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Full text of "The Story Of Sandwich Glass"

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THE STORY OF 



SANDWICH GLASS 




AND GLASS WORKERS 



By FREDERICK T. IRWIN 



Copyright 1926 
By Frederick T. Irwin 



Privately Printed 



Printed by the Granite State Press, Manchester, N. H. 

Engraving (mostly from plates by the writer) by Union-Leader 
Publishing Co., Manchester, N. H. 



T 'ABLE OF CONTENTS 



FOREWORD HORACE B. WILLIAMS 



Chapter 


Page 


I. 


HISTORICAL 


9 


II. 


SANDWICH GLASS 


16 


III. 


TRANSPORTATION PRODUCTS 


... 24 


IV. 


PREPARING THE FUEL 


... 29 


V. 


POTS AND POT MAKING 


... 32 


VI. 


GLASS MAKING .! 


... 39 


VII 


PRESSED GLASS 


... 53 


VIII 


CUT GLASS 


... 56 


IX. 


ENGRAVING AND ETCHING 


... 66 


X. 


PAINTED AND GILDED GLASS 


72 


XL 


THE ORIGIN OF GLASS 


... 77 


XII. 


MARKETING THE PRODUCT 


.... 85 


XIII. 


THE PERSONNEL 


... 89 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

Page 

ENTRANCE TO THE FACTORY FRONTISPIECE 

OLD WOOD ENGRAVING OF WORKS AS 

APPEARED IN 1829 5 

FORMER MANAGERS OF WORKS 14 

ONE OF THE OLD FURNACES 19 

PRESS AND MOULD 21 

VIEW FROM INSIDE OF THE YARD IN 1900. .. 23 

REAR VIEW OF THE WORKS 25 

PLATES, CUP PLATES AND SALT-CELLARS. ... 28 

"TREADING" THE CLAY FOR THE POT MAKER 33 

BUILDING A POT 35 

COMPLETED POT AND BUILDER 37 

OPALESCENT CURTAIN KNOBS 38 

GLASS MAKERS AT WORK 41 

LENGTHENING STEM OF WINE GLASS 43 

SHAPING FOOT OF WINE GLASS 45 

COOLING THE BLOWPIPE 49 

LOOP AND JEWELL PATTEN 54 

HORN OF PLENTY, BEEHIVE AND THISTLE. . . 55 

CUT TUMBLERS 62 

MARKING THE PATTERN 63 

GLASS CUTTER ROUGHING 64 

GLASS CUTTER SMOOTHING 65 

ENGRAVER AT WORK 67 

DUTCH PIPE 69 

EPERGNE ENGRAVED 70 

ETCHED CANDLESTICKS 71 

CUT GLASS LAMP, DECORATED SHADE 73 

RUBY AND FLINT LAMP WITH ENGRAVED 

SHADE 74 

PAPER WEIGHTS 75 

SOME EARLY SANDWICH GLASS 76 

SAMPLE PAGES FROM BOOK FORMULAS 84 

BOSTON OFFICE AND SALES ROOM 88 

EARLY CUP PLATES 96-97 

ANCIENT SUGAR BOWL 98 

SYRUP PITCHER AND EGG CUP 99 

Most of these illustrations are of articles in the possession 
of the family of the writer and were photographed by him. 



FOREWORD. 



THE following brief history of the 
Boston and Sandwich Glass Fac- 
tory and its methods of manufacture by 
Fred T. Irwin will be welcomed by the 
numerous collectors of "Sandwich Glass." 

The author is thoroughly competent 
to tell his story. He comes from a family 
that has been identified with the glass in' 
dustry for many years. 

His paternal grandfather was pro- 
prietor of an "out-cutting shop"" in Dud- 
ley, England. A great-uncle, Theodore 
Kern, has a prominent place in this story, 
while William Kern, reputed to be the 
oldest living glass maker in the United 
States, is a cousin. 

[Page Six] 



The author's father, after serving his 
apprenticeship with the grandfather in 
England, found employment in this coun- 
try. In 1851 he entered the employ of 
the Boston and Sandwich Company, and 
except for a short period he remained with 
that company as long as it continued in 
operation. The author himself learned glass 
cutting under the supervision of his father. 

This story will not only preserve the 
record of an industry whose wares are 
justly famous. It has a sociological value. 
It reveals the comradeship that existed be- 
tween the employer and his employees in 
the old days. It shows also the incentive 
communicated to the workman to create 
something of worth and beauty through 
his work. Work was an art, and the 
worker an artist. 

[Page Seven*} 



In these days when the personal rela/ 
tion is so largely eliminated from industry, 
and the workman regards his work merely 
as a job, this story may point a lesson. 

Horace B. Williams. 
Manchester, N. H. s 1926, 



[Page Eight} 



I HISTORICAL. 

THE glass factory, whose product has 
attracted most attention, and whose 
wares are most sought today, was built 
at Sandwich, Massachusetts, more than a 
century ago. 

The dense pine forests on Cape Cod 
determined the location of this factory, 
since wood was the fuel generally used 
for manufacturing purposes in early days. 

The manufacture of glass in this coun- 
try dates almost from the first arrival of 
the English Colonists. One of the earliest 
attempts, if not the first, at manufactur- 
ing in the original colonies was directed 
toward the production of glass. Works 
erected for that purpose, in 1608 or 1609, 
about a mile from Jamestown, Virginia, 

[Page T^meJ 



was probably the first factory built in 
America by the English colonists. In 1608 
the London Company sent glass workers 
to America to operate this plant. In the 
following- year some of its product con- 
stituted a part of the first cargo of goods 
ever exported from this country. This 
factory probably produced bottles exclu- 
sively. Its career was brief, as in 1617 it 
was reported fallen into decay, and later 
it was swept entirely away in the Indian 
massacre of 1622. 

In 1620 a subscription list was started 
in Jamestown to erect a factory for the 
production of glass beads, the currency 
used in trading with the Indians. This 
factory seems to have been situated some 
distance from Jamestown, as it escaped the 
massacre of 1622, and it is referred to as 

[Page Ten] 



late as 1623. In 1621 it was furnished by 
the London Company with Italian wort 
men, who were especially skilful in making 
beads. In 1639 a glass factory was 
started in Salem, Massachusetts, and pre- 
vious to this, although the exact date is 
not known, glass was made in New York, 
on Manhatten Island. 

The scarcity of glass during the Revo- 
lutionary War stimulated factory erection, 
and early in the 19th century the indus- 
try assumed much prominence, being con- 
fined largely to Massachusetts, New York, 
Eastern Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and 
Maryland. These early factories were 
usually situated within easy access to 
forests, from which the fuel supply was 
obtained. Not until the erection of the 
first factory west of the Allegheny Moun- 

[Page Eleven*} 



tains, at Pittsburgh,, in 1797, was coal used 
as a fuel in glass making. It was many 
years before coal came into general use. 

The Atlantic seaboard long held su- 
premacy in the manufacture of glass, but 
with the westward spread of population 
and the discovery of rich fuel resources in 
Western Pennsylvania, West Virginia, 
Ohio and Indiana the center of the indus- 
try moved steadily westward and the bulk 
of the production has been for some time 
west of the Alleghenies. 

The numerous forms of glass may be 
grouped into four classes, known as win- 
dow glass; plate glass the purest silicate 
of lime and soda or potash; green glass, the 
coarse or bottle material used chiefly for 
cheap bottles and insulators for electric 
wires, etc.; and flint glass, including the 

[Page Twelve^ 



great bulk of decorative and useful articles 3 
both blown and pressed. The peculiar 
brilliancy of flint glass is derived from 
lead, which ingredient distinguishes it from 
all other glass. The true English flint, 
which is the same as the French crystal, is 
a silicate of potash and lead. It is very 
heavy, rings like metal, and is the choicest 
material for table and cut ware. 

Each of these four kinds of glass is 
produced in a special establishment where, 
generally, nothing else is made. At Sand- 
wich, however, nearly every kind of glass 
was at some time manufactured. 



[Page Thirteen] 





'**. 



v , > 




[Page Fourtee?j] 



The portraits on the preceding page are of some of the 
former Managers of the Works. Upper left is that of Sewall 
Fessenden one of the earlier Managers and for many years 
Agent of the Company with his headquarters in Boston. At his 
right Theodore Kern, who was in charge of the works at Sand- 
wich, following the resignation of Capt. Wm. Stetson whose 
picture is in the lower left corner. Theodore Kern in his day 
was regarded as one of the foremost glass manufacturers in this 
Country and many of the formulaes used in the Manufacture 
of Sandwich Glass originated with him. It is claimed he used 
more "cullet" or old broken glass and produced better and less 
expensive ware than any of his contemporaries. On another 
page is shown some of the formulaes from the book of formu' 
laes of the old Company. 

The last portrait in this interesting group is that of George 
Lafayette Fessenden, to whom further reference is made in an- 
other part of this book. 



[Page Fifteen} 



H. SANDWICH GLASS. 

THE Sandwich Glass factory was 
founded by Deming Jarves, Esq. in 
1825. Mr. Jarves was business manager 
for many years, and to him belongs the 
credit for the success of the Sandwich 
Glass industry. 

The first glass was blown from an 
eight pot furnace on July 4th. This was 
the flint and transparent form, used al- 
most exclusively for table ware, mirrors 
and window panes. 

Soon, the trade demanded colored 
glass of various kinds, black, blue, canary, 
opal and chrysoprase, for pomade and 
ointment jars^-mostly for the Philadel- 
phia market, and another small furnace 
was built called the "canary furnace." 
Gold ruby glass was also needed for signal 

{P#ge Sixteen] 



lanterns and railroad use. These two fur- 
naces were located in a building known as 
the "Upper House." 

With the increase of business, a sec- 
end building known as the "Lower House" 
was erected. This also contained two fur- 
naces. All four furnaces were operated 
for a number of years, until the westward 
spread of the industry so reduced the de- 
mand that the fires in the furnaces of the 
"Lower House" were allowed to go out, 
and the building was used as a store house 
for surplus product and discarded machin- 
ery, and finally was torn down. 

When the works started there were 
five crews or "shops." Wages were 
scarcely magnificent compared with modern 
standards. The "gaffers" received from 
$14 to $17 weekly; the "servitors" $14, 

[Page Seventeen} 



the "footmaker" $6, and the boys $3 each. 
For unskilled adult work the blacksiniths 3 
wood dryers and "laborers" received $6. 
The expert workmen who were hired to 
start the business were imported to some 
extent from England, Germany and Bel- 
gium. Many of them were articled for a 
term of years. The Boston-Sandwich Com- 
pany was the first in this country to make 
the priced opal glass, one Rice Harris be- 
ing brought from England to teach the pro- 
cess. Experts in those days, as now, were 
recognised and although Mr. Harris re- 
mained at Sandwich but six months, he 
received for his services $5000 and expenses. 
There were no spare hands in those 
days, and if anyone failed to come to work 
some man on the opposite turn would 
work over time. Boys who worked over- 

Eighteen] 




SHOWING ONE OF THE . FURNACES OF THE "LOWER 
HOUSE." THIS PICTURE WAS MADE IN THE EARLY 9(Ts 
AFTER THE BUILDING HAD BEEN TORN DOWN. THE 
OPENINGS AT THE BASE OF THE CHIMNEY'S SHOW WHERE 
THE "POTS" WERE PLACED. 



[Page 



time received tickets and were paid once 
in three months. The company was never 
unmindful of the future of the boys, for 
there was in effect a policy of permitting 
them to "gather" and work glass in their 
spare time. A boy who simply wished to 
amuse himself and wasted glass was soon 
deprived of this privilege,, but one who 
actually wanted to learn the glassmaker's 
trade ^ was given every encouragemnt. If 
an article turned out by one of the boys 
was considered worthy, the manager 
would have it cut for him and permit him 
to keep it. 

In the early 6(Ts the business was at 
its height. There were at that time in 
operation four furnaces of twelve pots 
each., producing about two tons of glass 
per pot per week. 

Twenty'] 



' Most kinds of glass then in use were 
at some time manufactured here. In the 
recent ruins one might see windows whose 
x sashes were filled with the ancient diamond- 
shaped panes which were manufactured 
on the premises. 

For this factory is claimed the honor of 
making the first "pressed ware." It is re- 
lated that in 1827 a car- 
penter employed about 
the works wanted a piece 
of glass of a particular 
si2;e and shape. He con- 
conceived the idea that 
the molten glass could be 
pressed into any form, 
much the same as lead. 
Up to that time all glass 
ware had been blown, GLASS PRESS AND 

MOULD. 
[Page Twenty One"] 




either off 'hand or in the mould. Consider- 
able skill was required, the process was also 
slow. The glass manufacturer laughed at 
the carpenter, but he went ahead and built 
his press, and now the United States is the 
greatest pressed glass producing country in 
the world. 

The illustration is of the latest type 
of presses and moulds used in the Boston 
and Sandwich Factory. The first press, 
claimed to have been invented by a car' 
penter, was of a very different style and 
resembled an old fashioned cider press, the 
pressure being applied by a screw which 
was turned by means of a long bar. 



{Page ^Twenty-Two'} 




[Page TtwenyThree'} 



IIL TRANSPORTATION OF 
PRODUCT. 

AMONG the interesting incidents oc- 
curring during the management of 
Mr. Jarves was the building of a railroad 
from the factory to the harbor half a mile 
away. This was probably the first rail" 
road built in Massachusetts if not in this 
country. It was used for transporting the 
casks of ware from the factory, and ma' 
terials which the packets brought from 
Boston. The storekeepers of Sandwich 
and adjacent towns also got their supplies 
by this means. 

In the building of this road Mr. 
Jarves showed his enterprising spirit. A 
four-wheeled vehicle, called a "bogy" was 
constructed for carrying freight, and a pas- 
senger car added for transporting the 

Twenty ' 



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> 

JO 



3 

o 



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W 



jx) 



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o 



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[Page Tu>ent;yFn;e] 



passengers who arrived or departed with 
the packets. 

A few years later the "Old Colony" 
Railroad was extended to Sandwich. The 
rapid increase of the business of the com- 
pany, together with the introduction of 
coal to take the place of the failing wood 
supply, made this necessary. 

Another incident reveals the enter- 
prise of the agent. Wishing to cut ex- 
penses, Mr. Jarves went before the direc- 
tors of the Railroad Company and re- 
quested a reduction in rates. Upon their 
refusal to comply, he told the directors 
that he would build a steamer to run be- 
tween Sandwich and Boston, which would 
carry both passengers and freight. One 
of the directors replied that "the acorn 
was not planted from which the tree was 

[Page? Twenty 'Six] 



to grow to build the steamer." Mr. 
Jarves at once had a model made., and a 
fine small propeller built in Philadelphia, 
which he named the "Acorn." This was 
put on the route and did a good business 
for the Company, and was finally sold 
South and became a blockade runner at the 
time of the Civil War. 

Another enterprise of Mr. Jarves was 
the opening of a new harbor for Sandwich. 
The old one was fast filling up, and was 
becoming unfit for traffic. By digging 
a new passage through the beach, Mr. 
Jarves overcame this handicap. All the 
townsmen were invited to give one day of 
labor, and a passage was made large enough 
for a boat to go through. This was en- 
larged to accommodate the larger boats 
and a lock was built., confining the water at 

{Page Twenty-Seven^] 



high tide, and opening to let the water out. 
This passage, with 'the tide running in and 
out daily provided the entrance to a harbor 
which would accommodate a vessel draw- 
ing six or seven feet of water. 




TOP Row LEFT TO RIGHT: CUP PLATE, LACY. 
TINY LACY SALT CELLAR. 

BOTTOM Row STRIPPLED PLATE. PLATE WITH 
WAFFLE PATTERNED CENTER. 



[P#ge Twenty Eight] 



IV. PREPARING THE FUEL. 

AN interesting process in early glass 
making was the preparation of the 
wood for the furnaces. The company had 
four large teams, or "Bull wagons 11 with 
two yoke of oxen, one horse and a 
teamster for each. These four teams Went 
into the woods and brought back to the 
yards two loads of pine wood every other 
day (Sundays excepted) , and on the alter' 
nate days one load each, making twenty 
four cords every two days. This wood 
was split up about the si2?e of a small man's 
wrist, in the full length of four feet, and 
taken to ovens where it was dried until it 
could be lighted from a candle or lamp. 
It took two men called "teasers 11 to keep 
the furnace running with this wood. 

[Page TuienfryT^me] 



They relieved each, other every twelve 
hours and did nothing else. 

In the construction of the furnace 
the principal objects to be kept in view 
were not only the production and main- 
tenance of an intense heat., but its uniform 
distribution through the furnace, and the 
bringing of the charges of glass material 
directly under its fusing influence. 

For plate or sheet glass making, the 
furnace was usually square or rectangular, 
while that for flint glass or table ware was 
circular. The fire space or grate occupied 
the center of the furnace and the fire was 
fed from both ends or raised up from under 
the bars. The fire grate was usually on a 
level with the floor of the house in which 
it was placed, but underneath was an 
arched subterranean passage forming the 

[Page Thirty] 



"cave" or ash pit, both ends of which ex- 
tended to the open air. The fire grate 
bars were placed at the top of this arched 
passage., which thus served as a canal for 
the air required to maintain combustion 
within the furnace, and for regulating the 
admission of air and so controlling the heat. 
There were doors at both ends of the 
archway. In some cases two such arches., 
at right angles to each other, and inter- 
secting at the fire bars were constructed 
so that either or both could be used. 

In recent years these arches have 
been a source of much interest, as diligent 
search has been made for pieces of molten 
glass which escaped from broken pots and 
mingled with the ash. The variety most 
eagerly sought is the opal from which 
unique pieces of jewelry are made. 

{Page Thirty'One] 



V. POTS AND POT MAKING. 

After the pots were placed in position 
in these arches, they were closed in with 
fire-brick and clay. These pots required 
for their manufacture the most tedious and 
exacting work of the entire industry. 
The slightest flaw in the structure or 
material was sufficient to waste all the 
precious contents. They were also a costly 
item in the manufacture, as each pot was 
worth from forty to one hundred dollars. 
They were delicate articles and required 
the most careful handling. 

The pots were made of clay. The 
clay was prepared for the pot maker by 
being "treads or kneaded. This was 
accomplished b placing the required 
amount of clay and water in a large trough 

[Pdge Thirty-Two] 




'"TREADING" THE CLAY FCV -HE "POTMAKER" 



[Page Thirty-Three] 



and having a man "tread" the mass with 
his bare feet until it was worked into the 
right consistency. 

The illustration shows a man tread" 
ing or kneading clay. Many devices have 
been invented for doing this work, but 
nothing has yet been found so satisfactory 
as the method here shown. This kneading 
process required about a month's time to 
prepare the clay for the potmaker. The 
manufacture of the pot was begun with 
the utmost care in a room that was con- 
stantly warm and moist, the work being 
done entirely by hand. 

First the bottom was formed, about 
four inches thick. The sides were grad- 
ually shaped from the tough sticky ma- 
terial, through a period of from six weeks 
to two months, tapering to a thickness at 

[Page Thirty Four*} 






o 

> 




[Page 



the top of about three inches. The 
ary size of one of these pots or crucibles 
was about 33 inches high and 42 inches 
wide, and each held about 1500 pounds of 
melted glass. 

When finished, the pots were dated 
and left to stand from two months to a 
year, the longer the better, in the "pot- 
room" to dry. They were then baked in 
the anealing oven, or small furnace, where 
the temperature was gradually brought up 
to that of the melting furnace. In spite of 
the utmost care, a pot occasionally broke 
after a brief trial. As soon as a crack was 
seen the fires in the furnace were grad- 
ually slackened, as much as could be safely 
done, the casement of brick and clay was 
battered down, and the broken pot re- 
moved and replaced by a new one. While 

[Page Thirty-Six] 




COMPLETED "Pen?" AND IT'S BUILDER 



[Page Thirty -Seven] 



this work was in progress the men were, 
in a measure, protected from the intense 
heat by means of screens, which were 
sometimes made of barrel staves, held to- 
gether by barrel hoops. These were thor- 
oughly soaked in water before being used, 
but despite this soakage, soon took fire and 
had to be replaced. 




OPALESCENT CURTAIN KNOBS WITH PEWTER MOUNTINGS 



{Page Thirty 'Eight] 



VL-GLASS MAKING. 
After the broken pot had been re- 
moved, a new one put in place and the 
furnace had been restored to the proper 
temperature, the new pot was filled with 
the "batch" or mixture to be melted. As 
soon as this was melted down, a second 
filling was put in, and lastly a third, which 
generally filled the pot. In case it did not, a 
few shovels full of broken glass called "oil' 
let" were added. Some glass makers held 
that a certain percentage of this "cuUet" or 
broken glass gave a superior metal The 
entire melting required about sixteen hours 
and was carefully watched by the master 
melter, who urged the furnaces to their ut- 
most intensity, and was on the alert for the 
signs which showed that the metal was 
ready for working. 

[Page ThinyKtine] 



The temperature, which reached from 
10 to 12 thousand degrees, was then grad- 
ually lowered to make the glass less fluid, 
and the work of the glass makers began. 

These were a muscular set. The tem- 
perature of the work room compelled 
them to abandon all superfluous clothing. 
Each one was trained to do a special part. 

The tools used by glass makers have 
varied but little in many years. They are 
a blow-pipe, a pair of shears, a trowel-like 
tool with a handle used for shaping, and a 
straight iron rod about four feet long called 
the punty rod. 

In addition to his chair, glass maker 
has a strong iron table with a smooth top, 
called a marver, on which he rolls into the 
desired shape the portion of glass which 
has been "gathered" from the furnace. 

[Page Forty*} 



Q 



C/3 




[Page Fort^-One] 



The first process in glass making is 
known as "gathering." The workman 
takes a blow-pipe, which is a hollow iron 
tube, flatened at one end. He dips the 
flat end into the pot and turns it care- 
fully., withdraws- it until it is slightly 
cooled, and repeats the operation until 
he has a sufficient amount of glass on the 
end of the tube. This gathering process 
looks very simple, but it really is a delicate 
one. The "gatherer" must know just how 
to do it; otherwise, the glass will be "cordy" 
and full of air bells, known as "blisters." 

After he has gathered the necessary 
amount of glass, he passes the tube to the 
"blower," who blows, and makes a good 
si2;ed bubble. 

During this process the glass gradually 
becomes cool and has to be 'taken either 

[Pdge Forty ' 




[Page Forty-Three^ 



to the mouth of the furnace or to a small 
furnace known as the ""glory hole 11 where 
it is reheated sufficiently to allow further 
manipulation. 

When the bubble is blown into its 
required si^e and partially shaped, another 
workman, with a punty rod, which is an 
iron rod about four feet long, slightly en- 
larged at one end, places a 'small piece of 
semi-moulten glass at the top of the bubble. 
Then a piece of steel shaped something like 
a knife-blade, moistened in water, is drawn 
around the part of the bubble nearest the 
"gathererY" 1 iron, and a sharp blow is 
struck, which causes the bubble to become 
separated from the blow-pipe, leaving it at- 
tachd to the punty rod, with one end open. 

This is now taken to the "glory hole" 
again and reheated. The workman seats 

[Page Forty-Four'] 



> 





r 

C/5 

03 




[Page FortyFii/e] 



himself in a "chair" which is made some- 
thing like a shoemaker's bench, with two 
long arms extending. He proceeds to 
work the piece of glass into the required 
shape, with the aid of a few very simple 
tools. 

When the article is intended for cut- 
ting, great care must be exercised to keep it 
of uniform thickness. After the article is 
completed, it is taken to the annealing oven 
"or leer. This oven is from one to two 
hundred feet in length; is open at both 

ends, and is fitted with a small track run- 

i 

ning completely through it. On this track 
are placed small flat iron trays or cars, and 
on these cars the articles to be annealed. 
These trays are fastened together and are 
slowly drawn through by means of a. chain 
attached to a windlass at the rear end. At 

[Page Forty 'Six] 



the front of the leer there are fires which 
keep the temperature just below the melt- 
ing point, and as the trays pass to the rear 5 
the heat gradually decreases in intensity 
until reaching the end of the oven when it 
is taken out cold. 

Although but little window glass was 
made at Sandwich, the process of manufac- 
ture is very similar to that of table ware, the 
glass being gathered in the same way, only 
in larger quantities. The window glass 
blower takes the pipe from the "gatherer/' 
and blows a huge bubble of air into it. 
Then alternately blowing and manipulating 
he enlarges the bubble and shapes the mass 
into the form of a great decanter with a 
short neck and very thick bottom. The 
thinnest part of the glass next to the pipe 
quickly hardens into the fixed foundation 

[Page Forty'Seven*] 



from which the remainder is to grow into 
a cylinder of the same diameter. 

In front of the blowhole is a long 
narrow platform at right angles to the fur- 
nace; this is the blower's post. Standing 
there he swings the swelling bulb into 

o o 

the "abyss" before the platform like an 
enormous hollow pendulum carved from 
the flame, coaxing it to expand with fre- 
quent timely blowing. When the bulb 
stiffens, he rests the pipe on a handy prop 
and softens the refractory end in the fur- 
nace. When the glass flows too freely, he 
tosses the cylinder into the air until it 
settles together in the proper consistency. 
By repeated blowing, swinging and heating, 
he extends the bubble to nearly his own 
length, and the glass becomes a round-tipped 

[Page Forty-Eight] 



o 

c 

o 



O 




cylinder resembling a hot-water reservoir 
attached to the kitchen range. 

As the cylinder is a foot in diameter 
and five feet long and the tube is as much 
longer, the most delicate skill must be 
coupled with steady muscle for this work. 

When the cylinder is finished, it is 
placed on a ""horse." The pipe is detached 
by touching the neck with a piece of cold 
iron. To cut off the remaining portion of 
the neck the cylinder is encircled with a 
thread of hot glass, and touched with a 
cold iron, after which it is cracked open 
lengthwise by passing a red hot iron along 
its inner surface. 

It is next to be flattened. The flat- 
tening oven has a turn table large enough 
to carry four "stones" 40 x 80 in. made of 
fire clay. After a preliminary warming the 

[Page Fifty] 



flattener places the cylinder upon the 
"'stone" nearest him, and as soon as it is suf' 
fiently warm to yield under its own weight 
he opens it. It looks then something like a 
rumpled sheet of paper. He smoothes it 
out by passing a wooden block over it. 
The wheel is turned and the "stone" with 
its sheet passes into the cooling oven or leer. 
The manufacture of plate glass dif- 
fers very materially from that of the 
ordinary table ware or window glass. 
Instead of being like them, the result of a 
blower's breath, the plate glass is cast into 
a flat sheet, and is then ground and pol- 
ished, which at once accounts for its ex- 
pensiveness. In the selection of the crude 
materials great care is taken to secure 
purity. The melting is carried out in large 
open pots, the furnaces differing in their 

[Page Fifty-One'] 



construction only in their greater si^e, and 
in the substitution of iron doors lined with 
tiles for the customary gathering holes. 

When the melting is completed, the 
door nearest the pot to be emptied is 
opened, and a two-pronged fork, mounted 
on wheels, is inserted in the furnace. The 
pot of metal is removed from the furnace 
and carried on a low truck to the casting 
table. Each table is provided with an iron 
roller; strips of iron on each side of the 
table afford a bearing for the rollers, and 
determine the thickness of the plate to be 
cast. The pot of molten glass is lifted by 
means of a crane and its contents poured 
quickly on the table. The heavy iron 
roller is then passed from end to end 
spreading the glass into a layer of uniform 
thickness. 

[Page Fifty-Two'] 



VIL PRESSED GLASS. 

The most common glass in everyday 
use is what is known as pressed glass. This 
differs from cut glass from the fact that the 
plastic material is dropped into a cast iron 
mould, and forced by hand pressure into 
the fixed shape within, 

Imitation cut glass is one of the com- 
mon products of the pressing machine, but 
it can readily be distinguished from the 
genuine article by the inferior lustre and 
the unavoidable rounded edges. In recent 
years, however, the manufacturers of 
pressed glass have resorted to the practice 
of smoothing out these rounded edges, 
mould marks, etc., and by using a superior 
quality of metal have been able to produce 
ware which very readily deceives one un- 

[Page Pvfty-Three] 



familiar with the genuine article. One of 
the best tests to determine whether an 
article is blown and cut 5 or whether it is 
pressed, is to strike a light, sharp blow with 
a lead pencil or some similar object. If it 
be the real cut glass it will give a clear, 
metallic ring, but if it is pressed glass, the 
ring will be dull and the vibration slight. 

The following illustrations show some 
much priced pieces of Sandwich Pressed 
table ware. 




LOOP AND JEWELL PATTERN 



[Page Fifty Four] 



s? 

g 

g 

~ 
d 



> ^ 
o 

w "-d 

O IT 1 

?0 W 

a 3 




O : 

^ w 

w w 

_ tn 



M 



8*. 




VIII. CUT GLASS. 

In cut glass the greater expense comes 
in the cutting, the plain glass being worth 
10 to 12 cents a pound. After a rigid in- 
spection for flaws and various imperfec-- 
tions, the perfect pieces are put into the 
cutter's hands, going first to a ""marker," 
who marks the outline of a design on the 
outside of the plain, smooth surface with 
a peculiar gummy red fluid. The pattern 
is then "roughed" or "ground" with iron 
wheels or discs, kept wet with a constant 
stream of sand and water. These iron 
wheels vary in diameter, thickness and the 
shape of their edges, according to the pat' 
tern to be cut. 

Indeed, wheels of great variety are 
used, not only in the roughing, but in the 

{Page Fifty-Six] 



smoothing and polishing. Sometimes ten 
or a do2;en wheels are needed in cutting a 
single piece of glass. The "roughing" be- 
ing completed, the article is given to a 
"'smoother/'' who follows the rougher "s 
lines with a "Craig leitL," "blue Mitre/" or A 
other kinds of stone wheels, on the edge of 
which water constantly runs. These 
wheels must be frequently trued and 
sharpened with a piece of flint, otherwise 
the cuts will be coarse and fail to bring out 
the lustre and other beauty of the pattern. 
Of course the edges of these wheels must 
be shaped to conform to those of the iron 
wheels with which the roughing is done. 
The smallest portions of the design are cut 
entirely by the stone wheels, without pre- 
vious roughing. 

Among the things that a cutter must 

[Page Fifty-Seven*} 



constantly guard against is the presence of 
even the tiniest pebbles in the sand with 
which the roughing wheels are fed. Other- 
wise, the piece may 5 in an instant, be cut 
entirely through, and sometimes even shat- 
tered into bits. So sensitive must the cut- 
ter's touch be that he will feel to what 
depth his wheel is penetrating, whether it 
be a full half inch into a thick glass bowl, 
or a hair depth into the side of a champagne 
glass. A little lack of care may cause the 
friction to overheat, and so fracture his 
object, wasting the labor bestowed upon it. 
In cutting punch bowls and other 
large articles, lumps of the moistened clay, 
(such as the pots are made from) are placed 
at frequent intervals to take up and deaden 
the vibration which would otherwise 
crack and destroy the article. 

[PageFiftyEight] 



After the smoothing, begins the "pol- 
ishing" in which are first used wooden 
wheels, made usually of willow, fed with a 
mixture of pumice, rotten stone and water. 
Next brush wheels., moistened with the 
same preparation are used. Then the piece 
is brushed with "putty powder" made from 
tin and lead. The final polishing of the 
cuts is done with a wooden or cork wheel, 
moistened with "putty powder" or crocus. 
Where flat surfaces are polished, sometimes 
crocus powder is used on the cork wheel, 
Thick felt wheels moistened with "putty 
powder" are also used on plain flat surfaces. 
In recent years a process of polishing by 
means of acids has been perfected, but this 
has been developed since the closing of the 
works at Sandwich. 

Lapidary cutting, as seen on the stop- 

[Page 



pers for bottles, is done by first roughing 
the glass on the side of an iron wheel,, fed 
with sand and water. Then the piece is 
smoothed on the side of a stone wheel, fed 
with water, and finally polished on a lead 
wheel, moistened with putty and water. 
Here the workman is able to see the work as 
it progresses, a matter of much importance 
when working by eye without the guid' 
ance of a marked pattern. In lapidary work 
the utmost accuracy and care has to be 
used, as, if the slightest variation is made, 
even in the last facet, it would be necessary 
to go over the whole article again in order 
to correct it. 

There are many qualities of cut glass, 
and many persons are pulled to distinguish 
the good from the inferior, until after they 
have made a few direct comparisons. 

[Page Sixty*} 



When the lesson is learned, it is never to 
be forgotten. 

A piece of cut glass transmits light, 
colorless as a crystal. Inferior glass usually 
shows a tint, yellowish,, or greenish, and its 
surfaces are apt to look smoky as you hold 
it between your eye and the light. Then 
you will notice in fine glass that the pat- 
tern is not only better designed, but truer 
in execution, that the cuttings are sharp 
and polished with perfect evenness. In the 
inferior glass you will find, by comparison, 
all sorts of irregularities. Until you have 
mastered these differences, you will not be 
a connoisseur of fine cut glass, and will not 
understand why the collector is willing to 
pay the necessary difference in price be- 
tween good glass artistically designed and 

[Page Sixty-One] 



cut and inferior .glass made cheaply for 
competition. 

The following pictures show three of 
the cutting processes. 




The above shows two tumblers in different stages of cut- 
ting. The one on the left has been "roughed" and 
""smoothed 11 while that on the right has also been polished. 



[Page Sixty-Two] 




GLASS CUTTER MARKING THE PATTERN 



{ Page Sixty-Three*} 




GLASS CUTTER "ROUGHING" 



Sixty 'Four'] 




GLASS CUTTER "SMOOTHING" 



[Page Sixty-Five] 



IX. ENGRAVING AND ETCHING. 
Engraving upon glass differs from the 
usual cutting rather in the pattern and the 
kind of cut, than in the process by which 
it is done. Its results resemble the ancient 
intaglio and cameo cutting of gems and 
crystals. Instead of the geometrical lines 
and patterns in the usual cutting, the en- 
graver is free to cut away and model 
curving surfaces producing figures, flowers, 
or any form of freely playing ornament. 
The engraver uses copper wheels or discs 
of diameters from the si^e of a pinhead up 
to six inches, as thin as a hair or a quarter 
of an inch thick. This wheel is attached 
to the end of a steel rod fastened in a lathe, 
where it is rapidly revolved, receiving from 
time to time a drop of oil and emery pow- 
der. When the engraver desires to out- 

[Page Sixty -Six'] 



2 

o 

I 

M 



I 




line the design, he may do so with a white, 
ink/like mixture applied with a steel pen 5 
but usually he starts directly with the 
wheel, developing the pattern as the whee! 5 
plays over the piece, changing from time 
to time to a finer or coarser tool, to suit the 
design. Here is the field of the artist en- 
graver, well trained, patient, clear of eye, 
firm of hand, and steady of nerve, the sub- 
ject in hand admitting of any degree of 
elaborating, as with the painter artist. 

Engraved designs may also be highly 
polished by using similar small wheels. The 
term used to designate this work is "rock 
crystal engraving"" which is rendered more 
and more costly by the unusual work put 
upon it. 

There is another kind of engraving 
known as "mud box engraving." This is 

[Pdge Sixty Eight] 



done by means of a copper disc revolving 
in a box filled with "mud" or sand which 
has become too fine to be used for cutting. 
In appearance it looks very much like a 
piece of rough engraved glass. 

Another process of decorating glass 
is known as etching. This 
is done by means of cut 
out patterns, which are 
pasted on the clear glass 
surface 5 the whole then 
being covered with a 
preparation of wax. The 
paper patterns are then 
removed with their coat- 
ing of wax, leaving the de- 
sign on the clear glass. 
The articles to be etched 
are then immersed in lead 




"DUTCH PIPE" 

MADE IN RED WHITE 

AND BLUE 



[Page Sixty - 



vats containing acid 
which, eats into the 
surface of the glass un- 
protected by the wax 
covering. Of course 
the inside of the article 
must also be coated 
with the wax. 

While many very 
delicate and beautiful 
designs were produced 

i 

by this method, they 
were not nearly as per- 
manent as the engraved, and were mostly 
used on lamp shades and the cheaper grades 
of table ware. 

The hydrofluoric acid employed for 
etching is the only acid which will eat into 
glass. It is a chemical unfamiliar to the 




EPERGNE ENGRAVED 



[Page Seventy'] 



majority of people. The source of the acid., 
the mineral fluor spar is quite abundant in 
nature. It is so beautiful a mineral occur- 
ring in nearly all the colors of the rainbow, 
and in well defined cubes, that it is given 
a prominent place in all 
mineralogical cab- 
inets, and is much better 
known than the acid de- 
rived from it. The min- 
eral itself is a fluoride of 
lime, and when treated 
with oil of vitriol gives 
off fumes of hydrofluoric 
acid. These are exceed- 
ingly soluble in water, 
forming the ordinary 
hydrofluoric acid of 
commerce. 




ETCHED CANDLE- 
STICK REFITTED 
FOR AN ELEC- 
TRIC LAMP 



[Page Seventy One] 



X. PAINTED AND GILDED GLASS. 

ONE product of the Sandwich Glass 
factory that seems to have been 
forgotten or ignored by most people who 
have written about Sandwich Glass is the 
decorated or painted ware, of which the 
company turned out a great quantity be- 
tween 1860 and 1880. The ware that was 
used for this purpose was the white glass. 
The first of the decorations were done in 
gold and the workmen in the department 
were known as the "gilders.' 5 ' 1 Later, how- 
ever, mineral paints were used; artists of 
much skill employed and many beautiful 
pieces of ware turned out. They were 
mostly in the form of lamp shades and 
pedestals, although some table ware, pep 
fume bottles and toilet sets were made. 

[Page Seventy " 



After the designs 
were painted o n 
the glass and par- 
tially dried, the ar- 
ticles were placed 
in a kiln or oven, 
and the - entrance 
bricked up with 
fire-brick, save for" 
a small hole about 
an inch or so in di- 
ameter called "peek 
hole." The fires 
were then lighted 

and the temperature brought almost to the 
melting point. When the fires were al- 
lowed to go down, the temperature was 
reduced very slowly, until the oven and 
contents became cold. Occasionally a por- 

[Page Seventy-Three'] 




CUT GLASS LAMP WITH 
DECORATED OPAL SHADE. 



tion of the oven would become overheated 
and some of the contents would "slump" 
or change form and thus be ruined. In 

order to prevent this, 
great care was exercised 
and the workmen in 
charge of the kiln fre- 
quently inspected the 
interior through the 
"peek hole" 1 and became 
so expert that they 
could determine by the 
appearance of the con- 
tents just when to 
slacken the heat. 

A red stain was some- 
times used to imitate 




RUBY AND FLINT LAMP. 

ENGRAVED SHADE, CUT the genuine ruby plass. 

BOWL AND PEDESTAL. 



tfge SeventyFour] 



SANDWICH PAPERWEIGHTS 





The above shows one^half and" also a complete floral 
paperweight. As seen in the broken piece, the flowers are 
made up of very small pieces of colored glass, much magni- 
fied in the completed article. Many beautiful pieces of both 
fruit and flowers were made at Sandwich. 




This paper weight "Book" was fashioned from a banker's 
broken inkwell 

[Page SeventyFive*} 



SOME EARLY SANDWICH GLASS 




This group shows old fashioned flint lamp. Two ex- 
amples of the "dolphin" candle stick, also one of the 
numerous cup plates. 



[Page Seventy Six] 



XL THE ORIGIN OF GLASS. 

The art of glass making appears not to 
have been discovered and practised by 
different nations independently, but to 
have gradually spread from a single centre. 
The credit of the invention was given by 
the ancients to the Phoenicians. Phoeni' 
cian merchants, it was claimed, rested their 
cooking pots on blocks of natrow (sub- 
carbonate of soda) 5 and found glass pro- 
duced by the union under the heat of the 
alkali and sand of the shore. 

This claim is disputed however, by 
those who maintain that it is impossible to 
make glass in the open air. It is an accepted 
fact that the early Egyptians were skillful 
glass makers. The Romans are also given 
credit for having 'produced some beautiful 
glass vases. Some specimens of these from 

Seventy ''Seven~j 



the First Century B. G. may be seen in the 
Metropolitan Museum in New York. 

There are in the United States huge 
cliffs of what is known as volcanic glass, 
the largest of these being located in Col- 
orado, where there is a quarry of what is 
known as black flint glass (this being the 
only glass known on this continent before 
the European invasion) . From this quarry 
the ancient artisans cut many utensils and 
ornaments. The special use for this ma' 
terial was for polished mirrors which seem 
to have been a favorite household property 
among the old Mexicans. 

Chemically speaking glass is a fused 
combination of two silicates. In other 
words, it is a melted mixture of sand with 
two oxides from a group of four soda, 
potash, lime and lead. 

[Page Seventy 'Eight] 



The other ingredients found in glass, 
as manganese, tin, arsenic, iron, inc, etc., 
are coloring matter, impurities or cor- 
rectives of impurities. Glass is usually 
named from the principal base. The an- 
cient glass was a "soda glass." Bohemian 
white and English flint are "potash glass. 1 " 
Cheap table ware is "lime glass." While 
optical goods and table glass suitable for 
cutting are known as "lead glass." The 
one staple element of all glass, silica, must 
first be pure and minutely pulverised. 

The Chinese, like some of the ancients s 
get a fine quality of glass by pounding 
quartz, crystals into powder. 

The best English glass was formerly 
made from flints calcined and ground and 
therefore named "flint glass." 



[Page 



Bohemian glass is still made almost 
entirely from pulverised quarts rock. 

Berkshire County, Mass., supplied 
most of the New England and Eastern fac- 
tories with the sand used in the manufac- 
ture of glass. At Sandwich great care was 
used in the preparation of the sand, it being 
very carefully sifted and dried before being 
mixed with the other ingredients of the var- 
ious formulas. 

Much has been written about the 
peculiar brightness and so-called silver tint 
of Sandwich glass. This has been attributed 
to various ingredients used in the "batch," 
as the mixture which was melted to pro- 
duce the several varieties was called. The 
Boston 6s? Sandwich Company had a book 
containing many formulas for various kinds 
of glass with minute directions, as to how 

[Page Eighty] 



the ingredients were to be used., where the 
best ingredients could be obtained., and the 
current prices. Through the courtesy of 
Mr. Charles Lloyd, the writer recently had 
the privilege of examining this book. In 
the days when the factory was in opera- 
tion, this book was carefully guarded, and 
was only accessible to the manager or su- 
perintendent. Apparently many of the 
managers have included their own favorite 
formulas. Some pages from the book are 
reproduced here. 

Of the two following formulas of 
Theodore Kern the first represents one of 
the most costly and the other one of the 
more common types produced by the fac- 
tory. 



[Page Eighty-One] 



Ruby No. 1 

Sand 3 " " 

White Lead 2 " " 

Pearlash 8 " 

Saltpetre or Nitrate of Potash 1 " 
Regulus Antimony 5 

Oxide of Tin 2 

Oxide of Antimony 2 

Manganese 2 

Red oxide of Iron O6 oz. 

Gold in Solution 0-3 

Mode used to prepare the Solution to 
dissolve Gold. 

For one ounce of Gold dissolve 2 03. 
sal ammoniac in 5 03. best nitric acid which 
will take 6 to 7 days. 

Then drop in one ounce of Gold say 
14" to I'Z" at a time, till all is dissolved, but 
be careful to have the first piece dropped in 5 

[Pdge Eighty-Two'] 



(say 14" to 1-2" of the ounce) wholly dis- 
solved^then go on, part at a time as it dis- 
solves, till the ounce is used up which will 
require about 24 hours to dissolve the 
whole. Then evaporate the solution to 
dryness, and then proceed as described in 
this book to make purple of Cassus for 
Ruby Glass. 

Common Flint 

Sand 12 " " 

Lead 3 " " 

Pearlash 25 " 

Bi Garb. Soda 2 " " 

Nitrate of Soda 

Lime 5 " 

Arsenic 8 

Bone 6 

Manganese "'34 02;. 

[Page Eighty-Three} 









f 



-v /A 



/' t 






SAMPLE PAGES FROM THE BOOK OF FORMULAS OF THE 
BOSTON e? SANDU-ICH GLASS COMPANY. 



[Page Eighty 'Four] 



XII MARKETING THE PRODUCT. 
Even in the early days. Sandwich glass 
was rated among the best, and was ranked 
with the product of the New England 
Company as the finest glass made in the 
United States. In these days of modern 
enterprise and keen competition the sales 
methods of the Sandwich Company would 
be considered absurdly archaic. The com' 
pany did little advertising and it had no 
traveling salesmen. Instead it waited for 
the customers to seek the glass. As the 
glassware was turned out it was stored 
away. Twice a year, in the spring and in 
the autumn, goods were shipped to New 
York, Boston, Philadelphia and Baltimore 
and sold at auction to jobbers. It was 
always the policy to make as much glass as 

[Page Eighty-Five^ 



the furnaces would turn out, regardless of 
the state of the market. The contention of 
the company was that when the market 
did rise the Boston 6? Sandwich Company 
would be ready to take advantage of it 
with glass that had been made as cheaply 
as that of any company. To turn out less 
than the capacity of the furnaces was held 
to be raising the cost of the product. 

While the interest in Sandwich glass 
at the present time is almost wholly con' 
fined to the pressed type, and some author- 
ities claim that the pressed ware was the 
principal product of the Sandwich factory, 
the writer is inclined to doubt this claim. 
In the late 6CTs and early 7CTs some of the 
best glass cutters in the country were em- 
ployed in the cutting shop, as many as. 

[Page Eighty -Six] 



forty or fifty being at work there at that 
time, as well as a number of engravers. 

^When work was slack in the cutting 
room, the cutters bought blanks from the 
Company and cut patterns of their own 
design which were submitted to the super- 
intendent. If these met with his approval, 
they were sent to the salesroom, and the 
filling of any orders from these designs 
was given to the designer of the pattern. 
Sometimes, if officials of the Company were 
pleased with a pattern, or it became pop" 
ular, the Company bought it from the 
originator. This indicates that fine cut 
glass filled a very important place in the 
Company's output. 



[Page Eighth-Seven] 




[Page Eighty-Bight] 



XIII THE PERSONNEL. 

It is interesting to recall the names of 
some of those who contributed largely to 
the success of the factory, whose product 
is now so largely sought. 

There was Gapt. Wm. Stetson, the 
first superintendent under Mr. Jarves, who 
remained in his position until increasing 
years unfitted him for his arduous duties. 
It is to the credit of the directors at that 
time that he was granted a yearly salary 
while living, for his faithful services.. 

George L. Fessenden, familiarly known 
as "Lafayette," was the general superin- 
tendent for many years. 

Mr. Fessenden by his courtesy and 
uniform kindness and impartiality so en- 
deared himself to the workers in the various 

[Page Eighty- 3s[ine} 



departments of the works that on Wash- 
ington's Birthday in I860, he was sum- 
moned into the cutting shop where were 
assembled some three hundred of the 
operators, less than one half of the total 
number employed, and Mr. James Ingraham, 
on behalf of the gathering, presented him a 
beautiful silver service, suitably inscribed. 
In making up the sum necessary to pur- 
chase the service, no contributor was al- 
lowed to give more than fifty cents. 

C. C. P. Waterman was the first clerk 
and paymaster. He remained in this posi- 
tion until Mr. Jarves' resignation, when he 
followed the agent and greatly assisted him 
in building up the Cape Cod Glass works. 

Deacon Elisha Jones was head book- 
keeper for many years. Charles Chapouil 
was for a long time clerk in the office at 

[Page J\[inety*] 



Sandwich and the writer is indebted to him 
for many facts relating to the early days of 
the Company. 

The names of Joseph Hay., Esq.., presi- 
dent of the directors, Gorham Rogers, 
treasurer, and David H. Coolidge, clerk, are 
also worthy of mention. 

On the resignation of Mr. Jarves as 
agent, Mr. Sewell H. Fessenden (who had 
been head salesman under Mr. Jarves V 
was appointed agent. Prosperity continued 
under his administration for a number of 
years, until the competition of the western 
factories, the decline of prices, and labor 
troubles, began to be felt seriously. Then 
Mr. Henry F. Spurr was appointed general 
superintendent of the whole concern. He 
used his best efforts to bring the company 
back to its former prestige, but all in vain. 

[Page T^netyOne] 



It was too late. At length the directors 
voted to close up the business and save all 
they could for the stockholders. They 
sold all the made up stock of ware to Jones, 
McDuffy 6? Stratton, and the whole plant, 
including the houses of the workmen, to 
a company for $20 9 000^a plant which cost 
in the course of time at least $200,000. 

A peculiar clause in the charter of this 
old company provided that if at any time 
the fires were allowed to go out in all its 
furnaces its charter should expire. After 
the closing down of the factory several at- 
tempts were made to revive the industry, 
but without success. 

The Company never allowed a pay-' 
day to be passed over in the hardest times 
(and the company passed through many) . 
No employee ever had reason to complain 

[Pdge 



that he was not paid in full for his labor, 
and if in case of sickness or trouble in his 
family he wanted a barrel of flour, or ton 
of coal, of which the company always kept 
a stock to be sold to its employees at reason- 
able prices, or money to help him out, it was 
always advanced. For many years it was 
Mr. Jarves custom to give every fall a 
barrel of flour to each widow in the factory 
village. 

There were many first-class workmen 
who contributed to the success of the com- 
pany in their several departments. 

Theodore Kern was foreman of the 
cutting shop and afterwards manager of 
the glass house. Francis Kern was foreman 
of the cutting shop, and was succeeded by. 
Luther Drake. 

One of the best known glass makers 

[Page 7v[inet3/'Three] 



was William Kern, who is still living (in 
1925) at the age of 94 in New Bedford, 
Mass., and is the oldest living employee of 
the company. He first went to work for 
the Boston and Sandwich Company when 
nine years old and remained there for 28 
years. 

One of the most skillful employees of 
the company was Hiram Dilloway, who 
was master mechanic, and to whose skill 
was due much of the success that attended 
the manufacture of pressed glass (the kind 
so eagerly sought after at the present 
time) . Mr. Dilloway drew the sketches, 
made the patterns, and many of the moulds 
themselves, for the now famous "Sandwich 
pressed glass/ 1 



{Page 



Among the more eagerly sought speci- 
mens of Sandwich glass are the cup plate, of 
which many different patterns were made. 
The following are some of the best known 
of specimens. 

The cup plate on the title page is one of 
the several "Bunker Hill" designs. It is re- 
lated that a group of women had this partic- 
ular plate on sale at the dedication of the 
monument and so great was the demand for 
them that the 2,500 was soon sold and an 
order was sent to the factory for as many 
more as could be delivered the next day. A 
crew was immediately put to work and, 
after working all night, 1,000 were sent to 
Boston the next morning. 



[Page 





UPPER LEFT SANDWICH STAR, 
UPPER RIGHT THIRTEEN HEARTS. CLAIMED BY 
SOME TO BE FIRST PATTERN MADE AT SANDWICH. 
LOWER LEFT HENRY CLAY. 
LOWER RIGHT LEAFY BORDER, 



[Page 









UPPER LEFT THISTLE PATTERN CUP PLATE. 

UPPER CENTER PRESENTATION SANDWICH CUP 
PLATE MADE FOR PRINCE OF WALES IN 1860. 

UPPER RIGHT CONSTITUTION, ONE OF SANDWICH'S 
BEST. 

LOWER LEFT MAN AND BULL. 

CENTER STATE CUP PLATE. 

LOWER RIGHT GRAPE EAGLE CUP PLATE. 



[Page 




AN ANCIENT SUGAR BOWL. 



This sugar bowl 
was made in 1829, 
only four years 
after the establish- 
ment of the fac- 
tory by William 
Kern, father of 
the William Kern 
referred to in the 
preceding pages 
and was a wed- 



ding gift to his 

sister, Catherine Kern, on the occasion of 
her marriage to Frederick Eaton, grand- 
father of the writer. It was known as the 
"Bee Hive" pattern and is probably one of 
the oldest specimens of Sandwich Glass now 
in existence. This sugar bowl is now the 
property of Mrs. Harry Cheney, of Palmer, 

[Page Jfynety Eight] 



Mass., a grand-daughter of Frederick and 
Catherine Eaton. 

The writing of this brief history has 
been to the author a work of love. To 
preserve the memory of an industry famed 
in other days, and with which the fortunes 
of his own family and those of boyhood 
friends were so long linked, is his desire. 
If these pages shall serve this end, the 
writer is well repaid. 





STIPPLED SYRUP PITCHER 



EGG GUP 

[Page J^inety 'Jo 




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