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L L KM KNC- 1 A L< ) 1' K/, 

Who came to scrk justice at the hands of the President 
for her imprisoned brothers 


B page from tbe Ihistor^ of tbe Mar 
in tbe pbilippines 



" O ye loud TVaves ! and O ye Forests high ! 
And O ye Clouds that far above me soared! 
Thou rising Sun ! thou blue rejoicing Sky ! 
Yea, ererytliinij tliat is and tri// lie free ! 
Bear witness for me, wheresoe'er ye be, 
With what deep worship I have still adored 
The spirit of liberty." 

— Coleridge : Ode to Liberty. 



Copyright, 1903, 
By James H. West Company. 

A copy of this book will be sent, postage paid, to 
any address within the Postal Union, on 
■ receipt of $/.oo by the Publishers. 








(Tliis 13ook is ©cliicateli 








Al Pueblo Filipino que, por causa de su Libertad, ha sufrido en las 
manos de una Nacion que ha pagado ella misma la pena y obtuvo el 
Premio, este libro esta dedicado con la esperanza de que en alguna 
manera contribuya a la causa para el tan querida, y con el ferviente 
voto d5 que en Paz, Firmeza y Paciencia, viva para ver su tierra natal 
libra de todo Poder excepto a aquel de su Criador. 




Sa Bayan Filipinas na sa pag ibig sa Kalayaan, nagtamong hirap 
sa kamay nang isang Bayan nang unang panahon ay nagdusa rin at 
Kinamtan ang Kapalaran, ang sulat na ito ay inialay nang mi pag asa 
na makatulong nang gaano paman sa bagay na Kanyang minamahal, 
at mi nasang taimtim na sa Payapa, sa Tiaga at sa Tiis siya'i, mabuhay 
na makita ang kanyang tinubuan lupa hindialagad nino man makapang- 
yarihan maliban na lamang sa Lumalang. 

■4 cro>« /ih^r^ 

"It is unworthy of a mighty and generous nation, itself the 
greatest and most successful republic in history, to refuse to stretch 
out a helping hand to a young and weak sister republic just enter- 
ing upon its career of independence." 

Theodore Roosevelt. 

*• Under the best of circumstances, therefore, a colony ia in a 
false position. But if the colony is in a region where the coloniz- 
ing race has to do its work by means of other inferior races, the 
condition is much worse." 

Theodore Roosevelt. 


THE facts set forth in the following pages are not 
published with the object of parading the mis- 
fortunes of those to whom they relate. What is 
told of the Lopez family is, unfortunately, true of many 
other families in the Philippines, 

Those of the Lopez family who were here in America 
urge that it cannot truthfully be represented that theirs 
is an isolated case, or that their sacrifices and sufferings 
have exceeded those of many others of their fellow- 

It should also be stated that the Lopez family, as well 
as Dr. Rizal and Senor Basa whose portraits appear in 
this book, are full-blooded Tagalogs. This statement is 
made authoritatively, in refutation of oft-repeated asser- 
tions to the contrary, and in order that readers may know 
that they are in contact with real Filipinos. It may, 
then, be asked. Whence the Spanish names, — Lopez, 
Castelo, Rizal, etc. } The explanation is a simple one, 
and has to do, not with genealogy, but with history : 
Many years ago, before Spain became despotic and 
odious, the better-class Filipinos, at the suggestion of 
the Spanish authorities, adopted Spanish surnames. The 
possession of a Spanish name by a Filipino does not, 
therefore, imply racial mixture. 

Boston, Mass., 1903. 

List of Illustrations 

Clemencia Lopez Frontispiece 

Who came to seek justice at the hands of the President 
for her imprisoned brothers. 

Jos6 RiZAL AND SiXTO LoPEZ Facing p. 

From a photograph taken in Hong-Kong, on Rizal's return 
from Europe in 1891. 

This photograph has a special interest owing to the attitude 
of the Manila authorities toward the dead and the living 
patriot : thus, while the Members of the Civil Commission 
were each subscribing toward the erection of a statue to 
Rizal, they were at the same time excluding Lopez from his 
own and Rizal's native land ! 

It is interesting also because of an incident which occurred 
when it was being taken. In response to the customary in- 
junction to "look pleasant," Rizal said to Lopez, " Yes, — 
imagine that you are just abgut to be executed by the Span- 
iards ! " These words were prophetic of Rizal's tragic death, 
which occurred five years later. 


Juliana Lopez Facing p. 48 

Whose letters form the basis of this book. 

View of part of Manila, showing the Shipping on the 

River Pasig. 
View of the Luneta, Manila, where Rizal was executed 

BY THE Spaniards in 1896 Between pp. 64-65 

The actual place of execution is behind the pavilion dimly 

shown in the distance beyond the center of the road. 


Jus]£ Maria Basa, of Hong-Kong Facing p. 88 

Senor Basa, frequently referred to in this book — some- 
times under the familiar name of Don Pepe — is the " Grand 
Old Man " of the Filipinos. Once a well-to-do merchant in 
Manila, a man of independent mind and hence unwilling to 
cringe to the small tyrant, he was exiled to the Island of 
Guam under a false charge of complicity in the Burgos insur- 
rection of 1872. After serving three years of his sentence he 
was released from Guam, but was not permitted to return to 
the Philippines. For the past twenty-eight years he has lived 
in Hong-Kong, where his home, at 7, Remedios Terrace, is 
the Mecca of all Filipinos who visit that picturesque British 

Senor Basa was the life-long friend of Rizal, and is now the 
custodian of Rizal's library and letters, which are destined as 
the nucleus of a public library to be founded when Rizal's 
ideals have been achieved. 

View of the Magellan Statue, Manila Facing p. 121 

Maria Lopez Facing p. 144 

The youngest of the Lopez sisters. 

Rehearsal by some of the Members of the Women's 
Red Cross Society of Lipa, Batangas, for a Con- 
cert TO BE given in AID OF ITS FUNDS .... Facing p. 169 


SiXTO Lopez, at the present time Facing p. 193 

The Story of the 
Lopez Family 

H page from tbc Ihistor^ ot tbe "Mat in 
tbe pbUippines 


TRUTH is not only stranger, but in most instances 
more interesting and instructive, than fiction. No 
epic or romance, no literary art or descriptive skill, 
could furnish a truer conception of the war in the Philip- 
pines and its achievements, or give a better insight into 
Filipino life and character, than the simple truth of the 
story of the Lopez family as set forth in the accompany- 
ing series of letters — a story of the infliction of wrong 
and injustice on account of adherence to principle and 
fidelity to family ties. 

In order, however, that this page of history may not 
be wholly detached from natural continuity it will first 
be necessary to give a brief account of the Lopez family 
and of their attitude toward the Spanish government. 

"IFn former ^imes." 

"Old Batangas," as the province is now appropriately 
termed, — the last to yield in the unequal struggle, and 


the scene of some of the most regrettable incidents in 
the war, — has been the home of the Lopez family for 
several generations. Immediate interest, however, does 
not extend beyond Natalio Lopez, who died in 1886, the 
father of the present family which comprises Maria 
Castelo,* his widow ; six sons, Mariano, Lorenzo, Sixto, 
Cipriano, Manuel, and Jose ; and four daughters, Andrea, 
Clemencia, Juliana, and Maria. Natalio was in many 
respects a remarkable man. His education, received at 
the college of San Jose, was due solely to his own activ- 
ity and industry. But business cares at an early age 
made it impossible for him to continue his studies at the 
university. Yet in later years, though without the dis- 
tinction of a university degree, which means so much in 
the eyes of the Filipinos, he became the acknowledged 
friend and counselor — "the unprofessional and unpaid 
adviser" — of his fellow -townsmen, who styled him 
"Defender of the just." In this, one is reminded of 
Scott's beautiful lines : 

**The thatched mansion's gray-haired sire. 
Wise without learning, plain and good. 

Whose doom discording neighbours sought. 
Content with equity unbought." 

Though devoted to his religion and to an unwavering 
belief in the protecting care of the Virgin Mother, 
Natalio Lopez always took the part of the people against 
the unjust methods of the Spaniards and the Friars, 

* The wife or -widow, according to Spanish custom, retains her maiden 
surname. Senora Castelo's full name is Maria Castelo de Lopez, but 
this would be used only in certain special circumstances. 


never failing to condemn their irregularities. As a 
natural consequence he incurred the displeasure of the 
Religious Orders, and, although himself a peace-loving 
man, those who feared honesty and uprightness were 
never at peace with him. On more than one occasion 
he was secretly denounced and arrested on false charges ; 
but his reputation among men, and his palpable honesty 
of character, were a shield and buckler against the attacks 
of his enemies. On one occasion, when confronting his 
accusers before Jose Maria Alix, the then Governor of 
the province, the Governor was so impressed with 
Natalio's straightforward bearing that he declared : 
" This man is innocent ; he cannot be guilty of the 
charge preferred against him." Years later, when Alix 
had returned to Spain, the charge was again trumped up 
against Natalio. His only means of obtaining justice 
was to appeal to his former protector, and in those days, 
before the completion of the Suez canal, it was a slow 
process to transmit and receive communications from 
Spain. Nevertheless, though it meant a delay of several 
months, the appeal was made ; and not in vain, for Alix, 
who must have been one of the best of men, readily bore 
witness to Natalio's integrity, with the result that he was 
finally acquitted and set free. 

But though thus protected, Natalio realized that there 
were others of his fellows who were less fortunate. He 
saw that justice under Spanish rule was the rare excep- 
tion, and, though he never openly advocated separation 
from Spain, he impressed upon his children the obvious 
truth "that they could not live an honest life and escape 
tribulation as long as the source of authority was in a 
foreign land." 


This was the school, so to speak, at which the present 
members of the family graduated. In such surroundings 
and with such teaching — the justness of which few will 
dispute — it was natural that they should be impressed 
with the writings of Jose Rizal, whose final dictum was 
that there was no salvation for their country short of 
separation from Spain. The whole family, even to the 
youngest daughter, finally shared in this aspiration for 
freedom from foreign rule, but perhaps a larger share of 
the mantle of Natalio fell upon Sixto, his eldest son by 
the second marriage. Unassuming and quiet, yet gifted 
with an unusual tenacity of purpose, it was Sixto Lopez 
who, at an early age, became associated with Rizal ; who, 
later, introduced and circulated Rizal's books in the 
Philippines ; who, privately, gave pecuniary aid to Rizal 
and personal aid to his plans ; who was set down for 
arrest when Rizal was arrested, on the ground that he 
was " Rizal's most active agent " ; who escaped Rizal's 
fate only by accepting voluntary exile from his native 
land ; who endeavored, along with Dr. Regidor of 
London, to rescue Rizal from the hands of his execu- 
tioners during Rizal's memorable voyage from Barcelona 
to Manila ; and who, humbly taking up the banner as it 
fell from Rizal's dying hand, has worked unassumingly 
for the independence of his country, notwithstanding 
recent political changes and in spite of personal and 
family loss and misfortune. 

But if Sixto was thus persistent and devoted, the other 
members of the family were equally resolute and were 
ready to make any sacrifice for the liberation of their 
country. They were wealthy, and, had they chosen to 
be time-servers, and to throw in their lot with Spain, 


they could have retained their wealth and secured unlim- 
ited favor. But such was not their character or inclina- 
tion. They aspired to national freedom and were prepared 
to support their aspiration with their wealth. So, when 
Aguinaldo and his compatriots rose in revolt, and when 
Rizal — to use his own words — " scaled his life's work 
with his blood," the Lopez family risked everything they 
possessed, including personal liberty, in support of a 
cause which others might regard as hopeless but which 
they believed would ultimately succeed. 

Their fidelity cost them dear. When the seriousness 
of the revolt became known to the authorities, and when 
additional troops had been brought from Spain, the 
Spanish forces swept their estates as with a withering 
breath. The laborers on their plantations, who had 
grown up with them from childhood to manhood, were 
mown down and slaughtered and their families dispersed. 
Of their five thousand working-animals, used by these 
laborers in the fields and in the sugar-mills, only seventy 
were finally recovered. Their house was plundered ; 
their sugar, coffee, and rice fields were laid waste ; and 
the ^700,000 which they had advanced in purchasing 
on-coming crops from smaller planters were reduced to 
the value of an entry in a cash-book. In all, their losses 
during the insurrection amounted to upwards of a million 
and a half Mexican dollars, and the male members of 
the family were imprisoned with apparently small hope 
of escaping with their life. 

Yet they were undaunted. Calamity might wreck 
their possessions, but not their principles. During the 
lull in the insurrection after the Treaty of Biac-na-Bato 
they gathered together the remnant of their possessions. 


It might have been justly conceded that the family had 
already made more than their share of sacrifice for their 
country's freedom ; but their resources, in fidelity at 
least, had not been exhausted. When Aguinaldo returned 
with Admiral Dewey they again offered their personal aid 
and gave of their remaining property to assist in the 
cause which at last seemed to be assured of final success. 
And when the new Republic was born, though their 
wealth had been sacrificed, though two of their ships 
were gratuitously in the service of the government, as 
were also two of the brothers — the one, taken from 
sorely needed attention to their business affairs, to serve 
in Aguinaldo's army, the other, as a member of the 
Malolos Congress — the family felt that they had ample 
recompense in the achievement of their country's free- 
dom from foreign rule. 

'*TKIlas tt Bll for flougbt?" 

It was at this juncture that the then American Admin- 
istration conceived the idea of purchasing the Philippine 
Islands from Spain, and of demanding of the Lopez family 
and all other Fihpinos unconditional allegiance to a new 
foreign sovereignty. 

Now, unquestionably, American statesmen had a 
right to adopt any new policy, consistent with justice; 
they may even have had a right — if the people so 
willed — to discard those principles of democracy which 
have made America a great and free and prosperous 
nation. But had they the right — admittedly they had 
the power — to demand that the Lopez family, who had 
made such sacrifices for freedom, or that the Filipinos, 


who had suffered and fought for liberty, should, in the 
twinkling of an eye, change their political beliefs because 
of a new policy conceived at Washington ? One of the 
tests of the righteousness of a policy is its reasonable- 
ness, for a righteous policy will always be reasonable even 
if a reasonable policy may not always be righteous. Ap- 
plying this test to the Philippine policy, was it reason- 
able to demand that these people, who were fighting for 
national liberty, or that this family, whose life's teaching 
had led them to reject foreign rule and whose sacrifices 
in behalf of their ideals had meant to them the differ- 
ence between prosperity and adversity — was it reason- 
able to demand unconditional submission to a new foreign 
authority which did not and has not even yet declared 
its policy as to the immediate or ultimate status of their 
country and people ? Was it reasonable to expect these 
people to submit, without protest or murmur, to what 
may or may not be given them in a " distant and indefi- 
nite future," without treaty or pledge or intimation of 
ultimate intention on the part of America ? There are 
many Americans, kind of heart and pure of motive, who, 
apparently without due thought, have accepted the theory 
that the Filipinos were rebels and traitors, and that they 
had therefore forfeited every right and all reasonable con- 
sideration. But to be a rebel presupposes former alle- 
giance ; to be a traitor predicates infidelity to a principle 
or party or power to which allegiance has formerly been 
given or owned. In neither of these ways had the Fili- 
pinos offended against America, and the theory that they 
had so offended is based upon ignorance of the real situ- 
ation prior to the unsought, though welcomed, interven- 
tion of the United States. 


**Uo thine own Self be true.'' 

But when the American Administration, rightly or 
wrongly, proclaimed its intention of taking possession of 
the Philippines, by force "if need be," and when the 
consequent outbreak of hostilities occurred, what attitude 
did the Lopez family assume, and what action did they 
take ? 

Obviously, no policy conceived in America, however 
artful, could change their opinions; no Paris Treaty, 
however adroit, could alter their desires ; and no force, 
however great, could make them cease to love liberty. 
Hence, they remained, and still remain, firm in their 
beliefs and true to their principles ; they still maintain 
the right of their country to independence. 

But in view of what they regarded as the futility of 
an armed conflict with America, the family — with one 
exception to be hereafter explained — withdrew from act- 
ive participation in the war. 

Thus, the mother, the four daughters, and two of the 
sons, Lorenzo and Manuel, who were engaged in working 
the plantations at Balayan and the shipping-business in 
Manila, took up a neutral position. 

The youngest son, Jose, a student at the Manila uni- 
versity, after taking his degree, finally went to England 
to study naval architecture, where he is so engaged at 
the present time. 

The eldest son, Mariano, withdrew from the Malolos 
Congress, to which he was an elected member, and coun- 
seled peace. His position is best described in his own 
words in a recent letter to his brother Sixto : " In answer- 
ing your letter I will only say that, considering the at- 


mosphere in which you live, alone, and almost called 
upon to be a martyr for your country, it seems to me 
excellent and not to be improved. But as for me and 
millions of our compatriots in the surroundings in which 
we live, considering the circumstances and our respective 
families, for whom we must have very special regard, we 
cannot follow you on the patriotic road which you have 
laid out. But zvc do not on tJiat account consider our- 
selves any less patriotic than y on are ; for if history holds 
up to you examples of heroism, even to the point of 
sacrificing one's life for one's country, it gives us, on the 
other hand, examples of even great nations who have 
yielded to the superior force of the enemy, preferring to 
submit to the conqueror rather than to continue the 
struggle at the price of total extemiination." 

Sixto, who at the time of the outbreak of hostilities 
with the Filipinos was serving as secretary to the Com- 
mission which went to Washington seeking recognition 
for the newly formed Philippine Republic, wrote numer- 
ous despatches to Aguinaldo and to the Central Com- 
mittee at Hong-Kong urging a cessation of hostilities, 
pointing out that armed resistance could not secure inde- 
pendence, but would only confuse the issues and do injury 
to a good cause. He also repeatedly urged the sending 
of one or more Filipinos to America with the object 
of informing the American people of the real situation 
which, he claimed, was being woefully misrepresented by 
General Otis and others. In this manner he hoped to 
bring about negotiations and an adjustment of the diffi- 
culty by peaceable means. While he was thus urging 
his own people to cease warlike and adopt peaceable 
means, he secured publication of several articles in the 


American press, having the same object. In one of 
these articles, pubhshed in the Indepoidcnt of Decem- 
ber 14, 1899, — four years ago, — he concludes as 
follows : 

" Why not negotiate ? If negotiations fail, it will then 
be time enough for war.* True, in the past our over- 
tures of peace and good will were not received in a hearty 
manner by the Administration. But let that pass. It 
cannot be undignified to do what honor and righteous- 
ness demand. Who will help me in the cause of peace } 
Could any cause be worthier the genius of the statesmen 
of a great nation .^ 

" In placing this statement before the people of Amer- 
ica, I beg to assure them that whatever its demerits may 
be it is the outcome of a sincere desire for peace and 
for an honorable settlement of the differences and diffi- 
culties of the Philippine question." 

Finally, when none of his fellow-countrymen could be 
induced, or were able, to visit America, Sixto Lopez him- 
self, on the invitation of Mr. Fiske Warren, of Boston, 
came to this country, and his demeanor and utterances 
while here have been characterized by moderation, re- 
spect, and good feeling, 

Cipriano — the exception referred to above — was an 
officer in Aguinaldo's army, prior to and during part of 
the conflict with America. He was therefore subject to 
exceptional rules of conduct ; for though the civilian 
may choose to adopt a neutral position under given cir- 
cumstances, the soldier has no such choice. To resign 

* This was addressed to the American people, as ihe article itself 


one's commission, for whatever reason, in the midst of 
active warfare, is universally regarded as cowardly and 
dishonorable. Had Cipriano thus forsaken his chief, even 
through disapproval of the war, he would have been sub- 
ject to very general condemnation. For these reasons, 
though realizing the futility of the conflict, Cipriano kci)t 
his sword until the nth of March, 1901. Even then, 
it was only because of repeated illness in the field, and 
in response to the entreaties of his mother and the urgent 
representations of his eldest brother, that he surrendered 
to Major Bullard, witJi all his vicn a)id arms. His con- 
duct in all this will be understood and appreciated even 
by opponents. 

It need not be regarded as a violation of the canons 
of good taste, since this is simply a narration of facts, to 
tell also of the hospitality shown by the Lopez family to 
the American officers stationed at Balayan ; or how, by 
keeping open house and providing social diversion, they 
induced some of the younger officers not to indulge in 
habits of intemperance which were all too common among 
soldiers unaccustomed to a tropical climate and shut off, 
by the strained relations during the conflict, from refin- 
ing and elevating associations. One of these officers 
tells, in an American newspaper, how existence was made 
"delightful" to himself and other officers by the kind- 
ness and hospitality of the Lopez family, for "the 'latch- 
string ' was always left out for us at the Lopez residence, 
the finest in Balayan." But, while the family thus enter- 
tained the American officers, they never made any secret 
of their desire for Philippine independence, nor did they 
conceal or try to conceal the fact that they had a brother 
in the "insurgent " army. 


Furthermore, foreseeing that the prolonged resistance 
of his countrymen to the forces of the United States, 
though futile in the securing of independence, would 
provoke the American forces to gi^eater severity and 
cruelty, Mariano Lopez placed his services and influence 
at the disposal of the American authorities with the 
object of bringing about peace. In this he was largely 
successful, securing the surrender of several important 
Filipino commands, including Generals Cailles, Gregorio 
Katigbak, and (indirectly) General Trias. Official testi- 
mony to the nature and value of these services is given 
by Major R. L. Bullard, as follows : 

"Manila, July 5, 1901. 

" I take pleasure in certifying that the bearer of this 
paper, Senor Mariano Lopez, of this city and of Balayan, 
Batangas province, has rendered service to the United 
States in the pacification of Luzon as follows : 

"In March of 1901 he accompanied me at his own 
expense into the country west of Lake Taal, and there 
through the influence of himself and family he opened 
negotiations with all the insurgents of Batangas west of 
Lake Taal, which negotiations resulted in their surrender 
and the pacification of all Batangas west of Lake Taal, 
and cut off from the insurgent General Trias in Cavite 
province all his military support from the south. 

"At my request he afterwards visited Lipa in the 
province of Batangas, with a view to opening negotia- 
tions with the insurgent General Malvar. From these 
latter negotiations there resulted, as I believe, the surren- 
der of insurgent General Gregorio Katigbak and Colonel 
Cipriano Calao, Senor Lopez's personal friends, and some 
125 officers and enlisted insurgents. He also offered his 
services and did all in his power to induce the surrender 
of the insurgent General Cailles, who did surrender. 


" I have found him a man of judgment and honor in 
all his dealings with the United States. 
(Signed) *' R. L, Bullard, 

" Major, Commissary, 
" United States Anny, Chief Commissary." 

It will be noted in the above testimonial that Mariano, 
in rendering these services, did so " at his own expense." 
Though desirous of peace for the sake of saving the 
lives and property of his countrymen, he wished to re- 
main neutral and to avoid being, even in appearance, in 
the paid service of America. For the same reason he 
refused to accept a proffered office under American rule. 

But though Mariano was thus largely successful in his 
efforts to secure peace, he failed to have any influence 
with General Malvar who, with General Lukban, still 
kept the field. Accordingly, Sixto Lopez, who was de- 
sirous of returning to the Philippines, left America with 
the hope of being able to induce Malvar, with whom he 
was personally acquainted, to cease fighting. He believed 
that, owing to his knowledge of the real situation in 
America, and because of his long service in the cause of 
Philippine independence, he would have some influence 
with Malvar, and that Malvar would listen to him as he 
had listened to no one else. But on Sixto's arrival at 
Hong-Kong, the Manila (American) press published sev- 
eral inflammatory and foolish statements, one of which 
was to the effect that " Sixto Lopez was coming to order 
America out of the Philippines, failing compliance with 
which, he would wipe Uncle Sam out of existence." And 
so, before his services were even formally tendered, they 
were rejected — unless he were prepared to submit to 
certain conditions which would have at once disqualified 


him as a successful emissary to Malvar. He holds, how- 
ever, that if General Chatfee had been willing, as was 
Vice-Governor Wright, to make use of his services, much 
if not all of the bloodshed and reconcentration and burn- 
ing and torture that characterized the later period of the 
war would have been avoided. In this he is supported 
by General Bell who, in a letter to General Wheaton, 
dated December 27, 1901, says: "If Sixto Lopez, or 
any other man of equal influence, could be trusted to 
work honestly and sincerely there is no doubt but what 
he could bring about peace."* 

'*/iBan'5 Inhumanity to /llban/' 

Now, the above is a brief statement of the position of 
the Lopez family in relation to the war and to American 
sovereignty in the Philippines. Beyond the great and 
general suffering which war entails, their interests 
and their person — with one exception — had not been 
unduly interfered with up to the time when General 
Chaffee, according to reliable report, declared his intention 
of putting an end to the war within three months " even 
if he had to kill everything living and burn everything 
standing in Batangas and Samar." The time, so it was 
thought, had then arrived for extreme measures. The 
resistance to American sovereignty had continued for 
nearly three years, notwithstanding frequent reports and 
predictions to the contrary. General Otis had failed to 
pacify the Islands, although he was supposed, according 
to his own and Secretary Root's opinion, to be contend- 

* Report of Senate Committee on the Philippines, p. 2604. 


ing with only a part of one out of eighty four "tribes." 
General MacArthur's chief success was his discovery 
that the war was being directed against the inhabitants 
uf the "entire archipelago," whose "unique system of 
warfare depended upon almost complete unity of action 
of the entire native population^ (These arc his own 
words, in an official report.) It was therefore necessary 
to adopt more rigorous methods of warfare. Accord- 
ingly, the so-called " Kitchener methods " were put in 
operation by General MacArthur, but without success. 
Even the defeat of the Democratic presidential candi- 
date, which, according to Governor Taft's prediction, 
would put an end to the war within sixty days, produced 
only the effect of adding another to the list of unfulfilled 
prophecies. The capture of Aguinaldo, from which so 
much had been expected, produced no more effect upon 
the Filipinos than the fall of Pretoria produced upon 
the Boers. The institution of Civil Government, which 
Governor Taft believed would give universal satisfaction, 
was a disappointment as far as peace was concerned. 
The Filipinos still expressed a preference for the Decla- 
ration of Independence, and there, on the noble brow of 
Mt. Maquiling, within sight of Governor Taft's palace, 
were the harried forces of General Malvar. 

And so. General Chaffee, fresh from his brilliant suc- 
cesses before the walls of Peking, was given command 
in the hope that he would be equally successful in Luzon. 

But General Chaffee after a time discovered that even 
"Kitchener methods" were inadequate to cope with a 
people imbued with a passion for independence. "A 
nation of men bent on freedom," says Emerson, " can 
easily confound the arithmetic of statists, and achieve 


extravagant actions out of all proportion to their means." 
Even kind-hearted Governor Taft, though committed to 
a policy of peace, seemed to be at his wits' end. His 
evil genius, Buencamino, — like " Judas, who also betrayed 
him," — then whispered words in his ear,* and Governor 
Taft thereupon urged the military to greater severity 
in the war, under the euphemism of " pinching " f the 
wealthier non-combatants who did not praise or approve 
his Civil Government. The military formed their own 
interpretation of what " pinching " was to mean, and the 
Manila press became quite jubilant, and even jocular, 
over the prospect of final triumph by extermination! 
Thus, one newspaper opined that " there was likely soon 
to be a large decrease 171 the population of Samar!" 
Another understood that " Samar was to be made so 
that even the birds could not live there," and declared 
that "what fire and water h2id done in Panay, ivater dind. 
fire would do in Samar." This was the first public 
admission that the " water torture " had been practised 
in the Philippines ; hitherto the charge had been indig- 
nantly denied. 

* Buencamino is said to have recommended the arrest of all the 
wealthy non-combatants ; and in a letter to Governor Taft he even 
approves of the extermination of the entire population of Batangas 
province. (See Buencamino's letter to Governor Taft, dated January 
8, 1902, and published in Renacimiento, June 28, 1902.) 

f'What I said was that, in my judgment, measures which would 
bring home to the rich persons, who were responsible for the continu- 
ance of the war, a pinching— I think I used the word 'pinching'— a 
pinching knowledge of what the war meant, would end it." — Governor 
TafV s evidence before Senate Committee: Report, p. 104. 


"HnD there was TXleeping In all JuOea." 

It was in this spirit, and apparently with permission, 
if not instructions, in keeping with General Chaffee's 
policy and Governor Taft's recommendation, that General 
Bell was given the task of pacifying " Old Batangas " 
and the adjoining provinces. To take and hold large 
tracts of mountainous country, in many parts inaccessible 
to American troops, against a mobile and an illusive foe, 
required a much larger force than General Bell had at 
his command. The task in the Philippines was as diffi- 
cult as was the similar task under similar conditions in 
South Africa. Even wholesale burning, and reconcen- 
tration with all its horrors, were found to be inadequate 
in both countries. Friendly conference and concession 
were finally adopted with satisfactory results in South 
Africa, but apparently no such humane policy could be 
thought of in the Philippines. Consequently, Generals 
Smith and Bell were compelled to resort to methods of 
warfare not provided for in the Geneva Convention. 
Blame, however, must attach not so much to these men 
as to the policy that drove them to these extremes. 

" A self-deluded man is he who deems the head is inno- 
cent that moves the hand." 

To drive Malvar's forces from mountain fastness to 
swamp and jungle, and thence to final defeat, would have 
required a force as large as the army with which Napoleon 
entered Russia. It was absurd to expect that the Amer- 
ican people would provide General Bell with such a force 
in order simply to defeat a few of General Otis's 


" ladrones." Governor Taft's recommendation of " pinch- 
ing" the wealthier non-combatants had therefore to be 
resorted to. Those in arms were not within reach, and 
consequently the natural if doubtful procedure was to 
make the sufferings of those within reach so intense as 
to appeal to the humane sympathies of Malvar and those 
in the field. 

It has been pointed out that one of the tests of the 
righteousness of a policy is its reasonableness. Another 
test is the cleanness and fairness of the methods neces- 
sary to its accomplishment. If in the nature of things 
there is one certitude it is that a righteous end does not 
demand unrighteous means. The theories that it is 
right to "do evil that good may come," and that "the 
end justifies the means," are now utterly discredited by 
common honesty, to say nothing about religion and 
higher morality. The apologists of the methods adopted 
in the Philippines have therefore been unfortunate, to 
say the least, in their plea that the methods were " neces- 
sary," for if the methods were necessary the policy stands 
condemned. General Weyler also found similar methods 
necessary in Cuba, but the plea of necessity did not save 
him from the righteous condemnation of the American 
people and of the civilized world. The man — whether 
it be Weyler or Waller — who pleads the necessity of 
wholesale killing in order to inflict what he or his superiors 
regard as good government, is in the same category as 
the inquisitor who tortured and burned his fellow-man 
for the glory of God. 

•* God ! — that the worm whom Thou hast made 
Should thus his brother-worm invade ! 


Count deeds like these good service done. 
And deem Thine eye looks smiling on ! " 

General Bell, whose conscience is keener apparently 
than that of the "seasoned soldier," himself declares 
that he considered for a whole month the adoption ot 
these methods, and that he finally yielded because of 
" necessity." * It is instructive to trace, when he had 
thus yielded in spite of the prompting of conscience, 
how he reached extremes by what must have been 
familiarity with horror. Not only were the ordinary 

*In a letter written to a friend in Washington, dated Batangas, April 
10, 1902, General Bell says : "The policy which has been pursued here 
is absolutely the only one which could have accomplished such results. 
Well knowing the views of the American people on the concentration in 
Cuba, you can readily believe that it has been a time of great anxiety 
to me. However, I thought over the matter for a month. I finally be- 
came thoroughly convinced that I could not bring peace to these people 
. . . Knowing my disposition and kindly feeling [ ! ] toward the natives 
full well, you will have no difficulty in understanding that the necessity 
for severe measures has been a source of distress to me." — Army and 
Navy Jmirnal. 

The "views of the American people on the concentration in Cuba" 
are best expressed by President McKinley in his first message to Con- 
gress : "This cruel policy of concentration . . . the late cabinet of 
Spain justified as a necessary measure of war and as a means of cutting 
off supplies from the insurgents. ... It was not civilized w'arfare : it 
was extermination. Against this abuse of the right of war I have felt 
constrained on repeated occasions to enter the firm and earnest protest 
of this government." In a subsequent message President McKinley 
wrote : " As I said in my message of last December, it was not civilized 
warfare: it was extermination. The oiily peace it could beget was that 
of the wilderness and the grave." 

Thus, when General Bell speaks of bringing " peace to these people," 
President McKinley prophetically tells what the nature of the peace is 
to be : " that of the wilderness and the grave " 1 


people herded like cattle in concentration camps which 
have elsewhere been described as " suburbs of hell," but 
almost all of the prominent men in Batangas — lawyers, 
doctors, merchants — were imprisoned and made to do 
hard labor in the streets like common malefactors. And 
to sustain these men in this unaccustomed exertion, in 
a tropical climate, they were given a diet of rice and 

"Can Ihonor envcV* 

It might have been thought, however, that the Lopez 
family, on account of their honorable record and in view 
of the services they had rendered to the American 
authorities, would have received some consideration. 
But neither honorable conduct, nor services rendered, 
nor hospitality shown, were of any avail in the presence 
of a policy dictated by " necessity." Accordingly, three 
of the Lopez brothers were arrested, and imprisoned for 
a term of five months ; the family house at Balayan, and 
the barns and storehouses on their plantations, were 
seized, along with the title-deeds of their estates and 
other documents and papers ; their steamship, the 
"Purisima Concepcion," was confiscated to the use of 
the military authorities ; their house at Abra-de-Ilog in 
Mindoro, though it had frequently given shelter to 
American officers during the stress of the rainy season, 
was burned, along with a store of rice ; and, worst of all, 
one of their superintendents on the Balayan plantations — 
Isabelo Capacia — was tortured to death.* 

* The following is an extract from the letter of Senor Ignacio Laines, 
of Balayan, Batangas, who, at the request of the Lopez family, made an 
inquiry into the circumstances of the death of Isabelo Capacia: — 


At the time of these arrests only three of the family, 
Lorenzo, Cipriano, and the eldest daughter, Andrea, were 
in Batangas under General Bell's jurisdiction. The 
mother, Senora Maria Castelo, with Mariano, Clemencia, 
Juliana, and Maria, were in Manila. Manuel, though a 
resident of Manila, where he attended to the shipping 
business, had gone on the " Purisima " to Boac, in the 
island of Marinduque, which was under Civil Government. 
General Bell had no jurisdiction in Boac or Manila, 
between which ports the " Purisima " was then trading, 
and the manner of Manuel's arrest might well form a 
subject for future investigation : he was on board the 
•'Purisima" at Boac, enjoying "all the privileges and 
immunities " of Civil Government, when Lieutenant Allen, 
in command of twenty-five soldiers, applied to him to be 
taken to Batangas. Now, the ports of Batangas had 
been closed ; and Manuel, though he regarded the 

"... I will now continue the history of poor Isabelo until his un- 
happy death, which was as follows : . . . Isabelo was taken from the 
prison and put into a wagon by Inspector Bunzon, with a few soldiers 
as a guard ; they then went to the town of Tuy, where a company of 
Macaljebe 'scouts' was stationed, under the command of the American 
otRcer, Lieutenant Shawski [ ? ]. The next day, Tuesday, Lieutenant 
Shawski, Bunzon, and the Macabebe soldiers took Isabelo to the bank 
of the river Matauanak, where, after having wrapped him in a Carabao 
skin and attached a stone to his belt as a weight, they threw him into 
the water, allowing him to be entirely submerged. When the execu- 
tioners of this torture saw through the clear water that the victim no 
longer moved, and therefore no longer breathed, they took him out on 
the bank, where they terminated their torture by jumping on his body, 
until blood burst from his mouth, nose, eyes, and ears; finally breaking 
some of his ribs, and thus they left him unconscious. Having accom- 
plished this, Bunzon returned to Balayan, with the tortured man, com- 
pletely mangled, stretched out in the wagon; and in this condition he 
was returned to the detention room in the convent. . . . The American 
physician of this detachment, Mr. Cheedester [ ?], applied all the con- 
venient remedies to save the tortured man, but it was all useless, for in 
a little while he died." [See complete letter hereinafter printed.] 


request as in reality an order, hesitated to comply, in the 
absence of higher authority. Lieutenant Allen there- 
upon took matters into his own hands, commanding that 
the vessel be put to sea for Batangas, and giving orders 
that no one be permitted to leave the boat. Upon his 
arrival at Batangas Manuel was formally placed under 
arrest and the steamer was seized to the use of the 
United States government. 

Lorenzo, the delicate one of the family, had suffered 
for years from a chest disorder. He required special 
attention as to food and clothing, and, indeed, had never, 
since his first seizure with the disease, slept out of his 
own specially prepared bed. Yet, when he was arrested 
with Cipriano and Manuel, he was compelled to sleep on 
bare stone floors, and to eat "wretched food" during 
his imprisonment in Batangas. Apparently, he and 
they would have suffered from starvation had it 
not been for the kindness of their fellow-prisoners, to 
whom outside relatives supplied food. " We were thus 
able," says Manuel, in a recent account, "to eke out 
our fare from their provisions, and did not, therefore, 
become ill." 

Continuing, Manuel thus tells of their treatment 
during the first month of their imprisonment : " From 
l^atangas they took us to [ the Bay of Manila, en route 
to] the Island of Malagi, Laguna de Bay, as exiles ; and 
you cannot imagine the kind of treatment we were all 
subjected to. They put us in the bottom of the hold of 
the steamer ' Legaspi,' and I doubt if they would have 
treated animals so inhumanly. We were kept there for 
four days, and if we had been thus kept much longer, 
half of the hundred men would have died ; as it was. 


many of them became ill." One can imagine what this 
modification of the Black Hole of Calcutta must have 
meant in the no less tropical climate of Manila. One 
hundred prisoners for four days in the bottom of the 
hold of a small steamer without port-holes ! " After- 
wards," proceeds Manuel, " we were transferred to the 
steamer ' Liscum,' where we were somewhat better off 
as regards space during the following fourteen days. 
There also we were put in the hold, but with the advan- 
tage that this boat had port-holes through which the air 
entered. They gave us the best place, which was the 
space provided for the transportation of horses. On the 
14th of January . . . they took us off in small boats, 
towed by a little tug, and transported us to Malagi, an 
island that had never been inhabited, where they kept us 
for three months and six days." 

"... ^bat is the Question.** 

Now, the reader may very naturally ask : For what 
reason and on what grounds was all this done ? That is 
the question to which no one has yet been able to obtain 
a satisfactory reply. Was it that the Lopez family had 
abandoned their former attitude toward the American 
authorities .? Or, had they violated any of the common 
rules of neutrality ? They are conscious of no such 
abandonment or violation. No charge of the kind has 
been brought against them, and they have sought in vain 
for an explanation of the unjust treatment to which they 
have been subjected. There was no formal indictment 
at the time of the arrest of the three brothers, nor at 
any subsequent period. It is true that an informal 


charge was made against Cipriano, to the effect that he 
had failed to give up certain rifles at the time of his 
surrender to Major Bullard ten months previously. But 
after what appears to have been an equally informal 
inquiry, undertaken in the leisurely manner of Spanish 
times, the charge was abandoned, and Cipriano, though 
still a prisoner, was made to accept a position of some 
responsibility under the military government of the 

As to the other two brothers, the only reason assigned 
for their arrest appears to have been that they were 
brothers of Cipriano and Sixto. This would indeed be 
humorous were the circumstances less serious, for at the 
time when they assumed this relation to Sixto, or he to 
them, they were too young to know better and too feeble 
to raise successful objection ! 

During the imprisonment of all three brothers, the 
family made repeated representations to the military 
authorities in Manila, but all without avail. In this they 
had the able and kindly assistance of Captain George 
Curry, the Chief of the Manila Police, and formerly an 
officer in " Roosevelt's Rough Riders," who communicated 
also with General Bell. In reply, General Bell stated 
that "he would keep Cipriano in prison until his hair 
turned gray," unless he delivered up the above-mentioned 
rifles (this was before the inquiry had been held) ; and 
that as to Lorenzo and Manuel, " for the good of the 
government they had better remain to keep Cipriano 
company ; besides, as they were brothers of Sixto Lopez, 
who was a great enemy of the government, they were 
justly imprisoned " ! 

A personal application, by two of the sisters, to General 

Josh Ri/.\i. and ^>i\i<) i.oi'KZ 

From a photograph taken in Hong-Kong in iS<)I 

[ See note in Hit of illustrations ] 



Bell elicited only insult* and the information that the 
intention and purpose was " to humiliate the Filipinos." 
So also, when Mariano Lopez personally applied to 
Captain Bash, to whom he had been referred by higher 
authority, he was met with the impolite question : " Why 
are fou not a prisoner?" Indeed, why not? He too 
was "a brother of Sixto Lopez," and was as much under 
the jurisdiction of General Bell as had been Manuel. 
" I do not know," said Mariano ; and his reply was 
suggestive of a deeper meaning than at first appears ! 

''Bppeal tbou to QxesivV* 

From the first it was apparent that justice would not 
be obtainable in the Philippines. The military were the 
sole judges of their own acts, and were subject to all the 
unconscious bias that comes from looking only at one 
side of the shield. The Civil Government was civil only 
in name, and was unable or unwilling, or both, even to 
protest against the arrest, by the military, of Manuel 
who, at the time, was under the jurisdiction of the civil 
authorities and not under that of General Bell. For 
these and other reasons, one of the Lopez sisters deter- 
mined to seek justice by an appeal to the highest authority. 
Accordingly, within twenty-four hours after receiving the 
news of her brothers' arrest, — which reached her in 
Hong-Kong, whither she and her youngest sister, all 
tmaware of the calamity that had befallen the family in 
Batangas, had gone to visit their exiled brother, Sixto, — 

* It is only fair to state that General Bell has since apologized for his 
rudeness, stating, in explanation, that he was out of temper at the time. 


Clemencia Lopez, with characteristic courage, without 
relative to protect or experience to guide, a stranger to 
the outer world, started on her long journey to the 
United States. 

Her kindly reception in Boston by relatives and friends 
of Mr. and Mrs. Fiske Warren ; the assistance they 
gave her in her unusual mission ; and the nature of her 
audience with the President in March, are more or less 
known to American readers. It may be said that the 
President showed a more than ordinary interest in her 
case, and, as was to have been expected, referred her 
petition to the Secretary of War, with instructions that 
it was to have early attention. 

After some delay, in reply to an inquiry by Mrs. 
Sam.uel D. W^arren, who, with friendly interest, had 
accompanied Miss Lopez to Washington and introduced 
her to the President, the following letter was received 
from Mr. Secretary Cortelyou : 

"White House, Washington, April 23, 1902. 
" Dear Madam : 

" The President has received your note of the 22nd 
instant, and requests me to say in reply that he has gone 
carefully over with the War Department the matter of 
which you write, having been in correspondence with the 
authorities at Manila and in consultation with Governor 
Taft here, and that he does not think anything can 
properly be done. He will see Secretary Root on his 
return from Cuba, but there appears to be a consensus 
of opinion that no injustice was done. 
" Very truly, yours, 

"George R. Cortelyou, 

" Secretaiy to the President. 
" Mrs. Mabel Bayard Warren, 
" Boston, Mass." 


Naturally, nothing was to have been expected from 
"the authorities at Manila," who had inflicted the injus- 
tice, nor from "Governor Taft," who practically had 
recommended it. When William II., of Germany, dis- 
missed his aged Chancellor there was a certain admira- 
tion for the young Emperor, provoked by his determina- 
tion to be Emperor in fact as well as in name. However, 
it was, of course, difficult for the President to interfere 
with the acts of generals in the field, athough, if abso- 
lutely no supervision is to be exercised and no interfer- 
ence tolerated, then the military become complete masters 
of any situation, and can conduct matters according to 
their own sweet will. But proper respect demands that 
criticism in this connection shall be confined to the 
merest generalities. 

Not so with the wording of Mr. Cortelyou's reply, 
which must be regarded as somewhat unfortunate. Here 
was a petitioner who had come from a people repeatedly 
alleged to be in ignorance of " the beneficent purposes 
of the United States" ; who believed that a great injus- 
tice had been done her and her family ; who was con- 
scious of the futility of seeking justice from those who 
had inflicted the injury ; and who had come all the way 
to America filled with hope and in the belief that those 
who had wrongfully imprisoned her brothers were not rep- 
resentative of the justness and kindness of the American 
people. Now, if Mr. Cortelyou's reply had admitted the 
hardship of the case ; if it had pleaded temporary mili- 
tary necessity, a plea so frequently made use of in other 
directions ; if it had counseled patience and given assur- 
ance of final justice. Miss Lopez and her fellow-country- 
men would have felt that there were essential justice and 


good will at the centre of authority. But the effect 
upon Miss Lopez, of the inconclusive reply that "there 
appears to be a consensus of opinion that no injjLStice 
was done," must be left to the imagination of those who 
have the sympathetic power of placing themselves in 
her position. Fortunately, she was in the hands of her 
kindly hostess. Miss Cornelia Warren, whose sympathy 
and counsel were all that Mr. Cortelyou's reply was not. 
There still remained one faint possibility : the Presi- 
dent " will see Secretary Root on his return from Cuba." 
Perhaps the phrase was a mere formality, but, to one 
who pondered in the silent watches of the night on the 
sufferings of dear ones in a distant land, here was some- 
thing which hope might cling to and love interpret in its 
own way. 

**^be XaWs Delays/' 

If, however, a decision was arrived at by seeing Sec- 
retary Root, only those then present, and perhaps the 
angels in heaven, know of its nature. Up to the pres- 
ent time no intimation of it has reached Miss Lopez. 
But in a printed document issued by the Senate Com- 
mittee on the Philippines there is a deliverance by Mr. 
Charles E. Magoon, " Law Officer, Division of Insular 
Affairs," dated i ith of April, in which it is recommended 
that "the application to the President by Clemencia 
Lopez for the release from arrest and detention of her 
three brothers, Lorenzo, Cipriano, and Manuel ... be 
denied." Whether this recommendation, addressed to 
the Secretary of War, was adopted by the President is 
not known. The Lopez brothers have since been re- 
leased along with, or shortly after the release of, their 


fellow-prisoners, but the mystery of their imprisonment 
remains a mystery still. Indeed, the statement of Mr. 
Magoon only serves to intensify the mystery. For if his 
theory as to the powers of a commanding general be 
correct, — if, as he claims, the immunity from interfer- 
ence enjoyed by non-combatants is due entirely "to the 
grace of the conqueror," and if General Bell therefore 
had the right to arrest and imprison those within his 
jurisdiction to whom even " suspicion " attached, there 
might have been some shadow of justification for the 
imprisonment of Cipriano Lopez, against whom there 
was at least an unfounded charge. But how does the 
theory apply to Lorenzo, who had always lived at peace 
with all men, never even, as far as is known, expressing 
an opinion for or against American rule, and to whom 
no suspicion could conceivably attach ? If General Bell 
really had the right to arrest such men as Lorenzo, he 
must indeed have had the right to arrest any one within 
his jurisdiction. This is certainly an extraordinary de- 
cision, which, it is hoped, will not be accepted as a 
precedent in military jurisprudence. But, admitting for 
the moment its correctness, where did General Bell obtain 
the right, and whence the legal authority, to arrest and 
imprison Manuel, who was in a part of the archipelago 
then under civil rule and not within General Bell's juris- 
diction } These are points not touched upon in Mr. 
Magoon's hasty deliverance. 

"THaben Boctots Differ/* 

But Mr. Magoon, apparently unintentionally, removes 
the last remaining shred of suspicion against the Lopez 


family, thus leaving General Bell, whom he is endeavor- 
ing to support, without the shadow of a pretext for the 
actions complained of. The Lopez family have been 
informed, by several military officers in the Philippines 
with whom they were on friendly terms, that the arrest 
of their brothers was in order to secure the " submission 
of Sixto Lopez," and that the seizure of their property 
was in order to prevent their giving him pecuniary sup- 
port in his work in America. This would almost seem 
incredible were it not that incredible things are forever 
occurring in the Philippines. The confiscating of their 
steamer, at that time their only means of livelihood, and 
the seizure of the title-deeds of their estates, which 
would prevent the securing of advances, seem to lend 
countenance to the theory. Captain Curry takes a sim- 
ilar view : " These harsh measures," he writes to Mr. 
Warren, " were believed by General Bell to be necessary ; 
and whereas I differ with him as to the guilt of the 
Lopez brothers, they are undoubtedly suffering largely 
on account of their brother, Sixto Lopez," The "guilt 
of the Lopez brothers " refers to the above-mentioned 
charge against Cipriano, which, upon inquiry, was aban- 
doned by General Bell, thus confirming Captain Curry's 
opinion as to the innocence of the brothers, in spite of 
Mr. Magoon's contention that the General was a better 
judge than the Captain. But General Bell himself prac- 
tically admits that these arrests and seizures were for 
the purpose of securing the acquiescence of Sixto Lopez 
in American rule ; for, in a letter to General Wheaton, 
written only fourteen days after the arrests, General 
Bell says : "These people need a thrashing to teach them 
some common sense [!], and they should have it for the 


good of all concerned. Sixto Lopez is now interested 
in peace because I have in jail all the male members of 
his family found in my jurisdiction [and one v\o\. found 
in his jurisdiction !], and have seized his houses and palay 
(rice) and his steamer, the ' Purisima Concepcion,' for the 
use of the Government." The fact that Sixto Lopez 
had always been " interested in peace," and that he had 
urged his own countrymen as well as those in America 
to adopt peaceable means, does not seem to have been 
known to General Bell. So too, the General assumes 
that Sixto Lopez was a member of the Hong-Kong Junta 
— an assumption which is not sustained by fact. On the 
contrary, Sixto Lopez has never belonged to any Junta, 
and has always had serious differences with the Junta at 
Hong-Kong as to its war-policy. Nevertheless, on the 
document of release of the Lopez brothers there is this 
endorsement on the upper margin of the paper : "Brother 
of Sixto Lopez, member of the Hong-Kong Junta." 
This is the only indictment against them ; it provides 
strong confirmation of the theory of Captain Curry 
and other officers that the Lopez brothers " are undoubt- 
edly suffering largely on account of their brother, Sixto 

Now, if General Bell construed the relationship of the 
Lopez brothers to Sixto as a ground of suspicion or a 
cause of complaint,. he must have done so without the 
knowledge, sanction, or approval of the Law Officer of 
the Department of Insular Affairs. For Mr. Magoon 
elaborately denies that Sixto Lopez had or could have 
anything to do with the arrest of the Lopez brothers. 
"No one," says Mr. Magoon, "has ever considered his 
[Sixto Lopez's] presence in the United States, or the 


efforts in which he was engaged, as in any degree jeop- 
ardizing the interests or plans of the United States. The 
political complications in respect of the Philippines which 
have arisen in the United States and the obstacles encount- 
ered ill the Philippines would have been the same had 
Sixto Lopez never existed. . . . His public utterances 
have been advantageous to the Administration rather 
than otherwise. ... I am unable to discover, either in 
the papers filed with this application or in the records of 
the War Department, any evidence that General Bell, in 
ordering the action complained of, took thought of its 
possible effect upon Sixto Lopez." (The italics are not 
Mr. Magoon's.) 

Thus the plea put forth, or at any rate implied, by 
General Bell and others in the Philippines, is haughtily 
repudiated by Mr. Magoon in Washington. This is 
interesting, but it does not serve to clear up the mystery 
of the arrest of the Lopez brothers. Indeed, the only 
gleam of light thrown on the mystery by Mr, Magoon's 
prolix deliverance is found in the affront which he offers 
Miss Lopez by implying that she was ready to become 
the tool of those whom he unwarrantably charges with 
seeking to secure " the sympathy Americans naturally 
feel for a woman in distress, whatever the cause!' Rud- 
yard Kipling tells, in his '* Brushwood Boy," how Cottar 
discovers that there are "things no fellow can do" ; that 
is to say, there are things which no gentleman must do 
— even in an official capacity. The demeanor of Gen- 
eral Bell toward two of the Lopez sisters in Manila, 
and that of Mr. Magoon toward the other sister in 
America, indicate a contempt, born of unconscious race 
prejudice, which helps to explain the matter. It is in- 


conceivable that cither of these gentlemen would offer 
insult under similar circumstances to women of their 
own race, or treat those whom they regarded as equals 
in the manner they hax'c treated the Lope^ brothers. 
But when dealing with a race of people for whom con- 
tempt is felt, any reason, or no reason at all, is suffi- 
cient excuse for the infliction of a convenient injustice, 
Lorenzo and Cipriano and Manuel know this to be true ; 
General Bell and Mr. Magoon have simply furnished the 

Miss Lopez will therefore return to her own country 
wiser only in experience and in the knowledge that even 
good men, who act in violation of fundamental principle, 
arc sometimes powerless to rectify an incidental injustice, 
however great. 

"tTbe ipalm, tor the ©l(vc*:fi5ranch/* 

But let honor be given where it is due. It must be 
said that the President showed interest in Miss Lopez's 
case, and it may be presumed that he felt sympathy for 
those in distress. His personal intervention, if it did not 
secure or hasten the release of the Lopez brothers, appar- 
ently did service in ameliorating their condition during 
the remainder of their term of imprisonment. In marked 
contrast with their treatment already described is the 
account given by Manuel of how they fared later : 
"Company H of the 28th Infantry," says Manuel, "who 
were our custodians, and especially the officers, behaved 
themselves divinely toward the three of us. They were 
very gentlemanly in their bearing, gave us whatever we 
asked for, and treated us with every consideration." 


To the President's personal intervention may also be 
attributed the wonderful manner in which the Lopez 
brothers have been restored to American favor since 
their release. The whole family have been shown marked 
kindness, and Cipriano, who was to have been kept in 
prison until time whitened his locks and dimmed his eye, 
has received special consideration and praise from General 
Bell. Thus, one of the sisters writes : " General Bell, 
of whom three provinces had such a horror, has suddenly 
assumed very gracious manners and is quite affable 
toward the Lopez family, I have good reason to say 
so, for the pass which he gave Cipriano, for Abra de Hog 
and the whole island of Mindoro, absolutely prohibits all 
the chiefs of detachments from interfering with Cipriano 
and our interests there, and orders that they shall put 
no obstacles in the way of his business transactions, 
unless his own actions should give them good cause ; 
and that even then no one must arrest him without 
previously obtaining the consent of General Chaffee. 
You must know that Cipriano is in favor with General 
Bell ; the latter can do nothing but praise him, and he 
treated him well toward the last. What is more, one 
day when the General was in the office of the Provost 
of Batangas he ordered Cipriano to be called in order 
that he might apologize to him for the manner in which 
he had treated Maria and me ; for according to the 
General's account, he was in a bad temper at the 
time, and said that we should pardon him, for he 
was really ashamed. He told Captain Curry the same 

Later, the same sister writes : " Last Sunday we were 
obliged to attend a ball, given, according to their [the 


American oflficers'] account, in honor of the ladies of the 
Lopez family, which took place in the Commandancia ; 
and this, in spite of the objections we made in order to 
avoid going. We were there until two o'clock in the 
morning, when they at last permitted us to leave. It 
was quite gay, for almost all Balayan was there ; and 
besides, they had made much preparation, so that they 
had everything. At any other time I should have been 
somewhat diverted, but at present, far from being so, I 
was sad, and the more attention they paid us the more I 
wished to cry. 

"You cannot imagine, Clemen, how gallant and def- 
erential these egregious officers are toward us. Without 
going any further for an example, every time they receive 
cablegrams with sensational news, or newspapers, the)- 
can hardly take time to get them to us. Last night they 
brought their large phonograph (I have not seen so large 
a one even in Manila), so that we might hear it ; and 
other things of the same sort. So that we can do no 
less than be grateful to them." 

The breath comes quickly and the tear steals down 
one's cheek when one thinks of the essential good- 
heartedness of these officers in their almost boyish 
attempts to make some sort of reparation for the wrong 
that has been done. Indeed, there is more than good- 
heartedness in all this. General Bell and his officers 
have been brought into closer touch with some of the 
Filipinos. Is it possible that the great viisii7iderstanding 
vanished ? The two contestants stand face to face as 
man to man. There is no plea that can justify, no policy 
that can shield. Do they now see each other's point of 
view, do they know each other's motives and mistakes t 


Has resentment turned to sorrow, and has something 
been born in each heart which asks : " Was it for this, 
my brother, tliat we sought each other's hfe ? " 

"IReturn, © Hsrael." 

But the wrong has yet to be righted — the wrong not 
only to the individual but to the people. The one is the 
result of the other, and both are because of a violation 
of principle. All of the misunderstanding, all the injus- 
tice, all the evil, all the cruelty and horror are due to the 
violation of an eternal principle which affirms the right 
of every people to govern itself. And all the considera- 
tions about "philanthropic intention" and the "white 
man's burden " and the " elevation of alien races " and 
the " blessings of good government " and the " resplen- 
dent world-mission of America" cannot excuse the viola- 
tion of that principle or obviate the evils and horrors 
that must follow its violation. 

Assuredly, America has a resplendent world-mission 
to perform — the mission of planting not the fruits but 
the principles of liberty in every corner of the earth 
where despotism reigns to-day. For wherever the prin- 
ciples of liberty are planted, the fruits — light and law 
and good government — are sure to follow. No need 
for Old World methods, which have done a little good 
and an incalculable amount of evil ; the good being 
lauded and magnified in order to cover up the evil. No 
need of the sword, except to defend. The emblem of 
Liberty is the wand, not the sword — the wand to point, 
not the sword to kill. 


There is a rule that embraces all principles and is the 
test of ail policies. It is as old as human sympathy and 
known to all, yet acted upon by few. It stands to con- 
demn the evil of the past, yet marks a startinr,^-point for 
the future. Let America, the God-favored of peoples, 
be the first to elevate the Golden Rule to a place in the 
conduct of nations. 


Letters from the East 

THE Bard of Avon, to whose receptive mind every- 
thing in Nature had a meaning, could discover 
" tongues in trees, books in the running brooks, 
sermons in stones, and good in every tiling!' 
This gem of alhterative wit and philosophy concludes 
with a hteral though startling truth ; and this, in spite of 
the difficulty of discovering good in some of the darker 
pages of this world's history. Certainly, to those who 
possess a measure of human sympathy, and a love of 
liberty which rises to the giving of equal liberty to others, 
it might be beyond reasonable expectation to find even 
an incidental good in the merciless phases of the Philip- 
pine war. Yet in this, too, Shakespeare stands confirmed. 
For, as a result of the imprisonment of the Lopez 
brothers, there has been unfolded a series of family 
letters of unusual interest and value. Indeed, it is no 
exaggeration to say that never before have letters of 
such a character been received from the dreamy East. 

Devoid of any pretension to literary merit or descrip- 
tive art, these letters present in the easy simplicity of 
truth a picture of the life and character of an Eastern 
people which even a master hand might fail to delineate. 
Breathing a spirit of the purest family and filial devotion, 
pathetic and unintentionally humorous in turn, merciless 
in their scorn of false friend or unworthy foe, frank in 
admitting or correcting a former error or false report, 
they are full to overflowing of Filipino human nature — 
remarkably like human nature the world over. All the 
more valuable are they because they were not written 
for purposes of display or to obtain notoriety. They are 


simply family letters intended for private perusal only, 
and were written solely for the purpose of informing; 
those who were absent of the misfortunes that had 
befallen the persons and property of the family. Yet 
unintentionally they serve a different and an even more 
interesting purpose, by giving, as has been said, an other- 
wise unobtainable picture of family life in the Philippines, 
and an insight into Filipino life and character, entirely 
new to the Western world. 

Most of these letters are the work of a young Filipina, 
suddenly called upon to assume responsibilities beyond 
her years. Up to that time the duties and responsibilities 
of the Lopez family had been divided among its elder 
members according to natural ability and inclination. 
Thus, Senora Castelo, with Lorenzo and Cipriano, man- 
aged the Balayan estates; Mariano was the politician, 
the lawyer, the "gentleman" of the family; Sixto was 
its natural-born and paternally appointed patriot ; Manuel 
attended to all that went down to the sea in ships ; 
Andrea was the domestic " house-body " and second 
mother to the family ; Clemencia was the general con-e- 
spondent and factotum, and was her mother's right hand ; 
while Juliana, Jose, and Maria were still regarded as the 
" children of the family," and, as such, were struggling 
with arts and accomplishments befitting the present 
utilitarian and genteel era! Suddenly, all this was 
changed, and in the change Senora Castelo discovered 
that there were latent powers in Juliana, the eldest of the 
three " children," who was found to be in reality no child 
but a second Clemencia. Upon her, therefore, devolved 
many duties hitherto performed by other members of 
the family, among which was that of family correspond- 
ent. In this she was assisted by Mariano and little 
Maria, the former giving solidity, the latter quaintness, 
to the correspondence. 

The letters were, of course, written in Spanish, but 
faithful translations have been made by Miss Helen C. 
Wilson, a graduate of Radcliffe College, and for some 


time engaged in educational work in Cuba. These trans- 
lations retain, in a rather remarkable manner, the simple 
character of the originals, upon which no attempt has 
been made to improve. Finally, it should be stated that 
a few unimportant paragraphs have been omitted from 
the translations, chiefly because they were regarded as 
wholly uninteresting to the general reader, and with a 
view to economy in space. 

The Lopez Letters 

The first letter is from Juliana [" Ninay "] to her 
sisters, Clemencia and Maria, then on a visit to Sixto at 
Hong-Kong. Juliana and the rest of the family at 
Manila were at the time unaware of the arrest of the 
three brothers at Boac and Balayan, which had occurred 
three days previously. 

For the sake of clearness it should be mentioned that 
in this and all future letters the name " Quita " is used 
as an abbreviation of Mariquita, the diminutive of Maria. 
"Clemen" stands, of course, for Clemencia. 

[From Juliana to Clemencia and Maria Lopez, then at Hong-Kong.] 

Manila, December 17, 1901. 

My Dear Sisters : I suppose that by this time you 
can already distinguish from the deck of the steamer the 
shores of Hong-Kong, and so, only a few hours will elapse 
before you arrive and quickly see Sixto and our friends, 
whom also you have not seen for some time, though not 
for so long. 

I write to tell you that I am delighted because of the 
joy it will give you to see at last our dear brother and 
never-to-be-forgotten friends, who will be astonished, not 
expecting to see you so soon. 

Juliana I.oi'kz 
fVhose letters form the basis of this book 


Yes, from the time you start' cl until now I have been 
counting the hours it will take you to reach them, and 
have been making conjectures as to how you have passed 
the journey, whether Clemen would be very seasick and 
whether Quita would eat as well on board as ashore, 
in spite of her promise to me never to lose her liking for 
food. I am sure you will be very cold and that the cli- 
mate there will affect you in spite of the fact that Clemen 
said it would not ; and I say this because for two nights 
we have felt it here, and it has indeed troubled us. 

Yesterday morning I telegraphed to Lorenzo, through 
[Lieutenant] Raymond, telling him of your departure 
and of that of your companions, and I also wrote him 
by post a long letter, telling him many things. "VVe do 
not intend to go back to Balayan this week, but shall go 
next week if they give us a pass, for it is said that well- 
to-do persons, that is, those who can live comfortably 
here in Manila, will not be allowed to return to their 
towns. As I am not sure about this information, I shall 
try to get permission through our friends, and as soon as 
we obtain it we shall make haste to leave here as soon 
as possible, lest other laws be passed and Balayan be 
completely closed against us so that it would be impos- 
sible for us to go there. We know nothing of Balayan 
and believe it is quiet, for otherwise they would have 
telegraphed us telling us what was happening. 

I will not write any more for fear of missing the mail. 

Our affectionate regards to all our friends, and in par- 
ticular to Messrs. Warren and Patterson, whom I remem- 
ber always and shall never forget. Receive an embrace 
from your sister, Ninay [Juliana]. 

[The foregoing letter is interesting only because of 
its natural, almost commonplace simplicity. There is not 
a striking thought or a noteworthy phrase in its little 
summary of little things. It might have been written 
by any young girl in America or Europe, fresh from a 


convent school, as, indeed, was the case with its youthful 

** Little things minister pleasure. 
As ever it fares with the good." 

It represents Juliana before she was transformed by trial 
and responsibility. Its only value is that it furnishes a 
means of comparing Juliana as she was with Juhana as 
she now is, as shown in her later letters. 


The next letter is a hurried announcement of the 
trouble that had suddenly befallen the family, Juliana 
is still the convent school-girl. There is no expression 
of depth of feeling, for there were then no depths into 
which feeling could penetrate. A great trouble may 
sometimes be known without being realized. It requires 
trial and suffering and experience to deepen and broaden 
the soul, and give intensity to feeling and feeling to 

[From Juliana to Clemencia and Maria Lopez, then at Hong-Kong.] 

Manila, December 19, 1901. 
Dear Sisters : With much sorrow of heart and dis- 
tress I write to tell you that Lorenzo, Cipriano, and 
Manuel have been arrested, the first two in Balayan 
[province of Batangas], and Manuel, I suppose, in Boac ; 
and all three are prisoners in the jail at Batangas [the 
city]. According to information we received last Friday, 
the 1 3th, our house was thoroughly searched, and the 
title-deeds and also some money were taken away. On 
the night of the same day the " Purisima " went to take 
Lorenzo and Cipriano, and Manuel went in the steamer 
with the other two to Batangas. It is also said that the 


keys to the rice storehouse are in the hands of the com- 
manding officer, so that nothing can be taken out with- 
out his pennission. The crew of the " Purisima " are 
also prisoners. 

This news will surprise you as much as it surprised 
me. Mother does not know it yet, and I shall not tell 
her, for it would kill her. We are working, and hope 
justice will be done them and that they will be set at 

I inclose a cutting from the Diario de Filipitias. Our 
friends who have read it are astonished (if Sixto has 
really had interviews with these gentlemen) that he 
should have so bound himself ; as it is not in their hands 
to secure the fulfillment of the promise. Moreover, the 
lawyer with whom Sixto conferred is not to be trusted, 
according to those who know him. 

I do not know what to do, but through it all I hope 
justice will be done, since, as you know, they are inno- 

Good-bye. Consider what you ought to do, whether 
you ought to return or not. 

Your sister, Ninay. 

[A word of explanation is necessary with respect to 
the above reference to a cutting from the Diario de 

Sixto Lopez, during his stay in Hong-Kong, had had 
several interviews with Judge Ladd of the Supreme 
Court of the Philippines, and with Captain Dwyer and 
Attorney Tirrell, both of Manila, who were anxious to 
secure his services in the cause of peace. Senor Lopez 
had, among other things, pointed out that to yield to the 
demand that he should take an oath of allegiance to 
America would at once destroy whatever influence he 
might otherwise have with Malvar. But he assured 
these gentlemen that he would give his word of honor 
to refrain from inciting or encouraging those in the 


field to further armed resistance. Satisfied with the 
reasonableness of this explanation and the sufficiency of 
this assurance, Judge Ladd declared that Sixto Lopez 
was "the very man required in the present situation," 
and Messrs. Dwyer and Tirrell expressed the belief that 
he could be of great service in securing peace. They 
therefore undertook to urge both the civil and military 
authorities to make use of Sixto Lopez's services, prom- 
ising to inform him by cable if their mission proved 

In due course the Diario de Filipinas and other 
Manila newspapers published an account of how Messrs. 
Dwyer and Tirrell's mission had failed, stating that, 
although Vice - Governor Wright had agreed to the 
proposal, General Chaffee remained obdurate and would 
not accept the offer unless Sixto Lopez first took the 

Juliana and her friends were apparently in doubt as to 
the bona fides of Messrs. Dwyer and Tirrell, believing 
that they had made promises which they had no power 
to fulfill. This, however, was a misapprehension, for 
they had simply undertaken to lay the matter before the 
Manila authorities, and had neither given nor asked any 
pledge as to future action. 

The third letter is interesting, yet in no sense remark- 
able. It foreshadows a change, an unconscious dawning 
in Juliana's development. 

** Something hath gleamed upon her, and the spell of her child- 
hood is broken. 
Hardly she knows, as yet, whether to waken or slumber again." 

She is in doubt whether to assume the responsibility 
herself, or to ask her elder sister to return. Yet she is 


" heartsick," and heartsickness is the prelude to soul- 
expansion. She has, too, to conceal her trouble from 
" poor little mother," and thus to assume the weight of 
it herself. 

Messrs. Dwyer and Tirrell are again referred to in 
terms of suspicion, and even General Chaffee is regarded 
as untrustworthy. Those who are inclined to regard this 
as unwarranted suspicion should remember that the con- 
ditions in Manila were and are such as to provoke 
universal distrust. The Civil Government was unable 
to protect those under its own authority from its all- 
powerful military rival. It did indeed make laws, some 
of which were in violation of the charter from which it 
derived its law-making power, but the military authorities 
were complete masters of the situation ; were, in fact, a 
law unto themselves, and defied the civil power. No 
one knew what would happen next ; there was no 
feeling of security, no guarantee of justice. Every 
Filipino was under suspicion, and in turn distrusted 
every American ; the former were regarded with con- 
tempt, the latter held themselves aloof. No one dared 
to peep, or to breathe a word of criticism against the 
military authorities. It was the era of the sycophant 
and the informer. Manila was swarming with secret 
police, a goodly number of whom were also to be found 
in Hong-Kong, Shanghai, and the southern ports of 
Japan. Who could be certain that Messrs. Dwyer and 
Tirrell were not of this fraternity ? Even General 
Chaffee was distrusted, owing to the treatment accorded 

to " Martin C ,"a captured Filipino officer who had 

been liberated on taking the oath of allegiance, and then 
re-arrested and imprisoned for six months, notwithstand- 
ing that he had endeavored, unsuccessfully it is true, to 
induce Malvar to surrender. Such were the condi- 
tions after three years of American occupation of the 


[From Juliana to Clemencia Lopez, then at Hong-Kong.] 

Manila, December 21, 1901. 

Dearest Clemen : When you receive this you will 
already have read mine of the day before yesterday, in 
which I told you in detail about how our poor brothers — 
Lorenzo, Cipriano, and Manuel — were taken prisoners, 
and of the detention of the steamer in Batangas, and the 
arrest of all the crew. We do not yet know how they 
are treated in the prison of "Batangas, where they now 
are, whether well or ill. But I shall soon know, perhaps 
this evening or to-morrow, for the "Custer" will then 
arrive. I had commissioned a friend of mine to find out 
exactly all that is happening in Balayan and Batangas as 
regards our brothers, and he said he would do so with 
pleasure. Mariano and I do not cease working to obtain 
their liberation. 

You cannot imagine, Clemen, how heartsick I am, and 
all the more because I have to conceal it before our poor 
little mother, who has a presentiment that some misfort- 
une has befallen us because of the lateness of the 
steamer [" Purisima "]. And I, to persuade her that there 
was nothing of the sort, told her that the reason was 
because the Americans had hired it. I do not know 
whether to advise you to come or not. But for the last 
two days I have been running here and there and have 
gotten nothing but promises. I should therefore like 
you to come, for I can do nothing alone. 

Yesterday I went twice to see if General Chaffee would 
receive me, and failed. They say that he will deal with 
nobody ; and yet I cannot decide to go to Batangas, know- 
ing what Bell is, without first obtaining a recommenda- 
tion from Chaffee. So I do not know what to do. On 
the other hand, the Federal party have promised to u^ork, 
and I do not know whether they will succeed. We all be- 
lieve that they have taken these harsh measures, imprison- 
ing the principal men in the province, in order that every 
one may work with energy for the surrender of Malvar. 


Say to our brother, if you have not received my last 
letter, that we have read in the papers of his interview 
with Captain Dwyer and with a lawyer whose name I do 
not remember [Mr. Tirrell]. None of our friends bcHeve 
that he [Dwyer or TirrellJ has the right to promise so 
much ; therefore warn Sixto not to fall into the trap. I 
should like to send Sixto the clipping, but I do not find 
it at hand, and I am sure that you have received my let- 
ter with the clipping where it tells of his interview with 
the gentleman, and that General Chaffee has refused to 
allow him to come unless he takes the oath. Even if he 
[General Chaffee] should permit it, I do not need to tell 
you what would happen. Remember Martin C. 

Good-bye, with remembrances from your sister who 
loves you. Ninay. 

[A mistranslation in the following letter unfortunately 
led Mr. Magoon into the belief that the Lopez sisters had 
" conducted a correspondence with Sixto Lopez of such 
a kind and character that prudence dictated the adop- 
tion of measures calculated to prevent knowledge there- 
of from coming to the authorities." The words which 
misled Mr. Magoon were : "When you write, direct the 

letter to , so that it may not attract attention." 

The latter part of the sentence, in italics, is a mistrans- 
lation of the original ^^para que no se extravien^' a correct 
rendering of which would be : " so that it may not go 
astray." Letters had "gone astray" in the Manila post- 
office, and some of those written by the Lopez sisters had 
been delivered only after a long and inexplicable delay. 
Thus, Maria writes : " We are much troubled at your 
saying that you have received no letters from us since I 
left there, for Ninay [Juliana] has written to you at least 
five or six times since I arrived here." Later, Juliana 
writes : " We have finally found a friend by whom to 
send you this letter, for I am afraid you have not re- 


ceived my previous ones and that they are really lost." 
There was undoubtedly a desire to secure safe delivery 
of the letters, and there was also an anxiety on the part 
of Mariano Lopez that nothing should be said which 
an over-suspicious official might construe as against the 
government. This was quite natural ; similar anxiety 
would have been felt by any one else in similar circum- 
stances. But since the letters written by the Lopez 
family had been voluntarily placed in the President's 
hands, it ought to have been clear that there had been 
no attempt to conceal from the authorities the "kind and 
character" of the correspondence.] 

[From Juliana to Clemencia Lopez, at Hong-Kong.] 

Manila, December 26, 1901. 

Dearest Clemen : We did not think it best to answer 
your telegram received yesterday morning, because of the 
present condition of our family. Up to the present time 
our brothers still remain prisoners in Batangas, the 
steamer is held like all the rest of the property, and, 
what is more, we do not know to whom to apply to free 
either our brothers or the property. Everybody with 
whom we talk about this tells us to have more patience 
and to proceed with calmness, because it is the military 
system, and the measure is a general one. The result 
is that I am in despair because I can do nothing for them. 
Through a friend I have learned that they are well treated 
in Batangas, and that they are not made to work as in 
Lipa, where all the rest, both great and small, except the 
stout brother of your friend, and some others whom I do 
not remember, have to work. 

The steamer "Purisima" is now an American trans- 
port and serves the Government ; it does not come to 
Manila, but only makes trips in the provinces. We have 
news, also, that they have not changed the crew of the 
steamer, but they do not let them land, especially in 
Batangas. I have received no letter from Balayan nor 


from our brothers, so I am not certain whether this news 
is true. I cannot write to them for fear of making their 
situation worse, for you do not know, Clemen, how the 
people of Batangas are suffering now, and what they will 
suffer, from hunger. On the other hand, I cannot write 
to the officers who are our friends ; first, because all those 
in Balayan are new and I do not know them, and those 
whom I do know I am afraid of compromising. Captain 
Cole was removed from Balayan because he did not wish 
to take our brothers prisoners, and defended them in 
every way. So it was that I could do nothing else but 
beg the favor from a friend, known only recently, that 
he should go in person and at least find out how they 
are ; and the night before last he came and told me that 
they were well and well treated.* On this account we 
ought not to be so unhappy, for there are others more 
unfortunate than our brothers. 

Although they say that until Malvar surrenders they 
will not give them liberty, yet I have great trust in God 
that they will soon be set free, since Balayan is still 
peaceful and quiet. I do not know whether you will be 
able to understand this letter, for it is like my head, 
topsy-turvy. Arrange it so that when you come you 
bring nothing, absolutely nothing with you, in order to 
avoid even unfounded suspicion. Mariano says that our 
brother [Sixto] ought not to come. Many think that 
this measure taken against our brothers is on his account 
and his friends' who were here. When you write, direct 

the letter to , so that it may not go astray [''para 

que no se cxtravien "]. Mother does not know it yet, but 
suspects, because of the l^ateness of the boat, and I tell 
her anything so that she may not be troubled. 

Good-bye, with regards to all. 

Your sister, Ninay. 


* This report was untrue, as is shown in later letters. 


[ It is the belief of many persons in the PhiHppines, 
both native and foreign, that Mariano Lopez is a lover 
of American sovereignty. This belief receives no coun- 
tenance from the following letter, for although Mariano 
had done everything in his power to secure peace, and 
although he was agreeable, tuidcr the cifaimstances, to a 
term of American rule, he is anxious that Sixto should 
"work in America." For what .? Sixto's work in Amer- 
ica, as Mariano well knew, has always been and will 
continue to be for independence — until it is achieved. 
Mariano's words are therefore significant. His attitude 
is typical of that of many other Filipinos who desire 
peace — and independence. The desire for peace is not 
a negation of independence, nor does it presuppose a 
wish for permanent American control] 

[From Mariano to Sixto Lopez, at Hong-Kong.] 

Manila, December 26, 1901. 
Dear Sixto: On the nth instant the "Purisima" 
left here for Boac [Island of Marinduque, under Civil 
Government] with Manuel on board, and arrived there 
the following day. On the same day Manuel was, by 
order of General Bell, arrested and transported to 
Batangas [under Military Government], in the " Puris- 
ima." On the following day, i.e., the 13th, still by 
order of this general, the "Purisima" went to Balayan 
with Captain Cole and Lieutenant Allen on board, and 
after having occupied our house and confiscated the 
papers, title-deeds, and keys, they arrested and took to 
Batangas Lorenzo, Cipriano, and Felix [the first Pres- 
idente, appointed by the United States authorities], 
where they are now held as prisoners, and the steamer 
was converted into a Government transport. The motive 
for this is not known, but it is all the more extraordinary 
because Balayan is the only pacified town in Batangas, 
and has supported the Government since the nth of 
March of this year until the present date. To such an 


extent was this true that the Military Government allowed 
municipal elections there on the 29th of last September, 
and good feeling and friendship existed between the 
Lopez family and the commanding and other ofificers, so 
that almost all of these officers often visited at our 

On the loth instant the ports of Batangas and La 
Laguna were closed, and to-day the term of reconcentra- 
tion-notice ends. Before the close of this period we had 
already received here, from a trustworthy source, awful 
news from there, that all the people in the towns who 
had $4 or upwards were apprehended, and villages were 
burned. Now that reconcentration is in full force, what 
horrors will these poor people not suffer ? 

I will give you some examples, not to mention some 
others which happened in Lipa, and which my pen refuses 
to describe. AH the municipal officers and respectable 
men were imprisoned, and were put to work in the streets. 
All the barrios were burned, and that of Balete was 
burned in the following manner : the American troops 
compelled the householders to walk on foot from the town 
to the barrio, each one carrying a can of petroleum, and 
when they arrived they were each one obliged to burn 
his own country residence. 

One day an American soldier knocked at the door of 
a half-sister of B. Solis, who sold rice, and demanded 
rice for the horse of a lieutenant. He was answered 
that at that house rice was not given away, but was sold. 
The mistress of the house complained to the colonel, 
who promised to do her justice, but after that two 
soldiers appeared, and the woman, frightened, yielded, 
allowing them to enter and take away, out of a large 
basket, the rice which they desired. Later the lieutenant 
came with soldiers and searched the house and found 
ammunition in the basket [presumably placed there by 
the two soldiers]. For that reason the masters of the 
house were taken prisoners. 

Here nothing can be done for these unhappy provinces, 


even to soften the harsh measures. The Government is 
firm in its decision that until Malvar surrenders there 
shall be no change, and when protest is made in favor of 
innocent people who are loyal to the Government, — 
women, old men, and children, — it is replied that these 
are measures of war, and that even in America these 
same measures were taken during the civil war. 

Even here in Manila no one lives in safety, since the 
belief prevails among the military that all the Filipinos are 
more or less traitors to the Americans. In this, the civil 
authorities allow themselves to be overruled, although 
it is clear that the military element desires a contin- 
uance of the war and is, with the assistance of the 
American press here, doing everything possible to have 
all the islands returned to its control, as you may have 
already noticed. Therefore, taking note of all that I 
have said, I beg you to work in America ; but I hope 
that you will do so with great prudence, and in such a 
manner as will not in any way make worse the situation 
of your unfortunate and destitute brothers and sisters 
here. You will pardon me for telling you not to come 
now, with or without taking the oath, if you do not wish 
to make worse both their situation and your own as 
regards the Government, without helping matters. For 
the same reason do not write to them except by sure and 
certain messenger. 

Good-bye. Mariano. 

[It has been said that soldiers are bad logicians. Per- 
haps this is because the sword has no major premise, 
and always reaches the same conclusion ! The following 
letter contains a specimen of martial logic which may 
yet find a place in a military edition of "Alice in Won- 
derland." Captain Taggart is (or was !) a friend of the 
Lopez family, having known them in Balayan, where for 
a time he held command. Doubtless he was only ex- 
pressing a general belief when he declared that the 


imprisonment of the three brothers was on account of 
Sixto ; but his solution of the difficulty, as regards the 
confiscated property, is probably his own : Divide the 
family property, he says, and then the only part that 
would remain in the hands of the military would be Sixto's 

Now, if division or separation of the property would ^ 
thus secure immunity from confiscation, why were the 
brothers imprisoned ? Were they not already as sepa- 
rate from Sixto as Sixto's property would be from theirs 
after the division ? Where is the major premise ? But 
wait. The soldier is usually credited with an imperfect 
idea of the meaning and application of scripture. Ap- 
parently Captain Taggart and others have concluded that 
Lorenzo and Cipriano and Manuel were their " brother's 
keeper^' using the latter word in a financial sense. Per- 
haps this is the reason why Mariano escaped, for he is 
only a half-brother to Sixto, and the scriptures are silent 
about half-brothers ! But then, what about Lorenzo, 
who also is only a half-brother to Sixto .-' 

Well, everybody loves the soldier — loves him as the 
typical embodiment of bravery and strength, and for his 
keen sense of honor, and his boyish good-nature — when 
he isn't fighting ; but not for his powers as a logician or 
a theologian !] 

[From Juliana to Clemencia Lopez, at Hong-Kong.] 

Manila, December 28, 1901. 
Dearest Clemen : Two weeks have passed since you 
went away, and yet I have not received any letter from 
you up to the present time, and you cannot imagine how 
impatient I am to receive one, because in the situation 
in which our family at present finds itself I ought to 
know your decision, and also what I ought to do on my 
part. I have done everything and have got nothing but 
promises, and some tell me that when the war is ended 
every one will be set at liberty ; from this you can judge 


whether I can do anything more, I have been able to 
do almost nothing for their welfare, except to beg recom- 
mendations from the friends of Bell that he should treat 
our poor brothers with consideration. 

Yesterday I saw Captain Taggart, who has just come, 
and he told me, among other things, that the imprison- 
ment of our brothers was on account of Sixto (whom 
our brothers pecuniarily support), he being a great enemy 
of the American Government, who will not come to the 
Philippines and swear allegiance, which would be the 
only way to settle the matter. I answered him that they 
were mistaken in thinking this [i. e., that Sixto was an 
enemy of the American Government], and that even if 
that were the case, if they believe him guilty, as they 
say, he is the only person who ought to be involved in this 
affair, for he acts according to his own judgment and 
does as he thinks best. Finally he advised me that the 
only way in which the Government could return to us 
the confiscated property would be for us to divide it up, 
and in that way we could have ours, and the only part 
which would remain in the hands of the Government 
would be that belonging to Sixto. . . . 

Yesterday, I learned that you had sent some letters 
by one who, fearing that they would compromise him, 
tore them up, believing them to be something else. In- 
deed, it is not surprising, so many incredible and horrible 
things have happened. They say that they will devas- 
tate all Batangas if it is not pacified at once. All remain 
prisoners, and the number increases. Even priests and 
curates are suspected. That is why, in view of all these 
things, I prefer almost anything rather than to see so 
many die of hunger — so many people entirely ignorant 
of what is called politics. When I complain of this in- 
humanity, they only reply that " such is war," and explain 
by this same answer all their inhuman actions. I am 
much distressed to see mother so afifiicted by the lateness 
of Manuel, and if she knew the truth of what has hap- 
pened to Lorenzo and Cipriano also I do not know what 


would become of her. For my part, I wish you would 
return, considering the sad condition in which we are ; 
and I have to think of Pepe [Jose, the brother in 

Good-bye. Regards to everybody, and remember that 
you are not forgotten. Ninay. 


[ The following letter contains Mariano's proposal that 
Sixto should take the oath of allegiance in order to secure 
the release of the three brothers, — a proposal which, it 
is believed, did not originate with Mariano. Few persons 
will question the propriety of taking oath of allegiance 
to the United States if the oath is taken voluntarily and 
in sincerity, and presumably Mariano never intended that 
Sixto should take it against his inclination or in violation 
of conscience. But to take any oath simply as a matter 
of expediency, or in bargain for the mitigation of an 
injustice, is an act to which no honorable man ought to 

Sixto's reply — which here follows Mariano's letter — 
shows the position he has maintained ever since his first 
association with Rizal. His attitude toward the American 
authorities is the same as was his attitude toward Spain. 
Apparently he could have become persona grata to both 
by assuming the role of a hypocrite. It was ever thus ; 
there is no room for an honest man in any system of 
wrong. It is Benedict Arnold that is welcomed by 
England, and Buencamino by the Civil Government at 
' Manila. A man is known by the company he keeps ; a 
policy by those whom it attracts.] 

[ From Mariano to Clemencia Lopez, at Hong-Kong.] 

Manila, December 28, 190 1. 
Dearest Clemen : I write to tell you that our poor 
brothers, Lorenzo, Cipriano, and Manuel, are still prison- 
ers, and our steamer and possessions confiscated, and I find 


myself now powerless and unable to remedy matters, 
since all my efforts up to the present time have been 
useless, and I can think of no other effective remedy but 
the following: I believe that if Sixto should offer to 
recognize the Government, swearing allegiance to its 
sovereignty in these islands, on condition that our 
brothers should be set at liberty and our steamer and 
goods returned to us, his offer would be accepted. 

In Sixto's hands, then, lies the remedy for our troubles 
and total ruin, and he must choose one of two things : 
Either to sacrifice himself, renouncing his desire to set 
free his country at the cost of his life and put in its 
place brotherly affection to save us, or, shutting his eyes 
to all this, to remain sternly faithful to his aims, sublime 
and heroic it is true, but leaving us all to die, some in 
captivity and the others destitute. And Sixto must not 
think that if he should come and offer to suffer every- 
thing in place of his brothers the Government would be 
willing and would remedy our situation. Of this, at 
least, he must not think, for they might lay hands on 
him also if he persists in not taking the oath when he 
comes. Our mother begs me earnestly to tell you to 
come back by the first boat, and to beg our friends to 
write us nothing about politics if they do not wish to 
make our condition worse. 

Your brother, Mariano Lopez. 

[From Sixto to Mariano Lopez.] '" 

January I, 1902. 
Dear Mariano : While I admire the spirit that has 
prompted you in proposing [in your letter to Clemencia] 
that I should make a great sacrifice in order to secure 
the release of our brothers, I cannot do what you sug- 
gest. I believe it to be my duty to make sacrifices for 
our country and for those who are near and dear to us, 
but I can never agree that it is right to sacrifice principle 

View of part ok Majsila, shovx- 

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or to yield to suffering when we are in the right. You 
know as well as I do that Lorenzo and Manuel, and 
Cipriano since his surrender, hav^e done nothing to aid or 
incite the Filipinos under arms, and that they have done 
nothing in opposition to American authority. Conse- 
quently their imprisonment is neither legally nor morally 
justifiable. Therefore to make any sacrifices in return 
for their release would be simply reviving the old system 
of bribery which held sway under Spanish rule, and 
would practically amount to yielding to blackmail. This 
we, of all people, must not countenance. If we cannot 
get justice for our brothers and our property, then we 
must suffer, and that suffering is the only sacrifice which 
it is proper for us to make. 

We should remember that our fellow-countrymen have 
suffered and are suffering for the sake of right. Even 
the poorest and least educated have been prepared to 
sacrifice their life for what they believe to be the benefit 
of their country. Shall we, then, who have been blessed 
with some degree of wealth and education, shall we 
flinch and yield at the first stroke of calamity ^ For 
myself I answer, "Never." I am prepared to sacrifice 
my property and my life for the good of my country 
or for the benefit of our family, but the sacrifice which 
you suggest I will never, never consent to make. The 
American authorities may inflict punishment on our 
family that may break my heart or my life, but they 
will never be able to break my principle as long as God 
Almighty remains on the side of what is right. 

But the two courses which you mention in your letter 
are not the only alternatives. There is another course 
which I believe will secure justice and the release of our 
brothers. It may not bring relief as soon as the one 
you suggest, but it will be more effective and permanent 
in its results. It involves no sacrifice of principle and 
no violation of right. It would be improper at this stage 
to give you the details, but I intend to pursue it, and we 
shall see whether it will prove a success. 


Fortunately, if I can obtain no help for my family, I 
shall still be able to carry on the work, for every injus- 
tice inflicted on us will only bring more aid and sympathy 
to our people. Wrong will always turn upon the wrong- 
doer, and will finally benefit those who are wronged. It 
is therefore for us to do what is right and suffer patiently 
any temporary wrong, knowing that right will ultimately 

But let me make my own position clear. I am en- 
tirely in favor of a cessation of all armed resistance to 
American authority. I have always believed, with you, 
that the war was not necessarily to our people's inter- 
ests, and I am of the same opinion still. I am therefore 
willing to do whatever lies in my power to bring about 
peace. But I utterly despise the policy which inflicts 
punishment upon neutral non-combatants in order to 
secure the surrender of those in arms. Neither morality 
nor the rules of war sanction such a policy. To my 
mind it is an unutterably mean and cruel method of 
securing victory. It is unworthy of an American sol- 
dier and a blot upon the escutcheon of the nation that 
went to war to put an end to the methods of General 
Weyler. And although under other circumstances I 
should counsel surrender by Malvar and his forces, I 
cannot urge him to surrender in response to siicJi methods 
of warfare. 

Better a thousand times for us all to suffer, knowing 
that the more we are made to suffer the sooner will come 
our final relief. Injustice and wrong will no more bring 
victory to America than to General Weyler. We should 
remember that there is One who is more powerful than 
money and guns, and that One is on our side. We may 
have to suffer, for we cannot claim that we are immacu- 
late, but the great balance of right is on our side, and 
that ought to satisfy us and give us the assurance of 
ultimate triumph. 

You will, ere this, have received my letter telling of 
Clemencia's departure for America, and the reasons 


which moved us all to adopt this course. Your and 
Juliana's letters only served to confirm me in the belief 
that we have adopted the proper course. If necessary, 
Clemencia can return within three or four months, 
Mariquita is happy and contented, and for the present, 
or until I leave Hong-Kong, I should recommend her 
to remain. But of course she will do whatever mother 

Ever your affectionate brother, Sixto. 

[It is difficult to discover, in the foregoing letter, any- 
thing in the form of a threat to the United States. Yet 
the following words have been so construed by what 
must surely be a forced interpretation : " Although under 
other circumstances I should counsel surrender by 
Malvar and his forces, I cannot urge him to surrender 
in response to such methods of warfare!' In the same 
paragraph from which these words are quoted Sixto 
Lopez says : " I am entirely in favor of a cessation of all 
armed resistance to American authority, ... I am there- 
fore willing to do whatever lies in my power to bring 
about peace." From this it is abundantly clear that the 
supposed "threat" is simply an independent statement 
that although Sixto Lopez is in favor of peace he would 
not counsel surrender " in response " to certain methods 
of warfare. But anything in the form of independence 
of mind on the part of those of dark complexion is nat- 
urally construed as a "threat" by the Great White 
Anglo-Saxon 1 

In commenting on the paragraph referred to, Mr, 
Magoon says : " Sixto Lopez, however, insists that a bel- 
ligerant commander is without authority to punish or even 
prevent any and every effort to cause the miscarriage of 
the military operations of the United States, excepting the 
acts of those persons who are encountered with arms in 
their hands, and insists that a person who asserts that he 
is a ' non-combatant ' is by such assertion placed outside 


the jurisdiction of the military authority." * This might 
well go down in history as another of the " Curiosities of 
Literature," — if, indeed, it were literary, — for it would 
be hard to find, anywhere in the English language, 
a grosser misrepresentation of an opponent's words. 
Where does Sixto Lopez " insist " on any of these ab- 
surdities ? It will be noted that the only item quoted 
from Sixto Lopez's letter is the word "non-combatant "; 
the context attributed to him is pure imagination. It is 
bad enough to misrepresent, but to attribute foolish 
things to an opponent is almost unpardonable. Why 
should any such course be adopted ? A good cause and 
a good case do not require the aid of misconstruction or 

In the following letter, Mariano briefly replies to Sixto's 
rejoinder in a manner creditable alike to his patriotism and 
to his ability as a student of history. 

The remainder of his letter is devoted chiefly to Man- 
uel Ramirez, who figures in this history, and of whom, 
more anon.] 

[From Mariano to Sixto Lopez.] 

Manila, January 8, 1902. 
Dear Sixto : I have received your letter through 
Mariquita, who came yesterday, very weak, owing to sea- 
sickness during the voyage. In answering it I will only 
say that, considering the atmosphere in which you live, 
alone, and called to be almost a martyr for your country, 
it seems to me excellent and not to be improved. But 
as for me and millions of our compatriots in the sur- 
roundings in which we live, considering the circumstances 
and our respective families, for whom we must have very 

* Mr. Magoon, in the Report of the Senate Committee on the Philip- 
pines, p. 2605. 


special regard, we cannot follow you on the patriotic road 
which you have laid out. But we do not on that account 
consider ourselves any less patriotic than you are ; for if 
history holds up to you examples of heroism, even to 
the point of sacrificing one's life for one's country, it 
gives us, on the other hand, examples of even great 
nations who have yielded to the superior force of the 
enemy, preferring to submit to the conqueror rather 
than to continue the struggle at the price of total exter- 
mination. I admire and respect your views and convic- 
tions ; but try not to compromise any more of us who 
are here if you do not wish to force your brothers to 
follow in your path. 

Our three brothers, with Felix Unzon, are in the Bay 
[of Manila], on the transport " Liscum," to be deported, 
although it is not yet known where. A military com- 
*.mission has been to inspect the island of Tahm, La 
Laguna, and some people think that perhaps it will be 
that island. I was able to talk with them, and they tell 
me that they have been embarked without any formal 
writ or notification as to the reasons, and if they know 
anything about it it is because a messenger from the 
officer who keeps the record of the prisoners has told 
them that in those records there is no accusation against 
our brothers except that of being suspected of main- 
taining the insurrection, and he has offered to endeavor 
to liberate them, saying that for a small sum of money 
he could accomplish it. Our brothers refused this offer 
because of their self-respect and innocence. Several 
obtained liberty in Batangas in this way, and it is known 
of Mariano Ramos, the son of Juan Ramos, that he was 
freed through the influence of the present favorite of 
the Americans, Manuel Ramirez. 

Let us talk of the latter. Li case you do not remember 
his past, I will put it down for you now. You know that 
Ramirez started as an office-boy and clerk of the deceased 
Don Manuel Araulio. When the latter died, Ramirez 
continued in the employ of his son, Don Agustin, now also 


deceased, who, through his wealth and influence, made 
Ramirez chief of the town of Balayan. Having once 
risen, he showed himself to be capable of anything, since 
he soon made himself a landholder at the expense of the 
town and of his master, who died poor. From that time 
he and the curate (friar) of the town were in league. 
Several years passed in this way, until Don Caspar Cas- 
tano, then governor of the province, tired of this state 
of affairs, held an investigation as to who was responsible 
for these intrigues, in order to make a radical reform. It 
was then discovered that Manuel Ramirez was the author 
of them all, and he was accordingly deported to Mindoro. 
There, instead of amending, he became worse, for in a 
few years he dominated the courts and the officials, and 
all these also were continually intriguing, while, on the 
other hand, the governor and the priest (friar) were con- 
tinually hostile to one another and involved in lawsuits. -. 
The Spanish Government, wishing to put an end to 
this state of things in that island, selected Don Rafael 
Morales and sent him there as governor, and he quickly 
perceived that the disturber was Manuel Ramirez, who 
was warned not again to trample under foot either the 
courts or the Government, to stop all plots, and to re- 
frain from any remonstrance in those provinces, under 
pain of being deported to a distant island. In the year 
1898, when the island of Mindoro was taken by the 
Philippine forces, Ramirez was one of those singled out 
by the popular wrath and arrested. But the officer in 
command of the forces was governed by the desire to 
pardon bad Filipinos and to attract them to the right 
course ; and so, taking advantage of the popular delirium 
of joy after the triumph over the Spaniards, he gave him 
and others their freedom. As soon as Ramirez found 
himself free, fearful lest the townspeople, once their 
enthusiasm had passed, should kill him, he escaped to 
Batangas and went from there to his old home in Balayan. 
Here he transformed himself into an ardent patriot, 
assisted the presidente as town secretary, and provided all 


supplies for his brother-in-law, the great robber Estaban 
Causapin, who also pretended to be a great patriot, and 
raised troops. Later Mr. Taggart, major of the Twenty- 
eighth Volunteers, stationed in Balayan, ascertained 
that he was responsible for robberies and assaults in 
Nasugbu and Lian. (This Causapin also now enjoys 
the confidence of the Americans, for he is one of their 

In October, 1900, when the Thirty-ninth Volunteers 
came to relieve the Twenty-eighth Regiment, the troops 
then stationed at Balayan, the commanding officer of the 
former, Mr. Langhorne, was arrested by the command- 
ing officer of the latter, Mr. Taggart, before passing over 
the command.* Already, in the time of Major Taggart, 
Ramirez had secretly denounced many people. Major 
Taggart, who does nothing except in accordance with 
his favorite phrase, "evidence," and who is keenly observ- 
ant, saw through Ramirez immediately, and found no dif- 
ficulty in comprehending that he is a man who, although 
intelligent, is to be feared because of his evil disposition. 
As I told you before, the unfriendliness between Mr. 
Taggart and Mr. Langhorne was well improved by 
Ramirez, who from that time not only acquired influence 
over the latter but also over all his officers, although the 
said Mr. Langhorne was a friend and continual visitor 
at our house, so that, thanks to him, Ramirez could not 
then do us harm. After the forces of Commander 
Langhorne had been quartered a few months in Balayan, 
the following incident occurred in the house of Nicolas 
Ramos : 

As he [Ramos] and his family were in the habit of 
selling liquors [clandestinely], there came to their house 
one night some drunken soldiers of the neighborhood to 
buy wine, and, as it was refused them and they demanded 

*The command was passed over to Captain Taylor, who retained it 
until Major Langhorne was released after about one month's imprison- 
ment, decreed from headquarters in Manila. 


it resolutely, they came to blows. There was confusion, 
since some cried out that they were being assaulted by 
robbers, and others fought desperately until an officer 
came and put a stop to it and brought them all before 
the chief. Once before Colonel Bullard, at that time in 
command, those who had been assaulted insisted that the 
intention was to rob them, and they even declared that 
money and jewels had been taken from them. One of 
the assailants is a cousin of one of the officers, and cer- 
tainly found out the truth, for the following night that 
officer with some soldiers went to arrest Geronimo Ramos, 
the son of Nicolas, who, when he saw them coming, 
began to run, and the officer pursued him with a revolver 
and wounded him in the hand ; but so great was the ter- 
ror of Geronimo that he did not stop until he could hide 
himself in the house of Juan Garcia. It is known that 
this officer when he overtook and captured him took a 
more pacific course, for he agreed to bring him before the 
chief, Colonel Bullard, and there, through the prayers of 
the Ramos family, the matter was dropped. This family 
began to make presents to the chiefs and officers, while 
secretly Mario, a brother of Nicolas, became once more, 
with all his family, good patriots, forming committees 
for contributions to the Philippine forces. Lorenzo and 
I, when all this happened, were here in Manila and were 
ignorant of it all. Ramirez who had been informed by 
his brother-in-law, Causapin, and his brother, Hilarion, 
of this contribution denounced all those who did not bow 
the head to him, and they were imprisoned, and were 
only set at liberty when our brother Cipriano surrendered 
with all his forces, March ii, 1901. 

From that time until the present there has not been a 
single combat or uprising in all the territory of Balayan, 
proving that the town is not only peaceful and submis- 
sive to the Government of the United States, but that 
it is completely separated from the insurrection which 
still exists in other towns. On this basis I solicited and 
obtained from the military government municipal elections 


in the town on the 29th of September, and at those elec- 
tions Ramirez was defeated, he being the candidate sup- 
ported by the mihtary, and especially by Captain Cheever 
of the Sixth Cavalry, commander of Balayan, and by the 
Ramos family, who became partisans of Ramirez through 
fear of him, since they had carried off and sold animals 
belonging to the friars in Balayan. Ramirez made an 
accusation against us, and he and his friends began to 
threaten our family. 

I protested in writing to the then chief of the De- 
partment of the South, General Wade, and to General 
Chaffee, whose adjutant assured me that no harm should 
come to us through the denunciation of Ramirez. 

In a few days some people from Balayan told us that 
Ramirez was going about spreading the report that 
General Chaffee had refused to see me, and that very 
soon the Lopez family would fall, as his friend Cheever 
had assured him of this, who, it is said, piqued because 
his candidate was not elected, would take every means 
to ruin us. The rigorous exactitude with which the 
threat against us has been fulfilled leaves no room for 
doubt that it was they who ruined us, finding in the 
higher military authorities echo of their desires for venge- 
ance against us, since these latter imagine that all the 
Filipinos are more or less guilty of sympathizing with 
the continuation of the war. Now, I have given you all 
the facts about my services and those of my family to the 
Government, which will fairly justify the statement that 
we are simply the victims of the revenge and baseness 
of Ramirez. All the commanding and other officers who 
were and still are at Balayan, and who visited at our 
house and were our friends, will bear witness to this. 

I have wished to give you a complete picture of 
Ramirez, for I had a notion of attacking him through the 
governmental press here, . . . but friends tell me that 
it will be better to do it in America. 

General Bell was sent to Batangas by his superiors 
with absolutely unlimited power, and as he is naturally 


of a very violent temper, and incited by his friends the 
friars, and Spaniards, you can imagine what sort of 
barbarities will take place there. Poor Cipriano sur- 
rendered with all his forces, trusting in the honor of the 
American representatives in the Philippines. He has 
given absolutely no cause for suspicion ; Balayan was 
absolutely peaceful, pacified, and submissive to the Gov- 
ernment of the United States after his surrender ; he 
was chosen electoral judge in the municipal elections of 
the 29th of last September and named councilor by 
popular vote, defeating Ramirez. Do you suppose this 
adversary of ours would have kept silent if there had 
been any fault which would have disqualified him for 
these positions ? 

Moreover, Cipriano's arrest on the 1 3th of last Decem- 
ber happened in the following way : That evening he 
was going on horseback with Lieutenant Raymond, of 
the Sixth Cavalry, to look over and mark out territory 
within which the reconcentrados would have to remain, 
and when they returned to the town and were opposite 
the barracks, another officer appeared and arrested him 
by order of General Bell. . . . 

Now, the American friends who helped us as far as 
they could are the chief of police. Captain Curry, and 
Lieutenant Pendleton, who was the captain of the port of 
Balayan. The former went with me to General Chaffee, 
whom we could not see, but we saw the inspector-general, 
who, after listening to me with benevolence, advised me to 
see the adjutant-general of the north. Colonel Wagner. 
I could not see him, but Adjutant -General Wheaton 
received me and agreed to present a memorandum of my 
services to the Government. 

Take care in writing to us, now that you know how 
closely watched we are. Mariano. 


[When Manuel Ramirez was defeated in the election 
for Presidente of the town of Balayan, which position he 
had previously held by appointment of the American 
military commander, he was angry beyond all reason. 
He might have comforted himself with the reflection 
that he was not the first or the only candidate in this 
world that had suffered defeat at the polls. But instead 
of thus taking his defeat quietly and with dignity, he 
needs must harbor deep-seated ill will toward his oppo- 
nents, and especially toward the Lopez family, upon 
whom he vowed all kinds of vengeance. Such vows 
would have been futile had it not been that he was the 
nominee of Captain Cheever, who felt that his own dig- 
nity had suffered owing to the refusal of the people of 
Balayan to confirm his ill-bestowed choice. For this and 
other reasons Manuel Ramirez was given authority, under 
the military commander, before which the power of the 
elected presidente was insignificant and wholly inoperative. 
The smaller the Tsar the greater the tyrant, and so, the 
manner in which Ramirez abused his authority may yet 
be a matter of investigation. 

Among his several attentions to the Lopez family was 
the following letter " To the Honorable Committee in 
Batangas." It is doubtful whether this letter ought to 
find a place in these pages, but in fairness to Ramirez — 
since he has been under the lash of Mariano Lopez — 
it may be as well to include it, even if it suffers by com- 
parison with its surroundings. It would, however, be a 
needless tax on time and temper to give what would be 
an easy refutation of its numerous mis-statements. Indeed, 
Ramirez may yet have to answer for them in a court of 
justice, or at any rate, a court of law. For the present 
it will be sufficient to say that there is no truth in his 
insinuations and charges against the Lopez family.] 


[Manuel Ramirez to the Committee in Batangas.] 

To THE Honorable Committee in Batangas : 

I, Manuel Ramirez, presidente of the town of Balayan, 
with all due respect and through the president of the 
Board of Organization of this municipality, make the 
following declaration : 

That at the municipal elections held in the town-hall 
the day before yesterday, the 29th of September, Seiior 
Julian Afable has been elected presidente. He is the 
candidate presented by the potentates of this town, the 
Lopez brothers, who had so great an interest in taking 
from me my authority in the town and in giving it to 
Afable that they even went so far as to have votes 
bought for the latter. In the following pages I am going 
to state briefly why the Messrs. Lopez did this. Having 
an interest in the prompt pacification of these Islands, 
I put myself in November of last year on the side of the 
American officers stationed in this town, and worked with 
them to secure the surrender or capture, as the case might 
be, of the insurgents in this territory, including the towns 
of Balayan, Tuy, Nasugbu, Looc, Calatagan, and Lian. 

Sefior Cipriano Lopez, one of the above-mentioned 
brothers, was lieutenant-colonel and chief of this dis- 
trict and these towns until we succeeded in discover- 
ing on Bancalan, Tuy, the encampment of the insurgent 
Major Sefior Ignacio Laines, which belonged to the 
above-mentioned lieutenant -colonel's company. The 
Americans found in this place a traveling-bag belong- 
ing to Laines, which contained money and important 
papers, which compromised a number of citizens of 
this town, one of them being Seiior Lorenzo Lopez, 
brother of Cipriano, and revolutionary ex-presidente of 
Balayan. In consequence of the discovery of these 
papers the American military commander of this town, 
Mr. Langhorne, ordered the arrest of various citizens, 
and even that of the before-mentioned Lorenzo, which 
was demanded by a telegram to Colonel Bullard, in 


Manila, where the former [Lorenzo] then was, in order 
that Colonel Ikillard, when he returned to Balayan, where 
the real head of the American detachment was, mi^^ht 
bring Lorenzo with him as prisoner, to include him with 
the other prisoners who were already in the prison, and 
send them all to Guam unless they secured the surrender 
of all the insurgents in Balayan, with their arms, num- 
bering upward of two hundred. 

That when Lorenzo was arrested in Manila, his brother, 
Sefior Mariano Lopez, who has just affiliated himself 
with the Federal party, went to Colonel Bullard and 
begged him not to make his brother, Lorenzo, a prisoner, 
and that he would arrange that his other brother, Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Cipriano, should present himself within 
three days of the arrival of Colonel Bullard and his 
brothers, Mariano and Lorenzo, in the town. The sur- 
render, then, of Lieutenant-Colonel Cipriano Lopez was 
obligatory, through fear that the god of the family, 
Lorenzo Lopez, might be sent to Guam. From the fore- 
going it is clearly seen that the Lopez brothers, reveng- 
ing themselves on me because I was friendly to the 
Americans, tried their utmost to take from me my com- 
mand of this town, going so far as to buy votes, as the 
military commander, Mr. Cheever, can prove, since an 
elector has declared before him that he received payment 
for his vote to the amount of $3, and produced a witness 
who was present when he received this sum from one of 
the Lopez agents who was buying votes. [ ! ] 

By the subjoined cli])pings from the periodicals Free- 
dom and Democracia, the honorable provincial committee 
will see that Senor Sixto Lopez, the brother of these 
here in Balayan, not only spoke very ill of the Amer- 
icans [Ramirez evidently believes everything that he 
sees in print, except — when directed against himself!], 
but also took the initiative in the formation of a new 
Filipino government on foreign soil to continue the 
war which had been semi-paralyzed here in the Islands 
by the capture of the president, Senor Aguinaldo. 


[Ramirez is here creating history !] This fact, and 
the tenacious refusal to surrender of General Malvar, 
the protector and intimate friend of the Lopez brothers, 
are closely related to the elections at Balayan, since 
the presidente-elect, Senor Julian Afable, is a brother- 
in-law of the secretary of the treasury of the Philippine 
government, Seiior Galicano Apacible, and it is not too 
much to suspect also that the Messrs. Lopez continue 
to work in favor of the insurrection. [ ! ] 

That the honorable provincial committee should not 
believe that the Messrs. Lopez have tried to take from 
me my office of presidente because I governed the town 
badly, since I subjoin to this paper copies of the cer- 
tificates of my conduct, which have been given to me by 
the American military commanders who have been here 
and who still are here. In virtue, therefore, of the right 
given to me by article 1 3 of the municipal code, I present 
this protest, in due time and form, against the election 
of Sefior Julian Afable, praying the honorable provincial 
committee to declare the elections held here null and 
void, and to prohibit the electors from voting for Senor 
Afable [There is democracy for you !], since there are 
reasonable grounds for suspecting his loyalty, or to take 
the most extreme action which justice will allow. 

Manuel Ramirez, Presidente. 

Balayan, October i, 1901. 

[The following proposed reply of Mariano's, though 
not intended as a refutation of Ramirez's charges, is here 
included because it gives information about the Lopez 
family which may interest the reader. It is understood 
that Mariano never sent it in, which perhaps was fortu- 
nate, for anything in the form of a controversy with 
Manuel Ramirez would only have resulted in a loss of 


[Proposed reply of Mariano Lopez to charges of Manuel Ramirez.] 

I, a representative of the province of Batangas in the 
congress of Malolos, having never been in favor of the 
war of my country against America, declared this at 
the first outbreak of hostihties between the Americans 
and the Filipinos, before General Otis, together with Drs. 
Bourne and Pardo de Tavera. Therefore, since I wished 
that my province should lay down its arms I offered my 
services to the said general, asking for a pass, so that I 
might go there and work toward that end. My request 
was granted ; but when I arrived in the provinces 
I found the military element so preponderant that I could 
not immediately further my purpose without danger to 
my life, — except gradually when special occasion offered, 
as will be seen by my subsequent actions. 

At the time of the capture and military occupation of 
my town of Balayan, by the Twenty-eighth Volunteers 
under the command of Major Taggart, I persuaded the 
people who were scattered about through the outlying 
districts and the mountains to return to their homes 
and recognize American sovereignty. I had already 
tried to persuade my brother. Colonel Cipriano, to sur- 
render to the American Government with all his forces, 
but did not succeed because of his sense of honor. 

Some months after that, when good feeling had been 
established between the town and the American forces, 
I came to Manila to look after my interests, and there, 
when the Federal party was formed, afifiliated myself with 
it, was nominated a delegate of this party, and organized 
committees for it in Balayan and Calaca. 

As at this time I was nearing the conclusion of my 
work in the towns mentioned, I knew that very soon 
General Trias, the superior officer of my brother Cipriano, 
would surrender, I urged the latter to do the same, and, 
with the aid of my step-mother and brothers, finally 
obtained his surrender and that of all his troops, together 
with their arms and ammunition. This surrender was 


made on the i ith of March of this year to Colonel Bullard, 
of the Thirty-ninth Volunteers, stationed at Balayan. 

On the 2d of April of the same year, at the 
request of Colonel Bullard, I was commissioned by the 
Military Government to persuade General Malvar to 
become loyal, and although I have not accomplished this, 
I have in its place succeeded in persuading General 
Katigbak and Colonel Calao to surrender with their 
forces to the commanding officer in Lipa. 

In the same way, to assist Colonel Bullard, I con- 
tributed to the surrender of General Cailles. 

Since the surrender of my brother with his troops, the 
peace in my town of Balayan has not been disturbed in 
the least degree, and being desirous to consolidate this 
state of affairs, I urged and obtained from the Military 
Government the holding of municipal elections on the 
29th of last September, basing my action upon the peace 
which the town enjoyed. 

Being defeated at the election, Senor Manuel Ramirez 
laid a written protest before the provincial council of 
Batangas, not only questioning the legality of the elec- 
tions, but attacking me and my brothers, accusing us of 
having close relations with General Malvar because of 
our old friendship for him, and because of the acts of our 
brother Sixto, who has lived abroad nearly ten years. 
As was to be expected, the provincial council has disre- 
garded this protest, deciding that the elections were 
properly held in accordance with the municipal code. 
Nevertheless, in view of this protest, which contained 
also false and infamous accusations, I could do no less 
than, in return, protest against it in writing to General 
Wade and General Chaffee. 

In the middle of last October I received word from 
Hong-Kong from my brother Sixto that a friend of 
his, Mr. Warren, was coming to the Philippines ; and 
because of the favors he owed this gentleman and his 
family in America, he charged me to receive and enter- 
tain him in my house, the invitation having already been 


given and accepted. As I was pledged to do, I received 
this gentleman in my house. While matters stood thus, 
and as I and my brothers knew that my brother Sixto 
was in Hong-Kong and desirous to return home, we 
entered into correspondence with him, telling him of the 
actual situation of the country, the necessity for pacify- 
ing it, and the bad opinion which the authorities held of 
him as an agitator for the war against America. That 
this is the truth I can prove by the letter which my 
brother Sixto wrote me in answer, and which I keep. In 
this letter he assures me he has never been in favor of 
the war, and that he would offer himself to the Govern- 
ment to aid in pacifying the country, provided they would 
not oblige him to take the oath on his arrival, so that 
he might not thus lose his influence over Malvar and 

[Reply unfmished.] [Mariano Lopez.] 

[After the foregoing enforced deviation into the realm of 
the disagreeable, for Ramirez and all that pertains to him 
must be so regarded, it is refreshing to return to the purer 
atmosphere of Juliana's letters. The two following were 
the first that she wrote after she knew of Clcmencia's 
departure for America. The tone of these letters shows a 
change in Juliana's character, a strengthening and deep- 
ening of her nature. With the knowledge that she must 
then and thereafter act upon her own responsibility, 
came a corresponding sense of self-reliance ; and just as 
" heartsickness " is the prelude to soul-expansion, so self- 
reliance is its natural and necessary accompaniment. 

Andrea, the eldest daughter, was the only one of the 
family then in Balayan. 11 er report of what the Ameri- 
can soldiers were doing, under General Bell's new policy, 
is in striking contrast with their admirable conduct at an 
earlier period. And there had been no " provocation," 
as hg-s been so frequently alleged in other connections. 


Balayan was the one " pacified " town in the province. 
All this goes to show that it is not the American 
soldier, but the policy and methods, that are essentially 
at fault.] 

[From Juliana to Sixto Lopez.] 

Manila, January 8, 1902. 

Dear Brother : We have received your letter of the 
28th, and indeed we were much displeased that you had 
allowed Clemen to go alone without any of the family 
with her, for we should have wished you to go with her, 
as is natural and the custom of the country. But apart 
from that we are consoled by the idea that she is accom- 
panied by a friend worthy of all confidence, who will help 
her in every way and take great pains that she lacks 
for nothing. Mother agrees entirely to what you have 
decided, and indeed she was obliged to agree to it, know- 
ing as she does our sad situation. When we telegraphed 
for Clemen and Mariquita to come it was only so that 
Consuelo might not come alone, for we thought at first 
that the idea of going to America was only a proposal ; 
we did not know that you had already decided and that 
she would go without mother's consent. Believe me, 
mother, who now knows all that happened here, is willing, 
and was only troubled by the expense it would occasion, 
but your letter relieved her. 

Since the 31st of last month our brothers have been 
prisoners in the Bay on board of one of the United 
States transports, and in three days they will be taken 
to Olongapo. Yesterday we went to visit them, and the 
officers of the guard were good enough to let us talk 
with them for a long time. . . . 

They were imprisoned at Batangas, and were not 
allowed to make a declaration or even know of what 
they were accused ; but, on the contrary, the transport 
" Liscum " took them, after they had been imprisoned 
three weeks in the jail, and brought them to Manila on 
the way to Olongapo. They are, in a way, resigned 


to their fate and are glad that they are going to 
Olongapo, because in Batangas they suffered morally 
and physically. They say that they were given 
nothing to eat but rice and salt, and that many of the 
lawyers and rich men of the town, whose names they 
gave, were made to work in the streets Uke the lowest 
criminals ; and although it is true that they [the three 
brothers] were not obliged to work, they were horrified 
at so much injustice, and suffered just as much. All 
our affairs are still suspended, and through a letter which 
I received from the captain of the " Purisima," who was 
in Balayan on the 23d of December, Andrea has sent 
word that she has been obliged to leave our house, so 
that the soldiers could occupy it, and that she is going 
away for fear that they should commit some outrage 
upon her person. 

Andrea says that the Americans are now doing every- 
• thing that the Spaniards did during the war, and I am 
very much astonished, for always formerly when we told 
them about things done by the Spaniards they were very 
indignant, calling the Spaniards barbarous and inhuman 
and using the strongest language possible. And what 
makes me despair all the more is that they do not allow us 
to speak of the injustices which are being committed in 
these provinces. No newspaper dares to complain, and 
the only one which explains things is El Rcnacimicjito, 
but even it does not dare to speak openly, under pain 
of law. We are glad you are not coming now. 
Good-bye. Remembrances from everybody. 

Affectionately, Ninay. 

[From Juliana to SLxto Lopez.] 

Manila, January 10, 1902. 
Dear Brother : I told you briefly in my previous 
letter that Mariquita arrived Tuesday at i o'clock in the 
morning, but could not land until 8 a, m., when Charing 


[wife of Mariano] and I and some other friends went to 
meet her on board the " Rosetta." We found the poor 
thing very thin, and so weak that she could not stand, so 
that for a moment we thought she had been taken ill 
before starting ; but she told us that since going aboard 
she had eaten nothing, owing to the badness of the 
voyage. She had also suffered much when she remem- 
bered the few happy days spent with you, wondering 
when she would see you again. Indeed, only God knows 
when we shall all have that great pleasure, if in a few 
days you go far from these Islands, as you think of 
doing. Pardon me for saying once more that we are all, 
and particularly mother, very willing, and all the more 
so, because of Clemen's going ; although, to tell you the 
truth, many who call themselves our friends do not 
approve, but prophesy that all sorts of horrible things 
will happen to our family when it is known that Clemen 
has gone to look after our affairs. 

Yesterday afternoon Mariquita and I, accompanied by 
an American friend, went to visit our brothers on the 
" Liscum." According to the officer who has charge 
of the prisoners, they are to be taken to a place in the 
island of Talim, which is in La Laguna de Bay, and, 
as you will understand, we become more and more 
despairing, since they are thus to be taken to a place 
where we can neither see nor communicate with them. 
Nevertheless, I hope that Captain Curry will obtain per- 
mission from Chaffee to keep them here in Manila ; for 
he has promised to try to arrange that if they are not 
set at liberty, they may at least be imprisoned here in 
Manila, where we can see them when we wish, and be 
treated as their position demands. I have just found out 
that the " Oretano " is also seized and the crew arrested.* 
I have no news from Balayan ; I only know through the 
newspapers that it continues tranquil as ever. I must 
close this now, for I have still to write to all the officers 

* Only temporarily — see later letters. 


in Balayan to beg from them a statement vindicating the 
conduct of our brothers. 

Good-bye, and keep well. Ninay. 

[Juliana's next letter tells, among other things, of the 
assistance given her and her family by Captain Curry, 
one of the kindest of friends and best of men. Unfort- 
unately for the Filipinos, but fortunately for himself, he has 
since resigned the position of chief of the Manila police, 
which he had accepted only upon the urgent and repeated 
request of Governor Taft. "I have no heart for such 
work," he was often heard to say. Besides requiring 
hardness of heart in its performance, the work, in its 
less objectionable phases, was essentially inequitable. 
The Civil Commission were making laws at the rate of 
about one a day, "and frequently," said Captain Curry, 
"on my tour of inspection I find Filipinos in prison for 
breaking laws that / didn't know existed." 

Captain Curry was one of the few men in the Philij> 
pines who endeavored to look at things from the Filipino 
point of view. When fighting with the Filipinos he 
'< fought hard," to use his own words, but he was also 
severe in the discipline of his own men, and rigorous in 
the punishment and prevention of abuses. The result 
was that he won the respect and admiration of his foes ; 
he could go, and did go, absolutely unprotected within 
their lines and camped for several days at their head- 
quarters, treating with their leaders. He finally pacified 
the entire province of which he had command, and of 
which he ultimately became governor. As governor, he 
lived in the house of a wealthy Filipino, and thus made 
himself one of the people. When he provided entertain- 
ment, as was customary with governors of provinces, it 
was at his own private expense, and the Filipinos were 
invited. Though a loyal Roman Catholic he was opposed 
to many of the acts of friars, and, much to their dis- 


pleasure, when he attended church he went as a private 
citizen, without pomp or ceremony. 

His policy was to avoid the sycophant who made elab- 
orate protestations of "loyalty" to America ; he had no 
use for the Buencaminos, the Taveras, the Legardas of 
his province. On the contrary, he held that the men 
best fitted to take part in the government were those 
who had fought honestly for their ideals. Thus, on one 
occasion, he took a captured " insurgent " officer out of 
prison and gave him the important office of Fiscal Pro- 
vincial — an act which he never had occasion to regret. 
His province was one of the best governed in the Islands, 
and Captain Curry himself declares that he could travel 
from end to end of it without a guard or protection of 
any kind. 

All this is in striking contrast to the methods pursued 
in other provinces, where the native is often despised as 
a "nigger " ; where thrice-renegade sycophants are given 
responsible positions; and where honest opponents are 
treated too frequently with contempt and " marked 
severity," to use no stronger term. 

Furthermore, Captain Curry's methods and success 
are a significant refutation of the contention that the 
abuses of the American soldiers were " provoked " by 
the Filipinos themselves. There were no cases of " water 
cure," or wholesale slaughter, or torture, or burning 
within Captain Curry's jurisdiction. " Military necessity," 
in his case, did not demand any such methods, yet his 
success in pacification has never been equaled, or even 
approached, in any other province.] 

[From Juliana to Sixto Lopez.] 

Manila, January 14, 1902. 

Dear Brother : Two days ago Mariquita and I went 

to see Captain Curry to beg him that he, in his turn, 

should ask the other authorities that our brothers should 

not be taken to the island of Talim as proposed, but that 


he might be answerable for them, keeping them as pris- 
oners here in Manila. As they are both delicate in 
health, especially Lorenzo, we should like to have them 
here near us, so that we can see them and help them 
when they need our care. This good friend i)romised 
that he would speak to Chaffee about all this, and what 
is more, he told us that if he succeeded he would keep 
our brothers in his house, where they would be much 
better off. But this afternoon we learned from him that 
this would not be granted us, and that he had received a 
telegram from Bell saying that Cipriano would not be set 
at hberty until his hair turned gray, since there were fifty 
guns which he had not given up on the day of his surrender ; 
but that he would be freed the moment that he gave them 
up ; that as for the other two, according to his notion 
and for the good of the Government they had better 
remain as they were to keep Cipriano company ; and 
finally, that because they had a brother, Sixto Lopez, 
who was a great enemy of the Government, they were 
justly imprisoned. [ ! ] 

This, as you will understand, distresses us very much, 
because it makes us realize more and more that we can 
have no hope for justice from these gentlemen, who 
boast of doing everything according to the law and for 
the good of the Government, although they sacrifice 
those who hav^e not deserved such punishment. Never- 
theless, it consoles us much to have some friends who 
help us and who do what they can to have our brothers 
well treated and well fed ; and we ought not to forget 
that although some desire our misfortune others of that 
same race are working for our happiness. . . . 

Good-bye until next time, with many regards for your- 
self and for Mr. Patterson. 

Affectionately, Ninay. 


P. S. — This morning at 6 o'clock they took our 

brothers to the island of TaUm, where they say there 
are no houses, so that they will have to live in field-tents. 


I have not written about it to Clemen, because I did not 
know her present address. 

[Courtesy to Filipino opponents has not been a con- 
spicuous characteristic during the war. Yet courtesy 
costs little and means much ; and, so far from its being 
incompatible with the duty or instincts of a true soldier, 
it has frequently been the one redeeming feature of war. 
The chivalrous feeling that has prompted the soldier to 
treat his captured, helpless foe with courtesy, even kind- 
ness, has sometimes raided war from the realm of vulgar 
quarrel to that of an honorable contest for what each 
opponent, rightly or wrongly, believed to be the right. 

It is therefore surprising that the following respect- 
ful request of Senor Lopez's, based " on grounds of hu- 
manity alone," should have met with no response ; more 
especially as he is a man of good personal repute, and, 
although an opponent, is not an " enemy " of the United 
States. It may be urged, however, that Senor Lopez 
was, in General Chaffee's belief, if not in fact, an enemy 
of the United States, and, as such, was not entitled to 
consideration. But may not General Chaffee have owed 
it to himself, if not to Senor Lopez, to show courtesy 
even to an enemy ? Assuming, however, that the reason 
is legitimate, it fails entirely to cover the case of Seiior 
Agoncillo, chief of the Filipino Commission to Wash- 
ington, who, prior to the outbreak of hostilities, wrote 
several respectful communications to the Secretary of 
State, to which he received no reply whatever. Those 
who incline to the theory that the Filipinos were the first 
aggressors ought to know that twenty-four days before 
the outbreak of hostilities Senor Agoncillo, zv/io coiild 
not then be regarded as in any sense an " eiiemy " of the 
United States, appealed to the Secretary of State, in 
what has since proved to have been prophetic language, 
for a frank communication of America's intentions with 

]()si'; Makia Basa 
[See note in list of illustrations] 


regard to the Philippines : " Permit me," wrote Agoncillo 
on the iith of January, 1899, "to express my sincere 
regret that up to the present time I have not been favored 
with a reply to or an acknowledgment of the [previous] 
letter submitted. ... In view of the present status of 
affairs in the Philippine Islands, and of the fact that, in 
the present strained position, the impetuous action of a 
Filipino or the over-zeal of an American soldier — acts 
based upon the impulse of a moment — may create a 
condition resulting in grievous loss of life, as well as in 
a memory that both nations might carry with them for 
years, I again urge upon you the necessity of an early 
and frank communication between the representatives of 
the countries in question." On the 24th of January — 
eleven days before the " over-zeal "of the Nebraska sen- 
try precipitated the conflict — Agoncillo again appeals 
on behalf of the Filipinos for an assurance that the 
troops then being sent to the Philippines were not in- 
tended as a menace to his government or his country- 
men — appeals to the Secretary of State and to " a 
Republic whose name they [the Filipinos] have always 
believed was associated with freedom and to which they 
have come first applying for recognition among the 
nations of the earth." 

Not a word of reply, not even an acknowledgment 
of receipt, was ever given to these respectful, almost 
pathetic, appeals. Had some form of friendly reply been 
made, had the sought-for assurance been given, — the 
history of the Philippines might have been very differ- 
ent from what it has been during recent years. Neglect 
such as this is liable to inflict a wound upon legitimate 
pride which time alone can heal. 

The cause of Sixto Lopez's anxiety, and the reason 
of his writing the following letter, were reports which 
reached him to the effect that Lorenzo, who had always 
been delicate, was seriously ill.] 


[From Sixto Lopez to General Chaffee.] 

Hong-Kong, January 15, 1902. 
Maj.-Gen. Adna R. Chaffee, 

Military Commander of the Philippine Islands, Manila. 

General : I have heard from private sources of the 
arrest and imprisonment of my three brothers, Lorenzo, 
Cipriano, and Manuel Lopez, and I am naturally anxious 
on their behalf. But from various reports which have 
reached me, I am specially anxious about Lorenzo, who 
has always been very delicate, and who, I fear, will suffer 
seriously if subjected to even the ordinary hardships of 
prison discipline. I should therefore be much indebted 
to you if you would, on grounds of humanity alone, 
kindly instruct one of your staff to give me any infor- 
mation available in reference to Lorenzo's health, and the 
conditions under which he will be compelled to remain. 

If not inconsistent with your authority and duty I 
should be glad to know, also, the reason of my brothers' 
arrest and of the seizure of our family's property. 

In the event of your finding it impossible to convey 
any or all of this information to me direct, perhaps you 
would be good enough to furnish it to the American con- 
sul here in Hong-Kong, who would, no doubt, inform me 
unofficially of its nature. 

I have the honor to be. General, your obedient serv- 
ant, Sixto Lopez. 

[The following letter is from the youngest sister, 
Maria, aged seventeen. It tells, among other things, of 
brotherly kindness which, it is said by the mother, has 
" not changed " with the lapse of years. This is hardly 
a fair specimen of Maria's letters ; later on it will be 
found that, young as she is, she has ideas of her own 
and is not afraid to express them.] 


[From Maria (aged seventeen) to Sixto Lopez.] 

Manila, January 15, rgo2. 

Dear Brother : I have not been able to write you 
these last few days, because, as Ninay will have written 
you, I felt so ill after so bad a voyage, and so she had 
to write for me. I found them all very well, but very 
unhappy, especially mother, who wept when she saw me, 
and immediately asked me about you. When I told her 
you were sorry to have me leave so soon she was even more 
troubled, for she wanted me to be with you all the time 
that you were in Hong-Kong so that you should not think 
of coming — although she wants to see you very much. 
But she was obliged to telegraph for me to come with 
Consuleo, because it would not do for mother, having 
assumed responsibility to Consuelo's parents, to allow 
her to come alone. For my part I am sorry for having 
left Hong-Kong while you are still there, and I cannot 
help crying when I remember the days I passed with 
you. . . . I have told them all how good you were to me — 
how you were always taking me out to walk, and giving 
me all sorts of pleasure; and mother was very happy 
about this, for she says you have not changed, and are 
good to your sisters, as you always were. 

I suppose you already know from Ninay 's letter that 
our brothers have been deported to the island of Talim. 
We were very sorry we could do nothing for them. The 
day before yesterday Ninay and I went to the office 
of General Chaffee to beg him to let them remain as 
prisoners here in Manila ; but we could only see the 
adjutant, who told us that the general did not wish to 
interfere in any way with what General Bell was doing 
in Batangas. So we went away in despair, not know- 
ing what to do. I feel especially for Lorenzo, who is not 
accustomed to these privations, for it is said they have 
nothing but tents there. I am sorry also for mother, 
who is always unhappy since she has known of the arrest 
of our brothers, in spite of the fact that I am always 


telling her that we ought to be resigned ; that we are 
not the only ones who are unfortunate, but that there are 
many others. I tell her, too, that you think that Clemen 
can do much toward getting liberty for our brothers, 
which indeed is our only hope. . . . 

Good-bye. Regards to everybody, especially to the 
Basa family, and you know that I love you and do not 
forget you. Maria. 


[Juliana, no longer of the convent school, may be al- 
lowed to continue the story in the following letter.] 

[From Juliana to Sixto Lopez.] 

Manila, January 17, 1902. 

Dear Brother : Yesterday I received two letters 
from Andrea, in which she says that she is doing well in 
Balayan and is not afraid the Americans will insult her, 
so that we have not insisted that she should come to 
Manila, for if she did come no one would look after what 
we have there. They told her to leave the house, but at 
her request they gave her the entresol, and there she has 
resigned herself to live. They have let her have our 
room also, because there were so many things in it that 
belong only to women, and so they respected it. Pardon 
me for saying that our enemies and those who are jealous 
of us are glad of all that is happening to us ; and not 
content with that, are improving the opportunity to accuse 
us of all sorts of things which are false, so that we may 
be ruined, and our poor people with us, who have com- 
mitted no other fault than that of being loyal to us. 

In order that you may see the baseness with which we 
are treated, I will tell you that three of our superintend- 
ents, in whom Lorenzo had absolute confidence, and to 
whom we owe favors that grateful hearts can never forget, 
are imprisoned in Balayan because they are, as those who 


denounced them say, the keepers of the fifty guns to 
which General BcW referred in his telegram to Captain 
Curry, and which I told you about in my previous letter. 
From this telegram we infer, then, that Captain Cheever, 
of the Sixth Cavalry, commanding officer in Balayan 
for the last ten months, is the author of the arrest of our 
brothers, incited by Ramirez and company through their 
denunciations, without any proof that would justify their 
course. Besides, Andrea says that the report got about 
in Balayan that you had come at last, frightened by the 
.arrest of our brothers, to take the oath of allegiance. 
This story was set rolling, as we are informed, by the 
miserable Viving, whom I suppose you will remember as 
following his deceased father's footsteps {^rcqiiicscat in 
pace). . . . 

I will not write any more, for this letter is so full of 
blunders that I am afraid you will not understand it. 

Thine to dispose of, Ninay. 

[The report, referred to above, that Sixto Lopez, 
"frightened by the arrest of his brothers," had come to 
take the oath of allegiance, was apparently another 
instance where "the wish is parent to the thought " — 
a wish shared by others as well as by " the miserable 
Viving " ! — as we shall see hereafter. 


The following letter contains several items of interest 
which will be commented upon later.] 

[From Juliana to Clemencia Lopez.] 

Manila, January 21, 1902. 
Dear Clemen : You cannot imagine how I felt when 
I read your letters written on board a steamer on the 
way to Europe. I received them on the 20th in the 


afternoon, and the more I read the more distressed 
I was, for I realized that you were very far from us, 
alone in a strange country. And so I could not help cry- 
ing all the time I was reading your letters. We are just 
as unhappy as we were when you left Hong-Kong, for 
our poor brothers are still prisoners, and, what is worse, 
a week ago they were deported to the island of Talim 
(La Laguna de Bay). . . . 

The first time that Charing and I went to visit our 
brothers we went with Captain Curry (who is as kind as 
ever), in the launch of the captain of the port, who is a 
friend of Manuel's. When he knew that I was Manuel's 
sister he offered us his launch to go out in the bay to 
where the " Liscum " was anchored. We have been sev- 
eral times, sometimes accompanied by Carlos and at other 
times alone or with Mariano. Many other prisoners have 
come with them, and among those that we know are 
Felix Unzon, Babasa and his son from Batangas, Martin, 
Marasigan the lawyer, and the old man from Taal who 
came with us when we went to Calapan. My brothers 
told me they were better off on board the ship than in 
the prison of Batangas, for besides the fact that they 
were there given nothing but rice and salt for three 
weeks, they had to sleep on the tiles and were given no 
beds ; so that when we saw Lorenzo he was very weak 
from having been sick with dysentery. He would have 
died there if they had not taken him away. Fort- 
unately for us, the company which guards the prisoners 
on board are humane, from the captain to the last sol- 
dier, so that they have no complaint to make of them. 
Besides, the captain and the second lieutenant of this 
company are friends of Carlos, and our brothers go well 
recommended to their care by him. 

When we went out there they received us well, espe- 
cially the lieutenant, who has been to call upon us here 
at the house, offering to do everything in his power to 
lessen the sufferings of our brothers and to give them 
everything that they need. As you will understand, I 


was very glad, and you would have been, too, if you 
could know these gentlemen, who are the ones who go 
with them to the island of Talim. The only thing that 
troubles me is that in that wild place there is no house, 
since it is a very small island. It is said that the 
prisoners live in tents, but that nipa-huts are to be built 
for them. At present, while we have not yet decided 
to go to see them, since many of our friends have ad- 
vised us not to go, we send things by the captain of the 
steamer which goes to the island three times a week, 
and we have included a letter for some one of the offi- 
cers there, who, as I told you, have offered to help us. 

We tried very hard to have them kept as prisoners 
here in Manila, so much so that we begged Captain 
Curry to become responsible for them and keep them in 
his house, to which he agreed very willingly, and imme- 
diately sent a telegram to Bell, who answered that he 
could not possibly give them either Uberty or such 
privileges ; that, as Cipriano failed to give up the fifty 
guns when he surrendered, he would not be set at 
liberty until he did give them up; that it seemed to 
him a good thing and of great service to the Govern- 
ment that Manuel and Lorenzo should also remain pris- 
oners to keep Cipriano company, who, according to Bell, 
will be a prisoner until his hair turns gray ; and finally, 
that he would not give them their liberty until Sixto 
should come and take the oath of allegiance and help 
the Government of the United States to pacify the 
provinces of Batangas and Laguna and the island of 
Saraar. How can I say what passed in my mind 
when I read the telegram ? I did not really believe that 
those who had called themselves our friends in Balayan 
had been so false, for you must know that the super- 
intendents at Dao, Matayunac, and Toong are also 
arrested. . . . 

For this reason none of us believe that Captain Cole 
has defended us at all, and we expect even less from 
Captain Cheevcr. We have suffered much from the 


cowardice of the former. Two days ago [Lieutenant] 
Raymond was here. He came to see us the first 
day after his arrival, and you who know us so well 
can imagine what we said to him. He is very much 
ashamed, excusing the others for the arrest of our 
brothers, for I told him that if we had for a moment 
imagined that the Americans suspected our family, we 
should not have continued to live in Balayan during such 
a time, receiving them in our house like real friends ; 
that we should have gone away from there and been on 
our guard ; but that, as they were apparently so kind, we 
did not think of any danger while we were doing nothing 
against them. 

Andrea has written me three letters, which I have 
received through some soldiers who have come. She 
told me in her letter that they sent for her to leave our 
house so that the soldiers could occupy it. At first she 
did not want to go, but she understood that she could do 
nothing against superior force. Still, when she invoked 
the Constitution of America, they gave up to her our 
room and the entresol, and there she is now Hving alone 
with Emilio. God grant that they may keep well and 
not be insulted. I have written her several times to 
come here, but she replied that, in the first place, on 
account of her health, which suffers in the climate of 
Manila, she thinks best not to come ; that she does not 
wish to leave our poor people, who are all in the town, and 
other affairs that no one else would look after. Your 
garden and flowers are well looked after, according to 
Raymond. . . . 

[Many of our friends] disapprove of your going 
[to America], ... for they say that as soon as the 
authorities find out that you have gone they will revenge 
themselves on us. At first Mariano thought the same, 
but seeing his own ill success, he has approved. Mother, 
who has been told all, is very willing. Good-bye ; 
regards to Mr. Warren and all his family, and I send 
you a kiss. Ninay. 


[" Still, when she invoked the Constitution of America, 
they gave up to her our room and the entresol " ! Was 
ever a more unique incident recorded of the American 
Constitution ? Did the framers of that great charter 
ever dream that it would be invoked in defense of per- 
sonal property in a distant Eastern country, and against 
those who were pledged to uphold its principles ? Well 
might the roughest soldier yield to such an appeal ! An 
appeal for so small a thing, backed by an invocation so 
mighty, — and the "boys in blue " yielded! 

"If heaven smiles, it is because thou ask'st so little." 

In the name of " the Constitution of America " Andrea 
might, indeed, have denounced those who were attempt- 
ing to take from her and her people those *' inalienable 
rights " which its framers declared to be the birthright 
of "all men." But her plea was only for "our room 
and the entresol"! And while she was thus appealing 
for permission to occupy her own bedroom, one of the 
superintendents on her estates was being tortured to 
death in order to make him disclose the imaginary place 
of concealment of the fifty phantom guns alleged to be 
in the possession of her brother, Cipriano I 

Of cotirse, there are those who profess to find excuse 
for this Philippine policy, and all that it entails, in the 
contention that the Filipinos, of whom Andrea is an ex- 
ample, are savages, and as such are not included in the 
"all men" of the Declaration. The Declaration itself 
does not contain any such limitation, express or implied. 
Its very greatness includes all ; and those who would 
set limits to its boundless truth are themselves limited 
either in capacity or by ignorance of the facts, or else by 
some unreasonable desire for power or wealth. Even the 
slaves were ultimately set free when Lincoln " invoked " 
the Declaration, which is said to be " the soul of the 
Constitution." And will any one contend that the slave 


was included in the "all men" and that the Filipino 
is not ? 

In 1888, Dr. Lyman Abbott preached a sermon in 
which he said : " Mankind are not fit for self-govern- 
ment. That is true. But mankind are better fitted to 
govern themselves than any portion of mankind, however 
selected, are fitted to govern any other portion of man- 
kind. Democracy rests on the fundamental truth that 
man as man — not royal man, nor aristocratic man, nor 
priestly man, nor Anglo-Saxon man, but man as man — 
was made in the image of God, and to man as man 
are given the keys of political, as of natural, dominion. 
Whenever, wherever, and howsoever this divine order is 
violated, the result is always disastrous." The immut- 
able truth of this last sentence has been attested in 
blood and fire in the Philippines. 

The three following letters contain items of general 
interest, and sundry opinions about American officers, 
which give an insight into the effect on the mind of the 
Filipinos of General Chaffee's policy.] 

[From Maria (aged seventeen) to Sixto Lopez, at Hong-Kong.] 

Manila, January 21, 1902. 

Dear Brother : To-day we have received your letter 
dated the 1 7th, and we are much troubled at your say- 
ing you have received no letters from us since I left 
there, for Ninay has written to you at least five or six 
times since I arrived here, and has sent you ^200 [Mex.] ; 
but Ninay will explain to you why you have not received 
the letters. 

In your letter you advise me to practise on the piano, 
and I am sorry I cannot please you, for our piano is in 
Balayan, the one we had here being a rented one ; and 
as soon as Ninay knew of the arrest of our brothers 


and the seizure of our goods, she had it sent back at 
once, because she said she was not in the mood for play- 
ing, and besides, it was costing us $12 [Mex.] a month, 
and that is too much luxury for us in these days. 

At last we have received a letter from Clemen written 
on board the steamer. She says that she is well and 
hardly seasick at all. We were much astonished at 

If you still have the pictures of our group, I would like 
to have you send me some, for some of our friends 
would like to have them ; but do not send them by post. 
Mother wants to know why I did not have my picture 
taken with you, and in the dress which I wore there, for 
many friends have said they would like to see me in 
European clothes ; but I told them that I never let my- 
self be seen in them, but always wore a cloak. 

I inclose in this $5 [Mex.] which I have just remem- 
bered to send you, and, if you can, send us fruits, such 
as apples, China oranges, and chestnuts, to send our 
brothers. Do not send us much. 

Thine, Maria. 

[From Juliana to Sixto Lopez, at Hong-Kong.] 

Manila, January 21, 1902. 

Dear Brother : I am much astonished at what you 
say in your letter of the 17th, which I received this 
morning, that you have had no news from us, for both 
Mariano and I wrote you often, telling you all that 
occurred to our family. You should know that we 
directed everything that we wrote to Seiior Jose M. Basa, 
so that he in turn might give them to Mr. Russell, since 
Basa told me that I should send to you in that way, and 
that you had agreed to it ; so you can ask Basa about 
them, and if they have not gone astray he will give you 
at least six of my letters. . . . 

[Repetition of facts stated in above-mentioned letters.] 


We have done and are doing everything possible 
so that our brothers shall not suffer much, but, as 
you will understand, we are very much afflicted by 
these false accusations, for if Bell really believes this, 
what shall we do and how shall we get so many guns, 
seeing that we have already given them all up ? Believe 
me, we are in despair, because they will pay no attention 
to the explanations we make, but on the contrary they 
Hsten to and believe our enemies, who do not weary of 
making false accusations, so that only God knows where 
these calamities will end. 

We all believe that Bell was influenced, as Colonel 
Bullard was not, by a copy of a biography of Cipriano 
captured from a Nationalist officer, in which it was stated 
that Cipriano had a well-organized battalion with 400 
guns, and that he had been raised to the rank of 
lieutenant-colonel because of the services which he had 
rendered, and because his family had lost $600,000 in 
the insurrection of 1896. This capture was before the 
surrender of Cipriano. General Malvar sent this biog- 
raphy to Cipriano to flatter him, for it exaggerated in 
saying that Cipriano had so many guns and other sup- 
pHes. Therefore, when he surrendered, although these 
guns were demanded of him, Bullard had to be satisfied 
with this explanation, that Malvar exaggerated, because 
this biography was to have been published in Filipmas 
Ante Eiiropa. Besides, when Cipriano surrendered, he 
did not wish to answer for the surrender of his compan- 
ions, but only for himself, and notwithstanding, as 
Bullard and Gale of the Fourth Cavalry begged his help 
and influence in overcoming those who still remained in 
the field, he agreed to help them and succeeded in 
pacifying all the territory which was under his com- 

According to letters from Andrea, she is still in good 
health and complains of no discourtesy on the part of the 
Americans. For about a week, since the surrender of 
the Taals, the reconcentrados in our town have been 


allowed to go out of the village to work and to harvest 
the rice in the lowlands, which, as you will remember, is 
cut at this season ; the crushing of the sugar has also 
begun in Ilimalas and Caybunga, where there is a good 
deal of cane. I do not know whether this is true, as 
stated by an official who has just come from there, but 
as Andrea tells me the same thing in her letters, I 
believe it to be a fact. 

We are not at all displeased, least of all mother, by 
Clemen's departure. On the contrary, the idea that she 
can accomplish there what we cannot here consoles us 
much ; therefore do not be disturbed about it, . . . 

The steamer voyages only between the ports of 
Batangas, and I was mistaken when I told you that the 
crew had been taken prisoners, for they go with the boat 
and receive the same wages. That is not so bad. Forgive 
me for writing to you in this way, but I have such a 
headache that I cannot see clearly what I am writing, 
and I only do it so that you shall not accuse me of 

Your most affectionate Ninay. 

[From Juliana to SLxto Lopez, at Hong-Kong.] 

Manila, January 23, 1902. 
Dear Brother : This is the seventh letter which I 
have written you, and when you receive this I suppose 
you will have received my previous ones. Our situation 
remains the same ; our brothers deported to the island 
of Talim and our goods confiscated. We have just come 
from the headquarters of the Department of the North, 
where we went to see General Wheaton and ask for a 
pass to visit the prisoners ; but unfortunately he was 
not there, nor his adjutant either, and his interpreter 
told us that he doubted whether a pass would be granted 
us, for General Wheaton does not wish to interfere in 
questions which refer to Batangas; and that the only 


person with whom to deal was Bell. But, on the other 
hand, we did not wish to deal with this gentleman, be- 
cause, from what we had been told, we were afraid to go 
to Batangas and expose ourselves to his treatment. 

From the statement which I inclose you will see that 
Bell has a good opinion of Mariano, for the inclosed is 
the answer to the statement which the latter sent him 
recounting his services to the United States, with the 
aid of Lorenzo and Cipriano, when he succeeded in 
pacifying the western towns of Laguna de Taal, bring- 
ing about the surrender of many who were in the field. 

We do not know what to do ; neither do we know 
about our brothers who were taken away nine days 
ago. Good news from Andrea. As you will learn from 
this statement. Bell did not clear up the question of 
our brothers, although Mariano had stated that except 
through their influence nothing would have been accom- 
plished. Everything is quiet in Balayan and there have 
been no combats nor any other trouble. 

Thine, Ninay. 

[Of all the documents accompanying Miss Lopez's 
petition for the release of her brothers, the following 
letter from Captain Curry was the one that arrested the 
President's attention and interest. " George Curry ! " 
said the President, on noting the signature ; " why, he 
was one of my officers in the Rough Riders. Anything 
that George Curry has to say is deserving of attention." 

With such high and deserved commendation. Captain 
Curry's opinions are of special interest, and this is what 
he has to say of the Lopez family : " Manuel Lopez, who 
lives here in Manila with Mariano, I am satisfied has 
done nothing disloyal, and I am very fond of Mariano 
Lopez and his family. I have done what I could to 
secure the release of their brothers." He states his 
belief in the innocence of the brothers, and of the 


charge against Cipriano he says : " From all the circum- 
stances connected with the case, I believe the charge to 
be a mistake, and so informed General Bell." This be- 
lief has received full contirmation from several sources, 
and indeed, from General Bell himself. Nor is it a mat- 
ter of wonder that Captain Curry's opinions should prove 
to be correct, notwithstanding what Mr. Magoon had to 
say to the contrary. Caj)tain Curry probably knows 
more about the Filipinos than any other American in 
the Philippines ; he has fought with them, Uved with 
them, studied tnem, governed them, and won their re- 
spect and admiration. It is therefore regrettable that 
Mr. Magoon did not allow himself to be guided by 
Captain Curry's evidence. It is true that General Bell 
was, as Mr. Magoon points out, nearer the scene of oper- 
ations as regards two of the brothers, but General Bell 
was a principal and not a witness, — the issue being 
between him and Miss Lopez, who had appealed against 
his acts to the highest ofificial authority. Captain Curry, 
on the other hand, was an impartial witness between the 
two, and his position, experience, and reputation ought 
to have turned the scales in Miss Lopez's favor. Yet 
while Captain Curry, satisfied of the innocence of the 
Lopez brothers, was doing what he could to secure their 
release, Mr. Magoon, who — to use his own words when 
speaking of an opponent — " had persisted in keeping a 
large segment of the earth's circumference between him- 
self and actual hostilities," was preparing a recommend- 
ation that the plea for their release be denied ! 

Such is, and ever will be, the essential character of 
government by a foreign and distant power. It was so 
during American colonial days, when such decisions were 
given, not in accordance with fact or merit, but in the 
interests of some home policy before which everything 
else had to yield. It confirms the wisdom of Natalio 
Lopez in teaching his children that "they could not live 
an honest life and escape tribulation as long as the 
source of authority was in a foreign land." It also con- 


firms the truth of Dr. Lyman Abbott's dictum that 
" Whenever, wherever, and howsoever this divine order 
[the right of man as man to govern himself] is violated, 
the result is always disastrous." 

But Captain Curry's letter deals with a question of 
wider importance : " All the trouble in Manila," he says, 
"is in that part of the city where the saloons flourish 
and the American element live, as the natives who live 
in the barrios give very little trouble and are easy to 
control." Captain Curry has frequently said that with 
two hundred out of the one thousand police under his 
charge he would undertake to keep order among the 
entire native population of Manila, if any one else would 
undertake, with the remaining eight hundred police, to 
keep order among the foreign population.* This state- 
ment has a two-fold significance : first, it confirms Presi- 
dent Schurman's declaration that the Filipinos "are 
naturally and normally peaceful, docile, and deferential 
to constituted authority," and that " they possess admi- 
rable domestic and personal virtues" ; and secondly, it 
shows, as has frequently been predicted, that those at- 
tracted to the Philippines for adventure or exploitation 
are generally of an undesirable class. Further confir- 
mation of this is furnished by a recent dispatch from 
Manila which tells how, when Governor Taft convened 

* In an interview published in the Boston Evening Transcript, May 
13, 1903, the Hon. Henry C. Ide, of the present Philippine Commission, 
says : " I ought to say here that Manila has a record for less crimes of 
violence than any American city of the same size can show. It is an 
orderly and well-governed city. One of the latest copies of the Manila 
Times which has reached me in this country noted the fact that there 
was not a prisoner in the city awaiting trial ; the courts were disgusted 
because they had nothing to do. Do you know of any other city of 
300,000 inhabitants that could show the same clean page ? Most of the 
credit for this condition is due to the character of the Filipino himself. 
Taking him by and large, he makes an excellent citizen. He is peaceful 
and law abiding, not quarrelsome of disposition, but regardful of the 
rights of others, mindful of his own business, and inclined to be on 
pleasant terms with his neighbors. An assault by a Filipino upon an 
American is almost unknown." [W^ould that the converse also could 
be said.] 


a conference of the prcsidentes of twenty-two towns in 
the province of Cavite, to urge them to work for the 
supi^ression of the ladrones, he was met with the counter 
request of the prcsidentes that they be given " a va- 
grancy law that would reach dissolute American advent- 
urers and discharged soldiers, whose influence was very 

Few persons realize how great are the evils which 
always accompany attempts to spread our particular 
form of civilization among what we proudly regard as 
inferior races. The vices which the dregs of our own 
civilization carry to such peoples have, without excep- 
tion, annulled whatever good the philanthropist may 
have accomplished. Yet we persist in these attempts, 
and are ever ready to repeat the same disastrous experi- 
ments. F'ortunately, the Filipinos, though they may 
have vices of their own, do not take kindly to those of 
the white man. In this they stand in marked contrast 
to other alien races. Thus, says President Schurman : 
" I have never seen a Filipino drunkard. They will take 
a small wine-glass of liquor, and be content with that ; 
and this temperance in drink is characteristic of their 
moderation in many other things. Probably no one 
thing has damaged the American people in the eyes of 
the natives more than this great vice of ours of indulg- 
ing too freely in drink." Commissioner Ide adds his 
testimony, in the following words : " The Filipino is 
always polite and always temperate. This seems like a 
sweeping statement, but it is a fact that in the three 
years that I have spent in the Islands I have seen only 
two drunken natives. I do not see the natives going 
into or coming out of the saloons, so I do not believe 
they patronize them. The Filipino drinks his vino, 
which you have doubtless heard described as a very 
deadly beverage. But vino is a cordial or liqueur, and 
is drunk by the Filipinos as our people drink liqueurs — 
that is, in tiny glasses, and very little at a time. It is 
a stimulant, and supplies that want for the Filipino in 


the moderate degree that suits his taste. It got its bad 
name from the way our soldiers fell to drinking it. 
They took it as they would take whiskey. They found 
it a cheap drink, and exhilarating, and drinking it in the 
quantities that they did they suffered serious injuries 
from its effect upon the brain. Many of them have 
been made insane and sent back to asylums in this 
country. Many others are in our hospitals in the Islands 
— victims, not so much of the vino habit, as of the 
immoderate use of a stimulant intended to be taken 
by the thimbleful. I have attended dinners and other 
social festivities given by Filipinos, and have been struck 
by their marked temperance. They serve wine .of the 
kinds and in the quantities to which other nationalities 
are accustomed, out of hospitality to their guests, but 
they drink almost none themselves. It is a sign of their 
extraordinary conservatism that, in spite of all that the 
Filipinos have seen going on about them since the Ameri- 
cans came into the Islands, they do not seem to be 
acquiring our whiskey - drinking habit." {Transcript, 
Boston, May 13, 1903.) "A sign of conservatism" ! Is 
it conservatism to avoid falling into the bad habits of 
others .? Is the Filipino never to be given credit for 
personal virtue ? — But, to return to Captain Curry's 
letter: — ] 

Department of Police, Central Office, 

Manila, P. I., January 25, 1902. 
Mr. FisKE Warren, 

Boston, Mass. 
My Dear Sir : Yours of recent date at hand and 
contents noted. In reply, will say that the three Lopez 
brothers are still under arrest. They are confined, to- 
gether with a large number of other military prisoners, 
on an island in the Laguna de Bay. I, of course, do 
not know just what the military have against the Lopez 
brothers who live in Batangas, but Manuel Lopez, who 


lives in Manila with Mariano, I am satisfied has done 
nothing disloyal, and I am very fond of Mariano Lopez 
and his family. I have done what I could to secure the 
release of their brothers, and I feel satisfied that as soon 
as peace is established in Batangas, which now appears 
to be a question of a few weeks, as the insurgents are 
fast surrendering, they will be liberated and their prop- 
erty restored to them. These harsh measures were 
believed by General Bell to be necessary ; and whereas 
I differ with him as to the guilt of the Lopez brothers, 
they are undoubtedly suffering largely on account of 
their brother, Sixto Lopez. As you realize the situation 
yourself very fully, you can understand. 

The Lopez girls have been up to see me frequently, 
and I have treated them with the utmost courtesy, as 
I really feel very much attached to them. They, like 
other Filipino families that I have gotten very well ac- 
quainted with, improve on acquaintance. They are very 
loyal to their friends, and I have only regretted that I 
could do so little to assist them. But, as I stated before, 
I feel satisfied from what General Wheaton tells me 
that these parties will all soon be released. 

Cipriano Lopez, the eldest brother, is accused by Gen- 
eral Bell of having knowledge of a large number of arms, 
which, from all the circumstances connected with the 
case, I believe to be a mistake, and so informed General 
Bell ; but General Bell differs with me and appears sin- 
cerely to believe that Lopez is doing all he can to under- 
mine the Government.* 

Conditions in Manila are steadily improving. My 
native police are all being taught English and are learn- 
ing very fast. The city limits have been extended to 
take in some of the smaller towns, and I am now organ- 
izing police in those places, but anticipate very little 

* This belief, which doubtless was based on the reports of Manuel 
Ramirez and Captain Cheever, was finally abandoned by General Bell — 
as is evidenced by his subsequent treatment of Cipriano. 


trouble. In fact, all the trouble in Manila is in the part 
of the city where the saloons flourish and the American 
element live, as the natives who live in the barrios give 
very little trouble and are easy to control. 

I feel confident that Governor Taft will present mat- 
ters in such a way at Washington as will secure some 
necessary legislation and a permanent peace for these 
people, whom I really like, and would like to do some- 
thing to better their condition. 

I would be pleased to hear from you at any time. I 
sincerely hope that if you visit Washington you will 
consult with Governor Taft ; I know, if you meet once 
and talk with him, you will be convinced of his sincerity 
and kind feeling toward the Filipino people. 

With kindest regards, I remain, yours, very truly, 

George Curry. 

[The two following letters from Juliana tell of many 
things which do not require comment or explanation ; 
but one sentence of hers gives a clue to what may have 
contributed to the unfounded suspicion as to the "kind 
and character " of her correspondence with her brother. 
In the second of these letters Juliana says to Sixto: 
"The truth is, I do not know under what address to 
write you, for if I use your own name ... I am afraid 
that it would be sufficient reason for arresting me, be- 
cause of being in communication with an ' insurgent,' as 
they call you ! " Such was the suspicion then existing in 
Manila that if Juliana had sent a copy of the Lord's prayer 
addressed to Sixto Lopez, one of the secret-service 
police would have reported the fact at headquarters. 
It was not that Juliana had anything to communicate to 
Sixto Lopez, or he to her, of a seditious or compromis- 
ing nature ; it was the mere fact of communicating with 
her brother that was the ground of suspicion. Even Vice- 
Governor Wright, whom many regard as a fair-minded 


man, is reported to have said that Mariano Lopez had 
" lost the good opinion that the authorities had had of 
him, on account of Sixto Lopez and his friends."] 

[From Juliana to Clemencia Lopez.] 

Manila, January 29, 1902. 

Dearest Clemen : This is the second letter which 
I have written you in answer to the two you sent me 
from Singapore and Penang, and which I received a little 
while ago, together with a letter from our very dear 
friend. We are very happy over the news and the 
impressions of your journey which you sent us, and are 
grateful to the passengers who went with you for the 
kindness which they showed you. It has lessened the 
sadness with which we are all weighed down to know 
that you are well and resigned. As for us, thank God, 
we all continue in good health, including mother, who, 
in spite of the gravity of our situation, is resigned, as 
are our three imprisoned brothers. They were deported 
to the island of Talim with a number of others from the 
province of Batangas. You can see how changed the 
Americans are toward our family by the following inci- 
dent : The other day we went to ask for a pass to visit 
our brothers. The island where they now are is not 
more than five or at least six hours' journey from Manila, 
but they would not grant us the pass, giving as an 
excuse that they could not interfere in matters concern- 
ing which only Bell could decide. 

We go continually from bad to worse. We get news 
from Balayan that, in spite of its tranquillity and peace- 
ful attitude, they continue to arrest all those whom they 
believe have guns. In my previous letter I told you 
that several of our superintendents were imprisoned, as 
they were believed to be the guardians of the fifty guns 
which it was supposed Cipriano failed to present when 
he surrendered. As you know, there are not and cannot 
be any proofs of these accusations. Simply because of 


denunciations they have been imprisoned up to the pres- 
ent time and will continue so. At the same time, not 
only are they imprisoned, but they are subjected to all 
kinds of torture, so that finally one of them, poor Isabelo 
(may his soul rest in peace), the superintendent of Calan, 
succumbed and died from the effect of all the blows and 
beatings which were given him to make him produce the 

Seeing this, Emiliana, wife of Gregorio (who denied 
the existence of these guns), managed in some way, I 
know not how, to get hold of three guns, which she 
surrendered to obtain the liberation of her husband. 
Indeed, we were utterly puzzled as to where this woman 
could have obtained them,* and instead of bettering her 
unhappy condition she has only made it worse. 

As for Andrea, she is well and occupies the entresol 
of the house, as the upper rooms are occupied by the 
soldiers. They have offered to give her a pass to come 
to Manila, but she will not do so, as she does not wish 
to leave everything in the hands of others. They have 
also asked her about the guns, and finally they asked 
her to help to find them. You can imagine how she 
would answer them ! 

You ask me about our supposed friends in Balayan. 
What a disillusion ! It seems that they only called 
themselves friends so that they might injure us after- 
wards. Here in Manila astonishment is expressed that 
they have not been able to defend us, for if they had 
done so our brothers would not be where they are. The 
only one who seems really to be our friend and who is 
sorry for what has happened is Lieutenant Raymond, 
but the others, up to the present time, still continue the 
work of injuring us. For my part I feel a great deal of 
resentment toward them, and I do not believe that any 

* Sixto Lopez is of opinion that this unfortunate woman was supplied 
with these guns by Manuel Ramirez, in order to give color to the accu- 
sation about the fifty guns alleged to have been held back by Cipriano. 


reconciliation will be possible between them and us. 
Believe me, Clemen, if we did not hope for good re- 
sults from your efforts in America, we should die of 
sorrow. Therefore, in spite of the fact that many dis- 
approve of your going, I am convinced that you will 
accomplish there what we have not been able to accom- 
plish here. 

I beg of you, do not show this letter to any one, even 
to our friend, for its appearance is disgraceful. I send 
it to you by a friend of Macaria's, who belongs in 
Boston, and who starts to-morrow for the United States ; 
therefore I write you in haste. Tell our friend that 
some other day I will write, telling him many things. 

Regards from everybody, and a kiss from 


[From Juliana to Sixto Lopez, at Hong-Kong.] 

Manila, January 30, 1902. 

Dear Brother : We have finally found a friend by 

whom to send you this letter, for I am afraid you have 

not received my previous ones and that they are really 

lost. Some of these letters I sent you under the name 

of in the house of , and the last two 

to to give to Clemen and Mariquita. You would 

understand that they were mine to you, as it would be 
absurd to suppose that they were for those to whom 
they were addressed, seeing that I know perfectly well 
that the former has gone far away and that the latter has 
been here for weeks. The truth is, I do not know under 
what address to write you, for if I use your own name, 
which is as well known here as mine in Balayan, I am 
afraid that it would be sufficient reason for arresting me, 
because of being in communication with an "insurgent," 
as they call you ! Since Mariquita arrived I have received 
no letter from you except one dated the 17th, and, as 
you will understand, I am impatient to know some things 
about which I asked you. . . . 


From the last news from Balayan I know that the 
town continues tranquil, as always; nevertheless, they 
are continuing to arrest our superintendents to force them 
to produce the imaginary guns which they say are being 
kept back. As is natural, the poor things deny every- 
thing, for, indeed, they do not know what guns are spoken 
of, and for this reason they (the Americans) are torturing 
them, giving them thousands of blows, whipping and 
beating them, so that finally one of them died — the 
Americans and Macabebes beat him so much. He was 
called Isabelo, and was the superintendent at Calan. 
It has amazed me that they should have taken such 
measures, considering that they are so civilized a nation 
and boast all over the world wherever they go of their 
humane acts. 

The death of our superintendent has saddened us very 
much, all the more because he was one of those in whom 
our brothers had confidence, and we all liked him. When 
I heard this news I could not sleep all night for thinking 
that perhaps this unfortunate man was martyred because 
he would not say anything against us, and so they killed 
him. On the other hand, the wife of the superintendent 
at Dao, whose husband was imprisoned, sought some way 
of liberating him, and, nobody knows how, got hold of 
three guns with which to buy the freedom of her hus- 
band, and surrendered them, but they would not give 
him his freedom for that, but, on the contrary, demanded 
more and more, and his situation was all the worse. I 
cannot tell you about this in detail as I have not yet 
received a letter from Andrea, The prisoners continue 
in good health, as well as the rest of us here. Good-bye. 


[" It has amazed me that they should have taken such 
measures, considering that they are so civilized a nation." 
Has it come to this at last ? Civilization rebuked for its 
barbarity, — and by those whom it would civilize! 


'• Do the dead know and weep o'er the acts of the living ?" 
Then must Washington be shedding tears in heaven. 

In the three following letters Maria's youth proclaims 
itself in its quaintness and directness : " They have 
arrested 4 of our most trusted superintendents," who 
were tortured, "so much so that i of them has died." 
The use of the numerals, in such a connection, reminds 
one of Artemus Ward. 

Maria apparently does not approve of those who are 
entrusted with the task of benevolent assimilation : 
" What vile men ! I never want to see them again ; I 
hate them all ! " Youth has a habit of setting forth its 
opinions without any qualification. But perhaps Maria 
says plainly what many an older head may think but dare 
not express. Sometimes, however, Maria speaks in the 
language of the " older head " : " It is evident," she says, 
"that we shall not be safe while there is one Filipino 
struggling for independence." This is the language of the 
Russian or of the Polish patriot despairing of the liberty 
of his fatherland. And that this should be said of any 
spot of earth over which " Old Glor)^ " flaps in the morn- 
ing breeze ! — No safety while there is one struggling 
for independence !] 

[From Maria to SLxto Lopez, at Hong-Kong.] 

Manila, January 30, 1902. 

Dear Brother : We have received only one letter 

from you since I arrived here, — dated the 17th; and 

we are much puzzled at not receiving another telling 

us whether you have yet received all our letters. The 

last one we wrote you was directed to Don 

to be given to the Seiioritas Clemencia and Maria, and 
I don't know whether he has given it to you. This 


address occurred to us because we did not know to 
whom else to direct it so that you might receive it 
promptly. We directed the others to the house of 
Don , with the name of . 

Concerning our brothers, I can tell you nothing more 
than that they are well, and I believe that, as time 
passes, the authorities have less and less any idea of 
giving them their liberty ; for they say that Cipriano 
failed to surrender 50 guns. They have arrested 4 of 
our most trusted superintendents, demanding from them 
the 50 guns. These superintendents do not possess the 
guns, yet they are being tortured — so much so that i 
of them has died. 

Mariano continues working for our brothers, but he 
accomplishes nothing, for they tell him that everything 
depends upon General Bell. I am sorry for all this on 
mother's account, for you cannot imagine how it makes 
me despair to see her weep. I fear everything for her, 
for she spends whole days weeping, thinking of our 
brothers, and that, as you know, may do her much harm 
at her age. We thought of asking for a pass this week 
so that we could visit them in the island of Talim, only 
that mother might be convinced that they are well, and 
be more contented, but friends have advised us that we 
ought not to go there, seeing that there are no houses, 
and the boat only goes once a week. 

I do not know whether I can send you this letter by 

Dr. . They say that he is the doctor of the 

steamer. We ourselves will go to his house and beg 
him to deliver this letter, and at the same time ask how 
you are. His wife is a friend of ours, and it may com- 
promise him to take you this letter. I am not telling 
you about things, because Ninay is writing to you also, 
and she can do it much better than I ; at the last 
moment she decided to write to you, for she had been 
writing to Clemen. 

A soldier from Balayan, a friend of Macaria's, who 
goes back to America to-morrow, offered to take her 


letter to Clemen ; he says he lives in Boston. Ninay 
accepted his offer with pleasure, for she fears that 
Clemen does not receive her letters by post. We have 
now received letters from her, one from Singapore and 
another from Penang. She tells us how delightful it is 
to travel, and that if she were not always thinking of 
her brothers she would consider herself very happy. I 
do hope that when you receive this you will be in good 
health, as we all are, thank God. Regards to everybody, 
and remember that you are loved and not forgotten by 
Your sister, Maria. 

[From Maria to Clemencia Lopez.] 

Manila, February 6, 1902. 

Dear Clemen : Forgive me that I have not written 
to you until now, but you know how hard it is for me to 
write and how idle I am; all the more because I have 
no good news to tell you, for our brothers are still pris- 
oners. We realize more and more the gravity of our 
situation. All those to whom we apply for help in 
obtaining the liberation of our brothers make us prom- 
ises at first, but afterwards tell us that they can do 
nothing ; and this has just happened to us once more. 
The private secretary of General Chaffee, who promised 
us so much, and even set the day when our brothers 
should be freed, has also lost heart now that he has 
talked with General Bell. 

Mr. Curry, our best friend, also talked with him, but 
without result, since he demands an impossibility — that 
the 50 guns which Cipriano is charged with having failed 
to present when he surrendered should first be given 
up. We are in despair. Yesterday we received a 
letter from our brothers, and they say they are very 
badly off, for they spend the day in the sun, acting as 
overseers to the other prisoners, and they are given very 
bad food and little of it. They are treated as if they 


were criminals. The man wlio brought us the letter had 
to talk with them sub rosa, for they say that they are 
very closely watched. Poor Lorenzo ! I feel the worst 
on his account, and we do not know what to do. When 
we went to the offices of Generals Chaffee and Wheaton, 
where we only succeeded in speaking with the adjutants, 
we always got the same answer — that these generals 
did not wish to interfere with the affairs of Bell in 
Batangas. What vile men ! I never want to see them 
again ; I hate them all ! 

Four days ago we sent our brothers canned food 
and some other things which they needed, such as beds 
to sleep in, — thanks to a soldier who promised to take 
them. We do not send them money, for they are not 
allowed to have any. What they had with them when 
they were arrested was taken from them. Now more 
than ever we are glad that you went to America, for 
we have seen that indeed there is no justice here. God 
grant that you obtain it there, for you are our only hope. 
What evil days, Clemen, we have passed and are passing 
through now ; and how much we think of you. 

I suppose you are still thinking that I am in Hong- 
Kong, where you left me, but I have been here a 
month, having returned with Consuelo. ... I was very 
sorry to leave Hong-Kong while Sixto was still there. 
If you could have seen how I cried ! — and he was sorry 
too and did not want to let me go. . . . The days there 
were delightful, because Sixto was very kind and good 
to me. Almost every day after dinner Sixto took me to 
walk to places which I had not yet seen, at the same 
time making me tell him about things that happened ten 
years ago. 

We also went to the house of Agoncillo and Marti, 
who were most kind to me, especially Dona Marcela 
[wife of Agoncillo], who was very anxious that I should 
stay at her house. Of the Basa family I have nothing 
but praise, for they have been very good to me, especially 
Inez, who was like a sister to me. She helped me to 


get ready, and the family accompanied me to the steamer 
with our Philippine friends and acquaintances. We 
arrived here in the "Kosctta" on the 7th, after a very 
bad voyage, much worse than we had going, and so ill 
that I could hardly stand. But we were fortunate in 
having as fellow-voyagers two Spaniards, who were very 
good and looked after us in every way. One of them is 
named Ramon Lopez. He says he was the Government 
physician in Katangas and knows our family, as he has 
been in Balayan and has stopped at our house. 

The ship's doctor, who is a Japanese, also looked after 
us, and was very thoughtful, continually asking us what 
we wished to eat. I believe he was sorry for us, seeing 
us travel alone, or perhaps Sixto recommended us to his 
care. Many friends came out to the boat to meet us, 
almost all of those who came to see us off. 

We all continue well, including mother, although she 
is very unhappy, even in spite of the fact that we do 
not tell her more than half of what happens to us, and 
tiy to console her. Give our regards to Mr, Warren 
and his wife, and kisses to the children ; and receive a 
warm embrace from your sister. Quita. 

[From Maria to Sixto Lopez.] 

Manila, February 12, 1902. 
Dear Brother : We received your letters of the 26th 
of last month and the 7th of this with the inclosed copy. 
Ninay has not yet written to the superintendent of tel- 
egraphs, as he is sick with measles ; but as soon as he 
recovers she will do so. As to the telegram stating that 
one of our brothers was executed, which you say alarmed 
Clemen so much when she read it in the papers, one of 
our friends also told us that the American newspapers 
referred to it. We have learned that the authorities 
here have received a letter from a personage in America, 
and this letter only asked the motive for the imprison- 


ment of our brothers. We do not know the name of the 
writer. We all believe that Bell's visit to our brothers 
was due to your letter to Chaffee, for now, according to 
letters which we receive from Manuel, they are much 
more considerately treated, particularly Lorenzo, in whose 
condition they took a great deal of interest, sending two 
American physicians, who pay more attention to him than 
to any one else. 

Are you really persistent in coming ? Don't do it if 
you do not wish to make our situation worse. Besides, 
mother sends you word that if you still wish to see her 
you are not to come on this occasion, and that she has 
decided to live anywhere except here in the Philippines, 
for it is now evident that we shall not be safe while there 
is one Filipino still struggling for independence. There- 
fore we are only waiting until they set our brothers free 
in order that we may go to Hong-Kong or some other 
place where nobody will interfere with us and abuse 
our confidence. We attribute the imprisonment of our 
brothers to the fact that you will not come and take the 
oath of allegiance ; and so they are imprisoned to make 
you come. 

When the authorities speak to us about this, although 
they do not do so directly, we close their mouths by tell- 
ing them that Cipriano laid down his arms, trusting in 
the promise of the Government that they would never 
trouble nor molest him so long as no clear proof against 
him existed, and also that our family should enjoy the 
same just immunity because we had worked so hard for 
his surrender ; for they declared that the American 
people do not intend to oppress us as the Spaniards did, 
but that rather we, as well as all others who did not fight 
against them treacherously, should have their protection. 
Therefore we hope that in view of the way they have 
treated Cipriano you will, less than ever, consider taking 
the oath of allegiance. Ninay sends word for you to tell 
her the date of your departure a week before you leave 
for America, so that she can send you the native clothes 


which you are to take to Clemen to use this summer. I 
have received the book which Mr. Patterson sent me 
and am a thousand times obliged to him. We have not 
received the ph()to^ai)hs and the ornament. Good-bye, 
many regards, and be sure that you are not forgotten by 


[** Or, is it that the naked eye of youth 

Sees all through glamour ; while, to see the truth 
Needs convex lenses ? " 

Certainly, it needed calamity and the convex lenses of 
age to teach King Lear that protestations of loyalty and 
love are frequently vain and worthless. Similarly, to 
compare great things with smaller, it required calamity 
in order to dissolve Juliana's illusion as to those officers 
who had professed friendship when all the world was 
smiling, but who forsook her and her family in the hour 
of peril. And the dissolving of her illusion,- — what a 
change it wrought in Juliana herself! Compare her 
first letters with the following one ; passionate, yet 
reasonable ; fearless, yet prudent ; withering in its scorn 
of false friend, yet mindful of those who had proved 

" Before all this happened," writes Juliana, " who could 
have believed that they could be so vile as to revenge 
themselves on us who had done nothing against them, 
and were living in confidence, sure of the friendship 
which all the officers professed ? " Who, indeed ? But 
friends differ, as do the stars in magnitude ; even Lear's 
daughters were not all the same. " I always believed 
the American officers to be very just and reasonable, 
but now I am convinced that there is a snake in every 
bush, as the proverb says. They are reasonable when 
it suits them." Or, was it when the policy fcmiittcd 
them.? Doubtless the officers would have been just 


and reasonable at all times if the policy behind them 
had been just and reasonable. "Oh, what outrage!" 
continues Juliana. " If all the Americans are like those 
we have here, who heartlessly punish the innocent and 
make many families suffer, preserve me from them 
and from America, with all its wealth and education 

and desire to be our protector in civilization, and , 

But no, I want also to be just ; I do not want you 
to say that I have forgotten those who are still our 
friends in spite of everything, and who are doing every- 
thing in their power for us." How these words bring 
the hot blood to one's cheek ! How the very soul rises 
against the policy that made it possible for such words 
to be uttered ! But there is more, and worse : " When 
[Lieutenant] Raymond was here he came to our house 
two or three times and denied that any officer in 
Balayan [i. e., any officer who formerly professed friend- 
ship for the family] had anything to do with the impris- 
onment of our brothers. I answered him that it might 
be so, but that no officer had taken the least trouble to 
defend them." A just reply, for friendship does not 
stop at refraining from doing or participating in a wrong ; 
it must also put forth its hand in defense. But Juliana's 
final reflection gives the climax to it all : " This the 
officers should have done, not only as good friends, but 
still more because military honor required them to defend 
the right." Humiliating, is it not, that a young Filipina 
should have to give the Anglo-Saxon a lesson in the 
claims of friendship and honor ? Compare all this with 
those older conceptions of honor as expressed by Rod- 
erick Dhu : — 

" It rests with me to wind my horn, — 
Thou art with numbers overborne ; 
It rests with me, here, brand to brand. 
Worn as thou art, to bid thee stand : 
But, not for clan, nor kindred's cause. 
Will I depart from honor's laws."] 



[From Juliana to Clemencia Lopez.] 

Manila, February 14, 1902. 
Dearest Clemen: I am very sorry to tell you that 
our brothers are still prisoners, and deported to the little 
island of Malagi [Talim], and we have no hope of seeing 
them soon free because of the heavy conditions laid 
upon them in exchange for their liberty. By letters 
which we have received from Manuel we know that they 
are not well treated, and that they are made to work in 
the strong sun, being set as foremen over the other 
prisoners, who work like animals. They do not com- 
plain so much of the work as of the food and lodgings, 
the latter being, as you know, nothing but field-tents. 
The poorest Filipino has his own little house, and never 
sleeps on the ground, as the rich men of the capital of 
Batangas are doing there. I am thankful that I did not 
give any credit to what the officers told me, that our 
brothers would have everything, for by way of precau- 
tion I sent them immediately cot-beds, mosquito-nets, 
and ever)lhing they would really need. I took pains 
also to send them food. I got myself introduced to the 
man who has charge of all the launches running to that 
island, so that he might notify me of their departure, 
and in that way my letters and goods might arrive 
safely. This American official, who seems to be a good 
sort of a man, and who knew me by reputation, received 
me very well and offered to do everything he could on 
his part. But on the other hand, our brothers, in their 
letters, beg me to spare no efforts or money to obtain 
their freedom, for they will die if they remain there 
much longer. All these letters have made us perfectly 
despairing, seeing the impossibility of doing anything 
for them. All the valuable information and services 
which our brothers have given the Government avail 
nothing. What the Americans want at any cost is that 
Sixto shall come and take the oath of allegiance, or that 
fifty guns shall be presented. The matter of the fifty 


guns is simply an excuse, so that they may appear to 
have a just reason for the imprisonment of our brothers ; 
what they really want and desire is the person of Sixto, 
and they believe that, compassionating the situation of 
our family, he will sacrifice his ideals to save us. 

They have made a great mistake, for, according to 
what we hear, he is very much grieved by it, but not as 
much as the authorities believe, — and certain Filipinos 
as well, — who think that the only way to force Sixto to 
come unconditionally is by the imprisonment of our 
brothers and the confiscation of our goods. But what 
I cannot understand is why even our poor dependents 
should suffer for the fault of our brothers. Being 
required to surrender guns which the poor things did 
not possess, they also have been imprisoned and are still 
so. Isabelo, of Calan, has died. After they had beaten 
him and could get no confession from him they took him 
to the river Matauanak (Tuy), and there they left him, 
drowned in the river. Ramirez told of this here in 
Manila. Cheever has fulfilled to the letter all his vows 
of vengeance on our family made when his candidate 
failed to be elected last September. You do not forget 
the details. As little does Bell forget the time when we 
won in the matter of the cows last year, when, although 
pledged to the friars, he could do no less than recognize 
that the cows were ours. With so many great and 
powerful enemies, and the situation in Batangas what 
it is, you can imagine how the opportunity will be 
improved to do us harm. 

But before all this happened who could have believed 
that they could be so vile as to revenge themselves on 
us who had done nothing against them, and who were 
living in confidence, sure of the friendship which all 
the officers professed ? It is this confidence that has 
ruined us. If we had been distrustful, they would not 
have caught us so unprepared, for not only should we 
have warned our brothers not to stay in Balayan, but 
we should have advised them to leave the country, and 


then we should be in peace and should not be spending 
such bitter days as we are now. Choleng arrived a week 
ago . . . and told me many very sad things about our 
province which remind me of the Spanish rule. Mar- 
tyrdoms and torture are being renewed in the provinces 
where the insurrection still prevails. The father of L. 
Luna, after incredible torture, was thrown still alive on 
a fire, simply because his son was an insurgent and he 
had not been able to bring about his surrender. 

All the wealthy men in Lipa have been made to work 
in the streets, and if at the present time they are better 
treated, it is only because their sons, boys under eighteen 
years of age, have volunteered, and go out always as 
guides when the American forces rcconnoiter ; and they 
go in the vanguard ! In this way they have bargained 
so that their fathers shall not again be obliged to work 
in the streets, carrying water, etc. Not even in the 
time of the Spaniards were the people of Batangas so 
badly treated as they are now ; and indeed it sounds 
strange to me to hear such horrible news, for even 
women are deported simply for being wives or daughters 
of insurgents. This is one of the reasons why I de- 
cided not to go to Balayan to visit poor Andrea, who is 
all alone with Emilio, for I did not wish to be within 
reach of Bell, of whom I have a horror, believing him 
capable of anything. Before these sad events hap- 
pened, I always believed the American officers to be 
very just and reasonable, but now I am convinced that 
there is a snake in every bush, as the proverb says. 
They are reasonable when it suits them ; but when it 
is otherwise, even if you shriek and cry to heaven, they 
pay no attention, merely saying by way of consolation 
that when peace is established in our province every- 
thing will be arranged and we shall be content with their 
government ; and saying other things as well, all, in 
short, having little to do with what you ask. Oh, what 
outrage ! If all the Americans are like those we have 
here, who heartlessly punish the innocent and make 


many families suffer, preserve me from them and from 
America, with all its wealth and education and desire to 

to be our protector in civilization, and . But no, I 

want also to be just; I do not want you to say that 
I have forgotten those who are still our friends in spite 
of everything, and who are doing everything in their 
power for us. As for the others, I no longer believe in 
them ; they are such false friends. We have treated 
them so well ever since they took Balayan up to the 
present time that they can have nothing against us 
except the fact that Sixto is our brother, and in respect 
to him they assured us that we had nothing to fear. 
Then, why are our brothers now prisoners ? 

Two months have passed and God only knows what 
we have suffered and what remains for us to suffer in 
future, from the terrible and lasting effects. When 
Raymond was here he came to the house two or three 
times and denied that any officer in Balayan had any- 
thing to do with the imprisonment of our brothers. I 
answered him that it might be so, but that no officer 
had taken the least trouble to defend them. This the 
officers should have done, not only as good friends, but 
still more because military honor required them to de- 
fend the right ; and they did not do it, but kept silent 
like cowards lest what happened in Balangiga should 
happen in Balayan, for they say that Balayan is no more 
peaceful than was Balangiga before the attack. . . . 

I finish this, Clemen, by begging you once more to 
do everything you can, for our family has been very 
much wronged. My head is good for nothing, and so I 
beg you to show no one this letter and to pardon me 
because it is so full of erasures. You are, I repeat, our 
only hope in remedying our dreadful situation. 

Tell our friend to forgive me for not writing more 
often, but I always have much to do and much to think 
about. Good-bye. Give our regards to everybody, and 
kiss the children, and remember that you are loved and 
not forgotten by your sister, Ninay. 


[Yes, there were some true friends among the Amer- 
icans. Some ? There are many, if all were only known. 
Indeed, there are few enemies, and if the poHcy were 
different there would be none. In the following letter 
to one of these friends Juliana shows that ingratitude is 
not a characteristic of her race.] 

[From Juliana Lopez to Fiske Warren.] 

Manila, P. I., February 15, 1902. 

Distinguished and Dear Friend : First of all I 
hope that you will forgive me for not writing to you with 
greater frequency, as is my wish ; but the situation in 
which my poor brothers find themselves prevents me 
from doing anything for good friends like yourself, since 
I give all my attention to their affairs, discussing methods 
and presenting reasons so that justice may soon be done 
them, if indeed there is such a thing. I doubt very 
much whether there is here, for it is now two months 
since my brothers have been prisoners and deported, and 
we do not yet know certainly the motive for it, nor have 
they been asked to make any kind of a declaration. You 
know very well that my brothers did not contribute to the 
insurrection in Batangas, being convinced that such an 
unequal war could bring us only ruin and desolation, as 
it is actually doing now ; for God only knows how terrible 
the consequences will be if the few who remain in the 
field still persist in the struggle. 

You know also that my brother Cipriano surrendered 
with all his guns, convinced of and trusting in the mag- 
nanimity of the Government of the United States, and 
that this surrender was due to the favorable representa- 
tions we made to him about the American people, when 
all our family were trying to persuade him to follow the 
paths of peace. We lay all this before the authorities, 
but they will not hear us. They content themselves with 
saying that when the war shall have ended and our prov- 


ince shall have been completely pacified they will give 
our brothers their freedom and we shall all be contented 
with the Civil Government. As you will understand, we 
could wait as long as they pleased if it were only a ques- 
tion of confiscated property ; but it concerns the wretched 
life which our poor brothers are leading, who, as is nat- 
ural, are suffering from the hard prison labor and are 
failing in health day by day because they are not accus- 
tomed to such a life — especially my brother Lorenzo. 
We fear that if his imprisonment lasts many weeks 
longer his eyes will trouble him again and his cough 
become worse, and the result may be serious. 

On the other hand, reading your letter to me of the 
4th of January has relieved and consoled me very much 
in these days, when my spirit is so depressed; and I 
thank you for your letter with all my heart, and also for 
the many other favors which you are doing and have 
done for my unfortunate family. I can find no words to 
express to you our deep gratitude, and all that I can say 
to you, of what our hearts feel toward you and your 
family, is pale. 

As to affairs in Batangas, I will only allow myself to 
say that they remind me of the Spanish domination in 
the year of '96, the memory of which fills me with 

I should like to tell you about many things which I 
know of, but I will leave them all until I have the good 
fortune to fulfill my promise to you to visit you in that 
city where the sedition law is unknown. 

Good-bye for a time. Give my regards to your dear 
family, to whom I wish all sorts of happiness, and dispose 
of the services of your friend, who does not forget 
you. Juliana Lopez 


[" I waited for him. And he came not." 

The following letter is full of high hope, due to a 
report that the brothers had been released. "All day 
to-morrow we shall expect Manuel, and he will dine with 
us, as we are assured." But the report, though supported 
by much circumstantial evidence, was untrue. The* 
brothers were not released, and had to remain in prison 
for almost three more months, or, until the loth of 

It has been said that a lady never writes a letter with- 
out adding a postscript, and that the chief item is gen- 
erally contained in the " P. S." It may have been noted 
that Juliana is singularly free from this delightful habit, 
and although she is the writer of the following letter the 
postscript is not hers. The ever quaint Maria is its 
author, and whether it be held to contain the chief item 
will depend chiefly on the point of view ! Of course 
Maria did not want the " big doll " for herself. She has 
any number of little nieces and God-children, and the 
doll was for one of these — at least so we will assume !] 

[From Juliana to Sixto Lopez.] 

Manila, February 19, 1902, 

Dear Brother : Now that I have completely recov- 
ered from the indisposition which for some days has de- 
prived me of the desire to do anything, I set myself to 
answer your letters of the 31st, 7th, and 1 3th. I will tell 
you first of all that the last two were received on time, 
but the first, which was brought me by some one, I do 
not know by whom, we only received a week ago, and 
I was very sorry for the delay. I believe Mariquita 
told you what happened as regards the bearer of the 

Two men from Lipa, who arrived to-day from that 
town, have just brought us the great news that they have 


seen Lorenzo and Cipriano, who were coming from 
Calamba, in the Red Cross ambulance, and going toward 
Batangas. One of them came on purpose, at Cipriano's 
request, to tell us that our brothers are now at liberty 
and that they will go to Balayan. Manuel still remains 
at Malagi ; he will come to Manila in a few days. Imag- 
ine how delighted we must be since we have known this, 
and even more on poor mother's account, for whom 
life is again brightening. Poor darling ! All this news 
must be true, for some days ago General Chaffee's 
private secretary, who for some time has taken Mari- 
ano's part, assured him that very soon our brothers 
would be set free, for the authorities were convinced 
of their innocence. Accordingly, all day to-morrow we 
shall expect Manuel, and he will dine with us, as we are 

In regard to the questions which you have asked me 
about the reconcentration which is taking place in all the 
towns, I do not know what to say to you. I only know 
that in Balayan they keep rice for the reconcentrados 
and poor people, and the " Purisima," which does nothing 
else but this, brings rice from other towns where it is 
plentiful, to the towns whose ports are closed, and also 
nipa, so that the country people can make themselves 
houses in town. In one way, what the Government is 
doing — in sending nipa to some of the towns of Batangas, 
getting it at Balayan — is a benefit to our people who are 
devoting themselves to this industry, for, according to 
what I am told, they are well and promptly paid. Accord- 
ing to Andrea's last letter, the volunteers no longer occupy 
our house, and will not return. As to the superintendents, 
they still remain prisoners. Their names are Gregorio 
de Guzman (of Dao), Ramon Alimanzor (Matauanak), 
Hilario Panaligan (of Toong), and Isabelo Capacia (of 
Calan). This last, according to details w^hich we have 
received, was denounced in Tuy, to the company of 
Macabebes which is stationed in that town, by some one 
who, not being able to endure the blows which the 


Macabebes gave him, said anything so that they might 
leave him in peace. 

After having maltreated poor Isabelo, who confessed 
nothing, in spite of the many blows which they gave him, 
they took him to the river Matauanak and there drowned 
him, leaving his body to the mercy of the current without 
giving him any burial. The others were arrested in 
Malayan, and there they are to remain until they present 
the imaginary fifty guns. . . . 

Quita has already written you as to from whom mother 
wants you to get the money for your passage and other 
expenses, for if you ask a loan from the friend of whom 
you speak we all know that he will not refuse you, but 
mother prefers that you should obtain it from some 
business house, paying interest, and so we should owe 
no one a favor. 

I send you a box of clothing for Clemen, and six boxes 
of cigars ; the other three boxes are for our valued friend 
Tom, which you will give him in mother's name. 

Tell that person who rejoiced so much at our mis- 
fortunes, both openly and secretly, that all the Lipa 
people are now free, and our brothers as well ; so that 
now he ought to weep. We think we know who this 
good fellow-countryman and self-styled patriot is. As 
regards Seiior Afable, we all think here that he is con- 
ducting himself well in the town, and even that it is due 
to him that there have not been so many arrests in 
Balayan as in other towns. In Lipa the number of 
prisoners went as high as 700 ; but now there are not 
more than eighty. As for Dr. Lozada, I believe that 
he appreciates very much, as does also his wife, the care 
you took of him during his sickness, and they are accord- 
ingly grateful. . . . 

I should like to send you some of Clemen's jewels ; 
but I do not know to whom to trust them so that they 
may come safely to your hands. We do not yet know 
who will take you Clemen's box and the cigars which we 
are sending you. We cannot obtain the five numbers of 


the Manila Times. They say that there are no more 

Good-bye, and a pleasant voyage. 

Thine to dispose of, Ninay. 

Postscript : I have received your letter dated the T4th, 
but have not the time to write you. When you come 
back from America bring me a big doll.* 

Thine, Maria. 

[The above account of the manner in which poor 
Isabelo Capacia was put to death was from current 
report and is not correct. A full statement of his 
tragic death will be found on a subsequent page. 

The splendid letter which follows is, in part, as 
despondent as the previous one had been hopeful. In- 
stead of the release of the brothers, report said that 
Lorenzo and Cipriano had been taken to Batangas to be 
tried by court-martial. This report also was untrue, at 
least as far as Lorenzo was concerned. 

The interview with Captain Taggart, briefly referred 
to in a previous letter, is here described more fully. In 
Captain Taggart's opinion Mr. Warren is "the worst man 
in America." The ill opinion of some men is in itself a 
certificate of moral worth and excellence, but this cannot 
be said of Captain Taggart, and, furthermore, it is doubt- 
ful whether he really means what he says. It is probably 
his way of expressing disagreement with one whom he 
regards as an opponent. The soldier is almost always 
in extremes ; it is his nature, his business, to be so. 
Any one who agrees with him he will defend ; any one 
who criticises him he will kill. His liberality is no 

* A doll of satisfactory dimensions is now on its way to Maria 
(November, 1903). 


broader than the edge of his sword. "Badness," from 
the soldier's point of view, amounts simply to the hold- 
ing of an opposite opinion. It is because of this that 
the soldier is usually not a conspicuous success when he 
attempts to govern a province that he has conquered. 
Of course there are exceptions ; there have been great 
soldiers, but they were also great men — too great to 
remain soldiers to the end of their activity. Such were 
Washington and Grant, who were even greater men 
than they were soldiers. But Washingtons and Grants 
are few ; it is to the average soldier that these opinions 
refer. And so, the Filipinos have to suffer, and those 
who are old-fashioned enough to believe still in the prin- 
ciples for which Washington fought must submit to 
being regarded as bad men from the soldier's point of 
view. However, Mr. Warren may comfort himself with 
the thought that, if he is " the worst man in America," 
he could not always have claimed the distinction ; he 
simply upholds the principles, — Washington enunciated 
and fought for them ! 

The spirit of Juliana remains unconquered and un- 
conquerable, in spite of this attempt to crush her in- 
dependence of mind and that of her brother Sixto : 
" Let me tell you," she writes to Clemencia, "that we — 
at least I, for my part — will sacrifice my share of the 
estate for you and the others who are there." The 
"others " refers to Sixto. Can such a one, who is ready 
to sacrifice her share of the remnant of a shattered 
estate, be conquered or bought by a promise of " greater 
prosperity " } 

Contrary to her usual custom, Juliana adds a post- 
script to this letter, and, when one stops to think, it 
does indeed contain the chief item. Notwithstanding 
Captain Taggart's opinion of Mr. Warren, Juliana says : 
" Give my regards to all of the good family which is 
protecting you, and tell Mr. Warren that we thmk of 
him a great deal!' In all the circumstances there is a 
whole volume in these words.] 


[From Juliana to Clemencia Lopez.] 

Manila, February 25, 1902, 
Dearest Clemen : At the moment that I am writing 
you we are more afflicted, if such a thing is possible, 
than we have been since the arrest of our three brothers, 
for we have learned that they took Lorenzo and Cipriano 
to Batangas to try them by court-martial. We do not 
know whether this information is correct, but it is certain 
that they were taken to Batangas, for Pepe Katigbak 
assured us that he had seen them pass through Lipa, 
although he does not know the reason why they were 
called there. We hear various things about them, but 
nothing directly from them, which we attribute to the 
fact that they are not even allowed to write. Three 
days ago we were told that they were being taken to 
Batangas to be released, and that Manuel would be 
brought here to Manila for the same purpose, for the 
latter, as you know, was arrested in Boac, which is 
under Civil Government, and accordingly we thought it 
natural that he should be brought here. 

But yesterday, and again to-day, we were assured that 
nothing of the sort was true, and we believe it, for they 
have not brought Manuel, as Chaffee's private secretary, 
who is doing what he can for our brothers, promised us. 
We cannot imagine what the reason is that they are 
holding our brothers so closely when all the Lipa people 
are now set free, so that, out of 700 prisoners from 
that town, there are at present only seventy. You 
cannot imagine in what despair we are, and even more 
when we see our poor mother weep and do not know 
how to console her, but can only begin to weep, too, out 
of sheer desperation. But we do not tell her the whole 
truth about our situation, for if she knew it all I do not 
know what would be the effect. Poor little mother! 
We take care not to tell her anything which might 
make her more unhappy, and, moreover, we hide our- 
selves when we cry, and conceal all that we feel, so that 


she may not see us afflicted. I have never missed 
you as I do now in these circumstances, for I do not 
know whom to consult about what happens and about 
what I ought to do. Just think! — as you know, I 
have never in my Hfe decided to do anything without 
consulting you, and now I am obliged to do what seems 
to me best, and I do not yet know what the results will 
be. I refer only to the question of our brothers. 

I felt very badly when you left us in this situation, 
but now I believe that even you could do nothing for 
them, for what is demanded is impossible ; that is, that 
we should persuade our brother to come and take the 
oath. Believe me, Clemen, with all these things which 
are happening to us, if I had not been brought up in 
religion and believed in it from childhood I should be- 
come a heretic from all the sorrow that has come to us. 
I am sure that it is the wicked who are protected here 
in the Philippines, and it is to them that the authorities 
give credit, for they believe them friendly to the Gov- 
ernment ; but these gentlemen do not know that this is 
only a cover so that these wicked men may revenge 
themselves on their enemies, and gain money by making 
false denunciations. The authorities do not understand 
that in this way they will gain nothing but hatred, in- 
stead of being regarded and trusted as the representa- 
tives of a liberating nation, as I believed them to be. 
It was our confidence in them that ruined us. 

Every time that I write to you I forget to tell you 
the details about the arrest of our brothers. On the 
1 3th of December, in the afternoon, Cipriano went out 
on horseback with Raymond to mark out the limits of 
the reconcentration, which had not then been deter- 
mined in our town. They went over the ground in a 
few hours and came back together to the town, and 
when they arrived in front of the commander's office, 
an officer — I do not know who — made them come in, 
and there showed them a telegram from Bell which 
ordered that immediately upon receipt of the said tele- 


gram the two Lopez brothers and FeHx Unson should 
be arrested, the house seized, and all the papers, docu- 
ments, and letters found therein taken, Raymond, who 
was then acting as commanding officer, as Cole was in 
Batangas, in spite of the fact that this order was given 
to him, did not wish to enforce it in person, perhaps 
because he remembered the claims of friendship. At 
any rate he sent another officer to do it, everything 
being carried out as the telegram directed. 

I was mistaken in telling you that they also carried 
off money, for only the things I have just mentioned 
were taken. You will remember that there was in 
the box a collection of letters in English from many 
of the officers who were in Balayan, They have taken 
those, too, and I have since learned that they ascertained 
that I could speak and write English fairly well. This 

was told me by , who was rather anxious about 

his letters, but I told him that those which were not 
torn up I had brought with me here. 

The " Purisima " was in Balayan that same night with 
Manuel, who had been arrested in Boac through the 
deceit of Lieutenant Allen, formerly of the Twenty- 
eighth Volunteers under Taggart, but now a regular. 
He told Manuel that he was obliged to hire the boat, as 
he had received an order from Bell to go immediately to 
Batangas with his soldiers. Manuel answered that he 
could not take them, as he had an agreement to fulfill, 
and, besides, the unloading was not finished; but the 
lieutenant insisted so strongly that there was nothing 
else to do but yield, and they accordingly went on board 
the steamer together. Once on board, nobody was 
allowed to stir, the soldiers were drawn up in file, and 
Allen ordered Numeriano [the captain of the "Pu- 
risima"] to give orders to go to Batangas. They arrived 
at Batangas, and only remained long enough for Cole, 
who immediately ordered the boat to proceed to Balayan, 
to come aboard ; and at Balayan he had our brothers, 
together with Unzon, brought on board in order to take 


them to Batangas, telling them that I^cll wished to con- 
fer with all three on a very important matter. Every- 
thing that Cole said was untrue, for they did not even 
see Bell's face during the three weeks that they were 
imprisoned there. Alter that time they brought them 
here to the harbor in the hold of the " Legaspi," with 
other companions, of which I think I have told you in 
my previous letters ; and they were in the hold for two 
days. They told me afterwards, when I went to visit 
them, that if they had not been transferred to another 
steamer they would have been asphyxiated by the heat 
and lack of air, if the confinement had lasted any 
longer. They say that our poor Lorenzo had to take 
off all his clothes, his condition was so wretched. 

On the " Liscum " they were well-treated, better than 
anywhere else, and, besides, we could take them anything 
they needed. But, unfortunately, after they had been 
on board two weeks they took them to Malagi, and there 
they still are suffering beyond what you can imagine; 
without a house, with poor food, obliged to be in the sun 
acting as overseers ; and at night, so cold that they can- 
not sleep. Poor brothers 1 I believe that what they 
have told is nothing in comparison with what they actu- 
ally suffer. What makes me more despairing than ever 
is that none of our American friends will show their 
faces for them ; they do not dare to speak for fear of 
the military, and even the military do not dare. 

I will tell you about Taggart, whom I went to see a 
few days ago, to inquire about the imprisonment of our 
brothers. He told me that the only charge against 
them is that of being brothers of the enemy of Amer- 
ica, — you know who, but I am afraid to put his name 
in black and white [Sixto Lopez]. Besides, he added, 
why had we sheltered Fiske, who is the worst man 
in America, and who is surely the one who set going 
again the almost finished insurrection in Batangas ? 

You can imagine what I answered him. As to the 
seizure of our property, he says he supposes that the 


Government did this because we maintained our brother, 
who [it is claimed] does nothing but say bad things of 
the Americans ; that accordingly, they do not wish to 
protect interests which are being used against them; 
and that the best thing we can do is to divide the prop- 
erty so that ours will be separate from our brother's. 
Finally he consoled me, telling me to have patience ; that 
they would soon be set at liberty (this was on the 3d of 
January), and that as far as he was concerned he believed 
he could not help us or do anything for our brothers, 
while the insurrection in Batangas continued, on account 
of the strong feeling which the military had against us. 
He received me well, as usual, but these words distressed 
me very much, for I saw that the military had decided 
to injure our family under any pretext. Captain Curry, 
who is very sorry for us, can do absolutely nothing for 
our brothers. He comes to the house quite often to see 
us, for which I am grateful to him. I have the consola- 
tion of knowing that out of so many Americans who 
have received favors from us there is one who still 
remembers to visit us. 

I received your letters from Penan g, Colombo, Aden, 
Suez, and Naples, which have made us more easy about 
your voyage. God grant that you continue well and 
have a pleasant voyage to your destination, I cannot 
now appreciate nor realize — forgive me for saying so — 
all that you tell us in your letters, for my imagination is 
wholly taken up by all these unexpected events, and the 
only thing that I cannot forget, day and night, is the 
imprisonment of our brothers and the fact that we can 
do nothing for them. . . . 

Let me tell you that we — at least I, for my part — 
will sacrifice my share of the estate for you and the 
others who are there [in America], 

Your sister, Ninay, 

Give my regards to all of the good family which is 
protecting you, and tell Mr. Warren that we think of 


him a great deal, and that I will write him whenever 
I can. 

[The following letter gives some explanation of the 
reason of the false report in reference to the release of 
the brothers. It also contains two references which 
require explanation. 

"Your departure," writes Juliana to Sixto, "from the 
neighboring colony was a sensational piece of news for 
those here, especially for the whites." No doubt ! The 
opinion was general in Manila that Sixto Lopez would 
come and take the oath of allegiance in order to secure 
the release of his brothers ; and apparently some one 
was determined that, when he came, as effective a seal 
should be placed upon his lips as had been upon 
Mabini's. Captain Tait, of the " Rosetta Maru," on 
which Sixto was to have gone to Manila, tells that when 
he reached Manila Bay, an officer and six detectives 
came out to the boat to identify and apprehend Sixto 
Lopez, and that the officer "swore horrible" — to use a 
Shakespearean phrase — when he found that Sixto Lopez 
was not on board. It must indeed have been a " sen- 
sational piece of news " that, in spite of the pressure 
brought to bear upon Sixto Lopez, he was about to 
depart for America ! 

" The best laid schemes o' mice and men 
Gang aft agley." 

Senor Arturo Dancel, to whom Juliana refers, came 
to Hong-Kong ostensibly to induce the Committee or 
Junta to recognize American sovereignty and order the 
surrender of Malvar and Lukban. He professed to be 
authorized by the Manila authorities to treat with the 
Committee, but when he was asked to produce his 
credentials he made the lame excuse that he had 


inadvertently left them at home ! The Committee there- 
upon refused to treat with him, and so, he turned to 
Sixto Lopez, whom he — like Judge Ladd and Dwyer 
and Tirrell — found to be a reasonable human being, 
in favor of a policy of peace, and in no sense the "red 
raw revolutionist " that he had been described. 

Sefior Dancel is credited with being a secret agent of 
the Manila Government ; at any rate, he is one of the 
leaders of the Federal party and is persona grata with 
Governor Taft and others. Yet when he returned to 
Manila he was compelled, probably on account of his 
having had intercourse with Sixto Lopez, to take another 
oath of allegiance to America. Still, though Sixto Lopez 
was thus the probable cause of this implied aspersion on 
Dancel's faith and allegiance, Dancel could not but speak 
well of the man who had received him kindly and treated 
him with frankness. Thus, Juliana writes to Sixto : 
" Dancel speaks very highly of you, praising you to the 

[From Juliana to Sixto Lopez.] 

Manila, P. I., March 3, 1902. 
Dear Brother : First of all I beg you to pardon me 
for having given you mistaken information about the 
liberation of our brothers ; but everybody in the house 
was sure of its reasonableness, as I was myself ; and all 
the more because Charing and Quita talked with Senor 
Lantin, a doctor, who came from Cipriano to tell us 
what I wrote you in my last letter. This news was 
confirmed by one of the Katigbak family, who also has 
just arrived from Lipa, and who said that he had really 
seen Cipriano; but, as he could not speak with him, 
he did not know the reason for Cipriano's going to 
Batangas. But as Senor Lantin assured them, according 
to Quita, that Cipriano told him that it was in order to 
liberate them, I was convinced also, only I was surprised 
that they were not freed here in Manila. Believe me, 
we held this belief for two days, until Mariano went to 


talk with Lantiii, who denied everything that he was 
understood to have said to the two girls. You can 
imagine how surprised they were at not having correctly 
understood what Lantin told them about Cipriano. 

Since this is explained, then, I will go on and tell you 
that your departure from the neighboring colony was a 
sensational piece of news for those here, especially for 
the whites, who believed that you were almost decided 
to come and save us, as that is the only reason why 
Lorenzo and Manuel were imprisoned. Captain Cole 
was here at the house to visit us, as friendly as ever, and 
told us that he is the examining judge of Batangas, and 
promised us that he would do everything he could for the 
welfare of Cipriano. Mariano showed him all the docu- 
ments referring to the guns presented by Cipriano at his 
surrender, which numbered more than i 50. The docu- 
ments are signed by Captain Gale, according to whom a 
certain Bias Noble and another, whose name I do not 
remember, are those who have denounced Cipriano as 
being still the possessor of fifty guns. . . . 

Dancel has brought us everything you sent us, and 
speaks very highly of you, praising you to the skies. I 
will close now, only telling you that everybody, even the 
prisoners, remain in good health, and we wish the same 
for you. 

Your sister, Ninay. 


[In order to appreciate the nature of the "peace" 
brought about by methods which produce hatred, it is 
only necessary to read the following letter from Juliana. 
The peace which rests upon the point of a sword, and 
not upon the recognized rights of a people, is unstable 
enough, without question. But what shall be said of 
that " peace " which has come about by methods differing 
only in circumstance from those which send an endless 


human procession across Siberian snows ? " If you could 
see our family," writes Juliana, "and hear us talk about 
these invaders of our land, it would astonish you ; for 
our attitude has radically changed, seeing so much injus- 
tice and outrage. . . . We are undeceived, and filled 
with resentment toward this Government, which will go 
to any length to bring about peace, sacrificing many 
innocent people and committing abuses. It will not, 
however, be possible for them to bring about moral peace, 
only physical ; and I for my part will never forget these 

But Nature sometimes produces strange anomalies: 
"There was," says Juliana, "even one. Dr. Vadua, who 
spoke of these events with loud congratulations [literally, 
" wagging his jawbones in the air "], praising these 
measures." These letters will become historical. And 
it will be amusing as well as instructive to the future 
historian to find how Juliana has sent this Dr. Vadua 
down through history "wagging his jawbones in the 
air " ! He will take his place with Samson, for apparently 
he has been wielding a similar weapon, and future genera- 
tions of Filipinos, reading their Bible and their history, 
will marvel at the uses to which the jawbones of this 
homely creature have been put. To slay five thousand 
Philistines with the jawbone of an ass was, in itself, a 
questionable achievement ; but to wag the jawbones of an 
ass as an encouragement to those who were slaying one's 
own countrymen is a display of perverted enthusiasm 
upon which Dr. Vadua cannot be congratulated. Or — 
do we wrong Dr. Vadua, and are his real opinions differ- 
ent from those which he expresses .'' 

The historian may also note another item of a very 
different and delightful character : " Give many kisses to 
cunning little Marjorie, who, you tell me, is very sweet 
and not at all shy." When Marjorie, Mr. Warren's 
younger daughter, grows to womanhood, or perhaps, 
when the snows of years to come change her golden 
glory into gray, she may perchance come upon this 


beautiful reference to her childhood's days, and will 
know that her infant sweetness was a cordial to those 
in deep distress. It was ever thus : a star shines through 
the darkest night ; a ray of hope pierces down into the 
depths of despair ; and sweetjiess often mingles with the 
tragedy of man's inhumanity to man.] 

[From Juliana to Clemencia Lopez.] 

Manila, March 7, 1902. 

Dearest Clemen : I received your letters from Paris, 
and we were delighted that you arrived safely and found 
all the family of our good friend well and happy. Truly, 
they are very fortunate people. We, on the other hand, 
continue in the same situation, our brothers deported, 
and, in spite of the promises made us by influential per- 
sons, we have no hope of seeing them free. I say this 
to you, for it is almost a month now since their lib- 
eration was promised, — the day being even set for 
them to start home, but they have not yet started. 
We are more convinced than ever that the imprison- 
ment of the three was really due to Sixto's tenacious 
attitude. That about the guns is only an excuse, so 
that they may have some good reason for acting in 
this manner, and so that it may not be believed that it 
is really on Sixto's account, for I do not believe that 
they could legally punish the three for another's fault, 
but only on some charge made against them directly, as 
was done. 

All those who are prisoners (I refer only to the influ- 
ential men) are accused of nothing against the Govern- 
ment, only of being friendly to some insurgent — al- 
though it is perfectly well known that they do not share 
the ideas of the insurgents ; but the Americans suppose 
that the prisoners will do a great deal for the pacifica- 
tion of the country when they find themselves treated 
like criminals and oppressed by injustice ! M.Cabrera 
made great sacrifices to secure the surrender of his fel- 


low citizens of Taal, and now there is not one of the 
leading men of that town in the field. But as he did not 
succeed in bringing about the surrender of Malvar, all 
these services have availed him nothing ; on the con- 
trary, he was taken to Malagi. M. Marasigan, a lawyer, 
because he had a nephew, B. Laki, in the field, was sent 
there also. P. Hilario, who is sixty years old, was kept 
two weeks in the stocks in the prison of Batangas, 
because they supposed him to be a sympathizer with the 
insurgents and to have some influence over an insurgent 
officer of Batangas ; and he, too, is now among the 
prisoners in Malagi because he could not bring about 
the surrender of this man. 

All the Lipa men are free because they presented 
many guns which they bought from those in the field ; 
and they had no trouble in finding men who would sell, 
I said to the authorities that, since they require fifty 
guns of our brothers, they ought to authorize Mariano 
to buy abroad the guns which they wish, as it will be im- 
possible to get them in Balayan ; and that we would go 
to this expense simply that our brothers might be set free. 
Some of them looked very serious when I told them that, 
but as it is the truth I don't care what they think. 

We finally went to call on Captain Cole and his wife ; 
mother insisted that we should pay him this attention 
because he is to be the presiding judge at Cipriano's 
trial. As you will understand, it was an effort for me, 
and it made me very sad that we should go to renew our 
Balayan acquaintance, after Cipriano had assured me 
that this man had contributed much to our difficulties 
through his cowardice ; for he was afraid that if the 
American force in Balayan was attacked, our brothers 
would be the first to join the revolutionary forces. 

When I went to visit the Coles I had no intention of 
asking any favor, but simply wished to show them the 
documents concerning the guns surrendered by Cipri- 
ano, which numbered 192, the papers being signed by 
Captain Gale. I also went to find out the real reason 


for the imprisonment of Lorenzo and Manuel, and he 
told me that he believed it was a general measure, 
and above all to oblige our brother Sixto to come. And 
when I told him that, according to the newspapers, Sixto 
had already gone away, he seemed startled and told me 
that it was a mistake on the part of his countrymen 
to proceed against our brothers in this way ; that they 
ought to have realized that Sixto has his own ideas, and 
thinks as a man who has lived many years abroad, and 
would on no account sacrifice his ideals for the good of 
his family, since he had no more to do with our actions 
than we had with his. Elias Agoncillo is also impris- 
oned on account of his brother [Felipe, — Aguinaldo's 
former representative at Washington], and it is said that 
he will remain a prisoner as long as his brother does not 
surrender. All these deeds and many others which horrify 
me are daily food in our poor province. If you could see 
our family and hear us talk about these invaders of our 
land it would astonish you, for our attitude has radically 
changed, seeing so much injustice and outrage. We do 
not now believe in any of them ; they are all false ; 
friendship means nothing to them ; all they care for is 
to win glory and laurels in the end. According to their 
nature they have treated us. It has been hardly four 
months since your departure, and we are undeceived and 
filled with resentment toward this Government, which 
will go to any length to bring about peace, sacrificing 
many innocent people and committing abuses. It will 
not, however, be possible for them to bring about moral 
peace, only physical ; and I for my part will never forget 
these offenses. Nevertheless, many Manila Filipinos 
approve this course of action, for otherwise these don- 
keys think there would never be an end ; and there was 
even one, Dr. Vadua, who spoke of these events with 
loud congratulations [literally, " wagging his jawbones 
in the air "], praising these measures, and declaring that 
this is what ought to have been done from the begin- 
ning. . . . 


Say for us to that very kind family that we are most 
grateful for all that they are doing for you, and give 
many kisses to cunning little Marjorie, who, you tell 
me, is very sweet and not at all shy. I do not always 
have time to write you, and you will pardon me and be 
satisfied with once a week. This morning I received a 
letter from the captain at Malagi, who tells me that 
Lorenzo and Manuel are well. For a week now we 
have heard nothing of Andrea and Cipriano. 

Mother sends you word to study French, too, so that 
when you come back you will know both French and 

Good-bye. With love, Ninay, 

[The following letter tells of the interview with Gen- 
eral Bell, to which reference has already been made, and 
of its most discouraging outcome — to put it thus 
mildly. Here were two young girls in circumstances of 
peculiar helplessness : without a father's protection, their 
brothers in prison, their property seized, and themselves 
at the mercy of a powerful military authority. Under 
such circumstances, honor and gallantry would at least 
have dictated the extension of common courtesy, to say 
nothing of kindness or sympathy. But what has been 
said of Captain Taggart applies with even greater force 
to General Bell ; though perhaps enough has already been 
said of this incident, especially since General Bell has 
made the amende honorable. 

The description of the despondent condition of Lorenzo, 
whose life had theretofore been made up of labor and 
sacrifice for the younger members of the family, is 
pathetic ; and what is to be said of Juliana's closing 
words } " I am now very sleepy. I am writing you at 
night, because the only time when we leave mother is 
when she goes to sleep. We are always at her side, 
entertaining her with stories." Imperialism, these are 
your "savages" !] 

Maria Lopez 

The youngest of t/if Lopez sisters 


[From Juliana to Clemencia Lopez.] 

Manila, March 14, 1902. 

Dear Sister Clemen : More and more every day I 
lose hope of obtaining, at present, the liberation of our 
poor prisoners ; at least until our province is pacified, for 
Bell told us so when at last we had an opportunity to 
talk with him here in Manila, imploring him to liberate 
our brothers. He refused us roundly, saying that these 
imprisonments are the only efficacious method of promptly 
pacifying the country, and that the Government, which 
has given him full power to do whatever seems to him 
best, is now tired of treating us kindly and of giving us 
good reasons, to which we pay no attention. Therefore, 
without investigation or consideration, he will treat every 
one alike until Malvar surrenders. When I told him 
that it would be an act of justice if he were first to 
ascertain the facts concerning the previous conduct of 
the three prisoners, from the Americans who are and 
have been stationed at Balayan, — and I assured him 
they could give no information concerning any act worthy 
of the punishment which our brothers have been suffer- 
ing for three months, — do you know what he answered 
me.? Well, in the first place, that he does not require 
information from anybody, and that he knows what he is 
doing, and, moreover, that those to whom I referred as 
our friends are candid and good like all Americans, and 
believe us to be the same, never dreaming that we are 
Filipinos who, educated by the Spaniards, are deceiving 
them by our false protestations of friendship ; in a word, 
he said a number of things which showed his hatred of 
the Filipinos, l^elieve me, Clemen, in different circum- 
stances I should not have kept silent under such insults 
as he offered us, no matter who he was ; but I was 
prudent because I remembered the three who are in his 

What a cruel disillusion we are suffering through these 
people ! Quita says that I went too far in giving him 


the reasons that I did, which, she thinks, hardened him 
against granting what we asked, and she even beUeves 
that he may revenge himself more than ever on our 
prisoners, maltreating them. I do not yet know the 
reason why Bell has shown himself so harsh toward us, 
and I believe if God does not come to our aid our situa- 
tion may become worse yet, tor poor mother now does 
not pass a single minute without thinking of our brothers, 
and we no longer know how to console her, so that she 
may not be so unhappy. . . . 

The greater part of the prisoners from Lipa are now 
free, but our brothers not yet. Lorenzo is the one who 
is the most depressed by it, according to one of his 
fellow-sufferers, who yesterday was set at liberty. He 
says that during the whole time that they were together 
he never saw Lorenzo even smile, except when, hearing 
of his liberation, Lorenzo congratulated him. You can 
imagine, then, what it must have been for him all these 
three months, separated from us, and in such a way. 

Sometimes I imagine that all the authorities here 
refuse us on account of your departure for America. If 
this is not so, why should Bell tell me that he would 
humiliate all those of our class who had such pride .■* 
This is a poor supposition, and so I hope you will not 
tell anybody of it. We are all in good health, and hope 
the same for them. 

Good-bye. I am now very sleepy. I am writing you 
at night, because the only time when we leave mother is 
when she goes to sleep. We are always at her side, 
entertaining her with stories. 

Good-bye. Your sister who loves you, 


[In the following letter will be found an exceedingly 
frank admission by General Bell himself of the spirit 
in which he undertook the conquest of Batangas prov- 


ince, " All consideration and regard," he says, "for the 
inhabitants of this place cease from the day that I be- 
come commander. ... I have the force and the author- 
ity to do whatever seems to me good, and especially 
to humiliate all those in this province who have any 
pride. ... I will see to it that their mocking laughter, 
when they hear of the death of any of our men, shall 
be quickly turned into tears of blood, which the measures 
I shall enforce will make them shed." This is the spirit 
of vengeance. Was General Bell forgetful of the truth 
that the man who assumes the prerogative of a higher 
Power may have a heavy account to meet when the eter- 
nal books are opened ? * 

But the most remarkable part of General Bell's admis- 
sion is that, unlike his predecessors, he is not going to be 
"deceived" by the Filipinos when they say that "they 
are satisfied with the Government." If this means any- 
thing it means that when the Filipinos declare their sat- 
isfaction with American rule they are deceiving the 
authorities. What, then, is the value of the oft -repeated 
assertion, made by Governor Taft and others, that the 
Filipinos are satisfied with American rule ? Does Gov- 
ernor Taft know more of the mind of the Filipinos than 
they themselves ? Here is clearly a dilemma from which 
there is no apparent escape. Either General Bell has 
inflicted a great and cruel injustice upon the Filipinos, 
or Governor Taft and others are being "deceived." 
Governor Taft accepts these assurances of being " satis- 
fied with the Government " as a tribute to his methods 
of civil rule ; General Bell declares these assurances to 
be a deceit, for which he will make the deceivers shed 
" tears of blood " ! Both conclusions may be false, but 
both cannot be true. 

There is another dilemma in this connection. Two 
reasons have been given for the " marked severity " of 

* Since the above was written, a letter has come from Juliana which 
states that General Bell is reported to be "suffering from remorse." 


the war in the Philippines : one is that the methods pur- 
sued were simply methods of war, common to all civil- 
ized conflicts, including the civil war in America ; the 
other is that the methods were a response — not exactly 
in the form of vengeance or reprisal, but as a necessity 
— to the treachery and cruelty of the Filipinos. Now, 
if both these statements are true, — and they are sup- 
ported by equal authority, — how is one to avoid the 
conclusion, either that the soldiers of the Confederate 
army were as treacherous and cruel as the Filipinos are 
alleged to be, or that unnecessary severity and cruelty 
were practised by the soldiers of the Union ? 

But why force the argument ? Is it not the soldier's 
business to kill, to be victorious ? Does any one fondly 
imagine that the soldier — carrying his life in his hand, 
daily acquainted with death and destruction, suffering 
hardship and privation, and far from all gentle and 
restraining influences — will always abide by the carpet 
niceties of the Geneva Convention ? Men are men, not 
angels. The responsibility for it all rests upon him who 
lets loose the dogs of war. 

Does this mean that war ought never to be under- 
taken .-* No, but it means that wherever there is war 
there will be its attendant horrors, and that therefore 
war ought only to be engaged in under righteous neces- 
sity, such as national self-defense or the giving of assist- 
ance to a weaker people against cruel despotism.] 

[From Juliana to Clemencia Lopez.] 

Manila, P. I., March 23, 1902. 
Dearest Clemen : I have nothing new to tell you 
about our wretched situation here in Manila, for we do 
not go anywhere unless we have some hope of obtaining 
a grain of justice for our brothers, who are still deported. 
We are convinced that, alone, I can do nothing to better 
our situation, and on this account, although they tell me 
that it makes no difference, I regret your absence under 
these conditions much more than I otherwise should, for 


I keep thinking that if you had been here they would 
have paid more attention to you than they have paid to 
me. I can hardly believe, in short, that our brothers, 
innocent as they are of what they have been accused of, 
should actually have been so long imprisoned and should 
have been made to suffer such punishment, — all this 
under a Government whose representatives boast of being 
just and liberal, especially toward those who are upright 
and of good position. And for this reason, if the people 
in America do not quickly remedy this evil, we shall 
become more and more convinced that all foreign gov- 
ernments, civilized or barbarous, are alike so far as we are 
concerned. We now see that always, when it is a ques- 
tion of winning glory, and it suits their convenience, 
there is no justice which can restrain them, but that they 
will go to any length, even though many lives be sacri- 
ficed. General Bell, when he trampled Batangas under 
foot, said : " All consideration and regard for the inhabi- 
tants of this place cease from the day that I become 
commander. It has been said that my predecessors were 
too weak when they treated these people differently from 
the manner in which I now propose to treat them. Even 
though they call me a brute, as I know they do, it 
does not disturb me ; I shall follow out the course I 
have planned, for I am not weak ; I have the force and 
the authority to do whatever seems to me good, and 
especially to humiliate all those in this province who 
have any pride. They have deceived my predecessors 
too much, with their false friendship for them, to go on 
and deceive me also by saying that they are satisfied 
with the Gov^ernmcnt. Therefore I will see to it that 
their mocking laughter, when they hear of the death of any 
of our men, shall be quickly turned into tears of blood, 
which the measures I shall enforce will make them shed." 
As you will see, all that he has promised he has carried 
out, and he will keep on until he succeeds in pacifying 
the province, which they say he will do with the capture 
or surrender of General Malvar. But meanwhile thev 


will keep imprisoned all those whom they believe to have 
influence over the minds of Malvar or Sixto. 

As I told you in my previous letter, they took Cipri- 
ano to Batangas. We have just heard, from a reliable 
source, that they have taken his declaration concerning 
the guns, and that he, as is natural, has denied the 
existence of the guns, and said that, if there were still 
any guns in Balayan which have not been surrendered, 
they must be those of some of his soldiers who had 
deserted during his illness while he held command in 
Balayan, and that accordingly he had nothing to do with 
them. Since that day Bell, as well as the provost, who 
are worthy one of the other, have treated him well, 
allowing him to go about the town without a guard and 
to sleep in a private house. They are employing him 
and E. Marasigan, who was also imprisoned and treated 
worse than our brothers, as interpreters for the prisoners 
who do not speak Spanish and for the paymasters who 
receive surrendered guns. Accordingly we are not so 
much troubled about Cipriano, who can adapt himself to 
any situation, and even if conditions were worse it would 
be nothing new to him. The one we think of most is 
poor Lorenzo, who is still in Malagi with Manuel and 
Felix, and none of them knows yet of what he is ac- 
cused. Nevertheless it is easier for us to communicate 
with them than with those who are in Batangas, as we 
can send them everything we wish and write to them 
without fear that the letters will not all be given to 
them, for they have had the good fortune to fall into 
the hands of very good men ; from the captain in com- 
mand to the last soldier, they are all generous. Those 
who come from there say that Lorenzo is in good health, 
as well as Manuel ; that they are well, and that the lat- 
ter has become Spanish teacher to the two ladies who 
are there. One of the ladies is the wife of the first 
lieutenant, and the other of the doctor. Everybody is 
kind to them and pities them, hoping that they will soon 
be set at liberty. 


Last night Charles came and told me, among other 
things, that Captain Langhorne is here ; he has just 
arrived, and it is supposed that he is going to Batangas. 
I leave comment to you ! 

One of the things that is troubling Ouita and me is 
the existence of cholera, for since the day before yester- 
day, according to the newspapers, several have died of 
this disease, which is attacking chiefly the Chinese and 
the soldiers. We ought not to have allowed ourselves to 
be caught here in Manila, where we are shut up without 
being allowed to leave the city unless we submit to the 
precautions which the board of health is taking. You 
know that every steamer or boat that leaves here for 
any other province will be quarantined four days before 
the passengers are allowed to disembark at any port. It 
is now a month since we have been trying to persuade 
mother to go to Balayan, because we saw that here she 
was always grieving, and had nothing to do to occupy 
her ; but after a while I was convinced that she would 
be worse off there, where she could not communicate so 
easily with you and Sixto, and that she had better stay 
here until our brothers are liberated, or until news comes 
that you have arrived at your destination. When she 
sees us so troubled about the cholera she scolds us ; 
and, believe me, we really are troubled ; but, according 
to Charles, they are taking so many precautions that it 
will not increase. We often ask ourselves which is pref- 
erable, the persecution of Bell or the cholera ! We are 
afraid of going where we shall be under his power, and 
we do not know what we shall decide to do. 

Tell our friend that I do not forget him and his favor- 
ite phrase, which I imagine I can still hear him saying; 
and give him and his dear family our most affectionate 
regards. . . . 

Your sister who loves you, Ninay, 



['' I went to talk with General Bell," writes Juliana in 
the following letter, " and implored from him the libera- 
tion of our brothers, showing him that all the denuncia- 
tions against them were false ; and he refused me, saying 
that he had positive proof." 

A palpable error of judgment on the part of those in 
authority is destructive of the confidence and respect of the 
people. So too, if a person, conscious of his own innocence, 
is told that there is " positive proof " of his guilt, his faith 
in the judge is liable to be impaired ! Cipriano was 
innocent of the charge informally made against him ; 
General Bell has admitted as much, not only by abandon- 
ing the charge, but by a series of acts of courtesy incon- 
sistent with a belief in Cipriano's guilt. What, then, has 
become of the " positive proof " ?] 

[From Juliana to Clemencia Lopez.] 

Manila, March 27, 1902. 

DEAREST Clemen : We have received all your letters 
from Paris, and last of all your letter of the 14th from 
London, and we are very happy to learn from them that 
you remain in good health and have pleasant impressions 
of the places where you have been. We were also very 
much pleased that you found Pepe in good health, well 
advanced in his studies, and so transformed in his 
ways of acting and thinking. He has not written to 
us for some time, so that we know nothing of him 

I understand your impatience and uncertainty when 
you get no letter from us, knowing in what situation you 
left us, but I hope now that you will receive our news 
regularly, for I have not failed to write you since your 
departure, addressing you in America, and I have always 
written you at least twice a week, giving you all the 

As you will understand, our situation has changed in 


nothing ; days and days go by and still they do not grant 
the liberty of our brothers. Since I went to talk with 
General Bell, and implored from him the liberation of 
our brothers, showing him that all the denunciations 
against them were false, and he refused me, saying that 
he had positive proof, — since then, I have decided not 
to speak to any authority here concerning the matter, 
for it is only too evident that they all agree to these 
measures and have no desire to protect anybody, least 
of all our family. 

The one thing I do, and never fail to do, is always to 
send our brothers everything they need, and to console 
our mother when she is unhappy ; the rest I leave in 
God's hands, for he alone can help us. To-day is Holy 
Thursday, and for us it is like any other day ! How 
different from other years, when our brothers came home 
for their vacations and the whole family was united ! On 
the other hand, the change in our family is not so notable 
as the change in the customs which our countrymen are 
acquiring in regard to days like these, which formerly 
have always been respected by everybody, so that no- 
body went out during these two days except on foot ; 
but now many go out in their carriages as they would 
at any other time, and there are not so many who visit 
the churches as there were in other years. Indeed, it 
appears very strange to me ; I do not mean to criticize, 
but it seems to me they should not have done this, being 

This morning, and indeed all day, Quita and I were 
very sad, for we missed you all, and were homesick for 
Balayan. As for our imprisoned brothers, I hope that 
it has not been the same with them, and that they have 
not noticed that this is Holy Week ; it would be better so, 
and they would not despair so much. This week I have 
not been able to send them anything, as it is forbidden 
for persons or goods to leave the capital since cholera 
morbus has been declared to exist here in Manila and 
they do not wish it to spread to the provinces. Up to 


the present, only twenty cases have been heard of, and 
some six of these have died. You must not trouble 
yourself about this, although, indeed, I am myself rather 
anxious ; for they are taking every precaution and it will 
soon disappear like the bubonic plague. The authorities 
here are doing everything possible to effect this. 

I have learned from Balayan that they are crushing 
[the sugar-cane] now ; that the country people can work 
as they used to do ; and that they allow those, who so de- 
sire, to go from one town to another, — except the people 
in Tuy, where, up to the time that Andrea wrote me, the 
people still remained reconcentrated in the town, not 
even being allowed to go out for necessities. As for our 
superintendents of Dao, Toong, and Matauanak, they 
have been liberated. They are now in Tuy, and are 
not allowed to go to Balayan or to order the crushing 
in Dao. They say that the corn and rice from our 
fields near that town have been taken to feed the horses. 
I cannot tell you what troops are there now, but formerly 
there was a company of Macabebes. 

As I told you in my previous letter, Cipriano is 
employed as interpreter for cases in the provost's office 
in Batangas, and is almost as though free. I am more 
troubled about the two who are in Malagi, especially 
Lorenzo. I do not know what Lorenzo will say about 
us ; I think he believes that we are doing nothing for his 
liberation. I want to tell you that one of Bell's orders 
was to make all the prisoners work, including the polit- 
ical prisoners ; but he excluded our brothers from this 
order, I do not know why. Nevertheless, they say that 
by mistake Cipriano was made to work in the streets of 
Batangas for three days. 

I will end now because I am sleepy. Do not forget 
to send pictures of Mrs. Warren, Miss Osgood, the two 
children, and yourself. The box of clothes which we 
sent to Hong-Kong for Sixto to take to you we know 
now, through Inez, did not reach him. Aticlaiz, who 
was too slow, is to blame for this. We wrote to Don 


Pepe to send it back, and when it comes we will try- 
to send it by some friend. I also sent our brother 
some boxes of cigars, as well as some to Tom. from our 
mother, and I am more sorry than ever when I think 
that these did not go. 

Good-bye. Do not forget about the pictures. 

Your sister, Ninay. 

[There is food for thought in what Juliana says about 
the growing indifference of the people to the strict 
observance of holy days. The danger to the Catholic 
Church in the Philippines does not rest in the retention 
or the expulsion of the friars ; it lies in the natural 
tendency of a conquered people gradually to adopt the 
religion of their rulers. The example of the conqueror 
has much to do with it ; as also the desire of the people 
to please and be like those in authority. Failure to 
observe the outward forms of religion is the first evi- 
dence of the change, — the thin end of an insidious 
wedge. Protestants may derive satisfaction from all 
this ; and the Catholics in America who have supported 
the policy of material conquest ought not to complain 
if there is a religious conquest as well. The chief hope 
of the Church in the Philippines lies in the strength and 
maintenance of the aspiration for independence ; for as 
long as this aspiration remains, the American rulers will 
not be looked upon as examples for the people to follow, 
and their religion will not find special favor with those 
who are opposed to them politically. 

The following letter to Mr. Warren is, among other 
things, a complete antithesis to Captain Taggart's opin- 
ion, formerly referred to. " Perhaps," writes Juliana, 
" this is because you are, in truth, one of the few Ameri- 


cans who, coming to our unfortunate country, have, on 
their departure, left an imperishable and pleasant memory 
with those who had the honor of knowing them well." 
Attention is drawn to this, not with the petty idea of 
making personal comparisons, but in order to show what 
might have been, had a policy of kindness and good will 
been adopted from the first. There would then have 
been no necessity for war or for "tears of blood." Yet 
America would have been able to accomplish everything 
that she has accomplished, nay, much more than she will 
ever accomplish by means of war, — in civilization, in 
education, in philanthropy, in liberty, and in commerce 
and natural expansion. Her civilization would have 
been an acknowledged fact, not a boast ; her educators 
would have been welcomed with open gratitude, not 
simply suffered in sullen ill will ; her philanthropy would 
have been free from the suspicion of self-seeking or per- 
sonal gain ; her work for the liberation of the world 
would have been projected into another hemisphere; and 
her commercial enterprise would have been welcomed by 
all the nations of the East without that justifiable sus- 
picion which attaches to the land-thieves of the Old 
World, — and all this without the loss of a life or the 
wasting of a dollar ! The truth of this has been proved 
in the case of Cuba, where, after the summary defeat 
of Spain, neither life nor treasure was sacrificed. But 
then — Cuba was promised independence from the first. 
If George III. and the British parliament had declared 
that the American colonists " are and of a right ought 
to be free and independent," there would have been no 
bloodshed nor revolution in i 'j'j6. But history repeats 
itself !] 

[From Juliana Lopez to Fiske Warren.] 

Manila, P. I., March 27, 1902. 
My very dear Friend, Mr. Warren : How are you, 
and how have you been during the journey which you 
have made .-* As for us, we are all the same as regards 


health, and as for our situation, it has not changed in 
any way, — my brothers are prisoners and the ports of 
Batangas are still closed. Since you left here, where so 
much that was unfortunate has occurred, not a single 
day passes that we do not think of you. Perhaps this 
is because you are, in truth, one of the few Americans 
who, coming to our unfortunate country, have, on their 
departure, left an imperishable and pleasant memory 
with those who had the honor of knowing them well. 
For this reason you are not forgotten. 

I have not yet any positive knowledge as to when 
that great day for all my family will come when we shall 
see our brothers free and with us once more. It appears 
to me that, up to the present time, General Bell still 
maintains the idea, in spite of the time that has passed, 
that by the imprisonment of my brothers he will bring 
about the surrender of Malvar. It lies in his hands, 
then, whether we shall once more be fortunate and happy. 
He may give our brothers their freedom, convinced that 
they can do nothing toward the presentation of Malvar, 
and thus we should escape passing more wretched days 
and shedding more tears. What we have already suf- 
fered ought to be more than enough to convince him 
and soften his hard heart. 

When Mariquita and I had an opportunity to speak 
with him here in Manila, interceding for the liberty of 
my brothers, he showed himself very hard toward us, 
manifesting, by his words and bearing, the hatred which 
he feels toward the Filipinos and toward our family in 
particular ; and all because we have as one member of 
the family my brother Sixto, for whom, no matter what 
he may think and do, my other brothers are not respon- 
sible. Allow me to say that, since I reached the age of 
reason, I do not remember ever having dealt with so 
rude a man as General Bell ; for, not content with re- 
fusing us what we desired, he had the ill breeding to 
take advantage of the circumstances to tell us that all 
Filipinos are false, and many other things little favor- 


able to the Filipinos, which we should have felt very 
deeply if they had been said by any other man than 
General Bell. 

As you see, we can accomplish nothing satisfactory 
here, so that we are hoping that the liberty of our 
brothers may come from America. 

Clemencia tells me in her letters of your great good- 
ness, and of that of your family toward her, for which 
we are most grateful. 

Receive our affectionate regards, and dispose of your 
humble friend, Juliana Lopez. 

[The broadly applicable advice to "say less, — or 
nothing at all ! " should not be disregarded by the pres- 
ent commentator. At any rate, it is as unwise for him 
to say too much as to say too little. Adopting Huxley's 
fine simile when commenting on Hume, — it is as well 
not to have too frequent a display of the thread on which 
the beads are strung. 

Therefore, since the dramatis personce have now all 
been introduced, it will be well hereafter to let them 
perform their parts with only 'such help as may be 
necessary from the humble though perhaps useful 
prompter. There is another reason for this : The 
letters have assumed a more definite character, and 
form an almost continuous record, owing to there being 
later and more reliable information at the command of 
the writers.] 

[From Juliana to Clemencia Lopez.] 

Manila, P. L, April 7, 1902. 
Dearest Clemen : We received your letters written 
on board the " Ivernia," and are greatly delighted that 
at last you have arrived at the end of your trip, and 


without any accident to deplore. Since we have known 
that you are in America, and working for the liberty of 
our brothers, we have not despaired so much, for we feel 
almost sure that you will obtain everything from the 
authorities, and without very much trouble. 

It is now evident that we can do nothing here; all our 
prayers and efforts are in vain. Accordingly, since that 
day when I had the displeasure of talking with Bell and 
he received us in such a way, we have decided not to ask 
anything of anybody, for we should only be indebted for 
more and more favors, and there would be no result. It 
has been nearly two weeks since we received a letter 
from our brothers or from Andrea, but I suppose they 

are all well, Last night came and showed me a 

letter which he had just received from one of the prison 
officials, in which he speaks of the condition of our 
brothers, saying that they are well and happy. I write 
to them often, and I am astonished that I do not hear 
from them. 

Thank God, we are all well here in Manila, in spite of 
the great fear we have of the cholera, and the even 
greater fear of the board of health, which is overdoing 
the precautions it is taking to avoid any increase of the 
epidemic. In a way, what it is doing is good ; for if it 
did not take these precautions there would be many more 
cases of the disease, and, thank God, there are only four 
or five cases a day. . . . We are very particular about 
our food, especially Quita, who deprives herself of every- 
thing she is fond of, so you do not need to worry about 
that ! God will not permit us to suffer this, because 
we have already suffered so much else these last four 
months. . . . 

Good-bye. Many regards to everybody. You are 
not forgotten by Ninay, 


[From Maria to Clemencia Lopez.] 

Manila, April ii, 1902 

Dearest Clemen : I have received all your letters, 
besides those which you wrote to Ninay, and we are very 
happy that you continue in good health and that you 
have passed all your voyages so well. The last letter 
we received from you was dated February 27th, written 
on board the steamer for Boston ; and therefore we know 
that you have now been there more than a month. This 
makes us very miserable, for up to the present time the 
situation of our brothers has not changed at all. We 
become more and more discouraged as day after day 
passes, and we have still no hope of seeing them soon 
liberated. We feel much worse about Lorenzo, for, as 
you know, he is never well when he is away from home ; 
much less in a prison as he is now. Moreover, we feel 
distressed, especially mother, because they say it is on 
Sixto's account that they are imprisoned. There are 
some days when I cry with despair, when I think of 
them and of our helplessness, and of how far away you 
are from us, because we need you very much indeed. I 
am sure that if you had been here you would have been 
able to do something, even if not much, for no one coitld 
do much. Nevertheless, many people say you have done 
well to go ; that nothing can be done here ; but as the 
days of your stay in America go by, we become very un- 
happy, fearing that they have paid no attention to you, 
either. In spite of this, we have great hopes of your 
success, and God grant that it may be so, for I believe we 
have suffered enough from this and other misfortunes, 
so that God might take pity on us now. 

I am very grateful for your letters. All that you tell 
us delights us, and I hope you will always write, for it is 
our only consolation. We here have nothing to tell you, 
for we do not go out of the house for anything, and we 
see no one, so that we may not compromise anybody. 
We are all well, including mother, who is somewhat 


better than for months past, in spite of her troubles ; 
but she is always sighing for the freedom of our poor 

Good - bye. Give our affectionate regards to Mr. 
Warren and his family, and receive a big hug from 
your sister, who does not forget you, Quita. 

Teresa received all your letters, but cannot answer 
them because she is taking her examinations. 

[From Juliana to Clemencia Lopez.] 

Manila, April 13, 1902. 

Dearest Clemen : It is now two weeks since we 
have received a letter from you, and you can understand 
that we are impatient to know how you are and what 
you are doing for our brothers. I was so much pre- 
occupied by this that I dreamed one night that at last, 
after hoping so much, I received a letter from you, tell- 
ing what you had attempted, and saying that you could 
do absolutely nothing there for the good of the family, 
because the persons to whom you applied agreed to 
everything that had been done here; and finally, that 
they did not wish to interfere with the measures adopted 
by Bell. Imagine how miserable I have been since that 
night. It is true that one ought not to believe in 
dreams, but, as day after day passes, and it becomes 
clear that we can do nothing here, it also seems as though 
you could obtain nothing from the authorities there. 
Truly, the situation is desperate, and if it lasts longer I 
pray God to give me some other thing to suffer, for 
which I shall not have to blame other people, 

I am in no mood to do anything, and I only write you 
this so that you shall see that I do not forget you ; 
besides, it is eleven o'clock at night, and I am very 


We are all in good health. Tell us all about Sixto ; 
we have heard nothing from him. Mother tells me to 
charge you to take note of all you have seen, so that you 
will not forget it. 

With love, NiNAY. 

[After the foregoing letter, it is hardly a wonder that 
some persons do believe in dreams. Juliana's dream 
was true in every detail, yet it needs no ultra- super- 
preter-natural explanation. Her own waking thoughts 
had probably divined that relief was to be had neither 
"here" nor "there," and the dream simply made the 
thought real — in appearance, as it was in fact. But 
how is it that " The Authorities," at all times and in 
every nation, are so impervious .? Is it that the elec- 
tric current of justice becomes impeded by the non- 
conducting nature of red tape } Here was as clear and 
simple a case as was ever presented to higher authority, — 
a charge unfounded and unsupported by evidence; an 
injustice not even dictated by policy, as far as the Lopez 
family were concerned ; nothing gained, and nothing 
served, by the detention in prison of the brothers Lopez. 
A o;entle reminder that the President was President 
would have acted as a mild yet wholesome restraint upon 
conscientious but perhaps over-zealous officers in the 
field. Indeed, the President was "almost persuaded," 
not to become a Christian, but to do an act of Christian 
justice, when he saw Captain Curry's letter ; yet when 
the case was surrendered to official circumlocution, — 
well, Juliana might indeed be troubled with dreams of 
ill omen ! 

The four following letters contain the long delayed 
but joyful news of the release of the brothers, which 
was supposed to have taken place on the 20th of April. 


In reality, Lorenzo and Manuel were not released until 
the loth of May. The letters tell also of the departure 
of the family for their home in Balayan.] 

[From Juliana to Clemencia Lopez.] 

Manila, P. I., April 21, 1902. 

Dearest Clemen : Since we received your letters 
written on board the "Ivernia," we have received no 
others, and you cannot imagine how impatient we are 
when we do not hear from you. I was even more 
astonished when we were in the house of the Losada 
family three days ago, and they showed us your letter to 
Dofia Germana, dated the 4th of March. I do not 
believe that you would stop writing to us and write to 
others instead. Therefore I prefer to impute this lack 
to those good people who wish to trouble us by detaining 
our letters, although we do not know for what purpose 
they do this. 

You will already know, by the time this reaches you, 
that, according to the newspapers here, Malvar has 
surrendered unconditionally, and therefore it may be 
said that peace in the Philippines is a fact. Last night 
I learned from our very good friend, Captain Curry, that 
our brothers are now liberated ; Bell sent him a telegram 
to this effect. It was about time, wasn't it } But better 
late than never. The poor prisoners, in their last letters, 
did not complain ; indeed, they told me that the climate 
and the life agreed with them, and that they were in good 
health, including Lorenzo. You will not believe this, any 
more than I did at first, but it is true, for they assure us 
it is so. Now at last we shall see them soon, and then I 
shall assure myself of the truth. But for this we have 
still to wait nine or ten days. At the end of that time 
the ports of Batangas will be opened, and we shall imme- 
diately go to join them at Balayan. I do not know how 
our brothers will take it that you have gone alone, for 
they believed that you had gone with our brother Sixto. 


Nevertheless, do not let this trouble you, for when mother 
consents to anything it is because it is all right. 

You ask me in your letters what they say in Manila 
of your going. I can only tell you a few stupid com- 
ments made by envious people. Among those who crit- 
icize you are the family, — as usual, for they are 

very prudish girls in every way. As you can imagine, 
we know them too well to pay any attention to what 
they say. It is also said that, at a ball given at 
the International Club, you were the one topic of con- 
versation, because you had gone alone. I will not give 
names, for I suppose you know better than I who fre- 
quent those Federalist salons. On the other hand, the 
Americans who come here and ask for you look upon it 
as a very natural thing. Besides, I tell everybody that 
it is probable that very soon Mariquita or I shall also 
go alone to join you or Pepe, without being accompanied 
by one of our brothers ; and you cannot imagine how 
some people look when they hear this ! But they will 
get accustomed to it. 

Mr. Trace arrived this morning, with his wife, and this 
afternoon came to call on us. I was very much pleased 
by the return of such a good friend as he has always been 
to us. In a few days they will go to Balayan to continue 
teaching in the school. Although I have not yet had the 
pleasure of meeting Mrs. Trace, I suppose that in time 
she will be my good friend, as her husband is, and in this 
way I shall have much practice in English, I do not 
progress at all in my studies, but, on the contrary, like 
the crab, I go backward. I am not in the mood for 
doing anything, and the only thing I do is to write to 
you ; for, as you know, I do write often. I imagine you 
have no complaint of me, for not a week passes that I do 
not write. 

Mother wants you to stay there a year at least, and 
not to return until you know French and English. Have 
your picture taken in European costume ; we want to see 
you in those clothes. I cannot imagine why you and 


Pepc did not have your pictures taken in a group. We 
should have been very glad if you had thought of it, 
especially on mother's account. She scolded Quita 
because she was not photographed with Sixto in Hong- 
Kong. . . . 

Tell me everything that happens, for now I shall be 
interested in how you amuse yourself, admiring the 
grandeur and beauty of those cities. Since we received 
the news yesterday, my mind is more free. 

Good-bye until another day, and remember that you 
are loved by your sister, Ninay. 

[From Juliana to Clemencia Lopez.] 

Manila, P. I., April 24, 1902. 
Dearest Clemen : I am improving this opportunity 
to write to you, because at this moment I have nothing 
else to do nor any one to gossip with, since mother and 
Quita have gone to visit the Solis family and to say 
good-bye to them. As I told you in my previous letter, 
according to Captain Curry, our brothers have been free 
since the 2 1 st of this month. We should have liked it 
if they had been set free here, so that v^e could have 
seen them as soon as possible ; but we suppose they 
were taken to Batangas so that our confiscated property 
could be returned to them. We have not yet received 
any letter from them, but this afternoon Luis Luna was 
here, — he is the one who has been working for the sur- 
render of General Malvar, — and he assured us that 
they were really free. I do not believe this informa- 
tion can be false, as the first was, considering that the 
surrender of Malvar was the object of imprisoning the 
people of Batangas ; and besides, we have more right to 
believe it on account of the telegram from General Bell 
to Captain Curr>', telling him the details of how Cipri- 
ano, less than two weeks ago, went to Abra de Hog 
to look after our affairs and to take away some of the 


cattle to sell. He said, moreover, that Cipriano was 
liberated on parole, and was allowed certain privileges. 
Believe me, I cannot understand this general's methods, 
because, while Cipriano has enjoyed this freedom for 
more than a month, Lorenzo and Manuel, who were 
imprisoned on his account, remained on the island of 
Malagi until the 2ist of this month, as I explained to 
you above. 

You ought to know that in the month of February I 
wrote a letter to General Wheaton, asking him for a pass 
to take cattle from Abra de Hog, so that we might sell 
them here, explaining our situation to him, for we were 
in such need that we hardly knew what to do; and 
besides, we wanted to send our brothers some things. 
But this general, instead of deciding the matter, sent 
the letter to General Bell, to ask his advice. We re- 
ceived, however, no answer from the latter either, and 
we only knew that the letter had been sent to him 
because he spoke of it when we went to see him about 
the liberation of our brothers. He (Bell) told us then 
that he had received my letter, and that he was inclined 
to do us this favor if we were actually in need. I told 
him that we were ; that otherwise I should not have 
written to Wheaton. " But it seems to me you are well 
off," he said to us, because he saw that we wore jewels 
and were well dressed, and he concluded that we did not 
really need the money. Finally, he said so much, and 
was so suspicious of us, that, to close the subject, I told 
him that when I wrote General Wheaton I did not sup- 
pose it would cause him much trouble to give us a pass, 
for I only asked permission to take from Mindoro what 
belonged to us ; and then I got up to go. I did not say 
a word more. What I thought and felt I will leave to 
your imagination, for you know me very well ! 

April 27th. 
I could not finish this until now, because visitors came, 
and afterward I was no longer in the mood for writing. 


I cannot tell you certainly what day we go to Balayan, 
because, as you will understand, we are not very desirous 
of undergoing the five days' quarantine required of all 
the boats which leave for the provinces. It is indeed 
one of the ways of preventing the spread of the cholera, 
but it is very vexatious, especially for people like us, 
who wish to arrive as soon as possible at our desti- 
nation. Up to the present, thank God, the number 
of deaths has not exceeded twenty-five a day, and that 
number is rare, it being ordinarily only ten or fifteen. 
And you must bear in mind that Manila is overcrowded 
with people; the doctors say that if there were fifty 
cases it would not be surprising, considering the crowd- 
ing there is here at present. In Pampanga, Bataan, 
Camarines, and Bulacan there are also cases of cholera 
daily, according to the official records, so that all the 
precautions of the health departments are not too 

Mother says to tell you to see if you can secure com- 
pensation from the authorities there for the use of our 
boat and our house. 

Good-bye. Keep well. Give our affectionate regards 
to Mr. Warren and all the family, and remember that 
you are loved by your sister, Ninay. 

[From Juliana and Maria to Clemencia Lopez.] 

Manila, P. I., May i, 1902. 

Dearest Clemen : We are just preparing to start 
for Balayan, and are more happy than you can think, 
that at last w^e are going without owing any favors to 
anybody. Do not direct any more letters to us here. I 
will write you more another day. 

Our best wishes to Mr. and Miss Warren ; give them 
our most affectionate regards ; and remember that you 
are loved by Ninay. 


Dear Clemen : At last all our pains and troubles 
will end. To-morrow afternoon, at four o'clock, we start 
for Balayan, for the ports are now open. You can 
imagine how happy we shall be, in spite of the fact that 
we shall have to spend iive days' quarantine in the Bay 
on account of the epidemic which prevails here ; for 
we do not mind anything, now that we shall meet our 
brothers in Balayan. I am so sorry that you cannot 
share our joy with us. 

Your sister, Quita. 


[From Juliana to Clemencia Lopez.] 

Manila Bay, P. I., May 6, 1902. 
Dearest Clemen : To-day is the fifth day that we 
have been quarantined on board the steamer " Germana," 
and it is probable that early to-morrow, if no case of 
cholera occurs, we shall start for Balayan. Friday, some 
hours before leaving the house, we received two letters 
from you at the same time, one dated in Washington 
and the other in Boston. I was very glad to receive 
them so promptly, for now I can give a good account to 
our brothers of what you have done for them, and I am 
very sure that they will be pleased. We are not yet sure 
whether we shall meet them in Balayan, for although 
we are told positively that they are really free I cannot 
feel sure until I see them. And besides, why has not 
the " Purisima " come yet .? It is now more than two 
weeks since the newspapers told of the freedom of the 
political prisoners, and, if our brothers are free, why has 
not the boat been returned > We shall be like the 
owner of the "Taaleiio," who, instead of being paid for 
the use of his boat, was the one who had to pay the 
supposed expenses which they said were spent on re- 
pairs ! . . . 




Alberto read your letters, and he said it looked 
as if the authorities there had fulfilled their promise, 
because, besides investigating the case of our brothers, 
they are also investigating others. What I do not under- 
stand yet is why those here have been so slow in carry- 
ing out the orders ; they even waited for the surrender 
of Malvar. If the orders came by cable, as they prom- 
ised you, what you accomplished there ought to have 
taken effect a month ago ; so that, if it were not for 
your letters, I should believe that the liberation of our 
brothers was entirely due to the surrender of Malvar, 
and that we owed the kindness shown our brothers 
toward the last entirely to General Bell's generous heart. 
But now we are convinced that we have nothing to be 
grateful for to him. 

When we arrive in Balayan I will write you again, and 
I will also write for the first time to Miss Warren. Tell 
our brother that I wrote him two letters, which I directed 
there, and which 1 suppose he has received by this time. 

We are all perfectly well, including mother, and God 
grant that you also continue the same. . . . 

I will close now. I am perspiring atrociously in this 
little stateroom, and I cannot remember the things I 
wanted to tell you. 

Good-bye ; regards to everybody, and remember that 
I really love you. Ninay. 

Didn't you write us after your arrival in Boston, be- 
sides your letters on board the " Ivernia " .? We only 
received the two " Ivernia " letters dated 17th and 

[The following letter marks a considerable change in 
the condition and surroundings of the family, and a 
corresponding change in the tone and character of the 
letters. The mother and sisters are again in the natural 


and pleasant surroundings of home and native town ; the 
brothers are on their way from captivity ; and the long 
strain and suspense are at an end. The sigh of relief 
perpetuates itself even in the translated, printed copy, in 
which there is happiness and hope expressed in almost 
every line. "To-night, we expect the three." There is 
a little world of meaning in these simple words. And 
there is time, too, to think of other things, — of little 
Emilio, a child of the revolution, who appears to have 
characteristics in common with childhood the world over : 
" Much fatter, and an atrocious chatterbox " ! That is a 
description which is widely applicable.] 

[From Juliana to Clemencia Lopez.] 

Balayan, May ii, 1902. 

Dearest Clemen : At last we find ourselves in this 
dear town, for we arrived at dawn on the 8th, without 
any accident to deplore, thank God, and we met Andrea 
and Emiling [one of Mariano's children, Jose Emilio — 
named after Rizal and Aguinaldo during the insurrection 
against Spain], who are enjoying perfect health. 

As you will see by the telegram which I inclose, it was 
only yesterday that our brothers were liberated, and this 
morning we sent the launch to meet them in Taal, where 
they have arrived on their way here. I do not understand 
yet why the authorities waited so long before definitely 
giving them their liberty, for, whereas the other pris- 
oners were immediately liberated on the surrender of 
Malvar, our brothers were given only provisional liberty 
from that time to the present — more than a month. 
This is attributed to the fact that Bell is not in Batangas, 
and that he gave orders that our brothers should wait 
until he returned from Manila, where he now is, on 
account of the court-martial of General Smith. Felix 
Unzon, who has been here fifteen days, tells me the 
same. He says also that when they were first taken 
prisoners they were not well treated, but that since Feb- 


ruary they had been better looked after, especially our 

I must tell you about an officer whose name is Samuel 
H. Fisher, second lieutenant of the Twenty-eighth In- 
fantry, who, according to Felix, was the one most consid- 
erate to our brothers. Several times when he visited 
Manila while we were there he came to see us on behalf 
of our brothers, and gave us news of their health. I 
believe that his kindness was due to his friendship 

for , who strongly recommended our brothers to 


We find that Emiling has progressed in everything 
more than you can imagine, for, besides having grown 
and being much fatter, he is an atrocious chatterbox, and 
carries on conversations so serious as to be almost unsuit- 
able to his age. You would devour him with kisses if 
you could see him just now, he is so cunning; much 
more so than he used to be. 

It is more than a week since the Sixth Cavalry left here 
for Los Banos, and the First is here now, commanded by 
the well-known Captain Brown, who was in Lipa. The 
officer whom we have here at present, until Captain 
Brown arrives, came to visit us on Friday evening, and, 
believe me, we received him very coldly, for I cannot 
help the resentment which only time will efface from 
our hearts. 

I will close, for visitors are coming ; to-morrow, I will 
write you further, if I have time. To-night, we expect 
the three. 

Keep well, and I hope that Miss Cornelia * and her 
brother also are well. 

Good-bye, with a warm embrace from 


* Miss Cornelia Warren, whose kindness to Miss Lopez will do more 
for the real peace of the Philippines than " Cajsar's legions," and more 
to heal the wound than the combined wisdom of statesmen. 


[Copy of the telegram :] 

Batangas [City], P. I., May lo, 1902. 
Miss Juliana Lopez, Balayan, P. I. 

We are liberated to-day ; so do not come to this town. 


[The two following letters are of special interest. The 
first, written by Manuel, gives an account of the treat- 
ment of the three brothers during their imprisonment ; 
the second, from Mariano, tells what he and others 
endeavored to do for their release. Both letters are full 
of information and throw much light on the whole situa- 
tion. They also contain some rather curious items. For 
example, Manuel tells how the members of the band of 
Tiaong were arrested and deported to Malagi in order 
that the soldiers might have music on the island ! Who 
shall say that the American soldier does not know how to 
do things ? And yet, what is to be said of the item in 
Mariano's letter which tells how " our superintendent is 
now the local presidente, appointed by the Americans." 
This superintendent, or encargado, of the Lopez cattle- 
ranch at Abra de Hog, Mindoro, was imprisoned by Major 
Pitcher, without known cause or justification, and in spite 
of the urgent representations of Captain Shaw, the local 
commander. He is now presidente of Abra de Hog ! 
Such acts as these, which have the appearance of being 
dictated solely by caprice, are not calculated to inspire 
the Filipinos with confidence in their rulers.] 

[From Manuel to Clemencia Lopez.] 

Manila, May 20, 1902. 
My dear Sister : I suppose all of you in America 
already know the details of our arrest, which was due 
solely to our being brothers of Sixto Lopez ! 


In reference to the way in which we were treated 
during our imprisonment of five months I shall speak 
very briefly. 

In Batangas we did not expect that an officer of the 
Twenty-first Regiment of Infantry, called Conlay, first 
lieutenant and provost of the prison, would have obliged 
me to take off my hat to him, or that he would call me " a 
great insurrecto " ! In view of the fact that we were three 
brothers, it seemed to me better not to take this seri- 
ously, for I considered that this affront to me was simply 
the act of an official who is wholly without breeding. I 
believe this has happened not only to me but to many 
others, and that almost all of Bell's officers have behaved 
in this way. As for us, we are fortunate that nothing 
worse happened to us during the twenty days of Decem- 
ber that we were in Batangas, — such as happened to 
various friends of ours. For instance, Don Vicente 
Agregado (the lawyer) and Don Antonio Babasa were, 
out of spite, forced to carry stones and sand for three 
days, and were compelled to work in the prison besides. 
Perhaps they did not treat us as they did the rest, be- 
cause it may have occurred to them that knowledge of 
these abuses might reach America. 

What I regretted the most, during the twenty days 
that we were in Batangas, was that they did not take 
any declaration from us, and that we did not even know 
the reason of our arrest. Moreover, they did not even 
allow us to have food brought in to us three brothers, 
and the first few days we were obliged to eat wretched 
food ; but afterward, thanks to the outside relatives of 
our good friends, the Batangas prisoners, we were able 
to eke out our own fare from their provisions, and did not 
therefore become ill. 

From Batangas they took us to [the Bay of Manila, 
en route to] the island of Malagi, Laguna de Bay, as 
exiles, and you cannot imagine the kind of treatment 
we were all subjected to. They put us in the bottom of 
the hold of the steamer " Legaspi," and I doubt if they 


would have treated animals so inhumanly. We were 
kept there four days, and if we had been thus kept much 
longer half of the hundred men would have died ; as it 
was, many of them became ill. Afterward we were trans- 
ferred to the steamer " Liscum," where we were some- 
what better off as regards space during the following 
fourteen days. There also we were in the hold, but 
with the advantage that this boat had port-holes through 
which the air entered. They gave us the best place, 
which was the place provided for the transportation of 
horses ! 

The 14th of January, two days after Mariquita's ar- 
rival from Hong-Kong, they took us off in small boats 
towed by a little tug, and transported us to Malagi, an 
island that had never been inhabited, where they kept us 
for three months and six days. The other prisoners were 
put to forced labor, "and were badly fed, and we all slept 
on the ground at night, in field-tents, without any other 
protection. Thanks to the palm mats which we brought 
from Batangas, and the cot-beds which the family after- 
ward sent us from Manila, we did not fare so badly as 
the others. In one tent the unsentenced prisoners slept 
to the number of more than fifteen persons, and those 
who had received sentences, including the greater part 
of our companions, were forced to sleep as many as 
twenty in a tent. 

You will be much astonished to hear that there were 
(political) prisoners wJio were also sentenced ; for almost 
all of them were " sentenced " at the pleasure of any offi- 
cer. I say ^^ any officej','' because, without making an 
investigation, without calling a court-martial, the mere 
denunciation by some wretch or other was sufficient upon 
which to have them deported with a sentence of at least 
two years. And these are the men that are made to work 
at forced labor like criminals ! The greater part of these 
sentenced men are those who have been either unable 
or unwilling to suborn a man called Arthur, an Eng- 
lish subject, who formerly belonged to the files of Gen- 


eral Trias's column. This Arthur is interpreter, and at 
the same time one of the secret pohce of the provost 
of Batangas ; and as he was the only trusted person he 
could bargain with the prisoners, many of whom -were 
low enough not to know hi)w to maintain their owh 

As for us three brothers, it was only for one week 
that they made us follow the laborers, acting as over- 
seers. Afterward, General Bell visited the island, and 
from that time they did not force us to work, and we 
were given liberty to go about the island. 

Company II of the Twenty-eighth Infantry, who were 
our custodians, especially the officers, behaved themselves 
divinely toward the three of us. They were very gen- 
tlemanly in their bearing, gave us whatever we asked for, 
and treated us with every consideration. 

I believe that if they have lacked somewhat in their 
treatment of the other prisoners, it was because of orders 
from Batangas, from the commanders. For example, in 
the matter of food : at first it was given to the prisoners 
with much scarcity. We three did not lack, because we 
received from Manila several boxes of provisions sent by 
the family, and it is due to this that we were not desper- 
ately hungry, for what was given to us did not suit our 

In Malagi there was one officer, called Kriger, a first 
lieutenant, who was very bad. He made the prisoners 
work at least eight hours a day, and also on Sundays. 
He was very harsh, not only with the prisoners but also 
with the soldiers, and was the terror of Malagi. 

On the twenty-first of April they took us away from 
the island and carried us to Batangas, with four others; 
and on the tenth of this month General Bell gave us 
liberty, owing to the surrender of Malvar. Cipriano 
they took away as early as February, in order to make 
an investigation about the guns which he was accused of 
not having presented when he surrendered. The first 
few days, they made him work in the public square at 


forced labor, by order of the provost, who is called D. N. 
Boughton, and who is a captain of the Third Cavalry ; 
but after that they took Cipriano out of the prison 
and made him a clerk in the office. From that time he 
ceased to sleep in the prison, and was allowed to sleep in 
a private house. 

In Malagi the number of prisoners went above 760 
men, and the greater number did not even know the rea- 
son why they had been imprisoned. In one way this was 
a good thing, because, of those who were questioned by 
officials and commanders of detachments, many were 
tortured in the manner of Spanish days. Many who 
had been tortured arrived at Malagi so sick that they 
could hardly walk. This was so with the man who was 
presidente of the town of St. Tomas, whose name I 
have forgotten at this moment. 

Women and children were imprisoned in the provinces 
of Batangas and Tayabas to such an extent that the 
churches were utilized as prisons for the women. They 
also deported to Malagi many boys who were members 
of the band of the town of Tiaong, and this solely be- 
cause they desired to have music on the island ! 

We have had General Lukban as a companion in 
Malagi ; he was captured with his two adjutants. I 
believe that he is one of the generals who have con- 
ducted themselves creditably in this campaign ; and it is 
said that if they call him to America he will be very 
much pleased, because he will then be able to declare 
certain things which ought to be known for the good of 
the country. In view of this, when they asked him any- 
thing, he remained silent, saying that it was useless to 
reply, for there was no justice here. 

When they gave us our liberty they were going to 
pass the steamer "Purisima" over to me, but I would 
not receive it, objecting that it was badly damaged. 
The quartermaster's department has now undertaken to 
repair it, and will turn it over to me later when the 
repairs are finished. 


You will remember that since the 1 2th of December 
the boat has been in their possession, and is so up to the 
present time. If you wish to enter a claim for damage 
and loss, it would be better to do it in America, because 
nothing can be done here. 

Our mother continues in good health, in spite of 
having suffered much on account of our imprisonment. 
Give a greeting and remembrances from me to Messrs. 
Fiske and Thomas ; I am very sorry not to have been 
able to say good-bye to them. 

Your brother who loves you, Manuel Lopez. 

[From Mariano to Clemencia Lopez.] 

Manila, May 22, 1902. 
Dear Clemencia : Thanks to your two letters, dated 
the 17th and 23d of last March, the high opinion that I 
have always held of the free and great Republic of North 
America, and of its worthy citizens devoted to the culti- 
vation of the fruits of liberty, has been re-born in me. 
As you well know, it was due to this opinion that I have 
never been in favor of the war of our country against 
America, that I have worked for peace, and have induced 
the whole family to do the same, for I was firmly con- 
vinced that the Americans would be just to us in all 
respects. But I confess to you frankly that since our 
brothers have been imprisoned, deported without any 
process of law, and our property has been confiscated as 
if we were great enemies of the American Government 
in the Philippines, this high opinion has been grad- 
ually dying, owing to the fact that, with the exception of 
the three men, Curry, Taggart, and Pendleton, all those to 
whom. I have appealed, demanding justice on account of 
the deportation of our brothers, have deceived me, — as 
you will see by my experiences which I am going to 
recount to you. 


In the first place, I had recourse to the Federal party, 
presenting to the President, Dr. Jose Albert, the notes 
and vouchers of my services and those of all the family 
in the establishment of peace, and telling him of all that 
had occurred in Balayan, — thanks to the infamous in- 
trigues and false accusations of Manuel Ramirez, who 
was sheltered and protected by Cheever, Captain of the 
Sixth Cavalry; commanding officer in the town. (This 
has been true especially since he was defeated in the 
municipal elections of the 29th of last September.) I 
gave Dr. Albert these papers, so that he might confer 
with, and show them to, the Acting Civil Governor, 
General Wright. Seiior Albert afterward gave me an 
account of this interview, in which General Wright said 
that, on account of Sixto, and on account of the stay of 
Mr. Warren and Mr. Patterson in our house, I have 
lost the good opinion which the authorities had held of 
me, and that he did not wish a man to serve two 
masters ! 

In the second place, accompanied by Captain Curry, 
I went to see General Wright. As he was not able to 
receive us, owing to his being very busy, we went to 
see General Chaffee. We were not able to speak with 
him either, but, instead, spoke with Colonel Sanger, 
Inspector General of Arms, who, after listening to us 
with kindness, answered that he would direct us to 
Colonel Wagner, Adjutant General of the Department 
of the North ; that he would agree to whatever that 
gentleman should decide, and would recommend my 
claim to General Chaffee. In the Department of the 
North I was not able to speak to Colonel Wagner, 
because he delegated to receive me Captain Bash, Gen- 
eral Wheaton's adjutant, who immediately fired the fol- 
lowing question at me : " Why are you not a prisoner ? " 
My only answer to such an unexpected sally was to 
shrug my shoulders and say, "I do not know." In the 
voice of the Czar of Russia he proceeded to tell me 
that all the Filipinos are more or less double-faced toward 


the Americans. In view of the brutal manner in which 
he received me, and in order not to make our situation 
any worse, I confined myself to giving him the notes of 
my services, and those of the family, to the American 
Government in the cause of peace, together with the 
vouchers, and then went away. At the end of two weeks 
I learned that these notes had been sent to General Bell, 
for I v^as so notified by the said Department of the 
North with General Bell's answer, the original of which 
I inclose for you. This, as you will see, limits itself 
entirely to exalting mc, and does not at all decide the 
question concerning our brothers, nor does it attempt 
any investigation as to whether or not they were enemies 
of America. They all say that the measure was a gen- 
eral one in the province of Batangas. To this I answer, 
Why have they so singled us out, — not being content 
with merely arresting and deporting our brothers, but 
confiscating our property and, owing to Ramirez's accu- 
sations, punishing all our people so atrociously that not 
only did it cost poor Isabelo Capacia his life, but actually 
caused many of them to deny that they were our people, 
in order to escape persecution ? 

Besides this, Ramirez, together with V. Ramos and 
Hilar ion Ramirez, made themselves masters of all 
Balayan, Tuy, Lian, Calatagan, and Nasugbu, in this 
manner : They were the only men allowed to trade 
between these towns, obtaining also a monopoly in 
gambling, and having a gambling outfit and cockpit in 
the house and grounds of Ramos. So true is all this 
that Ramirez & Co. forced the people to sign the petition 
or paper which was presented by the people of Balayan 
praying the Military Government to retain Cheevcr and 
his company. This petition was signed, in the presence 
of Cheever, in the aforesaid cockpit, and many of the 
people could not refuse to sign because of the sure 
vengeance that would follow.* 

* This paragraph has a bearing on the following telegraphic tlis- 


Since the 1 3th of March Cipriano has had provisional 
Hberty, being employed as translator and interpreter into 
Spanish. Lorenzo and Manuel were freed only on the 
loth of this month. Manuel is now in Manila, and he 
tells me that when they were freed on that date General 
Bell wished to deliver to him the steamer and our papers ; 
but he refused to receive either, because he declares that, 
as regards the steamer, it was unserviceable, and as to the 
papers, when they were seized by the Government, they 
were in a chest with a lock, but at the time of their 
proffered delivery the chest was unhinged and the papers 
mixed up and thrown into a corner of the office. General 
Bell, in regard to the first, ordered an inspection, sending 
the steamer to Manila to be repaired ; and as to the 
papers, when he knew what had happened, he was furious 

patches, which, in 1902, were the subject of a controversy between the 
Springfield Republican and the New York Tribune : — 

United States Signal Coips, Iloilo, February 11. 
Commanding Officer, Pototan : — 

Following telegram has been rec'eived and should be circulated among 
all officers : — 

Manila, February 10. 
Commanding General, Fifth Separate Brigade, Iloilo: — 

Following cablegram received from Washington : To refute state- 
ments of misconduct of troops toward natives in Philippine Islands, 
Secretary of War Root directs petition of retention of commanders of 
various organizations and any information within the knowledge of any 
officer on these islands will be wired here. Any applications that have 
not been forwarded will be forwarded at once. 

By order of Colonel Snyder : [Signed] Noble, 

A djuta Jit- GeneraVs Office. 

The question in dispute was as to whether Secretary Root had re- 
quested that petitions be secured, or had merely directed that petitions 
already in the possession of certain officers in the Philippines should 
be sent to Washington. 

From the above paragraph in Mariano's letter it would appear that, 
whether or not the request came from Washington, the petitions — or 
at least one of them — were obtained in a manner which destroys their 
value as a refutation of "statements of misconduct of troops toward 
natives in Philippine Islands." 


and hurled curses at his subordinates. According to 
Manuel, General Bell said he was going to Balayan and 
the western towns. I suppose he will take our papers 
there, and will there deliver them to our brothers ; and I 
suppose also that, since the latter have already been 
advised by Manuel of his attitude, they will receive them 
only after examining them one by one, so that they may 
know which are lacking, and protest in the deed of 

The steamer is now in Manila, and has been examined 
by the Government engineer, by whom it will be repaired. 
It will very soon be put into the dock, but, according to 
Manuel, on account of the great amount of damage to 
the engines and hull, the repairing may take a month. 

Here, the Filipinos, and some who are not Filipinos, 
who have made claims against the Government on account 
of damages and injury, have obtained nothing up to the 
present time. For this reason I am of the opinion that 
you should make a claim in America. You already know 
that Lualhati rented the steamer from us at the rate of 
$150 (Mex.), per day, exclusive of expenses, and the 
Government itself has offered Manuel this price in order 
to continue using it. 

Our house and storehouses in Balayan have been occu- 
pied by the troops, and in Abra de Hog (Mindoro) our 
house on the ranch was burned, and some of our best 
cattle shot, as a result of a combat there. This, in spite 
of the fact that our superintendent, with all our people, 
submitted to the American Government, and that it was 
one of our herdsmen who gave warning of the presence 
of the insurrectionary force at that place to the com- 
manding offtcer in Abra de Hog ; where also our super- 
intendent is now the local presidente, appointed by the 

I write you this letter on the steamer, for only at the 
last moment I knew that the bearer was going to Paris. 
He is a young man approved by the Lyceum, Miguel 


Do me the favor to make my excuses to Mr. Warren 
for not yet having written to him. Place me at the feet 
of his wife, and give my respects to all his distinguished 
family and relatives, and to all those good people who 
have entertained and cared for you. 

Your affectionate brother, Mariano Lopez. 

[In the following letter Juliana continues the story, 
and tells how, when Lorenzo and Manuel were being 
liberated, General Bell asked them "if they had any 
complaint to make of their treatment by the officers of 
the detachment 171 Ma/agi.'' There may have been a 
desire to avoid troublesome disclosures in thus confining 
the inquiry solely to Malagi ; or it may have been that 
General Bell knew and disapproved of the treatment of 
the brothers during the earlier period, and simply wished 
to know if they had any complaint as to the later treat- 
ment. If the inquiry had extended to Batangas prison, 
and to the journey en route to Manila and Malagi, the 
brothers' reply, as shown by Manuel's letter, might have 
been different.] 

[From Juliana to Clemencia Lopez.] 

Balayan, p. I., May 22d, 1902. 

Dearest Clemen : Heaven grant that you continue 
well, as we all do here. 

Our brothers are now free ; the " Purisima " brought 
them here a week ago. We found them in good health, 
including Lorenzo. The latter, according to his oivn 
account, has hardly suffered at all in the prison, but on 
the contrary has learned a great deal and has made many 
good friends in the provinces of Tayabas and La Laguna, 
so that now he considers himself influential not only 
in Batangas but in the former provinces also. They 


tell us many things about that little island, and about 
the life they led there. After all, they were not so 
badly off, for Lorenzo and Manuel enjoyed certain privi- 
leges which were not given to the others, and this was 
due to the letter of Sixto to General Chaffee. 

When they arrived at Batangas they were not given 
their liberty at once, as were others, because Bell was 
then in Manila ; and it was he who, later, took their 
declaration, but in a very friendly tone which cannot be 
compared with that which he almost always uses. He 
also asked them if they had any complaint to make of 
their treatment by the officers of the detachment in 
Malagi, and they replied, "No," for indeed they had not. 
The man to whom we are especially indebted is Lieu- 
tenant Fisher, because of his humane feelings toward 
the poor prisoners, and to him our brothers also owe 
many favors. 

I told you in my previous letter that Cipriano was 
in Abra de Hog before the ports were opened, through a 
favor which Bell, without solicitation, chose to confer 
upon him, in order that he might take food to our poor 
people, for the Americans had burned all their rice, and, 
besides, had burned our house in Baluguhan [Abra de 
Hog]. Imagine how pleased Cipriano must have been 
with this offer, which he at once accepted, being sent in 
a Government launch. This happened on the 1 2th of 
April, so that we attribute it to your efforts. Cipriano 
tells me that it was only last March that the house was 
burned, together with 500 " cabanes " of rice. When 
Captain Shaw was there he never thought of doing such 
a thing ; it was another officer who was in command, and 
who had it burned immediately because it was outside the 
zone. Just imagine ! — D. Gabino de Jesus [the family's 
incargado] is presidente of Abra de Hog ! — appointed by 
Captain Shaw. They ought not to have burned our house 
in Baluguhan, for the American troops had frequently 
made use of it. They stayed in that house when night 
overtook them and they could go no farther. Captain 


Shaw knew all this ; but, as I told you, he was relieved 
by another officer, who burned it. Our cattle are well 
looked after, and none have been lost. On Sunday 
night Cipriano went there again to bring away some 
of them. 

Up to the present time, neither the steamer nor the 
documents have been returned. Lorenzo tells me that 
the repairs on the steamer will cost $9000, so that 
even if they offer to return it he will not accept it. 
Moreover, they make no mention of payment for the 
use of it. We believe it will be better to wait until they 
offer it, rather than to demand its return. There are 
many other things that I should like to say to you, but 
I am very, very tired. 

The officer who is now in command here, Mr. Charles 
J. Thomas, visits us quite often, and seems well bred. 
The inspector of the constabulary who has been ap- 
pointed here in Balayan is none other than Mr. Pendle- 
ton ! — he has just arrived. 

The town is very quiet, and the people who used to 
say that the imprisonment of our brothers was to be 
more than temporary are not opening their lips now ; 
they are very much ashamed of some rude things they 
said to us. 

I close this letter, without forgetting my affectionate 
regards to Miss Warren and her brother. Do not for- 
get to give them to Sixto and also to your inseparable 

Good-bye, with embraces from all. Ninay. 

[The following letter is from Senor Alberto Barretto, 
one of the leading lawyers in Manila and the legal 
adviser of the Lopez family. Prior to the outbreak of 
hostilities with the Filipinos he held the office of Vice- 
President of the Assembly at Tarlac, under Aguinaldo's 


Government. Since then, for a time, he occupied a 
neutral position, but has recently accepted some such 
office as register of deeds under the Civil Government. 
His letter contains certain items of interest not found 
elsewhere in this correspondence, hence its inclusion in 
these pages ; but it is hoped that Senor Barretto will not 
be made to suffer on account of this evidence of his pro- 
fessional relations with the Lopez family.] 

[From Senor Alberto Barretto to Clemencia Lopez.] 

Manila, June 4, 1902. 
Sefiorita Clemencia Lopez, 

Boston, United States. 

Friend Clemencia : Through your letters to your 
brothers and sisters, as well as by the papers, I have 
learned of the welcome given you in that liberal and 
democratic America. I congratulate you cordially on 
that account, and especially on the honor of which you 
have been the object in being called to testify before the 
Senate Committee on Philippine affairs ; a favor which 
has only been conferred upon the celebrated Buencamino, 
who must, at this time, be in America. 

By letters from here you will already have learned 
that Cipriano, Lorenzo, and Manuel are free, and that 
in a short time the steamer "Purisima" will be trans- 
ferred to them, repaired and completely cleaned, but 
without indemnification for use since the seizure, which 
occurred at the same time as the imprisonment of your 
brothers. Cipriano, Lorenzo, and Manuel have been set 
at liberty under an oath of allegiance, on which, at least 
in Manuel's, could be read on the upper margin of the 
paper, '' Brother oi Sixto Lopez, member of the Hong- 
Kong Junta." Apparently this has been the one and 
only cause of the detention which they have suffered. 

You ought to consult there with some lawyer con- 
cerning the form in which to petition the army authori- 
ties for the payment of damages caused by the taking 


of the boat, and for the imprisonment ; for, as I under- 
stand it, the courts here have no jurisdiction and cannot 
recognize claims of this sort. . . . 

Do me the favor to ask your brother to pardon me 
that I have not yet answered him, for reasons of which, 
doubtless, he is not ignorant. 

I pray you to present my respects to Mr. Warren, 
whom I do not forget, and also to your brother Sixto. 
With affectionate regards from Bonifacia, be assured 
that you may dispose unconditionally of your friend who 
esteems you, and who desires your health and happiness. 

Alberto Barretto. 

[Perhaps the most beautiful and most interesting of all 
Juliana's letters are the two which follow. They breathe 
a spirit alternately of forgiveness and resentment ; they 
suggest many thoughts and lessons from which those in 
authority might profit ; they furnish to the commentator 
temptations in almost every line. But — that thread 
on which jewels are strung must not obtrude itself 
too frequently on mind and eye ! Two references 
in the second letter cannot, however, be passed over in 

Juliana herself recognizes the change that has come 
over her, even though some in her own household still 
regard her as a child: "To our brothers only am I 
still a child, for they continue to treat me as such ; but 
outside of the house they say that I have changed much, 
and they have excellent reason for saying that misfort- 
unes transform one." 

The second reference has about it the fragrance of 
the flowers of which it tells. It will appeal to those 
who, amid the heat of contention as to the rights or 
the wrongs of the friars, have harbored an unjust suspi- 
cion of the religious sincerity of the Filipinos : " Every 
afternoon we go out into the garden to see the flowers, 


for it is a pleasure to sec how many there are. If you 
saw those that you planted, tears of joy would come to 
your eyes to see how flourishing they are ; and, as you 
can imagine, the expression that comes oftenest to our 
tongue is, * If Clemen could see this, how pleased she 
would be ! ' Indeed, all the roses are flourishing. The 
last day of May, when it was our turn to offer flowers 
to the Virgin, we did not have to send to other towns 
for them as in former years, for we had enough, and 
there were some magnificent branches among those 
which we selected and used." 

Are these people irreligious .'' Does all the fault 
implied in the friar question rest with the Filipinos .-'] 

[From Juliana to Clemencia Lopez.] 

Balayan, p. I., June 6, 1902. 

Dearest Clemen : I take this opportunity, when the 
steamer is leaving for Manila, to tell you that we received 
your letters dated the i ith and 23d of April, with the 
pictures and letters inclosed for Mr. Curry and Mr. 
Pendleton, which I shall send to them at once. 

Pardon me for telling you how happy we are when we 
receive letters from those of our family who are abroad, 
especially from you ; and mother weeps and shows very 
much emotion when we translate your letters to her. 
You cannot imagine how we feci, for we cannot yet 
realize that you are so far from us (in that country where 
you used to dream of going), and surrounded by such 
good people. It seems as if I could still hear you say- 
ing, what you said so often to the officers here : that the 
day when they did anything to our prejudice, and listened 
to the denunciations of our enemies, you would not beg 
for justice in the Philippines, but would go in person and 
talk to the President himself. Do you rememljer ? And 
you have done it. I think Captain Cole will often think 
of that. 

A few days ago Lieutenant Jones and Mr. Pendleton, 


inspector of the constabulary, came here, according to 
their account, in order to visit us. They have both been 
appointed to Batangas. . . . Lieutenant Jones told me 
that he had received your letter directed to Philadelphia, 
and that he v^ras very sorry that he had not received it 
while he w^as still there, for you must know that since 
March he has been in Batangas [City]. He said also 
that Bell had read your letter, which, according to Jones, 
shows how indignant you are with the military, and that 
Bell said he was sorry you had such an idea of them. 
Moreover, this General Bell, of whom three provinces 
had such a horror, has suddenly assumed very gracious 
manners and is quite affable toward the Lopez family. 
I have good reason to say so, for the pass which he gave 
Cipriano for Abra de Hog and for the whole island of 
Mindoro absolutely prohibits all the chiefs of detachments 
from interfering with Cipriano and our interests there, 
and orders that they should put no obstacles in the way 
of his business transactions, unless his own actions 
should give them good cause ; and that even then no one 
must arrest him without previously obtaining the consent 
of General Chaffee. You must know that Cipriano is in 
favor with Bell ; the latter can do nothing but praise him, 
and he treated him well toward the last. What is more, 
one day when the general was in the office of the provost 
of Batangas, he ordered Cipriano to be called so that he 
might apologize to him for the manner in which he had 
treated Maria and me, for, according to the general's 
account, he was in a bad temper, and said that we should 
pardon him, for he was really ashamed. He told Captain 
Curry the same thing. 

Last week, Memong went to Batangas by Lorenzo's 
orders, to get the confiscated papers, with a letter from 
Lorenzo to Bell, which certainly was not of a suppli- 
catory nature, and which he promptly delivered. This 
morning we received a telegram from Bell which said 
that they would repair the " Purisima " before turning it 
over to us. Manuel says that if we should send it to 


be repaired it would cost at least $8000 [Mex.], it is so 
badly damaged. 

I am getting together all the details that I can find 
about the death of poor Isabelo, and as soon as I get 
them all I shall consider what I ought to do to console 
his poor widow a little. . . . 

I believe I have not yet told you that the grandmother 
of Pindong died three months ago, and it would not be 
too much to say that it was through fear lest they should 
imprison her sons. 

Do not be in the least troubled about mother, who, 
thanks to God, is better, and does not become ill. We 
are all satisfied with your going to America, and agree 
that you ought to remain there longer, although in truth 
I am sorry with all my heart that you are so far away ; 
and besides, I now have to do all the things that you 
used to do ! Our only desire is that when you return we 
shall see you made into a real Boston American, and a 
Parisian who can talk French well ! . . . 

Keep well. I send good wishes to you from all friends 
here, and from all the family, and to Miss Warren and 
to her brother. . . . 

Your sister who loves you, Ninay. 

[From Juliana to Clemencia Lopez,] 

Balavan, p. I., June 13, 1902. 

Mv DEAREST Clemen : I havc received your very short 
letter, with some photographs taken by Mr. Warren in 
Manila and in Hong-Kong, but I do not know whether 
the number of pictures is complete, for they came open. 

Lorenzo is not in the least resentful toward our 
brother [Sixto], but, on the contrary, now thinks in the 
same way that he does, and is proud that he should have 
been one of those selected by this unhappy country to 
serve her. As to your journey to America, he is also 


satisfied, and, what is more, he has decided to send us 
there as soon as the division of the property is con- 

According to Manuel, the " Purisima" is now in the 
dock for repairs, and will not be able to make trips again 
for about a month. All the expenses for this will be 
paid by the Government. 

Beheve me, Clemen, now more than ever I miss you 
when I have to do all the things that you used to do ; 
and it is very hard for me, so hard that I begin to cry 
when I think of you, at the same time calling down 
anathemas on Bell, who is the cause of your being so 
far from us. I do not mean by this that you should 
come back now ; no, for now that you are there and have 
taken the first step and have sacrificed yourself by leav- 
ing our mother, I, like all the others in the house, want 
you to improve the occasion, seeing and studying all the 
good things of which we are ignorant in this country. 

You charge me to be very judicious and prudent ; that 
is the line of conduct I have been observing ever since 
your departure. And now, believe me, to our brothers 
only am I still a child, for they continue to treat me as 
such; but outside of the house they say that I have 
changed much, and they have excellent reason for saying 
that misfortunes transform one. 

As for our amusements, I can only tell you that every 
afternoon we go out into the garden to see the flowers, 
for it is a pleasure to see how many there are. If you 
saw those that you planted, tears of joy would come to 
your eyes to see how flourishing they are ; and, as you 
can imagine, the expression that comes oftenest to our 
tongue is, " If Clemen could see this, how pleased she 
would be ! " Indeed, all the roses are flourishing. The 
last day of May, when it was our turn to offer flowers 
to the Virgin, we did not have to send to other towns for 
them as in former years, for we had enough, and there 
were some magnificent branches among those which we 
selected and used. 


We told you when we were in Manila that we should 
have nothing more to do with the American officers 
when we returned here. But in view of what all those, 
who call themselves our friends, are doing for us we 
cannot possibly carry out our resolution. Last Sunday 
we were obliged to attend a ball, given, according to 
their account, in honor of the ladies of the Lopez fam- 
ily, which took place in the Commandancia ; and this, in 
spite of the objections we made in order to avoid going. 
We were there until two o'clock in the morning, when 
they at last permitted us to leave. It was quite gay, for 
almost all Balayan was there ; and besides, they had 
made much preparation, so that they had everything. 
At any other time I should have been somewhat di- 
verted, but at present, far from being so, I was sad ; and, 
the more attention they paid to us, the more I wished to 

You cannot imagine, Clemen, how gallant and defer- 
ential these egregious officers are toward us. Without 
going any further for example, every time they receive 
cablegrams with sensational news, or newspapers, they 
can hardly take time to get them to us. Last night 
they brought their large phonograph (I have not seen so 
large a one even in Manila), so that we might hear it ; 
and other things of the same sort. So that we can do 
no less than be grateful to them. 

I close this, telling you to keep well, as we all do. 

Good-bye ; you are not forgotten by your sister who 
loves you. Ninay. 

[The three following letters from Manuel and Juliana 
tell, among other things, of the wearisome delay in the 
fulfillment of General Bell's promise to repair and return 
the " Purisima." Indeed, the promise was never com- 
pletely fulfilled — as will be seen later.] 


[From Manuel to Clemencia Lopez.] 

Manila, June 14, 1902, 

My dear Sister : We have been expecting letters 
from you for some days, but have received nothing 
except the newspapers directed to JuHana. We have not 
heard from Pepe either, and we are wondering what the 
reason can be. 

Very likely, if you do not receive this letter by post, 
you will receive it from a friend of mine, Don Vicente 
Reyes, who is going to America with his wife for the 
sake of the trip and also to take some students. This 
friend promised me that if his journey goes well he will 
arrange to look you up in Boston. You can learn a 
great many things about the Philippines from him, 
for, although he has never mixed in politics, he will 
know about many things that have happened in this 

Here we all continue in good health, thank God, as 
does mother also, who has not been ill again since we 
were liberated. The whole family are still in Balayan, 

As for the steamer "Purisima," she still continues in 
the hands of the military, for up to date they have not 
repaired the injuries caused during the five months' use. 
We have not made any claim for indemnity for the use 
of the boat, as it is not yet in our hands. Moreover, it 
may be useless to make a claim here, for many have 
already done so, but without results so far. Therefore, I 
believe it would be better, if it is possible, to make the 
claim in America, so that our rights may receive more 

It is said that General Bell has been recalled by the 
Secretary of War, and I have been assured that on his 
return from Samar he will go to the United States, and 
there perhaps you will see him. Many have assured me 
that General Bell has been recalled because of questions 
about Batangas, and that the Government of the United 
States has asked of him an account of events in our 

►J •§ 



province. I have not much faith in this news. You 
already know that in our country there are now many 
rumors and few truths ! 

I have not yet been able to send you any money, as 
we are only bc.i;inning to sell cattle. The money which 
I brought from Balayan, and which I ought t(j have sent 
to you, I spent instead on the " Oretano," for otherwise 
the boat would have rotted ; in this way I spent more 
than $5000 [Mex.]. On my return from Balayan, or 
when the " Oretano " arrives with a cargo of sugar, I will 
at once send you a draft. I do not dare get credit here 
in Manila, for the business is still going badly, and you will 
understand also that the little money that I formerly had 
is now all spent, and I have no capital with which to start 
my business once more. On account of my imprison- 
ment I have lost all my customers and commercial 
connections, but I believe, if the steamers can make 
frequent trips again without being delayed by the quar- 
antine, I can start my business once more. 

As for the cholera, it has made great ravages in our 
province, especially in the capital. I am told that in 
Balayan the death-rate went as high as fifteen or twenty 
per day during the last two weeks. But now that the 
rain has come it is disappearing here in Manila, as well 
as in the provinces. 

Captain Curry has given up his position as chief of 
police, and is now in Camarines. 

No more at present. Many regards from all ; we 
hope that you are well, and you know that you have a 
brother who loves you. Manuel. 

P. S. Greet Messrs. Fiske and Thomas for me, and 
ask them to pardon me that I could not have the pleasure 
of offering them my services on the day of their depart- 
ure for America. Manuel. 


[From Juliana to Clemencia Lopez.] 

Balayan, p. I., July 9, 1902. 

Dearest Clemen : When you receive this letter, you 
will already have learned by the papers that the cholera 
has spread all over the province of Batangas. Twenty 
deaths a day have been reported here in the town of 
Balayan ; but since Sunday the number of those attacked 
has diminished very much, and there were only two or 
three deaths. This is due to the fact that at last it has 
rained, for during the last two months the heat has been 
insupportable. We have lost several friends through this 
disease. I am sorry to tell you that poor Nieves and 
her two children also are victims. Julita and Miling 
were buried with her. As for us, thank God, the cholera 
has been mild among our serving-people, and we are 
hoping that we may not have any deaths among them to 
regret, for it is diminishing. 

Lorenzo sends word, begging that you will excuse 
him because he cannot write to you now, as he is very 
much occupied ; and besides, I do not know what the 
trouble is, but he is in very delicate health. We have 
advised him a thousand and one times to go abroad for 
a change of air, which would do him good now that he 
does not wish to go to Manila, but he always answers 
"No," making a "sea of objections"; and, after all, 
perhaps he is right. Cipriano continues in Abra de Hog, 
and is looking after the cattle business. Manuel, as I 
told you in my previous letter, lives in the house of 
[in Manila]. 

It is now a month and more since we have received a 
letter from you, and so, we are troubled ; nor have we 
heard from Pepe either. 

Quita and I are sending you our pictures in a group, 
and I send also mine alone for our friend ; I promised 
when he was here to send it to him. They are not very 
good, but they seemed to us the best positions among 
those we had taken. The pictures of our friends, which 


you request, I have asked for in Manila, telling how much 
you want them, and they have promised to send them. 
The neckties for Mrs. Smith,* which Pazita must have 
long since finished, I have had no opportunity to send 
for ; since, as you know, Manuel is useless for things of 
that sort ; and besides, now that he is doing everything 
in Manila he will not have time. 

I must tell you that up to the present time the repairs 
on the " Purisima " have not been begun, as Bell prom- 
ised our brothers ; and recently he even wished to return 
it to us in its damaged condition. If we send to have it 
repaired at our own expense it will cost at least $7000 
(Mex.). Lorenzo replied to the communication from 
Bell that he could not accept the steamer, since it is not 
repaired ; that he wished it in as good condition as it 
was when they took it from us ; and that as for the time 
required for the repairs, that depended entirely upon 
Bell. We do not know whether they will pay us for this 
delay ; and believe me, this is one of the reasons for 
Lorenzo's being so worn and worried. Just imagine ! — 
two months have passed in this very grievous delay, and 
no interest whatever has been taken in having the steamer 
quickly done, when it is known only too well how much 
we need it. But let us have patience with these people, 
who never weary of grinding us down ! 

I must stop, for now it is getting very late. Give my 
remembrances to our brother and friends. 

From your sister who loves you, Ninay. 

[From Juliana to Clemencia Lopez.] 

Balayan, p. L, August 4, 1902. 
Dearest Clemen : ... It has been an immense de- 
light to us to hear from you after the two months during 

* Mrs. Elbert Ellis Smith, of Chicago, in whose care Clemencia came 
from Hong-Kong, and to whom she is indebted for many kindnesses. 


which we have heard nothing of you except by hearsay ; 
especially as nothing else is talked of in this town but 
the news that you are to appear before the Senate Com- 
mittee. This news was known immediately, and I was, 
perhaps, one of the first to hear it, for one of the officers 
who was here was kind enough to give me a copy of the 
cablegram which he had just received, telling me at the 
same time that it was a sensational piece of news for 
our country. What, then, is the result of it ? Did it 
actually take place ? God grant that it may produce a 
good effect for the benefit of all, and that in this way we 
may at last know whether or not there is any justice. 

Some rigorous orders from Bell have been circulated 
here, absolutely prohibiting his officers from interfering 
in civil matters, or with the civil employees, at least unless 
the latter call for assistance. Not so bad. 

You will already know that for upwards of a month 
we have had Civil Government ; the governor appointed 
is Senor Simeon Luz. It is said that Bell will remain a 
month longer in Batangas to receive claims for damages 
on account of what the military have done in the towns. 
Much good it will do to hear these claims for the purpose 
of doing justice, if he still holds the idea that in order to 
pacify the people it was necessary to adopt the measures 
which his policy entailed ! Imagine whether any one 
will approach him to claim damages for the cruelties 
committed by his own officers ! I am very sure that our 
countrymen, whether through fear or through a lack of 
confidence as to their obtaining satisfaction, will do noth- 
ing of the sort, — especially as it has now become evi- 
dent that it is useless, and only wastes one's breath. 

As to the " Purisima," up to the present time the 
repairs have not been begun, although Bell promised to 
send it [to the docks] long ago, in order to return it 
to us promptly. Manuel went to Batangas a week ago 
to talk with him, but we have not yet heard what reso- 
lution Bell has come to. A month ago ... we received 
a dispatch from Bell saying that, in view of the time that 


has passed by, during which the work on the " Purisima " 
had not been begun, did we not now wish that he should 
immediately transfer it to us ? To which we answered 
that, having once decided to retain the steamer, he could 
also decide as to the length of time he would retain it ; 
but that he must understand that on no account did we 
wish to have the steamer in such a damaged condition 
as the " Purisima " is in at present. As he has offered to 
send it to be repaired, but offered nothing for the use of 
it, it is my opinion that we had better claim compensa- 
tion ; that is, assuming that he denies liability, in accord- 
ance with the circular which he issued to the effect that 
all the houses which his troops have occupied, as well as 
other things which they have used, are not to be paid 
for if their owners were involved in the insurrection. 
But as the steamer is in Jose's name, and as Manuel is 
the manager, it would be just [for us to make a claim], 
and I do not believe that it will be useless ; but this 
will be done after the steamer has been returned to us. 
Let us drop this subject, which puts me in a bad humor. 

Manuel has been here to spend a few days with us. 
He had no alternative but to come by land, via Calamba, 
in order not to be quarantined. He is as well as ever, and 
told me that he had written to you several times, telling 
you of his experiences during his imprisonment. . . . 

I will end now, for the transport starts soon, and I am 
afraid this will not be in time. . . . 

For the present, receive an embrace from your sister, 
who loves you. Ninay 

[The history of the " Purisima " extends beyond the 
limits of this series of letters, and so, a brief account of 
what has occurred up to date (November, 1903) may 
not be out of place here. 

Shortly after the outbreak of hostilities with Amer- 
ica, — that is, when the first shipping regulations were 


issued by the American authorities at Manila, — the 
" Purisima" was entered under these regulations and has 
ever since carried the American flag. For the two and 
a half years between that time and the seizure by 
General Bell, the *' Purisima " had been trading between 
Manila (where Manuel lived and had his shipping office) 
and the ports of Batangas, Tayabas, and Marinduque. 
No charge was ever made, nor was any suspicion enter- 
tained, that the boat was engaged in trade directly, indi- 
rectly, or remotely connected with the "insurgents." It 
returned to Manila once or twice a fortnight, — accord- 
ing to the number or distance of the ports visited, — and 
all its movements were known to the Manila authorities, 
including Captain Curry, the chief of police, who, in a 
letter to Mr. Warren, says : " Manuel Lopez, who lives 
in Manila with Mariano, / am satisfied has dotie nothing 

The " Purisima " could therefore have been seized or 
dealt with at any time by the Manila authorities upon 
proof, or even suspicion, of its improper use by the 
owner, or by the manager — Manuel, But instead, 
Manuel was allowed to go on his usual trip to Boac, 
Marinduque, which was under Civil Government ; and, 
in order to get him and the " Purisima" under military 
jurisdiction. General Bell — or an ofificer under his com- 
mand and acting under his instructions — had recourse 
to a distinctly illegal proceeding, involving a petty decep- 
tion unworthy of a soldier. 

In this manner the boat was seized and used by the 
military authorities for a period of 157 days ; after which 
it was held by them, azvaiting and undergoing repairs, 
for a further period of 1 13 days — making a total of 270 
days during which Manuel was deprived of its use. It 
was then returned in a partly repaired, unsatisfactory 
condition, necessitating, before it could be used, an 
expenditure by Manuel of ^450 (gold) for additional 

Manuel therefore sent in a claim for the use of the 


boat for 270 days, at the rate of $50 (gold) per day, plus 
the $450 spent on repairs. This rate must be regarded 
as exceedingly moderate in view of the fact that Manuel 
had previously received $150 (Mex.) per day, for the use 
of the boat, and that General Bell himself had offered 
the same rate for a continuance of its hire. 

In response to Manuel's claim, General Davis offered 
to recommend the payment of a part of it, as will be seen 
by his letter which follows.] 

[From Major-General Davis to Manuel Lopez.] 

Headquarters, Division of the Philippines, 

Manila, P. I., P"ebruary 25, 1903. 
Mr. M. Lopez y Castelo, 

36, Regina Regente St., Manila, P. I. 

Sir : Referring to the claim made by you under date 
of October 14, 1902, as agent for your brother, Jose 
Lopez y Castelo, for indemnification on account of the 
seizure and use of the Steamer " Purisima Concepcion," 
I have the honor to inform you that under the laws and 
regulations of the United States I have not the power 
to liquidate such a claim and it will be necessary to 
forward the papers to Washington for consideration by 
higher authority. 

Assuming that the owners of the vessel have been 
guilty of no act of disloyalty to the United States since 
the ratification of the Treaty of Paris on April i ith, 
1899, I am disposed, when forwarding the papers, to 
make a recommendation as to the settlement, pro\aded I 
know beforehand that such a settlement would be accept- 
able to the claimants. 

This recommendation would be that the United States 
pay the owners of the " Purisima Concepcion " $40, 
United States currency, per day, from December 12, 
1901 to May 17, 1902, inclusive, — 157 days, — plus 
^450, United States currency, claimed for completion of 
repairs by owners, making a total of 56730, United 


States currency ; this sum to be in final settlement in 
full of all claims growing out of the seizure, use, damage, 
and detention of this vessel by the United States. 

The period of 157 days covers the time the vessel was 
in actual use by the United States, and does not include 
the period from May 18 to September 8, 1902, during 
which time the vessel was undergoing repairs or awaiting 
repairs. These repairs cost the United States $1475.58, 
United States currency, but it will be noted that their 
cost is not deducted from the amount it is proposed to 
pay, viz., $6730. 

Please inform me whether such a settlement upon the 
conditions named will be accepted by the owners of the 
vessel, in order that I may make my recommendation 

I desire it to be distinctly understood, however, that 
I cannot guarantee that this recommendation will be 
adopted by the authorities in Washington, and to further 
advise you that, should the terms and conditions of the 
settlement to be proposed in said recommendation be 
not acceptable to the owners of the vessel, I will forward 
the papers without any recommendation. 
Very respectfully, 

[Signed] George W. Davis, 

Major- General, 
Command. y U. S. A. 

[To this offer of General Davis's, Manuel replied in 
the following terms, which, if not expressed in correct 
English, are quite clear as to meaning.] 

[From Manuel Lopez to Major-General Davis.] 

Manila, P. I., March 8, 1903. 
[Major-General Davis, 

Commander, U. S. A., Manila, P. I.] 
General : I have the honor to inform you that your 
proposal [dated February 25, 1903] for settlement of my 


claim for the " Purisima Conccpcion," [made] on October 
14, 1902, is not acceptable to the owner, as being known 
[i. e., as it is known] that General Bell offered to lease it 
for one hundred and fifty ($150) dollars, local currency, 
per day. The vessel was necessarily under repairs. 

The period from May 18 to September 8, 1902 was 
occupied in repairing the vessel. This unnecessar[il]y 
long time was wasted. It was not in my power to pre- 
vent it, [for] it [the steamer] had not been transferred 
to me. 

Therefore, my claim that the lease should not go below 
^50 [per day]. United States currency, is just, and should 
cover the above date of repairing. 

Hoping that you, with the higher authorities at Wash- 
ington, will consider the said above, I am, 
Very respectfully, 
[Signed] M. Lopez. 

[On receipt of this intimation from Manuel, General 
Davis apparently sent the papers to Washington without 
making any recommendation — in accordance with the 
closing paragraph of his letter. And in due course the 
following extraordinary reply was received through the 
local commander in Batangas.] 

Headquarters Third Brigade, 

Adjutant-General's Ofifice, 
Batangas [City], P. I., August 8th, 1903. 
Senor Jose Lopez y Castelo, 

Balayan, Batangas, Philippine Islands. 
Sir : I am directed by the Brigade Commander to 
inform you, with reference to your claim for use of the 
steamer " Purisima Conccpcion " by the United States, 
from December 13, 1901 to September 8, 1902, that the 
papers in this case, having been submitted to the Secre- 
tary of W^ar, were returned disallowing the claim and 
with the following remarks : 


" The property which is the basis of said claim 
was the private property of a public enemy of the 
United States, and was seized in time of war for 
the benefit of the Army. Such a seizure amounted 
to a formal military impressment of this property 
and resulted in no legal obligation to make any com- 
pensation whatever to the owner or his agent for 
any use that was made of it. The owner has 
already been treated with extreme liberality in the 
return of this property to him in proper state of 
repair. It is recommended that the claim be dis- 
allowed. It certainly should not be paid unless the 
War Department is ready to compensate all of its 
late enemies in the Philippine Islands for property 
seized during the progress of the Philippine Insur- 

The papers in the case have been retained on file in 
the office of the Quartermaster General, War Depart- 
ment, Washington. 

Very respectfully, 
[Signed] Geo. H. Shelton, 

Capt. Ilth U. S. Infantry, 

A djiLtant-General. 

[It will be observed that the " remarks " contained in 
the foregoing letter, which were doubtless contributed 
by some small red-tape official, and upon which the re- 
fusal of the claim is based, describe Manuel — or Jose, 
who is legally the owner of the " Purisima " — as " ^ 
public enemy of the United States " ! It would be in- 
teresting to learn what was the evidence or the official 
or other record upon which this extraordinary charge is 
based. Manuel, as has been shown, had been living 
quietly in Manila during the previous two and a half 
years, and there is testimony by an official of the United 
States Government to the effect that he had " do7ie 


nothing disloyal'' Josd, a youth of twenty-two years, 
has spent the last three of them in England ! There is 
not a tittle of evidence to show that either of these men 
had ever, by act or implication, been "a public enemy 
of the United States." The same can be said of all the 
remaining members of the Lopez family, with the excep- 
tion of Cipriano who, ten months previous to the seizure 
of the " Purisima," had honorably surrendered, taken 
oath of allegiance to the United States, and was therefore 
entitled to immunity and protection. Of Sixto, as has 
already been shown, it can truthfully be said that, al- 
though he is an opponcjit he is no more an cnc7ny of the 
United States than is Senator Hoar, and therefore his 
property would rightfully be no more liable to seizure 
than would that of the honored Senator. 

Unless, therefore, it can be shown that, since the date 
of Cipriano's surrender, he or some other member of the 
Lopez family has been guilty of an act of disloyalty, or 
that Cipriano had previously been guilty of an act not 
included in or covered by the terms of his surrender, 
the statement as to the owner of the " Purisima " being 
"a public enemy of the United States" is a baseless 

But probably every one has had to suffer at times 
from the over-officiousness of the small official, whose 
display of authority, whenever he gets an opportunity, is 
always imposing and — ridiculous! The Lopez family 
may in the meantime rest assured of ultimate justice. 
Their claim, in whole or in part, according as it is valid, 
will be recognized when the facts of the case are brought 
under the notice of the proper authorities, for it must be 
assumed that the American Government is prepared to 
pay for the use of property, ^ven though it has been 
obtained by ^^ formal military impressment." 


The opening sentence of the following letter refers 
to the receipt by Juliana of the Report of the Senate 
Committee on the Philippines, which contained a less per- 
fect translation of some of the letters included in this 
book. Juliana thereupon proceeds to correct the reports 
previously given of the seizure of the " Oretano " and 
of the manner of the death of Isabelo Capacia, Com- 
ment is unnecessary on what Juliana has to say of the un- 
founded suspicions of some of the people of Balayan.] 

[From Juliana to Clemencia Lopez.] 

Balayan, P. I., August 5, 1902. 

My dearest Clemen : I have read the papers you 
sent me, as well as our letters translated into English. 
I am sorry to tell you that some of the news which I 
have given you was not exact ; but no one ought to be 
surprised at that, for the ports were closed. For example, 
that about the " Oretano " was not correct. The truth 
is that it was detained for some days, not as being con- 
fiscated, but because Nasugbu, where the boat put in, 
was then closed. Naturally, they [the boatmen] were 
detained in order to make a declaration, in which they 
stated that Nasugbu was the only port wherein they 
could save themselves from the storm ; after which they 
were allowed to go. In regard to the death of Isabelo 
I also have some corrections to make, but I have left 
this to a friend, who will give you all the details. 

I have been told that Bell is very well prepared to 
defend himself against your demands at Washington, 
and, according to the person who told me, has a history 
of our family extending over the past ten years. As 
the information for this must have been given by our 
enemies, I believe that it can hardly be favorable to us, 
yet what can they say about the conduct of our brothers ? 
In any case they will say that we do not sympathize with 
the Americans. That is the only thing there is — except 


that we have a brother, Sixto Lopez. Therefore you 
had better prepare yourself, in case General Bell goes to 
America armed with lies and calumnies. 

Every day the feeling of distrust by the Filipinos 
toward the Americans grows stronger, for, when we had 
the cholera here, can you credit that the common people 
thought and believed — and even some of the better 
educated people as well — that the Americans were pay- 
ing to have Filipinos poisoned ; and that it is due to this 
that there have been so many deaths ? Those were the 
comments made during that time, especially in Batangas 
and Taal. / cannot believe such infamy on their part, 
but I am telling you of it so that you may realize to 
what a point the distrust among the people has reached. 
They believe the Americans capable of anything. When 
the cholera was at the worst in this town, many people 
did not go to the American doctor to be treated, for it 
was said that there was information that, as soon as the 
medicine was taken, the patient died, even although he 
had not been fatally ill. Very often, when I see the 
interest of Dr. Chidester in the sick, I am filled with 
pity on account of the distrust which he inspires. But 
there is no foundation for such beliefs, either as to poison 
in the wells or the medicine ; they are all lies which are 
too big to be swallowed. 

But after all due allowance, the Americans are them- 
selves to blame for this distrust. The Filipinos have 
seen things that they were far from believing the Ameri- 
cans capable of doing, v^hich, nevertheless, were being 
done while the ports were closed. 

The town remains peaceful, and they say that another 
company will be posted here, so that we shall soon have 
two, as we had formerly. So far, we have not the slight- 
est complaint to make of those who are here, and now 
they do not mix with the townspeople as they used to. 
We have no friend among them, and it would have been 
better if it had always been so. 

Good-bye until another time. Do not forget to give 


our affectionate regards to our friends. You already 
know that you are not forgotten by your sister who loves 

you, NiNAY, 

I am writing to Pepe [Jose, in England] at the same 
time, congratulating him on the result of his examina- 

[The following is a condensed translation of a letter 
from Seiior Ignacio Laines, a friend of the Lopez family, 
who, at their request, undertook to inquire into and re- 
port upon the death of Isabelo Capacia. Senor Laines 
has shown himself to be a master of detail, and much 
of what is contained in his letter, both as to matter and 
manner, was necessary to a faithful discharge of his 
duty. But, with a view to economy in space, though 
his own wording has been retained wherever possible, 
many of his phrases and repetitions have been condensed 
or omitted from the following translation, which, never- 
theless, is a faithful rendering of his account of a wicked 
and revolting crime, the perpetrators of which still go 

[From Sefior Ignacio Laines to Clemencia Lopez.] 

Balayan, Batangas, P. I., August ist, 1902, 
Senorita Clemencia Lopez : Unforgettable and distin- 
guished Friend: — 
After saluting you and your brother Sixto, I pass 
on to say [in response to your request for information 
about the death of Isabelo Capacia] that ... on the 
25 th of December of last year, as is known, General 
Bell issued an order commanding the reconcentration 
in the towns of all the inhabitants of the province of 
Batangas. Isabelo Capacia, — your superintendent, and 
assistant consejal of the municipal district of Calan, — 


in obedience to the orders of the consejal,* Francisco 
Macalaguim, urged and encouraged the withdrawal to 
the town of all the inhabitants in his district. During 
this reconcentration Isabelo took shelter in your house 
in Progress Street, opposite mine, and had lived there 
quietly with his family for a few days, when Senor 
Manuel Ramirez called, and took him into the hall of 
the house of Hilarion Ramirez, Manuel's brother. Once 
there, Ramirez, in the threatening tone characteristic of 
the present secret service, notified Isabelo that the com- 
manding ofificer, Captain Cheever, knew that he [Isabelo] 
still possessed three guns, and was also cognizant of 
the place in which were buried the fifty guns belonging 
to Cipriano, and that, if he made any attempt at con- 
cealment, he would be subjected to very severe punish- 
ment. Isabelo answered that it was indeed true that he 
had had a gun, but that it had been taken by the Ameri- 
can soldiers when they captured him in April of 1900; 
that since he had taken the oath of allegiance at the 
time of his liberation he had done nothing disloyal ; 
and that as the guns under the control of Cipriano had 
been turned over to the American authorities when 
Cipriano surrendered on the 12th of March, 1901, he 
consequently knew nothing of the fifty guns in question. 
Ramirez thereupon took him to the convent where the 
military prison was located, and left him in charge of 
the guards. Some hours later Ramirez returned to 
the prison with Inspector of Insular Police, Agapito 
Bunzon, who asked Isabelo why, if he were really igno- 
rant of these guns, Ramirez should have inquired of 
him about them. [ ! ] The prisoner replied, as he had in 
the first place, that he knew nothing of them. He 
had not finished speaking when Bunzon began to shower 
blows upon him, kicking him in the pit of the stomach 
and throwing him to the ground. Then followed a series 
of questions, varied by more torture, until finally the two 

* Civil head of the barrio or suburb 


emissaries of Cheever left Isabelo alone, having, per- 
haps, become tired of maltreating him. 

Isabelo could not tolerate this treatment, and so, 
begged his consejal to accompany him to the military 
commander, before whom he declared his innocence, 
and demanded satisfaction for the cruelty with which 
he had been treated. Cheever, thereupon addressing the 
consejal, asked him if he would be responsible for the 
conduct of Isabelo. Macalaguim replied that he would, 
adding that he himself, as consejal, would be more likely 
than any one else to know what happened or was dis- 
covered within the limits of his district, since it was his 
duty to know. Cheever had therefore no alternative 
but to leave Isabelo in peace, although it was against his 
will and that of Ramirez. 

Now, what would Ramirez be likely to do when he saw 
that, notwithstanding his denunciation, this servant of 
the Lopez family was still at liberty ? Since his object 
was to see this family completely ruined, would he not 
find means to prove, even though falsely, that Lopez 
and all his superintendents were traitors ? There could 
be no doubt as to the sequel. 

A week passed by, during which Isabelo remained with 
his family, at peace and free. Then Captain Cheever, 
v/ith some of the cavalry, came and obliged Isabelo to 
follow him outside the town by the Calaca road. In 
the afternoon of the same day the party returned, bring- 
ing with them a broken and useless Mauser rifle of the 
Spanish type. 

I was for a time unable to find out how this gun had 
been obtained, until, by chance, I met Vivencio Ramos, 
who, through fear, allows himself to be influenced by the 
lies and threats of vengeance of whoever may be in 
power. Vivencio commented on the finding of the gun 
in these words : 

" This capture is due wholly to the minute investigation of Cap- 
tain Manuel [Ramirez], and is almost a providential occurrence." 


Here he stopped speaking a moment, and, touching me on the 
shoulder as if to rivet my attention, he said : " Look ! Yesterday 
afternoon there presented himself at the house of Captain Manuel 
a certain Bartolo, a native of Calaca, who had heard there that a 
company of Filipino scouts was being organized here in Balayan. 
Wishing to become one he begged Ramirez to aid him, but Ramirez 
replied that he was sorry he could not do so, since, in order to 
become a scout, it was necessary that a man should deserve well of 
the Government by rendering some special service. Bartolo asked 
what services were necessary, in order that he might perform 
them. Ramirez then explained that one of the services that would 
qualify him was the discovery of the fifty guns belonging to Lopez, 
which had not yet been presented, — or at any rate, one of 
thdm. [!] Bartolo answered that at that very moment he knew 
of one of these guns, stating that it belonged to Labelo, assistant 
consejal of Calan, and that he knew the place where it was con- 
cealed. Thereupon Captain Manuel took him before Captain 
Cheever, and caused him to repeat his statement. The result 
was that the commander immediately went out with some of his 
soldiers to Calan, taking Isabelo. When they arrived, the com- 
mander said that if Isabelo did not point out the place where the 
gun was concealed he would be shot. Isabelo then confessed, indi- 
cating that the gun was in a corner of his house, where it was indeed 

So much for Vivencio's story. Those who do not 
know Ramirez would doubtless conclude that the account 
of the affair as given by Vivencio was a correct state- 
ment of the actual facts of the case. But I, who do 
know him, thought it wise to make a personal investiga- 
tion of the evidence, before accepting his statement. 

In the first place, it is to be observed that this 
Bartolo was an inhabitant of Calaca, and that at that 
time no one was permitted to pass the rcconcentration 
lines or go from one town to another, under penalty of 
being shot by the soldiers who daily patroled outside the 
zone. It is to be observed also that the informer was 
Ramirez, a man who cherishes a deadly hatred for your 
family and for all your dependents and friends. Finally, 
it should be known that Ramirez had under his command 


during those days a small flying column composed of 
the convicted robbers, Romualdo Tolentino (or Daldoc), 
Felipe Garcia, and Melecio. These men had been 
granted especial privileges by the commanding officer, 
and could pass the lines of reconcentration as secret 
explorers, in order to search for guns which had not yet 
been surrendered. 

Well, then, how did it happen that this Bartolo had 
the courage to come to Balayan alone, since he must have 
known very well that on the way the patrol might meet 
and kill him ? He must have known, too, that if he 
attempted to enter any town he could not save himself 
from the local volunteers, whose sole duty it was to pre- 
vent the entrance and exit of any one from the zone 
without a special pass, such as the little "Daldoc" col- 
umn possessed. No man with a head on his shoulders 
would believe that Bartolo would dare to do this at his 
own risk. 

In view of all this, would it be too much to deduce 
that Ramirez had arranged that "Daldoc" should get 
hold of a gun from his friends and companions in rob- 
bery, put it in a corner of Isabelo's house, and then have 
Isabelo denounced ? Those who know Ramirez well will 
have no doubt of this trick, for he is a man capable of 
such deception. 

Moreover, if Isabelo's guilt had really been clearly 
proven, or if he had " confessed " as Vivencio Ramos says 
he did, there would have been no occasion for the torture 
and death afterward inflicted on him. It would have 
been more natural to order a court-martial, convict, and 
legally shoot him as a traitor. In this way Ramirez and 
Cheever could have attained their object without scandal 
or responsibility. These are the conclusions to which 
I have come. 

I will now continue the history of poor Isabelo until 
his unhappy death, which was as follows : 

On Monday afternoon, the day after that on which the 
gun was captured, Isabelo was taken from the prison and 


put into a wagon by Inspector Runzon, with a few sol- 
diers as a guard ; they then went to the town of Tuy, 
where a company of Macabebe " scouts " was stationed, 
under the command of the American officer, Lieuten- 
ant Shawski [?]. The next day, Tuesday, Lieutenant 
Shavvski, Bunzon,and the Macabebe soldiers took Isabelo 
to the bank of the river Matauanak, where, after having 
wrapped him in a carabao skin and attached a stone to 
his belt as a weight, they threw him into the water, allow- 
ing him to be entirely submerged. When the execution- 
ers of this torture saw through the clear water that the 
victim no longer moved, and therefore no longer breathed, 
they took him out on the bank, where they terminated 
their torture by jumping on his body, until blood burst 
from his mouth, nose, eyes, and ears ; finally breaking 
some of his ribs, and thus they left him unconscious. 
Having accomplished this, Bunzon returned to Balayan, 
with the tortured man, completely mangled, stretched 
out in the wagon ; and in this condition he was returned 
to the detention room in the convent. When his wife 
heard what had happened she begged and obtained per- 
mission of the commanding officer to see her husband. 
She could do nothing but weep when she saw the evil 
plight of Isabelo, who, in the midst of all his suffering, 
was able to recognize the voice of his wife. Although 
at first he could not speak, yet, when he realized that 
she was saying good-bye to him, hQ with a supreme 
effort asked her not to go, since he knew by his difficulty 
in breathing that he would die that night. But his poor 
wife had no choice, for the soldiers of the guard would 
not allow her to prolong her stay. 

The American physician of this detachment, Mr. 
Cheedester [ ? ], applied all the convenient remedies to 
save the tortured man, but it was all useless, for in a 
little while he died. The body was then transferred 
to the military hospital, where it was submitted to ex- 

On the following morning, as soon as Isabelo's vdfc 


knew that her husband had died, she went to the com- 
manding officer and begged him to allow her to have 
the body, and, having obtained it, transferred it to her 
house. Every one who saw the body bore witness to 
the evidences of torture. One of the witnesses present 
during the act of torture on the banks of the river 
Matauanak was the brother of the unfortunate Isabelo. 
He also was tortured, but not to the same extent. 

Whether Isabelo has or has not been proved to be the 
owner of the captured gun is not clear to me ; but it 
is certainly proved beyond a doubt that he was killed 
inhumanly and illegally. 

One of the proofs of Isabelo's violent death is the 
record of the formal examination of the body by the 
American doctor, Mr. Cheedester, who, as Vivencio 
Ramos himself told me, reported that Isabelo had died 
a violent death. He made this report in spite of the 
fact that he was forewarned by Ramirez that, in the time 
of the Spaniards in the Philippines, matters of this sort 
could be concealed. 

In view of this report, Cheever could do no less than 
name an examining judge to take the iirst steps in the 
case. This duty fell to the American major who had 
been commanding officer in Bauan last year, and who 
happened to be here. The judge submitted Ramirez, 
Inspector Bunzon, Lieutenant Shawski, and all the sol- 
diers under his command, to an interrogation, and after- 
ward took the papers to the military headquarters of the 
province. This is all that I can say as to the death of 
poor Isabelo. 

Your affectionate servant, Ignacio Laines. 

P. S. They say that Bell has returned to Batangas 
solely to hear claims on account of abuses committed 
by the military. Apparently, the general has not yet 
any knowledge of the death of Isabelo, but in reality 
this cannot be so, because of the official report. The 
most probable explanation is that the general is keeping 


the report in his archives, to look over when the Philip- 
pine Islands are no longer subject territory ! 

[Sefior Laines, doubtless satisfied in his own mind as 
to how the ''broken and useless Mauser rifle" came to 
be openly concealed in Isabelo's house, has not considered 
it worth while to pursue the inquiry further. But there 
is one point to which attention may briefly be called. It 
may be presumed that Isabelo Capacia was a fairly intel- 
ligent man — since he had been promoted from the posi- 
tion of a simple farm hand to that of superintendent on 
one of the Lopez plantations. Would he, then, be likely 
to have committed the supreme folly of attempting to 
conceal a rifle in the corner of his own house? He 
and most of his fellow-townsmen were under suspicion ; 
indeed, he had been openly accused of having three guns 
in his possession. The Lopez family — to whom he 
owed fidelity and to whom he proved faithful unto death 
(for a confession, however false, would have saved him 
from further torture) — were also charged with the con- 
cealment of arms. Yet we are asked to believe that this 
faithful and intelligent soul was both faithless and foolish 
enough to leave a rifle — a useless rifle — concealed m 
the corner of his house, while he himself took refuge in 
that of his employers ! Furthermore, why did Ramirez 
not search Isabelo's house at the time when he charged 
Isabelo with the possession of three guns — a week pre- 
vious to the alleged discovery of the rifle in question } 
Why was it necessary to bring a stranger from another 
town to make the discovery .-' The reason is obvious to 
those who know the Lopez family and the respect in , 
which they are held. It was because no one of the in- 
habitants of Balayan, however bad his character, could be 
got to do a wicked thing against the children of the 
" Defender of the just." 


The following letter is from the aged and honored 
mother of the Lopez family, Seiiora Maria Castelo, and 
is written to Sixto and Clemencia. It forms a fitting 
conclusion to the series, and recalls to one's mind the 
marriage-feast of Cana, where the best wine was reserved 
till the last. 

Senora Castelo is one of the people, unpretentious, 
unoffending ; firm in her adherence to truth and prin- 
ciple, and full of lovingkindness and sympathy. Her 
letter, though brief and couched in the language of pru- 
dence and self-restraint, has a fullness of meaning to 
those who have ears to hear. It is an unconscious cen- 
sure of those who thoughtlessly imagine that the promise 
of " good government " and " greacer prosperity," provided 
by a foreign hand, will ever satisfy the heart that desires 
national freedom ; it is a dignified rebuke to those who, 
in ignorance, speak of the Filipinos as "savages" and 
"Boxers " and " Apaches " ; it is an argument unanswer- 
able by those who — perhaps naturally, in the absence 
of actual knowledge — have assumed that opposition to 
certain officers of the Catholic Church means opposition 
to the Church itself ; it expresses pride in the self- 
sacrifice of her children for the welfare of their native 
land ; it breathes a spirit of devotion to duty and to fam- 
ily honor equal to anything expressed in our own civiliza- 
tion ; it displays a refreshing simplicity of devotion to 
religion, and to the forms of religion, which ought to 
make any church proud of such votaries. Yet this is the 
splendid mother, these are the people, who have been 
sorely persecuted and deprived of the " inalienable 
rights " of man, on the assumption that they are ignorant 
'Of man's duties and privileges; these are the people who 
have been regarded as irreligious, because they reproved 
those who had departed from their original mission of 
love and self-sacrifice and had become seized with an 
unhallowed spirit of personal gain ! 

The great value of these letters is that they bring one 
in touch with the Filipinos themselves. It ceases to be 


a question of gauging the reliability of report or opinion ; 
report is notoriously liable to be false, "and opinion to be 
erroneous and contradictory. But in these letters the 
Filipinos are brought almost face to face with the reader, 
who is thereby enabled to judge for himself or herself. 
The fact of Scfiora Castelo's letter is worth more than 
volumes of opinion or argument. Read it and judge.] 

[From Sefiora Maria Castelo to Sixto and Clemencia Lopez.] 

Balayan, p. I., August 27, 1902. 

My beloved Children: Although it is true that up 
to the present I have not written to you, still not a moment 
has passed that I have not thought of you who are far 
from me, in a foreign land, and to whom I have no money 
to send to enable you to live in reasonable comfort and 
to continue to the end that work which you have volun- 
tarily taken up. I am rejoiced by all that you do which 
contributes toward the welfare of our country, and, as a 
mother, I feel proud to have children who sacrifice them- 
selves for their native land. I should die of shame if I 
knew that my children, instead of honoring the stainless 
name which their forefathers have left them, were capable 
of bringing reproach upon it by not fulfilling the duties 
which every good Christian and good citizen owes to God 
and to man. You already know this, but I repeat it to 
you once more, so that the knowledge of what a blow it 
would be to your mother to receive bad news of you 
may be deeply graven on your hearts. 

Every day I am recovering the strength which I was 
losing little by little in Manila ; counting myself happy 
since the liberation of your brothers, and because I have 
returned here where I can breathe more freely. 

Ninay has translated to me several of your letters in 
which you speak of a steam plough. From what you say 
it would certainly seem to be productive, and advantageous 


to us, but in these times I do not wish you to raise a loan 
for such a purpose, especially as the property is not yet 
divided. In truth, I am afraid of these large loans, 
especially when I remember several persons who have 
been ruined by such. We ought to wait and allow one 
or two of the large capitalists to begin first, for, lacking 
animals for the cultivation of their lands, they will doubt- 
less avail themselves of this method. 

Before closing this letter let me remind you not to 
forget your daily prayers, — above all, the rosary, — so 
that you may be protected from all perils. 

Give my most affectionate regards to Mr. Patterson 
and to Mr. Warren and his family, and congratulate them 
on their happy arrival in America. 

May God bless you, as your mother, who loves you so 
much, blesses you. Maria Castelo. 


And thus the sands run out. As the last grain falls 
it suggests a thought which neither mind nor conscience 
can avoid. It is not that war is cruel and relentless. 
No, with all its cruelty, war maybe justifiable in national 
self-defense, as homicide is justifiable in personal self- 
defense. Neither is it that the American soldier in the 
Philippines has pursued a course different from that which 
other soldiers would have pursued in similar circum- 
stances. No, the policy and the methods go hand in 
hand. Besides, the American soldier, when placed side 
by side with the soldiers of European nations, as he 
was placed in China, shines by comparison — a credit to 
his country, to his flag, and to his uniform. 

Yet, can it be denied that a tragedy has occurred in 
the Philippines ? It may be called by some other name ; 
it may be shrouded in the mantle of policy, of necessity, 
of philanthropy ; but still, there are the dead hosts, the 
charred hamlets, and the graves upon a thousand hills ! 


Could all this have been avoided ? 

Yes. Incontcstably, Yes. It was avoided in Cuba. 

How ? 

By the substitution of a word. 

In the Treaty of Paris, a clause relating to Cuba pro- 
vided that Spain hereby " relinquishes " sovereignty over 
the Island of Cuba ; another clause, relating to the Philip- 
pines, provided that Spain hereby ^Ucdcs" sovereignty 
over the Philippines to the United States. When that 
word " cedes " was embodied in the Treaty of Paris, the 
blood was potentially shed. Around it clustered all the 
subsequent wrongs and all the violation of rights. 

From the thunders of Sinai comes the mandate of 
Law : " Thou shalt not covet . . . anything that is thy 
neighbor's " ; from gentler Bethlehem the message of 
Love : " Do unto others as ye would that others should 
do unto you." 

Both Law and Love forbade it. And all the excuses 
that reason can frame and philanthropy offer are naked 
mockeries in the presence of Sinai and Bethlehem. 

" Governments are instituted among men, deriving 
their just powers from the consent of the governed." 

A truth is never old-fashioned nor a principle out of 
date. Righteousness is the same yesterday, to-day, and 
forever. No man is wise enough, no nation great enough 
to be able to ignore a fundamental principle or to escape 
the consequences of a violation of immutable law. 


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