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Full text of "The story of Te Waharoa : a chapter in early New Zealand history, together with sketches of ancient Maori life and history"

V- 










Judge Wilson. 



THE STORY OF 



WAHAROA 



A Chapter in Early New Zealand History 



TOGETHER WITH 



SKETCHES OF ANCIENT MAORI LIFE 
AND HISTORY 



BY 



JOHN ALEXANDEB WILSON 

Lately a Judge of the Native Land Court of New Zealand. 




CHBISTCHURCH, WELLINGTON AND DUNEDIN, N.z. 
MELBOURNE AND LONDON: 

WHITCOMBE AND TOMBS LIMITED 



Te Waharoa's waiata of defiance to Ngapuhi a message 
sung to Mr. Wilson (father of the author) on the 
29th March, 1837, at Te Papa Tauranga. 

Ko au anaJce ra te waihou net, i te ngatu raiaha Ka tu, 
raiaha Ka haere, raiaha Ka pana, raiaha 
Mahia, aha Onoia-onoia raiaha Ka kote aha 
Korero mai roto, Korero mai roto. 



PREFACE TO THE ORIGINAL EDITION. 



THE following pages furnish a truthful narrative of some past 
events, which occurred in New Zealand, during the life time of the 
father of the present Chief, William Thompson and form, if the 
paradox may be allowed, a chapter in the history of Auckland, 
South of Auckland, before Auckland was Auckland. 

In Part I., an effort has been made to clear the early incidents 
related from the dimness and uncertainty with which time, and 
lack of written record, has involved them ; while the views, 
submitted in Part II., have been formed by a disinterested, and 
not unobservant, spectator. And, in reference to Part III., I feel 
assured that the historical statements contained will be found to be 
of a very reliable nature. 

I would add that the only evidence accepted in this " STOEY OF 
TE WAHARO A ' ' is such as has been directly received from 
Missionaries, Pakeha-Maoris, and Maoris, who were .contempor- 
aneous with, and personally well acquainted with, that remarkable 
Chief ; and though a knowledge of Waharoa and his times, was not 
acquired by me yesterday, still, I beg to thank those friends with 
whom I have lately conversed, for their kind efforts to recall 
circumstances that were well nigh forgotten and lost. 

I will conclude by observing that I have not sought to multiply 
horrors, if much has been said, much also remains unsaid, for 
there was no lack of materials. Very repelling scenes have been 
omitted ; and the reader is not to suppose that this slight sketch 
contains all the dreadful things that were done in Waharoa's time. 

J. A. WILSON. 
Remuera, Auckland, 1866. 



PEEFACE. 



It is forty years since the Story was 
published, during which time not a single 
statement of fact therein regarding Maori 
history has been questioned, much less refuted. 
So far as I am aware, only one fact has been 
questioned, and that is outside the range of 
Maori history, namely, whether the disap- 
pointed immigrants who arrived at Sydney 
from New Zealand, went pearl fishing. A 
gentleman attempted to verify the statement by 
searching the records in Sydney. He found 
that the disappointed immigrants had arrived 
from New Zealand ; their port of departure, as 
stated in the Story, being Hokianga; but he 
failed to trace them to the pearl fisheries, which 
is not surprising, as other vessels suitable to 
pearl fishing would be used by the immigrants, 
and not the deep sea ship in which they had 
come from New Zealand. 

I was asked for my authority and gave it, 
namely the late Mr. Fairburn, of the Church 
Missionary Society, formerly a resident of 
Sydney, who told the story of the immigrants 
and their wanderings to my father in 1833, when 
weather-bound together at the same sand-spit 
island, while voyaging in an open boat from the 
Thames to the Bay of Islands. 



VI. PREFACE 

The information contained in this Story was 
gathered by me from many sources, my prin- 
cipal informant being my father, the late Eev. 
J. A. Wilson, of the C.M.S., also the late Eev. 
T. Chapman, C.M.S., the Eev. J. Hamlin, 
C.M.S., Mr. H. Tapsal, and many other persons 
both European and Maori, also from personal 
observation. 

Here I would note that the Story of Te 
Waharoa served a useful public purpose in 
rectifying an error that the Native Land Court, 
then new to its office, had fallen into, when 
laying down the dictum called its 1840 Eule 
(vide Oakura judgment delivered by three 
judges, including the Chief Judge, while sitting 
in the Compensation Court). Apart from its 
circumlocution, this decision meant that the 
Maoris had killed and eaten each other and 
taken each other's land without rhyme or 
reason, and the N.L. Court, after two years' 
search, had failed to find any. Whereas the 
Story of Te Waharoa shewed that native move- 
ments, political, in war, or otherwise, were 
subject to cause and effect, not to blind chance. 
It also showed that the natives were accustomed 
to defend their lands with their lives. At Eoto- 
rua, in 1836, the chief cried : ' ' Let me die upon 
my land." The tribe rallied and repulsed the 
invaders. At Maketu, another chief used the 
same words, his tribe stood firm, and they died 
almost to a man in defence of their land. Thus 
we find that the following passage in the 
decision does not hold good: "Land with its 



PEEFACE Vll. 

places of strength, concealment, and security 
seems to have been regarded more as a means 
of maintaining and securing the men who 
occupied, than the men who occupied it as a 
means of defending and maintaining possession 
of the land." Many other examples might be 
added, not contained in the Story, in which the 
natives state that they fought for their land to 
the death. 

Again, in vesting ownership the decision 
drew an arbitrary line across the threads of 
native tradition and custom, a course that 
necessarily failed when a better way was found ; 
this was aptly pointed out by the late Judge 
Heal, of the Native Land Court, who remarked 
to me some time afterwards, saying, " Since 
your little book appeared we heard nothing 
more of the 1840 Eule." This was a useful 
public purpose served. 

I have now to amend, on my own initiative, 
certain details that led to the Te Haramiti 
expedition. Instead of two girls quarrelling 
in the water while bathing at Kororareka beach, 
there were four girls, or rather two pairs of 
sisters. The first pair had lately been the 
favourites of one Pereri (Freddy), a 
Pakeha-Maori of Kororareka. They belonged 
to a hapu on the north side of the Bay. The 
second pair were their successful rivals, and 
belonged to the tribe at Kororareka. The first 
pair seeing their enemies bathing entered the 
water and assaulted them so violently that their 
mother waded in to their rescue, and submerged 



Till. PREFACE 

the assailants until their insensible bodies were 
drawn out of the water by their friends. The 
mother seeing this exclaimed, "What does it 
matter, they will make a nice relish for our new 
potatoes." This allusion to the girls as food 
was a curse, greatly offensive to their hapu, 
who requested Hongi Hika, chief of their side of 
the Bay, to avenge the insult. Hongi prudently 
declined to bring about a civil war, but other 
chiefs were less circumspect, and, raising a 
war party, attacked Kororareka and were 
repulsed with loss that led to the disastrous 
Te Haramiti expedition described in the Story. 
The Sketches of Ancient Maori Life and 
History may receive some slight additions, 
which I will briefly state. The Tawhitirahi pa 
mentioned as overlooking Kukumoa stream, at 
Opotiki, lately became the property of a gentle- 
man who proceeded to level the ramparts ; along 
the line post holes were found, time had 
removed the wood, but in each hole there was 
a human skeleton; the workmen disliking the 
look of the thing abandoned the job. Tawhiti- 
rahi was no doubt a pa of great antiquity, and 
the men that built its battlements are a mystery. 
Their manners and customs, judging by this 
glimpse, appear to have resembled Fijian 
horrors described by the early European 
visitors to that country. They could not have 
been of the Hawaiki-Maori race, whose tradi- 
tions, generally precise, would have furnished 
a clue. The same may be almost as certainly 
said of earlier Maui-Maori people. Other pas 



PREFACE IX. 

have been levelled in many places, but no such 
ghastly remains, so far as I am aware, have 
been discovered. 

It is known however, that a people other than 
the Mam-Maori nation inhabited New Zealand 
before the advent of the Hawaiki-Maori. These 
were the Urukehu, or white New Zealanders, 
with red hair. This tribe, possibly a 
remnant of a larger people, lived as lately as 
nine generations ago at Heruiwi and country 
westward and southward from there, along the 
margin of the forest towards Mohaka Eiver. 
The Urukehu were not a martial people. They 
were unable to resist the Hawaiki-Maoris, who 
attacked them under the chiefs Wharepakau 
and Patuheuheu, his nephew, who drove them 
from Heruiwi and other possessions, until they 
took shelter in a large and strongly-fortified 
pa. This pa was carried, and thereafter the 
Urukehu ceased to be a tribe. 

Wharepakau and Patuheuheu had landed at 
Te Awa o te Atua, thence they secured them- 
selves and their followers in a pa on the moun- 
tain of Whakapoukorero, from which point they 
made war on the Urukehu. I incline to the 
opinion that these adventurers were of 
Ngatiawa lineage, thrust out from the Bay of 
Islands. 

Traces of the Urukehu red hair were 
frequently visible in the Bay of Plenty fifty 
years ago. 

I now come to my last topic, namely, the 
occupation at the Bay of Islands and Hokianga 



X. PREFACE 

by Ngatiawa, and their expulsion therefrom by 
Ngapuhi. When Ngatiawa, of Mataatua 
canoe, under Muriwai, their chieftainess, 
arrived at Whakatane, they seemed to have 
deliberately wiped six generations of sojourn at 
the Bay of Islands off their traditional slate, 
and landed at Whakatane as though they had 
come straight from Hawaiki. This may have 
been devised by their leaders in order to appear 
with prestige, and to avoid the danger in their 
new location of appearing as a beaten people. 
This revised tradition is still firmly held at 
Whakatane, the head-quarters of Ngatiawa, 
and has been set forth by me in the * * Sketches. ' ' 
The true story of Ngatiawa is that Mataatua, 
after the meeting at Ahuahu described in the 
"Sketches," went north like Tainui and Te 
Arawa canoes, but, unlike them, did not turn 
back south. She landed at Tako, at the bottom 
of the first bay, immediately north of the Bay 
of Islands. Here her immigrants settled and 
spread; thence to Rangihu, on Te Puna 
peninsula, where they had a strong pa, and, 
where, known as Te Whanau o te Hikutu a 
thoroughly Ngatiawa tribal appellation they 
ascended Waitangi and Kerikeri Rivers, and, 
crossing their watersheds, descended into 
Hokianga country by the Waihou River. They 
had strong earthwork fortifications, some of 
great size and ruas underground food stores 
at Puketonu, and near Waimate East. At 
Hokianga they held much of the land extending 
along the left bank of the river, from above 
Utakura to Motu River. 



PEEFACE XI. 

Another Ngatiawa canoe from Hawaiki 
landed at or near Doubtful Bay. Her people 
extended their settlement through Kaitaia to 
the south side of Hokianga Heads, where they 
had a pa near Oponini. Communication 
subsisted between these and the Ngatiawa 
opposite Kohukohu. Such was the state of 
Ngatiawa settlement in the north 150 to 180 
years after the landing at Tako, when war 
arose. Bahere, a half-caste Ngatiawa-Ngapuhi 
chief became offended with his Ngatiawa 
relations, and attacked and destroyed the pa 
near Hokianga Heads. The war became 
general, Ngapuhi joined Eahere, and Ngatiawa, 
with few exceptions including Te Whanau o te 
Hikutu, were driven out of the Bay of Islands 
and Hokianga districts by the all-conquering 
Ngapuhi. 

It was then that Mataatua, under Muriwai, 
went to Whakatane, or it was probably another 
canoe named after her 150 to 180 years being 
possibly too long a time for a canoe to remain 
in a seaworthy condition. It was probably a 
result of this war that the chiefs Wharepakau 
and Patuheuheu, who seem to have been of 
Ngatiawa connection, landed at Te Awa o te 
Atua. 

From the landing of Mataatua at Tako, the 
number of the generations of the descendants 
of her mixed people at Hokianga tallies exactly 
with the number of generations for Tainui and 
Te Arawa. 

A singular feature of this war is that the 
descendants of the belligerents on both sides, 



Xll. PREFACE 

apart from a few at Hokianga, know little or 
nothing of its history. My late father in the 
thirties saw the earthworks at the Bay of 
Islands, and sought to learn their origin, but 
he was only told that they had been built by 
Ngatiawa, nothing more could the natives tell. 
The late Dr. William Williams, Bishop of 
Waiapu, who had lived many years at the Bay 
of Islands in the twenties and thirties, said 
exactly the same thing to me thirty years ago, 
when he asked me if I had solved the mystery 
which I had not then. 

The Ngapuhi, coming from Hawaiki, landed 
on the south side of the Bay ; the Ngatiawa, as 
we have seen, landed on the north side of the 
Bay of Islands; necessarily, therefore, the 
boundary between the tribes, tacit or acknow- 
ledged, would probably be in the vicinity of the 
bottom of the Bay. Accordingly we find 
Ngatiawa, with strategical skill, fortifying the 
Waitangi valley, and westward of the same, 
where the river takes a bend. As time 
advanced and population increased, each tribe 
doubtless became a menace to the other ; friction 
would ensue, and the Ngapuhi, recognising the 
strength of the position in their front, made an 
outside movement via Kaipara and the coast 
road to Hokianga Heads as a beginning to the 
war. 

In this preface I regret I have not always 
been as precise as I could wish in the names 
of persons and places in the story of the Uru- 
kehu white New Zealanders and in the 



PREFACE Xlll. 

account of the occupation in the North, the 
reason being that I am not permitted to peruse 
my Judge's notes in the records of the Native 
Land Court without payment, which I cannot 
consent to, seeing the information is required 
for historical purposes only. 

J. A. WILSON. 

AUCKLAND, 

2nd October, 1906. 



CONTENTS. 



STOEY OF TE WAHAEOA. 



PART I. 

Introductory Te Waharoa's Youth, Captivity, Liberation The 
Ngatiwhakaue Waharoa Chief of Ngatihaua Defeats Te Rau- 
paraha Enters into alliance with Ngatiterangi The Ngatimaru 
War with Ngatimaru Te Totara taken Mauinena and Makoia 
taken Matakitaki taken Battle of Te Ihimarangi Fall of Hau- 
whenua Maori St. Bartholomew The Wakatohea Te Rohu takes 
Te Papa at Opotiki Waharoa repulses Tareha Missionaries and 
Pakeha-Maoris Voyage of the " Herald" Tauranga and Ngatite- 
rangi Panorama of Bay of Plenty Its Tribes, Soil, and Climate 
Te Rohu takes Te Papa, at Tauranga How Ngaiterangi invaded 
Tauranga "Haws" Tragedy Ngarara writhes his last O 
tempora I O mores t Tamati Waka bold to rashness The Girls' 
quarrel Heke wounded Haramiti's Taua Slaughter at Ahuahu 
Slaughter at Tuhua Carnage at Motiti Te Waru's wakamo- 
mori, or the Captor driven Captive. 



PART H. 

Pakeha-Maori murdered Missionaries arrive at Puriri Unsuc- 
cessful Immigrants Ferocity of New Zealanders Their depravity 
Maori Ladies Maramarua Maori Religion The Tohungas 
Missionary Regime Governors Hobson and Fitzroy, their Policy 
Native Protectorate Governor Grey Flour and Sugar Policy 
Unable to fight the Maoris Campaign against the early Mission- 
aries An old Missionary First English Bishop arrives St. John's 
College founded Reflections. 



CONTENTS XV 

PART III. 

Huka murders Hunga Te Waharoa wages war with the Arawas 
Fourteen guests murdered Missionaries reprove Te Waharoa 
Fall of Maketu Loss of European Property Te Tumu, its people, 
its fall Tautari repulses Ngaiterangi Dreadful state of the 
Country Two of the Missionaries do not retire Mrs. Haupapa 
Tarore killed Ngakuku a Christian Matiu Tahu A coup de main 
Tohi Te Ururangi Ohinemutu Campaign Mission Station 
burnt Cannibal Scene Taharangi's Taua Te Patutarakihi 
Waitioko's Sweet Waters Te Waharoa 's Death Te Arahi 
William Thompson. 



SKETCHES OF MAOEI LIFE AND HISTOEY. 



PAGE 

THE MAUI MAORI NATION ... ... ... ... 125 

THE HAW AIKI MAORI IMMIGRATION ... ... ... 159 

NGAETERANGI, OF TAURANGA ... ... ... 186 

The Ngatipukenga Tribe ... ... ... 210 

The Ngatirawharo Tribe ... ... ... 214 

The War of Ngatipukeko of Mataatua with Ngati- 

manawa of Te Arawa ... ... ... 215 

A Maori Duel ... ... ... ... ... 222 

Another Maori Duel ... ... ... ... 223 

Maori Communism ... ... ... ... 226 

The Tuwhakairiora Tribe ... ... ... 233 

THE HAWAIKI MAORI IMMIGRATION (Supplementary 

Chapter) ... ... ... ... ... 251 



LIST OF ILLUSTBATIONS. 



Judge Wilson ... ... ... ... frontispiece. 

Te Bauparaha ... ... ... ... ... 1> 

Rev. Henry Williams (afterwards Archdeacon of Waimate) 20 
Upper part of Whangaroa, showing where the "Boyd" 

drifted after taking fire ... ... ... ... 32 

Residence of Colonel Wakefield, principal agent of the 

New Zealand Company, Wellington ... ... 47 

Capt. William Hobson, R.N., First Governor of New 

Zealand ... ... ... ... ... 64 

Sir George Grey ... ... ... ... ... 68 

Bishop Selwyn ... ... ... ... ... 78 

Judge Maning (a famous " Pakeha Maori ") ... ... 88 

Kororareka Beach, Bay of Islands, in 1836 ... ... 98 

Storehouse for Kumara ... ... ... ... 128 

Native Stores for Flax ... ... ... ... 132 

The Downy Rata (Metrosideros tomentosa) ... ... 140 

Pohutukawa Tree, Kawhia Harbour ... ... ... 172 

The people of Turi's canoe, after a voyage of great 

hardship, at last sight the shores of New Zealand ... 184 

A Maori War Expedition ... ... ... ... 208 

Kakapo ... ... ... ... ... ... 218 

WakaNene ... ... ... ... ... 228 

Wood Pigeon ... ... ... ... ... 240 



THE STORY OF TE WAHAROA. 



PAET I. 



The following fragment of "Biographic Uni- 
verselle" contains the sketch of a "fine old 
Maori gentleman, one of the olden time," and 
may perhaps prove interesting to some readers. 

The history of Te Waharoa shows something 
of the condition of the ancient New Zealanders, 
who separated into various tribes, inhabited 
the valleys of the Thames and Waikato. who 
occupied the shores of the Bay of Plenty, and 
held the Lake district adjacent. It is a history 
which enables us to observe the actions of those 
tribes in peace and in war; to study their reli- 
gion, their habits, and customs; to trace the 
effect of the humanising and Christian influ- 
ences, which gradually dispelled the dark 
clouds that had rendered those savages unap- 
proachable; and it assists us to examine the 
causes, latent in the Maori mind, which facili- 
tated that change. In order, however, to make 
such a view more complete, we shall sometimes 
introduce incidents and characters not strictly 
connected with Te Waharoa 's story, but gen- 
erally contemporaneous with that chief, and 



2 STOEY OF TE WAHAEOA 

pertaining to the districts where his influence 
was felt. 

Te Waharoa, chief of the Ngatihaua tribe, 
and father of the present William Thompson 
Tarapipi, was, in his youth, a slave at Eotorua. 
The great influence and distinction he attained 
in after life is probably the reason why this, 
and other incidents of Waharoa 's boyhood, are 
rescued from the obscurity which, notwith- 
standing he was a New Zealand chief, would 
otherwise have been their lot. 

It is said that, ere Te Waharoa 's birth, Tai- 
porutu, his father, a Ngatihaua chief, was 
killed at Wanganui, in the waharoa large 
gateway of a pa he was in the act of attack- 
ing, and that on its birth his infant was named 
Te Waharoa by its mother, in remembrance of 
the spot where her husband had so nobly fallen. 

When Waharoa was only about two years 
old, Maungakawa, the place where his tribe 
lived, was invaded and devastated by the Nga- 
tiwhakaue, and he and his mother were carried 
captive to Eotorua. In reference to this cir- 
cumstance, the aged Ngatiwhakaue chief 
Pango, as he reflected, some sixty years after- 
wards, on the slaughter of his tribe at Ohine- 
mutu, by Te Waharoa, said, "Ah! had I but 
known once what I know now, he never should 
have killed us thus. I saw him, a little deserted 
child, crying in the ashes of his pa ; and, as he 
seemed a nice child, I spared him, and putting 
him into a kit, carried him over to Botorua, and 
now see how he requites us. Oh! that I had 
not saved him." Such was old Pango 's pious 



STORY OF TE WAHAROA 3 

prayer in 1836, but it came too late; for not 
only was Waharoa's infancy spared, but when 
he grew up, out of respect to his rank, and be- 
cause perhaps his disposition was but ill quali- 
fied to brook the restraints of his condition, he 
was suffered to return to his father's tribe. 
This may have been about seventy years ago. 

The Ngatiwhakaue, who liberated Te Waha- 
roa, and against whom he, forty years after- 
wards, declared war, came originally from 
Hawaiki, in company with the other Maori 
tribes. Their canoe, the "Arawa," landed at 
Maketu. Eotorua was shortly afterwards dis- 
covered by a man of their tribe, named Ihanga, 
whilst out hunting with his dog, and was occu- 
pied by them ; since which time they have main- 
tained themselves in uninterrupted possession 
of their country. During the period over which 
our story extends, the chiefs of Ngatiwhakaue 
were Korokai; Pango, alias Ngawai, alias 
Ngaihi, a priest; and Pukuatua, of the Ngati- 
pehi hapu, at Ohinemutu; Kahawai, Hikairo, 
Amohau, and Huka of the Ngatirangiwewehi 
hapu, at Puhirua; Nainai, of Ngatipukenga, at 
Maketu; Tapuika, of the Tapuika hapu, near 
the same place; also Tipitipi and Haupapa, 
fighting chiefs ; who, as well as Kahawai, Tapu- 
ika, and Nainai, were afterwards killed in 
action, fighting Te Waharoa. There was also 
at Botorua a noted old tohunga, named Unu- 
aho, of the Ngatiuenukukopako hapu. 

This section of the Maori people is now more 
commonly, and we think more correctly, called 
Te Arawa, an appellation but seldom used in 



4 STORY OF TE WAHAEOA 

Waharoa's time, when Ngatiwhakaue was the 
name by which they were known. 

If we assume Te Waharoa to have been 
twenty years old when he joined his father's 
tribe, that event will be placed about the year 
1795, as at his death, in 1839, he was upwards 
of sixty years of age. 

Of course it is now impossible to give a cir- 
cumstantial account of all the events connected 
with his early career as a fighting man among 
the Ngatihauas, who then held the Maungakaua 
Kange, and were but a small tribe of, perhaps, 
about four hundred fighting men. Suffice it to 
say, that he witnessed the many incursions of 
the ruthless Ngapuhi, in the early part of this 
century, and the desolation they wrought in 
the districts we have named, and that he soon 
distinguished himself, and gradually gave im- 
portance to his tribe. 

Te Waharoa's courage, activity, and ad- 
dress, his subtlety and enterprise, joined with 
reckless daring in single combat, rendered him 
in a few years the head of his own people and 
the dread of his neighbours. He allied himself 
with Ngatimaniapoto, and drove Te Bauparaha 
and the Ngatiraukawas from Maungatautari to 
Cook's Straits. He made war upon Waikato, 
and consigned a female member of the would-be 
royal house of Potatau to his umu (oven). At 
length, having made peace with Te Whero- 
whero on the west, and having planted the 
friendly Ngatikorokis at Maungatautari on the 
south, he turned his face towards the sea, and 
waged a long and bitter strife with the 



STOEY OF TE WAHAROA. 5 

powerful Ngatimaru tribe, who inhabited 
Matamata and the valley of the Thames. 

Thus far I would remark the apparent policy 
of this crafty chief. First he got rid of Te Bau- 
paraha, who was as pugnacious a cannibal as 
himself. Then he terrified Te Wherowhero, 
who, having the example of his unfortunate 
relative before his eyes, doubtless judged it 
more prudent to enter into an alliance with the 
conqueror, and to assist him in his wars, than 
to run the risk of being otherwise disposed of. 
And lastly he endeavoured in two ways to ob- 
tain for his tribe a passage to the sea, viz., by 
seeking forcibly to dispossess the natives of 
the Thames, and by cultivating the good will 
of the Tauranga natives, and pressing his 
friendship on them a friendship which has 
resulted more disastrously to Ngaiterangi than 
even his hostility proved to Ngatimaru. 

It involved the reluctant Ngaiterangi in a six 
years' sanguinary war with Ngatiwhakaue, by 
which Tauranga was frequently devastated, 
and gave the haughty Ngatihauas the entree to 
their district. Nor is it too much to affirm that, 
during the long course of his wars, the alliances 
formed by Te Waharoa with the Ngatimania- 
poto, the Waikato, and the Tauranga tribes, 
have been, in the hands of his son, an important 
element in the opposition which has been 
offered to the British Government. Its conse- 
quences are visible in the expatriated Waikato, 
now a byword among other natives, and in the 
present miserable remnant of Tauranga 



6 STOEY OF TE WAHAEOA 

natives despised even by those who have 
duped them. What did a Ngatihaua say lately, 
when reminded by one whom he could not gain- 
say, that his tribe had no right or title to 
Tauranga land at Tepuna or elsewhere ? 
"What!" he said, "do you not know that 
Ngaiterangi are a plebeian race an iwi 
ware? Where are their chiefs? We helped 
them against Ngapuhi, and it is right we should 
live at Tauranga." Such is Maori right the 
right of might which converts not merely the 
lands, but the wives and chattels of the weaker 
party to the use of the stronger ; and, therefore, 
as the unfortunate Ngaiterangi gradually lost 
their strength and prestige in the war with 
Ngatiwhakaue, which the fear of incurring 
Waharoa's displeasure compelled them to join 
in, so the ungrateful Ngatihaua slowly and 
almost imperceptibly encroached upon their 
land, and at length they boldly assert a right 
thereto. The sequel will show that Te Waharoa 
himself never ventured to make such a claim. 
But to resume the thread of our story. 

The Thames natives against whom Te Waha- 
roa now turned his arms were a numerous and 
warlike people; they had held possession of 
their country almost from the time of their 
arrival from Hawaiki. Their leading chiefs 
were Eauroha, Takurua, Urimahia, Te Eohu, 
Horita, and Herua, with Piaho and Koinake, 
fighting chiefs. Before the introduction of fire- 
arms, this tribe had been accustomed freely to 
devastate the northern portions of the island, 




Te Rauparaha. 



STOEY OF TE WAHAEOA 7 

so that Te Bohu's father enjoyed the reputa- 
tion of being a man-eater one who lived 
entirely on human flesh. Puketonu, well known 
in the Bay of Islands, was about the last pa 
destroyed by these cannibals. They were called 
generally after Maru, from whom they sprang, 
who travelled from Kawhia to Hauraki after 
the arrival of the Taimii canoe from Hawaiki; 
but they were divided, as indeed they are still, 
into Ngatimaru proper, Ngaitematera, Ngati- 
paoa, and Ngatiwhanaunga. 

At the time of which we write, a number of 
Ngatimaru, with Takurua their chief, resided 
at Matamata, near to Maungakawa Waha- 
roa's place. Their position, therefore, rendered 
them particularly exposed to Te Waharoa's 
incursions; nor did they receive any effective 
aid from Ngatipaoa, Ngatitematera, or 
Ngatiwhanaunga, who lived chiefly upon the 
coast and islands of Hauraki Gulf; for 
their inter-tribal jealousies, and their con- 
stant dread of Ngapuhi who were the first 
natives to obtain firearms, and now diligently 
employed themselves in taking vengeance on 
their former persecutors frequently pre- 
vented their joining Ngatimaru against the 
common enemy in the south. Te Waharoa was 
well aware of these circumstances, and but too 
ready to take advantage of them. Had they 
been otherwise, it is doubtful whether the 
efforts of his united forces would have proved 
sufficient to produce any material result ; as the 
Thames natives, before they lost the Totara pa, 



8 STORY OF TE WAHAEOA 

mustered four thousand fighting men; and he 
was never able, by fighting, to wrest even 
Matamata from Ngatimaru. Be this, however, 
as it may ; the following events probably deter- 
mined Te Waharoa vigorously to prosecute his 
war with Ngatimaru. 

In 1821 a taua of Ngapuhi, under the cele- 
brated Hongi, arrived at the Totara pa, 
between Kauaeranga and Kopu, at the mouth 
of the Thames. So numerous did they find 
Ngatimaru, and the Totara so strong that, 
hesitating to attack, they affected to be amic- 
ably disposed, and were received into the pa for 
the purposes of trade and barter. Towards 
evening Ngapuhi retired, and it is very remark- 
able as indicating that man In his most 
ignorant and savage state is not unvisited by 
compunctions of conscience that an old chief 
lingered, and going out of the gate behind his 
comrades, dropped the friendly caution, "kia 
tupato." That night, however, the Totara was 
taken ; and, it is said, one thousand Ngatimarus 
perished. Bauroha was slain, and Urimahia, 
his daughter, was carried captive to the Bay of 
Islands, where she remained several years. 
This calamity, while it weakened Ngatimaru, 
encouraged Te Waharoa. 

In 1822 Hongi again appeared, and sailing 
up the Tamaki, attacked and carried two pas- 
which were situated together on part of the 
site now occupied by the village of Panmure. 
Many of the inhabitants were slaughtered, and 
some escaped. I would here observe that these 



STORY OF TB WAHABOA 

two pas, Mauinena and Makoia, had no connec- 
tion with the immense pa which evidently at 
some time flourished on Mount Wellington, and 
which, with the traces of a very great number 
of other enormous pas in the Auckland district, 
betokens the extremely dense Maori population 
which once existed upon this isthmus a popu- 
lation destroyed by the late owners of the soil, 
and numbered with the past; but which in its 
time was known by the significant title of Nga 
Iwi "The Tribes." 

Leaving naught at Mauinena and Makoia but 
the inhabitants ' bones, having flesh and tendons 
adhering which even his dogs had not required, 
Hongi pursued his course. He drew his canoes 
across the isthmuses of Otahuhu and Waiuku, 
and descended the Awaroa. At a sharp bend in 
the narrow stream, his largest canoe could not 
be turned, and he was compelled to make a 
passage for her, by cutting a short canal, which 
may yet be seen. 

At length he arrived at Matakitaki, a pa 
situated about the site of the present township 
of Alexandra, where a great number of 
Waikato natives had taken refuge. The pa was 
assaulted, and while Hongi was in the act of 
carrying it on one side, a frightful catastrophe 
was securing to him the corpses of its wretched 
occupants on the other. Panic-stricken at the 
approach of the victorious Ngapuhi, the multi- 
tude within, of men, women, and children, 
rushed madly over the opposite rampart. The 
first fugitives, unable to scale the counterscarp, 



10 STOKY OF TE WAHAEOA 

by reason of its height, and of the numbers 
which poured down on them, succumbed and 
fell ; those who had crushed them were crushed 
in like manner ; layer upon layer of suffocating 
humanity succeeded each other. In vain did 
the unhappy beings, as they reached the para- 
pet, attempt to pause death was in front, and 
death behind fresh fugitives pushed on, they 
had no option, but were precipitated into, and 
became part of the dying mass. When the deed 
was complete, the Ngapuhis came quickly up 
and shot such as were at the surface and likely 
to escape. 

Never had cannibals gloated over such unex- 
pected good fortune, for more than one 
thousand victims lay dead in the trench, and 
the magnitude of the feast which followed may 
perhaps be imagined from the fact that, after 
the lapse of forty-two years, when the 2nd 
Eegiment of Waikato Militia in establishing 
their new settlement cleared the fern from the 
ground, the vestiges of many hundred native 
ovens were discovered, some of them long 
enough to have admitted a body entire, while 
numberless human bones lay scattered around. 
From several of the larger bones pieces 
appeared to have been carefully cut, for the 
purpose, doubtless, of making fish-hooks, and 
such other small articles as the Maoris were 
accustomed to carve from the bones of their 
enemies. 

Let us turn now from the startling glimpse 
of New Zealand life in the " olden time," 



STOBY OF TE WAHAEOA 11 

afforded by the Matakitaki episode, and follow 
the fugitives from Mauinena and Makoia to 
Haowhenua, a place belonging to Ngatimaru, 
situated on the banks of the Waikato, in the 
vicinity of where Cambridge is now; and, 
indeed, the ruins of the old pa are yet visible on 
the Maungatautari side of the large sandy 
chasm locally known as Walker's gully. 

Te Waharoa viewed with a jealous eye the 
increasing strength and importance of the pa 
at Haowhenua ; for, in reality, it had become a 
stronghold of the Ngatimarus. Its position, 
too, not only menaced his flank, and checked 
any operations he might meditate against that 
tribe, but it interfered materially with direct 
communications with his Waikato allies. 

On the other hand, the stealthy Maori policy 
pursued by the Ngatimarus in establishing this 
stronghold to check Te Waharoa, should not be 
unnoticed. They suffered the refugees from 
Mauinena and Makoia to occupy the post, and 
then gradually, by a sidewind, made themselves 
masters of the situation. 

Waharoa, however, was not to be thus 
deceived; and, as was before observed, he 
determined to commence very active hostilities 
against them. He therefore summoned some of 
his Waikato and Ngatimaniapoto friends to 
meet him at Maungatautari, who, nothing loth, 
speedily assembled to blot out the obnoxious 
pa. They were 200 strong, and on arriving at 
Maungatautari found Te Waharoa there, with 
700 Ngatihaua and Ngaiterangi men. 



12 STOEY OF TE WAHAEOA 

Meantime, the Thames natives spared no 
pains to secure and garrison their important 
outpost. The tribes of Ngatimaru, Ngatitema- 
tera, and Ngatipaoa united their forces at 
Haowhenua, and the pa became a very large 
one, and was densely peopled, not only with 
warriors, but with women, children, and slaves. 
Their numbers appear to have inspired them 
with much self-confidence; for when it became 
known that Te Waharoa had arrived at Maun- 
gatautari, with a taua 900 strong, they boldly 
determined to meet him in the open field. 
Perhaps they wished to decide the matter 
before that chief should receive further rein- 
forcements; or, perhaps they desired to avoid 
the mortification of seeing the enemy sit com- 
fortably down before their pa, and regale 
himself on their cultivations. At any rate, they 
marched forth and took post on the hill Te Tihi 
o te Ihimarangi the place where the descend- 
ants of Waharoa 's warriors opposed General 
Cameron in 1864; and, when the enemy was 
seen to approach, they rushed down and joined 
battle with him at Taumatawiwi on the plain to 
the eastward. 

The contest was a severe one, but resulted in 
the complete defeat of the Thames natives. 
They were driven back over Te Tihi o te 
Ihimarangi, and down its reverse slope, and 
were pursued with great slaughter over the 
long, narrow, bushy plain that extends to 
Haowhenua. At the end of a long and san- 
guinary day the dejected men within the pa sat 



STORY OF TE WAHAROA 13 

dreading the morrow's light; their mental 
depression being doubtless in proportion to 
their recent self-elevation. Outside the pa Te 
Waharoa, wounded in two places (shot through 
a hand, and a tomahawk wound in a leg), sat 
calmly revolving his own and his enemies' 
positions. Perhaps no general in New Zealand, 
either before or after his time, has rivalled this 
chief in the rare qualification of rightly esti- 
mating and balancing the complex phases and 
conditions of opposing armies. On this 
occasion, he had experienced the quality of the 
enemy, inasmuch as sixty of his men were 
killed, and the object of the campaign 
the destruction of Haowhenua remained unac- 
complished. True, the enemy was in a state of 
despondency and fear, but in a little while his 
courage would revive, and prompt him to 
defend himself with the energy of despair. 
Better take instant advantage of his fears to 
secure the object sought, and to avoid, if pos- 
sible, farther loss to the assailants. " Better 
make a bridge of gold for a flying enemy" 
such was the spirit of Te Waharoa's reflections 
for presently, " through the soft still evening 
air," the voice of a herald was heard to pro- 
claim to the occupants of the pa "that during 
the next four days any one might retire unmo- 
lested from the pa; but on the fifth day 
Haowhenua, with all it contained, would be 
taken and destroyed." No answer was 
returned; but during the interval a multitude 
of all ages and both sexes issued forth from 



14 STORY OF TE WAHAEOA 

the pa, and inarched in close order along the 
road by Matamata to the Thames. That night 
Te Waharoa 's ranks were recruited by many 
slaves, who deserted under cover of darkness, 
from the retreating Ngatimarus. 

The fall of Haowhenua, which occurred 
about 1831, terminated the residence of 
OSTgatimaru on the Waikato; and was followed 
by operations, from a Waikato basis, success- 
fully conducted against them on the line of the 
Piako. Already the Ngatimarus had been com- 
pelled to abandon Matamata to Te Waharoa, 
and relinquish the wooded and fertile plain of 
Tepiri, abounding in flax the material from 
which Maori garments were made in those 
days. They lost it in the following manner. 

Up to the year 1825, the Ngatimaru chief 
Takurua maintained his ground at Matamata; 
but about that time he appears, after much 
fighting, to have judged it advisable to accept 
certain terms of peace proposed by Te 
Waharoa. They were to bury the past in 
oblivion, and both parties were to live at Mata- 
mata, where, it was said, there was room for 
all. These terms were practically ratified by 
Te Waharoa and Takurua living side by side, 
in the utmost apparent friendship, for a period 
of about two years. 

We have now to relate an act of perfidy, con- 
demned even by the opaquely-minded savages 
of that day, by which Te Waharoa obtained 
sole posession of Matamata, and so turned the 
balance of power in his own favour, that he 



STOKY OF TE WAHABOA 15 

afterwards drove Ngatitumutumu, under Hou, 
from Waiharakeke, and finally established Ms 
boundary at Te Euapa, a stream on the left 
bank of the Waihou, between Euakowhawhao 
and Mangawhenga. On the occasion of Waharoa 
undertaking a short journey to Tauranga a 
circumstance rather calculated to lull suspicion 
at midnight his tribe rose, and massacred in 
cold blood the too-confiding Takurua, and 
nearly every man of his tribe. Their bodies 
were devoured, and their wives and property 
were shared by the ruthless Ngatihauas. 

This Maori St. Bartholomew occurred about 
1827, and further weakened Ngatimaru, who 
six years previously had suffered seriously at 
the taking of the Totara pa. Thus Te Waharoa 
was enabled, after the fall of Haowhenua, to 
push his conquests to the foot of the Aroha; 
and it is difficult to say where they would have 
ceased, had not his attention been unexpectedly 
diverted by the casual murder of his cousin 
Hunga, at Eotorua, in the latter end of the year 
1835. 

The Thames natives never forgot the deep 
injuries they had received at Waharoa 's hands. 
Even to the outbreak of the present war, Ngati- 
maru always hated and distrusted Ngatihaua; 
and here we would remark the neglect or 
failure, on our side to enlist them actively 
against his son William Thompson. This was 
the more apparent when we saw our faithful 
Ngatiwhakaue allies fighting manfully in our 
cause. They had not experienced half the ills 



16 STORY OF TE WAHAROA 

Ngatimaru had endured. Our story will show 
that in their wars with Waharoa, Ngatiwha- 
kaue did not lose a foot of soil, and excepting 
one occasion they, according to Maori custom, 
were on the whole pretty successful in keeping 
their utu account square with that chief. But 
that occasion rankled in their memory; for, 
when beleaguered in their large pa Ohinemutu, 
sixty of their best men had been ambuscaded, 
killed, and eaten before their eyes; nor had 
they ever been able to make good that balance 
until they slaughtered Thompson's allies, the 
tribes of the Eahiti (rising sun), and killed Te 
Aporotanga at Te Awa-o-te-Atua. 

As the Opotiki natives have lately made 
themselves so notorious, we will digress a 
moment to say that Te Aporotanga, an old man, 
was chief of Ngatirua, a hapu of the Waka- 
tohea tribe, whose ancestor Muriwai came from 
Hawaiki. In very remote times this tribe lived 
amongst the forest-clad mountains of the 
interior; and then, five generations ago, under 
three brothers, Euamoko, Te Ururehe, and 
Kotikoti, they forced a passage to the sea by 
driving away the Ngatiawas, who inhabited the 
Opotiki valley. They are divided into five 
hapus, and now muster at Opape whither the 
Government lately removed them only 120 
fighting men, whereas twenty years ago they 
were five times as numerous. About 1823, they 
were attacked by the Ngapuhis, under the cele- 
brated Hongi. Their pa, Te Ikaatakite, was 
taken, and a blue cloth obtained from Cook was 



STOBY OP TE WAHAROA 17 

carried away, and many captives. Two years 
afterwards the Ngapuhis, commanded by 
another chief, returned and destroyed Takutae, 
another pa. 

Again, in 1830, Te Rohu led Ngatimaru 
against Te Papa pa, on the Waioeka river, 
where nearly all the Wakatoheas had 
assembled. This he took, and swept the tribe 
away, carrying them by way of Mount Edge- 
combe, Tarawera, Eotorua, and Maungatautari, 
to Haowhenua, just before Waharoa took that 
place. These are the prisoners that escaped, 
many going over to Te Waharoa, and many to 
Tauranga. 

At the fall of Te Papa, a noteworthy incident 
occurred: Takahi, a leading chief, managed to 
escape with ten followers to the bush, where- 
upon Te Eohu caused him to be called by name, 
to which Takahi responded, and gave himself 
up. This may seem a strange proceeding, on 
both sides; yet it was strictly in accordance 
with a Maori custom which enabled the victors, 
even in the hour of slaughter to secure any 
chief whom they might wish to save ; and 
such person, upon responding and coming for- 
ward, not only remained free, but retained his 
rank in the tribe by which he had been taken. 

At the same time, Kangimatanuku, with part 
of the Ngatirua hapu, escaped from his pa at 
Auawakino, eastward of Opape, and fled to 
Hick's Bay, where, being kindly received by 
Houkamau, he built a pa, and remained until 
the influence of Christianity, a few years after, 



18 STOEY OP TE WAHAEOA 

effected the gradual return of Wakatohea 
captives to their own country. Bangimatanuku 
then joined them, and by 1840 the bulk of the 
Wakatohea tribe had returned to Opotiki. 

The loss of Te Aporotanga was doubtless 
much felt, as he was the last old chief the 
Wakatoheas possessed. Titoko, Takahi, 
Bangimatanuku, Bangihaerepo, and Hinaki, 
have all died, leaving the tribe without a man of 
real influence to look up to; and, perhaps, the 
loss of the directing minds by which they had 
been accustomed to be guided, was a cause 
which induced them, on the melancholy occasion 
of Mr. Volkner's murder, to accord such an 
unusual welcome to Patara and Kereopa, and 
be led by such adventurers in so extraordinary 
a manner. 

But to resume, Te Waharoa was not destined 
to remain long undisturbed at Matamata. He 
was attacked by Ngapuhi, who, making each 
summer a shooting season, spread terror 
universal with their newly acquired weapons, 
killing and eating wherever they went. They 
were particularly incensed against the great 
warrior of the South, because he had auda- 
ciously assisted the Ngaiterangi to repel their 
incursions, and they were determined to make 
an example of him. Accordingly a band, led 
by Tareha, encamped before the great pa of 
Matamata. Te Waharoa, however, was not to 
be carried away by any popular terror ; his 
sagacity, too, quickly made him acquainted with 
the bearings of his situation; his tribe, also, 



STORY OF TE WAHAEOA 19 

had every confidence in their leader. He shut 
himself up in the pa, and kept so close that the 
enemy, probably imputing his non-appearance 
to fear, became careless; then, watching his 
opportunity, he suddenly made a sortie, and in 
hand-to-hand conflict, used them very roughly. 
He also made four or five prisoners, whom he 
crucified on the tall posts of his pa, in the 
sight of their astonished comrades. The 
horrible spectacle completed the Ngapuhis' 
confusion, who forthwith retired from the 
scene not, however, before Waharoa had sent 
this challenge to Tareha : "I hear you fight 
with the long-handled tomahawk ; I fight with 
the same ; meet me." But, Tareha, a huge, 
bloated, easy-going cannibal, preferred rather 
to enjoy life, feeding on the tender flesh of 
women and children, to encountering Waharoa 
with his long-handled tomahawk. 

We have now arrived at that period of our 
history when Europeans first ventured to make 
transient visits to the savage tribes which 
acknowledged Te Waharoa 's name, or were 
more or less influenced by his power. 

These visitors were of two different sorts, 
viz., missionaries who appeared as pioneers of 
religion and civilization, and " Pakeha- 
Maoris ' (literally, pakehas maorified), who, 
lured by the prospects of effecting lucrative 
trading enterprises, not unfrequently fell 
victims to the perils they incurred ; while the 
immunity of the former class from death at 
the hands of the natives is a matter worthy of 



20 STORY OF TE WAHAROA 

remark, and suggests to the reflective mind the 
instructive fact that, for a special purpose, they 
were often protected, amidst the dangers that 
surrounded them, by the unseen hand of the 
Great Master they so enthusiastically served. 
In after years, when the missionaries' influence 
became great, and Pakeha-Maoris numerous, 
individuals of these respective classes were 
frequently placed in positions antagonistic to 
each other ; but, considering the incongruous 
nature of the elements involved, such 
unfriendly relations could be no subject of 
surprise. It is, however, but just to state that 
when Pakeha-Maoris became entangled in 
serious difficulties with natives, and were 
unable to extricate themselves difficulties 
caused sometimes by their own delinquencies 
that when they invoked a missionary's aid, that 
influence, though at other times contemned by 
them, was ever cheerfully but judiciously 
exerted on their behalf ; and, we may add, such 
efforts were generally gratefully received. 

The first European that landed at Kawhia, 
and penetrated to Ngaruawahia, was a Pakeha- 
Maori, a gentleman of the name of Kent, who 
arrived at the latter place in 1831 ; and 
probably the first vessel after Cook, adven- 
turous enough to perform a coasting voyage 
in the Bay of Plenty was the missionary 
schooner ' Herald, ' in the year 1828. 

The latter enterprise was undertaken by 
three brethren stationed at the Bay of Islands 
Messrs. H. Williams, Hamlin and Davis 




Rev. Henry Williams (afterwards Archdeacon of Waimate). 



STORY OF TE WAHAEOA 21 

who, urged by a desire to discover, if possible, 
an opening for the establishment of a mission 
among the barbarous tribes of the Bay of 
Plenty, availed themselves of an opportunity 
which presented itself ; and set forth in their 
schooner for the ostensible purpose of 
conveying the Ngatiwhakaue chief Pango back 
to his tribe. 

Tauranga was first visited, which place was 
found to be densely populated. The large pas 
there were three Otumoetai, belonging to 
Ngaiterangi, proper, whose chiefs were 
Hikareia, Taharangi, and Tupaea ; Ngati- 
tapu's pa, Te Papa, where Koraurau was chief; 
and the Maungatapu pa, held by Ngatihi, 
whose chiefs were Nuka (alias Taipari), 
Kiharoa, and Te Mutu. Eangihau, killed after- 
wards in an attempt to storm Tautari's pa at 
Botoehu, and Titipa, his younger brother, since 
killed at Otau by the Auckland volunteers, were 
fighting chiefs of Ngaiterangi proper; but the 
whole of the Tauranga people were known by 
the general name of Ngaiterangi just as the 
Thames natives were by the appellation of 
Ngatimaru and mustered in 1828 at least 
2,500 fighting men. Their canoes, too, were 
very numerous 1,000, great and small, were 
counted on the beach between Otumoetai and 
Te Papa. 

After staying a few days at Tauranga, our 
voyagers proceeded on their cruise, and 
touched at Maketu, to land Pango, who, with a 
number of other Ngatiwhakaue natives, had 



22 STOEY OF TE WAHAEOA 

been saved by the missionaries at the Bay of 
Islands from death at the hands of Kainga- 
mata, a Ngapuhi chief. Leaving Maketu, the 
1 Herald ' then ran along the extensive and 
shelly shores of the Bay of Plenty, lying east 
and west, and passing the mountains of Waka- 
paukorero, arrived off Te Awa-o-te-Atua, a 
river which has one of its sources in the 
Tarawera lake, and which, after skirting the 
base of a magnificent extinct volcano, Mount 
Edgecombe, and threading a swampy plain, 
after a course of forty miles, falls into the sea 
over a bar at a place called Otamarora, 
twenty miles from Maketu. Again passing on 
a distance of thirteen miles from Te Awa-o-te- 
Atua, the 'Herald' stopped off Whakatane. 

The mouth of the Whakatane river is 
immediately on the western side of the rocky 
range, 700 feet high, which terminates abruptly 
in Kohi Point. The stream sets fairly against 
the rocks, and keeps the entrance free from a 
sandy bar, the usual drawback to harbours in 
the Bay of Plenty; but, as if to compensate 
this advantage, several dangerous rocks stud 
the approach to the river. In the offing, at a 
distance of six miles, Motohora (Whale 
Island), which sheltered the ' Endeavour ' in 
1769, still affords protection to vessels in that 
neighbourhood. 

Looking westward from the Whakatane 
heights, an immense plain is viewed by the 
traveller, spread out before him. North of it 
lie the low sand-hills of the beach; westward 



STORY OF TE WAHAROA 23 

are the Wakapaukorero mountains; on the 
south it is bounded by the Tarawera hills, 
Mount Edgecombe and the Uriwera mountains ; 
and on the east by the Whakatane heights, 
which descend from the broken country of the 
Uriwera, and form a spur jutting out upon the 
coast line. The area of this plain is perhaps 
not less than three hundred square miles. Its 
western sides are partially swampy, but the soil 
of the greater portion is good, and contains 
many thousands of acres of the richest 
alluvial ground. It is traversed on one side by 
Te Awa-o-te-Atua (the river of God), which 
divides itself into the Eangitaeki and Tarawera 
rivers; on the other by the Whakatane river, 
which, taking its rise in the Uriwera mountains, 
falls into the plain at Ruatoke, whence, 
meandering for thirty miles through an 
unbroken flat of excellent alluvial soil, it 
approaches the sea, and is joined within two 
miles of its mouth by the Orini, a very 
navigable stream, which branches from Te 
Awa-o-te-Atua. 

Turning now to the east, our traveller will 
view on his right hand, stretching far as eye 
can reach, a portion of that extensive, 
impenetrable mass of snow-capped, forest-clad 
mountains the great and veritable New 
Zealand Tyrol which, containing an area, say, 
of from three to four thousand square miles, 
lies between the Bay of Plenty and Hawke's 
Bay, and occupies the peninsula of the East 
Cape. Though the bulk of this region is 



24 STORY OF TE WAHAROA 

untrodden by man, yet some of its districts are 
inhabited by the Uriwera a race of moun- 
taineers, who, through a long series of 
generations have become habituated and 
adapted to the peculiar characteristics of their 
secluded and somewhat dismal country. 

In front, below the spectator, is Ohiwa, an 
extensive harbour like Manukau on a smaller 
scale the entrance to which is over a shifting 
bar, having a depth at low water of from 9 to 
11 feet. Ohiwa is ten miles from Whakatane; 
and nine miles further is seen the Opotiki 
valley, as it opens to the sea a valley of 
almost inexhaustibly fertile soil. Its super- 
ficies is about forty square miles ; it is watered 
by two rivers the Otara and Waioeka, which 
unite half a mile from the sea, and flow into the 
latter over a bar that varies in depth, being 
from 8 feet to 18 feet, according to the season 
of the year. Beyond Opotiki the shores become 
mountainous, bold promontories jut into the 
sea, the streams become rapid, the beaches 
short, the valleys small; but the scenery 
generally, is surpassingly grand, wild, and 
beautiful. The whole sweeping far away to the 
northward, terminates in the distant Cape 
Runaway, the north-eastern extremity of the 
Bay of Plenty; while Puiwhakari (White 
Island), a magnificent burning mountain, 
standing thirty-five miles out in the sea, 
completes the picture, and furnishes a huge 
barometer to a dangerous bay; for, by its 
constant columns of vapour whether light or 



STOKY OF TE WAHAEOA 25 

dark, thin or voluminous and by the drift of its 
steam cloud, timely and unfailing indications 
are given of approaching meteorological 
changes. 

Such is the panorama presented of a region 
which for diversified scenery, soil and climate, 
is unrivalled in New Zealand ; for as the shores 
of Cook's Straits are less stormy than those of 
Tierra del Fuego and Maghellan's Straits, and 
as the climate of the Auckland Isthmus is less 
boisterous than that of wind-swept Wellington, 
so is the climate of Opotiki compared with the 
Auckland climate. Spring and autumn are 
uncertain seasons there. Winter is mostly 
cool, clear, and frosty; the mountains on the 
south protecting the adjacent shore land from 
the severity of the powerful Polar winds, which 
at that season sweep the other New Zealand 
coasts; just as some Mediterranean shores are 
sheltered from chilling north-east winds by the 
maritime Alps, and the mountains of Albania. 
The summer weather, from November to 
March, is almost entirely a succession of 
refreshing sea breezes in the day, and cool land 
winds at night. 

This fair portion of New Zealand was, in 
1828, tenanted solely by ferocious cannibals, 
who scarcely had seen a sail since that of Cook. 
Ohiwa, being debatable ground, was unin- 
habited. Of the Wakatohea, we have already 
given an account. At Tunapahore, sixteen 
miles to the northward and eastward of 
Opotiki, live Ngaitai, a small tribe which 



26 STOEY OF TB WAHAROA 

asserts that its ancestors were of the crew of 
Pakihi, the Whakatohea's canoe; but it is 
unable to claim any dignified origin. Leaving 
Tunapahore, the natives, as far as Wanga- 
paraua, Cape Eunaway, are of the great 
Ngatiawa connection, which ramifies through 
various parts of the island. The principal 
places Maraenui and Te Kaha are held by 
Te Whanau o Apanui, a hapu very closely 
related to the Ngatiawas at Whakatane. 

The natives of the plain of Whakatane, and 
Te Awa-o-te-Atua are unable to occupy or 
cultivate a hundredth part of its surface. It 
cannot, therefore, be said to be peopled; let us 
say rather that they live upon it, and that it is 
owned by them. Euatoke belongs to the 
Uriwera, and is that tribe's nearest station to 
the sea, though twenty-five miles from it. The 
rest of the plain pertains to various sections 
of the Ngatiawa race. Eangitekina was chief 
of the tribe at Te Awa-o-te-Atua, whose chief 
pa was Matata. The chief divisions of the 
Whakatane Ngatiawas were Ngaitonu and Te 
Whanau o Apanui. The former lived, as they 
still do, in two pas, Whakatane and another, 
near the mouth of the same. The chief of 
Ngaitonu was Tautari, a renowned warrior. 
They were connected by marriages with 
Ngatipikiao, a hapu of the Arawas or 
Ngatiwhakaue, and Tautari had a pa at 
Eotoehu. Te Whetu, being son of Tautari 's 
eldest son is now the hereditary chief of the 
tribe; but Mokai, his uncle, is a man of more 



STOBY OF TE WAHAEOA 27 

character, and proved himself a fighting chief 
at Tunapahore some years ago, when he 
assisted Ngaitai his wife was a Ngaitai 
woman against the Maraenui natives. The 
chiefs of Te Whanau o Apanui were Toehau, 
with his two sons, Ngarara and Kepa. The 
survivor of these, Kepa, is now chief of the 
tribe; but Apanui, his cousin, is also a man of 
importance. Te Uhi is chief of a small hapu 
near Pupuaruhi. Hura is of Te Awa-o-te- 
Atua, and is not a man of any great note, 
excepting such fame as like Te Uhi he has 
acquired by his evil deeds; of the two, he is, 
perhaps, the worse man. 

But at the time of which we write, Ngarara 
was pre-eminently the evil genius of the place, 
and the 'Herald' had hardly arrived near 
Whakatane, when he determined to cut her off. 
His design, however, was overruled by Toehau, 
his father; so, after a short stay, the mission- 
aries proceeded on their voyage. They next 
landed on the Onekawa sands at Ohiwa, where, 
finding upwards of twenty dead bodies of 
natives recently killed, and other signs that a 
battle had lately taken place there, they judged 
it prudent to return to their vessel. After this 
they were observed and followed by two canoes, 
apparently from Opotiki. The vessel's head 
was turned towards the offing, but there was 
little wind, and the canoes came alongside, 
where they remained from the forenoon until 
evening, the natives in them maintaining 
silence. In the meantime, the schooner 



28 STOEY OF TE WAHAEOA 

gradually drew off shore to White Island, and 
at length, to the relief of all on board for no 
one knew the natives' intentions, and indeed 
they did not seem to know them themselves 
the canoes cast off from the vessel and returned 
to land. A north-east gale now came on, and 
compelled the 'Herald' to bear up and seek 
shelter in Tauranga harbour. 

When the missionaries returned to Tauranga 
after an absence of ten days, they were 
surprised to find Te Papa destroyed, Koraurau 
killed, and Ngatitapu, comprising nearly one- 
third of the Tauranga people, annihilated. Te 
Bohu had been there with a strong force of 
Ngatimarus. He first assaulted Maungatapu; 
but, experiencing a repulse, he made a night 
attack on the Papa, from the side where the 
karaka trees grow that is, if they are yet 
spared by our countrymen's rather too indis- 
criminating axe. The pa was taken, and its 
people slain. Twenty-five persons, availing 
themselves of the darkness, slipped away from 
the pa just before the attack was made, and were 
the only fugitives that escaped. Among them 
was Matiu Tahu, a renowned old priest. From 
Tauranga the 'Herald' returned to the Bay of 
Islands, and thus ended the perils of a voyage 
remarkable in that it had been successfully 
performed on a portion of the New Zealand 
coast on which the 'Endeavour' an 
armed and well-appointed ship, but com- 
manded by an officer of acknowledged 
humanity had twice been compelled to fire 
on the natives. 



STORY OF TE WAHAROA 29 

We shall presently relate the next visit paid 
by an English vessel to the Bay of Plenty, and 
its melancholy result; but before doing so, it 
will perhaps be opportune to give a short 
account of some of the antecedents of the 
Tauranga people. 

The Ngaiterangi are of Ngatiawa origin; 
their ancient and more proper name is Te 
Rangihohiri. Several generations before the 
time we write of, they lived on the East Coast. 
It is said they were driven by war from a place 
there called Whangara. Accounts differ as to 
whether or not they fought their way in 
advancing northward along the coast ; suffice to 
say, they arrived in force at Maketu, where 
they were well received. Soon, however, in 
consequence of a murder they committed, war 
ensued between them and the Tapuika, the 
people of the place, resulting in the defeat and 
expulsion of the latter. Tapuika being then 
the rangatira hapu of the Arawas, and though 
the vanquished were subsequently suffered to 
return, yet Te Rangihohiri maintained their 
hold of Maketu down to the year 1832. 

Being dissatisfied, however, with Maketu, 
and desirous of possessing the coveted district 
of Tauranga, this tribe, which we shall now call 
Ngaiterangi, advanced. On the night of a 
heavy gale, accompanied with much thunder 
and lightning, eight hundred warriors, under 
Kotorerua, set forth from Maketu to take the 
great pa at Maunganui, and to destroy the bulk 
of Ngatiranginui, and Waitaha, the ancient 



30 STORY OF TE WAHAROA 

inhabitants of Tauranga. The doomed pa was 
situated on the majestic and singular hill which 
no one who has seen Tauranga will forget; it 
forms a peninsula, and is the east head to the 
entrance to the harbour. When Ngaiterangi 
arrived at Maunganui, they commenced by 
cutting, with stone axes, large holes in the 
bottoms of all the canoes on the strand, the 
sound of their operations being drowned by the 
roar of the elements. The natives, with super- 
stitious awe, tell how, at this critical point of 
time, a certain celebrated priestess of the pa 
went forth into the storm, and cried with a loud 
voice, her prophetic spirit being moved to a 
knowledge of approaching woe " Heaven and 
earth are being rent, the men next." Having 
scuttled the canoes, Ngaiterangi entered the pa, 
and the work of death began. Such of the 
affrighted inhabitants as escaped being 
murdered in their beds, rushed to the canoes; 
but when they had launched out into the har- 
bour, there about two miles broad, the canoes 
became full of water, and the whole were 
drowned. 

Thus, about one hundred and fifty years ago, 
Ngaiterangi obtained possession of Tauranga, 
and drove the remnant of its former people, 
Ngatipekekiore, away into the hills, to the 
sources of the Wairoa and Te Puna rivers; 
where although now related to the conquerors, 
they still live. Another hapu of Tauranga 's 
ancient people are Te Whanau o Ngaitaiwhao, 
also called Te Whitikiore. They hold Tuhua 



STOEY OP TE WAHABOA 31 

Mayor Island and in 1835 numbered 170 
people. Their chief was Tangiteruru; but 
now Tupaia, chief of Ngaiterangi proper, is 
also chief of both those tribes. 

Yet, notwithstanding their ancestors' too 
unceremonious mode of acquiring a new estate, 
it is but just to Ngaiterangi to say that, 
unlike some other tribes, their intercourse with 
our countrymen was ever characterized by 
fairness and good conduct. They were not 
blustering and turbulent like Ngatimaru, or 
lying and thievish as Ngatiwhakaue were; nor 
were they inclined to substitute might for right, 
in the way that Wakatohea sometimes acted 
towards Europeans. It was their boast that 
they had never harmed a pakeha. They were 
called by other natives "Ngaiterangi kupu 
tahi," which may be freely rendered "Ngaite- 
rangi the upright," and finally their recent 
hostilities against our troops were conducted in 
an admittedly honourable manner. We will only 
add, in reference to Tauranga, that its climate 
is a sort of average between those of Auckland 
and Opotiki; more frosty, and less subject to 
westerly winds, than the former ; and less frosty 
and more windy, than that of the latter place. 

Before returning to the immediate subject of 
our story, we will narrate the unfortunate 
episode of an English trader's visit to the Bay 
of Plenty, a year after the 'Herald's' voyage. 
In 1829, the brig 'Haws,' of Sydney, anchored 
off Whakatane. Having large quantities of 
arms and ammunition on board, she soon 



32 STORY OP TE WAHAROA 

obtained a cargo of pigs and flax, and then 
moved over to Whale Island, where, by the 
side of a spring of boiling water, conveniently 
situated near the beach, the captain and some of 
the crew proceeded to kill the pigs, and salt 
them down into casks ; while thus engaged, a 
number of canoes were seen to board the vessel 
from Whakatane, and the sailors who had taken 
to the rigging were shot. Upon this, the captain 
and those with him fled in their boat to Te Awao 
te Atua, and thence to Tauranga. The natives, 
who were led by Ngarara, then took everything 
out of the brig, and burnt her. Among other 
things, they found a quantity of flour, the use of 
which very much puzzled them; at length they 
contented themselves with emptying it into the 
sea, and simply retained the bags. 

When the news of the cutting off of the 
1 Haws ' reached the Bay of Islands, some of the 
European residents there considered it neces- 
sary, if possible, to make an example of 
Ngarara. They therefore sent the 'New 
Zealander' schooner to Whakatane, and Te 
Hana, a Ngapuhi chief acquainted with 
Ngarara, volunteered to accompany the expedi- 
tion. Upon the 'New Zealander V arrival off 
Whakatane, Ngarara, encouraged by the success 
of his enterprise against the 'Haws,' deter- 
mined to serve her in the same way. But, first, 
with the usually cautious instinct of a Maori, he 
went on board in friendly guise ; for the double 
purpose of informing himself of the character 
of the vessel, and of putting the pakehas off 



STORY OF TE WAHAEOA 33 

their guard. Ngarara spent a pleasant day, 
hearing the korero, (news) and doubtless doing 
a little business, so much so, that his was the 
last canoe alongside the vessel, which latter it 
was arranged should enter the river the fol- 
lowing morning. Meanwhile, our Ngapuhi chief 
sat quietly, and apparently unconcernedly, 
smoking his pipe on the taffrail, his double- 
barrelled gun, as a matter of course, lying near 
at hand: yet was he not unmindful of his 
mission, or indifferent to what was passing 
before him. He had marked his prey, and only 
awaited the time when Ngarara, the last to 
leave, should take his seat in the canoe; for a 
moment, the canoe's painter was retained by 
the ship, "but in that drop of time," an age of 
sin, a life of crime, had passed away; and 
Ngarara the Reptile had writhed his last in 
the bottom of his own canoe: shot by the 
Ngapuhi chief, in retribution of the 'Haws' 
tragedy, in which he had been the prime mover, 
and chief participator. 

Te Whanau Apanui were much enraged at 
being thus outwitted, and deprived of one of 
their most leading chiefs. The difficulty, how- 
ever, was to find a pakeha whom they might 
sacrifice in utu; for utu they must have for the 
violent death of a tapued chief; or the atua 
would be down upon them, and visit them, or 
theirs, with some fresh calamity. In the end, 
therefore, they were compelled to fit out a 
flotilla, and went as far as Hick's Bay; for 
Europeans lived on the East Coast prior to 



34 STOEY OF TE WAHABOA 

their settlement in the Bay of Plenty; where 
they, too successfully, attacked a pa at Wareka- 
hika, for the purpose of getting into their hands 
two pakehas, who lived in it. One poor fellow 
was instantly killed, but the natives complained 
he was thin, and tough, and that they could 
scarcely eat him ; and we may add, in reference 
to pakehas they have murdered, that other New 
Zealanders have found the same fault, and 
experienced the same hardship. The other 
European escaped in a marvellous manner; he 
fled, and attempted to climb a tree, but the 
native who pursued him, a Ngaitai man, cut his 
fingers off with a tomahawk, and tumbled him 
down out of it. We suppose the Maori preferred 
making a live man walk to the kianga to 
carrying a dead man there; otherwise another 
moment would have ended the pakeha 's life. 
During the brief interval, our pakeha turned his 
anxious eyes towards the sea when lo, an 
apparition! Was it not mocking him? or could 
it be real? Yes, a reality, there, "walking the 
waters like a thing of life, ' ' a ship no phantom 
ship approached, as if sent in his hour of 
need; she suddenly shot round Warekahika 
point, not more than a mile off, and anchored in 
the Bay. "Now," said the pakeha, "if you 
spare me, my countrymen on board that ship 
will give a handsome ransom in guns and 
ammunition." The Maoris at once saw the 
force of the observation ; the thing was plain on 
the face of it; and, as they wanted both guns 
and ammunition, they took him to the landing 



STORY OF TE WAHAROA 35 

place, a rocky point, to negotiate the business. 
Presently an armed whaleboat neared the shore 
(the ship was a whaler), the pakeha advanced a 
pace or two beyond the group of Maoris, to the 
edge of the rock, to speak ; and when he spoke, 
he said to those in the boat, "When I jump into 
the water, fire." He plunged, and they fired; 
he was saved, and the natives fled; excepting 
such as may have been compelled to remain on 
the rock, contrary to their feelings and wishes, 
O temporal mores! The unfortunate pakehas 
were proteges of Makau, alias Rangimatanuku, 
the Wakatohea chief who, it will be remembered, 
had fled from Opotiki when Ngatimaru devas- 
tated that place. Makau lost several men in this 
affair, and always considered himself an 
upholder, and martyr, in the cause of the 
pakeha. It was lucky this idea possessed his 
mind, as it probably saved the crew of the 'John 
Dunscombe, ' a schooner from Launceston, which 
came to grief at Opotiki, in 1832. 

Another incident in connection with the 
* Haws' tragedy cannot be omitted. One of the 
natives who took part in it was a Ngapuhi man, 
who at the time was visiting at Whakatane, but 
usually lived at Maungatapu, at Tauranga, 
having taken a woman of that place to wife. It 
so happened that Nene, of Hokianga now 
Tamati Waka was on the beach at Maunga- 
tapu when this Ngapuhi native returned from 
"Whakatane, to his wife and friends. Tamati 
Waka advanced to meet him, and delivered a 
speech, taki-ing up and down in Maori style, 



36 STORY OF TE WAHAROA 

while Ngatihei, the natives of the pa, sat round. 
"Ugh! you're a pretty fellow to call yourself 
a Ngapuhi. Do they murder pakehas in that 
manner in Ngapuhi? What makes you steal 
away here to kill pakehas? Has the pakeha 
done you any harm that you kill him? There 
that is for your work," he said, as he suddenly 
stopped short and shot the native he addressed 
dead in the midst of his connections and friends. 
This act, bold even to rashness, on Waka 's part,, 
stamped his character for the future throughout 
the length and breadth of New Zealand as the 
friend of the pakeha; a reputation which that 
veteran chief has since so well sustained. 

The next matter we have to chronicle is a 
curious compound of superstitious absurdity, 
and thirst for human blood. In the summer of 
1831, two Bay of Islands' girls of rank bathed 
together in the sea at Kororareka. Their play 
in the water gradually became serious, and 
ended in a quarrel in which one cursed the 
other's tribe. When this dreadful result became 
publicly known, the girls' tribes gravely pre- 
pared for war one to avenge the insult, the 
other to defend itself. In an engagement which 
followed, the assailants were so terribly 
worsted, that the other party, remembering 
they were all related to each other, became 
ashamed and sorry at the chastisement they had 
inflicted ; and they actually gave up Kororareka 
the site of the township of Russell in com- 
pensation for the tupapakus they had killed. 
But the gift of a pa, no matter how advantage- 
ously situated, could not appease the craving of 



STOEY OF TE WAHAEOA 37 

blood for blood. Accordingly, an expedition of 
Ngapuhis and Earawas was sent to Tauranga, 
to get a bloody atonement for the people slain in 
their intertribal war in the North. The expe- 
dition was void of result, and returned to the 
Bay of Islands, after having been beaten off 
the Maungatapu pa the same pa which, three 
years before, Te Rohu had vainly tried to take. 
The only incident worth mentioning on this 
occasion is that the celebrated Heki was shot in 
the neck, and fell in the fern near the ditch of 
the pa, from which perilous position he was 
removed in the night by his comrades. "Ah!" 
said Nuka, chief of Maungatapu, in allusion, 
some years afterwards, to this circumstance, 
* ' if we had only known that he was there in the 
fern, he never would have troubled the 
pakeha. ' ' 

Undaunted and undiscouraged by lack of 
luck, Ngapuhi again set forth a taua, led by Te 
Haramiti, a noted old priest; and as the war 
party was a small one of only 140 men, it was 
arranged that a reinforcement should follow 
it. In 1832 Te Haramiti 's taua set out, and 
landed first at Ahuahu Mercury Island 
where about one hundred Ngatimarus were 
surprised, killed, and eaten. The only person 
who escaped this massacre was a man with a 
peculiarly shaped head, the result of a toma- 
hawk wound he then received. He said that as 
he sat in the dusk of the evening in the bush, a 
little apart from his companions, something 
rustled past him; he seemed to receive a blow, 



38 STOKY OF TE WAHAEOA 

and became insensible. When next he opened 
his eyes, he saw the full moon sailing in the 
heavens; all was still as death; he wondered 
what had happened. Feeling pain, he put his 
hand to his head, and finding an enormous 
wound, began to comprehend his situation. At 
length, faint for want of food, and believing 
the place deserted, he cautiously and painfully 
crept forth to find the bones of his friends, and 
the ovens in which they had been cooked. Food 
there was none ; yet in that wounded condition, 
he managed to subsist on roots and shell-fish, 
until found and rescued by some of his own 
tribe, who went from the main to visit the 
slaughtered. How the wretched man lived 
under such circumstances is a marvel to the 
writer, who has not forgotten the time when 
seventeen years ago he had the misfortune to 
be cast away in a schooner on the same inhos- 
pitable island; and the difficulty that he and 
three native companions experienced, during a 
three weeks' succession of winter gales, in ob- 
taining from its rocks and beaches a very poor 
and scanty fare. 

From Mercury Island, Te Haramiti's taua 
sailed to Mayor Island, where they surprised, 
killed, and ate many of the Whanau o Ngaitai- 
whao. A number, however, took refuge in their 
rocky and almost impregnable pa at the east 
end of the island, whence they contrived to send 
intelligence of Ngapuhi's irruption to Ngaite- 
rangi, at Tauranga. The Ngapuhi remained 
several days at Tuhua, irresolute whether to 



STOBY OF TB WAHAKOA 39 

continue the incursion, or return to their own 
country. A few men of the taua, satisfied at 
the first slaughter, had wished to return from 
Mercury Island; but now all, excepting Te 
Haramiti, desired to do the same. They urged 
the success of the expedition: that, having 
accomplished their purpose further operations 
were unnecessary; that they were then in the 
immediate vicinity of the hostile and powerful 
Ngaiterangi who, should they hear of the 
recent murders, would be greatly incensed ; that 
their own numbers were few, and there ap- 
peared but little hope of the arrival of the 
promised reinforcements; and that, though the 
tribes of the South possessed only a few guns, 
yet they no longer dreaded firearms as for- 
merly, when the paralysing terror they inspired 
so frequently enabled Ngapuhi to perpetrate the 
greatest massacres with impunity hence 
Pomare, and his taua, had never returned from 
Waikato. To these arguments Te Haramiti 
then priest and leader, replied: that, though 
they had done very well, the atua was not quite 
satisfied, and they must therefore try and do 
more. He assured them that the promised suc- 
cours were at hand, and that they were required 
by the atua to go as far as the next island, 
Motiti, whence they would be permitted to 
return to the Bay of Islands. To Motiti, or Flat 
Island, accordingly they went; for Haramiti, 
their oracle, was supposed to communicate the 
will of the atua; and they, of course, like all 
New Zealanders of that day, whether in war or 



40 STORY OF TE WAHAROA 

in peace, scrupulously observed the forms and 
rites of their religion and superstition, and 
obeyed the commandments of their spiritual 
divinities, as revealed by the tohungas, their 
priests. 

The Ngapuhis, when they arrived at Motiti, 
were obliged to content themselves with the 
ordinary food found there, such as potatoes and 
other vegetables, with pork, for the inhabitants 
had fled. But this disappointment was soon 
forgotten, when the next day at noon a large 
fleet of canoes was descried approaching from 
Tuhua, the way they had come. Forthwith the 
cry arose, "Here are Ngapuhi! here is the ful- 
filment of Haramiti's prophecy!" and off they 
rushed in scattered groups along the south- 
western beach of Motiti, to wave welcome to 
their supposed friends. 

Let us leave this party for awhile, to see how 
in the meantime Ngaiterangi had been occupied. 
As soon as the news from Tuhua reached 
Tauranga, the Ngaiterangi hastily assembled a 
powerful force to punish the invaders. Te 
Waharoa was at Tauranga on a visit, and by 
his prestige, energy, and advice, contributed 
much to the spirit and activity of the enterprise. 
In short, so vigorous were Ngaiterangi 's pre- 
parations, that in a few days a fleet of war 
canoes, bearing one thousand warriors, led by 
Tupaea and Te Waharoa, sailed out of Tau- 
ranga harbour, and steered for Tuhua. The 
voyage was so timed that they arrived at the 
island at daylight the following morning, when 



STOKY OF TE WAHAROA 41 

they were informed by the Whanau o Ngaitai- 
whao from the shore, that the Ngapuhis had 
gone the previous day to Motiti. Instantly their 
course was turned towards Motiti. The war- 
riors, animated with hope, and thoroughly set 
upon revenge, or perish in the attempt, made 
old Ocean hiss and boil to the measured stroke 
of their warlike tuki-, while the long low war 
canoes glided serpent-like over the undulations 
of an open swell. At midday, as they neared 
Motiti, the enemy's canoes were seen ranged up 
on the strand, at the isthmus which connects 
the pa at its south end with the rest of the 
island ; and now Ngaiterangi deliberately lay on 
their oars, and took refreshment before joining 
issue with their antagonists. The Maungatapu 
canoes, forming the right wing of the attack, 
were then directed to separate at the proper 
time and pass round the south end of the island 
to take the enemy in rear, and prevent the 
escape of any by canoes that might be on the 
eastern beach. 

All arrangements having been made, Ngaite- 
rangi committed themselves to that onset which, 
as we have seen, the doomed Ngapuhis rushed 
blindly forth to welcome. The latter, cut off 
from escape, surprised, scattered, and out- 
numbered, were destroyed in detail, almost 
without a show of resistance. Old Haramiti, 
blind with age, sat in the stern of his canoe 
ready to receive his friends, but hearing the 
noise of a conflict he betook himself to incanta- 
tions to ensure the success of his people; and 



42 STOEY OF TE WAHABOA 

thus was he engaged when the men of Ngaite- 
rangi came up, and pummelled him to death 
with their fists a superstitious feeling pre- 
venting each from drawing his sacred blood. 
Only two Ngapuhis survived a youth to whom 
quarter was given and, a man who, it is said, 
swam to Wairake on the main, in respect of 
which feat we will only say, that it was an 
uncommonly long swim. 

Such was the end of Haramiti's expedition; 
and such the last link in the chain of tragical 
events, which Maori ingenuity, superstition, and 
cruelty contrived to attach to the childish 
quarrel of the girls that bathed at the Bay of 
Islands. Coupled, however, with Pomare's 
similarly disastrous aff air at Waikato, the good 
effect was attained of deterring Ngapuhi from 
all further acts of aggression against the South. 

Tupaea, who led Ngaiterangi 's avenging taua r 
and wiped out the insult of Ngapuhi 's two 
recent irruptions, is the same chief that was 
lately a prisoner of war at Auckland. He was 
one of the few defenders of the Tumu, that 
escaped from that pa on the 7th May, 1836. 
On the afternoon of that day he was seen suf- 
fering from a wound in the head, of so singular 
a nature that it deserves to be mentioned. A 
musket ball, fired somewhere from his left front, 
had penetrated the skin immediately behind the 
left ear, and forming a passage round the head 
between the scalp and skull, had made its exit 
at the right eyebrow. Thus the hardness of his 
cranium, and the elastic toughness of his hairy 



STOEY OF TE WAHAEOA 43 

scalp, had not merely saved his life, but had 
absolutely reversed the course of the bullet; 
and, strange to say, with apparently compara- 
tively little inconvenience to himself. 

It is a remarkable coincidence that, as in 
1832, Tupaea put a final stop to Ngapuhi's in- 
cursions by the retributive carnage at Motiti, so 
it had been his father 's lot, some fourteen years 
before that time, to avert from Tauranga's 
shores the dreadful inroads of that tribe by an 
act of extraordinary chivalry and self-sacrifice, 
the circumstances of which are the following : 
Soon after Ngapuhi obtained firearms, they 
attacked Tauranga, and took Ngaiterangi 's pa 
at Maunganui, driving its wretched inhabitants 
into the sea at the rocky point, which forms the 
north-western extremity of that mountain. 
Again they invaded Tauranga, and encamped 
at Matuaaewe a knoll overhanging the 
Wairoa, a mile and a half from the great Otu- 
moetai pa. Such was the state of affairs when, 
in the noontide heat of a summer's day, Te 
Warn, principal chief of Ngaiterangi, taking 
advantage of the hour when both parties were 
indulging in siestas, went out alone to recon- 
noitre the enemy. Having advanced as far as 
was prudent, he sat down among some ngaio 
trees near the beach, and presently observed a 
man, who proved to be Temoerangi, the leading 
Ngapuhi chief, coming along the strand from 
the enemy's camp. The man approached, and 
turning up from the beach, sat down under the 
trees, without perceiving the Tauranga chief 



44 STORY OF TE WAHAROA 

who was near him. Instantly the determination 
of the latter was taken. He sprang unawares 
upon the Ngapuhi, disarmed him, and binding 
his hands with his girdle, he drove him towards 
Otumoetai. When they were arrived pretty 
near to the pa, he bade his prisoner halt; he 
unloosed him, restored his arms, and then, 
delivering up his own to him, said to the 
astonished Ngapuhi, "Now serve me in the 
same manner." The relative positions of the 
chiefs were soon reversed, and the captor driven 
captive entered Ngapuhi 's camp, where so great 
was the excitement, and the eagerness of each 
to destroy Ngaiterangi 's chief, that it was only 
by the most violent gesticulations, accompanied 
with many unmistakeable blows delivered right 
and left, that Temoerangi compelled them for a 
moment to desist. "Hear me," he cried, "hear 
how I got him, and afterwards kill him if you 
like." He then made a candid statement of all 
that had occurred, whereupon the rage of the 
Ngapuhis was turned away, and a feeling of 
intense admiration succeeded. Te Waru was 
unbound, his arms restored ; he was treated with 
the greatest respect, and invited to make peace 
the thing he most anxiously desired. The 
peace was concluded ; the Ngapuhis returned to 
the Bay of Islands ; and, though in after years 
they devastated the Thames, Waikato, and 
Botorua districts, yet Tauranga was unvisited 
by them until 1831 when, as we have seen, they 
attacked Maungatapu. 



PART II. 



We have now arrived at an epoch in our 
story, the time when missionaries first ventured 
to reside among the savage tribes of which we 
write. The missionaries had paid several visits 
to those tribes, and it will be remembered that 
traders had done the same. Pakeha-Maoris 
also, in at least four instances, had risked short 
residences among them, but such residences 
were dangerous; and in one case alluded to, 
that of a man named Cabbage, who lived in 
1833 at Botorua, had terminated fatally, for he 
was murdered on the island of Mokoia by two 
chiefs, for the sake of the merchandise in Ms 
possession. One of his murderers still lives at 
Whakatane. 

The missionaries destined for this under- 
taking waited for a certain time at the Bay of 
Islands, hoping some opening would present 
itself in the South, to afford a better chance of 
successfully prosecuting their labours. As, 
however, no such opportunity occurred, they 
determined to delay no longer; and so we find 
that in the early part of 1834 three brethren, 
Messrs Preece, Wilson, and Fairburn, landed 
with their families at Puriri, near the mouth of 
the Thames; and that within eighteen months 

45 



46 STOEY OF TE WAHAKOA 

they were followed by Messrs Chapman, 
Morgan, Brown, Hamlin, Maunsell, Stack, and 
Wade ; the last-named missionary, however, did 
not stay long in that part of the country. 

The New Zealand settler of the Northern 
Island, who at the present time reflects indis- 
criminately, and in a general manner on 
missionaries and there are too many that do 
so, confounds the early missionary, to whose 
perils and labours he is indebted for his footing 
on this soil, with some missionaries who came 
to the country after those perils had ceased 
when the Maori had become another man with 
men who by their actions seemed less conscious 
than even the settlers of what the Maoris had 
been, and to what he might again revert; who, 
in short, were experimentally ignorant of, and 
undisciplined by, the difficulties and dangers 
with which the early missionary's path had been 
beset, and therefore prone to err like other 
raw recruits in despising and ignoring danger. 
Therefore such New Zealand colonists as have 
lately become accustomed to scatter animadver- 
sions broadcast on the missionary body are, we 
trust, either ignorant or forgetful of the 
dreadful state of society, which existed here 
before the missionaries came to the country; 
and which, prior to 1834, formed the normal 
condition of the Maori tribes south of 
Tamaki a condition, which, under God, was 
changed only by those early missionaries; and 
which, until so changed, entirely defeated all 
colonising efforts. This is no bare assertion or 



A 



STOKY OF TE WAHABOA 47 

speculative opinion, but a matter established in 
the country's history by the manner in which 
the first New Zealand Company's attempt to 
colonise the Thames, in 1826, was frustrated. 

In November, 1826, an English ship full of 
immigrants sailed up the Hauraki Gulf. Their 
mineralogist having reported Pakihi, the Sand- 
spit Island, to be extremely rich in iron ore, the 
leaders of the enterprise purchased the island, 
intending immediately to open an iron mine ; but 
the increasing number of natives, who probably 
came over from the river Thames, and their 
ferocious appearance and conduct, so alarmed 
the immigrants, that they refused to land; and 
their leaders being similarly dismayed, they 
gave up the scheme, pocketed their loss, and, 
having called at the Bay of Islands and 
Hokianga, sailed to Australia, and ultimately 
engaged elsewhere in a pearl fishery. Those 
simple "people were so alarmed at the ferocious 
appearance and conduct of the natives, that 
they were afraid to land," and with good 
reason, for a country infested with lions and 
tigers probably would not have deterred them 
from carrying out their schemes of colonising 
their island, and digging their mine; but the 
numerous bloodthirsty occupants they found in 
organised hordes, were of so destructive and 
remorseless a character, as utterly to forbid the 
hope of preserving existence among them 
savages, whose degradation of cannibalism was 
hardly removed from Fijian horrors, and but a 
step from the practices of Mr Du Chaillu'sFans. 



48 STOBY OF TE WAHAEOA 

It should be remembered, in justice to the 
first missionaries, that there was a time when 
Maori character and habits did not accord with 
the pleasant scenes of native excellence, which 
sanguine imaginations have from time to time 
delighted to paint pictures overwrought, and 
drawn from a particular point of view. Thus 
the interesting and amiable individuals des- 
cribed might have been seen at Tauranga, 
Eotorua, or Maketu, in the years 1836 and 1837 V 
to leave their homes as naked men, and travel 
through the wastes and forests of the land ; then 
lashing themselves to frenzy, with the excited 
action, hideous gestures, and horrid yells of the 
war-dance, they would rush upon their enemy; 
if fortune favoured their side, they would in- 
dulge in a repast on the bodies of the slain. And 
now our ghoul-like hero, having surfeited 
himself, and put as much flesh into a kit as can 
be conveniently carried, leaves the half -cooked, 
half -gnawed remains, and returns home, taking 
his victim's head with him. This latter he gives 
to his little naked children to play with. The 
girl nurses it like a doll ; the boy goes about 
endeavouring to attract attention, and holds it 
up to view in much the same way that a more 
civilized child would try to submit a new toy for 
inspection. Let not this be thought an exag- 
gerated account of the Maori's former ferocity. 
The sequel will show its truth in each par- 
ticular; and it is verified, to the letter, by the 
journals of old missionaries. 

New Zealand was a shocking land then, for 
even her women stooped to lick the human gore 



STOBY OF TE WAHAEOA 49 

that freely dyed her soil. The callousness of 
those females was truly wonderful. Thus a 
woman, whose husband was killed, with many 
more of her tribe, at Rotorua we do not say 
when, or by whom was taken with her two 
children into slavery. Soon her master, who 
had eaten her husband, desired to take her to 
wife, but, as a preliminary step to sever old 
ties, and get rid of encumbrances, he killed and 
ate both her children ; and yet that woman who 
would probably have been impelled by acuter 
feelings to commit murder or suicide, lived con- 
tentedly enough, and had a numerous second 
family. This insensibility is, however, greatly 
attributable to the habits contracted from girl- 
hood to womanhood, and until the time of 
marriage, when fear compels more self- 
restraint. The natives do not disapprove of 
their young people's wantonness. They see, or 
rather they saw no harm in what was called 
child's play, and were quite indifferent to the 
evils resulting from the promiscuous nocturnal 
assignations of the young and unmarried. 

This point in Maori character has been much 
disregarded, though the natives themselves 
affect no secrecy about it. Yet its moral, social, 
and physical importance can hardly be over- 
estimated; as the tastes acquired in youth and 
early maturity were generally retained through 
life ; and hence the natives even in their most 
Christian days observed the seventh com- 
mandment more in the breach than the perform- 
ance. We are not sure that the missionaries 
were generally aware of the cankerworm, that 



50 STORY OF TB WAHAEOA 

gnawed the root of the plant they sought to 
cherish; but we know one excellent member of 
that body, who saw the evil, and did his utmost 
to induce the natives of his district Kotorua 
to overcome it. He vainly urged his native 
teachers to set an example, by partitioning their 
dwellings into rooms. One teacher did indeed 
begin a wall, but never finished it ; and so 
apathetic and deplorably low did the natives' 
tone of mind on the subject appear to be, that 
the missionary's heart misgave him, and he 
feared, should their habits remain unchanged, 
that their profession of Christianity would 
prove hollow and unenduring. Time has justi- 
fied those apprehensions ; for this has not been 
the least among the causes which have led to 
the decay of religion amongst the Maoris, and 
which ever predisposed them to associate with 
the debased portions of our own population. 

To the above slight sketch of the ferocity and 
depravity of some New Zealanders in 1836 and 
1837, we will merely add a few words, descrip- 
tive of their personal, always confining our 
remarks to the softer sex, as being the more 
refined. They were clothed from the waist to 
the knees, generally with a rough mat, and 
another small mat was often thrown over the 
shoulders. Most people are aware that they 
were never tattooed as their lords were a por- 
tion on the lips, a pattern on the chin, and a few 
lines and scratches on the arms and breasts, 
were considered to be about the correct quantum 
of tattooing for ladies. But then they were 



STOKY OF TE WAHAKOA 51 

allowed to use any amount of red paint on their 
limbs and bodies. It was a mixture of red ochre 
and rancid shark oil, and formed a coating,- 
which was suffered to adhere as long as it 
liked. The smell of the paint was mingled with 
that of an amulet, worn round the neck, made of 
a certain kind of grass, and prepared in a 
peculiar manner; and which was of the size, 
colour, and odour, of a small dead rat; so we 
may perhaps be pardoned for saying that the 
entree of a select circle was overpowering to the 
olfactory nerves, and, in fact, not at all agree- 
able. At home, the women worked hard in the 
plantations, rowed the canoes, and did all the 
carrying work, the men having wisely tapued 
their backs. The burdens these poor creatures 
were accustomed to bear, were really wonderful, 
and far exceeded in weight anything carried in 
the olden time by the female bearers in the 
Newcastle collieries. Their gait was often per- 
manently affected by it ; being changed into an 
awkward kind of waddle, in which the heels 
were kept apart, and the toes turned in. Mr 
Darwin would probably tell us that such extra- 
ordinary physical powers were due to the 
gradual selection, by nature, of a variety of the 
species. But what would that eminent naturalist 
say to the periodical inversion, by the females 
of that variety, of the law that gives the parasite 
its prey? Nothing in his synthetical work, 
nothing in his chapter on "the struggle for exist- 
ence/' exceeds in horror the dreadfully anoma- 
lous crusades which those amiable ladies 



52 STORY OF TE WAHAEOA 

regularly engaged in, apparently from selfish 
rather than benevolent motives and in which 
themselves, their children, and their dogs were 
concerned. 

Thus have we endeavoured, cursorily, to 
sketch the more prominent characteristics of 
the Maori inhabitants of the districts we write 
of in Waharoa's time. But to obtain a correct 
view of the troubled times, and scenes, which 
chequered the lives of all who lived in 
Tauranga, Eotorua, and Matamata districts, 
during the last years of that chief, it is neces- 
sary to advert more particularly to the new 
influence which then began to affect the Maori 
mind. 

We have already seen that in March, 1834, a 
small, but remarkable, band of missionaries 
appeared at the Puriri ; but three at first, in 
less than two years their numbers had been 
augmented to nine, of whom seven were laymen. 
Settled they were not, for in obedience to their 
Master, and protected by Him in many dangers, 
as messengers of religion and civilisation, they 
traversed the Thames, Tauranga, Rotorua, 
Matamata, Maungatautari, Upper and Lower 
Waikato and Manukau districts. They found 
as our readers have by this time seen, a nation 
of bloodthirsty cannibals, turbulent, treach- 
erous, and revengeful; repulsive in habits r 
naked, licentious and filthy. The change 
wrought during the ensuing six or seven years 
on this people, by the teaching and examples of 
these good men and their wives was marvellous. 



STORY OF TE WAHAKOA 53 

At the end of nine years the last traces of canni- 
balism had been erased ; before that time, even 
in 1840, many villages were entirely Christian, 
and the population of all their large pas were 
chiefly of the same belief. Morning and evening 
they attended their devotions. Their outward 
observance of the Decalogue would have caused 
many, their superiors otherwise, to blush. They 
learned to read, write, and cipher; they were 
clothed tolerably decently; they gradually 
became more cleanly in their persons ; and wars 
and murders had nearly ceased; and last, but 
not least, there was a certain desire, not 
generally apparent now, to do justice by each 
other, and by the Europeans who traded with 
them. 

To suppose such unparalleled results were 
lightly attained would be unreasonable; no dis- 
passionate mind, endowed with common sense, 
could be guilty of such an error. It was only 
by great energy of mind and body, fearlessly 
but judiciously directed, that those devoted 
men were enabled to effect their triumphs. 
Would, that the ground they conquered had 
been retained by those who followed them! 

As opportunities occurred, the missionaries 
established stations, where they placed their 
families ; but in the wars which then raged, two 
of those homes were destroyed. One was 
entered, devastated, and partially burnt, by a 
hostile taua; the other was entirely burnt by a 
war party ; and a third station was almost aban- 
doned. Then every evening, for weeks together, 



54 STORY OP TE WAHAROA 

ladies once used to the comforts and refinements 
of an English home, were conducted, with their 
children, to some sandy island, or other place, 
where they might be secure from the prowling 
murdering parties, that nightly sought their 
prey. Yet, though their own situation was so 
frequently perilous, the missionaries shrank not 
from the duty of giving timely warning to such 
natives as they sometimes learned had been 
marked for slaughter. 

The following incident of this kind serves to 
illustrate the singular influence the missionaries 
acquired, and shows the promptitude and great- 
ness of the efforts they were capable of making. 
Two of their number, Messrs. Wilson, and 
Fairburn, received intelligence of an expedition 
that was about to cut off a party of unsuspecting 
persons, engaged in scraping flax, on the banks 
of a stream about fifty miles off. Taking one or 
two Christian natives as guides, and to assist in 
their boat, on a stormy night the missionaries 
set forth. Though the rain fell in torrents, the 
gale was pretty fair, and in the morning they 
landed, having accomplished about half their 
journey. But the harder portion yet remained ; 
for the hills were slippery, and the streams 
swollen by the continued rain, so that in 
crossing one stream, they were compelled to 
construct a mokihi, or catamaran of flax stalks. 
In twenty-four hours the missionaries had 
descended the Thames a considerable distance, 
and crossed its frith; they had ascended the 
Piako, and walked across the hilly country that 



STORY OF TB WAHAEOA 55 

separates that river from the Maramarua, a 
stream which empties itself into the Waikato at 
Wangamarino; and now, towards evening, 
though sorely tried with fatigue and exposure, 
they neared the place where the people they 
sought to rescue were staying. As they 
advanced their anxiety increased, for the taua 
had taken a shorter road, while the mission- 
aries, to maintain the secrecy necessary to the 
success of the undertaking, were obliged to take 
a more circuitous route. Urged on, therefore, 
by the exigency of the occasion, they used every 
effort, for the unsuspecting natives at Mara- 
marua were the rearguard of a party of 
Waikatos, whose main body had gone to Waka- 
tiwai, to endeavour to bring about a peace with 
the Thames natives ; while the Thames natives, 
knowing that the flax-scraping party at Mara- 
marua had been left by the peace-seeking 
expedition in charge of their canoes there, 
privately sent a taua to cut them off. Hence 
the brethren felt that not only were the lives of 
the Maramarua party at stake, but that the 
success of the taua would utterly overthrow, or 
indefinitely postpone, all hopes of terminating 
the long and bloody war between the Thames 
and Waikato tribes. 

Now, there were two landing places, some 
distance from each other, on the banks of the 
Maramarua stream, and the road dividing led 
to each of them. Mr. Fairburn, accompanied by 
the native guides, proceeded to the lower 
landing place, while Mr. Wilson branched off by 



56 STOKY OF TE WAHAROA 

himself for the upper. Presently the latter 
missionary arrived on a summit above the 
stream, and saw the objects of his search one 
hundred yards from him, sitting on its banks 
outside their whare. He also saw the taua 
about five hundred yards from them, 
approching from the lower landing place, along 
the margin of a swamp. Not a moment was to 
be lost; he shouted, but the wind prevented 
his being heard. The Waikato group, however, 
saw him, and when he took off his coat and 
waved it, they rose as one man, and gazed 
fixedly until he repeated the signal. Then, 
without confusion, they seemed to slink into 
their canoes, and in an incredibly short time, 
were paddling away ; so that when Mr. Wilson 
reached the hut, the last canoe was just 
disappearing in the windings of the stream. 

Scarcely had our missionary time to realise 
the event, and to think of his own situation, 
when the first man of the fight appeared. He 
was a naked, square-built, powerful, dark- 
complexioned, forbidding-loking fellow, who, 
eager for the fray, had outstripped his 
companions on he came, dripping with rain, 
with his left arm en garde, wound round with a 
mat, and his right hand tightly clutching a 
short tomahawk, he was too intent on entering 
the hut to perceive the missionary, who stood 
near and watched his movements. He did not 
go straight in at the doorway, as a measured 
blow might have been dealt him ; but suddenly 
he leaped obliquely through it, making at the 



STORY OF TE WAHABOA 57 

same time a ward to defend himself. Some 
disappointment must, however, have ensued, as 
he quickly came out, and, running with uplifted 
weapon in search of prey, met Mr. Wilson. He 
paused, and scarcely restraining himself, looked 
the white man full in the face it was a critical 
moment but the countenance of the latter was 
firm, and the eye of the savage fell, and, wan- 
dering, lit upon a pig asleep close by, which 
luckily served as a safety-valve to the explosive 
power of his fury, and was despatched instanter 
by a blow on the head. 

But the taua came up, and was extremely 
glum. Mr. Fairburn, too, following on its 
track, presently arrived. All went into the 
long low hut, for night had set in, and the 
weather continued bad. The whare was 
crowded, and the missionary party were to- 
gether at one end of it. For two hours the taua 
maintained a dogged silence most trying to 
their neighbours. They neither ate, nor did 
they light a single pipe ; they merely kindled a 
fire, and it was impossible to foresee the upshot 
of the matter when the missionaries at length 
had prayers with their party, beginning with 
the Maori hymn : 

<{ E! Ihu homai ekoe 
He ngakau hou ki au." 

* ' ! Jesus give to me 
A heart made new by Thee. ' ' 

The attention of the taua was quickly riveted. 
The hard countenances of the sullen and 



58 STOEY OF TB WAHABOA 

chagrined men gradually relaxed, as listening, 
they mutely acknowledged the superior power 
of the pakehas' Atua perhaps from their own. 
superstitious fear at His having so palpably 
thwarted their enterprise or perhaps a nobler 
influence was then mysteriously working in 
their minds. At any rate, when that short 
service had ended, the natives' conduct became 
so altered that it seemed as though a spell had 
been removed from them. Fires were made, 
food was prepared, and the carcase of the pig, 
which had lain neglected, was cut up, and a 
portion, together with a present of potatoes, 
was handed to the missionaries; conversation 
followed, and the evening ended better than it 
began. So great, however, had been the mental 
and bodily strain on the brethren, that next day, 
on the homeward journey, one of them, Mr. 
Fairburn, repeatedly fainted, and was with 
some difficulty escorted back to the boat. On 
that day, Koinaki, leader of the party, and the 
great guerilla captain of Ngatimaru tribe, said 
to the missionaries: "If Waharoa will cease 
fighting, I will do the same. ' ' He kept his word, 
and thus, in 1835, ended the last episode in the 
Ngatihaua and Ngatimaru war. 

The following interviews will show how, in a 
few years, the thoughts and habits of these very 
natives became changed. 

At Whakatane, twelve years after the 
incident above recorded, a Maori, well-dressed 
in sailor's clothes, presented himself before Mr. 
Wilson, and the following conversation ensued : 



STOEY OF TE WAHAKOA 59 

"Do you know me?" 

* ' No, I do not remember ever having seen you 
before. ' ' 

"I am the man who first entered the hut at 
Maramarua. ' ' 

' ' Indeed ! They were sad days then. ' ' 

"Yes, they were the days of our ignorance; 
but we know better now." 

"And pray what brings you here, away from 
your tribe?" 

"Oh! I am a sailor, and I have been 
requested by So-and-so to bring his vessel here." 

This man, however, was not the only native 
that remembered and spoke afterwards of 
Maramarua. Mr. Fairburn retired from the 
mission, and Mr. Wilson removed to the Bay of 
Plenty; and Koinaki, on parting on that 
occasion from the latter gentleman, did not see 
him again until after a lapse of twenty years. 
Yet, so impressed had his mind been with the 
events of that day that, upon meeting the 
missionary, he exclaimed, "Mr. Wilson, do you 
remember Maramarua?" 

We have thus noticed in full the foregoing 
Maramarua episode, in order to furnish, once 
for all, an example of a class of incident by no 
means uncommon in the early days of the New 
Zealand mission, and to illustrate the very 
remarkable manner in which the Maoris 
savage as they were, and bad as they were 
were sometimes influenced by Christianity. 

But there were certain elements in the Maori 
mind which predisposed the natives to accept 



60 STOEY OF TE WAHAEOA 

Christianity, and facilitated its spread amongst 
them : 

1. They had no idols ; all their divinities were 
of a spiritual nature. They had, indeed, their 
tapued images, houses, places, things; their 
tapued persons, and their tanas tapu\ but the 
sacredness of those tapus was an extrinsic 
mode, having some reference or connection, 
directly or indirectly, to a spiritual atua. 
Hence, their ideas on matters of tapu were often 
extremely subtle and metaphysical. Thus in 
1836, at Rotorua, at a place where a cannibal 
feast had occurred a fortnight before, a native 
was asked, "What he expected Whiro, the god 
of war, to do with the offerings left to him on 
the ground did he think Whiro would eat 
them?" He replied: "The question is a very 
absurd one, for how can a spirit eat food ? How 
can mind consume matter? The outward forms 
of those offerings to Whiro remain the same, 
but the god has absorbed their mana" that is, 
virtue or essence. The offerings consisted of 
a cooked piece of heart or liver, a lock of hair, 
and a cooked potato, each placed on a small 
stick planted in the ground by a little oven for 
Whiro had his own separate oven, about the size 
of a dinner-plate. The flesh and hair had been 
taken from the body of the first man killed in 
the battle, which body was a wakahere held tapu 
to the atua. And sometimes, in a doubtful 
strife, the priest of a taua would hastily rip out 
the wakahere's heart, and, muttering incanta- 
tions, would wave it to the atua, to ensure the 
success of his people. 



STOEY OF TE WAHAKOA 61 

2. Their practical acknowledgment that the 
shedding of blood cancelled evil. This doctrine 
of atonement occasionally involved them 
against their inclination in wars and broils, 
which, on the violation of a tapu, were engaged 
in to avenge the atua's honour, and to avert 
from themselves, their wives and their children, 
the evils and diseases supposed to be inflicted 
on such as were remiss on the atua's behalf. 

Besides their atua's grievances, they had 
their own private ones also; sometimes, too, 
these classes were interwoven, sometimes hope- 
lessly entangled. But in no case were they 
satisfied until an atonement in blood had been 
obtained ; and the duty of seeking such redress 
was handed down from father to son, if neces- 
sary, even to the third generation. The 
following dialogue, which occurred some years 
ago, between two travellers on a lonely road, 
sufficiently exemplifies this : 

Maori: "I have had several opportunities 
to-day of killing you." 

European uneasily "What do you mean! " 

Maori: "That among us, Maoris, strangers 
never travel as we are doing walking close 
behind each other through copses and narrow 
places such as this is." 

European: "Why?" 

Maori: "Because, although on good terms 
with my companion, yet I might know of some 
unavenged evil my ancestors had sustained, 
which he had forgotten, or perhaps never heard 
of, and then, if I had an opportunity, I should 
kill him." 



62 STOEY OF TE WAHAKOA 

So necessary, indeed, was satisfaction of this 
nature to comfort their too susceptible con- 
sciences, that in the event of their being unable 
or unwilling to obtain a recompense from the 
offenders, they would turn to other quarters; 
and ultimately get utu by killing persons utterly 
unconnected with them or their affairs, and who 
may have been ignorant of their very existence. 

3. They say that conscience warned them of 
the difference between good and evil, right and 
wrong. 

4. They were naturally religious. Their 
affairs, whether political, civil, or social, were 
all blended with religion or superstition. It 
was invoked when they fished, planted, and 
gathered in their crops; when they sent out a 
taua, or when they attacked a pa. If they 
engaged in warlike operations, they observed 
the flight of shooting stars, and divined the 
atua's approval or disapproval of their 
expeditions. If a star travelled towards the 
enemy 's country, the omen was favourable ; but 
on an opposite course, it was sufficient to 
paralyse the heart of the stoutest taua, and 
cause the most superstitious of its warriors to 
return to their homes. In the assault and 
defence of pas the moon was studied. That 
satellite was supposed to represent the pa, and 
her eclipse should it happen, as was the case 
the night before Te Tumu was taken would 
most surely prognosticate its fall. So also the 
relative positions of stars with the moon 
indicated the success or otherwise of attacking 
tauas against a pa. 



STORY OF TE WAHAROA 63 

Failing these auguries, the tohunga (priest) 
would repeat his enchantments, and cast the 
niu. This ceremony was performed by taking 
a number of small sticks each representing in 
the tohunga 'a mind a particular hapu, or section 
of the assailants and throwing them hap- 
hazard towards a small space described on the 
ground, which betokened the pa; the tohunga 
was able, by the way they fell upon the ground, 
and the directions they pointed in, to presage 
whether an attack would prove successful ; and, 
if so, to assign to the various tribes, or hapus, 
the parts they should take in the proposed 
assault. 

Their planting, too, was preceded by incanta- 
tions and tapus, and their harvesting by an 
offering of first-fruits to the atua. In short, 
the genius of the people was nearly as essen- 
tially religious, and their actions, as subject to 
the control of their tohungas, as we are told 
the Thibetans are influenced in all their civil 
and social arrangements by the Grand Lama 
and his Buddhistical priesthood. 

Hence the native bent of the Maori mind 
caused the people, as they embraced Chris- 
tianity, gradually to place themselves as a 
matter of course under the guidance of a sort of 
Christian theocracy. They sought the mis- 
sionary's advice in secular affairs so frequently 
that, in addition to being their teacher, he 
became their magistrate and doctor. Yet was 
their religion rather that of the head than the 
heart. It was a principle propelled to action 
in many cases, and especially latterly, by the 



64 STORY OF TE WAHAROA 

superstition latent in their minds by the fear 
of incurring the atua 's displeasure. They ever 
lacked the opposite principle of gratitude; it 
was so foreign to their ideas, that they had not 
even a word to express it, and the missionaries 
were obliged to borrow wakawhetai from a 
Polynesian language to supply the deficiency, 
and convey their instructions. 

It was under the auspices of this mild mis- 
sionary regime which, if a government, was a 
very singular one, seeing there were no laws, 
and an almost total absence of crime that the 
first British Governor set foot on the shores of 
New Zealand. He, Governor Hobson, and his 
successor Fitzroy, were well aware they had no 
physical means of enforcing law and main- 
taining order among the natives. Therefore, 
as much as possible, they pursued the policy of 
availing themselves of the moral influence the 
missionaries possessed an influence which had 
laid the natives ' passions, had prepared the way 
for the founding of the colony, and formed the 
only tie (that of religion, tinged with super- 
stition in the minds receiving it) by which the 
turbulence of the Maoris was held in check. 

The missionaries, however, to avoid an 
ambiguous relation to the civil power a 
position alike alien and prejudicial to their 
vocation permitted one of their number to 
retire from the mission and join the Govern- 
ment, for the purpose of managing native 
affairs. But the Governor's selection of the 
gentleman to fill this new and important office 




Capt. William Hobson, E.N,, First Governor of New Zealand. 



STORY OF TE WAHAEOA 65 

was scarcely a happy one for the country; for, 
although a very sincere, well-meaning person, 
he took extravagant views of his duties as 
Native Protector, and the natives became over- 
bearing. They found themselves continually 
sheltered and favoured, and discovered to their 
surprise that Europeans who, before the 
advent of a government, had managed to take 
care of themselves were now neglected, and 
virtually unprotected. In truth, the first 
Governor erred in judgment when he created a 
Native Protectorate. The natives then required 
no special protection any more than they do 
now. Then they learned to despise the weak- 
ness of our administration, and expect that 
particular kind of justice which they have since 
been accustomed to obtain ; then, too, began the 
troubles of the young colony. 

If, instead of establishing a questionable 
advocateship under the guise of a protectorship, 
the Governor had entrusted a Commissioner of 
judgment and ability with the supervision of 
native affairs some person who, by firmness, 
tact, and a conciliatory address, should have 
endeavoured, during the political honeymoon 
that followed the union of English and Maori 
power at the Treaty of Waitangi, to secure the 
ground the missionaries had conquered by a 
candid and impartial policy; who, by an 
equitable appeal to the merits of the cases 
submitted for his decision or advice, and by 
summoning to his aid the natives' strong sense 
of justice, and their desire to do right (for old 



66 STORY OF TE WAHAROA 

settlers can bear witness that in those days 
almost anything might have been done with 
them), might perhaps have induced a superior 
style of justice. Had such a course been pur- 
sued, those evils which have gradually 
increased, until now they well nigh overwhelm 
this unhappy land, would possibly have been 
averted ; or at all events, they would have been 
experienced in a mitigated form. 

When Captain Grey succeeded, or rather 
superseded, Captain Fitzroy in the government 
of this country, he swept away the Native Pro- 
tectorate. This step, though it appeared to 
initiate a policy the reverse of his predecessors, 
did not really do so; for, notwithstanding the 
office was closed and the officer paid off, yet the 
principle that had animated the old protectorate 
was retained, and its disadvantages were 
shortly afterwards very much intensified by the 
introduction of that, which has since been 
popularly known as the "flour-and-sugar- 
policy. ' ' This policy was a strenuous effort on 
the part of the Government to civilise the 
Maoris by liberally and gratuitously supplying 
them with the many material advantages which 
are necessary to the comfort and well-being of 
civilised man; and it also somewhat assumed 
the character of a system of bribery to keep the 
peace. 

Now, if a man of a civilised mind be cast- 
like the English sailor Rutherford amongst 
savages, he may be compelled by the force of 
circumstances outwardly to appear like his 
associates; but the tastes, sympathies, and 



STOEY OF TE WAHAKOA 67 

desires of his mind will remain unchanged, and 
his yearning for the civilised condition of life, 
which is natural to him, will probably increase 
with his absence from it. On the other hand 
with all due respect for estimable characters of 
the mythical Man Friday school we venture 
to say that, if a savage be removed from his own 
to a civilised country, he may perhaps for a 
while be pleased with the novelties he sees, but 
he will soon grow weary of them ; the forms and 
restraints of an artificial life will be irksome, 
and though he may externally conform to the 
usages of those around, in heart he will be a 
savage still, and long for the freedom of his 
native wilds. 

If he be followed to those wilds, and the 
benefits of civilisation be pressed upon him 
there, he will receive certain of them, such as 
axes, fish-hooks, knives, etc. ; if of a pugnacious 
turn, he will probably accept them all, and 
require more as a tribute to his power. But the 
moment any of the combustible elements in his 
bosom in the shape of anger, hatred, revenge, 
fear, suspicion, fanaticism, or superstition, are 
fired, he will be ready unhesitatingly to relin- 
quish all connection with civilisation, and go 
where his passions lead him ; for he is the very 
antipodes of a certain style of artificial life, 
which dwarfs even the generous passions of the 
mind, lest they should interfere with the worldly 
advancement of their possessor. 

But Sir George Grey's policy towards the 
natives was founded on principles diametrically 
opposed to those contained in the foregoing 



68 STORY OF TB WAHAEOA 

remarks. First, he broke the spell that held 
them, and severed the only tie we had on their 
minds, by undermining the missionaries' 
influence; and then he sought, by dispensing 
gifts with a liberal hand, to win the natives to 
civilisation, and raise up his own personal 
influence in its place. This was called the 
"flour-and-sugar policy/' from the peculiar 
form in which it was frequently exhibited. It 
lasted very well during his time, because at first 
the natives' minds only retrograded gradually; 
several years elapsed before they could divest 
themselves of the ideas they had acquired from 
the early missionaries, from whom they had 
learned a good deal about as much as they 
were likely ever to learn. Anyhow, their minds 
had become tranquilised ; and, during the calm, 
the policy lived its little span. But, if the men 
who endeavoured to settle at the Thames in 1826 
had resorted to it for protection, they would 
have been as much disappointed as many are 
now, who have been accustomed to eulogise Sir 
George Grey's native policies, and to expect 
great things from them. 

Doubtless Sir George Grey had a difficult 
problem to solve, and one that then was but 
little understood. Physical force was out of 
the question. England had neither the dis- 
position nor the power to resort to the subju- 
gation of the country. This is no assertion, 
but simply an historical fact. Thus Lord 
Hardinge stated that she had only 10,000 men 
and 42 crazy guns available to defend London 




Sir George Grey. 



STOEY OF TE WAHAROA 69 

in 1841, when war with France, who had 300,000 
regular troops disposable, was most imminent. 
In 1846, Lord Palmerston, the Secretary for 
Foreign Affairs, informed the Cabinet, by a 
minute, that the whole Imperial force, exclusive 
of India, was only 88,000 men, 24,000 of whom 
were required in Ireland; leaving only 64,000 
for the defence of England and her colonies. 
Again, in 1852, the Duke of Wellington, in the 
last important speech he made in Parliament, 
when addressing the Lords on a bill to enable 
the Government to raise 80,000 militia, said: 
' * We have never, up to this moment, maintained 
a proper peace establishment; that is the real 
truth; and we are now in such a position that 
we can no longer carry on that system, and we 
must have a suitable peace establishment. I 
tell you that, for the last ten years, you have 
never had more men in your armies than was 
sufficient to relieve your sentries in the different 
parts of the world; such is the state of your 
peace establishment. You have been carrying 
on war in all parts of the globe, in the different 
stations, by means of your peace establishment ; 
yet on that establishment you have not more 
men than are necessary to relieve the sentries 
and regiments on foreign service, some of which 
have been twenty-five years abroad." From 
the above statements it is easy to see that 
during Sir George Grey's first government here, 
a war, on an effective scale, with the Maoris, was 
a thing impossible. The Manchester school of 
politicians would not suffer it. The large and 



70 STOEY OF TE WAHAROA 

influential section of the religious public at 
home, that looks implicitly to the platform at 
Exeter Hall for information and guidance, 
never dreamt of it. It was hardly to be 
supposed that, under these circumstances, 
England could tolerate a vexatious war in 
an insignificant colony like New Zealand 
at a time, too, when the handful of troops 
she had at home (less than a third of the 
number stated by the Duke of Wellington to 
be necessary to garrison her coast fortifi- 
cations) were fully occupied in her disturbed 
and distressed manufacturing districts; when 
the political and social condition of Ireland gave 
her constant uneasiness; when pauperism was 
so rife that in England and Wales every 
eleventh person belonged to that class, and want 
so general that riots occurred even in Scotland ; 
and whilst her unparalleled catastrophe in 
Afghanistan was green in her memory, and her 
exchequer yet suffered a deficit of nearly 
5,000,000 of a sum total of more than 
12,000,000 that had been there lost to the 
empire; and while a dark cloud over the Pun- 
jaub daily became more threatening. Could it 
then be any matter of surprise that Governor 
Fitzroy who , to uphold the honour of the 
British flag, had engaged in war with inade- 
quate forces was recalled, and that Governor 
Grey very shortly afterwards discontinued the 
strife? 

Our readers are not yet informed of all the 
measures which the new Governor took to sup- 
port the interests of his Sovereign, in his efforts 



STORY OF TE WAHAEOA 71 

to secure the establishment of her viceroy's 
personal influence over the natives. Without 
power himself, he knew when he landed that 
there was a moral force in the country, which 
his predecessors had used and valued an in- 
fluence, however, that did not properly belong 
to his sphere, and might not at all times be 
commanded by him, and which if not actually 
considered a rival, might at any rate be 
supposed to pre-occupy the natives' attention, 
to the exclusion of the scheme he hoped to set 
up. But whatever the Governor's views were, 
his first act towards the men whose benevolent 
labours had gained this remarkable influence, 
was one of open hostility. When Euapekapeka 
Pa was taken, certain letters from a European 
were found in it. These the Governor assumed 
to be treasonable ; and though at the time it was 
generally understood they had been written by 
a missionary during a series of years prior to 
the war, on subjects unconnected with politics, 
yet he caused them to be burned unread. 

It may appear strange to some persons who 
are unacquainted with the history of New 
Zealand during the last fifty years, that the 
individual aspersed, and the fraternity he 
belonged to, did not suffer under the withering 
imputation cast upon them by the Queen's 
representative; but it would really have been 
more strange had they done so for the simple 
reason that the missionaries were better known 
than the Governor. The gentleman whose 
unread letters were burnt as treasonable, was 
of the number of England's naval heroes, whose 



72 STORY OF TE WAHAEOA 

deeds, as recorded by their historian, James, 
have ever been considered a sufficient guarantee 
of the loyalty and devotion of the British naval 
officer ; Sir E. Home, commanding the squadron 
in the Bay of Islands, probably felt this, when 
he very unmistakably expressed himself on the 
subject; for never since Byng's time when 
ninety years before an innocent naval officer 
was criminally sacrificed, for reasons of state 
had an officer of that ''old school," whether on 
service or retired, been accused of treachery or 
cowardice in reference to his country's enemies. 
The gentleman in question served, in 1801, as a 
midshipman in Nelson's own ship, the 
'Elephant,' at Copenhagen, and, after many 
eventful years of naval warfare, he fought his 
last battle for his country as a lieutenant on 
board the 'Endymion,' when she took the 
American frigate 'President,' in 1815, in an 
action characterised by the great Scottish 
historian of the present day as "one of the 
most honourable ever fought by the British 
navy, and in none was more skilful seamanship 
displayed." Seven years after the conclusion 
of the war, we find our sailor in New Zealand, 
endeavouring, with religious zeal, to convert its 
natives to Christianity. A few months after 
his arrival, he laid the keel of the missionary 
schooner 'Herald,' and, with such assistance as 
could be procured, he completed her in 1826. 
His voyage, in this vessel, with Messrs. Hamlin 
and Davis, in the Bay of Plenty, in the year 
1828, we have already narrated. Of him, the 



STOEY OF TB WAHAEOA 73 

author of the "Southern Cross and Southern 
Crown" says: "With a heart given to God, 
and zealous for the salvation of the heathen, he 
combined an indomitable perseverance with a 
spirit of ardent enterprise that carried him 
through difficulties and obstacles under which 
most men would have succumbed. ' ' Such, then, 
was the man: one of the oldest, most exper- 
ienced, and most valued of the brethren, against 
whom, for reasons of State, a step was taken 
which might have had the effect of disparaging 
the Church missionaries in New Zealand. 

We confess we may seem to have wandered 
from our subject, but it is so in appearance 
rather than reality. For the progress of the 
religious spell that settled on the Maori mind is 
intimately connected with the remaining portion 
of Te Waharoa's story; and, as we believe the 
natives' subsequent retrogression to be largely 
due to the causes which paralysed the hands 
that had been instrumental in establishing and 
maintaining that religious condition, so, in 
justice to our readers, and to the memory of the 
early missionaries (of the nine missionaries and 
their wives, that landed at Puriri, in 1834 and 
1835, more than half are dead, and of the sur- 
vivors not one can be said to be engaged in 
the missionary field), we feel reluctantly 
constrained to touch upon an uninviting portion 
of our colonial history. 

As may be easily conceived, the good name of 
the little band that landed at the Puriri was 
bound up with the reputation of their brethren 



74 STOEY OF TE WAHAEOA 

in the North. Therefore, when, to New Zealand 
and the world, their brethren were proclaimed 
to be nothing better than a company of land 
sharks, whose unlawful claims, if suffered to be 
retained by them, would probably involve the 
expenditure of a large amount of British blood 
and treasure ; when, to the skilled pen of a wary 
statesman, and the fluent tongue of a zealous 
prelate, whose laudable ambition prompted him 
to lop a growth which never should have 
flourished on other than clerical stems, is added 
the cry which rose throughout the land from 
many Pakeha-Maoris, who, rejoiced for once to 
have authority on their side, eagerly embraced 
the opportunity presented to lessen the mission- 
aries ' restraining influence; when, too, the 
crusade was entered on across the sea, and the 
agitation in England so assiduously sustained, 
that in one year the Church Missionary 
Society's funds fell off to such an alarming 
extent that its directors (who had discerned the 
gathering storm, and had sent out to the colony 
other, and different stems, to revive the fallen 
and faded growth, by grafting it on them) were 
now compelled, under pressure of popular 
outcry, to put forth their hands and uproot one 
of their most honoured patriarchs; and when, 
besides the shadow from the cloud in the North, 
their own atmosphere was pronounced hazy by 
such authorities as for the time being were able 
to influence others, and considered themselves 
most qualified to judge it was openly affirmed 
ihat two of their number had weakly suffered 



STOKY OF TE WAHAEOA 75 

themselves, some ten years previously, to be 
overcome by the urgent, repeated, and united 
solicitations of certain belligerent tribes, and 
had purchased from them certain debatable 
lands in order to stop the further effusion of 
blood; and it was also stated that four other 
members of their party had land claims, viz., 
Wilson and Stack's grant, 2,987 acres; J. 
Preece's grants, 1,273 acres; and for Arch- 
deacon Brown's, 583 scrip, the Government 
received 7,630 acres (vide Court of Claims 
Papers) ; when all these varied and concen- 
trated influences combined openly to assault, or 
stealthily to sap, the missionaries' position, it 
was easy to see that success was sure; for the 
edifice, though a good one, was built on the sand. 
We have already remarked that the Maoris* 
Christianity was of the head rather than the 
heart. Speaking generally, we believe it to 
have been a mass of Christian knowledge, 
mingled with superstitious fear, and guided by 
an instinctive obedience to the missionary 
teachers of their religion, just as in the previous 
religious dynasty the genius of the people 
caused them to honour and obey their tohungas. 
In short, as the old Maori religion had 
furnished them with laws, so the precepts of 
their newly acquired Christian religion were 
scrupulously observed ; not from its true spring 
of inward life, but because they were accus- 
tomed to govern their actions by the dictates of 
the persons they trusted to explain the will of 
the atua they feared. And if our remarks on 



76 STOEY OF TE WAHABOA 

this head are brought down a step further in 
their history, to the time when, after a season 
of mental chaos, they embraced the Hauhau 
creed, we shall observe the selfsame obedience 
to their tiu (priests), coupled with a rigorous 
adherence to the forms and ceremonies of the 
new superstition. 

Hence, in the Maori race, the curious phe- 
nomenon is seen of much religious or super- 
stitious devotion, exhibited, however, from time 
to time, in a series of religions, and each 
religion adapted to the supposed circumstances 
and requirements of the generation professing it. 

Therefore, as we have said, when confidence 
was withdrawn from its teachers, the Christian 
religion declined ; its foundation in their minds 
was not the true one, and the grafting process 
we have named was not successful. The new 
missionaries were unable to acquire the lost 
influence of the old ones, notwithstanding some 
of them advanced the novel doctrine, which 
ultimately gained favour with the natives, and 
had reference to the non-disposal of their lands 
to the Government. 

To become acquainted with the various phases 
of Maori life and character during the last half- 
century, and to know something of the origin of 
the political complications of the present 
time, it is necessary to study the history of the 
gradual rise, culmination, and quick decline of 
the Church Mission in New Zealand. The study 
is an instructive one, inasmuch as, to the 
reflective mind, it illustrates the impartial and 



STOEY OF TE WAHAROA 77 

retributive character of the Divine adminis- 
tration; it shows, even at the antipodes, that a 
departure from justice under colour of justice 
recoils on its authors; it matters not whether 
the transgression be that of a potentate or 
prelate, a government or a missionary society, 
its punishment is equally sure. We see that in 
affairs civil and political, difficulties have arisen 
which baffle the utmost skill; and if we look 
beyond the secular sphere in this country, to a 
higher order of events, we shall find the fair 
work once wrought in God's name, and out- 
wardly prospered by Him, marred and 
destroyed, and this with His permission. 

Doubtless the Maoris had their opportunity 
to receive the Christian religion, but had failed 
to do so with a truly Christian spirit; and, 
therefore, other teachers armed with much 
authority were suffered to go to them. The 
natives eyed askance the rustling cassocks, the 
broadcloth cut square at the corners, and the 
very dictatorial air of some of the newcomers; 
and for a while clung to their old teachers, of 
whose honour they were jealous; but in time 
this latter feeling became blunted. Still, 
though they were gradually weaned from their 
missionaries, yet Providence suffered them not 
to attach themselves to the men who bore 
discord to the Church Mission in this country, 
who divided the house against itself; for the 
natives themselves not unfrequently exper- 
ienced the inconvenience of being subject to the 
same irascible, domineering spirit aye, and a 



78 STORY OF TE WAHABOA 

crochety spirit, too which continually pained 
the old missionaries, and sometimes frustrated 
their labours. 

When, in the third year of the colony, the 
Right Reverend Doctor Selwyn came as first 
Anglican Bishop to New Zealand, he was 
joyfully welcomed by the Church missionaries, 
and immediately installed with his large party 
in their pleasant and most commodious station, 
including extensive school premises, at 
Waimate, near the Bay of Islands. However, 
after a lapse of two years and a half, the 
missionaries withdrew this act of generosity, 
we cannot say why. And so, in the end of 1844, 
we view the new Bishop removing his numerous 
train from Waimate to Purewa, near Auckland, 
as a step preparatory to the establishment of 
what was afterwards called St. John's College. 

The change from Waimate to the bleak, bare 
clay hills at St. John's, proved a trying one to 
his followers. They were required to toil 
incessantly while little rewarded their pains, 
and they were unable to disguise their chagrin, 
much of the odium of which was cast upon the 
missionaries; and was their master a " sadder 
and a wiser man?" 

At this time the missionaries had much 
influence with the natives. Governor Fitzroy, 
too, esteemed them highly, not only on account 
of what they had done for the Government, but 
also for the assistance they might yet be able to 
render him. A year after this time Fitzroy 
returned to England, and shortly after his 




Bishop Selwyn. 



STORY OF TE WAHAEOA 7 

retirement the Bishop and New Governor 
entered the lists to do battle with the mission- 
aries on account of the lands they had bought. 
"We do not intend to defend the missionaries, 
nor are we going to find fault with them for the 
purchases they made. The question has been 
discussed ad nauseam, and no good is likely to 
result from its resuscitation. 

If, as ministers of the Gospel, the mission- 
aries acted unwisely, their fair fame has been 
sullied. If, after years of danger and toil they 
succeeded in humanising and Christianising a 
race of extraordinary ferocity, and rendered 
this country a field fit for European colonisa- 
tion; if they accomplished this work to be 
rewarded only by calumny at the hands of the 
men who benefited by their labours; in short, 
if they had faithfully served their God and their 
country, and, having committed no offence, the 
finger of envy and popular scorn was upraised 
against them : if these things are true, can it be 
any matter of surprise if a recompense has been 
made? 

Do we not see a once happy country torn with 
anarchy, bleeding at every pore, bowed down 
with debt? Do we not see colonists, in their 
turn, unjustly accused of an inordinate desire 
to acquire native lands? Do we not see a 
number of schemes stranded upon New 
Zealand's shores, that were intended to benefit 
her aboriginal inhabitants? Yes, various 
schemes, political and educational. High and 
dry among the former lies the "flour-and- sugar 



80 STORY OF TE WAHAKOA 

policy," condemned as unseaworthy. Higher 
and dryer still amongst the latter lies the wreck 
of the Maori Institution at St. John's College, 
which expired with the odour of a mud-volcano. 
Broad against the memory of this we would 
write Carlyle's excellent motto for crotchets 
"My friends, beware of fixed ideas." Aye 
* ' Give the wisest of us once a fixed idea, and see 
where his wisdom is ! " Make it an offence for 
young people to take exercise on horseback, and 
a great offence to be caught smoking a pipe, and 
the chances are they will err more egregiously. 
And as a rule we should say, if you wish young 
people to obtain knowledge, feed them more 
generously and task them less with bodily toil 
than was done in the olden time at St. John's 
College. 

But of the fame of all those well-meant 
schemes, one only shall stand the test of time. 
Like some great mountain cone, around and 
against which other little cones have reared 
themselves, it is seen from afar when they are 
invisible; whilst to the inhabitants at their 
bases, the monarch is eclipsed by his satellites. 
So, by the world, the greatness of that early 
missionary effort which rendered the direst 
nation most harmless has long been acknow- 
ledged, whilst we in the vicinity have lost sight 
of it. 

A few words to the Church Missionary 
Society and we have done with all, save with 
old Te Waharoa himself. 

When next you are permitted to secure for 
your Great Master a missionary field like New 



STOEY OF TE WAHAROA 81 

Zealand, and it becomes your duty to find an 
overseer for the work, be careful to choose a 
man of the same stamp as your successful mis- 
sionaries; thus, if your missionaries are of 
what is generally termed the evangelical party, 
or of a higher school, get a Bishop of the same 
complexion. Avoid a person rejoicing in the 
possession of highly educated physical and 
intellectual powers, for he who rejoices in 
these is too apt to lack the Christian humility 
he ought to have; and, though it may seem 
unnecessary to say so, bear in mind your new 
Bishop, when tried, must govern his temper, 
else he will sometimes be exhibited to disadvan- 
tage before the converts. Deal fairly by your 
old missionaries; allow them, after thirty or 
forty years' service, to claim a pension and 
retire. You have a duty to perform in this 
respect which, we are informed, other mis- 
sionary societies do not neglect. And, lastly, 
speak truly of the colonists that may settle in 
your missionary field; for your periodical 
publications have a great circulation in the 
mother country, and injurious statements in 
them, not founded on fact, would wound their 
feelings. We mention this, because your 
countrymen in New Zealand have suffered in 
this manner. Thus much for New Guinea, or 
any other field to be won. 

But for New Zealand the field that was won, 
and is lost it is a consolation to remember how 
her first English Bishop was endowed with an 
extraordinary energy; and how his genius 
which accomplished the nautical anomaly of 



82 STORY OF TE WAHAROA 

uniting in himself the offices of captain, boats- 
wain, and helmsman prompted him to essay 
much that ordinary men would not have 
presumed to attempt; or, as was once homely 
but graphically expressed by a New Zealand 
dignitary it could not have been an Arch- 
bishop, so must have been an Archdeacon yes, 
an Archdeacon who thought ''the Bishop was 
not satisfied with playing first fiddle, but 
desired to monopolise all the fiddles!" Alas! 
alas! for harmony. 0! banished Harmony! 
when shall thy sweet influence return? 



PAET in. 



Early one bright New Zealand summer's 
morn it was Christmas, 1835 a small band of 
men propelled their light canoe, cleaving the 
glassy bosom of Lake Rotorua. Presently 
they landed on its northern shore, whence they 
ascended to a village, near the margin of the 
forest that crowns the uplands on that side. As 
they approached, the head man of the kainga 
welcomed them ; when the senior visitor, taking 
him by the hand, bent forward, and rubbed 
noses, according to Maori custom. While thus 
engaged receiving his guests, the head man was 
struck dead with a tomahawk blow, dealt by 
another visitor, at the back of his right ear. 
Who was the victim? and who those treach- 
erous men? The former was Hunga, Te 
Waharoa's cousin, who then lived at Rotorua. 
The latter were Huka and his nephew, attended 
by a small following of six or eight sans culottes 
Huka being then a second-rate chief of 
Ngatiwhakaue, who had always been on 
excellent terms with Hunga, even to the very 
moment when he murdered him. 

And yet Huka had a very good Maori reason 
for committing this horrid deed, which we will 
endeavour to explain. He conceived himself 



84 STOEY OF TE WAHAROA 

injured and insulted, by his own chiefs and 
relations, in two things. First, in some matter 
having reference to a woman; and secondly, 
because, during a recent temporary absence, his 
interests had been utterly overlooked at the 
division of a large quantity of trade received 
from Tapsal, a Pakeha-Maori, at Maketu, in 
payment for flax the tribe had sold ; which flax, 
accordingly to mercantile usages of that day, 
probably had yet to be delivered; and at the 
time when the trade was given, was most likely 
flourishing on its native stem. Huka made a 
journey to Maketu to see Tapsal, but found the 
pakeha inexorable ; he had paid to the chiefs of 
the tribe all the trade agreed for, and he would 
pay no more. So Huka returned to Eotorua, 
saying in an ungracious spirit : " I can 't kill all 
my relatives, but I can bring war upon them," 
which sure enough he did, by murdering Waha- 
roa's cousin, precisely in the manner we have 
related. And thus originated Te Waharoa's 
great war with the Ngatiwhakaue, or Arawa 
tribe. 

But now the admirer of that rude sense of 
justice, which dwells inherent in the savage 
breast, exclaims: Why did not the Ngatiwha- 
kaues immediately do what they could to make 
the amende honorable to Waharoa? They 
might have sent off the heads of Huka and his 
nephew, with an apologetic message to the great 
chief, expressing unfeigned regret at the melan- 
choly affair; and hoping the satisfaction of 
seeing for himself the condign punishment the 



STOBY OF TB WAHAEOA 85 

criminals had received, would avert his just 
indignation; and trusting the amicable 
relations that had subsisted between their tribes 
during his time might still remain unchanged. 
We think no one would have been more amused 
at the novelty and simplicity of this proceeding 
than old Waharoa himself. Of course he, and 
perhaps his friends, Te Kanawa and Mokorou, 
chiefs of Ngatimaniapoto and Waikato, would 
miss the pleasure of discussing the ambas- 
sador's quality at breakfast next morning as 
no native, other than a neutral one, would have 
been simpleton enough to place himself in such 
a position. No, the Ngatiwhakaue never 
thought of such a thing; their minds and 
actions ran in another groove, for by noon that 
Christmas day, they had cut up Hunga's body, 
and sent the quarters throughout the Arawa 
tribes, to signify the new state of public affairs. 
As for Huka, he walked a taller man; his 
spirited conduct had raised him in the eyes of 
men. 

On receiving the news, Waharoa was so 
enraged that he sent Mr. Chapman the Church 
missionary at Botorua, who had buried Hunga 's 
head a message, through a neutral channel, 
that he would come and burn his house down. 
To Ngatiwhakaue he condescended not a word. 
They might remain ignorant where the blow 
should fall, while he actively prepared to 
deliver it. 

Meantime the Ngaiterangi chiefs greatly 
feared that Waharoa, instead of taking the 



86 STORY OF TE WAHAEOA 

Patetere route, would pass through Tauranga, 
and drag them into a war they had no interest 
in. Their country would certainly be devas- 
tated sometimes, and if there were any gains, 
Te Waharoa would take them. In about ten 
weeks, when Waharoa had mustered his 
Ngatihaua, Ngatimaniapoto, and Waikato 
forces, to the number of 1,000 fighting men, 
under Te Kanawa, Mokorou, and himself, their 
fears were confirmed. 

About this time, Waharoa sent to Nuka 
Taipari, chief of Maungatapu, requesting him 
to murder fourteen Tapuika friends who were 
visiting him, from the place now called Canaan 
the Tapuika hapu being a section of the 
Arawas. Nuka replied to the effect that he did 
not exactly like to murder his guests, but 
Waharoa could do so by intercepting them on 
their road home, and that they would leave 
Maungatapu at such a time. 

On the evening of the 24th March, 1836, just 
three months after Hunga's death, the advance 
guard of Waharoa 's taua, 70 strong, under the 
fighting chief Pea, crossed the Tauranga 
harbour at Te Papa during twilight, and 
marching on took up their station across the 
Maketu road, between Maungamana and the 
coast line. The next day Nuka advised his 
friends to return home, as the news of 
Waharoa 's approach rendered it unsafe for 
them to remain. On the same day they all 
fourteen fell into Pea's hands, by whom they 
were bound, until Waharoa 's further pleasure 



STORY OF TB WAHAEOA 87 

should be known. The missionaries at Te Papa, 
Messrs. Wilson and Wade, spared no pains to 
save the lives of these unfortunate people. 
The former gentleman proceeded to Pea's 
camp, where he was assured all would be well 
with the Tapuikas, who were only detained to 
prevent their carrying intelligence to the enemy 
of the movements of Waharoa 's taua; and, to 
convince the too sceptical pakeha, four or five 
natives impersonated the prisoners, saying they 
were of the number of captured Tapuikas, and 
earnestly desiring that the question of their 
safety might not be raised by the missionary. 
On the same night, Te Waharoa, with his taua, 
passed through the Papa station, and promised 
the missionaries to spare the lives of the 
captives. 

The next morning 26th Waharoa arrived 
at Maungamana, when the prisoners were 
quickly slain, and the taua halted, until noon 
the following day, to cook and eat their bodies. 
On the 27th, the missionaries went to 
Waharoa 's camp; passing unnoticed along his 
grim columns, they found the chief seated apart 
on a sandhill, protected by a rude breakwind 
Mokorou was his companion; while at a 
respectful distance, sat a group of other chiefs. 
Waharoa saw them coming, and thinking, 
probably, the visit would prove unwelcome, gave 
orders to resume the march; meantime, the 
missionaries arrived, and spoke in very plain 
terms to him about his conduct. Mr. Wilson, 
as spokesman, upbraided him with the murder 



88 STORY OF TE WAHAROA 

of his friend's guests, and reproached him with 
breaking his promise. "And now," he said, 
"you are going to Maketu; you are not 
ignorant of war ; and you know you may never 
return. How, then, will you meet the God you 
have o if ended I " During the interview the old 
man's light sinewy frame and small expressive 
features had gradually manifested uneasiness; 
but to this point his usual mincing manner and 
taciturnity had been preserved. Now, however, 
when one whom he considered a Tohunga to the 
pakeha's powerful Atua, seemed disposed to say 
that which was ominous, his superstitious dread 
of aituas (evil omens), and fear that his 
expedition should go forth under a cloud, 
impelled him to assume his other-self, and cry 
fiercely: "Stop, don't say that. If I am killed, 
what odds? and if I return, will it not be well? 
Leave that matter alone." By this time his 
taua was in motion "marching," as Mr. 
Wilson says, "with an order and regularity I 
had little expected to see." 

On the 29th March, 1836, Waharoa stormed 
and carried Maketu, garrisoned only by the 
Ngatipukenga hapu, numbering sixty fighting 
men, with their aged chief, Nainai, at their head. 
Also there was present in the pa, a fighting 
chief of Ngatiwhakaue, named Haupapa. All 
these were killed and eaten; and such of their 
wives and children as were with them either 
shared the same fate or were taken into slavery. 
Haupapa, mortally wounded, was taken into 
TapsaPs house, within the pa. The old sailor 




Judge Man ing (a famous " Pakeha Maori "). 



STOEY OF TB WAHAKOA 89 

had a locker, and into it he thrust the chief for 
concealment; but ere the victorious party 
entered the house, he died. Now his wife, Kata, 
a woman about twenty-six years of age, was 
sitting near him, and as soon as she perceived 
he was dead, she earnestly, but vainly, besought 
the pakeha to cut off his head, that she might 
hide it from his enemies. Just then Muripara, 
a chief, and foremost man of the hostile taua, 
entered the house, and hearing the woman's 
words, exclaimed, "I will do it for you!" He 
severed the head, and was in the act of removing 
it when Kata, suddenly apprehending his real 
intention, made a dash for it; he waved it out 
of her reach; the streaming gore flew round, 
and fell as he held it over a kit of water-melons. 
In came the taua, and munched the melons up. 
Mr. Tapsal himself, was stripped of all save the 
clothes he had on, and then beheld his premises 
on fire. And now the missionaries, Messrs. 
Wilson and Wade, arrived from Tauranga, and 
going to Waharoa, asked him to secure Tapsal 's 
safety, and the safety of his native wife. The 
chief consented, and said they might leave the 
place, which Tapsal was not slow to do, and 
went to Te Tumu, where he managed to obtain 
his own boat from the natives for Tapsal had 
considerable influence with the natives in their 
cooler moments, having no less than four 
trading stations, viz, at Matamata, Tauranga, 
Maketu, and Te Awa-o-te-Atua. At Te Tumu, 
Tapsal rescued five women from slavery, and 
then withdrew in his boat to Te Awa-o-te-Atua, 



90 STORY OF TE WAHAEOA 

where Eangitekina enabled him to escape to Te 
Kupenga, and so he rejoined the Arawas. 
Among the women rescued from slavery on this 
occasion was Kata, Haupapa 's widow, of whom 
the reader will hear more yet. 

By the burning of his place at Maketu, Tapsal 
lost a large amount of property; among other 
things, it is said 120 tons of flax worth a 
great deal in the English market were con- 
sumed by the flames. All this flax had been 
obtained from the natives in exchange for guns 
and fine powder. In those days, the price of a 
superior gun was about eight hundredweight of 
flax, weighed while for powder, in casks of 
fifty pounds weight, it was usual to receive one 
ton of flax per cask. But though there were 
several Pakeha-Maoris engaged in supplying 
the belligerent tribes in the Bay of Islands with 
arms and ammunition, in Waharoa's time, yet 
none of them assisted the natives by joining 
in or directing the fights. We make this remark 
merely because reports of an opposite nature 
were one time current. 

But to resume our narrative of the fall of 
Maketu. Having effected their object, the 
missionaries returned to Tauranga. The whole 
pa was in flames. Shots were flying in every 
direction while stark naked savages, with hair 
cropped short, and features blackened, ran 
wildly through the scene. They were Maori 
warriors, flushed with success, and drunk with 
blood, and wrought to a pitch of fiendish excite- 
ment, such as rendered their company 
unpleasing and unsafe. 



STOEY OF TB WAHAROA 91 

Thus fell Maketu, and thus died Ngatipu- 
kenga; for old Nainai, when urged to retreat 
to Eotorua, had said, * ' Let me die on my land, ' ' 
a speech which sealed the fate of his tribe. How 
strange is the fortune of war! Five months 
afterwards, the selfsame speech, in Korokai's 
mouth, was the means, in the critical moment 
of danger, of saving the great Ohinemutu pa. 
To Te Waharoa, who always led the stormers, 
the credit however, is due, of being first with his 
tomahawk to cut the lashings of the pa fence. 
The attack was made according to a favourite 
mode, in two divisions; Waikato and Ngati- 
maniapoto, under Mokorou and Te Kanawa, 
assaulted the pa on its southern side, rushing 
up the natural glacis opposite Warekahu (the 
same slope that, three years afterwards, proved 
so fatal to them, while Tohi Te Ururangi hurled 
them pell mell down it) while Waharoa, with 
Ngatihaua, scaled the steeps on the river side, 
and first led his men into the pa. 

Two or three days after this, as soon as the 
heads were sufficiently cured, the warriors 
returned homewards, and a week after these 
events, some of them, including Te Waharoa, 
encamped for the night at Te Papa station. 
Here numbers of the wretches took up their 
quarters in Mr. Wilson's garden the plot of 
ground that now forms Archdeacon Brown's 
garden and destroyed its shrubs, breaking 
them down to furnish green leaves as dampers 
to retain the steam of the Maori ovens in which 
their carrion was cooked. At this time the 
missionaries had taken the precaution (soon to 



92 STORY OF TE WAHAEOA 

become a custom) to send their families away, 
and had conveyed them to Panepane, a desert 
island on the north side of Tauranga harbour. 

The complete success and speedy result of 
Waharoa's first campaign stung the Ngati- 
whakaue tribes to rage and action. Within four 
weeks of the receipt of the news, one thousand 
six hundred men had mustered at Ohinemutu 
pa, on Lake Rotorua, and had marched for 
Maketu, whence it was their set purpose to take 
the Tumu. 

The Tumu pa belonged to Ngaiterangi 
Waharoa's allies and was situated on the left 
bank of the Kaituna river, about two miles from 
Maketu, at the place where the river, des- 
cending from the interior, flows to within about 
one hundred yards of the sea, and then by 
a sudden freak of nature turns sharply off to 
the eastward; from whence it pursues a course 
parallel to the coastline, until it reaches Maketu. 
At the Tumu, the narrow neck of sand that 
divided the river from the sea, was not 
obstructed by growing sandhills, as it is now; 
but was so low that high tides in heavy gales 
swept over the river. 

Te Tumu was, doubtless, a convenient enough 
place for Maoris in times of peace com- 
manding the sea as it did, as well as the river 
navigation ; but for war it was quite the reverse. 
Unlike Maketu, it had neither natural nor 
artificial strength; yet the inmates of the pa 
were as infatuated as the Maketu people had 
been. Numbering only one hundred men and 



STOEY OP TB WAHAROA 93 

two hundred women and children, their garrison 
was too weak to hold the position against the 
large odds to be opposed to them, and too proud 
to desert it. The chiefs at the Tumu were 
Kiharoa of Maungatapu, Hikareia, and his 
nephew Tupaia of Otumoetai, Te Joke, and 
four others of minor note. It certainly seems 
strange that the inhabitants of Maketu and 
Tumu pas were not better supported by their 
respective tribes ; we suppose "what was every- 
body's duty was nobody's duty," as nobody 
appears to have been particularly anxious to 
sacrifice himself for the public weal. This 
supineness, however, may in reference to the 
Tumu have been partly due to the occupant's 
own assumed security a security arising, 
perhaps, from the hope that they would not be 
attacked. Still, there was no foundation for 
such a hope, for on the 20th April, Ngati- 
whakaue made their first haul, and unmis- 
takably signified their view of Ngaiterangi 's 
political position in the war by cutting off one 
man and ten women, who were found collecting 
firewood at Maungamana. At any rate, the 
Tumuites manifested the greatest sang-froid. 
Kiharoa, when asked if the enemy had not 
arrived at Maketu in great force, replied, by 
taking up a handful of sand and saying, "Yes, 
there is a man there for every grain of sand 
here." Then, suffering the wind to blow the 
escaping sand away, he exclaimed, "Hei aha!" 
Such was the state of affairs, when a highly 
auspicious omen an eclipse of the moon 



94 STORY OF TE WAHAEOA 

roused Ngatiwhakaue to activity. During the 
night of the 6th May, 1600 men under Kahawai, 
Pukuatua, Korokai, Hikairo, Amohau, Ngaihi, 
and Pango, alias Ngaihi in fact under all the 
great chiefs of Eotorua crossed the Kaituna, 
and, taking their stations unperceived on two 
sides of the Tumu, awaited the signal of the 
attack. And now, as morning approached, a 
young man. volunteered to reconnoitre the pa, to 
ascertain whether the garrison was on the alert, 
and though several endeavoured to dissuade him 
from the rash attempt, he went. Passing in the 
shade along the river bank, he entered the pa as 
an inmate returning within its precincts a not 
uncommon occurrence and made his rounds 
without attracting attention, farther than that 
one man seemed to eye him for a while; then 
making his exit in the manner he had entered, 
he reported that the people had evidently been 
at their posts all night, but had gone to bed, 
leaving only a few sentinels on duty. 

At the first crowing of the cock the onset was 
made. At the first sound of danger the Ngai- 
terangi flew to their stations. Kiharoa, 
hastening with the rest, fell pierced by a ball 
in his forehead. His body was instantly 
tumbled into a potato pit, a rough mat thrown 
over, and remained long undiscovered. The 
assault was repulsed, and repeated, to be 
repulsed again ; twice renewed and thrice 
repulsed, the assailants had lost Kahawai, their 
principal chief, and seventy men. The numbers 
of the defenders were also considerably reduced. 
At length the light of returning day revealed to 



STOKY OF TE WAHAKOA 95 

both sides the great disparity of forces the 
multitude on one side, the few on the other 
and inspired the Ngatiwhakaues with a courage 
that enabled them to carry the pa. But the 
desperate strife was not concluded. The Ngai- 
terangis men, women and children hastily 
collected, and precipitating themselves in a 
mass upon their enemies, forced their way 
through them to the sea beach ; and fled, not un- 
pursued, for Tauranga. Poor women and 
children, their fate must rest in oblivion, as 
only about twenty of the former escaped. The 
elderly chief Hikareia, closely chased, made for 
the inland road, to be struck down by a bullet in 
crossing Wairake swamp. Instantly a New 
Zealander rushed into the water; in his black 
heart lay bottled up unwreaked revenge of two 
generations' keep a revenge he now appeased 
by cutting out his victim's liver, and eating it 
reeking hot on the spot, in utu for his murdered 
grandfather. Although Hikareia was related 
to Kahawai's hapu of Ngatiwhakaue, his body 
was flayed the dutiful young men his nephews, 
being foremost in the business, and appro- 
priating the skin to their own use, cutting it up 
for pouches. One of them secured his uncle's 
handsome rape posterior tattooing with 
which he made an ornamental cartouche box. 
Well might Mr. Wilson, at Rotorua, write on 
the 6th May, "The revenge and hate on both 
sides is ungovernable. ' ' 

The fall of Te Tumu cost Ngaiterangi seven 
chiefs, and sixty men killed ; and about 180 
women and children killed or taken prisoners. 



96 STOBY OF TE WAHAROA 

Tupaia now Hori Tupaia was the only sur- 
viving chief. If the pursuit had been properly 
followed up, scarcely a fugitive could have 
escaped; but, fortunately for the Ngaiterangi, 
a singular circumstance favoured them in this 
respect. As soon as the pa was taken, the 
principal Eotorua chiefs seized, each with an 
eye to his own personal benefit, upon a cele- 
brated war canoe of enormous size a sort of 
little 'Great Eastern' in her way, named 
'Tauranga.' Of course, they quarrelled; but 
failing to settle the matter in that manner, four 
of them got into her, and spent the day trying 
to out-sit each other for possession, while their 
followers were either looking on, or looting the 
pa. 

Ngaiterangi never returned to the Tumu. 
Hikareia was killed at Wairake, and that place 
has since been generally considered the boun- 
dary of their country a country which for four 
years before had extended some seventeen miles 
further to the eastward, to Otamarakau (Wai- 
tahanui). For, in 1832, Ngaiterangi held 
Maketu, the Arawas only living then on 
sufferance in a pa situated where the redoubt 
is now; and Tamaiwahia, a Ngaiterangi 
tohunga, had a pa at Otamarakau, which he 
occupied until the troubles consequent on 
Hunga's death compelled him to flee and seek 
refuge at Tauranga. Thus the Arawas, when 
roused, displaced Ngaiterangi, and resumed 
those coast holdings: severing the weakened 
links of the once powerful chain of Ngatiawa 



STOKY OF TB WAHAKOA 97 

conquests that Ngaiterangihohiri had made four 
generations before, they pushed themselves 
northward to the sea, and re-established the 
maritime frontier of their country. 

But Tamaiwahia thought it a pity to lose 
Otamarakau without an effort to obtain utu. 
He was a tohunga, and why should he not use 
his power? We regret to say the temptation 
proved too strong; he debased his office, and 
pretended he had seen a vision. The result was, 
Ngaiterangi fitted out a flotilla, which sailed 
from Otumoetai and, passing Maketu in the 
night, landed at Pukehina; whence the taua, 
under Eangihau and Tamaiwahia, marched 
inland to attack Tautari's pa at Botoehu. Now, 
Tautari was not an Arawa native, but lived at 
Botoehu on sufferance, having become con- 
nected with Ngatiwhakaue by marriage. He 
was chief of Ngaitonu, of Whakatane, which 
tribe is better known now as Ngatipukeko ; and, 
being a renowned old Maori soldier, was not 
caught napping on this occasion. With much 
patience and forethought, he had strengthened 
his pa, and rendered it a very formidable for- 
tress, so that when Ngaiterangi attacked it, they 
were defeated with the loss of Bangihau, and 
seventeen killed. On the return of the expedi- 
tion to Tauranga, Ngaiterangi were incensed 
against the false prophet to such an extent, that 
he well-nigh lost his life. 

Old Tautari, who resisted this attack, was 
rather a remarkable warrior. On his person 
he bore the scars of twelve hatchet wounds; 



98 STORY OF TE WAHABOA 

and when the dreadful Ngapuhi some years 
before invaded his country, they were soon glad 
to get away again; for, instead of rushing to a 
pa for protection, he took to the bush, and when 
they followed him, fell upon them at night time 
while they slept. At length, finding themselves 
engaged in a desperate guerilla warfare from 
which nothing could be gained, the Ngapuhis 
retired from the harassing strife. And now, 
although he had repelled this invasion, Tautari 
did not consider the insult wiped out. There- 
fore, he betook himself to his own country, to 
equip a fleet ; and, mustering a strong taua, put 
to sea, where we will for the present leave him 
pursuing his voyage. 

The war now raged with the utmost ferocity. 
From. Tauranga looking southward, the fires of 
Ngatiwhakaue 's war parties were constantly 
visible', especially at the edge of the forest ; and 
when night came, the whole of the intervening 
open country was prowled over by bloodthirsty 
cannibals, seeking somebody to devour. The 
missionaries' families never slept in their 
houses; and by sunset every Tauranga native 
was within the fortifications of Otumoetai or 
Maungatapu. Murdering parties were also 
sent out from Eotorua towards Matamata, by 
way of Patatere ; and the missionaries, the Rev. 
Mr. Brown and Mr. Morgan, had already 
retired from the Matamata station. The former 
gentleman, with his family, removed to Wai- 
mate, at the Bay of Islands; and the latter to 
Mangapouri, in Upper Waikato. Some time 
after they left, one of their empty houses was 



STOEY OF TE WAHAKOA 99 

burnt down by a taua, but the other remained. 
When times, however, became less boisterous, 
the important Matamata station was not re- 
occupied; was not this a pity? 

By the middle of May, 1836, matters had come 
to such a pass at Tauranga, that Mr. Wade, 
with his family, retired for safety to the Bay of 
Islands; and, at the same time, Mr. Wilson 
though he remained at his post sent his family 
away also. Mr. Chapman, too, removed his 
wife from the dangerous station at Kotorua, to 
that at Mangapouri, in Waikato; and, having 
done so, joined Mr. Wilson, at Tauranga. 
Thus, when all had fled, did these maintain 
their ground like brave mariners, who, alone 
on deck, observe the direction and force of the 
storm, and patiently watchful for a favourable 
change, endeavour, by the means at their 
command, to extricate their hapless bark from 
surrounding dangers "from the impervious 
horrors of a leeward shore" so these two 
faithful men waited opportunities to exercise 
their influence for good, and, by a seasonable 
presence, asserted the neutrality of the mis- 
sionary position, so that, in the end, it became 
fully established. But they were not content 
simply to retain Tauranga, and therefore, after 
a while, they separated Mr Chapman 
returning to Eotorua, where his station had 
been sacked and burnt, and whence Mr. Knight, 
his assistant, had retired. 

We may here mention a tragedy all are 
tragedies in this chamber of horrors Oh ! that 
we might sometimes delineate with a brighter 



100 STORY OF TE WAHAROA 

pencil; but we have not the gift of Claude 
Lorraine; and even if we possessed so rich a 
talent, truth, simple truth, would compel us to 
use the sombre and monotonous colours of that 
dark and dreary time a wintry time, almost 
bereft of winter's hopes. Yet to vary our 
figure, upon that troubled night a day star shall 
arise, a morning shall appear, but when that 
morn shall break, the genius of our subject 
shall vanish THE STORY OP TE WAHAROA shall 
cease. To return, however to the tragedy. Mr. 
Knight was accustomed every morning about 
sunrise, to attend a school at Ohinemutu pa; 
but, as there were no scholars on the morning 
of the 12th of May, he went to the place where 
he was told they would be found ; and there he 
perceived a great number of people sitting in 
two assemblages on the ground one entirely of 
men, the other of women and the chief Pango. 
The former company he joined, and conversed 
with them, as well as he was able, on the sin of 
cannibalism; but Korokai and all laughed at 
the idea of burying their enemies. This con- 
versation ceased, however, on Knight hearing 
the word patua kill repeated several times; 
and looking round towards the women, he was 
horrified to see the widow of the late chief 
Haupapa who was killed at Maketu standing 
naked, and armed with a tomahawk; while 
another woman, also nude, and Pango, were 
dragging a woman, taken captive at Te Tumu, 
that she might be killed by Mrs. Haupapa, in 
the open space between the men and the women. 



STORY OF TE WAHAROA 101 

Mr. Knight immediately sprang forward, and 
entreated them not to hurt the woman but 
Mrs. Haupapa, paying no attention, raised her 
hatchet; on this, Knight caught the weapon, 
and pulled it out of her hand, whereupon the 
other woman angrily wrenched it from his 
grasp, and would have killed him, had not Pango 
interposed, by running at the pakeha, and 
giving him "a blow and thrust which nearly 
sent him into the lake. ' ' But the prudent spirit 
of self-command, that animated Speke, under 
similar circumstances, formed no part of this 
young Englishman's nature, and he was about 
to return to the charge when the natives seized 
him and held him back. Just then, the poor 
woman, slipping out of the garments she was 
held by, rushed to Knight, and falling down, 
clasped his knees convulsively, in an agony of 
terror. Her murderers came, and abusing the 
pakeha, the while for pokanoa-ing (interfering 
or meddling), with difficulty dragged her from 
her hold. The helpless pakeha says: "It 
would have melted the heart of a stone" to 
hear her calling each relative by name, be- 
seeching them to save her, for though a 
Tauranga woman, she was connected with 
Eotorua and to see her last despairing, 
supplicating look, as she was taken a few yards 
off, and killed by that virago, Mrs Haupapa 
the fiendish New Zealandress. Now this 
scene occurred simply because Haupapa 's 
widow longed to assuage the sorrow of her 
bereaved heart, by despatching, with her own 



102 STOEY OP TE WAHAEOA 

hand, some prisoner of rank, as utu for her lord. 
The tribe respected her desire ; they assembled 
to witness the spectacle, and furnished a victim 
by handing over a chief's widow to her will. 

Yet, although we deplore the darkness of 
those times, still, even then, there must have 
been a few real Christians among the Maoris. 
We will give two cases, from which, perhaps, 
our readers will come to the same conclusion. 

Te Waharoa had rather a noted fighting 
chief named Ngakuku. This man, who had, of 
course, been more perfect in, and given to the 
sanguinary usages of his companions, embraced 
Christianity, shortly after the missionaries 
taught at Matamata, and placed his daughter 
Tarore, about thirteen years of age, under Mrs. 
Brown's care. In October, 1836, after the 
missionaries had removed their families from 
Matamata, Ngakuku set out for Tauranga, 
taking his daughter and his son a little boy 
with him. They were accompanied by several 
Christian, or warekura natives, as they were 
called also by a Mr. Flatt, who was travelling 
in the service of the mission, to the same place, 
and they formed a party about twenty in 
number. Camping at night at Te Wairere, a 
fire was incautiously made, the smoke of which 
was seen by a murdering party that had 
prowled out from Patatere. At day dawn, the 
travellers were suddenly roused by the violent 
barking of their dogs; in a moment they had 
rushed into the bush, but Ngatiwhakaue were 
quick enough to catch the girl, who slept more 



STORY OF TB WAHABOA 103 

soundly than the rest. Poor Tarore! when it 
was discovered that she had not followed, her 
father, who had carried away the little boy, was 
about to return but a gun went off; he heard 
her shriek, "I am shot" he heard his own 
name mingle with her death cries, and then he 
heard no more. The deed was done the 
offering of her heart was waved to Whiro in 
the air, a devilish orgy danced, and the mur- 
derers had departed almost as quickly as they 
came. 

Now, although it was possible for all this to 
happen, and Ngakuku to possess but little 
Christianity, yet we think it quite impossible for 
a man accustomed, as he had been, to the indul- 
gence of naturally strong passions, to restrain 
them, that afterwards, when peace was made, 
he stepped forward, in the presence of his tribe, 
and shook hands with Paora Te Uata his 
daughter's murderer. Could Ngakuku have 
been guided by that kind of Christianity which, 
then appeared to float over the land with a 
hazy light? Could he have done this, solely 
from a desire to adhere closely to the forms of 
his new religion? If so, his was, indeed, a 
wonderful climax of formalism. No : we think 
Ngakuku was a Christian, and that a ray of 
pure, bright light illuminated his soul, in the 
performance of an action so few could follow. 

The other instance, though not conspicuous, 
indicated much in its way, and was that of old 
Matiu Tahu the tohunga who escaped from 
Te Papa pa, at Tauranga, when Te Rohu took 



104 STOEY OF TE WAHABOA 

it in 1828. In the most dangerous times, Matin 
never consulted his own safety, but always 
remained with the missionaries, sleeping in 
their house, instead of going to the pa at night ; 
and during the long winter evenings of 1836, he 
would listen to their instructions, or vary the 
topic by relating his Maori traditions, super- 
stitions, histories and mysteries, together with 
his experiences and observations as a tohunga; 
then taking his gun and sallying forth, he would 
go his rounds, nor retire until he had satisfied 
himself the enemy was not lurking in 
the vicinity. Sometimes Mr. Wilson and Matiu 
would resort to their boat for safety, anchoring 
her at night in the harbour, and sleeping 
securely on board her. 

We left Tautari with a fleet of canoes at sea. 
Tuhua, Mayor Island, was his object of attack. 
He wished to surprise Te Whanau o Ngaitai- 
whao, and carry their almost impregnable 
stronghold by a coup de main, therefore 
endeavouring to regulate the progress of his 
voyage, so as to near the island (which is very 
high) after nightfall, he silently landed at his 
destination in the dead of night, and marshalled 
his forces for the assault. 

The pa stood above them, on a precipitous 
mass of volcanic rock, and the only approach to 
it was by an exceedingly steep glacis, termin- 
ating in a rocky path, which was also steep, 
and too narrow to allow more than one person 
to advance at a time. Confidently and eagerly, 
but without noise, the taua mounted to the 



STOKY OP TE WAHAEOA 105 

pa; they swarmed up the glacis, and filled the 
narrow path when suddenly above them 
a hideous yell arose, and a huge body of rock r 
loosened from its hold, fell crashing and 
bounding down the path, and thundered through 
their midst, smashing to atoms the wretches 
whose ill-starred fate had placed them in its 
way. The panic was great while volleys of 
musketry poured down on the discomfited 
invaders, and hastened their scarcely less head- 
long flight. When morning dawned, the dead 
had been removed, and Tautari's canoes were 
nowhere to be seen ; but the ground was strewed 
with arms and accoutrements, and the rock that 
fell was covered with blood blood, which the 
women of the pa carefully licked off. 

So, when too late, Tautari discovered that he 
was greater on land than at sea, and that he 
was deficient in the art of calculating heights, 
and distances. In fact, he himself had given 
warning of his approach, by venturing too near 
the island by daylight; for, on the previous 
evening, at sunset, his flotilla had been descried 
from the heights of Tuhua, far off on the south- 
eastern horizon, and suitable preparations had 
been immediately made for his reception. 

The late Tohi Te Ururangi, alias Beckham, 
was an active fighting chief during the war; 
and about this time he did two things which we 
will relate. One circumstance principally refers 
to the Maori tapu ; the other speaks of the once 
savage nature of this late order-loving man, 
and shows how altered he became. From 



106 STORY OF TB WAHAROA 

intelligence received, Tohi started away from 
Maketu with a Taua Tapu, consisting of twenty 
men, all fortified and inspired with a doubly 
refined tapu. The expedition was aimed against 
a little pa, thought to be nearly empty, up the 
Kaituna river; but it proved abortive. Tohi 
was mistaken, and returned minus a man or two. 
When they arrived at Maketu, the crowd stood 
apart; a tohunga met them near their canoe; 
they ranged themselves in a row on the strand, 
and, squatting down, devoid of clothing, silently 
awaited the termination of his incantation. He, 
with his face towards the wind, and small 
bunches of grass in his hands, made sundry 
passes over them and in the air, muttering as he 
did so. This done, they rushed to the river, and 
plunging in, washed themselves as was 
necessary after deeds of blood, according to 
the Maori creed. 

The other matter, was the murder by Tohi, 
of an old Tauranga chief (we forget his name), 
who had been induced to go to Maketu in the 
hope of making peace. It was a cruel action. 
A neutral woman had gone over to Maungatapu, 
and persuaded him, as he was partly connected 
with Ngatiwhakaue, to accompany her back for 
that purpose. As they approached, they were 
met by Tohi and another man, on the sands in 
front of Maketu. "There," she said, "I have 
brought you so and so." She stepped aside, 
and Tohi and his companion completed the 
iniquity. 

As this quarrel arose between Ngatiwhakaue 
and Waharoa, it seems strange, perhaps, that 



STORY OF TE WAHABOA 107 

their respective tanas did not oftener take the 
direct route between their countries, that lies 
by Patatere. As far as Te Waharoa is con- 
cerned, this may be explained by his desire to 
draw Ngaiterangi into the strife; he had 
involved them, and he intended to keep them 
implicated. While the reason on Ngati- 
whakaue's part was probably due to a con- 
siderate wish to leave the lion undisturbed in 
his den; for, as they had Ngaiterangi to fight 
with, they did not care to go further and fare 
worse. On one occasion, indeed, in the early 
part of the war, they had sent a taua direct to 
Matamata ; but it had been driven back, without 
effecting anything beyond burning down Mr. 
Morgan's house. From Patatere, however, 
Ngatiwhakaue frequently sent out murdering 
parties tauas toto, and tauas tapu whose 
duty it was to infest the Wairere and other 
roads, and to slay all unwary and defenceless 
travellers. 

Yet, the old chief of our story would some- 
times pass by the Wairere road from 
Matamata to Tauranga and back again com- 
paratively unprotected; and if remonstrated 
with, and informed after he had determined to 
go that the road was just then in an unusually 
dangerous state, he would reply, "Does not my 
matakite know much better than you?" Now 
a matakite is a person who is able to foresee 
events; and Waharoa 's matakite was an old 
sorceress in fact his private priestess, who, 
thoroughly versed in the necromantic art, cast 
the niu, was consulted on all necessary 



108 STOEY OF TE WAHAROA 

occasions, and accompanied him on his expedi- 
tions and journeys. 

By the end of July, less than three months 
after the fall of Te Tumu, Waharoa had 
assembled another taua to avenge his allies' 
honour, and maintain the prestige of his own 
arms. On this occasion he went by Patatere, 
and his force, consisting chiefly of his own tribe, 
was not as numerous as his tauas usually were. 
By the 1st of August he had marched into the 
heart of the enemy's country, and encamped 
his army at a place between two and three miles 
from Ohinemutu pa. 

Ohinemutu, the capital of Rotorua, is doubt- 
less on the most singular volcanic site a 
population ever dwelt upon. On a rising 
ground at the south end of the lake, it is 
situated on what seems to the unaccustomed eye 
to be but a crust that forms neither more nor 
less than the lid of an immense subterranean 
cauldron of boiling water. Through this lid 
numerous natural and artificial holes have been 
punched, and are used by the inhabitants for 
cooking purposes. In them the water boils 
furiously, hissing to the very surface, and 
emitting clouds of vapour, which under some 
conditions of the atmosphere are almost dense 
enough to envelope the pa. Now, it was within 
this curious pa, which was then a large and very 
strong one, that the Ngatiwhakaue people had 
collected for fear of Te Waharoa; all their 
canoes, also, had been brought within its forti- 
fications. 



STOBY OF TE WAHAEOA 109 

When, therefore, Te Waharoa had arrived 
at Eotorua, he found himself placed in an un- 
satisfactory position. The well-manned forti- 
fications of the enemy forbade an attack there, 
with any prospect of success; while his 
command of the lake by means of the canoes in 
his possession, not only enabled him to obtain 
supplies, but would also enable him to fall 
suddenly upon any of Waharoa 's people who 
might forage on its shores. At length, after 
waiting several days, Micawber-like, ' ' for some- 
thing to turn up," Waharoa devised a scheme, 
and of its success the reader shall judge. On 
the 6th August, 1836, he sent a party of picked 
men, who feigned an attack on the pa; one of 
their leaders was a young man, Weteni Taipo- 
rutu, who many years after fought us, and was 
killed at Mahoetahi. This portion of the affair 
was so skilfully conducted that, in the excite- 
ment of the moment all Ngatiwhakaue, believing 
Waharoa defeated, rushed out in hot pursuit. 
When their best men had gone, at the top of 
their speed, so far as to be utterly out of 
breath, they unexpectedly came upon a force 
posted ready to receive them ; also the men they 
had pursued turned back upon them. It was 
now their turn to flee; with this difference, 
their enemies were fresh, they winded. And 
now the crisis comes; few of these men shall 
live if Waharoa succeeds. The greater portion 
of his force is distributed in two large ambushes 
on either side of the road ; one under the Ngati- 
haua chief Pohipohi, the other commanded by 



110 STORY OF TE WAHABOA 

himself. Suddenly they rise; and from right 
to left appear to the unlucky fugitives in 
hundreds, hastening to intercept their flight. 
They close the way; but Pohipohi has mis- 
directed his men ; some confusion ensues ; and 
neither division can fire without slaughtering 
the other. The Ngatiwhakaue seize upon the 
blunder; they run the gauntlet; toma- 
hawks are freely used upon them, and many a 
stalwart warrior bites the dust. 

The Ngatiwhakaues were shot down, and pur- 
sued to the waharoa (gateway) of their pa, 
through which they pressed, and would have 
been followed by Te Waharoa and his Ngati- 
hauas, had not the men in the pa suddenly 
rallied, closed the gate, and repelled the 
assailants. Now this unexpected reaction on 
the part of the Ohinemutu people, was due to 
Korokai, chief of Ngatiwhakaue proper, alias 
Ngatipehi; who, when all within the pa- 
terrified at the disaster and Waharoa 's 
approach were taking to their canoes to seek 
refuge on the island, refused to accompany 
them, and exclaimed with a loud voice, "Let me 
die here, upon my own land ! ' ' His words and 
example affected the people, and changed their 
fear to other emotions ; instead of going to the 
island, Makoia, they hastened to their posts, 
just in time to save their pa. 

That day Waharoa 's Ngatihaua and Waikato 
tribes returned to their camp, laden with booty ; 
for they had sacked Mr. Chapman's mission 
station at Te Koutu, and they carried with them 



STORY OF TE WAHAROA 111 

the bodies of sixty of their enemies. And now 
the work of cutting up and preparing the feast 
began. While thus engaged, Mr. Knight 
appeared ; he had been robbed of all save shirt 
and trousers, and had come to complain to Te 
Waharoa. The natives say they resented his 
intrusion, which was an angry one; and some 
of them would have added him to the number of 
their stock in hand, had not Tarapipi 
Waharoa 's son, now known as William 
Thompson interposed, and sent him back 
again. We believe Mr. Knight never knew the 
danger he was in on this occasion. There was 
also another European at Te Koutu, a car- 
penter. Both these men suffered loss, though 
the natives perhaps thought them well off in 
having their lives spared. When the excited, 
bloodstained crowd entered the station, Mr. 
Knight repaired to his room, and filling the 
capacious pockets of his shooting-coat with the 
articles he most required, was about to retire 
from the scene ; when a Maori who had watched 
his movements, stepped forward, and kindly 
insisted on relieving him of its weight. At 
any rate our pakeha must have appreciated the 
manner of the action, when he turned and saw 
the poor carpenter down, with a couple of great 
naked fellows sitting on him, quarrelling and 
struggling for the clothes on his back; while 
others tried to tug the garments from his limbs. 
In vain the oppressed man represented the 
clothes would be torn, and implored to be 
allowed to rise and divest himself; each was 



112 STORY OF TE WAHABOA 

afraid to lose the apparel, and preferred 
trusting to his own exertions. Besides, the 
pakeha was worthy of no consideration : he was 
only a tutua, who had been detected in the act 
of escaping with a double suit of his own 
clothes on his person. At length, when they 
had pretty well plucked their victim, they let 
him go; and our readers will hardly be 
surprised to learn that neither he nor his f ellow- 
pakeha remained long in the country. 

But in reference to the Koutu station, we 
have to add the curious fact that on the same 
day, after Waharoa's taua had retired, Ngati- 
whakaue came, and not only completed its 
plunder, but actually set fire to their own mis- 
sionary's house. This they did, because their 
hearts were sad at their own loss and of course 
their pakeha would not object to participate in 
their sorrow. Some time after this, these 
whimsical beings decided that their missionary 
must have an utu for his losses also, and there- 
fore they informed him they were about to go 
and destroy Te Papa mission station ; his place 
had been burnt, and Wilson's should be burnt 
in payment. Mr. Chapman was very uneasy, 
all he could urge to the contrary was quite 
unheeded by them ; it was impossible to foresee 
where they would stop, or to say they would 
not commit murder when excited ; and, besides, 
Te Papa was the only station left in that part of 
the country. Mr. Chapman, however, solved 
the difficulty, and baffled them by going to Te 
Papa and living with Mr. Wilson, telling them 



STOKY OP TE WAHABOA 113 

as he went that if they burnt his brother mis- 
sionary's house, they must do so over his, their 
pakeha 's head. The following is the last entry 
in the journal of the Koutu station: 

"The mission station at the Koutu was 
destroyed on the 6th inst. by the Waikato and 
Eotorua tribes. The Ngatipehi burnt the house 
and the adjoining buildings. We saw the fire 
break out about four o'clock, p.m., in the 
dwelling house, and before darkness succeeded 
twilight, both dwelling houses, and every 
building, taiepa, etc., were in flames, and reduced 
to ruins. Thus ended a station which began 
under such promising circumstances. The ways 
of the Lord are mysterious, past finding out; 
yet we must believe they are all founded on 
wisdom, mercy and truth. The mission station 
being no more, of course this public journal is 
from this time discontinued. 8th August, 1836. 

There is yet another circumstance that 
occurred on the 6th of August, that must be 
mentioned; for it shows how discipline was 
maintained in Waharoa's tauas. Pohipohi's 
bungling wakararu-ing conduct in the 
morning has so displeased his master that now, 
while the bodies are being cut up, Waharoa 
challenges him to single combat. Although the 
old chief is somewhat lame from his Hauwhenua 
wound, he is active still, and light as ever. 
Pohipohi is a tall, powerful man, a great land- 
owner, and ranks next to himself as chief of 
Ngatihaua ; but he must do his duty and make 
an example of him as a warning to his other 



114 STOBY OF TE WAHAEOA 

lieutenants. For Waharoa, who had been 
successful in every conflict, never doubted his 
own personal power to inflict chastisement in 
this. Yet his success, though perhaps unknown 
to himself, had latterly been very much assisted 
by the superstitious awe the atua-like dread 
with which the Maori mind had become affected 
towards him ; and we cannot say how this duel 
would have ended, had not the tribe, as the 
chiefs were sparring with long tomahawks, 
rushed in and stopped the fight. 

Friendship was restored, and they resorted to 
scenes of feasting and triumph such scenes! 
They lasted nearly a week, and then Waharoa 
broke up his camp; and taking nearly all his 
victims' heads with him, departed to his own 
country by the way that he came. 

On the 24th August, Messrs. Wilson and 
Chapman visited the recent camp. What they 
saw is described in the former gentleman's 
journal, and we will conclude our account of 
this expedition by quoting his graphic words : 

"Along the road leading to the encampment 
where the Waikato tribes had been pitched, 
might be seen various marks erected, which 
signified where a chief or a chief's son had 
fallen. After three-quarters of an hour's walk 
we came to the place itself. I can compare the 
place to nothing better than a small plot of 
ground allotted to a menagerie of wild beasts. 
Bones of men lay promiscuously strewed in 
every direction; here a skull, and there a rib, 
or ribs with the spine ; while around the ovens 



STOBY OF TE WAHAEOA 115 

might be recognised any bone of the human 
frame. When I say that sixty bodies were 
taken to this den of cannibals, and some of 
them only partly devoured from being but 
indifferently cooked, it may easily be conceived 
that the stench arising from the bones, &c., was 
offensive in the extreme. It was literally a 
valley of bones the bones of men still green 
with flesh, hideous to look upon ! Among some 
of the spectacles, I was arrested by the ghastly 
appearance of a once human head. In mere 
derision it had been boiled, and having a kumara 
in its mouth, was placed on a post a few feet 
above the ground; on it might be seen the 
wound that had caused the wretched victim's 
death a long gash on the temple by a war 
hatchet ; it had also been beaten in from behind. 
It would be impossible now to describe the 
various thoughts which engaged my mind while 
walking over this dismal place ; enough to say, 
that never did human nature appear lower or 
the power of evil greater. At this moment, a 
bullet from the adjacent ground whizzed 
through the low tutu bushes where we stood, 
and warned us to depart, the whole valley being 
sacred. ' ' 

The Ohinemutu campaign was the last episode 
in Waharoa's war with the Arawas. For their 
loss on that occasion the latter never succeeded 
in obtaining anything like proper utu. Mur- 
dering parties could do little towards squaring 
such an account, especially as birds had become 
shy; and, besides, in the course of the war 



116 STORY OP TE WAHAEOA 

these petty affairs generally balanced each other. 

After this, Ngaiterangi sent two tauas to 
Eotorua. One of them camped on the site of 
the Koutu station; but though close to Ohine- 
mutu, it effected nothing. The other taua, 
under Taharangi, was in the act of camping at 
Manene, at the end of their first day's march, 
when a star shot brilliantly through the eastern 
sky, back towards Tauranga. Instantly many 
exclaimed, "Ka Jioki te taua! ka hoki te taua!" 
equivalent to "There goes our taua back 
again, its hopes dashed." The unpropitious 
omen weakened the faith of all in the success of 
the enterprise, so much so, that the more 
devoutly superstitious returned to their homes 
next day. This taua hung a long time about 
Puhirua Hikairo's pa, at the north end of the 
lake ; and did not retire until it had killed five 
women. 

In return, the Ngatiwhakaue or Arawa tribes 
sent two tauas against Ngaiterangi, each of 
which was accompanied by a fleet from Maketu 
to command Tauranga harbour. Of these, the 
first flotilla entered the harbour unawares one 
night in November, 1838, and caught and ate 
twelve persons the crew of a fishing canoe; 
their bodies were cooked in ovens at Maunganui. 
To those ovens the Arawa tribes have latterly 
laid claim, including in their pretensions the 
whole intervening district, from Maketu to 
Maunganui. As well might William Thompson, 
the present Te Waharoa, challenge the owner- 
ship of the country that extends from Patatere 



STORY OF TE WAHAEOA 117 

to Ohinemutu, in virtue of his father's cannibal- 
istic triumphs there. The massacre of the 
fishermen is known as Te Patutarakihi, and is 
all the first taua effected, notwithstanding it had 
several skirmishes. The second taua invaded 
Tauranga in March, 1840, nearly a year after 
Waharoa's death. It made a demonstration 
against Maungatapu, and fought a general 
action on the flats in front of Te Papa ; but the 
proportion of powder expended on both sides 
was enormous compared with the damage done ; 
for there were not more than ten killed 
altogether (excepting Te Patutarakihi) on both 
sides, in both campaigns. 

Also, on the other side, Waikato in 1839 sent 
a taua against Maketu. This time, however, 
they were beaten and pursued by Ngatiwhakaue, 
headed by Tohi te Ururangi, as far as Te Tumu. 
The Waikatos found Maketu much more 
strongly fortified than it had been on their visit 
three years before. 

But the self-denying presence of the two 
missionaries, and their labours, were rewarded 
in the end. There were signs of a favourable 
change ; many warriors had become Christians, 
and would not fight. And, whereas in the 
winter of 1836, it was thought they had been 
murdered, and Mr. Fairburn from the Thames 
had gone in a boat to ascertain their fate; by 
January, 1838, those missionaries ventured, 
from the altered appearance of affairs, to 
bring their families back to Tauranga. About 
this time, also, the Rev. A. N. Brown and 



118 STOBY OF TE WAHABOA 

Messrs. J. Morgan and J. Stack were sent to 
reinforce them. 

Yet, if Te Waharoa had lived, it is hard to 
say in what condition the country would have 
been. Even some of the Ngatiwhakaues, or 
Arawas as we now call them, admitted at his 
death, that in two more years he would probably 
have driven them from Eotorua. He was 
attacked with erysipelas at Motu Hoa, at Tau- 
ranga, and visited by Messrs Wilson and 
Brown, who found him on his deathbed an old 
Maori still. As his illness appeared serious, 
his tribe carried him to Matamata; where, 
perceiving his end approach, and anxious even 
in death, and at the expense of his friends to 
gratify the ruling passion of his life the 
aggrandisement of his tribe he exclaimed 
"Oh! that I might drink of Waitioko's sweet 
waters!" Quickly a lithe stripling took a 
calabash and ran to Waitioko, a stream in 
Ngaiterangi's country, which flows in mid- 
forest, between Te Wairere and Waipapa, and 
is some ten or twelve miles from Tepuna. In 
an incredibly short time the youth returned. 
Te Waharoa drank of the water, pronounced 
the beverage good, declared the stream his own, 
and expired, after a ten days ' illness, at Easter, 
1839. 

We will not now pretend to define the Ngai- 
terangi and Ngatihaua boundary, for the son 
trod in his father's pious steps; and, besides, 
Maori titles and claims to land have too often 
varied, according to the power of the persons 



STOKY OF TE WAHAEOA 119 

interested to set them up, and maintain them. 

Our readers will acknowledge that the chief 
whose story we have told was not an ordinary 
New Zealander. Possessed in war of courage, 
enterprise and tact, he made his enemies fear 
him; whilst sometimes to his allies his crafty 
policy was scarcely a whit less dangerous. He 
subsidized the Ngatimaniapoto and Waikato-nui 
tribes, and influenced his Ngaiterangi friends, 
and by singular address established and 
preserved a bond of union no easy task at any 
time between four powerful sections of the 
Maori race; inducing them to march obedient 
to his word, they fought and bled together, the 
bond became cemented, and it is precisely this 
union with its ramifications that has opposed 
our Government in the districts we write of. 

Waharoa was succeeded by Ms eldest son, Te 
Arahi, who before the Arawa war had married 
Penenga, Hikairo's daughter. Though in 
appearance a fine man, the tribe soon found Te 
Arahi lacked the mental qualifications necessary 
for their chief ; therefore they deposed him, and 
placed Tarapipi, his younger brother, in his 
stead. This chief had already professed Chris- 
tianity, and was baptised by his present well- 
known name of William Thompson. 

William Thompson, a young man on his 
accession, was soon much thought of by the 
natives. His disposition towards the pakehas at 
that time was favourable, as his father had 
been; old Waharoa was a great patron to 
the pakeha. When, however, Europeans were 



120 STOEY OF TE WAHAEOA 

followed by a Government which, while it noticed 
inferior chiefs in other parts of the country, 
appeared to be nearly ignorant of Thompson's 
existence, it is only natural to suppose that his 
sense of isolation was communicated to the 
tribes that looked to him for advice; just as 
they had once been accustomed to look to his 
father for direction and command. 

We have been told that Thompson was 
inclined at one time to enter an educational 
establishment of some note in this province. 
But the question was asked does he smoke? 
and there was an end of the project, for Te 
Waharoa's son was not a man to be dictated to 
in that fashion to forego "the sweet offence" 
on such compulsion. If true, it is perhaps a 
pity his desire was not gratified ; still, we should 
not have been too sanguine. The case of 
Henare Taratoa, who was killed in the trenches 
at Te Kanga, reminds us of the fact well 
understood elsewhere that education alone is 
not sufficient to induce in the native mind a 
feeling of attachment towards the British 
Government. 

We merely allude to this as showing it was 
time old Waharoa departed, to avoid the 
innovations and degeneracy of the age to come. 
Times became changed; and when he once 
facetiously carried a missionary of small 
stature in his arms, into the midst of his 
audience, he little thought that that man, who 
had often given him a stick of tobacco, would 
within ten short years, be required to interdict 



STORY OF TE WAHAKOA 121 

his son's clay pipe. Yes it was well the chief 
of that old type departed when he did. Well 
for himself, as he never could have breathed 
the atmosphere his son has inhaled; and well 
for us also ; for if he had led his tribes in 1863, 
we probably should not have forgotten Te 
Waharoa. 



SKETCHES OF 
ANCIENT MAOEI LIFE AND HISTOEY. 



SKETCHES OF 
ANCIENT MAORI LIFE AND HISTORY. 



THE MAUI MAOEI NATION. 



I venture, with the permission of the reader, 
to offer a few remarks upon some portions of 
the early history of the Maori race. Statements 
in various forms are constantly being made 
public, many of them more or less erroneous, 
and more or less important according to the 
sources whence promulgated; and it is to 
remove the misapprehension that gives rise to 
such statements, that I would mention some 
points that have escaped general observation. 

My informants are mostly deceased, and if 
asked for authorities I regret to say that in the 
majority of cases I can only point to l Where 
heaves the turf in many a mouldering heap. 7 
These remarks are, however, based upon 
enquiries made by myself and by my father, the 
Rev. J. A. Wilson, before me, and extend back 
sixty years from the present time (1894).* 

I will begin by introducing an ancient Maori 
tradition at which a descendant of Noah cannot 

*Mr. Wilson landed at the Bay of Islands with his family 
on 13th April, 1833. One year is allowed in the above passage 
for learning the language before making enquiry. 

125 



126 ANCIENT MAOBI LIFE 

afford to smile, unless lie is prepared to claim 
for his own ancestor, and for the northern 
hemisphere, a monopoly of dilnvian adventure. 
The tradition says there was a time when the 
waters covered the earth; that, at that time, 
Maui and his three sons floated upon the waters 
in a canoe, fishing ; that presently Maui hooked 
the earth, and with great labour he drew it to 
the surface with the assistance of his sons. 
Then their canoe grounded upon what proved to 
be the top of a mountain. As the earth became 
bare, the sons of Maui took possession; but 
Maui himself vanished and returned to the place 
from whence he came. The canoe remained 
upon the top of the mountain, where it may be 
seen in a petrified state at the present time. 
Hikurangi Mountain, at the head of Waiapu 
Valley, is this southern Ararat whence the 
descendants of Maui peopled the North Island 
of New Zealand. They named their island Te 
Ika a Maui (Maui's fish), or Ehinomaui (fished 
up by Maui). The head of the fish is at Cook's 
Strait, and the tail at the North Cape, where 
there is a subterranean opening by the seashore 
through which departed spirits pass to the lower 
regions, when they leave this World of Light 
(Aomarama). From this it will be seen that 
the ancient descendants of Maui had a good 
geographical knowledge of the shape of their 
island. I should add that the hills and valleys 
on the surface of the island were made by the 
occupants of the canoe getting out and tramping 
on the soil while wet and in a muddy state, thus 



ANCIENT MAOKI LIFE 127 

making hills and holes. Omitting much circum- 
locutory description, this is the story of how 
Maui fished up the North Island of New Zealand 
as it was told more than fifty years ago by the 
natives. Since that time, I observe that some 
of them have changed Maui's sons into his 
brothers. 

In course of time the people of Maui increased 
and spread themselves in tribes and hapus over 
the greater portion of the island. Probably 
they occupied the whole of it, but this I cannot 
affirm. It seems, however, to be clear that at 
the time when the canoes of immigrants came 
from Hawaiki, about six hundred years ago, 
that the Maui or Maori nation inhabited the 
country from Wairarapa in the south, to Wai- 
takere, north of Auckland, and from Tuparoa 
and Hick's Bay in the east to the neighbourhood 
of Mokau and Kawhia in the west. 

The aborigines did not cultivate the soil for 
food excepting the hue gourd, from which 
calabashes were made; they had no useful 
plants that they could cultivate. They ate 
berries and the shoots and roots of ferns and 
other plants, as they found them growing wild 
in the forests, and in the open country. For 
flesh they hunted the moa,* and caught the 

*The ancient inhabitants hunted the moa until it became extinct. 
The last bird was killed with a taiaha by a man at Tarawera. The 
habits of the moa are described as solitary, living in pairs in 
secluded valleys in the depths of the forest near a running stream. 
It fed on shoots, roots, and berries, and was particularly fond of 
nikau and tree fern. It was supposed to feed at night, for it was 
never seen to eat in the daytime. Hence the proverb 'moa kai 
hau' as it always seemed to have its head in the air, eating wind. 
The moa had a plume of feathers on its head. In the depths of 
the Motu forest there is a mountain called Moanui, where, no doubt, 
the bird was killed by the people of Rotonui-a-wai and Wharikiri, 
for their descendants knew fifty years ago that their forefathers 
had slain the moa. 



128 ANCIENT MAOBI LIFE 

kakapo* at night, and they snared pigeons, 
kakas, and many other kinds of birds. They 
fished with the seine and line in salt water and 
fresh. They dived from the rocks for crayfish, 
and in the swamps they caught eels. Before 
the advent of the Hawaikians they had neither 
taro nor kumara, nor karaka berries, they were 
unable to make kao,** and they had no rats.*** 
They stored their food in chambers called ruas, 
hollowed out of the ground where the soil was 
dry. They cooked their food in the Maori umu, 
just as they do now. Their clothing was made 
from flax, for the aute tree, whence tappa cloth 
is made, had not yet been introduced from 
Hawaiki. They spoke the Maori language. 
Their population was mostly distributed, not 
necessarily where the land was fertile, but 
where the forests were rich in birds, as at 
Motu; where streams and swamps yielded fish 
and eels plentifully, as at Matata, inland 
waters; where fern root of good quality was 
easily obtained, or where the sea teemed with 
fish, as at Tauranga. 

Thus it happened that certain tribes became 
recognised as the producers of special kinds of 
food, and tribal nomenclature was not infre- 
quently influenced thereby. In this way we 
find the Purukupenga (full net) living at Tau- 
ranga, the Waiohua (waters of abundance) at 

*The kakapo betrayed itself at night time by its cry. With the 
assistance of a dog it was easily caught. Only within the present 
century did it become extinct, through constant hunting. Its loss 
as a source of food, was very much felt by the Maoris. 

**Kao was a favourite article of diet, made by drying the karaka 
berry and the kumara root. 

***The rat was. perhaps, the most valued kind of Maori game; 
when in season the flesh was greatly relished. They were kept in 
rat runs or preserves, which no stranger would venture to poach 
upon. 




Storehouse for the Kumara. 



ANCIENT MAORI LIFE 129 

Eangitaiki and Matata, and other similar names 
will appear when I enumerate them. 

Here let me mention en passant that about 
two hundred years after the Hawaikians had 
landed at Maketu, a portion of them, viz., 
Tapuika and Waitaha a Hei, was attacked by 
the Waiohua, the Tipapa, and other hapus of 
Te Tini o Taunu or Ngaiwi tribe, the war being 
about land. I will not anticipate the particulars 
of the story, and will merely say now that the 
struggle was severe, and ended in the defeat of 
the aborigines, who fled through Waikato to 
Tamaki and Waitakere, and that is how Ngaiwi, 
of whom the Waiohua were a part, came to live 
in the district now called Auckland. In those 
days the name Waitakere seems to have been 
used at a distance to denote the district north of 
the Tamaki, and was used in a general manner 
like Taranaki, Hauraki, Tauranga, etc. The 
subsequent history of the Waiohua is well 
known. 

In war the aboriginal Maori was courageous. 
He is described as tall, spare, active, and with 
a good reach in the delivery of his weapon;* 

*In draining a swamp some time ago at Knighton, the estate 
of S. Seddon, Esq., near Hamilton, Waikato, two wooden swords, 
believed to be of maire, were dug up in a good state of preservation, 
one 2ft. the other 5ft. below the surface. It would be interesting if 
we could be sure that these are ancient Maui-Maori weapons, 
although I suppose there can be little doubt about it, for they differ 
entirely from any weapon used by the New Zealanders when 
Europeans first came amongst them. A man armed with a taiaha or 
tewhatewha would have but little difficulty in coping with the bearer 
of one of these swords notwithstanding they are good weapons of 
their kind. One is a heavy cutting sword; the pitch of the handle 
bespeaks a circular movement. It has no guard, the length of the 
handle and size of grasp is the same as an English infantry officer's 
sword is, or used to be; the length of the blade is lOin. shorter. 
This shows that the hand it was made for was as large as the hand 
of a man of the present time. The other sword, also without a 
guard, is two-edged, and is apparently a thrusting sword. The idea 
of the stone mere seems to be developed from this ancient form of 
weapon. The swords are in the possession of Mr. Seddon, junr., of 
Gorton, Cambridge. 

10 



130 ANCIENT MAOEI LIFE 

this, at any rate, is what is said of one of his 
warlike tribes, Te Bangihouhiri, now known as 
Ngaeterangi, who, at the battle of Poporo- 
huamea, defeated the combined Hawaikian 
forces of Te Arawa, Takitumu, and Tainui, and 
taking Maketu from the former, advanced to 
Tauranga, which place they wrested from 
Ngatiranginui, who were also Hawaikian by 
Takitumu origin. The aboriginal Maori built 
pas in strong positions, having ramparts that 
were often extensive. Sometimes earthworks 
were thrown up to divide the pa into two or 
more sections, which would seem to show that 
while the hapus combined against the common 
enemy, they had to guard against each other. 

There is nothing to show that the aboriginal 
practised cannibalism or that he offered human 
sacrifices in war, whereas the Hawaikian Maori 
when he came to these shores did both. 

The aboriginal Maori believed in the tradition 
of a Divine Incarnation, and he, of course, had 
faith in the supernatural power of such a Being. 
The narrative of how the child Oho manifested 
his Divine origin, when they met to do for him 
after their law (some authorities call the rite 
baptism),* is simple and beautiful, and is 
pitched upon a high plane of thought, compared 



*When the child Oho was being tuatia-ed, and prayer that he 
might he brave and strong in war, and strong in peace to cultivate 
the ground and perform the many functions of social life was being 
made, he stretched forth his hand and took the sacred food offered 
to the Deity and ate it. His two brothers perceiving the fearful 
thing called their father, who, when he saw the demeanour and 
action of the child became aware that he was of Divine origin, and 
said to his sons, 'The child is not one of us, it is his own food that 
he is eating.' 



ANCIENT MAORI LIFE 131 

with which the mythological idea of the Hawai- 
kians, who stole their atuas from one another 
and carried them about with them, are 
grovelling. 

A feature in the life of this people was their 
partiality for bird pets. A bird that could talk 
well was prized by its owners, and coveted by 
the neighbours, and this to such an extent that 
chiefs sometimes quarrelled, and on two 
occasions on the East Coast resort was had to 
war. I shall, at the proper time, tell of one of 
these wars and its unexpected outcome, for 
unless I do I am afraid that the origin of a 
tribe of aboriginal extraction now flourishing 
will be lost; the survivors, if any, who know 
these things being few and reticent. 

This ancient people has preserved its genea- 
logies with care, tracing its ancestors back more 
than 1,000 years. Their tree contains double 
the number of generations found upon the tree 
of a Hawaikian subsequent to the immigration. 
It is an interesting field of enquiry to learn what 
(beyond the art of cultivation) the immigrants 
taught the aborigines, and what the latter 
acquired from the former in various forms of 
knowledge. There is no doubt that the 
manners, customs, religion, polity and the arts 
of the two peoples have been fused by time and 
habit into the civilisation belonging to one 
nation now; the process, however, has left its 
marks, some of which are easily seen. Thus 
the aboriginal tribes that remain intact have 
almost invariably adopted the Hawaikian prefix 



132 ANCIENT MAORI LIFE 

to their names. The Hawaikian gave up the use 
of tappa clothing, and ceased to plant the aute 
tree round his pa, because the flax garments of 
the country suited him better, they could be 
made at all times, whereas the tappa cloth was 
too frequently unobtainable for years after the 
invasion of a hostile army, as it was a maxim in 
war, if a pa could not be taken, to destroy the 
cultivations, and cut down the aute trees. The 
aborigines knew nothing about ocean-going 
canoes and how to build them, until they were 
taught by men from Hawaiki. Three natives 
of that country were cast upon the coast one 
night, their companions having been lost with 
their canoe. The people of Toi, at Whakatane, 
succoured them, and they in turn showed how to 
build 'Te Aratawhao' canoe, which sailed to 
Hawaiki to fetch kumara and taro. This was 
before the immigrants came from Hawaiki. 

The tribal nomenclature of the aborigines, as 
far as is known, was for the most part borrowed 
from the names of natural objects, not excluding 
favourite kinds of food. It differed from that 
used by the people from Hawaiki in not recog- 
nising by a prefix the descent of a tribe from an 
ancestor. They had before their tribal name no 
Ngati, Ngae, Aetanga, Uri, or Whanau, and 
where the Nga appeared it would seem to have 
been susceptible of another meaning. Some of 
these names were very beautiful and quite 
unique, as the "Small Leaved Tawa Tree," the 
"Waving Fronds of the Tree Fern"; others 
were descriptive as the "Tribe of the Rocks," 



ANCIENT MAOEI LIFE 133 

the "Go As You Please" or "Travel Easily"; 
and other names were such as the ' * Bed Crab, ' ' 
the "Creature Couchant," the "Curling 
Wave," the "Thickly Standing Fern," and so 
on. 

It will be twenty years next August since 
I first drew the attention of the public to the 
existence of this interesting race. Speaking at 
a meeting of the Philosophical Society at 
Wellington, I said that the people who came 
to this country in the canoes found the land 
inhabited, that the men of the island were 
hospitable to the Hawaikians, and the latter 
intermarried with the former ; but when, in the 
course of some two hundred years, the 
immigrants had become strong, wars ensued in 
many parts, and the aborigines were often 
destroyed; that these wars, however, were not 
universal, and where the natives had lived at 
peace the races had amalgamated. A report of 
the proceedings was published in the local 
papers at the time. 

I will now give the names of the tribes and 
hapus of the Maui Maori nation that have been 
furnished to me by the natives themselves, also 
the districts where they are, or where they lived 
formerly, also a short account of each hapu or 
tribe in so far as I am able, and the same may 
have sufficient interest. 

Te Tini o Taunu, also known as Ngaiwi, 
known too as Te Tini o Awa (Awa was the 
human brother of Oho before mentioned) but 
not to be confounded with Te Tini o Awa, a 



134 ANCIENT MAOEI LIFE 

chief of Ngatipukenga lived in the Bay of 
Plenty, between Eangitaiki and Tauranga. 
There were many hapus in this tribe; namely, 
Waiohua, Tipapa, Haeremariri, Baupungao- 
heohe, Papakawhero Tururu Mauku, Tawarau- 
ririki, Earauhi, Turuhunga, Ngaru Tauwhare- 
wharenga, and Purukupenga. This tribe, or 
group of tribes, fought against the Arawa, 
or some of them, but the two last-named hapus 
are not mentioned as having taken part in the 
strife, nor do I know what became of them 
eventually. 

It was twelve generations ago (say 360 years) 
that that war took place. The Waiohua and 
Tipapa were incensed at the encroachments of 
Tapuika, then the rangatira hapu of the Arawa, 
whose chief was Marukukere; battles ensued, 
in which the Tapuika were defeated, although 
assisted by Waitaha a Hei, another hapu of the 
Arawa, who lived on the eastern shores of 
Tauranga. Many chiefs, including Marukukere, 
were slain, and the Arawa were in such straits 
that they sought aid from their compatriots at 
Taupo. Mokotangatatahi led the army that 
-came to their assistance from Wharepuhunga at 
Titiraupenga. He was an energetic young 
chief, and nephew to Marukukere. The 
struggle, however, was protracted, and the issue 
doubtful, when Moko consulted Kaiongonga, a 
noted priest, who, to attain his ends, demanded 
a human sacrifice, who must be a man of rank. 
The demand was complied with, and Tanga- 
rengare, a senior relative of Moko, was given 



ANCIENT MAORI LIFE 135 

up for the public good. The courage of the 
victim acted as an incentive to the people, and 
stimulated them so that they vanquished their 
enemies at Punakauia; then Te Tini fled, and 
became scattered, and were destroyed in detail, 
but some remnants of Te Waiohua and other 
hapus of Ngaiwi escaped to Waikato, where 
they had friends, and from there they went to 
Tarnaki and Waitakere, and occupied the 
district now called Auckland. This happened 
about 150 years before the chief Hua, of Te 
Waiohua, flourished at One Tree Hill pa, near 
Onehunga, and the supposition is erroneous 
that the Waiohua are named after him. The 
natives who furnished the evidence to the 
Native Land Court upon which that opinion was 
based were either ignorant of the history and 
origin of Te Waiohua, which is not improbable 
considering it is usually the victor, not the 
vanquished, who cherishes the tradition of war 
and destruction ; to the one it is a glory, to the 
other a shame; or they suppressed the infor- 
mation as unnecessary to their case. This prac- 
tice is not at all uncommon, and sometimes all 
the parties to a suit will agree to avoid fees and 
shorten labour by eliminating a few chapters of 
history considered by them to have little or no 
bearing on the points at issue. 

It is said that some of the Ngaiwi travelled as 
far as the Bay of Islands, which is quite likely, 
as the tribe of Ngatirahiri lived in the North 
then, who were of Awa origin, and would 
naturally be disposed to be friendly towards 



136 ANCIENT MAOEI LIFE 

them. Here let me explain who the Ngatirahiri 
were. Shortly after the arrival of Mataatua at 
Whakatane, Eahiri, a leading man amongst the 
immigrants, made a plantation on the hillside, 
overhanging the mouth of the river. When he 
had planted there awhile his two young 
brothers quarrelled with him, and forcibly 
ejecting him from the cultivation, took 
possession of it themselves. Eahiri, unable to 
brook the insult, determined to leave his rela- 
tives, and make a home elsewhere. He had 
formed a friendly connection with some abor- 
igines of the Toi tribe (of Awa descent, though 
not of Te Tini o Awa), by whom he was advised 
to go to Hokianga, or the Bay of Islands. 
Accompanied by certain of these aborigines he 
went and founded a tribe in the North that 
bears his name to this day, and is really a cross 
of Awa blood aboriginal and imported. It is 
supposed that aboriginal Awa were living in 
the North prior to the movements of Bahiri and 
his party, and that it was the knowledge of this 
that influenced them in the choice of their new 
home. 

The Tapuika-Ngaiwi war conferred an unwel- 
come legacy upon the victors in the form of an 
undying feud between Tapuika and Ngatimoko 
about the division of the land they had 
conquered. The former thought the latter 
grasped the fruits of victory too much, the 
latter considered the former unreasonable, and 
refused to give way. The ill-feeling has been 
handed down through three centuries of time to 



ANCIENT MAOBI LIFE 137 

the present generation. We shall see by-and- 
by that another Hawaikian tribe managed to 
avoid this difficulty by the expedient of dividing 
the lands of the aborigines amongst themselves 
before conquest. 

Ngatiawa is the tribal name of the immigrants 
who came to New Zealand in Mataatua canoe. 
The name Awa is, however, aboriginal as well 
as Hawaikian, and was acquired in time past by 
the former through Awanui a Rangi, a 
younger branch of Toi family. The Ngatiawa 
(immigrant race) had no wars with the 
aboriginal Awa (Toi) east of Whakatane as 
far as inland Motu; but to the southward and 
westward it was different. On those sides they 
displaced the aboriginal element, when they 
had become strong enough to do so. This is 
how the Ngaiwi in course of time were thrust 
up against Tapuika and compelled to fight that 
tribe; how the whole of the Uriwera district 
was over-run and occupied by Ngaetuhoe, a 
tribe of Ngatiawa. 

Another tribe who appear to have been 
aboriginal was Ngamarama. They lived 
originally at Matamata* and other places in 
the Upper Thames Valley, whence they moved 

*The present European Matamata and Railway Station of that 
name are several miles away from the true Matamata, which ig at 
the European settlement now called Waharoa. The Matamata pa, a 
large one, stood beside the river, and was some little distance 
westward and northward from the C.M.S. Mission Station, which 
my father helped to found in 1835. The Mission Station was a little 
to the southward of where the Waharoa Railway Station now stands. 
The line seems to run through the site of the old station. Waharoa 
is a new name for that land, probably borrowed from the chief 
of that name, whose story I published in 1866, and given by Euro- 
peans who appropriated the historical name of Matamata for their 
own settlement many miles off. 



138 ANCIENT MAORI LIFE 

to Tauranga, and occupied the central and 
western portions of that district. They were a 
numerous people at the time the canoes came 
from Hawaiki; too numerous, and uninviting, 
probably, for the immigrants by Takitumu to 
remain when they visited Te Awanui, the name 
Tauranga Harbour was known by then, on their 
way to the South. One or two of the crew, 
however, did leave the canoe and settle amongst 
the Ngamarama, thus a link was formed 
between the descendants of those immigrants in 
the South and Ngamarama, that resulted in the 
conquest of Ngamarama and the taking of Tau- 
ranga by Ngatiranginui several generations 
afterwards. There is a remnant of Ngamarama 
still living at Te Irihanga at Tauranga; it is 
known by the name of Ngatirangi, and is not to 
be confused with Ngaeterangi, who destroyed 
Ngatiranginui, and are dominant now at Tau- 
ranga. 

In respect to Tua Rotorua tribe, who lived at 
Eotorua, tradition is conflicting, but the balance 
of evidence is, I think, in favour of their 
aboriginal extraction; it is not so much a 
question of whether the chief of that people had 
Arawa (immigrant) blood in his veins, a thing 
"by no means improbable, considering his 
reputed grandparent had travelled that way to 
Wanganui, as it is a question whether the 
Arawa or any of them would have waged 
without cause a war of extermination against 
a branch of their own tribe ; judging from their 
history, we may say unhesitatingly that even 



ANCIENT MAORI LIFE 139 

with a casus belli such a thing would not have 
been thought of, and an utu account properly 
balanced would have been considered sufficient 
to serve all purposes of revenge, especially if 
supplemented with the acquisition of a little 
land. But in the war of the Arawa against 
Tua Rotorua if they did not succeed in annihi- 
lating the latter it was not for want of trying. 
The remnant of this aboriginal tribe is the Nga- 
titura now living where the Oxford Road 
emerges from the forest on the side towards 
Eotorua; the trackless, waterless forest has 
been their friend, and to it they owe their 
existence. Here let me instance the different 
degrees of animus that characterised ancient 
Maori warfare as between immigrant tribes 
and aboriginal, and as between the immigrants 
themselves. Take the aboriginal group of 
tribes known as Te Tini o Taunu or Ngaiwi, of 
whom the Waiohua were a part. Such of 
these tribes as escaped annihilation were driven 
completely out of their native district first by 
Mataatua and then by Arawa immigrants. The 
refugees of Tuarotorua only saved themselves 
by sheltering in Patetere Forest, as did Nga- 
marama when driven out of Tauranga by 
Ngatiranginui, an immigrant tribe from Han- 
garoa River, south of Tauranga, whose fore- 
fathers had come to New Zealand in Takitumu 
canoe. And yet again we find tribes of these 
races fighting to the death when Te Rangihou- 
hiri drove out Tapuika and took and settled 
Maketu, nor were the efforts of all Hawaikians 



140 ANCIENT MAORI LIFE 

far and near sufficient to dislodge them. Tema- 
tera from Hauraki, Whakaue from Botorua, 
and Waitaha a Hei and Banginui from 
Tauranga, were all driven off and defeated 
when they attempted to aid the Tapuika. Here 
we have an instance of tribes of Hawaikians, 
of Arawa, Tainui, and Takitumu origin 
combining against the aboriginal people, and 
combining unsuccessfully. Then in a little 
while, that is to say, within the same generation, 
Te Eangihouhiri advanced from Maketu to 
Tauranga, and well-nigh exterminated Waitaha 
a Hei and Ngatiranginui. The survivors of 
the former escaped to the Arawa at the lakes, 
and a small remnant of the latter found a 
refuge in the same forest they had driven the 
poor remains of the Ngamarama to; thus 
history repeated herself with a vengeance, and 
the two remnants live almost side by side at the 
present time. The name of the Ngamarama 
remnant has already been given as Ngatirangi. 
The name of Ngatiranginui remnant is Te 
Piriakau (Stick in the Bush), which shows 
pretty plainly how closely they hid themselves 
from the conquering Ngaeterangi, who had 
taken possession of Tauranga. 

Now the intertribal struggles of the 
Hawaikians cannot be compared with these 
wars "a mort." Take the lake district. The 
wars between the east and west ends of Botoiti, 
between the north and south ends of Botorua, 
the feud between Moko and Tapuika, the 
differences between the legitimate and bastard 




The Downy Eata (Metrosideros tomentosa). 



ANCIENT MAORI LIFE 141 

branches of the people on the east side, and 
anything that may have occurred on the west, 
have none of them resulted in anything more 
than a little killing and eating from time to 
time, and then mending matters by a peace- 
making. Only at the south end of Eotorua, 
in a struggle between the people occupying two 
lakes, do we find that some land has changed 
hands, of which the area is small compared 
with the rest of the landed estate of the losers, 
nor in this war was there any apparent intention 
on either side to proceed to extremities. 

Leaving the Arawa, whose name in ancient 
times, I ought to say, was Nga oho Matakamo- 
kamo, and whose motto was "Oho tapu nui te 
Arawa," let us turn to the Ngatiawa, of 
Mataatua canoe. There is a civil war in the 
ancient history of this people. Te Kareke, a 
flourishing tribe descended from Uemua, of 
Mataatua, were driven away from Te Poroa, in 
the Upper Whakatane Valley, by Ngaetonu, 
now called Ngatipukeko. They fled eastward, 
where many became absorbed amongst the 
aboriginal Whakatohea. Estimated by its 
results, this may be considered an exceptionally 
severe case of civil war amongst the Hawai- 
kians. The same Ngaetonu drove the aboriginal 
Irawharo away to the westward; this war 
lasted a long time, and there were many cam- 
paigns in it. Eventually the Irawharo found 
shelter with their compatriots, the Bangihou- 
hiri, at Tauranga, where their little remnant 
still exists. Here I would note that while 



142 ANCIENT MAORI LIFE 

including the Irawharo amongst the aborigines, 
I do not mean to say they were not also of 
Hawaikian origin. It would be quite impossible 
now to draw a hard and fast line and say, here 
is where the blood of the old race ends, and 
there is where the new blood begins, especially 
eastward of Whakatane, where the two are 
very intermixed, and it should be known that 
Ngatirawharo came from Ohiwa, which was 
their birthplace as a tribe; but the difficulty 
attending a line of demarcation does not inter- 
fere with the general grouping of the tribes 
according to race, and according to position, 
surroundings, and sides taken where relation- 
ships were mingled. 

I might continue to compare the bitter 
character of the war of race on the one hand 
with the milder form of domestic strife on the 
other, and explain exceptional cases by the 
circumstances preceding them ; but it is hardly 
worth while to do so, seeing that each war will 
be presented at the proper time, when the 
reader can judge for himself whether the 
remarks offered and examples given should 
have a wider application; for myself, I think 
it can be shown by analysis of the cause and 
circumstances of each war, that the rule applies 
to the greater portion, if not the whole, of Te 
Ika a Maui Island. 

I will now return from this disquisition to 
the description of the Maui Maori tribes. There 
was a great tribe known by the name of Toi, 
who, before the canoes came from Hawaiki, and 



ANCIENT MAOKI LIFE 143 

at that time occupied a large part of Te Ika a 
Maui, extending from Whakatane eastwards. 
I might mention Toi in a general way as an 
ancestor over a very wide country; but it is 
not in that sense that I use the name now. I 
refer instead to the tribe of Toi proper, whose 
country extended from Whakatane to inland 
Motu. I would, however, observe first that 
though we have a Hawaikian Awa and an 
aboriginal Awa, also Hawaikian and aboriginal 
Oho tribes, we have no Hawaikian Toi tribe in 
New Zealand, only the aboriginal Toi is to be 
found in Te Ika a Maui ; and yet in the genea- 
logies of each nation the names of these three 
ancestors are found standing in the closest 
relationship at a time long before the passage 
of the canoes. The Maui Toi lived nearly 200 
years, and the Hawaiki Toi 400 years before 
the migration. I cannot tell how it is that these 
important names are common to the two nations. 
It might be asked how was their language the 
same? and how did it happen that they were 
of similar appearance? If we could answer 
these questions we should have the key to much 
besides. 

A principal pa of Toi was Kapu, situated on 
the highest point of the Whakatane hills, as 
seen from the mouth of the river. Hokianga 
at Ohiwa, was a fishing station. Tawhitirahi, 
overlooking Kukumoa stream, was a very 
strong pa; another of their places was Kohi- 
paua, east of the Otara River, and they had a 
settlement at Te Botonuiawai at inland Motu, 



144 ANCIENT MAORI LIFE 

and doubtless they had kaingas and pas at 
intermediate places. As already stated, this 
people were of the aboriginal Awa stock. 

The head man at Motu at a certain time was 
Tauwharangi. He lived at Te Rotonui awai, 
near Whakapaupakihi Eiver. It happened that 
a strange man came to his kainga one day, who 
said that his name was Tarawa, and that he was 
a god. When asked how he claimed to be a god, 
he said that he had swum across the ocean to 
this country, and that no one unpossessed of 
supernatural power could do that thing. Then 
he remained at the kainga, and married* 
Manawakaitu, the daughter of Tauwharangi, by 
whom he had two children. But Tauwharangi 
failed to discern any Divine attributes in his 
son-in-law, and sceptically awaited an oppor- 
tunity to prove his power by ocular demon- 
stration. At length a chance occurred, and one 
night Tarawa was awakened from sleep by 
water coming into his bed. He arose to find 
a flood had suddenly covered the land, and that 
all had fled. His retreat was cut off, and he 
had to climb to the top of his house and call for 
help to the others who, knowing the local signs, 
had avoided the danger, and by their chief's 
order, had left him unwarned. He was told to 
save himself. He said he could not perform 
an impossibility. "Oh! but you can easily 
save yourself by your Divine power. ' ' It then 
came out that he was not a god at all, and that 
they must send a canoe and save him, which they 
did. Old Tauwharangi was so disgusted that 



ANCIENT MAOKI LIFE 145 

he thrust Tarawa out of the kainga, and told 
his daughter that if she went with him she must 
leave the children. She departed with her 
husband, and they settled a few miles away at 
Te Wharekiri, on Motohora Mountain, over- 
looking the valley of Motu. Here they lived 
and died, and here they left a family that has 
now expanded into the important hapu of 
Ngaitama, of the Whakatohea tribe. This hapu 
is therefore of mixed aboriginal and immigrant 
blood, for there is no doubt but that Tarawa left 
one of the canoes during its passage along the 
coast, as Taritoringo left Tainui at Hawai and 
found his way to inland Motu, and like the 
woman Torere, who swam ashore from Tainui 
at night as the canoe was passing Taumata- 
Apanui point ; also like some of the passengers 
by Takitumu, who left her en route, and whose 
blood now flows in the veins of some of the 
principal chiefs inland of Ohiwa, and from 
whom the Ngatira hapu of the Whakatohea are 
partially descended. 

From Tauwharangi 's two grandchildren, 
whom their parents had left with him when they 
went to Motohora, and from others no doubt 
of his hapu or family, sprang the Ngatingahere, 
another hapu of the Whakatohea, and in after 
times Ngatipatu, another hapu branched from 
the Ngatingahere. 

Again, when Mataatua arrived at Whakatane 
with Ngatiawa immigrants from Hawaiki, 
Muriwai, the old woman who headed the party, 
had a son named Eepanga. From the top of 

ti 



146 ANCIENT MAOKI LIFE 

Whakatane range this man descried the smoke 
of the aborigines at Kohipawa. He returned 
to his mother, told her what he had seen, and 
obtained permission to visit the people. 
Arrived at Kohipawa, he was hospitably 
received by Eangimii te Kohu, the chief of that 
place, whose daughter, Ngapupereta, he 
married. From this source at Kohipawa 
sprang Ngatirua, another hapu of the Whaka- 
tohea, being the fifth and last hapu of the 
great tribe of the Whakatohea, all of which are 
of mixed extraction, three being tinged with 
Tainui strain, one with Ngatiawa, and one with 
a Takitumu connection. 

We have seen that Torere left Tainui at 
Taumata Apanui this she did to avoid the 
addresses of Rakataura, one of the crew. 
Arrived on shore, she concealed herself in the 
bush in a valley, the stream in which bears her 
name still. The next morning when her flight 
was discovered, Rakataura landed, and 
returning along the shore passed Torere and 
Taumata Apanui searching in vain for the 
woman. Then he gave it up, and turned and 
followed his companions by land, whom he at 
length rejoined at Kawhia. Torere joined 
affinity with the aborigines in that locality, and 
Ngaitai, a tribe that takes its name from her 
canoe, represents the union then formed; and 
this tribe is acknowledged by Tainui authority 
to be one that belongs to their own connection. 

An interesting illustration of practical 
tradition is furnished in connection with this 



ANCIENT MAOEI LIFE 147 

Ngaitai tribe. Although the tribe has a very 
ancient genealogical record extending some 
twelve generations back beyond the immigration 
from Hawaiki, and believed itself to be 
thoroughly rangatira, yet it was unable satis- 
factorily to define its origin. The question was 
raised to their humiliation during a boundary 
dispute by the Whakatohea in 1844, when Eangi- 
matanuku, chief of Ngatirua, speaking of the 
land in question and its ownership, said to Eru, 
the chief of Ngaitai, at a great meeting at Opape 
(that was convened by my father in the hope to 
settle the dispute without bloodshed), "Who 
are you? I know the chiefs of Ngatiawa, and 
Te Uriwera, the canoe they came in, and how 
they obtained their possessions. I know Te 
Whanau Apanui, who they are, and how they 
occupy. Also I know whom we, the Whakatohea 
are ; but I do not know who you are. Tell me 
the name of your canoe?" 

Challenged thus, Eru was compelled to say 
something in self-defence, and replied, "We 
came in your canoe. ' ' 

"Oh!" said Eangimatanuku, " you came in 
my canoe, did you? I did not see you there, 
I know all who came in my canoe ; all who came 
in the bow, and all in the stern. If you were 
on board you must have been somewhere out of 
sight, down in the bilge, I suppose, bailing out 
water. ' ' 

Eangimatanuku was a chief of note, and was 
no doubt very well informed in Maori lore, and 
if so, his speech betrays the pride the Maori of 



148 ANCIENT MAORI LIFE 

his time had in Hawaikian descent, which is 
suggestive of a superiority of the immigrant, 
not only in his possession of seed and the art of 
cultivation, but as having personal qualities 
such as tact and address, skill at sea, and a 
knowledge of war on shore. As a rule, 
Hawaikian blood has been more thought of, and 
this has led many natives and many tribes 
unconsciously astray in figuring to themselves 
their ancient history. A fact cannot be ignored 
for generations with impunity, sooner or later 
it will become diminished in men's minds, or lost 
sight of altogether. Not that I have ever found 
a native ashamed of an aboriginal connection; 
far from it, but his other side seems always to 
be more present to him, more engrained, so to 
speak, in his being and memory. 

Only once have I heard a Maui Maori speak 
in public with great and real pride of his 
unique and ancient descent. That was when 
the chief of Uepohatu or Iwi Pohatu a Maui put 
the land of his tribe at Hikurangi Mountain, 
Waiapu, through the native Land Court of New 
Zealand, and obtained a legal title to it. On 
that occasion the chief (Wi Tahata) said that 
he was descended from Maui, from whom he 
claimed. He gave his genealogy 38 generations 
from Maui. He spoke of the Hawaikians as 
having come to their island in canoes from 
across the sea in an age long after the time 
that they, the Maori nation had peopled it. He 
showed the boundaries of the territory that 
belonged to his section of the Maori nation 



ANCIENT MAOEI LIFE 149 

before the Hawaikians came, and the inroads 
that had since been made upon them, and he 
asked me as Judge of the Court, to accompany 
him to the top of the mountain, there to view 
his ancestors' canoe in its rocky form, a 
proceeding, however, which to the Court seemed 
unnecessary. 

It was reserved for me to tell the Ngaitai the 
name of the canoe they are connected with, and 
I got my information from first-class Tainui 
authority in the Tainui country. 

Beyond Taumata Apanui, at Hawai, lived the 
aboriginal tribe Te Manu Koau, who were 
conquered and scattered by Te Whanau Apanui, 
which is a tribe of mixed origin, being partly of 
Ngatiawa and partly Pororangi blood (i.e., of 
Mataatua and Takitumu), but all of Hawaikian 
extraction. This tribe now lives on the land 
thus taken. As for the remnant of Te Manu 
Koau it fled through the mountains, and came 
to Raukumara Mountain, in Hick's Bay district. 
Here the refugees were discovered by the tribe 
of Tuwhakairiora, who killed and ate a number 
of them, but when Tu te Eangiwhiu became 
aware of what was taking place he interposed, 
and rescued them and made slaves of them, 
setting them to work to catch the birds of that 
mountain. Tu te Eangiwhiu was the chief of 
the Tuwhakairiora tribe at that time, now some 
three hundred years ago. Those slaves have 
been working there ever since. I have seen 
them myself, and was much impressed with 
their timid, deprecating, cringing air, and 



150 ANCIENT MAORI LIFE 

exceedingly rough exterior. The man who 
placed them in bondage was a Hawaikian. 

And now I come to the Iwi Pohatu a Maui, or 
Uepohatu, as they now call themselves, to whom 
I have just referred. They live at Tuparoa, 
also they reside at the foot of Hikurangi, their 
antipodean Ararat, whose summit is shrouded 
in snow in winter, and they have land at Rau- 
kumara. Formerly their landed possessions 
were continuous between these points, and their 
sea frontage extended from Tuparoa to Waiapu 
Eiver. This was a domain perhaps 40 miles 
long and 15 wide. However, Ngatiporou (who 
are Hawaikians of Takitumu), one way or 
other, have now got the greater part of it ; but 
the tribe has always been free, is now intact, 
and holds the residue of its lands in indepen- 
dence, and is, moreover, recognised by the 
surrounding tribes of Hawaikian extraction as 
being aboriginal and of Maui descent. 

Adjoining Uepohatu country to the west, was 
a group of five aboriginal tribes. Their habitat 
extended from Waiapu to Potikirua, near Cape 
Runaway. 

These were the Ngaoko at Horoera Hekawa, 
and Kawakawa. 

The Euawaipu at Pukeamaru and Whare- 
kahika (Hick's Bay). 

And the three hapus of Parariki, viz.,Parariki 
proper, Ngaituiti, and Ngaitumoana. The 
prefixes to the two latter names are probably 
of Hawaikian origin. 

These three hapus occupied the country 
between Wharekahika and Potikirua, Ngaituiti 



ANCIENT MAOKI LIFE 151 

being at the Wharekahika end of the district, 
and Ngaitumoana at the Potikirua, or western 
end. 

Eather more than four hundred years ago, 
Ngaoko for some reason attacked Ruawaipu 
and destroyed them. But a young chieftainess 
named Tamateaupoko escaped to Whangara, 
where she married Uekaihau, of Pororangi 
tribe, a chief amongst the immigrants, and a 
descendant of Paikea, the captain who brought 
Takitumu from Hawaiki to Whangara, near 
Gisborne, about six hundred years ago. 

In due time three sons, Uetaha, Tamakoro, 
and Tahania, the issue of this marriage, grew 
up, and determined to avenge the death of their 
grandfather and the overthrow of his tribe. 
They organised a strong force of the people of 
Takitumu canoe, thereafter known as 
Ngaituere, and set out by land along the coast. 
At Paengatoetoe the Aetangahauiti endea- 
voured to stop their way, but were defeated in 
pitched battle; again, at Tawhiti, Te Wahineiti 
attempted to bar their progress, and were also 
defeated. For the rest of their march they 
were unopposed until they encountered the 
offending Ngaoko, whom they vanquished in a 
series of engagements and sieges rather more 
than three hundred and fifty years ago. 
Ngaoko were scattered and killed, their 
remnant reduced to captivity, and their lands 
were appropriated by Ngaituere, who remained 
in undisputed possession until Tuwhakairiora 
and his followers appeared upon the scene some 
sixty years afterwards. At this time, therefore 



152 ANCIENT MAORI LIFE 

(about 1530 A.D.), the Hawaikian people held 
the country from the mouth of the Waiapu 
River to Wharekaihika, and the aborigines con- 
tinued to hold the latter place to Potikirua. 

When Tuwhakairiora, who was a young chief 
descended from Pororangi, of Hawaikian 
extraction, appeared, things became changed; 
not only did he subjugate Ngaituere who had 
attacked him wantonly, but the three hapus of 
Parariki that had maintained their independence 
hitherto, were disturbed by him. Parariki 
proper and Ngaetumoana were driven from 
their holdings westward to Whangaparaoa, and 
the third, Ngaituiti, from which he had married 
a wife, Ruataupare, was reduced to a condition 
dependent upon himself. Of this extraordinary 
chief, his origin and education, his mission, his 
wars and conquests, his revenge, and of the 
tribe bearing his name that now occupies the 
country between Te Kautuku and Potikirua 
that is to say, from between Waiapu and the 
East Cape to between Point Lottin and Cape 
Runaway, I may speak more particularly later 
on in this narrative. 

I have said that Tuwhakairiora married 
Rautaupare; the manner in which he married 
this, his first wife, bespoke the dominant 
character of the man. Travelling alone, he 
arrived for the first time on the shore of Whare- 
kahika Bay, and there he saw two young women 
in the water collecting shellfish. Their clothes 
were on the beach. He sat upon them. After 
waiting long in the water for the stranger to 



ANCIENT MAOEI LIFE 



continue his journey, the women, who were cold 
and ashamed, came in from the sea and asked 
for their garments. He gave them up, and told 
the young women to take him to their parents y 
kainga. The women were Euataupare and 
Auahi Koata, her sister. On the way to the 
kainga, he told Auahi that he intended to take 
Euataupare to wife, an event that speedily came 
to pass. He was aware of the identity of the 
women when he sat on their clothes. 

That marriage did not turn out well. Eua- 
taupare considered herself ill used, and left her 
husband. She went to her relatives at Toko- 
maru (she was half Kahukurunui), where she 
lived and died. She conquered that district 
from the Wahineiti. The tribe living at 
Tokomaru bear her name to this day. 

We read in the journal of his voyage that 
it was here, at Tokomaru, that Cook first held 
friendly intercourse with the New Zealanders. 
The place was, to say the least, of an autoch- 
thonous atmosphere, and we may not 
unreasonably assume it was here that that 
great navigator received an answer to a ques- 
tion that must have been uppermost in his mind 
when he was told that the name of the country 
he had come to was Ehinomaui. 

Had he asked the same question at a purely 
immigrant settlement such as Maketu, Mercury 
Bay, or the Thames, he would doubtless have 
been informed that the name was Aotearoa 
Long White World. And why? simply because 
it was the name they had given to it when they 



154 ANCIENT MAOEI LIFE 

arrived off the coast about 1290 A.D., estim- 
ating a generation at 30 years and having 
sailed along the strange shore for hundreds of 
miles, were impressed with its extent, and its 
white appearance. From the eastern precipices 
of the Great Barrier and Mercury Islands, to 
the beaches and headlands of the Bay of Plenty, 
and from Te Mahia to past the East Cape, all 
the coast line was more or less white in colour 
as the eastern summer sun shone upon it. The 
few dark rocks only brought the white into 
relief, and increased the impression, and they 
were partially hidden, too, by the foliage of the 
pohutukawa tree, that was not to know the 
white man's axe for several hundred years to 
come. Thus history in her unceasing round 
repeated her recurrent ways, and the ancient 
Britain of the South became another Albion to 
another band of strangers who came to occupy 
her soil. 

The Whatumamoa were another tribe of 
aboriginal Maoris. They lived at Hawke's 
Bay, near Napier; one of their principal pas 
was Te Heipipi, near Petane, and they had a 
pa near Taradale, and other pas. This tribe 
was attacked by a section of the descendants of 
the immigrants by Takitumu canoe, who came 
under Teraia from Nukutaurua. They fought 
against Te Heipipi pa, but they were unable to 
take it on account, as they believed, of the 
autochthon god of the pa being superior to their 
own god; therefore they made peace with Te 
Heipipi, but they took some other Whatumamoa 



ANCIENT MAORI LIFE 155 

pas, and eventually the residue of the aborigines 
became absorbed in the Takitumu people now 
known as Ngaitikahungungu. 

A tribe of aborigines called Te Tauira lived 
at Wairoa, Hawke's Bay, who were numerous 
and had many pas. Their principal pa was at 
Eakautihia. They were attacked by a section 
of the Takitumu people, who, having got into 
trouble at home, had migrated from Turanga 
to Waihau, on the Hangaroa. This party was 
led by Eakaipaka and Hinemanuhiri. They 
lived awhile at Waihau, and there under some 
provocation made war on Te Tauira, and to 
prevent quarrels after conquest they appor- 
tioned the lands of Te Tauira amongst them- 
selves before the war commenced. The war 
resulted in the complete conquest and expa- 
triation of the Tauira tribe, whose refugees 
fled to Hawke's Bay and Wairarapa, where 
some hapus of their tribe lived. The only 
person saved by Eakaipaka was a woman named 
Hinekura. He saved her because he had an 
intrigue with her before the trouble began. In 
this war it was, at the battle of Taupara, that 
the Tauira tribe was crushed. 

Lastly, a large tribe of Maui Maoris, named 
Te Marangaranga, inhabited Te "Whaiti 
country. They were destroyed by the descen- 
dants of the immigrants of Mataatua canoe. 

I have now covered the ground from the 
Upper Thames to Hawke's Bay, inclusive, by 
the East Coast, and far back into the interior 
to the middle of the island nearly; excepting 



156 ANCIENT MAOEI LIFE 

two gaps on the coast, namely, from north of Te 
Mahia to south of Tuparoa (Te Tauira occupied 
Te Mahia), and from Potikirua, near Cape 
Runaway, to Maraenui. I have not the infor- 
mation in respect to the ancient inhabitants of 
these two areas necessary to enable me to 
state with precision who they were and what 
became of them. We all know, however, that 
(excepting lands alienated to Europeans) the 
former is held entirely by the descendants of 
Hawaikians, that is, of the men who landed at 
Whangara from Takitumu with Paikea, their 
captain, who very likely fixed on that locality 
because he saw no aborigines there. Into the 
latter, as we have seen, Ngaetumoana and Para- 
riki proper were driven by Tuwhakairiora. We 
also know that Ngatiawa are living in that 
district now under the names of Ngaetawarere 
and Whanau Ihutu. There is, therefore, 
perhaps, to some extent, an admixture of the 
aboriginal element in those tribes. I am not, 
however, able to affirm anything, having never 
travelled in their country, nor had opportunity 
to inquire and in covering the ground named 
I have covered the whole of three spheres of 
influence namely of the three canoes, Taki- 
tumu, Mataatua, and Arawa, in so far as the 
relations of the immigrants with the aborigines 
are concerned. This qualification is necessary, 
because I am not now treating of wars that took 
place in remote parts of the island between the 
outpost colonies of the various canoes, such as 
the war between Tainui and Arawa people at 



ANCIENT MAORI LIFE 157 

Taupo four hundred years ago, when the latter 
ousted the former from the south and east 
sides of the lake, or the wars between the 
people of Takitumu and Tainui after that at 
Moawhango and the Upper Eangitikei Elvers, 
when the latter were again expelled. These 
wars amongst the descendants of the immi- 
grants in remote parts were bitter struggles 
for territory ; not mere tribal strife with an utu 
account, and they usually ended in one side 
being defeated and driven off. 

The same thing took place between Ngatiawa 
of Mataatua, and Ngatiporou of Takitumu; 
their theatre of war was about Te Kaha, where 
there were many campaigns. Te Kaha pa 
obtained its name from the number of sieges it 
withstood in that war. 

In determining dates, I have estimated a 
generation at 30 years' duration, which period, 
all circumstances considered, seems pretty 
reasonable as a chronological standard. Of 
course, any estimate of this sort is necessarily 
arbitrary. The reader, however, can reduce it 
if he thinks the unit too large ; at the same time, 
it is well to remember that many Maori chiefs 
had many succeeding wives, and the genealogies 
preserved embrace not infrequently the 
youngest born of the youngest as well as the 
first born of the first wife, nor had the latter 
a monopoly of distinction. Tuwhakairiora, 
Tuhourangi, Tutanekai, Hinemoa, and others 
were all youngest or nearly youngest children, 
yet each is a prominent figure in Maori 
tradition. 



158 ANCIENT MAOBI LIFE 

In concluding this sketch in the history of the 
autochthons of New Zealand, let me say that 
all the facts set forth have been imparted to 
me by the Maoris themselves, excepting, as 
already stated, such things as I learned from 
my father in the forties. He prosecuted his 
inquiries in the thirties and forties, and was 
one of the very few in those early times who 
took an interest in the history, laws, and 
customs of the Maoris. Before his death he 
wrote to me from England urging me to publish 
my information upon these subjects. 

My next chapter will be upon the voyage of 
the Hawaikians from their own country to New 
Zealand. 



THE HAWAIKI MAORI IMMIGRATION. 



The story of the immigration from HawaiM,. 
as told fifty years ago and more by old natives, 
was that their ancestors had left that country 
in consequence of disputes chiefly about land; 
that the land available for cultivation was not 
extensive, and increasing population had 
created a pressure that resulted in wars for the 
possession of it these troubles lasted more or 
less a long time, during which their party was 
gradually weakened and overpowered; that 
terms had then been proposed to them, namely, 
that they must leave Hawaiki, and seek another 
home across the sea, and that ample time to- 
build a flotilla and make all necessary 
preparations for departure would be allowed 
to them. They accepted these terms in the 
spirit in which they were offered, and prepara- 
tions were made in a careful and methodical 
manner. 

I think the whole scope of action at Hawaiki 
at his juncture strongly indicates a knowledge 
of the existence and whereabouts of another 
country to which the emigrants might go. The 
very terms, their acceptance, and the confidence 
with which the equipment was made, all betoken 
such knowledge; nor is there anything in the 
whole story, so far as I am aware, to show 

159 



160 ANCIENT MAORI LIFE 

that they were groping in the dark. Moreover, 
the result of the action justifies the remark. 
The direction, precision, and success of their 
navigation show, speaking colloquially, that the 
emigrants knew what they were about. 

Now, if this were so, whence came this know- 
ledge? This question is susceptible of several 
answers. For instance, the knowledge may 
have been handed down by tradition, that in a 
certain direction there was a distant country, 
the birthplace of their race, from which they 
had travelled in bygone ages, when the sea was 
less continuous, and before intermediate lands 
had sunk under its waves. But if the latter 
part of this speculation is rejected, as perhaps 
it may be crust motions of the earth being 
slow and human memory short still the former 
part remains feasible, because the common 
origin of the Hawaikian Maori and the Maui 
Maori peoples is manifest philologically, myth- 
ologically and otherwise, and demands a point 
of union in the past. 

The name Barotonga has a meaning, and tells 
how the ancient mariner who gave the island 
that name was impressed by the phenomenon 
observed during his voyage towards the north 
of the continually diminishing altitude in the 
southern heavens of the great stars that revolve 
round the Pole, and, as he advanced, of their 
disappearance below the horizon when on the 
meridian below the Pole; so that by the time 
he had discovered the island to which he gave 
that name, these stars were dipped below the 



ANCIENT MAORI LIFE 161 

sea a considerable time during the meridian 
passage, and he would be the more impressed 
by the change because he was accustomed to 
estimate his latitude by the altitude at the 
passage named of the star Matatuotonga The 
Watchful of the South. It is quite easy, 
therefore, to understand how the name may 
have been given, and whence the discoverer 
came. Conversely, had the voyager approached 
from the north, he would have named the island 
Eungatonga. 

Again, if the Maui Maori people broke off 
from their countrymen at Hawaiki, why did 
they leave the art of cultivation behind them? 
These considerations favour the idea that a 
tradition of the nature outlined was extant at 
Hawaiki, and that it prompted successful 
exploration before emigration took place. 
Exploration could hardly have been made in 
the absence of a tradition to guide the navi- 
gator; the chances on the areas to be visited 
and the points to be steered are too numerous 
against it. Thus, New Zealand subtends from 
Barotonga an arc so small that an error either 
way of three quarters of a point on the compass 
would send the voyager wide of the mark, and 
he would pass the islands without seeing them. 
On the other hand, it must be admitted that, as 
canoes have no hold in the water and no weight 
to meet the ocean swell, they could not work to 
windward to explore, nor could they run to 
leeward, for fear of not getting back ; therefore, 
their movements would be confined to a 



12 



162 ANCIENT MAOEI LIFE 

comparatively limited area while in the trade 
wind region. In adverting to these questions, 
I would interject the remark that canoes sailing 
in low latitudes towards the south must stand 
across the south-east trades on the port tack, 
and ought not to start from a point that is to 
leeward of their destination; and further, I 
would say that in leaving Earotonga for New 
Zealand all these conditions would be fulfilled. 
Having now stated the reasons which render 
the theory of an exploration prior to the 
emigration likely, I will return to tradition on 
the subject. One tradition says that a canoe 
named Matawhaorua, of which Kupe was the 
captain, sailed from Hawaiki and arrived at 
New Zealand. Along the coast of the North 
Island she passed for a considerable distance, 
and then returned safe home and made a report 
concerning the land she had seen. Mata- 
whaorua did not return to New Zealand. As 
the particulars of this tradition have been 
furnished by other writers, it is unnecessary 
that I should repeat them, especially as it is my 
object to publish in these few pages original 
matter only.* Another tradition, to which I 
have already referred, tells of how on a 
stormy night a canoe from Hawaiki was 
wrecked on the coast of New Zealand, four 
miles to the west of Whakatane River. The 
next morning, the daughter of the chief at the 
pa at Kapu found three strange men, bereft of 
clothing shivering on the shore, who said that 

*The above statements about Matawhaorua are not borrowed 
from any European writer. They were made to me by a chief of 
Ngatiawa, now deceased. 



ANCIENT MAORI LIFE 163 

they had come from a distant country 
in a canoe that had been wrecked, that night, 
and that all their companions were drowned. 
The woman returned to her father, whose name 
was Toi, and told him what she had seen. Her 
father ordered the men to be brought to Kapu. 
When they arrived, food was set before the 
three men, whose names were Taukata, Hoaki, 
and Maku. The food was fish, fern-root, and 
the fronds of the tree fern; there was no 
kumara. The three men noticed this, and Tau- 
kata produced from his waist-belt some kao 
(dried kumara), which he crumbled into dust 
and mixed with water, making a drink. This- 
he presented to Toi, who, when he had drunk^ 
demanded, "Where such food, fit for the gods, 
could be obtained?" The strangers all replied, 
"From Hawaiki, the country we have come 
from. ' ' 

Toi said : "Alas ! I am not able to send across 
the ocean to Hawaiki. ' ' 

The strangers replied: "0! yes, you can; 
you can build a canoe. ' ' 

Toi said: "No; there are no trees in this 
country large enough to make a canoe fit to 
brave the waves of the ocean." 

The strangers: "We saw a tree in the bed 
of the river at the ford this morning, which is 
quite large enough. A canoe can be made of 
it that would reach Hawaiki, and we can go 
and show the way and bring back kumaras to 
you. ' ' 

Toi replied: "It is well said. A canoe 
shall be built." 



164 ANCIENT MAOEI LIFE 

Then the tree (a totara) was raised out of 
its bed at the mouth of the Orini Eiver, and out 
of it the canoe Aratawhao (Way through 
the Wilderness) was made, and sailed for 
Hawaiki. Taukata, Maku, and a crew went in 
her. 

Hoaki was kept by Toi as a hostage for the 
safety of his people who went in the canoe. 
Tradition is silent as to whether the Aratawhao 
arrived at her destination. She never returned 
to New Zealand. Toi slew his hostage, after 
waiting two years in disappointment, and, 
leaving Kapu, where he and poor Hoaki had so 
often vainly scanned the horizon for the longed- 
for canoe, he retired to Hokianga at Ohiwa, 
where he was living with his people some time 
afterwards when Mataatua canoe arrived at 
Whakatane. 

Let us now revert to the people whom we left 
preparing to emigrate from Hawaiki. We may 
reasonably suppose that the canoes they had 
were similar to those used by their descendants 
several centuries afterwards, for smaller vessels 
would not have answered their purpose. A 
canoe that would carry fifty fighting men on a 
short expedition would not carry more than 
twenty adults on a deep sea voyage with safety, 
allowing them provisions for a month at the rate 
of 21b of food each and a quart of water per 
diem, and carrying half a ton of seed and other 
belongings. The bulky seed taken was that of 
kumara and taro ; seeds of the karaka tree and 
of the hue gourd were also taken. The gourd, 



ANCIENT MAOEI LIFE 165 

as I have said, was already in New Zealand, 
though how it came there, being apparently not 
indigenous, I am unable to say. Also, they took 
with them their valued dogs of Ngatoroirangi 
breed*, from the skins of which their dog-skin 
mats were woven, and they took the Maori rat 
on board, the same being game of the finest 
kind. 

It is true that the Arawa (if a female accom- 
panied each male) carried thirty persons, 
twenty of whom were adults; of the remaining 
ten, who were young persons, some may have 
been very young. She must, therefore, have 
been a large canoe. That she carried as much 
as they dared to put on board we know, from 
the fact that some members of the party were 
left behind to follow in another canoe, named Te 
Whatu Eanganuku, which landed them at 
Wairarapa. An account of this will be given 
at the proper time. No doubt, the temptation 
to the emigrants in some instances to overload 
was very great. 

That the Hawaikians came to New Zealand 
from the tropics is proved by the tropical char- 
acter of the plants they brought with them 
kumara and taro are both of that character. 
The latter is especially so, in the fact that it 
never could be properly acclimatised to the 
change. For six hundred years the taro Maori 
always had to be grown artificially. Sand or 

*The Ngatoroirangi dog was extinct before Europeans settled in 
New Zealand. It is not to be confounded with the Kuri Maori, which 
finally disappeared before the European breeds, about the middle 
forties. 



166 ANCIENT MAOEI LIFE 

gravel was dug from a pit, and carried to the 
field and placed in a layer over the soil; this 
drew the sun's rays and warmed the plant, 
which was, moreover, defended from cutting 
winds by rows of manuka branches fixed in the 
ground at intervals. The same remarks in a 
much less degree apply to the kumara.* 

I think I have shown now that the Hawai- 
kians, when they embarked in their canoes, left 
some place in the tropics, and steered to the 
south-west across the south-east trade, and that 
they were probably provisioned for one month. 
The question, therefore, arises now, where did 
they sail from? To this the reply is, from 
Earotonga, which island is within the tropics, 
and in a north-easterly direction from New 
Zealand, the distance between being about 
1,500 geographical miles. Now, the Arawa and 
Tainui, as we shall presently learn, were each of 
them coasting along the shores of New Zealand 
about a fortnight, searching for sites for settle- 
ment, before their voyages ended at Maketu and 
Kawhia. This leaves, say, fifteen days for 
accomplishment of the voyage from land to 
land, being an average of 100 miles a day, which, 
all circumstances considered, is a fair progress 
for a canoe sailing half the time on a wind in 

*The great labour of growing taro Maori caused it to be aban- 
doned when the taro Merekena was introduced. The latter is hardy, 
prolific runs wild, in fact and easily cultivated; but it is very 
inferior in flavour and flouriness to taro Maori. I don't think I 
have seen taro Maori for thirty years. In the early forties a new 
kind of kumara (kumara pakeha) was brought into New Zealand, 
which rapidly came into favour. It was more easily cultivated and 
made into kao than kumara Maori, and in about twenty years had 
superseded it. I have not seen the kumara Maori for many years, 
perhaps twenty. 



ANCIENT MAORI LIFE 167 

the trades, and the other half with variable 
winds and perhaps calms, the wind in that 
district of the ocean at that season (December) 
being, however, generally fair from the north- 
ward and eastward. We know that the voyage 
was made in December, because the pohutukawa 
(Christmas tree) was in bloom when the canoes 
arrived on the coast of New Zealand. 

As for the canoes themselves, we may believe 
that they were like such as some persons still 
living have seen in New Zealand. Speaking 
generally, they were rather crank in build and 
disproportionately long for sea-going purposes ; 
but they could accommodate many rowers, and 
in smooth water were able to make good 
progress for a few miles by pulling. Their 
draught was too light for sailing close to the 
wind. They required to be about seven points 
off the wind, to move through the water 
properly, which, with heave of the sea and drift 
when the the sea was rough, would make a true 
course, say, of eight points, the course they 
would have to make in crossing the south-east 
trades. Their lines were so fine, that with a 
fair wind they sailed very quickly. One fault 
they all had, and that was leaking through the 
caulking of the top sides. This was due to 
the nature of the construction of the vessel, and 
was unavoidable in the absence of ironwork 
attachments. The whole force of propulsion by 
sailing or pulling came upon the lashings that 
secured the top sides to the body of the canoe. 
This caused the seam to work a little, and baling 



168 ANCIENT MAORI LIFE 

was necessary from time to time when the 
canoe was deeply laden. If the lashings were 
sound, the fault was one of inconvenience, not 
of danger. It must, however, on the Hawaikian 
voyage, have entailed constant vigilance to keep 
their seed dry, which, if wet with salt water, 
would have been ruined. 

Before the Hawaikians commenced their 
voyage, their anxiety was to prevent a separa- 
tion of the canoes during the passage. They 
were all relations and friends, who were afraid, 
if once the ocean parted them, they would never 
see each other again. Therefore, at starting, the 
canoes were attached together, and progress 
was made in that manner while the weather 
remained fine; but that condition did not last. 
A change took place ; a storm arose ; the canoes 
were endangered by their nearness to each 
other, and the lashings of the attachments were 
cut one night by the crews to save themselves. 
When morning dawned, all the canoes had 
separated, and lost sight of one another. After 
that, each canoe pursued its own lonely course, 
following independently the line of navigation 
that had been determined upon before they left 
Hawaiki. 

Thus, without compass, quadrant, or chart, 
of which they knew nothing, these ancient 
sailors possessed, nevertheless, intrinsic 
qualities which helped them on their way. 
They were endowed with knowledge, skill, fore- 
thought, resolution, and endurance. They 
knew the positions and movements of the 



ANCIENT MAOBI LIFE 169" 

heavenly bodies, sufficiently well to be able to 
steer a course by them to the land they were 
bound for. Day after day, under skies for the 
most part clear, they observed the sun, noting 
his position at certain times, and they watched 
the direction of the winds and waves in relation 
to his course, and steered thereby. At night 
the task of steering by the stars was easier. 
The motions of the moon and planets in the 
ecliptic showed the eastern and western points 
of the horizon, and the south (tonga) wa& 
always visible as the centre round which the 
Cross and Pointers revolved; and so each 
captain in his own canoe maintained his course, 
keeping, no doubt, if anything, a little to wind- 
ward (i.e., southward) of it prevailing winds, 
as I have said, in November and December 
being easterly until he knew he had run his 
distance to the south, when he shaped a course 
to the westward, and boldly ran down upon the 
land. That this was done is evidenced by the 
accuracy with which the landfall was made at a 
certain parallel of latitude, and by the fact that 
the canoes Arawa and Tainui, that had overshot 
the mark, turned back northward when they 
reached the coast and rejoined their companions 
at Ahuahu, Mercury Island. The captain of a 
canoe, and each canoe had its captain, would 
know by celestial observation when he was far 
enough south. He could tell this by estimating 
by a standard of some sort, the altitude of a 
polar star when nearest to the horizon ; thus, for 
instance, he might hold to a southerly course 



170 ANCIENT MAOEI LIFE 

until he had made the lowest star in the Cross 
rise above the horizon and be equal in altitude 
to half the altitude of the highest star in the 
same constellation at the time of their lower 
meridian passage, or he might have made other 
good observations, and that without a quadrant. 
The objection of the right ascension in a short 
summer's night has no force, as there are 
several large stars between 58 deg. and 62 deg. 
S. declination, and with large differences in 
E.A., and one or other of these he would be 
sure to catch. 

The skill, tact, and ability of the old sailors 
who navigated their canoes from Hawaiki to 
New Zealand, so many canoes, with such pre- 
cision, is really wonderful. Could the certifi- 
cated sailor of the present age have done better f 
Deprive him of his appliances, his compass, 
chronometer, and chart, his sextant, and 
nautical almanac, and see then whether his 
intrinsic qualities would, on the same voyage, 
have enabled him to do better especially if put 
into a long, lean, rather leaky open boat, that 
liad no draught, could he have sailed her better, 
have kept a perishable cargo better, or main- 
tained better discipline amongst a numerous 
company of both sexes? There can be but one 
reply to these questions, namely, that under the 
same circumstances and conditions, it would be 
difficult even now to excel the old Hawaikian 
sailors in the execution of their craft. 

The time of year at which the migration was 
made shows forethought. The fine season had 



ANCIENT MAORI LIFE 171 

set in, and the hurricane months had not begun, 
and there was still time on arrival in the new 
country to plant the seed they had with them; 
moreover, they would have several months of 
summer weather in which to explore and form 
settlements. 

It is not my intention in this narrative to 
give all the movements of each canoe of the 
flotilla, or all the doings of the people of each 
after arrival. I shall simply mention their 
names, as they have been given to me, and a few 
circumstances connected with some of them, 
and in noticing the others I would wish to treat 
of the movements of four of them more parti- 
cularly, namely, Mataatua, Takitumu, Tainui, 
and Te Arawa, as the immigrants by these 
vessels settled in the districts with whose 
history I am best informed. The following are 
the names of the canoes : Matawhaorua (which 
returned to Hawaiki), Arawa, Tainui, Mata- 
atua, Takitumu, Kurahaupo, Aotea, Tokomaru, 
Mahuhu, Pungarangi, Eangimatoru and Whatu 
Eanganuku. 

Te Arawa made land at Whangara, eighteen 
miles north of Gisborne, but did not land there. 
From Whangara she coasted along to the north ; 
off Whangaparaoa she spoke the Tainui coming 
in from the sea. The Arawas say that Tainui 
was then making her landfall. This some 
Tainui people contradict, stating that their 
canoe first made land at Te Mahia. The Arawa 
did not join Tainui, but continued her course, 
then shaping westward, and crossed the Bay of 



172 ANCIENT MAOKI LIFE 

Plenty; and next we hear of her at Ahuahu, 
Mercury Island, where we will leave her for the 
present. 

Whether Tainui made land at Te Mahia as 
her people say, or at Whangaparaoa as the 
Arawas affirm, is an open question. She was 
making for the shore when she passed the 
Arawa, and shortly afterwards she was nearly 
lost, and perhaps all on board, in a very simple 
and unexpected manner. At Cape Runaway 
there is a reef of detached rocks; there too is 
a perennial current that, setting strongly out of 
the Bay of Plenty, impinges against the Cape 
and reef. The Cape itself is a high headland 
studded with pohutukawa trees. As the canoe 
approached the Cape, in the bay round which a 
landing was proposed, the crew, whose attention 
was diverted to the beautiful bloom of the trees 
on the hillside, suddenly found themselves 
caught and carried swiftly towards the rocks 
by the current, of the existence of which neither 
they nor any stranger could have had a 
suspicion.* and because of the heavy rollers of 
the Eangawhenua** the danger appeared to be 
terrible. Here with a vengeance were 'the 
waves of the summer, as. one died away another 

*The current at Cape Runaway is the tail race to a vast dam 
that Nature has placed across the course of part of the tropical 
off-flow of the South Pacific. The dam extends from the North Cape 
of New Zealand to Cape Runaway, or it may be to the Eat Cape. 
We are justified in believing that the stream comes from the tropics 
by its warm temperature, the fish, such as sharks, that frequent it, 
and by the tropical shells, like the nautilus, that are found on the 
shores adjacent. 

**The Bangawhenua is an ocean swell that breaks heavily on 
the north-east coast of the North Island of New Zealand during 
the months of November, December, and January. Along the beaches 
of the Bay of Plenty, fishing is stopped by it. 




Pohutukawa Tree, Kawhia Harbour. 



ANCIENT MAORI LIFE 173 

as sweet and as sliming came on.' The way- 
worn voyagers, turning their eyes from the 
beautiful land, grasped the situation at a 
glance, and their hearts fell from the heights 
of joy and hope to the depths of fear. Were 
they after all their suffering and pilgrimage to 
be sacrificed at the gates of Paradise on those 
jagged rocks. Promptly the priest betook him- 
self to his prayers, and quickly the crew plunged 
their paddles into the tide but it was too late, 
before they could change their vessel's course 
she had struck sideways on a rock and remained 
there, the mussel shells grinding into her sides 
to the peril of her lashings; and now the 
danger of being dashed to pieces by the next 
wave or filling beside the rock, which is awash, 
is great indeed; fortunately the rock was 
between them and the wave, for the current that 
pinned them to it ran against the swell. And 
then the very thing they feared became their 
friend. A roller broke upon the rock and its 
unimpeded portion circling quickly round the 
rock caught one end of the canoe, and raising 
it up, flung it off wide from the rock. This was 
the moment of salvation; with a flash, before 
the current could push her back, all the paddles 
were buried for dear life in the seething foam, 
and Tainui, as if instinct with life, had shot 
into the open sea. The priest said they had 
been saved by the Atua to whom he had prayed, 
and his words were believed by those who 
heard him and by many succeeding generations. 
But the captain in going round the point again 



174 ANCIENT MAORI LIFE 

gave those rocks what sailors call a wide berth. 
Then the wearied people of Tainui rested at 
Whangaparaoa Bay, and refreshed themselves ; 
but the story that they found a dead whale on 
the beach in that bay and disputed with the 
Arawa about the possession of it is difficult to 
reconcile with the fact that the Arawa deny 
having gone there at all, and with the harder 
fact that dead whales not only don't drift into 
the bay, but cannot even be towed on to the shore 
there by several whaleboats after they are 
killed, the current above mentioned preventing 
it. There was a whaling station many years in 
Whangaparaoa Bay in the forties, and during 
that time the fish were "tried out" at a place 
round the Cape, much to the inconvenience of 
the whalers, who at first often tried in vain to 
tow the dead whales into the Bay. 

From Whangaparaoa the Tainui sailed along 
the shores of the Bay of Plenty, inspecting the 
country as she went. At Hawai a man named 
Taritorongo left her, and going inland, joined 
the aborigines at Motu, as has been mentioned ; 
also, we have seen how Torere left the Tainui, 
and how she was pursued by Eakataura, who, 
failing to find his inamorata, returned and 
rejoined his companions at Kawhia. Eakataura 
landed at Taiharuru, at Opape. When next we 
hear of Tainui she had arrived at Ahuahu, 
where the meeting of canoes took place. There 
is reason to assume from subsequent events 
that the Arawa and Tainui had made a compre- 
hensive survey of the Bay of Plenty before they 
met at Ahuahu. 



ANCIENT MAOKI LIFE 175 

Up to this time there is not much to say about 
Takitumu further than to report that her land- 
fall was made at the Great Barrier, and that 
passing Cuvier Island she had arrived at Ahu- 
ahu also. 

Mataatua, though not in company with Taki- 
tumu, sighted the same land. She passed 
Cuvier, which was named Eepanga by Muriwai, 
the chieftainess on board of her, in honour of 
her son, the young man who afterwards went 
to Kohipawa, and then the canoe sailed into 
Ahuahu Harbour. 

At Ahuahu (Great Mercury) a conference 
took place between the captains of the canoes 
and other chiefs of the expedition, which 
resulted in the arrangement of the course, or 
line of action, that each canoe should take on 
leaving the island. Hence the name of the 
island, which is called Ahuahu to the present 
day, and is an abbreviation probably of Ahu te 
Ahu to shape a course. I have never heard 
whether any of the other canoes were at this 
meeting; Pungarangi and Whatu Eanganuku 
could not, however, have been present, as they 
came to New Zealand afterwards. 

I have referred several times to the captains 
or nautical experts of the canoes. The captain 
of Takitumu was Paikea; of Tainui, Hotunui; 
of Te Arawa, Tama te Kapua ; and of Mataatua, 
the captain was Toroa. 

And now we view these and other chiefs whose 
names have been handed down to posterity, at 
this the first Hawaiki Maori meeting held in 



176 ANCIENT MAORI LIFE 

New Zealand. There, too, we see seated upon 
the pebbly strand that forms the landing 
at Mercury Harbour, groups from the several 
canoes, all dressed in the tappa clothing of a 
tropical climate. They are assembled listening 
to their leaders, who are discussing the situation 
in its various aspects. 

They have, indeed, found the country they 
sought, but exploration so far has shown it to 
l>e peopled with many tribes of aborigines 
resembling themselves and speaking their own 
language, of whom, notwithstanding their in- 
offensive behaviour, it behoves them to be 
aware. Apart from rugged coastlines, they have 
nowhere seen an unoccupied country large 
enough for them all to settle upon. They have 
but just escaped with labour and loss from 
internecine strife about land, where land was 
scarce and areas small. The horror of what 
occurred then is fresh in their minds. They 
cannot forget it, and therefore, they think they 
had better separate and incur the risk of war 
with the aborigines to fighting among them- 
selves ; besides, the former risk appeared to be 
hut small if a policy of tact and forbearance 
were pursued towards them, and that by and 
by when they themselves had become numerous 
they could disregard them. 

Two rivers falling into the Bay of Plenty had 
been discovered where settlement would be 
possible, but more inviting districts might yet 
be found. 

To one of these, however, the people of 
Mataatua under Muriwai decided to go. The 



ANCIENT MAORI LIFE 177 

other the leaders of Te Arawa have determined 
to occupy should nothing more suitable be found 
on further search.* The immigrants in Tainui 
are of opinion that in a country so large and 
promising the chances are that they will secure 
a better location by prosecuting their voyage of 
discovery; while those of Takitumu resolve to 
search the Bay of Plenty for themselves. 

Such and similar were, doubtless, the affairs 
that were considered at that meeting a meeting 
which heralded to New Zealand the birth of a 
new nation, who should cultivate her soil and 
increase her civilisation, and whose warriors, 
orators, statesmen and priests, craftsmen and 
people of low degree, were destined in the 
distant future to supplant the more simple sons 
of the soil almost throughout the whole country. 

After the meeting the canoes left Ahuahu. 
Tainui explored the Thames and found the 
inhabitants numerous; she passed from there 
along the coast to the North, and turning back, 
again arrived at Tamaki Eiver, which was 
ascended, and then she was dragged across the 
isthmus at Otahuhu into Manukau, from which 
harbour she put to sea, and, coasting south- 
wards, arrived at Kawhia. This was the end 
of her voyage, for at Kawhia her people deter- 
mined to settle. 

Mataatua sailed from Ahuahu to Whakatane 
direct. Her unwavering course is highly 

*The Arawa had most probably visited Maketu and Tauranga 
on her voyage through the Bay of Plenty, and had found the latter 
thickly peopled, for on her return to those parts she passed close 
by the mouth of Tauranga Harbour in the daytime -without entering 
it, and went straight to Maketu, notwithstanding the inviting aspect 
of the Tauranga country. 

13 



178 ANCIENT MAOEI LIFE 

suggestive of information received, either by 
Te Aratawhao (if that canoe reached Hawaiki) 
or by Tainui, probably the latter, for none of 
the people of Te Aratawhao returned to Whaka- 
tane in Mataatua. Ngatiawa found the country 
at Whakatane unoccupied by the aborigines, 
and Kapu pa was empty. They lived at first on 
the flat by the mouth of the river, and there 
Muriwai died and was buried, and her tomb 
under a rock may be seen at the present time. 
Toroa went to Hokianga, at Ohiwa, to interview 
Toi, who asked, "Who are you, and where do 
you come from?" 

To which Toroa replied, "I am Toroa (alba- 
tross) ; I have flown across the ocean to this 
place. ' ' 

Toi then asked, "Why have you come here?" 
Toroa said, "I have come to see and to stay." 
Then food was set before Toroa, and when he 
had eaten, he returned to Whakatane. 

This short conversation as it has been handed 
down by tradition describes the situation 
succinctly. 

From Ahuahu the Arawa sailed to Cuvier 
Island, where Hawaikian birds were released, 
and thence to the Great Barrier, from which 
place she crossed over to Whangarei and 
coasted to Cape Brett; there she turned back 
and arrived at Tamaki, at the head of which 
river she found Tainui, whose crew were 
engaged laying the skids to tow their vessel 
upon in crossing the isthmus. The Arawa did 
not remain long at Otahuhu, but sailed away to 



ANCIENT MAOKI LIFE 179 

Moehau (Cape Colville), for time was becoming 
precious. Her people ianded at Moehau, but 
did not stay there, notwithstanding Tamati 
Kapua was so pleased with the place that he 
urged them all to go no further, and to settle 
down and make their home there. From 
Moehau they resumed ther voyage, and passing 
along the shores of the Bay of Plenty, sailed 
straight to Maketu. Thus ended their long and 
toilsome voyage from Hawaiki. 

In passing Te Taroto, between Katikati and 
Te Awanui (the ancient name of Tauranga 
entrance), Hei stood up and said, "The land 
opposite to us," pointing to Tauranga, "is Te 
Takapu a Waitaha" (the belly of Waitaha), 
his son. Thus he bespoke the Tauranga 
country, of which, however, he and his son 
never got more than the eastern end, which is 
a comparatively small part of the district. The 
aboriginal inhabitants were too numerous to 
allow him to take more. Off Wairakei, Tia 
stood up and declared that the land at Eangiuru 
and country adjacent was the Takapu of his son 
Tapuika. In this manner he took the land he 
had pointed out. Tamati Kapua then thought 
it time to rise. He took Maketu by calling that 
part of the country Te Kureitanga o taku Ihu, 
shape of his nose (cut of his jib). The head- 
land of Maketu Point is still known by the name 
of Okurei. Now all this was a very solemn and 
binding form of appropriation. No one could 
interfere with the property after that without 
tramping on the belly, etc., of the person named, 



180 ANCIENT MAORI LIFE 

and without being prepared to stand by his act 
in so doing. 

The behaviour of those three men in greedily 
snapping up all the land in sight from the canoe 
before they landed had the effect of compelling 
other members of the party to scatter in search 
of country, and thus the Ngaoho (or Arawa) 
tribe quickly spread to the interior as far as 
Taupo. 

Takitumu, whose other name was Horouta, 
had the reputation of being a sacred canoe. It 
is said they took slaves on board at Hawaiki, 
whom they kept in the bow, and killed and ate 
from time to time as they required. This canoe 
left Ahuahu, and went to Tauranga, where they 
found they could not settle. The aborigines 
permitted a very few persons to remain, 
probably they hoped to profit by the Hawai- 
kians' knowledge of agriculture. The canoe 
then continued her voyage, the next place she 
called at being Ohiwa, where she was nearly 
lost on Tuarae Kanawa shoal, at the mouth of 
the harbour. A few individuals were suffered 
to leave her here, who, as we have seen, became 
the progenitors of some of the present inhab- 
itants in that part of New Zealand. Toi 
doubtless thought there were already enough 
Hawaikians in his neighbourhood at Whaka- 
tane, and perhaps Ngatiawa objected to the 
propinquity. Leaving Ohiwa the canoe Taki- 
tumu continued her search along the coast for a 
place of settlement, and as evidencing how fully 
the country must have been in the occupation 



ANCIENT MAOBI LIFE 181 

of the aborigines at that time, I will enumerate 
a number of specially favourite residences of 
native tribes that were passed by the 
Hawaikians of Takitumu while searching for a 
place where they might safely make their 
future home: Opotiki, Te Kaha, Wharekahika, 
Kawakawa, including Horoera, Waiapu Valley, 
Tuparoa, Waipiro, Tokomaru, Tangoiro to 
Anaura, Uawa, and Puatai all these sites for 
settlement were passed before Paikea thrust his 
canoe ashore at Whangara, and declared the 
voyage to be finished. He named the place 
Whangara, from a fancied resemblance to a 
place of that name at Hawaiki. 

From the isthmus of Otahuhu northward the 
Hawaikian element in the population of Aotea- 
roa was derived from the canoes Mahihi (or 
Mahuhu, as it is called in some parts of the 
country) and Kurahaupo. 

The canoe Aotea landed on the West Coast, 
at the place of that name. Her people travelled 
southwards, and occupied a wide area south of 
the Taranaki district. 

Tokomaru canoe made the coast at Tokomaru, 
where the people who came in her landed but 
did not remain. We hear of her next as having 
arrived at Mokau, on the West Coast, but 
whether she passed round the North Cape, or 
made the shorter cut by Tamaki and Manukau, 
seems to be uncertain. Her occupants were the 
forefathers of the Atiawa tribe at Waitara and 
Taranaki, from whom is descended a Ngatira- 
hiri hapu ; just as the Ngatirahiri in the North 



182 ANCIENT MAOEI LIFE 

are descended from the Ngatiawa progenitor 
who landed in Mataatua at Whakatane. 

Pungarangi canoe made land at Eurima 
islets, in the Bay of Plenty; for some reason 
they were unable to land on the mainland, 
probably too heavy a sea was breaking on the 
coast, or the Tini o Taunu at Matata may have 
been hostile. The passengers had no water, 
and were greatly distressed by thirst. They 
landed in the little harbour at Eurima, and 
rested, but were unable to find water, and all 
feared that a cruel death was before them. 
Then the chief of the party sought himself for 
water, trying in many places. At last he found 
a moist spot by the root of a pohutukawa tree ; 
he dug a hole, and water trickled in and he 
drank, and the people drank and were saved. 
That little cup of water is there still, six 
centuries of time have not removed it, but the 
root is gone. As I looked at it I came to the 
conclusion that underground drainage had 
been arrested by the digging, and turned to the 
surface, where it has since remained. From 
Eurima the canoe went South to Wairarapa, 
and some of her people crossed Cook's Strait 
and settled at Nelson. 

It will be remembered that the Arawa was 
unable to bring all the Ngaoho party, and that 
some were to follow in another canoe. The 
canoe they came from Hawaiki in was the 
Whatu Eanganuku. She landed them at Wai- 
rarapa, in a part where the inhabitants were 
hostile. The leader of the party, Tauwera, was 



ANCIENT MAOEI LIFE 183 

illtreated and badly burnt by them, so that he 
could not walk. The perpetrators of this out- 
rage were not aborigines, but Hawaikians who 
had arrived there previously, and their object 
was not to kill, but to drive Ngaoho away. The 
latter took the hint, and left, carrying their 
disabled chief in a litter by the Kowhai road to 
the Bay of Plenty, and to the left bank of Wai- 
tahanui Eiver at Te Takanga, where they 
settled, and this was the beginning of Waitaha 
Turauta tribe, or hapu of the Arawa, members 
of which, among the other Arawa sections, are 
still numerous. 

The last canoe I have to mention is Rangi- 
matoru. It is stated that she ended her voyage 
at Ohiwa. She is a canoe that has been very 
much lost sight of by the natives. Her repu- 
tation is eclipsed by that of Mataatua, close by 
at Whakatane, and of the existence of the 
representatives, if any, of her immigrants, or 
who her immigrants were, I have no proper 
information. The fact that the canoe came 
seems sufficiently established. Possibly the 
extinct Whakatane sprang from the people of 
that canoe. They were a tribe of Hawaikian 
extraction who owned the land between Ohiwa 
and Waioeka Eiver inland, in the mountain 
region. The Upokorehe held the land in the 
north adjoining the possessions of the Whaka- 
tane. The former were destroyed, and the 
latter nearly so, by the Whakatohea. More than 
fifty years ago an old man of the name of Ran- 
; gimatoru was a principal man of the remnant. 



184 ANCIENT MAORI LIFE 

This concludes my account of the voyages of 
the canoes from Hawaiki to Aotearoa. I have, 
however, to add, that the Takitumu made a 
voyage from Whangara to Otago, where she 
remained, and is pointed out to the traveller of 
the present day, as she lies at her journey's end 
in the shape of a rock. The Arawa made a 
voyage to Te Awa o te Atua and back. Then 
she was hauled up on the eastern bank near the 
entrance to Kaituna River, where she was burnt 
afterwards, and where a grove of ngaio trees 
grew down to the present generation, which 
trees were sacred to the memory of the old 
vessel. 

In reviewing the movement from Hawaiki to 
New Zealand, from a practical point, we are 
justified, if the foregoing statements and 
observations are accepted, in arriving at the 
following conclusions : 

That the Hawaikians emigrated under pres- 
sure arising out of troubles chiefly about land. 

That as a necessary preliminary they 
explored the sea to discover a country where 
they might go. 

That the exploration was successful, and was. 
probably conducted upon an idea derived from 
tradition. 

That the Hawaikians were skilful sailors, and 
notwithstanding the want of appliances, they 
were good practical navigators by celestial 
observation. That as they had no means of 
finding the longitude on a true course, the same 
being a rhumb line, also as unknown currents 



ANCIENT MAOEI LIFE 185 

and variable winds rendered the making of a 
true course impossible without the necessary 
aids, they devised the expedient of leaving the 
true course wide off on one hand, say a point or 
two, while making the required latitude (which 
they were probably able to find), having arrived 
at which they ran down the longitude. It was 
in this way I believe that eight canoes on a 
voyage of 1,500 or 2,000 miles (according to 
whether they came from Cook's Islands or the 
Society Islands) managed to make land on the 
East Coast of the North Island of New Zealand 
within 2!/2 degrees of latitude of each other. 
They all came straggling in singly, and four of 
them were within thirty miles of each other. 
There could have been nothing accidental about 
results so uniform ; evidently the aid of science 
was invoked, roughly, no doubt, but sufficiently 
to serve all practical purposes. 

That the Hawaikians introduced the art of 
cultivation into New Zealand, where they found 
an aboriginal race resembling themselves in 
appearance and speaking the same language. 

That in selecting sites for settlement they 
avoided the localities that were thickly popu- 
lated by the aborigines, towards whom until 
they themselves had become numerous they 
behaved with much circumspection. 



NGAETEEANGI, OF TAURANGA. 



It was many years ago, before our utilitarian 
grass paddocks and barbed-wire fences had 
changed the face of the country, that I first saw 
the picturesque ruins of old Tawhitirahi pa at 
Opotiki. Standing on a high cliff that over- 
hangs the stream of Kukumoa they were 
embowered with trees and flowering plants that 
festooned from them to the stream below. The 
prospect from the pa was delightful; on the 
one hand as far as the eye could reach the ocean 
and its coast lines were visible ; on the other the 
valley of Opotiki was everywhere in view. The 
site, too, was as convenient as it was pleasant. 
Fishing in salt water and fresh, bird snaring 
and eel catching, were near to hand, while fern 
root in abundance of finest quality, and Tupa- 
kihi wine in the season were easily obtained. 
It was here some 350 years ago that a happy 
tribe lived of Maui-Maoris of Awa descent;* 
when they received a friendly visit from the 
chief of the powerful neighbouring tribe of 
Ngatiha, of the same descent (afterwards called 
Ngatipukenga), who lived at Waiaua and Oma- 
rumutu. The visitor greatly admired a tame 
tui, belonging to his host Kahukino, that sang 

*I would not imply that this tribe has not a strain of 
Hawaikian blood; no doubt it has, and like some others it knows 
more about its Hawaikian ancestors than its aboriginal lineage. This 
is due to causes I have already mentioned. 

186 



ANCIENT MAOEI LIFE 187 

and was otherwise well educated. In that age 
birds were taught to bewitch people, and to 
karakia (say prayers) for supplies of various 
kinds of food. When the visitor was about to 
return home, he asked that the bird might be 
given to him, but Kahukino could not make up 
his mind to part with it. The visitor concealed 
his rage and went away. It was not long after 
this that Tawhitirahi pa was surprised one 
night by a war party with the late visitor at its 
head. The pa was taken, some of its chiefs 
and people were slain ; many, however, escaped 
and fled to the forest-clad mountains of the 
interior, where they wandered for a time, but 
could not remain, as they were trespassing on 
the hunting grounds of other tribes. Thus they 
passed through Motu country, and crossing its 
eastern watershed, descended into the valley of 
the Waikohu, where they were found by the 
Takitumu natives of Turanganui (Poverty 
Bay), and would have been slain had not Waho 
o te Bangi interposed. He was the chief of 
Ngaeterangihokaia, a hapu of Te Aetanga 
Hauiti, of Takitumu descent, who lived at Uawa 
(Tologa Bay). 

Waho o te Eangi, like Tuterangiwhiu at Eau- 
kumara, saved the refugees, and made slaves of 
them. They were located on Te Whakaroa 
Mountain, inland of Waimata, and made to 
catch birds and carry them to him at Uawa. 

At this time the people who laboured in this 
unhappy plight were known by the name of 
Te Rangihouhiri, being so called after their 



188 ANCIENT MAOEI LIFE 

chief, who was the son of Kahukino, of Tawhiti- 
rahi. Kahukino was now an old man, and had 
ceased to take an active part in administering 
public affairs. Tutenaehe, the son of Eangi- 
houhiri, grew up in this house of bondage. 

In process of time Waho o te Eangi grew old 
and approached his end. The aged chief 
believed that there would be no one in the tribe 
when he was gone who would be capable of 
retaining possession of the slaves. He felt sure 
that another tribe by no means friendly to him 
would come and remove the slaves, thereby 
strengthening themselves and weakening his 
(Waho's) tribe. It was bad enough to be 
weakened, but worse that at the same time the 
other side should be strengthened. He chose 
the lesser evil, and determined to kill his slaves. 

It happened by some means that the slaves 
learned the fate that was in store for them, and 
as even the worm will turn, so this poor people 
turned at bay, resolved to sell their lives dearly. 
Although their slaves had taken alarm, and 
could not be surprised, the masters thought 
little of the task before them. Judge, then, 
their astonishment when their heedless 
onslaught was met by an organised band of 
skilled warriors, who killed them instead, and 
drove them back the way they had come. The 
Eangihouhiri had broken their bonds and never 
served again. They decided now to leave that 
part of the country, and seek elsewhere for a 
place where they might make a home for them- 
selves, and marched towards the sea at Whan- 
gara, near which, on the banks of the Pakarae, 



ANCIENT MAOEI LIFE 189 

they were attacked by the combined forces of 
Te Aetanga Hauiti, the tribe of which their late 
masters were a section, whom they defeated a 
second time in a pitched battle, and remained 
masters of the field. Te Aetanga Hauiti now 
found that they must make terms. They had 
altogether mistaken the men whom they had 
been accustomed to despise, whose quality man 
for man was superior to their own, whose 
prestige before the misfortune at Opotiki had 
been equal to their own, and whose spirit, 
disciplined and elevated by adversity and 
self-sacrifice was unconquerable. They pro- 
posed that fighting should cease, and that Te 
Bangihouhiri should leave the district, going by 
canoes, which were to be prepared by both 
parties, and Te Bangihouhiri were to have time 
and opportunity to collect supplies of food for 
the journey. These proposals were accepted, 
they suited the Bangihouhiri perfectly, and both 
sides observed them faithfully. In due time the 
Bangihouhiri set sail, and steering north, 
arrived in the Bay of Plenty, where they 
landed at a place called Hakuranui, and lived 
there. 

Now, accounts conflict as to this locality. I 
will mention them, not because the site of that 
place affects our story, but just to illustrate 
practically how tradition, like history, varies 
sometimes in its facts. There are two Haku- 
ranui pas at the Bay of Plenty, one south of 
Baukokore, the other at Torere. Ngaitai, of 
Torere, say Te Bangihouhiri never lived at 
their place, while the people of Baukokore say 



190 ANCIENT MAOKI LIFE 

Te Bangihouhiri did live for a time at Haku- 
ranui, that is upon their land. These state- 
ments one would think, should be conclusive, 
but they are not, for the descendants of the 
Eangihouhiri aver that the Hakuranui in 
question is at Torere, and the Arawa who, as 
we shall presently see have a voice in the 
matter, support the Rangihouhiri version. 

However, no matter where it was, the location 
was not comfortable. The people of the district 
disapproved of their intrusion and harassed 
them ; they had to keep close, for stragglers did 
not return, and it was almost impossible to 
cultivate, as the following instance showed: 
Two men of Te Eangihouhiri, Awatope and 
Tukoko, went out into a field to plant gourd 
seed. Awatope proposed to sow broadcast and 
get away for fear of the people of the place. 
Tukoko objected to such a slovenly method, and 
set to work to dibble his seed in properly. Awa- 
tope quickly sowed his broadcast and made off. 
His companion was busily engaged dibbling 
in, when he was suddenly caught and killed. It 
is true they made reprisals, but the place was 
not worth fighting for, and therefore they went 
away. Passing Opotiki and their old pa at 
Tawhitirahi, they came to Whakatane, and built 
a pa for themselves on the spur of the hill that 
approaches the river next above Wainuite- 
whara. Here, on the strength of their military 
reputation, they lived undisturbed for a time. 
There was, however, sufficient uneasiness and 
uncertainty on all sides to make the chiefs of 



ANCIENT MAOEI LIFE 191 

the Eangihouhiri think seriously of taking the 
initiative by a coup de main upon the Ngatiawa 
stronghold of Papaka (which position is 
immediately above the town of Whakatane). 
To this end Tamapahore, a leader of theirs, was 
one night creeping about under the fortifications 
of Papaka looking out for a point of attack, 
when a woman came out of the pa on to the 
defences above him. She did not see him, but 
he saw her, and on the impulse of the moment, 
he gave her a poke with the point of his taiaha. 
She raised an outcry, but Tamapahore escaped ;. 
the incident, however betrayed the sinister 
designs of Te Eangihouhiri tribe. Moreover, 
the woman was the chief's daughter, and the 
insult was considered great by her tribe.* All 
the Eangihouhiri knew at once that they must 
move on from Whakatane, and said so among 1 
themselves. 

Then Tamapahore stood up and addressed 
them, saying : "I have acted foolishly, and we 
must all leave this place in consequence, for 
all their hapus are roused, but we will not 
go meanly away; we will deliver a battle 
first and then go." The feelings of the 
people approved this sentiment, but Ngatiawa 
would have none of it, they were not going to- 
fight for nothing. If Te Eangihouhiri stayed 
they would be wiped out ; if they went at once 
they would be allowed to depart in peace. Sa 
the tribe of Te Eangihouhiri left Whakatane,. 

*The details of this insult will not bear publication. 



192 ANCIENT MAOEI LIFE 

and went to Te Awa o te Atua, where they were 
not wanted. 

This friendless tribe had now wandered over 
the country 200 miles seeking a resting place, 
and no resting place could be found, for the land 
everywhere was occupied, or claimed by some- 
one. At that time Te Awa o te Atua was held 
by a section of Ngatiawa tribe, who not long 
hef ore that had expelled the Tini o Taunu from 
that district. They did not intend that Te 
Eangihouhiri should remain with them too 
long, and by and by as the visitors manifested 
no intention of moving on, an intimation to go, 
too rude and realistic to be misapprehended, 
was given to them. 

Then Eangihouhiri, the chief of the tribe of 
that name, sent Tamapahore on a friendly visit 
to Tatahau, the chief of Tapuika, at Maketu, 
and charged him to spy the land there. Tama- 
pahore went with a suitable retinue, and was 
hospitably received by Ongakohua, another 
chief of Tapuika. When he returned, Tama- 
pahore reported that the place was most 
desirable in every respect. The aspect was 
pleasant, the land good, the cultivations 
beautiful, and fish of all kinds was abundant 
in the sea and rivers of Waihi and Kaituna, but 
the place was populous, and Tatahau was a 
great chief, and closely connected with the 
powerful Waitaha a Hei tribe. However, the 
tempting character of the prize outweighed in 
Eangihouhiri 's opinion all consideration of 
difficulty, and war with Tatahau was determined 



ANCIENT MAOBI LIFE 193 

on, but a pretext was required, and Kangi- 
houhiri was too punctilious to misbehave or act 
incorrectly in the matter. Therefore, he 
applied to Tuwewea, the chief of Ngatiawa, at 
Te Awa o te Atua, who readily furnished the 
information required. Oddly enough, the casus 
belli took its rise out of the killing of their own 
man Tukoko, who, it will be remembered, had 
dibbled his seed instead of sowing broadcast, 
and that point being settled satisfactorily, 
preparation was made for the campaign, before 
entering on which I have a few general remarks 
to make. 

We have seen that the Eangihouhiri tribe 
were Awa of Toi, that the tribe of Whakatane 
were Awa of Hawaiki, and that these two Awa 
tribes became connected by marriage and other 
causes, due to amiable propinquity, also by a 
portion of the latter (Te Kareke) being driven 
by civil war into the former and being absorbed 
by them. We may suppose that the force of 
these affinities was greater when proximate; 
operating as it were upon an inverse ratio to 
the square of their distance, and extended over 
a considerable area, including Tawhitirahi ; and 
when in time the intervening connection consoli- 
dated, it broke up into tribes and hapus of 
aboriginal or immigrant appellation, according 
to the degree of relationship of each to one or 
other of the centres of settlement, the former 
being known as the Whakatohea hapus, the 
latter as Ngatiawa; but in the cases of Te 
Bangihouhiri of Tawhitirahi and Ngatirawharo 

14 



194 ANCIENT MAOEI LIFE 

of Ohiwa (both intimately connected together), 
the Awa of Toi have called themselves 
Ngatiawa, for they are related to Ngatiawa, and 
the more popular name has been adhered to by 
them. 

It was in the summer that the Bangihouhiri 
tribe set out from Te Awa o te Atua and 
marched towards Maketu. The main body 
camped at Pukehina under Bangihouhiri the 
chief, while a strong vanguard took up a 
position at the ford at Waihi, giving out that 
they were a fishing party. Presently ten men 
crossed Waihi, and searching among the plan- 
tations on the hill above Maketu found a woman 
at work by herself collecting caterpillars off her 
kumara plants. She was Punoho, Tatahau's. 
daughter. Her they outraged. The last of the 
party to approach was Werapinaki, a cripple. 
Filled with rage she derided his appearance, 
saying "he would be a god if it were night 
time, in the day he is a hideous spectre, ' ' when, 
with a blow of his weapon he killed her, the body 
was thrown into a kumara pit where it could 
not be found. When Punoho was missed, her 
tribe sought everywhere in vain, not a trace of 
her was seen. They suspected the Bangihouhiri 
of foul play, and sent a neutral woman to 
enquire. The answer the messenger received 
was "Yes, she was killed by Werapinaki." 
Then a party of Tapuika stealthily crossed 
Waihi at night and slew Werapinaki, who was 
a chief, as he slept apart under an awning, the 
day being hot, and next day the war began. 
The Bangihouhiri took the initiative by 



ANCIENT MAOKI LIFE 195 

assaulting and carrying Tatahau's great pa at 
Pukemaire (where the old European redoubt 
stands). Tatahau and many of his tribe were 
killed, the rest and two of his sons escaping 
to Eangiuru. All the smaller pas followed the 
fate of Pukemaire. In this war the Eangi- 
houhiri forces were materially strengthened by 
a section of their tribe that came from the 
Uriwera country, where it had taken refuge 
after the fall of Tawhitirahi. 

Then the Ngaoho (Arawa) commenced a 
series of campaigns for the recovery of their 
lost territory and prestige. The first was by 
Waitaha a Hei, who came from East Tauranga ; 
Tatahau's mother was of their tribe, and fought 
a battle, Te Kakaho, at Maketu ford and 
retired, for the weight of the Eangihouhiri 
arms was greater than they had expected. To 
mend this unsatisfactory state of affairs 
Tapuika strengthened themselves by matri- 
monial alliances with Ngatimaru at the Thames, 
and with the people at Maungakawa, from whom 
they got assistance in the next campaign. In 
the same way they tried without success to 
avail themselves of the help of the Hawaikian 
Awa, or Whanau Apanui, at Maraenui. On the 
other hand the Eangihouhiri summoned to their 
aid two Opotiki tribes, one of them (such is the 
irony of fate) was Ngatipukenga, who had com- 
menced all their troubles by driving them out of 
their home at Tawhitirahi. 

When ready the combined forces of Ngati- 
maru (Tainui), under Te Euinga, Eanginui 
(Takitumu), under Kinonui, who was carried 



196 ANCIENT MAORI LIFE 

in a litter, also "Waitaha and Tapuika under 
Tiritiri and Manu, sons of Tatahau, advanced 
upon Maketu. The first encounter was a night 
attack upon an outwork, Herekaki pa, which 
was taken, and Tutenaehe the commander was 
slain. He was the eldest son of Te Eangi- 
houhiri, who, when he heard the intelligence, 
exclaimed "0! my son, you have gone by the 
night tide, I will follow by the morning tide ! ' ' 
He alluded to the tide because it is the custom 
in that part of the country where much 
travelling is done by the beach, to wait for low 
tide to make a journey. Sure enough the old 
man's words came true, and by the morning 
tide he followed his son to the unknown world. 
The next morning opened with the beginning 
of the battle of Poporohuamea, in which great 
numbers were engaged, and that lasted all day. 
The field of battle was on the high ground 
immediately above the entrance to Waihi River, 
and in the valley there that descends through 
the high ground towards the sea coast. It was 
there that the Maui Maori and the Hawaikian 
Maori joined issue in perhaps the greatest 
battle of the open field that was ever fought by 
the two races. The struggle ended at last in 
mutual exhaustion. The party in possession 
retired to its pas, and the other side, who had 
tried to oust them, gave up the attempt, re- 
crossed the Kaituna, and returned to the places 
they had come from. Te Bangihouhiri is the 
only great chief whose name is handed down 
as killed in this battle. From the death of Te 



ANCIENT MAOEI LIFE 197 

Bangihouhiri the tribe of that name became 
known by the name of Ngaeterangi, by which 
name they are called at the present day. 

After the battle of Poporohuamea the Ngaoho 
tribes (Arawa) of the lake district, took up 
the quarrel and determined to expel the 
intruding Ngaeterangi. Year after year they 
sent armies to Maketu, not one of which made 
any impression on the enemy. The first army 
fought a little and returned home. The next 
was defeated with great slaughter at Kawa 
swamp, near Maketu, and their chief Taiwere 
was killed; that army returned to the lakes. 
Smarting under defeat and loss the Ngaoho 
again set forth to be again hurled back at Kawa 
with the loss of Moekaha, Taiwere 's brother. 
They had as many killed at Kawa No. 2 battle 
as at Kawa No 1. Assistance was now sought 
and obtained from Ngatihaua tribe, of the 
Upper Thames, and another campaign opened 
against Maketu, when a general action Kakaho 
No. 2 resulted in the crushing defeat of the 
combined Ngaoho and Ngatihaua. Haua, the 
chief of Ngatihaua, was slain, and Ariari- 
terangi, the brother of Taiwere and Moekaha, 
was drowned in making his escape. After this 
the Ngaoho, or Arawa, determined to avenge 
the death of Ariariterangi, and his son, Te 
Eoro te Rangi, led an army against Maketu. 
This expedition effected nothing. After 
fighting awhile Roro te Rangi made peace with 
Ngaeterangi, offerings were given to cement 
the peace, and Roro te Rangi returned home to 
Rotorua. 



198 ANCIENT MAOEI LIFE 

Thus ended a war that had lasted many years, 
involving many tribes and much bloodshed, 
there had been several pitched battles in the 
field, and the conquerors had stormed thirteen 
pas. Peace was made with the Tauranga 
tribes of Waitaha a Hei and Ngatiranginui 
(Waitaha Turauta on the east side of Maketu 
had taken no part in the war ) . As for Tapuika, 
their broken power was not worthy of con- 
sideration, and was simply ignored. Ngaete- 
rangi now held undisturbed possession of 
Maketu, and about 75 square miles of excellent 
land, their territory extending halfway to the 
lakes; with them were associated Ngatiwhaka- 
hinga, a co-tribe or section of Ngaeterangi, that 
had not been driven out of Opotiki by Ngatiha. 
Ngatipukenga (formerly called Ngatiha), 
returned to Waiaua after the battle of Poporo- 
huamea, where they had suffered much; Ngae- 
terangi availed themselves of their assistance 
at the battle, but their presence was not 
particularly acceptable afterwards. We shall, 
however, hear more of this most pugnacious 
tribe, which, as it had rendered others homeless, 
by a just retribution became homeless itself. 

Such was the peaceful condition of the poli- 
tical horizon to Ngaeterangi, as resting on 
their laurels they enjoyed the tranquil outlook, 
when suddenly another war-cloud rose, of 
aspect most terrible; they were precipitated 
into it and all was strife again. 

It happened that a canoe went out from 
Tauranga to fish in the open sea. Two chiefs 
were in this canoe, named Taurawheke and Te 



ANCIENT MAORI LIFE 199 

Turanganui. A westerly gale arose and drove 
the canoe before it until it was lost and the 
people all drowned excepting one man, Taura- 
wheke, who escaped by swimming to Okurei, 
Maketu Point. Here he was found in an 
exhausted state by a woman who was looking 
for shellfish amongst the rocks. She took him 
to a sheltered place under the cliffs, and went 
to fetch food and clothes for him. On the way 
she met her husband and told him how she had 
found Taurawheke and where she had left him. 
As soon as she had departed on her errand the 
husband went and killed Taurawheke and ate of 
him, and continued thus to indulge himself 
from time to time secretly, the people of his 
tribe, Ngaeterangi, knowing nothing about it, 
but his wife knew. 

At Tauranga it was supposed that the canoe 
had been lost at sea with all hands. Sometime, 
however, after this, the man, evidently a brutal 
fellow, beat his wife severely, and she 
exclaimed, "Oh! I can punish you by telling 
what you did." The busybodies of the tribe 
(of whom there always is, have been, and will 
be a number everywhere) now sought to pene- 
trate the mystery of the wife's words, nor 
stopped until the murder was out, and all over 
the place, and news of it had been taken to 
Tauranga. Ngatiranginui and Waitaha were 
not slow to seek revenge. They caught two 
Ngaeterangi chiefs at Otaiparia at Te Tumu 
getting toetoe.* They were Tuwhiwhia and his 

*The toetoe (called by Europeans tuitui grass) was used for 
thatch. 



200 ANCIENT MAOEI LIFE 

son, Tauaiti. The father they killed, and putting 
his headless body into his canoe sent it adrift to 
float down the stream to Maketu. The son 
they took to Tauranga and killed at their leisure 
by torture and mutilation. In his agony 
Tauaiti said to his persecutors: "My pain is 
shallow compared to the ocean of pain to come," 
signifying thereby what their pain would be like 
before long. 

The drift canoe was seen at Maketu and told 
its own tale. Intelligence, too, of Tauaiti 's 
suffering and death was subsequently received, 
and entered deeply into the feelings of the 
people. Their rage at the Tauranga people 
was dreadful, to whom they determined that the 
cup of wrath should be administered and drunk 
to the dregs. Then was seen how Kotorerua, 
the younger brother of Tauaiti, rose to the 
occasion. Putangimaru, a chief of Eaukawa, 
at Waikato, was travelling at this time and 
came to Maketu; he was known to be a wise 
man, and powerfully possessed of the art of 
divination. Kotorerua suggested to his sister, 
Tuwera, that she should be complacent to their 
guest. Putangi was pleased and Tuwera 
returned with him to his home as his wife, and 
Kotorerua was invited to follow them to their 
place at Hinuera in order that Putangi and he 
might have opportunity to divine and make 
plans together. 

To avoid his enemies at Tauranga, Kotorerua 
travelled through the forest by Otawa to Te 
Pawhakahorohoro, where he found a guide left 



ANCIENT MAOEI LIFE 201 

for him by Putangimaru named Ika. They 
travelled to Whenuakura, whence all the 
country could be seen around. Ika pointed out 
the road and the place where Putangimaru 
lived. Kotorerua having got this information, 
killed Ika unawares, because he wanted some 
portions of his body to divine with before he 
met Putangimaru. Having performed this 
office, he pursued his journey, taking Ika's head 
with him. Putangimaru received Kotorerua 
with distinction, and asked if he had seen Ika. 
"Yes," said Kotorerua, "he brought me 
through the forest, and then I was able to find 
my way by myself ; so I killed Ika, as I had to 
divine before I met you. ' ' 

"You acted very wisely," said Putangi. 

"I have brought Ika's head for us both to 
divine upon," said Kotorerua. This also 
received the approval of Putangimaru. Then 
they divined carefully and found the auguries 
favourable, and they took counsel together and 
formed the plan of a campaign. This done, 
Kotorerua returned to Maketu to push his 
preparations, and in due time he attacked the 
large pa of Banginui and Waitaha at 
Maunganui. 

The pa of Maunganui, situated on the hill of 
that name, covered about 100 acres. The 
fortifications crossed the top of the hill and 
ran down each side, then, circling round the 
base towards the south, they met. Waitaha 
held the east side, and Ngatiranginui the west 
side of the pa, which enjoyed a beautiful view 



202 ANCIENT MAOBI LIFE 

and splendid position on the shore of the 
harbour. The fortifications were so strong and 
the garrison so numerous that the pa seemed 
impregnable to Maori weapons no matter what 
the prowess, the situation, with the means at 
command, was unassailable. It was to take 
this pa that Putangimaru and Kotorerua had 
devised a plan as daring as it was able, and, 
perhaps, the only one by which the object could 
have been effected. On the top of the hill on 
the north side of the pa, there was a point 850 
feet above the sea, which, under certain circum- 
stances would be vulnerable. Kotorerua under- 
took to solve the problem by inducing the 
required conditions and making the attack at 
that point, a narrow pass, flanked by walls of 
rock, and to which the approach from below 
for an attacking party, was exceedingly steep. 
That point once secured, the pa must fall, for 
it was the key to the position. A handful of 
defenders, however, could hold it against any 
number from without. Kotorerua 's scheme 
was to show no intention of making war on 
Kinonui, the chief of Maunganui; on the 
contrary, he would lull suspicion by appearing 
to conciliate him with a handsome present. 
The offering should come to Kino late on the 
evening of a dark and stormy night. Kino and 
his people would then be occupied fully in 
entertaining the present-bearers, or pretending 
to entertain them, and in counselling amongst 
themselves and trying to fathom this new and 
unexpected departure by Kotorerua. In this 



ANCIENT MAORI LIFE 203 

way many hours, perhaps the whole night, must 
elapse before Kinonui and his people would 
think of taking action of any kind, and during 
those precious moments of irresolution Koto- 
rerua intended to destroy him ; for meanwhile, 
under cover of darkness and storm, the whole 
force of Ngaeterangi would be thrown into the 
pa through the gap on the top of the hill. The 
army to perform this service would have to 
risk the storm in canoes, passing along the 
coast unseen at night, and landing immediately 
below the gap in a narrow channel between the 
rocks called Te Awaiti. The bearers of the 
present were to slip out of the pa in the dark- 
ness and cut the lashings of the topsides of all 
the canoes on the beach and rocks in front of 
the pa. If all went well, this rather complicated 
scheme would no doubt realise the hopes of its 
authors, but there were obviously several 
awkward contingencies connected with it, which 
must have caused considerable anxiety at the 
time to those charged with its execution. It 
happened, however, that everything came to 
pass exactly as Putangimaru and Kotorerua 
had planned. 

One evening, Kotorerua and one hundred and 
forty followers, armed, presented themselves 
unexpectedly before the fortifications of 
Maunganui, bearing a present to Kinonui of 
one hundred baskets of kokowai (red ochre) ; 
it was houru, the kind prepared by burning, and, 
it was said, had been obtained with much labour 
from the streams of Kaikokopu. The rain had 



204 ANCIENT MAORI LIFE 

overtaken them on the road, and they explained 
that they had been delayed while preventing 
their kokowai from getting wet. As it was too 
late to go through the formalities of presen- 
tation, the baskets were stacked at the quarters 
assigned to the visitors. Thus an inspection of 
the present was avoided, which was just as 
well, seeing that each was only a basket of 
earth, with a layer of kokowai at the top. 
Kotorerua and such of his followers as he 
desired to accompany him were taken to the 
large meeting-house in the pa, where the 
distinguished men of the pa met them. This 
large house, belonging to Kinonui, stood on the 
little plateau above the place that is now called 
Stony Point ; and then ensued between the host 
and his guest a scene, sustained for hours, of 
courtly urbanity and matchless dissimulation, 
covering a substratum of deadly hate; each 
with unparalleled ability was playing for the 
almost immediate destruction of the other and 
all who were with him. On the one hand, 
Kotorerua had to appear at ease and without a 
trace of anxiety, conversing about anything or 
nothing, to gain time and disarm suspicion 
and this, notwithstanding his men might be 
discovered at any moment tampering with the 
canoes on the beach below the pa, and notwith- 
standing the safety of all concerned, and the 
success of the enterprise, depended upon the 
arrival in time of the canoes through the storm. 
On the other hand, Kinonui had at all hazards 
to keep his guest interested until daylight, when 



ANCIENT MAORI LIFE 205 

his people would be able to see what they were 
doing, for it was intended that Kotorerua and 
all his party should then be killed; they could 
not kill them in the dark without accident and 
confusion, and some might escape in the dark- 
ness. Meanwhile Kotorerua was not to be 
allowed to rejoin his men ; but to kill him now 
would alarm them, and many would try to 
escape, therefore the conversation was kept up 
between these two great actors, each working 
for his own ends, as they sat facing one another 
with apparent indifference, but watchful of 
every movement. Now and then an attendant 
of one of the chiefs would come in or go out, 
seemingly about nothing in particular, but 
really keeping communication open with their 
respective parties outside. 

At length, Kotorerua was made aware that 
the time for action had arrived. All his staff 
had left the meeting-house as if fatigued; 
presently one of them returned about something 
and went out again, leaving the door open after 
him. Kotorerua rose, and in a moment had 
passed swiftly out. Kinonui had not time to 
prevent him, so unexpected was the movement 
of the younger man and so sudden; he called 
after Kotorerua and ran to stop him, but it 
was too late, the sliding-door was slammed in 
his face and the lanyard fastened outside. The 
time for mock ceremony had passed ; that which 
was real should now take place. A torch is 
handed to Kotorerua and quickly applied to the 
raupo wall, the meeting-house is wreathed in 



206 ANCIENT MAOEI LIFE 

flames, and Kinomii with his associates are 
immolated at the ceremony of their own funeral 
pyre. 

Then, by the illumination cast around, an 
avalanche of war was seen descending from the 
mountain-top, sweeping its course right down to 
the sea, and crushing the people as it rolled 
over them. Such as escaped the dread invasion 
fled to their canoes, and thrust off into the 
harbour, but the canoes, already wrecked, filled 
with water, and the occupants were drowned 
in trying to swim to the opposite and distant 
shore. 

Thus, with the head rather than the arm, did 
Kotorerua break the power of Ngatiranginui 
and Waitaha, and it was all done by a coup de 
main in a few short hours. The conquest of 
the rest of the district of Tauranga speedily 
followed. Katikati and the islands on the 
north side of the harbour were first subdued. 
This was Kinonui's own domain, and the poor 
people in it were too panic-stricken to offer any 
effectual resistance. Tamapahore took the 
Waitaha country on the east, including the 
possessions of the Kaponga, hapu of Ngati- 
ranginui, at Waimapu and Wairoa, and Buinga, 
between Wairoa and Waipapa, were still intact 
when Kotorerua returned to Tauranga after a 
temporary absence. He was then surprised 
and displeased to find that terms of peace had 
been granted to Ngatiranginui at Otumoetai pa, 
that the same had been ratified by a marriage. 
Kotorerua refused absolutely to be a party to 



ANCIENT MAORI LIFE 207 

the arrangement. He immediately attacked 
Otumoetai and destroyed the people in the pa. 
This, with the fall of some minor pas on the 
south side of the harbour, completed the subju- 
gation of the Tauranga country by Ngaeterangi. 

Kotorerua's campaign at Maunganui denotes 
consummate generalship, with troops of finest 
quality and discipline, and a high military and 
naval organisation. Only with such material 
could such a daring and complicated scheme 
have been carried out, but the general knew the 
quality of his men, and therein he showed his 
capacity. The maxim, that for desperate cases 
desperate remedies are necessary, must, I 
suppose, be taken as a sufficient warrant for the 
general when staking everything upon the 
unknown quantity of a gale of wind at sea, but 
the auguries had been favourable, and we can- 
not tell how much that influenced him. I have 
myself been impressed with the unquestioning 
faith the old Maori chiefs had in the auguries 
vouchsafed to them. I remember such an one 
who went through many battles in the belief 
that no bullet could harm him. He might be 
wounded, he said (experience showed that), but 
he could not be killed. He died in his bed, with 
a reputation that extended throughout the 
North Island. 

Wolfe, going by boat, took the enemy in the 
rear at night on the Heights of Abraham, but 
he had not a sea voyage by boat in storm, and 
a night landing through breakers on the coast 
to make. On the contrary, he had a river so 



208 ANCIENT MAOBI LIFE 

calm to go upon that, we are told, he recited 
Gray's ''Elegy" to his staff at that time; nor 
had he to enter the enemy's camp and delude 
him, while in the act of destroying his means 
of retreat, by breaking his boats not one 
hundred yards away. Yet there was a rift in 
Kotorerua's lute which wellnigh spoilt the 
harmony of his combination. He was a young 
man, and his uncle, Tamapahore, was a veteran 
leader in battles. On this occasion the latter, 
with his division, held aloof and did not join 
the flotilla, which was kept waiting for hours, 
until the very last moment possible, when at 
length he put in an appearance. This happened 
presumably through jealousy; however pres- 
sure or loyalty to Ngaeterangi prevailed in the 
end, but Tamapahore never got a quarter in 
the pa at Maunganui. The place he chose was 
made too uncomfortable for occupation; the 
other Ngaeterangi rolled great stones down the 
hill to his location; he took the hint, and made 
a pa elsewhere at Maungatapu. The jealousy, 
if such, of this old Maori warrior was natural 
enough; more highly civilised soldiers have 
felt the same, and some have not come out of 
the ordeal as well. Witness, for instance, the 
misconduct of that Imperial Archduke, who, by 
withholding his hand, caused his brother to lose 
the field of Wagram. See also the jealousy and 
disunion of Napoleon's marshals in the Penin- 
sula. The Waitaha remnant fled to Te Eotoiti ; 
the remnants of Ngatiranginui, as already 
stated, escaped into the forest at the back of 



ANCIENT MAOEI LIFE 209 

Tepuna, and there they became known as Te 
Pirirakau, which is their name still. 

It will be remembered how the aborigines 
permitted a few of the immigrants by Takitunm 
to settle at Tauranga; those persons kept up 
a connection with their compatriots at Whan- 
gara. Kahungungu, the ancestor of the great 
tribe of that name, was a Takitumuan of 
Tauranga, who left his native place and went 
south to live amongst the other Takitumuans 
because his elder brother had grossly insulted 
him, by striking him on the mouth with a 
kahawai (a fish). Similarly, two hundred and 
forty years after the settlement at Whangara 
had been made, Ranginui moved with his people 
from Hangar oa (between Poverty Bay and 
Wairoa, H.B.) to Tauranga, and camped on the 
left bank of the Wairoa, near where the bridge 
on the Katikati road is now. They were 
squatting on land belonging to Ngamarama, a 
numerous tribe, who owned the whole country 
west of Waimapu River. The Ngamarama 
resented the encroachment, and, to put a stop 
to it, caused two Ngatiranginui children to be 
drowned by their own children while bathing 
together in the Wairoa. The Ranginui children 
fled home and told what had been done to them. 
The tribe considered the matter, and next day 
the children were directed to return and bathe 
as though nothing had happened, and when the 
Ngamarama children joined them they were 
without fail to drown some of them; this the 
children did, and reported that they had 



15 



210 ANCIENT MAORI LIFE 

drowned a Bangatira girl. War followed, 
resulting in time in the destruction and expatri- 
ation of Ngamarama, and this is how Ngati- 
ranginui became possessed of Tauranga, where 
they lived undisturbed one hundred and twenty 
years, until Ngaeterangi came and took it from 
them, about two hundred and forty years ago.* 

THE NGATIPUKENGA TEIBE. 
I will now mention Ngatipukenga more 
particularly, who formerly lived at Waiaua, 
east of Opotiki. We have seen that they drove 
the Eangihouhiri away from Tawhitirahi, also 
that when the same Bangihouhiri took Maketu 
and killed Tatahau they, the Ngatipukenga, 
came to Maketu, hoping to join in the spoil, and 
took part at the battle of Poporohuamea. Their 
chiefs at that battle were Kahukino and Te Tini 
o Awa. The tribe, I should say, was of the 
ancient aboriginal stock. At the battle named 
they suffered severely, and recrossed the Waihi, 
whence they returned home. The Bangihouhiri 
had not forgotten Tawhitirahi and did not 
solicit their aid at the campaign of Maunganui. 
When they heard, however, of Kotorerua's 
success at Maunganui, they hurried up to Tau- 
ranga, to try and share in the spoil, and this 
time they managed to get a large tract of land 
next to Tamapahore's selection on the west 

*In the story of Te Waharoa, written twenty-nine years ago, 
though not published until the year following, I have placed the 
conquest of Tauranga by Ngaeterangi at 'about one hundred and 
fifty years ago.' My unit then for a generation was twenty years. 
My unit now is thirty years. Moreover, that was written one 
generation ago. 



ANCIENT MAOEI LIFE 211 

side. Here they became so overbearing that all 
the Ngaeterangi hapus united against them 
about one hundred years ago, and drove them 
completely out of the Tauranga district. Their 
culminating offence was a ruthless assault upon 
a number of women of Ngaeterangi who were 
collecting shellfish on the flats laid bare by the 
tide near Te Papa. At their rout they fled by 
way of Whareroa (where they left their canoes 
thickly lining the beach, which ever after was 
called Whakapaewaka) to Orangimate pa, half 
way to Maketu. Thus the measure meted by 
them to Te Bangihouhiri was measured to them 
by Ngaeterangi, Bangihouhiri 's descendants. 

After this expulsion Ngatipukenga hated 
Ngaeterangi bitterly, and never lost an oppor- 
tunity of joining the enemies of that tribe. 

When Tapuika fell before Ngaeterangi at Te 
Karaka, Ngatipukenga came and helped them to 
obtain revenge at Te Kakaho. 

When Ngatiwhakahinga retired from Maketu 
before Ngatemaru, Ngatipukenga went and 
occupied that place. 

Then Te Barau from Waikato and Ngaete- 
rangi attacked them, seeking to drive them 
away from Maketu, but effected nothing. 

Then Ngapuhi, armed with guns, came, at 
whose approach Ngatipukenga fled inland to 
Te Whakatangaroa, near Te Hiapo, and Maketu 
was evacuated by them. But some time after 
Ngatitematera, from Hauraki, attacked and 
took Te Whakatangaroa, and Ngatipukenga 
fled to the lakes. 



212 ANCIENT MAOKI LIFE 

A war party of Ngatirawharo, allies of 
Ngaeterangi, going from Tauranga to attack 
Okahu pa at Rotoiti, were encountered en route 
by Ngatipukenga and an action was fought at 
Te Papanui, where Ngatipukenga were 
defeated. 

After this the elder Taipari, of Hauraki, 
made peace with Ngatipukenga. 

Ngapuhi came a second time to Tauranga, 
and on this occasion joined Ngaeterangi against 
Ngatipukenga, Orangimate pa was taken with 
much slaughter, and the refugees fled to 
Eotorua. At length Ngatipukenga decided to 
go to Hauraki, whence their feud could be 
carried on more easily and effectively. They, 
therefore, left Orangimate and Maketu, to which 
places they had returned from the lakes, and 
joined Ngatimaru at the Thames, by whom 
some of them were located at Manaia, near 
Coromandel, where they are now known as Te 
Tawera. 

From the Thames they went with Ngatimaru 
to Maungatautari, from whence they operated 
against Ngaeterangi thrice, losing two engage- 
ments at Te Taumata and gaining one in which 
the Ngaeterangi chief, Tarakiteawa, was killed. 

Then followed the taking of Te Papa pa at 
Tauranga by Te Eohu, of the Thames, where 
Ngatipukenga were present and joined in the 
assault. Te Papa was destroyed in utu for the 
murder by Ngaeterangi of Te Hiwi, near the 
Wairoa Eiver. Te Hiwi was a chief of Ngati- 
raukawa. 



ANCIENT MAOEI LIFE 213 

From Te Papa Te Eohu advanced to Maketu, 
Ngatipukenga accompanying him. They found 
the pa occupied by Ngapotiki of Ngaeterangi. 
The pa was taken and many Ngapotiki were 
slain. 

Again, Ngatipukenga followed Ngatimaru 
through the war at Haowhenua and Taumata- 
wiwi, and after the defeat suffered there Ngati- 
pukenga fled to Eotorua, where they hardly 
escaped death because they had murdered Te 
Kuiti at Eotorua, on a former visit, and because 
they had killed Te Oneone at Maketu. These 
were very good reasons why they should be 
killed and eaten, but they were saved through 
an old marriage of one of their chiefs with a 
Ngatiwhakaue woman of rank. However, 
Ngatiwhakaue would not allow them to remain 
at Ohinemutu, and they passed on to Maketu, 
which place they held until Te Waharoa took 
their pa and killed nearly the whole of them. 
The remnant fled back to Eotorua. When 
Maketu was re-taken by the Arawa this 
remnant returned to Maketu, where it has 
remained to the present time. 

During the civil war at Tauranga in the 
fifties, Ngatipukenga were invited from Manaia 
to help Ngatihe, with the promise of receiving 
land at Ngapeke, at Tauranga. They came and 
got the land, but rendered no military service 
for it, for the war was over before they arrived. 
A number of Ngatipukenga live at Ngapeke still. 

The little tui was the ruin of Ngatipukenga. 
It involved them in a long struggle with 



214 ANCIENT MAOEI LIFE 

Ngaeterangi that lasted for generations, and 
reduced their number to such an extent that 
they ceased to have power to disturb anyone; 
moreover they lost all their lands at Opotiki 
and Tauranga, through the restless and 
pugnacious spirit which followed their adven- 
ture at Tawhitirahi. 

NGATIBAWHAKO TEIBE. 

Ngatirawharo were like Ngaeterangi, only 
more Hawaikian, perhaps. Originally they 
lived at Ohiwa, whence they moved to Waiohau, 
on the Eangitaiki Eiver. The Ngatipukeko 
a tribe of Ngatiawa, objected to what they 
considered a trespass on their land, and 
attacked them. Marupuku was the chief of 
Ngatipukeko, who led this war, in which there 
was much fighting, lasting a long time. The 
following battles were fought: Whakaaronga, 
where Ngatirawharo suffered severely; then 
Putahinui and Pounatehe were engagements 
at which Irawharo were beaten and driven 
many miles toward the sea. This happened 
about the time that Te Eangihouhiri made their 
progress from Opotiki to Tauranga. Ngati- 
pukeko continued from time to time, with more 
or less success, to wage war. They fought at 
Otamarakau at Waiohau, at Tamahanga near 
Raerua, at Tapuae, and at Omataroa. On each 
occasion they improved their position, and after 
the action last named, Ngatirawharo were com- 
pelled to move off their land and cross the river 



ANCIENT MAORI LIFE 215 

at Te Teko; but the people at Te Teko would 
not allow them to remain there, so they had no 
option but to move on, nor stopped until, with 
reduced numbers, they arrived at Otamarakau 
at Waitahanui. There, and at Te Euataniwha, 
they settled, and remained a long time. At 
length they joined their friends, the Ngaete- 
rangi, at Tauranga, where they have lived ever 
since. This tribe has forgotten that it has 
aboriginal blood in its veins. 

THE WAR OF NGATIPUKEKO OF MATAATUA WITH: 
NGATIMANAWA OF TE ARAWA. 

Shortly after the termination of their war 
with the Kareke tribe at Te Poroa, Ngati- 
pukeko, under Te Muinga, went to Te Whaiti to- 
live. Te Muinga 's example was not im- 
mediately followed by all the chiefs, but in the' 
course of four or five years all the great chiefs 
had moved from Whakatane to Te Whaiti, Tehe 
only remaining at Papaka to take care of that 
place (Papaka, it will be remembered, was the 
strong pa at Whakatane that Tamapahore was 
prowling round on the night when he grossly 
insulted a chief's daughter). In time about six 
hundred fighting men had settled at Te Whaiti, 
whose chiefs were Kihi, Mokai, Tautari in his 
youth, Te Mahuhu, and Te Moeroa. Their 
principal pa was Nihowhati. It happened one 
day that Tamahi of theirs set out on a journey 
to Whakatane, for numbers of the tribe contin- 
ually passed and repassed between the two 



216 ANCIENT MAOEI LIFE 

places. When he arrived at Puketapu, a pa at 
Mangahouhi, Tamahi met a war-party of the 
Uriwera, under Paiterangi, who slew him. 
Ngatihaka saw the deed and took the body of 
Tamahi and buried it. Soon after, three men 
of Ngatimanawa passing by, dug up the body 
and ate it. They were Manakore, Tarewarua, 
and Matarehua. When Ngatipukeko heard of 
it, all the body had been consumed. 

Then Kihi led Ngatipukeko away from the 
members of all other tribes, to a remote place 
in the forest, where he said he wished a clearing 
to be made, but when they had arrived on the 
ground he cast aside his stone axe and grasped 
his weapon ; they all did the same, and a council 
of war was held to know what should be done. 
It was unanimously decided to avenge the 
insult offered by Ngatimanawa, and this was 
done by making a night attack under Kihi on 
Parakakariki pa, near Tutu Tarata. They killed 
Te Matau and vindicated their honour. Then 
peace was ostensibly made and hostilities ceased. 

After the foregoing episode, messages came 
to Ngatipukeko at Te Whaiti, from the tribes 
at Taupo and Whanganui, asking them to come 
and fight for them. The tribe was summoned 
to a council of war, and Kihi urged the enter- 
prise, saying to the chiefs Matua and Taimi- 
miti: "Go and lead the fight." They 
answered: "No, go you and lead, for you are 
our fighting chief. ' ' ( Kihi was probably afraid 
to leave the home of the tribe in the care of the 
two chiefs named.) However, he went with a 



ANCIENT MAORI LIFE 217 

war party of seven score men, and had a very 
successful campaign, taking pas at Whangaehu, 
near Whanganui. 

During Kihi's absence Matua and Taimimiti 
went on a fishing excursion (but Ngatimanawa 
chose to say they went to kill men in utu for the 
violation of Te Wharekohuru, Tautari's 
daughter). They were busy catching eels when 
they received an invitation from Ngatimanawa, 
at Waiirohia, near by. They accepted the 
proffered hospitality, and, as a reward for their 
simplicity, they and their party of seven were 
slain. Having thus committed themselves, 
Ngatimanawa immediately arose and destroyed 
two Ngatipukeko villages, Ngatahuna and 
another; only one person escaped, who fled 
from the latter to Nihowhati. But though 
warned, Nihowhati was nevertheless destroyed, 
the bulk of the people being away. Te Munga 
and one hundred people were burnt at Niho- 
whati in a large house in the pa, called Te Umu 
ki te Ngaere. 

It happened, however, that one man, named 
Mato, escaped unperceived from the rear of the 
house, and gave the alarm to the scattered 
Ngatipukeko in the surrounding country, who 
all collected at Oromaitaki, where they were 
joined by the refugees of Ngatiwhare, for 
Ngatiwhare had suffered also, and there they 
built a pa to defend themselves. Karia was 
sent to recall Kihi, and fortunately met him 
returning with his war party close at hand at 
Kaingaroa. 



218 ANCIENT MAOEI LIFE 

On hearing the dreadful intelligence, the 
warriors of the Ngatipukeko whose families had 
been massacred, determined to kill Kihi on the 
spot for taking them away to Whanganui. But 
Kihi said: "Let me live to get vengeance. If 
the other chiefs had lived you might have killed 
me, and I would have been willing to die, but 
they are all slain, and there is no one else to 
lead you now. Let me live to seek vengeance. ' ' 
Then Ngatipukeko spared him. 

Soon they came upon a birdcatcher of Ngati- 
manawa, whom they questioned, and learned 
that they were close to the main body of 
Ngatimanawa, seven or eight hundred strong, 
who were about to attack Oromaitaki. Killing 
the birdcatcher, they advanced and presently 
perceived the enemy reconnoitring the pa. 
They remained unperceived, and at daylight 
next morning attacked him unawares, routing 
him with slaughter and the loss of two chiefs; 
but they found at the end of the action that the 
birdcatcher had deceived them, and that the 
main body of the enemy had not been engaged. 
On this they became very cautious, watching all 
detached parties, and cutting them off. By this 
means several score of Ngatimanawa were 
killed. At length a general action was fought, 
in which Ngatimanawa, although assisted by 
Ngatihineuru from Eunanga, were defeated. 
Then for the first time Kihi's war party went to 
Oromaitaki to mingle their lamentations with 
the people there for the many murdered mem- 
bers of the tribe. For a short time only did 




Kakapo. 



ANCIENT MAORI LIFE 219 

they weep, and then they went out from the pa 
the same day to fight the enemy at Ikarea. This 
was not a decisive action, but the next battle 
fought at Mangatara was entirely favourable to 
Ngatipukeko. It was a very peculiar battle, 
because it was fought by women. There were 
only thirty-seven Ngatipukeko men engaged, all 
the rest who fought were women, and the odds 
against them were fearful. But first, I should 
say, that the Ngatipukeko had been out- 
generalled. They were scattered in pursuit of 
detached parties, when suddenly Ngatimanawa 
fell, with concentrated force, upon their head- 
quarters, where their families were. The 
women were equal to the occasion. They rigged 
up guys so well that the enemy was deceived, 
and in forming for attack laid himself open to 
an irresistible onset in the flank. The Amazons 
displayed a wonderful courage and knowledge 
of the art of war. With hair cropped short and 
bodies nude* they charged into the undefended 
side of the enemy, with such force as to throw 
him into confusion. Moenga was the distin- 
guished Amazon of the day. She fought with 
a paiaka, and hewed the Ngatimanawa down on 
every side. On all sides the enemy fell, until 
he broke and fled; the main body of Ngatipu- 
keko army came up in time to follow in pursuit, 
nor stopped until Eunanga was reached. From 
there the Ngatimanawa, or rather, what was 
left of them, passed on to Mohaka, where Te 

*In Maori warfare it was absolutely necessary to fight naked, 
and with short hair, in order to give the enemy no means of catching; 
hold of the body ; for the same reason oil or fat, when obtainable, 
was smeared over the body before going into action. 



220 ANCIENT MAOKI LIFE 

Kahu o te Kangi, a chief of Ngatikahungungu, 
made slaves of them. Te Kahu soon found 
that he was being cheated by his slaves. The 
birds they caught were given to a chief of 
another tribe. Finding they were not to be 
trusted, he ill-treated and killed them. 

Then Ngaetuhoe, a tribe of the Uriwera, took 
compassion on the miserable remnant of Ngati- 
manawa, and brought them away to Maunga- 
pohatu, and they had some old kumara pits 
given them to live in. While they lived in this 
abject condition at Maungapohatu, the Ngati- 
manawa sent Kato and others to Kihi to sue 
for peace. Their petition was granted, and 
terms were fixed. The next day another 
section of Ngatipukeko sent for Kato and his 
friends, to hear and discuss the terms named; 
this, however, was only a ruse, for as soon as 
Kato and his companions appeared, some of 
whom were related to Ngatiwhare, they killed 
and ate them. Therefore, for ever after that 
treacherous hapu of Ngatipukeko was called 
Ngatikohuru (hapu of murderers). 

Now, when Ngatipukeko had conquered 
Ngatimanawa, Ngatiwhare became afraid of 
their inflamed and bloodthirsty demeanour, and 
quietly withdrew to the mountains, and there 
remained until intelligence was received of the 
murder of their friends by Ngatikohuru. Then, 
from being friendly from a distance, they 
changed and became active enemies to Ngati- 
pukeko, although closely related to them, and 
revenge in some way was determined upon. 



ANCIENT MAOKI LIFE 221 

The opportunity was not long in coming. News 
was received that Ngatipukeko were sending a 
deputation of chiefs to the Uriwera at 
Euatahuna; instantly Ngatiwhare dispatched 
Karia, their chief, to Euatahuna, there to 
persuade the Uriwera chief, Eangikawhetu, to 
kill the deputation when it should arrive. 
Eangikawhetu assented to Karia 's proposal, 
and tried to carry it out. His success was only 
partial, for Mokai and Kuraroa escaped. 
This affair created a further complication in 
the political outlook, and for a long time Ngati- 
pukeko were embroiled with the Uriwera tribe. 
At this time Ngatipukeko had possession of 
the right bank of Eangitaika from Waiohau to 
Te Whaiti, where they lived many years undis- 
turbed, and then they returned under Kihi to 
Whakatane. From Whakatane they went to 
Te Awa o te Atua and lived a while, and there 
they saw Captain Cook's ship pass by. They 
went off to the vessel and saw the people on 
board of her.* Again they returned to Whaka- 
tane, where a deputation from Ngatimanawa 
and Ngatiwhare sued for peace and to be 
permitted to return to their homes at Te 
Whaiti, and Ngatipukeko allowed them to go 
there. 

*The tradition says that they saw Cook's people balancing poles 
on their chins. The poles were balanced vertically, one end in the 
air, the other on the chin. I have heard this tradition more than 
once from old chiefs now deceased, not one of whom could give 
me any explanation. Could it have been that Cook and his officers 
were seen taking the sun with old-fashioned elongated quadrants f 
or were the marines seen in profile with their arms at the 'carry,' 
and that thus an impression was produced on the Maoris ? or were 
the men really amusing themselves in the manner described! 
Doubtless the long voyage necessitated some amusements, and perhaps, 
this curious one was extemporised. 



222 ANCIENT MAORI LIFE 

A MAORI DUEL. 

When the chief Matua was murdered, as I 
have said, while eel-catching at Waiirohia, he 
left a little son named Tama te Eangi, who grew 
up to be a man imbued with the strongest hatred 
of his father's murderers. This feeling had 
been carefully instilled into him by his widowed 
mother from earliest childhood, by songs and 
hakas, and by the persistent character of 
remarks which were specially directed against 
Potaua, and she took care to have Tama te 
Eangi carefully trained to the use of arms. 

Potaua heard what the widow had done, and 
he feared to approach Te Tirina country, where 
she lived. At length he came to Puketapu, a 
pa on the Eangitaiki, by the racecourse at Te 
Teko. He was encouraged to venture there by 
the presence of Harehare and two other 
chiefs, with whom he thought he should be safe 
from insult and attack. 

Tama te Eangi heard that Potaua had come 
to Puketapu, in the Pahipoto country, and when 
he heard it he said to his people at Whakatane 
that he would go and see him. 

Taking two companions he went, and at night 
he camped in the fern, a mile or two from Puke- 
tapu pa. He informed the chiefs of the pa by 
a messenger that he had come, and they invited 
him to the pa for the night. 

Tama te Eangi replied that they would see 
him come to their pa by the light of the day. 

The next morning Tama was seen 
approaching, and the whole population turned 



ANCIENT MAOEI LIFE 223 

out to see what he would do. He came and 
walked up the narrow roadway into the public 
place of the pa, all people respectfully making 
way for him and his companions. Here on an 
arena already formed and guarded stood 
Potaua. The chiefs of the pa were standing at 
the further end of the space, beyond Potaua. 
Tama te Bangi entered the arena at once, and 
advanced confidently upon his enemy, who had 
a presentiment that his hour had come. This 
unnerved him, and the young man's vigour and 
skill overcame him, and he fell, slain by the 
avenger of blood, in the presence of all the 
people. 

Hatua, the father of the late Eangitukehu, 
leaped forward, and by his great influence 
saved the other Ngatimanawa visitors, who, in 
the excitement of the moment, would have been 
killed on the spot by the people of his tribe. 

ANOTHER MAOEI DUEL. 

It was in the lake country that Eke, a 
faithless fair eloped to the forest with Utu, a 
middle-aged chief of considerable authority and 
weighty connections. The feeling of the tribe 
was very much roused against Utu, for Tua, 
the injured husband, was a popular man, and 
one of their best fighting chiefs, whereas Utu 
had never distinguished himself in any way, 
excepting on the present occasion, which had 
proved him oblivious to the obligations due to 
a friend and neighbour. The truant pair 
journeyed to other parts, and remained away 



224 ANCIENT MAORI LIFE 

until Utu, tired of his toy, and wearied of the 
exile, determined to go home and face the 
consequences. So one morning an affair of 
honour came off on the sands of Euapeka Bay, 
at Ohinemutu. Utu, accompanied by his friend, 
Ana, were there on one side, and Tua, with four 
other principals, were there on the other side. 
Ana was not a principal, and was not there to 
fight, but the four men who were with Tua had 
each of them come to get satisfaction as near 
relations to the husband, or to the wife, for the 
Maoris were communistic in their customs. 
Any of these principals could have taken Tua's 
children from him, and they were equally 
entitled to avenge his honour, for was it not 
their honour also? 

Utu sat before these five adversaries on the 
sand, unarmed, provided only with a short 
stick called a karo, with which to ward off any 
spears thrown at him, or blows from other 
weapons that might be used. Had he been a 
slave he would not have been allowed to have 
even a karo, but must have defended himself 
with his hands and arms. Utu 's karo had been 
well karakia-ed by the priest. 

All being ready the duel began. Tua 
remained inactive while each of the four men 
who had accompanied him advanced in turn and 
threw a spear at Utu, who managed to karo, 
ward off, the four darts without hurt to himself. 
The rights of the four were now exhausted. 
The Atua having caused their attacks to fail, 
they could not be repeated without danger to 



ANCIENT MAORI LIFE 225 

themselves ; any one of them who, contrary to 
all canons human and divine, should renew his 
attack, would be liable in himself or his family 
to misfortune (aitua) by sickness, accident, or 
otherwise. Even against a slave attack could 
not be renewed. These assailants had had 
every chance. The choice of weapons and how 
to use them had been theirs. They had chosen 
spears. The weight of the weapon and the 
distance at which to throw it had been at their 
option. Any one of them for that matter might 
have walked up to Utu as he sat and speared 
him on the spot at short point, had he been able, 
but they were too experienced to attempt it. 
Utu would have defended himself easily in that 
case. Rising at the right moment, and 
advancing a pace, he would have fixed his 
opponent's eye, and by a dexterous movement 
of his right hand would have seized and averted 
the thrust thus to disarm an enemy to one who 
knew how was as simple as shaking hands with 
a friend. 

As we have disposed of the four in theory 
and practice, let us return to Tua, whom we left 
looking on, apparently almost an indifferent 
spectator. The four had failed, and this 
seemed suddenly to rouse his feelings, for he 
went off into a dance wholly scornful in gesture 
of his friends, and somewhat defiant of his 
enemies, treating all to an exhibition of agility 
as he darted from place to place, and skill in 
brandishing his weapon, and riveting attention, 
his own the while being fixed in semi-challenge 

16 



226 ANCIENT MAOKI LIFE 

to the bunglers, and thus he gained his point 
of vantage, and wheeling, struck the unsus- 
pecting Ana, whom nobody wished to hurt, and 
thus the duel ended as comnmnistically as it 
had begun. I should say that Hea, a brother of 
Tua, being of a utilitarian disposition, had 
refrained from exercising his right at the 
encounter. The satisfaction he required was a 
bit of land. Utu recognised the claim, and gave 
him a nice little town site overlooking the lake. 

MAORI COMMUNISM. 

As in his private warfare, so in his general 
life. The Maori was a thorough communist. 
But through the warp of his communism woofs 
of chieftainship and priestcraft were woven into 
a texture strong enough to answer all the 
requirements of his simple civilisation. Where 
communal usage did not reach the case the 
chief's was the executive governing power that 
dealt with it. Thus, communal usage might 
require a muru,* and it would be made 
accordingly by persons having the right. If a 
man's wife went wrong her people would muru 
him for not taking better care of her, this was 
usage ; but if the chief ordered a muru it would 
be for reasons known to himself, presumably 
for the benefit of the tribe. If a man gave much 
trouble the chief might have him muru-ed, or he 
might take his wife from him. If he mis- 
conducted himself in war, the chief might strike 

*To muru a man was to strip him of his personal property or 
some of it, or communist property in which he had an interest might 
be muru-ed. 



ANCIENT MAOKI LIFE 227 

him with his weapon. As a rule, however, these 
manifestations of authority were seldom 
needed, and very seldom exercised. The chief- 
tainship of the tribe was an hereditary office, 
passing from father to son by the law of primo- 
geniture; if the regular successor lacked the 
mental vigour and force necessary to the 
position, then another member of the hereditary 
family would be put in his place. The chief 
generally consulted advisers, or was supported 
by a council. In any case the chief could not 
run counter to the will of the people. 

The priest performed many religious offices 
for the community. Questions of tapu were in 
his keeping. At times of sickness his aid was 
invoked. At births he was not absent, and at 
baptisms his presence was necessary. He 
advised the chiefs as to the will of the gods, and 
the greatest weight was attached to his utter- 
ances on such occasions. He always received 
fees in the form of presents. As a rule he 
supported the governing power. If the priest 
(tohunga) stood high in his profession, and was 
sent for from a distance to perform an 
important function, his fee would be commen- 
surate to the event. He did not neglect the 
requirements of the humble members of the 
community. The widow with her small offering 
received his conscientious attention. Her 
child's illness was diagnosed and prescribed for 
and karakia-ed the same as for a more pros- 
perous person. The priest's office was hereditary. 



228 ANCIENT MAORI LIFE 

Although the chief carried himself with an 
air of authority, and the priest wore an 
appearance of superiority, each was subtly 
influenced by the communism of the body of 
which he formed a part. The former felt the 
pulse of the people before taking a step; the 
latter did not disregard their feelings and 
prejudices. Each lived in the same way as the 
people around him. Sometimes, however, a 
chief rose by violence or intrigue to such a 
commanding position among other tribes that 
his own tribe acquired perfect confidence in his 
judgment and ability, and followed him 
implicitly. Such men were Tuwhakairiora, the 
first Te Waharoa, Te Eauparaha, and Hongi 
Hika. 

As I have said, the Maori was a communist. 
Excepting perhaps a patch of land he might 
own privately, and his weapons and ornaments, 
the only thing he could draw the line at, and 
safely say, "This is mine," was his wife, who, 
before she blended her life with his, had been 
from earliest youth in principle and practice 
also a communist of the free love kind, not that 
much love had been involved, only that 
"through some shades of earthly feeling," 
she had tripped from pleasure to pleasure, not 
waiting to be wooed, and shedding in lieu of the 
"meek and vestal fires," "a glow so warm and 
yet so shadowy, too," upon her associates, "as 
made the very darkness there more sought after 
than light elsewhere." May I be pardoned for 
adapting the lines of the poet to my subject, 
who was neither a Delilah nor a Messalina, but 




Waka Nene. 



ANCIENT MAORI LIFE 229 

a simple Eve of nature, against whom., in her 
own people's eyes there was no law nor fault 
to find kahore he ture. But when she became 
a wife she rose to a higher sphere. Her animal 
habits changed as if by magic. Her commun- 
istic shell was cast, and she emerged an 
individual, a faithful Maori matron, with all 
the rights and obligations pertaining to her new 
condition. 

But to return to our Maori communist. He 
could not even claim his own children exclus- 
ively. For his brother, if childless, might, and 
most likely would, come and take one of them 
away and adopt it, and his sister might take 
another; so also his wife's sister might assert 
a similar right, but they could not among them 
deprive him of all his children. Communism 
stepped in at that point and took his part, for 
was he not as well entitled as they to share in 
the offspring? 

The house he lived in was called a wharepuni 
(living close together house). It contained but 
one room, in which both sexes, old and young, 
married and single, lived together night and 
day, and, according to size, it accommodated 
from say a dozen to four times that number of 
persons.* Again, when he went to cultivate 

*More than fifty years ago the missionaries strongly discoun- 
tenanced the wharepuni system amongst their converts. The Maoris, 
however, as was quite natural, could not understand their objection. 
Even their most devoted teachers were unable to appreciate it at 
first. But time has worked a change. Missionary perseverance, and 
the example of European civilisation have swept away the old 
Maori wharepuni. Each little family has now its own separate 
whare, and these are generally partitioned. The wharepuni of the 
present generation is a sort of town hall, in which strangers are 
lodged when visiting the tribe, and does not represent the old 
communism of the past. 



230 ANCIENT MAOKI LIFE 

the soil, he did not go by himself, taking 
perhaps his son or sons, as a European would. 
No, when he went he went with the commune. 
It was not his motion, but the motion of a body 
of people, whom the chief apparently led, while 
instinctively following the democratic desire. 
Men and women, boys and girls, all went 
together, as to a picnic, cheerful, happy and 
contented, and it was a pleasant sight to see 
them ranged in rows, and digging with their 
ko-es (wooden Maori spades), as they rose and 
fell, and their limbs and bodies swayed 
rhythmically to the working of the ko, and the 
chorus of an ancient hymn, invoking a blessing 
on the fruit of their labour. Still a large yield 
was not always a benefit, for it would sometimes 
induce friends and relations to come from a 
distance and eat the commune out of house and 
home. 

In the same way our communist was quite 
unable to keep any new thing, especially in the 
way of clothing. Did he sell a pig, and get a 
blanket in payment, his father presently paid 
him a visit, and was seen returning with the 
blanket draped round his person, and if he sold 
some kits or corn for a shirt, a pair of trousers, 
and a hat, his cousin would come from five or 
six miles away, and the hat would be given to 
him. Of course, the custom cut both ways, for 
when reduced in circumstances he, too, made 
calls upon his friends at auspicious times. But 
the system he lived under discouraged individ- 
ual effort, and those who tried individually 



ANCIENT MAOEI LIFE 231 

to better themselves under it sooner or later 
gave up the attempt, and it was not until the 
example of the early settlers had fully 
influenced another generation, stimulating it to 
further action, and the Native Land Courts had 
individualised their holdings, that the ice was 
broken, and the communistic element in their 
system of civilisation that had stunted enter- 
prise and retarded material interests was 
greatly diminished, though not entirely 
removed. 

But when it came to fighting, the Maori's 
communism helped him. When summoned to 
do battle for the commonwealth he instantly 
obeyed without conscription or recruiting, and 
with no swearing in, no shirking, no grumbling, 
he appeared at his post a trained soldier, active, 
willing and determined, in an army where 
courts-martial were unnecessary and unknown. 
He was animated by a living principle, he 
thought not of himself, but the body he belonged 
to was ever in his mind. The spirit that was in 
him inspired the whole, giving fierceness to the 
war dance, zest to the tuki* of the war canoe, 
and proved a powerful factor in war. 

Communism in war did not extend to the 
department of the Commander-in-Chief. The 

*To tuki was to give time to rowers in a canoe. T tuki a 
war canoe required tact and skill. The chiefs prided themselves 
upon the proper performance of this function. Passing to and fro 
upon the narrow thwarts between the rows of rowers (itself an 
acrobatic feat), the kai-tuki gave the time and inspired the crew by 
words, exclamations, short speeches, snatches of song, all delivered 
to time, with gesture, attitude, and motions of his weapon, also in 
time. In very large canoes there were sometimes two kai-tukis, the 
senior of whom promenaded the after part of the vessel, while tke 
ther occupied the fore part. 



232 ANCIENT MAOKI LIFE 

General was free to do his own thinking, and to 
issue his own orders, and implicit obedience 
was rendered to him. 

With certain exceptions the Maori held his 
land as a member of the tribe. In the matter 
of this, his real estate, the communistic element 
in his system of civilisation was well developed, 
and with the exception of slaves and refugees 
there was not a landless person in the com- 
munity. As time advanced, and posterity 
increased, lands that had belonged to one passed 
into the possession of many persons, for after 
several generations there would be a hapu, 
where one man had settled. This tendency was 
counteracted on the other hand by acts of 
partition or individualisation within the tribal 
boundaries; fresh boundaries would follow; 
moreover sales of land for valuable consider- 
ation were by no means unknown. The subject 
of ancient land tenure amongst the Maoris is 
interesting and instructive, and would in itself 
fill a small volume if treated exhaustively. 
Their claims were often singularly complex, and 
very far-reaching. Thus Ngaiterangi, in the 
early days, claimed and obtained payment for 
Tawhitirahi pa when a European bought the 
land there, and this notwithstanding they had 
not ventured to occupy it for three hundred 
years, and the natives living near the place 
approved of the claim; but not until they had 
been paid for the full value of the land. 

A slave was the property of the person who 
captured him in war. A master could kill his 



ANCIENT MAOBI LIFE 233 

slave. A husband could beat his wife. A man 
might have more than one wife. The women 
worked more than the men, and had to do the 
more laborious work, such as carrying heavy 
burdens, which the men never did, for they had 
tapued their backs. When Christianity 
diminished the power of the priests, they did 
not strive against the innovation. Many of 
them became converted, and the others 
appeared to accept without question the change 
in the mind of the commune. 

TUWHAKAIEIORA TRIBE. 

This is a section of Ngatiporou tribe whose 
country extends from a point a little south of 
the East Cape to Potikirua, west of Point Lottin 
a few miles. From these points their boun- 
daries running inland converge rapidly towards 
each other until they meet. Their territory, 
therefore, is triangular in form. We have seen 
how this country was occupied by the abor- 
igines, and how Ngaetuari came from Whan- 
gara and conquered and settled upon the 
greater portion of it, and it will be remembered 
that the Ngaetuari were Hawaikians of 
Takitumu canoe. 

About sixty years after the Ngaetuari had 
settled themselves, Tuwhakairiora appeared on 
the scene and altered the face of affairs in that 
district to such an extent that the tribe living 
there now owes its origin to him, and bears his 
name. Tuwhakairiora was also of Takitumu 
extraction, and it is of the rather remarkable 



234 ANCIENT MAORI LIFE 

Takitumuan movement that was made under 
him that I would tell. But first I will briefly 
outline the Takitumuan prelude to our story 
from the landing at Whangara to the time of 
our hero. 

We have seen that Paikea, the captain of 
Takitumu, settled the immigrants at Whangara, 
after which he sailed for Hawaiki in another 
canoe, and so disappears from our view. About 
one hundred and twenty years after Paikea 's 
time, the chiefs of the colony at Whangara were 
the brothers Pororangi and Tahu. The latter 
went south to Kaikoura, but Pororangi, from 
whom the Ngatiporou are named, lived and died 
at Whangara. 

When Pororangi died, Tahu returned from 
Kaikoura to mourn for hm, bringing a number 
of slaves with him. He married his brother's 
widow, and the issue of the union was Ruanuku, 
a son, to whom Tahu gave the party of slaves ; 
which party became a tribe, bearing the name 
of Euanuku, their master. After some years, 
'Tahu returned to the other island, taking his 
son with him, and thus these two are removed 
from the scene ; but the Ngatiruanuku were left 
behind, to play an important part in it. 

Pororangi had two sons, Hau and Ue. The 
latter took the country southward from 
Turanga. The former and his descendants 
went northward, settling from time to time in 
various places, nor stopped until they had 
claimed the land as far as Taumata Apanui, 
near Torere. Here, however, the tide of success 



ANCIENT MAORI LIFE 235 

was met and rolled back by the Whanau Apanui, 
a tribe of Hawaiki-Awa descent. About two 
hundred and seventy years after the colony had 
been planted at Whangara, Poromata, a descen- 
dant of Hau, took an active part in the move- 
ment northward, and settled at Whareponga, 
where Ngatiruanuku, who had become a 
numerous tribe, had arrived before him, and 
here they all lived for a time, beside the abor- 
iginal Uepohatu tribe, of whom I have already 
made mention. 

Now, Poromata was not a young man. He 
had several grown-up sons and daughters, who, 
like himself were of a tyrannical disposition. 
They despised and oppressed the Ngatiruanuku 
as if they had been the slaves brought from 
Kaikoura, one hundred and fifty years before; 
and, ignoring the fact that they were but a few 
individuals surrounded by a numerous people, 
they plundered the best of everything the 
Ngatiruanuku produced, and forcibly took their 
women from them, and they were particularly 
fond of seizing the best fish from the Euanuku 
canoes when they returned from fishing out at 
sea. At length Ngatiruanuku, goaded beyond 
endurance, conspired to slay the old man and 
his sons, and they, by surprise, attacked them 
while fishing, and killed them all except one 
son, who escaped, and nothing more is heard of 
him in this story. 

At this time Haukotore, a brother of Poro- 
mata, lived near by at Matakukai. He was 
related to Ngatiruanuku by marriage, and was 



236 ANCIENT MAORI LIFE 

on better terms with them than his brother had 
been. He did not attempt to avenge the death 
of his brother, or seek assistance for that pur- 
pose ; neither did he retire from among his 
brother's murderers. His behaviour was 
altogether pusillanimous, as for many years he 
remained on sufferance in the presence of his 
natural foes, even after they had refused his 
request to be permitted to establish a tapu 
where his brother had been slain. 

Very different was the spirit that animated 
Atakura,the youngest of Poromata's daughters. 
She was at Whareponga when her father and 
brothers were killed, and was spared by Ngati- 
ruanuku. Her anger, however, was not 
appeased by their forbearance. All the thirst 
for revenge that was lacking in her soulless 
uncle was, as it were, added to her own thirst, 
and concentrated in her burning breast. She 
left Whareponga immediately, and went to 
Uawa, where she married for the avowed 
purpose of raising up a son to avenge the 
murder. Thence she and her husband, whose 
name was Ngatihau, went to Opotiki, to which 
place he belonged, and there a son was born 
whom they named Tuwhakairiora, from the odd 
circumstance that an uncle of his at Waiapu had 
lately been buried alive (or rather put in a 
trough made for the purpose, and placed up in 
a tree, for that was a mode of sepulture) . From 
his birth Tuwhakairiora was consecrated to the 
office of an avenger of blood. Atakura and her 
husband lived at Opotiki many years, and had 



ANCIENT MAORI LIFE 237 

a family of several children. It was there that 
Tuwhakairiora received the education necessary 
to a chief, and the military training that should 
fit him for the part that he was destined to 
perform. He was not like other young chiefs, 
for all knew, and he knew, that he had a mission 
to which he had been dedicated from the womb, 
and it was proverbial how his lusty embyronic 
struggles had been welcomed by his mother as 
a token of manhood and power to slay her 
father's murderers. 

Thus it was that our young chief, when he 
came to a man's estate, was the centre to whom 
a wide circle of adventurous spirits looked and 
longed for warlike excitement. Nor did he fail 
to take advantage of this feeling, by visiting 
from tribe to tribe and increasing his prestige 
and popularity. At length he determined to 
take action. For this purpose he moved with 
his parents to Te Kaha, Oreti, and Whanga- 
paraoa, living at each place awhile, ingratiating 
themselves with the inhabitants, and drawing 
recruits to their cause. From the place last 
named his parents passed on to Kawakawa, 
leaving the rest of the party at Whangaparaoa, 
where Kahupakari, Atakura's first cousin, 
received them joyfully and gave her several 
hundred acres of land to live on. Kahupakari 's 
father had taken part in the Ngaetuere conquest 
sixty years before. 

Shortly after this, Tuwhakairiora followed 
his parents to Kawakawa, travelling by himself. 
On this journey he saw Euataupare for the first 



238 ANCIENT MAOEI LIFE 

time, and married her at Wharekahika in tHe 
masterful manner already described. She was 
the daughter of the principal chief of that 
district, which was peopled at that time by 
aboriginal tribes. Our hero required something 
then to soothe his feelings, for he had just 
hurried away then through wounded pride from 
Whangaparaoa, where he had met his match in 
a young woman of rank named Hinerupe, to- 
wards whom he had conducted himself in a 
plantation where they were working with a 
freedom so unbecoming that she met him with 
her wooden spade, and hit him a blow on the 
jaw that sent him off. The plantation is called 
Kauae (jaw) to this day. 

From Kawakawa Tuwhakairiora made an 
excursion to the East Cape, whence for the first 
time he viewed the Ngatiruanuku country, and 
doubtless thought upon his mission and 
revolved in his mind the task before him. But 
he was not to get vengeance yet, nor indeed for 
many years. Although he knew it not, he was 
even then in a path that would lead to a train 
of events fated to alter his position, and change 
him from a wayfaring adventurer to the war- 
like head of a powerful tribe. He turned and 
retraced his steps. He was alone and his dog 
followed him. Passing near Hekawa pa, two 
men, Wahia and Whata appeared, and killed 
his dog. He slew them both, then, putting his 
dead dog on his back, he went on his way ; but 
was presently overtaken by a number of men 
from Hekawa. He turned and killed Pito, the 



ANCIENT MAOKI LIFE 239 1 

foremost, but others pressed on, and after 
slaying several, he took refuge on a mound that 
is an island at high water. The people of 
Hekawa surrounded the little mound and kept 
him there. In this position he was seen by his 
younger brother, Hukarere, and recognised by 
his red dogskin mat. His brother, who was 
fishing in a canoe, came instantly to the rescue. 
Tuwhakairiora descended the hill, cut his way 
through his enemies, killing Waipao, and 
escaped to the canoe. That place is still called 
Waipao. Thus Hukarere saved his brother's- 
life, and thus Tuwhakairiora became incensed 
against the Ngaetuere, and he determined to- 
make war upon them. He sent, therefore to his 
followers to muster and to come to him, and 
they quickly responded, especially at Opotiki r 
where he was so well known and admired. It 
was with these troops that he conquered the 
Ngaetuere. 

Now we have seen that Ngaetuere were a 
tribe of Takitumu descent who, sixty years 
before, had driven out the aboriginal Ngaoko r 
who were of Toi extraction. More than thirty 
years before that time the Ngaoko had emerged 
from the mountain forest of Tututohara and 
destroyed the aboriginal tribe named Eua- 
waipu, that occupied the coast from Pukeamaru 
to Maraehara, and killed their chief, whose 
name was Tamatea Arabia. Tamatea Upoko, 
the daughter of this chief, escaped with other 
refugees to Whangara, where Ngatiporou, of 
Takitumu, received and sheltered them. 



240 ANCIENT MAORI LIFE 

Tamatea Upoko married Uekaihau, of Ngati- 
porou, and in due course three sons of that 
marriage, Uetaha, Tamokoro and Tahania, 
grew up. The Buawaipu element had, mean- 
while, so strengthened itself among the N^ati- 
porou, that the three brothers named were able 
to raise an army of Ngatiporou and half-caste 
Euawaipu-Ngatiporou sufficiently numerous to 
justify them in attacking Ngaoko, for the pur- 
pose of revenge and to regain the lost territory. 
They set out, and on their march were 
attacked at Uawa (Tologa Bay), by Te Aetanga 
Hauiti, who failed to bar their passage. Again 
at Tawhiti mountain they were attacked by the 
Wahineiti, and again they forced their way 
against those who would have stopped them.. 
After this they marched unmolested through 
the Waiapu country, belonging to the 
Wahineiti,* an aboriginal tribe who were a 
section of Te Iwi Pohatu a Maui. Having 
passed the East Cape the army, whom from this 
time I shall speak of as Ngaetuere, travelled 
through Horoera and Hekawa without meeting 
a soul, the Ngaoko had evidently fallen back to 
some vantage ground to await their attack. 
When they arrived at Kawakawa, they found 
the Ngaoko posted in two pas, one at Karaka- 
tuwhero, the other, Tihi o Manono, at Kopua- 
ponamu, was the largest they had. A scouting 
party of the invaders fell in with a similar 
party of the people of the place, and cut them 

*The Wahineiti of Waiapu are not to be confounded with the 
Wahineiti of Waipiro. The latter was a small tribe of Pororangi 
origin. The former was a section of the aborigines. 




Wood Pigeon. 



ANCIENT MAOBI LIFE 241 

off, killing the chief, Tuteuruao. Then the 
Ngaoko came out of their pas in full force, 
and attacked Ngatuere in the open field, when 
the latter by stratagem led Ngaoko into 
Awatere Gorge, and, getting them at a disad- 
vantage, inflicted severe loss upon them, and 
killed their chief, Tangikaroro. At the next 
engagement Ngaoko were again defeated, and 
another chief named Rakaimokonui fell. At 
the third battle Ngaoko were completely 
worsted, and fled for the first time before their 
enemies. On this occasion the chiefs Manoho 
and Te Awhenga were slain. On the same day 
the great pa Tihi o Manono was taken by 
assault. Ngaoko rallied, however, at the pa at 
Karakatuwhero, and finally at Tarapahure, 
another pa at Pukeamaru, but the three 
brothers pursued them and took these pas also, 
and this completed the conquest of the tribe and 
country. The remnant of the Ngaoko became 
slaves called Ngatirakaimatapu ; but they inter- 
married with the conquerors, and became 
absorbed by them. 

This, then, was the tribe of Ngaetuere, against 
whom Tuwhakairiora was about to declare war. 
After a lapse of sixty years, the component 
parts of the tribe had consolidated into a homo- 
geneous whole, of which the elements were 
probably half aboriginal and half immigrant in 
character. And the force, chiefly Whakatohea, 
that was coming against them, and destined to 
overthrow and absorb them what was it? We 
have already seen that the people it was drawn 

IT 



242 ANCIENT MAORI LIFE 

from were a tribe of aborigines with but a strain 
of immigrant blood in its veins, and this is the 
material, united and cemented together by time, 
of which the Tuwhakairiora tribe is formed. 
From that time, more than three hundred years 
ago, the tribe has always been ruled by chiefs 
of the same distinguished Ngatiporou family. 

Tuwhakairiora crossed the Awatere with his 
forces, and engaged and utterly defeated the 
Ngaetuere at Hekawa. Then he established 
himself at Kawakawa, and built a pa called 
Okauwharetoa at Awatere. Some of the Ngae- 
tuere were now subject to him, but others were 
not. About this time some Ngaetumoana people 
killed Te Eangihekeiho of Ngaetuiti, of which 
tribe was Euataupare, Tuwhakairiora 's wife; 
this was a sufficient excuse for Tuwhakairiora 
to wage war against them. He fought them 
at the battle of Whanakaimaro, at Matakawa, 
and destroyed the tribe, driving the remnant 
off westward towards Whangaparaoa. Thus 
one tribe of aborgines disappeared from the 
district. Then another tribe of aborigines 
became uneasy at the presence of the invaders, 
and insulted them. These were the Pararake. 
War followed, and the battle of Pipiwhakau 
was fought, where the aboriginal chief Whaka- 
puru te Bangi was slain, and his tribe was 
defeated and driven to Whangaparaoa. The 
aboriginal Ngaetuiti were allowed to remain 
intact because the conqueror had married into 
their tribe when he came from Opotiki, but 
they fell into a very subordinate position; 



ANCIENT MAORI LIFE 243 

nevertheless, at their desire some of the 
Pararake were allowed to remain in the district. 
It happened that Tuwhakairiora was taking 
a wife to himself at Wharekahika, his brother 
Hukarere was similarly engaged at Whanga- 
paraoa. He married Hinerupe, who had used 
her spade so well, the granddaughter of Tama- 
koro, one of the three brothers who led Ngae- 
tuere from Whangara against Ngaoko. At the 
time of the marriage Uetaha, her father, was 
the chief of a large section of Ngaetuere. This 
alliance favoured the designs of Tuwhakairiora 
by neutralising at the time of active hostilities 
a great number of the Ngaetuere. It enabled 
him to conquer the tribe in detail, instead of 
having them all against him at one time. Not 
that Tuwhakairiora acted treacherously 
towards the Tamakoro section of Ngaetuiti. 
The trouble that came they brought upon them- 
selves. The half-brothers of Hinerupe were 
jealous of some advantages granted to her by 
Tuwhakairiora, who was her brother-in-law, 
and they cursed her; this, of course could not 
be overlooked, and action was determined upon. 
Tuwhakairiora sent to friends he had made at 
Waiapu and Uawa, asking them to come and 
assist him in the forthcoming struggle, and in 
response the chiefs Umuariki and Kautaharua 
appeared with their respective followings. In 
this manner a considerable force was collected, 
and the campaign of "Waihakia took place, 
resulting in the entire defeat of the Tamakoro 
party, whom the conqueror reduced to a state 



244 ANCIENT MAOBI LIFE 

not exactly of slavery, but of very great 
subordination. 

I have now told how the tribe of Tuwhakai- 
riora was planted and grew up on the soil 
where it flourishes at the present time. The 
war had commenced with an attack made upon 
Tuwhakairiora while he was visiting his cousin 
Kahupakiri at Kawakawa. The descendants of 
the people who made that attack are now incor- 
porated in the general tribe of Tuwhakairiora, 
under the name of Te Wakeoneone. 

Many years had elapsed before these 
conquests were all completed, and affairs 
connected with them consolidated sufficiently to 
permit Tuwhakairiora to turn his hand to that 
to which he had been ordained. At length, how- 
ever, a time arrived when he* felt able to 
discharge the duty imposed, and preparations 
were accordingly made to assemble a force to 
chastise the murderers of his grandfather. 
From Opotiki, where he was so popular, he 
easily obtained as many men as he wanted. 
With these added to his own troops, he set sail 
in a fleet of canoes for the country of Ngati- 
ruanuku, where one morning before daybreak 
he surpised and carried by assault Tonganiu, a 
pa, and killed Kahutapu, the chief of that 
place. Then he fought the battle of Hikutawa- 
tawa in the open, and took two other pas called 
Ureparaheka and another. Many were killed in 
these pas, the people who escaped fled inland, 
leaving all their land and property to the 
victors. Tuwhakairiora then considered that 



ANCIENT MAORI LIFE 245 

ample revenge had been obtained, and he 
returned home to Kawakawa, leaving his great- 
uncle Haukotore and other relations, who had 
continued to live there after the murder, in full 
possession of the land. 

Mate, the sister of Atakura, heard at 
Turanga of Tuwhakairiora 's campaign, and 
that two or three pas had fallen, and said, ' ' My 
sister's side has been avenged, but mine is not 
avenged, ' ' and she sent for Pakanui, her grand- 
son, to return from a war he was prosecuting 
in the south, and directed him to wage war 
against the remaining portion of Ngatiruanuku, 
and against their allies, the Wahineiti of Poro- 
rangi, who lived at Waipiro. 

Pakanui obeyed his grandmother, and fitted 
out a number of canoes for an expedition, and 
for want of warriors he manned them with a 
force so inadequate to the object intended, that 
he devised the extraordinary ruse of taking the 
women and children in the canoes, in order to 
deceive Ngatiruanuku as to the nature of the 
flotilla, and for the rest he hoped that some 
accident might befriend him. When Pakanui 
and his party arrived at Waipiro, they landed 
there and camped on the shore. To all 
appearance they were travellers en route-, the 
presence of the women and children quite put 
the people there off their guard; but the 
strangers could not remain there indefinitely; 
their chief knew this, and was puzzled what 
action next to take. He could not send for 
Tuwhakairiora's assistance, for his enterprise 



246 ANCIENT MAORI LIFE fr 

was a sort of set-off against what that chief had 
done. He could not attack the enemy openly 
without courting defeat, while to return home 
would be to make himself a laughing stock, and 
nothing had happened, or was likely to happen, 
to assist him. In this dilemma he racked his 
brains, and an idea occurred to him, upon which, 
for want of a better, he determined to act. He 
told each man to make a hand net, such as was 
used for catching small fish among the rocks on 
the seashore; with the help of the women this 
task was soon accomplished. Then he 
distributed his men along the shore in open 
order, a little time before the right time of tide 
for fishing, and they were all engaged in fishing 
at the many little channels in the rocks through 
which the tide flowed, some of them made 
artificially, and each belonging to some man in 
the neighbouring pa.* 

The owners of these fishing channels did not 
admire the freedom of the strangers, and they 
mustered to occupy their private fishing ground. 
At the right time of tide they presented them- 
selves in a body, each man with his hand net, 
and their chief Eangirakaikura at their head. 
The chief found that Pakanui had appropriated 
his stream, for Paka had noted beforehand 
which was the chief's stream, and said to him, 

*In many parts of the East Coast, south of Hick's Bay, a 
limestone formation prevails, the strata of which, tilted at a high 
angle, ran in parellel lines from the land to the sea. At the coast 
these lines of rocks are cut off by the waves, and because their 
cleavage is at right angles with their strata, a serrated and Suted 
shore line filled with parallel channels running from high water 
mark to low water, is formed. Up these channels the kehe fish 
passes in search of food with the flood, and returns to the sea 
with ebb tide. 



, ANCIENT MAOEI LIFE 247 

"And where am I to fish?" Paka promptly 
drew his net out of the water, and replied, 
"Fish here," and he stood beside Eangi as he 
fished. This little pantomime was enacted all 
along the line, until Pakanui saw all his men 
distributed like Thugs, each man standing close 
to a man of the other side, apparently looking 
at the fishing, really awaiting the pre-arranged 
signal that Paka was to make, the tide mean- 
while washing high over their feet. Suddenly 
the signal was given; then each man of Paka's 
side simultaneously drew a mere, attached to 
his foot under water, and throwing his net over 
the head of his enemy, entangled him in it, while 
he killed him with the mere. In this manner 
Pakanui 's party killed one hundred fighting 
men, including the chief, and struck such a 
terror into the remainder of the enemy that 
Pakanui was able to follow up the success effect- 
ively. This affair is known as Te Ika Kora- 
parua, which may be freely rendered, l i Two fish 
in one net : ' ' the kehe and the man. It took place 
near Tangitu stream, between Akuaku and 
Whareponga. The Ngatiruanuku fled inland, 
whither they were followed and finally 
destroyed. Thus Mate was avenged for the 
death of Poromata, her father, by the extinction 
of the remnant of Euanuku people whom 
Tuwhakairiora had spared, but the Wahineiti 
tribe remained in full force south of Waipiro 
stream, being too numerous for Pakanui to 
venture to disturb them. However, he settled 
on the land he had conquered, and lived there 



248 ANCIENT MAORI LIFE 

several years, at the end of which he was com- 
pelled by the hostility of the Wahineiti to 
obtain the aid of Tuwhakairiora, who came with 
a strong force and crushed the Wahineiti at the 
battle of Borohukatai, fought on Waipiro beach 
(so named because the brains of men were 
mingled there with the froth of the tide), and by 
taking their three pas, Poroporo, Turanga- 
moahu and Maungakowhai. At the end of the 
war Tuwhakairiora returned home, whence he 
sent Iritekura, his niece, to occupy the con- 
quered territory. She went with her family 
to Waipiro about three hundred and thirty 
years ago. She lived and died there, and her 
descendants who bear her name, live there at 
the present day. 

But Iritekura, who founded the tribe of that 
name, is not the only Maori woman whose name 
figures in the history of her race. 

It was a woman, Torere, who swam ashore 
from Tainui canoe, and founded the Ngaitai 
tribe. 

It was the woman, Muriwai, who led the Nga- 
tiawa to Whakatane in Mataatua canoe. 

It was a woman, Atakura, that caused several 
pas to be destroyed out of revenge. 

It was a woman, Mate, that caused a tribe to 
be annihilated from feelings of revenge. 

It was a woman, Hinewaha, whose thirst for 
revenge enabled her to raise the Ngatitematera 
at the Thames, and incite them to make war on 
Ngamarama at Katikati, because her brothers 
had been slain in battle by the latter. 



ANCIENT MAOEI LIFE 249 

It was a woman, Ruataupare, who invaded 
the Wahineiti at Tokomaru, and took that 
country from them, and founded a tribe that 
bears her name now. 

It was a woman, Moenga, who led the 
Amazons at the battle of Mangatara, and 
routed the enemy. 

But if there have been women political, 
women revengeful, and military women, 
amongst the Maoris, there have also been 
merciful women, and women of a peaceful 
disposition. 

Of such was the woman Kurauhirangi, who 
intervened on the field of battle and made 
peace between Te Roroterangi and Ngaeterangi 
at Maketu, and terminated a war that had lasted 
many years, and had probably cost thousands 
of lives, for great efforts had been made by 
many tribes to recover that place from Ngaete- 
rangi. 

When Te Rohu, a chief of Hauraki, influenced 
by revenge, took the large pa at Tauranga 
called Te Papa, and slew its unfortunate 
people, it was a woman, one of his wives (whose 
name I regret I have mislaid), who persuaded 
him to relinquish his intention to destroy 
Otumoetai, and to be satisfied with the utu 
obtained. She saved the lives in that large pa 
of perhaps two thousand persons, and returned 
home with her husband. 

Now observe the sequel. It happened within 
a short time after, that Te Waharoa urged 
Ngaeterangi to help him in the approaching 



250 ANCIENT MAORI LIFE 

campaign against the Hauraki tribes at Hao- 
whenua. They responded to the call, and sent 
a contingent of about two hundred men, who all 
returned home without fighting because they 
had received a message from that woman before 
the battle of Taumatawiwi asking if they 
remembered Otumoetai.* 

Lastly, it was a woman, Mapihiterangi, who 
stopped the chronic state of warfare between 
Ngaeterangi and the remnant of Ngatiranginui. 
She was a Ngaeterangi woman of rank, who, 
unknown to her own tribe, passed over to the 
enemy's tribe, and married its guerilla chief. 

And it was quite a common thing in ancient 
Maori life and history for women of rank to 
sacrifice their own feelings and all they held 
dear, and marry stranger chiefs of other tribes, 
from whom in times of public emergency 
assistance was required. 



*The return home of Ngaeterangi without fighting at Taumata- 
wiwi, is not mentioned in the story of Te Waharoa. I had heard 
of that return at the time I wrote that book, from a man who was 
a slave in the Haowhenua pa. All he could say was that Ngaete- 
rangi had turned back at Horetiu River, without crossing it, and 
therefore, without reaching the field of Taumatawiwi. I hesitated, 
however, to attach historical weight to an improbable and inexplicable 
story. I have since learned from Ngaeterangi chiefs now deceased, 
that the story of the slave was correct, and that the woman's 
message was the cause of the extraordinary proceeding. 



THE HAWAIKI MAORI IMMIGRATION. 



SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTER. 

In concluding these " Sketches of Ancient 
Maori Life and History, ' ' let me say that since 
the foregoing pages were written a memor- 
andum on the coming of the canoes has been 
found by my brother, Captain C. J. Wilson, 
amongst some family papers in his possession, 
which is in our late father's well-known 
handwriting, and is initialed by him. The 
paper is undated, but for reasons it is 
unnecessary to trouble the reader with I think 
it was written some time between the middle of 
1836 and the end of 1841. In addition to some 
things already mentioned, it gives the following 
information : 

First, certain details of the struggle that led 
to the emigration from Hawaiki are treated; 
but as these are not within the sphere of our 
inquiry, we need not enter upon them now. 

Then the Pukeko is named among the living 
things that were brought in the canoes from 
Hawaiki.* 

We are told that the canoes left Hawaiki 
"lashed together in one long line." 

*I did not enumerate the Pukeko in a former chapter among 
the things brought from Hawaiki, not because I had not heard of it, 
but because my information was received from a source that did 
not appear to be sufficiently reliable. 

251 



252 ANCIENT MAOBI LIFE 

The names of seven or more canoes are 
given, six of which landed in the Bay of Plenty. 
These, with four Ngapuhi canoes of which I 
have since been informed by a chief of that 
tribe make the number of the fleet up to 
twenty-two canoes. The following is a list of 
the fleet and the place of landing of each canoe 
in so far as I can furnish the same. The eleven 
canoes whose names have been already given 
are placed last on the list. The exploring 
canoe Matawhaorua is omitted because she did 
not bring immigrants to Aotearoa : 

Names of Canoes. Places of Landing. Remarks. 

1. Nukutere near Marahea, East Ngatihau 

Coast 

2. Rakautapu Whakatane 

3. Akeake Whakatane 

4. Awarua Matata 

5. Te Ru Matata 

6. Wakatane Whakapaukorero, west 

of Matata 

7. Pakihikura Ohiwa Ngariki tribe 

8. Ruakaramea Mangonui Ngapubi {tribe 

9. Waipapa Oruru Ngapubi 

10. Puhitaniwha Ngapuhi derive their 

name from this 
canoe 

11. Mamamaru Ngapubi 

12. Kurabaupo Ngatiwhatua 

13. Mahuhu Ngapnhi 

14. Arawa Maketu Many Arawa tribes 

15. Whatu Banganuku Wairarapa Waitaha Turauta, a 

section of the Arawa 

16. Taimii Eawbia Many Tainui tribes 

17. Mataatna Whakatane Many Ngatiawa tribes 

18. Takitnmu, alias Horo- Whangara Many Takitumu tribes 

uta 

19. Pungarangi Rurima and Wairarapa Nelson natives 

20. Aotea Aotea West Coast natives 

21. Rangimatoru Ohiwa Ngatirangi 

22. Tokomaru Tokomaru and Mokau Atiawa and Ngati 

maru, of West Coast 

From Ohiwa Pakihikura canoe went to 
Opotiki. The bar at the mouth of Opotiki river 



ANCIENT MAORI LIFE 253 

was named after her, and still bears her name 
in the abbreviated form of Pakihi. The 
Ngariki people who formed her crew landed on 
the flat at Opotiki and lived there. They and 
their descendants occupied the seaboard in that 
part until they had made themselves so 
obnoxious to the aborigines, that the latter 
emerged from the forest-clad mountains of the 
interior and swept them out of the Opotiki 
valley. The remnant of the Ngariki fled east- 
ward, and their descendants may be found at 
the present time living amongst the compatriot 
Whanau Apanui tribe. 

It is more than twenty-eight years since I 
heard of Ngariki and their troubles; but I 
refrained from mentioning them in the previous 
pages simply because I was unable to find a 
niche for them in the historical arrangement of 
these sketches (and I may also say that I have 
been unable to include the Panenehu in the 
scheme) ; but now the difficulty, so far as 
Ngariki are concerned, is removed by my 
father's memorandum, written perhaps twice 
twenty-eight years ago, and I am glad to fill up 
the blank by placing them amongst the HawaiH- 
Maori tribes. 

While searching my papers for particulars 
of the Ngariki- Whakatohea war, I came upon 
a note of my own that had been overlooked 
when I remarked upon the paucity of infor- 
mation in connection with Kangimatoru canoe. 
I find by the note that Bangi was the captain 
of Eangimatoru. The canoe terminated her 



254 ANCIENT MAORI LIFE 

voyage from Hawaiki at Ohiwa, thence she 
went to Opotiki. Her passengers ascended the 
Otara branch of the river at Opotiki, and settled 
in what is known as the Opotiki gorge, and they 
hunted in the valley of the Pakihi stream. 
Unlike the Ngariki, who behaved treacherously, 
these immigrants lived at peace with the abor- 
iginal Whakatohea, and ultimately became 
incorporated with them. They are now known 
as the Ngatirangi, a sub-section, or pori, of the 
Whakatohea tribe. 

The Ngatihau settled when they came in 
Nukutere canoe at Marahea, between Tokomaru 
and Anaura, from whence they hived off as they 
increased in number, and made an additional 
home for the tribe on the banks of the Upper 
Whanganui River. 

At Mangonui a stone marks the spot where 
Te Euakaramea finished her voyage from 
Hawaiki. 

Some of the descendants of the immigrants 
who came in Tainui penetrated as far as 
Taupo, Moawhango and the Upper Eangitikei, 
and settled there. They were called Ngatihotu 
after Hotunui, the captain of Tainui, and were 
living at the places named one hundred and 
eighty years after the arrival of their ancestors ' 
canoe at Kawhia. It was at that time that the 
Ngatihotu were invaded by sections of the 
Arawa, and driven out of Taupo; but they 
maintained their position on the watersheds of 
the Moawhango and Bangitikei rivers until they 
were displaced and finally destroyed by bands 



ANCIENT MAOKI LIFE 255 

of adventurers of Takitumu extraction; this 
happened about three hundred years ago. The 
Hawaikians struggled with each other for 
possession in remote parts, just as Europeans 
contended against one another in the seven- 
teenth and eighteenth centuries for dominion 
in America and the Indies. 

The Tainui tribes did not take possession of 
the Lower Thames Valley until more than one 
hundred years after they had occupied the 
Taupo district, although the former was nearer 
and more suitable to their requirements. From 
this we may infer that while the Tainui were 
few the aborigines at the Thames were too 
numerous to be attacked by them, and that 
Taupo was unoccupied or but sparsely settled 
by the ancient inhabitants when the Tainui 
people went there. 

I will now, with the leave of my reader, lay 
down my pen, and would say that in making 
these sketches I have refrained from subor- 
dinating fact to effect. I have endeavoured to 
unravel and lay straight the convolutions of a 
tangled skein. If I have in any degree 
succeeded in the task ; if from heaps of material 
that cumbered the ground a structure has been 
outlined that shall bear the test of time and bear 
being added to, then I shall have accomplished 
that which I desired, notwithstanding the errors 
and imperfections of the record; the distant 
retrospect will be in a measure cleared, and 
some points will be fixed in the ancient history 
of New Zealand. 



CHBISTCHUBOH : 
WHITOOMBE AKD TOMBS LIMITED. 

1907 



ITCSB LIBRARY 



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