cliildi-en of 
the Sun, fresh from Heaven, for whom popular sujMjrstition had 
long looked forwaixl. Tlicn, too, Pizarro, imitating Cortez, seized 
the Inca's person, and tlie Inca, being High-priest as well jis 
Emperor, his subjects hardly dared to attempt a lescue, lest his 
sacred blood should be shed. 



8S2 THE STOBY OF GOYEBNMENT. 

The Spanish historians record with grave amazement that they 
had discovered a miraculous, land in which there was no such 
thing as a poor or discontented man ; in which everybody worked, 
from the emperor downward, a reasonable length of time at tasks 
fitted to their strength and their ability; in which the problem of 
mere living, as it confronts us modems in our so-called civilized 
cities, had been satisfactorily settled; in which the average of 
human happiness was large and increasing. The Spaniard found 
Peru a comparative paradise of paternal Socialism; he made it 
a hell of brutal competition. 

This wonderful Socialistic Empire (which, partly because of 
the superiority of the Spanish fire-arms to the Peruvian weapons, 
and partly because the superstitious people readily believed that 
their invaders, so fair of countenance, were direct children of the 
Sim, fell such an easy pi*ey to Spanish cupidity) was at this period 
of its overthrow spreading its power in every direction, and some 
of the neighboring nations which it was trying to absorb were of 
a civilization almost equal in splendor, if not in some respects 
superior; as for instance, the Chimuans, whose architecture, as 
conjecturally restored from ruins by the modem scientific mind, 
must have been something at once delicate and massive, and far in 
advance of Peruvian art. The contrast between clashing systems 
of civilization is sometimes clearly shown in their architecture, 
and the two pictures, " A Castle in Spain " and " A Chimuan 
Palace,*' with which this chapter opens, are excellently suggestive 
examples of this fact. 

Tlie material realm of the Incas, when Pizarro seized it with 
an audacity that has no parallel in history, was of vast extent and 
singular shape. It fronted the Pacific Ocean from 2^ north lati- 
tude to about 37° south; or, in other words, it consisted of the 
western part of tlie modern republics of Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, 
and Chili, with an indeterminate stretch to the east where the 
mountiiins and barbarous tribes made its expansion somewhat slow, 
although that growth had been constant for tliree hundred years. 

This comparatively nan-ow strip of land, rarely more than sixty 
miles in width, ^ was a country apparently unfavorable to agri- 

* One of the native historians, Oarcilasso, intimates that the empire at its widest plaoe did 
not exceed four hundred miles. 



884 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

culture or to easy intercomraunication and comfortable living, for 
along the sandy coast it rarely rained, and but scanty streams fed 
the earth, and it was hemmed in all along by colossal mountains 
from three to four miles high who^e solemn and forbidding 
grandem* seemed to cast a sort of deterrent shadow over the 
aspirations and attempted improvements of man. 

The steeps of these sierras with their fro\vning giant faces of 
naked porphyry and granite, the frightful precipices, furious 
torrents, and gorges of impenetrable gloom that abound in these 
regions, at times struck terror or at least dismay into the stout 
hearts of the invading Europeans. But they found, as they 
advanced, that the art of man had conquered the stubborn heart 
of nature in a way that filled them with wonder; for Europe at 
that time presented no equal spectacle or even hint of such superb 
triumphs of mind over matter as the Government of Peru had 
achieved for its people. 

The naturally barren coast was fertilized by a system of canals 
and underground aqueducts. Many of the most imposing moun- 
tains were terraced up to their snowy plateaus with gardens in 
which the fruits and vegetables of various zones were raised, and 
amid these orchards and gardens at many points towns and ham- 
lets were seen clinging to the mountain sides so high above the 
average track of the clouds as to delude at first, when the da\vn 
disclosed them to the beauty-loving eyes of the Spaniard, with 
the physical fancy that these villages were suspended in mid-air 
and might vanish, like dreams, at the voice of the breeze of 
morning. 

Above these towns nestling so confidingly on the breasts 
of the giant mountains, were snowy ])lains that rose gradually 
towards tlie peaks, and over these white desei-ts of the sky wan- 
dered innumerable flocks of llamas, the Peruvian sheep, from 
whose wool tlie government clothed the people. And across 
chasms, from the like of which, when they travei-sed the empire's 
borders, the Spaniards had sluunk back almost with horror as from 
living pictures of the abysses of that hell with which their religion 
threatened them, — across ravines whose dark, dizzying depths 
tempted such as gaze too long to plunge into annihilation, — 
across wide gorges where tumultuous torrents chanted mad litanies 



PATERNAL SOCtAUSH. 885 

of liberty or seemed like the rude flasliiug laughters of the Titaa 
mountains, — laughters at tlie pygmy, Man, who had dared 
attempt to utilize their forces, — across these divisions of unco- 
operant and defiant nature tlie genius of the Peruvian hatl swung 
suspension bridges, binding precipice lo steep aud hill to hill 
with rope-ro;i(Ls made from tlie fibres of tlie maguey. 




These ropes woe twisttd into t,ables thi &iz« of a man's body, 
and fitted into liohs in inimcnM, pill ii-s of solid iwk carved out 
of the opposite finijof the cliffs Thej \urc cross-pieced with 
wood and other smaller ropes, and the sides were protected by a 
sufficiently high railing. Of cout^ie, there wiis some elasticity to 
bridges made of such material, and their oscillations under the pass- 
age of troops were at first frightful and sea-sickish to the Spaniards. 

But these bridges, in their size, frequency, and stability, 
together with tlie great smooth stone roads traversing the moun- 



886 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

tain passes and connecting the capital, Cuzco, with the remotest 
villages of the empire, never ceased to excite the admira- 
tion of the conquerors. These roads have been suffered now to 
fall from disrepair into decay, and mostly into disappearance. 
But the fragmentary stretches that remain attest their pristine 
massiveness, and the great traveller and philosopher, Humboldt, 
always sparing in his praise, ranks them among the most useful 
and stupendous works ever executed by man.^ 

Let us glance at the chief capital of ancient Peru, the city of 
Cuzco, ^ the heart of the empire in which centred all the roads 
like the arms of the government. Peru was not the name of the 
empire, but was given by the Spaniards in mistake. The natives 
with pardonable pride called their country Tavintinstiyu, or the 
Four Quarters of the World, and, as if in token of the truth 
thereof, from the great city of Cuzco where hundreds of thousands 
lived happily, with no want, no poverty, and but little disease, 
rayed forth four great roads to the four points of the compass, and 
the four provinces of the empire. 

Cuzco, too, was divided into four quarters, and the various 
races that gathered there lived each in the quarter nearest its own 
province, and each by law wore the general costume of the 
province, modified of course in some measure by individual taste, 
but never so much as to hide the place or the rank to which they 
belonged. 

The capital was thus a miniature of the empire. Each of these 
provinces was ruled by a viceroy, or royal deputy, and a council, 
and these viceroys not only sent continual reports to the sovereign 
or Inca residing in Cuzco of the condition of the people, the 
weather, crops, etc., but a certain part of every year they con- 
vened in Cuzco to pay their respects to the Inca, and listen to his 
plans for the improvement or extension of the empire, thus form- 
ing a sort of Cabinet to the Crown. 

The decimal system invented by the French and adopted by all 
scientists was used by the Incas of Peru in their government with 
remarkable results. Such things as the finding of an unknown 

^Le grand chemin de Tinea ^tait un des ouvrages les plus utiles et en meme temps des plus 
gif^antesques que les hommes aient ex^nt^.—HumOohlt, 

* It was situated about the middle of present Peru. 



PATERNAL SOCIALISM. 837 

dead body, or a mjsterious disappearance which we so often read 
of in our newspapers was an impossibilitj in Peru, for every per- 
son was numbered, not in the sense of having a tag, but in 
the sense of tiiat Scriptural passage which informs us that in the 
eyes of a truly i»aternal deity every hair of our heads is numbered. 
So in Peru, tliere was no one so insignificant as not to receive the 
attention of the government. 

The nation at large was divided into decades, or tens, and eveiy 
tenth man was an officer, or liigh servant of the rest, his duty 



being to see that they enjoyed all their rigltta, to solicit aid for 
them from the government when necessary, and to bring offenders 
to justice. Justice, so often a bitter jest with us, was a reality 
in Peru, for in case of neglect tbe judge had to pay the penalty of 
the guilty, and lie bad only live days to decide civses. 

These decades were grouped in fives, tens, and hundreds, up to 
ten thousand, each head of a decade being under the supervision 
of a man representing five decades sometimes, but generally ten; 
or in other words each hundred men had nine special officers and 
one general captain, each thousand men the same, every captain 
of one grade being a subordinate of tlie next higher till ten thou- 



888 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

sand was reached. The whole empire was arranged in depart- 
ments of ten thousand with a special governor appointed from the 
Inca nobility. 

Under this system authority was so subdivided and gntduated, 
and had so nianv mathematical checks on it that individual 
oppression or domination was almast impossible. OflBcialism or 
bureaucmcy was prevented from l)eing an evil by making it 
all-pervasive. 

Not only was every man accoimted for from his birth to his 
death, but he felt that he counted in the vast sum of serene hap- 
piness which radiated from the sacred person of the Inca, who 
was at once the hereditary high priest of the national religion, 
and the loving manager of his people's material affairs, watch- 
ing over the minutest concerns of their daily lives. This was 
not felt to be, as some administrations in France have been, 
a vast system of espionage, but a sympathy of the great man with 
his children that was tireless and almost sleepless. 

The Peruvian felt always a line of communication vibrating 
from himself to his sovereign, for although there were no courts 
of appeal, and the few laws were very severe, the rights of the 
individual were safeguarded by a committee of visitors which 
at certain periods perambulated the kingdom, investigating 
the character and conduct of the magistrates, and punishing 
ip a summary way any judicial eiTors or delinquencies. Nor this 
alone, for the lower courts had to make monthly reports of all 
cases t/> the higher, and these to the viceroy, so that the Inca 
seated at Cuzco could review, reach out and rectify any abuses. 

There being no money in Peru, few laws were needed, and 
crime was rather a rarity, and at the time of the invasion was 
probably becoming rarer, because death was the penalty of the 
most grave violations of law, and criminals were thus prevented 
from perpetuating themselves. 

The crimes of theft and murder were capital, and so was a 
breach of the marital vow, though it was justly provided that 
extenuating circumstances might be taken into consideration by 
the judges to soften the sentence. Blasphemy against the Sun or 
against the Sovereign, — an exceedingly rare offence, — and burn- 
ing a bridge were death. 



PATERNAL SOCIALISM. 



Removing landmarkfi, tumiag a water-coui-Mc from a Jieighboi's 
land to one's own, and destroying a lioiue were rigorously pun- 
ished, as for instance, by a public flogging. Yet no needless 




cruelty was displayed. No ingeniously prolonged torments such 
as we used to have in the mediicval period of our civilization 
were permitted among the mild and polished Peruvians. 



840 THE BTOBY OF QOVEBNMBNT. 

But we must consider their religion in order to nnderstand 
folly the Tastness of the authority which a Peruvian Inca must 
Lave possessed in order to be able to pn>duc6 such a majestic 
fabric of government composed of harmonized minntia like a 
huge temple built of many little bricks, and furthermore to be 
able to hand it from sire to son for centuries with improvement 
instead of impairment. 

This religion was primarily a worship of the sun, whom they 
identified as the source of all spirit and force in the universe, just 

as our modern 
science ideutiflea 
that luminary as 
the parent of all 
the celestial phe- 
nomena of our 
system. The 
late die turn of 
Mcience, that our 
earth and all its 
potentialities had 
no separate crea- 
tion, but was at 
some unimagin- 
ably distant 
ejwch shot forth 
from the sun as a flying spark or cooling cinder of fiery nebulous 
matter, was an old accepted belief with the Peruvians. 

The earth was sun-bom, and all its children were of that high 
origin, but they had fallen from their first estate according to 
the Peruvian, as well as the Judfeau tradition, and stood in sore 
need of redemption from their degraded habits of worshipping 
widely and wildly nearly eveiything in nature, of making war 
their pastime and cannibalism their festivity. Therefore the 
Sun-God in his pity sent two of his direct children, Manco Capac 
and Mama Ocllo Iluaco, to gather the natives into communities 
and teach them the arts of a softer, sweeter, and serener life, — a 
life more worthy of their originally divine descent. Rarely do 
fables bear such practical fruit as was the case in Peru. 




842 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

This celestial pair, brother and sister, husband and wife like- 
wise, were bidden, so saj'S the fable, to advance along the high 
plains near Lake Titicaca, bearing with them a great wedge of 
gold, and where the wedge should slip from their hantls and sink 
into the ground, there they were to abide and found tlie Cit}' of 
the Sun. Tliey had gone but a short spat;e in the valley of Cuzco 
when the mini(jle occuiTed, and proved itself completely by the 
wedge sinking speedily into the earth and disappearing forever. 
Here was founded the Holy C'ity, and from the holy pair were 
descended, so the people believed, the Inca race wlio ruled them. 

High descent is not such a vain thing, after all, as it often 
seems at first blush to a philosopher, if those who have it strive 
to live up to it. And it appeai-s to l)e admitted that the Inca 
sovereigns were as deeply conscious of what was due from 
them as demi-divinities to the j)eople they swayed, as they were 
of what was due to them in the matter of reverence and honor. 
The French motto ""^^ Noblesse obUge^^ was exemplified in the lives 
of the Peruvian princes to a wonderful degi-ee* 

Before considering the minute details of the policy develoj)ed 
by these extraordinary monarclis, perha})s a brief 2)icture of an 
Inca's personal pomp might be of interest and value. The Inca 
was placed, by his being the head of the Church as well as of the 
State, so immeasurably above all his subjects that even the 
haughtiest of the nobles who claimed descent from the same 
divine luminary could not venture into his presence except bare- 
foot, and bearing on the shoulder a slight burden in sign of servi- 
tude or homage. 

As the sun is the source of all force, so the Inca was the foun- 
tain of all honor, power, or wealth. He raised annies and 
usually led them in person, whenever an extension of the empire 
among the barbarous tribes to the East was planned. He imposed 
taxes, made the laws, and appointed the judges. Louis XIV. 
of France was, according to his own epigram, himself, the 
State, but a Peruvian Inca was more ; he was Church and State 
in one. 

And the Inca never forgot the supreme seriousness of the part 
assigned him by destiny in the dnima of this earth-life. He 
assumed a pomp in his style of living and an exclusiveness 



PATERNAL &UC1AUSM. 848 

such as few kings could conceive orsusbuii. Iliu dress wus of 
tlie finest wool dyed in divers colore and crusted profusely with 
bits of gold and jewels. A many-colored, many-folded turban 
crowned his head, blazing with jewels, and with a tasselled 
fringe of deep scarlet, while two feathers of a rare and strange 
bird, called the coraquevqiie,^ standin}; nprijjht in the turban gave 
a certain touch of 
tenal or wingfid 
grace to the daz- 
zling splendor of 
the 1*0} il h e a i\ 
dress 

But though the 
Tnc I was, or felt 
himself to be, so 
superior to even 
the liighest of his 
subjects, he con- 
descended o c c a- 
sionally to frater- 
nize with them, 
and took especial 
pains to inspect 
the condition of 
the lower classes 
and to provide for 
their pleasures. At some of the religious festivals he presided in 
person, instead of by deputy, and even entertained at his table 
some of tlie great nobles, complimenting them on their manage- 
ment of his provinces or his armies, and even drinking the health 
of such as he wiw most inclined to honor. 

At intervals of several years he made a circuit of his vast 
estate, or empire, carried in :t sedan chair, stopping at the govern- 
mental inns along tlic iv)ute, or at some of his many |wilapes in 
the great towns. 

As he {)assed along the grand roads wliich the genius of his 




844 THK STOBY OF 60TERKHBNT. 

ancestors had conceived, and which he kept in perfect condition, 
the ghid populace crowding from adjacent villages strewed flowers 
before him and sang songs, as they carried fonvard hia haggage 
from one village to the next. Now and then he made a longer 
stop to listen to grievances, or to settle points referred to him 
from legal tribunals, and wherever he halted in this way the 
people regarded the spot thereafter as holy ground. 

The palaces of the Inca were not of imposing exterior, being 
low and long with rather small apartments not communicating with 
each other, but opening into a common square or courtyard. The 




A OOVERHUENTAL HOTEL. 

sides were of massive stone, and the roofs were of wood or in 
some places only a tliatcli of I'ushes, 

But, inside, the wealth of the empire flooded floor and wall 
with aplondor, and claitzled the souses with a barbaric drunken- 
ness of magnificence. Gold and silver wn)ught into strangely 
»hai>en vessels, images of animals and plants made of the same 
costly stuff, and tajiestries of gorgeously coloit^d wool as delicate 
in textiu-e^a-s it was rich in hue would have tired the vision by 
their profiLsion, had it not been relieved by the niurvellous variety 
in 8ha£)c and arriingemcnt. 

The favorite retreat of the Incaa from cares of state was at 
Yucay, about twelve miles from Cuzco. Here, amid groves and 
gardens they loved to linger with their favorite wives, for though 
the m-.'i of the people were monogamous the Incaa as a rule were 



FATBBNAL SOCIALISM. S46 

not. The queen wife, aa among the Egyptians, waa generally a 
aister, this being a part of their religioua duty as descend- 
anta from the fiist Inca pair vho were brother and sister. 

Here they had baths that put to shame those of the Roman 
emperors; huge tanks of gold into which crystalline waters deli- 
cately perfumed were conducted through subterranean pipes of 
silver, while flowers of rarest hue and richest odor grew crowding 
over the margins ; and side by side with the natuial flowers and 
graceful shrubs that sprang up without coaxing in this temperate 
region of the tropics were planted parterres of a kind never seen 




in Europe, mjnriad forma of floral and vegetable life skilfully 
imitated in gold and silver. 

Among these what most astonished the Spanianls were repro- 
ductions of Indian corn — that most beautiful growth among 
American gmina — where the workmanaliip waa so exquisite that 
an ear of gold was half displayed nestling among broad leaves of 
silver with a light feathery tassel of the same metal dangling 
gracefully from its top. 

Should such a sketch of Peruvian opulence stagger the reader's 
faith, let him reflect tliat the Andes teemed and still teem with 



846 THE STORY OP GOVERNMENT. 

gold and silver, and that none of the ore taken from the mines 
was converted into use as money but all belonged to the Inca to 
be converted into beauty. But the display of kingly wealth such 
as the Spanish historians attest may fairly cause surprise when 
coupled with the fact that in this respect an Inca owed nothing to 
inheritance. 

His tremendous treasures were of his own amassing, for at 
death all his palaces but one, with all their contents just as he 
had left them, were closed up forever. The reason for this was 
the belief tliat the soul of the departed might or would return to 
earth sometime, and they wished him to find everything just as 
he left it before he took his journey among the stars. 

When an Inca died, or in his own language " was called home 
to the palaces of his father the Sun," his funeral was even more 
solemn and gorgeous than his life. His bowels were removed and 
buried in the temple of Tampu, fifteen miles from Cuzco, and with 
them were buried some of his gold and jewels, and some of his 
servants and favorite wives. 

As in India, where a similar custom prevailed even into this 
century till abolished by the British, many of the immolations 
on the part of the women were volimtary; and it is of record 
that sometimes the women when denied this doom of conjugal de- 
votion took the religious rite into their own hands and killed 
themselves over the grave. 

This curious ceremony was followed by a year of general mourn- 
ing, the people grieving in processionals and the poets singing the 
virtues and glories of the departed as if to stimulate his successor 
to still higher achievement. The Peruvians were more skilful 
than the Egyptians in the wretched device of prolonging the 
integrity of the body beyond the limit set to it by nature, and 
this skill produced a spectacle that filled the Spaniards with an 
awesomeness which even for yeai-s continued to affect them. 

On entering the Temple of the Sim at Cuzco one might see, 
ranged face to face, the men on the right, and the women on the 
left, the embalmed bodies of all the kings and queens of the Inca 
race; while on the walls of the temple shone many a dazzling re* 
production in gold of the sacred, all-beholding sun. 

These bodies, dressed precisely as in life, sat on golden chairs, 




OUABDIHO A OBAUt FlBUh 



848 THE STORY OP GOVERNMENT. 

with their heads bent slightly forward and their hands crossed 
over their bosoms. It seemed like an assembly of priests at some 
mysterious devotion, and was so startlingly like life that the 
Spaniards at first found difficulty in believing that it was merely 
a museum of mummies.^ 

A very strange custom prevailed in regard to these "dead, but 
sceptred sovereigns who still ruled men's spirits " from their 
temple and their tomb. On certain festivals each was brought 
out with great ceremony into the public square of the capital 
and a banquet was served before this kingly "death's head at 
a feast,*' the guests partaking in the presence of the royal phantom 
with the same forms of courtly etiquette as though he were 
a living king. 

Note has been made of the legislative functions of the empire, 
showing how they began and ended in the Inca, like the curve of 
a circle returning on itself. The fiscal regulations and the laws 
respecting property were equally curious. 

The whole ten-itoiy was divided into three parts ; one for the 
sun, that is, for the maintenance of the national religion, another 
for the Inca, and the last for the working-classes. These propor- 
• tions varied in different provinces according to the amount of pop- 
ulation, and the greater or less quantity of land needed by the 
people. 

The lands were divided, per capita^ in equal shares, and as it 
was provided by law that every Peruvian should marry on attain- 
ing a certain age, when this happened the commune in which he 
lived furnished a dwelling and a lot of land, an additional portion 
being gitinted for every child, the amount for a son double that 
for a daughter. 

This division of the soil among the workers was renewed every 
year, and the possessions of a tenant increased or diminished ac- 
cording to his family. Such a provision might be fancied fatal 
to any feeling of attachment to the soil, or to that desire for im- 
proving it which generally results from permanent ownership. 

1 After the conquest the Peruvians hid these royal effigies lest the Spaniards shoold pro- 
fane them ; but five of them were discovered years after, and the historian Garcilasso saw 
them in 1560, ** perfect as life,*' he says, *' without so much as a liair or an eyebrow wanting." 
As they were borne through the streets of conquered Cuzco, the populace knelt down with 
tears and groans, and were deeply touched when they beheld some of the Spaniards dofflng 
their caps in sign of respect to departed greatness. 



PATERNAL SOCIALI8H. S49 

Bat it is probable that the law in its practical operation con- 
finned the firat occupant in possession year after year, making 
him a tenant for life, even though his offspring might die, unless, 
of couise, part of his land were actually needed for other mem< 
hers of the community. 

The cultivation of the entire territory was done wholly by 
the people, who first planted and tilled the lands belonging to 




tlie church, iif xt the lands of the old, the sick, the widow, the 
orphan, and of soldiers who were away in actual service, and 
these duties of religion and of morals having been performed, 
the people were then allowed to till their own grounds, each for 
himself, but with the understanding that he must assist hia 
neighbor whenever sickness or the burden of a young family 



860 THE STOBY OF GOVERNMENT. 

might demand. Finally came the cultivation of the lands espe- 
cially appropriated to the crown or the Inca. 

It speaks well for the government that in this agricultural 
arrangement the lands of the Inca were ranked last, and this 
cultivation of the king's lands was turned into a sort of holi- 
day performance, for the men, women, and children, summoned 
by musical instruments from the central tower of each neighbor- 
hood, came clad in their gayest apparel, and went through their 
labors singing the popular songs which were so soft and pleas- 
ing in character that after the conquest many of them were set 
to music by the conquerors. 

A like system prevailed as to manufactures. The llamas, or 
Peruvian sheep, belonged exclusively to the Church and to the 
Inca. A large nimiber were sent every year, from the colder 
regions where they fed, to the capital for the consumption of the 
court, and for the religious sacrifices, but these were only the 
males, and their flesh was not eaten by the common people. 

At the season of shearing all the wool was put in public store- 
houses and then dealt out to each family as it was needed. In the 
lower or warmer pait of the empire cotton was furnished by the 
Crown in the same way to the people for their garments. After 
the workers had made their year's supply of clothing, they were 
required to make the clothes of the Inca and the court officers. 

While engaged in both these tasks, committees of inspection 
visited them to make sure that each household employed the 
materials furnished for its use in the manner intended, and also 
to see that everybody in each household, from the child of five to 
the old granny able to hold a distaff, did their share in this 
cooperative work. 

No one, except the very old, or the sick, could eat the bread of 
idleness in that empire of order, for law had made impossible the 
parasitic forms that hang on our civilization and may some day 
drag it down to chaos and a just oblivion. Idleness, indeed, 
was a crime in Peru, and industry was made a matter of public 
honor and rewarded with special prizes. 

A similar course was pursued in regard to all other manufac- 
tures, special skill in any craft having a tendency, of course, to 
make that cnift hereditary in certain families, and the government 




A OHJHUAIf PBUfCBaB. 



862 THE STORY OP GOVERNMENT. 

wisely directing that those who were employed in more arduous 
or dangerous labors should have shorter hours ; as, for instance, 
those who worked in mines or quarries. 

The object of this mild semi-religious despotism was not to 
get as much work as possible out of a man and use him up in a 
few years, but to make him work just enough to keep him in good 
health and keep the general government in a like condition. 

Fortified against the pressure of penury on one side, and saved 
from the degrading passion of avarice on the other, by there being 
no such mysterious, inanimate mischief as money breeding discord 
among them, the Peruvians had a fair chance to cultivate the real 
graces and dignities of life, which are few in number, and do not 
need far-seeking. 

But it was a despotism, and though all fared well and were 
happier on an average than any race to-day, some fared better than 
others, possessed a larger share of authority, had finer houses, and 
walked more proudly in each other's eyes. For there were two 
orders of nobility in this empire ; the first and most important of 
which was that of the Inca race who boasted a common descent 
with their sovereign, and basked in the reflected splendor of his 
celestial origin. 

These nobles of the blood royal were utilized as officers all over 
the kingdom. They wore a peculiar dress just as Chinese man- 
darins do to-day, and like Chinese mandarins are said to have 
spoken a special language, not entirely intelligible to the com- 
mon people. 

They alone were admissible to the offices of the priesthood, and 
the choicest part of the public domain was assigned for their 
support. For a long time the laws made exception in their favor 
and just as an early English noble could plead his rank in bar of 
certain accusations, so an Inca nobleman was held incapable of 
crime except against one of his order. 

The other nobility was that of the curacas who were the caciques 
or chiefs of recently conquered nations or their descendants. 
It was the policy of the Peruvian government, when it added by 
conquest a new tribe to its empire, to retain the ruler of such 
tribe in his office, and to take his son to the Peruvian capital to 
be educated. 



. BOCIALISH. 



868 



These bods were thus hostages for the fidelity of the father and, 
bjr teceivitig a governmental education at Cuzco on terms of 
perfect eqoalily with the sons of the native nobility, they were 
converted into contented and valuable officers when it came time 
to appoint them to positions of trust and importance. 

The/ generally succeeded their father in the office of curaos, 
though it appears that in some provinces the Inca permitted the 
people to elect their own rulers — a strange geim of demootiK^ cr 




A PKBWIJktf TICXBOT RKCEIVnrs REPOBTS BY QinPTB. 



home rule to find in a despotism dead three hundred and fifty 
years ago ! 

So well regulated ^vaa the Peruvian government that our 
cumbrous, costly, and extremely uncertain system of taking the 
census would have filled them v^ith amazement or amusement. 
Their census was being taken all the time and verified itself 
from month to month. 

The nature of all service required and the amount of all com- 
modities needed in the government of the smallest village were 
reported month by month to the Inca in his state palace at Cuzco, 
and a register was kept of all the births and deaths t^uxiughout 



864 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

the country, so that exact returns of the population were made 
every year ; and at certain intervals resurveys of the country were 
taken so that, furnished with complete statistical details, it was 
easy for the government, after determining the quantities and 
qualities of work required, to distribute it among the respective 
provinces best fitted to perform it. For the different provinces 
of the country furnished persons peculiarly suited to different 
employments; one district supplying the most skilled miners, 
another the most skilled workers in metals or in wood. 

The artisan was provided by the government with the mate- 
rials, and was only required t© give a certain portion of his time 
to the public service. He was then succeeded by another for an 
equal term, and all engaged in government work were main- 
tained for the time at the public expense. 

By this constant rotation of labor, and by tliis study of the 
special aptitude of each individual, it was intended that no one 
should be over-burdened, but each hiive time to provide for his 
own household. And in the judgment of a Spanish historian 
who was corregidor of Cuzco directly after the conquest, there 
was no flaw discoverable in this system of governmental distribu- 
tion, so perfectly was it adjusted to the needs and abilities of 
the artisan. 

The Peruvians had no written language, although they had a 
literature which the Spaniards found full of beauty and sublimity, 
and their poets, or haravecs^ as they were called, were numerous. 
Their means of transmitting their histories and of communicating 
with one another were twofold. 

Like the early Greek rhapsodists who from father to son, by oral 
teaching, tmusmitted the poems of Homer till a later age gathered 
them into books, the Peruvian literature was always from mouth 
to mouth, a living literature that recited itself constantly to the 
people, each historian before he died training a younger one in 
all his knowledge. 

In addition to this method of preserving thought they had what 
is called the quipu, which was a cord about two feet long made 
of different colored tlireads tightly intertwisted^ with a quantity 
of smaller threads suspended in the fashion of a fringe. These 
threads were of different colors and were tied in knots. 



PATBBNAL SOCIALISM. 



856 



The colors denoted objects ; white stood for silver, yellow for 
gold. They sometimes, too, represented abstract ideas; white 
signifying peace, red war, etc., but though they were used as 
means of communicating ideas, they were chiefly valuable for 
arithmetical purposes; the knots serving for ciphers and being 




THE QUIPU. 

combined in such ways as to represent numbers to any amount. 

All the statistics of the empire were forwarded from the dif- 
ferent provinces in this fashion, and these skeins of many colored 
threads, collected and carefully preserved, constituted the national 
archives. The Spaniards bear witness to the rapidity of their 
calculations by these means, and at the same time their accuracy. 

Clever as were the Peruvians in manipulating their curious 
language of knots and colore, they were quick to perceive the 
superiority of an alphabet and of written signs to convey or con- 
serve ideas, when this new method was made known to them by 
their conquerors. 

This point is illustrated in a very striking anecdote told by 
Grarcilasso, a descendant of the Incas who wrote in Spanish a 
little after the conquest. It is given by him as an additional 



866 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

cause for Pizarro's barbarity to the captive Inca, Atahualpa, who 
after a long imprisonment was sentenced to be burnt at the stake. 

As the faggots were being kindled, a priest besought the Inca 
to embrace Christianity and be baptized, promising that if he did 
his burning should be commuted to the milder punishment of 
death by strangulation. The Inca yielded, was Christianized and 
garroted. Garcilasso's story is this. 

While in prison Atahualpa, having noticed Spaniards reading, 
asked a Spanish soldier to write the name of God on his thumb 
nail. This done, the captive monarch held up his thumb to 
several of his guai-ds, and as they read it and each pronounced 
the same word, the penetititive mind of the monarch was pleased 
with a new science of which his own civilization presented no 
likeness. 

But when he displayed the inscription to his chief captor, 
Pizarro, that chief said nothing, and the Inca, inferring instantly 
that he could not read, as was the fact, conceived a contempt for 
a leader less educated than the men he led. 

Tliis contempt the luckless barbarian was not sufficiently politic 
to conceal, and Pizarro, learning it, thus received the additional 
sting of a wound to his vanity as a stinmlus to his natural 
cruelty. 

Hence one the darkest pages in Spanish history — a page 
almost as dark as that in which the honest historian has to tell 
how the Pilgrims and Puritans of New England i-oasted a whole 
town of Indian women, children, and old men, firing on all sides 
at those who sought escape from the conflagration, which is humor- 
ously called " An Indian Barbecue " by the Puritan author who 
wrote an account of it. 






Tlieoci-iitie govern in tint, if it i3 
to be understood according to &e 
etjmology of the worfLs is the only 
rii/ poshibio legitimate government. God 

" -^ only hath doraiiiion absolute and universal. 
All existences distinguishable from Him are 
His. He is their creator and ruler. God is Hovereiga 
in His own right; all owe Him unconditional obedience; 
no one can niuke any inquiry into the intrinsic nature 
of His commands before oljeyiiig; inquiry can only l>e made into 
what is commanded and whether it is really God who conunands. 
Briefly put, this in the basis in principle ui»on which every 
tlieocmtic or priestly government has l)een cstablislied from the 
beginning. Tlie early human sovereign combined in his per- 
sonality both the spiritual and temporal authority. In the start 
it should be remembered these powers were not detached the one 
from the other, but were both united in the person of the ijatri- 
arcb, or pater-famUiaa, the patrician of early Roman history wlio 
was both priest and king for his own family, household, otgena. 
In tbis order of government originally the two jiowers were tuuted. 



358 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

but according to Biblical history in the time and person of 
Nimrod the temporal separated itself from the priestly sovereignty 
and erected its own authority. 

Nimrod proposed to found a mighty empire of which he alone 
would reign as absolute lord and master. Amon^ the Gentiles, 
that is to say, the people who broke away from the patriarchal 
order and religion, it may be fairly assumed that the separation 
took place at a much earlier period, probably by violence, wliich 
evidently does not appear to have been the case respecting the 
Jewish people. 

These Gentile nations to the superficial observer may appear to 
have become more vigorous as the priesthood became corrupt, as 
its influence declined, and as the secular power became more and 
more predominant; but it is in appeamnce only; it is the hectic 
flush of the internal disorder which presages death. In the heroic 
ages of Greece and Rome religious ideas were a living reality 
among the people and exerted their most potent influence. When 
these nations were most assiduous in the woi-ship of their gods, 
they were at the zenith of their real power. 

But wlien the philosoplier?* came and undermined the belief in 
the popular religion, and ridiculed the popular woi-ship, Greece 
became cornipt, fell an easy prey to the invader, lost her inde- 
pendence, and retrogressed almost into barbaric darkness. Rome, 
wliich was founded by a colony not yet idolaters, became gradually 
vile; the power and influence of her priesthood declined, the 
piety of her people so renowned during her ages of progress dis- 
appeared, and the jNIistress of the World entered upon her long 
agony under the Ca?sai*s, those tyrants Avho assumed the title, 
when alive, of Pontifex Maximus or High Priest and claimed 
worship as divinities when dead. 

The pagan temples were the oldest centres of learning, the 
oldest repositories of books, and the pagan priests tlie most 
cultured class and tlie iirst librarians. Such was certainly the 
case in Egypt from the earliest period, and it was largely so in 
the Grecian and Roman States. Culture and books were deemed 
something sacred that should find their home near the sanctuaries 
of the gods and under the watchful guardianship of the priest- 
hood.. -.The temple of Minerva at Athens, of Serapis in Egypt, 



THEOCRACY OR PRIESTLY GOVERNMENT. 868 

nnd that of Jupiter Palatine at Rome, not to mention many others 
of less note, were all renowned centres of learning, and contained 
extensive libraries. The idea in which this practice originated, 
— that of making literature tributary to religion, — was both 
l)eautiful and sublime. 

The Temple of A[)()llo at Delphi, at tlie foot of Mt. Parnassus, 
was the most remarkable on account of the celebrated Amphic- 
tyonic League, comprising rei)resentatives of all the Gitjcian 
states formed for the purpose oi avenging the pilgrims to the 
shrine of the Sun-god, the inhiibitunts of Cirrlia, a neighboring 
town, having treated the j)ilgrim8 unjustly. This temple con- 
tained the famous oracle of which we give the most perfect illus- 
tration which modern art, by restoring ancient fragments, has 
been able to evolve. 

A singular fact connects this marvellous home of miracles with 
early Christianity, namely, that the emperor Nero,wiio so o[)pressed 
and tortured the early Christians, plundered this lyeautiful pagan 
tem[)le of its wonderful treiusures and its m:igniticent works of art, 
and silenced the oracle. Constantine, afterwards conveited to 
Christianity, did likewise, but the oracle regained its voice, and 
continued to flourish till the i*eign of Theodosius, having lasted, 
with a few brief breaks, for nearlv a thousand years. 

The adytum of the temple where the oracles were delivered and 
which our illustration depicts, was underground. Within it, over 
a deep, dark chasm, stood the trij)od on whic;h the pythoness or 
priestess sat. From the chasm rose a warm va])or with a strong, 
strange odor, acrid and aromatic. Chewing the leaves of the 
laurel, a tree sacred to Apollo, the Sun-god, the ])riestess after 
awhile, very likely l^eing affected by the vapor, fell into convul- 
sions in which she poured forth voluminous, though not very 
luminous, savincrs. 

These fragmentary sentences Avere instantly jotted down by the 
attendant priests wlio turned them into hexametei-s or hexameter 
and pentameter couplets, the ])opular verse of the time, and gave 
them forth as the revelations of Apollo, Ijord of Life and Light 
and Poesy. Li the earliest days the Pythoness Avas a yoimg girl, 
but later only women over fifty were chosen for this important 
office. Pythonesses had to be natives of Delphi, and old maids of 



864 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

most unblemished reputation. The snakes represented in the 
picture were temple pets, their fangs having been drawn, and the 
name of the priestess, Pythia, or Pythoness, was derived from 
the Greek word, Tri/^eti/, to rot; because, according to the tradi- 
tion, on the spot where the temple was founded, the Sun-god had 
slain a huge serpent whose body rotting into the soil gave a 
magical fertility to the charming valley. 

The Hebrew nation presents to us the most complete fonn of 
theocratic government which the world has ever seen. Under the 
patriarchs perfect freedom was enjoyed. Each family was a little 
state of wliich the father Avas king and priest. The faith wa.s 
handed down by tradition from father to son, and great care 
taken to preserve the memory of important occurrences by the 
erection of pillars, altars, and other monuments. Abraliam built 
altars in many places where he said Jehovah appeared to liim. 

When the patriarchal rule of Abraham, Jacob, and their suc- 
cessors had become absorbed into and ovei'shadowed by that of the 
inspired law-giver, Moses, the crystallization of the Hebrew nation 
had begun. The basis of the national unity rested on the unity 
of faith in Jehovah. The latter was tlic Lonl (rod of Israel, the 
omnipotent and omnipresent ruler of his cliosen people. He 
directed Moses to lend tlieni out of oppression in the land of Egypt; 
smote the Egyptians with plagues and with the death of every 
fii*st-born, and overwhelmed Pharaoh and his armies in the watei"s 
of tlie Red Sea. Ilis presence on their toilsome miircli through 
the desert wjis made manifest to their corporeal senses, for the 
Scriptures say, "The Lord went before tliem to sliow the way by 
day in a i)illar of cloud and l)y niglit in a pillar of lire; that 
He might be the guide of their journey at both times." 

And when they grew hungry in the wilderness and murmured for 
the flesh-pots of Egypt, He fed them on manna for forty years, until 
they reached the borders of the land of Canaan. Then on Mount 
Sinai He declared His solenni covenant: "If therefore you will 
hear ^ly voice and keep My covenant, you shall be My peculiar 
lX)ssession above all people, for all the earth is Mine. And you 
shall be to Me a priestly kingdom and a holy nation." 

And the Scriptures say, "All the people answered together: 
All that the Lord hath spoken, we will do." Tlius was the cove- 



THEOCBACY OR PRIESTLY OOVSBKMENT. 866 

nant agreed upon ; and three days later when, as the Scriptures 
say, ^All Mount Sinai was smoking, because the Lord was 
come down upon it in fire," He delivered to His chosen people 
amid the thunders and lightnings those commandments, laws, and 
precepts which constitute the most sublime moral code the world 
has ever bowed down before. Whereupon the twelve tribes of 
Israel by the foot of the mountain, at an altiir surrounded by 
twelve pillars, offered whole burnt offerings to the Lord, promis- 
ing to keep all the laws and ordinances which they liad I'eceived. 
And Moses sprinkled the blood of the victims upon the people 
sa)'ing, "This is the blood of the covenant which the Lord hath 
made with you concerning all these words." Thus tlie covenant 
was solemnlv ratified, and the Hebrew nation establislied as a 
theocracy. 

Some of these Mosaic laws look singular if tliey are viewed 
from the standpoint of the modern political economist. For 
instance, the Lord said, " Observe the rest of the Sabbath to the 
Lord. Six years thou shalt sow thy field and six years thou shalt 
prune thy vineyard and shalt gather the fruits thereof; but in the 
seventh year there shall be a Sabbath to the land of the resting of 
the Lord; thou shalt not sow thy field nor prune thy vineyai-d '* 
(Lev. XXV. 2, 3, 4). 

If such a law Avere proposed to-day nearly all our economists 
and statisticians would quickly demonstrate that to carry it into 
effect would lead to wholesale Avant and stiirvation among the 
masses of the people, and that the proposal could only emanate 
from some one bereft of sense. Yet it does not appear that the 
Israelites suffered want at any time from a strict oliservance of 
either the Sabbath day or of the Sabbath year. Possibly this 
observance gave them an opportunity to solve the question of over- 
production of food crops which is such a stumbling-block to our 
economists ; or ])robably syndicates, trusts, usur}'- and land-specu-* 
lation not being known in Israel proved a blessing. 

Again the Mosaic ordinance runs, "And thou shalt sanctify the 
fiftieth year and shalt proclaim remission (reinstating each man in 
his former position) to all the inhabitants of the land ; for it is 
the year of jubilee. Every man shall return to his possession and 
every one shall go back to his former family, because it is the 



866 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

jubilee and the fiftieth year. You shall not sow nor reap the 
things that grow in the field of their own accord, neither shall 
you gather the first finiits of the vines; because of the sanctifica- 
tion of the jubilee, but as they gi-ow you shall presently eat them. 
In the year of the jubilee all sliall return to their possessions. 
The land also shall not be sold forever; becauc it is mine, and 
you are strangei"s and sojourners with me. If thy brother be 
impoveri.shed and weak of hand and thou receive him iis a stranger 
and sojourner, and he live Avith thee, take not usury of him nor 
more than thou gavest; fear thy God, tliat thy brother may live 
with thee. Thou shalt not give him thy money upon usury nor 
exact of him any increase of fruits" (Lev. xxv. 10, 11, 12, 13, 
23, 35, 30, 37). 

These laws meant a periodical plenary remission of debt, an 
unconditional return of the land to the original owner or his heii-s 
in the year of jubilee, and a most positive prohibition of usury. ^ 
Not in the diluted modern sense Avhich means a very high rate of 
interest, but any interest at all, and it is AvoHhy of note the pi-o- 
hibitory injunction is repeated in the sacred text. A curious 
thought arises from the reading of tliese statutes: IIow the land 
monopolists and money changers of the nineteenth century would 
rage if an atteni[)t were made to put these precepts of Jehovah 
into actual operation. IIow conclusively the former would show 
that the feudal teiuu'e under which they l)uy and sell and hold 
title is much superior to that indicated by the Lord, and tlie 
latter class would no doubt forcibly insist that Moses knew notli- 
inu of l)rokei"s' boards with its ^'bulls and beai-s/' and that if he 
lived in our civilized day he would woi*ship vritli them the golden 
calf set U}) at tlie foot of Sinai by his brother Aaron. And many 
of our political economists would endoi*se these conclusions and 
claim, as Alplionso of Castile respecting the Ptolemaic system of 
astronomy, tliat thev could liave eriven the Lord many valuable 
suggestions, had they been present when He declared the land wa,s 
His, not to be sold forever, and denounced the exaction of interest 



^A <li^tinjrui^ho(l Jewish Rabbi of Boston iMjlieves that the spirit (»f these laws among his 
ancient jn'ople was not respcctecl, but was circumvented in various ways, but this eeems 
rather a lilK?l on the race, for it is more likely that the Jews were not always so keenly com- 
mercial a i>eo]ile as centuries of forced liabitation amonj;; nations who denied them social and 
l>oIitical riglits or outlets for intellectual energy liave naturally tended to make them. 



868 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

from an impoverished brother or the taking back more than was 
given him. 

The Mosaic statutes and ordinances along with the others 
delivered by his successors from time to time formed the whole 
code of public laws of the Jews for a period of fifteen hundred 
years, or up to the time of Christ, and they are practically bind- 
ing on the world of Judaism at the present time, save in those 
matters which relate to the national organism wliich long ago 
ceased to exist. Joshua was chosen successor to Moses immedi- 
ately preceding the death of the latter. Afterwards judges ruled 
in Israel and special leaders were raised up by God to deliver His 
people from the oppression of neighboring nations which, we are 
told in Holy Writ, invariably resulted from their grievous sins, 
chief among which was the sin of idolatrj-. Again and again they 
fell ; but always on repenting, Jehovah, remembering the covenant 
which He had made with their fathers, called upon the required 
leader to arise and deliver his people. Othoniel, Aod, Samgar, 
Barac, Deborah the prophetess, Gideon, and others were thus 
called. 

The command of the annies belonged to those whom the people 
chose or God i-aised up in an extraordinary manner ; but none were 
subject to them but the country or tribes that chose them or to 
whom God gave them for deliverei's. The rest of the jxjople, dis- 
orderly and in confusion abusing their liberty, often exposed 
themselves to the insults of their enemies wliicli made tliem ask 
for a king. In their vain imaginings the novelty of kingl}- rule 
possessed a ftuscination for them. When Gideon delivered them 
from the Midianites they wanted him to be king, saying: "Rule 
tliou over us and thy son and thy son's son." But lie answered : 
" I will not rule over you, neither sliall my son rule over you, 
but the Lord shall rule over you." But again they clamored to 
Samuel for a king, who rebuked them, reminding them of the cove- 
nant of Sinai and warning them of the tributes which a king 
would exact to support a standing army, an institution yet 
unknown in Israel, and of the tithes wliicli they must furnish to 
support the royal state, but they would not hear them but still 
persisted in calling for a king. And Saul was anointed and set 
over them by Samuel, who was succeeded by David, Solomon, and 



THEOOAACY OR PRIESTLY GOVERNMENT. 869 

a long line of monarchs, the salient points of whose reigns are to 
be found in the Biblical record down to the time of the Baby- 
lonian captivity. 

The wisdom of Solomon is much doubted by modem optimists, 
who do not believe that life is to be summed up in his saying 
"All is vanity and vexation of spirit," but the practical sense 
of the great King, of which an example is given in the illustra- 
tion, had spread his fame everywhere. BaiTenness among the 
Jews was accounted a stigma, and two women laid claim to the 
same baby. Whereupon, to discover who was the real mother, 
Solomon calmly ordered the child to be divided Ixjtween them. 
The real mother protested against the killing, exclaiming, "No, 
no! he is not mine." "But he is," said the wise King, "for the 
other woman kept silence and you spake." 

The large picture near the end of this chapter i-epresents 
a marriage festival among the Jews in the days of Solomon and 
is indicative of the high sanctity the Jews attached to marriage 
even at a period when polygamy prevailed among the rich and 
aristocratic classes. 

Shortly after tlie reign of Solomon the Hebrew nation began to 
decline. The division among the people into the two kingdoms 
of Israel and Judah augmented the evil. Among the ten tribes 
who bore the name of the kingdom of Israel corruption and 
wickedness prevailed, while Judah, consisting of the two tribes 
of Benjamin and Levi, the latter embracing the whole priesthood, 
preserved the tradition of the primitive faith, and a more strict 
observance of the law. 

After the return of the exiled nation to Jerusalem from the 
seventy years' captivity in Babylon, they selected for their gov- 
ernment a council of seventy-two elders, called the Sanhedrim, 
presided over by the high priest, which form of government lasted 
until the dispersion. Tliey rebuilt their temple and city. They 
were never so faithful to God as after their return from Babvlon. 
They had experienced the fulfilment of all the prophecies regard- 
ing their exile, and henceforth not a symptom of idolatry can be 
discovered amongst them. 

The pure theocracy which they had again adopted was to con- 
tinue until the work of the coming Messiah had been accomplished. 



THE 8T0KY OF GOVKilNMKNT. 



Tlif liigli iirifstlionil 
(leseeiitieil liy iiilu'iit- 
a.ueo to tlii^ eldeiit in 
the line cf the fiimily 
of \'iroii until the 
tmu if Jutlis Mii- 
( abtiLs w I II It J) issetl 
lilt') iii-4 timilj us 
losejihus (let-lues. 
"Iht, JpMish jnitst- 
hicd \\ab coiihnt^il t«i 
the famil) (f \tron 




THEOGBACY OB PBIESTLY GOVERNMENT. 871 

of the tribe of I^evi exclusively. They first attended to the 
tabernacle and afterwards to die temple. Although the whole 
tribe of Levi were Levites and connected with the temple, only 
the Aaronic failiily were permitted to offer sacrifice or do any- 
thing alx)ut the altar. The other tribes paid tithes to the Levites, 
who paid one tenth of that wliich tliey received to the priests. 
The latter Avere also entitled to the fii-st fruits and a large 
lx)rtion of the offerings made in the temple. The duties 
assigned to the Levites were first defined by Moses and after- 
wards by David. The latter appointed some to guard the 
temple's gates, others to sing psalms, while others were to guard 
the treasures. 

Maimonides lays down the conditions under Avhich the func- 
tions of the Levite could be exercised. He could not be admitted 
as a novice until he was at least twenty-five yeai-s of age, and his 
novitiate continued for five yeai-s so that he must Ix? at leiist thirty 
years before his final consecration to the Lord's service. These 
Levites who Avere thirty yeai-s of age numl)ered in Solomon's time 
thirty-eight thoiusand, of which twenty-four thousand were to set 
forward the work of the house of the Lord, and six thousand were 
oflScers and judges. Four thousand were portei-s, and four thou- 
sand praised the Lord with instruments, all of which is related in 
the twenty-third chapter, fii-st book of Chronicles. Maimonides 
atates that in the temple there was a geneiiil oflicer or master of 
ceremonies, with fifteen assistants whosc^ duty it was to announce 
the time for the solemnities, the time of sacrifice, and to assign 
the guard. They also had charge of the music, the instruments, 
and the schedule in which every one's ofiice was marked down, 
the libations, the seals, the watei"s, the shew-bread, the incense, 
oils, sacerdotivl robes, and vestments. The priests Avere divided 
into twentj^-four classes, each class having at its head one who 
was called the fii-st, or the prince of priests. Eveiy week one of 
these classes went up to Jerusalem to officiate, and on Sablxith 
days they succeeded one another until they had all served, but on 
solemn feast-days all officiated together. 

The prince of each class of priests assigned an entire family 
each day to offer sacrifice, and at the close of the week they all 
joined together in sacrificing. As there were a number of fami- 



872 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

lies in each class, and as each family contained a number of 
priests, they drew lots for the performance of the different offices. 
This last explains the meaning of the first chapter of St. Luke 
which, speaking of Zachary, the father of John the Baptist, says : 
''According to the custom of the priestly office it was his lot to 
offer incense going into the temple of the Lord." 

There were several defects which would exclude from ordina- 
tion in the Jewish priesthood very much like some of those which 
prove a bar in the Catholic priesthood at the present day. Among 
the physical defects which excluded were fifty common to men 
and animals, and ninety peculiar to men alone. Those who had 
no bar sinist'Cr of birth, but possessed some prohibitory defect of 
body, were allowed to live in the department where the wood fen- 
the sacrificial fuel was kept which they were obliged to prepare for 
the service of the altar, being careful to reject all rotten and 
worm-eaten wood which it was unlawful to use. The priests 
while officiating were forbidden the use of wine, conversation with 
their wives, and had no other food than the temple shew-bread 
and the flesh of the sacrifice. All the rites were performed stand- 
ing and barefoot with feet washed and head uncovered. Their 
chief duties were to keep up the fire on the altar of the burnt 
offerings that it might never be extinguished; to offer sacrifices, 
guard the sacred vessels, wash the victims, make the aspei-sions or 
sprinklings whether of blood or water upon the pei-sons offering 
the victims, or upon the book of the law, to burn the incense 
upon the altar, to attend to the lamps, to put new shew-bread on 
the table, and to remove the old. It Avas also a part of their duty 
to catcall the blood of the victims and sprinkle it upon the altar. 

All the duties just stated were common to all the priests, but 
the high-priest alone was entitled to enter the holy of holies once 
a year on the day of expiation, and he alone could offer up the 
sacrifice which was prescrilxjd for that day both for his own sins 
and those of all the people. Several minor ecclesiastical officials 
were connected with the synagogues. One read prayei"s and 
preached, and others collected alms and looked after the poor and 
helpless. The synagogues Avere also used as schools where the 
teachei-s, who were called sages, sat on benches with their pupils 
at their feet, — hence Saint Paul's declaration that he learned the 



THEOCRACY OR PRIESTLY GOVERNMENT. 378 

law at the feet of Gamaliel. Others outside the j^riesthood 
throughout the many vicissitudes of the Hebrew nation were 
distinguishes! for holiness and j^iety, and for being in close 
communion with the Ahniglity from whom they received extraor- 
dinary marks of the divine favor. Among these were the 
prophets who w(*re called from among all the tribes, the Recha- 
bites an ascetic; and coiiteniplativc society of persons, and the 
Kazarenes. 

To tliis people of the covenant, with their priesthood still 
wielding theocratic power in the Jewish province of the Roman 
(/{esai*s, tlie fuhicss of time liad arrived and the Word made flesh, 
which had been promised to their patriarchs and foretold by their 
prophets. The ^Messiah was in their midst, and they knew him 
not. '"He was in the world and the world was made by him; 
and the worhl knew liini not; lie came unto his own and his own 
received him not." 

Caiaplias was the high-priest, the head of the theocracy under 
which the Jewish hiw was administered, subject to revision only 
in very important matters by tlie imperial authority. Tlie Man of 
Sorrows was brou<^lit before him to answer for his teachinsr and 
doctrine. And when lie answered. Holy Writ says, "The high 
priest rending his garments saith: What need we any further 
witnesses? " And they led Jesus to Pilate, the representative of 
Rome, accusing him. Pilate said to them: '"Take him you and 
judge him according to your law." But they refused, insisting 
that Pilate should condemn him according to Roman law, which 
with much niiso-ivinof he did. .Vnd Jesus was crucified between 
two thieves. 

Thirty-seven yeai*s later the walls of Jerusalem were battered 
down by Titus, tlu; peo})le wlio had surviv^^'d the terrible siege 
Avere put to the sword or carried into slavery, the walls of the 
temple were levelled to the ground, the holy of holies profaned, 
and tlie ground was sown with salt. About a million of Jews 
jHjrished in the rebellion, and the living were dispei*sed among all 
the nations of the world where at the present hour they present 
the singular anomaly of a small remnant of people unassimilated 
to any great extent by the nations into Avhich they have entered, 
although eighteen centuries have elapsed since their dispersion. 



874 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

The sceptre has long passed away from the Hebrew theoci-acy^ 
but the ignominious cross of Calvary in the hands of its legiti- 
mate successor became the insignia of a more potential and far- 
reaching power than the patriarchs or the prophets foresaw, — the 
symbol of an institution Avliicli Avas designed to bear throughout 
the whole world the light of truth, — to confound the wisdom of 
the pagan jJiilosopliei-s, and to sit in the judgment seat till the 
end of time. 

The men Avhom Jesus tii-st selected and organized to forward His 
work, His helpers, and teachers, were mostly ignorant and obscui*e 
fishennen, uncouth in ap])earance, and entirely unacquainted with 
the learning of the scliools. It would seem as if the design in 
this selection was to confound the onlinary prudence of mankind in 
conducting worldly aflfaii*s which assuredly would liave rejected such 
ignorant and unpromising instruments to teach and preach on any 
subject, and to show to the workl that what Saint Paul calls the 
folly of the cross was the way of Christianity, the wisdom of God. 

After the crucifixion the apostles and the multitudes whom 
thev had converted in Judea were of one lieai-t and mind; they 
formed practically but oiu* family, and held everything in com- 
mon. There W(mc no poor among them l)ecause they who had 
lands or lumses sold them and brought the price to the a])Ostles 
for distribution amon<r the indiiifent. About tlie vear 40 the 
apostles se[)arated in ol)edience to tlie injunction to preach the 
gospel to ?U nations, but l>efore doing so they met together and 
com])osed a sul)stantial abridgment of the Christian doctrine, 
which is known as the Apostle's (^reed, and the chief object of 
which was to dcline and secure the unity of faith which they 
deemed essential. A few yeai-s later the tii-st council of the 
church was assembled in Jerusalem. 

A short time aftenvards occurred the dmniatic scene of Saint 
Paul standing l)efor(^ the Sanhedrim, which was presided over by 
Ananias, the Jewisii high priest, w^lio charged the jn-isoner with 
being a contennier of the law and a profaner of the temple. The 
head of the Jewish theocrac^y and the great missionaiy of the new 
faith stood face to face. The high priest, who wjis a verj^ bitter 
enemy of the Christians, had the sentence of deatli prepared, when 
Paul reminded the Pharisees present that he had Ixjcome an object 



t 



\ 



376 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

of hatred to the Sadducees for having maintained the doctrine of 
the resurrection. This statement kindled the fire of party spirit 
among the members of the Sanhedrim, the Pharisees declaring 
with great vehemence that they could find nothing whatever In 
the accused which was worthy of chastisement. Lysias, the 
Roman tribune, led Paul away from the waning factions, and 
brought him before the Roman tribunal presided over by Felix, 
the governor, from whom he appealed to Caesar, and therefore, to 
l)rosecute his appeal, made his voyage to Rome to which, according 
to the best authorities, Peter had preceded him. Nero was Emperor 
of Rome just then, and was Pontifex ^laximus of the Pagan priest- 
hood. A brief examination of tlie condition of the world at this 
period can be made here with some profit to enable us to judge of 
the contest on which the Galilean fishermen had entered. 

The Roman Empire was mistress of the world. For half a cen- 
tury she had pi^ctically lorded it over all the civilized, semi-civil- 
ized, and many of the barbarous nations of the earth. She was most 
strongly established at the birth of Christianity. The zenith of 
her power and prosperity was reached at about the time when Jesus 
the Christ Wiis laid in the manger of the little Judean village of 
Betlilehem, one of its outlying conquered proA^inces. The time 
which has been termed the golden age of Augustus had opened 
and the gates of the temple of Janus were closed to signify 
peace. But society presented a most repugnant aspect underneath 
the surface. It furnished a picture of most revolting corruption 
slightl}' veiled by wealth and ostentation. Mannei-s were with- 
out modesty, morals without reality, passion without restraint, 
laws Avithout authority, save against the poor who were unable 
to purchase imnuuiity, and religion had become a farce. What- 
ever pristine strength idolatry once had was exhausted by time 
and by the evil use to wliic^h it had been made subservient by 
the basest passions. The philosophei-s and satirical poets had 
dethroned the gods, and little was left to atti-act and satisfy the 
highest ideals of man's spiritual nature. "Eat, drink, and be 
merry, for to-morrow we die," pervaded the empire. 

It is worthy of special note at this veiy time that while the 
greater part of the human i-ace groaned in the most abject slavery, 
successful generals and soldiers, and even the most degraded and 



378 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

abominable monsters which have disgraced liumanity, were aix)theo- 
sized or elevated to the i-ank of gods. The l)estial and depraved 
when dead were deified by the living. The heart of society was 
coiTupt; moral principles had lost their force. 

The zeal and intrepidity of Peter and Paul in the imperial 
city itself made many converts at an early date, some even within 
the precincts of Nero's palace. Paul in his epistle from Rome 
to the Philippians mentions the fact in his greeting, saying, " All 
the saints salute you, especially they who are of Cfesar's house." 

But Nero proposed to sweep these contemnei's of the gods, tlie 
despicable Christians, from the city of Rome, not 'exactly because 
he feared or hated them, they were too insignificant as yet, but 
to gratify a cruel caprice and impelled probably by a sub-conscious 
antipathy to teachings of wliich he must have heard from the 
coiutiers. The pretext of the monster was worthy of him. 

He ordered the city to l)e set on fire in many places, as the 
simplicity of the ancient houses disj^leased him, and he wished 
to have them replaced by more ornate edifices, and also to give 
the pojnilace wlio were hungering for excitement a spectacle 
wliich would outrival the takinof of Trov. Ten of tlie fourteen 
divisions of the city were destroyed, and it is alleged that the 
tyrant played ii fiddle while watching the blazing scene from 
a balcony of the palace. To exculpate himself from the infamous 
crime, he charged the Cliristians with having caiLsed the confla- 
irration. Thev were arrested l)v his ordei*s, and condemned to die 
by the most fiendish torture which his perverted ingenuity could 
diivise. 

A favorite im})erial and popular amusement was to fc^ed wild 
lx?ast^ in the amphitheatre with Cln-istians or men suspected of 
Christianitv. Some were sewed into the skins of wild beasts 
and hunted through the streets by savage dogs which worried 
and devoured tliem; (thei's were crucified. Some were swathed 
in garments and bands soaked in pitch and other inflammable 
material, and tied to posts along the streets and in the gardens 
of the i)alace, where they were set on fire, when night came on, to 
furnish light for the locality. Witliina year afterwards, June 29, 
A. 1). 1)7, Saint Peter and Saint Paul were i)ut to death by Nero's 
orders, the fonner on Mount Janiculum, being crucified head 



THEOCRACY OE PRIESTLY GOVERNMENT, 



379 



downwards at IiU exjH'eiw request as unwortliy tlie hoiini' of liis 
Master's position oil tlic! t-ross, and the latter near tlie Fulviaii 
waters, Ixsing iielieiuled, iw thts law pmviiled, liecuase lie was a 
Koinau citizen. 

Thus the issue wius joiiiL-d between the two forces whieli ^vei'o 
to contend through niiinj centuries for the control of tlic civilized 
world. The vanguiinl of the ('ruciiied One hiiil encountered the 
master of many legions and tv the eye of the world siift'ei-e<l igno- 
uiiniouH defeat. And thus the contest raged for two hundred and 
fifty years; all the [Xiwer of Pagan Rome, its annv, courtiers, 
spies, and j^wcudo-philoKojihers being wielded 
to stamp out the cliurcli from the earth. What 
terrible odda there were in the desperate con- 




flict! Piission, jirejudicc. jiower. culture, and the sword on mie 
aide, — on tlie other the folly of the cross, purity, humility, 
weakness, and fortitiidc. \cvcr l)efiire had cnrth witnessed such 
scenes, and proliahly never again will sucli occur. 

Again and again in tlu' imperial city the infant ihnrch ^^ils 
driven to the undeigi'ound lefugcs wliicli it hail excavated, tlie 
labyrinthine catacomlis in wJiich the wniains of the dead con- 
fessors were deposited, and where the hunted survivors crouuhed 
in the darkness, cold and trembling. 



880 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

Such were the times and conditions under which the Christian 
theocracy was assuming shape and form. The process of crystal- 
lization was slowly but efficiently at work. It had a doctrine, 
a hierarcliy, a discipline, and a worehip, all regularly but simply 
constituted, as befitted the church in its infancy. 

The nature of its membership is succinctly given by one of its 
early apologists, Athenagoras, of Athens, who says: *' Among us 
will be found the ignorant, the poor, laborers, and old women 
who cannot, perliaps, define by reasoning the truth of our doctrine. 
They do not enter into discussion, but they do good works. The 
most aged we honor as our fathers and mothers. The hope of 
another life makes us despise the present, even in the midst of 
lawful pleasures. Marriage with us is a holy vocation which 
imparts the gi-ace necessary to bring up our children in the fear 
of the Lord. We have renounced your bloody spectacles,^ being 
persuaded that there is very little difference between looking on 
murder and committing it." 

The martyrology of tlie church grew apace, while at the same 
time her membership increased in a marvellous manner in every 
place among all ranks and classes of society. Over thirty popes, 
successors of Saint Peter, won the laurel crown of martyrdom in 
Rome within the two hundred and fifty years which elapsed from 
the time of Nero to CoiLstantine. The robust figures of Saint 
Gregory of Nyassa, Saint Basil, Saint Justin, Saint Cyprian, 
Saint Polycarp, Origen, TertuUian, and a host of others entered 
the arena and did valiant service during this supreme trial in 
combatting error and explaining the gospel. Beneath the sword 
of the executionei-s the gospel was extended. Saint Justin says: 
"At the commencement of the second century tliere is no nation 
among whom we do not find believers in Christ." The end of 
the first great struggle had arrived. Tlie cross, which, according 
to the story of the time, appeared in the midday heavens before 
the astonished eyes of Pagan Constantine and his whole army 
with its letters of fire, In hoe ^hjno vincei^^^ was about to change 
the face of the world. 

Tliis instrument and sign of ignominy was now adopted as the 



» Meaning the gladiatorial ttght» which delighted the jxipulace. 
»'• By this sign thou shalt cxmquer." 



382 THE STORY OF GOVKKNMENT. 

imperial standard, heucefortli to l)e carried side b>' side with the 
ancient eagles. Constantine signalized his accession to the sover- 
eign power in Rome by an edict in favor of tlie Cluistians. He 
granted tliem libeity. For tlie first time during three centuries 
an emperor <lared openly to proclaim his sympathy for tlie faith of 
Jesus Clirist. He bestowed on the (christian priests all the 
privileges accorded to the Pagan priests. The popes hencefor- 
ward l>ecame i)ei'S(ms of considcmtion, enjoying the confidence of 
the emperor. Tims was practically closed a combat of nearl}' 
three centuries between t\w doctrines of the Church of Christ 
and idolatrous Home. The imjjerial decret? was dated at Milan, 
A. D. 313, and was sent to all the consuls and governoi's throughout 
the empire. From this time there were two sovereignties recog- 
nized and proclaimed in the world; that of the Pope, and that of 
emperor. 

Shortly after Constantine issued his decree of toleration, the 
Donatistii, bish()i)s of the African sect which followed Donatus, 
earnestl}' reijuested him to convene a council of the bishops of 
(ifiul to judge of their differences with the Christians who opposed 
them. Constantine replied saying: *'You ask judges of me, you 
bishops, of mc who am in worldly life, and who myself await the 
judgment of Jesus Christ." He forwarded their memorials and 
])apers to ^lelchiades, the Poi)e, who called a council of the bishops 
of Italy and (iaul in the Lateran palace to settle the troubles of 
the Church of Caithage. The government of the church, founded 
on the principle of unity in the high ])riesthood or supremacy of 
the Roman bisho})s, and perpetuated by an always living hierarchy, 
was thus recognized in one of his fii-st acts by the fii-st Christian 
Cicsar, Constantine. 

The heresy of Arius of Alexandria arose at this time, which in 
effect was substantially a denial of the Codhead in the person of 
Christ. Arius and his teaching were condemned at a convocation 
of the bisho})s of Egyi)t and IJbya, but he refused to submit, and 
was exconmiunictated A. D. 820. Very great dissension prevailing 
throughout the cast on this account, Constiintine, the emperor, 
Avas requested to assemble a council representative of the whole 
church, or ecumenical council, as it is expressed in the Greek 
language. In concert with the Poj)e, Saint Sylvester, he there- 



384 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

fore summoned a general council of all the bishops in the world 
to fneet at Nice in Bithynia in the month of June, A. D. 325. 

From every quarter of the known glol>e they assembled to the 
number of three hundred and eighteen bishops, exclusive of priests, 
deacons^ and acolytes. The travelling expenses of all who 
attended were paid out of the public trejusury. This was really 
the first great council of the universal church, the Council of 
Jenisalem, presided over by Saint Peter, consisting of but a 
few members, many of whom had seen the Saviour face to face. 
The Pope was represented at the council by his legate Osius, 
of Cordova, in Spain. Constantine was also present seated 
upon a throne. Arius and the bishops who suj)poiled him 
were heard in defence of their views, which were embodied 
in a profession of faith drawn up by themselves and laid 
before the assembled fathers. On a vote it was rejected by an 
overwhelming majority. The belief of the great majority was 
then expressed and formulated by the jmpal legate, at whose 
dictation Hermogenes wrot<3 it. 

This profession of faith, known as the Nicene Creed, has become 
the received expression of Christian faith. It hius stood the test 
of ages, and every generation of Christians have used as a solenni 
act of faith that fonnula which Osius the legate read aloud in the 
Greek tongue to the fathers of the Nicene Council. The creed 
was signed by all the bishops present save two. The council 
accordingly condemned them along with Arius, and anathematized 
the hitter's writings. Constantine confirmed these decrees by 
his authority which gave them the force of law throughout the 
empire. This council also drew up several canons or rules of 
discipline which were termed the Apostolic Canons. They 
embody the whole canonical jurisprudence of the fourth century. 
They may be briefly summarized thus: 1. The primacy of the 
Roman Church. 2. Hierarchical authority of Patriarchs and 
Metropolitans. 3. Election and consecration of bishops. 4. 
Celibacy of clerics. 5. Rules for public penance in reconciling 
heretics. 6. ^Ecclesiastical discipline relative to marriage. 

Respecting the Church of Rome the canon of the council says : 
"The primacy has always resided in the Church of Rome. Let 
the ancient custom then be vigorously maintained in Egypt, 



THEOOHAUV OB PKIESTLY OOVEHNMENT. 



, ete." 
,iith.iiit\- 



of the Patriarclis is etate'l and 



Libya, and Pentapolia sn tliat all pay tlie homage of »iibniiHsion to 
the Bishop of Alexandria, for so the Roman Pontiff orders. Let 
the same lie observed in res|jeet to tlie Bisliop of Aiitiocli, and bo 
in all other province 

The hieran'liieal 
defined in the 
thirty' -ninth of 
the Apostolic 
eanoiis. It is 
entitled "Of the 
Nidicitude and 
}»ower of the 
J'iitiiiircli over 
the bishi»]>s and 
aivlil.islK-iw of 
his pati'iaivliate, 
anil theprimaey 
of the hishop oi 
Home over iiU."' 
and it pi-oceeds 
to lay down the 
rul(! of govern- 
ment upon the 
lines indicated 
in the title. The 
rules for the 
ordination of 
bishops; 
l)riests, the ob- 
servam-o of cler- 
ieal celibaey, 
the reeoneilia- 
tion of heretii's, 

and the prohibition of niiirvia^s within certiiin degrees of kindred, 
and in other respects, were set foi-tliwith considenible iniiiiiteness, 
all of which are easy of iwcess to the student who desires to study 
them in their entirety. 

From the Council of \iee, therefore, the <:hun:li came forth 




s cxiuvEitsiojj. 



386 THE STORY OF GOVKKNMENT. 

consciou', of its power and mission, fully organized and equipped 
for the warfare of time on the earth. The Christian theoci-acy 
beeame visible hencefonvard to all men. Thirtv-seven years later 
Julian, who has been termed tJie Apostate, was emi)eror. His 
whole family had been murdered l)y his predecessor Constantius. 
He endeavored to restore the woi-ship of the Pagan gods and over- 
turn Christianity, and precipitated a bitter conflict with the Gali- 
leans, as he derisively called the Christians. His proclamations 
were disregarded by tlie latter when conflicting with their faith, 
and they were prosecuted with the utmost rigor. 

Julian even undertook to falsify the proi)hecy of Christ 
relative to the temple of Jerusalem, that one stone should 
not be left upon another, by rebuilding the temi)le. But 
Ammianus Marcellinus, a Pagan historian, relates as a mat- 
ter of fact that Julian's workmen were driven from the ruins 
by Imlls of fii-e which issued from the earth, making it 
impossible to carry on the work. Finally, to make himself 
greatest of all the Ciesars, he proposed to conquer Persia, and 
annex it to his gi*eat empire. On June 26, A. D. 'U)3, his army 
was attacked by the Persians. Julian rode rapidly into the tight 
without putting on his armor, when a javelin from an unknoAMi 
hand pierced him through the body. Theodoret says that he flumn' 
a handful of the blood issuing from his wound towards \\w 
heavens crying out, "Cialilean, thou hast conquered." His death 
soon followed and his anti-Christian edicts were immediate Iv 
re])ealed by his successor. 

The decline of tlie Roman Empire as a political entity dat<\s 
from this period, that is, from the close of the fourtli centurv. 
The Goths had some time previoiLsly swept down the nortliern 
forests, crossed the Dainibe, defeated a lariifc Roman annv under 
the walls of Adrianople, and lield possession of a great })art of the 
northern poi-tion of what is now known as Turkey in Europe. 
Tlie Huns and Alani, p(M)})les unknown to the first Ca'sai-s, came 
rolling along like great tidal waves from tlie great plain of Tar- 
taiy driving the Goths l)efore them. The country bonlering on 
the Rhine and Da:inl)e was attacked by the Germanic tribes, the 
Alemanni, tlie Franks, and Suevi ; the Pei-sians and Nemenians 
were attacking the Roman posts along the Euphrates and the 



THEOCRACY OB PEIESTLY GOVERNMENT. 



887 



Tigris. Saint Jerome writing at this time says: " The Roman 
Empire is falling to jiieces." 

In 451 Attila, the fierce king of the Huns, ^vho claimed the 




official title of "The Sfnuiirp ^^ God," swept over Europe, bnisli- 
ing the other trilios wli'i liad gone before from his way and 
capturing the chief cities of Gaul which he gave u[i to pillage 



388 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

and to the violence of his semi-savage soldiery. The two emperors 
who claimed sovereignty over the empire, Valentinian and Theo- 
dosius II., tried to negotiate with him by offering him the title 
of General of the Empire with a large tribute which they would 
pay him annually. The reply which he told his ambassadors to 
give the emperors was, " Attila, our master and yours, orders you 
to prepare him a palace." 

This answer meant an invasion. The semi-barbarous invaders 
who preceded him by lialf a century had been partially converted 
to Christianity and, although independent of imperial authority, 
8ome of them now made common cause with the imperial forces 
against this awful scourge, who said of himself, "The star falls, 
the earth trembles ; I am the hammer of the universe ; the grass 
never grows where Attila's horse has once trod." The combined 
armies of the Roman general jEtius and Theodoric, king of the 
Visigoths, met the hosts of Attila on* the plain of Chalons, in 
France, just outside of Orleans, in June. The two armies num- 
l)ered about one million of men. It was probably the bloodiest 
battle ever fought on earth. From sunrise until sunset the battle 
raged at close quarters with battle-axe, sword and spear. Three 
hundred thousand men lay dead, when the fight wa^i ended by the 
retreat of Attila. Theodoric, the Visigoth king, fell in the conflict 
which his valor and skill had contributed to win for the allies. 

But the next year, 452, Attila appeared on the borders of Italy 
with a larger army than that of the i)receding year, laying waste 
the cities and towns on his march with fire and sword. He 
destroyed the large and ancient cities of Padua, Vicenza, Verona, 
Bresscia, Bergamo, Aquileia, Milan, and Pavia. He pushed on 
amid the smoking ruins of the conquered cities direct for Rome, 
but halted near Mantua, whose inhabitants fled in dismay to the 
marshes where Venice now stands. 

The last hour of the Roman Empire of the west seemed to have 
struck. The Pontiff, Saint Leo I., appeared in the camp of the 
barbarians. He was conducted to the tent of Attila, where he 
came as the representative of the God of Peace. The two stood 
face to face, one armed with the sword, the other with a crozier. 
Attila w\as awed by the bearing and words of the great Pontiff, of 
whose fame he had already heard. He heard with favor the propo- 



THEOCRACY OR PRIESTLY GOVERNMENT. 889 

sition of Saint Leo, and retraced his steps with his army across 
the Danube, where he died suddenly the following year while 
preparing for further devastation. Saint Leo on his return was 
hailed as the savior of Rome, and the enthusiastic people bestowed 
upon him the title of Great. A few years later and the Roman 
Empire of the west was utterly extinguished. The various prov- 
inces were parcelled out by barbarians whose very name was a 
terror to the Roman i-ace, which was now everywhere oppressed 
by the rude, uncouth and unlettered. conquerons. Tlie Church 
alone stood between the victor and the vfinquished to affoi-d pro- 
tection, mercy and peace. It was the only institution of the 
empire which liad neither shared the overthrow nor been crushed 
by its fall. The conquerora saw this; they were awed and 
attracted by the pomp of its celebrations and ritual. The Chris- 
tian religion, which these tril^es and nations embraced in the 
course of time, gmdually tamed their native fieixjeness, but 
tliis result of their converaion was slow and it required several 
generations to develop. Clovis, the king of the Franks, one day 
after his conversion, listening to the Bishop of Rheims reading to 
him of the trial of Christ before Pilate and of his cinicifixion, 
leaped to his feet and cried out with honest indignation : " Oh, 
that I had been there with my Franks I " 

With the greater part of the new converts it was the reluctant 
work of years to give up their old habits, their violent and irrita- 
ble temper, a passionate love of hunting and fighting, and a rude 
contempt for the arts and sciences of the concjuered Romans whom 
they now held as serfs, and over whom tliey claimed the right of 
life and death. It wjis necessary to humanize them first and 
Christianize them afterwards. The Church, therefore, labored to 
do this work, and during the period embracing from the fifth to 
the tenth centurj^ she saw nation after nation bow down reluc- 
tantly to her authority; in far-off England St Austin converted 
the Saxon king Ethelbert in 596, but the majority of the Hun- 
garians were not converted until as late as the year 1000. 

To protect the oppressed and to shield the peraecuted in those 
days of turbulence and mncor, the privilege of church asylum was 
established, which was, in effect, that the fugitive who succeeded 
in reaching the precincts of the altar should not be attacked, but 



388 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

and to the violence of his semi-savage soldiery. The two emperors 
who claimed sovereignty over the empire, Valentinian and Theo- 
dosius II., tried to negotiate with him by offering him the title 
of General of the Empire with a large tribute wliich they would 
pay him annually. The reply which he told his ambassadors to 
give the emperors was, " Attila, our master and yours, orders you 
to prepare him a palace." 

This answer meant an invasion. The semi -barbarous invaders 
who preceded him by half a century had been partially converted 
to Christianity and, although independent of imperial authority, 
some of them now made common cause with the imperial forces 
against this awful scourge, who said of himself, " The star falls, 
the earth trembles ; I am the hammer of the universe ; the grass 
never grows where Attila*s horse has once trod." The combined 
armies of the Roman general ^tius and Theodoric, king of the 
Visigoths, met the hosts of Attila on" the plain of Clialons, in 
France, just outside of Orleans, in June. The two armies num- 
l)ered about one million of men. It was probably the bloodiest 
battle ever fought on earth. From sunrise until sunset tlie battle 
raged at close quarters with battle-axe, sword and spear. Three 
hundred thousand men lay dead, when the fight wa^ ended by the 
retreat of Attila. Theodoric, the Visigoth king, fell in the conflict 
which his valor and skill had contributed to win for the allies. 

But the next year, 452, Attila appeared on the borders of Italy 
with a larger army than that of the preceding year, laying waste 
the cities and towns on his march with fire and sword. He 
destroyed the large and ancient cities of Padua, Vicenza, Verona, 
Bresscia, Bergamo, Aquileia, Milan, and Pavia. He pushed on 
amid the smoking ruins of the conquered cities direct for Rome, 
but halted near Mantua, whose inhabitant's fled in dismay to the 
marshes where Venice now stands. 

The last hour of the Roman Empire of the west seemed to have 
struck. The Pontiff, Saint Leo I., appeared in the camp of the 
barbarians. He was conducted to the tent of Attila, where he 
came as the representative of tlie God of Peace. The two stood 
face to face, one armed with the sword, the other with a crozier. 
Attila was awed by the bearing and words of the great Pontiff, of 
whoi^iuil^^JlAiyitrii.^l''^'^* ^® heard with favor the propo- 



THEOCRACY OR PRIESTLY 00\^ERNM£NT. 889 

sition of Saint Leo, and retraced his steps with his army across 
the Danube, where he died suddenly the following year while 
preparing for further devastation. Saint Leo on his return 'was 
hailed as the savior of Rome, and the enthusiastic people bestowed 
upon him the title of Great. A few years later and the Roman 
Empire of the west was utterly extinguished. The various prov- 
inces were parcelled out by barbarians whose very name was a 
terror to the Roman race, which was now everywhere oppressed 
by the rude, uncouth and unlettered. conqueroi-s. The Church 
alone stood between the victor and the vanquished to affoixl pro- 
tection, mercy and peace. It was the only institution of the 
empire which had neither shared tlie overthrow nor been crushed 
by its fall. The conqueroi-s saw this; they were awed and 
attracted by the pomp of its celebrations and ritual. The Chris- 
tian religion, which these tribes and nations embraced in the 
course of time, gmdually tamed their native fierceness, but 
this result of their conversion was slow and it required several 
generations to develop. Clovis, the king of the Franks, one day 
after his conversion, listening to the Bisliop of Rheims reading to 
him of the trial of Christ before Pilate and of his crucifixion, 
leaped to his feet and cried out with honest indignation: "Oh, 
that I had been there with my Franks I " 

With the greater part of the new converts it was the reluctant 
work of years to give up tlieir old habits, their violent and irrita- 
ble temper, a passionate love of hunting and fighting, and a rude 
contempt for the arts and sciences of the conquered Romans whom 
they now held as serfs, and over whom they claimed the right of 
life and death. It was necessary to humanize them first and 
Christianize them afterwards. The Church, therefore, laliored to 
do this work, and during the period enibmcing from the fifth to 
the tenth centiuT she s«aw nation after nation lx)w down i-eluc- 
tantly to her authority; in far-off England St Austin conveiled 
the Saxon king Ethelbert in 596, but the majority of the Hun- 
garians were not converted until as late as the year 1000. 

To protect the oppressed and to shield the jiersecuted in those 
days of turbulence and rancor, the privilege of church asylum was 
established, which was, in effect, that the fugitive who succeeded 
in reaching the precincts of the altar should not be attacked, but 



390 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

that judicial inquiry be made in the case, and the violation of this 
decree was enforced by the penalty of excommunication, which 
was a punishment of dire significance in those days. 

Council after council of tlie Church framed laws to abridge and 
curb the power of the feudal lord over liis serf. In a word the 
Church was tlie only authority that was generally reverenced 
during that age of iron. 

* Christianity, or rather reverence for the C'hurcli, was the most 
powerfully formative element of modern civilization. The ruler 
learned from it some rude justice; tlie ruled lejirned faith and 
obedience. Within the Benedictine monasteries learning found 
a home, when the only books in use were written by the hands 
of the monks on the skins of beiists. 

On the dismemberment of the Roman Empire of the west, 
Odeacer, the first barbarian king of Italy, claimed the right to 
nominate the Pontiff, but the claim was not allowed. His suc- 
cessor, Tlieodoric, king of the Ostrogoths, put forward a similar 
claim with a like result. Other rulei-s from time to time 
claimed this right, and when the German emperoi's l>ecame masters 
of Rome they followed tlie same policy and sought the right, if 
not to a})point the Pope, to confirm his election. The latter claim 
was acquiesced in for a considerable time in the person of the 
German emperor. Meanwhile the popes had Ijecome temporal 
sovereigns in their own right. The country which they thus 
ruled over was the city of Rome and some of the adjacent 
territory. Many of the princes in those days invoked the aid of 
the Pontiff to settle differences between them precisely as Leo 
XIII., the present Pope, a few years ago was called on by Germany 
and Spain to adjust a dispute about the Caroline Islands. 

Many of these princes took the oath of fealty to the Pope and 
became his feudal sul)jects as a prudential measure, because as 
such they had a riglit to expect from him protection against for- 
eign invasion or usurpation of their throne. They paid to him as 
their suzerain a small annual offering, in retinn for which their 
territory was declared under the protection of Saint Peter, after 
which, if anyone recklessly invaded it upon being admonished 
by the Pope, he was formally excommunicated. 

This state of things may appear strange in the nineteenth cei>- 



392 THE STOUV OK (JOVERXMENT. 

tury, but it would be very unsafe to measure the situation of 
Europe in the ninth century with the standard of the present day. 
The two chief disturbing elements in the government of the 
Church, up to the eleventh centurj^ were the exercise by some of 
the temporal rulers of the investiture of bishops, and their efforts 
by violence, intrigue and coiTuption to fill the papal chair with 
creatures devoted to their interests. Tlie meaning of investiture 
claimed chiefly by the emperoi-s of Germany was this : the emperor, 
haWng richly endowed the bishoprics and abbeys, claimed tlie 
right of naming the bishop or abl)ot, and investing him witli the 
insignia of office. 

Most of these offices, even if considered only from the worldly 
standpoint, were of great importiince, as the glel)e lands, the serfs, 
and the tithes were annexed to the office. The new incumbent, 
on being invested by the emperor with the episcopal ring and 
crozier, took the oath of fealty which required, among other things, 
that he should join the standard of his liege lord with all his 
anned retainers whenever called on to do so. In many instances 
of appointments, therefore, more regard was given to the bishop's 
military qualifications, or to the amount of money which he would 
pay for the office, than for his knowledge of canon law or his good 
morals. Men of most dissolute character among the clergy and 
laymen, and even minors of wealthy fanuly, were often mach^ 
bishops in this way. Under a ruler of dcj)rave(l character it may 
l)e reasonably inferred that all these api)ointments were given to 
the highest bidder or greatest favorite, and that the inferior 
clergy under such superioi*s Avere sunk in immorality and wicked- 
ness. The popes claimed that appointing bishops in this way 
was in direct opposition to the ancient canon law and custom of 
the Church, which provided tliat the bishops of a province, or at 
lea^st three of them, with the consent and approval of the Pontiff 
should elect, thus securing to the Chinch the right of choosing her 
own ministers iis well as perfect freedom in the exercise of that 
right. The popes continually protested against the right of the 
sovereigns to thus introduce the feudal law within the domain 
of the Church, but the latter pei-sisted in these attempts until 
the monk Ilihlebmnd, Gregory VII., in the eleventh century, 
confronted the German emperor from the papal chair. 



THEOCRACY OR PRDfiSTLY OOVRRKMBNT. 898 

The other disturbing element to which reference has been made, 
the intmsion of popes or anti-popes by the secular power through 
violence, intrigue, or corruption, was equally as bad as the 
simoniacal intrusion of bishops, and it led to scenes and scandals 
in Rome which were a disgrace to Christendom. A few instances 
of this secular interference will serve as illustrations. The 
Count of Tusculum, whose tyranny had excited frequent otlt- 
breaks in Italy, and whose territory was about twelve miles from 
Rome, secured the election of his own son as Pope Benedict VIII., 
on July 20, 1012. He made a fairly good Pope, however, not- 
withstanding the suspicious circumstances attending his elec- 
tion. Immediately after his death his brother was elected as 
Pope John XX., on July 9, 1024. 

Some of the chronicles say he was a layman when elected, 
and that some who voted for him were paid for doing so. 
No serious char^^e has been made against himself personally. 
On the death of John XX. his brother Alberic, Count of 
Tusculum, who had a son ten or twelve years of age, con- 
ceived the idea of placing this boy in the chair of Saint 
Peter. In spite of the canons of the Church, which were express 
in the matter, and notwithstanding the sacrilegious nature of the 
act, he bought the accomplishment of his criminal design with 
money, and the lx)y was elected Pope under the name of Benedict 
IX., on December 9, 1033. It was hoped by the upright and 
zealous bishops and the faithful generally that Conrad II., 
Emperor of Germany, would exercise in this case the right of 
non- confirmation for which he and his predecessors had so strongly 
contended with preceding popes. But he would not interfere, for 
he was engaged himself in selling bishoprics to the highest bidder, 
young or old, lay or cleric. 

This boy Pope grew up a depraved wretch, a miserable, wicked 
and brazen sinner; but his authority as Pope was acknowledged 
and respected by all Christendom, even by those who most loudly 
denounced his pei-sonal conduct. Saint Peter Damian, who was a 
contemporary, called him "the poisonous viper of the Church.'* 
Darras, a Roman Catholic writer, apologizing for this blot on 
the papacy, says: "It is doubtless a part of the divine scheme 
which gpiides the destinies of the world that the Church should 



m 

894 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

more clearly prove the divinity of its foundation and preservation 
through all ages by meeting at times the deadliest shocks, by 
resisting even the unworthiness of its head." 

The extent to which simony was carried on may be judged 
from the fact that when Leo IX. became Pope, about a year after 
the retirement of the wretched Benedict IX., he aimounced that 
he would suspend from ecclesiastical functions all whom he found 
tainted with the sin, but the declaration drew protests from, all 
the Italian bishops who assured him that if he carried his threat 
into execution the pastoral ministry must by the very fact cease 
in most churches. He contented himself, therefore, with permit- 
ting them to continue in the ministry after j^)erforming public 
penance. This Pontiff appears to have been an exemplary man, 
and indefatigable in trying to reform the clergy and enforce 
salutary discipline as laid down by the law of the Church. Nine- 
teen years after the death of Leo IX. the pontifical chair was 
vacant by the death of Nicholas II. A cardinal was despatched 
to the German court to consult the young prince, Henry IV., 
who was then a minor in the hands of a faction, in reference to the 
election of a pope ; but the courtiers would not permit Cardinal 
Etienne to have access to tlie prince. On Cardinal Etienne's 
return the archdeacon Hildebrand assembled the electors, who 
immediately elected Alexander II. 

As this election substantially opened the great struggle between 
Henry IV. of Germany and Hildebrand, afterwards Pope Gregory 
VII., a few words are necessary by way of preface to a brief state- 
ment of the facts of their contest. Many writers ^ in discussing 
the quarrel between this emperor and pope have condemned 
Hildebrand lus an ambitious monk who attempted to rule Chris- 
tendom in tlie temporal as well as in the spiritual sphere, while 
many other writers, including, of coui-se, all who accept the faith 
of the papacy, laud the Pontiff in highly eulogistic terms and 
denounce his imperial antagonist. 

Pope Alexander II. was elected without the concurrence of the 



1 Tlie fact8 {^iven in these pages are taken from a very exhaustive and apparently impar- 
tial work in two volumes by ProfeftHor J. Voigt, of the University of Halle, Germany, en- 
titled, " History of Pope Grcijory VII. ami of his age, from original documents.*' Professor 
Voigt is a Protestant, but is evidently unbiassed, and he quotes directly from original manu- 
j»cripts which he has carefully examined. 



\ 



388 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

and to the violence of his semi-savage soldiery. The two emperors 
who claimed sovereignty over the empire, Valentinian and Theo- 
dosius II., tried to negotiate with him by offering him the title 
of General of the Empire with a large tribute Avhich they wouhl 
pay him annually. The reply which he told liis ambassadors to 
give the emperors was, *' Attila, our master and yours, orders you 
to prepare him a palace." 

This answer meant an invasion. The semi-l)arbiirous invaders 
who preceded him by half a century had been partially converted 
to Christianity and, although independent of imperial authority, 
8ome of them now made common cause with the imperial forces 
against this awful scourge, who said of himself, "The star falls, 
the earth trembles ; I am the hammer of the imivei-se ; the grass 
never grows where Attila's horse has once trod." The combined 
armies of the Roman general ^Etius and Theodoric, king of the 
Visigoths, met the hosts of Attila on* the plain of Chalons, in 
France, just outside of Orleans, in June. Tlie two armies num- 
bered about one million of men. It was prolmbly the bloodiest 
battle ever fought on earth. From sunrise until sunset the Imttle 
raged at close quarters with battle-axe, sword and spear. Three 
hundred thousand men lay dead, when the fight was ended by the 
retreat of Attila. Theodoric, the Visigoth king, fell in the conflict 
which his valor and skill had contributed to win for the allies. 

But the next year, 452, Attila appeared on tlie bordei-s of Italy 
with a larger army than that of the i)receding year, laying wasto 
the cities and towns on his march with fire and sword. He 
destroyed the large and ancient cities of Padua, Vicenza, Verona, 
Bresscia, Bergamo, Aquileia, Milan, and Pavia. He puslied on 
amid the smoking ruins of tlie conquered cities direct for Home, 
but halted near Mantua, whose inhabitants fled in dismay to the 
marshes where Venice now stands. 

The last hour of the Roman Empire of the west seemed to have 
struck. The Pontiff, Saint Leo I., appeared in the camp of the 
barbarians. He was conducted to the tent of Attila, where he 
came as the representative of the God of Peace. The two stood 
face to face, one armed with the sword, the other with a crozier. 
Attila was awed by the bearing and words of the great Pontiff, of 
whose fame he had already heard. He heard with favor the propo- 



THEOCRACY OR PRIESTLY OOVERKMENT. 889 

sition of Saint Leo, and retraced his steps with his aimy across 
the Danube, where he died suddenly the following year while 
preparing for further devastation. Saint Leo on his retum'was 
hailed as the savior of Rome, and the enthusiastic people bestowed 
upon him the title of Great. A few years later and the Roman 
Empire of the west was utterly extinguished. The various prov- 
inces were parcelled out by barbarians whose very name was a 
terror to the Roman race, which was now everywhere oppressed 
by the rude, uncouth and unlettered .conqueroi's. Tlie Church 
alone stood between the victor and the vanquished to afford pi*o- 
tection, mercy and peace. It was the only institution of the 
empire which had neither shared the overthrow nor lieen crushed 
by its fall. The conqueroi's saw this ; they were awed and 
attnutted by the pomp of its celebrations and ritual. The Chris- 
tian religion, which these tribes and nations embraced in the 
course of time, gi-adually tamed their native fierceness, but 
this result of their conversion was slow and it required several 
generations to develop. Clovis, the king of the Franks, one day 
after his conversion, listening to the Bishop of Rheims reading to 
him of the trial of Christ before Pilate and of his crucifixion, 
leaped to his feet and cried out with honest indignation: "Oh, 
that I had been there with my Franks I " 

With the greater part of the new converts it was the reluctant 
work of years to give up their old habits, their violent and irrita- 
ble temper, a passionate love of hunting and fighting, and a rude 
contempt for the arts and sciences of the conquered Romans whom 
they now held as serfs, and over whom they claimed the right of 
life and death. It wfis necessary to humanize them firet and 
Christianize them afterwards. The Church, therefore, labored to 
do this work, and during the period embmcing from the fifth to 
the tenth centur}' she saw nation after nation lx)w down reluc- 
tantly to her authority; in far-off England St Austin converted 
the Saxon king Ethelbeit in 596, but the majority of the Hun- 
garians were not converted until Jis late as the year 1000. 

To protect the oppressed and to shield the persecuted in those 
days of turbulence and luncor, the privilege of church asylum was 
established, which was, in effect, that the fugitive who succeeded 
in reaching the precincts of the altar should not be attacked, but 



390 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

that judicial inquiry be made in the case, and the violation of this 
decree was enforced by the penalty of excommunication, which 
was a punishment of dire significance in those days. 

Council after council of the Church framed laws to abridge and 
curb the power of the feudal lord over his serf. In a word the 
Church WiOs the only authority tliat was generally reverenced 
during that age of iron. 

* Christianity, or rather reverence for tlie Church, was the most 
powerfully formative element of modern civilization. The ruler 
learned from it some rude justice; the ruled learned faith and 
obedience. Within the Benedictine monasteries learning found 
a home, when the only books in use were written by the hands 
of the monks on the skins of bciusts. 

On the dismemberment of the Roman Empire of the w^st, 
Odeacer, the first barbarian king of Italy, claimed the right to 
nominate the Pontiff, but the claim was not allowed. His suc- 
cessor, Tlieodoric, king of the Ostrogoths, put forward a similar 
claim with a like result. Other rulei-s from time to time 
claimed this right, and when the German em})er()i's l)ecame masters 
of Rome they followed the same policy and sought the riglit, if 
not to ai)point the Pope, to confirm liis election. The latter claim 
was acquiesced in for a considerable time in tlie person of the 
German emperor. Meanwhile the popes had bei'ome temporal 
sovereigns in their own right. The country which they thus 
ruled over was the city of Rome and some of the adjacent 
territory. Many of the princes in those days invoked the aid of 
the Pontiff to settle differences between them precisely as Leo 
XI II., the present Pope, a few years ago was called on by Germany 
and Spain to adjust a dispute about the ('aroline Islands. 

Many of these princes took the oath of fealty to the Pope and 
became his ftnidal sul)jects as a prudential measure, because as 
such they had a right to expect from him protection against for- 
eign invasion or usurpation of their throne. They paid to him as 
their suzerain a small annual offering, in return for which their 
territory \vas declared under the protection of Saint Peter, after 
which, if anyone recklessly invaded it upon being admonished 
by the Pope, he was formally excommunicated. 

This state of things may appear strange in the nineteenth cei>- 




CUKISTI ANITA'. 301 



392 THE STOUY OF GOVERNMENT. 

tury, but it would be veiy unsafe to measure the situation of 
Eurojie in the ninth century with the standard of the present day. 
The two chief disturbing elements in tlie government of the 
Church, up to the eleventh centurj', wei*e the exercise by some of 
the temporal rulers of the investiture of bishops, and their eflfoi-ts 
by violence, intrigue and coiTuption to fill the papal cliair witli 
creatures devoted to their interests. The meaning of investiture 
claimed chiefly by the emperoi-s of Germany was this : the em[)en)r, 
having richly endowed the bislioprics and abbeys, claimed tlie 
right of Ucaming the bishop or abbot, and investing him witli the 
insignia of office. 

Most of these offices, even if considered only from the worldlv 
standpoint, were of great importance, as the glelx3 lands, the serfs, 
and the tithes were annexed to the office. The new incumbent, 
on being invested by the emperor with the episcopal ring .and 
crozier, took the oath of fealty which required, among other things, 
that he should join the standard of his liege lord with all his 
anued retainei"s whenever called on to do so. In many instances 
of appointments, therefore, more regaixl was given to the bishop's 
military qualifications, or to the amount of money which he would 
pay for the office, than for his knowledge of canon law or his good 
morals. Men of most dissolute character among the clergy and 
laymen, and even minors of wealthy fiiniily, were often niadt^ 
bishops in this way. Under a ruler of dcj)nived chanicter it may 
l>e reasonabh' inferred that all these appointments were given to 
tlie highest bidder or greatest favorite, and that the inferior 
clergy under such superioi-s Avere sunk in immorality and wicked- 
ness. The popes claimed that appointing bisliops in this way 
was in direct opposition to the ancient canon law and custom of 
the Church, which provided tliat the bishops of a province, or at 
least three of them, with the consent and ap[)roval of the Pontiff 
should elect, thus securing to the Church the right of choosing her 
own ministei*s Jis well as perfect freedom in the exercise of that 
right. The popes continually protested against the right of the 
sovereimis to thus introduce the feudal law Avithin the domain 
of the Church, but the latter pei-sisted in these attempts until 
the monk Ilildebrand, Gregory VII., in the eleventh century, 
confronted the German emperor from the papal chair. 



THBOORACY OB PREBSTLT GOVEftlTMBNT. 898 

The other disturbing element to which reference has been made, 
the intrusion of popes or anti-popes by the secular power through 
violence, intrigue, or corruption, was equally as bad as the 
simoniacal intrusion of bishops, and it led to scenes and scandals 
in Rome which were a disgrace to Christendom. A few instances 
of this secular interference will serve as illustrations. The 
Count of Tusculum, whose tyranny had excited frequent oilt- 
breaks in Italy, and whose territory was about twelve miles from 
Rome, secured the election of his own son as Pope Benedict VIII., 
on July 20, 1012. He made a fairly good Pope, however, not- 
withstanding the suspicious circumstances attending his elec- 
tion. Immediately after his death his brother was elected as 
Pope John XX., on July 9, 1024. 

Some of the chronicles say he was a layman when elected, 
and that some who voted for him were paid for doing so. 
No serious charge has been made against Iiimself personally. 
On the death of John XX. his brother Allieric, Count of 
Tusculum, who had a son ten or twelve years of age, con- 
ceived the idea of placing this boy in the chair of Saint 
Peter. In spite of the canons of the Church, which were express 
in the matter, and notwithstanding the sacrilegious nature of the 
act, he bought the accomplishment of his criminal design with 
money, and the boy was elected Pope under the name of Benedict 
IX., on December 9, 1033. It was hoped by the upright and 
zealous bishops and the faithful generally that Conrad II., 
Emperor of Germany, would exercise in this case the right of 
non- confirmation for which he and his predecessors had so strongly 
contended with preceding popes. But he would not interfere, for 
he was engaged himself in selling bishoprics to the highest bidder, 
yoimg or old, lay or cleric. 

This boy Pope grew up a depraved wretch, a miserable, wicked 
and brazen sinner; but his authority as Pope was acknowledged 
and respected by all Christendom, even by those who most loudly 
denounced his pei'sonal conduct. Saint Peter Damian, who was a 
contemporary, called him "the poisonous viper of the Church.'* 
Darras, a Roman Catholic writer, apologizing for this blot on 
the papacy, says: "It is doubtless a part of the divine scheme 
which gpiides the destinies of the world that the Church should 



894 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

more clearly prove the divinity of its foundation and preservation 
through all ages by meeting at times the deadliest shocks, by 
resisting even the unworthiness of its head." 

The extent to which simony was carried on may be judged 
from the fact tliat when Leo IX. became Pope, about a year after 
the retirement of the wretched Benedict IX., he announced that 
he would suspend from ecclesiastical functions all whom he found 
tainted with the sin, but the declaration drew protests from, all 
the Italian bishops who assured him that if he carried his threat 
into execution the pastoral ministry must by the very fact cease 
in most churches. He contented himself, therefore, with permit- 
ting them to continue in the ministry after j^)erforming public 
penance. This Pontiff appears to have been an exemplary man, 
and indefatigable in trying to reform the clergy and enforce 
salutary discipline as laid do^vn by the law of the Church. Nine- 
teen years after the death of Leo IX. the pontifical chair was 
vacant by the death of Nicholas II. A cardinal was despatched 
to the German court to consult the young prince, Henry IV., 
who was then a minor in the hands of a faction, in reference to the 
election of a pope ; but the courtiers would not permit Cardinal 
Etienne to have access to the prince. On Cardinal Etienne's 
return the archdeacon Hildebrand assembled the electors, who 
immediately elected Alexander II. 

As this election substantially opened the great struggle between 
Henry IV. of Germany and Hildebrand, afterwards Pope Gregory 
VII., a few words are necessary by way of preface to a brief state- 
ment of the facts of their contest. Many writers ^ in discussing 
the quarrel between this emperor and pope have condemned 
Hildebrand as an ambitious monk who attempted to rule Chris- 
tendom in tlie temporal as well as in the spiritual sphere, while 
many other writers, including, of course, all who accept the faith 
of the papacy, laud the Pontiff in highly eulogistic terms and 
denounce his imperial antagonist. 

Pope Alexander II. was elected without the concurrence of the 




1 Tlie factH given in these pages are taken from a very exhaustive and apparently impar- 
tial work in two volumes by Professor J. Voigt, of the University of Halle, Germany, en- 
titled, "History of Pope (iregory VII. and of his age, from original documents." Professor 
Voigt is a Protestant, but is evidently unbiassed, and he quotes directly from original manu- 
floripts which he lias carefully examined. 



^rk Fiibl^ 



© 



'^). 



^ ST. A6M£S BSAHCH. *^ 



' THEOCRACY OB PBIB8TLY GOVEBNMBNT. 899 

empeior, a. d. 1061. The latter, indeed, was only a boy about 
ten years of age, but a certain faction of his court governed in ' 
his name. His chancellor, Guibert of Parma, sold abbacies and 
bishoprics whenever a vacancy occurred, and grew rich through 
these sales. When the news of the Pope's election reached 
Henry he formally declared it null and void, and nominated a 
bishop of Parma, notorious for his simoniacal irregularities, as an 
anti-Pope under the name of Honorius II. The latter, backed up 
by an army, marched on Rome to assert his claim, but was 
repulsed by the citizens, aided by Godfrey, Duke of Tuscany. 
After making some further trouble the anti-Pope died. Some 
years later when Henry IV. was but eighteen years of agfe he 
showed a most flagi-ant wickedness. He was already a heartless 
debauchee who hesitated at nothing, not even assassination, to 
accomplish his foul purposes. He was married to the Italian 
Princess Bertha when she was fifteen years old, but he put her 
away in a year after their man-iage. 

This public act aroused deep indignation in Italy and in 
Germany also. On the request of the Archbishop of Mentz, 
Germany, the Pope, Alexander II., was asked to investigate 
the matter, which he did by sending Saint Peter Damian to 
Henry's court. After Damian made a judicial examination 
into the matter, he told Henry that his conduct was un- 
worthy not only of a prince but of a Christian. "If you 
despise the authority of the holy canons, have some regard, at 
least, for your reputation," said the papal legate, and to Heniy*s 
half-apologetic and sullenly given explanations he finally replied: 
"If you resist this advice dictated by reason and faith, the sover- 
eign Pontiff will find himself compelled to use the thunders of 
the Church against you, and \vill never consent to crown you 
emperor." 

It should be understood that the German emperors up to this 
time had been crowned by the Pope. Henry had not been 
crowned, hence he was simply king and emperor-elect. The 
young monarch quailed at Damian's threat and promised to 
reform; still his general conduct and morality were in no way 
improved, but quite to the contrary. As fast as a vacancy 
occurred among the prelates of the empire, he filled it with one 



400 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

of his creatures, in many instances with notoriously immoial 
men. Pope Alexander II. died on April 21, 1073, and Hilde- 
hrand was elected on the following day, taking as his official 
name Gregory VII. The latter was the son of a Roman carpen- 
ter, became a monk of the monastery of Cluny, and was the 
preceptor in early boyhood of Henry IV. It was a singular coin- 
cidence in the lives of these two men that they should first meet 
as master and pupil, and after^vards as antagonists in the bitterest 
struggle which ever took place between the Pope and any tem- 
poral sovereign. 

Hildebrand's election was enthusiastically received by the citi- 
zens of Rome, who knew him well, and it was applauded by all 
that was sound in the Christian hierarchy throughout the world. 
Immediately after his election, which it is alleged was forced 
upon him, he, designating himself as Pope-elect, despatched a 
delegation to Henry IV., requesting him to refuse his sanction to the 
election. In a letter which he sent by the delegates to the emperor 
the following passage was written : " Should you approve the choice 
made in my person, I must warn you that I shall not pass over the 
scandalous disorders of which all good men accuse you." 

The German bishops advised Henry to refuse consent, which 
he was quite willing to withhold, but he was afniid to arouse 
the hostility of all that was pure and true in the Christian 
world, to whom the fame of Hildebrand, the monk, was not 
unknown. He, therefore, reluctantly confirmed the choice of the 
electors. The first act of the new Pontiff was dii-ected against 
the scandals of the priesthood. A decree was issued against all 
priests who had bought their offices or who ])rofaned them by 
looseness of conduct. 

Priests were to be immediately deposed who i*efused to reform 
their lives, and the people were commanded to refuse to assist at 
the masses or other services of the rebel priests or to receive the 
sacraments from them. A stonn of protestations from all sides 
was heard in response to the dcHTee. The bishops of Germany, 
France, Italy, and other countries alleged that a great many 
churches must be closed if it was enforced, tliat it was dangerous 
to forbid the laity to receive sacraments from loosely living 
priests, as it would make laymen judges in ecclesiastical mattera. 



400 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

of his creatures, in many instances with notoriously immoral 
men. Pope Alexander II. died on April 21, 1073, and Hilde- 
brand was elected on the following day, taking as his official 
name Gregory VII. The latter was the son of a Roman carpen- 
ter, became a monk of the monastery of Cluny, and was the 
preceptor in early boyhood of Henry IV. It was a singular coin- 
cidence in the lives of these two men that they should first meet 
as master and pupil, and aftersvards as antagonists in the bitterest 
struggle which ever took place between the Pope and any tem- 
poral sovereign. 

Hildebrand's election was enthusiastically received by the citi- 
zens of Rome, who knew him well, and it was applauded by all 
that was sound in the Christian hierarchy throughout the world. 
Immediately after his election, which it is alleged was forced 
upon him, he, designating himself as Pope-elect, despatched a 
delegation to Henry IV., requesting him to refuse his sanction to the 
election. In a letter which he sent by the delegates to the emperor 
the following passage was written : " Should you approve the choice 
made in my person, I must warn you that I shall not pass over the 
scandalous disorders of which all good men accuse you." 

The German bishops advised Henry to refuse consent, which 
he was quite willing to withhold, but he was afraid to arouse 
the hostility of all that was pure and true in the Christian 
world, to whom the fame of Hildebrand, the monk, was not 
unknown. He, therefore, reluctantly confirmed the choice of the 
electors. The first act of the new Pontiff was directed against 
the scandals of the priesthood. A decree was issued against all 
priests who had bought their offices or who profaned them by 
looseness of conduct. 

Priests were to be immediately deposed who refused to reform 
their lives, and the people were commanded to refuse to assist at 
the masses or other services of the rebel priests or to receive the 
sacraments from tliein. A storm of protestations from all sides 
was heard in response to the decree. The bishops of Germany, 
France, Italy, and other coiintries alleged that a great many 
churches must be closed if it was enforced, tliat it was dangerous 
to forbid the laity to receive sacraments from loosely living 
priests, as it would make laymen judges in ecclesiastical matters. 



402 THE STOKY OF GO\^RNMENT. 

and it seemed to imply that the efficiency of tlie sacrament was in 
measure dependent on the worthiness of the priest. Others pro- 
tested upon less plausible and more unworthy grounds, showing 
the depth of demoralization and depravity to which the ministry 
had fallen. 

But the iron will of Gregory intensified as the opposition 
increased. He sent copies of the decree to all the sovereigns, 
urging them to carry it into effect. A few complied, the 
many refused. The bishops of France and Germany rejected 
the decree altogether, and refused to obey it. Gregory called 
a coimcil in Rome (A. D. 1075) when he issued a second decree: 
"Forbidding any layman of whatsoever rank, whether emperor, 
marquis, prince, or king to confer the investiture; and any cleric, 
priest, or bishop to receive it for benefices, abbacies, bishoprics, 
and ecclesiastical dignities of whatsoever nature. No one may 
keep the government of a church bought for money by a simoni- 
acal traflBc. Incontinent clerics are suspended from the exercise 
of all ecclesiastical functions. No priest shall contract a matri- 
monial alliance. He who already has a wife shall put her away 
under pain of deposition. No one can be raised to the priesthood, 
unless he first promise to observe perpetual continence. The 
faithful should not assist at the offices celebrated by a cleric 
whom they see trampling upon the apostolic decrees." 

The new decree aroused the wrath of princes and prelates in 
many countries. Henry IV. and the bishops of Germany publicly 
denounced it and its author. Its promulgation in many German 
cities led to riotous mobs headed by disgraceful clergymen. The 
Pope, writing after its issuance to one of his brother monks, 
Hugh of Cluny, says: "Whether I turn to the west, to the south, 
or to the north, I see scarce a single bishop who has reached the 
episcopate by canonical means, and who governs his flock in a 
spirit of charity. As for the secular rulers, I know not one who 
prefers the glory of God to his own, or who sets justice above 
interest. The Lombards and Normans among whom I dwell I 
often reproach with being woi-se than Jews or heathen. Had I no 
hope of a better life hereafter, or no prospect of serving the Church 
here, God is my witness that I would not dwell another hour in 
Rome, where I have been chained for the last twenty years. TIius 




: ST. AGHtS UK(\W, t\\ 



404 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

divided between a grief which is daily renewed and a hope, alas I 
too distant, I am beaten by a thousand fierce storms, and my life 
is but one lengthened agony/' 

In the meantime a formidable insurrection had broken out in 
Saxony because of the enormous taxes levied upon the people by 
the emperor. After a number of bloody battles the insurgents 
were defeated and large numbers were put to death for engaging 
in it. At its close it is alleged that Henry instigated Guibert, 
his chancellor, who was the simoniacal archbishop of Ravenna, to 
seize the pontiff, imprison him, and procure the election of 
another in his place who would pay deference to the emperor's 
wishes. The attempt to carry out this scheme was partially suc- 
cessful. One of the Cenci, son of a former prefect of Rome, with 
a band of armed men burst into the Church of Saint Mary-Major 
on Christmas night (A. D. 1075), and dragged the Pope from the 
altar where he was celebrating the midnight mass, and amid the 
groans and shrieks of the horror-stricken worshippers carried him 
off to a stronghold of the Cenci. They hoped to remove him from 
the city before daylight and bring him a prisoner to Germany, 
but the manhood of Rome had the tower of the Cenci suirounded 
within a few hours after the seizure. They threatened to 
storm the place and put to death Cenci and every member of 
his band. 

The captor begged his prisoner to save his life from the maddened 
multitude, who were getting the scaling ladders in readiness to 
begin the assault. The Pope secured the lives of his captors, 
and was then borne to the Church from which he had been carried, 
where he continued the celebration which had been so rudely 
interrupted. Gregory on the very next day, December 26, wrote 
to Henry, saying, "We are astonished at the unfriendly bearing 
of your acts and decrees toward the Apostolic See. You have 
continued' in contempt of our rescripts to bestow investitures for 
vacant bishoprics. We would remind you in true fatherly affec- 
tion to acknowledge the empire of Christ, to think of the danger 
of preferring your own honor to II is." 

Henry made answer by calling a council of the German bishops 
at Worms. A formal accusation against the Pope was laid 
re this council in whicli he was charged witli many infamous 




THEOO&AOY OB PBIE6TLY GOVERNMENT. 406 

crimes, one of which was that he had hired assassins to kill Heniy 
IV. He was denounced as ^^a heretic, an adulterer, a ferocious 
and blood-thirsty beast." The council at the close of a three days 
session deposed the Pope, which sentence was signed by the king 
and all the bishops in attendance. A messenger was sent from 
the emperor to Rome with two letters, one for presentation to the 
Pope, and the other for the Roman people. The letter to the 
Pope ran thus : — 

" Henry, by the grace of God, King, to Hildebrand. Whereas I 
expected from you the treatment of a father, I liave learned that you 
act as my worst enemy. You have robbed me of the highest marks of 
respect due from your See ; you have tried to estrange the hearts of 
my Italian subjects. To check this boldness, not by words but by 
deeds, I liave called together the lords and bishops of my states. The 
council has received ample proofs, as you will see by the enclosed aots^ 
that you are utterly unworthy any longer to occupy the Holy See. J 
have agreed to this sentence. I cease to look upon you as Sovereign 
Pontiff, and in virtue of my rank of Roman patrician I command you 
to quit the See forthwith." 

The two letters were read by the imperial messenger before an 
assembly of tlie Roman clergy and nobility over which the Pojx? 
presided. The assembly desired to proceed at once to depose the 
emperor in the presence of his messenger, but Gregory suggested 
tliat they adjourn until the next day. Before adjourning, address- 
ing the bishops specially, he said : " We must display the sim- 
plicity of the dove as well as the prudence of the serpent." 

On the following day he addressed the assembly,, reciting 
endeavors wliich he had made to induce Henry to obey the laws 
of the Church, and referred with powerful eloquence to the 
demoralized condition of the world, owing chiefly to the bad men 
who had been introduced into the Episcopal seats by temporal 
sovereigns against the continued protests of the pontiffs. 

The bishops of the assembly arose and unanimously requested that 
Henry be excommimicated for malfeasance, misfeasance, and nonfea- 
sance, as a public and notorious corrupter of morals, and contemner 
and violator of the Ib.\vs of the Christian Church which he had sworn 
to obey. The decisive battle of spiritual service reform in Chris- 



THE STORY OP GOVERNMENT. 



tendom had begun. 
Gregory VII. then arose 
and pronounced the fa- 
mous sentence of excom- 
munication and de[>03i- 
tion as follows: — 

" St. Peter, prince of the 
Apostles, hear thy servant. 
I caU thee to witness, thou 
and the most holy mother 
of God, with St. Paul, thy 
brother and all the saints, 
that the Chnrch of Rome 
compelled me in spite of 
myself to rule. In the 
name of Almighty God, 
Father, Son and Holy 
Ghost, and by thy author- 
ity, I forbid Henry to 
govern the German realm 
and Italy. I release all 
Christians from the oath 
by which they have bound 
themselves to him, and I 
forbid anyone to serve bim 
aa King, Sioce he has 
refused to obey as a Chris- 
tian, rejecting the counsels 
given him for his salvation, 
and withdrawing from the 
Church which he seeks to 
rend I hereby declare him 
anathema that all nations 
may know even by experi- 
ence that thou art Peter, 
and that upon this rock 
the Son of the Living 
God has built his Chorch 
against which the gsteg of 



ricEU OF THB TAi'Ai. uuusKiioLD. hell shall never prevail." 




THEOCRACY OR PRIESTLY GOVERNMENT. 407 

A pontifical bull notified the Christian world of the sentence 
passed u{K)n Heniy, the news of which created a tremendous 
sensation. Germany was divided into two hostile camps, one 
papal, the other anti-papal. An assembly of the German bishops 
and nobles met near Mentz to consider the situation. Gregory 
was represented by two legates. It was determined, in a session 
that lasted seven days, to elect a new ruler instead of Henry, 
and that unless *' within the space of a year he had obtained 
absolution from the sentence of excommunication and deposition 
weighing upon him, he should Ik? considered finally deposed from 
the throne." And he must disband his army and cease exercising 
sovereign authority until he had obtained absolution from the 
Pope. Henry consented to the terms and hastened to meet the 
Pope at the castle of Canossa in northern Italy. lie put oflf every 
insignia of royalty from his person and dressed as a penitent, 
barefooted and bareheaded, awaited for the space of three days, from 
the 17th to the 20th of January, the Pope's judgment. Prostrate 
at the Pope's feet he cried out, " Forgive, most Holy Father, in 
your mercy forgive me." Gregory pronounced him absolved, and 
reinstated as ruler of the German Empire, and in a bull announced 
to the Christian world that Henry was released from his censures. 

But Henry was evidently acting the part of a hypocrite. In 
a few weeks later he sent a force of men-at-arms into Lombardy 
to capture the Pope, which failed through the project leaking 
out. Determined not to l)e foiled, and gathering around him 
all the simoniacal bishops and their retainers, and the nobles 
who disregarded church authority, he proposed to dictate terms to 
all his opponents. The German nobles who refused to follow 
him met and elected Rudolph, Duke of Suabia, as " the lawful 
king of Germany, and defender of the empire of the Franks." In 
the civil war which followed Henry was victorious. 

Agiiin he was excommunicated and deposed by Gregory', to which 
sentence he i-eplied by calling a convocation of the simoniacal 
bishops whom he had appointed. These bishops said : " In a council 
of twenty-nire bishops we have resolved to depose, expel, and — if 
he refuse to obey our injiuiction — to devote to eternal perdition 
Hildebrand, the corrupt man who counsels the plunder of churches 
and assassination, who defends perjury and murder; Hildebrand, 



THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 




AK OVFKBa OF TUE PAPAL IIOUHKUOIJ). 



tendom li n d begun. 
Gregory VII. then arose 
and pronounced the fa- 
nions sentence of excom- 
munication and deposi- 
tion as follows : — 

"St. Peter, prince of the 
Apostles, hear thy servant. 
I call thee to witness, thou 
and the most holy mother 
of God, with St. Pan], thy 
brother and all the saints, 
that the Chnrch of Itomc 
compelled me in spite of 
myself to rule. Id the 
name of Almighty God, 
Father, Son and Holy 
Ghost, and by thy author- 
ity, I forbid Henry to 
govern the German realm 
and Italy. I release all 
Christiana from the oath 
by which they have bound 
themselves to Mm, and I 
forbid anyone to serve iiira 
as King. Since he has 
refused to obey as a Chris- 
tian, rejecting the counsels 
gi\ en him for his salvation, 
and withdrawing from the 
Church which he seeks to 
rend, I hereby declare him 
anathema that all nations 
may know even by experi- 
ence that thou art Peter, 
and that upon thia rock 
the Son of the Living 
God has built his Chnrch 
against which the gatea of 
hell shall never prevail." 



THEOCRACY OR PRIESTLY GOVERNMENT. 407 

A pontifical bull notified the Christian world of the sentence 
passed ui)on Henry, the news of which created a tremendous 
sensation. Germany was divided into two hostile camps, one 
papal, the other anti-pa])al. An assembly of the German bishops 
and nobles met near Mentz to consider the situation. Gregory 
was represented by two legates. It was determined, in a session 
that lasted seven days, to elect a new ruler instead of Henry, 
and that unless "within the space of a year he had obtained 
absolution from the sentence of excommunication and deposition 
weighing upon him, he should Ije considered finally deposed from 
the throne." And he must disband his army and cease exercising 
sovereign authority until he luul obtained alwolution from the 
Pope. Heiu-y consented to the terms and hastened to meet the 
Pope at the castle of Canossa in northern Italy. He put off every 
insignia of royalty from his person and dressed as a penitent, 
barefooted and bareheaded, awaited for the sj^ace of three days, from 
the 17th to the 20th of January, the Pope's judgment. Prostrate 
at the Pope's feet he cried out, "Forgive, most Holy Father, in 
your mercy forgive me." Gregory pronounced him absolved, and 
reinstated as ruler of the German Empire, and in a bull announced 
to the Christian world that Henrj' was released from his censures. 

But Henry was evidently acting the part of a hj^^ocrite. In 
a few weeks later he sent a force of men-at-arms into Lombardy 
to capture the Pope, which failed through the project leaking 
out. Determined not to 1x3 foiled, and gathering around liim 
all the simoniacal bishops and their retainers, and the nobles 
who disregarded church authority, he proposed to dictate terms to 
all his opponents. The German nobles who refused to follow 
him met and elected Rudolph, Duke of Suabia, as "the lawful 
king of Germany, and defender of the empire of the Franks." In 
the civil war which followed Ilenrj' was victorious. 

Again he was excommunicated and deposed by Gregoiy, to which 
sentence he replied by calling a convocation of the simoniacal 
bishops whom he had appointed. These bishops said : " In a council 
of twenty-nire bishoj)s we have resolved to depose, expel, and — if 
he refuse to obey our injunction — to devote to eternal perdition 
Hildebrand, the corrupt man who counsels the plunder of churches 
and assassination, who defends perjury and murder; Hildebrand, 



-sori* ''I'blo^ 



o 



'«. 






^THEOCRACY OB PBIESTLY GOVEBNMBNT. 899 

emperor, a. d. 1061. The latter, indeed, was only a boy about 
ten years of age, but a certain faction of his court governed in ' 
his name. His chancellor, Guibert of Panna, sold abbacies and 
bishoprics whenever a vacancy occurred, and grew rich through 
these sales. When the news of the Pope's election reached 
Henry he formally declared it null and void, and nominated a 
bishop of Parma, notorious for his simoniacal irregularities, as an 
anti-Pope under the name of Honorius II. The latter, backed up 
by an army, marched on Rome to assert his claim, but was 
repulsed by the citizens, aided by Godfrey, Duke of Tuscany. 
After making some further trouble the anti-Pope died. Some 
years later when Henry IV. was but eighteen years of age he 
showed a most flagrant wickedness. He was already a heartless 
debauchee who hesitated at nothing, not even assassination, to 
accomplish his foul purposes. He was married to the Italian 
Princess Bertha when she was fifteen years old, but he put her 
away in a year after their marriage. 

This public act aroused deep indignation in Italy and in 
Germany also. On the request of the Archbishop of Mentz, 
Germany, the Pope, Alexander II., was asked to investigate 
the matter, which he did by sending Saint Peter Damian to 
Henry's court. After Damian made a judicial examination 
into the matter, he told Henry that his conduct was un- 
worthy not only of a prince but of a Christian. "If you 
despise the authority of the holy canons, have some regard, at 
least, for your reputation,** said the papal legate, and to Heniy's 
half-apologetic and sullenly given explanations he finally replied: 
*' If you resist this advice dictated by reason and faith, the sover- 
eign Pontiff will find himself compelled to use the thunders of 
the Church against you, and will never consent to crown you 
emperor.'* 

It should be understood that the German emperors up to this 
time had been crowned by the Pope. Henry had not been 
crowned, hence he was simply king and emperor-elect. The 
young monarch quailed at Damian's threat and promised to 
reform; still his general conduct and morality were in no way 
impi-oved, but quite to the contrary. As fast as a vacancy 
occurred among the prelates of the empire, he filled it with one 



392 THE STOUY OF GOVERNMENT. 

tury, but it would be veiy uusafe to niecosure the situation of 
Europe in the ninth century with the stiintlard of the present day. 
The two chief disturbing elements in the government of the 
Church, up to the eleventh eenturj^ were the exercise by some of 
the temporal rulers of the investiture of bishops, and their efforts 
by violence, intrigue and coiTuption to fill the papal diair witli 
creatures devoted to their interests. The meaning of investiture 
claimed chiefly by the emperoi's of Germany was this : the emperf)r, 
having richly endowed the bishoprics and abbeys, claimed tlie 
right of naming the bishop (u- abl>ot, and investing him witli tlie 
insignia of office. 

Most of these offices, even if considered onlv from the worldlv 
standpoint, were of great importance, as the glelx3 lands, the serfs, 
and the tithes were annexed to the office. Tlie new incumbent, 
on being invested by the emperor with tlie episctopal ring and 
crozier, took the oath of fealty which required, among f)ther things, 
that he should join the standard of his liege hnd with all his 
armed retainei-s whenever called on to do so. In manv instances 
of appointments, therefore, more regard was given to the bishop's 
militaiy qualifications, or to the amount of money which he would 
2)ay for the office, than for his knowledge of canon law or his good 
morals. Men of most dissolute (diameter anioncr the clcriifv and 
laymen, and even minors of wealthy family, were often madt^ 
bishoi)8 in this wtiy. Under a ruler of de])ravcd character it may 
be reasonably inferred that all these appointments were given to 
the highest bidder or greatest favorite, and that the inferior 
clergy under such superioi-s were sunk in immorality and wicked- 
ness. The i)opes claimed that ai)pointing bishops in this way 
was in direct opposition to the ancient canon law and custom of 
the Church, which provided that the bishops of a province, or at 
least three of them, with the consent and approval of the Pontiff 
should elect, thus securing to the Church the right of choosing her 
own ministers iis well as perfect freedom in the exercise of that 
right. The popes continually protested against the right of the 
sovereijrns to thus introduce the feudal law within the domain 
of the Church, but the latter pei-sisted in these attempts until 
the monk Hildebrand, Gregory VIT., in the eleventh century, 
confronted the Gennan enq^eror from the papal chair. 



THEOORAOY OB PBIB8TLT OOVBBKMBNT. 898 

Tbe other disturbing element to which reference has been made, 
the intmsion of popes or anti-popes by the secular power through 
violence, intrigue, or corruption, was equally as bad as the 
simoniacal intrusion of bishops, and it led to scenes and scandals 
in Rome which were a disgrace to Christendom. A few instances 
of this secular interference will serve as illustrations. Hie 
Count of Tusculum, whose tyranny liad excited frequent oitt- 
breaks in Italy, and whose territory was about twelve miles from 
Rome, secured the election of his own son as Pope Benedict VIII., 
on July 20, 1012. He made a fairly good Pope, however, not- 
withstanding the suspicious circumstances attending his elec- 
tion. Immediately after his death his brother was elected aa 
Pope John XX., on July 9, 1024. 

Some of the chronicles say he was a layman when elected, 
and that some who voted for him were paid for doing so. 
No serious char^'C has been made against himself personally. 
On the death of John XX. his brother Alberic, Count of 
Tusculum, who had a son ten or twelve years of age, con- 
ceived the idea of placing this boy in the chair of Saint 
Peter. In sj^ite of the canons of the Church, wliich were express 
in the matter, and notwithstanding the sticrilegious nature of the 
act, he bought the accomplishment of his criminal design with 
money, and the boy was elected Pope under the name of Benedict 
IX., on December 9, 1033. It was hoped by the upright and 
zealous bishops and the faithful generally that Conrad II., 
Emperor of Germany, w^ould exercise in this case the right of 
non- confirmation for which he and his predecessors had so strongly- 
contended with preceding popes. But he would not interfere, for 
he was engaged himself in selling bishoprics to the highest bidder, 
young or old, lay or cleric. 

This boy Pope grew up a depmved wretch, a miserable, wicked 
and brazen sinner; but his authority as Pope was acknowledged 
and respected by all Christendom, even by those who most loudly 
denounced his peisonal conduct. Saint Peter Damian, who was a 
contemporary, called him "the poisonous viper of the Church.** 
Darras, a Roman Catholic writer, apologizing for this blot on 
the papacy, says: "It is doubtless a part of the divine scheme 
which guides the destinies of the world that the Church should 



} 



894 THE 8T0BY OF GOVEENMENT. 

more clearly prove the divinity of its foundation and preservation 
through all ages by meeting at times the deadliest shocks, by 
resisting even the un worthiness of its head." 

The extent to which simony was carried on may be judged 
from the fact that when Leo IX. became Pope, about a year after 
the retirement of the wretched Benedict IX., he announced that 
he would suspend from ecclesiastical functions all whom he found 
tainted with the sin, but the declaration drew protests from, all 
the Italian bishops who assured him that if he carried his threat 
into execution the pastoral ministry must by the very fact cease 
in most churches. He contented himself, therefore, with permit- 
ting them to continue in the ministry after i^erforming public 
penance. This Pontiff appears to have been an exemplary man, 
and indefatigable in trying to reform the clergj*^ and enforce 
salutary discipline as laid dovm by the law of the Church. Nine- 
teen years after the death of Leo IX. the pontifical chair wa« 
vacant by the death of Nicholas II. A cardinal was despatched 
to the German court to consult the young prince, Henry IV., 
who was then a minor in the hands of a faction, in reference to the 
election of a pope; but the courtiers would not i^ennit Cardinal 
Etiemie to have access to the prince. On Cardinal Etienne's 
return the archdeacon Hildebrand assembled the electors, who 
immediately elected Alexander II. 

As this election substantially opened the great struggle between 
Henry IV. of Gennany and Hildebrand, afterwards Pope Gregory 
VII., a few words are necessary by way of i)reface to a brief state- 
ment of the facts of their contest. Many writere ^ in discussing 
the quarrel between this emperor and pope have condemned 
Hildebrand as an ambitious monk who attempted to rule Chris- 
tendom in the temporal as well as in the spiritual sphere, while 
many other writers, including, of course, all who accept the faith 
of the i)apacy, laud the Pontiff in liighly eulogistic terms and 
denounce his imperial antagonist. 

Pope Alexander II. was elected without the concurrence of the 



> Tlie facts given iii these pages are taken from a very exhaustive and apparently impar- 
tial work in two volumes by Professor J. Voigt, of the University of Halle, Germany, en- 
titled, •• History of Pope Gregory VII. and of his age, from original documents.** Professor 
Voigt is a Protestant, but is evidently unbiassed, and he quotes directly from original manu- 
scripts which he has carefully examined. 



^ THEOCRACY OB PBIESTLY GOVEBKMBNT. 899 

emperor, a. d. 1061. The latter, indeed, was only a boy about 
ten years of age, but a certain faction of his court governed in 
his name. His chancellor, Guibert of Parma, sold abbacies and 
bishoprics whenever a vacancy occurred, and grew rich through 
these sales. When the news of the Pope's election reached 
Henry he formally declared it null and void, and nominated a 
bishop of Parma, notorious for his simoniacal irregularities, as an 
anti-Pope under the name of Honorius II. The latter, backed up 
by an army, marched on Rome to assert his claim, but was 
repulsed by the citizens, aided by Godfrey, Duke of Tuscany. 
After making some further trouble the anti-Pope died. Some 
years later when Henry IV. was but eighteen years of age he 
showed a most flagi-ant wickedness. He was already a heartless 
debauchee who hesitated at nothing, not even assassination, to 
accomplish his foul purposes. He was married to the Italian 
Princess Bertha when she was fifteen years old, but he put her 
away in a year after their marriage. 

This public act aroused deep indignation in Italy and in 
(Germany also. On the request of the Archbishop of Mentz, 
Germany, the Pope, Alexander II., was asked to investigate 
the matter, which he did by sending Saint Peter Damian to 
Henry's court. After Damian made a judicial examination 
into the matter, he told Henry that his conduct was un- 
worthy not only of a prince but of a Christian. "If you 
despise the authority of the holy canons, have some regard, at 
least, for youi- reputation,'* said the pa^ml legate, and to Heniy's 
half-apologetic and sullenly given explanations he finally replied: 
**If you resist this advice dictated by reason and faith, the sover- 
eign Pontiff will find himself compelled to use the thunders of 
the Church against you, and will never consent to crown you 
emperor." 

It should be understood that the German emperors up to this 
time had been crowned by the Pope. Henry had not been 
crowned, hence he was simply king and emperor-elect. The 
yoimg monarch quailed at Damian's threat and promised to 
reform; still his general conduct and morality were in no way 
improved, but quite to the contrary. As fast as a vacancy 
occurred among the prelates of the empire, he filled it with one 



400 THH iSZORT or 'i*f^rWK53nST. 

of hi^ creacmes^ in DUknT- iasaosts wzxsl natorionsly immoral 
men. Pope Alexander II. iic^i m. Ard 21, 1073, and Hilde- 
brand was^ eiei'ce*.! .»n die :<iLl«>Tr:n^ iaLj. tskking as his official 
mune Grinron- VIL The lacr^r -vrui ine ioc <rf a Roman caipen- 
cer, becacne ^ oxunk »t "liie m^'Cdiscenr ot ChmT, and was the 
precepciur in eiuriy x^riW jt Henrr IV* I: was a singular coin- 
oidenc« in :Iie l:v^«> ic :iie?e rr^* !neit tfafi dfcfv should iBrst meet 
js master Ami papil. ina lire!^rani:^ js nocie^wscs in the bitterest 
^Q^x^^e woLcIi ever :u«ok ^I^ic^? oecweea tie Pope and any tem- 

HiIJebnnti*> eLevticu was -rfuchu^^asdinillr rev-eived by the citi- 
zens o£ Rt^me^ who kaew him welL And it wj^i applauded by all 
tfaiu was ^'cmoL in :ae Chnscian hiecanrhr duoo^^faout the world. 
rmmeiEaceiT af^^r biji^ eLev'cioiu which u is alle<yed was forced 
iipi^n hinu be* desi;c^a::aL^ biauself i?^ Pc»c^^-eleot, despatched a 
dele^doa to He:2.ry I V.^rexjaestia^ hiaoL u> refuse his sanction to the 
election. H ji it?c:er w hivb be :jeac by the delegates to the emperor 
the :.>l>winir jHissaf^ was wrtcsea: "^Slh^ald tvmi appix)ve the choice 
null V :n rriy j>en50£u 1 r::^usr wani yott that I shall not i>ass over the 
M ;i::iLl1x f'j> vlis<^n.l^r^i o: whi.a ill ^CN^"^^ — '^^'^ Jkvuse vou/' 

Tl:e Gerr.Uk:: V:>::oi^ Jkl>:><'*-1 Hciirv :o rvfiise consent^ which 
he \v:is <7ii::o \v:il:r.c t.^ \%.:h:.ol.u be: :.e ^^as ;\fraid to arouse 
rhe hi-^tiiitv ,^: aii :• ,*: %\as i>ure aikI rrue in the Cliristian 
\v."»rM, :o w:;,^:ii :;u* :a:::^' o: H:lvWl>ca::vl* the monk, was not 
unknown. He, :ht r\ tv^rw r\:*IucranrlY vvndrme^l the iboice of the 
f*!ect4-)rs. T:ie r.rs: aot of :he new Pv^r.iiff was diret»ted against 
rhe .-5. antUI> '^t tiie priest IavvL A vKvree w;4S issnetl against all 
pri»*st8 who hd«l Unicht ;heir v^tKves or who prxifcmed them by 
Ir>rj(«^ftnesc^ of eonduot. 

f'riests were to Iv imuuHiiately de[x\?evl who refused to reform 
t'h^-jr iivr>, an«l the jxvpie werx^ eonnuAnded to rt»fiise to assist at 
thf; maas^r:4 or other services of the relvl priests or to receive the 
<H/:rHrn(:uu from tht-ni. A stonn of pn'^tostations from all sides 
vH.^ hf'^r] in res{Min>e lo the ilci rtv. The bishops of Germany, 
VtriUCA'^ Itiily, and other countries aUei^ed that a great many 
f)iUTt'}if'^ mast }>e closed if it Wiis enforced, that it was dangerous 
Uf forbid th^^ laity to receive sacraments fn>m hxisely living 
]mm\H, fw it would make laymen judcfes in ecclesiastical matters. 



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)i*»Tn :;rr- r zzc» -ifetrr. A :?"r tixnpiied* rfie 



k* 



(rfesEorr cmUed 



;•:'•' T .7. t;** .- ... 1" ." T-^.c£L J^ j*s»ic*L l -rt^.-nntl iieeiee : 






TT 'UlCi* ■**'^nH^ r 



f/*.fj ritT^r-. r-ii-'rir.rit-.ir -t^rri-j* ire -HisTHriiui-i rn>ni rht! exerciae 

Tr,/;,.-. ,;, . , -if itiVjis.T.iiii. y ' i»:e '-.iii V :::ui^L To rhe nrieschooil. 
p. \ww .!<» i'r't :r Tn:>e '.' nsi^rvr^ ~*»-i"?«fri;tl -mdneaee. The 
.'^'i'.f 1 -jj'r.M •! .if.r tfsi>r, in "iie irSi*-^ -rlci^nicif^i bv a cleric 

a* 

T;»<* n»^-r -!»•.'■ ••-;- ir-iisfi "lit- vr:irii 'C \T:aL'es .iml pmrLites in 

-'• '/I ri f' -• . .' ; :i r !• »• ^ . [- f - :i r ' T ' ' . i rj i. "iirr * L>iii ' rs ■ c <j*t niiiiny pabliely 

\*-u<r..v »v\ \r. .u\x\ >s .i:;:!j r. I'^ 3r:ci:il^irii>a :a niiiny German 

,i!*y ., i\ \-, /ii,rr,»is ir.t.'/s ..K;i.It^: '-.v Ll?:r^^:eii'i- oler,rvmeQ. The 

\'^*y\ r, '.:,.-,;/ ;%rr»-r \r.A l.-^-^i:"' >r no ce --t hiit bD>ther monks, 

if r/r, •',f ( ,'\u--. ^;i.'»: ** U'r.r:!>r I ctitTx Ii? ii-«r 'vesu co the south, 

or V, jj-.r. r,«')rrr,- f -t»v -Aoyiroe a rjiri-^'lr 'li-iuriD wh«^ has reat'hed the 

* '^f\'f/ f*y.\\t' Ly r;ir.r,r.!'vi! meari.-*, ar:«l ^'i.«.» ij^'Virrns his flock in a 

••ffMjf. of / JiHirit.y. A-^ for thr ^i-:ir.;ir rTiIer>, I know not one who 

fT^f'-r.'* \)it' jflory of ^>''>^i to hi.-i own, nr who sets justice above 

irif/'r/-*f . 'Jh/! f/OTnl»tjr^I.H arid Normans amoni: whom I dwell I 

ofJ/'fi r*|»ro,i/'l» 'A-if h \it'\]\'y ivf^r.se than Jews or heathen. Had I no 

\\ii\it\ of (i: \fi'\\pr I iff! h*rn'aft.<rr, or no prrisiK.'ot of serving the Church 

li/'f/', (io/| in my viWxu-HH that I wouhl not <lwell another hour in 

Morn/', whrn- f havw^ \HM:n chiuuvA fr»r the hist twenty years. TIius 



404 THE STOBY OF GOVERNMENT. 

divided between a grief whicli is daily renewed and a hope, alas I 
too distant, I am beaten by a thousand fierce storms, and my life 
is but one lengthened agony.** 

In the meantime a formidable insurrection had broken out in 
Saxony because of the enormous taxes levied upon the people by 
the emperor. After a number of bloody battles the insurgents 
were defeated and large numbers were put to death for engaging 
in it. At its close it is alleged that Henry instigated Guibert, 
his chancellor, who was the simoniacal archbishop of Ravenna, to 
seize the pontiff, imprison him, and procure the election of 
another in his place who would pay deference to the emperor's 
wishes. The attempt to carry out this scheme was partially suc- 
cessful. One of the Cenci, son of a former prefect of Rome, with 
a band of armed men burst into the Church of Saint Mar}'^-Major 
on Christmas night (A. D. 1075), and dragged the Pope from the 
altar where he was celebrating the midnight mass, and amid the 
groans and shrieks of the horror-stricken worshippers carried him 
off to a stronghold of the Cenci. They hoped to remove him from 
the city before daylight and bring him a prisoner to Germany, 
but the manhood of Rome had tlie tower of the Cenci surrounded 
within a few hours after the seizure. They threatened to 
storm the place and put to deatli Cenci and ever}' member of 
his band. 

The captor begged his prisoner to save his life from the maddened 
multitude, who were getting the scaling ladders in readiness to 
begin the assault. The Pope secured the lives of his captors, 
and was then borne to the Church from which he had been carried, 
where he continued the celebration which had been so rudely 
interrupted. Gregory on the very next day, December 26, wrote 
to Henry, saying, " We are astonished at the unfriendly bearing 
of your acts and decrees toward the Apostolic See. You have 
continued* in contempt of our rescripts to l)estow investitures for 
vacant bishoprics. We would remind you in true fatherly affec- 
tion to acknowledge the empire of Christ, to think of the danger 
of prefen-ing your own honor to His." 

Henry made answer by calling a council of the German bishops 
at Worms. A formal accusation against the Pope was laid 
l)efore this council in which he was charged with many infamous 



THEOCBAGT OB PRIESTLY GOVERNMENT. 405 

crimes, one of which was that he had hired assassins to kill Heniy 
IV. He was denounced as ^^a heretic, an adulterer, a ferocious 
and blood-thirsty beast." The council at the close of a three days 
session deposed the Pope, which sentence was signed by the king 
and all the bisliops in attendance. A messenger was sent from 
the emperor to Rome with two letters, one for presentation to the 
Pope, and the other for the Roman people. Tlie letter to the 
Pope ran thus : — 

** Henry, by the grace of God, King, to Hildebrand. Whereas I 
expected from you the treatment of a father, I have learned that yon 
act as my worst enemy. You have robbed mo of the highest marks of 
respect due from your Sec ; you have tried to estrange the hearts of 
my Italian subjects. To check this boldness, not by words but by 
deeds, I have called together the lords and bishops of my states. The 
council has received ample proofs, as you will see by the enclosed aots^ 
that you are utterly unworthy any longer to occupy the Holy See. I 
have agreed to this sentence. I cease to look upon you as Sovereign 
Pontiff, and in virtue of my rank of Roman patrician I conmiaDd you 
to quit the See forthwith." 

The two letters were read by the imperial messenger before an 
assembly of the Roman clergy and nobility over which the Pope 
presided. The assembly desired to proceed at once to depose the 
emperor in the presence of his messenger, but Gregory suggested 
that they adjourn until the next day. Before adjourning, address- 
ing the bishops specially, he said : " We must display the sim- 
plicity of the dove as well as the prudence of the serjient." 

On the following day he addressed the assembly,, reciting 
endeavors which he had made to induce Henry to obey the laws 
of the Church, and refened with powerful eloquence to the 
demoralized condition of the world, owing chiefly to the bad men 
who had Ik^cu introduced into the Episcopal seats by temporal 
sovereigns against the continued protests of the pontiffs. 

The bishops of the assemblyarose and unanimously requested that 
Henry be excoramimicated for malfeasance,misfeasance, and nonfea- 
sance, as a public and notorious corrupter of morals, and contemner 
and violator of the laws of the Christian Church which he had sworn 
to obey. The decisive battle of si)iritual service reform in Chris- 



THE 8T0BY OP GOVEBSSIENT, 




tt^ndom li a (1 begun. 
Gregory VII. then arose 
and pronounced the fa- 
mous sentence of excom- 
munication and deposi- 
tion as follows : — 

" St. Peter, prince ot the 
Apostles, hear thy servant. 
I call thee to witness, thou 
and the most holy mother 
of God, w-ith St. Paul, thy 
brother and all the sainta, 
that the Church of Rome 
compelled me in epite of 
myself to rule. In the 
name of Almighty God, 
Father, Son and Holy 
Ghost, and by thy author- 
ity, I forbid Henry to 
govern the German roalm 
and Italy. I release all 
Cliristians from the oath 
by which they have bound 
themselves to him, and I 
forbid anyone to serve liim 
as King, Since he has 
refused to obey as a Chris- 
tian, rejecting the counsels 
gnen him for his salvation, 
■jnd withdrawing from the 
Chui ch which he seeks to 
rend I hereby declare him 
anathema that all nations 
may know even by experi- 
ence that thou art Peter, 
and that upon this rock 
the Son of the Living 
God has built his Chnrch 
against which the gates of 



PAi-Ai. uuusaaoLD. hell shall never prevail." 



THEOCRACY OR PRIESTLY GOVERNMENT. 407 

A pontifical bull notified the Christian world of the sentence 
passed ujk)!! Henry, the news of which created a tremendous 
sensation. Germany was divided into two hostile camps, one 
papal, the other anti-papal. An assembly of the German bishops 
and nobles met near Mentz to consider the situation. Gregory 
wius represented by two legates. It was determined, in a session 
that lasted seven days, to elect a new ruler instead of Heniy, 
and tliat unless '^within the space of a year he had obtained 
absolution from the sentence of excommunication and deposition 
weighing upon him, lie should l)e considered finally deposed from 
the throne." And lie must dislyand his army and cease exercising 
sovereign authority until he had obtained absolution from the 
Pope. Henry consented to the terms and hastened to meet the 
Pope at the castle of Canossa in northern Italy. He put off every 
insignia of royalty from his person and dressed as a penitent, 
barefooted and bareheaded, awaited for the space of three days, from 
the 17th to the 20th of January, the Pope's judgment. Prostrate 
at the Pope's feet he cried out, "Forgive, most Holy Father, in 
your mercy forgive me." Gregory pronounced him absolved, and 
reinstated as ruler of the German Empire, and in a bull announced 
to the Christian world that Henry was released from his censures. 

But Henry was evidently acting tlie part of a hyj^ocrite. In 
a few weeks later he sent a force of men-at-arms into Lombardy 
to capture the Pope, which failed through the project leaking 
out. Determined not to l)e foiled, and gathering around him 
all the simoniacal bishops and their retainers, and the nobles 
who disregarded church authority, he proposed to dictate terms to 
all his opponents. The German nobles who refused to follow 
him met and elected Rudolph, Duke of Suabia, as " the lawful 
king of Germany, and defender of the empire of the Franks." In 
the civil war which followed Henry was victorious. 

Again he was excommunicated and depased by Gi*egory, to which 
sentence he replied by calling a convocation of the simoniacal 
bishops whom he had appointed. These bishops said : " In a council 
of twenty-nire bishops we have resolved to depose, expel, and — if 
he refuse to obey our injunction — to devote to eternal perdition 
Hildebrand, the corrupt man who counsels the plunder of churches 
and assaBsination, who defends perjury and murder; Hildebrand, 



408 THE STORY OF GOVEBNMENT. 

that monk possessed of the spirit of hell, the vile apostate from 
the faith of our fathers." 

They also unanimously elected the imperial chancellor, Guibert 
of Ravenna, as Pope Clement III., who instantly set out for 
Rome with an army to take possession' of the pontifical office. 
All the disorderly clerics, all the riotous, both lay and cleric, 
flocked to the standard of the anti-pope who claimed that the 
emperor should exercise the chief authority in the choice of popes 
and bishops; that no pope or bishop could be la^vfully elected 
unless chosen by the emperor or king of Gennany, and that no 
account was to be made of a sentence of excommunication pro- 
nounced against a temporal sovereign. 

Professor Voigt says : " The pen of historj'^ refuses to record all 
the woes that followed in the train of this schism." Gregoiy 
stood almost alone ; the mighty of earth and many of the unworthy 
were arrayed against him. The emperor's pope, Guibert, with 
the emperor and a large army, laid siege to Rome in the spring 
of 1082. The Romans successfully defended their city and 
pontiflF for two years, but, wearied out at length by the rigors of 
the protracted siege, they sent a deimtation of citizens to offer 
Henry the keys of the city. 

Tlie latter and his pope made their entry Mai*ch 21, 1084. 
Guibert was formally installed as Pope, and he then crowned 
Henry as Emperor of Gennany in the church of Saint Peter, 
the latter having borne only the titles of king and emperor- 
elect previously. Gregory VII. withdrew from l^)me to Salerno 
where he died May 25, 1085. Around the couch on which 
he lay dying stood his cardinals, the fiiithful ones who 
repudiated the intruded Pope of the empeior. To these he 
bequeathed as his only legacy the preservation of the inde- 
pendence of the church. He adjured them in his last moments, 
sa3'ing, "In the name of Almighty God, in virtue of the authority 
of the holy apostles, Peter and Paul, I command you to acknowl- 
edge as lawful Pope no one who is not elected and consecrated 
according to the canonical laws of the Church.'* 

He then grew rapidly weaker and for a time was unable to 
speak, but rallying for a moment the ebbing life-forces he uttered 
the words which will go down to all the unborn generations of 



THEOCRACY OB PBIESTLT GOVERNMENT. 409 

men of eveiy creed and country: ^I have loved justice and hated 
iniquity, therefore do I die in exile.'* The last words had been 
spoken. The son of the Roman carpenter, the monk Hildefarand, 
the Supreme Pontiff, was dead. The struggle between Gregory 
and Henry was ended. 

The student of history will perceive a certain similarity 
between the actors in this conflict and that which took place 
between Henry VIII. of England and Fisher, the Bishop of 
Rochester. Hildebrand was a preceptor of the German emperor 
in early boyhood ; Fisher was a preceptor of the English monarch. 
Hildebrand, for maintaining the papal supremacy, was driven into 
exile by his pupil, while Fisher was beheaded for the same 
offence by his pupil. 

Professor Voigt closes his History of Gregory VII. in these 
words: — 

^ It is difficult to bestow on him exaggerated eulogy, for he has laid 
everywhere the foundation of a solid glory. But every one should 
wish to render justice to whom justice is due ; let no man cast a stone 
at one who is innocent ; let every one respect and honor a man who 
has labored for his age with views so grand and so generous. Let him 
who is conscious of having calumniated him, re-enter into his own 
conscience." 

Apparently the German emperor was ti-iumphant; but the 
triumph was in appearance only. The right of temporal princes 
to exercise the investiture of bishops was doomed. Pope Victor 
III., who followed Gregory VII., took up the work which the 
exile of Salerno bequeathed to his successors, and his successors 
in turn prosecuted it until this claim was altogether relinquished 
by Henry V., emperor of Germany, thirty-seven years after the 
death of Gregory VII. 

In 1196 the papacy and a French monarch, Philip Augustus, 
came into collision on the marriage question. The king, on a 
false pretext of kindred, convened some bishops who declared his 
marriage void with the queen, a daughter of the king of Denmark. 
The latter, when cited before the assembly to answer interrogato- 
ries and defend herself against her husband's charges, could not 
speak the language of her judges. When an interpreter trans- 



410 



THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 



lated for her the sentence of her repudiatioa, she could only cry 
out in an appeal of anguish and indignation : " Rome, Rome ! " 
She refused to leave France and return to her father, whereupoa 
the king confined her in a convent and married another woman. 
Innocent III , a man of extraordinary ability, was Pope. Some 
writers charge him with a boundless ambition. However that 
may be, he espoused the cause of the repudiated queen and sum- ' 
moned a council tt Dijon before which Philip Augustus was 
cited to appear to answer 
for his conduct. The king 
refused to appear, bidding 
detiance to Pope and comi- 
uil. The legate presiding 




over the council in the Pope's name, and acting under his in- 
struction, laid the French kingdom under an interdict until 
proper reparation should be made. The king persecuted the 
faithful clergy with great cruelty and civil war was provoked, 
many of the feudal nobles drawing the sword to protect the clergy 
within their fiefs. 

Growing weary of the struggle, Philip made a last appeal to 
an assembly of all the nobles and prelates of his realm which he 
convoked. "What mustldo?" asked Philip. "Obeythe Pope, 




TUBOtRAUY OK I'lIIEHTI.V (loVHIl.VMKNT, 



1 



pat away Agnes, and take back your queen," they answered. 
The king waa forced to yield and t^ queen was restored to her 
rightful station. 

In regard to the state of educatioD conaidetable impioyement 
had been made in the eleventh and twelfth centuries. It will, 
of cooise, be understood that printing, as we have it to>day, was 
unknown ; that every book was produced by the slow and labori- 
oos work of writing out every word by hand. 

The third general council of the Church, held at Rome by Pope 
Alexander III. in 1179, ordained that "since the Church of God, 
like a tender mother, ia bound to provide for the poor both in 
those things which appertain to the aid of the body and in those 
which bfilong to the advancement of the soul, lest the opportunity 
for such improyement should be wanting to those poor persons 
wlio cannot bt aided by the wealth of their parents, let a compe- 
tent benefice lie i^ssigned :n each cathedral church to a teacher whose 
duty it ahuU W: to teach the clerks and poor scholars of the same 
church griituitoiisly ; by which means the necessity of the teacher 
maylxi relieved, and the way to instruction be opened to learners. 
Let this pnicticc be also restored in other churches and monasteries, 
if in times past anything was set apart in them for this purpose. 
But let no out! wxact a price for granting permission to teach." 

Pope Innocent III., who has already been refen-ed to, renewed 
this decree in 1215, and extended the law to all parochial 
churches. Universities arose throughout Europe to light the course 
of tlie centuries. Oxford was founded in 886, Cambridge in 915. 
Charlemagne founded the University of Paris almut 800, and a 
large number of Italian universities, including that of Padua, 
Pisa, Pavia, Bologna, and Rome were well-known centres of 
learning as early as the twelfth century, each counting its students 
by thousands. Padua alone, the alma mater of Columbus and 
Vespuciua, had at one time 18,000 students. Anthony Wood, 
the chronicler of Oxford, says that that institution in the thir- 
teenth century had not less than 30,000 students. 

The notorious politico-ecclesiastical tribunal known as the 
Spanish Inquisitioa was established by Ferdinand and Isabella 
toward the clos^ of the fifteenth century. Prior to this time the 
Inqnisition prevailed throughout Christendom as a species of 




I 



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o: 



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of 



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until 



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THEOGRACT Olt PRIESTLY OOTEBNMENT. 



418 



election of a pope in Rome in April, 1878, when Urban VI. 
was unanimously declared elected by tbe cardinals, but afterwards 
the French cardinals protested against the legality of che election 
and proceeded to elect a pope under the name of Clement VII. 
The latter transferred himself to Avignon, in France, from which 
be ruled a small portion of the Christian world, chiefiy France, 




while the pontiff in Rome was recognized as the lawful Pope by 
the greater part of Christendom. 

Tlie rival popes — and sometimes there were three claimants — 
excommunicated one another, and when they died their successor 
who were elected by the resjiective factions did likewise, and on 
one occasion a dead pope was actually tried by his successor. The 
Christian world was in deep distress, and sadly puzzled at this 
apparent sacrifice of the unity under one head, which was the 
time-honored boast of the jmpaey. Persons of highest reputation, 
reverenced for the holiness of their lives, were to be found on 
opposite sides. The unity of faith and worahip was not dis- 
turbed; the only question at issue being who was the true Pope. 
The schism lasted until 1417, when it was ended by all tlie elec- 
tors unanimously voting for Pope Martin V. 






.-^'^ 



414 THE STORY OF OOVERN>1ENT. 

It would seem that the ambition of the French king fanning 
the ambition of certain French cardinals was the cause of this 
schism. The papacy in the beginning of the Middle Ages in its 
efforts to humanize Europe, was obliged to come into close con- 
tact, and in many instances into conflict — a few examples of 
which have been cited — with the temporal rulers, and thus it 
was drawn into the arena of politics where it was consequently 
subject to all its vicissitudes and dangera. 

Many monasteries became a scandal and reproach to Christen- 
dom at this time. Yet a large number of the purest and holiest 
men and women, whose names adorn the page of Christi- 
anity, lived at this epoch, who kept their faces firmly set against 
the evils of the time, working in patience, silence and humility 
to resist the loud-voiced wrong whicli walked abroad at noonday. 
Luther at this time entered upon the stage, and the Reformation 
of the sixteenth centurj' was under way. The monk of Witten- 
berg found all the material necessary for a great upheaval at 
hand; he touched the train and the explosion followed. He 
cried out reform on the Alpine heights and an avalanche was set 
in motion. He appealed from the authority of the Pope to the 
Bible interpreted by everj' Christian for himself as the only rule 
of faith. 

A great number of sects sprang into existence immediately, some 
of which upheld very fantastic doctrines. When Luther reproved 
them and insisted upon the soundness of his own views they told 
him that he taught the sole authority of the Bible ui>on whicli 
they based their belief. One of the most numerous of these sects, 
the Anabaptists, protested against the payment of tithes and 
other dues, and maintained the right of every parish to choose 
and remove at will the preachei's who oecui)ied the pulpits. 
They supported these professions by force of arms under their 
leader Miinzer, who called himself ''Gideon sent of God to re- 
establish with the sword the kingdom of Jesus Christ," and the 
Peasants' War ensued, in which the unfortunate Anabaptists were 
beaten and Miinzer killed. Luther had endeavored to restrain 
them, but finding expostulation useless, he advised the Gennan 
princes by letter to "hunt these rebellions peasants like wild l)easts ; 
kill them like mad dogs: they are sold body and soul to Satan." 




w 



THEOCRACY OB PRIESTLY OOVBKNMENT. 416 

The Reformation spread quickly to countries outside of Ger- 
many. Henry VIII. refonned the Church in England in the 
course of a few years by making himself, by act of Parliament, 
thtJ liead of it. The cause of the Reformation in England was 
that Pope Clement VII. refused to grant Heurj' a divorce from 
his wife Catherine, to whom he had been married eighteen years. 
Henry wished for young Anne Bolej-n, and he advanced the iisual 
pretext of other royal lilxirtines that his conscience troubled him 
for living with hh queen because of a certain too close kinship 
which they bore to each other before marriage. 

The Pontiff, on being appealed to for the necessary dispeosa- 
tiion, said he would examine carefully into the matter, but 
could not sacrifice his conscience and trample on the laws 
o£ God. After the matter was protracted for some yeara, 
daring which he tried every possible means to dissuade 
Henry from his purpose, a decision was rendered, deciding 
definitely against the divorce on which Henry had already 
resolved. The king was indignant and made himself pope of 
the English Chui-ch. He then ordered Rowland Lee, one of his 
chaplains, to marry him immediately to Anne Boleyn, who was 
soon to become a mother, and the thing was done. 

The history of this royal monster, his many inariiages, his 
treatment of his wives and subjects, are too well known to require 
reference at any great length here. He reformed the Church in 
accordance with his views. While doing so he executed two 
queens, one cardinal, two arehbishops, eighteen bishops, thirteen 
abbots, five hundred priors and monks, thirty-eight doctors, 
twelve dukes and counts, one hundred and sixty-four noblemen of 
various ranks, one hundred and twenty-four private citizens, and 
one hundred and ten women. These executions were all for 
offences committed against his royal personality — against his 
majesty. Among these was his early preceptor, the venerable 
Fisher, Bishop of Rochester, who was eighty years of age. When 
Pope Paul nominated Fisher as cardinal Henry said, * Paul may 
send him the bat, but I will take care that he shall have never 
a head to wear it on." 

Pope Paul HI. called a general council of the Church at 
Trent which assembled on December 13, 1545. The council 



416 THE STOKY OF GOVERNMENT. 

pronounced definitely on the teachings of Luther, Calvin, 
Zwinglius, and other reformers, condemning them as heretical. 

At this period of strife and world-wide religious contention, 
the organization arose which was founded hy Ignatius of Loyola, 
and known as the "Society of Jesus." This order of priests was 
especially designed to counteract the influence of Protestantism. 
It has always appeared an object of the greatest terror to many 
Protestant minds. The society has been denounced with the 
greatest bitterness as a monster of iniquity since it first appeared 
in the arena of conflict, and its members from time to time have 
been expelled from states raled by kings as well as from states 
under republican government. Even members of the Catholic 
Church itself have assailed it. Its brethren have been accused 
of pandering to the absolutism of princes, and arousing feelings 
of revolt among the masses at one and the same time. The fol- 
lowing is an accurate summary of the constitution of this notable 
society : — 

A. M. D. G. QAd majorem Dei gloriam) is its motto. The end 
of this society is the greater glory of God. Its members are to 
labor for the salvation of their neighbor as for their own. Their 
duty toward their neighbor they discharge by means of preaching, 
missions, catechetical instructions, conferences with heretics, 
the confessional, and especially by the education of youtli; their 
own perfection they seek by means of mental prayer, examination 
of conscience, the reading of ascetical works, and frequent com- 
munion. 

Candidates for admission into the society are tried by a novi- 
tiate of two years, during which time all studies are laid aside, and 
the novices devote their time chiefly to spiritual exercises. At 
the end of the novitiate the novice may be admitted to the first 
vows, chastity, poverty and obedience, which are like those of 
other orders. The poverty of the membei-s consists in their 
incapacity to j^ossess either individually or collectively any 
income or property. They are to remain satisfied with what is 
given them to supply their wants. 

Their colleges, however, are endowed in order that neither stu- 
dents nor teachers may be taken from their duties to provide for 
their own subsistence. After the novitiate they begin the course 



418 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

of studies — languages, belleS'lettres^ rhetoric, philosophy, theol- 
ogy, church history, and the Sacred Scriptures. While pursuing 
these studies they are to preserve the spirit of piety in their hearts 
by means of frequent examination of conscience, by approaching 
the sacrament of the body and blood of Christ at least every 
eighth day, and by renewing their vows twice a year. When 
they go out of the house they should generally have a companion. 

After the completion of his studies, the Jesuit performs a 
second novitiate, lasting one year, during which he is employed 
in spiritual duties and lives in retirement, perfecting himself in 
the knowledge of the constitutions of his order. The members of 
the order are divided into three classes, according to their degree 
of learning and virtue : — 

1st. The professed, who beside the three monastic vows, chas- 
tity, poverty and obedience, make a fourth vow of absolute 
obedience to the Pope in regard to missions. There are compara- 
tively few professed Jesuits or Jesuits of the four vows. From 
this class are chosen the general of the order and the other prin- 
cipal superiors. Their establishments are : the professed houses, 
directed by a praepositus; the colleges, containing at least thirteen 
members under a rector, and the residences in charge of a 
superior. 

2d. The spiritual coadjutors, who are in greater number than 
the professed according to their talents and the constitutions of 
the order, and the professed in their ministry. 

3d. The temporal coadjutors, or lay brothers who are received 
for domestic employments. 

Each province of the order, as the United States for example, 
is governed by a provincial. At the head of the whole order is a 
general, who resides at Rome and enjoys full power within the 
limits of the constitution. Modifications can be introduced only 
by the general congregations. The general appoints nearly all 
the officers of the order to prevent whatever dissensions and 
intrigues might arise from elections by suffrage ; these appointments 
are made after consulting the provincial and the proper con- 
suiters. The superiors of the various houses at stated times send 
reports to the general of the capacity and conduct of their 
subjects. 



420 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

The general has six assistants whose advice he is bound to 
seek; they are to be tried and able men belonging to different 
nations, by the names of which they are respectively known. 
They are elected by the general congregation and form the 
council of the general, but without authority except that of calling 
a general congregation in extraordinary cases. The general con- 
gregation also elects the general's admonitor who must admonish 
him whenever he deems it necessary. The constitution main- 
tains the strictest unity in the system, and in the matter of 
teaching it aims at repressing, with the most vigorous eneigy, 
whatever is at variance with the doctrine of the Church, leaving, 
as it is claimed, at the same time in matters of mere opinion, a 
freedom which favors the aspirations of genius. 

The object of setting forth at such length the rules of this 
order, which has been called "the right arm of the Church," is 
because the average American knows as little about them as he 
does about the laws of the Pharoahs, and aside from their novelty 
it is assuredly not a matter for self-gratulation to be ignorant of 
the methods and aims of a society of priests which already wields 
such a powerful influence throughout our country. And they are 
by no means strangers or newcomers in this land. Bancroft, 
speaking of their work, says: "The history of their labors ic con- 
nected with the origin of eveiy celebrated town in the annals of 
French America ; not a cape was turned, nor a river entered but 
a Jesuit led the way. . . . Thus did the religious zeal of the 
French l)ear the cross to the banks of tlie Saint Mary and the 
confines of Lake Superior, and look wistfully towards the homes 
of the Sioux, in the valley of the Mississippi, five years before the 
New England Elliot had addressed the tribe of Indians that dwelt 
within six miles of Boston Harbor." The student who desires to 
study the laboi-s of tlie Jesuits in North America can do so with 
profit in Parkman's works. 

The society wiis suppressed Ijy the governments of the Catholic 
countries of Europe*, not only in Europe, but in all their foreign 
possessions between 1758 and 1707 . The charges which were made 
the pretext for its expulsion are undeserving serious notice. The 
chief charge was that a member of the order in Martinique signed 
a bill of exchange on another in Paris which was protested. 




X JESUIT MISSION A It Y. 



422 THE STORY OF GOVERl^fBNT. 

most vindictive hatred of its members, and as she was the 
greatest power in the kingdom, governing Louis, the so-called 
Parliament, and the Minister Choiseul, the decree of banishment 
in France was readily obtained. A few years later Pope Clement 
XIV., under pressure of the Catholic governments, and much 
against his will, issued a bull dissolving the society. Then a 
most singular episode occurred. Frederick the Great of Prussia, 
and Catherine I., Empress of Russia, wrote to the Pope informing 
him that, knowing no better teachers of youth than the Jesuits, 
they meant to keep them in their dominions. 

The situation was a unique and delicate one. By the bull of 
suppression the Jesuits were forbidden to continue living in com- 
munities, to receive novices, and consequently to perpetuate their 
order. Their General Ricci had solemnly sworn to the Pope to 
renounce all power and jurisdiction as superior. The other 
Jesuits, obedient to the papal bull although it was their death- 
warrant, refused the offers of Frederick and Catherine as long as 
the Pope did not authorize their acceptance. The latter was 
afraid of arousing the hostility of the Catholic powers by inde- 
pendent action in the premises ; so he laid the proposition before 
them for consideration. He wiis informed that he might follow 
his wishes in the matter, provided he did so quietly and without 
great formal publicity. Thus the Jesuits opened their educa- 
tional institutions, established their novitiates, and maintained 
their order in two non-Catholic countries, wliile they were pro- 
hibited in the Catholic stiites. This fact is almost as singular as 
the arrest and imprisonment of Ignatius of Loyola and his first 
companions by the Spanish Inquisition. 

During the last century the conflict between the papacy and 
the temporal rulers continued in one form or another, the first 
claiming that tha spiritual domain was infringed upon by the latter 
and vice versa. In Fnince the opposition proceeded chiefly from 
the Parliaments strongly imbued with the principles of Gallican- 
ism or national churchism. In Spain the decrees of the Church 
were always promulgated with the accompanying restriction 
''without prejudice to the royal prerogative." 

Tlie opposition in France was chiefly directcnl against the 
decrees relating to fines and imi)risonment, in spiritual matters to 



THBOCBACY OB PBIB8TLY OOVEBNHENT. 428 

be left to the ecclesiastical power, against those forbidding duels, 
concubinage, and divorce, those reserving the judgment of bishops 
to the Pope alone, and those relating to the consent of parents 
deemed necessary in France for legal marriage, and not required 
by the law of the Church. 

Joseph II. of Germany, towards the close of the century, assumed 
and exercised the right of settling all ecclesiastical questions 
within his empire ; he deprived bishops of their revenues, expelled 
them or abolished their dioceses. By an imperial manifesto he 
declared all pontifical bulls subject to his ratification. Bishops 
were forbidden to ordain priests without the previous consent of 
the emperor; he suppressed a large number of the religious com- 
munities, and went so far as to fix the* number of priests for each 
church. The Pope protested vigorously. The emperor and the 
bishops who supported him carried out their views of church govern- 
ment for a time, threatening a schism when the tidal wave of revo- 
lution which swept over Europe from Paris gave the emperor 
and his brother monarchs other matters to occupy their atten- 
tion than things of theocratic discipline. 

The French Directory had Pope Pius VI. arrested on Feb. 12, 
1798, and brought to France as a prisoner, where he died in 
confinement August 29, 1799, because he refused to govern 
the Church in accordance with the notions of the gentlemen 
in Paris, who proposed to relieve the world of all kinds of 
rule save that of "the Republic One and Indivisible." Ranke, in 
his ** History of the Popes, " speaking of the death of Pius VI., says : 
**In truth, it seemed as if the papal power was forever at an end." 

The emperor. Napoleon I., a few years later established amicable 
relations with Pope Pius VII., who crowned the emperor at his 
request in Paris. Afterwards, in 1805, he appealed to the Pope 
to annul the marriage which his brother Joseph, when a minor, had 
contracted in Baltimore, in this country, with Miss Patterson, on 
the ground that the lady was a Protestant and her husband was a 
minor. Whatever opinion one may entertain of the papacy in its 
religious aspect, the reply of the aged Pontiff to this monstrous 
demand made by the dictator of Europe is worthy of the highest 
commendation. Pius VII. in his reply says: "Your Majesty will 
understand that, upon the information thus far received by us, it 



424 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

is not in our power to pronounce a sentence of nullity. We can- 
not utter a judgment in opposition to the rules of the Church, and 
we could not, without laying aside those rules, decree the in- 
validity of a union which, according to the Word of God, no 
human power can sunder." 

But the emperor was not to be stopped by this refusal. At his 
instigation the state tribunals annulled the marriage, and Joseph 
married a princess of Wurtemberg. Afterwards, on the 6th of 
July, 1809, the emperor arrested the Pope and all the cardinals' 
whom he was able to lay hands on, and brought them all as 
prisoners to Paris, so that in case the Pontiff died he would be 
able to determine who should be elected in his stead. But Pius 
VII. did not die in Paris, although he remained a prisoner in the 
emperor's custody until May, 1814, when he was liberated by the 
allied sovereigns at the downfall of Napoleon. 

Pius VII., on his return to Rome, issued a bull which re-estab- 
lished the order of the Society of Jesus throughout the world. 
This Pontiff, who is with some truth called one of the greatest of 
modem times, governed the Catholic Church for a long time, and 
died on the 20th of September, 1823. Since his pontificate the 
conflicts between the papacy and tenipoml rulers have not been so 
fierce nor so numerous as in the past centuries. Indeed, the only 
great subject matter of strife lias been the temporal jurisdiction 
which the popes exercised over the small tenitory known as the 
States of the Church, or as it is generally termed by Catholics, 
**the patrimony of Saint Peter." 

Victor Emanuel, the King of Italy, invaded the states of the 
Church during the pontificate of Pius IX., the predecessor of the 
present Pope, and annexed them to his kingdom, making the city 
of Rome his capital. Most Catholics throughout the world have 
protested, and still protest, against this act, calling it a flagrant 
violation of right, and a sacrilege in a spiritual sense. They 
claim that the popes since the days of Pepin and Charlemagne 
have administered the temporalities within the Papal states as 
executors of the Catholic Church, and tliat it is impossible for the 
Pope to be absolutely free as the head of the Church under the 
jurisdiction of any flag but his own, liowever small the territory 
that flag may cover. 



426 THE STORY OF GOVBBKMENT. 

A brief explanation of the administration of the Catholic Church, 
its powers and how exercised, may be of interest to the average 
American reader. The priesthood and governing body of the 
Catholic Church is the hierarchy comprising the Pope, the Bishop, 
and the Clergy. The Pope is the executive and supreme judicial 
authority. The popes were formerly elected by the cardinal 
bishops with the consent of the other cardinals and the clergy 
and people of Rome, saving also the honor due to Henry III., 
Emperor of Germany and king of the Romans in 1059, and to 
any of his successors in whose favor the Holy See should make 
the same reservation. But this recognition of the imperial right 
to interfere in the election proved to be fertile in anti-popes and 
great confusion, hence it was decreed by the Pope and general 
Coimcil of Lateran in 1179, that elections should henceforth rest 
with the cardinals alone, and tliat in order to be canonical it 
must be supported by the votes of two thirds of their number. 
This method of election was confirmed and developed at a 
subsequent council in 1274, and is practically the rule at the 
present time. 

When a pope dies the cardinals who are absent are immediately 
to be summoned to the conclave by one of the secretaries of the 
sacred college ; the election is to begin on the tenth day after the 
death. In whatever city the Pope dies, there the election must 
be held. Within the ten days the conclave must be constructed 
in the papal palace, or in some other suitable edifice. The large 
lialls of the palace are so divided by wooden partitions as to 
furnish a number of sets of small apartments all opening upon a 
corridor. Here the cardinals must remain until they have elected 
a pope. 

On the tenth day a solemn mass is said in the Vatican Church, 
and after it the cardinals form a procession and proceed to the 
conclave, taking uj) their respective apartments as the lot haa dis- 
tributed them. All the entrances to the building but one are 
closed, and tliat is in the charge of officials who are partly pre- 
lates, partly officials of the municipality whose business it is to 
see that no unauthorized person shall enter, and to exercise a sur- 
veillance over the food brought for the cardinals lest any written 
communication should be conveyed to them by this channel. 



THEOCBAGY OR PRIESTLY QOVBRHMBNT. 427 

Morning and evening the cardinals meet in the chapel and a 
secret scratiny by means of voting papers is usually instituted in 
order to ascertain whether any cardinal has the required majority 
of the two thiitls. A cardinal coming from a distance can enter 
the conclave after the closure, but only if he claim the right of 
doing so within three days of his arrival in the city. Papal 
elections have usually been made with reasonable despatch, yet 
in times of disturbance the difficulty of obtaining a two 
thirds majority has been known to protract the proceedings 
for a long time, as in the celebrated conclave of 1799, which 
lasted for six months. 

The cardinals are not elected ; they are appointed by the Pope. 
They have for many centuries been taken in pait from all the 
great Christian nations, though those of Italian birth have pre- 
dominated. The duties of cardinals are of two kinds: those 
which devolve on them while the Pope is living, and those which 
ihey have to discharge when the papal chair is vacant. Their 
first duty consists in taking an active part in the government of 
the Church, for although the Pope is in no way bound to defer to 
the opinions of the sacred college, as the cardinals are termed in 
practice, he seldom, if ever, takes an important step without their 
counsel and concurrence. 

The cardinals now take precedence of archbishops and bishops, 
although it was not so formerly. At the death of the Pope they 
alone elect his successor. Archbishops exercise a limited species 
of jurisdiction over the bishops of their archdiocese. An arch- 
bishop can receive appeals from the bishops in his jurisdiction in 
some cases. The right also devolves upon him of apix)inting a 
vicar capitular on the death of a suffragan bishop if the chapter 
of the diocese fails to appoint within eight days. 

A bishop is superior to simple priests, and the council of Trent 
defined that this superiority is of divine origin. The words of the 
council are, " If anyone affirm that bishops are not superior to presby- 
ters, or that they have not the power of confirming and ordaining, 
or that the power which they have is common to presbyters also, 
let him be anathema." 

In his own diocese it is a bishop's duty to teach. He is required 
to preach the word of God unless he be lawfully hindered, nor 



428 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

can anyone, secular or regular, preach in the diocese without his 
leave. He must watch over purity of doctrine, especially in 
schools public and private. No book treating on religion can be 
published till it has been examined and has received his imprimatur. 
He must administer the sacrament of confirmation, ordain priests, 
and consecrate the holy oils, churches, altars, chalices, etc. He 
must also approve priests, and give them their '' faculties " to hear 
confessions, administer other sacraments, etc. 

He may make laws for his diocese, not, however, such as are 
contrary to the law of the Church. He decides in the first 
instance all ecclesiastical causes. He can inflict penalties, sus- 
pension, excommunication and the like. Bishops are usually 
selected by a majority vote of the chief priests of a diocese, and 
confirmed by the Pope, although the practice varies in different 
countries. The bishop-elect must be thirty years of age, a priest, 
of Catholic parentage, of good fame, able to produce the public 
testimony of some univeraity or academy to his learning. Bishops 
are consecrated by the Pope or by a bishop specially commissioned 
by the Pope for the pur[)ose. 

Next in order after the l)isliops arc the i)ricst«, deacons, sub- 
deacons, acolytes, exorcists, readei-s, ostiarii, or doorkeepers. 
The firet three are as old, it is alleged, i\s the time of the 
apostles. In addition to these are various ecclesiastical orders of 
missionary clergymen, monks, nuns, and lay confraternities, all 
engaged in the work of the Church. 

We conclude tliis brief survey of theocratic government, as 
illustrated by the Jewish theocracy and the Catholic Church, with 
a few oliservations respecting the latter. Whatever views may be 
entertained of her doctrines and pretensions to infallibility, the 
Catholic (^^hurch cannot be ignored by the learned OH ignorant, by 
the inilers or persons ruled. She touches civilization everywhere 
at all points in various ways. She has a direct or at least a most 
powerful indirect influence on civil governments. She is a 
world-wide, stupendous fact well worthy the profound attention 
of the philosopher, the statesman, and the ordinary student of 
history. 

In these days of more dispassionate historical investigation 
than could reasonably be expected at a period closer to the great 




480 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

revolution of the sixteenth century, wlien men's minds were 
unbalanced by bitter party strife, jitstice can be rendered to her 
merits as well as to her demerits. The student of history will 
find among her grievous shortcomings that she has always pro- 
claimed and maintained one great fundamental truth which is the 
bedrock of true civilization: that to her "there is neither Gen- 
tile nor Jew, barbarian nor Scythian ; but Christ is all, and in 
all." The prince and the beggar, the princess and poorest 
peasant girl, the master and the servant, kneel side by side in her 
most stately temples, on terms of perfect equality, — all reduced 
to the same level of humble suppliants for mercy l)efore the altar 
of the Crucified One. 

The student will also find that her form of government is an 
elective monarchy combined with an aristocracy that should 
possess considerable merit, and a democracy at the present day at 
least without bitter party factions. Every Chiistian man of every 
class, no matter how lowly, is eligible to the highest offices in the 
Church. Many of the Popes have l)een chosen from the lowest 
walks of life. The few men of bad reputation who have occupied 
the pontifical chair serve to show by way of contrast the long line 
of au<rust men who have adorned it bv their virtues and fortitude 
in trying times. Macaulay, who was mucli opposed to the 
Clmrch, in reviewing Ranke's history of tlie papacy, concludes by 
saying: '^ There is not and there never was on this earth a work 
so well deserving of examination as tlie Roman Catholic Church. 
The history of that Church joins together the two great ages of 
human civilization. 

*'No other institution is left standing which carries the mind back 
to the times when the smoke of sacrifice rose from the Pantlieon, 
and when the cameleopards and tigers bounded in the Flavina 
amphitheatre. The proudest royal houses are but of yesterday, 
when compared with the line of the Roman pontiffs. 

'^ This line we ti-ace back in an unbroken series from the Pope 
who crowned Napoleon in the nineteenth century to the Pope who 
crowned Pepin in the eighth, and far beyond the time of Pepin the 
august dynasty extends until its origin is lost in the twilight of fable. 

" The republic of Venice came next in antiquity. But the 
republic of Venice was modern when compared with the papacy ; 



THEOCRACY OR PKIE8TLY GOVERNMENT. 



4S1 



and republic of Venice is gone and the papacy remains. The 
papacy remain», not in decay, nor a mere antique, but full of life 
and youthful vigor. 

" The Catholic Church is still sending forth to tlie furthest ends 
of the world missionaries as zealous as those wlio landed in Kent 




with Austin, and still confroiitiiig hostile kings with the same 
^ipirit witli which she confronted Attila. The numljer oE her 
children is gi-eater than in any former age. Her acquisitions in 
the new world have more than compensated her for what she has 
lost in the old. Her spiritual a.s(^endency extends over the ^"asb 
countries which lie between thu plains of the Missouri and Cape 
Horn, countries which a century hence may not improbably con- 
tain a population as large as that which now inhabits Europe. . . . 




482 STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

" Nor do we see any sign which indicates that the term of her 
long dominion is approaching. She saw the commencement of all 
the governments and of all the ecclesiastical establishments that 
now exist in the world, and we feel no assurance that she is not 
destined to see the end of them all. 

" She was great and respected before the Saxon set foot on 
Britain — before the Frank had passed the Rhine — when Grecian 
eloquence still flourished at Antioch — when idols were still wor- 
shipped in the Temple of Mecca. 

"And she may still exist in undiminished vigor when some 
traveller from New Zealand shall, in the midst of a vast solitude, 
take his stand on a broken arch of London Bridge to sketch the 
ruins of St. Paul's." 

This striking tribute by a Protestant historian, this confession 
of a profound and brilliant scholar, that the Catholic Church 
appears to bear promise of permanence, tempts a scientific student 
of human affairs to look beneath the jewelled crust of her cere- 
monial and traditional assumption, to discover, if possible, a prac- 
tical human explanation of her long, and strong,and still unwaning 
success. 

Catholicism, apart from its celestial claims, is a vast historic 
fact. Surviving the persecutions of its enemies, and the still more 
dangerous persecutions that some of its benighted professors have 
inflicted on others, it shows to-ilay, in the new world especially, 
a fresh force in the sphere of tangible action. 

Is this power the offspring of a new or simply the continuance 
of an old policy, not so vigorously asserted, perhaps, as in days of 
yore, but possibly all the more potent because veiled in some 
degree and quiet in its movements? It seems to us nothing new, 
but simply the ancient policy of restmining the high and raising 
the low, the same old policy pursued by her popes towards so 
many cruel kings and barbaric barons in the Middle Ages, which 
the Church is now trying to apply to the monstrosities which our 
present industrial system has spawned. 

For what greater monstrosities can there be than sucli absolutely 
irresponsible money-kings as Andrew Carnegie who, in a nomi- 
nally free nation, can hire with impunity a band of bravos to 
commit treason against tlie government by invading a sovereign 



434 THE STOKY OF GOVERNMKNT. 

State, and provoking a conflict with workmen ground down by 
the very capitalist whose foitune they built up ? 

Now the Catholic Church in London, through the i>erson of its 
cardinal, Henry Edward Manning, not long ago brought about a 
peace between the striking dockmen and tlieir capitalistic oppres- 
sors. This Prince of the Church, since gone to his well-earned 
rest, never rested during liis life in liis efforts to better the condi- 
tion of the poor. 

He stood for the masses against the classes; and in tliis country 
the princes of the Church, such as Cardinal Gibbons, whose like- 
ness adorns this book, have always been firm in upliolding the 
rights of the people against the anarchistic money-men who are so 
near to wrecking this republic on the grinning reefs of their 
selfishness and their greed. 

The great thinkers of the Catholic C'hurcli liave always been of 
the people and for them, maintaining the divine doctrine of the 
Crucified One, that the right of a human being to live and to live 
properly outweighs any riglits of property ; in brief, that a human 
soul is of more importance than all the gold, or silver, or brass of 
a Carnegie or a Gould. 

Nor is it alone in their private capacities that the chiefs of tho 
Churcli have shown themselves the champions of the masses. The^ 
present Pope, much to the disgust of certain Protestant sovereigns 
and of some American ti-ade-kings, several years ago refused to 
condemn the order of the Knights of Labor. 

Is it, then, a wild guess, a rash prophecy, or a fair calculation, 
that in the irrepressible conflict soon to come, the weight of the 
Catholic Church, and of all other churches with life in them, will 
be thrown into the scale on the side of humanity against the real 
Devil, the truly dangerous, debasing power that springs from vast 
accumulations of private property ? 



I 




The stoiy of ihf Swiss Kepublic, its i 
,1,'in and development, is a political i 
of intense interest. 

Switzti-land has been for centuries and itt 
at this moment a more perfect dcnioci-acy than any otlier country 
on earth. The average American citizen, liowever, know-s much 
more aiwut the Wars of the Roses and the Act of Settlement and 
the Peasant's AVar than he does of the fact that the jjcople of thu 
three Forest Cantons, Tri, Schwyz, and Unterwalden, drew up si 
written constitution nearly five hundred years hefoi-e the lii'st 
Continental Congress a-ssemhled in Philadelphia, and snecessfully 
defended tlieir ancient lilx'rtics agaiiwt the powerfiil and rajm- 
cious countries which environed tliem. 

Tliis lack of knowledge sliould not exist. The story of Swit- 
zerland to the Amerieau should possess a peculiar fascination, for 
it is tlie history of a sister repnhlic ancient in yeara, yi;t youthful 
in democnitic vigor. Americans, therefoie, will naturally read 
with sympathy a brief sketch of this intci-esting countrj'. Hub 
very few works in the Englifjh language treat on the subject, — 
a fact which undoubtedly aecountB for the almost tobil lack of 
any material infonnation among tlie English-s|)caking peoplo 
regarding Swiss institutions, their rise and growtli. 



486 THE STORY OF GOVERNMENT. 

In the thirteenth century the people who inhabited the upper 
valleys among the Alps acknowledged allegiance, Jis was the 
custom under the feudal l:uv, to some paramount lord, — the 
emperor of