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Charitable, Educational and 

Scientific Foundation of the 

State Medical Society of Wisconsin 


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Mrs. I. E. Levitas 
DePere,, Wis. 

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Digitized by the Internet Archive 

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CARLI: Consortium of Academic and Research Libraries in Illinois 

Daniel Brainard 

The Story of 

Rush Medical College 


Emeritus Professor of Medicine 
Dean of Students and Faculty, 1923-1936 

Published by 



CHICAGO ■ 1953 







Ralph C. Brown, M.D. 
Charles L. Byron 
Vernon C. David, M.D. 
Judge Hugo M. Friend 
Henry A. Gardner 
R. K. Gilchrist, M.D. 
William J. Hagenah 

Earl D. Hostetter 
Ernest E. Irons, M.D. 
Frank B. Kelly, M.D. 
L. Dow Nichol, Jr. 
Wilber E. Post, M.D. 
Frederick C. Shafer 
Kellogg Speed, M.D. 



Ralph A. Bard 

James D. Cunningham 

Willis Gale 

Burton W. Hales 

Anthony L. Michel 

Fred A. Poor 

Philip R. Clarke 

John B. Drake 

Donald R. McLennan, Jr. 

John M. Simpson 

R. Douglas Stuart 


E. Hall Taylor 
Albert D. Farwell 
James B. Forgan 
Harold J. Nutting 
Solomon A. Smith 
Franklyn B. Snyder 
Clarence S. Woolman 
Alfred T. Carton 
Albert B. Dick, Jr. 
Stanley G. Harris 
Edward D. McDougal, Jr. 
F. Wilson 


W. Clyde Howard, M.D. 
Alvyn R. Hickman, M.D. 

Luther E. Stein, M.D. 
Clarence N. Wright, M.D. 


John P. Welling Alfred E. Hamill* 

John McKinlay* 

* Deceased 


i. The Growth of Medical Education 

2. Early Days and the Charter of Rush 

3. Rush Medical College Opens 

4. The Early Faculties . 

5. The Civil War Period 

6. Rush and the County Hospital 

7. Advances in Educational Requirements 

8. Affiliation of Rush with The University of 

Chicago ..... 

9. Rush and the Presbyterian Hospital . 
10. The First Century of Rush 








I. An Act to Incorporate the Rush Medical 

College 53 

II. Charter of Presbyterian Hospital 59 

III. Charter of Central Free Dispensary ... 60 

IV. Agreement between Presbyterian Hospital and 

the University of Illinois .... 62 

V. Extracts from Court Decree in re Rush Medical 

College vs. The University of Chicago et al. 64 

Bibliography 75 





Daniel Brainard .... 



Chicago River in 1833 . 


Chicago, 1835 


First College Building, 1844 . 


Dr. Brainard's Office, 1844 


Members of the First Faculty . 

. 22, 23 

Building of 1855 .... 


Ruins of Fire, 1871 . 



College under Sidewalk, 1872 . 


Building of 1875 .... 


Nathan Smith Davis 


Walter Stanley Haines . 


Ephraim Fletcher Ingals . 



Norman Bridge .... 


Arthur Dean Bevan .... 


Christian Fenger .... 


Nicholas Senn 


John Milton Dodson 


James Nevins Hyde .... 




Frank Billings 38 

James Bryan Herrick 38 

Ludvig Hektoen 39 

Edwin Raymond Lecount 39 

Peter Bassoe 39 

Bertram Welton Sippy 46 

Dean DeWitt Lewis 46 

Rush and Presbyterian Hospital Today .... 47 

Nurses Residence (Presbyterian Hospital) ... 47 


Chapter 1 


The story of Rush Medical College is part of the his- 
tory of medical education in America. Intimately inter- 
woven as it is with the spectacular development of Chi- 
cago and the West, the conditions under which Rush 
was founded and the nature of its early struggles can 
scarcely be understood without some account of medical 
education in the country as a whole. 

In the early days of the nineteenth century, America 
was still mainly a frontier nation. Even in the older 
states of the East, populations were relatively sparse, dis- 
tances were great, money was scarce, and our people 
were too preoccupied with wresting a living from the 
land to concern themselves greatly with the education of 
medical men. 

Progress had been made, it is true, but the state of 
medical education even in the older parts of the country 
could hardly be compared with that in the nations of 
Europe. Thirty years after the Revolution, seven medi- 
cal schools had been organized: Philadelphia (two), 
New York (two), Boston, Hanover (Dartmouth) and 
Baltimore. By 1810 two of these (Philadelphia) had 
been combined, and one had been discontinued. This 
left only five active in preparing men for the medical 

The curricula were largely patterned after that of the 
medical school of the University of Edinburgh, where 


many American physicians (among them Shippen, 
Morgan and Rush) had received their medical degrees. 
The education of students of medicine of that day was 
based on a preceptorship or apprenticeship of two to six 
years or more under outstanding scholarly practitioners. 
Organized in 1705, the medical school of the University 
of Edinburgh had been designed to afford student ap- 
prentices facilities for a review study of anatomy and 
chemistry better than they could have received with in- 
dividual practitioners. 

The Philadelphia Medical College, founded in 1765, 
stated among its requirements for admission to candi- 
dacy that "such students as have not taken a Degree in 
Arts . . . satisfy the Trustees and Professors of the Col- 
lege concerning their knowledge of the Latin tongue 
and in such branches of Mathematics, natural and ex- 
perimental Philosophy as should be judged requisite to 
a Medical Education. Each student shall take at least 
one course in Anatomy, Materia Medica, Chemistry, the 
Theory and Practice of Physic and Clinical lectures and 
shall attend the practice of the Pennsylvania Hospital 
for one year. ... It is further required that each student 
previous to obtaining a Bachelor's Degree shall have 
served a sufficient apprenticeship to some respectable 
Practitioner in Physic, and be able to show that he has a 
general knowledge in Pharmacy." 

These requirements continued in force until the oc- 
cupation of Philadelphia by the British in 1777. The de- 
gree of Bachelor of Medicine was conferred after one 
year, and the degree of Doctor of Medicine after one 
to three years of additional attendance. Few students 
returned for the second year, however, and the degree of 
Bachelor of Medicine was discontinued, as was also the 

original requirement of Latin and Greek. Travel was 
slow and difficult and many students had limited re- 
sources. The relative poverty and the obstacle of dis- 
tance in the still only partly settled country finally led 
to a shortening of the college course to twelve to sixteen 

The quality of the preceptorships deteriorated, mean- 
while, so that they often offered only nominal opportu- 
nity to the students. The college course, which had been 
at first an adjunct or review in completion of a serious 
apprenticeship, gained in importance, while the ap- 
prenticeship became secondary and often merely a per- 
functory item of a year's credit on the college course. 

In the absence of examining boards of licensure inde- 
pendent of the schools, a school diploma was accepted 
as qualification for license to practice. Competition 
among schools encouraged low standards of admission 
and performance, without the salutary control of a com- 
petent and independent examining authority. 

By 1 840 twenty-six new schools had appeared, and by 
1875, forty-seven more. Of the eighty schools organized 
in the space of a hundred years, sixteen were discon- 
tinued, leaving sixty-four in 1875. A few other smaller 
schools had been organized and had closed their doors 
without leaving a record available in 1875 (Davis). But 
despite the later separation of licensure from the edu- 
cational function, medical schools continued to in- 
crease; some good, some poor, to the total number of 
162, up to the decade of drastic reform in medical edu- 
cation (1900-1910). 

In the evaluation of the purposes, resources, and 
achievements of medicine in our own era two objectives 
have emerged: that of producing physicians well pre- 

pared to counsel the public in the prevention and cure 
of disease; and that of furnishing facilities for searching 
out new knowledge and proving its effectiveness in med- 
ical care. 

Medicine from the beginning has had for its objective 
the cure of the sick and the prevention of disease by 
utilizing all current scientific knowledge in the care of 
the patient under the direction of experience. This is 
accomplished mainly through the personal relation of 
the good doctor and his patient. 

In the past fifty years the peace-time accumulation of 
wealth has enabled philanthropists to set up facilities 
for more extensive and penetrating research in special 
problems in medicine. Institutes and specialized foun- 
dations created by this means have contributed mightily 
to the advances of clinical medicine. 

These two objectives— practice and research— are of 
course complementary and mutually advantageous. 
Sometimes the two concepts, in the form of superior 
clinical training and of research, have been successfully 
combined in one school. Sometimes, as in the financially 
lush nineteen twenties, clinical schools which aspired 
to a combination of both have, unfortunately, invested 
large and perhaps disproportionate sums in their pri- 
vately owned hospitals. In so doing, they neglected to 
utilize public, tax-supported hospitals which might have 
been more economical and at the same time afforded 
better and more varied opportunities for clinical teach- 
ing. Sometimes, too, richly endowed research-minded 
schools planned for a completely "full time" program, 
on the assumption that their limited clinical facilities 
would somehow suffice to give the best clinical training 
to their students. By the cold law of probabilities, many 

of these students, no matter how carefully chosen, 
were certain to prove unfitted for academic research, al- 
though as potential standard bearers of professional 
competence, and in the interest of public service they 
were entitled to a clinical training equivalent to that of 
their colleagues in other schools. 


Changes in the techniques of graduate medical edu- 
cation, too, have resulted from advances in medical edu- 
cation. The ambitious and progressive physician avails 
himself more and more of opportunities for graduate 
study. Currently, his program of professional develop- 
ment conforms to one of two patterns, both of which 
have evolved from improved standards of medical edu- 
cation, and from the utilization by medicine of the 
astounding increase of knowledge in many fields of 
science including chemistry, physics, biology and bio- 
physics. The rapid expansion of medical methods and 
facilities rendered inevitable an accentuation of prac- 
tice in special fields. This has been going on for decades. 
Indeed, it began in the days of the barber surgeons. But 
this entirely logical trend toward specialization has 
brought with it certain undesirable results. Some medi- 
cal men proclaimed themselves specialists with little or 
no justification by reason of ability, hard work, or qual- 
ity of performance. For the protection of the public, in 
consequence, special boards have been established in 
the several specialties to determine fitness for specialty 
designation; and to encourage younger men to prepare 
themselves for better techniques of specialized practice 
while they still had command of the educational tools 
acquired in college and medical school. 

Special board certification is entirely voluntary and 
has no legal status. This certification in specialties has 
been used by some administrators of state and national 
medical and health programs and of hospitals, to deter- 
mine appointments, often with advantage but some- 
times unfortunately to the exclusion of other equally 
well qualified physicians who have not desired to sub- 
mit to further formal examinations. Occasionally a 
young physician recently certified as a specialist without 
sufficient clinical experience mistakenly assumes that 
the fact of his certification relieves him of his obligation 
to care for patients in their homes. Emphasis on spe- 
cialty certification has tended also wrongly to minimize 
the stature of the general practitioner. These difficulties, 
however, appear to be in process of correction. Advances 
in medical education and opportunity have thus of 
themselves created new problems in educational pro- 
cedure and in medical practice, and these in turn have 
determined the following two main patterns of profes- 
sional growth of the young physician. 

1 . Preparation for Specialization. This calls for a pro- 
longed residency for the physician after completion of 
his interneship with additional training in biological 
subjects. Such a program assumes a thorough grounding 
in chemistry, physics, and pathology. 

Occasionally physicians who have been in practice for 
a few years turn back later for additional study. Al- 
though these instances are exceptional, the difficulties 
of such a delayed program are so obvious in terms of in- 
terrupted practice and dislocations in personal life that 
young graduates are usually moved to prepare for their 
Specialty Boards (Internal Medicine, Surgery, Oph- 
thalmology, Obstetrics, etc.), under another handicap- 
namely, lack of the great advantages in experience they 


would gain by a few years in general practice. The Board 
of Internal Medicine has liberalized its requirements 
with a view to meeting the individual necessities of al- 
most any doctor. Let me say that I am speaking now of 
the young physician who is earnestly concerned with the 
quality of his preparation and in the service he will ren- 
der to his patients later; not primarily with the added 
financial rewards which he hopes to receive by the mere 
possession of a board certification. 

2. Graduate Study. A second type of graduate train- 
ing is the short, intensive course of a few weeks or more, 
arranged by medical schools or by medical organiza- 
tions, given at educational centers, or by qualified in- 
structors at local centers in rural communities. This 
type of education is rapidly increasing, and promises to 
contribute much to the quality of general medical prac- 
tice. The general advance of medical education has pro- 
duced medical practitioners who can appreciate, under- 
stand, and profit by such opportunities to a degree not 
possible in the early days. 

These two types of graduate training have largely re- 
placed the old post-graduate school, which formerly 
served as well as it could to remedy the faults of grossly 
defective undergraduate medical education. 

The telegraph and telephone, good roads, the auto- 
mobile, more and better equipped rural hospitals, and 
the ever increasing scientific knowledge available to 
medicine, have truly revolutionized medical education 
and medical practice. Yet, the observation of Weir 
Mitchell still holds true: that by what the country doc- 
tor is, you can judge the progress of medicine. Today 
the family doctor, whether in the city or country, has 
not passed— he has improved. 

Some of the problems of Rush Medical College in the 

past four decades stemmed from honest differences of 
opinion as to the methods of applying these two concepts 
of medical education: that concerned with the care of 
the sick, and that concerned with research more or less 
separated from clinical practice. These divergent views, 
and their alternate ascendency account in the main for 
the successive changes in the later academic relation- 
ships of Rush. 


Chapter 2 


To present some notion of the events of over a hundred 
years of Rush history within reasonable space requires 
the selection of only a few fairly representative incidents 
in which the activities of the College were a reflection, 
more or less directly, of larger events in the city and 
nation. I shall try to present the medical picture in the 
newly settled country, the ideals behind the founding of 
Rush, and the progressive rise in its standards of medi- 
cal education in response to opportunity and to public 
need and demands. 

A file of the college announcements from 1843 on- 
ward records the thinking and actions of the Faculty as 
well as statistics and regulations of the College. 

Many of the older records were lost in the fire of 1 87 1 . 
Fortunately, a number of the Rush faculty have been 
historically minded over the years and have collected 
and recorded important stop-gap data in addresses, ar- 
ticles and reminiscences. Some of these are well docu- 
mented; others, regrettably though naturally, reveal the 
frailty of memory. 


Rush Medical College grew up with the coming Sec- 
ond City of America. Rush received its charter from the 
State of Illinois in 1837, a few days before a charter was 
issued to the still pioneer City of Chicago. Dr. Brainard, 


the founder of the College, had come to Chicago in 
1836. His arrival is thus described by John D. Caton 
(later Judge Caton), a lawyer and friend who had 
studied law in Rome, N.Y., when Brainard was studying 
medicine in that city. 

"Dr Brainard rode up to my office on a little Indian pony. He 
was dressed rather shabbily and said he was nearly out of funds, 
and asked my advice about commencing the practice of medicine 
in Chicago. I knew he was ambitious, studious, and a man of 
ability, and I advised him to go to the Pottawatomie Camp 
where the Indians were preparing to start for a new location, 
west of the Mississippi River and sell his pony; take a desk or 
rather a small table I had in my office and put his shingle by 
the side of the door, promising to aid him in building up a 

The State of Illinois had been admitted to the union 
in 1818. The Territory of Wisconsin lay to the north 
and the Territory of Iowa to the west. The Village of 
Chicago had been organized in 1833 anc ^ was growing 
rapidly; the population had doubled every eight months 
and by 1836 had reached 3000. Norman Bridge thus 
describes the village. 

"They (Chicago citizens) were planning to send a delega- 
tion to Vandalia, the capital of the state with a petition to the 
forthcoming session of the Legislature for a city charter. Yet 
they had not a rod of street pavement and their sidewalks were 
of wood, uneven and shaky. When it rained, mud was every- 
where, teams often becoming stalled in the chief streets . . . 
notably Lake Street near Clark . . . where more than once a 'no 
bottom' placard was seen and an old hat with the words 'keep 
away, I went down here . . . .' There were no sewers, not even 
a common drain and the public water supply was through a 
service of pails, barrels and other containers from the lake and 
river. Two rude bridges spanned the creek— the Chicago River 
. . . along the banks of which the primeval trees and shrubbery 


were still mostly undisturbed. The houses and other buildings 
were of wood and built with the evident purpose to make them 
habitable at the earliest possible moment. But the country back 
of the town was fertile, inviting and great, and a canal was to be 
dug to connect the lake and the Mississippi." 

DANIEL BRAINARD (l8l2-l866) 

The story of the early years of Rush Medical College 
centers about its founder, Daniel Brainard, and the men 
whom he chose as members of his faculty. 

Daniel Brainard was born in Oneida County, New 
York, in 1812, received a common school and academic 
education probably in the Oneida Institute, and began 
his medical studies with a preceptorship in Whitesboro 
and in Rome, New York. Later he took medical lectures 
in Fairfield Medical College, and then after two years 
more at Jefferson Medical College received his medical 
degree in 1834. He returned to Whitesboro where he 
practiced medicine but spent much of his time in the 
study of Latin and French and in teaching physiology 
in Oneida Institute. 

"Physically, Dr. Brainard was tall, well proportioned, 
and strongly built. He was dignified almost to reserve 
. . . his appearance in the class room was quiet and un- 
assuming." (Ingals) He was an investigator, and made 
notable studies on rattlesnake venom, the treatment of 
wounds with iodine, and treatment of ununited frac- 
tures. He earned well merited fame in the West and in 
Europe as an outstanding surgeon. Intimately corre- 
lated with Brainard's devotion to the practice of medi- 
cine was his enthusiasm for medical education and 

The economic depression of 1 837, as well as the neces- 
sity of first gathering a faculty for his new school (to 


which he had given the name of Rush in commemora- 
tion of Dr. Benjamin Rush of Philadelphia, one of the 
signers of the Declaration of Independence) made im- 
practicable the immediate opening of the school. But 
Brainard was not to be deterred from his teaching, and 
he opened a private school of anatomy in his rooms on 
Clark Street, where he gave three courses of instruction 
to some six or seven students each. The years 1 839-41 he 
spent in Paris in further medical preparation. On his 
return he was appointed in 1 842 to the Chair of Anat- 
omy in St. Louis University where he gave two courses. 


Chicago River in 1833 

Courtesy Chicago Historical Society 

Chicago, 1835 

Courtesy Chicago Historical Society 

First College Building, 1844 

Courtesy Chicago Historical Society 

Dr. Brainard's Office, 1844 

Courtesy Chicago Historical Society 

Chapter 3 

Rush medical college began its first session of sixteen 
weeks on December 4, 1843. The population of Chicago 
was now 7,850 (Bridge). Twenty-two students were en- 
rolled. The requirements for the degree of Doctor of 
Medicine were: 

"Three years of study with a respectable physician, two 
courses of lectures, the last in this school (two years of practice 
to be accepted in lieu of one course) ; the candidate to be twenty- 
one years old, to have a good moral character and to present a 
thesis on some medical subject of his own composition and in 
his own handwriting, which should be approved by the 
faculty . . ." 

The first classes met in Dr. Brainard's office on Clark 
Street near Randolph. A shed in the rear served as a dis- 
secting room. The regular fees were $65, and the gradu- 
ation fee $20. The first college building, built of wood 
on a lot donated by citizens at Clark and Indiana Streets, 
north of the river, was completed in 1844 and cost 

In his inaugural address Brainard said: 

". . . We have chosen the subject of institutions of science, 
their influence in a community, and their claims to the fostering 
care of the public . . . (because of) the sovereign influence ex- 
ercised by public opinion which holds the place of supreme 
power in our own country. . . . Especially in the West is it es- 
sential that the public mind should be directed to the found- 
ing ... of institutions of science. . . . The health, the happiness 
and the life of your dearest friends, and your own, may, and will, 


some day depend on the skill of some member of the medical 
profession. . . . To elevate the standard of skill and knowledge 
in the profession, to excite an honorable emulation among its 
members, to disseminate in this new region the principles of 
medical science . . . such are the objects held in view by the 
founders of this institution." 

In referring to the objection that suitable teachers 
could not be found he said, " (This) is alike unfounded, 
and next to the merit of making great discoveries in 
science, is that of extending them in regions where they 
would otherwise be unknown." 


The medical needs of a pioneer population in the 
West (in those days the West meant everything west of 
the Alleghanies) were augmented by malaria which was 
prevalent as far north as Canada. Indeed, the settlement 
of the bush in Ontario was delayed by chills and fever 
which turned back many families. Quinine was effective 
but too often used in insufficient dose. The cost often 
reached $5.00 per ounce, a high price in those days. 
Epidemics of Asiatic cholera 1 appeared from 1833 on- 
ward in Chicago and in the absence of sanitary measures 
caused thousands of deaths. 

The urgent need for physicians in the rapidly grow- 
ing West resulted in the formation of a number of small 
local medical schools which disappeared after a brief 
existence. There were no educational standards for ad- 
mission and the inferior quality of instruction called 
forth well merited criticism. Brainard recognized the 
inadequacy of some of these schools but resented indis- 

1 Asiatic cholera was recorded as early as 1832 among troops arriv- 
ing in Fort Dearborn.— Hamilton. 


criminate condemnation of all schools west of the Al- 

At the same time he reiterated in 1 849 his faith in the 
future of Chicago which had then a population of 
17,000. He said in this address: 

"The statement has recently been made by a Dr. Holmes, 
professor in a not very flourishing medical school at Boston, 
that 'the multiplication of medical schools in the west is doing 
great mischief . . .' For a country possessing all the advantages 
for containing a large population calculated from extent and 
situation to be the center of the republic . . . with all its ad- 
vantages to be dependent on some villages a thousand miles off 
for its physicians, would certainly present an anomaly in the 
general order of things. But a few years since, the place we in- 
habit was on the extreme verge of civilization, and stretching 
far away to the west was a desert, scarcely trodden by the foot 
of civilized man. Now the emigrant turns from our crowded 
streets ... to the far distant shores of the Pacific Ocean." 

But despite Brainard's enthusiasm, stimulated per- 
haps by the gold rush of 1 849, the educational facilities 
of the frontier settlement were crude. The medical fac- 
ulty members, forward looking and pioneering men of 
vision and imagination, were recruited from towns in 
the surrounding area. 

The college curriculum was patterned after those of 
medical schools east of the Alleghanies and soon ap- 
proached an equality in content though not in age. The 
refinements of the older Eastern cities were lacking in 
these early days of Chicago. The Rush faculty were 
wading through the mud to their barely furnished 
wooden school when the walls of the Philadelphia Hos- 
pital were already lined with portraits of great citizens 
and physicians by distinguished painters of the day. 


Chapter 4 

The first faculty 2 selected by Brainard included 
James V. Z. Blaney, professor of chemistry ( 1 846-1 874), 
distinguished analytical chemist; Austin Flint, Sr. 
(1844—1845), professor of medicine who later became 
professor of medicine at Bellevue; John Evans (1845- 
1857), professor of obstetrics who was later appointed 
territorial governor of Colorado, and thereafter served 
as Senator. Other members of the faculty up to 1859 
were John McLean (1843-1854), M. L. Knapp, A. W. 
Davisson, G. N. Fitch (1844-1849), W. B. Herrick 
(1844-1857), Samuel G. Armour, Thomas Spencer 
(1849-1851), J. W. Freer (1855-1877), Hosmer A. 
Johnson (1855-1859), W. H. Byford (1857-1859, 
1879-1890) and John H. Rauch (1857-1859). Rauch 
led in establishing the Illinois State Board of Health and 
in the passage of the Medical Practice Act. 


Nathan Smith Davis (1817-1904) joined the faculty 
in 1 849. He was active in the organization of the Ameri- 
can Medical Association in 1 847, and has been called the 
Father of the American Medical Association. He was an 
able writer and organizer and deeply interested in edu- 
cational methods and in their application to medical 

2 Brief biographical sketches of the early faculty are recorded by 
Dr. George Weaver, Bui. Rush Alumni Assn., Vol. 8, No. 1, p. 17, 


teaching. He is reported to have brought the first micro- 
scope to Chicago; the annual announcement of 1844- 
1845, however, contains the following note: "Among 
the various additions to the apparatus may be men- 
tioned a fine microscope, of sufficient power to exhibit 
the blood globules, spermatic animalculae, the elemen- 
tary tissues, and pathological structures." 


In 1859 tne discussion of methods to improve medical 
education occasioned some acrimonious debates. At this 
time the procedure in medical colleges was to repeat in 
the second year of the two year course the content of the 
first year. At Rush, as in other contemporary medical 
schools, the regular sessions in the early years were lim- 
ited to sixteen weeks. 

Opinion in the faculty was divided. Some held with 
Davis that a graded course with new content in the sec- 
ond year was necessary; others believed that such a 
change was impracticable at that time. This educational 
dispute apparently was intensified by personal animosi- 
ties between the president, Dr. Brainard, and the Secre- 
tary, Dr. Davis. The upshot was that Drs. Davis, H. A. 
Johnson, W. H. Byford and others eventually withdrew 
from Rush and founded the Chicago Medical College, 
now the Northwestern University Medical School. The 
advocacy of the principle of a graded curriculum fore- 
shadowed further progress in medical education. The 
separation which began in heated debate eventuated in 
friendly rivalry and cooperation in medical education. 

That the schism in the faculty was based to a large ex- 
tent on personal differences between the president and 
the secretary, and not on the failure of either faction to 


recognize the necessity of improving educational stand- 
ards is suggested by the action of the Rush trustees and 
faculty (1859-60) which provided two additional pe- 
riods of instruction. 

The announcement of the session of 1859-60 (p. 6) 
offered in addition to the regular course of sixteen 
weeks, beginning on the first Monday in November, a 
preparatory course to be given at the College in October 
without additional charge. At the conclusion of the reg- 
ular course there was also announced a "Preparatory 
School of Medicine." 

"For the purpose of securing a longer and more complete 
course of instruction, to such as may be able to pursue it, than 
is afforded by the Winter Term, the following physicians have 
associated themselves together in a Preparatory School . . . The 
course will commence on the first Monday of March i860 and 
continue sixteen weeks. Two lectures will be given daily, fee 
$20.00." (Announcement 1859-60 p. 15). 

New members added at this time to the Rush teaching 
force included J. Adams Allen, Ephraim Ingals, De- 
Laskie Miller, Joseph P. Ross and E. L. Holmes. This 
"Preparatory School of Medicine" was later known as 
the "Spring Faculty"; none of their names appear as 
members of the regular faculty. Clinical work was of- 
fered at the City Hospital, City Dispensary, and Chicago 
Charitable Eye and Ear Infirmary. The faculty of this 
supplemental course had no part in the government of 
the college. The "Spring Course" was continued until 
1893, when the regular course was extended to eight 

During the period 1857-1871, there were twelve pro- 
fessors and during the latter portion of it about as many 
more teaching in the Spring Faculty. Among these lat- 


ter were Drs. James Nevins Hyde, Norman Bridge, 
Charles T. Parkes, Walter Hay, I. N. Danforth, James 
H. Etheridge and E. Fletcher Ingals. During the latter 
portion of the period the student body grew to approxi- 
mately 300. The tuition fees were about $70 per annum 
from the founding of the college until 1879 (Ingals). 
(In 1 849 the tuition in Rush was reduced from $70 to 
$36, but this seems to have been a temporary measure. 

In 1868 the regular annual course was increased from 
16 to 18 weeks. Hitherto no specific requirements for 
entrance were in force although the annual announce- 
ments (1860-1891) state that "such a preliminary edu- 
cation was needed as was clearly requisite for proper 
standing with the profession and with the public." 


Members of the faculty were leaders in the organiza- 
tion of hospitals to care for the sick and to furnish fa- 
cilities for medical teaching. The U.S. Marine Hospital 
on the east side of Michigan Avenue near River Street 
was being completed in the summer of 1850. Doctor 
W. B. Herrick was in charge. 

The Illinois General Hospital of the Lakes was char- 
tered by the Legislature in 1 850, and was opened in the 
Old Lake House on the corner of North Water and 
Rush Streets. Dr. Brainard was in charge of the surgical 
service and Dr. Davis of the medical service. The college 
curriculum called for one term of instruction and hos- 
pital attendance. "Professor Davis is to lecture daily 
through the term, and also meet the hospital class in the 
wards of the hospital at a stated hour each day, Sunday 
always excepted." 


In 1851 the Hospital of the Lakes passed under the 
care of the Sisters of Mercy, and was thereafter called 
Mercy Hospital. In 1859 this hospital service was trans- 
ferred to the new school headed by Dr. Davis. The Rush 
announcement of 1 859-60 states that the City Hospital 
of 200 beds was the hospital field of instruction. 


In December 1869 the "Charity Dispensary of Chi- 
cago" published its first (and last) annual report in 
which appeared a number of items of historical interest: 

"For thirty years the Charity Dispensary has been in opera- 
tion. In 1839, Dr. Blaney opened in his office opposite the 
Sherman House, the first free dispensary ever held in Chicago. 

"On the opening of Rush Medical College in 1843, this dis- 
pensary was transferred to the College building, and was at- 
tended by Drs. Brainard, Blaney, McLean, Fitch, Austin Flint, 
John Evans, Freer, Rea, Ingals, Powell, Duck, and Ross, most 
of whom have been professors in the College and many still 
retain that post. 

". . . In 1845 this dispensary was moved to a large building, 
corner of Wolcott and Kinzie streets, called Tippecanoe Hall. 
At that time it was called the City Dispensary. On the 12th of 
January 1847, Dr. Brainard first gave ether in the case of 'a 
young man who presented himself at the Dispensary for amputa- 
tion of the middle finger rendered necessary by necrosis of the 
first phalanx of four months standing.' Chloroform was also 
used in this dispensary on the 24th of the same month, ten days 
before its first use in New York . . ." 

"There are in the city the following dispensaries: The Charity 
Dispensary, corner of North Dearborn and Indiana streets; the 
Brainard Free Dispensary corner of West Randolph and Jeffer- 
son streets; the County Hospital Dispensary, corner 18th and 
Arnold streets, and the Chicago Charitable Eye and Ear In- 
firmary, No. 16 East Pearson Street, opposite the Ogden School." 

Attached to this report is an autograph note by Dr. E. L. 


Members of the first faculty of Rush Medical College: (1) Daniel 
Brainard, (2) James Van Zandt Blaney, (3) John McLean, (4) Moses 
L. Knapp, (5) Austin Flint, (6) Graham N. Fitch. 

Members of the first faculty of Rush Medical College: (1) Wm. B. 
Herrick, (2) John Evans, (3) Thomas Spencer, (4) Nathan S. Davis, 
(5) Alfred W. Davisson, (6) Josiah B. Herrick. 

Holmes: "From the opening of the College to the date of this 
report, there had been a 'College Clinic' or 'Dispensary.' It 
was thought best to place it under a special board of trustees 
with the hope that the public would provide support for this 
charity. That this might seem to be less under the control of 
the College the name was changed as indicated in this report, 
which is in reality the first report of the new organization. The 
Fire in 1871 terminated all efforts to continue the dispensary." 

The Central Free Dispensary was formed by a union 
of the Brainard and the Herrick (W.B.) dispensaries 
in 1871 and was incorporated in 1873. The objectives 
of the incorporators are set forth in the charter: 

"The objects for which this corporation is formed are to aid 
all persons who are sick and unable to pay for medical at- 
tendance's, (sic) , to diffuse vaccination by continuous and un- 
wearied efforts . . ." 


Chapter 5 

By 1861, Rush College had graduated 555' physicians, 
and by 1865, had graduated 836. The inevitable loss of 
faculty members to the Armed Services included Profes- 
sors J. V. Z Blaney, R. L. Rea, William B. Herrick, 
J. W. Freer, E. Powell and Daniel Brainard. Faculty re- 
placements were brought in from neighboring schools. 
"Rush contributed as large a proportion of graduates as 
any other medical college in the Union." (Dodson, 9.) 
The city hospital at Arnold and 18th streets which 
was staffed by the faculty of Rush College was taken over 
by the army. Shortly after the close of the war the opera- 
tion of this hospital was assumed by the Cook County 


Following his discharge from the army Dr. Brainard 
went to Paris, returning in the Fall of 1 866 to resume his 
teaching. He found Chicago in the midst of an epidemic 
of Asiatic cholera (its last severe outbreak) . The disease 
had appeared in the summer, subsided about the middle 
of August, and recurred with increased severity about 
October first. 

"On the afternoon of October 9, 1866, he digressed from the 
subject of his lecture in Rush Medican College, to tell the class 
how to guard themselves against the cholera, and before he re- 
tired late that evening he began an article on the subject . . . 
He went to bed apparently in perfect health, but near morning 


had an attack of diarrhea which he checked with opiates. How- 
ever, he arose as usual the next morning and had no symptoms 
of sickness until 9:00 when he was suddenly attacked with vomit- 
ing and diarrhea ... By 2:00 he was in collapse and seven hours 
later he ceased to breathe." (Ingals, quoting in part from an un- 
signed address at the College memorial exercises, October, 

The Chicago Tribune of Thursday, October 11, 1866, 
commented thus: 

"There is no disguising the fact that the dread Asiatic Scourge 
is more active among us within the past two or three days than 
previously. The average daily number of cases reported during 
August in this city was about six. For September the attacks re- 
ported were 272, deaths 146, average of nine attacks daily with 
five deaths. (The population of Chicago was then about 200,- 
000.) October showed an alarming increase ... It is particularly 
noticeable too that the extension of the disease is not confined 
to the unwashed, undrained ill-ventilated portions of the city. 
It has struck and boldly into the higher walks of life. The death 
of Dr. Brainard, Alderman O' Sullivan, and Dr. Winer are 
prominent instances in higher circles. The grim monster is now 
striking right and left among us as if . . . to avenge on our per- 
son the terrible neglect which has marked our municipal his- 
tory in regard to sanitary matters, and teach us a practical lesson 
for future guidance." 

The death of Dr. Brainard left vacant the Chair of 
Surgery in Rush College, and in 1867 it was filled by 
Dr. Moses Gunn, who came from Ann Arbor, Michigan. 
(R.M.C. Catalog 1867.) 

THE FIRE OF 1 87 1 

Scarcely had the routine of the College been resumed 
following the distractions of the war, when the Chicago 
fire of 1871 destroyed the college buildings north of the 


river (to which had been added in 1 867 a new section at 
a cost of $70,000) , together with many of the records and 
the museum. The Chicago Medical College and the 
County Hospital generously offered quarters in which 
Rush might continue the year's teaching. A temporary 
building on the south side of the city near the County 
Hospital at 1 8th and Arnold Streets was erected at a spot 
where the sidewalk grade was several feet above the 
lot level, giving rise to the designation of "The College 
under the Sidewalk." Here the College continued until 
1 876, awaiting the decision of the county commissioners 
on a new location for the County Hospital. Dr. Joseph 
Priestly Ross was instrumental in the establishment and 
location of the Cook County Hospital, and, as a member 
of the Rush faculty, he desired that the new Rush Col- 
lege building should be adjacent to it. Finally the loca- 
tion of the County Hospital on a twelve acre plot on 
Harrison and Wood Streets was decided, and the Rush 
building of 1 875 was erected diagonally across the street. 
The Central Free Dispensary was housed on the first 
floor. "The dedicatory procession marched out to West 
Chicago led by a band." (This building was replaced by 
the present Rawson Building in 1924.) 


Building of 1855 

Courtesy Chicago Historical Society 

Ruins of Fire, 1871 

Courtesy Chicago Historical Society 

College under Sidewalk, 1872 

Courtesy Chicago Historical Society 

Building of 1875 

Courtesy Chicago Historical Society 

Nathan Smith Davis 

Ephraim Fletcher Ingals 

Norman Bridge, 1844-1925 

Arthur Dean Bevan, 1861-1943 

Chapter 6 

The first city hospital, a frame structure at 18th and 
Arnold Streets, built to care for cholera patients, had 
been replaced by a substantial building of stone and 
brick. It was staffed by the Rush faculty. When Dr. Da- 
vis and his colleagues left Rush in 1859 to found the 
Chicago Medical College, they took with them the teach- 
ing facilities of Mercy Hospital; the Rush Faculty then 
had to depend on the City Hospital for clinical teaching. 
Then came the Civil War, and the City Hospital was 
taken over by the Army for an Eye and Ear Hospital. 
At the close of the war, the Hospital was returned to the 
city, and plans were made to develop teaching. At this 
point the city decided that it was not required to operate 
a hospital, and the building was turned over to the Cook 
County Commissioners. 

The story of the Cook County Hospital, thus begun 
in 1866, presents a complicated recital of interrelations 
of politics, education, and rivalries of medical groups. 
The hospital at 18th and Arnold Streets had become 
inadequate to care for the sick of the growing city. At 
length, following the Great Fire, the present site of the 
County Hospital at Harrison and Wood streets was se- 
cured, to a large degree through the efforts of Dr. J. P. 
Ross and Dr. George K. Amerman. The incidents of this 
campaign, the building of the hospital, the political and 
financial methods, and the scandals involving some of 
the county commissioners are told by W. E. Quine and 
by Henry M. Lyman. (23, 25). 


Finally the building of County Hospital at its present 
site was completed. 

"We moved into the new hospital some time in the year 1876 
and flattered ourselves that now we could abandon all care, 
while a long vista of years occupied with scientific research 
seemed opening before us. But scarcely were we settled in our 
new quarters, when our friends in the medical profession . . . 
now descended in full force upon the county commissioners say- 
ing: "Listen: These men have labored long and have earned 
a rich reward; let us exalt them to the highest shelf of honorable 
obscurity, and we will henceforth bear the heat and burden of 
the day." So they bundled us out, neck and crop, ... all but 
Dr Dyas (who) sent his resignation to the board . . . The rest 
of us quietly swallowed our medicine and Dr. Ross and I began 
the campaign that resulted in the establishment of the Presby- 
terian Hospital." (Lyman) . 

Evidently the success of the Rush group in carrying 
through the plans for the County Hospital, had led to 
excessive zeal and perhaps to neglect of the political and 
professional rights of their medical colleagues. For some 
time, at any rate, teaching was barred from the wards 
of the County Hospital, to the disadvantage of the pa- 


In 1877 Rush College had voted to establish a hos- 
pital and to raise $15,000 for a building. Under the 
leadership of Dr. Joseph Priestly Ross, the school began 
the erection of the hospital adjacent to the College 
building. Dr. Ross persuaded his father-in-law, Mr. Tut- 
hill King, to contribute funds, and also interested the 
Presbyterian Church in this form of philanthropy. 
Thereupon the College transferred to the hospital, in- 
corporated in 1 884, certain property adjacent to the Col- 


lege (See Appendix). To the first section of the hospital 
opened in 1883 were added successively the David Jones 
Memorial and the Jane Murdock section for women 
and children. 

At the dedication of the Murdock Memorial in 1912, 
Dr. James B. Herrick, who had joined the staff only a 
few years after the opening of the hospital, epitomized 
the elements which then and now have characterized the 
spirit, the progress, the soul of the Presbyterian Hos- 

"The Presbyterian was founded with two high purposes, 
caring for the sick and aiding in medical education. The hos- 
pital that confines itself solely to the treatment of the sick is 
somewhat dwarfed. To be kept alive and progressive it should 
have the stimulus of the necessity of instructing young, active, 
wide-awake undergraduates, internes and nurses. This addition 
to the hospital gives us these facilities; it opens to the staff the 
opportunity of acquiring more knowledge and it also gives us 
added facilities for research . . . Unless the spirit of research is 
in a hospital, unless it pervades the various branches of the 
medical institution, the educational function of the hospital 
languishes and the atmosphere becomes stale; things fail to 
progress and the patients suffer . . . And yet no matter what 
view we may take the central figure in the hospital is, and should 
be, the patient . . . Are we treating them as sanely and as con- 
scientiously as we can? . . . We are to treat the patient as a man." 

By such men, with the reinforcement of a devoted 
Board of Managers has the spirit of humanity and kind- 
ness been instilled into successive generations of the 
staff. This is the cement which has united the College 
and the Hospital in ever closer union, and has increased 
the medical effectiveness of an able staff. 


Chapter 7 


Movements for reform in education as in other forms 
of human endeavor, have their beginnings years before 
the reform becomes clearly evident and can be marked 
with a date. At Rush in 1879 the annual tuition was 
raised from $70 to $80; in 1885 the course was extended 
from two to three years; in 1891 advanced standing of 
one year was granted to college graduates. The gift in 
1893 by the Faculty to the Rush Trustees of the new 
laboratory building south of Harrison Street (cost $75,- 
000) marked a new approach in method and scope of 
medical teaching in Rush. 

A similar change was beginning to appear in the other 
medical schools of America. Laboratories were multi- 
plied, and laboratory data were brought into the clinic. 
Research in medicine was added to the function of medi- 
cal teaching, which heretofore had been too exclusively 
concerned with the transmission of old knowledge and 
tradition. The importance to medical schools and medi- 
cal education of university influence and relationship, 
and of adequate endowment (formerly almost totally 
neglected) became increasingly evident. Johns Hopkins 
Medical School, opened in 1893, clearly reflected these 
trends and developments. 

During the early 1890's the course of medical study 
required for graduation at Rush was lengthened to four 
years of twenty-one weeks each. The faculty and trustees 


Christian Fenger 

Courtesy John Crerar Library 

Nicholas Senn 

John Milton Dodson, 1859-1933 

James Nevins Hyde, 1840-1910 

at the same time passed resolutions contemplating much 
more advanced admission requirements, but these did 
not go into effect until the affiliation with the University 
of Chicago in 1898. (Ingals, 22.) 

"Requirements for admission to the medical course were fixed 
for the first time in the history of the college. Believing that the 
profession was not ready for more, and as there were only two 
colleges in the country requiring as much as this, it was de- 
manded that all persons entering the study of medicine must 
have had a course of four years in an accepted high school. 
These requirements were steadily increased year by year until 
1904 when two full years of college work was demanded as 
prerequisite to the study of medicine. The course in medicine 
was thereby lengthened to four years of thirty-six weeks each." 


Chapter 8 


The University of Chicago, founded in 1891 by John D. 
Rockefeller, had announced through its great first Presi- 
dent, William Rainey Harper, a comprehensive pro- 
gram of education, with emphasis on graduate study and 
provision for research. This program included develop- 
ment of professional schools. 

Rush Medical College had carried on, since 1887, a 
nominal affiliation with Lake Forest University. It ap- 
pears further from a single 1876 issue of the catalog of 
the old Chicago University that this institution had an- 
nounced an affiliation with Rush; but, like affiliations 
then current elsewhere, this went no further than a 
brief statement in the university catalog, and was of no 
educational value to either institution. 

Dr. E. Fletcher Ingals, a leader in the Rush Faculty, 
believed that if the University of Chicago was to have a 
medical department it would be advantageous to start 
with an established institution, provided that the school 
could be moulded to conform to university ideals. He 
approached President Harper soon after the opening of 
the new university; conferences continued between of- 
ficials and, ultimately, between the Boards of Trustees 
of Rush and of the University. 

President Harper at first did not favor an affiliation, 
but as his plans for the University grew, he came to ad- 
vocate affiliation, and prepared an agreement by which 


Rush college retained its financial independence (and 
responsibility) although the university controlled its 
"educational policy, standards of admission and gradu- 
ation, selection of faculty members, and pedagogic 

After long discussion by boards of trustees and faculty 
committees, the affiliation became effective in June, 
1898, with the hesitant approval of representatives of 
the founder of the University; and with the expressed 
understanding that this affiliation was not a union of 
the school with the University, and that "the Univer- 
sity was left free to establish an independent medical 
school if that should seem later the wiser thing to do." 

In the final discussions of the affiliation, by the Rush 
Faculty, faith in the intent of the proposal was empha- 
sized rather than its value as a business proposition. "If 
we are giving the control of the school to the University 
of Chicago to the end that the University may make of 
it the strongest and most useful medical school possible, 
clearly we have confidence in the intent of the Univer- 
sity to accomplish that purpose and in its ability to do 
so. Lacking that confidence, the faculty should not con- 
sider the proposition for a moment; having that confi- 
dence, nothing could be more inimical to the accom- 
plishment of the desired result then to tie the hands of 
the University with any hampering obligations." 

The faculty, always loyal to Rush, believed that they 
could make the college worthy of complete union, and 
this belief served to increase their loyalty and willing- 
ness to make personal sacrifices in the interest of Rush 
and University ideals. 

A bonded debt of the college amounting to $73,000, 
the payment of which was prerequisite to the approval 


of affiliation by the University, was liquidated by sub- 
scriptions of the faculty. 

In 1903 Senn Hall was built as an addition to the old 
college building with funds contributed by Dr. Senn 
and other faculty members and friends. 


The dramatic events of 1902-06 are related by Dr. 
John M. Dodson, then dean of students at Rush and are 
quoted from his article on "The First Proposal of Or- 
ganic Union." 

"By the autumn of 1902, four years after the date of the 
affiliation of Rush and the University, one year after the first 
half of the medical curriculum had been transferred to the 
University campus, Rush Medical College had been moulded 
into an institution worthy in every way, in the opinion of Presi- 
dent Harper, of membership in the University family. He there- 
fore recommended to the Board of Trustees of the University 
early in 1903 that a complete organic union be effected, and that 
the University take over the Rush College buildings and every- 
thing pertaining to its organization as a medical school. The 
College was to be known thereafter as the "Rush School of 
Medicine of the University of Chicago," or by some similar title. 
He was very emphatic in his insistence on the retention of the 
name "Rush," and said on several occasions that the name alone 
would be worth a million dollars to the new school. 

"His recommendation was adopted by the Board of Trustees 
of the University and then, in company with the President 
Martin Ryerson of the University Board of Trustees, he went 
to New York to lay the proposition before the founder of the 
University or his representative. 

"He was confronted with a letter which he had written in 
1898 in which he stated that the affiliation then proposed did 
not imply an organic union of the two institutions. His prompt 
reply to this was that, while he had been very explicit in his 
declaration to the trustees and faculty of Rush, and to the Uni- 


versity trustees, the affiliation carried with it no promise or im- 
plication of ultimate union, nevertheless, the subsequent de- 
velopment of Rush Medical College had been so rapid and sat- 
isfactory that it had been moulded into a medical school fully 
in accord with the ideals and plans of the University of Chicago. 
President Ryerson of the University Trustees was reported to 
have supplemented this statement with the declaration that if 
the University were seeking to organize a medical school 'de 
novo,' it would seek most of its clinical faculty from the clinical 
faculty of Rush. The two first years were already wholly in the 
hands of the University. It was agreed that the clinical work 
must have for endowment, an initial sum of at least $1,000,000, 
and the outcome of the conference was an agreement that if 
Rush Medical College should secure that sum during the en- 
suing year, the founder of the University would give to that 
institution within the succeeding five years, the sum of $5,000,- 
000 for the medical departments. This was promptly reported 
in the public press and was the origin of statements since many 
times repeated in the newspapers and magazines, that Rush 
Medical College had been given $6,000,000 by the founder of 
the University. As will presently appear, the plan was not con- 
summated and neither Rush Medical College nor the University 
of Chicago received any such sum for medical education. 

"On President Harper's return from the East and his report 
to the faculty and trustees of Rush Medical College of the agree- 
ment which had been made, steps were at once taken to secure 
the $1,000,000 for Rush Medical College. Within the year 
pledges to substantially that amount had been secured, almost 
entirely by Dean Frank Billings, with the aid of President 
Harper. As the sum of $1,000,000 had been agreed to be the 
minimum amount necessary for the endowment of the clinical 
work, the founder felt that the whole amount should be avail- 
able for that purpose, and this was not the case. More than a 
third of the amount subscribed, for example, was represented 
by the Memorial Institute for Infectious Diseases, founded by 
Mr. and Mrs. Harold McCormick, and generously offered by 
them through Dean Billings to Rush Medical College as part of 
the amount which was being raised. When, therefore, President 


Harper reported to the founder that the $1,000,000 agreed on 
had been raised and presented a list of the several pledges, he 
was met with the statement that these did not meet the condi- 
tions which had been agreed on. He returned from this visit 
to New York deeply disappointed and more than ever deter- 
mined to secure the required endowment in such form as should 
be satisfactory to the founder. Of the large plans which he had 
in mind for the development of the University of Chicago, the 
building up of a great medical school was uppermost in his 

"A new dramatic incident is recalled when he was reporting 
the unsuccessful result of this visit to the East to the deans and 
the comptroller at a conference at the Chicago Club. Pacing 
back and forth, he related the story of his visit, and spoke of 
how firm was his determination to go on with the amalgamation 
of Rush Medical College and the University and its develop- 
ment along broad lines; he paused and, raising his right hand 
high above his head, exclaimed, 'These plans must be carried 
out or I shall resign my position as president of the University.' 

"Again he brought the matter of the organic union of Rush 
and the University before the University Board of Trustees and 
again, as well as a third time, later on, his recommendation 
was adopted. 

"At this time, however, the fatal malady which was to bring 
to an end his brilliant, active and wonderfully useful life had 
already manifested its first symptoms. He died a year later in 
February, 1906." 

The untimely death of President Harper was a loss to 
Rush Medical College and to medical education which 
it is not possible adequately to measure. That, had he 
lived, he would have found the way to the consumma- 
tion of the plans he had evolved for the development of a 
great medical school will never be doubted by the fac- 
ulty of Rush Medical College, or by any of the men who 
comprehended his genius for organization, his inflexible 
determination and his indomitable perseverance. 


Soon after his death the deans of Rush Medical Col- 
lege and the comptroller secured an interview with the 
acting president of the University, Harry Pratt Judson. 
They expressed the desire of the faculty of Rush to do 
whatever the University thought best in the matter of 
the affiliation which had then continued for eight years. 
The College was willing to withdraw from this affilia- 
tion if it was thought in any way to embarrass the Uni- 
versity. They were assured of the conviction of the presi- 
dent that the affiliation should continue, of his loyalty 
to the college and his desire to do anything in his power 
to promote its work. He thought, however, that the time 
was inopportune to take any steps in the matter of or- 
ganic union, and so, for the succeeding four years or 
more, no further action was taken. 

This halt in the plan was the more regrettable since 
the negotiations had proceeded with high hopes on both 
sides. In anticipation of the expected amalgamation of 
the College and the University, President Harper had 
arranged a number of conferences with the deans and 
the comptroller to elaborate plans for the expansion and 
development of the medical school. These meetings 
were held at various times in 1 903 and 1 904, and usually 
took the form of a dinner given by some member of the 
group. As the result of these conferences and of discus- 
sions in the council of administration and of the full 
faculty, President Harper had formulated a scheme for 
the development of a medical school which was the most 
comprehensive and far-reaching in its possibilities of 
usefulness of any plan which has ever been outlined. 
Only the outlines of this plan can here be set forth. 

"At the University campus, on ground which he had already 
selected on the south side of the Midway, near Ellis Avenue, 


was to be erected a hospital with, at first, five pavillions— one 
each for medicine, for pediatrics, for neurology and psychiatry, 
for surgery and for obstetrics and gynecology, with an average 
of fifty beds each, a total of 250 beds. This hospital was to be 
primarily for research in clinical medicine, surgery, etc., not 
receiving a miscellaneous lot of patients such as are ordinarily 
to be found in hospitals, but gathering from its own out- 
patient department, from other hospitals or from any source 
from which they might be obtained a group or groups of cases 
to serve specifically as the subject of investigation. 

"At Rush Medical College proper, on the West Side, with its 
Central Free Dispensary, in the very heart of the great industrial 
district of Chicago; its Presbyterian Hospital of 400 beds the 
immediately adjacent Cook County Hospital of over 2,000 beds 
together with other near-by hospitals and dispensaries, which 
were available for clinical teaching, it was planned to continue 
the principal center for the training of undergraduates in 
clinical medicine. 

"And, finally, it was hoped that ultimately there could be 
developed on the north side of the city, with its numerous hos- 
pitals, a policlinic and postgraduate school, devoted primarily 
to the instruction of practitioners . . . either of that group who 
desired to fit themselves for the practive of some specialty, or 
the larger group of general practitioners, family doctors— who 
wished to refresh their knowledge of the old or acquire knowl- 
edge of the newer facts and methods. 

"Nor was it planned that research should be confined to the 
University center. Provision was to be made for such work, 
and it was to be encouraged at each of the three centers. . ." 


The failure of the plan for organic union of Rush 
with the University of Chicago, and the death of Presi- 
dent Harper did not cause the Rush Faculty to abandon 
it. They recognized that during the eight years of af- 
filiation more had been accomplished in improving 
standards of medical education than could have been 


Frank Billings, 1854-1932 

James Bryan Herrick, 1861- 

Ludvig Hektoen 

anticipated in many times eight years by Rush as an in- 
dependent school. They resolved to carry on. 

But this resolution involved financial sacrifices even 
greater than most of the faculty had foreseen. The ad- 
vance of admission requirements to two years of college 
with specified requirements in physics, chemistry and 
biology, quickly reduced the enrollment, and the re- 
ceipts from college fees. The low point in student en- 
rollment came in 1 905-06 when the freshman class num- 
bered 65 instead of the former 200. There was some 
comfort, however, in the knowledge that other medical 
schools had suffered a much greater reduction, in stu- 
dents—to 6, 11, 15 students in some, after a similar in- 
crease in admission requirements. 

Rush had only a nominal endowment and practically 
no income other than tuition fees. Further economies 
were required; many members of the teaching staff who 
had been receiving small stipends now served willingly 
without pay. A number of friends who had subscribed 
to the original million of 1904, at the request of Dr. 
Billings, allowed part of their subscription to be used 
to meet the operating deficit. The remainder was made 
up by the college faculty. Thus Rush painfully, heroi- 
cally, but successfully passed through a trying financial 


The affiliation begun in 1898 continued, and in 1917 
the plan of the University of Chicago to establish de- 
partments of medicine and surgery on the campus at 
the University was announced. In the foreword to the 
announcement Dr. Frank Billings recorded the gift of 
$1,000,000 by the Billings family for the erection of a 
hospital of 250 beds on the Midway. Endowment of 


$3,000,000 was to De provided for "the maintenance of 
the hospital and to furnish funds to pay the salaries of 
the full time teachers of clinical medicine who will also 
be the staff of the hospital." 

"On the west side at Rush Medical College the old 
building will be replaced by a new laboratory and clini- 
cal building estimated to cost $300,000. The sum for 
the erection of this building has been donated by Mr. 
Frederick H. Rawson of Chicago. It will have direct 
communication with the Presbyterian Hospital. The 
Presbyterian Hospital with its 440 beds will furnish the 
clinical material of the graduate school. The graduate 
school will be endowed with $1,000,000, the income of 
which will be used in payment of the salaries of the 
teachers of the graduate school, some of whom will be 
members of the staff of the Presbyterian Hospital . . . 
necessarily the graduate school will afford an opportun- 
ity for many qualified teachers on part time and part 

») q 

pay. 6 

In an official bulletin from the office of the President 
of the University, more details of the plan appeared. (It 
will be noted that the provisions for Rush were less spe- 
cific) . "Medical research involving scientific study of 
the causes of disease ... is becoming increasingly vitally 
important. Such research will naturally center in the 
quadrangles of the University in connection with the 
new medical school in the quadrangles on the Midway. 
Of course, also, it should be carried on in the graduate 
school in connection with its laboratories and with the 
Presbyterian Hospital. The University will hope to be 

8 "The plan for establishing Departments of Medicine and Surgery 
in the University of Chicago"— Dr. Frank Billings— Rush Alumni 
Bulletin XII No. 3— Jan. p. 17. 


provided with funds of its own from time to time for 
carrying on such investigations. Meanwhile it is pro- 
posed to form contractual relations with the trustees of 
funds which have already been devoted to such pur- 

The hope here expressed was never realized. 


In carrying through the plan announced in 1917, 
Rush in 1923 became an integral part of the University 
of Chicago, and the property of Rush was transferred to 
the University. The new Rawson building at Rush was 
completed and dedicated in 1924. Undergraduate medi- 
cal teaching was continued at Rush, although the ulti- 
mate disposition of Rush activities as a post graduate 
medical school remained a part of the plan. 

The period 1924-41 was one of uncertainty. Rush still 
subsisted largely on student fees. With a few departmen- 
tal exceptions such as pathology, the faculty served will- 
ingly as in the past years without pay. The Memorial 
Institute for Infectious Diseases under Dr. Hektoen 
kept the research spirit alive, and the inherited enthusi- 
asm for training good doctors sustained the morale of 
Rush. But the faculty were not happy. 

Vigorous protest by Rush Alumni over the appar- 
ently impending loss of the Rush name with its century 
of tradition and achievement disturbed both faculty 
and alumni. (24) . The retention of the name "Rush" 
in the "Rush Post-Graduate School" appeased to some 
extent their resentment. 

Members of the faculty still fostered the hope that 
even at this late date, in view of the nation-wide changes 
in medical education, the evident passing of the old 


type post-graduate schools, the multiplication of insti- 
tutes and foundations for research, and the obvious nec- 
essity for broad clinical experience of both teachers and 
students, the program of the University might be altered 
so as to make Rush with its great adjacent hospital fa- 
cilities the site of undergraduate teaching. 

This return to the plan, envisaged by President Har- 
per and exemplified by Harvard Medical School, met 
with support among a number of the University faculty. 
Such a program was evolved after a series of conferences 
between the President of the University and the Dean 
of Rush. A University faculty member reported to the 
president that in carrying out his mission he had pre- 
sented the plan to Eastern interests and had received 
their approval. But at the last moment the University 
was informed that while the University could of course 
make its own decision, in the event of approval of the 
change, Eastern financial support badly needed by the 
University would be withdrawn. Again the power of 
control exercised by subsidy was evident. Two subse- 
quent periods of discussion along similar lines were like- 
wise unproductive. 

Thus the intent of the University to devote its energy 
and resources exclusively to the school on its own 
campus, leaving Rush to exist without endowment, be- 
came clear. The completion of the faculty and hospitals 
serving the full four years on the University campus re- 
moved any further need for Rush. Unofficially the word 
was current on the campus that "Rush is through." 

Throughout all this period the interests of the Pres- 
byterian Hospital and Rush became ever more closely 
identified, and any proposed plan for one was consid- 
ered only in combination with the other. Rush was ap- 


proached by other schools. The Presbyterian Hospital 
was offered building sites in other parts of the city, some 
of which, at first glance, seemed desirable. The hospital 
decided, however, to retain its original site. 

Clearly the University wished to be relieved of its 
responsibility of union with Rush; and Rush, in view of 
the evident trends of medical education and research, 
could see no future in a post-graduate school even if as- 
sured of adequate endowments. Without endowment, 
there was still less future for a faculty whose tradition 
and genius had been directed to undergraduate training 
of good doctors. 

As time passed, the agreement of 1 9 1 7 by which Rush 
accepted the University proposal to develop post- 
graduate teaching on the West Side while the University 
would complete its plans for an undergraduate medical 
school on the South Side, became less and less appealing 
or practical to Rush and to the Presbyterian Hospital. 
The Rush Faculty still hoped for some change in the 
policy of the University, even after the Union of 1924, 
which clearly provided for postgraduate teaching on 
the West Side. 

The discussions narrowed down to (1) permanent 
acceptance by Rush of the postgraduate program to 
which by now the University gave but dubious ap- 
proval, or (2) the alternative of moving the Presby- 
terian Hospital to the South Side campus. To this latter 
proposal the Hospital was reluctant to agree for several 
reasons, which included the expense involved and the 
abandonment of community obligations and the grow- 
ing prospective opportunities at its present site. 

The obvious solution seemed to be a dissolution of 
the union of the University and Rush, and the estab- 


lishment of relations by Rush through the Presbyterian 
Hospital with the adjacent medical school of the Uni- 
versity of Illinois. This realignment of medical facilities 
was accomplished through a friendly suit in the Circuit 
Court of Cook County before Judge Klarkowski in 
June, 1941. 

The union was dissolved. 

The decree of the court together with certain other 
data are included in the appendix to this sketch. 


Chapter 9 


During this latest period the interests of the hospital 
and the Rush faculty became still more closely identi- 
fied. The faculty envisaged a group of laboratories in 
which clinical problems of hospital patients could be 
studied, and opportunity for prolonged advanced train- 
ing afforded to younger promising members of the staff. 
This plan met with favor of the Hospital. Funds for edu- 
cational purposes had been received by the Hospital, 
and for almost the first time substantial endowment 
funds came to the Rush Trustees. Other additional re- 
search funds were made available by those who saw in 
this program a worthy contribution to medical knowl- 
edge and medical education. The Rush Trustees leased 
the college buildings to the Presbyterian Hospital, and 
the Hospital contracted with the University of Illinois 
Medical School for undergraduate teaching of Illinois 
medical students in the hospital wards. The Presby- 
terian Hospital is now in the midst of a progressive 
building program at its original site in the developing 
West Side Medical Center. 

Department heads of pathology and bacteriology, of 
biochemistry and of medicine who could command top 
salaries were appointed, and salaries for their staffs were 
provided. Extensive laboratory facilities were con- 
structed, and equipment installed. Members of the 
Rush faculty became members of the University of Il- 
linois Medical faculty. 


The Charter of Rush Medical College was main- 
tained through the yearly appointment by the Trustees 
of a faculty consisting of one representative from each 
of the departments of the Hospital. (This faculty can 
be expanded at any time in the future.) The autonomy 
of the Rush Alumni Association was maintained. 

Under this program, the hospital receives the con- 
tinued values of undergraduate teaching in its wards, 
and the faculty participate in both the training of good 
physicians of the future and in the stimulation of re- 
search. Internes and residents are afforded opportunity 
for training under a faculty and in a hospital whose tra- 
dition is that of good medicine and the welfare of the 

4 6 

Bertram Welton Sippy, 1866-1924 

Dean DeWitt Lewis, 1874-1941 

Rush and Presbyterian 
Hospital Today 

Nurses Residence 
(Presbyterian Hospital) 

Chapter 10 

Rush medical college thus completed its first century 
of undergraduate teaching leading to the degree of Doc- 
tor of Medicine in 1 942, and entered into a new relation- 
ship with the Medical School of the University of Illi- 

In this first century of service in medical education 
and in the care of the sick, Rush graduated 10,976 physi- 
cians. These alumni living and dead, include many dis- 
tinguished physicians who contributed much to medi- 
cal science and to medical education. Hundreds of Rush 
graduates were called to the medical departments of 
other schools of the nation to participate in administra- 
tion, research, and teaching, especially in the Midwest, 
North and West. Rush men are leaders in the civic ac- 
tivities of their communities, accepting the responsibili- 
ties of good citizenship. 

Above all, however, they have exemplified the ideals 
and spirit of service to humanity, always fostered as the 
central theme of the teaching of the Rush faculty. 

The faculty of Rush who participated in the teaching 
and educational progress of the past fifty years had in- 
cluded many graduates of Rush as well as those who 
came from other schools. They present a galaxy of great 
names identified with the triumphs of American medi- 
cine, with research, with advancing standards of medi- 
cal practice, above all, with service to the public. The 
older present Rush Alumni profited by their teaching 


and inspiration; the younger alumni have benefited by 
their example, and by the tradition of honest, progres- 
sive and good medicine that they established and contin- 

A partial list of those who gave distinguished service 
to Rush includes: Drs. Christian Fenger, Henry M. Ly- 
man, Nicholas Senn, Norman Bridge, John Edwin 
Rhodes, Frank Billings, Henry B. Favill, Walter S. 
Haines, Bertram W. Sippy, William H. Wilder, Ludvig 
Hektoen, E. R. Lecount, John M. Dodson, James B. 
Herrick, Alfred C. Cotton, David B. Graham, Daniel 
Brower, Arthur D. Bevan, Oliver S. Ormsby, J. Clar- 
ence Webster, Stanton Friedberg, Dean D. Lewis, 
George E. Shambaugh, Ralph W. Webster, L. C. Gate- 
wood. These and many others labored devotedly for 
Rush. Their professional and educational descendants 
now carry on the work of their former chiefs. 

Throughout the century-long service of Rush, its 
financial affairs have been directed by a board of trus- 
tees who have given faithful service to the college. The 
president of the first board of trustees was William B. 
Ogden, the first Mayor of Chicago, who served the Col- 
lege from 1847 to 1872. Associated with him on the first 
board were E. S. Kimberly, John H. Kinzie, Walter L. 
Newberry, and other citizens prominent in the history 
of frontier Chicago. 

Following the affiliation of Rush with the University 
in 1898, John J. Glessner became president of the Rush 
Board and served until 1936. He was followed by 
Thomas E. Donnelley. 

In recalling their undergraduate days, Rush alumni 
will fondly remember also James H. Harper, Registrar; 
and Otto Swanson, Custodian of the Rush buildings 


who knew all the students and faculty for fifty years, and 
knew also where everything was to be found. 

I close this brief sketch of Rush Medical College with 
the prophetic concluding paragraph of the inaugural 
address of Daniel Brainard in 1 843 : 

"In conclusion, might we speak of our hopes for the 
future? Uncertain as hopes proverbially are, we feel jus- 
tified in believing that the school we this day open is 
destined to be ranked among the permanent institutions 
of our state. It must succeed ... It may pass, and will in 
time, into other and abler hands; it may meet with ob- 
stacles, be surrounded by difficulties but it will live on, 
identified with the interests of a great and prosperous 

Rush Medical College has justified the hopes and 
prophesy of Brainard. The trustees propose to preserve 
the rich heritage symbolized by the Charter of Rush. 





Appendix I 


The Act of the Legislature of Illinois, Approved March 2, 
183J, Entitled An Act to Incorporate the Rush Medical Col- 

Section 1 . Be it enacted by the People of the State of Il- 
linois, represented in the General Assembly, 

That Theophilus W. Smith, Thomas Ford, E. D. Taylor, 
Josiah C. Goodhue, Isaac T. Hinton, John T. Temple, Jus- 
tin Butterfield, Edmund S. Kimberly, James H. Collins, 
Henry Moore, S. S. Whitman, John Wright, William B. 
Ogden, Ebenezer Peck, John H. Kinzie, John D. Caton and 
Grant Goodrich, be, and they are hereby created a body 
politic and corporate, to be styled and known by the name 
of the "Trustees of the Rush Medical College," and by that 
style and name to remain and have perpetual succession. 
The College shall be located in or near Chicago, in Cook 
County. The number of trustees shall not exceed seventeen, 
exclusive of the Governor and Lieutenant Governor of this 
State, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, and the 
President of the College, all of whom shall be ex-officio 
members of the board of trustees. 

Section 2. The object of incorporation shall be to pro- 
mote the general interests of medical education, and to 
qualify young men to engage usefully and honorably in the 
professions of medicine and surgery. 

Section 3. The corporate powers hereby bestowed, shall 
be such only as are essential or useful in the attainment of 
said objects, and such as are usually conferred on similar 


bodies corporate, namely: In their corporate name to have 
perpetual succession; to make contracts; to sue and be sued; 
to plead and be impleaded; to grant and receive by its cor- 
porate name, and to do all other acts as natural persons may; 
to accept and acquire, purchase and sell property, real, per- 
sonal or mixed; in all lawful ways to use, employ, manage, 
dispose of such property, and all money belonging to said 
corporation, in such manner as shall seem to the trustees 
best adapted to promote the objects aforesaid; to have a 
common seal, and to alter and change the same; to make 
such by-laws as are not inconsistent with the Constitution 
and laws of the United States, and this State; and to confer 
on such persons as may be considered worthy, such aca- 
demical or honorary degrees as are usually conferred by 
such institutions. 

Section 4. The trustees of said College shall have author- 
ity, from time to time, to prescribe and regulate the course 
of studies to be pursued in said College; to fix the rate of 
tuition, lecture fees and other College expenses; to appoint 
instructors, professors and such other officers and agents as 
may be needed in managing the concerns of the institution; 
to define their powers, duties and employments, and to fix 
their compensation; to displace and remove either of the 
instructors, officers or agents, or all of them, whenever the 
said trustees shall deem it for the interest of the College to 
do so; to fill all vacancies among said instructors, professors, 
officers or agents; to erect all necessary and suitable build- 
ings; to purchase books and philosophical and chemical ap- 
paratus and procure the necessary and suitable means of in- 
struction in all the different departments of medicine and 
surgery; to make rules for the general management of the 
affairs of the College. 

Section 5. The board of trustees shall have power to re- 
move any trustee from office for dishonorable or criminal 
conduct; Provided, That no such removal shall take place 


without giving to such trustee notice of the charges pre- 
ferred against him, and an opportunity to defend himself 
before the board, nor unless two-thirds of the whole num- 
ber of trustees for the time being shall concur in such re- 
moval. The board of trustees shall have power whenever 
a vacancy shall occur by removal from office, death, resig- 
nation, or removal out of the State, to appoint some citizen 
of the State to fill such vacancy. The majority of the trustees 
for the time being, shall constitute a quorum to transact 

Section 6. The trustees shall faithfully apply all funds by 
them collected, in erecting suitable buildings; in support- 
ing the necessary instructors, professors, officers and agents; 
and procuring books, philosophical and chemical appa- 
ratus, and specimens in natural history, mineralogy, geol- 
ogy, and botany, and such other means as may be necessary 
or useful for teaching thoroughly the different branches of 
medicine and surgery; Provided, That in case any donation, 
devise, or bequest, shall be made for particular purposes, 
accordant with the object of the institution, and the trustees 
shall accept the same, every such donation, devise, or be- 
quest, shall be applied in conformity with the express con- 
dition of the donor or devisor; Provided also, That lands 
donated or devised as aforesaid, shall be sold or disposed of 
as required by the last section of this act. 

Section 7. The treasurer of said College always, and all 
other agents, when required by the trustees, before entering 
upon the duties of their office, shall give bonds respectively, 
for the security of the corporation, in such penal sum, and 
with such sureties as the board of trustees approve; and all 
process against said corporation shall be by summons, and 
service of the same shall be by leaving an attested copy with 
the treasurer of the College, at least thirty days before the 
return day thereof. 

Section 8. The lands, tenements, and hereditaments, to 


be had in perpetuity in virtue of this act, by said institution, 
shall not exceed six hundred and forty acres; Provided, how- 
ever, That if donations, grants or devises of land, shall from 
time to time be made to said corporation, over and above 
six hundred and forty acres, which may be held in perpetu- 
ity as aforesaid, the same may be received and held by said 
corporation, for the period of six years from the date of any 
such donation, grant or devise; at the end of which time, if 
the said lands over and above the six hundred and forty 
acres, shall not have been sold, then, and in that case, the 
lands so donated, granted, or devised, shall revert to the 
said donor, grantor, or to their heirs. 
Approved, 2d March, 1837. 

The Act of the Legislature of Illinois, approved December 
23, 1844, entitled (An Act to amend an Act entitled "An Act 
to Incorporate the Rush Medical College") 

Section 1. Be it enacted by the People of the State of Illi- 
nois, represented in the General Assembly, 

That the number of trustees of said College shall not ex- 
ceed fourteen, exclusive of the Governor and Lieutenant 
Governor of the State, the Speaker of the House of Rep- 
resentatives, and the President of the College, all of whom 
shall be ex-officio members of the board of trustees, and a 
majority of said trustees for the time being, exclusive of 
such ex-officio members, shall constitute a quorum to trans- 
act business. 

Section 2. Any part of the act to which this is an amend- 
ment, which may conflict with this act, is hereby repealed. 

Approved, December 23, 1844. 

The Act of the Legislature of Illinois, approved February 
10, 1857, authorizing the trustees of Rush Medical College 
to make a loan, entitled, (An Act to Authorize the Trustees 
of Rush Medical College to Make a Loan) 


Whereas, the trustees of Rush Medical College, of the City 
of Chicago, in this state, have contracted a considerable in- 
debtedness, in the erection of additions to their college 
buildings, in said city, and contemplate the necessity of the 
erection of other buildings and improvements upon their 
college grounds; therefore, 

Section i. Be it enacted by the People of the State of Illi- 
nois, represented in the General Assembly, That the said 
trustees shall, in their corporate capacity, have full power 
and authority to borrow, from time to time, any sum of 
money, not exceeding in all the sum of fifty thousand dol- 
lars, for such period of time as they may elect, at a rate of 
interest not exceeding ten per centum per annum, payable 
annually or semi-annually, at such place or places as they 
may contract, for the purpose of liquidating their present 
indebtedness, and for any other uses of the said college. 

Section 2. In case of any loan or loans, under the provi- 
sions of this Act, the said Trustees shall have full and ample 
power to execute all such bonds or other obligations, and 
also securities, by way of mortgage or otherwise, upon the 
property of said college, as may be requisite and proper for 
such purpose. 

This Act to be in force from and after its passage. 

Approved, Feb. 10, 1857. 

The Act of the Legislature of Illinois, approved February 
13, 1865, enabling Rush Medical College to fund its in- 
debtedness and to borrow money, entitled, (An Act to En- 
able Rush Medical College, of Chicago, to Fund its present 
Indebtedness and to Borrow Money) 

Section 1. Be it enacted by the People of the State of Illi- 
nois, represented in the General Assembly, That the trus- 
tees of Rush Medical College of Chicago have, and the 
power is hereby conferred upon them, or a majority of 
them, to liquidate all of the present indebtedness of said 


college, and to that end the said trustees are hereby author- 
ized to issue bonds, in sums of not less than one hundred 
dollars, in the usual form, payable to the holders of said 
indebtedness, or order, or to bearer, at their option, pay- 
able at such day and at such rate of interest, not to exceed 
ten per cent, per annum, as to said trustees shall seem ex- 
pedient, and to pay such indebtedness with such bonds, or 
to negotiate and sell the same in the market, and with the 
proceeds pay such indebtedness. And the said trustees are 
hereby further authorized to execute a mortgage or deed of 
trust upon all the real estate and property of said college, in 
the usual form, for the better securing the payment of said 
bonds, with the interest to accrue thereon. 

Section 2. The said trustees are hereby authorized and 
empowered, from time to time, to borrow money, not ex- 
ceeding in all the sum of one hundred thousand dollars, for 
the purpose of erecting additions to or rebuilding said col- 
lege buildings; and, for that purpose, to issue bonds, and 
secure the payment of the same upon the college property, 
in all respects as provided, in the preceding section. 

Approved February 13, 1865. 


Appendix II 


We, the undersigned, being citizens of the United States, 
desiring to form a society, not for pecuniary profit, pursuant 
to an act of the General Assembly of Illinois, entitled "an 
act concerning corporations," approved April 18, 1872, do 
hereby certify that the following is a true statement of the 
name, or title, by which such society shall be known in law, 
the particular business and object for which it is formed, 
the number of its managers, and the names of the same se- 
lected for the first year of its existence, viz: 

1. The name by which this society shall be known shall 
be "The Presbyterian Hospital of the City of Chicago." 

2. The object of this society is the establishment, support 
and management of an institution for the purpose of afford- 
ing surgical and medical aid, and nursing, to sick and dis- 
abled persons of every creed, nationality and color. 

3. The affairs of this society shall be under the direction 
of a Board of twenty eight managers. 

4. The number of the managers of this society shall be 
twenty eight, after the first year of its existence. The names 
of those selected as managers for the first year are as follows: 
Tuthill King, Daniel R. Pearsons, William Blair, Rob't. C. 
Hamill, John H. Barrows, C. M. Henderson, John B. Drake, 
Nathan Corwith, Samuel M. Moore, Henry W. King, W. H. 
Wells, Henry Waller, Henry M. Lyman, Jas. M. Horton, 
Willis G. Craig, Cyrus H. McCormick, Jr., Jacob Beidler, 
Jos. P. Ross. 1884 


Appendix III 



Department of State 
George H. Harlow, Secretary of State 

To All to Whom these Presents shall come— Greeting: 

Whereas, a Certificate, duly signed and acknowledged, 
having been Filed in the Office of the Secretary of State, on 
the ist day of April, A.D. 1873, for the organization of the 
Central Free Dispensary of West Chicago under and in ac- 
cordance with the provisions of "An Act Concerning Corpo- 
rations," approved April 18, 1872, and in force July 1, 1872, 
a copy of which certificate is hereto attached. 

Now, Therefore, I, George H. Harlow, Secretary of 
State of the State of Illinois, by virtue of the powers and 
duties vested in me by law, do hereby certify that the said 
The Central Free Dispensary of West Chicago is a legally 
organised corporation under the laws of this State. 

In Testimony Whereof, I hereto set my hand and cause 
to be affixed the Great Seal of State. 

Done at the City of Springfield, this 1st day of April in the 
year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and seventy 
three, and of the Independence of the United States the 

Seal of State of Illinois. 

Geo. H. Harlow, 
Secretary of State. 


i. We A. E. Bishop, A. G. Throop, John F. Eberhardt, 
John Crighton, E. Ingals, S. P. Walker, P. W. Gates, J. P. 
Ross, Charles E. Chase, Hugh Templeton, Samuel Hoard 
and Philip Adolphus do hereby certify that we propose to 
form ourselves into a corporation (Not for pecuniary profit) 
under the Act of the General Assembly of the State of Illi- 
nois Approved April 18, 1872 and in force July 1, 1872 En- 
titled "An Act Concerning Corporations." 

2. The name of said Corporation shall be The Central 
Free Dispensary of West Chicago and said Corporation shall 
endure for Ninety Nine Years. 

3. The objects for which said Corporation is formed are 
to aid all persons who are sick and are unable to pay for 
medical attendance's To diffuse Vaccination by Continuous 
and unwearied Efforts and to do this work efficiently at a 
very small cost and with no pecuniary profit. 

4. The aforesaid persons shall constitute the board of 
directors for the first year. 

5. The business of said Corporation shall be located in 
Chicago in the State of Illinois and its business office at such 
place or places in said city as a majority of its directors shall 
from time to time direct. 

In witness whereof we have hereunto set our hands and 
seals this 14th day of March A.D. 1873. 

A. E. Bishop (L S), A. G. Throop (L S), John F. Eber- 
hardt (L S), Chas. E. Chase (L S), Ephraim Ingals (L S), 
S. P. Walker (L S), P. W. Gates (L S), Jos. P. Ross, M.D. 
(L. S), John Crighton (L S), Hugh Templeton (L S), Sam 
Hoard (L S), Philip Adolphus (L S). 


Appendix IV 





Whereas the Board of Trustees of the University of Illi- 
nois, hereinafter referred to as the University, and The 
Presbyterian Hospital of the City of Chicago, Illinois, here- 
inafter referred to as the Hospital, desire to bring about 
closer cooperation than now is possible in order to improve 
the standards of medical instruction and the treatment of 

Now, Therefore, it is agreed: 

1. Nothing in this agreement shall be construed to affect 
the independence or any function either of the University 
or the Hospital not expressly covered herein. 

2. The University shall formulate a comprehensive co- 
ordinated program of undergraduate and graduate medical 
education and research which shall be designed to use 
jointly the facilities of the Hospital, the Colleges of Medi- 
cine, Dentistry and Pharmacy of the University, and the 
Research and Educational Hospitals and the Institutes of 
the University. 

3. The University, upon request of the Hospital, will 
suggest a program of affiliation of the School of Nursing of 
the Hospital with or without incorporation thereof in the 
University educational system. 

4. Appointments to the staff of the Hospital shall be 
made as hitherto by the Board of Managers thereof. 

(a) Nominations for new appointments to the staff shall 


be made by the University after adequate consultation be- 
tween appropriate administrative officers in the College of 
Medicine and in the staff of the Hospital. 

(b) The University may nominate, after adequate con- 
sultation between the appropriate administrative officers of 
the College of Medicine and in the staff of the Hospital, a 
limited number of qualified members of its faculty of Medi- 
cine to the staff of the Hospital. 

(c) The Executive Committee of the staff of the Hospital 
shall review all nominations of the University and forward 
them with its recommendations to the Board of Managers 
of the Hospital. 

(d) The University will appoint to its clinical faculty of 
Medicine the members of the staff of the Hospital. 

5. The Dean of the College of Medicine of the Univer- 
sity, or a representative designated by him, shall be a mem- 
ber of the Executive Committee of the staff of the Hospital, 
but without the privilege to vote. 

6. It is understood, subject to court approval, that the 
existing Rush Medical College facilities will be made avail- 
able to the Hospital and that the Trustees of Rush Medical 
College, with its facilities and trust funds, will cooperate 
with the University and the Hospital in the above men- 
tioned program of medical education, and that the Univer- 
sity, in order to provide continuity between the old and 
new organizations, will designate those members of the 
Rush faculty who become members of its College of Medi- 
cine as "Rush Professors." 

7. In entering into and carrying out this agreement, 
neither party assumes any responsibility for the budgetary 
obligations of the other. 


Appendix V 




OF JUNE 20, 1941 

11. After thorough consideration of the problems in- 
volved, the College, the University and the other parties in 
interest have concluded that, under present conditions, it 
is not desirable or for the best interests of said parties to 
continue operating under the said contract of May 7, 1924. 
The principal reasons which have led the parties to this 
conclusion and have caused the College to institute this suit 
are the following: 

(1) The College for a period of many years has occupied 
an eminent position in the field of medical education. Its 
faculty has carried on much research work but increasingly 
feels the lack of adequate facilities. The faculty of the Col- 
lege wishes to continue its present work and expand it. The 
Hospital was organized about 58 years ago at the instance 
of the College in order to furnish the College with a teach- 
ing hospital, and both the Hospital and the College wish to 
increase their resources and make more effective use of their 

(2) During recent years, the University has become con- 
vinced and has so informed the College that the great po- 
tentialities of the College could not be realized in associa- 
tion with the University unless the College was moved to 
the South side Campus of the University or unless it aban- 
doned its undergraduate instruction in medicine and de- 
voted itself to graduate instruction. During the past twenty- 


five years the University has developed a medical school and 
hospitals on its quadrangles on the South side of Chicago 
and, although, since the agreement of May 7, 1924, it has 
included in its annual budgets appropriations for operating 
the College at the latter's location on the West side of Chi- 
cago, the University, on or about November 20, 1936, noti- 
fied the College that it had reluctantly reached the conclu- 
sion that it would be necessary to discontinue undergradu- 
ate teaching at the College with the year 1941-1942 and 
again proposed that the College and the Hospital move to 
the South side quadrangles so that its medical schools could 
be consolidated, which the University considered to be in 
the interest of medical education, or as an alternative pro- 
posed to develop a center for advanced professional train- 
ing at the College on the West side. Those proposals have 
not been acceptable to the College or its faculty or the Hos- 
pital since, in their opinion, neither of such proposals would 
have provided a satisfactory means of accomplishing the 
corporate objects and purposes of the College and the Hos- 
pital as hereinafter set forth. The proposal of moving the 
College and the Hospital to the South side involves serious 
financial and practical difficulties, while the proposal for a 
center of advanced professional training on the West side 
is handicapped by the distance between the College and the 
Hospital on the one hand and the University's departments 
of biological sciences and fails to utilize the experience and 
qualifications of the faculty of the College for undergradu- 
ate medical education. 

(3) The University, the College and the Hospital agree 
that the objectives of medical education and research can 
best be served when the study of patients and medical prob- 
lems is made in surroundings which afford close association 
with University science departments. Owing to the distance 
between the University's South side plant and the College 
and Hospital on the West side, and other practical consid- 


erations, essential close coordination and cooperation be- 
tween the College and Hospital and the University's South 
side scientific departments has, through the experience of 
recent years, been shown not to be feasible. 

(4) The College and Hospital wish to continue their 
program of undergraduate medical education at their plants 
on the West side and to develop and expand a graduate 
school and their research departments. The College should 
therefore associate itself with an educational institution lo- 
cated nearer to the College, of which the College can be 
actually a part. This should be an institution which has 
fully developed pre-clinical departments which can conduct 
the basic scientific education and research that is funda- 
mental to the work of the clinical teacher and investigator. 
The University of Illinois during the past fifteen years has 
established and developed in the immediate vicinity of the 
College one of the largest and best equipped medical schools 
in the State and is thus an institution ideally located and 
organized for meeting the above mentioned requirements. 
Its objectives in medical education are essentially the same 
as those of the College faculty. Because of the location of 
the University of Illinois Medical School and Hospitals, and 
because of the identity of aim of that institution and the 
College, the College should be able to realize its possibilities 
better under an affiliation through the Hospital, with the 
University of Illinois, than in any other way. The College 
and the Hospital believe the plan set forth in the proposed 
contract, plaintiff's Exhibit 9, will enable them to accom- 
plish those objects most effectively. The general advantages 
of such a plan and particularly of the proposed affiliation 
with the University of Illinois are: 

a. Undergraduate instruction would be continued on the 


West side in the facilities of the College by the University 
of Illinois with the cooperation of the Hospital and the Col- 


b. A graduate program could be developed by the co- 
operation of the University of Illinois, the College, the Hos- 
pital and whatever other institutions may wish to join in 
the program. 

c. The College and Hospital, both being located near the 
Chicago campus of the University of Illinois Medical School 
have convenient access to its professional schools equipped 
with $16,000,000 in value of new buildings including 
science laboratories, hospitals with nearly 1000 beds, library 
and educational buildings. 

d. Under the proposed plan as set out in Exhibit 9 the 
College will remain a part of the great medical center that 
is developing on the West side of the City of Chicago. It will 
be able to take full advantage of the educational and scien- 
tific possibilities of the Cook County Hospital, which is also 
adjacent to the College, and under such proposed plan it 
will have a university association which it believes will 
prove of great use and value to it. 

12. Over a period of several years the University, the Col- 
lege and the Hospital have considered numerous alternative 
plans for accomplishing a more satisfactory relationship be- 
tween the three institutions. After a thorough consideration 
of all the numerous questions involved and giving due re- 
gard to the public interest which is necessarily involved, the 
University, the College, the Hospital and the Dispensary 
propose to enter into the contract, a copy of which is plain- 
tiff's Exhibit 9. 

13. The College, by itself does not have adequate funds 
for the accomplishment of its corporate objects of promot- 
ing the general interests of medical education and qualify- 
ing young men to engage usefully and honorably in the 
professions of medicine and surgery having only the prop- 
erty and funds now held by it and those to be acquired as 
hereinafter described; but it desires to continue its corpo- 
rate existence, to retain the ownership of its property and to 


continue to administer the trust funds which it now holds 
and those which will be returned or retransferred to it by 
the University under said proposed contract, as described in 
plaintiff's Exhibits 7 and 8, to make awards from time to 
time of fellowships, scholarships, or otherwise, to any one 
in the College or in any medical schools in any way affiliated 
with the College, all to the end that the resources and per- 
sonnel of the College shall continue to be devoted to and 
usefully employed in the field of medical education to the 
maximum of its ability in furtherance of its corporate ob- 
jects in the manner most feasible under existing conditions. 
14. The Hospital was incorporated in response to the de- 
sire of the College that a hospital be established to enable 
the College to accomplish its objects aforesaid. Thereupon 
the College and the Hospital entered into an agreement 
dated January 2, 1884, recorded in Book 2006, at page 267 
of the records of Cook County, Illinois, and the College, by 
deed dated February 25, 1884, conveyed to the Hospital the 
real estate described in said agreement. The Hospital pro- 
ceeded to carry out its covenants under said agreement, 
namely, to complete the hospital building theretofore com- 
menced by the College on said real estate; to furnish the 
same for a hospital and to conduct and maintain therein a 
hospital for the treatment of sick, injured and disabled per- 
sons, to appoint medical officers and attendants of said hos- 
pital for the treatment of the sick, injured and disabled per- 
sons, to appoint medical officers and attendants of said 
hospital upon nomination of the faculty of the College, to 
give said faculty the sole and exclusive control and man- 
agement of all clinical instruction in said Hospital, and to 
prepare and maintain in conjunction with said faculty rules 
and regulations for the medical management of said in- 
stitution. The Hospital has continued to conduct and main- 
tain its hospital upon said real estate and adjoining real 
estate on the West side of the City of Chicago, to appoint 


its medical and surgical staff upon nomination originally 
of the faculty of the College, and subsequently of its as- 
signee, the University, and to provide facilities in its said 
hospital for the clinical instruction of students of the Col- 
lege and of the University qualifying to engage in the pro- 
fessions of medicine and surgery. The Hospital desires and 
intends to continue to appoint its medical and surgical staff 
from a medical and surgical faculty of University grade and 
to continue to provide facilities in its hospital for instruc- 
tion of students qualifying to engage usefully and honorably 
in the professions of medicine and surgery, to develop and 
enlarge its facilities for medical and surgical instruction and 
research, and thereby to promote the general interests of 
medical and surgical education and the public. The Hos- 
pital has at all times deemed and now deems such a teaching 
program important to the accomplishment of its corporate 
objects of establishing, supporting and managing an in- 
stitution for the purpose of affording surgical and medical 
aid and nursing to sick and disabled persons of every creed, 
nationality and color. 

15. The Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois 
has approved a certain draft agreement between the Uni- 
versity of Illinois and the Hospital, of which a copy is at- 
tached as Exhibit H to plaintiff's Exhibit 9, and the Board 
of Managers of the Hospital desire and intend to enter into 
an agreement with the University of Illinois substantially in 
the form and terms of said draft upon the making of the 
agreement designated as plaintiff's Exhibit 9. In this con- 
nection and for this purpose said agreement dated Janu- 
ary 2, 1884, between the College and the Hospital assigned 
with the consent of the Hospital by the College to the Uni- 
versity should be terminated and cancelled. 

16. Certain property of the University hereinafter de- 
scribed (except the Rawson Laboratory and certain replace- 
ments and additions hereinafter mentioned, together with 


certain additional funds which were obtained in the man- 
ner hereinafter stated) was acquired by the University from 
the College under and pursuant to said agreement of May 7, 
1924. The property of the University hereinafter described 
and which the agreement, plaintiff's Exhibit 9, provides 
shall be conveyed by the University to the College, if made 
available under the lease, provided for in said Exhibit 9, to 
the Hospital for the use of the members of its medical staff 
and their students, for dispensary outpatient service, and 
for other hospital purposes, will enable the hospital, under 
said proposed agreement with the University of Illinois 
aforesaid or otherwise, to develop and enlarge its facilities 
for medical and surgical education and research, as afore- 

17. The parties hereto believe and the court finds that 
the cause of medical and surgical education will be ad- 
vanced and the care of the sick poor rendered more effective 
by the consummation of the program set forth in said agree- 
ment (plaintiff's Exhibit 9), whereby the University of Illi- 
nois shall undertake the education of students under the 
tutelage of the staff of the Hospital (among others) and also 
shall nominate appointees to the staff of the Hospital, and 
the Hospital shall make available to the University of Illi- 
nois its facilities for medical and surgical education and re- 
search, including those to be leased to the Hospital by the 
College pursuant to the terms of said agreement (plaintiff's 
Exhibit 9). 

18. The Trustees of the College, after consulting with its 
Faculty and representative Alumni, and after giving care- 
ful consideration to all of the circumstances, have con- 
cluded that the execution and performance of the said 
agreement (plaintiff's Exhibit 9) will be in the interests of 
the College. 

It is therefore ordered, adjudged and decreed as follows: 

First: That the making and carrying out of the plan em- 
bodied in the proposed contract, plaintiff's Exhibit 9, are 
legal and in the best interests of the public and will advance, 
improve and enlarge the facilities for medical and surgical 
education and will make the same more efficient and will 
promote the well being of the public and render the work 
of the College and the Hospital in connection with medical 
and surgical education more efficient than it otherwise 
would be, and thereby greatly benefit the public. 

Second: That all the provisions contained in said pro- 
posed contract are proper provisions and that the plaintiff 
and all of the said corporations which are parties defendant 
hereto have full power and authority under their respective 
charters to enter into all the covenants and agreements con- 
tained in said contract and to perform the same. 

Third: That the court hereby approves the form of con- 
tract set forth in plaintiff's Exhibit 9 and the plaintiff and 
all the corporations which are parties defendant hereto 
should be and they are hereby authorized to enter into and 
execute said contract and to carry out all the provisions and 
the terms thereof and they are hereby authorized to make, 
execute, acknowledge and deliver all deeds, leases, assign- 
ments, transfers, releases and other documents needful or 
convenient to carry out said contract according to its terms 
and to expend from their respective funds all such sums as 
may be necessary or expedient to defray all expenses in- 
curred in connection with the performance of said agree- 
ment including among others, the cost of title policies, ab- 
stract of title, title documents and papers, recording fees 
and other expenses incidental, needful or convenient in 
connection with the transfer of the assets provided for in 
said contract or with the said performance of said contract 
in any other respect and respectively to pay the costs of 
these proceedings, including fees of counsel of the respec- 
tive parties. 


Fourth: That the University is hereby authorized to 
transfer to the College the Mae Manford Bridge bequest 
subject to the conditions set forth in paragraphs "W" and 
"i 1" of said proposed contract and referred to in paragraph 
23 of the findings above. 

Fifth: That forthwith upon the execution of said con- 
tract by the parties in accordance with the terms of this de- 
cree, a copy of which contract is plaintiff's Exhibit 9, said 
agreements between the University and the College dated 
May 5, 1924 and May 7, 1924, respectively, and all agree- 
ments collateral or precedent thereto (except those agree- 
ments, if any, which are to be reassigned or transferred by 
the University to the College) shall be terminated and of no 
further force and effect and the said parties shall thereupon 
be and are hereby declared to be, as of such time, released 
from all liability thereunder and are hereby authorized and 
directed to execute and deliver to each other appropriate 
releases in connection therewith of all liability, if any, aris- 
ing out of said contracts and agreements, all subject to and 
in accordance with the provisions and conditions of the 
contract, plaintiff's Exhibit 9 which is hereby approved. 

Sixth: That the College is hereby authorized, after the 
execution of said contract, plaintiff's Exhibit 9, and the re- 
ceipt by it of the various funds and properties to be con- 
veyed and transferred to it by the University thereunder, to 
retain ownership and use of said funds and property and 
to continue to administer the trust funds which it now holds 
and those funds which will be returned and transferred to 
it by the University all pursuant to this decree and said con- 
tract; to use said properties and funds in medical education 
whether under and pursuant to said contract, or by itself, or 
by and with any medical school in any way affiliated with 
the College, and in connection therewith to pool said funds 
for investment purposes in a manner similar to that now in 
use by The University of Chicago and numerous other lead- 


ing educational institutions in the United States, and there- 
from to make awards from time to time of fellowships, 
scholarships, or otherwise, to any one in the College or in 
any medical schools in any way affiliated with the College, 
so that the resources and personnel of the College shall con- 
tinue to be devoted to and usefully employed in the field of 
medical education to the maximum of its ability and in 
furtherance of its corporate objects in the manner most 
feasible under existing conditions. 

Seventh: That, as provided in said contract, plaintiff's 
Exhibit 9, the performance of said contract and the convey- 
ance and transfer of properties and funds and statement of 
all accounts relative thereto by the University to the College 
shall be as of June 30, 1941, that date being the close of the 
fiscal year of both the University and the College. 

Eighth: Leave is hereby given to any of the parties hereto 
to apply to the court for instructions in regard to any mat- 
ter which may arise regarding the execution of said contract, 
plaintiff's Exhibit 9, or the carrying out of any of the de- 
tails thereof or performance thereunder, and the court 
hereby reserves jurisdiction therefore. The court further 
reserves jurisdiction for the purpose of hearing and adjudi- 
cating any questions which may hereafter arise relating to 
the Mae Manford Bridge Bequest or the Norman Bridge 
Laboratory of Pathology under the provisions of said con- 
tract, plaintiff's Exhibit 9, and this decree, in respect 
thereto. If, after the entry of this decree, any of the purposes, 
for the accomplishment of which this decree is entered, 
should not be realized or their accomplishment should be- 
come impossible, or shall be terminated, or the interest of 
the public shall be adversely affected, any party hereto may 
apply to this court for further relief in respect thereto and 
the court hereby reserves jurisdiction to consider such mat- 
ter and to grant such further or other relief in respect 
thereto as shall be lawful, provided, however, that nothing 


in this paragraph contained shall be construed to release any 
of the parties hereto from its obligations, covenants and 
duties under the said contract, plaintiff's Exhibit 9, and 
lease and other instruments to be entered into pursuant 
to this decree. 

Stanley H. Klarkowski, Judge 

Dated: June 20, 1941. 



i . Benezet, Anthony A.— The Family Physician— Rules for the 
Prevention and Cure of Diseases Calculated Particularly for 
the Inhabitants of the Western Country. 8 vo. pp. 552, W. 
Hill Woodward, Cincinnati, 1826. 

2. Billings, Frank— Plan for Union of Rush Medical College 
with The University of Chicago, 1917. Bui. Alumni Assoc. 
Rush Med. Col. XII No. 3, Jan. 1917, p. 7. 

3. Bridge, Norman, a.m., m.d. and Rhodes, John E., a.m., m.d. 
—History of Rush Medical College pp. 1-74. Medical and 
Dental Colleges of the West. 4 vo. pp. 639, Oxford Publish- 
ing Co., Chicago, 1896. 

4. Burton, Ernest D., President of The University of Chicago, 
Rush Medical College of The University of Chicago. Bui. 
Alumni Assoc. Rush Med. Col. XVIII No. 2, May 1924, p. 4. 

5. Davis, N. S.— History of Medical Education and Institutions 
in the United States from the First Settlement of the British 
Colonies to the Year 1850. 8 vo. p. 228, S. C. Griggs Co., 
Chicago, 1851. 

6. Davis, N. S., a.m., m.d.— Contributions to the History of 
Medical Education and Medical Institutions of the United 
States of America 1776-1876. Special Report— United States 
Bureau of Education. 8 vo. pp. 60, Government Printing 
Office, Washington, 1877. 

7. Davis, N. S., m.d.— History of the American Medical Associa- 
tion from its Organization up to 1855. 8 vo. pp. 191, Lip- 
pincott, Grambo & Co., Phila., 1855. 

8. Davis, N. S.— Clinical Lectures on Various Important Dis- 
eases, 8 vo. pp. 262-3, Woolworth, Ainsworth & Co., New 
York, 1873. 

9. Dodson, John M.— Military Records of Faculty and Gradu- 
ates of Rush in World War I. Bui. Alumni Assoc. Rush Med. 
Col. XV No. 1, Nov. 1919, pp. 17-62. 


io. Dodson, John M., Dean.— Dr. Ingals' Service to Rush Medi- 
cal College. Bui. Alumni Assoc. Rush Med. Col. XIV No. 2, 
Aug. 1918, p. 3. 

11. Dodson, John M.— Rush Medical College in Four Wars. 
Bui. Alumni Assoc. Rush Med. Col. XIV No. 1, Aug. 1918, 
p. 10. 

12. Dodson, John Milton— The Affiliation of Rush Medical 
College with the University of Chicago— A Historial Sketch. 

(This sketch appeared in sections in the Rush Alumni Bui. 
on the following dates:) 

I. Introductory— XII No. 3, Jan. 1913, p. 23. 
II. Introductory— XII No. 4, May 1917, p. 6 

III. The Curriculum 

Four Quarter Plan 

Elective System 

Women Students— XIII No. 1, Sept. 1917, p. 17 

IV. The First Public Appearance 

Library— Senn Hall— Dispensary 
Transfer of First Two Years to the University 
XIII No. 2, Jan. 1918, p. 3 
V. Extra Mural Instruction 

XIV No. 3, Apr. 1919, p. 12 
VI. First Proposal of Organic Union 

XV No. 1, Nov. 1919, p. 12 
VII. Failure of Plan for Organic Union 

XV No. 2, Feb. 1920, p. 3 

VIII. Association with Institutions for Medical Research 

XVI No. i,Feb. 1921, p. 11 

IX. Informal Conference of Some Medical School Deans 

XVI No. 2, Feb. 1921, p. 5 
X. Limiting the Number of Students 

XVI No. 3, Oct. 1921, p. 8 
XI. Time Schedules for Courses of Instruction 

XVI No. 4, May, 1922, p. 12 
XII. The Alumni 

XVII No. 2, Jan. 1923, p. 13. 

13. Durand Hospital of the Memorial Institute for Infectious 


Diseases. Bui. Alumni Assoc. Rush Med. Col. VIII No. 4, 
March 1913, p. 15. 

14. Ellinwood, C. N., m.d.— Dr. Daniel Brainard. Bui. Alumni 
Assoc. Rush Med. Col. VIII No. 1, July 1912, p. 29. 

15. Fenger, Christian— Autobiography. Bui. Alumni Assoc. 
Rush Med. Col. VIII No. 3, Jan. 1 9 1 3, p. 10. 

16. Hamilton, John B.— The Epidemics of Chicago. Bui. Soc. 
of Med. History of Chicago Vol. 1, No. 1, Oct. 1911, p. 73. 

17. Hektoen, Ludvig— The Study of Pathology at Rush Medical 
College. Bui. Alumni Assoc. Rush Med. Col. XVI No. 2, 
June 1921, p. 3. 

18. Hektoen, Ludvig— Rush and Research. Bui. Alumni Assoc. 
Rush Med. Col. XIV No. 1, Aug. 1918, p. 7. 

19. Herrick, James B.— Address— Dedication of Jane Murdock 
Bldg. Presbyterian Hosp. Bui. Alumni Assoc. Rush Med. 
Col. VIII No. 3, Jan. 1913, p. 21. 

20. Hyde, James Nevins— Early Medical Chicago— An Histori- 
cal Sketch— Fergus Series 11-15, Fergus Printing Co., Chi- 
cago, 1879. 

21. Ingals, E. Fletcher— The Life and Work of Dr. Daniel 
Brainard. Bui. Alumni Assoc. Rush Med. Col. Vol. VIII 
No. 1, July 1912, p. 1. 

22. Ingals, E. Fletcher— Rush Medical College— (Response on 
Occasion of Dinner for Dr. Ingals, April 28, 1913) . Bui. 
Alumni Assoc. Rush Med. Col. VIII No. 5, May 1913, p. 14. 

23. Lyman, Henry M., m.d.— A Bit of the History of the Cook 
County Hospital. Bui. Soc. Med. History of Chicago, Vol. I 
No. 1, Oct. 1911, p. 25. 

24. Ormsby, Oliver S.— Rush and the University of Chicago 
(Presidential Address) . Bui. Alumni Assoc. Rush Med. Col. 

XIV No. 1, Aug. 1918, p. 3. 

25. Quine, William E.— Early History of the Cook County 
Hospital to 1870. Bui. Soc. Med. History of Chicago, Vol. I 
No. 1, Oct. 1911, p. 25. 

26. Ritter, John, m.d.— Historical Account of Brainard. Bui. of 


Alumni Assoc. Rush Med. Col. Vol. VIII, No. 1, July 1912, 
p. 26. 

27. Robinson, F. C— Reminiscences of Our College Days Forty 
Years Ago. Bui. Alumni Assoc. Rush Med. Col. Vol. VIII 
No. 2, Oct. 1912, p. 19. 

28. Rush Graduates 1844-1912. Bui. Alumni Assoc. Rush Med. 
Col. VIII No. 6, June 1913, p. 5. 

29. Weaver, George H., m.d.— The First Period in the History 
of Rush Med. Col. 1843-1859. Bui. Alumni Assoc. Rush 
Med. Col. Vol. VIII, No. 1, July 1912, p. 13. 

30. Wells, Gideon H.— Investigative Work at Rush Medical 
College— Reply to Criticism of University of Chicago Mag- 
azine. Bui. Alumni Assoc. Vol. XII, No. 3, Jan. 1917, p. 18. 

31. Wilkins, Henry, m.d. 

1— The Family Advisor— pp. 93. 

2— Primitive Physics, John Wesley 

16 mo. pp. 63, Henry Tuckniss, Phila., 1793 

32. Zeuch, Lucius Henry— History of Medical Practice in 
Illinois. 8 vo. pp. 713, Book Press, Inc., Chicago, 1927. 



Adolphus, Philip, 61 
Allen, J. Adams, 20 
American Medical Association, 18 
Amerman, George K., 27 
Apprenticeships, 4, 5 
Armour, Samuel G., 18 
Asiatic cholera, 16, 24-25 

Bard, Ralph A., v 

Barrows, John H., 59 

Beidler, Jacob, 59 

Bevan, Arthur Dean, 48 

Billings, Frank, 39-40, 48 

Bishop, A. E., 61 

Blair, William, 59 

Blaney, James Van Zandt, 18, 24 

Brainard, Daniel, 11-18, 21, 24- 

25» 49 
Brainard Dispensary, 23 
Bridge, Norman, 12, 21, 48 
Brower, Daniel, 48 
Brown, Ralph C, v 
Butterfield, Justin, 53 
Byford, W. H., 18, 19 
Byron, Charles L., v 

Care and cure of sick, 6, 8, 10 
Carton, Alfred T., v 
Caton, John D., 12, 53 
Central Free Dispensary of West 

Chicago, 23, 26 
Charter, 60-61 
Charity Dispensary of Chicago, 

Chase, Charles E., 61 
Chicago Charitable Eye and Ear 

Infirmary, 20 
Chicago fire of 1871, 11, 25-26 
Chicago Medical College, 19, 26, 


Chicago University (Old) , 32. 

See also University of 

Chicago (Village), 12-13 
City Dispensary, 20 
City Hospital, 20, 22, 24, 27 
Clarke, Philip R., v 
Clinical training, 6-7 
College under the Sidewalk, 26 
Collins, James H., 53 
Cook County Commissioners, 24, 

Cook County Hospital, 26, 27-28, 

Corwith, Nathan, 59 
Cotton, Alfred C, 48 
Craig, Willis G., 59 
Crighton, John, 61 
Cunningham, James D., v 

Danforth, I. N., 21 

David, Vernon C, v 

Davis, Nathan Smith, 18-19, 21 > 

22, 27 
Davisson, Alfred W., 18 
Dick, Albert B., Jr., v 
Dispensaries, 22-23 
Dodson, John Milton, 34-36, 48 
Donnelley, Thomas E., 48 
Drake, John B., v, 59 

Eberhardt, John F., 61 
Etheridge, James H., 21 
Evans, John, 18 

Fairfield Medical College, 13 
Family doctor, 9 
Farwell, Albert D., v 
Favill, Henry Baird, 48 
Fenger, Christian, 48 


Fitch, Graham N., 18 
Flint, Austin, Sr., 18 
Ford, Thomas, 53 
Forgan, James B., v 
Freer, J. W., 18, 24 
Friedberg, Stanton, 48 
Friend, Hugo M., v 

Gale, Willis, v 
Gardner, Henry A., v 
Gates, P. W., 6i 
Gatewood, L. C., 48 
Gilchrist, R. K., v 
Glessner, John J., 48 
Goodhue, Josiah C, 53 
Goodrich, Grant, 53 
Graham, David B., 48 
Gunn, Moses, 25 

Hagenah, William J., v 
Haines, Walter Stanley, 48 
Hales, Burton W., v 
Hamill, Alfred E., v 
Hamill, Robert C, 59 
Harlow, George H., 60 
Harper, James H., 48 
Harper, William Rainey, 32, 36- 

38, 42 
Harris, Stanley G., v 
Harvard Medical School, 42 
Hay, Walter, 21 
Hektoen, Ludvig, 41, 48 
Henderson, C. M., 59 
Herrick, James Bryan, 29, 48 
Herrick, William B., 18, 21, 24 
Herrick Dispensary, 23 
Hickman, Alvyn R., v 
Hinton, Isaac T., 53 
Hoard, Samuel, 61 
Holmes, E. L., 20 
Horton, James M., 59 
Hospitals, 21-22 
Hostetter, Earl D., v 
Howard, W. Clyde, v 
Hyde, James Nevins, 21 

Illinois General Hospital of the 

Lakes, 21, 22 
Illinois State Board of Health, 18 
Ingals, Ephraim, 20, 61 
Ingals, Ephraim Fletcher, 21, 32 
Irons, Ernest E., v 

Jefferson Medical College, 13 
Johns Hopkins' Medical School, 

Johnson, Hosmer A., 18, 19 
Judson, Harry Pratt, 37 

Kelly, Frank B., v 
Kimberly, Edmund S., 48, 53 
King, Henry W., 59 
King, Tuthill, 28, 59 
Kinzie, John H., 48, 53 
Klarkowski, Stanley H., 44, 74 
Knapp, Moses L., 18 

Lake Forest University, 32 
Lecount, Edwin Raymond, 48 
Lewis, Dean DeWitt, 48 
Lyman, Henry M., 27, 48, 59 

McCormick, Cyrus H., Jr., 59 
McDougal, Edward D., Jr., v 
McKinlay, John, v 
McLean, John, 18 
McLennan, Donald R., Jr., v 
Mae Manford Bridge bequest, 72, 

Malaria, 16 
Medical education, 3-7 

Graduate, 7-10 
Medical licensure, 5 
Medical needs of the West, 16-17 
Medical practice, 6, 9 
Medical Practice Act, 18 
Medical research, 6, 10, 30 
Medical schools, 16-17 

Curricula, 3 

Degrees, 4 

Early American, 3 


Medical schools (cont.) 

Endowment, 30 

Increase in number, 5 

Laboratories, 30, 40 
Memorial Institute for Infectious 

Diseases, 41 
Mercy Hospital, 22, 27 
Michel, Anthony L., v 
Miller, DeLaskie, 20 
Mitchell, Weir, 9 
Moore, Henry, 53 
Moore, Samuel M., 59 
Morgan, John, 4 

Newberry, Walter L., 48 

Nichol, L. Dow, Jr., v 

Norman Bridge Laboratory of 

Pathology, 73 
Northwestern University Medical 

School, 19 
Nutting, Harold J., v 

Objectives of medicine, 5-7 
Ogden, William B., 48, 53 
Old Lake House, 21 
Oneida Institute, 13 
Ormsby, Oliver S., 48 

Parkes, Charles T., 21 
Pearsons, Daniel R., 59 
Peck, Ebenezer, 53 
Philadelphia Hospital, 17 
Philadelphia Medical College, 4 
Poor, Fred A., v 
Post, Wilber E., v 
Powell, E., 24 
Preceptorships, 4, 5 
Presbyterian Hospital 
Affiliation with Rush Medical 
College 28-29, 40, 42-46, 64- 

Agreement with University of 

Illinois, 62-63 
Board of Managers, v, 59 
Building program, 45 

Presbyterian Hospital (cont.) 
Charter, 59 
Clerical Managers, v 
David Jones Memorial, 29 
Honorary Managers, v 
Murdock Memorial, 29 

Prevention of disease, 6 

Quine, W. E., 27 

Rauch, John H., 18 

Rawson, Frederick H., 40 

Rawson building, 40, 41 

Rea, R. L., 24 

Rhodes, John Edwin, 48 

Rockefeller, John D., 32, 33 

Ross, Joseph Priestly, 20, 26, 27, 

28, 59, 61 
Rush, Benjamin, 14 
Rush Alumni Association, 46 
Rush Medical College 

Acts to incorporate, borrow, 

etc., 53-58 
Advanced standing, 30, 39 

With Lake Forest University, 

With old Chicago University, 

With Presbyterian Hospital, 

28-29, 40, 42-46, 64-71 
With University of Chicago, 

Alumni, 47-48 
Board of Trustees, v, 48, 53 
Buildings, 15, 25-26, 30, 32, 40, 

4». 45 
Charter, 11, 46 

Chicago fire of 1871, 11, 25-26 

Civil War period, 24-26 

Course of study, content and 

length, 17, 19-20, 21, 30 

Degrees, 15 

Division of faculty in 1859, 19- 


Rush Medical College (cont.) 

Early years, 11-14 

Endowment, 39, 45 

Enrollment, 15, 21, 39 

Faculty, 18, 20 

Financial affairs, 33-34, 39 

First century, 47-49 

Founder, see Brainard, Daniel 

Interrelationship with Univer- 
sity of Illinois, 45-47, 66-70 

Laboratories, 30, 40 

Opening, 15-17 

Organic union with University 
of Chicago, 34-38, 41-42 
Dissolution, 42-43 

Preparatory School of Medi- 
cine, 20 


For admission to candidacy 
for medical degrees, 4, 15 
For entrance, 21, 31, 39 

Spring Faculty, 20—21 

Teaching at Cook County Hos- 
pital, 27-28 

Tuition fees, 15, 21, 30, 39 
Rush Medical College vs. The 
University of Chicago et. al., 
extracts from court decrees, 
Rush Post Graduate School, 41 

St. Louis University, 14 
Senn, Nicholas, 34, 48 
Senn Hall, 32 
Shafer, Frederick C, v 
Shambaugh, George E., 48 
Shippen, William, 4 
Simpson, John M., v 
Sippy, Bertram W., 48 
Smith, Solomon A., v 
Smith, Theophilus W., 53 
Snyder, Franklyn B., v 
Specialization, 7-9 
Specialty Boards, 7-9 
Specialty certification, 8 


Speed, Kellogg, v 
Spencer, Thomas, 18 
Stein, Luther E., v 
Stuart, R. Douglas, v 
Swanson, Otto, 48 

Taylor, E. D., 53 
Taylor, E. Hall, v 
Temple, John T., 53 
Templeton, Hugh, 61 
Throop, A. G., 61 

U. S. Marine Hospital, 21 
University of Chicago 

Extracts from Court Decree in 

re Rush Medical College vs. 

The University of Chicago 

et. al., 64-74 

Interrelationships with Rush 

Medical College, 31-44 
Plans for medical school, 32- 

33> 37-40 
University of Edinburgh Medical 

School, 3-4 
University of Illinois 
Agreement with Presbyterian 

Hospital, 62-63 
University of Illinois Medical 

Interrelationship with Rush 

Medical College, 45-47, 66- 


Walker, S. P., 61 
Waller, Henry, 59 
Webster, J. Clarence, 48 
Webster, Ralph W., 48 
Welling, John P., v 
Wells, W. H., 59 
West Side Medical Center, 45, 67 
Whitman, S. S., 53 
Wilder, William H., 48 
Wilson, Edward F., v 
Woolman, Clarence S., v 
Wright, Clarence N., v 
Wright, John, 53 

For Reference 

Not to be taken from this room 

^Ry 0F