o Z z o z BANCROFT LIBRARY o THE LIBRARY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA = .. The ... Story of Juan Cruz BY WILLIAM E. JOHNSON Former Chief Special Officer of the United States Indian Service HJ [o] "If thou faint in the days of adversity, thy strength is small. If thou forbear to deliver them that are drawn unto death, and those that are ready to be slain; if thou sayest, Behold we knew it not; doth not He that ponder eth the heart consider it? and he that keepeth my soul, doth He not know it? and shall not He render to every man according to his works," -PROVERBS, XXIV: 10-12. THE LEGEND OF MOINTEZUMA Montezuma was born in Pecos pueblo. He rode southward on the back of an eagle, followed by the people. Wherever he alighted for the night, a pueblo was built. At the last stop, the eagle alighted on a cactus bush and was devoured by a snake. On this spot the City of Mexico was built. In these pueblos or villages, for many centuries, something like six thousand Indians have lived. They are a happy, trust ful, poetic, religious people, full of human sympathy, full of mysticism. They wove cotton cloth before America was dis covered. They built Christian churches of their own before the Mayflower arrived. They constructed mills and ground their corn. Their houses are now and always have been equal or superior in cleanliness, in their substantial character, to those of their American or Mexican neighbors. These villagers, with their herds and fields, lived in com munion with spiritual things. In the Moon of the Shearing, they harvested their wool. In the Planting Time of the Corn, the seeds were covered, with ceremony and prayer. The Reader of the Stars of Puye interpreted the Heavens. When the Sun went on the South Trail, the priest of the Winter Clan got out his ceremonial bowl and repaired to the Kiva, there to commune with the Ruler of Magic. They wooed the Maid of the Corn Silk Hair. They lived, married, and gave in mar riage until there approached the Shadows at the End of the Trail, always with faith in the Great Mystery. To FRIENDS OF THE INDIANS. While this pamphlet is for gratuitous distribution, the actual cost of printing, binding and mailing is about four cents each in ten thousand lots. Friends wishing to aid in protecting these. Indians are invited to send in lists of addresses of any size together with four cents for each name to cover the expense. Or send in a check for as many pamphlets as desired and they will be mailed to clergy lists, "Who's Who" lists, etc. It is hoped that a situation may be created whereby it will be impossible for another such series of outrages to be in flicted upon a dependent people for a generation to come. Address : William E. Johnson, Laurel, Maryland. YflAHFHJ TIC JUAN CRUZ THE STORY OF JUAN CRUZ. 3 And when the Priests of the White God came from the South, bearing aloft the Cross, the people believed, and, with their own hands, built Christian churches, churches that are still standing as the chief thing in the village life, though two hundred and fifty years have passed. THE PUEBLO DE SANTA CLARA It is of one of these pueblos, that of Santa Clara, the most progressive of them all, that this narrative chiefly relates. In 1689 the Spanish Crown granted this pueblo a "league" of land surrounding their church, comprising 17,368 acres. The title of this was confirmed by Act of Congress, Dec. 22, 1858, and is still held by the Indians, except some small tracts that they have sold from time to time, and some huge tracts that they have been juggled out of through the maladministration of the U. S. Indian officials in New Mexico. Of this, about eight thousand acres were stolen from the Indians in one deal. Eighteen years ago, one Smith induced the Santa Clara In dians to sign what they supposed to be a right of way for a road through the land. When the paper turned up for record, in later years, it proved to be a deed to all of the Pueblo lands East of the Rio Grande River, comprising about eight thou sand acres. Smith transferred the land to one Hobart, who claimed to be an "innocent purchaser." On account of pro tests, Judge William H. Pope, as attorney for the Indians, filed suit to set aside the deed. But Judge Pope was trans ferred to the Philippines, and A. J. Abbott was appointed as attorney for the Pueblo Indians in his stead. BUT A. J. ABBOTT WAS THE; ATTORNEY FOR HOBART IN THE SIGHT THOUSAND ACRE LAND DEAL. THIS APPOINTMENT WAS MADE UNDER THE ADMINISTRATION OF CLINTON J. CRANDALL, THE PRESENT INDIAN SUPERINTENDENT AT SANTA FE. THAT SUIT FOR THE INDIANS WAS ALLOWED TO GO BY DE FAULT UNDER CRANDALL'S ADMINISTRATION OF AFFAIRS. For seven years the Santa Clara Indians have clamored for the reopening of the suit. It was not until the complaints be gan to become public that F. S. Wilson, the present attorney for the Pueblo Indians, would consent to apply for the reopen ing of the case. And when he did "reopen" it, he forgot to set up the only grounds upon which he could reasonably hope to win the ground of "fraud." E. C. Abbott, a son of A. J. Abbott, then became attorney for the Hobart interests. Wilson did not wish to set up the ground of "fraud" because it might "hurt Abbott's feelings." Last May, after the investigations of Inspector Shelby M. Sineleton (whose report is carefully 'Concealed in the Interior Department), criticisms led to the introduction of fraud as a 4 Tin; STORY OF JUAN CRUZ. basis for the suit. Abbott was the special counsel employed by unknown parties to assist in the prosecution of Juan Cruz. He has since been elected District Judge, and the Hobart claim will come up in his court for adjudication. THE CANADA DE SANTA CLARA On July 19, 1763, Gov. Tomas Velez Cachupin, upon the representations of Padre Mariano Rodriquez de la Terre, made an additional grant to the Santa Clara Pueblo of " the whole of the Valley of. Santa Clara, which runs westward as for as the mountains, and in which is situated the tract of land granted to Juan and Antonio Tafoya, and in it no settler shall be allowed or any grant made." The Tafoya grants mentioned were conditional grants. The conditions were not observed, and the grants were later cancelled. 'Under the Cachupin grant, settlers were frequently removed and the Indians pro tected in their rights. This grant was confirmed by the Court of Private Land Claims, in 1894, and was commonly supposed to consist of about ninety thousand acres of land. Then there followed eight years of legal surveys and squabbling over the interpretation of the "valley" or Canada of Santa Clara. Early in the administration of Superintendent Crandall, the canwda was judicially determined to mean the "canon" of Santa Clara River, and the ninety thousand acres of land dwindled to about nine hundred acres, which were patented to the Indians. "God gave us the land, but the United States surveyed us out of it," explained the venerable and beloved Francisco Naranjo. The outcry of the Indians at this loss of their lands reached the ears of Frances E. Leupp, who was then Commissioner. Through the efforts of Mr. Leupp, a portion of these lands, amounting to about 30,000 acres, were restored to the Indians in the form of an "Executive Order" Indian Reservation, at the hands of President Roosevelt. "Rut the Indians were not destined to get the benefit of even this Executive Order land. Through the manipulation of Superintendent Crandall, a "deal" with the Forest Service by which the cattle of American and Mexicans grazing on the Jemez Forest Reserve, were to be permitted to water in the Santa Clara River, within the Santa Clara lands. In lieu of this, the various pueblos were to be allowed to graze two thousand head of cattle on the Jemez Forest Reserve. The way this deal worked out under Crandall's adminis tration was this : T. The Indian cattle on the Forest Reserve would habitu ally "disappear." The cattle did not "disappear" on anv other range, so the Indian? were thus forced to withdraw their THE STORY OF JUAN CRUZ. 5 cattle from the Jemez Forest range, and even from their own 'Executive Order reservation, and pasture their cattle where they could, many of them hiring pasturage of private land owners. 2. The American and Mexican politicians, under color of this "deal," took possession of the Indian thirty-thousand-acre reservation and also of their fee simple lands, and held pos session for seven years without compensation to the Indians. Again and again did the Indians complain. Again and again did the priest of the parish, Father Haelterman protest. Seven months ago Commissioner Valentine tr\ei to correct the injustice, but was balked by the Department intrigues of Assistant Commissioner Abbott. Both Singleton and myself personally pleaded with Abbott in behalf of the Indians. One friend of the Indians personally pleaded with Assistant Sec retary Adams, but the only reply of Adams was : "Oh hell ; there are- a lot of white and Mexican cattlemen down there whose interests we have got to consider as well as the Indians." Adams sustained Crandall and Abbott in their manoeuvers to keep the cattle on the land as late :as September. On Octo ber first, I left the Government service and exposed this outrage in the newspapers. The Department thereupon per mitted Commissioner Valentine to hurry down to New Mexico and order the cattle driven off. In this act, the outcries of the Indians for seven years were justified. It required seven years of protests an-d finally a public scandal to induce the Department to correct this robbery. SOME VAGARIES DRUG STORE WHISKEY In the meantime, the Indians began accusing Superinten dent Crandall of selling whisky illegally at his drug store iri Santa Fe. They worked up evidence in three good cases against the store and tried to get indictments from the grand jury. The foreman of the grand jury was a partner with Crandall in the drug store. The District Attorney is the attorney for the Hobart land interests against the Indians and was the one employed by interested parties to assist in the prosecution of Juan Cruz in Rio Arriba County. The In dians naturally got no indictments against Crandall's store. This, together with complaints about their being plundered of their lands, enraged Superintendent Crandall and he started out on a campaign of revenge. He proposed to the Indian Office as a "punishment" for the Santa Clara Indians that they be deprived of their Executive Order reservation, that some additional land be added and that the whole amount be created into an Executive Order reservation for the benefit THE STORY OF JUAN CKLZ. 7 of all of the Tehuas Indians, of which the Santa Claras are but a small part. Assistant Commissioner Abbott promptly got in behind the plot to plunder the Santa Claras, but he was crafty enough to not call it a "punishment." He put on his benevolent face and solemnly talked about his scheme to "be nefit the Pueblo Indians by getting them more land." The plot was tantamount to a proposal to rob the Irish of their do main and give the land to the Scotch for the benefit of the United Kingdom. Abbott had this plunder scheme nearly through the Interior Department when it was temporarily blocked through the efforts of -Inspector Singleton. A STUDY IN HUMAN SYMPATHY Eight years ago, there came to the Santa Clara Pueblo, as "government housekeeper," Mrs. Francis D. True, the widow of a Confederate Army officer. Her daughter, Clara D. True, was installed as "teacher" in the Government Indian school. It was a "grass-hopper year," and Indian crops were well-nigh nil. The following winter, came a dreadful epidemic of diphtheria of the most malignant type. Within two weeks one- tenth of the entire village died. Fourteen children out of the Indian school were buried. In a frenzy of terror, the Indians drove away the doctor. The military were appealed to, but refused to take a hand because the Indians were "citizens." The Territorial Board of Health refused aid because the In dians were "not citizens." Superintendent Crandall, who dis played -great energy in keeping away from the danger zone, finally wired Miss True to do the best she could. For two weeks, no white person came to the village except Father Haelterman, the devoted parish priest. In that time. Mrs. True and her daughter renovated and fumigated sixty Indian homes every house in the village. They burned the old bedding and blankets. They pacified and comforted the Indians. They purchased on their own credit new bedding, new blankets, disinfectants, groceries and supplies. They stamped out the epidemic. Crandall did not come till "the grass came," the Indians tell me. Then Miss True sought Superintendent Crandall's aid in inducing the Gjovernment to re-imburse her for the bedding, blankets and supplies purchased during the epidemic. He flat ly refused. "You had no authority to make those purchases." he angrily declared, "and I will just make an example of you for exceeding your authority in this way; you will have to pay for those things yourself." And for two years Mother True and her daughter set aside a portion of their salary each month in paying- these bills on the installment plan. 8 THE STORY OF JUAN CRIZ. Out of this warp and woof was woven the devotion that has since existed on the part of these Indians for their fornu-r teacher, Clara D. True, a devotion that has been perfected and amplified in a thousand different acts during the eight years that have followed. "Miss True is the only sister that I have," said old Francisco Xaranjo to me one day as a big tear trick led down the furrows of his swarthy face. "I want to maka da straight way for my people, and you and Miss True must show me how," said Governor Santiago to me one morning after we 'had spent the night together, rolled in the same blanket, up in a mountain canon. "As long as I live, Senora True will be my mother," said Leandro Tafoya to me one day, while I was trying to help him locate the boundaries of the new village school grounds. Leandro will be ninety-one years old next February, and is twenty-five years older thas his "mother." Last July, in Santa Clara Canon, the flood tore out all the Indian farms that the Mexican cattle had not destroyed. Stock was drowned and orchards wiped out. Mrs. True and her daughter, with their friend, Mary T. Bryan, at once gave nec essary immediate supplies to relieve distress and put a dozen of the Indian men at work on their ranch at good wages, as a relief measure. The representatives of the Interior Depart ment, with almost superhuman intelligence, as a relief meas ure, benevolently offered to sell the Indians some government barbed wire at fifty cents per bale more than the market price, and take the pay for it in work. I1N HONOR OF THE RETURN OF VIRTUE Two years ago I began operating among these Pueblos in divers ways, all looking to the rooting out of the liquor traffic which was playing havoc among them. I had made previous attempts working in connection with Superintendent Crandall, but obtained no results. The Indians would have nothing to do with any of my deputies who worked in connection with Crandall, for whom they had a deep-seated hatred. I then sent into the field, Harold F. Coggeshall and employ ed to assist him. as my deputies. Miss True and Perdo Baca. the latter an influential, earnest. Pueblo Indian, who had been educated by the Jesuit Fathers. Results came in rapid suc cession. The Indians by the score flocked to the total abstin ence standard, as well as began assisting in securing evidence against persons guilty of selling liquor to Indians. In this, the Santa Clara Tnd ; ans took the lead. Out of nearlv three hundred of these Indians, only three or four are left who drink. The Santa Clara men became crusaders. They con verted almost the whole village of San Tldefonso. They sent missionaries to Cochiti. to Picuris. to Jemez, to San Juan, to io. THE STORY <n- JUAN CRUZ. Iseleta and other Pueblos. They formed a total abstinence society, adopted a badge consisting of a silver arrow, and practically the whole village enlisted. They sent a delegation of four Indians to the recent W. C. T. U. Convention at Las Vegas, where they made addresses in Spanish before the Convention, before the Y. M. C. A., and before the Normal University. They formed a Federation which now comprise? practically every Indian Pueblo in New Mexico, the chief pur poses of which are to cut out the liquor traffic and to endeavor to protect themselves from the land and pasturage robberies that were being inflicted upon them. The Chief of the Federa tion is Francisco Naranjo, the most influential of all Pueblo Indians. Last spring, the Indians saw that which they had done was "good." So they set apart a day in celebration. Arrayed in fantastic attire, they 'gave their historic dance in honor of the "Return of Virtue," a ceremonial which is never given except in honor of some great event that has wrought great benefits to the life of the people. Hundreds of Indian- participated in this great event, Pedro Baca being the "Master of Ceremonies/' THE TRAGEDY OF CHAJV11TA Among the early recruits to this band was Juan Cruz, a young Indian Sir Galahad from Pueblo San Juan. Cruz had the spirit of a crusader. He was devoted to his church, to his young wife Dolorita, and to their baby Jose. Little Jose is said to be the first Indian child ever christened in the Espano- la Valley without wine. A year ago, Assistant Chief Cogge- shall had made Juan a deputy posseman in my name and em ployed him on various occasions to assist, sometimes in dis tant Pueblos. I paid Juan officially for these services. In the midst of these activities. Supt. Crandall advised the rough, drunken Indians that my deputies had no ''authority" and that no attention should be paid to them. Under the in spiration of that advice, four rough Indians of bad character, attacked Juan Cruz, while he was in the act of taking a bottle of whisky which the leader, Dolores Garcia had just pur chased. The Indians beat Juan with stones and clubs, mashing in his mouth and loosening two of his teeth. Juan drew his revolver and in defense of his life, fired into the darkness, the bullet hitting Garcia who died an hour later. Cruz was arrested and held to the grand jury. n charge of murder in the first degree, conviction for which, under New Mexico law, could be nothing less than death. Superintendent Crandall sent in a hostile telegram to the Indian Office. To a telegram of inquiry from the Indian Office. I replied : STORY OF JUAN CRUZ. n Santa Fe, N. M.,Feb. 7, 1911. INDIAN OFFICE, Washington, D. C. Your wire yesterday re Cruz shooting. Crandall misinformed about Cruz claiming to be policeman appointed by Miss True. Last fall he aided Coggeshall as posse. At present time he was acting under instructions Governor of Santa Clara Pueblo. Santa Clara and other Pueblos have banded together to eliminate liquor on their own motion and their attempt to do this led to shooting. I regarded it best to withhold defense for present. Drew out prosecution and Cruz was held without bail. JOHNSON. I had just reached Santa Fe and the information that I gathered quickly was chiefly from Supt. Crandall and F. S. Wilson, attorney for the Pueblo Indians. Upon later and personal investigation, I found their information to be un reliable and worthless. I had not yet ascertained the part that my regular commissioned deputies played in events leading up to the tragedy. Attorney Wilson advised me that a non commissioned employee in suppressing the liquor traffic among Indians was not a "deputy" de jure. But whether he was a de jure deputy or not, it was clear that he was acting in good faith and I felt it my duty to stand behind the boy to the last ditch. I was, therefore, astounded at receiving the fol lowing telegram from Assistant 'Commissioner Abbot order ing me to abandon the boy to his fate : Washington, D. C., Feb. 9, 1911. JOHNSON, Special Officer, Care Supt. Perry, Albuquerque, N. M. Your telegram seventh, Cruz shooting. Since Cruz not authorized Government employee your service, take no steps regarding his de fense. Consult Supt. Crandall and give him all information in your possession. ABBOTT, Assistant Commissioner. There were no living witnesses to the shooting except the three living assailants, all of whom swore at the preliminary hearing that the shooting was entirely unprovoked. I could not see the boy go to the gallows undefended. I appealed to Crandall to do something. He complacently re ported to me that "all the facts had come out at the hearing" and that nothing could be done except to work on the sym pathies of the Judge. I appealed to Wilson, but he refused to undertake the defense unless he received an extra fee. He later tried to manipulate the affair so that the Juan Cruz Defense Committee would employ his law partner. And when the proposition was turned down, Wilson wrote me kindly that Cruz would have to "take his medicine." 12 THK STOKY OF JUAN CRUZ. I then went to the ladies of the Woman's Christian Temper ance Union, at Sante Fe, and laid the life of the boy at their feet, telling them frankly the situation. They quickly formed the Juan Cruz Defense Committee and sent out circulars ap pealing for funds with which to employ counsel for the Indian. In the meantime, I took the matter up personally with Com missioner Valentine. Then came in angry protests at the brutal action of Assistant Abbott. Commissioner Valentine acted quickly, overruling the order of Assistant Ab1>ott, in the following telegram : Washington, D. C.. March 23, 1911. JOHNSON, Special Officer, Denver, Colo. Office telegram February 9, concerning Cruz shooting, hereby re voked. Help in his fullest possible protection every way in your power. VALENTINE, Commissioner. I shall never forget the patient, earnest, devoted work of the Juan Cruz Defense Committee, consisting of : Mrs. H. M. Byrd, Santa Fe, N. M. ; Mrs. Katherine B. Patterson, Santa Fe, N. M.; Mary T. Bryan, Espanola, N. M., and Clara D. True, Espanola, N. M. Mrs. Patterson, who acted as the Treasurer of the Defense Committee, is also Superintendent of the Department of Sys tematic Giving, of the National W. C. T. U. From the first. Assistant Commissioner Abbott schemed to discredit the work of this committee, sending out letters and telegrams intimating that the women were collecting funds under false pretenses. He even brazenly denied sending me the telegram of February 9. On May 20 he telegraphed Laura Stone Power, of Redlands, Acting President of the California Indian Association : Replying to your telegram of the i8th inst. No instructions were ever issued to Chief Officer Johnson forbidding him to help in the pro tection of Juan Cruz, the Indian murderer. In addition to denying that he had sent me the telegram of February 9, Abbott, on the even of the trial, \va> officially branding the boy as an "Indian murderer." The Defense Committee employed J. H. Crist of Sante Fe. one of the ablest criminal lawyers in New Mexico as counsel for the Indian. At the request of Commissioner Valentine, the Department of Justice instructed United States Attorney David J. Leahy, of Las Vegas, to assist in the defense Commissioner Valentine also ordered F. S. Wilson, attorney for the Pueblo Indians, to assist. This is the "assistance" Wilson rendered: THE STORY OF JUAN CRUZ. 13 1. For two days he endeavored to induce me to advise Cruz to plead guilty to murder in the second degree and go to the penitentiary. Apparently his object w.as to justify the distorted reports of the case that he had been sending to Washington. 2. He spent much of. his time .around the street corners abusing the trial judge, applying violent epithets to him. 3. On the crucial day of the trial, when Juan was freed, Wilson was off fishing ,and knew nothing of what was go ing on. 4. After the trial, Wilson marshaled the witnesses for the prosecution at Santa Fe and tried to get Cruz re-indicted in the Federal Court on charge of murder for the same offense. His diabolical scheme was blocked by United States Attorney Leahy, who refused to allow Wilson to take the witnesses be fore the grand jury. In preparing the case for trial, I felt the opposition of Superintendent Crandall. I desired to use as a character wit ness, one of his teachers, a most estimable lady, who was especially well qualified' as such witness and eager to serve. She Pegged of me to excuse her and I did excuse her, on the ground that she was fearful of Crandall's vengeance upon her if she aided in the defense of Cruz. After a week's fight in the court, in which unknown inter ests employed special counsel to assist in the prosecution, Judge John R. McFie ruled that at the time of the shooting Cruz was employed as a Federal officer in the discharge of his duty and, as such, was not answerable to the Territorial Court for an offense committed while in the discharge of his duty. We had a complete defense for the boy aside from this, which defense, it was not necessary to present to the jury. Much of the details of this defense Mr. Crist and myself kept from the knowledge of Attorney Wilson, fearing treachery. Systematic attempts have been made and are being made by agents of the Interior Department to blacken and discredit every one who has made an attempt to protect these Pueblo Indians. Agents of the Department caused me to be thrown into jail on my last trip to Slanta Fe on a fake charge of crim inal libel. I was seized at breakfast and hurried before a Mexican Justice of the Peace, a friend of Crandall's, who promptly held me to the grand jury under bonds of $3,000. I went to jail and at once sued out a writ of habeas corpus in the District Court where I was promptly released, the Court holding that there was no evidence to warrant the pro ceedings. Then I was sued for one Ir.mrlred thousand dollars *4 TIIK STORY OF JUAN CRUZ. damages on account of some of these exposures, the complain ant being Clinton J. Crandall who divides time between selling whisky at Santa Fe and teaching Indian children at the Gov ernment school. For two months Mr. Abbott has been trying to find some way to hold up my accounts for expenses incurred in the defense. of Cruz in spite of the fact that the law office of the Indian Office has given their opinion that the expenditures incurred in this matter were legal. There seems to be no limit to the wrath of the Department at my successful defense in this case. In addition to the various assaults on me, agents of the De partment of the Interior have been making a great variety of attacks upon the ladies of the Juan Cruz Defense Committee. These attacks have ranged all the wiay from circulating lying whisperings against their integrity to bringing fake litigation against Miss True, and even to Superintendent Crandall's re peatedly cutting the barb-ware fences of Mrs. Byrd's ranch. For this he narrowly escaped indictment at the hands of the grand jury; the foreman of the grand jury was Crandall's partner in the liquor selling drug store. Prior to the trial, both Wilson and Crandall used every effort to involve Miss True in a crime by trying to prove that she furnished the revolver with which the shooting was done. Wilson even reported to Washington on February 14, "Mr. Crandall and I have not given up hope in connecting her with the matter in such a way as to punish her as she deserves." This is apparently one reason why these men wanted Cruz convicted, as a preliminary to some sort of a prosecution against one of the best friends of the Indians. A little later, while I was in Washington, one of the most important of ficials of the Indian Office asked me if I could "not conjure up some sort of a criminal prosecution against Miss True so she will keep her mouth shut." In striking contrast to the operations of this Departmental crew of wriggling, squirming, sword-swallowers, there stands silhouetted against the horizon of the situation the character of this Indian boy. When he was in the penetentiary waiting trial, I visited him with Mr. Crist, to discuss the case. Otae statement had been misinterpreted to us, making it appear that Itian was contradicting some statement of the state's witnesses in a trivial matter. Mr. Crist made a casual remark that the unnecessary contradiction made it more difficult for us. Mr. Crist's remark, not intended for Juan, was interpreted to him. Quick as a flash came back the retort, "I will tell the truth if they hang me for it." Later, when the trial was over, and he was free, the Indian said. "I knew it would come out this way. THE STORY OF JUAN CKUZ. 15 I was doing God's work and the whole matter was in His hands." The next day, Juan, as he started home with Dolorita and Baby Jose, threw his arms around me in a farewell greeting. I felt then, as I feel now, that all of my work in his behalf was not in vain, that any vengeance which the Interior Depart ment and the liquor fraternity might inflict upon me could not make me suffer as much as th^e. Santa Clara Indians have suf fered because of this decade of maladministration by the worst plunderbund that has disgraced good government since the days of William M. Tweed. The night the trial closed, and Juan was set free, the In dians came to Miss True. "I knew that Scnor Johnson would bring Juan back to us. We have all been praying every night," said Valentine Naranjo, devoutly baring his head. At the recent Convention of the Society of American In dians, formed at Columbus, O., Tom L. Sloan, a Winnebago Indian, voiced Indian sentiment when he said : "What we want is for the Department to send us Superintendents who are at least honest, and who are as capable of managing the affairs of the Indians as the Indians are themselves." The Reader of the Stars of Ptiye is doing the best he can to find where the end of it is. JOHNSON ANSWERS ADAMS' POSTHUMOUS "CHARGES" Laurel, Md. December, 9, 1911 Hori. Samuel Adams, Assistant Secretary of the Interior, Washington, D. C. My dear Mr. Secretary : I have to reply to your letter of the 29th. ult. On October 29th, Secretary Fisher gave out to the news papers at Washington a statement that I preferred to resign my position as Chief Special Officer of the United States Indian Service ''rather than meet certain definite charges against him." These clippings were called to my attention in the far West. Inasmuch as no charges whatever had been preferred against me which I refused to meet, I wrote the Secretary on Novem ber nth, requesting a copy of the alleged charges to which he referred, that I might make a defense thereto. Your reply dated November 29th is a general roast of thir teen pages in which is mixed argument, innuendo, imputation, vituperation and some definite statements. I will assort the definite statements from the mess as best I can and make reply thereto. First, permit me to inquire : If definite charges had been presented to me and that I resigned rather than to meet them, what business had you as an administrative officer to accept my resignation which I have in my possession signed by your own hand. Outside of the Interior Department, the acceptance of a resignation is regarded as a clean bill of health. I waiv ed my rights in this matter and invited you to file any charges that you might conjure up after you had accepted my resigna tion, and to make them public if you desired. Your attention is called to the fact that on September 17, after I had handed in my resignation, you yourself gave out to the newspaper correspondents a statement that "no fault had been found with Mr. Johnson's integrity or his character." You also complimented my service. Your attention is also invited to the fact that only a few days prior to the giving out of Mr. Fisher's interview, he himself definitely stated to Clara D. True, while she was his guest on MRS. KATHERINE B. PATTERSON Treasurer of the Juan Cruz Defense Committee and Superintendent of the Department of Systematic Giving of the National W. C. T. U. his private car through New Mexico, that there were no charges against me at all. I herewith submit a letter from Miss True. Espanola, New Mexico, October 25, 1911. MR. WIUJAM E. JOHNSON, Denver, Colorado. MY DEAR MR. JOHNSON : The recent statement of Hon. Walter Fisher in the press that you resigned rather than face "certain definite charges", seems so peculiar in the light of my late conversation with Mr. Fisher, that I have written him for fuller information. In his private car en route from the Pacific coast to Washington not long ago, I called upon him and by invitation rode with him a dis tance between Albuquerque and Lamy Junction. Mr. Fisher seemed troubled by your resignation which he said he had not expected, or desired, and that there zvere no charges against you. The situation is peculiar. Someone has blundered. Very sincerely, C. TRUE. 18 Tin. STORY OF JLA.N CKLZ. After 1 announced my intention to resign, and after you knew it, an emissary came to me from your office stating that you were willing to accept my resignation provided I would go away and ''keep my mouth shut." 1 replied, in substance: "I will agree to no such thing. I am going out a free man. I prefer to be dismissed, and want to be dismissed. If you don't dismiss me today, I shall resign today." You failed to dismiss me and I resigned and you accepted my resignation. Your account of the "conference"' preceding my resignation is a very good burlesque of the facts. It is true that I was called to Washington by you. About an hour before the con ference, a politician and office-holder who is intimately con nected with the Interior Department officials asked me by tele phone to meet him at the Metropolitan Hotel. He said to me : ''I have inside information from the Interior De partment as to what is wanted of you. You ar,e get ting too many convictions and it is causing trouble. They are just going to raise hell with you today and try and hammer you into a frame of mind whereby you will be willing to go to sleep on your job." I was ushered in your presence without any specific infor mation as to what was wanted. You were seated at a large flat-top desk around which were three 'other officials and on which was a large pile of papers and documents. You would not allow me to sit at the desk where I could examine or refer to the papers. You twice savagely ordered me to sit in a chair some distance from the desk. For two and a half hours you inquisitors took turns in a fusilade of rapid-fire questions to me. The questions involved a great multiplicity of small items and expenditures, legal decisions, technical authorities and re cords, and my records were a thousand miles away. I had nearly a hundred men in the field, all spending money, and I had approximately nine hundred different criminal cases pend ing on the dockets. Many of your questions were insulting, insinuating and accompanied with sneers. There was plenty of innuendo in your questioning, but no "'charges'' of any sort were presented to me, and my 'attention was called to no "'charges" of any kind or character, an;l ymi \vell know it. The first charges that have been called to my attention are con tained in your letter of November 29th. The only paper of any kind that I was allowed to examine at the conference \vu- an affidavit of George Anton, in which he swore to receiving three dollars from me and that he did not know what it was for. There was no charge in connection with the matter. You asked me to sav what T had to sav re^anlin^' the affidavit "at THE: STORY OF JUAN CRUZ. 19 my convenience.'' I complied about a week later. I deal with this matter later in this letter. Your whole course during this "third degree" performance fully confirmed the advance infor mation that I received in the Metropolitan Hotel as to your real purposes. You make a specious argument of four pages in an effort to prove that I was "insubordinate" in matters growing out of certain New Mexico complications. The real story of this matter is this : OKving to long continues abuses of your de partment in New Mexico, the six thousand Pueblo Indians had been compelled to form a Federation in order to protect them selves against the maladministration of your office, a scandal of years standing. The Indians complained because you em ployed a liquor dealer as their Superintendent, and accused him of selling liquor illegally. They had numerous other grievances which were habitually ignored by your office. Be cause they complained, your agents went out on a campaign of "punishment." Mr. Abbott withheld approval of all my deputy appointments in New Mexico, nearly all of whom were Indians. The District Court came on at Albuquerque and the Federal Court at Santa Fe. I wished to prosecute one Jesus Castellano for selling liquor to two of my Indian deputies. The District Attorney would not pay their witness fees be cause they lived outside of the county at a distance. I had no authority to pay them anything except as deputies, and you held up their appointments, thus blocking the prosecution of Castellano. I desired to prosecute in the Federal Court, Claro Marino, who was peddling whisky to Indians under the guise of ped dling vegetables. I had already instituted prosecutions against her in the Territorial Courts. It was necessary to employ an Indian deputy to run down some witnesses. I could not do this because you would not allow me to employ such deputy. In this way you blocked the prosecution of both of these cases. I also desired to employ an Indian deputy to assist the Dis trict Attorney and constable as interpreter and scout in pre senting to the Grand Jury half a dozen cases which had been bound over in the Justice Court at my instigation. You would not allow such employment, and five of the six cases were saved only because the Indians loyally came to the rescue and did the work unofficially and without compensation. As these events were developing, I took this situation up with you by wire, and you still refused to allow me to employ the Indians, but ordered me to send a Special Officer. The nearest officer was exactly 1007 miles away, and all the officers were engaged on other urgent work. It would require an ex penditure of several hundreds of dollars to comply with your 2O THE STORY OF JUAN CKUZ. order, and the officer could not do the work needed in any event, as they could not interpret. They could not employ in terpreters because you have never given me authority to em ploy interpreters. I have always used deputies as interpreters, and you had blocked my employment of deputies in New Mex ico, thus blocking my use of interpreters there. 1 tried to explain this to you again, asking if you desired me to abandon the cases. I stated that if you insisted I could send a Special Officer. You wired me to place a Special Officer ai: your disposal for New Mexico operations, and 1 promptly did so ; but even then you did not send the officer whom I had placed at your disposal for this purpose. You thereby blocked the prosecution of both the Castellano and Marino cases and jeopardized the prosecution in all the other cases. These tactics of yours are by no means new to me. By simi lar intrigues your department has blocked my prosecutions in something like 250 cases of various sorts during the past two years. Aside from the interfering with the successful prosecution of these cases, your purpose manifestly was to trick me into a color of "insubordination." If I had not suspended the opera tions of the New Mexico deputies, whose appointments you had refused to approve, you would have had me on the carpet for "insubordination" ; now you accuse me of "insubordination" because I DID suspend their operations. Apparently you were determined to get me going or coming. You charge : "Including in the moneys paid out by you at the time of the defence of Juan Cruz, was $61 paid to Pedro Baca as a posseman, in the face of the fact that, by Department telegram of February 18, 1911, you were directed to terminate the employment of Pedro Baca who had been formerly employed by you as a special deputy officer." It is true that Baca's activities in suppressing the liquor traffic among Indians, and his criticism of Indian Superinten dent Crandall for illegal sales of whisky 'was followed by de partmental orders to dismiss him, without cause. On February 9th, Assistant Commissioner Abbott telegraphed me to take no steps to the defense of Juan Cruz, an Indian, who had been employed by me to assist in the suppression of the liquor traffic among Indians. Through the intriguing of Indian Superintendent Crandall, who is himself a liquor dealer, four drunken Indians had murderously attacked Cruz when in the discharge of his duty. In self-defence Cruz was alleged to have THE: STORY OF JUAN CRUZ. 21 shot the principal assailant. Cruz was held for murder in the first degree and the prosecution was being strenuously sup ported by special counsel having been employed by interested parties to assist the District Attorney. The ladies of the W. C. T. U. then undertook to raise funds to defend the Indian's life, the fight for which Mr. Abbott or dered me to abandon. The Abbott order caused so much criticism against your Department that on March 23rd Com missioner Valentine overruled the same order in the following telegram, addressed to me: "Office telegram February ninth, concerning Cruz shooting hereby revoked. Help in his fullest possible protection every way in your power." Under the authority of this telegram and under my general authority to employ deputies and posseman temporarily, I em ployed Baca to assist. He was an important witness ; a well educted Indian, and could do the necessary work better than anyone else. It was a matter of life or death. Your real ob jection to the matter seems to be your anger that I was suc cessful in saving the Indian's life and securing his freedom. After he was released, your own representative, F. S. Wilson, attorney for the P'ueblo Indians, and officer of your own De partment, marshalled the witnesses for the prosecution before the Federal Court and tried to get Cruz reindicted by the Fed eral Grand Jury on the same charge of murder. After your own official agents had tried to get Cruz reindicted, and failed, you had the nerve to tell me that you " would not harm Cruz if I could." You charge : "From your accounts it appears that you employed Sylviano Roybal as a deputy special officer from June 1 6 to June 21, at $5 a day. Mr. Roybal was the sheriff who had the prisoner Cruz in his custody. It it difficult for me to see in this payment to him of $30 as a special deputy any motive on your part but an im proper one." Sheriff Roybal receives no salary, only fees. Every lawyer in the United States, outside of the Interior Department knows that it is the duty of a sheriff to subpoena witnesses for the defense in criminal cases as well as for the prosecution. We asked Mr. Roybal to secure the attendance of various wit nesses in the Cruz case in the usual way. The County Com missioners refused to pay him for the work; I therefore paid him officially as my deputy for his time. Some time ago, the 22 Tin-; STORY OF JUAN CRUZ. Auditor for the Interior Department called my attention to a Federal statute forbidding the acceptance of services to the Government without compensation. Your anger at my success in the Cruz case seems to so blind you that you regard it as improper for me to obey the law. Talking about "misappropriation of funds," how about that thousand dollars of Indian money which Superintendent Cran- dall got, ostensibly to "improve the roads in and about the Indian Pueblos?" He spent the money to aid the construction of an automobile speedway along La Bajada hill, and eight miles from the nearest Indian. The "speedway" is through the property of the chief political boss of New Mexico. See Singleton's report for full particulars of this particular graft. The report has been in you possession for seven months. You yourself personally condoned this job. You charge: "You paid Miss True $72 for 24 days' alleged ser vices as posseman, when, as shown by your letter of July 20, you had been instructed by the Department to discontinue the services of Miss True and Pedro Baca You admitted that Miss True would have worked just as hard for the defence of Juan Cruz without employment and without payment at all. It therefore follows that your payment of Gov ernment funds for this purpose was a misuse of much funds." The Department, it is true, compelled me to terminate the services of Miss True and Pedro Baca on account of their activities for the Indians, and for their criticisms of illegal liquor selling on the part of Indian Superintendent Crandall. For the details of this booze peddling superintendent, you only have to refer to the voluminous report of Inspector Shelby M. Singleton, which report has been in your possession for seven months, and which apparently is also "difficult for you to see." During the six weeks before the infamous Abbott telegram of February ninth was overruled by Commissioner Valentine, this devoted woman was spending almost her whole time and hun dreds of dollars of her own funds in trying to protect the In dian boy. After I was officially directed by Commissioner Valentine to "help in his fullest possible protection every way in your power," I employed Miss True for a few days, paying her as a posseman. She was a vitally important witness for the defense, and much of this $72 was for her time in attend ance upon this court as a witness. The Court, while discharg ing Cruz from custody, refused to allow the fees of any wit- THE: STORY OF JUAN CRUZ. 23 nesses for the defense, on the theory that that was a proper charge, under the circumstances, upon the Fed'eral Govern ment. Having this attitude of the Court in mind, -and having in mind the Federal statute against accepting gratuitous ser vices in behalf of the Government, T paid Miss True for her time. FRANCISCO NARANJO Chief of the Federation of Indian Pueblos, and Presidente of the Pueblo Indian Temperance Society. I have been making payments of this sort for five years with the full knowledge of your own Department. These payments have been uniformly approved during all this time. Some months ago, the Comptroller specifically and in writing ap proved this class of payments. But when the attempt is foiled to hang an Indian boy who had 1 been indiscreet enough to criticise an Indian Superintendent who is one of your political 24 THE STORY OF JUAN CRUZ. associates, for selling whisky illegally, then and not till then do you rise up in your might and shout about such payments for services being a "misuse of governmental funds." Did you ever hear of 'the inebriate who wandered all over Washington buttonholing people and saying, "I smell Lim- burger cheese in your pockets?" When the toper gol home, his wife went through his pockets, as wives do, and found a whole pound of Limburger cheese in her husband's pocket You charge : "It appears that you also paid J. H. Crist as a spe cial deputy officer from June 13 to 17, at $5 per day, when to your knowledge Crist was employed to defend Cruz by the socalled Juan Cruz Defence Committee. . . . Revised Statutes, Section 189, forbids the employment of attorneys or counsel at the expense of the United States." I did not employ Crist as an "attorney or counsel/' and you know it, and as your charge indicates. I paid him for his time as a "deputy," to gather evidence in the Cruz case and some other matters connected with the suppression of the liquor traffic among Indians. There are scores of attorneys employed in the Indian Office and field service, in other capacities than as "attorneys." I have employed dozens of them as deputies, but never as "attorneys." I have done this with the full knowl edge and consent of your own Department. Your own De partment is at this very hour employing many lawyers to do precisely the same class of work that I employed Crist to do, and you very well know it. You charge: "You also paid George Anton as posseman on June 2 ist, $3. An affidavit to the effect that he did not know why the money was paid him was turned over to you on the day of the hearing, with the request that you prepare an answer to the affidavit. Instead of preparing such answer, you handed in your resig nation." The affidavit was not turned over to me to "answer." It was turned over to me to make an "explanation in writing" and at my "convenience." I made the explanation on my arrival at Denver about a week later. That explanation has been in your own office since last September. You will find it pigeon holed, perhaps with the Singleton report, in some rathole of the Interior Department, unless too "difficult for you to see." I will repeat the substance of the "explanation." On the THE; STORY OF JUAN CRUZ. 25 morning of June 21, Anton, an ex-saloon keeper, and an em ployee of one of Superintendent Crandall's personal friends, came to me stating that he .had evidence and could get some more within a few days work that one "Shorty" Frank had been selling liquor to Indians. I told him to work the matter up, and that I would pay him for his time. An hour later, Miss True told me that Anton had just come to her stating that he had an appointment with the Cruz jury for nine o'clock that night, and that he .wanted her to go with him to "fix" the jury. (Since writing my "explanation" I found a witness of the highest character who had hid behind a door and over heard the whole conversation, thus corroborating Miss True completely.) I immediately reported the matter to United States Attorney Leahy. Not knowing of the corroborative testimony, we decided to take no action as it would simply be Anton's word against Miss True's. I did, however, immedi ately dismiss Anton, put paid him three dollars for the day's work he actually did. The three dollars were paid by an of ficial Treasury check in the usual way, and the letter of trans- mittal stated that the check was for "payment of your services on June 2ist." Your office has a copy of the letter of trans- mittal and 1 knows all about the transaction. You, apparently, seem to be incensed that I did not fall into the trap set by par ties interested in the prosecution of Cruz. You charge: "The most serious thing in connection with the matter seemed to me to be 'the paying of Juan" Cruz $6 as posseman, for the days of February 3 and 4, ibeing the day before and the day of the shooting of Garcia by Cruz. This payment* was not made until May 26." I paid this claim as soon as I was convinced' that it was a just claim and not before. Sometimes it takes the Department years to find out whether a claim is just or not. In support of the above charge, you quote from various letters of mine written before I had conferred with Assistant Chief Coggeshall, who originally appointed Cruz in my name, and who had immediate charge of the New Mexico work; letters written before I had personally made an investigation and at a time when I was depending chiefly on Superintendent Crandall and Attorney Wilson for information as to the case. Investigation showed these sources of information to be value less. You carefully refrain from quoting from my report made after a thorough personal investigation, which, from your near- 26 THE STORY OF JUAN CRUZ. sightedness, it is again ''difficult to see.'' In these subsequent reports the facts were fully set forth, and my former letters thereby modified and corrected. You are still hunting for that Limburger cheese. The Justice of the Peace pettifogging me thods to which you resort in the above charge do not seem to call for an extended reply. SANTIAGO NARANJO Governor of Santa Clara. He says : " I wan-ta mak-a da straight way for my people." You say that Assistant Commissioner Abbott denies com pelling me to write a laudatory letter of June 29, to Mrs. Patterson, in which Abbott is extolled as a man of "high character." I expected Mr. Abbott to deny it he is that kind of a man. But a portion of the original draft of that letter is in Abbott's own handwriting. You say "your making the -tatement above set out shows that you were totally unfit to THE STORY OF JUAN CRUZ. 27 holdi any position involving the exercise of discretion." That is probably true from the standpoint of men like you, whose purposes seem to be best served by 'concealing and hiding things from the public, just as you are now concealing the re port of Inspector Shelby M. Singleton, detailing the appalling rottenness of your own administration in New Mexico. You. further observe regarding the statement, "whether true or not, it shows you to be guilty of moral cowardice in an extreme measure." Perhaps. But Mr. Adams, if your superior, Sec retary Fisher, should come to you demanding that you prepare a letter extolling his high character, wouldn't you do it ? I did not give Mr. Abbott away in the matter until I got out of the service, and I did not do it then until it became necessary in order to protect the Pueblo Indians from Abbott's vindictive schemes. In this connection, how about you accepting my resignation with laudatory observations to the newspapers -regarding me, and Fisher telling Miss True that there were no charges against me, and then, when the scandalous conduct of your own Department is exposed, you rend the air with maledictions against me to cover up the rottenness of your own Department as shown in Inspector Singleton's report. You mention a charge of "inattention to duty" but state nothing of what the charge consists. The records show that the Service, under my direction, filed during the last fiscal year. 1717 new cases, secured 1168 convictions, and had only 34 ac quittals at the hands of juries. We have secured approxi mately 3400 convictions since I have had charge of this Service. All this has been accomplished in spite of the subterranean in trigues of that bedlam of incompetency officially known as the Department of the Interior. Your conception of "my duty" seemed to be that of sleeping on my job. From that standpoint I am justly accused. You gave out your letter of November 29th to the news papers before sending it to me. I have no objections to that. I will give out copies of this letter to the newspapers. Let everything come out. Suppose that you now give out copies of the big report of Inspector Singleton on the rotten condition of your administration in New Mexico. People are clamoring for it and you are standing them off with letters saying that the "report is still under discussion," etc. You have had it "under discussion" for seven months. Why not turn it loose and let the people "discuss" it for a while. My dear Mr. Secretary: Look in your own pockets you may find that Limburp'er cheese there. Respectfully, WILLIAM E. JOHNSON. 28 THE STORY OF JUAN CRUZ. MEMORIAL OF THE SANTA CLARA PUEBLO INDIANS Espanola, N. M., Oct. n, 1911. DEAR FRIEND: We are forced to make an appeal to you in hope of securing some redress of grievances and wrongs which we have suffered and are suffering at the hands of the Indian Bureau. We own several thousand acres of well-watered land. Part of this is an executive order reservation and part is fee simple land owned by ourselves under a Spanish grant confirmed by the United States Courts. For seven years something like a thousand head of cattle belong ing to politicians have overrun our lands, eating up our pasture, breaking down our fences, destroying our crops, devastating our fields, and depriving us of our principal means of livelihood. The Indian Office compels us to submit to these wrongs. Several months ago the Secretary of the Interior sent an honest man down here to investigate, Mr. Shelby M. Singleton, attorney for the Chicago Citizens' Association. He reported fully the outrages per petrated upon us by representatives, of the Indian Office and not only recommended, but personally pleaded that justice be done us. Mr. Singleton's report was suppressed by the politicians and he was disgraced for recommending that the abuses be corrected. We beg of you to call upon the Indian Office for a copy of Mr. Single ton's report and get the whole truth. We solemnly protest against a notorious liquor dealer who is president and director of a drug store in Santa Fe, which we have repeatedly caught selling liquor unlawfully, being retained as super intendent of the school where we have to send our children. We plead with you to call for and make public the report of Mr. Singleton and help us protect ourselves against the wrongs heaped upon us by the Indian Office in the interest of corrupt politicians and liquor dealers. (Signed) SANTIAGO NARANJO, Governor of Santa Clara Pueblo. VICTORIANO SISNEROS, Lieutenant Governor, FLORENTINO SISNEROS, Captain of War, CANDITO TAFOYA, Sheriff, JOSE MARIA NARANJO, Cacique, JOSE MANUEL NARANJO, Priest of the Winter Clan, LEANDER TAFOYA, Ex-Governor, FRANCISCO NARANJO, ex-Gov. and Chief of the Gen. Fed. of Pueblo Ind. MANUEL TAFOYA, Principale, PEDRO CAJETE, Principale. PEDRO BACA, Principale, ULOGIO NARANJO, Principale, JOSE DOMINGO OGUSTIERREZ," Councilman, VIDA OGUSTIERREZ, Councilman, VALENTINE NARANJO, Councilman, SEVERO NARANJO, Councilman. THE STORY OF JUAN CRUZ. 29 GRIEVANCES OF THE SANTA CLARA INDIANS, REPORTED AT THE GENERAL COUNCIL OF THE FEDERATION OF PUEBLO INDIANS, MAY, 1911 1. We have been lied to and lied to about by the Superintendent until the situation is intolerable. 2. The attorney for the Pueblo Indians has refused to serve us in any capacity. 3. We have a worthless and really hostile set of men quartered upon us for the ostensible protection of Santa Clara Reservation, but really to keep us out of the use of the lands. 4. We are getting little use of our reservation lands, although we own in fee simple nearly all the water, if not actually all, of Santa Clara Creek. The Forest Service assumes the right to pasture our lands and distribute the water to white cattle men. They say they need the water. So do we and we own it. There is other water for the white men's cattle. We do not get anything in return for the depredation of our lands or the use of the water, although we are supposed to receive grazing and wood. 5. We want to know our legal status under the Treaty of Guadalupe. 6. We want competent legal protection, which we have never had, except for. the short time Judge Pope was in office as Pueblo Attorney. 7. WE INSIST UPON THE SUPPRESSION OF THE LIQUOR TRAFFIC. 8. We ask for the backing up of our Indians when they take up this work of liquor suppression. 9. We want better schools. Our schools grow poorer every year, partly from the lack of easily supplied equipment and partly from in difference. 10. We ask for the efforts of the Indian Office to be used for the eradication of eye troubles and consumption. This work was begun, but 'because it interfered with Mr. Crandall's policy of suppression of publicity of the distressing condition of the Indians under his care, he used every means to discourage it. 11. We want better farming instruction. Our present farmer is a farce. 12. We want a better Indian police force. The present head of the police force wears a black eye a good part of the time, given him by a drunken wife. 13. WE INSIST THAT ALL GOVERNMENT OFFICERS, WHITE OR INDIAN, BE DISCHARGED FOR DRUNKENNESS. 14. We want investigation .of the Hobart lands, which we do not believe we lost, and we want investigation of the Guachipangi water situation, which we believe a fraud upon us Indians. i. We ask that the boundary lines of our reservation be straight ened by making an addition to the reservation from the forest of Jemez. his land is ours anyway. We bought it from private owners more than a century ago. 16. We ask that Assistant Commissioner Abbott's recommendation as to this addition be most carefully looked into. He recommended that it be made, but that our reservation be taken from us and divided up with all the Tehua tribes. This would not be anything but a punish ment to our tribe for its independence, and the other tribes do not want to steal from us. There is plenty of land to give them without taking away ours. 30 THE STORY OF JUAN CKUZ. "SMALLPOX" TACTICS Espanola, N. Mex., April 23, 1911. MY DEAR MR. JOHNSON: That you may realize some of the difficulties under which your men labor with Mr. Crandall's constant underground opposition, I beg to call to your attention the fact of his sending out letters to the South ern Pueblos commanding them to avoid Santa Clara and San Ildefonso as we have smallpox in those villages. He says in these letters that in addition to having smallpox, the Santa Clara's are bad people. The Governor of Cochiti received one of these letters and gave me the in formation I here quote. There is not and has not been a case of smallpox in either San Ildefonso or Santa Clara for many years. There in no smallpox any where else that we have any knowledge of in all the Espanola country- There is not even a sick man, woman, or child in Santa Clara, as I can make affidavit, and nobody knows of any in San Ildefonso. The two villages mentioned have quit drinking. Your work pros pers in both places. Mr. Crandall is afraid other villages will come over on our side if there is any intercourse. He did not suppose I would get the information. If the Indians in San Ildefonso and Santa Clara were infected with any contagious disease, making a quarantine necessary, San Juan would be infected too, as it is only six miles from us and we s-ee each other daily. But San Juan is a drunken village and Mr. Crandall did not wish other Indians to keep away from there. I am very sorry our Superintendent secretly hinders moral refor mation. I hope you will call the attention of the Commissioner to this matter. We should have a hard time to clean up the villages even if we had all possible encouragement from officials. As it is, the matter is extremely difficult. Besides being your deputy here, I am a full- blood Santa Clara Indian and therefore I think I should protest. Very respectfully, SEVERO NARANJO, Deputy Special Officer. FATHER HAELTERMAN TELLS OF THE REFORM Santa Cruz, N. Mex., September 25, 191 r. MR. W. E. JOHNSON, Denver, Colo. DEAR SIR: The Friday's issue of the Denver Times telling of your resigna tion as Indian Official came as a shock to me; it was the last thing I had thought of. The Service never had a man who worked more strenuously and unremittingly than you have done for the suppression of the liquor traffic among the Indians. I was hoping the men in Washington at the head of the Indian Bureau would show their appreciation of your work by soon giving you a well deserved promotion and am at a loss for words with which to express my sorrow at your resigning, as it will be a difficult task to find a man so well suited to your place. The good you have done among my Indians here by your tireless efforts in their behalf is already apparent. Among the Santa Clara's for instance, where a few years ago much drunkenness and abuse ex isted, there is now perfect harmony. Several men who were accu?- THE: STORY OF JUAN CRUZ. 31 tcmed to beat their wives are now model husbands since they leave liquor alone. Another man who was under the influence of drink all the time and very quarrelsome and troublesome among his people is now one of the most respected and respectful men I have in my parish. Your absence from the Service would be a great loss to the In dians, all of whom consider you the best friend they have. It will be a loss to me in many ways, as you have helped my people where others failed. Every man in Washington who knows of your work cannot but admit that in accepting your resignation the Indian Service loses the best man it ever had. In view of all this I beg you to reconsider the matter and recall your resignation. Such men as you are too scarce, we cannot afford to lose a single one. Very sincerely yours, REV. G. HAELTERMAN, (Missionary Priest in charge of the Parish of Santa Cruz.) AN INDIAN APPRECIATION Espanola, N. M., Sept. 19, 1911. MR. W. E. JOHNSON, Chief Special Officer, U. S. I. S., Denver, Colo. DEAR SIR: The Pueblo of Santa Clara, mindful of its regenera tion through your efforts, most cordially invites you to be its guest for as long a time as you will -enjoy it. Horses, saddles, guns, guides and tents, with the best rations at your command, will be provided you as long as you can make use of them. We hope you will come to us and go to the mountains for a much needed rest. All w>e have is yours now and always. This is but small pay for the manhood you have re stored to this village by stopping the liquor traffic here. We know yon helped us at the price of your position. No other man in the Indian Service would have risked his head by staying with us and saving the life of Juan Cruz. You may go down in apparent defeat before the whisky ring at Washington but in the Hearts of a quarter of a million American Indians, you are a hero. There is probably not one of this great number but what has come under the influence of your work. Come and be a good Indian with us. Very sincerely, THE COUNCIL OE SANTA CLARA, By VlCTORIANO SlSNEROS, Acting Governor. THANKS FROM THE JUAN CRUZ DEFENSE COMMITTEE Tierra Amarilla, N. M., June 21, 1911. COMMISSIONER INDIAN AEEAIRS, Washington, D. C. Juan Cruz today declared Federal officer in the discharge of his duty, when he killed Garcia, February fourth, McFie rendering opinion. We desire to thank you for assistance of Chief Special Officer Johnson. His service in this case cannot be too enthusiastically described. Not only did he save the Indian, but he secured from the Court a decision which will go down in the legal history of New Mexico for the pro- 32 THE STORY or JTAN CKUZ. tection of future operations by Indian Office employes engaged in the suppression of the liquor traffic. MARY T. BRYAN, Secretary, Juan Cruz Defense Committee. RESOLUTIONS ADOPTED AT THE TERRITORIAL CONVENTION OF THE NEW MEXICO W. C. T. U., AT LAS VEGAS, N. M., OCTOBER 19, 20, 21, 1911 Be it resolved, That this convention congratulates the Indians of Santa Clara Pueblo on their attitude in the liquor suppression ques tion and commends that village for its splendid record of nearly 300 Indians who have become total abstainers through the reform move ment instituted in New Mexico by Chief Special Officer of the Indian Bureau, W. E. Johnson. We deplore the present conditions of the liquor suppression de partment of the new state, resulting from official departmental hin drances, and an effort to sustain in position over the Indians, men of notorious character and men directly interested in the unlawful sale of liquor. We deem the matter of sufficient importance to warrant the wid est publicity of our sentiments and shall supply to the officials in charge of Indian Affairs, the Secretary of the Interior, and the Chair man of the Indian Committee in the House and Senate, copies of this resolution. JOHNSON DEFIES HIS PERSECUTORS [TELEGRAM] Santa Fe, N. M., Oct. 10, 1911. VALENTINE, Indian Office, Washington, D. C. Yesterday the booze interests here had a very good inning. Super intendent Crandall had me in jail for several hours. I had to get an order from the District Court t>efore the Sheriff would accept a thou sand dollar bond from sureties who were able to qualify in more than two hundred thousand dollars. The Woman's Christian Temperance Union furnished the bail pending habeas corpus proceedings. Hun dreds of the politicians' cattle are in possession of the Santa Clara Indian lands and the Indian Office refuses to interfere. You are de priving these Indians of their means of livelihood for political graft's sake. I am ready to go to jail as often and for as long as the Indian Office and the liquor interests desire if it will help remedy these out rages that the Indian administration is inflicting upon these defence less people. You can't make me suffer as much as you have already caused these Indians to suffer. WTT.T.TAM TV Jhnmtmitioii for the Campaign of Supplied by Cbe American finance Che Great, Progressive, Prohibition Weekly "American Advance" is the great voice of the cen tury's forward movement. If you wish to be informed on every news topic con nected with the war on the liquor traffic Subscribe for it Now! The regular subscription price is $1.50 per year; but a fund raised for campaign purposes enables the publishers to offer it to the readers of "The Story of Juan Cruz" for ONE DOLLAR A YEAR | "American Advance" is published at the headquarters and under the direct supervision of the Prohibition National Committee. It has the entire service of the National Prohibition Press news gathering resources. Remit, payable to Hmevican Hbvance 106 n. Ca Sail* Street : : : , Cfticago, HI. ...... HERBERT A. CBY ^\. 31 WASHINGTON, D. C.