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THE STORY OF 
A DYNAMIC COMMUNITY 



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PENNSYLVANIA 




The Corporate Seal of York, Pennsylvania, was designed by Reinhardt Demp- 
wolf, J. Horace Rudy and James Glessner. The original is in color. The inter- 
secting cross streets are in gold. At the intersection there is superimposed the 
red brick Colonial Court House. The shield is in dark blue and symbolizes the 
original German settlers. This shield is in the center of a white rose symbolic 
of the early English and Welsh immigrants. Surrounding the white rose is a 
border of red indicating that York County was originally a part of Lancaster 
County. The rope represents industries ; the grain, her agriculture. The Amer- 
ican Eagle surmounts the three cannon balls of the Penns. The year 1741 marks 
the date when the site for the city was first surveyed. 



Text by 

BETTY PECKHAM 

Illustrations by 
HOWARD COLEMAN IMHOFF 



PUBLISHED BY YORK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE 



Foreword 



This introductory evaluation of our city is by an 
individual who is not naiive to the community. I 
came to York a complete stranger just twenty- 
five years ago. It soon became evident that if I were 
to succeed in my profession I had to gain a thorough 
understanding of every phase of York's community 
life, because only through such a knowledge could 
I secure the necessary voluntary cooperation for 
effective community development. 

Perhaps, by reason of being an outsider, I have 
ben able to be more objective in my observations 
than could a native whose roots run deep into the 
historical soil. 

These, then, are my quarter-century conclusions. 

The story of York, while it has individual charac- 
teristics, mirrors quite accurately that of many an- 
other community east of the Alleghenies and is in 
miniature the story of the development of this part 
of our nation. 

Its 200-year maturity reflects itself in its resistance 
to sudden change and gives it a stability which 
can withstand shocks which might damage newer 
communities. 

However, despite its age, its people have never 
been content to rest upon the laurels of past achieve- 
ment. They have used their accomplishments as a 
base upon which further progress can be built. Their 
philosophy is wrapped up in the phrase "Be not the 
last to cast away the old, nor yet the first to grasp 
the new." 

York's people are relatively homogeneous. The 
original inhabitants were predominantly of German 
descent with a small sprinkling of Scotch, Irish and 
English. This mixture of peculiarly characteristic na- 
tional traits of each produced a population alloy 
much stronger than the pure strain of any one race, 
just as a combination of metals makes for a product 
with more strength and durability than the pure 
metal itself. 

York's population growth during the last century 
has been largely from within, but always there has 
been that gradual addition of outside elements which 
tempered and strengthened the native. But never 
has the influx been so great as to become unassim- 
ilable with its attendant danger of radical change in 
the nature of the community. 



The story of York demonstrates that people are 
more important than the things usually labeled as 
natural resources in economics. 

York's preeminence in industry does not rest upon 
natural resources. York has only two fertile land 
and limestone deposits. Food processing and indus- 
try dependent upon limestone are important, but not 
predominant. There is no navigable river nor tide- 
water location to give York an advantage. Its re- 
sources have always been the purposeful lives of its 
people; their ingenuity, industry and thrift. 

Every major industry in York has its origin in the 
fertile mind of some local citizen. So important to the 
national economy are York's products that several 
of the industries have become integrated with larger 
national units. This amazing industrial development 
is unfolded in the individual histories of various in- 
dustries in the second half of this book. York is proud 
of its industrial achievement, for only upon it as a 
basis has it been able to develop a community with 
all the civic, social, political and commercial institu- 
tions which make it one of the best balanced cities 
in the nation. York is proof that a productive econ- 
omy is the only enduring foundation upon which a 
sound social structure can be built. 

Monopoly is a word foreign to York. There is no 
single dominating industry, no major agricultural 
product, no predominance of a racial consciousness, 
no overdone emphasis on religious affiliation, no un- 
beatable majority in politics, no sole retail outlet of 
its kind, no agreement on editorial newspaper poli- 
cies, no overshadowing financial institution, no ex- 
clusive radio station. 

If democracy can be defined as that social and 
political structure in which all constituent elements 
are in constant competition, a competition that 
encourages progress and equal opportunity, then 
York is an excellent example of such a society in 
miniature. 




E. A. HIRSCHMAN, Secretory, 
York Chamber of Commerce. 



PAGE 

Significant Events in the History of York I 

The Influence of the Pennsylvania Germans. . . 22 

Educational and Cultural York 25 

Civic and Public Institutions of York 43 

Health and Welfare : 53 

Agriculture in York County 63 

Associations and Clubs 67 

York's Churches 76 

Amusements 79 

Music 89 

Public Utilities 92 

Industrial and Commercial York 101 

Acknowledgments 1 06 

Bibliography 1 07 

Industrial and Commercial Section 109 

Index . . 249 



SIGNIFICANT EVENTS 
IN THE HISTORY OF 








In 1741, Thomas Cookson, surveyor for (he Penns, wifh Baltzer Spongier as chain-bearer, laid 
out York, the first town west of the Susquehanna. The straight wide streets and the square 
at the center ol the town tor public buildings represented one ol the first instances in history 

of intelligent city planning. 



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Early History and Development 



THE FOUNDING OF PENNSYLVANIA 

When William Penn accepted from King Charles II 
of England 45,000 square miles of land in the New 
World in payment of a bad debt of 16,000 pounds 
owed his father. Admiral Penn, he became one of 
the first real estate promoters in history. Pennsyl- 
vania, chartered in 1681, was one of the last colo- 
nies opened to settlement. Most of the English who 
wanted to emigrate to America had already taken 
up land in New England, Virginia, and the other 
English colonies. 

Penn invited the members of his own sect, the 
Quakers, to come to Pennsylvania, but they num- 
bered only a few thousand. Casting about for addi- 
tional colonists, he thought of the thrifty, industrious 
inhabitants of the Palatinate in Central Europe. Here 
some of the best farmers and craftsmen of Europe 
had been harried for years by wars and religious 
persecution. Penn wrote, or caused to be written, 
fifty-eight books and pamphlets which were trans- 
lated into three different languages. He even sent 
out decks of playing cards carrying advertisements 
of Pennsylvania. 

These publications described the beauties of Penn- 
sylvania; its forests abounding in game, and its 
rivers teeming with fish. They stressed the honest 
dealing of the Quakers and guaranteed religious 
freedom. Penn also sent agents into Central Europe 
to recruit groups of colonists, and to answer their 
questions about the Indians and the crops which 
could be grown in the new country. 

To Europeans, just emerging from the feudal age, 
the idea of owning land was most attractive. 

THE COLONISTS BEGIN TO COME 

In 1683, the first shipload of Pennsylvania Germans 
arrived in Philadelphia. They found all that Penn 
had claimed was true, and they wrote back to Ger- 
many encouraging more immigrants to come. Soon 
Pennsylvania Germans were arriving by the ship- 
load. They came on slow-sailing vessels, packed in 
like cattle. Passage cost approximately $129, and 
those who did not have the money were so eager to 
come that they promised to work as redemptioners 
in the new country from three to twenty years to 
pay for themselves and their families. 

RELIGION OF THE COLONISTS 

The Pennsylvania Germans were of several relig- 
ious sects. They included Moravians from Bohemia 
and Moravia; Mennonites from Switzerland, and the 
Amish, an offshoot of the Mennonites; German Breth- 
ren or "Dunkards," Schwenkfelders from Silesia; 
Dutch from Holland, and French Huguenots from 
Alsace and Lorraine. 

The Quakers, founded in England by George Fox 
in 1648, were predominately English, Irish, and 
Welsh. They arrived in the colony early, laid out 
Philadelphia in 1682, and took almost complete 
charge of the government. 



Members of these religious sects in traditional 
garb may be frequently seen upon the streets of 
York, today. 

The Scotch-Irish, who were mostly Presbyterians, 
were active in opening up the lumbering and iron- 
smelting industries of the state. Hardy followers of 
the frontier, they were great Indian fighters and 




Log cabin, siill standing near Dillsburg, typical of the homes 
of the earliest settlers. 




THE SHULTZ HOUSE 

"In the year 1734, John Shultz and wile, Christina, built this 
house;" so reads the sandstone tablet set in the gable end of 
the first two-story stone house, built west of the Susquehanna. 
It is still standing four miles east of Yorfe. In the early days a 
cannon projected from the attic window as protection against 
enemies approaching along the road. 



often moved on further West, leaving the land to be 
taken up by the Germans. 

There were also a number of Catholics and Epis- 
copalians among the first settlers. 

LIFE OF THE PIONEERS 

The early settlers arrived in covered wagons con- 
taining the scythe, the sickle, the hoe and wooden 
plow, and one or two iron-bound chests filled with 
linens and household utensils. Their campfires were 
lighted with flint. 

They looked for fertile land where big trees grew 
and built their log cabins or stone houses near 
springs or streams. 

Their lives were filled with toil. Not only did they 
clear and cultivate the land, they spun and wove 
their own woolen and flaxen cloth, dyed it with bark, 
berries and earth colors and made it into garments. 
They planted orchards and made cider and apple 
butter. From their cattle they obtained milk which 
they made into butter and cheese, meat, fat for soap 
and candles, and leather for shoes. Their bees gave 
them honey, and their fowls, feathers, for beds and 



pillows. They made and decorated pottery. They 
gathered fruits and vegetables and dried them for 
the winter. From the herbs they found about them, 
they prepared medicines. They built mills and ground 
grain. They were good farmers sheltering their cattle 
in barns, using the fertilizer upon the land, and prac- 
ticing crop rotation. 

But in all this busy life the Pennsylvania Germans 
did not forget God. They built churches and wor- 
shipped in them regularly. Upon the literal interpre- 
tation of the New Testament, they patterned their 
own lives as closely as possible. 

PENNSYLVANIA DUTCH 

Pennsylvania Dutch is a dialect derived from the 
High German of Bible and Prayer Book combined 
with the Low German and the American English 
learned in school. It is a homey tongue, rich in ex- 
pressive idioms, and colloquialisms. 

YORK IS LAID OUT, 1741 

York was the first town laid out west of the Sus- 
quehanna. In 1741, Thomas Cookson, a surveyor for 







By hard work, the Pennsylvania Germans made their homes the most comfortable and most 
colorlul of (hose of any ol the colonists. But in the midst of their busy lives, they also found 

time to worship God. 



the Penn's, plotted a town site of 446 2 acres in the 
heart of Springettsbury Manor. This tract of 64,500 
acres had been laid out for Springett Penn, a grand- 
son of William Penn, in 1722. 

Cookson laid out straight streets, a generous 80 
feet in width on each side of the junction of the 
Monocacy Road and the Codorus. Squares measured 
480 feet by 500 feet and provision was made for the 
location of public buildings in the very center of the 
town on a tract 110 feet square, now known as Con- 
tinental Square. This was one of the first instances 
of intelligent city planning. 

The unoccupied lands were to be used in common 
by the settlers. On these Commons they were per- 
mitted to gather firewood and pasture their cattle. 

The streets were assigned the English names of 
High (now Market), King, George, Duke, Queen, 
and Princess, and the town itself was called York, 
after York, England. 

YORK, THE WHITE ROSE CITY 

Along with the name of old York, York, Pennsyl- 
vania, adopted the symbol of the English city, the 
whife rose, while the neighboring city of Lancaster, 
Pennsylvania, similarly adopted the red rose. 

The symbol of the white rose dates from the Wars 
of the Roses (1455-1471) in which the two powerful 
houses of York and Lancaster struggled to gain 
possession of the throne of England. 

Richard, Duke of York, while walking in the Temple 
Gardens in London with a company of nobles was 
endeavoring to persuade them to take up arms in 
his behalf. Seeing that the nobles were unwilling to 
commit themselves, he said, "Ah, I see you are afraid 
to speak out. Give me then a sign. Show which side 
you favor. From off this brier pluck a white rose 
with me." 

Immediately, a number of the nobles plucked 
white roses and thrust them into their caps. Seeing 
this the Duke of Somerset, who was of the House of 
Lancaster, sprang forward and tearing a red rose 
from another bush, exclaimed, "Those who take my 
side, from off the thorn pluck a red rose with me." 

The knights championing his cause, put red roses 
in their caps. The nobles separated in anger and 
rallied their armies for the struggle which continued 
intermittently for seventeen years. 

With the Battle of Bosworth Field, the Wars of the 
Roses came to an end. Henry Tudor, of Lancaster, 
who became Henry VII, wed the White Rose Princess, 
Elizabeth of York, sister of the little princes mur- 
dered in the Tower, and thus the two rival houses 
were united. 

Recently, the Conservation Society of York County 
has sponsored the planting of white roses along the 
Lincoln Highway outside the city and Lancaster has 
taken up the planting of red roses. 

FRIENDLY RELATIONS STILL MAINTAINED 
WITH OLD YORK 

Old York has long been conscious of its namesake 
and relations have always been friendly. As recently 
as Christmas, 1944, Lord-Mayor Harold C. DeBrugh 
sent to Mayor John L. Snyder a beautifully printed 
and illustrated volume of the historic "Monuments of 
York, England" from the thirteenth century to the 
present, as an official gift to the City of York, 
Pennsylvania. 



FIRST SETTLERS 

Although the framework of the town was English, 
most of the first settlers were Germans. Among the 
early names were Barnitz, Bentz, Bott, Croll, Crone, 
Banner, Diehl, Ebert, Eichelberger, Eyster, Fackler, 
Fisher, Fry, Hahn, Hay, Hiestand, Holtzapple, Huber, 
Immel, Lightner, Maul, McClean, Miller, Rudisill, 
Smyser, Schmitt, Schultz, Shriner, Small, Spongier, 
Sprenkel, Stair, Wolf, and Ziegler; many of whose 
descendants still live in York today. 

The town of York did not fill up rapidly. The tak- 
ing up of lots was slow and there was some trouble 
with settlers who spoiled unoccupied lots by strip- 
ping off the clay and cutting down the trees for 
burning brick. 

INDIANS OF YORK COUNTY 

Before the coming of the white man, York County 
was the hunting ground of the Susquehannocks, a 
tall tribe who had driven out all other Indians. In- 
dian Steps Museum and the Y. M. C. A.'s Camp 
Minqua are located on the site of old fisheries and 
camping grounds along the Susquehanna and many 
arrowheads and other interesting relics may still be 
found. The Lincoln Highway for about five miles west- 
ward follows the route of the old Monocacy Road, 
one of the three Indian trails which ran through the 
county. In 1665, the Susquehannocks were attacked 
by the ruthless Senecas and most of them destroyed. 
Following the great Indian treaty at Albany, New 
York, in 1736, William Penn became owner of all the 
Indian lands west of the Susquehanna. 

As far as is known, no Indians have lived in York 
County since 1763. 

YORK COUNTY FORMED, 1749 

York was originally governed as a part of Lan- 
caster County and the administration of justice 
centered in the Courthouse in Lancaster. But the 
distance from judge and jail encouraged thieves to 
operate without fear of punishment. Even after being 
captured, they often escaped from the wagons in 
which they were being carried to Lancaster for trial. 

A petition of the citizens for a separate county or- 
ganization was granted in 1749 and York became 
the first county west of the Susquehanna, and the 
fifth in Pennsylvania. 

THE COLONIAL COURTHOUSE 
Begun in 1754, it was not until 1756 that the first 
courthouse was finished. Located in Center Square 
(now Continental), the building was of red brick 
with white wood trim. William Willis, a Quaker and 
a skilled bricklayer, erected the walls. Henry Clark, 
also a Quaker, who owned a sawmill on Beaver 
Creek, furnished the lumber, but John Meem and 
Jacob Klein, Germans, were the carpenters. Seven 
thousand shingles for the roof were hauled by wagon 
from Philadelphia. 

Adjoining the Courthouse was the Colonial Mar- 
ket House. To the east in 1793 was erected the State 
House or land office where deeds and surveys were 
kept. The present York National Bank and Trust 
Building is a replica of the State House. Beside the 
Courthouse stood the public hay scales and before 
it the whipping post. 

EARLY COUNTY GOVERNMENT 
In Pennsylvania, as in other colonies, punishments 
were severe. A thief not only received fifteen lashes 



4 



on his bare back, but was also liable to have his 
ears cut off and nailed to the whipping post. 

Some of the early provisions of the county gov- 
ernment sound quaint today. A bounty was offered 
for wolves' heads. After a tricky settler had tried to 
collect twice on the same head, the county officials 
instituted the practice of burning the heads in the 
square as soon as the bounty was paid. One of the 
first county officers was the Chief Ranger, whose 
duty it was to take up stray colts, horses, cattle and 
swine. 

RELICS OF THE OLD COURTHOUSE 

There are several relics of the old Courthouse still 
in existence today. The doorway and door may be 
seen at the Historical Society of York County Build- 
ing at 225 East Market Street. "The Little Man," the 
gilded weather vane, representing Pulaski, which 
replaced the broad arrow of England, still tells which 
way the wind blows on the tower of the Laurel Fire 
House at the corner of Duke and King Streets. The 
Godfrey Lenhart clock, made in York, which tradi- 
tion says was used by Continental Congress, may be 
seen in the York Historical Society Building. 

The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in 







Relics ol the Colonial Courthouse: ILeft) Godfrey Lenhart 
clock now in possession of the Historical Society; (Top Right) 
Pulaski weather-vane made by John Fisher now on the tower 
ol the Laurel Fire House; (Lower Right) figure of Justice which 
stood in the courtroom, made by John Fisher, now privately 
owned. 



Foreign Parts had sent from England a bell for St. 
John's Episcopal Church. This Church had no belfry 
at the time and the bell lay neglected on the ground. 
Then it was hung on a pole at the southwest corner 
of the Square and used to announce the opening of 
court and other public meetings. 

When James Smith returned from Philadelphia, 
after signing the Declaration of Independence, he 
was determined that York should also have its Lib- 
erty Bell. He and Archibald McClean hung the bell in 
the tower of the Courthouse. The Declaration of Inde- 
pendence was then read to hundreds of people gath- 
ered in the Square and the bell rung in joyful ac- 
claim. This was on July 8, 1776. 

The "Liberty Bell" of York may be seen today in 
the vestibule of St. John's Episcopal Church at 130 
North Beaver Street to which it was returned after 
the Colonial Courthouse was pulled down in 1841. 

YORK IN THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WARS 

In April, 1755, Benjamin Franklin visited York to 
hire wagons and horses to transport supplies for 
Braddock's army. He explained to the Quakers, Dun- 
kards, and Mennonites, who being opposed to war 
were unwilling to serve as soldiers, that taking part 
in this expedition would be a good opportunity to 
get hold of some "gold and silver of the king's 
money." And he pointed out that if they refused to 
hire their wagons and teams at 15 shillings per day, 
and their pack horses at 2 shillings, that undoubtedly 
their animals would be seized by the army anyhow. 
Within two weeks he had secured 150 wagons and 
259 pack horses, as well as 1,200 barrels of flour for 
the expedition against the French and Indians at 
Fort Duquesne. 

THE MASON-DIXON LINE 

During the early 1730's, lands were claimed by 
Marylanders under patents from Lord Baltimore, 
within York County, around Hanover, and even as 
far north as Springettsbury Manor. So much contro- 
versy arose that finally in 1760 the Commissioners 
representing Lord Baltimore and Commissioners rep- 
resenting the Penns agreed to undertake a survey 
to establish a correct boundary line between the 
proprietary colonies. Accordingly, Charles Mason 
and Jeremiah Dixon were employed, and between 
the years of 1763 and 1767 they surveyed the Mason- 
Dixon Line; thus not only establishing the southern 
boundary line of Pennsylvania but also that of York 
County. 

The line was marked with mile-stones engraved 
with an "M" on the Maryland side and a "P" on the 
Pennsylvania side. Five mile-stones were engraved 
with the arms of Lord Baltimore and the Penns. These 
stones were cut in England and sent over as the 
survey progressed. Many of them were removed and 
used as door-steps, curbstones, and foundations, but 
nearly all have been recovered and replaced. The 
line was resurveyed in 1849 and 1900, but no impor- 
tant error has been discovered. The line remains at 
the parallel of 39 degrees, 43 minutes and 26.3 
seconds. 

During the Civil War, the Mason-Dixon Line rep- 
resented the boundary between the free states and 
the slave states and all the territory south of it was 
known as Dixie Land. 



YORK AS CAPITAL OF THE 

UNITED STATES 
SEPTEMBER 30, 1777, TO JUNE 27, 1778 

When General Howe's armies occupied Philadel- 
phia in September, 1777, the members of Continental 
Congress fled to Lancaster, where they remained but 
one day. Then, feeling that they would be safer with 
the Susquehanna between them and the British, they 
crossed at Wrights' Ferry and resumed sessions in 
the Colonial Courthouse in Center Square, York, 
Pennsylvania. 

York was a frontier town; a tidy little German 
village of 286 brick and log houses, and 1,500 
inhabitants. 

A number of Yorkers had already shown their 
sympathy with the Colonial cause. The Reverend 
Daniel Batwell, of Saint John's Protestant Episcopal 
Church, having refused to leave King George the 
Third out of his public prayers, had been ducked 
three times in the Codorus and was imprisoned in 
the county jail (now the site of Walker's Store at 
the northeast corner of George and King Streets). 

Here, too, were confined a number of captured 



British officers, among them Major Andre. The officers 
were on parole and during the day went on the 
streets where they were followed by crowds of small 
boys awed by the splendid scarlet uniforms. The 
officers complained bitterly, because they were not 
allowed out at night, as well. 

York's citizens turned inn-keeper to entertain the 
visiting delegates to Continental Congress and the 
many visitors who came to do business with the 
Board of War, which had headquarters in Colonel 
James Smith's Law Office (south of the Colonial 
Hotel). Henry Lawrens and John Hancock stopped 
at the Globe Inn (site of the Schmidt Building). 

While Washington and his soldiers endured the 
cruel winter at Valley Forge, Congress, too, was 
cold. The members sat with blankets wrapped 
around their legs and feet, in the Courthouse, delib- 
erating often long after candlelight in an effort to 
form a new government for the Colonies and to 
prosecute the war to a successful conclusion. 

The Articles of Confederation, a provisional plan 
of government, in which the term United States of 
America was first used, were adopted in York, 
November 15, 1777. 




A member oi ConfinenfaJ Congress inspects the first Thanksgiving proclamation printed by 
the Hall and Sellers Press. An apprentice applies the ink-ball to the type. 



The Hall and Sellers Press, first printing-press used 
west of the Susquehanna, was brought from Phila- 
delphia on a wagon and set up on the second floor 
of the house belonging to Major John Clark, at the 
southwest corner of Market and Beaver Streets (now 
the site of the Bon-Ton Department Store). This press, 
which had once belonged to Benjamin Franklin, was 
used to print the Pennsylvania Gazette, and the first 
Thanksgiving Proclamation, designating December 
18, 1777, as a day of thanksgiving for the victory at 
Saratoga. It was also used to print $23,000,000 worth 
of Continental money. Much of it was kept in the 
McClean House which served as the Colonial Trea- 
sury (present site of First National Bank). 

The money proved to be almost valueless and 
people were loath to part with supplies in exchange. 
However, some rope, iron, tar, paper, beef, flour, 
bacon, pork, linen, wagons, and forage were col- 
lected in York for the Colonial Army, but horses were 
difficult to obtain. 

All the members of Congress wanted riding and 
carriage horses and after their needs were supplied, 
the remaining horses, which had been purchased 
from canny farmers about, frequently proved to be 
so old and decrepit that they could not be kept alive 
long enough to reach the troops. 

The depreciated currency also caused trouble 
among the soldiers. They were paid in Continental 
currency but local trades people refused to accept 
it. This led to such unrest among the men that Major 
General (Mad Anthony) Wayne, whose headquar- 
ters were at the northwest corner of Market and 
Beaver Streets (now site of People's Drug Store), 
ordered a number of men tried for mutiny and con- 
demned six to be shot. When the smoke cleared 
away on the Common (now the corner of Princess 
Street and Pershing Avenue), he marched the troops 
back and forth to view the bodies and then reprieved 
the two men who were still alive. 

But gradually things began to look brighter. Con- 
gress received the news of Burgoyne's surrender at 
Saratoga and Simeon Deane arrived with the news 
that Benjamin Franklin had been able to persuade 
France to draw up a Treaty of Amity, under which 
an army, a fleet, and supplies would be sent to aid 
the Colonies. 

Congress received Baron Von Steuben and com- 
missioned him a Major General. He immediately 
went to Valley Forge and began drilling Washing- 
ton's ragged but determined army in Prussian mil- 
itary tactics. 

Count Pulaski arrived in York and set about re- 
cruiting an independent company of cavalry and 
infantry. 

On June 20, 1778, a messenger arrived from Wash- 
ington bringing the news that Sir Henry Clinton and 
the British troops had evacuated Philadelphia. The 
town of York was wild with enthusiasm. Military 
companies paraded with fife and drum. Great bon- 
fires were built on the Common. On June 27th, Con- 
gress adjourned to reconvene in Philadelphia. 

The members of the Continental Congress during 
its session in York, Pennsylvania, were: Eliphalet 
Dyer, Connecticut; John Witherspoon, New Jersey; 
Richard Henry Lee, Virginia; Richard Law, Connect- 
icut; Samuel Adams, Massachusetts; Henry Mar- 
chant, Rhode Island; William Henry Drayton, South 
Carolina; Francis Dana, Massachusetts; Philip Liv- 



ingston, New York; Benjamin Harrison, Virginia; Na- 
thaniel Folsom, New Hampshire; Francis Lightfoot 
Lee, Virginia; James Smith, Pennsylvania; Robert 
Morris, Pennsylvania; Charles Carroll, Maryland; 
John Adams, Massachusetts; Elbridge Gerry, Massa- 
chusetts; Thomas McKean, Delaware; Samuel Chase, 
Maryland; John Penn, North Carolina; Joseph Reed, 
Pennsylvania; Gouverneur Morris, New York; Lewis 
Morris, New York; Edward Langworthy, Georgia; 
Henry Laurens, of Charleston, South Carolina, suc- 
ceeded John Hancock as president of Continental 
Congress and was peace commissioner at Paris 
in 1782. 

PHILIP LIVINGSTON 

While in session in York, Continental Congress 
lost one of its members through death. This was 
Philip Livingston (1716-1788), a signer of the Dec- 
laration of Independence, a wealthy landowner, and 
a delegate from New York State. In spite of the 
fact that he was sixty-two years of age and afflicted 
with dropsy, he made the long hard trip from New 
York State on horseback. He arrived in York on May 
4th and went to bed at his inn where he was at- 
tended by the four members of Congress who were 
physicians, but he grew steadily worse and died 
June 11, 1778. He was buried on the twelfth in the 
graveyard of the German Reformed Church (now 
the site of Woolworth's) and the members of Con- 
gress wore black arm-bands in mourning. His body 
was later removed to Prospect Hill Cemetery where 
his grave is marked by a monument erected by his 
descendants. 

COLONEL JAMES SMITH 

James Smith (1713-1806), York's signer of the Dec- 
laration of Independence, was born in Ireland. Early 
in life, he came with his parents to York County. He 
worked as a surveyor in York and Cumberland coun- 
ties and at the age of forty-five was admitted to 
the bar in York. His law office, which was used by 
the Board of War, stood south of the present Colo- 
nial Hotel, and his house but a little further south on 
George Street on the present site of the Brooks Hotel 
and Rothert's Store. His summer home, Peacock Hall, 
was located near what is now Springettsbury Ave- 
nue and Arlington Street. 

James Smith was noted for his sociability, wit and 
good humor. When asked for legal justification for 
hanging the bell belonging to Saint John's Church 
in the tower of the Colonial Court-House to cele- 
brate the singing of the Declaration of Independence, 
he replied that he had done it, "By lightibus of hang- 
ibus bellibus in cupolorum." 

He was a Colonel in the Colonial Army, and a 
member of Congress from September, 1777, to June, 
1778. Until more than eighty years of age, he en- 
joyed a successful law practice. He was also, for 
sometime, owner of Codorus Furnace. 

All this did not serve to awe the principal of York 
Academy, of which James Smith was first president 
of the Board of Trustees, when he visited school to 
protest corporal punishment of his youngest son, 
James. The principal maintained that James, Junior, 
has deserved the punishment and the matter was 
dropped there. 

Near the end of James Smith's life, his home and 
office were destroyed by fire and his correspondence 
with the great men of Colonial days was destroyed. 



He is buried in the churchyard of the First Presby- 
terian Church, and the Declaration of Independence 
is read over his grave each Fourth of July by the 
Colonel James Smith Chapter of the D. A. R. 

THE COOKES HOUSE 

The Cookes House, near Codorus Street, was built 
in 1761. In the pastures around this house were kept 
the horses belonging to the delegates to Continental 
Congress. Here also lived Thomas Paine during his 
stay in York. 




The Cookes House, residence oi Thomas Paine while Continental 
Congress was in York, 1777-1778. 



THOMAS PAINE 

Thomas Paine (1737-1809) was born in England. 
In 1774, Benjamin Franklin became acquainted with 
him in London, and urged him to come to America. 
In 1776, Paine wrote, in Philadelphia, "Common 
Sense," his famous pamphlet beginning, "These are 
the times that try men's souls." His works were read 
to Washington's soldiers at Valley Forge to bolster 
their morale. He was appointed Secretary to the 
Congressional Committee on Foreign Relations, and 
it was in that capacity that he came to York with a 
chest containing the congressional papers and took 
up residence in the Cookes house. Tradition has it 
that while here he also wrote the fifth part of "The 
American Crisis," a series of pamphlets expounding 
the cause of the Colonies. 

CAMP SECURITY 

During the Revolutionary War, a number of Hes- 
sians, prisoners taken at the Battle of Saratoga, were 
confined three and three-quarter miles from York, 
near Longstown at Camp Security. Here, surrounded 
by a log stockade, they built their huts for themselves 
and their women and children, since not only the 
officers but many of the enlisted men had brought 
their families to America with them. After Jhe war, 
a number of them settled in the South Mountains. 
Lewis Miller pictures several Hessians who worked 
in York, in his "Chronicles." 



COLONEL THOMAS HARTLEY 

Thomas Hartley (1748-1800), member of the first 
United States Congress, was one of York's three law- 
yers of Colonial days; the other two being James 
Smith and David Grier. He was born near Reading 
of English parentage but spoke Pennsylvania Dutch 
fluently. He was admitted to the bar in 1769 and 
practiced in Cumberland, Lancaster, and other coun- 
ties. He was one of the first lawyers to qualify to 
practice before the United States Supreme Court. In 
1778, he was elected to the State Legislature, and 
in 1788 a member of the first United States Congress. 
He served until his death, twelve years later. After 
the Revolution, he built the handsomest house in 
York, located on the site of the present Trinity Re- 
formed Church on West Market Street. It had carved 
woodwork and stairway and was furnished with sil- 
ver plate to the value of twenty-eight pounds. Colo- 
nel Hartley kept a servant and a carriage and "lived 
as fine as a lord." His summer home, Hartlemont, 
was located northwest of York. 

THE CONWAY CABAL 

The dictionary defines cabaJ as a secref intrigue. 
During the time that Congress was in session in 
York, a number of men headed by General Thomas 
Conway (1733-1800), an Irish soldier of fortune, 
were plotting to remove Washington and to install 
General Horatio Gates as Commander-in-Chief. 

Washington was unpopular at this time because 
he had lost the battles of Germantown and Brandy- 
wine and his apparently defeated army was suffer- 
ing miserably at Valley Forge. Congress was strug- 
gling with the problems of a depreciated currency 
and a woeful lack of supplies. 

General Gates, on the other hand, was popularly 
being acclaimed as "The Hero of Saratoga." Histo- 
rians, however, credit the impetuous Benedict Ar- 
nold, who lost a leg in this engagement, as being 
the real hero of the battle. He and his men charged 
into the disorganized British line immediately after 
Timothy Murphy, of Morgan's Riflemen, had picked 
off General Fraser with his trusty Pennsylvania rifle. 

While the battle was going on, General Gates sat 
in his headquarters debating the merits of the Amer- 
ican Revolution with a wounded British officer who 
had been brought in and laid upon his bed. But with 
the news of the victory, Gates became the hero of 
the public and of Congress. Men said, "What a con- 
trast between Gates's success at Saratoga and Wash- 
ington's defeats at Germantown and Brandywine. 
Gates must be placed in a position of authority." 

Accordingly, when the Board of War was reorgan- 
ized on November 24, 1777, Gates was made presi- 
dent. Shortly afterwards, he came to York to assume 
his duties. He had been recommended for the post 
by General Thomas Miffl ; n who had been severely 
criticized by Washington for his mismanagement of 
the office of quartermaster-general. 

Thomas Conway also bore a grudge against 
Washington. He had been commissioned only as a 
brigadier-general, while at the same time Baron 
DeKalb had been made a major-general. However, 
through the influence of some friends in Congress, 
he managed to have himself promoted to major- 
general over Washington's protest. 

Gates, Mifflin and Conway began writing anony- 
mous letters to Congress and to Patrick Henry, Gov- 



8 



ernor of Virginia, criticizing the way in which Wash- 
ington was conducting the war. They were not the 
only ones in the plot. Congressmen Gerry and the 
Adames, from New England; the Lees, of Virginia; 
and also Lovell, Folsom, Dyer, Chase, Williams, Rob- 
erdeau, Heyward, Brownson, Dana and Reed also 
favored Gates at this time. 

General Gates arrived in York and took up at 
quarters at a public inn. Within a few weeks, he 
presented Congress with a bill for $1,333, expenses 
for himself, his family and aides. And this while 
many of Washington's men at Valley Forge were 
without blankets or shoes! 

Gates then rented a house on the north side of 
West Market Street. Here he and his wife, the rich- 
est woman in America, with a personal fortune of 
almost a half-million dollars, wined and dined the 
members of Congress in an effort to win them over. 
By December everything seemed favorable to the 
plotters. Conway had managed to have himself pro- 
moted again; this time to the post of inspector-gen- 
eral of the army. 

But then James Wilkinson, an aide to Gates and 
a messenger to Congress, loitered in Reading and 
after drinking too much, babbled concerning the 
plot. He related details of letters that had passed 
between Conway and Gates. This was reported to 
Washington by Patrick Henry and others. 

Washington wrote to Gates and informed him that 
through Wilkinson's indiscretion he had learned of 
the whole plot. Gates was furious and challenged 
Wilkinson to a duel to take place on a slope of 
ground near the Codorus, behind Saint John's En- 
glish Church. At eight o'clock, on the morning of 
February 24, 1778, Wilkinson, accompanied by his 
second, approached the church. The grave stones 
were silent and cold in the grey morning light. Gen- 
eral Gates stood before the church unarmed. His 
anger had cooled. He persuaded Wilkinson that 
there was no necessity for a duel and the two men 
shook hands, but their friendship was at an end and 
they were enemies for the rest of their lives. 

Lafayette, the romantic young Frenchman, had 
left his bride in France and come over to take up the 
cause of the Colonies in 1776. He was only twenty, 
he had been wounded at the Battle of Brandywine 
and was wintering at Valley Forge with Washing- 
ton for whom he had a tremendous admiration. 
Washington, in return, loved him like a son. If La- 
fayette could be won over to the side of the plotters, 
Washington's cause would be practically lost. 

The Board of War agreed that Lafayette should be 
put in charge of an expedition into Canada to free 
the French-Canadians from English domination. He 
was summoned to York to receive his orders in Feb- 
ruary, 1778. Gates was giving a splendid banquet 
at his home for Mifflin and the members of the Board 
of War and of Congress who were sympathetic with 
the cabal. During the course of the banquet, Lafay- 
ette was flattered and toasted and given his com- 
mission for the Canadian expedition. Gates assured 
him that he would find an army of 3,000 well- 
equipped men waiting for him in Albany. More 
toasts were drunk to various officers and men, but 
the name of Washington was conspicuously omitted. 
As the company was about to rise from the table, 
Lafayette himself rose, and, leaning against the 
mantel-piece with wine glass in hand, remarked, 



"There is one toast which has not yet been drunk. 
I propose the health of the Commander-in-Chief at 
Valley Forge. Gentlemen, I give you Genera] George 
Washington/" Looking around the table, he saw the 
faces of the banqueters reddening with shame. Some 
merely touched their glasses to their lips. Others set 
them down untested. Lafayette drained his glass 
and strode from the room. 

Having refused General Conway as his second 
in command and taking with him instead Conway's 
old rival, Baron DeKalb, Lafayette set off on horse- 
back for Albany. He found there, 1,200 men without 
equipment. After waiting for a month he returned to 
Valley Forge. 

People now remembered that Washington had op- 
posed the expedition in the first place and he was 
once more in favor with Congress. General Gates 
was relieved from the Board of War and sent back 
to the army. Conway's resignation was readily ac- 
cepted by Congress. Shortly after Conway's return 
to Philadelphia, he was heard to make some derog- 
atory remarks about Washington, and was chal- 
lenged to a duel by General Cadwalader, of Penn- 
sylvania, who shot him through the neck. The wound, 
however, was not fatal and Conway returned to 
Europe. Washington's enemies were exposed and 
ridiculed by the newspapers and Congress came to 
recognize him as the true leader of the Colonies. 
However, if Lafayette had not spoken out boldly for 
Washington at the banquet in York, thus thwarting 
the Conway Cabal, Washington might have been 
replaced by Gates and the cause of the Revolution 
doomed to failure. 

A bronze tablet placed in the sidewalk at 159 
West Market Street by the Yorktown Chapter of the 
D. A. R., commemorates this event. 



LAFAYETTE'S SECOND VISIT TO YORK 

In 1825, Lafayette again visited York. He arrived 
with his son, George Washington Lafayette, and 
rode through York in an open carriage drawn by 
four grey horses, escorted by York's six military com- 
panies. Bells were ringing and the sidewalks, win- 
dows and porches were filled with people shouting 
their welcome. 

A banquet was tendered to him at the Globe Inn 
(Schmidt Bldg.). The dining-room was decorated with 
evergreen and flags, and twelve elegant chairs, six 
belonging to Colonel David Grier and six to Colonel 
Thomas Hartley, were used at the table where La- 
fayette was seated. The chair in which he sat at the 
banquet and the bed in which he slept that night 
are owned today by the Historical Society of York. 

At a reception later in the evening, he shook hands 
with several hundred ladies and gentlemen. David 
B. Prince, a teacher at the York Academy who met 
him at that time, wrote: "He spoke English well but 
with a French accent. He is earnest and sincere, with 
a pleasing and expressive face. His eyes are full, 
his nose large, his eyebrows arched and when he 
speaks, he throws them up and down." 

To the many toasts offered at the banquet, Lafay- 
ette responded: "To the town of York, the seat of our 
American government in our most gloomy time. May 
her citizens enjoy a proportionate share of Amer- 
ican prosperity!" 



YORK COUNTY CONSIDERED AS THE 
SITE OF THE NATION'S CAPITAL 

In 1789, Congress discussed locating the Capital 
of the United States at Wright's Ferry (now Wrights- 
ville). Congressman Thomas Hartley tried to influ- 
ence the lawmakers by promising them a "dish of 
fish, fine and good, from the waters of the Susque- 
hanna" when they came to York County. The House 
of Representatives passed a resolution approving 
purchase of a tract of land extending ten miles in- 
land, but the bill was defeated in the Senate. The 
present site on the Potomac was finally selected be- 
cause Alexander Hamilton favored yielding the Cap- 
ital to the Southern states. 

PENNSYLVANIA PASSES OUT OF THE 
HANDS OF THE PENNS 

After the Declaration of Independence, the absen- 
tee owners of the English proprietary colonies no 
longer had control over their American properties. 
Maryland simply confiscated the lands belonging to 
Lord Baltimore, but the Pennsylvania legislature, in 
1779, voted to pay the heirs of William Penn 130,000 
pounds sterling for their lands, with the exception of 
the manors, which were to remain theirs. 

YORK REMAINS A PART OF 
SPRINGETTSBURY MANOR 

The Penns did not advance any claims to their 
manors and the people of York feeling secure after 
the lump sum had been paid, bought lots within the 
borough from the State and set about improving 
them. What was the excitement in the tidy little bor- 
ough, then, when in 1800, John R. Coates, an agent 
of the Penn's, appeared! 

He was willing to allow the churches and the 
academy to retain their lots free of charge, and for 
a payment of $1.00, the borough might have twenty 
acres of the Common, provided that the rest of the 
Commonlands were cut up into lots and sold. But 
persons within the borough, which was still a part 
of Springettsbury Manor, still owed certain money 
obligations to the Penns. 

The matter was thrown into the courts and was 
disputed until 1824, when it reached the Supreme 



Court and Chief Justice John Marshall decided that 
the claims of the Penns were justified. However, be- 
fore the matter had reached the Supreme Court, 
many citizens had come to an agreement with John 
R. Coates and were paying at rates equal to seven 
shillings a year for thirty-six years for lots near 
the Square, and the same amount for a period of 
twenty-four years for lots further out. 

With the completion of these payments, called 
quit-rents, the land on which York is built passed 
forever out of the sovereignty of the Penns. 

THE PENNSYLVANIA RIFLE 

William Penn advised immigrants to bring with 
them to Pennsylvania, "A gun which will throw shot 
far and well." 

The Pennsylvania Germans interpreted this to 
mean their short-rifled guns which they had used in 
hunting stag and wild boar in the Black Forest. The 
wild boar was extremely dangerous when enraged 
and was hunted with a gun which was accurate and 
effective at the greatest distance. This was the rifle. 
Although the difficulty encountered in pounding a 
leaden ball down into the rifled barrel with an iron 
ram-rod and mallet and the necessity of cleaning 
the gun after each firing had led to its discard in 
England, the Germans still retained it. 

The armies of the world were equipped at this 
time with smooth bore muskets, a weapon which 
could be loaded readily with a leaden ball, slightly 
smaller than the bore, but which was inaccurate 
since the ball was always deflected at the mouth of 
the barrel and was likely to bounce off in almost 
any direction. A marksman was lucky if he hit a 
barn door at fifty yards with a smooth bore musket. 
The military tactics of the time were based upon the 
inaccuracy of the musket. It was almost an accident 
if a soldier in battle were struck with a musket ball. 

Rifles arrived in York County about 1735. By this 
time some ingenious frontiersman had discovered 
that by wrapping a greased patch of linen or buck- 
skin around a smaller ball, the charge could be read- 
ily forced down into the rifled barrel of the gun and 
what was more, that patch which fell away from the 
ball, as it was discharged, cleaned the gun as it 
passed through the barrel. 




Pennsylvania rifles with typical long barrels and patch box in the stock. 



The length of the barrel was increased to about 
42 to 46 inches, a box for the patches was built into 
the stock, and the Pennsylvania rifle came into exis- 
tence. With this gun a marksman could hit a target 
the size of a man, every time at the distance of 150 
yards. 

Many of the early Pennsylvania rifles were made 
in York by such gunsmiths as Joseph Welshantz, 
Conrad Welshantz, Ignatius Leitner, Frederick Zor- 
ger, and George Eyster. Each rifle was a master- 
piece of craftsmanship, but no two were ever exactly 
alike. These rifles were manufactured in small lots 
as arms for the Colonial troops. 

When Captain Michael Doudel recruited his York 
Rifles, in 1775, he chalked a nose on a barn door 
and took only those men who could hit the nose at 
150 yards. "Look out for your nose. General Gage," 
exulted the newspapers of the time, as Captain 
Doudel and his men marched off to defend Boston. 

Washington, who knew the value of the rifle from 
his experience as a frontiersman, scattered riflemen 
along the lines to pick off the British officers. 



Many of these officers were the sons of English 
noblemen and as the news of their death began to 
reach England such protest arose that an explana- 
tion was necessary. Corporal Walter Cruise, of York, 
and his rifle were captured. He was sent to England 
and his marksmanship exhibited as a novelty. 

The English were so impressed that enlistments 
fell off almost entirely. The king looked about for 
men to hire and decided upon the Hessians because 
they also knew the use of rifles. He specified that as 
many of the troops as possible should be supplied 
with rifles. But they were the old-style, short-bar- 
reled, slow-loading kinds, which were not effective 
against the Pennsylvania rifle. 

Timothy Murphy, a Pennsylvania rifleman, is cred- 
ited with having fired the shot which won the Amer- 
ican Revolution. At the Battle of Saratoga, he was 
stationed up in a tree with instructions to pick off 
General Fraser, commander of the British right wing. 
Murphy mortally wounded Fraser while the British 
troops were still a hundred yards out of musket 
range and threw the right wing into such a panic 




The Green Tree Inn on West Market Street was a favorite hostelry of the Conestoga wagoners. 
The drivers with their broad-brimmed hats, "Stogie" cigars, long whips and high boots were 

the admiration of every boy. 



11 



that the Americans were able to surround Burgoyne 
and force his surrender. 

Due to the Americans winning the Battle of Sara- 
toga, Benjamin Franklin was able to prevail upon 
the French to send ships, men and supplies. Because 
the Colonials received this aid, they were able to 
win the war. 

In the War of 1812, the Pennsylvania rifle won the 
Battle of New Orleans. Andrew Jackson's forces con- 
sisted of but 800 regulars, 500 pirates, and 2,000 
militia poorly armed, and about 2,000 frontiersmen 
equipped with Pennsylvania rifles. Opposed to this 
force were 10,000 of the best drilled troops in the 
world, Wellington's veterans of the Spanish Penin- 
sular Campaign. General Pakenham, who had not 
yet absorbed the lessons of Braddock's Defeat, Bun- 
ker Hill, and Saratoga, brought up his men in close 
formation. Again and again the British advanced 
while the Americans remained in their trenches kill- 
ing officers and men while they were still too far 
away to use their muskets. The British lost 2,600 
killed, wounded and prisoners, while the American 
losses were a mere 8 killed and 13 wounded. 

After the Revolution, the Pennsylvania rifle went 
on to Kentucky and became known as the Kentucky 
rifle. It followed the frontier and served along with 
the broad axe and Conestoga wagon in the opening 
of the West. By 1849, it had reached California. 

THE CONESTOGA WAGON 

Conestoga wagons, named from the valley of the 
Conestoga where they originated, were adopted as 
freight carriers by the Pennsylvania Germans dur- 
ing the latter half of the eighteenth century. The 
curved boatlike wagon bodies were painted a bright 
Dutch blue, the wheels and uprights were red and 
the canvas tops snowy-white. No wonder they 
gained the name of prairie schooners as they trav- 
eled westward. 

And they actually did float like boats when they 
forded unbridged rivers and creeks at flood time. 
On the side of the wagon was a feed box for the 
horses and underneath swung the tar bucket. Long 
trains of Conestoga wagons traveled along the old 
Joppa Road to Chesapeake Bay and by the old 
Monocacy Road through Hanover to the Potomac 
and the Shenandoah Valley carrying flour from the 
mills of York County. They also hauled grain, fruit, 
tobacco, cider, whiskey, oil, poultry, glass, iron, and 
other freight. The wagons, each drawn by a team of 
six horses, traveled in trains of ten, twenty, and after 
the Revolution, fifty or eighty. The big draft horses 
wore beautifully wrought harness, and bells hung 
on arches above their necks which chimed gaily 
as the caravan moved along. The driver, wearing 
a broad-brimmed hat, home-spun suit and high 
boots, sat on the left rear horse, cracking the long 
whip and smoking "stogies." Every boy of the time 
wanted to grow up to become a Conestoga wagon 
driver! 

Conestoga wagons were built in York by Fred- 
erick Lawmaster, John Lever, and Daniel Weaver. 
The Green Tree Inn, which was opened on West 
Market Street between Newberry and Penn Street 
in 1820, was a famous hostelry for wagoners. On 
one side of its swinging sign was painted a green 
tree and on the other a Conestoga wagon drawn by 
six horses. Adjoining was a warehouse and to the 



rear, a yard where a number of wagons put up each 
night. In good weather the drivers slept in their 
wagons; in bad weather they brought in their 
"bunks" and spread them upon the floor of the inn. 

During the Revolution, a train of Conestoga wag- 
ons brought supplies to Washington's starving army 
at Valley Forge. 

Arches of bells from Conestoga wagon teams may 
be seen in the collection of the York County Histor- 
ical Society. 

IRON FURNACES AND FORGES IN 
YORK COUNTY 

The early settlers in York County had only such 
ironware as they brought with them. However, iron 
could be found in shallow veins and even in out- 
croppings on top of the ground. Limestone was plen- 
tiful. Great forests offered wood for charcoal making, 
and rivers, creeks, and waterfalls furnished water 
power which could be made to operate blasts, ham- 
mers and other machinery. Soon the settlers had 
built great stone furnaces, bound with iron hoops 
and lined with sandstone and fire clay, to smelt the 
iron ore. 

Iron furnaces which flourished in York County from 
1700 to 1800 were Dick's Bloomery, established in 
1765, and Spring Forge, Number 3, which took its 
place in 1770; Mary Ann Furnace, built in 1763, 
where rifle balls and cannon balls were manufac- 
tured during the Revolution; and Codorus Furnace 
and Forge also called Hallam Forge, dating from 
1765. Codorus Furnace, still standing, is a favorite 
picnic spot for Yorkers. 

Numerous buildings, such as the forge, the black- 







Codorus Furnace, once owned by James Smith. Cannon balls 
were made here for (he War of 1812. 



smith shop, the charcoal shed and the sawmill were 
erected around an iron furnace. There was also the 
mansion house where the owner lived and where 
a manorial life comparable with that of a southern 
planter was carried on by the ironmaster and his 
family. The house was large with spacious rooms, 
many fireplaces and numerous servants. Furniture, 
glass, and china, clothing and wines were imported 
from England. A tutor looked after the early educa- 
tion of the children and the sons finished their studies 
abroad. The lady of the mansion house did the best 
she could in caring for the sick and injured among 
the families of the workmen. 

Around the manor house clustered the other build- 
ings necessary for a complete community life. There 
was the bake oven, the barns with their farm ani- 
mals, the slaughterhouse and the smokehouse. Within 
the whitewashed cabins of the laborers, the slaves 
and indentured servants, meals were cooked over 
small fireplaces and eaten with iron forks and knives. 

The furnace itself was built against a hillside and 
a bridge was built from the hillside to the top of the 
furnace. Over this bridge the workmen carried bas- 
ketfuls of ore, charcoal, and limestone. These were 
poured in layers into the top of the furnace before 
firing. The blast (air compressed by a water-driven 
bellows) entered at the side. The melted ore col- 
lected in a depression in the bottom and ran out 
into sand molds protected by a shed. 

Decorated firebacks, stoves, ovens, kettles, pots, 
pans, and shovels were sometimes cast, but pig iron 
was the chief product. This pig iron was sold to 
blacksmiths who turned it into scythes, pruning 
hooks, shovels, hoes, axes, candlesticks, hinges, 
locks, etc. 

In 1729, the British iron masters, in an effort to 
retain a monopoly on iron manufacture, influenced 
Parliament to draw up a bill providing that "all 
forges in the Colonies should be destroyed." Al- 
though this bill was not passed, other crippling re- 
strictions were placed upon iron manufacture. No 
wonder that two of York County's iron masters, 
George Ross, of Mary Ann Furnace, and James Smith, 
of Codorus Furnace, were signers of the Declaration 
of Independence! 




The mansion house at Codorus Furnace. 



By the early 1800's many stands of timber had 
been exhausted, around the iron furnaces, richer ore 
beds had been discovered elsewhere and transpor- 
tation and methods of iron manufacture had been 
improved so that it was no longer profitable to oper- 
ate the iron furnaces of York County. Their hammers 
and bellows stilled, their owners and workers moved 
elsewhere, leaving furnaces and mansion houses 
to fall into picturesque decay, and only names such 
as "Old Forge Road" and "Old Forge Farms" to keep 
alive their memory. 

OCCUPATIONS DURING THE FIRST DAYS 
OF THE REPUBLIC 

At the close of the Revolution, men in York were 
engaged in trades similar to those followed in Co- 
lonial days. Some of the occupations carried on in 
1783 were as follows: barber, blacksmith, breeches- 
maker, brewer, butcher, carpenter, clockmaker, 
cooper, cryer, doctor, dyer, gunsmith, hatter, hosier, 
laborer, locksmith, mason, nailmaker, potter, saddler, 
sheriff, storekeeper, surveyor, tailor, tanner, and 
tavernkeeper. There were twenty-one tavernkeepers 
in early York. Business had boomed while Conti- 
nental Congress was in session here, and later there 
were always wagon-trains going through the town 
carrying freight, or taking settlers to the West. York 
also had its tinsmith, tobacconist, wagonmaker and 
weaver. Most of these craftsmen worked in their own 
small shops, with living quarters for their families to 
the rear or above the shop. This practice has not en- 
tirely died out in York even today. 

POWER 

Many trades required only a few simple hand- 
tools, others used simple hand or foot-operated ma- 
chinery such as the lathe or potter's wheel. Saw- 
mills and flour-mills were operated by water-power. 

APPRENTICESHIP 

Boys learned a trade through being apprenticed 
to a master craftsman. 

An old apprentice agreement in York County, in 
1791, signed by John Beard, a thirteen-year-old boy, 
reads as follows: 

"John Beard hath put himself apprentice to Adam 
Ault to learn the art, mystery and trade of joyner 
(carpenter) and to serve 8 years and 2 weeks, dur- 
ing all which time the said apprentice his master 
shall faithfully serve; his secrets keep; his lawful 
commands readily obey. He shall do no damage to 
his said master, nor see it done by others without 
giving notice thereof to his said master. He shall not 
waste his master's goods, nor lend them unlawfully 
to any. He shall not contract matrimony within the 
said term. At cards, dice or any unlawful game he 
shall not play. With his own goods nor with the 
goods of others without license from his said master 
he shall neither buy nor sell: He shall not absent 
himself day nor night from his said masters' services, 
without his leave, nor haunt alehouses, taverns, or 
playhouses. But in all things to behave himself as 
a faithful apprentice ought to do." 

Now the master's obligations are stated: "And the 
said master shall use the utmost of his endeavor to 
teach or cause to be taught the trade or mystery of 
joyner (carpenter) and procure and provide for him 
sufficient meat, drink, lodging, washing and work 



clothes, fit for an apprentice during the said term of 
eight years and two weeks. Also that said appren- 
tice shall be learned to read, write and cypher 
through the Rule of Three and at the expiration of 
said term to give unto said apprentice a new suit 
of Freedom clothes." 

This agreement is signed by John Beard, by Adam 
Ault, of Hanover, Master Joyner, and by Jacob Rudi- 
sell. Judge of the Court of Common Pleas, of York 
County. 

When the new apprentice entered the shop he 
was likely to be hazed by the older apprentices who 
would do everything possible to make life difficult 
and confusing for the already homesick boy. If 
the master was cruel, beat, starved, or half-clothed 
the boy, there was little the lad could do about it 
excepting to run away. All early newspapers carry 
advertisements requesting the return of runaway 
apprentices. 

However, all masters were not bad. In some cases 
the apprentice system worked out well. Often a man 
fed his apprentices at his own table and treated 
them as though they were his own sons. Sometimes, 
upon completing his training, a boy was taken into 
partnership and married the boss's daughter. 

With the development of manufacturing following 
the Civil War, apprentices were no longer bound 
over body and soul to their employers. Boys might 
live at home and spend their leisure hours as they 
pleased. It was no longer the owner of the industry, 
but rather the factory foreman who acted as in- 
structor of apprentices. 

Today, in York, as in other sections of the coun- 
try, four years full time is the usual term of appren- 
ticeship in industry. The apprentice is paid well 
while learning under the Federal wages and hours 
legislation. 

Boys who take the industrial course at William 
Penn Senior High School, whereby they go to school 
two weeks and work two weeks, find upon gradu- 
ation from high school that they have already com- 
pleted two years of their apprenticeship. 

PHINEAS DAVIS 

One spring morning in 1809, a thin, barefoot boy, 
of about fifteen, dressed in a shabby homespun suit 
and a torn straw hat, and carrying a bundle under 
his arm, stopped in front of a clockmaker's shop on 
West Market Street. He had always been interested 
in mechanics and now he stared eagerly in at the 
small-paned windows admiring the many tall clocks 
in beautifully-polished cases which ticked away 
inside. 

Phineas Davis (1795-1835), born in Grafton, New 
Hampshire, had lost his parents two years before 
and had wandered in search of work from Lowell, 
Massachusetts, to Providence, through Connecticut 
and finally had arrived in York. 

There was a name on the dial of each clock in the 
shop. The name was Jonathan Jessop, and Phineas 
guessed that that must be Jonathan himself, who, 
seated just inside the window where the light was 
best, was assembling a set of intricate brass works. 

There was a broad-brimmed hat and d plain grey 
coat hanging near at hand on a peg, which indi- 
cated that Mr. Jessop was a Quaker ... a Friend. 
An orphan boy needed a friend. Just then Mr. Jessop 
raised his head, and Phineas saw that his face was 



as cheerful and kindly as that on one of the moons 
peeping over the dial of one of his own clocks. 
Phineas's mind was made up. He opened the shop 
door, stepped inside and blurted out his desire to 
become a clockmaker. 

Mr. Jessop listened to the end, watching the keen, 
intelligent face of the boy. Then he said, kindly, "I 
will sign thee on as an apprentice if thee wishes, 
but not until thee has had some breakfast." From 
what is known of history and of the character of Mr. 
Jessop and of Phineas Davis, such were probably 
the circumstances of their first meeting. 

Phineas Davis settled down happily to his work 
in the clockmaker's shop. He listened so attentively 
and worked so diligently that soon he produced a 
"pocket-clock" or watch no bigger than a dime. Its 
design was much admired and widely copied. In 
fact, someone else obtained a patent on it and 
manufactured similar watches. This watch is owned 
today by the British Museum. In the evening, Phineas 
studied chemistry and experimented with the power 
of steam. 

Each First day, Jonathan Jessop, dressed in a 
suit of Quaker grey, but of the very best material 
as befitted a prosperous Friend and Clerk of the 
meeting, accompanied by his family and appren- 
tices, attended church at the little brown meeting- 
house under the great elm tree, located on West 
Philadelphia Street. 

Here, too, in 1815, Phineas Davis became a Friend. 
There was not much to look at in the little room ex- 
cept the brown walls, plain benches and small win- 
dows. Sometimes, in the long period of silence, which 
is part of the Friends' service, when the chattering 
of the sparrows and the mourning of the doves could 
be heard plainly through the open doorway, Phineas 
would stare so hard at pretty Hannah Taylor, look- 
ing so prim in her grey Quaker bonnet, that she 
would blush and bite her lip and look down at her 
gloved hands for all the rest of the meeting. She 
was the granddaughter of William Willis who had 
built the Colonial Courthouse and he was only an 
orphan boy. He must work harder . . . 

And Phineas Davis did work hard. By the time his 
apprenticeship came to an end he was known and 
respected throughout the town. And as soon as he 
was his own man and could hope to set up a busi- 
ness for himself, he was married to Hannah Taylor 
at the Friends' Meetinghouse in the presence of the 
most prominent citizens of York. 

He became a partner in the Davis and Gardner 
Foundry and Machine Shop and began to manufac- 
ture tools, implements and steam engines. 

In June, 1831, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad 
published a notice in the York Gazette offering a 
prize of $3,500 for the best coal or coke burning loco- 
motive to be delivered to Baltimore for trial by June 
1, 1832. All existing locomotives were imported from 
England and burned only wood, and a better design 
was needed. 

Hannah Davis had died of cholera in 1830, leav- 
ing two little sons motherless, and now Phineas tried 
to forget his loneliness as he worked long hours in 
his machine shop, perfecting his locomotive which 
he called "The York." He had made steam turn ma- 
chinery before, and he could certainly make it turn 
the wheels of a locomotive. He transmitted the power 
from the piston by means of a gear, to a spur, wheel 



and a pinion meshing into each other like the wheels 
in the works of a clock. At last the locomotive was 
finished. 

There was no railroad from York to Baltimore so 
the three-and-one-half-ton engine was taken apart 
and transported upon wagons. 

On August 4, 1832, the competitive trial was held 
before the board of directors and the engineers of 
the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. The four other en- 
gines which had been entered in the contest were 
found to be entirely impractical, but "The York," 
with Phineas Davis as engineer, chugged off in fine 
style on its thirty-inch wheels, pulling seven cars, 
weighing in all, twenty-five tons. On a straight track 
the whole train glided along at the amazing speed 
of thirty miles per hour! 

Phineas Davis not only won 1he $3,500 prize 
money, but was also immediately appointed man- 
ager of the shops of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail- 
road, and started to build a larger heavier engine 
which he called "The Atlantic." This engine was put 
into service in 1832 and was used until 1892. 

Phineas Davis's future now seemed secure. This 
time he was careful to secure a patent on his inven- 
tion. He moved his family to Baltimore and devoted 
himself to his work. But on September 7, 1835, while 
riding the tender of one of his locomotives on a test 
run between Washington and Baltimore, a loose rail 
caught under the flange of a wheel. The engine was 
derailed, the cars were thrown upon the tender and 
Phineas Davis was instantly killed. No one else was 
injured. 

The Patriot, a Baltimore newspaper of the time, 
states, "The remains of the deceased were brought 
into town on the evening of the accident and in- 
terred on the afternoon of the 28th. in the Friends' 
Burying Ground, in the presence of a large group 
of sorrowing friends." This was at the corner of 
Aisquith and Fayette Streets, in Baltimore. 

The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad wished to erect 
a monument but as the Friends were opposed to 
showy monuments of any kind, the exact site of the 
grave is now unknown. However, the railroad as- 
sisted the Engineering Society in York in placing 
in Penn Park, directly across from the entrance of 
William Penn Senior High School, a bronze tablet 
honoring Phineas Davis as "Mechanical engineer, 
designer and builder of the first successful coal- 
burning locomotive," and at the site of the Davis and 
Gardner Foundry, on the northwest corner of King 
and Newberry Streets, the Vigilant Fire Company, 
of which Phineas Davis was once a member, has 
erected a tablet, reading, "On this site, in 1831, 
Phineas Davis built the first coal-burning locomo- 
tive." But perhaps the best memorial of all is the 
Phineas Davis Junior High School, dedicated almost 
exactly a hundred years after he began working on 
his great invention. 

JOHN ELGAR AND THE FIRST 
IRON STEAMBOAT 

Another epoch-making invention, perfected in the 
Davis and Gardner Foundry, was the first iron steam- 
boat, constructed of sheet iron riveted together at 
a cost of $3,000, part of which was subscribed by 
York's business men. Built by John Elgar (1780- 
1858), who was a Friend, and employed in the foun- 
dry as a master mechanic, the boat had a 60-foot 



keel, a 9-foot beam, and was 3 feet high. It weighed 
5 tons, drew 12 inches of water and was propelled 
by an 8-horsepower coal and wood-burning engine. 

It was christened the "Codorus" and after its com- 
pletion was loaded on an eight-wheel wagon, to 
which ropes were attached and was drawn through 
the streets of York on November 14, 1825, by a num- 
ber of citizens, while crowds shouted and cheered. 
Launched near Marietta, with Captain John Elgar 
in charge, it steamed up to Harrisburg with a hun- 
dred people on board. On April 19, 1826, the "Co- 
dorus" steamed up to Wilkes-Barre where it was 
greeted by the ringing of bells, the blaring of bands, 
the shouts of the people and a salute of cannon. By 
waiting for high water it was able to navigate the 
Susquehanna as far as the New York State Line. 
Although the success of the "Codorus" was the great 
event of its day, the Susquehanna, full of shoals and 
sand bars, proved too shallow for navigation and 
the "Codorus" was sold elsewhere. However, the 
precedent had been set for building the all-metal 
ships which form the world's great fleets today. 

With the sale of his boat, John Elgar's career was 
not over. When Phineas Davis went to Baltimore, 
John Elgar accompanied him. He worked in the shops 





Clocks made in York by John Fisher tleit) and Jonathan Jessop 
(right). 



of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad where he in- 
vented switches, turntables, chill bearings and plate 
wheels, and assisted Ross Winans in developing the 
"camel-back" locomotive, the forerunner of modern 
locomotive design. 

YORK AS A CLOCK-MAKING CENTER 

York ranked as an important center of clock-mak- 
ing from the middle of the eighteenth century to the 
middle of the nineteenth. Many fine old clocks made 
by hand during that period by master craftsmen of 
York County such as Elisha Kirk, Rudolf Spongier, 
Godfrey Lenhart, Jacob Hostetter, Jonathan Jessop, 
Eli, Jacob, and David Gobrecht, Richard Koch, Rich- 
ard Chester, Peter Schutz, Joseph Taylor, Henry 
Weigel, F. B. Cook and others, are running today 
in the homes of York's old families. Others are trea- 
sured throughout the country. 

John Fisher (1736-1808), friend of Pulaski, made 
several musical clocks and a beautiful clock em- 
bodying numerous astronomical devices which is 
owned today by Yale University. 

UNDERGROUND RAILROAD 

The term Underground Railroad is said to have 
originated in York County. Slave owners declared 
that as soon as runaway negroes crossed the Sus- 
quehanna they seemed to disappear underground. 
Friendly Quakers in Wrightsville received the slaves 
and passed them along at night. The Old Valley Inn 
was used as a "station" on the underground rail- 
road and runaways were hidden there in the wine 
cellars. 

YORK COUNTY IN THE CIVIL WAR 

When the news of the attack on Fort Sumter, 
April 12, 1861, reached York, the Worth Infantry, 
under Captain Thomas A. Ziegle, and the York 
Rifles, under Captain George Hay, immediately re- 
sponded to President Lincoln's call for 75,000 volun- 
teers to maintain the existence of the Union. These 
companies were sent at once to Maryland to guard 
railway bridges. 

The old York Fair Ground was the site of Camp 
Scott. The stock stalls, sheds and buildings were 
used as barracks, and the main building as a 
hospital. Additional wooden structures were also 
erected. The fences were removed from around the 



race track to make a drill ground. At one time six 
full regiments were encamped here. 

Soldiers from York County served in the battles of 
Mechanicsville, Antietam, Fredericks, Charleston, in 
the siege of Petersburg, and at Richmond, Monocacy 
River, Gettysburg, and in many other important en- 




West Market Street in 1830. Engraved by William Wagner. 

gagements. Some rode with Sheridan and others 
were with Grant in the Wilderness. Altogether, ap- 
proximately 3,870 men from York County served in 
the defense of the Union. 

THE CONFEDERATES IN YORK 

It was June, 1863, and General Robert E. Lee's 
ragged Army of Northern Virginia was moving into 
Pennsylvania, eating the ripe cherries and living off 
the rich farm lands. The sun shone brightly on the 
big red barns and the stone farmhouses. The grain 
stood in the fields in golden shocks, the meadows 
were green, and there was a fragrance of clover in 
the air. 

The Confederates were coming! The people of 
York had been alarmed by the wagons filled with 
women and children and household goods hurrying 
through the borough as they fled eastward, to cross 
the Susquehanna. Now bankers and businessmen 
sent their money to Philadelphia and New York. 
Throughout the county, people hastily buried their 
silver and valuables. Horses and cattle were hidden 
or driven to wooded back pastures. 

Soon word came that General Lee had set up 
headquarters only forty miles away at Frederick, 
Maryland. 

In the counting rooms of P. A. & S. Small (now 
site of Murphy's), a committee of citizens conferred 
with Chief Burgess David Small. What was to be 
done? It was decided that Burgess Small, Colonel 




YorJr in 1830. Engraving by William Wagner. 



George Hay, W. Latimer Small, A. B. Farquhar and 
Thomas White were to ride up to Farmers' Post- 
Office eight miles west of York and treat with Gen- 
eral Gordon. 



^.V-'jisi . WA.% AUK-. 

I ,1, ^ . 

> 


I 

... , ..... 



& I A. 




L.JK&i*r'ffcAM 



The Confederates took down the Hag made by the patriotic 
ladies ot York. Drawing by Lewis Miller. 

The Civil War was a war between gentlemen. 
General Gordon received the committee courteously, 
and reassured them that no property would be de- 
stroyed in York, and that his soldiers were under 
strict discipline and would not molest its citizens. 
This was on Saturday afternoon, June 27th. 

June 28, 1863, was a beautiful Sunday morning. 
People dressed in their best, were on their way to 
worship when distant bugle calls began to mingle 
with the clanging of church bells. 

Four brigades of Early 's Division, approximately 
30,000 men, were advancing on York from the West. 
As if by magic. Confederate pickets appeared along 
the streets. Then the main army entered the town. 
People stopped on the sidewalks and crowded to 
windows to watch the soldiers go by. Only one 
clergyman tried to hold services, but when a band 
struck up "Dixie" right outside the church door, 
he, too, dismissed the congregation and joined the 
spectators. 

The very first Confederates to appear were on foot 
and carried instead of guns, shovels, pickaxes and 
spades. The rest of the companies were well armed, 
but the men were ragged, dusty and unshaven. No 
two were dressed alike and many were barefooted. 
Others were riding two on a horse. In the ranks of 
the Confederates, some York girls saw their old 
beaus from Baltimore. 

In fact, many Yorkers were openly in sympathy 
with the South as was only to be expected in a com- 
munity so few miles north of the Mason-Dixon Line. 
Some women waved red streamers and as Gen- 
eral John B. Gordon (1832-1904) rode on horseback 
through the streets, a young girl ran out and handed 
him up a bouquet of red roses. In the center of the 
bouquet a note was concealed telling him of a secret 
approach to the bridge at Wrightsville by way of a 
ravine, and also the number of militia guarding the 
bridge there. 



In the Square, the Confederates took down the 
Union flag which had been made by the patriotic 
ladies of York and tore it up and scattered it along 
the streets as they marched out of the borough. The 
Stars and Bars floated over York. 

About two o'clock in the afternoon. General Jubal 
A. Early (1816-1898) and his staff took up headquar- 
ters in the courthouse. He wore a sword and a field 
glass dangled at his side. He had 80,000 men within 
the State of Pennsylvania, and York was entirely at 
his mercy. 

He demanded food, clothing and money for his 
army and made it plain that if the citizens of York 
did not supply these things willingly they would be 
taken by force. The citizens claimed that they could 
give Early only $28,000 of the $100,000 he demanded 
since much of the money had been sent away. How- 
ever, he was given all the food and clothing for 
which he asked and the Confederates, encamped 
upon the Common, the Fair Grounds and around 
Loucks's Mill, at once began to butcher the cattle 
and to roast them over huge fires. A bakery was set 
up in the United States Hospital on the Common and 
the flour from Loucks's Mill converted into bread. 

But General Early was determined to have more 
money. He asked for the keys of the courthouse that 
he might burn the deeds and records as had been 
done by the Union soldiers at the courthouse in 
Fairfax, Virginia. 

He was persuaded not to burn the records, but he 
next threatened to burn the car shops along the rail- 
road. The Laurel, Vigilant and Union fire companies 
were called out to protect the town. 

Just as the fires had been started, a messenger, 
sent by General Lee, came galloping up on a foam- 
ing horse and handed General Early a dispatch. 
Meade's Army was approaching and Early was or- 
dered to Gettysburg. The burning of the car shops 
was forgotten. 

Soon after midnight the Confederates marched 
away and when York woke up in the morning not 
one remained, but on their march through York 
County they commandeered more than 1,000 horses 
which they rode into the Battle of Gettysburg (July 
1, 2, 3, 1863). 

When General John B. Gordon and his men 
reached Wrightsville, the 1,200 Pennsylvania militia 
there retreated across the Susquehanna and burned 
the bridge. While the bridge burned no buckets 
could be found, but when the town of Wrightsville 
caught on fire, buckets, pails, tubs and pans came 
out of hiding in a hurry. 

BATTLE OF HANOVER 

At eight o'clock, on the morning of June 30, 1863, 
General J. E. B. Stuart, with three brigades of Con- 
federate cavalry, encountered General Judson Kil- 
patrick with two brigades of Union cavalry near 
Hanover. With General Kilpatrick was tall, dashing 
General George A. Custer, who always designed his 
own uniforms and on this particular morning had on 
blue velvet and was wearing his hair in flowing 
curls. Both cavalry units were escorting wagon trains 
laden with valuable supplies. 

For a time the Confederates were in control of 
the town. Then Major Hammond, of the Fifth New 
York, rallied his regiment on the Common. Giving 
their cavalry yell with drawn sabers, the Northerners 



dashed through the town, sweeping the Southerners 
before them. As soon as the Confederates were 
driven out, the streets were barricaded with wagons, 
boxes and fence rails to prevent their return. 

All around the town fighting was going on with 
sabers, carbines, pistols and artillery. The battle 
continued until two o'clock in the afternoon. That 
night Stuart's cavalry marched on to Carlisle. About 
fifteen Confederates were killed, and forty-seven 
captured in the engagement and about thirteen 
Union men were killed. The sixty wounded from both 
armies were cared for by local physicians in a 
church, a hall, and a room in the foundry. A monu- 
ment in Centre Square, Hanover, commemorates 
the battle. 

INDUSTRIAL YORK IN 1880 

Following the Civil War, with the opening of the 
West, and of world markets, a great new impetus 
was given to manufacturing. York, as an established 
community of skilled working people, was caught 
up in this trend. By 1880, it had attained a popula- 




Soda fountain, in the City Drug Store, York, in the 1880's. 

lion of 16,500 and its products were being shipped 
to all parts of the world. 

Among the articles manufactured in York then 
which have since become more or less obsolete were 
buggies and buggy whips, cottage organs, hand- 
operated washing machines and clothes wringers, 
slate mantel pieces, cast iron house fronts, fountains, 
and statuary, toothache remedies, and photographic 
marriage certificates. 

Along with these, however, were produced many 
staple products which have been constantly im- 
proved upon and which still form the basis of York's 
industrial prosperity. These include turbine water 
wheels, steam engines, rope and twine, bricks, flour, 
beer, candy, condensed milk, soap, cigars and cigar 
boxes, furniture and agricultural implements such as 
scales, plows, hay rakes, cultivators, corn planters, 
sawmills and feed mills. 



A. B. FARQUHAR, A TYPICAL INDUSTRIAL- 
IST OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 

Mr. A. B. Farquhar (1838-1926), pioneer manufac- 
turer of farm implements, describes himself in his 
autobiography as a typical industrialist of the nine- 
teenth century. He was born in Montgomery County, 
Maryland, of Quaker stock. As a boy of sixteen, 
under the old apprentice system, he began his train- 
ing as a mechanic in the farm implement shop of 
W. W. Dingee and Co., of York. The shop, then con- 
sidered a large one, employed only ten men and 
working hours were from seven in the morning until 
six at night. In the evenings the boy went to night 
school and learned drafting, bookkeeping and pen- 
manship. At eighteen, be became a partner and set 
out with a horse and buggy to obtain orders for agri- 
cultural implements throughout Maryland. 

When Mr. Farquhar went into business for him- 
self, in 1861, for the first four years he worked prac- 
tically all the time. He was at the office at five in the 
morning, and went over the books and attended to 
correspondence for the day. Without any of the mod- 
ern office conveniences, not even a blotter, as sand 
was still used, without a fountain pen, a filing sys- 
tem or office machines, keeping track of things was 
laborious. There was no telephone and only gas 
lights in the office. Later, he had as secretary a man 
who could take dictation and write letters only in 
long hand and could not type . . . because the type- 
writer had not yet been invented. For this reason 
many details of business were never committed to 
paper, and the industrialist of the nineteenth century 
relied greatly upon his memory. He carried his bank 
balance, his customers' accounts and even their or- 
ders in his head. Most debts were paid in cash and 
the drawing of a check was considered somewhat of 
a ceremony. By seven o'clock, Mr. Farquhar had at- 
tended to much of the office work and was in the 
factory to greet the workmen as they came in. He 
called them by their first names and expected them 
to address him in the same way, a practice which 
has not entirely died out in the industries of York 
even today. He took a paternal interest in their per- 
sonal affairs and advanced many of them the money 
with which to start buying their own homes. 

In the 1880's, no one thought of living in the coun- 
try unless he happened to be a farmer so Mr. Far- 
quhar's home was but a few steps from the factory. 
Men who came from out-of-town on business were 
entertained there, not sent to a hotel. After supper 
at home he often went back to the office and worked 
until ten. But no matter how much his mind was 
taken up with matters of business during the day, 
he always managed to spend an hour before bed- 
time with a good book and in this way became 
conversant upon many subjects and formed many 
interesting friendships in fields other than business. 
As the years passed, through Mr. Farquhar's tre- 
mendous energy and capacity for work, he was 
always able to keep abreast of his expanding 
business. Steam power and then electricity; speciali- 
zation among workmen and modern office meth- 
ods speeded up production and by the end of the 
century Farquhar implements were known not only 
in our own South and West but also in Mexico and 
South America, South Africa, Australia, Bulgaria, 
Serbia, Greece and Russia. The company, which had 
been developed largely through the energy, honesty 



18 



and integrity of one man, was incorporated in 1889, 
has survived its founder and is today one of the 
leading industries of York. 

YORK COUNTY IN WORLD WAR I 

Over 6,000 men and women from York County 
served with the armed forces in World War I (1917- 
1918). The names of the 196 who gave their lives are 
perpetuated in four bronze tablets on the front of the 
York County Courthouse. 

When the war opened, many people were un- 
familiar with the meaning of the word "bond" and 
an educational campaign had to be conducted be- 
fore the Liberty Loan Drive could be successfully 
launched. Speakers visited theatres, churches, and 
various public meetings to explain the sale of war 
bonds. Once the idea had been put over, a total of 
$30,500,000 was subscribed to five Liberty Loans, an 
average of $200 per capita for the county as a whole. 
A replica of the Colonial Courthouse, called the Vic- 
tory House, was set up in the Square and $2,180,000 
worth of War Stamps were also sold. A War Chest 
was created and $425,000 was subscribed. Victory 
House reappeared in the Square for the sales of 
bonds and stamps during World War II. 

Heatless Mondays were observed in order to con- 
serve coal and York bakers cooperated in turning 
out a Victory loaf in which a number of other cereals 
were used in combination with wheat flour. 

When the influenza epidemic struck York the hos- 
pitals were soon filled and victims were cared for 
in emergency hospital tents erected on the Fair 
Grounds. 

York's participation in World War I was concluded 
with a Peace Parade held shortly after the Armistice. 

WORLD WAR II 

THE YORK PLAN 

"DO WHAT YOU CAN WITH WHAT YOU HAVE" 
In 1938, S. Forry Laucks went to Washington, D. C., 
and obtained the first ordnance contract for World 
War II: a $1,600,000 order for 138 mounts for the 
new three-inch antiaircraft guns, to be turned out 
within twenty-one months. Mr. Laucks, remembering 
his conversion eperience in World War I, did not 
attempt to re-equip his factory with new machine 
tools, when machine tools were not to be had. He 
had Charles Sioberg make a quick survey of the 
community, in which he discovered plenty of idle 
machines. Consequently, more than 45 per cent of 
the machining operations on the gun mounts were 
farmed out to subcontractors. This plan of putting to 
work idle men and machines through subcontracting 
was taken up by the Manufacturers' Association of 
York and developed by W. S. Shipley, W. I. Fisher, 
R. P. Turner, and Warren C. Bulette into a fifteen- 
point program. 

THE FIFTEEN POINTS OF THE YORK PLAN 

1. To make use of our present tools. A survey of 
every piece of machinery in the metal trades 
uncovered many idle machine tools. 

2. To get idle tools and idle men working. Sched- 
ules were worked out whereby idle tools could 
be used; tools being used part-time could be 
used in shifts; work was cut up so that parts of 
contracts could be handled by secondary plants. 



Individual parts were made in garages, in a 
tourist cabin converted into a machine shop; in 
a corner partitioned off from the City Market. 
Forgotten skills were rediscovered and utilized. 
For example, a veteran harness-maker was put 
to work making leather pads for the shoulder 
guards on antitank and antiaircraft gun mounts. 

3. To make a survey of tools outside the metal 
trades. Paper mills, garages, silk and hosiery 
mills, and repair shops were canvassed for ma- 
chine tools ordinarily used in metal trades. Us- 
able machines were found in many unexpected 
places. For example, a candy factory had a drill 
press, lathe and emery wheel. 

4. To study the type of work that could be done 
with the iacilities at hand. The committee did not 
attempt to do the impossible. A careful study re- 
vealed the fact that housings for 5-inch antiair- 
craft guns would require too large an invest- 
ment in new tools, but trench mortars could be 
manufactured with very little additional equip- 
ment. Accordingly, a prime contract for more 
than $1,000,000 worth of trench mortars was ob- 
tained, and subcontracts let. 

5. To explain and sell the plan to the community. 
Clergy, doctors, lawyers, merchants, and mem- 
bers of civic organizations were invited to hear 
speakers on the York Plan. 

6. To educate workers. The education of new 
workers and the retraining and refreshing of old 
workers was admirably carried out through the 
Cooperative Industrial Course offered by the 
William Penn Senior High School, the Atreus 
Wanner Vocational School, and by technical 
classes held by the Y. M. C. A. Night School and 
Pennsylvania State College Extension. 

7. To study housing. Housing facilities were sur- 
veyed and the York Chamber of Commerce 
launched upon a study of housing. 

8. To study workers' health. Discussions on the 
avoidance of breakdowns of workers under 
added strain were presented by doctors. 

9. To establish the costs of the subcontractor to the 
prime contractor. In many cases a subcontractor 
was allowed to accept an order and then deter- 
mine his costs after manufacturing a number of 
the actual parts. 

10. To insure prompt delivery oi finished parts from 
subcontractor to prime contractor. Subcontrac- 
tors had to be impressed with the necessity of 
meeting dead-lines. 

11. To impress the need for accuracy in the work so 
that finished parts would meet Federal specifi- 
cations. 

12. To determine if enough labor were available lo- 
cally to operate factories on three shifts daily. 

13. To study labor potentials in York. 

14. To take steps to secure this additional labor 
when and where needed. Steps were taken to 
secure the transfer of men skilled in metals trades 
who had been working in other industries, when 
needed. 

15. To enter into all local activities dealing directly 
or indirectly with the present emergency. Com- 
plete information on the Plan was kept at the 
Manufacturers' Association. It worked out admir- 



ably. Many small businesses which would have 
had to close for lack of materials for making their 
peacetime product were converted to war indus- 
try; in less than a year employment in the com- 
munity was up 40% and payrolls had increased 
75%. Industrial consumption of electric power 
had increased by 63%. The dangers of over- 
expansion were avoided by the use of existing 
facilities. 

The York Plan was given nationwide publicity 
through the pages of such magazines as Business 
Week and the Saturday Evening Post. W. S. Ship- 
ley toured the country addressing Chambers of 
Commerce, Manufacturers' Associations, and civic 
groups, who adapted the York Plan to needs of their 
own communities in furthering the war effort. 

WELFARE AND BOND DRIVES 

During World War II, the city and county of York 
actively supported the war effort. Ten per cent of the 
county's population served in the Armed Forces, and 
by May 1, 1945, 371 had given their lives, 822 had 
been wounded, 152 were listed as missing, and 92 
were prisoners. Quotas for the York County War and 
Welfare Fund, the American Red Cross, and Bond 
Drives were consistently exceeded. 

YORK COUNTY WAR AND WELFARE FUND 

Year Goal Amount Raised 

1943 $201,341 $239,577 

1944 $312,342 $360,429 

1945 $316,720 $328,000 

AMERICAN NATIONAL RED CROSS 

York County Chapter 
Year Goal Amount Raised 

1942 $125,000 $127,233.47 

1943 $135,000 $155,622.30 

1944 $235,000 $247,782 

1945 $235,110 $261,000 (estimated) 



WAR BOND SALES 


Drive 


Chairman 


Quota 


Sales 


1st Dec., 


Philip B. 






1942 


Deane 


$13,000,000 


$14,000,000 


2nd Apr., 


Edwin C. 






1943 


Resser 


$16,376,500 


$17,756,400 


3rd Oct., and 


Edwin C. 






Nov., 1943 


Resser 


$16,382,000 


$21,544,000 


4th Feb., and 








Mar., 1944 


R. J. Diven 


$16,898,000 


$18,584,000 


5th June and 








July, 1944 


R. J. Diven 


$17,455,000 


$23,055,000 


6th Nov., and 








Dec., 1944 


R. J. Diven 


$15,126,000 


$21,867,000 


7th Apr., May 


& 






June, 1945 


R. J. Diven 


$11,660,000 





AWARDS TO YORK INDUSTRIES 

York's industries made an outstanding record. 
Eighteen per cent of the plants engaged in war work 
in York, as compared to four per cent in th,e country 
as a whole, were awarded the Army-Navy "E" and 
many have been awarded additional stars. Sixty-five 
per cent of the employees in York industry were en- 
titled to wear the "E" pin as compared with twenty 



per cent elsewhere. Much of York's success in war 
production was due to the working out of the York 
Plan. 

The date of the awards and the companies re- 
ceiving them were as follows: 



Date 

Nov. 4, 1942 
Nov. 10, 1942 



Jan. 8, 1943 
Aug. 18, 1945 
Aug. 18, 1945 
Feb. 8, 1943 
Apr. 7, 1943 

July 29, 1943 
Nov. 22, 1943 
Nov. 23, 1944 
May 20, 1944 

JuneS, 1944 
June 27, 1944 
July 19, 1944 
Aug. 9, 1944 
Mar. 31, 1945 

June 7, 1945 
June 16, 1945 

Aug. 28, 1945 



Dafe 
June 10, 1944 



Date 

July 14, 1943 



ARMY-NAVY "E" 

Plant 

York Safe and Lock Co. 
York-Hoover Corporation 
American Chain & Cable 

Company, Inc. 

Wright-Manley Division 

Electric Welding Plant 

York Malleable Foundry 
A. B. Farquhar Co. 
Century Ribbon Mills, 

Incorporated 
General Electric Co. 
Read Machinery Co., Inc. 
York Corporation 
International Chain & 

Manufacturing Co. 
York-Shipley, Inc. 
H. J. Freezer Co. 
S. Morgan Smith Co. 
York Corrugating Co. 
American Foundry Machine 

Co. Glen Rock 
New York Wire Cloth Co. 
The Pennsylvania Tool & 

Manufacturing Co. 
Blaw-Knox Co., Operators 

& Managers, U. S. Naval 

Ordnance Plant 



Stats 



* * * 



* * * * 



* * 

* * 

* 
* 

* * 



"A" AWARD 

Plant 

Hungerford Packing 
Glen Rock 



Stars 



Co., 



MARITIME AWARD 

Plant 
Martin-Parry Corporation 



* * 



Stars 
* * * 



GENERAL JACOB L. DEVERS 

General Jacob Loucks Devers, York's four-star gen- 
eral, was born on September 8, 1887, in York, of Irish 
ancestry on his father's side and Pennsylvania Ger- 
man on his mother's side. Jake Devers made an ex- 
cellent record in both sports and studies at York 
High School. Recommended by Samuel S. Lewis, he 
was appointed to West Point at the age of eighteen 
by Congressman Daniel F. Lafean. 

Although he weighed but 140 pounds while at the 
military academy, he excelled in baseball, basket- 
ball and lacrosse, and later became graduate man- 
ager of athletics. Following his graduation and 
three years at Vancouver Barracks, Washington, he 
returned to West Point as an instructor in mathe- 
matics. Three years later he was transferred to Ha- 
waii. During World War I, he was an artillery in- 
structor at Fort Sill, Oklahoma. He finally succeeded 
in being assigned to overseas duty, but only in time 
to serve as a Colonel for six months with the Army 
of Occupation. 

In 1939, he was sent to Panama to strengthen the 
defenses of the Canal. Later he was moved to Fort 
Bragg, North Carolina, where he took a camp ac- 




General Jacob Loucks Devers. 



commodating 9,000 men and in nine months had 
facilities for 70,000 by employing 35,000 workers, 
who completed a new building on an average of 
every thirty-two minutes. 

When the United States arranged to trade de- 
stroyers for air bases, President Roosevelt appointed 
General Devers to select sites for both Army and 
Navy fields. He flew many thousands of miles on 
this mission. 

As commanding general of the armored forces 
from August, 1941, until May, 1943, General Devers 
trained and equipped twelve armored divisions and 
numerous separate tank battalions which constituted 
a large part of the strength of this powerful new 
branch of the American Army. A desk model of one 
of his tanks was presented to the York Historical 
Society, together with a number of pictures of his 
armored battalions. 

General Devers was deputy supreme commander 
of the Allied Forces in the Mediterranean Theatre 
and commanding general of the American Troops in 
the North African Theatre of operations. 

As commanding general of the European Theatre 
he reorganized and schooled thousands of troops in 
the United Kingdom in preparation for D-Day. He 
was responsible for much of the planning for the 
landings in Normandy in which he coordinated ar- 
mor, infantry, airpower and services of supply. 

In four and one-half months after the Normandy 
landing, General Devers's Sixth Army group, com- 
posed of the United States Seventh and the French 
First Armies, liberated more than half of France, 
captured more than 170,000 prisoners, penetrated 
the Maginot Line and invaded Germany itself. 



General Devers wears the Distinguished Service 
Medal with an Oak Leaf Cluster; the Croix de Guerre 
with Palm; the Polish Virtuti Militaire; is Knight Com- 
mander of the Bath; Grand Officer of the Legion of 
Honor, and holds the Degree of Grand Officer of the 
Brazilian Order of Military Merit. 

CHAPLAIN ALEXANDER GOODE 

Press and radio have given nation-wide attention 
to the heroic death of Chaplain Alexander Goode 
(1911-1943), brilliant young rabbi of Temple Beth 
Israel from 1937-1942. Rabbi Goode was known in 
York not only because of his work with his own con- 
gregation and in Jewish community activities, but 
also by his participation in Rotary, Red Cross and 
Y. M. C. A. When the S.S. Dorchester was torpedoed 
in the icy waters of the North Atlantic, at one in the 
morning, February 3, 1943, Chaplain Goode was 
below decks caring for the sick. 

Orders came to abandon ship and all hands who 
had been huddling in their clothes for hours, because 
of the danger from submarines, rushed on deck. 

In the midst of the stampede to the lifeboats, Chap- 
lain Goode calmly gave his gloves to a coast guard 
officer, Lt. (j. g.) John J. Mahoney, who later related 
how they saved his life. The gloves prevented the 
lieutenant's hands from freezing and enabled him 
to cling to a lifeboat for eight hours, awaiting rescue, 
while thirty-eight of the forty men on the lifeboat 
froze to death or were swept overboard. 

Then Chaplain Goode and three other chaplains 
aboard, two Protestant and one Catholic, gave up 
their life belts to members of the crew, and stood 
together on the deck, praying as the ship went down. 

Chaplain Alexander Goode was a graduate of 
Hebrew Union College, held a B.S. from the Univer- 
sity of Cincinnati, and a Ph.D. degree from Johns 
Hopkins. At a ceremony held at Fort Myer, Vir- 
ginia, December 13, 1944, he was awarded the Dis- 
tinguished Service Cross, posthumously. 




Chaplain Alexander Goode. 



The Pennsylvania Germans 



THE ART OF THE PENNSYLVANIA GERMANS 

The homes of the Pennsylvania Dutch were more 
colorful than those of any other of the early colonists. 
From Europe they brought the gay peasant decora- 
tion of their ancestors. They adorned everything they 
owned with fanciful birds, tulips, hearts and flowers 
in vivid shades of red, green, orange, yellow and 
blue. These designs appear on their pottery, their 
linens, and their furniture. Especially rich were the 
decorations upon the dower chest. Every girl had 
one of these in which she stored her precious home- 
spun linens, awaiting her wedding day. 

Great colorful "hex" signs adorned the barns. 
Some firmly believed that these kept witches away 
from the cattle. Others no doubt applied them purely 
as decorations. 

Ornamentation brightened almost everything in 
the kitchen. Corner cupboards had painted panels. 
Wooden dough trays were decorated. Iron utensils, 
cast iron stove plates and firebacks were richly orna- 
mented. Tinware was gaily painted. The Pennsyl- 
vania Germans loved fancy cakes and cookies and 
these were cut in fancy shapes or pressed into dec- 
orated molds. Even the butter molds were examples 
of skillful wood carving. 

This love of embellishment was also apparent in 
the Fraktur penmanship of the Pennsylvania Ger- 
mans which was an offshoot of the manuscript il- 
lumination of medieval Europe. The Fraktur penman, 
who was usually the local schoolmaster, wrote out 
beautiful birth, marriage, and death certificates 
which were framed and hung upon the walls. 



REVIVAL OF THE PENNSYLVANIA 
DUTCH ARTS 

A number of people in York County, cherishing 
the rich decorative heritage of the Pennsylvania 
Dutch, are at work reviving the traditional arts. 

Elizabeth Hoke, of Spring Grove, who has made 
an extensive study of all the Pennsylvania Dutch 
arts, has recently published a pamphlet giving in- 
structions for painting tinware. Margaret Lewis, art 
supervisor, has made York school children conscious 
of Pennsylvania Dutch design. She is also responsi- 
ble for the colorful murals in the Pennsylvania Dutch 
Canteen. The Nurses' Aides' room in the York Hos- 
pital was decorated in gay Pennsylvania Dutch style 
by Mrs. Perle Brysselbout and Mr. and Mrs. Ralph 
Gibbs. 

Among others, Darrell Kottcamp and Ralph H. 
Thomas decorate tinware, furniture and dower chests 
in their shops on West Market Street. Mrs. James P. 
Paul's original quilt designs based upon Pennsyl- 
vania Dutch motifs have been published in full 
color in the Ladies' Home Journal and Country 
Gentleman and patterns for them have been distrib- 
uted nationally. 



YORK AS A CENTER FOR PENNSYLVANIA 

DUTCH ANTIQUES 

York, in the very heart of the old settled Pennsyl- 
vania Dutch country, is a center for collectors of 
Pennsylvania Dutch antiques. There are fifty-six li- 
censed antique dealers in the city. Dealers and ama- 
teurs alike are still able to pick up many interesting 
items at the auction sales which are so much a part 
of the community life. 




A Pennsylvania Dutch dower chest. 

THE YORK ANTIOUE SHOW 

The York Antique Show attracts dealers, decora- 
tors, and collectors from all parts of the country. It is 
held twice annually; in March and again during Fair 
Week at the Y. M. C. A. Auditorium. Furniture shown 
includes corner cupboards, high-boys, tables, desks, 
chests of drawers, clocks, chairs, settees, cobblers' 
benches and stools. Among the varieties of china 
displayed are Staffordshire, Gaudy Dutch, Spatter- 
ware, Majolica, Lustre, and Dresden, as well as 
Crown Darby, Haviland, and Limoges. Since Steigel 
glassware was produced in neighboring Lancaster 
County much of that is exhibited along with Jersey, 
Sandwich, Bristol, and Bohemian glass and the later 
pressed glass. Hooked rugs, quilts, coverlets, sam- 
plers, buttons, and dolls attract the ladies. Included 




The Bride's Quilt, designed by Mrs. James P. Paul, uses 
traditional Pennsylvania Dutch motils. 



in the hundreds of pieces of antique kitchenware are 
butter prints, cookie molds, copper kettles, pewter, 
teapots, and firetongs. Jewelry and music boxes are 
also featured. Guns and firearms, many made by 




'Them that works hard eats hearty" is a Pennsylvania Dutch 
proverb still honored in York County. 




Loading /or marJcel. Note the variety of produce. 




the gunsmiths of early York County, are shown. 
Mrs. Mabel I. Renner, an outstanding collector and 
writer on antiques, is the founder and director of the 
York Antique Show, which is now in its twelfth year. 

PENNSYLVANIA DUTCH COOKING 

"No better and good cooks can be found nowhere," 
wrote Lewis Miller, of York, a hundred years ago. 
"They have plenty of raw materials to cook . . . 
beef, veal, lamb, mutton, pork, fish and oysters, poul- 
try, eggs, butter, cheese, milk and honey and all 
kinds of vegetables and fruits." 

These words are as true today as at the moment 
they were written. York's hotels feature York County 
farm products upon their tables, and their chefs have 
adopted as their own many traditional Pennsylvania 
Dutch recipes. Bear's Cafeteria is listed in guides to 
good eating as one of the few places in the country 
where authentic Pennsylvania Dutch cooking may 
still be obtained. 

Many tasty dishes were perfected by early Penn- 
sylvania Dutch housewives through a blending of 
good German cooking with the novel ingredients 
available in the new country. 

Among these are potpie, which is not pie but 
squares of rich noodle dough cooked in broth of 
chicken or meat; and "shoo-fly pie," which is a 
crumb pie. Funeral pie actually is a pie, a combi- 
nation of lemon and raisin. Cabbage is prepared as 
pepper relish, cole slaw, hot slaw and sauerkraut. 
Scrapple, schnitz and knepp (ham, dried apples and 
dumplings), vegetables prepared "sweet and sour," 
chicken corn soup, red beet eggs, chow-chow, and 
pretzels are all characteristic Pennsylvania Dutch 
fare. 

Certain foods are traditional at certain seasons 
of the year. On Shrove Tuesday, raised doughnuts 
called "fastnachts" are eaten, and Christmas is the 
season for baking innumerable sandtarts, nut kisses, 
gingernuts, and other fancy cookies. Fifty dozen is 
considered but a niggardly number for the entertain- 
ment of callers over the holidays. Oyster bakes and 
sauerkraut suppers are held by social organizations 
and churches during the fall and winter months. 

The Pennsylvania Dutch proverb, "Them that 
works hard, eats hearty," is still relied upon in York 
County. 



George Striebig, R. D. 2, has "stood market" at this same loca- 
tion lor liity-live years. 




Old bake ovens in the Ellen Fahs home. 




Men, women and children patronize the market. 




Mother and daughter confer over a selection ai the stand of 
Mrs. H. B. Mariey. 




Pussy willows and garden Sowers in season are also sold in 
York's markets. 

CITY MARKETS 

"For supplying and accommodating the citizens 
with good and wholesome provisions," reads the 
charter of the Colonial market house established in 
Centre (now Continental) Square in 1755. Wednes- 
day and Saturday were established as market days 
and thus early began the trade between the town 
and country folk of York County, which has contrib- 
uted toward a steady prosperity and a high stand- 
ard of living. 

Two market sheds, one built in 1840 and one in 
1842, stood in the Square until 1887 when they were 
torn down to make way for increasing traffic. 

At present, York has four markets: the Farmers' 
Market (1866), 380 West Market Street; City Market 



(1879), 211 South Duke Street; Central Market 
(1888), 35-47 North Beaver Street; and the Eastern 
Market (1885), 480 East Market Street. 

Each market is owned by a corporation and is in 
charge of a market master who sees to the renting 
of stalls and makes collections quarterly. In the good 
old days, market wagons used to be in the Square 
at 5 a.m., but the modern farmer arrives at about 
8 o'clock and with the help of his wife and daughters 
begins setting up his stall. Some families maintain 
stalls in three of the city's markets. Probably half of 
the stall holders are Dunkards from a community 
south of York, where fine fruits and vegetables are 
raised. Some sell their own products exclusively; 
others also retail out-of-season products trucked in 
from Baltimore. With their hair modestly covered, 
their naturally lovely complexions untouched by cos- 
metics, the young Dunkard girls assist their business- 
like mothers. Quaint Mennonite costumes may also 
be seen at market. 

Business is conducted on the principle of "Good 
value given for money received." Produce is kept in 
prime condition by constant spraying, and the buyer 
is allowed his choice. Often an extra handful, in ac- 
cordance with the Biblical injunction to "Give good 
measure, packed down and running over" is added. 

Rich and poor, old and young, men, women and 
children flock in with their market baskets. The big 
crowded room is remarkably quiet as each one 
concentrates on making the best selection from the 
bewildering array of commodities. 

On the farmers' stands there are fat chickens and 
ducks, garnished with green parsley, fresh eggs, 
home-baked cakes, pies and cookies, parsnips, tur- 
nips, tomatoes, potatoes and onions and other fruits 
and vegetables. Almost all stands show garden flow- 
ers in season. In the Spring there are pussy willows 
and in the Fall bunches of bittersweet. Stalls spe- 
cializing in herbs offer mint, dill, sage and water 
cress at a mere 5 cents per bunch. Young plants, 
already started are available to gardners. Such typ- 
ically Pennsylvania Dutch fare as red beets, pickled 
eggs, Lebanon bologna, sauerkraut, cottage cheese, 
scrapple, "puddin' " and apple butter are displayed 
in abundance. Housewives offer handmade pothold- 
ers, aprons, baby garments, braided rugs, and stock- 
ing dolls for sale. Visitors from out-of-town delight in 
such old-fashioned items as home-made bread and 
doughnuts, horehound candy, cinnamon drops, buck- 
wheat flour, honey in the comb, horse radish, dan- 
delion greens, and home-cured meats. Potato salad, 
jellies, baked beans, cooked hominy, and other pre- 
pared foods appeal to the busy homemaker. 

Around Easter time, the market is filled with the 
peeping of baby chicks and the gay yellow of daffo- 
dils. At Christmas time, it is fragrant with evergreen 
and crowded with prime turkeys. 

Besides the stands of the farmers, a typical market 
may include the stalls of as many as seven butchers, 
three delicatessens, two restaurants and three bak- 
ers, as well as a grocery store, and special stalls 
occupied by fish and fruit dealers and vendors of 
potato chips, candy and pretzels. At all seasons of 
the year the markets of York present an ever-chang- 
ing panorama of plenty. 

Perhaps half the holders of stalls in the markets 
as they carry on trade, exchange news, and renew 
old friendships, speak Pennsylvania Dutch, as well 
as English. 



24 



EDUCATIONAL 
AND CULTURAL 








The York Academy in 1850. The masters were university graduates, well versed in classical 
learning. A number of them achieved fame in education, science, mathematics and statesman- 
ship. Among the alumni of the Academy, founded in 1787, have been some of York's most 

outstanding men and women. 



Educational and Cultural York 



EDUCATION 

The first schools in York were parochial schools 
connected with various churches and since most of 
the early settlers were German, these schools were 
conducted in German and text-books imported from 
Germany were used. Soon after 1743, the First Evan- 
gelical Lutheran Church established a school taught 
by Bartholomew Moul in a log building at the rear 
of the church. Another log building housed the 
school connected with the German Reformed Church. 
The Moravian Church also conducted a school in its 
church house. 

The first English school was opened in 1750 by 
William Matthews, a surveyor for the Penns, and 
was attended by children of the Quakers and En- 
glish Episcopalians. 

In 1834, through the influence of Thaddeus Stevens 
and others, an act of the legislature made provision 
for a system of public schools for Pennsylvania. A 
special levy was enacted to pay for these public 
schools, but when the collector called upon citizens 
for their share of the tax, he was cursed and driven 
away if not actually assaulted. This was especially 
true of the Germans who preferred to support their 
own parochial schools rather than public schools 
taught exclusively in English. 

However, during the winter of 1834-35, three or 
four public school were opened in York. In these 
early schools the pupils sat on benches at long, slop- 
ing, plank desks built around the walls. The master 
cut the quills to serve as pens and "set the copy" for 
writing. Spelling was taught from Webster's Blue- 
Backed Spelling Book, and the victor in a spelling 
match was a local hero or heroine. Arithmetic was 
known as cyphering and it was every bright pupil's 
ambition to be the first to work out all the sums in 
the book. The reader, an English grammar, the New 
Testament, and any United States history completed 
the list of text-books. Schools were small, the term 
lasted only three or four months, and teachers were 
paid about $15 a month. 

Gradually, after 1848, the parochial schools de- 
clined and enrollment in the public schools increased. 

In 1870, the first public high school in York was 
opened in the Duke Street school building. In 1872, 
a high school building was erected on Philadelphia 
Street and that year the first class consisting of two 
students, one boy and one girl, graduated from the 
college preparatory course, the only course then of- 
fered. Contrast this with the 753 students graduated 
from the college preparatory, general academic, 
business education and industrial education courses 
of William Penn Senior High School in 1945! 

YORK PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

Approximately ten thousand pupils attend York's 
public schools each day. v_ 

The program of the schools is adjusted to meet the 
needs of each individual child, and the requirements 
of the community. It is also designed to instil an 



understanding of, and loyalty to our democratic form 
of government. 

Six years of elementary education, three years of 
junior high school and three years of senior high 
school are offered. Text-books and supplies are fur- 
nished free of charge. 

ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

Five thousand elementary school pupils are en- 
rolled in twenty-one elementary schools, located 
within convenient walking distance of any residence 
in York. A friendly, informal classroom atmosphere, 
an enrichment of subject matter through projects, 
art, music, dramatizations and excursions embody 
the best features of modern education, while a 
proper emphasis on fundamental subjects is also re- 
tained. The child's ability and achievement is scien- 
tifically measured through a program of standard- 
ized tests. Each pupil is studied as an individual 
and his case history goes with him from teacher to 




Library period in Madison Elementary School. 

teacher. Much attention is given to the health of the 
child and physical defects are attended to through 
cooperation with local health and welfare agencies. 
Elementary school pupils, at an early age, assume 
responsibility and leadership in safety squads and 
home room organizations. 




Franklin Elementary School Annex. 



26 



JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS 

York's junior high schools are designed to chal- 
lenge the energy and curiosity of teen-age boys and 
girls. In addition to formal studies, there are clubs 
as numerous and varied as the pupils' interests, 
choral groups, bands, and orchestras. Dramatic per- 
formances are given each year. Athletics, both inter- 
and intramural, give all an opportunity to partici- 
pate. Through organized student government, pupils 
practice the fundamental principles of democracy. 

Hannah Penn, York's first junior high school, was 
opened in 1927. In 1931, two more junior high schools 
named for famous Yorkers, Edgar Fahs Smith and 
Phineas Davis, were dedicated. All buildings are 
well equipped and contain excellent shops, labora- 
tories, special classrooms, gymnasium, auditorium, 
cafeteria, library, and other features of the modern 
junior high school. 




Phineas Davis Junior High School. Edgar Fahs Smith is built 
on exactly the same plan. 



WILLIAM PENN SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL 

The William Penn Senior High School with an en- 
enrollment of 2,400 is housed in the main building 
erected in 1927, the annex erected in 1940, and the 
Atreus Wanner Shop Building erected in 1941, con- 
stituting one of the most complete and modern high 
school plants in Pennsylvania, and representing an 
outlay of two million dollars for land, buildings and 
equipment. 

WAR PRODUCTION TRAINING AT 
ATREUS WANNER 

The Atreus Wanner Shop Building was erected at 
the cost of $60,000, for the purpose of training work- 
ers for York's war industries. The federal government 
made grants totaling $168,000 for machinery to fur- 
ther this program. Actual manufacturing methods 
were used on standard machines, and within a pe- 
riod of two years $23,000 worth of tools, meeting most 
rigid specifications, were made and supplied to in- 
dustry and to other vocational schools. For a time, 
the shop operated on three shifts, running twenty- 
four hours a day. In emergencies when small parts 
could not be obtained by local industries, the Atreus 
Wanner Shop turned them out and kept war produc- 
tion moving. 

From July 1, 1940, to January 12, 1945, 3,646 train- 
ees, some of them high school students and other 
adults, both men and women, were enrolled in the 
Wanner Shop, and 2,424 were placed in York's in- 
dustries. Such is the reputation of the school that a 
number of trainees are sent there from plants, and 
are paid while learning. The cooperation of the York 




in urn 



William Penn Senior High School. 



Manufacturers' Association and the Advisory Com- 
mittee, with an equal number of representatives from 
labor and industry, have given this program excel- 
lent support and leadership. 

In the industrial education department of the sen- 
ior high school, pupils spend half-time in school and 
half-time in industrial plants. This cooperative indus- 
trial course was launched in York in 1911. Since that 
date student-apprentices have earned more than 
$700,000 while attending school and 1,105 boys have 
been awarded diplomas. 

OTHER COURSES 

Two cooperative courses are maintained in the 
business education department: the cooperative 
business course in which students alternately spend 
one week in school and one week in offices, and 
the distributive education course in which students 
spend the morning in school and the afternoon in 
stores. 

During the school year 1943-1944, 294 students en- 
rolled in the three cooperative courses, served sev- 
enty-eight employers and earned $100,721.99. Much 
of the success of the cooperative plan of education 
in York is due to the support of advisory committees 
composed of industrialists and businessmen from the 
community. 

William Penn Senior High School offers also a 
general academic and a college preparatory course. 
Graduates from the college preparatory section have 
made consistently good grades in colleges and other 
institutions of a collegiate grade. On the annual 
College Night pupils and their parents confer with 
representatives of some fifty colleges. As soon as a 
student has chosen a college, a member of the high 
school guidance department assists him in planning 
a course of study to meet entrance requirements. 

An annual Vocational Conference is held each 
Spring to acquaint students with various vocations 




oration, journalism, law, medicine, metal trades, 
ministry, music, nursing, radio, salesmanship, secre- 
tarial work, social work, teaching, F. B. I., merchant 
marine, armed services, and other fields, address 
groups of interested students, and answer their 
and to aid them in choosing a life work while they 
are still under-graduates. Outstanding leaders in 
advertising, aviation, banking, beauty culture, com- 
mercial art, drafting, dramatics, dress design, en- 
gineering, forestry, home economics, interior dec- 
questions. 




Making precision cutting tools tor milling machines at the 
Atreus Wanner Vocational School. 



Some ol the $169,000 worfh of machinery in (he Afreus Wanner 
Vocational School. 



William Penn Senior High School has offered a 
course in preflight aviation since 1942 and has 
trained many Naval nd Army Air Forces' cadets in 
ground school subjects before induction. 

HEALTH PROGRAM 

The York school district employs two full-time 
school physicians, five school nurses, a full-time 
school dentist and three dental hygienists. In addi- 
tion to this, health and physical education are taught 
in all twelve years of the school course. 

YORK PUBLIC SCHOOLS AND THE 
WAR EFFORT 

Teachers and pupils of the York schools were 
mobilized for the war effort immediately after Pearl 
Harbor. 

From December 7, 1941, to March 9, 1945, pupils 
in York public schools have sold $1,650,260.85 in war 
stamps and bonds, and have collected 1,168 tons of 
scrap. During the school year of 1943-44, they col- 
lected 925,114 tin cans. In the same year, the wood- 
working shop in William Penn Senior High School 
made 25,000 beautifully finished items for the lunior 
Red Cross to distribute in hospitals and army camps. 

The National Education Association sent one of its 
editors to observe the activities in the schools and 
a four-page article, illustrated with fifteen photo- 
graphs, entitled "York Schools Serve in Wartime," 
appeared in the Journal of the National Education 
Association for March, 1942. 

Outside school hours, teachers have given their 
time and energy to rationing. Red Cross, drives for 
War Loan and War Fund and to first-aid courses. 



TEACHING CURRENT EVENTS 

Throughout the school system, one period each 
week is devoted to studying the problems of peace. 
Weekly news magazines suited to each age level 




Girls, too, train tor industry in the Atreus Wanner Vocational 
School. 



form the basis for these classroom discussions. Li- 
brary tables and bulletin-boards are kept up-to-date 
with the latest maps, cartoons, pictures, and articles. 
Visitors to the York schools have been greatly im- 
pressed by the knowledge and intelligent under- 
standing which York youngsters have of current 
world events. 

YORK COUNTY SCHOOLS 

Besides York's fine city schools, there are two addi- 
tional high schools in the Greater York area: the 



West York and the North York High School. Mount 
Rose Junior High School offers seventh, eighth, ninth 
and tenth grades. 

In the county as a whole, there are 274 one-room 
elementary schools, 26 two-room elementary schools, 
12 three-room elementary schools, 16 four-room ele- 
mentary schools, and 21 high schools. Forty-seven 
school buses are used for the transportation of rural 
pupils. 

The office of the county superintendent of schools 
is conveniently located in the Schmidt Building on 
Continental Square. A Teachers' Institute is held 
each fall. 

YORK CITY COUNCIL OF 
PARENT-TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS 

There are ten thousand pupils in the York Public 
Schools and a membership of 6,600 in Parent-Teacher 
organizations! Considering that some families have 
several children of school age, this approaches very 
nearly a 100% enrollment! 

This enrollment reflects the active interest taken 
by Yorkers in their schools. Organized in the fall of 
1921, in the Parents' Room of the Martin Library, the 
association has called upon many speakers to aid in 
its study of the problems of children today. 

The York City Council of Parent-Teacher Associ- 
ations assisted in a survey to determine the need for 
a child-care center, sponsored the fingerprinting of 
all children in the city, has aided in all types of war 
and welfare work, and sponsors a summer round-up, 
at which children about to enter school are examined 
in order that physical defects may be remedied be- 
fore school begins. 

The objects of the association are: "To promote 
welfare of children and youth, in home, school, 
church and community; to raise the standards of 
home life; to secure laws for the care and protection 
of children and youth; to bring into closer relation- 
ship the home and the school; to secure for every 
child the highest advantages in physical, mental, 
social and spiritual education." 

YORK CATHOLIC HIGH SCHOOL 

In September, 1927, the Very Reverend George J. 
Breckel, V. F., pastor of St. Mary's Church, founded 




West York High School. 



the Catholic High School of York. In the beginning, 
student enrollment was restricted to the pupils of St. 
Mary's Parish and those of other parishes who sought 
admission. The courses of study were approved by 
the State Department of Public Instruction, Harris- 
burg, Pa., and the school was granted authority to 
award diplomas. 

The first class, comprising three students, was 
graduated on May 10, 1929. In 1931, at the request 
of the late Bishop of Harrisburg, the Most Reverend 
Philip R. McDevitt, D.D., a central high school was 
established to accommodate all Catholic pupils of 
York and Dallastown. The newly-formed school con- 
tinued to use the facilities of St. Mary's parochial 
school. 

In 1940, Most Reverend George L. Leech, D.D., 
J.C.D., successor to Bishop McDevitt, purchased from 
the City School Board the abandoned Burrowes 
School Building situated on West King Street. The 
rapidly increasing enrollment made expansion nec- 
essary. From sixty-four students, in 1929, to three 
hundred and nine, in September, 1941, gives some 
idea of the growth of the school. The purchased 
building was remodelled and enlarged; six class- 
rooms were erected at the front of the old building 
and a large combination auditorium-gymnasium in 
the rear. Bishop Leech blessed the new high school 
privately on September 7th, and the doors of the 
new high school were thrown open to the Catholic 
pupils of York and vicinity on September 29, 1941. 

One priest, thirteen Sisters representing four relig- 
ious orders, and two laymen comprise the faculty. 
Four courses of study are offered: Classical, Scien- 
tific, Commercial and General. 

PAROCHIAL SCHOOLS 

There are four parochial schools in York: St. Pat- 
rick's, at 231 South Beaver Street; St. Mary's, at 321 
South George Street; St. Rose's, at 15 South Richland 
Avenue, and St. Joseph's, at 260 Norway Street. En- 
rollment for the school year of 1944-45 totalled 800. 

CHRISTIAN DAY SCHOOL OF ST. JOHN'S 
LUTHERAN CHURCH 

The Christian Day School of St. John's Lutheran 
Church is conducted in the Parish Hall at 140 West 
King Street. In operation since 1874, the school 
teaches in addition to the regular subjects of the first 
eight grades, Bible stories, Bible texts, and catechism. 
Sixty-two pupils are in the charge of two teachers. 
All books and educational supplies are furnished 
free to the children of church members. Children of 
non-members pay two dollars per month. Pupils are 
served a hot lunch at noon, at cost, by the Parent- 
Friends' Association connected with the school. 

YORK COUNTY ACADEMY 

The York County Academy, one of the earliest 
secondary schools west of the Susquehanna, was in- 
corporated under the charter of the Protestant Epis- 
copal Church of Saint John in 1787, and a building 
erected that same year. An act of the Legislature, of 
March 1, 1799, established the institution as a county 
school or academy, governed by a Board of Trustees. 
James Smith, York's signer of the Declaration of In- 
dependence, was the first president of the Board of 
Trustees, a position now held by George Hay Kain, 
an alumnus of the school. 



During the years when there were no public high 
schools, York Academy provided secondary educa- 
tion for the young people of the community. Young 
men intended for the professions, after completing 
a classical education at the Academy, went on to 
read law in an attorney's office or study medicine 
with a doctor. 

As was typical in the ungraded schools of the 
period, the master sat upon a platform and heard 
lessons from the primer, on up through Latin, Greek, 
English and moral, mental, mathematical and phys- 
ical science. Practical subjects such as bookkeeping 
and surveying were also taught if requested. 

Corporal punishment, for boys at least, was com- 
mon. In fact, Robert Adrain, Irish and hot-tempered, 
later a celebrated mathematician, used the ruler 
with such violence that the trustees had to interfere. 
Girls, however, were generally let off with a severe 
lecture. 

The student body was drawn from the English 
families in the community and also from the German 
settlers who wished their children to learn English. 

A few boarding pupils were accommodated at the 
home of the principal where tuition, board, washing 
and mending were to be had for $60 per session. 
Pupils furnished their own light and fuel, however. 

Although originally opened as a school for boys, 
the academy admitted girls as early as 1820, and the 
Young Ladies' Department continued until 1870 
under the leadership of David B. Prince, an able 
teacher, and after 1866, of George W. Ruby (1824- 
1880), who had been principal of the boys' school. 

An early catalog states that "York has always 
been proverbial for its excellent health, and for the 
strict moral characteer of its inhabitants, and the 
country around is rich in varied and beautiful scen- 
ery, while its numerous churches offer accommoda- 
tions to Christians of almost every creed. The acad- 
emy itself occupies one of the most beautiful and 
healthful sites in town. While it is sufficiently near 
to enjoy the benefits of the pavements and thus to 
save the young ladies from exposure, it yet lies open 
to the country, but a few rods from green fields and 
meadows." 

The young ladies were "trained with a view to 
domestic duties" through a stiff course in English, 
geography, history, astronomy, botany, mathematics, 
evidences of Christianity, and ancient and modern 
languages, as well as "those ornamental accomplish- 
ments of a female education" drawing, painting 
and music. 

Learning to write a beautifully-shaded Spencerian 
hand was considered of such importance that a spe- 
cial instructor was employed. 

On Friday afternoons, books were laid aside and 
the pupils "spoke pieces" and witnessed scientific 
demonstrations. 

Although there is an early record of a bowling 
green at the academy, there were no organized 
sports nor playground apparatus, but the pupils 
played ball, rolled hoops, spun tops, and had games 
of marbles and mumbley-peg in the school yard. 
The older boys often formed military companies and 
practiced drills. 

For many years the Academy Building, now 
loaned to the York Recreation Commission, was one 
of the largest in the community and was used for 
exhibitions and the performances of traveling play- 



ers. Student literary and dramatic societies used the 
third floor. 

Here also were held Normal Schools for six weeks 
after rural schools closed in the spring. 

Recently, at the 150th Anniversary Celebration, 
held in the Edgar Fahs Smith Junior High School, the 
opening service from a quaint old book of prayers, 
compiled for the masters and scholars of York Acad- 
emy and dated 1786, was again used. 

In June, 1929, the Trustees of the Academy entered 
into an agreement with the York Collegiate Institute 
whereby the Academy is now conducted in the build- 
ings of the Institute and the students of both schools 
receive the benefit of the teachers employed by each 
institution, and a joint diploma is awarded upon 
graduation. 

YORK COUNTY ACADEMY'S 
FAMOUS TEACHERS 

One of the earliest teachers in York was John 
Andrews (1746-1813), Episcopalian rector, who was 
later provost of the University of Pennsylvania 
(1810-1812). 

The masters of the academy were university grad- 
uates soundly versed in classical learning. 

Robert Adrain ( 1775-1843), principal of York Acad- 
emy in 1800, became in turn professor of mathemat- 
ics at Rutgers College and Columbia College, and 
vice-provost of the University of Pennsylvania ( 1828) . 
He contributed to Bowditch's Tables a law for de- 
terming drift ai sea. 

Another teacher, John F. Livermore, a native of 
Massachusetts, died in York "in the bloom of youth," 
April 14, 1812, and was buried in the churchyard of 
the First Presbyterian Church, where still may be 
seen the stone placed over his remains "by his pupils 
and friends." 

Samue] Bacon (1781-1820), a teacher in York 
Academy, in the year 1812, captained the York Vol- 
unteers and was married to Anna Mary Barnitz. In 
his youth his wealthy but miserly father denied him 
higher education, even though Samuel was so bright 
that he memorized all the rules of English grammar 
in three days and all the rules of Latin grammar in 
five days. He worked his way through Harvard Uni- 
versity by ringing the bells for classes, kindling fires 
in the recitation rooms and waiting on table. During 
vacations he taught a district school. However, his 
health was impaired by his struggles. He organized 
the first Sunday-schools in York County in 1817, and 
opened a school for colored people. Through this he 
became interested in colonizing Liberia with free 
negroes. He took over a shipload in 1820, but both 
he and his colonists perished of fever. 

Thaddeus Stevens (1792-1868), a graduate of Dart- 
mouth, read law in the office of David Cassat in 1816, 
while teaching in the academy. He was admitted to 
the bar in Maryland, moved to Gettysburg and later 
to Lancaster. He became a Congressman and was 
an ardent abolitionist and a champion of free schools 
in Pennsylvania. 

Stephen Boyer (1783-1848) was for many years 
head of the Boys' School and served as principal of 
the academy from 1823-1848. 

Daniel Kiikwood (1814-1895), first a student and 
then a teacher at the academy (1834-1843), served 
as president of Delaware College, and later was pro- 



fessor at the University of Indiana for thirty years. 
He was the first astronomer to demonstrate the rela- 
tionship between comets and meteors. 

EDGAR FAHS SMITH 

Edgar Fahs Smith (1854-1928), an alumnus of the 
Academy, was honored in 1926 by a bronze statue 
erected on the campus of the University of Pennsyl- 
vania. Born in York, son of Gibson and Susan (Fahs) 
Smith, he attended York Academy, and then entered 
Gettysburg College from which he graduated in 
1874. At the advice of his science teacher, he went 
to Germany where he studied chemistry and miner- 
alogy at the University of Gottingen. He received 
his Ph.D. degree in 1876. 

Upon his return to Pennsylvania he became assis- 
tant in chemistry at the University, then professor 
(1881-83) at Muhlenberg College, Allentown, Penn- 
sylvania, and at Wittenberg College, Springfield, 
Ohio (1883-88). In 1888, he returned to the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania. Four years later he became 
head of the department of chemistry. In 1898, he was 
appointed vice-provost and in 1911, provost of the 
University. During his administration millions of dol- 
lars were raised for the University. He also com- 
pleted revised courses in science and made the 
school of science one of the best in the country. 

He was a pioneer in electrochemistry and made 
many original discoveries in analyzing metals by 
electrolytic tests. He also added much to the sci- 
ence of atomic weights and inorganic acids. His re- 
searches on tungsten led to its use in electric light 
bulbs and many other commercial uses. The steel 
industry was benefited through his studies of 
molybdenum. 

He wrote thirteen chemical text-books, five of 
which were translations of basic German text-books; 
seven volumes and thirty-six pamphlets on historic- 
chemical subjects, many of them biographies of emi- 
nent chemists, and 169 chemical papers which were 
published in American and German scientific jour- 
nals. His most widely-read book was "Electrochem- 
ical Analysis," which went into six editions and was 
translated into French, German, and even Chinese. 

His collections of prints, autographs, letters, me- 
dallions, rare books and other relics of eminent 
chemists is preserved as the Edgar Fahs Smith Col- 
lection at the University of Pennsylvania. 

During his lifetime, he was awarded many honor- 
ary degrees and scientific medals, and was three 
times president of the American Chemical Society. 

Doctor Smith was a friendly, approachable person 
noted as an entertaining conversationalist, lecturer 
and public speaker. He was a great teacher and 
many of his students became eminent teachers and 
experts in scientific fields. 

He died of pneumonia in Philadelphia, May 3, 
1928. 

In 1931, the splendid new Edgar Fahs Smith Jun- 
ior High School of York, named in his honor, was 
dedicated. 

YORK COLLEGIATE INSTITUTE 

The York Collegiate Institute, located at Duke 
Street and College Avenue, is a private college pre- 
paratory school founded in 1873 under a charter 
granted to Mr. Samuel Small and associates. Mr. 
Small conveyed to the Institute the tract of land 



which it now occupies together with a fully-equipped 
building and a liberal endowment fund. In 1885, 
shortly after Mr. Small's death, the original building 
was destroyed by fire. The present structure was 
erected in his memory by his nephews, George 
Small, W. Latimer Small, and Samuel Small. 

The Institute is co-educational and includes a kin- 
dergarten, junior and senior high school, and a two- 
year junior college. Classes are small and students 
receive the benefit of individual attention from quali- 
fied instructors. 

The buildings include classrooms, offices, a 
chapel, a large well-lighted library of 5,000 volumes, 
modern well-equipped biology, chemistry and phys- 
ics laboratories and a beautiful new auditorium- 
gymnasium. 

The York Collegiate Institute- York County Acad- 
emy is fully accredited by the Pennsylvania Depart- 
ment of Public Instruction and also by the Middle 
States Association of Colleges and Secondary 
Schools. Ninety per cent of its graduates go to 
college. 

The program of the school stresses literature, his- 
tory, languages, mathematics and science. Provision 
for sports and physical education and student activi- 



tical training in chemistry are welcomed in the lab- 
oratories of industry. 

Worked out at the request of the doctors of the 
city, a one-year course, taught jointly by the Thomp- 
son Business College and the York Junior College, 
is designed to meet the demand for qualified medical 
secretaries. 

Courses leading to admission as a junior at any 
of the country's liberal arts colleges or professional 
schools are also given. Among these are the regular 
liberal arts course and the first two years of scientific 
work required by all schools training doctors, nurses, 
and laboratory technicians. 

The Junior College uses the library, laboratories, 
and auditorium-gymnasium of the Institute. Its sports 
program includes football, tennis, badminton, golf, 
riding, swimming, basketball, boxing, gymnasium, 
folk dancing, archery, and deck tennis. A student 
council assists in the government of the school. 

The Conservatory of Music offers training in all 
grades and branches of music. In the Department of 
Fine Arts, instruction in drawing, painting, and 
sculpture is offered. 




The beautitul auditorium-gymnasium of (he York Collegiate 
Institute. 



ties is also made. Individual instruction in music 
during school hours is allowed. A school nurse is in 
attendance daily. 

YORK JUNIOR COLLEGE 

The York Junior College offers to young people 
either vocational training on a college level leading 
directly to employment in the community, or two 
years of work toward a degree in any of the coun- 
try's leading colleges or universities. 

With the cooperation of civic, professional and in- 
dustrial leaders, courses have been set up to meet 
the demand for trained personnel in several tech- 
nical fields. 

Through a committee appointed by the Engineer- 
ing Society of York, a two-year course in Engineer- 
ing Technology, including specialization in either 
Mechanical or Production Engineering, is'offered to 
supply trained assistants to graduate engineers. 

Graduates of the Junior College's two-year course 
in Industrial Laboratory Technology with their prac- 




The York Junior College, oi the York Collegiate Institute, has 
one ot the best-equipped chemistry laboratories in the State. 

The Junior College makes it possible for young 
people of limited income, those too young to go 
away to school, or those who wish to remain at home 
for any other reason, to complete either a practical 
vocational course or their two first years toward a 
college degree. 

ART CLASSES 

Ethel Stum, whose painting, "Ye Old Country 
Store," was recently exhibited at the Pennsylvania 
Academy in Philadelphia, conducts art classes in 
her studio at 146 East Market Street. The hours from 
7 to 9 on Monday nights are reserved for children 
and the same hours on Thursday for adults. Lessons 
are given in charcoal, pastel, water colors or oils as 
suited to the individual ability of the student. 

A sketch class will be conducted at Miss Stum's 
cottage near Accomac this summer. A Susquehanna 
Summer School of Art is planned at this location as 
soon as transportation will permit. 



BEAUTY CULTURE 

Beauty Culture has developed into a business 
running into many millions of dollars annually. York 
has two schools at which girls may train for this 
work. Beauty schools operate under the State De- 
partment of Public Instruction, and one thousand 
hours of training are required before a student is 
eligible for the State examination. When this exami- 
nation is passed, a license is issued, which must be 
renewed annually. The complete course is as fol- 
lows: Theory, 200 hours; hygiene and sterilization, 
25 hours; facials, 75 hours; fingerwaving, 125 hours; 
hair cutting, 75 hours; hair tinting, 75 hours; mani- 
curing, 100 hours; marcel waving, 150 hours; perma- 
nent waving, 125 hours; and scalp treatments, 50 
hours. Six months are required to complete the course 
in day classes and one year in evening classes. 

YORK SCHOOL OF BEAUTY CULTURE 

The York School of Beauty Culture is centrally 
located in the Schmidt Building on the Square. Both 
day and evening classes are conducted. 

YORK SCHOOL OF HAIR AND 
COSMETOLOGY 

The York School of Hair and Cosmetology, located 
at 17 West Market Street, is one of the oldest schools 
of beauty culture in the State, having been founded 
in 1921 by Bertha E. Rosenfield. 

BUSINESS COLLEGES 
THE PROWELL COMMERCIAL SCHOOL 

The Prowell Commercial School, located on Conti- 
nental Square, has been in existence for forty-one 
years and hundreds of successful graduates testify 
to its competence. Through the individual instruc- 
tion method each student is allowed to progress as 
rapidly as possible. Gregg shorthand, stenoscript, 
accounting, touch-typing, business arithmetic, busi- 
ness English, including punctuation, capitalization, 
spelling and letter writing, penmanship, advertising, 
salesmanship, business law and business efficiency 
are taught by trained, experienced teachers. 

Dean Prowell, principal of the school, who has 
transcribed more than one hundred national conven- 
tions during the past twenty-five years, gives a spe- 
cial course in reportorial practice. 

The school, which is affiliated with the National 
Council of Business Schools and the Eastern Com- 
mercial Teachers' Association, has been awarded a 
Certificate of Approval by the Pennsylvania State 
Committee on Standards for Private Business Schools. 

THOMPSON COLLEGE 

The Thompson College, established in 1921, is a 
member of the American Association of Commercial 
Colleges and is fully accredited. C. M. Thompson, 
president of the college, is International President of 
the American Association. 

The college rooms are well lighted and ventilated 
and the latest model typewriters and other office 
machines are used. Both day and evening classes 
are conducted. Speakers and prominent business 
people address the school assemblies. 



Glee clubs, sororities, fraternities, literary social- 
ties and social affairs throughout the year contribute 
to the interesting student life of the college. 

A Stenographic Course, Secretarial Course, Exec- 
utive-Secretarial Course, Accounting and Higher Ac- 
counting, and Business Administration are offered. 
Special courses in Civil Service, Salesmanship and 
Advertising, Economics, Filing, Office Practice and 
Appliances, Ediphone and Dictaphone Transcription, 
Key Punch Accounting, Shorthand for Medicine, Law 
or other specialized occupations, and Mimeograph- 
ing and Multigraphing are also given. 

Part-time, self-help positions for students at the 
Thompson College are available in cafeterias, stores, 
hotels and homes. 

CHILD CARE CENTERS 

York has three nursery schools which receive Fed- 
eral funds, and which care for children from the ages 
of two to six. The Holy Child Nursery, 320 East Mar- 
ket Street, conducted by the Daughters of Our Lady 
of Mercy, leads in enrollment with fifty children. The 
Visiting Nurse Association provides nursery care for 
thirty-two children, and the Yorktowne Homes for 
fourteen. There are also a number of small nurseries 
conducted in private homes. 

THE HARRISON SCHOOL OF DANCING 

The Harrison School of Dancing, located at 615 
East Market Street, was opened in 1929 under the 
direction of Stella Harrison. Mrs. Harrison is a grad- 
uate in physical education from Panzer College, of 
the Chalif School of Dancing in New York City, and 
also studied privately with many well-known teach- 
ers. The Harrison School offers day and evening 
classes for adults and also a graded course for chil- 
dren, including ballet, modern, tap, and ballroom 
dancing. 

KINDERGARTENS 

York Collegiate Institute conducts a private morn- 
ing kindergarten for approximately sixty children. 
Tuition for the year is $70.00. 

The Crispus Attucks Association provides a paid 
supervisor for its group of preschool children meet- 
ing four afternoons weekly. 

The Opportunity Center at 34 West Princess Street 
conducts a kindergarten five afternoons each week 
from 1 to 3. 

YORK HOSPITAL SCHOOL OF NURSING 

Established in 1894, the York Hospital School of 
Nursing has trained nurses for service all over the 
world as public health nurses, missionaries and as 
members of the Army and Navy Nurse Corps. The 
school is now part of the Cadet Nurse Training 
Program. 

A three-year program, including both theoretical 
and practical work, leads to a diploma. The students 
take English, biology and chemistry at the York Col- 
legiate Institute, go to the Y. W. C. A. for swimming, 
and to the Visiting Nurse Association for instruc- 
tion in Public Health Nursing. Neuropsychiatry is 
studied at the Pennsylvania Hospital for Nervous 
and Mental Diseases and through assignment to the 
wards and private services of the York Hospital 
experience is gained in medicine, surgery, urol- 



ogy, obstetrics, gynecology, and pediatrics. The 
classes are taught by qualified instructors and staff 
physicians. 

Provision is made for recreation and social life 
and the chorus of the school is often called upon to 
sing before church and community groups. 

PENNSYLVANIA STATE COLLEGE 

The Pennsylvania State College in conjunction 
with the United States Government offers timely 
free extension courses in its evening school, at the 
William Penn Senior High School, in chemical lab- 
oratory techniques, corporation and manufacturing 
accounting, chemistry of pulp and paper, electric 
motors, engineering drafting, engineering, elec- 
tronics, industrial supervision, plastics, etc. 

Y. M. C. A. NIGHT SCHOOL 

The Y. M. C. A. Night School, York's oldest night 
school, has been operated successfully for over fifty 
years. During the season of 1944-45, 344 students, 
both men and women, completed courses. Among 
the subjects offered were accounting, blueprint read- 
ing, benchwork, electrical engineering, effective 
speaking, foremanship, machine shop mathematics, 
milling machine practice, sheet metal drafting, shop 
engineering, taxation and time-and-motion study. 

These classes meet once or twice a week for 
twenty weeks in modern classrooms located in the 
Y. M. C. A. Building. Through them, many young 
people have acquired valuable new skills and 
have been able to continue their education though 
employed. 




The Y. M. C. A. has conducted a Night School for more (han 
titty years. 

THE PEOPLE'S FORUM 

The People's Forum, a non-profit organization 
founded in 1937, now has 285 members. Panel dis- 
cussions on current issues are held the last Sunday 
night of each month at the old York Academy Build- 
ing. Several lectures to which the public is invited 
are presented at popular admission prices each year, 
either in the Yorktowne Hotel Ballroom or the Audi- 
torium of the William Penn Senior High School. 

OPPORTUNITY CENTER v 

York has less than two per cent foreign-born pop- 
ulation and these are being assimilated rapidly, 
mainly through the work of the Opportunity Center 
operated by the Federation of Church Women of 



York City and County and located at 34 West Prin- 
cess Street. Since 1916, the center has been prepar- 
ing York's foreign-born for citizenship. 

Adult classes, held in the evening, offer instruction 
in English, American customs, and preparation for 
American citizenship. Emphasis is laid upon the 
honor of becoming a citizen. During the superinten- 
dency of Hester Aldinger, many men and women 
have attained citizenship. During the years the fol- 
lowing nationalities have been represented in the 
school: Austrian, Chinese, French, Germans, Greeks, 
Hungarians, Italians, Polish, Russians, and Syrians. 
Private instruction is also given in the homes or at 
the center, upon request. 

The enrollment in the kindergarten, meeting five 
afternoons a week from 1 to 3, was twenty during 
the past year of 1944-45. This renders a valuable 
service in helping children to overcome language 
difficulties and prepares them to do better work in 
the first grade of public school. 

THE COLLEGE CLUB OF YORK COUNTY 

Aiding girls to obtain higher education is the 
purpose of the York College Club. Since 1920, this 
organization, now numbering 250 members, has 
helped 58 girls, 34 through scholarships, and 24 by 
special gifts and loans. The club has also aided the 
Bryn Mawr Summer School, provided the York Junior 
College with a fund for a worthy student selected 
by the college, and helped the Clio Literary Society, 
of William Penn Senior High School, to complete its 
scholarship. The organization meets monthly at the 
Woman's Club Building. 

THE HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF 
YORK COUNTY 

The Historical Society of York County was organ- 
ized in 1895 and incorporated in 1902, primarily for 
the purpose of preserving the history of this region 
and its people. The Society building at 225 East Mar- 
ket Street in York was purchased, remodeled and 
equipped by public subscription. 

The reference library and museum are free to the 
public, and are open from 9:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M., 
except on Sundays and major holidays. 

The library includes at present about 6,000 vol- 
umes and 8,000 pamphlets. Another important divi- 
sion is the collection of local imprints, works of local 
authors, and sources on the history of York and 
Adam Counties particularly the files of local news- 
papers from 1777 to date. 

The museum contains many archoeological and 
historical relics and several thousand local views, 
portraits and maps. 

The Manuscript Collections include translations, 
copies and abstracts of the registers of more than 
fifty local churches; unpublished monographs on 
local history and genealogy; abstracts of 250,000 in- 
scriptions in the 445 cemeteries of York and Adams 
Counties; original letters, sketches, muster rolls, legal 
papers and the like, to the extent of 10,000 pages; 
microphotographs and photostats of papers in other 
repositories, 30,000 pages all relating to special 
phases of the life and history of York County. The 
Director and a small staff are constantly engaged 
in adding to these collections and volunteer helpers 
assist them in preparing indexes. 



All who are interested in the preservation of the 
local records are urged to become members. There 
is no admission fee; the dues are: 

Annual Members $2.00 a year 

Contributing Members $5.00 a year 

Sustaining Members $10.00 a year 

Life Members $100.00 (one payment) 

All members receive the Annual Report of the Di- 
rector and the Annual Report of the Treasurer. Con- 
tributing, Sustaining and Life Members receive also 
the Year-Book, a compilation of source materials 
on York County history found in the world's princi- 
pal libraries and archives. 




Historical Society ol York County. 

The Society welcomes all donations that will 
further its program. An endowment fund is sorely 
needed for salaries, maintenance, books, equipment, 
photocopying, binding, and many other purposes. 
Local books and pamphlets, old newspapers, maps, 
manuscripts of all sorts, and identified local views 
and portraits will be acknowledged and appreciated. 

INDIAN STEPS MUSEUM 

In 1941, the Pennsylvania Water and Power Com- 
pany, in cooperation with the Conservation Society 
of York County, dedicated Indian Steps Museum on 
their Holtwood property as a memorial to the Indians 
who formerly dwelt in the vicinity. The museum is 
located on a rugged, beautifully wooded tract forty 
acres in extent, with a long shoreline on the Susque- 
hanna. The grounds are being developed as a wild 
flower preserve by the Garden Club of the Conser- 
vation Society. 

The building itself houses many thousand speci- 
mens of Indian handicraft. Ten thousand stone 
arrow-heads, spear-points and axe-heads are im- 
bedded in the walls in designs representing birds, 
snakes, animals, Indians, etc. More than 5,000 per- 
sons visit the museum each year and it furnishes an 
ideal place for the school children of the community 
to learn about the earliest inhabitants of the county. 



EARLY LIBRARIES IN YORK 

In pioneer days, many families were content with 
the Bible and the almanac as reading material, but 
as interests broadened a demand for libraries arose. 

The first circulating libraries in York were small 
book collections maintained in connection with Sun- 
day schools. 




Indian Steps Museum, built by ]. Edward Vandersloot. 

In 1874, the United Library Association organized 
a library which was open to Odd Fellows free of 
charge and to other borrowers upon payment of a 
fee of $2.00 annually. In 1897, this library was dis- 
continued and the books turned over to the school 
board, who placed them in the Senior High School 
(now Hannah Penn) and made them available to 
the public. 

In 1885, St. John's Parish opened a library which 
served the public for fifty years until merged with 
the Martin Memorial Library in 1935. 

MILTON D. MARTIN 

Milton D. Martin (1859-1912) was born in Lower 
Windsor Township, York County. 

During his youth he attended a country school 
where all grades and subjects were taught by one 
teacher. He was eager to learn but the school term 
lasted but five months, and since he was the second 
eldest of seven children he often had to stay home 
in order to help with threshing, tobacco stripping 
and the early spring farming. 

As a young man he came to York and became a 
successful manufacturer and president of the Martin 
Carriage Works (now the Martin-Parry Corporation). 
Even though Mr. Martin occupied a handsome resi- 
dence on East Market Street, was a member of the 
Lafayette Club, a trustee of the Presbyterian Church, 
and president of the Guardian Trust Company; even 
though he rode forth in a fine carriage with a liveried 
coachman, driving two beautiful black horses; he 
still regretted that he had lacked opportunities for 
education and self-improvement when young. 

Desiring to provide these advantages for others, 
Mr. Martin provided that after his death and the 
death of his wife $125,000 was to be set aside for 
the incorporation of a library for the city and county 
of York, and a trust fund of $60,000 was to be estab- 
lished for the maintenance of the building. The li- 
brary was to be "a place of welcome, instruction, 
cheer and delight." 

After the death of Mr. and Mrs. Martin the direc- 
tors of the library discovered that $125,000 was in- 




Looking into the reading-room of the Martin Memorial Library. 



sufficient to build, equip and maintain a suitable 
library for York, so the money was invested and the 
interest allowed to accumulate until 1934. 

In 1920, the lot at the corner of Queen and East 
Market Streets was purchased in accordance with 
Mr. Martin's wish that the library be located near 
his former home. 

On November 2, 1935, the library was ready to 
be opened to the public with a book collection of 
22,000 books and a staff of eight persons, four of 
whom were trained librarians, and at an impressive 
dedication ceremony the new library was formally 
presented to the citizens of York and York County. 

MARTIN MEMORIAL LIBRARY 

The Martin Memorial Library, designed in Colo- 
nial style by Frederick G. Dempwolf, of York, was 
completed at a cost of $100,000 and was dedicated 
November 2, 1935. The exterior is of Colonial brick 
with white Indiana limestone trim. 

In the Memorial Lobby, in which hangs a portrait 
of Mr. Martin, the woodwork is similar to that of In- 
dependence Hall, but some detail used in early York 
woodwork has also been incorporated. The chande- 
lier is a copy of one that formerly hung in Gadsby's 
Tavern in Alexandria, Virginia, and is now in the 
Metropolitan Museum in New York. The woodwork 
of the Main Reading Room and Children's Room is 
finished in knotty pine, and the walls are painted 
in soft restful colors. 

In the Music Room on the second floor, where an- 
nual art exhibitions are held, the fine panelling, cup- 
boards, doors and mantel piece of the Hahn House, 



which formerly stood at 158 West Market Street, 
have been incorporated into the decoration. 

The Parents' Room on the same floor contains 
a collection of beautiful children's books and also 
books on the care and rearing of children. 

The Martin Library is noted for its attractive and 
educational window displays. Material is furnished 
by individuals and organizations, by government 
agencies and from the wealth of interesting material 
owned by the library itself. 

On March 1, 1945, the library owned 57,861 books 
of which 10,254 were children's books, 11,065 pamph- 
lets and 9,317 mounted pictures, besides back files 
of some 50,000 standard and technical magazines. 
Approximately 5,000 new books are added each 
year, and the total book collection is valued at about 
$60,000. The library also has a listening collection 
of 675 fine records, 500 books in Braille, and a pup- 
pet stage and a large collection of puppets repre- 
senting characters from literature. Throughout the 
city and county 37,848 persons are registered as 
borrowers. 

Service is also given to schools throughout the 
county, 585 classroom collections having been bor- 
rowed by the rural schools alone during the past 
year. Fourth and fifth grade classes from the city 
schools make scheduled visits to receive instruction 
in the use of the library. Books are supplied to play- 
grounds, to the Girl Scout camps, the Y. W. C. A. 
camp, to York Collegiate Institute, and many neigh- 
borhood groups and libraries. Bedside book service 
is provided twice a week to the patients and staff at 
the York Hospital. 

The staff of thirteen members, under the supervis- 
ion of Katharine Shorey, head librarian, who has 
been with the Martin Library since it opened, gives 
friendly and intelligent service to the library's many 
patrons. 

LAW LIBRARY 

The Law Library, located on the third floor of the 
Courthouse, was created by a special act of the leg- 
islature April 5, 1867, and April 11, 1868. The library 
is administered by a full-time librarian and by the 
Law Library Committee consisting of three judges 
and four members of the bar headed by Judge 
Harvey A. Gross, chairman. Judge Nevin Wanner, 
after his retirement from the bench, devoted the last 
ten years of his life to building up the book collec- 
tion. The library now includes all important law texts 
and reference works, reports of all the States, and 
the English reports. It is financed by the income from 
certain fines and penalties. 

LEWIS MILLER AND HIS "CHRONICLES 
OF YORK, PENNSYLVANIA" 

Lewis or "Louie" Miller (1796-1882) left to this city 
a unique and precious heritage in his "Chronicles 
of York, Pennsylvana," and a number of other sketch 
books, depicting life here between the years of 1790 
and 1870. 

Lewis Miller, a bachelor carpenter, with an insa- 
tiable passion for observing and sketching his fellow 
men, lived for many years on South Duke Street. 
These observations were recorded in India ink and 
water color in a style similar to that of a modern 
comic strip. Ordinary lined notebooks, backs of en- 
velopes and stray pieces of paper were rendered 




Marfin Memorial Library. 



priceless by his genius. The text accompanying these 
sketches is in a quaint mixture of English, German 
and even Latin, for the artist-carpenter was well 
educated. 

His father, John Ludwig Miller, after having re- 
ceived a classical education in his native city of 
Nuremberg, migrated with his family first to Phila- 
delphia and then between 1784 and 1787 to York. 
Here Lewis, their tenth and youngest child, was born 
and educated in the German Lutheran Parochial 
School taught by his father in the log building to 
the rear of the church. 

Upon completion of his schooling, "Louie" was ap- 
prenticed to his brother, John, to learn the "art and 
mystery" of housecarpenter. So well did he learn his 
trade that during the forty years that he worked in 
York he helped with the erection of practically every 
principal public and private building. 

But he still found time to "take-off" his friends and 
neighbors in no less than 800 closely-written pages 
and 1,500 drawings. What he lacked in anatomy and 
perspective, he made up in vigor and detail. 

In group pictures he numbered each person and 
identified him by name. Many ancestors of present 
Yorkers can be seen as they were in every-day life. 



If he portrays a family at table he specifies whether 
they were dining on noodle soup, potpie, or pretzels, 
gingerbread and small beer. He was always careful 
to note dates and places and thus made a valuable 
contribution to local history. 

No incident was too overwhelming or too trivial 
to be recorded by Lewis Miller's pen and brush. In 
1812, he depicted the 6,000 men encamped upon the 
Common; in 1825, Lafayette's visit to York; and in 
1863, the Confederates taking down the flag in the 
Square. He thriftily filled in the space around the 
edges of the pages, with such incidents as a dog 
stealing sausages out of a frying pan, the High Con- 
stable chasing some boys who had put a wagon on 
top of the market house, or two women in a hair- 
pulling match. "Caps did fly," "Louie" notes under 
this one. 

That Miller had a sense of humor is proven by 
his accounts of practical jokes and witticisms that 
passed among his friends, and also by his many 
humorous drawings. One of them shows a mounted 
deer's head on the wall looking askance at a pair 
of buckskin breeches in the hands of a tailor. 

Lewis Miller also enjoyed the grotesque. Public 
hangings, body-snatchings and violent deaths of all 



kinds are depicted with gusto. He kept careful lists 
of those who drowned in the Codorus or the gutter, 
and even those who were "too fond of liquor" on 
South Beaver Street. 

He sketched in great detail craftsmen at work sur- 
rounded by their tools. He drew the brickmaker, the 
ropemaker, the mason, the brewer, the cook, the 
tailor, the stocking weaver, and many others. He also 
portrayed, individually, no less than three hundred 
of the leading men of York, among them James Smith 
and Phineas Davis. 

He shows many by-gone places and customs of 
York, the covered bridges, the toll-gates across the 
roads, the Fair held in the Square, the religious camp 
meetings, and housewives gathering at the brewery 
to obtain yeast for their weekly baking. 

Because of their wealth of detail on the life of the 
time, many historians have visited York to study the 
Lewis Miller books. Specimen pages have been re- 
produced in a number of general works on American 
history, but never before in a book on York. 

Manuscripts by Lewis Miller are owned by George 
Hay Kain and by the Historical Society of York 
County. Because of their fragility they are not ac- 
cessible to the public, but colored slides are being 
made to bring the Chronicles to everyone. Charles 
Scribner and Son are contemplating the publication 
of the Lewis Miller books in full color as soon as 
conditions permit. 

In company with two other Yorkers, in 1840, Lewis 
Miller visited Europe and traveled through Germany, 
Switzerland, Austria, France and Italy, on foot, set- 
ting down all he saw. On his return in 1841, he re- 
sumed his work as carpenter and his recording of 
life in York. Later, he visited Virginia, faithfully de- 
picting everything. In 1851, he undertook an ambi- 
tious pictorial history of wars since the beginning 




"Befter that dogs should come to church than that the church 

should go to the dogs," said Reverend Jacob Goering. Drawing 

by Lewis Miller. 



of history, but his gossipy, intimate local Chronicles 
will always be the Lewis Miller book most treasured 
by Yorkers. 

His last years were spent in Rockingham County, 
Virginia, where he died in 1882. 

SOME OF YORK'S ARTISTS 

HORACE BONHAM (1835-1892) was born in West 
Manchester Township, York County, and educated 
as a lawyer. After practicing law for ten years and 
editing the York Republican and York Recorder, he 
went abroad to study painting in Munich. He re- 
turned to York and devoted himself to art. His work 
was exhibited in Boston and Philadelphia and ex- 
cited much favorable comment. His "Nearing the 
Issue," a painting showing a group of men witness- 
ing a cock fight, hangs in the Corcoran Gallery in 
Washington, D. C. 

A. A. BOSSHART (1880-....), landscape and por- 
trait artist, and photographer, was born in Zurich, 
Switzerland, and came to York County with his par- 
ents in 1883. He studied art at the Maryland Insti- 
tute in Baltimore, at the Pennsylvania Academy of 
Fine Arts, and later under Robert Henri in New York 
City. He worked in stained glass for eleven years 
with J. Horace Rudy. For forty years he has been 
the instructor and critic of the York Art Club, of 
which he is a charter member. 

His paintings of Robert Morris, James Smith, Bishop 
White and the York Rifleman hang in the Historical 
Society of York County; his portrait of Judge Bittinger 
in the York County Court Room, No. 1; and one of 
George Rudy, Senior, in the Directors' Room of the 
York Telephone and Telegraph Company. During 
1945 his portrait of An Old Man and his landscape, 
The Old Mill, were shown in the Pennsylvania Acad- 
emy Exhibition. 

STEPHEN ETNIER (1903-. . . .), born in York, is the 
son of Mr. and Mrs. Carey E. Etnier. He was a stu- 
dent at Yale, class of 1926, and studied for four years 
at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in Phila- 
delphia, and later with Rockwell Kent and John Car- 
roll. His home is on Gilbert Head, an island at the 
mouth of the Kennebec. 

Mr. Etnier has served for the past three years as 
a Lieutenant in the U. S. N. R., in command of con- 
voy escort vessels, and has only recently been re- 
leased to inactive duty. He is represented in the 
collections of the Metropolitan Museum; Boston Mu- 
seum; Phillips Memorial, Hartford, Connecticut; The 
Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, Philadelphia; 
Vassar College; New Britain Museum, New Britain, 
Connecticut; as well as in many private collections. 

J. HORACE RUDY (1870-1940). Many of York's 
churches and public buildings owe their beautiful 
stained glass windows to the genius of J. Horace 
Rudy (1870-1940), designer and master craftsman. 
He attended the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts 
and later worked as a wood carver and engraver in 
the Godwin Glass Works in Philadelphia. 

Rudy Brothers' Stained and Leaded Glass Com- 
pany was located in York from 1906-1930. During its 
fifty years of existence in Pittsburgh and York, this 
firm produced more stained glass than any other 
company in the country. Windows were made for 
hospitals, 500 churches, numerous schools, colleges, 
and private homes in the Southeast and Middle 
Western States. 



Some of Mr. Rudy's finest works are in York. He 
executed the aitar window in the Moravian Church; 
the windows done in European style in the Sunday 
School and Chapel of the First Methodist Church; 
windows in the Christ Lutheran Church; the Trinity 
Lutheran, Zion Reformed and St. Matthew's Chapel; 
St. Mark's; St. Paul's; Church of God; United Breth- 
ren Church and Beth Israel; three windows at the 
rear of the First Presbyterian Church; and the his- 
torical windows in the Directors' Room of the First 
National Bank, and others. He designed the seal of 
the York Collegiate Institute, the seal of the City of 
York, and was one of the founders of the York Art 
Club. 

Mr. Rudy was known widely outside of York. He 
did the windows in the H. J. Heinz residence, office 
building, community building, theatre, museum, and 
mausoleum in Pittsburgh. At Hershey he did the 
windows in the residence, bank, community build- 
ing, hotel, and theatre. He also designed and made 
the windows for the Francis Scott Key Mausoleum 
in Frederick, Maryland. Besides being a great cre- 
ative artist and a master of color effects in stained 
glass, Mr. Rudy was a natural teacher and a num- 
ber of men who started with him are now widely 
recognized as masters of the craft. Among these are 
George Softer, glass designer and landscape painter; 
Charles J. Connick, who designed many of the win- 
dows at the Cathedral of St. John the Divine, in New 
York City; and Lawrence B. Saint, who has made 
thirteen windows for the National Cathedral in 
Washington, D. C. 

The Rudy Glass Company, 631 West Market Street, 
and Meldrum and Landis, at 256 West Philadelphia 
Street, whose designers were trained by J. Horace 
Rudy, carry on the tradition of stained-glass work 
in York today. 

CHARLES RUDY (1904- ), sculptor, received his 

first art training in the stained glass shop of his 
father, J. Horace Rudy, in York, and in the York Art 
Club. He later studied at the Pennsylvania Academy 
of Fine Arts. He twice won the Cresson Award which 
entitled him to two summers of travel in Europe and 
was also awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship. He 
taught at Cooper Union, and his figure, Noah, won 
a competition in sculpture for the Bronx, New York, 
Post-Office. Some of his work was also featured at 
the World's Fair. He is rapidly gaining recognition 
as one of the country's leading sculptors. Recently, 
Life magazine devoted several pages to a number 
of his small figures in welded metal. 

B. HAY GILBERT has done many religious paintings. 
His painting of Count Pulaski hangs in the Histor- 
ical Society of York County. He also illustrated 
Archibald Hamilton Rutledge's poems. It Will Be 
Daybreak Soon, published by the Fleming Revell 
Company of New York in 1938. 

HOWARD COLEMAN IMHOFF, advertising design and 
illustration, who studied at the Chicago Academy of 
Fine Arts and the Carnegie Institute of Technology, 
was formerly head of the Department of Advertising 
Art in the Newark School of Fine and Industrial Arts 
and art director for New York advertising agencies 
and department stores. His work has appeared in 
top-ranking magazines here and abroad and has 
been recognized by the American Institute of 
Graphic Arts and other organizations. 



MARGARET SARAH LEWIS (See also Revival of the 
Pennsylvania Dutch Arts.) 

MRS. GEORGE RUBY, who studied at the Pennsyl- 
vania Academy of Fine Arts with Daniel Garber, 
does charming pastel portraits and landscapes in 
water color. 

BETTY SMYSER (Mrs. F. M. Hessemer) for two years 
conducted a column called "We See" for the Gazette 
and Daily, devoted to sketches of local subjects. At 
the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts she won the 
Cresson Traveling Scholarship in illustration. She 
illustrates many school text-books and also chil- 
dren's stories for church publishing-houses. 

SAMUEL ENDREDI STETTINIUS (1768-18. .), publisher 
and water color artist, painted quaint portraits of 
Yorkers during the early 1800's. 

ETHEL STUM (See Art Classes.) 

WALTER C. TROUT has made a series of interesting 
water color paintings of historic buildings and sites 
in York. 

WILLIAM WAGNER (1800-1869), engraver, designed 
more than fifty seals of states, cities, and towns. Be- 
fore 1830, he made many sketches and engravings 
of York's streets, thus leaving a valuable record 
for posterity. Through the generosity of his grand- 
daughter, Margaretta Wagner, thirty-two of these 
views were reproduced for the first time by the Con- 
servation Society of York County in the Memorial 
Souvenir, published in 1927. 

A York County landmark, "The Old Mundis Mill," 
was the subject of MRS. LETHA CHURCHILL-WALKER'S 
etching which has been displayed in both the Phila- 
delphia Academy and the Library of Congress. Mrs. 
Walker has also done much other work of recog- 
nized merit. 

SOME OF YORK'S AUTHORS 

Yorkers write and talk well about their work and 
their hobbies, and many contribute to technical and 
hobby magazines, and are frequently called upon 
to address groups with similar interests. 

The list which follows includes a number whose 
works are of general interest. 

LEE ANDERSON'S poem, Prevailing Winds, illus- 
trated by Arnold Blonde, and published in a limited 
edition by William E. Rudge's Sons, required seven 
years of work. It has been reprinted in the current 
Modern Library edition of Twentieth Century Amer- 
ican Verse, edited by Conrad Aiken. 

RACHEL BAHN'S Poems, published in York in 1869, 
are one of the few examples of literature in Penn- 
sylvania Dutch. 

CHAUNCEY F. BLACK wrote Two Greaf Careers, the 
Lives ol Graver Cleveland and Thomas S. Hendricks, 
published in Harrisburg by Pennsylvania Publica- 
tions in 1884. 

LYDIA CAPLAN has published several educational 
and religious plays and contributes feature stories 
to magazines and newspapers. 

CAROLINE DYER, in private life Mrs. Charles Rudy, 
is a newcomer in the field of children's books. Her 
A Tale of Two Houses, a picture-book for small chil- 
dren, was published in 1944. 

HENRY L. FISHER'S 'S Alt Marik-Haus Mittes in D'r 
Schtadt un die Alte Zeite, written in Pennsylvania 
Dutch, was published in York in 1879. 

ANNA DILL GAMBLE, historian, wrote An Introduc- 
tion to Mexico, published in Washington, D. C., in 



1936, and of particular interest to Yorkers, Colonel 
James Smith and the Coughnawaga Indians, Phila- 
delphia, 1938. She also contributes to various his- 
torical periodicals. 

LAMBERT GREENAWALT is the author of Pennsyl- 
vania History, School Press Management and Style, 
and other texts on journalism all published by the 
McGraw Hill Company, New York. He also contrib- 
utes to many magazines. 

T. EVERETT HARRE (1884-. . . . ) has recently sold to 
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer the motion-picture rights to 
his novel. The Heavenly Sinner The Romance of 
Lola Montez. His One Hour and Forever, a best seller 
in 1925, was set in York County. Mr. Harre first pub- 
lished the account of Admiral Peary's The Discovery 
oi the North Pole, and also the story of Dr. Frederick 
A. Cooke, a rival claimant. Among his other works 
are Behold the Woman, also a best seller; The Eter- 
nal Maiden; and two anthologies. Beware After Dark 
and The Bedside Treasury of Love. 

ALICE CROWELL HOFFMAN (Mrs. John C.), who also 
uses the pen names of Caroline Crane and Hortense 
Horton, writes inspirational articles, juvenile stories 
and verse, much which has been reprinted in school 
readers and anthologies. A number of her poems 
have been selected by Ted Malone for "Between 
the Book Ends," and much of her work has been 
syndicated. 

EMMA JOHNSON (1880-1944) was for fifteen years 
a teacher in the York public schools and at the time 
of her death was professor of Elementary Education 
at Temple University. She was co-author with Helen 
C. Goodspeed of the Care and Guidance of Children, 
published in Philadelphia by Lippincott's in 1938. 
This book is widely used as a text in high schools 
and more than 3,000 copies were distributed in war- 
torn countries where child-care centers were being 
established. Her Programs and Equipment for Child- 
Care Centers was published and used by the Bu- 
reau of Child Care, State Council of Defense of 
Pennsylvania. 

WALTER KLINEFELTER'S book, The Fortsas Biblio- 
hoax, printed in a private edition for the Carteret 
Book Club of Newark, New Jersey, by the press of 
the Wooly Whale, was chosen as one of the fifty 
most beautiful books of 1943 by the American Insti- 
tute of Graphic Arts. His other works include Maps 
in Miniafure; Notes Critical and Historical on Their 
Use on Postage Stamps; Illustrations in Miniature; 
Postal Designs from Books and Manuscripts, and 
several bibliographies of Christmas books. 

THEODORE KRAFT is author of The Future of fhe 
British Commonwealth of Nations, published by the 
American Council on Public Affairs, Washington, 
1940, and contributes articles on political science to 
the Christian Science Monifor, the American Political 
Science Review, and other periodicals. 

PEGGY LONDON, who, while on the staff of the Writ- 
ers' Syndicate of America wrote the History of Neon 
Lighting and much other varied work, has also sup- 
plied radio continuities for such well-known serials 
as Helen Trent and Backstage Wife. Since moving to 
York, she has written Gertie Goes Plain,- about a 
Brooklyn girl who finds herself among the "plain 
people." Another play, Youth and Consequences, 
will be published soon by Samuel French and Co. 

JOHN LUTHER LONG (1867-1927), born in Hanover, 
wrote Madame Butterfly which first appeared as a 



short story in Cenfury Magazine in 1898; was pro- 
duced by David Belasco in 1900; was made into 
an opera by Puccini, and first given at the Metro- 
politan Opera House in New York City, November 
12, 1906. 

GUY McCoNNELL, writer of magazine articles, short 
stories and movies, attracted nation-wide attention 
in 1904 with his article published in World's Work, 
"What Has Followed the Coal Strike?" This was used 
in connection with the formation of the Anthracite 
Coal Strike Commission. He also wrote the first story 
of labor, "The Great Labor Unions and Their Lead- 
ers." Prior to the outbreak of World War I, Mr. Mc- 
Connell won a prize of $15,000 for his movie script, 
"Pearl of the Army." This movie, starring Pearl 
White, was shown to 34,000,000 movie goers and the 
story was translated into eight languages. He wrote 
the script for the first technicolor film entitled Putting 
the Flag to Bed, and the first educational short, and 
scripts for many other movies and serials, as well. 
Concerning the Pennsylvania Germans, he has writ- 
ten "The Peace People of Pennsylvania," and "As It 
Was in the Beginning." 

A first novel, God Bless Our Aunts, written by 
RACHEL (Greenawalt) MEISENHELDER, has been ac- 
cepted for fall 1945 publication by Whittesly House, 
New York City. The story is set in York and con- 
cerns an Irish and a German family who are 
intermarried. Mrs. Meisenhelder is a graduate of 
William Penn Senior High School and Swarthmore 
College and worked on the York Gazette and Daily 
and her college paper. Her book reviews appear 
frequently in the New York Herald-Tribune. 

HELEN L. MILLER contributes monthly to Plays mag- 
azine and is co-author with BEULAH M. BRADLEY of a 
number of juvenile plays published by the Circle 
Book Company. She is co-author with Olive I. Carter 
and Henry Seidel Canby of the High School English 
Series. 

BETTY PECKHAM (Mrs. Howard Coleman Imhoff) 
is the author of Sky Hostess, Other People's Children 
and Women in Aviation, published by Thomas Nel- 
son and Sons, New York. She also contributes to 
young people's magazines. 

GEORGE S. SCHMIDT was the author of the two 
books of poems, Vagrant Verses, 1926, and Random 
Rhymes, 1928. 

ELIZABETH HOUGH SECHRIST (1903-....) through 
education and experience understands the problems 
of teachers and librarians and has written and com- 
piled a number of books helpful to them. Who's Who 
in America for 1945 lists her works as follows: Christ- 
mas Everywhere; A Little Book of Hallowe'en; Ru/ie 
Has a Monkey; Red Letter Days; Thirteen Ghostly 
Yarns; Pirates and Pigeons; and Merry Meet Again. 
She also contributes to magazines. 

EDWARD W. SPANGLER was the author of The Annals 
of the Families oi Caspar, Henry, Baltzer and George 
Spengler, York, 1896, and My Little War Experience, 
York Daily, 1904. 

KATHERINE HAVILAND TAYLOR (1891-1941) wrote 
more than twenty books of light fiction of which at 
least two, Yellow Soap and The Nine-Hundred Block, 
were set in York. One of her many short stories, The 
Failure, was made into the movie in 1933 entitled 
One Man's Journey, starring Lionel Barrymore and 
May Robson. It was produced again in 1938 as A 



Man to Remember and was again an immediate 
success. 

H. C. ULMER has recently published a pamphlet 
on the Seneca Indians, Their Home Lite and Culture. 

PRINTING 

Among the pioneer printers and publishers of 
York, Pennsylvania, from 1777 to 1820, were Richard 
Abbot, Matthias Bartgis, Andrew Billmeyer, John 
Dunlap, James Edie, John Evans, William Gemmil, 
David Hall, William Hall, William C. Harris, Daniel 
Heckert, Adam King, Eli Lewis, James Lewis, Robert 
McClellan, Daniel Mallo, Salomon Mayer, Charles T. 
Melsheimer, Thomas Roberts, William Sellers, Dan- 
iel Updegraff, James B. Webb, and Henry Willcocks. 

Howard N. King, typographic designer of the 
Maple Press, York, Pennsylvania, has designed such 
outstanding books as The Country Lawyer, chosen 
as one of the Fifty Books of the Year by the Amer- 
ican Society of Graphic Arts; The Dickens Digest, 
chosen as a book-dividend by the Book-of-the-Month 
Club; Effective Advertising; Graphic Design; The 
Arts and Man; and many others. 



AMERICA'S FIRST ENTOMOLOGIST 

Frederick Valentine Melsheimer (1741-1814), of 
Hanover, is called "The Father of American Ento- 
mology." In 1806, he published "The Insects of Penn- 
sylvania." After his death his collection of insects 
was sold to the scientist, Agassiz, who presented 
them to the Museum of Harvard University. 



DISCOVERY OF THE USE OF OXYGEN 
IN THE TREATMENT OF PNEUMONIA 

"I didn't do it as a scientific experiment. I did it 
to help my patient," says Doctor George E. Holtz- 
apple, in telling about his discovery of the use of 
oxygen in the treatment of pneumonia, March 6, 1885. 

George E. Holtzapple was born in West Manches- 
ter Township in 1862; attended York County Acad- 
emy and York Collegiate Institute. Then, for two 
years, he read medicine in the office of Dr. G. P. 
Yost, of Loganville, Pennsylvania. On borrowed 
money, he entered Bellevue Hospital Medical Col- 
lege in New York City. While there, desiring to take 




Young Doctor George . Holtzapple administers oxygen tor the first time to relieve the suffer- 
ings of a pneumonia patient, March 6, 1885. His observation of its beneficial effects led to the 
development oi the modern oxygen tent. 



41 



a course in chemistry which was then classed as an 
elective, he wrote to his father who sent him the 
ten-dollar fee for the course. 

After his graduation in March, 1884, he began the 
practice of medicine in Logan ville. On March 6, 1885, 
he was called to a farmhouse to attend Frederick 
Gable, then sixteen, who had been ill six days with 
pneumonia. 

"Give me breath! Give me breath," the young 
man appealed to the doctor, his face turning blue 
as he struggled for air. 

Oxygen! That was the vital element in the air 
which the boy must have if he were to survive. As- 
suring the tearful family that he would be back, the 
young doctor hurried out to his buggy, whipped up 
his horse and sped back to town. 

There he obtained the materials for making oxy- 
gen: chlorate of potash and black oxide of manga- 
nese, large test tubes, corks, rubber tubing, and a 
spirit lamp. 

When Doctor Holtzapple again reached the bed- 
side his patient was still gasping for breath. The 
doctor knew if the young man's distress were not 
soon relieved, his overburdened heart would cease 
functioning and that would be the end. 

Carefully, the young doctor mixed the explosive 
chemicals, meanwhile giving rapid directions to the 
members of the family to fetch a bucket of water 
and place it near the patient's head. Curious friends 
and neighbors crowded into the room, anticipating 
the young man's death. The doctor rigged up the 
apparatus and heated the chemicals over the spirit 
lamp. As the oxygen traveled up the tube into the 
bucket of water and bubbled to the surface, one of 
the men present fanned it into the patient's face. 
Within twenty minutes his breathing was noticeably 
easier. Doctor Holtzapple remained with him from 
ten in the morning until late that night administering 
oxygen every few hours, and the young man made 
an excellent recovery. 

An account of his discovery, written by Doctor 
Holtzapple, appeared in the New York Medical Jour- 
nal for September 3, 1887. And by 1890, the use of 
oxygen in the treatment of pneumonia began to be 
generally adopted. Gradually the present elaborate 



equipment for the administration of oxygen was 
developed. 

Both the American Medical Association and the 
American Therapeutic Society have recognized Doc- 
tor George E. Holtzapple as the discoverer of oxy- 
gen therapy. This is substantiated by records in the 
Surgeon General's office in Washington, D. C., and 
the story has also been dramatized over the radio. 
In 1925, he was awarded an honorary Doctor of Sci- 
ence degree by Susquehanna University. 

In 1896, Doctor Holtzapple moved to York and es- 
tablished an office at 203 South George Street which 
he has maintained ever since. He has also served 
on staff of the York Hospital for more than fifty years 
as advisor, teacher and physician. 

A portrait of Doctor Holtzapple painted by Nancy 
M. King, a York artist, hangs in the building of The 
Historical Society of York County. 



THE UNIVERSITY CLUB OF YORK, 
PENNSYLVANIA 

The University Club of York, Pennsylvania, char- 
tered May 4, 1931, has a membership of 180 men, 
graduates of various colleges and professional 
schools throughout the United States, Canada and 
Europe. The club provides a congenial setting in 
which to maintain college friendships and to form 
new ones. It aids and encourages local students to 
pursue higher education through a scholarship fund. 
A well-organized vocational guidance program pro- 
vides an annual Guidance Conference to aid boys 
and girls in choosing a life work during their last 
two years of high school. Representatives of many 
skills and professions act as expert counsellors. Sum- 
mer experience work for young people has also been 
provided in the past and may be revived again. 

A yearly program is carried out, featuring speak- 
ers familiar with latest developments in industry 
and the professions, as well as purely social func- 
tions, such as smokers, bridge tournaments and 
dances. Club rooms for social affairs and confer- 
ences are centrally located in the Niles Building at 
124 East Market Street. 



CIVIC AND PUBLIC 
INSTITUTIONS OF 








CH.EMMI lKC*i 



James Smith arrived from Philadelphia with the Declaration oi Independence, July 8, 1776. 

While the town crier started out to spread the news, Archibald McLean prepared to hang 

York's Liberty Bell in the steeple of (he Colonial Courthouse. 



Civic and Public Institutions 



YORK'S GEOGRAPHY 

York is 50 miles from Baltimore, 25 miles from 
Harrisburg, 90 miles from Philadelphia, 90 miles from 
Washington, 196 miles from New York City, and 200 
miles from Pittsburgh. 

It is, therefore, the center of one of the most 
densely populated sections of the United States. York 
is within a night's ride of 20,000,000 people. This is 
an important factor in the distribution of manufac- 
tured products. 

York averages 400 feet above sea level. 

The average winter temperature is 34. 

The average summer temperature is 76. 

The annual rainfall is about 38 2 inches. 

The city proper had 56,712 people according to 
the 1940 census. Greater York, which includes the 
adjacent built-up sections, has a population of 83,- 
000, while the figure is 92,000 for the metropolitan 
area. While 35 nationalities are represented among 
York's foreign-born citizens, they number only 998 
or 1.8% of the population. 

The area of the City of York proper is 4.136 square 
miles. 



YORK INCORPORATED AS A BOROUGH, 1787 
In 1787, the town of York, with a population of 
2,000, was incorporated as a borough. 

HENRY MILLER, YORK'S FIRST 
CHIEF BURGESS 

Henry Miller (1751-1824), who, in 1787, was 
chosen first chief burgess, was born in Millersville, 
Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, and was educated 
as a lawyer. Under Washington, he served in more 
than a dozen important battles of the Revolution, in- 
cluding Princeton, Trenton, Brandywine, German- 
town, and Monmouth. He wintered at Valley Forge 
and was present at the surrender of Cornwallis in 
Yorktown, Virginia. 

In 1780, Colonel Miller was elected sheriff of York 
County; he represented York County in the State 
Legislature from 1783-85, was prothonotary and one 
of the court justices for the county in 1785. When 
the War of 1812 began, he again offered his services 
to the government and with the rank of brigadier- 
general was put in charge of the defense of Fort 
McHenry and was present at the bombardment dur- 




The City Hall. 



44 



ing which Francis Scott Key composed the "Star- 
Spangled Banner." General Miller, after a life of 
public service, died at Carlisle in 1824. 

YORK INCORPORATED AS A CITY, 1887 

Approximately a hundred years after its incorpo- 
ration, having attained a population of 20,000, York 
became a city, September 24, 1887. 

DANIEL K. NOELL, YORK'S FIRST MAYOR 

A native of York, Daniel K. Noell (1820-1898), 
taught school for twelve years, and then became 
superintendent of schools for Cumberland County. 
He was elected first Mayor of York, in 1887, and 
was re-elected twice and served six years in all. He 
was intensely interested in education, always took 
part in the York County Teachers' Institute, and 
served as a member of the York School Board for 
twenty-five years. Noell School, located at 228 East 
College Avenue, was named in his honor. 

CITY HALL 

Construction on the new City Hall was begun in 
1941 in commemoration of York's two hundredth an- 
niversary. The building of Colonial brick with white 
Georgian marble trim and slate roof, designed by 
Robert A. Stair and F. G. Dempwolf of York, was 
erected at a cost of $225,000, and dedicated May 30, 
1942. The lobby is a replica of that in Independence 
Hall, Philadelphia, and the cupola is designed to re- 
call the one on the Colonial Courthouse. The interior 
woodwork, lighting fixtures and furnishings are also 
carried out in the Colonial spirit. 

The three branches of city government, adminis- 
trative, financial and law-enforcing, are accommo- 
dated in the three wings of a T-shaped floor plan. 
In the west end is located the mayor's office, the 
mayor's clerk's office, the office of the mayor's secre- 
tary, and the city clerk's public and private offices. 
At the rear of the building in the financial wing are 
the tax collection office, the assessor's office and the 
private office of the city treasurer. The eastern end 
of the building houses the police department, with 
a sergeant's room, private offices for the chief of po- 




The lobby of (he City Hall is a replica ot that in Independence 
Hall, Philadelphia. 



lice and city detective, radio room, police court and 
cells for fifteen male and six female prisoners. In 
the basement are police lockers, showers, recreation 
room and a six-car garage. The driveway permits 
an ambulance or police car to be driven completely 
around the City Hall. 

On the second floor are the offices of the con- 
troller, the four private offices of the city councilmen 
and the council chamber. Offices are also provided 
for the fire chief, the city plumbing inspector, milk 
inspector, inspector of weights and measures, and 
the director of public recreation. The office of the city 
engineer is connected with a large drafting-room. 
Fireproof vaults are provided throughout the build- 
ing for the storage of money and important records. 

The City Hall is heated by city steam, and has a 
complete intramural telephone system. 

CITY GOVERNMENT 

York is governed by a mayor and four councilmen. 
All are elected for four-year terms, two councilmen 
being elected every second year. Council meetings 
are held weekly. Each councilman is responsible for 
a definite division of the city government. 

The Director of Accounts and Finance is in charge 
of the city's financial records and oversees the work 
of the City Assessor and the City Clerk. 

Under the jurisdiction of the Commissioner of Pub- 
lic Safety are the Fire Department, the Electrical 
Department, Health Department, milk and meat in- 
spection, the sanitary sewers and the Sewage Dis- 
posal Plant. 

The Commissioner of Streets and Public Improve- 
ments is responsible for the Street Cleaning Depart- 
ment, street repairs, city engineering projects, storm 
water sewers, and garbage collection. 

The Commissioner of Parks and Public Property is 
in charge of the city parks and public buildings in- 
cluding the City Hall, the fire-engine houses and the 
Comfort Station. Under this department is also the 
city ambulance service. 

The Cify Treasurer and Cify Controller are also 
elected for four-year terms. 

The City Treasurer collects and keeps all money 
for the city such as taxes, licenses, etc. He pays out 
all money for the city. 

The Cify Controller must approve all bills before 
they may be paid. 

York is divided into 15 wards and has a total of 
250 city employees. 

York as a city has always been financially sound. 
The tax rate is 12V4 mills, and there are no addi- 
tional assessments for special services. This flat rate 
covers organic and inorganic garbage collection, 
sewage, street cleaning, fire and police protection. 
The city's present low indebtedness of $1,000,000 
represents less than 2% of its assessed property 
valuation. Property is assessed at approximately 
50% of its actual value, and while York's total real 
estate assessment has gone up during the past few 
years, this has been due to an increase in building 
and not to an increase in valuation of specific 
properties. 

The city has always met its financial obligations 
promptly. Bond issues are retired in approximately 
8'/2 years. There has never been any necessity for 
borrowing money on short-term loans for the opera- 
tion of government. This financial stability is largely 



due to the fact that York is not a one-corporation 
city. It ranks third among Pennsylvania's cities in 
diversification of industries, and no one corporation 
or partnership is responsible for more than \% of 
the city's taxes. 

YORK CITY FIRE DEPARTMENT 

York is the largest city in the country still having 
a volunteer fire department but its low insurance 
rate testifies to the efficiency of that department. 
Because of its excellent work in fire prevention, York 
has also received national recognition during Fire 
Prevention Week. 

York's volunteer fire department dates back to 
pre-Revolutionary days. In 1772, the Sun Fire Com- 
pany of York Town was organized "for better pre- 
serving our own and fellow townsmen's houses, 
goods and effects from fire," since the open fireplaces 
and log construction of many of the houses of those 
days presented a real fire hazard. Each member 
supplied at his own expense, "one leather bucket, 
one bag and one convenient basket." Property was 



carried from the burning building in the bags and 
baskets placed at a safe distance and guarded by 
one of the firemen. The leather buckets (which were 
made by a local shoemaker) were filled with water 
and passed rapidly from hand to hand by men, 
women, and children. 

As the city grew, additional companies were or- 
ganized. There is some dispute as to whether Laurel 
or Vigilant is the successor to the original Sun Fire 
Company, but the dates are usually agreed upon as 
follows: Vigilant, No. 1, 1780; Laurel, No. 1, 1790; 
Goodwill, No. 5, 1839; Union, No. 3, 1855; Rescue, 
No. 4, 1872; Rex Hook and Ladder, No. 1, 1886; Royal, 
No. 6, 1901; Eagle, No. 7, 1904; and Lincoln, 1942. 

The city owns the nine firehouses and twenty-three 
pieces of apparatus belonging to the department, 
but boots, gum coats, and uniforms are purchased 
and maintained by each company. Approximately 
5,000 men in York belong to Volunteer Fire Depart- 
ments. More than 100 alarms connected by an inde- 
pendent battery system with the firehouse, chief's 
office, and police department are installed in homes, 
shops and plants where there are key men. 







-tiOMt C51EMAH 



The romance oi the horse-drawn steam fire engine. When the alarm went off, the stall doors 

slid open and the horses dashed to their places in front ot the fire engine. The harness dropped 

down upon their backs, and they were off in a cloud of dust. 



46 



When an alarm is received, firemen are automat- 
ically excused from work and are paid at the usual 
rate during their absence. However, not more than 
six or eight hours are lost annually by each man. 

Contributory members do not engage in actual 
fire fighting but pay an honorary membership fee of 
from one to five dollars yearly, which goes to main- 
tenance of the department. 

The Fire Department is organized under Fire 
Chief Ellis Wagner, who has completed the ad- 
vanced course in fire fighting given by the Interna- 
tional Association of Fire Chiefs, and also the course 
in fighting chemical fires given at the Edgewood 
Arsenal. There are two assistant chiefs; each com- 
pany has its own foreman and assistant foremen, 
chief operator, assistant operator, chief pipeman, as- 
sistant pipemen, chief hose director, assistant hose 
directors, chief chemical man and assistant chemical 
men. There are forty paid fire drivers for the city, 
and from six to ten men sleep at each firehouse 
nightly. A number of young single men are allowed 
to make the firehouses their home in exchange for 
this service. 

In the firehouses are housed the engines and also 
many interesting relics of earlier days. There are 
Currier and Ives prints of old horse-drawn engines, 
fire trumpets, old leather buckets, loving cups and 
steins, badges, and other trophies given by visiting 
fire companies or won in parades and competitions. 
York has been host to the State Firemen's Conven- 
tion every twenty years. There has always been 
local and state-wide rivalry among fire companies. 
In 1850, at Lancaster, the Laurel Company, pulling 
its hand-pumped engine, "Big Six," was voted the 
"dandy" company in line. Each fireman wore a 
black hat, red shirt and belt, black pantaloons, and 
carried a black coat over his arm. 

In the early 1900's, the "visiting fireman" was in 
his heyday. York companies visited France, Ger- 
many, Canada, and Cuba, and such distant cities as 
Miami and New Orleans. They were entertained 
there by local fire companies. These trips were fi- 
nanced by the proceeds of block parties, picnics, 
outings, cakewalks, and oyster suppers. 

York's fire equipment has progressed from leather 
bucket, to hand-pumped engine, to horse-drawn 
steam engine, and on to modern fire trucks, chem- 
ical, and hook-and-ladder units. Gone are the days 
when the chief sped to the scene of the fire in his 
rubber-tired buggy. 

Some of the romance of fire fighting went out with 
the horse-drawn steam engine. Old Mack of Rescue 
was, for twenty-five years, a fire horse. In spite of 
his exciting life, he lived to be more than thirty-two 
years of age. When the alarm went off, the stall 
gates slid open automatically. With a whinny to 
his mate, Old Mack leaped to his place in front of 
the hose cart. The firemen whizzed down the brass 
pole, snapped the harness into place, sprang to 
the driver's seat and Old Mack was off in a cloud 
of dust. Once in a dash through one of York's alleys, 
Old Mack had his hair singed off on both sides, but 
he was nursed back to health by the company and 
returned to duty. A monument marks his grave in 
Baumgartner's Woods. 

Many famous men of York have been associated 
with its volunteer fire departments. Henry Miller, first 
chief burgess, was first president of Laurel; Phineas 



Davis was a member of Vigilant; and Jonathan Jes- 
sop used to overhaul Vigilant's engine, periodically. 
A figure of a Rescue fireman in full uniform stands 
in Penn Park, and a statue of a Laurel fireman in 
Prospect Hill Cemetery is also a memorial to York 
volunteer firemen who have given their lives in the 
line of duty. 

POLICE DEPARTMENT 

York has a police force of 60 men. Nelson Shultz, 
Police Chief, is a graduate of the F. B. I. School in 
Washington, D. C. 

Lieutenant Walter Myers, in charge of traffic, com- 
pleted the five months' course in traffic given at 
Northwestern University. 




York's police cars are equipped with two-way radio. 

Every police officer has received basic training in 
self-defense, scientific crime detection, resuscitation, 
and federal, state and municipal law. This course is 
conducted by outstanding authorities in the field of 
law enforcement. 

The department has excellent modern equipment 
including an outdoor pistol range, and up-to-date 
detective bureau with facilities for photography and 
finger-printing, a resuscitator, a well-stocked ar- 
senal, and four radio-equipped cars, including two 
cruising cars, with two-way radio. 

York's percentage of crime has always been ex- 
tremely low, due not only to the efficiency of the 
force, but also to the law-abiding character of its 
citizens. 

GARBAGE COLLECTION 

Inorganic garbage is collected by the city. Or- 
ganic garbage is collected by a private contractor. 

SEWAGE DISPOSAL WORKS 

York was one of the first communities in the coun- 
try to have a Sewage Disposal Works. The present 
plant, located beyond Arch Street and the railroad, 
northeast of York on Loucks' Mill Road, was built in 
1916 and has been in continuous and successful op- 
eration for twenty-nine years. 

Through a system of screening, settling tanks, 
chlorination and dehydration, the sewage is reduced 
to tarry residue, which is sterile and odorless, and is 
used as fertilizer on farm lands. 



Built to process 6,000,000 gallons of sewage each 
twenty-four hours, this has now become 9,000,000 
gallons per day and plans have been drawn up for 
increasing facilities as soon as building conditions 
permit. 

COUNTY GOVERNMENT 

York County derives its form of county govern- 
ment, as well as its name, from England. 

Three Counfy Commissioners, two from the major- 
ity party and one from the minority party, are elected 




York County Courthouse and Annex. 

for terms of four years at a salary of $5,000 per year. 
They are the business managers for the county. 

They are assisted by the Chief Clerk who takes 
minutes of their meetings, prepares real estate as- 
sessment books and tax duplicates, and has general 
charge over the collection accounts of local tax 
collectors. 

The Counfy Solicitor, appointed for a term of four 
years, acts as legal advisor to the Commissioners. 

KEEPING THE COUNTY RECORDS 

A complete file of voters registered in the county 
is kept in the office of the Registration Commission 
in the basement of the Courthouse. 

The Recorder of Deeds keeps a record of all deeds 
for real estate and mortgages, and real estate trans- 



fers, as well as charters of non-profit making organi- 
zations such as the Junior Service League and York 
Little Theatre. 

He also keeps a Military Docket from which vet- 
erans may obtain copies of their discharge papers 
without fee. He is elected for four years at an annual 
salary of $4,000. 

The Director of Veferans' Affairs furnishes infor- 
mation on all matters applying to veterans or their 
dependents. He assists in obtaining hospitalization, 
benefits, allotments, etc. Grave stones and burial 
allowances are provided for veterans when needed. 
Bronze markers are provided for the graves of vet- 
erans of all wars buried in the county. 

The Sealer of Weights and Measures tests scales 
and measuring devices and confiscates and destroys 
any which are being used to cheat the public. 

A Surveyor must be elected according to law, but 
he has few duties and no salary! 

COUNTY FINANCES 

The Counfy Treasurer is the disbursing officer of 
the county. Tax collectors turn the taxes over to him 
and upon proper authorization from the Controller, 
he pays out county funds. He also sells hunting, 
fishing and dog licenses. His term is four years at 
an annual salary of $5,000, but he cannot succeed 
himself in office. 

The Controller keeps a full set of books for the 
county and audits the books of the County Home 
and County Jail. All bids on county contracts over 
$300 must be submitted to him. He publishes an an- 
nual report of the finances of the county. He is 
elected for a term of four years at a salary of $4,000 
annually. He is assisted by the SoJicifor fo fhe Con- 
troller who acts as his legal adviser. 

County funds are safeguarded in several ways. 
The funds are deposited in seven different banks. 
Officials handling money are bonded. All warrants 
drawn on the county must be signed by two Com- 
missioners and the Controller. 

The tax rate as set by the Commissioners has re- 
mained the same for a number of years, at six mills 
per dollar on assessed real estate. In addition, school 
tax and county road tax are assessed by the various 
townships and boroughs at rates set by each. 

There are ninety-one Tax Collectors in the county, 
one in each township and borough. They are elected 
for terms of four years. 

There are ninety-three Tax Assessors representing 
thirty-five townships and forty-five wards or bor- 
oughs, and the fifteen wards of the City of York. 
Property is assessed every three years. 




The Sewage Disposal Plant. 



48 



The county also derives income from liquid fuel 
tax, and from fees, interest, rentals and fines. 

HOW THE COUNTY DEALS WITH CRIME 
The Coroner investigates deaths of sudden, vio- 
lent, or suspicious nature. He conducts inquests. A 
Coroner's Jury of six examines the evidence and de- 
cides whether or not the death was criminal. The 
Coroner is elected for four years at a salary of $2,500 
per year, plus allowances for inquests, traveling ex- 
penses, etc. 

The District Attorney is elected for a term of four 
years at $6,000 per year. He prosecutes all criminal 
cases and may conduct investigations of crimes in 
cooperation with the police. He is assisted by two 
Assistant District Attorneys, a Court Detective and 
a stenographer. 

The Sheriff is the highest ranking peace officer in 
the county. He has custody of criminals while they 
are in court, and after they are sentenced he must 
deliver them to the institutions to which they have 
been committed. He collects fines and issues war- 
rants and attachments. He notifies jurors who have 
been selected by the Jury Board to report for duty. 
He grants pistol and revolver permits. Elected for a 
term of four years at a salary of $6,500 per year, he 
may not succeed himself in office. 

JURIES 

The Jury Board consists of two Judges of the Court 
of Common Pleas and two Jury Commissioners. The 
Jury Commissioners are elected for four years at a 
salary of $600 per year. The Jury Board draws names 
from the jury wheel, according to the estimated num- 
ber of cases to be tried. Jurors must be adult citizens, 
residents of the county and able to understand En- 
glish. Citizens who wish to volunteer for jury duty 
may do so by getting in touch with the Jury Board. 
Doctors and attorneys in active practice are excused 
from duty. 

COUNTY COURTS 

The are five County Courts. 

The Court of Common Pleas handles civil cases in 
reference to personal or property rights such as 
cases dealing with Workmen's Compensation, viola- 
tion of building restrictions, etc. The Judges of the 



Court of Common Pleas are elected for a term of ten 
years and receive a salary of $12,000 per year paid 
by the State. 

The Prothonotary, who is the Clerk of the Court 
of Common Pleas, files all legal papers and decrees 
relating to civil actions. He keeps a record of natu- 
ralizations and all licenses of dentists, optometrists, 
etc. He is elected for a four-year term at $6,000 per 
year. 

The Orphans' Court settles estates, appoints guar- 
dians for minors and handles adoptions. The Judge 
of the Orphans' Court is elected for a term of ten 
years at an annual salary of $12,000. 

The Register of Wills, who also serves as Clerk of 
the Orphans' Court, probates wills, appoints admin- 
istrators, and collects inheritance taxes. Strangely 
enough, in his capacity as Clerk of the Orphans' 
Court, he also issues marriage licenses. He is elected 
for a term of four years at an annual salary of $4,000. 

There are two Criminal Courts which are held four 
times yearly. The Court of Oyer and Terminer (an 
old English name) considers the more serious crimes 
such as murder, arson and burglary. 

The Court of Quarter Sessions tries persons ac- 
cused of lesser crimes such as embezzlement, viola- 
tions of various statutes, assault and battery, etc. 

The Clerk of Courts keeps a record of all matters 
brought before both criminal courts and of the deci- 
sions rendered. He files legal papers and keeps a 
list of all jurors. He is elected for a term of four years 
at an annual salary of $4,000. 

The Juvenile Court handles cases dealing with 
children up to eighteen years of age. The greater 
number of children handled here are neglected or 
dependent and are committed to child care insti- 
tutions or foster homes. A smaller number are 
delinquents. 

The court is conducted informally and the public 
is not admitted. An attempt is made not to prove 
the guilt of the offender, but rather to find out why 
he is a delinquent. 

Children are never confined in the County Jail, 
but are placed in the Detention Home. Two hundred 
and sixty-eight children have been housed there 
temporarily during the past two years, many of 
whom were runaway children from other towns. As 
far as is possible, each child brought before the court 




York County Home. 



is given a physical and psychological examination, 
and the results are carefully recorded. The schools, 
the clergy, and character-building agencies such as 
the Y. M. C. A. and Y. W. C. A., and the Boy and Girl 
Scouts cooperate with the Juvenile Court in helping 
boys and girls placed on parole to make a new start. 
The Probation Officer keeps in touch with boys 
and girls on parole. He also investigates cases of 
non-support and studies the causes of delinquency. 

THE SECOND COURT-HOUSE 

The second court-house was erected on the site of 
the present one in the year 1840 at a cost of $100,- 
000. It was built of bricks and wood obtained in York 
County and granite from Maryland. By 1898, it had 
become too small for the increased county business. 

THE PRESENT COURT-HOUSE 

The present court-house was erected in 1898-1900, 
at a cost of $500,000. The architect was J. A. Demp- 
wolf, of York. It contains the county offices, court 
rooms and law library. 

In 1943, the building of the Central National Bank, 
next to the court-house, was purchased and con- 
verted into the Court-House Annex. It houses the 
county treasurer's office, the sheriff's office, the reg- 
istration commission, children's services, and proba- 
tion officer. The income derived from rental of the 
remaining offices to lawyers goes to the county. 

YORK COUNTY HOME 

Located five miles east of the city, in Springetts- 
bury Township, is the York County Home, built in 
1931 at the cost of approximately $1,000,000. The 
number of guests at present is 245, of which a small 
percentage pay for their own maintenance. Under 
the supervision of Charles O. Trout, Superintendent, 
and Charles Wallace, Assistant Superintendent, the 
livestock, consisting of fifteen steers, fifty hogs, and 
four mules, is cared for and the 100 acres of land 
belonging to the home is farmed. 

ALDERMEN 

York has fifteen aldermen; one in each ward. An 
alderman is a city officer corresponding to a rural 
justice of the peace. He has jurisdiction over petty 
claims and disputes. Any person arrested is first 
brought before an alderman who hears the evi- 
dence and decides whether the case should be dis- 
missed or passed on to the grand jury for trial in 
the courts. 

CHILDREN'S SERVICES 

The Children's Services of York County are con- 
ducted with county funds. The staff consists of an 
executive director, case worker, investigator, and 
an office secretary. During the past year, 152 chil- 
dren were cared for in York County foster homes, 
and 414 children were called to the attention of the 
organization. 

On the recommendation of the advisory committee 
in 1944, the county commissioners approved a sub- 
sidized receiving home where the children could be 
cared for in emergencies and until foster homes 
could be found for them. The foster mother has 
shown unlimited patience and understanding in pre- 
paring the children physically and psychologically 




The Codorus before Flood Control, Princess Street Bridge. 




The Codorus in flood, August 23, 1933. 




The channel deepened, widened and faced with stone. 



within a few short weeks for permanent placement. 
Gifts of clothing from the Christian Home and 
Needlework Guild have been much appreciated by 
Children's Services. 

FLOOD CONTROL PROJECT 

As early as 1749, Thomas Cookson remarked that 
the Codorus was liable to dangerous floods. Every 
few decades disastrous floods occurred. The one of 
October 3, 1786, was called the Pumpkin Flood be- 
cause so many pumpkins were swept downstream. 
In 1817, the waters rose five feet higher than in 1786 
and the Spring Forge Dam gave way. The rapid 
melting of the snow caused the flood of February, 
1822, which swept away the three-arch stone bridge 
at Market Street. On June 25, 1884, heavy rains 
and a wind that rose to hurricane velocity carried 
away all the bridges across the Codorus, including 
the Pennsylvania Railroad Bridge. Property damage 
amounted to $700,000 and several lives were lost. 
The worst flood of all was the one of August 23 and 
24, 1933. Four covered bridges over the Codorus 
were carried away, 900 homes and businesses were 
affected, and property damaged to the extent of 
$4,000,000. 

Citizens were aroused and Fred N. Gartside was 
appointed chairman of the Citizens' Committee to 
see what might be done for flood prevention. The 
Chamber of Commerce and the Manufacturers' Asso- 
ciation also backed the movement. 

After considering a number of plans, one drawn 
up by Gannet, Seelye and Fleming, engineering firm 
of Harrisburg, was adopted. At a cost of $2,000,000, 
obtained from the Public Works Administration, the 
project was carried on during 1935 and 1936. 

The channel of the Codorus was deepened, wid- 
ened, straightened, and the sides paved with blocks 
of stone. Obstacles such as trees, islands, and the 
King's Mill Dam and Small Dam were removed and 
two impounding basins, capable of holding 680,000,- 
000 cubic feet of water, were constructed, one on the 
Main Branch and one on the South Branch of the 
Codorus. 

Impounding basins have been used successfully 
in Germany since 1711, and also in France for con- 
trolling the head waters of the Loire. In the United 
States, this system has worked out well in both Ohio 




and Missouri. Flood waters are held back by dams 
until the uncontrolled waters have run off and then 
are released gradually over a period of several days. 
In order to construct the basins, a great deal of 
land had to be condemned and more than twenty 
barns and dwellings removed. However, most of this 
land can still be cultivated, except during floods. 




Indian Rock, one of the two impounding dams of (he 
Flood Control Project. 



The State Armory. 

Caretakers are on duty at all times to see that the 
basins are kept free of obstacles and to close the 
flood gates if high water threatens. 

Some work still remains to be done on the Flood 
Control Project and will be completed in the near 
future. 

PENNSYLVANIA STATE GUARD 
4TH INFANTRY, COMPANY F 

With the induction of the Pennsylvania National 
Guard into the regular Army, the State was left in- 
adequately protected. In March, 1941, the Assembly 
approved an act providing for a State Guard to be 
composed of men in good physical condition be- 
tween the ages of seventen and fifty. This Guard was 
to be organized for the purpose of maintaining law 
and suppressing disorders within the State; to guard 
and protect vital industries and installations; to as- 
sist in disasters and to cooperate with Federal mili- 
tary authorities in case of extreme emergencies. 

York's Company F, with headquarters at the Penn- 
sylvania State Armory, North George Street and 
Hamilton Avenue, was organized and mustered in, 
October 27, 1941. At present, its seventy-three men 
and two officers are under the command of 1st Lieu- 
tenant Charles M. Spongier. More than 150 men of 
the unit have entered the armed forces. 

The training which they received while members 
of the State Guard has proved invaluable. Use of fire- 
arms is taught on both indoor and outdoor ranges. 
Men are also instructed in health and sanitation, 
first-aid, map reading, manual of arms, riot forma- 
tion, judo, close order drill, and combat work, in- 
cluding bayonet and grenade. Each summer, the 
company encamps for a period of ten days at Indian- 
town Gap. Uniforms, arms and equipment such as 
firearms, field kits, gas masks, summer and winter 
uniform and raincoats are furnished free of charge. 

The Pennsylvania State Guard is not a paid or- 
ganization and each member has offered his services 
as a patriotic duty. 



PENNSYLVANIA STATE POLICE 
YORK COUNTY SUBSTATION 

A State Police Substation, one of the seventy-nine 
in Pennsylvania, was established in York County in 
1920 with a force of three men. With the addition of 
three highway patrolmen, the force was increased 
to six in 1924. Normal strength at the substation is 
now sixteen men. 




Pennsylvania State police are helpiul and courteous to motorists. 

Organized in 1905, through a law passed by the 
State Legislature, the Pennsylvania State Police be- 
came the first state-wide uniformed police force and 



the model for other state police forces throughout 
the country. 

State Police at the York Substation are gradu- 
ates of the training school at Hershey and operate 
under the supervision of Regimental Headquarters 
located at Harrisburg. They have access to the fully- 
equipped crime laboratory maintained there and 
are linked with the state-wide police teletype sys- 
tem which is part of a nine-state network. Patrol 
cars are equipped with radio. 

Pennsylvania State Police work to keep the peace 
and to safeguard life and property. They patrol high- 
ways and enforce the laws governing their use. State 
Police are always ready to help the motorist, and 
are well-informed concerning places of historic, 
scenic and recreational interest along the State's 
superb highways. 

YORK COUNTY IN ITS RELATION TO 
STATE AND NATIONAL GOVERNMENT 

York is in the nineteenth Judicial District of the 
State of Pennsylvania. It is in the twenty-eighth 
Senatorial District of the State and is entitled to 
elect three Representatives to the State Legislature. 
One is elected for the City of York and two from the 
County-at-large. 

It is in the twenty-second Congressional District 
of Pennsylvania which includes Adams, Franklin, 
and York Counties. These three counties are entitled 
to elect one Congressman to the Federal House of 
Representatives. 



Health and Welfare 



PUBLIC HEALTH 

"In 1799, Doctor Kennedy waxenated the children 
against smallpox," wrote Lewis Miller, thus record- 
ing one of the earliest public health measures taken 
in York. 

Today, York has a coordinated public health pro- 
gram. The City Board of Health, the School District 
of York, and the Medical Association of York County 
are all working toward a common goal, stressing 
the prevention of disease and the promotion of 
health education. The Visiting Nurse Association 
provides public health nursing service for the entire 
community. 

DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH OF THE 
CITY OF YORK 

The Department of Health of the City of York, fi- 
nanced by city taxation, conducts free clinics for 
vaccination against smallpox, administration of the 
toxoid for the prevention of diphtheria, and Shick 
tests. This department is also responsible for quar- 
antines, and maintains a laboratory for the diag- 
nosis of suspected contagion. It sees to the cleaning 
up of unsanitary places dangerous to public health, 
and provides for meat, milk, and food inspection. 
Nursing service is rendered through the Visiting 
Nurse Association. 

VISITING NURSE ASSOCIATION 

^ The Visiting Nurse Association of York and York 
County is one of the oldest in the state. It began in 
1904 when St. Anne's Guild, an organization of 
women who sewed for the hospital, began raising 
funds through plays, contributions, etc., in order that 
York might have a visiting nurse. In 1908, they 
brought to York Miss Minnie Stewart, who remained 
here for five years. Her first visiting list, totalling six 




Visiting nurses starting out on their daily rounds. 



patients, was given to her by the rector of St. John's 
Episcopal Church. 

There are now twenty-eight graduate nurses on 
the staff. A twenty-four hour nursing schedule is 
maintained, seven days a week, to answer emer- 
gency nursing calls and to assist physicians with 
home confinements. 

In 1944, 3,701 patients received 34,084 visits in the 
home. Thirty-six per cent of these nursing calls were 
with the chronically ill. The nurses also assisted at 
the birth of 94% of the babies born in their homes 
during the year. Classes for expectant mothers had 
an attendance of 250 last year. 

A program of immunization against diphtheria has 
been carried on annually for years in the first and 
second grades of all schools. 

In the Orthopedic Nursing Department, 7,000 
physiotherapy and water therapy treatments were 
given during the year. Two nurses, trained by Sister 
Kenny, made 1,300 visits in supervision of packing 
and muscle reeducation to infantile paralysis vic- 
tims in their homes. At the Rotary Crippled Chil- 
dren's Clinic eighty-six new patients were examined 
and one hundred eighty-four old patients were 
reexamined. 

Other services rendered by the V. N. A. include 
well baby conferences; school nursing is provided 
for 15,000 children enrolled in public, private and 
parochial schools of York, West York, North York and 
York Haven boroughs. West Manchester, Springetts- 
bury Independent, and Spring Garden townships. 
Holy Child, Yorktowne Homes and the Visiting 
Nurse Association Nursery schools; industrial nurs- 
ing, on a part-time basis, in three plants; assisting 
in the York Mental Health Clinic held at the York 
Hospital by scheduling patients for interviews. In 
epidemics the association has secured graduate 
nurses for the Isolation Unit in the West Side Sani- 
tarium. During the York Fair they have a first-aid 
station on the grounds. An affiliation for experience 
in the field of public health nursing is maintained 
for students from the York Hospital School of Nurs- 
ing, and is an accredited agency for supervised field 
experience in public health nursing for university 
students. 

Thirty-seven years of service have made the visit- 
ing nurse in her blue uniform welcome in any home 
in York. 

YOUNG WOMEN'S CLUB OF YORK 

The Young Women's Club of York, formed in 1941, 
has fifty-seven regular members and one honorary 
member, namely: Mrs. Ray P. Sherwood. The Club 
hold its evening meeting once monthly at the Vis- 
iting Nurse Association. Its purpose is to promote 
educational and cultural interests, to further civic 
improvement and to engage in philanthropic activi- 
ties. The Club supports various phases of the work 
of the Visiting Nurse Association, and helped to pur- 
chase the furniture for the V. N. A. Nursery School. 



THE YORK HOSPITAL 

The York Hospital was established in 1879. Dr. 
W. S. Roland was first president of the Board of Di- 
rectors and William R. Homer served as treasurer 
for more than fifty years. 

The present modern building was erected in 1929 
on a beautiful twenty-acre site, at a cost of $1,000,- 
000, which was raised by popular subscription aug- 
mented by a legacy from B. C. Pentz. 

The building is debt-free and a fund is accumu- 
lating which is to be used for an addition as soon as 
conditions permit. 

The hospital is staffed by thirty-five doctors and 
an out-patient staff of thirty doctors. There are 105 
student nurses in attendance and thirty-six grad- 
uate nurses. 

During 1944, 6,526 patients were admitted to the 
hospital, 1,222 babies were born, and 5,076 emer- 
gency cases were treated. More than 1,000 meals 
are served daily. 

The Women's Auxiliary of the York Hospital makes 
surgical dressings and assists in the linen depart- 
ment. They remember each ward patient with a 
small gift at Christmas and Easter, and see that trays 
are decorated with appropriate favors on holidays. 
Teas are held monthly for the nurses, internes and 
hospital staff. The auxiliary purchased 150 new books 
for the hospital library within the past year, en- 
dowed a graduate scholarship, and gave a Chase 
doll to the School of Nursing. 

Since 1942, six classes totalling 104 Volunteer 
Nurses' Aides have completed their eighty hours of 
training and from January, 1942, to September 1, 
1945, rendered 32,282 hours of service. 

YORK COUNTY TUBERCULOSIS SOCIETY 

The York County Tuberculosis Society, with head- 
quarters at 134 West Philadelphia Street, is part of 
the National Tuberculosis Association founded in 
1914. The society conducts a county-wide program 
for the discovery and care of tuberculosis cases 
through school surveys, local clinics. X-ray service 
and sanitarium placement. It cooperates with the 



State Department of Health in joint maintenance of 
the free tuberculosis dispensary and provides trans- 
portation to the clinic and sanitarium for needy 
patients. 

The society carries on a general program of health 
education, distributes health literature and posters, 
maintains statistical service, and cooperates with 
all existing agencies engaged in the promotion of 
public health. 

The work is financed by the annual sale of Christ- 
mas Seals and by private contributions. 

MATERNAL HEALTH CENTER 

The Maternal Health Center, located at 360 South 
Queen Street, operates a weekly clinic in the eve- 
ning and an afternoon clinic once monthly. A med- 
ical advisory board of twelve doctors (nine men and 
three women), two nurses and a social worker com- 
prise the staff. Established since 1935, the Center 
helps women to have healthy babies, aids childless 
couples who wish to have children, and gives child- 
spacing information to all married couples desiring 
it. The Center works with women who come to it di- 
rectly or who are referred by pastors, physicians, 
hospitals, social agencies, or social workers. It is 
supported by voluntary contributions of interested 
citizens. 

THE CONVALESCENT HOSPITAL 

The Convalescent Hospital, located at Roosevelt 
and Linden Avenues, was established in order to af- 
ford convalescent care to the entire community. It 
is open to all without distinction, and offers its facili- 
ties to the members of the medical profession for the 
care of their patients. 

It is operated by the Daughters of Our Lady of 
Mercy. It has a staff of six, and fourteen beds for 
convalescents. 

WEST SIDE OSTEOPATHIC HOSPITAL, INC. 

The West Side Sanitarium was established in 1913, 
by Dr. Edmund W. Meisenhelder, Jr., in the double 
house on the northeast corner of North Hartley and 




The York Hospital. 



Lincoln Streets. Beginning with two beds, the hos- 
pital soon found it necessary to expand into two 
additional houses across the street, and admitted 
surgical, obstetrical, and medical patients. By 1914, 
the West Side Sanitarium had been recognized by 
the American College of Surgeons, and the Amer- 
ican Medical Association, and has been operating 
in accordance with their regulations, and with their 
approval as a Class A hospital since that time. 

Temporarily closed during World War I, the West 
Side Sanitarium was reopened in 1919 at its present 
site, 1253 West Market Street, near the York Fair 
Grounds in a brick building, formerly a hotel. 

An addition to this brick structure was made in 
1924 in order to expand the X-ray department, and 
to provide a sun porch and additional rooms. Its 
capacity was increased to thirty-five private rooms. 

In 1931, Doctor Meisenhelder opened a fireproof 
annex behind the Nurses' Home, which is connected 
with the original brick building by an underground 
passage. This completely modern annex is furnished 
with metal furniture, and the walls and floors are 
decorated in pleasant, soft colors. Each room has a 
picture, a plant, an easy chair, a writing desk, and 
outlets for radio and telephone. At this same time, 
the Harbold property at 1259 West Market Street 
was bought and converted into two apartments for 
resident doctors. 

In 1945, Doctor Meisenhelder sold the institution, 
which became the West Side Osteopathic Hospital, 
Inc. The hospital offers fifty beds, ten bassinets, and 
a small isolation wing for the use of the community. 

YORK WELFARE FEDERATION. INC. 

During the first World War many communities 
learned that a single fund-raising campaign for all 
community welfare agencies was much more effec- 
tive than a number of scattered solicitations. 

Under the old system, there was much duplication 
of effort; citizens were constantly being annoyed by 
solicitors, and collection costs amounted to as much 
as 15% of the total funds raised. 

In 1921, the York Welfare Federation was founded. 
The Federation is governed by a council of dele- 
gates composed of two delegates from the thirty- 
eight local and public organizations which council 



in turn elects an Executive Committee or Board of 
Directors of twenty-one, ten of which represent labor. 

Labor has always participated whole-heartedly in 
the campaigns and the standard deduction of 2 of 
1% of payroll is the accepted practice in nearly all 
the industries. 

At present, the following groups participate: Boy 
Scouts, Catholic Charities, Community Distribution 
Center, Crippled Children's Clinic, Crispus Attucks 
Association, Family Service Bureau, Girl Scouts, Jew- 
ish Community Center, Salvation Army, Social Ser- 
vice Exchange, York County Blind Center, Y. M. 
C. A., Y. W. C. A., the local U. S. O., and the Public 
Charities of Pennsylvania. 

In 1921, $73,679 were raised. The goals gradually 
increased with the peak of $204,295, in 1932, when 
victims of the depression were in real need of public 




The Welfare Building. 




The West Side Osteopathic Hospital. Inc. 



assistance. Thereafter, the amounts ranged from 
$138,000 to $170,000. 

In 1943, the Federation formed the York County 
War & Welfare Fund which raises all the money for 
both local Welfare and National War Relief pur- 
poses. $239,577 was subscribed for the year 1943, 
$360,000 for 1944, and $328,000 for the year 1945. 

A unique feature is the operation, under direction 
of a special committee, of a central Distribution Cen- 
ter which issues shoes and clothing upon order of 
the several relief agencies. 

The Federation owns two properties. The Welfare 
Building houses the Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, Family 
Service Bureau and Social Service Exchange. The 
cost of the building is being amortized by the rents 
these agencies would pay for commercial space. The 
Crispus Attucks Association Center is a church build- 
ing which has been remodeled to fit the program of 
negro citizens. It has been pronounced the finest in 
the eastern part of the United States. 

The Chamber of Commerce houses the Federation 
without expense. Its Secretary serves as Director on 
a part-time basis. This arrangement provides ade- 
quate offices and meeting-rooms and also divides 
the usual overhead of such an organization by four. 
$6,500 is the average cost of operation, including 
campaign expenses. Comparable community chests 
in other cities have overhead budgets of $20,000 to 
$30,000. 

SOCIAL SERVICE EXCHANGE 

The purpose of the Social Service Exchange is to 
provide a central index of all families or individuals 
known to the social agencies of the community. This 
serves as a clearing-house for the accredited social 
welfare organizations and agencies working with 
families and individuals who require information re- 
lating to relief, health and constructive counseling. 

Clearing the names before helping the persons 
applying, opens the way for securing a coordi- 
nation of services between the agencies. It con- 
serves time and funds of agencies and protects the 
applicant. 

The way is cleared for the worker either to make 
her own plan of treatment, transfer to any agency 
already handling the case, or share a plan to the 
best advantage of the client or patient as the case 
may be. 

The Social Service Exchange in York is a partici- 
pating agency of the York Welfare Federation. 




BOY SCOUTS OF AMERICA 

YORK-ADAMS AREA COUNCIL 

The Boy Scouts of America, York-Adams Area 
Council, has its headquarters in the Welfare Build- 
ing at 309 East Market Street, but its seven admin- 
istrative districts include York, Hanover, Gettysburg, 
Red Lion, Dillsburg, and Mount Wolf. In this area on 
January 1, 1945, there were 116 Cub Packs and Scout 
Troops with a membership of 2,773 boys and 979 
men, making a grand total of 3,752. 

Boys of 9, 10 and 11, form Cub Packs; boys of 12 
to 15, Scout Troops; and those of 15 to 18 are eligible 
for the senior activities of Explorer Scouts, Sea Scouts 
and Air Scouts. 

Eleven-thousand-five-hundred-and-forty camping 
days were enjoyed by York-Adams Area scouts in 
1944. Camp Ganoga, ten miles north of York on 
Route 111, embraces eighty-nine acres, half of which 
are woodland. The large mess hall, administrative 
building, officers' quarters, stone-and-log lodge and 
sleeping cabins are available for scout camping the 
year around. 

Scouts have been active in every type of war ser- 
vice. One million two hundred and forty pounds of 
waste paper were collected in 1944, besides many 
other salvaged materials. Reforestation, victory gar- 
dening and harvesting of crops were some of the 
other services rendered. During Scout Week, through 
the cooperation of local merchants, window displays 
of Scout work are arranged in downtown stores. 

GIRL SCOUTS OF YORK AREA, INC. 

The Girl Scouts of York Area, Inc., have their head- 
quarters in the Welfare Building at 309 East Market 
Street. There are 10 Brownie Troops, 30 Intermediate 
Troops and 6 Senior Troops in the York Area. Total 
membesrhip for 1944 was 1,267. 

Girls from 7 to 10 form Brownie Troops; girls from 
10 to 14, Intermediate Troops; and Senior Scouts are 
from 14 years of age up. 

During 1944, Girl Scouts in the York Area gave 
12,599 hours of service to various agencies. They 
made scrap books, cookies and favors for the U. S. O.; 
packed boxes for Russian War Relief; helped with 
the Visiting Nurse Association Spring Drive; ran 
the Girl Scout Nursery at the York Fair; distributed 
WAC recruiting posters; filled over 20,000 envelopes 




Boy Scoufs canoeing at Camp Ganoga. 



Girl Scoufs of the York Area enjoy outdoor cooking. 



56 



for the Tuberculosis Society's Christmas Seal Cam- 
paign; made numerous articles for the Red Cross, 
and tray favors for hospitals; participated in the 
March of Dimes; acted as playground aides and sold 
$82,299 worth of War Bonds. 

Camping is available for Brownies, Intermediates 
and Seniors. A Day Camp within commuting dis- 
tance of the city is held at Winding Trail Camp in 
Haines Woods. The cabin here is also available for 
troop camping the year round. During six weeks in 
the summer, Camp Susquehannock, located on an 
island in the Susquehanna River opposite Goldsboro, 
Pennsylvania, is open for Girl Scouts of this area. 

During Girl Scout Week, attractive window dis- 
plays relative to scouting are arranged in downtown 
store windows, through the cooperation of local 
merchants. 

Girl Scouts of York Area, Inc., receives its financial 
support from the York Welfare Federation of which 
it is a member. 

YOUNG WOMEN'S CHRISTIAN 
ASSOCIATION OF YORK 

The York Y. W. C. A., located at 120 East Market 
Street, is a character building organization, non- 
sectarian and inter-racial in character, with an 
extensive all-year-round educational, recreational 
and inspirational program. The program is flexible 
and geared to meet the changing needs of women 
and girls today. 

The Y. W. C. A. functions through classes, clubs, 
lectures, discussion groups and personal service 
working either with individuals or groups of girls. 
Public affairs, lectures and adult education classes 
offer new interests and help women keep abreast of 
the times. It has Clubs for Younger Girls in Junior 
High and Senior High Schools, a streamlined War 
Service program for Business and Industrial girls 
and an all-year-round Health Education Department, 
with classes in swimming, sports and recreation. 
Free instruction in swimming and free plunges are 
a part of the Department's services to the commu- 
nity. The Y. W. C. A. operates a summer camp of 
fifty-three acres at Camp Cann-Ed-Ion, with accom- 
modations for one hundred girls, including a limited 
number of free scholarships. It also has facilities for 
a limited number of resident girls at 120 East Mar- 




. W. C. A. campers enjoy archery at Cann-Ed-Ion. 



ket Street, and offers its building for community 
gatherings. 

The Y. W. C. A. Cafeteria, at 127 East Market 
Street, serves the community two meals a day, six 
days a week. 

The Y. W. C. A. is financed by dues, Welfare Fed- 
eration contributions, gifts, income from classes and 
Cafeteria. 

Affiliations: The Young Women's Christian Asso- 
ciations of United States of America, The World's 
Council of Young Women's Christian Associations, 
and the York Welfare Federation. 

YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION 

On June 6, 1844, George Williams, of London, 
called together eleven of his associates in the drap- 
ery trade and formed the Young Men's Christian 
Association. By the early 1850's this movement 
reached York in connection with various churches. 
However, the present organization, which has been 
serving the community for three-quarters of a cen- 
tury, began in 1869. 

Engine-houses of the fire companies served as the 
first meeting-rooms and "apartments were secured 
in Ebert's Building" for a reading room and library. 
At the end of the first year the membership was 198. 
Open car meetings "on the streets at four places in 
York on Sunday afternoons" were features of the 
early program. "The suppression of intemperance 
and Sabbath breaking enlisted the attention of the 
Association." 

The first home owned by the association was the 
William Hay property at 122, now 142, West Market 
Street, purchased in 1884 for $12,000. Provisions for 
an auditorium and gymnasium were made late that 
same year and a swimming pool was added in 1898. 
Later, an adjoining building was also purchased. 

On November 21, 1922, the board voted for a cam- 
paign to secure $525,000 for a new Y. M. C. A. build- 
ing. The sum of $592,619 was secured, a record 
amount for a city the size of York. 

The Ladies' Auxiliary, formed in 1884, has contrib- 
uted more than $100,000 to the association during its 
sixty years of service. The auxiliary gave more than 
$50,000 toward the new building and pledged an 
additional $5,000. 

The new building, erected at the corner of Phila- 
delphia and Newberry Streets at a cost of $856,000, 
was dedicated September 26, 1926. At the seventy- 
sixth annual meeting held in the spring of 1945, the 
mortgage was burned. The York Y. M. C. A. is now 
entirely free of debt, and a fund is accumulating 
for a complete reconditioning of the building after 
the war. 

One hundred and fifty-eight dormitory rooms were 
provided in the plans. During the past six years 
every room has been taken and a number of club 
rooms and classrooms have also been converted into 
sleeping accommodations. A modern cafeteria, open 
to the public, serves meals daily. 

The new building provides splendid facilities for 
the physical department under the leadership of 
C. C. Bleeker, who began his work in York in 1921. 
The Y. M. C. A. has sought to supplement but not 
to supplant the work of the church. Today, many 
Christian Endeavor and church groups meet in the 
building. The Christian Recreation Leaders' Associa- 
tion, which was organized in 1936, trains leaders for 



churches and young people's societies of the city 
and county. At monthly meetings, leaders become 
familiar with active and quiet games, banquet man- 
agement, decorations, table games, "ice-breakers," 
song-leading and devotional exercises. At present, 
there are seventy-five active members representing 
twenty-eight different churches. 

Back in 1901, the Y. M. C. A. Concert Choir was 
organized. Today, as in the past, it is training lead- 
ers for church choirs, giving concerts and serving 
whenever called upon. Professor Urban H. Hershey 
has been director for thirty-five years. 

As early as 1891, the association gave special con- 
sideration to work with boys. The first full-time boys' 
secretary was Ray F. Zaner, later local scout exec- 




The Young Men's Christian Association. 

utive. Raymond Oberdick, who began his work Sep- 
tember 1, 1923, is the present boys' work director. 

The earliest known Y. M. C. A. camp was con- 
ducted at the mouth of the Codorus Creek in 1902. 
Ernest H. Polack and Raymond H. Oberdick were 
in charge fo the selection, financing and develop- 
ment of the Y's present beautiful camp site on the 
Susquehanna River, near the Holtwood Power Dam. 
Camp Minqua, which accommodates 120 boys, is 
filled to capacity each season. A total of about 350 
boys attend annually. 

At present, 852 members of the York Y. M. C. A. 
are in the armed forces and the program is geared 
to today's needs. All men in uniform are granted 
full membership privileges without cost, and the 
Y. M. C. A. cooperates actively with the U. S. O. and 
other agencies related to the war effort. Honorably 
discharged servicemen receive six months' free mem- 
bership. The dormitories are filled to capacity with 
war workers and members of the armed forces our 
own and our Allies stationed in York. 

CRISPUS ATTUCKS ASSOCIATION CENTER 

Crispus Attucks, a colored citizen of Boston, was 
one of the first men killed in the American v Revolu- 
tion. On March 5, 1770, on a snowy night, a few 
citizens taunted a British sentry. The British troops, 
hastily called out, fired into the crowd wounding 
eight and killing four, one of whom was Crispus 
Attucks. This incident is known in history as the 



Boston Massacre, and was the first bloodshed of the 
Revolution. 

The name of this patriot was adopted as the name 
of the Center at its organization in 1931. For a time 
the Center occupied the old Nurses' Home located 
at 230 West College Avenue. After this building was 




Swimming docJt at the Y. M. C. A.'s Camp Minqua on (he 
Susquehanna. 

destroyed by fire, the York Welfare Federation pur- 
chased and renovated St. Luke's Church, a substan- 
tial brick building located at 125 East Maple Street, 
to accommodate the Center's expanding program. 
The new Crispus Attucks Association Center was 
officialy opened and dedicated August 20, 1944. 

The Center is staffed by a group of college-trained 
young people. 

The building was planned, in conjunction with the 
staff, by a member of the National Recreation Asso- 
ciation. In the basement is a large banquet room 
with kitchen, canteen, and club rooms, heating plant 
and two storage rooms. On the first floor are offices 
for the Executive Director, the clerk, and the Super- 
visor of Women and Girls, library and reading room, 
and recreation rooms for men, women, and boys. 




m 



The Crispus Attucks Association Center. 



58 



The second floor has a gymnasium and stage, a scout 
room, office for Supervisor of Boys and Men, and 
a small storage room. The entire building is fully and 
modernly equipped with furnishings valued at more 
than ten thousand dollars. The splendid condition in 
which the building is kept testifies to the care and 
pride taken in it by the members. 

Through the program of the Center, recreational, 
cultural, welfare, social, religious, and civic activities 
are carried on. Classes in cooking, home-making, 
food conservation and rationing attract the women. 
Courses in handicrafts and the fine arts, knitting, 
sewing, quilting, carving, modeling, and model- 
plane building are also offered. Public and personal 
health is taught and dramatics and music are 
stressed. Scouting for both boys and girls, as well as 
boys' and girls' clubs, serve to develop special inter- 
ests. A program for pre-school children is conducted 
four afternoons a week by a paid supervisor. 

Sports and physical activities include basketball, 
volleyball, boxing, badminton, archery, shuffleboard, 
wrestling, calisthenics, tennis, ping-pong, pool and 
table games. Through contests and leagues, interest 
is kept high and a number of championship teams 
have been turned out. The first representative bas- 
ketball team won the regular season's championship 
in the City- Wide League in York, 1945, and added 
the play-off laurels. Crispus Attucks, one of the finest 
centers of its kind in the country, has demonstrated 
through the splendid work it is doing that its char- 
acter-building program merits the support of the 
entire community. 

JEWISH COMMUNITY CENTER 

The Jewish Community Center, located at 36 South 
Queen Street, contains assembly rooms, classrooms, 
workshop and craft room, game room, clubrooms 
and kitchen. A lecture program, "Education for Bet- 
ter Living," and a series of four addresses by out- 
standing visiting speakers is conducted each year. 
An Adult Forum is also well attended. Both local 
and transient relief is dispensed through the Center 
by the Jewish Organized Charities. 

The youth activities at the Center are open to 
children of all denominations. Boy and Girl Scouts 
meet here and Youth Forums are conducted. A Day 




Loading the ambulance belonging to the York County Chapter 
ol the American Red Cross with supplies lor the Blood Bank. 



Camp for children of from five to twelve is held here 
during the summer and the facilities of the craft shop 
are used. 

AMERICAN RED CROSS YORK 
COUNTY CHAPTER 

"To furnish volunteer aid to the sick and wounded 
of armies in time of war: To act as a medium of com- 
munication between the people of the United States 
of America and their Army and Navy: To carry on 
a system of national and international relief in suf- 
fering caused by famine, fire, floods, and other great 
national calamities," constitutes a partial statement 
of the aims of the American Red Cross. 

The York Chapter requires two buildings for its 
many activities; the Administration Building at 38 
North Duke Street, and the Home Service Annex at 
34 North Duke Street. Rooms in the Zion Lutheran 
Church at 36 South Duke Street are used as a Blood 
Donor Center. 

The following committees function under direction 
of the executive board: Accident Prevention, Blood 
Donor Service, Braille, Camp and Hospital Service, 
Canteen, Dieticians' Aides, Disaster Chairman, First- 
Aid, Home Nursing, Home Service Corps, Home 
Service Chairman, Hospital and Recreation Corps, 
Junior Red Cross, Motor Corps, Nurse Recruitment 
Committee, Nurses' Aides, Nutrition, Prisoner of War, 
Production, Public Information, Staff Assistance, Vol- 
unter Special Services, Water Safety and War Fund. 

Organized during the first World War, the York 
Chapter of the American Red Cross had as its first 
president John C. Schmidt. After a few months, Mr. 
Schmidt was called to Washington to serve on a war 
board. He was succeeded by Francis Farquhar who 
remained as president for twenty-three years, and is 
now an emeritus member of the Board of Directors. 
Bertram R. Moore, Kenneth L. Cox, and J. E. Wayne, 
along with Mrs. Minnie P. Hatton, who became ex- 
ecutive secretary in 1937, have had charge of the 
splendid work done by the Chapter in connection 
with World War II. 

CATHOLIC CHARITIES OF YORK 

The purposes of The Catholic Charities are "to en- 
gage in relief work among the poor and needy; to 
secure employment for the unemployed; to assume 
the care, guidance and control of destitute, depen- 
dent, neglected or delinquent children and care for, 
maintain and educate them; receive children by 
surrender, commitment or otherwise, from parents, 
guardians, or custodians and from the courts or from 
administrative bodies having care of children; and 
to maintain and educate such children, provide them 
with homes and promote their comfort, welfare and 
advancement in life, improve their condition and 
provide for their adoption; supervise, care for, and 
assist delinquents and persons convicted of crime; 
develop recreational activities; make surveys, in- 
vestigations of conditions and develop remedies for 
evils found to exist; obtain information from all 
sources and furnish advice and counsel in the ad- 
ministration of Catholic charitable activities; and to 
carry on all kinds of charitable work." 

As a family agency. Catholic Charities offer coun- 
selling services to Catholic families of York County 
in coordination with the parish priests. The agency 



CO 



assists families whose normal family life is threat- 
ened or destroyed by unemployment, ill health, de- 
linquency, infirmity, old age or moral adjustments. 
This work is financed by York Welfare Federation 
Affiliations: Branch of Catholic Charities of the Dio- 
cese of Harrisburg, Inc.; Member of National Con- 
ference of Catholic Charities; Member York Council 
of Social Agencies. 

PARADISE PROTECTORY AND 
AGRICULTURAL SCHOOL, INC. 

The Paradise Protectory and Agricultural School, 
Inc., is maintained near Abbottstown, for the relief, 
support, and education of orphan and destitute boys. 
It is staffed by thirteen Sisters of Saint Joseph, and 
shelters ninety-three boys. 




Boys at work at the Paradise Protectory. 



CHILDREN'S HOME 

The Children's Home of York City and County is 
the oldest organization for child care in the county. 
The building was erected in 1865. A wing has since 
been added, and the Children's Home is now in its 
eightieth year of service to needy and dependent 
children. 

Mrs. Percy B. Cooper is superintendent of the 
Home, with more than twenty-five busy years of 
work with the children there behind her. She attends 
state and national conventions, is past president of 
the state organization of Superintendents of Child 
Care Institutions and is in close touch with the Child 
Welfare League of America. 

Good food, annual physical examinations for each 
child, medical and dental care insure high standards 




Stupid, one of (he donkeys belonging to the Children's Home, 
assists with paper salvage at the Pine Hill playground. 



of health. At the age of eight, every child goes either 
to Y. M. C. A., or the Y. W. C. A., and learns to swim. 

Children are encouraged to play. There are four- 
teen bicycles, roller skates and ice skates, sleds, 
boxing gloves, tumbling mats, baseball gloves and 
bats. There is a carpenter shop with an electric jig- 
saw. The outdoor playground has a sand box, 
swings, teeter-totters, slides and a large wading 
pool. The children have a number of pets: four pedi- 
greed Irish setters, pigeons, rabbits, turtles, ducks 
and chickens, a goat, four burros, and three carts, a 
sleigh and several saddles. The Home owns a mov- 
ing-picture sound projector and one of the older 
boys is a licensed operator. Films are received for 
two shows each week, which are also attended by 
young people in the neighborhood. 

Children are encouraged to invite their parents 
and friends to Sunday night supper. They also enter- 
tain their Sunday school classes and school friends. 
The parties held at the Home are the envy of the 
neighborhood. Through the generosity of friends of 
the Home, the children attend the circus and have 
picnics and outings during the summer. Their Christ- 
mas celebration is financed by the Tramerick Club. 

The children are also taught to work and to be 
self-reliant. They assist with household tasks, and 
the care of the grounds and the animals. lobs are 
rotated every two weeks. Certain of these are paid 
jobs and the children may also earn money outside 
the Home. Some of the older boys work in groceries 
and at other jobs. Older girls are employed as clerks, 
salesgirls, waitresses and in caring for children. 
These youngsters have bank accounts and own War 
Bonds. 

The barriers between the Home and the outside 
world have been broken down. The children attend 
public school and a number belong to Y. M. C. A., 
Y. W. C. A., Girl Scouts or Boy Scouts. They take an 
active part in music, dramatics and sports. Many of 
them attend summer camp. 

Few of the children had any religious affiliation 
before entering the Home. Now they attend Sunday 
school regularly and many have received gift books 
for perfect attendance. A number of the teen-age 
boys and girls are leaders in the Young People's 
Group at the First Presbyterian Church. 

A large library of children's books is located in 
the Home and the youngsters also have cards at 
the Martin Library. 

Children from the Home make average and higher 
grades in school. Although every effort is made to 
place the children in foster homes, those that remain 
in the Home are not pushed out into the world to 
make their own way with a minimum of education. 
Higher education is provided for children with abil- 
ity through scholarships and part-time jobs. Ten are 
at present in senior high school, three have entered 
nursing, two have trained as machine operators and 
five have gone on to college. Business education will 
be provided if desired, and music lessons are avail- 
able for all showing ability. 

Originally planned as a soldiers' orphans' home, 
the Children's Home of York City and County is 
again caring for a number of soldiers' children while 
fathers are in the service. There are sixty-five chil- 
dren in the Home, attended by a staff of twelve. Most 
of the children are not orphans but the product of 
broken homes. Many leave when homes are reestab- 



lished, but there are many older children who return 
often to visit the only real home they have ever 
known. 

FAMILY SERVICE BUREAU 

The Family Service Bureau, located in the Welfare 
Building at 309 East Market Street, provides social 
service on a professional level for York and its sub- 
urbs, and to residents of the county, in selected 
cases. 

The Bureau fosters family life, aids those in 
trouble, and works to improve social conditions in 
the community. 

Among the many problems handled confidentially 
each year are those involving poor health, family 
discord, money troubles, mental disease, and delin- 
quency. Children are aided through nursery school 
care, analysis of their school problems, and in case 
of neglect or dependency, by placement in child- 
care institutions. Personal guidance is given to the 
emotionally unstable, and vocational information is 
obtained for those seeking it. 

Persons who need help may contact the Family 
Service Bureau by telephone, by letter, or in per- 
son. Veterans and their families may request aid not 
being given by any other agency. Employers, min- 
isters, teachers, personnel counsellors and others in 
responsible positions may request aid for those in 
their charge, providing the consent of the person to 
be advised has been obtained. 

Solutions for many acute personal and social 
problems are found by the Family Service Bureau 
through its close cooperation with the other health, 
welfare and recreational agencies of the city. 

JUNIOR SERVICE LEAGUE OF YORK 

The Junior Service League of York is an organiza- 
tion of women between the ages of eighteen and 
forty interested in the social, cultural and civic af- 
fairs of the community. Since its formation in 1930, 
it has rendered outstanding support and volunteer 
aid to welfare work in this vicinity. 

Through its training course, provisional members 
are made acquainted by lectures and field trips with 
the public health, welfare and cultural agencies of 
the community, and are thus able to render intelli- 
gent service where needed. During the past year, 
the 101 members of the League have given a total 
of more than 10,000 hours of volunteer service to 
the Visiting Nurse Association, the Young Women's 
Christian Association, the Welfare Drive, Girl Scouts, 
Family Srvice Bureau, War Bond Drive, U. S. Ration 
Board, Maternal Health Center and all branches of 
Red Cross work. At the York Hospital, they acted as 
hostesses, tutored convalescent children, did per- 
sonal shopping and provided library service for 
patients. 

In line with its cultural and educational aims, 
members of the organization have served as volun- 
teer workers at the Martin Memorial Library and the 
Historical Society of York County, and have brought 
to York such worth while entertainment as the Clare 
Tree Major Players and the San Carlos Opera 
Company. 

The League has equipped a bathroom and a 
neighborhood craft shop at the Children's Home, 
provided two ambulances, one for the Red Cross 



and one for the York Hospital. In that institution it 
has also furnished and maintained a dental clinic 
and provided other necessary hospital equipment. 
Thirty thousand dollars has been raised since its or- 
ganization by the Junior Service League, all of which 
has been contributed toward the work of the local 
social agencies. 

NEW YORK HERALD-TRIBUNE 
FRESH AIR CHILDREN 

Under the chairmanship of Dr. Theodore Thomp- 
son, for the past twenty years, groups of children 
from the tenements of New York City have enjoyed 
two weeks or more of wholesome country life in 
beautiful York County. Through the sponsorship of 
the York Kiwanis Club more than 1,400 boys and 
girls have been given this opportunity for improved 
health and first-hand contact with the American way 
of life in homes opened to them by hospitable York- 
ers. The New York Herald-Tribune Fresh Air Fund 
pays transportation only. The rest of the vacation is 
provided by the children's hosts and hostesses. 

SALVATION ARMY 

The Salvation Army occupies the entire building 
at 128 West Market Street. Facilities include a recre- 
ation room for young people, offices, two auditor- 
iums, a lounge and transient kitchen, and sleeping 
accommodations for 100 men. 

The war services of the Salvation Army include 
the Red Shield Club for servicemen, maintenance of 
a canteen in Continental Square, and knitting by 
the ladies of the organization. Meanwhile, visits to 
the county jail and penitentiary, work with indigent 
men, aid to unmarried mothers, supervision of pa- 
rolees, and evangelistic work also continue. 

SOCIETY FOR THE PREVENTION OF 
CRUELTY TO ANIMALS 

York had a Society for the Prevention of Cruelty 
to Animals as early as 1873, but it passed out of 
existence. 

Dr. O. E. Gladfelter was the first agent of the pres- 
ent S. P. C. A. in York after its incorporation in 1926 
and served in that capacity for many years. 

The Society has for its object the prevention of 
cruelty to animals and the enforcement of laws for 
their protection. It also prints, purchases, and circu- 
lates books on the subject. 

The S. P. C. A. Shelter, at the rear of 820 South 
Newberry Street with living quarters for an atten- 
dant, is used as a home for lost or neglected animals 
until owners can be located or new homes found. If 
the animals brought in are sick or injured they are 
humanely destroyed. 

Citizens are invited to report to the Society cases 
of cruelty or mistreatment. Steps are taken not to 
prosecute the owner, but rather to insure proper care 
of the animal. The name of the informant is never 
revealed. 

YORK BRANCH, NEEDLEWORK GUILD 
OF AMERICA, INC. 

The York Branch of the Needlework Guild of 
America collects new, plain, serviceable garments 
for distribution to hospitals, homes and other chari- 



ties. Each member contributes annually two or more 
new articles of wearing apparel or household linen, 
or a sum of money. The present membership in York 
is about 2,000. In 1944, 5,377 garments were col- 
lected which were distributed through the American 
Red Cross, Catholic Charities, Children's Home, 
Children's Services, Distribution Center, Family Ser- 
vice Bureau, Maternal Health Center, Ruth Bennet 
Club, Salvation Army, Visiting Nurse Association, 
West Side Sanitarium, York Hospital, and to needy 
families. 

The York Branch of the Needlework Guild of 
America has been serving the community since 1902, 
when Mrs. William Stair was elected its first presi- 
dent. 

YORK COUNTY BLIND CENTER 

The York County Blind Center, at 227 East Phila- 
delphia Street, was established for the purpose of 
bettering conditions among the blind. The Center 
keeps in touch with all blind persons in the county. 
Instruction is given in reading and writing in Braille. 
By teaching typewriting and handicrafts, and by 
finding positions for blind persons in industry, Super- 
intendent Fred O. Boyer has helped many to become 



self-supporting. The Center is supported by volun- 
tary contributions and is a participating agency of 
the York Welfare Federation, Inc. 




Making brooms and caning chairs at the Blind Center. 



Agriculture In York County 



AGRICULTURE 

Approximately half the people of York County 
live in rural areas and are engaged in agriculture. 

Within the 903 square miles of the county are 
7,000 farms, 83.8% of which are farmed by their 
owners. The average size of farm is sixty-two acres. 
The land of the county is used as follows: 69% is 
cropland; 19.9% is woodland; 3.8% is pasture; 1.3% 
is idle; 1.1% is in orchards; and .5% in farmsteads. 
Most farmers have access to electricity and many 
use it for the operation of machinery and to provide 
all conveniences for their families. 

York County's agricultural products are as diversi- 
fied as those of its industries. Its farms range from 
homesteads which have been passed down through 
a single family since Colonial times, to "Gentle- 
men's farms," with championship blooded stock 
riding horses, swimming pool, and every modern 
improvement. 

TRUCK FARMING 

Truck farmers are within overnight hauling dis- 
tance of the great markets of Washington, Baltimore, 
Philadelphia and New York. All kinds of fruits, veg- 
etables and poultry and dairy products are sold. 
York County's celery is famous. 

FRUIT GROWING 

Fruit growing is an important industry. Over 663,- 
000 bushels of apples are produced annually, and 
more than 168,000 bushels of peaches. Cherries and 
pears are also grown in abundance. The production 
of the 604 farms engaged in raising strawberries 
totals more than 600,000 quarts each year. 

CANNERIES 

York County has twenty commercial canneries, 
more than any other county in the State. In 1940, the 
following acreages were planted under contract: 
4,141 acres of sweet corn; 1,900 acres of tomatoes; 
1,400 acres of snap beans; and 1,350 acres of peas. 




POULTRY 

York County ranks third in the United States in 
the value of its poultry products. It raises more tur- 
keys than any other county in the eastern United 
States. In 1941, it produced 17,255,000 dozens of eggs, 
valued at more than four and a half million dollars. 
In 1942, it had 1,739,000 hens. 

LIVESTOCK 

The total value of livestock in York County in 1942 
was $6,400,000. There were 24,000 dairy animals. 
Value of dairy products produced in 1940 was 
$1,806,000. 

Two hundred and fifty dairymen are interested in 
artificial breeding of dairy cattle which will result 
in further improvement of stock. 

FIELD CROPS 

In 1940, field crops in York County were valued 
as follows: corn, $2,196,000; wheat, $1,304,000; hay, 
$1,233,000; and potatoes, $963,000. Alfalfa, soybeans, 
oats and barley are also raised. Approximately 3,000 
acres are planted in tobacco each year. 

AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION 

Through cooperation with Pennsylvania State Col- 
lege, a County Agent, with offices in the Post-Office 
Building, carries on educational and extension work 
in agriculture, encouraging improvement of live- 
stock; scientific poultry production; control of soil 
erosion; use of hybrid corn and the work of the 4-H 
clubs. A Home Economics Demonstrator aids women 
and girls with canning, sewing, personal and home 
improvement. 




Incubator room cr( (he Guy A. Leader Poultry Farm. 



Scientific methods place York County third in poultry 
production in the entire United States. 




Lauxmont Farms. 




York County produces more (hern 168,000 bushels at pecrche 
annually. 





Lauxmont Rag Apple Lucinda, Grand Champion at leading 

fairs, and a( (he Harrisburg Farm Show, 1942. Her record was 

883 pounds of buffer faf, 4.0 test. 




York County leads Pennsylvania in the production of swine. 



Gien Affon Rag Apple Mark brought top price of $15,200 at 
the Blue Ribbon Sale. 



YORK COUNTY SOIL CONSERVATION 
DISTRICT 

When Vice-President Henry Wallace visited China 
and Russia by plane in the spring of 1944, he took 
with him two sound films to show to our Allies. One 
of them, "For Years to Come; A Primer of Conserva- 
tion," was of a typical York County farm located just 
south of Manchester and owned by Christian Musser. 
The film shows in technicolor how in just one year 
production was increased by the change from square 
field to conservation farming. 

During World War I, Christian Musser was a 
buddy of Sergeant York. He used his mustering-out 
pay as a down-payment on the 100-acre Spring 
Run Farm. The ten-room farmhouse, dated 1852, and 
the stone barn are of Pennsylvania Dutch architec- 
ture, but the methods of contour, strip-farming and 
scientific crop rotation used are strictly modern. In 
addition to raising field crops, the Mussers have 
twenty acres of orchards, seven acres of truck gar- 
den and swine, turkeys and chickens. They retail 
produce over a regular route during the summer and 
"stand market" in York the year round. 

The film, showing Mr. and Mrs. Musser and their 
two girls and three boys at work on the farm, has 
been equipped with sound tracks in several different 



64 



languages and is being used in Europe to counteract 
German propaganda to the effect that there is a 
severe food shortage in the United States. "For Years 
to Come" is being used all over the country by the 
Department of Agriculture and one implement com- 
pany alone has purchased eighty copies to show 
farmers. 

On November 17, 1944, under sponsorship of the 
York Soil Conservation District, York Chamber of 
Commerce, the Manufacturers' Association and the 
York County Conservation Society, with Louis Brom- 
field as guest speaker, "For Years to Come" was 
shown to 1,400 people in the William Penn Senior 
High School Auditorium. 

Although this was the most publicized event in the 
district's history, the York Soil Conservation District 
had been quietly aiding farmers in many other ways. 

During the year, 101 farmers, representing 11,412 
acres, became district cooperators, and were assisted 
in laying out their farms on the new plan. Farm 
ponds were encouraged and 1,120 fish supplied to 
stock them. Assistance was given in the production 
and marketing of woodland products. Thirty acres of 
orchard were set on terraces and a reforestation 
plan was worked out for the Spring Grove water 
shed. Two radio programs were given over W S B A 
at the request of the People's Forum. 

Since 1938, the York Soil Conservation District has 
been at work. At present, 546 farmers, holding a total 
of approximately 55,000 acres of land, are cooper- 
ating in checking erosion and increasing yield on 
farms in York County. It is estimated that this work 
brings to farmers three dollars return for every dol- 
lar expended. 

THE HANOVER SHOE FARMS 

The Hanover Shoe Farms, located in York County 
just north of the Maryland Line, managed by Dr. 
C. R. Richards, for many years in charge of Alfred 
Vanderbilt's Sagamore Farm, and owned by H. D. 
Sheppard, C. N. Myers and L. B. Sheppard, is known 
throughout the racing world for its breeding and 
training of blooded horses. 

From the Hanover Shoe Farms comes Titan Han- 
over, greatest trotter of the age, who trotted the 
world's record mile at Lexington, Kentucky, October 
4, 1944, in two minutes flat. The 2:02 record that he 
smashed that day had been held jointly by Han- 
over's Bertha and Lawrence Hanover. His winnings 
for the season were around $25,000. 



Among the yearlings sent to the Standard-Bred 
Sale, held at the York Fair Grounds, was Whitney 
Hanover who brought $17,000, more money than was 
ever paid for a harness-bred yearling previous to 
1944. 

At Old Orchard, Maine, in 1944, in a trotting event 
for two-year-olds, top honors went to Beatrice Han- 
over, second to Jenifer Hanover, third to Kimberly 
Hanover, and fourth to Honor Hanover. 

Hanover Shoe Farms also own the two fastest liv- 
ing trotting stallions, Nibble Hanover and Spencer 
Scott, and the fastest pacing stallion, Billy Direct. 

One hundred and thirty-five colts are expected at 
the Hanover Farms in 1945, among which there will 
doubtless be many future champions. 

YORK IMPERIAL APPLE 

Boys in the apple orchard again! John Kline looked 
out of the window of his farm home, near Hallam, 
one May afternoon in 1826. 

It was only natural for boys on the way home from 
school to look for apples under his trees in late sum- 
mer and fall, but what were they doing poking 
around under the fallen leaves in May? As Mr. Kline 
opened the door, the boys tumbled over the fence 
and were gone. When he looked under the tree 
where they had been, he found a number of apples 
on the ground. These apples had lain under the 
snow all winter, but were still perfectly firm and 
delicious. 

There was no refrigeration in those days and 
many apples spoiled before spring. Mr. Jonathan 
Jessop, as well as being a noted clockmaker and 
teacher of Phineas Davis, propagated young apple 
trees in his nursery at Springwood Farm, two miles 
south of York. He would certainly be interested in 
an apple which would keep all winter, its flavor im- 
proving with age. 

Mr. Jessop grafted stems from this tree onto a large 
number of apple seedlings. Fruit growers of York 
County purchased trees and Quakers whom he met 
at the Friends' Yearly Meeting in Baltimore carried 
the tree to Leesburg and Winchester, thus starting the 
great apple industry of Virginia, where 60 per cent of 
the apples grown are York Imperials. These Friends 
called it "Jonathan's Fine Winter Apple," but Charles 
Downing, a pomologist of New York State, where 
the tree had been introduced, suggested the name 
"York Imperial." 




Contour farming. 



Titan Hanover froffing his record mile in two minutes. 



65 



The York Imperial apple is grown extensively in 
Michigan, Virginia, West Virginia, Ohio, Indiana, 
and Missouri, as well as New York State, Pennsyl- 
vania, and Maryland. At one time it was worth more 
commercially than any other apple and has been ex- 
ported to all parts of the world, especially to England 
and France. 

On the eighteenth day of August, 1920, the State 
Horticultural Association of Pennsylvania dedicated 
a monument at Springwood Farms, now owned by 
the family of John C. Schmidt, to commemorate the 
site of the origin of the widely-known York Imperial 
apple. 



YORK IMPERIAL SWEET CHERRY 

York County's cherries, both the sweet and the 
sour pie cherries, have been famous for generations. 
However, after more than fifteen years of research 
and study, two York County men developed the 
only self-pollenizing sweet cherry tree now known. 
John A. C. Ziegler, Jr., and Horace B. Faber, of the 
White Rose Seed and Nursery Company, developed 
through cross-pollenization a new variety of sweet 
cherry tree which has been patented under U. S. 
Plant Patent 421. This new hybrid has been named 
the York Imperial Sweet Cherry. 

This York Imperial Sweet Cherry Tree produces 
fruit three years after planting a one-year whip. It 




endures very low temperatures and will help pol- 
lenize other varieties of sweet cherries when planted 
close to them. 

It is very prolific. It bears big clusters of bright 
red cherries, many of which are more than one inch 
in diameter. They are good shippers, valuable for 
canning and eating, and they do not split at maturity. 

The York Imperial Sweet Cherry Tree has been 
exhibited at the New York Flower Show and at the 
1942 Pennsylvania Farm Products Show, and was 
rated there as the outstanding development in 
horticulture. 

The American Fruit Grower in their issue of May, 
1942, featured the York Imperial Sweet Cherry. 

REFRIGERATION 

Refrigeration is one of the most important factors 
today in the preservation of food for home use. York 
County already has a number of locker plants and 
more will be installed at convenient locations as 
soon as building conditions permit. 

The following plants offer refrigerated locker stor- 
age: Arctic Locker System, Jefferson and Juniper 
Streets, York, and Red Lion; R. C. Anderson, Stew- 
artstown; Spring Grove Locker Company, Spring 
Grove; Lloyd McCullough, Glen Rock; and River 
View Locker Storage, York Haven. 

Many fruit growers have their own packing plants 
and refrigerated storage. Among these are Ander- 
son's Fruit Farms, Stewartstown; Harry M. Ander- 
son, New Park; Ralph Anderson, Fawn Grove; and 
J. Bentz Kauffman, R. D. 7, York. 

There are sixty-seven retail country butchers who 
slaughter and do their own curing of meat who have 
refrigeration equipment. They have provided York 
with a plentiful supply of meat even when other 
sections of the country have been experiencing 
shortages. 




Monument to an apple The York Imperial. 



The York Imperial Sweet Cherry. 



66 



Associations and Clubs 



BUSINESS ASSOCIATIONS 

York Chamber of Commerce 

The York Chamber of Commerce is an organi- 
zation through which business men may pool their 
ideas and efforts for community advancement. Mem- 
bership is open to all business and professional men. 
The Chamber has a board of fifteen directors. Three 
are elected each year and no director can succeed 
himself. Presidents are also limited to a one-year 
term. Thus are brought into action, new personali- 
ties and new ideas. Committees are set up to formu- 
late and carry out projects under the direction of 
the board. 

The York Chamber of Commerce occupies about 
4,000 square feet of space, the entire third floor 
of the Schmidt Building overlooking Continental 
Square. Here are located the general offices, the of- 
fice of the secretary, committee rooms and an assem- 
bly room with a capacity of 100. These offices also 
house the York Welfare Federation and the Retail 
Credit Bureau, thus effecting a large saving to the 
community in the overhead of these organizations. 

The Chamber promises no specific services to 
members in return for the dues they pay. However, 
it works to build a community in which honest busi- 
ness can thrive and prosper. It also strives to pro- 
mote and preserve individual enterprise within a 
framework of necessary governmental regulation. 

The York Chamber of Commerce traces its origin 
back to 1897 when a small group of merchants 
formed a Protective Association. There was already 



in existence a flourishing Manufacturers' Associa- 
tion. A few wise leaders concluded that an organi- 
zation in which both industry and commerce were 
represented would be of most benefit to the commu- 
nity, and in 1909 the York Chamber of Commerce 
was incorporated. The Manufacturers' Association 
is still functioning excellently in its field as is the 
Retail Merchants' Bureau in the field of distribution. 
The members of both groups, however, belong to the 
Chamber of Commerce and York has become known 
far and wide for its fine spirit of cooperation. 

The Retail Credit Bureau 

The merchants of York own and operate their own 
Credit Bureau which was incorporated March 28, 
1927. 

In its files are approximately 100,000 cards and 
reports relating to the paying habits of the citizens 
of the shopping area. 

The Bureau also does personnel reporting for 
prospective employers where positions of trust are 
involved. 

Through its affiliation with a national association, 
credit reports can be secured on practically any in- 
dividual living within the United States. 

The Bureau has its offices in the Chamber of 
Commerce quarters in the Schmidt Building on the 
Square. 

The Retail Merchants' Bureau 

When, in 1909, the Retail Merchants' Association 
dissolved and the York Chamber of Commerce was 




Annual banquet of the Chamber of Commerce, 1945. 



incorporated, the merchant members of the latter 
organization were permitted to function as a branch 
of the Chamber, to be designated The Retail Mer- 
chants' Bureau. 

The governing body of the Bureau is the Retail 
Merchants' Council. It is composed of 16 persons, 
each representing one individual trade, chosen by 
the members thereof. No representative may hold 
office for more than three consecutive years. The 
Council elects its own chairman who is restricted to 
two consecutive years in office. These provisions in- 
sure the necessary turnover which is the best and 
surest guarantee of a democratic organization. 

The Council meets monthly and acts upon prob- 
lems common to retail distribution. It determines 
holiday schedules, shopping hours, advertising poli- 
cies, solicitations, sales events and promotional 
advertising. 

Banking and Finance 

York has always been noted for its financial sta- 
bility. Even during the depression there were no 
bank failures in York. The city has a clearing-house 
and 7 banks with total resources of $111,000,000 and 
capital funds of $8,500,000. 

The banks are Drovers and Mechanics National 
Bank of York, 30 South George Street; First National 
Bank of York, corner Continental Square and North 
George Street; Industrial National Bank of West 
York, 1401 West Market Street; Western National 
Bank of York, 301 West Market Street; York County 
National Bank, 12 East Market Street; York National 
Bank and Trust Company, 105-107 West Market 
Street, and the York Trust Company, 21-23 East 
Market Street. 

Total bank clearings for the past five years are 
as follows: 

1940 $69,616,360.51 
1941 $87,349,218.91 

1942 $95,767,364.77 

1943 $99,325,694.69 

1944 $92,968,112.42 




The building ot the Manufacturers' Association. 



Three nationally-known brokerage firms maintain 
branch offices in York and supply direct-wire con- 
nections to the world's great stock and commodity 
markets. 



Manufacturers' Association 

The Manufacturers' Association of York was organ- 
ized February 3, 1906, for the purpose of gathering 
statistics of business and for the general encourage- 
ment of the manufacturing interests of the City of 
York and the County of York. The first meeting was 
held on March 5, 1906, with twenty-nine industries 
represented. Today, the association has 170 indus- 
tries as members. 

On July 25, 1922, the Board of Directors authorized 
the purchase of a site located at 25 North Duke Street 
and on June 28, 1926, the contract to erect a three- 
story, fireproof building was awarded to Hess Broth- 
ers of York. The total cost of the building and site 
was $120,000. The building was occupied September 
19, 1927, and contains the general offices of the asso- 
ciation, a directors' room, an assembly hall, and 
twenty-eight tenant offices. 

The Manufacturers' Association was active in pro- 
moting the Wrightsville-Columbia Bridge, the Flood 
Control Project and the York Plan. Through their co- 
operation, the students from the industrial-coopera- 
tive course in the William Penn Senior High School 
are placed in thirty-seven plants. Since 1911, three 
fine watches have been awarded by the association 
each year to boys with the highest rating in this 
course. 



American Institute of Banking, York Chapter 

The American Institute of Banking, York Chapter, 
has a membership of 230 banking and brokerage 
firm employees who meet to study the methods and 
procedures of sound banking practice. 

York County Bankers' Association 

The York County Bankers' Association, founded 
October 13, 1913, meets annually on Columbus Day. 
Its membership of 29 includes executives from all the 
banks of York County and one from Adams County. 

National Association of Cost Accountants 

The National Association of Cost Accountants, 
York Chapter, has a membership of 180. Monthly 
meetings, from September through May, featuring 
speakers of national reputation, are held at the Hotel 
Yorktowne. A discussion follows in which all may 
participate. Thus members not only receive the most 
up-to-date information on accounting practices, but 
also obtain help with individual problems. Dues in- 
clude a subscription to the monthly publication, the 
annual year-book, a research and question service, 
and an employment service provided by the national 
organization. 

York Association of Life Underwriters 

The York Association of Life Underwriters, with a 
membership of sixty, holds a monthly luncheon meet- 
ing at the Penn Hotel. The Association, which was 



founded in 1926, has frequently supplied speakers to 
schools and civic organizations. In 1941, the National 
Association of Life Underwriters, with which the local 
organization is affiliated, undertook the installation 
of the payroll savings plan in industry for the pur- 
chase of war bonds throughout the country. The 
local organization installed the plan in the industries 
of York County, thus making possible the purchase 
of many thousands of dollars worth of bonds through 
payroll deductions. 

Real Estate Board of York, Pennsylvania 

The Real Estate Board of York, Pennsylvania, 
meets twice monthly for luncheon at the Penn Hotel 
to study problems of taxes, zoning and better hous- 
ing, and to promote better relationships between the 
public and real estate brokers. Organized in 1923, 
it has a membership of twenty. 

PROFESSIONAL SOCIETIES 

York County Bar Association 

The York County Bar Association, founded before 
1900, has a membership of eighty and meets on call 
of the president. 

York County Dental Society 

The York County Dental Society, organized in 
1902, has sixty-one members. The Society holds an 
evening meeting once monthly, excepting during 
July and August. Its purpose is to promote the public 
welfare by the advancement of the dental profes- 
sion; in education, science, mutual fellowship and 
good feeling; by union of effort with other local or- 
ganizations; by the advocation of proper legislation, 
and by cooperation with the medical profession in 
all matters of mutual interest and advantage to the 
people of the community. 

York County Medical Society 

The York County Medical Society, a component 
of the Pennsylvania State Medical Society, was or- 
ganized at East Prospect, York County, Pa., in 1873, 
and incorporated in York, Pa., in 1901. 

The purpose of the Organization is advancement 
of medical science and organization of the profes- 
sion in connection with the Medical Society of the 
State of Pennsylvania and the American Medical 
Association; elevation of the character and the pro- 
tection of the proper rights and interests of those 
engaged in the practice of medicine, and the study 
of the means calculated to render the medical pro- 
fession most useful to the public and most subser- 
vient to the great interest of humanity. 

At present, there are 165 active members on the 
roll of the Society, 45 members being in the armed 
forces of the United States. 

The headquarters of the Society are in the Profes- 
sional Building, 141 East Market Street, York, Pa. 

York County Ministerial Association 

The object of the York County Ministerial Associa- 
tion is to promote the professional, social and spir- 
itual interests of its members; to cooperate with other 
civic, social, and religious groups; to sponsor inter- 
denominational religious activities in the city and 
county, and to conduct religious services in public 



and private institutions when requested. Divine wor- 
ship is conducted regularly in the York County Jail 
and York County Home. A morning service is broad- 
cast over WORK and an afternoon service over 
W S B A. The association is affiliated with the Penn- 
sylvania Council of Churches and the Federal Coun- 
cil of Churches of Christ in America. 

TECHNICAL ORGANIZATIONS 

Engineering Society of York, Pennsylvania 
The Engineering Society of York, Pennsylvania, 
organized in 1910, has its own modern building at 
24 South Beaver Street. There are approximately 300 
members and meetings are held monthly from Sep- 
tember through April. Social functions, as well as 
lectures on engineering practices, are part of the 
program of the Society. 

The Society advances engineering knowledge in 
the community through giving technical magazines 
to the Martin Library, and awarding engineering 
handbooks and money prizes for excellence in sci- 
ence, mathematics and industrial studies at the Wil- 
liam Penn Senior High School. It has also cooperated 
in planning the engineering technology course at 
the York Junior College. The Society sends delegates 
to the council of the York Welfare Federation and 
has two votes at the election of trustees at Pennsyl- 
vania State College. 

American Society of Metals 

Since many important metals industries are lo- 
cated in York, the local chapter of the American So- 
ciety of Metals is a very active one. Its 140 members 
are drawn from the Harrisburg, Lancaster, Waynes- 
boro and the Greater York area. Since its beginning 
in 1929, speakers, demonstrations and movies deal- 
ing with the selection, fabrication, treatment, weld- 
ing and uses of metals have been featured at its 
monthly meetings. Many local metals plants have 
admitted the club on tours of inspection. Members 
are entitled to the publications of the society and to 
book, library and photostat services. An Annual 
Metal Congress and National Metal Exhibition are 
held by the national organization. 

York-Central-Pennsylvania Section of 
The American Welding Society 

The York-Central-Pennsylvania Section of the 
American Welding Society, organized in 1939, draws 
its 134 members from the metals industries in Belle- 
fonte, Burnham, Coatesville, Downingtown, Harris- 
burg, Holtwood, Lancaster, Lebanon, Lewistown, 
and Waynesboro, as well as York. Industries in these 
cities are visited by the members from time to time. 

Regular bi-monthly meetings featuring lectures, 
demonstrations and movies on latest developments 
in welding are held at the Engineering Society 
Building at 24 South Beaver Street in York. 

INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATIONS 

Foremen's Club 

The Foremen's Club of the York Y. M. C. A., In- 
dustrial Department, is nationally recognized as one 
of the largest and most active clubs of its kind in the 
country. Ever since its organization in 1927, its pro- 
gram has been designed to meet the industrial needs 
of its members who rank from assistant foremen to 



plant executives. One hundred and seventeen in- 
dustries scattered throughout the county are repre- 
sented. Within the club is an even more select group, 
the 354 men who form the Safety Leaders' Club, with 
the record of no loss-of-time accident within their 
departments for the period of one year. This group 
has been designated by the National Safety Council 
as the Safety Council of York County. 

York Club of Printing House Craftsmen 

The York Club of Printing House Craftsmen, 
founded in 1928, has a membership of 138. Monthly 
dinner meetings are held at various hotels. This or- 
ganization of plant owners, printing executives, sup- 
erintendents, foremen, and assistant foremen was 
formed for the education and advancement of those 
engaged in all branches of the trade. The club holds 
exhibitions of the graphic arts which are open to the 
public and which show the latest developments in 
processes and presses as well as specimens of fine 
printing. 

York Traffic Club 

The York Traffic Club was organized in 1919 with 
a membership of fifty which has now increased to 
188, resident and non-resident members. Meetings 
are held monthly at the Hotel Yorktowne for the pur- 
pose of extending friendship among members and 
promoting better relationships between traffic, trans- 
portation, commercial and industrial organizations. 
The club is affiliated with the Associated Traffic Club 
of America. 

SERVICE CLUBS 

Exchange Club of York 

Men from all types of business are represented 
among the 80 members of the Exchange Club of 
York. Dinner meetings are held weekly at the York- 
towne Hotel. The program of the club embraces civic 
betterment and child welfare. The Exchange Club 
was one of the organizations responsible for bring- 
ing a probation officer to York. 

The Rotary Club 

The Rotary Club of York, Pennsylvania, organized 
in 1916, has a membership of 179. The Club meets 
weekly at noon on Wednesdays for luncheon at the 
Hotel Yorktowne. Rotary, in conjunction with the 



Welfare Association, has sponsored a Crippled Chil- 
dren's Clinic at the York Hospital. In its twenty years 
of existence, 7,193 children have been brought to 
the Clinic for examination, operations, and adjust- 
ment of braces. Noted surgeons have performed 790 
operations many of which were highly successful. 
Rotary also maintains an educational loan fund and 
sponsors Troop 15 of the Boy Scouts. 

Kiwanis Club 

The Kiwanis Club holds its dinner meeting weekly 
at the Yorktowne Hotel. Established in 1917, it has 
attained a membership of 115. Some of the many 
outstanding contributions of Kiwanis to community 
welfare have been: sending worthy boys and girls 
to summer camps; providing dental and optical care 
for many children and adults, and arranging for 
summer vacations for children from the congested 
areas of New York City in country homes of York 
County. The club has also organized and maintained 
the Kiwanis Boys' Band. 

Among the civic projects undertaken was the sup- 
port given to the bond issue which built the Wrights- 
ville-Columbia Bridge and which has since been 
completely paid for through tolls. The club advocated 
and saw through to completion the Comfort Station, 
located in the Square, which provides toilet, bathing, 
telephone, and checking facilities for shoppers and 
transients. A marshy tract of land bordering Far- 
quhar Park was converted into beautiful Kiwanis 
Lake. York Kiwanis Club was active in promoting 
the Y. M. C. A., the Hotel Yorktowne, and the York 
Hospital, and has backed up bond sales in both 
World War I and World War II. 

Exchange Club of West York 

The Exchange Club of West York, the only service 
club in the borough, was organized in 1934. Limited 
to a membership of eighty-five business and profes- 
sional men, it meets twice monthly for dinner at the 
West York Inn. One of the largest Exchange Clubs 
in Pennsylvania, it stresses service to youth and co- 
operates effectively with the West York schools. 

Lions' Club 

The Lions' Club, organized in 1921, holds its weekly 
luncheon meeting at the Yorktowne Hotel. Its 113 
members carry out a program embracing friendship, 
charity, and service to the community. The club aids 




A banquet of (he York Foreman's Club, one of (he largest and most active in the country. 



underprivileged boys and girls through the Y. W. 
C. A., and Y. M. C. A., and presents an annual Police 
Award. 

The major project undertaken by the Lions is sight 
conservation. The club founded and for years was 
the sole support of the York County Blind Center. 

Monarch Club 

The Monarch Club, founded in 1927, has a mem- 
bership of sixteen. It holds a dinner meeting weekly 
at the Violet Hill Hotel. The program of the club em- 
braces public welfare and service. 

Optimist Club 

"Friend of the boy," is the slogan of York's newest 
service club, the Optimist, founded in 1945. A weekly 
luncheon meeting is held at the Yorktowne Hotel 
with a program of speakers, movies, and music de- 
signed to promote service to youth, patriotism, good 
government, and international accord. 

Young Businessmen's Association 

The Young Businessmen's Association, with a 
membership of thirty-eight, meets twice monthly to 
discuss civic welfare and improvement. The club 
promoted the installation of a water therapy tank at 
the Visiting Nurse Association building, and raised 
and paid to the Association over $6,000 for water 
therapy treatments for patients unable to pay. Many 
of these patients were children. During the war, 
meetings were suspended while seventy per cent of 
the membership served in the armed forces. 

Business and Professional Club of York 

"A better business woman for a better business 
world," is the slogan of the Business and Professional 
Club of York. Founded in 1930, the club now has 56 
members. This club initiated the survey of juvenile 
delinquency in the community and has actively in- 
terested itself in the development of the U. S. O. and 
Teen-Agers' Club as preventative measures. The pro- 
gram of the club is based upon suggestions received 
from the National Federation. Members are entitled 
to the publication, "The Independent Woman." 

Quota Club 

The Quota Club is an international organization 
for business women. The York Chapter, formed in 
1920, maintains a student loan fund for girls, supplies 
hostesses for the Teen-Agers' Club and sponsors a 
Brownie Troop. Dinner meetings are held twice 
monthly at the Hotel Yorktowne. 

Soroptimist Club of York, Pennsylvania 

The Soroptimist Club, an international service club 
for business and professional women, holds dinner 
meetings twice monthly at the Hotel Yorktowne. 
Formed in 1939, the York Club contributes gener- 
ously to the Red Cross and Welfare Drives; supplies 
and serves food at the U. S. O.; sends several Girl 
Scouts to camp each year; and supplies hostesses 
for the Teen-Agers' Club. The Soroptimists gave a 
combination radio-and-record player to the Red 
Shield Club of the Salvation Army for use in its 
Servicemen's Lounge. 



AUTOMOBILE CLUBS 

Keystone Automobile Club 

In the summer of 1922, Robert McPherson, the pro- 
prietor of the Colonial Hotel, invited James E. Lee, 
Samuel H. Hayes and Felix S. Bentzel to a dinner 
at which the York County Automobile Club was 
formed. The club was first active in defending motor- 
ists against malicious and indiscriminate prosecu- 
tions. They fought squires and constables who made 
a practice of operating speed traps. In December, 
1928, the club was affiliated with the fast-growing 
Keystone Automobile Club, which had headquar- 
ters in Philadelphia. This affiliation extended many 
service features and advantages to members. The 
Keystone Automobile Club was active in removing 
hazards at road intersections; especially, at Cross 
Keys, and they also secured the elimination of grade 
crossings at Stony Brook and Emigsville. Full sup- 
port was given to the bond issue for the erection of 
the Wrightsville-Columbia Bridge. Good roads have 
and always will be one of their major objectives. 
They take pride in the fact that Joseph Weeks, the 
founder of Keystone, was called, "the father of good 
roads in Pennsylvania." The safety director of Key- 
stone has organized, equipped and instructed school 
safety patrols to safeguard the pupils in both public 
and parochial schools of York. 

The White Rose Motor Club 

The White Rose Motor Club, the largest organiza- 
tion of motorists in York County, has a membership 
of more than 6,000. It was organized for the purpose 
of securing the enactment of rational legislation gov- 
erning the use of motor vehicles; protecting owners 
and users of motor vehicles against unjust and un- 
reasonable legislation; and for promoting and en- 
couraging the construction and maintenance of good 
roads, and the improvement of existing highways. 

The secretary and manager, W. K. S. Hershey, has 
his office at the club headquarters at 125 East Mar- 
ket Street. Here members may secure maps, tour 
books, hotel directories, and other information. Mem- 
bers are also entitled to many other services includ- 
ing towing, tire service, notary service, claim and 
adjustment service, personal accident insurance, the 
use of the club emblem, a subscription to the "White 
Rose Motorist," and even to bail, if needed. 

Each year the White Rose Motor Club distributes 
thousands of safety lessons and posters, free of 
charge, to the public and parochial schools of York 
County. 

This club is the local unit of the Pennsylvania Mo- 
tor Federation, largest organization of motorists in 
Pennsylvania, and of the American Automobile Asso- 
ciation, largest organization of motorists in America. 

HOBBY CLUBS 

York Art Club 

The York Art Club, founded in 1906 to develop 
artistic talent in the community, holds classes twice 
weekly from 7:30 to 10:00 P.M., in its studios in the 
Cassatt Building on Continental Square. 

The critic is Mr. A. A. Bosshart, photographer and 
artist, who studied with Robert Henri, noted painter 
and teacher of some of America's best artists. 

Twice a year the club holds an exhibition of the 
work of its members at the Martin Memorial Library. 
This exhibition is free to the public and is visited by 



groups of school children as well as by interested 
adults. 

It has also sponsored shows by out-of-town art 
groups. 

The club has held several Beaux-Arts balls and 
has led in the observance of National Art Week. 

Many of the former and present members of the 
club have gained national recognition in the field 
of art. 

Camera Club 

The Camera Club has 70 members and meets bi- 
monthly in permanent quarters on the third floor of 
the Vigilant Fire House at 267 West Market Street. 
The club conducts classes covering all phases of 
photography including composition, printing, devel- 
oping, enlarging, retouching, etc. An annual exhibi- 
tion is held at the Martin Memorial Library. Work of 
members has been accepted by the Photographic 
Society of America and in national and international 
salons. 

The Garden Club 

"More and better gardens" sums up the objectives 
of the Garden Club of the York County Conservation 
Society. The organization has a membership of fifty 
and meets at the homes of its members. Activities 
have included the promotion of flower shows and 
school gardens, the landscaping of school grounds 
and the planting of the garden at the rear of the 
Martin Memorial Library. The development of Indian 
Steps as a wildflower preserve is one of the long- 
term projects being carried out by the club. 

York Riflemen 

Founded in 1930, the York Riflemen, numbering 
145, maintain the tradition of excellent marksman- 




ship associated with York since Revolutionary Days. 
A rifle range, open Tuesday and Friday evenings, is 
located in the basement of Richley Garage. Since 
Pearl Harbor, the club has trained a large number 




The York Art Club. 

of Auxiliary Police, State Guard, Home Guard and 
Civilian Defense workers. The club admits twenty 
junior members each year for instruction in the safe 
and correct use of firearms. Matches are held and 
medals awarded for marksmanship. The York Rifle- 
men are affiliated with the National Rifle Association. 




Formal gardens at Box Hill, estate of George H. Whiteley, ]r. 




Winter brings changing beauty to the York County landscape. 



Lily pool on the estate ot Mrs. Carey E. Etnier. 



CONSERVATION SOCIETIES 

York County Bird Club 

The York County Bird Club of 65 members meets 
monthly in the Library of the York County Historical 
Society. Founded in 1938, the purpose of the organi- 
zation is the study and observation, protection, con- 
servation and feeding of birds. The club has compiled 
a check list of birds in York County under the direc- 
tion of Edwin T. Moul. Mr. Moul is also responsible 
for the bird room in the York Historical Society Build- 
ing. Feeding stations have been maintained and 
financed along the Susquehanna River and at the 
homes of members. Members have given lectures on 
bird life throughout York County, in the schools and 
before Parent-Teacher and church groups. The club 
has also brought well-known ornithologists and nat- 
uralists to lecture in the city. 

The York County Bird Club is affiliated with the 
National Audubon Society, the Pennsylvania Acad- 
emy of Science, the Philadelphia Academy of Science 
and the Hawk Mountain Sanctuary Association. 

Izaak Walton League of America 
York Chapter, No. 67 

"I pledge my aid and support in the protection of 
America's woods, waters and wild life; to help in- 
crease opportunities for outdoor recreation and safe- 
guard public health; to hunt and fish in accordance 
with the law and to further the League's effort to 
restore the outdoor America of our ancestors." So 
reads the pledge of the Izaak Walton League, a na- 
tional organization, "Defender of woods, waters and 
wild life." Established in 1922, with a present mem- 
bership of 259, York Chapter, No. 67, holds monthly 
meetings at homes of members or at the club's own 
Waltonian Acres, a seventy-acre tract used for fish- 
ing, trap-shooting, dog-training and Boy and Girl 
Scout activities. In cooperation with the city govern- 
ment of York, the club maintains Kiwanis Lake as 
a fishing-pond for children only; operates two fish 
hatcheries and two game propagation areas, and 
has led the fight for clean streams, reforestation and 
soil conservation. 

The Conservation Society of York County, Inc. 

The Conservation Society of York County, Inc., 
founded in 1922, now has a membership of 350. The 
society was formed for the purpose of beautifying 
the home and its surroundings, developing farm 
woodlots, protecting forests and streams, birds, wild 
life and wild flowers, safeguarding forests from fires, 
beautifying cities and towns, preserving historic 
landmarks, and reforesting unused lands. 

Under the direction of Ray F. Zaner, Chief of the 
Boy Scouts of the York- Adams County Area, 100,000 
trees and shrubs have been planted. The Society 
planted roses and shrubbery along the Lincoln High- 
way and landscaped the County Home grounds with 
more than $1,000 worth of trees and shrubbery. 

The Conservation Society initiated plans for York's 
Sesquicentennial Celebration in 1927, and printed 
as a Memorial Souvenir of the occasion, the Wagner 
engravings of early York, a collection which had 
been owned privately and kept under lock and 
key for a hundred years. Five thousand post-cards 
in color of these same views were printed and 
distributed. 



The Old Quaker Meeting-House, which had been 
marked for destruction, was saved by the Society 
and preserved for use. Other old buildings have been 
photographed before being torn down and the pic- 
tures placed in the Historical Society as a record of 
early York. A pamphlet, published by the society in 
1939, entitled "Conservation in the Rural Schools," 
received the commendation of the American Forestry 
Association and the United States Government and 
was widely used by schools all over the United 
States. 

PATRIOTIC ORGANIZATIONS 

Daughters of the American Colonists 
SPRINGETTSBURY MANOR CHAPTER 

The Daughters of the American Colonists, Spring- 
ettsbury Manor Chapter, was organized November 
12, 1938. 

Afternoon meetings of the Chapter are held at the 
homes of members every second month from Sep- 
tember through May. 

In keeping with the policies of the national or- 
ganization, the objects of the Chapter are patriotic, 
historical and educational: To do research in con- 
nection with the history and deeds of the American 
Colonists and record the same; to commemorate 
deeds of historical interest; to maintain and incul- 
cate the love of America and its institutions; to obey 
its laws and venerate its flag. 

Any woman not less than eighteen years of age 
is eligible to membership, providing that she is ac- 
ceptable to the Chapter and can furnish documen- 
tary evidence that she is the lineal descendant of 
an ancestor who rendered civil or military service 
in any of the Colonies prior to July 4, 1776. 

The Daughters of the American Revolution 
YORKTOWN CHAPTER 

COLONEL JAMES SMITH CHAPTER 

The Daughters of the American Revolution have 
rendered the community valuable service by plac- 
ing bronze markers on historic sites of Revolutionary 
days. They offer prizes for excellence in American 
history in both the city and the county schools and 
dressed the Lafayette bed and arranged the Lafay- 
ette room in the building of the Historical Society. 
The purpose of the organization is to perpetuate 
the memory and the spirit of the men and women 
who achieved American independence; to promote 
institutions for the diffusion of knowledge; to cherish, 
maintain, and extend the institution of American 
freedom; to foster true patriotism and love of coun- 
try, and to aid in securing for mankind all the bless- 
ings of liberty. 

VETERANS 

American Legion York Post, No. 127 

To serve God and country in peace as in war has 

been the unswerving aim of York Post, No. 127, The 

American Legion, in all the twenty-six years of its 

existence. The organization's 1,000 members have 

had an active part in practically every community 

welfare project carried on in the Greater York area. 

The first organization in York of men who served 

in World War I was formed on Memorial Day, May 



30, 1919, when between 30 and 40 former soldiers, 
sailors and marines acted as an escort to the Gen- 
eral John Sedgwick Post, No. 37, Grand Army of the 
Republic, in its annual service at Prospect Hill Ceme- 
tery. These men met in the Soldiers' and Sailors' 
Club then maintained in the Hotel Penn. James E. 
Dillon was elected chairman and John C. Hoffman, 
secretary. 

At a meeting of this group at the State Armory on 
June 12, 1919, it was reported that Mayor E. S. Hug- 
entugler had been asked by George F. Tyler, chair- 
man of the state executive committee, to form a post 
of The American Legion in York. 

On December 17, 1919, Attorney William H. Kurtz 
was chosen the first commander under the perma- 
nent charter and served until May 18, 1921. William 
H. Baker, vice-commander, served out the unexpired 
term. It was under the administrations of these two 
men that the property at 133 West Market Street, 
now occupied as a post home, was bought, improved 
and financed. The annual shows, which continued 
for twenty-four years until halted by the second 
World War, were started by Commander Kurtz. 

The post has given its support to movements for 
child welfare, care of orphans, aid to discharged ser- 
vicemen at home and in hospitals. Keystone Boys 
State, highway safety patrol, D. A. R. essay contest, 
junior baseball, Boy Scouts, patriotic celebrations, 
and the promotion of Americanism. . 

The post's auxiliary organizations are Voiture 
No. 9, La Societe des Quarante Hommes et Huit 
Chevaux; American Legion Auxiliary Unit, No. 127; 
York Squadron, Sons of the Legion; the Drum and 
Bugle Corps and sponsorship of the York Boys' Band. 

American Veterans of World War II 

The York Post of the American Veterans of World 
War II, commonly known as the Amvets, although 
organized as recently as February 21, 1945, already 
has a membership of seventy and is the largest Post 
in the State. 

Commander Charles P. Marks, Vice-Commander 
Charles H. Wolf, Adjutant Thomas B. Smyser, State 
Representative R. W. Archbold, and Service Officer 
Clare L. Shanabrough are at work helping to shape 
the policies of the local and state organization. 

Founded in Washington, D. C., in September, 1944, 
the Amvets merged a number of organizations of 
World War II veterans which had sprung up spon- 
taneously throughout the country. 

In matters of national and international policy, the 
Amvets wish to promote peace and prosperity within 
the United States and to see a concrete plan formu- 
lated for keeping the world peace. They plan to find, 
within their ranks, leadership to preserve our Amer- 
ican democratic way of life and to train youth for 
responsible citizenship. 

Amvets wish to encourage fellowship among vet- 
erans of World War II, and are opposed to all dis- 
crimination in the form of race, religious or class 
prejudice. They favor adequate medical care and 
hospitalization for veterans and plan to assist in 
rehabilitation of the disabled through re-education 
and employment service. To all returned servicemen, 
they offer counsel upon problems of personal adjust- 
ment, recreation, insurance and housing. 

The present officers and members of the Amvets 
consider themselves merely trustees for the members 



of the Armed Forces still in the service. They are 
working to insure the orderly return of the veteran 
to civilian life by protecting his rights as an indi- 
vidual while he is still in uniform. 

The York Post has its headquarters in the Spring 
Garden Band Hall, 25 North George Street. 




Veterans of Foreign Wars, White Rose Post, No. 556. 



Jewish War Veterans of the United States 
HAYM SALOMON POST, No. 205 

Haym Salomon (1740-1785) was a Jewish Amer- 
ican financier and patriot. Born in Poland in 1740, 
he migrated to America and became a banker in 
Philadelphia. He aided the Colonial government dur- 
ing Revolutionary days by loaning to Robert Morris 
$350,000, which was never repaid. He also negoti- 
ated the war subsidies from France and Holland. 

The name of this patriot was chosen by the Jewish 
War Veterans of the United States, Haym Salomon 
Post, No. 205. Organized in 1939, the post has a 
membership of thirty-two and meets twice monthly 
at the American Legion. Its purpose is to maintain 
true allegiance to the United States of America, to 
keep alive the spirit of comradeship among men of 
Jewish faith who fought in the various wars of the 
United States, and to assist such comrades and their 
families as stand in the need of help. 



United Spanish War Veterans 
COLONEL EDWIN B. WATTS CAMP, No. 68 

The United Spanish American War Veterans, with 
a membership of fifty, meets once monthly. At its 
peak the organization had one hundred members, 
but death has thinned its ranks. Its purpose is to 
perpetuate the memory of the war with Spain. The 
Camp participates in Memorial Day celebrations and 
in other civic affairs. 

Veterans of Foreign Wars 
WHITE ROSE POST, No. 556 

White Rose Post, No. 556, Veterans of Foreign 
Wars, has 1,425 members, and a Ladies' Auxiliary 
of 720 members. In 1938, at a cost of $70,000, the 



Post erected a memorial building in honor of the 
comrades who gave their lives for the cause of 
lasting peace. The building includes meeting-rooms, 
offices, ballroom, and grille, and many activities are 
carried on regularly. Two adjacent properties have 
been acquired and plans for post-war expansion 
will include gymnasium, bowling alleys, game room, 
showers and a recreation room for Sons of the Vet- 
erans of Foreign Wars. The Post home will be air 
conditioned throughout. 

The privileges of the building are extended to all 
men in uniform today. They also may obtain infor- 
mation concerning service claims and rehabilitation 
from the service officer. 

Membership, however, is open only to those men 
entitled to wear the United States campaign medal 
or badge for service on foreign soil or in hostile 
waters. 

The purposes of the organization are fraternal, 
patriotic, historic and educational. It aims to pre- 
serve and strengthen comradeship among its mem- 
bers; to assist worthy comrades; to perpetuate the 
memory and history of our dead; and to assist their 
widows and orphans; to maintain true allegiance to 
the Government of the United States of America, 
and fidelity to its Constitution and laws; to foster 
true patriotism and to extend the institutions of 
American freedom; and to preserve and defend the 
United States from all its enemies. 

With its Ladies' Auxiliary, the Veterans of Foreign 
Wars conduct an annual Poppy Sale. The flowers 
are made by disabled veterans and the proceeds are 
used to bring cheer to these hospitalized veterans. 

The Veterans of Foreign Wars is the only organi- 
zation which maintains and operates its own Na- 
tional Home for Widows and Orphans. 

WOMEN'S CLUBS 

Woman's Club 

The Woman's Club of York, organized in 1904, for 
twenty-eight years has occupied its own beautiful, 
centrally-located building at 228 East Market Street. 

The Club has spacious meeting-rooms, a well- 
equipped kitchen, and maintains its own library of 
up-to-date books which are loaned free of charge 
to members. 

Through its standing committees on American 
Homes, Citizenship, Conservation and Gardens, Edu- 
cation, Fine Arts, Literature, International Relations, 
Public Welfare and War Service, the Woman's Club 
carries on a stimulating cultural program among its 
500 members. 

Programs of varied interests are presented every 
Friday throughout the Club season. Paid speakers 
from out-of-town alternate with groups and individ- 
uals from York and vicinity. An amazing number of 



local people have graciously shared their talents by 
contributing interesting and educational programs 
of book reviews, literature, music, science and travel. 
Courses of study for members particularly interested 
have been offered in Art, Literature, Music and Bible 
Study. The Young Women's Division has an active 
membership. 




Woman's Club oi York. 

The Club became affiliated with the State Federa- 
tion in 1904 and with the National Federation in 
1922. The Woman's Club of York has been honored 
by having two of its presidents, Mrs. John B. Hamme 
and Mrs. Paul Koenig, serve as presidents of the 
Pennsylvania Federation of Women's Clubs. 

Catholic Woman's Club of York 

The Catholic Woman's Club of York holds an eve- 
ning meeting once monthly at 113 East Philadelphia 
Street. Founded in 1922, its membership has now 
reached seventy-two. 

The club carries on an educational program de- 
signed to develop leadership and to promote a 
knowledge of public affairs. The club coperates with 
many welfare organizations in both local and state 
programs. 



York's Churches 



York has always oeen known as a church-going 
city. There are seventy-three church edifices with a 
total value of more than $5,000,000. Many of them 
are completely modern and contain Sunday school 
rooms, scout rooms, club rooms, kitchens and gym- 
nasiums as well as beautiful church auditoriums. 
The churches carry on a varied program of activities 
reaching all age groups. A number traditionally 
conduct beautiful candlelight services on Christmas 
Eve. A high standard is maintained in church music. 
Trained choirs, orchestras and excellent pipe organs 
contribute to the dignity of the ritual. 

Distribution by denomination is as follows: Lu- 
theran, eighteen; Reformed, ten; Evangelist, eight; 
United Brethren, six; Presbyterian, five; Methodist, 
four; Roman Catholic, four; Baptist, three; and Church 
of God, Church of the Brethren; Episcopal, Men- 
nonite, Moravian, Pentecostal, and African Meth- 
odist, each two; Christian Scientist, Christian and 
Missionary Alliance, Friends', Moravian Episcopal, 
Mormon, Nazarene, and several others, one. There 
are also a number of missions and gospel centers 
in York. There are three Hebrew congregations, two 
orthodox and one reformed. 

CHRIST EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN 
CHURCH 

An old leather-bound record book, bearing entries 
dated 1733, establishes Christ Lutheran as the first 
Lutheran church organized west of the Susquehanna 
River. Until 1760, the congregation met in a log 
building, which served as parochial school and 
church. A stone church was then constructed and 
was finally replaced, in 1812, by the present brick 
church. This building was completely remodeled in 
1874 and 1926. In the interesting old churchyard, 
Michael Doudel, Captain of the York Rifles during the 
Revolution, is buried. During the winter of 1777-78, 
John Nicholas Kurtz, pastor, was active in collecting 
clothes and provisions for Washington's soldiers at 
Valley Forge. English services began to be held in 
the church about 1820. Since 1932, the Rev. Gerald 
Griffin Neely has been pastor. 

THE FIRST MORAVIAN CHURCH 

As early as 1744, Reverend Jacob Lischy, a Mora- 
vian missionary, was preaching to the families at 
Kreutz Creek. In 1752 the First Moravian Church was 
established in York. The congregation first met in 
rented rooms in a tavern, and then in 1755, a church 
house, serving as a school, church and parsonage, 
was erected at Princess Street and Pershing Avenue. 
Here a Moravian school for the children of the com- 
munity was conducted from 1753 to 1757. 

When Luther nailed his theses to the d6or of the 
church in Wittenberg in 1517, the Moravian Church 
was already more than a hundred years old and 
numbered more than 200,000 souls. Founded by John 
Huss in the early 1400's, it was the first Protestant 
Church in the world. John Huss was a peasant and 



had great feeling for the common people. He wanted 
all men to know the truth as set forth in the Bible. 
In order that all the congregation might participate 
in the musical service, he wrote hymns and set them 
to folk tunes. His people adored him. John Huss was 
martyred in 1415, but his death served only to in- 
crease the zeal of his followers. 

The Moravians sent missionaries to Greenland and 
Africa during the early 1700's and during the 1800's 
their work was extended to China, Central America, 
West Indies, and to the Eskimos of Alaska and Lab- 
rador and the Indians of North America. The Mora- 
vian Church has placed its major emphasis on work 
in the mission field. 

The center of Moravian activities in America was 
in Bethlehem and Lititz (named after Lititz, Bohemia, 
where the sect had originated). None of the early 
settlers of York were Moravians but were converted 
by the Moravian Evangelists. 

The Moravian Church has a number of distinctive 
and beautiful rituals. Choirs of trombones are used 
in the service. They interrupt the sermon at midnight 
on New Year's Eve and accompany the singing at 
the Easter Sunrise Service. This service, which orig- 
inated with the Moravians, has been adopted by 
Christian communities throughout the United States. 
On Christmas Eve a Love Feast is held, during which 
the members of the congregation partake of sweet 
buns and coffee. This service should in no way be 
confused with Communion. A Candlelight Service is 
held after the Love Feast where individual candles 
are distributed to the members of the congregation. 

The original Moravian Cemetery in York was 
God's Acre located behind the old Princess Street 
Church. Here as reminder to the congregation that 
there would be no marrying in heaven but only a 
single convocation of saints, burial was not by fam- 
ily groups. The plot was divided into seven sections 
for married men and widowers, single men, male 
children, married women and widows, single sisters, 
female children and strangers. In 1908, the bodies 
were removed to Prospect Hill Cemetery where they 
are laid out in the same order. 

John Friederich Schlegel, second pastor of the 
church, who took office in 1757, was one of the thirty- 
nine young men married at Bethlehem on July 15, 
1749. His assistant, Melchior Schmidt, was also mar- 
ried at the Great Wedding. Such was the faith in 
Divine Guidance, that the brides were chosen by lot! 

In 1868, the present Moravian Church was dedi- 
cated. It has been remodelled several times and now 
contains Sunday School rooms, scout rooms, kitchen, 
choir room and a beautiful and restful church audi- 
torium. It possesses a fine electric pipe organ, thus 
keeping up the Moravian tradition of beautiful music 
in the church service. 

The First Moravian Church was the first to broad- 
cast its services over WORK. This work began in 
September, 1932. 

Reverend S. Morgan Smith is one of the best-re- 



membered of the Moravian pastors in York. He did 
hospital work at Gettysburg after the battle and in 
1864 became chaplain of the 200th Regiment of Penn- 
sylvania Volunteers and served until the end of the 
war. He was the pastor who pointed out that the 
old church was losing members because of the near- 
ness of the railroad and the encroachment of indus- 
try, and advocated a new location for the church. 




The Friends' Meeting-house where Phineas Davis was married. 



Stephen Morgan Smith (1839-1903) was born on 
a farm near Farmington, N. C., where he spent much 
time in his father's mill, and thus became acquainted 
with the principles of water power which he later 
applied in the invention of his Success Turbine 
Water Wheel. Though he had a strong bent toward 
mechanics, at the age of eighteen he entered the 
Moravian College at Bethlehem and was educated 
for the ministry. 

He was pastor for ten years at York and then 
turned to the manufacture and sale of machinery. 
His turbine was soon adopted as source of power 
for mills, mines, factories and hydroelectric plants. 
Today, the company which he founded is the largest 
of its kind, and has a world-wide reputation. 

FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH 

The First Presbyterian Church of York is built upon 
the only piece of ground in the city which was a 
direct gift from the Penns'. The land was granted to 
the English Presbyterian Congregation of York Town 
in 1785. From 1762-1793, the Presbyterians met at 
the Episcopal Meeting-House. The Reverend Robert 
Cathcart was the first full-time pastor and served 
from 1793 to 1835. He died at the age of ninety, Octo- 
ber 19, 1849, and is buried in the churchyard, which 
also contains the grave of James Smith, York's signer 
of the Declaration of Independence, and many tomb- 
stones, some dating back to 1794, representing some 
of York's oldest families, among them the Cathcarts, 



Latimers and Smalls. The present church and Sun- 
day-school building were erected in 1860. The latter 
was rebuilt and enlarged in 1931. 

FRIENDS' MEETING-HOUSE 

The eastern portion of the Friends' Meeting-House, 
135 West Philadelphia Street, was erected in 1766 
by William Willis, a member of the meeting and 
builder of the Colonial Court-House. The western 
half was added in 1783. The ancestors of many York 
families including the Loves, Updegraffs, John Elgar 
and Jonathan Jessop worshipped here. Phineas Davis 
was also a member and was married here. 

The Quakers early permitted women to preach; 
Lucretia Mott, noted Quakeress, spoke here against 
slavery in 1840. Services have been held at the 
meeting-house weekly every First Day since it was 
opened, and a mission Sunday School also uses the 
building. 

SAINT JOHN'S PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL 
CHURCH 

In May, 1755, when the Rev. Thomas Barton, the 
first missionary, arrived from England he found a 
small congregation of Episcopalians in York-Town, 
and chose wardens and a vestry. Three hundred and 
fifteen pounds were raised by a lottery in 1765, to 
build an "elegant church." 

During the ministry of the Reverend John Camp- 
bell, the Rectory and the York Academy were built, 
with funds he collected. In the churchyard, which 
is said to be the oldest burying place in York, are 
interred Colonel Thomas Hartley, Major John Clark, 
and Private Ephraim Pennington, Revolutionary sol- 
diers and vestrymen. 

York's Liberty Bell, which called the Continental 
Congress together for nine months, may be seen in 
the church. Since 1918, the Reverend Canon Paul S. 
Atkins, D.D., has served as rector. 




Saint Matthew's Lutheran Church. 



TRINITY FIRST REFORMED CHURCH 

Trinity First Reformed Church is the English branch 
of the First Reformed Church, having divided from 
the German branch in 1853. 




Trinity First Reformed Church. 

As early as 1743, a Reformed congregation existed 
in York, and in 1744, Reverend Jacob Lischy, Mora- 
vian missionary, became its first pastor. 

The original First Reformed Church building was 
located on the present site of Woolworth's. It was in 
its churchyard that Philip Livingston, signer of the 
Declaration of Independence and delegate to Conti- 
nental Congress, was buried. It was here, too, that 
George Washington attended services in company 
with Colonel Thomas Hartley, July 3, 1791. He noted 
in his diary that he was in no danger of being pros- 
elyted as the sermon was in German and he under- 
stood not a word of it. The present Trinity First 
Reformed Church is located on the site of Colonel 
Thomas Hartley's mansion. Trinity is the mother of 
four other York congregations. 

SAINT PATRICK'S CHURCH 

As early as 1757, there were 116 German and 76 
Irish Catholics in York County. Irish names are also 
common on the rosters of York's Revolutionary com- 
panies. Very likely the first Mass was celebrated in 
a private house around 1750. In 1776, a stone build- 
ing known as the Mass House was erected on the 
site of Saint Patrick's Church. The present church 
was dedicated in 1898 under the pastorate of Father 
Galligan. During the pastorate of Father McGrath, 
the convent on Beaver Street was secured and the 
rectory was built. 



THE BRETHREN OR "DUNKARDS" 

The Brethren, also called Dunkards because of 
their custom of immersing the candidate for baptism 
from a kneeling position, three times face first, in 
the name of the Faiher, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, 
are numerous in and around York. Many of them 
"dress plain" and the women in their black bon- 
nets or white prayer caps, long, simple home-made 
dresses and aprons, are seen in the markets and 
shops of York. Dunkards are opposed to the wearing 
of jewelry, to taking or giving of oaths, and to going 
into court to settle disputes. 

The sect was founded by Andres Mack, of Swart- 
zenau, Germany, in 1709. The first Dunkard congre- 
gation in America was organized on Christmas Day, 
1723, by Peter Becker, at Germantown, Pennsylvania. 

The Dunkards are excellent farmers and have 
some of the most attractive stalls in York's markets. 
There are groups of Brethren in Maryland, Virginia, 
Iowa, Kansas and California. 

Several thousand heifers, all tested, and many 
pure-bred, are now being raised by Brethren 
throughout the country to be sent to Europe to re- 
place cattle destroyed in the war. 

One shipment of twenty-three cattle was sent to 
white and colored share-croppers in Arkansas. In 
addition, six brown Swiss bulls were shipped to 
Greece. Before shipment, these bulls were blessed 
by a Greek Orthodox priest in the United States. 
One hundred and fifty head of Holsteins are sched- 
uled to be shipped to Poland on July 17th. 

On April 29, 1945, fifty heifers, to be sent to Puerto 
Rico for the relief of poor families there, were 
shipped from the York Inter-State Fair Grounds, 
after an appropriate service of dedication. 




Saint Paul's Lutheran Church. 



Amusements 



YORK RECREATION COMMISSION 

York was early in recognizing the recreational 
needs of its industrial workers and young people 
and has undertaken a broad program, embracing 
physical, cultural, social and creative activities, de- 
signed to provide opportunities for self-expression 
and to relieve the dull monotony of days spent at 
routine jobs. 

York also admits the right of every child to have 
a safe place for play, and provides facilities in all 
sections of the city for both indoor and outdoor play 
at all seasons of the year. 

The movement toward Recreation in York began 
in 1907, when, under the leadership of the Woman's 
Club, a public playground was first established. 
However, it was some twelve years later, in 1919, 
that York's first City- Wide Recreational Plan emerged 
as the result of a survey made by representatives of 
the Playground and Recreation Association of Amer- 
ica, resulting in the establishment of the York Recre- 
ation Commission in January, 1920. 

The Commission functions under an Act of the 
State Legislature entitled Parks, Playgrounds, and 
Recreation Centers. Specifically, the York Recreation 
Commission is composed of five members (two of 
whom shall be school directors) appointed by the 
Mayor to serve without compensation for rotating 
terms of five years. Funds for the Budget are pro- 
vided by the City Council and the Commission acts 
as an independent body under the Department of 
Parks. 

Since a year-round program was started in 1920, 
the recreation movement has been one of continued 
progress. Today, the York Recreation Commission 
employs nearly 100 persons, including a Superinten- 
dent of Recreation, Directors of Community Athletics, 
Office Secretary, Director of Crafts and Sewing, Play- 
ground Directors and Supervisors, Community Cen- 
ter Directors and Athletic Officials. Following is a list 
of recreation activities on our Playgrounds, in Com- 
munity Centers, Community Athletics, and other 
City-Wide Activities which are conducted annually 
with an attendance of more than 423,000: 



PUBLIC RECREATION ACTIVITIES 




Arts and Crafts 

Badminton 

Baseball School 

Baseball 

Basketball Leagues 

Bicycling 

Boys' Clubs 

Bowling Leagues 

Boxing 

Cards 

Caroling Programs 

Checker Tournament 

Chess 

Children's Trailer Plays 

Children's Traveling 
Library 

Coasting Hills 

Community Centers 

Community Christmas 

Program 

Community Nights 
Community Singing 
Consultation Service 
Costumes 
Croquet 
Dramatics 
Easter Egg Hunt 
Festivals 
Fishing 
Folk Dancing 
Girls' Clubs 
Gym Classes 
Hallowe'en Parties 
Hiking Club 
Hobby Clubs 
Home Play 

Hopscotch Tournaments 
Horseshoes 
Ice Skating 
Jacks Tournament 
Kite Flying 
Lantern Parades 
Leadership Training 
Little Theatre 



Marble Tournament 

Marionettes 

Model Aircraft 

Model Boat Building 

Music Week Activities 

Nature Study 

Newcomb League 

O'Leary 

Paddle Tennis 

Pageantry 

Party Leadership 

Play Days 

Playgrounds (13) 

Quilting Club 

Quoits 

Recreation Library Service 

Red Cross Work 

Roller Skating 

Rope Jumping 

Safety Patrols 

Salvage 

Sand 

Service to Other Agencies 

Sewing 

Shuffleboard 

Skating Club 

Social Dancing 

Social Recreation 

Softball 

Speakers' Service 

Square Dancing 

Story Dramatization 

Story Telling 

Table Tennis 

Tap Dancing 

Tennis Tournament 

Toy Renovation 

Volleyball Leagues 

Wading Pools 

War Bond Sales 

Weight Lifting 

Winter Sports 

Woodworking 

Wrestling 



An indoor project carried on by the York Recreation Commission 
during the winter. 



Through the cooperation of the City Park Depart- 
ment, the York City School Board and the Trus- 
tees of the York County Academy, the York Rec- 
reation Commission uses the following facilities: 13 
Playgrounds, 5 School Gymnasiums, 2 Community 
Center Gymnasiums, 3 School Community Centers, 1 
Community Center Building, 1 School Athletic Field, 
I School Baseball Diamond, 26 Tennis Courts, 1 Trav- 
eling Theatre, 1 Lake for Fishing, 7 Picnic Areas, 7 
Coasting Hills, 3 School Auditoriums, 13 Outdoor 
Volleyball Courts, 5 Outdoor Badminton Courts, 13 
Outdoor Basketball Courts, 15 Sand Boxes, 7 Shelter 
Houses, 6 Band Stands, 15 Horseshoe Courts, 3 Wad- 
ing Pools, 1 Municipal Swimming-Pool, and 20 Soft- 
ball Diamonds. 



During the recent world conflict, the work of the 
Commission has taken on increasing significance 
with special activities devoted to Servicemen 
through cooperation with the U. S. O., offering the 
Academy Building and gymnasium as the U. S. O. 
Servicemen's Club and Pennsylvania Dutch Can- 
teen, and the services of the Superintendent as Di- 
rector of the Club and Secretary of the Executive 
Committee, to War Workers by the organization of 
the Defense Recreation Committee, through whose 
leadership the facilities in the entire City were made 
available for war workers and additional athletic 
leagues, music, and dramatic activities provided by 
the Recreation Commission; to Youth, by organizing 
the York Youth Center Committee, through which 
Committee the "Teen-Agers 1 Club" has been estab- 
lished with 1,400 members, and is being operated 
by and for the young people of York. 

The Commission also cooperated with the Amer- 
ican Hed Cross, using the Academy Building as a 
second Headquarters for sewing and instruction, the 
/unior Red Cross by operating a Toy Workshop, 
and making articles on the summer playgrounds; the 
War Finance Commiffee by selling War Stamps 
and Bonds on the playgrounds; the Civilian Defense 
by conducting Salvage Drives on playgrounds 
and untilizing playgrounds for Civilian Defense 
Demonstrations and Programs. 

The Commission is ever mindful of the changing 
needs in Recreation and ready to provide additional 
fully equipped Play Fields, Playgrounds, and Com- 
munity Centers, and make provision for Winter Out- 
door Sports as soon as the necessary land can be 
acquired and additional funds are available for 
maintenance and staff. Every effort is continually 
being made to provide the finest possible recrea- 
tional opportunities for the men, women, and chil- 
dren of the City of York. 



Union wounded were cared for by the patriotic la- 
dies of York. After Gettysburg, 2,500 were brought 
here. This hospital was used as barracks by the 
Confederates when they occupied York. Oxen were 
roasted on the Common and the people of York were 
given a free dinner there at the end of the Harrison 
Presidential Campaign in 1889. 

Farguhar Park occupies a wooded hillside seven 
squares from the center of the city. It includes picnic 
areas, shuffleboard courts, tennis courts, a play- 
ground, a band shell, horseshoe court, volleyball 
court, and softball diamond; Kiwanis Lake, which is 
open for juvenile fishing, and the Municipal Swim- 
ming Pool. 

Bantz, Lincoln and Albemarle Park are also part 
of the York Recreation Commission's playground 
system. 

r i 




-,^-'^,- 




The Municipal Swimming Pool in Farquhar Part. 




Traveling theatre ol the York Recreation Commission. 

PARKS 

Penn Common, four squares from the heart of the 
city, sixteen acres in area, contains public tennis 
courts, a playground, and a band stand. Weekly 
band concerts in the summer have been traditional 
here since the early 1900's. Soldiers of the Revolu- 
tion, the War of 1812, and the War between the 
States encamped on Penn Common. The Common 
was the site of the United States Hospital where 



The Christmas pageant on the Court House steps. 

PICNIC AREAS 

There are many beautiful picnic areas from one- 
half to twenty miles distance from York. A number 
of Yorkers have summer cottages along the Susque- 
hanna and own sail and powerboats. 

TEEN-AGERS' CLUB 

In 1944, the country as a whole was alarmed by 
an increase in juvenile delinquency. Young people 
left unsupervised through the longer working hours 



80 



required of parents, or with mothers in industry and 
fathers in the service, were running wild. Curtailed 
teaching staffs in schools, a surplus of spending 
money, and wartime excitement were all contrib- 
uting to a breakdown of youth. 

The Mayor of York appointed a committee of rep- 
resentatives from all youth agencies: the Juvenile 
Court, the Boy and Girl Scouts, the Catholic agen- 
cies, the Jewish organizations, the Crispus Attucks' 
Center, the Recreation Commission, the Y. M. and 
Y. W. C. A., the Ministerial Association, the Junior 
and Senior high schools, and the service clubs to see 
what might be done to help youth through these 
uncertain times. 

Representatives from the Junior and Senior high 
schools conducted a survey and found that 2,634 
young people in the community were interested in 
having a youth center. The Center was opened in 
the U. S. O., but this soon proved inadequate. 

The Center was reopened as the Teen-Agers' Club 
at 205 South George Street. 

The Teen-Agers' Club of York is an organization 
of boys and girls between the ages of thirteen and 
nineteen, aided by a senior advisory committee 
known as the York Youth Center Committee. With 
a membership of 1,500, it is one of the largest organi- 
zations of its kind in the country. 

Teen-agers gain valuable business experience in 
conducting the affairs of their own club, under the 
guidance of senior advisors. Each of the eight com- 
mittees includes representatives from each of the 
Junior and Senior high schools and from York Cath- 
olic High. 

The Finance Committee is responsible for the rais- 
ing of funds; the Membership Committee keeps a 
record of all members and the payment of their dues; 




the House Committee plans programs and engages 
entertainers and orchestras, and distributes and col- 
lects game equipment; the Decorating Committee 
decorates for special occasions and sees that all 
equipment is kept in repair; the Recepfion Commif- 
tee acts as hosts and hostesses and operates the 
check room; the Canfeen Committee orders food and 
operates the canteen; and the Publicity Committee 
gathers and releases news concerning the Teen- 
Agers' Club. A Holland Brigade works with dust 
cloth and broom to keep the club spotless. 

The TAG, as it is familiarly called, is open from 
7 to 10 on Monday, Wednesday and Saturday eve- 
nings. Through the courtesy of a local industrial 
plant, a dance band is furnished each Saturday 
night. The TAG is not intended as a cure-all for 
juvenile delinquency but as a preventive measure 
on a large scale. It is simply a place, distinctly their 
own, in which boys and girls can find wholesome 
recreation. Membership costs but $3.00 per year and 
is payable in installments of twenty-five cents. 




A number ot Yorkers have boats on the Susquehanna. 



Dancing is only one of the activities at the Teen-Agers' Club. 

It is always supervised by responsible adults 
men and women in equal numbers who are volun- 
teers from the various service clubs. There are no 
pinball machines or intoxicating liquors. Smoking 
and profane language are strictly prohibited. Viola- 
tion of the rules brings suspension or dismissal from 
the club. 

Dancing is only one of the many activities. Social 
dancing classes conducted on Monday evenings are 
helping many boys and girls past the "awkward 
age." A dramatic club, chorus and TAG orchestra 
have been organized. The dance floor, at a moment's 
notice, can be converted into a volleyball, badmin- 
ton, or ring tennis court. Entertainment is varied with 
movies. Truth or Consequences quiz programs, radio 
skits, novel parties, and square dancing. There is a 
game room for ping-pong and shuffleboard and a 
craft room. On the balcony are tables for quiet 
games such as chess and checkers and a library of 
books and magazines. 



The first adult officers of the Teen-Agers' Club 
were: Judge Walter I. Anderson, of the Juvenile 
Court, chairman; George S. Andes, president; Charles 
Monaghan, vice-president; Kay Busser, treasurer; 
and Margaret Swartz, secretary. 

These people wrote letters, collected information 
concerning youth centers throughout the country, 
and visited a number of such centers throughout the 
neighboring cities. Then they adopted the best fea- 
tures of each and organized a club which is serving 
as a model for similar clubs throughout the country. 
It is due to them and to the splendid teen-age boys 
and girls of the community that the Teen-Agers' Club 
of York is an outstanding success. 

CENTRAL TICKET AGENCY 

To the many Yorkers who travel to neighboring 
cities to enjoy the best in drama, concerts, opera, 
lectures and sports events. Miss Georgia Stum ren- 
ders a unique service through her Central Ticket 
Agency located in the Morris Drug Store at 7 East 
Market Street. Here tickets are available for all types 
of entertainment in New York, Philadelphia, Wash- 
ington, Baltimore, Harrisburg and Hershey. The Cen- 
tral Agency also handles tickets for many local or- 
ganizations such as the York Symphony, the Com- 
munity Concert Series, Little Theatre, Horse Show, 
high school plays and football games, and various 
activities sponsored by the Junior Service League 
and the P.-T. A. 

Miss Stum also arranges for hotel reservations in 
all parts of the country. 

AMUSEMENTS 

During the latter half of the nineteenth century, 
many famous players visited York; among them Jo- 
seph Jefferson, who played Rip Van Winkle at the 
Odd Fellows' Hall in 1872, and Mrs. John Drew, Gen- 
eral Tom Thumb, and the Siamese Twins, who were 
here in 1874. Today, the movies have supplanted the 
legitimate theatre as a source of entertainment for 
most Yorkers. 

MOTION-PICTURE THEATRES 

The first movies shown in York of the old silent, 
flickering, rainy type, would be called today "As- 
sorted Short Subjects." Shown at prices of 15, 20 and 
25 cents at the York Opera House, on South Beaver 
Street near Market, January 25, 1897, and for four 
afternoons and nights thereafter, the reels of fifty feet 
each were entitled. The Limited Express of the New 
York Central Railroad; The Drill of the City Greys ol 
Harrisburg; A Charge of the Mounted Police; Cissy 
Fitzgerald and Other Famous Dancers; The Bucking 
Broncho; A Morning Bath; The Lone Fisherman, and 
most applauded, A Newark Fire Company Answer- 
ing a Call, with the engine horses galloping down 
the street at breakneck speed. The projector was of 
the old carbon-arc type developed in the Edison 
laboratories. 

York, at present, has seven modern motion-picture 
theatres, four chain-operated and threte locally- 
owned, offering a wide variety of movie entertain- 
ment. They are the Capitol Theatre, 52 North George 
Street; Hiway Theatre, 730 West Market Street; Rialto 
Theatre, 121 West Market Street; Ritz Theatre, 28 
South George Street; Southern Theatre, 30 East Jack- 



son Street; Strand Theatre, 50 North George Street; 
and York Theatre, 525 East Market Street. 

Several dealers in photographic supplies also 
maintain rental libraries of motion-picture films for 
owners of home projectors. 

BOWLING 

Within the past few years, more American men 
and women have come to participate in bowling 
than in any other sport. A number of organizations 
have private bowling alleys and there are also five 
public bowling alleys in York. 




Many Yorkers enjoy bowling. 



SKATING RINKS 

York has two roller-skating rinks, Playland and 
the White Rose Arena. 

PLAYLAND 

Playland was built especially as a roller-skating 
rink, on the outskirts of York, in 1941. The building 
has 22,000 square feet of special skating floor, the 
air is cooled and purified by a special air condition- 
ing system, and music is supplied by a Hammond 
organ. With its built-in band-shell, the building is 
suited for use as an auditorium seating 2,500 people. 

The beginners' rink is known as The Spillway. A 
clean, well-managed fountain sells soft drinks and 
ice cream made on the premises. The Skate Room 
rents and sells skates and stocks a complete line of 
skate parts and accessories. 

There are six skating sessions each week and two 
evenings are set aside for church, school and indus- 
trial groups. 

Playland has an excellent reputation for good 
management, cleanliness and decency. It caters to 
people of all ages interested in healthful exercise 
and recreation. 



THE YORK LITTLE THEATRE 

The York Little Theatre, Inc., now a member of 
the American Communal Theatre Association, was 
granted a charter by the York County Court on 
March 12, 1934, as a non-profit corporation. It started 
with a capital of only $100, plus the energy, ambi- 
tion, and talents of its members. 

It was organized to produce good plays in York 
and to give its members a fuller enjoyment of the 
theatre in all its aspects. That it has succeeded is 
attested by its 118 students, 201 patrons, and 530 
subscription members. The theatre has a record of 
sixty successful productions, which have constantly 
improved in quality. Five scheduled productions 
each season are only a part of its work. Radio pro- 
grams are also presented during the summer months, 
and workshop plays of various lengths are produced 
for any organization requesting this service. 

Several shows have been taken to neighboring 
camps for the entertainment of Army personnel. Re- 
cently the theatre was cited by the United States 
Treasury Department for its cooperation in the Sixth 
War Loan Drive. 

The production of "A Midsummer Night's Dream," 
during its six performances in 1939, attracted a rec- 
ord audience of 3,492 persons. The production re- 
quiring the largest cast was "Valley Forge," with 
fifty-five players. The smallest was "Private Lives," 
with only five. An all-male cast of eleven presented 
"Amaco," and an all-girl cast of forty, "The Women." 

The York Little Theatre has its offices and re- 
hearsal rooms on the second floor of the old York 
Academy Building at 153 North Beaver Street, where 
plays were given by students as early as 1789. This 
space is provided by the Trustees of the York County 
Academy through the York Recreation Department. 
A studio for the construction of sets is maintained 
at 1006 East Mason Avenue. Plays are usually pre- 
sented in one of the school auditoriums of the city. 

The policies of the York Little Theatre are deter- 
mined by a Board of Governors elected for three- 
year terms. The theatre operates on a budget which 
has ranged from a low of $2,200 to a high of $3,600. 
During its twelve years of existence $36,000 has 
passed through its treasury. The group produces re- 
cent royalty plays almost exclusively and the royal- 



ties plus the salary of a professional director absorb 
much of the income. 

The York Little Theatre has been aided in its de- 
velopment by persons of outstanding talent. Cam- 
eron Mitchell, who played a leading role in "Night 
of January 16th," in 1937, has recently signed a con- 
tract with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer after working for 
sometime with Warner Brothers Studios. A former 
director, Carl Click, is a well-known author, syndi- 
cate writer, and playwright. In 1941, Lenore Ulric 
played the lead in the theatre's production of "Bridge 
of San Luis Rey." 

The York Little Theatre is a real community pro- 
ject, open to people of all classes, both young and 
old. 

THE OUT DOOR CLUB 

Looking to the future, George U. Weiser, W. F. O. 
Rosenmiller and David M. Myers in 1892 united to 
form a club which would provide the facilities for 
social and recreational activities that the growth of 
the city demanded. They succeeded in interesting 
others in this project, and The Out Door Club, York, 
Pennsylvania, was organized and opened up in its 
first home at 655 Madison Avenue, in a large build- 
ing surrounded by spacious and well-kept grounds. 
Later, it leased the former home of The York Country 
Club, on Country Club Road, which it has used ever 
since. 



i I i 




A scene from the York Little Theatre's production oi 
"Mr. and Mrs. North." 



The Outdoor Club 

Improvements in the golf course, tennis courts and 
other facilities have made the equipment modern in 
every respect. Its membership of 260 includes men 
prominent in the civic, industrial, social and spiritual 
life of the community. The club's ballroom and other 
facilities are available to other organizations. The 
location of The Out Door Club makes it ideal for such 
functions as it is easily reached by car or bus, and 
its use, from one year's end to another, contributes 
to the good life of the citizens of York. 

THE COUNTRY CLUB OF YORK 

The Country Club of York is beautifully situated 
on a plateau two miles southwest of York, overlook- 
ing the city and the Conewago Hills, and the beau- 
tiful rolling farm land of scenic York County on the 
south. The property consists of two hundred and 
forty-one acres, eighty of which are still timbered 



with oak and pine, interspersed with dogwood and 
laurel, across which is a ravine with a clear run- 
ning stream of spring water. 

The clubhouse, completed in 1920, is located at 
the western end near a precipitous crag of rocks 
known as the Crow's Nest, and is reached by a road 
about a half-mile long running through the wood- 
land, leaving the rest of the property clear for an 
eighteen-hole golf course. 

The building, designed by Fred G. Dempwolf, Rob- 
ert A. Stair and Edward Leber of York, contains a 
beautiful lounge, ballroom, card rooms and dining- 
rooms, lockers and showers. From the terrace over- 
looking the golf course, one can see a beautiful 
stretch of rolling country to the south. 

The golf course, designed by Donald J. Ross, is 
laid out by combining the natural hazards of the 
terrain with artificial lakes and traps to provide a 
modern course of championship caliber without sac- 
rificing the enjoyment of the average golfer. The 
course has become widely renowned among golfers 
for its sporty play and unsurpassed natural scenic 
beauty. 

On the grounds there is a swimming pool, 35' x 90' 
in size, built in 1940 at a cost of $20,000, and 
equipped with the most modern water purifying sys- 
tem. Special lockers for bathers are provided in the 
club. Shuffleboard courts and tennis courts are also 
available. Coasting and tobogganing, and other 
sports are enjoyed at the club in the winter. 

GRANDVIEW GOLF COURSE 

The Grandview, the only public course in York 
County, is located five miles west of the city on the 
Dover Road. Both men and women golfers are wel- 



come from April 1st to December 1st. Rates are rea- 
sonable and locker rooms and a sandwich bar are 
maintained in a modern club house, for the conven- 
ience of patrons. 




Clubhouse at the Grandview Goli Course. 

EARLY FAIRS 

From the time that York was laid out, in 1741, the 
privilege of holding a fair twice yearly for the 
sale of merchandise, cattle and other animals was 
granted. The first fairs were held in 1761, in High 
(now Market) Street for two days in July and again 
in November. Merchants set up in the square and 
there was fiddling and dancing in every tavern. 
Clowns, jugglers and traveling musicians, puppet 
showmen and wire walkers, entertained the crowd, 
while the magician threatened to padlock the gap- 




The Country Club of York. 



ing mouths of the country folk if anyone doubted 
his art. 

These fairs were "the liveliest days of the year" 
but they became the occasion of much drunkenness 
and disorder; and when, during the autumn fair of 
1815, a young man was stabbed to death, the grand 
jury declared that the fairs in York were a public 
nuisance and they were discontinued for thirty-six 

years. 

I 

YORK INTER-STATE FAIR 

A charter to the people of York by Thomas Penn, 
son of William Penn, granted the privilege of hold- 
ing two fairs a year, in recognition of "The Flourish- 
ing State to Which the Town Hath Arrived Through 
Its Industry." 

The tradition and spirit of these pre-Revolutionary 
Fairs are maintained today by the York County Agri- 







...-vc 

!- '?>'? 



ggM P .' 'XVS": 

*Vj^r-^ >., .-.<(: J!.. t, 



E*S\& 



I r/? IS 
L ^tfj* iS ' 




An ear/y Fair held in the Square. Drawing by Lewis Miller. 



cultural Society, trading and known as the York 
Inter-State Fair. 

After fifty years the original series of historic fairs 
came to an end in 1815. In the year 1851 thirty-six 
years later the fair idea was revived. In that year 
a number of prominent men called a meeting for 
the purpose of forming an agricultural society. The 
meeting was held November 22, 1851, in the York 
County Court House. This foundation proved so sub- 
stantial and enduring that from this time on, with 
the exception of two years, an annual fair has been 
held in York up until the present time. In 1855, it 
was "deemed inexpedient" to conduct a fair in York 
"in view of the State Agricultural Fair being held 
in Harrisburg." In 1918, due to the wartime epi- 
demic of influenza, the scheduled fair was likewise 
cancelled. 

The first two fairs were held on historic Penn 
Common. Then the society acquired seven acres on 
King Street, immediately east of Queen Street, which 
it used as the Fair Grounds beginning in 1856 and 
for thirty-one years thereafter. In subsequent years, 
additional land was acquired until the old Fair 
Grounds contained about fourteen acres. The fair 
management, realizing that the fourteen acres would 
soon be inadequate, decided to acquire additional 
land which would allow the fair to expand with the 
community in the years to come. So, in 1887, the 
Society purchased, from Samuel Smyser, a farm of 
over seventy-three acres in West Manchester Town- 
ship. Together, with subsequent purchases, it is the 
present site of the 120-acre grounds of the York Inter- 
State Fair. The first fair was held on the present 
grounds in 1888. 

Through its many years of growth and expansion, 
the York Inter-State Fair became increasingly pop- 
ular and today it enjoys an international reputation 
as one of Amercia's greatest fairs. Its present presi- 
dent, former Lieutenant-Governor Samuel S. Lewis, 
is also the president of the International Association 
of Fairs and Expositions. 

Mr. John H. Rutter has been a manager since 1905 
and secretary since 1925. Other names in the Asso- 
ciation's roster read like a "Who's Who" of York 
the names of men who have gained prominence in 
various fields. 




YorJc Inter-State Fair Grounds. 



The Fair's slogan "It Has Everything" is fully 
justified as evidenced by its almost endless parade 
of features. 

The grounds boast of some of the best permanent 
fair buildings in the nation. The grandstand, with a 
seating capacity of 8,000, is of brick and concrete 
construction. The second-to-none half-mile race track 
facing the grandstand has witnessed countless spec- 
tacles of skill and daring sportsmanship of all kinds, 
everything incident to "track" meets. On the giant 
concrete stage, opposite the grandstand, the world's 
greatest entertainers in every field have paraded 
through the years, and in peacetime the nightly dis- 
play of fireworks is unexcelled. 

The fair management, in a very tangible way, 
indelibly impresses on the good people of York, 
and the patrons of the Fair, the part this commu- 
nity has played in the history of the nation. In 
excess of $100,000 has been expended in the erec- 
tion of memorial gates to honor those who partici- 
pated in the several wars. One entrance commemo- 
rates Washington's several visits to York; another, 
the Revolutionary War and the fact that York was 
the seat of Congress during those dark days; others, 
perpetuate the valorous deeds of the sons of York 
County who participated in the War of 1812, the 
Civil War, Spanish American War, and World War I. 

The fair ground resembles a large private estate. 
It is completely enclosed by iron and wire fences. 
The buildings and grounds are the last word; a crew 
of mechanics and laborers being constantly em- 
ployed for their maintenance. Every department and 
exhibition building can be reached over the miles 
of hard surfaced roads which traverse the entire 
grounds. At times, other than when the Fair is held, 
the grounds are used for religious, patriotic, civic, 
and other local gatherings. 

Teachers and scholars of public and parochial 
schools of both city and county are annually ad- 
mitted free to the Fair. The attendance has fre- 
quently exceeded one-quarter of a million during 
the five-day fair period. Premiums offered are ap- 
proximately $25,000. Race purses, $10,000. The cost 
of the grandstand attractions, exclusive of the races, 
are in excess of $20,000. 

During normal times, the agricultural and horti- 
cultural exhibits are second to none; the farm ma- 
chinery exhibits the largest and most diversified in 
the State; the live stock exhibits are of every breed 
of cattle, swine, sheep, poultry, pigeons and pet 
stock. The poultry and pigeon show is conceded to 
be one of the finest, both in numbers and quality, 
in the United States. Frequently, the exhibits in each 
of these classes are between 2,500 and 3,000. No 
finer display of apiary, baking products, jellies and 
preserves can be found anywhere. The exhibit of 
fine arts, domestic arts and school exhibits are the 
last word, both in quantity and quality. 

As York and vicinity is noted for its antiques, nat- 
urally the antique display at the Fair is of the very 
highest type. Commercial exhibits are up to the 
minute. The miles of paved midway provide fun and 
amusement for young and old alike. 

Whether your interest concerns agriculture edu- 
cation industry commerce transportation 
art science or just plain old and new-fash;oned 
entertainment and amusement you'll always find 
that the York Inter-State Fair "has everything!" 



SPORTS 

SPORTS IN WILLIAM PENN SENIOR 
HI6H SCHOOL 

York County's beautiful autumn weather and a 
winning football team made up of home town lads 
prove to be an irresistible combination to the 8,000 
fans who turn out for the home games held at Small's 
Field, complete with cheerleaders, bands and major- 
ettes. Many fans also travel to out-of-town games. 

From the days of the "flying wedge" to today's 
"T-formation," football has been the sport at William 
Penn drawing the largest crowds. In 1893, the first 
Orange-and-Blue team, coached by James St. Clair 
McCall, later mayor of York, and captained by his 
brother, Sam, played the first three-game season 
against York Collegiate Institute. 

Many boys from William Penn have gone on to 
fame in college football. Ted "Torchy" Tussing moved 
on to George Hunger's team at the University of 
Pennsylvania as quarterback. Johnny Bortner made 
sports headlines with Eddy Cameron's "Blue Devils" 
at Duke. 

Swimming is the sport which has brought highest 
honors to William Penn. Many unbroken State and 
National records have been set. 

William Schmidt won the National Scholastic 
Championship in the 100-yard breast stroke, swim- 
ming it in 1 minute, 2.5 seconds. 

Schmidt, along with Richard Potts and Morgan 
Hein, held the National Scholastic Record for Medley 
Relay: 150 yards in 1 minute, 21.1 seconds. 

Richard Potts was also District and Regional 
Champion free-style and breast stroke; Intermediate 
and Senior Champion, Y. M. C. A.; and P. I. A. A. 
Champion. 

Morgan Hein was Middle Atlantic A. A. U. Cham- 
pion; All- American 100-yard Backstroke Champion; 
P. I. A. A. Champion; Y. M. C. A. Intermediate and 
Senior Champion; District and Regional Champion. 
While in Naval Cadet training in 1944, he was killed 
in an airplane crash. 

During 1944-45, Richard Mylin and Donald "Irish" 
McCloskey won State Championships in free-style 
and backstroke, respectively. Under the coaching of 
Charley Boeckel, William Penn's swimming team has 
snatched ten consecutive District Three titles along 
with numerous victories in Regional and State meets. 

Lieutenant Robert Spongier, U. S. N. R., former 

f K 

. 




The York-Reading game, 1944. 



York swimmer, is now assistant swimming coach at 
the Bainbridge Naval Training Station in Maryland. 

Basketball, coached by Don Cockley, also attracts 
many fans. The Orange-and-Blue team competes in 
the Central Pennsylvania Basketball League. 

During the middle of March, the track team begins 
practice, coached by Raymond "Sparky" Klinedinst. 
In the field events, Erney Byers tutors shot put and 
javelin throw. Each year a representative team goes 
to the Penn Relays at Franklin Field, Philadelphia. 

The golf team is coached by George F. Porter, but 
since few schools have such a team, opponents are 
hard to find. However, William Penn's golfers usually 
play from two to six matches each season. 

Sports at William Penn suffered a great loss in the 
death of the beloved coach, "Snaps" Emanuel (1901- 
1944), who was killed in an automobile accident just 
before the opening of the football season of 1944. A 
plaque was placed by the Exchange Club in the 
William Penn Senior High School reading, "In mem- 
ory of Edward F. (Snaps) Emanuel, head coach 
1939-1944. A strong leader who taught our youth to 
play the game." 

SMALL ATHLETIC FIELD 

Small Athletic Field, located only four squares from 
the center of the city, was given to the School Dis- 
trict of York by Samuel Small, in 1915. It is used by 
the public, private, parochial schools and junior col- 
lege of York for athletics, and by the State Guard 
as a drill ground. The field has football and baseball 
field, and 440-yard cinder track. 

OLD-TIMERS' ATHLETIC ASSOCIATION 
OF YORK, PA. 

The Old-Timers' Athletic Association of York, Pa., 
is a non-profit organization of 500 members ranging 
in age from 19 to 80. The club maintains recreation 
rooms at 25 East Market Street, where monthly meet- 
ings are held. Members are entertained with movies 
of sports events and hear outstanding speakers. 

The Old-Timers have done much to encourage 
sports in York. They have aided in supporting pro- 
fessional baseball and basketball, and have brought 
well-known outside teams to compete in York. Mem- 
bers often attend athletic events in a body. The club 
presented a water-wagon to the William Penn Sen- 



ior High School Football Team, and recently hung a 
fine photograph of "Snaps" Emanuel, William Penn's 
beloved coach, in the school as a memorial. 





National scholastic record holders tor medley relay racing: 
Morgan Hein, William Schmidt, and Richard Potts. 



Edward F. ("Snaps") Emanuel. 

YORK WHITE ROSES 

York is represented in organized baseball by the 
York White Roses, a club which operates in the Inter- 
State League. Other cities in this Class B loop are: 
Lancaster, York's traditional rival; Allentown; Hag- 
erstown, Md.; Wilmington, Del.; and Trenton, N. J. 
The League anticipates the addition of two more 
cities after the War. The York Club has a working 
agreement with the Pittsburgh Pirates of the Na- 
tional League. 

York's Club was organized for the 1943 season by 
a group of interested citizens headed by Attorney 
Henry C. Kessler, Jr., who called the original meet- 
ing of sports-minded citizens in December, 1942. 
From this meeting grew the corporation which now 
functions as the York Community Baseball Club, Inc. 
The company sold stock to fans and organized on a 
community basis. The venture has been highly suc- 
cessful in its first two seasons. The club has operated 
on a cash basis, and met every obligation promptly. 

In 1944, John ("Bunny") Griffith, playing man- 
ager, was selected as Most Valuable Player in the 
League, voted All-Star Manager, and finished sec- 
ond in league hitting, missing the top by but one 
point. He was the unanimous choice as All-League 
Shortstop. York ended the 140-game schedule in 
third place in 1944, and played to approximately 
70,000 fans. 

The 1945 season began April 25th, on the West 
York Grounds, homefield of the White Roses, with 



the Trenton Packers furnishing the opposition. The 
season was officially opened when the Mayor, John 
L. Snyder, of York, threw out the first ball to Chief 
Burgess Chester Patterson, of West York. 




The "White Roses" Baseball Team. 

STATE GAME LAND 

Under the Pennsylvania State Game Commission, 
1,300 acres of land in Chanceford and Lower Chance- 
ford townships in York County are maintained as 
State Game Land. This is open to the public for hunt- 
ing with the exception of three refuge areas where 
wild life breeds unmolested. No one is permitted to 
enter the game refuges, and building of fires, and 
cutting or destroying trees and shrubs is strictly pro- 
hibited on all State Game Lands. 

YORK HORSE SHOW 

The York Horse Show, recognized as one of the 
finest in the State, is held each year about the 
Fourth of July, at Haines' Park, on the Lincoln High- 
way, east of town. It was started in 1939 by the 
Junior Service League, but was taken over by the 
York Horse Show Association in 1941. 

Some of the men directing the show are: James T. 
Duffy, Jr., President of the Association; Colonel Mah- 
lon N. Haines, and Eddie Herr, the three largest 
private owners of horses in the county. A large num- 
ber of out-of-town horses, as well as those locally- 
owned, are entered annually in the York Horse 




Show. The proceeds of the show are given to some 
charity. 

Besides, over 175 saddle horses privately owned, 
there are several riding academies in the county. 




York County's trout streams invite the angler. 



lames T. Duffy, Jr., taking the jumps on Finn McCool at the 
York Horse Show. 




Thirte 



acres of game 



Music 



York has always been known as a musical com- 
munity. All its churches have choirs and many have 
orchestras. Several industrial plants sponsor cho- 
ruses and bands. Opportunities for young people in 
music are abundantly supplied by junior and senior 
high school choruses, bands, and orchestras, and by 
such organizations as the York Boys' Band and the 
York Kiwanis Boys' Band. Many private teachers 
offer instruction in all branches of music. 

THE YORK SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

York, like every other progressive community, is 
proud of having its own symphony orchestra which 
was founded in 1933 by a group of interested 
citizens. 

The personnel, some 80 musicians, is composed of 
men and women from all walks of life. Under the 
artistic guidance of Louis Vyner, former pupil of 
Stowkowski and one of America's foremost young 
conductors, whose interest in each musician is as 
great as in the music he produces, the group has 
been moulded into a "musical miracle." 

Each season a series of subscribed concerts is per- 
formed presenting soloists of world-wide reputation. 
Some of the artists who have appeared with the or- 
chestra are Efrem Zimbalist, Carlos Salzedo, Loruritz 
Melchior, Giovannia Martinelli, Percy Grainger and 
many others. In addition, several youth concerts are 
presented each season. 



The repertoire includes all the major symphonic 
works, and many contemporary works have also 
been first performed by the York Symphony 
Orchestra. 

Through the foresight of the Board of Directors, 
many young American artists made their debuts 
with the York Symphony and have gone on to world- 
wide recognition. A number of York's own talented 
boys and girls have gained experience with the or- 
chestra, been given scholarships and encouraged to 
continue their studies in the country's leading music 
schools. To date, about 35 have graduated from such 
schools and now hold important musical positions 
throughout the country. 

Support for the orchestra's activities comes from 
a well-established organization which includes a 
Board of Directors, a Women's Auxiliary and a num- 
ber of committees which take care of the efficient 
operation of the organization. 

The rapid growth and progress of the York Sym- 
phony has made it the outstanding musical group 
in the community. 

THE YORK COMMUNITY CONCERT 
ASSOCIATION 

The York Community Concert Association is a lo- 
cal organization formed about fourteen years ago to 
bring to York the greatest artists on the concert 
stage. In spite of the fact that it was organized dur- 




York Symphony Orchestra, Louis Vyner, Conductor. 



York is one of some 300 cities which has adopted 
ing the depression, it was an immediate success, 
the famous Community Concert Plan, under the 
direction of the Columbia Concerts Corporation of 
New York City. 

The Plan is distinctive because it is financially 
sound. Once a year, a membership campaign is held 
in York for just one week, and every Yorker is in- 
vited to join. After that time no one is permitted to 
join until the next year; and no tickets are ever sold 
during the year for any one concert. The money is 
deposited in a local bank and then the artists' com- 
mittee selects artists to appear on the series for that 
year. In this way there is never any deficit and no 
financial "backers" or "angels" are ever needed. 

The list of artists who have appeared on the Com- 
munity Concert series over these past years is an 
imposing one, including such names as: Jascha 
Heifetz, Lily Pons, The Ballet Russe, The Ballet The- 
atre, The Joos Ballet, Nelson Eddy, Albert Spalding, 
Rise Stevens, Richard Crooks, Joseph Hoffman, Law- 
rence Tibbett, and The New York Philharmonic 
Symphony. 

YORK CITY BAND 

The York City Band is now ninety-six years old. 
Founded in 1849, as the Worth Infantry Band, from 
it has stemmed many other bands. The band, which 
is supported by honorary memberships, gives con- 
certs in the parks during the summer and takes part 
in parades and rallies. 

Membership is limited to forty-five and there is 
always a waiting list. An audition test is required. 
J. W. Richley, who has been president of the organi- 
zation for the past eighteen years, provides a re- 
hearsal room in the White Rose Arena Building. 
George D. Eyster is the present conductor. 



THE MATINEE MUSICAL CLUB OF YORK 

The Matinee Musical Club of York, Pennsylvania, 
was founded in 1913, under the leadership of Emma 
Bosshart. Mary Bond was the first president. There 
are fifty-five active members and fifty-eight associate 
members. Meetings are held at the Hotel Yorktowne 
monthly, and musical programs are presented by 
members. Each year, during Music Week, two piano 
concerts are given, and an opera meeting is held 
annually. A Juvenile Club of young musicians is 
sponsored by the organization. 

THE YORK CHORUS 

The York Chorus, directed by Mr. E. E. Schroeder, 
is a community organization devoted to a capella 
singing. It was organized in 1938 and has a mem- 
bership of forty voices, and an extensive repertoire 
of classical and modern music. Rehearsals are held 
weekly at the York Junior College. 

SPRING GARDEN BAND 

The Spring Garden Band, originally known as 
"The Spring Garden Silver Cornet Band," was or- 




The York Chorus, E. E. Schroeder, Director. 




York City Band, George D. Eystei, Conductor. 



ganized in 1855 with William Frey, president; Eman- 
uel Boeckle, secretary, and John Miller, treasurer. 

In 1861, the entire band, with the exception of one 
member, enlisted as the 87th Regimental Band, Penn- 
sylvania Volunteers. The band served for fifteen 
months near Baltimore, received an honorable dis- 
charge and was sent home. Then, under their leader 
W. H. Frey, at that time eighty-four years old, the 
band gave weekly concerts for the wounded soldiers 
of the hospital located on Penn Common. The 87th 
Band made its last public appearance as a unit 
when in 1897 the twelve surviving members played 
"John Brown's Body" and other Civil War tunes at 
a reunion of the Regiment held in York. 

The Spring Garden Band was the first in the com- 
munity to have clarinet players. Captain Frey, hear- 
ing strange music as he walked down Market Street 
one day, investigated, and found three Germans 
who had just arrived in this country playing these 
peculiar new instruments. Uniforms were secured for 
the men and they played their clarinets with the 
band at the York Fair where they attracted much 
attention. 

On March 4, 1917, the Spring Garden Band 



marched in President Wilson's inaugural parade, in 
their splendid Hussar uniform which consisted of a 
busby with a plume, a blue cape, light blue coat, 
dark colored tights and polished boots. In 1928, the 
present red-and-white uniform was adopted. 

The Spring Garden Band owns the building at 27 
North George Street, containing offices, rehearsal 
hall, and music library. The income from the build- 
ing supports the organization. 

The band maintains equipment for 100 men, and 
Lester K. Loucks, conductor and manager, books en- 
gagements, as well as conducts the band. 

The Spring Garden Band is nationally known, 
having appeared at the Steel Pier, Atlantic City; 
Philadelphia; Hershey, and Columbus, Ohio, and at 
numerous conventions and veterans' encampments. 
For the last five years, two units of the band have 
played county and state fairs from Canada to 
Florida. 

The band has played for a number of "E" awards 
and in all War Drives. 

A monthly paper, "The Spring Garden Band Her- 
ald," is sent to all members in the armed services, 
a number of whom are now band leaders. 




The Spring Garden Band, Lester K. Loucks, Conductor. 



01 



Public Utilities 



EDISON LIGHT AND POWER COMPANY 

In 1876, Hiram Young, owner of the True Demo- 
crat, a local weekly newspaper, visited the Centen- 
nial Exposition in Philadelphia and brought back 
with him an incandescent lamp, the latest invention 
of Thomas A. Edison. This lamp was connected to a 
battery and exhibited in a window of Mr. Young's 
newspaper office where it was viewed with great 
interest by the people of York. 

In 1883, several out-of-town promoters came to 
York and interested some of the local business men 
in a plan to introduce illumination by the means of 
arc lights. A dynamo was installed in the building 
at 26 North George Street where Gregory's Men's 
Store is now located. This dynamo was driven by a 
steam engine normally used to operate a printing- 
press. Two wires were connected to this equipment 
and run to a flagpole in Centre Square where four 
carbon arc lights were illuminated. This demon- 
stration was well advertised and people came from 
miles around to witness the first electric illumination 
in the City of York. 

In 1885, a company known as the Edison Electric 
Light Company of York, Pa., was organized and 
equipment installed in a building purchased from 
P. F. Wilt on the present site of the Edison Light and 
Power Company's Central Plant. 

In 1887, soon after the incorporation of York as a 
city, the Edison Company contracted to supply elec- 
tric current for 145 arc lamps for lighting the streets 
of York. 

In 1892, electric railway service was first intro- 
duced to York and continued until its abandonment 
in 1939. During this entire period, electricity for op- 
eration of the streetcars was supplied by Edison 
Light and Power Company. 

The Edison Company's load continued to grow 
and in 1904 a contract was entered into with the 
York Haven Water and Power Company (now 
Metropolitan Edison Company) for current to be fur- 
nished from its Hydroelectric Plant at York Haven. 

In 1913, electric service was extended to Red Lion, 
Dallastown and Windsor. In 1923, an additional 
source of supply was brought into York by a con- 
nection between Edison Light and Power Company's 
system and Pennsylvania Water and Power Com- 
pany's Hydro and Steam Plants at Holtwood, Penn- 
sylvania. The Edison Light and Power Company now 
secures its supply of electrical energy from Metro- 
politan Edison Company and Pennsylvania Water 
and Power Company, except kilowatt hours gener- 
ated at its Central Plant in connection with standby 
service. It also supplies steam to the York Steam 
Heating Company. 

The Edison Light and Power Company serves ap- 
proximately 40,000 customers in the City and County 
of York, including subscribers to the Glen Rock Elec- 
tric Light and Power Company which is under the 
same management. 



In the early days, the customary charge for do- 
mestic service was ten cents per kilowatt hour. This 
cost was steadily reduced by improved efficiency in 
the generation and distribution of electrical energy. 
The domestic rate on the Edison Light and Power 
Company's system for an average monthly use of 
100 kilowatt hours is now $2.96 which, by compar- 
ison, is the lowest on the Atlantic Seaboard. 

THE METROPOLITAN EDISON COMPANY 

The Metropolitan Edison Company, organized in 
1885, through its generating stations on the Susque- 
hanna River at York Haven and Middletown and, 
through interchange with Holtwood and Safe Har- 
bor, supplies electrical power to scores of York's 
industries. 

During 1944, the capacity of the company was in- 
creased 70% by additional construction at the Smith 
Street Substation, bringing the total generating ca- 
pacity up to 224,500 kilowatts. Power is distributed 
over high tension lines carried on steel towers. Con- 
nections at seven different points with the power 
systems of other large companies and Metropolitan 
Edison's own four main generating stations insure 
continuous and efficient service. 

YORK STEAM HEATING COMPANY 

The York Steam Heating Company was incorpo- 
rated in 1898 for the purpose of supplying steam to 
customers in the cenrtal part of the City of York. In 
1907, the control of this company was purchased by 
the York Railways Company and placed under the 
same management as the Edison Light and Power 
Company. Steam is purchased from the latter com- 
pany for resale and distributed from its power plant 
by means of mains ranging from 6 to 12 inches in 
diameter totalling approximately 3V2 miles in length. 
During the first season of operation the company 
served twenty-eight customers on a loop extending 
from Gay Alley south on Beaver Street to Mason 
Alley, east on Mason Alley to Queen Street, north 
on Queen Street to Clarke Alley and west on Clarke 
Alley to point of connection with the Beaver Street 
Main. This loop was approximately one mile in 
length. Since the date of incorporation, extensions 
approximately 2'/2 miles have been added to the 
original system from which 325 customers are now 
being served. 

YORK COUNTY GAS COMPANY 

Although it has been known by several different 
names during the years, the York County Gas Com- 
pany has been in continuous operation since 1849. 
Dr. Alexander Small was the first president and a 
year after the company was organized he made a 
contract with the burgesses to supply gas for street 
lighting. 

Each evening, at dusk, a lamplighter went through 
the streets. At each lamppost he set up his ladder 
and lighted the lamp with a match. Later, a pilot 



was used. During one period, it was the duty of 
every policeman to light the street lamps on his beat. 

In the early days, the gas company superinten- 
dent's duties were many, his hours were long and 
his pay was small. He had to inspect the fixtures on 
the premises of customers, collect the bills, keep the 
meters in order, manufacture gas and take care of 
the gas works on East Gas Alley. The plant has now 
been moved to Cottage Hill Road. 

In 1895, Grier Hersh was elected president of the 
company and served for forty-three years. During 
that time, gas street lights were replaced with elec- 
tric lights, but industrial uses of gas, and water heat- 
ing, house heating and refrigeration by gas were 
developed. The number of customers increased from 
1,600 to 16,600. In 1945, 26,819 customers were served 
by the York County Gas Company. 

WATER SUPPLY 

York rightfully boasts of its public water supply. 
The water is soft and admirably adapted for textile, 
boiler, manufacturing and domestic purposes. No re- 
strictions have ever been placed on its use. The re- 
serve in the Impounding Basin totals over 900,000,000 
gallons. The water is pumped to an elevation high 
above the city of York where it is filtered. It is then 
stored under pressure ready for instant use. Pres- 
sure on the mains averages 70 pounds per square 
inch. The water supply has proven adequate in all 
fires, and to insure reliability, all fire hydrants are 
inspected regularly. The duplication of all pumps 
and many other facilities safeguards the community 
against interruption of service. The excellent water 
service partially accounts for low insurance rates 
in York. 

York has had a water company for 129 years. It 
was one of the first communities to filter and ster- 
ilize its water. In the company's laboratory a num- 
ber of refinements in water filtration and treatment 
have been developed. A method has been worked 



out whereby corrosion in the pipes has been greatly 
reduced. 

The children in the public, private and parochial 
schools of the city study the local water supply. Each 
year classes are shown through the buildings. The 
youngsters learn in detail about the function of the 
laboratory, see the various pumps and filters in op- 
eration, and examine for themselves sections of the 
old wooden pipes through which city water was 
carried early in the 1800's. 

The York Water Company was a pioneer in re- 
forestation. Over 1,250,000 trees were planted on the 
watershed. This stabilized the run-off and improved 
the water. A public park of 75 acres is maintained 
around the site of the reservoir. 

The company has 81,600 subscribers, including 
consumers in the boroughs of West York, North York, 
Manchester, Mt. Wolf, and in the villages of Spry, 
Pleasureville, Emigsville and intervening territory. 

POSTAL SERVICE 

Benjamin Franklin was Postmaster-General of the 
Colonies in 1753, when the first dispatch rider can- 
tered into York from Reading and Lancaster carry- 
ing the mails in his saddle-bags. Rates were high in 
those days and since the person to whom the letter 
was addressed had to pay the postage, early news- 
papers carry long lists of unclaimed letters. 

Andrew Johnston, a wounded veteran of the Rev- 
olutionary War, was York's first United States Post- 
master. He took office in 1790. 

The United States Post-Office at York occupies one 
of the finest postal buildings in the country. Con- 
gressman Daniel F. Lafean secured the original ap- 
propriation of $135,000, through an act of Congress 
in 1912, for a building to be erected in York, both 
as a Post-Office and as a memorial to Continental 
Congress. 

Due to the increase of business after parcel-post 
service was inaugurated in 1913, a larger building 




Reservoir of the York Water Company. 



was soon needed. A second appropriation was se- 
sured by Congressman Harry L. Haines and the 
building was enlarged to its present size. Work on 
it was completed October, 1940, at a total cost of 
$1,000,000. This building houses not only the Post- 
Office, but also the Post-Office Inspector, the Bureau 
of Internal Revenue, the Army and Navy Services, 
the Marine Corps, the Social Security Office, the 
County Agent of the York County Agricultural Ex- 
tension Association and the Farm Security Office. 

Eleven branch post-offices are maintained at con- 
venient locations in various sections of the city. 

There are three deliveries of mail daily in the 
down-town section, two in the residential section, 
and one in the outlying city districts. Seven rural 
routes and five star routes originate at the York 
Office. Postal receipts for 1944 totalled $762,000. 

TELEGRAPH SERVICE 

The first commercial telegraph line in the country 
passed through York, on its way from Harrisburg to 
Lancaster. It was put into use November 24, 1845, 
and was known as the American Telegraph Com- 
pany. In 1864, the name was changed to the Inde- 
pendent Line Telegraph, and on June 12, 1866, it 
was leased to Western Union. 

Western Union in York offers complete telegraph 
service, including cable and radio connections with 
all parts of the world, twenty-four hours of the day. 

Since 1937 the volume of business has increased 
300% and has necessitated the employment of addi- 
tional personnel. All new employees have been re- 
cruited and trained in York. This office has also 
trained personnel for out-of-town offices. 

Among the special services provided by Western 
Union are the leased wires of the Associated Press 
serving local newspapers, the direct wires of the 
stock brokers, and a time service, synchronized 
hourly with Naval Observatory time, and not depen- 
dent upon local power. 



YORK TELEPHONE AND TELEGRAPH 
COMPANY 

Modern telephone service for York County is pro- 
vided by the York Telephone and Telegraph Com- 
pany. The service is completely automatic; one of 
the earliest dial systems in the country, having been 
installed in 1919. The company is locally owned and 
occupies its own handsome modern building, con- 
taining business and executive offices, automatic 
switchboards, and modern garage facilities at 31 
South Beaver Street. 

Telephone engineers consider the York Tele- 
phone and Telegraph Company a model installation. 
Through harmonic ringing, a subscriber on a party 
line hears only his own signal. The system is prac- 
tically storm proof. All power equipment is dupli- 
cated with stand-by units and generators ready to 
carry the load if power lines should fail. Ninety per 
cent of the wires are under ground. Conduits are 
gas-filled in order to make the location of trouble 
easy. 

Through these conduits run not only telephone 
wires but also cables controlling automatic burglar 
and fire alarms, teletypes and facsimile transmitters. 
No radio station could operate without telephone 
service. Programs from national networks come in 
by telephone over super-circuits and are amplified 
and transmitted through local stations. The thirty- 
horsepower motors at the North York pumping sta- 
tion of the York Water Company are started and 
stopped automatically by electrical impulses carried 
over telephone wires as soon as the water in the 
reservoir 5 1 /2 miles away at Manchester falls or rises 
beyond a certain level. This same system is em- 
ployed to maintain the water level in the Pleasure- 
ville reservoir. 

The York Telephone and Telegraph Company also 
offers the latest in private branch exchange equip- 
ment to local business firms and industries. 




The York Post Office erected at a cost of more fhan $1,000,000 is aJso a memoriaJ to Continental Congress. 



AMERICAN TELEPHONE AND TELEGRAPH 
COMPANY 

Through cooperation with the American Telephone 
and Telegraph Company, long distance calls are 
handled without delay or inconvenience. The sub- 
scriber dials directly into the long distance switch- 
board, and the charge for the call is recorded on the 
bill issued by the York Telephone and Telegraph 
Company. 

EARLY RAILROADS 

Yorkers first enjoyed the thrill of railroad travel on 
April 16, 1834, when a number of them journeyed by 
stage-coach and private carriage to Columbia to be 
on the first train along with Governor Wolf and other 
state officials, which ran over the Columbia, Lancas- 
ter and Philadelphia Railroad. This train consisted 
of three cars drawn by an imported English wood- 
burning locomotive. After that, Thomas McGrath, 
proprietor of the Globe Inn, regularly sold railway 
tickets to Philadelphia. 

York, however, did not yet have a railroad. Per- 
mission was secured by the Baltimore and Susque- 
hanna Railroad from the Maryland Legislature to 
build a track to the Pennsylvania State Line. Beyond 
that point they could not go without a charter from 
the Pennsylvania State Legislature. Newspapers 
pointed out that such a line would divert millions in 
trade from Philadelphia to Baltimore and a charter 
was refused. Innkeepers opposed the bill since they 
depended upon entertaining stage-coach passengers 
and wagoners. Conestoga wagon drivers feared that 
their livelihood would be gone. 

"Oh, I once made money driving my team. 
But now all is hauled on the railroad by 

steam, 
May the devil catch the man who invented 

the plan. 
For it ruined us poor wagoners and every 

other man." 
ran a wagoner's song of the time. 

York County and the tier of southern counties re- 
peatedly petitioned the legislature and sent repre- 
sentatives to Harrisburg until finally, after four years 
of struggle, Governor Wolf recommended the exten- 
sion of the railroad from Maryland into Pennsylvania 
and the bill was passed March 14, 1832. 

When the good news reached York, flags were 
hung out, and people thronged the streets shaking 
hands with each other, while bells rang and can- 
nons boomed. Bands began to play and a proces- 
sion was hastily formed. And in sign of celebrations 
the whole town was illuminated until nine o'clock 
that evening! 

Many difficulties were encountered in the build- 
ing of the railroad. The country between Baltimore 
and York is rugged, and threaded with streams run- 
ning through narrow valleys. Eighty-two bridges 
and a tunnel through solid rock, 217 feet long, had 
to be consrtucted. The laborers struck, demanding 
that their pay be increased to a dollar a day, and 
also that they be supplied with additional jiggers 
of whiskey, to help keep the work going. There were 
riots before the strike was settled, but finally the 
railroad reached York. 

The first train arrived August 23, 1838. "A citizen 
of Baltimore can now breakfast at home, dine in 



York, and return home for tea." The trip took about 
four hours. 

The daily arrival of the train "created an air of 
pleasant liveliness and excitement in the staid and 
quiet borough," and industries began to prosper. 

Passengers for Harrisburg, Columbia, and Pitts- 
burgh left the train at York and continued their jour- 
ney by stage-coach. 

Salaries for railroad men in 1855 were: Engineers, 
$70.00 per month; conductors, $35.00; firemen, $26.00; 
and brakemen, $16.50. 

As the borough grew, additional lines were built 
in the county and merged until York acquired three 
modern railroads. 

RAILROADS 

York's three railroads, the Pennsylvania Railroad 
Company, the Maryland and Pennsylvania Railroad, 
and the Western Maryland Railway have a recip- 
rocal switching agreement applicable to all indus- 
tries having private sidings. 

MARYLAND AND PENNSYLVANIA 
RAILROAD 

Several small lines were consolidated in 1901 to 
form the Maryland and Pennsylvania Railroad, fa- 
miliarly known as the "Mom and Pop," which now 
serves more than fifty of York's industries, many of 
which have one or more private sidings. The line 
extends from York to Baltimore and handles heavy 
freight. No passenger trains are operated. 




One o/ Western Maryland's new high-speed. Baldwin-built 
locomotives. 



PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD 

The Pennsylvania Railroad operates in and out of 
York, a total of thirty-eight passenger trains every 
twenty-four hours. These trains provide connections 
for points east, west, north, and south. 

This company operates fifty-three direct freight 
services to destinations in the industrial areas east 
of the Mississippi River; ten services direct to large 
transfer stations which serve other heavy industrial 
communities in the East; three services direct to 
Western Railroad Connections and eight services di- 
rect to Southern points. 

The Greyhound Bus Lines operate also from the 
Pennsylvania Railroad Station, a total of twenty-four 
bus runs per twenty-four hours. These runs afford 
connections to all parts of the country. 

WESTERN MARYLAND RAILROAD 

York's heavy industrial activity attracted the West- 
em Maryland Railway to extend its lines into the 
city in 1893. With the coming of this road, increased 



OC 



prosperity was immediately enjoyed by many of the 
local industries through the opening of new markets. 

Many of York's products which are used in all 
parts of the world move over this carrier to Baltimore 
where the Western Maryland's twenty-five-million- 
dollar Port Covington layout is one of the most mod- 
ern tidewater railroad terminals in the country. 

In addition to heavy freight, Western Maryland 
handles enormous quantities of coal. Coal reserves 
of more than four billion tons lie along its 900-mile 
system. 

One of Western Maryland's powerful, new, high- 
speed, Baldwin-built locomotives, capable of pulling 
11,000 tons of freight at a speed of seventy miles per 
hour, was recently displayed at the York Interstate 
Fair. 

BUS SERVICE 

In 1886, horse-cars carried passengers upon the 
streets of York; in 1892, they were succeeded by 
trolley-cars; and in 1939, the trolley tracks were 
taken up and a fleet of modern buses began to op- 
erate in York, and to render service to the outlying 
boroughs as well. 

York bus service is up-to-date and efficiently man- 
aged. Fifty-three buses and one tractor-trailer are in 
operation. The company has its own gasoline tanks, 
storage garage and maintenance shops complete 
with facilities for motor overhaul. Buses are washed 
inside and out every night and are completely in- 
spected every 1,500 miles. All drivers undergo train- 
ing and are required to pass an examination before 
they take out buses. 

The fare is 7 cents within the city, with free trans- 
fer. Routes are planned to accommodate residents of 
all sections of the city. Continental Square serves as 
the transfer point for local buses, as well as those 
reaching points in the county. These suburban buses 
cover routes totalling 89 miles. 

Suburban tickets are sold at a booth located in 
the Morris Drug Store. 

TAXICABS 

The York Cab and Yellow Cab operates out of 
the same office at West Clarke and Cherry. The com- 
pany owns 21 cabs and has its own bulk gasoline 
tanks, storage garage and repair shops. 




HIGHWAYS 

Two through national highways cross at Conti- 
nental Square in the heart of York. They are the 
Lincoln Highway, Route No. 30, and the Susque- 
hanna Trail, Route No. 111. 

COUNTY ROADS 

In York County there are 1,193 miles of paved 
roads constituting a part of Pennsylvania's famous 
state highways system. These roads reach every 
nook and corner of the county and furnish year- 
around, farm-to-market facilities. 

These excellent roads also make possible the many 
beautiful country homes of the county, some estates, 
and others, attractive low-priced homes. Commuta- 
tion by automobile or bus to the city takes but a 
few minutes. 

WRISHTSVILLE-COLUMBIA BRIDGE 

The Wrightsville-Columbia Bridge, constructed 
during 1929 and 1930 at a cost of $3,000,000, the 
longest multiple-arch, reinforced concrete bridge in 
the world, was dedicated on Armistice Day, 1930, as 
a memorial to the United States veterans of all wars. 
Within twelve years the cost of the bridge was paid 
in tolls, and it was turned over to the State Depart- 
ment of Highways to maintain for the free use of 
the public. 

The building of the bridge and the liquidation of 
the bond issue through tolls was due to the sustained 
and arduous efforts of the civic organizations of York 
and Lancaster counties. 

In December, 1921, civic organizations from Lan- 
caster, Columbia, Wrightsville and York met in Co- 
lumbia to discuss the building of a modern highway 




Continental Square, the heart ot York. 



Covered bridge across the Conewago near Kunkel's mill. 



06 



bridge across the Susquehanna. The toll bridge 
owned by the Pennsylvania Railroad was becom- 
ing inadequate for the accommodation of 6,000 cars 
daily. Besides, it had to be closed every few hours 
for the passage of trains, and switch engines on the 
grade crossing at one end of the bridge often held 
up motorists minutes longer. After surmounting many 
legislative difficulties and fighting the issue through 
the local, Superior and Supreme courts, authority 
was finally obtained to float bonds bearing 4 l k % 
interest. York County issued $1,400,000 worth of these 
bonds and Lancaster County an equal amount, and 
the bridge was erected and paid for through tolls. 

MOTOR TRUCK TRANSPORTATION 

Fleets of high-speed modern trucks have super- 
seded the Conestoga wagon as freight carriers upon 
the highways of York County. Specialized types of 
bodies, many of which are made in York, provide 
proper accommodation for all commodities. The 
open-top panel body is used for city pick-up and 
delivery and for the transportation of livestock; vans 
for furniture; tanks for water, milk, oils, gasoline, 
chemicals and other liquids; refrigera/ed trucks trans- 
port butter, meat, vegetables, and fruits; heated 
trucks are used to prevent commodities from freez- 
ing; low-body trucks haul heavy machinery, auto- 
mobiles and airplanes; armored trucks carry motion- 
picture films and other valuables; and trucks fitted 
with hangers are used for the transportation of cloth- 
ing. Tractor-trailer units which carry loads of ten 
tons or more are used mainly between terminals. 

All these are being used today to transport com- 
modities from York, such as canned and fresh fruit 
and vegetables, eggs, dressed poultry and meats, 
machinery, refrigerating units, chain, wire screen, 
wallpaper, candy, foodstuffs, false teeth, clothing, 
iron and steel products, chemicals, and a host of 
other articles. 

Before World War I, such products were trans- 
ported by railways and by horse-drawn drays, but 
during 1917, Felix Bentzel pioneered in York by pro- 
viding regular motor truck service to Philadelphia 
and New York. 



to Baltimore, but it was not until 1927 when the 
states began to undertake programs of highway im- 
provement that York's motor truck transportation 
began to grow by leaps and bounds. Equipment was 
added, terminals were built, additional drivers were 




York is an important trucking center. 

At the close of World War I, many trucks were 
released for civilian use and service was extended 
hired, and companies were incorporated. 

At the present time, approximately forty common 
carriers and several contract carriers operate from 
York to all parts of the United States. Service on ex- 
port, import, coastwise and intercoastal shipping is 
maintained through connections with shipping lines 
at the ports of Baltimore, Philadelphia, North Jersey 
and New York. 

No figures are available on the total amount of 
inbound raw materials and outbound finished prod- 
ucts transported to and from York, but one of the 
larger trucking companies averages ten million 
pounds weekly. 

York's truck lines, by maintaining modern termi- 
nals and equipment, through regular routes, joint 
rates and daily service, provide efficient, speedy and 
dependable transportation. With the introduction of 







The Wrightsville-Columbia Bridge was financed by a $3,000,000 bond issue backed by York and Lancaster Counties. 



cargo-carrying planes in the near future, truck lines 
will form another integral link in the coordinated 
truck-rail-water-and-air transportation of freight to 
all parts of the world. 

MOTOR TRUCK INDUSTRY STATISTICS, 1944 
YORK AREA 

Number of Trucks Registered 7,453 

Capital Investment $1,980,000 

Payroll Yearly $1,100,000 

Employees 2,990 

Gross Sales $6,400,000 

YORK AIRPORT 

Following World War I, a number of "barn storm- 
ing" fliers visited York and used various cow pas- 
tures as landing fields. 

It was not until 1939, that York had its own Class I 
Airport. Located at Thomasville, Pennsylvania, on 
Route No. 30, and privately owned by Oscar L. Hos- 
tetter, the York Airport operates five planes of its 
own, and offers storage facilities for forty-five pri- 
vate planes. The field has complete facilities for 
major aircraft and engine repairs. 

A C.A.A. approved flight school is maintained in 
which a War Training Program was carried from 
1940-1942, training one hundred private pilots and 
twenty instructors. Ground school subjects are given 
at the York Collegiate Institute. 

Plans are under way for enlargement of the field 
to provide for the accommodation of passenger and 
cargo planes. The expansion of aviation in the near 
future will require at least two or three additional 
airports in the vicinity of York for the convenience 
of private and commercial flying. 

CIVIL AIR PATROL 

The Civil Air Patrol in York made aviation history 
during the early days of the war when it originated 
the courier service, offering transportation for war 
plant personnel and vital supplies. Underwritten 
by the Manufacturers' Association, pilots stood by 
awaiting emergency calls. 

The Civil Air Patrol trained many Army Air Forces' 
enlisted cadets as well as cadets in ground school 
and military C.A.P. subjects. These boys became 
better military pilots because of their background 
and many were employed as instructors. 

At present, the Civil Air Patrol holds weekly meet- 
ings at the State Armory. Classes in such subjects 
as physical training, navigation, meteorology, and 
plane identification are conducted. Many of the stu- 
dents enrolled in preflight classes at William Penn 
Senior High School are members. Girls, as well as 
boys, interested in aviation are welcome to join the 
unit. 

VALLEY AIR PARK 

The Valley Air Park, located three miles east of 
York on the Lincoln Highway, caters to the private 
plane owner and his plane. The landing field is L- 
shaped; the east and west runway being 2,100 feet 
long and 300 feet wide; and the north and south 
runway, 2,130 feet long and 300 feet wide. The pres- 
ent office is 15 by 30 feet, and the hangar is 50 by 
75 feet, but plans are under way for the building of 
twenty private hangars and an overhaul shop 120 
by 80 feet. 



Aircraft is available for every phase of instruction 
and planes are also rented to qualified pilots. A 
complete overhaul service is maintained and a full 
line of parts kept on hand. 

BIG INCH PIPE LINE 

The Big Inch is a 1,400-mile pipe line constructed 
at a cost of $95,000,000 to carry crude oil from the 
fields at Long View, Texas, to the refineries at Mar- 
cus Hook, Pennsylvania, and Bayway, New Jersey. 
It passes through eight States and has a daily ca- 
pacity of 12,000,000 gallons of oil, equivalent to the 
load of eighty-five tankers or 25,000 railway tank 
cars. This oil is moved at the rate of 100 miles per 
day by twenty-six pumping stations. 

After the Big Inch crosses the Alleghenies, it enters 
York County near East Berlin and leaves it at Vine- 
gar Ferry, south of Accomac. Three-hundred-and- 
sixty days were required to complete the entire con- 
struction of the line. The construction through the 
county was carried on between March and August, 
1943. The forty-foot, two-ton sections of pipe were 
laid under 237 streams and forty rivers, but the diffi- 
culty of blasting a channel in the rock bottom of the 
Susquehanna was second only to the laying of the 
Big Inch under the Mississippi. 

When the war is over, the Big Inch will insure 
a constant supply and a decrease in the price of 
fuel oil and gasoline to the residents of the Eastern 
Seaboard. 

"THE YORK DISPATCH" Evening Daily 

"The York Dispatch" puts world news on the front 
page, but probably most Yorkers glance first at the 
local news on the back page. 

It was through Frank Thomas, a printer out of 
work, that "The York Dispatch" came into existence. 
The year 1876 had been a dull one in the printing 
trade and unemployed printers used to congregate 
in the book store of Hiram Young, then located at 
16 East Market Street. Mr. Young had been publish- 
ing a weekly, but Mr. Thomas urged him to start a 
daily paper. Accordingly, the first issue of "The York 
Dispatch" appeared May 29, 1876. The paper was 
published at 10 East Market Street until 1904, when 
it moved to its present location at 15-17 East Phila- 
delphia Street. 

E. Norman Gunnison, a polished New Englander, 
and a typical Bohemian, was first editor of "The Dis- 
patch." He was gaining reputation as a poet but 
was claimed by death. 

Edward S. Young, son of the publisher, was for 
more than a decade managing editor. He had lived 
in the Far West and worked with such newspaper 
men as Eugene Field and Bill Nye. He abhorred sen- 
sationalism and faking and stood for strict accuracy 
in reporting and clean journalism. Under these poli- 
cies, the circulation of "the Dispatch" had grown 
to 26,000. 

E. B. Williamson has been managing editor since 
1925. 

"THE GAZETTE AND DAILY" Morning Daily 

"The Gazette and Daily" is believed to be the 
oldest newspaper in continuous publication in 
Pennsylvania. 

The York Gazette Company, publisher of "The 
Gazette and Daily," this year is celebrating four 



anniversaries which span 150 years of newspaper 
publication. 

This 150-year-old record of publishing weekly, 
semi-weekly and daily newspapers makes "The Ga- 
zette" the oldest newspaper in continuous publica- 
tion in Pennsylvania and one of the oldest in the 
country. 

The quadruple celebration marks the 150th anni- 
versary of the founding of the "York Gazette," a 
German edition first published in December, 1795; 
the 130th anniversary founding of the English edi- 
tion in May, 1815; the 30th anniversary of the present 
management, which took over on February 2, 1915, 
and the 75th anniversary of the first publication of 
the "York Daily." 

The present paper resulted from a merger on June 
24, 1918, of the "York Daily" and "The Gazette." The 
first issue of the daily "York Gazette" appeared No- 
vember 9, 1877, while the first issue of the "York 
Daily" appeared seven years earlier, October 5, 
1870. 

The first issue of "The Gazette and Daily" in tab- 
loid format appeared on April 1, 1943. 

The paper pursues an active editorial policy and 
keeps its readers conscious of community conditions 
in need of improvement. 

WORK NBC Network 

The broadcasting studios of WORK are conven- 
iently located in the heart of York at 13 South Beaver 
Street. Visitors find much of interest "back-stage." 
They see how the news comes in by teletype; they 
watch operations in the control room and witness 
actual broadcasts. They note how every program is 
timed to the split second. Electrically synchronized 
clocks in each room and studio keep everyone in- 
formed of the time at all times. 

The station broadcasts regularly 17 hours out of 
every 24 and on many occasions, when there is news 
of unusual interest, the station stays on the air for 
the entire twenty-four hours. 

More than a dozen times a day the news is given 
over WORK, either by local announcers from ma- 
terial furnished over the wire of United Press, or by 
nationally-known commentators and analysts from 
all parts of the globe. 

Many local programs are given each day to sup- 
plement the top shows presented by the National 
Broadcasting Company and the Mutual Network. 

WORK was York's first radio station and during 
its thirteen years of existence it has given freely of 
its air-time to civic organizations such as the Red 
Cross, the Salvation Army, the Boy Scouts, the York 
Ministerial Association, and the Farm Bureau. It has 
also played an active part in War Bond Drives, Sal- 
vage Campaigns, Recruiting Services, etc. 



WORK'S one-thousand watt transmitter is lo- 
cated five miles west of York on the Lincoln Highway. 

WSBA 

Built and operated to meet the needs of the dy- 
namic community it serves, WSBA, York's newest 
and most modern radio station, is located a short 
distance north of the city along the Susquehanna 
Trail. Developed under the personal supervision of 
Louis J. Appell, the station went on the air Septem- 
ber 1, 1942, and, in the relatively short time since 
that date, has firmly established itself in the cultural 
and business life of the area. 

W S B A is a 1,000-watt station, at present operat- 
ing from sun-up to sun-down on a regional channel 
frequency of 900 kilocycles. Its studios, transmitter, 
and offices, which are housed in a modern building 
of Colonial architecture in keeping with the tradi- 
tions of the community, form a unit unsurpassed in 
plan, design, and equipment by any station of its 
class in the East. It is affiliated with the Blue Network. 

Since its initial broadcast, Radio Station WSBA 
has consistently maintained a policy of public ser- 
vice. In addition to the usual radio programming, it 
pioneered an outstanding news service, which brings 
to its listeners news practically every hour on the 
hour. It gives to the farmers of York County a daily 
program specially planned for them and brought to 
them by a practical farmer. It initiated the WSBA 
Radio Chapel, conducted daily by ministers of all 
local churches, and every church in the community 
is given the opportunity to broadcast its regular Sun- 
day morning services free of charge. Produced in its 
own studios, the WSBA Yankee Doodle Club Pro- 
gram provides a unique opportunity for the younger 
citizens of the community to participate in a produc- 
tion of their own. Its facilities are at the service of 
all governmental agencies, and every call from busi- 
ness, educational, and philanthropic organizations 
of the area have been answered with good-will and 
cooperation. 

The station's personnel, many of whom participate 
actively in the cultural life of the community, con- 
stantly exert every effort to create programs calcu- 
lated to please the tastes of every section of the 
population. 

Looking to the future, the management intends to 
improve and expand its present standard broadcast 
facilities wherever possible and, in addition, has ap- 
plied to the Federal Communications Commission for 
permission to build and operate a High Frequency, 
or FM, station. It is likewise following closely, devel- 
opments in the field of television. WSBA will con- 
tinue to give York nothing less than the best pro- 
gramming and latest developments in the industry. 



OO 



INDUSTRIAL 
AND COMMERCIAL 








"The York," with Phineas Davis as engineer, chugged off in fine style, at a speed of thirty 
miles per hour, on ifs test run be/ore the directors and engineers of (he Baltimore and Ohio 

Railroad, August 4. 1832. 



Industry and Commerce 



YORK AS AN IDEAL INDUSTRIAL 
COMMUNITY 

York, as an industrial community, has experienced 
a steady growth based upon solid and fine-tested 
foundations. 

Yorkers are home-loving people, who live well 
but within their means. The population is 96% white 
and native-born. Thrift and industry are traditional, 
and workers are unusually loyal. Many have worked 
in the same plants for years, and sometimes three 
generations of the one family may be found in the 
same shop. Many are highly skilled, through train- 
ing received in industry or through the cooperative 
industrial program of the Atreus Wanner Vocational 
School. Most of York's industries are owned locally 
and were the direct outgrowth of local inventive 
genius. 

Three railroads, splendid highways, nearness to 
the markets of the great cities of the Eastern Sea- 
board, the low tax rate, and a dependable supply 
of skilled labor make it an ideal city in which to 
locate an industry. 

York's many beautiful churches, its broad recre- 
ational program, varied educational facilities, its 
coordinated health and social welfare agencies, its 
good food and beautiful countryside, also make it a 
city in which to live as well as to make a livelihood. 

TYPES OF INDUSTRIES 

Metal trades lead in York, clay glass and stone 
products are next in volume, and paper, printing, 
textiles and textile products, woodworking, chemicals 
and allied products are also of importance. In 1944, 
York County manufactured one-thirteenth of all the 
cigars made in the United States. 

York has a greater per cent of its population gain- 
fully employed than any other city in the State. 




Peace and plenty in the valley ot the Codorus. 



Many women are employed in textile and knitting 
mills, in clothing manufacture, food industries and 
cigarmaking. 

It ranks as the fourteenth city in the State in popu- 
lation but is first in the State in diversification of in- 
dustry. Yet it has nine of the world's largest indus- 
trial plants of their kind manufacturing ice-making 
and refrigerating machinery, bank safes and vaults, 
water turbines, artificial teeth, wallpaper, roofing 
paper, pretzels, auto tire chains and bakers' ma- 
chinery. York is also noted for agricultural machin- 
ery, pianos, hosiery, furniture, pottery, fertilizer, lime, 
wire cloth, heating systems, candy, cement, garage 
equipment, welding rods, metal stampings, and 
many other widely-used products. 

The following figures for 1943 show the industrial 
strength of the community: Number of industries, 
224; capitalization, $49,537,200; value of product, 
$199,173,000; number of employees, 24,093; salaries 
and wages, $52,723,000. 

YORK PRODUCTS ARE USED THROUGH- 
OUT THE WORLD 

York products find their way to many foreign 
shores. One York plant alone ships its products to 
thirty-three countries. York companies have sales 
offices in Canada, England, and France; and sales 
representatives in every European, Central and 
South American country and in South Africa, Aus- 
tralia and the Orient. 

In peacetime, a traveler might find York products, 
shipped in paper cartons made in York, in almost 
any part of the world. An office in Shanghai, a hotel 
in London, a theatre in Rio de Janeiro are equipped 
with York air conditioning. York-made cooling ma- 
chines operate 1 '/4 miles underground in a gold mine 
near Johanesburg, South Africa, and York ice ma- 
chinery is used to cool drinks from Singapore to 
Moscow. Hotel windows in Panama are screened 
with wire cloth made in York. The drinking water in 
Bogota is brought from the mountains over an aque- 
duct equipped with York-built valves. Widely used 
in South America are York chains. In Manila and 
Sao Paulo, Brazil, electricity is generated by York 
hydraulic turbines, and the same type of turbines 
supplies power for the operation of copper mines 
high in the Peruvian Andes. Ore-crushing machines 
from York are used far north of the Arctic Circle in 
Siberia and near the Equator in Ecuador. York farm 
implements are used in Central and South America, 
Europe, Africa and Australia. 

There is no college, university or technical school 
in the world which does not use technical books 
printed in York, and it is also impossible for anyone 
to obtain an engineering degree or a doctor's de- 
gree without using books printed in York. 

With the coming of the World War II, York prod- 
ucts were used upon the high seas and in every 
theatre of action, as may be seen by a careful read- 



ing of the accounts of individual industries in the 
industrial section of this book. 

REAL ESTATE 

York is a home-loving community. Approximately 
55% of the city's families are homeowners. Several 
fine decorators' shops and high-class furniture stores 
supply furnishings for York's homes. Many proper- 
ties are beautifully landscaped. 

Homes are kept painted and in good repair. In 
the downtown section many fine old residences, 
built more than a hundred years ago, are still most 
attractive and livable due to the care they have 
received. 

House cleaning is a ritual which traditionally oc- 
cupies a full month both spring and fall. Attention 
is given not only to the inside of the house but to 
the outside as well. Windows, steps, sidewalks, and 
even house fronts are washed regularly. "You can't 
beat the Dutch as housekeepers" still goes in York 
County. 

During the past fifteen years, many attractive de- 
velopments of medium and higher-priced houses 
have sprung up overlooking the beautiful country- 
side just out of York, where taxes are low. These 
homes are sold to wage earners upon agreement of 
sales. Architects, bankers and builders have co-op- 
erated in creating these developments and are all 
set to go ahead with more as soon as building con- 
ditions permit. 

For many people, York's bankers and builders 
have fulfilled that dream of a beautiful modern, rea- 
sonably-priced home in the country, with flowers, 
shrubs, trees, a garden and a yard for the dog and 
the children ... all within convenient commuting 
distance of the city. 

YORK AS A CONVENTION CITY 

Ample hotel accommodations, central location, ex- 
cellent transportation, beautiful countryside, agri- 
cultural prosperity, good food, picturesque markets, 
modern stores, historic interest, recreational facilities, 
and the genuinely hospitable character of its inhabi- 
tants make York the ideal convention city. 

York has entertained conventions of many types. 
As a city of beautiful churches, York attracts many 
religious groups. Farmers have frequently selected 
York for state and national meetings. The Standard 
Bred Horse Show, formerly held at Madison Square 
Gardens, took place last year at the York Interstate 
Fair Grounds. Tobacco growers, bakers, representa- 
tives of the metals industries and numerous other in- 
dustrial associations have met in York because of 
the many top-ranking industries located here. The 
antique dealers, the D. A. R., and other patriotic or- 
ganizations find York an interesting convention spot 
because of its rich historic associations. York's un- 
usual diversification presents something of interest 
to almost any type of convention. 

YORK'S HOTELS 

The hotel business is one of York's oldest and most 
important industries. When Continental Congress 
was in session in York during those historic months 
of 1777-78, the great men of the colonies slept, dined 
and held many an epochal discussion at the old 
Globe Hotel, located on Continental Square, where 
the Schmidt Building now stands. 



Today, York's hotels have all the conveniences 
and comforts of the best hotels in the nation's largest 
cities, such as, mail, phone, wire, valet, and garage 
services, to mention but a few. 

The growth of York's hotels parallels York's de- 
velopment as an industrial center during the past 
twenty-five years. During that period, York's hotel 
accommodations have more than trebled. During 
World War I, York could offer less than 250 hotel 
rooms in buildings valued at $1,500,000. In World 
War II, the city has 800 first-class hotel rooms, in 
properties representing an investment of $4,000,000. 

During 1944, York's hotels were host to more than 
200,000 nightly guests. These guests spent $1,000,000 
in hotels and approximately $3,000,000 elsewhere in 
the city. 

At least 150,000 of these guests were here in con- 
nection with the war effort. York's hotels housed U. S. 
Navy and Allied personnel attending classes in air 
conditioning, refrigeration, gunnery, Diesel engines, 
hydraulic engineering and other subjects in York's 
industrial plants, and accommodated hundreds of 
high-ranking officers, government expediters and in- 
spectors. Meeting-rooms were also provided for 
many war plant conferences. 

York, as the hub of the southeastern Pennsylvania 
and northern Maryland region, a rich trade area 
with three-quarters of a million people within a 
twenty-five-mile radius of York, is headquarters for 
salesmen covering this area because of its fine 
hotels. 

Numerous post-war opportunities will be open to 
returning veterans in York's hotels which normally 
employ about 400 persons. Despite a 70% increase 
in hotel occupancy, York's hotels have not been 
overcrowded. Existing facilities are adequate to take 
care of post-war needs. 

DISTINGUISHED VISITORS TO YORK 

During the nineteenth century, York's inns enter- 
tained many distinguished visitors; among them, 
Andrew Jackson, who visited the city in 1820; Gen- 
eral William Henry Harrison, 1836; Martin Van 
Buren, 1839; Zachary Taylor, 1849; Charles Dickens, 
1842; and James Buchanan, 1861. 

YORKTOWNE HOTEL 

In recent years, the Yorktowne Hotel has enter- 
tained Lauritz Melchior, Jessica Dragonette, Vivian 
Delia Chiesa, Lily Pons, Lawrence Tibbett, Nelson 
Eddy, Jack Dempsey, Gene Tunney, Linda Darnell, 
Hedy Lamarr; Edna Ferber, Mrs. Roosevelt, and 
many others. 

During 1925, a group of businessmen raised $1,- 
000,000 through a community campaign to build an 
up-to-date hotel to be known as the Yorktowne, 
owned by the Community Hotel Company, and oper- 
ated under the direction of the American Hotels 
Corporation. The Yorktowne is located but one block 
from the juncture of the Susquehanna Trail and the 
Lincoln Highway; "The Main Street of America." It 
has 256 rooms; all with private baths adjoining; 
cocktail lounge, seating 100; club room, seating 150; 
a ballroom, accommodating 300; and banquet room, 
accommodating 650. Its dining room and coffee shop 
are noted for good food. The garage, belonging to 
the hotel, accommodates 90 cars. The Yorktowne has 
become known by the title bestowed upon it by its 
guests: "One of Pennsylvania's better hotels." 



York has several other up-to-date hotels such as 
the Colonial Hotel, Continental Square; Penn Hotel, 
George and Philadelphia Streets; and Brooks Hotel, 
30 South George Street. 

YE OLDE VALLEY INN 

Ye Olde Valley Inn, built by lohn Greist in 1738, 
purchased by Abraham Hiestand in 1792, and long 
known as Hiestand Tavern, is still a landmark on 
the Lincoln Highway three miles east of York. Here 
were entertained some of the delegates to Conti- 
nental Congress. In 1813, Conestoga wagons carry- 
ing powder to Perry at Lake Erie stopped here. 
When the York-Wrightsville Railroad was built in 
1840, the engineers and workmen made Ye Olde 
Valley Inn their headquarters. Immediately before 
Gettysburg in June, 1863, General Gordon and two 
of his officers stopped here for refreshment while 
3,000 men in grey marched on to Wrightsville. Ye 
Olde Valley Inn is now operated by S. C. Whitenak. 

AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR 

The American Federation of Labor is represented 
in York by the following organzations: Allied Print- 
ing Trades Council; Building and Construction Trades 
Council; Labor Temple Association; Union Label 
League; Asbestos Workers, International Association 
of Heat and Frost Insulators, Local No. 65; Automo- 
bile Workers of America, International Union United, 
Local No. 21959; Barbers' International Union, Jour- 
neymen, Local No. 734; Boilermakers, Iron Ship Build- 
ers and Helpers of America, International Brother- 
hood of Local No. 295; Bookbinders, International 
Brotherhood of Local No. 203; Brewery, Flour, Cereal 
and Soft Drink Workers of America, International 
Union of United Local No. 216; Bricklayers', Masons' 
and Plasterers' International Union of America, Local 
No. 16; Bridge, Structural and Ornamental Iron Work- 
ers, International Association of Local No. 72; Bakery 
and Confectionery Workers' International Union No. 
492; Bakery and Confectionery Workers' Union No. 6; 
Carpenters and Joiners of America, United Brother- 
hood of Local No. 191; Cement, Lime and Gypsum 
Workers' International Union United Local No. 179; 
Cigarmakers' International Union of America, Local 
No. 242; Clerks, Brotherhood of Railway and Steam- 
ship and Freight Handlers, Local No. 676; Clerks, In- 
ternational Protective Association Retail, Local No. 
1436; Clerks, National Federation of Post-Office, Lo- 
cal No. 1244; Electrical Workers of America, Interna- 
tional Brotherhood of Local No. 229; Electrical Work- 
ers of America, International Brotherhood of Local 
No. 1261; Enginemen, Brotherhood of Locomotive 
Firemen and Local No. 214; Engineers, International 
Union Operating Engineers, Local Union No. 831; 
Firemen and Oilers, International Brotherhood of 
Local No. 138; Garment Workers' Union, Inter- 
national Ladies' Local No. 108; Garment Workers' 
Union, International Ladies' Local No. 316; Hodcar- 
riers'. Building and Common Laborers' Union, Local 
No. 1167; Hotel and Restaurant Employees' Interna- 
tional Alliance and Bartenders' International League 
of America, Local No. 737; Letter Carriers', National 
Association of Local No. 509; Machinists' InteVnational 
Association of Local No. 243; Machinists' Interna- 
tional Association of Local No. 1400; Machinists' Inter- 
national Association of Local No. 1462; Maintenance 
of Way Employees, Brotherhood of Local No. 3024; 



Marble, Slate and Stone Polishers', Rubbers' and 
Sawyers', Tile and Marble Setters' Helpers' and Ter- 
razzo Helpers', International Association of Local No. 
147; Meat Cutters and Butcher Workmen of North 
America, Amalgamated Local No. 469; Metal Work- 
ers' International Association Sheet, Local No. 19; 
Moulders' Union of North America, International Lo- 
cal No. 33; Moulders' Union of North America Inter- 
national, Local No. 239; Musicians' American Fed- 
eration of Local No. 472; Painters, Decorators and 
Paperhangers of America, Brotherhood of Local No. 
227; Painters, Decorators and Paperhangers of Amer- 
ica, Brotherhood of Local No. 332; Papermakers' In- 
ternational Brotherhood of Local No. 449; Pattern- 
makers' Association of York and Vicinity; Plasterers' 
International Association of the United States and 




Yortfowne Homes, a Federal low-cost rental development. 




Elm Terrace Apartments. 




104 





A number of York's attractive homes. 



inc 



Canada, Operative Local No. 107; Plumbers and 
Steam Fitters of the United States and Canada, 
United Association of Local No. 555; Printing Press- 
men's Union of North America, International Local 
No. 329; Railway and Motor Coach Employees of 
America, Amalgamated Association of Street and 
Electric Local No. 858; Roofers', Damp and Water- 
proof Workers' Association United Slate, Tile and 
Composition, Local No. 207; Shop Crafts, Brotherhood 
of Railroad, Local No. 12; Stage Employees and Mov- 
ing-Picture Machine Operators of the United States 
and Canada, International Alliance of Theatrical, 
Local No. B118; Stage Employees and Moving-Pic- 
ture Machine Operators of the United States and 
Canada, International Alliance of Theatrical, Local 
No. 283; State, County and Municipal Employees, 
American Federation of Local No. 300; Stereotypers' 
and Electrotypers' Union of North America, Interna- 
tional Local No. 108; Fire Fighters', International 
Association of Local No. 627; Teamsters, Chauffeurs, 
Warehousemen and Helpers of America, Interna- 
tional Brotherhood of Local No. 430; Textile Workers 
of America, United, Local No. 2646; Tobacco Workers' 
International Union, Local No. 81; Typographical 
Union, International Local No. 242; Typographical 
Union, International Ladies' Auxiliary; Wallpaper 
Craftsmen and Workers of North America, United 
Workers' Local No. 1; Wallpaper Craftsmen and 
Workers of North America, United Print Cutters' Lo- 
cal No. 5; Wallpaper Craftsmen and Workers of 
North America, United Machinery Printers and Color 
Mixers, Local No. 6. 

The Cigar Makers were the first to organize in 
1885. They were followed by the Carpenters and 
Joiners in 1886 and the Bricklayers, Masons, and 
Plasterers in 1899. The Building and Construction 
Trades' Council occupies its own modern building 
at 124 South Pershing Avenue. 

Labor has responded generously to all the govern- 
ment's wartime appeals, not only on the production 



line, but also in bond buying, donation of blood 
plasma, clothing collection. Red Cross and War 
Fund drives. 

COMMITTEE FOR INDUSTRIAL 
ORGANIZATION 

The C. I. O. has 15,000 members in York among 
its several affiliated unions. The largest group is the 
United Steel Workers with a membership of 9,000. 
Others are the United Radio, Electrical and Machine 
Workers of America; United Furniture Workers of 
America; United Textile Workers; Allied Stone and 
Quarry Workers; United Office and Professional 
Workers; the Agricultural Canning Workers; and 
several local industrial unions affiliated directly with 
the Congress of Industrial Organizations. 

The Local Industrial Union, No. 1335, composed of 
roofing workers, while not a member of C. I. O., is 
allied with the Congress of Industrial Organizations. 

The C. I. O. in York carries on the program of the 
national organization through collective bargaining. 
Wage adjustments, standard work-week, vacations, 
apprenticeship standards, sick benefits, and over- 
time pay are agreed upon by union representatives 
and employers. 

The C. I. O. stands ready to assist veterans of the 
armed forces and maritime service in obtaining the 
employment benefits due to them under Federal 
legislation. 

Both War and Community Welfare Drives have re- 
ceived active support of C. I. O. A ten per cent pay- 
roll deduction for bonds is standard throughout the 
Union. Through union representatives who went into 
the plants and explained to the workers the impor- 
tance of the Community Chest, labor has adopted a 
payroll deduction of 2 of \% and gained ten seats 
on the Welfare Board. In addition to this, the C. I. O. 
has purchased several pieces of water therapy 
equipment for the Visiting Nurses' Association. 



The statements of historical facf in the foregoing secfion have been carefully examined and 
discussed at length with the author by a special committee of The Historical Society of York 
County. The committee recognizes (he extensive research that was required of the author and 
believes that she has achieved a work tree from error, and welcomes it as a valuable contri- 
bution to the literature of our local history. 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 



THIS is the book of the people of York. Many have given gen- 
erously of their time and of their specialized knowledge, the 
results of years of research, to make this book possible. The 
author is indebted to the library of the York Collegiate Insti- 
tute, the Historical Society of York County and the Martin 
Memorial Library, and for information on the following sub- 
jects to the following people: Agriculture, George G. Weber; 
Authors, Staff of the Martin Library; Banking, George L. 
Sprenkel; City Government, Mayor John L. Snyder; Civil Air 
Patrol, Oscar L. Hostetter; General Jacob L. Devers, Catherine 
Devers; Flood Control, Benjamin E. Sweigart; Gazette and 
Daily, Josiah Gitt; Markets, L. Elmer Leas; Motor Truck Trans- 
portation, J. Frank Baird; Pennsylvania Rifle, Joe Kindig, Jr.; 
Pennsylvania State Guard, Lieutenant Charles Spongier; Police 
Department, Chief Nelson Schultz; Public Schools, Dr. Arthur 
W. Ferguson; Refrigeration, Goodling Electric Company; Rabbi 
Alexander Goode, Joseph Sperling; Sports, Robert Reichley; 
Teen-Agers' Club, George S. Andes; Tobacco Industry, Com- 
missioner of Internal Revenue, Treasury Department, Greens- 
boro, North Carolina; Telegraph, Oliver S. S wisher; World 
War II, Vernon D. Heilman; York Airport, Oscar L. Hostetter; 
York as a clock-making center, Mrs. Ralph Cannon; York 



County Academy, George Hay Kain; YorJc Dispatch, E. B. Wil- 
liamson; York Inter-State Fair, Samuel S. Lewis; York Little 
Theatre, Inc., Officer Robert L. Geesey; to E. A. Hirschman, and 
to the officers and members of the clubs and other organiza- 
tions represented and to many, many others. 



THE ILLUSTRATIONS ALSO REPRESENT MANY SOURCES 

THANKS are especially due to Daniel S. Seitz who permitted the 
use of many of his photographs and took the market pictures 
especially for this book; also to A. A. Bosshart, the Boy Scouts 
of the York-Adams Area, the Girl Scouts, Catholic Charities, 
Dr. Arthur W. Ferguson, Gretchen Goughnour, Historical So- 
ciety of York County, Joe Kindig, Jr., Norman Kitchen, Laux- 
mont Farms, Guy A. Leader Poultry Farms, Pennsylvania State 
Police, Recreation Commission of York, Robertson Farms, Mar- 
garet M. Small, Ethel Stum, H. C. Ulmer, York Collegiate Insti- 
tute York County Academy, York Soil Conservation District, 
York Water Company, Young Women's Christian Association, 
officers of the various clubs and organizations represented and 
many, many others. 



106 



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HISTORY CIVIL WAR Gordon, General John Brown, Remi- 
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HISTORY WORLD WAR I Hall, Clifford J., and Lehn, John, 
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PRINTING McMurtrie, Douglas Crawford, The First Printers 
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15, 1936, p. 55-7. 



107 



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George Hay Kain; "The Sing-Master's Chronic of York," in 
the Christian Science Monitor, 1936. 

MOVIES Shettel, James, First Movies in York. Reprint from 
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Mimeographed. 



1 OS 



Industrial and Commercial 
YORK 

York's development and growth rest 
upon its industrial and commercial enter- 
prises It is fitting, therefore, that this 
volume include the individual histories of 
typical business institutions The puJb- 
lication of this book has been made possi- 
ble by the financial assistance of the firms 
hereinafter mentioned. 



I. B. ABEL-SON 



Electrical Contractors 

In the Fall of 1913 a partnership was formed be- 
tween I. B. Abel, father, and Norman E. Abel, the 
son, as a retailer of electrical appliances and elec- 
trical contractor. 




5.QOQ-KVA Power Transformer installed at Harrisburg Steel 
Corporation Plant. 

N. E. Abel was born in Manchester, York County, 
Pennsylvania, May 8, 1896, son of I. B. and Maggie 
(Boyd) Abel. His father, also a native of Manchester 
Township, followed agriculture during the early part 
of his life, but later operated the first oil plant in 
York, Pennsylvania. Still later in life he entered the 




grocery business which he continued until 1913. In 
1913, he with son, Normal E. Abel, went into the 
electrical contracting business from which he is now 
retired. This partnership continued until December, 
1934, when I. B. Abel retired from business, and the 
business was taken over by Norman E. Abel at a 
new location at 35 North George Street, for electrical 
engineering and construction, from which place the 
company is now operating as I B. Abel - Son. 

The Abels first were engaged in selling all kinds 
of electrical appliances, but upon the retirement of 
the father, Norman E. Abel became proprietor, and 
he has devoted all his activities to electrical con- 
struction work. He wired the City Hall, eighty-five 




Ail-Steel Switchboard. 



Incoming Power Entrance installed at Special Ordnance Plant, 
York Sate & Lock Co. 



per cent of all the churches in York, a number of 
schools, fifty per cent of the banks, eighty-five per 
cent of all stores in York, and has met the Public 
Works Administration requirements. At the present 
time. Normal E. Abel has over $267,000 worth of con- 
tracts under way, including the wiring for the York 
Safe and Lock Company, the York-Hoover Corpora- 
tion, and General Electric Plants. 

Mr. Abel has taken justifiable pride in doing the 
electrical work for the York Agricultural Society for 
the last thirty years, having wired for both lighting 
and power the many attractions at the York Inter- 
state Fair. 

Starting with but two employees in 1913, there are 
now over one hundred and fifty men employed. 



110 



ALLOY RODS COMPANY 

Stainless and Alloy Welding Electrodes 



The organization of the Alloy Rods Company at 
the beginning of 1940 was the fulfilment of the am- 
bition of Edward J. Brady, who was one of the pio- 
neers in the technical development of stainless steel 
arc welding electrodes. He was one of the very few 
men in the country who had the vision to foresee 
the value of these electrodes in industry. 

Mr. Brady associated himself with W. D. Himes, 
C. B. Wolf and O. H. Heckert, all of whom are expe- 
rienced in business and in finance. The new com- 
pany started in a modest manner and established 
its plant in rented quarters. With his customary en- 
thusiasm and drive, Mr. Brady succeeded in putting 
the plant in operation and was producing welding 
rods in less than three months. From the start the 
product was highly satisfactory and enthusiastically 
received by the users, and demand developed rap- 
idly among commercial customers. 

The impact of demand for the product created by 
the war challenged the ability of the management, 
and the challenge was met with phenomenal suc- 
cess. The record of the company in war work was 
outstanding. Both research and production were de- 
veloped and expanded side by side so that this com- 



pany was first to develop and announce stainless 
steel electrodes that could be used with both AC 
and DC current; it was first to develop a complete 
line of extruded tool steel electrodes; it was first to 
produce a complete line of three distinct electrodes 
with Lime, Titania and AC-DC coatings; each for 
their individual application. 

As a result of this aggressive research and pro- 
duction development, the company became the larg- 
est producer of stainless steel electrodes in the world. 

To adequately meet peacetime demands and re- 
quirements. Alloy Rods Company is now building, 
on a site it acquired west of York, a complete labor- 
atory and production plant. This will be occupied 
and in operation before the end of 1945, and will 
afford the facilities to enable the company to keep 
in the forefront of its industry in both technical re- 
search and development and in low-cost production 
of all types of arc welding electrodes. Mr. Brady has 
surrounded himself with an organization of young 
and aggressive men, each of whom has proven his 
ability and standing in the industry, so that the 
future of the company is bright. 




The new Alloy Rods Company Main Office and Manu/acfuring Plant located on the Lincoln Highway just west ot York. 



AMERICAN CHAIN & CABLE COMPANY, Inc. 



A Short Story 

About a mile behind the front lines in Germany 
two American soldiers were sprawled out in a make- 
shift overnight shelter. Like all GIs, they were happy 
to find they were from the same hometown. Both 
were York boys and buddies on sight. 

"So you're from York," slowly remarked Bill, the 
one with blond hair. 

"Yeh, and I wish I was there right now!" answered 
Ken, a short stocky boy. "Say, what did you do in 
York?" 

"Drove a truck. What did you do?" 

"I worked over at the American Chain," Ken 
replied. 

Bill lifted himself onto his elbow. "They have quite 
a plant in York. Make a lot of tire chains, don't they?" 

"Buddy, they make plenty of products for war and 
for peace, too, and ..." 

"You know," interrupted Bill, "I'm interested in 
Acco. My father worked there for a long time. Tell 
me, did you ever hear how they happened to pick 
out our town as the big chain city?" 

"Well, the way I got it, the present American 
Chain plants started from a small chain shop that 
was opened about 1870 by a man named Addison 
Shaffer. His shop was on South Pershing Avenue, 
right off Market Street. About nine years later J. C. 
Schmidt built a new chain plant on East Walnut 
Street and hired Addison Shaffer as his foreman. 
Around 1889, Mr. Schmidt built a larger plant. You 
may have heard it called the Schmidt Plant. It's still 
standing near State Street, alongside the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad. A few years after this Mr. Schmidt 
imported the first electric welder and mechanical 
former for making chain. At first, he had a lot of 
grief with this new development, but after a lot of 
experimenting he made it work. And, buddy, that 



About Acco 

sure made a big difference in chain-making." 

Bill butted in and asked, "How come you know 
all this?" 

"I ought to know something about it, my father 
and grandfather worked for American Chain," was 
Ken's answer. 

"Go ahead. I'm listening." 

". . . well, Mr. Schmidt's business got so big he 
became interested in plants in Carlisle and Brad- 
dock, Pa., and Columbus and Mansfield, Ohio. Then, 
he formed the Standard Chain Company which did 
a lot of business with the Weed Chain Tire Grip 




Company. That's the company that was started about 
1905 by W. B. Lashar. In 1912, Mr. Lashar organized 
the American Chain Company, Inc. Shortly after, 
about 1916, American Chain bought the Standard 
Chain Company, including the Schmidt Plant in 
York and the other plants in Pennsylvania and Ohio, 
and built the big E. W. Plant at East Princess and 
Charles Streets. That's when my dad went to work 
there. As a matter of fact, he worked in the Malle- 



AMERICAN CHAIN & CABLE COMPANY, Inc. 



A Short Story 

able Foundry that was built out in East York about 
1919. You know they use a lot of malleable castings 
in the chain business." 

"But, how about the Wright-Manley Plant?" asked 
Bill. "I used to make deliveries out there with my 
truck." 

"Oh! they came into the picture in 1927 and 28. 
The Manley Manufacturing Company located in 
West York was acquired by the American Chain 
first. About a year later, the Wright Manufacturing 
Company, of Lisbon, Ohio, was acquired and moved 
to York in 1928 to their present location. In August 
of 1938, Manley production was moved over from 
West York and consolidated with Wright; thus the 
Wright-Manley Plant. That is where they make 
Wright Hoists and Cranes and Manley Garage 
Equipment . . . ," Ken paused, raised his hand and 
grinned broadly. 

"Huh! What's the matter?" asked Bill, surprised. 

"Look," smiled Ken, "You probably think I've been 
trying to sell you the American Chain. Let's turn in. 
I'll tell you more the next time." 

"Well, O.K., but it sure seemed good to get back 
to York for awhile and I learned something about 
American Chain." 

Acco Products for War 

The two York boys over there on the other page 
discussed the history of the American Chain & Cable 
Company at York. But even they probably didn't 
realize the wide variety of vital products made by 
Acco for war and for peace. For instance, right in 
the kit of those soldiers there probably were several 
hand grenades. In each hand grenade there is a 
tiny cotter pin that is an important part of the gre- 
nade. That is made at York. 

Chain is doing many war jobs. Tire Chains kept 
American and Allied armies moving toward Ger- 
many through snow, mud and ice. In the South 
Pacific, Weed Chains did duty on many formerly 
Jap-held islands. 

On Sea, On Land and In the Air 

The winning of a battle really begins at home. In 
America's factories a prodigious job of production 
has helped the man at the front to beat a tough 
enemy. Acco has helped these factories, these Amer- 
ican plants with products such as Wright Hoists and 
Cranes and Acco Sling Chains which keep war 
goods moving along the production lines. Once the 
product is made, it's necessary to get it to the fight- 
ing fronts FAST. That's where the Merchant Marine 
and Naval Supply comes in and they use such Acco 
products as Topping Lift Chain which is used on the 
rigging that handles the cargoes and Cargo Slings, 
Hatch Beam, Cargo Net and Deck Lashing Chain. 



About Acco 

All types of Naval Combat vessels are equipped 
with Acco Chains and Wright Hoists. For example, 
here are a few: Anchor Chain, Guard Rail Chain, 
Debarkation Chain Ladders, Bunk Chains, and Para- 
vane Chains. 

Wright and Ford Crane and Hoisting Equipment 
is being used for the handling of bombs, torpedoes, 
heavy shells, aeroplanes and for maintenance ser- 
vice aboard ships in practically all branches of our 
Marine service, as well as on field trucks and in 
munition dumps. 

Many of the principal shipyards in all parts of our 
country have been equipped with Wright cranes 
which are being used for the building of ships of 
the "big battle wagon" down to the P.T. type. 

The Acco Malleable Foundry has contributed 
immeasurably to the war program through the fur- 
nishing of critical castings to many of the leading 
industrial concerns engaged in war contracts. 

One of the perplexing problems of the Navy was 
solving the problem of lifting heavy bombs into 
planes. Here, the Manley Division at York worked 
right with the Navy and developed a portable bomb 
hoist, and bomb trucks. This is one of the production 
accomplishments that helped to earn the coveted 
Army-Navy "E" awarded to all divisions located 
in York. 

Acco Products tor Peace 

It's interesting to note that while York-made Acco 
products are vital during war years, they are equally 
important during peace times. Let's start with the 
basic industries. Coal mining, metal mining and 
quarries must have chain for their operations. 

Many kinds of animal chains such as tie-outs, 
halter chains, pump chain, log chains, are used by 
farmers in their daily work. 

Constructing America's roads and buildings takes 
a lot of chain, too. 

America's automobiles and trucks are serviced 
with Manley garage equipment such as jacks, 
wrecking cranes and presses. 

Nearly every kind of an industrial plant uses Acco 
Chain, made in York. Wright Hoists and Cranes also 
serve America's industries. Often chain and malle- 
able castings become part of the product made in 
that plant. Sling Chain is used for material handling 
in moving items along the production lines. 

The American Chain & Cable keeps pace with 
modern developments through highly developed re- 
search and experimental facilities. Just as in war 
Acco's experience and skill was devoted to the prob- 
lems of our fighting forces, they are ready to resume 
their service to peacetime industries. 

Acco's diversified products are vital in war 
essential in peace. 



AMERICAN INSULATOR CORP. 

Molders of Plastics 



Typical of York County's progressiveness was the 
foresight and initiative of a group of businessmen, 
whose efforts to find an industry to be housed in an 
idle manufacturing plant, led to the founding of the 
American Insulator Corporation at New Freedom, 
Pa., in 1916. This organization is engaged in the 
manufacture of plastic parts for widely diversified 
uses in all branches of industry. 

The American Insulator Corporation popularly 
known as "Aico" from its trademark name manu- 
factured cold-molded plastic parts exclusively from 
1916 to 1928. Emile Hemming, who introduced cold 
molding into this country in 1908, was president of 
the corporation during its early years. It is to Mr. 
Hemming that American industry is indebted for the 
development of cold-molding materials and the cold- 
molding art. 

Starting with only a few molding presses, the cor- 
poration expanded rapidly and steadily. Molding of 
other plastic materials was introduced in 1928. The 
present plant, in both war and peacetime, employs 
500 men and women and molds plastics by com- 
pression, injection and transfer methods. Present 
presses range from 5-ton to 1,400-ton capacity. Plant 
facilities also include a modern, well-equipped lab- 



Aico has an aggressive sales organization and 
maintains branch offices in Boston, Bridgeport, Cleve- 
land, Detroit, New York and Philadelphia. 

In wartime, Aico supplies plastic parts to prac- 
tically all branches of the service the Navy, Army 
Ordnance, Quartermaster and Signal Corps, among 
others. Peacetime manufacture is devoted largely to 
the automotive, radio, stove and electrical fields. 
Aico plastic parts are custom molded from such 
plastics as Bakelite, Beetle, Durez, Ethyl Cellulose, 
Lucite, Lumarith, Resinox, Vinylite, Plexiglas, Poly- 
styrene and Nylon. 

The Widening Field for Plastics 

War requirements presented a variety of problems 
to the plastics industry, and the solutions to these 
problems opened the way for many new peacetime 
uses for these wonder materials of modern chemistry. 

From plastic capsules for enclosing messages 
transmitted by carrier pigeon to equipment for battle- 
ships and airplanes, the plastics industry contributed 
thousands of parts for war use. And, in almost every 
phase of daily living, some form of plastics is en- 
countered oven door handles, steering wheels, 
telephone handsets and water tumblers. In colors 




oratory for experimentation and for checking each 
step of manufacture; modern finishing and inspection 
equipment, and a mold-making department, where 
molds ranging from the simplest to the most intricate 
are designed and tooled by Aico's precision-mold 
makers. 

The organization is staffed and equipped to give 
expert engineering, laboratory, molding, finishing 
and inspection service on all types of plastic appli- 
cations. It also manufactures several kinds of cold- 
molding materials. The plant covers 70,000 square 
feet of space and has direct rail communication with 
the large industrial centers of the East. 



varying from end to end of the spectrum ... in 
opaque, translucent and transparent materials . . . 
these plastic parts are fabricated, in the most accu- 
rate of steel dies, from powders, resins and com- 
pounds which are derived from coal, air, gas, wood 
flour and other elements and substances. 

The plastics industry is one of the most important 
and most rapidly growing industries in the United 
States today. And the American Insulator Corpora- 
tion, as a part of this great enterprise, is contributing 
its bit to York County's bid for fame in the industrial 
world and its reputation for diversity of manufactur- 
ing plants. 



ft A 



AMERICAN WIRE FABRICS CORPORATION 

Subsidiary of Wickwire Spencer Steel Company 



The American Wire Fabrics Company was founded 
in 1912 by a combination of the American Wire 
Cloth Company, Clinton, Iowa; The National Wire 
Cloth Company, Niles, Michigan, and the Penn- 
sylvania Wire Cloth Company of Mt. Wolf, for the 
purpose of manufacturing insect screen cloth and 
industrial wire cloth. 

The Mt. Wolf plant was built in 1914. Frequent 
additions to the weaving equipment and warehous- 
ing facilities have brought this plant to its present 
capacity and position of leadership in the industry. 

In 1922, the American Wire Fabrics Company was 
reorganized and became the American Wire Fabrics 
Corporation. Properties at that time also included 
the New Freedom Wire Cloth Company established 
in 1900 in New Freedom, and the Glen Rock Wire 
Cloth Company at Glen Rock, Pennsylvania. These 
properties and assets were purchased in 1922 by 
the Wickwire Spencer Steel Company for the pur- 



pose of continuing the manufacture of insect screen 
cloth and industrial wire cloth. 

During World War II, almost the entire output of 
the plant has gone to the armed services. Large 
quantities of American and Clinton brand of screen 
cloth are used in the South Pacific. 

The Mt. Wolf plant is considered one of the indus- 
tries' most modern manufacturing facilities. Distri- 
bution is national through sales offices in key cities 
throughout North and South America. 




ANDERSON GRAIN & FEED CO. 

Manufacturers of Feeds, Distributors of Grains and Feeds 



The Anderson Grain & Feed Company is the out- 
growth of a business which began January 1, 1905, 
at 146 East Princess Street, York, Pennsylvania, when 
two brothes, W. L. Anderson and J. T. Anderson, 
entered the wholesale and retail grain and feed 
business under the firm name of Anderson Brothers. 

The business continued to grow and expand until 
November 1, 1921, when the brothers purchased their 
present property at Philadelphia Street and Carlisle 
Avenue and formed the Anderson Grain & Feed 
Company. This company continued as a partnership 
until April, 1928, when it was incorporated without 
change in ownership or name. 

The company specializes in the making of poultry, 
dairy and stock feeds; these feeds are distributed 
by its dealers throughout Eastern Pennsylvania, New 
Jersey, Delaware, Maryland and Virginia, the busi- 
ness extending over an area with a radius of more 
than two hundred miles. 

Since the purchase of the property at Philadelphia 
Street and Carlisle Avenue the plant has been re- 
modeled and enlarged to more than double its orig- 
inal capacity. It is now equipped with modern ma- 
chinery for the unloading of grains and feeds, as 
well as their cleaning, grinding and mixing. The 



plant has a capacity of approximately ten carloads 
daily and operates with a personnel of sixty to 
sixty-five persons. 

The brothers claim to have pioneered the mixed 
feed business in York County. It is their belief that 
they offered the first complete mixed feeds manufac- 
tured in York County and that they were the first 
in the East to use cod liver oil in poultry mashes. 
They began to mix feeds in 1909, and since then they 
have tried to keep abreast of changing conditions 
in the mixed feed business and up-to-date in the 
science of feed mixing. 




tic 



GEORGE S. ANDES 

Manufacturer and Retailer of Fine Furs 



George S. Andes began his career in furs as a 
trapper in the north country, and then worked as a 
traveling fur buyer for some of the largest com- 
panies in America. After completing a course in de- 
signing and manufacturing fur garments, he located 
in York in August, 1930. He opened a small one-room 
factory and showroom on the corner of Beaver and 
Market Streets on the second floor of the Koch Build- 
ing. The business soon outgrew this location and Mr. 
Andes purchased a much larger property at 237 
East Market Street. 

Here he set up one of the most modernly equipped 
fur-retail manufacturing plants in the State of Penn- 
sylvania. Located on the premises is a 6,000-coat 
capacity refrigerated fur storage vault. 

In Conewago Township, York County, Pennsyl- 
vania, Mr. Andes maintains an experimental fur 
farm where he is undertaking a study of fur-bearing 
animals. 



Andes Furs also operates a raw fur receiving 
warehouse at 237 East Clarke Avenue where raw 
furs are bought direct from trappers and dealers. 

Andes Furs enjoys the patronage of retail custom- 
ers in practically every State in the Union as well 
as in Canada. 




CARL BEASLEY COMPANY 

Ford, Mercury, Lincoln Sales, Parts and Service 



On May 4, 1904, J. W. Richley brought the first 
Ford car to York County a two-cylinder, chain- 
drive vehicle and subsequently established forty- 
five subdealers in York and four surrounding coun- 
ties. In 1923, Dr. J. F. Klinedinst and Walter Spongier 
took over the Ford franchise. The spacious building 
at 722 West Market Street was built by R. C. Keller 
in 1926 and later purchaser by Beauchamp and 
Burwell Smith who carried on the Ford dealership 
as the "York Motor Sales and Service" until it was 
purchased in 1939 by Fred R. Beasley, of Athens, 
Ohio, and Gordon Davis, of Oil City, Pa., and oper- 
ated under the name of "Davis Motor Sales." 

Carl Beasley, formerly of Athens, Ohio, took over 
in September, 1941, and has improved and expanded 
the organization which now has twenty-two affiliated 
dealerships in Pennsylvania, Ohio and West Vir- 
ginia. Wholesale distribution of Ford, Mercury, and 
Lincoln parts to five surrounding counties necessi- 
tates a large, active and prompt delivery service. 

Normally employing fifty-five, the force of me- 
chanics and salesmen is now about forty. This loss 
has been partially neutralized by the recent instal- 
lation of the most modern motor analyzers, wheel 
and axle balancing and aligning machines, etc. The 
company's used car center at South George Street 



and Country Club Road facilitates the purchase and 
sales of used cars and trucks. 

During these war years it has been the policy of 
the Carl Beasley Company to concentrate on the 
purchase of non-essential cars and trucks and re- 
sell them to essential workers requiring dependable 
transportation. This policy has been costly because 
many cars, idle or little used, have required expen- 
sive and time-consuming rejuvenation. 

The company has also installed a complete paint, 
body, and upholstering department where it em- 
ploys a full force of trained mechanics for this type 
of work which is so important today due to the aver- 
age age of cars now on the highway. 




ANDREWS PAPER HOUSE OF YORK 

Division of S. Walter, Inc. 



The Andrews Paper House of York, division of 
S. Walter, Inc., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, estab- 
lished a business in York, September, 1916, at 27 
North Beaver Street. 

York was selected for this new enterprise by virtue 
of its strategic location, because of its need for an 
aggressive paper distributor, plus the fact that it 
had the reputation of being one of the most progres- 
sive industrial communities in Pennsylvania. 

Within a year, the rapid growth of the business 
required the procurement of larger facilities. The 
business was moved to 121 North George Street, 
where increased floor space and a larger ware- 
house facilitated the processing and storage of the 
company's products. During this first year, with an 
organization of three, approximately one hundred 
accounts were opened in York and vicinity. 

Today, the Andrews Paper House, now located at 
33-49 North Pershing Avenue, provides paper ser- 
vice to approximately two thousand commercial and 
industrial firms located within a fifty-mile radius of 
York. Nationally known paper mills supply the com- 
pany with both fine and coarse papers which are 
processed in modern shredding, rewinding and slit- 
ting, cutting and padding departments. In addition, 
the company operates a converting department 
where paper products of various types are converted 
for the convenience of its customers. 

Products of the Andrews Paper House include all 
types of fine and coarse papers used by printers, 
offices, stores, State and Government institutions; all 
types of bags, containers, and wrapping papers used 
by food processing firms, including wrapping and 
packaging materials for frozen foods. For over thirty 



years, this company has provided paper service to 
all Commonwealth of Pennsylvania institutions. 

The Andrews Paper House operates and main- 
tains its own fleet of delivery trucks. Overnight, side- 
walk delivery, as far as one hundred miles from 
York, has been in effect for twenty-five years. Eight 
salesmen cover territory in Pennsylvania, Maryland, 
and Virginia. 




Sample Room. 

In addition to the main office and warehouse in 
Philadelphia, this company operates another divi- 
sion in Allentown, Pennsylvania, known as the Le- 
high Valley Paper House. By virtue of its combined 
facilities, it is one of the largest distributors of paper 
products in Pennsylvania. 

The Andrews Paper House had a great many em- 
ployees in the Armed Services. During the conflict, 
approximately seventy-five per cent of its produc- 
tion was devoted to the processing of technical 
papers for government institutions. It is an active 
and aggressive York commercial enterprise, giving 
full cooperation to all civic activities, and has earned 
a fine reputation for integrity as a permanent York 
institution. 




Present Warehouse Facilities. 



t IT 



THE J. E. BAKER COMPANY 



Refractory Dolomite, Lime, 

In 1889, John E. Baker leased quarries and kilns at 
Wrightsville and operated them under the name of 
Wrightsville Lime Company. In 1894, he leased sim- 
ilar properties near Bainbridge, Pennsylvania, and 
in 1896 he purchased properties in Conoy Township, 
Lancaster County, which is now known as the Bill- 
meyer Plant. From that time until 1903 he started 
several other operations in Pennsylvania, Maryland 
and West Virginia. The business grew rapidly, and 
in 1904 it was incorporated under the name of J. E. 
Baker Company. 

During World War I, when Austrian Magnesite 
was not available for the steel industry, J. E. Baker 
Company was the first to begin production of dead 
burned dolomite as a substitute for magnesite. This 
material was put on the market under the name of 
"Magdolite." A large amount of this product was 
required during the war and in following years, and 
in 1937 a modern plant was erected at Millersville, 
Ohio, thus increasing the "Magdolite" production in 
this country. 

During World War II, the increased production of 
"Magdolite" substantially helped the war effort. 

Shortly after the death of John E. Baker, in 1941, 
the company was reorganized under the name of 
The J. E. Baker Company, whose operations include 
the following: Billmeyer Plant, Lancaster County; 
Thomasville Plant, York County, Pennsylvania; Edgar 
Plant, York County, Pennsylvania; Blue Mount Plant, 
Baltimore County, Maryland; Inwood Plant, Berkley 



Crushed Stone and Coal 

County, West Virginia; and Millersville Plant, San- 
dusky County, Ohio. These plants produce such 
products are refractory dolomite, pulverized lime- 
stone, crushed stone, fluxing limestone, railroad 
ballast, chemical and fluxing lime, and agricultural 
lime. 

Keystone Coal Company 

Several financiers of York and Philadelphia pur- 
chased mining properties in Meyersdale, Pennsyl- 
vania, in 1847, and operated them until 1879 when 
they were incorporated under the name of Keystone 
Coal Company. John E. Baker was elected treasurer 
and manager in 1907, at which time they opened 
new coal fields at Mooween, Pennsylvania. Mr. 
Baker succeeded George F. Baer as president of this 
company in 1916 and continued in this office until 
his death in 1941. 




H. G. Bancroft started his business in 1912 and 
now operates two stores, one in York at 33 South 
Duke Street and one in Lancaster, with service fa- 
cilities in both cities, and with distribution 1 - in Lan- 
caster, York, Adams, Franklin and Fulton counties. 

The Bancroft services include the sale of type- 

% 

writers, office equipment and furniture, and supplies 
118 



H. G. BANCROFT 

Office Equipment and Supplies 

for all types of business and industry throughout the 



scope of their distribution. 

Bancroft's Service Department is fully equipped 
to take care of repairing of all makes of typewriters, 
adding machines and mimeographs. Work is called 
for and delivered, and repair loan machines fur- 
nished, when available, without charge. 



BARNHART'S BOOK STORE 

Books, Stationery and Office Supplies 



On August 20, 1899, Henry C. Barnhart purchased 
this business from Crider and Brothers, located at 
49 West Market Street. The business rapidly grew 
and on August 15, 1915, Barnhart's moved to their 
present location in the Rosenmiller Building. Consid- 
erable modern improvements were made in 1942 
with a new store front, new store fixtures, and ar- 
rangements inside the store. 

Barnhart's retail all types of books, stationery, 
office supplies, greeting cards, games, personal sta- 
tionery, social engraving and printing, etc. 

At the death of Henry C. Barnhart, March 16, 1935, 
the business was taken over by Helen L. Barnhart 



and Arthur B. Thompson continuing the sale and dis- 
tribution of the same and similar lines of supplies. 

Through Barnhart's order department, any book 
in print may be secured, usually within a few days' 
time. Also rare books, now out of print, are located 
through advertisements inserted in trade journals. 
Barnhart's makes a specialty of obtaining the latest 
in scientific and technical books for chemists, metal- 
lurgists, machinists and other skilled workers. An un- 
usually complete stock can be found on the shelves 
ranging from beautifully illustrated volumes for chil- 
dren to the latest best sellers. 



Barnhart's gives expert fountain pen service. 



BELL'S 

Ladies' Apparel 

In 1927, A. D. Cohn, at that time a resident buyer 
in New York City for a group of department stores 
located throughout the country, was convinced that 
the opportunity had arrived for the establishment of 
his own business. 

He and Mrs. Cohn made a thorough survey of sev- 
eral medium sized cities to determine which pre- 
sented the best opportunity for a successful venture. 
York was selected because it was progressive, its 
industries were expanding rapidly and there was a 
definite need for a ladies' apparel shop that could 
compete in every way with stores in adjacent large 
cities. Accordingly, a ladies' ready-to-wear shop was 
opened in leased space at 13 West Market Street, 
with a staff of three sales clerks. The trade name 
selected for the new business was "BELL'S." 

The original store was remodeled in 1931. The 
space was doubled in 1937 and both interior and 
exterior were remodeled in the most modern man- 
ner. In 1941, the entire building was purchased to 
provide increased facilities for the growing business. 

Today, this retail establishment has a staff of over 
fifty employees. It is a private enterprise, typical of 
thousands in our nation that have grown and pros- 
pered under the guidance of individuals. 





Sales Room. 

BELL'S stands as a tribute to the foresight, courage 
and style acumen as applied to the needs of a com- 
munity by its owners. 




Original Store. 



Present Store. 



BLAW-KNOX COMPANY 

Special Ordnance Division 



The Special Ordnance Division of the Blaw-Knox 
Company has been a member of the York com- 
munity for about a year. The division, engaged in 
the manufacture of mounts and mechanisms for the 
Navy's versatile 40mm. antiaircraft Bofors gun, is 
making an important contribution to the defense 
program, of which the district can be very proud. 

The now famous gun, which is carried by almost 
every type of ship in service, fires a two-pound 
shell from each barrel at the rate of 120 or better a 
minute. That's what you call converting a cannon 
into a machine gun! The projectile can reach two 
miles into the air. A curtain of fire from these guns 
enabled the USS South Dakota, in an epic engage- 
ment, to bring down thirty-two Jap planes in thirty 
minutes. 

Bofors gun mounts and mechanisms were also 
made by the Martins' Ferry Division of the Blaw- 
Knox Company. Additional weapons of offense and 
defense were made in the company's other plants. 
As a matter of fact, the Blaw-Knox Company was en- 
gaged practically 100 per cent in war work for the 
duration. Among the tools of war it produced are 
14-inch and 16-inch explosive shells, 1,000-lb. aerial 
bombs, rockets and rocket equipment, torpedo launch- 
ing equipment, cast armor for tanks, power piping 
for various marine vessels, anchor chains, steel build- 
ings and hangars, and secret electronic equipment. 
Synthetic rubber plants were designed and erected. 

Peacetime products of Blaw-Knox, which are now 
used in the furtherance of the nation's war program, 
include construction machinery, rolls and rolling mill 
machinery, transmission and radio towers, open 
hearth furnace equipment, process equipment for 
chemical plants, heat resisting alloy furnace con- 
veyors, steel and alloy castings, open flooring, and 
clam-shell buckets, to mention but a few. 

Heavy construction machinery, for instance, was 
called to the Aleutians, the islands of the Pacific, the 
deserts, the mountains, and the jungles of Africa and 
Asia, and to the invasion of Europe, to play spec- 
tacular roles in road building, airport construction, 
fortification, and the housing of troops. 

Because of the great variety of products and type 
of equipment designed and fabricated by the com- 




pany, it is often referred to as the "department store 
of fabricated steel products." 

The story of the company has been one of steady 
growth since its organization under the name of the 
Blaw Collapsible Steel Centering Company in 1906. 
In 1917 it consolidated with the Knox Pressed and 




Welded Steel Company and adopted the present 
name. At the beginning the company manufactured 
steel forms for general concrete construction and 
water-cooled equipment for high temperature fur- 
naces such as those used in the steel industry. 

Active research continued to add new products, 
and the scope of the company's business was further 
extended by consolidation with other manufacturing 
organizations, many of which were first operated as 
subsidiaries. They later became units of the Blaw- 
Knox Company, and are today known as: (1) the 
Blaw-Knox Division, (2) the Pittsburgh Rolls Division, 
(3) the Lewis Foundry & Machine Division, (4) the 
Union Steel Castings Division, (5) the National Alloy 
Steel Division, (6) the Power Piping Division, (7) 
the Blaw-Knox Sprinkler Division, (8) the Blaw-Knox 
Lubricator Division, (9) the Martins' Ferry Division, 
(10) the Columbus Division, (11) the Special Ord- 
nance Division, and (12) the White Glove Packaged 
Fuel Division. 

The company's first plant was located on the Alle- 
gheny River, about ten miles from Pittsburgh, at 
a town formerly called Hoboken, but now known 
as Blawnox, named after the company, but spelled 
without the k. The steel forms made there were used 
in the building of the Panama Canal, the Soo locks, 
the New York water supply system, the subways of 
Philadelphia and Chicago, among many others. 
These steel forms, incidentally, also served in the 
construction of tunnels for the Pennsylvania Turn- 
pike, and are today being employed in the construc- 
tion of a water supply system for the City of Mexico. 

From steel forms the company branched out into 
the manufacture of other fabricated steel products, 



>n 



BLAW-KNOX COMPANY 

Special Ordnance Division 



too numerous to list in their entirety. The knowledge 
gained from this diversification stood the company 
in good stead when it went into the production of 
many military items. The company was an experi- 
enced producer of the type the nation needed while 
girding itself for war. A single example will show 
how this experience was put to use. 

Civilized man, both in peace and war, is com- 
pletely and utterly dependent upon rubber and rub- 
ber products. One can therefore readily understand 
in what a predicament our country found itself when 
the Japanese overran the rubber plantations of the 
Far East. At that time the nation had a rubber stock- 
pile which would have sufficed for a year and a half 
under normal conditions it was greatly inadequate 
for the pressing needs of war. Something had to be 
done, and done quickly. 

The leaders of the rubber industry were forced into 
the production of synthetic rubber, a product still in 
the laboratory stage. Blaw-Knox was commissioned 
to furnish the fundamental and functional engineer- 
ing designs for a standard Copolymer rubber proc- 
essing plant. The suggestions made by Blaw-Knox 
were adopted, and the company was eventually 
chosen as the prime contractor for the erection of a 
number of synthetic rubber plants. These are now 
in full operation, providing the nation with much of 
the rubber on which the wheels of war travel. 

This brings up the important position held by the 
Blaw-Knox Company in the chemical processing 
field. A department of the Blaw-Knox Division, known 
as the process equipment department, has served to 
provide many technological advances to industry. 
It is an unusual engineering organization consisting 
of men who have made outstanding records of ac- 
complishment in chemical, mechanical, electrical, 
metallurgical, structural, and architectural engineer- 
ing. They form a smooth-working organization cap- 
able of handling the problems encountered in the 
design and construction of process plants and equip- 
ment, regardless of size and condition. 

They combine to form a group, under one respon- 
sibility, for the design, fabrication, and integration 
of complete plants or equipment for such processes 
as distillation, gas absorption, solvent extraction, sol- 



vent recovery, heat transfer, furnacing, cracking, 
kilning and calcining, polymerization, evaporation, 
crystallization, drying, mixing and stirring, organic 
synthesis, emulsification, impregnating and gas 
cleaning. 

The process equipment department makes absorb- 
ers, agitators, autoclaves, distilling columns, con- 
densers and kettles of various kinds, dehydrating 
equipment, dryers, fractionating equipment, heat ex- 
changers, kilns, stills, and A.S.M.E. code vessels. 

In construction equipment, the company is known 
for its manufacture of batchers, bulk cement plants, 
concrete spreading machines, concrete finishing ma- 
chines, forms, hoppers, sheepsfoot tamping rollers, 
snow plows, and truck mixers. 

The clam-shell buckets made by Blaw-Knox in- 
clude two-line, three-line, and four-line direct-reeved 
types, and also two-line hook-on buckets, coal buck- 
ets, pulpwood grapples, and incinerator buckets. 

The Lewis Foundry & Machine Division makes 
many types of mills, such as bar mills, blooming 
mills, merchant mills, slabbing mills, in addition to 
pinions, gears, saws, shears, and drives. The Power 
Piping Division not only makes prefabricated power 
piping, but also functional hangers and vibration 
eliminators. 

At the Union Steel Castings Division one finds rail- 
road and locomotive castings, rolling mill and steel 
plant castings, plus industrial castings. 

The company has had a long and brilliant history 
in the manufacture of rolls and rolling mill machin- 
ery. In this current year the Pittsburgh Rolls Division 
of the Blaw-Knox Company is celebrating its sev- 
enty-fifth anniversary as a manufacturer of many of 
the rolls used the world over in the production of 
ferrous and non-ferrous sheet and shapes. 

The White Glove Fuel Division is the company's 
latest venture into a field heretofore untouched. This 
division is operating a plant in Philadelphia for the 
production of a fuel made from high-grade anthra- 
cite and bituminous fines. These fines, formerly un- 
usable, are bonded together into three-inch cubes 
and packaged in sixes. They do away with the at- 
tendant dirt of the coal shovel, for each package, 
wrapper and all, can be thrown directly into the fire. 




THE BON-TON DEPARTMENT STORE 



S. Grumbacher & Son 



In March, 1898, Max Grumbacher started this busi- 
ness as a small one-room millinery and dry goods 
store at 36 West Market Street, moving to the present 
location on Market and Beaver Streets in 1912, where 
a new building was erected. 

In 1921, the store was further enlarged by the pur- 
chase of adjoining property, which added about sixty 
per cent more floor space. In 1940 the first floor was 
completely modernized, and in 1941 air conditioning 
was installed. 

In 1942, the Gilbert Planing Mill was bought to 
provide extra space for warehousing, and that same 
year complete modernization of the second floor was 
accomplished. This new warehouse, located at West 
Mason and Park Alley, contains 20,295 square feet 
of floor space. 

Upon the death of the founder. Max Grumbacher, 
in 1933, the business was continued by his widow, 
Daisy A. Grumbacher, and in 1936 a partnership 
was formed consisting of Daisy A. Grumbacher and 
two sons, Max and Richard. 

The Bon-Ton is one of York's modern and complete 
department stores, with basement, main floor, bal- 



and post-office substation on the balcony. All the 
cony, second floor and third floor, large tea room 
on the balcony, and substation on the balcony. All 




Entrance to The Bon-Ton's Ready-to-Wear Department, 
Second Floor 



facilities which have made modern department stores 
successful are included in its operations. 

Over half of The Bon-Ton's Basement is devoted to 
a modern "Bargain Basement" where you will find 




THE BON-TON DEPARTMENT STORE 



S. Grumbacher & Son 




The Bon-Ton's Main Floor 



budget-priced apparel, sportswear, men's and boys' 
furnishings, hosiery, lingerie, domestics, shoes and 
millinery. This has become a very popular shopping 
center for thrifty Yorkers. The Bon-Ton's three Credit 
Plans ... "Charga-Plate," "Budget Plan," and 
"Coupon Credit Plan" . . . are extensively used 
in the Bargain Basement, as well as throughout the 
entire store. 

A popular meeting-place for busy Yorkers 



The Bon-Ton Tea-Room is healthfully air conditioned 
and has seating accommodations for over 250 people. 
Both fountain and waitress service are available. 

The Bon-Ton Tea-Room specializes in daily lunch- 
eons, salads and sandwiches . . . menus are 
changed daily. Many business people have lunch at 
The Bon-Ton every day and shoppers like to stop in 
the tea-room when shopping, because it is conve- 
niently located on the balcony, near the elevator. 




The Bon-Ton's Modern Bargain Basemen/ 




The Bon-Ton's Spacious Tea-Room 



JOSEPH BLACK & SONS COMPANY, INC 

Bachelors' Friend Hosiery 




Main Office and Planf 



Two million dollars' worth of men's staple half- 
hose is the annual production of loseph Black & Sons 
Company, Inc., one of the largest producers of men's 
half-hose in the country. 

From a modest beginning back in 1890, when the 
company was founded by Joseph Black, Sr., it has 
gradually expanded and improved its manufac- 
turing facilities to produce this annual volume of 




Knitting Department 




men's hose. National distribution of Bachelors' Friend 
Hosiery, the firm's major product, is effected through 
a limited number of selected wholesale houses by 
James Jamison Company, sales agents. New York 
City. 

Throughout World War II, seventy-five per cent 
of the company's production was absorbed by the 
Army and Navy. 




Department 




Boarding Department 



Finishing Department. 



It A 



BRANDT-HENRY MFG. CO., INC 



"Henry Master Freezers' 



The Brandt-Henry Mfg. Co., Inc., was founded in 
1936 by Joseph T. Henry, S. Gertrude Henry, J. Tyson 
Henry, and Paul W. Henry for the development and 
manufacture of special machinery and quantity pro- 
duction parts machined and assembled. The "Henry 
Master Freezers," which is a continuous freezing 
unit, is also manufactured by the Brandt-Henry Mfg. 
Co., Inc. 

Under J. Tyson Henry, as president, the company 
continually expanded each year. New equipment 
was installed and better methods adapted to pro- 
duce more and better products. In September, 1944, 
Paul W. Henry was made president and general 



manager of the corporation. During World War II it 
produced one hundred per cent Army and Navy 
ordnance work. It has gained high efficiency ratings 
in both production and mechanical fields, and for 
all types of ordnance parts. Work is done for com- 
panies in all sections of the country on the latest 
type of equipment, including milling machines, 
lathes, grinders, drill presses, filing machines, cut-off 
machines, burring equipment and keyseating and 
shaper work. 

Brandt-Henry is also the distributor for many me- 
chanical products. 



BROOKS HOTEL 

40 South George Street 



One hundred pleasant medium-priced rooms, each 
with outside exposure, one-third of which are air 
conditioned by York for the comfort of guests, are 
the basic facilities of the Brooks Hotel, owned and 
operated by George W. Brown. 

This hotel was established in 1914. It has enjoyed 
a normal growth and many guests have returned 
year after year to enjoy its quiet, peaceful atmos- 
phere and the cordial hospitality of its management 
and staff. 

For the past thirteen years, the Brooks Hotel has 
been the headquarters of the Tramerick Club, one of 
York's oldest and most successful social organiza- 
tions. It is also the meeting place of the York County 
Republican and Democratic Clubs, trade union lo- 
cals, and numerous patriotic organizations. 

To coincide with the expected rapid increase in 
both pleasure and commercial travel after V-J Day, 
the Brooks Hotel has developed extensive post-war 
remodeling plans. These include the installation of 
additional air conditioning units, improving show- 
ers with glass and tile construction, completion of 
weather stripping on all windows and doors, bet- 
ter lighting, new furniture, and the installation of 
Martin-Parry wall panelling in the balance of the 
hotel's public space. 



The leadership of hotels in promoting progressive 



living in a community is well established. The Brooks 
will maintain this leadership in York with improved 
facilities, consistent with the needs of its guests. 




COCHRANE BRASS FOUNDRY 

Brass, Bronze, Copper and Aluminum Castings 




John H. Cochrane started his foundry with six em- 
ployees on Sixth Avenue in 1921. He built his pres- 
ent plant at Ogontz and Prospect Streets in 1926 and 
now has fifty-five employees. Bronze, brass, copper 
and aluminum castings are made to customers' pat- 
terns and specifications in sizes from one ounce to 
one-half ton in bronze and one ounce to fifty pounds 
in aluminum. 

His customers cover the eastern area of the United 
States in the machine tool, hand tool and portable 
tool industries. This plant is typical of the many small 
but very important and successful individualized 
industries in the York area. 



1 -t r 



BRANDT-WARNER MANUFACTURING CO. 

"Bilt-Well" and "Foreman" Axle Shafts 



Brandt-Warner Manufacturing Company started 
in 1921 from an idea an idea of service. In those 
days, the breaking of axle shafts in both passenger- 
cars and trucks was a frequent occurrence and the 
owner often had to wait weeks in order to get ser- 
vice from the factory. Two young men, Brandt and 
Warner, graduates of the York High School, who 
had served their apprenticeships with local manu- 
facturing companies, undertook to manufacture axle 
shafts for all cars and trucks and to carry them in 
stock so they would be available immediately for 
service calls. 

The beginning was very modest as they set up in 
business in a two-car garage and had at first just 
three machines as their entire equipment. Steel was 
purchased in small lots and the distribution of the 
product was limited. The business was incorporated 
February 9, 1922, as the Brandt- Warner Manufactur- 
ing Company, and several new stockholders, with 
additional capital, came into the organization. The 



Road and a modern, daylight type factory building 
erected on this site. The new plant was designed for 
labor-saving line production and many additional 
modern, fast machine tools were added. At this time, 
a forging shop to produce rolled, hammered and 
upset forgings was added. This new division of the 
company enabled them to produce all types of forg- 
ings that are used in the manufacture of axle shafts 
so that the plant was made entirely self-contained 
and able to meet all competitive cost conditions. The 
company had now become a coordinated unit in that 
it could take the steel in billet form and then through 
the consecutive processes of forging, heat-treating 
and machining, furnish the product complete and 
ready for the market. 

In 1939, the company added to its distribution by 
the purchase of the axle shaft business of W. D. 
Foreman, of Chicago, 111., who had been an impor- 
tant competitor. "Foreman" Axle Shafts are now 
made in this local plant under their own trademark 




new corporation early ran into financial difficulties 
and a reorganization with new financing and new 
management was effected. 

It was recognized that the use of alloy steels, until 
then unknown for axle shaft use, would reduce the 
frequent failures in axle shafts and the management 
adopted the use of these finer and more costly steels. 
The trade name of "Bilt-Well" Axle Shafts adopted 
at this time consequently began to gain in reputa- 
tion because of the unusually high quality of steel 
used and started to find a largely increasing market. 

In February, 1922, the company moved to larger 
quarters and as sales continued to increase they 
found three years later that more room was neces- 
sary. On January 1, 1925, they purchased the Brooks' 
Forging Plant at Broad and Philadelphia Streets in 
York. At this new location, railroad siding facilities 
were available, permitting the purchase of steel in 
carload lots. The additional floor space provided 
room for additional production and heat-treating 
equipment. By 1930, the company had outgrown this 
plant. A plot of land was purchased on Loucks' Mill 



and together with the "Bilt-Well" axle line, have 
world-wide distribution through automotive parts 
jobbers. 

During World War II the company participated 
energetically in the famous "York Plan," their forg- 
ing and heat-treating facilities being of considerable 
assistance to other local manufacturers in war pro- 
duction. They maintained a steady flow of axle shafts 
for the transportation needs of domestic, export and 
lend-lease and at the same time increased their 
facilities for forging and heat-treating steel which 
enabled them to supply hundreds of thousands of 
upset forgings for combat vehicles, tanks, gun 
mounts, landing boats, mortars and airplanes and 
large quantities of finished machined pieces for shell 
lathes, guns. Navy catapults, howitzers, and special 
shafts for Army trucks. 

The progressive and able management of the com- 
pany has shown a steady and conservative growth 
since its incorporation. The post-war period should 
show a continuation of this activity. 



1 A 



THE CAREVA COMPANY 

Wholesalers and Engineers 



The Careva Company was founded and incorpo- 
rated in November, 1921, by Edward G. Carpenter, 
president; G. P. Evans, vice-president; Albert J. 
Miller, secretary; and William H. Zuck, treasurer. 
The company derived its name from the first three 
letters of the last name of the president and vice- 
president. The principal business of the company is 
wholesaling and engineering of power plant equip- 
ment and the distribution of every type of pipe, 
valves and fittings, or for the conduct of steam, water 
and oil, regardless of the application. A large and 
complete inventory is maintained of all types of 
industrial and domestic pumps, steam specialties, 
ventilating and exhaust fans, electrical controls, in- 
dustrial and residential heating equipment, sanitary 
fixtures, industrial and residential oil burners and 
stokers. 

A reliable and dependable engineering depart- 
ment of graduate engineers offers to the industrial 
plants, plumbers and steam fitters complete plans 
and specifications for the proper and economical in- 
stallation of products distributed. The company also 
maintains a staff of experienced machinists for the 
fabrication of large diameter pipe, valves and fit- 



tings made up to meet any specific engineering 
requirement. 

In 1932, the Careva Company formed, as a wholly 
owned subsidiary, the Kelvinator-Careva Appliance 
Division for the wholesale distribution, throughout 
most of central Pennsylvania, of Kelvinator Refrig- 
erators, water and beverage coolers, deep freeze 
boxes, milk coolers, Kelvinator electric range and 
electric water heaters, and later added to the prod- 
ucts distributed, the Bendix Automatic Home Laun- 
dry and the famous Stromberg-Carlson radio and 
record player. 

During World War II, the company greatly ex- 
panded its facilities and services to war plants by 
its ability to obtain and supply vast quantities of 
essential items required by industrial plants for the 
manufacture of materials for war. Ninety per cent of 
the goods have been furnished for ships, both com- 
bat and cargo, camps, ammunition depots, hospitals, 
etc., and ten per cent for civilian use and farm main- 
tenance and repair. 

The company occupies approximately 75,000 
square feet of floor space with principal warehouses 
located at 545-61 East Princess Street, and 517-27 
East Prospect Street, York, Pennsylvania. 



!? !l ii 

[ill II 





CHIC MILLINERY 

Millinery and Accessories 

The Chic Millinery at 33 West Market Street is an 
outstanding example of successful feminine business 
enterprise. This establishment was first introduced to 
York on August 19, 1930, when Harry and Helen B. 
Levin opened their original shop at 8 South George 
Street. Mrs. Levin continued to direct the business at 
this address following Mr. Levin's death in 1938, but 
moved to the larger West Market Street location on 
June 1, 1940. 

Since the latter date, Mrs. Levin has added fine 
hand-bags, and later, an excellent selection of cos- 
tume jewelry to the original millinery offerings. The 
shop's development had been directed entirely along 
specialty store lines with a view toward bringing to 
feminine York such smart exclusive (but popularly- 
priced) lines as "Thornton," "Swank," as well as 
the truly metropolitan originals of such designers as 
Leslie James. The selection of offerings in the hand- 
bags and jewelry departments has been chosen 
along parallel lines. 

Mrs. Levin's future plans call for a continuation 
of the policies which have earned such an enviable 
and leading position for her shop in the specialty 
field, envisioning the possible post-war addition of 
several allied lines of feminine merchandise. 

COASTAL TANK LINES, INC 

Transportation of Liquid Products 



Founded in York, Pennsylvania, in 1934, by Karl 
J. Eisenhart, present chairman of the Board of Direc- 
tors, Coastal Tank Lines, Inc., started business with 
a few transport trucks hauling petroleum products 
from Baltimore and Philadelphia to York. 

Industry's acceptance of the flexibility of tank 
transports was immediate. Increased demands for 
service by oil refineries, bulk plants, pipe line and 
water terminals, distilleries and chemical plants, ne- 
cessitated the continual expansion of the company's 
facilities. 

From its widely scattered terminals. Coastal oper- 
ations cover the States of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, 
Delaware, Maryland, District of Columbia, Virginia 
and West Virginia, with additional points in Ohio, 
New York, Connecticut and North Carolina. Coastal 
tanks are a common sight, day or night, on the high- 
ways of these States, speeding vital cargoes of avi- 
ation gasoline, fuel oils, kerosene, solvents, alcohol 
and chemicals, which form the life blood, of Amer- 
ican industry, to bulk plants, steel mills, shipyards, 
Army and Navy depots, war plants and chemical 
plants. 

The products transported by Coastal Tank Lines, 
Inc., range from quenching oils used in giant cock- 
tails for mills as cooling mediums for large guns in 



the process of production, to liquid sugar which 
eventually finds its way into cocktails at the bar. 
Many towns and communities are entirely dependent 
on Coastal for their supplies of fuel oil and gasoline. 
The huge network of Coastal Tank Lines, Inc., 
stragetically located terminals is operated from the 
executive offices of the company located on Grant- 
ley Road, York, Pennsylvania. The company oper- 
ates a fleet of approximately 250 trucks, and main- 
tains its own service and repair shops. During the 
war, 90% of its facilities were devoted to war work. 
Eighty-eight of its 400 employees served in the 
armed services. 




COLONIAL PRODUCTS COMPANY 

Built-in Kitchen Cabinets and Fixtures 



The Colonial Products Company, a pioneer manu- 
facturer of prefabricated kitchen sinks, cabinets, 
closets and similar woodwork, was founded in 
Dallastown, York County, Pennsylvania, in April, 
1937, by Charles I. Pechenik, president and general 
manager. 

York County was selected because of the diversi- 
fication of its industry, as well as the reputation of 
its citizens for natural mechanical aptitude and good 
labor relations. To the long list of "York County 
made" products. Colonial has added a line of mer- 
chandise certain to increase in popularity with the 
resumption of home building. Before the war. Co- 
lonial Products' merchandise was being sold and 
shipped to all parts of the country; when war broke 
out this firm added its resources, as did so many 
other York plants, to the production of materiel. These 
emergency products include prefabricated lockers 
for the armed forces, as well as medical corps equip- 
ment and subcontract work for the York-Hoover 
Corporation, which has furnished so many special 
bodies to the Signal Corps. 

It is believed that Colonial Products Company 
enjoys the distinction of being the first woodwork- 
ing plant in the area to be awarded a prime war 
contract. 

The experience of thirty years of operation, plus 
the best in mechanical equipment and facilities, 



combine to place Colonial Products in a most ad- 
vantageous position for the future. 

Forty of the employees of Colonial Products Com- 
pany are now in the Armed Forces. Their jobs are 
awaiting them on their return. 

All post-war plans have been completed. Products 
will be materially the same plus all necessary furni- 




Typical Products. 

ture for the kitchen and the breakfast room. These 
additional products will be sold to department and 
furniture stores by a company sales organization. 

The Colonial Products Company plans to further 
modernize its manufacturing plant and to increase 
its capacity by the addition of buildings and equip- 
ment. Increase of employment will be substantial. 




General view of Colonial Products Factory. Sidings ot the Maryland and Pennsylvania Rail- 
road connecting with the B. & O. and Pennsylvania Railroads enhance the firm's strategic 
location. A factory-owned fleet of trucks, as well as the Interstate Motor Truck Line, is used 

to augment deliveries by rail. 



THE COLONIAL HOTEL 

A Grenoble Hotel 



The Colonial Hotel, Continental Square in York, 
was founded in 1892 upon the site of the home of 
James Smith, signer of the Declaration of Indepen- 
dence, who resided in York during that important 
period in American history. 

The original hotel had seventy-five rooms for the 
accommodation of its guests, but in 1908, when a 
substantial addition of concrete and steel construc- 
tion was made to the original structure, the guest 
space was increased to two hundred rooms. 

In 1929, extensive remodeling and improvements 
involving the expenditure of approximately $450,000 
were accomplished. All guest rooms, the dining- 
room, banquet space and public rooms were com- 
pletely redecorated and refurnished. A modern bar 
and lounge now adjoins the dining-room adjacent 
to the lobby. 

The Colonial is affiliated with the Grenoble Hotels, 
Inc., of Harrisburg, Pa., who operate many hotel 
properties on the Eastern Seaboard from Massachu- 
setts to North Carolina. This hotel has been serving 
both citizens and guests of our community for over 
fifty years. Many of York's oldest citizens recall with 
considerable pleasure scenes of social events held 
in its spacious ballroom early in the century. 



EBERT & RODGERS 

Real Estate 

In 1898, Harry S. Ebert opened his first Real Estate 
and Insurance office in the Ebert Building, 10 West 
Market Street. 



The Colonial is a typical example of York's prog- 
ress through the years. 




The Colonial Hotel. 



In 1900, Mr. Ebert, in partnership with A. M. Hake, 
formed the firm of A. M. Hake and Company for the 
purpose of erecting homes to be sold to workingmen. 
Over a period of thirty years, they built and sold 
sixteen hundred homes in York and York County. 
As the business expanded, the A. M. Hake Company 
also sold crushed stone for street paving and con- 
crete for building purposes. This firm was dissolved 
in 1933. 

Prior to this time Charles L. Rodgers had entered 
the Ebert office as clerk. In 1925, he became a part- 
ner in the Real Estate and Insurance busiriess. 

The firm's activities consist of the development 
and improvement of real estate for dwelling pur- 
poses. Their first real estate development laid out as 
"Eberton" has become West York Borough. The de- 



and Insurance 

velopment of the Laucks' Tract, Tremont and Market 
Streets, followed. The Hersh Farm, known as Spring- 
dale, one of York's finest restricted residential sec- 
tions; Manor Hill, to the south of Mt. Rose Avenue, 
and many other smaller tracts were successfully 
handled. 

Both Mr. Ebert and Mr. Rodgers are associated 
with the development and furtherance of the Central 
Market House, one of the oldest and finest farmers' 
markets in York County. Mr. Ebert holds the office of 
president and Mr. Rodgers is secretary and treasurer 
of the company. 

The firm of Ebert and Rodgers, now located at 
56 West Market Street, has enjoyed nearly half a 
century of high respect and friendly dealings with 
all of its many acquaintances. Mr. Ebert has been 
associated with the Drovers' and Mechanics' Na- 
tional Bank of York, Pennsylvania, for over thirty- 
eight years. 



GEORGE D. DEARDORFF 

Real Estate and Insurance 



Just before Armistice Day of the first World War, 
in the year 1918, at the very time that the "Hun" 
was menacing the security of the world, the Real 
Estate and Insurance business of George D. Dear- 
dorff was established. 

Inspired by a family tradition; convinced of the 
importance of Real Estate as a factor in the life of 
a community and grounded on the grand opportu- 



structed prior to World War II at 141, 143 and 147 
Rathton Road, Springdale, for which ground was 
broken September 1, 1941. 

In conjunction with the business of buying, remod- 
eling, building and selling homes, we have served 
as agent for many property owners in the manage- 
ment and sale of hundreds of properties. 

This office cherishes the memory of helping many 




Typical Deardoift Homes Located in Beautiful Residential Section 



nities of a solid, thriving neighborhood of homes, 
farms and industries like the City and County of 
York, this business has developed from the first 
house bought May 11, 1918, to an annual turnover 
of many homes and properties bought, remodeled, 
built and sold. 

Since the year 1923 this office has built an aver- 
age of twenty-five to thirty homes per annum in and 
around the City of York; homes ranging in price 
from $3,000 to $25,000, according to the prevailing 
standard, in such subdivisions as East York, Elm- 
wood, Springdale, Wyndham Hills, West York, and 
throughout the City of York proper. 

Above is a picture of the last three houses con- 



worthy families to finance their own homes begin- 
ning with a very small down payment. Their success 
is a monument to our faith in the people of this 
community. 

A permanent location for this business was estab- 
lished more than ten years ago when the property 
at 111 East Market Street was purchased and im- 
proved with modern offices on the first floor. 

Post-war operations of this progressive real estate 
firm include the development of over two hundred 
choice building sites. These projects will involve 
both group development and homes constructed to 
individual order. 



DANIELS 

Ladies' Apparel 



Since 1922, Daniels at 136-138 East Market Street 
has been known for better quality ladies' ready-to- 
wear. 

Daniels has made a specialty of fine furs. Their 
selection includes Mink, Siberian Squirrel, Canadian 
sheared Beaver, black and grey Persian Lamb, Hol- 
lander-dyed, featherweight quality, and a variety of 
other fine furs. 

Cloth coats and suits feature such nationally-ad- 
vertised fabrics as Stroock and Forstmann woolens. 



Kenmoor and Kenwood coats are also included in 
their selection of many famous makes. 

Dresses include such well-known makes as Anna 
Wall, Perry Brown, Juniors, and other nationally- 
advertised fine quality garments. 

Nardis sportswear is carried at Daniels and in- 
cludes skirts, blouses, blazers, slacks, sweaters, sport 
suits and play suits. 

York's discriminating women enjoy shopping at 
Daniels where a better garment costs no more. 



THE DENTISTS' SUPPLY COMPANY OF NEW YORK 

Manufacture and Sale of Artificial Teeth 



The history of this company is a story of world- 
wide achievement in a field of service important to 
millions of people which, unknown to most of us 
except those who are actually engaged in it, has 
grown from small beginnings here in York until it 
has reached and influenced every corner of the civil- 
ized world. 



teeth. People generally cannot appreciate how im- 
portant it is to good looks and good health that we 
masticate our food thoroughly by means of our back 
teeth. The artificial back teeth, in the days when the 
company began its service, were not capable of 
masticating food as the health of the wearers re- 
quired that it should be masticated. 





Processing Precious Metal Wire. 



Engraving Tooth Moulds. 



Forty-six years ago, four men, who knew all about 
manufacturing and selling artificial teeth, organized 
The Dentists' Supply Company and opened a fac- 
tory in York. They were Dr. Jacob Frick Frantz, father 
of Leroy Frantz, the present president of The Den- 
tists' Supply Company; George H. Whiteley, Senior, 
father of the present vice-president of the same name 
and of the present treasurer, J. Osborne Whiteley; 
John Rutherford Sheppard and Dean C. Osborne. 

Their purpose was to supply to dentists and to the 
public artificial teeth that would render better ser- 
vice than was then obtainable. The artificial front 
teeth of those days were frail and broke easily and 
often when the wearers tried to bite food. The new 
company succeeded in making teeth that were much 
more serviceable. With them, it began its march to 
success. 

In honor of the century just dawning, the com- 
pany named the new teeth. Twentieth Century Teeth. 

When the service in front teeth was well estab- 
lished, the company turned its attention to the back 




With the cooperation of dentists who understood 
the science of tooth formation, the company im- 
proved the forms of back teeth to such an extent that 
the new teeth were efficient in mastication. This was 
the second step in the company's march to success. 

In the years from then until now the company has 
made so many improvements in the service which 
artificial teeth make possible, that it is no longer a 
misfortune to wear artificial teeth, as it formerly was. 
Naturally, recognition by the dental profession and 
the public has been world-wide, and in every corner 
of the earth where modern dental science is prac- 
ticed, the company's products are the standards by 
which all other artificial teeth are judged. 

One improvement is of especial interest to all of 
us. In many people, the natural upper front teeth 
are the most brilliant spot of color in the complexion. 
The most deeply underlying cause of this brilliance 
long defied analysis. The chemical engineers of the 
company discovered the cause and, after a few 
years of research and experimentation, succeeded 
in incorporating it in the teeth the company makes. 




SoWering GoW Pins into Teeth. 



Preparing Finished Teeth lor Shipment. 



THE DENTISTS' SUPPLY COMPANY OF NEW YORK 

Manufacture and Sale of Artificial Teeth 



The incorporation of this elusive quality enables the 
teeth to blend themselves into the wearer's complex- 
ion in a way unknown before and to become so inti- 
mately a part of the person that Trubyte New Hue 
Teeth, as the teeth having this quality are called, 
are frequently mistaken for exceptionally fine sets 
of natural teeth. 




Research Laboratory. 

The growth of the factory here in York has kept 
pace with the company's growth. It has long been 
the largest factory in the world of its kind but is not 
big enough to meet the demands which the dentists 
of the world, including those of our own Armed 
Forces, continually make. It is supplemented by three 
factories in Philadelphia, two in Germany, one in 
France, one in England and one in Argentina. 

One of the happiest aspects of the company's his- 
tory is that a job with the company has always been 



a career for every employee who has cared to make 
it so. Among the company's highly valued workers, 
20 have been with the company for forty years or 




Moulding Department. 

more, 100 have been with it for thirty years or more, 
and 197 have been with it for twenty-five years or 
more. 

The spirit of research and progress burns with un- 
diminished flame in the company's scientists and 
technicians. Further contributions to the welfare of 
all who wear artificial teeth are in the making. 
York's influence on the good looks and good health 
of the people of the world will continue to increase. 



ti 




York Plant. 



THE DISPATCH PUBLISHING CO. 



Founded 

It was in that period of America in which many 
of the newspapers now published were launched, 
and the present great news gathering system of the 
world was developed, that the "York Dispatch" 
was born. 

"The Dispatch" was founded on May 29, 1876, by 
Hiram Young, who had been, from June 7, 1864, pub- 
lishing a weekly newspaper known as the "True 
Democrat." "The Dispatch," as a daily newspaper, 
was published at 10 East Market Street until 1904, 
in which year it moved to its present home at 15-17 
East Philadelphia Street. 

E. Norman Gunnison was the first editor of "The 
Dispatch." He was succeeded by Walter Hall and 
then followed John Moore, Constantine Moore, John 
Wiley and Charles P. Shreiner. Edward S. Young, 
one of the sons of the founder, a strong figure in 
local journalism, was managing editor of "The Dis- 
patch" for many years. He laid the foundation for 



1876 

its present policy of clean columns and rigid accu- 
racy in publishing the news. Mr. Young was suc- 
ceeded by W. L. Taylor as editor. E. B. Williamson 
has been managing editor since the death of Mr. 
Taylor in 1925. 

The late H. Walter Young, son of the late Edward 
S. Young, was general manager from 1925 to the 
time of his death, October 21, 1942. 

When Hiram Young, founder of "The Dispatch," 
died in 1905, the ownership became vested in his 
four sons, Edward S. Young, Charles P. Young, W. L. 
Young, and John F. Young. Of these four owners 
John F. Young, now the president of the Dispatch 
Publishing Company, is the only survivor. His son, 
D. Philip Young, secretary-treasurer of the company, 
is manager of "The Dispatch." The directors of the 
company are John F. Young, D. Philip Young and 
Mary E. Young, widow of Edward S. Young. 



f iiF iTHE YORK 



Horn* Dcliteteo dilla 




DISPATCH! 



CitcuUlion Book* AJj **> 



VOL. 139, NO. U7. 



HEADS OF ALLIED NATIONS 
PROCLAIM TERMINATION 
OF LONG EUROPEAN WAR 

Supreme Headquarters Announces That Hostilities Are 

Scheduled to Cease Formally at 6:01 This Evening 

Under Terms of Unconditional Surremter 

Agreement Signed at Reims Last 

Sunday 



PRESIDENT AVOIDS DESIGNATION OF V-E DAY 



REICH'S DARKEST HOUR 

annui l*tut*Kce Xd> in 
Prr-dawn Surrender 

I BEIMS, ^r^nc^, MPJ 7 iD*- 

InwnAri co-jld nu< (! German 
loltirr, to flfbl. It *.-) due 

ijjwn lodaj. 

Tbs netottr.imu on lha AUid 
Me vcn hnl br U'l". Crn. 
*!( Bi3*II Smllh. Ocwtll Bl- 
ahowcrt <bi*( of .:ft. and. on iht 
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hMf o( ilafl to Ibt a*!D>*n jrrnr. 

Th npimc commond hunwir 
_id nrt <tc In* Crmn dilcgntn 
until ibc wcrwdtr ceieDiooj * 
completed. 

When he did b* ukcd the Oer- 



YORK, PA., TUESDAY EVENING, MAY 8, 1945. 

ASSEMBLY ADJOURNS 

pecial Sctilon Mr Bi 



PRICE ) CENTS 15 CENTS PER WEEK 



BUT HE 

PARLEY FORM, 



HARDISBURG, Mij 

- 



Mo viii be back 



POST-WAR ARMY 
PLAN DISCLOSED 



Truman Expected to 
Boon With Church 
and Stalin 



Meet" 



. .. Mclinrd quotation by nmr. 
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ECONOMY MEAT MARKET 

Meats, Delicatessen, and Fancy Groceries 



Harry J. Samuelsohn opened a small meat depart- 
ment in the Quality Market in 1931. Business soon 
increased to such a degree that he found it advis- 
able to open his own Economy Market at 33 North 
Beaver Street. 

Here a cheerful, friendly atmosphere with indi- 
vidual attention given to the needs of each customer 
makes shopping a pleasure. Prime Western meats 
and nationally-advertised brands of frozen foods and 
fancy groceries appeal to the most discriminating. 

Meat is kept under refrigeration at all times in 
refrigerators and showcases made in York. The men 

134 



employed are experts in their line. Wholesale de- 
livery and some retail delivery service is available. 

The Economy Meat Market supplies private fam- 
ilies, hotels, restaurants, and institutions. Much of the 
meat served on the grounds during the York Inter- 
state Fair comes from this market. 

The Honor Roll in the market shows nine blue stars 
and one gold star. 

Quality meats, carefully handled, selected grocer- 
ies, and friendly service have made the Economy 
Market popular with "the best people in York . . . 
our customers." 



THE DROVERS & MECHANICS NATIONAL BANK OF YORK 



Sixty-Two Years of Service to 

On May 5, 1945, The Drovers' & Mechanics' Na- 
tional Bank of York celebrated its sixty-second anni- 
versary as a landmark in the community's financial 
history. Over this period the bank has maintained a 
conservative yet steady growth, emphasizing always 
the original objectives of its founders: that the insti- 
tution be devoted to friendly service to depositors 
and investors, large and small, rather than an en- 
deavor to attain mere physical expansion. 

The Drovers & Mechanics is the outgrowth of mod- 
est beginnings . . . founded by a small group of 
purposeful men. On April 28, 1883, a group of citi- 
zens interested in founding a bank met at the Matter 
House, on West Market Street, with Israel F. Gross 
as chairman and William H. Bond as secretary. A 
resolution was adopted to organize a bank to be 
known as The Drovers' & Mechanics' National Bank 
of York, and this name has remained during its en- 
tire history. 

The founders, many of whose names will be re- 
called by those familiar with York history, included: 
Jacob Brodbeck, William H. Bond, Franklin Loucks, 
Samuel Lichtenberger, Nathan F. Burnham, Edward 
Smyser, George W. Holtzinger, Frederick Grothe, 
Henry J. Gressly, Israel F. Gross, Samuel Rutter, B. 
Frank Spongier, and George F. Shive. 

A week later, May 5, 1883, another meeting was 
held during which the bank's first officers were 
elected and formal operations commenced. The offi- 
cers were: Nathan F. Burnham, president; William 
H. Bond, secretary of the Board; and Jesse V. Giesey, 
cashier. 

On June 12, 1883, the bank was opened on West 
Market Street in a room formerly occupied by a Mr. 
Wiest. A year later, the institution moved into its 
own building located at 25 South George Street. By 
1925, new quarters were deemed necessary, and the 
present bank building located at 30 South George 
Street was erected. This was first occupied in De- 
cember, 1926. 

The Drovers & Mechanics has had only six presi- 
dents in its long history. Their names and terms of 
service are: Nathan F. Burnham, April 28, 1883- 
December 24, 1890; Israel F. Gross, January 14, 
1891-June 26, 1898; Samuel Lichtenberger, July 21, 
1898-January 25, 1905; Jacob Beitzel, March 1, 1905- 
November 9, 1920; James G. Glessner, January 12, 
1921-September 6, 1936; and George Jordan, Sep- 
tember 16, 1936-present. 

In recent years, under the presidency of George 
Jordan, the bank has considerably expanded its op- 
erations and scope of service. A Trust Department is 
maintained, together with facilities for savings and 
checking accounts, safe deposit boxes, all forms of 
loans, executory functions, and administrator of es- 



Community and County 

tates. Complete fiduciary services are offered for in- 
dividuals and organizations. A special effort is being 
made to maintain usual services and create timely 
new services in connection with wartime conditions, 
looking forward to a greater future for the York area 
in the days of peace to come. 

Present officers of The Drovers' & Mechanics' Na- 
tional Bank of York are: George Jordan, president; 




tern 



John L. Gerber, vice-president; William H. Blouse, 
vice-president and cashier; Allen F. Dietz, assistant 
cashier; McClean Stock, trust officer; and Arlington 
L. Girton, assistant trust officer (now serving in the 
Armed Forces). 

The present directors, with the dates they were 
elected, are: William F. Loucks, January 10, 1900; 
Harry S. Ebert, May 29, 1907; John H. Rutter, Novem- 
ber 27, 1912; John L. Gerber, November 19, 1913; 
William H. Ottemiller, November 3, 1915; George Jor- 
dan, October 31, 1928; Fred A. Hespenheide, Sep- 
tember 3, 1930; John W. Bear, December 5, 1934; 
McClean Stock, January 13, 1937; and James T. Duffy, 
Jr., January 13, 1943. 



EDISON LIGHT & POWER COMPANY 

Public Utility 



In 1876, Hiram Young, owner of the True Democrat, 
a local weekly newspaper, visited the Centennial 
Exposition in Philadelphia and brought back with 
him an incandescent lamp, the latest invention at 
that time of Thomas A. Edison. This lamp was illumi- 
nated by being connected to a battery and exhibited 
in a window of the local newspaper where it was 
viewed with great interest by the people of York. 

In 1883, several out-of-town promoters came to 
York and interested some of the local businessmen 
in a plan to introduce illumination by the means of 
arc lights. A dynamo was installed in the building 
at 26 North George Street where Gregory's Mens' 
Store is now located. This dynamo was driven by a 
steam engine normally used to operate a printing- 
press. Two wires were connected to this equipment 
and run to a flagpole in Centre Square where four 
carbon arc lights were illuminated. This demonstra- 
tion was well advertised and people came from miles 
around to witness the first electric illumination in 
the City of York. 




Inferior, Original Plant, 1885 

In 1885, a company known as the Edison Electric 
Light Company, of York, Pa., was organized and 
equipment installed in a building purchased from 
P. F. Wilt on the present site of the Edison Light and 
Power Company's Central Plant. 

The original installation consisted of four boilers 
built by George F. Matter Sons and two reciprocat- 
ing engines manufactured by A. B. Farquhar Com- 
pany, of York, Penna., belt connected to two Edison 
Bipolar 110-volt generators. 

In 1886, the Peoples' Electric Light Company was 
organized, its power plant being located in the Em- 
pire Car Shop, opposite the present Edison Plant. 
This company was merged with the Edison Electric 
Light Company in 1894 and its equipment moved to 
the plant of the latter company. 

In 1887, the City Council of York entered into a 
contract with the Edison Electric Light Company to 
supply street lighting by the means of arc lights and 
145 lamps were installed. With this additional load 



the Edison Electric Light Company enlarged its gen- 
erating plant and installed one new engine, three 
generators and two boilers. 

In 1892, the Westinghouse Electric Light, Heat and 
Power Company was organized and erected a power 
plant at Water Street and Newton Alley. This com- 
pany was subsequently merged with the Edison 
Electric Light Company. This necessitated the instal- 
lation of additional equipment at the Edison Plant 
and a new brick structure with tile roof was built 
without interfering with the operation of the plant. 




Exferior, Central Plant, 1945 

After the completion of the new building, the old one 
was torn down. Steady increase in load necessitated 
the installation of new boiler equipment until a total 
capacity of 1,950 boiler horsepower was attained. 
In the same year, electric railway service was first 
introduced to York and continued until its abandon- 
ment in 1939. During this entire period, electricity 
for operation of the street-cars was supplied by Edi- 
son Light and Power Company and its predecessors. 

In 1900, the Merchants' Electric Light, Heat and 
Power Company was organized, its plant being lo- 
cated in the southern part of the city. After oper- 
ating fifteen years, the Merchants' Company was 
merged with the Edison Light and Power Company. 

The Edison Company's load continued to grow and 
in 1904 a contract was entered into with the York 
Haven Water and Power Company (now Metropol- 
itan Edison Company) for current to be furnished 
from its Hydro Plant at York Haven. Steadily in- 
creasing demands for electric service required the 
installation of additional generating equipment in 
the Edison Electric Light Company's Plant as the 
maximum obtainable current from the York Haven 
System at that time was then being used. In 1911, 



136 



EDISON LIGHT & 

Public 

the first turbine-driven unit of 2,500 kva and four 
520 horsepower boilers, equipped with automatic 
stokers, were installed. 

In 1913, the York and Windsor Electric Light Com- 
pany, which furnished electric service to Red Lion, 
Dallastown and Windsor, was purchased by the Edi- 
son Electric Light Company and a new company 
incorporated under the name of the Edison Light and 
Power Company. By 1914, it was necessary to install 
an additional 5,000 kva turbine and 1,200 horse- 
power in boilers in the Edison Plant. 

In 1923, an additional source of supply was 
brought into York by a connection between Edison 
Light and Power Company System and Pennsyl- 
vania Water and Power Company's Hydro and 
Steam Plants at Holtwood, Pa. The Edison Light and 
Power Company was now securing its supply of 
electrical energy from Metropolitan Edison Company 
and Pennsylvania Water and Power Company, ex- 
cept kilowatt hours generated at its Central Plant in 
connection with standby service and the supply of 
exhaust steam to the York Steam Heating Company. 

In 1935, Edison Light and Power Company's con- 
tract with the supplying companies Metropolitan 
Edison Company and Pennsylvania Water and 
Power Company was renewed, with the Safe Har- 
bor Water and Power Corporation having a Hydro 
Plant at Safe Harbor, Pennsylvania, becoming a 
party thereto. 

The Edison Light and Power Company serves, ap- 
proximately, 40,000 customers in the City and County 
of York, including the entire requirements of the 
Glen Rock Electric Light and Power Company which 
is under the same management. 



POWER COMPANY 

Utility 

In the early days, the customary charge for Do- 
mestic Service was ten cents per kilowatt hour. This 
cost was steadily reduced by improved efficiency in 
the generation and distribution of electrical energy. 
Another very influential factor affecting kilowatt hour 
costs was the result of combined loads of different 
characteristics and the increased use of electricity. 
The Domestic Rate on the Edison Light and Power 
Company's System for an average monthly use of 
100 kilowatt hours is now 2.96 cents per kilowatt hour 
which, by comparison, is the lowest rate for that 
class of customer on the Atlantic Seaboard. 
York Steam Heating Company 

The York Steam Heating Company was incorpo- 
rated in 1898 for the purpose of supplying steam to 
customers in the central part of the City of York. In 
1907, the control of this company was purchased by 
the York Railways Company and placed under the 
same management as the Edison Light and Power 
Company. Steam is purchased from the latter com- 
pany for resale and distributed from its power plant 
by means of mains ranging from six to fifteen inches 
in diameter totalling approximately 3'/2 miles in 
length. During the first season of operation, the com- 
pany served twenty-eight customers on a loop ex- 
tending from Gay Alley south on Beaver Street to 
Mason Alley, east on Mason Alley to Queen Street, 
north on Queen Street to Clarke Alley and west on 
Clarke Alley to point of connection with the Beaver 
Street main. This loop was approximately one mile 
in length. Since the date of incorporation, extensions 
approximately 2 1 /2 miles have been added to the 
original system from which 334 customers are now 
being served. 




Turbine floom, 1945 



ENGDAHL MACHINE AND TOOL COMPANY 

Dies and Tools 



The Engdahl Machine and Tool Company, located 
at 354 West Clarke Avenue, was founded in 1919, 
by Walter F. Engdahl, who had done precision work 
for Elgin Watch Company and the Ilinois Watch 
Case Company before coming to York. Mr. Engdahl 
had one small room as a shop and very little equip- 
ment when he started in business for himself, but 
the quality of his work soon brought him customers. 

Some of the dies made by the Engdahl Machine 
and Tool Company prior to Pearl Harbor were used 
in manufacturing metal porch furniture, sewing ma- 
chine parts and collar buttons. 



Before the United States entered the war, this 
small, well-equipped tool and die shop had achieved 
recognition throughout eastern Pennsylvania for the 
accuracy of its products and the efficiency of its ser- 
vices. It was soon engaged in 100% war work in- 
cluding grinding tools, cutters and reamers from 
solid heat-treated blanks, and manufacturing jigs, 
fixtures, and dies to extremely close tolerances. 

The Engdahl Machine and Tool Company now em- 
ploys six persons and is well equipped to do high- 
class tool and die work and light manufacturing. 



FORD ROOFING PRODUCTS COMPANY 

Asphalt Shingles, Roofing, Siding and Allied Products 



Asphalt shingles, roll roofings, roof coatings, roof 
cement and sidings comprise the principal products 
of the Ford Roofing Products Company founded by 
J. Wilkes Ford in 1865. 

During the past eighty years the company has ex- 
panded from an organization of four men to several 
hundred employees in the York, Pennsylvania, and 
Vandalia, Illinois, plants engaged in the manufac- 
ture of roofing products. The administrative offices 
are located at 1 1 1 West Washington Street, Chicago, 
Illinois, and the company's scope of operations ex- 
tend from Maine to Florida and west to the Rocky 
Mountain States. 

The Ford Roofing Company is recognized as a 
leader in the asphalt roofing and shingle industry 
for quality products. Creator of Ford-V-Neer modern 
insulation board siding, manufactured to simulate 
either brick or stone design, the company prior to 
the war specialized in feature types of asphalt shin- 
gles now available to the trade through wholesale 




distributors, retail lumber and building material deal- 
ers, and established roofing application companies. 
Plans for expansion now under way envisages its 
faith in our community and the future in general. 




EYSTER, WEISER COMPANY 

Founders and Machinists 



Eyster, Weiser Company, one of York's oldest in- 
dustries, is a successor to the business established 
in 1832 by Frederick Baugher. The foundry, machine 
shops, and tannery were then located on the west 
bank of the Codorus Creek, between Market and 
Philadelphia Streets. Members of the Baugher fam- 
ily operated the business until 1872 when William 
Kurtz became a member of the firm and the name 
changed to Baugher and Kurtz. In 1888, W. F. Bay 
Stewart was admitted to partnership, and the com- 
pany reorganized under the name of Baugher, 
Kurtz and Stewart, Ltd., by which it was known until 
the turn of the century. 

In 1894, William Eyster, Rev. Frederick Gotwald, 
John Rechard, and John Strickler purchased the 
company. George U. Weiser became a partner in 
1899 replacing Rev. Gotwald and John Rechard. 
Frank A. Eyster joined the firm in 1904 when the 
company assumed its present title of Eyster, Weiser 
Company. After the death of William Eyster in 1905, 
George U. Weiser and Frank A. Eyster carried on 
the business until 1943 when their sons, Charles S. 
Weiser, Franklin S. Eyster, and William M. Eyster, 
were admitted to partnership. 

J. B. FISHEL'S 

Bakery 

The old-fashioned way of making bread prevailed, 
mixing and kneading the dough by hand, when 
J. B. Fishel established his first bakery at 1517 West 
King Street in York. The year was 1910. 

The original business was located in a small brick 
building only large enough to accommodate one 
oven, several racks and pans, and two moulding 
benches. Door-to-door delivery was accomplished 
by horse-drawn vehicles. 

During the succeeding thirty-five years many im- 
provements have been made to increase the facili- 
ties of the company. Additional property was pur- 
chased and the present modern bakery structure 
was erected thereon. Modern dough mixers, proofers, 
air-conditioned fermentation rooms, and an air-con- 
ditioned cooler which conditions the bread before it 
is wrapped were installed to provide adequate fa- 
cilities for producing 24,000 loaves daily. A fleet of 
modern delivery trucks distributes the company's 
products throughout York and York County. Seventy- 
five per cent of the volume produced is absorbed by 
retail consumption, twenty-five per cent by whole- 
sale distribution. 

So great has been the care and effort of J. B. 
Fishel's Bakery, Inc., to serve the people of this com- 
munity with the most wholesome bakery products. 



During World War II, the seventy-five employees 
produced gray iron and semi-steel castings on sub- 
contracts for manufacture into products used by the 
Army, Navy, and Maritime Commission, and various 
other governmental agencies. Castings produced in 
the foundry ranged in weight from less than one 
pound for a ratchet for a bomb hoist to five tons for 
heavy truck dies. Other products for which castings 
were manufactured included machine tools and spe- 
cial machinery, marine engines, cranes and hoists, 
meat roasters and steam-jacketed kettles, jigs, dies, 
and fixtures. During World War II ten employees 
were called into the service of their country. 




BAKERY INC 

Products 

that their hosts of customers have demanded Fishel's 
products because they have confidence that those of 
this bakery are as delicious as money can buy. 

After the death of J. B. Fishel, founder of the com- 
pany, in 1940, it was reorganized and incorporated 
under its present name. Management of the com- 
pany is vested in Warren E. Fishel, president; Am- 
mon E. Fishel, vice-president; Allen N. Fishel, secre- 
tary; and Harry J. Fishel, treasurer. 

Fishel's Bakery has established a fine reputation 
for its quality products and valuable service to cit- 
izens of York and adjacent communities. It has a 
staff of seventy-five trained employees, many of them 
having long years of service in the baking industry. 




139 



A. B. FARQUHAR COMPANY 

1856 90th Anniversary 1946 



The inception of the A. B. Farquhar Company took 
place in 1856 when it was established as the Penn- 
sylvania Agricultural Works by its proprietor, A. B. 
Farquhar. Within a few years his firm attained na- 
tional recognition. On January 12, 1884, the publi- 
cation. The Scientific American, as part of a series 
of articles on outstanding American industries, de- 
scribed at some length "the unsurpassed manufac- 
turing facilities of the Pennsylvania Agricultural 
Works" and listed early farm specialties such as 
Steam Engines, Plows and Threshing Machines. 

In 1889, the Pennsylvania Agricultural Works was 
reorganized as a limited partnership under the name 
of A. B. Farquhar Company, Limited. Upon the death 
of A. B. Farquhar in 1926, Francis Farquhar, his son, 
assumed the duties of president. On January 1, 1944, 
the limited partnership was dissolved in favor of the 
present corporation under the leadership of W. J. 
Fisher, who was elected president, Francis Farquhar 
remaining active as chairman of the Board of Direc- 
tors and vice-president of the company. 

Mr. Fisher, who had advanced from an apprentice 
bench to general managership, has been with A. B. 
Farquhar Company for more than forty years. Most 
Farquhar executives, in fact, have long been identi- 
fied with the firm and two generations of many York 
families are today in the company employ. 



Farm Implement Division 

The company has always been closely identified 
with agricultural equipment. Farquhar IRON AGE Po- 
tato Planters, Transplanters and Vegetable Planters 
are equipped with the famous "Band-Way" system 
of fertilizer placement that has been widely accepted 
throughout the world. More IRON AGE Potato Planters 
have been sold and are in use today than all others 
combined. The IRON AGE trade-mark, symbol of fine 
quality workmanship, is also found on Farquhar-built 
Sprayers, Dusters, Weeders, Diggers, Hay Balers and 
Fertilizer Distributors, all of which have contributed 
to the advancement of agricultural economy in the 
United States and many foreign countries. 

Portable Conveyor Division 

In 1931, the company acquired the Portable Ma- 
chinery Company of Clifton, N. J., pioneer of the 
first modern portable conveyor. Today, Farquhar 
builds Portable Coal Conveyors and Portable Freight 
Conveyors, either of which can serve as permanent 
installations. Farquhar-built Portable Coal Convey- 
ors, used in retail coal yards, have been so well ac- 
cepted that they represent more than 90% of all the 
machinery of this type used in the East. Extensive 
applications of Portable Freight and Aggregate 
Handling Conveyors are found universally in many 
industries. 




u_ 



Original Plant, 1884 horse and buggy days when threshing machines were the latest word. 



IdO 



A. B. FARQUHAR COMPANY 

1856 90th Anniversary 1946 



Hydraulic Press Division 

For years the production of Hydraulic Presses for 
industrial and governmental use has been of major 
importance to A. B. Farquhar Company. During 
World War I and prior to Pearl Harbor for World 
War II, Smokeless Powder Presses were being manu- 
factured for use in government arsenals. As one of 
the largest manufacturers of Hydraulic Presses, Far- 
quhar has developed varied applications of all types 
of production presses with capacities ranging from 
3 to 7,200 tons. Presses for the food industry ... for 
cider and fruit juices are also made by this Division. 

Special Machinery Division 

The exceptional engineering talent and highly 
skilled workmanship, combined with all the facili- 
ties of a large job shop, have made A. B. Farquhar 
Company one of the outstanding builders of Special 



lence in plant protection and the National Security 
Award make the company noteworthy among plants 
engaged in war production. 






Wartime Honors. 

As was needs of the Armed Services increased, 
A. B. Farquhar Company expanded its facilities to 
secure maximum production of ordnance and other 
vital equipment as follows: Hydraulic Presses for 
smokeless powder; Forging and Drawing Presses 
for shell and cartridge cases; Shell Nosing Presses, 




" 



!Tl Till 1 t ' 

-i|-ijr 




Today's modern plant with streamlined precision production. 



Machinery. This Division makes the old stand-bys, 
such as Sawmills, Boilers, Cookers and heavy plate 
work, and also produces war equipment including 
Decontaminating Units, Sterilizers, Storage Batteries, 
Pro-Coating Machines and 81mm. Trench Mortars. 
The making of 81mm. Trench Mortars, involving the 
precision machining and fabricating of six individual 
assemblies, exemplifies the fine craftsmanship of 
Farquhar employees. 

War Production Record 

Three wartime flags, the Army-Navy "E" with four 
renewal stars for outstanding production of war ma- 
terials, the Auxiliary Military Police "E" for excei- 



Straightening Presses, Aircraft Production Presses, 
Shipyard Presses and Metal Forming Presses; 81mm. 
Trench Mortars and Mounts; Material Handling Con- 
veyors for Coal and Freight; Stationary and Mobile 
Sterilizer Units and Medical Sterilizing Units; Decon- 
taminating Units for Chemical Warfare; Farm Imple- 
ments, including Potato Planters, Vegetable Planters, 
Transplanters, Sprayers, Dusters, Weeders, Diggers, 
Peanut Pickers, Hay Balers, Sawmills, Engines and 
Boilers. 

Today, the A. B. Farquhar Company is a strong, 
well-founded organization of men and facilities 
facing its industrial future with every reason for 
confidence. 



141 



THE FIRST NATIONAL BANK OF YORK 

Organized 1863 



The site of The First National Bank of York marks 
the historic location of the United States Treasury 
when Congress held its sessions in York from Sep- 
tember 30, 1777, to June 27, 1778. It was upon this 
site, the northeast corner of Continental Square, that 
the home of Archibald McLean was occupied dur- 
ing this period by Robert Morris, president of the 
Board of Treasury, and Michael Hillegus, Treasurer 
of the United States. 

In a vault in the cellar of the McLean Building the 
money belonging to the United States Treasury was 
kept. It not only contained the depreciated Conti- 
nental currency, but a considerable amount of silver. 

This valuable treasure, amounting to about $600,- 
000, was brought to York in the Spring of 1778. The 
money had been sent to America from France as a 
loan to the United States Government, then strug- 
gling for independence. The vessel which brought 
this money from the French Government landed in 
Portsmouth, New Hampshire. Captain James B. Frye, 
who had been a member of the Boston Tea Party, 
was entrusted with the care of the money to convey 
it to Congress in York, with the compliments of 
Louis XVI, who had already entered into a treaty of 
friendship and alliance with the United States Gov- 
ernment through the influence of Benjamin Franklin, 
the United States Commissioner at Paris. 

The four-horse wagon that conveyed this money 
from Portsmouth through Boston, Albany, Reading 
and York was guarded by a full company of Conti- 
nental troops. A large painting in the directors' room 
of the bank depicts this historic event. The money 
arrived here safely and was put in charge of Michael 
Hillegus, who had been Treasurer of the United 
States since 1776. 

This building was also the temporary depository 
for a large amount of Continental money printed at 
York under Act of Congress passed April 11, 1778. 
A five-panel window in the directors' room depicts 
some of this early history. 

Organized in 1863 by a progressive group of local 
businessmen. The First National Bank of York started 
a general banking business with a capital of $300,- 
000. Its original charter number was 197, but in later 
years, when many of the National Banks combined, 
it became the sixty-seventh National bank to be 
chartered in the United States. It is York's oldest 
National Bank. 




From its inception. The First National Bank of York 
has been operated by businessmen for the conve- 
nience of York's thrifty citizens. Its Board of Directors 
is composed of York businessmen whose keen in- 
terest, guidance and willingness to cooperate in 
civic, industrial and commercial enterprises has ef- 
fected a substantial contribution to the growth and 
development of York. 




Archibald McLean House used as United States Treasury. 



A member of the Federal Reserve System and the 
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, it is also the 
Government Depository. This means that the govern- 
ment always has a deposit in this bank, and that the 
Federal Courts instruct the Trustees in Bankruptcy 
to deposit all their funds with The First National Bank 
of York. 

The facilities of The First National Bank of York 
include complete Trust, Commercial and Personal 
Loan, Checking and Savings Account Departments. 
It is equipped with the largest and most modern 
bank vault in the community. Eleven directors repre- 
senting a large share of industrial business interests 
govern the activities of the bank. 

W. A. Keyworth, chairman of the Board; C. L. 
Peterman, president; B. H. Myers, vice-president 
and cashier; D. M. Myers, vice-president; and C. F. 
Borgel, trust officer, together with forty-five trained 
employees, coordinate to render modern, friendly 
and understanding banking service to the bank's 
18,000 depositors. 

The stability of The First National Bank of York 
has survived all wars, panics and depressions. There 
has never been an occasion during the entire history 
of this bank when it was unable to meet its obliga- 
tions, dollar for dollar. Its growth and conservative 
operation is best reflected in its Statement of Con- 
dition dated December 30, 1944. Total Assets are 
$23,954,707; Capital. $500,000; Surplus, $600,000; Un- 
divided Profits, $160,000. 



142 



FLOOROLA PRODUCTS, INC 

Floor Maintenance Equipment 



The secret of beautiful floors . . . day to day care 
with proper equipment ... is an every-day prob- 
lem in homes, hotels, apartment houses, educational 
institutions, office buildings and churches. 

In the early twenties, Ernest J. Newcomer, founder 
of Floorola Products, Inc., through his experimental 
work in Baltimore, envisioned the need for floor 
maintenance labor-saving devices. 

In November, 1924, Mr. Newcomer established this 
company for the purpose of manufacturing floor 
waxing, polishing and scrubbing machines. The 
progress of this new industrial enterprise was con- 
sistent with the development of the industry. The 
original production capacity of the plant was ap- 
proximately three hundred machines per month. 
During the succeeding years, however, increased fa- 
cilities and improved production methods enabled 
the company to manufacture about two hundred 
complete units per week. 

During the past five years, Floorola Products, Inc., 
has been an active participant in the York Plan for 
the production of war materials. Its entire facilities 
. . . men, equipment and materials . . . have been 
engaged one hundred per cent in war work. It has 
manufactured Radar parts for the Signal Corps, Bofor 
gun parts for the Navy, aircraft parts for both Army 
and Navy, trench mortar parts for the Army and has 
machined shells for 105mm. guns. 

During the war period, the company developed 
modern tool designing and manufacturing depart- 
ments in which special tools and dies, required for 
the production of war materials, were made. These 
departments are being expanded still further for 
post-war work. 

Extensive research conducted by its engineering 
department during the war era has produced many 
new ideas, products and equipment which have 
been developed, tested and proven, and will be 
manufactured when materiel becomes available for 
this purpose. 

Floorola Products, Inc., distribute their products 
through qualified distributors throughout the world. 
Their products have been endorsed by leading test- 



ing laboratories; such as, Good Housekeeping, De- 
lineator, Philadelphia Electric, New York Herald 
Tribune, Hotel Managements' Testing Hotels and 
many other prominent laboratories. 




Production Department. 




Assembly Department. 



AK:.* 




143 



EDWARD FOX BAKING COMPANY 

Baked Products 



The Fox family has "followed the wheat" for well 
over one hundred years. 

Edward Fox's father, Henry Fox, came to America 
over eighty years ago and worked in the flour mills 
of the P. A. & S. Small Company in York as a miller. 
During the Civil War he fought with the Pennsyl- 
vania troops, and when peace came he moved to 
Lewisberry, York County, where Edward Fox was 
born. 

The founder at the age of eighteen had advanced 
to foremanship in the then infant baking industry, 
working for the Allison Bakery for several years. Dur- 
ing this time the phrase, "young man go West," was 
on everyone's lips; Edward Fox turned his youth and 
experience to account in becoming a bakery fore- 
man for the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad 
at Needles, California, on the Mohave desert. These 
were the days before Pullman cars and Needles was 
one of the regular station stops in order to feed 
travelers. 

After this experience, Edward Fox returned to York 
where he and his brother, Andrew, founded the Fox 
Baking Company, which later assumed the name, 
"The Edw. Fox Baking Company." 

Today, the modern Fox Bakery, one of the largest 
in this section of Pennsylvania, is in its fifty-eighth 



year. The business is being carried on by Edward 
Fox's three sons, Roy, Earl and Louis, who have been 
responsible for the steady growth of the firm through- 
out the years. 




FLUHRER'S JEWELRY STORE 



Retailer of 

Harry H. Fluhrer, present owner of Fluhrer's, has 
been associated with Fluhrer's Jewelry Store for fifty 
of the sixty years in which they have operated their 
business in York. 

Until the year 1884, William Fluhrer was employed 
by the D. S. Wagner Jewelry Store. At that time he 
left to open a business of his own. At his death, the 
management of the business was turned over to his 
son, Harry H. Fluhrer. 

The first Fluhrer Jewelry Store was opened in the 
Immel Building, 123 West Market Street. Eight years 



Fine Jewelry 

later, in order to enlarge, the firm moved its business 
to the Heighes Building, 103 West Market Street. In 
November, 1898, the Vandersloot property at 17-19 
West Market Street was purchased and the store 
moved to its present location. In 1911, the old build- 
ing was razed and replaced with the present steel 
framed, terra-cotta building. 

After sixty-one years of operation the store con- 
tinues to enjoy an enviable reputation for fair deal- 
ing and untiring efforts to please. 



GOTWALTS MOTOR SERVICE 



Transportation 

Traveling south on the Susquehanna Trail, just 
out of York, you are likely to meet several large 
orange and black body trucks. These trucks are 
owned by Gotwalt's Motor Service and are operated 
throughout the eleven eastern States for transport- 
ing new furniture, household goods and government 
shipments to and from York County. 

Charles E. Gotwalt started the company in April, 
of 1931, with one small truck and now operates 
twenty-two trucks over the above areas. 




\ AA 



FULTON, MEHRING & MAUSER CO., INC 

Hardware, Mill Supplies, Groceries 



This company was established in 1901 by C. Mac 
Fulton and Curtis H. Mehring, both of whom had 
considerable experience in the wholesale hardware 
and grocery business. 

The business was conducted as a partnership in 
a small storeroom located at 121 South George 
Street, York, Pennsylvania, and at the time employ- 
ing four persons. 

In 1905, Edward G. Hauser became interested in 
the company and at that time was incorporated 
under Pennsylvania laws and designated as the 
Fulton, Mehring & Hauser Co., Inc., under which 
name it operates today. In the same year the busi- 
ness moved across the street to 116-118 South 
George Street into a new building erected for it by 
Jacob Smyser. 

R. T. Paules purchased stock in this company in 
1912 and later acquired the controlling interest. The 
company in 1924 purchased the building it occupied 
from the Jacob Smyser estate as well as the Howard 
Building, located next door at 120-122 South George 
Street, York, Pennsylvania. 

In 1932, G. Latimer Gotwalt, who was an em- 
ployee of the company for many years, purchased 
stock in the business. 

Upon the death of R. T. Paules in 1937, the con- 
trolling interest was purchased by the four sons 
from the R. T. Paules estate. These four sons, namely 
John H., David H., Charles E., and Clair L Paules, 



together with G. Latimer Gotwalt, are the present 
stockholders. 

In 1942, the company purchased the warehouse 
located at 130 South Cherry Avenue to increase its 
storage capacity. This company enjoyed a steady 
growth and prior to the war employed sixty-four 
persons, distributing hardware, mill supplies, paints 
and groceries, as well as toys, seeds, house furnish- 
ings, electric appliances and other similar products 
to the general stores and industries in York and 
Adams counties. Eighteen of these employees are 
now serving in the Armed Forces. 

The Fulton, Mehring & Hauser Co., Inc., has al- 
ways been active in civic improvement work and 
has participated one hundred per cent in all com- 
munity projects. During the present conflict they 
have made every effort to supply goods and services 
to the York manufacturers who have done such a 
splendid job in the war effort. 

The present stockholders have recently purchased 
the real estate and plant of the former Smyser-Royer 
Company, located at North Beaver Street and North 
Street. This plant contains two acres of land upon 
which are erected buildings with ample floor space 
as well as a railroad siding and with ample parking 
space. It is the plan of the present owners to move 
their jobbing business to this new location to enable 
them to add additional lines of merchandise and to 
give better service to their customers. 



Hf HAUSER 




145 



ROY L GEESEY 

General Insurance 



Roy L. Geesey's father was secretary of the local 
branch of the Southern Mutual Fire Insurance Com- 
pany and maintained an office at 41 East King 
Street. Roy left high school to work with his father, 
but soon opened up his own agency right next door. 
Here, at 45 East King Street, in a small office rented 
from the widow of the late George M. Bollinger, city 
councilman, Mr. Geesey sold all types of insurance 
with the exception of life insurance. Being a notary 
public he solicitated auto license business and other 
notary work. 

In 1930, the building in which he was located was 
put up for sale and Mr. Geesey purchased it. He 

added automobile financing in 1932 to the services 
which he already offered. Business continued to 
grow and in 1940 he remodeled the building. The 
firm now occupies both the first and second floors 
and employs a staff of eight persons, three of whom 

GENERAL MACHINE WORKS 

Regulators and Combustion Controls 

In 1902, the company known as the Ruth Machine 
Company was founded by Geoffrey Yost, Edwin 
Moul, David E. Small and Horace Brillinger. It was 
organized for the manufacture of knitting machines. 

It was reorganized and incorporated under the 
name of General Machine Works in 1908. In 1915, 
the company was purchased by Will H. Swartz, 
Charles G. Swartz, G. Ed. Swartz, Charles M. Strick- 
ler and W. Wilson Thompson and has operated 
under that ownership and management since. 

In 1918, the Prospect Street addition was erected, 
increasing the floor space and production of the 
plant one hundred per cent. Present products and 
services include: General Regulator Corporation 
products, regulators and combustion controls for 
ships, power and chemical plants and general in- 
dustries, also subcontract work of parts, assemblies, 
complete machines and equipment. 

The scope of the business is national. Small and 
medium size parts, machines and equipment are 
made in the company's machine shop to required 
engineering specifications. 



are notaries public. 

The Roy L. Geesey Company is rated as one of 
the finest insurance agencies in the State. 





GEHLY'S CARPET HOUSE, INC. 



9 West 

Gehly's Carpet House, Inc., was founded in 1886 
when Theodore H. Gehly purchased the stock, fix- 
tures and goodwill of the "ONE-PRICE CARPET HOUSE" 
operated by J. Ross Grove at 10 North George Street. 
The original firm operated as Theodore H. Gehly and 
continued until the deaih of Mr. Gehly in 1913. Mer- 
chandise of that day included "homemade" and In- 
grain Carpets, factory made carpets, floor and table 
oilcloth, window shades, mirrors and hall racks. 

In 1900, the store was moved into a large new 
four-story brick building at 9 West Market Street. 
Built by Mr. Gehly for the expansion of the growing 
business, this building represented the most modern 
and advanced construction and for sometime was 
considered the finest of York's downtown structures. 
It is still occupied by the company after having been 
modernized to meet present needs. 

Upon Mr. Gehly's death, a partnership was formed 
between his widow, Annie L. Gehly, and Henry 
L King, an employee who had been with the store 
since 1888, trading under the name of Gehly's Car- 
pet House. The partnership continued to thrive and 
grow under the active management of Mr. King and 
in 1920 a furniture department was added. 

In 1925, the partnership was dissolved, to be re- 
placed by a Pennsylvania corporation composed of 
Mrs. Annie L. Gehly, Henry L. King, C. E. Bowers, 
W. H. King and George W. Wertz. Henry L. King 
became president and general manager. 

In 1934, with the death of Henry L King, aftei 
forty-six years of service with the company, C. E. 
Bowers became president and general manager. 

In 1939, a modern drapery and interior decorating 
department was added, completing the house-fur- 
nishing lines of the company. 

In 1940, the company again reorganized with the 
following management: Wm. H. King, president and 
general manager; Vernon L. Miller, vice-president; 
Sarah E. K. Moore, treasurer; Margaret L. Miller, 
secretary, and Catherine M. Gotthardt, assistant 
treasurer. 

The company has always enjoyed the confidence 
and patronage of the people of York and York 
County. Further expansion and addition of lines is 
promised in the post-war plans, including an entirely 
new department for home appliances, complete 
from small appliances through air conditioning. 

Many nationally famous names are represented 
in the products merchandised at Gehly's, including 



Market Street 

Armstrong, Bigelow-Sanford, Mohawk, Whittall, Firth, 
Karastan, Drexel, Imperial Tables, Tomlinson, Fine 
Art, Ferguson, Kenneth Curtains, Schumacher, Wav- 
erly, Bloomcraft, Port-Edge, Lightolier, Charlton 
House, Admiral Radio, Stoves and Refrigeration. 
Many former suppliers who are now producing for 
our Armed Forces will have their names added to 
this list upon reconversion to their former products. 




Although much manpower has been lost to the 
war effort their positions have been held open pend- 
ing their return. The company's slogan, "Look to a 
Bright Future with Gehly's," will continue to grow 
and mean much to our friends in the community. 



147 



THE GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY 



York Wire and 

The industrial development of the York Wire and 
Cable Works is an interesting story of one of Gen- 
eral Electric's most successful manufacturing plants. 
It will tell you something of the York Works' early 
history, its skilled workers and its important contri- 
bution to the war effort. 

At the turn of the century there was a wave of ex- 
pansion and promotion which swept over the coun- 
try, stimulated by the advance of industry. It was at 
this time that the Norway Steel Company visioned 
a plant which would be surrounded by a model com- 
munity. Land was acquired on the outskirts of York 
and a park and a subdivision to hold some three hun- 
dred dwellings were laid out. Financial reverses hit 
the company, and in 1906 the buildings of the plant 
were purchased by the Heany Fireproof Wire Com- 
pany. Herein they set up the machinery for the 
manufacture of asbestos-insulated wires and coils. 
A little later they embarked on the manufacture of 
tungsten filament incandescent lamps. 

In 1912, this concern was succeeded by the Inde- 
pendent Lamp & Wire Company, who continued the 
operation on a larger scale. 

In 1921, the plant was acquired by General Elec- 
tric. The facilities of the plant were extended and 
the scope of types and quantities of specialty insu- 
lated conductors was greatly expanded. 

The average person, especially outside of the elec- 
trical industry, has slight conception of the complex- 
ities and differences in the insulation needed to keep 
current traveling to its destination along its metal 
way. The first insulated wire was manufactured in 
1848. A crude machine had been devised that coated 
the copper with a gutta-percha compound. In 1849, 
that machine was taken from this country to En- 
gland, where it turned out insulated wire for the 
Atlantic cable, the laying of which was completed 
in 1855. 

G-E Research 

General Electric research and engineering have 
worked for years on the problems of insulation. 
Deltabeston is the registered trademark for wire in- 
sulated with a compound of asbestos and synthetic 
resin, made by the General Electric Company. This 
wire constitutes the major part of the York output. 
Of one type or another, it is used in power plants, 
switchboard wiring, appliances, fixtures, locomotives, 
in aircraft, in radio hook-ups and in motor windings. 

Applying the insulation to wire is done mechan- 
ically by most intricate and ingenious machines 
which cover it with synthetics, apply tape-like coat- 
ings of asbestos fibre or glass, and braid on various 
protective materials, some of which are metallic. 



Cable Works 

These machines operate at incredible speeds, the 
wire passing through at the rate of six hundred feet 
a minute in some instances. The eye cannot follow 
the multiplex operations. 

The operators are highly skilled, and their task is 
largely one of observation. Their ears and eyes be- 
come sensitive to the slightest change in the rhythm 
of the operation. Of course, there are automatic con- 
trols, electrically actuated, which stop the machine 
in the event of malfunction. Then the operator's task 
is to make the necessary adjustments. 




A general view of (he Yori Works' wire insulating shop. Here 
a combination ot skilled engineers, trained operators, modern 
machinery and alert management has produced one ot the fin- 
est lines of asbestos-insu/a/ed caWes in fhe electrical industry. 



Wai Work 

The demands of war have produced new feats of 
engineering in the building of these machines. Re- 
cently, two young men in the York Works redesigned 
a stranding machine which enabled it to twist the 
small wires into spirals, something which the orig- 
inal designers of the machine considered impossible. 

Early in 1944, General Electric Company was 
awarded a vitally important contract to produce 
component parts and accessories for the rocket 
project. Accordingly, in May, another war plant in 
York was opened at 170 East Boundary Avenue and 
began operation with some 400 employees. Start- 
ing the job from scratch without any previous ex- 
perience was not an easy task. After some fine 
experimental work, excellent quality control was 
established and General Electric completed its ini- 
tial contract on schedule. Additional contracts have 
since been received and are now being delivered 
in the traditional G-E way on time. 

The York Works proudly flies an Army-Navy "E" 
Pennant with three stars for excellency in War 
Production. 



Id8 



GILBERT WALL PAPER MFG. COMPANY, Inc. 

Paper Hangings 



ready market throughout the United States, and thus 
materially aids in making York the second largest 
producing wall paper community in the nation. 



The Gilbert Wall Paper Mfg. Co., Inc., located at 
740 Linden Avenue, was organized in 1902 by Paul 
J. Gilbert, under the name of the Gilbert Wall Paper 
Company, for producing inexpensive grades of wall 
paper, and continued to function until the year 1933, 
when the company reorganized with a complete 
new personnel, and much attention was then given 
toward the elevating of the standard of the product. 

In 1940, another complete reorganization was ef- 
fected, and the present corporation name adopted. 
The new corporation is owned and operated by 
Arthur E. Jones as president and treasurer. Further 
expansion of this business for the development of 
both production and quality has created a yearly 
capacity of four million rolls, all of which finds a 

THE H. E. GOODLING ELECTRIC COMPANY 




Household Appliances and Commercial 

In the early twenties it was becoming evident to 
those with foresight that the age of household elec- 
trical appliances was fast approaching. As evidence 
of their belief that such was the case a small group 
of York businessmen formed the H. E. Goodling Elec- 
tric Company. That was in 1921. 

From the very beginning the organization had two 
all-important objectives. The first was to sell nothing 
but quality appliances those backed by manufac- 
turers with a national reputation. And the second 
was to establish a service department which could 
intelligently take care of installation and service 
needs of customers. 

Both objectives were quickly attained and have 
never been lost sight of in the intervening years. 
Goodling acquired the exclusive dealership for Norge 
Electrical Refrigerators. Then the famous Timken 
Wall-of-Flame Oil Heating Units, Quality Electric 
Stoves and Blackstone Electric Washers were added. 
To better serve its oil heating unit customers the 
business was finally expanded to take in the sale 
of fuel oil. 

The aggressiveness of the organization is indi- 
cated by the number of appliance installations made 
prior to the war. Included are more than 5,000 refrig- 
erators, 1,300 oil heating units, 1,500 stoves and 800 
washers. There are hundreds of fuel oil customers 
both Timken and non-Timken users. The service de- 



Refrigeration Sales and Service 

partment has expanded to the point where it has 
experienced man power and facilities not equalled 
in all of southern central Pennsylvania. 

Some years ago several other significant selling 
steps were taken. Goodling was franchised to sell 
and service the world-renounced line of York Com- 
mercial Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Equip- 
ment. Following this C. V. Hill Refrigerated Store 
Fixture franchise was acquired. Intelligent selling 
effort applied to these products has converted the 
City of York into what is probably one of the best 
commercial refrigerated communities in the country. 
Stores by the dozens have entrusted their equipment 
modernization program to Goodling. 

With the coming of war, many readjustments had 
to be made. Practically no electrical appliances 
could be sold. Only limited business was possible in 
York Refrigerating and Hill Store Fixtures. On the 
other hand, the demands on the service department 
increased. Existing equipment simply had to be kept 
in operation until the war was over. 

Goodling's acquired a manufacturing division on 
Springdale Avenue. Here thousands of tank gun re- 
coil and trench motor parts were produced. This small 
plant, with its sixty-five employees, has achieved 
a reputation for manufacturing precision products, 
meeting schedules on time and at competitive prices. 



149 



P. H. GLATFELTER CO. 

Manufacturer of Fine Papers Since 1864 







** 

f6f 






'7#W'- 

. 



*'.* 






A few days after President Lincoln passed through 
Spring Forge on his way to make the historic address 
at Gettysburg, P. H. Glatfelter, a young man who 
had been working in a paper mill in Maryland, 
bought the Spring Forge Paper Mill, so-called be- 
cause it occupied the site of the pioneer iron bloom- 
ery west of the Susquehanna. Later, the name of the 
mill, as well as of the village which grew up around 
it, was changed to Spring Grove. 

Beginning with a capacity of 1,500 pounds daily, 
made on one fifty-six-inch Fourdrinier machine, the 
mill in 1874 was moved to its present site where to- 
day it operates six Fourdriniers with widths of from 
fifty-six to one hundred ninety inches, capable of 
turning out 300,000 pounds of paper daily. 

Today, the company is under management of the 
third generation of the Glatfelter family. P. H. Glat- 



felter became president in May of 1930, when he 
succeeded his father, W. L. Glatfelter. 

It is characteristic that the growth and expansion 
of the P. H. Glatfelter Company over the years has 
always been the result of careful, long-term plan- 
ning. In addition to the mills, the Glatfelter Company 
owns and cultivates extensive pulpwood land in 
southern Maryland and Virginia, having formed a 
subsidiary company, the Glatfelter Pulpwood Com- 
pany, to carry on this business. 

The policy and the practice of the P. H. Glatfelter 
Company is traditionally to maintain a modern, effi- 
cient mill in order to approach as nearly as possible 
the guarantee of superior quality at minimum cost. 
The future will undoubtedly see this same energetic 
striving for perfection. 







: - ' 



- 



THE GOLDEN RULE 

Ladles' Apparel 



The Golden Rule was established May 13, 1904, 
by Charles F. Homer and E. Guy Bastress, at 238 
West Market Street in York, as the Golden Rule 
Bargain House. The two men, who had been fellow 
workers, had in mind a variety store, similar to the 
early five and ten-cent stores. With the advent of 
ready-made women's clothing in the early part of 
the century, shirt-waists and skirts were added. As 
the ready-to-wear industry developed, The Golden 
Rule gradually came to specialize in women's ap- 
parel; thus becoming the first exclusive women's 
specialty shop in York. The venture was successful 




Original Store 

from the start; the partners early realizing the possi- 
bilities of attracting volume business by a policy of 
lower prices, made profitable by a strictly cash, low 
overhead store operation. 

The rapid growth of the business required a larger 
store after a few years, and The Golden Rule was 
moved to 131 West Market Street. In 1922, further 
expansion became necessary, and the entire build- 
ing containing the store was purchased by Mr. Bas- 
tress. It was extensively remodeled, almost doubling 
the floor space of The Golden Rule, and one of York's 
first modern store fronts was installed. 

The business continued until early July, of 1933, 
when Mr. Homer died. The store was then taken 
over by Mr. Bastress, who was to operate it only a 
few months until his death in early September of 
the same year. 

Then a critical decision had to be made. It was 
decided to continue The Golden Rule, and a suc- 
cessor firm was formed to carry it on Mrs. E. Guy 
Bastress, Mrs. John P. Connelly, and John P. Con- 
nelly as the managing partner. With the full coop- 
eration of an experienced staff, the business has 
continued to prosper. 

The interior of the store was remodeled, new mer- 
chandising methods were added and departments 



expanded during the succeeding years, but the basic 
policy of a volume business for cash at lower prices 
remained the same. 



The Golden Rule 




Second Store 

In July of 1943, the building at 29-31 West Market 
Street was purchased. This building was extensively 
remodeled to make a modern store, with all the aids 
to efficient merchandising a visual front a func- 
tional store layout to make shopping easier ad- 
vanced lighting and air conditioning. The Golden 
Rule moved to this new building late in 1945 and 
will continue in the tradition that was started by 
two far-sighted men over forty years ago. 




Present Store 



151 



JOHN D. GRAVES & CO. 

Real Estate 



The real estate iirm known as John D. Graves & 
Co., is owned and operated by John D. Graves, who 
came to York in 1939, a native of Toledo, Ohio, to 
become associated with R. S. Noonan, local build- 
ing contractor, under the name of The R. S. Noonan- 
Graves Company. This company was principally 
engaged in the construction and sale of new homes 
throughout Greater York. 

After Pearl Harbor, when building decreased, Mr. 
Graves adopted his own name and entered the 
general real estate brokerage business, operating 
largely with salesmen. The selling group of this 



firm averages four to eight salesmen and an office 
manager. 

They originated the use of photographs in the sell- 
ing plans. 

The firm represents several approved fire insur- 
ance companies, handles repairs, remodeling, fi- 
nancing, sale and purchase of mortgages, general 
brokerage sale of property, buying and selling of 
real estate and professional appraisals. Mr. Graves 
is an active member of the York Real Estate Board, 
maintained to aid industrial plants in maintenance 
and production problems. 



JNO. E. GRAYBILL & CO., INC 

Wholesale Electrical Supplies 



The Jno. E. Graybill Co., Inc., has the unique dis- 
tinction of being the eighth oldest wholesale elec- 
trical supplier in the United States. The company 
was established in 1888, by Jno. E. Graybill and in- 
corporated in 1905. 

From a small beginning, the company has in- 
creased until it occupies an outstanding position in 
its field. A branch opening in Lancaster in 1936 
proved highly successful and affords a complete 
wholesale service in Lancaster County and sur- 
rounding districts. 

Scope of the business now covers an area of one 
hundred miles around York and Lancaster County, 
representing nationally known electrical manufac- 
turers' lines. Definite plans are now in the making 
for post-war expansion and enlargement, including 
additional facilities which have already been ob- 
tained so they will be available when needed. 

During the war, the company has aided many of 
the large industrial war plants in securing high 
priority electrical material for prime contract gov- 



ernment work. A complete engineering service is 
maintained to aid war plants in maintenance and 
production problems. 

The Jno. E. Graybill Co., Inc., was purchased in 
1930 from the estate of Jno. E. Graybill by Harry A. 
Brown, who owns the company today. 




GREGORY'S 

Men's Wear 



On April 11, 1905, Samuel F. Gregory opened a 
men's hat store on South George Street. Two years 
later, he moved into Continental Square with a com- 
plete line of men's clothing, furnishings and hats. 
Since that time Gregory's have continued to sell a 
complete line of men's wear and after moving to sev- 
eral locations finally opened their present store at 
26 North George Street on March 1, 1939. In 1942, 
Marshall Gregory was taken into partnership with 
his father, in what has become known as one of 
Pennsylvania's finest men's stores. 




152 



GREEN'S DAIRY 



Green's Dairy was founded in 1913 by Clarence 
Green who at that time delivered milk with a horse- 
drawn vehicle. In 1923, the present modern dairy 
was built, and in 1924, he moved into his new dairy 
with all the latest dairy machinery at that time. As 
his business increased, more additions were made 
and more delivery equipment was obtained. 

In 1930, a new ice cream department was added, 
new garages and a new boiler room was also built. 
At present, Mr. Green has employed about forty 
people in the processing and distribution of fine 
pasteurized dairy products and also has a fleet of 
seventeen motor vehicles for delivery. 

The dairy also manufactures roller dried skim milk 



Milk and Milk Products 

powder to utilize thousands of gallons of fluid skim 
milk that would go to waste if it were not for this 
roller process drying machine. 





Modern Pasfeurizing Unit at Green's Dairy 



J. S. HERSHEY BAKING COMPANY 



Bread, Rolls and Cakes 



This business was organized by J. S. Hershey in 
1899, when he started with a small shop on West 
Philadelphia Street, where he baked bread and sold 
it from his own pushcart. 

In January, 1900, the rear portion of the present 
plant was built at 40-48 West Jefferson Avenue. 

The business was successful and its growth rapid. 
Within ten years the building had been extended to 
its present proportions. For a number of years, de- 
liveries were made by use of horses and wagons. 
Trucks were adopted as soon as they became com- 
mercially practicable. Today, Hershey products are 
being delivered to all parts of York City and County. 

The plant is completely equipped with the most 
modern baking machinery, including the latest labor- 
saving devices. 

The personnel includes one hundred and twenty 
men and women engaged in the production and dis- 
tribution of the most excellent grade of bread, rolls, 
sweet buns and cakes. 



Increase in the volume of business has been phe- 
nomenal in recent years, the present rate of output 
being well beyond three quarters of a million dollars 
annually. 

Since the death of the founder in 1936, the busi- 
ness has been carried on by his children, under the 
direction of J. Carleton Hershey, the present manager. 




153 



HARDINGE COMPANY, INCORPORATED 

Mining and Industrial Process Equipment 



The parent company, Hardinge Company, Incor- 
porated, was founded by H. W. Hardinge, December 
21, 1906. In 1920, Hardinge Company, Incorporated, 
purchased the then Steacy-Schmidt Manufacturing 
Company (now Hardinge Manufacturing Company); 
also the Ruggles-Coles Engineering Company. 

The present Hardinge Manufacturing Company 
history dates back before that of the original Har- 
dinge Company, Incorporated, in that a partnership, 
known as Bromell-Schmidt and Company, was 
formed about 1886. The charter of the business at 
that time was to manufacture boilers, radiators, 
steam and hot water heating machinery. The Har- 
dinge Manufacturing Company now manufactures 




Large Vertical Boring Mill Section of Machine Shop. 

principally the equipment sold by the parent com- 
pany (Hardinge Company, Inc.); also special ma- 
chinery according to designs furnished by other 
concerns desiring special work done. It has a large 
and small machine shop, a machine plate shop, as 
well as iron foundry and pattern shop, equipped 
principally to fabricate and assemble heavy machin- 
ery or parts and subassemblies. 

The Hardinge Company, Inc., principal products 
are pulverizing and grinding mills for use in the 
recovery of metals from their ores, also for the 
manufacture of cement and in various industrial 
and chemical processes. Ruggles-Coles Dryers, Kilns 
and Coolers are also used in the same industries. A 
line of equipment for the treating of pulp and paper, 
sewage, water treatment and liquids in chemical 



and metallurgical processes has been developed 
and finds extensive use throughout the world. Along 
with this equipment are smaller items, such as 




Plate Shop and Erection Bay. 

weighing feeders, density control devices and elec- 
tronic controls for use with the equipment sold. 
The company branches are located in New York 




Gray and Alloy Iron Foundry. 

City, Chicago, San Francisco and Toronto, with 
agencies and licensees throughout the principal 
countries of the world. 




Main Office and Works. 



154 



HOME FURNITURE COMPANY 

Furniture 



On May 16, 1898, a group of employees of the 
Weaver Piano Company associated themselves in 
a common partnership known as the Home Furni- 
ture Company, York, Pa. 

They leased, with an option to purchase, a small 
one-story frame building, 48' x 116', known as the 
William Hose Planing Mill, located at the southwest 
corner of East King Street and the Maryland & Penn- 
sylvania Railroad. 

This small building was equipped with second- 
hand woodworking machinery. Water for the boilers 
was pumped from the nearby Poor House Run. A 
small adjoining building was converted into a dry 
kiln. The plant started operating July 15, 1898, being 
one of the pioneer furniture factories in this area. 
From this modest beginning the plant expanded 
slowly. 

The original plant was gradually replaced with 
modern brick buildings, with additions being built 
from time to time until by 1919 the plant covered an 
area of over four acres of floor space, with a ca- 
pacity of over $1,000,000 annual production. 

In April, 1911, the company was incorporated with 
an authorized capital of $125,000. In 1923, the capi- 
talization was increased to $500,000. In 1934, the 
company lost by death one of its incorporators, E. M. 



Manger, who was followed, in 1938, by D. W. Ger- 
ber, leaving J. L. Gerber the only remaining member 
of the incorporators. 

The early product consisted of oak sideboards 
and bedroom pieces chiefly. This was followed by 
period dining room furniture until about 1928, when 
a change was made to bedroom furniture and radio 
cabinets. Later on, modern furniture becoming in- 
creasingly popular, the line was gradually changed 
until the entire output consisted of modern bedroom 
suites. 

J. L. Gerber served as a director of the National 
Association of Furniture Manufacturers for a num- 
ber of years, and was elected vice-president for the 
term of 1932-1933, and as president of the associ- 
ation for the term of 1933-1934. 

In September, 1944, all the shares of the Home 
Furniture Company were purchased by International 
Furniture, Incorporated, a holding corporation which 
controls: Thonet Brothers, Inc., New York, N. Y.; 
American Chair Company, Sheboygan, Wis.; and 
North Carolina Furniture, Inc., Statesville, N. C. 

The present equipment of the plant will permit an 
expansion of business in the post-war period which 
would provide employment for 300 to 400. 



HOWE'S DAIRY 

Laboratory Controlled Pasteurized Milk and Cream 



It was in the year 1926, on May 3rd, that Howe's 
Dairy started its business career by the purchase of 
one small milk route by Walter C. Howe, present 
owner. By the means of this one truck the people of 
York City and County learned to know the name of 
Howe's and the quality and services it stands for. 
The business increased and a second truck was 
added and a deliveryman hired, Elmer K. Hartman, 
who is still in Howe's employ. 

On July 1, 1930, the present site at 907 Roosevelt 
Avenue was purchased and from this time on milk 
was received from the farmers and processed and 
bottled at this plant. Within the next two years the 
business increased to such an extent that a larger 
plant was needed and on October 15, 1932, the 
present dairy plant was erected. 

In June 1, 1935, Russell Howe, a son of Walter C. 
Howe, graduated from Pennsylvania State College 
with the B.S. degree in Dairy Manufacturing and 
entered the business as plant superintendent. He 
also does all testing and farm inspecting. 

The building for the Ice Cream Division was 
started on October 25, 1940, and was an addition to 
the original building. At this time the original build- 
ing was changed from a one to a two-story building. 

A new and most scientific feature was added on 
January 1, 1941, by the use of Sealon Hoods for the 
improved sanitary bottling of milk. 

On March 28, 1941, a new addition for the Ice 
Cream Division was completed and the manufacture 
and selling of Howe's Superior Ice Cream from a 



new and modern bar was introduced to the public. 

On April 1, 1945, the newest and most attractive 
feature was added. Howe's Dairy became the first 
dealer in the eastern part of Pennsylvania to use the 
new T-Square Milk Bottles. The attractive feature of 
the new bottle is that the T-Square Bottle saves 
space from the point of delivery to storage in the 
home refrigerator. They are easier to handle and 
pour and make a very neat package. They save from 
35 to 40% space in the refrigerators in the home, 
store and restaurant. 

The Dairy is now laboratory controlled and re- 
quires the use of fourteen trucks for the handling 
and delivery of milk. 




155 



HESPENHEIDE AND THOMPSON, INC 

Premier Feeds for Poultry, Cattle, Hogs, horses and Dogs 



The partnership of Hespenheide and Thompson 
was formed on April 11, 1921, by Fred A. Hespen- 
heide and J. Frank Thompson for the purpose of 
manufacturing and distributing feedstuffs. 

Starting with a production of several tons daily, 
there has been a steady increase over the years in 
both capacity and production so that the present 
output is hundreds of tons every twenty-four hours. 

In January, of 1936, the partnership was dissolved 
and the corporation of Hespenheide and Thompson, 



Inc., was formed. 

During the war, the entire effort of the organiza- 
tion has been to produce feeds to increase the sup- 
ply of meat, milk, poultry and eggs to feed the Allied 
Nations. 

Premier Feeds, manufactured and distributed by 
the company, are sold in eastern Pennsylvania, New 
Jersey, Maryland, Delaware, Virginia and part of 
New York. 




HOME INSULATION CO. OF CENTRAL PENNSYLVANIA 

Johns-Manville Rock Wool Home Insulation 



Until about twenty years ago, the scientific insu- 
lation of homes was practically unknown. 

During the last decade, however, home insulation 
has become an exact science. Johns-Manville, for 
more than eighty years the leader in the field of in- 
dustrial insulations, has perfected a method of in- 
sulating homes that has completely changed old 
standards of living comfort. Regardless of age or 
type, whether clapboard, brick veneer, stucco or 
shingled, a home can be made a far more comfort- 
able and economical place in which to live. 

George C. Ruby, local industrial engineer, founded 
his own business and began to represent the Johns- 



Manville Company in 1922. Seven years later he 
obtained a franchise to distribute their home insu- 
lation products in Central Pennsylvania. Since that 
time, the business has operated under the name of 
Home Insulation Company of Central Pennsylvania. 
George H. Wilt joined this organization in 1924 and 
for the past thirteen years has been general man- 
ager of the company. 

This company now has branch offices in Harris- 
burg, Lancaster, and Hanover. It is the second oldest 
distributor of Rock Wool Home Insulation in the coun- 
try, and has a staff of twenty-seven trained personnel 
who distribute and install the company's products. 



156 



D. E. HORN & COMPANY 

Poultry, Dairy and Stock Feeds 



Crost" hybrid seed corns, etc., and handle a com- 
plete line of coal and building supplies. 



The partnership of David E. Horn and Ernest O. 
Horn was founded in 1918, when the two brothers 
purchased the business of William F. Loucks, feed 
merchant, located at Philadelphia Street and Roose- 
velt Avenue, in York. 

The business was operated at this location until 
May, 1935, when the modern feed manufacturing 
plant now operated by the company was erected at 
Lincoln and West Streets. 

D. E. Horn and Company manufacture and dis- 
tribute "Diamond" poultry, dairy and stock feeds. 
They also distribute "Dr. Salsbury" poultry health 
products, "Buckeye" poultry supplies, "Hoosier- 

INDUSTRIAL NATIONAL BANK OF WEST YORK 

Founded 1907 




The Industrial National Bank of West York is a 
member of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corpora- 
tion. Its Statement of Condition, January 1, 1945, 
was: Capital, $125,000; Surplus, Profits and Reserves, 
$219,393; Deposits, $4,046,792; Resources, $4,394,935. 



The Industrial National Bank of West York has a 
record of thirty-eight years of continuous growth and 
service. It was founded during the midst of the "1907 
Panic" by several leading citizens in the Borough 
of West York. The original capital was $50,000. 

During the succeeding years this young banking 
institution enjoyed rapid growth. By 1910, its re- 
sources had increased to $200,000. Thirteen years 
later, its resources reached $1,100,000. In 1925, the 
present modern banking house was erected on the 
corner of West Market Street and Highland Avenue. 

Today, the facilities of the Industrial National Bank 
of West York include complete saving, loan, trust, 
and checking account departments for the conve- 
nience of its many depositors. It is an active influ- 
ence in civic, industrial and commercial enterprises, 
and has rendered valuable administrative assistance 
in the development and growth of many West York 
projects. 

Officers of the Industrial National Bank of West 
York include: Harry C. Stitt, president; Clarence 
Green, vice-president; Walter M. Senft, cashier, and 
Charles E. Joseph, assistant cashier. 

Members of the bank's Board of Directors include: 
Jacob G. Aldinger, S. W. Harbold, Henry R. Dodson, 
Robert L. Myers, Harry C. Stitt, Clarence Green, 
Allen C. Wiest, Ervin M. Spongier and Richard E. 
Kopp. 

J. G. KUESTER & ASSOCIATES-ADVERTISING AGENCY 

Members: National Advertising Agency Network 




Founded in 1940 by J. G. Kuester, of York, Pa., to 
provide the manufacturers of York County and vi- 
cinity with expert advertising counsel, this organiza- 
tion has grown in five years from a small operation 
to a departmentalized agency fully equipped with 
all facilities for planning and preparing both indus- 
trial and consumer advertising and merchandizing 
campaigns. 

Through membership in the National Advertising 
Agency Network the agency offers to clients an ex- 
ceptional talent pool of over 100 advertising spe- 
cialists who serve more than 740 clients in diversified 
industries, as well as on-the-spot services of twenty- 



seven affiliated offices strategically located through- 
out the country. 

The Kuester Agency's client roster in York County 
includes: A. B. Farquhar Company; York Safe and 
Lock Company; Read Machinery Co., Inc.; York- 
Hoover Corporation; Alloy Rods Co.; P. H. Glatfelter 
Co.; McGann Manufacturing Company; Hanover 
Wire Cloth Co.; and others. Special assignments 
have been handled for many clients, including 
Army-Navy "E" award ceremonies, Welfare Drive 
publicity, Manufacturers' Association publicity, and 
the preparation of this book . . . THE STORY OF A 
DYNAMIC COMMUNITY. 



157 



INTERNATIONAL CHAIN & MFG. CO. 

Manufacturers of Welded Chain Weldless Chain Tire Chains 



The International Chain & Mfg. Co. succeeded the 
Victory Chain and Mfg. Co., which was founded in 
1919 by a group of twenty-five men as a cooperative 
venture. Most of these men were actually chain 
makers who worked at their trade in the small "L" 
shaped frame structure at the corner of Norway and 
Elm Streets. They manufactured fire welded chain 
only, on about twenty forges, with a capacity of 
approximately 18,000 pounds per week. 

In 1922, because of financial difficulties, sole own- 
ership of the Victory Chain and Mfg. Co. passed to 
George J. Campbell, of Philadelphia, who had been 
its sales agent, and associated with the chain indus- 
try for twenty years. The name was changed to the 
present one and George J. Campbell conducted the 
business from his office in Philadelphia and so ag- 
gressively that the company prospered from the 
beginning. 

The growth was steady and rapid as evidenced 
by the fact that whereas the number of employees 
in 1922 was about twenty-five, by 1940 it had in- 
creased to 175, and in the war year of 1944 to 320. 
This latter figure indicates the essentiality of the 
company's products for wartime purposes and for 
excellence in increasing and maintaining produc- 
tion the company was rewarded with the Army- 
Navy "E" pennant. 

The average production per employee increased 
considerably during these years because of the con- 
stant addition and development of equipment for ; 
electric welding of chain. The variety of items was 
gradually expanded so that now the company has 
a well-rounded line serving the automotive, indus- 
trial, commercial and agricultural fields with both 
welded and weldless patterns from a light dog lead 
to a heavy Anchor Chain. 



The company experienced two disastrous fires in 
1926 and 1937, which completely destroyed the fac- 
tory buildings. Each fire presented an opportunity 
to increase the floor area and rearrange the equip- 
ment for greater efficiency, and production was fur- 
ther increased by the acquisition of property on the 
north side of the M. & P. Railroad in 1940, where the 
fire welding facilities were transferred and expanded. 




1922 



From a somewhat localized industry in 1922, sales 
have spread to all forty-eight States and several for- 
eign countries although export business, as yet, has 
not been actively cultivated. This development ne- 
cessitated closer coordination with the factory; so 
the office was moved to York in 1931. 

Management of the company rested principally 
with George J. Campbell until his death in 1941, at 
which time it passed on to his three sons, George J. 
Campbell, Jr., who started in 1926; Melvin H. Camp- 
bell in 1931, and Howard D. Campbell in 1934. Too 
much credit cannot be given to the founder whose 
business acumen and untiring energies developed 
a small wavering enterprise into an organization of 
sizable importance in the chain industry. 




1945 



158 



KEYSTONE COLOR WORKS, INC 

Wallpaper and Surface Coating Pulp Colors 

Founded on April 29, 1919, by Daniel F. Lafean 
and John S. McCoy, the Keystone Color Works, Inc., 
manufactured wallpaper colors and mica. Later, the 
production of mica was discontinued, and the manu- 
facture of paint became a large factor in the busi- 
ness. In June, 1935, the paint department was closed 
and the manufacture of wallpaper colors became 
the major business of the company. 

On March 16, 1936, the company was reorganized 
and the new officers include: H. E. Bruce, president 
and general manager; W. E. Baab, vice-president; 
H. R. Euler, the principal shareholder, secretary and 
treasurer; and E. H. Senft, C.P.A., assistant secretary. 
Under the new management the company special- 
izes in the manufacture of chemical pigment colors 
for the wallpaper and surface coating industries, 
and its capacity has more than doubled. 

During the war quite a sizable tonnage of chem- 
ical colors was made for the Navy, the Maritime 
Commission and Lend-Lease. 

The business is national, and chemical pigment 
colors are sold to most of the wallpaper factories in 
the United States. Special colors are also sold to 
industries in South American countries. 

KLINE-MEYERS MANUFACTURING COMPANY 




Shirts 



Three hundred dozen shirts per day is the normal 
production of the Kline-Meyers Manufacturing Com- 
pany, founded in 1933, by C. E. and D. J. Klinedinst, 
as a contract sewing business, doing stitching work 
for clothing manufacturers. 

The succeeding twelve years show a marked im- 
provement in the manufacturing and distribution 
facilities of the business through continuous expan- 
sion, installation of modern machinery and increased 
outlets for its products. Today, the company manu- 



factures work and flannel shirts and woven sports- 
wear. Products are distributed through retail, chain 
and department stores to all parts of the nation. 
The company normally employs approximately two 
hundred personnel. 

During the past two and one-half years the Kline- 
Meyers Manufacturing Company has produced a 
substantial number of O. D. shirts for the Army and 
has had continuous contracts with the Navy Bureau 
of Supply and Accounts. 




159 



KEYSTONE ROOFING MANUFACTURING COMPANY 

Roofing Products 



The Keystone Roofing Manufacturing Company 
was incorporated and began operations August, 
1908. The equipment consisted of one roofing ma- 
chine and one waterproof machine. The total floor 
area comprised 9,000 sq. ft., and the output of the 
mill was twelve tons daily. 

Today, the floor area amounts to 155,000 sq. ft., 
and with three roofing machines and two water- 
proof machines, the productive capacity has been 
increased to 500 tons daily. In addition, facilities for 
rewinding, slitting, and sheeting are available. From 
an initial enterprise of three small buildings, the 
plant has been increased to eight large buildings, 
which house the roofing and waterproofing ma- 
chines, warehouse and shipping departments, boiler 
plant, paint department, superheating department, 
saturation and coating stills. 

It has always been the policy of the Company to 
avail itself of the most modern and efficient equip- 
ment. Keeping pace with increased capacity of the 
mill, were superheating systems, oxidizing systems 
and hot oil processes which guarantees the manu- 
facture of merchandise of highest quality. By the 
addition of these facilities, the plant has an asphalt 
storage capacity of over 600,000 gallons. 

The Company contributed substantially toward 
Victory in the first World War and is doing an even 
bigger job today. In the recent war over 500,000,000 
sq. ft. of waterproof papers were produced for the re- 
quirements of the Armed Forces; waterproof paper 
for the protection of overseas shipments, shell and 



cartridge containers, large and small calibre guns, 
waterproof and vermin proof tarpaulins, and many 
other important items. 

The Company has pioneered in the manufacture 
of asphalt-treated specialties. It developed a flame- 
proof paper, which had great use in the late war. 
It was one of the first companies to produce a metal 
or foil-backed waterproof paper, cork-backed insu- 
lation roofings and papers for use in subways, cold 
storage plants and refrigerated railroad cars. It ini- 
tiated the production of multi-colored shingles which 
have had wide acceptance; also manufactured roof- 
ing covered with aluminum coated granules and 
aluminum plating and asphalt bricks used in street 
paving. 

The Company today manufactures a complete line 
of shingles, roll roofings, felt-base strip and roll brick 
sidings, saturated felts, also asbestos sidings; asphalt 
paints, plastic cements, asbestos roof coatings, quick 
binding cements, hard asphalts; sheathing and build- 
ing papers, insulating papers, dry and coated dead- 
ening felts; concrete road joint materials, car linings, 
industrial sound deadening and friction reducing 
materials, floor coverings; infused and saturated 
papers, oiled papers, ammunition and shell contain- 
ers, tire wraps, case liners, automobile covers, mulch 
paper; duplexed and triplexed papers. 

The Company is now under the direction of Joseph 
A. Feely, president; Stephen A. Feely, vice-president; 
Raymond F. Stouch, secretary and treasurer; and 
Charles B. Fry, technologist. 




160 



C. C. KOTTCAMP & SON 

Plumbing and Heating 



In 1865, following the war between the States, a 
Yorker by the name of Christian Charles Kottcamp 
returned home. He carried with him a discharge 
from the army, back pay which had accumulated 
and bounty money which included substitute fees. 

The young man, who was an experienced tin- 
smith, decided to go into business. Starting a small 
establishment in the 100 block on North George 
Street during the Summer of 1866, he exerted his 
full effort toward a successful future. 

In those days tinware was almost exclusively 
used for cooking utensils and this, together with tin 
roofing and spouting, became a large part of the 
business. 

In order to obtain a larger volume of country trade, 
this shop was moved to Dover in 1872. After remain- 
ing there for seven years, Mr. Kottcamp returned to 
York and located at the intersection of what is now 
Belvidere Avenue and Market Street. At this time, 
slate roofing was added as a separate department 
of the business. 

Five years later, in 1884, the business was moved 
to the present location at 515 West Market Street. 
At this place the basement was used for the business 
and the remainder of the house as a residence. The 
ensuing five years were busy ones for the Kottcamp 
establishment as a sharp business increase forced 
him to convert the entire property into a workshop 
in 1889. 

Realizing that plumbing and heating were allied 
trades which should be added to the ever-expanding 




II II 

Shop of C. C. Kottcamp & Son in 1884. 



business, Mr. Kottcamp in 1895 sent his son, Harry, 
to New York, to pursue a course in technical and 
practical work at the New York School of Plumbing 
and Sanitation. In 1901, young Kottcamp returned 
to York to prove his mettle in regards to his father's 









IB! HI 





The C. C. Kottcamp & Son Building Today. 

business. Displaying keen aptitude for this line of 
work, he was made a member of the firm and the 
name was changed to C. C. Kottcamp and Son. 

The development of the arts in sheet metal, plumb- 
ing and heating was very rapid at that time. Always 
alert, this firm kept abreast of the times with the re- 
sult that growth was steady and consistent. 

The senior member of the firm, many years older 
in age and experience than the ex-soldier who, fifty- 
nine years before, had originated the company, died 
in the early part of 1925. The ownership and entire 
responsibility of the operation of the concern fell 
upon the shoulders of able Harry E. Kottcamp. Under 
his management a very efficient organization was 
built and, after seventy-nine years of continuous 
activity, this concern is one of York's outstanding 
firms in its accomplishments. 

The sheet metal shop is the best equipped in south- 
eastern Pennsylvania specializing in custom-built 
work made from aluminum, brass, bronze, copper, 
black iron, lead, monel metal, galvanized steel, terne 
plate, tin and zinc. The engineering department and 
skilled mechanics are constantly producing archi- 
tectural and industrial requirements for use in all 
parts of the East. 



LaMOTTE & BOND 



Insurance Brokers 



LaMotte and Bond were first organized in 1915 as 
an agency representing fire and casualty compa- 
nies, soliciting local business, with an office at 8 East 
Market treet. Later, the agency qualified as insur- 
ance brokers for placing business with other com- 
panies. At about the same time, arrangements were 
made for insuring properties and merchandise lo- 
cated anywhere in the United States. 

In World War I, Urban S. Bond served with 
the 404th Aerial Repair Squadron, U. S. Military 
Aeronautics. 

In 1939, Fred F. Glatfelter was added to the staff 
as a direct representative of the firm. Since Decem- 



ber, 1942, he has been on active service as a Lieu- 
tenant in the United States Naval Reserve. 

As of June 1, 1944, the interest of Benjamin B. La- 
Motte in the firm was purchased by Urban S. Bond, 
who is continuing the business under the same firm 
name. Mr. LaMotte has retained his license as a 
Broker with the office and as such continues his ac- 
tivity in the insurance business. 

Companies are represented and facilities are 
available for the placing of insurance covers on all 
forms of fire, marine, casualty, and surety bond risks 
regardless of their location. 



L LAVETAN & SONS 

Scrap Metals, Etc. 



Salvage of waste metals and other materials with 
a re-use value has always been an important busi- 
ness. During the emergency of World War II patri- 
otic salvage drives served to impress the man in the 
street with the essentiality of an activity he may 
have underestimated. 

As early as 1897, when this business was founded 
by Louis Lavetan, the stage was set for a scrap metal 
industry in York. Metal working and fabrication has 
always shared a large part of York's industrial oc- 
cupation, from the early days when the German 
settlers manufactured their famous grandfather 
clocks and Pennsylvania rifles. 

Originally located at 13 South Newberry Street, 
the business was moved in 1911 to the present ware- 
house and office at 246-256 West King Street, grow- 
ing steadily until 1918 when a partnership was 
formed under its present title and the ownership of 
Mr. Lavetan and his five sons. 

The company also operates a large storage and 
processing yard at Kings' Mill Road and Grantley 
Road, a location convenient to many of the indus- 



tries that supply metallic and other scrap while 
avoiding the central congestion of the city. 

Here are available many modern machines for 
handling, sorting and preparing scrap iron and steel. 
Large cranes pile and sort heavy metal scrap, while 
power shears and acetylene torches are used for 
further preparation. Huge hydraulic power presses 
are capable of compressing light sheet scrap of every 
description into bales of chargeable size for ship- 
ment to the steel mills whose furnaces they supply. 
All kinds of ferrous and non-ferrous metals, as well 
as waste paper, rags, etc., are collected, graded, 
sorted and prepared for re-use at the various yards 
and plants of the company. 

The history of this business is typical inasmuch as 
its growth and usefulness coincide with progress 
from crude backbreaking methods to the use of mod- 
ern machinery. Normally employing from forty to 
fifty men, L. Lavetan and Sons has cooperated fully 
with the armed services during the recent emergency 
and will continue to play a major part in the salvage 
of essential materials in the York area. 



LEHMAYER'S 

Men's and Boys' Wear, Young Moderns' (Ladies') Shop 



Back in the old days when candles and Conestoga 
wagons were still being used and beaver hats, tail- 
coats and checked pantaloons were worn, Nathan 
Lehmayer opened his first store in York, Pennsyl- 
vania. The year was 1847. ^ 

For ninety-eight years the principles of honest 
dealing and value giving laid down by the founder 
have been successfully carried on by his three sons, 
Martin, Louis and William, and their successors, 
Nathan W. Lehmayer and Regina L. Klaw, grand- 
children of the founder, and present owners of the 
business. 



This privately owned men's and boys' clothing es- 
tablishment has enjoyed continuous progress since 
its inception. Its growth coincides with the needs and 
development of the community, the rapidly changing 
trends in the clothing industry, and the merchandis- 
ing foresight of its founder. 

On September 31, 1945, Lehmayer's moved into a 
new and larger establishment at 44 North George 
Street, next to the Strand Theatre. With the opening 
of this new and up-to-date store in York, Lehmayer's 
added a smart, new third floor devoted entirely to 
immediate-wear for ladies. 



When Samuel Adams was a delegate to Conti- 
nental Congress in York he wrote back to his wife, 
Abigail, in Boston, that although he was homesick 
and lonesome for his family, he liked the excellent 
pastries baked by the good cooks of York. This tra- 
dition of good pastry-making is carried on today by 
York bakeries such as Long's Bakery, at 367 West 
Rose Avenue, which specializes in the baking of 
pies, cakes and cookies. Long's products are sold 
wholesale to groceries and to supply the cafeterias 
in industrial plants. 



LONG'S BAKERY 

Wholesale Baking, Pies, Cakes and Cookies 

The best ingredients are used, many of them are 
obtained locally, such as York County flour and 
fresh fruit in season. 

The former owners, who established the business 
as the Eagle Bakery in 1930, sold out to Long's 
in October, 1937. It has developed to the extent 
that fourteen persons are now employed. At least 
90% of the products are consumed by workers 
and their families through plant cafeterias and 
grocery stores. 



McFALL'S 

Exclusive Men's Shop 



When sonny wanted a bicycle, back in 1880, 
strangely enough papa took him to McFall's, which 
was then situated on West Market Street where the 
old Y. M. C. A. once stood. When the bass were bit- 
ing in the Susquehanna, fishermen went to McFall's 
for rod and reel. A thriving trade in baseballs and 
bats was done long before golf clubs and skiis be- 
came national playthings. 

Founded in 1867, under the name of Lamb and 
McFall, the store featured a sports goods depart- 
ment which flourished for many years until a larger 
trade was done in men's custom-made clothes. In 
early times only specially ordered men's clothes 
were sold, along with hats, which were one of 
McFall's specialties. They were made by the York 
Hat Manufacturing Company, which was situated 
where the Christ Lutheran Sunday School Building 
now stands. A large business in locally made hats 
was done by McFall's until "stiff" hats went out of 
style to be replaced by soft ones. Besides the York- 
made hats, McFall's sold Stetson and Dobbs' hats, 
being one of the first stores in York to carry those 
lines. 

The hat and bicycle business flourished in 1890, 
when the business was owned by John T. McFall. 
Even in this day it is probable that the brightly col- 



ored Dobbs' hat boxes added a note of color on the 
McFall shelves as they do today. 

In 1892, Wayne G. McFall was taken into the busi- 
ness with his father. A few years later McFall's 
custom-made shirts were worn by every well-dressed 
man in town. 

After fifty-one years of business, McFall's finally 
put in a stock of custom-made men's clothes. By this 
time sonny and papa were going elsewhere to look 
for bicycles and fishing equipment. By this time 
"stiff" hats had become museum pieces. In 1926, the 
business was acquired by Charles N. Jacobs and 
John H. Trimmer. Upon the death of the former in 
1945, Mr. Trimmer became the sole owner. 

Although McFall's is a men's store, like "Esquire" 
it is also popular with women. A large amount of 
McFall's business is done by women customers, buy- 
ing socks for their husbands and choosing the pro- 
verbial Christmas ties. 

The McFall Shop has always been situated near 
the center of town. Today, it is located at 18 North 
George Street, maintaining the same high quality of 
merchandise that has earned for this establishment 
the enviable reputation of being . . . York's Finest 
Men's Shop. 



PENN TEXTILE CORPORATION 

Manufacturers of Narrow Fabrics 



This firm was incorporated in November, 1939, with 
C. F. Obermaier as president; L. A. Graveline, vice- 
president and manager; and A. E. Uhler, superinten- 
dent; for the manufacture of narrow tapes and web- 
bings. Operations were begun early in 1940, and 
materials for government defense were produced as 
early as May, 1940. Output for the years 1941, 1942, 
1943, 1944 and 1945 has been almost entirely for the 
war effort, cotton tapes and webbings of various de- 
scriptions having been supplied for the Army, Navy, 



Air and Marine Corps. The year 1945, also, is being 
devoted almost exclusively to the production of war 
materials. 

One of the specialized products of this corporation 
is slide fastener tape. The output of this product has 
been curtailed due to the war, but post-war plans 
call for the expansion of this production. Plant equip- 
ment has been increased 100% since 1940. Offices 
in Chicago, Lea & Sachs, 180 N. Wacker Drive. 



163 



MARTIN-PARRY CORPORATION 

Since 1880 



In 1886, Milton D. Martin organized the York 
Spring Wagon Works and began the manufacture 
of light, medium and heavy truck wagons on East 
North Street, the present site of the Maple Press 
Company. Thus began one-half of what is now 
Martin-Parry Corporation. 

Shortly thereafter carriages and carts were added 
to the above line and a building on North George 
Street, present site of the Strand Theatre, was se- 
cured for this purpose. The business had a sensa- 
tional growth, but suffered a severe set-back in 1895 
when fire destroyed the East North Street plant. 
Temporary quarters were secured with the Keystone 




Maritime "M" Award tor War Production. 



Farm Machine Company on North Beaver Street and 
the building of "Martin" vehicles continued. 

The demand for this complete line of horse-drawn 
vehicles had so increased that much larger facilities 
were required. Through the Ebert Real Estate 
Agency, ground for a new plant was purchased in 
Eberton, now West York Borough. The construction 
of the new plant began in November, 1896. It was 
completed in May, 1897. At this time the firm name 
was changed to Martin Carriage Works. In June, 
1900, the firm was incorporated with M. D. Martin, 
president; Peter A. Elsesser, secretary; W. A. Key- 
worth, treasurer the latter still a member of the 
Board of Directors and chairman of the Executive 
Committee of Martin-Parry Corporation. 

The fame of "Martin" carriages and wagons grew 
with the years and the company grew with it. This 
acceptance and growth was not confined to this 
country. Mexico was a substantial market for "Mar- 
tin" wagons, while Argentina and Brazil were large 
users of special built carts. 

On June 3, 1903, the Guardian Trust Company 
opened its doors with Mr. Martin as its president. He 
had been the moving figure in its organization and 
served as its president until his death. 

Ill health forced Mr. Martin's retirement from ac- 
tive participation in business in the latter years of 
his life, and upon his death in 1912, Peter A. Elsesser 
was made president of the Martin Carriage Works 
and the operation of the business was continued by 
the Guardian Trust Company, executors of Mr. Mar- 
tin's estate. By the terms of his will, Mr. Martin set 
aside $125,000 for the building of a library for York. 
The executors of the estate allowed this sum to in- 
crease under the title of The Martin Library Associ- 



ation until it was sufficient for the erection and 
equipping of the modern and beautiful building on 
East Market Street which was opened on November 
4, 1935, and which serves as a constant reminder to 
the citizens of York of M. D. Martin's regard for his 
fellowmen. 

In 1916, John J. Watson, Jr., acquired the Martin 
Carriage Works and became chairman of its Board 
with Fred M. Small as president. The automobile as 
a commercial factor was just being felt. Commercial 
body building was in its infancy. The firm's name 
was accordingly changed to Martin Truck and Body 
Corporation and Mr. Small pioneered the company 
in the construction and national distribution of com- 
mercial automobile bodies. Expansion was rapid. On 
May 26, 1919, the company purchased the Parry 
Manufacturing Company of Indianapolis, Indiana, 
the largest manufacturers of bodies in the West, con- 
solidating it and the Martin Truck and Body Cor- 
poration into Martin-Parry Corporation. 

The immediately succeeding years saw the devel- 
opment of a standardized body where the parts were 
fabricated in the Martin-Parry factories, shipped in 
nested carloads and assembled and mounted at the 
branches. To improve standardization, the corpora- 
tion erected a plant in the southern pine district at 
Lumberton, Mississippi, in 1922. Tops and bases were 
fabricated there and shipped to the branches. In 
1924, it purchased the Oakes Company of Indian- 
apolis, Indiana, for the fabrication of the metal parts 
used in the building of bodies. Thus the corporation 
reached a well-rounded, self-contained industry with 
four factories and forty-five branches. Its largest 
single shipment of commercial bodies went to Japan 




In War Rocket Launchers, the Big Little Gun. 

in 1924, 1,000 bodies shipped two weeks after the 
receipt of the order. 

In March, 1927, the corporation purchased from 
the Industrial National Bank its property at Highland 
Avenue and West Market Street in West York and 
converted it into an Inn. This Inn continues to serve 
the corporation and the public and is well known 
for its foods. 

In 1928, the corporation sold all of its plants ex- 
cept the York plant to General Motors Corporation, 
Chevrolet Division. After a period of miscellaneous 
production, Mr. Small devoted all the energies of his 
organization to the development of Metlwal parti- 



1 A/l 



MARTIN-PARRY CORPORATION 

Since 1880 




In Peace The Rexair Vacuum with Water. 

tions and panelling, now adaptable to all kinds of 
interiors. Some ten years were consumed in this 
work at a cost of over $2,000,000. The company was 
just getting under substantial headway in supply- 
ing Metlwal products for factories, office buildings, 
banks, stores, institutions, schools and residences 
(new and remodeled) when the war broke. In fact, 
it had only two years of this merchandising when 
war requirements intervened. 

However, its engineers adapted these interiors to 
boats and the Government received the full benefit 
of their perfection in the construction of the interiors 
of cargo, tanker and combat vessels, plus troop and 
hospital conversions. The versatility and "on-the-job" 
erection possibilities of the material made it possible 
to convert liners and cargo vessels into troop and 
hospital ships in record time, thus speeding troops 
to action as well as the wounded's return. Over 400 
vessels of all types have to date been equipped for 
the war effort with Martin-Parry Metlwal materials. 

Because of failing health, Mr. Small had to relin- 
quish active management of the company in the lat- 
ter part of 1940. He accordingly worked out with 
F. J. Fisher, oldest of the body-building family, the 
consolidation of Martin-Parry Corporation and Rex- 
air, Inc., of Detroit, of which company Mr. Fisher 
was Board chairman. This consolidation brought the 



manufacture of the Rexair cleaner, a vacuum cleaner 
that uses water instead of a bag, to the York plant. 
It also supplied the management and advisory sup- 
port which Mr. Small sought. T. Russ Hill, president 
of Rexair, Inc., became president and general man- 
ager of Martin-Parry and the Rexair directors moved 
onto the Martin-Parry Board. 

The company then plunged into war work. It per- 
fected the adaptors for the French 75 mm., the En- 
glish and Canadian 18-Pounder, 4.5 Howitzer and 
the English Vickers 6" Howitzer. It converted such 
guns in Great Britain, Canada, New Zealand, Hol- 
land, Dutch East Indies and the United States, thus 
motorizing instantly all such horse-drawn equip- 
ment, a material contribution to the arming effort. 
Tank stacks and adaptors for invasion purposes were 
designed and produced by the corporation as were 
three types of Rocket Launchers so effective in the 
later months of the war. Turret rings for tanks, gun 
mounts, cable locks, gun sights, ammunition boxes, 
Radar cases and many metal fabrications were pro- 
duced for the Army and Navy. Partitions and linings 
for vessels were supplied to the Maritime Commis- 
sion, the Navy and the Army Transport Corps. 

The Maritime "M" for excellence in production 
was awarded to the company in July, 1943. Addi- 
tional stars have been earned each succeeding six 
months. Citations have also been received from Gen- 
erals Campbell and Houseman for the corporation's 
Ordnance achievements. 

The "Martin" part of the corporation has been in 
business for sixty years the "Parry" part for sixty- 
five years. Having been born in the wake of our 
severest war and taken three other wars in stride, 
the corporation knows something about economic 
and social upheavals. It is already turning out com- 
mercial Metlwal products for the new building and 
remodeling era, designing ship interiors for tomor- 
row's liners and for the conversion of all types of 
vessels. The Rexair Cleaner and Conditioner is in 




War and Peace Ship and Building Interiors. 

production, as are the components for prefabricated 
houses. The corporation will maintain its position as 
a leader in its field in a city characterized by the 
stability of its enterprises and its citizens. 



165 



McCRORY'S 

5-10-25-Cent Store 



In February, of 1896, John G. McCrory opened his 
store in York, Pennsylvania, just fourteen years after 
opening his first five-and-ten-cent store in Scottdale, 
Pennsylvania. 

John G. McCrory made his start in the five-and- 
dime business with a total capital of $350, saved 
from his salary as a dry goods clerk plus $200 
which he borrowed, and the deeply rooted convic- 
tion that a store offering merchandise only at two 
price levels, five and ten cents, would attract enough 
customers to make it a paying proposition. 

Within a few years, stores under the McCrory 
banner were retailing dry goods, house furnishing 
sundries and kitchenware in a dozen towns in the 
industrial areas of eastern and central Pennsyl- 
vania. His store in York, Pennsylvania, was one of 
this chain. 



MC-CROREY 
AND CO. 



NOTHING 
OVER 10! 




TT 

Original York Store 

The growth of the City of York has been so phe- 
nomenal that it became necessary to build a brand 
new store in 1941 with five times the counter space 
of the original McCrory 's Store in this city in order 
to properly serve the increased population. 

A decade later, the McCrory chain consisted of 
sixty-nine stores and by 1915, the year the company 
was incorporated under the laws of the State of Del- 
aware, fifty-nine more stores had been added, bring- 
ing the total to one hundred seventeen. By 1921, 
forty years after he had started in business, his chain 
of one hundred fifty-nine branches sold $14,400,000 
worth of merchandise. In 1944, customers spent over 
$71,000,000 in its two hundred two branches. 

McCrory's sales and profits have consistently 
grown, due in a large part to the modernization of 
most of their stores. The management insists upon 
this modernization program as being essential to the 



progress of the company through improved services 
and facilities to the shopping public whose patron- 
age is the foundation of the company's success. 




First Floor, Side Stairway to Basement Salesroom 



XV, , 

rMf feJE 
^4ik ,.3> 




Main Sales Floor 




Present York Store 



166 



THE McKAY COMPANY 

Chain and Arc Welding Electrodes 



Over sixty years ago the James McKay Company 
started the production of chain in Pittsburgh. The 
company grew in size and good will with the trade 
until it had the largest fire welding plant in the 
country. 

A few years later the Hayden-Corbett Chain Com- 
pany was organized in Columbus, Ohio. This com- 
pany expanded until they had two large plants, one 
in Columbus, Ohio, and the other in Huntington, 
West Virginia. 

A little later the National Chain Company was 
formed in Marietta, Ohio, with an organization long 
and favorably known in the chain industry. 

In 1919, these three companies merged, formed 
the United States Chain & Forging Company, build- 
ing at that time, for added production, a new elec- 
tric welding plant at York, Pennsylvania. 

In 1931, the charter was revised, without other 
change in the organization, changing the company 
name to The McKay Company, because so many 
of its specialty products were known by this fine 
old chain name. 

Manufacturers of automobile tire chains, commer- 
cial chains of iron and steel for marine and indus- 
trial purposes and arc welding electrodes of both 
mild and stainless steels, The McKay Company has 
plants now located at McKees Rocks, Pennsylvania, 
and York, Pennsylvania. 



The chain plant at York, Pennsylvania, produces 
steel chains by the electric welding process and for 
the past few years its entire capacity has been con- 
verted to the fabrication of tire and tow chains for 
automobile trucks in heavier than commercial sizes, 
and other chains for Army and Navy requirements. 

Although originally chain manufacturers, the com- 
pany entered the arc-welding electrode field start- 
ing commercial production in 1938 in a new plant 
erected and equipped for that purpose at York, 
Pennsylvania. As the shipbuilding program material- 
ized, the company met the increase in demand for 
electrodes of carbon steel for welding and subse- 
quently, at the request of the Navy, installed facili- 
ties at the McKees Rocks, Pennsylvania, Plant to 
supplement the production of electrodes from the 
York Plant. 

In addition to the well-rounded line of mild steel 
electrodes produced, The McKay Company manu- 
factures a complete line of certified stainless steel 
electrodes, and, through its own laboratory research, 
supplemented by a fellowship maintained at the 
Mellon Institute of Industrial Research, developed 
the famed McKay "Armorloy" electrodes which so 
satisfactorily met the requirements for the welding 
of heavy armor plate used extensively on both Army 
and Navy fighting equipment. 




Aerial View of York Plant. 



167 



M & H PURE FOOD STORES 

Chain Food Stores 



What is now known as the M. & H. Pure Food 
Stores dates back to 1916 when William H. Meisen- 
helter opened up a food store at 29 East Philadel- 
phia Street. He soon was operating four stores in 
various locations. 

In 1922, Horace Hake, H. H. Minnich and Martin 
Miller joined the enterprise then known as the Meis- 
enhelter Stores and in the next three years six more 
stores were opened. 

Mr. Hake and Mr. Minnich became the sole own- 
ers in 1925 and changed the name to the M. & H. 
Pure Food Stores. For the ensuing eighteen years, 
the stores were conducted under this ownership and 
management. 

In 1940, Mr. Minnich withdrew from the firm and 
Mr. Hake is now the sole owner and proprietor. 

Mr. Hake's ancestral background fits into his pres- 
ent vocation. His forebears were all engaged in the 
processing of food and food products. In fact the 
family coat-of-arms of English origin is even sym- 
bolic of food three fish the "Hake Fish." His more 
immediate ancestors were flour millers and later 
wholesalers and retailers of food products. 

Since food is so closely related to agriculture, Mr. 
Hake has always had a keen interest in farming. 
He managed his father's farm in lower York County 



in his late teens and worked had in developing bet- 
ter strains of farm animals, fruits and vegetables. 
This naturally led him into organization work, such 
as the Grange, farmer institutes and related Farm 
Bureau work. 

He was active in organizing the Red Lion Farmers' 
Exchange which at one time was one of the most 
active and largest in the East. 

Mr. Hake operates his ten stores on an interesting 
and unique principle. Each manager is virtually the 
proprietor of his store. His income is based upon the 
business he is able to develop and thus shares in 
any increase for which he may be responsible. 




MOLYBDENUM CORPORATION OF AMERICA 

Chemical and Metallurgical Products of Tungsten and Molybdenum 



The Molybdenum Corporation of America is one 
of the largest manufacturers in the United States of 
the chemical and metallurgical products of Tungsten, 
Molybdenum and Boron. 

The local plant was founded and operated under 
the name of York Ferro Alloy Company, later 
changed to the York Metal & Alloys Company, and 
in 1930 became a unit of the Molybdenum Corpora- 
tion of America. 

The York Plant is fully equipped for the refining of 
Tungsten, Molybdenum and Boron ores, producing 
Ferro Tungsten, Tungsten Metal Powder, Tungsten 
Carbide, Calcium Tungstate, Sodium Tungstate, Am- 
monium Tungstate, Tungstic Oxide, Tungstic Acid; 
Ferro Molybdenum, Molybdenum Metal Powder, 
Molybdenum Carbide, Calcium Molybdate, Sodium 
Molybdate, Ammonium Molybdate, Molybdic Oxide, 
and Molybdic Acid; Ferro Boron, Calcium Boride, 
and Manganese-Silicon-Boride. 

Through chemical and metallurgical research, this 
company has been responsible for supplying to the 
steel industry, alloys, metal powders, and carbides 
of Tungsten and Molybdenum, to be used in the 



production of alloy and special steels for world 
consumption. 

Sodium Tungstate and Sodium Molybdate, the 
chemical salts of Tungsten and Molybdenum, have 
been directly responsible for the rapid progress in 
the textile, ink, paint, and rubber industries. 

This company has played an outstanding part in 
the World War II program, 97% of the total produc- 
tion going into the war effort. 




Smelting Tungsten Ore 



1 Aft 



McGANN MANUFACTURING CO., INC 

Special Machinery 



The McGann Manufacturing Co., Inc., a Penn- 
sylvania corporation, was founded in 1922. It was 
organized for the manufacture of chemical equip- 
ment, dryers, hydrators, sugar machinery, dam and 
lock gates, and various kinds of heavy special 
machinery. Among the peacetime products of the 
company are condensers, tanks, boilers and special 
machinery designed and produced for several na- 
tionally and internationally known design and erec- 
tion companies. 

Early in 1940, Clyde H. Smith became associated 
with the company, acquiring a substantial interest 
at that time. In 1945, he acquired all other outstand- 
ing stock and is now sole owner and operator of the 
company. 

Plant Facilities 

The company buildings are situated on grounds 
bounded by Richland Avenue and King's Mill Road 
of approximately ten and three-quarters acres. The 
entire area is enclosed by six-foot Anchor fence. The 
grounds, exclusive of building sites, are used for 
both employee parking and material storage, and 
seasonally, for plate shop fabrication work. 

The main building contains the administrative of- 
fices, foundry, machine shop, boiler shop and as- 
sembly departments. 

Other smaller buildings include one containing 
the pattern shop and receiving, stores and shipping; 
another, pattern storage; another, engineering of- 
fices; another, the heating and steam plant, and 
others for storage of various materials. 

The entire building area, exclusive of administra- 
tive and engineering office space, is approximately 
54,000 square feet. 

The buildings are in the main of wood or steel re- 
inforced, frame construction. All are steam heated 
with Modine blower units throughout, excepting the 
administrative offices. 

The shipping facilities available to the company 
are several motor express companies and Pennsyl- 
vania, Western Maryland and Maryland & Pennsyl- 
vania Railroads. The company owns a spur con- 
nected with the Pennsylvania Railroad siding. A 
switch spur enters the shops. 

Technical Facilities 

The experience and background of the company, 
its management and engineering department is one 
of many years of experimental, development and 
production engineering work on special machinery 
and equipment. They have designed and produced 
such products as lime plants and hydrators, L. S. T. 
ship box sections, sugar machinery, buoys, traveling 
cranes, gantry cranes, floating dock cranes, projec- 
tiles, steam and electric cargo winches and other 
hoisting equipment, and many other types of special 
machinery and equipment. 

Coupled with experimental and development en- 
gineering work on these products, the company has 
gathered together over the period of the last twenty 
years an organization of shop supervision, mechan- 
ics, foundrymen, plate fabricators and assemblymen 
who have had a broad experience in the production 
of many additional items of manufacture. 

The Engineering Department consists of a highly 
skilled and versatile mechanical engineer who is 



assisted by two designer-draftsmen. In addition, the 
company employs the necessary draftsmen to round 
out an engineering unit capable of carrying out such 
design and development work as may arise. The 
chief engineer is fully acquainted with company's 
products and has had a wide experience in the me- 
chanical field involving other machinery and equip- 
ment not produced by this company. 

Foundry Facilities 

The floor area of the foundry, including the pat- 
tern shop, pattern storage, core room and core ovens, 
is approximately 12,000 square feet. 

The molding floor is serviced by two overhead 
traveling cranes. At present, there are two cupolas 
of eight and two-ton capacity, respectively. 

The floor space and equipment provides for 
approximately sixty employees, including thirty 
molders. 

In addition, the company maintains a pattern 
shop, including able wood pattern-makers who have 
been in its employ for several years. The facilities 
and equipment available in this department provide 
for from twelve to twenty pattern-makers. 

This department has been in production through- 
out the company's program of steam winch manu- 
facture, which began in the latter part of 1941. Prior to 
that time this department did grey iron casting work 
for customer companies and for company products. 

Plafe Shop Facilities 

The floor area of the plate shop, including the area 
at present used for electric winch assembly, is ap- 
proximately 18,500 square feet. 

This area is serviced by a fifteen-ton overhead 
traveling crane. In addition, several one and one- 
half ton budget hoists and other heavier hoisting 
equipment are located over and about such equip- 
ment as requires these facilities. 

The floor space and equipment provides for ap- 
proximately two hundred plate fabricators, welders 
and the like. 

This department has been in production through- 
out the company's life manufacturing such products 
as lime plants and hydrators, gantry cranes, floating 
dock cranes, traveling cranes, buoys and L. S. T. 
ship box sections. 

War Record 

In 1941, the company was called into the War Pro- 
duction Program by the U. S. Maritime Commission 
and was given an assignment to manufacture 7' x 12' 
steam cargo winches for the Liberty ships. At the 
end of the present contracts the company will have 
shipped approximately 2,600 of these winches, 
enough to outfit approximately 325 ships. 

In early 1944, the company did plate shop fabri- 
cation for the Army and Navy, including floating 
dock cranes and L. S. T. ship box sections. This was 
subcontracted work. 

In early 1944, the company also took on prime 
contract work with the U. S. Army for projectiles. 

In the latter part of 1944, the U. S. Maritime Com- 
mission called upon McGann for additional work in 
their shipping program for the manufacture of elec- 
tric winches. This program required a production of 
approximately 400 winches to outfit twenty-five ships. 



169 



THE MEDUSA PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY 



Cement 



Few people, perhaps even those living in York, 
Pennsylvania, know that the world's first White 
Portland Cement was produced in York. . . . How it 
came about makes an interesting story. 

Back in the years preceding 1907, the officials of 
Medusa Portland Cement Company were intrigued 
with the idea of producing a White Portland Cement. 
. . . They knew that the possibilities for the use of 
such a cement were unlimited. . . . They believed 
that if materials for a white cement could be found, 
the cement would be unexcelled for the making of 
terrazzo and stucco. The problem was to find a 
white limestone near white clay and high-grade 
coal. After a geological search, this combination was 
found near York, and in 1907, the York Plant was 
built for the production of the world's first White 
Portland Cement. 

Since this was the first White Portland Cement, 
Medusa executives found it necessary to develop 
new processes for the manufacture of this product. 
This gave the York Plant another "first" in cement 
making, in that it's believed to be the original 
straight-line production cement plant. 

After this mill was in operation for a number of 
years, it was found that a considerable percentage 
of the raw materials were unsuited in color to make 
white cement, but could be used for producing an 
excellent quality gray cement. Therefore, in 1927, 



the York Gray Portland Cement Plant was erected. 
This is the story back of the two Medusa cement 
plants, one manufacturing White Portland Cement, 
the other Gray Portland Cement. 

Perhaps an equally interesting story is how these 
cements came to bear the name Medusa. ... It so 
happened that among the founders of the Medusa 
Portland Cement Company were two men instructors 
or professors in geology in leading universities. In 
the search for the name for Portland Cement, these 
men were reminded of the story of Medusa, the 
fabled woman of Greek mythology, whose hair had 
been changed into hissing serpents because she 
dared to vie in beauty with Minerva. She became 
a monster so frightful that no living thing could be- 
hold her without being turned into stone. Since 
Medusa turned living things into stone, her name 
was selected to symbolize the modern magic by 
which Portland Cement creates edifices and engi- 
neering works as solid as native rock. We believe 
that few products are so significantly named as 
Medusa Portland Cement. 

The name Medusa today designates a wide va- 
riety of cements and cement products manufactured 
by the Medusa Portland Cement Company in its 
eight plants located in strategic market centers in 
the eastern part of the United States. 




1-70 



METROPOLITAN EDISON COMPANY 

Public Utility 



Electric service for a majority of York's large in- 
dustrial plants is supplied by Metropolitan Edison 
Company which has made available for them the 
resources and facilities of a large, modern and well 
operated electric power system. Through the years, 
and particularly since the acquisition of the prede- 
cessor, York Haven Water & Power Company, in 
1923, Metropolitan Edison Company has constantly 
increased and expanded its equipment for the pro- 
duction and distribution of electric energy. 

The most recent major improvement was the re- 
building of the Smith Street Substation, in the out- 
skirts of York, increasing its capacity to 67,500 kilo- 
watts. Included in this important project, which was 
completed during the latter part of 1944, was the 
construction of a new 110,000-volt steel tower, high 
tension transmission line between York and two of 
the company's main generating stations on the Sus- 
quehanna River at York Haven and Middletown, Pa. 
Improvements and additions at the Smith Street Sub- 
station increased its capacity about 70 per cent. The 
total capacity of Metropolitan Edison facilities serv- 
ing large industrial customers in York and surround- 
ing territory has been raised to 120,000 kilowatts. 

To supply electricity for its customers in all parts 
of the territory which it serves. Metropolitan Edison 
Company has four main generating stations and a 
number of miscellaneous sources of electric power 
supply with a total installed generating capacity of 
224,500 kilowatts. Of these, the closest to York is the 
hydroelectric station on the Susquehanna River at 
York Haven with an installed capacity of 20,000 kilo- 
watts. For years it has been an important source of 
electrical energy for industrial York. 

As far back as 1924, however, in anticipation of 
the demands which York's expanding industries 
would make for more and more electric power, the 
company further guaranteed the availability of its 
service with the erection of a new steam turbo-gen- 
erator plant on the Susquehanna River, at Middle- 



town, about five miles above York Haven. The initial 
unit of 30,000 kilowatts' capacity was an important 
addition to the power resources of a growing terri- 
tory. A year later a second unit of 35,000 kilowatts 
was added so that the Middletown Station, designed 




Modern Steam Turbo-Generator Plant at Middletown 

for ultimate 200,000 kilowatts' capacity, now has 
65,000 kilowatts installed. Preliminary work on the 
installation of a third unit, that will increase the sta- 
tion output to 110,000 kilowatts, was suspended due 
to war conditions. 

The stations at York Haven and Middletown are 
the principal sources of electric energy which Met- 
ropolitan Edison Company furnishes for York and 
vicinity and they are directly connected with the 
Smith Street Substation. The company's system is 
also connected at seven different points with the 
power system of other large companies, the capac- 
ity of these interconnections being 150,000 kilowatts. 

The York office of Metropolitan Edison Company 
is at 123 East Market Street. The manager of this di- 
vision of the company's territory has his office there 
and likewise the industrial power engineers whose 
services are at the disposal of all company custom- 
ers in this area. Principal offices of the company are 
at 412 Washington Street, Reading, Pa. 




Hydroelectric Station on Susquehanna River at York Haven 



171 



MORRIS DRUG COMPANY 

Manufacturer, Wholesale, Retail Druggist 



One hundred and twenty-two years have passed 
since this drug business, founded by Charles A. 
Morris, started at the present location, 7 East Market 
Street. 

The company was twenty-three years old when 
the Mexican War began and it has experienced the 
depressions, inflations and panics incident to all 
wars since. 

Many have been the changes and discoveries in 
medicine and chemistry since 1823, but the Morris 
Drug Company has been able to keep abreast of the 
times during all these years. 

During the Civil War, a few days preceding the 
Battle of Gettysburg, the premises were searched 
by the Confederates for drugs of value to its army, 
but all important medicines had been carefully hid- 
den. On the third day of that battle this company 
delivered first-aid supplies on the field for use of the 
Northern Army. 

The Morris Drug Company engaged in wholesale 
and retail drug distribution and also drug manufac- 
turing, years before the formation of any of the large 
pharmaceutical manufacturing concerns. 

Distribution in the wholesale field was by means 
of large wagons drawn by four horses or mules, 
familiar and regular travelers over the roads of the 
Allegheny Mountains. Doctors in the rural commu- 
nities depended on the Morris Drug Company for 
their supplies of medicines. 

This company is now the largest covering all di- 
versified lines of the drug business between Phila- 



delphia and Pittsburgh and is housed in its own 
four-siory building extending a half city block con- 
taining over twenty thousand square feet of floor 
space with additional warehouse facilities. 

In the manufacturing field a completely equipped 
laboratory is operated for the production of pharma- 
ceuticals, liquids, powders, tablets and ointments, 
including many specialties and private formulas 
used by physicians. 

The retail department specializes in prescription 
work and carefully guards its files and records dat- 
ing back almost a century. A completely stocked 
private truss department is operated. 

Thousands of active wholesale accounts are ser- 
viced by salesmen covering Central Pennsylvania, 
Maryland and West Virginia. 

The Morris Drug Company also owns and oper- 
ates the Silver Lustra Company manufacturing one 
of the oldest and best known silver polishes. 

Although founded by Charles A. Morris, whose 
name the company carries, Geoffrey P. Yost asso- 
ciated himself with the company in 1859 and was 
actively connected with the company until his death 
in 1931. At the death of Mr. Morris, in 1872, Mr. Yost 
became senior member of the firm until 1919, when 
the company incorporated and Geoffrey P. Yost be- 
came its president. 

The company now is entirely owned and operated 
by the Yost family with Fred R. Yost as president, 
and Richard F. Yost, vice-president and treasurer, 
both sons of Geoffrey P. Yost. 



MOTOR FREIGHT EXPRESS, INC 

Motor Freight 



Eighteen thousand tons per week is the average 
tonnage handled by the facilities of Motor Freight 
Express, Inc., common carrier of all freight commod- 
ities, and founded at York in 1929 by the Baltimore 
Transfer Company. 

Early in 1929, the company purchased the Mary- 
land and Pennsylvania Motor Freight Lines which 
operated four trucks between York and Baltimore. 
Within a year, the Pennsylvania Utility Commission 
certificates of the Raffensberger Motor Express were 
purchased, thereby giving the company operating 



rights to Philadelphia, Reading, Lancaster, and 
Harrisburg. 

In 1932, Motor Freight Express, Inc., established its 
first terminal in York. Subsequent terminals were 
built at Harrisburg, Lancaster, Reading, and Phila- 
delphia. Each is equipped with modern and com- 
plete maintenance and storage facilities, and island- 
type platforms for loading from both sides. 

Motor Freight Express, Inc., operates 210 units in 
Central Pennsylvania with connections for transfer 
at Philadelphia terminals to all parts of the nation. 




GEORGE F. MOTTER'S SONS 

Machinery Manufacturing Industrial Supplies Maintenance and Repairs 



Engaged in the production of rotogravure printing 
equipment, repairs and maintenance of industrial 
equipment and the distribution of mill supplies, 
George F. Matter's Sons has come to occupy a place 
of leadership in industrial York. The history of the 
company dates back to 1838 when it was founded 
in the shops of Phineas Davis, who, in 1831, built 
the first coal-burning locomotive used in the United 
States in the very same shops in York in which this 
company had its origin. Since then, the company 
has progressed through three generations of Matter 
management. 

Since 1924, the company has specialized in the 
production of a complete line of rotogravure printing 
machinery and equipment, having produced some 
of the largest magazine and catalogue perfecting 
presses in the world, some weighing over two hun- 
dred tons each and sold in all world-wide markets. 

Special machinery of medium heavy type is pro- 
duced to specifications, and an extensive line of in- 
industrial supplies and equipment is distributed 
throughout this section in conjunction with a com- 
plete mechanical and electrical maintenance and 
repair service. 

George F. Matter's Sons' shop facilities were ac- 
tively engaged in war production. Special machin- 
ery parts for 40mm. anti-aircraft guns, machining of 



"Flak-Ice" equipment, parts for Liberty ships and 
powder bins for explosives were but a few of the 
company's contributions to the war effort. 

The organization is largely composed of experi- 
enced engineers and skilled workers in the metal 
trades, a necessary requisite in the production of 
highly technical rotogravure equipment. Also, in or- 
der to trouble shoot breakdowns of machinery and 
equipment through its repair and maintenance ser- 
vice, the company maintains specialists, such as 
skilled mechanics, boilermakers, pipe fitters, assem- 
blers and electrical experts. The Industrial Supplies 
Division also employs a staff of mechanical engi- 
neers for consultation and service to its customers. 

The president is John C. Matter. He has been with 
the company for thirty-three years, and specializes 
in the engineering and sales of printing machinery. 
Major William S. Matter, vice-president, has been 
largely responsible for creating and expanding the 
Industrial Supplies Division of the company. 

The firm's secretary-treasurer and general man- 
ager is George F. Matter, who spent many years in 
engineering and product development before as- 
suming his present duties. He is a graduate of Lehigh 
University with a degree in Industrial Engineering. 
Melvin L. Beck is assistant treasurer. 



MOTTER ELECTRIC COMPANY 

Wholesale Distributors of Electrical Products 



During the Fall of 1943 it was realized that the 
possibilities in the electrical field were great enough 
to warrant the formation of a separate company 
for the purpose of distributing electrical products 




of all kinds. With this thought in mind, the Matter 
Electric Company was formed, and received its char- 
ter as a subsidiary of George F. Matter's Sons on 
June 13, 1944. 

The Matter Electric Company owns and occupies 
the building formerly known as the Lau Building, 
located at 131 North George Street, in the City of 
York, Pennsylvania. The Matter Building is situated 



in the heart of the wholesale district, a short block 
and one-half north of Continental Square. It provides 
a complete warehousing and showroom unit open 
on all four sides for traffic and shipping facilities. 
The property includes a large parking lot adjacent 
to the side and rear of the warehouse for the conve- 
nience of the company's customers. 

The new company was planned to better serve its 
customers with electrical products, while at the same 
time allowing for expansion in the distribution of 
mill supplies which remained with the parent com- 
pany, George F. Matter's Sons. 

The Matter Electric Company handles full lines 
of nationally known quality electrical products for 
industries, contractors and dealers. These include 
construction materials, electrical supplies, power 
apparatus, lamps, lighting equipment and elec- 
tronics, along with a complete line of household 
appliances. 

The Matter Electric Company through its York 
operation, along with its Altoona Branch, serves 
a population of approximately two million people 
located in the southern and central sections of 
Pennsylvania. 

The officers of the Matter Electric Company are: 
George F. Motter, president and treasurer, and 
Melvin L. Beck, secretary and assistant treasurer. 



17* 



G. C MURPHY COMPANY 

On Continental Square 



Five years ago, the G. C. Murphy Company es- 
tablished one of its 207 retail stores on the northeast 
corner of Continental Square in York. One year later, 
the Cassatt Building adjoining the original store was 
purchased and remodeled as an annex to provide 
larger facilities for the convenience of its customers. 

The G. C. Murphy Company was founded by Mr. 
Murphy, in 1906, when he opened his first store in 
McKeesport, Pennsylvania. Today, the 207 retail 
stores now in operation show a retail sales of $88,- 
936,595 for the year 1944. The company provides 
employment for approximately 10,000 men and 



of the establishment by approximately fifty per cent. 
The G. C. Murphy Company realizing that York 
is a Dynamic Community, with a real outlook for the 
future, plans its future as a part of York. Pledging 
to our customers and friends only the best in mer- 
chandise and service, you will find Murphy's a 
friendly place to shop. 






women. 
v 



Officers of the company include Edgar M. Mack, 
chairman of the Board; W. C. Shaw, president, and 
a native of York County; P. L. Sample, vice-president 
and sales manager; J. A. Krut, vice-president and 
treasurer; and W. S. Thomson, secretary. 

Post-war plans for the York store include the dis- 
mantling of the Cassatt Building to provide space 
for the erection of a new and modern addition to 
the present building which will increase the capacity 




NEW YORK WIRE CLOTH COMPANY 

Insect Screen Cloth 



Approximately seventy per cent of the insect 
screen cloth production in the United States centers 
in the immediate neighborhood of York County, 
Pennsylvania. Among the largest of the various con- 
cerns engaged in this work, the New York Wire 
Cloth Company was founded on September 8, 1892, 
when the owners of several scattered wire screen 
factories decided to concentrate their production 
within the then existing plant at 441 East Market 
Street, address of the present York office. Main 
business offices are at 500 Fifth Avenue in New 
York City. 

From its early beginning, the New York Wire Cloth 
Company has grown steadily in factory space, fa- 
cilities and output, the best index is the production 
figure of fifty-eight million square feet of wire cloth 
produced in 1922, as against the approximately 
ninety million square feet made at present. 

During the recent war emergency, insect screen 
cloth occupied a position high among critical ma- 
teriel. On May 5, 1945, the New York Wire Cloth 
Company became the first insect screen cloth plant 
in the United States to receive the Army-Navy "E" 
for its war production effort. 



Normally employing about 325 people, the New 
York Wire Cloth Company also operates its own 
wire drawing mill on Loucks' Mill Road, just outside 
York, where as many as twenty thousand miles of 
wire are drawn per day. 

The New York Wire Cloth Company has pioneered 
a great deal of the progress made in insect screen 
manufacture. This firm introduced the original proc- 
ess of electrogalvanizing of cloth after weaving; it 
has high-lighted its screening with a reinforced sel- 
vage which incorporates a self-measuring feature, 
permitting visual perpetual inventory of the screen 
roll. Shortly before the war, the company introduced 
a new type of screen cloth woven from plastic fila- 
ments instead of wire. This product, called "Plasti- 
Screen," is non-corrosive. 

Like most industries in York and York County, New 
York Wire Cloth has had a long period of amicable 
relationship between employees and management. 
The company operates a group insurance plan for 
the benefit of its workers, covering accident, hospi- 
talization, sickness and death. 

New York Wire Cloth, entering the last half of its 
first century, occupies a secure place among the 
essential industries of the stable York area. 



JOHN H. MYERS & SON 



Lumber Millwork- 

This company, with office, plant and principal 
place of business at 1275-1285 West King Street, 
York, Pa., was founded by John H. Myers. Mr. Myers 
was a school teacher by profession, but resigned as 
principal of the Dallastown schools in 1916 and 
opened his firsi lumber yard at Dallastown, Pa. 

After operating successfully at this location for 
about five years, he purchased the present site in 
York, Pa., and built the York Plant which he oper- 
ated as owner and directing head until his death 
in 1937. Due to his wise and careful planning, the 
company continued its successful and uninterrupted 
operation under the direction of the surviving mem- 
bers of the family and employed personnel of the 
business. 

Distribution of lumber, lumber products and all 
allied building supplies are the principal activities 
of the company. It has always been their policy to 



-Builders' Supplies 

carry large stocks of various grades and types of 
lumber, millwork and other building materials, care- 
fully selected and gathered from all parts of the 
United States and Canada, to serve the needs of the 
growing and progressive York County trading area. 

The war, with its economic dislocations and cur- 
tailment of home building, caused the company in 
the early days of the conflict to lend their assistance 
and do their bit for such war housing projects as the 
Park Village Development, Yorktowne Homes, and 
also in supplying materials for industrial develop- 
ment, such as Navy Ordnance Plant of the York Safe 
and Lock Company, to help gear York to do its full 
share in the cause for Freedom. 

In the post-war period, John H. Myers & Son will 
continue their established policy of serving the peo- 
ple of the York trading area with the "best" in 
building materials. 




Aerial View of Present Plant. 



175 



NEWSWANGER'S 



Quality Footwear for Men 

On October 17, 1925, Harvey Newswanger 
opened a shoe store in a single room facing East 
Market Street, with sixteen chairs and one sales 
clerk. In 1932, he took over the entire corner on 
Continental Square, and in 1938, he took over an 
additional room at the rear of the store for the sale 
of men's and children's shoes. Newswanger's now 
occupies sales rooms running back 111 feet and has 
attractive displays in seven show windows. Today, 
the store has sixty-nine chairs and employs eighteen 
persons. 

Newswanger's is decorated in smart modern style. 
The walls have recessed shelving and show cases, 
and are paneled in bleached teakwood. The store is 
carpeted throughout. The comfortable chairs are 
leather upholstered and modern in design. Indirect 
lighting adds to the restful effect. 

In 1936, Newswanger's opened a branch store in 
Lancaster, Pennsylvania, which also maintains the 
Newswanger reputation of quality in footwear for 
men, women and children. 

Joyce play shoes, made in Pasadena, California, 
and worn by many of the stars and starlets of Holly- 
wood are but one of the nationally advertised brands 
of footwear to be found at Newswanger's on the cor- 
ner of East Market Street and Continental Square. 




Women and Children 

Here, too, are featured Gold Cross shoes (known for 
years as Red Cross until President Roosevelt re- 
quested that the name Red Cross not be used com- 
mercially for the duration), Custom-Craft, Laird 
Schober, Val-Craft, Lady Nettleton, Arnold Authen- 
tics, Foot-Saver, and Life Stride for the ladies. 




Newswanger's Women's Deparfmenf in Fronf of Sfore 
Facing Market Sfreef 



Newswanger's Children's ILeft) and Men's (Right") Departments 
in Rear of Store 



Among the better quality handbags sold here are 
Shur-tite and Wilshire, as well as a full line of ladies' 
wallets. Archer hosiery is also carried. Daniel Green 
represents quality in leisure slippers. Kali-sten-iks 
insure long wear and foot comfort for growing 
children. 

In the men's department such well-known shoes 
as E. T. Wright Arch Preserver, Stetson, Foot Pals, 
Calumet, and Curtis are carried. Gerberich-Payne 
provides sturdy shoes for boys. Nu-weave socks are 
also featured. 

In addition, Newswanger's offers a complete line 
of B. F. Goodrich rubbers for men, women and chil- 
dren, and an assortment of shoe polishes and shoe 
findings. 

The fact that Newswanger's business has in- 
creased with shoe rationing testifies to the store's 
reputation for quality which has been built up dur- 
ing its twenty years of existence. 



HERMAN NOSS' SONS, INCORPORATED 

Panelled Rooms and Special Millwork 



The firm of Herman Noss' Sons, Incorporated, lo- 
cated at 354 West King Street, specializes in fine 
panelling and millwork. Skilled craftsmen, trained 
in cabinetmaking, work from drawings made by ar- 
chitects and decorators. Beautiful replicas of Colo- 
nial panelling have been made for residences such 
as Lauxmont, Box Hill, Brockie, and many others in 
York, and also outside of the State. Panelling in the 
Martin Library, St. Paul's Lutheran Church, the Y. M. 
C. A., and the City Hall in York were done by this 
company, as were the public rooms of the Marlbor- 
ough-Blenheim Hotel in Atlantic City, the Country 
Club and the Union Memorial Hospital in Baltimore, 



and many others throughout several neighboring 
states. Raw lumber is shipped in; birch, oak, and 
walnut from West Virginia, Virginia, and Tennessee; 
and mahogany from Honduras. 

Herman Noss founded the business in 1875, which 





Mayor's Office, Cify Hall, York, Pa. 



Council Room, City Hall, York, Pa. 



at that time was strictly a lumber business (whole- 
sale and retail), and in later years started a plan- 
ing mill specializing in special millwork and cabinet 
work, and after his death in 1915, it was incorpo- 
rated by his sons, William S., John W., Harry P., and 
Charles H. Noss. Today, John W. Noss is president, 
and Charles H. Noss is vice-president, secretary 
and treasurer. 



THE ORINOKA MILLS 



Woven Upholsteries 

It was in 1931 that The Orinoka Mills put in oper- 
ation their upholstery weaving plant at Wallace and 
State Streets, York, Pennsylvania. This brought to 
York a new industry, and one replete with tradition 
and high in the ranks of art in industry. 

Incorporated in 1885, The Orinoka Mills, in its 
sixty years of corporate existence, has grown from 
modest size to one of the foremost upholstery manu- 
facturing companies in the country. 

The Orinoka Mills, with plants in Philadelphia and 
York, has facilities to manufacture the most intricate 
woven decorative fabrics. Patterns are woven by 
means of Jacquard machines installed over the 
looms; and many famous interiors have been em- 
bellished with fine hangings, the products of these 
looms. The Biltmore Hotel, in New York; the War 
Memorial, in San Francisco, where the world secur- 
ity conference was held; and the Metropolitan Opera 
House, in New York, are a few outstanding examples 
of the decorative work for which Orinoka goods were 
chosen. Orinoka upholsteries and draperies are also 
at home on the high seas, having been frequently 
chosen as curtains and furniture coverings by some 
of the leading steamship lines. Transportation com- 



and Draperies 

ponies have also used them effectively in trains and 
planes. 

Upholstery mills are not limited in the type of 
yarns that they use. Cotton, wool and silk, as well 
as the rapidly-growing number of synthetic yarns, 
are theirs to choose from. Interesting and new con- 
structions result from this wide choice of yarns, and 
the upholstery manufacturer has not only the oppor- 
tunity of weaving attractive patterns but of produc- 
ing new effects by combining different kinds of yarn. 
With such a variety of yarns it is not surprising that 
upholstery manufacturing is one of the most inter- 
esting branches of the textile industry. 

In addition to weaving, Orinoka has its own dye- 
house, card-cutting, and designing departments, 
as well as the usual other attendant operational 
departments. 

Among the fabrics woven for the use of the Armed 
Forces by Orinoka was the heavy weight cartridge 
bag cloth. 

Orinoka's woven decorative fabrics are sold to 
upholstery jobbers, furniture manufacturers, and de- 
partment stores. 



177 



THE WM. H. OTTEMILLER CO., INC. 

Milled Screw Machine Products 



Design and manufacture of special machinery was 
the original objective when Wm. H. Ottemiller 
opened his small machine shop back in 1897. The 
first ten years of the company were outstanding for 
a great deal of hard work and normal "growing 
pains." 

In 1908, the company expanded operations with 
the introduction of several automatic screw ma- 
chines and in May, of that year, the Wm. H. Otte- 
miller Company incorporated. 

The screw machines automatically broadened the 
company's horizons in the manufacture and sale of 
parts for all types of lathes, milling machines, grind- 
ers, printing machinery and various kinds of weav- 
ing machinery. Through World War I and into the 
twenties, expansion of facilities continued and in 
1922 the present building was erected on the orig- 
inal plant site. 

Today, equipped with batteries of automatic 
multiple-spindle screw machines, the company is 
economically producing duplicate parts from bar or 
rod. All types of screws are turned, threaded and 
faced underhead simultaneously, before the screw 
is cut off the solid bar. 

While the manufacturers of many products are 
able to stimulate sales with periodic changes in 
appearance virtually no one wants to buy screws 
or bolts of odd size or thread. Geared to mass pro- 



duction, Ottemiller's has always held to a policy 
of uniformity and high quality in the manufacture 
of Milled Screw Machine Products. These are the 
"must factors" to our selling competitively. 




Batteries oi Automatic Multiple Screw Machines at Ottemiller's. 

Throughout our plant, older equipment has been 
modernized and new machinery installed as the 
need developed. In the current lush market, the 
company turns out a vast stream of all kinds of 
screw machine parts, steel and brass screws. 

With more than a hundred employees, one of the 
three original mechanics still remains and many of 
the men represent a second generation of skilled 
workmen employed. Despite many changes through 
the years, the names of numerous customers have 
appeared continuously on the books of the company 
since the beginning. 






II II i Ml mi 





The Ottemiller Plant is immediately adjacent to the Maryland & Pennsylvania Railroad. 



HOTEL PENN 

Hotel 



The Hotel Perm has taken an active part in the 
growth of this community. It has been the headquar- 
ters of many conventions held in York, and has al- 
ways given full cooperation to the needs of its guests. 
Many of our country's famous musical organizations 
have used the facilities of the Hotel Penn when 
presenting entertainments for the citizens of this 
community. George F. Illenberger, manager. 



The site of the Hotel Penn, located on the south- 
east corner of George and Philadelphia Streets, 
marks the former private dwelling-place of Henry 
Wolf, who sold the property to Eli H. Free in 1863. 
Mr. Free opened a hotel known as the Pennsylvania 
House, which name it retained until 1903. 

At that time the building was demolished and a 
new four-story structure was erected, containing 150 
rooms for the accommodation of its guests. All apart- 
ments were fitted with modern furniture and new 
carpets were placed on the floors, adapting it for the 
purposes of a first-class hotel. The new establishment 
was opened October, 1903, under the name of Hotel 
Penn, which name it retains today. 

In September, 1926, a corporation was organized 
under the name of the Hotel Penn Company with a 
capital stock of $20,000, which was reduced to $5,000 
in November, 1927, when the company was incor- 
porated under the laws of Pennsylvania. 

Today, the Hotel Penn is one of York's most mod- 
ern institutions. It was purchased by the J. E. Baker 
Company in 1939, who made considerable altera- 
tions and repairs. It has 125 rooms for the accommo- 
dation of its guests. The Old Colony dining-room, 
furnished and decorated in early American style, is 
one of the most popular dining places in the commu- 
nity. Included in its facilities is a modernly equipped 
coffee shop for the convenience of its guests. 

PENNSYLVANIA TOOL & MANUFACTURING COMPANY 

Jigs, Fixtures, Dies and Gages 




This is the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Pennsyl- 
vania Tool and Manufacturing Company, founded 
by Joseph M. Lehmayer and Bert G. Reisinger in 
1920, and operated by these same men today. 

Since its inception, the company has been en- 
gaged exclusively in the design and manufacture of 
jigs, fixtures, dies, and gages for precision machine 
tool work. 

Its present facilities consist of a modern fireproof 
building with 20,000 square feet of floor space, 
equipped with the most modern precision machinery 
obtainable, and staffed by seventy-eight skilled tool 
and diemakers. 



After our entry into the World War II conflict, the 
Pennsylvania Tool & Manufacturing Company be- 
came a contractor for ordnance materials exclu- 
sively, executing contracts for Waterveliet, Rock 
Island, Picatinny and Frankford Arsenals, U. S. Na- 
val Torpedo Station and Naval Gun Factory. Cur- 
rent production is absorbed 100% by the Army and 
Navy Air Forces and leading manufacturers of 
electrical, automotive, ball-bearing, and diecasting 
machinery. 

Presentation of Army-Navy "E" Award for quality 
and quantity production June, 1945. 




179 



PENN DAIRIES, INCORPORATED 

Wholesale and Retail Milk and Milk Products 



Penn Dairies, Incorporated, in 1928, has the dis- 
tinction of having today the same officers, E. L. Gar- 
ber, president, and H. N. Forrey, vice-president, who 
began the business as the York Sanitary Milk Com- 
pany way back in 1898. 

Mr. Garber and Mr. Forrey pioneered in York in 
the sanitary production and handling of milk prod- 
ucts. They bought out a dealer in raw milk, pas- 
leurized and bottled the milk and retailed it from a 
single horse-drawn wagon at five cents per quart. 
This was one cent above the then current market 
price for milk, but customers were glad to pay 
slightly more for safer, cleaner milk and business 
developed rapidly. 

Penn Dairies were also the first in York to compel 
farmers to have their cattle tuberculin tested. At first 
this requirement enraged many farmers, but it has 
now become accepted practice with dairies every- 
where. At present, two Penn Dairy field inspectors 
are engaged full time in checking conditions under 
which milk is produced and a veterinarian makes 
periodic examinations of all cows. 

During the first two years of its existence, Penn 
Dairies made its own butter, but this was soon dis- 
continued. Butter is now purchased and distributed 
over Penn's retail and wholesale routes. 

Sixty-five trucks are now required to serve twenty- 
seven retail routes reaching home consumers and 
three wholesale routes serving stores, hotels, res- 
taurants, etc. 

Forty per cent of Penn Dairies' milk now goes to 
six army camps and three prisoner-of-war camps, 
namely, the Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Edgewood 
Arsenal, Camp Dietrich, Camp Richey, New Cum- 
berland Reception Center, the Bainbridge Naval 
Base, and the prisoner-of-war camps at Gettysburg, 
Camp Dietrich, and New Cumberland. 

Penn Dairies, Incorporated, also holds permits to 
deliver milk in New Jersey and New York State and 



meets all sanitary requirements of these states as 
well as Pennsylvania. 

Everybody likes ice cream and Pensupreme Ice 
Cream, a product of Penn Dairies, is handled by ap- 
proximately 400 retailers including soda fountains, 
drug stores, hotels and restaurants. Part of the popu- 
larity of Pensupreme Ice Cream is due to the fact 
that the company preserves huge quantities of prime 
peaches, strawberries, and raspberries, much of 
which is obtained locally for use in Pensupreme Ice 
Cream all the year around. The company maintains 
its own large ice cream retail store at 400 North 
George Street. 

In addition to fresh milk sold and converted into 
Pensupreme Ice Cream, Penn Dairies, Incorporated, 
is equipped to process from 200,000 to 300,000 
pounds of milk daily through these condensing units 
and one drier. Condensed milk, reduced one-third in 
volume, is packed in ten-gallon tins for use by con- 
fectioners and bakers. Sugared milk, packed in par- 
affined barrels, is used as milk solids in ice cream. 
Three carloads, or 40,000 pounds of roller-dried milk, 
was sold to the United States Government during 
1944 for shipment abroad. 

Each spring, Penn Dairies, Incorporated, aids in 
food conservation by processing the huge seasonal 
surpluses of skim milk through condensing and de- 
hydrating as much as 200,000 pounds of fresh, skim 
milk daily. 

At the request of Parent-Teachers' Associations, 
Penn Dairies pioneered in York in supplying milk 
for school children. 

The founders of Penn Dairies, Incorporated, through 
their initiative and foresight have built up the com- 
pany from a single building and single horse-drawn 
wagon, to its present modern plant and fleet of sixty- 
seven trucks serving several states. 




ISO 



PENNSYLVANIA FURNITURE CO. 



Bed-Room and 

On June 1, 1903, Adam Jacoby, Samuel F. Jacoby, 
C. S. Reaser, S. Harlacker, T. C. Wigginton, M. L. 
Strayer, S. P. Porter, Gustus Meisenhelter, Peter 
Oberlander and H. L. Strayer met in the office of 
Adam Jacoby & Brother, corner of Hamilton Avenue 
and North George Street, York, Pa., for the purpose 
of incorporating under the name of The Jacoby Fur- 
niture Company. The original charter of the newly 
formed corporation was granted by the Common- 
wealth of Pennsylvania as of the ninth day of July, 
One Thousand Nine Hundred and Three . . . signed 
by Governor Pennypacker and Frank M. Fuller as 
Secretary of the Commonwealth. 

On June 1, 1910, a special meeting of the Board of 
Directors of The Jacoby Furniture Company was held 
for the purpose of changing the name of the corpo- 
ration to that of the Pennsylvania Furniture Com- 



Dining-Room Suites 

pany, which, since that time, has been the corporate 
name. 

Since its inception, the corporation has been en- 
gaged in the manufacture of bed-room and dining- 
room suites during normal periods, but during World 
War I and World War II has, in addition, also manu- 
factured such items as gun stocks, desks, filing cabi- 
nets, chests and various other items for the Govern- 
ment of the United States. 

None of the original stockholders retain any in- 
terest in the corporation at this time; all outstanding 
stock having been purchased on June 27, 1944, by 
William H. Bodden, who has been president and 
general manager of the company since December, 
1936. 

The company normally has about 120 employees. 
Twenty-three former employees served in the Armed 
Forces during World War II. 




PENNSYLVANIA GARAGE 

100% One-Stop Automotive Service 



From a twenty-car capacity converted liverystable 
in 1917 to a modern 225-car capacity fireproof ga- 
rage today, is an achievement that affords F. H. 
Wogan, owner and operator, deep satisfaction. 

The Pennsylvania Garage, 26-30 East Philadel- 
phia Street, is readily accessible from both the Lin- 
coln Highway and Susquehanna Trail. Its facilities 
include parking, washing, lubricating, repairing, 
towing, tire and battery service. 

This establishment has a completely equipped re- 
pair shop, wash rack, lubrication department, etc., 
and sells gasoline, motor oils, tires, batteries, and 
all types of auto accessories. 




181 



H. F. REGENTHAL AND SON 

Manufacturers of Assorted Penny Candies and "Yorktowne Suckers" 



A child's idea of paradise is the H. F. Regenthal 
and Son Candy Factory, where Yorktowne Suckers 
and assorted penny candies are made. The sugar 
and glucose are boiled in steam-jacketed copper 
kettles at carefully regulated temperatures, removed 
to the cooling table where pure food coloring is 
added, and then pulled on a gadget reminiscent of 
the boardwalk. During the pulling, flavoring is 
added. The gaily-striped mass is then run through 
a molding machine which automatically presses the 
sticks into the suckers and molds them into shape. 
The final operation is the packing of from 150 to 168 
suckers of assorted flavors into boxes and cartons 



made in York. The product is then distributed to 
candy stores, grocers and wholesalers. 

This business, built upon pennies, has prospered 
since its founding by Harry F. Regenthal in 1901. 
Visitors are now amazed to find a staff of eight em- 
ployees and a factory with a capacity of 1,600 
pounds of candy per day, in charge of a mere slip 
of a girl, who has been keeping the business going 
since her father was taken ill a year ago. The same 
methods worked out by the founder are used in 
manufacturing, insuring a wholesome treat for the 
tot bound for the corner grocery or candy store with 
penny clutched tightly in hand. 



CHARLES H. SHAFFNER 

Jeweler Silversmith Watchmaker 



In 1934, the first Shaffner Store was opened at 33 
West Market Street by Charles and Mary Kathryn 
Shaffner. Charles Shaffner, born in Lancaster County 
near Elizabethtown, is a graduate of Bowman Tech- 
nical School and had been connected for several 
years with J. E. Caldwell, of Philadelphia. In the 
1920's he served as a master watchmaker with the 
Hamilton Watch Co., in Lancaster, opening his own 
shop in Red Lion, Pennsylvania, in 1929. 

The Shaffner establishment in York offered a small 
but excellent selection of timepieces, diamonds, jew- 
elry and silverware. Known as "Shaffner's," the busi- 



ness enjoyed a steady and healthy growth both in 
the original location as well as in its present lo- 
cation at 6 East Market Street, where it has been 
established since 1940. 

Shaffner's now are exclusive representatives for 
Reed & Barton, Gorham and Kirk Sterling; Hawkes 
and Duncan & Miller Crystalware; Spode, Wedge- 
wood, Minton and Adams English Chinas; and The- 
odore Hai'iicind China; and also represent Hamilton, 
Girard Perregaux, Elgin, Longines, Bulova, Jules 
Jurgensen, Herschede Hall timepieces. It is one of 
York's most modern jewelry stores. 



J. C. PENNEY COMPANY, INCORPORATED 

Department Store 



Penney 's Department Store was opened in York, 
October 11, 1934. It is one of the chain of more than 
sixteen hundred stores which are scattered through- 
out the entire United States, belonging to J. C. 
Penney and Company, Incorporated, with central 
offices in New York City. These are offshoots of the 
original dry goods store started in a Wyoming min- 
ing town by J. C. Penney in 1902. The policy on 
which Penney's has built its phenomenal volume of 
business has always been dependable merchandise 
at the lowest possible price. 

The J. C. Penney Company, Incorporated, does 
millions of dollars of business annually with York 
manufacturers. Much of the nightwear, shirts, ho- 
siery, underwear, ties, shoes, toys, piece goods, and 
cotton and rayon dresses distributed by the chain 
are manufactured in York. 

Penney's in York has experienced a steady growth 
since its opening ten years ago. Five years ago, the 
store was completely remodeled and enlarged and 
further remodeling and air conditioning are included 
in Penney's post-war plans. Meanwhile, it continues 
to offer to the community excellent values in men's 
work and dress clothes, ladies' ready-to-wear, ho- 
siery, lingerie, and millinery, dry goods, draperies, 
shoes, toys and notions, and many other items. 




182 



THE PFALTZGRAFF POTTERY CO. 

Ceramic Ware 



The Pfaltzgraff Pottery Company, incorporated 
April 17, 1906, was originally established in York in 
1811 by members of the Pfaltzgraff family. The site 
of the present plant, situated in West York Borough 
between the Western Maryland and Pennsylvania 
Railroads, was occupied in 1906. 

Until 1913, the company produced stoneware used 
principally for agricultural and domestic purposes. 
At that time the production of red clay flowerpots 
was begun on a small scale. The manufacture of 
this product increased steadily until at present the 
flowerpot department of the company is one of the 
largest and most modernly equipped in the country. 

In 1931, the manufacture of colored ceramic art- 
ware began. This branch of the business developed 
rapidly with the addition of kitchenware and cook- 
ing ware. The company has developed into one of 
the major producers of ceramic cooking ware. Such 
articles as mixing bowls, frying pans, casseroles, 
pitchers, teapots, etc., are produced in a wide va- 
riety of glazed colors using stoneware, whiteware, 
and colored bodies. 

During the war Pfaltzgraff devoted its productive 
capacity to the manufacture of chemical stoneware, 
producing thousands of small tanks and storage 
vessels. Stoneware is also used for many other prod- 
ucts such as food containers, insulated jugs and for 
the animal feeding equipment used by medical re- 
search laboratories. 



The wide variety of products necessitates the use 
of numerous clays and other mineral raw materials. 
These are obtained, both in the crude and refined 




Unloading Pottery from a Tunnel Kiln 

condition, from all sections of the United States and 
foreign countries. 

A sales office and showroom is maintained at 
1150 Broadway, New York City. 



REAM'S 

Office Machines and Equipment 



In 1932, "Ream's," a Stationery Store, which had 
been operating in Lancaster, Pennsylvania for over 
fifty years, took over the operation of the L. C. Smith 
& Corona Typewriter Company here in York. 

In 1934, the present management of Ream's moved 
to York, and established a 100% York Company, the 
entire personnel consisting of York people. Ream's 
in York is still a part of Ream's in Lancaster. 

In 1944, having grown from two employees to 
twelve, and our business having expanded, we 
bought and built a new property at 
371 West Market Street 

York, Pennsylvania 

where a complete office equipment store is main- 
tained in conjunction with an office machine main- 
tenance division. 

We have established a school for the training of 
returning veterans under the G. I. Bill of Rights. 

In the early days we were interested only in type- 
writers. In our expansion program we have in- 
cluded: fully automatic calculating machines, and 
all-electric adding machines, also all other types of 
office machines. 




183 



READ MACHINERY CO., INC. 

Bakers' Machinery 



The Read Machinery Co., Inc., was founded in 
1906 by Harry Read for the purpose of manufactur- 
ing vertical mixers and bakers' machinery. The orig- 
inal plant was located at Glen Rock, Pennsylvania. 
The distribution and sale of planetary action vertical 
mixers to bakers all over the country was so suc- 
cessful that plant expansion was needed, and in 
1920, the manufacture of vertical mixers was put on 
a production basis in a new plant located at the 
present site at the southwest end of York. 

The Glen Rock plant was destroyed by fire in 1921 
and the entire operation of the company moved to 
York. Readco's principal product included various 
types of mixers and flour handling equipment for 
the baking industry; however, in 1929, the com- 
pany expanded these activities and its manufac- 
turing facilities to include the fabrication of mixing 
equipment and machinery for the chemical process 
industry. 

Readco's progress during the good old "horse and 
buggy days" was the result of superior mechanical 
construction. Since the company's inception, over 
36,000 vertical mixers, ranging in capacity from 5 
quarts to 400 quarts, have been built. Also, over 
7,500 horizontal type dough mixers have been manu- 
factured for bakery operation. 

In the spring of 1938, with the advent of the sec- 
ond World War, Readco started its war production 
investigations and war manufacturing activities. At 
that time Readco engineers were one of the first to 
lay concrete plans for converting manufacturing fa- 
cilities to war work. Readco's engineering talent was 
turned to the design, engineering and construction 
of various types of war equipment and material. 
These men had been trained over the years for intri- 
cate engineering detail and precision manufacture. 
With the zoning of the country for defense, Readco 
worked with various arsenals in the development of 
modern powder mixers for the production of smoke- 
less powder. Readco was the first manufacturer to 
receive the award for these mixers from Picatinny 
Arsenal before the government initiated the policy 
of contracting with private industries for the manu- 
facture of vital explosives. Along with the smokeless 
powder mixers, Readco designed and manufactured 
smokeless powder mascerators. 

In 1938, Readco received the first award given 



any private contractor for the manufacture of 60mm. 
trench mortars and mounts. A new annex was built 
to the factory and equipped for the express purpose 
of turning out 60mm. trench mortars on a production 
basis. For several years during World War II, this 
plant produced fifty per cent of the 60mm. trench 
mortars manufactured in this country. 

In 1940, Readco started manufacturing Amatol Pre- 
heaters, designed by ordnance engineers for use in 
heating Amatol in various powder-loading plants. 

In 1941, Readco was awarded a contract for manu- 
facturing 105mm. high explosive shells and a larger 
annex was built to house the highly specialized ma- 
chinery and auxiliary equipment for the production 
of shells at the rate of 50,000 per month. With the 
continued increase of war material required, Readco 
undertook contracts for the manufacture and assem- 
bly of combustion flasks, gate valves and injectors 
required on steam torpedoes. 

In 1942, a new small arms powder-cutting ma- 
chine was designed and built by Readco for loading 
in shell and bomb plants. 

In 1943, Readco started manufacturing some of 
the important process equipment for making the 
Atomic Bomb. 

At the same time, Readco's engineering staff was 
called upon to assist the Quartermaster Corps in 
planning, engineering and laying out complete bak- 
eries for cantonment in army camps all over the 
country. Six different sized bakeries were designed 
for supplying camps, ranging in sizes from 5,000 to 
70,000 men. 

In 1942, the Army realized the necessity for hav- 
ing a traveling bakery to move with our armies in 
the field of battle, in order that they might be 
properly fed. In cooperation with the Army Corps 
Engineers, Readco designed an entirely new field 
bakery, using basic engineering learned from mod- 
ern bakery practice. 

Readco's line of vertical mixers are also used by 
Army and Navy in kitchens and galleys, on land and 
the seven seas, for the preparation of many other 
types of food. Auxiliary equipment is furnished such 
as meat choppers, grinders, cutters, slicers, strainers, 
crushers, etc. 

The Read Machinery Co., Inc., was reorganized 
under its present management in 1934 by James T. 




READ MACHINERY CO., INC. 

Chemical Equipment 



Duffy, Jr., its president. Under the new management 
the plant capacity has been increased to a total of 
15,400 square feet of floor space. Present facilities 
include complete research laboratories for the de- 
velopment of new ideas, a skilled engineering staff 
for their practical accomplishments, a modern manu- 
facturing plant for precision fabrication and an alert 
sales organization with distributors and dealers all 
over the United States and the world. 
Bakery Division 

During the past ten years Readco has developed 
to become one of the leading manufacturers of bak- 
ery equipment throughout the world. The complete 
line includes flour handling equipment, sugar han- 
dling equipment, horizontal dough mixers, sweet 
dough mixers, automatic proofers, roll dividers and 
rounders, ingredient water coolers, proof boxes and 
fermentation rooms, revolving tray ovens, and stab- 
ilized tray traveling ovens, vertical mixers and cake 
batch mixers. 

Many outstanding new developments in bakery 



equipment have been originated in the Readco 
plant, which today enable the baker to speed pro- 
duction and increase quality for tastier baked goods. 
Chemica] Division 

Since 1912, when Readco first entered the chem- 
ical equipment field, facilities have been expanded 
to include the fabrication of all types of equipment 
including non-ferrous metals, carbon, special alloys, 
solid plate steel, both welding and cast. Pressure 
vessels are welded in accordance with ASME Code 
and approved by Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection 
and Insurance Company. Some of the largest pres- 
sure and vacuum mixers for the chemical industry 
are built in the Readco plant, many with exclusive 
and patented features, such as single packing gland 
construction to eliminate contamination of ingredi- 
ents being mixed. 

Today, Readco is supplying all types of chemical 
equipment and has developed a complete line of 
standardized machinery and material handling 
equipment for that field. 




60mm. trench mortars are built on a production line basis, with 
individual departmental control. 



105mm. high explosive shells turned out at the rate ol 50,000 
per month. 




Torpedo parts for sfeam (orpedoes an extremely dose pre- 
cision job machined to exacting tolerances. 



Manufacturing dough mixers lor portable field bakeries tor our 
"Army on the march." 



185 



REINEBERG'S 

Retail Shoe Store 



During Revolutionary times, "the old jail corner" 
referred to the corner of King and South George 
Streets, near where Reineberg's now stands. Beneath 
the pavement of the shoe shop can be found arched 
brick dugouts which might have been dungeons, 
perhaps merely coal cellars, maybe both. At any 
rate, the county jail, which was used until 1855, 
stood on that corner and harbored British officers 
and lesser prisoners. 

Reineberg's Store, founded in April, 1877, by Ed- 
ward C. Reineberg, was first situated at 7Va South 
George Street. In those days when curb markets 
opened at five o'clock in the morning, so did Reine- 
berg's. The veteran employee of the shop, S. A. 
Brueggeman, can remember those early market 
mornings, when he worked from five o'clock a.m., 
until twelve midnight on Saturdays. Reineberg's, like 
Polack's, faced the market's potato row. 

Until 1926, the business was both wholesale and 
retail; high quality shoes always being sold by the 
firm. It was the only agency in York selling Flor- 
sheim shoes and is the oldest customer on the Flor- 
sheim books, carrying the line for forty-five years. 
There was a time when the most expensive shoe in 
the shop sold for $5.00. 

Edward C. Reineberg, founder, was a man of vi- 
sion, foreseeing the future need for expanding the 
shop. As a result, he bought the present location 
years ago and, in February, 1940, Reineberg's Store 
had their official opening of its ultramodern shop, 
51-53 South George Street. Edward C. Reineberg 
died October 25, 1913. The business is now con- 
ducted by his three sons, Edward N., Jacob F., and 
S. Cletus Reineberg. 

Sixty-three years can make a big difference. In- 
direct lighting, plate glass doors and foot X-ray ma- 
chines were unknown in 1877. The exterior of the 
new building, finished with black carara glass and 
vitrolized steel, is one of the most modern architec- 
tural sights in the city. Daylight fluorescent lights 
and chrome-frame chairs complete the twentieth- 
century setting. It is hard to believe that the present 
building stands on the spot where a Revolutionary 
jail once stood, or that its show windows once faced 
the curb market's potato row. 

A new generation of Reineberg's is now active in 
the store, marking the fourth generation in the shoe 



business. J. Cletus Reineberg, son of S. Cletus Reine- 
berg, and Rita Reineberg, daughter of Edward N. 
Reineberg, take a part in the expert fitting of shoes 
for which the establishment has been famed for 
many years. 

The store now has three departments, for men, 
ladies and children, all operating on one floor. 
Crowded conditions are avoided by placing a large 
part of the stock in long corridors opening from the 
sides of the room. A large room in the basement, 
near the Revolutionary dugouts, will some day be 
used for an additional department. Due to the new 
arrangement, 15,000 pairs of shoes can be stocked, 
on the main floor. Hosiery, bags and findings occupy 
both sides of the front portion of the store. 




186 



H. M. REHMEYER 



Auto Accessories 

Located in the west end of town is the establish- 
ment of H. M. Rehmeyer, prominent west end mer- 
chant. Shortly after the close of World War I, back 
from overseas service, Mr. Rehmeyer, a native of 
York County, ambitious and alive to the opportu- 
nity of the future, started a retail auto supply busi- 
ness in a small store. 

Under his capable guidance and perseverence to 
succeed, this small venture grew rapidly and soon 
blossomed into a very successful wholesale and re- 
tail store, occupying the present site at 700 to 710 
West Market Street, together with several ware- 
houses. Today, it is one of the largest truck and 
passenger tire distributors in the country. 

Sales and service of tires, batteries, auto acces- 
sories, electric refrigerators, ranges and home ap- 
pliances now require more than forty employees 
with a service fleet of ten cars and trucks. 

Soon after Pearl Harbor, when all tires were frozen 
and the rubber situation became critical, Mr. Reh- 
meyer started at once to contribute his part to the 
war effort by converting a portion of his building 
and installing one of the most modern tire recapping 
and vulcanizing plants in the country. 



-Home Appliances 

Here, under the careful supervision of skilled work- 
men and "know how" methods, factory molds turn 
out a finished product which has been responsible 
for keeping many trucks and passenger-cars vital to 
our transportation system on the highway. 

To keep pace with York's rapid growth and his 
expanding business, Mr. Rehmeyer already has 
plans for additional new construction and moderni- 
zation to begin as soon as conditions will permit. 




Mold Room of H. M. Rehmeyer Recapping PJanf 



I. REINDOLLAR AND SON 

Building Contractors 



Back in 1890, when carpenters were paid sixteen 
cents per hour and in conformity with the times 
usually took their pay in meat, hay, clothing, etc., 
Isaiah Reindollar founded his first contracting busi- 
ness in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. 

In 1907, he came to York and established a build- 
ing contracting business under the name of I. Rein- 
dollar and Son. After Mr. Reindollar's death, in 1925, 
the business was continued under the same name 
by his son, Thad Reindollar, who owns and operates 
the business today. 

The transition from rough timber and wood peg 
construction to the modern reinforced concrete meth- 
ods was gradual and not as revolutionary as the 
changes experienced by other industries during the 
past fifty-five years. 

Today, construction of homes, public buildings, 
manufacturing plants and commercial establish- 
ments is speeded by equipment and prefabricated 
materials that conserve time and manpower. The 
finished structure is stronger and can withstand the 
ravages of time and elements longer. 

I. Reindollar and Son has earned a fine reputa- 
tion throughout York and York County for its excel- 



lent craftsmanship in steel and reinforced concrete 
construction work. Some of the civic structures 
erected by this firm include: York City Hall, York- 
towne Hotel Annex, Martin Memorial Library, Wil- 
liam Penn Senior High School Annex, Edgar Fahs 
Smith Junior High School, St. Paul's Lutheran Church, 
First Methodist Church and the York County Home. 




York City Hall 

New construction and remodeling work has also 
been accomplished for York industries, including the 
York Safe and Lock Company, John E. Baker Co., 
Certain-Teed Products Corp., and the American 
Chain & Cable Co. 



187 



ROOSEVELT OIL SERVICE 



Division of York- 
Roosevelt Oil Service was established in 1929 
under the name Roosevelt Garage and Supply Com- 
pany. Thomas Shipley, the president of York Ice 
Machinery Corporation, was its founder. 

It operated originally as a garage, in new, spa- 
cious, and modern quarters at 161 Roosevelt Avenue, 
and maintained and operated a service station on 
the property immediately adjacent. The changing 
conditions of the early thirties brought new services 
into the field of petroleum distribution. In 1930, the 
Roosevelt Garage and Supply Company erected and 
proceeded to operate a second service station at the 
corner of Philadelphia and Beaver Streets. 

Within the next few years, additional service sta- 
tions were opened. A fuel oil department was also 
inaugurated for the supplying of fuel oil to house- 
holders in York and vicinity. This branch of the busi- 




General Office, Showroom and Service Department. 



ness expanded rapidly, and in recognition of the 
trend toward fuel distribution, and away from car 
storage and repairs, the present name of Roosevelt 
Oil Service was adopted. This was in 1936. 

In 1938, Roosevelt further supplemented its service. 
It became a distributor for York Oil Burner Company 
(York-Heat), and established a department for the 
sales, installation and servicing of oil burners and 
oil heating equipment. The following year, Roosevelt 
also became distributors for York Ice Machinery 
Corporation, offering complete lines of air condition- 
ing equipment and commercial refrigeration through- 
out York, Franklin and Adams counties. 

At the present time, Roosevelt Oil Service controls 
twelve modern service stations, and distributes its 
various products through many additional dealer 
outlets in the York City area. York-Shipley, Inc., 
now the parent company, manufactures all types of 
domestic, commercial and industrial oil-fired equip- 
ment. The sales territory of Roosevelt Oil Service for 
the marketing of this equipment has been broadened 
to include Dauphin and Lancaster counties. 



Shipley, Inc. 

In addition to the twelve modern service stations, 
now operated at various strategically located points 
in the City of York for the convenience of motorists, 
the business of Roosevelt Oil Service is divided into 
two distinct fields. The headquarters of the Heating 
and Cooling Equipment Division is located at 601 
West Philadelphia Street. Petroleum products distri- 
bution is conducted from the office and bulk oil stor- 
age plant located on Grantley Road. 

This modern bulk plant handles the largest inde- 
pendent distribution of fuel oil in York. All deliveries 




Bulk Plant, Storage and Office. 



are forecast by the Roosevelt System of Weather- 
Controlled Delivery. This is an ingenious system of 
records and calculations which enables Roosevelt 
Oil Service to keep a constant check on each cus- 
tomer's oil supply, and to replenish it when neces- 
sary . . . without effort or bother on the customer's 
part. 

The Heating and Cooling Equipment Division of 
Roosevelt Oil Service is organized to take care of 
the sales, installation and servicing of York-Heat, 
and York air conditioning equipment for which the 
company is distributor. For this purpose it maintains 
a staff of competent, well equipped mechanics, who 
are on call any hour of the day or night for the 
prompt servicing of automatic heating and air con- 
ditioning equipment. A considerable amount of this 
service is rendered on an annual contract basis. 




Fuel Oil Delivery Trucks. 



THE B. M. ROOT COMPANY 

Multiple Boring Machinery for Wood, Plastics and Metal 



The B. M. Root Company was founded in 1898 by 
B. M. Root, Sr., a natural mechanical genius. 

In 1908, the firm was incorporated, and machinery 
of a general woodworking nature was manufactured. 

In 1912, a survey of the woodworking industry 
revealed that there was a wide demand for boring 
machinery. Consequently, the concern's facilities 
were devoted to the development of a line of boring 
machines of all types. The machines manufactured 
consisted of multiple and single spindle boring ma- 
chinery, and the Root trademark became established 
throughout the industry as a dependable source for 
boring machinery. 

Multiple spindle drill heads, lumber elevators, and 
automatic sawing machinery were manufactured as 
companion products. 




Typical Root Boring Machines. 

In 1926, the B. M. Root Company became affiliated 
with the National Association of Manufacturers of 
Woodworking Machinery. From this point on the 
company's products were sold nationally through a 
nation wide chain of distributors. At this time also 
there was the beginning of a sizable export trade. 

Although Root Boring Machinery had gained wide 
acceptance, a continued search for improvements 
led into the field of hydraulics in order to find a 



more efficient method for securing the reciprocating 
motion required by boring machines. 

An extensive research program resulted in the 
development of a hydraulic system that was an un- 
qualified step in advance over mechanical systems. 
This system was patented in 1927 under the name 
of the Root Patented Hydraulic Feed. 

The basic types of boring machines were then 
redesigned for hydraulic operation. During the fol- 
lowing years, hydraulic machines were designed 
and marketed that covered the entire field of wood 
boring operations. In recent years, machinery was 
also developed for the production, boring and drill- 
ing of composition materials, fiber, plastics, brass 
and light metals. 

The constant preoccupation with hydraulics led 
into an additional field of endeavor, that is, the de- 
signing and construction of special machine tools. 
These machines have been used for modern mass 
production methods and may be found in the as- 
sembly lines of the automobile industry, the steel in- 
dustry, and for the manufacture of Army and Navy 
ordnance equipment. 

The Root manufacturing facilities include standard 
and some special machine tools, a well-equipped, 
heat-treating department, welding equipment, an 
assembly floor, and all of the factory accessories re- 
quired to build accurately a wide variety of special 
and standard machines. 

The policy of the Engineering Department is one 
of creative and advanced thinking. In addition to the 
wealth of hydraulic engineering talent, the Engi- 
neering Department also has a wide general me- 
chanical designing ability. 

In addition to manufacturing, a Sales-Engineering 
Department has been developed for the distribution 
of woodworking machinery to the woodworking in- 
dustries within a 150-mile radius of York, Pa. Many 
of the large woodworking factories within this 
area have been completely equipped by Root sales 
engineers. 

The B. M. Root Company carried its share of the 
load during World War II. After the declaration of 
war the entire plant was 100% on war production 
consisting of prime and subcontracts for the Army, 
Navy, and Air Corps. 




189 



THE RUNKLE FURNITURE COMPANY 

Home Furnishings 



The Runkle Furniture Company was founded in 
1923 by its present head and general manager, 
Paul Runkle. He has developed this enterprise from 
a small concern established at 125 East Market 
Street to one of large proportions and exceptional 
reputation. 

The small storeroom at 125 East Market Street did 
not suffice for any length of time and the store was 
moved to larger quarters at 106 North George Street. 
The business continued at this location for seven 
years when it had again outgrown the building in 
which it was housed and a move was made to a 
larger and newly remodeled structure at 108 East 
Market Street, where the establishment continued 
for eight years. 

Since 1941 the Runkle Furniture Company has 
been located at 158-160 South George Street, on 
the northwest corner of George and Princess Streets. 
This present building had served as headquarters 
of C. A. Strack & Sons for more than a century. For 
the use of the Runkle concern this fine brick build- 
ing, five stories high, was completely modernized 
and rebuilt. This large building, together with an 
equally large warehouse located at 104-106 South 
Court Avenue, gives the Runkle concern over ninety 
thousand square feet of floor space for display and 
storage purposes. 

Partnership 

In 1941, Paul C. Lauck became associated with 
the company as a junior partner; Mr. Lauck is a 
graduate of the New York Grand Central School of 
Art, and the New York School of Interior Decoration. 
He is assistant manager and is head of the com- 
pany's Interior Decorating Department. Mrs. Paul 
Runkle, wife of the founder who has always taken 
an active interest in the business, became a partner 
in 1944. 

Group Buying 

The Runkle Furniture Company is associated with 
the Century Furniture Associates, Inc., with execu- 
tive offices at Two Park Avenue, New York City. 
With these connections Runkle's are afforded the 
buying power of fifty associated members. This 
group buying power, together with many other 
group advantages and facilities, are indeed a valu- 
able asset to the Runkle Company and its patrons. 

Exclusive Lines 

It is the policy of Runkle's to handle such lines 
as are confined to them exclusively in York and 
vicinity; most of their furniture coming from the 
Jamestown and Grand Rapids area. Many outstand- 
ing and quality lines of furniture, rugs and bedding 
are featured. 



Decorating Department 

The Decorating Department and its personnel are 
of incalcuable help to would-be homemakers who 
are in the hazy groping stage of buying furniture 
and furnishings. Experienced and understanding 




decorators will help you develop your own ideas 
and give you the benefit of their knowledge in home 
decoration. Many of York's finer homes, offices and 
institutions reflect the professional skill of Runkle's 
Decorating Department. 

The Charm Cottage, on the second floor, is com- 
pletely furnished and affords visitors and patrons the 
opportunity to see how furniture, rugs, hangings and 
the like look in full-sized rooms. Every floor is packed 
with the newest and best ideas for the prospective 
homemaker. 

Carpet Department Planned 

Plans are now under way to open a complete cut- 
order carpet department in addition to Runkle's al- 
ready popular Rug Department. Cutting, sewing, 
binding and laying of carpet will be done through 
the new workrooms by experienced and capable 
workmen. 

Other Facilities 

The facilities, services and equipment of the 
Runkle establishment are modern in every way. 
There are elevators to the various floors and de- 
partments. In addition to the planned carpet work- 
rooms there is a drapery workroom, upholstering 
department, and a special repair and service de- 
partment. An average of twenty-five people are 
employed. 



ion 



RELIANCE MANUFACTURING COMPANY 

Yorktowne Plant 



In 1898, the era of the horse and buggy, the first 
plant of Reliance Manufacturing Company was 
opened in Michigan City, Indiana. 

Milton Goodman, the founder, was a spirited 
young man with a burning ambition to create a 
product to be used in everyday life and to make it 
so good that everyone would ask for it by name. 
Inasmuch as this company was to make a prod- 
uct which the trade could absolutely rely on ... 
Reliance was chosen as the name of the company. 

In 1898, the worker's shirt was a crude, shapeless 
garment. Reliance, inspired with the spirit of prog- 
ress, improved this shirt, put in features which were 
found only in better shirts. 

In 1917, when America went to war. Reliance pro- 
duced large quantities of olive drab shirts for the 
A. E. F. From the Yanks came the name "Big Yank" 
destined to become the world's most famous work 
clothing trademark . . . the name of the favorite 
shirt of millions of workers and farmers throughout 
the country. 

As distribution was developed, the product was di- 
versified. Yank, Jr., Play Garments were introduced 
and Big Yank Flannel Shirts and Jackets. Because 
of the spirit generated by the slogan "Rely on Re- 
liance," the company expanded its operations to in- 
clude women's dresses, men's and boys' dress shirts, 
pajamas, and sportswear. These garments were and 
are distributed under the well-known brands : Happy 
Home and Kay Whitney Dresses, Awyon Shirts, Pen- 
rod Boys' Shirts, Universal Pajamas and Shirts, No- 
Tare Shorts, Yankshire Jackets and Coats, Ensenada 
Sportswear and Slacks. 

The Yorktowne Plant was founded in 1925 and 
four years later, in June, 1929, consolidated with Re- 
liance Manufacturing Company, carrying on under 
the same management, with Jesse Chock as its head. 
Since June, 1943, Bernard Gillespie has been the 
superintendent of this modernized plant with "music 
while you work," tasty home-cooked food in the 
cafeteria at cost, vacation with pay, maximum wage 
rates, etc., etc. The payroll of this plant is in excess 
of half a million dollars a year, an amount which 
definitely contributes to the general wealth of the 
community. 

World War II found Reliance again expanding its 
manufacturing facilities in its many plants to de- 
velop the production of parachutes and many types 
of garments for our Armed Forces. 

Yorktowne Plant was proud to produce Navy 
jumpers, Army shorts and Army Hospital pajamas. 
Some of these called for conversion of machinery 
and training for new help. Production methods were 
streamlined through scientific engineering to meet 
the high production requirements of Uncle Sam. New 
and progressive methods for training operators were 
adopted. Labor-management committees were set 
up to better understand group desires and needs, to 
protect the interests and welfare of its employees 
and to promote the policy of merit . . . merit of pro- 
duction and merit of person. 



Reliance Manufacturing Company is proud to 
point out that it has been foremost in the developing 
of new products and new methods of equipment for 
our Armed Forces. Since Pearl Harbor we have made 
approximately sixty million items for Uncle Sam 
consisting of parachutes . . . life-saving parachutes, 
aerial delivery and cargo parachutes, mine laying 




Parachutes made by Reliance. 

parachutes and some other secret chutes . . . jungle 
hammocks, foul weather suits, emergency sustenance 
vests, multi-purpose ponchos, flak helmets, navy 
whites, fatigue uniforms for Army and Navy, Army 
trousers and shirts, WAC shirts, camouflage suits. 
Navy blue chambray shirts, etc., etc. 

An Army-Navy "E" Award was given our Beacon 
Plant, in Loogootee, Indiana, in May, 1943, for excel- 
lence in production of Navy whites. In April, 1944, 
this same high recognition was won by our Triumph 
Plant, in Columbia, Miss., on parachutes and again 
by our Dixie Plant, Hattiesburg, Miss., on Army jack- 
ets during the current year. 

We are now developing and improving every ci- 
vilian garment in our lines, making each one su- 
perior to anything on the market at the price. Our 
advertising and sales plans have been carefully laia 
and will be aggressively continued. Our production 
activities are to be enlarged not only to keep our 
returning servicemen, our twenty-three factories and 
10,000 employees working steady, but to include 
additional new help. We plan to remain the world's 
largest clothing manufacturers. 

We are planning for maximum and excellence in 
production. This policy of better garments at lower 
cost . . . which thereby makes for more sales . . . and 
provides more steady work for more people is the 
"Rely on Reliance" way . . . the real American way! 



191 



SERVICE SUPPLY COMPANY 

Builders' and Contractors' Supplies 



The Service Supply Company, located at Sumner 
Street and the Western Maryland Railroad in West 
York, was incorporated in 1924, and has supplied at 
least some of the materials for almost every public 
building, residence, and industrial plant erected in 
York since that time. Some of these were the York 
Hospital, the Yorktowne Homes, Park Village, and 
the Blaw-Knox Ordnance Plant. It has aided in the 
war effort by keeping a variety of building supplies 
readily available for industrial plants in need of 
additions or repairs. 

The company began operations in 1924 with its 
president serving as general manager, sales man- 
ager and office man, and with one yard man, and 
one delivery truck operator. It now employs fifteen 
persons. For its first five years, it had its own stone 
quarry, employing a foreman and a dozen quarry 
workers, but this was discontinued in 1929. 

However, the cement, lime and much of the sand 
sold by the company is still obtained locally. Some 
sand is also shipped in from near Baltimore. Terra 
cotta pipe, corrugated metal pipe, and concrete pipe 
are sold for storm sewers, sanitary sewers and cul- 
verts. Glass blocks which have become increasingly 
popular as adding that modern touch to homes, 
stores and public buildings are also handled. 

Service Supply is not a contracting company but 
furnishes materials and machinery for road building 



to contractors, cities, townships and boroughs. It will 
also sell you materials to improve your own drive- 
way. Bituminous road materials, crushed rock and 
road oil, are sold as well as the concrete mixers and 
heavy road-grading machinery necessary for the 
construction of the road. 

Service Supply sells and gives twenty-four-hour 
service on Link-Belt Automatic Coal Stokers for use 
in heating homes and industrial plants and for gen- 
erating steam. 

The officers of Service Supply are R. L. Geesey, 
president; Walter B. Hostetter, vice-president; and 
R. F. Wantz, secretary-treasurer. The present facili- 
ties of the company consist of a large yard and sev- 
eral warehouses and an office building. The com- 
pany owns seven trucks; dump trucks, flat-bed and 
tank trucks for the handling of all types of materials. 

The organization is active in selling and dis- 
tributing supplies and in servicing machinery in 
York, Adams, Franklin, Cumberland and Lancaster 
Counties. 

The management is keeping abreast of new de- 
velopments in building materials and will make 
them available as soon as they are put on the 
market. Service Supply Company stands ready to 
cooperate with homeowners and builders in the 
post-war building boom which may be expected in 
the not-too-distant future. 



SEARS, ROEBUCK AND COMPANY 

General Merchandise 



Sears, Roebuck and Company, known to millions 
as a mail-order firm, opened a retail store in York 
in 1928. The company was founded in 1886 by Rich- 
ard W. Sears, a young station agent in North Red- 
wood, Minnesota, who conceived the idea of getting 
rid of a box of unclaimed watches through selling 
them by mail. This method of selling proved so suc- 
cessful that Sears started the R. W. Sears Watch 
Company. Sales soared and the company soon re- 
moved to Chicago. 

Dick needed a good watchmaker. An ad in the 
paper brought A. C. Roebuck, a clever country 
boy who could repair watches. 

By 1920, Sears, Roebuck and Company had grown 
to huge proportions. In order to give speedier ser- 
vice, Sears opened ten branch mail-order houses 
in leading cities of the country so that most of the 
country's population is now not more than 300 miles 
from a Sears mail-order house. 

In 1925, the first Sears' retail store was opened 
in Chicago. Today, Sears has 600 retail stores, and 
close to 100,000 employees. The company is owned 
by 57,000 stockholders, and maintains an employees' 
Savings and Profit-Sharing Pension Fund for its 
workers which also gives each regular employee a 
chance to become a stockholder. 

Sears, Roebuck and Company now stocks a be- 
wildering array of merchandise which may be ob- 
tained in the local retail store. 



Some of the Sears' lines are as follows: Hardware, 
plumbing, furnaces, stoves, boilers, stokers, roofing, 
storm sash and doors; housewares and electrical 
appliances; men's, women's, and children's shoes; 
furniture, radios, bedding, linoleum, rugs, curtains, 
sheets, pillowcases, and towels; auto accessories; 
farm machinery, baby chicks, bee supplies, harness, 
saddles, fencing, milking machines, freezing units, 
windmills, concrete mixers, and wagons; paint and 
wallpaper; piece goods, sewing needs, and oil cloth; 
men's work clothes, boys' clothing, and infants' 
clothes; ladies' underwear, corsets, lingerie, and ac- 
cessories. Corsets are fitted by expert corsetieres. 

All merchandise may be purchased on Easy 
Payments. 

Sears provides many other services for its custom- 
ers, among which are free delivery of heavy items; 
radio repair service; mechanical repair service; 
X-ray shoe fitting and key duplication. Installation 
is arranged for complete plumbing jobs, heating 
systems, linoleum laying and roofing jobs. In ser- 
vicing automobiles Sears mounts tires, changes oil, 
puts on seat covers, installs spark plugs, checks, 
loans, and installs batteries. Retail stores will trim 
wallpaper purchased. Catalogs are given out and 
mail orders written. 

Sears, Roebuck and Company is a nation-wide 
distributing agent which has built up a reputation 
through the years by selling quality merchandise at 
lower prices with satisfaction guaranteed. 



SCHMIDT & AULT PAPER CO. 

Paper Manufacturers 



It was in 1798 that Philip J. King erected the orig- 
inal mill for the manufacture of very high-grade, 
hand-made note and letter paper. So well were 
these buildings put together that the original Man- 
sion House, erected on the mill property by Mr. King 
in 1812, is now used as our office building. 

After his death his eldest son, George King, con- 
tinued the management and operation of the mill, 
specializing in the manufacture of a grade of letter 
paper named "Congress," which was sold in large 
quantities to the United States Government and to 
many customers in Baltimore, Philadelphia and 
New York. 

He was succeeded after his death by Alfred D. 
Jessop, of Philadelphia, who purchased the mill and 
property, and installed a forty-eight-inch cylinder 
machine, manufacturing an excellent grade of book 
paper. 

In 1888, the A. A. Yerkes Wall Paper Company 
moved from Philadelphia to York and occupied the 
mill, manufacturing their own paper and printing it 
at the mill. They continued the business until 1892 
when it was purchased by the National Wall Paper 
Company. 

The present owners came into possession of the 
property in 1897, operating under the name of the 
Codorus Paper Mills. Building papers were manu- 
factured on the forty-eight-inch machine. 

In 1903, Schmidt & Ault Paper Company was in- 
corporated by former owners, and since then, from 
time to time, alterations and additions have been 
made. Added to the original machine was one eighty- 
inch Cylinder, one sixty-four-inch and one eighty- 
inch Fourdrinier machine. These machines produced 
150,000 pounds of paper every twenty-four hours. 



In 1929, the original forty-eight-inch Cylinder ma- 
chine, also the sixty-four-inch Fourdrinier machine 
were dismantled, replacing them with a one hundred 
fifty-six-inch Fourdrinier machine, with a total pro- 
duction of 400,000 pounds every twenty-four hours. 

These machines are producing paperboard, chip 
tubing, can stock and specialties, in sheets or rolls, 
a large percentage of which is being shipped to con- 
verting plants who, in turn, convert this product into 
boxes of various types for packing war materials. 
The chip tubing is converted into shell containers, as 
well as flare containers, for the Army and Navy. A 




greater part of the light-weight chip produced in this 
mill is shipped to the corrugators who convert it into 
corrugated boxes of various sizes and shapes for 
packing food, blood plasma and numerous articles 
for the Army and Navy. There is produced on these 
machines, also, indented packing paper.which is 
now being used by the Army as a protection in 
packing helmets, and bogus wrapping papers and 
building papers for the jobbing trade. 



D. E. STETLER 



Dodge Plymouth Dodge Job- 

D. E. Stetler began selling Dodge passenger cars 
in 1914 in Newberrytown, York County, Pennsyl- 
vania. During World War I, in 1917 to be exact. 
Dodge commercial trucks and cars were added to 
the line. Dodge Brothers appointed Mr. Stetler as 
dealer for York, Pennsylvania, in March, 1921. He 
built one of the finest and largest service stations in 
Pennsylvania at 515-27 South George Street in 1923. 
The Plymouth line was added in 1929. Then, in 1937, 
Mr. Stetler added the service building at 31 East 



Rated Trucks, Sales and Service 

Boundary Avenue which gave the firm a total floor 
space of 37,000 square feet. 

Since January, 1945, Mr. Stetler has included as 
partners in the business his seven sons, six of them 
have served in the Armed Forces. A branch will be 
opened in Red Lion during November, 1945, and will 
be operated on the same sound principles as the 
present business in York. 

The number of employees has increased from two 
in 1914 to sixty-five at the beginning of World War II. 



10* 



AMMON R. SMITH AUTO CO. 

Chevrolet Dealer 



The Ammon R. Smith Auto Company dates back 
to 1907 when Ammon R. Smith, as a lad of seventeen, 
set himself up as an auto repair mechanic in his 
father's blacksmith shop at Dallastown, Pa. 

By 1910, he was buying and selling used cars 
and got the agency for the "Little 4." A year later, 
he built a garage of his own at the edge of town 
and sold Chevrolet cars built by Louis and Gaston 
Chevrolet. 

Originally, the "Little 4" was manufactured by the 
Little Motor Company, and thereafter the Chevrolet 
Motor Company was organized by W. C. Durant, 
taking in both the Chevrolet brothers and the Little 
Motor Car Company. In a little while General Motors 
Corporation was organized, and Chevrolet Motor 



Company became a part thereof. He is still a Chev- 
rolet dealer and has been a Chevrolet dealer since 
about two years before the Chevrolet Motor Com- 
pany was organized. 

In 1914, he came to York and bought an old Luth- 
eran Church building and by adding to it he has in- 
creased it to about four times its original floor space. 

The business grew from year to year until in 1941 
seventy-six people were employed, thirty of whom 
were in the Sales Department. That one year over 
eight hundred new Chevrolet cars and trucks, and 
sixteen hundred used cars and trucks were handled. 
The ten best years prior to World War II were: New 
cars and trucks, used cars and truck 19,338 units. 




STANDARD RAG & PAPER CO., INC. 

Paper Manufacturers' Supplies 



Probably every American has had brought home 
to him, during World War II, the essential and ever- 
growing uses for waste paper. This usefulness, far 
from new, was lifted from obscurity to national at- 
tention when the armed forces began transporting 
and packaging untold tons of equipment and sup- 
plies in the many types of paperboard containers 
and wrappings processed from waste paper. 

Although it is a far cry from the recent waste 
paper salvage drives to the early days of paper col- 
lection in York, a local market for waste paper has 
existed here in the form of paperboard conversion 
mills for many years. 

In the early 1880's, the Buckingham family estab- 
lished a waste paper and rag business at 129 West 
Philadelphia Street. At that time the operation was 
largely a matter of hand labor with pushcart or horse 
and wagon, to get salvage to the storage yard where 
it was given a primary sorting and then delivered 
for sale to the local mills. 

In 1919, the original Buckingham business at 129 
West Philadelphia Street was purchased by the pres- 
ent corporation of the Standard Rag & Paper Com- 
pany. In 1923, this establishment was moved to the 
yard and warehouse at 205 West Philadelphia Street 
where it has since been in continuous operation 
under the same ownership. 



The growth of the Standard Rag & Paper Com- 
pany, under the active management of Maurice 
Lavetan, has been marked by the employment of 
modern labor-saving machinery as improvements 
became available. Where sorting of rags and paper 
was originally crude, today many distinct grades 
and types of paper are normally separated and 
baled. During peacetime the company employs 
about twenty-two people, most of whom work at 
collecting, sorting, and baling the waste paper from 
local sources. 

Yorkers in their homes, stores, and industrial plants 
have long been educated to save rags and paper 
systematically. Standard Rag & Paper Company 
takes pride in the fact that this established local 
practice has had much to do with the success York's 
wartime paper salvage drives have achieved. Ma- 
chinery for proper collection was already in exis- 
tence; patriotic groups interested in the war effort 
salvage-wise had only to take advantage of the fa- 
cilities and organization at hand. 

The necessities of World War II have proven, if 
that were necessary, the value and importance of 
paperboard products. Standard Rag & Paper Com- 
pany, in its twenty-sixth year, looks forward with 
confidence in its ability to serve the essential paper 
reprocessing industries. 



P. A. & S. SMALL CO. 

Wholesale Distributors 



On August 25, 1809, George Small opened a hard- 
ware store in Centre Square a venture he rapidly 
expanded into a thriving business. The York Gazette, 
of November 14, 1816, carried this notice: "New iron 
store George Small at the northeast corner of the 
Courthouse, in the borough of York, respectfully 
acquaints the public that he has received and will 
constantly keep on hand a large and general assort- 
ment of bar iron, Crowley Steel, English and Amer- 
ican Blister Steel. 



tinued about 1875. Near the turn of the century the 
company decided to devote its entire attention to 
the hardware business and all other interests were 
sold. P. A. & S. Small Company became a specialist 
in its chosen field. 

Five generations of the Small family have oper- 
ated the business through every phase of industrial 
change, in peace and war, boom times and panics. 




Pipe and Steel Warehouse. 

George Small, the founder, and the four succeed- 
ing family generations to carry on the enterprise 
gained a wide business experience. In addition to 
the hardware store, they were at various times en- 
gaged in banking, milling and flour export, wire 
drawing, operating charcoal and gray iron furnaces. 

The many changes following the Civil War brought 
changes to P. A. & S. Small Company, too. After sixty 
years of successful operation, banking was discon- 




General Storage Warehouse. 

Today, with three large modern warehouses, the 
company concentrates solely on distribution of iron, 
steel, pipe and mill supplies to industry; plumbing 
and heating supplies to contractors; and hardware 
and food products to general stores. 

About 1930, the company sponsored a merchan- 
dising plan among grocery customers and the Com- 
munity Pure Food Stores were introduced with one 
hundred and fifty independent merchants cooperat- 
ing. Company operations are now confined to twelve 
counties, within a radius of 100 miles of York. Almost 
100 people comprise the Small organization and 
twelve trucks go out from the warehouses daily, 
making deliveries throughout this busy territory. 




Hardware and Grocery Warehouse. 



195 



S. MORGAN SMITH COMPANY 

Hydraulic Turbines, Valves, Pumps and Special Machinery 



Turning back the pages of history, it is found that 
the great hydraulic developments of today have their 
foundation in the work of the engineers and inven- 
tors of the nineteenth century, who found methods 
by which turbine principles, little understood at the 
time, could be applied for the purpose of develop- 
ing power. 

Stephen Morgan Smith 
Was One of These Pioneers 

111 health caused his retirement from the ministry 
and he turned to mechanics, for which he had a 
natural bent and ability, and succeeded in produc- 
ing, after many experiments, his first "Success" tur- 
bine, which he sold to a company in the milling 
industry. 

The results proved that he had a sound idea. This 
led him to start operations which began with his 
designing the turbines and selling them himself, 
with the work of manufacturing being done by an 
outside concern under his direct supervision. 

The Start of Its Own Factory 

All of S. Morgan Smith's early faith and vision 
had been proven practical and demand for water 
turbines warranted the building of a factory which 
would permit him to operate with greater ease and 
efficiency. But his natural conservatism and caution 
kept him from going beyond what he felt would be 
needed for several years. This factory was estab- 
lished some thirteen years after his start, in 1874, a 
mere speck of 50 by 150 feet, compared to the giant 
structures that stand over and around the original 
site. 

But this native prudence which kept him from ex- 
panding beyond the limits of judgment was forced 
again and again, by circumstances beyond the 
Founder's control. Changes in papermaking and 
milling, principally, brought forth a much greater 
demand for water turbines and the company was 
not slow to avail itself of these new opportunities. 

Electricity A New Factor 

About this time, or about ten years after S. Mor- 
gan Smith's start, the value of falling water for the 
generation of electricity was examined and appre- 
ciated. The demand for electric current grew with 
almost lightning speed. Industry was consuming it 
in ever-increasing quantities. Homes were being 
wired, and more lines were stretched in rural sec- 
tions and urban districts. With this demand came 
the development of long-distance transmission of 
electricity. 

From then on, the company went forward with 
the new industry. It is doubtful if any other type 
of prime mover has contributed more tp the early 
growth of the electrical industry than the water tur- 
bine. And the modern designs are improvements, re- 
finements and further developments of the original 
designs of the Founder S. Morgan Smith. 

A Nation on the March 

Industrial development in this country was most 



rapid and this was a factor in the company's pros- 
perity and further expansion. For that period of sev- 
enty years, from the start of the company to now, 
constitutes a bold and amazing achievement in hu- 
man progress. 

And, yet, the history of the S. Morgan Smith Com- 
pany does not border on the spectacular. There is 
no basis of comparison between it and many of the 
very large industrial organizations which sprang up 
like mushrooms on the industrial landscape. Rather 
has it been a slow, sure and sound growth, which, 
because of keeping abreast with the onward march 
of progress, has been such as to place it in the 
very forefront of hydraulics as the largest exclusive 
builder of this kind of equipment in the United States. 

Representative Accomplishments 

The S. Morgan Smith Company, for example, 
helped to promote the installation of the first long- 
distance electric transmission system in the United 
States, and built the four horizontal-shaft, twin-tur- 
bine units installed in the Folsom, California, plant 
of the Sacramento Electric Power and Light Com- 
pany, under a fifty-five foot head, which developed 
5,000 horsepower a model for its time! And the elec- 
tric current thus generated was transmitted to the 
City of Sacramento, twenty-three miles away, which 
was a long-distance record for transmission of cur- 
rent up to then. 

Huge hydroelectric plants have been built since 
great centers of power development such as Bonne- 
ville, and the Tennessee Valley Authority, in which 
the S. Morgan Smith Company has been privileged 
to play an important part, and to which it has made 
substantial contributions. 

In excess of 8,000,000 horsepower alone has been 
built by the company to date, and more than 22% 
of this vast amount is installed and being used in 
foreign countries. 

Makers of Specialized Machinery 

The S. Morgan Smith Company stands among the 
foremost of the early pioneers, and is known all over 
the world as a builder of specialized machinery. The 
plant is the world's largest devoted exclusively to 
hydraulic turbines and allied equipment. 

Wide Assortment of Designs 

Designs include reaction type runners for every 
practical speed for low, medium and high-head de- 
velopment, and in the low-head field there are high- 
speed axial flow runners of both fixed and the Kap- 
lan automatically adjustable blade types. Among 
allied equipment are actuator and gate shaft type 
governors with individual or central pumping sys- 
tems; Gibbs oil bath thrust bearings for vertical or 
horizontal shafts; plate steel spiral casings, draft 
tubes and penstocks; steel roller gates; hoists and 
appurtenances; gate valves, angle needle relief 
valves and conical plug valves for pressure reduc- 
ing, flow regulating, automatic check and liquid 
control and many other services; butterfly valves, 
Dow-disc-arm pivot valves and other designs which 
cover a wide field in hydraulics; head gates, taintor 



S. MORGAN SMITH COMPANY 



gates, sluice gates, and waste gates; axial flow 
pumps with fixed and automatically adjustable 
vanes; and other appliances. 



Hydraulic Turbines, Valves, Pumps and Special Machinery 

with the recirculatory pumping system, provides 
constant quantities of water at predetermined ad- 
justable pressures. This same thoroughness is mani- 




Hydraulic Laboratory 

Most of the recent major advances in the art of 
designing various types of hydraulic equipment 
have come about as the direct result of painstaking 
research and laboratory experiments. Tests con- 
ducted in the Smith Hydraulic Laboratory have con- 
tributed in no small measure to this recognized 
progress. For no detail has been overlooked that 
would contribute to this scientific effort. For example, 
a large standpipe on the roof of the building was 
erected specially for the testing of just one design 
cone valves. This feature, when used in conjunction 



fested in every operation, and the completeness of 
the combined effort and methods pursued have been 
a very great factor in the success of the business. 



Reputation 

The company has flourished through the years, 
kept pace with engineering advancement, and ac- 
quired financial stability and unexcelled manufac- 
turing facilities. As a result its reputation has spread 
to the far corners of the earth, and it has earned its 
place of first rank, even in a world in which indus- 
trial achievement is common! 



197 



SPRING GARDEN BRICK & CLAY PRODUCTS CO., INC 



Brick and Clay Products 



The manufacture of bricks has been established 
as one of York's oldest industries. The process em- 
ployed in those early days was to form the clay by 
hand and burn it with wood. Many of York's early 
citizens adopted this method in making bricks for 
their first homes. 

In 1867, three brothers, Clinton D., Israel, and 
Emanuel Frey, were convinced that bricks could be 
manufactured in quantities and sold at a profit to 
engineers, contractors and home builders. The Spring 
Garden Brick and Clay Products Co., Inc., was es- 
tablished and the fact that it has enjoyed continuous 
progress for seventy-eight years is a tribute to the 
foresight and progressiveness of both its founders 
and their successors. 

From its inception, the company has been a local 
family owned and operated enterprise. Improved 
methods of manufacture, from the original hand- 
made process, through the machine and coal-burn- 
ing method to the present method of producing Co- 
lonial Type Face Brick utilizing different types of ' 
brick-burning kilns have been adopted as they be- 
came available. Modern equipment and improved 
processing methods have enabled this firm to in- 
crease their production capacity from 30,000 bricks 
per day in 1917 to its present capacity of 95,000 
bricks per day. Principal products of the company 
are Colonial Type Face Brick, Common Brick and 
Dutch Tile. 

Since 1939, the Spring Garden Brick & Clay Prod- 
ucts Co., Inc., has produced vast quantities of brick 
for the U. S. Army, Navy and Coast Guard, for bar- 
racks, officers' quarters, testing laboratories, wind 
tunnels, etc., for naval powder factories and other 
buildings needed for the Armed Forces. 

The company has also furnished brick for leading 
universities, hospitals, schools, libraries, private 
homes, Y. M. C. A., and Post-Office buildings, as well 
as the U. S. Custom House, Philadelphia, Pa.; Marine 



Hospital, Baltimore, Md.; U. S. Printing Office; New 
York, Pennsylvania and Maryland State Institutions; 
and for public housing incidental to the war effort 
throughout the East. 




Spring Garden Brick & Clay Products Co. 




STEWART AND MARCH 

Construction Maintenance 



The firm of Stewart and March was founded on 
May 6, 1939, by Robert H. Stewart and Luther D. 
March. The first plant location was at 514 North 
George Street, York. Expanding business require- 
ments necessitated larger plant facilities, and in the 
Spring of 1940, the present property on North Hartley 
Street was purchased and improved. 

From its inception this new business was designed 
for local community service specializing in road- 
work, excavation, concrete construction, and equip- 



ment rentals. The aim of the business was to develop 
and service the local industrial plant maintenance 
and construction needs, the local building contract- 
ing industry, and the requirements of the individuals 
of the community. 

The impact of the war tremendously increased the 
volume of industrial maintenance and construction 
to such an extent that nearly every project under- 
taken has been in assistance of local industry in the 
prosecution of the war effort. 



STILLMAN'S 

Retail Department Store 



Stillman's, at 35-39 East Market Street, is a retail 
department store carrying popularly-priced mer- 
chandise. Ready-to-wear for ladies includes furs, 
coats, suits, dresses, uniforms, aprons, smocks, robes, 
housecoats, lingerie, corsets, hosiery, gloves, milli- 
nery, handbags, umbrellas and fashion accessories. 
Men's furnishings, sportswear, and work clothes are 
also shown. There is a complete boys' and girls' de- 
partment and a selection of shoes for all the family. 
A complete shoe repair service is also offered. Other 
departments are drugs, patterns, yard goods, toys, 
luggage and juvenile furniture. One of York's busi- 
est beauty parlors is on the second floor. Six oper- 
ators are on duty and the room is completely air 
conditioned. 

Stillman's has one of the largest stocks of domes- 
tics in the city. They show blankets in abundance, 
bedspreads, sheets, pillowcases, rugs, curtains and 
draperies, table linens and art needlework. 

In 1940, the present modern building was erected. 
It was the first retail department store in the city to 
be air conditioned throughout by York. 

Stillman's, in York, is one of forty stores of the 
same name, with central offices in New York City. 
Their 250 buyers have access to the top of the mar- 
ket. Merchandise is obtained not only in the largest 
eastern markets, but also from Los Angeles, Dallas, 
St. Louis, and Chicago. 

Through friendly relations with its customers and 
through savings effected by mass buying being 
passed on to the consumer, Stillman's stores have 



become favorably known throughout the East and 
Middle West. 




R. W. STRICKLER 

Produce, Vegetables, Sea Foods 



Back in 1903, when citizens of the community de- 
pended on retailers of fruits and vegetables to dis- 
play their products in horse-drawn vehicles at their 
homes, and in the early morning curb markets held 
at Continental Square, R. W. Strickler began busi- 
ness with one horse and wagon. 

Today, this progressive wholesale and retail busi- 
ness, whose products include a wide variety of pro- 
duce, vegetables and sea foods, has twenty-six em- 



ployees and a fleet of eleven modern trucks ranging 
in size from % ton to 9 tons capacity. 

Storage facilities include three refrigerated ware- 
houses in York and one at Biglerville, Pa., for mixed 
vegetables, fruits, fish and oysters. Bananas are 
cured and held in a modern refrigerated storage; 
fish are frozen and held in separate rooms apart 
from those holding oysters under refrigeration. 



STRAYER-BEITZEL COMPANY OF YORK 

Advertising Specialties 



In 1919, Philip C. Strayer started in business as a 
jobber of calendars and advertising specialties in 
Detroit, Michigan. He was convinced that the East- 
ern Seaboard offered additional opportunities for the 
distribution of his products. A partnership was formed 
with Floyd M. Beitzel and in 1923 they established a 
manufacturing plant at 1048 West Princess Street. 
Ten years later, at the bottom of the depression, the 
continuing growth of the business required larger fa- 
cilities and the establishment was moved to its pres- 



ent location at Dewey and Locust Streets in York. 

The Strayer-Beitzel Company has complete equip- 
ment for manufacturing twelve-sheet commercial 
art calendars, imprinting of pencils and leather 
goods, automatic tinning of paper products, and 
printing of all types of advertising specialties. 

The main office of the company is located in York, 
with branches in Detroit, Michigan, and Baltimore, 
Maryland. National distribution is effected through 
these facilities. 



199 



D. F. STAUFFER BISCUIT COMPANY, INCORPORATED 

Manufacturers of "Nif-ty" Cookies, Crackers and Pretzels 



When, in 1871, David F. Stauffer took over the 
cake and cracker business which has been founded 
by Jacob Weiser in 1858, five barrels of crackers per 
day was considered a good volume of business. And 
the barrel ordered was promptly delivered on a 
wheelbarrow, sometimes by the owner himself! 

Contrast this with the D. F. Stauffer Biscuit Com- 
pany, Incorporated, today, not only York's but also 




StauUer Employees in 1884. 



one of the largest manufacturers of cookies, crackers 
and pretzels in Eastern Pennsylvania. The com- 
pany's products are widely used in Pennsylvania, 
Maryland, District of Columbia, Ohio, and New York. 
Ten trucks insure the regular delivery of fresh 
merchandise attractively packaged in cartons and 
caddies and sold under the registered trade-mark 
"Nif-ty." 

The business was incorporated by David F. 
Stauffer and his sons in 1915. The present officers 
are Calvin Stauffer, president; William H. Stauffer, 
vice-president; Harry Stauffer, secretary and trea- 
surer; and David E. Stauffer, assistant secretary. 

Stauffer's factory is operated under modern sani- 
tary conditions meeting all the requirements of State 
and Federal regulations and the premises are in- 
spected regularly. The four-story buildings on West 
Princess Street contain 55,000 square feet of floor 
space. 

Where a dozen persons were employed at the be- 
ginning of the business, there are now one hundred 
and twenty-five on the payroll. Sixty per cent of the 
employees have been with Stauffers over a long pe- 
riod of time: Two from fifty-five to fifty-seven years; 



five from forty to forty-six years; six from thirty to 
thirty-nine years; eight from twenty-five to thirty- 
eight years; ten from twenty to twenty-four years; 
and twenty-nine from ten to nineteen years. Stauffer 
products are made with the skill that comes of this 
long experience and a fine spirit of loyalty pervades 
the organization. 

Read baking machinery, made in York, including 
four reels and one traveling oven, is used and flour, 
milk and other ingredients are purchased locally as 
far as is possible. 

Pretzels, upon which rests much of the fame of the 
D. F. Stauffer Biscuit Company, have an interesting 
history. They are one of the few foods in existence 
which have retained their original form and their 
popularity since medieval days. 

They were first baked in monasteries where chil- 
dren were sent to learn their prayers. At the end of 
the lesson the priest gave each child a small salty 
cake called a "pretiola" or "little reward." One 
priest conceived the idea of shaping the cake, as a 
reminder to his pupils not to forget their prayers. 
He had the dough twisted to represent crossed arms, 
which was the attitude then assumed in prayer as 
may be seen in many old paintings. Pretzels are still 
baked in this shape today. 

Stauffer's products are supplied to the Yorktowne 
Stores, the Community Stores, the Atlantic and Pa- 
cific Tea Company, the American Stores, Fishel's and 
Fox's Bakeries and to many defense plant cafeterias, 
as well as local independent grocers and restaurants. 




YORK TOY AND SPECIALTY CO. 

Successors to Swartz Cabinet Works 



George A. Swartz, in July of 1902, located his first 
business, that of cabinetmaking, in a two-story struc- 
ture at the rear of his home, 719 West Philadelphia 
Street. Increased business necessitated larger work- 
ing quarters and a thirty-foot addition, three stories 
high was built. 

After twenty years at the above location, Mr. 
Swartz acquired the present structure located on 
Roosevelt Avenue and P. R. R., and installed all 
modern machinery. The railroad facilities which 
were now available were indeed most helpful and 
convenient for shipping. 



Swartz Cabinet Works, as the business was known, 
specialized in designing and building store and res- 
taurant fixtures and all types of cabinet work. Many 
of the apprentices who served under Mr. Swartz to 
learn the trade are now foremen in other woodwork- 
ing shops. 

Due to Mr. Swartz's ill health, in 1945, the business 
was taken over by his son, E. Nevin Swartz, A. R. 
Parker and W. F. Mackin. They too have made a 
success in their business, that of toymaking. The 
sales territory is spread over many States. 

It is with this patronage that they go forward confi- 
dently under the name of York Toy & Specialty Co. 



SWEIGART'S PHOTO SERVICE SHOP 

278-80 West Market Street 



B. E. Sweigart founded his first photo service store, 
August 10, 1912, at the corner of King Street and 
Highland Avenue in York. After two years of con- 
ducting a wholesale photo finishing service at this 
location, Mr. Sweigart moved his establishment to 
286 West Market Street, when both a wholesale and 
retail photo service business was established. 

In 1917, Mr. Sweigart enlisted in the Army Aerial 
Photographic Service. He was honorably discharged 
in 1919, reopened his store at its previous location 
and within a few years larger facilities were ac- 
quired at 278 West Market Street to accommodate 
the rapid growth of the business. 



Local interest in amateur photography had grown 
to such large proportions by 1935 that it was neces- 
sary to expand the service facilities of the business. 
The store space was enlarged to twice the original 
size, the interior of the store was modernized and 
an up-to-date finishing plant was installed. 

Today, Sweigart's Photo Service Shop is the larg- 
est and most modern store of its kind in the commu- 
nity. This establishment handles a fine selection of 
photographic supplies, accessories and equipment. 
Its modern finishing plant produces quality photo- 
graphic printing, enlarging, copying and many other 
types of finishing. 




Founded in 1879, and under continuous manage- 
ment and ownership of the same family for sixty-six 
years, this store has grown from a small "one man" 
shop to be the largest men's and boys' retail store 
in this community. 

Today, it occupies a three-story building with more 
than 10,000 square feet of floor space devoted to the 
sales and display of apparel for "Dad and His Lad." 
A completely stocked Boys' Department occupies the 
second floor, men's clothing is located on the third 
floor and men's furnishings on the main floor. Thirty- 
five to fifty employees are required to maintain ade- 



WALKER'S 

Men's and Boys' Clothing 

quote service throughout the store. 

The present owners of "Walker's" are Solomon 
and Arthur Walker, who are respectively a son and 
grandson of the founder. Employees of this firm have 
recoras of twenty, thirty and even forty years and 
families have been coming to their "favorite sales- 
man" for their apparel needs for many, many years. 

Walker's has grown with York and in post-war 
York it will continue its expansion with more ser- 
vices, better equipment and as always, a wide va- 
riety of the most popular assortments in every 
department. 



GEORGE W. WERTZ 

Linoleums, Carpets, Window Shades and Venetian Blinds 



When George W. Wertz opened his own shop for 
the sale of linoleum, carpets, window shades and 
Venetian blinds at 671 West Market Street, in 1938, 
he brought with him forty years of experience in the 
business. Through personal attention to the needs of 
his customers, he has built up a reputation for qual- 
ity merchandise and good service. 

Sloane-Blabon, Armstrong and Congoleum lino- 
leum and rugs are handled, and complete installa- 
tion service is available. Mr. Wertz is also qualified 
to aid in decorative problems, and is able to advise 
customers in the selection of linoleum to blend with 
specific color schemes. He also creates beautiful 



custom-built floors of Armstrong linoleum with motifs 
inlaid in contrasting color. 

George W. Wertz has furnished and installed lino- 
leum in many of York's finest private homes and 
also in the new homes in Park Village, Lincoln Park, 
Hillcroft Village, and in many of the homes built by 
Schimmel-Binder in Southwood Hills. He has also 
installed linoleum in the Manufacturers' Association 
Building, the General Electric Company, and the 
York Safe and Lock. In the Read Machinery Build- 
ing, he provided linoleum and Venetian blinds for 
all the offices. 



2O1 



SUPERIOR PAPER PRODUCTS COMPANY 

Corrugated Shipping Containers 



Superior Paper Products Company was organized 
in 1925 and began producing corrugated shipping 
containers in that year in Carnegie, Pa., located in 
the Pittsburgh industrial area. The manufacturing 
equipment was housed in a rented building. This 
was a meagre beginning but an enthusiastic one 
for the organizers had an idea the idea to make a 
better shipping container a container that would 
make possible the shipment of a wide range of prod- 
ucts which previously had not been attempted in 
corrugated paper. 

The Company developed Super Kraft Corrugated 
Paperboard. It was a combination of strong wood 
fibres giving the greatest strength which had been 
achieved up to that time. Super Kraft Containers nat- 
urally began to serve an evergrowing number of 
shippers in the area. This was gratifying and help- 
ful but, of greater importance. Super Kraft Board 
was the means to accomplish the Company's orig- 
inal objective. 

Great strength alone is not enough. The strength 
of Super Kraft must be used wisely and applied cor- 
rectly. One industry after another was studied its 
shipping requirements analyzed. Super Kraft was de- 
signed into a container for each particular shipping 
job. And one product after another was packaged 
and carried to market successfully in Super Kraft 
Containers unusual items for corrugated paper 
packaging refrigerators, caskets, riling cabinets 
and many items of furniture safes, oil burners, 
water heaters and machine parts. 

This developing and expanding use of Super Kraft 
Containers strained and then exceeded the original 
manufacturing facilities. Additional capacity was 



necessary. A large modern container plant was 
erected on the Company's own land in Crafton, 
Pittsburgh, Pa. However, it clearly was evident that 
other facilities were needed located in the eastern 
part of the State where the company could serve 
better the increasing reliance of shippers upon Super 
Kraft Containers. 

York County was selected as the best possible site 
for the eastern plant. The first section of the present 
factory was built in 1932, in Mount Wolf, a rural 
community in York County. From time to time other 
sections have been added so that now the plant 
comprises approximately 75,000 square feet of floor 
space to accommodate the production of containers 
by machinery of the most modern design. 

Mount Wolf is served by the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road and is located near the main highways giving 
easy access for prompt and quick deliveries to manu- 
facturers throughout the Middle Atlantic States area. 
The people are of Pennsylvania German stock who 
characteristically place their dependence upon the 
land. Productive gardening and general farming is 
carried on by a majority of the employees literally 
within a stone's throw of the factory. Cultivation of 
the soil and production in the factory is a combina- 
tion which gives great security to the employees. 

Super Kraft Containers have gone to war and are 
packaging thousands of items required by the 
Armed Forces. Plans are completed for a return to 
peacetime shipping the foundation is laid already 
for a substantial addition to the factory to keep 
pace with the growing container requirements of 
the area. 




Plant at Mt. Wall (York County), Pa. 



2O2 



SUSQUEHANNA BROADCASTING COMPANY 

Radio Station WSBA 




September 1, 1942, marked the opening of 
WSBA, York's newest and most modern radio sta- 
tion, located a short distance north of the city along 
the Susquehanna Trail. 

Owned and operated by the Susquehanna Broad- 
casting Company, WSBA is a 100-watt station, li- 
censed to operate on a regional channel frequency 
of 900 kilocycles, and popularly known as "The 
Voice of 57 Counties." 

Its studios, transmitter and offices, housed in a 
modern building of Colonial architecture in keeping 
with the tradition of the community, form a unit un- 
surpassed in plan, design and equipment by any 
station of its class in the East. It is affiliated with the 
American Broadcasting Company. 

Since its initial broadcast, WSBA has consis- 
tently maintained a policy of public service. Its fa- 
cilities are available to all government agencies, 
and every call from business, educational, and 
philanthropic organizations of the area have been 



answered with good will and cooperation. 

In addition to the regular radio programs, WSBA 
pioneered an outstanding news service, a daily pro- 
gram especially planned for the farmers of York 
County; the WSBA Radio Chapel, conducted daily 
by ministers of all local churches; and the WSBA 
Yankee Doodle Club program, which provides a 
unique opportunity for the younger citizens of the 
community to participate in a production of their 
own. 

The Susquehanna Broadcasting Company, with 
offices at 47 East Market Street, is looking to the 
future. It plans to improve and expand its present 
standard broadcast facilities wherever possible, and, 
in addition, has applied to the Federal Communica- 
tions Commission to build and operate a High Fre- 
quency, or FM station. It is also following closely 
developments in television and Station WSBA will 
continue to give York the best programming and 
latest developments in the industry. 




203 



THOMPSON'S 

Ladies' and Children's Apparel 



Thompson's was opened in York in April, 1932, in 
the depths of the depression by R. J. Thompson and 
his sister, Sara A. Thompson Johnson. The business 
was operated on a cash basis only and with the 
lowest possible overhead. The benefit of the savings 
thus effected were passed on to the customer. As the 
result of this policy, business increased to such an 
extent that expansion into neighboring communi- 
ties soon seemed advisable. Accordingly, branch 
stores were opened in Carlisle, Chambersburg, Co- 
lumbia, Red Lion, Gettysburg, Waynesboro, Ship- 
pensburg and Mechanicsburg. The York store, how- 
ever, remains headquarters for the chain. 

All Thompson Stores continue to feature standard 
quality, moderately-priced ladies' and children's 
wearing apparel, shoes, hose, millinery and acces- 
sories, including many nationally advertised brands. 
This merchandise is purchased in the largest whole- 
sale markets of the East including New York, Boston, 
Philadelphia and Chicago. 



The growth of Thompson's from the original single 
store employing three persons to a chain of nine 
busy stores with a total of seventy-two employees, 




First Floor Sales Room. 

built up in less than fourteen years, certainly rep- 
resents an outstanding achievement in the field of 
retail clothing. 




TRIMMER PRINTING COMPANY 

Commercial Color Printers 



Beginning as a one-man shop in 1905, Trimmer 
Printing Company is now the largest commercial 
printing plant in York. The Wrightsville Star, a 
weekly newspaper, was the background of experi- 
ence on which William H. Trimmer founded his en- 
terprise at 203 Park Place in York. 

Customers liked the proprietor's "we can do it" 
attitude and within two years the size of the plant 
was more than doubled. In 1914, a new and larger 
plant was built at 129-131 North Penn Street, but in 
1917, during World War I, this too was enlarged. 
The present brick and steel structure with an area 
of 12,000 square feet was built and occupied in 1923. 
Through succeeding years the business of William 
H. Trimmer shared in the prosperity of the "Twen- 
ties," reflected the trends of the "Difficult Thirties." 

On Armistice Day, 1940, Trimmer Printing Com- 
pany became a four-way partnership. The "Battle 
for Britain" had barely been won only the month 
before Pearl Harbor was yet to come. The three 
new partners were long experienced in the print- 
ing trade and John Groome, Raymond Frey and 
Chester Stagemyer, respectively, assumed charge of 
sales, composition and press production. 

Within sixty days sufficient equipment and the 
skilled craftsmen to operate it was added through- 
out the various departments to more than double the 
potential output. Customers, old and new, promptly 
placed their stamp of approval on the broader ser- 
vices of the new Trimmer Printing Company. Through 
succeeding years the signature "Trim-Print York" 



has appeared on the printed literature of a steadily 
increasing clientele, to carry their sales story all 
over the world. 




UNITED WALLPAPER, INC 

Wallpaper 



The York plant of United Wallpaper, Inc., largest 
manufacturer of wallpaper and wallpaper products 
in the world, was built in 1893. It was founded as 
the York Card and Paper Company. In 1905, an 
addition to the original plant was built to take care 
of increasing business. In 1927, the company joined 
in a merger of several other companies and formed 
the United Wallpaper Factories, Inc. This name was 
changed in 1944 to United Wallpaper, Inc. The York 
plant is the largest of three plants manufacturing 
wallpaper. 

Through its large-scale production of fine wall- 
paper, the York mill has contributed much to the 
attractiveness of the American home. Here research 
and testing have been carried on, and new devel- 
opments and improvements in wallpaper production 
utilized. The result of this study is that wallpaper of 
real decorative importance and highest quality, once 
a luxury item, is now available at moderate cost to 
homemakers everywhere. 

Company Also Engaged in War Work 
In addition to this important contribution to better 
American living, United Wallpaper, Inc., has greatly 
aided the war effort. Just six weeks after Pearl Har- 
bor, the company had under way a program of war 



production. A far cry from the peaceful occupation 
of wallpaper manufacture was the production of in- 
cendiary bombs . . . yet on that famous first bomb- 
ing mission over Tokyo, the incendiary bombs 
dropped were from United Wallpaper's plants. Of 
United's seven plants, four are devoted exclusively 
to war production. York is the only plant that has 
simultaneously produced both wallpaper and war 
equipment. Tank parts and mechanisms for loading 
and unloading convoy cargo have been produced 
at this plant since war was declared. Smoke bombs, 
fire bombs and flares are some of the company's 
other contributions to the equipment of the armed 
forces. 




2O5 



TIOGA WEAVING 

Jacquard 

This enterprise can truly be called a perfect ex- 
ample of York's growth and development. 

Started in 1928, by Sol Kranich, who has been a 
resident of York since 1904, Tioga Weaving Com- 
pany, Inc., began with forty looms in a small build- 
ing of 8,000 square feet. This was purely a private 
enterprise. No community aid was requested nor any 
public bond issue floated. 

In spite of the terrible depression which hit the silk 
and rayon weaving industry in early 1930's and put 
many of the very large and old firms out of business, 
Tioga gradually increased its capacity to approxi- 
mately 400 looms and 70,000 square feet, averaging 
more than 300 employees. Most of the first fifty em- 
ployees are still working here. 

This record is due not only to the fifty-two weeks' 
work per year provided for all employees throughout 
good and bad times, but also to the cooperative, cor- 
dial employee-management relationship fostered by 
the zealous, paternal devotion of Sol Kranich to his 
co-workers. That is why in the sixteen years of 
steady growth, approximately $10,000,000 has been 
spent in York for wages and other labor costs. In 
addition, life, accident and health group insurance 
have been provided for all employees at Tioga's 
expense. 

On the morning after Pearl Harbor, Tioga offered 
to President Roosevelt all the silk in their possession 
without any charge whatsoever, and also offered to 
weave all this raw silk into parachute cloth without 
any charge whatsoever. This offer was accepted by 



COMPANY, INC 

Fabrics 

President Roosevelt with: "Sincere appreciation for 
your patriotic offer. . . . Expressions of patriotism 
such as yours will go far in expediting our Victory 
Program." The material was thereupon accepted by 
Robert A. Lovett, Assistant Secretary of War for Air, 
with the statement that "this is an outstanding ex- 
ample of patriotism and generosity. The War Depart- 
ment thanks you for your generosity and commends 
you for your patriotic act." 

Since Pearl Harbor, Tioga has woven millions of 
yards of silk, nylon and rayon parachute fabrics for 
the Army Air Forces and the Quartermaster and 
Ordnance Departments. They have been instru- 
mental in the development of new fabrics for specific 
problems presented by these war agencies. In addi- 
tion, many millions of yards of other fabrics for other 
government departments of the Army Service Forces 
have been developed and shipped. All of these ma- 
terials were sold at or below cost. This is not only 
a tribute to Sol Kranich's two boys fighting overseas, 
but also to the other thirty-five stars on Tioga's Ser- 
vice Flag. 

Throughout these years Tioga's policy of concen- 
trating on better jacquard fabrics has been main- 
tained within wartime limits. Materials which for- 
merly were made in European countries on hand 
looms are now everyday mass production items. 
Tioga's plans for developing better jacquard fabrics 
for an ever wider popular price field will be carried 
out as soon as conditions permit. 




WATT & BROTHER COMPANY INCORPORATED 



Painting and 

Richard Watt, of Dundee, Scotland, after spending 
six years as an apprentice in the painting and deco- 
rative trade and as a student in Art School, came to 
this country in the Spring of 1865. He engaged in 
photography with Fitz-James Evans who had a gal- 
lery on South George Street, York, until December, 

1865. When he opened a paint shop on the second 
floor of the old Lehmayer Building specializing in 
sign work at which he was an expert. He took in 
partnership his younger brother, Andrew, in April, 

1866, under the firm name of Richard Watt and 
Brother. They removed to 108 East Market Street. 
They continued in this location for a few years 
until they acquired property which had been va- 
cated by Laurel Fire Engine Co., on South Duke 
Street. They again moved to larger quarters to what 
was then, in the year 1884, 30 East Market Street, 
afterwards known as 50-52-54. Here they continued 
to operate until the year 1922 when they moved to 
the Niles and Neff Building, 44 and 46 East Market 
Street, where they continued until property was ac- 
quired by the Hotel Yorktowne causing removal to 
29 South Duke Street, the present location. 

Richard Watt died in 1891, and business was con- 
tinued by his brother Andrew under the name of 
Watt and Brother. The business was then incorpo- 
rated in 1896 when Andrew Watt became president 
and James Webster, secretary and general manager, 
until the passing away of Mr. Watt, in 1900. When 
James Webster became president and Richard Watt 
Webster, secretary. The business was reincorporated 
in 1918 and has continued ever since. For eighty 
years the parent company catered to the dec- 
orating of the homes of Yorkers and had as cus- 
tomers the same families during three generations. 
They specialized in decorating of churches and pub- 
lic buildings as well as interiors of homes. They built 
up a reputation for first-class workmanship and hon- 
esty in filling their contracts and earned the confi- 
dence of York architects. The Watts were recognized 
as leaders in the community. 

Recognizing the need for good mechanics in the 
painting trade, they opened up a school of instruc- 
tion for their apprentices under the direction of Rich- 
ard W. Webster, of which Frank P. Connolly and 
Ray Reisinger were two of the first students. At a 
convention held in York by the Pennsylvania Mas- 
ter Painters' and Decorators' Association, prizes 
were awarded for the best samples of finished work 
from all over the State. Frank P. Connolly was 
awarded first prize, a gold medal; Ray Reisinger, 
second prize, a silver medal; and Peter Musser, third 
prize, which shows the excellence of the training re- 
ceived. The company started a branch in Harrisburg 
under the management of Richard W. Webster, who 
afterwards bought this branch and operated under 



Decorating 

the name of Harrisburg Wall Paper and Paint 
Company. 

The company has a record of decorating churches 
in Brooklyn, N. Y., Cape May, N. J., Baltimore, Md., 
and all over the State of Pennsylvania. They have 
maintained a retail store handling only the best 
grades of wall paper, paints and varnishes. They 
were the first in York to recognize the value of 




Old Laurel Fire House, Home ot Watt & Brother in 1878. 

Valspar which was manufactured by Valentine and 
Company of New York. They handled such high- 
grade products as Dutch Boy White Lead and Buffalo 
Paints and Varnishes for which they are agents in 
this neighborhood, also Valentine French Enamel 
and Wallmaster Flat Wall Paint. 

James Webster, president of the firm, has been 
connected with the company for fifty-eight years 
having entered York the day it was made a city, on 
April 4, 1887, and is ably assisted in the contracting 
part of the business by Chauncey C. Gladfelter, who 
has been with the company for about thirty-five 
years; and L. Rowe Maxell, in the sales department 
for twenty-five years. 



207 



WEAVER PIANO CO., INC 

Continuously Active in the Music Industry for More Than Seventy-Five Years 
Two outstanding characteristics of the early set- 
tlers of Southeastern Pennsylvania were responsible 
for the establishment of the Weaver Piano Co., Inc., 
in 1870, and for its success since that time. These 
characteristics are: 

1. The pride of fine craftsmanship expressed in 
the production of useful and sturdy objects. 

2. The love of music particularly self-expression 
through making music. 

The founder, J. O. Weaver, was a widely known 
musician and music teacher who combined his pas- 
sion for fine craftsmanship with his love of music. He 
gathered around him a group of men of similar in- 
terests and devoted his energies to the business to 
the time of his death in 1884. Through incorporation 
in 1882, the company continued to grow by the pro- 
motion to executive duties of individuals trained and 
qualified by previous service to the company. 

In 1935, the company engineers designed, per- 
fected and patented the Weaver Bi-Level Action. 
This is the only device which permits the design of 
small Spinet Pianos with keyboard at proper height 
without the use of additional moving parts or attach- 
ments in the piano action and keys. This Weaver 
Bi-Level Action is a basic contribution to the art of 
building Spinet Pianos which meet the musical re- 
quirements of concert musicians. 

With America's entry into the war in 1942, the 
engineers of the Weaver organization developed the 
Plastic Plywood Plate Piano and applied for patent 
for it. This invention reduced the metal content of 




a Spinet Piano from 165 pounds per piano to less 
than thirty-eight pounds per piano with improve- 
ment in tone and in the musical qualities of the 
piano. This piano designed originally as the Weaver 
Field Type Piano, was adopted by the U. S. Army, 
U. S. Navy, American Red Cross and other Military 
Auxiliaries for Camp, Field, Hospital, Hospital Ship 
and Canteen use. More than half of all the pianos 
built in the United States in 1943 and 1944 were 
Weaver Field Type Pianos. These pianos served our 
Armed Forces with distinction in all parts of the 
world. 



ill IMJ 



li 





WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC SUPPLY CO. 

Electrical Equipment, Appliances and Lamps 



There are few homes, shops, stores, or offices in 
the nation, now equipped with electricity, that do 
not contain some electrical item bearing the familiar 
trade-mark of Westinghouse. 

Founded in 1886, Westinghouse has grown con- 
sistently, expanded its research, engineering, manu- 
facturing and merchandising facilities. Through its 
creation of electrical equipment, supplies and lamps, 
it has contributed to the vast growth of industries 
and helped to improve the standard of living in our 
country. Characteristic of the company's progress 
and policy of rendering complete electrical service, 
factory trained representatives are available in all 



communities where Westinghouse is represented. 

Practically the entire Westinghouse manufactur- 
ing facilities were utilized for the production of war 
materials. The company was awarded the Army- 
Navy "E" Production Award many times for excel- 
lence in quality and quantity production. 

Westinghouse has been represented in York since 
1929. It maintains a complete wholesale organiza- 
tion in its establishment located at 143 South George 
Street. Its staff of trained Westinghouse employees 
distributes the company's products throughout Cen- 
tral Pennsylvania. 



H. WESTLEY AND COMPANY 



Retail Home 

Forty-two years ago, Heber Westley started in 
business for himself. His first establishment was one 
small room, 18' x 30', where he sold furnishings for 
the home. 

In 1912, the business had prospered. It was nec- 
essary to acquire additional facilities to meet in- 
creasing demands for a more comprehensive service. 
The present property was purchased at 328 West 
Market Street and remodeled several times to coin- 
cide with developments in the retail field. In 1928, 



Furnishings 

the building was rebuilt completely. It now has 
four stories, up-to-date elevators, and all modern 
equipment. 

H. Westley and Company has established a fine 
reputation for sound merchandising practice and has 
many satisfied customers throughout York County. 
It handles complete lines of both medium and high- 
priced furniture and bedding, gas and electric 
stoves, electric refrigerators, washing machines, rugs 
and carpets. 



WHITE ROSE ENGRAVING COMPANY 

Photo Engravers 



The fifth anniversary of the White Rose Engraving 
Company was celebrated on January 1, 1945, with 
a large measure of deep satisfaction by its success- 
ful founders. 

This company was established in 1940 by John F. 
Grove, Harry W. Smith, Royce S. Martin and Robert 
E. Grove, four local young men who had consider- 
able training and experience in the engraving busi- 
ness, plus well founded confidence in their combined 
ability to organize, operate and maintain their own 
business. 

The new enterprise was expanded in 1943 through 
a merger with the Harnish-York Engraving Com- 
pany, York's oldest engraving house. With these 
additional facilities, production was doubled and 
additional floor space was required to accommodate 
the larger activities of the establishment. 

Eight thousand four hundred square feet of floor 
space was leased at the present location, 370 North 
George Street. Modern production line equipment 
was installed to handle a larger volume of engrav- 
ing work and Samuel S. Snelbaker, Clarence J. How- 
ard and Clifford T. Abel were taken into the firm. 

Today, the White Rose Engraving Company is well 
established. It is one of the most progressive engrav- 
ing concerns within a seventy-five-mile radius of 
York. Its service to advertising agencies, printers, 
and industries includes commercial art work, photo- 



engravings, line and wash drawings, photo retouch- 
ing, copper and zinc plates in black and white, and 
color. 

Wartime products of the White Rose Engraving 
Company include the production of drawings and 
engravings for illustrating instruction and mainte- 
nance manuals published by the Armed Services, 
and engravings for weekly and monthly employee 
shop publications used to build morale on the home 
front. 




200 



WESTERN NATIONAL BANK 

Organized 1875 



The district west of the Codorus Creek in the City 
of York had developed to such large proportions in 
1875 that some of its citizens felt justified in organiz- 
ing a bank which would assist in the further devel- 
opment of the city. The Western National Bank of 
York was organized with a capital of $100,000. The 
entire stock was purchased by ninety-five citizens. 

The bank prospered from its inception. Founded 
on the principle of safety, service and constructive 
thinking, a vigorous growth was assured. These 
qualities, which characterized the management of 
the bank, and the progressive policy has continued 
to keep The Western National Bank an up-to-date 
institution, offering complete facilities for carrying 
on its business. 




The present building, erected fifty years after its 
organization, is located on the exact spot where the 
first Board of Directors met. This bank has played a 
very important part in the development of the City 
of York west of the Codorus Creek. From July 22, 
1875, the bank's resources have grown until they 
are more than fifteen million dollars. The consistent 
growth by this institution invited many new associ- 
ations and friends into its various banking depart- 
ments. Every banking need in the county is handled 
by The Western National Bank. It has a distinct 
reputation for courteous treatment of its customers 
and friends. 

The Bank's Facilities 

The Commercial Banking Department enjoys the 
association and friendship of many of the large 
manufacturing concerns of the city. Credit is ex- 
tended to commercial concerns and individuals. De- 
posit accounts are solicited. The Collection Depart- 
ment has facilities for collection of notes, drafts, 
coupons, called or matured loans, bills of lading, 
and similar instruments. It has a fine reputation for 
efficient service in this department. All forms of for- 
eign banking business are handled through its cor- 
respondents in New York and Philadelphia. 

The Trust Department was founded in 1918 and 
permission granted by the Comptroller of the Cur- 
rency to handle all forms of trust business. The bank 
acts as trustee, guardian, administrator, executor of 
estates and escrow business. 



The Personal Loan Department is one of the larg- 
est personal loan departments in this part of the 
state and individual personal loans are most ably 
handled. The financing of automobiles, refriger- 
ators, furniture, house repairs, and all forms of per- 
sonal business are confidentially handled in this 
department. 

The Savings Department is one of the largest in 
the city and is continually growing and adding new 
customers. 

The Board of Directors of The Western National 
Bank are leaders in the industrial and commercial 
life of the city. They form the policy of the bank and 
are always available for discussion of improvements, 
organization and financing of corporations and part- 
nerships. The detail management of the institution 
is handled by men having long experience in the 
banking field and are always accessible for the dis- 
cussion of banking problems. 

The directors are: John A. Hoober, attorney and 
financier; C. P. Rice, president, York Corrugating 
Company; C. S. Stitzel, president, York Paint & 
Hardware Company; Charles H. Noss, vice-president, 
Herman Noss & Sons; Beauchamp E. Smith, presi- 
dent, S. Morgan Smith Company; Heber Westley, 
H. Westley & Company; Maurice B. Smyser, Smyser 
& Smyser; George T. Livingstone, president; and 
Allen H. Harbold, cashier. 

The officers are: George T. Livingstone, president; 
C. P. Rice, vice-president; Allen H. Harbold, cashier 
and trust officer; Charles H. Emig, assistant cashier; 
George E. Seifert, assistant cashier; Jesse S. Wil- 
liams, assistant cashier; Spurgeon E. Rohrbaugh, 
assistant trust officer; Millard J. Hoke, manager, Per- 
sonal Loan Department. 

The following figures represent the growth of the 
bank since its incorporation seventy years ago: 

Year Deposits 

July 22, 1885 $ 164,412.00 

July 22, 1895 238,000.00 

July 22, 1905 584,000.00 

July 22, 1915 877,000.00 

July 22, 1925 2,577,000.00 

July 22, 1935 3,488,000.00 

May 19, 1945 13,666,000.00 

July 22, 1885 Capital, Surplus and Undivided 
Profits, $162,000.00. 

May 19, 1945 Capital, Surplus and Undivided 
Profits, $900,000.00. 

The Western National Bank has grown and devel- 
oped through wars, panics and depressions and it 
has never failed to meet its obligations in full. The 
principles are progressive, yet conservative, and 
along with the friendly spirit of cooperation with the 
depositors continue to govern the operations of this 
fine old banking institution. A complete service is 
offered to the entire area of York City and County. 

The Western National Bank is a member of the 
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and its total 
trust and banking resources are more than twenty- 
five million dollars. 



WHITE ROSE MOTORS, INC. 

Cadillac and Oldsmobile Dealer 



White Rose Motors, Inc., 251-257 West King Street, 
was organized July 13, 1938. This organization was 
activated for the purpose of providing an up-to-date 
sales and service facility for Cadillac and Oldsmo- 
bile motor-cars. From its inception, this company has 
grown continuously and has earned a fine reputa- 
tion for honesty, integrity and prompt service to its 
customers. 

In 1941, the last year cars were available, this or- 
ganization sold 415 new automobiles and approxi- 
mately 1,100 used cars. It has one of the most mod- 
ern service departments in the East and prior to 
World War II employed forty-two automobile me- 
chanics and helpers. 

W. F. Grove, president and general manager of 
the company, has been in the automobile business 
since 1907. He is one of the most aggressive and suc- 
cessful retail automobile salesmen in this community 
and is referred to often as an ideal citizen of York. 
His leadership ability in such civic organizations as 
the Community Welfare Association, Red Cross, Na- 
tional War Fund Drive, War Bond Drives in both 
World Wars I and II, Boy Scout work, etc., has been 
a substantial contribution to the growth and progress 
of the community. 

YORK 

Operated by Oscar L 

A few miles west of York along the Lincoln High- 
way is located the York Airport. In March, 1939, 
Oscar L. Hostetter started building the airport, con- 
verting the pasture fields by draining, grading, seed- 
ing and completing one 72'x80' hangar. In 1940, a 
20' x 80' office and classroom was erected. In 1941, 
a 40' x 48' shop and 72' x 80' hangar were added. 
An additional 72'x80' hangar was built in 1942. 
1944 and 1945 found the addition of a 24' x 40' dope 
room and heating plants for shop and office. This 
continual expansion and growth has been in line 
with the development of the air-minded youngsters 
and oldsters of York County. 



Due to the present war which necessitated the ra- 
tioning of new automobiles, employment in this or- 
ganization has been curtailed, but it is expected 
that even a greater number of personnel will be em- 
ployed when cars are again available for distribution. 

Since the country entered the war, they have 
broadened their service facilities to cover all makes 
and models of automobiles. They have set up the 
most modern sheet metal and paint departments, as 
well as most modern general repair facilities. They 
carry a large stock of genuine factory replacement 
parts. Bring all of your troubles here and have them 
cared for by skilled mechanics, thoroughly qualified 
in their special lines of service. All work guaranteed. 







AIRPORT 

Hostetter at Thomasville, Pa. 

Early in 1941 the C. A. A. approved the Oscar L. 
Hostetter flight school which later operated in con- 
junction with the York Junior College to train pilots 
for the Civil Aeronautics Authority War Training Ser- 
vice. In conjunction with William Penn Senior High 
School, the school participated in the C. A. A.'s first 
high school experimental training program. Squad- 
ron 32, Pennsylvania, of Civil Air Patrol, was based 
at York Airport. 

Today, in addition to the flight school, the airport 
has charter flight service, complete aircraft and air- 
craft engine repair facilities, and aircraft fueling and 
storage facilities. 




211 



P. WIEST'S SONS 

Department Store 



P. Wiest's Sons began as a general "foreign and 
domestic dry goods" store in a one-story frame build- 
ing in Dover, York Co., Pa., in 1843, when "segars" 
were five cents a grab and the man with the biggest 
grab did the buying for his friends and relatives. 
Sugar was three cents a pound and ink five cents 
a bottle. 

Peter Wiest, founder, after a short time in Dover, 
decided that a larger town would afford him better 
business opportunities, so he packed his goods in 
wooden boxes and prepared to move to the big city, 
York. No sooner were the boxes filled with merchan- 
dise, than a great fire began in the village, ruining 
all his goods. The disaster occurred in the dead of 
the night during one of the heaviest snow storms 
that Dover had ever known. 

Undaunted, Peter Wiest set up business in York 
at 218 West Market Street, selling everything from 
buttons to butter, from rakes to cinnamon, from calico 
to herrings. Many of the farmers, who were his best 
customers, at that time made nails in their black- 




Millineiy and Ready-to-Wear, Second Floor. 

smith shops. These they traded with Mr. Wiest for 
commodities that were needed down on the farm. 
Since molasses and mush was the popular dish of 
the times, molasses became the most popular me- 
dium of exchange. 

These items are mentioned in the first ledgers of 
the store written in 1843 and still in existence. In the 
ledgers, with meticulous penmanship, Mr. Wiest kept 
track of every purchaser to whom he extended credit, 
mentioning five-cent sales of whiskey, and the sale 
of three-quarters of a cord of wood for $2.25. Eggs 
were ten cents a dozen; butter, ten cents a pound, 
and fourteen pounds of flour could be purchased for 
37V2 cents. The ledger records goods of all descrip- 
tion, such as "one umbrelly" and "one pair panta- 
loons." Often prices were quoted within fractions of 
a cent, which today would raise havoc with the 
bookkeeping system. But the first proprietor of P. 



Wiest's Sons seemed to worry little about his books. 
When a customer paid his bill, the entry was simply 
marked paid. No fuss, no bother. In fact, not even 
an office but a social room in which undoubtedly 




the price of eggs and the approaching trouble with 
the southern States was the subject of conversation. 
During the flood of 1884, when the Codorus rushed 
like a torrent through the city, the establishment was 
forced to move uptown. By that time Peter Wiest had 



m p 




Shoe Department, Main Floor. 

taken three of his sons into the business Edward F. 
Wiest, George L. Wiest and Harry S. Wiest. After the 
original founder died in 1887, Edward F. Wiest or- 
ganized the firm under its present name, P. Wiest's 
Sons, taking in his two brothers as partners. 

In 1889, the firm of P. Wiest's Sons purchased the 



P. WIESTS SONS 

Department Store 



Albright property on the south side of West Market 
Street, near Center Square, and immediately tore it 
down and erected on the site a large and commo- 
dious store building. 

In 1895, the property next door was purchased. 
By that time, P. Wiest's Sons owned and occupied 
a building of four stories and a basement. At this 
point, the store had celebrated its golden jubilee 
with a big reception, distributing countless numbers 
of gold-edged plates bearing pictures of the store in 




View of Main Floor, Center. 

its various stages of development. Many of these 
plates exist today as relics of the fifty-year birthday 
of the store. 

By this time, sugar was no longer sold at three 
cents a pound, in fact sugar was not sold at all at 
P. Wiest's Sons. Ladies' ready-to-wear clothes, with 
wasp waists, were being featured in the show win- 
dows. Prices had changed drastically, but a bottle 
of ink still could be had for five cents. 




Modern Fixtures, Main Fk>or, Fronf. 

In 1908, Edward F. Wiest died, leaving the busi- 
ness in the hands of the two remaining brothers. 
After George L. Wiest died, a closed corporation was 
formed in 1913, of which Leon S. Hydeman, a man 



of large merchandising experience, became its presi- 
dent, Harry S. Wiest became its vice-president, and 
J. M. Rodgers, formerly of Gimbel Brothers, was its 
secretary, treasurer and general manager. In 1922, 
Leon S. Hydeman died and in 1923, Harry S. Wiest 
died. James M. Rodgers assumed the presidency 
of the corporation which continued to expand and 
prosper. 

In 1925 (the days of low waistlines and bobbed 
hair), the building was again remodeled and brought 
up-to-date, making it one of the most modern and 
practical buildings in this section of the country. 
More streamlined gadgets and housework-saving 
devices were being put on the market. The women 
of York were beginning to think of a career and 
many of them were finding one at P. Wiest's Sons. 




Center of Main Floor. 



Remodeled and refixtured again in 1942, Wiest's 
is now a modern department store of the newest 
type, and has buying connections that enable it to 
bring to York the best of the world's up-to-date mer- 
chandise to meet the needs of the whole family. Be- 
sides Eastern resources, permanent buying offices 
have recently been established in Chicago, St. Louis 
and Los Angeles. Thus, the best gleanings of the 
whole country are to be found on display in modern- 
ized departments, some of which are pictured here. 

While a great part of this article has been devoted 
to the origin and early growth of the store, of which 
Wiest's is naturally proud, yet the present and the 
future constitute the really important history of the 
organization history in the making. Keeping up 
with the times has always been a working slogan, 
and fires and floods have not interrupted nor re- 
tarded to any extent the spirit that for more than 
a hundred years has guided "A Great Store in a 
Great City." 



215 



H. J. WILLIAMS COMPANY, INCORPORATED 

Builders of Highways, Bridges, Dams, Railroads, Airports and Terminals 



The H. J. Williams Company, Incorporated, con- 
tractors and builders, located at Sumner Street and 
the Western Maryland Railway, is known through- 
out Pennsylvania and neighboring states for its 
achievements in building highways, bridges, dams, 
railroads, airports and terminals, and for many other 
types of contracting. The company was founded in 
York early in the 1920's by a group of men inter- 
ested in the construction miracles which could be 
wrought by modern earth-moving machinery. 

The company was organized by and continues 
under the presidency of H. J. Williams. He and Ed- 
ward C. Hale, vice-president, have had lifelong ex- 
perience in the construction field. M. E. Cousler is 
secretary and treasurer and Lowell W. Williams is 
acting and assistant secretary. A skeleton force of 
key men for all phases of construction work is main- 
tained at all times and a labor force varying in num- 
ber from 125 to 600 is recruited to meet the demands 
of special jobs. 

The H. J. Williams Company, Incorporated, was 
the first construction company in this area to own a 
scraper and a Tournapull. Other machines used are 
bull-dozers, rooters, power shovels, tractors, pusher 



caterpillars, dump trucks, road rollers, graders, pav- 
ers, drills, and trenchers. Carryalls dig, lift and 
transport earth. Sheep's foot rollers equipped with 
staggered pins compact it. Tree-dozers push over 
trees, and uproot them. This diesel-powered, heavy- 
duty machinery represents a large capital invest- 
ment and always causes "sidewalk superintendents" 
to congregate when it goes into action. Besides con- 
struction work, it is adapted to such varied enter- 
prises as mining of coal, the digging of clay and the 
quarrying of rock. This company, from its beginning, 
has always been eager to determine the merits of 
new machinery and many times has served as a 
testing laboratory for manufacturers in trying out 
newly-designed units. 

The H. J. Williams Company, Incorporated, has 
handled many large federal, state and municipal 
contracts and participated in the construction of the 
Clark Valley Dam, forming the reservoir for the 
Harrisburg Water Supply. On this project, 600 acres 
of trees were cleared, and more than a million cubic 
yards of earth excavated and placed in embankment 
fill. Six miles of the three-lane Gettysburg Highway, 
toward New Oxford, which had to be finished in time 




W.M.R.R. Overpass, Franklin County 



Drinker Turnpike, Lackawanna County 




Excavafion, York Hospital, York, Pa. 




State Highway, Centre County, Pa. 



H. J. WILLIAMS COMPANY, INCORPORATED 

Builders of Highways, Bridges, Dams, Railroads, Airports and Terminals 

for the 75th Anniversary Celebration of the Battle 
of Gettysburg, was completed four days ahead of 
schedule. In Franklin County, a scenic highway 
known as the Sunshine Trail, extending five miles 
east of Monterey Summit, was built. The Drinker 
Turnpike cut-off on the Scranton-Pocono Highway 
was rerouted along the top of a mountain to elimi- 
nate the danger of falling rock and a dozen dan- 
gerous curves. A similar seven-mile, three-lane high- 
way was built on Route 1 1 near Wilkes-Barre. Other 
major size scenic routes were constructed near 
Clearfield, Bellefonte, Williamsport, Reading and 
elsewhere. Three-lane highways on the Lincoln 
Highway east and west of York, as well as nine 
miles east of Lancaster, had to be built under duress 
of heavy daily traffic. 

On Mount Pocono, relocation of the Delaware, 
Lackawanna and Western Railroad tracks involved 
the moving of considerable earth and the building 
of an overpass and an underpass to eliminate a 
dangerous grade crossing. 

Some of the work done for private companies has 
included participation in the building of the Con- 
solidated-Vultee Airport at Allentown. This was a 
speed-up job, much of it done under night lighting 
in which more than half a million cubic yards of 
earth were moved. In Washington, D. C., ground was 
prepared for the building of the Greyhound Bus 
Terminals; in Ohio, work was done for the Sinclair 
Refining Company on a Lake Terminal Project; and 
in West Virginia, the company opened the way for 
a spur track to the Western Maryland Railroad to 
be extended into the new coal fields at Bergoo. Re- 
location of the Western Maryland Railroad tracks 
between New Oxford and Gettysburg eliminated 
hazardous Lincoln Highway crossings and was com- 
pleted by means of heavy rock excavation and fill 
and the building of huge concrete bridges and 
culverts. 

During the period covering the nation's prepara- 
tion for war, the entire plant and personnel was 
engaged in various types of construction at Cedar 
Point Naval Base, Maryland; Camp Ritchie, Mary- 
land; Middletown Air Depot; U. S. A. Supply Forces, 
New Cumberland; Cherokee Ordnance Works, Dan- 
ville, Pa.; York Safe and Lock Co.; and on the main 
line of the Pennsylvania Railroad between Baltimore 
and Washington. 

Parting Areas, Middletown, Pa. 




Airport Excavation, Allentown, Pa. 







Z~J. - 



Oil Terminal, Washington, D. C. 



Impounding Dam, Spring Grove, Pa. 



215 



JIMMY WILSON, Jr. 

Van Lines and Storage Warehouses 



Approximately one family in every twenty in the 
United States moves each year. Of this number, an 
increasing proportion moves to distant cities. 

You may have heard this statement many times: 
"If we ever move again, we'll do it differently, more 
efficiently." The word from the wise is: "Hire pro- 
fessional movers, as modern as television. Modern 
moving service replaces moving worries with a gen- 
uine peace of mind." 

Of the families who will make new homes in lo- 
calities across the country, thousands will call on 
Jimmy Wilson to make their long distance moving 
simple. As one of the southeastern Pennsylvania's 
largest long distance movers, this company is giving 
a unique and exclusive service to its customers. 

While many companies doing business in America 
today are often national in scope, few are organized 
to offer the advantages of direct delivery into all of 
the forty-eight States. 

This company was established in April, of 1938, 
with the express purpose of rendering long distance 
moving service. 

Today, this company maintains nine largest stor- 
age facilities in the State of Pennsylvania, having a 




capacity to accommodate nearly twenty-three hun- 
dred storage accounts. 

The company employs an outstanding method of 
preparing household furnishings for storage and it 
is an absolute fact that household goods placed in 
the care of a reliable warehouse man receive far 
better care and protection than the most exacting 
housewife could possibly give it. 

Before upholstered furniture, mattresses, pillows, 
rugs, etc., are placed in any of the company's ware- 
houses, each item containing fabric manufactured, 
whole or in part of cotton or wool, is sterilized in the 
company's own sterilization chamber. This chamber 
is operated under the direct supervision of the Penn- 
sylvania Department of Health, guaranteeing 100% 



sterilization. This sanitary protection is given to each 
depositor. 

These items are then mothproofed by the Berlou 
process, which renders all items treated absolutely 




mothproof for a period of ten years, providing they 
remain in our care. The Berlou Company guarantees 
each deposit against moth damage. 

The furniture is then wrapped in heavy paper to 
protect it against dust and against the harmful rays 
of sunlight which, of course, would harm delicate 
colors. 

This company also maintains the largest privately 
owned crating department in the City of York which 
is used exclusively for the crating and preparing of 
household goods for shipment by rail or ship to 
points where moving van service cannot be effected. 

With an eye to the future, the company is of the 
opinion that Air Cargo for long distance moving has 
outstanding possibilities, both from the standpoint of 
economy and time-saving, in view of the fact that 
household goods are of a comparatively light and 
bulky nature and that household goods are trans- 
ported to all parts of the globe. 

This company has made application to the Federal 
Bureau of Aeronautics for authority to transport 
household goods and office equipment throughout 
the United States, Canada and Mexico, and to and 
from the continent of South America. 




GEO. A. WOLF & SONS 

One Hundred Years of Service 



Although serving the public in and about York 
has been the serious business of the Wolfs for more 
than 100 years, it was not until 1935 that a retail 
establishment was operated within York proper. So 
different in size and character was this organization 
compared with the one of 100 years ago, that a brief 
resume covering this period should prove interesting. 

History, 1843-1945 

Operating in a beautiful tranquil section of York 
County, the modest firm of A. & E. Wolf engaged in 
a lumbering business. The year was 1843, and the 
place, New Holland, now Saginaw. Lumber was 
formed into rafts far upstream and floated to the 
landing on the west bank of the Susquehanna River. 
Here the lumber was loaded on to wagons and 
hauled to York, Hanover and Gettysburg. 

In 1850, when the single-track railroad was ex- 
tended from York to Harrisburg, the firm of A. Wolf 
& Sons was started on this new railroad three miles 
from New Holland. At Mount Wolf, a store and ware- 
house were erected. This new firm started operation 
in 1852. 

Passing from one generation to another, the fol- 
lowing firms operated there continuously: A. Wolf 
& Sons, 1852 to 1863; George H. Wolf, 1863 to 1882; 
Geo. H. Wolf & Sons, 1891 to 1914; Geo. A. Wolf & 
Sons, 1914 to the present time. Although the firm 
name has been retained, the members number one 
less due to the death of the senior member, George 
A. Wolf, February 14, 1934. 

Operate Three Yards 

Desirous of being closer to the "market," a yard 
was purchased on North Sherman Street at the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad in York, April 21, 1930. This is 
known as the Sherman Street Yard. 

With an ever-increasing demand in York, the yard 
known for years as the Beitzel Lumber Yard, at 465 
Prospect Street, was opened for business July, 1933. 
This location at once became the firm's best outlet, 
due to its proximity to the growing sections of the 
city. Ample parking space for customers also con- 
tributes to its popularity. 

The Place to Shop lor a Home 

A planing mill capable of turning out all types of 
special millwork is operated at Mount Wolf. This mill 
is equipped with the latest woodworking machines 
and staffed with craftsmen experienced in making 
pieces of cabinet work for the finest residential work, 
or the regular run of millwork for industrial and 
home builders' requirements. Specializing in cabi- 
net work and trim for homes, "The Place to Shop for 
a Home" has been the firm slogan for many years. 
In any section of York where fine homes have been 
built, a large percentage of material from "Wolfs" 
will be found. 

The line of builders' materials has been constantly 
increased until there is scarcely an item that cannot 
be purchased from the Wolf organization. Sand, 
cement, stone for foundations, insulation, plastic, 
plastic lath and framing lumber, sidings, roofings, 
millwork and paint, rough and finishing hardware 
these and many more items are carried in stock for 
immediate delivery. 



Products by Reputable Manufacturers 

The Wolf organization learned many years ago 
that to give the home builder real value for money 
expended, it would be necessary to handle a line of 
merchandise that would give years of service and 
satisfaction. To do this it was necessary to study the 
goods offered by the various manufacturers. With 
very few exceptions it was found that the most de- 
pendable products were manufactured by firms with 
a national reputation. It is no surprise, therefore, to 
find that the building products offered by the Wolfs 
include Woodwork by Curtis Companies, Insulation 
by Celotex Corporations, Paints and Finishes by 
DuPont, Hardwood Flooring by E. L. Bruce Co., Laths 
and Plastics by the United States Gypsum Co., and 
Hardware by The Stanley Works. 

Curtis Woodwork has been a leader in the Wolf 
line of dependable products for the past twenty-five 
years. As authorized distributor of this fine line 
Wolfs learned that Curtis Companies, Incorporated, 
is an organization old in the woodworking industry, 
but young enough to be responsible for most of the 
industry's outstanding accomplishments. The home 
builder purchasing Curtis Woodwork gets the bene- 
fit of years of experience in making better wood- 
work, the contribution of leading architects who de- 
signed the line, and years in research in woods, 
metals and chemicals. 

Perhaps no other firm in York has had as long an 
experience in selling insulation as Geo. A. Wolf & 
Sons. Here again a product bearing a nationally 
recognized trademark is offered the public. In the 
rigid type, Celotex is a favorite. It is made of long 
fibred material and is exceptionally strong and light 
in wegiht, two qualities appreciated by the men "on 
the job." The "ferox" treatment rendering it immune 
from attacks of termites and vermin, makes it a good 
"buy" for the home owner. In the batt and blanket 
form, "Fibreglass," by the United States Gypsum 
Company, is giving satisfactory results. An outstand- 
ing feature is its ability to "stay put" and not settle 
as is the case with many of the other types. 

The hardwood flooring carried has been giving 
satisfactory results. It is manufactured by E. L. Bruce 
Company. 

For more than twenty years paint has been an im- 
portant item in the Wolf line. During this time there 
have been so few complaints on the material manu- 
factured by DuPont that the firm is sold on the slogan 
"Better Things for Better Living by DuPont." 

Coal An Important Item 

Coal accounts for a good portion of the business. 
Both bituminous and anthracite are carried at the 
Mount Wolf and Sherman Street yards. Here again 
it was decided to carry the best products obtainable 
in order to give the user the most value for his dol- 
lar. The anthracite coal carried has been cleaned 
by a special process at the mines, known as "Cone 
Cleaning." 

The public can rest assured that when new prod- 
ucts are introduced by a manufacturer they can be 
purchased at Geo. A. Wolf & Sons only after a trial 
by the public for a short time. If found to stand up 
as advertised, these new items will be added to the 
Wolf line of "Dependable Building Materials." 



217 



YORK BUS COMPANY, INCORPORATED 

City and Suburban Bus Transportation 



Street transportation in York has passed through 
three successive phases, that of horsecars from 1886 
until 1892, when electric trolleys were introduced, 
and finally in 1939, the city passed into the era of 
fast, safe, modern motorbuses, operated by the York 
Bus Company, Incorporated, now serving both city 
and county. 

One is inclined to think of horse-car days as rela- 
tively uncomplicated, but "A horse-car driver's life 
was not an easy one," judging from a booklet of 
rules issued shortly after the York Street Railway 
Company was incorporated in 1886 by Dr. Eisen- 
hart, J. Yost, and "Cap" Adam F. Geesey. At this 
time it was operating with eight closed and six open 
cars and a stable of fifteen horses and eight mules. 

Each driver was furnished with a copy of these 
rules which he was "to carefully study and to closely 
follow," letting the split infinitives fall where they 
might. 

He was to start out carefully with his spirited steed 
(see cut) or as stated in Rule 1. He will start the 
horse slowly, and carefully, keep a tight rein and his 
hand on the brake, and walk the horse around 
curves, over switches, bridges and railroad tracks. 

Certain propriety of behavior was required of a 
man much in the public eye. Rule 2. He must at 
all times abstain from the use of intoxicating drinks, 
from abusive, profane or improper language and 
must not smoke, whistle, sing or shout to drivers or 
persons on the street. He must be cleanly in his 
person, gentlemanly in his behavior and polite to 
passengers, answering promptly their inquiries but 
avoiding all unnecessary conversation. 

Rule 3. When necessary to warn any vehicle or 
obstruction from the track, the bell or whistle should 
be used, shouting being strictly prohibited. 

Goodwill of patrons apparently took precedence 
over rigid adherence to schedules in those days. 

Rule 4. He will never pass a cross street without 
looking to the right and left and will wait tor pas- 
sengers only half a block distant. 

There were certain rules to be observed by the 
public also. Boys hitched rides then as now. 

Rule 5. He will not allow on the front platform any 
large package or article which will interfere with the 
performance of his duties. He will not permit children 
to ride on the front or rear platform unattended nor 
to run alongside or hang upon the car. v He will re- 
quest passengers under the influence of liquor to 
ride on the inside of the car. 

But with the drunks on the inside there was still 
liable to be trouble. However, they were to be han- 
dled with consideration at all times. The company 
did not wish to become involved in damage suits. 



Rule 6. The driver will not allow profane or abu- 
sive language, drunken or disorderly conduct on his 
car, but should on no account throw off a passenger 
while the car is in motion. 

The rule against smoking was rigidly enforced. 
Passengers might be thrown off, but not bounced. 

Rule 7. If any person persists in smoking in the car 
after being requested not to do so, the driver must 
stop the car and put him off, using only so much 
force as is necessary. 

Speeding was not permitted, even to make up lost 
time. 

Rule 8. Loss of time on any part of the road may 
be made up by an increase of speed on another por- 
tion provided that no car shall run at a greater speed 
than six miles per hour. 

The driver was discreet in demanding payment 
of fares. 

Rule 9. If fares are no* paid within one block after 
passengers enter the car, the driver must call the 
person's attention by ringing bell. This failing he 
must call out in a polite manner, "Fare, please." If 
passengers longer refuse to pay, he must ask per- 
sons to leave the car. 

Barren Collier was in knee pants and car cards 
had not yet arrived. Hence Rule 10. No hand bills or 
advertisements are to be allowed in the cars. Rule 10 
no doubt occasioned many arguments. 

Rule 11. If a passenger should damage the car, the 
driver is to collect the amount of damage from him. 
A horsecar was definitely not a Pullman. 

Rule 12. Passengers are not allowed to lie down or 
put their feet on the seats of the car. 

But contrary to present practices, provision was 
made for the transportation of domestic pets. 

Rule 13. Dogs must not be allowed in the cars ex- 
cept small dogs which may be carried on the lap. 
Larger dogs may be carried on the front platform in 
care of the owner by payment of ten (10) cents. 

A knowledge of first aid to animals was not amiss. 

Rule 14. It the horse becomes lame, examine his 
feet. If a nail is found, get it out. 

When one of York's volunteer fire companies 
went into action, horse-car service was liable to 
interruption. 

Rule 15. If there is a fire hose across the track and 
there is likely to be a delay of more than 10 or 15 
minutes, send word or go to car meeting you on the 
next switch to come up to the obstruction, exchange 
passengers and return on each other's run. 

But with complete breakdown of the car, the driver 
turned cavalryman, and abandoning his car and 



YORK BUS COMPANY, INCORPORATED 



City and Suburban 

passengers at the side of the street, rode on by him- 
self to the end of the line. 

Rule 16. It a car should break a wheel or axle, lay 
the car clear of the track, telephone the stable, mount 
the horse and ride to the end of the line. 

But if everything went well, he had only to light 
his lamps at the proper time, proceed to the stable, 
put out his lights, and turn in his cash to the super- 
intendent. "But, Little Man, you've had a busy day!" 

And the York Bus Company, Incorporated, succes- 
sor to the York Street Railway Company, is still busy 
carrying thousands of workers, shoppers, school 
children and other passengers daily. Under wartime 
conditions passenger load had increased almost one 
hundred per cent, but a sound organization built up 
since the York Bus Company, Incorporated, ran its 
first two suburban buses to Dillsburg and Dover, in 
1933, was able to meet the emergency. Adequate 
transportation has been provided for workers on all 
shifts and special service has been given to the out- 
lying Blaw-Knox plant. 

In 1939, when trolleys were taken off the streets of 
York, the old employees of the company, number- 
ing between ninety and a hundred, were retained 
and retrained to drive thirty-four new twin-coach 
buses. In 1940, three twin coaches were purchased. 

Employees receive the benefits of a pension plan 
put into operation in 1940. All employees enjoy va- 
cation and sick pay. After one year they are en- 
titled to one week vacation and after two years or 
more two weeks vacation. They are entitled to one 
week sick pay after two years and two weeks after 
five years or more. 

On January 1, 1942, the York Bus Company, Incor- 
porated, passed into the hands of its present owners: 
G. A. Stevens, president; H. L. Bollum, vice-president; 
Henry C. Church, Jr., vice-president; W. S. T. Hur- 
lock, Jr., secretary; C. W. Anderson, treasurer, and 
Gilbert D. Schwalbach, general manager. 

Now, 131 employees are required to keep in oper- 
ation 53 buses and one tractor-trailer. At 520 North 
Hartley Street, the York Bus Company, Incorporated, 



Bus Transportation 

has its own bulk gasoline tanks, storage garage, and 
maintenance shops with complete facilities for motor 
overhaul. An efficient maintenance system main- 
tained under the direction of M. A. Sowers assures 
the buses being kept in top-notch condition. Daily 
inspection and care include cleaning inside and out, 
refueling and checking vital parts. Complete peri- 
odic check-ups are made. Each vehicle is gone over 
systematically. In April, 1943, seven Yellow Coaches, 
seating 36, were added, and in March, 1945, three 
more Yellow Coaches were added. 

We operate aproximately 180,000 miles per month 
and over a million passengers are carried each 
month on thirteen different routes planned to accom- 
modate residents and workers of all sections of the 
city. The fare is seven cents within the city with free 
transfer. Suburban tickets are sold at the Morris 
Drug Store. Continental Square serves as a conve- 
nient central transfer point. Five suburban lines op- 
erating to Dallastown-Red Lion and Windsor; Han- 
over; Wrightsville-Columbia; Dover and York Haven 
cover routes totaling eighty-nine miles. 

A training program for drivers is in effect at all 
times. Safety meetings are planned and held for the 
training of the employees and the safety of the pub- 
lic. Awards are given the drivers for no accident 
records. 

It is a good thing occasionally to think about the 
real meaning of terms. The term in mind is the com- 
mon word bus, the short form of "omnibus," which 
stems from a Latin word meaning "for all." In York 
as in many other places there have not been enough 
of them. It was a tough winter for Yorkers. Shortages 
of labor and vehicles added to a complete change 
of circumstances. If the buses have acquired bad 
habits they need to be corrected. But in seeking to 
correct a fault it is our policy to try to see that we 
do not unconsciously create a greater evil. 

Despite the fact that passenger load may decline 
after the war the York Bus Company plans on the 
purchase of new buses to replace some of the obso- 
lete equipment to provide better service and relieve 
congestion and overcrowding. 




Horse car used in York from 1886-1892. 



The new GMC Bus now operates over routes city and suburban. 



219 



YORK AUTO PARTS COMPANY, INC 

Automotive Service 



Founded on the assumption that automotive parts, 
equipment and supplies would find a ready market 
in this progressive community, the York Auto Parts 
Company, Inc., was organized in 1926 by Harvey W. 
Strayer, William I. Neagley and Reuben F. Strayer. 

During the succeeding years, when the automo- 
tive industry gained momentum and the demand for 
their services correspondingly increased, this com- 
pany established an up-to-date machine shop and 
acquired additional floor space adjacent to the orig- 
inal establishment, to facilitate the handling of their 
substantial volume of business. 

Today, the York Auto Parts Company, Inc., oper- 



ates a complete automotive maintenance and repair 
service. It has modern facilities for the complete re- 
building of automotive, industrial, truck, tractor, and 
agricultural units, in addition to furnishing parts, 
equipment and supplies for all makes of automotive 
vehicles. 

The World War II operations of the York Auto Parts 
Company, Inc., consisted largely of machine work 
on automotive transportation units and furnishing 
automotive parts, supplies and equipment. 

Present officers of the company include Harvey 
W. Strayer, president; William I. Neagley, vice-presi- 
dent and treasurer; and Harlow R. Prindle, secretary. 



YORK BLUE PRINT COMPANY 

Blue Prints 



Organized in 1925 by C. S. Davidson, local civil 
engineer, to meet a community need for blue print 
service, the York Blue Print Company has grad- 
ually expanded its scope of activities to render com- 
plete reproduction services to engineers, contractors, 
architects, industrial and commercial enterprises 
throughout Central Pennsylvania. 

Engineering projects accomplished by this firm in- 
clude the Wyndham Hill real estate development, 
the sewerage systems of West York and the Grantley 
section of Spring Garden Township. 

The present establishment, located at 25 East 
Philadelphia Street, occupies approximately 5,800 



square feet of floor space. Equipment consists of two 
continuous blue print machines, two photostat ma- 
chines, two vacuum frames, one large camera, de- 
veloping machines, dryers and an air conditioned 
paper storage room. 

The service rendered by the York Blue Print Com- 
pany includes the processing of blue prints, black 
and white prints, tracing reproductions, scale 
changes, regular and giant photostats, murals, en- 
largements and reductions. It is also the largest 
dealer in drafting room supplies and equipment in 
York. Since 1941, 90% of the company's capacity 
has been devoted to war work. 



YORK CHEMICAL WORKS 

Fertilizers 



The business of Dempwolf's Fertilizers was estab- 
lished in 1870. It was in that year that Charles Demp- 
wolf erected a windmill on North Beaver Street as 
a source of power for operating a grinding mill. The 
plant expanded and in 1888 was moved to its pres- 
ent location occupying eight acres along Loucks' 
Mill Road and the Pennsylvania Railroad. Here a 
large modern plant has been developed, completely 
equipped for mechanical handling of fertilizer mate- 
rials and finished product. Large storage buildings 
and loading platforms provide facilities for annual 
shipments of 25,000 tons. 

Dempwolf's Fertilizers include grades and combi- 
nations of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium com- 
pounds for all crops and have been developed by 
many years' work at State experiment stations and 



by the practical usage of farmers themselves. Spe- 
cial fertilizers for such crops as potatoes, tobacco 
and vegetables are used in very large quantities by 
Pennsylvania farmers. Also produced by York Chem- 
ical Works are a variety of fertilizers suitable for 
grain crops, fruit and pastures. 

Chilean Nitrates remain an important source of 
nitrogen, although they are being rapidly replaced 
by synthetic nitrogen compounds made from at- 
mospheric nitrogen. Potash salts, formerly imported 
from Germany and France, are now found in abun- 
dance in New Mexico and California. Phosphates 
are derived from the vast deposits of Florida and 
Tennessee. 

In June of 1945, the York Chemical Works was 
purchased by the Eastern States Farmers' Exchange. 




1870 



York Chemical We 



YORK BROADCASTING COMPANY 



Station 

WORK, York's pioneer radio station, owned 
and operated by the York Broadcasting Company, 
began operating March, 1932, with studios and 
transmitter in the same locations as at present. The 
transmitter is situated five miles west of York, just 
off the Lincoln Highway. Studios and offices are lo- 
cated at 13 South Beaver Street, just one block west 
of Continental Square. 

The office files contain hundreds of letters of thanks 
and gratitude for W O R K ' s generous contribution 
of air time for various kinds of civic and religious af- 
fairs; for active participation and free publicity for all 
such drives as the March of Dimes, The Red Cross, 
War Bond Drives, Public School Activities, Community 
Chest Campaigns, the Boy Scouts; for cooperation 
with our government in its campaigns to recruit men 
and women for various branches of the service, es- 
sential employment, blood donors, etc. In one war 
bond show alone, staged by WORK, over $75,000 
was pledged. In everything of a civic nature, whether 
local or national in scope, W O R K is always ready 
to play an active, prominent part. 

In local program production, WORK features 
such shows as Penn Dairies' Three Q's now in its 



WORK 

eighth year, during which period over 1,600 local 
people have participated as contestants; the Wo- 
man's Page, Gregory's Gift Program of the Air 
now in its fifth year, and numerous other local shows. 
WORK has an active list of well over 200 sponsors 
who buy air time regularly. In April of 1937 the York 
Broadcasting Company became affiliated with the 
National Broadcasting Company, then as now rec- 
ognized as America's outstanding network. Shortly 
after this affiliation, WORK expanded its schedule 
to a daily broadcasting period of over seventeen 
hours. On special occasions of great news import 
such as D-Day or National Elections a full twenty- 
four-hour program is the order of the day. Supple- 
menting the many NBC features this station also 
carries programs from the Mutual Broadcasting Sys- 
tem. In the nationally recognized ratings of the 
Hooper Agency, NBC broadcasts eighteen of the na- 
tion's top twenty-five radio shows. All of these eight- 
een are heard regularly over WORK. 

To keep in tune with the times at all times 
simply tune to 1350 on the radio dial. 

FOR GOOD LISTENING EVERY DAY KEEP TUNED TO 
WORK! 



HWNU WtOAOCASTINC 




221 



YORK CORPORATION 

Headquarters for Mechanical Cooling Since 1885 



The company was founded September 2, 1874, in 
a small two-story brick building, 70 feet long 40 
wide, on Penn Street, within one block of the cor- 
poration's present West York Plant. It was originally 
named the York Manufacturing Company, and op- 
erated under that name for a period of fifty-three 
years, growing into the largest manufacturer of 
refrigerating, ice making and air conditioning ma- 
chinery in the world. 

The name given to the company at its birth had 
become synonomous with ice making and mechan- 
ical refrigeration, but was changed in 1927 to York 
Ice Machinery Corporation, through a merger with 
the York Manufacturing Company and all Field 
Sales and Construction companies, primarily to se- 
cure uniformity in engineering application, distribu- 
tion, prices and policies along with a rounding out 
of the company's line of equipment. 

Through a subsequent merger, for modernizing its 
capital structure, completed June 29, 1942, the com- 
pany adopted the name York Corporation, under 
which its operations are today. 

The growth of the business since it was estab- 
lished seventy years ago has been steady and con- 
tinous. It was brought about largely by the corpora- 
tion's ingenuity and aggressiveness and painstaking 
and thorough research and development, which 
opened new markets and applications for regrigera- 
tion and brought its products within closer reach of 
an ever-increasing number of users. 

Beginning in 1874, the entire personnel consisted 
of fourteen employees, strictly local in their range 
of activity. In 1897, there were fifty employees; in 
1910, this had swelled to 1,500. The organization 
now comprises 4,700 employees, of world-wide pro- 
portions in application engineering, distribution, 
construction, erection and maintenance, with re- 
search, design, development and manufacture con- 
centrated at York. Almost 600 of these employees 
have been with the company continuously for over 
a quarter of a century. 

The company's facilities today comprise two units 
... the West York Plant and the Grantley Plant. 
They cover an area of ninety-six acres with a work- 
ing and storage space of over 1,358,000 square feet. 

All of this growth in plant, in personnel, and fa- 
cilities ... in volume of sales, in prestige and 
reputation, were not merely the result of an increase 
in population. Nor were they due entirely to a 
stepped-up demand for refrigeration and air condi- 
tioning, nor mere good fortune through the succes- 
sive booms and depressions. 

True, these were natural and evolutionary factors, 
but their contribution was relatively small, and un- 
important. The real reasons for the growth of the 
company are found in its own accomplishments, and 
in the many significant steps it took, with ventures 
into uncharted seas, for the advancement and 



refinement of the science of refrigeration and air 
conditioning. 

In the beginning, the business of the company 
was the manufacture of water wheels and farm ma- 
chinery. Later, steam engines were added to the 
line. Then in 1885 the company took its first step 
prophetic of its future. It built its first ice machine 
and, as a hall-mark of confidence in its products 
that have ever since characterized its policy, in- 
stalled it for a customer in distant Mississippi. 

Significant was the decision to concentrate the 
company's entire effort to the development and 
manufacture of refrigerating machinery, exclusively. 

Linked with that decision was the construction, in 
1900, of the company's first Research and Experi- 
mental Laboratory. In this laboratory the company's 




West York Plant 



refrigerating equipment was redesigned, tested and 
amplified year by year as new applications of re- 
frigeration were discovered. It was, and is now, here 
that new designs and developments were proved 
through actual operation under extreme conditions 
before they were offered to the public, the never 
varying objective being to develop refrigeration and 
air conditioning units of less weight, greater com- 
pactness at lower initial and operating costs, and of 
greater durability. 

It was in this laboratory in 1903 that all leading 
manufacturers of refrigerating machinery of the era, 
known as the Ice Machine Builders' Association of 
the United States, conducted a series of tests on 
York Compressors and set a universal standard for 
rating compressors on what was required to pro- 
duce a ton of refrigeration. 

An account of the company's prewar products 
and operations is of necessity an account of peace- 
time production with a gradual but definite transi- 
tion to an all-out war effort. 

York refrigeration was serving the meat industry 
from packing plant to consumer. It was proving in- 
dispensable to the dairy industry. In the ice cream 
industry it was being used practically throughout 
every manufacturing process. It was preserving the 



YORK CORPORATION 

Headquarters for Mechanical Cooling Since 1885 



freshness and quality of the fishing industry's catch 
from sea to user. It was quick freezing meats, vege- 
tables, fruits and sea food in the rich producing 
areas and holding them over for distribution in any 
season. 

It was helping to make the refrigerated retail mar- 
ket the perfect unit of ultimate distribution and was 
standing guard over the foods served in hotels, res- 
taurants, hospitals and clubs. Its part in the modern 
hotel alone, from cold receiving room, in the base- 
ment, to serving coolers in the roof-garden . . . from 
the multitude of main kitchen coolers to the special, 
separated "in transit" cooling for a hundred different 
delicacies . . . from the complete ice plant, in the 
basement, to the intricate system of piping which 
supplies cold, clear drinking water to every room 
... all were a tribute to refrigeration's wide 
application. 

York Air Conditioning, too, from complete central 
system to a single room unit, was providing clean 
air at ideal temperature and humidity indoors . . . 
comfortably cooled in summer, comfortably heated 
in winter . . . and bringing health and comfort to 
people everywhere ... air conditioned theatres, 
department stores and specialty shops, hotels and 
restaurants, hospitals, offices and homes. 

Concurrently, York Refrigeration and York Air 
Conditioning were making possible new manufac- 
turing processes, speeding production, cutting costs 
of manufacture and improving quality of product on 
a wide industrial front. Winter weather was being 
made to order for testing automobile and airplane 



*;. 




Giantley Plant. 

engines as were sub-zero temperatures for the pro- 
duction of gasoline and lubricants for these engines. 
In the baking industry ... in the bottling of car- 
bonated beverages ... in chewing gum and candy 
making ... in printing and lithography . . . York 
was playing its part. 

It was producing the arctic cold and dryness nec- 
essary for the storage of furs and fabrics as well 
as supplying cold water and low temperatures for 
the manufacture of tires and raincoats, surgeons' 



gloves and golf balls, and innumerable other rub- 
ber products. 

It was playing a major role in the production and 
handling of rayon and cellophane, photographic ma- 
terials and optical equipment, candles and waxed 
paper, cigarettes and other tobacco products. With- 
out it the production of yeast and the processes of 
brewing would have been impossible on their pres- 
ent commercial scale. It was proving indispensable 
in the manufacture of chemicals and drugs ... in 
controlling temperatures in the mercerizing process 
... in the production of dyes and in silk dyeing. 
These and a host of others were the applications 
and accomplishments of York Refrigeration and York 
Air Conditioning in a nation at peace. 

As war clouds gathered, defense became the or- 
der of the day and with it came an ever-growing 
demand for the company's two major peacetime 
products to meet its needs. Then came Pearl Har- 
bor and an unprecedented demand for refriger- 
ation and air conditioning to meet the requirements 
of our armed forces and the industries serving war 
needs. 

Production of refrigeration and air conditioning for 
fighting ships had to be stepped up many fold. Be- 
sides protecting food supplies for the Navy's ships 
and bases, refrigeration and air conditioning serve 
even more vital functions with the fleet in protecting 
powder against rapid deterioration in the magazines 
and in providing vitalizing atmosphere to fire con- 
trol stations, plotting rooms, ready rooms in aircraft 
carriers, and in submarines. 

From every branch of the service came the same 
demand. Refrigeration for cold storage and ice mak- 
ing in army camps ... for cargo vessels to carry 
perishables to the millions on the fighting fronts . . . 
for the production of blood plasma and pencillin . . . 
for low temperature wind tunnels and test chambers 
in which men, airplane engines and instruments are 
exposed to stratospheric temperatures and pressures 
without leaving the ground ... for the production 
of synthetic rubber, high octane gasoline, explosives 
and chemicals ... for refrigerated trucks and port- 
able cold storage facilities. 

The demand for air conditioning was equally ur- 
gent ... in blackout plants for airplane production 
and precision manufacture . . . for the manufac- 
ture of ammunition, plastics, optical equipment and 
Pharmaceuticals ... for increasing the output of 
steel in blast furnaces ... for hospitals and hospi- 
tal trucks ... for photographic laboratories. Signal 
Corps huts and airport control towers. 

The company is fortunate in being able to play a 
major role in the war effort by keeping pace with 
the increased and varied war demands for its stand- 
ard peacetime products, refrigeration and air condi- 
tioning. At the same time it is able to contribute 
materially to the production of vitally needed com- 
bat equipment through adaptation of existing facili- 
ties, and with very little actual, full scale conversion. 



223 



THE YORK CORRUGATING COMPANY 



Plumbing, Heating and Sheet Metal 

The York Corrugating Company has two divisions 
Plumbing, Heating and Sheet Metal Division, 
doing a wholesale jobbing business; and a Metal 
Stamping Division, producing automotive and other 
miscellaneous sheet metal stampings. 

The company commenced business in November, 
1902, in a small building, containing approximately 
10,000 square feet of floor area, located on South 
Adams Street adjacent to the tracks of the Western 
Maryland Railroad and the Pennsylvania Railroad. 
The business originally consisted of the manufacture 
of metal gutters, spouting and corrugated roofing 
and siding. The manufacture of spouting and con- 
ductor continues to this day with as many as 7,- 
500,000 feet having been produced in peak years. 

Special Manufacturing Department 
This department was added in January, 1310, to 
produce skylights, cornices, tanks, smoke pipe and 
other special sheet metal items. During World War I, 
it was kept busy furnishing skylights, flashing and 
spouting for army cantonments. World War II found 
the Special Manufacturing Department producing 
thousands of gasoline tanks for army trucks plus 
other special sheet metal items. 

New Management 
It was in 1912 that the company was taken over 



Supplies Metal Stampings 

company started a jobbing business that has en- 
joyed a healthy growth and since has served the 
sheet metal trade throughout Central Pennsylvania. 

Plumbing and Heating Department 
Again, in 1932, a far-reaching step was taken in 
adding to its jobbing business a complete line of 
nationally advertised plumbing fixtures and equip- 
ment together with a line of boilers and radiation 
for the plumbing and steamfitting trades. In spite 
of the depression of that period, this business has 
grown steadily and is now firmly established. 

Branch Warehouses 

In addition to the plant and warehouses at York, 
a complete line of manufactured and jobbed items 
are carried in stock at the following warehouses: 
67 South Tenth Street, Harrisburg, Pa.; 66-72 Hudson 
Street, Jersey City, N. J.; 237 High Street, Newark, 
N. J.; 112 Spring Street, Patterson, N. J.; and 1001 
Seventh Street, Washington, D. C. 

Metal Stamping Division 

The establishment of a Metal Stamping Division 
at the York Corrugating Company dates back to 
1917, when the company broadened its scope of op- 
erations to include the manufacture of pressed, 
drawn and formed metal parts. The production of 
replacement fenders for the early model "T" Ford 




by a new, aggressive management which today con- 
tinues to direct its activities. The volume of business 
commenced to expand so that in 1914 a new plant, 
which was to become the initial part of^he present 
structure, was erected. 

Sheet Metal Department 

Until this time, the business was primarily one of 
manufacturing. In 1913, however, the new manage- 
ment decided to supplement their own products with 
those of other manufacturers. The result was that the 



was begun following the installation of presses and 
other necessary metal-working machinery. Later, this 
production was expanded to include running-boards, 
radiator shells, tool boxes and other metal parts for 
the early model Ford cars and trucks. 

As with the Plumbing, Heating and Sheet Metal 
Division, the Metal Stamping Division steadily in- 
creased its output so that in 1923 a modern press 
shop, having 50,000 square feet of floor area, was 
built adjoining the original plant. Again, in 1926, 



THE YORK CORRUGATING COMPANY 



Plumbing, Heating and Sheet Metal 

another addition containing 56,300 square feet of 
floor area was erected. Now, with this additional 
space, large double-action presses with capacities 
up to 500 tons and more smaller presses were in- 
stalled. A well-equipped pattern shop and tool room 
was added, and the number of employees multiplied. 
By this time, the company's replacement fender busi- 
ness was world-wide. Instead of making fenders for 
Ford cars only, Chevrolet and Plymouth fenders had 
now been added to the York line. Thousands of fend- 
ers were being produced annually for shipment to 
York distributors located in practically every princi- 
pal city of the United States. 




With the experience it acquired in the production 
of these automotive stampings, the company began 
to receive inquiries from automobile manufacturers 
regarding its facilities. It was in 1927 that the com- 
pany received its first contracts from Fierce-Arrow 
Motor Car Company and the Franklin Company for 
the construction of dies and tools for the fabrication 
of stampings; such as, radiator shells, fenders, and 
other metal parts for their passenger-cars. 

The early thirties found the company receiving 
more and more orders from large truck manufactur- 
ers for fenders, cab parts, gasoline tanks, running- 
boards, and other stamped parts. Among its cus- 
tomers were, and still continue to be, the Autocar 
Company, Mack Trucks, General Motor Trucks, White 
Motor Truck, and others. York Corrugating Company 
was becoming a major supplier of automotive stamp- 
ings and gradually was working itself out of the 



Supplies Metal Stampings 

replacement fender business which had become less 
attractive due to the increasing frequency of car 
model changes. 

Prior to World War II, it also produced boiler and 
stoker casings, motorcycle fenders, side-cars, oil and 
gas tanks; and a thousand and one other miscella- 
neous stampings in both small and large quantities. 

War Production 

Even prior to Pearl Harbor, this company was 
busy on subcontracts, covering war equipment for 
our Allied Nations already at war with Germany. 
Throughout World War II, York, engaged almost 
100% in war work, continued to furnish metal stamp- 
ings; such as fenders, radiator shells, door, roof, 
dash and instrument panels for cab assemblies; ar- 
mor, gun ring assemblies and other parts to its 
same truck customers who as prime contractors were 
busy producing thousands of urgently needed heavy- 
duty trucks for the Armed Forces. 

Other war items produced consisted of motorcycle, 
fenders, side-cars and parts for motorcycles; hatch 
covers for the Amphibious "Duck"; field ovens, plus 
a multitude of other special items. 

In recognition of its outstanding war production 
record, the men and management of the York Corru- 
gating Company were awarded the coveted Army- 
Navy "E" Banner on August 9, 1944. It was one 
of the first subcontractors in the area given this 
recognition. 

Sheet metal cabinets for air conditioning units, 
gasoline pumps, electric water coolers and elec- 
tric hot water heating units, attractively painted, 
are regular "peacetime" products of YORK metal 
workers, designed and built to customers' exacting 
specifications. 




YORK COUNTY GAS COMPANY 



Chartered 

The first Gas Lighting Company in the United 
States was incorporated as the Gas Light Company 
of Baltimore on February 5, 1817. Nineteen years 
afterwards, in 1836, the Philadelphia Gas Company 
began to operate as a Public Utility. 

In 1848, fourteen prominent and aggressive citi- 
zens of York foregathered and formed the York Gas 
Company. The Company was chartered by an Act 
of General Assembly of the Commonwealth entitled, 
"An Act to Incorporate the York Gas Company." This 
Act was approved and signed by Governor William 
F. Johnston on February 9, 1849. 

The first stockholders' meeting was held July 3, 
1849, and the following Board of Managers were 
elected: Dr. Alexander Small, physician; John Evans, 
attorney and first president of the York County Agri- 
cultural Society; Daniel Hartman, miller and banker; 
Dr. W. S. Roland, physician; Hon. A. J. Glossbrenner, 
printer, part-owner of The Gazette, who served some 
time in the Copyright Bureau in Washington; Thomas 
E. Cochrane, attorney. State Senator and Auditor- 
General, and Samuel Wagner, banker. 

There have been but seven presidents since the 
Company's incorporation: Dr. Alexander Small, 1849 
to 1862; Phillip A. Small, 1862 to 1875; David E. Small, 
1875 to 1883; William Hay, 1883 to 1884; G. Edward 
Hersh, 1884 to 1895; Grier Hersh, 1895 to 1937; 
Charles I. Crippen, 1937 to 1945. 

The first Gas Plant was erected abutting East Gas 
Alley, just east of George Street, on the property 
now used by A. B. Farquhar Company on which is 
located a Boiler Shop. The gas manufactured at this 
location until 1885 was coal gas which was produced 
by heating high volatile bituminous coal in hori- 
zontal retorts. This dry distillation process was car- 
ried on until nothing but coke remained when it was 
necessary to shut down and clean the retorts of fixed 
carbon before recharging. During this time until 1897, 
gas was used almost exclusively for gas lighting 
through the medium of fish-tail and Argand burners. 



in 1849 

In 1885, the business of the Gas Company had in- 
creased to the point that the property along Gas 
Alley was no longer adequate and a property lo- 
cated at Cottage Hill Road and Grant Street, partly 
in the Borough and partly in Manchester Township, 
known as Dr. Hays's Cottage Hill Female College, 
was secured and a gas plant was erected thereon. 
This is the location of the present modern gas plant 
as operated today. None of the original plant re- 
mains, however. 

The process installed in 1885 is known as the 
"Water Gas Process" is simply passing steam 
through a mass of incandescent carbon which pro- 
duces blue gas consisting primarily of carbon mon- 
oxide and hydrogen. With the addition of many me- 




Fig. No. 1 



Fig. No. 2 



chanical improvements, it is the same process as is 
used today. As blue gas burns with a non-luminous 
flame and is low in heating value, it is enriched with 
oil gas to increase the heating value to State Stand- 
ards. In 1930, the Manufacturers' Light and Heat 
Company of Pittsburgh extended their natural gas 
pipe lines to the York area. The Gas Company par- 
tially substituted natural gas for oil. 

In 1890, the incandescent gas mantle was in gen- 
eral use and gas was used for domestic, commercial 
and street lighting until about 1915. 

In 1897, the York Gas Company gave a great ex- 
hibition cooking with gas on a gas stove. If a cus- 



YORK COUNTY GAS COMPANY 



Chartered in 1849 



tomer desired to use gas for cooking, the Company 
would install one meter for cooking in addition to 
the existing light meter. Fig. No. 1 shows the type of 
gas range used in the early days. It bears but slight 
relationship to the modern Certified Performance gas 
range, Fig. No. 2, in use today. It was not until 1917 





Fig. No. 3 



Fig. Wo. 4 



that the public accepted gas as a "year around" 
cooking agent. 

The use of gas for thermostatically controlled 
water heating and domestic refrigeration followed 
promptly. A modern automatic water heater is shown 
in Fig. No. 3 and a modern refrigerator in Fig. No. 4. 

Gas is being used now by the manufacturing in- 
dustries of the community and some of the industrial 
uses are as follows: water heating (large volume); 
heating liquid solutions (cleaning, plating, etc.); de- 
greasing; baking bread, sweet goods, pretzels; cof- 
fee roasting; melting soft metals, tin, lead, zinc, 
aluminum, etc.; melting precious metals; soldering 
and brazing (silver soldering, carbide tool tipping); 
cutting steel (city gas and oxygen); generating 
steam (2 to 200-lbs. pressure); bronze melting; re- 
duction of metal powder (tungsten, molybdenum); 
core and mould drying; ladle and crucible drying; 
galvanizing; enameling (porcelain); tobacco drying; 
carbonel, black and temper coloring of steel; gen- 



eral heat treatment ferrous and non-ferrous mate- 
rials consisting of carbon and high-speed tool steel 
hardening, normalizing, annealing, stress relieving, 
tempering (austempering, martempering), carburiz- 
ing, nitriding, ni-carbing, clean hardening, bright 
annealing; protective atmospheres, automatically 
prepared and manually adjusted. Many other phys- 
ical and chemical uses, ranging from 100 to 3,200 
degrees Fahrenheit. 

The York County Gas Company serves gas in the 
City of York and Boroughs and Townships as listed 
below: 

Boroughs: North York, West York, Dallastown, 
Dover, Glen Rock, Hallam, Loganville, Manchester, 
Mt. Wolf, New Freedom, Red Lion, Shrewsbury, 
Windsor, Wrightsville, Yoe, and Hanover. Town- 
ships: Spring Garden, Manchester, West Manches- 
ter, Dover, East Manchester, Hallam, Shrewsbury, 
Springettsbury, Windsor, York, and Penn all in 
York County. Borough: McSherrystown. Township: 
Conewago Adams County. 

As of February 1, 1945, the Company had 273 
miles of main, exclusive of laterals, and was supply- 
ing gas to 26,724 customers. For the twelve-month 
period prior to February 1, 1945, the Company 
manufactured 997,000 M.c.f. of gas. 




Modern Kitchen. 



227 



YORK CITY LAUNDRY 

Domestic and Industrial Laundry Service 



During the latter 1880's, Henry Washers, Sr., late 
State Senator, began with one employee the busi- 
ness of laundering the men's stiff collars then in 
vogue. As York housewives gradually began to lose 
their prejudice against commercial washing, and to 
recognize the time and labor saved in "sending it 
to the laundry," Mr. Wasbers's business grew from 
the days when deliveries were made with a two- 
wheel pushcart until his death in 1930, when the 
present company was formed with Henry Wasbers, 
Jr., president and treasurer. 

The business continues today under the active 
management of Henry Wasbers, Jr., and his general 
manager, I. F. Boyle. In addition to the usual laun- 
dry, dry cleaning, rug storage, dyeing, line supply 
and fur storage, York City Laundry supplies local 
manufacturers with special industrial service. Dur- 
ing the second World War, this company has ful- 
filled, in addition, extensive army camp contracts. 



One of the largest laundries in Pennsylvania, the 
York City Laundry normally employs about 150 peo- 
ple at its six-story plant, located just off George 




Street on East King Street. The largest modern stor- 
age vault in this section serves both the housewife 
and commercial establishments. Branch offices for 
pick-up and delivery are maintained in Hanover, 
Delta and Red Lion. 



YORK COMPOSITION COMPANY 

Printing Composition 



In 1915, the American public was aroused over 
the "Battle of the Century" in which Jess Willard 
won the heavyweight championship from Jack John- 
son, in Havana, Cuba. It was in 1915, too, that the 
first transcontinental telephone service was inaugu- 
rated and the first wireless communication between 
Washington, D. C., and the Panama Canal Zone was 
transmitted. Zeppelins made the first air raid on 
London killing 191 persons. United States Secret Ser- 
vice Agents uncovered a gigantic German propa- 
ganda plot within our very gates. And an ambitious 
young fellow by the name of Philip P. Mann decided 
to go into business for himself. The business was that 
of setting type for those in the printing industry. 
Thus the York Composition Company was started 
with one Intertype machine in a small shop on 
Court Avenue. 

Prior to 1915, Phil Mann learned his trade at the 
York Dispatch and gained additional experience 
working for the York Printing Compahy and the 
Baltimore Sun. 

As the business grew, additional equipment in- 
cluding another Intertype machine was purchased. 
Then Mr. Mann purchased the Hubley Printing Com- 
pany and operated the two businesses successfully 
until 1928 when a fire destroyed the building he 
occupied. 



In a short time the present building was completed 
at Bierman and Rose Avenues and when it was 
ready for occupancy the young and now prosperous 
owner merged the two companies to form the pres- 
ent York Composition Company. 

Today, this energetic company operates a com- 
plete printing service for its many clients. These are 
located all along the Atlantic Coast and as far west 
as Chicago. Forty-five years of constant progress is 
not a slogan, but an actual fact. 

The York Composition has the finest typesetting 
facilities to be found in Central Pennsylvania. In 
addition, it has full printing equipment, so that the 
craftsmen employed in this splendid plant can and 
do take a piece of printing from its very conception 
and see it through until it is in the hands of the 
United States Post-Office. Here the idea is conceived, 
planned, written, designed, printed and bound all 
under one large roof. 

Phil Mann has five children, all of whom are ac- 
tively engaged in the business: Clare, Joseph and 
Phillip, Jr. Two boys, both former employees, are 
now in the armed forces; Richard in the South Pacific 
and James in Germany. 

The York Composition Company is open to those 
who would care to visit it at anytime. 



THE YORK COUNTY NATIONAL BANK 

Founded 1845 



This bank was originally incorporated as the York 
Savings Institution April 7, 1845. 

The charter gave the York Savings Institution 
power to receive deposits and pay interest on de- 
posits, but did not give it power to issue its own 
notes; was to continue in force until the first Mon- 
day of May, 1855; and authorized a capital of $100,- 
000 divided into five thousand shares at twenty 
dollars each. 

Formal organization, accepting the charter, took 
place on May 1, 1845. The stock subscription book 
was opened on May 15th. There were 153 subscrib- 
ers to the authorized five thousand shares. At a 
meeting on May 29, 1845, the shareholders elected 
thirteen directors as specified in the charter. The first 
directors were: Daniel Hartman, Christian Lanius, 
Peter Mclntyre, Michael Doudel, Charles Weiser, 
Luke Rouse, Abraham Forry, Thomas C. Hambly, 
Thomas Baumgardner, William A. Danner, J. G. 
Campbell, Adam Smyser and John Hough. 

Payment for shares of stock was to be made in 
instalments. The record indicates that the institution 
opened its doors for business with a paid-up capital 
of $10,000. 

On June 5th, the Board elected Charles Weiser, 
president, and William Wagner, cashier. 

The institution was located on the north side of 
East Market Street nearly opposite the Courthouse. 
The new bank was the fourth door from Centre 
Square. 

Five months after the opening of the bank, on 
November 4th, the paid-up capital was $20,000; 
profits, $1,274.10; deposits, $50,149.76; loans and in- 
vestments, $59,306.38; total resoures, $71,423.86. 

James G. Campbell became president in 1846. 

In 1847, the bank moved to new quarters in a 
building just erected by William Potts. 

In 1849, the institution became a bank of issue; the 
charter was renewed and extended from 1855 to 
1865; the name was changed to York Savings Bank. 

The name was again changed in 1850 to York 
County Bank. 

The capital was brought up to the authorized 
amount, $100,000, by the payment in 1852 of the 
balance due on the shares. 

Eli Lewis was elected president in 1853. 

The bank moved in 1855 to the P. A. & S. Small 
Building. 

On July 2, 1856, the bank's total resources had in- 
creased to $364,180.72. 

In 1857, the authorized capital was increased to 
$150,000; however, only one-half of the increase 
was issued. 

P. A. Small was made president in 1859. 

The capital was brought up to the authorized 
amount, $150,000, by the sale in 1863 of the remain- 
ing 1,250 shares. 

In December, 1864, the capital was further in- 
creased to $300,000; and the shareholders decided 
to convert the bank into a National Banking Associ- 
ation. The charter to The York County National Bank 
was issued by the Comptroller of the Currency on 
January 9, 1865. 

Total resources of the bank on October 27, 1865, 
were $941,561.19. 



James A. Schall became cashier in 1869. 

David F. Williams was elected president in 1875. 

Joseph E. Rosenmiller was chosen president in 
1881. 

William S. Roland was made president in 1885. 

Isaac A. Elliott in 1888 was elected cashier. 

In 1889, The York County National Bank purchased 
the business of Weiser, Son & Carl, and moved to 
the quarters formerly occupied by the latter firm. 

James A .Dale became president in 1897. 

William R. Horner was elected cashier in 1899. 

Statement figures of November 9, 1905, show that 
total resources had grown to $1,714,621.13. 

The Federal Reserve Act was passed in December, 
1913. The York County National Bank, as did all na- 
tional banks under the act, became a member of the 
Federal Reserve System. 

The Savings Department and Christmas Clubs 
were started in December, 1915. 

Samuel Small, Jr., was made president in 1921. 

Safe deposit boxes for rent were installed in 1923. 

Year-end figures for 1925 showed total resources, 
$4,464,097.67. 

In 1926, the trust department was opened, with 
George S. Schmidt as trust officer. 

The bank moved in September, 1929, to its present 
location into its new bank building which had just 
been completed. The site now occupied is said to be 
that of the old White Horse Tavern of Revolutionary 
times. 

S. Forry Laucks was elected president in 1930 and 
William R. Horner was made vice-president, also 
continuing as cashier. 

William R. Horner was elected president and 
W. F. O. Rosenmiller was elected vice-president and 
cashier in 1934. 

Donald H. Yost became trust officer in 1935. 

The privilege of circulation to national banks was 
discontinued in 1935, and the bank deposited with 
the U. S. Treasurer funds to redeem its circulation 
outstanding. 

Walter B. Hays was elected trust officer in Feb- 
ruary, 1943. 

In July, 1943, the authorized capital was increased 
from $300,000 to $600,000; a stock dividend of 100% 
was declared payable out of undivided profits; and 
the bank acquired the business of the Guardian Trust 
Company of York. 

In January, 1944, William R. Horner was elected 
chairman of the Board; W. F. O. Rosenmiller, presi- 
dent; Wilbur C. Beitzel, vice-president and cashier; 
and Walter B. Hays was reelected as trust officer. 
All were re-elected in January, 1945. 

Since its inception in 1845 as the York Savings 
Institution, the bank has paid semi-annual cash divi- 
dends each year, with the addition of a special "Red 
Cross Dividend" of 1% in June, 1917, and a dividend 
of 2% at the end of 1921 when the accounting period 
was changed. 

Year-end figures for 1944 were: Total resources, 
$19,615,072.26; loans and investments, $15,737,991.57; 
deposits, $18,048,460.75; capital, $600,000; and sur- 
plus and undivided profits, $942,436.24. Trust funds 
were $7,006,076.32. 



229 



YORK-HOOVER CORPORATION 

Body Division 



The present York-Hoover Body Corporation had 
its inception back in 1892, when Peter W. Keller 
founded a small manufacturing business known as 
the York Wagon Gear Company, located on the 
southwest corner of Linden and Belvidere Avenues. 
This was in the days of horse-drawn vehicles and 
the first products of the company consisted of quality- 
built wagons and wagon parts which were sold 
within a small radius of York. 

In the early 1900's when the motor trucks began 
to replace the horse-drawn wagon, the company's 




A partial view of metal fabricating department in Body Plant. 
The most modern metal working machinery will be found here. 



name was changed to York-Hoover Body Corpora- 
tion (reflecting a merger with the Hoover Body Com- 
pany) and commercial bodies replaced wagons as 
the product manufactured. 

During the ensuing years, the company expanded 
its engineering, manufacturing and distributing fa- 
cilities to coincide with the expansion of the com- 
mercial body industry. Extensive research was an 
important factor in the development of the company. 
Skilled engineers and craftsmen studied the require- 
ments of the industry. National distribution was ef- 
fected by the establishment of sales outlets through- 
out the country and, in 1943, the name of the busi- 
ness was changed to York-Hoover Corporation. 



Today, truck bodies still remain the dominant 
product of the Body Division. Its customers include 
many national fleet operators . . . public utilities. 




One of a battery of spot weWers in operation. Many types of 
we/ding units are employed to perform specific operations. 



express carriers, and baking, dairy and soft drink 
industries. 

War Record Firsf Four-Star Award 

After Pearl Harbor, when our nation was mobilized 
for World War II, the facilities of the York-Hoover 
Body Division were converted to the building of 
truck bodies and similar units for the Army Signal 
Corps, Quartermaster Corps and the Navy. The ex- 
cellence of their quality and quantity production was 
recognized by the presentation of the Army-Navy 
"E" Flag in November, 1942 (the second award in 
York County). Subsequent awards, at six-month in- 
tervals, were received until December, 1944, when 
the Fourth Star was awarded. This was the first 
Fourth Star Award in the Philadelphia Ordnance 
District, which embraces an area of seven States. 




Body Division Wheatfiefd and M. & P. R. R. 



YORK-HOOVER CORPORATION 

Casket Division 



In 1932, the Casket Division of the York-Hoover 
Corporation was formed, bringing a new industry 
to York with its attending opportunity for increased 




A specially designed belt zander contributes to the ultimate 
high quality finish, characteristic ot the York product. 



employment, thereby contributing to Community 
Progress. 

This expansion into the burial casket field carried 
with it the York-Hoover policy of producing a qual- 
ity product and the resulting hardwood and metal 
"YORK CASKETS" are recognized for their distinctive- 
ness, fine finishes and good taste throughout the 
eastern half of the United States. 



Over the period of time since its inception, steady 
yearly strides have been made so that with expand- 
ing territories and increased production, the York- 
Hoover Corporation has grown in the past eight 
years to be one of the largest manufacturers of burial 
caskets in the United States. 




Production machines of the latest design are utilized. Photo- 
graph shows setting up a direct drive moulder which surfaces 
four sides wifh one opera/ion. 

Today, a complete service in caskets, vaults and 
basic accessories is offered the funeral directors over 
a large area. 




Casket Division Linden and Belvidere Avenues. 



231 



THE YORK ELECTRIC & MACHINE CO. 

Manufacturers of Special Machinery 



Back in 1902, when Milton B. Gibson was Mayor 
of York; William A. Stone, Governor of Pennsyl- 
vania; and Theodore Roosevelt, President of these 
United States, a new industrial business was born 
in York. 

Even then, York had established a country-wide 
reputation for its fine craftsmanship. Its products 
were known for quality. A good place to launch a 
new business, particularly a new business enter- 
prise such as this. 

A small group of young men, including John E. 
Graybill, Paul Mcjunkin, J. R. Trimmer, and Horace 
G. Wiest, organized the York Electric & Machine 
Company. It was their purpose to gather together 
a group of highly skilled mechanics, consulting en- 
gineers, tool and die makers. This they did, and set 
up shop at 102 East Mason Avenue and in 1905, 
moved to the present location at 30 North Penn 
Street, devoting their skill and energies to building 
and developing intricate devices, electrical and me- 
chanical equipment. 

The extraordinary engineering and mechanical 
skill of this young organization soon attracted coun- 
try-wide recognition. Among their early clients were 
such industrial giants as: The General Electric Com- 
pany, The Westinghouse Electric Company, McCor- 
mick & Co., Sylvania Products Co., Pannier Brothers, 
Glenn L. Martin Co., Crosley Corp., and the Printing, 
Engraving and Treasury Departments of the U. S. 
Government. 

Among the countless newly-designed equipment 
developed for these and other clients were incan- 
descent lamp-making devices for the General Elec- 
tric Company; electric coffee-roasting machines for 
Talbot Electric Roaster Co.; tea bagging and pack- 
aging machines for McCormick Co., which weighed, 
bagged and tagged tea bags at sixty per minute; 
musical broadcasting sound equipment for Carillo- 
tone Corp., and Aircraft Wire Printing Machines for 
the Aircraft Industry. 

Machines for producing incandescent lamps auto- 
matically, were designed and built. These devices 
included tubulating, sealing in, stem basing, and 
glass tube cutting. Also high vacuum pumps and 
similar equipment. 

This highly specialized engineering skill attracted 
the attention of Lamp Division of the General Electric 
Co., and for some fifteen years a close affiliation was 
maintained between these two firms. During this pe- 
riod, special equipment which set the pace in the de- 
velopment of the incandescent lamp through the old 
carbon filament, the tantalum filament, and finally 
the mazda-tungsten lamp of today was perfected. 

Machines and dies were designed and built for 
radio tube manufacturers. Semi-automatic solders 
and similar devices used in manufacturing intri- 
cate close tolerance parts required by radio tube 
manufacturers were developed. 

The foregoing gives some idea of the wide range 
of engineering skill and mechanical experience re- 
quired and employed by these York Electric & Ma- 
chine Company craftsmen. The very nature of their 
work attracted to their small shop inventors of re- 
nown; hence, they played an important part in the 
development of many industrial and manufacturing 
successes throughout the past forty years. The orig- 



inal models of many outstanding and famous ma- 
chines and mechanical devices were built in this 
shop. 

The first World War, as now, found them chiefly 
concerned with the war effort. The skill of their tool- 
makers and mechanical craftsmen then as now at- 
tracted Army and Navy production chiefs. So, for the 
duration of the war, the entire capacity was and 
will be devoted to the manufacture of precision parts 
for boats, guns, and intricate instruments. 

With the coming of peace and reconversion, the 
same organization of skilled craftsmen and manage- 
ment is again available to industry in developing 
new models and the tools with which to make them. 

Of the original organizers, Horace G. Wiest is still 
with the firm which underwent a reorganization a 
few years ago. This reorganization brought Edwin 
Kraber into the firm as president and general man- 
ager in 1941. Mr. Kraber had already achieved 
marked success in York as a manufacturer. His broad 
experience and ability as a business executive was 
of great value in developing the expansion program 
planned. The only effect of the reorganization on the 
policies of the firm was to enlarge and expand the 
scope and production volume. The same ideas and 
ideals of precision workmanship that have prevailed 
through the past forty years will continue. 

The York Electric & Machine Company shall con- 
tinue as a custom-job shop, proffering the services 
of its consultant engineers, skilled toolmakers, and 
mechanics to industrial America. 

It has gradually developed a line of stamping, 
marking, and printing devices. These include: A 
group of Standard Wire Printers, an Aircraft "Hot- 
Stamp" Wire Printer, Tube and Bar Printing and 
Marking Equipment, and Hardness Tester designed 
especially for the aircraft industry to speed produc- 
tion. The Aircraft Wire Printer conforms to AN speci- 
fications and is in use in some of the largest aircraft 
plants in America. 

This family of printing, marking, and stamping 
devices will be continued and increased. 

The York Electric & Machine Company is justly 
proud of York, the industrial community of which it 
is a part. Its purpose and its plan is to grow with 
this community. 

York, Pennsylvania, is known throughout the 
manufacturing world as the home of "industrial lead- 
ers." Though this company is small compared to 
some of the giant industries that have made York 
famous, it believes it has been an important part of 
York's industrial progress. This organization has a 
well-grounded, deep-seated faith in the industrial 
future of this community. It respects the high quali- 
ties of the York industrialists who have contributed 
so richly to the reputation of York as the home of 
world-famous products and equipment. 

The future of York as a growing industrial com- 
munity is assured. The future of the York Electric & 
Machine Company is predicated on the same policy 
and program that motivated its management for the 
past forty-three years. 

It will grow with the community, and in growing 
offers its greater facilities and ripened experience 
to those requiring its services. 



YORK JUNIOR COLLEGE 

York Collegiate Institute York County Academy 



"Go to college in York" is the invitation extended 
to young people by the York Junior College. A beau- 
tiful auditorium-gymnasium, excellent laboratories 
and library, a faculty composed of experienced col- 
lege teachers, and a well-organized program of 
sports and extra-curricular activities make this invi- 
tation an attractive one. The school is co-educational, 
classes are small and individual attention is given 
to each student. 

A number of courses of study are available, lead- 
ing either directly to employment or to advanced 
study in other institutions of higher learning. 

Worked out in cooperation with experts in various 
technical fields are the two-year course in engi- 
neering technology with a choice of specialization 
in mechanical or production engineering, and the 
course in industrial laboratory technology which 
stresses industrial chemistry. A two-year course is 
offered in cooperation with the Thompson Business 
College to meet the growing demand for qualified 
medical secretaries. 

For students wishing to complete two years' work 
toward further study in college or university, the 
regular liberal arts course and the first two years of 
scientific work required by all medical schools, are 
available. 

The Conservatory of Music and the Department of 
Fine Arts appeal to students with special talents. 

The preparatory school, comprising the junior and 
senior high school grades, offers thorough prepara- 



tion for college. Ninety per cent of its graduates 
enter institutions of higher learning. A reciprocal 
teaching agreement was entered into with the York 
County Academy in 1929 and a joint diploma is 
awarded at graduation. 




YORK MACHINERY & SUPPLY COMPANY 

Mill and Machinery Supplies 



The York Machinery & Supply Company was 
founded February, 1923, by N. B. Hess and F. B. 
Shearer to stock and distribute industrial supplies 
and machinery. 

The business was established in a small storeroom 
located at 12 North Penn Street. It was intended to 
serve only those industries located in the City of 
York. 

During the twenty-two years of its continuous 
and successful growth, the company moved to 361 
West Market Street and then to a large three-story 
building located at 20-28 North Penn Street, which 
was renovated to the needs of a modern mill supply 
house and which is our present location. 

From originally servicing industry in the City of 
York, the company has expanded to service eighteen 
counties located in the central part of Pennsylvania. 

The company had the privilege of having the first 
industrial equipment and supply catalog published 
by a York house in twenty-two years. It was called 
"The York Blue Book of Industrial Supplies, Tools, Ma- 
chinery and Technical Data," containing 570 pages. 



The York Machinery & Supply Company devotes 
itself exclusively to rendering service on its equip- 
ment and supplies. It concentrates entirely on in- 
dustrial items, consequently these items are not 
merely a department in our organization. It studies 
the needs of industry, records them, then tries to 
build stocks to cover these needs. 

The company is very careful in selecting the 
manufacturers it represents and will become the 
representative of only those manufacturers who are 
leaders in the lines they offer and have a sales 
policy that is fair to the consumer and who can also 
render adequate technical and mechanical service. 

The company employs competent sales engineers 
who are factory trained in many of the lines carried. 
They can and do render a consulting service to many 
of our customers and if further help is required, its 
sales engineers can secure the service of the factory 
engineers quickly. 

The company will continue to serve industry, large 
and small. 



233 



YORK MIRROR AND GLASS COMPANY 



Plate Glass 

Mirrors for bedroom and dining-room suites, man- 
tle, bank vault, bathroom and door mirrors, plate 
glass and window glass in all colors, for every con- 
ceivable use, are the major products of the York 
Mirror and Glass Company. 

The O. W. Slane Glass Company was founded in 
Ford City, Pennsylvania, in 1897, and in 1906 moved 
their plant to Statesville, North Carolina, and 
branched with a plant in Knoxville, Tennessee. They 
were one of the first mirror manufacturers in the 
South. Since that time, many new methods of bevel- 
ing, polishing, cutting and shaping glass have been 
created to improve the quality and usefulness of 
plate glass products. 

The industry in general has enjoyed continuous 
growth and progress, and the York Mirror and Glass 
Company in particular continues to render an ex- 
ceedingly valuable service to the industries of York 
and York County. 

In 1914, the O. W. Slane Glass Company was es- 
tablished in York. Glass workers in those days were 
paid twelve and one-half cents per hour for their 
fine craftsmanship. In 1924, the company was pur- 



Products 

chased by a group of York County furniture manu- 
facturers, known as the York Mirror and Glass Com- 
pany, retaining the same management together with 
its staff of skilled craftsmen. These included William 
H. Kutsch, general manager, who has been with the 
organization since its inception, and two additional 
employees who have records of thirty-eight years' 
service. 

Directors of the York Mirror and Glass Company 
include: John L. Gerber, James B. Sechrist, Harry G. 
Sieling, William H. Kutsch, and N. Neiman Craley. 
The company normally employs about seventy-five 
personnel. Twenty-one former employees are in the 
Armed Forces including two of Mr. Kutsch's sons. 
Fifteen per cent of the company's present volume of 
mirror and plate glass work is absorbed by the Navy. 

Post-war expansion plans of the York Mirror and 
Glass Company include the erection of a large mod- 
ern plant adjacent to the present establishment. 
With these increased facilities the company expects 
to employ additional personnel and expand its dis- 
tribution activities. 




YORK SAW WORKS 

Band and Circular Saws 



The York Saw Works was established in 1906 by 
Louis J. Klunk, who had learned the sawmaking 
trade in Chicago. Mr. Klunk maintained a small shop 
for many years manufacturing narrow band saws 
and handling all types of saw repairs, Catering to 
users within a small radius of York. The business 
grew rapidly, developing a more complete line of 
items, including circular saws, band and circular 
knives, perforating blades and various types of steel 
disc specialties. 

Upon the death of Mr. Klunk in 1940, the business 



was purchased by Joseph P. Simmons, James H., and 
Paul F. Klunk, all of whom had been associated with 
the founder for many years. At that time the shop 
was enlarged, new equipment and machinery was 
added. 

Today, this company has expanded into all fields 
of band and circular saw requirements, making 
blades for the aircraft industry. Navy yards, plastic 
manufacturers, as well as all types of woodworking 
shops. Products are shipped to all parts of the nation 
and to many South American countries. 



YORK MOTOR EXPRESS COMPANY 



1920-1945 



Twenty-five years of progressive freight transpor- 
tation by motor truck is our record. 

To the citizens and industry of York City and York 
County we extend our sincere thanks for coopera- 
tion in aiding us in developing one of the most effi- 
cient and flexible modes of freight transportation. 
Prior to 1920, the term "overnite service," so com- 
monly used today, was entirely unknown to Yorkers. 
During that year with two trucks, we inaugurated 
a fast dependable freight service between York and 
New York City. For instance, eggs and poultry, 
which yesterday were still on York County farms, 
are included in today's menus in New York City. 
Fish, swimming contentedly in the Atlantic today, 
will be offered to Yorkers tomorrow. Industrial de- 
mands were even greater. By 1927, we operated 
fifty trucks and extended our service to Philadelphia, 
Baltimore and Washington. We constructed terminals 
at all important cities on our routes and maintained 
our own shops for repairs and rebuilding equipment. 

December, 1941, found us adequately prepared to 
fulfill the demands made upon us by York industries. 



At that time, we maintained a fleet of 340 units, 11 
terminals and served direct over 1,100 cities, towns 
and villages in Pennsylvania, Maryland, District of 
Columbia, Delaware, New Jersey and New York. In 
addition, connecting line service is available to all 
States and import and export service via the Balti- 
more, Philadelphia and New York Ports. We are 
today transporting 1,500 tons of freight daily, 85% 
of which is used directly in the war effort. 

York County is truly a hub of efficient motor trans- 
portation service radiating North, East, South and 
West and affording prompt, courteous, dependable 
daily service. 




YORK OFFICE SUPPLY COMPANY 



32 N. George St. 

The York Office Supply Company also known as 
YOSCO which has been serving York and its sur- 
rounding counties for almost a quarter of a century 
has gradually expanded until today it is the largest 
stationery, office equipment and gift store in the city. 

William H. Trimmer, of Trimmer Printing Company, 
is the owner. Thomas T. Tappenden, one of the char- 
ter members of the organization, is still with the firm. 
A competent sales staff consisting of Lloyd H. Her- 
man, Walter Anderson, Mrs. Sally Oberdick and 
fourteen other employees are always ready and 
eager to render friendly and helpful service. 

York Office Supply Company handles the products 
of reputable, nationally-known manufacturers, in 
two stores conveniently located at 32 North George 
Street and 326 West Market Street, respectively. 
YOSCO stands ready to help you select a suitable 
chair or desk for your office, to simplify your record 
keeping with the latest in filing systems and book- 
keeping aids, or even to suggest the layout for an 



326 W. Market St. 

entire new office or department. All this is a part of 
their regular service. 

Since 1923, York Office Supply Company has been 
headquarters for stationery, greeting cards, fountain 
pens, desks, filing equipment, and in fact "Every- 
thing for the Office." 

If you are too busy to visit one of the stores, dial 
2682 and a salesman will call on you. 

"YOSCO service must please you to please us." 




235 



THE YORK NATIONAL BANK AND TRUST COMPANY 



York's Oldest Banking Institution Established 1810 



Originally called the York Bank, this old institu- 
tion was founded in January, 1810, by eleven of the 
leading citizens of that day. Subsequently, and under 
the Congressional Act of 1814, Pennsylvania was 
divided into twenty-seven banking districts. York 
County was one of these, and the York Bank, ac- 
cepting the provisions of the Act, assumed the entire 
banking responsibility of this district a trust which 
it held until 1845. It is interesting to note that the 
York Bank numbered among its many patrons of this 




Original Building, once (he Indian Queen Hotel. 

era many of Pennsylvania's great and near-great, 
including members of the Continental Congress and 
even the Marquis Lafayette (in 1824). 

It was in 1814, also, that the York Bank acquired 
the building which then housed the Indian Queen 
Hotel, the same site on which The York National Bank 
and Trust Company stands today. 

In November, of the year, 1864, the York Bank be- 
came The York National Bank by virtue of the Na- 
tional Bank Act which was passed the previous year. 

Throughout the 135 years since its inception, 
throughout the development of the State and Na- 
tional banking laws and through all the years of 
growth of the bank itself. The York National Bank 
and Trust Company has continuously played a major 
part in the banking requirements of this community. 
Through more than six generations the bank has 
never missed a dividend, having for 262 times paid 
regular dividends amounting to over $3,509,000.00. 

Expanding with the requirements of York's indus- 
tries, commerce and individuals, in October, 1940, 
The York National Bank and Trust Company opened 
an Eastern branch at 721 East Market Street as the 
result of the acquisition of the Eastern National Bank 
of York. In 1942, the parent institution at 107 West 
Market Street was completely remodeled and mod- 
ernized. In January, 1943, the First National Bank of 
Fawn Grove, Pennsylvania, became the Fawn Grove 
branch of The York Natonal Bank and Trust Com- 
pany. Finally, in June, 1943, the assets and liabili- 
ties of the Central National Bank and Trust Com- 
pany of York were acquired by The York National 
Bank and Trust Company. 



Today, York's Oldest Bank, traditionally in the 
forefront as a progressive banking institution, offers 
the following modern services: 

TRUST ADMINISTRATION, as Executor or Trustee, in 
the administration or settlement of estates and testa- 
mentary trusts, with complete facilities and a sea- 
soned and experienced advisory staff. 

CHECKING ACCOUNTS, with the added protection of 
modern check photography. 

SAVINGS ACCOUNTS, for large and small depositors, 
including a Christmas Savings Club. 

LOAN AND MORTGAGE DEPARTMENT for the servicing 
of real estate, business and personal loans. 

SAFE DEPOSIT BOXES with private coupon rooms 
adjoining, and a completely modern Safe Keeping 
Department. 

TRAVEL DEPARTMENT, which today is almost exclu- 
sively engaged in the sale of War Savings Bonds 
and Stamps, but which will, with the return of peace, 
revert to its original duties. 

SCHOOL SAVINGS DEPARTMENT, designed to acquaint 
the youth of York with the advantages and proper 
use of banking connections. 

VETERANS' DEPARTMENT. A new department de- 
voted to financial assistance to Veterans of World 
War II under the Congressional Acts which offer loan 
assistance to Veterans. 

With assets currently in excess of $27,000,000.00, 
The York National Bank and Trust Company is still 
pioneering. Strong evidence testifies to its intent of 
continuing as a progressive banking institution in 
a progressive community. The wide experience and 
progressive-mindedness of the incumbent Board of 
Directors is an important factor. 




The Presen( Building is a replica of (he Colonial S(a(e House. 



YORK PAINT AND HARDWARE COMPANY, INC 

Paint, Hardware, Floor Covering 



Historically speaking, the York Paint and Hard- 
ware Company celebrates its 103rd anniversary this 
year. Over a century of continuous progress and ser- 
vice to industries and individuals in York and adja- 
cent communities is a fine testimonial. It reflects an 
aggressive pioneering spirit, a comprehensive knowl- 
edge of community requirements, and a keen desire 
to participate in York's industrial and commercial 
development. 

Prior to 1842, Jacob Hantz came to York from Da- 
vidsburg, Pennsylvania. He operated a hotel called 
"The Matter House" and was sheriff of York County 
at that time. 

In 1842, Mr. Hantz erected the present building at 
Market Street and Pershing Avenue and started in 
the hardware and grain business as Jacob Hantz. He 
was the sole owner of the business until 1856 when 
his brother became associated with him and the 
name of the company was changed to Hantz and 
Brother. In 1886, Grant Hantz assumed control of the 
business and in 1893 employed C. S. Stitzel, present 
owner of the York Paint and Hardware Company, 
Inc., as a clerk. In 1899, Mr. Stitzel purchased the 
interest of Grant Hantz and changed the name of 
the enterprise to York Paint and Color Company. 

During the period between 1899 and 1920, the 
York Paint and Color Company was operated as a 
partnership, the first partners being C. S. Stitzel and 
Harry McFall. It was later changed to C. S. Stitzel 
and Joseph Rupp. This partnership terminated in 
1918 and C. S. Stitzel operated the business himself 
from 1918 to 1920. 

In 1920, the business was incorporated under the 
laws of Pennsylvania and renamed York Paint and 
Hardware Company, Inc. Present officers are C. S. 
Stitzel, president, who has been with the company 
for the past forty-six years; H. Luke Owen, vice- 
president, who has been with the company since 



1920; and William C. Stitzel, secretary, since 1930. 

Facilities of the business include the four-story 
building located at 203 West Market Street, in which 
the retail store is located. Warehouses located at 31 




1932 Store 

North Pershing Avenue are also occupied. Ninety- 
two per cent of the business is wholesale and eight 
per cent retail. The wholesale business consists of 
the distribution of builders' and furniture hardware, 
roofing products, all types of glass, linoleum and felt- 
base floor covering, paint and sundry items. Service 
is rendered to manufacturing plants in and around 
York County and floor covering distribution covers 
seventeen counties in Central Pennsylvania, parts 
of Maryland, West Virginia and Virginia. 

Before Pearl Harbor, the York Paint and Hardware 
Company, Inc., had four trained representatives in 
the field. Present personnel consists of fourteen men 
and five women. Four employees are in the armed 
services. 




Present Retail Store 



YORK SAFE AND LOCK COMPANY 

Designers and Manufacturers of the World's Largest Vaults 



York Safe and Lock Company was established 
in 1882 with a very modest brick factory building 
erected on the Loucks' Mill Road, paralleling the 
tracks of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, North- 
ern Central Division, and just outside the city limits. 

S. Forry Laucks, late president of the company, 
started as a boy with the company in 1887, and be- 
came general manager in 1890. Through his untiring 
efforts the company progressed steadily from 1890 
to become one of the important plants in the State 
of Pennsylvania, and the most important in the 
world in the industry to which it belongs. 

The plant now covers ten acres of ground, and 
has the most modern equipment, including the small- 
est to the heaviest type of tools, all motor-driven, 
making it possible to manufacture with the greatest 
economy their line of bank and safe deposit vaults, 
fire and burglar resistive safes, and chests. 



Important Bank Jobs 

This company has the distinction of manufactur- 
ing and installing the largest and heaviest vaults in 
in the world, among them being the Federal Re- 
serve vaults in New York City, which are the larg- 
est in the United States, and have revoluble doors 
which were conceived and patterned by the York 
Safe and Lock Company. They also built Federal 
Reserve vaults in Boston, Mass.; Philadelphia, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa.; Cleveland, Cincinnati, Ohio; Chicago, 
111.; Minneapolis, Minn.; Little Rock, Ark., and Louis- 
ville, Ky., as well as the other prominent banking 
institutions in the United States, some of which are: 
Chase National Bank, National City Bank, Bank of 
Manhattan Company, Bank of New York and Trust 
Company, Guaranty Trust Company, Irving Trust 
Company, Bowery Savings Bank, First National 
Bank, all of New York City; First Trust and Sav- 



ings Bank, Chicago, and Provident Trust Company, 
Philadelphia. 

Foreign installations include: Bank of Spain, Ma- 
drid, Spain; Bank of China, Shanghai, China; Bank 
of Portugal, Lisbon, Portugal; Central Bank of Man- 
chu, Hsinking, China; Royal Bank of Canada, Mon- 
treal, Canada; Bank of Montreal, Montreal, Canada; 
Banco de Mexico, Mexico, D. F.; Bank of Japan, 
Tokyo; and Guaranty Trust Co., London. 



Unusual Product 

The reverence with which the Chinese hold the 
ashes of their ancestors is strikingly brought to the 
attention of the Occidentals by the construction of 
a York Safe and Lock Company fireproof vault door 
for the inner entrance to the tomb and national 
shrine of Dr. Sun-Yat-Sen, famous Chinese general, 
revered for the three principles he taught national- 
ism, democracy and livelihood. 



War Record 

With the World War came the dire need by our 
Government for the quick construction and delivery 
of equipment for its rapid and successful conduct. 
The attention of the Government was directed to the 
industrial plants of the country and to their possibil- 
ities for being converted speedily from the making 
of peacetime products to implements of warfare. 
Among the first of the managers of these great plants 
to be summoned to Washington was S. Forry Laucks, 
and it was at once made apparent that the organi- 
zation and facilities of his plant could be quickly 
diverted to war work and converted into a huge 
source of supply of the needed materials and imple- 
ments of war. Their record of production made them 




Main Plant. 



YORK SAFE AND LOCK COMPANY 

Designers and Manufacturers of the World's Largest Vaults 



recipients of special awards of honor by the United 
States Army and Navy as the war progressed. 

Awarded a prime contract by the Army in July, 
1938, to build three-inch anti-aircraft gun mounts, 
York Safe and Lock Company was the first private 
firm in the United States to make heavy ordnance 
since World War I. As subsequent Army and Navy 
contracts were received, the company expanded 
from one plant to five plants and two gun-proofing 
ranges, all located in York, Pennsylvania, and all 
100% devoted to war production. Here are a few of 
the Army and Navy weapons made by this company. 

For the Navy 

Twin and Quad Bofors 40mm. Anti-Aircraft Guns 
and Mounts . . . The largest machine guns in use 
today, they are power-driven, and are our Navy's 
answer to enemy air power. These are the guns that 
gave so much sting to the carrier Enterprise and the 
South Dakota (Battleship "X"). 

Aircraft Depth Bomb Fuses . . . These are the 
delicate mechanisms that made possible such Axis 
obituaries as "Sighted Sub Sank Same." Airplanes 
and blimps drop the bombs, and fuses, set by the 
bombardier, explode at predetermined depths. 

Naval Shields and Gun Slides . . . Thick armor 
plate shields or "turrets" protect the equipment and 
the crew of main battery guns on our cruisers, heavy 
cruisers and battleships. Slides in which the guns 
are mounted are big but intricate precision assem- 
blies for cushioning the terrific recoil and maintain- 
ing accuracy of fire. 

Surface Craft Depth Bomb Fuses . . . These deadly 
1 ash cans" are dropped from the stern and lobbed to 
starboard and port by Y-guns. Precision fuse mech- 
anisms control the explosion by water pressure so 



that subs are bracketed from varied angles and 
depths by destructive "diamond patterns." 

For the Army 

155mm. Howitzer Carriages . . . Heavy siege guns 
like those used to blast Nazi fortifications in North 
Africa and Italy are mounted on these mobile car- 
riages. The guns can fire three 95-lb. shells per min- 
ute, hurling them a distance of nine miles. 

37mm. Guns and Carriages . . . The battle per- 
formance of this short range equipment made it 
the Army's all-purpose weapon. The guns are hard- 
hitting, light and accurate; are used in the field 
against tanks and small installations and can be 
drawn by jeeps or pack-carried. Also, they are effec- 
tive armament in airplanes. 

90mm. Anti-Aircraft Gun Mounts . . . Fired and 
aimed by remote control, 90's threw heavy ack-ack 
against high-flying planes much to the sorrow of 
Jap flyers over Guadalcanal. 

Three-inch Anti-Aircrait Gun Mounts . . . The first 
armament of its type to be made by a private firm 
since the last World War, they are similar to the 
90mm. and are also the first heavy weapons that 
could be quickly put in position against hostile 
aircraft. 

York Safe and Lock Company also manufactured 
detonating fuses, 1.1" and 40mm. projectiles for the 
Navy; for the Army it also made 37mm. shot, 40mm. 
shells, detonating fuses and tank accessories, and 
fabricated armor plate for tanks, airplanes, jeeps 
and scout cars. In addition, ordnance was produced 
in many forms for our Allies. 

Other war activities included the manufacture of 
safes for the Maritime Commission; safes, chests and 
lockers for the Navy; safes and vault doors for the 
Army, and similar products for many other Govern- 
ment Bureaus. 




A 



South Plant. 



East Plant. 



YORK-HEAT 

Division of York-Shipley, Inc. 



York-Heat was one of the pioneers in the devel- 
opment and manufacture of oil-fired equipment. Its 
execuiives and engineering staff are seasoned men 
who have literally grown up in the industry. 

After Pearl Harbor, when the Defense Program 
quickened into all-out production for war, York-Heat 
placed all its accumulated experience, creative and 
production brains, and plant facilities at the service 
of the nation. The Army-Navy "E" pennant flying 
over the York-Heat plants attests the success of its 
efforts. 

York-Heat's war work falls into two broad cate- 
gories. First, oil-fired equipment of special types 
needed for the prosecution of the war. Some of these 
were evolutions of existing York-Heat equipment, 
for which York-Heat could draw upon its vast fund 
of knowledge and experience. Other military appli- 
cations were new in conception and had to be de- 
veloped from scratch. York-Heat engineers and pro- 
duction experts rolled up their sleeves and sweated 
out the job. 

Conspicuous among these highly specialized ap- 
plications of York-Heat for wartime uses are an air- 
plane engine heater for quickly warming up the 
engines of planes; a fog (smoke screen) generator; 
oil-fired military laundries and bake ovens; heating 
installations for the Army, Navy, Coast Guard, and 
Maritime Commission; Diesel electric generating 
units for lend-lease. 

York-Heat's second wartime assignment was the 
making of precision parts for the deadly weapons 
used to beat down the Axis. Among these were 
turret-race assemblies, and other vital parts, for 
Army tanks; parts for amphibious tanks; 50-calibre 
antiaircraft gun mount rings; precision parts for Bo- 
fors guns; gun mounts for landing craft. 

All of these critical items had to meet exacting 
government specifications, be produced in quantity, 
and delivered on time. York-Heat, significantly hon- 
ored by the confidence of the armed forces, delivered. 

Having manufactured oil-burning equipment 
throughout the war period, production for peace 
presents no problem of reconversion for York-Heat. 



Armed with the priceless benefits of wartime expe- 
rience and research, with plant and personnel ade- 
quate for the job, York-Heat is set for production of 
its post-war models. 

York-Heat plans penetration of the entire national 
market, and is already active in the export trade. 
York-Heat design embodies many exclusive, pat- 
ented, basic refinements ... as well as numerous 
advancements born of wartime production for the 




Government. These, and precision-techniques in 
manufacturing, confer on York-Heat post-war mod- 
els a notable degree of compactness, efficiency, 
trouble-free operation, and fuel-saving economy. 

To a public more than ever mindful of the advan- 
tages of automatic heat . . . automatic oil heat . . . 
York-Heat offers the finest and most complete line 
of domestic, commercial, industrial, and marine oil- 
fired equipment in America. In it will be found oil 
burners, boiler-burner units, winter air conditioners, 
and oil-fired water heaters for the home; industrial 
boiler-burner units, horizontal rotary industrial oil 
burners, low pressure and high pressure steam gen- 
erators ... to meet the need for every kind of heat- 
ing and power generating installation. 




24O 



YORK TELEPHONE & TELEGRAPH COMPANY 

Public Utility 



The York Telephone & Telegraph Company is a 
locally owned public utility that serves the City of 
York and nearly all of York County with local and 
long distance telephone service. Over 21,000 tele- 
phones are connected to this system. Calls beyond 
York County are routed over the lines of the Bell 
System and thus York telephones can reach prac- 
tically all the telephones in the world. 

In addition to telephone service, the company pro- 
vides the nerve system for all the other means of 
electrical communication. Its lines interconnect radio 
stations and their transmitters and carry telegrams 
from customers to the telegraph office. Tele-type- 
writer, stock quotation, and news printer services 
likewise are transmitted. Burglar alarms, fire alarms 
and remote control of electrical apparatus are all 
found in the telephone cables. In fact, without the 
telephone company many of these public conve- 
niences would not be possible. 

York has frequently enjoyed the newest in com- 
munications developments. It was, for instance, one 
of the first cities to have dial equipment when that 
installation was made in 1919. At that time an in- 
stallation of dial service in a city as large as York 
was considered a brave advance because of the 
complexity of the equipment involved. Now about 
60% of the telephones in the United States are dial 
because it has proven to be amazingly accurate and 




reliable while giving the community the greatest 
possible speed in communication. 

The complexity of the automatic telephone ex- 
change can well be imagined by considering this 
picture which shows just one automatic connector. 
The York telephone exchange has 2,830 of these 
switches and they are only part of the machines 
necessary for the interconnection of 6,000 local tele- 
phone lines. Each switch like this one has 300 wires 
connected to it. Its nimble electric fingers pick out 
the line demanded by the tiny electric impulses sent 
to it from the dial of the calling party. Furthermore, 
they apply ringing impulses to the line, after select- 
ing the right kind of impulse from a choice of five 
so that only one telephone will ring if there are 




Automatic Telephone Connector Switch 



Connecting Underground Telephone Cables 

several on that line. The completion of a single 
call requires the operation of five separate ma- 
chines, working one after another, and yet the com- 
plete chain of events takes place in a few seconds. 
To do this the telephone company has 48,500 elec- 
trical relays which must be maintained in delicate 
adjustment. 

Every effort has been made to put the distribution 
lines beyond the reach of storm damage. Well over 
90% of the wire serving the city is underground. The 
accompanying picture shows an employee in a man- 
hole preparing to splice two underground cables, 
each of which contains 2,400 wires. His job is an 
exact science because he must know which wire in 
one cable must be connected to any one wire in the 
other. Furthermore, when the splice has been com- 
pleted, a cover of lead must be put around it and 
that must be made watertight. In York there are 800 
manholes similar to this one and 31,851 miles of wire 
in the underground system. Besides making tele- 
phone service more reliable, this is a great contri- 
bution to civic beauty. If the wires shown in this 
picture alone were strung on open-wire lines, it 
would require forty rows of poles, each carrying 
sixty wires, and they would fill a path 400 feet wide. 

An interesting method is used to prevent trouble 
in certain cables. They are filled with nitrogen gas. 
Even a tiny pinhole in the cable sheath will cause 
the gas pressure to drop, giving warning of the fault 
and assisting in its location. 



241 



YORK PAPER BOX COMPANY 

Paper Products 



present management. Current products include shelf 
boxes, file cabinets, shirt and shoe boxes, tooth 
boxes for the world's largest manufacturer of false 
teeth, boxes for packing nylon bindings for para- 
chutes, and hardware boxes for Navy supplies. The 
company has been listed by the War Manpower 
Commission as 95% essential to the war effort. 

At the present time we are manufacturing about 
75% of our boxes for shoes, the other 25% for knitted 
clothing, hardware, shirts, teeth, parachute bindings, 
and as holiday boxes for department stores. 



Paper boxes, those hard-to-get items for packing 
hardware, hosiery and candy, were the original 
products of the York Paper Box Company founded 
by Walter J. Thomas and Jacob Winter in 1894. 

Production of paper products in those days was 
approximately 3,000 boxes per day. Deliveries were 
made by horse and wagon within the city limits and 
to nearby towns. 

April, 1924, marks the date when the York Paper 
Box Company moved into its present spacious and 
modernly-equipped plant. The new equipment in- 
stalled from 1932 to 1940 was stronger and faster, 
capable of producing 35,000 boxes per day. These 
production facilities include staying, single and 
double scoring, wrapping, stripping and topping 
machines; mitre, corner and Seybold power cutters, 
flat and corner stitchers, paper slitters, and auto- 
matic gluers. 

Fifty-one years is a long time for a piece of ma- 
chinery to render efficient service, but this company 
has a single scoring machine that is producing a 
full day's work equal to that produced in 1894 in 
their original plant. 

Today, the York Paper Box Company produces a 
substantial volume of paper products. Its continued 
progress during the fifty-one years of its industrial 
life reflects the progressive spirit of its founders and 

YORK TRANSPORTATION COMPANY, INC 

Motor Freight 




The York Transportation Company, Inc., had its 
inception in the spring of 1930 when Clark E. Bixler, 
Hallam, Pennsylvania, purchased a truck and started 
in the transportation business, hauling eggs from 
producers in this area to the New York egg market. 

Bixler Motor Express was purchased by Benjamin 
H. Throop, February 15, 1936, and in May of that 
year the York Transportation Company, Inc., was 
chartered. This firm is a common carrier of property 
operating only in Interstate Commerce by authority 
of the Interstate Commerce Commission, Bureau of 
Motor Carriers, Certificate ICCMC-18320. The com- 
pany is authorized to serve all communities within 
a thirty-mile radius of York, also Metropolitan New 



York and points in New Jersey within twenty miles 
of Greater New York. 

The York Transportation Company, Inc., operates 
eleven tractors, eleven trailers and three straight 
type trucks, with a normal freight capacity total, per 
day, in East and West bound movement, of 125 tons. 
Two terminals are operated, one at 445-447 Wash- 
ington Street, New York, and the other at 1007 East 
Boundary Avenue in York, Pa., the latter being the 
headquarters of the firm. Service is maintained daily 
between the two terminals. Approximately 85% of 
the total volume of freight handled has been com- 
posed of essential materials directly supporting the 
war effort. 








VORK TRANSPORTATION CO. INC. 





242 



YORK TRUST COMPANY 

Organized 1890 



In 1890, a group of York businessmen, under the 
leadership of Captain W. H. Lanius, organized the 
York Trust, Real Estate and Deposit Company, now 
the York Trust Company. Captain Lanius was one 
of the most active and progressive citizens of York 
and did much for the development of the city. The 




original capital of the York Trust, Real Estate and 
Deposit Company was $150,000. It was the first trust 
company in York and today is the only State bank- 
ing institution in the city. 

In 1894, the company acquired the banking busi- 
ness of Smyser, Bott & Company, and Ellis S. Lewis 
came from that company to be a lifelong officer of 
York Trust Company, serving as treasurer, vice- 
president and as president. In 1901, the name of the 
company was changed to York Trust Company. The 
business of the Citizens' Savings and Trust Company 
was acquired in 1929 through merger. In 1931, the 
North York State Bank was taken over, and in 1935 
a branch was opened at Shrewsbury, Pa. 

Captain Lanius served as president until his death 
in 1913. He was succeeded by J. W. Steacy, who 



served until 1917. He was followed by Ellis S. Lewis, 
who served as president until 1937, when, because 
of ill health, he was elected chairman of the Board, 
serving in that capacity until his death, April 2, 1941. 
Charles H. Moore served as president from 1937 until 
March 31, 1944, when he retired, continuing to act 
as director. 

William D. Himes was elected president in 1944. 
His father was one of the founders and first directors 
of York Trust Company, so that there has been con- 
tinuous service by Mr. Himes and his father for fifty- 
five years. 

The growth and prosperity of York Trust Company 
reflect the advancement made by York. The orig- 
inal capital was $150,000. Capital funds now exceed 
$2,300,000. From an institution with less than $1,ODO,- 
000 resources it has become one of the leading finan- 
cial institutions of York, and now handles $31,000,000 
of its customers' money $21,000,000 in its Banking 
Department and Trust Funds of more than $10,000,000. 

Today, the facilities of York Trust Company in- 
clude complete trust, real estate, savings and loan 
departments staffed by trained personnel. It is a 
member of the Federal Reserve System and the Fed- 
eral Deposit Insurance Corporation, and throughout 
the years has established a well-earned reputation 
for fidelity and efficient service. 

Officers of the York Trust Company include: W. D. 
Himes, president; O. H. Heckert, vice-president; G. L. 
Sprenkel, vice-president; H. P. Kissinger, assistant 
vice-president and secretary; W. A. Hoke, treasurer; 
H. W. Crist, assistant secretary and trust officer; and 
H. A. Gara, assistant treasurer. 

The Board of Directors is composed of P. B. Deane, 
F. G. Dempwolf, O. H. Heckert, W. D. Himes, H. D. 
Keller, C. H. Moore, D. H. Paules, G. W. Pfaltzgraff, 
G .L. Sprenkel and C. B. Wolf. 




24* 



THE YORKTOWNE HOTEL 

York's Finest Hotel 



The Yorktowne, the city's largest and most mod- 
ern hotel, is characterized by a warmth of hospi- 
tality which makes the visitor very conscious of 
his nearness to the Mason-Dixon Line. The quiet, 
considerate service and the fame of York County's 
excellent food has made the hotel popular not only 
with out-of-town guests, but also as a scene of many 
state and local affairs. 

A beautiful ballroom, a club room seating 150, 
banquet facilities for 650, make gracious entertain- 
ing on a large scale possible. The cocktail lounge, 
decorated in the modern manner and seating 100, 
is one of the most attractive rooms of its kind to be 
found anywhere. 

The dining room with its air of formal elegance 
and leisure contrasts with the cheerful bustling Cof- 
fee Shop, but excellent food from the Yorktowne's 
modern kitchens is served in both. 

The murals in the Coffee Shop depicting scenes in 
early York were executed by Weinhold Reiss, of 
New York, decorator of the Longchamps' Restau- 
rants, and other exclusive eating places. 

The Yorktowne is headquarters for the Rotary, Ki- 
wanis. Lions', and the Exchange Club which meet 
here weekly; for the bi-monthly dinners of the busi- 
ness women's Soroptomist and Quota Clubs; and the 
York County Chapter of Cost Accountants, and the 
Traffic Club. The Matinee Musical Club holds musi- 
cales at the Yorktowne monthly. The York Hospital 
School of Nursing holds its graduation, followed by 
a dance, in the ballroom of the Yorktowne. 

The Yorktowne has also been headquarters for 
the state convention of the American Legion, the 
D. A. R., the State Federation of Women's Clubs, the 
Pennsylvania State Nurses' Association, and many 
others. Display space and other public space is 




always available to conventions. The Yorktowne's 
ninety-car garage occupies adjoining premises. A 
barber shop, beauty parlor, and gift shop are con- 
veniently located in the hotel itself. 




Dining-Room. 



The Yorktowne has cooperated in community af- 
fairs by allowing the Junior Service League to use 
space for rehearsals. The tea preceding the annual 
Red Cross Drive, at which volunteer workers are 
instructed, is also held here by courtesy of the 
management. 

The Community Hotel Company of York, Pa., 
which owns and operates the Yorktowne, dates back 
to April, 1924. 

The increasing industrial and business prominence 
of York made many men conscious of the lack of 
adequate hotel facilities. Their experience with other 
cities showed that excellent hotel facilities are a 
major asset in any community, and that such facili- 
ties are an index of community pride and vitality. 

Since no individual enterpriser had sufficient cap- 
ital to build such a hotel, it became a community 
responsibility. The Chamber of Commerce appointed 
a special committee to study the problem, which re- 
sulted in the creation of a temporary board of direc- 
tors composed of the following men: John L. Gerber, 
Charles H. Bear, Jr., W. S. Bond, Dr. C. P. Rice, Max 
Grumbacher, S. Forry Laucks, C. Elmer Smith and 
Thomas Shipley. This board then contracted with the 



244 



THE YORKTOWNE HOTEL 



York's Finest Hotel 



Hockenbury System of Harrisburg, Pa., to direct a 
campaign for the sale of stock. This resulted in the 
purchase of $1,175,000 of stock in the Community 
Hotel Co., of York, Pa. 



The hotel was formally opened to the public on 
October 5, 1925. It had 198 guest rooms, each with 
individual bath, a dining-room, ballroom and coffee 
shop. 



Modern Sanitary Kitchen. 




Ballroom. 

W. L. Stoddart, of New York City, was chosen as 
architect. Three properties were purchased fronting 
on East Market Street at the intersection of Duke 
Street, the first being a residence owned by lohn E. 
Graybill; the second, an office building owned by 
Niles & Neff, the lower floor of which was occupied 




The American Hotels Corporation of New York 
City was engaged as the operating management. 

In 1928, the York Water Company property was 
purchased and 58 more guest rooms were built. The 
ballroom was lengthened by thirty-two feet. A large 
new coffee shop and a club room were added. 

The American Hotels Corporation management 
contract was cancelled, but the corporation was re- 
tained on an advisory and consultative basis. Thus 
it is still recognized as an "American Hotel." 

The Yorktowne has proved its value to the com- 
munity. It is recognized as the headquarters for con- 
ventions and of York's social and civic gatherings. 

It can truly be said that it is one of "Pennsyl- 
vania's Better Hotels." 



Lobby. 

by Watt & Brother; and the third, a restaurant owned 
and operated by Sadie Guthridge. 

The general construction contract was awarded 
to the Consolidated Engineering Co., of Baltimore, 
Maryland. 




Coffee Shop. 



245 



YORK WATER CO. 

Public Utility 



When water was conveyed through the trunks of 
trees, which was prior to 1840, the York Water Com- 
pany had its inception. It is celebrating its one hun- 
dred twenty-ninth anniversary this year. 

There were only sixteen water plants in existence 
in the United States in 1800 and sixteen years fol- 
lowing found the York Water Company being incor- 
porated by special act of the General Assembly of 
Pennsylvania. Immediately, the board of managers 
took steps to purchase land on which to pool the 
water and logs from which to make pipes to convey 
the water through the various highways. A hole was 
bored through the center of the tree trunks which 
were fastened together with a short piece of iron 
pipe fitted closely to the boring at the ends. Smaller 
logs were used for service pipes. Cast iron pipes, 
connected with lead joints, have been in use since 
1840. These pipes range in sizes up to twenty-four 
inches in diameter. 

Shallow pools fed from surrounding springs were 
the original reservoirs. They were located east of 
Queen Street and south of South Street. Later, as 
demand increased, a small impounding dam was 
erected in the ravine just east of what is now Hill- 
croft, sometimes known as Niles Tract. The erection 
of larger reservoirs followed. These, the first of which 
was established in 1848, were located close to the 
intersection of Queen and South Streets. 

The laying of the first pipe across the Codorus 
Creek at Market Street was one of the early feats 




of construction. This was in 1850 and the occasion 
was marked by a flag raising. 

As early as 1883 the York Water Company experi- 
mented with filtration. Galleries for infiltration, con- 
sisting of large circular wells filled with fine stone, 
the water passing from one to the other, were built. 







Pumping Station 



Main Office 

The first sand filter plant was installed in 1899. This 
unit, the initial one in Pennsylvania, was replaced 
in 1932 with the present modern plant. 

The alarming drought of 1910 brought about the 
building of the present impounding dam. This is one 
of York's most valuable assets and is being used 
continuously. 

The planting of trees on reservoir grounds of the 
York Water Company was begun as early as 1817. 
Many Yorkers take pride in the growth of trees at 
the impounding basin. This policy is being continued. 

It is understood that a water works in a growing 
community is never complete; it must be built in 
anticipated advance of actual needs. To wait until 
an actual need occurs may lead to disaster and 
cause uses of the supply to be restricted. This would 
result in many hardships to the consumer. No restric- 
tions have been imposed, however, upon the con- 
sumers of the York Water Company during its one 
hundred twenty-nine years of service. The foresight 
of the management was responsible for the com- 
pany's plants being constructed in such a manner 
that in case of failure of an important unit a du- 
plicate can be substituted immediately. Therefore, 
water being a vital necessity, the service is unin- 
terrupted and the supply is uniform in quality and 
purity. 



246 



YORKTOWNE SERVICE STORES 

Wholesale and Retail Foods 



The conception of an association for the improve- 
ment of the retail grocers of York County led to the 
organization of the Yorktowne Service Stores. The 
first meeting, attended by approximately fifty gro- 
cers, was held on January 25, 1928, at the State 
Armory on North George Street. 

The outgrowth of this meeting was favorable and 
an association of twenty-one retail grocers was 
formed on April 3, 1928, to do cooperative advertis- 
ing only. 

The primary purpose of this group was to sell food 
products at the lowest possible prices consistent with 
good business practices, and feature these items in 
weekly advertisements in the local newspapers. 



week. In all, a fleet of fourteen trucks service the 
stores each week with their food requirements. 

In addition to the fresh fruit and vegetable depart- 
ment, another one was added to include cigarettes, 
tobaccos and candy, as well as hotel and restaurant 
supplies. 

To date, the Yorktowne Service Stores, with a total 
of one hundred and seventy-four retail members, en- 
joy the reputation of being the outstanding food dis- 
tributors in their immediate localities. 

The Yorktowne Service Stores are members of the 
Pennsylvania Grocers' Association representing ap- 
proximately 6,000 retail grocers throughout Pennsyl- 
vania. The Yorktowne Wholesale Grocery Company 



fflrafflffli E r 1 
" C L L L f- h . r ~i 

"flMI' 

iiniiiiiii 



... i 



i 




After one year of successful operation it was agreed 
upon to do collective buying and the Yorktowne 
Wholesale Grocery Company was incorporated on 
April 21, 1929. 

The first site selected for a warehouse was located 
at the rear of 501 East Market Street. The rapid ex- 
pansion of both organizations in membership and 
volume soon outgrew this site and they moved to 
new, modern and larger quarters especially con- 
structed for them at Ridge Avenue and Hay Street 
in November, 1930. 

Even during the depression, both organizations 
prospered and grew steadily. Having weathered the 
lean years of the early thirties the Yorktowne Whole- 
sale Grocery Company purchased the four-story 
building of the York-Hoover Body Company located 
at Hudson, Franklin, Hay Streets and the P. R. R., on 
November 6, 1937. Renovation and installation of 
huge refrigerators was accomplished. Then, prior to 
moving the stock into the building, the International 
Business Machine perpetual inventory and billing 
control was installed. 

The new quarters, with railroad siding and thou- 
sands of feet of floor space, enabled the wholesale 
grocery to install a complete fresh fruit and vege- 
table department. Additional refrigerators were con- 
structed and three trucks purchased to insure speedy 
delivery to the Yorktowne Service Stores twice each 



is a member of the National Retailer-Owned Grocers, 
Inc., comprised of one hundred and four retailer- 
owned wholesale warehouses (like the Yorktowne) 
in the United States having a retail membership of 
over twenty-five thousand grocers. This affiliation 
makes it possible to gain all the advantages there 
is in mass buying since the National Retailer-Owned 
Grocers maintain buying offices in Chicago, San 
Francisco and New York. 

Today, the members of the Yorktowne Service 
Stores own and operate their own warehouse which 
is considered one of the most efficient in the United 
States. 




YORK NARROW 

Woven Cotton 

It is a fact that "red tape" isn't just a figure of 
speech, for it is manufactured by the York Narrow 
Fabrics Company and is used to bind legal docu- 
ments in Washington. 

This company was founded by Harry W. Stauffer 
and others who bought out a business located in a 
small shop in York, September 21, 1927. Later, Mr. 



FABRICS COMPANY 

Tapes and Bindings 

men and women, although during World War II as 
many as 190 were employed. 

The progress of the York Narrow Fabrics Company 
coincided with the growth and development of the 
industry, improved methods of textile manufacture, 
and many new uses for woven tapes and bindings. 
By 1934, it was essential that larger facilities be ob- 




Stauffer took over the business himself. Products of 
the company, then and now, include cotton tapes 
of various widths and colors for tying vegetables 
such as celery and asparagus, as well as for other 
tying purposes; also, cotton bindings used in the 
manufacture of men's and women's clothing, mat- 
tresses, lamp shades, and hundreds of other articles. 
During the first half of the year 1945 about 85% 
of the productive capacity of the York Narrow Fab- 
rics Company was being taken by the Army and 
Navy. The company normally employs about 135 



tained to handle the company's substantial volume 
of business. 

The site of the present plant, 725 Grantley Road, 
was leased with option to purchase, completely re- 
modeled, expanded and equipped with the finest 
machinery. With these modern facilities dispersed 
over 40,000 square feet of floor space, production 
increased from 200,000 yards per day in 1928 to 
1,000,000 yards per day in 1941, which rate is main- 
tained today. National distribution is effected through 
jobbers located at strategic points in the nation. 



YORK UNITED HOSIERY, INC 

Full-Fashioned Hosiery 



The York United Hosiery, Inc., was organized 
October 18, 1938. This was an entirely new organi- 
zation for the manufacture of ladies' full-fashioned 
hosiery and because of that it required several 
months for the installation of fourteen knitting ma- 
chines, eight seamers, eight loopers, and other kin- 
dred equipment. 

Production started about the second week in Jan- 
uary, 1939. The number of employees was approxi- 
matelly sixty-five, 50% male and 50% female. The 
following years of 1940 and 1941 the approximate 
number was seventy-five to eighty, equally divided, 
males and females. On October, 1941, one new 26- 



section, 51 -gauge machine was added to one of the 
original machines. 

The product of the company is ladies' full-fash- 
ioned hosiery which is marketed through a New York 
selling organization. When production first began 
the hosiery manufactured were all silk which con- 
tinued until the new fiber-nylon was placed on the 
market. When silk was frozen by the government, 
material then used for the manufacture of hosiery 
was rayon. Our peak production was approximately 
7,500 dozens a month. Eight of our employees served 
in the armed forces, six of whom were overseas and 
two in the States. 



248 







GENERAL SECTION 



COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL SECTION 



Index to General Section 



PASES I to 108 



PAGE 

"A" Award 20 

Abbot, Richard 41 

Adrian, Robert 30, 31 

Agricultural Extension 63 

Agriculture 63-66 

Airports 98 

Albemarle Park 80 

Aldermen 50 

Aldinger, Hester 34 

American Chain and Cable Company, Inc 20 

American Federation of Labor 104 

American Foundry Machine Company Glen Rock 20 

American Institute of Banking, York Chapter 68 

American Legion, York Post, No. 127 73, 74 

American National Red Cross, York County Chapter 59, 20 

American Society of Metals 69 

American Telephone and Telegraph Company 95 

American Veterans of World War II 74 

American Welding Society, York-Central Pennsylvania Section.. 69 

Amish 2 

Amusements 79-88 

Amvets, see American Veterans of World War II 

Anderson, Harry M 66 

Anderson, Lee 39 

Anderson, R. C 66 

Anderson, Ralph 66 

Anderson, Judge Walter 1 82 

Andes, George S 82, 106 

Andre, Major John 6 

Andrews, John 3 1 

Antietam, Battle of 1 6 

Antique Show 22 

Antiques 22 

Appell, Louis J 99 

Apples 63 

Apprenticeship 13, 6 

Army-Navy "E" Awards 20 

Arnold, Benedict 8 

Art Classes 32 

Articles of Confederation -. 6 

Atkins, Reverend Canon Paul S ; 78 

Atreus Wanner Vocational School 27, 28, 19 

Ault, Adam 14 



B 

Bacon. Samuel 31 

Bahn, Rachel 39 

Baird, J. Frank 106 

Baker, William H 74 

Baltimore, Lord (Sir George Calvert) 5 

Banking and Finance 68 

Bantz Park 80 

Barnitz Family 4 

Bartgis, Matthias 4 

Barton, Reverend Thomas 77 

Baseball 87 

Basketball 87 

Batwell, Reverend Daniel 6 



PAGE 

Baugher, Edward E 107 

Beans, Snap 63 

Beard, John 13 

Bear's Cafeteria 23 

Beauty Culture 33 

Becker, Peter 78 

Bentz Family 4 

Bentzel, Felix 97 

Big Inch Pipe Line 98 

Billmeyer, Andrew 41 

Birth Certificates 22 

Black, Chauncey F 39 

Bleecker, C. C 57 

Boeckel, Charles 86 

Boeckle, Emanuel 91 

Bond, Mary 90 

Bonham, Horace 38 

Borough of York, Incorporated 44 

Bortner, Johnny 86 

Bosshart, A. A 38, 106 

Bosshart, Emma 90 

Bott Family 4 

Bowling 82 

Boy Scouts of America 56, 55 

Boyer, Fred 62 

Boyer, Stephen 31 

Brandywine, Battle of 8 

Breckel, Very Reverend George J 29 

Brethren, see "Dunkards" 78 

Brooks Hotel 1 03 

Brysselbout, Mrs. Perle 22 

Bulette, Warren C 19, 107 

Bus Service 96 

Business and Professional Club of York 71 

Business Colleges 33 

Busser, Kay 82 

Butchers, Country 66 

Byers, Ernest 87 



Cadwalader, General ... 9 

Camera Club 72 

Camp Cann-Edi-On 57 

Camp Ganoga 56 

Camp Minqua 58, 4 

Camp Scott |6 

Camp Security 8 

Camp Susquehannock 57 

Campbell, Reverend John 77 

Canneries 63 

Cannon, Mrs. Ralph |Q6 

Caplan, Lydia 39 

Catholic Charities of York 59, 55 

Catholic Woman's Club of York 75 

Central Ticket Agency 82 

Century Ribbon Mills 20 

Chamber of Commerce 67, 51, 56, 65 

Cherries 63 

Chester, Richard |6 

Chief Burgess, York's First 44 



251 



PAGE 

Child Care Centers 33 

Children's Home of York City and County 60, 61 

Children's Services 50 

Christ Evangelical Lutheran Church 76, 38 

Christian Recreation Leaders' Association 57 

Churches 76-78 

City Government 45-48 

City Hall 45 

Civil Air Patrol 98 

Civil War 16-18 

Clark, Henry 4 

Clark, Major John 7, 77 

Clocks 15, 16 

Coates, John R 10 

Cockley, Don 86 

Codorus Creek 4, 6, 50, 51 

"Codorus," First Iron Steamboat 15 

Codorus Furnace 12 

College Club of York County 34 

Colonial Hotel 103 

Comfort Station 70 

Committee for Industrial Organization 106 

Commons 4, 10 

Community Distribution Center 55 

Conestoga Wagon 12, II, 95, 104 

Conservation Society of Yorlc County 73, 4, 39 

Continental Congress 5, 6, 7, 8 

Continental Currency 7 

Convalescent Hospital 54 

Conway, General Thomas 8, 9 

Conway Cabal 8,9 

Cook, F. B 16 

Cookes House 8 

Cookson, Thomas 3, 4, I 

Cooper, Mrs. Percy B 60 

Corn 63 

Corn, Sweet 63 

Country Club of York 83, 84 

County Agent 63 

County Government 48-50 

County Roads 96 

Court of Common Pleas 49 

Court of Oyer and Terminer 49 

Court of Quarter Sessions 49 

Courthouse, Colonial 4, 5 

Courthouse, Second 50 

Courthouse Annex 50 

Courts, Clerk of 49 

Cox, Kenneth L 59 

Criminal Courts 49 

Crippled Children's Clinic 55 

Crispus Attacks Association Center 58, 59, 33, 55, 56 

Croll Family 4 

Cruise, Corporal Walter II 

Custer, General George A 17 



Dairy Cattle 63 

Dairy Products 63 

Danner Family .V 4 

Daughters of the American Colonists 73 

Daughters of the American Revolution, 

Colonel James Smith Chapter 8, 73 

Yorktown Chapter 73 

Davis, Phineas 14, 15, 47, 77, 101 

Deane. Philip B 20 

Deane, Simeon . 7 



PAGE 

Declaration of Independence 5, 7, 43 

DeKalb, Johann, Baron 9 

Dempwolf, F. G 45 

Detention Home 49 

Devers, Catherine 1 06 

Devers, General Jacob Laucks 20, 21 

Diehl Family 4 

Dillon, James E 74 

Director of Veterans' Affairs 48 

District Attorney 49 

Diven, E. R. J 20 

Dixon, Jeremiah 5 

Doudel, Captain Michael I 1 , 76 

Dower Chest 22 

Drew, Mrs. John 82 

Duffy, James T., Jr 88 

"Dunkards" 2, 5 

Dunlap, John 41 

Dyer, Caroline 39 



Early, General Jubal A 17 

Ebert Family 4 

Edie, James 41 

Edison Light and Power Company 92 

Education 26-34 

Egg Production 63 

Eichelberger Family 4 

Elgar, John 15, 7 

Emanuel, Edward F 87 

Engineering Society of York, Pennsylvania 15, 69 

Etnier, Mrs. Carey E 72 

Etnier, Stephen 38 

Evans, John 41 

Eyster Family 4 

Eyster, George ' ' 

Eyster, George D '0 

Exchange Club of West York 

Exchange Club of York 70 



Faber, Horace B 66 

Fackler Family 4 

Fahs, Ellen 

Fairs, Early 84, 85 

Family Service Bureau 61, 55 

Farquhar Co., A. B 

Farquhar, Arthur B 18, 19, 17, 107 

Farquhar, Francis 59 

Farquhar Park - 80 

Ferguson, Dr. Arthur W 106 

Fire Department 46 

First Moravian Church 76 

First Presbyterian Church 77, 8, 31 

First Settlers 5 

Fisher, Henry L 39 

Fisher, John '6 

Fisher, William J 19, 107 

Fisher Family 4 

Flood Control Project 50, 51 

Football 86 

"For Years to Come" 65 

Forges 12 

Fort Duquesne 5 

Fraktur Penmanship 22 

Franklin, Benjamin 5, 7, 8, 12, 93 

Franklin Elementary School Annex 2 



252 



PAGE 

Freezer, H. J.. Company 20 

French and Indian War 5 

Frey, William 91 

Friends' Meeting House 77, 14 

Fry Family 4 

Furnaces 12 



Gage, General Thomas II 

Galligan, Father 78 

Gamble, Anna Dill 39, 40 

Garbage Collection 47 

Garden Club 72 

Gartside, Fred N 51 

Gates, General Horatio 8, 9 

Gazette and Daily, The 98 

Geesey, Robert L 1 06 

Gemmil, William 41 

General Electric Company 20 

German Reformed Church 78, 7 

Germa ntown 8 

Gettysburg, Battle of 16, 17 

Getz, John L 107 

Gibbs, Mr. and Mrs. Ralph 22 

Gilbert, B. Hay 39 

Girl Scouts of York Area, Inc 56, 57, 55 

Gift, Josiah 1 06 

Gladfelter, Dr. O. E 61 

Gliclt, Carl 83 

Globe Inn 9, 95 

Gobrecht, David 16 

Gobrecht, Eli 16 

Gobrecht, Jacob 16 

Golf 83, 84, 87 

Goode, Chaplain Alexander 21 

Gordon, General John B 17 

Goughnor, Gretchen 1 06 

Grandview Golf Course 84 

Green Tree Inn I 1 , 12 

Greenawalt, Lambert 40 

Greist, John 1 03 

Greyhound Bus Lines 95 

Grier, Colonef David 9 

Gunnison, E. Norman 98 

H 

H. J. Freezer Company 20 

Hahn Family 4 

Haines, Harry L 94 

Haines, Mahlon H 88 

Hall. David 41 

Hall. William 41 

Hall and Sellers Press . .6, 7 

Hallam Forge 12 

Hamme, Mrs. John B 75 

Hannah Penn Junior High School 27 

Hanover, Pennsylvania 5 

Hanover, Battle of 1 7 r | g 

Hanover Shoe Farms 55 

Harre, Everett T 40 

Harris, William C 41 

Harrison, Stella 33 

Harrison School of Dancing 33 

Hartley, Colonel Thomas 8, 9, 77, 78 

Hatton, Mrs. Minnie P 59 

Hay 63 



PAGE 

Hay Family 4 

Hay, General George 16, 17 

Health Department of the City of York 53 

Health Program in the York Schools 28 

Heckert, Daniel 4 

Heilman, Vernon D 1 06, 1 07 

Hein. Morgan 86. 87 

Henry, Patrick 8 

Herr, Eddie 88 

Hersh, Grier 93 

Hershey, Urban H 58 

Hessians 8 

Hiestand, Abraham 103 

Hiestand Family 4 

Highways 96 

Hirschman, E. A 106 

Historic Sites: 

Bon-Ton 77 

Center of Continental Square 4, 5 

Christ Lutheran Church 76 

Colonial Hotel, Rothert's Store and Brooks Hotel 7 

First National Bank 7 

First Presbyterian Churchyard 8 

Friends' Meeting House 77 

Northwest Corner of North Newberry and West King 

Streets 15 

Old Spangler Property (West Market Street near Pershing 

Avenue) 9 

People's Drug Store 7 

Penn Common 4, 10, 80 

Prospect Hill Cemetery 7 

Saint John's Protestant Episcopal Church 77. 78 

Schmidt Building 6, 9 

Trinity First Reformed Church 8. 78 

Walker's Clothing Store 6 

Woolworth's Five and Ten 78 

Historical Society of York County. 34, 35, 5, 9, 12,38,42, 106, 107, 108 

Hoffman, Alice Crowell 40 

Hoffman, John C 74 

Hoke, Elizabeth 22 

Holtzapple Family 4 

Holtzapple, Dr. George E 4|, 42 

Holy Child Nursery 33 

Home Economics Demonstrator 63 

Horner, William R 54 

Hostetter, Jacob | (, 

Hostetter, Oscar L 98, 106 

Hotels 103, 104 

Huber Family 4 

Hugentugler, Mayor E. S 74 

Huguenots 2 

Hungertord Packing Company, Glen Rock 20 

Huss, John 76 

I 

Immel Family 4 

Imhoff, Howard Coleman 39 

Indian Steps Museum 35, 4 p 72 

Indians 4 

Industrial York in 1880 |8 

Industries 102-103 

International Chain and Manufacturing Company 20 



Jackson, General Andrew |2 

Jefferson, Joseph 82 



PAGE 

Jessop, Jonathan 14, 16, 47, 65, 77 

Jewish Community Center 59, 55 

Jewish War Veterans, Haym Salomon Post, No. 205 74 

Johnson, Emma 40 

Johnston, Andrew 93 

Junior Service League of York 61 

Jury Board 49 

Jury Commissioners 49 

J uvenile Court 49 



Kain. George Hay 30, 38. 106, 108 

Kauffman, J. Bentz 66 

Keystone Automobile Club 71 

Kilpatriclt, General Judson 17 

Kindergartens 33 

Kindig, Joe, Jr 106 

King, Adam 41 

King, Howard N 41 

King, Nancy M 42 

Kirk, Elisha 16 

Kirkwood, Daniel 31 

Kitchen, Norman 106 

Kiwanis Club 70 

Kiwanis Lake 70 

Klein, Jacob 4 

Kline, John 65 

Klinedinst, Raymond 87 

Klinefelter, Walter 40 

Koch, Richard 16 

Koenig, Mrs. Paul 75 

Kottcamp, Darrell 22 

Kraft, Theodore 40 

Kurtz. Reverend John Nicholas 76 

Kurtz, William H. . 74 



Lafayette, Marquis de 8, 9 

Lafean, Daniel F 20, 93 

Lancaster, Pennsylvania 4 

Laucks, S. Forry 19 

Laurel Fire Company 17 

Laurel Fire House 5 

Lauxmont Farms 64 

Lawmaster, Frederick 12 

Leader, Guy A 63 

Leas, L. Elmer 1 06 

Lee, General Robert E 16 

Leech, Reverend George L 30 

Leitner, Ignatius II 

Lenhart, Godfrey 5, 16 

Lever, John 12 

Lewis, Eli 41 

Lewis, Margaret Sarah 22, 39 

Lewis, Samuel S 20. 85. 106 

Liberty Bell of York 5, 78 

Libraries, Early 35 

Lightner Family 4 

Lincoln, Abraham 16 

Lincoln Highway S 4. 96 

Lincoln Park 80 

Lions' Club 70, 71 

Lischy, Reverend Jacob 76, 78 

"Little Man" 5 

Livermore, John F 31 

Livestock . 63 



PAGE 

Livingston, Philip 7, 78 

London, Peggy 40 

Long, John Luther 40 

Loucks, Augustus 1 08 

Loucks, Lester K . 91 

Loucks Mill 17 

Love Family 77 

Lyles. Victoria D 1 07 

M 

McCall, James St. Clair 86 

McCall, Samuel 86 

McClean, Archibald 5, 43 

McClean Family 4 

McClean House 7 

McClellan, Robert 41 

McCloskey, Donald 86 

McConnell, Guy 40 

McGrath, Father 78 

McGrath, Thomas 95 

Mack, Andres 78 

Madison Elementary School 26 

Mallo, Daniel 41 

Manufacturers' Association 68, 19, 28, 51. 65, 98 

Maritime Award 20 

Market House, Colonial 4 

Markets 23, 24 

Markey, Mrs. H. B 24 

Marks, Charles P 74 

Marriage Certificates 22 

Marshall, Chief Justice John 10 

Martin, Milton D 35, 36 

Martin Memorial Library 72 

Martin-Parry Corporation 20 

Mary Ann Furnace 12 

Maryland and Pennsylvania Railroad 95 

Mason, Charles 5 

Mason-Dixon Line 5 

Maternal Health Center 54 

Matinee Musical Club of York 90 

Maul Family 4 

Mayer, Salomon 41 

Mechanicsville 16 

Meek, Reverend Allan S 78 

Meem, John 4 

Meisenhelder, Dr. Edmund W 54 

Meisenhelder, Rachel Greenawalt 40 

Melsheimer, Charles T 41 

Melsheimer, Frederick Valentine 41 

Mennonites 2, 5 

Metropolitan-Edison Company 92 

Mifflin, General Thomas 8 

Miller, Helen L 40 

Miller, Henry 44, 45, 47 

Miller, John 91 

Miller, Lewis 36-38, 8, 17, 23, 53, 85, 96 

Miller Family 4 

Mitchell, Cameron 83 

Monaghan, Charles 82 

Monarch Club 71 

Monocacy Road 4, 12 

Moore, Bertram R 59 

Moravians 2 

Motion Picture Theatres 82 

Motor Truck Transportation 97. 98 

Mott, Lucretia 77 

Mount Rose Junior High School 29 



254 



PAGE 

Movies, First 82 

Municipal Swimming Pool 80 

Murphy, Timothy 8- ' 

Music 89-91 

Musser, Christian 64, 65 

Myers, C. N 65 

Myers, David M ' 83 

Myers, Walter 47 

Mylin, Richard 86 

N 

National Association of Cost Accountants 68 

Needlework Guild of America, Inc., York Branch 61 , 62 

Neely, Reverend Gerald Griffin 76 

New York Herald Tribune Fresh Air Children 61 

New Yorlc Wire Cloth Company 20 

Noell, Daniel K 45 

North York High School 29 

Nurses' Aides 54 

Nurses' Aides' Room, York Hospital 22 



Oberdick, Raymond 58 

Occupations, Early 13 

Odd Fellows' Hall 82 

Old Mack 47 

Old Timers' Athletic Association of York, Pennsylvania 87 

Olde Valley Inn 103, 16 

Opportunity Center 33, 34 

Optimist Club 71 

Orphans' Court 49 

Out Door Club . . 83 



Paine, Thomas " 8 

Paradise Protectory and Agricultural School 60 

Parent-Teachers' Associations 29 

Parks 80 

Parochial Schools 30 

Patterson, Chief Burgess Chester 88 

Paul, Mrs. James P 22 

Peaches 64 

Pears 63 

Peas 63 

Peckham, Betty 40 

Penn, Springett 4 

Penn, Thomas 85 

Penn, William 2, 4. 10, 85 

Penn Common 80 

Penn Hotel 1 03 

Pennington, Private Ephraim 78 

Pennsylvania, Founding of 2 

Passes Out of the Hands of the Penns 10 

Pennsylvania Dutch ( Dialect) 3 

Pennsylvania Germans 2, 10 

Art 22 

Cooking 23, 24 

Pennsylvania Railroad 95 

Pennsylvania Rifle . 10, II 

Pennsylvania State College Extension 34, 69 

Pennsylvania State Guard, 4th Infantry, Company F 51 

Pennsylvania State Police, York County Substation 52 

Pentz, B. C 54 

People's Forum 34 

Phineas Davis Junior High School 15, 27 



PAGE 

Picnic Areas 80 

Pioneers 3 

Playland 82 

Polack, Ernest H 58 

Police Department 47 

Porter, George F 87 

Postal Service 93 

Potatoes 63 

Potts, Richard 86, 87 

Poultry 63 

Power 13 

Prince, David B 9 

Printing 41 

Prospect Hill Cemetery 7, 76 

Prothonotary 49 

Prowell, Dean 33 

Prowell Commercial School 33 

Prowell, George R 107, 108 

Public Charities of Pennsylvania 55 

Public Schools 26-29 

Public Utilities 92-99 

Pulaski, Casimir Count 5, 7, 16 

Punishments 4, 5 



Quakers (see also Friends' Meeting House) 2, 5, 16, 65 

Quit-Rents 10 

Quota Club 71 



Railroads 95, 96 

Ranger 5 

Read Machinery Company 20 

Real Estate 1 03 

Real Estate Board of York, Pennsylvania 69 

Recorder of Deeds 48 

Refrigeration 66 

Register of Wills 49 

Reichley, Robert 106 

Renner, Mrs. Mabel 1 23 

Resser, Edwin C 20 

Retail Credit Bureau 67 

Retail Merchants' Bureau 67 

Richards. C. R 65 

Richley, J. W 90 

Roberts, Thomas 41 

Roland, Dr. W. S 54 

Rosenfield, Bertha E 33 

Rosenmiller, W. F. O 83 

Ross, George 13 

Rotary Club 70 

Rotary Crippled Children's Clinic 53, 70 

Ruby, Mrs. George 39 

Rudisill Family 4 

Rudisill, Jacob 14 

Rudy, Charles 39 

Rudy, George, Senior 38 

Rudy, J. Horace 38, 39 

Rutter, John H. . 85 



S. Morgan Smith Company 20 

Saint John's Lutheran Church, Christian Day School 30 

Saint John's Protestant Episcopal Church 77, 5, 7, 30 

Saint Patrick's Church . 78 



255 



PAGE 

Salomon, Haym 74 

Salvation Army 61, 55 

Saratoga, Battle of 8, II 

Schlegel, John Friederich '. 76 

Schmidt, George S 40 

Schmidt, John C 59, 66 

Schmidt, Melchior 76 

Schmidt. William 86, 87 

Schmitt Family 4 

Schroeder, E. E 90 

Schultz, Christina and John 2 

Schultz Family 4 

Schultz House 2 

Schutz, Peter 16 

Schwenkfenders 2 

Scotch-Irish 2 

Sealer of Weights and Measures 48 

Sechrist, Elizabeth Hough 40 

Seitz, Daniel S 106 

Sellers, William 41 

Sewage Disposal Works 47, 48 

Shanabrough, Clare L 74 

Sheppard, H. D 65 

Sheppard, L. B 65 

Sheriff 49 

Sherwood, Mrs. Ray P 53 

Shettel. James 108 

Shipley, W. S 19, 20, 107 

Shorey, Katherine 36 

Shriner Family 4 

Shultz, Nelson 47, 106 

Siamese Twins 82 

Sioberg, Charles 19 

Skating Rinks 82 

Small Athletic Field 87 

Small Family 4 

Small, Dr. Alexander 92 

Small, Cassandra 107 

Small, David 16 

Small, George 32 

Small, Margaret M 106 

Small, P. A. and S 16 

Small, Samuel 31, 87 

Small, W. Latimer 17, 32 

Smith, Beauchamp E 107 

Smith, Edgar Fahs, Junior High School 27, 31 

Smith, Edgar Fahs 31, 108 

Smith, James 7, 8, 5, 12, 43, 30 

Smith, Stephen Morgan 77 

Smyser Family 4 

Smyser, Betty 39 

Smyser, Samuel 85 

Smyser, Thomas B 74 

Snyder, Mayor John L 4, 88, 1 06 

Social Service Exchange 56, 55 

Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals 61 

Society for the Propagation of the Gospel 5 

Soroptimist Club 71 

South Mountains 8 

Spangler, Baltzer I 

Spangler, Lt. Charles M 51,106 

Spangler. Edward W V 40 

Spangler, Robert 86 

Spangler, Rudolf ' i 

Spangler Family 4 

Sperling, Joseph 106 

Sprenkel, George L 106 

Sprenkel Family 4 



PAGE 

Spring Garden Band 90, 91 

Springettsbury Manor 4, 5, 10 

Stair Family 4 

Stair, Robert A 45 

Standard Bred Horse Show 103 

State Game Land 88 

State House 4 

Steamboat, First Iron : 15 

Stein, Reverend Samuel H 78 

Stettinius, Samuel Endredi 39 

Stewart, Minnie 53 

Stevens, Thaddeus 26, 3 I 

Stock Brokerage Houses 68 

Strawberries 63 

Streets 4 

Striebig, George 23 

Stum, Ethel 32. 39. 106 

Stum, Georgia 82 

Surveyor 49 

Susquehanna River 4 

Susquehanna Trail 96 

Swartz, Margaret ; 82 

Sweigart, Benjamin 106 

Swimming 86, 87, 80 

Swisher. Oliver S. . .106 



Tax Assessors 48 

Tax Collectors 48 

Taxicabs 96 

Taylor, Joseph 16 

Taylor, Katherine Haviland 40, 41 

Teen-Agers' Club '. 80, 81 

Temple Beth Israel 21 

Thomas, Frank 98 

Thomas, Ralph H 22 

Thompson College 33 

Thompson, C. M 33 

Thompson. Doctor Theodore 61 

Tobacco 63 

Tom Thumb 82 

Tomatoes 63 

Treasury, Colonial 7 

Trinity First Reformed Church 78, 8 

Track 87 

Trout, Charles 50 

Trout, Walter C 39 

Truck Farming 63 

Turkeys 63 

Turner, R. P 19 

Tussing, Ted ' 86 

Tyler, George F 74 

u 

Ulmer, H. C 41, 106 

Ulric, Leonore 83 

Underground Railroad 16 

Union Fire Company 17 

United Spanish War Veterans, Colonel Edwin B. Watts Camp, 

No. 68 74 

University Club of York 42 

Updegraff, Daniel '. 41 

Updegraff Family 77 



Valley Air Park 98 



PAGE 

Valley Forge 6, 8, 12 

Vandersloot, J. Edward 35 

Veterans of Foreign Wars, White Rose Post, No. 556 74 

Victory House 19 

Vigilant Fire Company r . I 5. 17 

Visiting Nurse Association 33, 53 

Visitors, Famous 1 03 

Von Steuben, Frederick William Baron 7 

Vyner, Louis ' 89 

w 

Wagner, Ellis 47 

Wagner, William 39 

Wallace, Charles 50 

War Bond Sales .': 20 

War of 1812 12 

Wars of the Roses ,- 4' 

Washington, George 6, 7, 8, 9, II, 12, 78 

Water Supply ' 93 

Wayne, General Anthony 7 

Wayne, J. E. 59 

Welshant7, Conrad II 

Welshantz, Joseph II 

Weaver, Daniel 12 

Webb, James B 41 

Weber, George G 1 06 

Weigel, Henry 16 

Weiser, George U 83 

Welfare Building 56 

West Side Osteopathic Hospital, Inc 54 

West York High School 29 

Western Maryland Railroad 95, 96 

Western Union Telegraph 94 

Wheat 63 

White, Thomas , 17 

White Rose City 4 

White Rose Motor Club 71 

Whiteley, George H 72 

Whitenak, S. C 104 

Willcocks, Henry 41 

William Penn Senior High School 14, 19. 27 

Williamson. E. B 78 

Willis, William 4, 14 

Winans, Ross 16 

Winding Trail Camp 57 

Wolf Family 4 

Wolf, Charles H : 74 

Woman's Club 74 

Women's Auxiliary of the York Hospital 54 

WORK 99 

World War I 19 

World War II 19-21 

Wright's Ferry , ' 

Wrightsville 10-16, 17 

Wrightsville-Columbia Bridge 96, 97 



30. 31, 7, 9, 25 

98 

71 

. 103 



York Academy 

York Airport 

York Art Club 

York as a Convention City 

York Association of Underwriters 68, 69 

York Boys' Band 74 

York, Capital of the United States 6 

York Catholic High School ..29, 30 



PAGE 

York Chorus 90 

York City Band 90 

York Club of Printing House Craftsmen 70 

York Collegiate Institute 31, 32, 33 

York Community Concert Association 89, 90 

York, Considered as Site of Nation's Capital 10 

York Corporation 20 

York Corrugating Company 20 

York County Agricutural Society 85 

York County Bankers' Association 68 

York County Bar Association 69 

York County Blind Center 55, 62 

York County Dental Society 69 

York County Gas Company 92 

York County Home 50 

York County. Incorporated 4 

York County Medical Society 69 

York County Ministerial Association 69 

York County Schools 29 

York County Soil Conservation District 64, 65 

York County Tuberculosis Society 54 

York County War & Welfare Fund 20 

York Dispatch 98 

York, England 4 

York, Geography 44 

York-Hoover Corporation 20 

York Horse Show 88 

York Hospital 54, 22, 61 

York Hospital School of Nursing 33 

York Imperial Apple 65, 66 

York Imperial Sweet Cherry 66 

York, Incorporated as a Borough 44 

York, in Relation to State and National Government 52 

York Interstate Fair 85 

York Interstate Fair Grounds 78, 103 

York Junior College 32, 69 

York. Laid Out 3, 4, I 

York Little Theatre 83 

York National Bank and Trust Company 4 

York Plan 19,20 

York Recreation Commission 79 

York Riflemen 72 

York Safe and Lock Company 20 

York School of Beauty Culture 33 

York School of Hair and Cosmetology 33 

York-Shipley York Oil Burner Company 20 

York Steam Heating Company 92 

York Symphony Orchestra 89 

York Telephone and Telegraph Company 94 

York Traffic Club 70 

York Welfare Federation, Inc 54 

York White Roses 87 

Yorktowne. Hotel 1 03 

Young, Edward S 98 

Young, Hiram 98, 92 

Young Business Men's Association 71 

Young Men's Christian Association 57, 58, 55 

Young Men's Christian Association Night School 34 

Young Women's Christian Association 33, 55 

Young Women's Club of York 53 



Ziegle, Captain Thomas A |fc 

Ziegler Family 4 

Ziegler, John A. C 66 

Zorger, Frederick I | 



Index to Industrial and Commercial Section 



PAGES 110 to 248 



PAGE 

Abel - Son. I. B 110 

Alloy Rods Co Ill 

American Chain & Cable Co.. Inc 112, 113 

American Insulator Corp 114 

American Wire Fabrics Corp 115 

Anderson Grain & Feed Co 115 

Andes, Geo. S 116 

Andrews Paper House of York 117 

B 

Baker Co., The J. E 118 

Bancroft, H. G 118 

Barnhart's Book Store 119 

Beasley Co., Carl 116 

Bell's 119 

Black & Sons Co., Inc., Jos 124 

Blaw-Knox Co 120, 121 

Bon-Ton Department Store, The 122, 123 

Brandt-Henry Mfg., Co., Inc 125 

Brandt-Warner Mfg. Co 1 26 

Brooks Hotel . .125 



PAGE 

Geesey, Roy L 1 46 

Gehly's Carpet House. Inc 1 47 

General Electric Co., The 148 

General Machine Works 146 

Gilbert Wallpaper Mfg. Co., Inc 149 

Glatfelter Co., P. H 1 50 

Golden Rule, The 151 

Goodling Electric Co., The H. E 1 49 

Gotwalt's Motor Service 144 

Graves & Co., John D 1 52 

Graybill & Co., Inc., Jno. E 152 

Green's Dairy 1 53 

Gregory's 1 52 

H 

Hardinge Co., Inc 154 

Hershey Baking Co.. J. S 1 53 

Hespenheide & Thompson, Inc 1 56 

Home Furniture Co 1 55 

Home Insulation Co. of Central Penna 156 

Horn & Co., D. E 157 

Howe's Dairy 1 55 



Careva Co., The 127 

Chic Millinery 128 

Coastal Tank Lines, Inc 128 

Cochrane Brass Foundry 125 

Colonial Hotel, The 1 30 

Colonial Products Co. . 129 



Daniels 131 

Deardorff, George D 131 

Dentists' Supply Co. of New York, The 1 32, 133 

Dispatch Publishing Co., The 1 34 

Drovers' & Mechanics' National Bank of York, The 135 



Ebert & Rodgers 130 

Economy Meat Market 134 

Edison Light & Power Co I 36, I 37 

Engdahl Machine and Tool Co 138 

Eyster, Weiser Co 1 39 



Farquhar Co.. A. B S. . . . . 140, 141 

First National Bank of York, The 142 

Fishel's Bakery, Inc., J. B 139 

Floorola Products, Inc 143 

Fluhrer's Jewelry Store 144 

Ford Roofing Products Co 1 38 

Fox Baking Co., Edward 144 

Fulton, Mehring & Hauser Co., Inc 145 



Industrial National Bank of West York 1 57 

International Chain & Mfg. Co 1 58 



Keystone Color Works, Inc 159 

Keystone Roofing Manufacturing Co 160 

Klipe-Meyers Manufacturing Co 159 

Kottcamp & Son, C. C 161 

Kuester & Associates, J. G 157 



LaMotte & Bond 162 

Lavetan & Sons, L 162 

Lehmayer's 1 62 

Long's Bakery 163 

M 

McCrory's 1 66 

McFall's . 163 

McKay Co., The .167 

McGann Manufacturing Co., Inc 169 

M. & H. Pure Food Stores ... 168 

Martin-Parry Corp .. 164, 165 

Medusa Portland Cement Co 

Metropolitan-Edison Co 

Molybdenum Corporation of America 168 

Morris Drug Co '72 

Motor Freight Express, Inc 

Motter Electric Co 173 

Motter's Sons, George r 173 

Murphy Co., G. C 1 74 

Myers & Son, John H 1 75 



258 



N 

PAGE 

Newswanger's '76 

New York Wire Cloth Co I 74 

Noss' Sons, Inc., Herman 1 77 



u 



Orinoka Mills, The 

Ottemiller Co., Inc., The Wm. H. 



177 
178 



Penn Dairies, Inc 180 

Penn Hotel 179 

Penn Textile Corp 163 

Penney Co., Inc., J. C 1 82 

Pennsylvania Furniture Co 181 

Pennsylvania Garage 181 

Pennsylvania Too! & Manufacturing Co 179 

Pfaltzgraff Pottery Co., The 183 



United Wallpaper, Inc. 



PAGE 

. 205 



w 

Walker's 201 

Watt & Brother Co., Inc 207 

Weaver Piano Co., Inc 208 

Wertz. George W 201 

Western National Bank 210 

Westinghouse Electric Supply Co 209 

Westley & Co., H 209 

White Rose Engraving Co 209 

White Rose Motors, Inc 211 

Wiest's Sons. P 212, 213 

Williams Co., Inc., H. J 214, 215 

Wilson, Jr., Jimmy 216 

Wolf & Sons, Geo. A. . .217 



Read Machinery Co., Inc 184, 185 

Ream's 183 

Regenthal and Son, H. F 182 

Rehmeyer, H. M 187 

Reindollar and Son, 1 187 

Reineberg's 1 86 

Reliance Manufacturing Co 191 

Roosevelt Oil Service 1 88 

Root Co., The B. M 189 

Runkle Furniture Co.. The . . .190 



Schmidt & Ault Paper Co 193 

Sears, Roebuck and Co 192 

Service Supply Co 192 

Shaffner, Charles H 1 82 

Small Co., P. A. & S 195 

Smith Auto Co., Ammon R 1 94 

Smith Co., S. Morgan 196. 197 

Spring Garden Brick & Clay Products Co., Inc 198 

Standard Rag & Paper Co., Inc 194 



Stauffer Biscuit Co., Inc., D. F. 

Stetler, D. E 

Stewart & March - 



200 

193 

198 

Stillman's . . 199 



Strayer-Beitzel Co. of York . . 

Strickler, R. W 

Superior Paper Products Co. 



199 
199 
202 



Susquehanna Broadcasting Co 203 



Sweigart's Photo Service Shop 



201 



Thompson's 204 

Tioga Weaving Co., Inc 206 

Trimmer Printing Co 205 



York Airport 211 

York Auto Parts Co., Inc 220 

York Blue Print Co 220 

York Broadcasting Co 22 1 

York Bus Co., Inc 218, 219 

York Chemical Works 220 

York City Laundry 228 

York Composition Co 228 

York Corporation 222, 223 

York Corrugating Co., The 224, 225 

York County Gas Co 226, 227 

York County National Bank 229 

York Electric & Machine Co., The 232 

York-Heat 240 

York-Hoover Corp 230, 23 1 

York Junior College 233 

York Machinery & Supply Co 233 

York Mirror & Glass Co 234 

York Motor Express Co 235 

York National Bank & Trust Co., The 236 

York Narrow Fabrics Co 248 

York Office Supply Co 235 

York Paint & Hardware Co., Inc 237 

York Paper Box Co 242 

York Safe & Lock Co 238, 239 

York Saw Works 234 

York Telephone & Telegraph Co. 241 

York Toy & Specialty Co 200 

York Transportation Co., Inc 242 

York Trust Co 243 

York United Hosiery, Inc 248 

York Water Co 246 

Yorktowne Hotel, The 244, 245 

Yorktowne Service Stores . 247 



TRIM-PRINT. YORK-JANUARY. 1946 



259