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.. The ... 

Story of Juan Cruz 



Former Chief Special Officer of the 
United States Indian Service 


"If thou faint in the days of adversity, thy strength 
is small. If thou forbear to deliver them that are 
drawn unto death, and those that are ready to be 
slain; if thou sayest, Behold we knew it not; doth 
not He that ponder eth the heart consider it? and he 
that keepeth my soul, doth He not know it? and shall 
not He render to every man according to his works," 
-PROVERBS, XXIV: 10-12. 


Montezuma was born in Pecos pueblo. He rode southward 
on the back of an eagle, followed by the people. Wherever he 
alighted for the night, a pueblo was built. At the last stop, 
the eagle alighted on a cactus bush and was devoured by a 
snake. On this spot the City of Mexico was built. 

In these pueblos or villages, for many centuries, something 
like six thousand Indians have lived. They are a happy, trust 
ful, poetic, religious people, full of human sympathy, full of 
mysticism. They wove cotton cloth before America was dis 
covered. They built Christian churches of their own before 
the Mayflower arrived. They constructed mills and ground 
their corn. Their houses are now and always have been equal 
or superior in cleanliness, in their substantial character, to 
those of their American or Mexican neighbors. 

These villagers, with their herds and fields, lived in com 
munion with spiritual things. In the Moon of the Shearing, 
they harvested their wool. In the Planting Time of the Corn, 
the seeds were covered, with ceremony and prayer. The 
Reader of the Stars of Puye interpreted the Heavens. When 
the Sun went on the South Trail, the priest of the Winter Clan 
got out his ceremonial bowl and repaired to the Kiva, there to 
commune with the Ruler of Magic. They wooed the Maid of 
the Corn Silk Hair. They lived, married, and gave in mar 
riage until there approached the Shadows at the End of the 
Trail, always with faith in the Great Mystery. 

To FRIENDS OF THE INDIANS. While this pamphlet is for gratuitous 
distribution, the actual cost of printing, binding and mailing is 
about four cents each in ten thousand lots. Friends wishing 
to aid in protecting these. Indians are invited to send in lists of 
addresses of any size together with four cents for each name to 
cover the expense. Or send in a check for as many pamphlets 
as desired and they will be mailed to clergy lists, "Who's Who" 
lists, etc. It is hoped that a situation may be created whereby 
it will be impossible for another such series of outrages to be in 
flicted upon a dependent people for a generation to come. 

Address : William E. Johnson, Laurel, Maryland. 




And when the Priests of the White God came from the 
South, bearing aloft the Cross, the people believed, and, with 
their own hands, built Christian churches, churches that are 
still standing as the chief thing in the village life, though two 
hundred and fifty years have passed. 


It is of one of these pueblos, that of Santa Clara, the most 
progressive of them all, that this narrative chiefly relates. In 
1689 the Spanish Crown granted this pueblo a "league" of 
land surrounding their church, comprising 17,368 acres. The 
title of this was confirmed by Act of Congress, Dec. 22, 1858, 
and is still held by the Indians, except some small tracts that 
they have sold from time to time, and some huge tracts that 
they have been juggled out of through the maladministration 
of the U. S. Indian officials in New Mexico. Of this, about 
eight thousand acres were stolen from the Indians in one deal. 
Eighteen years ago, one Smith induced the Santa Clara In 
dians to sign what they supposed to be a right of way for a 
road through the land. When the paper turned up for record, 
in later years, it proved to be a deed to all of the Pueblo lands 
East of the Rio Grande River, comprising about eight thou 
sand acres. Smith transferred the land to one Hobart, who 
claimed to be an "innocent purchaser." On account of pro 
tests, Judge William H. Pope, as attorney for the Indians, 
filed suit to set aside the deed. But Judge Pope was trans 
ferred to the Philippines, and A. J. Abbott was appointed as 
attorney for the Pueblo Indians in his stead. 



For seven years the Santa Clara Indians have clamored for 
the reopening of the suit. It was not until the complaints be 
gan to become public that F. S. Wilson, the present attorney 
for the Pueblo Indians, would consent to apply for the reopen 
ing of the case. And when he did "reopen" it, he forgot to 
set up the only grounds upon which he could reasonably hope 
to win the ground of "fraud." 

E. C. Abbott, a son of A. J. Abbott, then became attorney 
for the Hobart interests. Wilson did not wish to set up the 
ground of "fraud" because it might "hurt Abbott's feelings." 
Last May, after the investigations of Inspector Shelby M. 
Sineleton (whose report is carefully 'Concealed in the Interior 
Department), criticisms led to the introduction of fraud as a 


basis for the suit. Abbott was the special counsel employed 
by unknown parties to assist in the prosecution of Juan Cruz. 
He has since been elected District Judge, and the Hobart claim 
will come up in his court for adjudication. 


On July 19, 1763, Gov. Tomas Velez Cachupin, upon the 
representations of Padre Mariano Rodriquez de la Terre, 
made an additional grant to the Santa Clara Pueblo of " the 
whole of the Valley of. Santa Clara, which runs westward as 
for as the mountains, and in which is situated the tract of land 
granted to Juan and Antonio Tafoya, and in it no settler shall 
be allowed or any grant made." The Tafoya grants mentioned 
were conditional grants. The conditions were not observed, 
and the grants were later cancelled. 'Under the Cachupin 
grant, settlers were frequently removed and the Indians pro 
tected in their rights. This grant was confirmed by the Court 
of Private Land Claims, in 1894, and was commonly supposed 
to consist of about ninety thousand acres of land. 

Then there followed eight years of legal surveys and 
squabbling over the interpretation of the "valley" or Canada of 
Santa Clara. Early in the administration of Superintendent 
Crandall, the canwda was judicially determined to mean the 
"canon" of Santa Clara River, and the ninety thousand acres 
of land dwindled to about nine hundred acres, which were 
patented to the Indians. "God gave us the land, but the 
United States surveyed us out of it," explained the venerable 
and beloved Francisco Naranjo. 

The outcry of the Indians at this loss of their lands reached 
the ears of Frances E. Leupp, who was then Commissioner. 
Through the efforts of Mr. Leupp, a portion of these lands, 
amounting to about 30,000 acres, were restored to the Indians 
in the form of an "Executive Order" Indian Reservation, at 
the hands of President Roosevelt. 

"Rut the Indians were not destined to get the benefit of even 
this Executive Order land. Through the manipulation of 
Superintendent Crandall, a "deal" with the Forest Service 
by which the cattle of American and Mexicans grazing on the 
Jemez Forest Reserve, were to be permitted to water in the 
Santa Clara River, within the Santa Clara lands. In lieu of 
this, the various pueblos were to be allowed to graze two 
thousand head of cattle on the Jemez Forest Reserve. 

The way this deal worked out under Crandall's adminis 
tration was this : 

T. The Indian cattle on the Forest Reserve would habitu 
ally "disappear." The cattle did not "disappear" on anv 
other range, so the Indian? were thus forced to withdraw their 


cattle from the Jemez Forest range, and even from their own 
'Executive Order reservation, and pasture their cattle where 
they could, many of them hiring pasturage of private land 

2. The American and Mexican politicians, under color of 
this "deal," took possession of the Indian thirty-thousand-acre 
reservation and also of their fee simple lands, and held pos 
session for seven years without compensation to the Indians. 

Again and again did the Indians complain. Again and 
again did the priest of the parish, Father Haelterman protest. 
Seven months ago Commissioner Valentine tr\ei to correct 
the injustice, but was balked by the Department intrigues of 
Assistant Commissioner Abbott. Both Singleton and myself 
personally pleaded with Abbott in behalf of the Indians. One 
friend of the Indians personally pleaded with Assistant Sec 
retary Adams, but the only reply of Adams was : "Oh hell ; 
there are- a lot of white and Mexican cattlemen down there 
whose interests we have got to consider as well as the 

Adams sustained Crandall and Abbott in their manoeuvers 
to keep the cattle on the land as late :as September. On Octo 
ber first, I left the Government service and exposed this 
outrage in the newspapers. The Department thereupon per 
mitted Commissioner Valentine to hurry down to New Mexico 
and order the cattle driven off. In this act, the outcries of the 
Indians for seven years were justified. It required seven 
years of protests an-d finally a public scandal to induce the 
Department to correct this robbery. 


In the meantime, the Indians began accusing Superinten 
dent Crandall of selling whisky illegally at his drug store iri 
Santa Fe. They worked up evidence in three good cases 
against the store and tried to get indictments from the grand 
jury. The foreman of the grand jury was a partner with 
Crandall in the drug store. The District Attorney is the 
attorney for the Hobart land interests against the Indians and 
was the one employed by interested parties to assist in the 
prosecution of Juan Cruz in Rio Arriba County. The In 
dians naturally got no indictments against Crandall's store. 

This, together with complaints about their being plundered 
of their lands, enraged Superintendent Crandall and he started 
out on a campaign of revenge. He proposed to the Indian 
Office as a "punishment" for the Santa Clara Indians that 
they be deprived of their Executive Order reservation, that 
some additional land be added and that the whole amount be 
created into an Executive Order reservation for the benefit 


of all of the Tehuas Indians, of which the Santa Claras are 
but a small part. Assistant Commissioner Abbott promptly 
got in behind the plot to plunder the Santa Claras, but he was 
crafty enough to not call it a "punishment." He put on his 
benevolent face and solemnly talked about his scheme to "be 
nefit the Pueblo Indians by getting them more land." The 
plot was tantamount to a proposal to rob the Irish of their do 
main and give the land to the Scotch for the benefit of the 
United Kingdom. Abbott had this plunder scheme nearly 
through the Interior Department when it was temporarily 
blocked through the efforts of -Inspector Singleton. 

Eight years ago, there came to the Santa Clara Pueblo, as 
"government housekeeper," Mrs. Francis D. True, the widow 
of a Confederate Army officer. Her daughter, Clara D. True, 
was installed as "teacher" in the Government Indian school. 
It was a "grass-hopper year," and Indian crops were well-nigh 
nil. The following winter, came a dreadful epidemic of 
diphtheria of the most malignant type. Within two weeks one- 
tenth of the entire village died. Fourteen children out of the 
Indian school were buried. In a frenzy of terror, the Indians 
drove away the doctor. The military were appealed to, but 
refused to take a hand because the Indians were "citizens." 
The Territorial Board of Health refused aid because the In 
dians were "not citizens." Superintendent Crandall, who dis 
played -great energy in keeping away from the danger zone, 
finally wired Miss True to do the best she could. 

For two weeks, no white person came to the village except 
Father Haelterman, the devoted parish priest. In that time. 
Mrs. True and her daughter renovated and fumigated sixty 
Indian homes every house in the village. They burned the 
old bedding and blankets. They pacified and comforted the 
Indians. They purchased on their own credit new bedding, 
new blankets, disinfectants, groceries and supplies. They 
stamped out the epidemic. Crandall did not come till "the 
grass came," the Indians tell me. 

Then Miss True sought Superintendent Crandall's aid in 
inducing the Gjovernment to re-imburse her for the bedding, 
blankets and supplies purchased during the epidemic. He flat 
ly refused. "You had no authority to make those purchases." 
he angrily declared, "and I will just make an example of you 
for exceeding your authority in this way; you will have to pay 
for those things yourself." 

And for two years Mother True and her daughter set aside 
a portion of their salary each month in paying- these bills on 
the installment plan. 


Out of this warp and woof was woven the devotion that has 
since existed on the part of these Indians for their fornu-r 
teacher, Clara D. True, a devotion that has been perfected and 
amplified in a thousand different acts during the eight years that 
have followed. "Miss True is the only sister that I have," 
said old Francisco Xaranjo to me one day as a big tear trick 
led down the furrows of his swarthy face. "I want to maka da 
straight way for my people, and you and Miss True must show 
me how," said Governor Santiago to me one morning after 
we 'had spent the night together, rolled in the same blanket, up 
in a mountain canon. "As long as I live, Senora True will be 
my mother," said Leandro Tafoya to me one day, while I was 
trying to help him locate the boundaries of the new village 
school grounds. Leandro will be ninety-one years old next 
February, and is twenty-five years older thas his "mother." 

Last July, in Santa Clara Canon, the flood tore out all the 
Indian farms that the Mexican cattle had not destroyed. Stock 
was drowned and orchards wiped out. Mrs. True and her 
daughter, with their friend, Mary T. Bryan, at once gave nec 
essary immediate supplies to relieve distress and put a dozen 
of the Indian men at work on their ranch at good wages, as a 
relief measure. The representatives of the Interior Depart 
ment, with almost superhuman intelligence, as a relief meas 
ure, benevolently offered to sell the Indians some government 
barbed wire at fifty cents per bale more than the market price, 
and take the pay for it in work. 


Two years ago I began operating among these Pueblos in 
divers ways, all looking to the rooting out of the liquor traffic 
which was playing havoc among them. I had made previous 
attempts working in connection with Superintendent Crandall, 
but obtained no results. The Indians would have nothing to 
do with any of my deputies who worked in connection with 
Crandall, for whom they had a deep-seated hatred. 

I then sent into the field, Harold F. Coggeshall and employ 
ed to assist him. as my deputies. Miss True and Perdo Baca. 
the latter an influential, earnest. Pueblo Indian, who had been 
educated by the Jesuit Fathers. Results came in rapid suc 
cession. The Indians by the score flocked to the total abstin 
ence standard, as well as began assisting in securing evidence 
against persons guilty of selling liquor to Indians. In this, 
the Santa Clara Tnd ; ans took the lead. Out of nearlv three 
hundred of these Indians, only three or four are left who 
drink. The Santa Clara men became crusaders. They con 
verted almost the whole village of San Tldefonso. They sent 
missionaries to Cochiti. to Picuris. to Jemez, to San Juan, to 


Iseleta and other Pueblos. They formed a total abstinence 
society, adopted a badge consisting of a silver arrow, and 
practically the whole village enlisted. They sent a delegation 
of four Indians to the recent W. C. T. U. Convention at Las 
Vegas, where they made addresses in Spanish before the 
Convention, before the Y. M. C. A., and before the Normal 
University. They formed a Federation which now comprise? 
practically every Indian Pueblo in New Mexico, the chief pur 
poses of which are to cut out the liquor traffic and to endeavor 
to protect themselves from the land and pasturage robberies 
that were being inflicted upon them. The Chief of the Federa 
tion is Francisco Naranjo, the most influential of all Pueblo 
Indians. Last spring, the Indians saw that which they had 
done was "good." So they set apart a day in celebration. 
Arrayed in fantastic attire, they 'gave their historic dance in 
honor of the "Return of Virtue," a ceremonial which is never 
given except in honor of some great event that has wrought 
great benefits to the life of the people. Hundreds of Indian- 
participated in this great event, Pedro Baca being the "Master 
of Ceremonies/' 


Among the early recruits to this band was Juan Cruz, a 
young Indian Sir Galahad from Pueblo San Juan. Cruz had 
the spirit of a crusader. He was devoted to his church, to 
his young wife Dolorita, and to their baby Jose. Little Jose is 
said to be the first Indian child ever christened in the Espano- 
la Valley without wine. A year ago, Assistant Chief Cogge- 
shall had made Juan a deputy posseman in my name and em 
ployed him on various occasions to assist, sometimes in dis 
tant Pueblos. I paid Juan officially for these services. 

In the midst of these activities. Supt. Crandall advised the 
rough, drunken Indians that my deputies had no ''authority" 
and that no attention should be paid to them. Under the in 
spiration of that advice, four rough Indians of bad character, 
attacked Juan Cruz, while he was in the act of taking a bottle 
of whisky which the leader, Dolores Garcia had just pur 
chased. The Indians beat Juan with stones and clubs, mashing 
in his mouth and loosening two of his teeth. Juan drew his 
revolver and in defense of his life, fired into the darkness, the 
bullet hitting Garcia who died an hour later. 

Cruz was arrested and held to the grand jury. n charge of 
murder in the first degree, conviction for which, under New 
Mexico law, could be nothing less than death. Superintendent 
Crandall sent in a hostile telegram to the Indian Office. To 
a telegram of inquiry from the Indian Office. I replied : 


Santa Fe, N. M.,Feb. 7, 1911. 
INDIAN OFFICE, Washington, D. C. 

Your wire yesterday re Cruz shooting. Crandall misinformed 
about Cruz claiming to be policeman appointed by Miss True. Last 
fall he aided Coggeshall as posse. At present time he was acting 
under instructions Governor of Santa Clara Pueblo. Santa Clara and 
other Pueblos have banded together to eliminate liquor on their own 
motion and their attempt to do this led to shooting. I regarded it best 
to withhold defense for present. Drew out prosecution and Cruz was 
held without bail. 


I had just reached Santa Fe and the information that I 
gathered quickly was chiefly from Supt. Crandall and F. S. 
Wilson, attorney for the Pueblo Indians. Upon later and 
personal investigation, I found their information to be un 
reliable and worthless. I had not yet ascertained the part that 
my regular commissioned deputies played in events leading 
up to the tragedy. Attorney Wilson advised me that a non 
commissioned employee in suppressing the liquor traffic among 
Indians was not a "deputy" de jure. But whether he 
was a de jure deputy or not, it was clear that he was acting in 
good faith and I felt it my duty to stand behind the boy to the 
last ditch. I was, therefore, astounded at receiving the fol 
lowing telegram from Assistant 'Commissioner Abbot order 
ing me to abandon the boy to his fate : 

Washington, D. C., Feb. 9, 1911. 
JOHNSON, Special Officer, Care Supt. Perry, 

Albuquerque, N. M. 

Your telegram seventh, Cruz shooting. Since Cruz not authorized 
Government employee your service, take no steps regarding his de 
fense. Consult Supt. Crandall and give him all information in your 

ABBOTT, Assistant Commissioner. 

There were no living witnesses to the shooting except the 
three living assailants, all of whom swore at the preliminary 
hearing that the shooting was entirely unprovoked. 

I could not see the boy go to the gallows undefended. I 
appealed to Crandall to do something. He complacently re 
ported to me that "all the facts had come out at the hearing" 
and that nothing could be done except to work on the sym 
pathies of the Judge. 

I appealed to Wilson, but he refused to undertake the defense 
unless he received an extra fee. He later tried to manipulate 
the affair so that the Juan Cruz Defense Committee would 
employ his law partner. And when the proposition was turned 
down, Wilson wrote me kindly that Cruz would have to "take 
his medicine." 


I then went to the ladies of the Woman's Christian Temper 
ance Union, at Sante Fe, and laid the life of the boy at their 
feet, telling them frankly the situation. They quickly formed 
the Juan Cruz Defense Committee and sent out circulars ap 
pealing for funds with which to employ counsel for the Indian. 
In the meantime, I took the matter up personally with Com 
missioner Valentine. Then came in angry protests at the 
brutal action of Assistant Abbott. Commissioner Valentine 
acted quickly, overruling the order of Assistant Ab1>ott, in the 
following telegram : 

Washington, D. C.. March 23, 1911. 
JOHNSON, Special Officer, Denver, Colo. 

Office telegram February 9, concerning Cruz shooting, hereby re 
voked. Help in his fullest possible protection every way in your power. 

VALENTINE, Commissioner. 

I shall never forget the patient, earnest, devoted work of 
the Juan Cruz Defense Committee, consisting of : Mrs. H. M. 
Byrd, Santa Fe, N. M. ; Mrs. Katherine B. Patterson, Santa 
Fe, N. M.; Mary T. Bryan, Espanola, N. M., and Clara D. 
True, Espanola, N. M. 

Mrs. Patterson, who acted as the Treasurer of the Defense 
Committee, is also Superintendent of the Department of Sys 
tematic Giving, of the National W. C. T. U. 

From the first. Assistant Commissioner Abbott schemed to 
discredit the work of this committee, sending out letters and 
telegrams intimating that the women were collecting funds 
under false pretenses. He even brazenly denied sending me 
the telegram of February 9. On May 20 he telegraphed Laura 
Stone Power, of Redlands, Acting President of the California 
Indian Association : 

Replying to your telegram of the i8th inst. No instructions were 
ever issued to Chief Officer Johnson forbidding him to help in the pro 
tection of Juan Cruz, the Indian murderer. 

In addition to denying that he had sent me the telegram of 
February 9, Abbott, on the even of the trial, \va> officially 
branding the boy as an "Indian murderer." 

The Defense Committee employed J. H. Crist of Sante Fe. 
one of the ablest criminal lawyers in New Mexico as counsel 
for the Indian. At the request of Commissioner Valentine, 
the Department of Justice instructed United States Attorney 
David J. Leahy, of Las Vegas, to assist in the defense 
Commissioner Valentine also ordered F. S. Wilson, attorney 
for the Pueblo Indians, to assist. This is the "assistance" 
Wilson rendered: 


1. For two days he endeavored to induce me to advise 
Cruz to plead guilty to murder in the second degree and go 
to the penitentiary. Apparently his object to justify the 
distorted reports of the case that he had been sending to 

2. He spent much of. his time .around the street corners 
abusing the trial judge, applying violent epithets to him. 

3. On the crucial day of the trial, when Juan was freed, 
Wilson was off fishing ,and knew nothing of what was go 
ing on. 

4. After the trial, Wilson marshaled the witnesses for the 
prosecution at Santa Fe and tried to get Cruz re-indicted in 
the Federal Court on charge of murder for the same offense. 
His diabolical scheme was blocked by United States Attorney 
Leahy, who refused to allow Wilson to take the witnesses be 
fore the grand jury. 

In preparing the case for trial, I felt the opposition of 
Superintendent Crandall. I desired to use as a character wit 
ness, one of his teachers, a most estimable lady, who was 
especially well qualified' as such witness and eager to serve. 
She Pegged of me to excuse her and I did excuse her, on the 
ground that she was fearful of Crandall's vengeance upon 
her if she aided in the defense of Cruz. 

After a week's fight in the court, in which unknown inter 
ests employed special counsel to assist in the prosecution, Judge 
John R. McFie ruled that at the time of the shooting Cruz 
was employed as a Federal officer in the discharge of his 
duty and, as such, was not answerable to the Territorial Court 
for an offense committed while in the discharge of his duty. 

We had a complete defense for the boy aside from this, 
which defense, it was not necessary to present to the jury. 
Much of the details of this defense Mr. Crist and myself kept 
from the knowledge of Attorney Wilson, fearing treachery. 

Systematic attempts have been made and are being made 
by agents of the Interior Department to blacken and discredit 
every one who has made an attempt to protect these Pueblo 
Indians. Agents of the Department caused me to be thrown 
into jail on my last trip to Slanta Fe on a fake charge of crim 
inal libel. I was seized at breakfast and hurried before a 
Mexican Justice of the Peace, a friend of Crandall's, who 
promptly held me to the grand jury under bonds of $3,000. 
I went to jail and at once sued out a writ of habeas corpus 
in the District Court where I was promptly released, the 
Court holding that there was no evidence to warrant the pro 
ceedings. Then I was sued for one Ir.mrlred thousand dollars 


damages on account of some of these exposures, the complain 
ant being Clinton J. Crandall who divides time between selling 
whisky at Santa Fe and teaching Indian children at the Gov 
ernment school. For two months Mr. Abbott has been trying 
to find some way to hold up my accounts for expenses incurred 
in the defense. of Cruz in spite of the fact that the law office of 
the Indian Office has given their opinion that the expenditures 
incurred in this matter were legal. There seems to be no limit 
to the wrath of the Department at my successful defense in 
this case. 

In addition to the various assaults on me, agents of the De 
partment of the Interior have been making a great variety of 
attacks upon the ladies of the Juan Cruz Defense Committee. 
These attacks have ranged all the wiay from circulating lying 
whisperings against their integrity to bringing fake litigation 
against Miss True, and even to Superintendent Crandall's re 
peatedly cutting the barb-ware fences of Mrs. Byrd's ranch. 
For this he narrowly escaped indictment at the hands of the 
grand jury; the foreman of the grand jury was Crandall's 
partner in the liquor selling drug store. 

Prior to the trial, both Wilson and Crandall used every 
effort to involve Miss True in a crime by trying to prove that 
she furnished the revolver with which the shooting was done. 
Wilson even reported to Washington on February 14, "Mr. 
Crandall and I have not given up hope in connecting her 
with the matter in such a way as to punish her as she deserves." 
This is apparently one reason why these men wanted Cruz 
convicted, as a preliminary to some sort of a prosecution 
against one of the best friends of the Indians. A little later, 
while I was in Washington, one of the most important of 
ficials of the Indian Office asked me if I could "not conjure up 
some sort of a criminal prosecution against Miss True so she 
will keep her mouth shut." 

In striking contrast to the operations of this Departmental 
crew of wriggling, squirming, sword-swallowers, there stands 
silhouetted against the horizon of the situation the character 
of this Indian boy. When he was in the penetentiary waiting 
trial, I visited him with Mr. Crist, to discuss the case. Otae 
statement had been misinterpreted to us, making it appear that 
Itian was contradicting some statement of the state's witnesses 
in a trivial matter. Mr. Crist made a casual remark that the 
unnecessary contradiction made it more difficult for us. Mr. 
Crist's remark, not intended for Juan, was interpreted to him. 
Quick as a flash came back the retort, "I will tell the truth if 
they hang me for it." Later, when the trial was over, and he 
was free, the Indian said. "I knew it would come out this way. 


I was doing God's work and the whole matter was in His 

The next day, Juan, as he started home with Dolorita and 
Baby Jose, threw his arms around me in a farewell greeting. 
I felt then, as I feel now, that all of my work in his behalf was 
not in vain, that any vengeance which the Interior Depart 
ment and the liquor fraternity might inflict upon me could not 
make me suffer as much as th^e. Santa Clara Indians have suf 
fered because of this decade of maladministration by the worst 
plunderbund that has disgraced good government since the 
days of William M. Tweed. 

The night the trial closed, and Juan was set free, the In 
dians came to Miss True. "I knew that Scnor Johnson would 
bring Juan back to us. We have all been praying every 
night," said Valentine Naranjo, devoutly baring his head. 

At the recent Convention of the Society of American In 
dians, formed at Columbus, O., Tom L. Sloan, a Winnebago 
Indian, voiced Indian sentiment when he said : "What we 
want is for the Department to send us Superintendents who 
are at least honest, and who are as capable of managing the 
affairs of the Indians as the Indians are themselves." 

The Reader of the Stars of Ptiye is doing the best he can to 
find where the end of it is. 


Laurel, Md. December, 9, 1911 
Hori. Samuel Adams, 

Assistant Secretary of the Interior, 

Washington, D. C. 
My dear Mr. Secretary : 

I have to reply to your letter of the 29th. ult. 

On October 29th, Secretary Fisher gave out to the news 
papers at Washington a statement that I preferred to resign my 
position as Chief Special Officer of the United States Indian 
Service ''rather than meet certain definite charges against him." 
These clippings were called to my attention in the far West. 
Inasmuch as no charges whatever had been preferred against 
me which I refused to meet, I wrote the Secretary on Novem 
ber nth, requesting a copy of the alleged charges to which he 
referred, that I might make a defense thereto. 

Your reply dated November 29th is a general roast of thir 
teen pages in which is mixed argument, innuendo, imputation, 
vituperation and some definite statements. I will assort the 
definite statements from the mess as best I can and make reply 

First, permit me to inquire : If definite charges had been 
presented to me and that I resigned rather than to meet them, 
what business had you as an administrative officer to accept 
my resignation which I have in my possession signed by your 
own hand. Outside of the Interior Department, the acceptance 
of a resignation is regarded as a clean bill of health. I waiv 
ed my rights in this matter and invited you to file any charges 
that you might conjure up after you had accepted my resigna 
tion, and to make them public if you desired. 

Your attention is called to the fact that on September 17, 
after I had handed in my resignation, you yourself gave out 
to the newspaper correspondents a statement that "no fault 
had been found with Mr. Johnson's integrity or his character." 
You also complimented my service. 

Your attention is also invited to the fact that only a few days 
prior to the giving out of Mr. Fisher's interview, he himself 
definitely stated to Clara D. True, while she was his guest on 


Treasurer of the Juan Cruz Defense Committee and Superintendent 

of the Department of Systematic Giving of the 

National W. C. T. U. 

his private car through New Mexico, that there were no 
charges against me at all. I herewith submit a letter from 
Miss True. 

Espanola, New Mexico, October 25, 1911. 

Denver, Colorado. 

The recent statement of Hon. Walter Fisher in the press that you 
resigned rather than face "certain definite charges", seems so peculiar 
in the light of my late conversation with Mr. Fisher, that I have 
written him for fuller information. 

In his private car en route from the Pacific coast to Washington 
not long ago, I called upon him and by invitation rode with him a dis 
tance between Albuquerque and Lamy Junction. Mr. Fisher seemed 
troubled by your resignation which he said he had not expected, or 
desired, and that there zvere no charges against you. The situation is 
peculiar. Someone has blundered. Very sincerely, 



After 1 announced my intention to resign, and after you 
knew it, an emissary came to me from your office stating that 
you were willing to accept my resignation provided I would 
go away and ''keep my mouth shut." 1 replied, in substance: 

"I will agree to no such thing. I am going out a free man. 
I prefer to be dismissed, and want to be dismissed. If you 
don't dismiss me today, I shall resign today." You failed to 
dismiss me and I resigned and you accepted my resignation. 

Your account of the "conference"' preceding my resignation 
is a very good burlesque of the facts. It is true that I was 
called to Washington by you. About an hour before the con 
ference, a politician and office-holder who is intimately con 
nected with the Interior Department officials asked me by tele 
phone to meet him at the Metropolitan Hotel. He said to me : 

''I have inside information from the Interior De 
partment as to what is wanted of you. You ar,e get 
ting too many convictions and it is causing trouble. 
They are just going to raise hell with you today and 
try and hammer you into a frame of mind whereby 
you will be willing to go to sleep on your job." 

I was ushered in your presence without any specific infor 
mation as to what was wanted. You were seated at a large 
flat-top desk around which were three 'other officials and on 
which was a large pile of papers and documents. You would 
not allow me to sit at the desk where I could examine or refer 
to the papers. You twice savagely ordered me to sit in a chair 
some distance from the desk. For two and a half hours you 
inquisitors took turns in a fusilade of rapid-fire questions to 
me. The questions involved a great multiplicity of small items 
and expenditures, legal decisions, technical authorities and re 
cords, and my records were a thousand miles away. I had 
nearly a hundred men in the field, all spending money, and I 
had approximately nine hundred different criminal cases pend 
ing on the dockets. Many of your questions were insulting, 
insinuating and accompanied with sneers. There was plenty 
of innuendo in your questioning, but no "'charges'' of any sort 
were presented to me, and my 'attention was called to no 
"'charges" of any kind or character, an;l ymi \vell know it. 
The first charges that have been called to my attention are con 
tained in your letter of November 29th. The only paper of 
any kind that I was allowed to examine at the conference \vu- 
an affidavit of George Anton, in which he swore to receiving 
three dollars from me and that he did not know what it was 
for. There was no charge in connection with the matter. You 
asked me to sav what T had to sav re^anlin^' the affidavit "at 


my convenience.'' I complied about a week later. I deal with 
this matter later in this letter. Your whole course during this 
"third degree" performance fully confirmed the advance infor 
mation that I received in the Metropolitan Hotel as to your 
real purposes. 

You make a specious argument of four pages in an effort to 
prove that I was "insubordinate" in matters growing out of 
certain New Mexico complications. The real story of this 
matter is this : OKving to long continues abuses of your de 
partment in New Mexico, the six thousand Pueblo Indians had 
been compelled to form a Federation in order to protect them 
selves against the maladministration of your office, a scandal 
of years standing. The Indians complained because you em 
ployed a liquor dealer as their Superintendent, and accused 
him of selling liquor illegally. They had numerous other 
grievances which were habitually ignored by your office. Be 
cause they complained, your agents went out on a campaign 
of "punishment." Mr. Abbott withheld approval of all my 
deputy appointments in New Mexico, nearly all of whom were 
Indians. The District Court came on at Albuquerque and the 
Federal Court at Santa Fe. I wished to prosecute one Jesus 
Castellano for selling liquor to two of my Indian deputies. 
The District Attorney would not pay their witness fees be 
cause they lived outside of the county at a distance. I had no 
authority to pay them anything except as deputies, and you 
held up their appointments, thus blocking the prosecution of 

I desired to prosecute in the Federal Court, Claro Marino, 
who was peddling whisky to Indians under the guise of ped 
dling vegetables. I had already instituted prosecutions against 
her in the Territorial Courts. It was necessary to employ an 
Indian deputy to run down some witnesses. I could not do 
this because you would not allow me to employ such deputy. 
In this way you blocked the prosecution of both of these cases. 

I also desired to employ an Indian deputy to assist the Dis 
trict Attorney and constable as interpreter and scout in pre 
senting to the Grand Jury half a dozen cases which had been 
bound over in the Justice Court at my instigation. You would 
not allow such employment, and five of the six cases were 
saved only because the Indians loyally came to the rescue and 
did the work unofficially and without compensation. 

As these events were developing, I took this situation up 
with you by wire, and you still refused to allow me to employ 
the Indians, but ordered me to send a Special Officer. The 
nearest officer was exactly 1007 miles away, and all the officers 
were engaged on other urgent work. It would require an ex 
penditure of several hundreds of dollars to comply with your 


order, and the officer could not do the work needed in any 
event, as they could not interpret. They could not employ in 
terpreters because you have never given me authority to em 
ploy interpreters. I have always used deputies as interpreters, 
and you had blocked my employment of deputies in New Mex 
ico, thus blocking my use of interpreters there. 

1 tried to explain this to you again, asking if you desired 
me to abandon the cases. I stated that if you insisted I could 
send a Special Officer. You wired me to place a Special Officer 
ai: your disposal for New Mexico operations, and 1 promptly 
did so ; but even then you did not send the officer whom I had 
placed at your disposal for this purpose. You thereby blocked 
the prosecution of both the Castellano and Marino cases and 
jeopardized the prosecution in all the other cases. 

These tactics of yours are by no means new to me. By simi 
lar intrigues your department has blocked my prosecutions in 
something like 250 cases of various sorts during the past two 

Aside from the interfering with the successful prosecution 
of these cases, your purpose manifestly was to trick me into a 
color of "insubordination." If I had not suspended the opera 
tions of the New Mexico deputies, whose appointments you had 
refused to approve, you would have had me on the carpet for 
"insubordination" ; now you accuse me of "insubordination" 
because I DID suspend their operations. Apparently you were 
determined to get me going or coming. 

You charge : 

"Including in the moneys paid out by you at the 
time of the defence of Juan Cruz, was $61 paid to 
Pedro Baca as a posseman, in the face of the fact that, 
by Department telegram of February 18, 1911, you 
were directed to terminate the employment of Pedro 
Baca who had been formerly employed by you as a 
special deputy officer." 

It is true that Baca's activities in suppressing the liquor 
traffic among Indians, and his criticism of Indian Superinten 
dent Crandall for illegal sales of whisky 'was followed by de 
partmental orders to dismiss him, without cause. On February 
9th, Assistant Commissioner Abbott telegraphed me to take no 
steps to the defense of Juan Cruz, an Indian, who had been 
employed by me to assist in the suppression of the liquor 
traffic among Indians. Through the intriguing of Indian 
Superintendent Crandall, who is himself a liquor dealer, four 
drunken Indians had murderously attacked Cruz when in the 
discharge of his duty. In self-defence Cruz was alleged to have 


shot the principal assailant. Cruz was held for murder in the 
first degree and the prosecution was being strenuously sup 
ported by special counsel having been employed by interested 
parties to assist the District Attorney. 

The ladies of the W. C. T. U. then undertook to raise funds 
to defend the Indian's life, the fight for which Mr. Abbott or 
dered me to abandon. The Abbott order caused so much 
criticism against your Department that on March 23rd Com 
missioner Valentine overruled the same order in the following 
telegram, addressed to me: 

"Office telegram February ninth, concerning Cruz 
shooting hereby revoked. Help in his fullest possible 
protection every way in your power." 

Under the authority of this telegram and under my general 
authority to employ deputies and posseman temporarily, I em 
ployed Baca to assist. He was an important witness ; a well 
educted Indian, and could do the necessary work better than 
anyone else. It was a matter of life or death. Your real ob 
jection to the matter seems to be your anger that I was suc 
cessful in saving the Indian's life and securing his freedom. 
After he was released, your own representative, F. S. Wilson, 
attorney for the P'ueblo Indians, and officer of your own De 
partment, marshalled the witnesses for the prosecution before 
the Federal Court and tried to get Cruz reindicted by the Fed 
eral Grand Jury on the same charge of murder. After your 
own official agents had tried to get Cruz reindicted, and failed, 
you had the nerve to tell me that you " would not harm Cruz 
if I could." 

You charge : 

"From your accounts it appears that you employed 
Sylviano Roybal as a deputy special officer from June 
1 6 to June 21, at $5 a day. Mr. Roybal was the 
sheriff who had the prisoner Cruz in his custody. It 
it difficult for me to see in this payment to him of $30 
as a special deputy any motive on your part but an im 
proper one." 

Sheriff Roybal receives no salary, only fees. Every lawyer 
in the United States, outside of the Interior Department knows 
that it is the duty of a sheriff to subpoena witnesses for the 
defense in criminal cases as well as for the prosecution. We 
asked Mr. Roybal to secure the attendance of various wit 
nesses in the Cruz case in the usual way. The County Com 
missioners refused to pay him for the work; I therefore paid 
him officially as my deputy for his time. Some time ago, the 


Auditor for the Interior Department called my attention to a 
Federal statute forbidding the acceptance of services to the 
Government without compensation. Your anger at my success 
in the Cruz case seems to so blind you that you regard it as 
improper for me to obey the law. 

Talking about "misappropriation of funds," how about that 
thousand dollars of Indian money which Superintendent Cran- 
dall got, ostensibly to "improve the roads in and about the 
Indian Pueblos?" He spent the money to aid the construction 
of an automobile speedway along La Bajada hill, and eight 
miles from the nearest Indian. The "speedway" is through 
the property of the chief political boss of New Mexico. See 
Singleton's report for full particulars of this particular graft. 
The report has been in you possession for seven months. You 
yourself personally condoned this job. 

You charge: 

"You paid Miss True $72 for 24 days' alleged ser 
vices as posseman, when, as shown by your letter of 
July 20, you had been instructed by the Department 
to discontinue the services of Miss True and Pedro 

Baca You admitted that Miss True 

would have worked just as hard for the defence of 
Juan Cruz without employment and without payment 
at all. It therefore follows that your payment of Gov 
ernment funds for this purpose was a misuse of much 

The Department, it is true, compelled me to terminate the 
services of Miss True and Pedro Baca on account of their 
activities for the Indians, and for their criticisms of illegal 
liquor selling on the part of Indian Superintendent Crandall. 
For the details of this booze peddling superintendent, you only 
have to refer to the voluminous report of Inspector Shelby M. 
Singleton, which report has been in your possession for seven 
months, and which apparently is also "difficult for you to see." 
During the six weeks before the infamous Abbott telegram of 
February ninth was overruled by Commissioner Valentine, this 
devoted woman was spending almost her whole time and hun 
dreds of dollars of her own funds in trying to protect the In 
dian boy. After I was officially directed by Commissioner 
Valentine to "help in his fullest possible protection every way 
in your power," I employed Miss True for a few days, paying 
her as a posseman. She was a vitally important witness for 
the defense, and much of this $72 was for her time in attend 
ance upon this court as a witness. The Court, while discharg 
ing Cruz from custody, refused to allow the fees of any wit- 


nesses for the defense, on the theory that that was a proper 
charge, under the circumstances, upon the Fed'eral Govern 
ment. Having this attitude of the Court in mind, -and having 
in mind the Federal statute against accepting gratuitous ser 
vices in behalf of the Government, T paid Miss True for her 


Chief of the Federation of Indian Pueblos, and Presidente 
of the Pueblo Indian Temperance Society. 

I have been making payments of this sort for five years with 
the full knowledge of your own Department. These payments 
have been uniformly approved during all this time. Some 
months ago, the Comptroller specifically and in writing ap 
proved this class of payments. But when the attempt is foiled 
to hang an Indian boy who had 1 been indiscreet enough to 
criticise an Indian Superintendent who is one of your political 


associates, for selling whisky illegally, then and not till then 
do you rise up in your might and shout about such payments 
for services being a "misuse of governmental funds." 

Did you ever hear of 'the inebriate who wandered all over 
Washington buttonholing people and saying, "I smell Lim- 
burger cheese in your pockets?" When the toper gol home, 
his wife went through his pockets, as wives do, and found a 
whole pound of Limburger cheese in her husband's pocket 

You charge : 

"It appears that you also paid J. H. Crist as a spe 
cial deputy officer from June 13 to 17, at $5 per day, 
when to your knowledge Crist was employed to defend 
Cruz by the socalled Juan Cruz Defence Committee. 
. . . Revised Statutes, Section 189, forbids the 
employment of attorneys or counsel at the expense of 
the United States." 

I did not employ Crist as an "attorney or counsel/' and you 
know it, and as your charge indicates. I paid him for his time 
as a "deputy," to gather evidence in the Cruz case and some 
other matters connected with the suppression of the liquor 
traffic among Indians. There are scores of attorneys employed 
in the Indian Office and field service, in other capacities than 
as "attorneys." I have employed dozens of them as deputies, 
but never as "attorneys." I have done this with the full knowl 
edge and consent of your own Department. Your own De 
partment is at this very hour employing many lawyers to do 
precisely the same class of work that I employed Crist to do, 
and you very well know it. 

You charge: 

"You also paid George Anton as posseman on June 
2 ist, $3. An affidavit to the effect that he did not 
know why the money was paid him was turned over 
to you on the day of the hearing, with the request that 
you prepare an answer to the affidavit. Instead of 
preparing such answer, you handed in your resig 

The affidavit was not turned over to me to "answer." It 
was turned over to me to make an "explanation in writing" and 
at my "convenience." I made the explanation on my arrival 
at Denver about a week later. That explanation has been in 
your own office since last September. You will find it pigeon 
holed, perhaps with the Singleton report, in some rathole of 
the Interior Department, unless too "difficult for you to see." 
I will repeat the substance of the "explanation." On the 


morning of June 21, Anton, an ex-saloon keeper, and an em 
ployee of one of Superintendent Crandall's personal friends, 
came to me stating that he .had evidence and could get some 
more within a few days work that one "Shorty" Frank had 
been selling liquor to Indians. I told him to work the matter 
up, and that I would pay him for his time. An hour later, 
Miss True told me that Anton had just come to her stating 
that he had an appointment with the Cruz jury for nine o'clock 
that night, and that he .wanted her to go with him to "fix" the 
jury. (Since writing my "explanation" I found a witness of 
the highest character who had hid behind a door and over 
heard the whole conversation, thus corroborating Miss True 
completely.) I immediately reported the matter to United 
States Attorney Leahy. Not knowing of the corroborative 
testimony, we decided to take no action as it would simply be 
Anton's word against Miss True's. I did, however, immedi 
ately dismiss Anton, put paid him three dollars for the day's 
work he actually did. The three dollars were paid by an of 
ficial Treasury check in the usual way, and the letter of trans- 
mittal stated that the check was for "payment of your services 
on June 2ist." Your office has a copy of the letter of trans- 
mittal and 1 knows all about the transaction. You, apparently, 
seem to be incensed that I did not fall into the trap set by par 
ties interested in the prosecution of Cruz. 

You charge: 

"The most serious thing in connection with the 
matter seemed to me to be 'the paying of Juan" Cruz 
$6 as posseman, for the days of February 3 and 4, 
ibeing the day before and the day of the shooting of 
Garcia by Cruz. This payment* was not made until 
May 26." 

I paid this claim as soon as I was convinced' that it was a 
just claim and not before. Sometimes it takes the Department 
years to find out whether a claim is just or not. 

In support of the above charge, you quote from various 
letters of mine written before I had conferred with Assistant 
Chief Coggeshall, who originally appointed Cruz in my name, 
and who had immediate charge of the New Mexico work; 
letters written before I had personally made an investigation 
and at a time when I was depending chiefly on Superintendent 
Crandall and Attorney Wilson for information as to the case. 
Investigation showed these sources of information to be value 

You carefully refrain from quoting from my report made 
after a thorough personal investigation, which, from your near- 



sightedness, it is again ''difficult to see.'' In these subsequent 
reports the facts were fully set forth, and my former letters 
thereby modified and corrected. You are still hunting for that 
Limburger cheese. The Justice of the Peace pettifogging me 
thods to which you resort in the above charge do not seem 
to call for an extended reply. 


Governor of Santa Clara. He says : " I wan-ta 
mak-a da straight way for my people." 

You say that Assistant Commissioner Abbott denies com 
pelling me to write a laudatory letter of June 29, to Mrs. 
Patterson, in which Abbott is extolled as a man of "high 
character." I expected Mr. Abbott to deny it he is that kind 
of a man. But a portion of the original draft of that letter is 
in Abbott's own handwriting. You say "your making the 
-tatement above set out shows that you were totally unfit to 


holdi any position involving the exercise of discretion." That 
is probably true from the standpoint of men like you, whose 
purposes seem to be best served by 'concealing and hiding 
things from the public, just as you are now concealing the re 
port of Inspector Shelby M. Singleton, detailing the appalling 
rottenness of your own administration in New Mexico. You. 
further observe regarding the statement, "whether true or not, 
it shows you to be guilty of moral cowardice in an extreme 
measure." Perhaps. But Mr. Adams, if your superior, Sec 
retary Fisher, should come to you demanding that you prepare 
a letter extolling his high character, wouldn't you do it ? I did 
not give Mr. Abbott away in the matter until I got out of the 
service, and I did not do it then until it became necessary in 
order to protect the Pueblo Indians from Abbott's vindictive 

In this connection, how about you accepting my resignation 
with laudatory observations to the newspapers -regarding me, 
and Fisher telling Miss True that there were no charges 
against me, and then, when the scandalous conduct of your own 
Department is exposed, you rend the air with maledictions 
against me to cover up the rottenness of your own Department 
as shown in Inspector Singleton's report. 

You mention a charge of "inattention to duty" but state 
nothing of what the charge consists. The records show that 
the Service, under my direction, filed during the last fiscal year. 
1717 new cases, secured 1168 convictions, and had only 34 ac 
quittals at the hands of juries. We have secured approxi 
mately 3400 convictions since I have had charge of this Service. 
All this has been accomplished in spite of the subterranean in 
trigues of that bedlam of incompetency officially known as the 
Department of the Interior. Your conception of "my duty" 
seemed to be that of sleeping on my job. From that standpoint 
I am justly accused. 

You gave out your letter of November 29th to the news 
papers before sending it to me. I have no objections to that. 
I will give out copies of this letter to the newspapers. Let 
everything come out. Suppose that you now give out copies of 
the big report of Inspector Singleton on the rotten condition 
of your administration in New Mexico. People are clamoring 
for it and you are standing them off with letters saying that 
the "report is still under discussion," etc. You have had it 
"under discussion" for seven months. Why not turn it loose 
and let the people "discuss" it for a while. 

My dear Mr. Secretary: Look in your own pockets you 
may find that Limburp'er cheese there. 




Espanola, N. M., Oct. n, 1911. 

DEAR FRIEND: We are forced to make an appeal to you in hope 
of securing some redress of grievances and wrongs which we have 
suffered and are suffering at the hands of the Indian Bureau. 

We own several thousand acres of well-watered land. Part of 
this is an executive order reservation and part is fee simple land 
owned by ourselves under a Spanish grant confirmed by the United 
States Courts. 

For seven years something like a thousand head of cattle belong 
ing to politicians have overrun our lands, eating up our pasture, 
breaking down our fences, destroying our crops, devastating our 
fields, and depriving us of our principal means of livelihood. The 
Indian Office compels us to submit to these wrongs. 

Several months ago the Secretary of the Interior sent an honest 
man down here to investigate, Mr. Shelby M. Singleton, attorney for 
the Chicago Citizens' Association. He reported fully the outrages per 
petrated upon us by representatives, of the Indian Office and not 
only recommended, but personally pleaded that justice be done us. 
Mr. Singleton's report was suppressed by the politicians and he 
was disgraced for recommending that the abuses be corrected. We 
beg of you to call upon the Indian Office for a copy of Mr. Single 
ton's report and get the whole truth. 

We solemnly protest against a notorious liquor dealer who is 
president and director of a drug store in Santa Fe, which we have 
repeatedly caught selling liquor unlawfully, being retained as super 
intendent of the school where we have to send our children. 

We plead with you to call for and make public the report of Mr. 
Singleton and help us protect ourselves against the wrongs heaped 
upon us by the Indian Office in the interest of corrupt politicians and 
liquor dealers. 

(Signed) SANTIAGO NARANJO, Governor of Santa Clara Pueblo. 

VICTORIANO SISNEROS, Lieutenant Governor, 




JOSE MANUEL NARANJO, Priest of the Winter Clan, 



ex-Gov. and Chief of the Gen. Fed. of Pueblo Ind. 

MANUEL TAFOYA, Principale, 

PEDRO CAJETE, Principale. 

PEDRO BACA, Principale, 

ULOGIO NARANJO, Principale, 




SEVERO NARANJO, Councilman. 





1. We have been lied to and lied to about by the Superintendent 
until the situation is intolerable. 

2. The attorney for the Pueblo Indians has refused to serve us 
in any capacity. 

3. We have a worthless and really hostile set of men quartered 
upon us for the ostensible protection of Santa Clara Reservation, but 
really to keep us out of the use of the lands. 

4. We are getting little use of our reservation lands, although we 
own in fee simple nearly all the water, if not actually all, of Santa 
Clara Creek. The Forest Service assumes the right to pasture our lands 
and distribute the water to white cattle men. They say they need the 
water. So do we and we own it. There is other water for the white 
men's cattle. We do not get anything in return for the depredation of 
our lands or the use of the water, although we are supposed to receive 
grazing and wood. 

5. We want to know our legal status under the Treaty of 

6. We want competent legal protection, which we have never had, 
except for. the short time Judge Pope was in office as Pueblo Attorney. 


8. We ask for the backing up of our Indians when they take up 
this work of liquor suppression. 

9. We want better schools. Our schools grow poorer every year, 
partly from the lack of easily supplied equipment and partly from in 

10. We ask for the efforts of the Indian Office to be used for the 
eradication of eye troubles and consumption. This work was begun, 
but 'because it interfered with Mr. Crandall's policy of suppression of 
publicity of the distressing condition of the Indians under his care, he 
used every means to discourage it. 

11. We want better farming instruction. Our present farmer is a 

12. We want a better Indian police force. The present head of the 
police force wears a black eye a good part of the time, given him by a 
drunken wife. 


14. We want investigation .of the Hobart lands, which we do not 
believe we lost, and we want investigation of the Guachipangi water 
situation, which we believe a fraud upon us Indians. 

i. We ask that the boundary lines of our reservation be straight 
ened by making an addition to the reservation from the forest of 
Jemez. his land is ours anyway. We bought it from private owners 
more than a century ago. 

16. We ask that Assistant Commissioner Abbott's recommendation 
as to this addition be most carefully looked into. He recommended 
that it be made, but that our reservation be taken from us and divided 
up with all the Tehua tribes. This would not be anything but a punish 
ment to our tribe for its independence, and the other tribes do not want 
to steal from us. There is plenty of land to give them without taking 
away ours. 



Espanola, N. Mex., April 23, 1911. 

That you may realize some of the difficulties under which your men 
labor with Mr. Crandall's constant underground opposition, I beg to 
call to your attention the fact of his sending out letters to the South 
ern Pueblos commanding them to avoid Santa Clara and San Ildefonso 
as we have smallpox in those villages. He says in these letters that 
in addition to having smallpox, the Santa Clara's are bad people. The 
Governor of Cochiti received one of these letters and gave me the in 
formation I here quote. 

There is not and has not been a case of smallpox in either San 
Ildefonso or Santa Clara for many years. There in no smallpox any 
where else that we have any knowledge of in all the Espanola country- 
There is not even a sick man, woman, or child in Santa Clara, as I 
can make affidavit, and nobody knows of any in San Ildefonso. 

The two villages mentioned have quit drinking. Your work pros 
pers in both places. Mr. Crandall is afraid other villages will come 
over on our side if there is any intercourse. He did not suppose I 
would get the information. 

If the Indians in San Ildefonso and Santa Clara were infected with 
any contagious disease, making a quarantine necessary, San Juan 
would be infected too, as it is only six miles from us and we s-ee each 
other daily. But San Juan is a drunken village and Mr. Crandall did 
not wish other Indians to keep away from there. 

I am very sorry our Superintendent secretly hinders moral refor 
mation. I hope you will call the attention of the Commissioner to this 
matter. We should have a hard time to clean up the villages even if 
we had all possible encouragement from officials. As it is, the matter 
is extremely difficult. Besides being your deputy here, I am a full- 
blood Santa Clara Indian and therefore I think I should protest. 
Very respectfully, 

Deputy Special Officer. 


Santa Cruz, N. Mex., September 25, 191 r. 
Denver, Colo. 


The Friday's issue of the Denver Times telling of your resigna 
tion as Indian Official came as a shock to me; it was the last thing 
I had thought of. 

The Service never had a man who worked more strenuously and 
unremittingly than you have done for the suppression of the liquor 
traffic among the Indians. 

I was hoping the men in Washington at the head of the Indian 
Bureau would show their appreciation of your work by soon giving 
you a well deserved promotion and am at a loss for words with which 
to express my sorrow at your resigning, as it will be a difficult task to 
find a man so well suited to your place. 

The good you have done among my Indians here by your tireless 
efforts in their behalf is already apparent. Among the Santa Clara's 
for instance, where a few years ago much drunkenness and abuse ex 
isted, there is now perfect harmony. Several men who were accu?- 


tcmed to beat their wives are now model husbands since they leave 
liquor alone. 

Another man who was under the influence of drink all the time 
and very quarrelsome and troublesome among his people is now one 
of the most respected and respectful men I have in my parish. 

Your absence from the Service would be a great loss to the In 
dians, all of whom consider you the best friend they have. It will be 
a loss to me in many ways, as you have helped my people where others 

Every man in Washington who knows of your work cannot but 
admit that in accepting your resignation the Indian Service loses the 
best man it ever had. 

In view of all this I beg you to reconsider the matter and recall 
your resignation. 

Such men as you are too scarce, we cannot afford to lose a single 
one. Very sincerely yours, 

(Missionary Priest in charge of the Parish of Santa Cruz.) 


Espanola, N. M., Sept. 19, 1911. 

Chief Special Officer, U. S. I. S., 
Denver, Colo. 

DEAR SIR: The Pueblo of Santa Clara, mindful of its regenera 
tion through your efforts, most cordially invites you to be its guest for 
as long a time as you will -enjoy it. Horses, saddles, guns, guides and 
tents, with the best rations at your command, will be provided you as 
long as you can make use of them. We hope you will come to us and 
go to the mountains for a much needed rest. All w>e have is yours 
now and always. This is but small pay for the manhood you have re 
stored to this village by stopping the liquor traffic here. We know yon 
helped us at the price of your position. No other man in the Indian 
Service would have risked his head by staying with us and saving the 
life of Juan Cruz. You may go down in apparent defeat before the 
whisky ring at Washington but in the Hearts of a quarter of a million 
American Indians, you are a hero. There is probably not one of this 
great number but what has come under the influence of your work. 

Come and be a good Indian with us. 
Very sincerely, 



Acting Governor. 


Tierra Amarilla, N. M., June 21, 1911. 

Washington, D. C. 

Juan Cruz today declared Federal officer in the discharge of his 
duty, when he killed Garcia, February fourth, McFie rendering opinion. 
We desire to thank you for assistance of Chief Special Officer Johnson. 
His service in this case cannot be too enthusiastically described. Not 
only did he save the Indian, but he secured from the Court a decision 
which will go down in the legal history of New Mexico for the pro- 


tection of future operations by Indian Office employes engaged in the 
suppression of the liquor traffic. 

MARY T. BRYAN, Secretary, 
Juan Cruz Defense Committee. 



N. M., OCTOBER 19, 20, 21, 1911 

Be it resolved, That this convention congratulates the Indians of 
Santa Clara Pueblo on their attitude in the liquor suppression ques 
tion and commends that village for its splendid record of nearly 300 
Indians who have become total abstainers through the reform move 
ment instituted in New Mexico by Chief Special Officer of the Indian 
Bureau, W. E. Johnson. 

We deplore the present conditions of the liquor suppression de 
partment of the new state, resulting from official departmental hin 
drances, and an effort to sustain in position over the Indians, men of 
notorious character and men directly interested in the unlawful sale 
of liquor. 

We deem the matter of sufficient importance to warrant the wid 
est publicity of our sentiments and shall supply to the officials in 
charge of Indian Affairs, the Secretary of the Interior, and the Chair 
man of the Indian Committee in the House and Senate, copies of this 



Santa Fe, N. M., Oct. 10, 1911. 
VALENTINE, Indian Office, Washington, D. C. 

Yesterday the booze interests here had a very good inning. Super 
intendent Crandall had me in jail for several hours. I had to get an 
order from the District Court t>efore the Sheriff would accept a thou 
sand dollar bond from sureties who were able to qualify in more than 
two hundred thousand dollars. The Woman's Christian Temperance 
Union furnished the bail pending habeas corpus proceedings. Hun 
dreds of the politicians' cattle are in possession of the Santa Clara 
Indian lands and the Indian Office refuses to interfere. You are de 
priving these Indians of their means of livelihood for political graft's 
sake. I am ready to go to jail as often and for as long as the Indian 
Office and the liquor interests desire if it will help remedy these out 
rages that the Indian administration is inflicting upon these defence 
less people. You can't make me suffer as much as you have already 
caused these Indians to suffer. 


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