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Full text of "The story of Cupid and Psyche as related by Apuleius"

GIFT OF 
JANE 




The Story of Cupid and Psyche 
as related by Apuleius. 



The Story of Cupid and Psyche 
as related by Apuleius 



EDITED, WITH INTRODUCTION AND NOTES, BY 



LOUIS C. PURSER, LITT.D. 



FELLOW OF TRINITY COLLEGE, DUBLIN 



LONDON : GEORGE BELL & SONS : 1910 



c tl i> 



DUBLIN: 

PRINTED AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 
BY PONSONBY AND GIBBS. 



PREFACE 

As far as I know, there is no separate English edition 
of the Cupid and Psyche of Apuleius ; and accordingly 
the present endeavour to produce one must have all 
the defects of a first essay in a difficult field, super- 
added to the many failings which can justly be laid 
to the charge of my own deficiencies. Besides, the 
strange and unclassical nature of the language 
precluded my having the continuous assistance of my 
colleagues, as it would have been too great a strain on 
friendship to ask for their constant help in editing 
such an out-of-the-way book. On these grounds 
this edition begs for the utmost indulgence which any 
reader can find it in his conscience to extend to 
an attempt to break ground in a domain far away 
from the beaten track. However, it is a pleasure to 
express gratitude for a considerable amount of assis- 
tance which has been most generously given me : 
and I have to thank very sincerely my friends, 
Mr. Henry S. Macran, Fellow of Trinity College, for 

239019 



iv PKEFACE 

reading the proofs of the Introduction and offering 
many valuable suggestions ; and Mr. J. T. Gibbs, 
Manager of the University Press, whose accurate 
knowledge of English idiom has saved me from very 
many errors of expression. 

L. C. P. 

TRINITY COLLEGE, DUBLIN, 
January, 1910. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



INTRODUCTION : 

CHAPTER I. ON THE LIFE AND WRITINGS OF APULEIUS, . 

CHAPTER II. THE STORY OF CUPID AND PSYCHE, . 

CHAPTER III. ON THE STYLE AND LANGUAGE OF APULEIUS, 



CHAPTER IV. THE MANUSCRIPTS AND EDITIONS, 



CUPID AND PSYCHE TEXT AND NOTES, . 



IX 

xliii 

Ixx 

ci 



. 1-123 
125 



EXCURSUS I. MILESIAN TALES, 

EXCURSUS II. ALLEGORICAL EXPLANATIONS OF THE TALE, . 128 
EXCURSUS III. THE POEMS OF MELEAGER ON LOVE AND THE 



SOUL, 



132 



INDEX, 



135 



CORRIGENDA. 

Page xcix 10 lines from end. For 6. 18 read 5. 18 

Page 9, line 1 ff., first column. The ms. reading infirmi, as I now see, cannot be 
defended. We should read Infimi. Compare a similar error of the copyist 
of F in Met. 1. 8 (p. 8. 11 ed. Helm), where infirmare is given for what 
was certainly infimare (as the preceding sublimare shows). 

Page 15, line 5. For Ludii read Ludium : and similarly in note. 

Page 21, line 15 (first col.). After semper add, ' (which he takes from the Oxford 
codex) ' 

Page 24, line 6 (first col.). For ' multitude of musicians ' read ' company singing 
in harmony ' 

Page 29, line 27 (first col.). For oculis read oculos 
Page 54. Add to crit. notes * 1 prouectae Bursian : porrectae F< ' 
Page 84, last line (first col.). For consultii read consultis 
Page 84, line 16 (second col.). For deorum read dearum 



SOME WOEKS EEFEKEED TO IN THE NOTES UNDEE 
THE NAMES OF THE AUTHOES ONLY 

BECKER (H.), Studia Apuleiana. Berlin, 1879. 
BEYTE (FR.), Quaestiones Appuleianae. Leipzig, 1888. 

GATSCHA (FR.), Quaestionum Apuleianarum capita tria (Dissertationes 
Philologae Vindobonenses vi, pp. 141-190). Vienna, 1898. 

KRETSCHMANN (H.), De Latinitate L. Apulei Madaurensis. Konigs- 
berg, 1865. 

KOZIOL (H), Der Stil des L. Apuleius. Vienna, 1872. 
LEKY (M.), De Syntaxi Apuleiana. Eegensburg, 1908. 

LUTJOHANN (CHR.), Kritische Beitrage zu Apuleius' Metamorphosen. 
Kiel, 1872. 

NEUE- WAGENER, Formenlehre der lateinischen Sprache von Friedrich 
Neue. Dritte sehr vermehrte Auflage von C. Wagener. 
Berlin and Leipzig, 1892-1902. 

PIECHOTTA (L), Curae Apuleianae. Warsaw, 1882. 
EONSCH (H.), Itala und Vulgata. Marburg, 1875. 

SCHALLER (W.), De fabula Apuleiana quae est de Psycha et 
Cupidine. Leipzig, 1901. 

WEYMANN (C), Apulei de Psyche et Cupidine fabula adnota- 
tionibus criticis instructa (Index lectionum quae in Universitate 
Friburgensi per menses aestivos anni MDCCCXCI habebuntur). 
Freiburg, 1891. 



latest-born and loveliest vision far 
Of all Olympus' faded hierarchy ! 
Fairer than Phoebe's sapphire -regioned star, 

Or Vesper, amorous glow-worm of the sky ; 
Fairer than these, though temple thou hast none, 

Nor altar heaped with flowers ; 
Nor Virgin -choir to make delicious moan 
Upon the midnight hours. 

KEATS, Ode to Psyche. 



INTEODUCTION 
CHAPTER I 

ON THE LIFE AND WHITINGS OF APULEIUS 

Res pertricosa est, Cotile, bellus homo. 

MARTIAL. 

THOUGH Apuleius was an important man in his day, 
and exercised a considerable influence on the literary 
style of subsequent writers, 1 very little is known 
about his life, except the circumstances surrounding 
his trial for magic and a few facts we can gather 
from his own writings. The references to him in 
later writers are mainly confined to his supposed 

1 Christodorus (circ. 500 A.D.) mentions (Anth. Pal. 2. 303-5) 
a bronze statue of Apuleius as having been in the Zeuxippus at 
Byzantium, in these terms 

KCU voepfjs a<$ey/cTa AanviiSos opyia Movers 

a^ero TraTTTaiVcDV 'ATruA^ios, OVTIVO. ^va-rrjv 

Avtrovt? appyrov <TO<f>i.r)s fOpeif/aro ^ct/D^v (i.e. Muse) 

the reference being probably to the reputation for magic which 
had attached itself to Apuleius. It has been remarked that of 
the eighty statues mentioned by Christodorus, only four are of 
Romans, viz. Pompey, Caesar, Vergil, and Apuleius: also/that on the 
contorniates the only Latin writers whose portraits appear are 
Terence, Accius, Horace, Sallust, and Apuleius. See Schwabe 
in Pauly-Wissowa ii, 255, 256. For the imitators of Apuleius 
cp. Weyman, Sitzungsb. der bayerischen Akad., 1893, pp. 321ff. 

b 



x INTKODUCTION 

power of working miracles 1 and to his doctrine about 
intermediate spirits (demons). 2 The whole chrono- 
logy of his life is uncertain in its exact details ; but a 
masterly article by Erwin Rohde 3 has located within 
fairly narrow limits the few events of his life with 
which we are acquainted. 4 

i. 

Apuleius 5 was born at Madaura, a Roman colony 
in the province of Africa, about 80 miles east of 
Cirta. To judge from its remains, it was probably 
among the first five towns of the province, Lambaesis, 
Thamugadi, and Thibursicum being perhaps greater. 
It was about 20 miles south of Thagaste, where 
St. Augustine was born ; and it was to Madaura that 
the latter apparently went to continue his education 

1 He is often mentioned as a worker of miracles in connexion 
with Apollonius of Tyana : cp. St. Jerome on Psalm Ixxxi (Migne 
vii, p. 1066) non est grande facere signa: nam fecere signa in Aegypto 
magi contra Moysen, fecit et Apollonius, fecit et Appuleius. Infiniti 
signa fecerunt. Concedo tibi, Porpliyri, magicis artibus signa fecerunt 
ut diuitias acciperent a diuitibus mulierculis quas induxerant plainly 
alluding to Apuleius : cp. Lactantius Inst. 5. 3 : St. Augustine Epp. 
3. 102. 32 : 136. 1 : 138. 18, 19 (Migne ii, 383, 514, 533, 534). 

2 St. Aug., Civ. Dei 8. 12. 

3 Eheinisches Museum, 1885, pp. 66-113 = Kl. Scbriften ii, p. 43ff. 

4 Kohde's conclusions generally are adopted by Schwabe in 
Pauly-Wissowa ii, 246-258, by Martin Schanz in bis G-eschichte 
der rom. Litteratur (Miiller's Handbucb viii, 3), 553, 554, and by 
M. Paul Valette, L'Apologie d'ApuUe (1908), p. 3 ff. M. Valette, 
however, thinks that Apuleius did not compose his Metamorphoses 
until after his return to Africa. 

6 No sufficient evidence can be adduced for the prenomen Lucius 
which is sometimes given him. It is probably due to his identi- 
fication with the hero of the Met. : cp. Teuffel- Schwabe, 366. 1. 



LIFE AND WRITINGS OF APULEIUS xi 

when his native town could not supply any further 
facilities, and from it he afterwards proceeded to Carth- 
age to acquire the higher branches of learning. 1 So 
one was able at Madaura to get what we should call a 
good secondary education. Apuleius was the son of 
an important citizen of that town, who had held the 
office of duumvir, which was the highest post which 
the municipality had to offer, and who must have 
been fairly wealthy, if (as is stated) he left Apuleius 
and his other son two million sesterces, something 
like 20,000. 2 He was born about 124 or 125 A.D. 
This is nowhere stated explicitly, but can be inferred 
with a considerable degree of probability by certain 
combinations. 3 Probably he received his early educa- 

1 Confess. 2. 3 mihi reducto a Madauris, in qua uicina urbe iam 
coeperam litteraturae atque oratoriae percipiendae gratia peregrinari, 
longinguioris apud Cartliaginem peregrinationis sumptus praeparabantur 
animositate magis quam opibm patris, municipis Thagastensis admodum 
tennis. 

2 Cp. Apul. Apol. 24 init. De patria mea uero, quod earn sitam 
Numidiae et Gaetuliae in ipso confinio meis scriptis ostendistis, quibus 
memet professus sum, cum Lolliano Auito CM. praesente publice disse- 
rerem, Seminumidam et Semigaetulum, non uideo quid mihi sit in ea re 
pudendum : and a little afterwards in qua colonia patrem habui loco 
principis duumuiralem, cunctis honoribus perfunctum', cp. also c. 23 
profiteer mihi ac fratri meo relictum a patre HS uicies paulo secus, 
idgue a me longa peregrinatione et diutinis studiis et crebris liberali- 
tatibus modice imminutum : nam et amicorum plerisque opem tuli et 
magistris plurimis gratiam retuli, quorundum etiam filias dote auxi. 

3 The trial of Apuleius for magic took place apparently in 
158 A.D. The presiding magistrate was the proconsul of Africa, 
Claudius Maximus, who was the immediate successor (Apol. 94) 
of Lollianus Avitus. Now, the latter probably held the pro- 
consulate of Africa in 157, for he was consul in 144 ; and the 
usual interval between the tenure of the consulate and that of 
the proconsulate of -Asia or Africa in the time of the Antonines 

b2 



xii INTRODUCTION 

tion and learned to read, write, and cipher at Madaura; 1 
but obtained his principal school education in grammar 
and rhetoric at Carthage, and afterwards wentto Athens 
for what we should call University education. 2 We 
cannot be quite certain what was his age when he went 
to Athens; possibly he was about eighteen. 3 Assum- 
ing that he was born in 125 A.D., that would make his 

was about thirteen years : see Waddington, Pastes des Provinces 
asiatiques (p. 12), quoted by Mommsen St. R. ii 2 , 240. 4. Probably, 
then, Claudius Maximus was one of the consules suffecti in 145, and 
was proconsul of Africa in 158 ; for the proconsulate was generally 
held for one year only (cp. Flor. 9, p. 39, Oud. tuo anno), though 
not of course for the actual calendar year from January to December. 
In the same year Pudentilla was about forty-two (cp. Apol. 89 inuenies 
nunc Pudentillae hand multo amplius quadragensimum annum aetatis 
ire), and considerably older than Apuleius (c. 37 maior natu). If 
we suppose that Apuleius was about thirty-three at the time, all the 
events of his previous life such as we know them can be easily 
located in point of time. The thirty-third year is not at all so 
advanced an age as to render inappropriate such an elastic term as 
iuuenis, which is often applied to him (c. 37 ; 70 ; 92), especially 
when there is always the contrast of the greater age of Pudentilla. 

1 This education (y/xx/x/xaTto-riKr/) was given by the litterator or 
ypa///xaTi(rr77s, who is to be distinguished from the grammarian 
or ypafj.fj.ariKO's who taught ypafjLfj.aTLKr}, litteratura, what we mean 
by * Literature.' See Hatch, Hibbert Lectures, p. 28. 

2 Flor. 18, p. 86, Oud. (from an address delivered at Carthage) 
et pueritia apud uos et magistri uos et secta, licet Athenis Atticis con- 
firmata: 31, p. 91 Hanc ego uobis mercedem, Carthaginienses, ubique 
gentium dependo pro disciplinis quas in pueritia sum apud uos adeptus : 
Flor. 20, p. 97 prima creterra (sc. Musarum) litteratoris ruditatem 
eximity secunda grammatici doctrina instruit, tertia rhetoris eloquentia 
armat. Hactenus a plerisque potatur. Ego et alias creterras Athenis 
bibi: poeticae \commentam (commotam conj. Vliet), geometriae limpi- 
dam, musicae dulcem, dialecticae austerulam, iam uero uniuersae 
philosophiae inexplebilem scilicet et nectar earn. 

3 Eunapius went to Athens when he was sixteen : Libanius, 
however, did not go until he was twenty-two ; but his whole 
education was somewhat late (Rohde, p. 74). 



LIFE AND WKIT1NGS OF APULEIUS xiii 

University career begin in 143 A.D. No doubt he fixed 
his headquarters at Athens ; but he appears to have 
made several journeys from thence, probably during 
the vacations. He was certainly at Samos (Flor. 15, 
p. 51, si recte recorder mam] and at Hierapolis in 
Phrygia (De Mundo, c. 17). As Apuleius was a 
man of means, there was no need for him to 
specialize in order to get a profession ; so from the 
extensive nature of his studies at Athens (see above, 
p. xii, note 2) and his travels we may infer that he 
remained more than the usual five years at the Univer- 
sity, probably till he was about twenty-five, 1 that is 
till 150 A.D. ; possibly he remained later. Some time 
towards the end of his sojourn at Athens he met 
young Pontianus, son of Pudentilla, who was pro- 
bably born about 134 A.D., 2 and in 150 A.D. would have 
been sixteen, the age at which Eunapius went to 
Athens. Though considerably his junior, he lived 
apparently in the same rooms as Apuleius, or at any 
rate in close intimacy with him. 3 But this ' chumming' 

1 Gregory Nazianzenus did not finish his rhetorical studies at 
Athens until he was thirty (Kohde, p. 74. 2) ; and Libanius, after 
studying for four years till he was twenty-five, would have 
remained for four years more, were it not that he was hindered 
by special circumstances. 

2 Pontianus was grown up (adultus) and living at Rome before 
Apuleius came to Oea in 155 ; and he married before Apuleius, 
whose marriage appears to have taken place towards the end of 156 
or beginning of 157. It is reasonable to suppose that adultus does 
not apply to any one younger than nineteen. If this is so, he 
was born when Pudentilla was about eighteen. 

3 Cp. Apol. 72, nam fuerat mild non ita pridem [ante multos 
annas'] Athenis per quosdam communes amicos conciliatus, et arto postta 
contubernio intime iunctns : cp. c. 53. That Apuleius was consider- 
ably the senior of Pontianus and his brother may be inferred from 



xiv INTRODUCTION 

probably did not last very long : for it cannot have 
been much later than his twenty-fifth year that Apuleius 
went to Rome. He would appear to have run through 
his money, whether in quite the laudable way in which 
he states himself (see note 2 on p. xi) or otherwise it 
is impossible to say. One is inclined to suppose that 
shortly previous to his departure from Greece he fell 
under the influence of the priests of Isis, and (for a 
time at least) was " converted," as is the experience of 
so many young men who are ardent and enthusiastic 
for ideals. 1 

the assistance he gave them in their studies (c. 73 init.), and from 
the fact that Pontianus spoke of him as parentem suum, dominum, 
magistrum. 

1 It is difficult to avoid thinking that Book xi of the Meta- 
morphoses is autobiographical at least in certain broad outlines. 
It is not easy to imagine that anyone who had not felt the 
emotions of a ' revival ' could have written the impassioned address 
to the goddess which is found in xi 25. But such emotions wear 
out in most cases, though they may leave behind a remembrance of 
themselves which is both easy and grateful to recall. If we give 
reins to our fantasy, we may be tempted to imagine that Apuleius, 
after many years of leisured affluence, began to feel the pinch 
of straitened means, and the necessity of working to gain a liveli- 
hood : ep. I.e. adhibendis sacrificiis tennis patrimonio ; and a year or 
so later he appears to be in poverty, Met. xi 27 Madauremem sed 
admodum pauperem : 28 uinculas patrimonii peregrinationis ad- 
triuerant impensae et erogationes urbicae prittinit illis prouinci- 
alibus antistabant plurimum. This kind of change of circumstances 
renders many young men, previously careless, somewhat sus- 
ceptible to religious impressions, which gradually lose their force 
when Fortune again returns to smile on them, and they begin to 
become successful in their professions. Such may possibly (we can 
of course say no more) have been the experience of Apuleius. But 
we are ready to acknowledge as quite possible that the imagination 
of Apuleius may have been able to observe in others and thus 
realize the emotions which attend conversion, even without 
Lis having in any way surrendered to these emotions. 



LIFE AND WRITINGS OF APULEIUS xv 

If we assume that the eleventh book is in a con- 
siderable measure autobiographical, we may take it 
that Apuleius reached Eome on December 12 (c. 26), 
and, as our reasonings have led us to conjecture, about 
the year 150. While according to his own account he 
was diligent in his religious duties to Isis and Osiris, 
and was advanced to positions of some importance in 
their service, he at the same time prospered in his 
work (by the favour of Heaven, he piously tells us) 
in the Roman law-courts, where he acted as a pleader. 
No very clear details are given of the special kind of 
work to which he devoted himself; 1 but he appears 
to have been tolerably successful. It was during this 
period that he perfected himself in Latin as it was 
spoken in Rome, by patient labour, and without the 
teaching of any master; 2 and it was during this 

1 Cp. xi 28 quae res (his religious assiduity) summum peregrination^ 
meae tribuebat solatium nee minus etiam uictum uberiorem subministrabat, 
quidni, spiritu fauentis Euentus quaesticulo forensi nutrito per yatro- 
cinia sermonis Romani : cp. ib. 30 quidni, Liber all deum prouidentia 
iam stipendiis forensibus bellule fotum. 

3 Met. 1. 1 mox in urbe Latia aduena studiorum, Quiritium indi- 
genam sermonem aerumnabili labore, nullo magistro praeeunte, aggressus 
excolui. The last word points to the perfecting of a study which 
had already begun ; and we must suppose that in his early instruc- 
tion, both at Madaura and at Carthage, Apuleius became acquainted 
to some extent with Latin ; though doubtless, during his stay in 
Greece, the many attractions of Greek literature and culture pre- 
cluded any continued study of that language : so that when he went to 
Rome his knowledge of Eoman Latin must have been most defective, 
at least for literary purposes. It is hard to say what language he 
spoke in his earliest years just possibly it was Punic : certainly 
that was the language which his precious step-son, Pudens, spoke 
(Apol. 98), though Apuleius notices that as a mark of commonness 
and vulgarity. More probably, however, it was a provincial form of 
Latin, which, as being the language of the administration, was 



xvi INTRODUCTION 

same time that he published the Metamorphoses. One 
point seems decisive as a proof that the book was 
written for Romans the reference to the metae 
Murtiae in vi. 8 ; and, if we grant this, the proba- 
bility is that it was written in Rome. 1 My belief 

adopted by the upper classes. But no doubt such Latin as 
Apuleius spoke in his young days was not by any means the 
language of Rome itself. Greek appears to have been widely used 
in ordinary life : all the letters of Pudentilla quoted in the Apologia 
are in Greek. From this it is easy to see that Apuleius can have 
had only a provincial knowledge of Latin, and needed much study 
and experience at Rome before he could have acquired such a mastery 
of Roman idiom as would justify him in publishing in Rome a work 
in that language. We may take the statement of the preface to the 
Metamorphoses as autobiographical ; for though that preface speaks 
wholly in the person of Lucius of Corinth, the hero of the whole 
novel, still Apuleius plainly represents Lucius as a young man 
like himself, who had lately left the University of Athens (op. 
Met. 1. 24), and was now writing his experiences in a foreign 
(exotici 1.1) language (Latin), and for the Roman public. In this 
request for indulgence in point of style, the author and hero of 
a novel written in the first person must become identified. Nearly 
all the other circumstances of the hero of the story (e.g. his relation- 
ship with Plutarch, and various adventures) may be regarded as pure 
invention. E. Norden, however (Die antike Kunstprosa, p. 595. 1), 
holds that this request in the preface for indulgence was a stock 
procedure, that many similar examples are found even Tacitus 
(Agricola 3) speaks of his Histories as written incondita ac rudi 
uoce (on which Gudeman gives many parallels) and that all that 
most writers mean by such requests is to draw attention to the 
obvious mastery which they have over the language they use. But 
the reference is rather to the efforts Apuleius made to acquire the 
specially Roman idiom (Quiritinm indigenam sermonem}. Writing 
at Rome for Romans, he may naturally have been afraid of 
making a solecism now and then, especially when he wrote with 
such dash and vigour ; and may accordingly have sincerely enough 
asked for pardon for any such occasional slips. 

1 Richard Hesky (Zur Abfassungszeit der Met. des Apuleius, 
Wiener Studien, xxvi (1904), pp. 71-80) thinks that the novel 



LIFE AND WRITINGS OF APULEIUS xvii 

is that during his residence in Rome he published 
the work anonymously, 1 as the experiences of Lucius 
of Corinth, closely following the treatise which is 
published among the works of Lucian, called Aov/aos 
rj V O*>05, but amplifying it by the introduction of all 
kinds of stories (some perhaps invented by Apuleius, 
but mostly tales current in Greece) of robbers, witches, 



was written for Romans, but not written in Rome. (It is true 
that sacrosanctam istam ciuitatem in 11. 26 does not necessarily 
mean ' this of yours ' ; for the word iste in Apuleius when used as a 
mere demonstrative generally means ' this ' and not * that ' : see 
Kretschmann, p. 90 f., and my note on 6. 22 : cp., too, Flor. 1. 3.) 
He fixes the date within the reign of M. Aurelius, and indeed the 
period of his sole rule (after 169, the date of the death of Verus) 
for Apuleius always says Caesar, not Caesares (8. 29: 7. 6, 7 : 9. 42). 
M. Valette (L'Apologie d'Ap. 25.1) justly says that Apuleius, following 
a Greek model, may have used what he found there. In 3. 29 the 
parallel passage in the *Oi/os (c. 16) has Kato-ap. The reason why 
Hesky fixes the date in the reign of M. Aurelius is that in 1. 6 
Lucius says to his friend Socrates, liberis tuis tutores iuridici prouinci- 
alis decreto dati, and these iuridici were instituted by M. Aurelius 
(Hist. Aug. c. 11). But they were really only re-instituted by that 
Emperor : they had been to all intents and purposes established 
by Hadrian, not only in Italy (Hist. Aug. c. 22 : Appian Bell. Civ. 
1. 38), but also in the provinces (see Schiller, Kaiserzeit, pp. 617, 618) ; 
and one of their functions appears to have been the appointing of 
guardians (Ulpian, Vat. Frag. 205, 232, 241). We are not informed 
that the officials appointed by Hadrian in Italy were called iuridici, 
but they probably were so called for from the time of their re- 
institution such was certainly their name, and it is natural that 
from the first they should have had a name to distinguish them, 
a new species of judges or 'justices,' from the ordinary indices. 
(On these iuridici see Mommsen St. R. ii 2 , 1038-9.) The ' Caesar ' 
of whom mention is made in the Met. is Antoninus Pius. 

1 The view that the work was published anonymously has long 
been held, and is based on the fact that the Florentine manuscript 
does not attribute the work to Apuleius, though it specifies Apuleius 
as the author of the Apologia and the Florida. 



xviii INTRODUCTION 

country life, love, jealousy, passion, and generally the 
whole range of subjects which human nature finds 
amusing and exciting. 1 

This work is most wondrously realistic, written 
with a vigour and exuberance that are decidedly 
inspiriting, and by an author who had a very great 
general command of luxuriant language, and a really 
remarkable power of accurate and vivid observation 
of details ; but the general setting and tenor of the 
novel are pure romance. 

The scene is laid in what are called Thessaly and 
Greece, " but they are not the Greece or Thessaly of 
geography, any more than the maritime Bohemia of 

1 The view that the work was published anonymously is approved 
by Schanz ( 554), but has been doubted by Eohde (p. 90. 2) on the 
ground of the tell-tale Madaurensem in xi 28. The "Ovos is not 
indeed by Lucian chronological difficulties and Cobet have settled 
that but it is written by a man who, like Lucian, held to common- 
sense, and jeered at all fantastic extravagance. The most probable 
view would see in it a short parody on the two first books of a 
writer mentioned by Photius, one Lucius of Patrae, who composed 
a whole volume of MT<x/Aopc/>akris in which he took, or seemed to 
take, the subject quite seriously. The author of the *Ovos appears 
to have made this Lucius the hero of his own story, and to have 
represented all his adventures as ridiculous ; and, moreover, to have 
given to the world some indication of who that Lucius was, though 
unfortunately we cannot, with our present manuscripts and defective 
knowledge, discern his identity. The narrator, who is also the 
hero, says ("Oi/os c. 55), ' My name is Lucius, my brother's is Gaius. 
The other two names we have in common Kayw p.tv ia-ropi&v /cat 

a/XXwv et/u (Tuyypa^cv?, 6 Se Trotiyr^s cAeyeiW eoT6, KCU /xai/Tts dya$os* 
Trarpts Se fjjjuv Hdrpai rfjs 'Axaias.' The efforts of Kohde to discover 
who this author is are ingenious but futile. He thinks (Uber 
Lucian' s Schrift, AOVKIOS 77 "Oi/os, Leipzig, 1869) the most likely 
person is Aev/aos, son of Mestrius Florus (Plut. Symp. vii 4), 
who also appears as an interlocutor in the Plutarchean dialogue^ 
De facie in orbe Lunae. 



LIFE AND WRITINGS OF APULEIUS xix 

Shakespeare,'' says Mr. Glover {Conflict of Religions in 
the Early Roman Empire, p. 228) most justly. Thebes, 
we learn with some surprise, is on the sea (4.11 fin.). 1 
The tales are mostly the short tales meant for 
entertainment pure and simple, which we find in all 
languages, and which in Greece were associated 
with Miletus (see Excursus I). A number of these 
Apuleius has strung together 2 on the slender thread 
either of their being the actual experiences of the 
hero turned into an ass, or of his having heard them 
during his period of transformation. 3 The tone 
of the eleventh book changes wholly, from the 
phantasmagoria of the realistic comedie humaine, to 
the religiosity of a convert i] and in that book Apuleius 
so awkwardly mixes himself and his hero together 
that not only is Lucius of Corinth our old friend 
Lucius of Corinth (c. 20, 26), but his native place is 

1 This geography was no doubt good enough for the Romans, 
who had already been familiar with it from the Ampliitruo of 
Plautus (159). Many years ago Rohde (Griech. Roman, p. 299, 
note 1) and Dr. Mahaffy (Greek World under Roman Sway, p. 294 ff.) 
protested against such scholars as Hertzberg who took the stories of 
the novel as evidence of the state of northern Greece in the time of 
the Antonines ; and Dr. Mahaffy made merry over the brilliant society 
(2. 4, 19) of that splendid city Hypata (which can never have been 
of any importance after its destruction by the Aetolians), and over 
the sumptuous wild-beast and gladiatorial show which was intended 
to be given at empty Plataea (4. 13ff.). 

2 Cp. Met. 1. 1 At ego tibi sermone isto Milesio u arias fabulas 
conseram auresque tuas beniuolas lepido susurro permulceam. 

3 The only character who comes into two of the stories is the 
girl, Charite, to whom the tale of Cupid and Psyche was told when 
she was carried off by the robbers, and who afterwards is the 
protagonist in the melodramatic story of passion, constancy, and 
vengeance at the beginning of the eighth book. 



xx INTRODUCTION 

Mad aura (mitti sibi Madaurensem sed admodum pauper em, 
c. 27 fin.). 1 The difference of tone is almost inexpli- 
cable to modern readers. Perhaps Apuleius felt that 
if he had finished up his story in the very reprehensible 
way which the author of the y O*>os had adopted, 
the book would have been a complete failure in a 
literary society which was outwardly at least re- 
spectable, as being regulated in conformity with the 
real respectability of Antoninus Pius and his desig- 
nated successor Marcus Aurelius; but that by adding a 

1 It has been actually proposed by Goldbacher, an excellent and 
accomplished scholar, to alter Madaurensem to mane Doriensem. But 
this emendation cannot be entertained for a moment. Nor can we 
assume it to be ' an obvious interpolation,' due to the popular idea 
that what was related in the Metamorphoses all actually happened to 
Apuleius himself, as Monceaux holds (Apulee, p. 299). Rohde (p. 80) 
thinks that Apuleius desired to be known, and considers that he 
published the book under his own name, and that the absence of 
his name from the subscriptions of the books of the Met. in the 
principal ms. (F) is due to accident or carelessness. Burger 
(Hermes 23 (1888), p. 496) thinks that the work was published 
anonymously, as the young writer, even with all his vanity, might 
well have doubted the reception it would receive; but that he 
inserted an indication of the real authorship which would escape 
the casual reader, but could be used to prove that real authorship 
in case the work was a success. If this is so, it is at all events a 
less elusive and absurd indication than the wonderful cryptograms 
under which more recent writers are supposed to have concealed 
their identity. Perhaps, however, the simpler explanation may 
be that Apuleius, in the eagerness with which he was reproducing 
the circumstances of his own conversion, forgot himself for the 
moment, and let the book go forth without subjecting it to any 
such severe scrutiny as would detect the inconsistency of his own 
nationality with the assumed circumstances of the hero of the story. 
It is surely the experience of many writers, especially those that 
write with vigour and dash, to have sometimes made some slip at 
which they marvel when it is brought up in judgment against them, 
and their attention becomes riveted upon it. 



LIFE AND WKITINGS OF APULEIUS xxi 

religious conversion at the end of the varied scenes of 
mostly disreputable life, he, as it were, gave some 
sort of a moral tone to what was really a series of 
' realistic ' sketches. Probably the eleventh book is 
a tribute to the respectability and religious feelings 
of Roman society, and based on certain temporary 
emotions which Apuleius may have experienced 
himself. The last book would then have made 
amends for the reprehensible nature of some of the 
stories, and " given a face " to the work, which in its 
essence and intention was nothing more than a series 
of amusing and frivolous stories. 

But there is an argument in favour of the anony- 
mous publication which is far stronger than the fact 
that the Florentine ms. does not explicitly attribute 
the Metamorphoses to Apuleius, though the Apologia and 
the Florida are given under his name. It is that no 
mention whatever of this work, which contains so 
much about witches and magic, appears to have been 
made at the trial of Apuleius for magic. Rohde 
(op. cit. p. 89) argues that the accusers may not have 
known of the work, even if published under the name 
of Apuleius : for it was published in Rome ; and, we 
may add, it was published by a young and unknown 
writer, and there is no evidence of its having had 
any great immediate success, 1 so that it may not have 

1 The earliest mention of it seems to be a censure by Septimius 
Severus of Clodius Albinus (who died in 197) that he inter milesias 
Punicas Apulei sui et ludicra litteraria consenesceret (Capitol. Clod. 
Alb. 12. 12). Albinus himself seems to have written Milesian tales, 
perhaps trying to imitate Apuleius, but with indifferent success 
(ib. 11. 8). No doubt, the writings of Pliny and Martial (see Valette, 
p. 13) were eagerly sought after in the provinces (Plin. Ep. 9. 11 : 



xxii INTRODUCTION 

reached Africa. Again, he says that it could not 
have had much weight, and for that reason may not 
have been mentioned by the prosecution ; for Lucius 
was not a practiser, but a victim, of magic ; and in 
any case, the book is such sheer romance that it could 
not have influenced any reasonable being. Recol- 
lecting the reputation for magic which existed to some 
extent at the time and which gradually developed to 
large proportions round the name of Apuleius, we feel 
some doubt on this point; and the outcry which seems 
to have greeted Apuleius when he named some men 
suspected of magic, declaring that "if one particle 
of self-interest in his marriage can be proved against 
him, they may say that he is a worse magician than 
Carmendas, or Damigeron, or Moses, or Jannes, or 
Apollobeches, or Dardanus, or any other magician 
from Dardanus or Hostanes onward" 1 would seem to 
prove that very little account was taken by popular 
opinion of the connexion in which any allusion was 
made to things magical. The names of magicians 
or of magical arts were mentioned by a man, and 
that was considered sufficient to stamp him as a 
magician. It appears to me most improbable that the 
accusers, if they could have brought forward the novel, 
would have refrained from doing so, as it most certainly 

Mart. 7. 88 ; 8. 72) ; but that was only when they were famous 
men. The anonymous Metamorphoses, even with the compromising 
Madaurensem in it, probably did not attract much immediate 
attention ; but later, when Apuleius became a well-known literary 
and scientific man, long after his trial, and a less respectable Emperor 
arose, the book may have begun to attain its wide reputation. 

1 Apol. 91 init. vide guaeso, Maxime, quern tumultum'suscitarint, 
quoniam ego paucos magorum nominatim percensui. 



LIFE AND WRITINGS OF APULEIUS xxiii 

would have created prejudice against Apuleius, 
much more than his verses about tooth-powder and 
such trivialities (Apol. 6 : 9, &c.); and if they did so, 
it is quite inconceivable that Apuleius would not 
have refuted any charge which could have been 
based upon it, as it would have been a fairly easy 
point to dwell upon and to handle effectively. It 
is noticeable also that in the two passages of the 
Florida where Apuleius enumerates the variety of 
his writings, no mention is made of his immortal 
Milesia. 1 No doubt, when Apuleius had married 
and settled down, and become the fashionable 
lecturer and the Platonic philosopher of Africa, and 
an authority on scientific matters connected with 
fishes, trees, agriculture, medicine, astronomy, arith- 
metic, music, in short on everything in heaven and 
earth, 2 he was not very anxious to make any parade 
of his early work of unquestionable genius but most 
questionable respectability. So he left the work 
anonymous, as far as we have any knowledge of 
Apuleius from his own writings. The authorship of 
course gradually became known ; but whether it was 
ever publicly acknowledged during the lifetime of 
Apuleius, we have no certain means of determining. 

1 Flor. 9, p. 37 Oud. and 20. 97 canit enim Empedodes carmina, 
Plato dialogos, Socrates hymnos, Epicharmus modos, Xenophon histo- 
rias, Crates (codd. Xenocrates) satiras : Apuleius uester haec omnia 
nouemque Musas pari studio colit. It is perverse of a distinguished 
scholar like Burger to suppose that liistorias means ' tales,' or 
anything else except ' histories ' ; and to hold that in respect of 
Xenophon the allusion is to the tale of Abradates and Panthea in 
the Cyropaedia. We know from Priscian (ii. 482. 2 ; cp. i. 250. 18) 
that Apuleius wrote an epitome historiarum. 

2 See below, 5. 



xxiv INTRODUCTION 

We think it not wholly improbable that the author- 
ship may have been disclosed, and the work have 
commenced its great vogue, at the accession of 
Commodus. 1 



For four or five years, then, Apuleius practised in 
the courts at Rome, and seems to have been tolerably 
successful. It was there probably that he came to a 
consciousness of his great command of language ; and 
with his quick sympatlry with every kind of intellec- 
tual interest, and his delight in exhibiting his powers, 
it was only natural that his ambition should direct 
itself to the career of a public rhetorician. We know 
from Philostratus the great enthusiasm and glory 
which attended these rhetoricians (cp. Rohde Der 
Griech Roman, p. 293), and we know it from Apuleius' 
own experience also. A successful rhetorician held a 
most distinguished position in general society, and 
was feted and honoured by States and Emperors. I 
believe that Apuleius had some idea of adopting this 
profession when he returned from Rome to Africa 
about 155. But he did not settle down in his old 
home, or even in Carthage : he could not rest from 
travel, 2 and we next hear of him as on his way to 

1 Apuleius wrote another novel called Hermagoras, which is 
mentioned by Priscian 1. 85 (Keil) Apuleius in I Hermagorae 
" uisus est et adulescens honesta forma quasi ad nuptias exornatus 
trahere se in penitiorem partem domus" : cp. also 1. Ill; 1. 135; 
1. 279 aspera hiems erat omnia ningue canebant: 1. 528. Fulgentius 
112. 10 (Helm) Apuleius in Ermagora ait: " pollincto eius funere 
domuitionem paramus." 

2 Apol. 73 utpote peregrinationis cupiens impedimentum matrimoni 
aliquantisper recusaueram. 



' 



LIFE AND WEITINGS OF APULEIUS xxv 

Alexandria/ and falling ill at Oea, a town on the 
coast near the modern Tripoli. This was the native 
place of the young man Pontianus, with whom he 
had lived during the last period of his residence at 
the University of Athens (see above, p. xiii). Apuleius 
stayed at the house of certain of his friends called 
Appii. Pontianus, who was about twenty-one, had 
been studying at Rome, but had returned to Oea 
>ecause his mother, Pudentilla (who was then a 
widow and very rich), had told him that she proposed 
getting married, 2 and Pontianus considered it advis- 
able to see that his mother did not marry some one 
r ho would make away with all her money, and 
LUS deprive him and his brother of their legiti- 
tate expectations. Pontianus called on Apuleius 
tnd renewed their friendship. The latter seemed to 
Pontianus the very person whom his mother should 
marry, and was urged to come and stay at their house; 
and there is a touch of realistic humour in the 
ray Apuleius describes the manoeuvres of Pontianus 
Apol. 72) to secure that he shall pay them a long visit. 
[e went to their house, and remained there a con- 
siderable time, giving some public lectures, 3 helping 

1 He plainly went to Oea from the west ; as he would not have 
jone to that town at all if he had gone straight from Eome to 
Jexandria. It is on this ground that it seems probable that he 
returned to his native province from Kome before he started on the 

3W journey to Alexandria, 

2 She had not any definite suitor in mind ; but she had been 
Ivised by her physicians that her health would be improved if she 

mtered again on the married state (Apol. 69). 

3 Apol. 55 sed abhinc ferme triennium est cum primis diebus quibus 
Oeam ueneram publice disserens de Aesculapii maiestate. This lecture 

c 



xxvi INTRODUCTION 

Pontianus and his young brother in their studies, and 
meanwhile re-establishing his own health. About a 
year after his arrival at Oea he gave a public lecture 
(Apol. 73) which was a brilliant success; so much so, 
that the people of Oea begged him to accept the freedom 
of their city, and to settle down amongst them. In 
the enthusiasm of his success he was definitely asked by 
Pontianus to accept his mother in marriage. Though 
she was nearly ten years older than Apuleius, he 
had had many opportunities of testing her merits, 
"the dowry of her virtues/ 7 as he gracefully says 
(c. 73) ; and, though still eager for travel, he consented 
to the proposal. Pudentilla was equally willing, and 
so the marriage was arranged, and was fixed to take 
place as soon as Pontianus, who was engaged to a 
daughter of one Herennius Rufinus, was married, and 
his young brother Pudens had assumed the dress of 
manhood. 

Immediately after Pontianus had married, his 
uncle and his wife's relations began to urge him to 
try to have the engagement between Apuleius and 

seems to have won great fame and was widely read. It is just 
possible that it may have been the same as the lecture referred to 
in c. 73, which was delivered a year after his arrival; but this requires 
us to stretch the phrase ' the early days of my stay in Oea' to an 
abnormal extent, and will compel us to estimate the whole sojourn 
of Apuleius in Oea at four years, and not three. Still, however, it 
is possible. Then we must suppose Apuleius to have come to Oea 
in the winter of 154-155 ; to have remained in the house of Puden- 
tilla till the end of 155 or beginning of 156, when he delivered this 
great lecture and became engaged to her; to have married her 
probably in the latter half of 156 ; and to have been accused 
towards the end of 158. Thus we shall be able to explain 
abhinc ferme triennium. 



LIFE AND WRITINGS OF APULEIUS xxvii 

Pudentilla broken off, for fear, as would seem, that 
the latter, who appears to have been deeply attached 
to Apuleius, 1 would settle all her fortune on him. 
However, Apuleius behaved handsomely, and per- 
suaded Pudentilla to make a will leaving the bulk of 
her property to her sons in the event of her having no 
further issue 2 (c. 91), and succeeded in reconciling the 
mother to her children (c. 93). Pontianus is stated 
to have been sincerely sorry for his conduct, and to 
have begged pardon of Apuleius (c. 94). Apuleius and 
Pudentilla were then married in Pudentilla' s seat in the 
suburbs of Oea 3 a procedure which was looked on 
askance, and was made a ground of accusation in the 
trial. 

1 It may be here said that there is some reason to suppose that 
the marriage was a happy one : cp. Sidonius Apollinaris ii 10. 5 
sisque oppido meminens quod olim Marcia Hortensio, Terentia Tullio, 
Calpurnia Plinio, Pudentilla Apuleio, Rusticiana Symmacho legentibus 
meditantibusque candelas et candelabra tenner unt ; though of course 
the words Terentia Tullio would seem to show that the learned 
bishop's information on the domestic life of distinguished literary 
men was not always very minute and accurate. 

2 Apol. 91 : This possibility of Pudentilla's having further issue 
disproves the view that would make her older than Apuleius states 
she was, viz. a little over forty. 

3 The reasons are given in c. 88. Pudentilla had already 
bestowed a considerable largess on the people when Pontianus 
was married, and when Pudens assumed the toga virilis. She did 
not wish to be put to a similar expense on the occasion of her own 
marriage. Besides, both she and Apuleius (and it was natural, as 
they were not in their first youth) desired to escape all the cumbrous 
ceremonial and entertainments connected with a fashionable marriage 
in the city. But general opinion, it would seem, did not approve of 
marriages in villa. In the Cupid and Psyche, Venus mentions 
among the irregularities of Cupid's marriage the fact that it was 
performed in villa : cp. 6. impares enim nuptiae et praeterea in uilla 
sine testibus et patre non consentiente factae legitimae non possunt uideri. 

c2 



xxviii INTRODUCTION 

But the relations of Pudentilla did not relax their 
opposition. They had lost the support of Pontianus, 
and accordingly could not for the moment do much, 
as he appears to have been a young man of good 
disposition and some force of character. But within 
about a year he died ; and then they worked on his 
young brother to attack his step-father. At first the 
brother-in-law of Pudentilla, Sicinius Aemilianus, 
appears to have urged his advocates to deliver a violent 
invective against Apuleius, when the latter was arguing 
some case on behalf of his wife 1 before the Assize 
Court at Sabrata (some 60 miles west of Oea on the 
coast), which was presided over by the proconsul, 
Claudius Maximus. They accused him of being in- 
strumental in bringing about the death of Pontianus, 
and of being addicted to the practice of magic. 2 



1 Apol. 1 nam, ut meministi, dies abhinc quintus an sextus est, cum 
me causam pro uxore mea Pudentilla aduersus Granios aggressum de 
composite necopinantem patroni eius incessere maledictis et insimulare 
magicorum maleficiorum ac denique necis Pontiani priuigni met coepere. 
It is not clear who the Granii were, whether they were the parties 
in the case concerning Pudentilla it was doubtless a civil case 
about property or were counsel for Sicinius Aemilianus. The 
latter seems the more probable supposition. In the former alter- 
native, we must suppose the interests of Sicinius to have been in 
some way involved, and that he instructed counsel to defend those 
interests. 

2 This was probably in 158. Claudius Maximus succeeded 
Lollianus Avitus, who had been consul in 144, and, according 
to the rule in force at this time, could hold the proconsulship 
of Asia or Africa about thirteen years later (see above, p. xi, n. 3). 
But as the interval between the consulship and proconsulship 
seems to have varied from ten to fifteen years, we cannot regard 
these dates as absolutely certain, though no other dates seem 
to meet all the circumstances of the case so well. This Claudius 



LIFE AND WRITINGS OF APULEIUS xxix 

Apuleius at once turned on them, and vehemently 
asked that he should be arraigned definitely on these 
charges. The accusers were frightened and dropped 
the former charge ; but they did arraign him on the 
charge of magical practices, and the trial came on 
within a week before the same Court. In an age 
when the belief in magic is rife, no charge is easier 
and more readily believed by the people. It is a 
charge which admits of invective rather than proof, 
as Apuleius very justly says (Apol. 2) ; and Apuleius 
was certainly interested in so many branches of 
science, had been initiated into so many mysteries 
and rituals during his travels, had no doubt talked 
so much theosophy, which he considered to be the 
doctrines of Plato, and, in addition, had probably made 
himself so obnoxious by a not too humble opinion of 
himself and his learning, that there was distinctly 
good reason that he should endeavour without delay 
to dispel the calumny. This is no place to give a 
detailed account of the able and self-confident speech, 
the only forensic speech which we have remaining 
from Imperial times, in which Apuleius refuted all 
the idle charges which were brought against him. 
It is vigorous and effective, with very few of the 
affectations of style to which Apuleius was addicted ; 
and there can be no doubt that it was successful in 
securing his acquittal. 

Maximus appears to have been legatus of Pannonia Superior in 154 
(see a diploma in C.I.L. iii, p. 881). Whether he was the incom- 
parable Claudius Maximus, the Stoic philosopher, who helped to 
mould the character of Marcus Aurelius (Meditations 1. 15), must 
remain undecided. It seems improbable. 



XXX INTBODUCTION 

3. 

But he had lost his popularity at Oea. His 
adversaries, old inhabitants of the district, had re- 
presented him as a maleficent adventurer; and, in 
any case, he himself must have felt that his powers 
called for a larger field than a comparatively small 
provincial town. He migrated to Carthage, and 
appears to have made that his home for as long as 
history allows us to trace his life. He continued his 
profession of public lecturer at Carthage, and became 
the most honoured and most popular literary man in 
the whole province. We have a large number of 
1 elegant extracts ' from his lectures or orations, or 
whatever those elaborate compositions are to be 
called ; and those ' elegant extracts ' he, or some 
excerptor, called Florida ^avO^pd) or Flowers. 1 

These * Flowers ' have about them a calm, 
polished stateliness and an elaborated finish which 
appeal to anyone who admires ornateness and care- 
fulness in literary execution ; but it must be said that 
they are quite destitute of any depth of thought, 
though this was but natural in compositions addressed 
to a popular audience. Still there are some well- 
worked pieces of no little descriptive power and of 
most artificial, yet charming, simplicity. I venture 
to reproduce one, on the death of the comic poet 
Philemon (Flor. No. 16), retaining the alliterations, 
assonances, and other artificialities as well as I can. 
Apuleius is apologizing for not having continued on 

1 See Gellius Praef., 6, who mentions a number of similar 
fancy titles which authors gave to their miscellanies. 



LIFE AND WRITINGS OF APULEIUS xxxi 

the next day a disquisition which had been interrupted 
by rain. He met with an accident just after the 
breaking-up of the meeting, and had to go to the 
Persiance aquae to recruit. On his return he tells of 
the circumstances which followed a similar inter- 
ruption in a reading by Philemon : " You all 
know the character of his genius : let me now tell 
you in a few words of his death ; or perhaps you 
would wish me to say something about his genius." 

Philemon was a poet of the Middle Comedy, and composed 
plays for the stage at the same time as Menander. He 
competed with him, possibly as an inferior, but certainly as a 
rival, for he often defeated him one is ashamed to say. You 
may find in him many sallies of wit, clever complications in 
his plots, admirably contrived recognitions, 1 characters suited 
to the subject, maxims applicable to real life, the gay portions 
not sinking below comedy, the grave portions not soaring into 
tragedy. We rarely find seductions in his plays : the failings 
of his human characters are venial, their loves congenial. 2 
In him, too, as in the other playwrights, we have the lying 
procurer, the sighing lover, the sly slave-boy; the cajoling 
mistress, the coercing wife, the indulging mother ; the uncle to 
scold, the friend to uphold, the soldier bold ; gorging parasites, 
grasping parents, saucy street-girls. By these merits he had 
long held an eminent position in comedy. 

On one occasion he had given a reading of part of a play 
which he had recently composed ; and it happened that he had 
already come to the third act, wherein, as is usual in comedies, 
he had delightfully quickened the interest of his hearers, when 

1 Reading agnitus with Casaubon. Perhaps ' denotements.' The 
mss. give adynatos. Colvius read ac nodos, but ac does not suit with 
the general asyndefca of the passage. Leo (Archiv xii. 98) con- 
jectures narratus. 

2 Reading with Leo tuti (for ac uti) errores, concessi amores, lit. 
* errors that did not bring ruin, love-affairs that were permissible.' 



xxxii INTRODUCTION 

a sudden shower of rain, just as occurred lately in my case with 
you, compelled an adjournment of the collected audience and 
the projected reading. However, he promised, at the request of 
many present, that without making any break he would finish 
the recitation on the ensuing day. Accordingly, next day an 
immense crowd gathers with the greatest eagerness : each one 
tries to get as near the front as possible : the late comer makes 
signs to his friends to keep a seat for him : those at the 
extremity complain that they are pushed out of the sitting 
accommodation altogether : the whole theatre is packed and 
there is a great crush. "When quiet was attained, 1 the people 
begin, those who had not been present to ask about the 
previous portion of the play, those that had been present to go 
over what they had heard, and all, when they had the beginning 
in mind, to await the sequel. Meanwhile the day went on. 
and Philemon did not come as had been arranged ; some 
grumbled at the poet for being late, the greater number made 
excuses for him. But when the delay became unreasonable, 
and there was no sign of Philemon, some of the more energetic 
members of the audience were sent to summon him ; and they 
found him lying dead on his couch. He had ceased to breathe 
and had just become stiff. There he was reposing on his 
reading-couch in the attitude of thought: he had his fingers 
still in the fold of the manuscript, his face down on the book 
he had been reading ; but he had no breath of life in him; he 
was forgetful of his book, and thought not of his audience. 
Those who had come in stood still for a space, moved by the 
marvel of such an unexpected event and such a beautiful 
death. Then they returned to the people, and announced that 
Philemon, the poet, who was being expected to finish in the 
theatre an unreal narrative, had at his house completed the 
real drama of life : his words to the world were, ' be happy ' 
and ' your hands/ to his friends, ' be sorry ' and ' your tears ' : 
yesterday's shower was a premonition of their weeping : his 

1 1 venture to read quieti for qneri. 



LIFE AND WEITINGS OF APULEIUS xxxiii 

play had reached the funeral knell before it reached the 
marriage bell : and thus, as a most excellent poet had ceased to 
tread the stage of life, they should go straight from the theatre 
to his burying, and lay now his ashes in the grave, thereafter 
his poems in their hearts. 



4. 

It is from these Florida that we obtain the few 
remaining notices of Apuleius, and his career at 
Carthage. In 16f3 A.D. he delivered a panegyric on 
the proconsul of the day, Scipio Orfitus, a fragment of 
which is contained in Flor. 17. 1 Some time before 
169, the date of the death of Verus, in the fulness 
of his reputation, he delivered a valedictory address 
to a governor called Severianus, which is preserved 
in Flor. 9. 2 In Flor. 16 he thanks Aemilianus Strabo, 

1 Apuleius speaks of it as hoc meum de virtutibus Orfiti carmen 
(p. 82, Oud.), and the prose is indeed ' numerous prose ' or un- 
metrical verse. We shall have something to say in the section on the 
style of Apuleius about this poetically coloured prose of the rheto- 
ricians of the day. Servius Cornelius Salvidienus Scipio Orfitus 
(to give him his full style and title) had been consul in 149, and 
was proconsul in 163 : see the Inscription on the triumphal arch at 
Oea in C.I.L. viii. 24. 

2 The allusion to fauor Caesarum (p. 40, Oud.) fixes the date as 
prior to 169, when Verus died. The statement that the reputation of 
Apuleius was Integra et florens per omnes antecessores tuos would seem 
to suggest a time nearer to 169 than to 161 ; for Apuleius cannot 
have considered his connexion with proconsuls to have begun before 
the time of Lollianus Avitus in 157 (Apol. 94) : so this Severianus 
can hardly have been the P. Aelius Severianus who was governor 
of Cappadocia in 162, and killed by the Parthians in that year 
(see Schiller, Rom. Kaisergeschichte 639) ; more probably he is the 
M. Sedatius Severianus, of whom Mommsen gives some account in 
C.I.L. iii. 1575. Of his son Honorinus there does not seem to be 
any information. 



xxxiv INTRODUCTION 

who had held the consulship in 156, 1 and had previously 
been his fellow-student, 2 for the interest Aemilianus 
had taken in recommending that a public statue should 
be erected in his honour at Carthage. In support of 
this Aemilianus had drawn attention to the statues 
and other honorary distinctions which other peoples 
and other cities had bestowed on Apuleius, 3 and 
urged that the fact of his having ' undertaken' 
the position of sacerdos prouinciae an office which was 
very troublesome and expensive, on account of the 
games which the priest was expected to exhibit gave 
him a claim to receive from Carthage the honour of a 
statue ; and Aemilianus undertook to pay for it. 4 We 

1 p. 74, Oud. Aemilianus was consul suffectus in 156 : see 
Acta Arualinm, C.I.L. vi, 2086. 67. In the same year Serius 
Augurinus was consul ordinarius, and he was proconsul of Africa in 
170. So, perhaps, if the expectations of Apuleius were realized 
(nir consularis, breui uotis omnium futurus proconsul), which is uncer- 
tain, Aemilianus may have been proconsul in 171. 

2 p. 73, Oud. iura amicitiae a commilitio studiorum eisdem 
magistris honeste incohata. If we suppose Aemilianus to have 
attained the consulship at the normal age of thirty-three, he would 
have been born in 123, and thus would have been almost an equal 
in age with Apuleius. 

3 Flor. 16, p. 73 quin etiam commemorauit et alibi gentium et ciuita- 
tinm honores mild statuarum et alias decretos. We have no particulars 
as to what these were : but we know that Apuleius, though having 
his home in Carthage, often lectured elsewhere. Flor. 18, p. 86, 
Oud. qui penes extrarios saepenumero promptissime disceptaui; ib. 91 
ubique enim me uestrae ciuitatis alumnumfero, ubique uos omnimodis 
laudibus celebro, &c. 

4 Flor. 16, p. 73, Oud. immo etiam docuit argumento suscepti 
sacerdotii summum mihi honor em Carthagini adesse. Notice that 
Apuleius ' undertook ' the priesthood : cp. St. Augustine Ep. 138 
(vol. ii, p. 534, Migne) An forte ista (honours in the State) ut 
Philosophus contempsit (sc. Apuleius), cui sacerdos Prouinciae pro 



LIFE AND WRITINGS OF APULEIUS 



XXXV 



cannot fix the date of his tenure of the priesthood, 
but it was probably about 165. It may have been 
in the course of his upward career that he under- 
took this duty, which his wife's great wealth would 
have enabled him to perform with distinction, and 
which, in its opportunities for display, was a post that 
he would have filled with splendour, and one which 
would serve to advance him in public estimation. 
We can gather nothing further about the life of 
Apuleius, and we do not know when he died. 



5. 

Perhaps a word or two should be said on the 
philosophical works of Apuleius. That On the God of 
Socrates is the best known. It is really a popular 
lecture on the doctrine of Spirits (daemones) interven- 
ing between God and man. His definition of these 
Intermediate Spirits is famous. He says (c. 13) they 
are "in nature animal, in intellect rational, in mind 
subject to emotion (passiua), in material airy, in duration 
eternal. The first three characteristics they have in 

magno fuit, ut munera ederet uenatoresque uestiret et pro statua sibi 
apud Oeenses locanda, ex qua duitate habebat uxorem, aduersus 
contradictionem quorumdam ciuium litiyaret. This latter portion of 
St. Augustine's letter is interesting, as it shows that Apuleius 
did not deem it unworthy to solicit such honours himself ; and 
indeed he actually did in the concluding portion of Flor. 16, where 
such solicitation is couched in the most grave and courtly language. 
For the onerous nature of the priesthood Eohde (Bh. Mus. 40. 69) 
refers to Wilmanns 1233a, where in 362 lulius Festus Hymetius 
is praised (among other services to the province of Africa) quod 
studium sacerdotii prouinciae restituerit ut mine a competitoribus 
adpetatur quod antea formidini fuerit. 



XXXVI 



INTRODUCTION 



common with men; the fourth is peculiar to them- 
selves ; the fifth they share with the immortal gods ; 
but they differ from them in being subject to emotion 
{passione)" They are the messengers of the gods to 
men, and the agents by which the gods act upon 
men; and conversely they notify to the gods the 
prayers and offerings of men. Amongst these is 
each man's guardian angel. Such was the Sat/*wz> of 
Socrates. It was a Spirit of Prohibition, not of Instiga- 
tion, in his case ; for Socrates " as a man of singularly 
perfect character was himself ever ready to perform 
all fitting duties, and so needed no one to urge him 
thereto ; but it checked him when he was entering on 
any course under which danger lurked " (c. 21). We 
should then each of us worship the Spirit that 
directs us, qui cultus non aliud quam philosophiae sacra- 
mentum est (c. 22). The lecture is attractive and 
graceful ; but it was on a trite theme. The doctrine 
of Saipoves was an old one. It is found as early as 
Hesiod ( Works 1226), and was more fully developed 
by Pythagoras. It had been much in vogue since 
Plutarch's admirable writings on the subject. 1 The 
lecture is preceded in the manuscripts by two 
prefaces, which really belong to the Florida, and 
have accidentally become joined to the philosophical 
treatise. 2 

Less interesting are the two books De Platone et 
eius Dogmate short popular summaries setting forth 
what Apuleius held were Plato's views on Nature and 

1 Especially De defectu Oraculorum and De Facie in Orbe Lunae. 
3 Cp. Schanz Geschiclite der rom. Litteratur, 563. 



LIFE AND WRITINGS OF APULEIUS xxxvii 

Morals. The first book begins with a brief biography 
of Plato, whose life had apparently by this time 
" won its way to the fabulous." Then follows an 
account of the Platonic theories of the World and the 
Soul, mostly based on the Timaeus. The second book, 
addressed to 'Faustine fill] 1 is devoted to Plato's views 
on Ethics and Politics^ and draws largely on the 
Gorgias, Republic, and Laws. Whatever merits these 
books may have had as popular synopses, they have 
practically none now, and are very dull reading. The 
treatise TTC/H e^/x^eias, which used to be regarded ^ 
as the third book, is a treatise on Formal Logic, and is 
Aristotelian and not Platonic. It is generally held to 
have been written by some grammarian who wanted 
to add to the two books of Apuleius a treatise on 
Dialectic which Apuleius had promised (1, 4, fin.). 
It has been suggested that the attribution of the work 
to Apuleius is due to the author having used his name 
as an example (c. 4). The treatise is mentioned by 
Cassiodorus. 2 

The treatise De Mundo is a translation of the 
pseudo- Aristotelian treatise, irepl KOO-^OV. The Greek 
work is addressed to a certain Alexander. 3 Apuleius 



1 We do not know who he was. The translation of the 

is also addressed to him. We suppose that he was a pupil of 
Apuleius, or a young friend in whom he took an interest not an 
actual son of his by Pudentilla. For filius as an address by an 
elder to a younger see note to 6. 22. 

2 Cp. Hildebrand, p. xliv ; Goldbacher in Wiener Studien viz 
(1885), pp. 253-277 ; Schanz, 562. 

3 Probably Tiberius Julius Alexander (cp. Mayor on Juv. 1. 130), 
nephew of Philo, who accompanied Corbulo in his Parthian War ; 
see Mommsen, Provinces, ii. 168. 



INTRODUCTION 

alters the dedication to Faustine fill? leaving an 
impression that he wished the treatise to be regarded 
as an original work of his own and not merely as a 
translation. 2 He makes a few additions, e.g. chapters 
13 and 14 (on the winds), which are taken from 
Gellius 2.22, and the interesting personal note, which 
gives evidence of his travel, c. 17, uidi et ipse apud 
Hierapolim Plirygiae non adeo ardui mantis uicinum latus 
natiui oris hiatu reseratum et tennis neque editae marginis 
ambitu circumdatum : cp. Strabo, xiii. 629630. There 
has been much discussion as to whether the translation 
is or is not by Apuleius ; but it is generally agreed 
now that it is his work. The view that Apuleius wrote 
both the Greek and Latin versions is not any longer 
held. 3 

Another translation by Apuleius is that of the 
Phaedo of Plato (Sidon. Apoll. 2. 9. 5). It is quoted 
twice by Priscian. 

Apuleius wrote many treatises on quaestiones 
naturales as well in Greek as in Latin (Apol. 36. 40), 
which were no doubt compilations and handbooks. 
We hear especially of his treatises on Fishes (ib. 38) ; and 
he seems to have made some original investigations also 
in Zoology (ib. 33). These compilations may possibly 
have been the same as the quaestiones conuiuales to which 



1 So Thomas : or Faustine mi Goldbacher. The mss. give miJii. 

2 Cp. the end of the Preface, where he adds the words Aristotelem 
. . . et Theophrastum auctorem secuti. 

3 See Teuffel-Schwabe, 367. 6: Schanz, 564. On the Greek 
original cp. Zeller Eclectics (Eng. Trans.) 125 ff. 




LIFE AND WKITINGS OF APULEIUS xxxix 

Macrobius (7.3.23), and Sidonius (9.13.3) refer. 1 He 
also wrote on Medicine (Apol. 40. 45), on Astronomy, 
Arithmetic, Music ; a treatise De Eepublica ; and various 
poems. 2 The Asclepius, a translation of a Greek 
original, is universally rejected as having been erro- 
neously attributed to Apuleius. 3 Most critics reject 
also the Physiognomonia, published by Valentine Rose. 4 
No one now dreams that either the fifth century 
herbal De Herlarum Medicaminibus, or the fragment of 
the De Eemediis salutaribus, had any connexion with 
Apuleius. 

The wide and quick sympathy which Apuleius 
displayed with all sorts of intellectual pursuits of 
course prevented any really minute knowledge of 
any of them. Most of his works appear to have 
been translations or compilations. Some of them 

1 Macrob. 7. 14. 4 censet Epicurus ab omnibus corporibus iugi 
fluore guaepiam simulacra manare has been long ago by Brant 
compared with Apol. 15 (= p. 18. 7 Helm). 

2 For the poems cp. Apol. 6. and 9 ; Flor. 18. 91 (hymn to 
^Esculapius). Possibly hoc meum de uirtutibus Orfiti carmen (Flor. 
17. 82) refers to the prose eulogy from which this is an extract rather 
than to a separate poem. The ' Asianic ' rhetoricians liked to 
represent their declamations as ' poems,' cp. Himerius, quoted by 
E. Norden, Kunstprosa, p. 429. There is a metrical translation (very 
corrupt) of an obscene passage from Menander's 'Ave^oV^os also 
attributed to Apuleius ; see Bahrens, Poet. Lat. Min. iv, p. 104. 
For the other treatises see Schanz 569. 

3 It was known to St. Augustine, but he does not mention it as 
the work of Apuleius, and the manuscripts do not name him as 
the author. Lactantius did not know the Latin version, and 
quotes from the Greek. 

4 Anecdota Graeca et Graecolatina i. 59, 170. Rose defends 
its genuineness. E. Kelter (Apulei guae fertur Physiognomonia 
quando composita sit, Kiel, 1890) has proved that it was not 
composed before the fourth century. 







xl INTRODUCTION 

indeed seem like popular works, or even school books, 

1 written by a man who had a great name and fame 

I for something quite different from the subject of 

which the works treated ; and we may suppose that 

the author and the publishers knew that the mere 

name of the author would be safe to ensure a sale. 

We wonder that Apuleius was ever regarded as a 
Platonicus noUlis (St. Augustine, Civ. Dei 8.12, p. 374, 
Goldb.). He was certainly a famous rhetorician, 
and his Platonism may have been taken by the 
public on his own estimation (Apol. 10 and 65 fin.). 
The success of Apuleius with his age seems, as 
Mommsen has said of the success of Cicero, to 
resolve itself really into the deeper problem of 
language, and the effect of language on the mind. 
He belonged, like Favorinus, to the set of those whom 
Eohde calls " Theatre Philosophers" (Griech. Roman, 
p. 321), and Philostratus 01 ^LXocro^rjo-avTe^ iv 80^77 
TOV cro(j)LcrTvcrai.. He learned a little philosophy, as 
he learned a little of everything else, enough to talk 
about it gracefully and brilliantly. But if he was 
little of a philosopher, he had a very wide general 
culture even for his own age, in which there 
was such a great diffusion of knowledge ; and no 
doubt he took an eager interest (curiositas) in those 
studies to which he applied himself, as long as no 
great difficulties presented themselves, and as far as 
they could be used for showy effect. But it was 
, distinction, glory, popular success, which were the 
real ends sought by this cultivated, splendid, and 
somewhat exotic man of the world. His philosophy 
and his science were, like the adornments of his 



LIFE AND WRITINGS OF APULEIUS xli 

person, little more than the stock-in-trade of the 
fashionable sophist. He was certainly not the man 
to be a martyr 1 for any philosophical or theological 
creed. 2 

1 Cp. St. Augustine, Civ. Dei 8. 19. The saint seems to assume 
that Apuleius was certainly a magician, and was too cowardly to 
do otherwise than deny the charge, seque aliter non unit innocentem 
uideri, nisi ea negando quae non possunt ab innocente committi. This 
shows the strength of the prejudice which associated magic with 
his name the same spirit which saw the magician in Michael 
Scott, Roger Bacon, and even Pope Sylvester II. It may here be 
noticed that Apuleius is credited with having been bitterly hostile 
to the Christians, and that the ferocious description of the wife of 
one of the masters into whose hands Lucius fell was supposed to 
portray a votary of that religion, 9. 14 nee enim uel unum uitium 
nequissimae illae /eminae deerat, &c., especially tune spretis atque 
calcatis diuinis numinibiis in uicem certae religionis mentita sacrilega 
praesumptione del quern j)raedicaret unicum, confictis obseruationibus 
uacuis fallens omnis homines et miserum maritum decipiens matutino 
uino et continue stupro corpus manciparat. But this is slender 
evidence to support the charge. Apuleius may have meant a 
Jewess. The reference to Christianity is rightly held to be 
doubtful by Lightfoot, The Apostolic Fathers 11. i, p. 532. 

2 The personality of Apuleius could not be better sketched than 
it has been in Mr. Pater's Marius the Epicurean, chap. xx. The 
whole dinner scene there described is a masterpiece among the 
guests the street-arab young prince, Commodus ; the elegant and 
eminent rhetorician and litterateur, Apuleius ; the anonymous tenor 
who chanted the (Lucianic) Halcyon; the earnest and thoughtful 
Marius. The perfect urbanity coupled with love for display 
which the man of letters exhibited during the feast, and again 
the readiness with which, when the company had broken up, 
he set forth to the sympathetic Marius his view of Intermediate 
Spirits, portray at once the constant mover in distinguished 
society, the curious pryer into the mystical and the supernatural, 
and the facile expounder of picturesque theory. The whole chapter 
is deserving of study by anyone who desires to see the complex 
personality of Apuleius depicted to the life by a consummate 
artist. 

d 



xlii INTRODUCTION 



PROBABLE CHRONOLOGY OF THE KNOWN EVENTS IN 
THE LIFE OF APULEIUS. 

A.D. 

125 about Born at Madaura. 

140 ,, Goes to school at Carthage. 

143 ,, Goes to the University of Athens. 

149 Meets Pontianus (born about 133). 

150 ,, Goes to Rome. 

152-154 ,, Between these years writes Metamorphoses. 

155 (beginning) about Returns to Africa. 

155 (end) ,, Starts for Alexandria. 

156-158 Lives at Oea. 

157 ,, Marries Pudentilla (born about 116). 

158 Trial for magic. Leaves Oea for Carthage. 
163 (certain date) Delivers panegyric on Scipio Orfitus (Flor. 

17). 

165 about Possible date of his holding priesthood. 

168 Delivers valedictory address to Severianus 

(Flor. 9). 

171 Thanks the proconsul ^Emilianus for recom- 

mending that he be granted a public 
statue (Flor. 16). 



CHAPTER II 



THE STORY OF CUPID AND PSYCHE 

Assem para, et accipe auream fabulam. PLINY. 
1. 

THE names, Cupid and Psyche, applied to the chief 
characters in this story, seem at first sight to indi- 
cate that an allegorical significance is intended to 
be conveyed; and, true enough, from the time of 
Fulgentius (the fifth century) down to Zeller the 
story has been supposed to have some ulterior 
meaning, and to be something more than a mere 
story. Zeller says : " The longing of the fallen 
soul for re-union with its Good Spirit (or with the 
Divine) forms the theme which, in the well-known 
narrative of Amor and Psyche (which, however, did 
not originate with him), is set forth by Apuleius in 
the manner of a story." 1 

Yet it must be allowed that the indications of 
any such allegory in the story, outside the names, 
are the very slightest. The utmost that can be 
adduced is that Psyche suffers reproach and punish- 
ment from certain abstractions called Routine 
(Co-nsuetudo), Anxiety, Sadness (6. 8, 9); that Sober- 
mindedness (Sobrietas) is an enemy of Venus (5. 30) ; 

l Phil. der Griechen, iii. 2*, p. 228, 1903. See Excursus II. 

d2 



xliv INTRODUCTION 

and that the child of Cupid and Psyche is called 
Pleasure ( Voluptas, 6. 24). The chief defect in an 
allegorical interpretation of any story, that each 
interpreter explains it differently, appears in the 
present case. 1 Just a shadow of allegory may have 
hovered before the mind of Apuleius, owing to 
Plato and to the Alexandrine poets, It is, however, 
now generally acknowledged that no consistent 
allegorical interpretation is to be applied to the 
story in detail. 

The story is to be regarded rather as a mere 
fairy-tale, tricked out with all the airs and graces 
of Apuleian style. Look at it in that point of 
view, and everything becomes plain, especially the 
dramatic setting of the whole story an old woman 

1 One has only to look through the various allegorical explana- 
tions of the story in Hildebrand (I. xxviii-xxxviii). To some the 
story merely depicts the relation of Passion and the Soul, and the 
purification of the Soul through suffering. Cupid thus appears as 
the Earthly Love : but to Hildebrand and others he is the Heavenly 
Love. His union with the Soul in its innocence is dissolved by 
the force of base desires and jealousies (the wicked sisters) ; but 
the Soul regains Love through suffering the cause of the suffering 
being Venus, who, if you please, is Fate. To Fulgentius (see 
Excursus II) she was Lust, and the wicked sisters were the Flesh 
and Free Will, and Cupid was both the Earthly and the Heavenly 
Love. Morbach supposes that the story inculcates conjugal 
fidelity, and that it is derived from the mysteries (this seems 
to be now held by Gruppe, Gr. Myth, 871) : and Hildebrand also 
thinks it is ultimately traceable to the mysteries, and especially 
to the mysteries of Isis : and he even goes so far as to hint that 
the whole Metamorphoses is a work of edification (xxxviii). In 
this he had in a manner been preceded by Beroaldus and Warburton, 
for whose fanciful speculations as to the hidden significance of the 
Metamorphoses as a whole the curious reader may be referred to 
Dunlop's History of Prose Fiction, i. 105-107, ed. Bohn. 



THE STORY OF CUPID AND PSYCHE xlv 

(delira et temulenta anicula, 6. 25) tells the tale to a 
girl who has been carried off by robbers, in order 
to amuse her and take her mind off the trouble 
into which she has fallen ; and the way in which 
at the end the whole narrative is jocularly treated, 
and the main thread of the novel is resumed 
without any indication of seriousness, 1 precludes the 
supposition that Apuleius regarded it as a work of 
edification. AndJ that the basis of the tale is one 
taken from fairy-land is evident from the beginning, 
which is a stereotyped form of fairy-tales in all 
languages (4. 28 init.) : " Once upon a time there 
were a king and queen, who had three beautiful 
daughters." 

/The basis of the tale which Apuleius adopted was 
perhaps something like this: A prince has by some 
malign power been transformed into one of the 
lower animals ; during the night, however, he regains 
his original shape. 2 He obtains the love of a girl, but 
under the condition that she is not to ask to see his 
face, or (as some forms of the story have it) to know 
his name. If he retains the love of this girl for a 
specified time, the spell that is on him will be dissolved. 
Or it may be that an intimacy is formed between 
a god and a mortal woman, or between a fairy 
woman and a mortal man but on the same 
condition, that the mortal is not to see the 

1 6. 25 astans ego non procul dolebam mehercules quod pugillares et 
stilum non habebam qui tarn bellam fabulam pmenotarem. Ecce con- 
fecto nescio quo graui proelio latrones adueniunt, &c. 

2 This is the feature on which the wicked sisters dwell in 
Mr. Morris's version of the tale in his Earthly Paradise. 



xlvi INTRODUCTION 

face or to learn the name. The mystic prohibition 
is the essential point. That prohibition is always 
broken. The union is dissolved. After many- 
troubles on both sides, and acts of faithfulness and 
devotion, the pair are re-united and live happy 
ever after. A familiar instance of this kind of 
story is " The Singing, Soaring Lark" in Grimm's 
" Household Tales " (No. 88, vol. ii, p. 5, ed. Bohn). 
Stories more or less like this are found in all lands. 
Mr. Andrew Lang (Custom and Myth, pp. 64-86) finds 
them in India, North America, Wales, Zululand, 
and elsewhere. It may be desirable to give two 
examples one taken from Mr. Lang (p. 66), and one 
from Friedlander (Sittengeschichte Roms, I 6 , p. 550 f.). 
" The oldest literary shape of the tale of Psyche 
and her lover," says Mr. Lang, " is found in the Rig 
Veda." It is a dialogue between Urvasi (a fairy) 
and Pururavas (a mortal man). The full story is 
given in the Brahmana (= prose ritual portion) 
of the Yajur Veda, and is thus rendered by Max 
Miiller : " Urvasi, a kind of fairy, fell in love with 
Pururavas, and when she met him she said : Embrace 
me three times a day, but never against my will, 
and let me never see you without your royal 
garments, for this is the manner of women 

1 On the strength of this clause, and many similar examples 
among the most various peoples, even the Ojibways, Mr. Lang 
(p. 72) supposes the story of Pururavas to be an aetiological myth 
'told to illustrate, or sanction, a nuptial etiquette.' Similarly, 
Melusine (Lang, p. 76) will only abide with her husband ' dum 
ipsam nudam non viderit.' It is owing to the fact that similar 
customs are so very widespread that Mr. Lang objects to 
Liebrecht's view that the clause ' for this is the custom of 



THE STOBY OF CUPID AND PSYCHE xlvii 

Mr. Lang continues the story in his own words : 
" The Gaiidharvas, a spiritual race, kinsmen of 
Urvasi, thought she had lingered too long among 
men. They therefore plotted some way of parting 
her from Pururavas ... To make Pururavas break 
the compact [i.e. of never being seen naked by her"], 
the Gandharvas stole a lamb from beside Urvasi's 
bed : Pururavas sprang up to rescue the lamb, and, 
in a flash of lightning, Urvasi saw him naked, 
contrary to the manner of women. She vanished. 
He sought her long, and at last came to a lake 
where she and her fairy friends were playing in 
the shape of birds. Urvasi saw Pururavas, revealed 
herself to him, and, according to the Brahmana, 
part of the strange Vedic dialogue was now spoken. 
Urvasi promised to meet him on the last night of 
the year : a son was to be the result of the interview. 
Next day, her kinsfolk, the Gandharvas, offered 
Pururavas the wish of his heart. He wished to be 
one of them. They then initiated him into the 
mode of kindling a certain sacred fire, after which he 
became immortal and dwelt among the Gandharvas." 1 

Another story is that of Tulisa, in a collection of 
Indian stories of Somadeva Bhatta (see Dunlop, 
Hist, of Prose Fiction, i. 110. 2, and Friedlander 1. c.). 
Tulisa was the daughter of a poor wood-cutter, and 

women' is a mere stop-gap, introduced at a late period into 
the Vedic narrative to account for the prohibition, the meaning 
of which had been forgotten. 

1 Cp. the immortalizing of Psyche in Apuleius Met. 6. 23 : 
porrecto ambrosiae poculo { sume ' (inquit Jupiter) ' Psyche, et 
immortalis esto.' 



xlviii INTRODUCTION 

was asked by a voice at a fountain three times to 
be his bride. At the third asking she said her father 
must decide. The voice promised vast wealth, and 
the father consented. On the marriage-day costly 
presents appeared in the wood-cutter's cottage ; 
the bride was led richly adorned to the fountain ; 
a ring appeared in the air, which her father was 
ordered to place on the bride's finger ; a palanquin 
with invisible bearers carried off the bride to a 
castle, her parents following; the palanquin entered 
the castle, and the parents returned home and 
became vastly wealthy. 1 

Tulisa lived happily in her splendid palace. She 
had every luxury, and servants played music to her 
(as the invisible attendants did to Psyche), and 
told her stories in genuine Oriental style. Unlike 
Psyche, she saw her husband each night. But she 
was forbidden to leave the palace. One day she 
saved a squirrel who was pursued by a beast. But 
she longed for human intercourse. An old woman 
appeared before the castle, and Tulisa allowed her 
to climb in. She asked Tulisa if her husband had 
eaten off the same dish. She said no ; and that 
night she asked her husband to eat off the same 
dish: he pretended to do so, but ate nothing. A 
second old woman appeared, and asked her if her 

1 The jealousy the wood-cutter's wealth excited, his persecution, 
the death of the inhabitants of the country by snakes, the inter- 
cession of the wood-cutter with his daughter's mysterious husband, 
who ordered the snakes to heal their own fatal bites, may be 
omitted, as breaking the thread of the story, and being just possibly 
later additions. 



THE STOKY OF CUPID AND PSYCHE xlix 

husband had chewed a betel-nut and given it to her 
to eat (a mark of love). She had to deny this ; and 
on asking her husband about it he returned an 
evasive answer. A third old woman appeared, and 
asked if her husband had ever told his name, and 
said he could not love her if he did not do so. 
She asked her husband to tell his name ; but he 
adjured her, as Lohengrin adjures Elsa, to desist 
from asking it, as it would bring trouble upon her. 
She persisted. He led her to a river and again 
begged her not to persevere in her request, but in 
vain. He slowly went into the river, continuing his 
requests, until he was up to his neck in the water ; 
and as she persisted in her demands, he cried, " My 
name is Basnak Dau"; for a moment a snake's head 
appeared on the surface, and then sank. 

Tulisa suddenly found herself back in the old 
cottage in her old rags, and her parents in the 
same poverty as in the time before their prosperity. 
They had to return to wood-gathering. Once 
falling asleep and awaking suddenly Tulisa heard 
two squirrels talking. One said that the mother of 
Basnak Dau had lost all her power when he became 
King of the Snakes, but had regained it when 
the mortal to whom he was wedded had been 
induced to ask persistently for his name a course 
to which she had been persuaded by the Queen's 
confederate Sarkasukis. The other squirrel (which 
was the one rescued by Tulisa) asked how Basnak 
Dau was to recover his power, and was told that 
Tulisa must cross a broad river full of snakes, seek 



1 INTEODUCTION 

the nest of the bird the Huma, and carry its egg 
in her bosom until it is hatched: then she must 
go to the Queen and perform all her commands 
under the penalty of being eaten by snakes. 
Finally, when the egg of the Huma is hatched, 
the new bird will pick out the eyes of the green 
snake which is coiled round the Queen's neck, and 
then Basnak Dau will recover his kingdom. 

Tulisa faithfully carries out these injunctions, 
helped and encouraged by squirrels. On arrival at 
the Queen's palace, she is ordered to perform the 
following tasks: (1) In a high- walled court to 
collect the perfume of countless flowers bees do 
it for her: (2) from a bowl of seeds to make a 
splendid ornament squirrels bring each a jewel 
and take away a seed. The squirrels then inform 
her that Sarkasukis is at hand, and can only be 
prevented from entering the palace by the burning 
of certain herbs. Tulisa burns the incense until 
the young Huma is hatched. This picks out the 
eyes of the Queen's snake, and her power is at an 
end ; she and Sarkasukis fall dead ; and Basnak Dau 
is led in by a long train of genii, squirrels, and 
snakes, and he and Tulisa live happy ever after. 

Let one more story be added, a Welsh one, 
told by Prof. Ehys (cp. Lang, op. cit, p. 82) : " The 
heir of Corwrion fell in love with a fairy. They 
were married on the distinct understanding that 
the husband was not to know her name, and was 
not to strike her with iron. Unluckily the man 
once tossed her a bridle, the iron bit touched the 



THE STOKY OF CUPID AND PSYCHE li 

wife, and she at once flew through the air and 
plunged headlong into Corwrion lake." 1 



These stories have been set forth at somewhat 
undue length, in order that it may be seen that the 
main theme of the tale of Cupid and Psyche is one 
of considerable antiquity, and that in various times 
and various places it assumes various forms. A story 2 
on this theme Apuleius had either heard or read ; 
and he elaborated it in his own peculiar style, and 
possibly with additions from other popular tales, 
into the charming narrative which seems to have 
obtained no little popularity in his age, and has 
been admired ever since. It is a true gem, as 
Mr. Pater says, among the mockeries of the 
golden ' book. 

The writer of the model which Apuleius used is 

1 This prohibition about the iron, as Mr. Lang points out, is 
due to the fact that the fairy bride was the representative of 
the Stone Age, and seems to have abhorred the metal which 
wrought its downfall. 

2 It is uncertain whether one is justified in supposing that a 
single story formed the basis of the narrative of Apuleius. 
Friedlander (p. 544 at the end) supposes that Apuleius may have 
borrowed from another form of the story the fourth labour of 
Psyche for three is the usual number, though Tulisa has only 
two ; but, even supposing Friedlander is right, that does not 
preclude one version having been the basis, and this and other 
features being accretions. Mr. Pater, however (Marius i. 61), 
seems to hold the other view " With a concentration of all his 
finer literary gifts, Apuleius had gathered into it [the tale of 
Cupid and Psyche] the floating star-matter of many a delightful 
old story." 



lii INTRODUCTION 

unknown, and we may with Schaller 1 call him af. 
The question is How much of the Apuleian story 
is due to X, and how much to Apuleius ? 

Schaller seems to assign a very considerable portion 
of the merit of the work to #, whom he regards as 
a Greek rhetorician of the first century B.C. ; but his 
grounds do not seem very strong. The chief one 
is the reminiscences of the Alexandrine poets which 
appear in the tale. He holds also that we must assume 
some x, as he thinks that it is impossible to suppose 
that the mind which conceived and wrote such a coarse 
sentence as 5. 30, cui saepius in angorem mei paelicatus 
puellas propinare consuesti, or 6. 22 (Jupiter's speech), 
could have written the beautiful 4. 28, novo caelestium 
stillarum g ermine non maria sed terras Venerem aliam 
uirginali flore praeditam pullulasse? 



1 De Fabula Apuleiana quae est de Psyche et Cupidine 
Glogau Dissertation, 1901. This is a learned and careful work, 
though in some respects it is difficult to agree with the author's 
deductions. 

2 Schaller gives other contrasted passages. Further he says, 
p. 61: "Videmus his locis (5. 30: 6. 22) rhetorem frigidum sordida 
et impura verba misere tornantem : ceteris autem quos modo attuli 
locis quanto studio, quanta diligentia, quanto ut ita dicam amore 
singulae res excogitatae et compositae sunt, quam lepide Amor 
illuditur ! " This opinion is somewhat subjective : and one finds 
it difficult occasionally to agree with Schaller's judgments as to 
what is artistically excellent or the reverse. While heartily 
agreeing with his praise of the description of Psyche's beauty 
(4. 28, see above), and the lovely chapter which describes her 
first sight of Cupid (5. 22), we cannot subscribe to such a harsh 
judgment as this : " Vide enim quam stolide post Psychae 
orationem (4. 34) continuetur Sic profata uirgo conticuit ingressuque 
iam nalido pom,pae populi prosequentis sese miscuit." The words 
conticuit and iam ualido simply and effectively mark the courage 



THE STORY OF CUPID AND PSYCHE liii 

But the argument that two passages, because they 
are different in matter and style, could not have been 
written by one and the same literary man is an unsafe 
one. Never was there a more genuine sophist who could 
turn his pen to any conceivable theme than Apuleius. 
His unquestioned writings prove it. He himself speaks 
of his desultoria scientia (Met. 1.1), by which he was 
able, as a circus-rider leaps from horse to horse, to 
pass from one subject to another r 1 and he boasts, 
not quite unreasonably, of his great versatility. 2 
Further when one reflects that the same man wrote 
Met. 10. 2022 and 11. 15, we need not be surprised 
at his being able to handle any variety of theme. 
Almost anything intellectual or artistic interested 
him; his curiositas* was intense ; his learning was great: 

of the maiden. Nor can I see any special carelessness (quam 
neglegenter haec sunt dicta, p. 64) in 5. 13, "His uerbis et amplexibus 
mollibus decantatus maritus." Not much is to be said for the clause 
in the way of either praise or blame. The word mollibus seems 
happily chosen ; and decantare l to bewitch ' (cp. 3. 18) is not too 
artificial. 

1 This seems to be the meaning of the much-discussed phrase, 
see E. Norden, Kunstprosa, 603. 5. 

2 See Florid. 9, p. 37, Oud. : Hippias prided himself on his skill 
in many handicrafts, sed pro his (says Apuleius) praeoptare mefateor 
uno chartario calamo me reficere poemata omnigenus apta uirgae 
(i.e. epic poems), lyrae, socco, cothurno, item satiras ac griphos, 
item historias varias rerum nee non orationes laudatas disertis nee 
non dialogos laudatos philosophis, atque haec et alia eiusdem modi 
tarn graece quam latine, gemino uolo, pari studio, simili stilo : 
cp. also Florid. 20, p. 98, Oud. : Canit enim Empedocles carmina, 
Plato dialogos, Socrates hymnos, Epicharmus modos (gnomas conj. 
Kohde), Xenophon historias , Xenocrates (Crates conj. Rohde) satiras: 
Apuleius uester haec omnia novemque Musas pari studio colit, maiore- 
scilicet uoluntate quam facilitate ; cp. above, xxiii note. 

3 1. 2 : 2. 6 : 7. 14 : 9. 12 and often. 



liv INTRODUCTION 

his knowledge of Greek and Latin equal to that 
of anyone of his time : and his desire to display 
his gifts very considerable. In short, he had the 
qualities which afterwards produced the most famous 
rhetorician of his day : so one does not see any 
a priori reason why he should not have infused, 
not only elegance and ornament, but also a few 
touches of satire and mockery, into the bare outline 
of a household tale which attracted his fancy. 



3. 

But what really transformed the household tale 
into the beautiful narrative as we have it was the 
application of the name Psyche to the (probably) 
anonymous " king's daughter" of the original. Indeed 
Psyche appears as merely such in the beginning 
of the Apuleian tale. Who thus applied the name 
cannot be proved. It may have been the assumed 
x ; but there is not any evidence that it was, even 
if we assume that there is some shadowy evidence 
for the existence of an x. The probability is that 
it was Apuleius himself who hit upon this happiest 
of happy conceptions. (See Otto Waser, in Roscher's 
Lex. der Mythol. vi. 3239). His Platonic 1 studies 
(such as they were) and his knowledge of Alexandrine 
literature 2 had made him familiar with the connexion 

1 Cp. Plat. Phaedrus (246 B, c : 255 c, D). 

2 The poems of Meleager on Eros and Psyche (see Excursus III) 
represent in a mythological way the power of Passion over the Soul, 
and the resistance the Soul at times makes thereto, but do not 
seem to press the allegory further. This tyranny of Passion, too, 



THE STOEY OF CUPID AND PSYCHE i v 

of Eros and Psyche : and if the thought struck him 
to apply to the anonymous heroine of the household 
tale the name of Psyche, it would at once suggest 
Cupid, who would bring with him Venus and all 
the Olympian circle. The story would, when thus 
elevated, lend itself to all manner of elaborate and 
picturesque treatment ; it would suggest subjects 
for his gift of pictorial representation, such as the 
voyage of Venus across the sea, the fairy palace, 
the description of the god of Love, and many 
such eKffrpda-eis (see below, Chapter III) ; and enable 
any portion of the whole range of mythology 
which was thought appropriate to be pressed into 
the service of the narrative. This introduction of 
the Olympian circle serves not only for elaborate 
description, but also (and perhaps especially) for 
the purpose of mockery, in which (as we may 
gather from Lucian's Dialogues of the Gods) the age 
seemed to take a pleasure. In the absence of any 
evidence to the contrary, it is not unreasonable to 
suppose that it was to a man of great talents, such 
as Apuleius, that this very clever and brilliant idea 
occurred, and that he worked it out with all his 
multifarious gifts of vivid imagination and elaborated 
style into the graceful story which has delighted 
all ages of culture ever since. 1 

seems indicated by several works of art : see Baumeister's Denkmaler, 
figs. 1575, 1577; Daremberg et Saglio, figs. 5840, 5841 ; and the 
figures on pp. 79 and 81 of Jahn-Michaelis. There is an elaborate 
list of ancient works of art, representing Cupid and Psyche, in Otto 
Waser's article on ' Psyche,' in Boscher's Lexikon vi. 3240-3255. 
Apuleius' work seems to have had no effect on later Roman art. 
1 The story cannot have been in circulation under the names 



Ivi INTRODUCTION 

The form of the story, as Apuleius learned it y 
probably represented the mysterious husband as a 
snake, something like Basnak Dau in the story of 
Tulisa 1 (see above, p. xlix). The way in which 
this difficulty is dealt with by Apuleius is most 
ingenious. Eros is often spoken of in the poets as 
a very formidable god, cruel as a beast 
Oeaiv (Alcaeus 13 B): y\VKVTrutpov a^d^avo 
(Sappho 40) : KCLKOV ezm TO Bypiov (Bion 4. 13) : 
*E/)o)ra TravTtov Sv&paytoTOLTov Oe&v (Euripides, Frag. 
430). Accordingly Apollo, who was (as our author 
confidentially tells us) in league with both Cupid 
and the author of the Milesian tale (cp. ApuL 
Met. 4. 32), is represented as composing a terrible 
mock-heroic oracle, that Psyche is to be given over 
to the most fearsome of monsters, a winged snake 

saeuum atque ferum uipereumqiie malum 
qui pinnis uolitans super aetliera cuncta fatigat. 

In fact, the real snake of the original has been trans- 
formed into a metaphor. In accordance with the literal 
tenor of the oracle, the sisters (5. 17, 20) are repre- 
sented as suggesting that the husband is a dreadful 
snake (though not a winged one) ; but Psyche finds 
him to be omnium ferarum mitissimam dulcissimamque 
bestiam (5. 22). Such is the way in which the trans- 
formed prince of the original has been adapted to the 

of Cupid and Psyche in the time of Ovid, or he must surely have 
seized on a theme which would so admirably lend itself to that 
kind of artistic treatment of which he was and still remains the 
chief master. Hildebrand (I. xxix) notices this, but thinks the- 
story in Ovid's day as yet rested in ' in gremio mysteriorum.' 

1 For other examples of a snake-bridegroom, see Friedlander, 
pp. 554, 555, and cp. Lang, Custom and Myth, p. 81. 



THE STORY OF CUPID AND PSYCHE Ivii 

change of treatment required by the introduction 
of Olympian divinities. No one will deny its 
ingenuity and attractiveness. 

Venus, too, has to play an unusual part ; but her 
transformation is also effected with no little skill. 
Her jealousy of Psyche comes in naturally, and may 
have been a motive in the original sfcory, like the 
Queen's in Grimm's (No. 53) " Little Snow-white." 
At any rate she has to take the part of the per- 
secuting Queen, which appears in so many fairy- 
tales ; and Apuleius represents her as a Roman lady 
of fashion, living a luxurious and i fast ' life, incapable 
of bearing any annoyance, ungovernable in temper, 
and cruel to her servants. She is much more violent 
than the Aphrodite in Lucian's Dialogues. Indeed 
her ira is so marked that it has been supposed 
by some commentators that Apuleius intended that 
her " Wrath" should be regarded as the dominating 
factor of the whole story. 1 But such an idea is only 
thought into the narrative. Apuleius did not com- 
pose his narrative according to any one central idea 
like that : he merely wished to elaborate a popular 

1 See Schaller, p. 57 : " In Xenophontis fabula [i.e. the novel of 
Habrocomes and Anthea by Xenophon of Ephesus, who seems to 
have lived in the second or early third century A.D.] amantes propter 
Veneris iram calamitatibus obstringuntur, Apulei fabulam totam 
Venus irata moderatur." Similarly, Klebs most ingeniously 
suggested that the novel of Petronius was a comic representation 
of what resulted from the " Wrath " of Priapus : cp. Petron. 139 ; and 
see Klebs' Apollonius aus Tyros, p. 313, note : and in Philologus, 1889, 
p. 628. But, however ingenious this theory may be, the probability 
is that the novel of Petronius is a parody, in a manner which 
appealed to the society of Nero's court, of the regular romantic 
and sentimental novel : see Heinze in Hermes 34 (1899) 494-519. 



Iviii INTRODUCTION 

tale into a love-story in his own peculiar artificial 
way, and to add (after the fashion of the time) a 
certain amount of mockery of the divinities of the 
old religion. A good deal of the delineation of 
Venus seems to be taken ultimately from Apollonius 
Rhodius, especially her conversations with Juno and 
Ceres. These latter divinities are like Roman matrons 
of high respectability, who, quite calm and full of 
common sense in dealing with their fellows' troubles, 
take a feline delight in putting their claws into a 
member of the same high social circle, by giving 
the most aggravating good advice. 1 The ingenuity 
of Apuleius has used their introduction to give 
one of his most beautiful descriptions, that of the 
farm-temple, or perhaps rather farm-shed, where 
all the instruments of agriculture lay in disorder 
(6.1): to elaborate one of those stately prayers so 
characteristic of the religious syncretism of the age 
(6. 4, where see note), which none could compose 
better than himself : and to introduce a cynical 
remark on the policy of the Olympian divinities, 
well known from Euripides, that none will thwart his 
fellow's will, but always stands aloof. 2 Ceres and 

1 For a most delicious example of feline amenities in the higher 
circles of Olympus, see the Dialogue between Hera and Leto in 
Lucian, Dial. Deor. 16. 

2 Hipp. 1328: OeolcrL 8' <SS' e^ t J'OAios' | ovSets anTavTav /Jov'Aerat 
TTpoOvfJLLa I ry Tov 0e'A.oi/TOS aAA' a<i(TTa/>iecr0' act'. M. Croiset (Lucien, 

p. 215) contrasts the mockery of the gods found in Lucian and 
in the comedians. As regards Lucian, he says: "Aufond, chacune 
de ses plaisanteries, jusqu'aux plus legeres, e"tait une objection, 
tandis que celles d'Aristophane, bien plus irreve"rencieuses souvent, 
n'etaient pourtant que des plaisanteries." Well, almost every- 



THE STOKY OF CUPID AND PSYCHE lix 

Juno sympathize with Psyche, but will not help her, 
though kindly action on behalf of the persecuted hero 
or heroine in popular tales generally is rewarded. 1 

Cupid is represented in an attractive way as the 
naughty, mischievous boy of the Alexandrines just 
having grown to manhood, whom his mother (as 
parents do) still persists in regarding as a child 
(cp. 5. 31). When the narrative comes to the place 
where the: mystic prohibition is given, 2 no adequate 
reason can be assigned why Psyche should not see 



thing in the way of mockery of the Olympian gods t in Apuleius is 
pleasantry and ' chaff,' and not bitter or polemical. He cannot 
have thought them worth attack. Another example of mild 
cynicism is perhaps 6. 18, that Charon and even the great god Dis 
do nothing for nothing. 

x For example, in "The White Snake," Grimm, No. 17, 
where the hero is helped by fishes, ants, and ravens whom he 
had befriended ; and in Tulisa, who is helped by the squirrels. 
But we find elsewhere, too, in the Apuleian story, an indication 
that interference with other folks' business is inadvisable : thus 
Psyche is not to help the old ass-driver, or the drowning shade, 
or the weaving women in the lower world. To lend aid there 
would be inlicita pietas (6. 18). It is a hard, but profound and 
true, saying that pietas may be inlicita. 

2 Mr. Lang (Introd. to Adlington's Translation, Bibl. de Carabas, 
p. xli) says : " In Apuleius the prohibition seems to be understood 
as a device of Cupid's for making love anonymously and without 
offending Venus": cp. Ixxxi ; " Cupid keeps himself dark, as a 
young marquis in a novel marries under an assumed name, that 
his bride may not disclose the glories of his birth and state and 
get him into trouble with his family." This may be so, but 
it hardly appears. Psyche in her mountain palace was not likely 
to come into contact with Venus : and Cupid's doings were enough 
public property in his own circle to admit of the sea-mew knowing 
all about them, even before the catastrophe. Mr. Lang notices 
many cases from different parts of the world of taboos on married 
people, whereby they were not allowed to see one another. 

e2 



Ix INTRODUCTION 

the face of Cupid ; there is no case here of a prince 
transformed into a beast whose retransformation into 
a man cannot be effected if he is seen. So Apuleius 
(if he thought of the matter at all) had to steer 
over the difficulty as best he could. Accordingly 
he indicates darkly that evil will follow upon the 
violation of the prohibition at the hands of Fortuna 
(5. 5 : 5. 11), that hidden power that plays so large 
a part in the Romances of later Greek literature. 1 
In the original tale very probably the lover himself 
helped his lady-love when she had to perform the 
tasks imposed on her by her persecutor. 2 If this 
is so, this feature is cleverly modified by Apuleius, 
who makes the help given to Psyche by the ants, 
the reed, and the eagle 3 to be directly influenced 

1 Cp. Eohde Dergriech. Roman 276 ff. See note on 5. 5. A Greek 
tragedian (Wachsmuth thinks ^Eschylus) considers Fortune as lord 
of the gods 



7rai>Ta>v rvpavvos -YJ Tv\r) T ran/ 
TO. S' aXA' 6v6fJLa.Ta ravra, Trpoo-Kctrat 

8lOlKt yOVV ttTTttV^' y (3oV\Tdl. 



(Nauck, p. 938) and Fortune is the malevolent power which 
persecutes Lucius during the whole period in which he is concealed 
in the ass's form : cp. 4. 2 : 7. 2, 3 : 7. 25 : 9. 13 : 11. 15, 25 and 
often. 

2 As in the case of " The Little White Dog," a Danish story, 
or " The Wolf -prince," a Swedish story cited by A. Kuhn in 
Friedlander 557. Conversely, when the circumstances require it, 
the lady helps her lover directly in his tasks, as in the case of 
Medea. 

3 No reason is assigned why the tower ' breaks out into sudden 
utterance,' 6. 17. But no doubt by the time that Apuleius had 
got as far as the tower, he, like his readers, was ready to assume, 
without any explanation, the animation of everything, and thus 
simply reproduced the course of the original fairy-tale; though 



THE STOEY OF CUPID AND PSYCHE Ixi 

by the desire of the whole creation, including even 
Ceres and Juno (5. 31 fin.), to assist and stand well 
with Cupid. 1 

Psyche has nothing of a philosophical abstraction 
or of the Idea of the Soul about her ; indeed she 
herself has a soul 5. 6 : 5.13. 2 She is simply the 
usual princess of fairy-tales, only perhaps more 
graceful and simple of surpassing beauty, of no 
little royal courage (cp. 4. 34, 35), but at the same 
time endowed naturally with the charming and 
affectionate trustfulness and clingingness of youth, 
though too prone to curiosity (6. 21 rursum perieras, 
misella, simili curiositate), and easily led astray by 
her sisters, who pretended the deepest affection for 
her. Till her downfall she is simplicissima (5. 24 : 
cp. 5. 18 ut pote simplex et animi tenella), but after 
that she becomes crafty enough, and assumes the 
spirit of a man (6. 5 Quin igitur masculum tandem sumis 
animwn), though retaining a most ardent and lover- 
like affection for Cupid. Nothing could be more 
natural or attractive than what she says (6. 20) 

doubtless his skill in composition gave the tower a clearer and 
more lucid speech than he may have found in his model. In 
fairy-tales the most unlikely things become vocal. Mr. Lang 
notices that in a Zulu tale the hero's spittle speaks. Mr. Morris 
makes the speaker the unburied ghost of one who says 

I was a Queen like thee long years agone, 
And in this tower so long have lain alone. 

1 Cp. 6. 10, 11 : 6. 13 nee me praeterit huius quoque facti auctor 
adulterinus ; cp. 6. 12 divinitiis inspirata . . . arundo : 6. 15 the eagle 
had helped Cupid before. 

2 In 6. 15 innocentis animae only means 'of the poor soul,' i.e. 
poor creature. 



Ixii INTBODUCTION 

when she thinks she has brought back from the 
Lower World a box containing some of Proserpine's 
divine beauty, and determines to open it: u Well, 
I am foolish to have divine beauty here in my 
hand and yet not take the tiniest taste of it for 
myself and thus become attractive to my beautiful 
lover " (Ecce (ingulf) inepta ego divinae formonsitatis 
gerula, quae nee tantillum quidem indidem mihi delibo, 
vel sic illi amatori meo formonso placitura). 

There is nothing remarkable in the way Apuleius 
treats of the two sisters, except the quite able rhetorical 
speeches he puts into their mouths, the manner in which 
they, like many similar strong-minded ladies, bully 
their parents (5. 11), and the incorrigible and amusing 
realism with which the author of the Metamorphoses 
describes the little, old, bald-headed husband of the 
first, who keeps his house all bolted and barred, and 
the rheumatic, gouty, much be-poulticed husband of 
the second (5. 9, 10). 

The minor characters of the story call for little 
remark. The king and queen of the tale are the 
usual father and mother of fairy-tales, who have no 
further function than to be the affectionate parents 
of the principal characters ; though their grief is 
represented by Apuleius with a self-restraint that 
loses nothing in intensity (cp. 4. 35). Pan (5. 25) 
is the kindly and experienced old god though he 
says he is but a " country bumpkin" (rusticanus et 
upilio] who is at times appealed to by lovers j 1 and 
he exhibits the rhetorician's knowledge of the 

1 As in the pastoral Thalysia of Theocritus (vii. 103 ff.). 



THE STOEY OF CUPID AND PSYCHE Ixiii 

symptoms of love-sickness which appear elsewhere. 1 
Jupiter is the genial " President of the Immortals," 
who keeps the company in order as well as he can, 
and boasts of his good fortune in love, and is anxious 
to spread his conquests farther in that realm. The 
figure is familiar from Lucian. 2 



4. 

It would be lost labour to attempt to apply the 
c higher criticism ' to the story in detail, and essay 
to separate what is due to the original fairy-tale 
from what is due to the additions of Apuleius. But, 
perhaps, we should not err in supposing that all this 
mockery of the gods is due to Apuleius, the author 
who was contemporary with Lucian. 3 

Another feature which must certainly be attributed 

1 See Hildebrand's notes (p. 877) on Apul. Met. 10. 2 and 
Eohde, Griecli. Rom. p. 157, with the notes. 

2 Deorum Concilium : Dial. Deorum 2. 

3 Such is the character of Venus all through the tale. See 
above, p. Ivii, and especially 5. 28-31. The conclusion of the story 
(6. 22-24), too, is all comic, reminding one of the feast in Lucian's 
Icaromenippus 27. There is a genial note of quiet humour in 
Apollo's being represented as obliging the author by giving his 
oracle in Latin, though he was a Greek and an Ionian god, 
and at Miletus too, because (as it would seem) Apuleius was 
writing a Milesian tale (Apollo quamquam Graecus et lonicus, propter 
Milesiae conditorem sic Latina sorte respondit 4. 32). For Milesian 
tales, see Excursus I. Similarly genial is the business-like 
advertisement for the lost Psyche which Venus gives Mercury to 
proclaim abroad throughout all peoples (6. 7, 8), with its notice 
of the exact spot in Rome where Venus will give the discoverer 
the seven kisses as a reward, and the accurate specification of the 
seventh kiss. 



Ixiv INTKODUCTION 

to Apuleius is the frequent mention of terms of 
Eoman Law. We have seen that Apuleius studied 
law at Rome(cp. Met. 11.30). Most of the references 
to legal phraseology are given by Schaller, p. 58, 
e.g. 4. 32 iustitium : 5. 26 formula for divorce, toro 
meo diuorte tibiqiie tuas res habeto, ego uero sororem tuam 
confarreatis nuptiis coniugabo : 6. 4 legibus, quae seruos 
alienos profugos inuitis dominis uetant suscipi: 6. 9 Cupid's 
marriage illegal impares enim nuptiae et praeterea in uilla 
sine testibus et patre non consentiente factae legitimae non 
possunt uideri ac per hoc spurius iste nascetur : 6. 22 
contraqne leges et ipsam luliam disciplinamque publicam 
(cp. 4. 30) . . . existimationem famamque meam laeseris : 
6.23 (all through), the fine for non-attendance at 
Senate ; Dei conscripti Musarum albo ; . . . teneat, 
possideat ; . . . nee tu, filia, . . . prosapiae tantae tuae 
statuque de matrimonio mortali metuas. lam faxo nuptias 
non impares sed legitimas et iitre civili congruas : 6.24 Sic 
rite Psyche convenit in manum Cupidinis. 1 

Most of the purely ornamental pictures, those 
K(j)pdcreLs which the rhetoricians loved so well, such 
as the voyage of Venus across the sea (4. 31) 
and her flight to heaven (6. 6), are probably due 
to the skilful and exquisite writer of so many 
Florida ; but it is difficult to avoid thinking that the 
brilliant description of Cupid's palace (5. 1) was at 
least in some measure delineated in the original, 
though doubtless the description owed much of its 
splendour splendour surpassed by nothing in the 
Arabian Nights to the genius of Apuleius. The 

1 For other places in Apuleius where he refers to Roman Law, 
cp. 2. 24 : 4.4 (causariam missionem) : 6. 39 : 8. 24 : 9. 22, 27 : 10. 8. 



THE STORY OF CUPID AND PSYCHE Ixv 

only place in which Apuleius seems to be downright 
absurd and ludicrous is that untranslatable passage 
(5. 24init.) in which Psyche is represented as holding 
on to Cupid's legs and lifted off the ground by him 
as he flies away. 



5. 

Such is the nature of the story of Cupid and 
Psyche as set forth by Apuleius. As far as I know, 
we cannot be sure that any of the ancient works of 
art, in which those youthful lovers were represented, 
has a reference to the Apuleian tale. Most of the 
statues are given in M. Solomon Reinach's Repertoire 
de la statuaire grecque et romaine, i. 360361 ; ii. 
459-460 ( 1906-8). The most famous is the Capitoline 
statue (i. 361. 2) in which the lovers are embracing 
one another. It is well reproduced in Baumeister's 
Denkmaler, Fig. 1576. Another Capitoline statue 
(i. 361. 5 = Baumeister, fig. 1577) represents Psyche 
in an attitude of supplicating for mercy ; but 
there is no evidence that it must be referred to the 
Apuleian narrative. For Eros and Psyche in ancient 
art, detailed information may be obtained in Collignon 
(M.), Essai sur les monuments grecs et romains relatifs au 
my the de Psyche, 1877, Fiirtwangler's article on Eros 
in Reseller's Lexikon d. Mythologie, 1349-1372 (1886), 
and Waser's section on Psyche mit Eros in his masterly 
article on Psyche in the same Lexikon. iii. 3237-3255 
(1908). Beck, in the introduction to his edition of 
the Cupid and Psyche, xiii.-xxi. (1902), discusses the 
monuments at some length. 



Ixvi INTRODUCTION 

With the Renaissance Apuleius became very 
popular. There were very many editions of his works 
between 1469 and 1650; and it was natural that the 
story of Cupid and Psyche should win favour with 
artists. As is well known, Raphael adorned the Villa 
Farnesina with scenes from the story. These are 
reproduced in an attractive volume : Raphael and the 
Villa Farnesina, by Charles Bigot, with engravings by 
Tiburce de Mare (Kegan Paul, 1884). The tale has 
supplied material also to later artists. Thorwaldsen 
has utilized some of the scenes, e.g. Psyche about to 
drink the nectar that is to make her immortal (6. 23) ; 
Cupid about to awake Psyche from her sleep (6. 21) ; 
Psyche just about to open the pyxis (6. 20). 1 Canova's 
group representing Psyche just awaking in Cupid's 
arms (6. 21) is a work of singular beauty: I have 
ventured to give a representation of it as a frontis- 
piece. 

The fortunes of the tale in literature have been 
carefully studied of recent years. H. Bliimner has 
written a long article in the Neue Jahrbucher fur das 
Jclassische Altertum (1903), pp. 648-673, on Das Marches 
von Amor und Psyche in der deutschen Dichtkunst* 
Among the poets who have treated the subject freely 
may be mentioned Wi eland (1774), Robert Hamerlings 
(1882), and Hans Georg Meyer (1899). Comparatively 
close metrical renderings of Apuleius have been made 
by Freiherrn von Lincker (1804), C. M. Winterling 
(1836), and Otto Siebert (1889). There were German 

1 See J. M. Thiele's Thorwaldsen (1832), plates xix, xliii, xlix* 
In this latter statue Psyche is well represented as wearing the 
look of one just about to yield to temptation. 



THE STORY OF CUPID AND PSYCHE Ixvii 

prose translations of the tale published in 1780 and 
1783 by August Rode, and in 1789 by von Schulze. 
In French the work of Moliere, Corneille, and Quinault, 
to which Lulli set music, is the most famous of the 
adaptations of the story. It was produced in 167L 
Two years earlier La Fontaine published his version, 
Les Amours de Psyche et Cupidon, professedly based on 
Apuleius, and written partly in prose and partly in 
verse. An exhaustive treatise on the adaptations of 
the story among the Latin nations has been written 
by Dr. Balthasar Stumfall, Das Mdrchen von Amor und 
Psyche in seinem Fortleben in der franzb'sichen, italienischen 
und spanischen Liter atur bis zum 18 Jahrhundert ( Mun- 
ch ener Beitrag xxxix. 1907), to which the reader is 
referred who wishes to know of Italian and Spanish 
renderings. 

In England a translation of the story by William 
Adlington was first published in 1566, and frequently 
reprinted during the next eighty years. It has recently 
been reissued in the Bibliotheque de Carabas (Nutt, 
1877), and has prefixed to it one of Mr. Andrew Lang's 
most masterly dissertations. It also forms a volume 
of the Tudor Translations (Nutt, 1893), with a lively 
and suggestive Introduction by Mr. Charles Whibley. 
Stephen Gosson, an < histriomastix ' before Prynne, 
says in a work published in 1582 that the Golden Ass 
and other writings "have been thoroughly ransacked 
to furnish the playhouses in London"; 1 and Mr. Collier 

1 The passage is quoted by Collier, History of English Dramatic 
Poetry, ii. 329. " In his [Gosson's] Plays confuted in five Actions, 
in reply to Lodge, he says, ' I may boldly say it, because I have 
seen it, that The Palace of Pleasure, The Golden Ass, The Aethiopian 



Ixviii INTRODUCTION 

says that Cupid and Psyche was mentioned by Gosson 
as one of the subjects treated by dramatists of the time. 1 
We find allusions to the tale in Spenser's Faery Queene 
(1590) iii, 6, stanzas 50-51 and in his Muiopotmos, 126 fL 
Henslowe's Diary (1600) mentions a Golden Ass and 
Cupid and Psyche as written by Chettle, Decker, and 
Day. Love's Mistris, by Thomas Heywood, published 
in 1636, is fairly interesting. Apuleius, "with a 
paire of Asse eares in his hand," and Midas form a 
sort of chorus ; Psiche is daughter of King Admetus 
of Thessaly ; and Cerberus is a character, very 
solicitous that Charon should get his naulum and he 
himself his 'sopp.' Heywood says: "The Argument 
is taken from Apuleius, an excellent Morall, if truly 
understood, and may be called a golden Truth, con- 
tained in a leaden fable, which though it bee not 
altogether conspicuous to the vulgar, yet of those of 
Learning and judgement, no lesse apprehended in 
the Paraphrase, then approved in the Originall." 
In 1637 Shackerley Marmion published a poem in 
heroic couplets based on Apuleius, called "A Morall 
Poem intituled the Legend of Cupid and Psyche, or 
Cupid and his Mistris. As it was lately presented to 
the Prince Elector." In 1675 Shadwell wrote (in 
five weeks, as he tells us, not to our surprise) a 
Psyche which is in some slight degree founded on 



History [i.e. Heliodorus] , Amadis of France, and The Round Table, 
bawdy comedies in Latin, French, Italian, and Spanish, have been 
thoroughly ransacked to furnish the playhouses in London.' " 

1 Collier, op. cit. ii, 328. No reference to Cupid and Psyche 
appears on p. 40 of Mr. Arber's ed. of The Schoole of Abuse, where 
Mr. Collier would lead one to expect it. 



THE STORY OF CUPID AND PSYCHE Ixix 

Apuleius. Buffet, in 1678, wrote a Psyche debauched, 
a travesty of ShadwelFs play. William Mason is said 
to have written a libretto on Psyche (as well as on 
Sappho) which was set to music by Giardini, but the 
Psyche was never published nor acted. 1 

Mrs. Tighe's poem Psyche (1805), written in 
Spenserian stanzas, has the merit of smooth versifica- 
tion, but, after the first two cantos, wanders away 
altogether from the Apuleian tale. This poem is not 
wanting in imagination ; but its importance consists 
in its having apparently brought the story under the 
notice of Keats ; and thus it may have been indirectly 
influential in the production of his enchanting Ode to 
Psyche, composed in 1819. One of the most graceful 
stories in the Earthly Paradise of Mr. William Morris 
(1869) is on Cupid and Psyche; and Mr. Robert 
Bridges wrote a poem on the subject in 1886, follow- 
ing Apuleius, but with " a gentler handling of motive, 
and the substitution of Hellenism for Latin vulgarity." 
Recently (1903) Mr. Charles Stuttaford produced an 
elegant prose translation of the story ; but the prose 
rendering of the Cupid and Psyche in Mr. Walter 
Pater's Marius the Epicurean (18S5) (Part I., Chapter 5), 
such are its beauty and finish, renders any other 
English prose version somewhat superfluous. 

1 For several of the references in this paragraph I have to thank 
my friend Professor Dowden, whose rich stores of learning are ever 
abundantly at the disposal of any inquirer. 



CHAPTER III 

ON THE STYLE AND LANGUAGE OF APULEIUS 

Unde Jiaec sartago loquendi ? 

PERSIUS. 

FROM the time when Thrasymachus, and especially 
Gorgias, set the fashion of writing an artistic, or 
rather artificial, prose, there never failed to be in 
Greece the two classes of writers those who aimed at 
a natural and, as we may say, ' classical ' diction, and 
those who strove by tricks and graces of composition 
to solicit the favour and applause of a wider public. 
That this was the case has been shown in detail in 
one of the master-works of present-day scholarship, 
Eduard Norden's book, Die antike Kunstprosa. The 
two different styles were known as the Attic and 
Asianic styles in the last two centuries before Christ, 
and the titles continued till the end of classical times. 
The elder Seneca (Contr. 1. 2. 23) speaks of the Asiani 
declamatores ; Strabo 14, p. 148, says that Hegesias was 
founder TOV 5 Acn,aj>ou Xeyo/z,eVou crruAov TrapcKpOeCpas TO 
KaOecTTrjKos e#os TO 'Am/coV ; and Cicero (Brut. 325) 
gives a clear account of the genus orationis Asiaticum. 1 

1 It is not pertinent to our subject to trace the history of the rise 
of Asianism and its reaction, Atticism. All material can be found 
in Blass's Die Griechische Beredsamkeit in dem Zeitraum, von Alexander 
bis auf Augustus, in Jebb's Attic Orators, in E. Norden's Antike 
Kunstprosa, or in an admirable resume in Dr. Sandys's Introduction 
to his edition of Cicero's Orator. 



THE STYLE AND LANGUAGE OF APULEIUS Ixxi 



The influence of Greece on Rome was always 
very considerable ; but it was much more considerable 
in the second century of our era than in the first. All 
the great Latin writers of the time of the Antonines knew 
Greek very well, almost as well as their own language; 1 
accordingly they were very susceptible to the trend 
of Greek ideas ; and, outside the spheres of philosophy 
and religion, nothing attracted the Greeks more in 
this age than considerations of art, and especially the 
art of rhetoric. 2 Indeed, there was hardly anything 
which Greece ever touched that she did not make 
artistic. Now the so-called " sophists" of the day 
those professors and public lecturers who formed 
what the Germans, after Philostratus (Vit. Soph. 
1. 3), call " die zweite Sophistik " 3 were artists 
in language. To them the matter of their speeches 
was of trifling importance ; the manner and style in 
which they were composed and delivered almost 
everything. The popularity and importance with 

1 Fronto wrote letters in both Greek and Latin. Gellius, Apu- 
leius (Flor. 18. 92), Tertullian, M. Aurelius were all good Greek 
scholars : and conversely, as we learn from Gellius, Greek sophists 
such as Favorinus were able to express opinions on the correct 
usage of Latin words. 

3 The contest between the philosophers and the rhetoricians con- 
tinued in the Antonine age, as indeed it raged all through classical 
times : see Fronto 150 and 154, ed. Naber, and E. Norden, op. 
cit. 250, note 1. 

3 The most masterly account with which I am acquainted of the 
rise and general characteristics of these public declaimers is that of 
Kohde, Der griechische Roman, pp. 288-360. 



Ixxii INTBODUCTION 

the public 1 of such rhetoricians as Polemo, Favorinus, 
and Herodes Atticus can be but imperfectly imagined 
from the admiration and enthusiasm which to-day 
greet our most popular vocalists and pianists ; and as 
proof we have only to think of the splendour and 
pride of Polemo, " who treated cities as his inferiors, 
Emperors as not his superiors, and the gods as his 
equals," 2 and to read the account which we find in 
Eunapius of an exhibition which the rhetorician 
Prohaeresios gave before the proconsul. The 
audience (we are told) after the performance rushed 
up to him and kissed him as if he were a statue 
instinct with divine power; and the proconsul, 
with all his retinue, conducted him from the 
hall. 3 Accordingly it is easy to understand when 
rhetorical display was so popular and so honoured, 
and had become a regular feature of city life through- 
out the whole Empire, that the diversities of style 
adopted by these great Greek masters reproduced 
themselves in Latin writers, and especially the most 

1 The public must have had a very fair share of culture to be 
able to appreciate the rhetoricians (cp. Apul. Flor. 9, p. 29, Oud.), 
even if the utmost allowance is made for the contagion of prevailing 
fashion. Their enthusiasm (as is noticed by Themistius, 26, p. 31 5c) 
was so great that a really sympathetic listener could not endure to 
sit still. 

2 See his Life by Philostratus, Vit. Soph. 1. 25, esp. 9 vWp</poH> 
yap Sr) OVTW TI 6 IloXe/xwv, ws TroXetrt /xei> OLTTO TOV TT/aov^ovros, 8vvaorats 
8' (XTTO TOV fjirj v<ei/u,i/ov, 0ots 8' O.TTO TOV urov 8taAeyeo-$at. 

3 Eunapius (Vit. Soph. p. 489, fin. Didot) '/cat ra o-repva TOV 
o-o<io-Tov TrepiAtx/A^o-a/Aei/oi (!) Ka.0a.7rep ayaA/Aarog IvOeov Travres ot 
Trapoi/res, ot fj.lv TroSas, ot Sc ^etpas TrpocrKvvovv, ot Se Oeov l<curai>, ot 
Se 'Ep/Aov Aoytov rinrov . . .68' avOvTraros /cat Sopvcfropwv /xera 

Kat TWV Swa//.a>i/ e/c TOV OtaTpov 7rap7refjuf/. 



THE STYLE AND LANGUAGE OF APULEIUS kxiii 

markedly contrasted styles, the Attic and the Asianic. 1 
We may consider Fronto, and in a less degree Gellius, 
as belonging to the Attic or classical style, and 
Apuleius is certainly at least in the Metamorphoses 
and the Florida the most signal representative of 
the Asianic manner. Of course Apuleius, who had 
a fine command of the Latin language, however 
insecure he may have felt himself as regards the 
special idiom of the city of Rome itself (cp. Met. init.), 
could write in any style. The Apologia is on the 
whole measured and ' sane ' ; and the so-called 
Platonic works rather laboured and wire-drawn, with 
very little ornament. Even within the Florida and 
Metamorphoses there are considerable diversities of 
style, from the colloquial earlier books of the latter 
to the unctuous eleventh but ' Asianism ' is the style 
in which those works are written from their first to 
their last sentences. 



Atticism hardly concerns us. It was always a 
reaction, an attempted return to the style of writing 
used in the good old times, the characteristics of 
which style its votaries held to be ' sanity/ natural- 
ness, manliness. 2 They were especially solicitous to use 

1 Of course in all ages there were writers who adopted a middle 
course. Such was Cicero, who, at his best, combined the excel- 
lences of both schools, though he was accused by his contemporaries 
of being Asianic (Tac. Dial. 18 : Quintil 12. 10. 12). Also Augustus ; 
cp. Suet. Aug. 86 cacozelos (' affected writers ' cp. below, p. Ixxx) et 
antiquaries, ut diuerso genere uitiosos, parifastidio spreuit, exagitabatque 
nonnumquam. 

2 Cic. de Opt. Gen. Or. 8 imitemur . . . eos potius qui incorrupta 
sanitate sunt quod est proprium Atticorum ; cp. Brut. 51 illam salu- 

f 



Ixxiv INTKODUCTION 

no word which had not been already used by some 
of those old writers whom they especially admired. 
For this principle of composition they could of course 
appeal to Julius Caesar, one of those who may be truly 
called Atticists, who said in his book De Analogia : 
" Always remember and bear in mind to avoid a 
new and unusual word as you would a stone in 
your path." 1 The strong hand of authority thus 
tended to fetter any boldness or originality. This 
veneration for precedent exhibited itself even more 
strongly in the time of the Antonines, when the 
Atticist Aristides said: " As to exposition I would 
say this do not use any noun or verb except those 
found in recognized authorities"; 2 and thus we find 
that the sense in which a word was used in daily 
life was generally stigmatized as 'EA^^i/coV. and that 
the word was rejected in favour of some other which 
had ' Attic ' authority. 3 However, wiser men of 

britatem Atticae dictionis et quasi sanitatem : Quintil. 9. 4. 3 Neque 
ignoro quosdam esse qui cur am omnem composition excludant atque 
ilium horridum sermonem, ut forte fluxerit, modo magis naturalem, modo 
etiam magis uirilem esse contendant. 

1 Quoted by Gellius 1. 10. 4 habe semper in memoria atque in 
pectore ut tamquam scopulum sic fugias inauditum atque insolens 
uerbum. 

- Rhet. 2. 6 TTtpl Be ep/xT/veia? TOLOVTOV av euroi/At jArjre OVO/JLOLTL 
/XT^TC prj^ari ^pr)(rOai aAAots TrXrjv rots e/c r cu v fivfiXiuv. The 
question was before Horace, who answered it with his wonted 
wisdom, A.P. 53-72, esp. 58, 59 

licuit semperque licebit 
signatum praesente nota producere noinen. 

Cp. Quintil. 1. 6. 3 utendum sermone ut nummo, cui publica forma cst. 

3 See the Lucianic treatise (it is not by Lucian) Pseudologistes : 

and the pother there was as to whether aTro<f>pd<s was or was not an 



THE STYLE AND LANGUAGE OF APULEIUS Ixxv 

that age, as of the first century, took wiser 
views. Apollonius of Tyana, according to Philo- 
stratus, did not adopt a " dithyrambic style, turgid 
with poetical words ; nor again the style that 
was over-vocabled (i.e. full of strange, old words) 
and hyper- Attic; for he considered over- Atticism 
to be tiresome." 1 Among the Latin writers of the 
age, the Jurists, such as Graius, wrote in a rational 
way, with a natural leaning towards archaic style, 
yet not pedantically affecting it. But Fronto was 
a deliberate purist and antiquarian. He asks that 
the sense alone be considered, if, in his letters written 
in Greek, any word is found which is " incorrect or 
foreign, or otherwise unworthy of approval, or not 
quite Attic." 2 He recommends M. Aurelius not to use 
words invented by himself for that is injudicious 
but to employ words already in use in an exceptionally 
neat and suitable and appropriate manner. 3 The 

Attic word. The Lexicon of Phrynichus professes in its Preface to 
point out the use of words for one who wishes to write d/>xaos /cat 
3o/a/xa>s ; and he censures no less a person than the great Polemo 
for using the superlative Ke<aAcua>Se<rraTos. The Lexicon of 
Moeris is careful in distinguishing words as being ' Attic ' or 
' Hellenic.' 

1 Vit. Apoll. 1. 17 A.dyo)v 8' tSe'av eTnycr/c^crev ov 8iOvpa/Ji(3it)87j /ecu 
<Aey/Acuvovcrav TTOI^TIKOIS ovopacriv, ovS' at! Ka.TeyXwTTia-fjiei'rjv /ecu 
v7rcpa.TTiKiova-aV cbySes yap TO vTrep rrjv peTpLav 'Ar&'Sa rjyelro. 
Elsewhere (Vit. Soph. 1. 16. 4) Philostratus praised one Critias for 
a temperate and judicious Atticism, " for want of judgment in aiming 
at Attic purity is the mark of a foreigner ' ' (TO yap dTreipo/caAoi/ ei/ TW 



2 p. 242 aKvpov rj ftapfiapov r] aAAcos aSo/a/toi/ KCU /x,r/ TTO.VV 

ttTTlKoV. 

3 p. 162 uerbum aliquod adqidras non fictum a te, nam id quidem 
absurduui est, sed usiirpatum concinnius aut congmentius aut commo- 

f 2 



Ixxvi INTRODUCTION 

poets he recommends (p. 224) are Plautus, Accius, 
Ennius, and Lucretius; and elsewhere (p. 62), in giving 
a fuller list, he mentions none later than Laberius. 
He censures Cicero for not being solicitous to employ 
recherche words, words betokening much study of the 
poets and burning of the midnight oil. 1 And so it 
has come to pass that the fate of Fronto has been 
that which Aper in the Dialogue of Tacitus says befalls 
all those who have too great a veneration for ancient 
precedent ; his writings are considered dismal and 
bald, and the " healthiness 2 of which they boast 
seems due, not to their vigour, but to their 
abstemiousness." 3 



datius : cp. Hor. A. P. 47 Dixeris egreyie notum si callida uerbum 
reddiderit iunctura nouum. 

1 p. 63 (Naber). The passage is interesting, so quotation may be 
pardoned. Cicero (says Fronto) always used very elegant (pulcherrimis) 
words, and was especially splendid in exposition and description ; 
but he did not choose his words with minute care . . . and in his 
speeches paucissima admodum reperias insperata atque inopinata uerba, 
quae nonnisi cum studio atque cura atque uigilia adque multa ueterum 
carminum memoria indagantur. Insperatum autem adque inopi- 
n a turn uero appello, quod praeter spem atque opinionem audientium 
aut legentium promitur : ita ut si subtrahas, adque eum qui legal 
quaerere ipsum iubeas, aut nullum aut non ita ad significandum 
adcommodatum uerbum aliud reperiat. Quam ob rem te (M. Aurelius) 
magno opere conlaudo quod ei rei curam industriamque adhibes, ut 
uerbum ex alto eruas et ad significandum adcommodes. 

2 See above, p. Ixxiii. 

3 c. 23 adeo maesti et inculti illam ipsam quam iactant sanitatem 
non firmitate sed ieiunio consequuntur. Porro ne in corpore quidern 
ualetudinem medici probant quae animi anxietate contingit: parum est 
aegrum non esse, fortem et laetum et alacrem uolo. Cp. also Quintil. 
2. 4. 9 macies illis pro sanitate, et iudicii loco infirmitas est, et dum 
satis putant uitio car ere, in id ipsum incidunt uitium quod uirtutibus 
carent. 



THE STYLE ASD LANGUAGE OF APULEIUS Ixxvii 

3. 

Asianism, against which all this was a reaction, is 
seldom described by its supporters : we gather what 
it is from its enemies. Those who adopted this style 
frankly wrote to please, 1 and gave the public what 
they liked and what tickled their fancy. 2 As to 
matter, they gave well-known historical events and 
stories ; moral commonplaces about the changes of 
fortune, the evil of riches, and such like ; elaborate 
descriptions (e/c^pacreis) of every sort of the wonders 
and beauties of Nature and the works of man, 
especially his works of art 3 nothing, however, 
which required much intellectual effort. But the 
easy and commonplace in matter was expressed in 
the most elaborate and artificial language, and in an 
elevated tone well suited to recitation. There are an 

1 Perhaps the contrast of the New and the Old Journalism 
to-day may help us to realize, of course only in the very broadest 
outlines, the difference between the New and the Old Ehetoric of 
Imperial times. 

2 Seneca, Controv. ix, Pref . 1 qui declamationem parat scribit non 
ut uincat sed ut placeat. Omnia itaque lenocinia conquirit : argumen- 
tationes, quia molestae sunt et minimum liabent flor is, relinquit: sententiis, 
explicationibus audientis delinire contentus est ; cupit enim se adprobare 
non causam. Plutarch's remarks (De recta ratione audiendi, c. 7-8) 
are well worth reading in this connexion, e.g. c. 8 ovrws Set TOV 
<f>i\OTxyov /cat Ka0apov a.Kpoa.TT]V TO. fj.V avOrjpa /cat Tpvfapa. T&V 
ovofJLULTwv /cat rwv Trpay/JLOLTdtv TO. Spa/zan/co. /cat Travi/iyvpLKa. K rj <f> TTJ v w v 
j3 or dvrjv <ro<i<TTt(oi/Ta>j/ -rjyov^vov eaV, avrov Se rrj Trpocro^rj 
/caraSvo/xevov ets TOV vovv TOV Aoyov /cat TTJV Sta0e(rti> TOV Aeyovros 

\KLV OLTT 1 aVT^S TO ^pljCTL/JLOV. 

3 Philostratus wrote a volume of e/c</>ao-ets of statues (et/coves) ; 
and Apuleius has an elaborate description of one representing 
Diana and Actaeon (Met. 2. 4). Cp. below, Ixxxviii. 



Ixxviii INTRODUCTION 

immense profusion and exuberance of words. There 
is the utmost artificiality in the actual words used, and 
in rhetorical devices, such as parallelisms in sense 
(antitheses), in structure (Tra/ncr-wo-eis), in sound 
(Trapo/Lioi&jcreis) the latter as well in general assonance 
as in words beginning or ending with the same letters 
(alliteration and rhyme). There is also a frequent 
use of piquant forms of speech like oxymora, hyper- 
boles, unusual metaphors, and generally daring and 
flashy efforts after effect. 1 The rhythms and cadences 
were carefully studied, and were generally soft and 
liquid, well suited to the chant into which recitation 
so frequently passed, and which almost intoxicated 
the auditors. 2 



1 Cp. Pliny, Epp. 9. 26. 3 ut quasdam artes ita eloquentiam nihil 
magis quam ancipitia commendant. 

2 Cp. Plutarch De recta rat. and. c. 7 at Se TWI/ TroAAwi/ StaAe'ets 
KO.I /AeAerat <ro<t(rru>v ou JJLOVOV rots ovo/xacri 7rapa7TTa0yx,a<rt ^pwvrat TWJ/ 
Siavo?7//,aT<jov dAAa Kat rrjv <f>ti)vr]V e/x/xeAetats rtcri Kat /xaAaKOT^crt Kat 

e^Svi/ovres CK/JaK^evoucrt KOL 7rapa<epot;ert rovs 
, Ktvyv ySovrjv StSoi/res Kat Kevecorepav Sd^av 
Cicero, Orat. 27 cum uero inclinata ulidantique uoce more Asiatico 
canere coepissefc 57 est autem etiam in dicendo qnidam cantus obscurior, 
non hie e Phrygia et Caria rhetorum epilogus paene canticum, sed ille > 
quern significat Demosthenes et Aeschines, cum alter alteri obicit uocis 
flexiones. Dio Chrys. 32 p. 686 R : "All orators and rhetoricians 
chant (aSouo-t) now-a-days, everything is done in song (St' wSr}s), so 
that if one passes a court of law you are not sure whether it is a 
carouse or a trial that is proceeding inside ; and if a rhetorician has 
a house near you, you cannot be sure of his business." See also 
Quintilian 11. 3. 59, Plin. Epp. 2. 14. 13. It is only fair to say 
that the better class of Asianic rhetoricians did not countenance 
this kind of procedure : thus Isaeus, the very fluent and accom- 
plished improvisator (Juvenal 3. 74 ; cp. Pliny Epp. 2. 3), rebuked 
a pupil who chanted his compositions, and said it was not singing 
he had taught him (Philostratus V. Soph. 1. 20. 



THE STYLE AND LANGUAGE OF APULEIUS Ixxix 

From the time of Hegesias who lived in the first 
half of the third century B.C., and was always deemed 
the founder of the specially Asianic school short, 
minced clauses were the fashion of the extreme 
" Asianics," and the stately period of the great orators 
was little employed 1 advisedly as would appear: for 
the applause which was expected, and given so re- 
peatedly at the recitals, could thus find freer and safer 
exercise, as the reciter would pause at the end of 
each little clause, and the audience, who followed the 
sound rather than the sense, would not run the risk of 

eyw Se ere aSetv OVK e7ratSevo-a) . Lucian (Khet. Praeceptor 19) 

gives satirical advice to a budding orator, that when it seems 
the time to break into song, if he does not happen to have a 
theme lending itself to such, he might just chant over the names 
of the jury in a proper rhythmical manner : that will do perfectly. 
Indeed, all the absurdities of the artificial rhetoric of his day 
are set out by Lucian with merciless satire in the Ehetorum Prae- 
ceptor, a savage attack on the eminent scholar and rhetorician 
Julius Pollux. 

1 For Hegesias see Cic. Orat. 226 (and Dr. Sandys' learned 
note) quam (sc^ the rhythmical period) peruerse fugiens Hegesias diim 
ille quoque imitari Lysiam uolt . . . sattat incidens particulas ( seems 
to jump along, he cuts his sentences so into little bits ') et is 
quidem non minus sententiis peccat quam nerbis, ut non quaerat quern 
appellet ineptum qui ilium cognouerit. The example which is always 
quoted of the style of Hegesias is that from Strabo ix. 1. 16, p. 396, 
6/ow ryv aKpoTroXiv \ Kal TO TreptTT^? Tpiaivos | tKtWi orr)ptiov' I opu rrjv 
'EAevcrtva | Kdl TWV Upwv ye'yova /xvorr;?. | e/ceu/o AetOKo'pJOi/, | rovro 
r](T.lov. | ov Svvafiat S^A-ooo-ai | /ca#' ev Ka<rrov. See E. Norden, 
pp. 135, 136. For the contrast between the short, terse statements 
of Hegesias and the periods of Demosthenes, Dr. Mahaffy (Greek 
Life and Thought, p. 317) compares the contrast between the styles 
of Macaulay and Gibbon. Cicero parodies the style of Hegesias in 
an epistle to Atticus, 12. 6. 1. Blass, shortly before his lamented 
death, wrote an elaborate work on Die Ehythmen der asianischen und 
romisclien Kunstprosa, 1905. 



Ixxx INTRODUCTION 

applauding in the middle of a sentence. 1 But the 
most marked feature of the Asianic style was its 
straining after effect. Now it was the ornate passing 
into verbose bombast, 2 now the graceful becoming too 
sweet and luscious, now the pathetic degenerating 
into mawkish sentimentality. 3 What most of the 
Asianics lacked was judgment and taste; and the 
word the Atticists applied to their style generally 
was /ca/co 77X10,. According to the famous definition 
of that word in Quintilian (8. 3. 56-7), it is " a 
pernicious affectation, embracing the turgid, the 
trifling, the luscious, the superfluous, the far-fetched, 
and the exuberant (exultantia] in short, it is what- 
ever fails to attain to excellence when the mind lacks 
taste and is deceived by the appearance of what is 
good. It is the worst fault in style: for other faults 
are due to imperfect avoidance of error, but this is 
actually pursued. It belongs wholly to diction. The 

1 See some good remarks on this in the Treatise -n-cpl vij/ovs 41. 
3 This was the style which Antonius the triumvir seems to have 
preferred: cp. Plut. Ant. 2 . 4< He adopted the so-called Asianic 
affectation (T/A.O>) of language which especially flourished at his 
time, and which had a great similarity to his own life, as it was 
boastful and frothy, and full of vain vaunting and ill-regulated love 
of display (KO/x7rooS)7 /cat <puay//,(m'av oi/ra KCU KCI/OV yau/Ha/xaros KCU 
<iAori/>uas dva>/x,aAov /XCO-TOK)." Dr. Mahaffy (Greek World under 
Roman Sway, p. 103) quotes from Josephus a letter of Antony's 
which is a fair specimen of this kind of tnrgidity. 
3 See Horace, A.P. 25 ff. 

Decipimur specie recti : breuis esse laboro 
obscurus no : sectantem leuia nerui 
deficiunt animique : professus grandia turget : 
serpit humi tutus nimium timidusque procellae. 
Qui uariare cupit rem prodigialiter unam, 
delphinum siluis appingit, fluctibus aprum. 



THE STYLE AND LANGUAGE OF APULEIUS Ixxxi 

subject-matter may be foolish, or common-place, or 
contradictory, or superfluous ; but a bad style is shown 
in the use of unsuitable and unnecessary words, in 
obscurity of meaning, in a disjointed form of compo- 
sition (compositions fracta], and in a puerile striving 
after the use of words of similar sound or ambiguous 
meaning. All affectation is radically false, though 
everything false is not affectation. It is a style which 
violates naturalness, suitability, and measure" (dicitur 
aliter quam se natura habet et quam oportet et quam sat 
esi). Diomedes, a grammarian of the fourth century, 
sums the matter up in a few words : " /ca/co^Xta (he 
says) is a style vitiated by ill-judged striving after 
gracefulness (decoris), when the diction is disfigured 
by the very means by which the author desired to 
adorn it : and this is effected by excessive ornament 
and excessive grandiloquence" (autnimio cultuautnimio 
tumore) ; and he illustrates " excessive ornament ?: 
from a celebrated passage (Met. 2. 107 ff) of that 
brilliant but Asianic poet, Ovid. 1 



Cicero (Brut. 325) states that there were two kinds 
of Asianic style, one consisting in pretty sentiments 
and conceits couched in neat, epigrammatic language ; 
the other in a headlong flow of words, distinguished 
not merely by its rapidity, but by an elaborate arid 
attractive diction and this is the style which he says 

1 Diomedes, Gramm. Lat. 1. 451 Keil. See also Suet. Aug. 86, 
quoted above, p, Ixxiii n. 



Ixxxii INTKODUCTION 

prevailed in Asia in his day. 1 Professor Jebb's 
severe summary is well known, that " Asianisrn 
oscillates between bombast and importunate epigram.' 7 
Now the epigram had had its day of glory in the first 
century, and had reached its highest point in Seneca; 
indeed, in that writer it had transcended all modera- 
tion in the frequency of its use, and people had 
become tired of its appearance at every turn; and 
though the epigram was still often found in the 
Antonine age (as it always will be in every age), it 
was 'fine writing/ a diffuse and exuberant luxuriance 
of language, degenerating too often into bombast, that 
was having its turn in the revolution of the wheel of 
fashion, and was the feature of style which won most 
popularity. 2 Now it is of this exuberant arid over- 

1 Brut. 325 Genera autem Asiaticae dictionis duo sunt : unuin 
sententiosum et argutum, sententiis non tarn grauibus et seueris quam 
concinnis et uenustis . . . aliud autem genus est non tarn sententiis 
frequentatnm quam uerbis uolucre atque incitatum, quali est nunc Asia 
tota, necjlumine solum orationis sed etiam exornato et faceto (or facto 
Kuhnken. We must not be tempted to conjecture fucato, as all 
the adjectives in the passage are terms of moderate praise) genere 
uerborum. 

~ In the Neronian age this tumor was of course very prevalent ; 
but the more intellectual side of Asianism, the epigrammatic, was 
the more highly esteemed. However, the meretricious and turgid 
style was even then working its havoc : cp. Petron. 2 grandis et lit 
ita dicam pudica (a cant term ; cp. the metaphor worked out in detail 
in Lucian's Bis Accus. 31) oratio non est maculosa nee turgida sed 
naturali pulcritudine exsurgit. Nuper uentosa istaec et enonuis 
loquacitas Athenas ex Asia commigramt animosque inuenum ad 
magna surgentes ueluti pestilenti quodam sidere afflauit, semelque 
corrupta (another cant word) regula eloquentia stetit et obmutuit. 
This refers to a more fluent and rushing style than that kind of 
' rich ' or ' fatty ' luxuriance which Cicero found in some of the 
Asianics of his own day (Orat. 25 aplum auribus suis opimum quod- 
dam et tarn quam adipatae dictionis genus). 



THE STYLE AND LANGUAGE OF APULEIUS Ixxxiii 

ornamented style that Apuleius in his Metamorphoses 
and Florida is the most marked representative in 
Latin literature. The longest specimen we have of 
this style in Grreek from the Antonine age is the 
Oration of Favorinus to the Corinthians, printed 
among the works of Dio Chrysostom. 1 This style 
was in accordance with the taste of that and 
of succeeding ages; and that must be taken into 
account when we try to explain to ourselves the great 
influence which Apuleius exerted on subsequent Latin 
literature. 2 The present writer confesses to a certain 
partiality for the Asianic style, which occasionally 
causes him delight and more often amusement; but any 
continuous reading of it is wearisome and cloying. 
To pass from Apuleius to a writer like Cicero, who 
aimed at sublimity and did not fall into bombast, who 
was not neglectful of studied effect, but had learned 
to appreciate the proper limits of ornament, gives one 
that feeling of exhilaration and expansion which is 
experienced in passing from a richly furnished 
and perfumed drawingroom to the fresh open air of a 
beautiful and opulent garden. 3 



1 Oratio xxxvii, vol. ii., pp. 293-307, ed. Dindorf. 

2 See the very learned treatise of Weyman, Studien zu Apuleius 
und seinen Nachahmern, Sitzungsbericht der bayerischen Akademie, 
1893, ii., pp. 321-392. 

3 Pardon is asked for the ' Asianic ' comparison. It seems a 
fatality that no one is led on to depreciate Apuleius without himself 
being lured into the Asianic style. See Norden's wonderful sentence, 
Kimstprosa, p. 601, top. 



Ixxxiv INTRODUCTION 

5. 

It is hardly necessary to refute the now generally 
discredited view that there was a special i African ' 
style, which was tumid and artificial, and which 
displayed itself most markedly in the writers of the 
latter half of the second century, such as Apuleius arid 
Tertullian. The fervid temperament of the Africans 
may have especially inclined many of them to the 
' Asianic ' style which prevailed throughout the whole 
Empire at that time, and in very many departments of 
literature. 1 No doubt some plausibility is given to the 
above view by the accidental circumstance that the 
principal writers of the time came from Africa. But if 
we had the works of writers of other provinces, we 
should doubtless find very many of them using the 
artificial Asianic style just as much as the natives 
of Africa. We do find such a one in Favorinus 
(see p. Ixxxiii), a Gaul who lived principally in Asia 
Minor. The phantom of a special Latin style labelled 
' Africanism ' (Africitas Vives called it), which seems 
to have begun to haunt literary history in the Middle 
Ages, may be considered as finally laid to rest by the 
crushing chapter of E. Norden, Kunstprosa, pp. 588 
598. 

e. 

By way of illustration, a few instances may be 
adduced from the Cupid and Psyche of those features 
of Asianic style of which mention has been made. (Of 

1 Its grievous effect on historical composition may be estimated, 
even after all deductions are made for the extravagance of the 
satirist, from Lucian's treatise Quomodo historia sit conscribenda. 






THE STYLE AND LANGUAGE OF APULEIUS Ixxxv 

course in most cases no attempt is made at complete- 
ness ; the instances given are to be regarded only as 
a few illustrations.) 

1. Diffuseness. This is everywhere in Apuleius. 
It was a mark of Asianic style ; Asiatici oratores, says 
Cicero (Brut. 51), non contemnendi quidem nee celeritate 
nee copia, sed parum pressi et nimis redundantes. They 
are deemed empty wind-bags (inflati et inanes), 
says Quintilian (12. 10. 16), in downright language. 
Koziol devotes no less than 196 pages of his book 
(Der Stil des L. Apuleius, 1872) to the exemplification 
of this feature. One chapter of Apuleius 4. 29 
may be taken as an illustration. The three ideas 
of the wide-spread fame of Psyche, the consequent 
neglect of the worship of Venus, and the substitution 
of the worship of Psyche are swelled up immoderately. 
We might very well, as far as the sense goes, have sic 
insulas . . . peruagatur omitted. The clause longis . . . 
meatibus is very diffuse for terra manque. The words 
templa . . . foedatae are only ornament, and both et in 
humanis . . . piacantur and iamque . . . adprecantur are 
mere surplusage. 1 The exuberance with which 
Apuleius displays his great mastery over the Latin 
language is to be seen in such accumulations of 
clauses as 5. 12 Nuntio Psyche laeta florebat et diuinae 
subolis solacio plaudebat et futuri pignoris gloria gestiebat 

1 Take a sentence at the very beginning of the novel, 1.1. He 
wants to say * Greece, famous of old, is my native country.' Here 
is the way he says it, Hymettos Attica et Isthmos Ephyrea et Taenaros 
Spartiaca, ylebae felices aeternum libris felicioribus conditae, mea uetus 
prosapia est. A few lines before there does not seem to be any need 
for the parenthesis modo si papirum Aegyptiam argutia Nilotici 
calami inscriptam non spreueris inspicere. 



Ixxxvi INTRODUCTION 

et materni nominis dignitate gaudebat] 5. 28 non uoluptas 
ulla, non gratia, non lepos, sed incompta et agrestia et 
horrida cuncta sint, non nuptiae coniugales, non ami- 
citiae sociales, non liberum caritates, sed . . . enormis 
eluuies et squalentium foederum insuaue fastidium. 1 In 
the stately prayers found in 6. 2, arid 4 such accumula- 
tion is somewhat appropriate, as also in emphatic 
descriptions such as 6. 14 (of the rock whence 
flowed the Stygian water) saxum immani magnitudine 
procerum et inaccessa salebritate lubricum, and 6. 11 
(of Cupid's imprisonment) interioris domus unici cubiculi 
cmtodia damns cohercebatur acriter (where note also 
the alliteration of c). Then there are smaller redunr. 
dancies such as 4. 28,profundum pelagi', 5. 4 uirginitati 
suae . . . metuens et pauet et horrescit ; ib. mltestae atque 
lugubrcs, 5. 7 et tectum et Larem ; 5. 19 tectae machinae 
latibulis ; 5. 20 claudentis aululae tegmine ; 5. 25 luctum 
desine etpone moerorem ; 6. 2 tacita seer eta ; 6. 10 dispositis 
atque seiugatis ; 6. 12 latenter abscondere (cp. 5. 20); 6. 17 
ad Tartarum manesque ; 6. 18 nulla uoce deprompta tacita 
praeterito. 

2. Poetical colour, especially in Descriptions 
(e'/c</oacreis). The origin of these rhetorical descrip- 
tions, especially those of statues and pictures (see 
above, p. Ixxvii), is traced by Rohde (Griech. Roman, 
p. 335, note 3) to the descriptive passages in epic 
poetry, such as the shields in Homer and Hesiod, and 
Jason's mantle in Apollonius Hhodius (1. 721 ff.). This 

1 This sort of accumulation is found from the very beginning 
of the novel : cp. 1. 2 postquam ardua montium et lubrica uallium et 
roscida caespitum et glebosa camporum emersimus : cp. 1. 6 fortunamm 
lubricas ambages et instabiles incursiones et reciprocas . . . uicissitudines. 



THE STYLE AND LANGUAGE OF APULEIUS Ixxxvii 

is to be remembered, as it is in such descriptions that 
the prose of the rhetoricians most markedly assumed 
poetical colouring. < Fine ' writing always tends 
to assume a certain poetical tone, and this poetical 
prose of the rhetoricians silenced all true poetry. 
There is really no poetry in the Antonine age; 
rhetoric took its place. 1 We find such half -poetical 
descriptions in Cicero, e.g. of the vale of Enna in 
the Fourth Verrine 107, and of Nature in De 
Natura Deorum 2. 98 if. We find descriptions of 
many kinds in Apuleius. He especially endeavours 
to invest with poetical language his impressions of 
early morning, which are sometimes not without a 
rich and mellifluous beauty (e.g. 11. 7), but are more 
often turgid and absurd (3. 1 : 7. 1), and afford easy 
material for parody. 2 He also gives an eAc<pa,o-is, in 



1 Rhetoric, as Himerius (an extreme ' Asianic ' of the fourth 
century) said (Or. 11. 2, p. 67 Didot), was formerly poor and without 
means, but the lonians had now made her chant forth loftier 
strains than Tragedy (/xetoi/ rjxfja-ai rfjs rpayvSias) ; and a certain 
sophist Nicagoras was good enough to say that Tragedy was the 
* mother of the Sophists,' though Hippodromus opined that we should 
rather say that Homer was their father (Philostr. V.S. 2. 27. 10). 
The Sophists condescended to study the poets, in order to get 
suggestions for their own effusions ; and they were pleased to 
compare themselves to singing birds (Apul. Flor. 17. 82, and 
Himerius, passim) : cp. Bohde, op. cit. 333. 

2 See Caussin, " De eloquentia sacra et prof an a " (written in 
1619), p. 112 (ed. 1630), where Apuleius is represented as delivering 
a speech against Cicero, which begins Commodum punicantibus 
phaleris Aurora roseum quatiens lacertum coelum inequitabat, cum me 
securae quieti reuulsum (cp. Met. 3. 1) praeco ad uestrum calauit 
tribunal, and so forth. Further Apuleius is represented as ridiculing 
Cicero's style thus: est sane desudata istius uaricosi Arpinatis opul- 
entia, sunt fabra eius eloquia et literae plenae margaritarum : stylus 



Ixxxviii INTKODUCTION 

the most approved style, of a statue of Diana and 
Actaeon (2. 4). The following eAc^acret? may be men- 
tioned from the Cupid and Psyche, all of which have 
more or less a poetical colouring Venus's journey 
across the; sea (4. 31), Cupid's palace (5. 1 ff.), Cupid 
himself (5. 22), the temples of Ceres and Juno (6. 1, 3), 
Venus's journey to Heaven (6. 6), the pool of the 
Stygian water (6. 13, 14), Hades (6. 18 ff.), the mar- 
riage feast (6. 24). 

3. Symmetry (concinnitas) of words and clauses. 
Cicero (Orat. 38) allows a moderate use of this in the 
< epideictic ' style of composition, datur etiam uenia 
concinnitati sententiarum et arguti certique et circumscripti 
uerborum ambitus conceduntur, de industriaque non ex 
insidiis, sed aperte ac palam elaboratur ut uerba uerbis 
quasi dimensa et paria respondeant, ut crebro conferantur 
pugnantia comparenturque contraria, et ut pariter extrema 
terminentur eundemque referant in cadendo sonum ; but 
there is something artificial and ' dressy ' about any 
such efforts. " Language," says Seneca, "is the 
mind's dress. If it is trimmed all round, coloured, 
and much worked on, it shows the mind not to be 
sound, but to have some flaw. Neatness is not the 
adornment for a man." 1 This concinnitas is found in 



omnis ebore candicat, auro fulgurat, gemmis uariegat (cp. Florid. 3. 
p. 15): inde color gratus et nitor splendidus illucet, modo contra mentis 
aciem uegetus fulgurat, modo in contrariam gratiam uariat aspectum 
(cp. Met. 2. 9), and so on. 

1 Epp. 115. 2 oratio cultus animi est : si circumtonsa est et fucata 
et manufacta, ostendit ilium quoque non esse sincerum et habere aliquid 
fracti. Non est ornamentum uirile concinnitas; cp. Tac. 
Dial. 26. 



THE STYLE AND LANGUAGE OF APULEIUS Ixxxix 

varied forms in Apuleius, of which the following 
may be mentioned : 

(a) Antitheses, irdpicrcL and io-d/co>Xa, symmetry of 
clauses, e.g. 5. 6 et imprimens oscula suasoria et ing er ens 
uerba mukentia et inserens membra cohibentia : 5. 28 mon- 
tano scortatu, marino natatu and non nuptiae coniugales, 
non amicitiae societies : 6. 2 et cur rum rapacem et terram 
tenacem et inluminarum Proserpinae nuptiarum demeacula 
et luminosarum filiae inuentionum remeacula ; cp. also the 
prayer to Juno 6. 4. 

(b) Alliteration and Assonance. 1 General, 5. 15 
nee . . . nequitia uel ilia mellita cantus dulcedine mollita 
conquieuit: 5. 31 amores amare (" bitterly") coherceas: 
6. 8 septem sauia suauia: 6. 19 atra atria Proserpinae. 

2 Initial, e.g. 4. 28 pro v fundum pelagi peperit : 4. 29 
insulas proximas et terrae plusculum prouinciasque plurimas 
Jama porrecta peruagatur ; ib. uerae Veneris uehementer 
incendit animos ; 4. 35 pompae populi prosequentis sese 
miscuit : 6. 11 Cupido . . . unici cubiculi custodia clausus 
cohercebatur acriter : and frequently. 

3 Transverse, e.g. 4. 35 tanta clade defessi, clausae 
domus abstrusi tenebris (words beginning with cl and d 
follow alternately) : 5. 21 primisque Veneris proeliis 
uelitatis. In 5. 6 quoted on 3 (a) note the alternate 
assonance of the three participles all beginning with 
in- and ending in -ens. A good example of alternate 
assonance is 4. 8 estur ac potatur incondite, pulmentis 
aceruatim, panibus aggeratim, poculis agminatim ingestis. 
4 Final. See the examples 5. 6 : 5. 28 : 6. 2 
quoted under 3 (#), above : and 6. 8 : 6. 19 quoted 
under 1. Also passages like 5. 3 ut quamuis hominum 
nemo p ar er et chorus tamen esse p at er e t, and the 

g 



xc INTBODUCTION 

imperfects at the beginning of 5. 12 quoted on p. Ixxxv f . 
A passage combining several of these forms of assonant 
symmetry is 9. 14 mulier saeua scaeua, uirosa ebriosa, 
peruicax pertinax, in rapinis turpibus auara, in sumptibus 
foedis profusa^ inimica fidei, hostis pudicitiae. 



All these features of symmetrical arrangement of 
clauses, aided by antithesis, alliteration, assonance, 
and word-likeness, recall the obvious mannerisms of 
Euphuism, the essential character of which, according 
to Mr. C. Gr. Child (John Lyly and Euphuism, 
pp. 43, 44 : Miinchener Beitrag vii), is applied " not 
only to the ordering of the single sentence, but in 
every structural relation," and it is " the inducement 
of artificial emphasis through Antithesis and Repetition 
Antithesis to give pointed expression to the thought, 
Repetition to enforce it." 1 

One has only to read Mr. Warwick Bond's 

1 A passage may be quoted from Lyly's " The Anatomy of Wit " 
(quoted by Mr. Dover Wilson, John Lyly (Cambridge, 1905), p. 15) 
to show the general characteristics of the symmetry and assonances 
[I have not given the archaic spelling] 

" Although hitherto, Euphues, I have s/trined thee in my heart 
for a misty /riend, I will s/iun thee hereafter for a irothless foe ; 
.and although I cannot see in thee less wit than I was wont, yet dc 
I find less honesty. I perceive at the last (although being deceived 
it be too late) that musk, although it be sweet in the swell is soui 
in the smack, that the leaf of the cedar tree, though it be fair to b( 
seen, yet the syrup depriveth sight that friendship though it b( 
plighted by the shaking of the hand, yet it is shaken by the fraud o 
the heart. But thou hast not much to boast of, as thou hast won 
/ickle lady, so hast thou lost a /aithful /riend. How canst thoi 
be secure of her constancy when thou hast had such trial c 
her lightness?" Reference may be also made to the euphuisti 



THE STYLE AND LANGUAGE OF APULEIUS xei 

discussion on Lyly's style (The Complete Works of 
John Lyly, vol. i., pp. 120-134) to see the remark- 
able resemblance it bears to the style of Apuleius 
in nearly every respect even in such unusual 
features as transverse alliteration and rhyme ; e.g. 
"Euphues to Philautus" (p. 252). "If this seeme 
too -straight a Jyet for thy straining disease " : 
241 " I will to Athens ther to tosse my bookes, no 
more in Naples to lyve with fair lookes" It is curious 
that we find even parallels to such frigid plays 
on words as (Apul. Met. 8. 6) inuita remansit in uita 
e.g. " Euphues and his England," p. 161. 12, u saying 
... c at this time of yeare a Violette is better than 
a Rose? and so shee arose." It has been generally 
held that one of the principal sources from which 
Euphuism came into England was from a translation 
by Lord Berners of Guevara's Libra Aureo de Marco 
Aurelio, which he published in 1534, under the title, 
The Golden Boke of Marcus Aurelius. This view can 
hardly be sustained ; x but the Libra Aureo and the 
Golden Boke won popularity because both in Spain and 
in England, and indeed all over the Continent, there 
was already epidemic (as it were) a taste for that 
peculiar style the Asianic manner, the alto estilo, 
which naturally appealed so strongly to the re- 
awakening nations just renewing their youth. But 
the question may perhaps be raised as to whether one 

speech of Portia (Merchant of Venice 1. 2. 13-29) (quoted by 
Mr. Bond) : " If to do were as easy as to know what were good 
to do, chapels had been churches, and _poor men's cottages princes' 
palaces "; and so on down to " Is it not hard, Nerissa, that I cannot 
choose one nor refuse none ? " . . . 

1 See Mr. Dover Wilson's John Lyly, pp. 22-26. 



xcii INTRODUCTION 

of the influential precursors of Euphuism in Spain, 
Italy, France, and England may not have been 
another Golden look, that by Apuleius, 1 whose 
writings were first published in modern times at 
Rome in 1469, and then repeatedly (certainly a 
dozen times) re-issued in Italy and France during 
the next fifty years (see Hildebrand Pref. pp. Ixxvii- 
Ixxix). The many editions are evidence of the wide 
circle of readers who were interested in Apuleius. 



8. 

In order to carry out successfully the requirements 
of such a symmetrically cut and elaborately assonant 
form of composition, it was necessary frequently (1) 
to have recourse to ' padding,' 2 which was easily done 
in a style naturally verbose, and also (2) to coin new 
words. The passage generally referred to in this con- 
nexion is 11. 9 mulieres candido splendentes amicimine, 
uario laetantes gestamine, uerno florentes coronamine^ where 
amicimen and coronamen are due to the invention of 
Apuleius. Similarly in 4. 8 (quoted on p. Ixxxix) 
aceruatim is a coined word and agminatim is a unique 
usage as applied to ' wine-cups.' In 6. 2 inluminarum, 
demeacufaj remeacula are all from the Apuleian mint. 

1 In the elaborate section on the Sources of Lyly's style and 
matter Mr. Child (op. cit. pp. 33-34) makes no mention of Apuleius, 
bat he does mention Ovid, Virgil, Homer, and Plutarch, to which 
he adds " Caesar, Cicero, Seneca, &c." One cannot but feel 
surprised at finding Caesar in this connexion, even though Lyly 
may have drawn his geography of Britain from that source. 

2 Cp. Cic. Orator 230 apud alios autem et Asiaticos maxime numero 
seruientis inculcata reperias mania quaedam uerba quasi complementer 
numerorum. 






THE STYLE AND LANGUAGE OF APULEIUS xciii 

The following is a fairly complete list of the NEW 
WORDS in the Cupid and Psyche at least the words 
not found before Apuleius : 

NEW WORDS. 6. 23 alumnari : 5. 22 antependulus : 6. 9 
ascalpere : 6. 13 auscultatus (subst.) : 5. 8 barbitium : 5. 13 
<jinnameus : 5. 17 (cp. 2. 14 : 11. 16) circumsecus : a 6. 4 coniuga : 

5. 24 consequia : 5. 24 consiliatrix : 5. 22 decoriter (cp. 1. 22 
properiter) : 5. 30 deflammare : 6. 2 demeaculum : 6. 7 demeare: 
6. 1 discretim : 6. 8 famulitium : 5. 17 fastidienter (cp. Flor. 9. 30) : 

6. 13 furatrina : 6. 10 granatim: 6. 14 impossibilitas : 6. 14 (cp. 2, 
22) inconiuus : 5. 12 incrementulum : 4. 30 initialis : 6. 2 in- 
luminus: 5. 15 interspergere : 5. 20 intrahere : 5. 11 lupula: 
5. 12 momentarius 2 : 5. 28 monstratus (subst.) : 5. 17 multinodus : 
5. 28 natatus (subst.) : 5. 29 nugo : 5. 25 (cp. Apol. 50 : 75 : 
Flor. 18. 91) oinnimodus : 5. 13 parciloquium : 6. 10 passiuus 
(often in Tertullian) : 5. 28 peralbus : 5. 23 periclitabundus : 
5.20 praemicare : 5.19 praeminari : 6.11 praeterluere : 5.30 fin. 
praetondere : 5. 7 postliminio (used as an adverb and preposition) : 

5. 2 prohinc ' accordingly ' : 6. 15 (cp. De Deo Socr. Prol.) 
propansus (or propassus): 5.6 proximare: 5.12; 6.21 punctulum: 

6. 2 remeaculum : 5. 24 remonere : 5. 22 retropendulus : 6. 14 
salebritas : 5. 28 scortatus (subst.) : 5. 3 semirotundus : 5. 19 
subaudire : 6. 3 sublucidus : 5. 28 succuba : 5. 18 substrepere : 
6. 2 sulcamen : 6. 19 teriugus : 5. 7 ululabilis : 6. 1 uestigatio : 
6. 15 uibramen. 

But besides New Words we find also, though in a 
less degree 

ARCHAIC WORDS AND USAGES. We must be slow to assume, when 
we come across words in Apuleius which are not found except in 
writers of times prior to Cicero, that this was always due to deliberate 



1 Usually this termination -seem is found signifying motion from a place : 
extrinsecus, intrinsecus, altrinsecus, and is derived from the same root as sequor. 
But it signifies rest in a place in circumsecus, motion to a place in forinsecus 
(3. 21: 4. 12: 9. 28), as possibly also in the adverbial modico secus progressus 
ostium accedo 1. 22, ' having advanced a little way I approach the door.' 

2 5. 12 momentarius maritus, ' transitory,' 'staying but a short time': 9. 1 m. 
salus ' for a moment ' : 10. 25 m. uenenum ' rapidly working.' 



xciv INTRODUCTION 

search on his part, and that he sprinkled them about in his writings 
in the way the rhetoricians are reported to have done if we may 
believe the satire in Lucian's RhetorumPr acceptor 17. No doubt since 
Hadrian 1 there had been a tendency in the direction of archaizing; and 
there may have been some old words which had all but disappeared, 
and which came into fashion again for a short time ; possibly too 
there were some old words which took Apuleius' own fancy, and 
which he introduced in accordance with that fashion : but there 
does not seem to be any glaring affectation in his use of them. 
Such would be words that are found in old times, but are seldom 
or never found after Apuleius: for example 6. 3 literatus, 
1 marked with letters ' ; 1. 5 praestinare, to cater ' ; 2. 29 adorare, 
1 to address ' (with no notion of veneration) ; 3. 21 arbiirari ' to 
inspect ' ; 3. 8 enitare, ' to kill ' ; 5. 13 incertare, ' to make in- 
distinct ' ; 5. 32 altrorsm* But there are also many words which 
disappeared indeed between the age of the dramatists and Apuleius, 
but re-appear in him and in subsequent writers ; and these lead one 
to think that it is somewhat accidental that they passed out of 
literary usage in the interval. 3 Such words are 5. 18 alimonia : 
1. 21 arrabo : 6. 9 condecere : 6. 19 offrenatus : 6. 23 prosapia. 4 

There are some archaic FORMS, but not many. We may instance 
active forms of verbs usually deponent, e.g. 5. 14 laetare : 5. 20 
praestolare. Also 5. 20 tenebra in the singular. Peculiar verbal 
forms are 6. 13 hauritus : 5. 12 personauit : 6. 5 quiens (partic. of 
queo, cp. Quintil. 8. 3. 33) : but these were new formations rather 
than ancient forms revived. 

Then there are 
POETICAL WORDS. There is a general poetical tinge over the 

1 Hadrian professed to prefer Cato to Cicero and Ennius to Vergil (Capitol. 
Hadr. 16. 6) ; and yet he wrote the very ' modern,' daintily -tripping Animula 
uagula, blandula. 

2 For fashion in the renascence of words, cp. Hor. A. P. 70-72 (*i uolet usus). 
It is noted in Trench's English Past and Present 16 229, that Wordsworth 
recovered sough (of waving trees), Tennyson holts (wooded tops of hills), Grote 
to hearten, Freeman overlord. There is an old word for fearful or over-scrupulous, 
meticulous, that now seems to be creeping into use. 

3 Considerable material on this head is to be obtained from Johannes Piechotta's 
treatise, Curae Apuleianae (1882). 

4 The following may be added from the Apologia ; Apol. 41 ruspari, ' to search ' : 
66 capularis : 75 propudiosus. 



THE STYLE AND LANGUAGE OF APULEIUS xcv 

whole of Apuleius' novel, which is naturally marked in a special 
degree in the fairy-tale. We may instance such essentially poetical 
words as : 6. 11 affatus : 5. 25 coma (fluuii) : 6. 6 gannitus (of the 
'jargoning' of birds) : 5. 10 lares: 5. 12 mucro : 6. 4 exanclare, 
&c. 

and the whole range of 

DIMINUTIVES. The number of diminutives in Apuleius is 
decidedly great; but their number must not be attributed to the 
special character either of Apuleius or his work. Nearly as large 
a proportion is found in the Itala, which would seem to show that 
the use of diminutives was a feature of the ordinary language of 
the day. 1 

Subjoined is a list of the more peculiar diminutives in the Cupid 
and Psyche. 2 

(a) Not found before Apuleius : 6. 10 formicula : 5. 22 (cp. 
2. 17 ; Flor. 3. 13) glabellus : 5. 12 incrementulum : 5. 11 lupula : 

4. 31 pressule (cp. 10. 31 : pressulus Flor. 9. 35) : 5. 20 (cp. 2. 16) 
pullulatim. 

(b) Diminutives already found : 

Substantives 5. 20 aulula (Varro) : 6. 22 (cp. 3. 19) buccula 
(Plaut. Cic.) : 6. 12 nutricula (Cic. Hor. Juv.) : 6. 19, 20 offula 
(Varro, Petron.) : 5. 20 (cp. 8. 9) palmula (Varro) : 5. 22 plumula 
(Columella) : 6. 5 specula (Plaut. Cic.) : 6. 13 urnula (Varro). 

Adjectives and adverbs. 5. 31 (cp. 10. 16; 11. 30) bellule : 
6. 2 pauculus (Plaut. Ter. Cic.) : 4. 29 plusculus (Plaut. Ter. Cic.) : 

5. 25 scitulus (Plaut.) : 5. 15 ; 6. 20 tantillus (Plaut. Ter.) : 5. 18 
tenellus (Plaut. Varro, Statius). 

As to 

GREEK WORDS, it is noticeable, as has been pointed out by 
Kretschmann (p. 69), how few Greek words Apuleius uses. The chief 
ones in the Cupid and Psyche are 5. 10 cataplasma : 5. 3 cithara ; 
chorus : 6. 18 naulum : 4. 33 zygius ; hymenaeus ; 6. 16 pyxis. 



1 For some of the more anomalous formations of diminutives in the Itala, see 
Ronsch, Itala mid Vulgata, pp. 93-100. 

2 Such common diminutives as the following have been omitted : articidus, 
osctilum, lectulus, uasculum, masculus, misellus, paruulus, pusillus. 



xcvi INTRODUCTION 



Lastly, there are some 

WORDS WITH ALTERED MEANINGS ; e.g. 5. 16 concolor, applied to 
falsehoods : 6. 15 dialis, applied to the realms of Zeus the 
heavens ; elsewhere only applied to the Flamen Dialis : 5. 1 
efferare (argentum), applied to making silver into the shapes of 
wild beasts: 5. 3 informis, 1 ' without visible shape' : 5. 8 (cp. 11. 15: 
De Deo Socr. 5) inhumanus, 'super-human,' 'divine': 5. 26 inscius, 
passive ' unknown ' : 5. 28 inuestis, of a youth without a beard : 
6. 14 procerus, applied to rocks : 5. 30 propinare, ' to hand over,' 
' to supply ' (Ennius, Terence) : 6. 20 prospicuus, ' provident ' : 
5. 22 temulentus, of Cupid's hair, ' steeped ' in heavenly 
unguents: 5. 20 uotiuus, 'desirable,' usually 'what is vowed.' 






There are some irregularities of Syntax in Apuleius ; 
and mention may be made of the following more or 
less unclassical usages. 

i. CASES OF NOUNS 
Genitive : 

(a) According to Greek usage : 

5. 9 longe parentum = Troppw TWV TCKOVTW : 5. 2 vox corporis sui 
nuda = TOV o-w/xarog yu/AV')?, cp. Plat. Kep. 577 B : 5. 30 (pinnas) 
nectarei fontis infeci, like the genit. after \oveo-6ai ; see note. 

(b) After adjectives : 

5. 28 dubium salutis : 5. 17 secura periculi, ' thoughtless of the 
danger ' : 5. 18 secura periculi, ' safe from the danger ' : 6. certa 
difficultatis, ' aware of the difficulty.' 



1 Apuleius applies this word to the 'voices' (1. 2 vox corporis sui nuda) that 
attended on Psyche, and also to the Platonic Ideas (1. 5, J)e Dogm. Plat.) 
which are inabsoltitas, informes, nulla specie nee qualitatis significatione distinctas. 
Usually the word means ' unshapen ' or ' misshapen.' 



THE STYLE AND LANGUAGE OF APULEIUS xcvii 

Dative : 

5. 17 rebus tuis excubamus, 'for your interest pass sleepless 
nights' (Plin. H. N. 35. 118). 
Accusative : 

(a) The accusative of motion towards without a preposition is 
often found after verbs which are compounded with a preposition as 

5. 2 accedere : 6. 21 accurrere : 5. 5 adesse : 6. 2 aduolui : 5. 24 : 

6. 10 inuolare : 5. 17 peruolare. The ace. is always found after 
continari (5. 31 : 6. 18). With proximare we find in 6. 3 the dat., 
but in 6. 8 the ace. 

In 6. 12 we have fungi with ace. : and in several places desinere 
with ace. (5.6: 5.7: 5.25). 

(b) Cognate accusative : 

5. 20 altum soporem flare : 5. 9 deam spirare : 6. 20 infernum 
decurrit meatum. 

(c) Accusative of closer definition : 

5. 17 ueneno colla sanguinantem : 6. 11 reuincta corpus rosis : 
6. 20 men tern capitur curiositate. 
Ablative: 

The ablative is sometimes found without a preposition, e.g.: 
4. 26 templis . . . immolabant : 5. 30 meo gremio for in m. g. 

ii. PRONOUNS. 

There is hardly anything to be said about the pronouns. Apuleius 
more frequently than other writers puts the possessive pronouns 
before their nouns. 

alius is occasionally found for alter, 5. lOinit. ; 5. 27 (note). 

iste is often used for 'this,' SCIKTIKWS, e.g. 5. 10; 6. 13 : perhaps 6. 3 
decede istis aedibus ; also with the first person, 5. 30 fin. ; 6. 22, 
where we are not sure that there is such a reference ; for there is 
good reason to suppose that Apuleius used iste as virtually equivalent 
to hie : cp. 6. 10 ante istam uesperam ('this evening'). Thus it is 
that we should take the much-discussed 11. 26 sacrosanctam istam 
ciuitatem accedo, ' I arrive at this famous city,' i.e. Eome : cp. Flor. 
1. 3 mihi ingresso sanctissimam. istam ciuitatem (Carthage). See 
Kretschmann, p. 91. The juxtaposition of two pronouns is 
common : cp. 2. 13 hie iste ; 1. 23 hie idem : 3. 1 hie ille ; cp. 
Koziol 76 ff. 



xcviii INTRODUCTION 

The use of sui instead of the possessive pronoun, 5. 3 fatigationem 
sui diluit is common in Apuleius ; see note. But it is found in Ovid 
Met. 1. 30 (tellus) et pressa est grauitate sui. 

suits sibi (= proprius) is also frequent : see 4. 32 cum sua sibi 
perspicua pulcritudine and note. It seems to be a feature of the 
language of ordinary life. It is often found in the comic writers, 
but is not found before Apuleius in prose, except in Columella, 
unless we count Cic. Lael. 45 satis superque esse sibi suarum cuique 
rerum. 

in. VERBS 

6. 6 abnuere, 'to renounce,' with dat. 5. 6 : 6. 24 accumbere 
lectum (in Lucilius and Accius, and then not till Apuleius) : 6. 12 
aditus contra : 4. 28 pullulare (transitive) : 6. 24 purpurare 
(transitive) : 5. 7 resultare, with accus. (sonum). 

The infinitive is found after uenire (6. 9 interuisere) : cp. 4. 3 
accedo decerpere. 

ut is often omitted after verbs in conversational style. 5. 6 
praecipe . . . sistat (cp. 5. 13 ; 5. 26) : 6. 2 patere . . . delitescam : 
6. 11 afferas censeo : 6. 18 rogabit . . . porrigas. 

iv. PREPOSITIONS. 

There is not much that is irregular in the use of the prepositions 
as far as the Cupid and Psyche is concerned : 

circa = ' in respect of: 6. 8 labores circa tuas inquisitiones. 

de used as the source from which anything arises is common. 
5. 19 malumque grande de uultus curiositate praeminatur : 5. 20 
opportunitatem de luminis consilio mutuare : 6. 23 nee prosapiae tantae 
taae . . . de matrimonio mortali metuas: cp. Leky, 'De Syntaxi 
Apuleiana ' p. 28. After petere 6. 16 (petit de te Venus') and similar 
verbs of asking the use of de is not classical. 

in with ace. after cumulus is rare: 5. 27 in sororis nnptias aemnla. 

in in 5. 21 fin. amator leuis in pinnas se dedit is somewhat 
unusual : one might expect the dative (Verg. Aen. 6. 15 pinnis ausus 
se credere caelo) : cp. 2. 29 me in meam quietem permitte. 

Notice 5. 10 duratos in lapidem diyitos : cp. 3. 24 cutis tenella 
duratur in corium. 



THE STYLE AND LANGUAGE OF APULEIUS xcix 

A somewhat remarkable use of in with abl. is 6. 4 in tantis 
exandatis laboribus defessam, where the in might have been omitted 
(see note). 

retro with accusative is rare : 6. 8 retro metas Murtias. 

v. PARTICLES. 

alioquin. This word is often used with the first of two 
adjectives without any especial force : cp. note to 6. 15. It is 
only found in Apuleius (outside the Metamorphoses) in Flor. 18. 
88. Similar usages in Quintil. 10. 1. 128 : 12. 10. 17 : Pliny Epp. 
6. 23. 1. Becker says (p. 10) 9. 14 bonus alioquin uir et adprime 
modestus has no more force than et bonus et adprime modestus. For 
instances see Thesaurus I. 1592. 6 ff. The use of alius, which 
always goes with the second adjective, is much stronger : see 

8. 30 : 9. 39 ; not quite so strong in 9. 5. 

ceterum (5. 5) = ' but if not,' ' otherwise ' : denique, (1) weakened 
connecting particle (4. 28), cp. 1. 4, 6, 11, and often ; (2) = tandem 
(5. 8): enimuero, simply adversative, ' but ' : ergo igitur is a frequent 
pleonasm ; cp. 5. 11 : 7. 9, 15, 19, and often : inibi (6. 18), local, 
'there,' is an archaic usage: prohinc (5. 2), 'accordingly': quam 
with positives, e.g. 5. 16 quam concolores fallacias: 5. 20 (note) 
nisu quam ualido : ne . . . saltern = ne . . . quidem (4. 32 : 8. 16 : 

9. 32), see Peterson on Quintilian 10. 2. 16: sic (1) after participles, 
in a resumptive sense like oimo (6. 18); (2) 'under these circum- 
stances,' at beginning of a sentence (4. 32): tantum (5. 6), 'only' 
in admonitory sentences, cp. Ovid Trist. 1.1. 101 tantum ne noceas 
dum uis prodesse uideto: utique, (1) affirmative, 'utterly,' 'entirely' 
(5. 29) ; (2) negative, ' at all' (5. 31) : ut pote (6. 18) with adj. (as 
often in Horace), and not, as usual, with relatives or cum. 

Becker's chapter on the particles is mainly devoted to showing 
the difference between the usage of the particles in the Metamorphoses 
and in the other works of Apuleius. Thus he notices that only in 
two passages (9. 2 : 9. 4) equidem is found with the first person in 
Met., whereas it is always so found in the Apol. and philosophical 
works. Again, interdum in Met. always signifies ' meanwhile,' 
whereas in the other writings it means ' at times.' He also points 
out the truly remarkable circumstance that the collocation aut 



c INTRODUCTION 

. . . aut occurs only once in Met. 4. 25, and ant by itself only once 
(2. 9, where it is an emendation for at, which may be a corruption 
for et). In the other writings the word is often used. 1 

1 On the rhythms of Apuleius I cannot say anything, as I have only most 
cursorily considered them ; and of the whole subject of prose rhythms, even in 
English, and much more in Latin, I regret to say that I have as yet a most imper- 
fect apprehension . For the present it must suffice to refer to the only specific 
treatises on the subject with which I am acquainted, viz. Kirchhoff (A.) De Apulei 
clamularum compositione et arte (Leipzig, 1902, p. 32), Schober (Em.) De Apulei 
Metamorphoseon compositione numerosa (Halle, 1902, p. 79), and JBlass (Fr.) Die 
Rhythmen der asianischen und romischen Kunstprosa (Leipzig, 1905). The second 
chapter (De Apulei sermone numeris adstricto] in Fried. Gatscha's Quaestionum 
Apuleianarum capita tria (Diss. phil. Vindobonenses vi, 1898, pp. 159-176) may 
also be mentioned. 



CHAPTER IV 

THE MANUSCRIPTS AND EDITIONS 



IT is not the least among the great services which 
Heinrich Keil has rendered to classical learning that 
he has proved that all the codices of the Meta- 
morphoses, Apologia, and Florida enumerated in 
Hildebrand's edition, " rudis indigestaque moles," 
are derived from one ms., Laurentianus 68. 2 (called 
by Hildebrand Flor. 3). 1 This is the famous second 
Medicean ms. of Tacitus, which contains Ann. xi xvi 
and Hist, i v, and is considered to have been tran- 
scribed at Monte Cassino about the eleventh century. 
It is written in Lombard characters. The Tacitus 
comes before the Apuleius. A specimen of the 
Tacitus (Ann. xv. 41-44) may be seen in Chatelain 
(Blanche cxlvi). 2 It goes back to an archetypal 
ms. at least as old as the fourth century, as 
may be proved by the subscription to Apuleius, 
Met. ix Ego Sallustius legi et emendaui Romae felix 

1 H. Keil, Obseruationes criticae in Catonis et Varronis de re rustica 
libros, p. 77 ff. (Halle, 1849). 

2 The history of the manuscript from the time of its discovery 
by Poggio may be seen in Furneaux's ed. of the Annals of Tacitus 
ii, pp. 1, 2. Cp. also Dr. Sandys (Hist, of Classical Scholarship, 
pp. 14 and 33), who thinks it was Boccaccio who obtained the 
ms. from Monte Cassino. It is now in the Laurentian library of 
Florence. 



<}ii INTRODUCTION 

Olibrio et ProUno n. c. cons. (395 A.D.). In foro 
Martis controuersiam declamans or atari Endelechio. 
Rursus Cons tantinup oli recognoui Caesario et Attico cons. 
(397 A.D.). 1 

This Laurentian ms. has been corrected apparently 
by several hands. But before it had undergone 
much correction another ms. which we still possess, 
viz. Laurentianus 29. 2 (<), was copied from it. 
This copy is of great value, as it enables us to 
discover the original reading of F in many places 
where the latter has been altered or has faded beyond 
recognition. 

Liitjohann (whose early death has been a grievous 
loss to classical scholarship) collated these two mss., and 
distinguished four different correcting hands in F, viz. : 
(1) that of the original copyist (F 1 ) ; (2) that of a 
corrector (f.) who came shortly after the original 
copyist and before < was transcribed ; (3) that of a 
later hand (f*); and (4) that of the latest hand of all 
(man. rec.). Fr. Beyte (Quaestwnes Appuleianae, Lips. 
1888, pp. 27-40), who has carefully examined the 
text of the Apologia, considers that none of these three 
classes of correction is based on independent manu- 
script authority, and decides that all are due to the 

1 This Sallustius, the son of the consul of 363 A.D. (C.I.L. 
vi. 1729), was a man of great wealth, with large estates in 
Spain. He was a friend of Symmachus, and " seems to have 
combined in a rare fashion a taste for horse-breeding with a taste 
for literature " (Dill, Roman Society in the last century of the Western 
Empire,^. 131). Endelechius, also called Seuerus Sanctus, was a 
rhetorician, a poet, and a Christian. We have an idyl of his, de 
mortibus bourn, written from a Christian standpoint : see Teuffel- 
Schwabe, 448. 



THE MANUSCRIPTS AND EDITIONS ciii 

learning and ingenuity of those scholars who used the 
ms. Liitjohann also distinguishes three classes of cor- 
rections in <, viz. (1) that by the original copyist (<*); 
(2) that by a later corrector (^> 2 ); (3) that by the latest 
hand of all (man. rec.). Beyte thinks that < 2 came 
from F after it had been corrected by its third hand, 
i.e. by f*. This distinguishing of corrections by 
hands other than the original hand is such a 
hazardous proceeding that I have not ventured to 
adopt it ; and, as this is not a critical edition, it 
has seemed sufficient to indicate all corrections of 
F other than by the first hand by the symbol f . 

It is right to say that I have not seen either of 
the Florentine codices ; and that the text and critical 
notes in this volume are based on the admirable 
critical editions of Jahn-Michaelis (ed. 4, 1895) and 
E. Helm (1907), especially the latter, which is in- 
valuable, not merely from the point of view of 
manuscript criticism, but also from that scholar's 
profound knowledge of the language of Apuleius. 
Helm's edition has completely superseded the editions 
of Eyssenhardt (1869) and Van der Vliet (1897). 
Helm promises that his forthcoming edition of the 
Florida will contain a discussion on the manuscripts 
of the works of Apuleius contained in F. 



As to the editions. Apuleius was one of the 
earliest authors printed. The editio princeps was 
published at Rome in 1469 at the instance of Cardinal 
Bessarion. The editor was Johannes Andreas de 



civ INTRODUCTION 

Buxis, afterwards bishop of Aleria, 1 and the printers 
were Sweynheym and Pannartz. During the next 
thirty years it was re-issued again and again at 
Rome, Venice, Vicenza, Milan, and Parma. In 1500 
Beroaldus published his commentary on the Asinus 
Aureus (as he called the Met.) the first critical 
treatment of the book. In 1512 the first Juntine 
edition was issued at Florence. The second Juntine 
in 1522, critically edited by Bernardus Philomathes 
of Pisa, is rightly regarded by Oudendorp and 
Ruhnken as a work of great merit. The Basle 
edition of 1533 was printed by Henricus Petrus, and 
edited by Albanus Torinus. The first Belgian 
scholar who did good service to Apuleius was 
Stewechius (whose edition was published by Plantin 
at Antwerp in 1586). Two years later came the 
edition of his able young countryman Petrus 
Colvius, also published by Plantin. The early 
death of Colvius in 1591 (from a kick of a horse 
while he was serving in the army) was a real loss to 
Apuleian study, even though Price accuses him of 
'iuvenilis temeritas. 7 In 1591 Vulcanius published 
his own edition at Leyden. Wouwer's edition came 
in 1606. In 1614 a great Variorum edition was 
published at Lyons, with the various readings of 

1 Giovanni Andrea de Bussi was one of the many pupils of the 
gentle scholar Vittorino da Feltre. " He had," says Dr. Sandys 
(Hist, of Classical Scholarship, ii. 54), " the unique distinction of 
having been, in 1465 to 1471, the editor of the first printed 
editions of as many as eight works of the Latin Classics : Caesar, 
Gellius, Livy, Lucan, Virgil, Silius, and the Letters and Speeches of 
Cicero." Dr. Sandys could have added Apuleius, as he has done 
on p. 103. 



THE MANUSCRIPTS AND EDITIONS cv 

Roaldus. Elmenhorst issued an edition at Frankfurt 
in 1621, in the preface to which he says "contulimus 
ipsi Romanam, Aldinam, Venetam, et Basileenses 
editiones, semper pro regula habentes Florentinas 
Membranas, quarum ope aliquam multa scabie prius 
atque ulceribus foeda nitori pristino et nativae 
integritati restitui." The great edition of the much- 
travelled and learned Englishman, John Price, was 
published in Paris in 1635. His notes are given in 
full in the third volume of the 1823 edition of 
Oudendorp, and evince a really remarkable width of 
reading. It was republished at Gouda in 1650. The 
editor of the Delphin edition (1688), Julianus 
Floridus, is merely a compiler. But the greatest of 
all the editions is that of Oudendorp. The Met. 
was published at Leyden in 1786 with a Preface 
by Ruhnken. In 1823 it was re-issued with two 
additional volumes, the second containing the other 
works of Apuleius, and the third the notes of 
Beroaldus, Gruter, Price, and others. These last two 
volumes were edited by Bosscha. This stately work 
formed in a large degree the basis of the Leipzig 
edition of G. F. Hildebrand (1842). This is a 
diffuse but useful book; and it is still requisite for 
any study of Apuleius. The critical edition of the 
Met. by Franz Eyssenhardt (1869) was the first to 
discard the medley of notes of the inferior mss. ; but 
Eyssenhardt was not careful enough to render his own 
edition definitive. The Teubner text by Van der Vliet 
(1897)is not without itsmerits; but that versatile scholar 
is too bold in his emendations, and too ready to supply 
words and phrases where the text is not so grievously 

h 



cvi THE MANUSCRIPTS AND EDITIONS 

defective as to require such drastic remedies. The 
critical editions of the Apologia (1905) and the Met. 
(1907) by Rudolf Helm (also published by Teubner) 
have signally advanced the study of Apuleius, and 
are so learned and well-considered that they are 
destined to remain the standard text for many years. 
The story of Cupid and Psyche was edited 
separately a few times in the eighteenth century 
(see Hildebrand, Ixxxix f.). One of these editions 
appeared at Gbttingen in 1789, and is styled " Psyche, 
ein Feenmarchen des Apuleius." The title makes 
one think that possibly the writer did not regard the 
tale as an allegory. In 1836 Orelli published an 
edition of the story, but I have never seen it. The 
dainty edition by Jahn (1856), supplemented by 
Michaelis (1883: fourth edition, 1895), is a work 
which shows no less appreciation for the art and 
beauty of the tale than judicious and acute 
scholarship. Less judicious perhaps, but of very 
great learning, is Weyman's edition (1891). 1 The 
author is quite at home in the language of Apuleius 
and his imitators. The edition by J. W. Beck 
(Groningen, 1902), who writes his commentary in 
Latin, has a useful and able introduction, especially on 
artistic matters, and many valuable notes, principally 
on philology. The edition by Friedrich Norden 
(2 vols., Vienna and Leipzig, 1903) the first volume 
contains the Text, the second Introduction and Notes 
written in German is brilliant and attractive all 
through, so that we wish it had been planned on a 
somewhat larger scale. 

1 Index Lectionuin Universitatis Friburgensis, 1891. 



SIGLA 

F Codex Laurentianus 68. 2 maims prima. 
f. Maims correctrices codicis F. 

< Codex Laurentianus 29. 2 ex F aliquantum correct o 
transcriptus. 

v. Vulgata quae ab codicibus deterioribus et ueterum 
uirorum doctorum coniecturis orta sunt. 

[ ] Litterae quae in F inuentae tamen sunt omittendae. 

< > Litterae quae in F non inuentae tamen sunt addendae. 
Litterae mutatae ex litteris in F parum recte datis 
impressae sunt typis inclinatis. 



Bien certainement, Psyche n'a ete admise dans les Metamorphoses que pour 
divertir le lecteur. Prenons 1' episode pour ce qu'il est, un joli conte encadre dans 
un roman. La fleur se fanerait a la vouloir trop expliquer. 

MONCEAUX, ApuUe, p. 143. 









CUPID AND PSYCHE 

IV $8 Erant in quadam ciuitate rex et regina. hi[i] tres 
numero filias forma conspicuas habuere. sed maiores quidem 
natu, quamuis gratissima specie, idonee tamen celebrari posse 
laudibus humanis credebantur, at uero puellae iunioris tarn 
praecipua, tarn praeclara pulchritudo nee exprimi ac ne suffi- 5 
cienter quidem laudari sermonis humani penuria poterat. 
multi denique ciuium et aduenae copiosi, quos eximii spectaculi 
rumor studiosa celebritate congregabat, inaccessae formonsitatis 
admiratione stupidi et admouentes oribus suis dexteram 
pri<m>ore digito in erectum pollicem residente ut ipsam 10 
i 

10 primore Colvius : pore F<. residente F : residente <>, sed linea erasa. 



ciuitate] cp. Enn. Fab. 291 (Ribb.) 
Sed citiitatem uideo Argiuom incendier : 
Dolabella ap. Cic. Fam. ix. 9. 3 ut tu 
te uel Athenas uel in quamuis qu'utam 
recipias ciuitatem: Gell. 7. 17. 3. 

tres numero] This addition of numero 
is common in Apuleius, both with 
definite numerals (Apol. 40 : 44), and 
indefinite words of quantity, e.g. 4. 16 
multi numero. 

neque . . . ac ne] Helm refers to 
4. 21 neque clamor e ac ne ululatu quidem 
Jidem sacramenti prodidit. 

sufficienter] a late word, first found 
in this passage. In Plin. Ep. 10. 
18 (29) 3 the right reading is sufficientes. 

denique] This word has a very 
weakened sense in Apuleius. It is little 
more than a mere connecting particle, 
like our ' well ' : it is used even at the 
beginning of a narrative, cp. 1. 4. See 
Koziol, p. 298. 



studiosa celebritate] in eager 
crowds.' 

formonsitatis] For this form cp. 
Lindsay 'Lat. Lang.' p. 69. It occurs 
with n always in the Metamorphoses 
except 9. 17 init. In the Apologia 73 
and 92 we find/onnosrt. Similarly the 
mss. give thensaurus in the Met., but 
thesaurus apparently in Apol. 55. 

primore digito . . . residente] The 
form of reverence to the gods was to 
kiss one's hands (irpoffKvvijffis), cp. 
Apol. 56 si fanum aliquod praetereat 
nefas habet adorandi gratia manum labris 
admouere. Hildebrand compares Lucian 
de Salt. 17 OTTOV Kal 'ivtiol tireiSav ecoQev 



P a KvaavTes f)yov/j.e6a 
elvat rrjv evx"hv. Cp. 
Baumeister Denkmaler, p. 592, and 
Mayor on Juv. 4. 118. For primoris 
used of parts of the body the Dictt. give 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



[iv. 28 



prorsus deam Venerem <uenerabantur> religiosis adorationibus. 
iamque proximas ciuitates et attiguas regiones fama peruaserat 
deam, quam caerulum profundum pelagi peperit et ros spuman- 
tium fluctuum educauit, iam numinis sui passim tributa uenia 
5 in mediis conuersari populi coetibus, uel certe rursum nouo 
caelestium st^llarum germine non maria sed terras Venerem 
aliam uirginali flore praeditam pullulasse. 

1 Venerem uenerebantur Crusius (uenerabantur add. dett. sed post adorationibus}. 

ado^onLs F ' sed crederent manu recentL 

5 nouo F, sed posteriore o in ras. man. rec. : noua <j>. 

6 stillarum Jahn : stellarum F< : sphaerarum cod. Bertinianus Oud. 



Plaut. Bacch. 675 diffilulis duobus pri- 
moribus'. Cic. Gael. 28 pritnoribus labris. 
It refers to the tips of the fingers, not 
necessarily to the first or index finger. 

For residente Helm reads residente 
earn ; but probably the m was added by 
the copyist owing to the many adjacent 
words that end in that letter : cp. 
ambrosia\jin~\ in 5. 22. 

prorsus deam Venerem] For the 
collocation dea Venus see next chapter. 
Crusius alters deam into earn, comparing 
for the involved order of words c. 30 iam 
faxo huius etiam ipsam inlicitae formon- 
sitatis paeniteat. The description of 
the surpassing beauty of the heroine 
(or hero) is a constant feature in Greek 
novels, cp. Chariton 1. 1. 2 ^v yap Tb 
a\A.os (of Callirrhoe) OVK avdpunrivov 
a\\a 0eIW. Many examples are given 
in Rohde, Griech. Roman 152 n. 1. For 
a beautiful girl compared to Venus cp. 
Plaut. Eud. 421 : and often in the 
novels, e.g. Chariton 1. 14. 1 ff. italyap 
i\v TIS \6yos eV TO?S a.ypo'is 'A</>po5tT7ji' 



uenerabantur] This word is found 
in the inferior mss. In F, Gud, and a 
few other mss. crederent takes its place : 
but in F crederent is added by a later 
hand. Fulgentius would seem to 
justify uenerabantur (67. 2 ed. Helm) 



illam ucro ueluti deam non quisquam 
amare ausus quam uenerari pronus atque 
hostiis sibimetplacare. The editors place 
the word after Venerem (a position before 

Venerem would perhaps account better 
for its loss), emphasizing the alliteration, 
and comparing Plaut. Rud. 305 Nunc 

Venerem hanc tteneremur bonam : Poen. 
278 Sane equidem Venerem uenerabor. 
Helm thinks the word was omitted at 
the end of the column. Rossbach adds 
adorabant before adorationibus. Bahrens 
suggested adora<bant ora>tionibus. 

attigaas] a rare word first found 
in Frontinus. It is used four times 
by Apuieius in the Met., viz. 4. 3 : 4. 
12: 4.28: 6. 12. 

deam . . . pullulasse] ' the goddess 
whom the azure deep of the sea had 
borne, and the spray of the foaming 
waves had fostered, had now granted to 
the world the favour of her gracious 
presence and was mixing in the assem- 
blages of the people ; or in sooth, that 
again by a new impregnation of 
heavenly seed, not the sea but the earth 
had burgeoned forth a second Venus in 
all the bloom of maidenhood.' For 
slillarumihe mss. give stellarum, which 
Oudendorp thinks is a gloss on sphae- 
rarum a most unlikely reading 
which is found in the cod. Bertinianus, 



iv. 29] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



3 



Sic immensum procedit in dies opinio, sic insulas iam 
proxumas et terrae plusculum prouinciasque plurimas fama 
porrecta peruagatur. iam multi mortalium longis itineribus 
atque altissimis maris meatibus ad saeculi specimen gloriosum 
confluebant. Paphon nemo, Cnidon nemo ac ne ipsa quidem 5 
Cythera ad conspectum deae Veneris nauigabant ; sacra praeter- 

6 deae v. : die F<. 



It was natural to suppose that the 
fertilizing rain from heaven should 
by impregnation of mother Earth beget 
the goddess of fertility, cp. JEsch. 
Frag. 44 (Nauck) Stfpos 5' air' 
evvdevTos ovpavov irfff&v e/cutre yaiav, 
in a speech of Aphrodite herself. 
It is unusual to find pullulare used 
transitively. The Dictt. quote parallels 
from Lactantius and Fulgentius. 
Koziol (p. 312) quotes the following 
verbs ordinarily intransitive which are 
used transitively by Apuleius : re- 
sultare (b. 7) instrepere (2. 27), where 
the ace., however, is a cognate ace. : 
also oberrare (9. 4) and inerrare (11. 2), 
where the force of the preposition seems 
to condition the accusative. An un- 
usual transitive is recellere (7. 24) totum 
corporis pondm in postremos poplites 
recello ('jerk back') cp. 10. 22: also 
eiulabam fortunas meas (3. 1) oxAeiulam 
sese (4. 24). 

immensum] adverbial for in immen- 
sum, a usage often found in Tacitus e.g. 
Ann. 4. 40 (see Gerber and Greef i. 
p. 566). In Met. 10. 14 some mss. 
omit the in. In Dogm. Plat. 2. 26. 
(260) one inferior ms. has in immensum, 
but Goldbacher and Thomas omit the in. 
In this passage in should be omitted, 
not only on account of its not being 
found in F(/>, but also on account of in 
dies following. 

proximas] Rohde (lib. Mus. 43. 
467) reads per extimas* 

terrae plusculum] ' a goodish bit of 
the continent.' 



fama porrecta] cp. 5. 4. There is 
no need with Weyman to add late or 
latius before porrecta, or with Draheim 
to read prouecta. 

mortalium] a somewhat stately word 
for ' men ' ; often used with multi or 
omnes, cp. Kritz on Sail. Cat. 1. 4. 

altissimis maris meatibus] This is 
a rather strong case of enallage. Oud. 
wishes to read altissimi or latissimis. 
But Apuleius is fond of this transference 
of adjectives : cp. 4. 3 pedum posteriori- 
bus calcibus iactatis in eum crebriter, and 
many more given by Eoziol, p. 222. 
Yet none seems so violent as the in- 
stance here. 

This whole passage is similar to that 
in Chariton i. 1. 2 i\v yap rb KOL\\OS 
(sc. of Callirrhoe) OVK avdpiamvov dAAo 
Qt'iov .... </>7JjU?7 5e rov 
Bed/naros Tra.vTa.xov SieV 
/jLvrjffTripes icareppfov els 2vpa.Kov<ras 
Swaffrai re KO.I iratSes rvpavvwv, OVK. e/e 
povov d\\a Kal e| 'iroAias K&l 
Kal vi\a<av TWV eV 'Hireipcp. 
Rohde (Gr. Roman 152, note 1) thinks 
that the model of all such descriptions 
was Callimachus, in the introduction to 
his story of Acontius and Cydippe ; cp. 
Dilthey De Callimachi Cydippe 30-33. 
It may be borne in mind, too, that 
Chariton has been now proved to have 
lived about the same time as Apuleius : 
see Grenfell, Hunt, and Hogarth, 
Fayum Towns and their Papyri, 
pp. 75, 76. 

nauigabant] a natural sense con- 
struction, No one sailed to Paphos, no 
2 



4 CUPID AND PSYCHE [iv. 29 

euntur, templa deformant<^r>, puluinaria proteruntur,' caeri- 
moniae negleguntur ; incoronata simulacra et arae uiduae 
frigido cinere foe"datae. puellae supplicatur et in humanis 
uultibus deae tantae numina placantur, et in matutino progressu 
5 uirginis uictimis et epulis Veneris absentis nomen propitiatur, 

1 praetereuntur Hildebrand : pferuntur F< ; deseruntur Colvius : fort, post- 

feruntur. 

deformantur v. : deformant F<. 
proteruntur Salmasius : perferuntur F0. 



one to Cnidus ; they did not even go to 
Cythera': so that there is no need to 
make such a bold assumption as Ond. 
that nemo can he grammatically followed 
by the plural when there is not a re- 
petition of the word. Thus in Veil. 
1. 16 fin. Aldus rightly altered nequi- 
uerint to nequitierit, though Xritz re- 
tains the plural. 

praetereuntur] This is the good 
emendation of Hildebrand for the mss. 
reading praeferuntur. He quotes Ov. 
Met. 8. 278 solas sine ture relictas Prae- 
teritae cessasse ferunt Latoidos aras. It 
is just possible that we should read 
postferuntur (p* feruntur for pferuntur') 
'are held in less esteem,' a sense in 
which posthabere is used by the classical 
writers : for the tradition is all in 
favour of -feruntur being right, the 
question being what prefix should be 
added ; and the rhythm of the artificial 
sentence will be better observed, as all 
the verbs will be quadrisyllables. Helm 
reads differuntur for die pferuntur of the 
mss., as dia for dea is found only here 
in Apuleius. But i for e is a common 
error in F</> ; cp. 5. 19 corrumpit ior -pet. 

proteruntur] So Salmasius and 
Oudendorp for perferuntur of F< and 
proferuntur of the inferior mss. It 
seems a very suitable word to apply to 
neglected cushions. Aldus and Rohde 
read deseruntur, which is not so graphic, 
and is rather far from the tradition. 
Friedlander ingeniously suggests pul- 
uerantur. In Hautus (cp. Geli. 18. 



12. 4) puluero is intransitive, but it is 
used with an ace. in Plm. H. N. 11. 114. 
Helm reads praetereuntur, and Hilde- 
brand perteruntur. 

uiduae] This word is often applied 
metaphorically to trees before the vine 
is trained to them, and conversely of 
the vine before it is so trained : also in 
the sense of 'deprived of something, 
which is expressed, e.g. 2. 14 mente 
ttiduus, necdum sutis. But this seems to 
be the only passage in which it is used 
absolutely in the sense (presumably) of 
'without sacrifices,' 'unladen,' as is 
fixed by the context. 

frigido cinere] Hildebrand well 
compares Val. Flacc. 2. 98 Laetus adit: 
contra Veneris stat frigida semper Ara 
loco. 

supplicatur] Impersonal. The 
Dictt. quote Sail. Frag. p. 141 Kritz 
turn uenienti (sc. Metello) ture quasi deo 
supplicabatur . 

absentis] ' though absent,' ' who 
was really absent.' 

nomen] So the mss. Colvius, who 
reads numen with hesitation, is followed 
by Hildebrand with determination ; but 
the repetition of numen is unlikely, and 
there is no more difficulty in nomen 
being propitiated with victims than 
c. 30 the nomen being located in heaven. 
It is to be confessed, however, that we 
find nomine for numine in 5. 26 init. : 
but in G. 10 we have ruricula for 
ruricola, which shows that the con- 
fusion of the two letters was common. 



iv. 30] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



iamque per plateas commeantem pttpuli frequenter floribus 
sertis et solutis adprecantur. 

Haec honorum caelestium ad puellae mortalis cultum 
inmodica translatio uerae Yeneris uehementer incendit animos 
et inpatiens indignationis capite quassanti, fremens altius sic 5 
secum disserit : 

3O "En rerum naturae prisca parens, en elementorum origo 
initialis, en orbis totius alma Venus, quae cum mortal! puella 

O/L*-r t * 

partiario maiestatis honore tractor et nomen meum caelo 
conditum terrenis sordibus profanatur ! nimirum communi 10 
numinis piamento uicariae uenerationis incertum sustinebo et 
imagkrem meam circumfer[r]et puella moritura. frustra me 

12 circwnferet v : circumferrfy F : circumferre f <. 
puella moritura F : puella moritura f<. 



floribus sertis et solutis] flowers 
in wreaths and loose' cp. 2. 16 (Fotis) 
proximat rosa serta et rosa soluta in sinu 
tuber ante. For offerings of crowns cp. 
Plaut. Asin. 803 Turn si coronas serta 
unguenta iusserit Ancillam ferre Veneri 
nut Cupidini : Aul. 385 : Hor. Ep. 2. 
1. 144. 

uerae Veneris uehementer] in- 
flames the heart violently of the verit- 
able Venus.' Note the alliteration. 
On the jealousy of Venus cp. Prop. 2. 
28 (= 3. 24). 9 Nwn sibi collatam doluit 
Venus ipsa ? peraeque Prae se formosis 
inuidiosa dea est. Jealousy of the 
heroine as a motive for persecuting her 
is found in popular tales, such as 
" Little Snow-white " (Grimm 53). 

capite quassanti] cp. 6. 9 caputque 
quatiens. For this ahl. cp. 3. 26 : 
8. 19, and probably 2. 26. It is also 
found in Plaulus Asm. 403, Bacch. 
305; cp. Verg. G. 1. 74. This is 
the usual gesture of indignant thought : 
<jp. Horn. Od. 5. 285 Kiv-rjcras 8e Ka.pt] 
irporl t>v /jLvOrja-aro 6v/j.6v, and its imita- 
tion Verg. 2En. 7. 295 turn quassans 
caput liaec effundit pectore dicta. 

3O En rerum naturae .... Venus] 
This is an allusion probably to the 



opening of the poem of Lucretius. 
Aeneadum genetrix hominum diuomque 
uoluptas Alma Venus &c. Hildebrand 
says that alma is used in the sense of 
altrix or alumnatrix, and thus governs 
the genitive orbis totius. But he quotes 
no parallel, and the usage is improbable. 
Nor need alma be changed into anima 
or domina (cp. 11. 7) ; nor need domina 
be added, with Vliet. The genitive is 
rather possessive, 'the whole world's 
benign Venus.' Something similar is 
to be found in Riese's * Carmina in 
codicibus scripta ' 21. 224, p. 94 Tibi 
nunc, salis alme profundi, Quod dedimus, 
Neptune, tuum est. 1 

partiario maiestatis honore tractor] 
' I am dragged in the dust (like a 
captive slave cp. Verg. JEn. 2. 403) by 
having to share the honour of my great- 
ness with a mortal girl '; partiarius is a 
legal word : cp. 9. 27, where partiario 
is used adverbially. 

nimirum communi .... sustinebo] 
' So indeed ! by sharing the offerings to 
my divinity I shall have to tolerate the 
precarious position of receiving devotion 
by deputy.' 

circumferet] F reads circumferre 
corrected from circumferrQ. <f> gives 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



[iv. 30 



pastor ille, ciiius iustitiam fidemque magnus comprobauit 
luppiter, ob eximiam speciem tantis praetulit deabus. sed non 
adeo gaudens ista, quaecumque est, meos honores usurpa&it : 
iam faxo huius etiam ipsius inlicitae formonsitatis paeniteat." 

3 usurpabit v : tisurpavit F(f> : usurparit Oudendorp. 

4 etiam <f> : earn Jahn. 



circumferre. The older editors rightly 
altered to circumferet. F and <p have 
puella moritura, hut the stroke over the 
a in each case is hy a recent hand. 
Hildehrand reads circumferre puellam 
morituram, and quotes for this excla- 
matory use of the ace. and infinitive 
Apol. 29 scilicet ergo phrygionibm aut 
fabris negotiiim istud dandum fuisse, 
where, however, the inf. is governed hy 
scilicet = scire licet, as so often in 
the comic poets. A "better ex. is 
Met. 4. 11 cur enim manui quae rapere 
et iugulare sola posset fortem latronem 
nupertiiuere ! But it comes in awkwardly 
in a clause which is joined to an indica- 
tive clause hy et : hesides, the infin. is 
not the reading to which the niss. lead. 
Accordingly there is little douht that 
the recent editors are right in reading 
circumferet puella moritura. 

pastor ille] Paris, of course. Jupiter 
gave the order that Mercury should 
bring the goddesses to Paris to have the 
decision made (Hyginus 92). 

non adeo gaudens .... usurpabit] 
This is a Graecism ; non gaudens = ov 
Xaipoixra ' not with impunity,' the 
usual Latin phrase being non impune 
(cp. 3. 3), cp. Soph. Oed. Tyr. 363 
a\A' ov n xaipuv ^is 76 Trr]u.ova.s epels. 
* She, whoever she is, shall bitterly rue 
her assumption of honours due to me.' 
The mss. read usurpauit, which Ouden- 
dorp altered into usurparit, lit. ' she 
shall find that she has assumed.' This 
gives the full force to the future-perfect, 
and the corruption may have been due 
to the omission of the stroke which 
signifies er. But as the Greek idiom 



seems always to use the simple future 
with ov xaipuiv, it is more probable that 
usurpabit is the right reading. 

iam faxo .... paeniteat] This is a 
common form of threat (cp. 5. 30), and 
the archaic form faxo is generally used 
therein. In Plautus and Terence faxo 
is generally joined with another future 
in a parenthetical manner, cp. note on 
5. 9 iiidisti, quanta . . . iacent. But 
Ussing on Amph. 351 shows that the 
future is indeed found 50 times with 
faxo, but that, on the other hand, the 
subjunctive is found 16 times, and once 
with ut expressed (Asin. 893) ; so that 
both constructions are to be considered 
allowable. Jahn reads earn for etiam. 
Helm adds earn immediately after faxo, 
and that is certainly the usual position 
for the object 1. 12 faxo eum .... 
paeniteat: 5. 30 iam faxo te lusus huius 
paeniteat. In these passages, too, the 
object is expressed. But it is difficult 
to assign any reason for the disappear- 
ance of earn from the mss. : so it is pre- 
ferable to suppose that Apuleius did not 
use it. For such an omission the 
Dictionaries quote passages from Seneca 
(Q. X. 4 Praef 7) and Curtius 10. 7. 
12 nee uelle nee nolle quicquam diu 
poterant paenitebatque modo consilii, modo 
paenitentiae ipsius. Leky (De Apul. 
Syntaxi, p. 10) wishes to take paeniteat 
personally ; and so it is found in 5. 6 
cum coeperis paenitere, and even in 
classical writers such as Livy 3. 2. 
4, and elsewhere. But the passages 
quoted above with faxo seem to show 
that Apuleius preferred the imper- 
sonal use. Eossbach, whom Vliet 



iv. 31] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



Et uocat confestim puerum suum pinnatum ilium et satis 
temerarium, qui malis suis moribus contempta disciplina 
publica, flammis et sagittis armatus, per alienas domos nocte 
discurrens et omnium matrimonia corrumpens impune com- 
mittit tanta flagitia et nihil prorsus boni facit. hunc, 5 
quanquam genuina licentia procacem, uerbis quoque insuper 
stimulat et perducit ad illam ciuitatem et Psychen hoc enim 
nomine puella nuncupabatur coram ostendit et tota ilia 
perlata de formonsitatis aemulatione fabula gemens ac fremens 
indignatione : 10 

31 " Per ego te," inquit, " maternae caritatis foedera 
deprecor, per tuae sagittae dulcia uulnera, per flammae istius 
mellitas uredines, uindictam tuae parenti, sed plenam tribue 
et in pulchritudinem contumacem seuen'ter uindica idque 

14 seueriter Brant : reuerenter F<j>. 



follows, prefers to alter ipsius into 
ipsam : and Jahn conjectures earn for 
etiam. For inlicitae Crusius conjectured 
inclitae (' notorious ' cp. Ennius, Trag. 
55, Ribbeck, inchitwn indicium of the 
Judgment of Paris), but this is hardly 
necessary. For Venus asking Cupid to 
shoot his arrows and inspire passion cp. 
Apoll. Ehod. 3. 142 <ru 8e vapdcvov 
AtTjrao 0eA|oj> oiarTfiiffas eir' 'iTjcroi/t. 
This whole domestic scene in Apollonius 
(111-153) is quite charming, and well 
worth reading : Dilthey (De Call. Cyd. 
p. 45) thinks that we may perhaps 
regard Callimachus also as having 
portrayed such a scene (cp. Frag. 
239). 

contempta disciplina publica] ' hold- 
ing in scorn the morals of the commu- 
nity ': cp. 6. 22, where Jupiter declares 
that Cupid acts contra leges et ipsam 
luliam disciplinamque publicam. 

quanquam genuina licentia pro- 
cacem] ' although forward enough 
from his inborn native effrontery.' 

perlata] 'gone through,' cp. 7. 10 
Sic ille latromimjisci aduocatus nostram 



causam pertulerat : Juv. 7. 153 natn 
quaecunque sedens wiodo leyerat, haec 
eadem stans Perferet. 

gemens ac fremens] 'fretting and 
fuming ' alliteration. 

31 deprecor] ; I earnestly pray of 
you': cp. 3. 24; 6.2; 8. 10; 8.20; 11. 
25 the common usage of the word : Gell. 
7 (6). 16. 2; also 9. 23 diras deuotiones 
in earn deprecata, a passage which may 
in some measure support Gellius' in- 
terpretation of Catull. 92. 3. 

uredines] 'stingings.' The glosses 
explain the word as ' calor ignis vel 
uermis lignorum ' or as ' urens uentus.' 
It is used for ' blight ' in Cic. N. D. 3. 
86. But in Plin. H. N. 9. 147 it seems 
to mean ' a sting,' the sea-nettle 
(iirtica] tacta uredinem inittit. The 
termination is the same as in dulcedo, 
torpedo, teredo. 

sed] 'aye, a full one,' a use com- 
mon from the first cent. A.D., but found 
as early as Plautus (Rud. 799). 

seueriter] The mss. give reuerenter. 
But Brant is certainly right in reading 
seueriter, as it is the word found in 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



[iv. 31 



unum et pro omnibus unicum uolens effice : uirgo ista amore 
fraglantissimo teneatur hominis extremi, quern et dignitatis et 
patrimonii simul et incolumitatis ipsius Fortuna damnauit, 

1 effice v : effiici F<|>. 

2 fraglantissimo F : jlagrantissimo <f>. 

3 for tuna F<, sed corr. manu alt. ex fortune. 



Fulgentius and the Mythographus 
Vaticanus where they describe this re- 
quest of Venus. Apuleius uses the word 
elsewhere with uindicare 2. 27 (where F^> 
had originally reueriter] and 3. 3. It was 
already foundinTitinius67 (see Bibbeck 
Com. p. 143) seueriter Hodie sermonem 
arnica mecum contulit, and it is recognized 
by Priscian (ii 70 Keil), who gives many 
similar adverbs in -ter from adjec- 
tives in -us ; cp. Neue-Wagener ii 3 
pp. 725 ff. 

id unum et pro omnibus unicum] 
' this sole and special favour worth all 
beside' (lit. 'instead of all'). Many 
late mss. give prae for pro, which Oud. 
wrongly adopts. Helm notices that 
there is a similar divergence of readings 
in Verg. JEn. 3. 435 Unum illud tibi, 
note dea, proque omnibus unum Praedi- 
cam, on which passage the commentators 
quote Cic. Att. 2. 5. 1 Cato . . . . qui 
mihi unus est pro centum millions. For 
unum et unicum cp. Catull. 73. 5, 6 
Vt mihi quern nemo gravius nee acerbius 
urget Quam modo qui me unum atque 
unicum amicum habuit, on which passage 
Bahrens refers to Gell. 18. 4. 2 cum ille 
se unum et unicum lectorem esse enarra- 
toremque Sallustii diceret. 

uolens] generally used in prayers to 
divinities in conjunction vfithpropitius. 
Liv. 1. 16. 3 : 7. 26. 4. 

fraglantissimo] Apuleius usesfrag- 
lans both for fiagrans (as here and 5. 9 
init., 5. 23, cp. 4. 17 and perhaps 6. 22) 
and for fragrans (2. 5, 2. 8 fin., 3. 19, 
4. 2, 10. 34). The latter is the use 
most commonly recognized by the 



glosses. Apuleius frequently uses flag- 
rare and its derivatives (8. 22 : 4. 14 : 

3. 9), but not, so far as I know, fragrare 
or its derivatives. F gives fraglare, 
except in 6. 11, where F(/> \i&\eflagrans. 
Many examples of this dissimilation 
from the African writers are given by 
Wolfflin in the Archiv iv 8 ff. Fronto 
seems to be the first writer in whom it 
appears prominently. In Verg. Georg. 

4. 169 the best mss. give fraglantia 
mella. See a very learned Excursus 
by Prof. Ellis on Catullus, p. 346. 

extremi] ' the lowest.' The dic- 
tionaries quote Senec. Epist. 70. 25 
extrema mancipia, and Justin. 15. 1 
quidam sortis extremae iuvenis. Not 
quite parallel is Met. 3. 5 extremes 
latrones, where the word rather means 
1 most desperate.' 

For a similar vengeance of Venus cp. 
Hyginus Fab. 58 Smyrna Cinyrae . . . 
et Cenchreidis filia : cuius mater Cen- 
chreis superbius locuta quod Jiliae suae 
formam Veneri anteposuerat Venus ma- 
tris poenas exsequens Smyrnae infandum 
amorem obiecit adeo ut patrem suum 
amaret. Ovid seems to allude to this 
Met. 10. 524 lam placet (Adonis) et 
Veneri matrisque ulciscitur ignes. 

incolumitatis] 'security of life.' 
He should be a hunted thing. Possibly 
there may be a reference to his having 
lost the rights of citizenship, pos- 
session of the rights of citizenship 
being often described as incolumitas by 
Cicero. 

damnauit] ' amerced of,' as in the 
usual damnare capitis (civil status). 



iv. 31] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



9 



tamque infirmi, ut per totum orbem non inueniat miseriae suae 
comparem." 

Sic effata et o<s>culis hiantibus filium diu ac pressule 
sauiata proximas oras reflui litoris petit plantisque roseis 
uibrantium fluctuum summo rore calcato ecce iam prof undi 5 



1 infirmi F< : iiifimi v. 
3 osculis v : oculis F<. 



5 calcato f : calcatu F<. 
profundi F< : profundum Koebler. 



infirmi] Sothemss. Editors mostly 
alter to infimi, Oudendorp referring to 
5. 24 (Veneris) quae temiseri extremique 
hominis deuinctam cupidine infimo ma- 
trimonio addici iusserat. There is no 
great objection to tarn with a super- 
lative ; but the word is somewhat 
tautologous after extremi ; and in 5. 24 
infimo matrimonio sums up the whole 
position, infimo is the reading of the 
mss., and the word there is not exactly 
co-ordinate with the other adjectives. 
If the creature, in addition to all his 
other misfortunes, was a weakling and 
irresolute, ' feeble ' in body and mind, 
we can well imagine that the wife's 
misery would be complete. Accord- 
ingly, though with some little hesitation, 
the mss. reading has been retained. 

Sic effata . . exercitus] This is 
what the Greek rbetoricians would call 
an fictypaffis. 

osculis hiantibus] cp. 3. 19 for the 
same words : also 5. 23 patulis . . . 
sauiis. cp. also Gell. 19. 11. 3 dum 
semihiulco sauio rneiim puellum sauior. 
The mss. give oculis : in 5. 23 fin. there 
is a similar error. 

pressule sauiata] cp. 2. 16 me 
pressim deosculato : 10. 21 exosculata 
pressule. 

reflui litoris] 'the refluent shore,' 
a strange collocation to express the 
shore from which the waves recede. 
Rohde and Cornelissen suggest licoris 
i.e. liquoris, comparing Horace Carm. 
3. 3. 46 qua medius liquor Secernit 
Europen ab Afro. The collocation 



litoris or am is occasionally found, Verg. 
Georg. 2. 44. 

plantisque .... calcato] 'tread- 
ing with her rosy steps the crests of the 
glancing waves.' As the mss. give 
calcatu, Helm conjectures that we should 
read en ecce, as in 8. 26 init. : 10. 9 fin.: 
11. 15. For calcare cp. Anth. Pal. 6. 
189 Nu/t<ai 'Aj/typiaSes, irorafMov itupai, 
at raSe j8eV0?j ' A/j.fipoffia.1 poSeots trrei- 
/3ere iroacrlv del. 

ecce iam profundi .... obsequium] 
The mss. read -prof undi, for which 
Koehler (Rh. Mus. 19 (1864), p. 152) 
suggests profundum (cp. c. 28), a read- 
ing adopted by all subsequent editors. 
He says, and rightly, that if profundi 
is retained, the only meaning the passage 
can have is that the goddess sat down 
on the calm surface of the deep sea, and 
that this would not justify the emphatic 
ecce, and is inconsistent with biiuges. 
Both these objections may perhaps be 
met. The picture seems to be this : 
When Venus reached the shore, she 
walked along the shallow water with her 
rosy feet, and when she reached deep 
water (wherein alone the sea-gods 
could operate), look you, she paused for 
an instant, and, in true fairy-tale wise, 
wished (for her retinue to attend). No 
sooner has she wished for the marine 
troop than, lo ! they are there. Her 
sudden stopping was noteworthy, espe- 
cially on account of what followed. The 
whole proceeding was so striking, the 
pause, the wish, the sudden appearance 
of the sea- gods, that we may well have 



10 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



[iv. 31 



mails sudo resedit uertice, et ipsum quod incipit uelle en 
statim, quasi pridem praeceperit, non moratur marinum 
obsequium: adsunt Nerei filiae chorum canentes et Portunus 
caerulis barbis hispidus et grauis piscoso sinu Salacia et auriga 

1 en statim Oudendorp : et statim ~F<f> : ei statim Jahn. 
3 Nerei eorr ex medei Fd>. 



not only one but two exclamations in 
close succession ; for it is sounder to 
adopt Oudendorp's en for et before 
statim, than simply eject it with the 
editors. With the appearance of the 
marine troop came also the chariot 
drawn by Tritons ; but the author 
possibly with some picture before his 
mind representing such a procession 
which he described in order of details 
did not come to mention the carriage 
until the end. In any case it seems 
that Ap. wished to represent Venus as 
walking (plantis] some little way over 
the sea before she seated herself in the 
chariot. The passage may then be 
translated ' look you ! now in the deep 
sea she pauses on its summer surface ; 
and on her very first wish, lo ! straight- 
way, as if she had given command 
therefor long since, she is at once 
obeyed by the ocean's duteous service.' 
Helm follows Koehler and ejects et 
statim as a gloss. Hildebrand thinks 
incipit uelle simply equivalent to vult : 
but the immediate fulfilment of the first 
beginnings of a wish tends to dis- 
play the power of Venus in a more 
striking manner. Obsequium, the ab- 
stract for the concrete, like ministerium. 
sudo] The word sudus is generally 
applied to the clearness of air or wind 
or light; Apuleius uses it in 11. 7 
nudo sudoque luminis proprii splendore : 
Apol. 16 cuncta specula uel uda uel suda: 
De Deo Socr. 2. 121 suda tempestate. In 
one passage (ib. 10. 143) he uses it of 
clouds humectiores humilius meant aquilo 
agmine, tractu segniore : sudis uero sub- 
limior cursus et, cum lanarum tielleribus 



similes aguntur, cano agmine, uolatu 
perniciore. 

Portunus caerulis barbis hispidus} 
The plural barbae .is used of the beard of 
one man when it is especially thick : cp. 
Senec. Here. 0. 1753 illi graues luxere 
barbae. Petron. 99 barbis horrentibus 
nauta. Portunus was an old god of 
harbours (Portunus a portu Cic. N. D. 
2. 26) or gates (Paul. ap. Fest. 56 
claudere et clauis ex Graeco descendit 
cuius rei tutelam penes Portumim esse 
putabant qui clauim manu tenere finge- 
latur et deus putabatur esse portarum). 
Hence his cult was connected with that 
of Janus. The Portunalia were held on, 
Aug. 17 at Rome and Ostia. Later 
writers (cp. Ov. Fast. 6. 547) connected 
him with the story of Athamas, Ino, 
and Melicerta, and told that Melicerta 
was changed into the god Portunus qui 
Graece Palaemon dicitiir (Serv. on JEn. 
5. 241). But Apuleius here keeps them 
distinct, and prettily represents Palae- 
mon as still a little fellow (paruulus}* 
"Wissowa (in Eoscher's Myth. Lex. s. v. 
Portunus, p. 2788) thinks that, as 
Salacia here = Amphitrite, we should 
suppose that Apuleius in this passage 
considered Portunus as Neptune. But 
he speaks in Apol. 31 of Neptunus cum 
Salacia et Portuno et oinni choro Nerei. 
It is questionable if Apuleius in this 
* floridum ' thought much about the 
natures of the sea-gods he mentioned. 
All he desired was to accumulate a few 
out-of-the-common names. 

et grauis piscoso sinu Salacia] ' and 
S. heavy-laden with her bosom-load 
of fish.' Salacia was an old Roman 



iv. 32] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



11 



paruulus delfini Palaemon; iam passim maria persultantes 
Tritonum cateruae hie concha sonaci leniter bucinat, ille serico 
tegmine flagrantiae solis obsistit inimici, alius sub oculis 
dominae speculum progerit, curru biiuges alii subnatant. talis 
ad Oceanum pergentem Venerem comitatur exercitus. 5 

3$ Interea Psyche cum sua sibi perspicua pulchritudine 
nullum decoris sui fructum percipit. spectatur ab omnibus, 
laudatur ab omnibus, nee quisquam non rex, non regius, nee 

1 passim v: parsim F^>. 



goddess of the salt sea waves. Festus 
(p. 326) says she was so called because 
shQsaliim ciet, cp. Pacuvius 418 (Ribb.) 
hinc saeuitiam Salaciaeftigimus. She was 
celebrated in hymns (Gell. 13. 23. 2) as 
the wife of Neptune, cp. Serv. on ./En. 
1. 144. Cicero (Tim. 39) seems to 
identify her with Tethyg, wife of 
Oceanus: cp. Serv. on Georg. 1. 
31. 

Tritonum] Servius on JEn. 1. 144 
Triton, dens marinus Neptuni et Salaciae 
Jilius, deae marinae ab aqua salsa dictae. 
' Old Triton ' is generally represented 
as a man above, with a dolphin's tail 
below. He blows his ' wreathed horn,' 
a twisted sea shell, now strongly, now 
gently, to raise or calm the sea. In 
course of time it came to be considered 
that there were many Tritons who were 
regarded as attendants on other gods as 
they sped over the waves. 

concha sonaci leniter bucinat] 
' blows a soft trumpet-note on his 
sounding shell'; cp. Ov. Met. 1. 333 
Tritona uocat conchaeque sonaci Suspirare 
iubet. The word sonax is used else- 
where by Apuleius in a stronger sense 
(8. 4) of a boar dentibits attritu spumeus. 

speculum progerit] cp. 11. 9 of the 
priestesses of Isis aliae quae nitentibus 
speculis pone tergum reuersis uenienti 
deae obuium commonstrarent obsequium. 

curru biiuges alii subnatant] 
others swim beneath the chariot in 



double harness ' (lit. * under the double 
yoke '). <j> reads curru according to 
Vliet ; and though F has currus, Vliet 
says that rru is a re-writing of what was 
originally in the ms. (' manus rescrip- 
toris est'), and that * is added at the 
end by a recent hand. Of the reading 
of F Helm says ' vid. f tdsse curru, sed 
compendio *" del. ; al. m. corr. currus. 1 
It would seem that curru was the read- 
ing of the archetype. Vliet compares 
Sil. 14. 482 pars subnatat unda [should 
it not be tindae?'] Membrorum, pars 
exstat aquis. It would not be easy to 
quote a parallel for subnatare with the 
ace. ; in such a passage as Sil. 15. 130 
Pectora subrepit terror, there is an idea of 
motion towards, and the ordinary con- 
struction of subrepere is certainly with 
the dat. In Verg. -ZEn. 3. 541 curru 
succedere sued Quadrupedes, we should 
regard curru as the dat. cp. Georg. 3. 
418. 

cum sua sibi . . . pulchritudine] For 
this usage (suits sibi) so frequent in the 
comic writers Koziol (p. 78) quotes a 
dozen passages from the literary works 
of Apuleius. To those quoted in the 
Dictionaries add 7. 13 : 9. 40 : Apol. 
69 : Flor. 9. 32 (Oud.): 16. 65 : 18. 87 : 
23. 103. See also Archiv, 8. 43, 
44. 

non regius] 'no prince.' The editors 
quote no parallel for regius used thus 
absolutely for regius Jilius or sponsus. 



12 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



[iv. 32 



de plebe saltern cupiens eius nuptiarum petitor accedit. 
mirantur quidem diuinam speciem, sed ut simulacrum fabre 
politum mirantur omnes. oliin duae maiores sorores, quarum 
temperatam formonsitatem nulli diffamarant populi, proeis 

5 regibus desponsae iam beatas nuptias adeptae, sed Psyche 
uirgo uidua domi residens deflet desertam suam solitudinem 
aegra corporis, aniini sau[da]cia et quamuis gentibus totis 
complacitam odit in se suam formonsitatem. sic infortuna- 
tissimae filiae miserrimus pater suspectatis caelestibus odiis et 

10 irae superum metuens dei Mile[s]sii uetustissimum percontatur 

7 animi saucia v : animis audacia F<. 



ut simulacrum fabre politum] This 
is a usual simile to express beauty in the 
Greek novels: cp. Achill. Tat. 5. 11. 5 



. , iraw KaK^v W<TT' Uv l$&v 
avr^v ehrois &ya\/j.a. We find it also 
in Euripides Hec. 560 /jiaffrovs T' e5ei|e 
arepva 0', ws dyd\/j.aTos Ka.\\urTa. 

olim] 'some time before', as 9. 6 
olim descendit in dolium : cp. non olim 
' quite recently.' 

diffamarant] This is a rare use of 
the word 'noised abroad,' 'published 
widely,' in a good sense. It is used in 
the Vulgate to translate 
(Matt. 9. 31 : Mark i. 45) and 
(1 Thess. 1. 8). We can hardly take 
diffamare here as implying that the 
fame of Psyche's beauty tended to her 
hurt, cp. gentibus totis complacitam. 

procis regibus] For substantives as 
attributes cp. 5. 24 amatores oculi: 
5. 26 deus pastor : 3. 29 rosae uirgines : 
7. 11 puella uirgo : and often. 

uidua] can be used of any un- 
married woman, whether widow or 
maid ; cp. Dig. 50. 16. 242. 3 ' Viduam ' 
non solum earn quae aliquando nupta 
fuisset, sed earn quoque mulierem quae 
uirum non habuisset, appellari ait Labeo. 
But as ' widow ' is the common use, by 
thus joining uirgo and uidua, Apuleius 
succeeds in getting an artificial collo- 
cation and alliteration. A somewhat 



similar artificiality Apuleius adopts in 
Apol. 76 fortasse an adhuc uidua ante 
quam nupta domi sedisset. Something 
similar, but not quite parallel, is 
' widowed wife and wedded maid ' in 
The Betrothed. 

aegra corporis] The only parallel to 
corporis which I can find is in Paulinus 
of Nola Carm. 27. 425. The locative 
animi is common. With this passage 
may perhaps be compared Ennius Fab. 
213 (Kibb.) Medea animo aegra amove 
saevo saucia. 

sic] 'then,' 'under these circum- 
stances ' : cp. 3. 3 tune . . . me orchestrae 
mediae sistunt. Sic rursum . . . accu- 
sator . . . exsuryit : 3. 21 Jit bubo 
Pamphile. Sic . . . terra resultat. 

irae superum metuens] ' afraid that 
he was incurring the anger of heaven.' 
Of ten in Horace (e.g. Carm. 3. 19. 16 
rixarum metuens} and Juvenal (e.g. 
5. 154 metuensque flagelli] : cp. also 
Pers. 2. 31 metuens diuom; Ov. Met. 1. 
323 : Cic. Dom. 70 legum iudiciorumque 
metuentes. With the dat. metuens means 
' fearing for (on behalf of)', cp. 5. 4 
tdrginitati suae . . . metuens ; Verg. 
G. 1. 186 inopi metuens formica 
senectae. 

dei Milesii uetustissimum . . . ora- 
culum] This was the oracle about 
10 miles south of Miletus at a place 



iv. 33] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



13 



oraculum et <a> tanto numine precibus et uictimis ingratae 
uirgini petit nuptias et maritum. sed Apollo, quanquam 
Graecus et lonicus, propter Milesiae conditorem sic Latina 
sorte respondit : 

33 " mentis in excelsi scopulo, rex, sis be puellam 

ornatam mundo funerei thalami. 
nee speres generum mortali stirpe creatum, 

sed saeuum atque ferum uipereumque malum, 

1 a add. Price. 3 Milesiae v : milessii F0. 

5 scopulo, rex, siste Liitjohann : scopulor existe F initio : sed man. rec. eraso 

r ex inseruit sub : scopulo existe <j>. 
7 speres <p m. rec. : sperfy F<f>. mortali <f> m. rec : marcali F<. 



called Didymi, or more usually Bran- 
chidae, though in strictness this latter 
was the name of the priests of the 
oracle. It flourished certainly in the 
6th century B.C. Sir Charles Newton 
has made interesting excavations there 
(Discoveries at Halicarnassus, Cnidus, 
and Branchidae, ii. chap. 23). 

a tanto numine] As petere cannot 
he used with the simple ahl., we have 
added a with Price. This is easier 
than attempting to find a participle in 
tanto, e.g. tentato (Hertz), litato (Jahn); 
or adding a participle, e.g. adito, after 
tanto (Bursian), or propitiato after 
uictimis (Vliet), though propitiare is a 
word to which Apuleius is very partial. 
Helm refers to 5. 10 robor<a>ta for a 
omitted hefore t. For tanto numine 
cp. 4. 29 deae tantae ; 6. 18 tantus 
dens. 

ingratae] * unfavoured,' ' unpleas- 
ing,' as she had no suitors. Leo in- 
geniously suggests in<vocato desol>atae. 
propter Milesiae conditorem] This 
is humorous ; ' to gratify the author 
of the Milesian tale,' that is ' as a favour 
to me Apuleius.' "With Milesiae supply 
historiae (Ovid Trist. 2. 444) or f alulae 
cp. Capitol. Alb. 11. 8 Miksias non- 
nulli eiusdem esse dicunt: 12. 12 cum 
ille neniis quibusdam anilibus occupatus 



inter Milesias Punicas Apulei sui et 
ludicra litteraria consenesceret. It is 
disputed as to whether hy Milesia here 
Apuleius means to refer to his whole 
novel, cp. 1. 1 init. (Burger in Hermes 
27 (1892), p. 353), or to the individual 
story of Cupid and Psyche (Rohde in 
Eh. Mus. 48 (1893), p. 152). The latter 
seems the more probahle : hut perhaps 
the question cannot he definitely settled. 
For Milesian tales see Excursus I. 

33 niontis in excelsi scopulo] The 
whole of this description of the pro- 
cession to the hill recalls Grimm's 
Tale of the Two Brothers (No. 60). 

rex, siste] This is the brilliant 
restoration of Liitjohann. F has sub- 
siste, hut subs is in an erasure by a 
recent hand : <f> has existe, which settles 
the matter. Cp. c. 34 scopulo sistite, 
which also shows (as Jahn pointed out) 
that we should have siste here. Helm 
says that F seems originally to have had 
scopulor existe. 

mundo] < decked in the garments of 
a bridal with the grave.' Price com- 
pares the description of the picture of 
Andromeda in Achill. Tat. 3. 7 Se'Sercu 
fj.V ovrca rbv Qdvmov e/cSexo^ueVTj* 
eVrTj/ce Se fv^iKtas eVroAtoyteVrj, Sxnrep 
'ASwj/tSt vvfj.(pr\ KKoo~[j.7][jivr). For tmm- 
dus in the sense of ' paraphernalia,' 



14 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



[iv. 33 



quod pinnis uolitans super aethera cuncta fatigat 
flammaque et ferro singula debilitat, 

quod tremit ipse louis, quo numina terrificantur 
fluminaque horrescunt et Stygiae tenebrae." 

5 rex olim beatus affatu sanctae uaticinationis accepto pigens 
tristisque retro domum pergit suaeque coniugi praeeepta sortis 

5 pigens $ : piger F (sed er in rasura alia manu) <}> (m. rec.). 



' apparel ' cp. 2. 9 : 11.8: Liv. 34. 7. 9 
munditiae et ornatus et cultus, haec 
feminarum insignia sunt : hunc mun- 
dum muliebrem appellarunt maiores 
nostri. Apuleius also uses it in the 
sense of 'appliances for' 6. 1 operae 
inessoriae tnttndtts omnis. In Apol. 13 
fin. Apuleius uses the word apparently 
with both the above meanings, but the 
first doubtless predominates maius pia- 
culum decernis speculum philosopho quam 
Cereris mundum profann videre, where 
mundum appears to be glossed by orgia 
a few lines before. 

quod pinnis] F0, so far as I can 
gather from Helm's note, seem to have 
read qui (q). But as in line 7 we have 
quod, it is much more likely that 
Apuleius wrote quod here, where the 
neuter malum was so close at hand. 
Confusions of abbreviations of relatives 
are most common. 

louis] an archaic form found in 
Ennius' well-known list of the twelve 
great gods, luno, Vesta, Minerua, Ceres, 
Diana, Venus, Mars, \ Mercurius, lovis, 
Neptunus, Volcanus, Apollo: and often 
in the Fabulae of Hyginus e.g. 195 init. 
louis, Neptunus, Mercurius in Thraciam 
ad Hyrieum regem in hospitium uener- 
unt : also 275 init. Compare too 
Petron. 47 : 58. 

fluminaque] The reading flumina 
has been retained with some hesitation. 
No doubt rivers, as well as all other 
things, cannot withstand the fires of 
Love, and editors refer to 5. 25 sed mitis 
Jluvius in honorem dei scilicet, qui et 



^psas aquas were consneuit . . . earn . . . 
herbis exposuit. But there is little 
about the monster here depicted that 
would lead to the idea that he was a 
consuming fire, asjtfamwa et ferro is the 
stock phrase of an enemy spreading 
desolation in which the flainma is not 
emphasized : and flumina, is a very 
inadequate antithesis or pendant to 
Stygiae tenebrae. Though it has met 
with little favour from recent editors, I 
incline to the old and obvious emen- 
dation luminaque, and would refer 
the word to the lights of the upper 
world, the sun, moon, and stars. L. 
Miiller suggested fulmina and Rohde 
culmina. Helm retains fluminaque, as 
does Hildebrand. In defence of the very 
slight divergence from strict grammar 
he compares 6. 10 felix uero ego quae 
uocabor auia et uilis ancillae films nepos 
Veneris audiet. 

pigens] So <}> ; ' chagrined,' dis- 
appointed and vexed at the reply of the 
oracle. F has piger, but er in an 
erasure by a late hand. This would 
make tolerable sense: the king returned 
slowly and sadly (piger tristisque}. 
But the reading of <f> (pigens) points to 
the same reading having been originally 
in F. The alteration was perhaps made 
on account of the extreme rarity of the 
present participle. We do not find it 
elsewhere except in a very late poem, 
see Bahrens P. L. M. 5. p. 358, 1. 13, 
where it is more than doubtful, as we 
should probably there read pigrens with 
Cuper. 






IV. 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



15 



enodat infaustae. maeretur, fletur, lamentatur diebus plusculis. 
sed dirae sortis iam urget taeter effectus. iam feralium 
nuptiarum miserrimae uirgini choragium struitur, iam taedae 
lumen atrae fuliginis cinere marcescit, et sonus tibiae zygiae 
mutatur in querulum Ludii modum cantusque laetus hymenaei 5 
lugubri finitur ululatu et puella nuptura deterget lacrimas ipso 
suo flammeo. sic adfectae domus triste fatum cuncta etiam 
ciaitas congemebat luctuque publico confestim congruens 
edicitur iustitium. 

4 zygiae Beroaldus: gygie F : gigie </>. 

5 Ludium modum Jahn (Lydium in. vulg) : ludumodum F : ludimodum ty : 

hidiu*odum, sed delete odum, f. 



enodat] * unfolds.' In 5. 30 arcum 
enodet means to ( unstring the bow.' 

maeretur, fletur, lamentatur] Im- 
personal ; for fletur cp. Ter. Andr. 
129. Cp. Ennius Ann. 26 maerentes 
flentes lacrimantes ac miserantes. 

urget] ' becomes pressing,' cp. Cic. 
Att. 13. 27. 2 nihilenim urget. 

choragium] Strictly the bringing 
out of a chorus, and the ' get-up ' 
that was necessary for the performers. 
Here it means the whole arrangements 
and appurtenances of the ceremonial. 
Perhaps we might translate 'pageantry' 
or ' ceremonial.' Cp. 2. 20 in ipso 
momenta choragi faneris (or funebris), 
' at the actual time of the funeral cere- 
monial.' The elaborate passage which 
follows, which blends the ideas of bridal 
and funeral, is suited to the artificial 
genius of Apuleius, and is well done. 
The heroine who is to be sacrificed to 
the monster in such tales as this is 
always adorned as a bride. 

Fulgentius in his Expositio sermonum 
antiquorum ( 36) has this section 
(Helm, p. 121) Quid sit coragium ? 
Coraffium dicitur uirginale funus, sicut 
Apuleius in metamorphoseon ait : ' Cor- 
agio ita perfecto omnes domuitionem 
par ant.' This is a mixture of three 
passages ; viz. this passage : 34 init. 
perfectis igitur feralis thalami . . . 



sollemnibus : 35 domuitionem parant. 
The interpretation given by Fulgentius 
is derived solely from the present 
passage. 

marcescit] ' burns faint.' Cp. 
Panegyr. Vet. 11. 17 marcentem iam 
cupiditatis meaeflammam . . . .exeitasti: 
A poet quoted by Diomedes (p. 450, 
28, ed. Keil) has marcido dies sole pallet. 

zygiae] This is the fine emendation 
of Beroaldus for gygie of the mss. To 
read Gygiae (i.e. Lydian, from Gyges, 
King of Lydia) or Phrygiae either intro- 
duces tautology, or at any rate it gives 
no allusion to marriage, and marks no 
contrast with the succeeding words. 
ZiryiT? is an epithet often applied to 
Hera, as the goddess who presided over 
marriage; cp. 6. 4 quam (sc. lunonem] 
cunctus oriens Zygiam ueneratur. 

querulum Ludii modum] cp. 
Florid. 4 init. Aeolion simplex sine 
lastium varium seu Ludium querulum 
seu Phygium religiosum seu Dorium 
bellicosum. 

sic adfectae] ' in this sad plight,' 
cp. 1.7 utpote tiltime adfectus : 3. 27 sic 
adfectus : Seneca De Ira 1. 11. 5 Fabius 
adfectas imperil uires recreauit. The 
word is also used absolutely to express 
'illness,' cp. Prop. 2. 28. 1 luppiter, 
adfectae tandem miserere puellae ; Cic. 
Phil. 9. 2. 



16 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



[iv. 34 



34 Sed monitis caelestibus parendi necessitas misellam 
Psychen ad destinatam poenam efflagitabat. perfectis igitur 
feralis thalami cum summo maerore sollemnibus toto pro- 
sequente populo uiuum producitur funus et lacrimosa Psyche 

5 comitatur non nuptias, sed exequias suas. ac dum maesti 
parentes et tanto malo perciti nefarium f acinus perficere 
cunctantur, ipsa ilia filia talibus eos adhortatur uocibus : 

" Quid infelicem senectam fletu diutino cruciatis ? quid 
spiritum uestrum, qui magis meus est, crebris eiulatibus 

10 fatigatis ? quid lacrimis inefficacibus ora mihi ueneranda 
foedatis ? quid laceratis in uestris oculis mea lumina ? quid 
canitiem scinditis ? quid pectora, quid ubera sancta tunditis ? 
haece sunt uobis egregiae formonsitatis meae praeclara prae- 

13 haece sunt Michaelis : haec enmt F<J>, quod retinet Helm, interrogationis 
signo post praemia addito. 



H-4 uiuum producitur funus] ' the 
living corpse is led forth.' Ftmus is 
used of the corpse, but generally with 
the accessory notion of the solemnities 
of hurial : cp. Prop. 1. 17. 8 Haeccine 
parva mcum funus arena teget ? How- 
ever, in Verg. JEn. 9. 491 ant quae 
nunc artus auolsaque membra et funus 
lacerum tellus habet ? There seems no 
further idea than ' corpse.' The 
regular word for conducting a funeral 
is producer -e (rpovtfuew) : cp. Verg. 
JEn. 9. 487 ; Lucan 2. 298 : Stat. Silv. 
2. 1. 21. 

non nuptias, sed exsequias suas] 
The editors compare Manilius 5. 545 ff 
(of Andromeda) Sic Hymenaeus erat ; 
solataque publica damna Priuatis : lacri- 
mans ornatur uictima poenae, Induitur- 
que sinus non haec ad uota paratos, 
Virginis et uiuae rapitur sine funere 
funus. The antithesis, yet comparison, 
of marriage and death is common in 
Greek poetry : Anth. Pal. 7. 182, 188, 
712, Soph. Antig. 813 ff., Eur. Heracl. 
579 f., Ovid, Heroid. 21. 172 et face 
pro thalami fax mihi mortis adest. 
Naturally then it penetrated to Greek 



fiction, A chill. Tat. 1. 13 fin. (lament of 
a father over his youthful son) TTOTC p.oi, 
TT^TC ffov Qixrou TOVS 
Ta(pos fjLfv croi, TCKVOV, 6 
6d\afjLos' ya.iJt.os 8' 6 da.va.ros' Qpr^vos 8' 
6 v/uLfvaios, 6 Se KUKVTOS Tuvyd/u.uv ovros 
(pSai .... 5 irovripas Tavrirjs SaSou^ias* 
f] vv/j.(f>LK-f) o-oi 5a5oux' racj)^ yivfrai. 
Proud Maisie asks the bonny bird : 
'When shall I marry me?' 'When 
six braw gentlemen kirkward shall carry 
thee.' Indeed, the association of the 
bridal and the grave, as of Love and 
Death, is deep in the general heart of 
man. Cp. above, note to c. 33 init. 

laceratis] 'torture': cp. Cic. Tusc. 
3. 27 aegritudo lacerat, exest animum 
planeque conficit. It was torture to the 
eyes of Psyche to see her parents with 
weeping eyes. There does not seem 
good reason to shift about the words in 
the way Bliimner and Vliet have done : 
quid lacrimis inefficacibus in uestris oculis 
mea lumina foedatis ? quid ora mihi 
ueneranda laceratis ? Nor is it necessary 
to adopt maceratis with Petschenig. 

Haece sunt] This is the excellent 
correction of Michaelis for Haec enmt 



iv. 35] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



17 



mia. inuidiae nefariae letali plaga percuss! sero sentitis. cum 
gentes et populi celebrarent nos diuinis honoribus, cum nouam 
me Venerem ore consono nuncuparent, tune dolere, tune flere, 
tune me iam quasi peremptam lugere debuistis. iam sentio, 
iam uideo solo me nomine Veneris perisse. ducite me et cui 5 
sors addixit scopulo sistite. festino felices istas nuptias obire, 
festino generosum ilium maritum meum uidere. quid differo, 
quid detrecto uenientem, qui totiws orbis exitio natus est ? " 

35 Sic profata uirgo conticuit ingressuque iam ualido pom- 
pae populi prosequentis sese miscuit. itur ad constitutum scopu- 10 
lum mentis ardui, cuius in summo cacumine statutam puellam 
cuncti deserunt, taedasque nuptiales, quibus praeluxerant, 
ibidem lacrimis suis extinctas relinquentes deiectis capitibus 

8 Videtur in F prior manus qjb otios orbi' correxisse ex qd otios orbi se : qd 
otiosorbi s <p, sed alia manu : qui totius orbis v. 



of the mss. : cp. Beyte p. 55. Helm 
retains erunt, placing a note of interro- 
gation at praemia. Eohde reads Haec 
enim (omitting entnt], explaining the 
enim '(I must speak in this gloomy 
strain) for this is the reward of my 
beauty.' In F we sometimes find r for 
s e.g. c. 31 parsim for passim'. 6. 11 
fur to forfrusto. 

percussi . . sentitis] A common 
Graecism, the usual example of which 
is Verg. JEn. 2. 377. 

solo . . nomine] owing solely to 
my being called by the name of Venus.' 

totius orbis] According to Jahn- 
Michaelis F has q d otiosorbit^s, the 
same copyist altering to q d otiosordi****, 
and the first hand of < has the same. 
It seems that the book from which F 
copied had the right reading totius orbis, 
but that in some strange way the t got 
shifted (perhaps had been written in the 
margin instead of over the line), and 
was religiously copied by F at first, but 
on revision was ejected by the same 
copyist in order to get the word orbis. 
Helm says that in F the two letters 



which are erased after orbis were pro- 
bably se, which arose from dittography. 
Apuleius uses totius orbis shortly after- 
wards in 5. 2 ; cp. 5. 9 in orbe toto. 
The main tenor of the oracle was that 
the monster vexed and enfeebled the 
whole universe (see lines 5 and 6 cuncta 
. . . singula). Those who wish to learn 
the explanation of the temerarious 
reading of Traube, qui devotis et orbatis 
exitio est must consult Weyman, p. 35. 
If we could suppose that the mss. were 
corrupted from this and we surely 
cannot do anything of the kind the 
meaning is said to be ' who is the 
destruction of the devoted and the be- 
reaved,' i.e. of Psyche and her parents, 
but with a further nuance, which the 
subtle reader is to understand ' who is 
the destruction of those who are con- 
signed to the fires of love and those who 
are deprived of the hopes of love.' But 
is this consonant with the simple pathos 
of the rest of Psyche's speech ? 

35 quibus praeluxerant] by the 
light of which they had led the 
way.' 



18 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



[iv. 35 



domuitionem parant. et miseri quidem parentes eius tanta 
clade defessi, clausae domus abstrusi tenebris, perpetuae 
riocti[s] sese dedidere. Psychen autem pauentem ac trepidam 
et in ipso scopuli uertice deflentem mitis aura molliter spirantis 
5 Zephyri,, uibra[]tis hinc inde laciniis et reflate sinw sensim 
leuatam suo tranquillo spiritu uehe[me]ns paulatim per 
deuexa rupis'excelsae, uallis subditae florentis cespitis gremio 
leniter delapsam reclinat. 

e 

3 trepidd corr. prima manus ex trepidante F: tpida </>. 

5 uibratis v : uibrantis F<. sinu v : sino F : si u </>. 

6 uehens <f>, sed alia manu : ttehemem F0 priore manu. 

8 In F et in $ subscriptum est Ego Sallustius legi et emendaui rome felix 
METHA MORPHOSEON LIB. IIII. EXPLIK. INC1P1T. V. FELICITER. 



domuitionem] This word is used at 
least five other times in the Met. viz. 1. 
7 : 2. 31 fin. : 3. 19 fin. : 10. 18 : 11. 24. 
Opinions seem divided as to whether we 
should read this form or domum itio 
where the word occurs in the writers of 
the Republic. See Georges Lex. d. lat. 
Wortformen s. v. In Cic. De Div. 1. 
68 C. F. "W. Miiller reads domum 
itionem in two words. 

et miseri . . . reclinat] 'And her 
wretched parents, overcome by their 
great calamity, shut their palace, and, 
buried in the depths of its darkness, 
consigned themselves to live -long night. 
But Psyche, fearing and trembling and 
weeping bitterly on the very top of the 
rock a breeze of softly breathing 
Zephyr, swaying hither and thither the 
lappets of her dress and swelling out 
its fold, gradually raises her up, and 
carrying her along with its calm breath 
imperceptibly over the slopes of the 
lofty cliff, in the valley beneath on the 
lap of the flowering turf, when she 
gently floated down, lays her to rest.' 
There are few more gracefully elaborated 
and beautifully expressed passages in 
Apuleius than this description of 

how Psyche went 

On the smooth wind to realms of 

wonderment 

which breathes the very breath of Zephyr, 
and almost baffles translation. The 



above bein g a literal version can of course 
bear no comparison with the finished 
paraphrase of Mr. Pater (Marius i., 
p. 65) : ' The wretched parents, in their 
close-shut house, .yielded themselves to 
perpetual night : while to Psyche, fear- 
ful and trembling and weeping sore 
upon the mountain top, comes the 
gentle Zephyrus. He lifts her mildly, 
and, with vesture afloat on either side, 
bears her by his own soft breathing 
over the windings of the hills, and sets 
her lightly among the flowers in the 
bosom of the valley below.' 

perpetuae nocti] Klebs (ApolL aus 
Tyros, p. 289) excellently compares 
Hist. Apoll. 39 (Apollonius) in luctu 
moratur et iacet intus in subsannio nauis 
in tenebris : flet uxorem et Jiliam : and 
Apuleius himself 8. 7 (Charite] media 
denique misera et incuria squalida tenebris 
imis abscondita iarn cum luce transegerat. 

deflentem] As defiere elsewhere in 
Apuleius (about six or seven times) is 
used -with an object, Soping has added 
se before deflentem. But the word is 
used absolutely once in Tacitus Ann. 
16. 13, while it is used transitively six 
times elsewhere in that writer. 

deuexa rupis] partitive genit. after 
a neut. adj. like caerula caeli Lucr. 6. 
96. Bolder usages of this construction 
are clausa domorum, ib. 1. 354, and 
strata yiarwn, Verg. JEn. 1. 422. 



T.I] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



19 



V 1 Psyche teneris et herbosis locis in ipso toro roscidi 
graminis suaue recubans, tanta mentis perturbatione sedata, 
dulce conquieuit. iamque sufficienti recreata somno placido 
resurgit animo. uidet lucum proceris et uastis arboribus 
consitum, uidet fontem uitreo latice perlucidum medio luci 5 
meditullio. prope fontis adlapsum domus regia est, aedificata 
non humanis manibus sed diuinis artibus. iam scies ab 
introitu primo dei cuiuspiam luculentum et amoenum uidere 
te diuersorium. nam summa laquearia citro et ebore curiose 
auata subeunt aureae columnae, parietes omnes argenteo 10 
caelamine conteguntur bestiis et id genus pecudibus occurren- 



V. 1 ipso] This word seems here to 
have no special force, and to be little 
more than our article. 

perlucidum medio luci meditullio] 
meditullium is a favourite word of 
Apuleius (always in ablative) 3. 27 : 
7. 19 : 10. 32 : 11. 24. Dogm. Plat. 2. 5. 
The word was known in Cicero's time : 
<jp. Topica 36, where Cicero says the 
-tuUius has lost its force : Festus, 
p. 92, says quasi meditellium ab eo quod 
est tellus. Norden draws attention to 
the double alliteration. It is not easy 
to decide whether the long stop should 
be placed after perlucidum or meditullio. 

prope fontis adlapsum] 'near the 
purling spring,' or perhaps 'near the 
plashing fountain.' 

scies] Helm refers to 2. 4 ewn 
putabis defaucibus lapidis exire in sup- 
port of scies : a little further on in that 
chapter we have credes, and between 
the two futures putes. It is plain that 
Ap. might have used either the sub- 
junctive or the fut. indie. So Helm 
rightly adheres to the mss. 

laquearia] ' panelled ceiling ': cp. 
Isidore Orig. 19. 12. 1 Laquearia sunt 
quae camaram subtegunt et ornant, quae 
et lacuna ria dicuntur, quod lacus 
quosdam quadratos vel rotundos ligno 
vel gypso vel coloribus habeant pictos 
cumsignisintermicantibus. Also Senec. 
Quaest. Nat. 1. prol. 7 lacunaria ebore 



fulgentia, and Hor. Carm. 4. 1. 20 sub 
trabe citrea. The laquearia were gilded 
in splendid houses cp. Verg. 2En. 1. 
726. 

argenteo caelamine] Carved silver 
figures may have been fastened on to 
the walls. Or the figures may have 
been in repousse work on plaques which 
were attached to the walls. This kind 
of work is perhaps that alluded to by 
Ovid Met. 13. 291 clipei caelamina. 

bestiis et id genus pecudibus] ' wild 
animals and herds of that kind.' This 
seems to mean ' wild beasts and the 
wilder species of animals usually tame,' 
wild oxen, wild horses. A similar 
locution is found in 2. 1 loves et id 
genus pecua (cp. also 2. 5 lapillis et id 
genus frtuolis: 8. 2 omnibus id genus 
viris] ; but this is simpler, because 
there is not the contrast between 
boves and pecua which exists between 
bestiae and pecudes, the former being 
wild animals, and the latter tame 
animals which feed in flocks or herds 
cp. Dig. 10. 2. 8. 2 si quid de pecoribus 
nostris a bestia ereptum sit, uenire in 
familiae erciscundae iudicium putat 
(Pomponius), si feram euaserit. The 
parallel from 2. 1 seems to show that 
we must not alter id genus, cp. Wolfflin 
in the Archiv v. 389, who notices the 
frequent use of the words in the 
African writers. Helm adds aliis 



c2 



CUPID A: 



[v.l 



tibus ob os introeuntium. mirus prorsum [magnae artis] 
homo, immo semideus uel certe deus, qui magnae artis 
suptilitate tantum efferauit argentum. enimuero pauimenta 

1 magnae artis del. Gruter. 



before id genus ; rather ceteris, which if 
written cet. might have dropped out after 
et : hut there is no reason for any addition: 
cp. Wblfflin, p. 390. Many corrections 
have heen suggested, saetigeris (Jahn) ; 
indigenis Morawski, and Petschenig 
(Philologus 46 (1888), p. 764), who com- 
pares 1 . 2 equo indigena peralbo ueliens ; 
Indigenis ("Weyman) i. e. elephants ; 
ingentibus (Rossbach). Rohde reads 
quod genus, which I do not understand. 
He says quod genus = 'von jeder Art,' 
and quotes Florid. 9. 33 habebat cinctui 
balteum quod genus pictura Babylonica 
miris coloribus variegatum. But there 
quod genus means Mike,' 'of the same 
kind as.' This antique phrase quod 
genus is often found in Lucretius: cp. 
Munro on 2. 194. 

[magnae artis]] These words have 
intruded themselves from the succeeding 
line. For similar intrusions Helm 
compares 1. 7 diuturnae et dum; though 
there the intrusion comes from a pre- 
ceding line. A good example is adhi- 
bendum est in 5. 30. 

uel certe] 'or indeed,' 'or actually'; 
not 'or at least': cp. 9. 11 me ad 
alium quempiam utique leuiorem laborem 
legatum iri vel otiosum certe cibatum iri: 
5. 31 An ignoras eum masculum et 
iuuenem esse, vel certe iam quot sit 
annorum oblita es, though this is not so 
obviously a passage from the less to the 
greater as the previous example: cp. 
also 4. 9: 4. 28 fin. : 9. 11 : 10. 7 
quoted by Helm. But uel certe is also 
found in the ordinary sense of ' or at 
least,' signifying a passage from the 
greater to the less : cp. 6. 2 fin. quoad 
deae . . . ira .... mitigetur uel certe 
meae uires . . . leniantur. Hence Pauw 
has ingeniously suggested deiis uel certe 



semideus, Liitjohann (p. 497) excel- 
lently emends 3. 19 dominam tuam cum 
aliquid huius diuinae disciplinae molitur 
ostende : cum deos imiocat <uel> certe 
cum reformatur (So Roaldo and Eyss. 
for res ortatu or ornatu] uideam. The 
passage in the "Ovos (c. 11) is Se^ov 
fiat /LLayyavevovffav % yueTa^o/j^ou^ei/rjy 
T^JV Sfffiroivav' TrciAat yap TTJS 7ra/>a5o|ou 
ravTrjs 6 cas eTriOvpw. The reading of 
Helm and Leo may possibly be right, 
invocat, certe cum res ornat u<t> videam, 
as it adheres so closely to the mss. ; 
but it pays no regard to Lucian, or 
to the especial feature of magic which 
the book and its hero were in- 
terested in, viz. transformation into 
animals. 

efferauit] 'reduced to the form of 
beasts,' i.e. wrought in the form of 
beasts. This is the sole example of 
efferare used in this sense : it usually 
means 'to make like unto beasts,' 'to 
make savage.' There is another strange 
use of the word in Statius Achill. 1. 
425 Mars efferat aurum, ' renders gold 
savage,' i.e. turns it into weapons. 
Oud. compares Longus 1. 20 end-rip idtxras 
avTov of a shepherd who dressed himself 
up as a wolf. 

enimuero] ' for, indeed ' : see note 
on 5. 10. 

pauimenta . . . discriminantur] For 
mosaic work (opus musiuum), attested 
from tbe time of Lucilius, cp. Cic. De 
Orat. 3. 171. It was largely used 
by the Romans : cp. Marquardt-Mau, 
pp. 625-632. For pictures in mosaic 
cp. ib. p. 628, and Trebell. Poll, xxx, 
Tyr. 25. 4 Tetricorum domus hodieque 
exstat . . . in qua Aurelianus pictus est; 
pictura est de museo. For caesim cp. 2. 
15 orificio caesim deasceato. 



Y.I] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



21 



ipsa lapide pretioso caesim deminuto in uaria picturae genera 
discriminantur : uehementer, iterum ac saepius beatos illos, 
qui super gemmas et monilia calcant. iam ceterae partes longe 
lateque dispositae domus sine pretio pretiosae totique parietes 
solidati massis aureis splendore proprio coruscant, ut diem 5 
suum sibi domus facia[n]t licet sole nolente : sic cubicula, sie 
porticus, sic ipsae balneae fulgurant. nee setius opes ceterae 



6 faciat v : faciant F<. 

7 balnee f : ualnee F<|>, sed in 

aliquot. 



addito supra lineam c. ualue, et ita codd. dett. 



uehementer . . . calcant] ' Verily, 
twice and more than twice are they 
blessed who tread beneath their feet 
gems and jewels.' This is a common- 
place of luxury : cp. below 5. 9, and 
Seneca De Ira 3. 35 qui nolunt domi 
nisi auro pretiosiora calcari : Ep. 86. 7 
eo deliciarum peruenimus ut nisi gem- 
mas calcare nolimus. This passage of 
Apuleius seems to be the earliest in 
which calcare is used intransitively ; it 
is also found in St. Jerome, St. 
Augustine, and often in the Vulgate : 
see the Thesaurus iii, 139. 69. Ouden- 
doi'p's semper for super is clever but un- 
necessary; as is also Rohde's superbi or 
superbe. 

iam] A merely connecting particle, 
cp. Becker, p. 32. Helm refers to 
Apol. 22 iam cetera tarn magnified. 

sine pretio pretiosae] ' precious be- 
yond price.' Alliteration. This phrase 
is appropriated by Fulgentius (p. 67, 
14 ed. Helm) in his account of Psyche. 

domus] This word has perhaps, 
as Rohde (Rh. Mus. 43 (1888), p. 469) 
has suggested, crept in from the pre- 
vious domus; cp. magnae artis above. 
The early emenders altered faciant to 
faciat: but the repetition of domus is 
somewhat awkward. If it is omitted, 
there is no necessity to alter faciant 
to faciat. 

ipsae balneae] See Grit. note. It 
is hard to choose between balneae and 



ttaluae. It may be agreed that the 
baths, as less open to view and more 
private, would naturally not be so 
adorned as the other parts of the palace. 
But the Romans of Imperial times 
seem to have been very extravagant 
in the adornment of their baths; see 
Statins Silv. 1. 5. Juvenal (7. 178) 
estimates HS 600,000 as a probable sum 
to be expended on a bath, and Fronto's 
baths cost 350,000 sesterces (Gell. 
19. 10. 4). Seneca (Epist. 86. 6, 7) gives 
a rhetorical description of the ostenta- 
tion and luxury of the Roman baths. 
But Oudendorp can make a tolerable 
case for ualuae, the reading of the 
inferior rnss. Gold was lavished not 
only on the rooms and porticoes, but on 
the very doors of the palace. Hilde- 
brand compares Ovid. Met. 2. 1-4 
Regia Solis erat sublimibus alto, columnis, 
Clara micante auro Jlammasque imitante 
pyropo ; Cuius ebur nitidum fastigia 
summa tegebat, A.rgenti bifores radia- 
bant lumine ualuae, where the doors are 
only of silver: and Oudendorp refers to 
the description of the doors of the 
temple of Minerva at Syracuse in 
Cicero Verr. 4. 124 Gonjirmare hoc 
liquido possum ualuas magnificentiores ex 
auro atque ebore perfectiores nullas wn- 
quam ullo in templo fuisse; the descrip- 
tion then follows. The palace of 
Cleopatra in Lucan 10. Ill ff. may be 
added. The doors of that palace were 



22 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



[v.2 



maiestati domus responded, ut equidem illud recte uideatur 
ad conuersationem humanain magno loui fabricatum caeleste 
palatium. 

% Inuitata Psyche talium locorum oblectatione propius 

5 accessit et paulo fidentior intra limen sese facit ; mox prolectante 
studio pulcherrimae uisionis rimatur singula et altrinsecus 
aeclium horrea sublimi fabrica perfecta magnisque congesta 
gazis conspicit. nee est quicquam quod ibi non est. sed 
praeter ceteram tantarum diuitiarum admirationem hoc erat 

10 praecipue mirificum, quod nullo uinculo, nullo claustro, nullo 
custode totius orbis t< h >ensaurus ille muniebatur. haec ei 
summa cum uoluptate uisenti offert sese uox quaedam corporis. 

6 rimatur F (in marg.) < : miratur F. 
11 thensaurus~\ edd. tensaunis F : thesaurus q>. 



elaborately wrought with tortoise-shell, 
inlaid with emeralds. But as balneae 
is hetter attested by the mss. than 
ualuae, it is best to retain it ; besides 
baths, as being distinct parts of the 
house, correspond better with rooms ' 
and 'porticoes' than would 'doors.' 

ad conuersationem humanam] * what 
time he sojourns among mankind,' lit. 
4 for human intercourse': cp. 5. 5 
humanae conuersationis colloquio uiduata. 

2 sese facit] ' betakes herself.' I 
can only quote the examples given in the 
Dictionaries, viz. 10. 32 haec ut primum 
ante iudicis conspectum facta est : Petron. 
62 coepit ad stelas facere (so Fried- 
lander : but the word there may have 
another meaning) : Tertull. De Pall. 3 
de tempestate Osiridis qua ad ilium ex 
Libya Amman facit ovium dives. The 
sense of motion is common in facesso, 
meaning ' to retire.' Modius reads 
facessit. For this meaning, common 
both to sejacere and facere, Salmasiua on 
the passage of Tertullian compares se 
dirigere (Big. 47- 11. 7) and dirigere 
(without se} cp. Vopisc. Prob. 19. 6. 
Add Liv. 37. 23. 9 and Apul. Met. 2. 
17 and Wolfflin in Archiv x. pp. 3, 4. 



rimatur] So < and F in the margin. 
In the text F has miratur. The same 
variants are stated by Yliet to occur at 5. 
23. There miratur is certainly right. 
But here rimatur expresses the careful 
examination of details which was 
natural to the curiosity of Psyche. 

altrinsecus aedium] ' On the other 
side of the house,' cp. 3. 17. These 
are the only places where altrinsecus is 
used as a quasi-preposition. 

horrea . . . gazis] ' Storehouses of 
finished and lofty structure (lit. ' com- 
pleted with lofty workmanship'), and 
piled with vast wealth.' It is strictly 
the wealth that is piled in the store- 
houses ; for you could hardly say con- 
gerere horrea; but the artificial ex- 
pression is in accordance with the 
manner of Apuleius : cp. lassitudinem 
refoue below. 

totius orbis thensaurus ille] That 
treasure-house of the whole world.' 
Apuleius is fond of totus orbis, cp. 4. 
30 : 4. 34. For the form thensaurus 
cp. Georges, Lexikon der "Wortformen 
s. v. 

corporis sui nuda] For the genitive 
the Dictionaries quote Sail. Jug. 79. 6 



v.3] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



23 



sui nuda et "quid," inquit, "domina, tantis obstupescis opibus? 
tua sunt haec omnia. prohinc cubiculo te refer et lectulo 
lassitudinem refoue et ex arbitrio lauacrum pete, nos, quarum 
uoces accipis, tuae famulae sedulo tibi praeministrabimus nee 
corporis curatae tibi regales epulae morabuntur." 5 

3 Sensit Psyche diuinae prouidentiae beatitudinem moni- 
tusque, uoces informes audiens, et prius somno et mox lauacro 
fatigationem sui diluit, uisoque statim proximo semirotundo 
suggestu, propter instrumentum cenator< i >um rata refectui suo 
commodum, libens accumbit. et ilicp jiini nectarei eduliumque-io 
uariorum fercula copiosa nullo seruiente, sed tantum spiritu 
quodam impulsa subministrantur. * nee quemquam tamen ilia 
uidere poterat, sed uerba tantum audiebat excidentia et solas 

9 cenatorium Beroaldus : cenatortim F<|>. 11 nullo <(> : nulla F, sed a manu rec. 



loca nuda gignentium ; and Ov. Met. 12. 
512 nudus arboris Othrys. The usual 
construction is the ablative. 

prohinc] 'accordingly'. This is a 
favourite word of Apuleius, cp. 3. 8 : 

3. 12: 11. 27. 

lassitudinem refoue] ' refresh your 
weariness': cp. 2. 17 poculis inter dum 
lassitudinem refouentes. This is an- 
other artificial phrase for ' refresh your 
wearied limbs.' 

ex arbitrio] * at your discretion ' : 
cp. 4. 17 ex arbitrio nostro. 

nee corporis curatae tibi regales 
epulae morabuntur] ' and when you 
have prepared yourself (got yourself 
ready) a splendid banquet will be served 
you without delay.' Corporis is the 
genit. of respect, governed by curatae : 
lit. ' properly cared for in respect of 
your body.' This genitive is common 
after adjectives (Roby, 1320). It is 
rare after verbs, yet cp. 4. 5 postumae 
speifatigati (like the genit. after lassus 
or fessus}. An exact parallel to the 
genit. after curare is found in chapter 

4, nouam nuptam interfectae uirginitatis 
cur ant. 



3 diuinae prouidentiae beatitudinem] 
'felt the blessedness of being watched 
over by the gods and being counselled 
by them, hearing voices, but seeing 
no man. So first with sleep, and pre- 
sently by a bath, she dispelled all her 
fatigue ; and anon seeing near at hand a 
raised semicircular place, thinking that, 
as it was laid out for a meal, it was 
meant for her refreshment, she gladly 
sat down at it.' 

For fatigationem sui, which use is 
frequent in Apuleius, compare 1. 20 
sine fatigatione sui ; 6. 27 ut me pro- 
currentem aliquantisper tractu sui 
sequeretur : Dogm. Plat. 1. 9 6 199, 
quae natura sui immota sunt. Hilde- 
brand gives many more examples, among 
them some of nostri, e.g. Met. 2. 25, 
nostri vim praesentariam. The semi- 
rotundus suggestus was the form of 
dining-table called sigma (Martial 10. 
48. 6) from the ancient form of that 
letter, which was C. 

For prouidentiae cp. note on 6. 15. 
Groslot long ago proposed rods informis, 
because in chapter 2 Apuleius speaks 
of vox quaedam in the singular. 



24 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



[v. 4 



uoces fanmlas habebat. post opimas dapes quidam introcessit 
et cantauit inuisus et alius citharam pulsauit, quae uidebatur 
nee ipsa. tune modulatae multitudinis conferta uox aures eius 
affertur, ut, quamuis hominum nemo pareret, chorus tamen 

5 esse pateret. 

4 Finitis uoluptatibus uespera 'suadente concedit Psyche 
cubitum. iamque prouecta nocte c/emens quidam sonus aures 
eius accedit. tune uirginitati suae pro tanta solitudine metuens 
et pauet et horrescit et quouis malo plus timet quod ignorat. 

10 iamque aderat ignobilis maritus et torum inscenderat et uxorem 
sibi Psychen fecerat et ante lucis exortum propere discesserat. 
statim uoces cubiculo praestolatae nouam nuptam interfectae 
uirginitatis curant. haec diutino tempore sic agebantur. 
atque ut est natura redditum, nouitas per assiduam consue- 

2 cithara <f> : cithara F, sed forte ~ deraso. 
7 elemens <j> in margins man. rec. : demens F(J>. 
14 redditum F</> : rerum Cod. Oxon. 



inuisus] 'unseen.' cp. Cic. Harusp. 
Resp. 57 occulta et maribus non inuisa 
solwn sed etiam inaudita sacra. 

modulatae multitudinis conferta 
uox] ' the combined sound of a 
multitude of musicians came to her 
ears, so that, though no human being 
appeared, still it was clearly a chorus.' 
For the ace. -without a prep, after 
afferturiup. c. Ilinuolauit . . cupressum. 
Note alliteration pareret . . . pateret. 

4 suadente] cp. Verg. JEn. 2. 8 
suadentque cadentia sidera somnos. 

prouecta nocte] cp. 2. 25 ecce cre- 
pusculum et nox prouecta et nox altior et 
dein concubia [altior a] et iam nox intem- 
pesta. 

aures accedit] Apuleius uses the 
accusative with great freedom after 
verbs expressing motion, e.g. 2. 7 fores 
Milonis accedo. 6. 21 Cupido Psychen 
accurrit suam, and often, cp. Kretsch- 
mann, p. 130. 

uirginitati suae . . . metuens] cp. 
note to 4. 32. 

pro tanta solitudine] ' naturally in 
her great loneliness.' 



et quouis malo plus timet quod 
ignorat] 'and fears worse than any- 
thing the thing she is ignorant of ' : 
cp. Lucan 3. 416 (quoted by Hilde- 
brand) tantum terroribus addit Quos 
timeant non nosse deos. Helm quotes 
Publ. Syr. 596 Semper plus metuit 
animus ignotum malum. 

ignobilis] = ignotus, ' unknown ' : 
often in old Latin, cp. Plaut. Pseud. 
593, 964: so nobilis = notus, ib. 1112. 
Petschenig conjectures ignorabilis, cp. 
11. 22. 

inscsnderat . . . fecerat . . . disces- 
serat] Pluperfects used in denoting 
events rapidly accomplished : cp. Verg. 
JEn. 2. 257 Jlammas cum regia puppis 
Extulerat. 

cubiculo] for in cubiculo: cp. 1. 21 
guibns deuersetur aedibus: 11. 2 circuin- 
fiuo Paphi sacrario coleris. 

interfectae uirginitatis] For this 
genit. cp. 5. 2, note on corporis curatae. 

atque . . . commendarat] This is 
the reading of the mss., and Vliet ought 
to have retained it, and not altered to 
in dekctationem se converter at ; for 



Y. 5] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



25 



tudinem delectationem ei commendarat et sonus uocis incertae 
solitudinis erat solacium. 

Interea parentes eius indefesso luctu atque maerore con- 
senescebant, latiusque porrecta fama sorores illae maiores 
cuncta cognorant propereque maestae atque lugubres deserto 5 
lare certatim ad parentuin suorum conspectum adfatumque 
perrexerant. 

5 Ea nocte ad suam Psychen sic infit maritus namque 
praeter oculos et manibus et auribus fius nihil sentiebatur : 

" Psyche dulcissima et cara uxor, exitiabile tibi periculum 10 
minatur fortuna saeuior, quod obseruaiidum pressiore cautela 
censeo. sorores iam tuae mortis opinione turbatae tuumque 

9 ttw* (his, deinde ille f) nichil F$ : is nihilo setius Hanpt. Vide Comm. 



nouitas means the ' unusualness ' of 
Psyche's surroundings. Such surround- 
ings at first caused pleasure indeed, 
but fear also ; but when nothing ill 
occurred, the pleasure increased. It is 
not necessary to take nouitas in the 
sense of the state of affairs just at their 
inception ; indeed per assiduam consue- 
tudinem would render such an inter- 
pretation a contradiction in terms. The 
use of redditum is familiar to readers of 
Lucretius ; cp. Munro on ii. 96. The 
most ingenious emendations of the 
passage are those of Schroter, quoted by 
Jahn, in delectationem se commutarat ; 
and of Oudendorp delectatione ei se com- 
mendarat ; but they are unnecessary. 

porrecta fama] cp. 4. 29. 

ad adfatumque] to see and 

talk to their parents.' 

5 namque . . . sentiebatur] See 
Grit. Note. The emendation of Haupt, is 
nihilo setius, accounts in some measure 
for the corruption, and gives a tolerable 
sense. The chief objection to it would 
seem to be that Apuleius does not use 
the phrase elsewhere. Helm notices 
that Apuleius has forgotten this passage 
when in c. 19 he makes Psyche think 



that her husband is aliquam bestiam. 
Liitjohann reads is <non> nihil: Jahn 
ille nihilo minus. 

fortuna saeuior] cp. 5. 11. When 
Apuleius transferred the fairy story into 
the society of the gods, he had no such 
reason to assign why Cupid should 
desire that Psyche should not see him 
as appears in the usual fairy-tale, in 
which the Prince is bewitched, and 
cannot, if he is seen, be delivered from 
the shape into which he is transformed. 
So (if Apuleius thought of the matter at 
all) he may have had recourse to TV*??, 
which plays a great part in the Greek 
novel ; cp. Rohde, Der griechische 
Roman, 276-282 (a fine discussion on 
Tuxi)> andWilcken in Hermes 28 (1893), 
192, 193 to supply the mysterious and 
malignant power which was to domi- 
nate the whole course of the events. 

pressiore cautela] ' with more con- 
centrated caution.' In 2. 6 the word is 
used with an objective genitive tantutn 
a cautela, Pamphiles abfui ut, { I was so 
far from being oil my guard against 
Pamphile, that,' &c. For pressiore 
cp. 5. 10 fin. cogitationibus pressior- 
ibus. 



26 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



[v. 6 



uestigium requirentes scopulum istum protinus aderunt, quarum 
si quas forte lamentationes acceperis, neque responde< a >s, 
immo nee prospicias omnino ; ceterum mihi quidem grauissi- 
mum dolorem, tibi uero summum creabis exitium." 

5 Annuit et ex arbitrio mariti se facturam spopondit, sed eo 
simul cum nocte dilapso diem totum lacrimis ae plangoribus 
misella consumr^scTnunc maxime prorsus perisse iterans, quae 
beati carceris custodia septa et humanae conuersationis colloquio 
uiduata nee sororibus quidem suis de se maerentibus opem 

10 salutarem f erre ac ne uidere eas quidem omnino posse< t >. nee 
lauacro nee cibo nee ulla denique refectione recreata flens 
ubertini decessit ad somnum. 

Nee mora cum paulo maturius lectum maritus accubans 
eamque etiam nunc lacrimantem complexus sic expostulat : 

15 " Haecine mihi pollicebare, Psyche mea ? quid iam de te 
tuus maritus expecto, quid spero ? et pertfo'a et pernox nee 
inter amplexus coniugales desinis cruciatum. age iam nunc 

2 respondeas <j>, in margine : respondes F<. 10 posset v : posse F<. 

16 perdia Beroaldus : perjida F<. 



scopulum . . aderunt] cp. 2. 10 
cubiculum tuum adero ; and note on 
aures accedunt c. 4. 

ceterum] 'otherwise,' 'if not,' a 
constant use in Apuleius, cp. 5. 19 : 
7. 28 fin. : Apol. 41 fin. The Dictt. 
quote for this use Terence Eun. 452 
Hidiculum; nonenimcogitaras. Ceterum 
idem hoc tute melius quanta inuenisses, 
Thraso. 

ex arbitrio] cp. 5. 2. 

quidem] Michaelis thinks that this 
crept in from the succeeding line, like 
inagnae artis in 5. 1: \>\itnec . . . quidem 
is fairly common in Apuleius. Helm 
compares 1. 25: 2. 20 : 4. 12: 6. 5 : 
6. 20 fin. : 9. 41. 

6 nee mora cum] cp. 5. 7. 

paulo maturius] 'a little earlier 
than usual.' 

lectum . . . accubans] cp. 6. 24 
accumbebat summum torum maritus : 2. 



11 mensulam . . adcubueram : 9. 22 fin. 
cenam iubet paratam adcumbere. 

perdia et pernox] So Beroaldus for 
perfida et pernox, cp. Gell. 2. 1. 2 Stare 
solitus Socrates dicitur pertinaci statu 
perdius et pernox, a, summo litcis ortu ad 
solem alterum orientem : Symm. Epist. 
1. 53 actus quos pernox et perdius curae 
tibi habes. In Apul. Met. 9. 5 the 
reading of the mss. is pernox et per 
diem. 

desinis cruciatum] For desinere 
with ace. cp. 4. 3 fugam desino : 4. 24 
fatum desinere : 5. 7 higubres voces 
desinite : 5. 25 luctum desinite. It lias 
been considered doubtful if we can find 
this ace. in any prose writer before the 
age of the Antonines (e.g. Gell. 2. 12. 3r 
15. 16. 2), for artem desinerem Cicero 
(Fam. 7. 1. 4) is (as Dr. Eeid has 
shown) very uncertain ; and in Suet. 
(Tib. 36) he thinks the right reading is 



v. 6] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



27 



Tit uoles, et animo tuo damnosa poscenti pareto! tantum 
memineris meae seriae monitionis, cum coeperis sero paenitere." 
Tune ilia precibus et dum se morituram comminatur 
extorquet a marito cupitis adnuat, ut sorores uideat, luctus 
mulceat, ora conferat. sic ille nouae nuptae precibus ueniam & 
tribuit et insuper, quibuscumque uellet eas auri uel monilium 
donare, concessit, sed identidem monuit ac saepe terruit, ne 
quando sororum pernicioso consilio suasa de forma mariti 
quaerat neue se sacrilega curiositate de tanto fortunarum 
suggestu pessuni deiciat nee suum postea contingat amplexum. 10 
gratias egit marito iamque laetior animo " sed prius," inquit, 
"centies moriar quam tuo isto dulcissimo conubio caream. 

10 pessum v : pensum F0. 



destituturos and not desituros. Dr. Reid 
thinks also that we should correct 
mulier telam desinit in Terence Heaut. 
305, and read nere for telam, the latter 
having heen a gloss which supplanted 
the right reading ; hut this is question- 
able. Ihm retains desituros in Suetonius, 
and it appears in a fragment of Sallust 
(i. 25 ed. Kritz), bellum . . desineret. 

ora conferat] ' enjoy their conver- 
sation'; 'have a friendly talk.' Here 
we must take ora as meaning ' the 
mouth,' not ' the face,' owing to 
uideat. Conferre is then to he paralleled 
by such phrases as conferre sermones, 
consilia, not by conlata facie (6. 23), 
which means ' turning and looking at 
(Venus).' As a parallel to our passage 
we may compare the verse of the penta- 
meter poem in Martianus Capella 9. 
907 et lepus immiti contulit ora cani. It 
might, however, mean 'kiss them,' cp. 
Val. Fl. 3. 309 fas tamen est conferre 
genas, fas iungere tecum Pectora et 
exsangues miscere amplexibus artus. 

monuit ac saepe terruit nel ' warned 
her, often with threats, not to be per- 
suaded,' cp. Tac. Hist. 3. 42 Sabinum 
Triaria . . . terruit ne . . . famam clemen- 
tiae adfectaret. 



suasa] For this construction, which 
implies suadere aliquem, cp. 5. 11 ut te 
suadeant ; 9. 25 turn uxorem eius tacite 
suasi et denique persuasi secederet : 9. 26 
suadebat maritum temperius quieti dece- 
dere, though in similar sentences in 7. 
4, and Apol. 93, we find the dative. 
The accusative seems to be found even 
in Cicero Prov. Cons. 42 nam postea me 
ut sibi essem legatus non solum suasit 
verum etiam rogavit\ but rogare may 
have been specially before Cicero's 
mind. The ace. is found in Tertullian 
(quoted by Hild.) De Cultu Mul. 1.1. 
tu es quae eum suasisti ; also in his 
Scorpiace 2 ut qui negant bonutn non 
suadeantur accommodum. 

sacrilega] Cupid here in some slight 
degree lets slip an indication of his 
secret that he is a god. ' This prohibi- 
tion,' says Mr. Lang (Introd. to his ed. 
of Adlington's translation, p. xli, note, 
cp. Ixxxi), ' seems to be understood as 
a device of Cupid's for making love 
anonymously and without offending 
Venus.' But it is doubtful whether 
Apuleius had any definite explanation 
of the prohibition in his mind ; he seems 
satisfied to take refuge in the mysterioua 
will of Fortune ; cp. note to 5. 5 init. 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



[v. 6 



amo enim et efflictim te, quicumque es, diligo aeque ut meum 
spiritum, nee ipsi Cupidini compare, sed istud etiam meis 
precibus, oro, largire et illi tuo famulo Zephyro praecipe, simili 
uectura sorores hic^ mihi sistat"; et imprimens oscula suasoria 
' et ingerens uerba mulcentia et inserens membra cogentia 
haec etiam blanditiis astruit: "mi mellite, mi marite, tuae 

1 aeque Gruter : atque F<J>. 5 ingerens uerba <j> ; vide Comm. 

5 inserens membra Cod. Oxon. : ingerens membra F<f> : iungens membra v. 
couentia F, sed initio f uit cogentia, ut Helm docet : conhibentia F marg. : 
cohibentia <p : coniuentia Haupt. 



amo enim . . . compare] The only 
difficulty in this passage is efflictim used 
with the weaker word diligo. ' I love 
and passionately value you, whoever 
you are, as much as my life's breath : 
and I would not compare you even with 
Cupid.' For efflicte used with diligere 
cp. Symmachus Ep. 1. 90. 1 (Seeck) 
quern sancte et efflicte diligis. For the 
form efflicte see note to 5. 28. We may 
also compare 10. 21 blandissimos affatus, 
' amo ' et ' cupio ' et ' te solum diligo ' et 
( sine te iam uiuere nequeo ' et cetera. 
The last clause nee ipsi Cupidini com- 
paro is a pretty example of what would 
be called ' irony ' in reference to the 
tragedians. The mss. give atque cor- 
rected by Gruter to aeque : for a similar 
corruption cp. 7. 5. For aeque ut cp. 
Apol. 99 quivis uel aeque ut ego spernens 
hereditatis ; Plin. Ep. i. 20. 1. 

et imprimens . . . cogentia] The 
mss. repeat ingerens before membra, 
which is probably an error. The 
ordinary correction is iungens. One 
Oxford ms. reads inserens, which seems 
a very good emendation, and has been 
adopted by Vliet. Oud. had compared 
Ov. Am. 3. 7. 9 osculaque inseruit 
cupide luctantia linguis. Certainly the 
rhythm of the sentence suggests that 
some compound of in-, with the second 
syllable short, is the word required. 
The sentence is one of elaborately arti- 
ficial rhythm ; cp. the period earlier in 



the chapter noticed by Beck cupitis 
adnuat, ut sorores uideat, lucttus mulceat, 
ora conferat. Oudendorp's correction of 
ingerens (before verba) into inferens is 
needless. "We want a word like in- 
gerens, which expresses the impetuosity 
and earnestness with which Psyche 
presses her endearments. Helm notices 
that it is used with sauia, ' kisses,' in 
4. 26 : 5. 23. The margin of F has 
conhibentia for co . entia, and this is the 
reading of < and of most inferior manu- 
scripts. The objection to cohibentia is 
that cohibere is a transitive verb, and 
does not very well express the idea 
of limbs fast locked together. The 
same objection seems at first sight 
fatal toLiitjohann's (p. 461) emendation 
cogentia ; but cogentia is certainly right. 
As both Michaelis and Helm say, cogentia 
was originally the reading of F, and 
that is a strong argument in its favour. 
The word is used in the sense of 
' constraining,' ' compelling ' (assent on 
Cupid's part), with probably an indica- 
tion of actual physical pressure. Note 
then that the kisses influence, the words 
soften, and the pressure of the limbs 
constrain Cupid to yield. For cogere in 
this sense of * pressure ' Liitjohann 
compares Seneca Phaedra, 402 (Leo) et 
nodo comas Coegit emisitque. Some- 
thing similar is rugasque coegit in Ovid. 
Am. 2. 2. 33 for the more usual 
contraxit. 



v.7] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



Psychae dulcis anima." ui ac potestate Veneri< i > susu< r >rus 
inuitus succubuit maritus et cuncta se facturum spopondit 
atque, etiam luce proxumante, || de manibus uxoris euanuit. 

y At illae sorores percontatae scopulum locumque ilium, 
quo fuerat Psyche deserta, festinanter adueniunt ibique d^/fle- 5 
bant oculos et plangebant ubera, quoad crebris earum heiulati- 
bus saxa cautesque parilem sonum resultarent. iamque nomine 
proprio sororem miseram ciebant, quoad sono penetrabili uocis 
ululabilis per prona delapso amens et trepida Psyche procurrit 
e domo et " quid," inquit, " uos miseri< s > lamentationibus 10 
necquicquam effligitis ? quam lugetis, adsum. lugubres uoces 

1 Venerii susurrus Rohde, luculenter : veneris usurus F<. 3 etiam codd. : iamalii. 
5 difflebant "Weyman : deflebant Fd>. 10 miseris f< : miseri F. 



Psychae dulcis anima] In 5. 13, 
and 6. 2 Psyche is also said to have an 
anima (cp. 4. 32: 5. 15: 5. 18, where 
the animus of Psyche is spoken of). 
These passages are adduced to show- 
that in the story the allegorical signifi- 
cation of Psyche as the soul was not 
before the mind of Apuleius. Such proof 
is indeed hardly needed. In 6. 15 in- 
nocentis animae only means ' the poor 
creature,' just as we would say ' the 
poor soul.' Anima is used as a term 
of endearment in Cic. Fam. 14. 14. 2 
tfoSf meae carissimae animae. For a 
great collection of such terms cp. Plaut. 
Cas. 134 ff. 

ui ac potestate Venerii susurrus] 
Few emendations are more beautiful 
than this of Rohde (Rh. Mus. xxxi., 
p. 148) for potestate Veneris usurus of 
the mss. Oiiginally Rohde read potes- 
tati : but succumbere ' to surrender,' 
can be used absolutely as well as with 
a dative (6. 17). The Dictt. quote Nep. 
Eum. 5. 1 hac ille perculsus plaga non 
succubuit. 

7 difflebant oculis] ' began weeping 
their eyes out ': cp. 1. 6 diffletis paene 
ad extremam captiuitatem oculis suis 
(cp. oculis captns}. "Weyman altered 
the ms. deflebant to difflebant. 



parilem sonum resultarent] < re- 
echoed a like sound.' It is rare to find 
a cognate accusative after resultare : yet 
cp. Calp. Eel. 4. 5 Carmina iamdudum, 
non quae nemorale resultent Yoluiinus. 
A similar accusative is found in Verg. 
Eel. 1. 5 formosam resonare doces 
Amaryllida silvas ; and the passive 
construction in Cic. N.D. 2. 144 
(sonus] in fidibus testudine resonatur aut 
cornu. 

quoad .... Psyche] ' until, as the 
piercing sound of the wailing voice 
was carried down the slope, Psyche, all 
in distraction and flutter, runs forward.' 

uos . , . . effligitis] distract your- 
selves': cp. 5. 25 extremis affligebat 
lamentationibus animum. 

necquicquam] This form occurs in 
1. 26 fin, and perhaps 4. 24. It is 
found in the Medicean ms. of Cicero 
Att. 4. 6. 2, and in some mss. of 
Lucretius (4. 1110); cp. Neue-Wagener 
ii. 637, 638. The word itself had 
become almost obsolete in the second 
century. 

quam lugetis, adsum] Helm com- 
pares Verg. JEu. 1. 595 coram quern 
quaeritis adsum. 

uoces desinite] For desinere with 
ace. cp. note to 5. 6. 



30 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



[v.8 



desinite et diutinis lacrimis madentes genas siccate tandem, 
quippe cum iam possitis quam plangebatis amplecti." 

Tune uocatum Zephyrum praecepti[s] 'maritalis admonet. 
nee mora cum ille parens imperio statim clementissimis flatibus 

5 innoxia uectura deportat illas. iam mutuis amplexibus et 
festinantibus sauiis sese perfruuntur et illae sedatae lacrimae 
postliminio redeunt prolectante gaudio. "sed et tectum," 
inquit, " et larem nostrum laetae succedite et afflictas animas 
cum Psyche uestra recreate." 

10 8 Sic allocuta summas opes domus aureae wocumque ser- 
uientium populosam familiam demonstrat auribus earum 
lauacroque pulcherrimo et inhumanae mensae lautitiis eas 
opipare reficit, ut illarum prorsus caelestium diuitiarum copiis 
affluentibus satiatae iam praecordiis penitus nutrirent inuidiam. 

15 denique altera earum satis scrupulose curioseque percontari non 



3 praecepti corr. ex praeceptis 



10 vocumque Wower : locumq\ F<f>. 



nee mora cum] cp. 5. 6 init. 

innoxia uectura] ' by harmless 
transport.' 

postliminio] Postliminium was origin- 
ally a legal term, and means the right 
of returning home and resuming one's 
former position and privileges. This 
right attached especially to Roman 
citizens captured in war, who, if they 
hecame free again, regained their former 
positions in the state : cp. Cic. De Orat. 
1. 181. The ahlative is used often hy 
Apuleius (and apparently hy Apuleius 
only) in the sense of ' hack again.' The 
following are examples of the use, 1. 25 
postliminio me in forum cuppedinis 
reducens ; 3. 25 in ineum JLucium post- 
liminio redibis : 9. 21 postliminio doiinun 
regressus: Flor. 19 fin. postliminio do- 
tnnm rettulit. Sometimes it is used 
with the genitive, ' hack again from,' 
e.g. 2. 28 corpusque istud postliminio 
mortis animare, cp. 10. 12 : 4. 25 
postliminio pressae qidetis. A somewhat 
intermediate sense where postliminium 
simply means ' return ' to his original 



owner, is found in Fronto, p. 219, ed. 
Naber Turn Poly crates litteras ordine de 
casu et postliminio anuli perscribtas ad 
regem Amasim mittit. Tertullian uses 
the word more in the legal sense, with 
the genitive, ' right of regaining, re- 
turning to,' e.g. De Pudicitia 15 forni- 
catori postliminium largitus ecclesiasticae 
pads : De Anima 35 non ex postliminio 
vitae, f not hy a return to life ' (for 
Elijah never died). 

prolectante gaudio] * under the 
stimulus of joy': cp. 5. 2 prolectante 
studio pulcherrimae itisionis, ' allured by 
interest in such a spectacle of beauty'; 
and 11. 7 atdculae prolectatae nerno 
uapore, * instinct with the genial 
warmth of spring.' The word is a 
pretty one, signifying the joypus 
promptings of natural instinct. 

8 inhumanae] 'unearthly,' cp. 11. 
14 sacerdos nultu geniali et hercules in- 
humano. Something similar is De Deo 
Socratis, 5 init. post istai caelestem 
quidem sed paene inhumanam tuam 
sentcntiam. 



v.9] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



31 



desinit, quis illarum caelestium rerum dominus, quisue uel 
qualis ipsius sit maritus. nee tamen Psyche coniugale illud 
praeceptum ullo pacto temerat uel pectoris arc[h]anis exigit, 
sed e re nata confingit esse iuuenem quendam et speciosum, 
commodum lanoso barbitio genas inumbrantem, pier unique 5 
rurestribus ac montanis uenatibus occupatum, et ne qua 
sermonis procedentis labe consilium taciturn proderetur, auro 
facto gemmosisque monilibus onustas eas statim uocato 
Zephyro tradit reportandas. 

O Quo protenus perpetrate sorores egregiae domum re- 10 
deuntes iamque gliscentis inuidiae felle fraglantes multa secum 
sermonibus mutuis perstrepebant. sic denique infit altera : 

"En orba et saeua et iniqua Fortuna! hocine tibi com- 



nec . . . praeceptum . . . temerat 
Tiel pectoris arcanis exigit] ' does not 
violate her husband's injunction or 
drive it from the recesses of her heart.' 

e re nata] ' under the circum- 
stances,' almost * on the spur of the 
moment ': cp. 4. 3 e re nata capto 
consilio : 4. 14 Tune e re nata subtile 
consilium ego et iste babulus tale com- 
minis cimur : 9. 21 suspectisqtie e re nata 
quae gesta stint. Donatus on Ter. Ad. 
805 (nunc demum istaec nata oratiost] 
says bene ^iata est* nam sic dicimus de 
rebus repentinis ut supra ' (295) ; but 
e re nata there can only mean * under 
the circumstances,' and has no signifi- 
cation of suddenness. On that passage 
(E re nata melius fieri haud potuit quam 
Jactum est, era, Quando uitiitm oblatum 
est} Donatus says, ' E re nata 1 sic proprie 
dicimus de Us quae contra uoluntatem 
nostram acciderunt, where, however, 
Eentley reads e re natae, ' for the 
interests of your daughter,' as that 
is found in many mss., but not in 
the Bamberg. Bentley quotes these 
passages from Apuleius, allowing that 
they refer to an action which is un- 
pleasant to the actor, and to a suddenly 
conceived plan. 



barbitio] cp. 11.8 qui pallia bacu- 
loque et baxeis et hircino barbitio philo- 
sophum Jingeret. These are the only 
two passages in Latin in which the 
word occurs. 

labe] ' slip in the course of the 
conversation.' The word lobes is per- 
haps a trifle stronger than 'slip,' but 
the whole idea can hardly be more 
adequately expressed in English. 

consilium taciturn] < the secret,' in 
5. 11 called nostra secreta. 

gemmosisque monilibus] < jewelled 
ornaments.' 

9 egregiae] * precious,' ironical; 
cp. 2. 29 and 9. 23 uxor egregia : 5. 24 
conciliatrices egregiae. 

fraglantes] See note to 4. 31. 

multa .... perstrepebant] ' held 
long and excited discourse with one 
another.' 

En ... Fortuna] ' Well, Fortune is 
blind and cruel and unjust.' For orba 
in the sense of ' blind ' cp. 8. 12 
Ultrices habebis pronubas et orbitatem 
comitem : also Corp. Gloss. Lat. ii., 
139. 39 orbus injp6s 
cp. vii. 615 Tn]p6s caecus 
caecatus ; and Festus, p. 182, Miiller 
Orba apud oratores quae patrem amisit 



32 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



placuit, ut utroque parente prognatae diuersam sortem sus- 
tineremus ? et nos quidem, quae natu maiores sumus, maritis 
aduenis ancillae deditae, extorres et lare et ipsa patria degamus 
longe parentum uelut exulantes, haec autem nouissima, quam 
5 fetu satiante postremus partus effudit, tantis opibus et deo 
marito potita sit, quae nee uti recte tanta bonorum copia 
nouit ? uidisti, soror, quanta in domo iacent et qualia monilia, 



aut matrem nt Ser. Sulpicius alt quae 
liberos quasi oculos [orba est]. Paulus 
gives (p. 183) Orb a est quae patrem 
aut Jilios quasi lumen amisit. Cp. Isid. 
10. 200 Orbus quod liberos non habet 
quasi oculis amissis', and Fragm. luris 
Rom. Vatic. $ 130 (= lurisprudentiae 
Anteiustinianae Fragmenta, p. 758, 
ed. Huschke) sine autem quis arthri- 
ticus sit siue phthisicus [rather psoricus~\ 
siue epilempticus siue orbits et his similia 
excusantur (sc. a tutela}. For orbus 
Huschke wishes to read uisu orbus or 
surdus; but neither is necessary. Of 
course orbus is often used with a genit. 
or abl. in the sense of ' blind,' e.g. 
Ovid. Met. 3. 517 Quamfelix esses si tu 
quoque luminis huius Orbus ait fieres. 
The Greek Dictionaries quote examples 
of irripo<a and its derivatives in the 
sense of ' blind '; but there is always a 
distinct reference to that infirmity in 
the context, e.g. Pseudo-Lucian De 
Domo 28-29 'flpiuv 0epei T}>V Kr)8a\iuva. 
TU^)Abs &v . . . Kal 6"HAtos <t>avels larai 
rrjv TrJipuffiv. Fortune is often spoken 
of as blind, 7. 2 subiitque me non de 
nihilo ueteris priscaeque doctrinae uiros 
jinxisse ac pronuntiasse caecam et prorsus 
exoculatam esse Fortunam : 8. 24 ilia 
Fortuna mea saeuissima . , . rursum in 
me caecos detorsit oculos. 

saeua] Elmenhorst and many older 
editors read scaeuai cp. 2. 13 fortunam 
scaeuam an saeuam uerius dixerim* 
Apuleius likes the word scaeuus : he 
uses it at least a dozen times ; but no 
change is necessary. 



utroque parente prognatae] * born 
from both her parents.' There is no 
necessity to add pari (Novik) or aeque 
(Leo) or eodem (Michaelis) : Helm ex- 
cellently compares Livy 44. 30. 2 
Gentius fratres duos Platorem utroque 
parente, Caravantium tnatreeadem natum 
habuit. 

longe parentum] 'far away from 
our parents.' This is a Greek con- 
struction, iroppct) TU)V reKovrcav. Cp. 
similar Graecisms in Apuleius, Met. 8. 29 
intus aedium, of/cou evSov : Apol. 50foras 
cnrporis, e/crbs TOV ffu>/u.aTos. On other 
Graecisms in Apuleius, such as Met. 
9. 38 sui molliorem, cp. "Wolfiiin in 
Archiv vii. 120. 

quam fetu satiante postremus partus 
effudit] ' born last of our mother's 
offspring when child-bearing was palling 
upon her.' Fundere (Verg. JEn. 8. 138 
quern Candida, Maia .... fudit) is more 
frequent in this sense than effundere ; 
yet the latter is used of the abundant 
productions of nature, Hor. Carm. 4. 7. 
11 Pomifer Auctumnus fruges effuderit. 
Indeed effundere, which has the sense of 
ready and easy production is somewhat 
unsuitable here. 

uidisti . . . quanta in domo iacent] 
Roby, 1761, says: "In conversational 
or animated language a question is often 
put logically, though not grammati- 
cally, dependent on another verb or 
sentence, e.g. on such expletives as die 
mihi, loquere . . . uide, rogo, uolo scire, 
fac sciam ; uiden, audin, scin, &c. So 
frequently in Plautus and Terence, even 



v. 9] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



quae praenitent uestes, quae splendicant gemmae, quantum 
praeterea passim calcatur aurum. quodsi maritum etiam tarn 
formonsum tenet, ut affirmat, nulla mine in orbe toto felicior 
uiuit. fortassis tamen procedente consuetudine et adfectione 
roborata deam quoque illam deus maritus efficiet. sic est 5 
hercules, sic se gerebat ferebatque. iam iam sursum respicit et 
deam spirat mulier, quae uoces ancillas habet et uentis ipsis 
imperitat. at ego misera primum patre meo seniorem maritum 
sortita sum, dein cucurbita caluiorem et quouis puero 

1 splendicant v : splenditant F<. 

8 imperitat F (in margine . . . rat f) : imperat </>. 



where later writers would make the 
question dependent and use the sub- 
junctive (compare English, 'Tell me, 
where are you ? ' and ' Tell me where you 
are ')." Eoby compares (among many 
examples) Plant. Mil. 64 uide caesaries 
quam decet : Ter. Andr. 878 Vide num 
eius color pudoris signum usquam indicat. 
Compare note onfaxo, 4. 30, and on 6. 5. 

splendicant] cp. 7. 8 depiles genae 
leui pueritia splendicarent. For a 
similarly formed verb cp. 5. 22 pinnae 
roscidae micanti flore candicant. 

calcatur aurum] cp. 5. 1 qui super 
gemmas et monilia calcant. 

fortassis] Else where in Met. forsitan. 

sic se gerebat ferebatque] ' Such 
an air she bore and wore.' For this 
use of se ferre cp. Conington on Verg. 
JEn. 1. 503. There seems to be an 
idea of stateliness or haughtiness about 
se ferre, cp. Verg. JSn. 4. 11 : 5. 373 : 
8. 198 : 9. 597. 

sursum respicit] ' she is beginning 
to look on high.' The force of re- is 
looking away from what is ordinary ; 
often used of looking for assistance : 
Caes. B. C. 1. 1 sin Caesarem respiciant. 

deam spirat] 'assumes the goddess' 
(cp. Dryden's 'Alexander's Feast ': ' As- 
sumes the god'), lit. 'breathes the 
goddess ' ; cp. JSsch. Ag. 376 "ApT? 
irveovTuv : Liv. 3. 46. 2 hominem . , . 



tribunatum etiam nunc spirantem. I do 
not know of any passage in Latin where 
spirare is used in this sense with a 
personal accusative except Sil. 3. 240- 
Mago quatit currus etfratrem spirat in 
armis. 

cucurbita caluiorem et quouis puero 
pusilliorem] ' balder than a billiard- 
ball, and not as big as any bit of a boy.' 
So one may venture to translate, sacri- 
ficing the literal sense (i.e. ' balder than 
a gourd, and weaker than any boy ') to 
the English idiom and to an attempt to 
reproduce the alliteration. Fulgentius, 
Serin. Antiq. 17 (= 117, 2 ed. Helm), 
quotes this passage as follows : ' quouis 
puero pumiliorem et cucurbita glabriorem,' 
adding pumilios enim dicunt molles atque 
enerues, glabrum uero lenem et imberbem : 
but such variants are wrong, as 
glaber is applied to the smoothness of 
youth, not to tbe baldness of old age ; 
as Hild. says: "glaber nunquam est 
caluus, sed leuis, mollis, et delicatus 
potissimum de pueris nouacula aut 
resina deglabratis." The ms. pusilliorem 
(which is of course to be retained) can 
perhaps be regarded as containing the 
idea of strength (or rather weakness) as 
well as size, which would not be the 
case with pumiliorem, and may mean 
' and any bit of a boy would be a better 
bedfellow.' The word cucurbita is also 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



[v. 10 



pusilliorem, cunctam domum se[r]ris et catenis obditam 
custodientem." 

1O Suscipit alia : " ego uero maritum articular! etiam 
morbo complicatum curuatumque ac per hoc rarissimo uenerem 
5 meam recolentem sustineo, plerumque detortos et duratos in 
lapidem digitos eius perfricans, fomentis olidis et pannis 
sordidis et faetidis cataplasmatibus manus tarn delicatas istas 
adurens nee uxoris officiosam faciem, sed medicae[t] laboriosam 
personam sustinens. et tu quidem soror uideris, quain patient! 



1 seris v : serris F : ferris <J>. 
8 medicae vulg. : mediea $ F<p 



mediea 



(man. rec.) 



used by Apuleius, 1. 15, as an emblem of 
stupidity : cp. nos cucurbitae caput non 
habemus. .Perhaps it is in this sense 
that F. Norden interprets his conjecture 
cauiorem; but the comparative seems 
unusual, and cauus applied to the head 
(e.g caua tempora in Verg. JEn. 9. 808) 
has a different association. 

1O articular! . . . morbo] usually 
' gout,' apOplris; here probably ' rheu- 
matism ' owing to curuatum. But he 
had gout too. 

uenerem meam recolentem] ' pay- 
ing his duty to my attractions.' 

cataplasmatibus] 'plasters.' Like so 
many Greek words of this kind, the dat. 
an dabl. plural vary between -matibussmd. 
-matis; cp. Neue- Wagoner i 3 . 440-1. 

istas] ' those hands you see,' 5et/c- 
TIKUS : though Apuleius often uses iste 
without any reference to the person 
addressed, e.g. 6. 10 ante istam vesperam 
opus expeditum approbate mihi. Cp. 
Kretschmann, pp. 90, 91. 

nee .... sustinens] ' not wearing 
the appeai'ance of a dutiful wife, but 
enduring the part of a hard -worked 
nurse.' Apuleius artificially puts the 
adjective with the accusative word 
rather than with the genitive, with 
which in strictness it should go. For 
an account of a devoted wife to an old 
invalid, cp. Pliny, Epp. 8. 18. 



In private houses at Rome there 
appear to have been sometimes women 
(generally freedwomen) who had ac- 
quired some medical training, and acted 
the part of our nurses. Reference to 
them can be found in inscriptions, e.g. 
C.I.L. vi. 6851 Melitene mediea Appulei: 
cp. 7581, 9641-9647 ; ix. 5861 : see 
also the somewhat extravagantly worded 
inscription of Capua on a young woman 
who died in her twenty-third year 
(C.I.L. x. 3980 antistes disciplinae in 
medicina fuit et innocentiae singularis : 
talis fuit ul esaet exemplum inatrinioni : 
fuit talis ut eontemneret iuuentutem ; 
nam maritus amisit (so Mommsen : 
amavit Mazochi) coiuyem famillarem 
salutis et uitae suae nutricem : it would 
appear that the young nurse married 
her old patient. On women as doctors 
and nurses, see M. Salomon Reinach in 
Daremberg and Saglio, vol. vi., p. 1G82. 
et tu quidem soror uideris] For 
this use of the f ut. perf . in putting off the 
consideration of a thing, see especially 
Madvig, Opuscula, 473 3 (= ii. 92). He 
compares Plaut. Capt. 194 ad fratrem 
. . . moK iuero ; Pseud. 721 uobis post 
narrauero : cp. too Roby, 1485. But 
uidero alone remained in classical Latin : 
cp. Roby, 1593 ; also vol. ii., pref. cvi, 
and Reid on Acad. 19 for a long list 
of passages in which the fut. perf. of 



v. 10] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



35 



uel potius seruili dicam enim libere quod sentio haec per- 
feras animo; enimuero ego nequeo sustinere ulterius tarn 
beatam f ortunam conlapsam indignae. recordare enim, quam 
superbe, quam adroganter nobiscum egerit et ipsa iactatione 
inmodicae ostentationis tumentem suum prodiderit animum 5 
deque tantis diuitiis exigua nobis inuita proiecerit confestimque 
praesentia nostra grauata propelli et efflari exsibilarique nos 
iusserit. nee sum mulier nee omnino spiro, nisi earn pessum 
<ie tantis opibus deiecero. ac si tibi etiam, ut par est, inacuit 
nostra contumelia, consilium ualidum requiramus ambae. 10 
iamque ista, quae ferimus, non parentibus nostris ac nee ulli 
inonstremus alii, immo nee omnino quicquam de eius salute 

8 pessum $ : pessun F. 



uidere is found in this sense. A good 
example is Livy, 1. 58. 10 ' tios,' inquit 
(Lttcretia), ( uideritis quid illi debeatur : 
ego me etsi peccato absoluo, supplicio non 
liber 'o.' We may translate our passage, 
' It is of course for you, sister, to con- 
sider how patiently, or rather slavishly, 
you may tolerate this.' 

enimuero] ' but,' adversative. For 
a copious list of passages in which 
enimuero has this sense, see Helm, 
' Quaest. Apul.,' pp. 572-4 (Philologus 
Suppl. ix). Among them are Met. 
4. 12 ; Flor. 2. 8 (Oud.) ; ib. 9. 30 ; 
ib. 15. 60 ; Apol. 50 (57. 7 Helm). 
In Met. 5. I enimuero seems to be 
' for indeed ' : cp. Flor. 16. 66. 

beatam fortunam conlapsam in- 
dignae] With some hesitation I 
retain the mss. reading conlapsam. 
' Such good fortune falling in a heap on 
an unworthy girl.' No doubt in Latin 
conlapsa, as applied to fortuna, gener- 
ally would mean 'ruined' (cp. 11. 2 
tu fortunam conlapsam adfirma), but so 
would ' falling in a heap ' mean in 
English. Good fortune has fallen pell- 
mell on Psyche as a heap of anything 
might fall on one. The idea of in- 
discriminate confusion with which 



Fortune has fallen on Psyche is ex- 
pressed by con- ; and accordingly it is 
better than inlapsam suggested by 
Bliimner, who compares Cic. Fin. 1. 39 
(of pleasure), and Verg. JEn. 3. 89 (of 
Apollo's inspiration), where the word 
means ' glide into, ' a sense which 
would be out of dramatic propriety in 
our passage. Lipsius suggested con- 
latam, which gives a perfectly correct 
expression (cp. 7. 2), but is a less 
emphatic word than conlapsam. Helm 
reads allapsam from his own conjecture. 
He could compare Amm. Marc. 14. 10. 
15 tit princeps . . . adhibere modum 
adlapsa felicitate decernens: but it seems 
a less emphatic word than conlapsam. 

praesentia . . . iusserit] wearied 
with our company, ordered us to be 
driven away and blown and hissed out 
of her sight.' 

inacuit] ' embittered ' : cp. Ovid 
Rem. Am. 307 Haec tibi per totos in- 
acescant omnia sensus. 

ac nee ulli] and to no other single 
person either.' Here nee has much the 
same meaning as ne . . . . qtiidem : cp. 
3. 8 nee enim nerisimile est', 'and it is 
not probable either': 3. 19 nee ipsa tu 
uideare rudis. 



36 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



[v. II 



norimus. sat est, quod ipsae uidimus quae uidisse paenituit, 
ne[c]dum ut genitoribus et omnibus populis tarn beatum eius 
differamus praeconium. nee sunt enim beati, quorum diuitias 
nemo nouit. sciet se non ancillas sed sorores habere maiores. 
5 et nune quidem concedamus ad maritos et lares pauperes 
nostros, sed plane sobrios reuisamus diuque cogitationibus 
pressioribus instructae ad superbiam poeniendam firmiores 
redeamus." 

11 Placet pro bono duabus mails malum consilium totis- 

10 que illis tarn pretiosis muneribus absconditis comam trahentes 

et proinde ut merebantur ora lacerantes simulates redintegrant 

fletus. ac sic parentes quoque redulcerato prorsum clolore 

raptim deterrentes uesania turgidae domus suas contendunt 

2 neduni v : necdiim F<. 



paenituit] ' which it was pain to us 
to have seen.' The moment Psyche's 
good fortune was seen, it caused pain 
to her sisters. There is no need to 
alter topaenitet with Vliet. 

nediim . . . praeconium] ' much less 
proclaim forth to her parents and all the 
world the story of her great good 
fortune': lit. 'spread abroad such a 
fortunate proclamation about her.' For 
neduni ut cp. 9. 39 fin. neduni ut . . . 
idoneus uidentur. 

nee sunt . . . nouit] Price quotes 
Seneca, Ep. 94. 71 inritamentum est 
omnium in quae insanimus admirator et 
conscius : , . . ambitio et luxuria et im- 
potentia scenam desiderant. 

sed plane sobrios] ' aye, quite 
humble.' For sed cp. Apol. 53 magi- 
cae res in eo occultabantur ; eo neglegentius 
adseruabam, sed enim libere scrutandum 
et inspiciendum . . . exponebam. Other 
examples of sed intensive are 7. 12 cnncti 
denique sed promts omnes, and 10. 22 
totum me prorsus sed totum recepit. 

diuque . . . instructae] 'and when 
we have after a long time prepared 
ourselves with carefully considered 



plans.' For pressioribns cp. 5. 5 quod 
obseruandum pressiore cctutela censeo. 
No alteration of diuque is necessary. 
Oudendorp suggested deinque. 

11 comam trahentes] I am unable 
to find a parallel for this use of trahere. 
The usual word is scindere. 

proinde ut merebantur ora lacer- 
antes] cp. 5. 27 membris . . . proinde 
ut merebatur laceratis. There does not 
seem any reason to alter to maerebant 
with Koziol and Vliet, though we might 
expect proinde ac si rather than ut, and 
re vera, or something of the kind, to be 
added. The author wishes to imply 
that the wicked sisters deserved any 
kind of pain, even self-inflicted pain. 

raptim deterrentes] ' hurriedly re- 
pulsing their parents,' lit. 'frightening 
them away.' The outburst of assumed 
grief on the part of the sisters was so 
violent that their parents were afraid to 
go near them. Others take the idea to 
be frightening away the parents from 
making any further efforts to discover 
what had become of Psyche ; but surely 
something like ' ne diutius de Psyche 
quaererent ' should be added in that 



V. 11] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



dolum scelestum, immo uero parricidium struentes contra 
sororem insontem. 

Interea Psychen maritus ille, quern nescit, rursum suis illis 
nocturnis sermonibus sic commonet : " uidesne, quantum tibi 
periculum ? uelitatur Fortuna eminus, ac nisi longe firmiter 5 
praecaues, mox cornminus congredietur. perfidae lupulae 
magnis conatibus nefarias insidias tibi comparant, quarum 
summa est, ut te suadeant meos explorare uultus, quos, ut tibi 
saepe praedixi, non uidebis si uideris. ergo igitur si posthac 
pessimae illae lamiae noxiis animis armatae uenerint uenient 10 
autem, scio , neque omnino sermonem conferas et si id 
tolerare pro genuina simplicitate proque animi tui teneritudine 
non potueris, certe de marito nil quicquam uel audias uel 
respondeas. nam et familiam nostram iam propagabimus et 
hie adlmc infantilis uterus gestat nobis infantem alium, si IB 

15 adhue : adhoc F0. 



case. It is possible, as Oud. suggests, 
that deterrentes means only nalde ter- 
rentes as 5. 22 Psyche tanto aspectu 
deterrita (when she saw Cupid) : but 
the interpretation given above seems 
more picturesque : cp. Ter. Ad. 144 
quom placo, aduersor sediilo et deterreo. 
Colvius and some others of the early 
editors read deserentes from the inferior 
mss. : quoque must then mean ' as well 
as leaving Psyche,' which is inappro- 
priate here ; for it was no demerit in 
them to have left Psyche on this occa- 
sion, as it was in 5. 21. init. flam-mat a 
uiscera sororis . . . deserentes ipsae pro- 
tinus. 

periculum !] The stop must be placed 
here ; for uelitari is only used intransi- 
tively or with a cognate ace. (Plaut. 
Men. 778). It is a word which Ap. 
very often uses at least eight times. 

longe] from a distance.' 

lupulae] * wretches,' lit. = mere- 
triculae. 

te suadeant] cp. note to suasa, 5. 6. 

ut tibi saepe praedixi] This defini- 



nite warning is not given before in the 
narrative. 

non uidebis si uideris] i.e. he will 
disappear if she once sees his face. The 
oracular tone is appropriate. 

ergo igitur] cp. 1.5: 2. 18 and of ten. 

lamiae] ' hags,' 'witches,' cp. 1. 17. 
The Lamia was a character of ancient 
fairy-tales: cp. Hor. A. P. 340. In 
one of these it appears that she used, 
when she got to her tower (cp. Tertull. 
adv. Valentin. 3 Lamiae tnrres), to take 
out her eyes and sing (cp. Plutarch De 
Curios. 2, unless we are to read evSeiv). 
See further Friedlander, i 6 . 525. 

noxiis animis armatae] with the 
weapons of their baleful intentions.' 

autem] often in parentheses : cp. 3. 5. 
Many examples in Thesaurus ii. 1592, 3. 

conferas] Price conjectured conseras, 
needlessly. In this sense comer ere is 
very rare; while conferre is classical 
(Cic. Phil. 2. 38) and common. 

pro . . . teneritudine] owing to 
your natural guilelessness and soft- 
heartedness.' 



38 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



texeris nostra secreta silentio, diuinum, si pro/anaueris, mor- 
talem." 

\?t Nuntio Psyche laeta florebat et diuinae subolis solacio 

plaudebat et futuri pignoris gloria gestiebat et materni nominis 

5 dignitate gaudebat. crescentes dies et menses exeuntes anxia 

numerat et sarcinae nesciae rudimento miratur de breui 

punctilio tantum incrementulum locupletis uteri, sed iam 



1 profanaveris v. : prophanaueris F<. 
mortalem repetitum in F<|>, sed ab ipsis correctum. 






diuinum] Here Cupid has again half- 
revealed himself : cp. note on sacrilega, 
c. 6. 

12 Nuntio] The addition of Tali 
before nuntio, which Oudendorp mentions 
as a suggestion made to him, is probable. 
It might have fallen out after mor- 
talem. Vliet compares the beginning 
of chapter 21. But Helm well com- 
pares Suet. Tib. 11 laetus nuntio : so 
we had better adhere to the ms. 

laeta . . gaudebat] 'was in the 
bloom of joy, and all in a flutter at the 
soothing solace that her child would 
be divine, and she was pluming herself 
with pride in this love-pledge that was 
to come, and was rejoicing in the dignity 
of the name of mother.' This seems 
the best meaning to give to plaudebat, 
something like Verg. J3n. 5. 515 alis 
plaudentem nigrafigit sub nube columbam. 
The assonance of the four imperfects 
can hardly be preserved. We confess 
we should like to add sibi: ' was well 
satisfied with,' ' congratulated herself 
on': cp. Apol. 74 habet in istis quod sibi 
plaudat. 

sarcinae nesciae rudimento] ' as it 
was her first essay in carrying this 
burden of which she knew nought.' 
This use of rudimentum is very common 
in Apuleius, cp. 6. 6 : 7. 14 : 8. 3 : 
Florid. 15. 60 (Oud.); Apol. 66: 92. 
In 9. 11 we should read with many 
inferior mss. sed mihi ne rudimentum 
semitii perhorrescerem scilicet, nouus 



dominus loco, lautia prolixe praebuit. 
For nesciae used passively Hildebrand 
compares 8. 13 dum dolore nescio crapu- 
lam cum somno decutit. Gellius 9. 12. 
18 ' nescius ' quoque dicitur tarn is qui 
nescitur quam qui newit. Sed super eo 
qui nescit frequem huius uocabuli usus 
est : infrequens autem est de eo quod 
nescitur. Gellius quotes Plaut. Kud. 
275 quae in locis nesciis nescia spe 
sumus ; add Tac. Ann. 1. 59 inexperta 
esse supplicia, nescia tributa. 

de breui punctulo] 'in such a short 
space of time': cp. 9. 39 ad istum 
modum puncio breuissimo dilapsae domus 
for tun am, quoted by F. Norden. The 
force of de seems to be that time is 
regarded as the cause of the incremen- 
tulum : cp. 7. 22 eius mortem de lupo 
facile mentiemur. This preposition in 
Apuleius is almost superfluous at times: 
cp. 9. 40 init. inuersa uite de uastiore 
nodulo cerebrum suum diffindere. Hilde- 
brand thinks that punctul/im refers to 
the diminutive size of Psyche before 
she began to be with child. 

tantum incrementulum] such a 
pretty swelling of her fertile womb.' 

sed iam .... nauigabant] ' but 
already those pests and foul furies, 
breathing forth their snaldsh slaver and 
hasting with unholy speed, were on 
the sea.' Note the alliteration in 
uiperewn uirns, which is not easy 
to reproduce. Perhaps 'pestilential 
poison.' 



v. 13] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



39 



pestes illae taeterrimaeque Furiae anhelantes uipereum uirus 
et festinantes impia celeritate nauigabant. tune sic iterum 
momentarius inaritus suam Psychen admonet: "dies ultima et 
casus extremus e<s>t : sexus infestus et sanguis inimicus 
iam sumpsit arma et castra commouit et aciem direxit et 5 
classicum personauit; iam mucrone destricto iugulum tuurn 
nefariae tuae sorores petunt. heu quantis urguemur cladibus, 
Psyche clulcissima. tui nostrique miserere religiosaque con- 
tinentia domum maritum teque et istum paruulum nostrum 
imminentis ruinae infortunio libera. nee illas scelestas feminas, 10 
quas tibi post interneciuum odium et calcata sanguinis foedera 
sorores appellare non licet, uel uideas uel audias, cum in 
more<m> Sirenum scopulo prominentes funestis uocibus saxa 
personabunt." 

1 3 Suscipit Psyche singultu lacrimoso sermonem incertans : 15 

4 est Jahn : et F<p. 13 morem <f> sed altera man. : more F< (prim. man.). 



momentarius] transitory.' Apu- 
leius uses the word elsewhere in the 
sense of ' for a moment,' e.g. nit a 
(2. 29) ; salus (9. 1). Also with uene- 
ninn in the sense of ' rapidlv working ' 
(10. 25). 

dies . . . extremus est] For est 
(Jahn) the mss. give et. For this 
Rohde reads en. Vliet adds en hefore 
dies and brackets et. Different com- 
mentators add some verb before dies, 
e.g. aduenit (Traube), imminet (Michae- 
lis), adest (Kronenberg). Helm sup- 
poses et is what remains of imminet. 

sexus infestus et sanguis inimicus] 
' women turned cruel, your flesh and 
blood become your foe.' The idea is 
that women are generally gentle, but 
now are cruel : those of one's own blood 
generally friends, but now are enemies. 

classicum personauit] The ace. after 
personare is generally local, the place 
which is made to resound : see saxa 
personabant below and Verg. JEn. 6. 171, 
417. The course of the sentence does 
not admit of classieum being taken as 



nominative. The form in -auit is very 
rare : see Neue-"Wagener iii 3 . 376, who 
quotes Manilius 5. 566 aura per extre- 
tnas resonauit flebile rupes, where, 
however, Dr. Postgate proposes to read 
resonabat. 

continentia] ' self-restraint,' in re- 
spect of talking about her husband : 
cp. in the next chapter parciloquio. 
infortunio] cp. note to 5. 5 (For tuna}. 
in morem Sirenum scopulo promi- 
nentes] Sirens were represented as 
birds with the heads of women. The 
celebrated vaseofVulci (cp.Banmeister's 
DenJtmaler iii. 1643 Fig. 1700) repre- 
sents two of them perched on rocks 
singing to the ship of Ulysses as it passes 
by, while the third is throwing herself 
into the sea. Homer represents the 
Sirens as only two in number (^eip-fjvotiv 
Horn. Od. 12. 167), and as singing in a 
meadow (ib. 45). 

13 sermonem incertans] ( making 
what she said indistinct by her tearful 
sobbing.' For incertare = incertnin 
facer e Nonius (p. 123) compares 



40 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



[v. 13 



" iam dudum, quod sciam, fidei atque parciloquio meo perpen- 
disti documenta, nee eo setius adprobabitur tibi nunc etiam 
firmitas animi mei. tu modo Zephyro nostro rursum praecipe, 
fungatur obsequio, et in uiceni denegatae sacrosanctae imaginis 

5 tuae redde saltern conspectum sororum. per istos cinnameos 
et undique pendulos crines tuos, per teneras et teretis et mei 
similes genas, per pectus nescio quo calore feruidum, sic in hoc 
saltern paruulo cognoscam faciem tuam: supplicis anxiae piis 
precibus erogatus germani complexus indulge fructum et tibi 

10 deuotae Psychae animam gaudio recrea. nee quicquam amplius 

6 mei F0 : meis v. 

10 denote. Post hoc verbuni litura fere septem litterarum quarum prima fait d, 
et ultima non fuit q\ Probabiliter, ut Eyssenhardt et Helm decent, devote 
fuit falso repetitum ut mortalem in fine c. 11. Manus recens supra 
lineam scripsit dicateq; (sic Michaelis: careq\ secundum Helm): denote 
careq; <. 



Pacuvius (Dulorestes) 150 (Ribbeck) set 
med incertat dictio : quare expedi and 
Plaut. Epid. 545 long a dies tneuin in- 
certat animum. We have the word 
again in Apul. Met. 11. 16 fin. quae 
(navis} cursus spatio prospectum fui 
nobis incertat. 

fidei atque parciloquio meo] This 
is, as F. Norden rightly says, the dat. 
commodi : ' you have weighed the 
proofs I have given of my faithfulness 
and reticence'; lit. 'in favour of my 
faithfulness.' ' My reticence has gained 
the approval of your considered judg- 
ment.' Similar usages are Liv. 3. 37. 5 
munimentum libertati ; Cic. Mur. 32 ut 
leg at us fratri proficisceretur. The old 
editors alter to parciloqiiii mei, an easy, 
but not permissible, proceeding. 

cinnameos .... crines] 'sweetly 
fragrant': cp. 10. 29 spir antes cinnameos 
odores . . , rosae ; 8. 9 adhuc odor cinna- 
meus ambrosii corporis per naves meas 
cucurrit. 

mei similes genas] This is the 
usual comparatio compendiaria, as it is 
called ; such as Horace, Carm. 3. 6. 46 
aetus parentum peior avis. The older 
editors altered to meis. 



pectus .... feruidum] Cupid's 
breast. It is not unreasonable to sup- 
pose that the author intended us to 
conceive of Psyche stroking Cupid's 
locks and cheeks, and drawing close 
his breast to her breast as she spoke the 
successive clauses with the touching 
and beautiful variation in her endear- 
ments as she is reminded that she can- 
not see his face, and can but hope to 
see it in the little one when it is born. 
We are somewhat reminded of the wish 
of Dido, Verg. JEn. 4. 328 si quis iuihi 
paruulus aula Luderet -Aeneas qui te 
tamen ore referret. 

erogatus] ' be entreated by the 
prayers your troubled little suppliant 
feels bound to make.' The force of e- 
in erogalns is ' to be talked over,' to be 
successfully implored : cp. erogitare, 
Plaut. Capt. 952. To show this force 
of e- we may adduce Terence Hec. 
Prol. 2 init. Orator ad uos uenio ornatu 
prologi Sinite exorator sim. 

deuotae] In F there is a space of 
about seven letters : above the line is 
inserted by a late corrector dicateque 
(Michaelis) or it may be careque (Helm). 
Iu$ we find careque: but it would appear 



v. 14] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



41 



in tuo uultu require, iam nil officiunt mihi nee ipsae nocturnae 
tenebrae : teneo te, meum lumen." 

His uerbis et amplexibus mollibus decantatus maritus 
lacrimasque eius suis crinibus detergens <se> fa<oturum 
spopondit et praeuertit statim lumen nascentis diei. 5 

14 lugum sororium consponsae factionis ne parentibus 
quidem uisis recta de nauibus scopulum petunt ilium praecipiti 
cum. uelocitate iiec uenti ferentis oppertae praesentiam licen- 
tiosa cum temeritate prosiliunt in altum. nee immemor 
Zephyrus regalis edicti, quamuis inuitus, susceptas eas gremio 1 
spirantis aurae solo reddidit. at illae incunctatae statim 

4 se facturum Helm: fatnrum (sine se} F : factiirnm f<p. 



that originally que was not found at the 
end, according to Michaelis. "Weyman 
adds deuinctaeque, comparing 5. 24 : 
Apol. 102. InAttius' fabula praetexta 
'Aeneadaeuel Decius,'line 15 (Ribbeck, 
p. 283), we find dicare and deuoneo joined 
together, which may give some support 
to the clever emendation of the late 
corrector. The line is Patrio exemplo 
et -me dicabo alque animain deuoro hosti- 
bus, where deuoro is for deuouero (see 
Lindsay, Lat. Lang., p. 507, for other 
examples). Helm thinks that deuotae 
was written twice (like mortalem at the 
end of c. 11, and fecerint in 7. 27) and 
then erased ; and this is most probable. 

se facturum spopondit] So Helm: 
cp. 5. 5 ex arbitrio mariti se facturam 
spopondit; 5. 6 cuncta se facturum spo- 
pondit. These show that we should add 
the subject se, which might have dropped 
out between S and F. Possibly we 
should add sic as well, se sic facturum. 

14 lugum sororium] ( This pair of 
sisters yoked together in their pledged 
conspiracy.' For the adjective used 
instead of the genitive of a substantive, 
F. Norden compares 4. 31 marinwn 
obsequium ; 5. S coniugale praeceptiun : 
we may add regalis edicti below. Also 



for inyum applied to a pair of people 
united for any purpose, lie refers to 
Cic. Phil.* 11. 6 iufftim impiorum, 
referring to Antonius and Dolabella. 
The word conspondere is rare: cp. SO 
de Bacchanalibus 13 and Ausonius 
399. 11 te quoque ne pigeat consponsi 
foederis : but consponsor is found in 
Cicero, Att. 12. 17 : Fam. 6. 18. 3. 

uenti ferentis] cp. Verg. JEn. 3. 473 
feret iiento mora ne quaferenti : Georg. 
2. 311 in Greek (popbs or 



licentiosa cum temeritate] * with 
extravagant daring ' : cp. 4. 25 lamenta- 
Hones licentiosas refricaret. Apuleius 
uses the word in the sense of ' uncurbed,' 
' unrestrained,' 5. 29 (amplexibus} ; 9. 31 
(For tuna] . 

incunctatae] I have retained this 
somewhat curious form. It pre- 
supposes an adjective cnnctatus, which 
seerns rare ; but it is found in the mss. 
in Suet. Caes. 60 (and read there by 
Ihm): Tac. Hist. 3. 4 (where Halm 
reads citnctantior, and Lipsius^Mctatar); 
and in some mss. in Plin. Ep. 2. 16. 4 
(where Keil read cunctatior}. Apuleius 
also uses it: Florid. 18. 85 ad dicendum 
nimia reucrentia uestri cunctatior: and 



[v. 14 

conferto uestigio domum penetrant complexaeque praedam 
suam scrolls nomen ementientes thensaurumque penitus 
abditae fraudis uultu laeto tegentes sic adulant : 

" Psyche, non ita ut pridem paruula, et ipsa iam mater es. 

2 sororis nomen ementientes Wolf: sorores nomine mentientes ~F<f>. 



Eyssenhardt reads it in Macrob. 7. 14. 
2. As <J> gives icuctate (e being cor- 
rected from a), it is tempting to read 
with Colvius the common incunctanter : 
cp. 3. 8 ; 9. 36. 

Norden would leave out stat-lm as a 
gloss. This is possible ; but incunctatae 
rather means, ' without any hesitation.' 
Oud. says it means, without waiting at 
the door to ask permission to enter, ' ut 
honest as iubebat.' 

conferto vestigio] 'in close-joined 
step,' a curious phrase, found also in 
Tacitus Ann. 12. 35 (ferentarius grauis- 
q/ie miles, illl telis adsultantes, hi conferto 
ff radii). It well expresses the hurried 
way in which the two sisters, close 
together, stalked in step into Psyche's 
house. 

sororis nomen ementientes] I have 
adopted the emendation of Ch. Wolf for 
sorores nomine mentientes, which, with 
some effort, has been forced to mean, 
' these sisters falsely so called '; lit. 
4 false in that name.' For ementiri 
cp. Apol. 17 paitcitatem famulitii ego 
gloriae causa ementiri debuissem. Apu- 
leius is very fond of the word mentiri 
in the sense of ' falsely assume,' but he 
always uses the ace. with it. The 
following examples may be quoted : 
5. 26 bestiam quae mariti mentito nomine 
mecum quiescebat ; 8. 2 amid Jidelissimi 
personam menticbatur ; 9. 23 intrepidum 
inentita unit um ; 11.8 incessu perfluo 
feminam mentiebatnr. Also 4. o ; 8.7; 
9. 11 ; 9. 14; 10. 2 (where we should 
read with Price corporis inualetiidinem 
for in corporis naletudine] : 10. 5; 10. 
27; Plat. 1. 18 cum eorum, quorum 
ignarus est, doctrinam aliquis scienti- 



amque mentitur. A somewhat unusual 
use is found in Mund. 33 et merito illis 
(sc. mundi luminibus) licet ordine 'per- 
petuo fnti nee diuersis etsi spatiis 
temporibusue obsernantissimam legem 
suorum aliquando itinerum mentiuntur 
('violate,' be false to'). 

thensaurumque . . . adulant] 'and 
covering their accumulations of deep- 
laid treachery under a countenance of 
joy, they thus fawn upon (caress) her.' 
The active form adulo is found in Cic, 
Tusc. 2. 24 (in a metrical translation from 
the Prometheus Solutus of JEschylus) 
in the sense of ' wiping off,' sublime 
auolans pinnata cauda, nostrum adulat 
sanguinem. In Lucr. 5. 1070 dogs 
gannitu uocis adulant ' caress with a 
yelping sound ' (Munro). Nonius (p. 17) 
says ' adulatio ' est blandimentum proprie 
canum, quod et ad homines tractum con- 
suetudine est. Our passage is the first, 
so far as I know, in which the active 
form is found in a prose-writer. 

Psyche, non ita ut pridem paruula, 
et ipsa iam mater es] Editors follow 
Liitjohann (p. 462) in omitting ut. Of 
course non ita pridem ' not so long ago * 
is found, e.g. Apol. 72. Still perhaps 
ut can be defended. We might trans- 
late * Psyche, not as a while ago our 
little Psyche, why, you actually (i.e. 
even you, our little Psyche, as we 
used to call you) are already a mother * 
a natural address from elder sisters. 
The tenderness of the diminutive thus 
comes out. For et ipsa cp. 17 tu quidem 
jelix et ipsa tanti mali ignorantia beata 
sedes ; 22 iam et ipsum lumen lucernae 
uacillabat ; 23 et quasi basiare et ipsa 
(sc. lucernd) gestiebat. 



v. 15] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



quantum, putas, boni nobis in ista geris perula ; quantis gaudiis 
totam domum nostram hilarabis. o nos beatas, quas in/antis 
aurei nutrimenta laetabunt. qui si parentum, ut oportet, 
pulchritudini respondent, prorsus Cupido nascetur." 

15 Sic adfectione simulata paulatim sororis inuadunt 
animum. statimque eas lassitudine uiae sedilibus refotas et 
balnearum uaporo[ro]sis fontibus curatas pulcherrime triclinio 
mirisque illis et beatis edulibus atque tuccetis oblectat. 



2 infantisv: intantis 



7 vaporosis <$> : vapororosis F : vapore j rosis f . 



perula] lit. ' a little reticule ' 
or ' pocket,' playful expression for 
uterus intwnescens. Probably ista is 
SetKT'Kws: cp. 5. 10; 6. 13 fin. 

aurei] 'golden,' denoting supreme 
excellence : cp. Plin. Ep. 2. 20. 1 assem 
para et accipe auream Jabulam. It is in 
this sense that the work of Apuleius is 
called Asinus aureus. In the Epistle 
to Octavian 6 (printed with Cicero's 
Epistles) we find inatris . . . partum 
aureum. Cp. ' Golden (i.e. princely) 
lads and girls' in Cymbeline. 

laetabunt] The active form is rare. 
It is found in Livius Andronicus trag. 7 
iamne oculos specie laetauisti optabili and 
Attius trag. 513 et te ut triplici laetarem 
bono. There does not seem to be any 
other example of the active earlier than 
Apuleius: cp. 3. 11 sed frontem tuam 
serena uenustate laetabit adsidue. 

prorsus Cupido] ' a very Cupid ': cp. 
note to c. 6. 

inuadunt] The military metaphor 
is continued ; 'they take possession of,' 
' win their way to.' 

statimque] and forthwith, after 
they had rested themselves in chairs 
from the fatigue of their journey, and 
had refreshed themselves with the 
steaming water of the bath, she regaled 
them most splendidly at her table, and 
with those marvellous and sumptuous 
viands and savouries.' Oud. suggests 
refota, comparing c. 2 lectulo lassi- 



tudinem re/one; 3. 17 poculis . . . 
lassitudinem refouentes ; 9.3 mollitie 
cubiculi refota lassitudine. But Helm 
shows that Apuleius also uses refouere 
with a personal accusative 1. 7 fati- 
gatum . . . lectulo refoueo. Something 
similar is 10. 35 lassum corpus . . . re- 
foueo. We may add 4. 8 hi simili 
lauacro refoti. For pulcherrime of the 
mss. Oud. and most editors read pul- 
cherrimo, which is perhaps right: cp. 
c. 8 lauacroque pulcherrimo et inhumanae 
mensae lautitiis eas opipare reficit. The 
same idea that appears there in inhu- 
manae (' unearthly ') reappears, though 
less emphatically, in beatis here : the 
viands are so delicate and choice that 
they are almost fit for the blessed. For 
beatns, applied to ' sumptuous ' food, 
cp. 6. 20 nee offerentis hospitae sedile 
delicatum uel cibum beatum amplexa. 
Quintil. Declam. 301 (p. 186, 8 ed. 
Ritter) si cenulam diuiti pauper fccisset 
non illam beat am. 

atque tuccetis] Vliet brackets these 
words ; but they are found in the mss. ; 
and it is improbable that they were 
interpolated. Fulgentius (Serin. Antiq., 
p. 122. 1, ed. Helm) explains ' edulium' 
ab edendo dictum, id est quasi praegusta- 
tiua comestio : unde et Apuleius in asino 
aureo ait ' eduUbns opipare excepta. 1 
Immediately afterwards follows the 
explanation of ' tucceta ' as escae regiae. 
This would tend to show that Fulgentius 



44 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



[v. 15 



iubet citharam loqui : psallitur ; tibias agere: sonatur; chores 
canere : cantatur. quae cuncta nullo praesente dulcissimis 
modulis animos audientium remulcebant. nee tamen sceles- 
tarum feminarum nequitia uel ilia mellita cantus dulcedine 
.5 mollita conquieuit, sed ad destinatam fraudium pedicam 
sermonem conferentes dissimulanter occipiunt sciscitari, qualis 
ei maritus et unde natalium, secta cm'a proueniret. tune ilia 

7 secta citia "Wower : seetacula Fd>. 



found the word tuccetis here, even though 
his quotation is from an unknown 
poet ' Callimorftts in Piseis : Ambrosio 
redolent tucceta fauore' [qu. uapore], 
It is a word of which Apuleius is fond. 
Fotis was making a tuccetum perquam 
sapidissimuin (2. 7) when Lucius hegan 
flirting with her : see also 7. 11. It 
was a kind of force-meat or haggis 
made very savoury : Persius 2. 42 
speaks of tuccetaque crassa. In 9. 22 
a woman pulinenta recentia tuccetis tem- 
perat. Amohius, Adv. Gentes 2. 42 
speaks of glaciali condicione tucceta, 
from which \ve may gather that 
they were in some way frozen for keep- 
ing. The scholiast on Persius (1. c.) 
says Tucceta apud Gattos Cisalpinos 
bubula dicittir condimentis quibusdam 
crassis oblita et macerata et ideo totos 
annos durat. Solet etiam porcina eodem 
genere condita seruari aut ad saturarum 
iura. In the Corp. Gloss, the word 
is explained as a>/ibs Traxvs, which 
shows that this particular kind of 
savoury was used sometimes as an 
ingredient of gravy. Hinc Plotius 
Vergilii amicus in eadem regione est 
nominatus Tucca. In fact, it seems to 
have been a kind of rich extract of 
beef. 

iubet .... cantatur] ' she orders 
that a harp discourse : a harp is played ; 
that the pipes perform : the pipes are 
sounded ; that the chorus sing : a song is 
sung.' The word agere here seems to be 



used in the histrionic sense : cp. Cic. De 
Orat. 1. 124 noluit hodie agere Roscius 
(* was not in the humour to perform 
to-day'). 

mellita .... mollita] alliteration : 
* their wicked hearts (lit. ' wickedness') 
are not mollified by the mellifluous sweet- 
ness of the strains.' 

sed .... sciscitari] turning the 
conversation with apparent naturalness 
towards the treacherous pitfall which 
they had prepared.' 

unde natalium] ' of what family he 
was.' Classical Latin used the abl. : 
cp. Hor. Epp. 1. 7. 52 quaere et refer 
unde domo, qtiis, cuius fortunae, and 
Verg. JEn. 8. 114 Qui genus? unde 
domo ? In natalium we probably have 
a partitive genitive, like unde gentium 
in Plaut. Epid. 483. 

secta cuia proueniret] ' of what 
calling (walk in life) did he come,' 
literally, ' of what person's calling did 
he come.' For secta in this sense 
editors quote Ausonius, Pref. 1. 2 
(Peiper) ego nomine eodem Qui sim, 
qua secta, stirpe, Lare et patria. It is 
often found in the same sense in Apu- 
leius : e.g. 4. 18 ex disciplina sectae 
(' in accordance with the regulations of 
our calling,' i.e. the trade of a robber) : 
4. 24 scque ad sectae sneta confer unt : 
6. 31 nee sectae collegii . . . congruit ('to 
the calling of our community ') : 10. 11 
nee meae sectae credo-cm conuenire (' pro- 
fession ' as a physician) causas xlli 



v. 16] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



45 



simplicitate nimia pristini sermonis oblita nouum commentum 
instruit aitque maritum suum de prouincia proxiina magnis 
pecuniis negotiantem iam medium cursum aetatis agere, inter- 
spersum rara canitie. nee in sermone isto tantillum morata 
rursum opiparis muneribus eas onustas uentoso uehiculo 5 
reddidit. 

1O Sed dum Zephyri tranquillo spiritu sublimatae domum 
redeunt, sic secum altercantes : " quid, soror, dicimus de tain 



praebere mortis ; Flor. 18. 86 et secta 
(my ' profession,' of public lecturer) 
licet jithenis Atiicis confirmata, tamen 
hie incohataest ; Plat. 2. 8 two divisions 
of Rhetoric quarum una est disciplina . . . 
apta et conneniens cum secta ('calling') 
eius qui politicus milt ttideri. Of course 
it often means a philosophical school, 
a sect,' De Deo Socr. Pref., 2, Apol. 
19, Met. 10. 33. 

piistini sermonis] cp. 5. 8. 

commentum] ' story ' in the sense of 
'fabrication.' 

magnis pecuniis negotiantem] Such 
a large wholesale merchant is called 
negotiator vnagnarius in 1. 5, where we 
notice the Roman capitalist (Lupus) 
and the Greek retailer (Aristomenes). 

interspersum rara canitie] 'with 
white strewn here and there amid his 
hair.' We are reminded of Laius in 
Sophocles, Oed. Tyr. 742 x* / 0aa>' &pn 
\evKav6es Koipa ; and of Propertius 3. 5. 
24 sparserit et nigras alba senecta comas. 

uentoso uehiculo] ' wind-borne wain.' 

16 sublimatae] 'raised aloft,' a rare 
and half poetical word found in 
Emuus' Medea (235 Ribb.) Sol qui 
candentem in caelo sublimat facem (cp. 
Fest. 306 Cato in excelsissimam clari- 
tudinem sublimauit] ; but does not re- 
appear until Apuleius (1. 8; 3. 21), 
except in Vitruvius (6. 4. 4) granaria 
sublimata (' lofts '). 

secum altercantes] ' conversing to- 



gether,' with perhaps an additional 
idea of eager, interested, and earnest 
conversation : cp. 6. 26 : 9. 3. 
"Wower altered to altercantur, and 
Oudendorp to altercant. Apuleius, 
of course, also uses the word in 
the ordinary sense of ' disputing/ 
'wrangling' (2. 29; 10. 15). In 9. 
33 we have iis poculis mutuis altercanti- 
bus mirabile prorsus euenit ostentum ; the 
meaning seems to be no more than 
drinking and talking together. In the 
Vulgate (Sirach 9. 13) we find non 
alterceris cum ilia (muliere aliena] in uino, 
translating ^ avufioXoKoirnaris yuer' 
aurrjs eV ofay, which means, 'do not 
hold feast with her where the wine-cup 
circles ' ; but the principal idea of 
altercari is ' conversing,' while that of 
avpftoKoKoirtiv is ' giving feasts.' "We 
should not compare Horace, Carm. 4.1. 
31 certare mero, which seems to mean 
trying who will drink most. Apuleius 
is very fond of using secum for inter se 
in reference to conversation : e.g. 5. 9 : 
also 4. 5. secum collocuti and secum 
colloquentes ; 6. 26 secum . . . altercant; 
6. 31 secum considerare ; 10. 5 deliberant, 
all quoted by Beck. 

The word for ' said ' is omitted : cp. 
6. 2 Per ego te . . . dexter am deprecor, 
with 4. 31 ( Per ego te' inquit . . . 
foedera deprecor, which seems to show 
that the word may be omitted or in- 
serted at pleasure. 



46 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



v. 16 



monstruoso fatuae illius mendacio ? tune adolescens modo 
florenti lanugine barbam instruens, nunc aetate media candenti 
canitie lucidus. quis ille, quern temporis modici spatium 
repentina senecta ref ormauit ? niL_aliiid repperies, mi soror, 
s quam uel mendacio istam pessimam feminam confingere uel 
formam mariti sui nescire ; quorum utrum uerum est, opibus 
istis quam primum exterminanda est. quodsi uiri sui faciem 
ignorat, deo profecto denupsit et deum nobis praegnatione ista 
gerit. certe si diuini puelli quod absit haec mater audierit, 

5 mendada Oudendorp : mdacio F$ : mendacium v. 
9 audierit <f> : *udierit F : adierit f. 



monstruoso] This form seems due to 
a false analogy with formations from 
^-sterns, e.g. aestuosus. Roby (vol. i., 
814) quotes montuosus (Cic. Lael. 68 ; 
yet montosus, naturally on account of 
the metre, Verg. JEn. 7. 744) and 
twluptuosus (Plin. Ep. 3. 19. 2). An 
interesting word is curiosus, which should 
be curosus, but arose apparently from 
incuriosus (from incuria] : see Lindsay, 
Lat. Lang. 353. 

modo .... lucidus] ' just growing 
a beard of downy bloom, now one in 
middle age bright with the sheen of 
silver locks ' : instruens lit. ' supplying ' 
or ' dressing ' ; yet the word is so 
strange that Blumner suggests nutriens. 
For aetate media, cp. Ovid. Met. 12. 459 
huic aetas inter iuuenemque senemque, 
uis iuuenalis erat. 

mendacia istam] So Oudendorp for 
mendacio istam, comparing 5. 19 init. ; 
8. 28 init. If mendacio is retained, it will 
be taken, as would appear, adverbially, 
* falsely inventing,' like serio, ioco : or 
formam mariti sui will have to be pre- 
supposed in the first clause. Salmasius 
reads mendacio ista. 

utrum] for utrumcunque, which Liit- 
johann proposes to read. The Diction- 
aries quote Vitruvius 7 Praef., 9 
alii enim scripserunt a Philadelpho esse 
in crucem fixwn (Zoilum), nonnulU Chii 



ei lapides esse coniectos, alii Smyrnae 
uiuum in pyram coniectum : quorum 
utrum ei acciderit ('whichever of these 
deaths shall be found to have happened 
to him ') merenti constitit poena \vhere 
there is the additional peculiarity that 
utrum is used for one of several, not 
merely one of two : cp. also Cic. 
De Div. 2. 116 Utrum igitur eorum 
accidisset uerum oraculum fuisset, and 
many other passages quoted by Xeue- 
"Wagener ii 3 . 540. Bittershuis suggests 
utrum utrum for utrum uerum, which 
is approved by Price ; but the com- 
bination is not elsewhere found. 

denupsit] cp. Apol. 70 at tu dum 
earn putas etiamnum Claro fratri tuo 
denupturam. Nipperdey, on Tac. Ann. 
6. 27, explains the de- as referring to 
the Ji 'I'm tie of marriage (as in deuincere, 
'to bind fast'), 'happily (or regularly) 
married '; Furneaux, as leaving the 
paternal home or town on marriage : cp. 
9. 31 and enubere, Liv. 26. 34. 3. Our 
passage here clearly proves that it does 
not express the idea of a mesalliance. 

puelli] For the form cp. 7. 21 ; 9. 
27. Used in the same sense as here, 
of offspring unborn, Lucret. 4. 1252. 

audierit] 'gets the name of,' 'be- 
comes famous as.' A common usage : 
cp. Hor. Ep. 1. 7. 38 ; 1. 16. 17; Sat. 
2. 7. 101 ; and in Apuleius 2. 9 nisi 



v. 17] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



47 



statim me laqueo nexili suspendam. ergo interim ad parentes 
nostros redeamus et exordio sermonis huius quam concolores 
fallacias adtexanms." 

17 Sic inHammatae, parentibus fastidienter appellatis et 
nocte turbate uigiliis, perditae inatutino scopulum peruolant et 5 
inde solito uenti praesidio uehementer deuolaiit lacrimisque 
pre<s>sura palpebrarum coactis hoc astu puellam appellant: 
"tu quidem felix et ipsa tanti mali ignorantia beata sedes 



2 ccokres F (marg.) </> : colores F. 
5 turbatae Helm conj. : turbatis F<f>. 



3 fallacias <f> : fallacid F. 
7 pret-snra </> : psura F. 



eapillunt, distinxcrit ornata non 2)ossit 
audire: 6. 9. The difficult passage in 
10. 35 Cenchreas quod oppidum audit 
quidem nobilissimae coloniae Corinthi- 
ensium, may, perhaps, be explained by 
taking audit as meaning 'hearkens to,' 
i.e. * obeys,' ' is under the rule of: cp. 
Apol. 83 nefario homini . . . nee auscul- 
tarent, sibi potius aiidirent, and note on 
<3. 19 below. Scioppius emended to 
nobilissima colonia, and takes audit as 
meaning ' is called,' as does the 
Thesaurus. But was Cenchreae a colony, 
not to say a splendid one ? Strabo 
(p. 380) calls it KC^T? xal Ai^rjj/. But if 
not, we must suppose colonia, to be used 
in an unofficial sense, ' which the 
Corinthians call the finest of their 
colonies,' i.e. towns recognizing their 
authority. 

exordio . . . adtexamus] ' let us 
weave on to the story just started 
falsehoods that will exactly match it.' 
The Thesaurus quotes for this meta- 
phorical use of concolor Prudentius c. 
Symm. 2. 872 una superstitio est quamuis 
non concolor error. 

17 fastidienter] This adverb seems 
to be used nowhere else. 

turbatae] So Helm conjectures 
(though he reads turbata with Bursian). 
The same correction had occurred to 
myself, as we require a pendant to 
perditae. The clauses would be more 
evenly balanced if we could sup- 



pose uigiliis a gloss, but no change 
is imperative : ' during the night 
agitated by the hours of sleeplessness, 
become quite desperate and abandoned 
in the morning.' There seems no 
reason to alter to percitae with Lipsius, 
or to pcrdita with Gruter. The cor- 
ruption of turbatae into turbatis was 
due to the proximity of uigiliis. 

solito] cp. 5. 21 init. Some inferior 
mss. read soliti. 

uehementer] Owing to the corrup- 
tion uehemens for uehens in 4. 35 fin., 
there is a temptation to alter to uehentis 
with Salmasius : but, as in 5. 14 init., 
we require some indication of the haste 
with which they proceeded on their 
evil course. For this reason the emen- 
dation clementer must be rejected. Some 
commentators raise the difficulty that 
they could not go down more quickly 
than the wind carried them. This 
matter-of-fact objection may be per- 
haps answered in a similarly prosaic 
way by saying that the office of the 
wind was protective (praesidio}, to keep 
them from falling heavily to the ground. 
They threw themselves violent^ off the 
cliff, in their haste. 

coactis] cp. Verg. JEn. 2. 196 ; 
Ov. Am. 1. 8. 83; Juv. 13. 133. 

et ipsa . . . tui] ' in ignorance of 
so grievous an evil, are actually sitting 
in a fool's paradise, in unconcern about 
the danger that threatens you.' 



48 CUPID AND PSYCHE [v. 18 

incuriosa periculi tui, nos autem, quae peruigili cura rebus tuis 
excubamus, cladibus tuis misere cruciamur. pro uero nam- 
que comperimus nee te, sociae scilicet doloris casusque tui, 
celare possumus immanem colubrum multinodis uoluminibus 

5 serpentem, ueneno noxio colla sanguinantem hiantemque 
ingluuie prof un da tecum noctibus latenter adquiescere. nunc 
recordare sortis Pythicae, quae te trucis bestiae nuptiis- 
destinatam esse clamauit. et multi coloni quique circum- 
secus uenantur et accolae plurimi uiderunt eum uespera 

10 redeuntem e pastu proximique fluminis uadis innatantem. 
18 Nee diu blandis alimoniarum obsequiis te sagina<%>rum 
omnes adfirmant, sed, cum primum praegnationem tuam plerius 
maturauerit uterus, opimiore fructu praeditam deuoraturum. 
ad haec iam tua est existimatio, utrum sororibus pro tua cara 

6 ingluvie profunda v : inglubie (-trie 9) profunde F(f>. 

7 trucis F primo, sed nunc videtur esse prucis : prucis <f>, sed man. rec. addidit 

supra vocabulum tnt . 
11 saginatuntm 9 (ex corr. eiusdem manus) f : saginarum F. 



rebus tuis] dat. comm. cp. 8. 10 fin. viands.' Probably alimoniarum is sub- 

immanem colubrum . . . profunda] jective genitive. F. Norden compares 

'a monstrous snake, winding with its (5. 21) incendio verborum. This word 

many coils and folds, its neck all is once used by Varro, and then 

blood-stained with baleful poison, its disappears from literature until the 

monstrous maw agape.' aangu'mare is second century ; cp. 2. 3, and Apol. 

a neuter verb, so that colla is not 85. 

the direct ace. but the ace. of closer sed, cum primum . . . devoraturum] 

definition. The passage of course recalls 'but when the fullness of your tim& 

Verg. jEn. 2. 204-211. shall have brought to ripeness the fruit 

Pythicae] ' of Apollo.' The oracle of your womb, after that you become 

was not given at Delphi, but at possessed of a more luscious food to 

Miletus. It is a mere oversight on eat, he will gulp you down.' Cp. the 

the part of Apuleius, who has only Empusa whom Apollonius of Tyana 

Apollo in his mind. Pythicus is used (Philostratus Vit. A poll. 4. 25. 5) com- 

because Apollo's principal oracle was pelled to confess iriaiveiv ^ovais rbr 

at Delphi, the rocky Pytho. Mevnrirov es frpwaiv rov ffca/aaros. 

clamauit] ' chanted forth,' ' cried tua est existimatio] ' it is for you 

aloud': cp. Cic. Fin. 2. 65 cto^wir^ws. to consider.' Helm compares Liv. 34. 

circumsecus] ' round about,' 'in 2. 5 utrum e republica sit necne id . . . 

the neighbourhood' a \vord only used vestra existimatio est, and Plaut. Gas. 

by Apuleius, 2. 14 fin. ; 11.16. 292 Optio haec tua est, in order to- 

18 blandis alimoniarum obsequiis] defend est against Eyssenhardt's emen- 

' with the enticing allurements of these dation esto. 



v. 19] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



49 



salute sollicitis adsentiri uelis et declinata morte nobiscum 
secura periculi uiuere an saeuissimae bestiae sepeliri uisceribus. 
quodsi te ruris hums uocalis solitude uel clandestinae ueneris 
faetidi periculosique concubitus et uenenati serpentis amplexus 
delectant, certe piae sorores nostrum fecerimus." & 

Time Psyche misella, utpote simplex et animi tenella, rapitur 
uerborum tarn tristium formidine : extra terminum mentis suae 
posita prorsus omnium mariti monitionum suarumque promis- 
sionum memoriam effudit et in profundum calamitatis sese 
praecipitauit tremensque et exangui colore lurida tertiata uerba 10 
semihianti uoce substrepens sic ad illas ait : 

19" Vos quidem, carissimae sorores, ut par erat, in officio 
uestrae pietatis permanetis, uerum et illi, qui talia uobis 
adfirmant, non uidentur mihi mendacium fingere. nee enim 
umquam uiri mei uidi faciem uel omnino cuiatis sit noui, sed i& 

*' i i hy hy 

11 semihianti v : sem \ anti F (sed eraso) <f> : semianti f : sem anti $ ( man. 
rec.)- 



bestiae sepeliri uisceribus] This 
recalls the powerful line of Lucretius 
5. 993 Viua uidens ttiuo sepeliri uiscera 
busto, on which Munro gives many 
parallels. In Grimm's tale of Bearskin 
(ii. 68, ed. Bohn) the second sister says, 
' Beware ! Bears like sweet things ; and 
if he takes a fancy to thee, he will eat 
thee up.' 

ruris huius uocalis solitude] 'the 
loneliness of this voiceful country-side.' 

uel ... concubitus] or foul and 
dangerous commerce in a secret amour.' 

piae sorores nostrum fecerimus] 
Possibly Bliimner is right in adding nos 
before nostrum. 

Tune Psyche . . . ait] Then poor 
little Psyche, in the simplicity and 
softness of her little mind, is swept 
away by the terror of this dreadful 
story. Driven out of her senses, she 
threw to the winds every single injunc- 
tion of her husband and promise of her 
own, and plunged herself into an abysm 
of disaster. Trembling and pale and 



bloodless, she pours out confusedly with 
half-open utterance words by terror 
tripled, and thus addresses them.' For 
simplex and tenella cp. what Cupid 
says, c. 11 pro genuina simplicitate 
proque animi tui teneritudine. 

tertiata] The word tertiare means 
' to do for the third time '; it is especially 
applied to ploughing a field for the third 
time. Psyche says each word three 
times in her terror. The editors refer 
to Servius on JEn. 3. 314 Cato ait uerba 
tertiato et quartato quempiam dicere prae 
metu. She did not stammer a stam- 
merer speaks dimidiatis verbis : cp. St. 
Jerome, Epist. 22. 29 (balbutientem 
linguam in dimidiata uerba moderatus) 
but she spoke with confused and 
hysterical volubility, repeating words 
three times over. 

19 in officio . . . permanetis] cp. 
Cic. Att. i. 3. 1 quod uerita sit ne Latinae 
in officio non manerent. 

cuiatis] This uncontracted form is 
found in ante-classical (e.g. Plautus r 



50 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



[v. 19 



tantum nocturnis subaudiens uocibus maritum incerti status et 
prorsus lu<c^>fugam tolero bestiamque aliquam recte dicentibus 
uobis merito consentio. meque magnopere semper a suis terret 
aspectibus malumque grande de uultus curiositate praeminatur. 
5 nunc si quam salutarem opem periclitanti sorori uestrae potestis 
adferre, iam nunc subsistite ; ceterum incuria sequens prioris 
prouidentiae beneficia conrumpet." 

Tune nanctae iam portis patentibus nudatum sororis 



2 lu ci ftigam F</> sed ci man. sec. 
7 conrumpet Rohde : "crupit <f>. 



3 merito Colvius cp. 2. 27 : marito 
8 Tune v : hunc F(/>. 



Ennius, and Accius) and post- classical 
Latin (Apuleius Met. 1. 5 ; 1. 21 ; 
8. 24). The classical form is cuias, the 
termination being the same as in 
optimas (optimates), nostras, Arpinas ; 
but it is very rarely found. I can 
only find the one example given in the 
Dictionaries, Liv. 27. 19. 9. Neue- 
"VVagener, ii 3 . 27, points out that the 
uncontracted form of many such 
' gentilia ' was found in ante-classical 
Latin, e.g. si quis mortuus est Arpinatis 
(Cato, Hist. Frag. 61); Sarsinatis ecqua 
est (Plaut. Most. 770). 

nocturnis subaudiens uocibus] 
When we find the dative with audire 
(cp. note on c. 16 fin.), the meaning 
of ' obeying ' is implied, as in the 
phrase dicto audiens esse. Translate 
* dutifully attendant to his words only 
in the night season.' I do not feel sure 
as to the significance of sub-, but it 
seems to mean ' submissively attendant '; 
though, like subauscultare, it may mean 
' to attend to secretly,' i.e. without 
seeing or being seen. 

lucifugam] afraid of the day -light.' 
The word (other forms are lucifugus 
and lucifugax) is applied to animals 
of the night, such as cockroaches or 
owls, or to swindlers or rakes who 
turn night into day (Lucilius 468, 
ed. Marx: Seneca Ep. 122. 15, an 
interesting passage ; cp. tenebrio}. In 



Cicero Fin. i. 61 it appears to mean 
'misanthropic.' In the other passage 
of Apuleius where the word occurs, 
Apol. 16 fin., the meaning is sufficiently 
obvious, tu quidem quid ego in proiiatulo 
et celebri agam facile e tenebris tuis 
arbitraris, cum ipse humilitate abditus 
(so Casaubon for abdita) et lucifuga 
non sis mihi mutuo conspicuus. In 
Minucius Felix, 8, it is applied to the 
Christians, latebrosa et lucifuga natio, 
in publicum muta, in angulis garrula. 

merito consentio] This does not 
square with all Psyche knew of Cupid's 
fragrant curls, soft cheeks, &c., 5. 13. 

meque] Liitjohann reads me quippe. 
For quippe used not as the first word 
cp. 8. 21 : it is found even as the sixth 
word in Flor. 18, p. 87 (Oud.). Gruter 
suggested me quide-m; Petschenig, me 
quoque ; Jahn, namque magnopere me ; 
and Leo, me quae or me qui. But it is 
better to retain the reading of the mss., 
as there is no necessity to make Psyche 
speak quite logically. 

subsistite] cp. note to 6. 2. 

ceterum] ' otherwise ': cp. note to 
5. 5, in which passage the future follows, 
justifying Eobde's correction of the read- 
ing of the mss. corrumpit into corrumpet. 

portis patentibus] Apuleius loves 
to represent the wicked sisters as a 
hostile force of soldiery : cp. conferto 
vestigia 5. 14. 



v. 20] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



animum facinerosae mulieres, omissis tectae machinae latibulis, 
destrictis gladiis fraudium simplicis puellae pauentes cogita- 
tiones inuadunt. 

*$O Sic denique altera: "quoniam nos originis nexus pro tua 
incolumitate <no periculum quidem ullum ante oculos habere 5 
compellit, uiam, quae sola deducit iter ad salutem, diu diuque. 
cogitatam monstrabimus tibi. nouaculam praeacutam, adpulsu 
etiam palmulae lenientis exasperatam, tori qua parte cubare 
consuesti, lateriter absconde lucernamque concinnem, completam 
oleo, claro lumine praemicantem subde aliquo claudentis aululae 10 

5 ne add Petschenig. 

10 aululae F0, sed altera manus mutavit in talule et prior manus in marg. 
addidit tabule. 



tectae machinae] Translate * pent- 
house' or 'mantlet,' called in military 
language plutei or uineae, covered sheds 
under which the besiegers of a town 
worked battering-rams. 

destrictis . . . inuadunt] ' drew the 
swords of their machinations, and made 
an attack on the trembling thoughts of 
the artless girl.' 

2O ne . . . quidem ullum] It is 
necessary to add a negative, either ne 
before periculum (Petschenig), or to 
read nullum (for ullum of F</>) with the 
inferior mss. It would be doubtful 
Latin to interpret ullum, as Hildebrand 
does, in the sense of * any danger that 
may threaten you.' That should be 
quodcunqne or omne. 

deducit iter] ' the road which alone 
leads your journey to safety.' If we 
retain iter, such must be the sense ; but 
it should possibly be ejected, as Gruter 
suggested. It may have arisen from a 
repetition of the -it of deducit. Jahn 
and Eyssenhardt read qua for quae : ' by 
which alone your journey leads to 
safety,' which is possible. But the 
mss. reading can be defended. Via and 
iter are occasionally found connected : 
cp. Hor. Carrn. 3. 2. 22 Virtus . . . 
negata tentat iter uia : and Lucr. 2. 626 



aere atque argento sternunt iter omne 
uiarum, where see Munro. Ov. Am. 3. 
13. 6 difficilis cliuis hue uia praebct iter. 
In 2. 13 fin. (quoted by Helm) et marts 
et ^l^ae confeceris iter, the necessary 
contrast of sea and land travel renders 
the parallel less cogent. 

adpulsu . . . exasperatam] ' sharpened 
even by the application of the softening 
(or 'smoothing') palm of your hand,' 
or ' by pressing it against your softening 
palm.' She is to draw the razor over the 
palm of her hand in the way barbers do 
just before using it to remove dust. It 
is of course extravagant to say that such 
pressing on the hand sharpens the steel. 
Apuleius uses adpulsus again, 6. 8. 

concinnem] neat little lamp.' This 
is the only place where the form con- 
cinnis is found. The word is usually 
concinnus. But Gellius (18. 2. 7) has 
concinniter. 

aululae] For this diminutive cp. 2. 7. 
ollulam istam . . . intorques, and the 
title of the play of Plautus Aulularia. 
The margin of F has tabule, apparently 
by the original copyist ; but this gives no 
sense : its meaning in land-surveying is a 
' bed ' or ' plot ' of ground. Fulgentius 
says that Psyche lucernam modio contegit, 
which defends the ms. reading. 



E 2 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



[v. 20 



tegmine omnique isto apparatu tenacissime dissimulate, post- 
quam sulcato<s> intrahens gressus cubile solitum conscenderit 
iamque porrectus et exordio somni prementis implicitus altum 
soporem flare coeperit, toro delapsa nudoque uestigio pensilern 
6 gradum pullulatim minuens, caecae tenebrae custodia liberata 
lucerna, praeclari tui facinoris opportunitatem de luminig 
consilio mutuare et ancipiti telo illo audaciter, prius dextera 
sursum elata, nisu quam ualido noxii serpentis nodum ceruicis 
et capitis abscide. nee nostrum tibi deerit subsidium; sed 

2 sulcatos < (sed man. alt.) : snlcato F0. 9 abscide v. : abscinde F<f>. 



sulcatos intrahens gressus] draw- 
ing along his furrowed gait ' an 
artificial expression for the crawling of 
a serpent, which leaves a furrow be- 
hind : cp. Ovid Met. 15. 725 Litoream 
tractu squamae crepitantis harenam sul- 
cat. For intrahens cp. 11. 23 sol 
curuatus intrahebat nesperam. Helm 
ingeniously conjectures sulcato intrans 
gressu : but one is loth to remove the 
Apuleian word which signifies the 
trailing gait of the serpent; sulcato 
intrahens se gressu would be better. 

et exordio . . . coeperit] * and 
fettered in the first toils of overpowering 
sleep, he had begun to breathe forth the 
depth of slumber.' The expression 
seems taken from Vergil, -3En. 9. 326 
toto prqfla bat pectore sommim, itself per- 
haps taken from Theocritus 24. 47 
Sfjiooas . . . virvov fiapvv K<pvff(iovTas. 
Servius says that the Vergilian peri- 
phrasis is a dignified expression for 
* snoring ' (ne tierbo humili stertentem 
diceref) . 

nudoque . . . minuens] * and with 
bare feet lessening little by little your 
airy tread.' For the form pullulatim, 
cp. 2. 16 relictum (uinum) pullulatim 
labellis minuens. In both places Funck 
in Archiv vii 495, thinks we should alter 
to paullulatim, as does apparently Neue- 
Wagener, ii 3 . 558. The diphthong -au- 
would naturally pass into o : cp. pollulus 



in Cato, and Varro (L. L. 5. 167), and 
plostrum beside plaustrum. Possibly 
we should read pollulatim, as u is 
sometimes found for o in F<f> ; cp. 6. 
10 ruricula for ruricola ; 4. 31 calcatu 
for calcato. But as emendation is un- 
certain, it is better to retain the ms. 
reading. The idea seems to be that 
Psyche should go more and more slowly, 
each step less than the preceding, so 
that there should not be any danger of 
a hasty action which might cause a 
disturbance, and so awake her victim. 

tenebrae] The singular is very rare. 
Neue-Wagener, i 3 . 712, quotes five 
examples, of which this is the earliest. 
For such an unusual singular in Apuleius, 
Piechotta (p. 32) compares facetia, Apol. 
56 (cp. Plaut. Stich. 729). It is pro- 
bably an error to suppose that caulae is 
singular in Met. 4. 6. 

de luminis consilio] 'as the light 
may suggest to you.' For de cp. 2. 31. 

quam ualido] ' with ever so mighty 
a stroke.' This use of quam with an 
adjective, participle, or adverb is not 
infrequent in Apuleius : cp. 3. 5 (quam 
maribus animis) ; 4. 3 (loro quam ualido}', 
5. 16 (quam concolores] ; 9. 19 (quamprocul 
semotus) ; 11. 30 (quam raso capillo}. 

noxii . . . abscide] ' cut off the joint 
of the baleful serpent which binds his 
neck and head.' The mss. give abscinde ; 
but as abscindo and abscido are often 



v. 21] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



cum primum illius morte salutem tibi feceris, anxiae praesto- 
labimus cunctisque istis ocius tecum relatis uotiuis nuptiis 
hominem te iungemus homini." 

$1 Tali uerborum incendio fiammata uiscera sororis iam 
prorsus ardentis deserentes ipsae protinus, tanti mail confinium 5 

2 ocius v : sociis F<j> : opibus cod. Oxon. 5 ipsae v : ipsa F : ipsam </>. 



confused, it is better to alter to the 
word which suits the sense ; the vertebra 
is to be cut, not torn away: cp. 4. 11 
antesignani nostri par tern qua man us 
umerum subit, ictu per articulum medium 
temper ato, prorsus abscidimus ('cut clean 
off '). The word is often used of cutting 
through the neck and so cutting off the 
head : Bell. Hisp. 20. 5; Aram. 14. 11. 
23; Sil. 15. 470; Lucan 8. 674. On 
abscido and abscindo see an exhaustive 
article by Fiirtner in the Archiv, 5. 
520-533. In Tac. Ann. 15. 69, absdn- 
duntur uenae (cp. 16. 11 and interscindere 
35. 5), abscindere seems to be used in the 
sense of ' to cut.' "What Ap. here calls 
nodus, Seneca, De Prov. 6. 8, calls com- 
missura ceruicis and articulus ille qui 
caput collumque committit. Price com- 
pares Horn. II. 14. 465 rov p' 
re Kal av^vos ev 



praestolabimus] For this active form 
Neue-Wagener, iii 3 . 81 only quotes, in 
addition to this passage, the examples 
given by Nonius, p. 475, from Livius 
Andronicus and Turpilius. But the 
form is recognized by the Glosses : so 
that we may perhaps retain it, though 
elsewhere (e.g. 3. 3 ; 4. 10 ; 5. 4 
quoted by Helm) Apuleius seems to use 
the deponent form (4. 10 is doubtful). 
Similarly we should not reject tenebrae 
(singular) in this chapter, though else- 
where Apuleius uses the regular plural 
form. 

ocius] So some inferior mss. for sociis. 
For ocius cp. Hor. Sat. 2. 7. 34. It 
has been proposed to read copiis, and 
this is approved of by Oudendorp and 



Jahn, as there is a similar confusion 
in Caes. B. G. 7. 54. Hildebrand's 
attempt to explain sociis as applying to 
the wealth with which Psyche was 
surrounded can hardly be accepted on 
the strength of Vegetius 2. 7, colligatas 
secum fasces pertralmnt socios ; or Val. 
Flacc. 3. 162 soda sed disicit agmina 
claua. But some mss. read opibus. 
Helm adds manibus before sociis in the 
sense of ' by the hands of our friends,' 
comparing 4. 11 sat se beatum qui manu 
soda uolens occttmberet, where there is 
strong emphasis on manu soda; but hereit 
adds nothing to the strength of the pass- 
age, and is a violent and needless addition. 

uotiuis nuptiis] ' in a desirable 
kind of marriage we shall unite you, a 
human being to a human being.' For 
homo of a woman cp. Sulpicius ap. Cic. 
Fam. 4. 5. 4 quoniam homo natafuerat. 

21 uiscera] Translate ' her heart': 
cp. Cic. Phil. 1. 36 in medullis populi ct 
tiisceribus hacrebant. It is used of the 
most inward part of a person's frame or 
nature. 

deserentes ipsae] F has ipsa and ^> 
ipsam. Some inferior mss. give ipsae, 
which is adopted by Yliet, who puts 
comma after confinium. This punctu- 
ation Helm has well shown to be 
improbable, quoting 4. 10 fin. pericnh 
conjinio territus. Helm puts no stop at 
deserentes, and reads ipsae. We can 
hardly put a full stop at ardentis, as 
we should then have one main verb 
Jlammata in the past tense, Avhile all 
the other main verbs in the narrative 
are in the present. Michaelis reads 
ardent : is<tae> deserentes ipsam. 



54 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



[v. 21 



sibi etiam eximie metuentes, flatus alitis impulsu solito pro- 
uectae super scopulum ilico pernici[o] se fuga proripiunt 
statimque conscensis nauibus abeunt. 

At Psyche relicta sola, nisi quod infestis Furiis agitata sola 

5 non est, aestu pelagi simile maerendo fluctuat et, quamuis 

statute consilio et obstinate ammo, iam tamen facinor^ manus 

admouens adhuc incerta consilii titubat multisque calamitatis 

suae distrahitur affectibus. festinat differt, audet trepidat, 

diffidit irascitur et, quod est ultimum, in eodem corpore odit 

10 bestiam, diligit maritum. uespera tamen iam noctem trahente 

praecipiti festinatione nefarii sceleris instruit apparatum. nox 

2 pernici se f : perniciose F<J>. 

6 facinori f : Jacinom F< : facinori suas <f> (ex corr. rec.) : facinorosas v. 



pronectae] So Bursian for porrectae 
of the mss. This can hardly be de- 
fended by 7. 7 precibus ad Caesar is numen 
porrectis, ' prayers being offered to the 
gracious will of Caesar,' this sense of 
' presenting ' or ' tendering ' being 
fairly common (see the Dictionaries); 
nor by the passage quoted by Helm, 
2. 10 cum sim paratus uel uno sauiolo 
interim recreates super istum ignem 
porrectus assari, where the word has its 
most ordinary meaning of * stretched 
out.' Possibly we should read porro 
actae. 

nisi quod . . . non est] ' save that 
no one is alone who is driven along by 
baleful frenzy ' no mean expression. 

aestu pelagi simile maerendo fluc- 
tuat] * is tossed to and fro in her tears 
like the surging sea.' For the gerund 
maerendo (=maerens) F. Norden admirably 
compares Verg. JEn. 2. 6 quis talia 
fando Temperat a lacrimis. It is not 
infrequent in Livy, e.g. 2. 32. 4 
(sumendo), where see Weissenborn. On 
the passage from Vergil, Conington 
notes that in the imitation by Silius, 
2. 651, the present participle is used, 
quis tristiafata piorum Imperet euoluens 
lacrimis. Simile is the ace. used as an 



adverb : cp. c. 1 init. suaue recubans 
. . . dulce conquieuit : c. 28 irata 
solidum. 

et quamuis . . . consilii titubat] 
' and although her purpose is fixed and 
her mind determined, yet when she 
sets her hand to the work, still irresolute 
in purpose, she falters.' The logical 
contradiction contrived in this sentence 
is admirable both in rhetoric and 
psychology. 

multisque . . . maritum] ' and is 
distracted by the many impulses of her 
sad state. She hurries and postpones, 
is bold and fearful, is irresolute and 
indignant, and, what is at the basis of it 
all, though he is one and the same in 
person, she abhors the beast, but loves 
the husband.' 

uespera . . . noctem trahente] cp. 
11. 23 sol curuatm intrahebat uesperam, 
and Ov. Met. 1. 219 traherent cum sera 
crepuscula noctem. 

nox aderat et maritus aderat] 
1 Night was come and the husband was 
come.' Possibly we should read adierat 
for the second aderat. Price proposed 
aduenerat, which is read by Helm. 
Certainly we want a pluperfect, as 
descenderat shows. 



v. 22] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



55 



aderat et maritus aderat pri[m]usque Yeneris proeliis uelitatus 
<in> altum soporem descenderat. 

$$ Tune Psyche, et corporis et animi alioquin infirma, fati 
tamen saeuitia subministrante, uiribus roboratur et prolata 
lucerna et adrepta nouacula sexum audacia mutatur. sed cum s 
primum lumini&'oblatione tori secreta claruerunt, uidet omnium 
i 

1 priusque cod. Fuxensis : pm;q; F<f> : primisque v. 2 in add. Vulcanius. 
5 mutatur Jahn : mutauit F, sed-wt^ man. rec. in rasura : inutatu ^>, sed supra 
lin. add. mutauit. 



priusque . . . descenderat] ' and 
after first a slight skirmish in the 
field of Love, he had sunk into 
deep sleep.' The conceit that Love 
is a warfare is common : cp. Ovid. 
Am. 1. 9. 1 ff., esp. in the present 
connexion 45 Inde uides agilem noctur- 
naque bella gerentem : cp. Fulgentius 
Myth. 3. 6 (= 67. 16, ed. Helm), of 
Cupid and Psyche, Veneris proeliis 
obscure peractis ; also Apul. Met. 2. 17. 
The mss. give priwusque, but it can 
only be defended with difficulty. For 
primus in the sense of ' before ' another 
person, Weyman compares Arnobius 
Adv. Gentes 3. 22 sciat ipse necesse est 
primus id quod alterum callere constituit, 
where Hildebrand compares Hyginus 
Fab. 164 Inter Neptunum et Mineruam 
cum esset certatio qui primus oppidum 
in terra Attica conderet. But even in 
Cicero we find primus used for the first 
of two things, e.g. Sest. 44 si in prima 
contentione . . . concidissem. "But prius- 
que, which is said to be found in the 
Codex Fuxensis, and has been con- 
jectured by Kronenberg, is the simpler 
reading and is very common in Apuleius. 
Helm quotes 3. 17 ; 5. 20 ; 8. 30 ; 
11. 23. 

in altum soporem descenderat] We 
must add in, as Vulcanius suggests. 
Colvius had proposed to add in after 
altum. The only parallel adduced for 
descendere with the simple ace. in the sense 



of ' descend into ' is Epitome JEneidos vi. 
(Bahrens P.L.M. vol. iv., p. 165) una 
(with the Sibyl) descendit Auernum*. 
but Auernus is the name of a place. 
Hildebrand compares escendere nauem. 
Colvius also suggested extenderat, com- 
paring Fulgentius 3. 6 (= 68. 9, Helm) 
cumque altum soporem maritus exten- 
deret. This seems to mean, ' had been 
fast asleep for some time.' 

22 fati] Fate here takes the place of 
Fortune (cp. 5. 5) as the malignant 
power which caused all the trouble. 

sexum audacia mutatur] 'is unsexed 
in her boldness,' lit. 'is changed as 
to her sex'; ace. of closer definition. 
Helm compares 6. 20 fin. mentem capitur 
temeraria curiositate. We might add 
Verg. JEn. 1. 658 ut faciem mutatus et 
or a Cupido pro dulci Ascanio ueniat. 
Possibly we should read sexu, and take 
it in the sense of ' is parted from her 
sex,' on the analogy of mutari ciuitate 
(^Es Salpense, ch. 22; Cic. Balb. 31 
and 42), mutari fnibus (Liv. 5. 46. 11), 
mutari uoluntate (Cic. Fam. 5. 21. 1), 
all which passages are quoted by Dr. 
Reid (in Wilkins's ed. of Horace's 
Epistles) on Ars Poet. 60 (Ut siluae 
foliis pronos mutantur in annos), who 
adds : "In all these cases the abl. is 
strictly one of respect, but the notion of 
severance comes in ": cp. Hor. Sat. 2. 7. 
64 Ilia, tamen se non habitu mutatue loco; 
Ovid Trist. 5. 2. 73 hinc ego dum muter. 



56 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



[v. 22 



feraruin mitissimam dulcissimanique bestiam, ipsum ilium 
Cupidinem formonsum deuni forrnonse cubantem, cuius aspectu 
lucernae quoque lumen hilaratum increbruit et acuminis 
sacrilegi nouaeulam paenitebat. at uero Psyche tanto aspectu 
5 deterrita et impos animi, marcido pallore defecta tremensque 
desedit in imos poplites et ferrum quaerit abscondere, sed in 
suo pectore ; quod profecto fecisset, nisi ferrum time-re tanti 
flagitii manibus temerarii<s> delapsum euolasset. iamque 
lassa, salute defecta, dum saepius diuini uultus intuetur 

4 nouaeulam paenitebat Lipsius : nouacula praenitebat F<. 
8 temerariis f<f> : temerarii F. 



ipsum . . . paenitebat] Cupid's 
own self, the beautiful god, lying there 
in all his beauty, and at the sight of 
him the light even of the lamp brightened 
in joy, and the razor felt a pang of 
sorrow for its wicked edge.' "We have 
adopted the emendation of Lipsius for 
the mss. reading nouacula praenitebat 
(' the wicked -pointed razor shone out '), 
not so much on account of hilaratum, 
which could be regarded as a semi- 
personification (such as, e.g., Cic. N. D. 
2. 102 turn quasi tristitia quadam (sol) 
contrahit terrain, turn tticissim laetificat, 
ut cum caelo kilarata uideatur], as on 
account of the clause nisi ferrum timore 
tanti flagitii manibus temerariis delapsum 
euolasset, where the personification is 
complete. To endow everything con- 
nected with the principal actors with 
life and sympathy is in accordance 
with the spirit of romantic fairy 
tales. The emendation of Lipsius has 
a note of true feeling, though later 
Lipsius appears to have thought other- 
wise, as he gave up his emendation. In 
love-poetry the lover often addresses 
the lamp as a confidant: e.g. Anth. Pal. 
5. 7 and 8. 

impos animi . . . euolasset] 'be- 
wildered, overcome with the pallor of 
exhaustion, and all trembling, sank 
crouching down and sought to hide the 
steel in her own bosom ; and this she 
would have done had not the steel, in 



alarm at the thought of such a crime, 
slipped and sped away from her rash 
hands.' For in imos poplites cp. 7. 24 
totum corporis pondus in postremos 
poplites recello. For sedcp. note to 4. 31 
sed plenam. As a parallel to this 
personification of the knife, we may 
quote from Mr. Ralston ("Beauty and 
the Beast" in the Nineteenth Century, 
Dec. 1878, p. 1002) : " In the Sup- 
planted Bride [a tale both Greek and 
Sicilian], when the heroine has been 
supplanted she yields to despair and 
thinks of killing herself. Having 
obtained a ' Knife of Murder ' and a 
"Whetstone of Patience,' she tells them 
her sad tale. The Greek maiden calls 
upon the knife to rise up and cut her 
throat ; and the knife tries to do so, but 
the stone holds it back. The Sicilian 
heroine addresses her remarks chiefly to 
the stone, and, as it listens, it swells 
and swells until at last it cracks. Then 
she seizes the knife and is about to put 
an end to her troubles. But in each 
case the prince whom the supplanted 
bride has rescued overhears -what she 
has been saying, and rushes in to pre- 
vent her from stabbing herself." Com- 
pare also Althea's log in Ovid (Met. 8. 
513) when she throws it into the fire : 
Aut dedit ant uisus yemitus est ille 
dedisse stipes, ut inuitis correptus ab 
ignibus arsit, 

salute defecta] ' overcome by the 



v. 23] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



pulchritudinem, recreatur animi. uidet capitis aurei geni- 
<>lem caesariem ambrosia[m] temulentam, ceruices lacteas 
genasque purpureas pererrantes crinium globos decoriter 
impeditos, alios antependulos, alios retropendulos, quorum 
splendore nimio fulgurante iam et ipsum lumen lucernae s 
uacillabat; per umeros uola tills del pinnae roscidae micanti 
flore candicant et quamuis ali[i]s quiescentibus extimae plumulae 

1 genialem <f> (man. alt.) : genilem F0. 

2 ambrosia v : ambrosiam F<f>. 
7 alis v : aliis Fd>. 



sense of being safe,' or ' that all was 
well': cp. 9. 9 argwnenti satietate iam 
defecti. This seems a better way than 
to take defect a as abl. aba. ; as * safety 
being enfeebled ' would be a strange 
expression for ' feeling lost ' or ' being 
unnerved.' 

genialem] 'joyous,' 'joy-inspiring.' 
A man's genius was the deification of 
the part of his nature which felt joy 
his good spirit : indulge Genio, carpamus 
dulcia, nostrum est quod uiuis, says 
Persius (5. 151): so \.\\a.t genialis is that 
which causes joy, eu^pavrt/cTj, as it is 
explained by the Glosses (Corp. Gloss, 
ii. 33. 1). Apuleius uses it of the 
countenance of the priest of Isis (11. 
14 fin.), of balsam (11. 9), of the rose 
(4. 2), otiose et satis genialiter contorta 
in modum linguae postrema labia gran- 
dissimum ilium calicem uno haustu per- 
hausi (of the ass drinking at table, 
10. 16 fin.), and of course of the 
marriage-bed (genialis torus 2. 6; 9. 26). 

Apuleius delights in expatiating on 
the beauty of luxuriant hair; cp. 2. 8. 
The novelists also linger on the descrip- 
tion of the hair of their heroes and 
heroines, which is represented generally 
as partly bound and partly loose: cp. 
Eohde, Griech. Roman, 153-4 n. 3. 

temulentam] ' soaked in ' : cp. 
Martial 14. 154 (lanae amethystinae) 
Ebria Sidoniae cum sim de sanguine 
conchae non uideo quare sobria lana uocer 
(joke on ajue'0f<rTos). Ambrosia is here 



used, not of the food of the gods, but of 
a divine unguent, as in Verg. Georg. 4. 
415 (cp. jEn. 1. 403) ambrosiaeque comae 
diuiniim wrtice odor em spirauere; and 
in Apuleius, Met. 8. 9. 

ceruices] ace. governed by perer- 
rantes. For lacteas cp. Verg. JEn. 10. 137. 

decoriter] cp. 6. 28; 11. 3 from 
the very rare adj. decoris or decor. 

antependulos] cp. 2. 23, nowhere 
else found in Latin: cp. Florid. 3. 14 
(Oud.) crines anteuentuli et propenduli ; 
and Met. 9. 30 comae anteuentulae. 

quorum splendore . . . uacillabat] 
' and by their overpoweringly flashing 
brilliance now even the light of the lamp 
began to pale.' The word uacillare 
occurs also in c. 25 and in 6. 30, in 
both of which places it is spelled with 
cc. See Munro on Lucr. 3. 504. It is 
connected with the same root as con- 
iiexus,narus: cp.Walde,jEV/w. Worterb., 
p. 141. 

micanti flore . . . lasciuiunt] ' gleam 
with glittering bloom, and although the 
wings are at rest, the soft and downy 
feathers at the end play restlessly in 
quivering oscillations ' a most charm- 
ing touch in this beautiful description. 
For candicant cp. Flor. 3, p. 15 (Oud.) 
lyra eius auro fulgurat, ebore candicat. 
For the neut. plur. inquieta used adver- 
bially, cp. 2. 17 crebra subsiliens ; 
3. 28 fin. crebra tundentes ; 2. 6 fin. re- 
trorsa respiciens ; 10. 17 ciliis alterna 
cotmtens. 



58 CUPID AND PSYCHE [v. 23 

tenellae ac delicatae tremule resultantes inquieta lasciuiunt; 
ceterum corpus glabellum atque luculentum et quale peperisse 
Venerem non paeniteret. ante lectuli pedes iacebat arcus et 
pharetra et sagittae, magni del propitia tela. 
5 3 Quae dum insatiabili animo Psyche, satis et curiosa, 
rimatur atque pertrectat et mariti sui miratur arma, depromit 
unam de pharetra sagitta<w> et puncto pollicis extremam 
aciem periclitabunda trementis etiam nunc articuli nisu f ortiore 
pupugit altius, ut per summam cutem rorauerint paruulae 

10 sanguinis rosei guttae. sic ignara Psyche sponte in Ainoris 
incidit amorem. tune magis magisque cupidine fraglans 
Cupidinis, prona in eum efflictim inhians, patulis ac petulanti- 
bus sauiis festinanter ingestis de somni mensura nietuebat. 
sed durn bono tanto percita saucia mente fluctuat, lucerna ilia 

15 siue perfidia pessima siue inuidia noxia siue quod tale corpus 
contingere et quasi basiare et ipsa gestiebat, euomuit de summa 

7 sagitta f</> (~ alia manu). 11 fraglans F : flagrans $. 



glabellum] cp. Flor. 3, p. 14 (Oud.) 
Apollo . . . corpore glabellus. 

luculentum] of personal beauty, cp. 
4.25 (faciem}; 10. 30 (luculentus puer 
nudus). 

propitia] gracious,' ' genial ' 
a conventional word applied to the 
graciousness of the pleasures of love. 

23 satis et curiosa] cp. 5. 28 uerbosa 
et satis curiosa auis, and note on 6. 14. 

puncto pollicis] ' with the point 
(or 'tip') of her thumb.' There is no 
need to read with Floridus punctu, ' by 
a prick of her thumb.' It was from a 
wound in the hand from one of Cupid's 
arrows that Venus in Ovid (Met. 10. 
525) fell in love with Adonis. 

extremam aciem periclitabunda] 
For this ace. cp. Apol. 72 uoluntatem 
rneam uerbis inuersis periclitabundus. 
In Met. 3. 21 it is used with the genitive 
sui periclitabunda, < trying herself ' (of 
Pamphile when she changed herself into 
an owl). 

articuli] This word includes the 



thumb as well as the fingers. "We may 
translate it * finger ' here. 

in Amoris incidit amorem] cp. 10. 
19 in . . tnei cupidinein incidit. The 
phrase simply means ' to fall in love 
with': cp. Val. Max. 5. 7 extr. 1 : 
Hist. Apollon. 1 and 17 ; Hygin. Fab. 
121. 16. 

fraglans] cp. note to 4. 31. 

prona . . . metuebat] gazing down 
on him distractedly and pouring eagerly 
upon him impassioned and impetuous 
kisses, she began to fear as to the extent 
of his slumber,' i.e. how long he would 
continue asleep, and how deep it might 
be. Note the alliteration in patulis et 
petulantibns. For patulis cp. 4. 31 
med. oscutis hiantibus. 

saucia] applied to one wounded by 
love, a fairly common usage, e.g. Verg. 
JEn. 4. 1 At regina graui iamdudiim 
saucia ciira. 

perfidia pessima] thoroughgoing 
treachery ' alliteration. 

inuidia noxia] cp. 5. 27 init. 



v. 24] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



luminis sui stillam feruentis olei super umerum del dexterumX 
hem audax et temeraria lucerna et amoris uile ministerium, 
ipsum ignis totius deum aduris, cum te scilicet amator aliquis, 
ut diutius cupitis etiam nocte potiretur, primus inuenerit. sic 
inustus exiluit deus uisaque detectae fidei colluuie protinus ex 5 
o<s>culis et manibus infelicissimae coniugis tacitus auolauit. 

24 At Psyche statim resurgentis eius crure dextero 
manibus ambabus adrepto sublimis euectionis adpendix miser- 
anda et per nubilas plagas penduli comitatus extrema consequia 
tandem fessa delabitur solou 10 

Nee deus amator humi iacentem deserens inuolauit proxi- 

3 deum v : diim F : din f : dnm 0. 
6 osculis Crusius : oculis F</>. 
8 adrepto v : nbrepto F<|>. 



hem . . . ministerium] 'ah! bold, 
rash lamp, common drudge of Love.' 

cupitis] 'the objects of desire' 
often used in this amorous sense. The 
Dictt. quote Ovid Fast. 3. ZlMarsuidet 
hanc uisamque cupit potiturque cupita. 

uisaque detectae fidei colluuie] 'and 
seeing the ruin of his trust now dis- 
closed.' The expression is no doubt 
not strictly accurate. The bond between 
Cupid and Psyche was broken, but not 
disclosed : the secret who was the 
mysterious husband was disclosed ; but 
as this disclosure was the principal and 
most striking result of Psyche's rash 
action, it is emphasized. Accordingly 
it seems better to adhere to the mss. 
reading detectae than to alter to defectae 
(Jahn), ' ruin of his trust which failed'; 
or detrectatae (Vliet), ' ruin of his sullied 
trust'; or deiectae (Petschenig), of his 
trust thus shattered'; ordeceptae (Helm), 
' of his trust betrayed.' In favour of 
defectae, however, may be urged the 
partiality of Apuleius for the word; cp. 
chapter 22. 

protinus] So Rohde, introducing a 
word of which Apuleius is very fond, 
in place of prorsus of the mss. Cupid 



did not ' wholly ' escape from Psyche ; 
for, as the next sentence shows, she still 
grasped him by the leg. 

osculis] So Crusius for oculis of the 
mss. He and Vliet quote Gell. 3. 15. 3 
Diagoras . . . in osculis atque in manibus 
Jiliorum animam efflauit (where one ms. 
reads oculis) ; also 4. 31 above, oculis 
for osculis. 

21 sublimis euectionis . . .consequia] 
*a pitiable appendage to his airy flight r 
and forming the final attachment to him 
in her pendant companionship through 
the cloudy realms ' (with the sense that 
this was the last time she would follow 
with him). The expression is artificial 
even to extravagance. For appendix 
cp. 8. 22 seque per . . . puteum appen- 
dicem paruulum (i.e. her infant son) 
trahem praecipitat. The rare word 
consequia is to be compared with such 
forms as reliquiae, obsequiae, exsequiae : 
cp. 10. 18 carpentis quae . . . nouissimis 
trahebantur conseqttiis, * by those who 
followed him in the rear.' Strictly the 
word is an adjective. "We have the 
adv. consequie or consecue in Lucr. 5. 
679 and adsecue in a fragment of the 
Astraba of Plautus. 



60 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



[v. 24 



mam cupressum deque eius alto cacumine sic earn grauiter 
commotus adfatur : 

" Ego quidem, simplicissima Psyche, parentis meae Veneris 
praeceptorum immemor, quae te miseri extremique hoininis 

e deuinctam cupidine infimo matrimonio addici iusserat, ipse 
potius amator aduolaui tibi. sed hoc feci leuiter, scio, et 
praeclarus ille Sagittarius ipse me telo meo percussi teque 
coniugem meam feci, ut bestia scilicet tibi uiderer et ferro 
caput excideres meum, quod istos amatores tuos oculos gerit. 

10 haec tibi identidem semper cauenda censebam, haec beniuole 
remonebam. sed illae quidem consiliatrices egregiae tuae tarn 
perniciosi magisterii dabunt actutum mihi poenas, te uero 
tantum fuga mea puniuero." et cum termino sermonis pinnis 
in altum se proripuit. 



cupressum] governed by the in- of 
inuolarit. For other examples of this 
in Apuleius cp. 5. 4 init. sonus aures 
eius accedit ; cp. c. 3 fin. uox aures eius 
affertur\ and 9. 16 init.; e. 5 init. 
scopulum . . aderunt. On 9T 16 Hilde- 
brand quotes many examples of the 
accusative of place used without a pre- 
position : 7. 1 eastra nostra remeastis ; 
7. 13 ciuitatem reuenimus. It is un- 
certain under which construction to 
place such usages as 9. 41 ciuitatem 
aduentat. 

te . . . addici] ' that you, enthralled 
with passion for a wretched and most 
mean wight, should be consigned to the 
lowest of marriages '; cp. 4. 31. 

amatores tuos oculos] 4 those eyes, 
love-lit for thee.' Norden refers to 
<xp6a\fj.ol epwTticoi in Xenophon Ephesius 
i. 9. 7. 

haec . . . remonebam] ' Thatyoushould 
be ever on your guard as to this I again 
and again told you as my deliberate 
opinion; this kindly warning I kept 
repeating to you.' Cupid had not said 
what the haec were ; but neither Psyche 
nor the readers of the story could be 
ignorant that they were prohibitions 



against inquiring into who he was. 
The word semper goes closely \vith 
cauenda, 'ever-to-be-guarded against'; 
accordingly we need not transpose 
identidem to precede beneuole (Vliet), 
nor read praeeauenda for semper cauenda 
(Michaelis). Rohde ejects semper ; sup- 
posing that it was originally sacpe, and 
a gloss on identidem. The word remonere 
is rare, if not unique. It seems to 
mean that the warning was given more 
than once. 

magisterii] ' instruction,' ' guidance': 
Cupid's part in the punishment of the 
wicked sisters does not appear, accord- 
ing to Dietze ; it is Psyche who is 
instrumental in their death. If we 
made this objection to Apuleius, he 
might have smiled and replied that 
Cupid was indirectly instrumental, by 
giving no orders to Zephyr to convey 
them from the rock ; and that it was 
love of him which wrought their death. 

puniuero] The fut. perf. does not 
here differ in sense from the fut. simple; 
cp. Roby, 1485. 

et cum termino] cp. note to 6. 20 fin. 

pinnis in altum se proripuit] ' swept 
himself aloft on his pinions.' 



v. 25] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



Gl 



Psyche uero humi prostrata et, quantum uisu poterat, 
uolatus mariti prospiciens extremis affligebat lamentationibus 
animum. sed ubi remigio plumae raptum maritum proceritas 
spatii fecerat alienum, per proximi fluminis marginem prae- 
cipitem sese dedit. sed mitis fluuius in honorem dei scilicet, 
qui et ipsas aquas urere consueuit, metuens sibi confestim 
earn innoxio uolumine super ripam florentem herbis exposuit. 
tune forte Pan deus rusticus iuxta supercilium amnis 
sedebat complexus [h] Echo mo<?i>^anam deam eamque uoculas 

1 visit <f) : vini F. 

9 Echo montanam Jahn, egregie : hec homo cana F< ; yide Comm. 



25 prospiciens] 'gazing in the dis- 
tance at the flight of her husband as 
far as her eyesight enabled her. ' There 
is no need to read prosequens (Michaelis). 
The word prospicere is used of seeing an 
object at a distance, and it does not 
matter whether the distance is in 
height or in length. Oudendorp well 
compares 6. 1 et prospecto templo quodam 
in ardni montis uertice. 

remigio plumae] A common meta- 
phor in Latin and Greek ; cp. Verg. 
JEn. 6. 19. The editors there quote 
jEsch. Ag. 52 irrepvyuv 



fecerat alienum] 'had removed': 
cp. 8. 8 lancea mali Thrasylli me tibi 
fecit alienum. Proceritas (opp. breuitas) 
is naturally used of length vertically, 
but it can be used of length generally ; 
cp. Cic. Or. 212 (of the 'length' of a 
syllable in metre). 

per . . . fluminis marginem] This 
seems a strange use of per. Should it 
not rather be super, ' over,' as in Sallust 
Jug. 58. 6 cum alii super uallum prae- 
cipitarentur ? 

qui et ipsas aquas urere consueuit] 
Price refers to Philostratus, Epistles 
11 fin. Kal yap avrb rb vSoop UTT' eparos 
Kcferai ; cp. tbe epigram of Marianus 
in Anth. Pal. ix. 627. 5 \a/j.iras (sc. of 
Eros) us e<\e|e Kal uSaro, and the 



reproduction of the idea of that epi- 
gram in Shakespeare's Sonnets 153 and 
154. 

supercilium amnis] 'brow of the 
river,' apparently meaning no more 
than ' the bank ': cp. 7. 18 limo caenoso 
ripae siipercilio lubricanle', also Amm. 
Marc. 14. 2. 9 supercilia flimii Melanis, 
on which passage Valesius gives other 
examples from Ammianus. The Greeks 
similarly used otypvs : cp. Polyb. 2. 33. 7 
Trap' avrfyv T^V o<ppvv rov iroTa.fji.ov 



Echo montanam] This is th e brilliant 
emendation of Jahn for hec homo canam 
of F0. The older editors, misled by 
the famous story of Pan and Syrinx, 
tried to find the latter goddess here, 
and read Cannam : reading for haec 
homo either hie domi, or in calamo or 
humidam or sinu or humo (which is 
not easy to understand, unless it is for 
humi). For Pan and Echo in legend 
cp. Moschus 6 (Pan loving Echo, 
and Echo loving a Satyr), and Longus 
3. 23, who tells that Pan, being 
scorned by Echo, made his shepherds 
mad, and they tore Echo in pieces. 
Callistratus (fK<ppd<reis 1. 4) describes a 
marble group in which TrapetarifKei 6 
Tlav 'yavvfj.evos TT? av\f)TiKy Kal fVijyKa- 
AioTieVosrV 'Hx6. For Echo as lover or 
wife of Pan cp. Anth. Plan. iv. 154 and 



62 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



[v, 25 



omnimodas edocens reccinere ; proximo ripam uago pastu lasci- 
uiunt comam fluuii tondentes capellae. hircuosus deus sauciam 
Psychen atque defectam, utcumque casus eius non inscius, 
clementer ad se uocatam sic permulcet uerbis lenientibus : 

5 "Puella scitula, sum quidem rusticanus et upilia, sed 
senectutis prolixae beneficio multis experimentis instructus. 
uerum si recte coniecto, quod profecto prudentes uiri diuina- 
tionem autumaut, ab isto titubante et saepius uaccillante 
uestigio deque nimio pallore corporis et assiduo suspiritu, immo. 

10 et ipsis maerentibus oeulis tuis, amore nimio laboras. ergo 

1 omnimodas v : omninedas F<. 



233: in 156. 4 Echo says epx eo > Ufa' 
vva Xfyuficv fir-rj. Pan is appealed 
to for succour in the case of one 
crossed in love in Theocritus 7. 103 
T6v pot, ndv, 'Op6\as fparbv irfSov 
oVre \f\6yx as, aK\-r]Tov Keivoio <f)i\as 
fs x e ?P a * epeicrais. 

omnimodas] Also used hy Apuleius in 
Flor. 18. 91 (Oud.); Apol. 50 : 75. It is 
douhtf ul if the adj . omnimodus is found 
before Apuleius. The adverbial omni- 
modis is common. 

proxime ripam] cp. Cic. Att. 6. 5. 3 
esse officium ineum putaui exercitum habere 
quam proxime hostem. 

comam fluuii] ' the foliage of the 
stream': i.e. the grass growing near the 
stream. 

hircuosus] 'goaty': cp. note on 
monstruosus 5. 16. The word refers to 
the goat's legs of Pan ; cp. rbv rpayo- 
TTOVV e>e Tlava Anth. Pal. iv. 232. 

sauciam] 'heart-broken ': cp. 4. 32 
animi saucia. 

utcunque] ' somehow or other, not 
ignorant of her sad life.' For this use 
of utcunque limiting a verb or adjective 
cp. 4. 13 ; 8. 31 ; Tac. Ann. 2. 14. 4 ; 
12. 5. 2 ; Agric. 39. 3 ; and even Livy 
29. 15. 1 : 31. 15. 10 and elsewhere. 

Puella scitula] ' my pretty little girl . ' 

prolixae] The Dictt. quote Digest 
50. 6. 5 fin. prolixae aetatis homines. 



quod profecto . . . autumant] 
* which of a surety wise men do affirm 
to be divination.' Vliet says pleasantly 
that the rustic god read this statement 
in Cic. De Div. 2. 12, or in Nepos 
Att. 9 and 16. In the former passage 
Cicero quotes a verse of Euripides, 
/J.O.VTIS 5' &pi(TTOS OGTis t'/caei /caA.ws, 
which he latinizes Rene qui coniciet 
uatem hunc perhibebo optimum. In Att. 
16 Nepos says ut . . . facile existimari 
possit prudentiam quodam modo esse 
diuinationem. 

uaccillante] See note on 5. 22. 

suspiritu] ' sighing,' cp. 1. 7 ; 
10.2. 

pallore] The stock feature of 
love-sick persons: cp. Ov. A. A. 1. 
129 if. Palleat omnis amans, Me est 
color aptus amanti ; Theoc 2. 88. Many 
examples in Rohde, Griech. Roman 157. 
2. 

maerentibus] Sothemss. One could 
wish that the mss. had favoured the emen- 
dation of Price, marcentibns, 'pining': 
cp. 10. 2 iam cetera salulis uultmque 
detrimenta et aearis et amantibus ex- 
amussim conuenire nemo qui nesciat : 
pallor deformis, marcentes oculi, lassa 
genua, quies turbida et suspiritus 
cruciatus tarditate uehementior. Also 
3. 14 oculos . . . prona libidine mar- 
cidos. 



* 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



63 



mihi ausculta nee te rursus praecipitio uel ullo mortis aecer- 
si[to]tae genere perimas. luctum desine et pone maerorem 
precibusque potius Cupidinem deorum maximum percole et 
utpote adolescentem delicatum luxuries unique blandis obsequiis 
promerere." 5 

$6 Sic locuto deo pastore nulloque sermone reddito, sed 
adorato tantum immine. salutari Psyche pergit ire. sed <cum> 
aliquam multum uiae. laboranti uestigio perefrasset, inscio 
quodam tramite iam d<^>e labente accedit quandam ciuitatem, 
in qua regnum maritus unius sororis eius optinebat. qua re 10 
cognita Psyche nuntiari praesentiam suam sorori desiderat; 
mox inducta mutuis amplexibus alternae salutationis expletis 
percontanti causas aduentus sui sic incipit : 

"Meministi consilium uestrum, scilicet quo mihi suasistis, 
ut bestiam, quae mariti mentito nomine mecum quiescebat, 15 

1 accersitae Barth : accersito te F< : arcessito (om. te) vulg. 

7 numine <, in marg. man. rec. : nomine F0. 

7 cum add. Gronovius. 

9 die labente Barth : delabente F<. 



accersitae] cp. 6. 31 mortis . . . 
tenebras accersere: Val. Max. 3. 2. 12 
P. Crassus . . . ne in dicionem eius per- 
ueniret dedecus arcessita ratione mortis 
effugit : Plin. Ep. 1. 12. 2 quos accersita 
mors aufort. Oudendorp, whom Helm 
follows, supposes the mss. reading to 
have arisen from two variants having 
both been given, as in 1. 13 init. 
succus[sus]su for succusstt. "We thus 
escape the awkward repetition of te. 

et utpote . . . promerere] ' and as 
he is a youth who likes softness and 
indulgence, deserve his favour by winning- 
subservience ' (or ' complaisance '). 

26 adorato . . . salutari] ' with 
only a reverence to the beneficent 
deity/ 

sed cam aliquam multum viae . . . 
pererrasset] Gronovius' addition of cum 
has been adopted. The combination 
aliquam multum is found somewhat 
frequently in Apuleius, e.g. Apol. 4 
and 72; Florid. 16 init.; Met. 1. 24; 



11. 26. The only other authors quoted 
in the Thesaurus as using the com- 
bination are Cic. 2 Verr. 4. 56 ; Gell. 
3. 10. 17. . 

inscio . . . tramite] ' by an unknown 
track.' Vogel in the Archiv 2. 608 
thinks that, as this is the only passage 
quoted by the lexicographers for inscius 
= ignotus, we should read sed ilia, quam 
multum uiae laboranti uestigio perer- 
rasset inscia. This is very ingenious ; 
but the fact that inscius is not elsewhere 
found in a passive sense is probably 
accidental : for neseius is so found, cp. 
note to c. 12. Plautus and Terence 
seem to use insciens in the active sense 
of * not knowing,' while the classical 
authors use inscius (see Lindsay on 
Plaut. Capt. 265). 

die labente] This is the certain 
emendation of Barth for delabente. 

mutuis . . . expletis] after the 
mutual embraces with which they 
greeted one another had ended.' 



AND PSYCHE 



priiis quam ingluuie uoraci me misellam hauriret, ancipiti 
nouacula peremerem. set cum primum, ut aeque placuerat, 
conscio lumine uultus eius aspexi, uideo mirum diuinumque 
prorsus spectaeulum, ipsum ilium deae Veneris filium, ipsum 
5 inquam Cupidinem, leni quiete sopitum. ac dum tanti boni 
spectaculo percita et nimia uoluptatis copia turbata fruendi 

) laborarem inopia, casu scilicet pessumo lucerna feruens oleum 
reBuIKuit in eius umerum. quo dolore statim somno recussus, 
ubi me ferro et igni conspexit armatam, ' tu. quidem/ inquit, 

10 ' ob[i] istud tarn dirum facinus conf estim toro meo diuorte 
tibique res tuas habeto, ego uero sororem tuam ' et nomen quo 

2 peremerem F^> prima man. : perimerem f<J> (sed alt. man.). 
6 voluptalis <f> al. man. : voluntatis F(J>. 
10 ob Colvius : nbi F<. 



peremerem] This archaic form ap- 
pears here and in two other places in 
Apuleius in which the word occurs 
(3. 6 ; 3. 8). In 5. 26 F<J> give perimas. 

at aeque placuerat, conscio lumine] 
'by my accomplice lamp, as we had 
together (or 'also') agreed on.' The use 
of the lamp was a prominent feature in 
the plot, and its action is personified : 
cp. 5. 20 praeclari tui facinoris oppor- 
tunitatem de luminis consilio mutuare 
('as the light may suggest '). For de 
in that passage compare 2. 31 utinam 
aliquid de proprio lepore laetificum . . . 
comminiscaris. 

leni quiete sopitum] ' resting gently 
in sleep.' 

ac dum . . . inopia] 'hut when 
thrilled at the sight of such great 
happiness, and excited at the excessive 
abundance of my delight, I felt dis- 
tressed in the thought that I could not 
fully enjoy it.' Dum, 'while,' with subj. 
is very rare : cp. Roby 1666. In the 
parallel quoted from 9. 11 the right 
reading is not dum . . . perhorrescerem, 
but ne. 

rebulliuit] * spirted out.' In 9. 34 
the word means to ' bubble up ' like 
boiling water; in 1. 13 spiritum re- 



bulliret seems to mean to ' gurgle out 
his breath.' In 2. 30 we have risus 
ebullit, ' bubbles over.' 

toro meo diuorte] a neuter verb, 
' turn aside from my bed,' 'be divorced 
from my bed': cp. Dig. 38. 11. 1. 1 
liber ta ab inuito patrono diuortit : 23. 
2. 45. 5 si ab ignorante diuorterit. 

tibique res tuas habeto] Gaius in 
the Digest 24. 2. 2. Dinortium uel a 
diuersitate mentium dicttim est, uel quia 
in diuersas paries eunt qni distrahuiit 
matrimonium. In repudiis autem, id est 
renuntiatione comprobata, stint haec uerbct 
'tuas res tibi habeto' ; item haec ' tuas res 
tibi agito '; cp. Cic. Phil. 2. 69 frugi 
factus est: illam mimam suas res sibi 
habere iussit, ex duodecim tabulis clauis 
ademit, exegit : Plaut. Amph. 928 ; 
Martial 10. 41. 1, 2 maritum deseris 
atque iubes res sibi habere suas. 

For the different tenses of the im- 
perative, cp. 6. 10 discerne . . . 
approbate : 6. 19 reside . . . esto : 6. 23 
sume . . . esto. 

quo tu censeris] ' by which you are 
known,' lit. 'registered,' cp. 8. 25 fin. 
Philebo : hoc enim nomine censebatur iam 
meus dominus. The Dictt. also quote 
Apol. 57 fin. pro studio bibendi quo solo 




v. 27] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



65 



tu censeris aiebat 'iam mihi conf[estim]arreat[h]is nuptiis 
coniugabo' et statim Zephyro praecipit, ultra terminos me 
domus eius effiaret." 

Necdum sermonem Psyche finierat, <et> ilia uesanae 



1 iam mihi confarreatis Mercer : iam mihi confestim farreatis Koziol : ia m 
cfestl arreat his (cum lineola sub omnibus verbis praeter his quae 
lineola tamen postea alia manu deleta est) F : iam mihi confestim 

arreat his ( et alia manu) <f>. 
4 et addit Koziol. 



censetur ('is known,' i.e. is famous): 
De Dogm. Plat. 1. 11 init. Globorum 
omnium supremum esse eum qui inerrabili 
Meat it censetur. Often in Arnobius, e.g. 
3. 5 nominibus appellentur his etiam 
quibus eos population censeri popularis 
uulgaritas di(cit. 

confarreatis] The usual term is 
confarreatio, and in 10. 29 Apuleius 
has matrimonium confarreaturus. Yet 
the forms farreatio and farreatae 
nuptiae are found : cp. Sew. on 
Verg. _7Rn. 4. 103 quae res ad 
farreatas nuptias pertinet : also on 4. 
374, where one codex reads farrea- 
tionem. See too Gains 1. 112 Farreo in 
manum conueniunt per quoddam genus 
sacrijicii quod loui Farreo Jit et in quo 
farreus panis adhibetur, unde etiam 
confarreatio dicitur. Dionys. 2. 25 
fKa.\ovv Se rovs lepovs Kal vofj.ifj.ovs oi 
iraAatol yd/movs P<afj.aiKfj Trpoffrjyopia. 



Koivwvias rov tyappos, o Ka.hovjj.ev y/jie'is 
eW. So something may be said for 
Koziol' s reading confestim farreatis. 
Still, as Apuleius elsewhere (10. 29) 
uses confarreaturus, and that is the 
ordinary word, and the repetition of 
confestim is somewhat awkward, it is 
best, with Oudendorp and Helm, to 
adopt Mercer's reading : see Adn. Grit. 
It was the most ancient and solemn 
form of marriage among the Romans, 
and was peculiar to the patricians. 
It was a cumbrous ceremonial (see 
Gaius loc. cit.), and, as it had many 



accompanying impediments, came to be 
very seldom used. It was a very 
binding contract, and could only be 
dissolved by the equally cumbrous pro- 
cess of di/areatio; cp. Tac. Ann. 4. 16. 
The words ia m cfestim arreat in F 
have a line drawn under them, which is 
again erased. Helm supposes that the 
copyist's eye wandered to cowfestim two 
lines before, and discovering his error 
he underlined the whole phrase. This is 
very probable : cp. such errors as 1. 7, 
the addition of diuturnae et dum. 
Yliet reads confestim confarreatis. The 
codex Dorvillianus has a curious read- 
ing confestim arra ac Mis nuptiis, 
inasmuch as arra is a technical term for 
the present (usually a ring) given by 
the man to the woman at the betrothal : 
but the readings of F' and <p (arreat his, 
arreatum his) would tend to show that 
arra is an emendation. 

praecipit . . . efflaret] For ut 
omitted after verbs : cp. 5. 6 extorquet 
a marito, cupitis adnuat, ut sorores 
tiideat, luctus mulceat, era conftrat 
(where perhaps we should omit ut before 
sorores from considerations of rhythm) ; 

5. 13 praecipe fungatur ; 5. 2Suelim . . . 
scias ; 6. Ipatere . . . delitescam ; 6. 11; 

6. 16 ; 6. 18 ; and often. 

27 Necdum . . . finierat et ilia] "We 
have added et with Koziol. The use of 
et is idiomatic in such sentences : cp. 
Verg. JEn. 3. 9 Vix prima inceperat 
aestas, et pater Anchises dare fatis uela- 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



[v. 27 



libidinis et inuidiae noxiae stimulis agitata, e re coneinnato 
mendacio fallens maritum, quasi de morte parentum aliquid 
conperisset, statim nauem ascendit et ad ilium scopulum 
protinus pergit et quamuis alio flante uento, caeca spe tamen 
5 inhians, " accipe me," dicens, " Cupido, dignam te coniugem et 
tu, Zephyre, suscipe dominam" saltu se maximo praecipitem 
dedit. nee tamen ad ilium locum uel saltern mortua peruenire 
potuit. nam per saxa cautium membris iactatis atque dissipatis 
et, proinde ut merebatuf, laceratis uisceribus suis alitibus 
10 bestiisque obuium ferens pabulum interiit. 

Nee uindictae sequentis poena tardauit. nam Psyche rursus 
errabundo gradu peruenit ad ciuitatem aliam, in qua pari 
modo soror morabatur alia, nee setius et ipsa fallacie germani- 

1 e re coneinnato manus recens in marg. <, Jatm : freconcinnato F<|> : uafre 
coneinnato. 



iubebat: cp. Apul. Met. 2. 23 Vix 
jftnieram, et ilico me perducit : 9. 20 
commodum prima stipendia, Veneri mill- 
tabant nudi milites, et . . . improuisus 
maritus adsistit. Helm quotes 1. 19 
necdum . . . rorem attigerat, et iugulo 
eius uulnus dehiscit; 11. 3 init. But 
he quotes 3. 26 fin. uix me praesepio 
uidere proximantem : deiectis auribus 
iam furentes infestis calcibus insecuntur 
to show that et may be omitted. How- 
ever, the use of the perfect tense instead 
of the usual pluperfect makes a differ- 
ence. 

e re coneinnato] This is the ex- 
cellent emendation of a late hand in 
the margin of <j> for freconcinnato, 
* concocted for the occasion.' It is 
adopted by Jahn. Hertz conjectures 
uafre coneinnato, which Helm prints. 

caeca spe tamen inhians] ' with 
the inane craving of blind hopes ': cp. 
rapinarum caeca cupiditas in Cic. Pis. 
57. 

praecipitem dedit] cp. Hor. Sat. 1. 
2. 41. 

uel saltern mortua] 'no, not even 
in death.' Apuleius often uses saltern 



with a negative for 'even': cp. 4. 
32 nee de plebe saltern ; 6. 13 nee tamen 
apud dominam saltern ; 7. 15 nee miki 
statuta saltern cibaria', 9. 19 nee saltern 
spatio cupido formosae pecuniae lenie- 
batur', ib. non modo capere uerum saltern 
contingere pecuniam cupiens\ 9. 36 licet 
non rapinis, saltern uerbis temperare 
noluit. On this latter passage Hilde- 
brand gives many more instances: cp. 
Koziol, 321-324. 

proinde ut merebatur] cp. note to 
5. 11 init. 

Nee uindictae . . . tardauit] ' Nor 
was there any delay in the infliction 
of the next act of punishment.' For 
tardare used as a neuter verb cp. Cic. 
Att. 6. 7. 2 nuinquid putes . . . tardan- 
dum esse nobis. 

alia] for altera: cp. 5. 10, and 11. 
Ilex alia uero parte (so. urnulae) ; Juv. 
7. 114 hinc centum patrimonial causidi- 
corum, parte alia solum russati pone 
Lacernae. 

fallacie germanitatis] ' by her 
sister's false story.' For the abstract 
germanitits for germana the Dictt. refer 
to Cic. Har. Resp. 42 quorum (sctir- 



v. 28] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



67 



tatis inducta et in sororis sceleratas nuptias aemula festinauit 
ad scopulum inque simile mortis exitium cecidit. 

$8 Interim, dum Psyche quaesitioni Cupidinis intenta 
populos circumibat, [at] ille uulnere lucernae dolens in ipso 
thalamo matris iacens ingemebat. tune auis peralba ilia 5 
gauia, quae super fluctus marinos pinnis natat, demergit sese 
propere ad Oceani profundum gremium. ibi commodum 

4 at cum punctis <J> : at sine punctis F : delevit Scioppius. 



rarum) intemperantia expleta in domesticis 
est germanitatis stupris uolutatus. It is 
possible, however, that the abstract is 
used in the sense of 'by the artful 
pretence of sisterly interest' (on Psyche's 
part) or * by the mistaken idea of 
sisterly interest.' This seems to be tbe 
only place in Latin where the fifth 
declension from fallacies is found : cp. 
pinguitie 10. 15 \ crassitie 7. 5. 

inducta] * beguiled,' Cic. Rose. Am. 
117 induxit, decepit, destituit, aduer- 
sariis tradidit, omni fraude et perfidia 
fefellit. 

in sororis . . . aemula] * a rival for 
the guilty possession of her sister's 
husband.' For in cp. 1. 4 polentae 
caseatae . . . offulam grandiorem in con- 
uiuas aemulus contruncare gestio. For 
this sense of sceleratas Liitjohann com- 
pares 10. 28 ergo certa defunctorum 
liberorum matres sceleratas hereditates 
excipere, where he takes sceleratas with 
hereditates in the sense that it was 
criminal for a mother to desire to be the 
heir of her children: yet that would 
sound as if the law guaranteed criminal 
inheritances ; so that it would seem as 
if a good case could be made for Vliet's 
reading: ergo certa ('assured ') defunc- 
torum liberorum tnatres <mater> scelerata 
hereditates excipere. F 2 gives mater 
scelerata for matres sceleratas. 

mortis exitium] ' deadly doom.' 

28 [at]] This word is found in F, but 
is probably an error due to dittography ; 



as <f> marks it for omission. Scioppius 
omits it. Though at is often used in 
the apodosis (cp. Thesaurus ii. 1005 
ff.), no exact parallel can be found 
for this passage (ib. 1007. 15). For 
Interim dum, cp. Apol. 61. Colvius 
reads interdum for interim dum. For 
interdum = interim cp. 2. 27 ; 3. 1 fin. 
There is a passage very like this in 7. 26 
Interim, dum puerum iflum parentes sni 
plangoribus Jletibusque querebantur [et] 
adueniens ecce rusticus, where Helm, 
with Colvius' alteration of our passage 
in his mind, proposes to read Interdum 
for Interim dum, and to retain et. Note 
quaesitio in the literal sense. In Tacitus 
it means ' torture.' 

auis] This word is bracketed as a 
gloss by Th. Muller (JRhein. Mus. xxiii., 
p. 447), perhaps rightly. This is 
at any rate a more probable view 
than Liitjohann's, who (according to 
Michaelis) omitted gauia. Possibly we 
should read auis peralba ilia, ilia gauia. 
For peralba cp. 1.2 equo peralbo uehens. 

gauia] ' the sea-mew,' who, on 
account of its shrieking [cp. Byron, 
" and shrieks the wild sea-mew "] and 
the way it suddenly dives into the sea, 
is aptly chosen as the gossiping creature 
that brings the news to Venus in the 
depths. The sea-mew here plays the 
same part as the crow who told Minerva 
of the curiosity of the daughters of 
Cecrops, and Apollo of the infidelity of 
Coronis, Ov. Met. 2. 535 ff. 



68 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



[v. 



Venerem lauantem natantemque propter assistens indicat 
adustum filium eius, graui uulneris dolore maerentem, dubium 
salutis iacere iamque per cunctorum ora populorum rumoribus 
conuiciisque uariis omnem Veneris familiam male audire, quod 
5 ille quidem montano scortatu, tu uero marine natatu seces- 

3 cunctorum f<f> : cunctarum F. 



Venerem lauantem natantemque 
propter assistens] It is most probable 
that propter is a preposition here and 
not an adverb, as it certainly is in 4. 18 
qui propter sopiti quiescebant : 4. 12; 9. 
23 propter iacenti. For though assistere 
is found in Apuleius with a simple ac- 
cusative (2. 15 grabatulum meum adstitit 
mensula ; Apol. 99 uos qui tribunal 
mecum adsistitis), yet that accusative 
is never used of a person. We could 
say, * he stands at the tribunal,' but not 
'he stands at the judge'; and it is 
probably much the same with the Latin 
assistere. In one place, Met. 4. 4, we 
have propter even after a genit. which 
the ace. governs riuulum quendam 
serpentis leniter aquae propter insistens. 
Becker, however, pp. 45-46, takes it 
as an adverb, chiefly on the ground 
that it always comes before the verb. 
Apuleius likes to put propter after 
the word it governs : cp. 2. 23 quam 
(matronam} propter assistens; 8. 13 
capulum Tlepolemi propter assistens ; 
10. 21 lumen propter assistens : cp. Tac. 
Ann. 15. 47. 3 uiam propter natus est 
ttitulus- 4. 48. 1 translata . . castra 
hostem propter. When assistere means 
to * stand by ' in the sense of ' helping,' 
it takes a dative of the person, Flor. 
16. 72 fin. (Oud.) ; but it can also take 
the dative wben there is no such idea 
attaching to it : cp. 3. 22. 

maerentem] Here Vliet alters to 
marcentem as Price altered maerentibus 
into marcentibus in c. 25, but by no 
means as happily. Cornelissen need- 
lessly alters to the Lucretian word 
(3. 106, 824) aegrentem. 

dubium salutis] cp. Ovid. Met. 15. 



438 fenti dubioque salutis ; Trist. 3. 3. 
25 ergo ego sum dubius uitae ; similarly 
certus takes a genit. 6. 10 certa 
difficultatis. 

per cunctorum ora populorum] cp. 
8. 30 infamia . . . quae per ora populi 
facile dilapsa . . . detestabiles eos cunctis 
effecerat. 

quod ille] ' because he, with his 
wivings in the mountains, and you, 
with your divings in Ocean's fountains, 
have removed yourselves from mankind ; 
and so there is no pleasure, no grace, 
no charm left, but everything is un- 
couth, boorish, rude : there are no 
marriage meetings, no friendly greet- 
ings, no affection of children, but an 
unbounded foulness and unsavoury 
disgustingness of coarse unions.' It is 
well-nigh impossible to get in trans- 
lation the artificial alliterations of this 
elaborated sentence. It would seem 
probable, as Vliet suggests, that some 
words were omitted before enormis to 
balance squalentium foederum ; some- 
thing (say) like immanium sordium : cp. 
1. 7 sordium enormem eluuiem. The 
mss. give ffluuies, altered by Beroaldus 
to eluuies, by Jahn to colluuies, and by 
"Wower to illuuies. The latter is found 
elsewhere in Apuleius : cp. 8. 11 iam 
lurore et ilhtuie paene cottapsa, and 
Apol 7 ; but eluuies is explained in the 
glosses as /ca/co0>ua, aAowata, immun- 
ditia, and is very near the mss., as e 
might easily be mistaken for g in 
uncials. The balance of the sentence 
also suggests that a clause may have 
been lost after caritates, something like 
non sodalium suauitates. 

It is noticeable how the oratio obliqua 



v. 28] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



69 



seritis ac per hoc non uoluptas ulla, non gratia, non lepos, sed 
incompta et agrestia et horrida cuncta sint, non nuptiae 
coniugales, non amicitiae sociales, non liberum caritates, sed 
. . . enormis eluuies et squalentium foederum insuaue fastidium. 
haec ilia uerbosa et satis curiosa auis in auribus Veneris 6 
fili[um] lacerans existimationem ganniebat, at Venus irata 
solidum exclamat repente : " ergo iam ille bonus filius meus 
habet amicam aliquam? prome #gedu<w>, quae sola mihi 
seruis amanter, nomen eius, quae puerum ingen<w>um et 

4 eluvies Beroaldus: gluuies F(J>, sed al. man. addit in. 
6 fili Colvius : fili v F ( add. eadem manus) <f>. 

8 prome agedum <J> al. man. : pro meo gedu F0. 

quae sola .... eius (linea subducta, sed alia manu postea deleta) F<. 

9 ingenuum <f> al. man. : ingenil F<. 



(Veneris familiam male audire] passes 
into the oratio recta (quod ille . . . tu 
. . . secesseritis). 

uerbosa et satis curiosa] ' gabbling 
and very meddling': cp. 5. 23 init. 
Note alliteration. 

fill lacerans existimationem] ' tear- 
ing her son's reputation to pieces': cp. 
10. \QjUtm suam coram lacerari', Suet. 
Caes. 75 fin. carminibus maledicentis- 
simis laceratam existimationem. F has 
jili 1 ', tlie r b) r the original hand ; and so 
has <j>. Pontanus suggests inlacerans, 
but that word is not found. Possibly 
the c is a remnant of male, the -le 
having dropped out owing to the 
proximity of la(cerams~) . 

ganniebat] ' was whispering in 
Venus' ear ' ; elsewhere Apuleius uses 
the accus. cp. 2. 2 incertum quidnam in 
aurem mulieris obganniit, and Afranius 
283 (Ribbeck) gannire ad aurem nun- 
quam didici dominicam. Hildebrand on 
3. 20 lightly draws a distinction between 
garrire and gannire. The former is 
'to chatter'; but the latter originally 
meaning a dog's growl (cp. Lucr. 5. 
1070, Varro L. L. 7. 105 mult a ab 
animalium uocibus tralata in homines 
. . . Plauti " Gannit odiosus omni toti 



familiae," cp. Non. 450), or the squeal 
of a fox, Carm. de Philomela 59 Rite 
canes latrant, fallax uulpecula gannit 
(cp. Corp. Gloss. 5. 204. 30) is used 
of muttered half-inarticulate utterances 
by human beings ; cp. Terence Ad. 556 
Quid ille gannit ? quid uolt (' what's he 
muttering about?'); Catull. 83. 1 gannit 
et obloquitur ('she grumbles and rails '). 
Thus, 4. 1, the robbers indicate to the 
friendly villagers secretis gannitibus that 
the goods they had were stolen ; 2. 15 
nocturni gannitus ; 3. 20 nobis ganni- 
entibuK (where, however, the reading 
is doubtful) ; 2. 11 talibus obgannitis 
sermonibus inter nos ; 10. 22 dulces 
gannitus of the murmuring endearments 
of lovers (cp. Juv. 6. 64, and the 
glosses <TKV and \ayvevfi, Corp. 
Gloss. 2. 32, 24 and 23); 6. 6. gannitu 
constrepenti of the chirping (jargoning) 
of sparrows (cp. Gloss. 4. 603. 1). 

solidum] goes with irata, 'soundly,' 
'really,' 'thoroughly': cp. 3. \5 formido 
solide, ' I have a real (or ' wholesome ') 
fear'; Plaut. Trin. 892 hie homo solide 
sycophantast, ' a thorough swindler.' 
For the neut. adj. used adverbially 
cp. 6. 2 longum exclamat ; 6. 16 renidens 
exitiabile. 



70 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



[v. 28 



inuestem sollicitauit, siue ilia de Nympharum populo seu de 
Horarum numero seu de Musarum choro uel de mearum 
Gratiarum ministerio." 

Nee loquax ilia conticuit auis, sed : " nescio," inquit, 
5 " domina : puto puellam si probe memini, Psyches nomine 
dicitur efflicte cupere." 

Tune indignata Venus exclamauit uel maxime: "Psychen 
ille, meae formae succubam, mei nominis aemiilam, si 

7 vel F<f> : per f. 



inuestem] ' boy,' as opposed to 
uesticeps, ' a man ': cp. Apol. 98 inues- 
tem a nobis accepisti, uesticipem ilico 
reddidisti. The commentators take 
uestis in these words to mean ' the 
beard,' a sense in which it is found in 
one poetical passage in Lucretius 5. 674 
Nee minus in certo denies cadere imperat 
aetas tempore et impubem molli pubescere 
ueste (covering); and Servius professes 
to find this meaning in Vergil JEn. 8. 
659 (aurea caesaries illis atque aurea, 
uestis} " hoc est barba: unde contra 
inuestes dicimus imberbes, unde est [160] 
tune milii prima genas tiestibat flore 
iuuentas" (cp. his note on 6. 645) ; and 
this view was also held by Nonius 
(p. 45, 23) (nulla pars corporis pilat] 
and the Glosses. We must apparently 
acquiesce in this interpretation, though 
naturally we should think of the toga 
uirilis and the dress of grown-up years: 
cp. Macrob. Sat. 3. 8. 7 Romani pueros 
et pnellas nobiles et inuestes camillos et 
Camillas appellant, where the original 
meaning of ' beardless ' would seem to 
have disappeared. 

Nympharum . . . Horarum . . . 
Musarum . . . Gratiarum] For the 
connexion of Venus with the Nymphs 
and Graces cp. Hor. Carm. 1.4. 6, 7. 
The Horae were goddesses of the 
seasons (more especially of the spring- 
season), and we find their altars beside 
those of Aphrodite (Pans. 5. 15. 3). 
They adorned the goddess when she 



rose from the sea, according to the 
Homeric Hymn 5. 5-15 a duty else- 
where attributed to the Graces (Horn. 
Od. 8. 364). The Muses and the Graces 
are connected as goddesses of the chorus : 
cp. Horn. Hymn 27. 15, and Hesiod, 
Theog. 64. 

domina] 'madam'; cp. c. 31. 

puto puellam . . . efflicte cupere] 
The Gavia talks slowly and hesitatingly. 
' I think it is a girl if I recollect 
rightly she is known by the name of 
Psyche that he is desperately in love 
with.' It is fairly certain that puellam 
is the object of cupere. We should 
certainly expect the subject to be 
expressed ; and Traube proposes to read 
eum perire for cupere. Perhaps we 
might suppose eum (ei'i) to have fallen 
out before cu of cupere. Rossbach adds 
ilium after puellam. The form efflicte is 
rare. Besides this passage, the only 
place it is found is Symmachus, Epist. 
1. 90. Elsewhere Apuleius uses efflictim, 
e.g. 1. 8; 3. 16; 5. 6; 5. 23; Apol. 
79. 100 ; and the instances are so 
numerous that one is tempted to suppose 
that the mss. reading here has arisen 
from efflictim eum cupere. 

exclamauit uel maxime] cp. c. 29 
quam maxime loans. Liitjohann trans- 
poses uel maxime before indignata. A 
recent hand in F has altered uel into 
per. Beck suggests ut. 

meae formae succubam, mei nominis 
aemulam] ' the supplanter of my 



v. 29] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



71 



uere diligit, nimirum illud incrementum lenam me putauit, 
cuius monstratu puellam illam cognosceret." 

$9 Haec quintans properiter emergit e mari suumque 
protinus aureum thalamum petit et reperto, sicut audierat, 
aegroto puero iam inde a foribus quam maxime boans : 5 
" honesta," inquit, " haec et natalibus nostris bonaeque tuae 
frugi congruentia, ut primum quiderii tuae parentis, immo 
dominae praecepta calcares nee sordidis amoribus inimicam 
meam cruciares, uerum etiam hoc aetatis puer tuis licentiosis 

1 si uere F, sed vox si postea, fortasse eadeni manu, deleta: om. si <J>. 



beauty, the rival of my name': cp. 10. 
24 coepit puellam uelut aemulam tori 
snccubamque primo suspicari : so the 
Glosses, TroAAoKT], pellex. Friedlander 
(i 6 ., p. 531), if I understand him 
rightly, seems to take the word in 
the sense of 'changeling' (Wechselbalg) 
referring to supposuerant stramenticium 
uauatonein ('baby-kin,' 'baba') in 
Petronius (c. 63) ; but this is doubt- 
ful. 

si uere] cp. 6. 29 quod si uere 
lupiter mugiuit in bouem ; 10. 11 sed si 
uere puer . . . sumpsit potionem. Si had 
been originally in F, but for some 
reason was erased, and does not appear 
in <p. It has been rightly restored by 
Koch. Liitjohann inserts dicunt or dicis 
before diligit. 

incrementum] ' that limb,' or ' that 
cub,' or 'that imp.' This word, though 
naturally having a dignified sense 
(Verg. Eel. 4. 49, where it seems to 
mean ' promise of a future Jove,' a 
child who will grow into Jove), is here 
used in a half-slang way: cp. such 
expressions as ' limbs of the law ' 
(Landor), ' limb of the devil' (Scott). 
The Duke in " Twelfth Night " says 
to Viola, "0 thou dissembling cub ! 
what wilt thou be when time hath sown 
a grizzle on thy case?" Some such 
contemptuous signification also attaches 
to the Greek Ope^a : see Jebb on Soph. 
El. 622. The word suggests also the 



English imp, which originally means a 
'scion' or a ' graft ' (in husbandry), 
then a son ' or 'offspring' (Pistol 
calls King Henry V. ' most royal imp 
of fame '; the Muses to Spenser are 
' sacred imps that on Parnasso dwell ') ; 
then ' a little devil ' (Hooker speaks of 
' the imps and limbs of Satan '). 

cuius monstratu puellam illam 
cognosceret] ' as it was by indication 
from me that he got to know that 
girl.' 

29 quiritans] ' screaming out ' ; 
cp. Quintil. 3. 8. 59. We find the word 
elsewhere used in Apuleius in the sense 
of 'bewailing violently'; cp. 8. 6; 
8. 18. The word is probably derived 
from querito from queror. A popular 
etymology connected it with appealing 
to the Quirites (Varro L. L. 6. 68). 

properiter] Found in Pacuvius, 
Accius, and Catullus ; but after Catullus 
Apuleius is the first author who uses 
the form : cp. 1. 22 ; 6. 26 ; 7. 25 ; 
10. 27. Propere and properanter are 
the classical forms. 

quam maxime boaiis] cp. c. 28 ex- 
clammiit uel maxime. 

bonaeque tuae frugi congruentia] 
Forfniffi tuae cp. 6. 10 iam ergo et ipsa 
frugem tuam periditabor. 

ut . . . tuae parentis, immo dominae 
praecepta calcares] cp. Apoll. Ehod. 
3. 93 avrap e^uelb OVK ijOcTai, /j.a.\a 
S'cciei/ fpi$/J.aivci}i> adepifei. 



72 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



[v. 29 



et immaturis iungeres amplexibus, ut ego nurum scilicet 
tolerarem inimicam ? sed utique praesumis nugo et corruptor 
et inamabilis te solum generosum nee me iam per aetatem 
posse concipere. uelim ergo scias multo te meliore<m> 

5 filium alium genituram, immo ut contumeliam magis sentias, 
aliquem de meis adoptaturam uernulis eique donaturam istas 
pinnas et flammas et arcum et ipsas sagittas et omnem meam 
supellectilem, quam tibi non ad hos usus dederam ; nee enim de 
patris tui bonis ad instructioneni istam quicquam concessum 

10 est. 

4 mellore ify : meliore F. 



iungeres] governs inimicam meam. 

utique praesumis] ' you are especially 
presumptuous in supposing, you good- 
for-nothing, seducing, detestable boy.' 
Nugo seems to be an Apuleian. form 
for nugator : cp. next chapter. For 
praesumis cp. 7. 27 at utcunque se 
praesumit innocentem ; and for a slightly 
different sense 3. 15. 

te solum generosum] ' that there is 
no other prince except yourself ' 
(F. Norden) ; that he was the only 
legitimate son and heir of Venus. 

genituram] Even in Cicero gigno is 
used of the female ; cp. Tusc. 1. 102 ; 
N. D. 2. 129 ; cp. Tac. Ann. 12. 2. It 
is possible that we should add me 
before multo. But Apuleius often omits 
the subject of the infinitive 9. 41 
nee uidisse quidem contendit : Apol. 2 
pollicitus itafacturum : see Leky, p. 33. 
In 5. 13 fin. tbe parallels quoted in the 
note there justify the addition of the 
subject. 

ad hos usus dederam] cp. Yerg. 
JEn. 4. 647 ensemque recludit Dardanium, 
non hos quctesitum munus in usus. 

nec enim de patris tui bonis . . . 
concessum est] The property of the 
wife which tbe Greeks called Trapatyepva 
probably what the Latins called 
mundus muliebris (Liv. 34. 7. 9 ; cp. 
note to 4. 33) was distinct from tbe 
dowry, and was, as a general rule, 



scheduled, and tbe schedule signed by 
the husband ; cp. Ulpian in Dig. 23. 
3. 9. 3 plane si rerum libellus marito 
detur ut Romae uolgo fieri uidemus (nam 
mulier res quas solet in usu habere in 
domo mariti iieque in dotem dat, in 
libellum solet conferre eumque libellum 
marito offerre, ut is subscribat, quasi res 
acceperit, et uelut chiroyraphum eius uxor 
retinet res quae libello continentur in 
domwn eius se intulisse] : Jiae igitur res 
an maritifiant uideamus. Et nonputo, 
non quod non ei traduntur (quid enim 
interest inferaniur uolente eo in domum 
eius an ei tradantur?}, sed quia non puto 
hoc agi inter v.irutn et uxorem, ut 
dommiuin ad eum transferatur, sed 
magis ut cerium sit in domum eius illata, 
ne, si quando separatio fiat, negetur : et 
plerumque custodiam earum maritus re- 
promittit, nisi mulieri commissae sunt. 
Cp. Codex Just. 5. 14. 8. (of the year 
450 A.D.) Decernimus ut uir in his rebus, 
quas extra do/.cm mulier habet . . . nullam 
\ixore pYohibente hnbeat communionem 
nec aliqiiam ei necessitatem imponut. 

instructionem] ' outfit.' Cupid's 
whole outfit came from his mother's 
own special property ; nothing came 
from the property of his step -father, 
Mars. We are not permitted to know 
who was the actual father of Cupid. 
If, in 6. 22, fili is not merely the 
expression used by an elder to a youth, 



v. 30] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



73 



3O Sed male prima pueritia inductus es et acutas manus 
habes et maiores tuos irreuerenter pulsasti totiens et ipsain 
matrem tuam, me inquam ipsam parricida denudas cotidie 
et percussisti saepius et quasi uiduam utique contemnis nee 
uitricum tuum fortissimum ilium maximumque bellatorem 5 
metuis. quidni ? cui saepius in angorem mei paelicatus 
puellas propinare consuesti. sed iam faxo te lusus huius 
paeniteat et sentias acidas et amaras istas nuptias. sed nunc 

1 prima F : prima tua <j>. 



Apuleius would seem to consider Jupiter 
as his father: Cicero (N. D. 3. 59) 
says Mercury. Cp. also Preller, Gr. 
Myth. i. 414, note 1. For Apnleius' 
predilection for references to Roman 
Law cp. c. 27 ; 6. 22, and often. 

3O male . . . inductus es] ' you have 
been badly conducted'; cp. such phrases 
as in errorem induci. The expression is 
some what like the English 'misconduct.' 
The Dictionaries do not give any 
exact parallel, though they quote Cic. 
Rose. Am. 117, and Tibull. 1. 6. 1 for 
inducere, 'to cajole,' like ductare, cir- 
cumducere in the comic writers (see note 
to c. 27 fin.). But it is somewhat 
stronger than 'you have been misled.' 
"We must not alter with Hildebrand to 
the flat reading indoctus. Michaelis 
adds the prep, a after prima. 

acutas manus] The reference is 
either by enallage to Cupid's sharp 
arrows directed by his hands (cp. 5. 
23) ; or more probably (as is suggested 
by Dittmann in the Thesaurus, 463. 
58) to the Greek epithet 6i>x(ip, 
meaning 'impulsive,' 'quick (sharp) 
with the hands,' applied to Hercules 
in Theocritus, Epigr. (22) 20; cp. 
also the comic poet Nicomachus (see 
Kock iii., p. 387), 1. 33, Senrrwv 8e iras 
ra.\\6rpia (' on what does not agree 
with him ') jiver' 6!-vxeip KOVK ey/cpoTTjs, 
and Lucian Dial. Deor. 7. 2 of Hermes 
as quick at thieving. 

me. . .ipsam parricida denudas] 'you, 
a very parricide, keep exposing me.' 



Similar complaints in Lucian Dial. 
Deor. 11. 1; 12. 1 ; 19. 1. 

uitricum] This is Mars. In Ovid 
Am. 1. 2. 24 (qui deceat currum uitricus 
ipse dabif) the uitricus is probably, as 
Beck and F. Norden say, Mars, not 
Vulcan. The reference to the triumph 
(1. 25) would seem to show this. 

quidni ?] Apuleius often uses this 
word : 6. 17 ; cp. 4. 24 ; 8. 2 ; 9. 9 ; 
9. 17; 11. 26; 11. 30. 

cui . . . consuesti] ' Of course : as 
you are often wont to hand over girls to 
him so as to embitter me with rivals.' 
If it is thought necessary to keep the 
alliteration in a translation, we might 
render 'to procure him paramours to 
provoke me to jealous passion.' For 
propinare, in the same sense as the 
Greek irpoiriveiv (used more than once 
in this sense by Demosthenes), 'to give 
freely or readily ' (as presents were 
given when healths were pledged at 
feasts). Nonius (33. 8) quotes the 
grand lines of Ennius, Enni poeta, salue, 
qui mortalibus iiersus propinas flammeos 
medullitus ; and Ter. Eim. 1087 Hunc 
comedendum uobis propino et deriden- 
dum. 

in angorem mei paelicatus] ' to 
embitter me with rivals,' lit. 'to the 
embitterment of my having rivals ': cp. 
8. 22 quo dolore paelicatus uxor eius 
instricta (or instincta). 

iam faxo . . . paeniteat] cp. note 
to 4. 30. Note the assonance in the 
fivefold termination -as. 



>ID AND PSYCHE 



[v. 30 



inrisui habita quid agam ? quo me conferam ? quibus modis 
stelionem istum cohibeam ? petamne auxilium ab inimica mea 
Sobrietate, quam propter huius ipsius luxuriam offendi saepius ? 
a[u]t rusticae squalentisque feminae conloquium prorsus [adhi- 
5 bendum est] horresco. nee tamen uindictae solacium undeunde 
spernendum est. ilia mihi prorsus adhibenda est nee ulla alia, 
quae castiget asperrime nugonem istum, pharetram explicet et 
sagittas dearmet, arcum enodet, taedam deflammet, immo et 
ipsum corpus eius acrioribus remediis coherceat. tune iniuriae 

4 at Jahn : ant F<. prorsus adhibendum est del. Liitjohann. 



quo me conferam ?] F. Norden sees 
in this an echo of the famous outburst 
of C. Gracchus (Cic. De Orat. 3. 214) 
Quo me miser conferam? Quo uertam? 
In Capitolium? At fratris sanguine 
madet. An domum ? Matremne ut mise- 
ram lamentantem uideam et abiectam ? 

stelionem] 'cozener.' The word 
stellionatus (or stelionatus) is common 
in Bom an law as a comprehensive term 
for swindling (see the Dictt.) : cp. 
Digest 47. 20. 3 stellionatum obici posse 
his qui dolo quid fecerunt sciendum est, 
scilicet si aliud crimen non sit quod 
obiciatur . . . Ubicunque igitur titulus 
criminis deficit illic stellionatum obicie- 
mus. Pliny (N. H. 30, 89) gives 
its derivation as from stellio, ' a lizard,' 
which used to devour its skin, as a 
lizard's skin was considered useful 
in medicine, quoniam nullum animal 
fraudulentius inuidere homini tradunt 
inde stelionum nomine in male translato. 
This is plainly i\ popular etymology. 
Possibly the word is connected with 
' to steal.' It is probable that the 
word, as well as stellio, a 'lizard,' 
should be spelled stelio. Lachmann 
(on Lucr. i. 313) considers that II after 
a long vowel is reduced to I when 
t follows, unless iis a case-ending: thus 
tiilla, but uilicus. The niss. in Apuleius 
both here and Apol. 51 favour stelionem 
with one L The same is the case with 
the mss. of Verg. G. 4. 243 and Petron. 
50. 5. 



at] So Jahn for aut. 

prorsus adhibendum est] Liitjohann 
bracketed these words, which are either 
a marginal gloss of an edifying moral 
nature, or some kind of an anticipation 
of the words which follow shortly 
after, just as magnae art is in 5. 1 is 
anticipated in the mss., and appears 
erroneously before homo. Plasberg re- 
tains prorsus, which occurs before 
adhibendum est, omitting only the latter 
two words, as he considers prorsus 
caused the error, the copyist's eye 
having wandered to the prorsus in the 
next line but one. 

undeunde] ' from whatever quarter 
it is to come': cp. Hor. Sat. 1. 3. 88 
Qui nisi . . . mercedem aut nummos 
undeunde extricat. For the sense cp. 
Verg. -ZEn. 7. 310 quod si mea numina 
non sunt tnagna satis, dubitem haud 
equidem implorure quod usquam est. 

pharetram . . . deflammet] ' undo 
his quiver, disarm his arrows, unstring 
his bow, disfire his torch.' Note the 
two verbs beginning with ex- (e-} and 
the two verbs beginning with de-. 
This is plainly intentional, and an 
attempt has been made to reproduce 
it. Sagittas dearmare means ' to take 
the points off the arms ': dejiammare is 
a word invented for the occasion, and 
the same privilege may be allowed the 
translator. The et before sagittas is 
to be ejected, as Liitjohann proposes, 
having arisen from the -et of explicet. 



v. 31] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



75 



meae lita[ta]tum crediderim, cum eius comas, quas istis manibus 
meis subinde aureo nitore perstrinxi, deraserit, pinnas, quas 
meo gremio nectarei f ontis inf eci, praetotonderit." 

31 Sic effata foras sese proripit infesta et stomachata 
biles Venerias. sed earn protinus Ceres et luno continantur s 

1 litatum $ : lita \ tatum F. 5 continantur Kiessling : continuantur F<j>. 



For similar threats of Aphrodite against 
Eros cp. Lucian, Dial. Deor. 11. 1 
Stare iro\\a.Kis i}irei\T)<ra, i /j.)) iravffeTai 
roiavra iroiwv, KAaveiv jjikv avrov TO. 
ro|a Kal rr)V Qdperpav (cp. Apoll. 
Rhod. 3. 96), irepiatp^o'eii' 8e Kal ra 
TTTfpa' f/Srj 5e Kal Tr\r)'yas avrqJ e^eVeiyo 
is ras irvyas T< aav$d\<p. 

subinde] 'often'; a usage common 
from the time of Livy. 

aureo nitore perstrinxi] On this 
passage Heinsius has proposed a most 
ingenious emendation: Arabo nidore 
pemnxi ; he compares 2. 9 capillus 
cum guttis Arabicis obunctus, and Ovid 
Heroid. 15. 76 Non Arabo noster rore 
capillus olet. Yet it is difficult to 
helieve it necessary ; and the words of 
the mss. seem the more beautiful, ' I 
touched with a golden gleam.' The 
dark-haired peoples of the south admired 
light hair. If alteration were necessary, 
I would read pertinxi, ' I steeped in 
golden gleam ' ; the indignation of . 
Venus required a strong word. It 
would be no objection that pertinguo 
is not elsewhere found. The number 
of a7ra elpijfjLfva in Apuleius is great. 
(See Koziol, pp. 277-280, for the verbs. 
He quotes, as an example of such verbs 
compounded with per-, perqidescere 
8. 22.) 

pinnas, quas meo gremio nectarei 
fontis infeci] Here again Heinsius 
exercises his amazing ingenuity by 
reading met gremii nectar eo fotu refeci. 
But the mss. reading is probably 
right, the genitive being a Greek 
material or local (see Jelf 540 Obs.) 
genitive : cp. Horn. 11. 5. 6 AeAou^eVos 
. Kretschmann (p. 127) quotes 



many other Greek genitives used by 
Apuleius, e.g., De Deo Socr. c. 22 
( 172) fallacis undae sitit sed uerae 
beatitudinis esurit et sitit a construction 
apparently not found before Apuleius ; 
also comparative genitives, 11. 30 deus 
deuin magnorum potior', 3. 11 and else- 
where. Cornelissen adds in before meo, 
perhaps rightly. The passages quoted 
by Helm 1. 10 (ciuitatem stimmo vertice 
mantis . . . sitam] ; 3. 2 ; 3. 8; 3. 9, have 
a verb signifying ' placed ' expressed, 
except 3. 8 lectulum, quo . . . cadauera 
contecta f iterant, where the omission of 
the prep, is pardonable in the case of a 
relative pronoun. 

praetotonderit] Tertullian (De Pallia 
2) has detoiondit, but such reduplicated 
forms are rare ; cp. Neue-Wagener 
iii 3 , p. 361. 

31 infesta et stomachata biles 
Venerias] furious and wrathful with 
Passion's own distemperature.' The 
ace. is cognate. The plural of bills is 
very rare, except in medical references. 

continantur] ' meet.' So Kiess- 
ling (Ind. Gryph. 1883, p. 3) for 
continuantur of the mss. Similarly in 
6. 18 we should read continaberis for 
contimiaueris. In 1. 24 F'<J>' have 
continatur ; so F0 in 7. 25 continatum. 
But in 11. 6 they have continuare. In 
11. 22 F has ctinat (sic), but <p has 
continatus : cp. Corp. Gloss. Lat. iv., 
40. 15 continantur congrediuntur. The 
word seems to have been used by 
Sisenna (ap. Non. 93 fin.) Marius ostio 
Liris euehitur adque Aenariam suos con- 
tinuatur (where we should probably 
read continatur}. The word does not 
reappear until Apuleius. 



76 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



[v. 31 



uisamque uultu twmido quaesiere, cur truci supercilio tantam 
uenustatem micantium oculorum coerceret. at ilia: "oportune," 
inquit, " ardenti prorsus isto meo pectori uiolentiam scilicet 
perpetraturae uenitis. sed totis, oro, uestris uiribus Psychen 
5 illam fugitiuam uolaticam mihi requirite. nee enim uos utique 
domus meae famosa fabula et non dicendi filii mei facta 
latuerunt." 

1 tumido v : timido F<p. 

3 violentiam F : violentia < (sec. lahn) : volent'iam Markland. 

4 perpetraturae vcnitis (p man. rec. : perpetrat" euenitis F0. 






coerceret] 'do despite to the great 
beauty of your shining eyes ': or per- 
haps more literally ' confine,' i.e. by a 
scowling brow make less large her 
brilliant eyes. Ammianus 25. 3. 22 has 
uenustate oculorum rnicantium flagrant. 

isto] Apuleius seems to affect this 
dative of iste: cp. 6. 17 laborique isto ; 
7. 26 pessimo isto asino; 11. 15 uultum 
laetiorem candido isto habitu tuo congru- 
entem. Cp. also ipso 10. 10 ne ipso 
quidem succumbit igni. 

uiolentiam] of course to put 
coercion on (to do violence to) this burn- 
ing heart of mine.' You have come, 
of course, to restrain and calm down 
my wrath, but I beg of you to help 
me. Eyssenhardt and Helm read uolen- 
tiam after Markland, who compares 11. 6 
mea uolentia fretns (so F<), where that 
reading is undoubtedly right : and if we 
adopt the reading here, we get an ex- 
cellently ironical sense for scilicet, 'You 
have come, of course, to carry through 
the wishes of this burning heart of 
mine.' I3ut it is not the reading of 
the mss., and it does not suit the sooth- 
ing tone adopted by the two goddesses ; 
and the other rendering gives a better 
contrast to the next clause, ' You 
have come, of course, to restrain me, 
but rather I beg you to help me.' 
Oudendorp seems to take perpetraturae 
as genit. sing., agreeing with mei, con- 
tained in meo, like Hor. Sat. 1. 4. 23 
tnea scriptn timentis, and supposes that 



per p. uiolentiam means that she was 
about to do some violence, inflict 
punishment on Cupid. 

Psychen illam fugitmam uolaticam] 
' that elusive runaway of mine.' In 
Meleager Anth. Pal. 12. 80. 5 Vvx*] 
Svo'b'd.KpvTe is regarded as the slave of 
Eros, Trd\tv e? ae <f>vyov<rav A7}i//eT'"Epa>s 
evp&v Spaireriv aiittfferai. Possibly, as 
Diet/e suggests (Philol. 1900, p. 143), 
the idea of regarding Psyche as the 
slave of Venus may have been sug- 
gested by the poem of Moschus ("Epus 
SpaireT-rjs). There may be in uolaticam 
an allusion (but an allusion of the 
slightest) to the representation of 
Psyche in art as butterfly -winged. 
Volaticam means springing about, now 
here, now there, and may be translated 
* elusive.' It does not simply mean 
'winged' (as in Plautus Poen. 473), 
as may perhaps be inferred from 8. 16 
where a comic rationalistic explanation 
of the winged Pegasus is given, denique 
mecum ipse reputabam Pegasum inclutum 
ilium metu magis uolaticum fuisse ac 
per hoc merito pinnatum proditum, dum 
in altum et adusque caelum snbsilit 
ac resultat, formidans scilicet igniferae 
morsum Chimaerae. Cicero's celebrated 
description of the New Academy gives 
the meaning exactly: Att. 13. 25. 3 
Academiam uolaticam et sui similem 
modo hue, modo illxc. 

non dicendi filii] ' of my unspeak- 
able son.' This is a Latinization of 



v. 31] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



77 



Tune illae <non> ignarae, quae gesta sunt, palpare Yeneris 
iram saeuientem sic adortae : " quid tale, domina, deliquit tuus 
filius, ut animo peruicaci uoluptates illius impugnes et, quam 
ille diligit, tu quoque perdere gestias ? quod autem, oramus, 
isti crimen, si puellae lepidae libenter adrisit ? an ignoras eum & 
masculum et iuuenem esse uel certe iam, quot sit annorum, 
oblita es ? an, quod aetatem portat bellule, puer tibi semper 
uidetur ? mater autem tu et praeterea cordata mulier filii tui 
lusus semper explorabis curiose et in eo luxuriem culpabis et 
amores reuinces et tuas artes tuasque delicias in formonso 10 
filio reprehendes ? quis autem te deum, quis hominum 
patietur passim cupidines populis disseminantem, cum tuae 

1 non ignarae uel gnarae Beroaldus : ignarae F0. 

4 quoque F<p : quoquo modo Liitjohann : quidem Helm. 



#4>aTos. F. J^orden refers to Apoll. 
Rhod. 3. 129 riirr' eVi^etSmas, &<$>arov 
KO.KOV. We should not interpret ' un- 
worthy to be called a child of mine.' 

non ignarae] Beroaldus added non : 
cp. 5. 25 casiis eius non inscius ; Apol. 
33 medicinae non ignarus. He also 
suggested gnarae. From the tenor of 
the speech it is plain that the goddesses 
knew the whole story. 

domina] ' madam ' ; the address of 
formal politeness: cp. c. 28. 

tu quoque] So the mss. ; and it is 
certainly hard to explain quoque. It 
is possible that Apuleius has for a 
moment forgotten himself, and attri- 
butes to the goddesses the knowledge 
that Cupid had deserted Psyche, and 
that he meant by tu quoque, ' you as 
well as Cupid.' If this interpretation 
is not accepted, we must have recourse 
to some emendation such as tu quoquo 
modo (Liitjohann) : cp. 7. 19 ut me 
quoquo modo perditum iret ; or tu quidem 
(Helm) : cp. 6. 16 iam tu quidem magna 
uideris quaedam . . . male/lea. 

libenter] ' in his fancy.' 

adrisit] cp. Mart. 11. 45. 2 seu puer 
adrisit siue puella tibi. 

portat] Vliet suggests portas, which 



is deliciously feline, and, as such, suits 
well with mater and cordata. But the 
mss. reading gives a good sense. Cupid 
has all the attractiveness of boyhood, 
yet is a man : cp. Lucian Dial. Deor. 
2. 1 ffv iraiSiov 6 "Epus, os apxaiorepos 
e? TroAu 'laTreroG / 3} SIOTI /J.TJ irwyuva. 
/xrjSe TroA-tas ttyvffas 5m TO.VTCL Kai fipefyos 
ato?s vo/jii^aQai ; For bellule cp. 10. 16; 
11. 30. 

cordata] 'sensible.' cp.Plaut.Poen. 
131 quas (res) tu sapienter docte cordate 
et cafe mihi reddidisti opiparas opera 
tua : and the well-known line of 
Ennius, Egregie cordatus homo, catus 
^Lelius Sextus. 

reuinces] ' crush down.' The idea 
of conquering by driving back is con- 
veyed by the re- : cp. Cic. Sull. 1 
redomiti et reuicti (according to Dr. 
Reid's emendation for uicti); Hor. Carm. 
4. 4. 24 uictrices cateruae Consiliis in- 
uenis reuictae ; and Lucr. 5. 409. 

tuasque delicias] and your own 
charming ways.' 

formonso] cp. note to 4. 28. 

cum . . . officinam] ' when you 
cruelly curb the love-adventures of 
your house, and close down the public 
manufactory of female frailties.' For 



78 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



[vi. 1 
muliebrium 



domus amores amare coherceas et uitiorum 
publicam praecludas officinam?" 

Sic illae metu sagittarum patrocinio gratioso Cupidini, 
quamuis absent!, blandiebantur. sed Venus indignata ridicule 
5 tractari suas iniurias praeuersis illis alterorsus concito gradu 
pelago uiam capessit. 

VI 1 Interea Psyche uariis iactabatur discursibus, dies 
noctesque mariti uestigationibus inquieta animo, tanto cupidior 
iratum licet, si non uxori<^>s blanditiis lenire, certe seruilibus 

5 alterorsus Vollmer, cp. 9. 28 : alte rursus F< : altrorsus Eyssenhardt: altro- 

vorsus Traube. 

6 Ego salustius legi et emendaui rome felix METHAMORPHOSEON 

LIB. V. Explicit. INCIP. LIB. VI. FELICITER. 
9 uxoriis Beroaldus : nxoris F0. 



assonance of words not etymologically 
connected amores amare (adv. 'bitterly') 
compare 8. 6 inuita remansit in uita ; 
6. 18 atra atria Proserpinae. 

gratioso] ' interested . ' 

praeuersis] cp. Verg. -iEn. 1. 317 
uolucremque fug a praeuertitur Hebnim . 

alterorsus] ' sweeping by them on 
the other side.' This is the reading 
of Jahn and Eyssenhardt for alte rursus, 
for which Traube reads altrouorsns (cp. 
Plaut. Gas. 555) : cp. 9. 28 uxore 
alterorsus disclusa. On the whole, 
it is best to adopt this reading, 
though it is not clear what is the 
* one ' side to which the ' other ' side 
is opposed. Transpositions of words in 
F are very rare ; otherwise we might 
read rursus alte concito, or regard alte as 
having got out of place, and insert it 
before indignata'. cp. 10. 3 altius agitata ; 
9. 29 altius commota atque exasperata : 
certainly rursus seems appropriate. 
Venus had just come from the sea 
(c. 29 init.), and now she goes back 
to it. 

1 inquieta animo, tanto cupidior . . . 
propitiare] T\vo objections may be 



urged against this reading : (1) animo 
instead of the usual animi: cp. c. Ifttrens 
animi ; (2) the want of some correlative 
with tanto. Besides we require some 
note of contrast between the two clauses. 
Between uestigationibus and inquieta 
Vliet (followed by Helm) adds <intenta 
et quanta magis>\ but this, though a 
clever addition (for intenta he compares 
5. 28 init.), is too daring, and does not 
touch the question of animo for animi. 
The word animo is some what superfluous, 
as the whole sentence refers to the 
mental state of Psyche: she was dis- 
tracted by reason of her fruitless search 
for her husband, yet all the more eager 
to find him a psychological condition 
we all know when we are not im- 
mediately successful in finding what we 
especially desire. In place of animo 
(alo] I would suggest tamen eo, the loss 
of t being due to the -ta of irrequieta, 
* yet on that account being all the more 
eager.' 

licet, si] Koziol omits si, which may 
have been a gloss on the unusual licet, 
taking the latter with non uxoriis. But 
the old editors are right in putting a 
comma at licet, and taking it with 



TI. 1] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



79 



precibus propitiare. et prospecto templo quodam in ardui 
mentis uertice : " unde autem," inquit, " scio an istic meus 
degat dominus ?" et ilico dirigit citatum gradum, quern 
defectum prorsus adsiduis laboribus spes incitabat et uotum. 
iamque nauiter emensis celsioribus iugis puluinaribus sese 5 
proximam intulit. uidet spicas frumentarias in acerm) et alias 
flexiles in corona et spicas hordei uidet. erant et falces et 
operae messoriae mundus omnis, sed cuncta passim iacentia 
et incuria confusa et, ut solet aestu, laborantium manibus 
proiecta. haec singula Psyche curiose diuidit et discretim 10 
remota rite componit, rata scilicet nullius dei fana <ac> 
caerimonias neclege<re> se debere, sed omnium beniuolam 
miserieordiam corrogare. 

6 acertio <f> : acerbo F. 11 ac add. Hildebrand : et add. v. 

12 neclegere se v : neglegese F< : neglegese f . 



iratum. For licet after the word it 
qualifies Helm compares 3. 9 ingratis 
licet : we may add the fine line in 
Propertius 5. 11. 17 Immatura licet, 
tamen hue non noxia ueni. The pleon- 
astic licet si is only found very rarely 
and in little-read authors ; see Weyman, 
Sitzungsh. der bayer. Akad., 1893, 
p. 332. 

unde . . . scio an] ' how do I know 
but that ' : cp. Hor. A. P. 462 Qui scis 
an prudens hue se proiecerit. But I am 
unable to quote an exact parallel (except 
in this phrase, e.g. 1. 15) for unde in 
the sense of 'on what grounds,' though 
it is a natural signification. The nearest 
I can find is such a phrase as Plaut. 
Bacch. 630. Pi. Heia bonum habe 
animum. Mn. Vnde habeam ? 

dirigit . . . gradum] 'steps out 
quickly' : cp. 9. 17 securam dirigit pro- 
fectionem, 'starts off without anxiety.' 
Stoll adds eo after illico. 

proximam] Elmenhorst conjectures 
proximans'. cp. c. 3 sacratis foribus proxi- 
mat. But there does not seem to be any 
reason to alter the reading of the mss. Cp. 
-8. 26 praesepio me proximum 



flexiles in corona] woven in a 
crown ' ; flexilis seems to be used 
passively, as nexilis often is. Crowns 
of wheat-ears were dedicated in the 
temple of Ceres: cp. Tibull. 1. 1. 19 
Flaua Ceres tibi sit nostro de rure corona 
spicea, quae templi pendeat ante fores ; 
Hor. Carm. Saec. 29 Fertilis frugum 
pecorisque tellus spicea donet Cereretn 
corona : also Tibull. 1. 6. 22. 

hordei uidet] Helm proposes to eject 
uidet with F. Norden, or to transpose it 
to follow corona. 

mundus] 'paraphernalia.' Cp. note 
to 4. 33. 

remota] Eohde admirably conjectures 
semota, comparing 6. 10 singvlis granis 
rite dispositis atque seiugatis. But Psyche 
may be considered not merely to have 
sorted out (discretim, Florid. 9. 37) 
the various reaping instruments, but 
also to have ' put them away ' (remouere] 
from where the original heap lay, and 
to have arranged them properly (rite 
componit}. 

ac] Added by Hildebrand. Apuleius 
does not avoid the use of ac before c. 
Helm quotes 1. 25 ; 11. 16 ; 11. 21. 



80 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



[vi. 2 



$ Haec earn sollicite seduloque curantem Ceres alma 
deprehendit et longum exclamat protinus : " am, Psyche 
miseranda ? totum per orbem Venus anxia disquisitione tuum 
uestigium furens animi requirit teque ad extremum supplicium 
5 expetit et totis numinis sui uiribus ultionem flagitat : tu uero 
rerum mearum tutelam nunc geris et aliud quicquam cogitas 
nisi de tua salute ? " 

Tune Psyche pedes eius aduoluta et uberi fletu rigans deae 

uestigia humumque uerrens crinibus suis multiiugis precibus 

10 editis ueniam postulabat: " per ego te frugiferam tuam dexteram 

istam deprecor, per laetificas messium caerimonias, per tacita 

secreta cistarum et per famulorum tuorum draconum pinnata 



2 longum exclamat] cp. Horace 
A. P. 459 licet ' Succurrite ' longum 
clamet l lo cives,' where the commenta- 
tors compare Horn. II. 3. 81 avrap 6 



Cp. note to 5. 28 (solidum). 

ain] < What ? ' ' Really ' : cp. 1 . 8 ; 
3. 22 ; 7. 25. Jahn proposes , tu. 

uestigium . . . requirit] cp. 5. 5 and 
Plaut. Cist. 724 uestigium hie require. 

pedes eius aduoluta] cp. Sallust 
(Hist. Fr. inc. 60, = Kritz, p. 386) genua 
patrum aduohtntur, a construction adopted 
by Tacitus o ften, see F urneaux on A nn . 1 . 
13. 7. The usual construction is with 
the dative ; and this is used by Tacitus 
also, but only twice. Apuleius also 
uses the ace. in Apol. 94. 

humumque uerrens crinibus suis] cp. 
Livy 26. 9. 7 matronae . . . circa deum 
delulra discurrunt crinibus passis aras 
uerrentes, nixae genibussupinas manus ad 
caelum ac deos tendentes orantesque ; Sil. 
6. 561 Ast aliae laceris canentes crinibus 
alta uerrunt tecta deum. Gutscha quotes 
Claudian Carm. Min. 30. 223 supplice 
crine uerris humum, and notices (p. 158 
note) that in these two passages alone is 
a suppliant said uerrere humum ; in all 
other passages it is aras or templa. 

multiiugis] uttering manifold 
prayers' : cp. Apol. 36 legisti profecto 



Aristotelis . . . multiiuga uolumina: 
also teriugum caput of Cerberus (c. 18). 
For this form of prayer see another 
example in 11. 2. 

per ego te . . . deprecor] cp. 4. 31 
per ego te . . . foedera deprecor. This 
kind of separation of per from its object 
is common: cp. Verg. JEn. 4. 314. 

laetificas messium caerimonias] 
There was always a note of joy in 
harvest festivals. In August at Rome 
there was a sacrum anniuersarium Cereris 
which it was not permitted for those 
who were in mourning (lugentibus) to 
celebrate (Livy 22. 56. 4) ; and this 
ceremonial is stated (Paul, ad Festum, 
p. 97) to have come from Greece, 
and to have been held ob inuentionem 
Proserpinae. 

secreta] ' mysteries ' : cp. 3. 15 erae 
meae miranda secreta: 11. 21 fin. arcana 
purissimae religionis secreta. For tacita 
with secreta, cp. 8. 8 tacita pectoris sui 
secreta, 'the unuttered secrets of his 
heart.' 

cistarum] On the cistae of Demeter,. 
see Dr. Frazer's Pausanias (vol. iv. 
292 on Paus. 8. 25. 7). They were 
wicker-work baskets of cylindrical 
shape, generally with a lid, and held 
some sacred food, of which the initiated 
at the Eleusinian mysteries partook as 



vi. 2] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



81 



curricula et glebae Siculae sulcainina et currum rapacem 
et terrain tenacem et inluminarum Proserpinae nuptiarum 
demeacula et luminosarum filiae inuentionum remeacula et 
cetera, quae silentio tegit Eleusin[h]is Atticae sacrarium, 
miserandae Psyches animae, supplicis tuae, subsiste. inter 5 
istam spicariun congeriem patere uel pauculos dies delitescani, 
quoad deae tantae saeuiens ira spatio ternporis mitigetur uel 

4 Eleusinis v : eleus In his Ftp. 



a sort of sacrament or communion. 
Dr. Frazer says : " On a fragment of 
sculpture which once adorned a puteal 
Demeter is represented handing ears 
of corn and poppies to Triptolemus : 
between them is a cista, with a serpent 
creeping out of it. On a terra- cotta 
relief Demeter appears seated en a 
cista, about which is twined a serpent, 
whose head rests on the lap of the 
goddess. We may hence, perhaps, infer 
that the cista contained one of the 
sacred serpents of Demeter, or an image 
of it." On the coins called cistophori a 
snake is generally represented coming 
out of the cista. See Lenormant in 
Daremberg and Saglio, ii., 1211 ; and on 
serpents generally in the worship of 
Demeter, ib., ii., 1069. 

per . . . pinnata curricula] cp. 
Ovid Met. 5. 642 geminos dea fertilis 
angues curribns admouit frenisque coercuit 
ora. This car of serpents she also lends 
to Triptolemus : cp. Apollodorus 1. 5. 2 
e . . . 8i(ppov Kma.aKfva.aa.aa. 

SpUKOVTCUV KO.I TTVpOV OtaKV If 

/j.Vf)v Si' ovpavov aipo- 
/careViret/je : cp. Ovid. Met. 8. 
795. 

glebae Siculae sulcamina] ' the 
furrowings of Sicilian soil.' The word 
sulcamen does not occur elsewhere. 
This may possibly mean the chasm 
into which Pluto carried Proserpine: 
but more probably it refers to the 
furrows in which corn was planted. 



Sicily "was a favoured land in respect 
of corn, and associated especially with 
Ceres as being the scene of the 
ravishment of Proserpine : hence it is 
that .Apuleius refers to it; and so we 
need not suppose that he was ignorant 
of the general legend that attributed the 
first growing of corn to Triptolemus and 
Eleusis. 

et currum . . . remeacula] 'the 
clasping car and the grasping ground, 
Proserpine's lampless wedlock and de- 
scent, thy daughter's lamp-lit invention 
and reascent.' There is the antithesis 
of demeare and remeare again in 10. 31. 
The word illuminus does not seem to 
occur elsewhere. It was probably 
coined by Apuleius to make a contrast 
to luminosarum. For the parts of the 
Eleusinian mysteries which were sym- 
bolical of these events, see Diet, of 
Antiquities, pp. 719 f., 723 f. 

subsiste] 'support,' 'be a stay to'; 
a word of which Apuleius makes this 
infrequent use elsewhere, 11. 2 tu meis 
iam mine extremis aerumnis subsiste. It 
is also to be found in 2. 27; 3. 23; 
5. 19. 

uel pauculos dies] ' even a few 
short days.' 

spatio temporis] cp. 7. 6 exiguo 
temporis spatio. Spatium is also used of 
time without temporis being added in 
9. 19 and 9. 25. 

uel certe] cp. 5.1; 8.28; and 
often. 



82 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



[vi. 3 



certe meae <m>res diutino labore fessae quietis interuallo 

leniantur." 

3 Suscipit Ceres : " tuis quidem lacrimosis precibus et 

commoueor et opitulari cupio, sed cognatae meae, cum qua 
5 etiam foedus antiquum amicitiae colo, bonae praeterea feminae, 

malam gratia<m> subire nequeo. decede itaque istis aedibus 

protinus et quod a me retenta custoditaque non fueris opthm 

consule." 

Contra spem suam repulsa Psyche et afflicta duplici maestitia 
10 iter retrorsum porrigens inter subsitae conuallis sublucidum 

1 meae uires <, ui ex corr. sed eadem manu : mee (corr. ex metu uel meta) 



* * | res F. 
6 gratiam f</> : gratia F. 



7 optimi v : optime 



leniantur] ' my overtaxed and ex- 
hausted strength may be calmed by an 
interval of repose.' The expression ' to 
calm one's overtaxed strength ' may be 
slightly unusual, but it is not sufficiently 
so to justify Rohde's emendation leuen- 
tur. The high -strung muscles may be 
said to be ' soothed ' or ' calmed ' by a 
period of rest. 

3 malam gratiam subire] 'to get 
on unfriendly terms with,' lit. ' to submit 
to ill-favour.' For mala gratia, cp. 
Ter. Phorm. 620-622 'quor non,' inquam, 
' Phormio, uides inter nos sic haecpotius 
cum bona ut componamus gratia quam 
cum mala ? 

istis] these ' virtually = his : see 
Kretschmann, p. 90, and note on 5. 
10. 

optimi consule] ' take in the best 
part': cp. 8. 9 loni ergo et optimi 
consules. This was an old use of 
connulere = iudicare : cp. Quintil. 1. 6. 
32 Sit enim Consul a consulendo uel 
a iudicando: nam et hoc consule re 
ueteres uocauerunt, unde adhuc remanet 
illud rogat boni consulas, id est 
lonum indices. The genitive optimi is 
explained by Roby $ 1191 as a genitive 



(locative) of price, 'to consider at a 
fair price'; Drager (Hist. Synt. i. 
p. 460) seems to take it as the genitive 
of possession, such as haec consilii 
fuerunt (Cic. Fam. 9. 6. 2) ; alius lucri 
totus est (Senec. Ben. 7. 26. 4) ; then 
boni consukre would literally mean, 
' regard as belonging to the category 
of good.' 

That one divinity should not interfere 
with the actions of another is stated 
by Euripides Hipp. 1328 Qeolffi 8' 58' 
ex^t yoyos' ouSets a.Tra.vra.v &ov\eTai. 
Trpo6v/j.ia rrf rov Q4\ovros dAA.' afyiffrd- 
/ir0' det: cp. Ovid. Met. 3. 336 neque 
enim licet irrita cuiquamfacta deifecisse 
deo ; also ib. 14. 784. 

iter . . . porrigens] cp. 2. 14 fin. 
sisqiie felix et iter dextemm porri- 
gas. 

subsitae] Of course subditae has been 
long ago suggested (by Salmasius; as an 
emendation, with a reference to 4. 35 
fin. ; but it is unnecessary: cp. Florid. 
2 p. 7 (Oud.) homines enim neque 
longule dissita neque proxume adsita 
possumus cernere, which shows the 
partiality of Apuleius for words com- 
pounded with -situs. 



vi. 4] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



83 



lucum prospicit fanum sollerti fabrica structum nee ullam uel 
dubiam spei melioris uiam nolens omittere, sed adire cuius- 
cumque del ueniam, sacratis foribus proximat. uidet dona 
pretiosa [h]et lacinias auro litteratas ramis arborum postibusque 
suffixas, quae cum gratia facti nomen deae, cui fuerant dicata, 5 
testabantur. tune genu nixa et manibus aram tepentem 
amplexa detersis ante lacrimis sic adprecatur: 

4 " Magni louis germana et coniuga, sive tu Sami, quae 
partu uagituque et alimonia tua gloriatur, tenes uetusta 

4 et f : hec F : f> <. 

8 quae sola Salmasius : querula (u corr. ex o eadem maim) F : qrula <f>. 



fanum . . . structum] ' she sees in 
a darkling grove of the low-set valley 
a shrine of artistic construction.' The 
Dictt. quote no other ex. of sublucidus. 

adire . . . ueniam]. cp. Lucr. 5 
1229 non diuom pacem uotis adit. 

proximat] cp. note to 6. 1. In 
6. 8. we have the ace. (fores] used 
after this verb. Apuleius is fond of the 
verb proximare. He uses it at least a 
dozen times. 

lacinias . . . suffixas] F. Norden 
admirably compares Ovid Fast. 3. 267 
(of the nemus of Diana at Aricia) Licia 
dependent, longas uelantia saepes, et 
posita est meritae multa tabella deae, 
which custom reminds one of the rags we 
find fixed on bushes near ' holy wells ' in 
Ireland. He also compares Ov. Met. 8. 
743 Stabat in his ing ens annoso robore 
quercus, una nemus ; uittae mediam 
memoresque tabellae sertaque cingebant, 
tioti argumenta potentis. Shipwrecked 
mariners constantly made offerings of 
their garments at temples : cp. Verg. 
JEn. 12. 767. For lacinia = a 'gar- 
ment' cp. 3. 21 omnibus laciniis se 
deuestit Pamphile; 11. 14 praecipit 
tegendo mihi linteam dari laciniam ; 
Petron. 12. fin. detraxitque humeris 
luciniam. For litter atus we may com- 
pare Plaut. Rud. 478 liaec (sacra urna 
Veneria] litteratast ; eapse cantat quoia 
sit, though the littera there is probably 



a mark stamped by the officials of the 
temple, and not by votaries: cp. in 
Apuleius 3. 17 litter atis lamminis, and 
9. llfrontes litter ati. 

genu nixa] Oudendorp compares 
Plaut. Rud. 694 Tibi auscultamus et, 
Venus alma, ambae te obsecramus aram 
amplexantes hanc tuam lacrimantes* 
genibus nixae, &c. 

detersis ante lacrimis] This is a 
beautiful touch. Psyche steadied her- 
self and dried her eyes, when about 
to address the most stately of the god- 
desses. One cannot hold that in general 
a worshipper in tears was not permitted 
to approach a god : cp. c. 2, above 
(uberifatu) . 

4: Magni louis germana et coniuga] 
cp. Verg. 2En. 1. 46 taken from the 
Iliad 16. 432 Ka<riyvf}Tf}v &\ox<$v Te. 
Apuleius uses the form coniuga in 8. 22 ; 
9. 14. Except in these passages and in 
Mart. Capella 1. 4, the form is only 
found in inscriptions. 

quae sola partu . . . gloriatur] 
This emendation of Salmasius for 
querula of the mss. is the most pro- 
bable of the many conjectures which 
have been advanced. (For r in the 
mss. for * cp. 4. 31 reuer -enter for 
seueriter.} There is little evidence of 
the birth of Hera being claimed by 
any other place than Samos, except by 
Argos (Strabo 413). The Samians had 



84 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



[vi. 4 



delubra, slue celsae Carthaginis, quae te uirginem uectura 
leonis caelo commeantem percolit, beatas sedes frequentas, 
szue[s] prope ripas Inachi, qui te iam nuptam Tonantis et 
reginam dearum memorat, inclitis Argiuorum praesides moeni- 
5 bus, quam cunctus oriens Zygiam ueneratur et omnis occidens 

3 siue v : seues F : seues <p. 

4 dearum uel decorum F : decorum <p. 

5 Zygiain v : zigiam Fcp. 



a definite tradition on the point, and 
said she was born on the banks of the 
river Imbrasus (Parthenius) ical uirb rfj 
\vy<f TT} ei/ rep 'Hpaiw /car' ejue eri 
jre<f>vKvia (Pausanias 7. 4. 4). For -rula 
Rohde suggests insula ; but symmetry 
would in that case probably have urged 
Apuleius to add urbi after the next 
quae, andjluuius after qtti not to speak 
of the improbability of the conjecture. 
Conjectures which introduce the adjec- 
tive querulus, such as quae querula 
(Oudendorp) or quae querulo impair 
the stateliness of the address, which is 
as much strained as it can be by the 
word uagitu ('infant's cries'). 

Carthaginis] This refers to the 
goddess Tanit, who was worshipped as 
Dea Caelestis by the Romans. She 
was identified with luno, and in one 
inscription is styled luno Caelestis 
(C. I. L. viii, 1424). She is the Juno 
of Vergil and Horace (Carm. 2. 1. 25). 
On a coin of Sept. Severus, reproduced 
in Roscher's 'Lexikon der Mythologie,' 
iii, p. 613, she is represented as riding 
on a galloping lion. When Elagabalus 
married her to his god from Emesa, the 
only dowry he accepted was two golden 
lions (Dio. Cass. 79. 12). See the 
articles on luno Caelestis in Roscher, 
op. cit., and on Caelestis in Pauly- 
Wissowa iii, 1248 ff. (the latter by 
Cumont). Her shrine was in the citadel 
of Carthage (Ovid, Fast. 6. 45). She 
appears last in Ulpian's list (Frag. 22. 
6, p. 597, ed. Huschke) of divinities 
whom it was permitted senatus consultii 



constitutionibus principum to nominate 
as heirs ; but it is uncertain when this 
privilege was accorded her. 

siue] so the old editors. F gives 
seues ; and (p seues. F occasionally adds 
s wrongly at the end of words, e.g. 5. 7. 
praeceptis ; 5. 20 metus ; and also puts 
for i ; 6.3. optitne for optimi. 

prope ripas Inachi] Inachus was 
the river of Argos, and Hera was 
pre-eminently ' Argive ' : cp. II. 4. 8 
"H^TJ T' 'A/>7eiV The Heraeum at 
Argos was especially celebrated (Paus. 
2. 17). 

reginam deorum] Juno, as wife of 
Jupiter Rex Deorum, is Regina deorum. 
Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva were the 
Capitoline triad of divinities. On 
luno Regina, see Roscher ' Lexikon ' 
iii, p. 600. Apuleius combines the 
Argive Hera and the Capitoline Juno ; 
as his age was the age of syncre- 
tism. 

oriens Zygiam . . . occidens Lucinam] 
By the East Apuleius means the eastern 
Mediterranean lands, which were mainly 
Greek-speaking, and by the West the 
western lands, which were Latin. For 
Zygia (cp. tibiae zygiae 4. 33), a fairly 
common epithet of Hera as goddess of 
marriage, cp. Apoll. Rhod. 4. 95, 96 
ZeDs aurbs 'OAi^winos opmos e<TTa>, "HpTf 
re Zvyii], Atbs evveris : Anth. Pal. 7. 
188. 4 ovS' "Hpris Zvyiys Aa^uTraScs 
i)vrtaa-av : cp. also Sappho (if it is 
Sappho) frag. 133 (Bergk) vyia.v dfou 
apyvpodpovov "Hpav (according to West- 
phal's attempted restoration) : cp. also 



vi. 4] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



85 



Lucinam appellat, sis meis extremis casibus luno Sospita 
meque in tantis exanclatis laboribus defessam imminentis 
periculi metu libera. quod sciam, soles praegnatibus pericli- 
tantibus ultro subuenire." 

Ad istum modum supplicanti statim sese luno cum totius 5 
sui numinis augusta dignitate praesentat et protinus : " quam 
uellem," inquit, " per fidem, nutum meum precibus tuis accom- 
modare. sed contra uoluntatem Veneris, nurus meae, quam 
filiae semper dilexi loco, praestare me pudor non sinit tune 

2 exanclatis v : exantlatis F<. 3 praegnatibus F : praegnantibus <f>. 



the Latin epithet lug a or lug alls (Paul, 
ad Fest. 104. 13 ; Serv. on J2n. 4. 16). 
The epithet Lucina is common : cp. Ter. 
Andr. 473 luno Lttcina, fer opem ; Ovid 
Fast. 3. 255 Dicite ' tu nobis lucem, 
Lucina, dedisti,' Dicite ' tu tioto parturi- 
entis ades" 1 ; ih. 6. 39. But luno 
Lucina is generally by the Latin writers 
identified with Diana: cp. Varro L. L. 
5. 69 ; Cic. N. D. 2. 68 Dianam et 
Lunam eandem esse put ant . . . cum 
Luna a lucendo nominata sit, eadem est 
enim Lucina. Itaque ut apud Graecos 
Dianam eamque Luciferam, sic apud 
nostros lunonem Lucinam in pariendo 
inuocant, quae eadem Diana ( omniuaga ' 
dicitur (with Mr. J. B. Mayor's learned 
notes) ; Catull. 34. 13 ; Hor. Carm. 
Saec. 13. See further Roscher, 
'Lexikon' iii, 581. 

luno Sospita] Under this title Juno 
was worshipped at Lanuvium as Mater 
Itegina: cp. C. I. L. xiv, p. 192 ff., 
where we find in inscriptions the titles 
abbreviated into I.S.M.R. See also 
Livy 8. 14. 2 Lanuuinis ciuitas data 
sacraque sua reddita cum eo ut aedes 
lucusque Sospitae lunonis communis 
Lanuuinis municipibus cum populo 
Romano esset. For further see Bosch er 
'Lexikon' iii, 595; also Cic. N. D. 
1. 82 illam uestram Sospitam quam tu 
nunquam ne in somnis quidem uides 
nisi cum pelle caprina, cum hasta, cum 
scutulo, cum calceolis repandis. (The 



inscription in Orelli 1308 is not 
genuine.) For representation of the 
Juno of Lanuvium see Hoscher op. 
cit. iii, 606, 608, 609. 

exanclatis laboribus] ' all the suffer- 
ings I have gone through' : cp. 1. 16; 
6. 11; 8. 1; 11. 2; 11. 12; 11. 15; 
and Cic. Tusc. 1. 118. Philologians 
seem divided as to whether the word 
is directly derived from QavrXciv, as 
many early words connected with ships 
are derived from the Greek ("Walde, 
Thurneysen) ; or connected with the 
same root as ancilla, A.ncus Martius, the 
servant of Mars (Vanicek, Reid on Cic. 
Acad. 2. 109). For in of circumstances 
almost expressing a cause, cp. 2. 2 
senex grauis in annis ; 2. 11 uini in aetaU 
pretiosi. 

protinus] cp. 6. 2 init. 

per fidem] This is rare without 
some intervening word or vords like 
deum or deum atque homiwn ; yet cp. 
Tac. Dial. 35; Petron. 100; also pro 
fidem, Plaut. Am ph. 376. 

contra . . . praestare me] 'to 
exhibit myself in opposition to.' For 
praestare se with an adverb, cp. Ovid 
Trist. 4. 5. 23 Teque, quod est gratum, 
praesta constanter ad omne indeclinatae 
munus amicitiae. For the conventional 
non-interference of one divinity with 
another, see note to c. 3 init. 

nurus meae] Venus had married 
Vulcan, the son of Juno. 



86 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



[vi. 5 



etiam legibus, quae seruos alienos profugos inuitis dominis 
uetant suscipi, prohibeor." 

5 Isto quoque fortunae naufragio Psyche perterrita nee 
indipisci iam maritum uolatilem quiens, tota spe salutis 
5 deposita, sic ipsa suas cogitationes consuluit : " iam quae 
possunt alia meis aerumnis temptari uel adhiberi subsidia, 
cui nee dearum quidem, quamquam uolentium, potuerunt 
prodesse suffragia? quo rursum itaque tantis laqueis inclusa 
uestigium porrigam quibusque tectis uel etiam tenebris abscon- 
10 dita magnae Yeneris ineuitabiles oculos effugiam ? quin igitur 
masculum tandem sumis animum et cassae speculae renuntias 
fortiter et ultroneam te dominae tuae reddis et uel sera 
modestia saeuientes impetus eius mitigas ? qui scias, an etiam, 
quern diu quaeritas, ilh'c in domo matris repperias?" sic ad 

1 profugos <f> : p fug as F : profugas v. 

8 quo rur sum (em. eadem manu) F : quo rursum (j> : quorsum Mercer. 
14 illic*v: illucFty. 14 repperiasv: repperies F<. 



tune etiam] Apuleius occasionally 
uses these words where we should 
expect praeterea ; cp. 3. 23: 4. 27: 
8. 5. See Becker, p. 28. 

legibus] See the whole title of the 
Digest (21. 1) De fugitiuis ; esp. 1, $ 1 
Is quifugitiuum celauit fur est. 

profugos] This correction of < seems 
the best reading to adopt, though it is 
just possible that Apuleius may have 
used profugas on the analogy of perfuga, 
transfuga. But as we find in the Glosses, 
v. 137. 42, profuga . .fugitiua, it seems 
ib&tprofuga was only used as the femi- 
nine ofproftyus. F often has a for o, 
e.g. 5. 28 cunctarum for -onim ; meo 
gedu for -me agedum. It is undesirable 
to adopt the reading of F perfttgas 
here ; that word means ' deserters to 
the enemy.' 

5 quiens] This is the form of the 
participle of qtieo, like iens from eo : 
cp. 9. 40; also nequiens 8. 14 : 9. 23. 
See Neue-Wagener, iii 3 , p. 626. 

nee . . . quidem] cp. note to 5. 5. 

quo rursum] where shall I turn 



my steps anew ? ' Mercer conjectures 
quorsum (quosum, "VVeyman), which is 
an easy suggestion, but unnecessary. 

uestigium porrigam] cp. 6. 3. iter 
. . . porrigens : 6. 1 dirigit. . . gradum. 

quin . . . animum] The phrase 
recurs in 6. 26. 

ultroneam] A word of which Apu- 
leius is fond, cp. 1. 19 fin. : 2. 30 : 
7. 20: 8. 14: Flor. 14, p. 47 (Oud.). 
Also found in St. Cyprian and St. 
Jerome: see Eonsch, p. 123. 

qui scias an etiam] cp. 6. 1 unde 
. . . scio an. Here we have the usual 
qui (interrogative) ; but the potential 
scias ('can you know?') is somewhat 
exceptional. Still there is no necessity 
to alter it : cp. Eoby, 1538. We 
must read repperias with the old editors 
for repperies of the mss. : cp. 6. 1 
(degat}. The indicative cannot be de- 
fended by such passages as 5. 9 uidisti 
quanta iacent, as Leky (p. 45) attempts. 

illic in domo matris] For similar 
redundancies, cp. c. 12 inde dejluuio: 
7. 10 ibidem in hospitio. 






vi. 6] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



87 



dubium obsequium, immo ad certum exitium praeparata 
principium futurae secum meditabatur obsecrationis. 

6 At Venus terrenis remediis inquisitionis abnuens caelum 
petit, iubet construi currum, quern ei Vulcanus aurifex subtili 
fabrica stucliose poliuerat et ante thalami rudimentum nuptiale 5 
munus obtulerat, limae tenuantis detrimento conspicuum et 
ipsius ami damno pretiosum. de multis quae circa cubiculum 
dominae stabulant procedunt quattuor candidae columbae et 
hilaris incessibus picta colla torquentes iugum gemmeum 
subeunt susceptaque domina laetae subuolant. currum deae 10 






dubium] ' dangerous,' in which she 
did not know what would happen to 
her. The contrast with certum shows 
that we must not read indubium with 
Vliet. 

principium . . . obsecrationis] This 
is a good artistic touch, which naturally 
suggested itself to a rhetorician like 
Apuleius. 

6 terrenis . . . abnnens] ' dis- 
carding all earth-horn aid in her 
search.' 

abnuens] cp. 4. 13 Thebanis cona- 
tibus abnuentes. 

construi] ' put together.' The several 
pieces of the car had to he put together, 
as in Horn. 11. 24. 266 ff. Oud. and 
Helm read instrui. 

quern . . . pretiosum] < which the 
goldsmith Vulcan carefully finished 
with most exact workmanship, and 
before her first experience of marriage 
had given her as a wedding present, 
all beautiful by the fining of the polish- 
ing file, and costly by reason of the 
lavish use of gold itself.' For rudi- 
mentum cp. note to 5. 12. Detrimentum 
is used in its literal sense of ' rubbing 
off.' 

de multis . . . familia] 'of the 
many doves which have their cotes 
around their mistress's chamber four 
white ones advance, and with jocund 
gait, nodding their coloured necks, step 



under the spangled yoke ; and when 
they have taken up their mistress, they 
joyfully fly along. The car of the 
goddess is accompanied by a twittering 
chorus of sportive sparrows and other 
sweet songster birds, who, as they 
delightfully warble forth their honeyed 
hymns, proclaim the approach of the 
goddess. The clouds part asunder ; 
Heaven opens itself for his daughter ; 
and the aether to its summit bright with 
joy welcomes the divine power ; nor does 
the tuneful retinue of great Venus fear 
the approach of eagles or the fury of 
kites.' This is a beautiful passage, a sort 
of miniature Floridum, which can hardly 
be treated with justice in a translation. 
Scioppius well compares the noble verses 
at the beginning of Lucretius 6-13, esp. 
9 placatumque nitet diffuse lumine caelum t 
and 12 Aeriae primum itolucres te, diva, 
tuumque significant initum perculsae 
corda tua ui. 

stabulant] For the active form, cp. 
Verg. G. 3. 224 ; JEn. 6. 286. 

columbae] cp. Romeo and Juliet 
2. 5. 4 

Love's heralds should be thoughts, 
Which ten times faster glide than the sun's 

beams, 

Driving back shadows over lowering hills : 
Therefore do nimble-pinioned doves draw 

Love, 
And therefore hath the wind-swift Cupid 

wings. 



88 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



[vi. 7 



prosequentes gannitu constrepenti lasciuiunt passeres et ceterae 
quae dulce cantitant aues melleis modulis suaue resonantes 
aduentum deae pronuntiant. cedunt nubes et Caelum filiae 
panditur et summus aether cum gaudio suscipit deam, nee 
5 obuias aquilas uel accipitres rapaces pertimescit magnae 
Veneris canora familia. 

H Tune se protinus ad louis regias arces dirigit et petitu 
superbo Mercuri, del uocalis, operae necessarian! usuram 
postulat. nee rennuit louis caerulum supercilium. tune 
10 ouans ilico, comitante etiam Mercuric, Venus caelo demeat 
eique sollicite serit uerba : " f rater Arcadi, scis nempe sororem 
tuam Venerem sine Mercuri praesentia nil unquam fecisse nee 
te praeterit utique, quanto iam tempore delitescentem ancillam 
nequiuerim repperire. nil ergo superest quam tuo praeconio 
praemium inuestigationis publicitus edicere. fac ergo man- 



gannitu] See note on 5. 28. 

passeres] notorious for their amor- 
ousness : cp. Cic. Fin. 2. 75 uoluptas 
quae passeribus nota est omnibus, a nobis 
intellegi non potest. 

Caelum] Servius on JEn. 5. 801, 
says that the god of Heaven is Caelus 
pater; nullus enim deus generis neutri 
est; but Varro L. L. 5. 57, 58, 59, 
speaks regularly of Caelum et Terra as 
divinities ; though no doubt Caelus or 
Caelus pater is more usual (cp. Neue- 
Wagener i 3 . 624). On the divinity 
see Caelus in Pauly-Wissowa iii, 1276 ; 
cp. Plat. Symp. 180 D ^ ^v 7*' irov 
(' AtppoSirri} vp*ff&*rp* Kal a/x^rwp, 
Oupavov BvyaT-rjp, ^v 8$) Kal ovpaviav 
firovojmd^o/j.v. // Se veurepa At&s Kal 
Aiwi/rjs, 1}V 8r) Tcdvo'Ti/j.ov jcaAoCyuei'. Cic. 
N. D. 3. 59 Venus prima Caelo et Die 
nata . . . altera spuma procreata, ex qua 
et Mercurio Cupidinem secundum natum 
accepimus* Cicero is the only author 
who mentions Mercury as the father of 
Cupid. Apuleius had no knowledge of 
such relationship. He seems to regard 
Jupiter as the father (dominefili 6. 22), 
\ifilius is not used as a kindly appella- 



tion addressed to one who is young by 
one who is old. 

canora familia] The songs of birds 
seem to have delighted Apuleius. They 
soothe the great goddess Isis with 
their sweet jargoning (blando mulcentes 
adfamine] in 11. 7. 

7 et petitu . . . postulat] ' and in a 
lordly manner demands the services of 
Mercury, the loud-voiced god, as she 
may require them ' (necessariam). In 
this sense of ' request' petitus (in abl.) 
occurs in Apol. 48, Dogm. Plat. 1. 4. 
In Lucretius 3. 172 terraeque petitus 
segnis means ' a nerveless sinking to 
the ground.' 

louis caerulum supercilium] cp. 
Hor. Carm. 3. 1. 8 Cuncta supercilio 
mouentis, the idea being taken originally 
from Homer II. 1. 528 ^, Kal Kvavey<riv 
CTT' cKppvffi yeutre Kpovioav. 

demeat] An Apuleian word it 
occurs about nine times. 

sollicite serit uerba] Alliteration, 
like multa . . . sermone serebant Verg. 
^n. 6. 160 : Plaut. Mil. 699 uxore . . . 
quae huius similis sermones serat, l care- 
fully composes her converse with him.' 



vi. 8] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



89 



datum matures meum et indicia, qui possit agnosci, manifeste 
designes, ne, si quis occultationis illicitae crimen subierit, 
ignorantiae se possit excusatione defendere " ; et simul dicens 
libellum ei porrigit, ubi Psyches nomen continebatur et cetera ; 
quo facto protinus domum secessit. 

8 Nee Mercurius omisit obsequium. nam per omnium 
ora populorum passim discurrens sic mandatae praedicationis 
munus exequebatur: "si quis a fuga retrahere uel occultam 

1 qui F : qui* <p : quibus T. 



qui] ' whereby.' This form, often 
found in Plautus (e.g. Aul. 502) and 
Terence (Andr. 512), can he used for 
any gender or either number of the 
relative pronoun. For qui = ' how,' cp. 
3. 12. 

et simul dicens] So the mss. Price 
reads haec simul dicens, comparing 2. 17; 
2. 24; and Oud. thinks that et may 
stand for en. Floridus defended the 
mss. as a Graecism itai a/no, \eycav. 

libellum] 'notice/ 'handbill,' 'pla- 
card ' : cp. Cic. Phil. 2. 97 gladiator inn 
libellos; Cic. Quinct. 27 and often, 
deicere libellos ' to tear down the 
notices' : Suet. Caes. 41 Et edebat per 
libellns circwn tribum missos scriptura 
breui "Caesar dictator illi tribui" ; 
Digest 47. 2. 43. 8 Solent plerique hoc 
etiam facer e ut libellum proponant con- 
tinentem inuenisse se et redditurum 
ei qui desiderauerit (i.e. a lost article) ; 
Plaut. Rud. 1294 cubitum hercle longis 
litteris signabo iam usque quaque, Siquis 
perdiderit tiidulum cum auro atque 
argento multo, ad Gripum ut ueniat. 
Such bills were usually posted up in 
some public place (aliqua propone 
columna Prop. 3. 22, 23). Here libellus 
seems to be a handbill which Mercury 
is to read. 

et cetera] 'and the other particu- 
lars ' ; cp. the description of Giton in 
Petronius 97 (quoted on next chapter). 

8 per omnium ora populorum] Not 
as in Ennius' Epitaph Volito uiuus per 



ora uimm, where ora means ' the lips of 
men ' ; but ' before the eyes of men, 
as in Hor. Sat. 2. 1. 65 nitidus qua 
quisque per ora cederet introrsum turpis ; 
Liv. 2. 38. 3 traductos per orahonrinum', 
Senec. Benef. 7. 19. 8 si in ore parentum 
liberos iugulat. 

si quis] For similar proclamations 
cp. Petron. 97 Dum Eiimolpus cum 
Bargate in secreto loquitur intrat sta- 
bulum praeco cum servo publico aliaque 
sane modica frequentiafacemquefumosam 
magis quam lucidam quassans haec pro- 
clamauit ; ' Puer in balneo paullo ante 
aberrauit, annorum circiter xvi, crispus, 
mollis, formosus, nomine Giton : siqui 
eum reddere aut commonstrare uoluerit, 
accipiet nummos milled Nee longe a 
praecone Ascyltos stabat amictus dis- 
coloria ueste atque in lance argentea 
indicium et Jidem praeferebat. We may 
also compare C.I.L. iv, 64 (a Pompeian 
inscription of the time of the Republic) 
Urna aenia pereit de taberna seiquis 
rettulerit dabuntur HS LXV sei furem 
dabit (the rest indecipherable). For the 
use of criers reference may be made to 
Apul. Met. 2. 21 ; Plaut. Merc. 663, 
Menaech. 1155. 

Colvius compares the first idyll ("Epoas 
Spaireras) of Moschus, 'A Kvirpis r'bv 
"Epura r'bv vlea p.a.Kp'bv e'jSwcrTpef | 6? 
ns tvl rptoSoiffi K\avu)iJ.tvov flSev 
"Epwra, | SpaTTfTiSas efj.05 effnv' b p.a- 
VVTO.S yepas ee?' | /*io~d6s roi TO d>tAa/xa 
TO KvirpiSos' 3)v S' 0707775 viv, \ ov 



90 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



[vi. 8 



demonstrare poterit fugitiuam regis filiam, Yeneris ancillam, 
nomine Psychen, conueniat retro metas Murtias Mercurium 
praedicatorem, accepturus indicin[i]ae nomine ab ipsa Yenere 
septem sauia suauia et unum blandientis adpulsu linguae longe 
5 mellitum." 

Ad hunc modum pronuntiante Mercuric tanti praemii 
cupido certatim omnium mortalium studium adrexerat. quae 
res nunc uel maxime sustulit Psyches omnem cunctationem. 
iamque fores ei[us] dominae proximanti occurrit una de 

o q; 

3 indicinae v: indiciuie F : indiciuie (o et q; ut uidentur eadem manu). 
9 ei Oudendorp : eius F<f>. 

early editors seems the most probable. 
Similarly, in 7. 25, we should read 
solitarium ob indicinae praemium occu- 
passe, as Jahn reads in Seneca Contr. 
9. 28. 4 (= p. 431. 11 Kiessliug) puer 
ad supplicium indicina patris quaeritur : 
cp. also Keil, Grarnrn. Lat.' i. 553. 22. 
Apuleius likes forms in -ina : cp. fura- 
trina 6. 14. Haupt, however (Opusc. 
3. 443), favours indiciuae. 

sauia suauia] alliteration, like atra 
atria 6. 19 : cp. Plant. Bacch. 116 
locus, Ludus, Sermo, Suauisauiatio : 
Pseud. 948 una aderit mulier lepida 
tibi sauia super sauia quae det. Hilde- 
brand compares Fronto p. 86 (Naber) 
Filiae meae iussu tuo osculum tuli, nun- 
quam mihi tarn suauis tamque suauiata 
uisa est. Translate ' seven sweetest of 
kisses.' The kiss of Venus as a reward 
for discovery of the runaway is also 
found in the "Epcos Spaireras of Moschus 
(1.4) quoted in the last chapter. 

unum . . . mellitum] cp. 2. 10 
iam patentis oris inhulalu cinnameo et 
occursantis linguae illisu nectareo ; Ovid 
Am. 3. 7. 9 Osculaque inseniit cupide 
luctantia linguis; Aristoph. Nub. 51 
KarayXuTTLff^aTcav. Xote the allitera- 
tion of the letter L For longe = ualde 
in Apuleius cp. 1. 21 longe opulentus. 

ei] So Oud. and Rohde for eius of 
the mss. : cp. 6. 18 cuius for cui\ 9. 
23 eius again for ei (in this passage 
corrected by the old editors). 



-rb <f>i\a/j.a, rb 5* d> |ej/e, Kal 
tr\eov e|?s. | effn 5' 6 Trots irepiffo.iJ.os 

K.T.A. 

metas Murtias] cp. Tertullian, De 
Spect. 8 Constts tit diximus apud metas 
sub terra delitescit Murcias, which 
passage shows that these metae were 
the southern ones in the Circus Maxi- 
mus. Hard by was probably the little 
shrine of an ancient Roman goddess 
called Murcia (cp. Liv. 1. 33. 5), as 
the lower part of the Circus seems to 
have been called ad Murciae : cp. Varro 
L. L. 5. 154, who identifies the goddess 
with Venus from the supposed connexion 
of the name with myrtea, the myrtle 
being sacred to Venus : see, too, Ter- 
tull. 1. c. Murciam enim deam amoris 
tioluntf and Plin. H. N. 15. 121 Veneri 
Myrteae quam nunc Murciam uocant. 
But Wissowa, in Reseller's ' Lexikon ' 
iv. 3233, considers this -doubtful. Wis- 
sowa's article contains all that is known 
about the goddess. Rohde (Rh. Mus., 
1888, p. 471) rightly holds that this 
passage is a proof that Apuleius wrote 
the Metamorphoses at Rome and for the 
Roman public. For retro as a prep. I 
can find no example, except in the 
Itala, e.g. Matthew 4. 10 uade retro me 
(Ronsch, 399). It certainly does not 
appear to have been used in literature 
before Apuleius. 

indicinae] i. e. utivwrp'ov, ' reward 
for information.' This reading of the 



vi. 9] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



91 



famulitione Veneris nomine Consuetude statimque, quantum 
maxime potuit, exclamat : " tandem, ancilla nequissima, domi- 
nam habere te scire coepisti? an pro cetera morum tuorum 
temeritate istud quoque nescire te fingis, quantos labores circa 
tuas inquisitiones sustinuerimus ? sed bene, quod meas 5 
potissimum manus incidisti et inter Orci cancros iam ipsos 
ha[b]esisti, datura scilicet actutum tantae contumaciae poenas." 
9 Et audaciter in capillos eius inmissa manu trahebat earn 
nequaquam remfentem. quam ubi primum inductam oblatam- 
que sibi conspexit Venus, laetissimum cachinnum extollit et 10 
qualem sole<^>t frequenter irati, caputque quatiens et ascalpens 

7 haesisti Kohde : habesisti F<|> : adhaesisti v. 9 renitentem f$ (al. man.): 
retinentem F<J>. 11 solent f : sol$ F<. frequenter F (in marg. 

fur enter) : fur enter $ : feruenter v. 



famulitione] Apuleius uses this rare 
form also in 2. 2. The more usual form, 
would he famulitio from fanmlitium 
(cp. 8. 22 ; Apol. 17, and famulitium 
Veneris in Mart. Capell. 804) ; and this 
is read hy Jahn. 

Consuetude] cp. Tristities and SolK- 
citudo in c. 9, and Sobrietas in 5. 30. 
These abstractions regarded as divinities 
are conceived in the style of the old 
Roman religion. They are the only 
feature in the whole story which makes 
it look like an allegory, which it probably 
is not. See Introduction, chap. ii. 

labores circa] cp. Apol. 99 fin. liberali- 
tatem circa me ; 98 circa puerumpietatem. 

tuas inquisitiones] searchings for 
you.' For the possessive pronoun 
equivalent to the objective genit., cp. 
Ter. Phorm. 1016 neque nealiaentia tua 
neque odio id fecit luo quoted by Koby 
1315; also Cic. Att. 7. 9. 4 "Habe 
meam rationem." Habe tu nostrum. 

Orci cancros] Usually interpreted 
' the claws ' of Orcus, somewhat like 
mediis Orci faucibus 7. 7 fin. ; cp. 7. 24 
init. mediis Orci manibus extractus : 
and we find cancer explained in the 
Glosses forceps (see Index, 6, p. 172). 
Orcus is supposed to be some kind of 
a monster with claws like a crab. 



Hildebrand (after Beroaldus and 
Scaliger) takes cancros here = cancellos 
' barriers ' : cp. Fest. 46 Cancri dice- 
bantur ab antiquis qui mine per deminu- 
tionem cancelli, and frequently in the 
Glosses (see Index to the Glosses). But 
this seems less satisfactory. For haesisti 
the mss. give habesisti, corrected by the 
old editors to adhaesisti, by Oudendorp 
to obhaesisti, and by Rohde to haesisti. 

9 laetissimum cachinnum extollit] 
'raises a laugh of wild joy.' Most 
editors adopt latissimwn, the reading of 
the inferior mss., as the next clause 
seems to contradict the idea that Venus 
felt joy. But surely she did, now 
that her rival was dragged before her. 
Vliet ingeniously alters et into set, 
which is an improvement, but not 
absolutely necessary. For latissimus, 
cp. 10. 16 risu ipse quoque latissimo 
adusque intestinorum dolorem redactus 
(where the reading is certain). 

frequenter irati] 'those who are 
often in a passion.' It is only those 
who are frequently in a rage who 
would laugh in such a case. The 
reading of <f> (taken from the marg. 
of F) furenter (cp. Cic. Att. 6. 1. 12) 
is attractive, but probably is an 
emendation. Hildebrand conjectures 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



[vi. 9 



aurem dexteram : " tandem," inquit, " dignata es socrum tuam 
salutare ? an potius maritum, qui tuo uulnere periclitatur, 
interuisere uenisti ? sed esto secura, iam enim excipiam te, ut 
bonam nurum condecet"; et : "ubi sunt," inquit, "Sollicitudo 
5 atque Tristities, ancillae meae?" quibus intro uocatis torquen- 
dam tradidit earn, at illae sequentes erile praeceptum Psychen 
misellam flagellis afflictam et ceteris tormentis excruciatam 
iterum dominae conspectui reddunt. tune rursus sublato risu 
Venus : " et ecce," inquit, " nobis turgidi uentris sui lenocinio 
10 commouet miserationem, unde me praeclara subole auiam 
beatam scilicet faciat. felix uero ego, quae in ipso aetatis 
meae flore uocabor auia, et uilis ancillae films nepos Veneris 
audiet. quanquam inepta ego frustra filium dicam ; impares 

9 et ecce F : ecce (om. et) <p. 



frementer ; ar.d the Dorville ms. has 
feruenter. The reading of F (frequenter] 
is the most subtle of all, and is to be 
retained. Helm quotes three examples 
of frequenter 2. 19; 4. 16; 4. 29. 
Add 9. 11, and De Deo Socr. 3 and 20. 
He reads furenter. 

ascalpens aurem dexteram] The 
gesture of nervous irritability. This 
is the only place where ascalpere 
occurs. Price quotes Heliodorus 2. 8 
T^V irapeiav virb TO ovs firiKvuxra, cp. 
Sittl, ' Gebarden,' p. 19. 

interuisere uenisti] For this infin. 
after uenire, cp. Yerg. Jffin. 1. 527 non 
nos aut ferro Libycos populare Penates 
nenimus and the commentators there; 
also Mr. Duff's fine collection of 
examples in Munro's Lucretius (on 3. 
895), among which is Plaut. Bacch. 631 
militis parasitus hue modo aurum petere 
hine uenerat. No prose passage is 
quoted except one from an inscription 
(Wilmanns2566) Vadein Apolinis lauari. 
For interuisere with ace. 'to visit,' cp. 
Cic. Fam. 7. 1. 5 nos minus interuisis ; 
Suet. Aug. 24 uxorem interuisere. 

condecet] This word is fairly com- 
mon in the comic writers, but does not 



reappear in literature until the time 
of Aptileius. 

Sollicitudo atque Tristities] For 
these abstractions see note on Con- 
suetudo above. Apuleius is fond of the 
form tristities : cp. 4. 27 ; 9. 30 ; 10. 3. 
It is also found in Terence Ad. 267 : 
cp. fallacies 5. 27. 

erile praeceptum] cp. 5. 8. coniu- 
g ale praeceptum: cp. 5. 7. 

et ecce] <j> omits et. It is well 
defended by Weyman, who compares 
7. 27 et nunc (at the beginning of a 
speech). The other passages quoted 
by Helm are in narrative, not at the 
beginning of a speech. 

lenocinio] 'by an appeal to,' lit. 
'by the allurement of.' This scene 
between Venus and Psyche may be 
compared with that between Juno and 
Callisto in Ovid Met. 2. 469 ff. 

audiet] ' will be called ' : cp. note 
to 5. 16. 

quanquam . . . dicam] 'yet, fool 
that I am, it will be vain for me to 
speak of "son." ' Vliet adds quae before 
frustra, comparing 6. 20 ecce inepta 
ego diuinae formonsitatis gerula quae nee 
tantillum quidem indidem mi hi delibo ; 



vi. 10] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



93 



enim nuptiae et praeterea in uilla sine testibus eb patre non 
consentiente factae legitimae non possunt uideri ac per hoc 
spurius iste nascetur, si tamen partum omnino perferre te 
patiemur." 

1O His editis inuolat earn uestemque plurifariam diloricat 
capilloque discisso et capite conquassato grauiter affligit, et 

3 perferre F0 : prof err e v. 5 uestemque f : ueste que F : ueste q <j>. 



but the addition is not required, as 
quamquam is always followed by the 
subjunctive in the Metamorphoses. 
Becker (Studia Apuleiana, p. 27) 
notes that in the other works of 

Lpuleius both the indicative and sub- 
junctive are equally common, 
impares . . . patiemur] ' It is a 

lesalliance ; and such a marriage, 
fected in the country without wit- 
nesses and without the father's consent, 
cannot be held legal, and in consequence 
of this it will be a bastard that will be 
born, if indeed we ever allow you to 
be delivered at all.' For impares, cp. 
6. 23 and Tac. Ann. 1. 53. 2 fuerat 
(lulia} in matrimonio Tiberii . . 
spreueratque ut imparem and the familiar 
si qua uoles apte nubere nube pari. We 
find in the Code (6. 58. 12) that the term 
was by some applied to the marriage of 
a woman who was beyond the normal 
time for child-bearing with a man who 
was still of an age capable of begetting 
children. But here it refers to the 
union of those of very different social 
positions ; and we know that the Lex 
lulia or Papia forbade marriage in some 
such cases, e.g. a senator or senator's 
children or descendants (through males) 
could not marry with freed persons : 
cp. Roby, ' Roman Private Law ' i, 
p. 130, for other cases. 

in uilla] This charge was brought 
against Apuleius himself as regards his 
own marriage : cp. Apol. 67 et quod in 
uilla ac non in oppido tabulae nuptiales sint 
consignatae tertio et quarto loco obiecere ; 
but he sayt, c. 88, Lex qnidem lulia de 



maritandis ordinibus nusquam sui ad 
hunc modum interdicit " uxorem in uilla 
ne ducito " ; and he goes on to prove that 
as marriage is a kind of husbandry TTCU 5 <av 
7r' aporcf ivyaioiv, it is appropriate that 
it should be celebrated in the country. 
The point of Venus is that the marriage 
was undesirable, and was accordingly 
contracted in a secret out-of-the-way 
place, neither of which considerations 
would necessarily render a marriage 
illegal ; but serious inequality of rank, 
such as would exist between people of 
senatorial rank and freed persons, ren- 
dered marriages between such persons 
null and void (Ulpian Frag. xiii.). 
Witnesses were usual in a formal 
marriage ceremony : cp. Tac. Ann. 
xi. 27 adhibitis qui obsignarent ; Juv. 
10. 336 cum signatoribus auspex : and 
the consent of the father was imperative 
in the case of those who were not sui 
iuris (Dig. 23. 2. 2), and Cupid was of 
course puer ingenmis et inuestis (5. 281). 
It is not plain who was regarded by 
Apuleius as father of Cupid. Not 
Mercury certainly, nor Mars (the latter 
is his-tiitrictis, 5. 30) : cp. note to c. 6. 

1O inuolat earn] For the omission 
of the prep. cp. 2. 32 latrones inuolo : 
5. 24 inuolauit capressum: Lucan 6. 588 
quos Caesaris inuolet urtus. 

diloricat] ' rends asunder her dress 
into many pieces.' This is a rare word, 
found, however, in Cicero (De Orat. 
2. 124) ; cp. also 7. 8 diloricatis statim 
pannulis. The cruelty of Roman mis- 
tresses to their female slaves is known 
from Juvenal 6. 474 ff. 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



[vi. 10 



accepto frumento et hordeo et milio et papauere et cicere et 
lente et faba commixtisque aceruatim confusis in unum 
grumulum sic ad illam : " uideris enim mihi tarn deformis 
ancilla nullo alio sed tantum sedulo ministerio amatores tuos 

promereri : iam ergo et ipsa[m] frugem tuam periclitabor. 
discernefre] seminum istorum passiuam congeriem singulisque 
granis rite dispositis atque seiugatis ante istam uesperam opus 
expeditum approbate mihi." 

Sic assignato tantorum seminum cumulo ipsa cenae nupti- 

10 ali[s] concessit. ne<c> Psyche manus admolitur inconditae illi 

2 confusis <f> : confusisque v. 5 ipsa v : ipsam F<. 

6 discerne v : discernere <f>. 

9 nuptiali v : nuptialis F(j> (sed in F p corr. in b). 10 nee <f> : ne F. 



frumento] ' corn,' i. e. no doubt 
'wheat' (triticd), as Beroaldus says. 
Helm compares spicas frumentarias (in 
.1) contrasted with spicas hordei. 

grumulum] 'hillock,' a rare word, 
but found in Pliny H. N. 19. 112 
Quidam ulpicum et alium in piano seri 
ttetant castellatimque grumulis inponi 
distantibus inter se pedes ternos. In 
the Glosses 5. 206. 12 we find 
Grumulus congregatio cuiusque rei siue 
tnonticulus rotundus. For the simple 
grumm, cp. Bell. Hisp. 24. 2. Gellius 
quotes Laevius as calling waves multi- 
grumi (19. 7. 15). Vliet introduces 
grumulo for gremio in 10. 35 ; but it 
is rather in a hollow than on a hillock 
of sand that the runaway ass would 
have rested himself. The excessive 
redundancy of this clause, and the 
absence of the copula with confusis, 
suggest the possibility that aceruatim 
confusis may be a gloss. 

frugem tuam] ' your worth.' Cp. 
5. 29, bonaeque tuae frugi congruentia. 

passiuam] 'indiscriminate,' 'promis- 
cuous' : cp. 9. 36 canes . . . feros atque 
immanes . . . uiatorum passiuis morsibus 
alumnatos (cp. also the dogs in 8. 17 
passim insiliunt ac sine ullo delectu 
iumenta simul et homines lacerant] ; 11. 



3 crines . . . per diuina colla passiue 
dispersi. This is a word much affected 
by Tertullian in the same sense. He 
uses it about twenty times, e.g. Adv. 
Hermog. 41 Haec inquies non est, 
haec turbulentia et passiuitas non est, 
sed moderatio et modestia et iustitia 
motationis neutram inpartem inclinantis. 
The general idea is absence of restric- 
tion, or limit, or order. The word is 
also used by St. Augustine, St. Jerome, 
Julius Firmicus, Salvianus, and others : 
see Du Cange. In De Deo Socratis 13, 
Apuleius uses the \vord in another and 
confessedly special sense, from patior, 
not from pando, viz., ' subject to 
passion or emotion ' : speaking of the 
demons, he says they are animalia . . . 
animo passiua, and adds quae propterea 
passiua non absurde, ut arbitror, nomi- 
naui, quod sunt iisdem, quibus nos, 
perturbationibus obnoxii. 

istam] Used by Ap. sometimes for 
hanc'. cp. ista . . . defers urnula. 
Cp. note to 6. 3 and 22. 

opus expeditum approbate mihi] 
' have the work finished to my 
satisfaction.' 

nuptiali] This seems to mean no 
more than ' splendid,' ' sumptuous ' 
a feast like that given at a wedding 



vi. 10] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



95 



et inextricabili moli, sed immanitate praecepti consternata 
silens obstupescit. tune formicula ilia paruula atque ruricola, 
certa[ta] difficultatis tantae laborisque, miserta contubernalis 
magni del socrusque saeuitiam execrata, discurrens nauiter 
conuocat corrogatque cunctam formicarum accolarum classem : 5 
" miseremini, terrae omniparentis agiles alumnae, miseremini et 
Amoris uxori[s], puellae lepidae, periclitanti prompta uelocitate 
succurrite." ruunt aliae superque aliae sepedum populorum 
undae summoque studio singulae granatim totum digerunt 
aceruum separatimque distributis dissitisque generibus e con- 10 
spectu perniciter abeunt. 

1 consternata v : conit nata F< : comit nata <f> (man. rec.). 

2 ruricola <p : ruricula F. 

3 certa Eyssenhardt: certati F : certata F (ex corr.) <p : certa turn Oudendorp. 

7 uxori f : uxoris F0. 

8 sepedum v : sepe du <f>. 



(cp. 10. 32). The Dictt. quote Martianus 
Capella 6 705 Venus nuptialiter laeta, 
'joyful as at a bridal' ; and a Gloss 
gives (4. 127. 23) NuptiaUter amicti 
solito plus hornata aut uelata. For the 
dat. of the place towards which depar- 
ture is made, see 3. 27 angulo stabuli 
concesseram ; 2. 6 cum somno concederes. 

silens obstupescit] cp. Verg. JEn. 
11. 120 Illi obstupuere silentes. 

certa] 'convinced of,' 'sure of the 
vast difficulty of the work' : cp. 4. 12 
iam certus erroris ; 9. 18 certus fragili- 
tatis humanae fidei . Tacitus often uses 
certus with the genitive in the sense of 
'certain of,' e.g. Ann. 1. 27 exitii 
certus 'sure that he would be killed.' 
In Dig. 37. 1. 14 certus accusationis 
seems to mean ' sure of his accusation,' 
i.e. that it would be successful. The 
mss. read certata: and on the whole it 
is best to suppose that -ta is partly 
dittography, and (as F originally had 
-ti) partly due to the first syllable of 
diS. ; but it may be a remnant of tune 
or turn (Stewecliius). Hildebrand's 
cordata 'wise,' ' sagacious, '~has not 
much to recommend it. Leo conjectures 



exercitata ; but it is doubtful if that 
word governs the genitive. The old 
editors read certatim. 

classem] 'squadron,' 'troop' a 
term applied in ancient times to the 
land army : cp. Fest. 225 Procincta 
classis dicebatur cum exercitus cinctus 
erat Gabino cinctu confestim pugnaturus. 
Vetustius enim fuit multitudinem homi- 
num quam nauium classem appellari. 
For accola used attributively = an adj. 
'local,' 'native' cp. Liv. 10. 2. 9 
accolae Galli. 

terrae omniparentis agiles alumnae] 
Is this a mock-heroic adaptation of 
Verg. JEn. 6. 595 Nee non et Tityon, 
Terrae omniparentis alumnum cernere 
erat? No doubt Apuleius had also 
before his mind the celebrated simile 
of the ants in JEn. 4. 402 ff. 

sepedum] 'six-footed.' For unda 
the commentators quote Verg. G. 2. 
462 ; Juv. 3 243 obstat unda prior ; 
Ammian. 26. 3. 2 nndatim coeunte plebe. 

totum . . . abeunt] ' they arrange 
the whole heap according to the several 
grains, and sorting asunder and distri- 
buting apart the various kinds quickly 



96 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



[vi. 11 



] 1 Sed initio noctis e conuiuio nuptiali uino madens et 

f?*ag/ans balsama Venus remeat totumque reuincta corpus 

rosis micantibus uisaque diligentia miri laboris : " non tuum," 

inquit, " nequissima, nee tuarum manuum istud opus, sed illius, 

5 cui tuo, imrno etipsius malo placuisti": et f<r>usto cibarii panis 

ei proiecto cubitum facessit. Interim Cupido solus interioris 

' domus unici cubieuli custodia clausus cohercebatur acriter, 

I partim ne petulant! luxurie uulnus grauaret, partim ne cum 

2 fraglans Vliet: flagans (r eadem manu) F : flagrans </>. 
5 frusto f : fur to F</>. 8 luxurie f< : luxuria F. 



disappear from her sight ' : granatim 
appears to occur only here in Latin : 
dissitis is from dissero, lit. ' to plant or 
sow here and there'; hence to separate 
out. In 7. 23 fin. dissitis femoribus 
means ' after separating or drawing 
apart his thighs' (divaricatis], 

11 nuptiali] See note to preceding 
chapter. 

uino madens] lit. * steeped in 
wine.' "We should say ' flushed with 
wine.' 

fraglans] See note to 4. Zlfraglan- 
tissimo. 

balsama] For the ace. cp. 2. 8 
fin. cinnama fraglans et balsama rorans : 
Mart. 3. 63. 4 balsama qui semper, cin- 
nama semper olet. At Psyche's marriage 
6. 24 Gratiae spargebant balsama. 

cibarii panis] * coarse ration-bread ' : 
bread served out wholesale as rations 
(cibaria) to whole companies of re- 
cipients, as to soldiers (cp. Vopiscus 
Aurel. 9. 6 panes militares inundos 
sedecim, panes militares castrenses quad- 
raffinta), slaves, &c., and accordingly 
of a common nature ; cp. Cic. Tusc. 

5. 97. Celsus 2. 18 gives the different 
kinds of bread in order of excellence 
ex tritico Jirmissima siligo, deinde simila, 
deinde cui nihil demptum est, quod avro- 
irvpov Graeci uocant, irifirmior est ex 
polline, injirmissimus cibarius panis (cp. 

6. 19 panem sordidum). The word is 
applied to other substantives besides 



panis, e.g. to uinum (Varro), oleum and 
sapor (Columella); even tuus autem ipse 
frater cibarius fuit Aristoxenus (Varro, 
Sat. Menipp. p. 182, Riese), which we 
may perhaps translate 'an unbolted 
Aristoxenus' ; cp. Shakespeare, Lear 2. 
2. 61 ' this unbolted villain ' ; Henry V. 
2. 2. 137 'Such and so finely bolted 
didst thou seem.' 

proiecto] ' flung,' as to a dog. 

cubitum facessit] This word often 
occurs in Apuleius in the sense of 
'depart' (2. 15; 3. 5, &c.). In no- 
other passage have I found it with the 
supine. 

Interim . . . acriter] Note the 
alliteration caused by the repetition of 
c. For unici many emendations have 
been advanced : intimi (Rohde), aurei 
(Vliet, who compares vi. 29), gunaecei, 
omitting cubieuli (Traube, a reading un- 
deservedly praised by Weyman), muniti 
(Price), inuii (Heinsius), minuti (Hilde- 
brand). Perhaps we might read uicini. 
The lovers were sub uno tecto separati, 
as is stated a few lines further on. 
Similar transpositions of letters are 
found in F, e.g. 6. 9 retinentem for 
renitentem : 5. 2 miratur for rimatur. 
If unici is retained, it must mean ' one,' 
that Cupid was confined to a single 
room a use not infrequent in Apuleius 
(cp. 1. 21 ; 2. 14; 7. 14, and else where). 
Helm notices that this sense will explain 
acriter. 



VI. 11] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



97 



sua capita conueniret. sic ergo distentis et sub uno tecto 
separatis amatoribus tetra nox exanclata. 

Sed Aurora commodum inequitante uocatae Psychae Venus 
infit talia : " uidesne illud nemus, quod fluuio praeterluenti 
ripisque longis attenditur, cuius fimi gurgites uicinum 5 

2 exanclata f : exanelata F<J>. 



cupita] ' his loved one ' : cp. Ovid 
Fast. 3. 21 Mars uidet hanc iiisamque 
cupit, potiturque cupita. 

distentis] ' sundered ' : cp. Hor. 
Carm. 4. 5. 12 quern Notus . . . distinct 
a domo. 

exanclata] See note to 6. 4. 
inequitantej 'riding in,' that is, 
to the world. There is no need to 
add anything, though in 3. 1 Apuleius 
has caelum inequitabat. If any addition 
were to he made, mundum would be the 
more likely word to have dropped out 
after commodum. 

ripisque] Hildebrand's view, that 
we should read rupis 'rocks' (assum- 
ing a form rupa for rupes] for ripis, 
is satisfactorily refuted by Lutjohann 
(p. 481), who says there is no more 
tautology \i\Jluuio praeterluenti ripisque 
longis than in Italiam . . . Lauinaque 
littora in the second line of the JEneid, 
and few writers are more diffuse and 
tautological than Apuleius : see Koziol. 
Besides, rupa, which some glosses ex- 
plain ex utraque parte acuta, and to 
which Hildebrand seems to refer, is 
not ' a rock, ' but another form of rupia 
= romphaea, a kind of sword. 

cuius imi gurgites . . . despiciunt] 
If this reading is sound, the best 
meaning I can assign to it is ' whose 
pools at its base (i.e. the base of the 
nemus) look down upon (one would 
prefer dispiciunt 'see down into') 
their adjoining spring,' an artificial 
expression for ' whose pools at its 
base are formed by the spring which 
is beneath them.' Pliny's (Epp. 8. 
8. 2) description of the source of the 
Clitumnus may be compared, Modicus 



collis adsurgit, antiqua cupresso nemo- 
rosus et opacus. Hunc subter fons exit et 
exprimitur pluribus tienis sed imparibus, 
eluctatusque facit gurgitem qui lato 
gremio patescit purus et uitreus, ut 
numerare iactas stipes et reluctantis 
calculos possis. Inde non loci deuexitate 
sed ipsa sui copia et quasi pondere 
impellitur. Fons adhuc et iam amplis- 
simum flumen &c. (where see Prof. 
Merrill's note) : cp. Verg. JEn. 8. 74 
(JEneas addressing the Tiber) quo te 
cunque lacus miser antem incommodanostra 
fonts tenet, quocunque solo pulcherrimus 
exis. Bliimner explains the passage 
(Hermes xxix., p. 305) ' whose waters 
at the bottom look with contempt on 
their neighbouring spring,' i.e. the 
river, though only a short distance 
from its source, had become deep and 
large. Bat this metaphorical sense of 
despiciunt is out of place in a descrip- 
tion like the present. The ordinary 
emendation is respiciunt (Oudendorp), 
' look back on,' and the emphatic word 
is uicinum the source is near at hand. 
Others again suggest uicino monte 
desiliunt which is quite too audacious. 
The objection which is urged to most of 
these readings is that cuius ought 
naturally to refer to nemus and not to 
Jtuuii ; and if so, it is held that the 
word gurgites must contain the corrup- 
tion. This is strongly insisted on by 
Lutjohann (p. 481). He reads inuiifru- 
tices for imigurgites, noting that the place 
was apparently an overgrown thicket 
(cp. c. 12 stirpibus connexis; so he 
reads), and that the additional feature of 
inaccessibility was in accordance with 
the 'monstrousness' (cp.c. IQimmanitas) 



98 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



[vi. 12 



fontem despiciuntf ? oues ibi nitentes fauriue cole florentes 

incustodito paatu uagantur. inde de coma pretiosi uelleris 

floccum mihi confestim quoquo modo quaesitum afferas eenseo." 

1 Perrexit Psyche uolenter non obsequium quidem ilia 

5 functura, sed requiem malorum praecipitio fluuialis rupis 

1 auri * * | cole (eras, ue} F : atiriite cole <j>. 



of the orders of Venus. Liitjohann 
further proposes to add ubi before 
uicinum. Hildebrand wishes to read 
cuius summi uertices uicinum fontem 
despiciunt^ referring to the high ground 
on each side of the valley. But it is 
plain that both these emendations are 
of a very bold nature ; and it is difficult 
to feel certain that gurgites is corrupt. 
It is quite possible to take cuius as 
referring to nemus, for a grove can 
have pools ; and it is not necessary 
to suppose that gurgites must mean 
'eddies' (see Henry's ".^neidea," vol. 
i., pp. 368-384). Plasberg proposes 
simply recipiunt; but the meaning is 
doubtful. It may be 'whose [re- 
ferring to the nemus] pools at its foot 
receive a spring near at hand.' If 
the interpretation hazarded above is not 
accepted, I know nothing better ; but it 
is far from certain. 

nitentes fauriue cole florentes] This, 
too, is a passage which awaits emenda- 
tion. I have printed the reading of </>, 
which is the same as that of F, except that 
a later hand in F has erased ue. The 
ordinary reading is that of the inferior 
mss. aurique colore. Liitjohann (p. 465) 
objects to this reading as rendering 
nitentes superfluous ; but the phrase may 
contain the sort of epexegesis so com- 
mon in Vergil (see Henry on Italiam 
. . Lauinaque littora, "Aeneidea," vol. i, 
p. 131), in which the epexegesis is 
illogically introduced by et (other ex- 
amples in Vergil are JEn. 1. 282 ; 10. 
12). As he holds that the que after 
auri is impossible, he reads nitentis 
auri decor e (the latter word for uecole], 
comparing 10. 15 corporis mei decor. 



For florentes he well compares Verg. 
JEn. 7. 804 florentes acre cateruas, and 
Apul. Met. 11. 9 mulieres . . . uerno 
florentes coronamine. It is just possible 
(but this is a mere conjecture) that 
the corruption may have arisen from 
syllables written above the line in the 
archetype, and wrongly placed by some 
subsequent copyist ; and that we should 
read something like nitentes, auricomo 
pelle florentes. If the archetype had auri' 

pelte 

como, the corruption might have arisen. 
For pelle one could compare Val. Flacc. 
8. 113 perfertur ad ornum cuius adhuc 
rutilam seruabant bracchia pellem, also 
line 123 and Ennius 210 (Ribbeck) 
petebant pellem inauralam arietis, and 
Varro R. R. 2. 1. 6 ipsas pecudes 
propter caritatem aureas habnisse pelles 
tradiderunt (in this passage the word 
is used of the fleece still on the 
animal). It would be easier to read 
(with Michaelis) uellere for pelle ; but 
the repetition of the word in the 
next line seems fatal to this course. 
Vliet reads nitentis <solis> auriue colore 
florentes, relying on Fulgentius (3. 6 = 
p. 68. 18 ed. Helm) et Soils armenta 
uellercspoliauerit. "VVeyman conjectures 
aureo colore florentes, leaving out nitentes. 

afferas eenseo] This is a somewhat 
polite way of giving an order : cp. 
Pompeius in Cic. Att. 8. 12 A. 4 eenseo 
armetis milites. The polite form may 
here be used by Venus with a touch of 
irony : ' my proposal is that you should 
bring.' 

12 non obsequium quidem ilia func- 
tura] For the accusative after fungor, 
which is regular in Plautus and Terence, 
cp. 8. 16 timorem ilium satis inanem 



vi. 12] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



99 



habitura. sed inde de fluuio musicae suauis nutricula leni 
crepitu dulcis aurae diuinitus inspirata sic uatici<m>tur arundo 
uiridis : " Psyche, tantis aerumnis exercita, neque tua miser- 
rima morte meas sanctas aquas polluas nee uero isti^ 
<^>orae contra f ormidabiles oues f eras aditum, quoa<^> de soils 5 
fraglantia mutuatae calorem truci rabie solent efferri cornuque 
acuto et fronte saxea et non nunquam uenenatis morsibus 
in exitium saeuire mortalium ; sed dum meridies solis sedauerit 
uaporem et pecua spiritus fluuialis serenitate conquieuerint, 
poteris sub ilia procerissima platano, quae mecum simul unum 10 
fluentum bibit, latenter abscondere. et cum primum mitigata 

2 uaticinatur f : uaticitur F<f>. 

4 istud horae Salmasius : istius orae F(f>. 

5 quoad de soils v : quo adesolis F (sed e eraso) : quo ad e solis <f> (sed ad e 

man. rec.). 

6 mutuatae v : mutuata F</>. 

8 seuire f<p : seruire F. 

9 pecua v : pecula (sed rasura infra 1): pecula 0. 



perfuncti, and Munro's collection of 
passages in which verbs which usually 
govern the abl. are found with the 
ace. in Lucretius (Lucr. 3. 956). He 
quotes Fronto (p. 135 Naber) oner a . . . 
perfunctus est. 

divinitus inspirata] cp. note to 
auctor adulterinus 6. 13. 

istud horae] This is the admirable 
emendation of Salmasius for istius orae 
of the mss. He compares 1. 15 illud 
horae. For this use cp. Cic. Cat. 1. 10 
quos ad me id temporis uenturos prae- 
dixeram: Plaut. Amph. 154 hoc noctis ; 
Mil. 659 illuc aetatis. Also Tac. 
Ann. 12. 18 Romanorum nemo id 
auctoritatis aderat ut promissa eius 
magni penderentnr. 

feras aditumj cp. 4. 9 fin. ; 8. 16 
fin. Also in Catullus 61. 26 (where 
see Ellis) and 61. 43. 

efferri] ' to be carried away ' ; cp. 
Lucilius (158 ed. Marx) ap. Cic. Tusc. 
4. 48 usque adeo studio atque odio illiua 



ecferor ira\ Cic. Gael. 21 caesi dolent, 
irati efferuntur, pugnant lacessiti. Col- 
vius needlessly conjectures efferari, 
comparing 9. 2. 

uenenatis morsibus] cp. 9. 2 (of a 
mad dog). 

pecua] The mss. give pecula ; but 
this was probably a mere mistake in 
the archetype for pecua. Hildebrand 
reads pecuda, referring to Attius 409 
(Ribbeck) Vaaant, pauore pecuda in 
tumults deserunt. Nonius (p. 159) also 
quotes this form from Cic. Rep. 4, 7 
and from Sisenna ; but elsewhere Apu- 
leius vises pecua, e.g. 2. 1 ; 2. 5 ; 7. 11 : 
9. 35; 11. 7. 

fluuialis spiritus] Hildebrand com- 
pares Calpurnius Eel. 4. 4 uicini spiritus 
amnis. 

fluentum] See note to 6. 18. 

abscondere] ' to hide,' i.e. to hide 
yourself. For this use of the verb 
without the accusative, cp. 8. 5 arbo- 
ribus latenter abscondimus. 
'2 



100 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



[vi. IB 



furia laxauerint oues animum, percussis frondibus atti[n]gui 
nemori<s> lanosum aurum repperies, quod passim stirpibus 
conuexis obhaerescit." 

13 Sic arundo simplex et humana Psychen aegerrimam 

5 salutem suam docebat. nee auscultatu paenitendo diligen- 
ter instructa ilia cessauit, sed obseruatis omnibus furatrina 
f acili flauentis auri mollitie congestum gremium Veneri reportat. 
nee tamen apud dominam saltern secundi laboris periculum 
secundum testimonium meruit, sed contortis superciliis subri- 

10 dens amarum sic inquit : " nee me praeterit huius quoque facti 
auctor adulterinus. sed iam nunc ego sedulo periclitabor, an 

1 attigui $ ex corr. : attingtd F<j>. 

2 nemoris f< man. rec. : nemori F(f>. 

3 comiexis F< : conexis v. 



furia] This seems to be the first 
place where the singular furia is used 
in the sense of furor. It is, however, 
often applied to a man, as in Cic. Sest. 
34; Liv. 21. 10. 11. It is also found in 
some mss. in Hyginus Fab. 107 (but 
the more usual reading is iniuria) and 
Fulgentius Myth. 1. 31 ; 1. 39 (16. 21 ; 
21. 4 ed. Helm). For Furia in the 
singular of the Avenging Goddess, cp. 
9. 36. 

conuexis] ' curved ' : cp. Aus. Mos. 
248 conuexa cacumina uirgae. The 
inferior mss. have conexis, and this is 
read by the older editors and Eyssen- 
hardt. The chief mss. have conexa in 
Ausonius. 

13 nee ... reportat] 'and by paying 
heed thereto nor had she reason to regret 
it she was carefully instructed, and she 
remained inactive ; but she observed all 
the injunctions, and easily appropriating 
the soft yellow gold she brings back 
to Venus her bosom filled therewith.' 
Petschenig reads impaenitendo (cf. 11. 
28), and Koziol non paenitendo, either 
of which makes the sentence more 
regular, and gives a simpler interpre- 
tation to sed. Still, as temporary 
resting was the very best thing for 



Psyche to do, and in point of fact the 
essential thing, as the reed's advice 
was all directed to that consideration, 
it seems best to adhere to the mss. and 
to take nee with paenitendo. For this 
usage cp. Prop. 2. 3. 6 nee solifus ponto 
uwere toruus aper (= et insolitus) ; 
2. 28#. 52 Vobiscum Europe nee proba 
Pasiphae (where Mr. Butler compares 
Caes. B. G. 7. 25. 1) : Livy 2. 30. 12 
consul nee promouit aciem nee clamorem 
reddi passus defixis pilis stare snos iussit 
(= et non passus) ; and often. 

furatrina] lit. ' by an easy thieving/ 
an abstract substantive formed like doc- 
trina ; cp. 10. 14. In 8.3 furatrina 
coniugalisis used of 'conjugal infidelity' 
(cp. Ovid, Heroid. 17. 141). 

nee tamen . . . meruit] ' But the 
danger in this her second task did not, 
by any recognition on her mistress's 
part, second Psyche's hopes.' 

subridens amarum] cp. Amm. 21. 
9. 8 cui amarum Inliamis subridens'. 
Horace Carm. 3. 27. 67 perfidwn ridens 
Venus: 1. 22. 23 dulce ridentem La- 
lag en. Also a Greek usage : cp. Horn. 
Odyss. 14. 465 a.ira\bv ye\dffai. 

auctor adulterinus] 'illicit sug- 
gester of this deed of thine.' The 



13] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



101 



; 

oppido forti animo singularique prudentia sis praedita. uidesne 
insistentem celsissimae illi rupi mentis ardui uerticem, de quo 
fontis atri fuscae defhmnt undae proxumaeque conceptaculo 
uallis inclusae Stygias inrigant paludes et rauca Coeyti fluenta 
nutriunt ? indidem mihi de summi fontis penita scaturrigine s 
rorem rigentem hauritum ista confestim defers urnula." sic 

3 proxumaeque v : proxumeque F<J>. 

4 inclusa Stygias f : inclusa e ygias F<f> : inclusa e st ygias ( st man. rec.) <f>. 
4 rauca Lipsius : pauca <f>. 

6 defers urnula Petschenig : defer surnula F< : deferes urnula f . 



word is often used for ' false,' of coins, 
seals, keys. Gellins (8. 2) speaks of 
verba . . . adulterina et Barbara ; and 
Apuleius (4. 16) litteris adulterinis 
('forged'). In 8. 3 he applies the 
word to illicit love, an unusual sense. 
The reference in auetor is to Cupid, 
whom the reed, like the ants, prohably 
wished to favour. Possibly Cupid might 
be regarded as the divine power that 
inspired her (diuinitus inspirata 6. 12) 
to give her helpful counsel ; but this is 
perhaps fanciful. 

proximaeque conceptaculo uallis 
inclusae] ' and caught in the basin 
formed by the neighbouring valley.' 
For conceptaculum cp. 7. 20 pluuiae 
pridianae recens conceptaculum ('pool') ; 
Frontin. Aq. 22 nee Virgo nee Appia 
nee Alsietina conceptaculum , id est 
piscinas ('reservoirs'), habent. 

Stygias aquas] Rohde (Psyche 677 
note 5) thinks that in the original 
story it was the Water of Life that the 
heroine was ordered to procure ; but 
when the persecutor of the heroine 
became the immortal Venus, a change 
had to be effected. 

rauca Coeyti fluenta] The mss. 
give patica, emended by Lipsius to 
rauca. Apuleius probably took the 
epithet from Verg. JEn. 6. 327 Nee 
ripas datur horrendas et rauca fluenta 
transportare prius. 

indidem . . . urnula] ' thence draw 
for me, from the inmost bubbling water 



of the top of the spring, the ice-cold 
liquid, and bring it here forthwith.' 
The adjective penitus occurs a good 
many times in Plautus, but does not 
re-appear until Gellius and Apuleius: 
cp. 11. plane memineris et penita mente 
condition semper tenebis. For scaturrig 
or scaturigo cp. Plin. H. N. 31. 47 in 
nigra (terra] scaturigines non fere sunt 
perennes. In Livy 44. 33. 3 scaturiges 
turbidae is found : cp. Varro (p. 124, 
ed. Riese) Ismenias Me Thebagenes fluit 
scaturrex. The Glosses recognize the 
singular scaturigo, and interpret it by 
Kax^afffji6s ; but I cannot find any other 
example of the singular. For rigentem 
cp. Mart. 1. 49. 17 auidam rigens 
Dercenna (river near Bilbilis) placabit 
sitim, ib. 14. 117. For the form 
hauritum cp. 2. 15 fin. facilis hauritum 
3. 24 liaurito plusculo. Priscian (ii, 
540. 3 Keil) says Haurio hausi ; inuen- 
itur tamen etiam hauriui et haurii: cp. 
Neue-Wagener, iii 3 . 406. 

defers urnula] The mss. give defer 
surnula. It looks certainly as if the s 
was genuine ; and examples can be quoted 
offers as apparently an imperative form 
of/m>, e.g. 1. 23. fin. profers ociter F<j>; 
2. 6 aufers (so F : aufer <f>) formidines : 
10. 16 offers (F, but the s is afterwards 
erased; offer $). Ott in Jahrbuch 109 
(1874), p. 840, thinks it is an African 
usage, and was the present indie, used 
as an imperative. Eonsch (pp. 294 
and 521} quotes some passages in which 



102 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



[vi. 14 



aiens crustallo dedolatum uasculum, insuper ei grauiora com- 
minata, tradidit. 

14 At ilia studiose gradum celerans mentis extremum 
petit umulum certe uel illic in<uentura> uitae pessimae 
finem. sed cum primum praedicti iugi conterminos locos 
appulit, uidet rei uastae letalem difficultatem. namque saxum 
immani magnitudine procerum et inaccessa salebritate lubri- 

4 tumulum v : cumulum F0. 

4 inuentura uitae Beroaldus : inuite F : inuite inuite . 



adfers, aufers, and especially offers are 
found for the imperative in Latin ver- 
sions of the Scriptures. It is to be noted 
that in 5. 2 the mss. of Apuleius give 
refer. Prof. Lindsay (Latin Language, 
p. 517) denies this form of the im- 
perative, as fer in Plautus (he says) is 
always short which, however, he 
allows is not absolutely certain. Leo 
in the Index to Venantius quotes two 
passages where the indie, follows the 
imperative, e.g. ii. 9. 72 Moyses tende 
manus et tua castra iuuas. But in 
Apuleius 2. 6 and 6. 13 the form in 
question does not follow another im- 
perative. It seems better, in view of 
the examples quoted by Ronsch, to hold 
that the form -fers was an imperative. 

aiens] This form occurs in Cic. 
Top. 49, and Rabir. Post. 35, in the 
sense of asserting,' opposed to 
' denying.' 

crustallo dedolatum] * hollowed out 
of a crystal.' The crystattina of the 
Romans are often mentioned in Martial 
and Seneca. Their excellence was de- 
termined by their not having any flaw 
(cp. Plin. H. X. 37. 28). Apuleius 
(2. 19) calls a cup without flaw 
O'ustallum impunctum. 

14= studiose gradum celerans] cp. 
Verg. JEn. 4. 641 ilia gradum studio 
celerabat anili. 

tumulum] The mss. give cumulum ; 
but as no error is more common than 
the confusion of c and t, the alteration 



is a very slight one. Cumulus is generally 
used of a heap of separable objects, 
while tumulus is used of elevations of 
earth, either natural or artificial: cp. 
Lucan 3. 375 tumulus surgentis in altum 
telluris. It is to be noted, however, 
that we find in the Glosses 2. 119. 43 
cumulus collis ftowos ; and cumulus is 
often used metaphorically in the sense 
of 'top,' 'summit,' as Tac. Hist. 1. 77 
pontificatus honoratis iam senibus cumu- 
lum dignitatis addidit. But I can find 
no example in an author of cumulus used 
for the top of a hill. 

inuentura uitae] So the old editors 
for imiitae of the mss. 

appulit] ' when she neared the 
places adjoining the indicated height.' 
This is a rare usage in two respects as 
(1) of a journey by land : cp. Bell. Afr. 
59. 5 ; (2) as not having the object 
expressed : cp. Tac. Ann. 2. 24, and 
often. But I know of no other case 
in which both peculiarities are united. 
It is common in Apuleius to find words 
compounded with ad- followed by the 
accusative of the place, where in 
Classical Latin the dative or ad with 
the ace. would have been used : cp. 7. 7 
litus . . . appulisset ; 5. 5 scopulum . . . 
aderunt ; 6. 28 uoculas adhinnire (cp. 
Plaut. Cist. 307). 

inaccessa salebritate] * affording 
no foothold, so unscalable and rugged 
was it ; and from the midst of its jaws 
of stone it belched forth a fearsome 



YI. 14] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



108 



cum medi<2>s e /aucibus lapidis fontes horridos euomebat, qui 
statim proni foraminis lacunis editi perque procliue delapsi et 
angusti canalis exar<#>to contecti tramite proxumam conuallem 
la tenter incidebant. dextra laeuaque cautibus cauatis pro- 

serpunt et longa colla porrecti saeui dracones inconiuae 5 

uigiliae luminibus addictis et in perpetuam lucem ^upulis 
excubantibus. j iamque et ipsae semet muniebant uocales 
aquae, nam et " discede " et " quid facis ? uide " et " quid 

1 mediis e f aucibus <f> al. man. : medis e raucib; F<f> : mediis f aucibus f. 
3 exarato Petschenig : exarto F : exarcto </>. 



stream. At first pouring from the 
cleft of sloping aperture, then flowing 
down a steep incline, and hidden in 
the narrow- channelled way which it 
had furrowed out for itself, it fell 
without heing observed into the valley 
hard by.' The conjecture of Petschenig 
exarato for exarto of the mss. has been 
adopted. Hildebrand defends the latter 
as meaning 'very narrow' (exarcto), 
the ex- being intensive like edurus or 
efferus or exacerbatus ; but that lays 
excessive emphasis on the narrowness 
of the channel, and Apuleius would 
more probably have written artissimo 
than coin a compound not otherwise 
used. Vliet reads extrito ; but that 
word has much the same meaning as 
exarato , and is less likely to have been 
corrupted into exarto. The Dictt. quote 
no other example of salebritas. 

proserpunt . . . et longa colla 
porrecti saeui dracones] Lutjohann 
(p. 495) ejects the et. He points to 
other cases where et is wrongly in- 
serted in the mss., e.g. 5. 30 quae 
castiget asperrime nugonem istum, phare- 
Iram explicet, [et] sagittas dearmet, 
arcum enodet, taedam deflamniet, where 
the asyndeton plainly cannot be broken; 
5. 23 Psyche satis et curiosa, where he 
shows that Apuleius always joins satis 
closely with the adjective or adverb it 
governs : cp. 5. 8 satis scrupulose ; 5. 28 
satis curiosa uuis, 11. 23 satis anxie ; 



but in 5. 23 et hardly breaks the con- 
nexion, and seems to be required with 
insatiabili animo. Psyche not only 
gazed rapturously at the wondrous 
weapons of Cupid, but (her besetting 
sin) was full of curiosity also to know 
what they were. So et should be re- 
tained, though it might be transposed, 
et satis curiosa, as 5. 28. "Weyman (p. 47) 
thinks that probably strepunt or stridunt 
is lost after et. If any verb has been 
omitted, it might more probably be 
saeniuttt before saeui. The fierce dragons 
crawl out of the rocks, stretch out their 
long necks, and exhibit whatever form 
of fierceness belongs to dragons. The 
word saeuire is applied to their teeth in 
the next chapter. 

inconiuae uigiliae luminibus ad- 
dictis] ' with eyes devoted to sleepless 
watchfulness and their pupils wakeful 
in unceasing vision ' : cp. 2. 22 in- 
coniuis oculis. 

ipsae semet muniebant] This reading 
of the mss. is unexceptionable, and is 
rightly defended by Hildebrand. There 
is no need to alter to ipsae metum incut* 
iebant (or iniciebant), or to ipsaemet 
wonebant (or mugiebant) : cp. 9. 40 
nee . . . munire se potuit : Cic. Fam. 
4. 14. 3 nouarum me necessitudlnum 
Jidelitate contra ueterum perjidiam muni- 
endum putaui. 

quid facis ? uide] Vliet prints quid 
facis uide ; and no doubt such construe- 



104 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



[vi. 15 



agis ? caue " et " fuge " et " peribis " subinde clamant, sic 
impossibilitate ipsa mutata in ktpide<ra> Psyche, quamuis 
praesenti corpore, sensibus tamen aberat et mextricabilis 
periculi mole prorsus obruta lacrumarum etiam extreme 
5 solacio carebat. 

15 Nee Prouidentiae bonae graues oculos innocentis animae 
latuit aerumna. narn <sw>premi louis regalis ales ilia repente 
propansis utrimque pinnis affuit rapax aquila memorque 

2 lapidem $ man. rec. : lupide F0 : lapide f. 

3 inextricabilis v : his extricabilis F<f>. 

7 supremi Modius : pmi F<. 



tions with the indicative are found in 
Apuleius, e.g. 2. 22 nee satis quisquam 
dejinire poterit quantas latebras . . . 
mulieres . . . comminiscuntur. Hilde- 
brand on 1. 25 quotes many examples 
from Arnobius and one from Pronto 
(ad Verum 1. 3 = p. 116, Naber) multtim 
fratrem meum obiurgani cur me non 
reuocuuit (which, however, Heindorf 
has altered to reuocarit). But the 
punctuation adopted is tbe usual one, 
and is far more picturesque. 

mutata in lapidem] cp. 3. IQfixus 
in lapideon> steti ; Ovid Heroid. 10. 50 
quamque lapis sedes, tarn lapis ipsa 
fui ; Plaut. True. 818 Lapideus sum, 
commouere me miser non aitdeo. F< read 
lapide ; but m final is often omitted 
5. 13 fin. morem; 5. 18 praegnationem; 
G. 3. gratiam; 6. 21 conlapsam; so we 
cannot agree with Leky, p. 30, in 
retaining the abl. It is probable 
that we should make a similar alter- 
ation in 3. 10. In 3. 13 in lectulo is to 
be taken with recordabar. 

inextricabilis] 'impracticable,' i.e. 
of which there was no solution, which 
could not be successfully coped with. 
The Dictionaries quote Pliny H. N. 
20. 232 stomachi inextricabilia uitia 
* (otherwise) incurable.' 

15 Prouidentiae] cp. 5. 3. We also 
find Ilp6voia in the Greek novels, e.g. 
Cbarito 3. 3. 10 and 12; 3. 4. 7. 



Rohde (Gr. Rom., p. 492, note 5) notes 
that it has a somewhat ' Christian tone.' 
graues oculos] 'earnest,' 'serious,' 
' solemn eyes.' Prof. Ellis on Avianus 
24. 9 has an excellent note. He says 
that the words graues oculi are found of 
eyes heavy, (1) with sleep, (2) or with 
the approach of death, (3) or with 
debauchery ; and he further mentions 
this passage of Apuleius, where he says 
with some hesitation that the meaning 
is 'serious.' In Avianus (Ille [leo] 
graues oculos ad inania signa retorquens 
in/remit et rabido pectore uerba dedit] 
I cannot help thinking that the sense 
of graues is 'solemn.' The lion's 
look was characterized by dignity and 
solemnity, as became the king of beasts ; 
and his speech betokens no note of 
shame, so that graues can hardly mean 
' downcast ' from shame, as Prof. Ellis 
takes it. For graues oculi in the sense 
of ' solemn eyes ' we may perhaps com- 
pare with "Weyman Plin. H. N. 11. 
145 contuitu quoque (oculi} multiformes, 
truces, torui,flagrantes, graues, transuersi, 
limi, summissi, blandi. The conjecture 
of Btirsian gnauos lacks the dignity 
which one would expect to attach to 

the epithet. 

i 
supremi] The mss. give pmi. For 

supremi cp. 3. 23 quamuis ipsius aquilae 
sublimis uolatibus toto caelo peruius et 



. 15] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



105 



ueteris obsequii, quo ductu Cupidinis loui poci//atorem P/tn/gium 
substulerat, oportunam ferens opem deique numen in uxoris 
laboribus percolens alti culminis diales uias deserit et ob os 
puellae praeuolans incipit : " at tu, simplex alioquin et expers 
rerum talium, speras^e te sanctissimi nee minus truculent! 5 
fontis uel unam stillam posse furari uel omnino contingere j_ 
diis etiam ipsique loui formidabiles aquas istas Stygias uel 
fando comperisti, quodque uos deieratis per numina deorum, 
deos per Stygis maiestatem solere ? sed cedo istam urnulam " 
[s]e protinus adreptam completum <&>quae festinat libratisque 10 

1 pocillatorem f : paulatorem F ut uidetur: pollicitatorem <}>. 
5 sperasne Stewechius : sperasq; F<. 

tniculenti* F, sed eraso s : truculentis t(>. 

8 deie##ratis f (ce eras.): deieceratis <. 10 et v : sed F<J>. 

10 completum aquae Hildebrand : completum aqua Oudendorp : copletdq; F<J>. 



supremi louis certus nuntius uel laetus 
armiger. This is better than optimi 
of Vulcanius. It seems impossible to 
defend primi. As Helm rightly says, 
it would require that dei be added. 
The passages quoted by Hildebrand 
(Cic. Tusc. 1.81: Yerr. 3. 168) have 
Jiominis. 

ductu Cupidinis] Here again (cp. 
. 10) the influence of Cupid is indirectly 
indicated as a reason why the help was 
given to Psyche. 

pocillatorem] cp. 6. 24 ; 10. 17. 

alti culminis diales uias] 'Jove's 
pathways in the height.' The soaring 
flight of the eagle seems to have 
appealed strongly to the imagination 
f Apuleius : cp. Florid. 2. 
implex alioquin et expers rerum 
ium] ' a right simple-minded crea- 
indeed, and ignorant of such 
.' Alioquin is a somewhat col- 
al particle, which adds little, if 
anything, to the thought. It is very 
of len found in the Metamorphoses 1.11; 
2.1; 9. 14 bonus alioquin uir et adprime 
modestus (Becker, Rtudia Apuleiana, 
p. 10, quotes thirteen instances) , but only 
once in his other writings, e.g. Flor. 
18, p. 88 (Oud.). In Apol. 97 fin., we 




should read aliquam with 4>, not alioqui 
with the old editors, for aliquem of F. 
Becker says the passage in 9. 14 has 
no more force than et bonus et adprime 
modestus. 

sperasne] The mss. give sperasgue. 
Vliet alters to quae speras, which makes 
a natural and ordinary form of sentence ; 
but we have hesitated to accept it, as 
errors of transposition are very rare in 
the mss. of Apuleius. Jahn suggested 
speras quippe, and Stewechius sperasne. 
The latter is certainly attractive, and it 
is adopted by Helm. 

uel fando comperisti V] ' you must 
have been made aware, at least by 
hearsay.' For fando cp. Apol. 9 quis 
unquam fando audiuit ; also 42 and 81 ; 
Florid. 3 init. ut fando accepimus; Verg. 
Mn. 2. 81; Cic. N. D. 1. 82. For 
the Styx as the object by which the 
gods feared to s\vear falsely, cp. Verg. 
^ln. 6. 323. 

per Stygis maiestatem] cp. Horn. II. 
15. 37 /cat T& Kareifio/Aevov "2,Tvybs v$<ap, 
fj.4yi(TTOS \ opicos Seiforaros re TreAet 



completum aquae festinat] So 
Hildebrand for completamque festinat 
of the mss., which cannot be trans- 



106 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



I vi. 



pinnarum nutantium niolibus inter genas saeuientium dentium 
et trisulca uibramina draconum remigium dextra laeuaque 
porrigens uolentes aquas et, ut abiret innoxius, praes^antes 

3 uolentes $ : nolentes F, sed no refictum est ita ut utrum fuerit uo an no iam 

parum discern! possit. 

praestantes Helm : minantes F sed min refictum est, et in ampliore litura, ut 
Jahn-Michaelis testantur, in qua nullae fuerunt litterae longae ; prior 
littera, ut Helm docet, uidetur p, tertia potius t quam u fuisse : 
* * uantes aut * * nantes <f>, postea manus recens correxit potantes : 
mirantes cod. Dorvillanus. 



lated. For festinare with the supine, 
cp. De Deo Socratis, p. 109 Oud. (= 3. 
8 Goldbacher) coruus et uulpes imam 
offulam simul uiderant eamque raptum 
festinabant: cp. Sallust Hist. Frag. 
3. 82, 16 (= p. 284 Kritz) ullroque 
licentiam in uos auctum atque adiutum 
properatis. Neque nunc uos til turn in- 
iurias hortor; ib. 5. 18 (= p. 367 
Kritz) uideo indigentiam dona quaesitum 
gratiae proper antem. These sufficiently 
justify both the use of the supine and 
that supine governing a case: for the 
latter compare also Terence Eun. 752 
Nam haec east quam miles a me ui nunc 
ereptum uenit. For the genitive after 
completum, cp. 9. 3 aquae recentis com- 
pletam peluem ; Cic. Verr. 5. 147 cum 
completus iam mercatorum career esset. 
Higtius (quoted by Oud.) and Leo 
propose adrepta complexaque (Higtius 
adding, however, eaque before adrepta}. 
This makes the sentence quite smooth ; 
but the alterations are considerable. 
Other conjectures are complexa ungue 
(Jahn), complexamque (Modius, Helm), 
adreptum completiimque ("Weyman). 

nutantium] 'balancing his vast 
swaying pinions ' : cp. Flor. 2 cum 
igitur eo sese aquila extulit nutu dementi 
laeuorsum uel dextrorsum tanta mole 
corporis Idbitur. This defends nutan- 
tium, and renders unnecessary the 
emendation of Heinsius natantium. 
Cp. also Catullus 66. 53 unigena 
iipellens nutantibus aera pennis obtulit 
Arsinoes Cypridos ales equus (where 
Bentley needlessly alters to nictan- 



tibus}. Heinsius changes molibus to 
motibus ; but the passage from the 
Florida justifies the reading of F 1 
and <. 

genas] ' jaws ' : cp. Avianus 24. 16 
Tune hominem aspiceres oppression mur- 
mure magno conderet ut rabidis ultima, 
fatagenis (sc. of a lion) ; and the Glosses 
give maxillae as explanation of genae 
(iv. 82. 8 ; 522. 21). Also of a boar in 
8. 4 fin. genis hac illic iactatis (if we 
should not there read genuinis}. Note 
the alliteration in saeuientium dentium. 

trisulca uibramina] ' three-forked 
flickerings of the dragons' tongues': 
cp. Verg. G. 3. 4S9 (^n. 2. 475) 
linguis micat ore trisulcis. Serpents 
have only two prongs to their tongue. 
Cp. Tennyson, In Memoriam, 110. 2 
" Nor cared the serpent at thy side To 
flicker with his double tongue." For 
the enallage, cp. 6. 30 pinnatam Pegasi 
celeritatem. 

remigium dextra laeuaque porri- 
gens] 'extending the oarage of bis 
flight to right and left.' The metaphor 
of winged creatures ' rowing ' is quite 
common : cp. Ovid A. A. 2. 45 Remigium 
iiolucrum disponit in ordinepinnas ; Verg. 
2En. 1. 301 tiolat ille per aera magnum 
remiyio alarum, where Conington says 
the original author of the metaphor 
is supposed to be JEschylus Ag. 52 
TTTepvyuv eperjjio'iaiv epeffffd/jLevoi. See 
also Lucr. 6. 743. 

uolentes . . . praestantes] See Grit, 
note. The reading of the inferior mss. 
nolentes . . . praeminantes (praemonentes, 



vi. 16] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



107 



excipit, commentus ob iussum Veneris petere eique se 
praeministrare, quare paulo facilior adeundi fuit copia. sic 
acceptam cum gaudio plenam urmilam Psyche Veneri citata 
rettulit. 

16 Nee tamen nutum deae saeuientis uel tune expiare 5 
potuit. nam sic earn maiora atque peiora flagitia comminans 
appellat renidens exitiabile: "iam tu quidem mag[n]a uideris 

7 mag a v : tnagna F0. 



Beroaldus) is a very fair conjecture. 
It expresses in other words the warn- 
ings of the voiceful waters: cp. c. 14 
tin. Liitjohann's enixius postulantes 
' earnestly demanding ' is very flat. 
But it seems that the waters were 
willing to allow the eagle its will, 
en they heard that Venus required 
them ; and as Helm says that mm- of 
minantes is an alteration, and that 
originally the first letter was p (= prae] 
and the third t, it is almost certain that 
his reading praestantes must he right. 
Oudendorp, objecting to the variation 
in the gender of the eagle (cp. above, 
ales ilia), ingeniously suggests inde 
socius for innoxins, and for commentus 
he reads commenta (after the Juntina), 
which Jahn improves by reading com- 
menta se (better perhaps commenta eas 
sc. aquas). But such variation of 
gender is not infrequent. Bannier 
(s. v. ales in the Thesaurus i., p. 1525) 
notes Verg. jEn. 12. 247 fulmis louis 
ales ; Sil. 12. 56 ales fulua louis ; 
Ovid Met. 2. 544 ales Phoebeius ; 
Sil. 5. 79 Phoebect . . . ales ; Ovid. 
Am. 2. 6. 55 ales lunonia ; Anth. Lat. 
199. 69 lunonius ales. The gender 
would, accordingly, appear to have 
been so undecided that it is little 
wonder that Apuleius varied it within 
the limits of a chapter. Priscian (2. 
169. 11, see Neue-Wagener, i 3 . 919) 
says aquila is common gender, but we 
find it only feminine in authors. For 
innozius used passively, cp. Kritz on 
Sail. Cat. 39. 2. It is active in 5. 25 
innoxio uolumine. 



16 nutum deae saeuientis uel tune 
expiare] ' satisfy (appease) even then 
by her sufferings the will of the cruel 
goddess.' It is difficult to get an exact 
parallel for this expression ; but Cic. 
Pis. 16 poenas quibus coniuratorum manes 
mortnorum expiaretis is somewhat similar. 

comminans] We must hesitate to 
alter this word into commentans with 
Vliet, as comminari is such a favourite 
word with Apuleius. Hildebrand, in 
his fine note on 10. 5, quotes, besides 
this place, the following passages: 3. 
16; 6. 13; 9.17; 9. 20; 10.6; 10.7; 
De Deo Socr. 7, in which an accusative 
is used after that verb. 

renidens exitiabile] Hildebrand 
compares Tac. Ann. 4. 60 Tiberius 
torutts ant falswn renidens unltu : cp. 
also c. 13 subridens amarum; 5. 28 
irata solidum. 

tu quidem .' . . sed] av /xei/ . . . Se : 
cp. note to 5. 9 init. 

maga] This is doubtless the right 
reading for magna of the mss. Weyman 
points out a similar corruption in 
Ammianus 23. 6. 33. For maga . . . 
et malefica cp. Apol. 51 magi et malejici 
hominis, and possibly 96 magiae <<?^> 
maleficii criminibus (Bosscha adds the 
et} ; and a great number of cases 
quoted by Ronsch ' Itala und Yulgata,' 
pp. 316, 317. Ronseh there shows that 
malejicus is a regular word for witch- 
craft. For alta 'deep,' 'artful,' cp. 
Vopiscus Carin. 15. 2 denique, tit erat 
alttts, risit et tacuit. Suidas s. v. fia9vs 
has o.vr\ rov irovt]p6<i' OVTGO MeVovSpoy 
(a0irrrjs in Cic. Att. 5. 10 is rather 



108 CUPID AND PSYCHE [vi. 17 

quaedam mihi et alta prorsus malefica, quae talibus praeceptis 
meis obtemperasti nauiter. sed adhuc istud, mea pupula, 
ministrare debebis. sume istam pyxidem," et dedit ; " protinus 
usque ad inferos et ipsius Orel ferales penates te derige[t]. 

5 tune confere<fl>s pyxidem Proserpinae : " petit de te Venus," 
dicito, "modicum de tua mittas ei formonsitate uel ad unam 
saltern dieculam sufficient nam quod habuit, dum filium 
curat aegrotum, consumpsit atque contriuit omne." sed baud 
immaturius redito, quia me necesse est indidem delitam 

10 theatrum deorum frequentare." 

1 7 Tune Psyche uel maxime sensit ultimas f ortunas suas 
et uelamento reiecto ad promptum exitium sese compelli 
manifeste comperit. quidni? quae suis pedibus ultro ad 
Tartarum manesque commeare cogeretur. nee cunctata diutius 

15 pergit ad quampiam turrim praealtam, indidem sese datura[m] 
praecipitern; sic enim rebatur ad inferos recte atque pulcherrime 
se posse descendere. sed turris prorumpit in uocem subitam 

4 derige v : derig$ F<. 5 conferens v : conferes F<. 

9 redito f< : reddito F. 15 datura v : daturam F<. 



'reserve,' without a bad connotation) : Ann. 15. 35. 1 eius munus frequcntanti 

cp. also Sail. Jug. 95. 3 ad simulanda Neroni. 

<et dissimulanda> negotia altitudo ingeni Iff recte atque pulcherrime] ' pro- 

incredibilis. perly and in the most excellent way.' 

pupula] 'little girlie,' an ironically Editors mostly alter to recta ' straight,' 

used pet term. For pupa ' a girl,' cp. i.e. by a straight road, which is of 

Mart. 4. 20. 2. The word is generally course very good (5. 14 init. ; 9. 40), 

used of the pupil of the eye, like the but not at all necessary. For pul- 

Greek i<6pr). For pupus as a pet term cherrime, used in this ironical sense, 

cp. Suet. Calig. 13. cp. 10. 1 miles qui propter eximiam im- 

conferens] So some inferior mss. potentiam pukherrime uapularat ; Plaut. 

for conferes. Helm notices chap. 19 Bacch. 793 Pendebit hodie pulere. On 

remeas F for remeans. this rapid method of getting down to 

indidem delitam] ' tinctured there- Hades, compare the comic scene in the 

with ' : cp. 8. 27 facie coenoso pigmento Frogs of Aristophanes 127 ff. 

delita ('daubed '). turris prorumpit in uocem] The 

theatrum deorum frequentare] to commentators compare the Door talking 

attend the crowded assemblage of the in Catull. 67; Prop. 1. 16; and the 

gods.' The word frequentare is some- "Wall being addressed in the story of 

times used of a single person in post- Pyramus and Thisbe (Ov. Met. 4. 73). 

Augustan writers : cp. Plin. Ep. 1. 9. 2 This chapter and the next should be 

sponsalia ant nuptias freqnentaui ; Tac. compared with Verg. JEn. 6. 400-418. 



vi. 18] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



109 



et : " quid te," inquit, " praecipitem, o misella, quaeris extin- 
guere ? quidque iam nouissimo periculo laborique isto temere 
succumbis ? nam si spiritus corpore tuo semel fuerit seiugatus, 
ibis quidem profecto ad imum Tartarum, sed inde nullo pacto 
redire poteris. mihi ausculta. & 

18 Lacedaemo Achaiae nobilis ciuitas non longe sita est : 
hums conterminam deuiis abditam locis quaere Taenarum. 
inibi spiraculum Ditis, et per portas hiantes monstratur iter 
inuium, cui[us] te limine transmeato simul commiseris, iam 

9 cui Floridus : cui; F</>. 



te praecipitem . . . extinguere] 

' to do thyself to headlong death.' The 
expression is an artificial one, lit., ' to 
kill thyself headlong,' equivalent to 
te praecipitem dare mortij but is plainly 
not to be altered, as by Oudeudorp, to 
praecipitio, however fond Apuleius may 
be of that substantive (4. 25 ; 5. 25 ; 

6. 12 ; 9. 19). For the infinitive after 
quaerere cp. 5. 22 quaerit abscondere. 

isto] Note isto for isti: cp. 5. 31; 

7. 26 ; 11. 15 : cp. illo for illi Apol. 99, 
totae ciuitati Met. 11. 16, equiti totoque 
Romano populo 11. 17. 

18 conterminam . . . Taenarum] For 
thefemininecp. 1. 1 Taenaros Spartiaca. 
For Taenarum as the entrance to the 
lower world, cp. Verg. Georg. 4. 467 
Taenarias etiam fauces, alta ostia Ditis ; 
Hor. Carm. 1. 34. 10. 

inibi] ' therein,' fairly common in 
Apuleius Metam. 1. 21; 8. 23. 30; 
10. 35. It does not seem to be found 
between the age of Cicero and that of 
Apuleius. It is used of circumstance 
in 2. 11. Sed adsidue respiciens prae- 
ministrantem Fotidem inibi ('therein') 
recreabar animi. The phrase inibi esse 
is used of anything being ' close at hand ' 
Cic. Phil. 14. 5 ; and inibi without esse 
is used with a verb in the sense of ' just,' 
'almost': Gell. 1. 3. 1 cum eum iam 
inibi mors occuparet. 

spiraculum] cp. Verg. JEn. 7. 568 
Sic specus horrendum, saeui spiracula 



Ditis. Apuleius also uses it of the 
place at Hierapolis in Phrygia, where 
mephitic vapours ascended (De Mundo 
c. 17), sine ilia, ut poetae uolunt, Ditis 
spiracula dicenda sunt. 

iter inuium] This reminds one of 
Verg. JEn. 3. 383 Longa procul longis 
uia dividit inuia terris. In both places 
inuium implies not absolute impass- 
ableness, but that the way is difficult 
and trackless, * a pathless road.' 

limine] A variant is limite, 
( boundary,' properly a balk or ridge 
of land between two fields. Author- 
ities differ as to whether F< read 
limine or limite. Hildebrand and Helm 
say limine. Eyssenhardt, Jahn, and 
Vliet say limite. Either will suit 
the sense ; but limine is the easier. 
Helm is doubtless right. Floridus 
rightly altered cuius (cui;) of the mss. 
into cui, as the dative is required after 
commiseris. 

simul commiseris] Apuleius often 
uses simul for simul ac; 4. 3 simul . . . 
despexit ; 7. 7 simul . . . percepit ; 8. 26 
simul . . . conspexit ; 9. 36 simul 
wflammati sunt. In 2. 5 Oudendorp 
alters conspexerit to conspexit, for in 
independent sentences simul. (atque) is 
generally followed by the perfect in- 
dicative ; but Novak sees in conspexerit 
an iterative sense, ' as soon as on any 
occasion she may have seen,' and 
compares 7. 21 init. ut quemque . . . 



- 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



fvi. 



canale directo perges ad ipsam [h]0rci regiam. sed non 
</2>actenus uacua debebis per illas tenebras incedere, sed offas 
pol[l]entae mulso concretas ambabus gestare manibus, at in 
ipso ore duas ferre stipes, iamque confecta bona parte morti- 
5 ferae uiae contina&eris claudum asinum lignorum gerulum cum 
agasone simili, qui te rogabit decidenti<s> sarcinae fusticulos 
aliquos porrigas ei, sed tu nulla uoce deprompta tacita 

1 directo v : direpto F<J>. 
horci F<, corr. v. 

2 hactenus <f> man. alt. : acten ; F<. 

3 polentae <f> sed man. alt. : pollente F<. 

5 continaberis v: continaueris F< (sed contingueris <f> man. alt.). 

6 decidentis Gruter : decidenti F>. 



prospexerit . . . furens incurrit (where, 
however, Haupt alters to prospexif). 
We must not alter to commisisti in the 
passage before us, as the future perfect 
is quite regular when a future follows : 
cp. Cic. Sest. 146 nee, quotienscutique 
me uiderit, ingemescet. 

canale] heaten track ' (lit. * pipe ' 
or ' channel ' for conveying fluids) : 
cp. 9. 11 propellor ad incurua spatia 
jlexuosi canalis. 

hactenus] Somewhat unusual in 
prose when expressing actual distance 
in space, yet cp. Tac. Germ. 35 ; also 
Ov. Trist. 1. 10. 22. 

offas polentae mulso concretas] 
* lumps of barley meal stiffened with 
mead.' Apuleius, following Verg. 2En. 
6. 420 (Cerbero) melle soporatam et 
medicatis frugibus offam obicit, is 
thinking of the honey-cake (V.\LTOVTTO) 
placed at the side of a corpse by the 
Greeks : cp. Suidas /neXiTovTra eSi'Soro 
TO?S VKpo"is us 4s rbf Kepfiepov, though 
others supposed that it was to appease 
the dogs that accompanied Hecate. 

stipes] 'contributions.' The"obolus 
to pay the Stygian ferry " (Browning) ; 
cp. Lucian Charon 11, and Juv. 3. 267 
nee habet quern porrig at ore trientem. 

bona parte] a good part.' This is 
a quite common phrase, used even by 



Cicero (De Orat. 2. 14) : cp. Hor. Sat. 
1. 1. 61. 

continaberis] see note to 5. 31. It 
has been proved by a vase-painting 
which is older than Polygnotus that 
Apuleius is not referring to Ocnus and 
his ass : see Furtwangler in Archaeo- 
logische Zeitung (1870, Taf. 31, 32), 
and Introduction (chapter ii) . 

agasone] This word can mean either 
a groom or a driver of stable animals. 
In 7. 18 and 7. 25 Apuleius uses it of 
the driver of an ass, as here. In 6. 20 
he is called asinaritis. Livy 43. 5. 8 uses 
it of a driver of horses. For the sense 
of ' groom,' cp. Curt. 8. 6. 4. 

qui te rogabit . . . ei] This is quite 
different from the description of Ocnus, 
the ass-driver who is usually represented 
in the lower world. According to the 
representation which was depicted by 
Polygnotus (see Pausanias x. 29. 1 ; 
a similar painting by Nicophanes, a 
pupil of Pausias: Plin. H. N. 35. 137), 
Ocnus plaits a rope which is being 
eaten by the ass who is behind him : 
cp. Propertius 4. 3. 21 (of the inventor 
of warlike instruments, whose restless 
energy should ever prove fruitless) 
dignior obliquo funem qui torqueat Ocno 
aeternusqtie tuam pascal, aselle, fameni. 
Such a representation is given in 



[. 18] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



111 



)raeterito. nee mora cum ad flumen mortuum uenies, cui 

>raefectus Charon, protenus expetens portorium, sic ad ripam 

ilteriorem sutili cumba deducit commeantes. ergo et inter 

mortuos auaritia uiuit nee Charon ille f Ditis et pater, 

tantus deus, quicquam gratuito facit, set moriens pauper 5 



lumeister's Denkmdler (Fig. 2041), 
>m a marble well-head now in the 
r atican. There are other representa- 
tions of the same theme which are 
mentioned by Dr. Frazer in Ids note 
>n the passage from Pausanias. Among 
these is a vase-painting from Palermo, 
which is no doubt a caricature, but 
represents the ass, not as eating a rope, 
but with its load having fallen off. Dr. 
Frazer is hardly right in supposing that 
the lines in the vase-painting represent 
the rope : they are rather the fusticulos 
of Apuleius. According to Rossbach 
(Eh. Mus. 48 (1893), p. 598) the 
Palermo vase is certainly as old as the 
sixth century B.C., and indirectly serves 
as evidence of the antiquity of the 
original tale which Apuleius adopted ; 
for if Apuleius was himself the author 
of the description of Hades, he would 
most probably have represented Ocnus 
in the way which was traditional from 
the time of Polygnotus. A scholion on 
'Ofou TTO'/COU in Cratinus (Kock, No. 348) 
by Photius and Suidas says, eTri rwv 
a.vi}vvT(t)v Kal /*}/ ovruv \eyerai 77 
ira.poiij.ia., and compares it to Tr\iv9ov 
fiv. It continues 'Apiarapxos 5e 
Sia. TO Kparwov viroQsaQai ev "Ai5oi> 
iov TrAe/covTo, ovov 8e rb TrAeKO- 
^vov aireffdiovTa, which looks, as Kock 
says, as if Cratinus read "OKVOV irAo/cas: 
and it seems as if the right reading in 
Aristoph. Ran. 186 (where Charon is 
calling for passengers) were rts els rb 
ATJ^TJS TreSioj/ ^ eis"OKVov Tr\OKas % els 
Kspfiepiovs f) els nopaicas f) tirl Taivapovj 
not ovov TroKoy, which the Schol. ex- 
plains (apparently ad hoe), first as 
&Xpr]<Trov for it is useless to shave 
an ass; secondly as eVt rwv a. 



and avviroararuv, comparing 



nec mora cum . . . uenies] For 
this form of expression, cp. 6. 24 init. 

flumen mortuum] ' The Dead River,' 
i.e. the Styx. Of the rivers of Hades, 
Cocytus seems to have been regarded as 
sluggish (Hor. Carm.2. 14. 17), and Styx 
as motionless : cp. below pigrumfluentum, 
and Verg. JEu. 6. 438 tristique pains 
inamabilis undae. The word mortuum 
is applied to mare, meaning both the 
Northern Ocean (Plin. H. N. 4. 94; 
cp. Tac. Germ. 45) and the Dead Sea 
in Palestine. 

sic] ' on this condition,' i.e. on 
receiving the fee. Sic, like ovrta, is 
often used by Ap. in the apodosis 3. 1, 
15; 4. 15; 7. 17; 9. 19, 32, and 
elsewhere. 

sutili] an epithet taken from Vergil 
JEn. 6. 413 gemuit sub ponder e cumba 
sutilis. Charon's boat, the oldest in 
the world, was naturally of a primitive 
nature, consisting of hides * stitched 
together' over a frame- work of wood, 
like a coracle. 

Ditis fet pater] For the nominative 
Ditis cp. Petron. 120. 76 has inter sedes 
Ditis pater extulit or a: Quintil.l. 6.34 et 
Ditis quid minime dines. There are two 
objections to et : it should be nec, and 
should precede Ditis. Eyssenhardt 
transposes et to that place. Sauppe 
omits it, and inserts uel after ille, 
which is adopted by Helm. Beroaldus 
omitted et, and inserted nec before Ditis. 
Gronovius gives Ditis portitor. Why 
Dis pater is credited with rapacity for 
money I do not know. On general 
principles the gods do nothing for 
nothing (Lucian Sacrif . 2) ; but Apuleius 



112 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



[vi. 19 



uiaticum debet quaerere et aes si forte prae manu non f uerit, 
nemo eum expirare patietur. huic squalido seni dabis nauli 
nomine de stipibus quas feres alteram, sic tamen ut ipse sua 
manu de tuo sumat ore. nee setius tibi pigrum fluentum 

5 transmeanti quidam supernatans senex mortuus putris adtollens 
manus orabit ut eum intra nauigium tra/ias, nee tu tamen 
inlicita adflectare pietate. 

19 Transito fluuio modicum te progressa<m> textrices 
orabunt anus telam struentes manus paulisper accommodes, 

10 nee id tamen tibi contingere fas est. nam haec omnia tibi et 
multa alia de Veneris insidiis orientur, ut uel unam de manibus 

6 tr alias v : tradas F<. 8 progressam F< ambo ex corr. 



musthavehad some definite consideration 
in his mind relative to the King of the 
Shades. The reference cannot he to the 
name n\ovruv : for he bears that name 
ore 7rA.ouTo5oTT?s Kai fj.eya\65wpos &v 
(Lucian Tim. 21). 

uiaticum] cp. Plaut. Poen. prol. 71 
ipse abiit ad Acheruntem sine uiatico. 
Lucian Catapl. 18 ou5e rbv ofto\bv ex 6 * 
TO iropQiJLtla. KaTaj3aA.etV. 

prae manu] ' in hand.' This phrase 
is found in Plautus (Bacch. 624) and 
Terence (Ad. 980) ; but does not seem 
to reappear until the Antonine age. 

nemo . . . patietur] That is, no 
one will let him die without giving 
him the coin. If the dying man has 
it not himself, common charity will 
give it. This seems to be the meaning, 
though it is not well expressed. 

nauli] Taken, like many sea-faring 
words, direct from the Greek vavXov: 
cp. Aristoph. Ran. 270 fKfiaiv', atroSos 
rbv vavXov. See Juv. 8. 07, where the 
word seems used of passage-money in 
the upper world, though it would be 
quite possible to take it even there 
of Charon's obolus. For the word 
undoubtedly used of ordinary passage - 
money cp. Xen. Anab. 5. 1. 12; 
Digest 20. 4. 6. 1. 

de tuo sumat ore] cp. Lucian De 



Luctu 10 7rej5cti/ TIS airoQavri T&V 
oiiceiuv irpooTa /xev <f>epovres o&oAbv els 
rb <TT<^ua KarfdrjKav avr<f /j-iadbv TO? 
jropd/j.e'i TT)S vavTi\ias yevT]ff6/u.)>ot> : 
and many corpses have been found 
with this coin in their mouths : cp. 
Marquardt - Muu ' Privatleben der 
Eomer,' i. p. 349, and Mayor on 
Juvenal 3. 267 (nee habet quern porrig at 
ore trientem}. This burial custom 
appears to be first mentioned in 
Aristophanes, Ean. 140, 270. 

fluentum] This word is rare in the 
singular; cp., however, 6. 12 platano 
quae mecum simul unum fluentum bibit ; 
De Deo Socr. 19 Ilissi amnis modicum 
fluentum \ Ausonius Mos. 419. 

adflectare] This is the only place 
M r here this word is used except in a 
geographical signification. 

19 modicum te progressam] 'having 
advanced a little': cp. 8. 21 (of time) 
modicum commoratus', 1. 22 modico sectis 
progressits, 'a little farther/ 

manus . . . accommodes] 'assist,' 
1 lend a hand ' : cp. 9. 6 mihique mannm 
tantisper accommodas ; Senec. De Ira 2. 
23. 1 ejfecit ira ut tyrannus tyrannicidae 
manus accommodaret et praesidia sua 
gladio suo caederet. 

de Veneris insidiis] A difficulty 
has been raised as to how Yenus had 



vi. 19] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



113 



)mittas offulam. nee putes futile istud polentacium damnum 
me ; altera enim perdita lux haec tibi prorsus denegabitur. 
mis namque praegrandis, teriugo et satis amplo capite 
iditus, immanis et formidabilis, Conantibus oblatrans 
Lucibus mortuos, quibus iam nil mali potest facere, frustra 5 
jrritando ante ipsum limen -et atra atria Proserpinae semper 
ixcubans seruat uacuani Ditis domum. hunc offrenatum unius 
offulae praeda facile praeteribis ad ipsamque protinus Proser- 
pinam introibis, quae te comiter excipiet ac benigne, ut et 
molliter assidere et prandium opipare suadeat sumere. sed tu 10 
humi reside et panem sordidum petitum esto, deinde 

4 tonantibus Lipsius : conantibus Fc/>. 



>\ver in the lower world. T-WO answers 
iay be made to this : either that in 
>pular tales the power of the perse- 
cutor is very extended, and such power 
is assigned to Venus without much 
thought as to how far it squares with 
her usual attributes as an Olympian and 
terrestrial divinity: or the words de 
Veneris insidiis may only mean that 
Venus knew the temptations that would 
assail Psyche, and thus by craft sub- 
jected her to them. 

futile] * paltry loss of a barley 
cake' : cp. 3. 23 specta denique quam 
paruis quamque futilibus tanta res 
procuretur herbulis. For polentacium 
damnum cp. 5. 8. coniugale praeceptum : 
6. 20 Veneriam legationem. 

teriugo] 'threefold': cp. Verg. 
JEn. 6. 417 latratu . . . trifauci. 

territando] cp. Verg. ^n. 6. 400 
licet ing ens ianitor antro aeternum latrans 
exsangues terreat umbras. 

atra atria] ' pallid palaces ' 
alliteration. 

uacuam Ditis domum] Verg. JEn. 
6. 269 Perque domos Ditis tiacuas et 
inania regna. 

offrenatum . . . praeda] ' wlien 
quieted (lit. muzzled) by your letting 
him seize one of your lumps.' This 
is a common feature in fairy-tales, and 



is one of the incidents from fairy-tales 
which have been used by Vergil in his 
account of the lower world ; cp. Verg. 
JEn. 6. 421 Ille (Cerberus] fame rabida 
tria guttura pandens corripit obiectam. 
Other examples of features of fairy- 
tales in Vergil are the golden bough 
and the doves which guide the steps 
of JSneas (ib. 190 ff.).' For offrenatum 
cp. Apol. 77 iuuenem simplicem, prae- 
terea nouae nuptae illecebris offrenatum, 
suo arbitratu de uia deflectit ; Plaut. 
Capt. 755 Usque offrenatum suis me 
ductarent dolis (*lead by the nose'). 

molliter assidere . . . sumere] 
Rossbach (Khein. Mus. 48 (1893), 
p. 598) notices that the invitation of, 
Proserpina to Psyche to sit down to a 
banquet is not to be explained with 
Ettig (' Acheruntica ' = Leipziger 
Studien xiii, 385. 2) as an allusion 
to the supposed danger attaching to 
eating the food of the gods of the 
lower world : for Psyche is bidden to 
ask for some of that food, though it 
is only common bread. He thinks the 
danger lay in the possibility of some 
trick, such as was practised on Theseus 
whereby he had to sit for ever : cp. 
Verg. ^n. 6. 617. 

panem sordidum] called panis eibarius 
in the next chapter: cp. note to 6. 11. 



114 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



[vi. 20 



mmtiato, quid adueneris, susceptoque quod offeretur rursus 
remea<?i>s canis saeuitiam offula reliqua redime ac deinde 
auaro nauitae data quam reseruaueras stipe transi toque eius 
fluuio recolens priora uestigia ad istum caelestium siderum 
5 redies chorum. sed inter omnia hoc obseruandum praecipue 
tibi censeo, ne uelis aperire uel inspicere illam quam feres 

pyxidem uel omnino diuinae formonsitatis a&^'tum 

curiosius thensaurum." 

$O Sic turris ilia prospicua uaticinationis munus explicuit. 

1 offeretur <f> : efferetur F. 

2 re means <f> : remeas F. 

4 recolens F< : in margine F habet aliquid quod iam non dispici potest : 

recalcans coni. Oudendorp. 

7 abditum F sed abdi ita refictum ut quid fuerit non dispici possit : addiction (p. 
9 prospicua F0 : in margine eadem manu uel propilia. 



quid adueneris] cp. Plaut. Merc. 
940 dico quid eo aduenerim (' the object 
of my coming '). 

recolens] 'retracing,* 'going over 
again.' This word is used in almost 
as many senses as our phrase ' to go 
over.' It means to bestow one's 
attention again on anything: cp. 5. 
10 Venerem meam recolentem; 9. 21 
recolens (' remembering ') festinationis 
suae delictum; 11. 7 monitionis ordinem 
recolebam (' I went over again in mind'). 
The Dictionaries quote Phaedrus 1. 18. 
1 nemo libenter recolit qui laesit locum. 
If the mss. admitted it, we should 
readily accept recalcans, which Onden- 
dorp suggested, comparing 9. 11 mea 
recalcans uestigia. There is something 
illegible in the margin of F, which 
may possibly be recalcans. 

redies] For this form cp. Seneca. 
Epist. 119 20 (exiet] ; Tibullus 1. 
4. 27 (transief). It is very common 
in ecclesiastical Latin : cp. Neue- 
Wagener iii 3 . 327 f. 

uel omnino . . . thensaurum] Some 
verb has been lost, which it is impos- 
sible to replace with certainty. It . 
was probably of a general nature, 



meaning ' to pay attention to ' : and 
nothing better than curare (Koziol) 
readily presents itself : cp.6.2init. That 
word also accounts for the corruption. 
The inferior mss. altered cttriosius into 
cures ; but we cannot easily dispense 
with the adverb which expresses so 
essential an idea in the story of Psyche. 
For abditum Helm compares 5. 14 
thensaurumque penitus abditae frandis. 
In F abdi- is a correction, possibly of 
addic-, which appears in <. 

2O prospicua] ' provident' : cp. 1. 21 
prospicue Demeas meus in me consuluit ' r 
11. 18 cum familiares . . . prospictie 
curassent. The interpretation ' con- 
spicuous,' ' far-seen ' (TTJACO-KOTTOS), is 
otiose here, and not in accordance with 
the usage of Apuleius : nor can it be 
defended by Statins Theb. 12 15, for 
the right reading there is perspicuae. 
But there may have been something of 
the meaning 'far-seeing' (TTJACO-K OTTOS 
paroxytone) in the literal, physical 
sense, hovering before the mind of 
Apuleius in his choice of the epither. 
In the margin of F the emendation 
propitia is suggested, which is just 
possible; cp. note to 5. 22 fin. 



t. 20] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



115 



morata Psyche pergit Taenarum sumptisque rite stipibus 
His et offulis infernum decurrit meatum transitoque per 
jilentium asinario debili et amnica stipe uectori data, neglecto 
ipernatantis mortui desiderio et spretis textricum subdolis 
>recibus et offulae cibo sopita canis horrenda rabie domum 5 
Proserpinae penetrat. nee offerentis hospitae sedile deftcatum 
uel cibum beatum amplexa, sed ante pedes eius residens humilis 
cibario pane contenta Veneriam pertulit legationem. statimque 
secreto repletam conclusamque pyxidem suscipit et offulae 
sequentis fraude caninis latratibus obseratis residuaque nauitae 
reddita stipe longe uegetior ab inferis recurrit. et repetita 
itque adorata Candida ista luce, quanquam festinans obsequium 
jrminare, mentem capitur temeraria curiositate et " ecce," 
iquit, "inept<> ego diuinae formonsitatis gerula, quae 

6 delicatum v : dedicatum F<|>. 
10 obseruatis F<|>, sed u lineola delete. 
14 inepta ego <f> : inepteego F, sec go deleuit alt. manus. 



infernum decurrit meatum] 'hastily 
traversed the pathway to the Shades.' 
For this cognate ace. cp. Verg. JEn. 
5. 862 currit Her tutum; 3. 191 
currimus aequor. Bolder is decurre 
laborem in Georg. 2. 39. 

asinario] called agasone in 6. 18. 

amnica stipe] 'the ferry -toll.' For 
amnicus cp. Vopise. Aurel. 47. 3 navi- 
cularios Niliacos apud ^Aegyptum novos 
et Romae amnicos posui. 

nee . . . uel] This use of uel, where 
we should expect nee, is common in 
Apuleius : see 5. 19 nee . . . uiri mei 
nidi Jaciem uel omnino cuiatis sit noui 
(cp. 3. 11); 10. 10 nee rota uel eculeus 
. . . iam deerant ; 11. 22 ; 11. 30 (his). 
Less unusual are passages where uel is 
repeated, as 5. 11 certe de marito nil 
quidquam uel audias uel respondeas ; 
cp. 5. 12. For further see Koziol, 
p. 322. 

delicatum] luxurious," soft.' The 
older editors rightly corrected the mss. 



dedicatum: see c. 19 molliter assidere* 
The word delicatus is a favourite with 
Apuleius : cp. 5. 10 delicatas manus \ 
5. 22 plumulae tenellae et delicatae ; 5. 
25 ; 9. 33 ; 10. 20, 32 ; Apol. 4. 19. 

cibario pane] cp. note to 6. 11. 

offulae sequentis fraude] ' by the 
heguilement of the second cake.' For 
sequens F. Norden compares 5. 27 nee 
uindictae sequentis poena tardauit. 

longe uegetior] This gracefully 
expresses the sense of exhilaration we 
all feel when some dismal work is 
successfully accomplished. The word 
is especially used for the feeling of 
refreshment after sleep : cp. 9. 3. 

mentem capitur] We find mente 
captus often (e.g. Cic. Cat. 3. 21), and 
captus animi in Tacitus (Hist. 3. 73), 
but I do not know of any other ex. 
of the ace. Yet it is of exactly the 
same nature as (say) Verg. JEn. 5. 869- 
casnque animum concussus amid ; cp. 
Koby, 1126. 



i 2 



116 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



[vi. 21 



nee tantillum quidem indiclem mihi delibo uel sic illi amatori 
meo formonso placitura," et cum dicto reserat pyxidem. 

$1 nee quicquam ibi rerum nee formonsitas ulla, sed 
infernus somnus ac uere Stygius, qui statim coperculo reuelatus 

5 inuadit earn crassaque soporis nebula cunctis eius membris 
perfunditur et in ipso uestigio ipsaque semita conlapsa<m> 
possidet. et iacebat immobilis et nihil aliud quam dormiens 
cadauer. sed Cupido iam cicatrice solida reualescens nee 
diutinam suae Psyches absentiam tolerans per altissimani 

10 cubiculi quo cohibebatur elapsus fenestram refectisque pennis 
aliquanta quiete longe uelocius prouolans Psyclien accurrit 
suam detersoque somno curiose et rursum in pristinam pyxidis 

5 crassaque v : crassoque F<J>. 6 collapsamv: collapsa Fc/>. 

9 Post altissimam in F lacuna quattuor litterarum. Hanc lacunam < complevit 
addito partem. 



nc tantilium quidem] For nee . . . 
quidem see note to 5. 5. 

uel sic] ' at least in this way ' a 
pretty trait of modest self -depreciation. 
Psyche implicitly disdains the possession 
of any beauty, but thinks that from the 
casket she will get a little beauty to 
attract her lover and match in some way 
his beauty. For uel sic Weyman com- 
pares Firmicus Err. 25 fin. reliqua 
persequatmir ut uel sic pollutarum aurium 
sordes purificans possit sermo purgare. 

et cum dicto] This method of con- 
necting a speech with the succeeding 
narrative is much used by Apuleius: 
cp. 1. 16, 17, 18, 22 (bis), 23, and 
about a dozen more times ; see Koziol 
318. A variation is 5. 24 et cum termino 
serinonis(vip. 3. \lcumisto fine sermonis). 
21 coperculo reuelatus] 'when the 
lid disclosed it.' The word reuelare 
often occurs in Apuleius, 2. 24, 26 ; 
3. 9, 15 ; 9. 22 (luminibus reuelatis, 
' when my eyes were unbandaged '), 
26, 42 ; 10. 18. The expression is a 
little unusual, ' disclosed by the lid,' 
i.e. ' by the lid's being taken off': but 
there is no need to alter with Eohde to 
releuatus. 



in ipso uestigio] ' on the very spot.' 
Hildebrand notices that in this sense, 
unless some word like loci or temporis 
follows uestigio (cp. Cic. Pis. 21), in 
Classical Latin we find a preposition 
added, such as in or e. In Apuleius, 
however, we find uestigio without a 
preposition used in the sense of illico 
(4. 27). 

solida] ' as the wound had become 
hard,' 'had cicatrised.' Rohde reads 
solidata for solida. The Dictionaries 
quote Pliny 24. 152 nemos abscisos . . . 
solidari, and of broken limbs setting, 
28. 227. But the adjective gives the 
sense satisfactorily. 

aliquanta] For this adjective cp. 
8. 18 aliquanto denique uiae permenso 
spatio : Apol. 71 aliquantam pecuniam 
. . . debebat. It seems to be first found 
in Sallust, e.g. Jug. 105. 4 ; cp. also 
Bell. Afr. 21. 1. 

Psychen accurrit] For absence of a 
preposition cp. note to 5. 4. 

detersoque] For the soporis nebula 
was crassa ; see above. 

curiose] 'carefully.' cp. Petron. 135 
detersisque curiose manibus and granaque 
. . . curiosa manu segrego. This sceue 



r.22] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



117 



lem recondito Psyches innoxio punctulo sagittae suae 
iscitat et " ecce," inquit, " rursum perieras, misella, simili 
mriositate. sed interim quidem tu prouinciam, quae tibi 
itris meae praecepto mandata est, exsequere nauiter, cetera 
unet uidero." his dictis amator leuis in pinnas se dedit, 5 
Psyche uero confestim Veneri munus reportat Proserpinae. 

^ Interea Cupido amore nimio peresus et aegra facie, 
latris suae repentinam sobrietatem pertimescens, ad armillum 
jdit alisque pernicibus caeli penetrato uertice magno loui 
ipplicat suamque causam probat. tune luppiter prehensa 10 
ipidinis buccula manuque ad os suum relata consauiat atque 
ad ilium: "licet tu," inquit, "domine fili, numquam mihi 

3 prouinciam F : tu prouinciam addidit <J> alia aut eadem manu in lacuna. 
quae~\ que F : que fy : quod, f . 

4 mandata F< : mandatum f . 

8 armillum F : armile f<f> et F in margine. 



has been selected by both Thorwaldsen 
and Canova for statues. 

perieras] This is the same kind of 
hypothetical indicative as is found, e.g., 
in Hor. Carm. 2. 17. 29 me truncus . . . 
sustulerat nisi Faunus ictum dextra 
leuasset ; Ovid Fast. 2. 434 utilius 
fuerat non habuisse nurus, ' you would 
have perished (if I had not helped you).' 

simili] i.e. as on the occasion when 
you were curious as to my appearance 
(5. 23). 

sed interim . . . tibi] This use of 
prouincia for duty,' function,' is 
quite common in the comic writers, and 
is used by Cicero (Sull. 52 and else- 
where). The word interim is charming 
and full of significance : ' meanwhile,' 
i.e. until I can arrange everything for 
a renewal of our union. 

amator leuis] her airy lover.' For 
in pinnas se dedit cp. 2. 29 me in meam 
quietem permit te. 

22 amore nimio peresus] cp. Verg. 
-ZEn. 6. 442 quos durus amor crudeli tabe 
peredit; Catull. 55. 23 et multis langori- 
bus peresus essem. 



matris suae repentinam sobrietatem] 
' his mother's sudden reformation.' 

ad armillum redit] ' returns to his 
old ways,' lit. ' to the wine-jar '; cp. 9. 
29 ilia . . . exasperata ad armillum 
reuertitttr. The proverb is found in 
Lucilius 767 (ed. Marx) onus russum ad 
armillum, ' the old woman returns to 
the bottle,' armillum being, according to 
Paulus on Festus 2, teas uinarium in 
sacris dictum quod armo id est humero 
deportetur. This derivation is only 
a popular etymology. The word is 
possibly a diminutive of anna. One of 
the Glosses (CGL v.6. 13) gives armillum 
uas uinarium wide anus (antis Codd.) ad 
armillum. 

prehensa . . . buccula] cp. Suet. 
Galb. 4 Augustum puero . . . apprehensa 
buccula dixisse. In 2. 13 Ap. uses the 
deponent form consauiatus eum. These 
are the only two places in Lat. where 
the word occurs. For the double form 
cp. altercare (6. 26) and -cari: percon- 
tare(il. 19) and -ari. 

domine fill] On the use of the 
address * domine ' in ordinary life 



118 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



[vi. 22 



concessu deum decretum seruaris honorem, sed istud pectus 
meum, quo leges elementorum et uices siderum disponuntur, 
conuulneraris assiduis ictibus crebrisque terrenae libidinis 
foedaueris casibus contraque leges et ipsam luliam disciplinam- 
5 que publicam turpibus adulteriis existimationem famamque 
meam laeseris in serpentes, in ignes, in feras, in aues et gregalia 
pecua serenos uultus meos sordide reformando, at tamen 
modestiae meae memor quodque inter istas meas maims 
creueris, cuncta perficiam, dum tamen scias aemulos tuos.cauere 



Friedlander (Sittengeschichte Horns i 6 . 
442 ff.) has a learned discussion. He 
notices (p. 449) that brothers and sisters 
were accustomed to use the word some- 
times when speaking of or to one 
another: cp. Seneca Ep. 104. 1 illud 
mihi erat in ore domini mei Gallionis, 
['my respected Gallio '] ; and that 
though the address of Jupiter is here 
somewhat jocular, yet we find Sym- 
machus in seriousness addressing his 
daughter as dominafilia (Ep. 6. 40, 67). 
For Cupid nsjilius of Jupiter cp. note to 
5. 29 fin. 

istud pectus meum] For iste used 
for hie cp. below istas meas mantis and 
5. 10 init. : 5. 30 fin. ; and see note 
to 6. 10 istam uesperam. Apuleius 
uses hie iste in 2. 13 hie iste Chaldaeus. 
Of course he often uses iste in the usual 
connexion with the second person, 5. 6 
tuo isto . . . concubio ; cp. Kretschmann 
90, 91. 

casibus] 'incidents,' 'casualties' of 
gallantry upon earth : cp. 7. 4 fortissi- 
tmim quemque nariis quidem sed impigris 
casibus oppetisse. 

ipsam luliam] The Lex lulia de 
adulteriis coercendis \vas passed by 
Augustus in 737 (= 17 B.C.), and formed 
throughout Roman times the basis of 
procedure in the matter of adultery: 
cp. Digest 48. 5, the whole of which 
Title is devoted to the Julian law. 

disciplinamque publicam] cp. 4. 30 
contempta disciplina publica. 



in serpentes . . . gregalia pecua] 
Ovid. Met. 6. 103 ff. relates how 
Arachne pourtrayed the loves of Jupiter, 
Maeonis elusam designat imagine tauri 
Europam . . . fecit et Asterien aquila 
luctante teneri : fecit oloriuis Ledam 
recubare sub alis. Addidit . . . aureus 
ut Danaen, Atopida (i.e. JEgina) luserit 
ignis, Mnemosynen pastor, uarius Deoidu 
(i.e. Proserpina) serpens. 

in ignes] Juhn alters to in imbres, 
as we should expect some allusion to 
Danae; and Rohde reads in cygnos, in 
feras immanes (for in aues}. But 
Jupiter appeared in fire to JEgina (see 
above), and also to Semele. In the 
enumeration of Jupiter's amours in 
Lucian Dial. Deorum 2. 1 there is no 
mention of fire ; but in Achilles Tatius, 
2. 37, SeyueArjj' 5' e<s ovpavbv avrjyayev 

OVK OpVlS UfMTfjffTTJS CtAAtt TTVp '. Cp. Ov. 

Met. 3. 307 ff. 

reformando] Apuleius is fond of using 
the abl. of the gerund. Leky (p. 34) 
quotes 3. 19; 7. 17, 21, 22; 9. 5, 35. 

scias aemulos tuos cauere] ' bear in 
mind, to guard against your rivals.' 
This doubtless means that Cupid, pre- 
viously so flighty, must be on the watch 
that no lovers pay their addresses to 
Psyche. Jupiter does not mean to 
refer to himself, as Otidendorp seems to 
think. We can hardly take aemulos tuos 
in the sense of 'enemies' with special 
reference to Venus, as Hildebrand 
suggests. Plainly Jupiter means that 



vi. 28] CUPID AND PSYCHE 119 

ac, si qua mine in terris puella praepollet pulcritudine, prae- 
sentis beneficii uicem per earn mihi repensare te deberQ." 

$3 Sic fatus iubet Mercurium deos omnes ad contionem 
protinus conuocare ae, si qui coetu caelestium defuisset," in 
poenam decem milium nummum conuentum iri pronuntiare. 5 
quo metu statim complete caelesti theatro pro sede sublimi 
sedens procerus luppiter sic enuntiat : 

"Dei conscripti Musarum albo, adolescentem istum quod 
manibus meis alumnatus sim, profecto scitis omnes. cuius 

9 sim F ut uidetur, et (f> : sit f. 



Cupid must remember, now that he is to 
be married, that he has responsibilities. 
For cauere cp. Ovid. A. A. 1. 753 Cog- 
natum fratremque caue carumque sodaUm. 

puella praepollet pulcritudine] Alli- 
teration. ' if any lass lives excellent in 
rveliness.' 

praesentis beneficii uicem . . . debere] 
' that in return for this kindness you 
are bound to make recompense to me 
by means of her.' As no certain 
example of the genitive after uicem 
when it is a direct accusative and not 
used adverbially is forthcoming, it seems 
necessary to take repensare as intransitive. 
The Dictionaries refer to Lactantius Inst. 
7. 1 fin. 25 ea quae legunt et non in- 
telleyunt Deo repensante patientur. 

23 in poenam . . . conuentum iri] 
'to be sued for a penalty of ten thousand 
sesterces.' This use of conueniri is 
frequent in the Digest, e.g. 3. 5. 31 : 
4. 3. 13. For fines on senators cp. 
Varro in Gellius 14. 7. 10 de pignore 
quoqiie capiendo disserit deque mult a 
dicenda senatori qui cum in senatum 
uenire deberet non adesset ; cp. Dio 
Cass. 54. 18. 3; 55. 3. 2. 

theatre] 'assembly room'; cp.6. 16fin. 

pro sede sublimi sedens] ' aloft on 
his lofty throne': cp. pro rostris, pro 
tribunals. Note the alliteration. 

procerus luppiter] ' tall Jupiter ' 
an unusual epithet. 

Dei conscripti] cp. Seneca Apocol.9init. 



Musarum albo] 'in the register of 
the Muses.' The Muses, as presiding 
over writing and literature, keep the 
roll- of the divinities. Generally the 
genit. after album (* list,' ' register') is 
objective, e.g. album senatorum, itidicum 
(list of names of the senators, judges); 
here, however, it is possessive (' kept by 
the Muses '). Erasmus notices that the 
Muses are rightly the registrars of the 
gods, for they inspire the poets, who 
alone bring the gods into honour and 
notice. Hildebrand quotes Fulg. Myth. 
1. Prol. 15 (=p. 8. 22 Helm), where 
Calliope says una . . . sum e uirginali, 
Eliconiadum curia louis albo conscripta 
as an example of facetious reference to 
registers in Olympus. 

quod . . . alumnatus sim . . . scitis] 
For scire quod F. Norden compares 
Plaut. Asin. 52 scio iam filius quod 
amet meus istanc, which Lindsay (Syntax 
of Plautus, p. 112) thinks doubtful. 
A similar use is also found in 
Apuleius Met. 4. 5 animaduerteram 
eolloquentes quod in proximo nobis esset 
habenda mansio ; 10. 24 mittit seruulutn 
. . . qui puellae nuntiaret quod earn 
iuuenis . . . uocaret ad sese. For 
alumnati used actively cp. 8. 17 canes 
. . . quos ad tutelae praesidia ctiriose 
fuerant alumnati. In 9. 36 canes . . . 
transeuntium . . . passiuis mor^ibus 
alumnatos it is used passively ; cp. 
10. 23. 



120 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



[vi. 23 



primae iuuentutis caloratos impetus freno quodam cohercendos 
existimaui ; sat est cotidianis eum fa&ulis ob adulteria cunc- 
tasque corruptelas infamatum. tollenda est omnis occasio et 
luxuria puerilis nuptialibus pedicis alliganda. puellam elegit 
5 et uirginitate priuauit : teneat, possideat, amplexus Psychen 
semper suis amoribus perfruatur." et ad Venerem conlata 
facie, " nee tu," inquit, " filia, quicquam contristere nee 
prosapiae tantae tuae statuque de matrimonio mortali metuas. 
iam faxo nuptias non impares, sed legitimas et iure ciuili 
10 congruas," et ilico per Mercurium arripi Psychen et in caelum 
perduci iubet. porrecto ambrosiae poculo, " siime," inquit, 

et 

8 prosapie f : piosa pie F<f>. 11 iubet F : iubet <f>. 



caloratos impetus] < the heated im- 
petuosity of youth': cp. 10. 23 caloris 
iuuenalis impetu lapsus. For caloratus 
in this sense the only other passage 
quoted in the Thesaurus is Fulg. Myth. 
3. 4 (= 63. 22 Helm) omne enim 
caloratae iuuentutis igniculum torpidae 
ueternositatis algescit in senio. 

teneat, possideat] cp. Justinian 
Institutes 3. 29. 2 quodue tu meum 
habes tenes possides, on which Sandars 
says habes refers to dominium, tenes to 
physical detention, possides to possession 
(cp. Dig. 41. 4. 49. 1 possessio non 
tan turn corporis sed et iuris est) : also 
Pliny Ep. 1. 16. 1 nunc enim totum me 
tenet habet possidet. There is no need 
to add habeat, as has heen suggested, 
owing to the legal formula, though it 
might have easily heen lost after teneat. 
Jupiter, heing a lordly personage, would 
not trouble to speak with the full exact- 
ness of a lawyer. 

amplexus Psychen] Dietze (p. 138) 
thinks it possible that Apuleius may be 
alluding to the celebrated Capitoline 
statue (Baumeister, DenJcmdkr, Fig. 
1576). 

conlata facie] cp. note to 5. 6. 



Here it means simply ' turning to,' and 
is rare when thus used of a single 
person: cp. Senec. Epist. 71. 34 nt possit 
cum ilia (Fortuna] conferre -uultum. 

nee prosapiae tantae tuae statuque 
. . . metuas] ' do not be afraid for your 
grand lineage and social position by. 
reason of the marriage bejng one with 
a mortal ': statu is dative ; for the dat. 
cp. Verg. Georg. 1. 186 inopi metuens 
formica senectae; and JEn. 10. 94. For 
de of the cause of fear, 7. 16 de me 
metuentes sibi. Apuleius is fond of the 
word prosapia, cp. 1. 1 ; 8.2; 9. 35 ; 
10. 18 ; De Deo Socr. 23 ; Apol. 18. 

impares] cp. note to 6. 9. 

iure ciuili congruas] ' suitable accord- 
ing to civil law.' This word congruus is 
found in Plautus (Mil. 1116), but does 
not reappear until Apuleius, and is 
frequently in use after him. Jahn alters 
iure to iuri (cp. De Dogm. Plat. 2. 13); 
but this is unnecessary, as congruus is 
often used absolutely : cp. 7. 1. 

ambrosiae] Ambrosia is generally 
regarded as the solid food of the gods, 
while nectar is the liquid (Serv. on 
JEn. 12. 419). Here ambrosia is loosely 
used for nectar. For another sense of 



vi. 24] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



121 



"Psyche, et immortalis esto, nee umquam digredietur a tuo 
nexu Cupido, sed istae uobis erunt perpetuae nuptiae." 

$4 Nee mora cum cena imptialis affluens ex<^>ibetur. 
accumbebat summuin torum maritus, Psychen gremio suo 
complexus. sic et cum sua lunone luppiter ac deinde per & 
ordinem toti del. tune poculum nectaris, quod uinum deorum 
est, loui quidem suus pocillator ille rusticus puer, ceteris uero 
Liber ministrabat, Vulcanus cenam coquebat ; Horae rosis et 
ceteris floribus purpurabant omnia, Gratiae spargebant. balsama 
Musae fquoque canora personabant ; Apollo cantauit i& 

3 exhibetur <f> al. man. : exibettir F</>. 



ambrosia see 5. 22. In Ovid Met. 14. 
607 Venus ambrosia cum dulci nectar e 
mixta contigit os (sc. of jEneas) fecit que 
denm. No parallel can be adduced for 
the meaning of 'immortality,' assigned 
to ambrosia by Rodius, though Mart. 
Cap. 2. 141 (cp. 1. 34) has immortali- 
tatis poculum. 

nuptiae] With the whole scene 
Hildebrand well compares the marriage 
of Philologia and Mercury in Martianus 
Capella 2, 140 f. 

24 Nee mora cum . . . exhibetur] 
cp. 6. 18. This phrase is generally 
found with the present indicative, e.g. 
4. 10 ; 5. C ; 11.7; but it is followed 
by the perfect twice in 3. 2 cuncta 
compkta (but the present occipiunt 
follows): populus compleuit; and once 
by the future 6. 18 uenies. For another 
parody of a banquet of the gods, cp. 
Lucian Icarom. 27. The model is at 
the end of Iliad i. 

cena nuptialis] Here used in its 
literal sense. For the general sense of 
'banquet,' not necessarily 'marriage 
feast,' see 6. 11. 

affluens] 'abundant': 2. 19 ristis 
affluens; Tac. Ann. 15. 54 adfluentiits 
solito conuiuium. 

summum torum] This seems to have 
been the right corner seat (dextrnm 



cornu) of the sigma: cp. note to 5. 3. 
It was the place of honour. The second 
place of honour was the sinistrum cornu, 
and here Jupiter and Juno had their 
places. See some interesting examples 
quoted by Marquardt-Mau, 'Privatleben 
der Homer,' i., 307, 308. 

toti del] = omnes dei : cp. 8. 2 fin. ; 
9. 36 med. 

pocillator] cp. 6. 15. 

Vulcanus cenam coquebat] We do- 
not find Vulcan engaged in this duty 
elsewhere ; but it is appropriate to the 
god of fire, in so far as that element 
was employed for useful purposes. 

purpurabant] ' crimsoned all things.' 
The word is neuter in 10. 22 labias 
ambroseo rore purpur antes. Gellius 
(18. 11) quotes a fine passage from 
Furius Antias, in which occurs the 
line spiritus Eurorum uiridis cum pur - 
purat nndas. 

fquoque] This word is probably 
in error, as it breaks the asyndeton. 
Gulielmus suggests voce, which has a 
certain similarity of sound to quoque. 
Possibly the original M f as choro : cp. 
Val. Flacc. 5. 693 Tune adsuetus adest 
Phlegraeas reddere pugnas Musarum 
chorus et citharae pulsator Apollo ; and 
Mart. Capella 2. 117 Ecce ante fores 
quidam dulcis sonus . . . cietur quein 



122 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



[vi. 24 

ad c[h]it^aram, Venus suaui musicae superingressa formonsa 
saltauit, scaena sibi si<c> concinnata, ut Musae quidem chorum 
canerent <aut> tibias inflarent, Saturus et Paniscus ad fistulam 
dicerent. sic rite Psyche conuenit in manum Cupidinis et 

1 cither am fy : chiteram F. 
sugingressa <p : suppari gressn Scaliger. 

2 sic v: si F<. 

3 aut add. Oudendorp : et add. Petschenig. 
iiiflarent ~F<f> : wflaret v. 

4 dicerent <f> : diceret v. 






Musarum conuenientium chorus impen- 
dens nuptialibus sacramentis modulations 
doctae tinnitibus concinebat. Helm reads 
Musaeque voce. At the union of Cadmus 
and Harmonia ' tlie gods had to their 
marriage come, and at the banquet all 
the Muses sang ' : cp. Eur. Phoen. 822 ; 
Pind. Pyth. 3. 90 (160). 

Apollo] Before this word Helm places 
a lacuna, in v/hich he supposes some 
words like inter dopes or post dapes, and 
compares 5. 3, and Lucian Icaromenipp. 
27 ev Se T< 5f'nrv(f> o re 
fKtOdptfff Kal 6 SeiArjfbs KopSaKa 
<roTO, Kal at MoCo"ctt a.va.o'Taffa.i TTJJ T6 
oyovtas f,ffa.v fjfjui 1 Kal T^V 
$T}V TWI> vfjivwv T&V Htvtidpov. 

superingressa] Scaliger and most 
editors read suppari gressu, ' with step 
in time to the soft music,' which of 
course makes excellent sense. But the 
reading of the mss. is quite defensible, 
though the word does not seem to be 
found elsewhere. 'Entering upon the 
soft music,' i.e. the music was already 
in progress when Venus entered. In a 
ballet the premiere danseuse generally 
waits to make her entry until the music 
has continued for some time : cp. in 
the formal description of the ballet in 
10. 31 super has introcessit alia . . . 
designans Venerem. 

formonsa] ace. plur. of cognate idea 
After saltauit'. cp. Copa 2 Ebriafamosa 



saltat lasciua taberna. We must not 
alter toformose with Passerat. 

scaena sibi sic concinnataj abl. 
abs. ' the exhibition having thus ar- 
ranged itself.' For concinnare cp. 7. 11 
tucceta conc'mnat\ 10. 13 mellita con- 
cinnabat edulia (cp. Plaut. Men. 102 
Tantas struices concinnat patinarias] ; 

7. 26 cadauer . . . disiectis partibus . . . 
totum repertum aegreque concinnatum. 
For dancing exhibitions among the 
Romans, see art. Fantomimus in Diet. 
Antiq. 

tibias inflarent] The Muses played 
upon the tibia: cp. Hor. Carm. 1. 
1. 33 si neque tibias Euterpe cohibet. 
Oudendorp adds ant before tibias. 

ad fistulam dicerent] ' chanted to 
his Pan-pipe.' The tibia was a straight 
pipe like our clarionet : the fistula was 
the Pandean pipe (jruptyl), which con- 
sisted of seven hollow reeds (calami] of 
different lengths and diameters : cp. 
Verg. Eel. 2. 36. 

conuenit in manum Cupidinis] ' \vas 
regularly married to Cupid' : cp. 8. 2; 

8. 8; Cic. Top. 14 Si ea in manum 
non conuenerat nihil debetur (this refers 
to the special point Cicero is discussing) . 
Genus enim est uxor : eius duae formae : 
una matrutn familias, eae sunt quae in 
manum conuenerunt ; altera eantm quae 
tantummodo uxores habentur: see also 
Guius 1. 108 ff. 






vi. 24] 



CUPID AND PSYCHE 



123 



nascitur illis mature partu filia, qua<m> Voluptatem nomina- 



mus. 



1 quam f0 : qua F. 
nominamus </> : no * * * * | minam; F (" o ex M alia man us ut uidetur refingendo 

effecit : uoluerat scribere nuncupamus " Helm). 
fabula explicit F in marg. : explicit fabula <f> in marg. 



Voluptatem] cp. Cic. N. D. 2. 61 ; 
Varro L. L. 5. 164 in Noua Via ad 
Volupiae sacellum. Cupid had spoken 
of his and Psyche's unborn child as a 
boy (5. 13 in hoc paruulo) ; so Apuleius 
is supposed here, having lapsed into 
allegory, ' to nod.' But it is the critics 
who dream. Cupid did not necessarily 



know the future in every respect. 
Parents always assume that their first- 
born will be a boy ; and when the sex is 
unknown, it is allowable to use the 
masculine. Besides Julianus, in full 
wig and gown, assures us (Digest 50. 
16. 201) appellatione ^filii' Jiliamfam- 
ilias contineri saepe respondimus. 



EXCURSUS I 

MILESIAN TALES 

MILESIAN tales are associated with the name of a certain Aristides, 
who lived in the second century B.C., and wrote a book called 
MtXrjo-LOLKd. It consisted of a series of stories of an erotic, even 
indecent, nature, 1 which are supposed by Aristides to have been 
related to himself, 2 and were probably joined together by no other 
bond. They obtained their title from the fact that the scene was 
laid at Miletus, or in the vicinity. 3 That the Milesiaca was one 
continuous regular novel (as contradistinguished from a series of 
stories) is maintained by Burger (Hermes 27. 345 ff.), but his 
contention lacks proof ; and though it is possible that the realistic 
novel in this sense may have existed in the late Alexandrine time 
that age of science and all things positive and though we have 
evidence that the romantic novel did exist much earlier than is 
generally thought, 4 proof is still wanting of the existence of the 
* realistic ' novel. 5 

1 This peculiar kind of 'risky ' short story no doubt existed at all times. We 
can see one clearly through the speech of Mnesilochus in the Thesmophoriazusae, 
498 ff. : cp. a similar story in the Gesta Romanorum, No. 123. 

2 The author of the Lucianic Amores says, c. 1 : ttd. 8-f] /j.e virb r'bv opdpov 
T) TU>V aKoXaffruv ffov Snfjyf]fj.drcav aifj.v\r) ical 7 Av/ceTa irsiOb) Ka.Tfvtyp0.vsv OXTT' 
o\iyov 8eIV 'ApiffTeiSrjs ev6/juov elVat TO?S Mi\r]ffiaKo7s \6yois virepKri\ov/u.e}sos. 
The Fragments of Aristides' Histories are given in Miiller, F H Gr iv, 320-7- 
Of these Nos. 6, 9, 10 are of the nature of love-stories. 

3 All classical examples of this kind of story which we have seem to come from 
"Western Asia Minor. 

4 The Story of Ninus, found in the Papyri, is referred hy Wilcken to the first 
century B.C., and Heinze (Hermes 34. 494-519) has adduced many strong reasons 
to lead us to suppose that the Satiricon of Petronius is a parody of the romantic 
novel. If this is so, the antiquity of the latter is greater than is supposed by 
those scholars who follow Rohde (Griech. Roman 358 if.) in assigning it to the 
Sophists of the Roman Empire. 

5 The nearest reference to such that is quoted is Ovid Trist. 2. 41 o 

Nee qui descripsit carruinpi semina matrum 

Eubius impurae conditor historiae. 
But historia (which can mean any kind of a * narrative ' or 'story,' fictitious or 



126 EXCUESUS I 



The MtX^o-iaKa of Aristides appear to have been rather a 
collection of short stories which attained a great popularity (like 
the Arabian Nights), and were translated into Latin by the Roman 
historian Sisenna : cp Ovid Trist. 443 

Vertit Aristiden Sisenna, nee obf uit illi 
historiae turpes inseruisse iocos. 1 

It is hard to know what Ovid means. Probably it is that Sisenna 
translated both the Milesiaca of Aristides, and also his Histories, 
inserting in the latter indecent jokes two offences against morality. 
Burger thinks the historiae must be the Milesiaca, and supposes that 
Sisenna actually added to the indecency of these. Rohde seems to 
hold that Sisenna composed indecent stories in the intervals of his- 
torical composition a most improbable explanation. He gives 
also (p. 129) a forced explanation of Trist. 2. 413 lunxit Aristides 
Milesia crimina secum, that Aristides strung together a series 
(= iunxit inter se, cp. Thielmann in Archiv. 7. 381) of indecent 
stories the enormity consisted in the number ; a few would have 
been pardonable. May it not rather mean associated with 
himself,' i.e., put his name to the collection? He represented the 
stories as being told to him, and he published them under his 
name. For crimina = the stories of which crimina were the themes, 
cp. Trist. 2. 508. 

They appear to have had the effect of giving the name milesia 
(sc. historia ovfabeUa) to a special kind of story, or series of stories, 
the main feature of which would seem to have been originally an 
erotic element ; though later the term milesia extended itself to 
include themes which, if not always erotic (though usually so), 
were at any rate of a frivolous and merely amusing nature. 2 
Apuleius calls his Cupid and Psyche a milesia ; and it is indeed 
a love-story, but it cannot be called erotic. However, it was 
written merely to amuse his readers, and seemed frivolous to 



true) may refer to a series of narratives, as, e.g., the Nattiralis historia of Pliny, 
which his nephew calls (Epp. 3. 5. 6) naturae historiarum triginta septem libri: the 
Sacra historia of Ennius; the iravToSaTrr] Iffropia of Favorinus; the iroiKiKt] tcrropia 
of Aelian : cp. Rohde Rh. Mus. 48. 132, 133; and the plural matrum will lend 
some support to this view. 

1 The Fragments of Sisenna's Milesiue in Biicheler's Petronius, pp. 237-8. 
No. 8 has a Petronian flavour, and No. 10 may apply to such a story as Apuleius 
Met. 10. 22. 

2 For a single collection of stories giving its name to a kind of narrative we may 
compare the Arabian Nights : e.g. R. L. Stevenson's New Arabian Nights. 



MILESIAN TALES 



127 



serious men. 1 Indeed, the first ten books of Apuleius' work may 
be regarded as a series of milesiae (cp. 1. 1 init. At ego tibi sermone 
('style') isto Milesio uarias fabulas conseram 'string together '), 
which have the slight thread of connexion that they come within 
the cognizance of the hero. If this is so, there are several of 
these stories which have no love motive at all (such, for example, 
as that of Diophantus, the supposed Chaldaean (2. 13)) ; but they 
all agree in being directed merely towards amusement, and do 
not aim at instruction or edification. 2 But in the early times the 
stories seem to have been frankly indecent, and were apparently 
written in an alluring style (cp. (Lucian) op. cit. at/xvA^). The 
Parthian vizier spoke with contempt of the Roman officer Roscius, 
in whose baggage were found ctKoAao-ra /?i/?Ata r&v 'Apio-reioW 
MiA^o-taKwv (Plutarch, Crassus 82). As examples of Milesian tales 
may be taken Babrius 116: Phaedrus 3. 10: Petronius 85-87: 
111-112 : 140 : and Apuleius 9. 5-7 : 9. 17-21 : 9. 26-28. 
Collections of these kinds of stories in the Middle Ages, some- 
times with edifying " morals," are to be found in the Gesta 
Romanorum and the Decameron. 



1 Cp. Capit. Albin. 12. 12 : Tertullian, De Anima 23, calls the Valentinian 
theories of the generations of the Aeons historias et Milesias ('fairy-tales'). 
Aeonum. 

2 Cp. Met. 1. 1 fin. fabiilam Graecanicam incipimus. Lector, intende : 
laetaberis. Also St. Jerome, quoted by Biicheler, op. cit. 241 nulltu tarn 
imperitus scriptor est qtii lectorem non inueniat similem sui, multoque pars maior est 
Milesias fabellas reuoluentium quam Platonis libros. In altero enim Indus et oblec- 
tatio est, in altero difficultas et sudor miztus labori. 



EXCUESUS II 

ALLEGORICAL EXPLANATIONS OF THE TALE. 

FULGENTIUS Planciades, a writer of the fifth century, in the third 
book of his work called Mytliologiarum libri ires gives the following 
summary of the story of Cupid and Psyche (p. 66, ed. Helm) ; and 
the influence of both the language and style of Apuleius on it is 
obvious : 

" VI. FABULA DEAE PSICAE ET CUPIDINIS. 

" Apuleius in libris metamorfoseon hanc fabulam planissime 
designauit dicens esse in quadam ciuitate regem et reginam, habere 
tres filias, duas natu maiores esse temperata specie, iuniorem uero 
tarn magmficae esse figurae quae crederetur Venus esse terrestris. 
Denique duabus maioribus quae temperata erant specie conubia 
euenere ; illam uero ueluti deam non quisquam amare ausus quam 
uenerari pronus atque hostiis sibimet deplacare. Contaminata 
ergo honoris maiestate Venus succensa inuidia Cupidinem petit, ut 
in contumacem formam seueriter uindicaret. Hie ad matris 
ultionem aduentans uisam puellam adamauit ; poena enim in 
affectum conuersa est, et ut magnificus iaculator ipse se suo telo 
percussit. Itaque Apollinis denuntiatione iubetur puella in mentis 
cacumine sola dimitti et uelut feralibus deducta exequiis pinnato 
serpenti sponso destinari ; perfecto iamque coragio puella per 
mentis decliuia zephiri -flantis leni uectura delapsa in quandam 
domum auream rapitur, quae pretiosa sine pretio sola consideratione 
laude deficiente poterat aestimari, ibique uocibus sibi tantummodo 
seruientibus ignoto atque mansionario utebatur coniugio ; nocte 
enim adueniens maritus, Veneris proeliis obscure peractis, ut inuise 
uespertinus aduenerat, ita crepusculo incognitus etiam discedebat. 
Habuit ergo uocale seruitium, uentosum dominium, nocturnum 
commercium, ignotum coniugium. Sed ad huius mortem deflendam 
sorores adueniunt montisque conscenso cacumine germanum lugubri 
uoce flagitabant uocabulum, et quamuis ille coniux lucifuga sororios 
ei comminando uetaret aspectus, tamen consanguineae caritatis 
inuincibilis ardor maritale obumbrauit imperium. Zephyri ergo 



ALLEGORICAL EXPLANATIONS OF THE TALE 129 

flabrantis aurae anhelante uectura ad semet sororios perducit 
affectus, earumque uenenosis consiliis de mariti forma quaerenda 
consentiens curiositatem, suae salutis nouercam, arripuit et 
facillimam credulitatem, quae semper deceptionum mater est, 
postposito cautelae suffragio arripit : denique credens sororibus se 
marito serpenti coniunctam uelut bestiam interfectura nouaculam 
sub puluinal abscondit lucernamque modio contegit. Cumque 
altum soporem maritus extenderet, ilia ferro armata lucernaque 
modii custodia eruta Cupidine cognito, dum inmodesto amoris 
torretur affectu, scintillantis olei desputamento maritum succendit, 
fugiensque Cupido multa super curiositate puellae increpitans domo 
extorreni ac profugam derelinquit. Tandem rnultis iactatam 
Veneris persecutionibus postea loue petente in coniugio accepit." 

As the text of Fulgentius has afforded, and may possibly afford, 
still further assistance in emending the text of Apuleius, the narra- 
tive has been given in Latin. Fulgentius then continues : 

"I might here relate the whole course of the story, how she 
descended to the Lower World, and filled an urn with Stygian 
water, and took spoil of their fleece from the flocks of the Sun, and 
separated a commingled heap of different seeds, and took prema- 
turely a portion of Proserpine's beauty and came near to death 
(moritura praesumpserit) : but because in abundant wise Apuleius in 
almost two whole books has related these heaps of unrealities 
(falsitatum), and Aristophontes of Athens in his work called 
Dysarestia [or Dissatisfaction] has narrated this legend at enormous 
length for those who want to learn it, I have thought it superfluous 
for this reason to insert in my book what has been systematically 
related by others, lest I should remove myself from my proper 
work, and devote myself to the subjects treated by others ; but that 
the reader of the story may come to my point of view, and learn 
what all this unreality pretends to signify [here is the explanation]. 

" They have considered that the ' city' is as it were the World, 
and the King and Queen to be God and Matter. To them they 
assign three daughters, the Flesh, Spontaneity (uLtronietatom), 
which we call Free Will (libertatem arbitrii), and the Soul Psyche 
in Greek means the Soul. The latter they assumed to be the 
youngest, for (they say) the body is already made when the soul 
is inserted into it ; and it is the most beautiful, as it is superior 
to Free Will and nobler than the Flesh. Venus, that is Lust, 
envies her, and sends Desire to work her ruin. But whereas Desire 
is both of the good and of the bad, Desire falls in love with the 



130 EXCURSUS II 

Soul, and mingles therewith in a kind of union, and persuades 
the Soul not to look upon his face, that is, come to an under- 
standing of the delights of Desire (whence it was that Adam, 
although seeing, did not see that he was naked until he had eaten 
of the tree of concupiscence), nor yield to her sisters, that is, 
the Flesh and Free Will, in completely gratifying her curiosity 
about his shape. But, terrified by their insistence, she takes 1 the 
lamp from beneath the bushel, that is discloses the flame of desire 
hidden in her breast, and when she sees it so delightful, regards 
it with love and passion : and it is said to have been burned by 
the spirting of the lamp, because every desire burns in proportion 
as it is loved, and affixes the stain of sin (peccatricem maculam) to 
its own flesh. Then inasmuch as she is in a sense rendered naked 
by desire (quasi cupiditate nudata),* she is deprived of her mighty 
fortune, and is tossed about by perils and expelled from herpalace. 
But as it would be tedious, as I said, to go through all details, 
we have given the lines on which the signification can be appre- 
hended ; and if anyone reads the story itself in Apuleius, by means 
of my course of explanation, he will understand the remaining 
points of the story which I have not mentioned." 

Another more modern explanation of the story is given by 
Hildebrand, who seems to think that Apuleius obtained this 
allegory from some mystic worship into which he had been 
initiated (p. xxviii. ff.). Psyche is the pure soul as it descended 
from Heaven. It is beloved by the Heavenly Love. Venus is 
Fate, who envies this blessedness, and sends base desires and 
envy ings these are the sisters to thrust Psyche from her high 
estate. Persuaded by them, she does injury to Pure Love (Amorem 
castuin uiolat), who flies from her. She wanders forth, and meets 
with many trials, in all of which she is both upheld by the longing 
for union with Love, and is assisted by that Love, until at last she is 
translated to Heaven, and dwells in eternal bliss with her former 
spouse. 

But in the case of allegory quot homines tot sententiae. Nearly 
every one has a different explanation often indeed with features of 
rare beauty, e.g.,Lange (quoted by Hildebrand, xxxiif.) interprets the 
voices that wait upon Psyche, the unseen music that delights her, 

1 Possibly we should read elicit for eicit of the niss. Michaelis conjectures 
emit; cp. above lucemaque . . . eruta. 

'* I am not at all sure that this is what Fulgentius means. 



ALLEGOEICAL EXPLANATIONS OF THE TALE 131 

as indicating the music of the spheres, heard only by the pure soul 
when divested of its * muddy vesture of decay.' A vast number of 
such explanations are 'given by Hildebrand. The allegorical 
method has, however, since Friedlander's essay (Sittengeschichte 
Roms i 6 , 522-563) gone out of fashion ; and it may suffice to mention 
the last example of it in a first-rate scholar, that of Zeller, who 
says that Apuleius in his Cupid and Psyche has treated in the 
manner of a story the longing of the fallen Soul for reunion 
with its good Spirit, or even with God (Phil, der Griechen iii. 2 4 , 
p. 228). 1 

1 The long book of .Dr. Adolf Zinzow Psyche und Eros, ein milesisches Mdrchen 
in der Darstellung und Auffassung des Apuleius beleuchtet und auf seinen mytho- 
logischen Zusamtnenhang, Gehalt und Ursprung zuriickgefiihrt, Halle, 1881, 
seeks to demonstrate that there is a mystical meaning in the narrative as told by 
that great pryer into mysteries, Apuleius. The work seems to exhibit great 
erudition ; but as I felt it would not be likely to convince me, 1 have never had 
the courage to do more than glance at it. 



EXCUESUS III 

THE POEMS OF MELEAGEK ON LOVE AND THE SOUL 

MELEAGER was a native of the Syrian town of Gadara, and lived 
early in the first century B.C. He composed the first Anthology of 
Greek poems and called it his Crown. The principal poets are 
enumerated in Anth. Pal. 4. 1. One hundred and thirty-four 
epigrams of his still exist. He influenced many Eoman poets, 
especially Propertius. Mr. Mackail (Select Epigrams from the 
Anthology, pp. 37-39) has an eloquent estimate of his genius. In 
Meleager Mr. Mackail sees the Greek spirit touched by Oriental 
passion. Love is no longer a mere emotion, it has become a 
religion. His art is not the restrained and severe Greek art, but 
" the touch of Asiatic blood creates a new type, delicate, exotic, 
fantastic "; but withal " the beauty of his rhythms and the grace of 
his language never fail." 

i. 
TT)I> TrepivrjxojJifvyv \f/v^r]V r/v TroAAdVt 



Anth. Pal. 5. 57. 



ii. 
Nat rav KvTrpLV, "Epoos, <A.ea> TO. era Travra 



Toftt T KCU ^KvOlKrjV loBoKOV 

<Aea>, vat' rt /xarata yeA.a<j, Kat (rt/xa <rea>;pcos 
/av^i^et? ; ra^a TTOU crap8avtov yeAacreis. 

rj yap crtv TO. TroS^yd ZIo^wv w/cvTrrcpa KOi//a?, 
^a/VKoSerof cr^'y^to crot? irepl TTOO-O-I Tre'Sr^v. 

Katrot KaS/xetoi/ /coa'ros otcro/xev, et (re 
W^J*, \vyKa. Trap' aiVoAt'oi?. 



ra^tvas cts erepovs 

Anth. Pal. 5. 179. 






POEMS OF MELEAGER ON LOVE AND THE SOUL 133 



3. 0-t/x.a o-ec-^ptbs, with contemptuous grin,' lit., grinning a 
snub-nosed grin.' Meleager also has o-i/xa ycAwv, 'pertly laughing' 
(5. 177. 4). On the passage generally cp. Theocritus 20. 13 /cat 
TL o-eo-apos /cat o-o/?apoV /x' eyeAaev, 'laughed at me with a sneer 
disdainfully,' and such Latin phrases as Hor. Sat. 1. 6. 5 naso sus- 
pendis adunco. 

5. TO, TToSryya TLoOw wKUTrrepa, * thy wings, swift harbingers of 
fond Desires,' lit. ' guides of the Desires.' 



m. 

Sv<r8dKpvT, TL croi TO TreTravOev "EpcoTOs 
Sta cnrXdyxywv av$is dva<AeyeTai; 
pr], fj.v) Tr/ads <re Atos, pr] irpos Aiog, to 
Kivr](rr)S rsfypr) irvp VTroXa/XTrdyacvov* 
avruca yap, Xry^apye Ka/caiv, 7raA.iv et 
\rplfT "Epco9, evpwv SpaTrcTtv atKicrerat. 

Anth. Pal. 12. 80. 

1-2. ' Soul that weepest sore, how is Love's wound that was 
allayed in thee inflaming again in thy bosom ' (Mackail). 
6. cp. Apuleius Met. 6. 9. 



IV. 

Ov erot rovr' e/3oo)v, if/v^r], val KvTrptv, dAelxret, 

<o Svcrepw?, t^oJ Trv/cva Trpoa-LTrrafJL^vrj; 
OVK efioiov; etAei/ cr Trdyr)' TL //,arr;j/ evi 

mnujpcts; avros Epws TO, Trrepa <rov Sc 

Kttt' a' 7Tt TTVp (TT^(7, fJLVpOL? 8' eppttV AlTTOTTI/OUV, 

Sai/ce 8e 8nf/wcrr] 8a/cpva ^ep/xa Trtetj/. 

Anth. Pal. 12. 132. 1-6. 



v. 

ry /3apv/x,o^e, (rv 8' aprt /xei/ ex vrupos at^iy 
aprt 8' di/a^v^et? Trvev//,' avaXc^afjievr)' 

TL KAatet?; TOV drey/cTOv or' ev KoATroto'tv ^Eptora 
Tpcc/>S, o{'K ^8et? ws CTTI trot rpe^ero; 

OVK 8et9/ vvv va> 



Trvp />ia Kat i/ 
V@' et'Aou* 



TTOVOV' 



e'Spa?, OTTTW /cato/xev^ 



Anth. Pal. 12. 132. 7-14. 



INDEX 

[The references are to the pages. Many of the words given in this 
Index occur in the text only, and are not commented on in the 
notes.} 



ablative after mutari 55 n. : without a 
prep, where you would expect one 
(meo gremio for in meo gremio} 75 

abnuere 87 

abscindere and abscidere 52 n. 

abscondere, reflexive 99 

abstract for concrete 10 

abstrusi, ' having hidden themselves ' 18 

accersita mois 63 

accipiter 88 

accola, ' local ' 48, 95 

accommodare manus 112: a. nutum 85 

accumbere, with ace. 26, 121 

accusative governed by preposition in 
compound verb xcvii : cognate ib. : 
closer definition ib. after fungi and 
desineve ib. : 

cognate after rest/Hare 29 : 
governed by prep, in compound 
verb, e.g. cupressum inuolare 60 : 
cp. 24 (bis), 26, 47 and under ad 
of closer definition ftfterflMfloN 55 : 
of exclamation 21 

aceruatim 94 

acidae nuptiae 73 

actutum 60, 91 

acumen 56 

acutas manus 73 

ad omitted after verbs compounded with 
ad- 102, 116: cp. 24 

addici 60 

adfatus (subst.) 25 

adfectus sic adfectus, ( in this plight ' 
15 



adflecti 112 

adipata (oratio) Ixxxiin. 

aditum ferre 99 

adjective neuter for adverb (dulce con- 

quieuit] 19, 100 

for genitive of substantive 41 
Adlington (William) Ixvii 
admoliri 94 

adorare 63 ; a. lucem 115 
adoriri 77 
adpendix 59 
adpulstis (subst.) 51, 90 
adridere 77 
adsecue 59 n. 

adtexere, ' to weave on to ' 47 
adulare 42 

adulterinus auctor 100 
aduolare 60 
aduolui pedes 80 
adurere 34 : adustus 68 
adverbs in -ter from adjectives in -ns 8 
aegra corporis 12 

Aemilianus, see Sicinius Aemilianus 
Aemilianus Strabo xxxiii f . 
aemulam mei nominis 70 
aemulus in (with ace.) 67 
aerumna 104 
Aesculapius lecture of Apuleius on, xxv 

note 

affatus (subst.) 14; cp. adfatus 
affectus (subst.) 54 
aflligere 93 
affluens 121 
Africa proconsulship of xi n. 



136 



INDEX 



Africanism (Africitas}not a special 
Latin style, Ixxxiv 

agaso 110 

agere medium aetatis cursvm agere 45 : 
tibias agere 44 

aiens, pres. part, of aio 102 

ain 80 

album Musarum, 'the register of the 
Muses' 119 

Alexander Tiberius lulius, the Pseudo- 
Aristotelian '~ ire pi i(6ap.ov addressed to 
him xxxvii n. 

alimonia 83 : alimoniarum obsequia, 
48 

alioquin xcix, 55, 105 n. 

aliquam multum 63 

aliquantus, adj. 116 

alius = alter'xcvii, 66 

allapsus (fontis) 19 

allegorical treatment of the story xliii, 
xliv f., and Excursus n 

alligare 120 

alliteration, its various kinds Ixxxix : 
examples of 2, 5, 17, 19, 21, 24, 27, 
28, 33, 34, 38, 44, 45, 46, 55, 58, 60, 
68, 69, 73, 76, 78, 79, 81, 88, 90, 96, 
106, 113, 119 . 

alte altius fremens 5 

altercare and altercari 117 

altercari 45 

alterorsus 78 

altrinsecus, with genit. 22 

altus, ' deep,' ' artful,' 107 

alumnari deponent 119 : passive ib. note 

amare, adverb 78 

amatores oculi 60 

ambrosia 57 : = nectar 120 

amnica stips, 'the river- or ferry-toll' 
115 

amor Amoris, cp. cupido Cupidinis 58 : 
incidere in amorem, * to fall in 
love' 58 

anceps nouacula, two-edged razor' 64 : 
cp. 52 

ancipitia, 'daring ' expressions Ixxviii n. 

anima Psyches 29, 40 

animi (locative) 57 

antependulus 57 

antitheses^lxxxix 

Antonius, the triumvir, his style Ixxx 



ants called terras omniparentis ngiles 
alumnae 95 

Apollonius Ehodius Iviii : his descriptive 
passages Ixxxvi : his scene between 
Venus and Cupid 7 

Apollonius of Tyana mentioned with 
Apuleius as a worker of miracles x 
note : his literary style Ixxv : casts 
out an evil spirit 48 n. 

Apuleius his life and writings, Intro- 
duction, Chapter i ; his birth x, xi ; 
goes to Carthage for higher school 
education xi ; his parentage xi ; left 
considerable means by his father xi ; 
goes to the University at Athens xii ; 
his travels in Grecian lands xiii ; was 
at Samos and Hierapolis ib. : meets 
Pontianus ib. ; possibly falls under the 
influence of the priests of Isis xiv ; goes 
to Rome in 150 B.C. xv ; works in tbe 
law- courts ib. ; perfects himself in 
Eoinan idiom ib. ; publishes his Meta- 
morphoses in Home xvi ; characteristics 
of that work xvii ff ; its vigour xviii ; 
its unhistorical nature xviii, xix note ; 
its relation to Lucian xviii note ; the 
preface (xvi note) and the eleventh 
hook autobiographical xiv, xvi note ; 
possible reason for altered tone of 
eleventh book xx, xxi ; published in 
Rome ; probably anonymously xvi, 
xvii, xxi ; his reputation as a ma- 
gician x, xxii, xli note ; makes no 
mention of Metamorphoses in his 
subsequent writings xxiii ; authorship 
possibly became known on accession 
of Commodus xxiv 

Returns to his home in Africa 
xxiv ; sets out for Alexandria ib. ; 
falls ill at Oea xxv ; renews his 
acquaintance with Pontianus ib. ; 
is induced to stay at the home 
of Pontianus and his mother 
Pudentilla xxv; gives lectures at 
Oea xxv, xxvi; teaches Pontianus 
and Pudens xxvi; becomes engaged 
to Pudentilla ib. ; marries her xxvii ; 
generous conduct towards her children 
ib. ; the marriage apparently happy 
ib. : on death of Pontianus accused by 



INDEX 



137 



the relations of Pudentilla xxviii ; the 
speech de magia, the only forensic 
speech we have from Imperial times 
xxix; leaves Oea and goes to Car- 
thage xxx ; and elsewhere xxxiv n. ; 
becomes a rhetorician or ' sophist ' 
there ib ; his Florida xxx ; delivers 
u panegyric on Scipio Orfitus in 163 
xxxiii : delivers a valedictory address 
to Severianus ib. ; thanks Aemilianus 
Strabo for proposing that a statue be 
erected in his honour xxxiv ; acts as 
sacerdos provinciae xxxiv f. 

The variety of his works xii n., 
xxiii n., liii, Ixxiii ; his work De 
Deo Socratis xxxv f. ; his theory 
of Intermediate Spirits ib., cp. x. ; 
his work De Platone et eius Dogmate 
xxxvi f .; his Tre/)i ep^veias xxxvii : 
his De Mundo ib. ; his translation of 
Plato's .P/tfl^oxxxviii ; his other woi'ks 
ib. ; his novel Hermagoras xxxiv n. ; 
general character of his miscellaneous 
works xxxix f . ; his curiositas ib. liii; 
his rhetorical eminence xl ; his philo- 
sophical attainments ib. ; his complex 
personality admirably sketched by 
Mr. Pater xli note ; chronological 
table of the known events in his life 
xlii 

His great versatility and quick sym- 
pathy with intellectual questions liii; 
probably gives name of Psyche to the 
heroine of a household tale liv ; sketch 
of his recognition since the Renaissance 
Ixvi ff. ; a writer in the Asianic style 
Ixxiii, Ixxxiii, and Introd. Chap, in 
passim, but could write in any style 
Ixxiii ; had influence on subsequent 
writers Ixxxiii ; detailed account of 
his style Ixxxiv ff . ; his descriptive 
passages Ixxxviif. ; his Euphuism 
xcff. 

aquila, gender of 107 

arbitrium ex arbitrio 23, 26 

Arcadius (deus) 88 

archaic words xciii f. : archaic forms 
xeiv 

Aristides the rhetorician, Ixxiv 

Aristides, writer of Milesian tales, 125 



to re- 



Aristophontes of Athens 129 

armillum ad armillum redire, 
turn to his old tricks '117 

articularis morbus 34 

articulus 58 

arundo simplex ethumana 100 

ascalpere aurem dexteram, gesture of 
irritation 92 

Asia proconsulship of xin. 

Asianic opposed to Attic style Ixx and 
Introduction chap, in, passim 

Asianism its characteristics Ixxvii ff . ; 
its rhetorical devices Ixxviii ; its 
followers chanted portions of their 
speeches ib. ; its straining after effect 
Ixxx ; lacked judgment ib. ; two kinds 
of, according to Cicero Ixxxi ; Prof. 
Jebb on Ixxxii ; nature of, in Nero- 
nian and Antonine ages ib. ; it& 
diffuseness and verbosity Ixxxv 

asinarius 115 

asinus claudus 110 
I asperrime 74 

assistere, with accusative of thing 68 

assonance and alliteration Ixxxix : see 
alliteration 

astu 47 

Attic opposed to Asianic style, Ixx and 
Introduction, chap. IIT, passim 

Atticism its characteristics Ixxiii 

attiguus 2, 110 

audaciter 52 

audire, 'to be called' 46, 92 
audire, ' to be ill-spoken of ' i 
obey ' with dat. 50 n. 

Augustine (St.) supposes Apuleius was 
a magician, but was too cowardly 
to acknowledge it xli n. : on Apuleius 
as sacerdos prouinciae xxxiv n. 

Augustus, the Emperor, rejects the 
extremes of Atticism and Asianism 
Ixxiii n. 

Auitus, see Lollianus Auitus 

aulula 51 

auolare 59 

aureum caput (of Cupid) 57 

aureus, denoting supreme excellence 
43 

auricomo, possible reading 98 

aurifex 87 



male 
; 'to 



188 



INDEX 



aurum factum 31 
:auscultatus (subst.) 100 
-aut, occurs only twice in whole Meta- 
morphoses xcix f . 
autem, in parentheses, 37 
antumare 62 

balneae for ualneae (in 5. 1) 21 : 

adornment of ib. 

balsama 121 : balsama fraglans 96 
banquets of the gods parodies of 

121 n. 

barbae in plural 10 
barbitium 31 
basiare 58 
Basnak Dau, the serpent bridegroom 

xlix 
beatus beata sedes, ' you are living in a 

fool's paradise ' 47 : beata edulia 43 
beauty of heroine 2 : compared to a 

statue 12, cp. Anth. Pal. 5. 15 
Beck (J. W.) his edition Ixv, cvi ' 
Becker (H.) his chapter on the 

particles xcix 
bellule 77 

bene for bene est 91 
Bernardus Philomathes civ 
Berners (Lord), his translation of 

Guevara xci 

Beroaldus his edition civ 
bestiae, opp. to pecudes 19 
Beyte (Fr.) his careful examination of 

the Apologia cii 
Bigot i Charles) Ixvi 
biles Veneriae 75 

birds songs of, delighted Apuleius 88 n. 
Blass (Fr.) Ixx 
Bliimner (H.) Ixvi 
boare 71 
bona pars, ' a good (i.e. considerable) 

part' 110 
Bond (Mr. Warwick) his edition of 

Lyly xci 

Bridges (Mr. Robert) Ixix 
buccula 117 
bucinare 11 
Burger supposes the Metamorphoses 

was published anonymously xx n. : 

his view of the historine of Apuleius 

xxiii n. 



cachinmis laetissimus (or lutissimus) 91 
cacozelia Ixxiiin.: definition of, by 

Quintilian Ixxx f . : by Diomedes 

Ixxxi 

cadauer dormiens 116 
caelamen 19 
Caelestis Dea 84 
Caelum or Caelus 88 
Caesar (Julius) his dictum about the 

use of new words Ixxiv 
caesaries 57 
caesim deminuto lapide, ' stone cut into 

small blocks' 21 
calcare, ' to tread ' 9 : c. aurum 33 : c. 

foedera, ' to trample on ' 39 : c. pre- 

cepta 71 : used intransitively 21 
Callimachus his influence on the Greek 

novels 3, cp. 7 
calorati impetus 120 
canale, ' beaten track '110 
cancri Orci 91 
candens canities 46 
candicare 57 
canities 16, 45, 46 
Cannam (false reading in 5. 25) 61 
canora familia 88 
Canova Ixvi 
cantatur, impersonal 44 
cantitare 88 
capella 62 
capessere uiam 78 
capi mentem, ' to be overcome in mind ' 

115 
carmen applied to Asianic prose xxxii n. . 

xxxixn. 
cassus 86 
castigare 74 
casus ' incidents ' 118 
cataplasma 34 

Caussin parodies Apuleius Ixxxviin. 
cautela 25 

cautes 29 : cautium saxa 66 
cedo 'give me' 105 
celerare gradum 102 
cena nuptialis 94, 96 
cenatorium (instrumentum) 23 
censeo, with subjunctive, gives a polit 

order 98, 114 
censeri (nomine), ' to be known by 

name,' lit ' to be registered ' 64 f . 



INDEX 



139 



centies indefinite 27 

Ceres Iviii ; 75 ff. ; 80 ff. 

certare mero, 45 n. 

certus with genit. 95 

ceterum, ' but if not' xlix 26, 50 

Charite girl to whom the story of 

Cupid and Psyche is told xix n. 
Child (Mr. G. C.) Ids work on Lyly 

and Euphuism xc 
choragium, ' pageantry ' 1 5 
chorus siderum 114 
Christian use -of Providentia, noticed by 

Rohde, 104 n. 
Christians supposed allusion to, in 

Met. xli n. 
Christodorus mentions statue of Apuleius 

ix note 

ci hanus panis 96, 115 
cibus beatus 115 
cicatrix solida 116 
cicer 94. 
Cicero his style Ixxiii n. : parodies 

Hegesias Ixxix n. : his account of 

Asianism Ixxxiti 
cinnamei crines 40 
circa, ' in respect of ' xcviii 
circumsecus 48 
eistae of Ceres 80 
cistophorus 81 

citatus ' quickly ' 107 : citatus gradus 79 
citrus 19 

ciuitas ' city ' 1, 63, 66 
clarescere 55 
classic um 39 

classis, of a ' squadron ' of ants 95 
Claudius Maximus xi note, xxviii note 2 
Clodius Albinus, a reader of Apuleius 

xxi 

Cnidos 3 

codices of the Metamorphoses ci n. 
coercere (uenustatem oculonnu) 76 
cogere lacrimis coactis 47 ; cogentia 

membra 28 

cobibentia membra 28 note 
collapsa (fortuna) ' falling in a hea>> 

on' 35 

Collierlxvii f. 
Collignon (M.) Ixv 
colluuies 59 
Colvius his edition civ 



coma fluuii 62 

coma (uelleris) 98 

commeare 84, 108 

commendare 25 

comminari 27, 102 : a favourite word 

of Apuleius 107 
comminisci 107 

commodum (adv.) 'just ' 31, 67 
comparatio compendiaria 40 
complacere 32 
complere with genitive 105 
concedere 'to go to ' 24, 36, 91 
conceptaculum 101 
conciliatrix 60 
concinnare 66, 122 

concinnitas neatness in style Ixxxviii 
eoncinnis (nom.) a unique form 51 
concitus gradus 78 
concolor xcvi, 47 
condecere 92 
confarreatae nuptiae 65 
conferre faciem 120 : conferre ora 27 : 

conferre se 74 : conferre sermonem 

37, 44 

conferto uestigio 42 
confinium 53 
congeries 94, cp. 81 
congruens 15 
congruus 120 
coniectare 62 
coniuga 83 
coniugalis 69 
coniugare 65 
conquassare caput 93 
consauiare 117 
conscium lumen 64 
consecue 59 n. 
consenescere 25 
consequia 59 
consiliumlumims, 'suggestion given by 

the light ' 52 
conspondere 41 
constrepere 88 
construere 87 
consulere boni (optimi) 82 
Consuetudo 91 
conterere 108 
consternare 95 
conterminus 102 
continari 75, 110 



140 



INDEX 



continentia 39 

contortis superciliis 100 

contristari 120 

conueniri ' to be sued' 119 

conuersari 2 

conuersatio humana 22, 26 

commlnerare 118 

conuexae stirpes 100 

copiosus 1 

coperculum 116 

cordatus 77, 95 n. 

corrogare 95 : c. misericordiam 79 

corrupta (oratio) applied to Asianism 
Ixxxiin. 

Corwrion story of the heir of 1. 

criers use of 89 

crimina = stories telling of crimina 126 

Croiset (M.) Iviiin. 

crustallum 102 : crustallum impunctum 
102 n. 

cucurbita 33 

cuias, a rare form 50 

cuiatis, form of cuias, 49 

cuius-a-um secta cuia 44 

culminis diales uiae 105 

cumulus may perhaps mean ' top ' of a 
hill 102 

cupere cttpita (sing.) one's inamorata,' 
59 n., 97 : (plu.) desires ' 27 

Cupid and Psyche story of, Introd., 
Chap. ii. : allegorical treatment of 
xliii f. and Excursus n. cp. Ixviii: 
was its basis one or more stories ? li : 
it was probably Apuleius who gave 
the heroine the name of Psyche liv : 
the minor characters in Ixii : the story 
in art liv, Ixv f . : in European litera- 
ture Ixvi-lxix 

Cupid how depicted Hx : his prohibi- 
tion about not being seen ib. 27 : half- 
reveals himself to be a god 27, 38 : 
all things favour himlx, 61: beautiful 
description of 56 ff. : his father 73, 
88, 93: 

Cupido, ' a Cupid ' i.e. like Cupid 43 

cupido Cupiclinis, cp. amor Amoris 
68 

curare, with genit. of respect e.g. cor- 
poris 23, cp. 24 

curiosa auis 69 



curiose ' carefully' 19, 79, 116; < with 

curiosity ' 30, 77 
curiositas 27, 50, 115, 117: the curiasi- 

tas of Apuleius xl 
curiosius, comparative of adv. 114 
curriculum 81 
Cythera 3 

daimon De deo Socratis xxxvi 

damn are, ' to -amerce of ' 8 

damnum, ' lavish expenditure of 87 

dare se in pinnas 117: dare se praeci- 
pitem 61, 66 

dative, of advantage where one would 
expect a genitive 40 : of place to, 95 

de, general use of xcviii : 

almost superfluous use of, 38 : after 
peter e 108 

dea Venus 2 

Dead River 111 

dear mare 74 

Decameron 127 

decantatus 41 

decoriter 57 

decurrere meatum 115 

dedolatus 102 

defectus 79 

defers, possibly imperative 101 

deficere (defectae possible reading in 
5. 23 fin.) 59: 'to be overcome' 56, 
62 

deflarnmare 74 

deflere, with and without an object 18 
(note) 

Dei con scrip ti 119 

deierare 103 

delfinus 11 

delibare 116 

delicatum sedile 115 

deliciae 77 

delitescere 81, 88 

delitus * tinctured ' 108 

demeaculum 81 

demeare 88 

denique, use of xcix : connecting par- 
ticle 1 : at length ' 30 

denubere 46 

denudare 73 

deprecor ' I earnestly pray ' 7 

depromere uocem 110 



INDEX 



141 



deradere 75 

descendere soporem, hardly possible : 

in must be supplied 55 
desinere with accus. xcvii, 26, 29 
destringere 39 
desultoria scientia liii 
detecta fides ' trust disclosed ' (not 

strictly accurate expression 5. 23 fin.) 

59 

detergere 41, 83; detergere soninum 116 
deterrere 36 
detrectare 17 

detrimentum ' rubbing off' 87 
deuexa rupis 18 
deuolare 47 

deuotae dicataeque 41 n. 
diales . . . uiae xcvi, 105 
dicere non dicendus (bfyaTos] 76 
dicium et cum dicto 116 
diecula 108 

diflfamare * to noise abroad ' 12 
differre praeconium 36 
difilere oculos 29 
diffuseness (cp. Koziol pp. 1-196), 

some examples of Ixxxv f . 
digerere 95 
diloricare 93 
diminutives xcv 
Dio Chrysostom Ixxviii 
Diomedes his definition of KaKofrxia 

Ixxxi 

dirigere gradum 79 

Dis pater represented as rapacious 111 
discindere capillum 93 
disciplina publica 7, 118 
discretim 79 
discriminari 21 
discursus (subst.) 78 
disquisitio, ' search ' 80 
disseminare 77 
dissimulanter 44 
dissipata membra 66 
dis^itus, participle of dissero 95 
distentus 97 
Ditis, nominative 111 
dittography 67 
diuersorium 19 
diuinatio what ? 62 
divinities do not inteii'eie with one 
another 82 



divorce formula of 64 

diuortere 64 

domina, ' madam ' 70, 77 

domiue use of this term of address 

117 f. 

domuitio 18 

doves draw the car of Venus 87 
Dowden (Professor) Ixix n. 
draco 80, 103 
dubius, ' dangerous ' 87 : with genit. 

' uncertain about ' 68 
Buffet Ixix 

ilum, 'while ' with subjunctive 64 
Dunlop xliv, xlvii 
duratos in lapidem digitos, of gouly 

fingers, 34 



e re nata 31 

eagle, gender of, doubtful in Latin 107 : 
soaring of, appealed to Apuleius 
105 

Echo montanam (the brilliant emenda- 
tion of Jahn in 5. 25 for hec homo 
canam) 61 ; cp. Cannam 

edere preces 80 

editions of the Metamorphoses ciii ff 

edulia 23 

efferare argentum, 'to make silver into 
the forms of beasts ' xcvi, 20 

efferri(rabie), 'to be carried away with 
madness' 99 

efflare 65, cp. 35 

efflicte and efflictim 70, cp. 58 : efflic- 
tim diligere 28 

effligere 29 

effundere 32 : effundere memoriaiu 49 

egregius, ironical, 31 

e/c^/jcto-ets lv : Ixiv : Ixxxvi ff . : their 
origin ib. : examples in Cicero Ixxxvi : 
desciiptions of early morning in 
Apuleius ib. : other examples in 
Apnleius Ixxxviii 

Elmenhorst his edition cv 

Eleusinian mysteries 81 

eluuies 69 

ementiri sororis nomen, ' falsely assum- 
ing the name of sister ' 42 

eminus, opp. to comminus 37 

enallage 3 



142 



INDEX 



enimuero, ' for indeed ' 20 : ' but ' 35 
enodare, ' to unfold ' 15 : 'to unstring ' 

a bow 74 
equidem, different uses of, in Met. , and 

Other works xcix 
ergo in indignant question 69 
ergo igitur xcix, 37 
erile praeceptum 92 
erogare 40 
Eros his cruelty as represented by 

Alcaeus, Sappho, and Bion Ivi ; cp. 

Cupid 

errabundo gradu 66 
estofor edito, 'eat' 113 
et, at beginning of a sentence 92: 

= ' when ' after the pluperfect 65 : 

wrongly inserted in mss. 103 : et 

cetera 89 

Eubius 125 note 5 
euectio 59 

Eunapius xii note, xiii, Ixxii 
Euphuism its characteristics xc if. 
Euripides Iviii : lx n. 
euolare 56 

exanclare labores 85 ; noctem 97 
exanguis color 49 
exaratum can ale 103 
exartus ' very narrow ' 103 note 
exasperare 51 
excidentia verba, ' words dropping from 

the air' 23 
excruciare 92 
excubare 48, 103 
exhibeii ' to be prepared '121 
exist imatio iam tua est existimatio, 'it 

is for you to consider ' 48 
exitium mortis 67 
expedire opus 94 
expiare ' to appease ' 107 
explicare munus 114 
exsibilari 35 
exterminare 46 
extimus 57 
extorris 32 

extremus homo ' of the lowest rank ' 60 
Eyssenhardt (F.) his edition cv 



faba 94 
fabrica 22, 83 



facere sese facere, '' to betake oneself * 

22 

nostrum facere, ' to do our part ' 49 
iam faxo with subj. 6, 73 
facessere, with supine 96 
facinerosus 51 

fairy-tales, reminiscences of, in Virgil 113- 
fallacies 66 
falx 79 
famulitio 91 
famulus 80 

fando, ' by hearsay ' 105 
fastidienter 47 
fastidium 69 
fatigare 14 
f atuus 46 

' Faustine fili ' xxxvii 
Favorinus Ixxi f . : his Oratio ad 

Corinthios Ixxxiii 
faxo with subjunctive in threats 6 : cp. 

facere 

fel invidiae 31 
ferales nuptiae 15 : feralis thalarnus 16 : 

ferales penates 108 
ferre se ferre 33 : uentus ferens 41 
festinare with supine 105, 106 note 
fides per fidem, without intervening 

words 85 
filius used by an elder to a younger 

xxxvii n. : 

in legal phraseology embraces 

daughters 123 n. 
fire, lupiter transformed into when 

appearing to Aegina and to Semele 

118 

firmiter 37 
fistula opposed to tibia 122 n. : ad 

fistulam dicere 122 
flammare 53 
flammeum 15 
flare somnum 52 
flexilis 79 
floccus 98 

flores serti et soluti 5 
fluctuare 54, 58 
fluentum 99, 101, 112 
fluuialis spirit us 99 
flying metaphor of rowing applied to 

106 
foraentum, 'a poultice' 34 



INDEX 



143- 



foramen 103 

formicula 95 

formidabilis 105, 113 

formonsitas 1 

formonsus 33 

fortassis 33 

Fortuna the malevolent power in 

Greek Romance Ix, 25, 37 
fraglantia 99 
fraglare and flagrare 8 : cp. 31, 58 ; 

fraglare balsama 96 
frequentare, of a single person, 108 
frequenter (orfurenter) irati 91 
Friedlanderxlvif., 131 
frigidus cinis 4 
Fronto, his style Ixxiii, Ixxv : on 

Cicero's style Ixxvi 
frugi bonaetuaefrugicongrnentia 71 ; 

frugem tuara perk-litabor 94 
frugifer 80 

frumentum = triticum 94 
frustum 96 

frutices possible reading iov gurgites^l 
fugitiua 76 
Fulgentius Planciades, his allegorical 

explanation of the story of Cupid and 

Psyche xliii f. : Excursus n p. 128 f. 
fulgurare 21, 57 
fuligo 15 

fundere, of productions of nature 32 n. 
fungi with accus. xcvii, 98 
funus uiuum, ' living corpse ' 16 
furatrina 100 

furenter (or frequenter) irati 91 
furia = furor 100 
Furiae 54 
Fiirtwangler Ixv 
fusticulus 110 
futilis, 'paltry '113 
future perfect, used in putting off the 

consideration of a thing, 34 : for 

simple future, 60 

Gains tbe jurist Ixxv 

gannire 69 : differs from garrire 69 

gannitus 88 

gauia the sea-mew ' 67 

gaza 22 

Gellius, his style, Ixxiii 

gemmeum iugum 87 



gemmosa mouilia 31 

genae = 'jaws' 106 

generosus 72 

genialis caesaries 57 

genitive Greek xcvi : after adjectives 
ib. : Greek material or local genitive 75- 

genuinus 7 

genus id genus 19 : quod genus 20 

gerere se gerere 33 

germanitas 66 

gerula 115 

gerulus lignorum 110 

gerund, abl. of, much used by Apuleius 
118; cp. 54. 

* Gesta Romanorum,' The 127 

gignere, of the female 72 

glabellus 58 

gliscere, of envy, 31 

globi crinium 57 

Glover (Mr. T. R.) on the Greece and 
Thessaly of Apuleius xviii f . 

gods, mockery of Iviii f . ; different in 
Aristophanes and in Lucian ib. : prob- 
ably introduced by Apuleius into the 
tale Ixiii 

Gorgias Ixx 

Gosson (Stephen) Ixvii 

Graecisms 6, 17, 32 : cp. xcvi 

ypau-iJiaTiffriK^ preliminary to ypa./*- 
H.O.TIKT] ' literature ' xii note 

granatirn 95 

Granii xxviii 

granum 94 

gratia malam gratiam subire 82 

gratiae 70, 121 

gratiosus 78 

giauare 96 

grauari 35 

graues oculi 104 

Greek, considerably used in ordinary 
life in the West in the age of the 
Antonines xvi note : Greek genitive 
xcvi : (ireek words xcv 

Gregory Nazianzenus xiii note 

gremium caespitis 18 : Oceani 67 

Grimm's Household Tales xlvi, lvii r 
lixn., 5, 13, 49 

grumulus 94 

Guevara xci 

gurges 97 : need not mean ' an eddy ' 98- 



144 



INDEX 



Hadrian, his archaizing xciv 

hair Apuleius likes to describe luxu- 
riant hair 57 

Hamerlings (Eobert) Ixvi 

harvest festivals 80 

hauritus pass. part, of haurio 101 

Hegesias Ixx, Ixxix 

Heinze Ivii n. 

ht'iulatus (subst.) 29 

Helm (R.)> his edition cvi 

Hera born at Samos 83 

He>ky (R.) thinks Met. composed for 
Romans, but not at Rome xvi note 

Hey wood (Thomas) Ixviii: adopts the 
allegorical view of the story ib. 

hiure 48 : hiantia oscula 9 : hiantes 
portae 109 

hilarare 43, 56 

hilnrus 87 

Hildebrand his edition cv : his allego- 
rical explanation of the story 130 

Hippias his versatility liii 

Hippodromus Ixxxvii n. 

hircuosus 62 

hispidus 10 

hi&toria meaning xxiii note, 125 

honey -cake placed by side of corpse 110 

Horae 70, 121 

Horace Ixx n. : Ixxvi n. : Ixxx n. 

humour in the story Ixiiii n. 

iam, a merely connecting particle, 21 

ifim inde a 71 

idonee 1 

ignobilis ' unknown ' 24 

Imbrasus river 84 

ininianitas (praecepti) 95 

immaturius 108 

imniensum, for in immensum 3 

im pares nuptiae 93, 120 

imperative tenses of 64 

impersonal use of verbs supplicatur 

4: maeretur, fleiur, lamentatur 15: 

psallitur 44 : sonatur ib. 
iinpos animi 56 
impos^ibilitas 104 
in, use of xcviii : omitted 24,93: 

almost expresses cause 85 
-ina, substantives with this termination 

affected by Apuleius 90 




inaccessus 1, 102 

inacescere with dat., ' to embitter 
35 

Inachus river 84 

inamabilis 72 

iucertare sermonem 39 

incessus (subst.) 87 

incolumitas 8 

inconditus 94 

inconiuae uigiliae 103 

iucrebrescere 56 

incrementulum 38 

incremeutum < limb ' 7 1 

incunctatus ' Avithout hesitation ' 41 

incuria 50, 79 

incuriosus 48 

indicative in dependent interrogative* 
32, 103 : pluperfect indicative where 
the subjunctive might have been 
expected 117 

indicina or indiciua 90 

indidem 108, 116 

indipisci 86 

inducere male inductus es, ' you have 
been badly conducted ' 73 : inductus, 
' beguiled ' 67 

inequitare, used absolutely 97 

ineuitabiles oculi 86 

inextricabilis moles 95 : 
periculum 104 

infamare 120 

infantilis 37 

inferre se proximam 79 

infimum matrimonium 60 ; 

infinitive, exclamatory 6 
after uenire xcviii, 92 

infirmus [The MS. reading injirmi in 4. 35, 
p. 9, cannot be sustained as has been 
attempted in the note : cp. Corri- 
genda. We must read iiifimi : cp. 
Met. 1. 9. manes sublimare, deos 
infimare, where F<f> give infirmare] 

iiitbrmis, ' without visible shape' xevi, 
23 

infortunium 39 

ingemere 67 

iugerere uerba 28 ; sauia 58 

ingluuies 48, 64 

ingrains, ' unfavoured' 13 

inhiare 58 : inhiare spe 66 



inextricabile 



cp. infirmus 
of purpose 



INDEX 



145 



inhumanus xcvi, 30 

inibi 'therein' xcix, 109: inibi esse 

' to be close at hand ' 109 n. 
initialis 5 
inlicita pietas 112 
inlu minus 81 
innatare 48 
innoxius, active 61, 117: passive 106, 

107 

inopinata uerba Ixxvi 
inquisitio tua, ' searching for you ' 

91 

inrigare 101 

inscius, passive, ' unknown ' xcvi, 63 
insperata uerba Ixxvi 
instructio, ' outfit ' 72 
instruere barbam, 'to grow a beard ' 46 : 

instruere commentum ' to fabricate 

a stoiy ' 45 
insuuuis 69 
interduin, different uses of, in Met. and 

other writings xcix 
interim dum 67 
interneciuum odium 39 
interuisere 92 
intrahere 52 

intransitive verbs used transitively 3 
intrusion of words 20, 21, 74 
inuadere 43 

inuentio (Proserpinae) 81 
inuestis, of a boy, without a beard, xcvi, 

70 

inuisus, ' unseen ' 24 
inuium iter 109 
inumbrare 31 

inuolare 59 ; with simple accus. 93 
louis, archaic nominative 14 
ipse = et ipse 42 : with no special force 

19 

* irony ' (in Greek sense) 28 
irreuerenter 73 

Isaeus, the improvisator, Ixxviii n. 
iste, use of, xvii n., xcvii : = hie 82, 

94, 118; cp. its use SCIKTIKUS 34, 

43 : isto dative of iste 76, 109 : istud 

horae 99 

iter and uia combined 51 
luga or lugalis, epithet of luno 85 
iugum sororiurn 41 
lulia, Lex de adulteriis 1 18 



luno Iviii: 75 8.: 83 ff . : 121: luno 
Lucina 85 : luno Sospita 85 

lupiter Ixiii : transformations of, in his 
love-adventures 118 : transformed into 
fire ib. 

iuridici xvii n. 

iustitium 15 

Jahn, his edition, edited by Michaelis 

cvi 

Jebb (Prof.) on Asianism Ixxxii 
Jerome (St.) on the miracles of Apuleius 

x note 
Jurists, their style Ixxv. 



, Q,uintilian's definition of, 
Ixxx : Diomedes' description of Ixxxi 
Keats Ixix 
Klebs ivii n. 

labes sermonis, ' slip in talk' 31 
lacerare, 'to torture' 16: lacerare 

existimationem, ' to pull a reputation 

to pieces ' 69 

lacinia, ' lappet ' 18 : ' garment ' 83 
lacrimarum extremum solacium 104 
Lactantius on the supposed miracles 

wrought by Apuleius x n; 
lacteae ceruices 57 
laetare, active form 43 
laetificus 80 

laetissimus (or latissimus) cachinnus 91 
La Fontaine Ixvii 
lamia 37 
Lang (Mr. Andrew) xlvi, 1, li, Ivi, lix n., 

Ixi, Ixvii 
Lange his explanation of the invisible 

music 130 

lanosum aurum 100: barbitium 31 
lanugo 46 

lapis mutata in lapidem 104 
laquearia 19 
laqueus 47 
lasciuire, of feathers ' playing ' 58 ; 'to 

gambol' 62 
latibulum 51 
latenter 48, 51 
latratus (subst.) 115 
Laurentian Codex (F) ci S. 
lautitiae 30 



146 



INDEX 



law references to Roman law in the 
story Ixiv and ib. note : probably 
introduced by Apuleius ib. 

leges elementorum 118 

lenire nouaculam 51 : uires 82 

lenocinium, appeal to ' 92 

lens, ' lentil seed ' 94 

letalis 17, 102 

leuis amator, ' her airy lover ' 117 

Lex lulia de adulteriis 118 

Libanius xii f. notes 

libellus 89 

libenter, ' in his fancy ' 77 

Liber 121 

librare pinnas 105 

licentiosus 41, 71 

licet si 79 n. 

lima 87 

limite, variant for limine 109 

litari 75 

litteratus 83 

Lollianus Auitus xi n. 

longe, 'from a distance' 37: longe 
parentum, ' far from,' a Graecism 32 

longum exclatnare 80 

loqui iubet citharam loqui 44 

lost property proclamations about 
89 

love symptoms of 62 

Lucian xvii; his DialogiDeortim Iv, Ivii; 
his Rhetorum Pr acceptor Ixxix n., 
xciv : his Bis Accmatus Ixxxii ; his 
Quomodo historia sit conscribenda 
Ixxxiv : parodies the banquets of the 
gods 121 cp. Ixiii : his allusion to 
Milesian tales 125 : cp. Pseudo-Lucian 

lucidus 46 

lucifuga 50 

Lucretius probably alluded to 5 

luculentus, of personal beauty 58 

Ludii modus, ' chant of the Lydian ' 
(Helm's reading in 4. 33) 15 [We 
should probably read Ludium modum~] 

Lulli, the musician, Ixvii 

luminosus 81 

lupula 37 

luridus 49 

Liitjohann his careful examination of 
F cii : his Kritische Beitrdge 97 and 
often 



luxuries 96 

Lyly and Euphuism xc ff. 
of his style xcii n. 



the sources 



m, final, often omitted 104 

nmchina tecta 51 

Madaura, a considerable town x 

4 Madaurensem ' (Mot. xi, 27) xx 

madere uino 96 

maerentes oculi 62 

maga et maletica 107 

magisterium 60 

magna, for maga 107 

magnarius 45 n. 

Mabaffy (Dr.) shows that the Met. 
affords little or no evidence as to the 
social state of Greece xix n. : on the 
contrast of Attic and Asianic style 
Ixxix : quotes a letter of M. Antonius 
Ixxx n. 

maleficus, applied to witchcraft, 107 

manus accommodare ' to lend a hand ' 
112 

manus conuenire in manum, of mar- 
riage 122 : prae manu esse 'to be at 
hand' 112 

marcescere * to burn faint ' 15 

marcidus pallor 56: marcidi oculi Met. 
iii. 14 

Marmion (Shackerley) Ixviii 

marriage and death, associated ideas 15, 
16 

Mars, step -father of Cupid 73 

Martianus Capella imitates Apuleius 
121 n. 

masculus 77 : masculum sumere animum 
86 

Mason (Wiiliam) Ixix 

massae aureae, 21 

Mater Regina, title applied to luno 85 

maturare mandatum 89 

maturius ' earlier ' 26 

matutino, adverbial, 47 

Maximus, see Claudius Maximus 

meatug 3 : nieatum decurrere 115 

medica, ' a nurse ' 34 

meditullium 19 

Meleager, his poems on Love and the 
Soul liv f. note: Excursus in 132 f. 

melleus 88 



INDEX 



147 



mellita dulcedo 44 : mellitum sauium 

80 

Melusine xlvi n. 
mendacio, adverbial, 46 n. [erroneous 

reading] 

mentiri ' to assume falsely ' 42 
Mercurius 119, 120 

mereri proindeutmerebatur 66 ; cp. 36 
messis 80 
messoria opera 79 
metae Murtiae 90 
Metamorphoses, character of, see 

Apuleius 

metaphors, military 42, 43, 50 
metuens, with genitive 12 
metuere, neuter, with dat. 120 
Meyer (Hans Georg) Ixvi 
micantes oculi 76 : rosae 96 
Milesian tales xix, Excursus i, 125 : 
short stories, not a regular novel 
ib. : the Met. of Apuleius a series of 
milesiae 127 : not necessarily erotic 
ib. : examples of ib. Milesia (sc. 
fabella) applied to a special sort of 
story 126 f. 
Milesius deus 12 
milium 94 
ministerium (abstract for concrete) 59 } 

70 

mirari and rimari confused 22 
misellus 16, 26, 49, 64, 92, 117 
mockery of the gods Iviii f., see gods, 
mockery of : probably introduced by 
Apuleius Ixiii 

modicum, 'a little' 108, 112 
modulata multitude, ' a company singing 

in harmony ' 24 : see Corrigenda, 
modulus 44, 88 

Moeris, the lexicographer Ixxv 
Moliere Ixvii 
moilire 44 

molliter assiderellS 
mollities flauentis auri 100 
momentarius xciii, 39 
monstratus(subst.) 71 
monstruosus 46 
montanus 68 

mora nee mora cum 111, 121 
Moms (William) xlv, Ixi, Ixix 
naortales, ' men ' 3 



mortifera uia 110 

mortuum flumen 111 

mosaic work 20 

Moschus imitation of 89 

Moses regarded as a magician (Apol. 

90) xxii 
mucro 39 

mulso concretus 110 
multigrumi fluctus (in Laevius) 94 

note 

multiiugus 80 
multinoda uolumina 48 
mundus, * apparel ' ' paraphernalia ' 

13, 14, 79 : mundus muliebris 72 
Musae 70, 119, 122 
musiuum opus 20 
m atari, with ace. of closer definition 55 : 

with abl. ib. note 
mutuari 52 

natales, ' family ' lineage ' 44, 71 

natatus (subst.) 68 

naufragium fortunae, 86 

nauiter 79, 95 

naulum 112 

nebula soporis 116 

nee goes with adj. and not with verb 

100 
nee = ne . . . quidem 35 (ep. 41 nee 

ipsae nocturnae tenebrae) 
nee . . . quidem 86, 116 
nee . . . saltern = nee . . quidem 

xcix 

necquiquam 29 
nectareum uinum 23 
nedum ut 36 

nemo, cannot be followed by plural 4 
nescius, passive, 38 
neuter singular of adj. used adverbially 

54: similar use of neuter plural o7, 

58 

new words in Apuleius xciii 
nexilis 47 

JSTicagoras Ixxxvii n. 
Ninus story of 125 
nitor 75 
nixa genu 83 
nobilis 'known' 24 n. 
nodus ' binding joint ' 52 
nomen and numen 4 



148 



INDEX 



Norden (E.), his Antike Kunstprosa, 

Introduction, Chap.iii, passim: Ixxf.: 

Ixxix : on so-called * Africanism ' 

Ixxxiv 

Norden (Fr.), his edition cvi 
nouacula 51, 55, 56 
novel romantic novel found earlier in 

classical literature than is usually 

supposed 125 

nouitas ' unusualness ' 24, 25 ( 
nubilae plagae 59 
nudus, with genit. 22 
nugo (subst.) 72, 74 
nu men and nomen 4 
numero with words of quantity 1 
nuncupare 7 

nuptiae im pares 93, 120 : sceleratae 67 
nuptialis = * sumptuous ' 94, 96 : nup- 

tialis cena, literally ' marriage feast ' 

121 

nurses in medical cases, 34 u. 
nutantes pinnae 106 
nutricula musicae, of the reed, 99 
nutrimentum 43 
Nymphae 70 

obdere 34 

obhaerescere 100 

oblatio In minis 55 

oblatrare 113 

oblectare 43 

obsequiuum qmittere 89 : obsequium, 

abstract for concrete, of obedient 

servants 10 
obserare latratus 115 
obstupescere 23, 95 
occultatio 89 

ocius (for sociis 5. 20 fin.) 53 
Ocnus, representation of 110 
oculi amatores 60 : oculis and osculis 

confused 59 

Oea Apuleius' stay at xxv ff. 
ofFa polentae 110 
officere 41 
officiosus 34 

officium in officio permanere 49 
offrenare 113 
offula 113, 114, 115 
olini, ' some time before ' 12 
omission of verb of saying 45 



omnimodus 62 

omniparens 95 

uvov ir6Kai 111 n. 

'Oj/os of Pseudo-Lucian in relation to 

Met. of Apuleius xvii f. 
opes opibus (for sociis in 5. 20) 53 n. 
opipare (adv.) 30 
opiparis (adj.) 113 
opitulari 82 
oppido (adv.) 101 
optimi consulere 82 
ora conferre 27 
oracular tone 13, 14 : 37 
orbus, ' blind ' 31 
Orcus Orci cancri 91 
Orfitus xxxiii 
os in ora populorum 68, 89 : ore 

consono 17 

osculis and oculis confused 59 
ouare 88 

Oudendorp his edition cv 
Ovid probably did not know of the 

story of Cupid and Psyche Ivi : his 

Asianic style Ixxxi 
oxymora 7, 16 

pabulum 66 

paelicatus 73 

paenitere nouaculam paenitebat (the 

reading of Lipsius for nouacula, 

praenitebat in 5. 22) 56 
Palaemon 10 
pallor, of lovers 62 
palmula 51 
palpare 77 
palpebrae 47 

Pan Ixii : Pan and Echo 61 
pauculus 81 
panis sordidus 113 
Paniscus 122 
pannus 34 
papauer 94 
Paphos 3 
parciloquium 40 
parilis 29 

Paris pastor ille 6 
purricida 73 
purricidium, of the murder or ruin of a 

relation, 37 
partiarius honor 5 



INDEX 



particles use of xcix 

partum perferre 93 

piu-uulus 40, 42, 58 

passer 88 

passiuus 94 

Pater (Mr. Walter), his admirable 

delineation of Apuleius in Marius 

the Epicurean xli n. ; cp. li. Ixix, 

18 

patrocinium 78 
patula sauia 58 
pecuda, collateral form for pecua 99 

note 

pecudes, opposed to bestiae 19 
pedica fraudium 44 : nuptialis 120 
pendulus 59 
penetrabilis 29 
penitus adjective 101 
pensilis gradus 52 
per for super 61 : separated from its 

object in adjurations 80 
peralbus 67 

percieo percitus 58, 64 
percontari 29 

perdius, ' all day long ' 26 
perediamore 117 

peremere (archaic for perimere) 64 
perfect subjunctive used iteratively 109 
perfricare 34 

periclitabundus governs ace. 58 
perniciter 95 
per nix 117 
perpetrare 76 
perpetua nox 18 
personare personauit, rare form, 39 : 

accusatives after 39, 121 
personification in fairy-tales 57 
perstrepere 31 
perstringere 75 
peruicax 77 

peruigil (or peruigilis) 48 
perula 43 
peruolare 47 
pessum deicere, 27, 35 
petere, requires a, to ask from ' 1 3 
Petronius various views as to aim of 

Ids Satiricon Ivii n. : on Asianism 

Ixxxii 

petulans luxuries 96 
petulantia sauia 58 



Philemon account of his death given 

by Apuleius xxxi ff. 
Philostratus on Atticism Ixxv n. ; his 

Imagines Ixxvii n. 
Phrynichus the grammarian Ixxv n. 
piamentum 5 

picta colla torquentes (of doves) 87 
pietas inlicita 112 
pigens, ' chagrined ' 14 
pinnae nutantes 106 
pinnatus 80 
piscosus sinus 10 
plangor 26 
platanus 99 
plaudere, perhaps ' to plume oneself on r 

38 
Plautus represents Thebes as on the sea, 

as does Apuleius xix 
Pliny on the source of the Clitumnus 

97 n. 

plumula 57 
pluperfect used of rapidly accomplished 

events, 24 
plurifariam 93 
plusculus 3, 15 
Plutarch on the sophists of his day 

Ixxvii f . notes : on the style of 

M. Antonius Ixxx n. : assumed as 

progenitor of the hero of the Meta- 
morphoses xvi n. 
pocillator 105, 121 
poenitere used personally 6 n. 
poetical colour Ixxxvi ff. 
poetical words xciv f . 
polenta 110 

polentacium damnum 113 
Polemo the rhetorician Ixxi, Ixxiv n. 
Pollux the rhetorician Ixxix n. 
Polygnotus, his representation of Ocnus 

110 

Pontianus xxv ff. 
poplites 56 
populosa fain ilia 30 
porrigere iter 82 : uestigium 86 : por- 

i ecta fama 25 : porrecti longa colla 

103 

portare aetatem 77 
portorium (= naulum), 'toll' 111 
Portunus 10 
postlirninio, ' back again ' 30 



150 



INDEX 



praeacutus 51 

praealta turns 108 

praecipitem se dare 108 : praecipitem te 

extingtiere 109 
praecipitium 63, 98 
praecludere 78 
praeconium 36, 88 
praedicatio 89 
praedicator 90 
praedictum iugum ' the aforesaid hill ' 

102 

praegnas 85 
praegrandis 113 
praelucere 17 
praemicave 51 
praenitere 33 
praesentare 85 
praestare me contra 85 
praestolare, active form, 53 
praestolari 24 

praesumere, to be presumptuous ' 72 
praeteriri 4 
praeterluere 97 
praetotonderit 75 
praeuertere 41, 78 
praeuolare 105 
prepositions use of xcviii : omitted 

after verbs compounded with a prepo- 
sition xcvii 
present subjunctive in prohibitions 37, 

39 

pressule sauiari 9 
pressure (subst.) 47 
pressus pressior25 : cogitationes pres- 

siores 36 

Price his edition cv 
prirnoris digitus 1 
primus (wrong reading for prim in 

5. 21 fin.) 55 
procc-ritas spatii 61 
procerus xcvi : procerae arbores 19 : 

procerum saxum 102 : procerus lupiter 

119: procerissimus 99 
proci reges, 'royal suitors ' 12 
proclamations about lost property 89 
proconsulship of Asia and Africa held 

ten to fifteen years after consulship 

xin. 

producere, of a funeral 15 
prof ugus 86 



Prohaeresios Ixxii 

prohibitions in fairy-tales xlvi ff. : no 
satisfactory explanation of the prohi- 
bition in the Cupid and Psyche lix, Ix 
prohinc 'accordingly ' xcix, 23 

proinde ut merebantur 36 ; cp. 66 

prolectare 30 

prolixa senectus 62 

promereri amatores 94, cp. 63 

pronouns usages of xcvii 

propansis pennis 104 

properiter 71 

propinare xcvi, 73 

propitia tela (of Cupid) 58 

propter (preposition), placed after the 
word it governs 68 

proripere se 60 

prorumpere in uocem 108 

prosapia 120 

proserpere 103 

prospicua 'provident' xcvi, 114 

proteri 4 

protinus 59, 80, 85 

prouectae (Bursian's reading forporrectaa 
in 5. 21) 54 : prouecta nocte 24 

Prouidentia 104 

prouidentia, ' being watched over ' 23 

prouincia, ' duty '117 

prouolans 116 

proximare 29, 79, 83, 90 

proxime with ace. 62 

psallitur, impersonal 44 

Pseudo-Lucian the Pseudokglstes Ixxi v 
n. : the "Ovos xvii ff. 

Psyche how depicted in the story Ixi 

publicitus 88 

Pudens younger son of Pudentilla 
xxvi 

Pudentillu xxv ff. 

pudica (oratio) term applied to Atti- 
cism Ixxxii n. 

puellus 46 

pulcherrime, ironical, 108 

pullulare, transitive 3 

pullulatim 52 

pulsare citharam 24 

puluerare, transitive 4 n. 

puluinar 79 

pumilior 33 n. 

punctulum 38, 117 



INDEX 



151 






punctum pollicis 58 

pupula, 'pupil' of the eye 103 : < little 

girlie' 108 

Pururavas and Urvasi, story of xlvi f . 
purpurare 121 
pusillus 33 
putres manus 112 
Pythica sors 48 
pyxis 108, 114, 116 

quaerere with infin. 109 
quaesitio, ' searching for ' 67 
quum with positives xcix, 52 
quasi mendacium . . . quasi 60 
quassare capite quassanti 5, the gesture 

of indignant thought ib. 
querulus 84 
qui, ' wherehy ' 89 
quidem nee . . . quidem 26 
quidni ? 73, 108 
quiens, from queo 86 
quippe, not first word 50 n. 
quiritare 71 
quod genus 20 

r for s in Cod. F 17 

Eaphael Ixvi 

raptim 36 

rebullire 64 

reccinere 62 

reclinare 18 

recolere meam uenerem 34 : uestigia 
114 

recordari with genitive 48 

recreare animam 40 

redditum, of the property of a thing, 
used without a dative expressed, 24, 25 

rediam, future of redire 114 

redintegrare 36 

redulcerare dolorem 36 

reduplicated perfect in compound verb 
75 

refectus (subst.) 23 

refluum lit us 9 

refouere, with personal accusative 43 
[It is questionable if in this passage 
5. 15 init. we should not read with 
Price eas <a> lassitudine uiae 
sedilibus refotas] : cp. refouere lassitu- 
dinem 23 



regalis ales 104 

regius, prince ' 1 1 

Reinach (1C. Solomon) Ixv 

remeaculum 81 

remeare 96 

remigium plumae 61 : remigium 
porrigens 106 

remdnere 60 

remulcere 44 

renidens exitiabile 107 

reniti 91 

rennuere 88 

repensare, intransitive 119 

requirere fugiduarn 76 : uestigium 80 

res e re, ' for the occasion ' 66 : res 
uasta 102 

reserare 116 

resultare, with cogn. ace. (sonum) 29 

retro, used as a preposition xcix, 90 

retropendulus 57 

reuelare 116 

reverence, gesture of 1 

reuincere 77 

rhetoric greater than tragedy according 
to Himerius Ixxxvii 

rhetoricians compared themselves to 
singing birds Ixxxvii 

Rhys (Prof.) 1 

rhythms of Apuleius not discussed 
c. n. 

rigare 80 

rimari and mirari confused 22 

roborare affectionem 33 

Rode Ixvii 

Rohde (E.) his article on Apuleius in 
Rh. Mus. (1885) x: his Dissertation 
on the "Ovos of Pseudo-Lucian xvii : 
holds that the Metamorphoses affords 
little or no evidence of the social 
state of Greece xix n. : on the 
probable circumstances of the com- 
position of that work xxi f. : on 
" Theatre Philosophers " xl : on 
Fortune in Greek fiction Ix, 25 : on 
the sophists of imperial times Ixxi : 
on the model of the descriptive 
passages in the rhetoricians Ixxxvi : 
on Psyche's third task 101 

Roman Law references to, in Apuleius 
Ixiv, cp. 73, 86 



152 



INDEX 



rorare 58 

ros fluctuum 2, 9 : ros rigens, ' ice-cold 

liquid' 101 
rosae micantes 96 
roscidae pinnae 57 
rowing metaphor of, applied to flying 

106 

rudimentum, 38, 87 
rupa, supposed collateral form of rupes 

97 note 
rurestris 3 1 
ruricola 95 
rusticanus 62 

Sabrata assize court at xxviii 
sacerdotium Africae xxxiv 
sacrarium 81 
acrilegus 27, 56 
saeuus and scaeuus 32 
saeuiens ira 77, 81 : impetus 86 
saginare 48 

Sagittarius (of Cupid) 60 
Salacia 10 
salebritas 102 
saltare formonsa 122 
saltern after negatives = quidem xcix 
Samos birthplace of Hera 83 
sanguinare, a neuter verb, 48 
' sanity ' claimed by the Atticists 

Ixxiii n., Ixxvi 
Sarkasukis xlix 

atis closely joined with adjectives 103 
Saturus 122 
saucius, * love-sick ' 58 : 'heart-broken ' 

62 

sauia festinantia 30 
saxea frons 99 
saying, verb of, omitted 45 
scaeuus 32 n. 
scaturrigo 101 
Schaller (W.), his Dissertation on the 

tale Hi f . : Ivii n. 
oilicet governs infin. 5 n. 
cire qui scias an 86 : scire quod 119 : 

quod sciam ' as far as I know ' 85 
scitulus 62 
scortatus (subst.) 68 
scrupulose curioseque 30 
secedere domum 89 
secreta cistarum 80 



secta 44 

secum = inter se 45 

secundus, play on word 100 

-secus (enclitic), its use xciii n. 

sed, intensifying, ' aye and ' 7, 36 

sedulo 80 

seiugare 94, 109 

semideus 20 

semihianti uoce 49 

semirotundus 23 

semota (for remota) conj. Rohcle 79 

Seneca, the philosopher, on concinnitas 
Ixxxviii 

Seneca, the rhetorician, on Asianism 
Ixxvii n. 

senecta 46 

sepeliri (bestiae uisceribus) 49 

sepes populus, ' six-footed folk ' (of ants) 
95 

sera ' a bar ' 34 

serere uerba 88 

sericum tegmen 11 

serpents in worship of Demeter 81 : 
serpents' tongues 106 

Seuerianus xxxiii 
seueriter 7 
sexus infestus 39 
Shadwell Ixviii 
si uere 71 

sic, uses of, xcix : = ovrw, ' on this con- 
dition' 111: 'under these circum- 
stances ' 12 

Sicily associated with Ceres 81 
Sicinius Aemilianus xxviii 
siderum uices 118 

Sidonius refers to Apuleius xxvii n. 
Siebert (0.) Ixvi 
signia, a kind of dining-table 23 
simul et simul dicens 89 : for simul ac, 

construction of 109 
s.'ng i 1 ar forms where plural is more 

common 52 
singultus 39 
Sirenes 39 
Sisenna 126 

sitting, in the lower world 113 
snake-storyhow transformed into the 

Cupid and Psyche Ivi 
Sobrietas 74 
socialis 69 



INDEX 



153 



socrus 92, 95 

solida cicatrix 116 

solidari 21 

solidum, adverb 69 

Sollicitudo 92 

somnus infernus et tiere Stygius 116 

sonatur, impersonal 44 

sonax 11 

sophists of the second century Ixxi : 
great masters of language xl : their 
great splendour xxiv 

sordes terrenae 5 

spatium, used without temporis 81 

specimen ' sight ' 3 . 

specula ' glimmer of hope ' 86 

speculum 11 

Spenser Ixviii 

spicae frumentariae 79 

spiraculum Ditis 109 

spirare deam 33 

Spirits intermediate xxxvi 

splendicare 33 

spurius 93 

squalens 74 

stabulare, active form, 87 

statues beautiful human beings com- 
pared to 12 [cp. Anth. Pal. v. 15] 

status, ' nature ' ' condition ' 50 

stelio 74 

stilla 105 

stips 110, 112, 114, 115 

stomach ari 75 

Stumfall (Dr. Balthasar) Ixvii 

Stuttaford (Mr. Charles) Ixix 

Stygiae aquae, 101 

Styx, oath of gods, 105 

suadere, with ace. 27, 37 

subaudire 50 

subdita uallis 18 

subinde, ' repeatedly ' 75, 104 

subire malam gratiam 82 

subjunctive present in prohibitions 
26, 63 

sublimare 45 

sublucidus 82 

subnatare 11 

subridens amarum 100 

subsistere, ' to be a stay to ' 50, 81 

subsitus 82 

substrepere 49 



subuolare 87 

succuba 70 

succuinbere, used absolutely without 

dat., to yield ' 29 
sudus 10 
sufficienter 1 
suggestus (subst.), 'raised platform* 

22 : fortunarum 27 
sui, instead of possessive pronoun xcviii, 

23 

sulcamen 81 
sulcati gressus 52 
summus torus 121 
supellex 72 
supercilium undae 61 : louis cserulum 

supercilium 88 
superingredi 122 
supernatare 115 
supine governs a noun 105 
suppar gressus 122 n. 
supremus, correction for primus 104 
sursum respicere 33 
suspiritus 62 
susurrus Venerius potestate Venerii 

susurrus (Rohde's emendation 5. 6) 29 
sutilis cumba 111 
suus sibi xcviii, 1 1 
syntax, irregularities in xcvi ff. 

tabulae (false reading for aululae in 

5. 20) 51 
tacita secreta 80 
Taenarus, feminine 109 : entrance to 

lower world ib. 

Tanit Carthaginian luno 84 n. 
tantillus 45, 116 
tantum, ' only,' admonitory xcix 
tantus tanta dea 4 : tantum numen 13 
tardare, neuter 66 
temerare praeceptum 31 
temerarius 56 
temeiitas 41 

temperata formonsitas 12 
temulentus xcvi, 57 
tenacissime 52 

teneat, possideat legal phrase 120 
tenebra (singular) 52 
tenellus 49, 58 
teneritudo 37 
tenuans lima 87 



154 



INDEX 



teriugus 113 

terminus extra terminum mentis posita 

49 : et cum termino sermonis 60, cp- 

mora 

terrena libido 118 
terrificare 14 

tertiare lit. ' to repeat three times * 49 
textrix anus 112 ; cp. 115 
Thagaste birthplace of St. Augustine x 
thalamus 67 

theatrum, ' assembly-room ' 119, cp. 108 
Thebes represented in Met. as on the sea 

xix 
thensaurus orbis 22 : fraudis 42 : for- 

monsitatis 114 
Thrasymachus Ixx 
tibia opp. to fistula 122 
tibias inflare 122 
Tighe (Mrs.), her Psyche Ixix 
titubare 54, 62 
ton antes fauces 113 
torus summus torus 121 
Tower helps Psyche Ix n. : speaks 

108 : parallels in Roman literature 

108 
trahere comam ' to tear one's hair ' 36 : 

noctem ' to drag'through the night ' 

54 

transmeare 109, 112 
transverse alliteration Ixxxix 
tremule resultare 58 
triclinium 43 
Tristities 92 
trisulca uibramina 106 
Tritones 11 

trux bestia 48 : supercilium 76 
tucceta 43 

Tulisa, story of xlvii ff. 
tune etiam = praeterea 86 
turgidus 36 
turris praealta 108 
tutelam gerere 80 

uacillare or uaccillare 57, 62 

uagitus 83 

ualuae, 21 n. 

Van der Vliet his edition cv 

uaporosus 43 

uasculum 102 

uber fletus 80 



ilbertim 26 

uectura 28, 30 : uectura leonis 84 

uegetus 115 

uel for nee 115: uel certe 20, 81 : uel 

maxime 70 : uel saltern 66 : uel sic 

116 

uelamentum 108 
uelitari37, 55 
uenenati morsus 99 
uenia numinis 2 : ueniani adire 83 
uentosum uehiculum 45 
uentus ferens 41 
Venus how depicted Ivii ff. : Ixiii n. : 

her ira Ivii : jealousy of 5 : her power 

in the lower world 113 : beautiful 

girl compared to 2 : kisses from her 

as a reward 90 
uenustas 76 
Vergil adaptation of 95 ; incidents from 

fairy-tales used by Vergil in his 

Sixth Book 113 
uernula 72 
uerrere humum 80 
uertices, possible reading for gurgltes 

98 

uesania turgidae 36 
uesticeps, opp. to inuestis 70 n. 
uestigatio 78 

uestigium in ipsouestigio 116 
uia and iter combined 51 
uiaticum, coin put into mouth of dying 

man, 112 
uibramen 106 
uibrare uibrantes fluctus 9 : uibratis 

laciniis 18 
uicem, use of 119 
uidero 34 n. 
uiduare 26 

uiduus uidua ara, ' altar without sacri- 
fice ' 4 : uidua, applied to a maid 12 
uilla marriages in uilla looked on with 

disapproval xxvii n., 93 
uiolentia 76 
uipereum malum 13 
uirginalis flos 2 

uiscera, 'heart' (metaphorical) 53 
uitreus (latex) 19 
uitricus 73 
ultroneus 86 
ululabilis 29 



INDEX 



155 



unda applied to a crowd 95 

unde scio an 79 

undeunde 74 

unicum cubiculum 96 

unus et unicus 8 

uocales aquae 103 

uocalis deus (i.e. Mercury) 88 : uocalis 

solitudo 49 
uocula 61 
uolaticus 76 
uolatilis maritus 86 
nolens in prayers 8 
uolentia 76 n. 
Voluptas 123 
von Lincker Ixvi 
von Schulze Ixvii 
nor ax 64 
uox uoces famulae 24: cp. uoces 

ancillae 33 ; uoces seruientes 30 : uox 

conferta 24 
upilio 62 
uredo 7 

urgere, ' to become pressing ' 15 
Urvasi and Pururavas, story of xlvi f . 
usura 88 

usus ad hos usus dederam 72 
ut omitted after verbs of ordering, xcviii, 

27, 40, 65 

utcunque, ' somehow or other' 62 
utique xcix, 76 



utpote with adj. xcix 49 
utroque parente prognatae, 32 
utrum, for utrumcunque, 46 
Vulcanus cooks the banquet of 
gods 121 



the 



Waser (Dr. Otto), his article on Psyche 

in Reseller's Lexikon der Mythologie 

liv, Ix, Ixv. 
Water of Life 101 n. 
"Weyman (C.) his edition cvi 
Whibley (Mr. Charles) Ixvii 
"Wieland Ixvi 
^Vilcken his account of the story of 

Ninus 125 
"Wilson (Mr. Dover), his work on Lyly 

xcf. 

Winterling (C. M.) Ixvi 
witnesses at marriages 93 
words used by Apuleius ; new words 

xciii : archaic words xciv : poetical 

words xcv ; Greek words xcv : words 

with altered meanings xcvi 

Zeller xliii, 131 

Zephyrus 18, 28 

Zinzow (Dr. A.) 131 

Zygia 84 

zygia tibia, * the marriage pipe ' 15 



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