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4 

irti 1 



ST PAUL'S EPISTLES TO THE 

THESSALONIANS. 



Cam^rftrgc: 

PRINTED BY a J. CLAY M.A. 
AT THE UNIYEBSITY FKESa 



ST PAUL'S EPISTLES TO THE 
THESSALONIANS: 

WITH A CRITICAL AND GRAMMATICAL 
. COMMENTARY, 
AND A REVISED TRANSLATION, 



CHARLES J. ELLICOTT D.D. 

BISHOP OF OLOUOVSTEB AND BBISTOIi. 



THE THIRD KDLm^-fOJinKCTFD, 




LONDON: 
LONGMAN, GREEN, LONGMAN, ROBERTS & GREEN. 

1866. 



///. ^. //"'^ 



PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION. 



AVERY slight amount of change has been found necessary 
during the revision of this volume for the new edition. 
It is however brought fully up to the standard adopted in 
the Third Edition of the Pastoral Epistles, especially as re- 
gards the Translation. 

It is as well to call the reader's attention once for all to 
the fact that in these two Epistles the Codex Ephraemi only 
contains ch. i. 2 — ii. 8 of the First Epistle. This has been 
often noticed in the critical notes^ but not invariably. 



Olouoesteb, 
April, 1866. 



PKEFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. 



THE present edition differs but little from the first There 
will be found however traces of a regular and deliberate 
revision on every page. Scriptural references have been 
again verified ; readings and interpretations have been care- 
fully reconsidered, and the grammatical principles on which 
the interpretations appear to rest tested by fresh investiga- 
tion. Though the result is a very small amount of change, 
yet the amount of time thus spent in reconsideration has not 
been wholly thrown away; as the Commentary is now pre- 
sented anew to the reader with a humble yet increased con- 
fidence in the general soundness of the principles on which 
it is based. 



EXETBB, 

December, 1861. 



PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION. 



THE present volume forms the fifth part of my Commen- 
tary on St Paul's Epistles, and is constructed as nearly 
as possible on the same plan as the portion which appeared 
last year, viz. that containing the Epistles to the Philippians, 
the Colossians, and Philemon. I particularly specify this, as 
I have been informed by friends on whose judgment I can 
rely that the last portion of my labours is an improvement 
on those which preceded it. 

If I may venture to assume that this is really the case, 
I cannot help feeling that it is to be attributed not only to 
increased experience, b\it also to the cautious but somewhat 
freer admixture of exegesis which two of the three Epistles 
contained in the volume seemed more especially to require. 
This slight modification, and so to say dihition, of the critical 
and grammatical severity which distinguished the earlier 
parts of the work has been continued in the present volume, 
but it has been done both watchfully and cautiously, and 
will be really seen more in the way of slight addition than 
in actual change. Time and experience both seem to show 
that the system of interpretation that I have been enabled 
to pursue is substantially sound, that plain and patient accu- 
racy in detail does in most cases lead to hopeful results, and 
serves not unfrequently to guide us to far loftier and more 
ennobling views of the Word of Life than such an unpre- 
tending method might at first prepare us to expect. 

The modifications then, or rather additions and expan- 
sions, are really slight, and may be briefly summed up under 
two heads; on the one hand, an attempt to elucidate more 
clearly the connexion of clauses and the general sequence of 
thought; and on the other hand, an attempt to develop more 
completely the dogmatical significance of passages of a more 
profound and more purely theological import. Neither of 



viii PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION. 

these portions of sacred interpretation was neglected in the 
early paiiis of this Commentary, but in the present a deep- 
ening sense of their extreme importance has suggested this 
further expansion and development. 

A few slight additions to other departments of the Com- 
mentary may be briefly noticed. 

To the ancient Versions which I have been in the habit 
of consulting, viz. the Old Latin, the Peshito, the Gothic, the 
Coptic, the Philoxenian Syriac, and the two Ethiopic Versions, 
I did not think it would be necessary for me ever to make 
any addition. I have been convinced however by the able 
notice of the Armenian Version in Home's Introduction by 
my learned acquaintance Dr Tregelles that this venerable 
Version has greater claims on our attention than I had before 
believed. In spite of the excellent etlition of Zohrab, I had 
shared the opinion entertained by the majority of critics 
that the once-called 'Queen of the Versions' had but slender 
claims to that supremacy, and had suffered so much from 
Latinizing recensions as to be but of doubtful authority. 
The charges which have been brought against the labours of 
King Haithom in the thirteenth century, and the readings 
adopted by the collator Uscan in the seventeenth, tended 
of late years to awaken the suspicions of critical scholars. 
It is fair however to say that the charges of Latinism do 
not appear to be well founded, and that this ancient Version 
deserves the attention of the critic and commentator; still, 
if I am not presumptuous in hazarding an opinion, I do 
seem to myself to perceive a generally Occidental tinge in 
its interpretations, and I have more than once verified the 
observation of Loebe and De Gabelentz that there are coin- 
cidences and accordances with the Gothic Version that seem 
to be not wholly accidental. My knowledge however is at 
present too limited to enable me to speak with confidence. 

I have then deemed it my duty to make use of this 
Version, and to acquire such a knowledge of the language as 
should enable me to state faithfully its opinion in contested 
.passages. To the student who may feel attracted towards 
this interesting, highly inflected, yet not very difficult lan- 
guage, I will venture to recommend the Grammar and Dic- 
tionary of Aucher\ The former is now selling at a low 
price, and can easily be procured. Its great defect is in the 

^ Since tbe above was written «a 1841). It has a simple Cbrestomathy 

much more useful and better arranged and good Glossary, but no Syntax. 

Grammar has come under my notice, The standard Grammar of a larger 

viz. Brevi^ Lingua Armeniacce Gram- size appears to be that of Cirbied. 

matica, by J. H. Petermann (Berol. [1861]. 



PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION. ix 

syntax, which I cannot think very clearly or scientifically 
arranged; and in the Chrestomathy, which is not at first 
suflSciently easy and progressive. The extracts, though cu- 
rious, are not well siiited for a beginner, and are not intro- 
duced by any elementary lessons in parsing and grammatical 
application. A strong sense of the value of such aids re- 
minds me that I may not unsuitably take this opportunity 
of recommending the Coptic Qrammar of Uhlemann. It is 
extremely well arranged, is brief and perspicuous, and be- 
sides a good progressive Chrestomathy is furnished with a 
small but very useful Vocabulary. 

I again venture to commend these ancient Versions to 
the attention of all students who have leisure, and an aptitude 
for the acquisition of languages. It is startling to find how 
little we really know of these ancient witnesses, how erro- 
neous are the current statements of their mere readings, how 
neglected their authority in interpretation. And yet we see 
on all sides critical editions of the sacred volume multiplying, 
and, in at least one instance (I regret to say that I allude 
to the otherwise useful editions of Dr Tischendorf), can 
abundantly verify the fact that Latin translations, not jilways 
trustworthy or exact, have been the main authorities from 
which the readings have been derived. Is it too much to 
demand of a critical editor, of one who is by the very nature 
of his work free from the many distractions of thought that 
are the lot of the commentator, — is it too much to demand 
that he should consider it a part of his duties to acquire 
himself such a knowledge of these languages as to be able to 
tell us plainly and unmistakeably what are and what are not 
the true readings of these early and invaluable witnesses? 
Nay more, it is, and it will ever be, of paramount importance 
that the loyal critic should use no eyes but his own. He 
may endeavour to procure collations from others, he may try 
to proceed on the principle of division of labour, but he will 
I firmly believe ultimately be forced to admit that this is 
one of those cases in which labour cannot be well divided, 
and in which the mechanically-made comparisons of the 
associated collator can never be put in the same rank with 
the residts of the intelligent search of the professed critic. 
The very interest that the latter feels in what he is looking 
for protects him to a great degree from those inaccuracies 
which the mere collator can never hope entirely to escape ; 
added to which, his exact knowledge of the variations of the 
reading at issue will save him as nothing else ctm from con- 
founding merely a greater inclusiveness of moaning with evi- 
dences of distinct textual change. To cite a single and fa- 



X PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION. 

miliar instance, — ^how often must the critical scholar have 
observed that Oriental Versions are adduced on one side 
or other in such cases of prepositional variation as iv and 
Scd, when the plain fact is that the greater inclusiveness of 
the Beth or Bet of the Version leaves the actual reading 
which the translator had before him a matter of complete 
uncertainty. Are then our scholars, and more especially 
our critics, to shrink from such a useful and even necessary 
duty as the study of the ancient Veraions ? Are a certain 
number of weary hours, more or less, to be set in comparison 
with the ability and the privilege of making clearly known 
to others the critical characteristics of Versions of the Book 
of Life that have been the blessed media of salvation to 
early churches and to ancient nations ? 

One word, and one word only, as to my own humble, most 
humble efforts in this particular province. Time, toil, and 
patience, have done something; and though, alas, my know- 
ledge is still limited, yet I may at length venture to hope 
that in most of these Versions the student may fully rely on 
my statements, and that the number of those statements that 
may hereafter be reversed by wiser and better scholars than 
myself will not be very large. I am forced to say this, as I 
have observed in one or two reviews with which I have been 
favoured, that avowals of inexperience, which seemed the 
more suitable and becoming in proportion as the means of 
detecting it were in fewer hands, have been understood to 
imply that my citations from these ancient authorities con- 
fessedly could not be relied on. This however has not been 
and is not the case. While I sensitively shrink from drag- 
ging into notice the amount of my own labours, I still 
perceive that I must beware of leading the reader to pass 
over what may be of real use to him, and of feeling distrust 
where actually there may be no just ground for it. The 
intelligent scholar will see at a glance that to state fairly and 
correctly the translation of words of which the subject is 
familiarly known is a task which certainly does not lie be- 
yond the reach of ordinary patience and industry. 

Among other additions the reader will I trust be benefit- 
ed by the still increasing attention paid to our best English 
divinity. I have made it my study to refer especially to 
sermons on all the more interesting and difficult verses, and 
it is unusually cheering to find that no portion of my labours 
has been more kindly appreciated, or has apparently been of 
more real service to theological students. Without drawing 
any unfair comparison between English and German divinity, 
it does not seem one whit too much to say that if we are 



PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION. xi 

often indebted to the latter for patient and laborious exegesis, 
it is to the former alone that we must go if we would fain 
add to our mere contextual knowledge some true perceptions 
of the analogy of Scripture, and are really and sincerely 
interested in striving to comprehend all the profound and 
mysterious harmonies of Catholic Truth. 

With regard to matters of textual criticism, the student 
will observe in this volume the same persistent attention to 
the principal differences of reading, even in the grammatical 
notes. My constant effort is to popularize this sort of know- 
ledge, to make exegesis lend it a helping hand, and insensibly 
to decoy the student into examining and considering for 
himself what human words seem to have the best claims to 
be regarded as the earthly instruments by which the adorable 
mercies of God have been made known to the children of 
men. These notices, it must be remembered, are merely 
selected, and neither are nor are intended to be enumerations 
of all the differences of reading; still I have good hope that 
no reading that deserves attention has been overlooked. 

I have now only to conclude with a few notices of thoso 
works to which I am especially indebted. The list is gra- 
dually becoming shorter. I have been enabled to use so 
many more first-class authorities than when I commenced 
this series, that it does not seem disrespectful to omit si- 
lently such as can be fairly considered second-class from 
pages where text and notes only too often stand in an un- 
desirable though unavoidable disproportion. 

In these Epistles, as in the Pastoral Epistles, I have lost 
the sagacious guidance of Dr Meyer; I have not however 
so much to lament the change of editor as in the Epistles 
above alluded to. Though distinctly inferior to Meyer, es- 
pecially in the critical and grammatical portion of his work, 
Dr Liinemann is still a commentator of a very high order. 
His exegesis is usually sound and convincing, and no one, I 
am sure, can beneficially study these two beautiful Epistles 
without having at hand the Commentary of this able editor. 

The larger and more comprehensive Commentaries will 
be found specified in former portions of this work, but I 
must pause to express my hearty sense of the continued 
excellence of my friend Dean Alford*s Commentary. As our 
readers will see, we occasionally break a friendly lance, more 
especially in matters of detail. These gentle encounters 
however are not only unavoidable but even desirable. It 
is by all such amicable conflicts of opinion that the truth, 
often lying midway between those engaged in her defence, is 
most surely seen and recognised. 



xii PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION. 

Of the separate editions of these Epistles I desire to specify 
the very able Commentaries of Pelt and Schott. The former 
of these two writers has the great merit of being one of the 
first of later times who distinctly felt the importance of using 
the exegetical works of the Greek Fathers, and the latter 
supplies a good specimen of that patient mode of grammatical 
interpretation which has now obtained such general currency. 
Though both these works have been many years before the 
world, and though in many cases their opinions have been 
reversed by more modem expositors, they can neither of 
them be justly considered as superseded or antiquated. 

Last of all I come to the edition of Professor Jowett. 
And here I would rather that our differences of opinion ap- 
peared in their respective places than were specifically 
alluded to. I feel it however a duty to speak, and it is with 
pain that I must record my fixed opinion that the system 
of interpretation pursued by Professor Jowett is as dangerous 
as I believe it to be inaccurate and untenable. After making 
every possible allowance for the obvious fact that our systems 
of interpretation are completely and persistently antagonistic, 
after willingly making in my own case every correction for 
bias, I still feel morally convinced that the objections to 
Professor Jowett's system of interpretation are such as cannot 
be evaded or explained away. After having thus performed 
a very painful duty, I trust I may be permitted to express 
my full recognition of the genius that pervades his writings, 
the ease, finish, and, alas, persuasiveness of the style, the 
kindly though self-conscious spirit that animates his teach- 
ing, and the love of truth that, however sadly and deeply 
wounded by paradoxes and polemics, still seems to be ever 
both felt and cultivated. May these good gifts be dedicated 
^new to the service of Divine Truth and be overruled to 
more happy and more chastened issues. 

It now only remains for me with all humility and low- 
liness of heart to lay this work before the Great Father of 
Lights, imploring His blessing on what I may have said 
aright, and His mercy where my eyes have been holden, 
and where I have not been permitted to see clearly all the 
blessed lineaments of Divine Truth. 

TPIAS, MONAS, EAEHSON. 
London, August 4th, 1858. 



nPOS OESSAAONIKEIS A. 



INTRODUCTION. 



THIS calm, practical, and profoundly consolatory Epistle was 
written by the Apostle to his conveiia in the wealthy and 
populous city of Thessalonica not long after his first visit to 
Macedonia (Acts xvi. 9), when in conjunction with Silas and 
Timothy he laid the foundations of the Thessalonian Church 
(Acts xvii. I sq.). See notes on ch. i. i. 

The exact time of writing the Epistle appears to have been 
the early months of the Apostle's year and a half stay at Corinth 
(Acts xviii. 11), soon after Timothy had joined him (i Thess. 
iii. 6) and reported the spiritual state of their converts, into 
which he had been sent to enquire (ch, iii. 2), probably from 
Athens; see notes on ch. iii. i. We may thus consider the dose 
of A,D. 52, or the beginning of a.d. 53, as the probable date, and, 
if this be correct, must place the Epistle first on the chronological 
list of the Apostle's writings. 

The arguments in favour of a later date are based either on 
passages which have been thought to imply that the Apostle had 
preached the Gospel for some time elsewhere (ch. i. 8), or on 
statements in the Epistle (ch. iv. 13, v. 12 ; see 2 Thess. iii. 17) 
which have been judged to be in accordance with a greater in- 
terval between the time of the first preaching at Thessalonica and 
the date of the Epistle than is usually assigned. These have all 
been satisfactorily answered by Davidson (Introd, Vol. 11. p. 435), 
and have met with no acceptance at the hands of recent exposi- 
tors or chronologers ; comp. Liinemann, EinleUungy p. 6, Wieseler, 
Chronol. p. 40 sq. 

The main object of the Apostle in writing this Epistle can 
easily be gathered from some of the leading expressions. It was 
designed alike to console and to admonish; — to console, with 



xvi INTRODUCTION. 

reference both to recent external trials and afflictions (ch. ii. i4sq.), 
and still more to internal trials arising from anxieties as to the 
state of their departed friends (ch. iv. 13 sq.); — to admonish, with 
reference to grave moral principles (ch. iv. i sq.), Christian watch- 
fulness (ch. V. I sq.), and various practical duties (ch. v. 14) which 
had been neglected owing to the feverish expectations and anxie- 
ties which appear to have prevailed at Thessalonica even from 
the first: comp. ch. iv. 11, and see notes in loc. St Paul had 
heard of all these things from Timothy; and this information, 
combined with the Apostle's ftdl consciousness that there were 
many points both in knowledge and practice in which they were 
deficient (ch. iii. 10) and on which he would fedn have frirther 
taught them personally (comp. ch. ii. 17 sq.), appears to have 
called forth this instructive and strengthening Epistle. 

The authenticity and genuineness of the Epistle are placed 
beyond all reasonable doubt both by clear external testimonies 
(Irenseus, Rcer, v. 6. i, Clem.- Alex. Fcedag. i. p. 109, ed. Potter, 
Tertullian, de Reswrr, Cam, cap. 24) and by still stronger in- 
ternal arguments derived from the style and tone of thought. 
The objections that have been urged against it, like those ad- 
vanced against the Second Epistle (see Introd,), may justly be 
pronounced rash, arbitrary, and unworthy of serious consider- 
ation. They will be found fully answered in Davidson, Introd, 
Vol. II. p. 454 sq. 



nPOS GESSAAONIKEIS A. 



AjortoUc address and I I AYA02 KOI ^iKovavo^ KOI Tl/iO- I. 



I. IlavXof] The abienoe of the 
official deedgnatioQ drdffrdkos in the 
salutations of these Epp. is not due to 
their early date, nor to the fact that 
the title had not yet been assumed by 
St Paul (comp. Jowett), but simply to 
the terms of affection that subsisted 
between St Paul and his converts at 
Thessalonica, and their loving recog- 
nition of his office and authority ; oomp. 
1 ^ 1 Beng. in he, and see notes on Phil. i. 

I. The reason of Chiys., followed by 
Theoph. and (Eoum., 8(& rh veoKarrf- 
XfJTOvs €Ty<u roi>s AwSpas xal fifjBirta 
adroO Tetpfw etKfj^^vat, does not seem 
sufficient. That it was * propter reve- 
rentiam Silvani* (Cajet., Est.) is far 
from probable, for comp. i and i Cor. 
i. I, Col. i. I. SiXovav^] Iden- 

tical with Silas mentioned in the Acts 
(comp. Acts xvi. 19 sq. with i Thess. 
ii. I, 9, and Acts xviii. 5 with 7 Cor. 
i 19), a Tpo4>riTrjs (Acts zv. 32), one 
iiyoOfieyos A» rotj dbeX^xus in the Church 
of Jerusalem (ver. 12), and also pro- 
bably a Koman citizen (Acts xvi. 37) : 
he was sent by the Apostles and elders 
of that Church with St Paul and St 
Barnabas to Antioch, and, after first 
returning to Jerusalem (ver. 33), ac- 
companied the former on his second 
missionary journey (Acts xv. 40) 
through Asia Minor to Macedonia. 
There he co-operates with the Apostle 



(Acts xvii. 4) and Timothy (comp. 
Acts xvi. 3, xvii. 14, i Thess. iii. 6) 
in founding the Church of Thessalo- 
nica, and after staying behind at 
BercBS (Acts xvii 14) rejoins St Paul 
either at Athens or Corinth, and ac- 
tively preaches the Gospel in the last 
named city (9 Cor. i. 19). It does not 
seem improbable that he afterwards 
joined St Peter, and is identical with 
the ^Ivanus n^entioned in i Pet. v. 11 ; 
compare Blee]^ on ffe^. Vol. I. p. 
408. He is here placed before 

Timothy (so alio Acts xvii. 14, 15, 
xviii. 5, « Cor. i. 19, 2 Thess i. i), as 
being probably the older man, and 
certainly the older associate of St 
Paul. According to tradition, 

Silas was afterwards Bishop of Co- 
rinth, and Silvanus of Thessalonioa 
(compare the list in Fabria Lux 
Evang. p. 117); the former name 
however, though paroxytone, is in all 
probability only a contracted form of 
the latter; see Winer, ^. § 16. note 
i» p* 93* Eor further and legendary 
notices of Sias, see Acta Sanct. July 
13, Vol. m. p. 476, and for an at- 
tempt to identify Silas with St Luke, 
see Journal of Sacr. Lit. Oct. 1850, 
p. 318 sq. Ti|Ji6ecos] The 

name of this convert is too well 
known to need more than a brief 
notice. He was the son of a Greek 

B 



nP02 eE22AA0NIKEI2 A. 



Ge 



760) irarpi kqi 
eipi^vtl, 

father and a Jewish mother (Acts xvi. 
I, 2 Tim. i. 5), most probably from 
Lystra, and perhaps converted by St 
Paul on his first visit to that city 
(Acts xiv. 8 sq.). He accompanied 
the Apostle on his second missionary 
journey to Macedonia, remains behind 
at Beroea (Acts xvii. 14), is summoned 
by St Paul when at Athens; pro- 
bably rejoins him there (comp. 1 Thess. 
iii. I, 2, and see Neander, Planting^ 
YoL I. p. 195), is despatched to Thes- 
salonica, and returns to the Apostle 
at Curinth (Acts xviii. 5). After an 
intervil, he reappears in St Paul's 
third missionary journey, and is sent 
from Ephesus to Macedonia (Acts xix. 
22) and Corinth (i Cor. iv. 17). He 
was with St Paul when he wrote 2 
Cor. (i i) and Rom. (xvi. 21), accom- 
panied him from Corinth to Asia 
(Acts XX. 4), and subsequently was 
with him when he wrote Phil. (i. i), 
Col. (i. 1), and Philem. (ver. i). He 
appears afterwards to have been left 
in charge of the Church at Ephesus 
(i Tim. i. 3), and finally is summoned 
by St Paul to Rome, at the close of 
the Apostle's second imprisonment. 
He is named by Eusebius {Iliist. Eccl. 
in. 4, comp. Con4tt. Apost. vii. 46) as 
first bishop of Ephesus, and is said to 
have sufifered martyrdom under Do- 
mitian; see Phot. Biblioth. ccLiv. 
p. 1402 (ed. Hoesch.), Acta Sanct., 
Jan. 24, Vol. u. p. 562, and Menolog. 
GrcBC. Vol. n. p. 1 28. It may be 

remarked that Silvanus and Timothy 
are here named with St Paul, not 
merely as being then with him (comp. 
Gal. i. 2), or as the 'socii salutationis' 
(see notes on PhU. i. i), but also as 
having co-operated with him in found- 
ing the Church of Thessalonica. 
tJ 4kkX. Bttro'aK, K.T.X.] */o the 



I Kl/jo/ft) ^IfJCrOV XptCTTlp. XOLpl^ V/JLIV KOI 



Church of ike Thessaloniafu in Ood 
the Father,^ &c.; not 'scribunt aut 
roittunt banc epistolam* (Est.), but in 
the usual elliptical form of greeting 
(Lucian, Conviv, § 22), the x^^P^*" 
(James i. i) being involved and im- 
plied in the wish {x'i-P'-^ ic.r.X.) which 
i^orms the second period of the saluta- 
tion: see notes on i Tim, i. 2. 
Thessalonica was a large (Lucian, 
Aiin. § 46), wealthy, and populous 
city (Strabo, Geogr. vii. 7. 4, Vol. n. 
p. 60, ed. ]^amer), at the north-east 
comer of the Sinus Thermaicus. It 
was built on the site of or near to 
(Pliny, Hist, Nat. iv. 10 [17]. ed. 
Sillig) the ancient Therme (Herod. 
VII. 121, Thucyd. i. 61) by Cassander, 
in honour of his wife QeffffaMyUrj 
(Strabo, Geogr. vii. Fragm. 21, Vol. 
II. p. 79, ed. Kram.), and under the 
Romans was of sufficient importance 
to be chosen first as the capital of the 
second district of Macedonia, and 
afterwards, when the four districts 
were uniteJ, of the whole province: 
see notes on ver. 7, and Livy, XLV. 29. 
It afterwards became a libera civUae 
(Pliny, I. c). It retained its import- 
ance through the middle ages (see 
Conyb. and Howson, St Paul, Vol. I. 
p. 345 sq., ed. i), and even at the 
present day, under the name of Salo- 
niki, is one of the chief cities of 
European Turkey: see Leake, N, 
Greece, Vol. iii. p. 238 sq. For fur- 
ther notices, see the good account of 
Conyb. and Hows. I. c, Winer, BWB, 
Vol. II. p. 608, Pauly, Heal Encyd, 
Vol. VI. p. 1880, and especially the 
learned and comprehensive treatise of 
Tafel, dc Thessal. ^vsque a^ro, Berol. 
1839. Iv 6€$ irarpi K.T.X. 

must be closely joined with t^ iKK\, 
Qcaa.f to which it stands in the rela- 



I. 2. 



We thank God for your 
spiritual progress. The 

the Gospel is now well known unto all men. 



Ev'xapKTTOVfJLep T(p Qe^ itavTore 2 



vjiAfoVf fJLveiav vfxtav iroiov^ 



tion of a kind of tertiary predicate 
(Donalds. Or. § 489), aud which it 
serves to distinguish from the iroWal 
iKkXrjalai Kal ^lovdaiKal Kal'EWrjPiKal 
(Chrys.) which were in that city; ^ 
Ge^ Trarpl, as De Wette suggests, dis- 
tinguishing it from the latter, Kal Kvp. 
K.r.\.f from the former. To connect 
these words with what follows (Koppe), 
or to understand x^^P^"^ \4yovaiy 
(Schott,— not Winer [Alf.], who ex- 
pressly adopts the right view) is arbi- 
trary and untenable, and to supply rj 
or r^ ovffxi (De W., Alf., comp. Chrys., 
Syr.) unnecessary and even inexact, 
such unions without an art. being by 
no means uncommon in the N. T. ; see 
exx. in Winer, G-r. § 20. 2, p. 123, 
and fur the principle of such combina- 
tions, notes on Eph. i. 15. Com- 
mentators call attention to the fact 
that the term iKk\. occurs only in the 
addresses to i and 2 Thess., i and 2 
Cor., and Gal., while in the supposed 
later Epp. Rom., Eph., Phil., Col, 
the more individualizing rots el7/o(s 
K.T.X. is ad<)pted. The variation is 
slightly noticeable; it does not how- 
ever seem to point to gradually altered 
views with regard to the attributes of 
the Church (Jowett), but merely to 
the present comparative paucity of 
numbers (compare Chrys.), and their 
aggregation in a single assembly; 
comp. Koch, p. 56, note. On the 
meaning and application of the term, 
see Pearson, Creed, Art. ix. Vol. i. 
p. 397 (ed. Burt.), Jackson, Creedy 
XII. 2. I sq. X^P^^ ^f^^v 
K.T.X.] Scil. €triy not i<TTU) (Schott) ; see 
notes on Eph. i. 2. On the blended 
form of Greek and Hebrew greeting, 
Hee notes on Gal. i. 3, Eph. i. 2. The 
reading is somewhat doubtful: Hec, 



adds dirb Qeov iraTpbs iifitSv Kal Kvplov 
*Ii70'oD Xp. on strong external authority 
[AC (appy.) KL and DE omitting 
ijfi(Sp; mostmss. ; Fuld., Tol., Copt., 
Syr.-Phil. with asterisk), ^th. (Piatt) ; 
Chrys. al. (Lachm. in brackets)]; the 
omission however is fairly supported 
[BFG : some mss. ; Vulg., Syr,, iEth., 
Arm, ; Chrys, (comm.), Theoph., al. 
(Tisch.)], and on critical grounds is 
decidedly preferable, as the uniqueness 
of the form in St Paul's Epp. would 
be likely to suggest interpolation; 
comp. Col. i. 2. 

2. £ix<>^P^<'*'^^)^<^] * We give thanks/ 
see note on Phil. i. 3, and add 2 Thess. 
i. 3, ii. 1 3. It has been doubted whe- 
ther the plural is to be understood of 
the Apostle alone (Koch, Conyb. ), as 
in ch. ii. 18, iii. 1 sq., or to be referred 
also to Silvanus and Timothy; con- 
trast Phil. i. I, 3. As the plural is 
elsewhere used in reference to the 
Apostle and his avvepyol (comp. 2 Cor. 
i. 19, and notes on Col. i. 3), and as 
Silvanus and Timothy stood in a 
very close relation to the Church of 
Thessalonica, it seems most natural 
here to adopt the latter view; so 
Liinem., and Alford, who however 
appears inexact in claiming all the 
ancient commentt., as Chrys. and the 
Greek expositors seem clearly, though 
indirectly, to adopt the former view. 
On the late use of the verb evxapi- 
OTcuf in the sense of ^gratias agere,' see 
notes on Phil. i. 3, and esp. on Col, 
i. 12; the more correct x^P^ ^^ 
occurs in i Tim. i. 12, 2 Tim. i. 3, 
and as an alternative reading in Phi- 
lem. 7 {Tisch.). These thanks 

are returned to God (the Father, comp. 
Col. i. 3), aJs avrbs Ipyaadfityoi rb 
Tttv, Chrys. : so 2 Thess. i. 3, 2 Tim. 

B2 



4 nP02 0E22AAONIKEI2 A. 

3 fievoi €ir\ rZv irpoarevj^piv tj/JiZvf aSiaXeiirrm fiv^jmo^ 



L 3, and, with the addition of fiov, 
Rom. i. 8, I Cor. i. 4, Phil. i. 3, 
Philem. 4. vdvrvn K.T.X. 

here obviously belongs to the finite 
verb (i Cor. i. 4, 7 Thess. i. 3, comp. 
Eph. i. 16)) not to the participle 
(PhiL i. 4, Col. i. 3, Philem. 4). Even 
if the second iffjuSv be omitted (see 
below), the connexion with the par- 
ticiple will be almost equally unten- 
able, as the expression fweiw TOieurOat 
repl Ttpos, though not unclassical 
(Plato, Protag, p. 317 e), is not else- 
where found in St Paul's Epp.; so 
Syr., M^., the Greek expositors 
(silet Theod.), and nearly all modem 
editors. On the alliteration rdyrore 
repl vdirnav, comp. notes on Phil, i. 
4. ir^l irdvTwv {|iwv] ^concern- 

ing you cUl;* not without slight em- 
phasis and affectionate cumulation; 
the Church of Tbessalonica, like that 
of Phib'ppi, presented but few unfa- 
vourable developments. The very 
c^apurrLa was tacitly commendatory 
{t6 eOxapiffreuf k.t.X. fjLapTvpowT6t 
iiTTiv a&rdis toXK^u TpOKOvipf, Chrys.), 
the inclusive nature of it still more 
expressly so. The difference be- 

tween the use of vepl (i Cor. L 4, Ac.) 
And vTkp (Bom. i. 8, ikc.) in this and 
similar formulae in the N.T. is scarcely 
appreciable; see notes on Eph. vi. 19. 
Perhaps, as a general rule, we may 
say that in the former the attention 
is more durected to the object or cir- 
cumstances to which the action of the 
verb extends, in the latter more to 
that action itself; see notes on Gal. 
V^ and Phil. i. 7. 

fiVcCav i3|Mav iroiov|Ju] * making men- 
tion of you;"* not a limitation of the 
preceding e^ap. flrdi/rorc, but a de- 
finition of the drcumstances under 
which it took place; see Kom. i. 9, 
Eph. i. 16, Philem. 4, and comp. Phil. 



L 3, 4, 9 Tim. i 3. For further re- 
marks on the formula (not 'making 
mention of or rem^niberingy* Jowett, 
but simply the former,— as often in 
Aristotle, al.), see notes on Philem. 4, 
and for a distinction between /urfj/^'f 
{yeyiK^ r&irwffis ^i/x?*) Mid /ufcla 
(X670J kot' dvcufiuxruf \ey6fieyos), Am- 
monius, Voc. IHff. p. 95 (ed. Valck.). 
'M.vcla has the meaning 'commemo- 
ratio' only when it is joined with 
ro(6t0-^a<, see notes on PhU. L 3. 
The reading is doubtful ; Lachm,. omits 
ilMv after ii»^ia» with ABK^; Vulg. 
(Amiat.), C omits hp^v (i); see crit. 
note on Eph. i. 16. It does not how- 
ever seem improbable that the pre- 
sence of the former itpLw suggested a 
supposed emendatory omission. 
Iirl Twv wpoo-cvxwv i)|m»v] 'm owr 
prayers, ' * in orationibus nostris,' Vulg., 
Copt. (comp. Syr., JEth.),— not merely 
'at the time I offer them,' but, with a 
tinge of local reference, 'in my per- 
formance of that duty ; ' see Bemhardy, 
Synt. y. 23 a, p. 246, and notes on 
Eph. i. 16. In such cases the funda- 
mental meaning of the prep, may just 
be traced in the way in which it 
marks the object to which the action 
has reference, its point, so to say, of 
application ; see Krttger, Sprachl. % 68. 

40.5. 

3. dSiaXiCirrws] ' unremittingly^ 
used in the N. T. only by St Paul, 
ch. ii. 13, V. 17, Kom. i. 9, and in 
all cases in direct (ch. v. 17) or indirect 
connexion with prayer or thanksgiv- 
ing. The adverb is referred by Vulg., 
Syr., ^th., Arm., and some modem 
expositors, to the preceding participle, 
but far more naturally by Chrys% and 
the Greek commentators to pvTifiovei- 
oin-€s, each new clause serving to en- 
hance and expand what had preceded ; 
80 Lachm.y Tisch., Buttm.y and per- 



I. 3- 



P€VOVT€^ VjULODV TOV cpyOV Ti;? WlTTetO^ Kai TOU KOTTOV TI79 



haps Copt., Vulg. (Amiat.). Alford 
connects it with toioi^m. urging Rom. i. 

9, but there the order is different. 
|iVi||AOVci>ovrtt] * rememberinff,* Auih., 
'memores,' Vulg., Clarom. ; partici- 
pial clause parallel to the preceding 
/AV€lc» iroio6iJ.€tfot, and defining not 
the cause (Schott) but the circum- 
stances and temporal concomitants of 
the action : the e^x^P'^'^^A found its 
utterance in the prayers, and owed its 
persistence (varror^) to the unceasing 
continuance of the luHifuji, The first 
participle has thus more of a modal, 
the second of a temporal tinge; ot 

ftifAinffiat iffMP dXXd xal dWore T(£y- 
Tore, Theoph. It has been doubted 
whether fun/ifMif, is here 'commemo- 
rare* (Beza), or *memor [esse*] (Vulg., 
Syr., -^h., Arm., and appy. Copt.) 
as in Heb. xi. 12 (but with repl and 
a gen.). The context {ifivpovBev eeoO 
x.r.X.) seems to be slightly in favour 
of the former (De Wette), but St 
Paurs use of the verb, and the case 
which follows it (gen. not aceus.), are 
somewhat decidedly in favour of the 
latter ; see ch. ii. 9, Winer, Or. § 30. 

10, p. 184, Jelf, Or. % 515, obs., and 
notes on 2 Tim. ii. 8. The three 
objects of the Apostle*s remembrance 
then follow in their natural order (so 
ch. V. 8, Col. i. 4, comp. Tit. ii. 2 ; 
aliter i Cor. xiii. 13), dydwri beimg the 
result and exemplification of t/otis, 
and ikvis the link between the pre- 
sent and the future ; oomp. also i Pet. 
L 31, 22, and see Reuss, Th4oL Chrft, 
iv. 30, Vol. II. p. 319, and esp. Us- 
teri, Lehrb, 11. i. 4, p. 238. 

*|Mftv TOV Ipyov ICT.X.] ^your work of 
faithj* i.e, 'which characterizes, is 
the distinctive feature of faith ;' comp. 
Rom. ii. 15, and in point of sentiment 
OaL V. 6, TlffTit Ik* dydmis htpyov* 



fiitnj. The precise meaning and con- 
nexion of these words has been much 
contested. The simplest view seems 
to be as follows: (i) 'TfiQv is not 
immediately dependent on furiifu», 
(CBoum.), as this would involve an 
untenable ellipse of a prep, before the 
succeeding words (see Herm. Vigtr, 
p. 701, Lond. 1824), but is a possess, 
gen. in connexion with roO l^ov, and 
also (as its slightly emphatic position 
suggests) with roxi Kbirwt and r^s 6ro- 
lAotfffl : see further exx. in Winer, Qr, 
%22, 7. note I, p. 140. (3) ToO l/ryow 
is certainly not pleonastic, but must 
stand in parallelism both in force and 
meaning (hence not ' Veritas,' Kypke, 
OU. Vol. n. p, 331) with the sucoeed- 
iBg T9Q k6vov (Winer, Or. § 65. 7, p. 
541), and has probably here not so 

much a collective (Syr. t| *^N [opera]), 
as a tinge of active force, imparted 
both by the context and the following 
TOV ic6irov; comp. Eph. iv. 12, Enapp, 
Scripta Var, Arg^ Vol, ii. p. 491 note, 
and Usteri, Lthii'h, ii. 1.4, p. 338. (3) 
T^f trlvrtuii is certainly not a gen. of 
appotUion (Alf.), as it would thus lose 
all parallelism with the succeeding 
genitives, but is either (a) a gen. of the 
origin (Hartung,. C7(uu«, p. 17, comp. 
notes on Col, i. 33)* * quod ex fide pro- 
ficiscitur,* Grot., or perhaps more 
simply 0) a posaesiive genitive, roO 
ipyou being the prevailing feature and 
characteristic of the t/otcs, and that 
by which it evinces its vitality ; comp. 
Chrys., ^ wLirris 8td rwi* ipytay itlta^V' 
rcu, who however, with Theod., aL» 
limits t6 ipyov to endurance in suffer- 
ings (t6 iu KUfSiivois p4p<uoify Theod.), 
a very doubtful restriction. 
Toa K^irov TTJs d^mif] *toil of 
love,'* i, e, (retaining the same geniti- 
val relation as in the preceding words) 



6 



EPOS eESZAAONIKEIS A. 



aydlnjg koi Ttjg vTro/JLOPijg TtJ9 eXTrlSog rod H^vplov ^fx3>v 
^IfiaoS ^picTTOv c/JLTrpocrdev rod Oeov Kal irarpog ^M^*'* 



'the toil which characterizes and 
evinces the vitality of love;' 'multuni 
est per se dilectio, sed multo magis si 
acceduDt molesti laborea, id enim k6- 
Toj,' Grot. ; see notes on i Tim. iv. lo. 
The dydirrj is here not in reference to 
God, or to God and one another 
(comp. (Ecum.), but simply to the lat- 
ter (Col. i. 4, Heb. vi. lo) ; and that 
as evinced, — not merely in teaching 
(comp. De W.) or in bearing a bro- 
ther's faults (Theod.) or in ministering 
to the sick, <fcc. (Alf.)— but, as the 
forcible *f6iro$ sems to suggest, in mi- 
nistering to, labouring for, and if need 
be suflfering for, a brother-Christian ; 
comp. Chrys. in loc. On the theolo- 
gical meaning and application of 
dydiryi (Vulg. 'caritas' [89 times] or 
* dilectio* [24 times] but never * amor,* 
consider however August, de Civ. Dei, 
XIV. 7), see Reuss, TJUol. ChrSt iv. 
19, Vol. n. p. 203 sq., and comp. 
Barrow, Serm. xxvir. Vol. 11. p. 44 sq. 
Tijs viro|ju Tijs IXir.] *^pcUience of 
Hope,* i.e. as before, the patience 
which is not exactly the product (De 
W.) or the cause ((Ecum.), but the 
distinguishing and characterizing fea- 
ture of your hope ; inrofiivuv hk T/ootnJ- 
K€i, rhv Ta&rrjv Sc^dfievou r^u iXirlba, 
Kal <f>4p€tp yewatus tA irpoffTrlirTovra 
ffKvOpwTrd, Theod. In the noble word 
inrofiovi^, there always appears in the 
N. T. a background of dydpeia (com p. 
Plato, Thecet. p. 177 B, where dvdpiKm 
^ofiewcu is opp. to dvdvSpus <f>€Jjy€w) ; 
it does not mark merely the endurance, 
the 'snstinentia' (Vulg., but here 
only), or even the 'patientia' (Clarom. 
here, and Vulg. generally), but the 
'perseverantia' (see Cicero, de Invent. 
II. 54. 163), the brave patience with 
which the Christian contends against 
the various hindrances, persecutions 



(Chrys.), and temptations (Theoph.)^ 
that befall him in his conflict with 
the inward and outward world ; comp. 
Rev. ii. 3, and see notes on 2 Tim. ii. 
10, Trench, Synon. Part n. § 3, and 
Neander, Plantiuffy Vol. i. p. 479 
(Buhn). In some cases it seems almost 
to occupy the place of iXiris, as it 
stands in conjunction with irlaTis and 
dydwrf in i Tim. vi. 1 1, Tit. ii. 2, and 
with iriarts in 2 Thess. i. 4 : for a fall 
notice of other shades of meaning, 
comp. Barrow, Serm. XLii. Vol. 11. p. 
525 sq. Tov KvpCov ictX 

does not refer to the three preceding 
substantives (Olsh.), bat merely to the 
immediately foregoing iXirldos: our 
Lord was the object of that hope; 
His second coming was that to which 
it ever turned its gaze ; comp. ver. 10, 
and see Beuss, Thiol. Ckrit. iv. 20, 
Vol. II. p. 221. For exx. of similar 
accumulation of genitives, esp. in St 
Paul's Epp., see Winer, Gr. § 30. 3, 
note I, p. 172. Ifiirpoo^cv ictA.] 

* before God and our Father,^ sciL 
fiv7jfiov€6ovr€s (Syr., Tbeoph. i, Beng., 
Alf.), not with toO ipyov rrfs Trlareus 
K.r.\. (Theod., Theoph. 2, Jowett), as 
in such a case the article could 
scarcely be dispensed with. "EfiirpoffOev 
is joined expressly with rod GcoO only 
in this Ep. (ch. iii. 9, 13, comp. ii. 19) 
and in Acts x. 4 (not JRec.) ; but the 
phrase is scarcely distinguishable in 
meaning from the more usual hdairiw 
TOvQ., Rom. xiv. 22, Gal. i. 20, al., or 
the less usual iuavrt tov 0., Luke i. 8, 
Acts viii. 2 1 (not Rec.) : it serves to hint 
at the more solemn circumstances (of 
prayer) under which the remembrance 
took place, and to mark its sincerity 
and earnestness ; it was no accidental 
or pretended ixvcla, but one entertain- 
ed in His presence, and in which His 



I- 4, 5. 



v/jlZv on TO cvayyiXiov ifiZv ovk iyev^Oti etg ifia^ 5 



eyes saw no insincerity; comp. Calv. 
in loc, and on the phrase generally, 
Frankel, Vorstud. z. LXX. p. 159. 
On the formula 6 Oebs koI irarij/), see 
notes on Gal. i. 4, and on the most suit- 
able translation, notes to Transl. in loc. 
4. clSoTis] ^seeing we know,"* or 



* hnowing as we do;* 



"^^ 



L^^ 



r* 



[novimus enim] Syr. ; participial clause 
parallel to fiuTjfioife^ovTeSf and similarly 
dependent on eitxdpwTodiiev^ serving 
to explain the reasons and motives 
which led to the €6x<ipt<rTla. The 
finite verb has thus three participial 
clauses attached to it ; the first serves 
principally to define the mannery the 
second the thne and circumstances, the 
third the reasoii and motive of the 
action. These delicate uses of the 
Greek participle deserve particular 
attention; comp. Krllger, Sprachl. § 
56. 10 sq. See also Phil. i. 3, 4, 5, 
and notes on ver. 5. It is somewhat 
singular that so good a commentator 
as Theodoret should refer flddrcs to 
the Thessalonians ; so also Grot., who 
connects the clause with the remote 
iyev/iOrjTc, ver. 6. There is no trace 
of such a connexion in any of the an- 
cient Vv. except -^th.-Pol. 
i)YairT||Ji^oi iSiro Ocov] * beloved by 
Ood;* comp. 2 Thess. ii. 13 ; so rightly 
Syr., Vulg., Clarom., Copt., -^th.- 
Pol., and inferentially Chrys. (bwkp 
yd.p rQv tov 0eou dyairrjTiav tI oifK &v 
Tis TcUrxoi). To connect ifirb Qeov with 
Hiv iK\oyiiv, as ^th. (Piatt), Theoph., 
and our own Auth., involves a dis- 
turbance of the natural order, and an 
ellipse of cti^at that is here highly im- 
probable. The article is inserted be- 
fore Oeov by ACKt( ; 10 mss. 
nfjv licXoyiiv ifittv] 'your election;* 
sclL out of others not iKXcKTol, with 



reference to the sovereign decree of 
God made before the foundation of the 
world ; see Eph. i. 4, and notes in loc. 
To refer this merely to the manner of 
their, election to the Gospel (Baumg.- 
Crus., Jowett 2), or to any internal 
renewing of the Spirit (Pelt), is in a 
high degree forced and unsatisfactory. 
On the use of the terms iK\4^aa0ai, 
iK\oyi/ly and ^/cX6^6$, in St Paul's Epp. 
see Reuss, Th^oL Chi-^l. iv. 14, Vol. Ii. 
p. 132, and on the doctrine generally, 
the clear and in the main satisfactory 
statements of Ebrard, Dogmatiky § 560, 
561; comp. also the very valuable 
remarks of Hooker, on Predest. Vol. 
II. p. 705 sq. (ed. Keble), especially 
pp. 711, 712. 

5. ^ri]' in that,* 'because,* 5 ^^4^ 
Syr., *quia,* Vulg. (not perfectly 
conclusive), and sim. Copt., -^th.. 
Arm. : reason for this knowledge on 
the part of St Paul and his com- 
panions, ort having here its causal 
force (Winer, Gr. § 53. 8. b, p. 395), 
and, with its regular objective charac- 
teristics (Krtiger, Sprachl. § 65. 8. i), 
referring to known facts as confirma- 
tory of a preceding assertion. The 
Apostle argues they must be elect, 
first because (ver. 5) he and his com- 
panions were enabled to preach the 
Gospel among them with such power, 
and secondly (ver. 6) because they re- 
ceived it with such joy; ^k to6tov 
<f>ri<rl brjkov on iKXeicrol icrre, ix toO 
TOP Bcov t6 Ki^pvyfia iv if/uv bo^dffat, 
Theoph. Others, as Bengel and Schott, 
give 6ti its expository force, *that,' 
*to wit that' (see Kriiger, Sprachl, 
§ 61. I. 3), and place only a comma 
after iffiup; in which case ver. 5 be- 
comes an objective sentence (Donalds. 
Gr, § 584 sq.) dependent on elddrcs, 



nPOS 0E22AAONIKEI2 A, 



€v \6y^ jjLovov oXXo koi iv Swd/jLci icoJ iv Uvev/jLart dyltp 
Koi ev Tr\rfpo(f}opla iroW^y Kadcos oiSare otot eyevriOrifuev 



and more distinctly explanatory of the 
nature of the iKkcrffi, This is gram- 
matically tenable, but certainly not 
exegetically satisfactory, as the whole 
context seems to have more of a direct 
and argumentative, than of a depend- 
ent and explanatory nature. 
rh ciayy* ^|m»v] ^our Gospd,^ 'the 
Grospel which we preached ;' the geu. 
being appy. that of the mediate source 
or origin (Hartong, Casus, p. 13), or 
perhaps rather of the mediate causa 
efficiens; see notes on ver. 6. 
o^K fycm^Oii dt ^^9] 'came not unto 
you;* not *erga vos,' Calv., but simply 
'ad vos,* Vulg., Copt, the preposition 
not having here its ethical force (comp. 
Pbilem. 6), but simply marking the 
direction which was taken by the 
e^77Acor; comp. Donalds. Cratyl, § 
170, and notes on Gal. iii. 14. 
The reading is perhaps doubtful. TLphi 
ifias is well supported, viz. by ACD 
EFG; 5 mss.; Chrys., Theoph. 
{Laehm.). Asho wever els appears a less 
probable correction for Tpbs than the 
converse, and is supported by strong ex- 
ternal authority [B (perhaps C^) KLK; 
nearly all mss. ; Chrys. (ms.), Theod., 
al., Griesb., Tisdt.], we retain the 
reading of Rec, If irpds be adopted, 
the same meaning will be admissible 
(comp. 7 John 12, not JRec), but 
will seem less probable than 'apud* 
(Clarom. ; comp. i Cor. xvi. 10), as 
the general reference of the context 
is rather to the development of the 
Gospel among them than the circum- 
stances of its first arrival; for this 
meaning of ytviaOai irpbs (denoting 
continuance) in the N.T., which Alford 
seems to doubt, see Meyer on i Cor. 
ii. 3, and Fritz, on Mark, p. 301. 
On the passive form iyoffjOrf, which 
occurs noticeably often in this and the 



following chapter (8 times, against 17 
in the rest of the K. T. of which 5 are 
quotations from the LXX.)> but appy. 
does not involve any passive m^aninf 
(Alf.), see Lobeck, Phryn. p. 108, 
Thomas M. p. 189 (ed. Bern.), and 
notes on Col. iv. it. 
Iv Xi^tp] Hn word;* not merely eqix- 
valent to X670J (comp. Jowett), bu*i, 
as usual, with a reference to the spherd 
or domain of its action; 'non steti^ 
intra verba,* Grot. ; compare Winer, 
Gr. § 48. a. 3. a, p. 345. 
Iv Swdfici K. T. X.] ' in power and in 
the Holy Ghost ;^ 'in the element of 
power and — to specify a yet higher 
principle (ica2 being not so much ex- 
planatory as sligLtly climactic, see 
notes on ver. 6) — in the influence of the 
Holy Ghost ; ' the preposition as before 
defining the sphere, and thence in- 
ferentiaUy the manner, in which the 
preaching took place ; see notes on 
ch. ii. 3. Awdfui does not appear to 
refer specially to * miraculous powers ' 
(Theod., Theoph., al.), but, as in the 
similar passage i Cor. ii. 4, to the 
reality, energy, and effective earnest- 
ness, with which the Apostle and his 
followers preached among the Thessa- 
lonians. Juwett defends the refer- 
ence of iy dw, to the influence pro- 
duced on the Thess., but is thus led 
into an interpr. of iv UveOfi. &yi<fi, — 
' the inspiration of the speaker caught 
by the hearers,* which, as tending 
to obscure the reference to the per- 
sonal Hifevfia Ayiov, seems in a high 
degree precarious and unsatisfactory. 
On the use of UvcOfia as a proper 
name, see notes on Gal. v. 5, and 
comp. Winer, (rr. § 19. i, p. in. 
Iv irXiipo^pC^ iroXXj] *in much as- 
surance,^ i. e. *much confidence, much 
assured persuasion,' on the part of tie 



I. 6. S 



preachers ; sfthjecUve^ corresponding to 
the more objective side presented in the 
preceding clause: comp. Heb. x. as, 
wXripoipopiq, ir/orewj, which latter subst. 
Alford here unnecessarily inserts in 
translation. Of the three explanations 
which Jowett proposes, (a) certainty, 
{b) fulness of spiritual gifts, Com. a 
Lap., al., (c) effect, fulfilment, Thorn. 
Aq. 2, the first alone seems in harmony 
with the context, if limited to the 
Apostle and his companions. To refer 
it to the Thessalonians (Muse, comp. 
Zanch. ap. Pol. Syn,\ or to them and 
the Apostle (Vorst., Schott), seems to 
mar tiie correct sequence of thought, 
and to introduce notices of the state 
of the recipients which come first into 
view in ver. 6. The word irXi7/)o- 

^opia (Hesych. pepatdTfjs) appears to 
be confined to the N.T. (Col. ii. 2, 
Beb. yi. ii, x. a2)and the ecclesiasti- 
cal writers. The iif before rXi7/)o^. is 
omitted by B^ ; some mss. 
KaOc^ otSaxi] *even aa ye hnovo;* 
* appeal for confirmation to the know- 
lodge of the readers themselves,^ Olsh. ; 
i^/ic(s 0)7^2 ftdpTvpes irCjt iv {f/wf dve- 
<rrpd4>'nfi€>f, Theoph. To place a colon 
or period at iroXX^, and regard KaOius 
otdare as the antecedent member of a 
sentence of which xal ^fiets is the conse- 
quent ('qualem me vidistis . . . tales 
etiam vos estis,* Koppe), involves un- 
tenable meanings of otSare and iyev^ 
6rjT€f and is well refuted by LUnemann 
in loc. otot 47cvii0i|)icv] 'what 

manner of men toe proved/ not 'quales 
fuerirous/ Vulg., nor yet quite so much 
as 'facti simus,' Alf. (who throws un- 
due emphasis on the passive Jbrm), 
but, with the more certain and natural 
sense, 'came to be, proved to be;* see 
notes above, and on Col. iv. ii. The 
Toi&rjfs was not evinced merely in con- 
fronting dangers (Theod. comp. Chrys.), 



but in the power and confidence with 
which they delivered their message. 
8i iS|uls] 'on yovr account,* *for your 
sake;* * propter vos,* Vulg. ; not with 
so specific a force as inrkp iffiQp (comp. 
Theod., who uses this latter formula 
in connexion with Kwb^vovs D^co-Tdvcu), 
nor yet one so undefined as irepl ifiQu, 
but with a clear and distinct reference 
to the cause and beet interests [* sake, ' 
—Sax. sac. Germ. Sache] of those to 
whom the Apostle preached; r^s ifiiit 
[ilfjLCT^pa?] ffvoi^ris r^s els ifptas ^ IffiQv 
irapd BeoO iK\oy^ irph4>a<Tis yiyovew, 
(Ecum. The iv i&/ui», it need scarcely 
be said, is simply ' among you ; * iMe- 
(rrpd^rifiaf iv i^Aujf, Theoph. The ip 
however is omitted byACK; 4ms8. ; 
Vulg. (Amiat.). 

6. Kal i))iits K.r.X.] *and [because] 
ye became imitators of us ;* second ground 
for knowing that the Thess. were 
iKXeicTolj — the koI not being ascensive 
(comp. notes on Eph, ii. i, Phil, iv. n) 
or equivalent to *sic, more Hebrseo' 
(Grot.), but simply copulative, and the 
verse remaining, if not structurally, 
yet logically, under the vinculum of 
the preceding Sri, It thus seems best 
to {^ace neither a period {Tisch,, Alf,) 
nor a comma {Lachm., Buttm.), but a 
colon, after ver. 5. Here, as in ver. 5, 
LUnem. and Alf. lay a stress on the 
passive form iyeirfidjfre. This however 
is lexically doubtful: the Apostle is 
rather dwelling on the effects pro- 
duced among them, on what they 
cam^ to be, and thus significantly adopts 
not the simple verb fiifieiffdai, but the 
more definitive fiifiifral ylveffOai; see 
I Cor. iv. 16, xi. i, Eph. v. i, Phil, 
iii. 1 7. Kal rov KvpCov] 

'and of the Lord/ all misunderstand- 
ing is prevented by means of the in- 
sertion of ToG K. with the slightly 
climactic koL, see Hartung, Partik, 



10 



nP02 eE22AA0NIKEI2 A. 



Tov YMploVy Se^dfievot rov \6yov ev QXl^ei iroXKy ixera 
7 X^P^^ JlvevixaTO^ 07/01/, wa-re yevea-Qai vfia^ tvttov 



Kalf 5. 4, Vol. I. p. 145. This use of 
the particle, which is strictly in ac- 
cordance with its supposed derivation 
[tshiy 'cumulare,' comp. Pott, Etym. 
Forsch. Vol. n. p, 320], forms the sort 
of connecting link between its simply 
copulative and simply ascensive uses, 
and may perhaps be termed its cli- 
mactic use ; comp. Fritz, on Mark i. 5, 
p. II. For a brief analysis of the 
leading distinctions in the use of this 
particle, see notes on Phil. iv. 12. 
The exact manner in which the Thes- 
salonians became imitators of their 
founders, — and of the Lord, is defined 
in the concluding words of the verse, 
iv 0Xl}f/€i TToWy fierii. xa/>as Uv. aylov : 
joy amid suffering and affliction is the 
*tertium comparationis ;' comp. Acts 
v. 41, Heb. X. 34. 8€(d|jicvob 

tAv X670V] ^having received the wordi 
tempcral use of the participle (see notes 
on Eph. iv. 8), marking here the con- 
temporaneousness of the action with 
that of the finite verb : the predication 
of manrur is given in the following 
words; comp. Kom. iv. 20. It is 
scarcely necessary to add that rbv 
X67W is here practically equivalent to 
rbv X670V TOV Kvpiov (ver. 8), tov Qcov 
(2 Cor. ii. 17), or ttjs dXriOelas (Eph. i. 
13), and refers to the preaching of the 
Go8pelj which was the \6yos kut i^o- 
Xi)v; comp. Luke viii. 13, Acts xvii. 
II. On the force of U^aaOai Tbv 
Tibyov, and its probable distinction 
from vapaXapeTv r. X67., see notes on 
ch. ii. 13. Iv OX{i|rci iroXXj] 

Hn much affliction.* The afiSiction of 
the Thessalonians dated back as early 
as their first reception of the Gospel 
(see Acts xviL 6), and, as this Epistle 
incidentally shows, continued both 
while the Apostle was with them (ch. 
ii 14), and after he had left them 



(ch. iii. 2, 3). X(M>^S 

nvcvfuiTOs ay.] * joy of the Holy Spi' 
rit/ certainly not Maetitiam de Spirit u,' 
Fritz. (Nova Opusc. p. 271), still less 
Xa/od TTvevfiaTiKi^ (Jowett), but *joy 
inspired by and emanating from the 
Spirit:* gen. of the originating caitae ; 
see notes on Col. i. 23. Between the 
two usual forms of the gen. of * abla- 
tion ' (see Donaldson, Gr. § 448, 449), 
viz. (a) the stronger gen. of the caiisa 
efficiens, and (c) the weaker gen. ori- 
giniSf which forms the point of transi- 
tion to the partitive genitive, it is 
perhaps not hypercritical in the N. T. 
to insert (6) a gen. of the originating 
cause^ or, if the expression be permis- 
sible, the originating agent, — ^in which 
the two ideas of source and agency 
are blended and intermixed ; consider 
the exx. cited in ScheuerL 'Synt. § 1 7. 
I, p. 126. With the present case, 
which appears to fall under (6), — the 
Spirit being not only an external 
giver, bui an internal source of the 
Xapci — contrast on the one hand 2 
Thess. ii 13, ayiacrfibs HvciJ/Aaroy, 
where the verbal in -fios suggests (a), 
and on the other Gal. v. 22, 6 xa^irbs 
TOV live^fjL.j where, if the gen. be not 
possessive, the image seems to suggest 
the weaker (c). Such distinctions, 
which are not wholly without impor- 
tance in the N. T., are really due as 
much to doctrinal as to grammatical 
considerations ; comp. Winer, Cfr. § 30. 
I, p. 167 sq. 

7. oSvTC 7€V. i|ju Tvirov] *«o that ye 
became an ensample:* spiiitual progress 
of the Thessalonian converts; they 
were not only imitators of the ex- 
ample of their teachers, but were 
themselves (regarded as a collective 
body; comp. Winer, (xr. § 27. 1, p. 
157 note) an example to others. This 



I. 7, 8. 



11 



irdrnv T0t9 iriarTevova-iv iv rij M-aKcSovla koi iv rfj 'Aj^aiftji. 
a^' vfJLWp yap i^^ix^rai 6 \6y09 rod Kvplov ov julovov iv 8 



could hardly apply to those who had 
received the Gospel before them (ol 
vpo\ap6vT€i, Chrys., Theoph.), for, as 
Liinemann observes, the church of 
Philippi was the only one in Europe 
which received the Gospel before that 
of Thessalonica ; coinp. ch. ii. 2, Acts 
xvi. 12 sq. The reading is very doubt- 
ful; the plural r&irovi {Bee.) is well 
supported [ACFGKLK; most mss. ; 
Boern., Syr.-Phil. ; many Ff.], but 
seems so much more likely to have 
been changed from the singular than 
vice versft (Schott), that on the whole 
T&iroPf though having less external 
authority [BD^(D=^E and i ms. read 
Tiiiros) ; 7 mss. ; Clarom., Sangerm., 
Vulg., Syr., JEth. (both), al., lachm. 
(non marg.), TUch.], is here to be pre- 
ferred, iracriv rots irwrr.] 
*to all the believers;* irt(rrei5ow<rtv not 
having here a pure participial force, 
ToZs ijSri irt<rr€iJou<rt, Chrys., but, as 
often in the N. T., coalescing with the 
article to form a substantive; see 
Winer, (?r. § 45. 7, p. 316. 
4v TQ MaKfS. Kal 4v tq 'Ax*] * Mace- 
donia and Achaiay* i.e. the whole of 
Greece; Acts xix. 21, Rom. xv. 26, 
comp. 2 Cor. ix. 2. Macedonia was 
at first (B. 0. 167) divided by the Ro- 
mans into four districts, but subse- 
quently (B.C. 142) reunited into one 
province comprising all the northern 
portion of Greece. Achaia proper was 
also united with Hellas and the rest 
of the Peloponnese (b.o. 142) in one 
province, and as the leading stale at 
that time gave the name to the whole 
southern portion of Greece ; see Winer, 
HWB. Vol. I. p. 16, and Vol. n. p. 
44. The omission of iv before t^ 'A- 
Xatq, (Fee.) has against it all the uncial 
MSS. except KL. 
8. d^i ^^vydpi] * For from you:* 



proof and amplification of the pre- 
ceding assertion. The preposition is 
here simply local (Alf.), — not ethical 
(*vobis effioientibuR,* Storr; a very 
questionable paraphrase), nor both com* 
bined (Schott), — and marks iha Thes- 
salonians as the simple terminus a quo 
of the i^rix^icrOat. It muy be observed 
that appy. in all cases in the N.T. 
where drb is said to be equivalent to 
inrb the action implied in the verb is 
represented as emanating from, rather 
than wrought by the assumed agent ; 
comp. liuke vi. 18 (not i?cc.), James 
i. 13, see Winer, Gr. § 47. b, p. 331, 
and notes on Qal. i. i. 
IJiJXtirai] *kaih sounded forth;* an 
cTtt. \€y6{i. in the N. T. (Hesychius, 
iiriKdev' iKrip&xfiri), but found in the 
LXX. (Joel iii. 14, Ecclus. xl. 13) 
and occasionally in later writers, e. g, 
Polyb. Hist, XXX. 4. 7, rb Ki^Kvetov 
i^rixfiffavre^. The word forcibly marks 
both the clear and the pervasive na- 
ture of the X670S rod Kvplov u)s M 
<rdXirt770s \afAirp6v 1^x01^175 jcai M 
wo\i> <f>dayoij(rris, Theoph. 
6 X^-yof Tov KvpCov] * the word of the 
Lordy*i.e. the Gospel (see above, ver.6) 
as received by the Thessalonians, not 
*the report that it was received by 
them' (De W.), still less *your bright 
example became itself a message from 
the Lord' (Alf.), — both of which in- 
terpretations seem needlessly artificial. 
The Gospel was received by them with 
such eager zeal, its words were so 
constantly in their mouths and so 
wrought in their hearts, that it swelled 
as it were into a mighty trumpet-call 
that was heard of all men sounding 
forth from Tiieflsalonica. 
4v TQ MaK. Kal 'Ax*] Here the omis- 
sion of the article and prep, before 
'Axat^ is not only permissible (on the 



12 



nP02 GE22AA0NIKEI2 A. 



Trj ISlaKcSovici KOI 'A^^aia, aXX* iv iravri roirfp tj irltm^ 
v/jlZv j; TTpbg tov Oeov e^eXi^XvOeVy wa-re fiii jfpeiav eyeiv 



ground that the previous more exact 
specification of each would preclude 
any misconception), but really gram- 
matically exact: Macedonia and A- 
ohaia now form a whole in antithesis 
to the rest of the world ; comp. Winer, 
Or,%ig, 4, p. 1 16 sq. The reading 
however is very doubtful: Luchm, in- 
serts iv -TQ with the strongest external 
testunony [CDEFGKLK; 30 mss. ; 
Vulg., Clarom., Syr. (both), aL], but 
as the insertion of the iv t-q would 
seem so much more likely to have been 
a conformation to ver. J, than its 
omission to have been accidental, we 
retain the reading of Bee., Tuck.y 
though only with B ; majority of mss. ; 
some Vv. ; Chrys., Theod., al. In A 
there is a lacuna (ver. 8 beginning 
with dXX* h Toi^i) arising from Ho- 
mceoteleuton. dXX' 4v iravrC 

K.T.X.] There is some little difiBculty in 
the exact connexion, as dXX' iv ir.r.X. 
seems clearly to stand in immediate 
antithesis to od ^jl&vov k.t.\. (opp. to 
Lttnem., who places a colon after 
Kvplov)f but yet stands associated with 
a new nominative. The most simple 
explanation is that of Bttckert {Loc» 
Paul, Expl. Jen. 1844), according to 
which the Apostle is led by the desire 
of making a forcible climax into a 
disregard of the preceding nominative, 
and in fact puts a sentence in anti- 
thesis to oil /A^vof— 'Axci'fft instead of 
the simple local clause iv tovtI rbirtfi 
or iv S\(p r(p K6<rpufi (Rom. i. 8) which 
the strict logical connexion actually 
required. Bee. inserts Kal after 

dXXd, but on decidedly insufficient 
authority— viz. D^EKL; Vulg. (not 
Amiat.), and several Ff. On the dis- 
tinction between this latter form ('ubi 
prior notio non per se sed quatenus 
sola est negatur*) and 01) fi6vov...dXKd 



('ubi posterior notio ut gravior in 
locum prioris substituitur priore non 
plane sublato'), see the good note of 
Kiihner on Xen. Mem. I. 6. 2, and 
correct accordingly Jelf, Gfr, § 76a. i; 
see also Klotz, Devar, Vol. n. p. 8. 
1] irp^ rhv 0c6v] * which U toward 
God* *to God-ward/ Auth.: more 
exact definition of the wlaris by means 
of the repeated article ; comp. Tit. ii 
TO, notes 091 Gal. iii. 26, and Winer, 
Gr. § 20. I, p. 119 sq. The less usual 
preposition Tpbs is here used with 
great propriety, as there is a tacit 
contrast to a previous futh vpbs rd 
etStaXa (see ver. 9), in which latter 
case the deeper irltrr. cli (faith to and 
intOy — surely not *on,' Alf.) would 
seem to be theologically unsuitable. 
On the meaning of wiarr. Tp6t, see 
notes on Philem. 5, and on the force 
of irlffTis and irKrredeiv with different 
prepp., Reuss, Thiol. Chr4t, rv. 14, 
Vol. II. p. 129, and notes on \ Tim,. 
1. 16. l£f\i|Xv6cv] ^18 gone 

forth ;* so, with reference to a report, 
Matth. ix. 26, Mark i. 28, Bom. x. 18 
(Ps. xix. 5) ; Koch compares the He- 
brew «y;, Ezek. xvi. 14, ^^^X^c, 
LXX. The currency of the report 
was probably much promoted by the 
commercial intercourse between Thes- 
salonica and other cities, both in 
Greece and elsewhere; see Koch in 
loc.f and Wieseler, Cfhronol. p. 42, 
who suggests that Aquila and Pris- 
cilla, who bad lately come from Rome 
to Corinth (Acts xviii. 2), might have 
mentioned to the Apostle the preva- 
lence of the report even in that more 
distant city. If this be so, the justice 
and truth of the Apostle's hyperbole 
is still more apparent; to be known 
in Rome was to be known everywhere : 
contrast Baur, PatUus, p. 484. Bee, 



I. 9. 



13 



tifiag \a\eiif ti' avrol yap wepl ^jjlwv atrayyiWovo'iv 9 
OTTolav €i(roSov ea-'^^ofiev trpoq vfiag^ koi ttZ^ hretrrpiy^are 
irpo^ Tov Oeov airo tZv €iS<ii\a>v SovXeieip Oe^ t^i^i koi 



adopts the order iffAois ^x«»'> l>u* o^^J 

TKrith KL ; most mss. 

XaXctv Ti] * to speak anything f* bo. about 

your vltrrit, or as Syr. ^^ > \v 

[de vobis]; TpoCkapw iffi&s 4 Hm 
Kal vap* AWuy dKo^fiey d Xiyetv idi- 
\ofitv, Theod. On the difference be- 
tween XaXetv and "Kiyeiy, comp. notes 
on Tit. ii. i ; and see Trench, Synon, 
Part u. § 36. The fundamental dis- 
tinction that XaXciv (Hesych. ^$4y- 
y€<r$ai) points merely to sound and 
utterance, \4yety to purportf is mainly 
observed in the N.T., with the excep- 
tion that XaXct^ is sometimes used 
where \4yeiv would appear more natu- 
ral} but never vice versft ; see esp. the 
good note of LUcke on John viii. 43. 

9. a.iroC\ * they themselves;^ i.e, the 
people in Macedonia and Achaia and 
elsewhere; a very intelligible *con- 
struotio ad sensum;' see Winer, Cfr. 
§ ^^* 3i P* 13I) ft°d notes on Oal. ii. 1, 
The interpr. of Pelt, 'sponte,' aiJro- 
/jmOQs, is here artificial and unneces- 
sary: a&rol stands in somewhat em- 
phatic antithesis to the preceding iffjL&s ; 
*we have no need to say anything 
about you, for they to whom otherwise 
we might have told it themselves 
speak of it and spread it ;* 01) irapa/ii- 
povffiv dicoOfrat wepl iffiQv, dXXd TOi>s 
Topdvrat Kal reOeafAivovs rd iffiirepa 
KaTopSibfiara ol ftij vapfurre% /iridi re- 
dtafiivoi TapdXafi^dyovffiiff Chrys. 
ircpl ifliMv] * ahout us, * sell, the Apostle 
and his helpers ; not ' de me et vobis 
simul,' Zanoh. (compare LUnem., — 
well answered by Alf.), as the studied 
prominence of vepl iffMav and the real 
point of the clause are thus completely 
overlooked : instead of our telling 



about our own success, they do it for 
us; A 7d/> a^oi>t ixP^ ^^P* ^M-^ 
dKo6etM, raOra a^ol TpoXa^6rrct X^- 
7ow<rt, Chrys. 6iroCav K.T.X.] 

' what manner of entering in we had 
unto you:^ fuller explanation of the 
preceding repl iffAQif. The reference 
of the qualitative 6volaif to the dangers 
and sufferings undergone by St Paul 
and his followers in their first preach- 
ing at Thessalonioa (Chrys., Theoph., 
(Eoum.) is rightly rejected by most 
modem commentators: the jroi6T7ft is 
rather evinced in the power and confi- 
dence with which they preached, and 
serves to illustrate verse 5. 
Efffodos has here no ethical meaning, 
* indolem nostram* (iBth.-Pol. ; oomp. 
Olsh.), but, as always in the N. T. 
(ch. ii. I, Acts xiii. 24, Heb. x. 19, 
1 Pet. i. 11), is simply local in its re- 
ference, 'introitus,* Vulg., Arm., 'in- 
gressus,* Copt, 'quomodo venimus ad 
vos,' iBth. (Piatt): so too inferentially 
the Greek commentators, and after 
them most modem writers. The pre- 
sent ^o/Acir {Rec.) appy. rests only on 
the authority of cursive mss., and is 
r^eoted by all modem editors. 
ir«« lirc(rrpl«|raTi] *how ye turned;* 
illustration of ver. 6. The irQt does 
not necessarily involve sMXut, fierh, 
ToXX^s (r^oSp6Tifros, Chrys., *quantA 
facilitate,* Calv., but simply points to 
the fact of iTi<rrpo<P'^ (Alf.), the clause 
being not modal but objective ; comp. 
Donalds. Gr, § 584. In the verb ixi- 
arpiipeaf the prep, does not here seem 
to mark regression (comp. notes on 
Gal. iv. 2), but simply direction: both 
meanings are lexically admissible (see 
Host u. Palm, Lex. s. v. and s. v. M, 
c), but the second seems to be most 



14 



nPOS eE22AA0NIKEI2 A. 



lo aXi^OivtS, KOI ava/Jieveiv top vlov avrov €k tZv ovpavS>v, 
ov tiyeipev ck tS>v v€KpS>Vy ^Itjcrovv to¥ puofievov ^/las airo 

Tn9 Opyrjs T^9 €p')(OfJL€PPJ9. 



' in accordance with the context. 
irp^ rhv 6t6v marks the conversion 
in its general rather than its specifically 
Christian aspects, with reference to 
the former heathen and Gentile condi- 
tion of the Thessalonians: if they had 
been Jews, the appropriate formula, 
as Olsh. well observes, would have 
been vpb% rhv K^piop. On this and 
the following verse, see a sound ser- 
mon by Sherlock, Sertn, Lni. Vol. nr. 
p. 56 (ed. Hughes). SovXcvav 

K.r.X.] * to serve the living and true 
Godi infinitive of the purpose or in- 
tention, el% rb bov\€(f€Uf «.r.X., Chrys., 
— a form of the final sentence (Donalds. 
Gr. § 606) not uncommon in St Paul's 
Epp. ; see i Cor. i. 1 7, Eph. i. 4, Col. 
i. 22. On the difference between this 
and the infin. with <S<rTe (consecutive 
sentence), see notes on Col. I. c, and 
comp. Winer, Gr. § 44. i, p. 284, ed. 
6, but more fully in § 45. 3, ed. 5. 
€rod has here the appropriate title of 
fwi' (Acts xiv. 15) in contrast with 
the dead (Wisdom xiv. 5, 29, comp. 
Habak. ii. 19) and practically non- 
existent (i Cor. viii. 4, see Meyer in 
he.) gods of the heathen, — and that 
of dXvidipbs (John xvii. 3, i John v. 
20, comp. 2 Chron. xv. 3) in contrast 
to their false semblance (GaL iv. 8) 
and fiarai&rrjs (hence D/ vK Lev. xix. 
4, xxvi. i). On the omission of the 
art. with 9c6$, comp. Winer, Gr. § 19. 
I, p. 1 10. 

10. dvafUvciv] 'to mcaiti* second 
great purpose involved in the iTriarpo- 
^ij : hope of the nature here described, 
as LUnem. observes, involves and in- 
cludes faith, and forms a suitable pre- 
paration for the allusions in the latter 
portion of the Epistle. If xa/>d be said 



to be the key-note of the Ep. to the 
Philippians (iii. i), Airis may truly be 
termed that of the present Ep. The 
verb dvafx^eofy a Air. \€y6/i. in the 
N. T., does not here involve any re- 
ference to awaiting one who is to return 
(comp. Beng.), nor yet any specific 
notion of eagerness or joy (Flatt), but 
simply that of patience ('erharren,' 
Winer) and confidence ; the dvd having 
that modified intensive force {irpoatii- 
pciMf Theod., see i Tim. L 3; ircpifU' 
v€w, Theoph., see Acts i. 4, which is 
so hard to convey without paraphrase ; 
see esp. Winer, de Verb. Comp. ni. 
p. 15, and comp. Rest u. Palm, Lex, 
s. V. dpdf B. b. Ik r»v ovpavAv 

belongs to dva/i^i'ety, involving a slight 
but perfectly intelligible form of bra- 
chylogy, scil. ipxbfievop iK tQv oip. ; 
comp. Winer, Gr. § 66. 2, p. 547. 
8v ^Ycipcv K.T.X.] 'whom he raised 
from the dead:* relative sentence placed 
emphatically before *Iri(rouv as involv- 
ing an ' argumentum palmarium* 
(Beng.) of His sonship; see Rom. i 4, 
and comp. Pearson, Greedy Art. v. Vol. 
I- P- 3^3 (®<i- Burton). The article 
before pcKpQv is omitted by JRec. with 
ACK ; CEc, but is supported by pre- 
ponderating external evidence [BDE 
FOLK; Ff.], and by the probability 
of a confirmation to the more usual 
iyelpeiv iK peKpQv. *It)o-ovv 

K.T.X.] *Jesu8 who deUvereth us.* The 
present participle has not the force of 
an aor. (* qui eripuit,' Vulg., Arm.) or 
future part, ('qui eripiet,' Clarom., 
* qui liberabit,* Copt.), but may serve 
(a) to mark the action as commenced 
and continuing (Vorst., Beng. *Chris- 
tus nos semel iXurpiixrarOy semper 
/JiJcrat*), or (b) as *rem certo futuram\ 



I. lO, II. I, 2. 



15 



Our coming among you 
was not vain; we nei- 
ther beguiled you nor 



AiJto} yap oiSaT€f aSeXcpoiy t^v II. 

were burdensomV but cltToSoV ntiZv rhv ITOOg VUag OTl OV K€vil 
toiled bravely, and en- tr i f- r- i 

SSUZ^ "' ^eVovev aXKa TrpoTraBovrti Kai ifipi- a 



(Schott), or still more probably (c) is 
associated with the article in a sub- 
stantival character, 'our deliverer,* 
Alf. ; see Winer, Gr. § 45. 7, p. 316. 
dipi TTJs 6p-yTJs] This powerful word 
(6pyi^) is not merely synonymous with 
KdXaffis or TifjLupla (Orig. Cela, iv. p. 
211; comp. LUnera.), but implies de- 
finitely the holy anger of God against 
sin,— that anger which, when deeply 
considered, only serves to evince His 
love; see esp. MUller, Doctr, of Sin, 
I. 2. 2, Vol. I. p. 265 (Clark). For 
drb TTJs 6py. AB«; 17, 73, read ix r. 
<Jp7' TTJs ^pX^H^^s] * "^^ich is 

cotninff;* more specific dtfinition of 
the dpyi/i; elre t^v dpdarTaatp, X^« 
Kai T^v dMTair6do<rtVf -^p i)fiipav dpyrji 
KaXei, CEcum. Tlie present participle 
has no future tinge, e. r;. = /xcWoijaris 
(Olsh., Koch), but marks the certainty 
of the coming (Bernhardy, Synt. x. 2, 
p. 371), and hints at the enduring 
principles of the moral government of 
God; comp. Eph. v. 5, Col. iii. 6. 

Chapteb II. I. A^rol Yop otSarc] 

'For ye yourselves kiMw / explanatory 
confirmation of the first part of ch. i. 
9, by an appeal to the knowledge and 
experience of his readers. In ch. i. 9 
two distinct subjects are alluded to, 
(a) the power and confidence of the 
preachers, (6) the obedience and recep- 
tivity of tlie hearers, comp. Chrys. : 
the former is amplified in the present 
and II following verses, the latter in 
ver. 13 — 16. Tdp is thus certainly not 
resumptive, nor yet explicative, but 
what Haitung {Partik. ydp, § 2) terms 
'argunientativ-explicativ,' the Apa ele- 
ment of the particle referring to what 
had preceded {* quasi pro re natft jam 



reote atque ordine hoc ita se habere 
dicitur,' IClotz), the 7^ element add- 
ing an explanatory asseveration; see 
esp. Klotz, Devar, Vol. ii. p. 235. If 
the distinction of Hand {Tursell. Vol 
II* P' 375) be correct, *nam ipsi,* 
Vulg., is here a judicious correction 
of ' ipsi enim,' Clarom. 
&ri OV Kcvi^ yfy.] * thai it has not been 
empty, ^ i. e. void of power and earnest- 
ness ; * non inanis, sed plena virtutis,* 
Beng. In this form of the objective 
sentence — by no means uncommon 
after verbs of ' knowledge, perception, 
Ac* — there is an idiomatic anticipation 
of the object, which serves to awaken 
the reader's attention to the subsequent 
predications ; see esp. Kriiger, Sprackl. 
§ 61. 6. 2. For other forms of the 
objective sentence, see Donalds. Or, 
§ 592. The exact meaning of K€fij 

has been somewhat differently esti- 
mated: it can scarcely involve any 
ethical reference ('deceitful,' Ham- 
mond, fiv6oi xf/evSeU xal X^yoot, CEcum.), 
or any allusion to accompanying dan- 
gers (Theod., Theoph.), or yet to the 
results of the etaroSos (De Wette i), as 
these belong to the second part of ver. 
9, — but, as yiyovev and the leading 
idea in the following words {iirapj^rja. 
h ry Gey JC.r.X.) both suggest, to the 
essential character of the €f(ro$os, its 
fulness of power and purpose and 
reality ; oiK AifSpufrlyrj oOdi if rvxovffa, 
Chrys. So rightly De Wette 2, Ltt- 
nem., and Alf. 

2. dXXd introduces the positive an- 
tithesis to the preceding negative od 
jccvJ) 7^0i'O'; see i Cor. xv. 10. Rec, 
reads dXXd Kai, but has only the sup- 
port of a few mss., and Clarom. 
irpoiraO. Kai ippurO.] ' having suffered 



16 



nP02 eE22AA0NIKEI2 A. 



a-divre^ /cada)9 oiSare iv ^iKlinroi^, hrappfitriatrafieOa 

€P T(S 0€^ ^fiHv \a\ri(rai irpog vfiag to evayyiKiov 

3 TO? Geo? iv iroW^ ayZvi. jJ yap irapaKXtjo'ig rifiiiu 



previously and having been injwnomly 
treated^' Acts xvi. a 2 aq. ; * id quod 
alios a prsedicando deterrere potuisset/ 
Beng. It is doubtful whether the 
pai-ticiple is here concessive ('although 
we had, <£;c./ Liinem. ; see Plato, Eep, 
n. p. 376 a), or simply temporal If 
KoX (Rec.) were to be admitted iu the 
text before the part., the former mean- 
ing would seem more probable, as in 
such cases the koL (though not = Kalwep, 
De W.) serves to sharpen the anti- 
thesis involved in the concession (see 
Xrtiger, SprachL § 56. 13. i sq.); as 
however koX must be rejected, the sim- 
ple participle seems here more natu- 
rally regarded as temporal ; comp. Xen. 
Mem. II. 2, 5. So Auth., and appy. 
Syr., Copt. The verb Tpowdax^w is 
a Air. \e-y6fi. in the N. T. though not 
uncommon elsewhere (Thucyd. ni. 67, 
Xen. I. c, Plato, I, c), and serves 
clearly to define the relation of time ; 
dirb KwSi^<av iKipvy&ifT€S TdXiv eli iri* 
povs kipSi^ovs ivcT^ffOfiev ; comp. Syr. 
and -fflth. (Piatt). To this word the 
addition of ippiad. gives force and cir- 
cumstantiality. lira^f^o-uurcL* 
l&iOa] 'we were hold of speech;* so dis- 
tinctly iEth.-Pol. (but not Piatt). It 
seems more exact to retain this pri- 
mary meaning; for though Tafij^ala 
has indisputably in the N. T. the deri- 
vative meaning of coT^fidence, boldness 
(see on Eph. iii. 12), still after a com- 
parison of Eph. vi. 20, and Acts xxvi. 
26 (a speech of St Paul's), the idea of 
bold speech, even though reiterated in 
\a\rj(rai, can scarcely be excluded. 
This ira/J^(rfa was kv r$ 06$ iffiwv ; 
it was in Him (not exactly *per Deum,' 
Schott i), as the causal sphere and 
ground of its existence, that the ira/5. 



priirla was felt and manifested. On the 
particularizing ^^uor, see notes on 
PhMem, 4, and PhU, i. 3. 
XaXtjoxm] *so as to speak/ explanatory 
infinitive, defining still more clearly 
the oral nature of the boldness; see 
Winer, Cfr. § 44. i, p. 285 ; so rightly 
De W., Meyer {on Eph. vi. 20), and 
Koch, who however appears (from his 
reference to Winer, Cfr, p. 379, ed. 5) 
to confound this use with that of the 
inf. with rod. LUnem., Alf., and 
others, far less plausibly, consider the 
inf. as a simple object-infin. after 
iirafiftrj<r. The ancient Vv. here give 
no distinct opinion, except perhi^s 
Syr.-PhiL, 'in fiducia (?) in Deo nostro 
loqui, <£;c.,' where the inf. seems clear- 
ly regarded as explanatory: so too 
(appy.) ChrjTS. rh ciayy. to^ 

©cov] *the Gospel of Qodf the Gosi)el 
which comes from Him, and of which 
He is the origin ; gen. not of the ob- 
ject (Chrys. <m Bom. i. i), but of the 
origin or originating cause; see notes 
on ch. i. 6. On the various genitives 
associated with £1)077., comp* note on 
Eph. i. 1 3, and esp. Eeuss, ThSol. Chrit. 
IV. 8, Vol II. p. 81. Iv iroXXf 

dYMVk] 'tn much conflict;'^ not without 
emphasis : it was this fortitude amidst 
external dangers that peculiarly evinced 
that the efo-oSos oii kg^ yiyoveif. It 
does not seem necessary here to refer 
irf^v to any internal conflict (comp. 
notes on Col. ii i), but simply, in ac- 
cordance with the context, to the ex- 
ternal dangers by which they were 
surrounded; so Theoph., (Ecum. : 
Chrys. appears to unite both. 

3. ii yAp irapdicX. i{|iwv] ' For our 
exhortation;^ explanatory confirmation 
(comp. note on ver. i) of irafij^. /c.t.X., 



II- 3, 4. 



17 



ovK €K irXavfjg ovSe e^ aKqidapcrla^ ovSe ev SoXw, aXXa 4 

3. om (2)] So Lachm. with ABCD^FGK; 6 mss. ; Copt. (Tisch. ed. i). 
In ed. 1, 7, however, ^mcA. reads offrc with D^EKL ; nearly all mss. ; Chrys. 
(aliquoties), Theod. (oih'e...oiiT€\ Dam., al. (Bec.y Alf.), and with some plausi- 
bility, as oifhk might be thought a correction for otfrc, which, though unusual, 
is here deemed not indefensible (comp. Schott, Alf.) : still, as this defence resti 
mainly on a doubtful use of iy, — as a recognition of the change of prepp. miglU 
have suggested a change from oifdi to oihe nearly as probably as a non-recogni- 
tion of it the converse, — and lastly, as the uncial authority very distinctly 
preponderates in favour of oW^, we revert to the reading of Tisch. (ed. i). So 
Winer, Gr, § 55. 6, p. 437, Olsh., De W,, Lilnem., Koch. 



especially of the concluding words ; ol 
v\apupT€s oi>K els Kwdj^ovs iavToi>s iK^t- 
d6a<TW, CEcum., compare Chrys. There 
is here, as Bengel acutely observes, an 
*«etiologia duplex/ the present 7 dp 
introducing a reference to the Apostle's 
regular habit, the second 7A/) (ver. 5) 
to that habit as specially evinced 
among the Thessalonians. The word 
TrapdKXifarts here includes * totum pr»- 
conium evangelicum' (Beng.), and ap- 
proaches in meaning to 8t8axiJ (Chrys.), 
or SidaaKoKla (Theod.), from both of 
which however it is perhaps distin- 
guishable, as being directed more to 
the feelings than the underatanding ; 
comp. notes on i Tim. iv. 13, and 
Beng. in loc. who says ^vapdK. late 
patet : ubi desides excitat est hortatio^ 
ubi tristitiae medetur est solatium.* A 
good dissertation on irapaKaXeiv, Tapd- 
KXriffiif and ira/od/cXiyros will be found 
in Knapp, Script. Var. Argum. No. iv.; 
see esp. p. 134. 

o^K Ik irXdvTjs] * is not of error/ not 
'grounded on,* Alf. i, but 'having 
its source in,* Alf. 2, the prep, retain- 
ing its usual and primary force of 
origination from; see notes on Oal, ii. 
16, Winer, Gr. § 47. b, p. 329- The 
verb to be supplied is not iiv (Syr., 
^th.) but iarlv (Copt.); as the Apo- 
stle is here referring to bis general 
and habitual mode of preaching; see 
above. Lastly, irXdyi? is not trans- 



itive, 'impostura,* Beza, *seducendi 
studium,* Grot. (comp. Theoph.), but, 
as appy. in all passages in the N. T., 

intransitive, * error,* Vulg., |Z.O i S (j 

[error] Syr., the context sei*ving to show 
whether it is in the more abstract 
sense of 'mentis error* (Irrthum) as 
in £ph. iv. 1 4, or as here in the more 
general meaning of 'being deceived* 
(Irrwahn, delusion), whether by one- 
self or others; comp. Theod., oifK ioiK€ 
rd nap* i)fiQv irpo<r(f>€p6fi€va ry fivdoXo- 
yiif, Tujv ttoitjtQv, d iroXXoD flip xf^evdovi 
iroXX^s Sk &Ko\aalai ifnr4ir\r]<rrai. 
dKaOapcrCas] ' impurity,* almost ' m- 
pure motives/ not apparently with any 
reference to the unclean and licentious 
teaching of fidyoi xal 76i;tcs, Theoph. 
(comp. Chrys.), but, as iv Tpotpdaei 
v\€OP€^lai (ver. 5) seems to suggest, 
with reference to moral impurity 
(comp. notes on Gal. v. 19), more espe- 
cially as evinced in covetousness (Olsh.) 
and desire of gain (Lttnem., Alf.); 
comp. al<rxpoK€pd^i as used in ref. to 
Christian teachers in i Tim. iii, 8, 
Tit. i. 7, and the charges that appear 
to have been brought against the 
Apostle himself, 2 Cor. xi. 8 sq. 
oiSi 4v 86X<p] * nor in guiU/ i. e. 'in 
any deliberate intention to deceive;* 
not so much with reference to 'the 
manner in which* (Alf.), as to the 
ethical sphere in which the irapiKKri^kz 

C 



18 



nP02 GESSAAONIKEIS A. 



Ka6oi)9 SeSoKi/JLacr/JLcOa vtto tov Oeov iriarevOfivai to 

evayyiXiov ovrwg XaXovfieVy oi5j( cog avOpdiroig apea-KOvreg 

5 aXXa ©eoJ tcu SoKifial^ovTi rag KapSiag ijfiiop. Oure yap 



was found, and by which it was, as it 
were, environed; comp. i Cor. iv. 2, 
fi^ v€pneaT0vvT€% h ircwovpylq. fir}di 
doKoOirrei t6v \6yw tov Geou, a some- 
what instructive parallel. The use of 
iv, especially with abstract or non- 
personal substantives, is always some- 
what debateable in the N.T., and can 
only be fixed by the context ; it some- 
times librates towards Std both with 
gen. (i Pet. i. 5) and ace. (Matth. vi. 
7), sometimes towards fierd (ver. 17, 
GoL ii. 7, iv. 2, see notes), sometimes, 
appy. very rarely, towards jcard (Heb. 
iv. 1 1), — but is commonly best referred 
to the imaginary sphere in which the 
action takes place ; see Winer, Gr. § 48. 
a, p. 345, and Kost u. Palm, Lex, s. v., 
where this prep, is very fully discuss- 
ed. On the reading of this passage, 
see crit. note, and on the most suitable 
transl. of 01)... 01)$^, notes to TransL 

4. Ka6»s ScSoKkfJu] * according as 
we have been approved ;* oCik avToxeipo- 
rbvrfTOi. hihdaKoKoi Kadearr'fiKajj.ev, dXX* 
ifirb rod Oeov rb evayyiXiov iirtaT€i5' 
Orjfievj Theod. Ka^ws (see notes on 
Gal. iiL 6) has here no argumentative 
force (Eph. i. 3, see notes), but stands 
in correlation to oiTrws, marking the 
measure or proportion existing be- 
tween their approval by God to preach 
the Gospel and their actual perform- 
ance of the commission. The idea of 
a recognition of any worth on the part 
of God in the dedoKtfjMafiivoi (Chrys., 
Theoph., (Ecum.) is certainly here not 
necessarily involved in the word. Ao- 
(cifjidteiv is properly (a) ' to put to the 
test' (Luke xiv. 19, Eph. v. 10, i Tun. 
ill. 10, dsc), thence by an easy gi*ada- 
tion (b) 'to choose after testing' (see 
Rom. t 18, with infin.), which again 



insensibly into — (c) * to approve 
of what is so tested:' comp. Rom. 
xiv. 22, I Cor. xvi. 3, and notes on 
Phil. i. 10. In the present case the 
appended notice of the subject in 
respect of which the SoKifiaala was 
exercised seems clearly to limit the 
meaning to (b): ivetS^ ido^ev airr^ 
Kol iSoKlfiaae viaT€v<rai ^fuv, Theod. 
irurTCvOijvak t6 ctSayy.] *<o have the 
Gospel entrusted to vls,'' comp. i Tim. i. 
II, Tit. i. 3: explanatory infinitive 
serving to define more nearly that to 
which the SoKifiaala was directed, see 
Winer, Gr. § 44. i, p. 285 ; compare 
Madvig, Synt. § 148. For remarks 
on, and exx. of the idiomatic construc- 
tion of the accus. m with irLtrreOofKU 
and similar verbs, see Winer, Gr. § 
32. 5, p. 204. ovx <*« ov6. 

dp^o-KOVTCs] *not as busied in pleasing 
men;^ the present tense having here 
its fullest force, and marking that 
which they were engaged in, were 
seeking to do ; o^k dp^jKeiv dikoyres, 
Theoph.; see Scheuerl. Synt. § 31. 2, 
p. 313, and comp. notes on Gal. i. 10. 
The particle wi serves as usual to 
characterize the action, and to define 
the aspect in which the whole was to 
be regarded, 'not as striving to please 
men, but (as striving to please) G^, 
<fcc.;' comp. Bernhardy, Synt. VII. a, 
p. 333, and notes on Eph. v. 22. 
•np 8oKk|i. K.T.X.] * who proveth, trieth, 
ou^ hearts;* So/ct/u. here relapsing back 
to its primary meaning, see above. 
The plural i)fiQv can here scarcely be 
referred otherwise than to St Paul 
and his fellow-preachers at Thessalo- 
nica : if the sentence had been gene- 
ral, it would have been omitted (Rom. 
viii. 27) ; if the reference were simply 



II. 5. 19 

TTOTi ey Xoyta koXcucela^ eycv^dfj/MePy Kddm olSarej ovrc iv 



to St Paul, the plurals KapBlat and 
rpvxiis (ver. 8) would eeem wholly inap- 
propriate. The art. before Gey 
(i2ec.), though well attested [AD«EFG 
KLM^], seems due to grammatical cor- 
rection, and is rightly rejected hyTiech,: 
it is inserted in brackets by Lachm, 

5. OifTf y6^ K.T.X.] Confirmation 
of this general character of his and 
their Apostolic teaching by a special 
appeal to the experience of his readers ; 
comp. ver. 3, 4v X. k. IycvijOt||uv] 
'catne toe [to share] in;* scarcely 
*were we found employed in* (comp. 
LUnem.), as the more distinct passive 
meaning cannot safely be maintained : 
see notes on Eph, iii. 7 ; on the form, 
see note on ch. i, 5. The Greek 
commentators (Chrys., Theoph.) para- 
phrase it simply by iKo\aK€6<ra/i€P ; 
this however somewhat falls short of 
the idiomatic ylyi>ofiai ipy 'in aliquft 
re versor* (Matth. Gr. § 577. 5, Vol. 
II. p. 1004), and fails to mark the 
entrance into, and existence in the 
given thing or condition; see notes 
on I Tim. ii. 14. 

Xiyy KoXaKcCas] * speech of fiaJtUry^ 
'sermone adulationis,* Vulg., 'verbo 
adulationis,' Syr., Copt., 'blanditiis 
...in voce,' ^th. (Piatt); Xdyoi 
having here its simple and proper 
meaning of * speech,* * teaching* (not 
coextensive with Heb. ID^, — a use 
apparently not found in the N. T.), 
and icoXoure/as being a gen. — not of 
quality ('assentatorio,* Beza), nor of 
origin ('ex adulandi studio profecto,* 
Schott), but of the suAstoncf and con- 
tents; comp. 1 Cor. vL 7, Eph. i. 13, 
al.; and see ScheuerL Synt. § is. i, 
p. 182, Hartung, CasvSf p. if. The 
word KoXaKcla [possibly connected with 
Kkelew, Pott, Etymol, Forsch. Vol. i. 
P* ^33> or with k6\os, icXdo), in sense of 
broken -spiritedness, cringing] is a dw. 



\ey6fA, in the N. T., and is defined in 
Pseud. -Plat. JDef. p. 415 E (V6l. IX. 
p. 271, ed. Bekk.) as o/xtX/o 1^ irpbs 
llSop^v (bf€V rod peKricTov, comp. 
Theoph. Charact, 2. It serves here 
more specifically to illustrate the ^ 
96X^ of ver. 3, and forms a natural 
transition to the next words, the es- 
sence of KoXaxela being self-interest; 
6 6i dirvs <i<pi\€id rts airrtfi ylypnirai 
els XP^I^^'^^ f^^ ^<''A ^^ jcprifJLdruy 
K6\a^, Aristotle, Ethic. Nicom. iv. n 
(ad fin. ), comp. viii. 9. 
kv irpo^o-ci irXfov.] Un a cloJce of 
covetousness ;* * prsetextu specioso quo 
tegeremus avaritiam,* Beng. The exact 
meaning of these words is not per- 
fectly clear. Upd^aais is not here 
*occa8io,* Vulg., Clarom., nor *accu- 
satio,* Hamm., nor even 'species,* 
Wolf, still less is otiose, Loesn. {Obs. 
p. 376), but has its simple and usual 
meaning of *preetextus* (comp. Copt.; 

|A^^ Syr. is somewhat indef.), while 

the gen. wXeoye^tas is a gen. ohjecti 
(comp. Scheuerl. Synt. § 17. i, p. 126) 
serving to define that to which the 
irp6<f>airis was applied, and which it 
was intended to mask and conceal*' 
comp. Xen. Cyr. li. i. 15, 9rp60ourts 
fi€iof€^lai, and see exx. in Host u. Palm 
Lex. 8. V. (b), Vol. II. p. 1 25 1. The 
Apostle and his companions used no 
X67o$ which contained jcoXajcc/o, nor 
any irp6<f>affis which was intended to 
cloke their irXeoi^c^/a. On the true 
meaning of irXewe^ia, see notes on 
Eph, iv. 19, and on its distinction from 
^tkapyvpluy Trench, Synon, § 24. 
6tbf |idpTvs] ' God is foitness ; * strong 
confirmation of the declaration imme- 
diately preceding; comp. Bom. i 9, 
Phil. L 8. The Greek commentators 
pertinently remark that in what men 
could judge of he appeals to his read- 

C2 



20 



nP02 eE22AA0NIKEI2 A. 



6 irpocpa&et xXebve^/a?, Geo? fiaprvg* ovre Tfirovvre^ 
€^ avOpiTTWv So^aVf ovre a(j) vfx5>v ovre airo aWwv, Swi" 

7 jj,€voi €v ^apei etvai W9 Xpicrrov a-TrocTToXor aXX' 



ers, but in what they could not so 
distinctly recognise he appeals to God ; 
Sirep TJv BijXbVf avroifi Koket fidfrrvpas' 
el iKoKaKc{>(raii€v ^fieh otBare <f^<rltf' 
direp Si &57j\op ifv, rb hr rpbirtp irKeov- 
e^laSj Qebv KoKei /Jidprvpa, Chrys. 

6. o^Jtc ttjTOvvTfs ICT.X.] ^neither 
seeking gloiy from men;^ continued 
notice on the negative side of the 
characteristics of his own and his 
companions' ministry ; ^oOvres being 
dependent on the preceding iyev/jdrf- 
/jL€Vy and the clause serving to illustrate 
ovx t«Js dvdp. dpiaK., ver. 4. It is very 
difficult here to substantiate any real 
distinction between i^ and &irb. The 
assertion of Schott and Olsh. that ix 
refers to the immediate, dirb to the 
more remote origin, is true (see notes 
on Gal. ii. 16), but here inapplicable; 
that of Liinem. and Alf.,— 'that ix 
belongs more to the (ibatract ground of 
the bb^a, dirb to the concrete object from 
which it was in each case to accrue,' 
— is artificial and precarious. It would 
really seem more probable that they 
are here synonymous (Winer, Gr. § 
50. 2, p. 365), and that while in the 
first clause ix might seem more idioma- 
tic in immediate union with i^6i>, the 
disjunctive clauses into which it is ex- 
panded might admit of and be lightened 
by the change to dirb. St Paul's love 
of prepositional variation has often 
been noticed ; comp. Winer, Gr. § 50. 
6, p. 372, and notes on Gal. i. t. 
8vvd)&cvok Iv pdpci ctvai] * though we 
could be of weight;* concessive parti- 
cipial clause subordinated to the pre- 
ceding part. l^'Tirovyres: comp. Krtl- 
ger, Sprachl. § 56. 13. i, Donalds. Gr. 
% 621. The meaning of iv pdpei cli'ai 
is somewhat doubtful. Two interpre- 



tations deserve consideration : (a) 'on- 
eri esse,' Vulg., ^th. (Copt, haroa, 
uncertain), pdpos retaining its more 
simple meaning, and referring to the 
Apostolic right of being maintained 
by the Churches (Theod.) ; comp. irpbs 
rb fJL^ impapija'cuy ver. 9, 1 Thess. iii. 
8, oif Kare^dprjaa, 2 Cor. xii. 16, and 
d^apr}...i/xauTbv iri^prjaa, 2 Cor. xi. 9: 
(6) *in gravitate [honore]esse,'Clarora., 

and appy. Syr. ]00lV)\ |'|' 1 O > 

• X 

[honorabiles esse; see Schaaf, Lex, 
8. v.], ^dpos having its derivative sense 
of 'weight,' 'authority;' comp. Diod. 
Sic. IV. 61, rb pdpos rrji irbXeui (r^r 
Iffx^f Suid.), esp. xvi. 8 (where it is 
associated with d^lu)fia\ and somewhat 
similarly Polyb. Hist, rv. 32. 7, xxx. 
15. i: see esp. Suidas, s.v. Of these 
(a) is plausible on account of ivi^ap., 
ver. 9: as however the concessive 
clause. is closely appended to one in 
which bb^a is the prevalent notion, 
and as the reference to i7irc6ri7S serves 
to enhance the same idea by contrast, 
it seems more exegetically correct, and 
more in harmony with the immediate 
context, to adopt (6) ; so Chrys. iroX- 
\7js diroXavaai rifirji, and less decidedly 
Theoph. and (Ecum. 
<&S Xp. dir6oToXoi] * as Chrisfs Apo- 
stles;^ the possessive gen. marking with 
slight emphasis whose ministers they 
were (see notes on Eph. i. i, Col. i. i), 
and the term dir6(rroXo( receiving its 
more extended sense (see notes on 
Gal. i. i), and including Silvanus and 
Timothy. De Wette, Koch, al., refer 
the plural solely to St Paul, but with- 
out sufficient reason. Though a refer- 
ence to the Apostle's coadjutors mu^t 
not perhaps be strongly pressed in 



11. 6, 7, 8. 



21 



€auT^9 Te/ci/a, ovtw^ o/xeipojuievoi vfiwv evSoKOvjuiev fAcra^ 8 



«very case where the plural occurs, 
yet in the present passage the plurals 
Kapdlas (ver. 4) and ipvx^s (ver. 8) 
seem distinctly to favour the wider 
application. 

7. dXX' fycinjOriiicv] Statement, on 
the positive side, of the behaviour of 
the Apostle and his helpers, the dXXd 
introducing an antithesis, not merely 
to the last clause, but to the whole 
of the preceding verse: they did not 
seek 66^ay as StbdffKoKotf but, what was 
very different (see Klotz, Devar. Vol. 
n. p. i\ evinced the affection of a 
parent ; oiJ pdpv o^Si KbiiTov Hx^v dre- 
8«fd/A€^a, Chrys, ^irioi] 

* gentle:* a bU XeySfi. in the N. T., 
here and 1 Tim. ii. 24. The epithet 
is similarly applied to a father (Hom. 
Od. II. 47), to a ruler (Herod, in. 89), 
to a god, Dionysus (Eur. Bac. 861), as 
marking 'animi lenitatem in aliis fe- 
rendis' (Tittm.), and pointing to an 
outward exhibition of an inward irpad- 
Tiys* comp. Etym, if., -rjirtoi' 6 iv X67V 
T&m-a irotwv jcai /a^ ird^ci, iK /AcraXiJ- 
yj/eui Si Kal 6 Sid X670U irpoarjv^i Kal 
Tpaoi (where however the derivation 
seems too much pressed), see Tittm. 
Synon, I. p. 140, and notes on 2 Tim, 
L c. The reading is doubtful : 

pi/irioi is most strongly supported 
[Xocto. with BCiDiFGK*; some mss.; 
Vulg., Clarom., Copt., -ffith. (both), 
al.], but as a repetition of the N, 
owing to the somewhat common use 
of tr/fTios in St Paul's Epp., is more 
probable than that of an omission, 
and as p^rtos mars both the sense and 
metaphor, we seem justified in retain- 
ing iJfTtos, with AC^D^EKLK^; great 
majority of mss. ; Sab., Basm., Syr. 
(both). So Tisch.j and the majority 
of recent editors. kv fUcnp v)&c»vj 

*{n the midst of you/ scarcely, by an 



anticipation of the image, 'sicut gal- 
lina pullis circumdata,' Beng., — but, 
with a hint at the absence of all as- 
sumption of authority, *as one of your- 
selves,' 'ut sequales idque cum omni- 
bus,' Zanch. ; ws Av ttiroi rtt i^ iffAQy, 
o&x)' "T^f di'w \ap6pTei X^^tK, Chrys. 
<&s Idv rpo^os K.r.X.] *a8 a nurse 
{ntirsing mother) doth cherish her own 
children i the particle a)S having here 
not a temporal but simply a compara- 
tive forde (Klotz, Devar, Vol. 11. p. 

757) st-klo [sicut etiam] Syr., 'tam- 

quam si,' Vulg., Clarom., *sicut,' 
Copt., -^th.,— and combining with 
i^ and the j^es. subj. in marking the 
habitude or perhaps rather the con- 
tinuance of the objectively-possible 
event; see Winer, Gr, § 42. 3. b, p. 
274, and comp. Herm. de Part, dtf, 
p. 275, Green, Or. p. 57 sq. Hec. 
reads Ay with AD3(K ?)LK ; most mss. 
For exx. of somewhat similar usages 
of Tpo06s, see the list collected by 
Loesner, Obs. p. 377, and on the 
meaning of OdXirew [fostering warmth 
of the breast, comp. Deut. xxii. 6], 
see Krebs, Obs. p. 345, and notes on 
Eph. V. 29. Tlie tenderness conveyed 
in the rd iavTTJs r^Kva should not be 
overlooked; riyi' <f>CKo€rropylcLV ahrov 
SeiKvvffUf, Theoph. The present 

K)lause must not be marked off by a 
colon at {ffJLufP (LUnem.), but regarded 
both as an illustration of the preceding 
words, and as the protasis to the follow- 
ing otTrws dfj.€ip6fi€voi iffiQv eitSoKovfieyf 
ver. 8. 

8. 6|icip6|uvoi i|iMv] 'earnestly, 
affectionately, desiring you,* * having a 
fond affection for you;* iiridvpLovvres, 
Hesych., Photius (Lex, p. 242). This 
form, though not found in the current 
lexicons (Host u. Palm not excepted), 



22 



nP02 eESZAAONIKEIS A. 



Sovvai v/JLiv ov fxovov to €vayyi\tov tov OeoS oXXa Kat 
TO? eavrZv \J/i;x«9 Siori ayairnTol fifMV eysvtjOrjre. 



18 supported by all the uncial and 
more than 30 cursive mss., and rightly 
adopted instead of Ifieip, {Rec.) by 
Lachm.j TiscTu, and most modem 
commentators. It is not compounded 
of dfioO and ctpetp (Theoph., Phot.), 
but is either (a) a form of the shorter 
fielpo/xcu (comp. Hpofiai, dSdpofmt), 
Winer, (rr. § 16. 4, p. 92, or (6.) a late 
and perhaps coarsely-strengthened form 
of the more usual Ifielpofiou, comp. 
Fritz. I, on Mark, p. 792. As it seems 
probable that fielpofiai (Nicander, The- 
riaca, 402) is not an independent 
verb, but only an apocopated form of 
l/ulpoficu 'metri causa* (see Host u. 
Palm, Lex, s.v. fielpofJL.), it seems safer 
to adopt (6), and to consider dfAclpo/iai 
as a corrupted and perhaps strength- 
ened form of the more usual verb. 
oih'MS. . .ciSoK.] *So.. .had we good wiU-' 
the o^rwf being connected not with 
the participle but with the finite verb. 
The verb ci^ok. is here not present, 
'cupimus,' Clarom., but imperf., 'cu- 
pide volebamus,' Vulg. (comp. Copt., 
an-temat), the past tenses being com- 
monly found in the N. T. with the 
more Attic eit (comp. Lobeck, Phryn, 
p. 140, 456), not with i;^ as B here, 
and a few MSS. elsewhere, see ch. iii. 
I [B«], I Cor. X. 5 [ABC], CoL i. 19 
[ADE], al. The verb ettoK, is only 
found in writers after the time of 
Alexander (see Sturz, de Dial, Ma.ced, 
p. 167), and appears to be commonly 
used in N.T. not as a mere equivalent 
for hoK^ia (comp. Koch), but as con- 
veying the idea either of the 'propensa 
voluntas' (Fritz.), or of the firee, un- 
conditioned, and gracious will (Luke 
xii. 32, Gal. i. 15, comp. i Thess. iii. 
i) of the subject; comp. notes onEpht 
i. 5, and esp. see Fritz. Jiom, x. i, 
Vol. II. p. 369 sq. For a notice of 



the constructions of e^BoK, in the 
N.T., see notes on Col, i. 19. 
lUToSovvai] *to impart/ properly and 
specially connected with t6 ci5ay7., 
but also by a very intelligible zeugma 
with tA$ iavrQy ^vxdit the compound 
verb being in the latter case under- 
stood in its ample form ; comp. 6o0pai 
liiv ^vx¥» Mark x. 45. The use of 
IxerahMvoL with a dat and ace., 
though less usual than with a dat. 
and gen. (Jelf, Gr, § 535), is not with- 
out example, especially when the par- 
titive notion is owing to the context 
inadmissible; see Kriiger, Sprachl, § 
47. 15. dXXd KaC IC.T.X.] 

*but even our own soula,'' 'nostras ani- 
mas,' Clarom., Vulg.; not with any 
Hebraistic tinge (=^3*J:)'lK?W) *nos- 
met ipsos' (Koppe), nor even merely 
'nostras vitas,' but perhaps with a 
faint reference to the deeper meaning 
of ypvx^t as pointing to the centre of 
the personality (Olshaus. Opuac. p. 
154, Beck, Seelenl. § i), our life and 
soul (Fell), our very existence, and all 
things pertaining to it. On the plu- 
ral, see above on ver. 4, and on the 
use of ^auTcDv with reference to the 
first person, Winer, Gr, § 22. 5, p. 136. 
The foroe of the strong antithesis 01^ 
pL6poif...dXKb. KoX is noticed in notes on 
oh. i. 8. Sk6Tt dTair. i{|itv lycv.] 

* because ye became very dear (beloved) 
to us/ surely here with no reference 
to the Agent by whom they were 
made so (Alf.), but simply to their 
having become so, owing to their eager 
and earnest reception of the Apostolic 
message ; see notes on ch. i. 5. On 
the pronominal conjunction $i6rc, here 
used in its slightly modified sense of 
h(.d TovTO 6ti (eo quod), •quoniam,' 
Vulg., *quia,* Clarom., see Fritz. JRom, 
I 19, Vol. I. p. 58, but correct the 



II. 



23 



fAPtl^OP€V€T€ yapy aScXcpOlf TOP KOTTOV tJfAWP Kai TOV 9 

fio^dov VVKT09 Ka\ ntJ^epa^ epyaXpfi^voi irpos to ijl»i 



very doubtful statement (endorsed by 
Koch) that Si6ti is there equivalent to 
yb.p or ' nam,' see Meyer in loc. The 
reading of Hec. yey^pviaOe is only sup- 
ported by K ; mss. ; and may have 
been a correction to harmonize the 
clause with the supposed present ci;8o/c. 
9. |iVT)|iovcvcrc 7dp] *For ye re- 
member/ confirmation of the main 
declaration of ver. 8, fJL€Tadovvai...Th.i 
iavTuv \pvxdsy not of the more remote 
iy€vfi6rifi€v ijrioi (comp. Olsh.), still 
less of the subordinate causal member 
5i6ti ic.r.X. (LUnem. ; comp. Just., 
Alf.), — a doubtful reference of ydp 
appy. suggested by limiting the term 
^vxas unduly, and stiil more by find- 
ing no allusion in the present verse to 
actual dangers. This however is not 
necessary: the Apostle and his fol- 
lowers practically gave up their 'ex- 
istence' to their converts, when they 
spent night and day in toil rather than 
be a burden to any of them. 'M.^tj/jl, 
is of course the indie, pres. On fxyrj' 
[Mv, with the accus. see notes on ch. 
i. 3, and esp. on 2 Tim, ii. 8. Com- 
pare throughout this verse 2 Thess. 
iii. 8. T^v K^irov i{f&ttv Kal 

t6v |i^X^v] *<>'*** ^oi7 and our travail^* 
the article being repeated to give em- 
phasis to the enumeration and to en- 
hance the climax ; comp. Winer, Or. 
§ 19. 5, p. 117. The words jc6iros and 
M^X^os are again found connected in 
2 Thess. iii. 8 and 2 Cor. xi. 27 : the 
former perhaps marks the toil on the 
side of the suffering it involves (see 
notes on i Tim. iv. 10), the latter, as 
its derivation seems to suggest [con- 
nected with /i^Yts, and perhaps allied 
to /i^as, see Pott, Etym. Forach. Vol. 
I. p. 283], on the side of the magni- 
tude of the obstacles it has to over- 
come : the connexion of ft6xOos with 



Ax&oi (Koch, Rost u. Palm, Lex. s. v.) 
seems philologically doubtful; comp. 
Pott, I.e. No. 373. 

WKT^S Kal i{f&. Ip^at.] * working night 
and day/ modal participial clause de- 
fining the circumstances under which 
the K'fipvyfia was delivered. On the 
secondary predication of time vvicrbi 
Kal iifiipaSf and on the strict gramma- 
tical force of the gen. as pointing to 
some indefinite point of the space of 
time expressed by the subst. (contrast 
2 Thess. iii. 8, ReCf Ttsch.), see notes 
on I Tim. y. 5. There is perhaps 
some emphasis in the collocation of 
the whole expression, but appy. none 
in the fact of vvkt6s preceding iffiipas 
(Alf.), as St Paul always adopts this 
order ; see further on i Tim. I. c, and 
comp. Lobeck, Paralipom, p. 62 sq. 
The addition of ydp after vvKT6i [Rec, 
with D^EKL; mss.; Chrys. (text), 
Theod.], though partially defended by 
De W., seems to have been an inser- 
tion 'nexus caus&,' and is rightly re- 
jected by most modem editors. 
lpYat6|icvoi has here a special refer- 
ence to the manual labour (Schott) of 
the Apostle and his associates ; comp. 
Acts xviii. 3. In i Cor. iv. 12 (comp. 
Eph. iv. 28) the verb is enhanced by 
the addition rats /5/at$ x^P^^' 
irp6s rh |ii| K.T.X.] * with a view to not 
being burdensome to any of you/ object 
contemplated in the vvKrbi Koi ii/J., 
ipyoL^. On this use of ir/)6s, comp. 
Winer, Gr. § 44. 6, p. 295, and on its 
possible distinction from c/s, comp. 
notes on 2 Thess. iii. 4. The late form 
iTTipapeiv (2 Cor. ii. 5, 2 Thess. iii. 8, 
comp. Dion. Halic. iv. 9, viii. 73) is 
nearly but not quite equivalent in 
meaning to Karapapeiy (2 Cor. xii. 16), 
the prep, in the former case being 
mainly directive (onus imponere)^ in 



24 



nP02 eESSAAONIKEIS A. 



€7ri^aprj(ral Tiva vfiZv eKtjpv^a/JLev eU u/xa? to evayyiXiov 

lo Tov 0eo5. u/xefj jmapTVpeg koi 6 Geo? wg ocrlm koi 

SiKaim KOI a/xe/JLTrrm vfJilv roU wicrTevovcriv eyev^Ofj/iiev' 



the latter mainly intensive; comp. 
im^apiiifetv, Exod. xxL 30. The in- 
ference of Chrya., Theoph., that the 
Thessalonians were ^ ireviif is very 
questionable; consider Acts xvii. 4, 

yWMKQv T€ tQv VpiiJTUV oifK 6\ly(u, 

and oomp. Baumgarten, AdSt Vol. n. 
p. 208 sq. (Clark). 4iCT)pv£. els 

iftas] ' 'iJoe preached unto you,^ ^'^\ 

Syr., Vulg. (Amiat.), ^th. ; not 'in 
vobis,' Vulg., Clarom., Copt., the pre- 
position being not equivalent to iv, 
but indicative of the direction, so to 
say, which the K^ipuyiia took; see 
Matth. Gr, § 578. b. It is singular 
that Winer (Gr. § 31. 5, p. 191, ed. 6) 
should have been induced merely by 
the plural following to adopt the less 
probable translation 'unter,' especially 
as in ed. 5 (p. 241) he has added the 
more exact rendering 'Botschaft an 
die Volker gebracht;' comp. Mark 
xiii. 10, Luke xxiv. 47, i Pet. i. 25. 

10. "fiiMts |ii£pr. Kal 6 6c6s] ' Te are 
witnesses, and [so is] God:* statement 
in a collected form of what had pre- 
viously been expanded into particulars. 
As the summary involves what could 
not be adequately judged of by man, 
the Apostle subjoins an appeal to God ; 
TOV 6^ Gcou T^v fiapTvplaif vpoffT^dci' 
K€v' ixeid^ roh dj^Bpibirois dijXa rd 
6piJbfi€Pa tjJ>vaf T(p hk Qe^ Kal rd roifs 
djfdpdiirovs Xavdavbpxvaf Theod. 
1^ hvUti K.T.X.] 'how holily and right- 
eously and blamelessly we behaved to you 
thai believe;^ characteristics of the be- 
haviour of the Apostle and his asso- 
ciates, the adverbs btrltai ic.r.X. not 
being merely adjectival, but serving 
as secondary predicates (Donalds. Gr, 
§ 436 8^-) to define the form and man- 



ner of the 'oomparatum esse' involved 
in iytHfiyifxev'. see Winer, Gr, § 54. 2, 
p. 341, Kniger, Sprachl. § 62. 2. 3. 
The adverbs are grouped together 
somewhat cumulatively, to express 
both on the positive and negative side 
the complete faithfulness of the minis- 
try. The ordinary distinction between 
the two former (irepi pukv dvOpdnrovi rd 
Tpoff-^KOin-a Tpdrrcatf BlKaC &y irpdrroi, 
irepl dk Gcoi>s 3(rta, Plato, Gorg. p. 507 
b; comp. Chariton, I. 10), urged Jiere 
with some plausibility (Theoph., Alf., 
al.) on account of the preceding ifAcTs 
Kal 6 6e6;, is still always precarious in 
the N. T. ; see notes on Eph, iv. 24, 
Tit. i. 8. Perhaps it is safer to say 
that 6(rl(ai and BiKalcos form on the 
positive side a compound idea of holy 
purity and righteousness whether to- 
wards God or towards men, while 
dfiifiirrcai (see Phil, ii. 15, iii. 6) gives 
on the negative side the idea of gene- 
ral blamelessness in both aspects amd 
relations. To refer d/x^fiirrus to Paul 
and his companions ('respectu sui ip- 
sorum,' Beng.), or to regard it as 
merely the negative reiteration of 5t- 
Kalwi in ref. to men (Olsh.), seems too 
restrictive ; comp. Luke i. 6. 
wfitv Tots irurrfvoiionv] * to you that 
believe;* objects in whose interest the 
behaviour was shown; dative of in- 
terest, see Kxiiger, Sprachl, § 48. 4. 
Lunem. and Alf., following CEcum. 
and Theoph., and swayed by the posi- 
tion of the words and supposed passive 
force of iyev-^ff., regard iffuy as a dat. 
judicii; comp. Winer, Gr. § 31. 3. b, 
p. 245 (ed. 5,— omitted in ed. 6). This 
however seems very doubtful; the 
Apostle would scarcely have appealed 
to God in ref. to the judgment of the 



II. lO, II, 12. 



25 



KaOdirep oiSare, c»9 €va cKacrrov vjulZv wg irarfip rcKva ii 
iavToS irapaKaXovvreg ifiag kqi irapajuLvdovfievoi koI la 



Thessalonians ; nor would an allusion 
to their estimate of a former line of 
conduct have been so pertinent as one 
to their consciousness that they were 
the interested objects of it. The ad- 
dition rots TtffT. is not otiose ( Jowett), 
nor suggestive of different relations 
with unbelievers (comp. Theoph.), but 
enhances the appeal to the conduct 
displayed towards the Thess., by show- 
ing that their spiritual state was such 
as would naturally evoke it. 

II. KaOdircp otSarc] 'even as ye 
know;'* confirmatory appeal to the in- 
dividual experience of his hearers ; the 
general hcibriji Ka\ hiKaio<r^ koX d/xe/j,- 
^a of the Apostle and his companions 
was verified by its strict accordance 
(KaBdvep) with what was observable in 
special cases. The genuine and ex- 
pressive form Kaddirep {xaOdk marking 
the comparison^ vcp the latitude of 
the application, 'ambitum rei majorem 
▼el quamvis maximum/ Klotz, Devar, 
Vol. II. p. 722) is only used in the 
N. T. in St Paul's Epp. (11 times), 
and in Hebrews (ch. iv. a, v. 4 Rec,\ 
the later ica^cbs (see notes on Gal. iiL 
6) being the greatly predominant form. 
The simple KaOh. only occurs once, 
Matth. xxvii. 10. <&s Sva 

iKatrrov] ' how cw regards each one of 
yoUf* ' unumquemque, nemine omisso/ 
Schott; the (bs referring to a finite 
verb that has been omitted (see below), 
and the accus. being governed by the 
participles, and put prominently for- 
ward to mark the individualizing re- 
ference of the acts ; j9aj8a/, iv Toao&rtp 
vKiidei fiTfSiva irapoKtireTv, Chrys. The 
collective if/xai follows, as serving still 
more clearly to define that all were 
included: it is thus not so much a 
mere pleonastic repetition of the pro- 
noun (Col. ii. 13, oomp. Bemhardy^ 



Synt. p. 175), as a defining and sup- 
plementary accus. somewhat allied to 
the use of that case in the axvf^ '^^.S' 
S\w Kal fiipoSf J elf, Gr, § 584. 
<&S iranjp] Appropriate change from 
the image of a nursing-mother (ver. 7) 
to that of a father ; the reference not 
being here to the tenderness of the 
love, but to its manifestation in in- 
struction and education. The remark 
of Theoph. (suggested by Chrys.), &»« 
fxh odi> Tpotfxp iaxrrhv direlKaffe pGv Si 
Tarpl T^v dydTTTiv deiKVJ&wv koI t^v 
Tpoffraalatf, is thus not wholly appro- 
priate. irapaKoX. i|ias Kal 
irapa|iv6.] 'exhorting you and encou- 
raging you ;' more exact specification 
of the behaviour previously described. 
The participles are certainly not di- 
rectly (Copt.), nor even indirectly (by 
an assumed omission of rj/iev, Beza, 
al.) equivalent to finite verbs, but are 
either (a) dependent on iyevi^Brifiev 
supplied from the preceding clause 
(LiineuL, A If.), or (6) are used di^a/co- 
\oijdwij as modal clauses to a finite 
verb {=iy€irfi0. {/pup) that has been 
omitted, but is readily suggested by 
the context ; * ye know how we did so, 
exhorting you, <fcc.;* so appy. Theod., 
TttDra Si iirolow [^70)] vporpivtav 
K.T.X,, and probably Goth., which 
simply retains the participles. Between 
(a) and (6) the difference is practically 
not great ; in the former case the par- 
ticiples form part of the primary, in 
the latter of the modal and secondary 
predication: (6) however seems pre- 
ferable, both from the special consi^* 
deration that thus the secondary pre- 
dications of manner in ver. 10 find 
a parallelism in ver. 1 1, and from the 
general consideration that these parti- 
cipial anacolutha are common in St 
Paul's Epp. : comp. 2 Cor. vii. 5, and 



20 nP02 eE22AAONIKEI2 A. 

fiapTVpo/J-evoi eig to irepiiraTelv vfxa^ d^/ft)? tov QeoS 
Tov KoXovvTog ifia^ €19 rijv eauroS fiacriXeiav Kai 
So^av. 



Winer, Gr, § 45. 6, p. 313. The 

verb irapcLfwO. seems here to imply 
not so much direct ' consolation ' 
(John xi. 19, 31), Vulg., comp. Syr. 

^Q^Cu^^ ■- ^^^ [loquentes in 
^ ^ -ft 

corde vestro], Ck>pt., ^th., as 'encou- 
ragement/ see ch. v. 14, yet not spe- 
cially to meet dangers bravely (CEcum.), 
but, as the context suggests, — ^to per- 
form generally their duties as Chris- 
tians. 

12. |U4>Tvp6|icvoi] * charging^* 'con- 
juring, * quasi testibus adhibitis ' 
(comp. Eph. iv. 17), — ^not however 
=.5iafiapTvp6fi, (De Wette, LUnem.), 
which is obviously a stronger form; 
see notes on i Tim, v. 12. This sense 
of fAOfirdp. is abundantly confirmed by 
the use of the verb not only in later 
(Polyb. Hist. xin. 8. 6), but even in 
earlier writers, e.g, Thucyd. vi. 80, 
de6fi€0a dk KoX fAafyrvpS/xeOa, and VIII. 
53, iiaprvpoiUifiav koX ivideLa^bimav 
(Goell.), — and is similar to though, as 
the context shows, not perfectly iden- 
tical with (Koch) its use in Gal v. 3, 
Eph. iv. 17, where it approaches more 
nearly to fiapTvpoOfuu; see notes in 
locc. The reading is slightly 

doubtful: Bec.f Lachm., read fiapTv- 
po6fL with D^FG; most mss.; Theod., 
Theoph., aL, but as the external evi- 
dence in favour of fiaprvpSfA. [BD^ 
(appy.) B^E (appy.) KLK; 30 mss.; 
Chrys., (Ec. : A omits koX fMipr,, and 
C is deficient] is of superior weight, 
and as /mprvpeiffdcu is always used 
passively in the New Test, we adopt 
fiapTvpdp,. with TUch. and the majority 
of modem critics ; see Binck, Lucvhr. 
Crit. p. 91. cl« t6 K.T.X.] ' tk<U 

ye should walk worthy,^ Col. i. 10; de- 
pendent on the preceding participles. 



and indicating not merely the subject 
(Lunem.) or direction (Alf.), but, as 
€ls rb with the infin. nearly always 
indicates, the purpose of the foregoing 
exhortation and appeal: comp. Chrys., 
who paraphrases by ha with the subj., 
and contrast Theod. who paraphrases 
with a simple infin. The form €h rb 
with the infin. is commonly used by 
St Paul simply to denote the purpose 
(comp. Winer, Gr. § 44. 6, p. 295, 
Meyer, on Rom, i. 20, note), and pro- 
bably in no instance is simply indica- 
tive of resuU (ecbatic) ; still, as perhaps 
in the present case, there appear to be 
several passages in which the purpose 
is so far blended with the subject of 
the prayer, entreaty, &c. or the issues 
of the action, that it may not be im- 
proper to recognise a secondary and 
weakened force in ref. to purpose, 
analogous to that in the parallel use 
of &a; comp. notes on Eph. L 17. 
The present trepiiraTeuf is rightly 
adopted instead of the aor. •n-epiiraTij' 
(Tcu (Rec.) by most modem editors on 
preponderant uncial authority [ABD^ 
FGK ; many mss. : C is deficient]. 
TOV KoXovvTos] ' who is calling;* not 
KaX^ffcurros, as in Gal. i. 6, and here 
in AK and 8 mss.: the calling was 
still continuing as relating to some- 
thing which in its fullest realization 
was future. It has been before ob- 
served that in the Epistles the gra- 
cious work of calling is always ascribed 
to the Father; comp. notes on Gal. 
I. c, Reuss, Theol. Chr4t. iv. 15, p. 
144 sq., Uateri, Lehrb. ii. a. 3, p. 269 
sq. On the Wocatio externa* and 
'interna,' see the good distinctions of 
Jackson, Creed, xii. 7. i, 2. 
Pao-iXiCav Kal 86|av] 'kingdom and 
glory/ not a iv Sid bvoTv for pojiXelop 



II. 13. 



27 



We thAnk God that ye 

recelred our preaching 

M the word of God. Ye suffered fh>m 

your own people as we did trom the Jews. 



Aia TovTO Kal 9]fjL€i9 €V')(api(rTOVfJL€P 13 



13. AtA toGto] So Itec. with DEFGKL; appy. all mas.; Syr., Vulg., 
Clarom., Goth., ^bh. (both) j Chrys., Theod., Theoph., CEoum. (De W., Mnem., 
Wordsw.). TiscL and Lachm, prefix Kal with A.BK; Copt., Syr. -Phil. ; Theod. 
(ms. b), Ambrosiaster (Alf.). The reading is thus very doubtful, as the addi- 
tion of {< (C is here deficient) must justly be considered of great weight. I 
do not however at present reverse the reading of ed. i, 2, till the peculiarities 
of K (which is of very unequal weight in different portions of the N. T.) are 
more fully known to us ; especially as it is by no means unreasonable to sup- 
pose that the nal was prefixed to help out the difficulty of connexion. 



Mo^w (Olsh.), but, as aU the Vt. 
rightly maintain (Syr., Copt, ^th., 
even repeat the pronoun), two separate 
substantives, the common article being 
accounted for by the inserted geni- 
tive ; see Winer, Or, § 19. 4. d, p. 1 16. 
The ^aariKela rod QeoO is the kingdom 
of His Son, the ^atriKeia tQv oitpavQv 
(Chrys.), of which even while here on 
earth the true Christian is a subject, 
but the full privileges and blessedness 
of which are to be enjoyed hereafter ; 
comp. Reuss, Thiol. ChriU iv. 41, 
Vol. n. p. 244 sq., and the long trea- 
tise of C. G. Bauer in Comment. Theol. 
Part II. p. 107—171. The 56^a to 
which He calls us is His own eternal 
glory, of which all the true members 
of the Messianic kingdom shall be 
partakers; comp. Rom. v. 1, and see 
Reuss, I. c. p. 153, Usteri, Lehrb. u. 
«.B, p. 351. 

13. Aid TOVTo] *For this cause/ 
as we have displayed this zeal and 
earnestness, we thank God that ye 
received our message in an accordant 
spirit: see note on ver. i. The exact 
reference of these words is somewhat 
doubtf uL Schott and others refer the 
words to the * effectum admonitionis' 
implied in els rb xepir, k.t.X. (comp. 
Jowett) ; De W., al., to the purpose 
and object of the preaching which the 
same words seem to imply, but thus 



introduce a greater or less amount of 
tautology which it seems impossible 
to explain away. It would seem then, 
as LUnem. correctly observes, that we 
can only logically refer them (a) to the 
specific declaration involved in the 
clause immediately preceding, soil. 6ti 
KoKeT if/ias 6 9e6s els k.t.X. Olsh., Ltt- 
nem., Alf. ; or (6) to the general sub- 
ject of the preceding verses, — the 
earnestness and zeal of the Apostle 
and his associates. Of these (a) de- 
serves consideration, but is open to 
the grave objection that thus did toOtq 
is made to refer to a mere appended 
clause rather than, as usual, to the 
tenor of the whole preceding sentence. 
We therefore, it would seem with the 
Greek expositors, adopt (h) ; oifK (aruf 
elvetif 6ti ijfieis iikv irdirra dfiifiirrws 
vpdrrofiep iffiets di di^d^ia t^j iifAeripat 
dya0-rpo0^s ^jrotiJo-aTe, Chrys. 
Kal if ficts] ' we also/ not, as Alf. and 
LUnem. , * we as well as tcU^cj ol t*- 
<rr€\iovTcs* (ch. i. 7), — a reference far 
too remote, — ^but * we as well as you 
who Lave so much to be thankful for:' 
the Kal involving some degree of con* 
trast (see notes on Phil, iv. 12), and 
delicately marking the reciprocity of 
the feeling between ol wepl rhv IlaOXoi^ 
and the twice repeated i>fMX% in the 
preceding verse ; see esp. notes on Sph, 
i. 15. De W. and Koch (so also Auth.) 



28 



nP02 0E22AAONIKEI2 A. 



T« 0€w aSiOLKeiTTTio^f oTi TrapoLka^ovre^ \6yov oico^? 
Trap fiixSiv ToS QeoS iSi^ao'Oe ov \6yov avOpdiroop 



refer ral to diik tovto, — ^a connexion 
decidedly at variance with the usage 
of the particle in demonstrative danses, 
but involving a less error than the 
counter-assertion of Liinem., that we 
should then expect did xal touto : such 
collocations are very rare; see notes 
on Phil, iv. 3, and comp. Hartung, 
Pariik kcU, 4. 3, Vol. i. p. 143. 
i^apio^rov|icv rf Scf ] * tee give 
thanks to God,* On the meaning and 
usages of e^ap, see notes on Phil. L 
3, and esp. on Col, L 12. 
8ri vapaXaP^vrts] * that when ye re- 
ceived/ objective sentence (Donalds. 
Or. § 584 sq.) defining the matter and 
grounds of the e^apurrla. The par- 
ticiple is here temporal, and specifies 
the more external act that was either 
contemporaneous with, or rather im- 
mediately prior to the more internal 
idi^offOe; comp. notes on Eph, iv. 8. 
The distinction between trapaXafipdyety 
and dix^ffdai stated by Lttnem. and 
Koch, viz. that irapaXafipdyew points 
rather to an objective (GaJ. i. 12, see 
notes), dix^ffdai to a subjective recep- 
tion (2 Cor. viii. 17), seems substan- 
tially correct, but must be applied 
with caution ; see notes on Col. ii. 6. 
X^ov dKOfjs] * the word of hearing ; * 
i,e. * the word which was heard,* or 
*the word of preaching,' dxo^ being 
used in its passive sense which pre- 
vails in the N.T. (see notes on Gal, 
iii. 2 ; comp. Heb. iv. a, and the Heb. 
T\i(^D^ 7\p, Jer. x. 22, 0«i^ dKorfs, 
LXX.), and the gen. being that of ap- 
position or identity; Winer, Gr. § 59. 
8, p. 470, Scheuerl. Synt. § 12. i, p. 
83, 83. The gen. dxo^s is probably 
here subjoined to X670S to introduce a 
slight contrast between the \&yos in 
its first state as heard by the ear and 
the same "KSyos in its subsequent state 



as ip€pyo6fi€ros in the hearts of be- 
lievers; comp. Bom. x. 17. 
vap* if|Mtv thus naturally belongs to 
TapaXa^drres (ch. iv. i, 3 Thess. iiL 
6, comp. GaL i. ii), from which it is 
only separated by the somewhat em- 
phatic object-accusative; so Vulg., 
Syr., Copt, Goth. (^th. omits to/)' 
il/juaw), CEcum., and a few modem com- 
mentators. The construction adopted 
by the majority of expositors, and 
perhaps Clarom., Syr.-PhiL, ixoris 
ro/)' iifiiaif is defensible, — ^but harsh 
and unnatural, and probably only sug- 
gested by the unusual but significant 
position of the following rod Beov. 
On the force of iropd as denoting the 
more immediate source, see notes on 
Gal, i. 12, and esp. Schulz, Abendm. 
p. 218 sq. 

Tov 9cov] * of God J* BO. 'which cometh 
from God;' GcoO not being a gen. 06- 
jecti ('de Deo,' Grot), nor the pos- 
sessive gen. ('belonging to,' Alf. i), 
but a gen. of the atUhor (De Wette, 
'coming from,' Alf. 2), or even more 
simply of the source from which the 
\6yos &Korjs really and primarily came ; 
see notes on ch. i. 6. The unusually 
placed TOV Qeou seems added correc- 
tively, the words being appended al- 
most ' extra structuram,' to mark that 
though the ijfieis were the inunediate 
human source of the Slko^ its real and 
proper source was divine. 
o^ Xoyov dv0p.] *not the word of men,'' 
i.e. which cometh from them, and of 
which they are the true source; see 
Above. It is incorrect to supply ta- 
citly cl>s: the Apostle, as Lunem. ob- 
serves, is not stating how the Thes* 
salonians regarded the message, but, 
as the next clause still more clearly 
shows, what it was as a matter of 
fact The importance of this clause 



II. 14. 



29 



aWa KtiOwg ecrriv aXriOw^ \6yov Oeov^ 09 Koi evepyeirai 
€V vjxiv ToU iricrrevova-iv. vjxeh yap fiifxtiToi eyevfiQfirey 14 
aS€\(l>oij rZv €KK\fi<riwv tov Qeov tSov ovctZv iv tj 
^lovSaltf €V Xpia-T^ *Ifi<roVy oti ra avra iiraOeTe Kal 



as asserting the direct Inspiration of 
the spoken words must not be over- 
looked. 8s Kol IvcpYctrai] 
^ which also worheth,^ *i8 operatiw,* 
soil, the \6yos Qeov (Clarom., Syr., 
Goth., Theoph., CEcum.), not QeSt 
(Vulg., Theod.),— which in St Paul's 
Epp. is never found with the middle 
ipepyetffOat, but always with the act ; 
see r Cor. zii. 6, 1 1, Gal. ii. 8, iii. 5, 
Eph. i. II, al. On the coDstructioDS 
of iv€py., see notes on Oal. ii. 8, and 
on the distinction between the active 
(Wim exercere') and the intensive 
middle ('ex se vim suam exercere*), 
see notes on Oal. v. 6, Winer, Gr. 
§ 38. 6, p. 131, and comp. Krtiger, 
Sprachl. § 59. 8. i sq. The Kal must 
not be omitted in transl. (Alf.), or as- 
sociated with the relative (De W., 
Koch), but connected with ivepy.^ 
which it enhances by suggesting a 
further property or characteristic of 
the Inspired Word, and perhaps a con- 
trast with its inoperative nature when 
merely heard and not believed. On 
this use of Kal, see notes on Eph. i. 1 1, 
ELlotz, Derar. Vol. ii. p. 636, and 
comp. Krtiger, Sprachl. § 69. 32. 12. 
Ivv|i,tv Tots iruTT.] *in you that be- 
lieve,* not 'in vobis qui credidistis, ' 
Vulg., which would require toTj ti- 
<TT€ij<Taffiyf nor 'propterea quod fidem 
habetis/ Schott (comp. Olsh., Koch), 
which would require the omission of 
the article (comp. Donalds. Oi: § 492), 
but * vobis qui creditis,* Goth., Syr.- 
Phil., Totj TtoreiJoua-iv adding a spi- 
ritual characteristic that serves indi- 
rectly to illustrate and verify the pre- 
ceding declarations of the verse. 
14. ificts ydpi] Confirmation, not of 



their reception of the word (CEcum.), 
nor of the predication of their belief 
(Olflh.), but of the ivipytia displayed 
in them by the \6yoi GeoO: *your 
imitation of the churches of Judsea in 
your suflferings. is a distinct evidence 
of the iv^fiyeia of the word within 
you.' On the words fufirp-al fywij^., 
see notes on ch. i. 6. 
T»v ovo-wv kv rg *Iov8.] ^ which are in 
Judcea;* not * prtesens pro preeterito,' 
Grot., but with a direct reference to 
the churches that were still existing 
in Judsea; comp. throughout Gal. i. 
22. Why the Apostle peculiarly 
specifies these churches has been very 
differently explained. The most pro- 
bable reason seems to be that as the 
Jews were at present the most active 
adversaries of Christianity, he specifies 
that locality where this opposition 
would be shown in its most determined 
aspects, and under circumstances of 
the greatest social trial : see Wordsw. 
in loc. Iv Xp. 'I.] ' in Christ 

Jesus;* Mn union and communion 
with Him;' 'incorporated with Him 
who is the Head.' Both here and in 
Gal. i. 22 this spiritual definition is 
suitably subjoined, as still more clearly 
separating them even in thought from 
the <rvyay<ayalrCjv *lovdal(av (GScum.), 
which might be ip 8e4>, but were far in- 
deed from being iv Xpiffrtfi. For t A adrA 
Rec. reads raura with AD ; most mss. 
iir^ Twv I8£wv onifM^vX.] ' at the hands 
of your ovm countrymen;* closely de- 
pendent on iTrd6eT€,—inr6 being used 
correctly with neuter verbs which in- 
volve a passive reference, see Winer, 
Gr. % 47. b, p. 330: the reading dxA 
[D^FG; Orig. (1) in some ed.] is pro- 



30 



nP02 eE22AA0NIKEI2 A. 



viJ.€is viro tS>v iSioov ovfK^vKerSiv^ KaOcos koi avro) 

1^ VTTO T(iv ^lovSaiwv tZp Koi Tov lS.vpiov airoKTeivavTOOv 

*If]<rovv Kal Tohg '7rpo(f>iiTa9y koi tjfia^ iKSiw^apTcoVy koI 



bably only due to a grammatical cor- 
rector. The supererogatoiy compound 
(TvfuftvK ('contribulibus,* Vulg., 6fto€- 
Brlft, Hesych.) is a Utt, \ey6fi. in the 
K.T.; it is not found in earlier writers 
(toKIttjs, Jirjfi&rrjt, tpyXirris, tffci; rift 
(T^v, Herodian, p. 471, ed. Lobeck), 
and is an instance of the noticeable 
tendency in later Greek to compound 
forms without corresponding increase 
of meaning : comp. ffwvoXlTJjt, Eph. 
ii. 19, and see Thiersch, de Pentat n. 

1, p. 83. These ffv/JupvXeral, as the 
contrast requires, must have been 
Gentiles; it is however not uureason- 
able to suppose that they were insti- 
gated by Jews (De W.) ; comp. Acts 
zyii. St '3- KaO«k Kal 
avroC] 'even as they dlao;^ not a gram- 
matically exact, though a perfectly 
intelligible apodosis ; comp. Demosth. 
PhU. I. p. 5 1, and Heindorf on Plato, 
Phado, § 79 (p. 86 a), Jelf, Or. § 869. 

2. On the repetition of koI in both 
members of the sentence, by which 
'per aliquam cogitandi celeritatem' a 
double and reciprocal comparison is 
instituted, see Fritz. Bom. i 13, VoL 
L p. 37, 38, and notes on Eph. v. 23. 
The avTol obviously does not refer to 
the Apostle and his helpers [Goth., 
^th.-Pol. (but not Piatt), Copt.], but 
by a 'constructio ad sensimi' to the 
persons included in the more abstract 
iKKktiffiCav [Syr., Vulg., Clarom., 
Arm.]; comp. Gal. i. 32, 23, and 
Winer, Gr. § 22. 3, p. 131. 

15. Twv Kttl T^v Kvp. K.r.X.] 'who 
slew hoih the Lord Jesus and, &c.:' 
warning notice of the true character 
of the unbelieving Jews, suggested 
probably by recent experiences ; comp. 
Acts xvii. 5, 13, xviii. 6. The particle 



Kal is not ascensive, 'qui ipsum Do- 
minum occiderunt,' Clarom., nor con- 
nected with rtav (LUnem.), — a most 
questionable connexion, as rOv pro- 
perly considered has no relatival force, 
— but simply correlative to the follow- 
ing iceU, 'et Dominum...et prophetas' 
(Vulg.; Copt, omits first Kal), and in- 
troductory of the first of two similar 
and co-ordinate members ; see Winer, 
^- § 53- 4> P- 389, and notes on i Tim. 
iv. 10. The position of rbv K6ptov 

is obviously emphatic, and serves more 
forcibly to evince the heinous nature 
of their sin. xal rois irpo^rai] 

'and the prophets;* clearly governed 
by the preceding dvoKrety. (Chrys., 
Theoph., CEcum.), not by the succeed- 
ing iKdiu^dm-wv (De W., Koch). The 
counter-argument that all the prophets 
were not killed is of Httle weight, as 
'mutatis mutandis' it can be nearly 
as strongly urged against the connexion 
with kKdicj^dm-cjv. The addition of 
this second member serves indirectly 
to weaken the force of the plea of 
ignorance (comp. Acts iiL 17): dXX' 
ifyvbriffav a&rbv tatas, MrfXtcrro yukv offp 
'SdeaoM. T£ 5a/; o^x^ koI roi>s Idlovs 
Trpwprfyrai &HKT€wav ; Chrys. 
There is here a variety of reading: 
ISLovs is inserted before Tpo<f>. by JRec. 
with D«D»E2KL; appy. Syr., Goth., 
al.; Chiys., Theod., aL, but is not 
found in ABDiEiFGK ; 7 mss. ; Vulg., 
Clarom., Copt., Orig. (2), Tertull. (who 
ascribes the insertion to Marcion) ; C is 
deficient. It was perhaps suggested 
by the preceding ISlojv in ver. 14. It 
is thus rightly omitted by nearly all 
modem editors. 

Kttl if fxas Ik8u0|.] * and drove us out ;^ 
i. e. not merely St Paul and his helpers. 



II. 15, i6. 



31 



06^ /t^ ap€<rKovT(ov KOI iraa-iv avOpdiroi^ ivavricoPy 
KfoKvovTfav fiixa^ toi^ eOvecriv XaX^aai ?j/a a-onOSxnVy eU i6 



but the Apostles generally. The force 
of the compound iK^u^Keuf is somewhat 
doubtful: iK does not seem otiose 
(De W.), nor even simply intensive 
(Liinem.), but has appy. a wmilocal 
reference, *qui persequendo^ecerunt,' 
Beng., Alf.; comp. Luke xl 49, and 
consider Acts xviii. 6. This meaning 
of Mi.(i)K€w does not seem to have 
been dearly recognised either by 
Chrys., al., or any of the best Vv., 
but is somewhat strongly supported 
by the prevailing use of the verb in 
the LXX. ; see Deut. vi. 19, 1 Ghron. 
viii. 13, xii. 15, Joel ii. 20, al. For 
^/xas Steph. 1550 (not JRec.) reads 
6/Lias probably by an error. 
0if H,i?j dpccTK.] 'rfo not please God;'' 
not 'placere non quaerentium/ Beng. 
nor aoristic *nonplacuerunt/ Clarom., 
but, with the proper force of the tense, 
'are not pleasing,* are pursuing a 
course displeasing to, — the present 
marking the result of a regular and 
continuing course of behaviour ; comp. 
Winer, Gr. § 45. x, p. 304. The M 
here does not seem to imply so much 
as 'Deo placere non curantium,' Alf., 
but is simply used to mark the aspects 
under which their conduct caused them 
to be presented to the reader; comp. 
Winer, Gr. § 55. 5, p. 429, and esp. 
Gayler, de Part. Neg. cap. ix. p. 275 
sq. In estimating the force of 

/A^ with a participle in the N. T. two 
things should always be borne in mind, 
(i) that /x-}) with the participle is so 
decidedly the prevailing combination, 
that while the force of oii with the 
part, will commonly admit of being 
pressed, that of ft.^ will not ; see Green, 
Gr.ip. 121 ; (2) that it is not correct 
always to find in the n'^ (as Alf. here) 
a reference to the feelings or views of 
the tutject connected with the partici- 



ple (comp. notes on, Gal, iv. 8), but 
that it sometimes refers to the a^sped 
in which the facts ai*e presented by the 
writer, and regarded by the reader; 
see esp. Winer, Gr. I c, and Herm. 
Viger, No. 267. irdo-iv dvOp. 

IvavrCoiv] 'contrary to all men;* sell, 
'quia saluti generis human! per in- 
vidiam et malitiam obsistebant,* Est. 
2, and in effect Chrys. and the Greek 
commentators. The usual reference 
of the r6 hfomiw to the 'adversus 
onmes alios hostile odium* entertained 
by Jews, Tacit. Hist. v. 5 (Olsh., De 
W., Jowett), has been recently called 
in question by Liinem., and satisfac- 
torily refuted, (i) on the ground that 
this exclusiveness, which had originally 
a monotheistic reference, would hardly 
have received from the Apostle such 
unqualified censure ; (2) on the gram- 
matical principle that the causal par- 
ticiple K(a\vbvr(aif does not add any 
new fact, but explains the meaning of 
what is appy. 'generaliter dictum* in 
the preceding words; so also Schott 
and Alford. 

16. KttXv6vTttv] * seeing they hinder i 

not " ^*^^ [qui prohibent] Syr., 

comp. De W., but ■ i N*^ J^ 

[dum prohibent] Syr.-Phil., * prohi- 
bentes,* Vulg., the participle being 
anarthrous, and supplying the oaoial 
explanation ci the foregoing asser- 
tion; comp. Donalds. Gr. § 492 sq. 
There is no idea of 'conatus* (De W.) 
involved in KtaKvbrronf; the present 
simply states what they were actually 
doing, as far as circumstances permit* 
ted them ; comp. Liinem. 
XoXTJirai tva orttOwo'iv] ' to speak that 
they might he saved i not 'evangelium 
predioare ut ('qua,* Erasm.) salvsB 



32 



nP02 0E22AAONIKEI2 A. 



TO avaifKfipwcrai avrcov ray ajxaprlag Travrori. ecpOacev 
ce €Tr avTOug rj opytj €£? tcAo?. 



/A 



fiant/ Menooh. ap. Pol. Syn., but 
simply, *gentibus loqui ut serventur,' 
Beza, — XaX^o-at preserving its ordinary 
meaning, and appy. coalescing with 
ha atodCjffiy to form an emphatic peri- 
phrasis of eiayyeKll^effOM (Olsh.). "Ipa 
will perhaps thus have a somewhat 
weakened force (see notes on Eph. i. 
17), and the final sentence will to 
some extent merge into the objective. 
On the nature of these forms of sen- 
tence, see Donalds. Gr, § 584 sq. and 
605 sq. els rh dvairXt)p. 

K.T.X.] * in order tofiU up (the measure 
of) their sins/ final clause appended, 
not merely to kuXvSvtuv, but to the 
whole preceding verse, and marking 
with the full force of els r6 (see notes 
on ver. 12) the purpose contemplated 
in their course of action. This pur- 
pose, viewed grammatically, must be 
ascribed to the Jews, — whether as 
conscious and wilful ((TKOirtfi tov &fiap' 
rdpeiy iiroioWf CEcum.), or as blinded 
and unconscious agents (De W.) : con- 
sidered however theologically, it main- 
ly refers to the eternal purpose of God 
which unfolded itself in this wilful 
and at last judicial blindness on the 
part of His chosen people; comp. 
Olsh. and Lunem. in loc. The 

compound dyaxX. is not synonymous 
with irXrjpovv, but marks the existence 
of a partial rather than an entire 
vacuum ; the Jews were always blind 
and stubborn, but when they slew 
.their Lord and drove forth His Apo- 
stles they filled up (supplebant) the 
measure of their iniquities; see notes 
on Phil. ii. 30, and Winer, de Verb, 
Oomp. in. p. 1 1 sq. 

•ntCvTOTi] *at all timeSy *^]\^*^ 

[omni tempore] Syr., not only in the 
times before Christ (M r&y irpoiprj' 



tGjv), but when He came, and aftei^ 
He left them (ivl tGjv &TroaTb\(av), 
There is no exegetical necessity for 
assuming that irdvTOTe = iravTcKQt 
(Bretschn., Olsh.) : the Jews were 
always in all periods of their history 
acting in a manner that tended to fill 
up the continually diminishing vacuum. 
Iff^Oourcv 8i lir* aih-ovs] * But there is 
come upon them;* contrast between 
their course of evil and its sequel of 
punishment. It is scarcely necessary 
to say that Zk is not equivalent to yip 
(*enim,' Vulg.), but with its usual 

and proper force (— jiJ, Syr., 'autem,' 

Clarom.) marks the antithesis between 
the procedure and its issue ; ' alii rei 
aliam adjicit, ut tamen ubivis .quae- 
dam oppositio declaretur,' Klotz, De- 
var. Vol. II. p. 362. On the meaning 
of the verb (ftddveiv in later Greek (not 
*^wflpvenit,' Clarom., Vulg. [Amiat.], 

but - » ^^ [advenit] Syr., and with 

X f 

eh *pervenit,* Vulg.), see notes on 
Phil. iii. 16, and Fritz. Pom, ix. 31, 
Vol. II. pp. 356, 357. The aorist 
i4>0aa€jf 'came' (but see notes to 
Transl.) is certainly not equivalent 
either to a present (Grot.) or to a 
future (Schott), but marks the event 
as an historical fact that belongs to 
the past, without however further spe- 
cifying ^quarn latepateat id quod actum 
est;' see esp. Fritz, de Aor, Vi, p. 17. 
The perfect (<p0aK€v [Lachm,. (non 
marg.) with BD^] was appy. an interpr. 
suggested by a supposed inappropriate- 
ness in the use of the aorist. The 
perf. contemplates an endurance in 
the present, the aorist leaves this fact 
unnoticed but does not exclude it. 
4 ApY<i] 'thea/nger,* sciL tov Qeov, — 
which is actually added in DEFG; 



II. 17. 



33 



I endeavoured to see 
▼ou. bat was hindered 
by Satan. Ye truly are our crown and glory. 



*IifieU Scy a^eX^o/, airopipavKrOerres 17 



Valg., Glarom., Goth. ; oomp. Bom. 
V. 9. The article either marks the 
6pr)f^ as TpwapwtUmi koX wpo^rrrevO' 
fihri (Chrys. a, 3), or perhaps rather 
as d^eCKofUmi (Chrys. i, CEoum.), or 
even simply ipxofAiwrf ; oomp. oh. i. 10. 
€l« tAos] *to the end; 'to the utter- 
most i * usque ad finem,* Clarom. ; in 
close connexion with ((pOaacVf not 
with dpy^, — a construction that would 
certainly require the insertion of the 
article. Els r Aos is not used adver- 
bially (Jowett,— comp. Job xx. 7), 
whether in the sense of * postremo ' 
(Wahl, comp. Beng. 'tandem') or 
' penitus' (Homb.), but, in accordance 
with the ordinary construct, of 4>0dv€af 
els tI, marks the issue to which the 
6py^ had arrived : it had reached its 
extreme bound, and would at once 
-pass into inflictive judgments. As the 
cup of the &fiapTla had been gradually 
filling, so had the measures of the 
divine 6py^, It can scarcely be 

doubted that in these words the Apo- 
stle is pointing prophetically to the 
miseiy and destruction whidi in leas 
than fifteen years came upon the whole 
Jewish nation. To regard the present 
clause as specifying what had already 
taken place (Baur, PatUuSy p. 483) is 
wholly inconsistent with the context : 
see LUnem. in loc,, who has well re- 
futed the arguments urged by Baur, 
/. c. against the genuineness of the 
Ep., derived from this and the pre- 
ceding verses. 

17. 'H|uts 84 'But we/ return 
afler the digression to the subjects and 
leading thought of ver. 13, the Jii not 
being simply resumptive, but reintro- 
ducing the Apostle and his associates 
with contrasted reference to the Jewish 
persecutors just alluded to : comp. the 
remarks on this particle in notes on 



Oal. iii. 8. dirop<^vur6lvTft 

d4» ifutv] * bereaved in our separation 
from you/ 'desolati a vobis/ Vulg., 

^n)V» ]1dZu [6p4Mifoi a vobis] 

Syr., temporal not concessive (Theod.) 
use of the participle, marking an ac* 
tlon prior to that of the finite verb; 
comp. Winer, Or. § 45. 6. b, p. 315. 
In this expressive compound the i.vb 
(reiterated before the pronoun) serves 
to mark the idea of separatum (Winer, 
^* § 47} P* 33')> ^^^ the term d/)0a- 
v6s, dpipavl^u), the feeling of desolation 
and bereavemerU which the separation 
involved. The further idea xalStaf 
iraripas ^o(nrr(a»y Chrys. (iEsoh. 
Chodph, 249), or conversely, * orbati ut 
parentes liberis absentibus,' Beng., is 
not necessarily involved in the term, 
as 6p<l>avbs [cognate with ' orbus,* and 
perhaps derived from Sanscr. rahh, the 
radical idea of which is ' seizing,* ike, ; 
see Pott, Etym. Forsch. Vol. i. p. 259] 
is not unfrequently used with some 
latitude of reference; comp. Find. 
I8ihm>, vn. 16, 6p<ttaifhv irdpuv, Plato, 
Repuhl. VI. p. 495 0, 6p<paif^¥ ^vyyewQvf 
and the good collection of exx. in 
Host u. Palm, Lex. s. v. Vol. 11. p. 54a. 
The idea of separation from those we 
love seems however to be always in- 
volved in the term, when used in re- 
ference to persons ; comp. Plato, 
Phcedr. p. 2391, twi' ^rdrwi^... kti^. 
pdrojif 6p<pwb¥. irp^ Kaipov 

«5pa«] 'for the season of an hour/ 
more emphatic expression than the 
usual Tpbs (Spaif {2 Cor. vii. 8, GaL ii. 
5, Philem. 15), or the less defined 
TTpbs KaipSv (Luke viii. 13, i Cor. vii. 
5), serving to mark the shortness of 
the time that elapsed between the 
bereavement and the longing expecta- 
tion of return; comp. the Latin 'hono 

D 



34 



nP02 0E22AAONIKEI2 A. 



a^' vixHv irpo9 Kaipov wpa^ irpocrwTrw ov xapSioiy irepia-' 

(roripoog icTrovSacraiuLev to irpoccoTrov vjulcop iSeiv ev iroK-' 

1 8 Xy eiriQvfiia. Siori ^OeKrjcra^ev iXdeiu irpo^ vfiag iyto 



^ 



xnomento,' Hor. Sat, 1. i. 7. On the 
use of irpbs in these temporal formulaB, 
as properly serving to mark motion 
toward an epoch conceived as before 
the subject, see notes on Philem. 15 
(where see also on the derivation of 
iSpa), and compare Donalds. Cratyl. 
§ 177. irpoo'c&'irip oi KapSC^] 

* in face not in heart ;^ soil, r^s alc-drj- 
TTJs iffi(3v iffHpTjfiai 04a^, r^s 5^ votp-rji 
diroXat/o; di7}P€K(Ss, Theod.^ datives, 
certainly not of manner (Alf.), but of 
relation (* of reference*), marking with 
the true limiting power of the case 
the metaphorical place to which the 
action is restricted; comp. i Cor. v. 
3, Col. ii. 5, see notes on Oal, i. 12, 
and esp. Scheuerl. Synt. § 2 2, p. 1 79 sq., 
where the distinctions between the 
local, modal, and instrumental, uses 
of this case are well illustrated. 
ircpur<roT. l(nrov8.] * were the more 
aibundantly zealouit* 'eo amplius [ma- 
gis] studuimus,' Beza,— viz. because 
bur heart was with you, and our long- 
ing consequently greater. The exact 
reference of the comparative is some- 
what doubtful. It is certainly not 
merely an intensified positive (Olsh., 
Just. 2, comp. Goth.) ; for though fre- 
quently used by St Paul (2 Cor. i. 12, 
ii. 4, vii. 13, 15, xi. 23, xii. 15, Gal. 
i. 14, Phil. i. 14 ; comp. Heb. ii. i, 
xiii. 19), it has appy. in every case its 
proper comparative force ; see Winer, 
Gr, § 35. 4, p. 217. The most plau- 
sible ref. is not to the mere fact of the 
ATop<pavuTfi6s (Winer, I.e.), nor to the 
briefness of the time as suggestive of 
a less obliterated remembrance (Lu- 
nem., comp. Alf., Jowett), still less t6 
the comparative length of it {vepiairoT. 
ij C)t eUbs ^v Tott rpbs (Spof diroXei- 



tpdim-as, Theoph., eomp. Chrys.), but 
to the fact that the separation was 
irpoaribw^) oif Kapdlq. ; * quo magis corde 
prsesens vobiscum fui, hoc abundan- 
tins faciem vestram videre studui,* 
Muse. The form fr€pi<r<roT4p<as {irepur- 
ffbrepovj Mark vii. 36, i Cor. xv. 10, 
Heb. vi. 17, vii. 15 only) is appy. rare 
in classical Greek, comp. however 
Isocr. p. 35 E. rh irpbtnairrov 

i|ic»v I8ctv] *to see your face;* not 
'exquisite positum' for i&/xas IbcLv, 
with reference to the preceding irpoado- 
iry (Schott, Jowett), but appy. an ex- 
pressive Hebraistic periphrasis (niKT 
^P.&TIK), marking the personal face- 
to-face nature of the meeting ; comp. 
ch. iii. 10, Col. ii. i. 
4v iroXX'Q liriO.] *with great desire-* 
appended clause specifying the ethi- 
cal sphere in which the awovh^ was 
evinced ('in multo desiderio,* Clarom., 
Copt., Goth.), or perhaps more simply 
the concomitant feeling ('cum multo 
desiderio,' Vulg., comp. Arm.) vjith 
which it was associated ; see notes on 
Col. iv. 2, and comp. above on ver. 3. 
'Bxi^. is seldom in the N. T. used as 
here in a good sense: see Trench, 
Synon, Part n. § 37. 

18. 8i6ri] * On which account,^ scil. 
of our longing to come and see you. 
The particle Sidri is here used in a 
sense little different from di6 (comp. 
Lat. Square*), and stands at the be- 
ginning of the period, — a usage in 
which Jowett and Lachm. appear to 
have felt a difficulty, as they place 
only a comma after iiriOufjUq.. Lachm. 
and Tisch. (ed. i, 7) read 5t6rt with 
ABD^FGK; 9 mss. (Lunem., Alf), 
Tisch, has here rightly returned to the 
reading of his first edition, as the ex- 



11. 1 8, 19. 



35 



fiev HavXo^ KOI aTra^ koI SUy KOi evcKoy^ev ij/xag 6 



ternal authority for 8t6 (iZcc, De W., 
Tisch. ed.2)— viz. (D^?)D»EKL; great 
majority of mss. ; Chrya., Theod., 
Bam., al. (C is deficient) is not strong, 
and, owing to the unusual position of 
SiSrif the temptation to correct was 
very great. i]6fXij<ra}Mv] ^we 

uished,* * would fain;* not i^.SouXiJ^i;- 
/xev, which would have expressed * ip- 
Ram animi propensionem* (Tittm.) 
with a greater force than would be 
consistent with the context; comp. 
Philem. 13, 14. On the distinction 
between ^Ao; and ^oi^Xo/icu, see notes 
on 1 Tim. v. 14, and Donalds. Cratyl. 
§ 463, but in applying it in St PauFs 
Epp. observe that 0i\(i> is used 7 times 
to po^iXofiai once. This perhaps sug- 
gests that we may commonly with 
safety press the latter, but must be 
cautious with regard to the former. 
hi» |Uv IlavXcs] * even I Paul* * ipse 
ego Paulus,* ^th. The fikv * solita- 
rinm* serves to enhance the distinctive 
use of the personal pronoun (Hartung, 
Partik, fiiv, 3. 3, Vol. n. p. 413) by 
faintly hintmg at the others fi'om 
whom for the sake of emphasis ^not 
of contrast in conduct (kAkcTvoi fiiv yiip 
i}0€\o¥ fi6vov, iyCi) di Kal iirexelprjaraf 
Chrys.) — he is here detaching himself; 
comp. Devar. de Pariic. Vol. i. p. 122 
(eil» Klotz). On the proper force of 
fi4y (incorrectly derived by Klotz and 
Hartung from Ati^i^), and its connexion 
with the first numeral, see Donalds. 
Cratyl. § 154, and comp. Pott, £tym» 
Forsch. Vol. Ti. p. 324. 
Kal &irc{ Kttl 8£$] * both once and 
twicey* i. e. *not once only, but twice;* 
see Phil. iv. 16, and notes in loc. The 
first Kal is not otiose (Ilaphel, Annot. 
Vol. II. p. 522), but adds an emphasis 
to the enumeration ; contrast Nehem. 
ziii. 40, I Maco. iii. 30, where the 



omission of the Kal leaves the formula 
scarcely stronger in meaning than *ali- 
quoties.* xal IvIko^tcv K.T.X.] 

* and Satan hindered w*.' The koL ha4 
not here an adversative force ('sed/ 
Vulg., De W.), but simply places in 
juxtaposition with the intention the 
actual issue (* et impedivit,' Glarom., 
and all the other Vv.), the opposition 
lying really in the context. On this 
practically contrasting use of Kal, see 
notes on Phil. iv. 1 2, and Winer, Gr, 
§ 53- 3» P- 3^8. On the primary mean- 
ing of the verb ivKbirreiv (Hesych. 
iv€Kovrbfijjv' iveirodi^dfirjv) 'to hinder 
by breaking up a road,* see notes on 
Oal. V. 7. 6 Saravas] 

'Satan* Heb. }p*^, the personal evU 
Spirit, the * adversary * Kar* i^oxhv (6 
ix^p6Si Luke x. 19) ; comp. notes on 
Eph» vi. 27. To refer this term to 
human adversaries (De W.), or to some 
inward impediment (Jowett, who 
most inaptly compares Acts xvi. 7), 
is in a high degree doubtful and pre- 
carious : St Paul here plainly says that 
the Devil was the hindrance; what 
peculiar agencies he used are not re* 
vealed. Without here entering into 
controversy, it seems not out of place 
to remark that the language of the 
N. T., if words mean anything, does 
ascribe a personality to the Tempter 
so distinct and unmistakeable, that a 
denial of it can be only compatible 
with a practical denial of Scripture 
inspiration. To the so-called charge 
of Manicheism, it is enough to answer 
that if an inspired Apostle scruples 
not to call this fearful Being 6 Bthi 
Tov alQifos T01JTOV (2 Cor. iv. 4), no 
sober thinker can feel any difficulty 
in ascribing to htm permissive powers 
and agencies of a frightful extent an4 
multiplicity ; aee Hofmann, Schr^f^^ 
J) 2 



.>:>^A \n\-TKT!iT A. 

. .-.M. . ujs&V ifivpotrOev tov Kvpiov fifJLwv 
-jv Tu*i04«nii : ifJLu^ yap ccrre 1} So^a 



Vl 



■v«^^j .tikTUtiSG 

.. .», vviio i* dO 

cso.. iaiti minim 

... : .^.>caerio * nam 

«. k.^uo \\\i'0 nuhi 

»v..ciii, '\u.o frvtus 

.. ^.'U»*«jm?' CaJr. 

...>M '^■'.i ^-'B luateries IsB- 

>, . u.ii '.bo subject and 

^ ..I uc and the other, 

I N%iiom both reside; 

■:. . .uid I Tim. i. I (see 

. » uic this form of expres- 

. .. . ^k ;Lii siko highest emphasis. 

..«. <^ similar uses in pagan 

% ^v .x>U«cUKi by Wetst in ^oc. ; 

. *. .viuiwut it* Livy, xxviiL 39, 

V , ■« .>^>x i u . spem omnem salutemque 

■ ..«a.' 

-%^«I«KAWXH^^*^] ^ crown of boost- 
' «.-vm|>. Ptov. xvi 31, Ezek. xvL 

\\J, ;uid Isaiah IxiL 3 [or^^ ifdX- 
\v«s liWJ : the Thessaionians were 
«• ;Ikc Apostle as it were a chaplet of 
% Lvwi'^y of whioh he might justly make 
'lu iKHMt in the day of the Lord. It 
lA «c*roely necessary to add that icav- 
\i|utwt not merely = ^6^17; \afiTpas 
v'ltMOph.), but implies ^0' (f d7dXXo- 
jHMU [Kavx^/JMi], Ghrys., the genitive 
being not the gen. 'appositionis* 
^Koch), nor even of liie metaphorical 
•ubsiance (oomp. Bev. xii. 1), but, as 
the termination in -ins seems to re- 
that of the 'remoter object;' 
in Winer, Or. § 30. a. /3, 
4 o^^ Kol 



«|uis] *or is it not also youV not 
*nonne,* Vulg., but *aut [an] non,' 

Clarom., O^ o] Syr.-Phil., the 

T f 

particle i) retaining its proper disjunc- 
tive force (see Devar. de Part. Vol. i. 
p. lor, ed. Klotz), and introducing a 
second and negative interrogation, ex- 
planatory and confirmatory of what is 
implied in the first ; comp. Winer, Gr. 
§ 57* ^* V' 45^f ^^^ ^^- compare the 
good remarks of Hand, Tvrsell. Vol. 
I. p. 349. The ascensive Kal serves to 
place the Thessaionians in gentle con- 
trast with other converts, 'you as well 
as my other converts;* 06 yiip elTrar 
iffie2s dTXci)s, dXXd Kal ifieis fierd. 
Twv AWtaVf Chrys. [How accurate is 
this great conmientator s observation 
of the details of language.] 
I^irpoo-Ocv TOV KvpCov K.T.X.] 'in 
the presence of our Lord Jesus at Jlis 
coming?* There is some little diffi- 
culty in the connexion of this mem- 
ber with what precedes. We clearly 
must not assume a transposition, and 
connect it with tIs yiLp—Kavx^lffcus 
(Grot.), nor again closely and exclu- 
sively unite it with ^ o6xl xal ifAeis 
(Olsh.), but, as the context seems to 
require, append it to the whole fpre- 
going double question, to which it im- 
parts its specifically Christian aspect 
The Apostle might have paused at koX 
iffieis, and proceeded with ver. 20, but 
feeling that the iXvls, x^-P^ r.r.X. 
needed characterizing, be subjoins the 
circumstances of place and time. *Ey 
tJ Tapouffig. obviously refers to the 
Lord's second coming, — not merely 
and exclusively ' to establish his Mes- 
sianic kingdom* (Liinem., compare the 
objectionable remarks of Usteri, Lehrb. 



II. 20, III. I, 2. 



37 



A/0 fJLfiKiri ariyovTcg €vSoKii(rani€v III. 

mothy to reassure you % i /i'^ ••A/i' ' ^- 

inyourafflicUon. KaraAeKpdiJvai CV jtXVPJVCU? flOVOtf KOi % 



Afl we could not forbear 
any longer, we sent Ti- 
mothy tq^ 



P- 352), but — to judgment; comp. oh. 
iii. 13, iv. 15, V. 2$. The addition 
Xpiarou [Rec, with FGL; Vulg. (not 
Amiat.), Goth., Copt ] is rightly re- 
jected by Lackm., Tisch., and most 
modem editors. 

20. ^ficts -ydp ICT.X.] * Yea verily 
ye are our glory and our joy.* The 
7A/) does not appear here to be argu- 
mentative, — {. e. it does not subjoin a 
reason of greater universality (Alf., 
citing Soph. PhUoct, 756, but see 
Buttm. in loc.)y but seems rather con- 
firmatory and explanatoiy (' confirmat 
Buperiorem versum serid asaeveraiione,'* 
Calv.), the 7^ element having here the 
predominance; see notes on Gal, ii. 6, 
and Winer, (7r. § 53. 8. b, p. 395. 
For a complete Investigation of the 
primary meaning and principal uses 
of this particle, the student is espe- 
cially referred to Klotz, Devar, Vol. 
n. p. 331 sq. 

Chapter III. r. A16] * On which 
account;'' not exactly 5id rb cZvat iffia% 
r^v d6^w iifJLuv koI t^v xapcU' (LUnem.), 
which seems too restricted, but on 
account of the affectionate but abor- 
tive desire expressed in the three 
preceding verses ; iireid^ ijfieis tpaiitiv 
irp6s {ffias iKuXi^Orj/iev AirearclXafiev 
Tifji^eeov, Theod. On the use of did, 
see notes on Gal. iv. 31, and gram- 
matical reff. on Philem. 8. 
|iT)Klri oTfyovTfs] * no longer able to 
/o»*6far;' 'no longer able to control 
my longing to see or at least hear 
about you ;* * cum desiderio vestri im- 
pares essemus/ Just. LUnemann (ap- 
proved by Winer, Gr. § 55. 5, p. 429) 
rightly objects to the assertion of 
RUckert that firjK^Ti is here incorrectly 
used for oiKirif as /itjk^ti can be pro- 
perly and accurately explained as in- 



volving the subjective feelings of the 
writer (' being in a state that I could 
not/ 'as one that could not*); still/ 
as has been before said (notes on oh.ii. 
15), the tendency of later Greek to 
adopt the subjective form of negation 
with participles is very noticeable, and. 
must always be borne in mind ; comp. 
Madvig, Synt. % 207, and see also notes 
and reff. on ch. ii. 15. The verb 

irriyeiy(^a<rrd^iy, vTOfiivew^ Hesyoh. ; 
^ipcw, imfiipciMf KapTep€iif, Chrys. on 
I Cor. ix. 12) is only used in the N.T. 
by St Paul, twice with an accus. ob- 
jeoti (i Cor. ix. 12, xiii. 7, in both 
oases irdm-a), and twice without (here 
and ver. 5) : see however the list of 
exx. in Wetst. on i Cor» ix. 12, and. 
those in Kypke, Annot, Vol. 11. p. 
213, the most pertinent of which in 
ref. to this place is Philo, in Flacc, 
§ 9, VoL II. p. 527 (ed. Mang.), fny- 
K^i ffriyeuf SwdfAevot rds ivSelas. 
ci8oici(<ra|icvJ *we thought it good;* 
Auth., comp. Arm. 'placuit nobis,* 
Vulg., Clarom., 'galeikaida uns,'Goth., 
not 'enixe voluimus' [a66(2ama]^th., 
comp. Syr. [■ 1 *^t]> ^ the idea 
of a 'libera' {eCKdficOaj irpoeKpf»afi€», 
Theoph.) rather than a ' propensa vo- 
luntas' seems here more suitable to 
the context ; see notes and reff. given 
on ch. ii. 8. The plural here seems 
clearly to refer, not to St Paul and 
Silas (Beng.), but to St Paul alone, 
the subject of the verse being in dose 
connexion with the concluding verses 
of ch. ii., where (ver. 18) the Apostle 
expressly limits the reference to him- 
self. On the form fW. not i/iJS. see 
notes on ch. iU 8. KaraXci^O. 

Iv 'AOi)v. |i6voi] 'fo he left behind 
at Athem aJone,'-— alone, not without 
some emphasis, as its position seems to 
indicate; alone, and that at Athens, 



38 



nP02 0ES2AAON1KEI2 A. 



eirejuLy^ajULev TijuLoOeov tov a^eX^ov >;/xa)v koi a-uvepyov 

ToS Qeov €v TO). evayyeXicp tov XpifTToO ei^ to (TT^pl- 

3 ^ai vjuLcig Ka\ irapaizaXeaai virlp Trj^ Tria-Teoo^ vfiSov to 



Hn urbe videlicet a Deo aliems8im&/ 
Beng. There is some little difficulty 
ih reconciling this passage with Acts 
xvii. 14 sq. From the latter passage 
compared with xviii 5, it would seem 
that Timothy and Silas first rejoined 
St Paul at Ck>rinth, and so that the 
former was not with the Apostle at 
Athens ; from the present words (ifara- 
Xct^^yat, Mfiypafievj ver. 2 ; ^vefirpa, 
ver. 5) however it seems almost cer- 
tain that Timothy was despatched 
from Athens. Omitting all untenable 
assumptions — such as that a second 
visit was paid to Athens (Schrader), 
or that St Luke was ignorant of the 
circumstances, or * that only Silas was 
left behind* (Jowett),— we must either 
suppose (a) that St Paul despatched 
Timothy before his own arrival at 
Athens (Wieseler, Ckronol. p. 246 sq.), 
or perhaps more naturally (6) that 
inmothy, having been able to obey 
the Apostle's order (Acts xviL 15) 
more quickly than Silas, did actually 
come to Athens, and was at once 
despatched to Thessalonica. The 
Apostle then continued waiting for 
both where he was (Acts xvii. t6), but 
ultimately left the city, and was re- 
joined by them both after his arrival 
at Corinth; see Neander, Planting, 
Vol. I. p. 195, note (Bohn). 

2, awtpyhv tov Bcov] 'fdlow- 
worker with God,^ *adjutorem Dei,* 
Clarom. ; comp. i Cor. iii. 9. The ai/v 
does not refer to others not named, 
but, in accordance with the regular 
construction of the wo^^d in the N. T. 
(Rom. xvi. 3, 9, 2 1, Phil. ii. 25, iv. 3, 
comp. 2 Cor. i. 24), to the expressed 
and associated genitive Geou; comp. 
Bemhardy, Synt. in. 49, p. 171, Jelf, 



Gr. § 507. The reading ia 

somewhat doubtful, and the variations 
very numerous, but all may probably 
be referred to the supposed difficulty 
of the expression. Rec. reads koI 
ZidKovov TOV Qeov Kal awepybv ij/xun^ 
with D^E (confusedly) KL ; most 
mss. ; Syr. (omitting xal i), Syr.-Phil. 
(but with asterisk to Kal cw. ijfi.), 
al. ; Chrys., Theod. The text as it 
stands [Grieab., Lachm. (text), Tisch., 
and most modem editors] is only 
found in D^ ; Clarom., Sangerm., Am- 
broeiast., but is supported indirectly, 
(i) by AK; some mss.; and several 
Vv. (Vulg., Copt., Goth., -^th.), 
which have didKoyoif instead of awep- 
ybv (so Lachm. in marg.), {2) by FG ; 
Aug., Boem., which have Mk. Kal 
aw, TOV Qeov, and also (3) to some 
extent by B, which gives Kal owepy. 
omitting rov Qeov. 

kv T^ cvaYY^^ defines more precisely 
the sphere in which his co-operation 
was exhibited; see Bom. i 9, 2 Cor. 
X. 14, Phil. iv. 3. 

els rh m\p(fion, icr.X.] * to establish you 
and to exhort in behalf of your faith 
that, &c. : * purpose of Timothy's mis- 
sion; in the unavoidable absence of 
the Apostle, he was to strengthen 
them, and to exhort them to be stead- 
fast; comp. iTTiffTrjpi^euf joined with 
wapaK, Acts xiv. 22, xv. 32, 2 Thess. 
ii. 17. These expressions do not seem 
in accordance with the timid cha- 
racter which Alf. (in notes in loc. and 
on I Tim. v. 23, 2 Tim. i. 7, 8) as- 
cribes to the Apostle's faithful fellow- 
worker. 

vapaKoXlo-cu] * to exhort,^ 'ad...exhor- 
tandos,' Vulg. ; not here *to comfort,' 
Auth., Syr.-Phil., al. (Eph. vi. 22, Col. 



III. 3. 



3d 



fitiSiva (raiv€(r6ai ev rah 0X/\|^€crii/ ravrai^' avroi yap 



iv. 8), 8tm less ^OIUlD V^TIJ 
* ♦ ti 

^ifc [roget V08 de] Syr. (and so ia 

7 

a Cor. viii. 5, <fcc.), but, as the Dext 
verse seems to require, in the more usual 
sense of * encouraging* or 'exhorting;' 
&a frapaKa\4(ry <f>4pHv yevvatui rds t(S» 
ivavriuiv iwipovXds, Theod. The se- 
cond ifxas which Rec. adds after vapaK, 
with D^KL; most mss. ; Syr., is 
rightly rejected by Lachm., Tisch., 
with distinctly preponderant external 
evidence [ABD^FGK; 15 mss.; Cla- 
rom., Vulg., Goth., Copt; Chrys., 
Theod. ; C is deficient]. 
iiirkp TTJs irltrrtMs] Not identical in 
meaning with irepi ttjs irlaTeus (De 
W.), which Rec. here adopts on weak 
external authority [D'E^L ; mss.], but 
appy. more distinctly expressive of the 
benefit to, and furtherance of the 
faith, which was contemplated in the 
irapdkXrjiTis ; see Winer, Gr. § 47. 1, 
p. 343, and comp. notes on Phil, 
ii. 13. 

3. rh [Lrfiiva K.T.X.] ' that no one,* 
&c. : objective sentence (Donalds. Gr, 
§ 584) dependent on irapaKa\4(Tai, ex- 
plaining and specifying the subject- 
matter of the exhortation; comp. 
Winer, Gr. § 44. 5, p. 294 (ed. 6), but 
more fully p. 375 (ed. 5). Of the dif- 
ferent explanations of this infinitival 
clause, this seems far the most simple 
and grammatically tenable. That of 
Schott, according to which t6 firjdiva 
K.r.X. is an accus. of 'reference to,' is 
defensible (see Kriiger, SpracIU. § 50. 
6. 8, comp. notes on Phil. iv. 10), but 
in the case of transitive verbs like 
vapaKoKeip of precarious application : 
that of Ltinem. and Alf., according 
to which t6 fiTjd. is in apposition to 
the whole preceding sentence and de- 
pendent on the preceding eli, more 



than doubtful ; the regimen is remote, 
and the assumption that rovrifrri might 
have been written for rb (LUnem.) or 
that it is nearly equivalent to it (Alf.) 
extremely questionable, if not incon- 
sistent with the assumed dependence 
on els. The only objection to the con- 
struction here advocated— that rapa^ 
KdK4<rai would thus be associated with 
a simple accus. rei — is of no real 
weight ; for (i) such a construction 19 
possible (comp. i Tim. vi. 1), and (1) 
the dependence of such explanatory 
or accusatival infinitives on the govern- 
ing verb is appy. not so definite and 
Immediate as that of simple substan- 
tives ; comp. Matth. Gr, § 543, obs. 
1, 3, Scheuerl. Synt. § 45. 4, p. 478. 
The only real difficulty in these and 
similar constructions is correctly to 
define the difference between the infin. 
with and without the article: perhaps 
it amounts to no more than this that 
in the former case the infinitival clause 
is more emphatic, aggregated, and 
substantival, in the latter more merged 
in the general structure of the sentence ; 
see Winer, Gr. § 44. a, p. 286, Kriiger, 
Sprachl. § 50. 6. 3, Matth. Gr. I, e, 
obs. 2, The reading of Rec. nf 

IJ.rj54va k.t.\. is not either exegetically 
or grammatically admissible (opp. to 
Green, Gr. p. 277; see Winer, I. c. p. 
294), and is wholly unsupported by 
uncial authority. The text has the 
support of all MSS. except FG which 
give ipa (in the place of t6) with the 
infin. 

<raivc(rOai] * he disturbed ^^ ^he disquiet' 
ed,"* This verb (a air. X€76/a. in the 
N. T.) properly signifies *to be fawned 
on* {iralveiVy iirl ^ujuv iXdyutv, 6 iari 
(releiv rV oipdvj Eustath. p. 393, 9), 
and metaphorically 'soothed* (.^ch. 
ChoSph. 194), but is occasionally found 
in later writers in the stronger sense 



40 



nP02 0E22AAONIKEI2 A. 



4 oiSare oti eig tovto KeifxeQa* kol yap ore irpog vixaq 
^fxey irpoeXiyojULev ifxiv oti fiiWoixev GXi^ecrOaiy KaOm 

5 Koi eyivero koi dSare. Sta tovto Kayco fi^KCTi 



of KtyciffOaty <ra\ejS€<rOat, (Hesych.); 
comp. Diog. Laert. vni. 41 (cited by 
Eisner), <rauf6fi€jfot toU Xeyopiivoii idd- 
icpvov Kal <ffiu)l;i>K So rightly Chrys. 
(0opvp€iff0ai)y Theod., Zonaras, Lex. 
p. 1632 (KkweiffOou), al., most of the 
ancient Vy. (Syr. W^DLL [succi- 

deretur], Vulg. 'moveatur'), and near- 
ly all modem commentators. Wolf, 
Tittmann (Synon, i, p. 189), andappy. 
Jowett, retain the more usual sense 
'pellici/ sciL 'ad officium deseren- 
dum,' but with little plausibility, and 
in opposition to the consent of both 
Ff. and Vv. The derivation, it need 
scarcely be said, is not from ZAN- or 
SAN- (Benfey, WurzeUex, Vol. i. p. 
1 81), but from (relw; comp. Donalds. 
Cratyl, § 473- Iv rats 

dXC^I'CcriV Tai»Tais] * in these afflictiom; ' 
not merely those endured by the Apo- 
stle (comp. (Ecum.), but those in 
which both he and his readers had 
recently shared, and which, though 
appy. over for a time (ver. 4), would 
be almost certain to recur. The h> is 
certainly not instrumental, nor even 
temporal (Liinem.), but merely localy 
with ref. to the circumstances in which 
they were, and by which they were 
(so to say) environed; comp. Winer, 
Gr. § 48. a, p. 345. oAtqI 

^dp otSaTi] *for yourselves hnow;^ 
reason for the foregoing exhortation 
rb /i^ acdyeaOai *c. t. X.: both their 
own experiences and the Apostle's 
words (ver. 4) taught them this prac- 
tical lesson. els tovto 
KcCfuOa] *we are appointed thereunto;' 
scil. rb &\t^€<Tdax (comp. ver. 4), not rb 
{/TTOfiivew d\l\f/€is, Koch i, the tovto 
referring laxly to the preceding dXlxpe- 



aof. On the meaning of Kelp^Sa (Vulg. 

'positi Bumus,' Syr. 1 > Vr> > m 

r X X 
Goth, 'ratidai,' but?), see notes on 
Phil. i. 16, and with respect to the 
sentiment, which is here perfectly ge- 
neral {jrepl jrdvTuv X^YCt rwv tuttQv, 
Chrys.), see 2 Tim. iii. 12 (notes), and 
comp. Keuss, Thiol. Chrit, iv. 20, 
Vol. II. p. 224 sq. 

4. Kal Yap 8tc K.T.X.] 'for verily 
when we were with you,' 'nam et cum,' 

Vulg., Glarom., ;i.i^t...f2 «JZ)| 

Syr. ; proof of the preceding assertion, 
7d/) introducing the reason, Kal throw- 
ing stress upon it; see Winer, Gr. § 
53. 8, p. 397, and notes on Phil. ii. 27, 
where this formula is briefly discussed. 
On the use of ir/»6s with ace. with 
verbs implying rest, dec, see notes on 
Gal. i. 18, iv. 18. 

fi^XXo|icv 6X£pc(r0ai] ' we were to svffer 
affliction;' here not merely a peri- 
phrasis of the future, but an indirect 
statement of the fixed and appointed 
decree of God ; comp. ver. 3. The 
verb iiiKK(a has three constructions in 
the N. T. ; (a) with the present, — in 
the Gospels and the majority of pas- 
sages in the N. T. ; (f>) with the aor., 
Eom. viiL 18, Gal. iii. 23, Rev. iii. 2, 
16, xii. 4, — a construction found also 
in Attic Greek (Plato, Critias, p. 108 
B, Gorg. p. 525 A, al.); (c) with a fu- 
ture, — only in a few passages (Acts 
xi. 28, xxiv. 15, xxvii. 10, in all three 
cases with ivccdai), though the use is 
the prevailing one in earlier Greek : 
see Winer, Gr. § 44. 7, p. 298, Kruger, 
Sprachl. § 53. 8. 3 sq. 
Kal otSaTc] * and ye know,' scil. from 
your own experiences. The first Kal 



in. 4, 5, 6. 



41 



(rriyoov eirefAy^a eiV to yvZvat rijv irltmv ifxwvy /JoiiroD^ 
€ir€tpa<r€v ifia^ 6 ireipa^wp Ka\ e/f kcvov yivrirai 6 

^^^^rte.'S^ "A^" ^« e-XdoVos T<MO0e'ou irphi 6 

were inreatly comforted. ♦ ^ » » » f<^ \» ^v / «* 

and aw deeply thankful! '7M«ff «9 VfJLWV KQl evayyeAKrajULeVOV ^fJLlV 



does not here seem to be correlative 
to the second, Kal...Kal (see notes on i 
Tim. iv. lo), but appears rather to have 
an ascensive force, while the second is 
simply copulative; ovx^ti iyh^eroToOro 
Xfy« fx^oif, dXV Sti xoXXd Kal eJXXo 
TTpoeiire, Kal i^^pri, Chrys. 

5. Sid TovTo] * For this cause;'* 
scil. because the foretold tribulation 
had now actually come upon you. 
In the following Ki.y^ the koX does 
not belong to the sentence (the argu- 
ment of Ltinem. however that it would 
then be 5(d koL toxtto is of no weight, 
see notes on Phil. iv. 3) but to the 
pronoun, which it puts in gentle con- 
trast with the {ffAtts twice expressed 
in the preceding verse: as they had 
felt for the Apostle (more fully alluded 
to in ver. 6), so he on his part felt for 
them; comp. notes on ch. ii. 13. 
|iT)Kln «rrfy«v] *no longer forbear- 
itiffy ahU to contain;'* see notes on 
ver. I. 

<ls rh TVMvat] * with a view of Jmow- 
ing;^ design of the Hwefixf/a, comp. 
ver. 7. It does not seem right to 
supply mentally ai^r^i^ (Olsh. ; * ut 
cognoscerri,' ^th.-Platt, sim. Pol.); 
the Rubject of the principal verb is 
naturally the subject of the infinitive. 

So rightly Syr. V&j|j [ut cognoscer- 

em]: the other Vv. adopt the inf., 
or an equivalent ('ad oognoscendam 
fidem vestram,* Vulg., Clarom.), and 
are thus equally indeterminate with 
the original. |ii{irws lircCpaccv 

ICT.X.] *lest haply the tempter have 
tempted you ;' aor. iudio. specifying a 
fact regarded as having aotuaUy taken 



place already: the temptation was a 
fact, its results however were uncer- 
tain (comp. Chrys.); see Winer, Or, 
§ 56. 2, p. 448, and comp. notes on 
the very similar passage Gal. ii. 2. It 
may be observed that Green {Or. p. 
81), Fritzsohe (Fritz, Opuac. p. 176 
note), and Scholef. (Hinte, p. 114) re« 
gard /HIATUS as dubitative in the first 
dause, and expressive of apprehen- 
sion in the second, * an forte Satanas 
tentasset...n0 /offe labores irriti es- 
sent,' — ^but with little plausibility. The 
argument of Fritz, that the /ui^tcos 
(metuentis) in the first clause would 
have required 7€i^<r6ra( in the second 
('atque ita labores irriti essent fu- 
turi') is certainly not valid: the future 
would have represented something to 
occur at some indefinite future time, 
the aor. subj. is properly used of a 
transient state occurring in particular 
cases; see Matth. Or, § 519. 7, and 
comp. Madvig, Synt. § H4. i, who 
correctly observes that 11^ with fut. 
after verbs of fearing, d:c. always 
gives a prominence to the notion of 
futurity. On the substantival 

form 6 T€ipd^(t)v, see exx. in Winer, 
^' § 45' 7» P' 3i6» comp. Bemhardy, 
Synt. VI. 22, p. 316. 
<ls K€v6v Y^vtirai] 'prove to be in vain/ 
comp. Gal. ii. 1, and the exx. collected 
by Kypke, Oba. Vol. 11. p. a 75. The 
primary force of the prep, is somewhat 
similarly obscured in the adverbial 
formulee, els Koufbv, els Kaip6¥, Jc.r.X. ; 
see Bernhardy, Synt, v. ir, p. aai. 
On the meaning of Kbros, see notes on 
ch. ii. 9. 
6, "Apm, 8^ is most naturally oon- 



42 nP02 eE22AA0NIKEI2 A. 

rijv irltrnv Ka\ rhv ayairriv vjULwVf koi otl e^eTc fAveiav 
flfxwv ayaOriv iravroTC, eirnroOovvTe^ ^jfJ-ag iSeiv KaQairep 



nected with the particdple (^th.-Pol. 
distinctly), not with the remote verb 
TrapexXifldrifAer, ver. 7 (Liinem., Koch), 
which has its own adjunct 8i& tovto; 
£0 appy. Syr., and probably all the 
other y v., but the uncertainty as to 
punctuation precludes their being con- 
fidently cited on either side. The 
adverb dpri [&p<a, connected with d/>- 
rlws, ipfUH], which properly stands in 
opp. as well to immediately present 
{rvp, Plato, Meno, p. 89 c) as to re- 
motely past time (irdXou, Plato, CritOy 
p. 43 a), is often used in the N.T. and 
in later writers in reference to purely 
present time; seeesp. Lobeck, Phryn. 
p. i8sq. c^aYyiXurofiivov] 

^having told the good tidings of;* 
comp. Luke i 19: o^k eXvev diro77e/- 
Xai'ros, dXX' eiayyeXKrafiivoV Toaovrw 
dya06p ijyciTO r^v €Kettf<i)¥ p€^ai(a<raf 
Kal T^p iydiTTiy, Chrys. The verb 
e^a776X. is used in the N.T. both in 
the active (Rev. x. 7, xiv. 6, only), 
passive (Matt. xi. 5, Gal. i. i r, Heb. 
iv. 6, aL), and middle. In the last 
form its constructions in the N. T. are 
singularly varied ; it is used (a) abso- 
lutely, Kom. XV. 20, T Cor. i. 1 7 ; (6) 
with a dat. pertonce, Rom. i. 15; (c) 
with an accus. personce. Acts xvi. 10, 
I Pet. i. 12; (d) with an accus. rei, 
Rom. X. 15, Gal. L 23; (e) with a 
double accus., persona and m, Acts 
Tciii. 32; and lastly (/) — the mt>st 
common oonstruction — with a dat. 
ipersonoB and ace. rei, Luke i. 19, al. 
Of these (&) and occasionally (c) are the 
forms used by the earlier writers ; see 
Jiobeck, Phryn, p. 267, Thom.-Mag. 
p. 379, ed. Bern. tiJv irfartv 

Kol Tijv d-y. i|i^] 'yovr faith and your 
love* the faith which you have, and 
■the love which you evince to one an- 



other (ver. 12) ; 817X01 ^ filp vt^nt rrji 
€6<r€^€las t6 ^i^tuw, ii Si dydirri t^iv 
irpaKTiK^ dper-^v, Theod. The third 
Christian virtue, iXvls, is not here 
specified (comp. i Tim. i. 14, 2 Tim. 
i. 13, al.), but obviously is included; 
comp. Usteri, Lehrh. 11. i. 4, p. 241, 
Reuss, ThSoL ChrSt, iv. 22, Vol. ii. 
p. 259, 260. Sri lx€T« 

fivcCav K.T.X.] *that ye have good re- 
membrance of US always;* not exactly 
/urtjfioveiiere ijfiiap fierd irraivcifF Kal ei>- 
<f>ijfilas, Theoph. (comp. Chrys.), but 
simply * that ye retain a good, i. e. as 
the following words more fully specify, 
a faithful ifie^atop, CEcum.) and affec- 
tionate remembrance of us,' 'ut nostra 
memoria bona sit in vobis/ Copt, 
comp. Syr. On fxvelOf see notes on ch. 
i. 2. The fivela dyaO^ formed the 
third item in the good tidings; rpla 
rideiKev d^Upaara, rV trUrriVf ttjv 
dydwTjVj Kol ToD StbaaKdXov r^v fwfi- 
/irjVf Theod. irdvrorc seems 

here more naturally joined with the 
preceding verb (Syr., ^th.), as in 
ch. i. 2, I Cor. i. 4, 2 Thess. i. 3, al., 
than with the participle (Copt.): the 
fufcla was not only dyaBi/j, but dSid- 
XetiTTOs; see 2 Tim. i. 3. So Auth., 
Arm., and appy. the majority of mo- 
dem commentators. 
fniroO. '^F^^s I8ctv] 'longing to see 
us:* further expansion of the preceding 
words; comp. 2 Tim. i. 4. On the 
force of the ivl, here not intensive 
but directive, see Fritz. Rom. L 11, 
Vol. I. p. 31, and notes on 2 Tim, Lc. 
KoOdirip Kal ifficts i|&ds] 'even as we 
also are longing to see you;* t6 ydp 
fjM$€iy rbv <pi\ovtrra 6ti tovto olSep 6 
ipikoi^fiepos Sti 4>t\etTai toXX^ trapa- 
fivdla KoX irapdK\ri(TiSy Chrys. On the 
meaning and use of xaOdirepj see notes 



III. 7. S. 



43 



KOI ^jJLei^ ijULa^' Sia tovto irapeKX^OpumeVy aS€\(l)oif e^' 7 
v/jtip cttJ TracTJf t? avayKfi koi OXiy^ei tuiwv Sia rij^ vfiZv 
'Trtarecoy' on vvv ^aSjuei/ eav vjJLet^ (rT^Ktjre ev Ki/jo/cjO. 8 

8. irri/iKrfTe] So Hec, Lachm.f and Tisch. ed. a, with BDEK^; many mss. : 
Tiach. ed. 7 adopts the solecistic CTifiKeTe with AFGKLK* ; mss. ; Chrys. (ms.), 
which is maintained by Koch. The authority however is insufficient, as such 
permutations of vowels are found occasionally even in the best MSS. ; comp. 
Scrivener, Introd. to N. T. p. 10. 



on ch. ii. U, and on the use of xal 
with comparative adverbs, notes on 
Eph. V. 23. 

7. 8id tovto] */or this cause ;' in 
reference to the three preceding speci- 
fications, which are here grouped to- 
gether in one view. The resumed did 
TOVTO is not superfluous (comp. De 
W.) : the length of the preceding sen- 
tence, and the fact that Apri i\06vTOi 
involved mainly the predication of 
time, make the occurrence of a re- 
capitulatory and causal formula here 
by no means inappropriate. 
irapcKX...I<|»' i|iktv] *we were comforted 
over you/ you were the objects which 
formed the substratum of our com- 
fort; comp. 2 Cor. vii. 7. The prep. 
M is not exactly equivalent to *in,* 
Vulg., *ex,' [fram] Goth., or even 
'propter,' -^th.-Pol., — still less to 
*quod attinet ad,' Lilnem., — but with 
its usual and proper force points to 
the basis on which the TrapdK\rj<ris 
rested, *fundamentum cui veluti su- 
perstructa est,' Schott; see Winer, 
Gr. § 48. c, p. 351. The reading irtf- 
paK€K\ifllJi€6a, though found only in A 
and 3 mss., has been adopted by Koch, 
as according better with his connexion 
of ApTi with the finite verb. Surely 
this is most rash criticism. 
Iirl irdcrn K.T.X.] *in all our necessity 
and tribulation/ certainly not *in 
qu&vis angustid et afflictione,' Schott, 
— a translation distinctly precluded 
by the presence of the article, which 



here represents the dj^dyKrj xal ffXLxpis 
as a collective whole ; comp. 2 Cor. i. 
4, vii. 4. The use of ivl is here only 
slightly different from that above; it 
has appy. neither a temporal (LUnem.) 
nor a causal (2 Cor. i. 4, but obs. the 
accompanying iv ir. ^X.), but a semi- 
local force (comp. 2 Cor. vii. 4, and 
Mey. in loc.), marking that with 
which the TapdKXrjais stands in im- 
mediate contact and connexion ; comp. 
Bernhardy, Synt. v. 24. b, p. 248 sq., 
and notes on PhiL i. 3. In the 
former use the idea of ethical super- 
position seems mainly predominant, 
in this latter that of ethical contact ; 
comp. Kriiger, Sprachl, § 68. 41. 5. 
It is somewhat doubtful to what 
the dvdyKTj Kal dUyf/is should be re- 
ferred. On the whole, the force of 
dydyxri [connected with AFX-, Pott, 
Etym, Forsch, Vol. i. p. 184; *vim 
onmem notat quoe evitari non potest,' 
Herm. Soph. Track. 823] and the 
tenor of the context seem to imply 
not any inward distress (De W.), but 
rather some outward trial and trouble 
(Alf. compares Acts xviii. 5 — 10) 
under which the Apostle was then 
suffering ; see Llinem. in loc. 
The order of the words is inverted in 
Bee. {$\lyl/. K. dvdyKxi), but only on the 
authority of KL ; mss. ; several Ff. 
Sid TTJs ifittv mcrrcMS] * through your 
faith:'' the medium by which this 
comfort was realized by the Apostle 
<waB the faith on the part of the Thes- 



38 



nP02 0E22AAON1KEI2 A. 



eiriiJLy^aiJLev Ti/ULoBeov top aS€\(l)ov ij/Jicov koI (ruvepyov 

Tov Qeov €V Tfp evayyeXlo) rod Xpia-rov elg to (Trripl- 

3 ^ai vfxa^ Ka\ TrapaKoXicrai virep r^y iridrew^ v/jlcov to 



Hn urbe videlicet a Deo alienis8iin&,* 
Beng. There is some little difficulty 
ib reconciling this passage with Acts 
xvii. 14 sq. From the latter passage 
compared "with xviii 5, it would seem 
that Timothy and Silas first rejoined 
St Paul at Corinth, and so that the 
former was not with the Apostle at 
Athens ; from the present words {Kara- 
\€i<p0ijyaif ^TT^iJLxf/afxeif, ver. 2 ; (vefixpa, 
ver. 5) however it seems almost cer- 
tain that Timothy was despatched 
from Athens. Omitting all untenable 
assumptions — such as that a second 
visit was paid to Athens (Schrader), 
or that St Luke was ignorant of the 
circumstances, or ' that only Silas was 
left behind' (Jowett),— we must either 
suppose (a) that St Paul despatched 
Timothy before his own arrival at 
Athens (Wieseler, Chronol, p. 246 sq.), 
or perhaps more naturally (6) that 
Timothy, having been able to obey 
the Apostle's order (Acts xviL 15) 
more quickly than Silas, did actually 
come to Athens, and was at once 
despatched to Tfaessalonica. The 
Apostle then continued waiting for 
both where he was (Acts xvii. 16), but 
ultimately left the city, and was re- 
joined by them both after his arrival 
at Corinth; see Neander, Planting, 
VoL I. p. 195, note (Bohn). 

3. wvtpyhv TOV Bfov] 'fellow- 
worker with God,^ 'adjutorem Dei,* 
Olarom. ; comp. i Cor. iii. 9. The aifv 
does not refer to others not named, 
but, in accordance with the regular 
construction of the woyd in the N. T. 
(Rom. xvi. 3, 9, 2 1, Phil. ii. 25, iv. 3, 
comp. 2 Cor. i. 24), to the expressed 
and associated genitive GeoO; comp. 
Bembardy, SyrU. III. 49, p. lyi^ Jelf, 



Gr, % 507. The reading la 

somewhat doubtful, and the variations 
very numerous, but all may probably 
be referred to the supposed difficulty 
of the expression. Rec, reads Kal 
SidKOvov TOV Qeov Koi ffvvepybu ii/jLQv 
with D^E (confusedly) KL ; most 
mss. ; Syr. (omitting Kal i), Syr. -Phil, 
(but with asterisk to Kal <rw. iifi.), 
al. ; Chrys., Theod. The text as it 
stands [Griesb.^ Lachm. (text), Tiach., 
and most modem editors] is only 
found in D^ ; Clarom., Sangerm., Am- 
broeiast., but is supported indirectly, 
(i) by AK; some mss.; and several 
Vv. (Vulg., Copt., Goth., ^th.), 
which have SidKovov instead of cwep- 
y6» (so Lachm. in marg.), (2) by FG ; 
Aug., Boem., which have StAic. Kal 
<rvv, TOV Qeov, and also (3) to some 
extent by B, which gives Kal (rwepy, 
omitting tov Qeov. 

kv T^ €vayytkC(^ defines more precisely 
the sphere in which his co-operation 
was exhibited ; see Bom. i. 9, 2 Cor. 
X. 14, Phil. iv. 3. 

<ls T^ <m\p(J^ai icT.X.] 'to establish you 
and to exhort in behalf of your faith 
that, &c. : * purpose of Timothy's mis- 
sion; in the unavoidable absence of 
the Apostle, he was to strengthen 
them, and to exhort them to be stead- 
fast; comp. iTTiffrrjpl^eiy joined with 
xapaK. Acts xiv. 22, xv. 32, 2 Thess. 
ii. 1 7. These expressions do not seem 
in accordance with the timid cha- 
racter which Alf. (in notes in loc, and 
on I Tim. v. 23, 2 Tim. i. 7, 8) as- 
cribes to the Apostle's faithful fellow- 
worker. 

irapaKoX^otii] * to exhort,^ ' ad. . .exhor- 
tandos,' Vulg. ; not here *to comfort,' 
Auth., Syr.-Phil., al. (Eph. vi. 22, Col. 



III. 



39 



/it/Seva (raivetrQai iv rati dXl'^etriv ravrati' avrot yap 



iv. 8), stni less ^omlo ]:^£li 

« « « 

^JL [roget V08 de] Syr. (and so ia 

w 

1 Cor. viii. 6, <{?c.), but, as the next 
verse seems to require, in the more usual 
sense of 'encouraging' or ^exhorting;' 
tifa wapaKoKia-d <P^p€Uf yepyalcjs rds t<Sv 
ivamltav ivL^ovXds, Theod. The se- 
cond Ofias which Rec. adds after Tapax. 
with D^KL; most mss. ; Syr., is 
rightly rejected by Lachm.y Tisch., 
with distinctly preponderant external 
evidence [ABD^FGK; 15 mss.; Cla- 
rom., Vulg., Goth., Copt.; Chrys., 
Theod. ; C is deficient]. 
i3irip TTJs vCoTtMs] Not identical in 
meaning with Tcpl rrjs TlffTcus (De 
W.), which Rec. here adopts on weak 
external authority [D'E^L ; mss.], but 
appy. more distinctly expressive of the 
benefit to, and furtherance of the 
faith, which was contemplated in the 
irapdK\rj<ris ; see Winer, Gr. § 47. 1, 
p. 343, and comp. notes on Phil. 
ii. 13. 

3. rh |&T)8^a ict.X.] ' that no one,* 
&c. : objective sentence (Donalds. Gr, 
§ 584) dependent on TapaKd\4(rai, ex- 
plaining and specifying the subject- 
matter of the exhortation; comp. 
Winer, Gr. § 44. 5, p. 294 (ed. 6), but 
more fully p. 375 (ed. 5). Of the dif- 
ferent explanations of this infinitival 
clause, this seems far the most simple 
and grammatically tenable. That of 
Schott, according to which rb firihiva 
K.T.X. is an accus. of 'reference to,' is 
defensible (see Kriiger, Sprachl. § 50. 
6. 8, comp. notes on Phil. iv. 10), but 
in the case of transitive verbs like 
vapaKoKciu of precarious application : 
that of Liinem. and Alf., according 
to which t6 firjd. is in apposition to 
the whole preceding sentence and de- 
pendent on the preceding €ls, more 



than doubtful ; the regimen is remote, 
and the assumption that Tovr4<m might 
have been written for rb (Ltinem.) or 
that it is nearly equivalent to it (Alf.) 
extremely questionable, if not incon- 
sistent with the assumed dependence 
on e/s. The only objection to the con- 
struction here advocated— that Tapa- 
KoXiaai would thus be associated with 
a simple accus. m — is of no real 
weight; for (i) such a construction U 
possible (comp. i Tim. vi. 1), and (2) 
the dependence of such explanatory 
or accusatival infinitives on the govern- 
ing verb is appy. not so definite and 
immediate as that of simple substan- 
tives ; comp. Matth. Gr. § 543, oba. 
a, 3, Scheuerl. Synt. § 45. 4, p. 478. 
The only real difficulty in these and 
similar constructions is correctly to 
define the difference between the infin. 
with and without the article: perhaps 
it amounts to no more than this that 
in the former case the infinitival clause 
is more emphatic, aggregated, and 
substantival, in the latter more merged 
in the general structure of the sentence ; 
see Winer, Gr. § 44. a, p. a 86, Kriiger, 
Sprachl. § 50. 6. 3, Matth. Gr. I. c, 
obs. 7, The reading of Jlec. ry 

fxrjSiva K.T.\. is not either exegetically 
or grammatically admiRsible (opp. to 
Green, Gr. p. 277; see Winer, I. c. p. 
294), and is wholly' unsupported by 
uncial authority. The text has the 
support of all MSS. except FG which 
give tva (in the place of t6) with the 
infin. 

o-aivco-Oai] * he disturbed,* *he disquiet- 
ed.' This verb (a air. \ey6fi. in the 
N. T.) properly signifies *to be fawned 
on' {(ralveiVf irrl ^ihujv dXbyujPf 6 iari 
ffeUtv tV oOpdy, Eustath. p. 393, 9), 
and metaphorically 'soothed* (^ch. 
Cho€ph. 194), but is occasionally found 
in later writers in the stronger sense 



40 



nPOZ eESSAAONIKEIS A. 



KOI yap oT€ Trpog v/ulcl^ 



4 oiSare oti €«9 rovro KelfieOa' 
^ixev irpoeKiyofxev vfilv on jmeXXo/JLev QXl^ecrOaij Ka6a>9 

5 Kol iyivero koi oiSare. Sia toOto icoyo) ixriKert 



of KweiffScu, ffoKej^effOai (Hesych.); 
comp. Diog. Laert. vni. 41 (cited by 
Eisner), ffaiydfieyot tms XeyofJL^vois idd- 
Kpvov Kal iffiM^op, So rightly Chrys. 
{0opv^€taeai)f Theod., Zonaraa, Lex. 
p. 1632 {K\ov€t<r$tu)f al., most of the 
ancient Vv. (Syr. M-^uOZZ [succi- 

deretur], Vulg. *moveatur*), and near- 
ly all modem commentators. Wolf, 
TKttmann (Synon, i. p. 189), andappy. 
Jowett, retain the more usual sense 
'pellici,' sciL 'ad officium deseren- 
dum,* but with little plausibility, and 
in opposition to the consent of both 
Ff. and Vv. The derivation, it need 
scarcely be said, is not from ZAN- or 
SAN- (Benfey, WurzeUex. Vol. i. p. 
181), but from ffelu; comp. Donalds. 
Cratyl. § 473. kv rats 

6X£i|rco-bv TttiiTais] * in these afflictions J* 
not merely those endured by the Apo- 
stle (comp. (Ecum.), but those in 
which both he and his readers had 
recently shared, and which, though 
appy. over for a time (ver. 4), would 
be almost certain to recur. The iy is 
certainly not instrumental, nor even 
temporal (Liinem.), but merely local, 
with ref. to the circumstances in which 
they were, and by which they were 
(so to say) environed; comp. Winer, 
Gr. § 48. a, p. 345. a^Tol 

^Ap olSaTc] 'for yourselves Jcnowy 
reason for the foregoing exhortation 
rb fi^ ffcUyeo'dat k.t,\,: both their 
own experiences and the Apostle's 
words (ver. 4) taught them this prac- 
tical lesson. <ls TOVTO 
Kc£|uOa] 'toe are appointed thereunto;* 
sell. t6 GXl^effdai (comp. ver. 4), not rb 
ifTTojiiivcuf 0\iyl/€is, Koch i, the tovto 
referring laxly to the preceding ffXlrf/e- 



etv. On the meaning of KcifuBa (Vulg. 
'positi simius,* Syr. . 1 i V) m CD 

Goth, 'ratidai,* but?), see notes on 
Phil, i. 16, and with respect to the 
sentiment, which is here perfectly ge- 
neral {irepl TrdvTtav X^et tQv tkttcjp, 
Chrys.), see 2 Tim. iii. 12 (notes), and 
comp. Benss, ThSoL Chrit, iv. 20, 
Vol. n. p. 224 sq. 

4. Kal ^dp 8t€ ICT.X.] 'for verily 
when we were with you,* 'nam et cum,' 

Vulg., Clarom., 2.A^i...f2 ^2i\ 

Syr. ; proof of the preceding assertion, 
yb.p introducing the reason, Kal throw- 
ing stress upon it; see Winer, Gr. § 
53- 8, p. 397, and notes on Phil. ii. 27, 
where this formula is briefly discussed. 
On the use of irpbs with ace. with 
verbs implying rest, <fcc., see notes on 
Gal. i. 18, iv. 18. 

|UXXo|iev OXCpctrOai] * we were to suffer 
affliction;* here not merely a peri- 
phrasis of the future, but an indirect 
statement of the fixed and appointed 
decree of God; comp. ver. 3. The 
verb fiiWta has three constructions in 
the N. T. ; (a) with the present, — in 
the Gospels and the majority of pas- 
sages in the N. T. ; (6) with the aor., 
Rom. viiL 18, Gal. iii. 23, Rev. iii. 2, 
16, xii. 4, — a construction found also 
in Attic Greek (Plato, Critias, p. 108 
B, Gorg. p. 525 A, al.); (c) with a fu- 
ture, — only in a few passages (Acts 
xi. 28, xxiv. 15, xxvii. 10, in aU three 
cases with ia-effdai), though the use is 
the prevailing one in earlier Greek : 
see Winer, Gr. § 44. 7, p. 298, Kriiger, 
Sprachl. § 53- 8. 3 sq. 
Kal olSaTc] ' and ye know,* sciL from 
your own experiences. The first Kal 



III. 4, 5, 6. 



41 



(TTeyonv eire/ULy^a eh to yvSopai rhv iricmv ifiSoy, /(Xf/xa)^ 
ireipa^wv Kai els kcvov yivtirai 6 



eTreipacrev vfia^ o 

}Sssii%r;&s?,"s2 ^A/>Ti Si i\e6pT09 TifioOiov xpa? 6 

were inreatly comforted. ♦ ^ » » » t ^ \» -v f t m 

and an deeply thankful! >7MCt9 CL(p VfXWV KQl €Vayy eAKrajJieVOV iJjJLtV 



does not here seem to be correlative 
to the second, Kod...Kal (see notes on i 
Tim. iv. lo), but appears rather to have 
an ascensive force, while the second is 
simply copulative ; oOxSri iyheroTovro 
Xfyct fji,6vov, dXX* Sti xoXXd koL eJXXo 
T/)oeiT6, Kal i^4pri, Chrys. 

5. Sid TovTo] * For this came;'* 
scil. because the foretold tribulation 
had now actually come upon you. 
In the following Kiuy^ the Kal does 
not belong to the sentence (the argu- 
ment of Lilnem. however that it would 
then be did koL tovto is of no weight, 
see notes on PhU. iv. 3) but to the 
pronoun, which it puts in gentle con- 
trast with the ^/ACis twice expressed 
in the preceding verse: as they had 
felt for the Apostle (more fully alluded 
to in ver. 6), so he on his part felt for 
them; comp. notes on ch. ii. 13. 
|iT)Kln «rrfy«v] *no longer forbear- 
iiifff able to contain;^ see notes on 
ver. I. 

<ls rh TVMvat] * with a view of hnow- 
ing;^ design of the ftrcfAxf^a, comp. 
ver. 2. It does not seem right to 
supply mentally ai)r6i^ (Olsh. ; * ut 
coguoscerri,' ^th. -Piatt, sim. Pol.); 
the subject of the principal verb is 
naturally the subject of the infinitive. 

So rightly Syr. ^J|> [ut cognoscer- 

em]: the other Vv. adopt the inf., 
or an equivalent ('ad oognoscendam 
fidcm vestram,* Vulg., Clarom.), and 
are thus equally indeterminate with 
the original. |ii{iro>s hrtlpaa-w 

ICT.X.] *l€st haply the tempter have 
tempted you ;* aor. indio. specifying a 
fact regarded as having actually taken 



place already: the temptation was a 
fact, its results however were uncer- 
tain (comp. Chrys.); see Winer, Or, 
§ 56. If p. 448, and comp. notes on 
the very similar passage Gal. ii. 1, It 
may be observed that Green (Gr^ p. 
81), Fritzsche (Fritz, Opuac, p. 176 
note), and Scholef. (Hints, p. 114) re- 
gard A»)ir(i7S as dubitative in the first 
clause, and expressive of apprehen- 
sion in the second, * an forte Satanas 
tentasset...n0 foiie labores irriti es- 
sent,' — ^but with little plausibility. The 
argument of Fritz, that the iui^ircat 
(metuentis) in the first clause woidd 
have required yer^fferai in the second 
('atque ita labores irriti essent fu- 
turi') is certainly not valid: the future 
would have represented something to 
occur at some indefinite future time, 
the aor. subj. is properly used of a 
transient state occurring in particular 
cases; see Matth. Or, § 519. 7, and 
comp. Madvig, Synt. § 134. i, who 
correctly observes that fi^ with fut. 
after verbs of fearing, i&c. always 
gives a prominence to the notion of 
futurity. On the substantival 

form 6 Tcipd^uv, see exx. in Winer, 
^' § 45- 7» P' 316, comp. Bemhardy, 
Synt. VI. 22, p. 316. 
<ls K€v6v Y^vrpxii] 'prove to be in vain / 
comp. Gal. ii. 2, and the exx. collected 
by Kypke, Obe. Vol. 11. p. 275. The 
primary force of the prep, is somewhat 
similarly obscured in the adverbial 
formulee, tls Kowdv, els Kaip6¥, k.t,\.; 
see Bernhardy, Synt, v. 11, p. 221. 
On the meaning of kStos, see notes on 
ch. ii. 9. 
6. "AfiT^ hk is most naturally oon- 



42 



nPOS eE22AA0NIKEI2 A. 



rhv triamv Kai Tfjv ayainjv vjULcoVf kqi on e-xere /jLveiav 
ifiwv ayaOijv vavTorey eTrnroOovvre^ fifio,^ iSecv Kadairep 



nected with the participle (^th.-Pol. 
distinctly), not with the remote verb 
irap€K\'fi$yifj.€Wy ver. 7 (Lunem., Koch), 
which has its own adjunct 5i& tovto\ 
so appy. Syr., and probably all the 
other Yv., but the uucertainty as to 
punctuation precludes their being con- 
fidently cited on either side. The 
adverb Apn [4pw, connected with d/)- 
W(i)S, cl/>Aco?], which properly stands in 
opp. as well to immediately present 
(vvv, Plato, Meftw, p. 89 c) as to re- 
motely past time (irdXat, Plato, Crito, 
p. 43 a), is often used in the N.T. and 
in later writers in reference to purely 
present time; seeesp. Jjoheck, Phryn, 
p. 18 sq. c^a77cXi(ra|ilKOv] 

^having told the good tidings of;* 
comp. Luke i 19: oifK elirep dvaYYcl- 
\aPTos, dW eiaYyekiffafiivov tojoOtov 
dyaObv iyyeiTO r^p ixebfuv ^e^aluxriy 
Kal T^p dydirrjp, Chrys. The verb 
€iJa77€X. is used in the N. T. both in 
the active (Rev. x. 7, xiv. 6, only), 
passive (Matt. xi. 5, Gal. i. ri, Heb. 
iv. 6, aL), and middle. In the last 
,form its constructions in the N. T. are 
singularly varied ; it is used (a) abso- 
lutely, Kom. XV. 20, T Cor. i. 17; (5) 
with a dat. personce, Bom. i. 15; (c) 
with an accus. personce, Acts xvi. 10, 
I Pet. i. 12; (d) with an accus. ret, 
Rom. X. 15, Gal. i. 23; (c) with a 
double Accns., personce and m, Acts 
"xiii. 32; and lastly (/) — the most 
common construction — with a dat. 
ipersonqs and ace. ret, Luke i. 19, al. 
, Of these (5) and occasionally (c) are the 
forms used by the earlier writers ; see 
^Jiobeck, Phryn, p. 267, Thom.-Mag. 
p. 379, ed. Bern. r9[v irfoTiv 

Kol Tijv d-y. ^j*.] *yovr faith and your 
love* the faith which you have, and 
the love which you evince to one an- 



other (ver. 12) ; 817X0? ^ tilp irla-rts rrji 
e^ffefielas t6 ^i^aiop, if di dydini t^p 
TrpaKTiKT)P dpcTifip, Theod. The third 
Christian virtue, iXirls, is. not here 
specified (comp. i Tim. i. 14, 2 Tim. 
i. 13, al.), but obviously is included; 
comp. Usteri, Lehrh. 11. r. 4, p. 241, 
Reuss, Thiol, Chrit, iv. 22, Vol. ii. 
p. 259, 260. 8ti ix€T€ 

fivcCav K.T.X.] *ihat ye have good re- 
merribrance of us always;* not exactly 
fJivrjfioP€6eT€ ijfuop fierd iirabfwp Kal eO- 
<p7}fdas, Theoph. (comp. Chrys.), but 
simply 'that ye retain a good, i,e, as 
the following words more fully specify, 
a faithful (fie^alap, OEcum.) and affec- 
tionate remembrance of us/ 'ut nostra 
memoria bona sit in vobis,' Copt., 
comp. Syr. On fLvda, see notes on ch. 
i. 2. The fivda dyaO^ formed the 
third item in the good tidings; rpla 
t40€ik€p d^Upa<rra, t^p irl<mp, t^p 
dydwrjp, Kal roO SiSaffKdXov t^p fivi^- 
fATlp, Theod. irdvTorc seems 

here more naturally joined with the 
preceding verb (Syr., jEth.), as in 
ch. i. 2, I Cor. i. 4, 2 Thess. i. 3, al., 
than with the participle (Copt.): the 
fipela was not only dyaBi^, but d5id- 
Xciirros; see 2 Tim. i. 3. So Auth., 
Arm., and appy. the majority of mo- 
dem commentators. 
hrviroB, '^F^as ISctv] * longing to see 
us :* further expansion of the preceding 
words; comp. 2 Tim. i. 4. On the 
force of the M, here not intensive 
but directive, see Fritz. Mom. L 11, 
Vol. I. p. 31, and notes on 2 Tim. I.e. 
KaOdircp Kal if|ic£s i|tas] *even as toe 
also are longing to see you;* rb ydp 
fiaOcip rbp </>t\ovpTa Sri tovto olSep 6 
<pt\oTOfi€Pos Sti <pt\etTai xoXX^ vapa- 
fivdla KoX TapdK\ri<nSy Chrys. On the 
meaning and use of Kaddtrep, see notes 



III. 7, 8. 



43 



KOI i/JL€i^ u/xay Sia tovto irapeKk^Qrifievy a8€\(^oii e^' 7 
vfMV cttJ Trao-jy t5 avayKjj koi OXly^ci ^iulwv Sia rij^ vjulZv 
'Triarrewg* on vOv l^cofjiev eav u/xeij (rrfiKriTt ev J^vpltp. 8 

8. <m/iK7jT€] So Hec, Lachm.f and TUch. ed. a, with BDEK^; many msa. : 
Tuck. ed. 7 adopts the solecistic CTifiKeTe with AFGKLK*; mss. ; Chrys. (ms.), 
which is maintained by Koch. The authority however is insufficient, as such 
permutations of vowels are found occasionally even in the best MSS. ; comp. 
Scrivener, Introd, to N.T. p. 10. 



on ch. ii. rt, and on the use of xal 
with comparative adverbs, notes on 
Eph. v. 23. 

7. Sid tovto] * for this cause :^ in 
reference to the three preceding speci- 
fications, which are here grouped to- 
gether in one view. The resumed did 
TouTo is not superfluous (comp. De 
W.) : the length of the preceding sen- 
tence, and the fact that Apri i\06tfros 
involved mainly the predication of 
time, make the occurrence of a re- 
capitulatory and causal formula here 
by no means inappropriate. 
irapcKX...I<|»' ^|iktv] *we were comforted 
over you/ you were the objects which 
formed the substratum of our com- 
fort; comp. 7 Cor. vii. 7. The prep. 
M is not exactly equivalent to *in,' 
Vulg., *ex,' [fram] Goth., or even 
'propter,' -^th. -Pol.,— still less to 
*quod attinet ad,' Ltinem., — but with 
its usual and proper force points to 
the basis on which the TrapdKXrjcit 
rested, *fundamentum cui veluti su- 
perstnicta est,' Schott; soo Winer, 
Gr. § 48. c, p. 351. The reading irtf- 
paK€K\TfifJL€da, though found only in A 
and 3 mss., has been adopteil by Koch, 
as acconling better with his connexion 
of &pTL with the finite verb. Surely 
this is moat rash criticism. 
Iirl irdoTi K.T.X.] *in all our neccsslti/ 
and tribulation;^ certainly not *in 
quftvis angustid et afflictione,' Schott, 
— a translation distinctly precluded 
by the presence of the article, which 



here represents the dj^dyK-rj Kal ffXLxf/it 
as a collective whole ; comp. 2 Cor. i. 
4, vii. 4. The use of ivl is here only 
slightly different from that above; it 
has appy. neither a temporal (Liinem.) 
nor a causal (2 Cor. i. 4, but obs. the 
accompanying iv t. OX.), but a semi- 
local force (comp. 2 Cor. vii. 4, and 
Mey. in loc.)^ marking that with 
which the TapdK\rj<Tis stands in im- 
mediate contact and connexion ; comp. 
Bernhardy, Synt. v. 24. b, p. 248 sq., 
and notes on Phil. i. 3. In the 
former use the idea of ethical super- 
position seems mainly predominant, 
in this latter that of ethical contact ; 
comp. Krllger, Sj>rnchl. § 68. 41. 5. 
It is somewhat doubtful to what 
the dtfdyKrj Kal OXlrpiS should be re- 
ferred. On the whole, the force of 
dydyxtj [connected with AFX-, Pott, 
Etym. Forsch. Vol. i. p. 184; *vim 
omnem notat quie evitari non potest,' 
Herm. Soph. Trach. 823] and the 
tenor of the context seem to imply 
not any inward distress (De W.), but 
rather some outward trial and trouble 
(Alf. compares Acts xviii. 5 — 10) 
under which the Apostle was then 
suffering ; see Ltinem. in loc. 
The order of the words is inverted in 
Rec. (d\lyf/. K. dvdyKxi), but only on the 
authority of KL ; mss. ; several Ff. 
Sid TTJs i|iMv mcrrcMs] * through your 
faith i* the medium by which this 
comfort was realized by the Apostle 
•was the faith on the part of the Thes- 



44 



nP02 eES2AA0NIKEI2 A. 



9 Tiva yap evyapKrTLav SvvajuieBa t^ Ocip avratrooovvai 



salonians of which he had received 
tidings; aUrrj Ao-dXeuroj fitbaffa t^ 
vapdK\ifi<ri» iifuv elpydaaro, CEcum. 

8. Sri vvv tM|jicv] * because now toe 
live;* reason for the preceding state- 
ment of the comfort which he re- 
ceived from hearing of the faith of 
ilia converts. The contrast shows that 
the Apostle regards the difdyKri Kal 
0\l\f/is as a kind of death, from which 
he is raised to the full powers of life 
{comp. Bom. viiL 6) by the knowledge 
of the firm posture of the Thess. ; rV 
7^/9 if/Aeripw ^epalu/atp fwTji' ijfieri- 
pojt {fwoKafipdifOtieif, Theod.; compare 
Pearson, Creed, VoL u. p. 319 (ed. 
Burt.). The conditional member, ^dy 
iffiets /c.r.X., shows that vvv (like the 
Lat. 'nunc') is not here used in a 
purely temporal (comp. Jowett), but 
in a logical and argumentative sense, 
approaching in meaning to *in hoc 
rerum statu,' 'rebus sic se habenti- 
bua;* see Hartmig, Partik, vvv, 2, 2, 
VoL n. p. 25, Jelf, Gr, § 719. 2, 
The true principle of the usage is well 
explained by Hand; *s8Bpe in his 
duss rerum conditiones collocantur, 
quarum altera aut prsecessit, aut cogi- 
tatur esse posse, eique ex adverso op- 
ponitur ea quse vera ac pi'cesens adest 
et valet,' TursdL Vol. iv. p. 340. 
i&v i(ut$ <mjia|Tc] Hf ye stand 
(fast);* hypothetically slated, as the 
faith of the Thessalonians was not yet 
iiomplete (comp. ver. 10); experience 
was yet to show whether the assump- 
tion was correct. On the force of iduf 
with the subj. ('sumo hoc, et potest 
omnino ita se habere, sed utrum vere 
futurum sit necne id nescio, verum 
experiential cognoscam,' Herm.), and 
on its general distinction from e^ with 
4hQ indic.y see notes on Gal. 1. 9, 



Winer, Gr, § 41. 2, p. 260, and 
Herm. Viger, No. 312. On the mean- 
ing of this late form ar-fiKew, not jjer 
se *to stand /cw«' (comp. Rom. xiv. 4), 
see notes on Phil. i. 27. In the N.T. 
it occurs only in St Paul's Epp. and 
Mark iii. 31 {Tisch.), xi. 25 ; and in 
the LXX in £xod. xiv. 13 (Alex.). 
Iv KvpCi^] *in the Uyrd, — in Him as 
the element of their true life, and the 
sphere of its practical manifestations ; 
80 with oTiJicco' in Phil. iv. i; see 
notes on Eph. iv. 17, vi. i. 

9. rCva ydp ict.X] Confirmation 
of the preceding conditioned declara- 
tion 5rf vw l^Qfiey k.t.\. ; ' we live, I 
say, for what sufficient thanks can be 
rendered to God for our plenitude of 
joy on your account?' Toaa&ri/f, ^<rlM, 
if 8l {ffias x«/><^> ^^' ^^^ €^api<rr€Tp 
Kar d^lav eiplaKOfieyj CEcum., comp. 
Theoph. For Setfi D^FGK^ read Kv- 
pl(fi, and ^^ also gives Kvplov for GeoO 
at the end of the verse, dyrairo- 

Sovvai] 'rentier,'— properly 'in return,' 

<retribuere,' Vulg., V&g <=^ V)\ Syr.; 

eirxjipiffrla is regarded as a kind of 
return for the mercies and blessings 
of God: Grot, aptly compares Psalm 
cxvi. 12, r\\r\'h nV^'nO. The bi- 
nary compound d)^^a1^o^t^6v(U is used 
by the Apostle both 'in bonam' and 
'in malam partem' (2 Thess. L 6, 
comp. Bom. xiL 19) in the sense of 
rendering back a due ; the ivrl mark- 
ing the idea of return, the dir6 hinting 
at that of the debt previously in- 
curred, *ubi dando te exsolvis debito,' 
Winer, de Verb. Comp, iv. p. 12. 
ircpl ipov] ^concerning yov^ *for 
you;"^ comp. ch. i. 2 (and notes), i Cor. 
i. 4, 2 Thess. i. 3, ii. 13. The differ- 
ence between v€pl and vvkp (Eph. i. 



III. 9, 10. 



45 



Tpoa-Oev Tov Oeov ^/ulSovI vvkto^ kqI fjyiepa^ virepeK" lo 
7cepi(T(T0v Seofievoi eh to ISeiy vfiZv to irp6<rwirov koI 
KaTapTia-ai ra vcrrep/ifiaTa t59 irlcrreta^ vjulZv. 



1 6, comp. Phil. L 4) in such combina- 
tions as the present is scarcely appre- 
ciable; see notes on Col, iv. 3, and 
comp. on Phil, i, 7. 
h\ tritryji rfl X<^P$] *^^ account of, 
for, aU the joy/ iwl having here more 
of its causal and derivative sense, and 
marking the ground and reason of the 
dyTaw66o<ris i^apivrlai : comp. i Cor. 
i. 4, 1 Cor. ix. 15, Polyb. Hiit. xviii. 
16. 4, see notes on Phil, i. 5, and 
Krttger, Sprachl. § 68. 41. 6. The 
present use of iirl is nearly allied to 
the common use of the prep, with 
verbs denoting affections of the mind, 
$avfid^€Lr, dyaWiSjf, jt.t.X., but per- 
haps recedes a shade farther from the 
idea of 'ethical basis,' to which both 
this and all similar uses of the prep, 
are to be ultimately referred; see 
notes on ver. 7, and Winer, Or, § 48. 
Ci P- 35 1* I^ ^ scarcely necessary to 
say that jroura 4 X^-P^ ^ ^^^t except 
by inference, 'summa Isetitia* (Schott, 
— who however fails to observe the 
article), but 'all the joy,' Copt, — 
'the joy taken in its whole extent;' 
see Winer, Gr. § 18. 4, p. loi; the 
Apostle's joy wanted nothing to make 
it full and complete, 
f X^^^H^] '^^^^ yjcjoyi attraction 
for ifv x^W/**" (Winer, Gr, § 24. i, 
p. 147), the construction being appy. 
here x^P^"' x"^?^* (Matth. ii. 10), not 
XaLpttv X^W (John iii. 19), which, 
though analogous, would be scarcely 
80 natural with the simple relative. 
On these intensive forms, see Winer, 
Or. § 3^. a, p. aoi, § 54. 3» P- 4' 3. 
Lobeck, Paralipom. p. 224 sq. 
IfiirpoaOcv K.T.X.] * before our God/* 
further definition of the pure nature 
of the joy : it was such as could bear 



the scrutiny of the eye of GU>d, 'illo 
videlicet teste atque inspectors et ut 
arbitror probatore,' Just., comp. Calv. 
On the formula ifiTpoadcw toO QcoO, 
only used by St Paul in this Ep., see 
notes on ch. i. 3. The clause ob- 
viously belongs not to x«V># (I*®1*)» 
still less to ver. 10 (Syr., but not Syr.« 
Phil.), but to the verb x^-^pof''^' 

10. wiCT^s Kttl ii|Uf>at] 'night and 
day;* Kal touto t^i X^P^^ ari/ieiop, 
Chrys. On this formula, see notes on 
ch. ii. 9, and on i Tim, v. 5. 
^irfpcKinpioxrov 8«6|ifvob] 'above mea" 
sure praying;* participial adjunct, 
not to x^^P^M'^f'f which is only part 
of a subordinate clause, but to the 
leading thought rlva — dm-airodoOiKU 
(LUnem., Alf., Jo wet t), the participle 
not having so much a causal (LUnem.) 
as a circumstantial ('praying as we 
do,' Alf.), or perhaps rather a simply 
temporal reference ; compare Krttger, 
Sprachl. § 56. 10. I. On the rare cu- 
mulative form ifxepcKir. (ch. v. 1 3 [-Qs], 
Eph. iii. 20, Clem.-Bom. i Cor, 70 
[•Qs]) and St Paul's noticeable use of 
compounds of ir4py see notes on Eph, 

l,C, <ls T^ IS. K.T.X.] 

*that toe may see your face;* 'ut vi- 
deamus,' Vulg., Clarom.; purpose and 
object (ft'tt Idy o«5tojJi, Theoph.) of the 
prayer, with perhaps an included re- 
ference to the subject of it; comp. 
a Thess. ii 2, and see notes on ch. ii. 
I a, and on iffu t6 t/d^o-., notes on ch. 
ii. 17. KaraprCoMi] *make 

complete,* 'ut suppleamus,' Clarom. 
The verb Karafyrl^tv (Heaych. irara- 
ffK€vd^€ip, (rrepeoOp, Zonar. Apfid^iM) 
properly signifies 'to make Aprios* — 
the icard having appy. a slightly in- 
tensive force (see Rost n. Pahn, Leos, 



4e 



nP02 GESSAAONIKEIZ A. 



II AvTOS Se 6 QeOi KOI irarhp nf^StV May Ood direct my ww 

' to you. May He make 

KoL <5 Kipioi mS>v 'Ii<roOs xarevdipat JSiS^^youShS^I 



8.V. Kard, IV. 4),— thence *to re-ad- 
just and restore,' whether in a simple 
(Matth. iv. 21) or an ethical sense 
(Gal. vi. i), what had been previously 
out of order; and thence, with a some- 
what more derivative sense (as here), 
Ho supply what is lacking or defi- 
cient/ vXripQff aif Theod., dvair\rjpio<rat, 
(Ecum. For exx. see Wetst. Vol. I. 
p. 278, Eisner, Obs, VoL n. p. 70, and 
notes on Got. l.c, 

tA "Cvrtpr^^ara K.T.X.] *ihe lacking 
measures of your faUhy* *that in which 
your faith is yet deficient;* com p. 
Phil. ii. JO, Col. i. 24. These defects 
are referred by Olsh. to their faith not 
on the side of its power but of its 
knowledge. This seems substantially 
true (oi> irdffris dTrikavcap ttjs diSaaKa- 
XIas, oidi 6<ra ixPW M-o-Beiv ifiaSov, 
Chrys., comp. ch. iv. 13); it does not 
however seem correct to exclude de- 
lects on the side of practice, which ch. 
iv. I sq. seems mainly intended to 
supply; see Lunem. in he, 

II. Airos 84 K.T.X.] ^Now may 
Qod Himself and our Father;^ transi- 
tion by the 8^ fiera^aTiKby (see notes 
on Gal. iii. 8) to good wishes and 
prayers for their progress in holiness. 
The airrbs does not seem here to sug- 
gest any antithesis between God and 
the Sedfieyot, ver. 10 (De W.), but 
merely to enhance the power of G^d 
in respect of the Karevd^yeuf rV ^^ 
(Lunem.), and to place in contrast 
the human agent with his earnest but 
foiled efforts (ch. iL 18), and Gt>d 
who if He willed could instantly and 
surely accomplish all; Cxrel (Xeyep'O 
Qebs iKKdyf/ai t6v ZaTavav rbv Trcurra- 
XoO ijfxiy dtd tQp T€Lpa<TfiQp ifiTrodl- 
tovray iva dpdrjv 65bw irpbs iffias Toirja-tt)' 
fi€$a, CEcum. On the meaning 

of the august title 6 Qebs Kal var-fip^ 



and the probable connexion of iiii(aif 
with the latter subst. only (so also 
Lunem.), see notes on Gal. i. 4. It 
may be remarked that the copula is 
omitted in Syr., Copt., -(Eth. (both), 
and retained in Vulg., Clarom., Goth., 
Arm., Syr.-Phil., but that in these 
latter Vv. where it thus occurs there is 
no trace of the explanatory force here 
ascribed to it by many modem com- 
mentators. Kal 6 Kvpu>s K.T.X.] 
Union of the Son with the Father in 
the Apostle's prayer. The language 
of some of the German expositors is 
here neither clear nor satisfactory: 
we do not say with Lunem., that 
Christ as sitting at the right hand of 
God has a part in the government of 
the world *nach paulinischer An- 
schauung' (compare Usteri, Lehrb. ii» 
^« 4> P- 3i5)> still less with Koch, that 
the Apostle regards Christ *als die 
Weisheit und Macht Gottes,'— but 
assert simply and plainly that the 
Eternal Son is here distinguished from 
the Father in respect of His Person- 
ality, but mystically united with Him 
(observe the significant singular Kar- 
€u0j^vaL) in respect of his Godhead, 
and as God rightly and duly address- 
ed in the language of direct prayer ; 
see esp. Athan. contr, Arian, in, 11, 
WaterL Defence, Qu. xvii. Vol. 1. p» 
423, Qu. XXII. p. 467. 
The addition after ^Irja; of Xpurrbs 
(Rec.), though supported by D^EFGK 
L; msB. ; Vv.; Ath., and many Ff., 
is rightly rejected by most modem 
editors with ABD^X (D^ omits 'It/ct. 
as well); 5 mss. ; Clarom., Sangerm., 
Vulg. (Amiat.), ^th. (Pol.,— but not 
Piatt), al., as a conformation to the 
more usual formula. 
KarcvO^vat] * direct/ optative, not in- 
finitive, — whichf though occasionally 



III. II, 12, 13. 



47 



Ttjv 6S0V i^fJLwv Tpo9 v/xaf. ijJLa^ Se 6 J^vpio^ 'TrKeovacrai 12 
KOI ircptcra-evorai ry ayaTrji eiy aXXiyXovj koc eis nrdvra^i 
KaOdirep koi li/meU «? v/jlci^, eh to Trrjpl^ai vfxSov tol^ 13 



found in older and esp. poetical writers 
in ref. to wishes and prayers (ApoUon. 
de Si/nt, III. 14, Bernhardy, Sjfnt. ix. 
3> P' 357)» ^*s 1^0 place in the lan- 
guage of the N. T. ; see Winer, Gr. § 
43» 5) P- ^83. The singular is cer- 
tainly very noticeable both here and 
in a Thess. ii. 17: no reasons except 
those founded on the true relations of 
the Father and Son seem in any way 
to account for the enallage of number. 
The verb KaT€v0j^v€Uf (Luke i. 79, 2 
Thess. iii. 5) properly signifies 'to 
make straight/ thence (as here) 'to 

direct' ('dirigat/ Vulg., •05Zl3 

Syr.), the icard being appy. not so 
much intensive (Koch) as directive, 
and the appended irp6s specifying the 
terminus ad quern; comp. Winer, (?r. 

§ 52- 4. 9' P- 383. 

I a. i9|ias W] * But you,'' — you — 
whatever it may please God to ap- 
point with respect to us and our 
coming: 'altera precatio ut interea 
dum obstructum iUi est iter se tarn en 
absenteDominusThessaloniconses con- 
firmet in sanctitate et caritate im- 
pleat,* Calv. 6 Kvpios] 

Not the First Person of the blessed 
Trinity (Alf.),— still less the Third 
(Basil, ap. Pearson, Creeds Vol. 11. p. 
265, ed. Burt.), but, in accordance 
with the application of the title both 
in ver. 11 and ver. 13, and the pre- 
vailing usage in St PauPs £pp., the 
Second; comp. Winer, Gr, § 19. i, p. 
113. The subject 6 KiJ/wof [so BD»K 
LK ; Augiens.: 6 Beds, A ; 73 : 6 Ki'ptoi 
•It/ctoDs, D^E^FG; Clarom., Sangerm., 
al.] is omitted in Syr., Arab. (Erp.), 
Vulg. (Amiat.), and is rejected by 
Mill (Prolegom, p. exxx.), De W., 



Koch, al., as an interpolation. Thd 
external authority for its insertion is 
too preponderant to be safely set 
aside : Lachm, and TVscA. retain it. 
irXcovdo-ai xal tr^itrcriCcrai] ^rnake 
to inci'case and ahound,^ 'multiplicet 
et abundare faciat,' Vulg., Clarom.; 
both verbs transitive, and nearly 
synonymous ; the former referring not 
to mere numerical increase (ry dptfffiif 
vXtovdffaiy Theod.) but to spiritual en- 
largement, the second to spiritual 
abundance, and having more of a 
superlative meaning; comp. Fritz. 
Horn. Vol. I. p. 351. lI\€oyd^€t» is 
not transitive elsewhere in the N.T., 
see however Psalm Ixxi. 21, ^irXed- 
vaa-as rijv dtKaioaiivrjv cov, I Maco. iv. 
35, T^eovdiffas rhv ytvrfdiifra ffrparbv; 
the verb wcpKrtr. is also commonly in- 
trans., but see 2 Cor. iv. 15, ix. 8, and 
notes on Eph. i. 8. 

Tj dTdirn K.T.X.] *tn y(mr love to- 
ward one another and toward all/ in- 
strumental or rather ablatival dative 
specifjring that with which they were 
to be enlarged and to abound; see 
Hartung, Casus, p. 94, Scheueil. Synt 
§ 22, p. 178, 182. This love was to 
be shown both in the foi-m of brotherly 
love (0tXa8eX0/a, ch. iv. 9) and in its 
more extended form to all mankind 
whether d/xdnia-roi (Theod.) or not; 
TouTO yh.p T^s Karb. Qibv dydvTjs tdio¥ 
t6 irduras T€piT\4K€(rdai, Theoph. 
KaOdircp xal if|icts els i3|i.] *even as 
we also abound toward you;* comp, 
ver. 6; scil. T\€ovdtofi€v Kal wepiff- 
(re^ofiev r-j dydirji [irepl i/fAois 5i€t40tj' 
(xcv, Theod.], the verbs which were 
previously transitive now relapsing in- 
to their usual intrauRitive meaning: 
rh fihf iifiirepw i/jSrj irrl* rb Si i/i^ 



48 



EPOS eE22AAONIKEI2 A. 



KapSiag afxefiTrrovg iv dytoDO-vvfj cfiTpocrOev rod Qeou 
KOI irarpo^ fnxSov ev rp irapovcrla rod J^vpiov ^julcov 
^Iticrov fxera tcIvtoov tS>v ayiwv avrov. 



T€fiw i^tovfiep 7ei'^0-da(, Ghrys. This 
mode of supplying the ellipsiSi though 
open to the objection of causing two 
different meanings to be assigned to 
irXeoi^. and vepiffff, in the same verse, 
seems less arbitrary than that of Syr. 
(comp. Copt.), aL, dydvrjy ^ofiev. 
Grot. *sumu8, more Hebrseo,* <fec., 
and is supported by the analogy of 
simple verbs being supplied from com- 
pound verbs, affirmative from nega- 
tive; comp. Jelf, Or. § 895. i. b. 
On the meaning of KaOdxtp, see notes 
on ch. ii. 11, and on the use of kcU, 
notes on ch. iv. 5. 

13. <ls rh (m)p£{ai] *in order to 
estoMUh,'^ * to the end lie may stahlish,* 
Auth. ; not the result (Baumg.-Crus.) 
bat the end and aim of the irXeov. xal 
irepurff. ry dydT-o: Av ydp a^^ vepiff- 
ee&Q, ffTTjpiyiJLds i<m t&v KCKTrifihuv 
airr-fiv, CEcum. ; love being, as De W, 
observes, Hhe filling up of the law' 
(Bom. xiiL 10) and *the bond of per- 
fectness' (CoL iii, 14). The subject of 
the inf., it need scarcely be said, is 
not iifiai (Com. a Lap. i), nor dyd- 
irrfif (CEcum.), nor even Qehv (a Lap. 
a), but the subject of the foregoing 
▼erse, rhv Ki^pioif, d|ii|iirTOv$ 

kv d'yuaHiKQ] 'so as to he uMameable 
in holiness/ proleptic use of the ad- 
jective; comp. I Cor. L 8, PhiL iii. 21, 
see Winer, Gr. § 66. 3, p. 550, Jelf, 
Gr, § 439. 2, Schaefer, Demosth. Vol. 
J. p. 239, and the long and elaborate 
note of Koch in loc. The hearts (iK 
TTjs xapdlas i^ipxovrai 5ia\oyi<rfiol tto- 
vripol, Chrys.) were to be blameless, 
and that not simply, but in a sphere 
and element of holiness. On the 
orthographically correct but late form 
dyiwaOmf (Eom. i. 4» 2 Cor. vii. i, as 



K, not dyioff^vTj, as B^DEFG (A has 
8iKaio<r6v7i), see Fritz. Rom, Vol. I. p. 
10, Buttm. Gr. § 118. 11. In mean- 
ing it differs but little from ayt&njs 
{2 Cor. i. 12 [not JRec], Heb. xii. 10), 
except perhaps that it represents more 
the condition than the abstract quality, 
while dyiafffidi, as its termination 
shows, points primarily to the process 
(2 Thess. ii. 13, I Pet. i. 2), and thence, 
with that gradual approach of the ter- 
mination in -/jLos to that in -ffwrj which 
is so characteristic of the N.T., the 
state (cb. iv. 4, i Tim. ii. 15), fi-ame 
of mind, or holy disposition (Water- 
land, on Justif, Vol. VI. p. 7), in 
which the action of the verb is evinced 
and exemplified ; see Usteri, Lehrh. 11. 

I. 3, p. 226, and comp. dyaOuffivrj, 
dyaBdrrjit and notes on Gal, v. 22. 
Y|iirpO(r6cv K.T.X. does not belong ex- 
clusively either to iv dyuavivQ (Pelt) 
or to dfiiixirrovi (De W.), but to both 
(Liinem.): their dfiefitpla iv dyL(a(T, 
was to be such as could bear the 
searching eye of Grod; see notes on 
ver. 9, and on ch. 1. 3. 

Tov 0. Kal IT. if)&.] See notes on ver. 

I I, and on Gal. 14. ^^^ 
irapovirCf ict.X.] 'at the coming of 
our Lord Jesus/ xal ydp iv* a^ov 
Kpw6fie0a ifiTpoff$€v roO HarpdSf 
Theoph. ; see notes on ch. ii. 19. The 
addition "Kpiarov is rightly rejected 
hjLachm. and Tisch., with ABDEKK ; 
20 mss. ; Clarom., Sangerm., Vulg. 
(Amiat.), ^th. (Pol.,— but not Piatt); 
Dam., Ambr. : the appearance of 'Irj- 
ffovs without Xpurrbs seems somewhat 
noticeably frequent in this Epistle (9 
times out of 16) ; comp. ver. 11, ch. i. 
10, ii 15, 19, iv. I, 2, 14 (bis). 

I&crd irdvTttv ict.X.] 'accompanied 



IV. I. 



49 



adeX^ 



ShiKto«rffi5'ISa mSi Kac TapoucaXoOfxev h Kvpiif 'Iijcro5 

continent 



IV. 



with all ni% Saints;^ not cifv but 
pLerd; they are here represented not 
80 much as united with Him as at- 
tendiDg on Him and swelling the 
majesty of His train ; comp. notes on 
Eph. vi. 2^y and contrast Col. iii. 4, 
where on the contrary the context 
shows that the idea is mainly that of 
coherence. It is very doubtful whe- 
ther ol dyioi are, with Pearson {Creed, 
Vol. II. p. ^96), to be referred to the 
Holy Angels (see 2 Thess. i. 7, Matth. 
xvi. 37, XXV. 31, al. ; comp. Heb. 
D^tJ'np Psalm Ixxxix. 6, Zech. xiv. 5, 
aL), or, with Hofmann {Schriftb. Vol. 
II. 2, p. 595), to the Saints in their 
more inclusive sense (8ee ch. iv. 14, 
comp. I Cor. vi. 2) : perhaps the addi- 
tion irdifTcs may justify us in referring 
the term to both ; so Beng., Alf. 
The dfx^v at the end of the verse [insert- 
ed by~AD'EK^ ; mss. ; Clarom., Sang., 
Vulg., and by Lachm, in brackets] 
seems to be a liturgical addition. 

Chapter IV. 1. AovirhvoZv] * Fur- 
thermore thetij^ in consequence of, and 
in accortlance with the issue prayed 
for in the preceding verse; the 0^ 
having here its collective force, and 
introducing an appeal to the Thessa- 
lonians on their side, grounded on 
what the Apostle had asked in prayer 
for them from God ; they were to do 
their part, Olsh. On the two uses of 
odp (the collective and r^flexive\ see 
Klotz, Devar. Vol ii. p. 717, com- 
pared with Hartung, Partik. Vol. IL 
p. 9. The transl. of Vulg., *ergo* 
(Clarom. less correctly 'autem'), is 
judiciously altered by Beza to 'igitur ;' 
the former being properly used only 
'in graviore argomentatione,' Hand, 
TurseU. Vol. ill. p. 187. The exact 
meaning of XotT^v has been somewbi^t 



contested. By observing its use (1 
Cor. xiii. 11) and thit of the more 
specific rb Xonrbv (Eph. vi. 10, Phil, 
iii. I, iv. 8, 1 Thess. iii. i) in St 
Paul's Epp., we see that it is neither 
simply temporal (del fih koL els rb 
SiriveKis, Chrys., Theoph.), nor simply 
ethical (diroxpc6i^«5i (Ecum. 2), but 
rather marks the transition to the 
close of the Ep. and to what remains 
yet to be said (*de csetero,' Vulg.), 
whether much (Phil. iii. i) or little 
{2 Cor. xiii. 11); rb els Tapabfetruf 
i\$€itf, CBcum. I : comp. notes on 
Phil. iii. I. The omission of 

rb (inserted by Ree.) is here supported 
by all MSS. except B' [mas. ; Chrys., 
Theod.], and acquiesced in by ZacAw., 
Tisch.f and appy. all modem editors r 
that of odif [omitted by B^ ; 10 mss. ; 
Syr., Copt. ; Chrys.], though approved 
by Mill {Prolegom. p. xov) and Tisch, 
ed. I, is on the contrary by no means 
probable. 4p«T»|i€v] 'we 

beseech;' comp. ch. v. n, Phil. iv. 3, 2 
Thess. ii. i, where alone it is used by 
St PhiU : a derivative and non-classi- 
cal use of ipitnotif, perhaps suggested 
by the double use of 7^\^ (Schott), 
of which in the LXX it is not un- 
commonly a translation; see Psalm 
cxxii. 6, ipwHicare f^^^) 8^) rd els 
elpififriv T^v *l€pov<Ta\'^fi. 
irapaKoXeii&cv Iv Kvp.'lT)(r.] * exhort 
you in the Lord Jesue;' our TapdicXi}- 
ffis is in Him alone (see Phil. ii. i, and 
notes) ; He is the sphere and element 
in which alone all we say and do has 
its proper existence and efficacy: see 
notes on Eph, iv. 17, vi. i. The gloss 
8(d ToO 6eoO, Chrys. {rb^ Xpiorby wapa- 
XafjLpdyeij Theoph., *per Christam 
Togat et obseorat,' Schott 2), involves 
a needless departure from the almost 
regular meaning of this tignificant 



50 



nP02 eE22AAONIKEI2 A. 



tva KaOvof irapeXdfiere irap ^julwv to ttwj Set u/xaj irepiira* 
T€iv KOI apecTKetv 0ew, KaOtag koi ireptiraTCiTey Iva irepia-" 

2 orevfire /jloXKov. oiSare yap rivag irapayyeklag eScoKajULev 

3 vpLiv Sia Tov J^vplov ^Ificrov. tovto yap ecrriv OiXfi/uLa 



\ 



formula: all the ancient Vv. retain 
the simple and primary meaning of 
the preposition. fva toiMi 

IC.T.X.] 'ificU even cu ye received from 
us;* subject of the prayer blended 
with the purpose of making it, intro- 
duced by the partially final tya; see 
notes on Epk, i. 17. On the meaning 
of rapeXdperef here unduly extended 
by Cbrys., Theoph., to the teaching 
of examples {o^l ftrjfuiTtai' yMvov iffrly 
dXXd Kal TpayfidTcjp), see notes on ch. 
U. 13. This tua is omitted by Rec. 
with AD^E^KLK; great majority of 
mss.; Syr.-Phil., ^th.-Platt (appy.); 
Chrys., Theod., al. (Titch. ed. 2) : but 
is rightly retained by Lachm., Tischs 
ed. 7. C is deficient. 
T^ irws Sit icT.X.] ^ how. ye ought to 
walk;* literally 'the how, d;c.f* the 
rb giving to the whole clause a sub- 
stantival character, and bringing the 
two members ioto a single point of 
view; comp. Luke ix. 46, Rom. iv. 
13, viii 26, see Winer, Gr. § 20. 3, 
p. 162, ed. 5 (omitted or placed else- 
where in ed. 6), Fritz, on Mark, p. 372, 
Jelf, Gr, § 457. 3, and the numerous 
exx. in Matth. Gr, § 280. 
Kal dpcvKCiv Off] *and (by so doing) 
to please Gcd* The Kal does not seem 
to be either explanatory (Scbott 2) or 
Hebraistic ('yim consilii aut effectus 
describens,' Storr, cited by Schott), 
but with its not uncommon consecu- 
tive force marks the dpiffKcuf as the 
result of the vepivaTely ; comp. notes 
on Phil, iv. 12. The words Ka6Ci)i xal 
repiTareiTc are omitted hjJiec.y Tisch, 
ed. 2, but only on the authority of 
D^E^KL; most mss.; Syr., Chrys., 
Theod., Dam.: they are rightly in- 



serted by Lachm., Tisch, ed. 7, on 
greatly preponderant authority. We 
can hardly say that the words are in- 
serted 'vitiose et parum ad rem' 
(Just.); the terms of the concluding 
exhortation seem to render an allusion 
to their present state, if not necessary, 
yet certainly natural and appropriate. 
For a sound sermon on this text, 
see Beveridge, Serm, oxxiii. VoL v. 
p. 347 sq. ir^unrciST|TC 

(taXXov] *ye may abound still rnore,* 
soil, in your walking and pleasing 
God: the expression occurs again in 
ver. 10 and Phil. i. 9. The omission 
of a o{fT(i)s corresponding to the first 
KaOtbSy and the conclusion of the sen- 
tence in terms not wholly symmetrical 
with what had preceded, involve no 
real difficulty, and are characteristic 
of the Apostle's style. 

2. olffiaTC •ydp] 'For ye know* 
Appeal to the memory of the Thes- 
saloniaos in confirmation of the fore- 
going declaration Kad^t TapeXi^erCy 
* quasi dicat Accepisse vos a nobis 
dico,* Est.; comp. i Cor. xv. i, 2, 
Gal. iv. 13. T^vas iropayY.] 

*what commands;* not *evangelii pne- 
dicationem,' Pelt, — but, in accordance 
with the regular meaning of the word 
and the tenor of the context, 'prss- 
cepta,' soil, 'bene sancteque vivendi,* 
Est., ' Vivendi regula,' Calv. ; comp. 
Acts V. 28, xvi. 24, I Tim. i. 5, 18, 
and see notes in locc. The emphasis, 
as LUnem. observes, rests on Tiyas, and 
prepares the reader for the following 
rouTOf ver. 3, Std tov 

Kvfft. *It|v.] *hy the Lord Jems* 'per 
Dominum Jesuro,* Vulg., Claroro., 
')>airh,' Goth.; not equivalent to h 



IV. 2, 3- 51 



KvpUfi (Pelt)^ but oorreotly desigiiating 
the Lord as the 'oauia mediajis' 
through which the Ta/>a77cX(ai were 
declared : they were not the Apostle's 
own commands, but Christ's (0i)«c ifiit 
ydpf ^rjvlu, d Ta/n^776(Xa, dXX* 4k€Imov 
rat^roy Tbeoph.)> by whose blessed in- 
fluence he was moved to deliver them; 
comp. 4 Cor. i. 5, and see WiDer, Or, 
§ 47. i, p. 399 note i. The addition 
does not then seem designed so much 
to vindicate the authority of the Apo- 
stle (Olsh.) as to enhance the impor- 
tance of the commands ; comp. i Cor, 
yii. 10. 

3. TovTO yd^ ICT.X.] *For this U 
the wiU of (?©<£,'—* this that foUows, 
this that I am about to declare to 
you ;' further explanation of the rlvfkt 
vapayycXlaSy yikp having here more of 
its explanatory ('quippe hsee/ Schott) 
than its argumentative force; see 
notes on Oal, iL 6. ToSro is obviously 
not the predicate (De W.), but the 
subject, placed somewhat emphatically 
forward to echo the preceding rd^as 
and direct the reader's attention to 
the noun in apposition that follows. 
liUnem. and Alf. compare Bom. iz. 8, 
Gal. iii. 7; but the passages are not 
perfectly analogous, as there the de- 
monstrative pronoun is retrospective, 
here mainly prospective ; comp. notes 
on Oal, I. c. 6^i||&a rev Ofov] 

Uhe will of Ood/ 'id quod Deus 
vult,' Fritz. Rom. VoL iii. p. 33. The 
omission of rb before tf A. [inserted by 
AFG, and by Lathm, in brackets] is 
not to be accounted for by the * non- 
distribution of the predicate 0i\. toO 
QeoO^ (Alf.; but with !), nor because 
what follows does not exhaust the con- 
ception (LUnem.)) but simply on the 
principle noticed by the G^reek gram- 
marians (ApoUon. de Syni. i. 31, p. 64, 
•d. Bekk.) that ' alter verbifubstantivt 



or nuncupative' the article is fre* 
quently omitted: see Middleton, (?r. 
Art. m. 3. 2, p. 43 (ed. Bose), but 
observe that the rule is by no means 
so universal as Middl. seems to think ; 
see Winer, (rr. § 18. 7, p. 104. When 
the subject is a demonstrative pro* 
noun and the verb is omitted (Rom. ix« 
8), the exceptions are naturally fewer, 
as the insertion of the article might 
often leave it uncertain whether the 
demonstr. pronoun was intended to be 
predicative or no ; see Stallb. on Plato, 
Apol, p. 18 A« and Engelhart on Plato» 
Loch. § I, It may be noticed 

that the useful and common form 
64\rifm is appj. confined to the LXX, 
N.T., and late writers; comp. Lo- 
beck, Phryn, p. 7. 

6 dTioo'i&^s i(u»v] 'your zandifiea-' 
tion;* appositional member to the 
preceding Bikrifia rod BeoO, further 
defined both negatively and positively 
in the following clauses, and more 
specially exemplified in the subsequent 
appositional member rb fi^ inreppaU* 
yeiy, ver. 6. The late substaotive 
dyiafffidSf — which, as the defining 
clauses seem to show, has here some- 
what of a special meaning (Beng.),— 
la not equivalent to dyuac^ri (comp. 
Olsh., Usteri, Lehrb. p. 226, note), but 
in accordance with its termination 
{* action of verb proceeding from sub- 
ject,* Donalds. CnUyh § 353) still re- 
tains its active force, i^/itoy being a 
simple gen. ol^jectif 'sanctificatio ves- 
tri,'t.6. 'ut sanctitati studeatis,* He- 
noch, ap, Pol. Syn,; comp, KrUger, 
SprachL § 47. 7. i sq., and see note 
on ch. iii. 13. 

dirlxf 0*001 ^i&at jcr.X.] 'to toit tJiOt 
yt abttain from fornication/ explana- 
tory infinitive, defining on the nega- 
tive side the preceding term 6 dyca- 
fffids, which otherwise must have been 



52 nP02 eESSAAONIKEIS A. 

4 iropvelafy eiSeval eKaqjovv^wv to iaurou &k^09 kracrBdl 






Tegarded as limply general in its sig^ 
fiification; see Krtiger, Sprachl. § 57. 
10. 6 sq., Winer, Gr. § 44. i, p. ^84, 
and comp. Madvig, Synt. § 153, who 
liowever has not suflSciently illustrated 
this not nncommon use of the infini- 
■iive. Even Winer (Gr, § 44. 2) seems 
•to regard the inf. here as a subject-inf. 
•in apposition to OiXrj/ia roO OeoO (comp. 
^;oo Syr., ^th.), but appy. with but 
litUe plausibility. The insertion (ch. 
▼i 22) or omission (1 Tim. iv. 3) of 
dvb after the compound &x4x€(r6cu 
involves no real change of meaning 
(compare Acts xv. 20, 29), but differs 
at most only thus much,— i*ut in priori 
formula [with dir6] sejunctionis cogi- 
tatio ad rem, in posteriore autem ad 
nos ipsos referatur,* Tittraann, Synon, 
T. p. 225* *nis iropvcCas] 

* Fornication ;^ abstract, and perhaps 
here with a somewhat comprehensive 
meaning [F reads rcurc r^f, and 31 
wdffTjs TTJs : X* ; a few mss. ; Syr., 
Chrys., Theod., al. substitute vdarji 
for the art.], 'quicquid est rerum 
venerearum,' Calv., or more suitably to 
the present context 'omnem illicitum 
concubitum' (comp. Est.). It must 
be always remembered that the deadly 
Bin of vopvela in its usual and general 
sense ever formed the subject of 
special prohibition, as being one of 
those things which the Gentile world 
regarded as dZidApopa; see Meyer on 
Acts XV. 40. 

' 4. dS^^at Ikovtov ilfiMv] Hhat 
'each one of you know how &c. ;' ex- 
planatory infinitive, paralld to dir^- 
Xe<r^at, defining on -the positive side 
the preceding &y tour fids: so (as far as 
can be inferred from the collocation 
of words and form of expression), 
C<^t., Goth., Arm., and Vulg. in 
ite of modem punctuation. Alford 
['others (comp. Clarom. ^abstinere 



...ut sciat...ut nequis*) regard the 
whole etZivat — litefMpTvpdfjieda as a 
further specification of what imme- 
diately precedes; this however tends 
to obscure the distinction between the 
infinitival clauses with and without 
the article (see below on ver. 6), and 
exegetically considered has nothing 
particularly to recommend it. For a 
similar comprehenave force of elS^pai, 
see Phil. iv. 12 ; bclicvvffi 5rt i&Ki/iffeujS 
Kcl fiad'fyTCiiit iari rh <r(a<f>poy€iv, Theoph. 
For fKaiTTov AFG read licaorof, so 
Lachm. in marg. 

rh lavrov <rKcvos icrflUrOaiJ 'to get 
himself his own vessel :*^ so it would 
seem Syr., Copt, (e-chphof naf), Ar- 
men. (sddndl); — but as in these and 
other languages the ideas of acquisir 
tion and possession are expressed by 
the same word, discrimination is not 
easy. The meaning of the clause, 

and especially of the word ffKcvoSj has 
been much debated. Setting aside all 
arbitrary and untenable interpreta- 
tions, we have two explanations of rd 
iavrov (Tkcvos; (a) * his body;* ffKcvos 
rb ffQfid <f>7i(ny, Theoph., (Ecum. ; sO 
Chrys., Theod. (who notices and re- 
jects the other expl.), Tertull. (de 
Jiesurr, 16), Ambrosiast., Olsh., and 
some modem commentators; {b) *hi8 
wife;* ffKCvos r^v IbUxp iKdurrov yafi^Tjv 
6voft.6.^€iy Theod. -Mops., August, con- 
tra Jvl, IV. 56 [X] — or more generally 
(De W.) his lawful * copartner and 
recipient' in fulfilling the divine ordi- 
nance (Gen. i. 28), with a reference to 
a similar use of the Heb. ^7^ (see the 
pertinent example from Megill. Est. i. 
II, 'vas meum quo ego utor,' cited by 
Schoettg. Hot. H^. Vol. i. p. 727, 
and most commentators) and the gene* 
rally appropriate nature of the trope 
(see Sohar Levit, xxxviii. 15a, cited 
by Schoettg.) : so Aqui»., Est., taor6 



IV. 4; 5, 6. 



53 



ivdyiaor/JiS Kol TtiuLrj,/j^ iv irdOei itriOvfua^ KaOdtrep kol 5 
TO iQvui ra fjiii elSora top Geov to fifj virep^aiveiv Koi 6 



recently Sobott, De W., and appy.the 
majority of modem expositors. Of 
these two interpretations (a) is plaus- 
ible, but open, as LUnem. clearly 
states, to four objections, — (a) the in* 
accurate meaning 'possidere' (Vulg.) 
thus assigned to KracBai, ; (fi) the ab- 
sence of any adj. (2 Cor. iv. 7) or de- 
fining gen. (Barnab. EpUt. § 7, 11) 
which might warrant such a meaning 
being assigned to aK€voi^ — unsuccess- 
fully evaded (Olsh.) by the assump- 
tion that iavTou practically =^ux^y; 
(7) the emphatic position of iavrod 
(comp. I Cor. vii. 3), which is hardly 
to be explained away as a mere equi- 
valent of a possess, pronoun; (5) the 
context, which seems naturally to sug- 
gest, not a mere periphrasis of what 
had preceded, but a statement on the 
positive and permitted side antitheti- 
cal to the prohibition on the negative. 
These objections are so strong that 
we can scarcely hesitate in adopting 
(6), towards which both lexical usage 
{icrdLaOoi ywaiKOy Ecclus. xxxvi. 29 
[24], Xen. Symp. ii. 10) and exegetical 
Arguments very distinctly converge. 
While vopvcla is prohibited on the 
negative side, chastity and holiness in 
respect of the primal ordinance are 
equally clearly inculcated on the posi- 
tive. For further details see the ela- 
borate notes of De W., Koch, and 
LUnem. in loc, kv dyiaa-)!^ 

Kal Ti|ij] *in sanctification and ho- 
nour/ ethical element in which t6 
KTOLffOai was to take place : the imion 
of man and woman was to be in 
sanctification and honour, not, as in 
the case of tropvtla, in sin aod shame. 
Here, as the associated abstr. subst. 
suggests, &yia<rfju^ passes from its act. 
into its neutral meaning ; comp. notes 
on ch. iii 13. 



5. fii) <v iniOci iifiO.] 'not in the 
lustjulness of desire/ not in that sin- 
ful and morbid state (comp. Cicero, 
Tu8c. Disp. III. 4. 10) in which ^i- 
Ovida becomes the ruling and prevail- 
ing principle, and the Koiryi ceases to 
be AfilavTot (Heb. xiii. 4). On the 
meaning of irdOos, see Trench, Synon, 
Part II. § 37, and notes on Col. iii. 5. 
KaOdircp Kal rd, I9vi|] *even as the 
Gentiles also/ the Kal having here its 
comparative force, and instituting a 
comparison between the Gentiles and 
the class implied in the iKaarov iffiQy ; 
comp. ch. iii. 6, and see notes on Eph, 
V. 23, where this usage is fully dis- 
cussed. Alford cites Xen. Anab. n. 
I. 22, 8ri Kol iifwf TttiJrA doK€i direp 
Kal paaiXeT, but not with complete 
pertinence, as there the Kal appears in 
both clauses, here only in the relative 
clause; see Klotz, Devar. Vol. ii. p. 
635. The remark of Fritz. {Rom, 
Vol. I. p. 114) on the presence or ab- 
sence of the article with ^^1^17, ' ubi de 
paganis in universum loquitur articu- 
limi addit, ubi de gentilium parte agit 
eundem omittit,* is substantially cor- 
rect, but must not be over-pressed; 
comp. I Cor. i. 23 (not Rec.), 
rd fii^ ilS^a rhy 0c6v] * which know 
not Ood/ who as a class are so 
characterized, the subjective negation 
fi^ being rightly used as being in har- 
mony both with the oblique and in- 
finitival character of the preceding^ 
clauses, and with the fact that the 
Gentiles are here not historically de- 
scribed as 'ignorantes Deum* (see 
notes on Qal. iv. 8) but only regarded 
as such by the writer; see Winer, Or, 
§ 55' 5» P' 4^8 sq. The article is here 
appropriately added to' Qebvy but thia 
is one of the many words in the N. T.- 
for which no precise rules can bo 



54 



nPOS eE22AAONIKEI2 A. 



TrXeovcKTeiv h T(p irpayixari top a^eX^ov avrov, Siori 



laid down: see Winer^ Cfr. § ig. J, 
p. iia 

cm« po beyond,^ *that there be no 
going beyond/ — the subject-accas. not 
being iKorrop (Alf.), but riva (comp. 
Eitlger, Sprachl. § 55. 2, 6) supplied 
from the following a^oO, and sug- 
gested by the general character of the 
prohibition. The clause is thus not 
merely parallel to the anarthrous el- 
d^eu (Alf,), but reverts to the preced- 
ing &ytaerfi6s, of which it presents a 
specific exemplification (comp. Kriiger, 
Sprachl, § 50. 6. 3) more immediately 
suggested by the second part of ver. 4. 
First irofveta is prohibited; then a 
holy use of its natural remedy affirm- 
atively inculcated; and lastly the 
heinous sin of fjunxela, especially as 
regarded in its social aspects, formally 
denounced. 80 rightly Chrys. (^v- 
ra06a repl /loixtloLS ^rjirip' Avdyripu} Si 
Kol repl ropvelas wdavis), and after him 
Theod.^ Theoph., CEcnm., and the 
majority of modem commentators. To 
regard the vene with Galv., Grot., and 
recently De W., Llinem., Koch, as 
referring to fraud and covetousness in 
the general affairs of life, is (a) to in- 
fringe on the plain meaning of r4> 
irpdyfMTi, see below ; 03) to obscure the 
ref. to the key-word of the paragraph 
iKaOapfflOf ver. 7 ; (7) to mar the con- 
textual symmetiy of the verses; and 
(5) to introduce an exegesis so frigid 
and unnatural, as to make us wonder 
that such good names should be as- 
sociated with an interpretation seem* 
ingly so improbable. 
^ir^paCvfiv Kol irXfovorr^v] * go he* 
yond and over-reach,* * supergrediatur 
neque circnmveniat,' Vulg., both 
words associated with the following 
^ocus., — and both of them significant- 
]|y and appositely chosen. 'TreppaUttuf 



(a iT. \ty6/i, in the N.T.) with an 
ac«us. perwnas properly rignifies a 
'passing beyond,' thence derivatively 
a 'leaving unnoticed,' whether simply 
(Isffius, p* 38. 6, and 43. 34) or con- 
temptuously iF\utan^,de Amore ProL 
§ 3; comp. Kypke, Obs, Vol. ii. 337), 
as appy. ^th. taahaja [extulit se], — 
with which perhaps in the present case 
there may b« associated a reference to 
a {nripfiaffLt of another in respect of 
the 6/HM appointed by Grod and by 
nature; see duys. and the Greek 
commentators, who however seem to 
have taken inrepfiaipuif absolutely; 
comp. Baphel, Annot. Vc^. n. 543. 
nXcw«iCT«(ir with an accus. jDersome 
properly signifies 'Incii causft fraudem 
facere alicui' (2 Cor. vii. «, xii. 17, 18), 
thence with a slightly more general 
reference ' drcumveniie aliquem ' 
(comp. a Cor. ii. 11), *bifaih(o),' Goth., 
the idea of selfish and selfnseeking 
fraud rather than mere wrong or in- 
jury (comp. Syr., Copt., Arm.) being 
always involved in the word ; see Sui- 
cer, Theaaur. s. v. Vol. n. p. 746, and 
comp. Meyer on 2 Cor. vii. «. 
W rf irp^TfiaTi] 'tn the matUr* 
Copt, (definitely expressing the art.), 
and similarly, but too strongly, Syr. 

|/0iO» t?^"^^ [^ ^'^ negotio], 

— not exactly ^i' t^ fi^i, Theoph., 
(Ecum., but more generally, in the 
matter of which we are now speaking 
(comp. 1 Cor. vii 11), which however 
obviously involves reference to deeds 
of carnality and adulteiy; see Middle- 
ton, Gr. Art, p. 377 (ed. Bose), Green, 
Gram, p. 156. To regard TO as en- 
clitic (Auth., Koppe) 18 contrary to 
the usage of the N.T.; and to as- 
sume that r^ xpdyfMri^Toit rpdy" 
fuuriy (De W., comp. Winer, ^. § i8. 
8, p. 105), or that it can imply 'the 



IV. 7. 8. 



65 



exStKOf l^vpio^ wept iravTiov TOVTa>Py KaOwg Koi irpoeU 
ira/uLcv vfjLiv koi StefiaprupdjuLeOa, ov yap eKoXea-ep ^fioif y 
6 Geo? iiri aKaOaptrloL aWa ev dyiacr^tp. Toiyapovp 6 8 



business !n question' (Liinem.) when 
nothing has preceded sufficient to mark 
what the rpayfia really is, must re- 
spectively on grammatical and logical 
grounds be pronounced wholly unten- 
able. rhv dScX^&v ai^rov] * hk 

brother,* — not merely * his neighbour' 
(Schott), but * his Christiau brother,' 
him whom so to wrong and defraud 
is doubly flagitious; ddekipby xaXcU 
Kal irXeoi'f/cTety, xal iv oXi od xP'hy Chrys. 
Sb^Ti IkSikos Kiipios] * because that the 
Lord is the avenger/ o^di yd,p dTifiu)- 
pTjTl ravra Trpd^ofiePy Chrys. ; see Eph. 
V. 6, Col. iii. 6, where similar prohi- 
bitions are accompanied by a similar 
warning reason. The term iKSiKoty a 
Sis \ey6ti. in the N. T. (here and Bom. 
ziii. 4), primarily denotes rbp (t^u) rov 
diKalov 6yTa (Suid. s. v., Zonar. Lex, 
p. 651), 'lawless,' 'unjust' (comp. 
Soph. (Ed, Col, 917); thence in later 
writers it passes over to the meaning 
of * an avenger ;' comp. Suid. s.v. IjSi;- 
Kos (f5e al 'I^Okou ^ic6t/cot), Wisdom 
xii. 12, Ecolus. XXX. 6. On the still 
later use in eccl. writers to denote 
' Defensores * or ' Syndics ' of the 
church, see Suicer, Thesaur. s. v. Vol. 
I. p. 1045, Bingham, Antiq. ill. 11. 5. 
On di6r ly comp. note and reff. on ch. 
ii. 8. Hec, reads 6 E(}p., but the arti- 
cle is rightly omitted by Lachm., THach., 
with ABD ' K ; al. iripl iravrwv 

Toi>T«v] ' concerning, in the matter of, 
all these things/ — not merely cases of 
ifvep^aala and irXeove^ia (Alf.), but, 
as the comprehensive expression seems 
to require, all the sins of the flesh 
previously mentioned; see Chrys., 
Theopb., (Ecum., who from the inclu- 
sive nature of their language seem to 
adopt the latter view. As illustrative 



of the use of Mikos with Tepl, oomp. 
I Mace. xiii. 6, MiK'ffffUi repl rov iOvovs 
fjkov. KaO(^ Kol irpoiCir. K.T.X.] 

*as also toe before told you and solemnly 
tested/ the first Kal being compara- 
tive and associated with xaOtbi (see on 
ver. 5), the second simply copulative. 
The vpb appears merely to point to a 
time prior to the iKSlK7j(ns taking place : 
comp. Gal. v. 21, and notes in loc. 
On the stronger and more emphatic 
diafiapTiip, (not simply = /iapri^po/iac, 
Olsh.), see notes on i Tim. v. ai, and 
on the form ctirafiQf [Griesb. and Scholz 
here -ofiep, with AKL; most mss. ; 
Chrys., Theod.], comp. Winer, Or, 
§ 15, p. 78. In the N. T. the ist aor. 
form seems to prevail in the and per- 
son (Matth. xxvi. 25, 64, Mark xii. 
33, Luke XX. 39, John iv. 17), the 
and aor. forms in the other persons, 
but in the latter instances, esp. in the 
case of the 3rd pers. plural, there is 
much difference of reading. 

7. oi ydp K.T.X.] 'For God called 
us not/ confirmation of the preceding 
statement Si6ti iKbiKos k.t,\., derived 
from the object contemplated in the 
< K\ri<ris. On the act of calling, sdl. 
els T^v iavToO fiaaiKelap Kal bd^av (ch. 
ii. 12), as specially attributed to. God 
the Father, see notes on Oal. i. 6. 
4irl dKadapo-C^^] 'for uncleanness/ ob- 
ject or purpose for which they were 
(not) called, the primary meaning of 
the prep, ('nearness or approxima- 
tion,' Donalds. Orat. § 172) not being 
wholly obliterated; see Gal. v. 13; 
KrUger, Sprachl. § 68. 41. 7, Jelf, Or. 
§634. 3, Winer, Or. § 48. c, p. 351, and 
exx. in Baphel, Annot, Vol. n. p. 546. 
4v d'yu&o')if ] *in sanctificaiion/ not 'in 
sanotificationem,' Vulg., but ' in sane- 



56 



nP02 eE22AA0NIKEIS A. 



aOer&v ovk avOpoDTOP aOerei aWa top Oeov top kcu 
iovra to IIi/€i7/iia airov to ayiop €19 vjjlSls, 



tification^/ Clarom., Yulg. (Amiat.); 
ip being neither equivalent to els (Pise), 
nor yet used brachylogically, sdL tSffre 
€lpai iifuis ip (Winer, Cfr. § 50. 5, p. 
370)) bat simply marking the sphere 
m which Christians were ccUled to 
move; see notes on Gal, i. 6, on Eph, 
iv. 4, and compare Green, Gr. p. 292. 
On iyioff /jL6sy see notes on ch. iiL 13 : 
it here retains its active meaning. 

8. TOiYopovv] * Wherefore then;* 
logical conclusion from the preceding 
verse. The compound particle roiyap- 
ow (only found here and Heb. xii. i) 
is not simply synonymous with roi- 
ydpToi (Hartung, Partik. s. v. to(, 3. 
5, Vol. I. p. 354), but while differing 
from the simpler Toiydip * h^ de causH 
igitur' (Klotz) in imparting a more 
syllogistic and ratiocinative character 
to the sentence, differs also from rot- 
ydfnoi 'qua propter sane* in having 
not an affirmative {roi) but a collective 
and retrospective (odv) force; see 
Klotz, Deva/r. Vol. n. p. 738. 
6 d0CTMv] Uhe despiser,* *the r^ecter/ 
substantival use of the present parti- 
ciple; see Winer, Gr. § 45. 7, p. 316, 
and Middleton, Gr, Art. p. 159. Any 
definite insertions after ddertav, e.g, 
Vulg. *haec,' Arm. ^/ifiy, Beza 'hsec, 
flcil. prsBcepta,* are wholly unneces- 
sary. It is clear that the commands 
recently given must form the objects 
of the ddh-rjffis; these however the 
Apostle does not specify, his object 
being to call attention not so much to 
what is set at naught as to the person 
who sets at naught, and the personal 
risk that he incurs. On the verb 
d0€T€ty, used in the N. T. both with 
persons (Mark vi. 26, Luke x. 16, 
John xii. 48) and things (Mark vii. 9, 
Gal. iii. 15, al.), comp. notes on Gal. 

tL 21. O^K dvOfMMTOV K.T.X.] 



'rejecteth not man hut God,* not one 
whom it might be thought in some 
degree excusable to despise^ — but t^ 
Oe6p. The antithesis oi^ic.dXXd is thus 
not to be explained away, 'non tarn 

hominem quam Deum,' Est., but 

retained with its usual and proper 

force, 'non hominem sed deum,* 

Vulg. ; see esp. Winer, Gr. § 55. 8, 
p. 439 sq., and notes on Eph. vi 12. 
On the exact difference between this 
formula (' ubi prior notio tota tollitur, 
et in eJDS locum posterior notio sub- 
stituitnr '), od tUxpoif. . . dXXd, and oi fjJxpop 
...dXXd Kolj see KtLhner on Xen. Mem. 
I. 6. 2, comp. also notes on ch. L 8. 
The omission of the article before 
&p0p(airop, ' a man,' ' any man,' — with 
a latent reference to the Apostle, not 
to t6v vXeopeKTfjdhrra (CEcum.), — and 
its insertion [it is however omitted by 
D^FG] before Be^ (ahnost Mpsum 
Deum*), though not capable of being 
conveyed in translation, must not be 
overlooked. rhv Kal 86vTa] 

*who also gave;* who in addition to 
having called us iv dyiaafufi has also 
been pleased to furnish us with the 
blessed means of realizing it ; comp. 
Reuss, Thiol. Chrit. iv. 15, VoL ii: 
p. 150. The only difficulty is the 
reading: koX is omitted by iMchm. 
with ABD'E ; 10 mss.; Clarom., San- 
germ., Syr., Goth., aL ; Athan., Did., 
Chrys., Theod. (ms.), Theoph., al.,— 
but, as the insertion is well supported 
[D^FGKLK; most mss.; Augiens., 
Boem., Vulg., Syr.-Phil., al.; Clem., 
Theod., Dam., CEcum.], and far less 
easy to be accounted for than the 
omission, we retain koX with Itec., 
Tmh.y Alf., and the bulk of recent 
editors. It is much more difficult to 
decide between hbvra [Bee., Lachm. in 
maig., Tmh., with AEIiK^; most mss. ; 



IV. 9- 



r>t 



2^'5!SSlS2"7bJ^Jdl ^«P' ^* "^'f <f>t\aSe\<l>lat ov xpelav 9 
SSulS°iS«i^?!&ii!:'""' ex«T« yp<i<t>€tv ifi.iv aCrol yap i,im 



appy. all Vv.; Clem., Chrys., Theod.] 
and 8(56rra [Lctchm. text, with BD£ 
FGK^; 10 msa.; Ath., Did.]. The 
latter deserves great consideration as 
having such very strong UDcial autho- 
rity, still as the Vv. appear all to 
favour the aorist, and as it also cer- 
tainly does seem probable that the 
correction might have arisen from a 
desire to represent that the gift of the 
Spirit was still going on (comp. Luke 
xi. 13), we retain Wmro. 
r6 IIv. ai^TOV rh dyu>v] Not without 
great emphasis and solemnity (comp. 
Eph. iv. 30), — * His Holy Spirit,* the 
blessed Spirit which proceeds from 
Him (see notes on Phil. i. 19), whose 
attribute is holiness, and whose office 
especially ' consists in the sanctifying 
of the servants of God,' Pearson, 
Creed, Vol. i. p. 387 (ed. Burt.). To 
dilute this distinct personal expression 
into * the gift of spiritual insight, dte,' 
(Olsh.), is by no means satisfactory; 
see notes on Gal, iv. 6. 
els ifi&s] *unto you/ not merely equi- 
valent to a transmissive dative, nor 
yet with any idea of diflRision (Alf., — 
see notes on ch. ii. 9), but, with the 
usual and proper meaning of local 
direction, *in vos,* Clarom., Copt. 
(ekhrei): they were the objects to 
whom that blessed gift was directed ; 
comp. Gal. iv. 6. The reading of Rec, 
ilfjMS has but weak external support 
[A ; some mss. ; Augiens., Vulg., Syr.- 
Pbil., ^th. (Pol, but not Pktt); 
Chrys., al.], and on internal grounds 
is not free from some suspicion. 

9. n^l W ictX] * Now concerning 
&c. ;' transition by means of the 84 
/Aero^artfcdv to afresh exhortation. On 
this force of 64, see notes on QaZ, iii. 8. 
rfjs ^iXoScX^Cot] * brotherly love/ love 
to their fellow Christians; Bom. zii. 



10, Heb. xiiL i, i Pet i. 22, 2 Pet. 
L 7, comp. I Pet. iii. 8. This love 
was to be no passive virtue, but, 9A 
verse 10 suggests, was to display itself 
in acts of liberality and benevolence 
towards their poorer and suffering 
brethren: so Theod., though perhaps 
a little too definitely, ^iXadeX^/oi^ h- 
ravOa r^v rQv XPW^'''^^ (ptKorifjUeu^ 
iKdXeffey, It is unnecessary to exclude 
wholly a reference to a love els rdm-as 
(Theoph.) : the Christian &S€\4>ol were 
the primary objects (comp. 2 Pet. i. 7, 
where 0iXadc\0^a is distinguished from, 
and precedes the general dyairTj), but 
the great brotherhood of mankind was 
still not to be forgotten ; comp. GaL 
vi. 10. otS XPC^v h,"^ 'YP^^^v 

ifitv] ' ye have no need that I vnite to 
you;* rhetorical turn, technically 
termed * prsBteritio,* or irapd\u\f/is, in 
which what might be said is partly 
suppressed, to conciliate a more loving 
acceptance of the implied conmiand; 
Kard Tapd\€t\l/uf Sd r^v rapafveffw tI* 
drjffi, d6o ravra icaracr/cevci^aw* (y nh 
6ti o\fT(i)S dvayKouoif t6 TpSiyfrn (t)f /117M 
SidaffKdXov lieiadaf Jtrepw hk /ioXXov 
ainoin hrrphrei, Sieyelfxaif &a /*^ de&re- 
poi iXSuxri rijs {fxoX-ff^f/ecjs ^¥ ^x** ""V^ 
aiirQp^ vofdl^ a^obi ifSrj KarupOwK^' 
vai, Theoph. On this rhetorical form, 
see notes on Philem. 19, and Wilke, 
N, T, Ehetorik, p. 365. The reading 
is doubtful: Lachm, adopts (x^fi^ 
with D»FGK* [B; Vulg. (Amiat.) 
give etxoM'^] i 6 mss. ; Vulg., Clarom., 
Goth., Syr. -Phil.; Chrys., Theoph., 
but though the external authority 
for the first person is strong, yet the 
probability of a correction to obviate • 
the difficulty of construction is very 
great. 'ypd^tv] *that I write/ 

The object-inf. has here practically 
the sense of a passive (comp. oh. y. i), 



58 



nP02 eESSAAONIKEIS A. 



lo OedSlSakTol icrre €«V to ayoTrav aXXjJXovj' Koi yap 
xoie?T€ avTO €t9 iravrai rovg aS€\(f)ov9 rovg ev oXfi 
Tj ^axeSovlf. TrapaKokoSfxev Se v/JLagy aSeXcjyoly irepia--' 



bat differs from it in suggeeting the 
sapplement of some accusative, — *tbat 
I or any one should write to you ;' see 
Winer, Gr. § 44. 8. note i, p. 303, 
Jelf, Or, § 667. obs. 3. To deny this 
on. the ground that the context pre- 
cludes an indefinite reference, and 
practically limits the supplied accus. 
to the Apostle (Ltinem.), seems dis- 
tinctly hypercriticaL ai&Tol ^dp 
*|U8«] 'for you yourtelves;^ not ' vos 
ipsi sponte,' Schott, but 'yourselves,'* 
— ^in sharp contrast to the subject in- 
volved in the infinitive ; comp. i John 
li ao. OioSCSaicroi] ' taught 
of Gody* — ^not in marked opposition to 
any other form of teaching (oi lielffdc, 
4»lirl, ira/)d dv0p<birou fiadetv, Ghrys., 
comp. Olsh.), but with the principal 
emphasis on the fact of their being 
already taught, and with only a subor- 
dinate emphasis on the source of the 
teaching. The chief moment of thought, 
as LUnem. well observes, rests on the 
second and not on the first half of the 
compound verbal OeoSlSuKTot, The 
form itself is a Ava^ \ey6fJL in the 
N. T.; comp. however John vi. 45, 
Zi^axTol Qeou, and add Bamab. Epist. 
§ai, ylp€<r0€ 8^ deodldaicroi, iK^ov»T€t 
ri i'lyret Kipios d0' inutv. 
elt r^ dTairdv dXXijXovs] *■ to lov$ one 
another,* *ut diligatis invicem,* Vulg.; 
practical tendency and purpose of the 
8(8ax^ with perhaps an included re- 
ference to the purport and subject of 
it; see notes on ch. ii. 12. 

10. Kol "ydp K.T.X.] 'for indeed ye 
do U/ confirmatory explanation of the 
preceding clause ; yhp introducing the 
historical fact on which the confir- 
mation rested (otda d0* iSv wotetre, 
l]lieoph.)» Kol enhancing the Toc^re, 



and putting it in gentle contrast with 
the ^6o8C8aicroC iirre. Thus neither 
the Kal nor the 7A/) (Syr., ^th.-Pol., 
—but not Syr.-PbiL and ^th.-Platt) 
is otiose : both fully retain their proper 
force (Copt., Goth., Arm.), their asso- 
ciation being due to the early position 
which 7d/[> regularly assumes in the 
sentence; see notes and reff. on Phil, 
ii. 27, and comp. Winer, ^. § 53. 8. b, 
p. 397. a^6] ' itj* scil. rb 

d7aTair dXAi^Xovs (Ltinem., Alf.), not 
tA ttjs (piXad€\4das (Koch), — a refer- 
ence needlessly remote. 
els irdvTos To^s dScX^.] 'toward all 
the brethren / direction and destination 
of the action ; not, observe, with any 
marked universality, els rdmras ro^t 
iylovs, but, — els irdirras roM d8. Toi>f 
iu Sky ry MaxeS., the last definition 
fairly justifying the remark of Ltinem. 
(opp. to Baur, Paulus, p. 484) that 
there is no reason for assuming any 
longer period between the conversion 
of the Thessalonians and the time of 
writing the Epistle (i^ or a years) 
than is assumed in the ordinary chro- 
nology. The arguments of Baur, ac- 
cording to which this beautiful and 
most genuine Ep. is to be considered 
as a ' matte Nachbild ' of i Cor., have 
been recently reiterated in Zeller, 
Theol. Jahrh, for 1855, p. 151, but it 
is not too much to say that they lack 
even plausibility. The second 

and definitive robs (Winer, Gr. % 10, i, 
p. 119) is omitted by Lachm, with 
AD^FG ; Chrys. (ms.), but appy. right- 
ly retained by Tisch. with BD«D»EK 
JM^; all mss.; many Ff.: K^ reads 
dd. {ffitav h SK, irapaKaXovfMV 

8^ ^ftas] 'ha we exhort you/ con- 
tinuation of the implied comnuuid in 



IV. 10, II. 



59 



a-evetp fnaXXov Kal <l>i\oTt/JL€icr6ai ^arv^d^etv koi nrpda-^ ii 
aeiv ra ISia xai ipydl^carOai Tah xepcrlv vfi.S>v Ka6u>9 



Ter. 9 in ft slightly antithetical form ; 
not only is the duty of tpiKaitXtpla 
tacitly and delicately inculcated, and 
an expansion of it in the form of 
general dydrrj (ver. 9) distinctly sug- 
gested, but further an increase in the 
same is set forth as the subject of 
direct hortatory entreaty. On the 
pres. infin. after irapeucaXo), which is 
here rightly used as marking the con- 
tinuance and permanence of the act, 
see Winer, Gr. § 44. 7, p. 297, but 
observe that the use of the pres. inf. or 
aor. inf. after commands, dCrc, depends 
much on the habit of the writer, and 
on the subjective aspects under which 
the command was contemplated ; com p. 
Bemhardy, Si/nt X. 9, p. 383, and the 
good note and distinctions of Matzner 
on Antiphon, p. 153 sq. 
viptov. i&aXXov] Comp. ver. i, Phil. 
1.9. 

II. KaC k.tX] *and &c. ;' exhor- 
tation in close grammatical though 
somewhat more lax logical connexion 
with what immediately precedes. The 
close union of these appy. different 
subjects of exhortation has been ya- 
rioualy explained. On the whole it 
seems most natural to suppose that 
their liberality involved some elements 
of a restless, meddling, and practically 
idle spirit, that exposed them to the 
comments of o2 (^ut. It is perhaps 
not wholly improbable that mistaken 
expectations in respect of the day of 
the Lord had led them into a neglect 
of their regular duties and occupations, 
and was marring a liberality of which 
the true essence was ipyal;6fA€iwt M' 
pott rap4x«uff Chrys. 
^iXori|Utr9ai i)orvxdtciv] ' to make it 
your aim to he quiet ^* * et operam detis 
ut quieti sitis,' Vulg. (sim. Clarom.), 
'biarbaidjan anaqal,' Goth. It is some- 



what doubtful whether (a) the primary 
meauing of ^CKorrifi. with infin., *glo- 
riae cupiditate accensus aliquid facere* 
(compare Copt., .^h.-Pol.), or (6) the 
secondary meaning, 'roagno studio 
anniti,' *■ operam dare ' (Vulg., Clarom., 
Syr., Ooth., Arm.), is here to be adopt- 
ed. As both meanings rest on good 
lexical authority (comp. Xen. Mem, u. 
9. 3, with (Econ. iv. 94, in which 
latter passage ^tCkontuiaOal rt is asso- 
ciated with fieXeroy), the context will 
be our safest guide. Of the three 
passages in which it is used in the 
N. T., Rom. XV. «o, 2 Cor. v. 9, and 
here, the first alone seems to require 
(a) ; comp. Fritz. Rom, I. c. Vol. iii. 
p. 277, and even Meyer, on 2 Cor, Lc., 
who, while affecting to retain (a), 
translates in accordance with (6) 'beei- 
fern wir uns u.e.w,* In all perhaps 
some idea of rifi^ may be recognised, 
but in 2 Cor. I. c, and here that mean* 
ing recedes into the background ; see 
the numerous exx. in Wetst. Vol. ii. 
P' 94» 95 » and Kypke, Obs, Vol. n, 
p. 189. To consider <pi\oT, an inde« 
pendent inf. (Copt, Theoph. i ; comp. 
Theod., Calv.) seems to be very un- 
satisfactory, iforvxdtciv marks 
the sedate and tranquil spirit (comp. 
I Urn. ii. 2) which stands in contrast 
to the excited and unquiet bustle 
(repiepydteffOat^ 2 Thess. iii. 11) that 
often marks ill-defined or mistaken 
religious expectation ; see esp. 2 Thess. 
I, c. which forms an instructive parallel 
to the present exhortations. 
irpdoro^iv rd (8ui] '(o do your oum 
bunneee,* * to confine yourselves to the 
sphere of your own proper duties.' The 
correct formula according to Phryni* 
chus is rd ifjiavTo0...vpdTreiy, or r& 
tSia ifiavro0...vpdrr«v; see exx. ool* 
leoted by Lobeck, p. 441, and Kypke^ 



60 



nP02 eE22AAONIKEI2 A. 



12 v/J,tP irapviyyeiXafieVy tva irepnrartJTe €va")(rnuLov(d9 irpo? 
T0V9 €^0D KOI ja,ijS€yb9 x/>e/dv eyjiTe. 

/^^/)^v ^\ f *^ ^ ^ m 'JP\ Do not grieve for those 

13 Uv ueXofiev oe v/xaj aypoetVy aoeA- that sleep, we shau 



not anticipate them, but 
at the last trump they will be raised, and we translated. 



Obt. Vol. II. p. 338. The form Idco- 
wpayeip occurs in Polyb. Bist. VIII. 
a8. 9, and later writers. 
ifi7dt.Tat$ Xf^ly i|M»v] *to work wUh 
owr hands,* t. f . * follow your earthly 
callings,' which, as the words imply, 
were those of handicraftsmen and ar- 
tificers; 'ad populum scribit, in quo 
plurimorum est ea quse manibus fiunt 
opera exercere,' Est. The numbers en- 
gaged in mercantile and industrial call- 
ings at Thessalonica are alluded to by 
Tafel, Hist, ThemH. p. 9. The insert- 
ed iUoLi [Rec. with AD^KL^^; most 
mss. ; Theod., Dam.] after ratf is rightly 
struck out by Lachm,j Tiack,, and most 
modem editors, on the preponderant 
authority of BDiE(?)FG«*; 10 mss.; 
appy. all Vv. ; Bas., Ohrys., Theoph., 
and Latin Ff. Ka6«&s ^fitv 

iroptiyy.] ' nccording cts toe commanded 
2lE0ti,' soil, when personally present with 
you ; with reference not merely to the 
last, but to all the preceding clauses. 
The very first publication of Chris- 
tianity in Thessalonica seems to have 
been attended with some manifesta- 
tions of restlessness and feverish ex- 
pectation. 

12. tva vfpun&T. c^fTxtllt^VMt] *in 
order that ye may walk seemly,* Rom. 
xiii. 13, cf. I Cor. xiv. 40; purpose of 
tlie foregoing vapdKkiiiriSf the present 
member referring mainly to iiinrxji^ew 
KoX Tpd<ra€Uf rd tSia, the following to 
ipydj^.Ttus x^fx^^ iffiQy, The adverb 
e^TffJk. (associated with Kard rd^w 
1. Cor. U c.) stands in partial contrast 
to drdxTtas, a Thess. iii. 6 (LiinenL) ; 
the general idea however of that decent 
gravity and seemly deportment (ei)Xa- 
p^$' aeiufQs, Zonar. 8.v.), which should 



ever be the characteristic of the true 
Christian, ought not to be excluded. 
On the use of jrepiTaTew as commonly 
implying the 'agendi vivendique ra- 
tionem quam quis continenlur et ex 
animo sequitur/ see Winer, Comment, 
on Eph. iv. I, p. 5 (cited by Koch), 
rritz. Rom. xiii. 13, Vol. HL p. 140 
sq., Suicer, Tkesawr. s.v. Vol. n. p. 
679, and comp. notes on Phil, iii 18. 
irp^ roi»s l£4o] ' toward them that are 
without y rp6s pointing to the social 
relation in which they were to stand, 
or the general demeanour they were 
to assume, toward those who were 
not Christians. On this use of irp6s, 
in which the primary meaning of 
ethical direction is still apparent, see 
reffi in notes on Col. iv. 5, where the 
same expression occurs. 01 i^<a is the 
regular designation of those who were 
not Christians; see i Cor. v. 12, 13, 
CoL I. c, and notes on 1 Tim. iii. 7. 
|ii|8€v&s yfi€(av «x*] * ^a^e need of no 
man/ the contrast being ivaireiv koI 
Mpwp dtiirOai, Chrys., comp. Theod. 
It is somewhat doubtful whether fitf' 
Hepbs is here to be regarded as masc. 
with Syr.,Vulg. (appy.), ^Eth., and the 
Greek commentators, or neuter with 
Copt (appy.; Goth., Clarom. uncer- 
tain) and several modem commenta- 
tors. On the whole the masc. seems 
most in accordance with the context ; 
they were not by the neglect of their 
proper occupations to live depend- 
ent upon others, whether heathens 
or more probably fellow- Christians ; 
comp. Chrys., Theod. The argument 
of Lilnem. repeated by Alf ., that ' to 
stand in need of no man is for man an 
impossibility/ is nQt of much weight, 



IV. 12, 13. ' ^ 61 

X^olf irepi tZv KOifiw/JievfaVf fva fjiif XvT^arQe fCoBio^ icai ol 

13. Koifitjfjj¥u}»] So Lachm., Tisch, ed. a, with ABX' ; 10 msa. In ed. 7 
however TUch. has retuined to the reading of Ree. «re/co(Mi7M^<^i which has thi» 
support of DE(FG KtKoitt.7fifbiv)KL ; most mas. G is deficient. As the present 
part, is not used elsewhere in this sense it is certainly to be retained here. 

XvT^aOe] 80 Lachm, (text), TUch, ed. s, with BD^EKK; most nass.; many 
Ff.: here also TUch. ed. 7, has departed from his former reading, and with 
Lachm, in marg. reads Xvretcr^e, on the authority of AD^D'FGL ; many mss. 
The weight of evidence is hardly sufficient to justify us in adopting here the 
harsh and unusual construction. 



as the general statement will naturally 
receive its proper limitations from the 
context 

13* O^ 6iXo|Mv IC.T.X.] *Now we 
would not have you to he ignorant:* 
transition by means of the 8i /AcrajSa- 
nK6¥ (Hartung, Partik. VoL I. p. 165, 
notes on Oal. iii. 8), and the impressive 
«i^ 04\ofAev ifficLs &y¥0€i¥ (Rom. i. 13, 
xi. 15, I €or. X. I, xii. i, 2 Cor. i. 8) 
to a new and important subject, the 
state of the departed. Most modem 
expositors seem rightly to coincide in 
the opinion that in the infant Church 
of Thessalonica there had prevailed, 
appy. from the very first, a feverish 
anxiety about the state of those who 
had departed, and ahout the time and 
circumstances of the Lord's coming. 
They seem especially to have feared 
that those of their brethren who had 
fallen on sleep bffore the expected 
advent of the Lord would not partici- 
pate in its blessings and glories -(ver. 
15). Thus their apprehensions did 
not so much relate to the resurrection 
generally (Chrys., Theod., Theoph.), 
as to the share which the departed 
were to have in the irapovala roO Kw- 
plov; see Uufmann, Schriflb. Vol. n. 
^» P- 596* comp. Wieseler, Chronol. 
p. 249. The reading OiXofuy has 

the support of all MSS. ; nearly all 
mss. ; all Vv. except Copt., Syr. 
(both), and most Ff., and is rightly 
adopted by Lachm,, TUch,, and all 



modern editors ; Rec. gives $4k(a, 
inp\ TMV K0b)M»|Uv«»v] * concerning 
thou th€U are sleeping;* i. e, those that 
are dead, according to the significant 
expression found not only in Scripture 
(i Kings ii. 10, John xi. 11, Acts vii. 
60, I Cor. xi. 30, al.) but in Pagan 
writers (Callim. Fragm. x. i), yet here^ 
as the following verses clearly show, 
to be specially restricted to the ChrU' 
tian dead ; comp. oi yeKpol i» Xpiar^ 
ver. 16, and see Suicer, Thesaur, s. ▼♦ 
Vol. II. p. 111. All special doctrinal 
deductions however from thid general 
term (Weizel, Stud. u. Krit. 1836, p. 
916 sq., comp. Reuss, ThM. ChriU 
IV. 2 1, Vol. II. p. 239) must be regarded 
as extremely precarious, especially 
those that favour the idea of a xlfxrxo- 
wawirxia in the intermediate state; 
see esp. Bull, £^enii. IIL p. 41 (Oxf. 
1844), Delitzsch, Bihl. Ptychol. vi. 4, 
p. 360 sq., Zeiler, Theol. Jahrb. for 
1847, p. 390—409, and a long and 
careful article by West, Stud. u. £rU, 
for 1858, esp. p. 278, 290; comp, also 
Burnet, State of Departed, ch. in. p. 
49 sq. (Transl.), and notes on Phil. i. 
23. Death is rightly called sleep as 
involving the ideas of continued exist- 
ence (Chiys.), repose, and iypi/iyop<ns 
(Theod.) ; comp. Theoph. on John xu 
1 1, and the eloquent sermon of Man- 
ning, Serm. xxi. Vol. i. p. 308 sq. 
tva |&'4 \virtjo^€] * that ye sorrow not:* 
purpose and object of the 06 $iKo/uw 



62 



nP02 eESSAAONIKEIS A. 



14 XoiTol bi lAV! Ixovre? iXiriSa. ei yap irKrreiofAev Sri 
*lijTovf oireBavev k€u av€<rT>iy ovto)? koi 6 Oeog tov9 koi" 



d/tas dypoeof. The Xdiny in this parti- 
cular case was caUed o«t not merely 
by the feeling of having lost their de- 
parted brethren, but by anxiety in re- 
gard to their participation in Christ^s 
advent. koOvs koI oi XoiiroC] 

* even cu the rest aUo,* seiL Xvirovrrai, 
The /ca^ibj [for which D^FGX* here 
give dn] does not introduce any com- 
parison Ibetween the sorrow of Chris- 
tians and that of ol \oivoly as if a cer- 
tain amount of sorrow was permissible 
(od rapr€\&i K<a\iki r^ Xdvip dXXd 
'riiv dM^pUuf igfidXKeiy Theod.), but 
fliniply contrasts with Christians those 
in whom \^6ini might naturally find a 
place, ol fi^ ^orref ikrlSa, Christians, 
as the antithesis implies, were not to 
mourn at all ; (n) Si 6 xpoaSoK&v dpiL- 
CTOffw rtvot hf€K€r dd^p-g ; Chrys. The 
•2 Xoeirol (Eph. VL 3) obviously includes 
all, whether sceptical Jews or unen- 
lightened heathen (Chrys.), who had 
no sure hope in any future resuiree- 
tion. On the use of xal with adverbs 
of comparison, see notes on Eph. v. 23. 
ol ^i\ ^ovrm iXirCSa] ^wko have no 
hope,* who form a class (fi-ff) that is so 
characterized; comp. notes on ver. 5, 
and Winer, (?r. § 55. 5, p. 418 sq., but 
observe also that the comparative 
member is in a dependent clause 
under the vinculum of the ft^o. The 
hope here alluded to is obviously in 
re&roice to the Resurrection; rlyos 
ikrlSa ; dvaardtreiar ol yhp /t^ ixom-es 
iKniba dvaardiffeus ovroc dtf^eSXoviri vev' 
Sciv, Theoph. The true hopelessness 
of the old heathen world finds its sad- 
dest expression in .t^Bsch. Eumen, 648, 
dxaJi Bwhirroi oihis iar &pdffTa(ns ; see 
fuller details in Liinem. and Jowett, 
and in answer to the quotation of the 
latter from the O.T., the pertinent 
remarks of Alford m loe. 



14. Ay^p irum&o^'] 'Fortfwe 
heUeve;' reason for the purpose ex- 
pressed in the preceding verse, tva ti.ii 
\v'ir7i<re€ /C.T.X., based on the funda- 
mental truth that as Christ the Head 
died and rose agMn, even so shall all 
the members of His body ; comp. Pear- 
son, Creed, Art. xi. Vol i. p. 450 (ed. 
Burt.), Jackson, Creed, Xl. 16. 8 sq. 
The €l here obviously involves no ele- 
ment of doubt, but is simply logical ( ^ €l 
particalae8tpIaiielogic%'Herm. Viger, 
No. 3 1 1 ) and virtually assertory ; comp. 
Phil. i. 22, and notes on Col. iii 1. 
dirlOavcv ical dvlo7t|] ' died and rose 
again;* the two foundations of Chris- 
tian faith united in one enunciation; 
comp. Bom. xiv. 9 (not Jtec.). It is 
noticeable that the Apostle here as 
always uses the direct term &ir40aif€P 
in reference to our Lord, to obviate all 
possible misconception: in reference 
to the faithful he appropriately uses 
the consolatory term KOiiioffOai', see 
esp. Theod. in loe. oIStms ict.X.] 

*«o aUo shall God;* slightly inexact 
apodosis: the rigidly correct sequel 
would be o\}T<as Kal tkttciJcii' Set 6ti 
iCT.X. (Liinem., Jowett), or some 
similar formula. The ourwf is not 
pleonastic (Olsh.), but, as Liinem. 
correctly observes, marks the com- 
plete accordance of the lot of Chris- 
tians with that voluntarily assumed 
by their Lord, while the koX serves to 
enhance and to give force to the com- 
parison ; see Winer, Gr. § 60. 5, p. 478, 
and on this use of Kal after relative or 
demonstrative particles, Klotz, Devar, 
VoL II. p. 636. TO^s 

KOi|ii|0^vra« Sui rov *It|^.] ' those laid 
to sleep through Jesus;* certainly not 
equiv. to h 'Ii7<r. (Auth., Jowett), but, 
with the usual and proper force of the 
prep., those who through His media- 



IV, 14, 15- 



63 



fiflBevra^ Sta rod *Itiarov a^ei avv avrt^^ rovro yap 15 
vpLiv Xeyo/xev ip Xoytp J^vpiov^ on j}/xw 0/ ^(Wj/rej 01 



Uon are now rightly aooounted as 
'sleeping.' It must remain to the last 
an open question whether did rod 'Irjo', 
is to be connected (a) with the finite 
Terb d^ei, or (6) with the participle. 
Ghrysostom and the Greek commenta- 
tors (silet Theod.) admit both, but 
prefer the latter; modern writers 
mainly adopt the former. There ii 
confessedly a difficulty in (6) which 
the exx. adduced by Alf. scarcely 
tend to diminiRh ; for the meaning t^ 
wlffTei ToO 'IrjiToO Koifirj6, (Chrys.), or 
the more exact meaning advocated 
above, is but in lax parallelism with 
€lpiirnif dx^uf 81' a&rou (Rom. v. i), 
xavx^OaL Si a^ov (Rom. y. ii), al. 
Still the arguments against (a) — vi£. 
(1) that thus &^€t would have two 
participial members, (2) that the na- 
tural emphasis would then suggest 
the order 8id rod 'Ii^. roi>s xoifirfB,, 
(3) that the sentence would thus be 
harsh (De W.) and awkward in the 
extreme — seem so unanswerable, that 
with the earlier interpreters, ^th., 
and appy. (as the rigid preservation of 
the order seems to hint) the remaining 
Vv., we adopt the more simple and 
logical connexion KoifirfO^i^as 5t& roO 
^Iffff, The two contrasted subjects 
'I^croDt and KotfAffd^uras did toO 'liproO 
thus stand in clear and illustrative 
antithesis, and the fundamental decla- 
ration of the sentence d^ec <r^ ai^ffi 
remains distinct and prominent, undi- 
luted by any addititious clause. 
d(ci oriiv ai)r^] 'bring with Him,* 
The more natural word would have 
been iyepei (comp. 2 Cor. iv. 14), but 
the Apostle probably uses the more 
significant d^ci to mark that blessed 
association of departed Christians with 
their Lord at His irapouo-(a, in which 
the Thessaloniana feared thqir sleeping 



brethren would have no part; see 
above on ver. 13. 

15. Tovro K.T.X.] *For this we say 
to you;"* confirmation, not (by an 
'setiologia duplex") of the foregoing 
&a M Xvir^^e (Koch), but of the 
words immediately preceding. The 
relation of the faithful living to the 
faithful dead is explained, first nega- 
tively in this verse, then positively in 
ver. 16, 17. h X^Y^ KvpCov] 

*fn the word of the Lord,^ in coinci- 
dence with a declaration received di- 
rectly from Him, 'quasi Eo ipso lo- 
quente,* Beza. The prep, is here 
neither equivalent to Kark (Zanch.) 
nor to Sid (Auth., comp. De W.), but 
has appy. its usual and prevalent 
meaning ' in the sphere of:' the decla- 
ration was couched in the language of 
the Lord Himself, and gained all its 
force from coincidence with His words; 
see Winer, Or, § 48. a, p. 345, who 
however by comparing i Cor. ii. 7, 
\a\ovfi€p...i» fAVffrrjpltp, i Cor. xiv. 6, 
\a\'/i<Tia...itf drotraXt^^ci, gives iv more 
of a reference to the form or ruUure 
of the revelation than seems fully in 
accordance with the context. The 
meaning is simply 'edico Domini man- 
datu,* Fritz. Horn. Vol. iii. p. 34; so 
LXX for n\nj 13*75 I Kings xx. 35. 
This revelation is certainly not to be 
referred to Matth. xxiv. 31 (Schott I, 
comp. Usteri, Lehrb, 11. 2. B, p. 325) 
nor to any traditional 'effatum Christi' 
(Schott 2, and appy. Jowett), but was 
directly received by the Apostle from 
the Lord himself; o6k d<p* iavrdif 
dXXd wapd rov Xpiarov iia$(»rre$ X^o- 
/iey, Chrys.; see Gal. i. 12 and notes, 
ii. 2, Eph. iii. 3, and comp. 2 Cor. xiL 
I. With these passages before us can 
we say with Jowett that * St Paul no- 
where speaks of any special truths or 



64 



nPOS eE22AAONIKEI2 A. 



irepiXeiiroixevoi €«V Ttiv wapoVcrlav rov Kvplbv ov fi^ 
l6 <pdd(rcdiJL€V Voij KotjULfjOivTa^, OTk aiJro? o T^ipio^ iv 



doctrines as imparted to himself*? 
The language of Usteri, I, c. is equally 
unsatisfactory; not so that of De W. 
in loe. i)|icts icT.X.] 'toe 

the living who are remaining.^ The 
deduction from these words that St 
Paul 'himself expected to be alive/ 
Alf., with Jowett, Liinem., Koch, and 
the minority of German commentators, 
must fairly be pronounced more than 
doubtful. Without giving any undue 
latitude to ijfieTs {oi repl iavrov <f>7j<Tty 
...dXXd Toi>s iri<rToi>s \4yei, Chrys.), to 
'^yres {f^Qvrat tAj ^uxA? Koifirj04trras 
8^ tA ffthfiara X^ei, Method, de Jtesurr. 
ap. CEcum.), or to weptXeiirdfievoi 
('tempus prsesens loco futuri more 
Hebraico usurpat/ Calv., 'superstites/ 
Bretsch.)) it seems just and correct to 
say that jrepiKeiirdfieuoi is simply and 
purely present, and that St Paul is to 
be understood as classing himself with 
'those who are being left on earth* 
(comp. Acts ii. 47), without being 
conceived to imply that he had any 
precise or definite expectations as to 
his own case. At the time of writing 
these words he was one of the I^wvtcs 
and wepiXeiirdfievoiy and as such he 
distinguishes himself and them from 
the KoifirjOiPTeSf and naturally identi- 
fies himself with the class to which he 
then belonged. It does not 

seem improper to admit that in their 
ignorance of the day of the Lord 
^Mark xiii. 32) the Apostles might have 
imagined that He who was coming 
would come speedily, but it does seem 
overhasty to ascribe to inspired men 
definite expectations proved since to 
be unfounded, when the context calm- 
ly weighed and accurately interpreted 
supplies no certain elements for such 
extreme deductions; see notes on 
'1 Tim, vi 14,. and comp. the long 



note of Wordsw. on ver. 17. On the 
verb irepiXelreffdat, see note on ver. 1 7 
{TransL). oi i&t^ ^dcrwiicv] 

'shall not prevent,^ Auth. i.e. shall not 
arrive into the presence of the Lord, 
and share the blessings and glories of 
His advent, before others. The verb 
^6dv€tv (Hesych. wpo^Keiv, TpoXappd- 
pcty) has here its regular meaning of 
'praevenfare,' involving the idea of a 
priority in respect of time, and thence 
derivatively of privilege ; otrw, <t>V<^^> 
6^4ci)S Kol Tox^wj Kal h &Kap€t ol rerC' 
XevTviKdrei dvam-et AvaffTT/jaotrraif d)S 
roi>5 In Kar* iKetPov rhv Katpbp Tcpi" 
bifTHi TrpoKa^iOff Koi TrpoaTravTTjaat r(p 
ffitfTTjpi T&p SKcjp, Theod. On the 

strengthened negation 06 fi^ vnih the 
aor. subj., see Winer, Gr. § 56. 3, p. 450 ; 
and observe that the usually recog- 
nised distinction between these par- 
ticles with the fut. and with the aor. 
(Hermann on Soph. (Ed. Col. 853) 
must not be pressed in the N.T. (opp. 
to Koch), the prevalence of oif fi^ with 
the subj. being much too decided to 
justify a rigorous application of the 
rule ; see notes on Gal. iv. 30. 

16. firi] 'because,* y ^ ^^^ [p^op- 

terea quod] Syr., 'quia,' Clarom., 
'quoniam,* Vulg., 'unte,' Goth., sim. 
^th. (Piatt,— Pol. omits), Arm. ; rea- 
son for the declaration immediately pre- 
ceding, derived from the circumstances 
of detail. To regard 6ti as 'that* 
(Koch), and as dependent on the pre- 
ceding Towro if /MP \4yofi€P (ver. 15), 
mars the logical evolution of the pas- 
sage, and is opposed to the opinion 
of the Greek expositors (ydp, Theod., 
Theoph.) and, as is shown above, of 
the best ancient Versions. 
a^^ 6 Kvpios] 'the Lord Himself;^ 
obviously not 'He the Lord* (De W.), 



IV. i6. 



65 



KeXcvoriuLaTi iv <^wvy ap^o^yyiXov koX iv ordXiriyyi QeoO 



nor yet ^Himself with ref. to His 
glorified body (Olph.), but simply with 
ref. to His own august persoual pre- 
sence, airbs yhp xpQros rCl>v SKtav h 
KiJptof iK Tiov oipavioif i7ri<painfi<r€Tai 
icaT(i6v, Theod. Iv Kc\ci»(r|AaTi] 

* with a shout of conimandf* *in jussu,' 
Vulg., Clarom., Goth., sim. Copt. 
[ottoA-aoAm], Syr., Arm. The word 
K^Xevana (sometimes, though question- 
ably, icAev/ia, Lobeck on Soph. AjaXy 
7^4* P* 3^3)> ^ AT. \§yifi. in the 
N. T., occurs frequently in classical 
Greek as denoting the command or 
signal given by a genejcal (admiral, or 
captain of rowers, Thucyd. ii. 92), the 
encouraging shout qi the charioteer 
^Plato, Phcpdr, p. 253 d) or the hunts- 
man (Xen. Cyneget. vi. 20), or more 
technically the cry of the KcKcinrTyis to 
the rowers (Eurip. Iph, T, 1405), but 
in mo^t cases has some ref. more or 
less distinct to the prevailing meaning 
of the verb : comp. Pro v. xxx. 27 [xxiv. 
62], ffTpareCet. d^' iybs iceXei5<r/tioros ei5- 
rdicTut, and Philo, de Prasm. § 19, 
Vol. II. p. 427 (ed. Mang.), dp6pd>Toui 
^ATUKtfffjiii'ovi ^blus 6.U €»l /ceXei)- 
fffxari awaydyoi Qe6s, To whom 

the KiXcvfffjLa is to be referred is some- 
what doubtful. The Greek exposito):s 
(Chrys. ?) seem to refer it directly to 
Christ ; it appears however more plau- 
sible to refer it immediately to the 
dpxdyyfXos as Christ's n^inister, and 
to regard it as a general expression of 
what is afterwards n^ore distinctly 
specified by the substantives which 
follow. The purport of the /cAeu<r/Aa 
it is idle to guess at: it may perhaps 
be iyelpeffde, ijXdeif 6 pvfMf>los (Chrys. 1), 
or more naturally, dtfaarQffiy ol vexpoi 
(Chrys. 2, Theod.), or perhaps, still 
more probably, with a strict preserva- 
tion of the current use of the word, 
the shout of command of the Arch- 



angel to the attendant angelical hosts, 
irolfiovs Totetre reU'TOf, Tdpcari ydip 6 
KpiT'/jSy Chrys. 3; comp. Matth. xiii. 
41. On the use of iv to denote 

the concomitant circumstances (Arm. 
i^ses its 'instrumental' case), see notes 
on Col. ii. 7, and comp. Eph. v. 26, <S:c, 
Though, with the Aramaic G before 
us, it is not always desirable to over- 
press ivt yet in the present case it 
may be used as serving to hint at the 
Kardpaffii taking place during the 
KAeuff/Aa, in the sphere of its occur- 
rence ; comp. notes on ch. ii. 3. 
Iv ^»viQ dLpxayy^Xov] ^vnth the voice 
of the Archangel;* more specific ex- 
planation of the circumstances an<l 
concomitants. To refer dpxayy, to 
Christ (Olsb.) or the Holy Spirit (see 
in Wolf) is obviously wrong : the term 
is a Sis \ey6fJL. (here and Jude 9) in 
the N.T., and designates a leader of 
the angelical hosts by whom the Lord 
shall be attended on His second com- 
ing; compare Matth. xxiv. 31, xxv. 
31, 2 Thess. i. 7. With regard to the 
oblique references of Bqme of the 
German commentators to the 'jUdis- 
cher nachexilisoherVorstellung' (I^Un. 
comp. Winer, RWB. Vol. u. p. 329^ 
ed. 3), it seems enough to say that the 
Apostle elsewhere distinctl}' alludes to 
separate orders of angels (see notes 
and refiP. on Eph, i. 21, Col. i. 16), and 
that he here as distinctly speaks of a 
leader of such heavenly £(eings: to 
inquire further is idle and presump- 
tuous. o^dXmyyv ©pov] *the 
trumpet of God ;^ not 'tuba Dei, adeo- 
que magnay* Beng.,— such a form of 
Hebraistic superl. not occurring in the 
N.T., but simply *the trumpet per- 
taining to God' (gen. possess.), the 
trumpet used in His service; comp. 
Rev. XV. 2, and see Winer, Or, § 36. 
3, p. 221. The Greek expositors ap- 



tn> 



nP02 BEZZAAONIKEIZ A. 



KOTufitfovrat air cvpavfn!, icai oi v€Kpoi iv li^piamS ai/a- 

17 <mi<nnrrcu TrpHroVy eireiTa ifjuLeh 01 ^wvTe? ol TreptXet^ 

TTOfievoi afia crvv avroT^ dpTrayii<r6/JL€6a iv V€(f)€\ai^ ecj 



propriatelj allnde to tbe use of the 
trumpet when God appeared on Sinai, 
Exod. xix. 16; comp. also Psalm 
xItU. 5, Isaiah xxvii. 13, Zech. n. 14. 
With the Jewish use of the trumpet 
to call assemblies (Numbers z. 2, 
zxxi. 6, Joel ii. i) we have here 
nothing to do, still less with tbe spe- 
ottlations of later Judaism as to God's 
use of a trumpet to awaken the dead 
(Eisenmenger, £ntd. Jud, Vol. ii. p. 
939 ; adduced by Lttnem.) : the Apo- 
stle twice in <»ie verse definitely states 
that the trumpet will sound at Christ's 
advent (i Ck>r. xv. 52), and it infallibly 
will be so. 

dw* oftpavov] *from heaifem^' — where 
He now nts enthroned at the right 
hand of G^; see esp. Acts i. it. 
Kal at V€Kpo£ k.tA»] * and the dead in 
Chriat, &.c.f conse<]uence and sequel of 
ip KeKe^fffiari — Kmra^-fyrrraiy the koL 
having here a slightly eonMecuUve force ; 
comp. notes on Phil, iv. 12. The 
words hf Xpiarifi are dearly to be 
joined with vexpoi, as more specifically 
designating those about whose share 
in the Tapowrla the lliesBalonian oon- 
verts were disquieted : the general re- 
surrection of ail men does not here 
come into consideratioa; see Winer, 
Gr. § 30. 3, p. 133; Comp. West, 
Stud. 1*. Krit, for 1858, p. 283, and 
on the omission of the art., notes on 
Eph, i. 15, and Fritz. Bom. iii 35, 
Vol. I. p. 195. The coBnexion with 
dvacrri^o-orrat (Schott) would indirectly 
assign an undue emphas» to hf Xp. 
(LUn.), and introduce a specification 
out of harmony with tbe context : 
the subject of the passage is Bot 
the means by which (3 Cbr. iv. 14) 
or element in which the resurrection 



is to take place, but the respective 
shares of the holy dead and holy liv- 
ing in the rrapovaia of the Lord, con- 
sidered in relation to Utm. 
irpMTOvJ * first ;"* not with any re- 
ference to the vpfijTTj dvdiTTaffiSf Kev. 
XX. 5 (Theod., Theoph., (Ecum., al.), 
but> as the following lirctro sug- 
gests, only to the fact that tbe resur- 
rection oi the dead in Christ shall be 
prior to tbe assumption of the living. 
The reading wpQroi is found in D*FG ; 
Vulg., Clarom.; Cyr., Theod. (i), al., 
and was perhaps suggested by the 
supposed dogfmatical ref. to the first 
resurrection. 

17. farciTa] *tkenf* — ^immediately 
after the dpdaroffis of ol iv Xpttrrtf; 
second act in the mighty drama. The 
partide ^ireira, as its derivation [iir* 
ftro, Hartung, Partih, Vol. I. p. 302] 
and the following dfia (see below) both 
seem to suggest, marks the second 
event as speedily following on the 
first, and, like 'deinde* ('de rebus in 
temperis tractu oontinnis et proximis,* 
Hand, TttrseU, Vol. ii. p. 340), speci- 
fies net only the continuity but the 
proximity of the two events; comp. 
Etfordt, Soph. Antig, 607. 
i{|mIs ol %&vm ol ircpiXciir.] *we the 
living who are remaining f* *we who 
are being left behind;' see notes on 
ver. [5. &\UL (rVv airots] *at the 

same time together with them^^ * simul... 
cum illis,' Vulg., Copt, [eusonl ; i. e, 
we shaU be caught up with them at 
the same time that they shall be 
caught up, a/ia appy. not marking 
tbe mere local coherence, 'all to- 
gether,' Alf., but, as usual, connexion 
in point of time (' res duas vel plures 
ima vel simul ant esse aut fieri signi- 



IV. 17. 



67 



airavTiia'iv rov Kvplov €19 depa* Koi ovrta^ Trdvrore aw 



ficat,' Klotz, Devar, Vol. ii. p. 95): 
comp. AmmoiL 8.V., A/Aa fi4y i<m 
XpoviK^ M^jiflflfxa, (ffAov Si rowiKdy, 
and Tittm. Synon. i. p. 156, who how- 
ever remarks that in Rom. iii. 12 (from 
the LXX) this dutinction is not main> 
tained. See notes on ch. v. 10. 
<if>iraYV|o^|u9a Iv Vf^ai«] * shall be 
caught up in clatids/ certainly not 'in 
nubes/ Beza, nor even *ai*/ Wolken,* 
DeW., Lttn., but, 'innubibus,' Vulg., 
Clarom., i, e, * tanquam in curru trium- 
phali,* Grot — the clouds forming the 
element with which they would be 
surrounded, and in which they would 
be borne up to meet their coming 
Lord: iirl (?) rod Ax^fAaros 4>€p6fi€0a 
rod liarpSs, Kal yh.p airrbt h v€<f>i\ais 
iftriXapep aMv [Acts i. 9], Kal ^fteU 
i» veip4\ait dpirayif<r6/M6a, Chrys. The 
transformation specified in i Cor. xv. 
53> 53 ('compendium mortis per de- 
mutationem expuDctsB,' Tertull. de 
JUsutr, eh. 48, compare Dcditzsch, 
Psychol, VII. 5, p. 368 sq.), will neces- 
sarily first take place (comp. Pearson, 
Creed, Vol. i. p. 357), upon which the 
glorified and ludform body will be 
caught up in the enveloping and up- 
bearing clouds. On the nature of the 
resurrection body, compare Burnet, 
State of Dep. ch. vii. viii*, and the 
curious and learned investigations of 
Cudworth, Intellect. J^st, cb. v. 3, Vol. 
in. p. 310 sq. (ed. Harrison). 
The forms iipwdyrfv and i^pwayfyroiMu 
appear to be later forms (Tliom.-Mag. 
p. 411); but tbe 'librariorum arbi- 
trium ' often leaves it uncertain whe- 
ther the first or second aor. was the 
original reading ; comp. Pierson, Mcvr, 
p. 168 (ed. Koch). 

itt dirf£vTV)o^iv Tov Kvpik] ' to meet the 
Lord,* as He is coming down to earth ; 
Kal ydip PcuriKiias els wdXtM eUreXariyoV' 
rof ol fU¥ hri/Jioi xp^i dwdirniffuf i^Ui' 



ffuff oi Sk KardSiKOi hSov fxiyovffi rh» 
KpiTT^v, Chrys. The expression €^f 
d^dm-tiaiM (Matth. xxv. i [BCK OreU^r.], 
6, Acts xxviii. 15) seems to have been 
derived from the LXX, where it com- 
monly answers to the Hebrew flMlp? ; 
as I Sam. ix. 14, al. It may be 
associated either as here with a de- 
fining gen<, or with a dative (Acts 
xxviii. 15)^ the verbal subst. preserv- 
ing in the latter case the government 
of the v«rb firom which it is derived ; 
see Bemhardy, Synt. in. 10, comp. 
Winer, Gr. § 31* 3, p. 189. Some au- 
thorities [D«(EM)FG] read els Ordir- 
T7f<rip and the same [with the addition 
of Vulg. (not Amiat), Clarom.; Tert., 
Jer., Hil.] give t0 X/m0t<J), but with 
every ai)^>earance of correction in both 
cases. fit dipa] *into the 

airy* 'in aera,' Vulg., Clarom., 'in 
luftan,' Goth., and sim. the other Vv. 
exce|yt ^th. (PoL), Mn nube;' de- 
pendent on ApTayriff, "Els d4pa is 
certainly not 'in caelum* (Flatt), but, 
as the regular meaning of the word 
i^uires, ' into the atV,* — ^though per- 
haps not necessarily (comp. Wordsw.) 
with any precise limitation to the ter- 
rene atmocfphere. The di^/>, as De W. 
well observes, marks the way to hea- 
ven, and includes the interspace be- 
tween earth and heaven, with greater 
or lees latitude according to the con- 
text; see notes on JEph, ii. a. To 
question whether the air is here re- 
presented as the final reabn of the 
faithful (Usteri, Lehr^, 11. 2, b, p. 338, 
441) is surely monstrous: the Apostle 
makes here a pause, simply because 
his design of clearing up the anxieties 
which his converts entertain is accom- 
plished when he declares that the holy 
quick and holy dead shall be caught 
up into the air simultaneously to meet 
the Lord* The great events imme- 



Ut< 



nPOS eEZZAAONIKEIS A. 



1 8 Kjupitp ecro/ieda. w<rT€ TrapcuctxKeiTe aXXj/\oi/y ev to?? 
\6yoi9 TOUTO19. 

V. Ile/oJ Si tSoV ypOViaV Koi tS>V Kai^ Ye know that the d«jr 

r AT of the Lord cometh sud- 

pSw, aSe\<j,ol, oC xp^lap ?x^€ i^iv ypd- ^^J^viT JStSi' ^"^ 

,/% ^ \ \ ^ o^ ff^ t* appointed us not for 

a (petTUar avrOl yap aKpipcOS OtOaTC on wrath, but for salvation. 



r\ 



diately following Christ's descent to 
judgment (see Jackson, Creeds xi. 13. 
I, 2) and His final and eternal union 
with His Saints in the heavenly J erusa* 
lem (Kev. xxi. xxii.) are to he collect- 
ed from other passages (see Alf. in loc.)* 
Mai oihws K.T.X.] ^ and so shall we be 
tver together vnth the Jjyrd;'' so, in 
^consequence of this Ap7r(ife<r^at,--the 
subject of the iadfieda (Hesych. /3i(6- 
ffOfAOf) being clearly both classes pre- 
viously mentioned. The force of the 
a^ify as implying not merely an accom- 
panying ifAerd) but a coherence with, 
should not be left unnoticed ; see notes 
on Eph. vi. 13. 

18. cStrrc] *So then,'' * Consequently / 
in consequence of the foregoing reve- 
lation. On the force of <a<rr€ and its 
connexion with the imperative mood, 
see notes on Phil. ii. 12. 
irapaKoXciTc] 'console;^ not here 
'exhort,' * teach,' ^th. (both), but, in 
accordance with the preceding tva fi^ 
\\nr9iff0e (ver.13), *consolamini,'Vulg., 

CJlarom., Goth., -_>],> oSd Syr., and 

X f 

similarly the remaining Vv.: see notes 
on ch. V. 1 1, and on Eph. iv. i. 
iv Tots Xdyois ToiiTOisl 'with these 
words i* not * words of faith* (Olsh.), 
but simply Hhese words' (roiJrotf not 
without emphasis), — the words in 
which the Apostle here delivers to them 
Ms inspired message ; roxrro hk S \iyei 
vw KoX ftftfrm rfKOvae rapd rod GeoO, 
Ohrys. on ver. 15. The iv is here used 
in that species of instrumental sense 
in which the action, tSsc, of the verb 
is conceived as existing in the means; 



' Solent Graeci pro Latinorura ablative 
instrumenti saepe ^i' praepositionem po- 
nere, significaturi in eft re cujus nomini 
prtepositio adjuncta est vim aut facul- 
tatem alicujus rei agendse sitara esse,' 
Wunder, Soph. Philoct. 60, see exx. 
in Raphel, Annot. Vol. ii. p. 549. Thus 
in the present case the wapaKXriffii 
may be conceived as contained in the 
divinely inspired words themselves; 
comp. Jelf, Chr. § 622. 3 b. 

Chapter V. i. IIcpl 8^ k.t.X.] 
* But concerning the times and the 
seasons,^ soil, of the Lord's coming, 
rijs trvPTcXelaiy Theoph. The terms 
Xp^yos and Kaipbs are not synonymous : 
the former denotes time indefinitely, 
the latter a definite period of time 
{fiipos xP^^^^t ^ pLfpLerptip^div ijfiepQv 
aj^ffTTifia, Thom.-M. p. 489, ed. Bern.), 
and thence derivatively the right or 
fitting time ; comp. Ammon. de Diff. 
Voc. p. 80, 6 fihf Katpbi drjXoT wotdrriTa 
...XP^yos Si TroadrriTa, and see Titt- 
mann, Synon. i. p. 41, where the 
meaning of xaiphi is carefully investi- 
gated, and Trench, ^non. Part II. 
§ 7. The force of the plural has 
been somewhat differently estimated. 
On the whole, it seems most natural 
to refer it, not to the length of the 
periods (Domer, de Orat. Christ. Eschat. 
p. 73), but simply to the plurality 
either of the acts or of the moments of 
the time (LUnem.). There 

appears no reason to take Kal here as 
explanatory (Koch) : the two words 
are simply connected by the copula; 
comp. Acts I. 7, xP^o^* 4 KcupoijSj 



IV.18-V. 3. 69f 

i^fiepa JS^vpiov 0)9 KXeTTTfj^ iv vuktI ovtw^ €p)(€Tai, orav 3 



Eccles.iii. i, 6 xP^^^^i f^^^ Kaip6Si Dan. 
ii. 21, Kaipoifs Kal xpbvoviy Wisdom 
viii. 8, KatpQp Kal xP^^^v. 
oi XP^^y ^<^4 ' y^ ^^^ ""^ need-* a 
Ta/><£\6t^if, Bee notes on ch. iv. 9. The 
reason why there was no need does 
not seem here to be due to any d<ri^/iA- 
<popov (CEuum., compare Chrys., and 
Acts i. 7) in the Apostle here writing 
to them on the subject, but, as the 
next verse suggests, because they bad 
been accurately informed by him by 
word of mouth of all that it was ne- 
cessary for them to know. On the 
qualifying and explanatory object-infi- 
nitive, see Kriiger, Sprackl, § 55. 3, 
comp. § 50. 6. 4, 5. 

2. dicptpMs] ' accurcUely;^ only used 
once again by the Apostle, in Eph. v. 
15. The use of this adverb, considered 
exegetically, is very striking. It cer- 
tainly seems to point to special and 
definite information on the subject; 
but whether this was derived from a 
written Gospel (Words w.) or from the 
oral communications of the Apostle 
cannot possibly be determined. The 
latter seems much the most probable ; 
comp. 2 Thess. ii. 5. The derivation 
of &Kp. is slightly doubtful ; most pro- 
bably from dKpos in a locative form 
(dfcpt), and a root BA-, Benfey, Wur- 
zellex. Vol. i. p. 158. i|(Upa 

KvpCov] ^the day of the Lord,* soil. 
TTJs beairoTiKijs ^Tt^avefas, Theod.j the 
day of our Lord's corning to judgment 
(comp. KeuRS, TMoL Chr4L iv. 21, 
Vol. II. p. 243), i 6 vlhi rod 6.vdp(i)Trov 
diroKaXt^rrerat, Luke xvii. 30 ; comp. 
I Cor. i. 8, V. 5, 2 Cor. i. 1 4, Phil. L 
6, and for the somewhat similar DV^ 
T^T\\y Joel i. 15, ii. 1, Ezek. xiii. 5, al. 
To refer it to the destruction of Jeru- 
salem (Hamm.), or to include in it 
T^v IdLay iKdoTOV ^fiipav (Theoph., 
comp. notes on Phil, i 6), is here dis- 



tinctly at variance with the context, 
which treats solely and entirely of the 
Lord's Tapovffia, The reading is 

hardly doubtful. Rec. gives ij iip,, with 
AKL; most mss.; many Ff.; but 
though the ^ might have been absorbed 
in the ^ of the following iifiipa, the 
probability of insertion (as more defi- 
nitive) and the preponderance of un- 
cial authority [BDEFGK] are in 
favour of the omission: so Lachm,, 
Tisch. (OS icXIimis Iv vvktC] 

* 08 a thief cometh in the night,* soil. 
ipxerai ; iv vvktI not being added as a 
quasi-epithet to kXiiTTrjSt but belonging 
to an unexpressed (px^'ra*- 1 see Winer, 
Gr. § 20. 4, p. 126, note. This solemn 
and regular Scripture simile (comp. 
Matth. xxiv. 43, Luke xii. 39, 2 Pet. 
iii. 10, Rev. iii. 3, xvi. 15) does not 
contain any reference to the drecut felt 
with regard to the coming (Schott, 
compare Alf.), but simply to the r6 
alipyLbiop (Theod.) : see jesp. Eev. iii. 3, 
fl^u) u)f K\4irrrjs Kal oil /i^ yvffii ro^ov 
iSpav ri^<i) ivl ai^ and comp. Usteri, 
Lehrb. 11. 2. B, p. 337. The addition 
h vvktI (comp. how^vet* Matth. xxiv. 
43, iro<9 i^vKaKJ) is peculiar to this 
place, and (combined with Matth. I. e. 
and XXV. 6) may have given rise to the 
ancient tradition of the early Church 
(noticed by LUnem.) that Christ was 
to come at night on Easter Eve; 
compare Lact. Inst. Yii. 19 (* intern* 
pestft et tenebrosft nocte'), and Jerome 
071 Matth. XXV. 6. oStws 

IpXcrai] *8o it comes;* the ovtcjs being 
added to give force and emphasis to 
the comparison. The pres. fpx^Tai is 
not for a future (Pelt, al), nor yet to 
mark the suddenness of the event 
(Bengel, Koch), but its fixed nature 
and prophetic certainty; see Winer, 
Gr, § 40. 2, p. 237, comp. Bemhardy, 
Synt, X. 2, p. 371. 



70 



nP02 eE22AAONIKEI2 A. 



"Kiyweriv Eip^vti koI a(T<f>d\eia, tots ai(j>vlStof avrotf 
e<l>l(TraTai oXedpos wvirep fi liSiv tJ iv yaarpi i)(ov<ry, 



A 



3. Srav \h(0axv] * When they may 
iaiy/ certainly not the Jews (Hamm.), 
Bor even their persecutors generallj 
(Ghrys.), but all unbelieving and un- 
thinking men ; oomp. Matth, xxiv. 38, 
39, I^uke xvii. 26 — 30. The true be- 
Uevers were always watching and wait- 
ing, knowing the uncertainty and un- 
expectedness of the hour of the Lord's 
coming; comp. Matth. xxiv. 44, xxv. 
13, Luke xii. 35 — ^40. After ^tov Bee, 
inserts yiip with KL; most mss.; 
Vulg.; aL: Lachm, after J^rw inserts 
hi ill brackets, as it is found in BD E6( ^ ; 
Ck^t, Syr.-Phil; Chrys,, Theod. 
Though ^k is well supported, and not 
uncommonly exchanged with 7(i/> (see 
notes on Oalf i. it), still the tendency 
to supply expletives is so very decided 
(Mill, ProUgoni' p. dvi.) that we are 
justified in reading simply Srav with 
AFG^^; 4mss,; Olarom,, Syr., Goth., 
.^h, (both); many Lat. Ft So 
Tisch,, Grietb,, Schoh, De W., LUmem., 
Alf. 

EtfM(vf| KoX dv^dXfva] * Peace and 
wfety, soil, karbf^ — isk everywhere pre- 
sent; comp. Ej^k* xiii. ip, X^70in-es 
E^pi$n7, KoX oiK §(ft^ ^fyfp^* The 
distinction between these words is ob- 
vious: the first [ef/>(«, necto, or more 
probably I^P-, ff/)w, dico ; comp. Ben- 
fey, Wv/rzellex, Vol. Ii. p. 7] betokens 
an inward repose and security; the 
latter [a, (r^^ciXXw ; comp. Sanscr. root 
phal, Heb. /&"), Fott, Etym, Forsoh, 
Vol I. p. 238, Donalds. Crat. § 209] 
a sureness and safety that is not in* 
terfered with or compromised by out- 
ward obstacles, r&n al^vC- 
SiOff K.T.X.] 'then with tuddenness doea 
destruction come upon them;* alipplSios 
not being a mere epithet (adjectivum 
jittributum), 'sudden destr*,' Auth,, 



'plotzliches Verderben,* De W., but a 
secondary predication of manner (ad- 
jectivum appositum), soil, 'repentinus 
eis superveniet,' Vulg., Syr., Copt. 
[chen ou-exapina}, al., and fully em- 
phatic ; see esp. Donalds. Cratyl. § 303, 
and Miiller, Kleine Sehriften, Vol. i. 
p. 310; comp. Winer, (?r. § 54. 3, p. 
412, and notes on Col. ii. 3. The 
verb iipUrraTai may be either simply 
* imminet,' Beza, or more derivatively 
*superveniet,' Vulg. (but not fut.), 
being a 'verbum solemn e de rebus 
hominibusve citius quam quis existi- 
maverit adstantibus,^ Schott; see esp. 
Luke xxi, 34, ^T^TOTc.^TwrT^ i<f>* 
iffUM al4>vlhL0i ii iifUpa {al<f>. does not 
occur elsewhere in the N.T.). On 
HXeBpos, eomp. notes on i Tim, vi. 9. 
dlkwip 4 ^Cv] 'at the birth-pang* 
The true point of the appropriate 
comparison {'irkp vim eam compara- 
tivam quam habet Cn usitato more 
anget atque e0brt,' Klotz, Bevar, VoL 
n. p. 768) is neither the knowledge 
that the event is to come (Theod.), 
nor its nearness (De W.), but, as the 
context seems clearly to suggest, its 
mddennese and uncertainty; *mulier 

doloris materiam gestat absque 

sensu, donee inter epulas et risus vel 
in medio somnio oorripitur,' Calv. 
The form (W6', like the form ScX^, 
belongs to later Greek ; oomp. Winer, 
Gr. § 9. 2, p. 61. 

rg |v -yaoTpV lx®^*ni] The regular 
formula in the N. T., Matth. i. 18, 
23, xxiv. 19, Mark xiii. 17, Luke xxi. 
23, Rev. xii. 2. The more usual ex- 
pression in earlier Greek appears to 
have been hf ywrrpi tpipea^ (Plato, 
Legg, vii. p. 792 a, comp. Hom. JL 
VI. 58), or iyK^fjMP elvai or ylypeadaij 
as in Flato, Epin, p. 979 a^ aL 



V. 4. 



71 



Kai ov [xti €K(pvynii(Tiv. v/JLCi^ 0€y ad€\(poif ovK care 4 

4. i^Atfij 1^ V^pa] So i!^Am. with ADEFG; Vulg., Clarom., appy. ^th. 
(both) ; many Lat. Ff. {Titch. ed. 1, Schott, LUnem,, Koch), C is here deficient. 
The simpler order of Rec, ^ ijftipa ^^nai is retained by TUeh. ed. 2, 7, with 
BKLt(; appy. allmss.; Goth., al.; Chrys., Theod., Dam., al. (Chiesh., A1f,)\ 
but appy. with less probability, as the uncial authority is not decisive, and the 
change is just as likely to have been owing to & conformation to the more 
natural order, as a transposition for the sake of throwing emphasis on the i^/i&f. 



oi (Jit^ 4K^^ry«*o%v] Hhey shall in no 
wUe escape,^ not T6y re xbvov kqX ^\e- 
OpoVf (£oum., but simply and abso- 
lutely ; comp. Heb. ii. 3, xii. 35, 
Ecolus. xvi. 13. On the strengthened 
negation od m^ with the subjunctive, 
see notes and re£ on ch. iv. 15. 

4. ificCt U\ *But ye;' in opposi- 
tion to the unthinking and unbelieving 
noticed in the preceding verse: * ocoa- 
sione acceptA ex superioribus adhor- 
tatur Christianos ad vigilantiam, so- 
brietatem, et sanctimouiam,' Galv. 
In the following words it is scarcely 
necessary to say that iffri cannot pos- 
sibly be imperatival (Fiatt) : both the 
negative and the noo-occurronce of 
the uuper. itrre in the N.T. utterly 
preclude such a translation. 
4v vic6r«] *in darkness,* in the ele- 
ment or region of it. The 9'K6ros here 
mentioned seems to have been sug- 
gested by the preceding iv pvktI (ver. 
1) : it does not mark exclusively either 
r6r vKOT€ivi^ Kal ix&Baprw filof 
(Chrys., Theoph., CEcum.), as might 
seem suggested by the succeeding 
verse, or t^i^ Ayvoiav (Theod.), as is 
partially suggested by the preceding 
verse, but, as the general context re- 
quires, both, — 'statum ignoranti» et 
vitii,' Turretin. It was a darkness 
not only of the mind and understand- 
ing (£ph. iv. 18) but of the heart and 
will (i John ii. 9); see Andrewes, 
Serm. xiv. Vol. IIL p. 371. 



Cva ifiot K.r.X.] *in order that the 
day should surprise y^u;* not merely 
a statement of result, but of the pur- 
pose contemplated by God in His mer- 
ciful dispensation implied in oi)«r io'ri 
i¥ ffK6TH, See Winer, (jfr, § 53. 6, 
p. 408. It may be doubted however 
whether we have not here some trace 
of lb secondary force of tua (see notes 
(m £ph, 1. 17), the eventual conclu- 
sion being in some degree mixed up 
with and obscuring the i^ea of finality ; 
oomp. GaL v. 17. Considering the 
numerous instances of a secondary 
final use of 2ra which the writings of 
the N.T. (esp. those of St John, 
Winer, 6r. § 44. 8, p. 303) distinctly 
supply, and a remembrance of the 
ultimate decline of the particle into 
the yd of modern Greek (Corpe, Or, p. 
139), it is prudent to beware of over- 
pressing the final force in all oases; 
comp. Winer, Or, Lcp. 399 sq. 
The 'day' here specified is not speci- 
fically the day of judgment [if iffi^pa 
iKeUni FG ; Vulg., Clarom., Syr.], but, 
as the context seems to require, the 
period of light (De W.), which indeed 
becomes practically synonymous with 
the day of the Lord, as bearing salva- 
tion (comp. Kom. xiii. 13), and bring- 
ing to light the hidden things of dark- 
ness (i Cor. iv. 5). Kara- 

Xdpt)] 'offertahe,* * surprise,* u9^ 
Syr., 'adprehendat/ Clarom., 'gafa- 



72 



HP02 eE22AA0NIKEI2 A. 



5 xain-€? yap i/ULeU viol (fycorog ia'T€ koi viol ^/xepag, ovk 

6 €(Tfl€V VVKT09 OvSc CTKOTOV^. ^Apa oSv /JLtf KaOevSw/JLcv 

7 dg KOI oi XofTTo/, aWa yprtyopUfxev koi viicjxo/Jiev. oi 



hai,* Goth. ; the Karik here not intro- 
ducmg any definite sense of hostility 
(comp. Koch), but, as usual, being 
simply inten»ive, and deriving its fur- 
ther shades of meaning from the con- 
text : see the good collection of exam- 
ples in Rost u. Palm, Lex. s.v. Vol. I. 
p. 1623* Hie reading icX/irrat 

[Lackm. with AB; Copt.] has cer- 
tainly not sufficient critical support. 

5. irdvTCs Tap i|uCtj *for ye all;* 
confirmation of the preceding negative 
statement by a more specific positive 
declaration. The particle ydp, which 
we can hardly say with Schott is 
'hand necessaria ad sententiam/ is 
omitted by Ree., but on authority 
[K (e sil.); majority of mss. ; Vulg. 
(Amiat.)] decidedly insufficient. 
-•lol ^«iT6s] ' sons of light;* a Hebra- 
istic formula (corop. Ewald, Gr. § 287) 
expressing with considerable emphasis 
and significance, not merely that they 
'belonged to the light* (Alf.), but that 
they belonged to it in the intimate 
way that children belong to a parent, 
— ^almost el tA tov ^xarbs Tpdrropres, 
Chrys., Theoph. : see Winer, Gr. § 34. 
3; b. note 2, p. 113, Steiger on i Pet. 
i. 14, p. 153, and notes &n Eph. ii. 2. 
Somewhat analogous estpressions are 
fDund in classical Greeks irouScr 0-0- 
^tOfi^, ircuBes Upitaif K.r.\:, but appy. 
ntsver (as here) in connexion with 
^bstrabt substantives; comp. Blomf. 
on Mioh. Pert. 408. 
o^K loylv WMt6s] ' We belong not to 
night/* the genitive idiomatically spe- 
cifying the domain to which the sub- 
jects belong; comp. Acts ix. 2, and see 
Winer, Gr^ § 30. 5, p. 176. On the 
various meanings in which this pos- 
MBsive gen. is connected inih c&cu 



and ylyreffdau, see Kriiger, Sprachl. 
§ 47. 6. I sq., Bemhardy, Synt. lU. 46, 
p. 165, and on the very intelligible 
XMur/i6$ [0uys, iifUpa...¥{t^, aK&rosl see 
Jelf, (jr. § 904. 3, Madvig, LcU. Gr, 
§ 473. a. The reading iark [D^FG ; 
Syr. (not Phil.), Clarom., Goth., al.] 
is obviously a conformation to the 
preceding iar^. 

6. ''Apa oJv] * Accordingly then;* 
exhortation following on the preceding 
declaration, the illative dpa being sup- 
ported and enhanced by the collective 
and retrospective o9r; see notes on 
Gal. vi. 10. In Attic Greek this com- 
Mnation is only found in the case of 
tiie interrogative dpa, comp. Klotz, 
Devar. Vol. 11. p. 181, Herm. Viger, 
No. 292, and Stallb. on Plato, Republ. 
V. p. 462 A. i&i^ KoMSiitUv] 

' let us not sleep,'' i. e. be careless and 
indifferent^ fjL^ dfUKQ/ncj^ tup kclKQp 
ipy<av, Theoph. ; comp. Eph. v. 14, and 
the very pertinent remarks of Beck^ 
Christ. Lehrwiss. Vol I. p. 299 (cited 
by Koch), on the deepening sleep of 
the sbul under the influence of sinj 
see also Beck, Sedenl. i. 8, p. 18. 
ol XotiroC] 'the rest;* here obviously 
unbelievers, whether careless Jews or 
ignorant heathens ; comp. ndtes on ch; 
iv. 13. Lachin. omits the KOt before 
ol XoiTol with ABK ; 2 mss. ; Augiens., 
Vulg. (Amiatt), Syr. ; al., but appy. in 
opposition t6 St Paul's prevailing 
usage ; comp. i Cor. ix. 5, Eph. ii. 3, 
and above, ch. iv. 13. • in^^«|icv] 

'be sober;' comp. i Pet v. 8. The 
iHi^tuw enhances the preceding ypiryo- 
pufiep ; Christians were not only to be 
wakeful, but have all their senses and 
capacities in full exercise : ip ^fUpqi &v 

ypVyOpi rit fl^ P1^ di fWploiS T€piV€' 



V. 5—8. 



73 



yap KaOevSovre^ vvkto9 KaOevSova-iv^ koi ot juLcOva-KOfievoi 
Su(rujuL€i/oi Odpaxa irt<rT€(a^ koi ayaTrrjg koi '7repiK€(j>a*' 



(TtiTai $6(vo(s, Chrys. On the regular 
meaning of this verb, which appears 
to be always that of * sobriety,* not of 
'watchfulness' or * wakefulness' (as 
perhaps CEcum., iThaais iypriy6pff€ws)y 
see notes on i Tim. iv. 5, and i Tim. 
iii. 7. 

7. ot ydp Ka0fv8ovTfs] 'For they 
that sleepf' * sleepert,' Winer, Gr. §45. 
7f P* 316; confirmatory explanation of 
the preceding exhortation by a refer- 
ence to the prevailing habits of non- 
Christian life. At first sight it might 
seem plausible to give all the words in 
this verse a spiritual reference (Chrys., 
Theoph., Koch): as however pvKrbs 
seems only to mark the period when 
the actions referred to usually took 
place, the literal and proper meaning 
is distinctly to be preferred: *quem- 
admodum in hoc versa dormire ita 
etiam ebrium esse dicitur proprie, tan- 
quam exemplum ejusmodi sentiendi 
agendique rationis quae nonnibi homi- 
num sit in caligiue nucturn& lubenter 
versantium,' Schott; so Ltinem. and 
Alf. ot )jif6tKrK6)jicvoi] Uhey 
that are drunlen. ' The distinction ad- 
vocated by Beng., * fifOOaKOfxai notat 
actum, fx€66(a statum ' (comp. Clarom. 
Mnebriantur...ebrii sunt'), seems here 
more than doubtful. The transition 
from * being made drunk' to 'being 
actually drunk' is do slight (in Rost 
u. Palm, Lex. a. vv. both are translated 
'berauscht seyn'), that with the pre* 
ceding Ka0€\j6o¥T€S...Ka0ev8ovffw before 
us it seems best to regard them here 
as simply synonymous. 

8. i^fifts 8^ K.T.X.] *hut let vs, as 
we are of the day:^ not exactly *qui 
diei sumus,* Vulg., Clarom., but 'quum 
simus/ .^h. (Piatt), Arm., oomp. 



Goth, 'visandans;' the participle not 
being here used predicatively, but with 
a slightly causal, or combined 'tem- 
poral-causal' force; see Schmalffeld, 
Synt. des Gr. Verb. § 207, comp. Do- 
nalds, (rr. § 615. On the connexion of 
the gen. with c^fif, see notes on ver. 5. 
4v8vox[|jicvob] * haring put on / tempo- 
ral participle defining the action con- 
temporaneous with or perhaps, more 
probably, immediately preceding the 
ir/)<p€w. The Apostle now passes into 
his favourite metaphor of the Christian 
soldier; comp. Rom. xiii. 12, 3 Cor. 
x. 4, and esp. Eph. vi. i r, where not 
only (as here) the defensive, but the 
offensive portions of the) equipment 
are described. The 'armatura' here 
consists of the three great Christian 
virtues. Faith, Love, and Hope, the 
first and second forming the breast- 
plate (aliter Eph. vi. 14, 16), the third 
(similarly Eph. vi. 17, see notes) the 
helmet; comp. Reuss, Thiol, ChrU, 
IV. 3-2, Vol. II. p. 359, 260, 
0«Spaica irCo^rcws] ' a shield of faith,'* 
or more probably * the shield, &c.,' 
the second and third substantives, ag 
well known terms, here dispensing 
with the article (Winer, Gr. § 19. i, 
p; 109), and causing the governing 
noun to be also anarthrous on the 
principle of correlation (Middl. Gr, 
Art. III. 3. 6). The gen. is that of 
'apposition;' see notes and reff. on 
Eph. vi. 14. Kalircpuci^. K.T.X.] 

*and as a helmet the hope of salvation;* 
a defence that can never fail. With 
hope fixed on the iirrfYyeXfAipri ffurniplsL 
(Theod.) all the dangers and trials of 
the present seem light and endurable ; 
KaSdwep yhp ^ wepiKe^aXaia r6 Kolpiw 



74 nP02 eE22AAONIKEI2 A. 

9 Xalap iXiriSa (Twrripia^y ort ouk eOero fifia^ 6 Geo? 

els opyifv aXAa eiy Tr€pnraifj<rtv aroimjplas Sia tov 

lO K^vpiov fifjL(av ^IfiaroS Xpiarrovy tov airoOavovro^ iirep 

i]fi<Sv tva €iT€ ypfiyop£iJL€v eire KaOeuSwfiev a /ma arvv 



^ 



pdXKowra koI Tdm-odof irreydl^ovffa' 
oihia KtU ^ iXirls rdr Xoyurfibv o^k 
d^i^i 8iaT€ff€afj dAX' 6p$bp larriirtp 
iSffTep icc^aXi^r, o^db^ tQp i^uOep els 
ai/rdy T€<r€cy iOffOy Chrys. The gen. 
<rwr7ipias is the gen. objecti, that to 
which it is directed and on which it is 
fixed, comp. ch. i. 3 {tov Kvp.), Bom. 
V. 2, and, if necessary, Winer, Gr. 
% 30. I, p. 167. 

9. &rx IC.T.X.] 'hecausej kc.f reason 
for the use of the foregoing words 
iXxlSa auTfiplas, expressed both nega- 
tively (oi&ic i0€To IC.T.X.) and positively 
(dXXd els irc/)tT. ic.t.X.): oi wpbi tovto 
ixdiXeirev els rb dwoXiaai dXX' els rb 
o-faM-ai, Chrys. o^k l8tro i^fias 

ICT.X.] 'appointed tu rwt unto anger,^ 
i.e. to become the subjects of it, to 
fall under its punitive action. The 
form Tid^yat (Acts xiii. 47) or Biedai 
els rl (i Tim. i. 12) appears to have a 
partially Hebraistic tinge and to answer 
to nW, JJ35, or n*55? followed by S; 
comp. for example Psalm Ixvi. 9, Je- 
rem. ix. 11, xiii. 16. On 6/)yiJ, see 
notes on ch. i. 10. els irtpi- 

iroCi|(rtv (TftirripCas] *unto obtaining of 
iolvatum,^ H^-*^? |l ■ 1 oN [ad 

acquisitionem vit»], sim. Vulg., Cla- 
rom., Copt, [tancho, — here needlessly 
rendered ' vivificatio ;* comp. Mai. iii. 
17], Mu gafreideinai ganistais,' Goth.; 
comp. 2 Thess. ii. 14, els Teptwolriciv 
bb^ris. Neither here, Heb. x. 39, nor 
2 Thess. I. c, is there any reason for 
departing from this simple and pri- 
mary meaning of xeptwolriins ; Hesych. 
wkeovafffibs' KTrjaiSf Suid. Ktijiris. Both 
in Eph. i. 14 (see notes) and i Pet. ii. 
9, as the context shows, the use is 



wholly different, and appy. a reflection 
of the n^ap of the O. T. (comp. Acts 
XX. 28): in 2 Chron. xiv. 13 (Heb. 
njnp), Pseud. -Plato, I>ef. p. 415 c (see 
Host u. Palm, Lex. s.v.), the meaning 
seems to be rather * conservatio ;' but 
neither the one (appy. favoured by 
CEcum., comp. Theod., iva oUelovs 
dTOfp'^ifjl) nor the other is here either 
natural or suitable. 

8ul TOV Kvp(ov ICT.X.] Dependent, not 
on idero, but on the preceding Tepi- 
irolrjo'iv ffUTTiplas, and specifying the 
medium by which the a-wrrfpla was to 
be obtained. This medium is certainly 
not ^doctrinam earn quam Christus 
nobis attulit* (Grot.), nor, in this 
passage, 'faith in Him ' (Llinem.), but, 
as the next verse seems to show. His 
atoning death ; comp. Eph. i. 7, and' 
notes in toe. 

10. TOV diroO. i9tr^ 4|Mtv] 'toho 
died for vs/ specification of the bless- 
ed act of redeeming love by which the 
wepiiroirjffis carrfplas has become as- 
sured to us; comp. ch. iv. 14. The 
clause, as Llinem. properly observes, 
is not causal {ivoO, would then be 
anarthrous, comp. Schmalfeld, Synt. 
§222, 225 note, and Donalds. (?r.§492), 
but relative and assertory; 'ne quid 
de salutis certitudine dubitemus aut 
de satisfactione solicit! essemus, dicit 
Christum pro nobis mortuum esse, et 
pro peccatis nostris satisfecisse, ut 
salutem consequeremur,* Calv. 
On the meaning of inrkp in dogmatical 
passages, — not exclusively * in our 
stead' (Waterl. Serm. xxxi. Vol. v. 
p. 740), see notes and reff. on Gal. iii. 
13. For inrip, BK^; 17, here read 
rrepL tva «lri ict.X.] * in order 



9, 10, II. 



75 



aiJrcjS ^i/crco/iei'. Sio TrapaKoXeiTc aXXifXoi/j KOt oikoSo^ 1 1 
fieire eh tov €i/a, KaOin^ Koi iroteire. 



that whether we wake or sleep/ holy 
purpose of the Lord*8 redeeming death. 
There is some little doubt as to the 
exact meaning of the terms KadiOSetp 
and ypriyopetp. It seems clear that 
they cannot be understood in a simple 
physical sense (comp. Fell), still less 
in an ethical sense, as rd Kadcj^beuf was 
described (ver. 6) as a state incompa- 
tible with Christianity. There remains 
then only the supposition that they 
are used in a metaphorical sense (comp. 
Psalm Ixxxviii. 6, Dan. xii. a, al.), to 
which also the following ^wftev seems 
very distinctly to guide us. The mean- 
ing then is substantially the same as 
Rom. xiv. 8, iAp re oSi^ ^/itv idv re 
i.To$v^ffK(a/Aev tov Kvplov ifffiiv. 
It is not exact td say that the sub- 
junctive with efre...efre as here is not 
classical ( Alf.), for see Plato, Legg, xii. 
p. 958 D (y. 1.). As a general rule efre 
is associated with the same moods as 
el (Klotz, Devar. Vol. Ii. p. 533); as 
however there are cases in which it 
is now admitted that c^ can be asso- 
ciated with the subj. (*€l cum conjunct, 
respectum comprehendit experientifle, 
expectandumque esse indicat ut fiat 
aut non fiat/ Herm. de Part. Hm, n. 7, 
see Klotz, Devar, Vol. n. p. 500 sq.), 
a similar latitude may rightly be as- 
signed to efre. It seems probable here 
that the subj. is used in the dependent 
clause by way of conformity with the 
subj. in the principal clause; comp. 
Winer, C?r. § 41. a. 0, p. 263 (note). 
dfui o^v ikin^ M<r.] ^we should together 
live with Him^* not 'together with 
him,' Auth.; the ^ ffbp Xpump form- 
ing the principal idea, while the Hfia 
(Heb. I'jn!) subjoins the further no- 
tion of aggregation; comp. Rom. iii. 
12, and see notes on ch. iv. 17, where 
the previous specifications of time 



make the temporal meaning the 
more plausible. The i^-/f<ruficy is both 
more emphatic than MfAtda (ch. iv. 
17), and also serves slightly to eluci- 
date the metaphorical use of the pre- 
ceding words. 

II. 816] *Wherrfore,' * On whidi. 
account/ not exactly *qu8B cum ita 
sint* (Alf.), but 'quamobrem' (see 
Klotz, Devar. Vol. n. p. 173, who cor- 
rectly assigns the former meaning to 
o8>'), thereby serving to place in closer 
logical connexion the foregoing decla- 
ration and the present exhortation. 
On the uses of this particle by St Paul, 
see notes on Oal. iv. 31. 
irapaKoXctxi] * comfort/ * console/ 

0(jL.O Syr., * consolamini,' Volg., 

not ' exhortamini,* Clarom. : the ana- 
logy of this verse to ch. iv. 17 (where 
the contextual argument for the pre- 
sent sense is very strong) appears to 
require a similarity of translation, 
more especially as the hortatory tone 
(ver. 6) seems now to have merged into 
the consolatory. The exact meaning 
of this word is frequently somewhat 
doubtful: it is used more than fifty 
times in St Paul's Epp., with several 
varieties of meaning which can only 
be decided on by a careful considera- 
tion of the context; comp. notes on 
Col, ii. 2, cts r&v (va] ' one the 

other/ equivalent in meaning to dXXi}- 
\oui; see exx. in Kypke, Annot. VoL 
II. p. 339, all of which however, except 
Theocr. Idyll, xxii. 65, are from late 
authors. Compare ol KaO* tva, Eph. 
V. 33, and the somewhat analogous 
etj w/)6j ft'o, Plato, Legg, I. p. 616 c, 
al. ; see Winer, Gr, § 16. a, p. 156. 
To regard ets as a prep., and to refer 
rhp tva to Christ, is in the highest 
degree forced and improbable; see 



76 



IIP02 eE22AAONIKEI2 A. 



12 



y ^ » f • ^ .. ful and prayerful and 

TOfJ KOTTlCOVTag €V VfllV Kai TrpOlCTTa' thankful. Quench not 

^ * ^ ^ theS^)irit: andmayGod 



KOI VOuOcTOUV' sanctify and preserve 



^ 



LUnem. in loc. The metaphorical 

term oUodo/ifiv (i Cor. viii i, x. 23, 
al.) is derived from the idea, elsewhere 
both expressed and implied in St Paurs 
£pp., that Christians form a vabs or 
oUoSofi^ Gcou; see 1 Cor. iii. 9, 16, 
a Cor. vi. 16, Eph. il 20, al., and comp. 
Andrewes, Serm. vi. Vol. il p. 273. 
KaO«^ Kal iroictTf] 'even as ye also 
are doing/ praise and encouragement 
founded on the actual state of the 
Thessalonian church; comp. ch. iv. i, 
10. On the force of Kal in compara- 
tive sentences of this kind^ see notes 
fon Eph. V. 23. 

12. *Ep«»T«»|icv 8^] 'Now we beseech 
you;^ transition, by means of the 8^ 
liera^aTiKbu (see notes on Gal. iii. 8), 
to their duties towards the rulers of 
the church, — a subject not improbably 
suggested by the words immediately 
preceding. In no case could the pre- 
cept olKodofAeiTe els rbv hfa be carried 
out with greater practical benefit to 
themselves and to the church at large 
than by showing respect to their ap- 
pointed spiritual teachers. On the 
meaning of ipfarwy see notes on ch. 
iv. I. 

€l8^t] *to hnoHOy *to regard,* 'ut 
rationem ac respectum habeatls,' Est.; 
not 'to show (by deeds) that you 
know' (Koch), but simply 'to know,' 
t.e. * not to be ignorant of,* * to recog- 
nise fully;' this somewhat unusual 
meaning of tlb. being analogous to 
that of the Heb. VT (see Gesen. Lex, 
s.v. 8), and here approximating in 
meaning to iTiywiixrKciv, i Cor. xvi. 
18. No instance of a similar or even 
analogous usage has as yet been ad- 
duced from classical Greek. 
TO^f KoiruavTOt 4v ijitv] 'Ihose who 



are labouring among yoUy* * those who 
are engaged in sacred and ministerial 
duties;' comp. i Tim. v. 17, where 
the more specific iv \6y(fi is supplied. 
On the meaning and derivation of 
k6tos, KOTtdu, see notes on i Tim. iv. 
10. This general designation, as the 
following explanatory terms seem to 
suggest, is to be referred to the Pres- 
byters of the Church of Thessalonica 
(Thorndike, Prim. Gov. ch. in. Vol. i. 
p. 8, A.-C. Libr.), iif i//xuf obviously 
having no ethical reference, ii^ rats 
xapS. vfiuv (Flatt), still less 'in vobis 
docendis' (Zanch.), but simply imply- 
ing *in vestro ccetu' (Schott), 'inter 
vos,' Vulg., — with mere local refer- 
ence to the sphere of the Kdwot. 
Kal irpoto^ra|Uvov$ K.T.X.] ^and are 
presiding over you in the Lord;* fur- 
ther explanation and specification of 
the generic KoxiGiVTat, The omission 
of the article plainly precludes any 
reference of the three participles to 
three different ministerial classes : the 
Koin.Qnrr€% are simply regarded under 
two forms of their spiritual labour, as 
rulers and practical teachers, and as 
'morum magistn,' Grot Whether 
these duties were executed by the 
same or different persons cannot be 
determined; at this early period of 
the existence of the Church of Thess. 
the first supposition seems much the 
most probable; contrast Eph. iv. 11, 
I Tim. V. 17. The sphere of the 

TpotffTa(r6ai was to be ^ Kupltfii o^k 
i¥ ToTs KOCfUKoU dX\* i¥ Tclis icard 
Kiipiof, Theoph. Kal vovOc- 

TOvvTOfi i|idt] *and admonishing you,* 
'et monent vos,' Vulg.; not simply 

. g\\<^ [doceiitiBB] Syr.j but 



V. 12, 13, 14. 



77 



Ta9 vfJLag^ KOI fijelcrQai avrov^ vTrepeKTrepKrcrZ^ ^^ ^3 
ayaiTfi Sia to epyov avrZv, eiprjveveTf ev eavroh* 
TlapaKaXovfiev Se vfiag, aS€X<f)oiy vovOcTctre rov^ ara- 14 



^Li!^ [admonentes] Syr.-Phil., 

with reference to the ' exbortationea 
et correptiones' (Est.) which it might 
be their duty to administer. Ou the 
proper meaning of vovBertiVy — pri- 
marily *to correct by word^ (ifovOhriffis* 
\6yos iviTi/x7iTiK6i ft'CKa dvoTpoTrrjs 
dfAaprlas, Zonar. Lex. p. 1406), and 
then derivatively by deed — see Trench, 
Synon. § 32, and the numerous exx. 
collected by Kypke, 06a. Vol. 11. p. 

339- 

13. Kal i)Yft(r6ab K.T.X.] *and to 
esteem them in love vei^y highly.* These 
words appear to admit of two trans- 
lations according as iv dydTxi is con- 
nected (a) loosely with all the fore- 
going words, marking the element 
(certainly not the caune, Schott 2, 1) 
in which the ijyeiffOai airrods ijmptK- 
irepLjffus is to be put in force, — or (6) 
closely with the preceding i)yeTff0ai 
as specifying and enhancing the gene- 
ral duty implied in the preceding 
eliivait ver. 12. Both involve some 
lexical difficulties, as in (a) iiyetffdai 
must be regarded as equivalent to 
irXelopoi i^ioOif (Theod.), and in (b) 
iiyeiffdai iv dydry must be taken as 
iiyeladai airodi d^lovs toO dryairdaOai 
(Chrys., Theoph., (Ecum.),— solutions 
neither of them very strictly defen- 
sible. On the whole, the context, the 
appP' similar iiyetadaL ri 4v Kplcei, 
Job XXXV. 2 (Schott), and perhaps the 
analogous iv dpyj ix^iv rivd, Thucyd. 
ir. 18 (LUnem.), seem to preponderate 
in favour of (6) : in ver. 1 2 the Thess. 
are exhorted to respect their spiritual 
rulers, in the present verse also to 
love them. So Schott, Olsh., and 
LUnem. The Vv. by preserving care- 



fully the order deprive us of all clue 
to the exact construction they adopt- 
ed. On the cumulative word 
direpeKirtptffa&s, oomp. ch. iii. 10, and 
notes on Eph. iii. 20. The form ^irep- 
eKirtpiffffoO is here given by Rec. with 
AD^EKLX ; appy. all mss. ; many 
Ff. Sid rh (p-yov a^&v] 
'for th^r work's sake;* on account 
both of the importance of the work 
(Heb. xiii. 17) and the earnest and 
laborious manner in which it was per- 
formed ; comp. Phil, i 22, ii. 30. 
<lpi|Vfi)trf 4v iavTots] 'Be at peace 
among yourselves / comp. Mark ix. 50, 
Rom. xii. 18, 2 Cor. xiii. 11. On this 
not uncommon use of the reflexive for 
the reciprocal pronoun (dXXi^Xots), see 
Jelf, Gr. § 654. 2, ApoUon. de Synt, 
II. 27, and for the general principle 
and limits of the permutation, KUhner 
on Xen. Mem. 11. 6. 20. Of the con- 
verse use (recipr. for refl.) there is no 
distinct trace found; see Bomhardy, 
Synt. VI. 2, p. 273. The reading ai>- 
Totf [D^FG^ J many mss. ; Augiens., 
Vulg., Syr. (both), al. j Chrys., Theod.], 
though distinguished by GrieshacK's 
highest commendatory mark (Mndicat 
lectionem supparem aut sequalem, im- 
mo forsitan prseferendam receptee lec- 
tioni'), certainly does not seem to 
deserve it, as it arose in all probability 
from the feeling that the short admo- 
nitioi^ was out of place between the 
longer ipbrrCifAev S4 k.t.X. (ver. 12) and 
xapaKoK, B4 k.t.\, (ver. 14). Under 
any circumstances it can scarcely bear 
the meaning 'pacem habete cum eis,' 
Vulg., Syr. (comp. Chrys., Theod.), as 
this would so much more naturally 
have been expressed by elpjiveiere ^JVff 
a&rQv, as in Rom. xii. 18. 



68 



nP02 GESSAAONIKEIZ A. 



18 Kvpi(p ia-ofieda* wo-re TrapaKoXeire aWi^Xoug ev T019 

V. IleOi ^e tS>V YpOVtt)!/ KOI tS>V Kat' Ye know that the dar 

r Ar of the Lord cometh sud- 

pS,p, iSe\(l>o[, oi5 xp^lau ?x«Te iJ^uiV ypd- ^J^^Ve^" StSi' ^^ 

,/j »^\^ O^"^ «* appointed us not for 

a <p€(ruar avroi yap aKpipco^ oioare on wrath, but for salvation. 



diately following Christ's descent to 
judgment (see Jackson, Creed, xi. 12. 
Ji 2) and His final and eternal union 
with His Saints in the heavenly J erusa* 
lem (Rev. xxi. xxii.) are to he collect- 
ed from other passages (see Alf. in loc.)» 
KoX oifrws K.T.X.] ^ and to shall we he 
jever together vnth the Lwd;'' so, in 
consequence of this dpTrd^eo-^at,— the 
Buhject of the i<r6fi€$a (Hesych. jStti- 
ao/icp) being clearly both classes pre- 
viously mentioned. The force of the 
ff^if, as implying not merely an accom- 
panying (Aterd) but a coherence with, 
should not be left unnoticed ; see notes 
on Eph. vi. 23. 

18. cStrrf] ^So then,* * Consequently ;* 
in consequence of the foregoing reve- 
lation. On the force of cSorc and its 
connexion with the imperative mood, 
flee notes on Phil. ii. 12. 
iropaKoXctrf] 'console;* not here 
'exhort,' * teach,' ^th. (both), but, in 
accordance with the preceding tva fi^ 
Xwijirde (ver. 13),* consolamini, ' Vulg. , 

Clarom., Goth., -_>],> oSd Syr., and 

X f 

Amilarly the remaining Yv.: see notes 
on ch. V. 1 1, and on Eph. iv. i. 
iv Tots X6Y0is Toi»TOtsl 'toith these 
i€ords;* not * words of faith* (Olsh.), 
hut 8inq)ly 'these words' (ro&roit not 
without emphasis), — the words in 
which the Apostle here delivers to them 
his inspired message ; tovto 8i \4yei 
pw Kol fnfrQi i^KOUffc irapd toO OeoD, 
Ohrys. on ver. 15. The iy is here used 
in that species of instrumental sense 
in which the action, iSsc, of the verb 
is conceived as existing in t^ means; 



' Solent Graeci pro Latinoruni ablative 
instrumenti saepe iv praepositionem po- 
nere, significaturi in eft re cu jus nomini 
prtepositio adjuncta est vim aut facul- 
tatem alicujus rei agendaB sitara esse,' 
Wunder, Soph. Philoct. 60, see exx. 
in Raphel, Annot. Vol. ii. p. 549. Thus 
in the present case the irapdKXria is 
may be conceived as contained in the 
divinely inspired words themselves; 
comp. Jelf, Or. § 622. 3 b. 

Chapter V. i. Ilipl 8^ igt.X.] 

* But concerning the times and the 
seasons,* soil, of the Lord's coming, 
TTJi ffwreXclai, Tlieoph. The terms 
Xp6voi and xatpbs are not synonymous : 
the former denotes time indefinitely, 
the latter a definite period of time 
(fjiipoi XP^^^^* ^ fKfierprifUyujp iifiepOp 
aijffTTifjLa, Thom.-M. p. 489, ed. Bern.), 
and thence derivatively the right or 
fitting time ; comp. Ammon. de Diff. 
Voc. p. 80, 6 yih Kaipbs SrIXoi T0i6rriTa 
...XP^oi 6k ToadrriTa, and see Titt- 
mann, Synon. I. p. 41, where the 
meaning of Kaipht is carefully investi- 
gated, and Trench, Synon, Part 11. 
§ 7. The force of the plural has 
been somewhat differently estimated. 
On the whole, it seems most natural 
to refer it, not to the length of the 
periods (Domer, de Orat. Christ. Eschat. 
p. 73), but simply to the plurality 
either of the acts or of the moments of 
the time (Ltlnem.). There 

appears no reason to take Kal here as 
explanatory (Koch) : the two words 
are simply connected by the copula; 
comp. Acts L 7, xp^povt rj KcupovSy 



IV. 1 8- V. 3- 691 

i^fxepa J^vpiou o)9 KXiirrtj^ ev vvkt\ ovtws €p)(€Tau orav 3 



Ecoles.iii. t, 6 xp^^^^t f^^^ Kuphs, Dan. 
ii. 21, Kaipoiti koI xP^f'^^^h Wisdom 
viiu 8, KaipQv xal XP^^^^' 
o4 XP^^y ^•'"•l ' y^ ^^^ '"^ need** a 
ira/><£\6<^(f, Bee notes on cb. iv. 9. The 
reason why there was no need does 
not seem here to be due to any dcri^/A- 
<popov (CEuum., compare Chrys., and 
Acts i. 7) in the Apostle here writing 
to them on the subject, but, as the 
next verse suggests, because they bad 
been accurately informed by him by 
word of mouth of all that it was ne- 
cessary for them to know. On the 
qualifying and explanatory object-infi- 
nitive, see Krtiger, Sprachl, § 55. 3, 
comp. § 50. 6. 4, 5. 

1, dicptpMs] * accurately/ only used 
ODce again by the Apostle, in Eph. v. 
15. The use of this adverb, considered 
exegetically, is very striking. It cer- 
tainly seems to point to special and 
definite information on the subject; 
but whether this was derived from a 
written Gospel (Words w.) or from the 
oral communications of the Apostle 
cannot possibly be determined. The 
latter seems much the most probable ; 
comp. 2 Thess. ii 5. The derivation 
of dKp. is slightly doubtful ; most pro- 
bably from dKpos in a locative form 
(d*fpi), and a root BA-, Benfey, Wur- 
zellex. Vol. i. p. 158. i|)Upa 

KvpCov] * the day of the Lordy * soil. 
rrj% dcffTOTiKTJs ^Tt^cwefos, Theod.; the 
day of our Lord's coming to judgment 
(comp. KeuRS, Thiol, Chrit. iv. 21, 
Vol. II. p. 243), i 6 vibi rod AfSpdjirov 
inoKoKOiTTerat, Luke xvii. 30 ; comp. 
I Cor. i. 8, V. 5, 2 Cor. i. 14, Phil. L 
6, and for the somewhat similar U\^ 
njn^., Joel i. 15, ii. I, Ezek. xiii. 5, al. 
To refer it to the destruction of Jeru- 
fialem (Hamm.), or to include in it 
rV lSf'<"^ iKdffrov ^pApav (Theoph., 
comp. notes on Phil, L 6), is here dis- 



tinctly at variance with the context, 
which treats solely and entirely of the 
Lord's Tapovffia, The reading is 

hardly doubtful. Itec. gives ij iip,, with. 
AKL; most mss.; many Ff.; but 
though the ^ might have been absorbed 
in the ^ of the following iifnipa, the 
probability of insertion (as more defi- 
nitive) and the preponderance of un- 
cial authority [BDEFGX] are in 
favour of the omission: so Lachm., 
Tisch. «St icXIimis 4v vvktC] 

^as a thief cometh in the night f^ soil. 
fpx^rai ; ^1^ vvktI not being added as a 
quasi-epithet to ^cX^rriys, but belonging 
to an unexpressed fpx^Tai ; see Winer, 
Gr, § 20. 4, p. 126, note. This solemn 
and regular Scripture simile (comp. 
Matth. xxiv. 43, Luke xii. 39, 2 Pet. 
iii. 10, Rev. iii. 3, xvi. 15) does not 
contain any reference to the dread felt 
with regard to the coming (Schott, 
compare Alf.), but simply to the r6 
alipvLbiop (Theod.) : see jesp. Eev. iii. 3, 
r7|w u)j K\4Trrjs Kal oi fi^ yy(fii Tola» 
iBpa¥ ri^u) iTl aiy and comp. Usteri, 
Lehrb. 11. 2. B, p. 337. The addition 
iv vvktI (comp. how^vei* Matth. xxiv, 
43, To^^ ^i/XaK^) is peculiar to this 
place, and (combined with Matth. L e, 
and XXV. 6) may have given rise to the 
ancient tradition of the early Church 
(noticed by Liinem.) that Christ was 
to come at night on Easter Eve; 
compare Lact. Inst. vn. 19 (* intern* 
pestft et tenebros& nocte'), and Jerome 
on Matth. XXV. 6. oSrwf 

(pXcrai] * 80 it cornea;* the ovrtas being 
added to give force and emphasis to 
the comparison. The pros, ipx^rai is 
not for a future (Pelt, al), nor yet to 
mark the suddenness of the event 
(Bengel, Koch), but its fixed nature 
and prophetic certainty; see Winer, 
Gr, § 40. 2, p. 237, comp. Bemhardy, 
Synt, X. 2, p, 371. 



70 



IIP02 eE22AA0NIKEI2 A. 



Xeyoocriv Eipi^vij koi a(r(j)d\€ta^ totc ai(f)viSi09 avroig 
€(j)i<rTaTai oX^Opog wawep ij cSS\v rp iv ya<rTp\ e-^ovtry^ 



3. Ihxiv XfyMo-iv] * When they may 
#0^/ oertamly not the Jews (Hamm.), 
nor even their persecutors generally 
(Ohrys.), but all unbelieving and un- 
thinking men ; oomp. Matth, xxiv. 38, 
39, Luke xvii. 26 — 30. The true be- 
fevers were always watching and wait- 
ing) knowing the uncertainty and un- 
expectedness of the hour of the Lord's 
coming; comp. Matth. xxiv. 44, xxv. 
13, Luke xii. 35—^40. After Htw Rec, 
inserts ybip with EL; most mss.; 
Vulg.; aL: Lachm* after l^rw inserts 
H in brackets, as it is found in BD £K ^ ; 
Copt, Syr.-Phil; Chrys., Theod. 
Though Ik is well supported, and not 
unoommonly exchanged with 7(i/t> (see 
notes <m Galr i. ir), still the tendency 
to supply expletives is so very decided 
(Mill, Prolegom. p. clvi.) that we are 
justified in reading simply Stop with 
AFG^^; 4 mss,; Clarom., Syr., Groth,, 
.^h, (both); many Lat. Ff. So 
Tiaeh.f Grieab., Schok, Jk W., LH/nem., 
Alf. 

ElfM{vf| Kot d^^^fia] 'Peace and 
9afety,* soil, iffrb, — ^is everywhere pre- 
sent; comp. E^ek* xiii. 10, Xiyom-a 
"Etlfyfjinf, Kol o^K itrrtnf tlfy^- The 
distinction between these words is ob- 
vious: the first [etpot, necto, or more 
probably dp-, ftpu, dico ; comp. B^n- 
fey, WtM^Uex, Vol. Ii. p, 7] betokens 
an inward repose and security; the 
latter [a, trMWia ; comp. Sanscr. root 
phal, Heb. 7B"J, Pott, Etym, Foraoh, 
Vol I. p. 238, Donalds. Crat, § 209] 
a sureness i^d safety that is not in* 
terfered with or compromised by out- 
ward obstacles, t^ti al^vC- 
Siot icT.X.] 'then with tuddermess doea 
destruction come v/pon them;* al^vlSioi 
not being a mere epithet (adjectivum 
fittributum), 'sudden destr./ Auth., 



'plotzliches Verderben/ De W., but a 
iKcoDdary predication of manner (ad- 
jectivum appositum), soil, 'repentinus 
eis superveniet,' Vulg,, Syr., Copt. 
[chen ou-exapina], al., and fully em- 
phatic ; see esp. Donalds. Cratyl. § 303, 
and MUller, Kleine Schriften, Vol. i. 
p. 310; comp. Winer, ^. § 54. 2, p. 
412, and notes on Col. ii. 3. The 
verb itpUrrarai may be either simply 

* imminet,* Beza, or more derivatively 

* superveniet,' Vulg. (but not fut.), 
being a 'verbum solemn e de rebus 
hominibusve citius quam quis existi- 
maverit adstantibus,' Schott; see esp. 
Luke xxi. 34, /iifiiroT€..,i7rurTy i<f>* 
^fias al<fwldios ^ ij/i4pa {al<f>, does not 
occur elsewhere in the N.T.). On 
SKeOpot, eomp. notes on i Tim, vi. 9. 
ih^tp ^ <&SCv] 'at the birth-pang.* 
The true point of the appropriate 
comparison {'irip vim eam compara- 
tivam quam habet Cas usitato more 
anget atque e^rt,' E^lotz, Devar. VoL 
n. p. 768) is neither the knowledge 
that the event is to come (Theod.), 
nor its nearness (De W.), but, as the 
context seems clearly to suggest, its 
sttddenness and uncertainty; 'mulier 

doloris materiam gestat absque 

sensu, donee inter epulas et risus vel 
in medio somnio corripitur,* Calv. 
The form (bSb, like the form BeXtfUv, 
belongs to later Greek ; comp. Winer, 
Gr. § 9. 2, p. 61. 

TJ h ■yowrTpl <X®^*ni] Th« regular 
formula in the N. T., Matth. i. 18, 
23, xxiv. 19, Mark xiii. 17, Luke xxi. 
23, Rev. xii. 2. The more usual ex- 
pression in earlier Greek appears to 
have been Ar yoffrpl ip4p€w (Plato, 
Legg. vii. p. 792 «, comp. Hom. IL 
VI. 58), or iyK^pMv etvai or ylyv€ffda{f 
as in Plato, Epin. p. 979 a, aL 



V. 4. 



71 



/cac ov fivi €K<pvyw<riv. vfiei^ oe, aoeKipoif ovk eo're 4 
ei/ (TKoreiy 1.va ijiiag Jj tj/jiepa W9 KXeimjg KaraXd^fi* 

4. iJ/*ay ii ii/JL4pa] So Lachm. with ADEFG; Vulg., Clarom., appy. -ffith. 
(both) ; many Lat. Ff. {Tiack. ed. 1, -ScAoW, LUnem,, Koch). C is here de6cient. 
The simpler order of Rec. ^ iifiipa itfias is retained by TUch, ed. «, 7, with 
BKLK; appy. allmss.; Goth., al.; Chrys., Theod., Dam., al. (Griesb., Alf.); 
but appy. with less probability, as the uncial authority is not decisive, and the 
change is just as likely to have been owing to & conformation to the more 
natural order, as a transposition for the sake of throwing emphasis on the ^/ms. 



oi |ii) Ik^^two^v] Hhe^ shdl in no 
wise escape,^ not t6v re x^yoy koX SKe^ 
$pov, CEcum., but simply and abso- 
lutely; comp. Heb. ii. 3, xii. 25, 
EcduR. xvi. 13. On the strengthened 
negation od /k^ with the subjunctive, 
see notes and refiEl on oh. iv. 15. 

4. i|ifts S4] *But ye;^ in opposi- 
tion to the unthinking and unbelieving 
noticed in the preceding verse: ' ocoa- 
sione acoeptft ex superioribus adhor- 
tatur Christianos ad vigilantiam, so- 
brietatem, et sanctimouiam,' Galv. 
In the following words it is scarcely 
necessary to say that itrrk cannot pos- 
sibly be imperatival (Flatt) : both the 
negative and the non- occurrence of 
the imper. iare in the N.T. utterly 
preclude such a translation. 
4v o-K^rci] *in darkness,* in the ele- 
ment or region of it. The ^Kdrot here 
mentioned seems to have been sug- 
gested by the preceding iv vvktI (ver. 
2) : it does not mark exclusively either 
t6¥ 9K9TeiV^ KOiX djciHapToif fiUnf 
(Chrys., Theoph., GScum.), as might 
seem suggested by the succeeding 
verse, or rV dypoicLv (Theod.), as is 
partially suggested by the preceding 
verse, but, as the general context re- 
quires, botkf — 'statum ignorantiss et 
vitii,' Turretin. It was a darkness 
not only of the mind and understand- 
ing (£ph. iv. 18) but of the heart and 
will (i John ii. 9); see Andrewes, 
Serm. xiv. Vol. in. p. 371. 



tva ifiot K.r.X.] *ttt order that the 
day should surprise yau;* not merely 
a statement of result, but of the pur- 
pose contemplated by Gt>d in His mer- 
ciful dispensation implied in o^k io'vi 
ip c-Kdru, See Winer, Cfr. § 53. 6, 
p. 408. It may be doubted however 
whether we have not here some trace 
of A secondary force of tva (see notes 
on Eph, i. 17), the eventual conclu- 
sion being in some degree mixed up 
with and obscuring the i^ea of finality; 
oomp. GaL v. 17. Considering the 
numerous instances of a secondary 
final use of &a which the writings of 
the N.T. (esp. those of St John, 
Winer, Cfr. § 44. 8, p. 303) distinctly 
supply, and a remembrance of the 
ultimate decline of the particle into 
the ¥ii of modern Greek (Corpe, Or, p. 
129), it is prudent to beware of over- 
pressing the final force in all oases; 
comp. Winer, Or, Lc, p. 299 sq. 
The 'day' here specified is not speci- 
fically the day of judgment [1^ ijfjiipa 
iKcUnf FG ; Vulg., Clarom., Syr.], but, 
as the context seems to require, the 
period of light (De W.), which indeed 
becomes practically synonymous with 
the day of the Lord, as bearing salva- 
tion (comp. Kom. xiii. 12), and bring- 
ing to light the hidden things of dark- 
ness (i Cor. iv. 5). Kara- 

XdPt)] ^overtake,* * surprise,* yi^ 
Syr., * adprehendat,* Clarom., 'gafa- 



72 



HP02 eE22AA0NIKEI2 A. 



5 irdvre^ ya^ot vjulcU vio\ (fywTog icre koi vioi ^jmepag. ovk 

6 icTfiev VVKT09 ovSe (TKOTOvg. ^Apa ovv firj KadevScofiev 

7 wg KOI 01 XoiTToly dXXa ypfiyopcojmev /caJ vi^(f)(ojuLev. oi 



hai,' Goth. ; the Karb, here not intro- 
ducing any definite sense of hostility 
(comp. Koch), but, as usual, being 
simply intensive, and deriving its fur- 
ther shades of meaning from the con- 
text : see the good collection of exam- 
ples in Rest u. Palm, Lex, s.v. Vol. i. 
p. 16234 Hie reading icX^irraf 

[Lcichm. with AB; Copt.] has cer- 
tainly not sufficient critical support. 

5. irdvTt9yapi^€l9] *foryeall;* 
confirmation of the preceding negative 
statement by a more specific positive 
declaration. The particle ydp, which 
we can hardly say with Schott is 
<haud necessaria ad sententiam,' is 
omitted by Bee, but on authority 
[K (e sil.); majority of mss. ; Vulg. 
(Amiat.)] decidedly insufficient. 
tlol ^c»t6s] ' sons of light;' a Hebra- 
istic formula (comp. Ewald, Gr. § 287) 
estpressing with considerable emphasis 
and significance, not merely that they 
'belonged to the light' (Alf.), but that 
they belonged to it in the intimate 
way that children belong to a parent, 
— almost of rd toO ifxarbs irpdrrovTes, 
Ohrys., Theoph. : see Winer, Gr. § 34. 
3; b. note 2, p. 213, Steiger on i Pet. 
i. 14, p. 153, and notes 6n Eph. ii. 2. 
Somewhat analogous e^itpressions are 
found in classical Greek; ifacSes <ro- 
4fQp, TcuSes Upifop ir.r.X.', but appy. 
n(3ver (as here) in connexion with 
Abstract diibfltantives ; comp. Blomf. 
on .^Esch. Pers. 408. 
o^K kriilv wiet6s] ' We belong not to 
night :^ the genitive idiomatically spe- 
cifying the ddmain to which the sub- 
jects belong; comp. Acts ix. 2, and see 
Winer, Gn § 30. 5, p. 176. On the 
various meanings in which this pos- 
sessive gen. is connected with c&at 



and ylyvcffdai, see Kriiger, Sprachl. 
§ 47. 6. I sq., Berniiardy, Synt. 111. 46, 
p. 165, and on the very intelligible 
Xtatr/Aos [^wj, ^/A^pa...i'iJ|, <rK&ros], see 
Jelf, Gr. § 904. 3, Madvig, Lat. Gr. 
§473. a. The reading ^ark [D^FG; 
Syr. (not Phil.), Clarom., Goth., al.] 
is obviously a conformation to the 
preceding iar^. 

6. "Apa o^v] 'Accordingly theni* 
exhortation following on the preceding 
declaration, the illative d/)a being sup- 
ported and enhanced by the collective 
and retrospective 0^; see notes on 
Gttl. vi. 10. In Attic Greek this com- 
bination is only found in the case of 
ihe interrogative dpa, comp. Klotz, 
Devar. Vol. 11. p. 181, Herm. Viger, 
No. 292, and Stallb. on Plato, Republ. 
V. p« 462 A. 1&1) Ka6cii8«>|icv] 

* let us not sleep,'* i. e. be careless and 
indifferentj fi^ dfxeXwfjLev ruv KoKiav 
dpytav, Theoph. ; comp. Eph. v. 14, and 
the very pertinent remarks of Beck> 
Christ. Lehrwiss. Vol. I. p. 299 (cited 
by Koch), on the deepening sleep of 
the sbul under the influence of sin| 
see also Beck, Seelenl. i. 8, p. 18. 
ot XoiiroC] Uhe rest;* here obviously 
unbelievers, whether careless Jews or 
ignorant heathens ; comp. ndtes on ch; 
iv. 13. Lachm. omits the kcA before 
ol Xotiroi with A!l^ ; 2 mss. ; Augiens., 
Vulg. (Amiati)» Syr.; al., but appy. in 
opposition td St Paul's prevailing 
usage ; comp. i Cor. ix. 5, Eph. ii. 3, 
and above, ch. iv. 13. • vi^^ficv] 

*6e sober;* comp. i Pet. v. 8. The 
vflifxafJLfv enhances the preceding ypityo- 
pCifiGf ; Christians were not only to be 
wakeful, but have all their senses and 
capacities in full exercise : h ^fiipq. &v 
ypvyopv "» A*^ '^U ^^ pivplois wepiTc- 



V. 5—8. 



73 



yap KaOevSovTCf pvktos KaOevSovariVf xat oi /aeOvcrKOfJievoi 
vuKTOS jneOvova-iv ^/jlcU Se tj/uiipag ^vrej vii(f>(aiUL€P, ev»- 8 
SuGTUjULepoi ddpaxa iriarTetog Koi aydirrjg koi irepiKC^a^ 



aeiTai SewoUy Chrys. On the regular 
meaning of this verb, which appears 
to be always that of * sobriety,' not of 
' watchfulness ' or * wakefulness' (as 
perhaps CEcum., iirlTaais iyprjydpffcw), 
see notes on 2 Tim. iv. 5, and i TVm. 
iii. 2. 

7. ol Tap KaBcvSovTfs] * For they 
that sleep,^ * sleeperSy^ Winer, Gr. §45. 
7« P* 316) confirmatory explanation of 
the preceding exhortation by a refer- 
ence to the prevailing habits of non- 
Christian life. At first sight it might 
seem plausible to give all the words in 
this verse a spiiritual reference (Chrys., 
Theoph., Koch); as however pvKrbs 
seems only to mark the period when 
the actions referred to usually took 
place, the literal and proper meaning 
is distinctly to be preferred: *quem- 
admodum in hoc versu dormire ita 
etiam ebrium esse dicitur proprie, tan> 
quam exemplum ejusmodi sentiendi 
agendique rationis quae nonnisi homi- 
num sit in caligine nucturn& lubenter 
versantium,' Schott; so LUnem. and 
Alf. ol |icOv<rK6|icvoi] ^they 
that are drunken,^ The distinction ad- 
vocated by Beng., * fA€$6aK0fxai notat 
actum, fji€06(i) statum' (comp. Clarom. 
Mnebriantur...ebrii sunt'), seems here 
more than doubtful. The transition 
from * being made drunk' to 'being 
actually drunk' is do slight (in Host 
u. Palm, Lex, a. vv. both are translated 
'berauscht seyn'), that with the pre- 
ceding Ka6€6doifT€S...Ka6€C8ov<riy before 
us it seems best to regard them here 
as simply synonymous. 

8. <4h^<^ ^ K.r.X.] *but let va, as 
we ait of the day:"" not exactly 'qui 
die! Bumus,' Vulg., Clarom., but 'quum 
Bimus/ u£th. (Piatt), Arm., comp. 



Goth, 'visandans;' the participle not 
being here used predicatively, but with 
a slightly causal, or combined ' tem- 
poral-causal ' force; see Schmalf^ld, 
Synt. de8 Gr. Verb. § 207, comp. Do- 
nalds. Gr.% 615. On the connexion of 
the gen. with elfil, see notes on ver. 5. 
lv8v(rd|iivoi,] ' having put on ;' tempo- 
ral participle defining the action con- 
temporaneous with or perhaps, more 
probably, immediately preceding the 
irfj^iv. The Apostle now passes into 
his favourite metaphor of the Christian 
soldier; comp. Kom. xiii. 12, 2 Cor. 
X. 4, and esp. Eph. vi. i f , where not 
only (as here) the defensive^ but the 
offensive portions of the equipment 
are described. The 'armatura' here 
consists of the three great Christian 
virtuesj Faith, Love, and Hope, the 
first and second forming the breast- 
plate (aliter Eph. vi. 14, 16), the third 
(similarly Eph. vi. 17, see notes) the 
helmet; comp. Keuss, l^oL Chrit. 
IV. 22, Vol. n. p. 259, 260. 
9«Spaka irCvTCMs] * a shield of faith,* 
or more probably * the shield^ &c.,' 
the second and third substantives, aa 
well known terms, here dispensing 
with the article (Winer, Gr. § 19. i, 
p; 109), and causing the governing 
noun to be also anarthrous on the 
principle of correlation (Middl. Gr, 
Art. III. 3. 6). The gen. is that of 
'apposition;' see notes and reff. on 
Eph. vi. 14, KoX ircpiKf^. K.T.X.J 

'and as a helmet the hope of scUvation ;* 
a defence that can never fail. With 
hope fixed on the iwriYvekfiivri fftarviplm 
(Theod.) all the dangers and trials of 
the present seem Hght and endurable ; 
KaOdvep yikp ij irepiKe^akaLa rd Kolpiotf 



74 



nPOZ eE22AA0NIKEI2 A. 



9 \aiav eXirlSa a-arrrjpia^y on ovk eOero ^jma^ 6 Geo? 

€19 opyrjp ciXXa eU TrepiTroirja-iv (roDTfipla^ Sia rod 

lO J^vplou tj/uLMV ^IfiaroS XpitrTOVy rod airoQavovro^ vtrep 

tjfjLoSv Iva eire ypfjyopco/JLev eire KadevStajmev aixa <rvp 



pdXkowra xal xdyroOep areydtovffa' 
o^TU Kal i) iXirls rbv \(ryiafibf o^k 
i^lriai Siair€ff€Uff dXX' 6p06v iffTrjffiP 
iSairep K€<f>a\i^f oithh tGjv ^^(adey els 
a&rhy T€<r€w iGxra, Chrys. The gen. 
cwTfiplas is the gen. objecti, that to 
which it is directed and on which it is 
fixed, comp. ch. i. 3 {rod Kvp.), Rom. 
V. 2, and, if necessary, Winer, Gr. 
% 30. I, p. 167. 

9. ^i icT.X.] 'becauMy Sec.;'* reason 
for the use of the foregoing words 
iXirtBa <r<arriplas, expressed both nega- 
tively (oiJic iOcTo K.T,\,) and positively 
(dXXd els TepiT. k,t.\.) : 0^ irp6s tovto 
iKdiXeirep els rb dTo\4<rai dXX* els rb 
aQ<r«u, Chrys. o^k I0cro if|ia« 

icr.X.] 'appointed us not unto anger,* 
i.e. to become the subjects of it, to 
fall under its punitive action. The 
form Tidivai (Acts xiii. 47) or 6i<r$ai 
els tI (i Tim. i« 12) appears to have a 
partially Hebraistic tinge and to answer 
to n^b, jnj, or n^ followed by S; 
comp. for example Psalm Ixvi. 9, Je- 
rem. ix. 11, xiii. 16. On dpyfi, see 
notes on ch. i. 10. els ircpt- 

iroCi|<riV <r«>n)pCa$] *unto obtaining of 
galvation,* ].Jl>j> (1 ■ 1 oN [ad 

acquisitionem vitse], sim. Yulg., Gla- 
rom., Copt. [toncJto,— here needlessly 
rendered * vivificatio ;' comp. Mai. iii. 
17], 'du gafreideinai ganistais,' Goth.; 
comp. 2 Thess. ii. 14, els wepiirotrfffiP 
db^rjs. Neither here, Heb. x. 39, nor 
2 Thess. I. c, is there any reason for 
departing from this simple and pri- 
mary meaning of Tepnrolri<ns ; Hesych. 
Tkeovafffibs' KTrjiris, Suid. rr^trtj. Both 
in Eph. i. 14 (see notes) and i Pet. ii. 
9, as the context shows, the use is 



wholly different, and appy. a reflection 
of the n^3p of the O. T. (comp. Acts 
XX. 28): in 2 Chron. xiv. 13 (Heb. 
iTnp), Pseud.-Plato, Def. p. 415 c (see 
Rost u. Palm, Lex. s.v.), the meaning 
seems to be rather * conservatio ;' but 
neither the one (appy. favoured by 
CEcum., comp. Theod., tva oUelovs 
d7ro(f>'fiyTj) nor the other is here either 
natural or suitable. 

Sul Tov KvpCov K.T.X.] Dependent, not 
on iOerOy but on the preceding irepi- 
Tolrfffiv (noTTiptas, and specifying the 
medium by which the (narripla was to 
be obtained. This medium is certainly 
not 'doctrinam eam quam Christus 
nobis attulit' (Grot.), nor, in this 
passage, 'faith in Him' (LUnem.), but, 
as the next verse seems to show. His 
atoning death ; comp. Eph. i. >j, and 
notes in loc. 

10. TOV diroO. ^ir^ ^H^wv] *who 
died for ««;' specification of the bless- 
ed act of redeeming love by which the 
T€piirolr)ffis <r<arrfplas has become as- 
sured to us; comp. ch, iv. 14. The 
clause, as Lunem. properly observes, 
is not causal {diroO. would then be 
anarthrous, comp. Schmalfeld, Synt. 
§222, 225 note, and Donalds. 6?r.§492), 
but relative and assertory; 'ne quid 
de salutis certitudine dubitemus aut 
de satisfactione soliciti essemus, dicit 
Christum pro nobis mortuum esse, et 
pro peccatis nostris satisfedsse, ut 
salutem consequeremur,' Calv. 
On the meaning of Inrip in dogmatical 
passages, — not exclusively * in our 
stead' (Waterl. Serm. xxxi. Vol. v. 
p. 740), see notes and reff. on Oal. iii. 
13. For {fT4p, Bi<*; 17, here read 
Tepl. tva itrt ict.X.] * in order 



V. 



9, 10, II. 



75 



avT^ l^iicrw/Aev. Sio vapaKoXeire aXXifXoi;? koi oikoSo^ 1 1 

ltJL€lT€ €h TOV eVQy ICado)? KOI irOl€lT€. 



that whether we wake or sleep/ holy 
purpose of the Lord's redeeming death. 
There is some little doubt as to the 
exact meaning of the terms KaOti^Beiw 
and ypriyopetv. It seems clear that 
they cannot be understood in a simple 
physical sense (comp. Fell), still less 
in an ethical sense, as rb KaBeCSeiM was 
described (ver. 6) as a state incompa- 
tible with Christianity. There remains 
then only the supposition that they 
are used in a metaphorical sense (comp. 
Psalm Ixxxviii. 6, Dan. xii. 2, al.), to 
which also the following ^acafxep seems 
very distinctly to guide us. The mean- 
ing then is substantially the same as 
Rom. xiv. 8, idv re odv ^fiev idy re 
diro0irffaK(afA€v rod Kvplov itrfAiv, 
It is not exact td say that the sub- 
junctive with etT€...€tT€ as here is not 
classical ( Alf.), for see Plato, Leffg» xii. 
p. 958 D (V. 1.). As a general rule etre 
is associated with the same moods as 
el (Klotz, Ikvar, Vol. Ii. p. 533); as 
however there are cases in which it 
is now admitted that el can be asso- 
ciated with the subj. {*el cum conjunct, 
respectum comprehendit experientisB, 
expectandumque esse indicat ut fiat 
aut non fiat/ Herm. de Part. Hv, n. 7, 
see Klotz, Devar, Vol. n. p. 500 sq.), 
a similar latitude may rightly be as- 
signed to etre. It seems probable here 
that the subj. is used in the dependent 
clause by way of conformity with the 
subj. in the principal clause; comp. 
Winer, O. § 41. 2. c, p. 263 (note). 
A|ia vhv a.iir^ M<r.] ^we should together 
live with Him,^ not 'together with 
him,' Auth.; the i^ vdv Xpiffri^ form- 
ing the principal idea, while the Afia 
(Heb. I'JH!) subjoins the further no- 
tion of aggregation; comp. Rom. iii. 
1 2, and see notes on ch. iv. 1 7, where 
the previous specifications of time 



make the temporal meaning the 
more plausible. The ^-fyrtanev is both 
more emphatic than MfieOa (ch. iv. 
17), and also serves slightly to eluci- 
date the metaphorical use of the pre- 
ceding words. 

II. 816] 'Wherefore,' 'On which 
account/ not exactly * quae cum ita 
sint' (Alf.), but 'quamobrem* (see 
Klotz, Devar. Vol. n. p. 1 73, who cor- 
rectly assigns the former meaning to 
odv), thereby serving to place in closer 
logical connexion the foregoing decla- 
ration and the present exhortation. 
On the uses of this particle by St Paul, 
see notes on Gal. iv. 31. 
irapaKoXcCrt] * comfort/ * console/ 

o|.kJD Syr., ' oonsolamini,' Vulg., 

not ' exhortamini,' Clarom.: the ana- 
logy of this verse to ch. iv. 17 (where 
the contextual argument for the pre- 
sent sense is very strong) appears to 
require a similarity of translation, 
more especially as the hortatory tone 
(ver. 6) seems now to have merged into 
the consolatory. The exact meaning 
of this word is frequently somewhat 
doubtful: it is used more than fifty 
times in St Paul's Epp., with several 
varieties of meaning which can only 
be decided on by a careful considera- 
tion of the context; comp. notes on 
Col, ii. 2. cts rhv Iva] * one the 

other/ equivalent in meaning todXXi^ 
Xous; see exx. in Kypke, Annot. Vol, 
II* P* 339> ^^ of which however, except 
Theocr. Idyll, xxii. 65, are from late 
authors. Compare ol Ka6* ^i/a, Eph. 
"v* 33» and the somewhat analogous 
eU Tpbs fpOf Plato, Legg, I. p. 626 c, 
al. ; see Winer, Cfr, § 26. 2, p. 156. 
To regard ets as a prep., and to refer 
t6v fva to Christ, is in the highest 
degree forced and improbable; see 



76 



IIP02 eE22AAONIKEI2 A. 



12 



\ ^ 9 « « ^ .. ful and prayerful and 



TOl/9 KOTTlCOVTag €V VfJLlV KQl irpOKTTa^ thankful. Quench not 

' the Spirit: and may God 

KOI VOvOerOVP' sanctify and preserve 



jlACVOVg VJJLCOV €V KujOift) 



LUnem. in loc. The metaphorical 

term oUodofAew (i Cor. viii i, z. 23, 
al.) is derived from the idea, elsewhere 
both expres^ied and implied in St PauPs 
Epp., that Christians form a vabs or 
olKodofi.il Qeov; see 1 Cor. iii. g, 16, 
2 Cor. vi. 16, Epb. il 20, al., and comp. 
Andre wes, Serm. vi. Vol. ii. p. 273. 
KaOtts Kal iroutrf] 'even as ye also 
are doing/ praise and encouragement 
founded on the actual state of the 
Tbessalonian cburcb ; comp. ch. iv. i, 
10. On the force of kuI in compara- 
tive sentences of this kind, see notes 
o» Eph. V. 23. 

12. *£p«>Ttt)uv 84 'Now we beseech 
you;* transition, by means of tbe 8^ 
fiera^aTLKdv (see notes on Gal, iii. 8), 
to tbeir duties towards the rulers of 
tbe church, — a subject not improbably 
suggested by tbe words immediately 
preceding. In no case could the pre- 
cept olKoSofxeiTe cTs rbv hfo. be carried 
out with greater practical benefit to 
themselves and to the church at large 
than by showing respect to their ap- 
pointed spiritual teachers. On the 
meaning of ipoyraUf see notes on ch. 
iv. I. 

clSlvai] *to hnoib,' *to regard,' 'ut 
rationem ac respectum habeatis,' Est.; 
not 'to show (by deeds) that you 
know' (Koch), but simply *to know,* 
t.e. * not to be ignorant of,' * to recog- 
nise fully;' this somewhat unusual 
meaning of eld, being analogous to 
that of the Heb. VT (see Gesen. Lex, 
B.v. 8), and here approximating in 
meaning to iviyiiubc-Keuff i Cor. xvi. 
18. No instance of a similar or even 
analogous usage has as yet been ad- 
duced from classical Greek. 
Tov« KoiriMVTas 4v ijitv] 'thote who 



are labouring among youj^ * those who 
are engaged in sacred and ministerial 
duties;' comp. i Tim. v. 17, where 
the more specific iv Xdytp is supplied. 
On the meaning and derivation of 
K6iros, Koiriduff see notes on i Tim. iv. 
10. This general designation, as the 
following explanatory terms seem to 
suggest, is to be referred to the Pres- 
byters of the Church of Thessalonica 
(Thorndike, Prim. Gov, ch. m. Vol. i. 
p. 8, A.-C. Libr), iv ifjuv obviously 
having no ethical reference, iv rats 
Kapd, vfA&v (Flatt), still less 'in vobis 
docendis' (Zanch.), but simply imply- 
ing *in vestro coetu' (Schott), 'inter 
vos,' Vulg., — with mere local refer- 
ence to the sphere of the Kdwos, 
Kal irpourrofUvovs ict.X.] ^and are 
presiding over you in the Lord;* fur- 
ther explanation and specification of 
the generic icoirtcDfras. The omission 
of the article plainly precludes any 
reference of the three participles to 
three different ministerial classes : the 
KoiTiCinrrei are simply regarded under 
two forms of their spiritual labour, as 
rulers and practical teachers, and as 
'morum magistri,' Grot. Whether 
these duties were executed by the 
same or different persons cannot be 
determined; at this early period of 
the existence of the Church of Thess. 
the first supposition seems much the 
most probable; contrast Eph. iv. ii, 
I Tim. V. 1 7. The sphere of the 

TpdtiTTaadai was to be ^ Kvpltfi: oi/K 
iv ToTs KOfffUKois d\K h rots icard 
Kiipiov, Theoph. Kal vovOc- 

TOvvTOs ipAf] ^and admonithing you,* 
*et monent vos,' Vulg.; not simply 

> g\\Vi [doceiites] Syr.^ but 



V. 12, 13, 14- 



77 



ra^ vjtia^y koi ^yeicrdai avrovg virepeKTrepia-arS)^ ^^ ^3 
ayaTTfi Sia to epyop avriov. elptiveier^ ev eavroig, 
HapaKa\ovjuL€V Se vjia^y aS€\(j>oi, vovOereiTe rovg ara- 14 



^Li^ [admonentes] Syr. -Phil., 

with reference to the ' exhortationes 
et corrtptionea* (Est.) which it might 
be their duty to administer. Ou the 
proper meaning of vovOertiVf — pri- 
marily * to correct by word^ (vovdirriffii' 
\6yos iwiTifiriTiKbs hfCKa Arorpoirrit 
&/iapTlat, Zonar. Lex. p. 1406), and 
then derivatively by deed — see Trench, 
Synon, § 32, and the numerous exx. 
collected by Kypke, Obs. Vol, 11. p. 

339- 

13. Kal ifYft<r6ai K.T.X.] 'and to 
esteem tlpem in love vei*y highly,* These 
words appear to admit of two trans- 
lations according as iv dydir'o is con- 
nected (a) loosely with all the fore- 
going words, marking the element 
(certainly not the caufle, Schott 2, 1 ) 
in which the ijyeTirdai ai>Toi>s inrepeK- 
Tepijffios is to be put in force, — or (6) 
closely with the preceding iiyeTaBai 
as specifying and enhancing the gene- 
ral duty implied in the preceding 
eldivaif ver. 12. Both involve some 
lexical difficulties, as in (a) iiyciaOai 
must be regarded as equivalent to 
TXelovoi d^iovv (Theod.), and in (6) 
ijyeTadai iv dydtr-js must be taken as 
iiyeTffOai a^oifs d^lovs tov dyavaurdai 
(Chrys., Theoph., iCEcum.), — solutions 
neither of them very strictly defen- 
sible. On the whole, the context, the 
appy. similar irY€i<r6aL n 4v Kplirei, 
Job XXXV. 2 (Schott), and perhaps the 
analogous ii' dpyg (x^iv rtvd, Thucyd. 
II. 18 (LUnem.), seem to preponderate 
in favour of (6): in ver. 12 the Thess. 
are exhorted to respect their spiritual 
rulers, in the present verse also to 
love them. So Schott, Olsh., and 
Lttnem. The Vv. by preserving care- 



fully the order deprive us of all due 
to the exact construction they adopt- 
ed. On the cumulative word 
vTr€peKir€pt<r<rQif oomp. ch. iii. 10, and 
notes on Eph. iii. 30. The form xtvep- 
e/cw-epttrtroO is here given by Rec. with 
AD^EKLfc^ ; appy. all mss. ; many 
Ff. Sid T^ XpYov a^ttv] 
'for their work's sake;* on account 
both of the importance of the work 
(Heb. xiii. 17) and the earnest and 
laborious manner in which it was per- 
formed ; comp. Phil, i 22, ii. 30. 
clpTivcvcrc Iv {avrots] * Be at peace 
among yourselves/ comp. Mark ix. 50, 
Eom. xii. 18, 2 Cor. xiii. 11. On this 
not uncommon use of the reflexive for 
the reciprocal pronoun (dXXiJXois), see 
Jelf, Gr. § 654. 1, ApoUon. de Synt, 
II. 37, and for the general principle 
and limits of the permutation, KUhner 
on Xen. Mem, 11. 6. 20. Of the con- 
verse use (recipr. for refl.) there is no 
distinct trace found; see Bemhardy, 
Synt. VI. 2, p. 173. The reading ad- 
ToTs [D*FG^ ; many mss. ; Augiens., 
Vulg., Syr. (both), al. ; Chrys., Theod.], 
though distinguished by Orieshach^a 
highest commendatory mark ('indicat 
lectionem supparem aut sequalem, im- 
mo forsitan prseferendam receptee lec- 
tioni'), certainly does not seem to 
deserve it, as it arose in all probability 
from the feeling that the short admo- 
nitioi^ was out of place between the 
longer iptarCj/uv d4 k,t.\. (ver. 12) and 
vapaxaX. di k.t.X, (ver. 14). Under 
any circumstances it can scarcely bear 
the meaning 'pacem habete cum eis,* 
Vulg., Syr. (comp. Chrys., Theod.), as 
this would so much more naturally 
have been expressed by elpri^eOere [ici' 
airCov, as in Rom. xii. 18. 



78 



nP02 GEZSAAONIKEIS A. 



KTOv^f irapa/JLvOeia-Oe tou9 oKiyoy^v'x^ovgy apri'xea-de 
15 tUv atrOevZvf [xaKpoOvfxelTe irpo^ iravra^. Spare fxri 



14. napoKoXovficv 8^ i|i.] *Now 
we heseech you/ address, neither Tpbs 
Toifs Apxovras (Chrys.), nor irpbs roifs 
8iSa<FKd\ovt (Theoph., (Ecum.), bnt, as 
the dSeXipol suggests, to aU (Pseud.- 
Ambr., Justin.). The Chriirtian bre- 
thren at Thessadonica were not only 
to be at peace with one another, but 
also to do their best to cattse peace 
to be maintained by others. 
vouOrrCtrc to^s drdicrovs] ^admonish 
the unruly;^ those who do not pre- 
serve their rd^uf, * inordinatos/ Beza, 
' ungatassans/ Goth. The term dra- 
KTos, somewhat laxly rendered by Syr. 

[1 \*SfnVn [offendentes], is prima- 

rily and properly, as Chrys. suggests, 
a 'vox militaris' (Xen. Mem, in. i. 
7, where it is opp. to reray/iivos), and 
thence derivatively a general epithet 
to denote a dissolute (Plato, Legg. vii. 
p. 806 0), ill ordered {wepUpyoi Kcd 
Topd rb Tpoa^Kov irotowres, Bekker, 
Anecd. p. 216), and unruly way of 
living: rives d4 eUrty ol draicToi; wdp* 
Tios oi irapd rb rtf &e(^ boKovi^ Tpdrrw 
res' rd^eus ydp iari r^ trrparujriKrji 
dpfioBiwr4pa aUrrf ifrd^is rijs iKK\7f<rlas, 
Chrys. Here the precise inference 19 
probably to the neglect of duties and 
callings into which the Thessalonians 
had lapsed owing to their mistaken 
views of the time of the Lord's com- 
ing; comp. ch. iv. 10, 11, and 2Thess. 
iii. 6, II, where alone drdKrus occurs. 
"Atcuctos is a dtra^ \ey6fJL.f cf. draKrebf 
1 Thess. iii. 7. On the meaning of 
vovBtreWf see notes and reff. on ver. 12. 
irapa|&v9.] See note on ch. ii. 11. 
Tois ^\rfOf^xiini%\* the feeble-minded;* 
perhaps mainly (as the irapofivd. seems 
to suggest) in reference to those who 
were unduly anxious and sorrowful 
about the state of the Kotfjub/ieyoi, ch. 



iv. 13; dXiyoyp&x.^^ '''^^^ ^""i Toty t€- 
dveuffof d^irpws ddvfiowras wv6/xaiTcv, 
Theod., — who however not injudi- 
ciously also includes rods fi^ dvdpeiias 
ip^povras rtjjv ivoarrionf y^t irpoffpoXds, 
comp. Theoph. 6\iy6\l/, 6 fi^ ^p<ay 
T€ipaafi6v. The word SXiydyp, is a 
At* \ey6fi. in the N. T., and appy. of 
rare occurrence elsewhere except in 
the LXX (Isaiah Ivii. 15, Prov. xviii. 
14, al. ; comp. Artemid/ Oneir&cr. in. 
5); the more correct and usual term 
being fiiKpdypuxos, Aristot. Ethie. Ni' 
com, IV. 7, Isocr. Panegyr. p. 76 D. 
Avr^c<r6c twv chrdcvih^] *»wjpport the 
weah;"* clearly not the Weak in body 
(Luke X. 9, Acts iv. 9, v. 15, i Cor. 
Jd. 30), but the weak in faith, roii p.^ 
idpaiav KtKTrjpiivovs irUmvy Theod.; 
comp. I Cot. viii. 7, 10, so Chrys., 
Theoph., (Ecum., and nearly all mo- 
dem commentator& In Rom. v. 6, 
and appy. i Cor. ix. 22, the reference 
seems to be more inclusive, as marking 
those who were not Christians, who 
had not yet received the strength im- 
parted by the Holy Spirit. The verb 
drrixe^'Bai (comp. Matth. vi. 24, Luke 
xvL 13, and more generically Tit. i. 9) 
does not so much seem to imply 'ob- 
servare,' Beng., as ifirepetdeiv, Theod., 
{fTOffrripl^eiPf Theoph., drriXapipdfeadai 
(Bekker, Aneed. p. 408), or perhaps 
more exactly 'sustinere,' Clarom. 
(comp. Goth^, u^h.), with a more 
direct allusion to the primary and 
physical meaning of the word ; comp. 
notes on Tit. I. c, and see Suicer, 
Thesaur. s.v. Vol. i. p. 371. 
|iaicpo$v)v. irpdf irdvras] ' he long-suf- 
fering to all;* not merely to the three 
classes just mentioned (Theoph.), but 
to all, KoX roi>% olttelovs xal rods dXKo' 
rplovs, Theod.; comp. ver. 15. On 
the term fMKpoBvfieiv opp. to d^vBvfietp 



V. 15, i6. 



79 



Tl? KGKOV avrl KQKOV Tivl CLlToStpy CcXXtt TrdvTOT€ TO 

ayaObv SicoKCTe ei? ctWiyXou? KOi ecV Trai/ra?. iravroTe 16 



15. e/y dXXiJXovs] So Lachm., Scholz, Titch. (ed. i), with ADEFGK^- 15 
ITI88. ; Syr., Copt., Goth., Clarom., al. {De TT., Kochf Litnem,t Oritih, marking 
it with ^). In ed. 2, 7, Titch, inserts /coi before eli with BKLfc<* ; great 
majority of ross. ; Syr.-Phil., Vulg. (Amiat.); Chrys., Tlieod., al. (iZec, Alf., 
Wordaw.) ; but not on satisfactory grounds, as the external authority seems to 
preponderate for the omission, and the internal arguments (opp. to Alf.) would 
certainly seem rather in favour of its being an interpolation for the sake of 
specification, than of its being omitted as unnecessary. 



(Eurip. Androm. 689), which here 
serves to mark that gentle and for- 
bearing patience which is so essentially 
a characteristic of irfdini (i Cor. xiii. 
4), seeesp. Basil, Serm. [Sym. roetaphr.] 
XIII. Vol. III. p. 784 (ed. Bened. 1839X 
the good notice in Suicer, Hietaur. 
s.v. Vol. II. p. 293 sq., Rothe, The(d. 
Eihik, § 1056 sq., Vol. II. p. 518 sq., 
and corop. 2 'Hm. iii. 10, aod notes 
and reff. on E;ph, iv. 2. Lastly, 

Tpbi is not merely * in regard to,' ' ad 
omnes,* Vulg., Ciaromr, 'oura omni- 
bus,' Copt., but more precisely and 
definitely, erga: comp. the Gk»tli. 
* vi)>ra,' and see notes on Gal, vi. 10. 

15. 6parc |iT{ Tit KT.X.] *8e€ thai 
no man render evil, &c. ;' warning 
against revenge, — yet surely not in 
the sense that the better among them 
were to check its outbreaks in other* 
(De W.), but simply that all were to 
abstain from it; see LUnem. in loc. 
The usual and correct statement that 
Christianity was the first system de- 
finitely to forbid the returning evil for 
evil (see Fritz. Horn. xiL 17, Vol. in. 
p. 91) is called in question by Jowett 
on the ground that ' Plato knew that 
it was not the true definition of jus- 
tice to do harm to one's enemies.' Not 
to multiply quotations, can we sustain 
this opinion against de Legg. ix. p. 868 B, 
p. 882, al., where vengeance rather 
than punishment seems certainly con- 
templated by the legislator? Indivi- 



dual instances of the recognition of 
this precept may be found in hea- 
thenism (see Pfanner, Tkeol. Gentil, 
eh. XI. § 23, comp. Basil, de Legend, 
Gent, Libr. §5, Vol. n. p. 251, ed. 
Bened.), but as a general statement 
the remark of Hermann, seems to be 
perfectly correct ; ' xiec laudant Grseci si 
quis iniquis eequus est, sed virtutem 
esse ccosent ssquis eequum, iniquum 
autem iniquis esse,' on Soph. PhUocU 
679. The formula hpojf fi^ (Matth. 
xviii. 10, Mark i. 44) is of less frequent 
occurrence than /SX^etv iiii (Mark 
xiii. 5, Acts xiii. 40, i Cor. x. 12, al.), 
but i» more classical and correct: for 
exx. of it in combination with the 
pres. and aor. subj., see, if necessary, 
the collection in Gayler, Pmrtik, Neg, 
p. 316 sq. diroSy] ^reliefer,' 

'usgildai,' Goth, The primary idea 
conveyed by dirodi56yat, scQ. 'ubi 
quid de aliquft eopi& das' and thenoe 
*ubi dando te exsolvis debito*^ (Winer) 
here naturally passes into that of ' re* 
tnbuere,' the KOKhv being represented 
as something stored up, out of which 
and with which payment would be 
made ; see Winer, de Verb. Comp, rv. 
p. 12, 13, where this verb is well dis- 
cussed. The opt. ikTohcS is found 
in D« (appy.) FGKS and dxoJofi; in D^ 
T^ dTttdiv Su&KCTt] * follow after that 
which is good;* not here what is 
'morally good' (Ltlnem.), but, as the 
antithesis seems rather to require^ 



80 



nPOZ GEZSAAONIKEIS A. 



17 



18 X^'^P^'^^' aSiaXeiTTTOsg irpoa-ev'xea'Oe' ev iravrl ev^api^ 



what is 'benefioial/ what proves good 
to him who receives it: oOk dpxei rb 
p,^ ATodowai icaicd dvrl KaKQy, dXXd 
XP^, <t>'ri<rif Koi dyaOdls d/AeLp€<rdai rbv 
faKOToi'fi<rayTou, Tbeoph., comp. Chrys. 
Some shade of the same meaning is 
perhaps apparent in Gal. vi. 10, Eph. 
iv. 28 (see notes): here however it 
seems to be more decidedly brought 
out by the preceding KaK6v. On the 
use of Sum>k€1¥ {iirirerafiivujs (rTrouSdfctv 
re, Theoph.) with abstract substan- 
tives or their equivalents, see notes 
and reff. on a Tim. ii. 22, and for esx. 
of the same use in classical Greek, ^ee 
Ast, Lex. Platon. a. v. Vol. i. p. 548 
flq. The correlative term is KaroKa/j.' 
pdifeiv, Phil. iii. 12, and the antithesis 
4t€&y€Uf, Plato, Gorg. p. 507 b. 

16. irdlrroTf x^^^c] * Rejoke al- 
way;^ Phil. iii. i, iv. 4, comp. 2 Cor. 
vi. 10; not merely kSj^ veipaa-fAOts 
xepiWcriyre (Theoph.), —a limitation 
not inappropriate in reference to the 
recent troubles at Thessalonica, but 
at aU times — under all circumstances 
and in all dispensations. To the en- 
quiry * Why should this be a duty ? * 
(comp. Jowett) it seems sufficient to 
say with Barrow, in his good sermon 
on this text, — 'if we scan all the doc- 
trines, all the institutions, all the pre- 
cepts, all the promises of Christianity, 
will not each appear pregnant with 
matter of joy, will not each yield great 
reason and strong obligation to this 
duty of rejoicing evermore?* Serm. 
XLm. YoL II. p. 557 ; see also sound 
and comprehensive sermons by Beve- 
ridge, Serm. cv. Vol. v. p. 62 sq. 
(A.-C. Libr.), and Donne, iSerm. oxxxi. 
Vol. V. p. 344 sq. (ed. Alf. ). The true 
originating cause (ch. i. 6) and true 
sphere (Bom. xiv. 17) of this joy is the 
Holy Spirit, and its more immediate 
source is Faith ; see notes on Phil. L 25 . 



17. dSiaXfCirrws irpo(rci>xO ^P^cfy 
vnthout ceasing;* a precept naturally 
following on and suggested by the 
foregoing words ; tV 65^" (SeL^e toO 
del xafpeci', t^v dStdXeiirror rrpoacvx^f 
Kal eirxapuTTlav' 6 yb,p idiffOeli b/jLiXew 
Ti^ 9e(p Kal edxcLpiareiv a^^ ivl itSativ 
«s <rvfJul>€p6pT(as <rvp.^aivov<n^ TrpbdrfKof 
6ti xa/>dv l^et 5i7ju€K7Jf Theoph. This 
exhortation to unceasing prayer is dis- 
tinctly urged by the Apostle in other 
passages (comp. Eph. vi. 18, Col. iv. 2), 
and is certainly neither to be explained 
away as * a precept capable of ful61- 
ment in idea rather than in fact ' 
(Jowett), nor yet, with Bp. Andrewes, 
to be referred to appointed hours of 
prayer {Serm. vi. Vol. v. p. 354, A.-C. 
Libr.), but is to be accepted in the 
simple and plain meaning of the words, 
and obeyed, as Barrow has well shown, 
by cherishing a spirit of prayer, and 
by making devotion the real and true 
business of life: see Words w. in loc, 
who appositely cites Barrow, Serm. 
Vol. I. p. 107 sq. Surely the t6 bfii- 
\eaf T(fi Qcifi (Theoph.) is one of those 
things which is real and actual ; oOSi 
toOto Tuof dbwdriav, /nj^dioy yd,p Kal ry 
iffdiotfTi rbv Qebv dvvpMelVy koI ti$ ^ahl- 
torri rifp rod Qeov cv/xfiaxiav airctf, 
Theod.; compare Hofraann, Schriftb. 
Vol. II. 1, p. 335. On the duty of 
constant prayer, see the sound remarks 
of Hammond, Pract Catech. iii. 2, p. 
224 (not quite decided on this text), 
and on the power of it, compare the 
noble epilogue of Tertullian, de Orat. 
cap. 29. 

18. 4v vavrl c^opurrctri] * In 
every thing give thanks/ not iv wayrl 
soil. Katpifi, Flatt (comp. Chrys. del), 
still less 'in iis que vobis bona sunt,* 
Est., but ip iravri soil. xM/**^*» Chrys* 

on Phil. iv. 6, ^Ji ^^QQ Syr., 



V. 17 — 20. 



81 



a-TeiTC^ TOVTO yap OiKfi/Jia Qeov ip Xpicrr^ ^IrjcroO 



•in omnibus,' Vulg., Copt.; comp. 
2 Cor. ix. 8, h irovri Tdvrore, which 
seems to fix the interpretation, and 
contrast ii^ lAtfievi, Phil. i. a%. On the 
duty of (dxctpiffrlat so often dwelt on 
by St Paul (comp. notes on Col. iii. 15), 
see Beveridge, Serm. ovii. Vol. v. p. 
76 sq., and on this and on the preced- 
ing verses Basil's homily de Oral. Act, 
Vol. II. p.. 34 (ed. Bened. 1839). 
TOVTO ydp] ^for this/ soil. t6 ^i' raiT-l 
ci^Xap. (Theoph., (Ecum.); not with 
reference to it and ver. 17 (Grot.), nor 
to it and the two preceding verses 
(Alf.), for though the three precepts 
X<tip€T€, vpo<r€i^x^ff0€, e^apKn-eiTC — 
especially the two latter — are suffi- 
ciently homogeneous in character to 
be included in the singular tovto, yet 
the peculiar stress which the Apostle 
alwa3rs seems to lay on eirxja-p. (see 
above) renders the single reference to 
c&xo-piCTia apparently more probable j 
' gratise sunt in omni re agendse, quia 
scimus omnia nobis cooperare ad bo- 
num, Rom. viii. 28,' Cocceius; see 
Hofmann, Schrifth, Vol. n. 2, p. 335, 
80 also Olsh., Bisping, and LUnem., 
and appy. the majority of recent ex- 
positors. After ydip Lachm. adds 
^(TTiv with D^E^FG; several Vv.; and 
Lat. Ff., but on insufficient external, 
and appy. opposing internal evidence. 
The possible doubt caused by the 
juxtaposition of tovto and d^rjfia 
would naturally suggest the interpola- 
tion of the verb sub^t. 
kv Xp. 'Itio*. fls vfias] *in Christ Jestts 
toward you:* Christ is here represented 
not exactly as the medium by which 
(Theciph., (Ecum.) but as the sphere 
in which the 6i\rjiJ.a ia evinced and has 
its manifestation ; 4v <f Kal rd 56^avra 
ir<u6( Kal di/a7eiv^, Athan. contr.Arian, 



in. 61, Vol. I. p. 610 (ed. Bened. 1698). 
The objects towardt whom * ad vos ' 
(Clarom.)— not *in vobis* (Vulg., 
Copt.), nor *in reference to whom* 
(De W.) — it was so evinced, and to 
whom it was designed to apply, were 
the converts of Thessalonioa. The 
reference of 6i\rffML to the ' decretum 
divinum de salute generis humani per 
Christum reparanda' (see Schott) is 
grammatically doubtful on account of 
the omission of the article, and by no 
means exegetically plausible. The 
BiKrifM seems here suitably anarthrous, 
as marking eirxap, as one part and 
portion out of many contemplated in 
the collective Oiktiiia OeoC; see Lil- 
nem. in loc. 

19. T^ IIvcv|ia] *th£ (Holy) Spirit/ 
not merely ' vim divinam Christianis 
propriam' (Noesselt; comp. Beck, 
Seelenl. p. 37), nor even the gifts of 
the Spirit as evinced in prophecy 
(Theod.), nor, more generally, tV ^ 
a^oTs dya^deiffiUf roO Ilvei^fjLaTos x^^ 
(Athan. ad Scrap, i. 4 ; see Chrys.), but 
simply the Holy Spirit, which dwelli 
within in association with our spirit, 
and evinces His presence by varied 
spiritual gifts and manifestations; 
comp. I Cor. xii. 8sq., and see Waterl. 
Serm. xxi. Vol. V. p. 641. The sub- 
ject of prayer leads naturally to the 
mention of the Holy Inspirer of it 
(comp. Rom. viii. 36, Gal. iv. 6), and 
thence to the specification of other 
gifts (TTpoipriTelaSy ver. 20) which ema- 
nate from the same blessed Source. 
jjiT| afUvwrt] * quench'notf^ whether in 
yourselves or in others ; contrast 2 Tim. 
i. 6. The Eternal Spii it is represented 
as a fire (comp. Andrewes, Serm, Vol. 
III. p. 124, A.-C. Libr.) which it waa 
regarded as possible to extinguish,—* 

G 



82 



nPOZ GESSAAONIKEIS A. 



21 i^ovOeveiTe* iravra Se SoKijuLa^erCy to koXov KaTc-xere* 



not however in the present case hy a 
pios &Kd$apTOi (Chrys.), but, in accord- 
ance with the context, — by a studied 
repression and disregard of its mani- 
festation, arising from erroneous per- 
ceptions and a mistaken dread of en- 
thusiasm; comp. Neander, Planting, 
Vol. I. p. 202 (Bohn). This is more 
distinctly specified in what follows. 
For several illustrations of the ex- 
pression, see exx. in Wetst., the most 
pertinent of which is Galen, de Theriac, 
I. 17, r6 <f>dpiJLajcov...T6 f/x^urw Trpev/xa 
jtaJ6iia% a^ipvvffiv, Plutarch, de Defect. 
Orac. § 17, p. 419 B, dKoapTjvai t6 
wvtvfAo, Tisck. ed. 7 gives flSA'- 

rvre on the authority of B^D^FG. 

20. 7rpo<^ip'cCa$] 'prophecies/ not 
merely annoimcements of what was to 
come to pass, but, in accordance with 
the more extended meaning of irpo^i^ 
rrfs in the N. T. (see notes on Eph. iv. 
11), varied declarations of the divine 
counsels and expositions of God's ora- 
cles^ immediately inspired by and 
emanating from the Holy Spirit ; see 
Meyer on i Cor. xii. 10, and Fritz. 
Rom. xii. 6, Vol. in. p. 55—59. The 
difference then between ordinary 5«- 
^Xh &D<^ vpoffyiijfreia consisted in this, 
that the latter was due to the imme- 
diate influence of the Spirit, the former 
to an i^ oUelai SiaXiyeadaty Chrys. ; 
see Neander, Planting, Vol. i. p. 133 
(Bohn), and for a comparison between 
prophecy and speaking with tongues, 
Thorndike, Relig. Assemblies^ ch. v. 
Vol. I. p. 182 sq. (A.-C. Libr.). 
IfovOcvctri] 'despise^' * set at natight / 
a word used in the N. T. both by St 
Paul (Rom. xiv. 3, 10, i Cor. i. 28, 
al.) and St Luke (xviii. 9, xxiii 11, 
Acts iv. 11), and found also in the 
LXX and later writers. On this word, 
and also the more orthographically 
eorrect but apparently less usual i^ov- 



€if€v (Mark ix. 12, Lachm.) and i^ov- 
evow (Mark ix. 12; LXX; al. : 
Hesych. diro$oict/u(i^6U'), compare Lo- 
beck, Pkrynichus, p. 182. The habit 
of deupising prophecies, here expressly 
forbidden, most probably arose from 
instances of jrXapQyres and TrXaiubfxevoi 
in the Church of Thessalonica, who 
had brought discredit on this spiritual 
gift. The deduction of Olsh., that 

up to the present time St Paul had no 
apprehensions of any of the fanaticism 
which afterwards showed itself among 
the Thessalonians (see 2 Thess.), seems 
in every way questionable; contrast 
Neander, Planting, Vol. I. p. 203 sq. 
(Bohn). They were even now in a 
state of unrest and disquietude (ch. 
iv. 1 1 sq.) ; nay, the very exhortation 
before us gains all its point from the 
fact that the more sober thinkers had 
been probably led by the present state 
of things to undervalue and unduly 
reject all the less usual manifestations 
of the Spirit. 

2 1 . irdyra tk 8oKi|i.] * hut prove all 
things;^ antithetical exhortation to the 
foregoing: 'instead of despising and 
seeking to repress spiritual gifts, let 
them be manifested, but be careful to 
prove them.' TLdm-a must thus have 
a restricted sense, and be limited to 
the xctp^M^^tt previously alluded to ; 
irdiTo, </>rj<rl, SoKi/idi^cre TOVTian tAj 
6vT(as TpofprjTelas, Chrys. A more 
precise exhortation is given to the Co- 
rinthians (i Cor. xiv. 29), from which, 
observing the similar and peculiar 
subject {irpo^ifjrela) here in question, 
we must conclude that the present 
precept to exercise spiritual discern- 
ment applied not so much to the 
Church at large (Neander, Planting, 
Vol. I. p. 138, Bohn) as more restrict- 
edly to those who had the special gift 
of SiaKpiffeit wyevfJidTwy, i Cor. xii. 10. 



V. 21, 22, 23. 



83 



airo iravTo^ eiSovg irovtjpov a-Trej^eo'de. Auto? Se 6 



22 

23 



In I John iv. i (see Waterl. Serm, 
XXVII.) the exhortation is appy. more 
general, but the points to be tried are 
more elementary, and more easy to be 
decided on. On the meaning of the 
verb SoKifAdtetVf see notes on Phil. i. 
10, Trench, Synon. Part ir. § 24; and 
for an ingenious but improbable expla- 
nation both of the word [to test as a 
coin] and the following verse, Hansel, 
Stud, u. Krit. 1836, p. 170 sq. The 
di is omitted by Rec, and by Tiach, 
ed. 1, but only on the authority of 
Afc<*; appy. many mss.; Syr., Copt., 
al. ; Orig., Chrys. (often), Theod., al. 
On the one hand there is only the in- 
ternal argument that Hi was interpo- 
lated to help out the connexion; on 
the other hand there is the strong ex- 
ternal support, the * paradiplomatic * 
argument (comp. Pref. to Gal. p. xvii, 
Scrivener, Introd. to Criticism of N.T, 
P* 376) of the AE having fallen out 
before the AO, and lastly the plausible 
internal argument that 5^ was omitted 
to make this sentence equally uncon- 
nected with what precedes and follows. 
T^ KoX^v Kar^.] ' hold faat thai which 
is good;* precept naturally and im- 
mediately foUowiug on the foregoing : 
'exercise the gift of SidKpiaiSf and 
having found what is really good hold 
to it ;' rd xj/ev^rj Kal t4 dXyfOrj /nerd do- 
Kifiturlai Kpl»eT€, xal t6t€ rb 56^clv iffwf 
Ka\6v tovt4<tti rds dXrjBeis irpo^riTdat 
Karix^re, Tovriffri Tifiare, 5id ^povrl- 
dos iroieto-^e, Theoph. On the primary 
meaning and derivation of Ka\6s [icaS- 
X6s], see Donalds. Cratyl. § 334 ; but 
observe that in the N. T. it seems 
equally co-extensive in meaning with 
dyaOds, and frequently, as here, denotes 
what is simply and morally good ; see 
notes on dyaObs on Gal. vi. 10, and 
comp. Aristot. Rhetor, i. 9 (init.), KoKbif 
libf oOy iffrbf 6 Ar St* airrh alperbv Sp 



iraiperhv ^. On this whole 

verse, see an excellent practical ser- 
mon by Waterland, Serm, xxiil. Vol. 
V. p. 655 sq. 

21. dir^ iravT6« icr.X.] * ahatain 
from every form of evil;* general exhor- 
tation appended to and suggested by, 
but not closely connected (De W.) 
with what precedes ; comp. Neand. 
Planting^ Vol. I. p. 204, note (Bohu). 
In this verse there is some little diffi- 
culty, depending first on the meaning 
of ft^ovi, and secondly on the con- 
struction of iropripou. We will notice 
these separately. ElSos cannot 

here be * appearance,* Auth., Calv. 
(both probably misled by Vulg. * spe- 
cie'), as this meaning is mure than 
lexically doubtful (comp. Luke iii. 22, 
ix. 39, John V. 37, 2 Cor. v. 7), and, 
even if it could be substantiated, would 
here be inappropriate, since the anti- 
thesis seems plainly to lie not between 
rb KaXby and any semblance of evil, 
' quod malum etiamsi non sit apparet* 
(Calv., comp. Wordsw. in loc.), but 
what is actually and distinctly such. 
We therefore adopt the more technical 
meaning 'species,' 'sort' (Plato, A*pm. 
p. 990 B, elSos Kal yipoty Parmen, p. 
1290, rd ydvrj re Kal etdni), which is 
supported by abundant lexical autho- 
rity (see Bost u. Palm, Lex. s. v., and 
the numerous exx. in Wetstein in loc,), 
and is exegetically clear and forcible ; 
they were to hold fast rb KoKbp and 
avoid every sort and species (fi^ ro&rov 
ij iKilvov, d\X dirkCii Tovris, Theoph.) 
of the contrary. So probably Vulg., 
Clarom., 'specie,' and more plainly 

Syr. r\^^ - [negotio], Copt. hlSh [re], 

iEth. megbdr [agendi ratione], Goth., 
al., appy. the Greek Ff., and nearly 
all modern commentators. It is 

more difficult to decide whether irovi|- 

02 



84 



nPOZ eE22AA0NIKEI2 A. 



Gcoff t59 elpiivfjg dyida-ai vjuid^ oXoreXeh^ Kot 6X6^ 
KXtjpov v/jlSov to irvevjuLa koi tj "^fvv^ koi to (rw/xa 



pov is an adjective or substantive. 
Most of the ancient Vv. (Syr., Vulg., 
Copt., ^th.) adopt the former, and 
so possibly the Greek commentators ; 
the latter however preserves more 
correctly the antithesis, and infringes 
less (comp. S3n:., Copt., a1.) on the 
technical meaning of etSos. So De 
Wette, LUnem., Koch, Alf., and the 
majority of modem commentators. 
The absence of the article (fiengel, 
MiddL Gr. Art. p. 378) does m)t con- 
tribute to the decision; as abstract 
adjectives can certainly have this con- 
struction, when it is not necessary to 
mark the wholeness or entirety of what 
is specified ; comp. Heb. v. 14, Plato, 
MepvM. II. p. .^570, TplTov...€Uos dya- 
00V, and see JelP, GV. § 451. 1. 
The artificial interpretation of Hansel 
{Stud. u. Kfit. 1836, p. 180 sq.), cl8, 
Tov.^Ki^i'iKw vbiufffxaf founded on 
the association of this text in several 
patristic citations with our Lord's tra- 
ditional saying ylveaOe rpairei^Tai 
B6ki/ioi (see Suicer, Thesaur. Vol. n. 
p. 118 1 sq.), is here adopted by Baumg.- 
Cms., but rightly rejected by most 
subsequent expositors. Even if we 
admit the very doubtful assumption 
that the simple etSoT might gain from 
the context the more definite meaning 
ctSos vofjUfffiaroSf the use of dirix^ffde 
in such a form of expression would 
still be, as De W. observes, appy. un- 
precedented. 

23. Avrhs 84] *But may He;* He 
on whom all depends, — in contrast to 
them and the efforts they might be 
enabled to make; comp. cb. iii. 12, 
where however the emphasis is some- 
what different, and the contrast less 
definitely marked. 6 6fo$ 

nfjs ilpijvTis] *t^ God of peace;'* the 
God of whom peace is a characterizing 



attribute; the gen. falling under the 
general category of the gen. of content 
(Scheuerl. Synt. § 16. 3, p. 115, comp. 
notes on Phil iv. 9), and the subst. 
elpifirri marking the deep inward peace 
and tranquillity which is God's espe- 
cial gift, and which stands in closest 
alliance with that holiness which the 
preceding clauses inculcate. On this 
meaning of elp-Zjurj^ see notes on Phil. 
iv. 7, and on the various meanings 
which it may assume in this and 
similar collocations, see Eeuss, Thiol. 
Chr4t. IV. 18, Vol. II. p. 201. 
6XoTcXcts] * wholly;' *per omnia,' 
Vulg.,— in your collective powers and 
parts; 6\<yr. marking more emphati- 
cally than SKovi that thoroughness and 
pervasive nature of holiness (5Xous ZC 
6\(aUf (Ecumen., 'secundum cranes 
partes,* Cocceius) which the following 
words specify with further exactness: 
so distinctly Theoph., 6\ot. di ri iarl ; 
tovt' fan adjfiaTi Kal \pvxS' **i itpe^ijs 
Zk fJLO.B'fyr'jo. ^^is seems preferable to 
the qualitative interpretation *ad perfec- 
tum,' Clarom., ^th. (Syr. unites both 

giving ^n^nN Zul^jJki^, 

according to which h\oTc\m would be 
used proleptically (Syr.-Phil. ; comp. 
reff. on dfii/xirrovs, ch. iii. 13), but in 
which the connexion between the sub- 
stance of the first and second portions of 
the prayer is less close and self-explana- 
tory. The form 6\oTe\^s is a fiir. XeyS/t. 
in the N. T., but occurs occasionally 
in later Greek; comp. Plutarch, de 
Placiiis Philos. § 21, p. 909 b. 
KaC] 'and' — to specify more exactly; 
the copula appending to the general 
prayer one of more epeciaX details; 
see Winer, Gr. § 53. 3, p. 388, and 
comp. notes on Phil. iv. 12. 
6X6kXtipov K.r.X.] *may your spirit 



V. 23. 85 

a/jL€fnrTm eif rp irapovcriif toO K,vpiov rifjLm ^Ifjcrov 



...be preaerved entire ; ' not * your whole 
spirit... be preserved/ Auth., Wordsw., 
comp. Syr. ; 6\6k\., as its position 
shows, not being an epithet but a 
secondary predicate; see Donalds. 
Cratyl, § 302, and comp. notes on Ccl, 
ii. 3. This distinction seems to be 
clearly maintained by all the ancient 
Vv. (except appy. Syr.); some, as 
Vulg., al., preserving the order of the 
Greek, others, as Mih.., rendering 
b\6K\. by an adverb placed at the end 
of the clause. The adj. 6\6K\ripos is 
a 6ls \ey6fi. in the K. T. (here and 
James L 4), and serves to mark that 
which is * entire in all its parts' (^ fArf- 
dwl \€i7r6fi€vot, James I. c), differing 
from Ti\€ios as defining rather what is 
complete^ while the latter marks what 
has reached its proper end and ma- 
turity. In a word, the aspect of the 
former word is (here especially) mainly 
quantitative, of the latter mainly quali- 
tative; comp. Trench, Synon, § 22, 
and for exx. see the large collection of 
Wetst. in loc, one of the most per- 
tinent of which is Lucian, Macrob. § 2, 
eh yijpas d<f>lK€<r0ai iv iyiaivojiff'Q tJ 
\f/vxv fai 6\oK\i/i(Xi> ry ffihfiari.. See 
also Eisner, Oha. Vol. il. p. 278. 
The predicate clearly belongs to all 
three substantives, though structurally 
connected with the first. i&|m»v 

TO irvcvpA icr.X.] ^your spirit and 
soul and body;^ distinct enunciation 
of the three component parts of the 
nature of man : the TveO/na, the higher 
of the two united immaterial parts, 
being the 'vis superior, agens, impe- 
rans in homine* (Olsh.); the yf^vx^fji 
Wis inferior quss agitur, movetur, in 
imperio tenetur' (t6.), the sphere of 
the will and the afifections, and the 
true centre of the personality; see 
Olshausen, Opusc. p. 1 54, Beek, Seeknl, 
II. 12, 13, p. 30 sq., Schuberti Gesch, 



der Seele, § 48, Vol. ii. 495 sq., comp. 
Vitringa, Obs, Saci\ p. 549 sq.^ and 
more especially Destiny of the Crea- 
ture, Serm. v., where this text is con- 
sidered at length, and the scriptural 
distinction between the TfeD/na and 
\pvx^ discussed and substantiated. It 
may be remarked that we frequently 
find instances of an apparent dickoto- 
myy *body and soul' (Matth. vi. 25, 
X. 28, Luke xii. 22, 23), or 'body and 
spirit* (i Cor. v. 3, vii. 34, cf. Rom: 
viii. 10), but such passages will be 
found to be only accommodations to 
the popular division into a material 
and immaterial part ; the ^vx^ in the 
former of the exceptional cases includ- 
ing also the irveOfia, just as in the 
latter case the irveOfia also compre- 
hends the \^i/x^; see Olsh. I, e,, p. 
153 note, and contrast the ineffectual 
denial of Loesner, Obs, p. 381. To 
assert that enumerations like the pre- 
sent are rhetorical (De W.), or worse, 
that the Apostle probably attached 
' no distinct thought to each of these 
words' (Jowett), is plainly to set aside 
all sound rules of scriptural exegesis. 
Again to admit the distinctions but 
refer them to Platonism (Lilnem.) is 
equally unsatisfactory, and equally 
calculated to throw doubt on the truth 
of the teaching. If St Paul's words 
do here imply the trichotomy above 
described (comp. Usteri, Lekrb, p. 
384 sq.), then such a trichotomy is 
infallibly real and true. And if Plato 
or Philo have maintained (as appears 
demonstrable) substantially the same 
views, then God has permitted a hea- 
then and a Jewish philosopher to ad- 
vance conjectural opinions which have 
been since confirmed by the independ- 
ent teaching of an inspired Apostle. 
dfUfniiTws] * blamelessly;* the adver- 
bial predication of quality appended to 



86 nP02 eE22AA0NlKEI2 A. 

virrbs 6 KoSwy vfias, 



U 



Kai 



24. ^piOTOv TtipriOeiri. 



v/ r ' r /v I •• brethren, and cai 

26 aa-wdaaaOe tovs aSeXtpovi vdvras ev ^^%,^ 



be read be- 



Tiip7i0€lrj, 6\6K\rjfH» (see above) involF- 
ing that of quantity. On the meaning 
of AfiefiTTOs, *ia in quo nihil deaiderari 
potest/ and its distinction from AfitO' 
fioij see notes on ch. it 10, and Uttm. 
Synon. i. p. -29. 

Iv TJ iropovo-Cf. icr.X.] T^me— the 
coming of Christ to judgment — ^when 
the preservation of the bXoKkripia is 
especially to be evinced and found to 
be realized: corop. notes on ch. ii. 19. 
On the more exact way in which this 
hXoKkripla may be ascribed to body, 
soul, and spirit, see Destiny of the 
Creature, p. 107. 

24. irv<rT6s ICT.X.] 'Faithful is 
He who calleth you,* ' qui vocat,' Cla- 
rom., scil. God the Father; comp. 

1 Cor. i. g, and see notes on Gal. i. 6. 
The tense is neither to be pressed as 
implying an enduring act (Baurog.- 
Crus., Bisp.), nor to be regarded as 
identical with the aor. ' qui vocavit,' 
Vulg., Goth., but simply to be con- 
sidered as timeless, and as equivalent 
to a substantive, 'your Caller j' see 
notes on Gal. v. 8, and Winer, Gr. % 
45. 7, p. 316. Uurrbs here in ref. to 
God implies a faithfulness and trueness 
to His nature and promises (i Cor. i. 
9, TTiffrbs 6 9. 5t' oS iKkfiOTp-e, x. 13, 

2 Cor. i. 18, 2 Tim. ii. 13), and hence 
becomes practically synonymous with 
dX)7^iJ$, Chrys., Theod. ; iv yiip ry 
TOieiP A iirayyiWerai irio'Tds iari Xa- 
\wVf Athanas. contr. Avian. II. 10, 
Vol. I. p. 478 (ed. Bened.), see Reuss, 
Thiol. Chrit. iv. 13, Vol n. p. 124. 
8s Kal iroit](rii] ' who oho will do,^ not 
exactly 'what I wish' (De W.), nor 
i4>* V iKd\€(T€v sc. <T^b(Tel (CEcum., 
Theoph.), but simply * that same thing 



(Arm.), scil. rb ifi^fiirrtai ifias rrfpri- 
Orjmi (Bisp., LUnem.), or, as the iden- 
tity of subject suggests, t6 ayidaai 
and t6 riypiy^vcu,— in a word, the 
substance of the prayer expressed in 
the preceding verse. In such cases 
there is really no ellii)se of any pro- 
noun ; Troteuf is merely 'nude positum,' 
receiving its more exact explanation 
from the context; comp. Koch in loc, 
and Schomann on Isaeus, de ApolL 
Soer. § 35, p. 372. 

25. irpocwxco^c ircpl i^n»v] *pray 
for usy comp. Eph. vi. 19, Col. iv. 3, 
2 Thess. iii. i, Heb. xiii. 18. De 
Wette and Alf. remark that irepl is 
here less definite than inrip ; but it is 
very doubtful whether in this and 
similar formulse in the N. T. the differ- 
ence is really appreciable; see notes 
on Eph, vi. 19, Fritz. Rom. i. 8, VoL 
I. p. 26, and for the general distinction 
between the prepositions, notes on Gal. 
i. 4, and on Phil. i. 7. The prayer 
was doubtless intended to include re- 
ference both to his own personal state 
and to the general success of his Apo- 
stolic work; comp. Cocceius in loc. 
Whether Silvanus and Timothy are 
included in iifiuv is perhaps doubtful : 
Lachm. inserts in brackets koL before 
irepX ijfiiaVf but on authority [BD^; a 
few mss. ; Clarom., Sangerm., Syr.- 
Phil., Goth.] scarcely sufficient. 

26. doTr<iou<r0cK.T.X.] 'Salute all 
the brethren;^ concluding exhortation, 
apparently addressed to the Elders of 
the Church (consider ver. 27). In the 
parallel passages, Kom. xvi. 16, 1 Cor. 
xvi. 20, and 2 Cor. xiii. 12 {iv ayl(fi 
0iX., see Fritz. Horn. I. c), comp. i 
Pet. v. 14, the exhortation is dffird' 



V. 24—27. 



87 



(piX^fiari aylip. ivopKi^w v/xa? top K,vpiov avayvc^ 27 
aOpiPai Tfiv iTTicrroXiiv iraa-iv T019 ^dyioi^'] a&X^off. 

a;, [iylois] dSeX^ots] The reading is very doubtful. Itec, ScTiolz, and 
Tiich, ed. 7, insert irylois with AKL ; most mss. ; Syr. (both), Vulg., Ck>pt., 
Goth., .^th. (Piatt), Arm.; Chiys., Theod. {De Wette, Koch), It is omitted by 
LacKm. and Ti»ch. ed. i, 2, with BDEFGK; 6 mss.; Clarom., ^th. (PoL); 
Ambrst. {lAlnem.f Alf.), Though the uncial authorities strongly preponderate 
for the omission, still the almost unanimous testimony of the Yy., and the 
probability that a word, here used somewhat uniquely by St Paul in adjectiyal 
connexion with dSeX^oif, should be omitted as superfluous, prevent our ex- 
cluding it altogether from the text: comp. Heb. iii. i. The epithet is certainly 
not without pertinence in reference to the adjuration and strength of language 
which marks the yerses : all the brethren, viewed generally as Christians, were 
holy (comp. Numb. xvi. 3), and would especially profit by having this letter 
read to them. 



caaOe dX\i(Xovf: iveiZ^ ^iXi(/iarc 
aih-oifi dffTdffa<r0ai oiK ifS^varo, drrCutf 
8t' hiptav airroiti dcTTciferat, Chrys. 
The Oriental custom of kissing in their 
greetings (Winer, RWB, s. y. 'Kuss,' 
YoL I. p. 688) is hei*e enhanced with 
Christian characteristics : it is to be a 
4>[krilJLa dyiovj a <f>CKrifia dydiniSf 1 Pet. 
v. 14, an 'osculum pads,' Tertull. de 
Oral. cap. 14, a ^IXrffia fivariKiify 
Clem.-Alex. Posdag. III. 1 1, Yol. I. p. 
301 (ed. Potter), — whether as given 
after prayer (Just. M. Apol. I. 65; 
comp. ComL Apost n. 57, rb iifKvpUa 
4f>CKrifio)f or more probably as a token 
of brotherly love and holy affection, — 
no idle, meaningless, and merely pagan 
custom of salutation. On this custom, 
see more in Bingham, Antiq. ni. 3. 3, 
Augusti, Archdol. YoL 11. p. 718 sq., 
Coteler on Const, Apost, L c, and 
Fritz. Rom, xvi. 16, Yol. in. p. 310. 
The prep, iw may here possibly mark 
the accompaniment (see notes on Col, 
iv. 1), but is more naturally taken as 
simply instrumental ; the (fUXrifia being 
that in which, so to say, the da-iraafibs 
was involved; see notes on ch. iv. 18. 
7 7. 4vopKCto» vfuds K.r.X.] ' / adjurt 
you by the Lord,* This very strong 



form of entreaty has been differently 
explained. There does not seem suf- 
ficient reason for concluding from ver. 
12) 13, with Olsh., that there had been 
such differences between the Elders and 
the Church of Thessalonica as to sug- 
gest a fear that the Epistle might not 
be communicated to the church at 
large ; as the language of those verses 
is admirably calculated both to be- 
speak respect for the Elders, and to 
conciliate the Church. That the ex- 
pression arose from slight distrust com- 
bined with a depfiii SicCroca towards his 
converts (Chrys., Theoph.) is impro- 
bable ; that it was a customary form 
with St Paul (Jowett i) is indemon- 
strable ; that the inspired Apostle was 
not master of his words or did not 
know their value (Jowett 2) is mon- 
strous. We therefore may perhaps 
fall back on the reason hinted by 
Theodoret and expanded by recent 
expositors, — that a deep sense of the 
great spiritual importance of this Ep., 
not merely to those who were anxious 
about the Koifubfieyot (ch. iv. 13) but 
to all vnthout exception^ suggested the 
unusual adjuration ; 6pKW irpoffriOeiKe, 
irduri tV ^k ttjs KaTay¥il)ffe»s CxpOieiay 



88 nP02 GESSAAONIKEIS A. 

Xptcrrov fled* ifiSov. 



Benediction. 



wfiayftareitap, Theod. The objections 
of Baur are briefly but satis&ctorily 
answered by Neander, Planting, Vol. 
n. p. 126 (Bohn). The verb 

iifopK, [Bee. has the more usual 6pKit<o 
irith D«D'FGKL«; mss.] is appy. 
not found elsewhere, and is even 
omitted in the best modem lexicons. 
rhv Kifpiov] Accus. of the person; 
oomp. Mark v. 7, Acts zix. 13, and 
for the rimilar construction of 6pK6(a, 
see Jelf, Cfr, § 583. 140. On the two 
forms IpKoOi^ and bpKi^tw, and the pre- 
valence of the former in Attic writers, 
see Lobeck, Phryn. p. 360, 361. 
dvaTVwo^vai] * he read — as the con- 
text suggests — publicly;^ comp. Luke 
iv. 16, Acts XV. a I, a Cor. iii. 15, Col. 
iv. 16. This meaning ('palam pnele- 
gatur/ Schott) is however not specially 
due to the prep, dyd, as di'a7i'. is 
frequently used without any accessory 
notion of publicity, but is reflected on 
the verb by the general tenor of the 
sentence. The aor. infin. perhaps re- 
fers to the single act (Alf.), but must 
certainly not be pressed, as this tense 
in the infinitive, especially after verbs 
of 'hoping,* 'commanding,* <kc. (see 
notes on ch. iv. 10), is often used in 
reference not merely to single acts, but 
to what is either timeless ('ab omni 
temporis definiti oonditione libera et 
immunis* Stallb. on Plato, Euthyd, p. 
140), or simply et^enfuo^, and dependent 
on the action expressed by the finite 
rerb; see ScheuerL Synt § 31. a. b. 



p. 3^0 sq., Winer, Gr, § 44. 7. b, 
p. 996, and esp. Schmalfeld, Syntax, 
§ 173. 4, p. 346,— where the different 
moods of the infin. are carefully con- 
sidered and contrasted. 

28. * H xdpn icr.X.] The concluding 
benedictions of St Paul's Epp. are 
somewhat noticeably varied. Adopt- 
ing the best attested readings, we may 
observe that the shortest form is ^ 
X^f Mc^' ^/uwf', Col. iv. 18, 2 Tim. iv. 
22 (preceded by 6 Kd/Kos *I. X. /ierd 
roG TpeOfi. crov), and similarly if x- M^^ 
irdjrrwp iifuav. Tit. iii. 15, [Heb. xiii. 
25,] and ^ X' M^^ <^o^f ^ Tim. vi. a i ; 
the longest being the familiar benedic- 
tion in 2 Cor. xiii. 13. Of the rest we 
have first, if x* roG Kvpiov iipJaif 1. X. 
Iieff iip.(av, as here and Bom. xvi. ao ; 
2 Thess. iii. 18 and Bom. xvi. 24 (a 
doubtful verse) give Tdm-onf iffi. ; i Cor. 
xvi. 23 omits ij/juaif and probably XpW' 
ToG, and appends ^ iydwri fiov fxerh. 
xdMT, iffi.. hf X. 'I. Secondly, ii x* '''^^ 

Kvpiov ij/JMP *I. X. /A€tA ToG TP€j6fiaT0t 

ifliiav, as Philem. 25, Gal. vi. 18 (add- 
ing d8eX0o(), Phil. iv. 13 (om. iniQv). 
And Uutly, ii x- A*e^^ vdan-uv rCav 
iyaTtbvTbfp rhv KUtptov iifiQip *I. X. iv 
d^Oapal^ £ph. vL 24. See Koch on 
Philem. 25, p. 1 35 sq. The dfiijy [Rec, 
with AD'D^EKL ; mss.] is appy. 
rightly omitted by Lachm. and IHsch, 
with BDiFG; mss.; Clarom., San- 
germ., Vulg. (Amiat.), al., being very 
probably a liturgical addition. 



nPOS GESSAAONIKEIS B. 



INTRODUCTION. 



^T^HIS short but important Epistle was written by tbe Apostle 
to his converts at Thessalonica a short time after his First 
Epistle, and apparently from the same place. If, as seems highly 
probable, Corintli be regarded as the place from wliich the First 
Epistle was written (see Introd. to tits First Ep.)^ we may reason- 
ably suppose the present Epistlfe to have been written from the 
same city: the same companions (ch. i. i, comp. i Thess. i. i) were 
still with the Apostle (contrast Acts xviii. 18); similar forms and 
circumstances of trial appear to have been surrounding him (ch. 
iii. 2, compared with i Thess. ii; 16, Acts xviii. 6). 

The exact time at which the Epistle was written cannot be 
determined. If the First Epistle was written soon after the arrival 
of Timothy from Macedonia (ch. iii. 6), and towards the commence- 
ment of the Apostle's eighteenth-month stay at Corinth (Acts xviii. 
11), we shall probably not be far wrong in placing the date of 
the Second Epistle towards the end of the first twelve months of 
the Apostle's residence there (comp. ch. iii. 2 with Acts xviii. 12, 
and consider ver. 18, (rri '7rpoa'fi€iva^ rjfxipa^ Uavas), and thus 
but a few months after that of the First Epistle. We may then 
specify the autumn of a.d. 53 as an approximately correct date: 
see Davidson, Introd. Yol. 11. p. 449. 

The circumstances which gave rise to the Epistle seem clearly 
to have been some additional information which the Apostle had 
received concerning the disquieted state of the minds of bis con- 
verts. Whether this reached him through the bearer of the First 
Epistle, or formed the substance of a letter from the elders of the 
Church of Thessalonica, must remain mere conjecture. This 
much however seems to be certain, that some letter had been cir- 
culated at Thessalonica purporting to come from the Apostle (ch. 
ii. 2) which, combined probably with some teaching equally said 
to be derived from St Paul (comp. notes on ch. ii. 2), had added 



92 HJTRODUCTION. 

greatly to the general excitement, and rendered it necessary for 
this Second Epistle to be written, and to be vouched for by a clear 
mark of genuineness (ch. iii. 17). The purport of the letter and 
the teaching was clearly to the effect that the day of the Lord was 
at hand ; and it does not seem improbable that this might have 
been based on some expressions in the First Epistle (ch. iv. 15, 16, 
17, V. 2 sq.), which had been distorted or exaggerated so as better 
to keep alive the feverish anxiety and unregulated enthusiasm 
of the converts in this busy city. We may thus perhaps, with 
Davidson (Jntrod, Vol. 11. p. 448), consider it more probable that 
the Second Epistle was an indirect than a direct result of the First. 
It was apparently not so much designed to correct innocent mis- 
apprehensions of the former Epistle (Paley, al.) as to remove a 
positively false construction which had been put — whether with 
a partly good or mainly bad intent we know not — both on that 
Epistle and on the Apostle's general teaching. 

The whole Epistle indeed is so clearly supplemental to the First 
(comp. also ch. ii. 15) that we may without hesitation reject the 
opinion of Grotius and Ewald, who reverse the order of the two 
Epistles. 

The main ohject of the Epistle then was to calm excitement, 
and to make it perfectly plain that the Lord's second Advent was 
not close at hand, nay, that a mysterious course of events pre- 
viously alluded to (ch. ii 5), of which the beginning could confessedly 
be already recognised (ver. 7), had first to be fully developed. 
Corrective instruction is thus the chief subject; with this however 
is associated cheering consolation under afflictions (ch. L 4 sq.), 
and direct exhortation to orderly conduct (ch. iii 6), industry 
(ver. 8 sq.), and quietness (ver. 12). 

The authenticity and genuineness are supported by early and 
explicit external testimonies (IrensBus c. Hoer, iii. 7. 2, Clem.- Alex. 
Strom, V. p. 655, ed. Pott., Tertullian de Resurr. Cam, cap. 24), 
and have never been called in question till recently. The objec- 
tions however are of a most arbitrary and subjective character, 
and do not deserve any serious consideration. Complete answers 
will be found in Lunemann, Einleitung^ p. 163 sq., and Davidson, 
Introd, Vol. n. p. 454 sq. 



nPOS GESSAAONIKEIS B. 



AjortoMorfdrenand TJAYAOS Koi "ZtXovaVOg KUl TtflO- I. 



XX Qcoq Tp €KK\fi<ri(iL 0€<r<Ta\oviK€(av 



iintv trni c, n^um aiTO yjCOV '^'^'^^^'^ *..w.i.j .^r.. K..^.^.. 



vfJLiv Kat eiprjvfj 



varpog ^imZu koi J^vplou 



1. Tarpbi iifxiop] The reading is doubtful. Ttsch. (ed. -2, 7) omits, and 
Lachm. brackets iifjMw with BDE; 3 mss. ; Clarom., Sangerm. ; Theoph. ; 
Ambrst. (ed.), Pel. {Lilnem.f Alf.). C is deficient. The pronoun is retained 
in Rec. with AFGKLK ; appy. great majority of mss. ; Syr. (both), Aug., 
Vulg., Goth., -^th. (both), Copt., Arm.; Chrys., Theod., al. (Griesh., but 
marked with°), — and appy. rightly; for on the one hand the preponderance of 
external authority is very decided, and on the other the probability of an 
omission either accidentally or intentionally, owing to the iifiQv just preceding, 
is not much less than the probability of an interpolation to conform with other 
Epistles. 



I. IlavXos KoX SiXovav^ Kal T.] 
The same form of salutation as in the 
First Epistle ; see notes in loc. The 
only difference lies in the addition of 
rffi(Sv to TOLTply which, contrary to 
what we might have expected, does 
not appear to have suggested any 
variety of reading. For a brief account 
of Silvanus and Timothy, who are 
here, as in the First Ep., associated 
with the Apostle as having co-operated 
with him in founding the Church of 
Thessalonica, see notes on 1 Thess. i. i. 

1. X<^i'S ^F^^y ^^ <^>4i^] Regular 
form of salutation, uniting both the 
Greek x^^P^^^ &°d ^® Hebrew QP^ 
(Gen. xliii. 23, Judges vi. 23, al.) ; t6 
XO-pf'i vfiiv ovTCo Tldrjaiv (Sairep ijfieit 
rb x^^P^^" ^^ ^ft*s iiriypa<f>aTs twp iirt- 



<no\(2v €l(i)$afiaff Theod.-Mops. p. 145 
(ed. Fritz.): see more in notes on 
Eph, i. 9, and in the long and labori- 
ous note of Koch on i These, i. i. 
The remark of Thom. Aquin. is not 
without point, * x^P^^ ^^^ ^^ prinoi- 
pium omnis boni, elprfvri quae est finale 
bononuu omnium;' see also notes on 
Col, i. 2. diri 0iov irarp6s 

1^Jl-] */roni God our Father;^ soil, as 
the source from which it emanates. 
In 2 John 3 we find irapd in the same 
cjmbination, but with a difference of 
meaning that in the present case (in 
ref. to God) is scarcely appreciable, 
and depends perhaps entirely on the 
usage and mode of conception of the 
writer. St John, for example, uses 
Ta/xi (with gen.) and d.vh in a proper- 



94 



nPOS eE22AA0NIKEI2 B. 



3 Evxapttrretv 6<f>ei\o/iev t^ Ge^ -/rav- Zl^^^i^I^^e 

Tore ir€p\ i^wv, hSeX^oi, KaBm a^i6u SS J^'jZ iS? 

9 H * y r * t f '■^ %He count you worthy of 

eoTTiv on uirepav^avei i; iricrri^ v/xcavy Kai His calling. 



tion rather more than i to 3, while 
St Paul uses the same prepp. in a pro- 
portion of I to nearly 10. The gene- 
ral distinction between these prepp. 
{dir6, emanation simply ; irapd, eman. 
from a personcU source) and the more 
frequently used iK is well stated by 
"Winer, Gr. § 47. b, p. 326. 
KalKvpCov icr.X.] Scil. Kal dirb Kv- 
plou K.T.X.; not Kal varpbs Kvplov 
K, r. X., an interpretation rendered 
highly improbable by the occurrence of 
xar^p without any gen. — here possibly 
(see crit. note); with less doubt in Gal. 
i. 3, I Tim. i. 2 ; and with no yar. of 
reading in 2 Tim. i. 2, Tit. i. 4 ; see 
notes on Eph, L 3. 

3. Ev^ap. i<^c£Xofiicv] ' We are hound 
to give thanks,' scil. St Paul, Silvanus, 
and Timothy. Though we must be 
cautious in pressing the plural in every 
case, yet in the present, when we re- 
member the relation in which Silvanus 
and Timothy stood to the Church of 
Thessalonica, it can hardly be over- 
looked: see notes on i Theu, i. 2. On 
this use of eixo^P^o'Teiv in the sense of 
xdpty ^€iy, see notes on Phil. i. 3, 
and for the constructions of £^ap., 
notes on Col, i. 12. The occurrence 
in this connexion of so strong a word 
as 6(f>€CKew is well worthy of note. 
iTfpl i^Mv] * concerning you;* with no 
very appreciable difference from iwip 
(Eph. L 16) in the same formula; see 
notes on i Thess. i. 2, v. 25, and for 
the distinction between these preposi- 
tions in cases where they appear less 
interchangeable, see on Gal. i. 4, and 
on Phil. i. 7. Kadc^s tf{i6v 

4<mv] * 08 it is meet;* not on the one 
hand a mere parenthetical addition to 
the preceding ei>xa/). (J0c£X. ('ut par 



est,' Beza), nor yet on the other an 
emphatic statement of the 'modus 
eximius* (Schott; koI 8cd X67a;i^ Kal 
di' ipyo)¥, Theoph. 2) in which such 
a evxapurria ought to be offered, but 
simply a connecting clause between 
the first member of the sentence and 
the distinctly causal statement &n 
inrepav^dvei k. t. X. which follows, and 
with which KaOCjs d^iop k. t. X. stands 
in more immediate union. Thus, as 
Ltinem. well observes, while the dipei' 
\ofi€¥ states the duty of the cOxapiaria 
on its subjective side, Kadws k. r. X. 
subjoins the objective aspects. Few 
probably will hesitate to prefer this 
simple and logical explanation to any 
assumption so injurious to the inspired 
writer as that of a tautology design- 
ed to supply the place of emphasis 
(Jowett). *Tt will thus be 

not relatival, J [quod] Syr., but dis- 
tinctly causal, 'quoniam,* Vulg., 
Clarom., ^th. (both), Goth., Syr.- 
Phil., — in close union with the clause 
immediately preceding. It may be 
remarked that few particles in St 
Paul's Epp. cause a more decided dis- 
crepancy of interpretation than Sru 
Between the merely objective (Winer, 
Gr. § 53. 9, p. 398) and the strictly 
causal force {id. 8. b, p. 395) of the 
particle it is not only often very diffi- 
cult to decide, but in several passages 
{e.g. Kom. viii. 21) exegetical con- 
siderations of some moment will be 
found to depend on the decision. 
Wcpav^dvci] Hncreaseth above mea- 
sure;* a Hv. Xe-^bfi. in the N. T. and 
not a very common word elsewhere 
comp. Andoc. corUr. Alcib. p. 32 (ed. 
Steph.), Toiti iivcpav^oMOfihfovs. The 
predilection of St Paul for emphatic 



I- 3, 4- 



95 



vrXeoval^ei ^ aydirfj evb^ eKacrrov iravrtav vjjlZv €£? aXXfJ- 4 
X01/9, wa-TC fifiai avToif^ iv vjjlip ipKav^aa-dai cv rai^ ck-- 



compounds of ifwip has been noticed 
and briefly illustrated on Eph. iii 20 ; 
see also Fritz. Mom, v. 20, Vol. i. 
p. 351. It may be observed that 
irwepav^ivu appears to be associated 
with irlffTU as conveying more dis- 
tinctly the idea of organic evolution 
and growth (comp. Matth. xvii. lo, 
Luke xvii. 6), while with dydwTj a 
term is used which expresses more 
generally the idea of spiritual enlarge- 
ment, and of extension toward others ; 
cump. notes on i Thess, iii. la. 
M% ^Kdorrov k. t. X«] * of every one of 
you all toward each other;* not with- 
out distinctive emphasis, — first, in 
specifying that this dydwri was not 
merely general, but was individually 
manifested {tffjj ijv wapdL Tdmap ij 
dydTTi els irdtn-aSy Theoph.)> and 
secondly, in showing that it was not 
restricted in its exhibitions to those 
who loved them, but extended to all 
their fellow-Christians at Thessalo- 
nica ; &ratf fxepiKios dyarrQfiev, oi)K dyd- 
in; TOVTO dXXd Stdcrracris* el ydip Hid rbv 
Qebv dyairqis irdKras dydiraf Theoph. 
On this verse see five practical ser- 
mons by Manton, Works, Vol. iv. p. 
420 — 458 (Lond. 1698). 

4. iffuds airo^s] *toe oureelvea,* — 
as well as others, whether among you 
or elsewhere, who might call attention 
to your Christian progress more natu- 
rally and appropriately than those 
who felt it to be humanly speaking 
due to their own exertions, but who 
in the present case could not forbear. 
De Wette compares i Thess. i. 8, but 
it may be doubted whether St Paul 
had here that passage very distinctly 
in his thoughts. To refer iifxas aOroi)f 
to St Paul himself, in contrast to his 
associates included in the preceding 
plural verbs (Sohott), seems distinctly 



illogical : and to leave open the possi- 
bility that this may be only an instance 
of ' false emphasis or awkwardness of 
expression ' (Jowett) can only be cha- 
racterized as a subterfuge at variance 
with all fair, sound, and reasonable 
exegesis. The distinction between 
ijfieis airrol (in which the emphasis 
falls on the ijfi^is) and ai)rol ijfieTi (in 
which it falls more on the a&rol, 
comp. I Thess. iv. 9) is illustrated by 
Krliger, Sprackl, § 51. 1. 8. The 
order ai^oi>s iifids is here actually 
given by BK ; 7 mss. Iv ^futv 

ivKavxa<r6ai] * boast in you;* you 
were the objects of it, and the sphere 
or rather substratum of its manifesta- 
tion; comp. Winer, Or. § 48. a. 3. a, 
P- 345> and see notes on Gal. i. 94. 
The somewhat rare form ivKavx&ffBai. 
is found a few times in the LXX, 
e. g. Psahn Iii i, cvi. 47, al., in ecd. 
writers, and in Msoy, Fab. oooXLn. 
p. 139 (ed. Schneider). The reading 
is not by any means certain: Rec. 
with D£(FG Kavx-fiffaaOaC) KL ; mss. ; 
many Ff., reads Kavxdadak\ but the 
probability that the change to the 
simpler and more common form is due 
to a corrector is in this case so great 
that the reading of Lachm. and Tisch., 
supported by ABK ; 1 7, must be con- 
sidered to deserve the preference. 
is deficient. Iv rats IkkX. tov 

0tov] *w tJie Churches of God,* soil, 
in Corinth and its neighbourhood, 
where the Apostle was at the time of 
writing this Ep.; comp. Acts xviii. 
II, and see Wieseler, Chronol. p. 
254 sq. The remark of Chrys., ^- 
ravda btUvvai Kal roXinf irapekObvra, 
Xpbpop' ii ydp (nropuuf^ dwb xpbfou tftal- 
perat iroWou, odx ip 81)0 koX rpi<r\» 
ijfiipais, — must be received with reser- 
vation; as there seems no reason for 



9Q 



nP02 eE22AA0NIKEI2 B. 



K\ri<rlaig rov Qeou virep t?^ virojiiovijf vfiZv kqi irlairew^ 

€v Tcaa-iv Tofff Siooy/JLoig v/jlZp koi rai^ OXlylreo'iv ai^ 

5 avc^ea-dey evSeiy/JLa tpJ9 SiKaia^ Kpia-eca^ rov Qeov, eh to 



thinking that Uie Epistle was written 
any later than the spring of 54 A. D., 
probably a few months earlier; comp. 
Liinem. Einleii, p. 160. 
Ttjs *wo|i. iJ|i«v Kol mcTTfMs] *your 
pa^ence and faith;* precise subjects 
of the Apostle^s boasting. There is 
no ip 8td bvGUf in these words, soil. 
inrofwinjs h TUrrei, Grot., — ever a 
doubtful and precarious assumption 
(see Fritz, on Matth. p. 853 flf. Excurs. 
iv. where this grammatical formula is 
well considered), nor does x/crrts here 
imply ' fidelis constantia confessionis ' 
Beng., *Treue,* Ltlnem.,— a doubtful 
meaning of vlffru in the N. T., es- 
pecially when the more usual meaning 
has just preceded (ver. 3) in reference 
to the same subjects. The Thessa- 
lonians evinced /at^A. in its proper and 
usual sense, in bearing up under their 
tribulations, and believing on Him 
while they were bearing His cross. 
On the meaning of inrofijovii (here al- 
most taking the place of Air/s, Neand. 
Planting f p. 479, Bohn), which in the 
N.T. seems ever to imply not mere 
' endurance ' but 'brave patience,* see 
notes and reff. on i Thesa, i. 3. 
irao-iv seems clearly to belong only to 
difoy fioTs ; the article would otherwise 
have been omitted before ffKlyj/eca^, 
The distinction between the two words 
appears sufficiently obvious: dtory/t^s 
is the more special term ('injurias 
compleciitur quas Judsei et ethnici 
Christianis propter doctrinse Christi- 
anspprofessionemimposuerunt,' Fritz.), 
^X(^(s the more general and compre- 
hensive ; see Fritz. It4ynh, viii. 35, Vol. 
II. p. 121. ats dW- 

Xio^c] * which ye are enduring,'* <quas 
sustinetis,' Yulg., Clarom. ; ordinary 



and regular attraction (\^ner. Or, 
§ 14. I, p. 147)— for &v i"^., if we 
follow the analogy of a Cor. xi. i, 
a 'nm. iv. 3,— or for As ^hc-* if wo 
follow the more usual structure of the 
verb in classical Greek. In the N.T. 
AifiXOfMi is associated most commonly 
with persons, and but rarely with 
things; in both cases however it is 
followed by a gen., while in earlier 
Greek it generally, esp. with persons, 
takes the accus.; see Host u. Palm, 
Lex. s.v. Vol. L p. 227. The present 
tense shows that the application is 
still going on, and is in no way at 
variance with r Thess. L 6, ii 14 
(contrast Baur, Paulus, p. 488, notes), 
which refer to an earlier persecution 
that appears to have partially sub- 
sided before the first Epistle was writ- 
ten. The present allusion, as Liinem. 
rightly observes, is to some fresh out- 
break. On this verse and on the 
remaining verses of the chapter, see 
sixteen practical sermons by Manton, 
Works, Vol. V. p. 393—514 (Lond. 
1698). 

5. Iv8ci*y|ta k.t.X«] ^ (which is) a 
token or proof of the righteous judg- 
ment, &o. ; * appositional clause to the 
whole foregoing sentence, and practi- 
cally equivalent to 6 rt i<mv ivdeiy/ia 
K.T,\. ; comp. Phil. i. 28 [whence ob- 
serve the comparatively slight di£fer- 
ence of meaning between the two 
verbals], and see Fritz. Pom. xii. i, 
Vol. in. p. 16. The apposition here 
seems to be not accusatival (Rom. xii. 
I, I Tim. ii. 6), but nominatival, 
lhf9etyfM not referring merely to the 
clause that more immediately involves 
the verb, but to all the preceding 
words, TTJt inroiMnnji — di^^ecr^e: the 



I. 5- 97 

Kara^KaBfjpai v/xa^ t59 iSacrtXe/ay rov 0eo5, virep ?? Kai 



endurance of all their persecutions 
And their afflictions in patience and 
faith formed the hdciyfia rrji diKaias 
Kplffcui ToO Qeov; comp. Rom. viii. 3, 
and see Winer, Or. § 59. 9, p. 472* 
The reference of Hydeiyf^a to the 
Thessalonians ('ipsi Thessal. adversa 
Bustinentes intelligi possunt esse ex- 
emplum justi judicii Dei/ Est.) is 
grammatically plausible, but both 
logically and exegetically improbable 
and unlatisfactory : the proof of the 
righteous judgment of God was not 
to be looked for i& the Thessalonians 
themselves, but in their acts and their 
patient endurance. ttjs Si- 

KaCas KpC<rfa>s] *tke just judgmentf^ 
that will be displayed at the Lord's 
second coming (comp. ver. 7), when 
they who have suffered with and for 
the Lord will also reign with Him; 
comp. 2 Tim. ii. 12. To refer the 
diKaia Kplaii solely to present suffer- 
ings as perfecting and preparing the 
Thessalonians for future glory (Olsh.) 
is to miss the whole point of the 
sentence: the Apostle's argument is 
that their endurance of sufferings in 
faith is a token of Grod's righteous 
judgment and of a future reward, 
which will display itself in rewarding 
the patient sufferers, as surely as it 
will inflict punishment on their perse- 
cutors; (are catpQi tC!)v KivdOruv t4 
a^Xa, Kai t^v r(ap odpatfww it/xmtS^xw^* 
/SacrtXf^ai', rod dycjvodirov t^¥ SiKalcuf 
iviffrdfievoi \J/7J^oi\ Theod. 
els r6 Kara{uoO.] *tkat ye may be 
counted worthy;^ general direction of 
the biKaLa Kpiffii and object to which 
it tended. This infinitival clause has 
been associated with three different 
portions of the preceding sentence; 
(a) with aU di^x^<^^* ^cil. * quas 
afflictiones sustinetis eo fine et fructu 
ut...efficiamini digni regno Dei,' £iit. ; 



(h) with ivSeiyjxa—QeoVf soil. *qu8B 
porseverantia vestra judicii divini jus- 
tissimi olim futuri pignori inservit, 
quod hoc attinet ut digni judicemini,' 
SchVitt 2 ; (c) with diKalas Kplactait so 
as to mark either (i) the result to 
which it tended, Lttnem., or (2) the 
aim which it contemplated, De Wette. 
Of these, while (a) causes the really 
important member iySeiy fia k. r. X. to 
I'elapse into a mere parenthesis, and 
(6) infringes "on the almost regular 
meaning of eh rb with the infin., 
(c) pteserves the logical sequence of 
clauses and the usual force of eis t6 
with the infin. Whether however 
the result or the aim is here specified 
is somewhat doubtful. The decidedly 
predominant usage in St Paul's Epp. 
of e/s t6 with the inf. suggests the 
latter (Winer, Or. § 44. 6, p. 295, 
Meyer on Rom. i. 20, note) : as how- 
ever there seems some reason for 
recognising elsewhere in the N.T. a 
secondary final force of etj t6 (see 
notes on i Thees. ii. 12), we may 
perhaps most ftlausibly in the present 
case regard the Kara^Kadrjifai k. t. X. 
not purely as the purpose, *in order 
to,' Alf., but rather as the object to 
which it tended: the general direction 
and tendency of the Kplau was that 
patient and holy sufferers should be 
accounted worthy of God's kingdom. 
TT]s Pao-iX«Cas tov 0cov] ^tke linff- 
dom of Ood;'' His future kingdom in 
heaven, of which the Christian here 
on earth is a subject, but the full 
privileges of which he is to enjoy 
hereafter; see notes on i Thcss, ii. 
12, and comp. Bauer's treatise there 
alluded to, de Notions Regni Div. in 
N.T. in Comment. Theol. Part 11. 
p. T 20 sq. {nrkp ifjs ical ird- 

<rx«Ti] *ybr which ye are also suffering ; ' 
not exactly *pro quo consequendo,* 

H 



98 



nPOS GEZZAAONIKEIS B. 



6 iraa")(€T€* eiirep SUaiov irapa 0€o5 avTairoSovvai roiq 

7 OXlfiovariv v/xag 6\iylnv koI v/jliv toi9 OXifiofievoig avecriv 



Est., but, with a more general refer- 
ence, *in behalf of which,' 'for the 
sake of which,' — the inrip marking 
the object for which (*in commodum 
cujus,' Usteri, Lehrb. n. i. i, p. ii6) 
the suffering was endured (comp. 
Acts V. 41, Rom. L 5, see Winer, Gr. 
§ 48. 1, p. 343), while the koI with a 
species of consecutive force supplies a 
renewed hint of the connexion be- 
tween the suffering and the Kara^tu)- 
drf^ai K, T. X. On this force of ira£, see 
Winer, Gr, § 53. 3, p. 387, and comp. 
notes on i Hiess, iv. i. The clause 
thus contains no indirect assertion 
that sufferings established a claim to 
the kingdom of God (dir6 rov irdurx^tv 
vpoTopl^eToi ij paaiKela rCov oipavSiVf 
Theoph.), but only confirms the idea 
elsewhere expressed in Scripture that 
they formed the avenue which led to 
it {ovTdii 5ct c/$ TT]v ^aatXeiav elcrtivai, 
Chrys.), and that the connexion be- 
tween holy suffering and future bles- 
sedness was mystically close and indis- 
soluble ; comp. Acts xiv. 22, Bom. 
viii. 17. On the general aspects of 
suffering in the N. T., see Destiny of 
the Creatv/re, p. 36—43. 

6. ctircp SCxaiov] ' if so he that it 
is righteous;* confirmation, in a hypo- 
thetical form, of the preceding decla- 
ration of the justice of Grod, derived 
from His dealings with their persecu- 
tors. The etvep thus involves no doubt 
(oi)K iwl &fi<f>ipo\las t40€ik€v, dXX' iirl 
/3€/Satt6(r€w$, Theod.), but only, with a 
species of rhetorical force, regards as 
an assumption (*€tw€p usurpatur de re 
qusB esse sumitur,' Hermann, Viger, 
No. 310) what is really felt to be a 
certain and recognised verity; Tldrjai 
t6 eiwep wj M tQv ujfioXoyrjfiiiKaVy 
Chrj'^s. On the force of etirep, see 
Klotz, Deiar. Vol. 11. p. 528, and on 



its distinction from etycj comp. notes 
on Gal. iii. 4. The word SIkoiop evi- 
dently points back to the diKola Kplffis 
in ver. 5, not with any antithetical 
allusion to the grace of God (comp. 
Pelt), but in simple and immediate 
reference to His justice as regarded 
under the analogies of strict human 
justice (e^ yiip iraph dydpiinrois tovto 
SUatoVf iroXX^ ^aXXor wapd. r(f Oeip, 
Chrys.), and as inferred from His own 
declarations: comp. Rom. ii. 5, CoL 
iii 24, 25. irapA 0c$] * before 

God; 'with God; 'apud Deum,' Vulg. 

,^ \rs o [coram Deo] Syr.; the 

secondary idea of locality ('motion 
connected with that of closeness,' 
Donalds. Cratyl. § 177) being still 
faintly retained in the notion of judg- 
ment as at a tribunal, e. g. Herod, iii. 
160, vapb. AapeUp Kpiry; comp. Gal. 
iii. II, and see Winer, Gr. §48. d, 
p. 352. On the meaning of (bnrairo- 
diSduai, see notes on i Thess. iii 9. 
TOis OXCpovcnv ic.T»X.] Ho those that 
afflict you affliction;'' the * jus talionis' 
exhibited in its clearest form : the 0X1- 
jSocTcs are requited with 0\l\//is, the 
OXi^fieyoi with Ayeais. Theoph. sub- 
joins the further comparison; 0^ 
cScnrep di al iiray6fJL€vai ifuv 6\l\//€is 
TTpdffKaipoif ovT<a Kal al roh OXl^ovaiv 
iffias dtfTewax^v^Sfievat wapcL Qeov 
wpdffKaipot ((Tovrai, dXX' dTcXeihrp-Oi' 
Kal al dviaeii iplv roiaOrai. 

7. rots 0XiPo|ji4vois] ^who are of' 
flicted;^ passive, clearly not middle, 
'qui pressuram toleratis,' Beng., as 
the antithesis would thus be marred, 
and the illustration of the 'jus talionis' 
rendered somewhat less distinct. 
&vfxriv n€0* i]|M»v] *re8t with us;^ rest 
in company with us who are writing 
to you, and who like you have been 



I. 6, 7, 8. 



99 



/Ae0' fiixwv^ €V Tp CLTTOKaXvy^ci Tov Kvplov ^Ifjaov air 
ovpavov (xer ayyiXtav SvvajjLCia^ avrov ev (pXoyl irvpo^, 8 

8. <f,\oyl TvpSi] So Lachm, (text) with BDEFG; 71; Vulg., Clarom., 
Syr., Goth., al.; Iren. (interpr.), Maced., Theod. (comment.?), (Ecum., TertuU. 
{Schohf TiscL ed. i, LUnem., Wordsw.). In ed. a, 7, Tisch. adopts wvpl <f>\oybi 
with AKLK ; nearly all mss. ; Syr. -Phil, (marg.) ; Chrys., Theod. (text), Dam., 
al. {Rec.f A If., Lachm. marg.). C is deficient. The expression adopted is here 
on the whole the better supported, but both in Exod^ iii. 2 and in Acts vii. 30 
there is a sithilar variation of reading. 



exposed to suffering ; see ch. iil 2. To 
give ijfieU a general reference (DeW.) 
would not be strictly true, and would 
impair the encouraging and consola- 
tory character of the reference ; iirdyei 
rb fi€$' i^fiwv, tva Kot»u)vovs a^roits 
'Kd^'ll 'f"^ "^^^ &yd)V(av Kal <rT€<f>dP(av tCov 
dvoaroktKQif, Qi^cum. "Ai/eo-ij is simi- 
larly used in antithesis to OXt^eadai 
and OXliJ/is in 2 Cor. vii. 5, viii. 13 ; it 
properly implies a relaxation, as of 
strings, and in such combinations 
stands in opposition to iwlTaais ; comp. 
Plato, Rcpnhl. I. p. 349 E, h rg iiri- 
rdffei Kal dviffci Tdv xopSQv, It here 
obviously refers to the final rest in the 
kingdom of God ; and forms one of 
the elements of its blessedness consi- 
dered under simply negative aspects ; 
comp. Rev. xiv. 13. ^ tJ 

diroKoX. K.r.X.] * at the revelation of 
the Lord Jesus;* predication of time 
when the di^roir65o<rt$ shall take place. 
Tlie term iiroKdXvyJ/is (i Cor. i. 7, comp. 
Luke xvii. 30) is here suitably used in 
preference to the more usual irapovaLa, 
as perhaps hinting that though now 
hidden, our Lord's coming to judge 
both the quick and dead will be some- 
tliing real, certiun, and manifest; vvv 
ydp, (ftrjffl, Kp&irrerai, dXXd fi^ dXiJerc* 
diroKa\vip6'fiff€Tai yb.p Kal w$ Qebi Kal 
deairbrriSf Theoph. dir* ovpavov] 

Predication of place: it is from hea^- 
ven, from the right hand of God where 
He is now sitting, that the Lord will 
come; cdmp. i Thess. iv. 16, and 



Pearson, Creed, Art. vii. Vol. i. p. 
346 (ed. Burton). pfT* dyy^oiv 

8wd^ a^ov] ^accompanied ivith the 
angels of His power ;^ predication of 
manner; the Lord will come accom- 
panied ydth the hosts of heaven, who 
shall be the ministers of His will and 
the exponents and instruments of His 
power. l!he gloss of Theoph. and 
(Ecum. 2, dvydfiews A776X01, TOVTiari 
dwarol, followed by Auth., al, but 
found in none of the best Vv. of 
antiquity, is now properly rejected by 
appy. all modern commentators. The 
gen. appears simply to fall under the 
general head of the gen, possesstt^s, 
and serves to mark that to which 
the d77eXot appertained, and of 
which they wete the ministers ; comp. 
Bemhardy, Synt. ill. 44, p. 161, 
Winer, Gr. § 34. 3. b, p. 211 (note). 
The Syr. inverts the clause, sc. 

^^GICLdULO) ]1 I m UxL, [cum 

- r 7 7 

virtute Angelorum suorum], and may 
have suggested the equally incorrect 
and inverted paraphrase of Michaelis, 
'das ganase Heer seiner Engel:' the 
former however is corrected in Syr.- 
Phil., and the latter has been pro- 
perly rejected by all recent expositors. 
On the fotce of fierd in this combina- 
tion, see notes on i Thess. iii. 13. 

8. <V ^\oy\ inipds] * in a flame of 
Jtre,* t. e. encircled by, encompassed 
by a flaiiie of fire ; continued predica- 
tion of the manner of the dTOKd\v\//is ; 

H2 



100 



nP02 eE22AAONIKEI2 B. 



SlSoVTO^ €KSlK1J<riV T019 /ULfl eiSoCTlV QcOV Koi TOU M^ 

viraKovovcTiv t£ evayyeXlip rod K.vplov JjfiZv *I^<rov' 
9 oiTiv€9 Slicrjp TLCTOvcTiv oXcdpop aiioviov CLTTO irpo<r(OTrov 



'in libris V. T. saepenumero ignis et 
flamma commemoratur, nbi de prsd- 
8enti4 et efficadtate Kuminis divini 
singulari modo patefaciendU, praeser- 
tim de judicio divino, sermo est, Exod. 
iii. 2 sq.) Malach. iv. i, Daniel vii. 9, 
10,' Schott. The addition thus serves 
not only to express the majesty of the 
Lord^s coming, but is noticeable as 
ascribing to the Son the same glorious 
manifestations that the Old Test, 
ascribes to the Father. The Syr., 
JBth. (Piatt), and, if the punctuation 
can be trusted, some of the other Vv. 
(comp. Theoph. i) connect this clause 
with dtd6tnros UUk. as an instrumental 
clause (Jowett actually unites both 
interpr.), but without plausibility ; the 
attendant heavenly hosts and the en- 
circling fire seem naturally to be as- 
sociated as the two symbols and ac- 
companiments of the divine presence. 
8i86vTos ^k8£ic] * awarding vengeance;'' 
sciL Tov Kvplov *Irj<T.f not in connexion 
with irvpSSf which would not only be 
a halting and unduly protracted struc- 
ture, but would wholly mar the sym- 
metry of the two clauses of manner. 
The formula JtSAvat iKdU, only occurs 
here in the K. T., but is occasionally 
found elsewhere; see Ezek. xxv. 14, 
and comp. &To8ovuai ixS. in Numb. 
xxxi. 3. No exx. of its occurrence 
have been adduced from classical 
Greek; £k5(k. Toi'^a-aadai is found in 
Polyb. Hist. iii. 8. 10. rots jjii^ 

cl86(riv ^€6v] ' to those who Tcnow not 
God,"* who belong to a class marked by 
this characteristic; first of the two 
classes who will be the future objects 
of the divine Wrath, 'qui in ethnicd 
ignorantia de Deo versantur * (Beng.), 
— in a word the Heathen. On the 



peculiar force of the subjective n^^ 
tion, see notes on 1 Thess. iv. 5, and 
comp. Winer, Gr. §55. 5, p. 42834. 
Tots |i.t\ t^troK. k.tX] ^Ihjote who obey 
not the Gospel of our Lord Jesus;"* 
second class of those who afflicted the 
Thessalonian converts, those whose 
characteristic was disobedience gene- 
rally, and especially to the Grospel 
(Rom. X. 16), — in a word, the unbe- 
lieving Jews. It is somewhat singu- 
lar that a scholar usually so sound as 
^hott should have felt a difficulty at 
the division into two classes: surely 
the article before iiti inroK, renders 
such a view all but certain; see 
Winer, Gr. § 19. 5, p. 117, Green, 
Gr. p. 215. Even in seeming excep- 
tions to the rule (Matth. xxvii. 3 
[Reel, Luke xxii. 4 {Tisch,^ al.) it 
may be fairly questioned whether the 
writer did not in these particular cases 
really intend the two classes to be 
regarded as separate, though other- 
wise commonly united. The 
reading is slightly doubtful; Bee. 
adds, and Lachm. inserts in brackets, 
Xpurrov with AI'GK; mss. ; Vulg., 
Clarom., Syr., Goth., al. C is defici- 
ent. Though the omission of X/b. 
does not characterize this Ep. as it 
does the first (see notes on i Thess. iii. 
13), 'Iiyj-. alone [with BDEKL; 25 
mss.; Copt., Syr. -Phil., ^th. ; many 
Ff.] is on the whole the more probable 
reading here. 

9. oXrivfs] ^tnen who;"* reference 
by means of the qualitative rel. pro- 
noun to the two preceding classes. 
If we revert to the distinctions stated 
in the notes on Gal. iv. 24, it would 
seem that SarL^ is here used, not in a 
causal sense with ref. to the reason 



I. 9, 10. 



101 



Tou Hvpiov KOI air^ T^y So^m t?? ia")(yo^ avrovp orav lo 



for rlffovffof (LUnem., Alf. — who how- 
ever mix up two usages), but expli' 
catively (* who truly '), or even simply 
classificalli/, with ref. to the class or 
category to which the antecedents are 
referred, and to the characteristics 
which mark them ; see notes on OoU, ii. 
4, and on Phil. ii. 20. The brief dis- 
tinction of Kruger {SprachL § 50. 8), 
that 6s has simply an objective aspect, 
offTis one qualitative and generic, will 
in most cases be found useful and 
applicable. For other and idiomatic 
usages, see Ellendt, Lex, SopJiod, s. v. 
Vol. n. p. 381 sq., and comp. Schaefer, 
notes on Demosth, Vol. 11. p. 531. 
8iia|v ricrovariv] * shall partite penalty.^ 
This formula does not occur elsewhere 
in the N. T. (comp. however diKTiv 
iir4x€iVi Jude 7), but is suflBciently 
common in both earlier and later 
Greek, and is copiously illustrated by 
Wetst. in loc, 6X.i9pov 

aU»viov] * eternal destruction;'* accus. 
in apposition to the preceding Sf/ciyv : 
on 6\e0pos, comp. notes on i Tim. vi. 
9. All the sounder conmientators on 
this text recognise in aliJbyios a refer- 
ence to *res in perpetuum futur»' 
(Schott), and a testimony to the 
eternity of future punishment that 
cannot easily be explained away: 
iroO Tolvvv ol *Qpiy€viaTal ol tAo? t^s 
Ko\d<T€U)s fivOotifievoi ; al(S)Viov Ta&rrjv 6 
UavXoi X^et, Theoph.; comp. Pear- 
son, Creedj Art. xii. p. 465 (ed. 
Burton). In answer to the efforts of 
some writers of the present day to 
give aldjvioi a qualitative aspect, let it 
briefly be said that the earliest Greek 
expositors never appear to have lost 
sight of its quantitative aspects ; dicpi- 
^i<TT€pw idei^e T^s TifJuapLaa t6 /a^c- 
0OS alihvLW ra&rrjv &iroKa\4<raSf Theod. 
For further remarks on this subject, 
see notes and reff. in Destiny of the 



Creature, Serm. iv., and for a dis- 
cussion oi the grave question of 
the eternity of divine punishments, 
Erbkam, in Stud. u. Krit. for 1838, 
p. 412 sq. The reading of 

Lachm. (non marg.) 6\40piop [with A ; 
a mss.; Ephr., Chrys. (ms.)] is far too 
feebly supported to deserve much con- 
sideration, dir^ irpotrcSirov 
Tov Kvp.] * removed from the presence 
of the Lord.^ These words have re- 
ceived three different explanations, 
corresponding to the three meanings, 
temporal, causal, and local, which 
may be assigned to the preposition. 
Of these dirb can scarcely be here (a) 
temporal (dpKct wapaycy^aOai fibvov 
Kal 6<l>drivai rbv Behv koL vdm-ei i¥ 
Ko\d<r€L Kal Tifiiaplq. ybovTai, Chrys., 
comp. Theoph., (Ecum.), as the subst. 
with which it is associated (not trap' 
ovalas but vpoffihvov) seems wholly 
to preclude anything but a simple 
and quasi-physical reference. Equally 
doubtful is (6) the causal translation ; 
for though dir6 may be thus associated 
with neuter and even passive verbs, 
as marking the personal source whence 
the action originaJtes (see ezx. in 
Winer, Or. § 47. a, p. 332, comp. 
Thiersch, de Pentat. 11. 15, p. 106), 
yet, on the other hand, such a con- 
nexion in the present case would in- 
volve the assumption that wpoaihwov 
rod Kvp, was a periphrasis for the 
personal rov Kvplov (Acts iii. 19, cited 
by De W., owing to the dissimilar 
nature of the verbs, is no parallel), 
and merely equivalent to 'prsesente 
Domino' (comp. Pelt), — a resolution of 
the words in a high degree precarious 
and doubtful. We therefore adopt (c) 
the simply local translation, according 
to which dwb marks the idea of 
'separation from* (Olsh., LUnem.}, 
emkedma ['de devant'] iEth., while 



102 



nP02 eE22AA0NIKEI2 B. 



eX0i7 €i/So^acr6rjvai ev T019 dyioig avrov koi dav/J.ao'Ofjvai 
€V Traariv Toh '7riarT€V(ra<nv, on eTriarTCvdfi to juLaprvpiov 



xpoffiairov rod Kvp. retaiiis its proper 
meaning, and specifies that perennial 
fountain of blessedness (comp. Psalm 
xvi. II, Matth. xviii. 10, Rev. xxii. 4), 
to be separated from which will con- 
stitute the true essence of the fearful 
'poena damni' (Jackson, Creed, xi. 
20. 9): see further details in Schott 
and Liiuem. in loc, by both of whom 
this view is well maintained. The 
article before Kvplov is omitted by 
DEFG ; 10 mss. 6.vh ttjs 

86{i|s K.T.X.] 'from the glory of His 
might;* not 'His mighty glory,' 
Jowett, — a most doubtful paraphrase, 
but the glory arising from, emanating 
from His might (gen. originis, comp. 
notes on i TJiess. i. 6), the dd^a being 
regarded, so to speak, as the result of 
the exercise of His l<rx^^y and as that 
sphere and halo which enviroQS its 
manifestations. The assumption of 
De W. that in this clause dirb has 
a causal force is perfectly gratuitous. 

10. orav tK^Xji] ^ when He shall have 
come;* specific stateflaent of the time 
in which the preceding Uktiv rl<rov<rLV 
shall be brought about and accom- 
plished ; TOTC 7^/> rod ^pvrov ttjv diKalay 
\l/ri<l>ov davfidaovffiv d^am-es, Theod, 
On the force of 5r«j*f with the aor, 
subj. as referring to an objectively 
possible event, which is to, can, or 
must, take place at some single point 
of time distinct from the actual pre- 
sent, but the exact epoch of which is 
left uncertain, see Winer, Gr. § 42. 5, 
p. -275, and esp. Schmalfeld, Synt. 
§ 121, where the nature of the con- 
struction is well discussed. The most 
natural and idiomatic mode of trans- 
lation is briefly noticed in notes to 
Tranal. ^v8o|a(r6TJvai 4v 

K.T.X.] 'to he glorified in (the persons 
of) Mis saints;* infinitive of design or 



purpose, — not equivalent to («)(rr€ /c.t.X. 
(Jowett), from which it is grammati- 
cally distinguishable as involving no 
reference to mode or degree ; see notes 
on Col. i. 22, where both formula are 
briefly discussed. The verb itself is a Sis 
\ey6fi. in the N.T. (here and ver. 12), 
and, except in the LXX (Exod. xiv. 
4, Isaiah xlv. 25, xlix. 3, al.) and 
eccl. writers, is of rare occurrence. 
The prep, seems here very distinctly to 
mark — not the more locality 'among 
His saints' (Michael.), still less the 
instruments or media of the glorifica- 
tion (ip 5iA iarL, Chrys., Beng.), but 
the svhstratum (»f the action, the 
mirror as it were (Alf.) in which and 
on which the Zb^a was reflected and 
displayed ; comp. Exod. xiv. 4, Tsaiali 
xlix. 3, and see notes on Gal. i. 24. 
Lastly, the EyioL do not here appear 
to be the Holy Angels, but, as the 
tacit contrasts and limitations of the 
ooptext suggest, the risen and glorified 
company of believers ; contrast i Thess. 
iii. 13, where both wdpres, and the 
absence of all notice of the unholy, 
suggest the more inclusive refer- 
ence. 9av[Laa-9r\vo.\, K.r.X.] 
*to be wondered at in all them that 
believed;* soil, owing to the reflection 
of His glory and power which is dis- 
played in those who believed on Him 
while they were on earth ; * obstupes- 
cent Christum in credentibus tam 
magnum et gloriosum esse,' Cocceius. 
The aor. Tiffreijaaffiv [Rec. wKTreijovffty, 
but in opp. to all MSS. ; many Vv. 
and Ff.] is here suitably used in con- 
nexion with the period referred to: at 
that time the belief of the faithful 
would belong to the past ; comp. 
Wordsw. in loc. For exx. of this 
pass, use of Oav/id^Wf see Kypke, Obs, 
Vol. II. p. 342. 8ti IrrurrcvOi) 



I. II. 



103 






K.r.X.] ' because our testimony unto you 
was believed;* parenthetical clause 
taking up the preceding maT€ij<Ta<rL¥, 
and giving it a more distinct reference 
to those {i<f>* {ffiai) to whom he was 
writing. The fiapripiop ^tiQv is the 
testimony relating to Christ {/i-apr, 
ToO Xp.f 1 Cor. i. 6), the message of 
the Gospel {fiaprdpiov 8^ K-Zipvyfrn vpoff- 
rfy6p€v<rt, Theod.), delivered by the 
Apostle and his associates (gen. orif/i- 
nis or causa! ejfficientiSf Scheuerl. Synt, 
§ 17, see notes on i Thess. i. 6), the 
destination of which is specified in the 
same enunciation; comp. Col. i. 8, 
T^ vfjLwif dydirrj¥ (» Upejj/iaTL, where, 
as here, the anarthrous prepositional 
member gives the whole clause a more 
complete unity of conception ; see 
notes I.e., and Winer, Or. § 30. a, 
p. 123. On the prep, ivl, which here 
seems to mark the mental direction of 
the p-apT^pLov (comp. Luke ix. 5 ), and 
commonly involves some idea of 'near- 
ness or approximation ' (Donalds. Crat. 
i 172), see Winer, Gr. §49. 1, p. 363 sq. 
kv TJ ^MpY ^^* ^^ most naturally 
joined with davpaaOijvai k. t. X., to 
which it is joined as a predication of 
time, reiterating and more precisely 
defining the foregoing temporal clause 
6Ta» M-Q K. T. \. Some of the older 
Vv., e.(j. Syr., ^Eth., Goth., appear to 
have joined these words with what 
precedes, but are compelled either to 
regard the aor. iiriar, as equivalent to 

a future ( Vn .m/ / Syr., but not 

Syr. -Phil.) or to assign meanings to iy 
T^ ijfi, iK,f soil. *de illo die,'Menoch., 
'cum spe retributionis in illo die per- 
cipieudse,' Est., that are neither gram- 
matically nor exegetically defensible. 
The position of ^1^ tJ 1^^ iK. is con- 



fessedly somewhat unusual, but per- 
haps may have been designed to im- 
press still more on the readers the ex- 
act and definite epoch when all was to 
be realized. 

1 1. Els 5] * Whereunto,' * with ex- 
pectations directed to which,' to its 
realization and fruition; not equiva- 
lent to dt* 8 (Auth., Schott), nor even 
to ifvip 6 (comp. De W.), but simply, 
with the primary force of the prep., 
definitive of the direction taken, as it 
were, by the longing prayers of the 
Apostle and his associates ; see Winer, 
Gr. § 49. a, p. 354, Donalds. Cratyl. 
§ 1 70, and comp. Col. i. 29, but observe 
that the verb with which it is there 
associated {kottiu) gives the prep, a 
somewhat stronger and more definite 
meaning. Kal irpo<rcvx6|ic9a] 

*we also pray;* besides merely longing 
or merely directing your hopes, we also 
avail ourselves of the definite accents 
of prayer, the Kal gently contrasting 
the TpoaevX' with the infusion of con- 
fidence and hope involved in the pre- 
ceding words and especially echoed in 
the parenthetical member. On this 
use of ifttf, see notes on Phil, iv. 11, 
and on the use of ircpt with irpoaeijX'i 
see notes on i Thess. v. 15, and on 
Col, i. 3. tva ifjids icr.X.] 

Hhat Qod may count you worthy of 
your calling;* subject of the prayer 
blended with the purpose of making it ; 
ha having here, as not uncommonly 
in this combination, its secondary and 
weakened force; comp. Col. iv. 3, 
I Thess. iv. i, and notes on Eph, i. 17, 
and on Phil. i. 9. The verb &^louv 
occurs 7 times in the N.T. (Luke vii. 
7, I Tim. V. 17, Heb. iii. 3, al.), and 
regularly in the sense of ' esteeming or 
counting dftof ' ('dignari,' Vulg. here, 



104 



nPOS eE22AAONIKEI2 B. 



KXi^cretag 6 Geo? jJ/icSi/ koi TrKriptacrri iracrav euSoKiav aya-^ 
12 Ouxrvvijg koi epyov mcTTeco^ ev Svyajmei, oirta^ evSo^acrO^ 



Clarom.), not of making so (comp. Syr. 

^n<^ >n ^ ij Copt., al.)y a meaning 

not lexically demonstrable; compare 
Host u. Palm, Lex. s.v. The contrary 
is urged by Olsh., on the ground that 
the context shows that the call had 
been already received : jcX^(ris how- 
ever, though really the initial act 
(comp. I Thess. ii. 12), includes the 
Christian course which follows (Eph. 
iv. i), and its issues in blessedness 
hereafter ; K\TJ(rw odv ivravOa \4yei r^v 
5tA rwv Trpd^ewv p€paiovfi4vrp/, iJTis Koi 
Kvplws K\rj<rls iffrij Theoph., see notes 
on Phil, iii. 14, and comp. Reuss, 
Th^ol. Chrit, iv. 15, Vol. 11. p. 145. 
irX.ifjp«S<rg irdtrav ict.X.] ^ fulfil^ bring 
to completion, every good pleasure of 
goodness,* 'ut expleat omnem dulce- 
dinem honestatis, h. e. ut plenam et 
perfectam, quS recreemini, honestatem 
vobis impertiat,' Fritz. Itom. x. i, Vol. 
II. p. 372, note. The meaning of these 
words is not perfectly clear. The 
familiar use of ei/SoKeiv, eifdoda, in ref. 
to Ood (Eph. i. 5, 9, Phil, ii 13), sug- 
gests a similar reference in the present 
case (CBcum., Theoph. in part, Beng., 
al.); to this however there is (i) the 
exegetical objection that dyaOvaiivrj, 
though occurring 4 times fn St Paul's 
Epp., is never applied to God, and (2) 
the more grave contextual objection 
that the second member (pyov irlffTetas, 
equally undefined by any pi^onoun, 
certainly refers to those whom the 
Apostle is addressing. It seems safes^t 
then to refer the present member to 
the Thessalonians ; eidoda marking 
the good pleasure they evinced, and 
the defining gen. &ya6(a<Tijprjs (gen. oh- 
jecti, Kriiger, Spi'achl. § 47. 7. i, — not 
of apposition, Alf.) the element in 
yi^ich it was so manifested, or more 



exactly, the object to which the action 
implfed in the derivative sabst. was 
especially directed ; see Scheuerl. SyrU, 
§ 17. I, p. 126. The attempt 

to refer the expression partly to God 
and partly to the Thess. (Olsh., comp. 
Theoph.), or to regard the operation of 
the believer and that of the Spirit bb 
blended and confused (Jowett), is in a 
high degree precarious and unsatisfac- 
tory. On the meaning of eiSoKla, 
see the good note of Fritz. I.e. Vol. 
n. p. 369 sq., and on the meaning 
of &ya0(affi)ifri (moral goodness) and 
its distinction ftrom dyaddrrfs, notes on 
Gal. V. 2^. Sp70V irCarrtMsi 

* the worlc of faith,* the work which i» 
the distinctive feature of it; Itpyov 
being that which marks, characterizes, 
and evinces the vitality of the viaris, 
almost 'the activity of faith,' not 
however merely as tV ^irofiovipf rdjpk 
bLojyfiQv, Theoph., but {/irofMv^v as ex- 
hibited in the various circumstances 
of Christian life and duty. On the 
exact meaning and construction of 
these words, see notes on i Thess, i. 3, 
and comp. Reuss, Thiol. Chrit. iv. 19, 
Vol. n. p. 205. ^v 8wd|i,ei] 

* mKh power,"* i. e. powerfully, — specifi- 
cation of manner annexed to the verb 
ir\7ip(b<r-Q, with wbich it is associated 
with a practically adverbial force; 
comp. Rom. i. 4, Col. i. 29, and see 
Benihardy, Synt. v. 7, p. 209. The 
analogous use of <ri)if (comp. Scheuerl. 
Synt. § 22. b, p. 180) is not found in 
tl^eN.T. 

12. Sircos ^v8o(. K.T.X.] ^in order that 
the name... he glorijkdi* reiteration of 
the purpose (not merely result, ivZo- 
^affd-fifferai., Theoph.) stated generally 
iu verse 10, in special reference to the 
converts of Thessalonica. It is not 
easy to define the exact difiference be- 



L 12, II. I. 



105 



TO ovoixa Tov Kvpiou fiixSiv ^Itiarov iv vjuliv ical vjuLei^ ev 
auTw Kara rijv x^piv tov OeoO ijjuLwv koi J^vplov 'Iiycrow 

XjO/0"TOV. 

Be not disquiQtad con- ^Ep(jOT(!>fl€V Sc VJULOL^, aSeXcboiy VTreO II* 

cerahig the Lord's com- * ^ tt r r 

!S%e knoJ?^,U8t fni "^^ Vapovaias TOV KvpiOV mS>V IriTOV 

be revealed; aad then shall be destroyed by the Lord. 



tween the present use of tfirwj (used 
comparatively rarely by St Paul ; only 
6 times excluding quotations), and the 
corresponding one of Xva. Speaking 
somewhat roughly, one may perhaps 
say that the relatival compound dirws 
(Donalds. Cratyl.% 196) involves some 
obscure reference to manner, while ha 
(appy. connected with the reflexive X, 
or the pronoun of the second person, 
comp. Donalds. Cratyl. § 139) may 
retain some tinge of its primary refer- 
ence to locality. The real practical 
differences however are these, (a) that 
6iro)i has often more of an eventual 
aspect; (6) that it is used with the 
future and occasionally associated with 
Ay,— both which constructions are in- 
admissible with the final ha\ see 
Klotz, Devar. Vol. 11. p. 629 sq. 
t6 6vo}ia TOV Kvp. is not a mere peri* 
plirasis for d Ki)/7(os, but specifies that 
character and personality as revealed 
to and acknowledged by men; comp., 
but with caution, Bretschn. Lex. s.v. 6, 
p. 291, and notes on Phil. ii. 10. The 
assertion of Jowett in he. that these 
words have 'no specific meaning^ can- 
not be sustained, and is language in 
every way to be regretted. 
The addition Xpiarov [Rec, iMchm. ih 
brackets, with AFG; Vulg., Syr. 
(both) ; Chrys.] is rightly rejected by 
Ti8ch. with BDEKLX; Clarom., San- 
germ., Copt., Sahid., al.; Theod. (ms.), 
Gi]cum., al. kv atrt^] *tn 

Jlim/ not in reference to rb 6vofia rod 
Kvp. (LUnem.), but to the immediately 
preceding ^Irjaov. The exact notion 
of reciprocity (oomp. notea on Oal. vi 



14) would be best maintained by the 
former reference ; but, as Alf . correctly 
observes, the present expression is used 
far too frequently and exclusively in 
ref. to union in our Lord Himself to 
admit here of any different applica- 
tion. KareL Tt\v X^^P*''] ' "* 
accordance with the grace ;^ the x<^P** 
is the * norma ' according to which the 
glorification took place, and thence, 
by an intelligible transition, that of 
which it is regarded as a conseqitence ; 
i) x^P^^ aifTov 5t* i)iJ.Cov trdura KaropdoT, 
(Ecum. ; comp. notes on irard on Phil. 
ii. 3, and Tit. iii. 5. tov 0cov 
•f^lk&v K.r.X.] This is one of the pas- 
sages supposed to fall under Granville 
Sharpe's rule (comp. Middl. 6r. Art. 
p. 56, ed. Eose), according to which 
9e6s and Kt^ios would refer to the 
same person. It may be justly doubted 
however whether, owing to the pecu- 
liar nature of KiJptos (Winer, Or. § 19. 
I) P* 1 13)) ^his can be sustained in the 
present case; see esp. Middleton, p. 
379 sq., and comp. Green, Or. p. 216. 

Chapter II. i. 'Epon-Mfjicv 84 ^|i.] 
*-Novf^ we heseXh you/ transition by 
means of the tk fierapaTiKb^ (see notes 
091 Gal, iii. 8) from the Apostle's 
prayers for his converts to what he 
claims of them, and the course of con- 
duct he exhorts them to follow. On 
the meaning of ipwrotp, see notes on 
I Thess. iv. I. "Mp is here 

certainly not introductory of a for- 
mula of adjuration (Vulg., perhaps 
.^th. [baenta, — often so used], Beza, 
al.), as such a meaning, though gram> 



106 



nP02 GESSAAONIKEIS B. 



2 XpicTTOv KOI ^ifiZv eTTLcrvvaywyri^ iir' avrov, ei^ to juLfi 
Tayita^ crdXeuOrjvai vjULcig oltto tov j/009 jJLrjSe OpoeiarOai, 



matically tenable (Bemhardy, Synt. v. 
21, p. 244, — partially, but appy. with- 
out full reason, objected to by Winer), 
is by no means exegetically probable, 
and is without precedent in the lan- 
guage of the N. T. The more natural 
interpretation is to regard the prep. 
as approximating in meaning to irepl 
(Winer, Gr. § 47. 1, p. 343; comp. 
KrUger, Sprackl. § 68. 28. 3), but still 
distinct from it, as involving some 
trace of the idea of benefit to or fur- 
therance of the irapovo'ia ; comp. 
Wordsw. in loc. , and see notes on Phil. 
ii. 13. The subject of the irapovala 
had been misunderstood and misinter- 
preted, and its commodum therefore 
was what the Apostle wished to pro- 
mote. i)}icov ^irwrvv. Itt airov] 
' our gathering together unto Him,'' scil. 
in the clouds of heaven, when He 
comes to judge the quick and dead; 
see I Thess. iv. 17, And comp. Matth. 
xxiv. 31, Mark xiii. 27. The subst. 
iwiffwayiayir] only occurs once again 
in the N. T. (Heb. x. 25), in ref. to 
Christian worship (comp. 2 Mace, ii, 
7), and seems confined to later writers. 
The meaning assigned by Hammond, 
* the greater liberty of the Christiana 
to assemble to the service of Christ, 
the greater freedom of ecclesiastical 
assemblies,' is due to his reference of 
the present irapovala tov Kvplov to 
God's judgment on the Jews. The 
mutual relation of the two Epp. seems 
totally to preclude such a reference: 
if in I Thess. iv. 15 the words refer 
to the final day of doom (Hamm.), 
the bllusion here must certainly be the 
same. kir* ai&T6v] * unto Him;'' 
comp. Mark v. 21, (rvvffxJ^ri t^xXos iro^ 
Xi>s iir' airbv ; the preposition marking 
the point to which the (rwaytay^ was 
<lirected| and losing its idea of super- 



position in that of approximation to 
or juxtaposition ; comp. Donalds. Cra- 
^yl' § ^72. The difference between 
irepl and irpbs in the present combi- 
nation is perhaps no more than this, 
that while Tpbi points rather to the 
direction to be taken, ^ttI marks more 
the point to be reached. 

2. els r^ K'i K.T.X..] * thai ye should 
not he soon shaken,^ *ut non cito move- 
amini,' Vulg., Clarom. ; object and 
aim of the ipwrdu, with perhaps some 
included reference to the subject of it ; 
comp. I Thess. iii. 10, and notes on 
I Theas. ii. 12. This construction 
though not found elsewhere with 
ipwrfv is perfectly intelligible. The 
verb (raXet/o;, as its derivation shows 
[ffdXoSf connected with AA-, and with 
Sanscr. form sal, Benfey, Wv/rzellex, 
Vol. I. p. 61], marks an agitated and 
disquieted state of mind, which in the 
present case was due to wild spiritual 
anticipations; compare Acts xvii. 13, 
and see exx. in Eisner, Obs. Vol. ir. p. 
283. The rax^fiis does not seem to refer 
to the period since St Paul was with 
them, or to the date of the First Epi- 
stle, but simply to the time when they 
might happen to hear the doctrine; 
the reference being rather modaZ 
(' praecipitanter,' De W.) than purely 
temporal ; ^ si id crederent facili mo- 
mento quassaretur ipsorum fides,' Coc- 
ceius. diri tov vo6s] ^from 

your mindf* ' a vestro sensu,' Vulg. ; 
certainly not *a sententiS seu doctrind>,' 
Est., but simply 'statu mentis soHto/ 
Schott I, — their ordinary, sober, and 
normal state of mind, TrapaTpairijuai 
drrb rod vobs, tu fi^i tov vvv etx^Te 
dpOQi l<rrd/i€if0Vf Theoph. ; comp. Kom. 
xiv. 5, and Beck, Seelenl. § 18. i, p. 51, 
The construction is what is usually 
termed prcegnans, sciL * ita conouti ut 



II. 2, 3. 



107 



jui/re Sia irvevfiaro^ ixfire Sia Xoyov jx^Te ^i eTria-ToXfj^ 
(tf? Si fjjULwvy (09 on cviarTtjKev fi fifxepa tov l^vpiov. jxii 3 



demovearis,' Schott; comp. Rom. vi. 
7, ix. 3, 1 Tim. iv. 18 (eis), al., and 
Winer, Gr. § 66. 2, p. 547, 
)jiT|8i Opofto^ai] *nor yet he troubled i 
stronger expression than the foregoing, 
introduced by the slightly ascensive 
/xi/S^; see notes on i Thesa. ii. 3 
(Tranal.). The verb dpoita [derived 
from 8PE0MAI, and connected witli 
Tp^w; comp. Donalds. Cratyh § 272] 
properly denotes 'clamorem tumul- 
tuantem edere' (Schott), and thence, 
by a natural transition, that terrified 
state {rapax^t^ffOaiy Zonaras), which 
is associated with and gives rise 
to such outward manifestations. In 
later writers fi^ dporidfs comes to 
mean little more than /x^ ^au/id(r|7S, 
Lobeck, Phryn. p. 676. The reading 
of Rec. fi'/jre [with D^EKL ; several 
Ff.] is rightly rejected by Lachm. and 
I'isch. on the preponderating external 
authority of ABD^ (giving it also be- 
fore bib. \6yov) F (giving fiTjSi tlurioe, 
but fxi/jre with dib. \6yov) Gi<; Orig. 
The change from the disjunctive nega- 
tive was probably suggested by the 
following An)re, the true relation of the 
negatives not having been properly 
understood. (Jttjri 8id irvftt^aros] 

* neither by spirit/ scil. of prophecy; 
5tA Tpoiprjrelas' ripis y6.p irpoipriTelav 
iiroKpufdfievoi iirXdviatf rbv Xabv cbs 'fjbij 
trapbvTos tov Kvpiov, Theoph. The 
second negation is here, by means of 
the thrice repeated pt-i/iTef divided into 
three members ; see exx. and illustra- 
tions in Winer, Gr. § 55. 6, p. 437, 
where the distinctive character of firibi 
and M^re, their meaning, and sequence, 
are well delineated. \l^t% 8id 

X.6<yov may be either regarded, (a) as 
an independent member distinguished 
both from what precedes and follows, 
or (6) may be oonneoted more closely 



with the third negative member, both 
being associated with u)s bC ijfiCip. In 
the former case \6yov fonns a species 
of antithesis to irveiifiaTos as denoting 
oral teaching, less marked by super- 
natural or prophetic characteristics 
(bibaaKoKlas ^(ha-Q tptavf ycyofiiynif 
Theoph.); in the latter the \6yov stands 
contrasted with im<rTo\7js, as marking 
what the Apostle had communicated 
by word of mouth in contradistinction 
to what he had written ; fj.^ iriffTeCeuf 
. . .fjLi/iT€ el T\aadfJL€voi ws i^ ai/roO ypa.' 
(pfiaaif iriffToX^v irpo<pipoi€Pf fi'/jre el 
dypdtptas airrbp elprjK^yai XiyoiePf Theod. 
Of these (b) seems slightly the most 
probable, especially as Xbyos and ^irt- 
(TToXi) are found similarly combined in 
ver. 15, To extend u)s 5*' iifiCjp 

to the first clause, either partially 
(Jowett) or completely (Nosselt), seeme^ 
illogical; oral or written communica- 
tions might be ascribed to the absent 
Apostle, but the vpevfia could only 
have been recognised as working in 
him (De W.) when he was with them;; 
comp. LUnem. in loc. <&s 8w*' 

i]}j,fiov] 'cw {coming) through ws,' repre- 
sented to come from us as its mediate 
authors ; the u)s as usual marking the 
erroneous aspects under which the 
X6yos or ^Tto-roX^ was designed to be 
regarded: 'particula u)S substantiviEi 
partioipiis totisque enuntiationibus 
praeposita rei veritate sublatft aliquid 
opinione errore simulatlone niti declar 
rat,* Fritz. Rom. ix. 31, Vol. 11. p, 
360, comp. notes on Eph. v. 22. It 
seems impossible to understand these 
words otherwise, especially when cou^ 
pled with the notice in ch. iii. 17, than 
as implying that not only oral but 
written communications, definitely asn 
cribed to St Paul, were, not conceived 
(Jowett), but actually known by the 



108 



nP02 eE22AAONIKEI2 B. 



T£9 ifJLOL^ e^airaT^cTfi Kara juLijSiva rpoirov on eav /ulij 
eXdrj jj aTTOCTTao-la irpSiTOV kol airoKaXvcpd^ 6 av6p(oiros 






Apostle to have been lately circulated 
in the Church of TbessaloDica : koI 
*fhp Kol iiruTToKh.^ t\6.ttovt€s m ira/)A 
Ilai/Xov araXc/o-as iKdpow d (\eyov, 
Theoph., comp. Neander, Planting, 
Vol. I. p. 204 (Bohn). When we con- 
sider the extreme disquietude and 
anxieties that appear to have prevailed 
in this Church in ref. to the irapovaia 
rov KvpioVy there appears nothing 
strange in the supposition that even 
within less time than a year since the 
Apostle had last written fictitious let- 
ters should have obtained currency 
among them. To refer the ex- 

pression with Hammond, aL, to por- 
tions of the First Epistle which had 
been misunderstood seems distinctly 
to infringe on the simple meaning of 
<ls 5t* 'f}fiCjv. (&s Srt 4v^<rT. ic.t.X.] 

'as tJutt, to the effect that, the day of 
the Lord is now commencing, already 
came;* subject of the pretended com- 
munication introduced by ws, which, 
as before, represents the statement not 
as actual, but as so represented^ as the 
notion which was designed to be pro- 
pagated; see Winer, Gr. § 65. 9, p. 
544, Meyer on 2 Cor. xi. 21, and exx. 
in Kypke, Ohs. Vol. 11. p. 268. The 
rerb. iviarriKev is somewhat stronger 
than i4)4(TT, (2 Tim. iv. 6), and seems 
to mark not only the nearness but the 
actual presence and commencement of 
the i)p.ipa rod Ku/>. ; 'magna hoc verbo 
propinquitas significatur ; nam hevrCoi 
[Kom. viii. 38, i Cor. iii. 22] est pras- 
sensy* Beng., comp. notes on Gal. i. 4, 
Hammond in loc., and see the nume- 
rous exx. in Rest u. Palm, Lex. s. v. 
Vol. I. p. 929. The T)p.4pa rod Kvp, 
thus approximates in meaning to vap- 
ovala rod Kvp., and like it includes, 
ies the exact epoch of the Lord's 
oe, the course of events im- 



mediately preceding and connected 
with it; comp. Keuss, Thiol. Chr€t, 
rv. 21, Vol. n. p. 230, 243. For Kv- 
plov Bee. reads XpurroO with D^K; 
most mss. 

3. |j,ij rts K.T.X..] *L€t no one de- 
ceive you in any way;'' not only in 
any of the three ways before specified 
(Theoph., CEcum.), but, with a more 
completely inclusive reference, — in 
any way, or by any artifice whatever ; 
wdirra Karb. rairrhv rh. rrjs iirdrris 
i^ipaXev etSrj, Theod. On the form 
^awarajf, comp. notes on 1 Tim, ii. 
14. 5tv Idv i&t^ ^On] *hecatt9e 

(the day mil not arrive) unless there 
come;* slight grammatical irregularity 
owing to the omission of any member 
involving a finite verb (such as od 
y€vifi<r€Tat ij wapovaia rovKvp., Theoph., 
or 71 TipApa oifK Avrijo-erai) which can 
easily be supplied by the reader; see 
Winer, Gr. § 64. i. 7, p. 528, comp. 
Donalds. Gr. § 583. /3, note. The 
most natural punctuation is not a 
comma before 6ti, as in Lachm., Tisch., 
Buttm., but a colon, as in Mill, and as 
suggested by Ltinemann. 
ij diro<rra(r£a] *the falling away,^ the 
definite religious apostasy that shall 
precede the coming of Antichrist, and 
of which it is not improbable that the 
Apostle had informed them by word 
of mouth ; see ver. 5, and comp. Green, 
Gram, p. 155. It is hardly necessary 
to say that awo<Tra(ria. is not an abs- 
tract for a concrete term (airrhv /caXei 
rhv dirrlxpurrov &roara(riav, Chrys. ; so 
Theod., Theoph., CEcum. i), nor again 
a political (Nosselt) or poUtico-reli- 
gious (Kern) falling away, whether 
past or future, but simply, in accord- 
ance with what seems to be the regular 
use of the word (Acts xxi. 21, comp. 
5 Chron. xxix. 19, i Mace. ii. 15), that 



II. 4. 



109 



t5? diJ.apTiagy 6 vio9 t?? aTrwXela^, 6 avTiKelfievo^ koI 4 



religious and spiritual apostasy (*dia- 
bolicam apostasiam/ Iren. adV. Hctr, 
V. 25. i), that falling away from faith 
in Christ (Airb OeoO &paxi*)pri(riv, (Eculn.) 
of which the revelation of Antichrist 
shall be the concluding and most ap- 
palling phenomenon; comp. Luke 
xviii. 8. The paulo-post futm>e view, 
according to which the diroinaffla re- 
fers to the revolt of the Jews from 
the Romans (Schoettg. Jlor. Ilebf, 
Vol. I. p. 840), is thus opposed to the 
probable technical meaning of the 
word, while that of Hammond, wh6 
mainly refers it to the lapse to Gnos- 
ticism, fails to exhibit its generic re- 
ference, and to exhaust its prophetic 
significance. On the form of the 

word, a later form for dT6<rTa<rt?, see 
Lobeck, Phryn. p. 538. 
diroKoXv^Oj] *he revealed,'* — a very 
noticeable expression: as the Lord's 
coming is characterized as an diroicrf- 
Xu^ts (ch. i. 7), so is that of Anti- 
christ. As He is now spiritually pre- 
sent in His Church, to be personally 
revealed with more glory hereafter, 
even so the power of Antichrist is now 
secretly at work, but will hereafter be 
made manifest in a definite and dis- 
tinctive bodily personality. The 
ifai has here appy. its consecutive force 
(see notes on i Thess. iv. i); the re- 
velation of Antichrist was the aggra- 
vated issue of the droaraala, 
6 £v0p. Tii« cltU4>TCas] 'the man of 
Sin,* the fearful child of man (obs. the 
distinct term Aifdp.) of whom Sin is 
the special characteristic and attri- 
bute, and in whom it is as it were im* 
personated and incarnate; Apdpuro^ 
Si airrhv ifiaprtai Tpo<njy6p€v<r€y, iiret- 
S^ HvOp, iari r^v ^iVw, Tcurai» A» 
iavT(fi rod diapSXov dex^fieva rV Mp- 
yeiav, Theod. On this gen. of the 
* predominating quality,' which is com. 



monly classed under the general head 
of the gen. possessints, see Scheuerlein, 
Synt. § 16. 3, p. 115, Winer, Gr. § 34. 
3. b, p. 311 sq. For d/ia/w/a?, Bi<; 
10 mss. read difofdas. 6 vlog 

TJjs dirsA.] ^ the son of perdition/ he 
who stands in the sort of relation to it 
that a son does to a father, and who 
falls under its power and domination, 
'cujus finis est interitus,' Cocceius 
[Phil. iii. 19] I see John xviii it, where 
this awful name is given to Judas, and 
comp. Evany, Nicod, cap. 20, where 
it is applied to Satan; see Thilo, p. 
708. The transitive (Pelt), or mixed 
trans, and intransitive meaning {d)s 
Kal a^bs &ToK\i5fi.e¥os xal iripon Trpd' 
^€Pos Toi/Tov yiy6fi€yos, Theod., comp. 
CEcum.), seems to be phraseologically 
doubtful ; comp. Winer, ^. § 34. 3. b^ 
p. 313, and notes on i Thess. v. 5. 
4. 6 dvTiKf Cfiicvos] *hethatopposeth,^ 

the adversary f QOl |1^CLqX) OOT 
" f * • 

[qui adversarius est] Syr., comp. Copt., 
-^th. ; participial substantive defining 
more nearly the chai'acteristics of An- 
tichrist; comp. Winer, Gr, § 45. 7, 
p. 316. The adversary, though assi- 
mikting one of the distinctive fea- 
tures of Satan ({IJ^), is clearly not to 
be confounded with him whose agent 
and emi^ary he is (ver. 9), but, in 
accordance with the almost uniform 
tradition of the ancient Church, is 
Antichrist, — no mere set of principles 
('vis spiritualis evangelio contraria,' 
Pelt) or succession of opponents (Jow- 
ett, comp. Middl. Gr. Art. p. 383, and 
Wordsw. in loc), but one single per- 
sonal being, as truly man as He whom 
he impiously opposes: rls 6i out6s 
i<m,¥; dpa 6 aaTOpdi; o^afiCos' dXX' 
ApdpwirSi rt? iraffau a^oO dex6fi€vos 
tV ivipyfiav, Chrys., see Wieseler, 
Chronol, p. 161, Hofmann, Schriftb. 



110 



nP02 eE22AA0NIKEI2 B. 



vTrepaipojiievo^ eirl iravra Xeyojiievov Qeov t] (re^aa-fxay 



II. 2, Vol. n. p. 617. The patristic 
references will be found in the Excur- 
sus of Liinem. p. 204, and at length 
in Alford, Prolegom. on this Epistle; 
The object of the oppositiou (&vTiK€i/x.\ 
it need scarcely be said, can be none 
other than Christ, — He whose blessed 
name is involved in the more distinc- 
tive title (dm-lxpurros) of the adver- 
sary, and to whom that son of perdi- 
tion, as Origen well says, is Karb. 
dLdfierpov ivavTloSy contra Cels. VI. 64. 
The present grammatical connexion, 
which (see above) is as old as Syr., is 
rightly adopted by De W., Liinem., 
and most modem commentators : the 
absence of the art., urged by Pelt., 
only shows that the {/Tr€paip6fi€vos iirl 
vcb'Ttt, K.T.X. is not a different person 
irom the ivriKelfievos, but by no means 
specifies that both are to be united in 
connexion with ivl vdm-a k. r. X. ; 
comp. Winer, Or. § 19. 4, 5, p. 116 
sq. In a case like the present the 
iuiiicle really performs a kind of dou- 
ble duty ; it serves to turn iufTiK. into 
a subst., and also indicates that the 
two participles refer to the same in- 
dividual. Kal v'ircpaip6|jL. K.T.X.] 
}and {who) exalteth himself above (and 
against) every one called God,^ scil. 
every one so called, whether 'eum qui 
Verissime dicitur Deus' (Schott), or 
those esteemed so by the heatlien; 
the participle being prefixed to avoid 
the appearance of placing on a level 
or including in a common designation 
7hv 6€6v and the so-called gods of 
J)agani8m; comp. i Cor. viii. 5, XC76- 
fievot ^co/, Eph. ii. 11. The verb 
ifTcpaip, occurs (probably) twice in 2 
Cor. xii. 7, and serves to mark the 
haughty exaltation {{f\f/u)0ifj(T€Tai Kal 
fi€ya\w6ifl(T€Tai iirl Tdvra dedvy Kal 
\a\'fi<r€i {/TT^poyKay Dan. xi. 36, Theod.), 
Vrhile M with its general local mean- 



ing (' supra,' Vulg., 'ufar,* Goth.) of 
^motion with a view to superposition' 
(Donalds. Gr. § 483) involves the 
more specific and ethical one of op- 
position: comp. Matth. x. 21, and 
Winer, Gr. § 49. 1, p. 363 sq. 
iirl trdt^ra Xryo^j,. 6€ov] This charac- 
teristic of impious exaltation is in such 
striking parallelism with that ascribed 
by Daniel to 'the king that shall do 
according to his will' (ch. xi. 36), that 
we can scarcely doubt that the ancient 
interpreters were right in referring 
both to the same person, — ^Antichrist. 
The former portion of the prophecy in 
Daniel is appy. correctly referred to 
Antiochus Epiphanes, but the con- 
cluding verses (ver. 36 sq.) seem only 
applicable to him of whom Antiochus 
was merely a type and shadow ; comp. 
Jerome on Dan. xi. 21, and see Pri- 
deaux. Connection, Part ii. Book 3 
{ad fin,). If this be correct, we 

may be justified in believing that other 
types of Antichrist may have ap- 
peared, and may yet appear before 
that fearful Being finally come. If 
asked to name them, we shrink not 
from pointing to this prophecy, and 
saying that in whomsoever these dis- 
tinctive features be found — ^whosoever 
wields temporal, or temporal and spi- 
ritual power, in any degree similar to 
that in which the Man of Sin is here 
described as wielding it — he, be he 
pope or potentate, is beyond all doubt 
a distinct type of Antichrist. From 
such comparisons the wisest and most 
Catholic ^^iters have not deemed it 
right to shrink ; see Andrewes, Semu 
VI. Vol. IV. p. 146 sq., and compare 
the retf. at the end of Wordsworth's 
long aild important note on this pas- 
sage. f| o*^pa(r}ia] * or object 
of worship,'' scil. of divine worship, — 
ft further definition appended to Qcbv. 



II. 



Ill 



wo"Te avTOv eig rov vaov rou 0eo5 KaOiarai airoSeiKvvvTa 



The special interpretation of Ben- 
gel, founded on the connexion of 
(T^paafia and <r€pa<rT6s, 'Csesaria ma- 
jestas et potestas Romse niaxime 
conspicua,* is wholly at variance with 
the prevailing use of the word (Acts 
xvii. 23, Wisdom xiv. 20, xv. 17, Bel 
27 [Theod,], see Suicer, fhesaur. s.v. 
Vol. II. p. 942), and still more so with 
the generic terms of the prophecy. 
M9TC aiTiv...Ka0.] *80 that he sitteth 
dovm ;' his arrogance rises to such an 
impious height as to lead to this utter^ 
most act of unholy daring ; * cSare minus 
hie consilium quam sequelam innuere 
videtur,' Pelt. The verb Ka$i<rai is 
here not transitive (i Cor. vi. 4, Eph. 
i. 20), but in accordance with its 
nearly regular usage in the N. T. in- 
transitive; comp. Thom.-Mag. p. 486 
(ed. Bern.). The pronoun is thus not 
reflexive (Grot.), but is introduced and 
placed prominently forward to mark 
the individualizing arrogance ('hie ipse, 
qui qusevis sancta et divina contemnit,' 
Schott) of this impious intruder. The 
interpolation after Oeov of (is Oedv, 
adopted by Hec. with D3EKL(FGi 
tpaO.); mss. ; Syr., Syr. -Phil, with an 
asterisk, Ar. (Pol. ); Chrys., al., is right- 
ly rejected by Lackm,, Tisch.^ with A 
BD^K; 10 mss.; Clarom., Sangerm., 
Augiens., Boem., Vulg., Goth. (?), 
Copt., Sah., Mth.y Arm. ; Origen (3), 
and many Ff. C is deficient, 
f U rhv vabv rov 0cov] ' in the temple 
of God^ (the * adytum* itself, not the 
mere le/wSi'), literally 'into,' with the 
not uncommon pregnant force of the 
preposition in connexion with ffeiv, 
Kad4l^€<Tdai K.r.X.; comp. Winer, Gr. 
§ 50. 4, p. 368 sq., Buttm. Mid, p. 175. 
The exact meaning of these words has 
been greatly contested. Are they (a) 
merely a figurative or metaphorical 
expression (i Cor. ill. 17, oomp. Eph. 



ii. 21) for the Church of Christ, tAj 
wapTuxov iKKXyjffias (Chrys.), according 
to the views of most of the interpreters 
of the fourth century? Or do they 
refer to (b) the actual temple of God 
at Jerusalem (Matth. xxvi. 61), which 
prophecy seems to declare may be 
restored (Ezek. xxxvii. 26; see Todd 
on Antichr. p. 218), as proposed by 
Iremeus (Ilcer, v. 30. 4), and as adopted, 
though with varying modes of explana- 
tion, by the majority of recent German 
commentators? If we are called on 
to decide absolutely, the combination 
(opp. to Alf.) of local terms and the 
possibly traditional nature of the in- 
terpr. of Irenseus must decidedly sway 
us to (&). It may be asked howevei' 
whether in so wide a prophecy we are 
wise in positively excluding (a). May 
it not be possible that a haughty judi- 
cial otr dictatorial session in the Church 
of Christ may be succeeded by and 
culminate in a literal act of ineffable 
presumption to which the present 
words may more immediately though 
not exclusively refer? Combined or 
partially combined interpretations are 
ever to be regarded with suspicion, 
but in a prophept/ of this profound 
nature they appear to have some claim 
on our attention. diroSciKV^vra 

K.T.X.] * exhibiting himself that he ttf 
God;* not merely 'a god,* Copt., or 
even 'tamquamsit Deus,* Vulg. (com- 
pare Syr.), but ,2L ,^-jOloZu]? 

f " f i 

[quod sit Deus] Syr. -Phil.,— with a 
studied reference to the execrable as-* 
sumption of an unconditioned glory, 
dignity, and independence, which will 
characterize the God-opposing session 
of the son of perdition: so, with ad 
effective paraphrase, -liEth. *et dicet? 
omnibus Ego sum Deus.* The parti-r 
ciple ihuB does not mark thp * conak 



112 



nP02 GEZZAAONIKEIS B. 



5 eavTov on ecmu Geo?. OJ jJLVfjfJLOveietE ori eri wv irpo9 

6 v/ulS^ ravTa eXeyov v/uliv ; koi vvv to Kari^ov oiSaTe €«9 



tu9* {ireipd)fievop AvodeiKP^ai, Chrys.), 
— this must be from the nature of the 
oa»e, — but the continuing nature of 
the act, the impious persistence of this 
developed outcoming of frightful and 
intolerable selfishness ; see Mtiller on 
Sin, Book I. 3. 2, Vol. I. p. 145, comp. 
Book V. Vol. II. p. 480 (Clark). For 
examples of this use of diroSei/o'i^at, 
see Loesner, Ohs, p. 384, and for the 
force of the compound dirod. (*spec- 
tandum aliquid proponere'), Winer, 
de Verb, Comp. it. p. 16. 

5. Oi )Jivi)fiiovcvcrf] * Remember ye 
not;* emphatic, reminding them, with 
some degree of implied blame, of the 
definite oral communications which 
had been made to them during the 
Apostle's first visit; Idoi/ yb.p koX irap' 
dyros '^Kovaay ravra Xiyovros, Kal vd- 
\w idei/jdifffap ^TOfw/jaewSf Chrys. 
vp^ v\Ms] 'with you;"* so i Thess. 
iii. 4. On this combination of irphi 
with the ace. and verbs implying re8t> 
see notes on Oal. i. 8, iv. 18. The 
ravra is clearly the substance of the 
two preceding verses. 

6. Kal vvv 'th Karlx* otS.] * and 
now what restraineth ye hnow.^ The 
difficulty of these words is twofold) 
(i) lexical, turning on the meaning of 
vOy, (2) exegetical, in reference to the 
explanation that is to be given of rb 
Karixoi^' With regard to the first> 
the temporal partiole subsequently 
connected with 6 Kar^Xf^v (ver. 7), 
and the preceding in (ver. 5), both 
seem to suggest the temporal use of 
vvv (Wieseler, Chronol. p. 259 note); 
the order of the words however and 
the context are so very distinctly in 
favour of the log^ical use (Hartung, 
Partik, vvv, 2. 2, Vol. ii. p. 25, see 
notes on i Thess. iii. 8), that on the 
whole that meaning is to be preferred $ 



see esp. LUnem. in loc. who has appy^ 
brought valid arguments against the 
temporal meaning. To investigate (2) 
properly would far outstrip the limits 
of this commentary. I may however 
say briefly — that after most anxious 
consideration I believe that a modifi- 
cation of the current patristic view is 
much the most plausible interpreta- 
tion. The majority of these early 
writers referred the restraining influ- 
ence to the Roman Empire, 'quis 
nisi Ronlanus status?' Tertull. de 
Hesurr. cap. 24: so Chrys., Theoph., 
(Ecum., Cyril of Jems., al. In its 
literal meaning this cannot now be 
sustained without artificial and unhis- 
toiical assumptions: if however we 
refer the rb Kar^ov to what really 
formed the groundwork of that inter- 
pretation — the restraining power of 
well-ordered hvman rule, the principles 
of legality as opposed to those of 
divofjUa — of which the Koman Empire 
was the then embodiment and mani- 
festation, we shall probably not be far 
from the real meaning of this very 
mysterious expressiont Of the nu- 
merous other views, we may notice 
the opinion of Theod. and Theod.- 
Mops., that the tb Kar^ov is 6 rod 
660D 6poi, as certainly being at first 
sight plausible ; but to this the ^(us iK 
fiiffov yivrjTai introduces an objection 
that seems positively insuperable. 
Further information will be found in 
the Excursus of Pelt (who however 
adopts the view of Theod.), p. 185 sq., 
in the thoughtful note of Olsh., the 
discussion of Lunem. p. 204 sq., the 
useful summary of Alford, Prolegom. 
on this Epistle, and the good note of 
Wordsw. in loc.; comp. also Hof- 
mann, Schriftb, n. 2, Vol. 11. p. 613 
sq. els t6 diroKoX.] ' that 



II. 5, 6, 7. 



113 



TO aTroKaXv(j>6rivai avrov ev T(p caujov KaipS. to yap 7 
IxvcTTripiov tjSfj evepyeirat t?? ai/o/x/a?, [xovov 6 Kare^cav 



Tie shaidd he revealed;* purpose con- 
templated in the exiatence of the re- 
straining principle. This &iroKd\v\f/is 
was not to be immediate {oC/k elwey 6ti 
Tttx^ws iffraif Chrys.), or fortuitous, 
but was to be deferred till the 6 iav- 
ToO KaipdSf — the season appointed and 
ordained by Gud. On the correct 
insertion of iy, see notes on Eph. ii. 12. 
7. T^ Tclp (ivonjp. K.r.X.] *For the 
mystery of lawlessness ;' coufirmatory ex- 
planation of the preceding statement : 
the mystery of lawlessness is truly at 
work; but its full manifestation can- 
not take place till the removal of the 
restraining power. On this blending 
of the explanatory and argumentative 
forces of ydp^ see notes on i Tkess, 
ii. I . The meaning of fAvtm^- 

piov rijs ii^ofA, is somewhat doubtful. 
Considered merely grammatically, the 
gen. does not seem to be that of the 
arjent (Theod.), or that of apposition 
\Liinem., and Alf. -- who however 
seems to mix it up with a gen. con- 
tinentis), but simply a gen. definitivus 
(comp. Madvig, Synt, § 49) or gen. of 
the 'characterizing principle or qua- 
lity* (Scheuerl. SyiU. § 16. 3, p. 115), 
— the mystery of which the character- 
izing feature, or, so to say, the OAitire 
principle, is AfOfAla; comp. Joseph. 
Bell. Jud. I. 24, I, rtv 'AvTiwdTpov 
plov o(fK dp dfidpTOt Tis elvCbP Kadai 
fivariipLov. The transition from this 
gen. to that of ethical content is so 
easy and natural, that it is often diffi- 
cult to decide whether the gen. be- 
longs to that category or to that of 
the possess, gen.; see Scheuerl. Lc» 
The genitival relation of fivari^p. r^s 
e^ce^eias is often somewhat plausibly 
contrasted with the present expression 
(Andrewes, Serm. in. Vol. i. 34), but 
really seems to be different; see notes 



on I Tim. iii. 9. This mystery 

of dpofila is no personality, soil. Anti- 
christ, or any real or assumed type 
of Antichrist (NepQpa ipravdd tprjatv, 
Chrys.), but all that mass of uncom- 
bined and so to say unorganized duo- 
PlIcLj which, though at present seen 
only in detail and not revealed in its 
true proportions, is even now {tjStj) 
aggregating and energizing, and will 
hereafter (ip T(fi iavroO Kaip<f) find itfl 
complete development and organiza- 
tion in the person and power of Anti- 
christ. On the meaning of fxvtrrifip.j — 
here placed emphatically forward as 
standing in tacit antithesis to diroica- 
\v<pd. ver. 6, 8, — see notes on Eph. v. 
33, and comp. Sanderson, Serm. ix. 
(ad Aul), Vol I. p. 2^7 (ed. Jacobs.). 
Ivip-yitrai] *is working,* 'openitur,* 

Vulg., a42LLAkLi ^jIj^ pnci- 

pit efficax esse] Syr., comp. -^th.; 
clearly not passive, * efficax redditur ' 
(Schott), which would not only be here 
inappropriate but is opposed to the 
prevailing use of the word in the N.T.; 
see notes on Gal. v. 6, and on the 
different constructions of the word, 
notes on ib. ii. 8. In the middle it 
stands either absolutely or followed by 
iv. Tr\$ ^vo[Lltii\' lawlessness;* 

in appropriate and illustrative anti- 
thesis to the principle of order and 
legality involved in the probable mean- 
ing of rb KfiT^xop. On the meaning 
of dvojxia (' in qu& cogitatur potissimum 
legem non servari,' Tittm.) and its 
distinction from d8i<c/a, see Tittm. 
Synon. i. p. 48, Trench, Synon. Part 
II. § 16, aud notes on Tit. ii. 14. 
^6vov 6 Kar^wv K.r.X.] ' only until he 
that now restraineth shall have been i*e- 
moved ;* rhetorical change of the usual 
order; see exx. in Winer, 6^. § 61. 3, 

1 



114 



IIP02 GEZZAAOXIKEIS B. 



8 apn €tts ec /U<rou yivtirat' koI totc armcdXwpO^a-erai 



'\ 



p. 485. and oon:p. GaL iL lo, fi^rar 
Twr «T«x(^ <^A funi/i4fife6ufiL£w, where 
the emi^tic words are similarly at- 
tached to the semi-elliptical /i6^im. Am 
however in GaL I.e. so here it is Dot 
necessary to supply definitely any verb 
to oomi^te the ellipsis ('tantam at 
qui tenet nunc teneat,* Vulg., comp. 
Auth.), still less to connect /i^t>r with 
what precedes (Kypke, Oh*. VoL u. 
p. 342)- The fumm belongs to ibn, 
and simply states the liinitatioD in- 
YoWed in the present woridng of the 
/tver^piow TTfi ipofiias: it is working 
already, but only with unconcentrated 
action until the obstacle be removed, 
and Antichrist be revealed. So rightly 
as to structure Chiys., ^ dpx^ ^ 'Pci^ 
fiuuxii OTop dpBy ix fjJffov, t6t€ ^cetrot 
ly^t. The only other plausible struc- 
ture is the supplement of dm, but the 
objection of Liinem., that in the pre- 
sent case a word of such real impor- 
tance could scarcely be omitted, seems 
reasonable and valid. The 

greatest difficulty however is the 
change of gender in the designation of 
the restraining principle. Perhaps the 
simplest view is to regard it, not as a 
studied designation of a sLogle indivi- 
dual {e.g. St Paul, Schott, p. 249), 
or of a collection of such {e.g. the 
saints at Jerusalem, Wieseler, Chronol. 
p. 273, or, more plausibly, the succes- 
sion of Roman Emperors, Wordsw.), 
but merely as a realistic touch, by 
which what was previously expressed 
by the more abstract rd xar^af is 
now represented as concrete and per- 
sonified; comp. Rom. xiiL 4, where 
the personification is somewhat simi- 
larly introduced after, and elicited 
from, a foregoing abstract term (^^01;- 
aUof), dpn is to be closely 

eonnected with 6 KaTix^^t ^^d simply 
iclen to time regarded as present to 



tke writer. On the derivation auid 
meaning of the word, see notes am 
I Tkett. in. 6, 

bit kg. |iivw f fa ^ i t] Ob iluB com- 
nexion of hat with the ma^bfOMtdwe 
withimt dr, — a oonstmctiaii especiaDy 
characteristic of later writers, see 
Winer, (rr. § 41. 3, pu 766. The dis- 
tinction acutely drawn by Henn. (de 
Partic 6m, If. 9, p. 109) between such 
formube as /ju/ipere hat tfdrw (de mori- 
bundok and ^wt Av &dp%§ (de eo qm 
non ita propinquam sibi putaret mor- 
tem esse) abd repeated by Klots 
{Derar. YoL II. p. 568) cannot vrith 
safety be applied in the N. T. ; nor 
can we with distinct probability as- 
cribe the omission of Av to any idea of 
design supposed to be involved in the 
sentence (it is actually inserted here by 
FG), as suggested by Green, GramL, 
p. 64, note. We h&ve only an in- 
stance of that obliteration of finor 
shades of distinction which charao- 
terizes the later and decadent Greek. 
The phrase ix fUaov yiypeaOai is il- 
lustrated by Wetstein and Kypke 
{Obt. Vol. II. p. 343) : it indicates the 
removal of any obstacle, of anything 
h lUctfi 6p (Xen. Cyrop. Y. 2. 26, 
cited by Ltinem.), leaving the manner 
of the removal wholly undefined ; 
comp. ip$§ iK lUcov v/iur, i Cor. y. 3, 
'^pToi iK rod /jJiTou, Isaiah IviL 2. 

8. Kol tow] 'atid THSS,'^<Ae» 
when 6 jcar^ur shall have been re- 
moved ; the primary emphasis deariy 
falling on the particle of time, the 
secondary and subordinate on dvora- 
\iHpeiic€Ttu. 6 dvofios] 'the 

lavclea one;* identical with the fore- 
going 6 a^Opunros rrp iifAOfir., the 
changing designation serving appro- 
priately to echo the preceding term 
{dMOfjUa)j which defines more nearly the 
evil principle that the Man of Sin will 



11. 8, 9- 



115 



o avofio^y ov 6 Kupt09 ^Jjyo'ou? aveXei T(p ^irpev/Aart toS 
(TTOfiaTO^ avTOu KOI Karapyi^arei t^ iirK^aveltf. T^ff irapov^ 
(riag avTOV' ov iorTiv ^ irapovcrla Kar ipipyeiap rod 9 

8. ip€\€t] So Lachm., Tiach. ed. i, with ABD^; 10 mss.; sl.—Avi\oi is the 
reading of FGK*— dy<£Xot of K*. Bee, TUch. ed. 2, 7, read dvoXc&irei with 
D^EKL ; msB., Ff. C is deficient. In spite of the possibility of conformation 
to Isaiah xi. 4, it seems best to retain the reading to which so great a prepon- 
derance of MS. authority points. 



especially develop: * ExUx iUe qui 
nuUis legumvinculiscoeroerivult, sed 
omnia jura divina et humana suo 
ipsius arbitrio subjicit,* Vorst, ap. 
Pol. Syn. 8v 6 Kvptof 

iCT.X.] *v}hom the Lord Jesus shall 
consume with the breath of His rmuth;* 
relative sentence describing, with a 
consolatory glance forward to the final 
issue, the ultimate fate of Antichrist ; 
KoL ri fLerk ravra ; fy7i)f ^ Topor 
/ivOia' iwdyei ybip Or 6 KiJ/moj icr.X., 
Cbrys. The forcible expression r^ 
wwti6fi' TO0 0t6)u. adroG has received dif- 
ferent explanations. It has been re- 
ferred (a) by the Greek commentator! 
to the words of power (4>04y^eT(u 
fi^oPy Ghrys. ; comp. Theod., Theod.- 
Mops., al.) issuing from the Lord's 
lips ; (6) by Athan. {ad Strap, i. 6, p. 
655), Theoph. 1, al., to the Holy 
Spirit; but is most simply regarded 
{c) as a vivid declaration of the glorious 
and invincible power of the coming 
Lord, 'cui suffidat halitus oris quo 
6Moiioi ille perdatur,* Schott; comp. 
Isaiah xi. 4 (from which these words 
may have been derived). Wisdom xi. 
30, 31, and the pertinent quotations 
from Rabbinical writers collected by 
Wetst. in he, : on the word narapyiia, 
comp. notes on QaZ, v. 4. The 

reading is hardly doubtful: 6 Kip. 
*lri9ovi is supported by ADE^FGL'K ; 
10 mss. ; Syr. (both), Vulg., aL Bee, 
omits 'Ii^o-oCs with BE'KL^; most 
UI88. ; Arab. (PoL); Grig., al. G is 



deficient. t^ hesj^vsH^ 

tt)s wap. a^ToS] ' mth the manifestation 
of His coming;* not with a semi- 
theological reference to the ^^orioiis 
manifestation (4nlustratione,' Vulg., 
'brightness,* Auth., 'vi salutari,' 
Kypke, Obs, Vol. 11. p. 343) of Ghrist 
at His second coming (comp. notes on 
I IVfti. vi. 14, and Tit. ii. 13, where 
r^t S6^r)t is definitely added), but with 
sinmle reference to His visible coming 
('aspectu adventus sui,* Glarom., Mth.) 
and actual local appearing ; orijaeL Hiw 
dirdTify Kal 0aye2t/t6yor, Ghrys., Theoph. 
9. of IotIv 1^ vopovo-Ca] Return to 
the time and subject of Antichrist*! 
coming, after the anticipatory allusion 
to his final overthrow ; the oiT resuming 
and re-echoing the 6w of verse 8. The 
ethical present iarlv marks the cer- 
tainty of the future event ; see Winer, 
Or. § 40. «, p. 237, Bemhardy, Sifnt, 
^ ^) P* 37'* '^^ instant repetition 
of ira/)Otf<r(a in the new connexion is 
remarkable. Kai^ Mfiy. 

Tov Sar.] 'according to the working 
of Satan ;^ not here 'in consequence 
of* (De W., comp. notes on oh. i. 13), 
but, in accordance with the more 
usual force of xard, 'in agreement and 
correspondence with* an Mpyeta such 
as belongs to and might be looked for 
from Satan; comp. notes on Eph, L 
19, and Col. i. 29. The remark of 
Bengel is full of deep thought,— 'ut 
ad Deum se habet Ghristus, sic e oon- 
irario ad Satanam se habet Antir 

12 



116 



IIP02 GE22AAONIKEI2 B. 



^arava ep 'frag-fj Suvajuiet koi a-fjiuLeioig koi ripacrtv y^ev^ 
icdov^ KOI ev iracrvi airaTtj aSiKia^ roh aTroXXi/yuei/o/ff, avd 



^^^||||tadied] 



christus.* ' iv 7rdo*|| 

SvvfC)L. K.T.X.] * in all power and signs 
and iDonders of lying,'* — in every form 
of (see notes on Eph. i. ' 8) power, 
signn, and wonders, leading to and 
tending to develop yj/evZos: iv being 
no 'nota dativi* (Olsh.), but marking 
the sphere and domain of this [di^rt] 
wapowrla (comp. notes on i Thess. i* 
5), and both Trdtrji (conip. "Winer, Gri 
§ 59' Sf V- 4^^) ^^^ *^® gen. being 
associated with all the three substan- 
rtives. The exact nature of the geni- 
tival relation is not perfectly certain : 
yf/fi^ovs may be regarded as (a) a gen. 
of the origin, (b) of the characterizing 
quality or essence (see notes on ver. 
7), or lastly, (c) of 'the point of 
view* (Scheuerl. Synt. § 18, p. 129). 
Of these (a) is by no means probable ; 
but between (6) and (c) it is very diffi- 
-cult to decide. Perhaps the object 
specified in ver. 11, and the analogy 
of dirrfri; iZiKlai (ver. 10), scil. ' fraus 
qu» ad improbitatem spectat' (Schott 

1, Winer, Gr. § 30. 2. j9, p. 170), may 
here incline us to the latter ; so Chrys. 

2, €h ^cC«5os Hyovtri. For exx. of these 
more lax connexions of the gen., see 
Winer, Gr. I. c. 

The three substantives might seem to 
be climactic; it was not only in an 
element of power (see notes on i Thess, 
i. 5), but one of signs, and further 
one of prodigies, that the working of 
Satan took place ; as however we find 
a varied order (Acts ii. 22), and as the 
difference between <rri/xeia (*refl inso- 
litaa quibus Deus aliquid significety 
Fritz.) and ripara ('quae ut inusitata 
ohservari soleant,' t5.) exists less in the 
things themselves than in the mode of 
regarding them, we may perhaps most 
naturally consider the substantives as 
1y accumulated so as to give 



' force and expansion to the description ; 
compare Bornemann, Schol, in Luc. 
p. xxx. On the meaning of the last 
two words, and the derivation of ripas 
[Tijpibj, comp. Benfey, Wurzellex. Vol. 
n, p. 238], see the elaborate note of 
Fritz. Rom. xv. 19, Vol. ill. p. 270. 
The form arjfieTov appears closely con- 
nected with ffijfxa \$rifiaT')t and thence 
with eEO, TldrifJLi; see Pott, £tym, 
Forsch. Vol. II. p. 592. 

10. Kal kv irdoTi k.t.X,] *amd in all 
(every kind of) deceit of iniquity;* 
generic and comprehensive term ap- 
pended by the collective koI to the 
foregoing list of more special details ; 
comp. Winer, ^. § 53. 3. P- 388, and 
notes on Phil. iv. 12. On the geni- 
tival relation, see above, ver. 9, and 
Winer, Gr. § 30. 2, p. 170, and on the 
meaning of ddida (* de quftcunque im- 
probitate dicitur quatenus t^J SiKoltfi 
repugnat,' Tittm.), notes on 1 Tlm^ 
ii. 19. The reading of Rec, t^ 

d5. [with DEKLK^; mss.; Hippol., 
Chrys., Theod.] is rejected by Lachm. 
and Tisch. on the higher authority of 
ABFGKM mss.; Orig. (6), Cyr.- 
Jer. rots diroXXv- 

|Uvots] 'for those thai are perishing;"* 
dat. incommodiy belonging to the gene- 
ral head of the dative of interest; see 
Kriiijer, Sprachl. § 48. 4. The more 
exactly specifying toTs diroXX. has no 
reference to any *decretum reproba- 
tionis' (comp. even Pelt, 'damnation! 
a Deo devoti*), but either like icrlp 
marks the certainty of the event (* qui 
certissime sunt perituri,* Turret.), or 
perhaps more simply, with merely a 
temporal parallelism, points to those 
who 'are perishing' at the time in 
contemplation, — not too without re- 
ference to the present existence (comp. 
ver. 7) of such a class (i Cor. i. 18^ 



II. io, it. 



117 



(lov Tfiv ayaTfiv rrji aX^Oelag owe iSi^avro eig^ro crtaOiji/ai^ 
avTov^, KOI Sta tovto Trefnrei avToh 6 Geo? evipyeiau, 1 1 



2 Cor. ii. 15, iv. 3), of which those 
here specified will be the coniinuance 
and development. The consolatory 
nature of the tacit limitation is not 
overlooked by the Greek commenta- 
tors ; fiij 0o/3i7^^s &yairriT4f dXV &kov€ 
\4ywTos aOroD' iv rois diroXX. IffX'^h 
ot €l Kal fi^ irap€y4»eTo iKcivos oi)a: dv 
iir€l<rdria'aVf Chrys. Ev is 

prefixed to rots diroXX. by Rec. but only 
on the authority of D^EKLK*; mss. ; 
Syr. (both); Orig. (i), al. 
iv0' &v] *for that,* *in requital for 
that' {tI ody t6 K4pdoi; Chrys.), Luke 
i. ao, xii. 3, xir. 44, Acts xii. 33, comp. 
Lev. xxiv. 30; explanatory statement 
of the cause of the judicial dispensa- 
tion of God, and of the justness and 
deservedness of their punishment. On 
this meaning of ivO* wy (*propterea 
quod'), seeHenn. FiV/er, No. 33, Winer, 
Or. § 47. a, p. 3^6, and for exx. see 
the lidt collected by Wetst. on Luke 
i. 20, and R;iphel, Annot, Vol. i. p. 
44a. Ttjv dydiniv ttjs dXT|6.] 

*the love of the truth/ not 'charitatem 
veram,*Anselm (cited by Corn, a Lap.), 
but 'thulove felt for the truth,* *di- 
lectionem veritatis,* Pseud.- Ambr., — 
dXij0. not being a gen. of quality, but 
the simple and common gen. objecti; 
comp. Winer, Gr. § 30, p. 167, Krtiger, 
Sitrachl. § 47. 7. i sq. 'H dXiJ^eta is 
opposed to t6 HvSoi (ver. 11). It 
seems somewhat perverse in Jowett to 
deny that this implies any higher de- 
gree of alienation from the truth than 
the less distinctive oCk 454^0^-0 Hiw 
dXi^^etoy : surely it is one thing not to 
receive the truth, — an unhappy state 
that might be referable to a mental 
obli(]uity for which some excuse might 
be found, — and another to receive no 
love of it, to be open to no desire to 
seek it, to be worse than indi£forent 



to it ; ' ubi Veritas summopere amabi- 
lis, ibi se quodainmodo amor veritatiB 
insinuat,* Cocceius. The prosopopoeia 
(dydirriy iXrjOclas rbv Kiipiov W#cXi7#cey) 
adoi)ted by Theod., Theoph., and 
(Ecum., is artificial, and unsupported 
by analogy. els rh o^Oijvai 

ai^Toiis] Uhat they might be saved;* 
object that would have been naturally 
contemplated in their reception of it ; 
and which was disregarded and nega- 
tived by their pursuing the contrary 
course ; * non ita sibi chari fuerunt ut- 
cogitarent de vitft seternd,' Cocceius. 

II. Kal 8id tovto] *And for this 
cau^e;* almost 'so for this cause,' Kal 
serving to mark the correspondence 
between the judgments and the course 
of conduct that had provoked them, 
and perhaps involving partly a conse- 
outive and partly a contrasting force ; 
comp. note on the uses of #ca/, on 
Phil. iv. 13. ir^i&irci] ^doth 

send/ not so much an ethical (see 
ver. 9) as a direct present; the my- 
stery of iniquity is even now at work 
(ver. 7), and is even now calling down 
on itself the punishment of judicial 
obduracy. There is no need for ex- 
plaining away T4tnr€i {cvyxupiiati ^- 
wijifai rifv irXdi^v, Theod., oomp. Theod.- 
Mops., Theoph., (Ecum.), nor is it 
right merely to asuribe it to a form of 
thought in the age of the Apostle 
(Jowett), nor enough to say merely 
that * whatever God permits He or- 
dains,' Alf. The words are definite 
and significant; they paint to that 
'judicial infatuation' (WaterL Serm, 
Vol. V. p. 486, — differently however 
in Vol. IV. p. 363) into which, in the 
development of His just government 
of the world, God causes evil and 
error to be unfolded, and which He 
brings into punitive agency in the 



112 



nP02 GESSAAONIKEIS B. 



5 eavTou OTi ecrriv Geo?. O.J fipijfiovevetE oti eti obv irpo^ 

6 ifiag ravra eXeyov v/jliv ; koI vvv to Kari^ov o^Sare ei^ 



tus' {veip(jl}fievop AiroSeiKPi^at., Chrys.), 
— ^this must be from the nature of the 
oase, — but the continuing nature of 
the act, the impious persistence of this 
developed outcoining of frightful and 
intolerable selfishness ; see MUller on 
Sin, Book I. 3. 1, Vol. i. p. 145, comp. 
Book V. Vol. n. p. 480 (Qark). Fop 
examples of this use of i.-wo^uKv^vai, 
see Loesner, Ohs. p. 384, and for the 
force of the compound diroS. ('spec- 
tandum aliquid proponere'), Winer, 
de Verb. Oomp. iv. p. 16. 

5. O* )tvi||iovfvcrc] ^Remember ye 
not;* emphatic, reminding them, with 
some degree of implied blame, of the 
definite oral communications which 
had been made to them during the 
Apostle's first visit; Idoit yd,p koX vap- 
Syros i^KOWToy rttOra \iyopTos, Kal ird- 
\uf ideifiOrfaaP iwofur^ffetas^ Chiys. 
irpis ^|ias] *v>ith you;* so i Thess. 
iii. 4. On this combination of trpbs 
with the ace. and verbs implying rest^ 
see notes on Gal. i. 8, iv. 18. The 
ravra is clearly the substance of the 
two preceding verses. 

6. Kal vvv th Kar^. olSJ * and 
now what restraineth ye know.* The 
difficulty of these words is twofold> 
(i) lexical, turning on the meaning of 
vWf (2) exegetical, in reference to the 
explanation that is to be given of rb 
Karixof' With regard to the first, 
the temporal partiole subsequently 
connected with 6 Kar^av (ver. 7), 
and the preceding itt (ver. 5), both 
seem to suggest the temporal use of 
vvv (Wieseler, Chronol. p. 259 note); 
the order of the words however and 
the context are so very distinctly in 
favour of the logical use (Hartung^ 
Partik, vw, 2. 2, Vol. 11. p. 25, see 
notes on i Thess. iii. 8), that on the 
whole that meaning is to be preferred $ 



see esp. Liinem. in loc. who has appyw 
brought valid arguments against the 
temporal meaning. To investigate (2) 
properly would far outstrip the limits 
of this commentary. I may however 
say briefly — that after most anxious 
consideration I believe that a modifi- 
cation of the current patristic view is 
much the most plausible interpreta- 
tion. The majority of these early 
writers referred the restraining influ- 
ence to the Koman Empire, *quis 
nisi Bomanus status?* Tertull. de 
JResurr. cap. 24: so Chrys., Theoph., 
(Ecum., Cyril of Jems., al. In its 
literal meaning this cannot now be 
sustained without artificial and unhis- 
torical assumptions: if however we 
refer the rb Kar^xov to what really 
formed the groundwork of that inter- 
pretation — the restraining power of 
weU-ordered hvman ruk^ the principles 
of legality as opposed to those of 
&vo/jUa — of which the Boman Empire 
was the then embodiment and mani- 
festation, we shall probably not be far 
from the real meaning of this very 
mysterious expressiom Of the nu- 
merous other views, we may notice 
the opinion of Theod. and Theod.- 
Mops., that the rb Kar^ov is 6 roG 
GeoO bpoSf as certainly being at first 
sight plausible ; but to this the ^u)s ix 
/xiffov yhnjrai introduces an objection 
that seems positively insuperable. 
Further information will be found in 
the Excursus of Pelt (who however 
adopts the view of Theod.), p. 185 sq.» 
in the thoughtful note of Olsh., the 
discussion of Liinem. p. 204 sq., the 
useful summary of Alford, Prolegovi. 
on this Epistle, and the good note of 
Wordsw. in loc; comp. also Hof- 
mann, Schrifib. u. 2, Vol. 11. p. 613 
sq. els t6 diroKoX.] ' that 



II. 5, 6, 7. 



113 



TO awoKoXvfpOtjuai avrov iv t^ eavjov KaipS. to yap 7 
jULvcTTipiop ijStj epepyeirai TrJ9 avofila^y fxovov 6 KaTe-^iav 



he should he revealed;^ purpose con- 
templated in the exUtence of the re- 
straining principle. This diroKdXv^it 
was not to be immediate {oifK etircp Sri 
Tttx^wj ((TTcu, Chrys.), or fortuitous, 
but was to be deferred till the 6 iav- 
Tov KaipdSf — the season appointed and 
ordained by Gud. On the correct 
insertion of iy, see notes on EpK. ii. 13. 
7. t6 TcLp (ivon^p. ict.X.] *For the 
mystery of lawlessness / confirmatory ex- 
planation of the preceding statement : 
the mystery of lawlessness is truly at 
work; but its full manifestation can- 
not take place till the removal of the 
restraining power. On this blending 
of the explanatory and argumentative 
forces of ydp, see notes on i Thess, 
ii. I. The meaning of fivrrii- 

ptov r^s iyofi. is somewhat doubtful. 
Considered merely grammatically, the 
gen. does not seem to be that of the 
atjent (Theod.), or that of apposition 
\Lttnem., and Alf. — who however 
seems to mix it up with a gen. con- 
tinenti8)t but simply a gen. definitivus 
(comp. Madvig, Synt. § 49) or gen. of 
the * characterizing principle or qua- 
lity ' (Scheuerl. Synt. § 16. 3, p. 1 1 5), 
— the mystery of which the character- 
izing feature, or, so to say, the a^itive 
principle, is i»op.la] comp. Joseph. 
Bell, Jud. I. 14. I, rbv 'AvrtirdTpov 
plo¥ oitK dp dfidproi rts clirijp Kadas 
fivffTi/lpiop. The transition from this 
gen. to that of ethical content is so 
easy and natural, that it is often diffi- 
cult to decide whether the gen. be- 
longs to that category or to that of 
the possess, gen.; see Scheuerl. I.e. 
The genitival relation of fiv<rTi/jp. ttjs 
cixrepcias is often somewhat plausibly 
contrasted with the present expression 
(Andrewes, Se7'm. in. Vol. i. 34), but 
i*eally seems to be different ; see notes 



on I 2Hm. iii. 9, This mystery 

of dpofda is no personality, scil. Anti- 
christ, or any real or assumed type 
of Antichrist (Nep&pa ipraOOd 4>rieLP, 
Chrys.), but all that mass of uncom- 
bined and so to say unorganized dyd- 
fjLiOf which, though at present seen 
only in detail and not revealed in its 
true proportions, is even now (r}drj) 
aggregating and energizing, and will 
hereafter {iv r^ iavroG Kaiptf) find its 
complete development and organiza- 
tion in the person and power of Anti- 
christ. On the meaning of fivan/fp., — 
here placed emphatically forward as 
standing in tacit antithesis to dirofca- 
\v(ftd. ver. 6, 8, — see notes on Eph. v. 
33, and comp. Sanderson, Serm. IX. 
(ad AuL), Vol i. p. 227 (ed. Jacobs.). 
Ivip-yitTat] *is working ,* *operatur,* 

♦.rft>- xf 

Vulg., r> ^o\ K > AV>X > tj • pnci- 

pit efficax esse] Syr., comp. ^th.; 
clearly not passive, * efficax redditur * 
(Schott), which would not only be here 
inappropriate but is opposed to the 
prevailing use of the word in the N.T.; 
see notes on Gal. v. 6, and on the 
different constructions of the word, 
notes on ib. ii. 8. In the middle it 
stands either absolutely or followed by 
i», Tr^% d.vo^itK%\ ' lawlessness i^ 

in appropriate and illustrative anti- 
thesis to the principle of order and 
legality involved in the probable mean- 
ing of t6 Karixop. On the meaning 
of dvo/xta (* in qu& cogitatur potissimum 
legem non servari,' Tittm.) and its 
distinction from ddida, see Tittm. 
Synon. i, p. 48, Trench, Synon. Part 
II. § 16, and notes on Tit. ii. 14. 
|i6vov 6 KttT^ttv K.T.X.] * ofUy until he 
that now restraineth shall have been re- 
moved;'' rhetorical change of the usual 
order; see exx. in Winer, ^. § 61. 3, 

1 



114 



nP02 eE22AAONIKEI2 B. 



8 aprt eft)? e/c fxicrov yevriTaC Ka\ t6t€ airoKokuf^Qfitrerat 



p. 485, and comp. Gal. ii. 10, fibvov 
t(2p 'jrTUJx<j^f ^CL /Jivrjfiovciiufifv, where 
the emphatic words are similarly at- 
tached to the semi-elliptical fidvov. As 
however in Gal. I. c, so here it is not 
necessary to supply definitely any verb 
to complete the ellipsis ('tan turn ut 
qui tenet nunc teneat,' Vulg., comp. 
Auth.), still less to connect fxdfop with 
what precedes (Kypke, Obs. Vol. ii. 
p. 342). The fi6vov belongs to ?ws, 
and simply states the limitation in- 
volved in the present working of the 
fivariipiov t^s drofi/as: it is working 
already, but only with unconcentrated 
action until the obstacle be removed, 
and Antichrist be revealed. So rightly 
as to sti-ucture Chrys., ^ &px^ ^ 'Pw- 
fiaXK^ orav dpOy iK lUcov, t6t€ iKeivoi 
rj^ei. The only other plausible struc- 
ture is the supplement of fffTi, but the 
objection of Liinem., that in the pre- 
sent case a word of such real impor- 
tance could scarcely be omitted, seems 
reasonable and valid. The 

greatest difficulty however is the 
change of gender in the designation of 
the restraining principle. Perhaps the 
simplest view is to regard it, not as a 
studied designation of a single indivi- 
dual (e.g, St Paul, Schott, p. 249), 
or of a collection of such {e.g. the 
.saints at Jerusalem, Wieseler, ChronoL 
p. 273, or, more plausibly, the succes- 
sion of Roman Emperors, Wordsw.), 
but merely as a realistic touch, by 
which what was previously expressed 
by the more abstract t6 Kar^ov is 
now represented as concrete and per- 
sonified; comp. Horn. xiii. 4, where 
the personification is somewhat simi- 
larly introduced after, and elicited 
from, a foregoing abstract term (^^ov- 
cioii). dpTi is to be closely 

connected with b Kar^wi^, and simply 
refers to time regarded as present to 



the writer. On the derivation and 
meaning of the word, see notes on 
I Theas. ill. 6. 

Sws 4k |i€<rov Y^*^<i>0 ^ ^^^ ^^~ 
nexion of ^u;s with the subjunctive 
without Avf — a construction especially 
characteristic of later writers, see 
Winer, Gr. § 41. 3, p. 266. The dis- 
tinction acutely drawn by Herm. {de 
Partic. dv, ii. 9, p. 109) between such 
formulae as fii fiver c ^tas Odvu (de mori- 
bundo) and ?ws Av ddvu) (de eo qui 
non ita propinquam sibi putaret mor- 
tem esse) and repeated by Klotz 
{Devar. Vol. 11. p. 568) cannot with 
safety be applied in the N. T, ; nor 
can we with distinct probability as- 
cribe the omission of hv to any idea of 
design supposed to be involved in the 
sentence (it is actually inserted here by 
FG), as suggested by Green, Gram, 
p. 64, note. We have only an in- 
stance of that obliteration of finer 
shades of distinction which charac- 
terizes the later and decadent Greek* 
The phrase ^k fiiaov yLyveadai is il- 
lustrated by Wetstein and Kypke 
(Obs. Vol. II. p. 343) : it indicates the 
removal of any obstacle, of anything 
iv fi4(T{fi 6v (Xen. Cyrop. v. 2. 26, 
cited by Ltinem.), leaving the manner 
of the removal wholly undefined ; 
comp. dp^J ^#c fiiaov i/fiQv, i Cor. v, 2, 
rfprai ix rod fiiaov, Isaiah Ivii. 2. 

8. Kal TOTi] ^and then,' — then 
when 6 Karix'^v shall have been re- 
moved ; the primary emphasis clearly 
falling on the particle of time, the 
secondary and subordinate on diroKa- 
\v<t>0-fi<TtT(u. 6 &vo|iOs] *the 

lawless one;* identical with the fore- 
going 6 dif0p<i)voi TTJs afJLapr., the 
changing designation serving appro- 
priately to echo the preceding; term 
{dyofiLa)f which defines more nearly the 
evil principle that the Man of Sin will 



11. 8, 9- 



115 



o avofio^y ov 6 Kupi09 ^I^iarov^ aueXei T(p ^irpev/xart rod 
(TTOfiaTO^ avTOu Kot Karapyfjcrei r^ €Tri(f}ap€t<f r^g irapov^ 
(Tiag avTOv* ov ia-Tiv ^ irapovcria kut ivipyeiav rod 9 

8. ip€\€t] So Lachm.y TiacK ed. i, with ABD^; 10 mss.; aX.—dviXoi is the 
reading of FGK*— dydXot of K*. Eec, TUch. ed. 2, 7, read dj'oXc&<r« with 
D^EKL ; mss., Ff. C is deficient. In spite of the possibility of conformation 
to Isaiah xi. 4, it seems best to retain the reading to which so great a prepon- 
derance of MS. authority points. 



especially develop: *ExUx tile qui 
nuUis legum vinculit coerceri vult, sed 
omnia jura divina et humana suo 
ipsius arbitrio subjicit,* Yorst, ap. 
Fol Syiu 8v6KvpiOf 

iCT.X.] *fohom the Lord Jesus shcUl 
consume toith the breath of His mouth/ 
relative sentence describing, with a 
consolatory glance forward to the final 
issue, the ultimate fate of Antichrist ; 
Kal tI fierii raura ; iyy^^ ^ Tapa- 
/ivOia' iirdyei ydp Or 6 KCpioi k,t,\,, 
Cbrys. The forcible expression rif 
irweiifi. ToO ffr6fA. a&roO has received dif- 
ferent explanations. It has been re- 
ferred (a) by the Greek commentator! 
to the words of power {4>04y^enu 
liitwov, Chrys. ; comp. Theod., Theod.- 
Mops., al.) issuing from the Lord^s 
lips ; (6) by Athan. {ad Serap, I. 6, p. 
655), Theoph. 2, al., to the Holy 
Spirit; but is most simply regarded 
(c) as a vivid declaration of the glorious 
and invincible power of the coming 
Lord, 'cui sufficiat halitus oris quo 
A^ofios ille perdatur,' Schott; comp. 
Isaiah xi. 4 (from which these words 
may have been derived), Wisdom xi. 
20, 21, and the pertinent quotations 
from Rabbinical writers collected by 
Wetst. in he, : on the word KarapyitOf 
comp. notes on Oal, v. 4. The 

reading is hardly doubtful: 6 K6p. 
'IiytroCf is supported by ADE^FGL'K ; 
10 mss. ; Syr. (both), Vulg., aL Bee, 
omits 'IffiroGs with BE'KL^; most 
mss.; Arab. (PoL); Orig., al. C is 



deficient. r% hm^vsl^ 

tt)s wop. a^ToS] ' with the numifestaUon 
of His coming;* not with a semi- 
theological reference to the ^^orioiis 
manifestation (4nlustratione,' Vulg., 
'brightness,* Auth., 'vi salutari,' 
Kypke, Obs. Vol. ii. p. 343) of Christ 
at His second coming (comp. notes on 
I Tim, vi. 14, and Tit. ii. 13, where 
r^t $6^11$ is definitely added), but with 
sinmle reference to His visible coming 
('aspectu adventus sui,* Glarom., Mth.) 
and actual local appearing ; arijaei Hiw 
iirdTijp Kal iftvMtU yMvov, Chrys., Theoph. 
9. of Irriy 'f[ vopovo-Ca] Return to 
the time and subject of Antichrist's 
coming, after the anticipatory allusion 
to his final overthrow ; the oiT resuming 
and re-echoing the ov of verse 8. The 
ethical present iorhf marks the cer- 
tainty of the future event ; see Winer, 
Or, § 40. «, p. 237, Bemhardy, SyiU. 
^- ^) P- 37'- "^^0 instant repetition 
oiTdpovaia in the new connexion is 
remarkable. Kwf M^. 

Tov Sar.] 'according to the working 
of Satan;"* not here 'in consequence 
of* (De W., comp. notes on oh. i. 12), 
but, in accordance with the more 
usual force of #car<i, 'in agreement and 
correspondence with* an Mpyeia such 
as belongs to and might be looked for 
from Satan; comp. notes on Eph. I 
19, and Col, i. 39. The remark of 
Bengel is full of deep thought,— 'ut 
ad Deum se habet Christus, sic e oon- 
irario ad Satanam se habet Anti- 

12 



116 



IIP02 GE22AAONIKEI2 B. 



^arava €v Trao-jy SuvajiAet Koi cnnuieloig koi rcpacrtv y^€v- 
lO'dov^ KOI ev Tracrij airaTij aSiKia^ rot^ aTroWv/ULevotgy avd 



christus.* ' kv ird<r|| 

Svvd|i. K.T.X.] * in all power and signs 
and loonders of lying ^'^ — in every form 
of (see notes on Eph, i. 8) power, 
signs, and wonders, leading to and 
tending to develop ^c05os: iv being 
no 'nota dativi' (Olsh.), but marking 
the sphere and domain of this [di^rt] 
wapovala (comp. notes on i Thess. i* 
5), and both Trdffji (conip. "Winer, Grt 
§ 59* 5> P* 466) &°d ^^6 gd* being 
associated with all the three substan- 
tives. The exact nature of the geni- 
tival relation is not perfectly certain : 
yf/fi^ovs may be regarded as (a) a gen. 
of the origin, (b) of the characterizing 
quality or essence (see notes on ver. 
7), or lastly, (c) of 'the point of 
view* (Scheuerl. Synt. § 18, p. 129). 
Of these (a) is by no means probable ; 
but between (6) and (c) it is very diffi- 
cult to decide. Perhaps the object 
specified in ver. 11, and the analogy 
of Airrfri; ddtKlas (ver. 10), soil, 'fraus 
qu» ad improbitatem spectat' (Schott 

1, Winer, Gr. § 30. 1. j9. p. 170), may 
here incline us to the latter ; so Chrys. 

2, els ypcv^os dyovffi. For exx. of these 
more lax connexions of the gen., see 
Winer, Gr. I. c. 

The three substantives might seem to 
be climactic; it was not only in an 
element of power (see notes on i Thess, 
i. 5), but one of signs, and further 
one of prodigies, that the working of 
Satan took place ; as however we find 
a varied order (Acts ii. 22), and as the 
difference between trri/xeia (*refl inso- 
litaa quibus Deus ahquid significety 
Fritz.) and ripara ('quae ut inusitata 
observari soleant,* ib.) exists less in the 
things themselves than in the mode of 
regarding them, we may perhaps most 
naturally consider the substantives as 
studiedly accumulated so as to give 



' force and expansion to the description ; 
compare Bornemann, Schol. in Luc. 
p. XXX. On the meaning of the last 
two words, and the derivation of r^pat 
[rijpica, comp. Benfey, Wurzellex. Vol. 
n. p. 238], see the elaborate note of 
Fritz. Rom. xv. 19, Vol. ill. p. 270. 
The form (rrifieiov appears closely con- 
nected with ffTjfxa {OrifiaT'), and thence 
with eEO, rldrifii; see Pott, Etym. 
Forsch, Vol. II. p. 592. 

10. Kal kv irdoTi k.t.X,] *and hi all 
{every kind of) deceit of iniquity;* 
generic and comprehensive term ap- 
pended by the collective Kal to the 
foregoing list of more special details ; 
comp. Winer, (rr. § 53. 3. p. 388, and 
notes on Phil. iv. 12. On the geni- 
tival relation, see above, ver. 9, and 
Winer, Gr. § 30. 2, p. 1 70, and on the 
meaning of ddida (' de qu^cunque ira- 
probitate dicitur quatenus r^ diKoltp 
repugnat,' Tittm.), notes on 1 Tim. 
ii. 19. The reading of Rec. rift 

d«. [with DEKLK^; mss.; Hippol., 
Chrys., Theod.] is rejected by Lachm. 
and Tisch. on the higher authority of 
-ABFG«M mss.; Orig. (6), Cyr.- 
Jer. Tots diroXXv- 

fUvois] 'for those that are perishing/ 
dat. incommodif belonging to the gene- 
ral head of the dative of interest ; see 
Krtij,'er, Sprachl. § 48. 4. The more 
exactly specifying rots dTroXX. has no 
reference to any *decretum reproba- 
tionis' (comp. even Pelt, 'damnationi 
a Deo devoti*), but either like iarlv 
marks the certainty of the event (' qui 
certissime sunt perituri,* Turret.), or 
perhaps more simply, with merely a 
temporal parallelism, points to those 
who 'are perishing' at the time in 
contemplation, — not too without re- 
ference to the present existence (comp. 
ver. 7) of such a class (i Cor. i. 18, 



II. io, it. 



117 



wv Tfiv ayd^fiv ttji aX^Oelag owe eSi^avro eig^ro <ra)6^va^ 
QVTOvg. Kai Sia TOVTO TrifiTrei avToh o Geo? evipyeiait, 1 1 



2 Cor. ii. 15, iv. 3), of which thoae 
here specified will bo the coniinuance 
and development. The consolatory 
nature of the tacit limitation is not 
overlooked by the Greek commenta- 
tors ; fiii (po^iid^s dyarrriTif dXX' &kov€ 
\4ywroi aOroG* iv toTs diroXX. IffX^^h 
ot el Kai /ii) Tap€y4y€T0 iKeivos oi)a: dv 
iTcladrjffayy Chrys. Ei' is 

prefixed to rots diroXX. by Bee. but only 
on the authority of D^EKLK*; mss. ; 
Syr. (both) ; Orig. (i), al. 
iv0' &v] 'for thai,* ♦in requital for 
that' {tI odv t6 Kipdos; Chrys.), Luke 
i. ao, xii. 3, xir. 44, Actaxii. 23, comp. 
Lev. xxiv. ao; explanatory statement 
of the cause of the judicial dispensa- 
tion of God, and of the justness and 
deservedness of their punishment. On 
this meaning of dv^' up (*propterea 
quod'), see Henn. Viger,No. 33, Winer, 
Gr. § 47. a, p. 336, and for exx. see 
the list collected by Wetst. on Luke 
i. 20, and Raphel, Annot. Vol. L p. 
442. Ttjv dydiniv Ttjs dXT)6.] 

*the love of the truth/ not 'charitatem 
veram,' Anselm (cited by Corn, a Lap.), 
but 'thu love felt for the truth,' 'di- 
lectionem veritatis,* Pseud.* Ambr., — 
dXi;^. not being a gen. of qucUUy, but 
the simple and common gen. objecti; 
comp. Winer, Gr. § 30, p. 167, Krtlger, 
Sprachl. § 47. 7. i sq. 'H dXi^^em is 
opposed to t6 \t/€vSos (ver. 11). It 
seems somewhat perverse in Jowett to 
deny that this implies any higher de- 
gree of alienation from the truth than 
the less distinctive oOk idi^curro t^p 
dX-fjOtiof : surely it is one thing not to 
receive the truth, — an unhappy state 
that might be referable to a mental 
obliquity for which some excuse might 
be found, — and another to receive no 
love of it, to be open to no desire to 
seek it, to be worse than indi£forent 



to it ; ' ubi Veritas summopere amabi- 
lis, ibi se quodainmodo amor veritatiB 
insinuat,' Cocceius. The prosopopoeia 
(Ay dirriif dXrjOclat rbv K6piov KiKXrjKaf) 
adopted by Theod., Theoph., and 
(Ecum., is artificial, and imsupported 
by analogy. els rh <rtt9i)vai 

ai^Toiis] Uhat they might be saved-* 
object that would have been naturally 
contemplated in their reception of it ; 
and which was disregarded and nega- 
tived by their pursuing the contrary 
course ; * non ita sibi char! fuerunt ut- 
cogitarent de vitft setemft,' Cocceius. 

II. Kai 8id TOVTo] 'And for this 
causey almost 'so for this cause,' xal 
serving to mark the correspondence 
between the judgments and the course 
of conduct that had provoked them, 
and perhaps involving partly a conse* 
outive and partly a contrasting force ;. 
comp. note on the uses of xal, on 
Phil. iv. 13. ir^|iirci] *doth 

send/ not so much an ethical (see 
ver. 9) as a direct present; the my- 
stery of iniquity is even now at work 
(ver. 7), and is even now calling down 
on itself the punishment of judicial 
obduracy. There is no need for ex- 
plaining away wifirei ((7W7X«/)iJ<r« ^- 
wrjifai Hiv irXdi^i», Theod., oomp. Theod.- 
Mops., Theoph., (Ecum.), nor is it 
right merely to ascribe it to a foim of 
thought in the age of the Apostle 
(Jowett), nor enough to say merely 
that 'whatever God permits He or- 
dains,' Alf. The words are definite 
and significant; they pcnnt to that 
'judicial infatuation' (WaterL Serm, 
Vol. V. p. 486, — differently however 
in Vol. IV. p. 563) into which, in tho 
development of His just government 
of the world, God causes evil and 
error to be unfolded, and which He 
brings into punitive agency in the 



118 



nP02 eE22AAONIKEI2 B. 



12 'ir\apfi9 €19 TO 7riaTev<rai avT0V9 Ttp \f/'eiJ5ei, ^va KpiOcocriv 
airaPT€9 oi jultj iri<rT€v<ravT€s ry oKfjOuc^ oXX* evSoK^- 

12, ' [iv] rS dScKlgJ The reading is not qnite certain ; ip is given by Fee. 
and IHach. ed. 2, 7, with AD^EKLK*; most mag.; Orig. {7), Chry8.,Theod., but 
is enclosed in brackets by Laehm., and was rejected by Tisch, ed. 1, with BD^ 
F6K^; 7 mss.; Orig. {2), HippoL, aL C is deficient. As, though the corstruc- 
tion with the simple dat. is not found in the N. T., the omission of the pre- 
position may haye been suggested here by a desire to preserve a parallelism of 
clauses, we still retain the iy in the text, but deem it necessary to mark the 
increased doubt which the authority of t( produces by enclosing the word in 
brackets. 



case of obstinate and truth-hating re- 
jection of His offers and calls of mercy ; 
eomp. Miiller, Ihclr. of J^n, Book v. 
YoL L p. 471 (Clark), and see two 
able Sermons on this text by South, 
Serm, Vol. 11. p. 191 — 228. The read- 
ing of ^<?. Wfi^ei [D^EKLK^; mss.; 
Clarom., Augiens., majority of Vv., 
and many Pf.] is rightly rejected by 
most modem editors, being inferior in 
uncial authority to irifXTH [ABD^F 
GKi; 67; Vulg. (Amiat.), Orig. (3), 
al.], and a correction of it that would 
easily suggest itself. 
Iv^ctav v\A.rt\%] * an in-warhing of 
error;* not xXdri/y (vepyop, CEcum., 
^here a most questionable solution of 
the governing subst. (see Winer, Gr. 
§ 34- 3> P* ^i^)) ^ut, in accordance 
with iwdfi€L — ^e^ovf, of which iv4py. 
^\6pfit is a kind of summary,- — 'a 
working which tends to enhance and 
develop irXdi^,' the gen. being (as 
if/ci^ovs in verse 9) that of ' the point 
of view ;* tA ipya A rote? ['Avrlxp.] 
els r6 TXayrjffai, Theoph. On the 
meaning of TXdprj ('erroris,' Vulg.), 
see notes an 1 These, ii 3, and EpK 
iv. 14. els rh iriOTcvo-ai ict.X,] 

'to the intent that they ehotdd believe 
the lie,* opposed to 'the truth' (ver. 
10), sciL the falsehood implied in the 
preceding words ov icrlp — dduclat 



(Green, Gram, p. 141), not falsehood 
generally, as Middl. 6r, Art, p. 383 
(ed. Kose) ; clause stating the purpose 
of God ('non meram sequelam,' Schott) 
in sending to them the iv4py, TXdprfs 
by His judidal act. He sends a power 
of a nature desigiied to work out the 
appointed issue, and to bring about a 
state which involves its own chastise- 
ment. On the force of els rb in sen- 
tences similar to the present, see Meyer 
on Jtom. i. 10. 

12. tva KpiB&axv £iravres] *ikai 
they may all of them he judged/ more 
remote purpoee involved in the preced- 
ing words els rd Turrevirau k.t,\., with 
which this clause seems more naturally 
connected than directly with the pre- 
ceding rdfirei. The preceding els rd 
K.T,\. renders a reference to retult 
('quo fiet ut,' Schott) here distinctly 
untenable. It need scarcely be said 
that KpiOQffw is not per ee ' might be 
damned,' Auth. (tva KaraKpidQai^ 
Chrys.), but simply ' may be judged,* 
'judicentur,' Vulg., the further idea 
of an unfavourable judgment being 
supplied by the context; comp. /c/u/ia 
in I Tim. iii. 6, and see notes in loc. 
The reading is doubtful: Tiech. reads 
dvapres with AFGX ; mss. ; Orig. {2), 
Gyr.: Bee. and Lachm. (non marg.) 
adopt vdjrres with BDEL; mss. ; Orig. 



II. 



12, 13. 



119 



'H/xcf? Si 6(f}€i\oiJL€P evyaptcrrciv t^ 13 

I may God stablish , • ^ ir ' ** *t\ f ^ f 

u TTfifieuoi VTTO iVi/jOiOu, OTi €iAaTO vjtxa^ o 

Geoff aTT* ap-xtig ctff <r<aT9jpiav ev dyia<r/iw Huev/uLarog koI 



We must thank Ood 
that He hath chosen and 
called vou. Hold what 



and 
you. 



(i), many Ff. The evidence is thus 
veiy evenly balanced. 
ciSoicii<ravTCS [4v] rg dSiK.] 'tool 
pleasure in unrighteousness,* On the 
meaning of ei^Somv ('re aut perflonft 
delectari,* Fritz.), compare notes on i 
Thess. ii. 8, but see osp. the elaborate 
note of Fritz. Rom, x. i, Vol. n. p. 
369 sq. 

13. *H|ictt8f| 'But we,' soil, the 
Apostle and his companions, Silvanus 
and Thnothy (ch. i. i), not St Paul 
alone (Jo wett),— placed by means of 
the oppositive ii in contrast with those 
alluded to in the foregoing verses. 
6^CXo)&cv] * are hound,' Auth., 'opor- 
tet,' Copt, [sempsha]; the verb 64>€t\€ty, 
as in ch. i. 3, expressing the duty on 
its subjective side, Mas innerlich Ge- 
drungenfUhlen,' LUnem. On the con- 
nexion of ei)xa/M0Te(v with ireply and 
on the meaning of the verb, see notes 
and reff. on 1 Thess. i. 2, 
dScX^C K.T.X.] Similarly, i Thess. i. 
4, i.d€\^ol iiyainifihoi inrb GeoO, — ex- 
cept that Yivplov here, as nearly always 
in St Paul's Epp., refers to our Lord, 
not to God the Father. Though love^ 
as Alf. remarks, is in this sort of col- 
location somewhat more usually refer- 
red by St Paul to the First Person of 
the blessed Trinity (ver. 16, Eph. ii. 
4, al.), yet such references to the 
Second Person are by no means with- 
out precedent; comp. Kom. viii. 37, 
Eph. V. 2, 25. 8ri ctXaro ict.X.] 

*ihat Ood chose you;' objective sen- 
tence (' quod,* Vulg., J, Syr.), stating 
the matter and grounds, surely not 
* the reason,* Alf. (comp. Mth,, Auth.), 
of the €ixapi<rrla\ see i Thess. ii. 13, 
I Cor. l 14, and on objective sen- 



tences generally, or as they are some- 
times termed 'expositive* sentences, 
consult Schmalfeld, Synt. § 163 sq., 
Donalds. Gr, § 584 sq. The verb aJ- 
peiffOai is a cTt. \ey6fi. in St Paul*! 
Epp. in reference to the divine ^/cXo^iJ, 
the term iKXiycadai being used in i 
Cor. i. 27, 28, and Eph. i. 4 ; comp. i 
Thess. i. 4, and Eeuss, TMol Chrit 
IV. 14, Vol. II. p. 133 sq. Rec. reads 
dKero with K; most mss., but the 
Alexandrian form etXaro (see Lobeck, 
Phryn, p. 183) is rightly adopted by 
Lachm., Tisch,, and most modem 
editors, with greatly preponderating 
authority [ABDEFGLK ; some mss. ; 
Theod. (ms.)]. On these forms in the 
N.T., see Ti^ch. Prolegom, p. LVi (ed. 
7), and the somewhat opposing com- 
ments of Scrivener, Introd. to N, T. 
VIII. 6, p. 416. dir' dpxf)s] 

'from the beginning,' soil, of all things, 
'from eternity;* so i John i. i, ii. 13, 
but not elsewhere in St PauPs Epp., 
where the more distinctive formulie 
Tpb icaro^oX^t K6<rfJL0v (Eph. i. 4), rpb 
tQv aldjvuv (i Cor. ii. 7), rp6 xP^wup 
aluvluw (2 Tim. i. 9), and more re- 
strictedly, &irb rCiv alfhviav (Eph. iii. 
9), are used to express the same or a 
similar idea. The reference to the 
beginning of the gospel-preaching 
(Michaelis, al.) is rightly rejected by 
Schott and Liinem., as requiring some 
explanatory supplement either imme- 
diately connected with &px^ (Phil. iv. 
15) or obviously involved in the con- 
text (i John ii. 7, 24). Finally 
the reading dwapxV (L<ichm,y Tisch, 
ed. i) has the good external support 
of BFG ; 5 mss. ; Vulg., but is in- 
ferior in external authority to dr* d/>- 



120 



nP02 GE22AAONIKEI2 B. 



14 iri(rrei aXr^Oelagy el^ t cKoXecrev v/ulS^ Sia tov evayyeXiou 
ifjLwVy €19 'irepnroifja-tv So^fjg tov K.vpiov i^julwu ^Irjcrou 



X^s [which is found in DEKLK ; nearly 
all mss. and Yv. ; Gr. and Lat. Ff. 
A non liquet and C is deficient. 'Air- 
apx^f tacitly involves such a contradic- 
tion to actual fact (the Thessalonians 
were not the first believers in Maced.), 
that we can here scarcely hesitate in 
our choice. h dYixurfi^ 

IIvc^luiTOs] *in sanctification of (he 
Spirit,^ soil, wrought by, and eflfected 
by the Spirit; UpeijfiaTos being the 
gen. of the causa efficiens (see notes on 
1 Tliess, i. 6), and referring not to 
man*8 spirit (Schott), but to the per- 
sonal Holy Spirit. No argument can 
be founded on the omission of the 
article, as in the first place such omis- 
sions are not rare with UveOfmy and 
secondly, it might here be due to the 
common principle of correlation; comp. 
Middl. Gr. Art. ni. 3. 7, p. 49 (ed. 
Bose). The prep, iv may be instru- 
mental (Chrya., Lunem., al.), but is 
perhaps more naturally taken in its 
usual sense as denoting the spiritual 
state in which the clfXaro els aurriplaif 
was realized; see Winer, Gr. § 50. 5, 
P» 370* who in ed. 5 with less accuracy 
referred it to (ruynjpta. The assump- 
tion of De W. that ^i' is here equiva- 
lent to eli is well refuted by Lunem., 
wrho justly urges the obscuring effect 
this would have on the preceding els 
ffiarrjplatf. ttCo-tci dXT)6cCas] 

* faith in the truth/ d\yj6eias not being 
a gen. of quality {rrlffreus &\7)dovs, 
Chrys.), but simply the gen. oljecti, 
see Winer, Gr. § 30. i, p. 167, and 
comp. PhiL i. 17. 

1 4. els 8] *whereunto,* sciL els 
fftarriplav iy dyiafffi^ k.t.\., not *ad 
electionem atque animum quo e&dem 
digni evadimus' (Pelt), as the his- 
torical iKdXeffev naturally stands in 
connexion, not with the election 



which had taken place diir'^d/DX^Sj.hut 
with those issues coi^templated by the 
etXaro which had their commence- 
ments in time. So rightly Theoph., 
els TOVTO 7A/D iKdXeffev {/fias, 4>riff(p' els 
TovTOf TToiov; els rb ffudijvai 5tA (?) 
TOV &ytafffiov Kal rrjs irlffretas. After 
8FGK; Vulg., al. add /car. 
v)&ds] The reading of jAichm. ijfias has 
the support of ABD^; a few mss.; 
Clarom., Sangerm., Augiens., and, — 
as itfiSis miyht have been a conforma- 
tion to the preceding iffias, — is plaus- 
ible, but hardly suflBciently supported 
by external authority to be admitted 
with confidence. 

Sut TOV cvdYY' ^H^^v] 'by means of 
our Gospel/ soil. *the Gospel we 
preached,' that which involved the 
&Ko^v which is the antecedent of t(- 
ffTis; comp. Eom. x. 17, and Usteri, 
Lehrh. II. 2. 2, p. 267. On the exact 
genitival relation of ^ftcDv, see notes on 
I Thess. 15. els ircpiiroCTio-iv 

K.T.X.] 'unto the obtaining of the 
glory of our Lord J. C./ *in adquisi-. 
tionem glorise,* Vulg., Copt., compare 
uEth. 'ut vivatis in glorill Domini;* 
more exact specification of the pre- 
ceding els ffiiyrriplop (ver. 13), the term 
TrepiTolrfffts giving the ffUTrjpia the 
aspect of a KT7)ffis (Hesych., Suid.), 
and that of a glory of which Christ 
was — not the author (Pelt), but, in 
accordance with the analogy of Scrip- 
ture — the Lord ao.d possessor; see John 
xvii. 24, comp. Bom. viiL 17. See 
esp. notes on i Thess. v. 9, where this 
meaning of irepiv, is briefly investi- 
gated. Of the two other interpreta- 
tions of vepiv., — (a) active, with re- 
ference to God, scil. tva Sd^ay xepi- 
iroi'fiff'Q r(fi vl<fi a^ToOf (Ecum. ; and (6) 
passive (comp. Eph. i. 14), dd^ijs being 
resolved into an adj., scil. 'gloriosa 



II. 14, 15, 1 6. 



121 



TrapaSoa-et^ 09 €SiSd')(9rjT€ eire Sid \6yov eire Si eTTi- 
(TToX^^ ificou, avT09 Se 6 l^vpiog fitxm ^Ifjcrovg Xpia-Tog 16 



possession Est. 2, — the first is gram- 
matically, the second contextually 
doubtful. In the case of (a) we must 
have had the usual dative of 'interest/ 
not (as here) a gen. of possession ; in 
the case of {b) the seemiog parallelism 
with 1 Thess. v. 9 would be destroyed, 
and the glorification of our Lord would 
really become the object of the 

KaXeiy, as Syr. expressly %pO(TiLJ 

tiV)\ lA,K»On •Z [ut sitis glo- 
" p « 

ria Domino nostro], not the futiure 
reserved fi»r tlie Thessalonians, on 
which the illative exhortation of 
ver. 15 (&pa odv) seems logically to 
depend ; comp. LUnem. in loc. 

15. &pa olv K.T.X.] * Accordingly 
then, brethren, stand {firm) ;' exhorta- 
tion following on the preceding decla- 
ration of the gracious purpose of God, 
— the illative dpa being supported by 
the collective odv; see notes on Gal. 
vi. 10, and refF. on i Theas, v. 6. On 
the present derivative meaning of 
<rrTj<c€re (^jerstate, Beza, jui) /cara)3XiJ- 
6riT€j OCcum. ; comp. i Thess. iii. 8), 
here suitably used in retrospective an- 
tithesis to eaXevdijvat (ver. 2), see notes 
on I Thess. iii. 8 and Phil. i. 27. 
Kparctrc tcL« irapaSoo-Cis] *hold fast 
the instructions/ practically synony- 
mous with I Cor xi. 2, r&s n'ft^a56<rft$ 
icar^X^re. These wapaddaen (Mark vii, 
3, Gal. i. 14, al.) probably related, — 
not as in i Cor. I. c. (see Meyer in 
loc.) to matters both of doctrine and 
discipline, but, as the more specific 
ididdxGrjre and the general tenor of 
the context (comp. ver. 5) suggest, 
solely to the former, Kav6va Sidaaica- 



Xlas, Theod. The polemical and con- 
troversial use of the term, hinted at 
even by Chrys., is brought forward by 
Damasc. (de Imag. i. 23, Vol. I. p. 
518, Paris, 17 12), and enforced by 
most writers of the Romanist Church 
(comp. Canon. Cone. Trid. Sess. iv. 
p. 15, ed. Tauchn.), but distinctly 
without plausibility. No refereuce to 
any iKK\yjffia<rTiKbv ^pbur/fAa (Euseb. 
Hist. Eccl. V. 28 ; comp. Mohler, 
Symbolik, § 38, p. 361) can fairly 
be elicited from the words. The 
Apostle, as the following clause most 
distinctly shows, is referring to some 
definite and lately^given communis 
cations on doctrine which he had 
specially made to the Thessalonians 
(comp. I Cor. I. c, Kadibs TapiduKo), 
by word of mouth and in his former 
letter. For the most ingenious modern 
defence of the Komanist doctrine of 
tradition, see Mohler, Symholikf I. c. 
P- 361—365- *« 

iStSdx^'*'*] *«£?A«cA ye were taught.* 
For exx. of this well-known con- 
struction, see Winer, Gr. § 32. 5, p., 
204, and for the general theory of the 
connexion of the accus. with passive 
verbs, Schmalfeld, Syntax^ § 25, p. 
29 sq. ctrc 8id X6yov 

icr.X«] * whether by word or by our 
epistle,* — inffToX^ ijfiwv (gen. auc" 
tons), not an iirio'ToXii c^ 8i* ijfAuVf 
ver. 2. We can hardly say with 
Gom. (cited and approved by Pelt, 
comp. Schott) — * efre non disjungit, sed 
conjungit et copulat;* it rather sub- 
divides the general ididdx^VTe into the 
two special modes in which diSax^ is 
usually and regularly conveyed ; comp. 
I Cor. xiii. 8, and Meyer in loc. 
16. air^ 8) 6 Ki$p.] 'but may 



122 



nP02 eE22AAONIKEI2 B. 



Koi o Geo? o irartip »;At5i/, 6 ayairricra^ tifJ-a^ kcu Soig 
17 irapcuc\tj<rtv atnnvlav koi iXmSa ayaOiiP iv yapiri^ irapa- 

16. 6 iraTiJ/o] So Lachm, (text) with BD^FGK^ (K* reads simply xarijp^ ; 
man. ; Augiens., Syr. ; aL Lachm. (in xnarg.) and Tmc^. follow iZcc. in reading 
Kol T. with AD'EKL; mss.; Vulg., Clarom. al. Although judgment cannot 
be absolutely pronounced, yet the reading given in the text has certainly the 
best claim to appear there. The previous variations in the reading of the clause 
are noticed below. 



our Lord himself;* concluding prayer 
after exhortation, as in ch. iii 16 
{rdXiv €irxjh fierb. wapcUyecW rovro 
ydp icTUf 6imai ^oridtw^ Chrys.), the 
Zk contrasting the succeeding prayer 
with the foregoing exhortation, and 
the ai/rbs giving force and dignity to 
the mention of our Lord as compared 
with the preceding iifiCjv; comp. the 
similar concluding prayers in i Thess. 
iii. 1 1, V. 23, in both which cases how- 
ever the connexion is less close, and 
the contrasting force, both of the par- 
ticle and the pronoun, somewhat less 
emphatic. Our Lord is put first 
in the enumeration {2 Cor. xiii. 13), 
contrary to the Apostle's usual habit 
of writing, either on account of the 
recent mention of Him in ver. 14, 
or from the feeling that it was by 
His grace alone that they could have 
strength to carry into practice the 
preceding exhortations ; ' per gratiam 
Ghristi venitur ad Patris amorem,' 
Bengel on a Cor, I. c. This unusual 
order is not left unnoticed by Chrys. 
and the Greek expositors; r^ r^s 
Tci^ewf ivoKKay^ tV dfJuyrtfiloM SetKP^fei, 
Theod. The readings throughout 

the clause are somewhat doubtful. Be- 
sides the variation given in the criti- 
cal note, Lachm. differs from Tisch, 
in inserting 6 before Xpiards [with A], 
and including it in brackets before 
666s [BD^ omit]. 6 Bt^ 

6 irar^p i)|i»v] * God our Father.* This 
exact form of expression, though so 
strongly supported here, does not* ap- 



pear to occur elsewhere. 
6 d,ywirf\a-a% k.t.X. seems to refer 
only to God the Father. The union 
of Father and Son, esp. as shown by 
the subsequent singular verb, is I 
confess so mystically close that it is 
difficult to speak with complete con- 
fidence (Alf., but see his previous 
note), still the usual reference of dydmf 
to the Father (see above) may incline 
us here to the more exclusive refer- 
ence. The arbitrary reference of the 
first of the two participles to Christ, 
and of the second to God the Father 
(Baumg.-Crus.), is almost obviously 
untenable. irapdicXti- 

o-iv aUtfvCav] 'eternal comfort/ the 
best shade of meaning for rapdkkria'is 
here. Aluvtos is used not appy. with 
any specially qualitative reference to 
an iXwlda t(3» ficWdyrcaw (Chry&, 
Tbeoph.), but mainly in a temporal 
sense, in contrast to the transitory and 
fleeting nature of earthly joys (Olsh.) : 
the iXirlt T(2v fu'KK6vT(av is embodied 
in the iKirlha iyaOi^Uf * la perspective 
d'un heiureux avenir,' Beuss, Thiol. 
Chrit IV. 9, Vol. II. p. 85 ; oomp., 
though with a slightly different refer- 
ence, r^v fMLKaplav iXiridOj Tit. iL 13. 
Aldyios \s used in the N. T. as an adj. 
of two terminations except here and 
Heb. ix. 12. 

4v X*P^'*'*'] **** grace;' adjunct of 
manner, not to both preceding par- 
ticiples (dyav. being more usually un- 
defined, Bom. viii. 37, Gal. iL «o, al.), 
but to doj^ (Schott, and appy. Chry«., 



IL 17, III. I. 



123 



KoKicrat v/tiZv ra^ KapSiaf koI (rrfipl^at ep iraPTt epytp 
KOI \6y^ ayaOcjS. 

Finally, prar for the 



To XoiTTov irpo<r€v')(€(r6€j aS€\<f)oi9 III. 
^IiaZv, tva 6 \6y09 Tou J^vpiou 
T/t)€j(}7 Koi So^a^^irat Ka6a)9 koi irpo^ 



advance of the Lord's 

:Sfttabu.h''™u* .?! ■'^P' ^m£»', tva 6 \6yog roS Kvpiov 

may He guide your 
hearts. 



GScum.), the iw as usual defining 
the sphere and element in which the 
love is evinced and the consolation 
Touohsafed. In cases like the present 
the line of demarcation between the 
above reference to ethical locality and 
the instrumental use {xdpirii Chrys.) 
is really very shadowy. It can 
scarcely be doubted that such a use 
has arisen from the inclusive nature 
of the Aramaic £^, and it is well not 
to be unduly narrow in interpreta- 
tion ; still in most of the expressions 
similar to the present there is a theo- 
logical idea, — an idea of an encompass- 
ing element of grace, which it seems 
desirable to retain; comp. notes on 
I These, ii. 3. 

17. irapaicaXi<rai] ^ comfort;^ opt. 
and sing., as in i Thess. iii. 11, 
where see notes. The Apostle does 
not say merely itiiaiy but ifiitav rba 
Kopdlas (comp. GoL ii. 2) ; it was the 
Kapdia, the seat of their feelings and 
affections (comp. notes on i Tim. i. 5, 
Beck, Seelenl. ill. 24, p. 93 sq.), the 
KapSia that was so full of hope and 
fear about the future, that the Apo- 
stle prayed might receive comfort. 

This meaning (|jkJQJ [consoletur] 

Syr., comp. ^th.), seems thus in tbe 
present case more suitable than ' ex- 
hortetur/ Vulg., as a translation of 
TapaKa\4<rai; see notes on i Thess. 
V. If. o-TTipCfai] 'stablish 

(^ou) f fiepauia'ai, (Strre p.^ caXeika'Oai 
firfdi wtipaKXlveeOatf Chrys.; comp. 
1 Thess. iiL 7. The obvious supple- 
ment d/xat 18 inserted by Mic* with 



D'E"KL; mss., but rightly rejected 
by Lachm, and Tisch. with very de- 
cidedly preponderating uncial autho- 
rity, kv irnvrl IpY^ K.T.X.] 
*in every good work and word;^ both 
Tavrl and d^a^^^ being clearly con- 
nected with the two intervening sub' 
stantives. The slightly unusual order 
[Rec. however gives X67. k. ipy,,—hui 
only with FGK; mss.] has appy. 
caused the Greek commentators (silet 
Theod.) to assign the doubful meaning 
b&YfJMTa to the simple word \6y(p. 
This is by no means probable; the 
association with ipytp (comp. Fritz. 
JHom, XV. 18, Vol. III. p. 268), and 
still more the inclusive waml, seem 
both decisive for the ordinary mean- 
ing. It is singular that Chrys. (so 
Theoph.) should have here taken ip 
as instrumental ; clearly the (pyov Kal 
\6yos are not the means hjf which, but 
the elements in which the ffrijpiypAs 
takes place. 

Chapter III. i. T6 Xoiw^v] 'Fi- 
nally,* <as to what remains to be 
said;' similar in meaning to Xoiir^ 
(1 Thess. iv. i), but owing to the 
article slightly more specific. On the 
grammatical difference between this 
formula and the gen. roO XoivoO, see 
notes on Cfal. vi. 17. 

irpoo^X^^^* •'"'<P^ ^jtfiv] 'pray for 
us;* dvw ai^6s ei^dfievos ifwip airrCiv 
vOy oUret e^^y Tap' a^Qv, CEcnm. 
On the formula wpocrciJX'^fMu ir€pl, and 
its practical equivalence to Trpoaei^o- 
fjLoi inrip, see notes on Col. i. 3. 
tva 6 \6rf9% ICT.X] Subject of the 



)24 



nP02 eE2;2AA0NIKEI2; B. 



2 v/xaj, kai Iva pvarOSffieir airo twv ar6ir(dv kol itovrib&iff' 



prayer bleiided witli ,th« ' purpose of" 
making it, as so often in St Paul's 
Epp. ; see notes on Eph. i. 17. This 
prayer of the Aj)08t]e, as Chrys. has 
well observed, was not tva fi^ Kipdwe&g 
(c/f TOVTO ydip (k€ito), but that his 
Lord's word (compare i Thess. i. 8) 
might speed onward and be glorified. 
As ever so now his prayer did not 
involve one single selfish element. 
Tp^'Q Kal 8o((itT|Tai] * may Itavefree 
course and be glorified/ *currat et 
clarificetur,' Vulg., i.e. may find no 
obstacles and hindrances {dKuX&rws 
^wrpixQt Theod., irpoKdTrT'g, Bamasc.) 
in its onward course (comp. 2 Tim. ii. 
^, oi diderai), and be manifested, felt, 
and acknowledged in its true power 
and glory by all; compare ch. i. 12, 
but not, as usually cited. Acts xiii. 48, 
—where, as De W. rightly observes, 
the word (do^d^.) has a somewhat 
weaker force, more nearly approach- 
i,ng to 'laudare,' comp. Schneider on 
Xen. Aiiab, v. 9. 32. The middle 
force adopted by Pelt, ' laudem sibi 
paret,' is not supported by the usage 
of the N. T., nor is it at all accurate to 
say that dvb would have been more 
naturally used if the verb had been 
passive. If any other prep, had 
been used, it would have been {firb 
(JVIatth. vi. 2, Luke iv. 15) or 6/ (John 
ifviL 10, al.) with persons : comp. 5o^a<r- 
6,'S...di at/r^s [dffdeytias] in John xi. 4, 
IJ-pbi however is. perfectly suitable, as 
denoting the locality reached where 
the glorification took place. On the 
use of irpbs with verbs implying rest, 
<j(;c., see notes on Gal. L 18. 
KaOws Kal vphi i)Jias] 'even as it is 
also with you/ the kuI gently con- 
trasting them with others where a 
similar reception had taken place, and 
the clause Hacit& laude' (Est.) remind- 
ing them of their previous and present 



readiness to receive the Word ; comp. 

1 Thess. i. -6 sq. 

2. Kal tva ^vo^wfuv] 'and that 
we may be delivered/ that we may by 
our freedom co-operate in this advance 
of God's word. To find here a mere 
shrinking of the flesh' on the part of 
the Apostle from the dangers that 
awaited him (Jowett) is to assign to 
the Apostle a character that never 
belonged to him, and which such pas- 
sages as Eom. xv. 31 (see ver. 32, 
which shows the true reason) and 

2 Cor. i 8 most certainly do not sub- 
stantiate. How much keener are the 
perceptions of the older commentators ; 
dnrXij iikv if atrrjffLS clvai boKei, pUa 5^ 
6ji<as iiTTi' TUP ydp irovrjpCoy difOptbvtav 
ijTT(jjp.iv(ayf dicuXtrrus Kal 6 rov Kijp&y- 
fiaros avvTpix^i X670S, Theod. 

T«v dT<Jir«v K.T.X.] 'perverse and 
wicked men/ or, in the more deriva- 
tive sense of the term Utovos, — * ini- 
quis et malis hominibus,' Clarom. ;, 

comp. Syr. jAjLLO ( ^ " ^^ [malo- 

1> X 

rum et perversorum], where the order 
is appy. reversed. The word Aroiroj, 
frequently used by Plato, and in con- 
nexion with KaLvb% (Rep. ill. p. 405 d), 
Oavfiaffrbs (Legg. I. p. 646 b), and 
diiOrii {Tim. p. 48 D, Legg. vir. p. 
797 a), properly signifies b /i^ ^xw 
rbirov (Suid. s. v.), and thence deriva- 
tively, as the same lexicographer ob- 
serves, KaKbsy fxoxBvp^^ (see Bekk. 
Anecd, p. 460, Hesych. irotnjpbs, 
al<rxpbs)f with concomitant ideas of 
* mischief,' dhc., according to the con- 
text ; see Luke xxiii. 41, Acts xxv. 
5, xxviii. 6, Philo, Leg. Alleg. ni. 
§ 17, droiroj X^cToi etvai b ipavKos^ 
droTTOv bi iari xanby d6<r$€Tov (Vol. I. 
p. 98, ed. Mang.), and the exx. col- 
lected by Kypke, Obs. Vol IL p. 
^45 <^*. . . y^^o these men were 



III. 2, 3. 



125 



apOpdyrcoif* ov yap iravrodv ti'Tcltrri^. iritrrog Se icrrtp 6 3 
Kvpi09 09 a-Tijpi^et ifxag /cai (pvXd^et airo rod irovfjpov^ . 



i» somewhat doubtful. The most na^ 
lural supposition is that they were 
perverse and fanatical Jews (not Chris- 
tians, on account of what follows) at 
Corinth, who were then opposing the 
word of God and the Apostle's minis- 
try of it; comp. Acts xviii. 12 sq. and 
Wieseler, Ckronol, p. 256. The remark 
of Tertullian seems to have always 
been very true in reference to the 
early Church, — *8ynagogas JudsBorum 
fontes persecutionum/ adv, Gnost, 
Scorp. cap. 10. 

o^ Y^p ir(£vr«0V tj ir{<m«] *for the 
faith doth not pertain to all men / 
reason for the foregoing clause and the 
mention of those alluded to in it. The 
definite ^ tIvtis can here only refer 
to * faith' in the Christian sense (t6 
TTKTTevffai^ GScum., and perhaps Syr. 

U«< r 

CLli£Li01) : the expansion of 
p » 
Sohott, ' fides sincera et constans/ in 
contrast to false Christians (^cuSddeX- 
ipoi, Gal. ii. 4), seems inconsistent with 
the use of the simple unqualified sub- 
stantive. For exx. of this not un- 
common use of the possessive gen., 
see Kriigcr, Sprachl, § 47. 6. 8, and 
comp. Acts i. 7, Winer, Gfr. § 30. 5, 
p. 176. Wetstein in loc. quotes the 
well-known proverbial saying oi> vav- 
rhi dvdpbs is K6piv6o» iad* 6 irXoOj, 
cited by Suidas s. vv. 0^ iraPTdSf Vol. 
II. p. 1220 (ed. Bern.). 

3. irurr6« 8^ K.T.X.] * But faithful 
is the Lord ;* antithesis to the member 
immediately preceding, with a paro- 
nomasia, or rather play on the word, 
suggested by the preceding vlffTis; 
comp. 2 Tim. ii. 13, and see exx. in 
Winer, Or. § 68. 2, p. 561, where the 
distinction is drawn between simple 
paronomasia and a play on words 
(Wortspiel) where a fresh or slightly 



changed meaning is introduced. There 
seems no reason for departing, either 
here or in ver. 4, from the usual refer- 
ence of 6 KiL'pLos to the second person 
of the blessed Trinity ; comp. notes 
on ch. ii. 15. The reading adopted 
by Lachm., 6 BeSt [AD^FG ; "Vulg. 
(not Amiat.), Armen. (marg.) ; Latia 
Ff.], seems to be a correction, and 
conformation to the more usual for- 
mula, I Cor. i. 9, X. 13, 2 Cor. i. 18. 
6s (rTT)pC{f I ibftas] ' who ^hall staJblith 
yout* not perhaps without a faint ex- 
planatory force in the relative, * being 
one who will, tSsc.;* comp. notes on 
I Tim. ii. 4, and on Col. i. 25, 27, 
The form arrfplffei (found in B) is 
noticed by Winer, Or. § 15, p. 8», 
and is not without analogy in Alex- 
andrian Greek. d.irh 
Tov irovY|pov] 'from the Wiched OnCi* 
Here as elsewhere in the N.T. it is 
extremely doubtful whether toO irwry- 
poO refers to evil in the abstract (see 
Kom. xii. 9), or to the Evil One 
(I John V. t8, comp. Eph. vi. 16, and 
notes in loc.). The context alone must 
decide ; and this in the present case, 
in spite of the reference to ch. ii. 1 7, 
(rrripi^ai iv iraifTl ipytp xal XSytpf urged 
by Ltinem. and repeated by Alf., 
seems rather in favour of the mascu- 
line, — (i) in consequence of the pro- 
bable ref. to the Lord's prayer, where 
the G reek commentators (whose opinion 
in such points deserves full considera- 
tion) adopt the masc.,~-and (2) from 
the tacit personal antithesis suggested 
by the preceding Ki^/xos. The ancient 
Vv., whose testimony would here have 
been of considerable importance, do 
not seem to afford us any sure indica- 
tions of the view they adopted. The 
same word, we may observe, is used 
by Syr. both here and in 1 John v. 18, 



126 



nP02 eE22AA0NIKEI2 B. 



4 TTeTTolOafiev Se iv Kvplo) €(j>* ifia^ on a irapayyiXXo^ 

5 JJL€V Kal iroielre koI iroi^arere, 6 Se Kvpiof KarevOvvai 



where the meaning is not doubtful 

4. ircvoCOaiMV 8i <v Kvp.] * Yea 
we have trutt in the Lord/ declara- 
tion of the Apostle's trust in his con- 
yerti, — ^the 6i subjoiuing with a faint 
antithesis to the simple future jusi 
preceding (* ei que jam significata eat 
similis notioquodam mode opponitur/ 
Xlots, Devar, Vol. ii. p. 361) the 
Apostle^s present trust and convic- 
tions, and paving the way for the ex- 
hortations in ver. 6 sq. ; koX tovto e/t 
wporpoiHiv a{rr(a¥ r^OeiKev, ha i^adbirrtt 
ctat Itxj^i ZbJiat vtpl airriav rdis iftyois 
PepauSiffwri. ra&ras, Theod. This Trevot- 
firiffis was now as ever iv KvpUp: it 
was not onlj a trust in His <pi\apOp<a- 
irla (Chrys.)) but a trust in Him as 
the blessed tphere and element in 
which alone it could be truly felt and 
entertained: see Phil, ii 19, and notes 
on £pk. iv. 17, vi i. 
I4>' v|Ad«] 'in regard of you/ the pre- 
position marking the ethical direction 
of the ir€voi04wai ; comp. Matth. xxvii. 
43, « Cor. ii. 3, and see Winer, Cfr. 
§ 49. 1, p. 363. It is very difficult to 
draw clear lines of demarcation be- 
tween the ethical uses of vp6s, hrlj 
and els, in combinations like the pre- 
sent. To speak somewhat generally, 
we may perhaps say that wpbs with 
the ace. commonly indicates simple 
ethical motion (comp. Donalds. Crat. 
§ 169, 171) ; M with the same case 
mental direction with an idea of ap- 
proximation (Donalds. Crat. § 173) 
and a more defined expression of the 
erga (Luke vi. 35) or contra (Matth. 
X. 2 1) ; eli direction or destination with 
the idea of having actually reached 
the object (comp. KrUger, Sprachl. 
§ 68. 21. 5, and notes on PhUem, 5), 
and with a wider and more inclusive 
notion of general behaviour however 



characterized. For the distinctions be- 
tween €/f, ir/»6s, and /caret, see notes 
on Tit, L I. 

£ri A vttfKiYY^XX.] ^ihat the tkingt 
which we comvumd / objective or ex- 
positive sentence (Donalds. Cfr. § 584, 
see notes on ch. ii. 13), stating the 
matter of the Apostle*s confidence. 
The d irapayyiKXy — clearly not * quae 
praxepimiu/ Pelt, — ^here refers most 
naturally to the commands which the 
Apostle is now in the act of giving to 
his converts, and Ibks the present 
verse in an easy and natural way to 
ver. 6. 

Kol woUCrt K. iroii|^. belongs to the 
apodosis of the sentence, jcai...ircU 
presenting both iroiecre and iroci^<r. si- 
multaneously in a single predication ; 
see notes on i Tim. iv. 10. There is in 
this verse much variation of reading. 
After irapaYt^^oncv Rec. inserts v/uv, 
but it is rightly omitted by Lachm, 
and Tiich. with BD*K ; « mss.; Vnlg., 
al. The insertion may have been sug- 
gested by ver. 6. Also Lachm. reads 
iro/)a77 AXoftCF [hiwf Kal iirou^ffare Koi] 
irotctre Kal iroii^trerc, but the reading 
in this extended form is supported only 
by B, as FG (which insert Kal ^011^.) 
omit Kal woL'^eTe, It is doubtful 
however whether the koI should be 
retained before iroiecre as it is omitted 
by AD»«i ; Syr. Observe that C is 
deficient. 

5. 6 8^ KCp. K.rX] 'But may the 
Lord direct your hearts/ repetition 
of the Apostle's prayer, introduced in 
the form of a gentle antithesis (8^) to 
what precedes, — * I doubt you not, my 
confidence is in the Lord; may He 
however vouchsafe His blessed aid;* 
dfjuporipwif ilfup XP^^ '^^^ wpoOivewt 
iLya$9i% jcoZ r^ HvfaBof ffwepyelast 
Theod. The appearance of 7oO X/MffToO 



III. 4, 5, 6. 



127 



vfiwv Ta9 KapSla^ clg r^v ayairriv tov Qeov Kal €«$•. rijv 

VTTO/ULOPfJV TOV XplOTTOV. 

Avoid au disorderly UapayyiWouev Sc vmv^ aSeXdyoL 6 

brethren, and imitete , , -v 9 ^TV 

tSlabS'ur.and^id'JSS ^^ OVOfiari TOV KvpiOV "hoTOV XpiCTTOV, 
mark them that dis- ^v^ /j * ^ ^ ^ ^ '^^JL'^ 

obey. The Lord give (TTcWeoruai VjJLag aiTO TTttl^TOff ad€\<b0V 

you peace. ' 



in the concluding member of the verse 
hns led Basil (xieSpir.Scaict. cap. it), 
Theod., Theoph., (Ec., and recently 
Words w., to refer 6 Ki^/mos to the 
Holy Spirit. This however is unne- 
cessary, and indeed contrary to the 
language of the N.T. ; Kiipios appy. 
not being so applied even in the de- 
bateable passage 2 Cor. iii. i8, see 
Meyer in loc. On the compound 
KaT€vd{fveiv (ciidviropiiPf Theoph.), see 
notes on i ThcM, iii. ii, and on the 
meaning of KapdLa in such combina- 
tions (here the centre of the active 
will and its practical applications), see 
Delitzsch, BibL Psyck. iv. ii, p. 201, 
Beck, Seelenl. iii. 34, p. 94, 95. 
cls Tijv ay. TOV 6cov] * into the love of 
God;* principle to which and into 
which the Apostle prays that his con- 
verts may be guided. The only doubt 
is whether tov GeoD is a gen. aubjecti, 
under the more specific form of a gen. 
auctori^, scil. ' amor quern Beus homi- 
num quasi infundit animis/ Pelt, — or 
simply a gen. oft/ecti, 'amorergaDeum,^ 
Beng., t6 dyair9j<rai airrdw, Theoph. 
The latter is most natural; the love 
of God is indeed the ^ virtutis Christi- 
ansB fons limpidissimus,' Schott; see 
Matth. xxii. 37. 

Tijv iirofi. TOV Xp.] * the patience of 
Christ.'* The meaning of these words 
is also slightly doubtful, owing to the 
different aspects in which the gen. 
may be regarded. Analogy with what 
precedes would suggest (a) a gen. ob- 
jectij * patient waiting for Christ * 
(Auth., Chrys. «, Theoph. «), but 
would introduce a meaning of ^ofi. 



that is appy. not lexically defensible, 
and certainly is contrary to the usage 
of the N. T. Of the other meanings, 
(6) the gen. aitctoris or eamas efficientia 
(Pelt) is plausible, but appy. less sim- 
ple than the more inclusive posaeative 
gen. (Liinem., Alf.), ' patience such as 
Christ exhibited;* tva inrofj.4¥(t>fi€P C)s 
iKeiuos {nrifieipePf Chrys. i, Theod. i, 
comp. I Pet. ii. 21, On the meaning 
of the word {nrofiotHjf see notes on i 
Thesa. i. 3. The addition of 

the art. before Woiiov^v which Rec, 
omits has the support of all the MSS. 
most mss. and Greek Ff. 

6. IIopaYy* 8^ ^J*tv] * Now toe com- 
mand you;* transition by means of the 
8^ fieTopartKbv (see notes on Oal. iii. 8) 
to the more distinctly preceptive por- 
tion of the Epistle. In what followp, 
the exhortations of the former Epistle 
(ch. iv. II, 13, V. 14) are repeated and 
expanded with more studied distinct- 
ness of language, it being probable 
that the evils previously* alluded to 
had advanced among some members 
of this Church to a still more perilous 
height. The words iv ^fiart /c.t.X. 
give the irapa77€X{a a greater force 
and solemnity; oiJx ilM-fis ravra Xiyo- 
fi€p d\X 6 XpKrrbif Chrys. : see i Cor. 
V. 4, and comp. Acts iii. 6, xvi. 18. 
The addition ii/iQv after Kuplou (Rec^ 
with AD»E«FGKL«; mss.; Vulg.), 
though strongly supported, is appy. 
rightly rejected by Tiach, with BD'E' ; 
Clarom., Sangerm. ; Cypr. (i), m a 
likely interpolation. Lachm. inserts 
it in brackets. o^TAXfv^at 

*|4ds] 'that ye withdraw yourml/vea; 



128 



nPOS GESZAAONIKEIS B. 



araKTm irepiiraTOvvro^ Kat /xii Kara rrjv irapaSocrip 
7 fjv irapeXa^oarav vap ^ficov. avroi yap oiSare irw^ 



object-inf., stating the substance of 
the Tapa77cX(a. The verb vriWeLv 
[derived from a root "STA-, Pott, 'Elym, 
Foi'sch. Vol. I. p. 197] properly signi- 
fies *collocare/ — thence, with a not 
improbable figurative reference {rh. 
Urrla, Rost u. Palm, Lex. s.v. Vol. 11. 
P« 15^9)* *cohibere/ *comprimere,' and 
reflexively, *se subtrahere,' Vulg., 

Clarom., ^ > O i}^ ^A.*0019 

[ut sitis distantes] Syr., 'gaskaidail? 
izvis,' Goth., sim. Copt., al.; comp. 
Mai. ii. 5, dvb irpo<ninrov 6v6pmt6s fiov 
ffriWtadai aitrbv [where the Heb. 
nn^ seems to suggest a tinge of the 
still further derivative meaning * prss 
)netu se subducere ;* Hesycb. ^ojSctrat, 
ijrAXcrat], Gen. viii. i {AquU.)^ and 
with an accus. 7, Cor. viii. 20, <rTcXX6/Ac- 
voi TovTo^ rightly translated by Vulg. 
* devitantes hoc ;' add also Gal. ii. 1 2, 
inri<TT€\\€v...kavTbvy Heb. x. 38, hvo' 
CT€L\7jTai. For further exx., see Eisner, 
Oba. Vol. n. p. 283, Kypke, Obs. Vol. 
II. p. 344, Loesner, Obs. p. 387, where 
this verb is copiously illustrated. 
dTdiCTa>s iTipnr.] * walking disorderly ;^ 
comp. I Thess. v. 14, toi>j i.Td.KT0V5, 
and see note on ver. 7. On this use 
of the verb irepnraTuv {irepiir. rovr^ffTi 
piovvTos, Chrys.), as indicating the 
general course of a life in its habitual 
and practical manifestations, see refiT. 
on I Thess. iv. 12, and comp. notes on 
'Phil, iii. 18. Kara tiJv vapa- 

8o<riv] ' according to the instruction or 
lesson;^ irapdSoais (comp. ch. iL 15) 
including both the oral (comp. ver. 10, 
I Thess. iv. 1 1) and written instruc- 
tions which the Apostle had delivered 
to bis converts. To refer this to a 
irapdZoaiv t^p 5id tCjp (pyuPy as Chrys. 
and the Greek expositors do, is to in- 
fringe on what follows, where this 



mode of teaching is distinctly speci- 
fied. 4)v irapiXdPiMrav] 
'which they received,^ soil, those inti- 
mated in the foregoing expression 
Tom-bi d$eX0oD, which here serves the 
purpose of a collective substantive. 
The main difficulty is the reading. 
Lachm. (text) adopts vapeXdfiere with 
BFG; 3ins8.; Goth., Syr.-PhiL, al.,— 
but scarcely with plausibility, as the 
change would have been so easily sug- 
gested by the seeming difficulty of con- 
struction in the 3rd plural. The same 
may be said of Rec. irapiXape, which 
however has only the authority of a 
few mss. and Syr. The choice then 
lies between rapAajSov [Scholz, with 
D«D3EKLK*; mss.; Greek Ft.] and 
the text vap€\6.§o<raM [Griesb,, Tisch., 
Lachm. in marg., with A.fc<^; Basil, 
and iXdpoaav, D*]. The majority of 
Versions support the third person 
plural : C is deficient. The tendency 
to grammatical correction coupled with 
the known existence (Sturz, de Dial, 
Alex. p. 60, Matth. Gr. % 201. s) and 
prevalence even to a late period (Lo- 
beck, Phryn. p. 349) of the form -ocap 
in the 3rd plur. of the imperf. and 
second aor., induces us to acquiesce in 
the probable, though not strongly sup- 
ported reading irapeXdfiocav ; so Olsh., 
Liinem., Alf., and Wordsworth. 

7. a^ol -ydp ot8,] * For yourselves 
know-* confirmation of the wisdom 
and pertinence of the foregoing exhor- 
tation, and more esp. of the modal 
clause immediately preceding, by an 
appeal to their own knowledge and 
observation. The Thessalonian con- 
verts knew *of themselves' xwj Set 
K.T.X., and needed not that the Apo- 
stle should inform them. 
iTtts 8<t |ii)icto^i if fi.] ' how ye ought 
to imitate us/ a simple and intelligible 



III. 7, 8. 



129 



Set jmifieicrOai iiixa^y oTt ovk ^TaKT^crafiev iv ijuLiVy ovSe 8 
Stapeav aprov idxxyojJLev irapa Tivo^y aXX' ev Koirtp koi 
fJL6)(9(p vvKTa KOI fiixepav epyaCpixevoi irpo^ to /JLtj eiri" 



'brachylogy.* The more natural se- 
quence would have been irwj Set ircpt- 
iraretv Koi ij/ias /ii/i(i(r$ai, but the more 
brief mode of expression is probably 
designedly chosen, as throwing em- 
phasis on the /u/ieiffOaif and giving the 
whole appeal more point and force. 
It is somewhat doubtful whether the 
plural is to be referred to St Paul 
alone, or to the Apostle and bis asso- 
ciates. From comparison with i Thess. 
ii. 9, where the ref. seems to be the 
more inclusive one, we shall most pro- 
bably be justified in adopting the same 
view in the present case. 
8ti oi(k i^Taicn^o-.] * in that we behaved 
not disorderly.* This is appy. one of 
those cases in which the causal sen- 
tence approaches somewhat nearly, — 
not so much to the modal (comp. ^th., 
kama [sicut, quemadmodum], Peile, 
'how*) as to the relative (comp. Syr. 

■ *^\cn |J9 [qui non ambulavimus]) 

or to the eocpositive sentence, with both 
of which it has some logical and gram- 
matical aflBnity ; comp. Winer, Or. § 6o. 
6, p. 479. It was not so much * be- 
cause' St Paul and his associates oiK 
ijTd.KTyiffav, as * seeing that,* *in that,* 
such was the case, that the Thesaalo- 
nians came to know how ('quali ra- 
tione Vivendi,' Beng. ) to imitate them. 
In a word, the cjJra|(a was not so 
much a cause, as a causa sine qud non 
of the knowledge. This use of tfri, 
which might perhaps be termed its 
'sub-causal' or 'secondary causal* 
use, deserves some attention, esp. in 
the N. T. The verb draKTiiv 

is a cTtt. \ey6fi. in the N. T., as is 
AraKTos (i Thess. v. 14), while the 
adv. only occurs in ver. 6, 11, the 



whole group being thus peculiar to 
these Epp. The word is here practi- 
cally synonymeus with vepiirarew 
dTdKTtaiy ver. 1 1 : it occurs occasionally 
in classical Greek, sometimes in a 
more restricted reference to tA arpa- 
TWTiKdy e. g, Bemosth. Otynth, nr. p. 
31, ToOs draKTodpras ('qui disciplinam 
militarera labeifactant,' Wolf), some- 
times, as here, with a more general 
reference, e.g. Xen. Cyrop. viii. i. aa ; 
see Kypke, Obs. Vol. n. p. 345. 

8. oiSSi 8a>pf &v dtpTOV i<^(i'y.] ' nor 
ate we bread for naught.* Aupedy is an 
adverbial accusative implying either 
'sine just& cau8&,' Gal. ii. 31 (see 
notes), or, as here, 'gratis,' Vulg., 

Syr., — the true idea of \afipd- 



^^ 



piuf dwpedv being ^ ita accipere ut nihil 
referas, null& prsegressft caus& acci- 
piendi,' Tittm. Synon. 11. p. 161. The 
formula Aproy (payeiy appears to be 
Hebraistic (comp. UTw 75 ^> Gen, 
xliii. ^5, 2 Sam. ix. 7, 10, al.), imply- 
ing really little more than the simple 
verb 4>ay€Tp (i Cor. ix. 4), but, like 
all these Hebraistic turns, being full 
of force and expressiveness ; comp. 
Winer, Crr. § 3, p. 26 sq. 
4v KSntf Kal )Ji6x6(p]> ' in toil and tra- 
vailj* soil. dpTOP itpdyoficp ; adjunct of 
manner, involving a tacit opposition 
to the preceding Hupedp. On the mean- 
ing and derivation of these words, and 
the apparent distinction between them, 
see notes on 1 Thess. ii. 9. 
yvKTa K^l ii)Ji. K.T.X.] ' working during 
night and day;* participial explanation* 
of the preceding ip Kbvt^ kuI ji6x^V$ 
more remotely dependent on the fore- 
going iipdyofAtp ; see Winer, Gr, § 45. 
6. b, p. 314. LUnem. connects the 



130 



TIP02 eE22AAONIKEI2 B. 



9 fiap^cral rtva vjuloov* ov^ on oik e-^^Ofiev i^ova-laVf aXX' 

Iva eavTOvg tvttov Sco/xev vjuliv eig to jun/JLeia-dai rifiag* 

10 Koi yap ore tjixev irpog v/xag tovto iraptjyyiWofiev vfuv 



participial clause closely with h k6t(p 
Kol iibxOifit according to which ipy* 
would have a more distinctly modal 
force. This is perfectly admissible ; 
the emphatic position of Supehv how- 
ever suggests the sharper antithesis 
which the separation of the members 
here seems to introduce. The read- 
ing vvKrbi Kal iifiipas [Lachm. (non 
marg.) with BFGK ; 5 mss. ; Chrys. 
(ms.), Bam.] has very strong claims 
to attention. Still it may have been 
suggested by i Thess. ii. 9, iii. 10. 
On the phrase itself, see notes on 
I Thess. I.e., and on i Tim. v. 5. 
irp^ rh jiTJ iCT.X.] *wilk the view 
of not being burdensome to any of you;* 
object contemplated in the vi^Kra Kal 
V« ^pyo-t' On the word impap.y see 
notes on 1 Thess. ii. 9, where precisely 
the same words are used in reference 
to the same subject. 

9. ov\^i\ *not that/ limitation of 
what precedes, to prevent the preceding 
declaration being misapprehended and 
misapplied: the Apostle reserves his 
ministerial right and privilege of re- 
ceiving if need be support from his 
converts ; comp. i Cor. ix. 4 sq. On 
the use of this formula (* ex dialecticis, 
ut ita dlcaro, formulis Paulo solemni- 
bus,' Pelt), which is found several 
times in St Paul's Epp. (2 Cor. i. 24, 
iii. 5, Phil. iii. 12, iv. 11, 17), see 
Hartuug, Partih. Vol. ir. p. 154, 
comp. Herm. Viger, No. 253. 
l|ov(rCav] * power* ^ right,* sciL rod 
fi^ ipy. (De W.), or more naturally 
rod ScopcdLv ^ayciv Aprov (Lunem.), — 
the latter being the principal state- 
ment of the preceding verse. The word 
i^ovala ('jus, licentia, auctoritas, ali- 
quid faciendi,' Schott) is used exactly 



similarly in i Cor. ix. I9. 
iavToi^s] * ourselves ;* with reference to 
the Apostle and his associates. On 
this use of iavroifs for iifias a&roiis, 
iffAOLS aiJroiJj, see Winer, Gr. § 22. 5, 
p. 136, and for exx. in classical Greek, 
KrUger, Sprachl. § 51. 2. 15. 
els t6 )i,i|ju if (ids] ' that ye should^ to 
the intent that ye, imitate us;* not 
merely an objective member, but as 
usual specifying the object and pur- 
pose of the iavT, rCwoy Siddpai ; comp. 
Winer, Gr. § 44. 6, p. 295. 

10. Kal ydp] * For also/ 'for be- 
sides;* second confirmation of the 
wisdom and pertinence of the preced- 
ing warning that they ought to avoid 
those that were walking disorderly, — 
the yd.p being co-ordinate with the 
preceding ydip in ver. 7, and the koI 
having appy. a conjunctive force, and 
serving to connect this argumentative 
clause with that in ver. 7, and thus 
more thoroughly to substantiate the 
Kard tV irapdd. t/v k.t.X. LUnemann, 
followed by Alf., makes Kal ascensive, 
and refers it to tovto TapTiyyiW., as 
bringing out an additional element in 
the reminiscence. This is somewhat 
forced : Kal ybip has two usages in the 
N.T., — one in which the conjunctive 
force of Kol prevails (' eteuim,* Beza), 
the other ('nam etiam;' *nam et,* 
Vulg., — but not Clarom., which omits 
*et') in which the ascensive force is 
predominant ; see Winer, Gr. § 53. 8, 
p. 397, and notes on Phil. ii. 27. The 
latter has been undoubtedly far too 
often overlooked in the N.T. (comp. 
Fritz. Itom. xi. i, Vol. 11. p. 433), but 
is not to be obtruded in a passage 
like the present, where the context 
(contrast i Thess. iii. 4) and sequence 



III. 9 — 12. 



131 



oTi €1 T19 ov OeXei ipya^ecrOai jJLtjSe itrOieToa. aKovojmev ii 
yap Tivag TrepiiraTOVprag iv vfiiv araKTW^^ juLffSev epya^ 
^ojuiipoug aWa irepiepya^ojuievovg. toU Se roiovroig la 



of argument seem somewhat decidedly 
in favour of the cor^unctive use. 
On the use of rpbt with eZyac and 
verbs implying rest {vap' iffjuUf /xe^* 
OfiQif, Theoph.), comp. notes on Gal. 
i. 1 8, and see i Thess. iii. 4, and 
ch. ii. 4 (eii), 

TOVTo] * this, — that follows ;' the pro- 
noun being placed emphatically for- 
ward to direct attention to the suc- 
ceeding declaration ; comp. Winer, Gr, 
§ ^3- 5> P* 145' The partially pro- 
verbial statement which follows is il- 
lustrated by VVetstein in loc, and 
Sohoettg. Ilor. Hebr. Vol. I. p. 850 : 
the most pertinent quotation is Bere- 
schith, XIV. n, *R. Hunna dixit: fecit 
eum servum manumissum coram se 
ipso, ut si non laboret non roanducet* 
The exhortation is expressed in the 
form of a kind of 'enthymeme* 
(Whately, Logic, 11. 3. 7, p. 121), the 
portion to be supplied being ^atqul 
quilibet edit; ergo quilibet laborato,* 
Beng. On the use of 01) following 

€l, when the negative is closely united 
with the verb, see notes on i Tim. iii. 
5, and the exx. collected by Winer, 
Or. § 55. 2, p. 423 sq., Gayler, de 
Part. Neg. ch. v. p. 99 sq. 

1 1. dKovo|icv "ydp ICT.X.] ^ For we 
hear that there are sonie walking, &a ;' 
ground for the reiteration of the Apo- 
stle's previous vapayytXla. In cases 
like the present the predicative parti- 
ciple is not merely equivalent to an 
infinitive mood, but is idiomatically 
used as marking the state or action as 
now in existence, and coming before 
the observation of the writer as such ; 
see Winer, Gr. § 45. 4, p. 308 sq.,— 
where there is a good collection of 
exx.; oomp. alto Sobmalfeld, Synt 



§ 217. 2, p. 437, and esp. the able 
tract of Weller {Bemerk, zum Gr. SytU, 
Meining. 1845), where the distinctions 
between the finite verb with 6ti, with 
the infin., and with the participle, are 
carefully stated, and illustrated by 
numerous examples. dTcLitrats] 

See notes on ver. 7. |iT)8iv Ip^at* 

dXXcL ircpicfiY.] ' doing no business^ but 
being busy-bodies,* 'nihil operantes, 
sed curiose agentes,' Vulg., Glarom., 



OWl 






|AQli{XO [et nihil quidquam ope- 

rantes nisi vana] Syr. ; more exact 
specification of the preceding ireptv. 
4v ifpXv dTdKTus by means of a forcible 
paronomasia which cannot but be 
weakened in translation; comp. [De- 
mosth.] Phil. IV. p. 150, i^ (Sp ipyd$)s 
Kal v€piepyd.^, and Quintil. Inst. Orat, 
VI. 3. 54, *■ non agere dixit, sed sata- 
gere.* The verb irtpiepy. is a dra^ 
\ey6/i. in the N.T., and serves to mark 
the dv6priToy vo\virpayfAO<r6yrjy (Theod. ), 
the ' pravam curiositatem et sedulita- 
tem * (Pelt), which marked the actionv 
of those to whom the Apostle referred ; 
contrast irpd<r<r€ty rd tdia in i Thess. iv. 
II, comp. V€pl€pyoi in i Tim. v. 13, and 
see the good notice of this verb in 
Suicer, Thesaur. s. v. Vol. 11. p. 670. 
1 2. Tots 8i TOioi>TOis] ' Now to all 
iuch,* the article with TOLovroi marking 
the whole class of persons that come 
under the same denomination, and 
have the same characteristics, as those 
previously mentioned ; so Gal. v. 21. 
Bee KrUger, Sprachl. % 50. 4. 6, Jelf, 
Or- % 453* P» t^Q^ Kuhner on Xen, 
Mem. I. 5. 2. 

K2 



132 



nP02 GEZSAAONIKEIS B. 



irapayyeWofxev Ka) irapaKokovfiev iv Hvpica 'Ij;(rou XjOi- 
xrT<S Iva jJLera tjcTV^ia^ epyaCpfievoi rov eavrcov aprov 



Kal irapaKaXov|LCv] * and exhort {them) j* 

.fVT i iVn 1 > v*^ n [et petimus ab 

iis] Syr., — roift roio&rovs (Schott), or 
more simply ajJroiJs (Liinem.), l)6ing 
here supplied zeugmatically, as it is 
called, to irapaKoK., which is only 
fomid with the accus. This 'irapdK\rj- 
ais is ^ Kvp, *l'ij<r. Xp. ; it is in Him 
that it has its proper force and effi- 
cacy; see notes on i Thess. iv. i, 
where vapaKaX^iv is enhanced by the 
same addition. The reading can hardly 
be thought doubtful : iu Kvp. *l7j<r. 
Xpiory is supported by AB(D'E^ iy 
K. 'I. XpiffToO) FGK^ ; 4 mss. ; Vulg., 
Goth., Copt., a.\.(Lachm., Tlsch. ed. 7). 
The reading of Rec. bib. tov Kvplov 
ilfjLWP *Ir}<Tou XpLffToO only rests on 
the authority of D^E^KLK* ; most 
mss. ; Chrys., Theod. al. {Tisch, ed. 2). 
C is deficient. 

Iitrd iJ<rvxCas] * with quietness;'* in 
opposition to the busy and meddle- 
some course of life followed by tie 
irepnraTOVPTes drdKruiS and wepiepya- 
^6pL€voi; see 1 Thess. iv. 11. The pre- 
position fierb. serves to point not to 
the * causa instrumentalis ' (Kypke, 
Obs. Vol. I. p. 143), but to the conco- 
mitant of their working, — that which 
was associated with it, and character- 
ized their * modus operandi ;' comp. 
Winer, 6^r. § 47. h, p. 337. On the 
derivation of "fjavxia and its probable 
distinction from the less common ijpe- 
fila, see notes on 1 Tim. ii. 2. 
rbv kavT&v aprov] * their own bread* 
— 'their own' {rbv i^ olKfiuv irbviaVf 
Chrys.), not without emphasis ; they 
were not to seek it at the hands of 
others (comp. ver. 8), they were not 
'alienft vivere quadrA,' Juven. Sat. 



V. 2. The sentiment is well illus- 
trated by Schoettg. and Wetst. in loc. 
from the Rabbinical writings, out of 
which the following deserves citation ; 
* quo tempore homo panem proprium 
edit, animo composite ac sedato est; 
si vero panem parentum aut li hero- 
rum comedit, non animo tarn sedato 
est, ne dicam de pane peregrine,' 
Aboth R. Nathan, cap. 30. 

13. vfLcts 8i, d8cX<|>oC] * Bvi ye, bre- 
thren ;* renewal of his address to those 
who were * recte animati* (Schott), 
and lived orderly after the example 
which he had set them. Such the 
Apostle urges to pursue their course, 
and not from faintness to fall into idle, 
and eventually meddlesome and un- 
quiet habits, like those he had just 
been condemning. |itj IvKaic 

KoXoir.] * lose not heart in well doing.* 
The exact meaning of KaXotroieiv has 
been somewhat diflPerently estimated. 
Several modem writers, following the 
hint, though not the exact interpr. 
{/x^ fi^p 7r€pd5rjT€ \ifJL(fi SiatpOapivras) 
of Chrys., Theoph., assign to the verb 
the idea of * conferring benefits ;* the 
connexion between this and the pre- 
ceding verse arising from the gentle 
contrast between the duty of living by 
their own labour, and the still further 
duty of conferring benefits on others ; 
see Calv. in loc. As this meaning how- 
ever seems to be lexically doubtful, 
see Lev. v. 4 (Cod. Coisl., where /caXoir. 
stands in antithesis to KaKoiroLrjaai), 
and as the more generic * recte agere * 

X 7 7 - 

(comp. Syr. i i <^ mJ ,nSVnN) 

is perfectly in harmony with the con- 
text, it seems best here, as in the very 
similar passage Gal. vi. 9, to give 



III. 13, 14, 



133 



ovure^. €1 Si T19 ov^ viraKOvei tw Xoyo) ^jjloov Sia t?9 14 
€7ricrToX5?> TOVTOv arfi/MeiovarOe koI jiirj crvvavaixlyvvaQe 



Ka\hv its leas restricted meaning. The 
exact definition of this KoKbv lies in 
the specifications of the context. 
On the form ivKaKuv \^Lachm.y Tisch. 
withABD^K] and the somewhat doubt- 
ful kKKaKuif [^Recl, see the remarks 
and distinctions in notes on Gal. l,c, 

14. T(p X6y(|> t)|i«»v K.T.X.J ^ov.r 
word conveyed by the episUe ;* 

[sermonibus nostris istis qui sunt in 
epistol&j. It is doubtful whether 5td 
T^s iirtjToXiji is to be joined (a) with 
the following verb (rrifiiiovade, or (6) 
with the preceding subst. t<^ X^yy, 
scil. ry Sid rrjs iirtaToXijs diroaraXivTi, 
(Ecum. The former is adopted by 
-^th. (Pol.), Beng., Pelt, Winer (Gr, 
§ 18. 9. note 3, p. 108), and others, 
either {a^) in the simple sense, * notate 
in epistolA./ ^th., scil. 'in epistoI& 
ad nie scripts ilium suis notis depin- 
gite,' Grot., — r^s iwKTToXrjs referring 
to the letter which St Paul would in 
that case receive from the Thess. (see 
Winer) ; or {03) in the more artificial 
sense, ^hdc epistol^ f re ti sever iuu trac- 
tate,* Pelt (comp. Beng.), — rrjs ^irt- 
(TToXiji in that case referring to the 
present epistle. Of these last men- 
tioned (a^) seems clearly forced and 
improbable, while (a^), though some- 
what more plausible, lies open to the 
contextual objection that the present 
order of words would tend to throw 
an emphasis on dii. t^s iwiaT. which 
cannot be accounted for, and further 
to the still graver exegetical objection 
that a letter would seem uncalled for 
after the precept in ver. 6, where the 
course to be pursued by the Thessalo- 
nians is already stated. We retain 
then (6) with Syr., not improbably 
Vulg., Copt., Goth, [the exact order 



of the Greek is preserved], Chryg. 
(appy.), Theoph., (Ecum., and most 
modem expositors. The objec- 

tion founded on the omission of the 
art. T(fi after ijjxQv is not of weight, as 
5tA TTjs imcT. is so associated with nf 
Xdyif) iifi. aa to form with it only a 
single idea; see exx. in Winer, Or, 
§ 20. 2, p. 123. It may be observed 
that this is one of those cases in which 
the use of the art. in the N. T. seems 
slightly to differ from that in the best 
Attic Greek. While in the latter the 
article is rarely omitted, except after 
verbal substantives (KrUger, SpraM, 
§ 50. 9. 9), or where the structural 
connexion of the prepositional member 
with what precedes is palpably close, 
this omission of the art. in the N. T. 
is so far from unusual, that its inser- 
tion usually implies some degree of 
emphasis ; see Fritz. Rom. iii. 25, 
Vol. I. p. 195 (note). 
(n)|icu>v(r6c] '7narl*,'— scil. by avoid- 
ing his company (conip. ver. 6), as 
more fully specified in the words 
which follow. So paraphrastically Syr. 

^nn\ > ^. g\Ai [separetur a vobis], 

comp. -^th. -Piatt. The verb arjfAeioO- 
<r0aL is a dr. Xeyd/i. in the N. T. : it 
properly implies in the active * signo 
distinguere ' (Schott), e.g. iiriaroXiLt 
(Tippayidi, Dion. Hal. Antiq. iv. 57, 
and thence in the middle ' sibi notare 
aliquid' (Polyb. Hist. xxii. 11. 12), — 
more correctly, according to the Atti* 
cists, dvoffTifiaLptadai (Thomas-Mag. 
p. 79i,.Herodian, p. 420, ed. Koch), 
or as here, with a more intensive 
force, *notA (censori&) notare;* the. 
middle haying what has been termed its 
' dynamic' character, Krilger, Sprackl, 
§ 52. 8. 4. For a large list of verbs 
of this class, see Schmalfeld, Syni, 



134 



nP02 GESSAAONIKEIS B. 



15 avTipf iva ivrpair^. koi fxr} wy i-xOpov ^yeiarOe^ a\Xa 

16 vovOereire dg aS€\<f>6v» avrog Se 6 JS^vpiog t?? eipi^vrig 
S(pfj vfxiv TtjP elprivriv Sia TravTog iv Traurl rpoira), 6 
J^vpiog fiera irdvTwv vfiZv. 



§ 35> P* 44 ^^'t A^^ compare notes on 
Col. iv. I, 

|ii^ a^^va.vaJ^lywv9t\ ' keep tw company 
fffith / present, pointing to the course 
they were to follow. The double com- 
pound awayafilyv, (Athen. Deipn. vi. 
68, p. 256 a) is used in a sense little 
differing from the simpler and more 
usual (Tv/ifxlyy., and probably only in 
accordance with the noticeable ten- 
dency of later Greek to accumulate 
prepositions in composition. The read- 
ing is doubtful; Lachm. omits xal 
with ABD3E«; 17; Clarom., San- 
germ., Goth., Copt. ; Chrys. ; Tert., 
aL, — and reads ffwavafilywcOai in 
which he is supported as to the termi- 
nation by ABD^EFGK ; on this last 
reading it is impossible to pronounce 
from the Manuscript evidence, on ac- 
count of the constant interchange of e 
and oi by itacism. Of the Versions 
Clarom., Sangerm.,Copt., Goth., sup- 
port the infinitive^ Vulg., Syr., Au- 
giens., the imperative, 
tva Ivrpairg] * that Tie he shamed,* * ut 
confnndatur,' Vulg.; passive, — not 
with a middle sense, ^ad se ipsum 
quasi red ire,* Pelt (comp. Grot., *ut 
pudore tactus ad mentem meliorem 
redeat'), — a meaning for which there 
seem^ no sufficient reason either here 
or in Tit. ii. 8 (where see notes). The 
active occurs in i Cur. iv. 14. 

15. Kal does not stand 'here in- 
stead of dWd * (Jowett ; comp. De W., 
' aber '), — a most precarious statement, 
— but, with its usual and proper 
force, subjoins to the previous exhor- 
tation a fui-ther one that was fully 
compatible with it, and in fact tended 
to show the real principle on which 



the command was given : it was not 
pimitive, but corrective. 
«»S Ix^P^^] '^ ^'^ enemy, ^ 'in the 
light of an enemy ;' the Cjs being used 
(here almost pleonastically, comp. ^^ 
\ov ydp (Tc Tiyovfxai, Plato, Gorff, p. 
473 a) to mark the aspect in which he 
was not to be regarded ; comp. notes 
on ch. ii. 2, and on Col, iii. 23.- 
On povdereiyf see notes and reflFl on 
I Thess. V. 12. 

16. avT^ Si ICT.X.] 'But may the 
Lord of peace Himself;^ the 5^ (as in 
I Thess. V. 23) putting in slight anti* 
thesis the prayer with the foregoing 
exhortation, and the airrbi enhancing 
the dignity of the subject ; comp. notes 
on ch. ii. 16, where however the anti- 
thesis is somewhat more distinctly 
marked. On the meaning of the word 
dp-fivTif not merely 'concord' ((jSare 
/ir}da/jU>B€v ix^w <f>i\ov€tKlai dtpopfii/iu, 
Chrys.), but peace in its widest and 
Christian sense, — the deep tranquillity 
of a soul resting on God, see notes on 
Phil, iv. 7, and on the nature of the 
gen., see notes on i Thess. v. 23, — 
but observe that Kt^/ocos can more 
readily be associated with the gen. as 
being allied to verbs that regularly 
govern that case; comp. KrtLger, 
Sprachl. § 47. 26. 8. 
8ia vavr6s K.T.X.] 'continually in 
every manner,^ — at all times (Matth. 
xviii. 10, Acts ii. 25, Rom. xi. 10, 
al., comp. Ast, Lex. Platon. Vol. m. 
p. 63) and in every possible mode 
of manifestation, 'in omnibus qu8& 
facitis,' ^th.-PoL ; dSart wpbt airrhp 
elprjvej^euf xal irpbs dXXi^Xovt xal t^s 
tGjv ipam-itav iiripovX^s dTtiWdx^at, 
Theod. The second mode however 



III. 15, 16, 17. 



135 



Antograph salutaUon 
and benediction. 



(J aanraariuLo^ tj; c/ij; X^*/^' lloi/- 17 
Xov, o ia-Tiv arrifjLeiov iv iracrij iiriarToX^* ovrm ypdcjxo' 



enters but slightly into the contem- 
plation of the Apostle, as there is 
nothing in the Ep. to make us think 
that rb €lpvi¥€^€ip irpbs dW'/fXovs had 
been seriously endangered or violated. 
The reading iv vturrl r6ir^, adopted 
by Lachm, with A^D^FG ; 2 mss. ; 
Vulg., Clarom., Goth. ; Chrys. [see the 
note of Montfaucon], seems to have 
been suggested by the not uncommon 
occurrence of the formula (i Cor. i. 
a, 2 Cor. ii. 14, i Tim. ii. 8), and 
perhaps partially by the foregoing allu- 
sion to time. The reading of the text 
is supported by A«BDS EKLK ; nearly 
all mss. ; Syr. (both), Copt., al. ; 
Tlieod., Dam., and seems in every 
way more suitable to the context. 

17. 'Odo^a<r|L6sK.T.X.] 'The salu- 
tation by the hand of me Paul ;'* 
comp. I Cor. xvi. -21, and Col. iv. 18. 
On the quasi-appnsitional genitive 
liadXov, see exx. in Jelf, Gr. § 467. 4. 
These words appy. form tbe com- 
mencement of the autograph saluta- 
tion with which the Apostle attests 
the genuineness and authenticity of 
the Epistle (comp. notes on Qal, vi. 
11), the two verses having appy. both 
been written by the Apostle, — not 
merely ver. 18 {rb 'H x«^P« /cr.X. 
iLvrl rod i/ij^Qadal <re ypd<p€uf eltbOei, 
Tbeod., al.), which, as Lttnem. rightly 
observes, could hardly be termed a 
direct &aira<rfi6s. 

8] * which thing;* not meaning, by at- 
traction (see exx. in Winer, Or, % 2^ 
3, p. 150) to the following ojifitio^, 
'which greeting,' but more simply 
and naturally referring to the preced- 
ing words, and to the general fact of 
their being written r^ iixj x^ipl Ilai^Xov. 
These autograph lines formed a (rriiieTop 
that the £p. was not Cn ii a^oO (ch« 



ii. 3), but was truly and genuinely hia 
own inspired composition. 
4v irdoTi lifiOToX'g] * in every epistle ;' 
appy. with reference to every future 
Epistle (r-g irpbi oUffriyai Sijirore, 
Theoph. 2) which the Apostle might 
hereafter deem it necessary so to au- 
thenticate, —not merely those he might 
have contemplated writing to Thesaa- 
lonica (Theoph. i, LUncm.) ; for con- 
sider T Cor. xvi. 21, and Col. iv. 18. 
If it be urged that these last men- 
tioned are the only Epp. in which the 
autograph attestation seems to have 
found a place, it may be reasonably 
answered that the irdajj must be un- 
derstood relatively of every Epistle 
that was sent in such a way or under 
such circumstances as to have needed 
it. All the other Epp. (except i Cor., 
Col., which have the (rrffieloVf and 
I Thess., which was sent before cir- 
cumstances proved it to be necessary) 
are fairly shown both by De Wette 
and by Alf. in loc. to have either been 
delivered by emissaries (2 Cor., PhiL), 
to bear such marks (Gal. vi. 1 1, and 
perhaps the doxology in Rom., Eph.), 
or to be of such a general character 
(Hom. 1 Eph. 1 and those to indi- 
viduals), as to have rendered a formal 
attestation unnecessary. 
o<fr«»s Tpd^] '80 / write i sell, in 
such characters as ver. 17 and 18 
appeared to be written with. The sup- 
positions that the Apostle here in- 
serted some words (T6*AtfTr(i^o/iot ^/tdf, 
ij rb "E/i^ffdej if rt TotoOror, (Ecum.), 
or adopted a monogram ('conjunctis 
scilicet apte Uteris n et A,* according 
to Zeltner, de Monogr, Paidi, Altorf, 
1721; see contra, Wolf tn loc,), or 
lastly ' singulari et inimitabili pioturft 
et duotu literanim expreniist illud 



136 



nP02 eE22AA0NIKEI2 B. 



vjulZv. PA/xjJi/.J 

18. PA/Ai}i'] This is omitted by Tisch, (marked by Grie^, witho®) with 
BK^; 17. 44. 67**. n6; Fuld., Harl., Tol. ; Ambrst.,— but retained hy Rec. 
and Lachm. As it may not improbably be a liturgical interpolation it is tho 
safest course to insert it in brackets. See notes on Tit, iii. 15. 



Oratia, &o,* (Beng.), — seem all far too 
artificial to deserve serious considera- 
tion. The oiIt(i>s simply and naturally 
points to the visible and recognisable 
difference between the handwriting of 
the transcriber and of the Apostle. 

18. i{ X^'^P^ ICT.X.] The same form 
of benediction as at the end of i Thess. 
(where see notes), except that the in- 
dusive and significant vi^tav is here 



added, — *all,' — even those who had 
deserved and received the Apostle's 
censure (comp. /LtcrA irdan-tav, ver. 16) 
were to share in his benediction and 
farewell prayer ; see Pelt in loc, who 
however joins with it the less probable 
supposition, 'ne rixsB [none of which 
appear to have existed] disceptationes- 
que Thessalonicenses turbarent.' 



TRANSLATION. 



NOTICE. 



rpHE following translation has been revised in accordance with 
-*■ the principles laid down in former portions of this work. 
Experience seems satisfactoiily to show that change is undesirable 
except where our Authorised Version is incorrect, inexact^ insuffir 
dent, obscure (Pref to GcUatiana, p. xxv), or inconsistent with itself 
in renderings of the less usual words or forms of expression (Notice 
to TransL 0/ Pastoral Epistles), The last form of correction is pei^ 
haps the most difficult to adjust, as our Translators expressly state 
that they have not been careful to preserve throughout their 
work a studied uniformity of translation, and consequently any 
attempt to do this regularly would reverse the principles on which 
they acted, and tend to produce what they avoided — dulness and 
monotony. Still in the same Epistle, and especially in the same 
context, it is so obviously desirable to be consistent, that here at 
least' changes will have to be introduced. It must however 
always rest with individual judgment whether the word or ex- 
pression in question is of such a character as to demand uniformity, 
or whether it is best left to take its hue from the context. That 
I have always been judicious in my decisions is more than I dare 
hope, but still I have striven to make them with a clear recognition 
of the general principles that characterize the noble Yeraion which 
I am presuming to revise. 

That these points may be more fully considered, and that my 
opinion, where seemingly capricious or precipitate, may be more 
completely tested, I have made a few additions to the notes in the 
shape of reasons for the changes adopted, and I have further 



140 NOTICE. 

Bought to add to the common stock of principles of revision a 
brief record of my own experiences and my own many difficulties. 
Sincerely and earnestly do I trust that the revision of our Autho- 
rised Version may be undertaken in its own good time, and that 
that time is not indefinitely remote, still year after year T am made 
more sensibly to feel that this can only be done by a frank and 
modest avowal, on the part of every one who has gained any expe- 
rience, of the real difficulties that attend on the work, — difficulties 
far more numerous than the inexact and often presumptuous criti- 
cism of the day is at all aware of. 

I have carefully considered the Revised Translation of these 
Epistles published by the American Bible Union (Trubner, Lon- 
don, 1856), and have in a few cases profited by its suggestions, 
still I cannot but feel that this laborious work is at present very 
far from what we may imagine to be the model of a national 
Revision. 

It may be as well to notice here that the translation of Wiclif 
is quoted from the New Testament published by Pickering in 
1848; that Coverdale*s Testament of 1538 is cited from the Paris 
edition; that the edition of Cranmer employed is that of Apiil 
1540 j that the Genevan Version is given from the first edition 
1560; and that the citations from the Bishops* Bible are made 
from the first edition 1568. For the remaining Versions, of 
Tyndale and Coverdale, the Rhemish and the Authorised, I 
have used Bagster's reprints. 



THE 



FIRST EPISTLE TO THE THESSALONIANS. 



PAUL and Silvanus and Timothy to the church of the I. 
Thessalonians in God the Father and the Lord Je- 
sus Christ. Grace be to you and peace. 

We give tlianks to God always for you all, making 2 
mention of you in our prayers; remembering without 3 
ceasing your work of faith, and toil of love, and patience 
of hope in our Lord Jesus Christ, in the presence of God 
and our Father: knowing, brethren beloved of God, your 4 
election ; because our Gospel came not unto you in word 5 



I. Timothy] So WiCL., Cran., 
Rhem. : Timotheus, Auth. and re- 
maining Vv. See notes on Col, i. i 
(Tranal.). In God] So all 

Vv. except Auth., Gkn., which is 
in Godf—axi unnecessary and inexact 
addition, not adopted by Auth. in 
the parallel passage 2 Thess. i. i. 
A nd the Lord] So WiOL., Gov. Test., 
Khem. {our L.): and in the Lord, 
Auth. and remaining Vv. The addi- 
tion of *in' seems unnecessary, and is 
best reserved for those cases where it 
is expressed in the Greek, or where, 
as in I Tim. vi. 9 (see notes), there 
are contextual reasons for its introduc- 
tion. The mistakes caused by such 
insertions are well noticed by Blunt, 
Parish, Priest^ p. 56. And 

peace] AuTH. adds *from God our 
Father^ and the Lord Jesus Christ. 

3. Toil] Similarly WicL., traueyl: 



labour^ Auth. and the remaining Vv. 
except Gen., diligent loue. Though 'la- 
bour of love' has from the alliteration 
become familiar to the ear, it seems de- 
sirable here to maintain the more strict 
translation of Kdiroi : see notes in loc. 
In the presence of] So Auth. in ch. 
ii. 19: in the sight 0/, Auth. and the 
other Vv. except WiCL., Gov. (both), 
Ehem., before. It is of little moment 
which of these translations is adopted ; 
but as the expression (/nTp, rov Qeov 
is only used by St Paul in this Epi- 
stle, it should be similarly translated 
throughout. 

4. Beloved of God, your el.] So 
Auth. Marg., Gov. Test., Rhem., and 
(giving how that ye are electe) Ttnd., 
Gov., Gran.: beloved^ your election of 
God, Auth., Bish., and sim. Gkn. 
(thai ye are elect of God). 

5. Because] For, Auth. and all 



142 



I THESSALONIANS. 



only, but also in power and in the Holy Ghost and in 
much assurance ; even as ye know what manner of men 

6 we became among you for your sake. And ye became 
followers of us and of the Lord, having received the word 

7 in much affliction with joy of the Holy Ghost; so that ye 
became an ensample to all that believe in Macedonia and 

8 in Achaia. For from you hath sounded forth the word 
of the Lord not only in Macedonia and Achaia, but in 
every place your faith to God-ward is gone forth; so that 

9 we need not to speak anything. For they themselves 
report of us what manner of entering in we had unto 
you, and how ye turned unto God from idols to serve the 

lo living and true God; and to wait for His Son from hea- 
ven, whom He raised from the dead, even Jesus who de- 
livereth us from the coming wrath. 



Vv. except Rhem., that. Even eui] 

As, AuTH. and all Vv. It is almost 
impossible to lay down any exact rule 
for the translation of xaOibs. Whether 
the lighter * as,* or the more expres- 
sive and perhaps more literal * even 
as * or ^ according as ' is to be adopted, 
must appy. be left wholly to the con- 
text and to individual judgment. 
Became] Behaued oure selves, Tynd., 
Cran. ; luiue ben. Gov. Test., Khbm. ; 
were^ Adth. and remaining Vv. 

6. Followers] So Auth. and all 
Vv. Though * imitators' would be 
more exact, it is hardly necessary to 
displace the present idiomatic and 
perfectly intelligible translation. 

7. Became an ensample] Sim., are 
become an ens.. Gov. Test. : were *en- 
sampleSf Auth.; were an ensample, 
Tynd., Gov., Gran., Bish. 

And in Achaia] And * Achaia, Auth. 

8. Hath sounded forth] Sounded 
out, Auth., Tynd., Gran., Gkn., 
Bish. The perfect ought always to 
be observed in translation. Though 
idiom may occasionally require the 



aorist to be translated with the usual 
sign of the perfect, the converse is 
extremely rare ; corop. 1 Cor. L 9. 
But] But *alsOf Auth. 
Is gone forth] Sim. Gov. Test. (t» 
gone out): is spread abroad, AuTH., 
Gov., Bish.; spred her silfe ahroade, 
Tynd., Gran. ; is preceded, Rhem. 

9. Report] So Rhem. : shew, Auth. 
and remaining Vv. Tumed\ 
Returned, Auth. ed. 161 1, as given in 
the English Hexapla. 

10. From heaven] So Auth. and 
all Vv. except WiOL., fro heuenes. 
Many modern Vv. preserve both the 
article and the plural, but with the 
familiar usage of the word in the 
N.T. {e.g. Matth. vi. 9) before us it 
seems in general passages like the 
present both harsh and unnecessary 
to be thus literally precise. Who] 
So Rhem. : which, Auth. 
Ddivereth] So Tynd., Gran., Gen., 
Bish. : delivered, Auth.,Wiol.; haih 
ddyuered, Gov, (both), Rhem. 
Coming wrath] Wrath to come, Auth« 
and all Vv. (tr. to comynge^ WiOL.). 



Chap. I. 6— II. 3. 



143 



For yourselves know, brethren, our entering in unto II. 
you that it hath not been vain: but after that we had suf- 2 
fered before, and had been shamefully entreated, as ye 
know, at Philippi, we were bold of speech in our God, so 
as to speak unto you the Gospel of God in much conflict. 
For our exhortation is not of error, nor yet of unclean- 3 



Chapter II. i. Know, brethren] So, 
in the eame order, Ttnd., Gen., 
Rhem.: brethreiif know, Auth., Gov., 
Gran., Bish. There seems here no 
cause for departing from the order of 
the original. Entering] 

Entrance, Auth. There is no reason 
why the rendering adopted in ch. i. 9 
should not be retained. 
Hath not been] Was not, Auth. and 
allVv. Fain] So WiOL., 

Bhbm. : in vain, Auth. and remaining 
Yv. 

2. But after] But *even after, 
Auth. Had been shamefully 

entr.] Were shamefully entr., Auth., 
Tynd., Gran., Gen., Bish. The 
other Vv. vary the translation of the 
participle ; Gov. gives, but as we had 
svffred afore^ <fc were, &c.: Gov. Test., 
but we svffred... and were.. .and were 
boldened : and Rhem., but hauing suf- 
fered before and been abused, &c. If the 
view taken in the notes be correct, it 
seems best to regard both participles 
as ttmporal, and to express them both 
by the idiomatic resolution into the 
English pluperfect. On the transla- 
tion of the aorist part, when associated 
with the finite verb, see notes on Phil, 
ii. 30 {TransL), Were bold of 

speech] Were bold, Auth. and the 
other Vv. except WiCL,, hadde triste; 
Gov. Test., were boldened; and Bhbm., 
had confidence : see notes in loc. 
So as to speak] To speak, Auth. and 
all Vv. {for to sp., Wicl.). The intro- 
duction of * so as * seems necessary to 
exhibit the explanatory nature of the 
infinitive^ and to avoid tautology. 



In (3)] So WiOL., Gov. Test., Gran., 
Bish., Rhem. : *with, Auth., Ttnd., 
Gov., Gen. Conflict] So Auth. 

in Gol. ii. i, giving contention here. 
There is much variation in the trans- 
lation here : Bisynesse, WiCL. ; cait- 
fulnesse, Gov. Test., Bhem. (these 
three following the Vulg. sollidtu- 
dine) ; strivynge, Tynd., Gov., Gran., 
6bn., Bish. 

3. Is] Was, Auth. and all Vv. 
Error] So all Vv. except Auth., Gen., 
Bish. , deceit. Nor yet . . .nor] 

Nor yet... nether, Ttnd., Gov., Gran.; 
nor.., nor, Auth., Gov. Test., Gen. ; 
nether... nether, WicL., Bish.; not... 
nor, Bhem. There is some little diffi- 
culty In the choice of an appropriate 
rendering in the different cases of con- 
tinued negation. Perhaps the follow* 
ing distinctions of translation may be 
found generally satisfactory in appli- 
cation, (i) 'M.^...fjL7idi or od...o^i will 
commonly admit the translation (a) 
* not... neither,' when the two words 
or clauses to which the negation is 
prefixed are simply parallel and co- 
ordinate, e. g. Matth. vii. 6 ; {b) * not 
...nor,' when there is some sort of 
connexion in thought, or accordance 
in meaning, in the words or clauses 
wiih which the negatives are asso- 
ciated, e. g. ch. V. 5 ; (c) * not... nor yet,' 
where there is less accordance, and 
where the latter clause has some- 
what of a climactic character, e.g. 
Phil. ii. 16, and see notes to Transl, 
(a) M^.../ii79^.../ii79^, 'not... nor... nor' 
(John i. 13), where the terms are 
similar or non-asoenBive, or 'not* 



144 



I THESSALONIANS. 



ness, nor in guile: but according as we have been ap- 
proved of God to be put in trust with the Gospel, even so 
we speak; not as pleasing men, but God which proveth 
our hearts. For neither at any time used we speech of 
flattery, as ye know, nor a cloke of covetousness; God is 
witness : neither seeking glory of men, neither of you nor 
of others, though we might have used authority as Christ's 
apostles. But we were gentle in the midst of you, like as 
a nurse cherisheth her own children; so, being affec- 
tionately desirous of you, we had good will to impart to 



followed by * nor... nor yet,* as per- 
haps Col. ii. 21 (but see notes), or by 
* nor yet... nor,' as here, according as 
the dissimilarity or climactic force 
is mainly exhibited in the second or in 
the third term. (3) M^...An^Te...AtiJrc, 
'not.. .neither. ..nor;' where the first 
negation, so to say, bifurcates, and is 
expanded into two similar clauses in- 
troduced each by the adjunctive /iifp-e ; 
comp. AUTH. in i Tim. i. 7. In cases 
where there are three or more repeti- 
tions of M^c> our Authorised "Version 
appears to adopt in the main (3), re- 
peating 'neither' after 'nor;' comp. 
Matth. V. 34, Luke ix. 3. 

4. According as] As, Auth. and 
all Vv. It has been before ob- 
served that the introduction of * ac- 
cording' or 'even' must depend on 
the general hue of the passage : here 
it seems necessary. Jfave been] 
Were, Adth. Approved] So Ehem.; 
sim. prouede^ "Wiol.: allowed, Auth. 
and remaining Vv. Proveth] So 
Wiol., Rhem.: trieth^ Auth. and 
remaining Vv. "Wiol. and Khbm. are 
the only Vv. which preserve the paro- 
nomasia in dedoKiixdaixeda .»• SoKifid- 

I^OVTl. 

5. Speech of flattery] Somewhat 
similarly, worde of glosynge, Wiol. ; 
the word of adulation, Rhem. : 
flattering words, Auth. and remain- 
ing Vv. 



6. Neither aeehing] So Wiol., and 
(giving nor) Gov. Test., Rhem. : nor... 
sought we, Auth., and so the remaining 
Vv., except that they more correctly 
adopt neither at the commencement of 
the clauses. In some cases, especially in 
St Paul's Epp., it is almost impossible 
to give an idiomatic translation without 
converting the participle into a finite 
verb (comp. Rom. xii. 9 sq.) : here 
however there is no such necessity. 
Nor] So rightly Wiol. {nether\ Gov. 
(both). Gen., Rhem. : nor yet, Auth., 
Tynd., Cban., Bish. Thotigh] 
Vvhereas, Rhem.; wherif Auth. and 

remaining Vv, Save 

used authority] So Auth. Marg.: he 
charge to you, WiqIa. ; have hene charge- 
able, Ttnd., Gov. (both) [adding vnto 
you], Gen. ; haue bene % auctorite, 
Gban., Bish. ; haue been a burden to 
you, Rhem. ; have been burdensome, 
Auth. (Vulg. here adds vobis.) 
Christ'' s apostles] So Wiol. ; the ApO' 
sties of Christ, Auth. and remaining 
Vv. (Gov. Test, omits the). 

7. In the midst of] So WiCL. 
(mydil), Rhem.: among, Auth. and 
remaining Vv. Like as] 
So Gov. : even as, Auth. 

Her own] Her, Auth. and all Vv. 

8. We had good vnll to] Somewhat 
similarly, oure good will was to, Ttnd., 
Gran., Gen., Bish.; we...wold€ with 
good vryl, Gov.: we were willing to. 



Chap. II. 4—12. 



145 



you, not the Gospel of God only, but also our own souls, 
because ye became very dear to us. For ye remember, 9 
brethren, our toil and travail: working night and day, 
that we might not be burdensome to any of you, preached 
we unto you the Gospel of God. Ye are witnesses, and 10 
so 18 God, how holily and justly and unblameably we be- 
haved ourselves to you that believe; even as you know 1 1 
how in regard of every one of you we did so, as a father 
toward his own children, exhorting you and encouraging 
you, and testifying that ye should walk worthy of God 13 
who is calling you into His own kingdom and glory. 



AUTH. ; wis„.wolden, WiOL., Cov. 
Test, ; we would gladly f 'Reeh, Ej>- 
doKcTif occurs again in ch. iii. i, 
1 Thess. ii. 12, but it is not possible 
to preserve a uniform translation. 
Impart] So, as to the tense of the 
infin., WiCL. {bitake),'Rnmi,{ddiuer): 
have imparted, AoTfl.; have dealte, 
Ttnd. and the five remaining Vv. 
Became] Similarly WiOL., ben made; 
and Rhem., are become : were, Auth. 
and remaining Vv. Very dear] 

Similarly C!ov. Test, Rhbm., most 
deare; and WiCL., most derworth: 
dear, Auth. imd remaining Vt. 

9. ToU^ Labour, Auth. and the 
other Vv. except WiOL., traueyl 
(giving weryfiesse for fidx^ou). See 
notes on ch. i. 3 {Transl.). 
Working] So WiCL., EflEM.: *for la- 
bouring, Auth. It is well to translate 
ipyop, ipyi^ofiai, always by * work.* 
Thalt we wight not, &c.] Because we 
would not be chargeable unto, Auth., 
Ttnd. {greveous), Gov., Cran., Gen., 
Bibh. ; that we schulden not greue, 
WicL. ; leste we shnlde be chargeagle 
mto, Cov. Test ; lest we should charge, 
Rhem. 

Preached we] We preached, Auth. 
The inversion seems to give a slight 
force, and to keep in more immediate 
connexion the participle and its finite 
verb. 



10. So is God] So Ttnd,, Cov. 
(both), Cran.: God also, Auth., Gen,, 
B18H. ; God, WiOL., Rhem. To you] 
So WiCL., Rhem.: among you, Auth. 
and the other Vv. except Cov. Test., 
tvyth you, 

T I. Even as] As, Auth. and all Vv. 
How in regard of, &c.] How we ex- 
horted and comfcrrted, amd charged every 
one of you, (as a father doeth his chil- 
dren,), Auth.: Cran. alone preserves 
the correct construction, though with 
a somewhat free translation, how that 
we bare soch affeecyon vnto euery <me of 
you, cw a father doth vnto chyldren, 
exhoiiynge, confortyng, and besechyng 
you that, &c. This also seems the 
more correct position for the clause 
to>j irar^p k.t,\., except that it some- 
what interferes with the easy run of 
the sentence. Bis own] 

As above in ver. 7: his, Auth. and 
all Vv. except Cran., which omits 
the pronoun. Exhorting you] 

Auth. omits you here ; and does not 
supply it after the following word. 
Encouraging] Auth. and all Vv. use 
Uie word comfort for trapaKaKoGyres 
here: for the constr. of Auth. see 
above. Testifying] So Auth. for 

fiapTi^peadai in Gal. v. 3 j Eph. iv. 17; 
here it employs *charge, reading 
fiapTvpoiifiepoi. 

13. Should] So ^ WiOL.r woiUd^ 

h 



146 



I THESSALONIANS. 



13 For this cause we also thank God without ceasing, 
that when ye received from us the word of preaching that 
is of God, ye accepted not the word of men, but, as it is 
in truth, the word of God, which worketh also in you 

14 that believe. For ye, brethren, became followers of the 
churches of God which are in Judaea in Christ Jesus, in 
that ye also suffered the same things of your own country- 

Xf) men as they too did of the Jews, who killed both the 

Lord Jesus and the prophets, and drove us out, and please 

16 not God, and are contrary to all men, hindering us from 



AuTH. and remaining Vv. 
Is caUing] ffcUh called, AuTH. and 
the other Vv. except WiCL., clepide. 
Into] So WicL., Rhem. ; unto, Auth. 
and remaining Yv. MU oton] 

Mis, Auth. and all Vv. 
. 13. We also t/ianh] Also thanJi: wCf 
AuTH.y Gen.: as koI belongs to iifieis it 
is better to adopt the order of the text ; 
sim. Cov. Test., Rhem. That 

(before when)] So Gen.: hecatise, 
Auth., Bish. ; for, WicL. ; because 
that, Ttnd., Cov. (both), Cran., 
Rhem. From us the word of, 8cc.] 
Very similarly, of vs the worde of the 
preachinge of God, Cov. (both), Gen.: 
*A€ word of God, which ye heard of us, 
Auth. ; of vs the worde of the herynge 
of god, WiCL., Rhem. ; ofvs the worde 
wherwith God was preached, Ttnd. ; 
of vs y* worde {wherwith ye learned to 
know God), Cban. ; the worde which ye 
hearde of vs concemyng God, Bish. 
A ccepted] Received, Auth. and all other 
Vv. except WicL. {token, giving hadden 
take before). It is desirable to show 
by the translation that two words 
are used, irapaKa^bvTet ... id4^aa$€, 
Vulg. uses accipere in both cases. 
Not] It not as, Auth. and allVv., 
and so Vulg. Worketh] 

So all Vv. except Auth., Bish., 
effectually worketh. See also Auth. 
in James y« i6« The force of hf^p- 



yeiffOai, *ex se vim suam exercere,' 
cannot easily be expressed in English :' 
' to work ' seems hardly sufficient on 
the one hand ; * to work eflfectually '. 
somewhat too strong on the other. 
The most exact translation is perhaps 
' to evince (its) working,' but is not in 
harmony with the tone of our Autho* 
rised Version. 

14. Followers] See note on ch. i. 6 
(Transl.). Are in J.] So WlOL.,. 
Cov. Test., Rhem., following the Vulg.i 
in J. are, Auth. and remaining Vv. 
In thai] Similarly Gen., because: «o 
that, Cov. ; for, Auth. and remaining. 
Vv. ^ff&red] Have suffered, 
Auth. and all Vv. The same] So 
WioL., Gen., Rhem. : soch, Cov. Test; 
like, Auth. and remaining Vv. 

As they too did] Even as they have, 
Auth. 

15. KilUdboth] BothhUledfAvTU,, 
Gen., Bish., Rhem. The prophets'] 
* Their own Pr., AuTH. Drove 
us out] Haue chased vs out, Auth. 
Marg. ; pursuen vs, WiOL. ; haue 
persued vs, Cov. Test. ; have persecuted 
us, Auth. and 6 remaining Vv. 
Please not God] So Cov., Cov. Test. 
(do not pi), Rhem.: they please not 
God, Auth., Wiol. {tog.); God Ihey 
please not, Ttnd., Cban., Gen., Bish. 

J 6. Hindering] And hynder, Cban., 
Bish.; forbidding, Auth., Wjoii.^ 



€«AP. IL 13—17; 



147 



speaking to the Gentiles that they might be saved, — in 
order to fill up their sins alway. But the wrath is come 
upon them unto the very end. 

But we, brethren, having been torn from you for a 17 
short time, in face, not in heart, the more abundantly en- 



Cov. (both) ; <md forbid, Ttnd., Gbn. ; 
prohibitingy Rhbm. Though the tronsl. 
given by Acth. is the usual one of 
irciiXi^ci' and cannot be called incor- 
rect, yet that adopted in the text is 
here far more forcible. From 

apeahing] To speakf AuTH. ; lee pre- 
vious note. Jn order tofU up'\ 
To fill up, AuTH. But] For, Auth. 
and all Vv. {foraothe, WiOL.). Vulg. 
here gives enim for d4. 
h come\ So Auth. and all Vv. (Gov. 
adds allready) except WiOL., bifore 
came. This certainly seems one of 
those cases in which our English aorist 
does not convey the full force of the 
Greek, but remands the event too 
absolutely to the past While the 
Greek (<l>0our€ states the fact, but is 
simply silent as to ' quam late pateat 
id quod actum est' (see notes in loc), 
the English ' came' seems to express it, 
and also to imply distinctly that the 
eVent with all its issues plainly be- 
l6ngs to the past. Unto the very 
eHd] Til into the ende, WiCL. ; euen to 
the end, Bhem. ; both following the 
Vulg. : to the uttermost, Auth., Gov. 
{mto y vttemost), Gbn. (vtmoste), BisH. 
{vtm.)\ even to the vtmost, Tynd., 
Gran. ; vntyll the vttemost, Gov. Test. 
The translation adopted in the text 
perhaps more precisely renders ipOdvety 
eh riXos than the more qualitative and 
appy. adverbial Ho the uttermost;' 
see notes in loc, 

17. Having been torn from you] 
JBeing taken from you, Auth. ; desolate 
fro you, WiOL. ; for as moch...as we 
aVe kept from you, Ttnd., Gov. {haue 
bene), Gban.,Gjcn. {were),'Bisa.',beynge 



keptefrd you. Gov. Test. ; depiiued qf 
you, Rhem. It is almost impossible to 
represent in English without a para- 
phrase the highly expressive dirop<l>a- 
viadivres, which serves so forcibly to 
convey not only the separation and 
severance of the Apostle from his 
converts, but also his desolate and 
bereaved state while so separated. The 
present translation, adopted by Mur- 
doch {Transl. of Syr. N. T.), Peile, 
and others, seems to approach this 
meaning as nearly as any single word 
that has yet been suggested. 
Face] Presence, Auth. : Tpdauirov is 
translated face in the next clause. 
The more abundantly endeavoured] 
More ahoundaunllyhaue hiyede, WiCL,: 
end. the more abundantly, Auth. ; en- 
foi*sed the more, Tynd., Cban., Gen., 
BiSH. ; haue haisted the more. Gov. ; 
hasted more spedely, Gov. Test. ; haue 
hastened the more ahoundantly, Bhem. 
Though all the Vv. except WioL. put 
the adverb after and not before the 
verb, the latter order is perhaps to be 
preferred, as throwing the emphasis 
more distinctly on the 'more abun- 
dantly.' It may be observed that 
much caution must be used in adjust- 
ing the order of the words in English 
with regard to emphasis ; for while in 
Greek the emphatic word seems always 
to have the precedence, the attentive 
reader will often observe that the con- 
trary is the case in English. In the 
position of the verb and adverb how- 
ever the two languages seem to be 
mainly coincident. The discrepancy 
between the English and the Greek 
position of emphasis has been far too 

t2 



146 



I 'J 



^^»imnmM 



13 For this cause 
that when ye recoi 
is of God, ye acceji 
in truth, the wonl 

14 that believe. For } 
churches of God wh 
that ye also suffered 

15 men as they too di 
Lord Jesus and the p 

16 not God^ and are com 



AuTH. and remaining Vv. 
Is catlinff] JIath called, AUTH. . 
the other Vv. except WiCL., depidU 
Into] So WicL., Rhe>[. : unto, AuT. 
and remaining Yv, Mii ovfh 

J/w, AuTH. and all Vv. 

13. We also thanh] Alio ihank ire; 
ArTH., Gen.: as xal belongs to ^^citit 
18 better to adopt the order of the te^f 
aim. Cov. Teat., Rhim. ThtU 

(before vAfN^] So Geit.j hccans€^ 
AuTH., BisB. ; /oi% WicL. ; fiffttitwr 
that^ Ttnd., Cov. <botU), CsA^f.^ 
Rhut. From t« the v^rd o/, &c.J 

Very similarly, 0/ r* the Korde of th£ 
prtachingt of Oodf Cov. (both), Gbk.l 
the Kcrd of God, wkkh ye ktord of tifj 
AUTH. ; of I* tht wcrde of the htr^^e 
^fgodf WiCL., Ehem, ; ofrt Me irortfe 
mfkencitk Omi ikm pre^iclktd, Ttnd*; 
0/ r» j^ $Kprdt {vkfficiih ^ t^arnid $0 
ihiow (rod), Cran. ; tkewofdtm^ki^yt 
Aearde oftt conotnqfng 
Acttpled] Jk^ir^^A^ 
Vv. except Wicl. (loJli 
Idte before). It U d 
by tlie ttmsla^oi} « 

! nfttpert in 
Aor] It iot 0% A^f 
Mid ao Viilg4 
80 aU IV. cxG^ 



•*• *--- lf»- -jz:. 







It i 



In J« 




aij 



Chap. II. i8— III. 7. 



149 



afflictions: for yourselves know that wo are appointed 
thereunto. For verily, when we were with you, we told 4 
you before that we were to be afflicted; as also it came 
to pass, and ye know. For this cause, when I too could 5 
no longer forbear, I sent with a view of knowing your 
faith, lest haply the tempter have tempted you, and our 
toil should prove in vain. 

But now when Timothy came unto us from you, and 6 
brought us the good tidings of your faith and love, and 
that ye have good remembrance of us always, longing 
ro sea us, as we al&o to see you, — for this cause were we 7 



r Bt] So WiOL., Hhem.: should 

VrrTH. awd remaining Y v. 

jn^ied] M^i^t Acta, aiid all Vv. 

K^ word ie peculiar and a drc^ 

>rvoy^ it U better to give it a dis- 

diing tratuilation. In] So 

. Lixi^pt ACTE., hif; and GSN., 

Wire toheapkted] Shoidd suffer 
>, AOTH. and all Vv, WlCL^ 
, GbK., Rhkm., however give 

<, C'ov. Te«t. (puttibg alao 

H, RHjar.; an d; WiCL.: 

' 1 r . and reraalning Vv. 

Sim., / at»Qf Bmoc.: 

! imiaming Vv, except 

nvm dL I potd) omit to 

With <t mew of 

#1/, AtJTH., WroL. {fvr 

?^E^B,, Rheh.; jf I 

thai 1 m^(jfU have 

i"' v., Cba». 

(both); and 
^wu ; perkap§^ 

r,, Gbav., 
iicaofe or 

T m^ mora 




nearly to the present use of the Greek 
aorist than the pluperfect, and per- 
haps, owing to the peculiar form of 
the expression in the original, may be 
considered as adniissiblo in point of 
English. ToU] Labour, AuTH. 

See notes on ch. i. 3 {Traml.), 
Should prove] Be, AuTii.; be nuide, 
WiCL., Ck>v. Test, Khem. ; /lad bene 
bestowed, Ttnd., Cban. ; had bene^ 
Gov., Gen., Bish. 

6. Timothy] Timotheus, Auth.: see 
notes on CoL i. i (Transl,). Unto 
US from you] So Wicl. (to), Gov. Test., 
Rhem. : from you unto us, Auth. and 
remaining Vv.,— a departure from the 
order in the Greek for which there 
does not here seem any satinfactory 
reason. The good tidinfjs] Good t., 
Auth. Zore] So Tynd., Gov., 
Cban., Gen., Bish. : charity, Auth., 
Wicl., Gov. Test., Rhex. On this 
corroction see notes on i Tim, i. 5 
{Transl), Lomjintj] Desiring 
greatly, Auth.; desirynge, Wicl. and 
remaining Vv. : the M in iwiwo0ev is 
not intensive; see notes. Gov. gives, 
desyringe to m vsas we also longe to 

HjfOU, 

7. For this cause] Therefore, Auth. 
and all Vv. Were we] We were, 
Auth. The transposition seems to 
kisep the aentenoe a little dofer toge- 



148 



THESSALONIANS. 



i8 deavoured to see your face with great desire. On which 
account we would fain have come unto you, even I Paul, 

19 both once and again, — and Satan hindered us. For what 
is our hope or joy or crown of boasting? Or is it not 
also you in the presence of our Lord Jesus at His coming? 

20 Verily ye are our glory and joy. 

III. Wherefore when we could no longer forbear, we 

2 thought it good to be left behind at Athens alone; and 
sent Timothy, our brother and fellow-worker with God in 
the Gospel of Christ, to establish you, and to exhort you 

3 in behalf of your faith that no man be disquieted in these 



much neglected by modem revisers, 
many of whom seem to think that in 
all cases the most complete faith- 
fulness is attained by rigidly following 
the order of the original ; see for ex- 
ample the canons laid down by Wade, 
Notes on the JlevUed Transl, of St John, 
p. iv. 

18. On which account] • Wherefore, 
AUTH. Would fain] 
Would, AuTH. and aU Vv. Few words 
cause more difficulty to the translator 
of the N. T. than the verb 0i\<a: 
* wish* is commonly much too weak, 
'desire* not always exact, and 'will' 
and 'would' often liable to be mis- 
taken for mere auxiliaries. In many 
cases the Translators of our Version 
appear to have avsdled themselves of 
the past tense ' would * as a very suit- 
able and idiomatic translation of the 
present Oikta; comp. Bom. vii. 15 sq. 
Here however it is open to the mis- 
conception above alluded to. 

Both <mce\ Once, Auth. And (2)] 

But, Auth. and all Vv. 

19. Boasting] Jt^oicing, AUTH. and 
the other Vv. except WiCL. , Gov. Test., 
Khem., glorie (glorice, Vulg.). 

Or is it not also you] Whether yee hen 
not, WiCL.: are not even ye, Auth.; 
are not eui you it. Gen. : are n^t ye it, 
Ttnd., Gov. (both), Crah., Bish.; 
are not you, Bhek. It will thus be' 



seen that WiCL. alone offers any 
equivalent to tj oirxt {nonne, Vulg.), 
and thaticaZ is preserved only by Auth., 
Gen* It is frequently difficult to de- 
cide whether in interrogations intro- 
duced by rj 0^1 the ^ is to be regarded 
as only giving a greater vividness and 
abruptness to the question, almost 
'Whatl are not, <kc.,' or as really 
retaining its proper disjunctive force. 
In the present case, and in more per- 
haps than are usually so regarded, 
the latter seems the more correct 
view. Lord Jesus] Lord Jesus 

^Christ, Auth. 

20. Verily] Similarly, yes, Tynd., 
Coy., Gran., Gen., Bi&r, ; forsothe, 
Wich,; for, Auth., Gov. Test, Ehem. 

Ghafteb III. I. Thought it good] 
On the transl. of c^oKuy, see note on 
oh. ii. 8 {Transl). Be left 

behind] Be left, Auth. ; dwelk, Wicl. ; 
remayne, Ttnd. and mx remaining 
Vv. 

«. Timothy] Timotheus, Auth. : 
see notes on Col, i. i (Transl,), 
And feUow-fPorher with Ood] And 
^minister of God, and our fellow- 
labourer, Auth. Exhort] So 

Gov. Test., Hhem. {ad,..exhortando8, 
Vulg.): comfort, Auth., Ttnd., Gov., 
Gran., Gen., Bish. 
In behalf of] * Concerning, Auth, 



Chap. II. i8— III. 7. 



149 



afflictions: for yourselves know that we are appointed 
thereunto. For verily, when we were with you, we told 4 
you before that we were to be afflicted; as also it came 
to pass, and ye know. For this cause, when I too could 5 
no longer forbear, I sent with a view of knowing your 
faith, lest haply the tempter have tempted you, and our 
toil should prove in vain. 

But now when Timothy came unto us from you, and 6 
brought us the good tidings of your faith and love, and 
that ye have good remembrance of us always, longing 
to see us, as we also to see you, — for this cause were we 7 



3. £e\ So WiCL., Rhbm.: should 
hCy AuTH. and remaining Vv. 
JHsguieied] Moved, Adth. and all Vv. 
As the word is peculiar and a drc^ 
\€y6pL€voiff it is better to give it a dis- 
tinguishing translation. In] So 
all Vv. except Auth., hy; and Gkn., 
with. 

4. Were to he afflicted] Should suffer 
tribulatUm, Adth. and all Vv. WicL., 
Gov. Test., Gkn., Ehem., however give 
tribulacohs (vs tosuffre <., WiOL.). 

As also] So Gov. Test, (puttihg also 
after passe), Rhem. ; as &, WiCL. : 
even as, Auth. and remaining Vv. 

5. / too] Sim., / also, Rhem.: 
Auth. qnd remaining Vv. except 
WicL. (which gives <fe / poul) omit to 
translate xai With a view of 
knowing] To know, Auth., Wiol. {for 
to). Gov. Test., BiSH., Rhem. ; / / 
mighukn. of, Gen.; that Imyght have 
knawUdge of Ttnd., Gov., Gran. 
Ifaply] So Tynd., Gov. (both); and 
sim., parauenture, WiOL.; perhaps, 
Rhem.: hy some means, Auth., Gran., 
BisH. ; in any sorte, Gkn. Have 
tempted] So Auth., Gov. Test., Rhem. 
(hath) : had t, Ttnd., Gov., Gran., 
Gen. , B18H. WicL. gives schal temple. 
Neither translation is quite exact or 
strictly idiomatic; the English perfect 
however seems here to approach more 



nearly to the present use of the Greek 
aorist than the pluperfect, and per- 
haps, owing to the peculiar form of 
the expression in the original, may be 
considered as admissible in point of 
English. Toil] Labour, Auth. 

See notes on ch. i. 3 (TransL). 
Should prove] Be, Auth.; he m^ade^ 
WiCL., Gov. Test, Rhem. ; had hene 
hestowed, Tynd., Gran.; had hene^ 
Gov., Gen., Bish. 

6. Timothy] Timoiheus, Auth.: see 
notes 071 CoL i. i {TransL), Unto 
us from you] So WiCL. {to), Gov. Test, 
Rhem. : from you unto us, Auth. and 
remaining Vv., — a departure from the 
order in the Greek for which there 
does not here seem any satisfactory 
reason. The good tidings] Good t,, 
Auth. Love] So Tynd., Gov., 
Gran., Gen., Bish. : charity, Auth., 
WiCL., Gov. Test., Rhem. On this 
correction see notes on i Tim, i. 5 
{TransL). Longing] Desiring 
greatly, Auth.; desirynge, Wiol. and 
remaining Vv. : the ivl in ivurodeiw is 
not intensive ; see notes. Gov. gives, 
desyringe to se vs as toe also longe to 
seyou, 

7. For this cause] Therefore, Auth. 
and all Vv. Were we] We were, 
Auth. The transposition seems to 
keep the sentence a little clofler toge- 



150 



I THESSALONIANS. 



comforted, brethren, over you in all our necessity and 

8 affliction by your faith: since now we live, if ye stand 

9 fast in the Lord. For what thanksgiving can we render 
to God for you, for all the joy which we joy for your sakes 

10 in the presence of our God; night and day praying very 
exceedingly that we may see your face and supply the 
lacking measures of your faith ? 

1 1 Now may God Himself and our Father and our Lord 

12 Jesus Christ direct our way unto you. But you may 
the Lord make to increase and abound in your love to- 
wards one another and towards all men, even as we also 



ther, and is frequently adopted in 
AuTH. £reihre7i\ So, in this 

order, Rhem. : Auth. and remaining 
Vv. append it to thei^efore. Here it 
seems more exact to retain the order 
of the Greek. Necessity and 

• afflictwn]*Afflicti(ma7id distress, AvTa, 
There is no cause for forsaking the 
ordinary rendering of dpdyicri which is 
preserved by 6 Versions. Auth. has 
here distress: WicL. and Cov. Test, 
give nede, 

8. Since] For, Auth. and the other 
Vv. except Rheui, because. Here the 
particle 6ti seems scarcely to have so 
full a force as 'because,* and yet to be 
somewhat stronger than *for,' — which, 
as a general rule, it is desirable to re- 
serve as the translation of ydp, 

9. Thanksgiving] So Cov. Test., 
Bhem., and sim. WiOL. {doinge of 
thanhyngis): thanks, Auth. and re- 
maining Vv. Bender to God] 
So Cov. Test, {vnto), Rhem., and simi- 
larly WiOL. iyilde to god) : render to 
God again, Auth. ; recommence to god 
agayne, Tynd., Cov., Cban., Gen., 
Bish. Which] Similarly, that, 
Tynd., Cov. (that we haue concemynge 
you before oure G.), Cran. : wherewith 
Auth., Cov. Test. , Gen., Bish., Rhem. ; 
in whiche, WiOL. 

In the presentee of] Before, Auth. and 
all Vv. ; see notes on ch. i. 3 {Transl.). 



10. Very exceedingly] Exceedingly, 
Auth. See ch. v. 13, Eph. iii. 20, the 
only places where this emphatic com* 
pound inrep€KTr€piff<rov [-ws] occurs. 
May] So Cov. Test., Rhem.: might, 
Auth. Supply, &c.] Might per- 
feet that which is lacking in, Auth., 
and sim. Tynd. and Cov. (both giving 
fulfill), Gen. (accoplish) ; fvlfiile tho 
thingis that faylen of, WiCL. ; to fuU 
fyll the thynges that are lakyng vnto, 
Cov. Test., Cran. {my ght... which); 
repayre the wantynges of, Bish. ; may 
accomplish those things thai want of, 
Rhem. Cov. omits might (2). 

1 1. May God] Auth. and the other 
Vv. omit may, which however seems 
to add perspicuity to the sentence 
(Cran. gives wrongly God... shall), 

12. But you wMy the Lord m^ake] 
And the Lord make you, Auth. But 
is rightly given by Cov. (both) . Though 
there is perhaps some little awkward- 
ness in the prominence given to the 
pronoun, it seems required to convey 
to the English reader the antithesis of 
the original ; see notes. Your] 
So WiCL., Cov. Test., Rhem., follow- 
ing the Vulg. It is better to insert 
the pronoun in transl. though it is 
here omitted by Auth. and remaining 
Vv. Towards one another] One 
towards another, Auth. We 
also] So Gov* Test., Bish., Rhem.: 



Chap. III. 8— IV. 6. 



151 



(ibound towards you; to the end He may stablish your 13 
hearts unblameable in holiness in the presence of God 
and our Father, at the coming of our Lord Jesus with 
all His saints. 

Furthermore then, brethren, we beseech you and ex- IV. 
hort you in the Lord Jesus, that as ye received of us how 
ye ought to walk and to please God, as indeed ye are 
walking — that so ye would abound still more. For ye z 
know what commandments we gave you by the Lord 
. Jesus. For this is the will of God, even your sanctifica- 3 
tion, to wit that ye abstain from Fornication, — that every 4 
one of you know how to get himself his own vessel in 
sanctification and honour, not in lustfulness of desire, 5 
even as the Gentiles also which know not God; that no 6 



we, AUTH. omitting xal in translation. 
Abound (2)] Do, Adth. 

13. In the presence of] Before, 
AuTU. and all Yv. : see notes on ch. 
L 3 (TransL), God and our Father] 
So WiCL., Gov. Test., Bish., Khem.: 
God even our Father, Auth., Gjcn.; 
God oure father, Ttnd., Coy., Cban. 
On the best mode of translating this 
august formula, see notes on Gal. i. 4 
{TransL), Lord Jesus] Loixl 

Jesus* Christ, Auth. 

Chapter IV. i. Furthermore] 
So Auth. and the other Vv. except 
WiOL., hensforthwarde ; and Khem., 
for the rest. This translation of 
\oi.itbv is perhaps not exactly literal, 
but seems sufficiently approximate: 
* finally' would here be hardly ap- 
propriate, and 'for the rest' (RuEM.), 
though literal^ is both harsh and awk- 
ward. 

Brethren, 10c] So Gov. Test., Rhem., 
and similarly WiOL. {therforebr, hens. 
v}e) : Auth. and remaining Vv. inserter, 
after you, — but not in accordance with 
the Greek order. In] So WiOL., 

Tynd., Coy. (both), Gen., Ehem.: Jy, 



Auth., Gban., Bish. Iteceived\ 

Have received, Auth. and all Vv. 
As indeed ye are walking] Auth. 
*omits this clause. That so] 

Auth. omits *that. Still more] 

More and more, Auth. and the other 
Vv. except WiOL., Rhem., more; and 
Gov. Test., which gives that ye maye be 
more plentyfullyer, 

3. To wit that ye] Siin.^ that yee, 
WiCL., GoY. Test., Rhem. (jyou): that 
ye should, AuTH., Gov., Gran., Bish. ; 
and tJuU ye shuld, Ttnd., Gen. — but 
Tynd. translates the preceding clause 
even that ye shuld be holy: Gen. as 
Auth. 

4. Know] Should hnow, Auth. 
This clause is parallel to the preceding 
* to wit that,' <fcc. Get himself] 
Possess, Auth., Gen., Bish., Rhem.; 
welde [i.e. wield] WiOL. ; kepe, Tynd., 
Gov., Gran. ; vse, Gov. Test. 

His ovm] Mis, Auth. and all Vv. 

5. Lustfulness of desire] Sim., pas- 
sioun of desire, Wicl. : tJie passion of 
lust, Rhem. ; the lust of concupiscence, 
Auth. and remaining Vv. 

Gentiles also] Auth. omits jccU in trans- 
lation. 



152 



i THESSALONIANS. 



I man go beyond and overreach his brother in the matter: 
because that the Lord is the avenger of all these things, 

7 as also we before told you and did solemnly testify. For 
God called us not for uncleanness, but in sanetification. 

8 Wherefore then he that rejecteth rejecteth not man but 
God, who also gave His Holy Spirit unto you. 

9 Now as touching brotherly love ye need not that I 
write to you ; for ye yourselves are taught of God to love 

lo one another: for indeed ye do it towards all the brethren 
that are in the whole of Macedonia. But we exhort you. 



6. Cherrecuihl So Auth. Marg. (op- 
presse, or, (merreach): deceyue, WiCL.; 
hegyle. Gov. Test. ; circumuentf Ehem. 
(all three from Vulg., circwmveniat); 
defratidf Auth. and 5 remaining Vv. 
The matter] So Auth. Marg.: any 
matter, Auth., Gen., Bibh. ; hargayn- 
inge, Ttnd., Gov, (both), Gran.; 

' husinease, Eheai. AU these 

things] So WiOL., Gov. Test, Rhem. : 
all such, Auth., Bish. ; all suche 
thinges, Ttnd., Gov., Gran., Gen. 
As also, kc.]As toe also have forewarn- 
ed you, and testified, Auth., Bibh. 
The renderings of the other Vv. are 

' here added as they exhibit a singular 
variety of translation in a simple 
claose. As we bifore seyden to you, ds 
haue witnesside {or prouede by autorite), 
WiCL. ; as we tolde you before tyme 
and testified, Tynd., Gran, (ohl tyme) ; 
as we haue sayde & testified vnto you 
afore tym£. Gov.; cw we haue sayd and 
witnessed vnto you before, Gov. Test.; 
as we also haue lolde you before lime 
and testified, Gen.; as we haue fore- 
told you, and haue testified, Rhem. 
The slight change to 'did testify' is 
made for the sake of preserving a sort 
of rhythm; comp. notes on Phil, ii. 
16 (TransL.), 

7. Called us not] Clepide not vs, 
WiCL. ; hath not called us, Auth. and 
remaining Vv. For {2)... in] To 
...vnto, Gov.; vnto... into, Bish.; into 



(bis), WiCL., Rhem. ; unto (bis), Auth. 
and 4 remaining Vv. It is probably a 
mere accident that Gov. and Bish. 
preserve a diCR^rence in rendering be- 
tween iirl and iif, Sanetification] 
So Rhem. : holiness, Auth. It is well 
to preserve uniformity of translation 
with ver. 3, 4. 

8. Wherefore then he] And so he, 
WiOL. ; wherfore he. Gov. Test. ; ther- 
fore he, Rhem. ; he therefore, Auth. 
and remaining Vv. Rejecteth 
(bis)] So Auth. Marg. : despiseth, Auth. 
and all Vv. WiCL., Gov. Test., Gen., 
Rhem., insert thes thingis after the first 
dispisith (Vulg. haec). Gave] 
So WiOL. : Jiath sent, Tynd., Gran. ; 
hath... given, Auth. and remaining Vv. 
JJis Holy Spirit unto yov] Unto *us his 
holy Spirit, Auth.; his holy spirit in 
vs, WicL., Gov. Test., Rhem. ; his 
holy sprete amonge you, Tynd., Gran. ; 
his holy sprete in to you, Gov. ; you his 
holie Spirit, GsN. ; to you his h. «., 
Bish. 

9. Now] But, Auth. and all Vv. 
except WiCL. (forsothe). 

1 0. For indeed] A nd in deed, Auth. ; 
ds forsothe, WiOL.; for. Gov, Test.; ye 

• and...verely, Tynd., Gran., Gen., 
Bish. ; yee and. Gov., Rhem. 
That] Which, Auth. The whole 

of M.] WhoU M,, Gov. Test.: all M,, 

■ Auth. and remaining Vv. 
Exhort] Beseech, Auth.: see ver. i. 



Chap. IV. 7—15- 



153 



brethren, to abound still more, and to study to be quiet, II 
and to do your own business, and to work with your 
hands, according as we commanded you; in order thatm 
ye may walk becomingly toward them that are without, 
and may have need of no man. 

Now we would not have you to be ignorant, brethren, 13 
concerning them that are sleeping, that ye sorrow not, even 
as the rest which have no hope. For if we believe that 14 
Jesus died and rose again, even so tUem that are laid to 
sleep through Jesus will God bring with Him. For this 15 
we say to you in the word of the Lord, that we which are 



To alound'\ That yee aboundii, "WiCL., 
Rhem. (ycm) ; that ye increaaef Auth. 
and remaining Vv. Still more] 

Mortj WiCL., Bhex. ; more and m^>re, 
Auth. and remaining Vv. {yet m, and 
m., Gov.). See ver. 2, 

1 1. To etudy"] That ye sU, Auth. 

. Y(mr hands] So WiOL., Cov. Test. : 
.your own k., Auth. and remaining 

Vv. According as] As, Auth. 

and all Vv. 

12. In order that] That, Auth. 
and all Vv. Becomingly] 
Uonestly, Auth. and all Vv. The 
translation ' seemly' deserves consi- 
deration, but is appy. open to the 
objection that in point of strict ety- 
mology such a form of the adverb is 

. somewhat doubtful; see Trench, on 
Auth. Vers. ch. 11. p. 31. May 

have] That ye may have, Auth. 

. Need] Lacky Auth. No ma.n] 

So Auth. Marg. : nothing, Auth. 
The clause is translated, and that no- 
thinge he lackynge ynto you, by Tynd., 
Gov., Gran., Gen., Bish. (in you), 

13. Now] Buty Auth., Bish.; for- 
BothCf WiCL.; and, Rhesi. : the remain- 
ing five Versions omit hk in translation. 
We] •/, Auth. Tlvat] Which, 
Auth. A re sleeping] A re * asleep, 
Auth., Gen.; are fallen a slepe, Tynd., 
Gov., Gran.; slepe, Cov. Test., Bish., 
Bhem. For irepl tw» k, Wicl. has 



simply of men slepyng (or dyinge). 
The rest] Others, Auth., Rhem. ; other, 
Wicl. and the six remaining Vv. 

14. Them that are laid to sleep 
through Jesu^s] Them also which sleep 
in Jesus, Auth. : no Version has at- 
tempted, to express the Aorist parti- 
ciple. 

15. In] So all Vv. except Auth., 
Gen., ly. Which are living and 
are remaining lehind] Which are alive 
and remairi, Auth.; that lyuen that 
hen residue (or lefie), Wicl.; which 
live and are remayninge, Tynd., Gov., 
Gen. ; that lyue, whych remayne, Cov. 
Test.; whych shall lyue, ds shaU re- 
mayrUy Cran. ; whiche lyue, remayn- 
ing, Bish. ; which Hue, which are re- 
maining, Rhev. It is not easy to 
give these words a perfectly accurate 
and perfectly idiomatic translation: 
' we the living, the remaining, tkc* 
would be accurate, hut bald ; ' we the 
living who are, <£?(;.' somewhat harsh 
and appositional. We therefore may 
perhaps not unwisely retain the ' and,* 
and also (with Auth.) omit the second 
relative in translation, as tending to 
overload the sentence. The slight ad- 
dition 'behind' seems suggested by 
the compound repiKtlirecOai, the prep, 
probably marking the idea of over* 
plus, and thence, in the present con- 
text, of a continuance on earth and 



154 



1 THESSALONIANS. 



living and are remaining behind unto the coming of the 
Lord shall in no wise prevent them that are laid to sleep: 

16 because the Lord Himself shall descend from heaven with 
a shout, with the voice of the Archangel, and with the 
trump of God, and the dead in Christ shall rise first; 

17 then we which are living and are remaining behind shall 
be caught up at the same time together with them in 
clouds, to meet the Lord in the air ; and so shall we ever 

18 be with the Lord. So then comfort one another with 
these words. 

V. But concerning the times and the seasons, brethren, 

2 ye have no need to be written to. For yourselves know 
perfectly that the day of the Lord so cometh as a thief in 

3 the night. When they shall say Peace and safety; then 
doth destruction come suddenly upon them, as travail 



survival; comp. Herod. I. 82. 

ShaU in no wi»e\ Shall not, AUTH. and 

' all Vv. Great caution is required in 
the translation of 01) fi^ in the N. T., 
as in some cases it appears very doubt- 
ful whether any emphatic negation is 
really contemplated by the writer, and 
whether the formula was not due to 
that general tendency to strengthened 
negation which is often observable in 
later Greek. Perhaps the simplest 
and best rule is to be guided by the 
context, — which here seems to require 
the stronger form of translation. 

. Prevent] If it be thought necessary to 
alter this now obsolete word, we may 
have recourse to the more modern 
< precede :* archaisms however as such 

. are not altered in this Bevision. 
Them that are laid to sleep] Them 
•which are adeep, Auth.: see note 
on ver. 14. 

16. Becattse] For, AuTH. and all 
Vv. In the following words it is per- 
haps doubtful whether the order of 
the Greek, which places icarajSi^crerat 
dr* o^pavoO last, might not be advan- 
tageously retained, as indeed it is by 



WiCL., Bhek. It tends however to 
throw appy. a greater stress on these 
words than is conveyed by the ori- 
ginal. 

17. Are living^ &c.] Are alive, and 
remain, Auth.: see note on ver. 15. 
At the same — them] Together with 
them, Auth., Wiol., Gov. Test., Bish.; 
vnth them aho, Ttnd., Gov., Cban., 
Gen.; withal... with them, Bhem. On 
the translation of &iml ai)v airoU, see 
notes in loc. In clotida] So 
Wiol.: in the clouds, Auth. and re- 
maining Vv. 

18. So then] Wherefore, Auth. and 
the other Vv. except "WiCL., <fe so; 
and Bheh., therjore. 

Chapter V. i. Concerning] Of, 
Auth. and all Vv. To be 

written to] To wi'yte vnto you. Gov.; 
that we do wryt vnto you. Gov. Test. ; 
that we write to you, Bhek.; tha>t I 
write unto you, Auth. and remaining 
Vv. (WiCL., to), 

3. When] *For when, Auth. 
Doth destruction come suddenly] Sud- 
den destruction <omUhf Auth. : o^J- 



Chap. IV. i6— V. ii. 



155 



upon a woman with cliild; and they shall In no wise 
escape. But ye, brethren, are not in darkness, that the 4 
day should overtake you as a thief. For ye all are sons 5 
of light, and sons of the day: we are not of the night, nor 
of darkness. Accordingly then let us not sleep, even as 6 
do the rest; but let us watch and be sober. For they 7 
that sleep sleep in the night; and they that be drunken 
are drunken in the night. But let us, as we are of the 8 
day, be sober, having put on the breastplate of faith and 
love, and as an helmet the hope of salvation; because 9 
God did not appoint us unto wrath, but to obtain salva- 
tion through our Lord Jesus Christ, who died for us, that, 10 
whether we watch or sleep, we should together live with 
him. Wherefore comfort each other, and edify one the u 
other, even as also ye do. 



Sios is a 'secondary predication of 
manner,* a force preserved by no Ver- 
sion. In no wise] Not, AuTH. 
. and all Yv. ; see notes on ch. iv. 15 
(Tranal), 

4. The day] The ilke d., WiOL. ; the 
aatne d., Bhbm. ; that d., Auth. and re- 
maining Vv. (Cov. Test, omits one that 
appy. by mistake). It may be doubted 
whether the text is here so explicit 
as Auth. ; the trauslation however of 
the article by a pronoun is so hazard- 
ous, and so erroDeous in principle, 
that the cases are but very few in 
which idiom or perspicuity can be al- 

. lowed to prevail over the literal ren- 
dering: comp. 2 Thess. iii. 14. 

5. For ye all are]* Ye are aU, Auth. 
Independently of the insertion of ydp, 
which is required by Manuscript au- 
.thority, it seems better to give to 'all' 
a prominence corresponding to that of 
. vdyres in the Greek. Sons 

(bis)] Similarly WiCL. (the sonee.., 
aonee): the children, Auth. and re- 
maining Vv. ; but Cov. omits the arti- 
cle in both caseS| and Bhsm. omits it 
•in the second. 



6. Accordingly then] Therefore^ 
Auth. and all Vv. Even as] As, 

Auth. Tlie rest] The other, 

Cov. Test.: others, Auth., Bhsm.; 
other, Tynd. and 5 remainiDg Vv. 

8. Asm are] Who are, Auth.: i^I 
Versions insert a relative. 

Having ptU on] Putting on, AUTH.: 
see notes in loc. At an helmet] 

So Tynd.: for an helmet, Auth., 
Cban., Gen. 

9. Because] For, Auth. and all 
Vv. Did not appoint] Ilath not 
appointed, Auth. and the other Vv. 
except WioL. (puttide not). 
Through] So Cov. Test.: by, Auth., 
WioL., BiBH., Bhem.; by the meanes 
of, Tynd., Cov., Cban., Gbn. 

JO. Watch] So Rhem. : wake, Auth. 
and remaining Vv. : see ver. 6. 
Togetfter live] Live together, Auth. and 
all Vv.; see notes. 

II. Each other] Yourselves together, 
Auth., Tynd., Cov., Cban., Bibh.; 
one another, Cov. Test., Gbn., Bhem. 
One the other] Eche other, WiOL.; eueiry 
one another, Cban. , Bibh. ; one another, 
■ Auth. and remaining Vv. 



.156 



.1 THESSALONIANS. 



1 z Now we beseech you, brethren, to regard them which 
labour among you, and preside over you in the Lord, and 

13 admonish you; and to esteem them very exceedingly in 
love for their work's sake. Be at peace among your- 

14 selves. Moreover we exhort you, brethren, admonish the 
disorderly, encourage the feeble minded, support the 

15 weak, be longsufFering toward all mm. See that none 
render evil for evil to any man ; but alway follow after 
that which is good towards one another and towards all 



16 



«7 Tnen. Rejoice alway; pray without ceasing; in every 
J . thing give thanks, for this is the will of God in Christ 
20 Jesus toward you. Quench wt the Spirit; despise not 
2[ prophesyings: but prove all things; hold fast that which 
2^ is good. Abstain from every form of eviL But may the 



11, Nwd] So Gen.: and, Auth,, 

« Cov. Test., BiSH., Bhex.; Ttnd., 

Cov., Cban., omit Regard\ 

• Know, Adth. and all Vv. 

' Preside <tver] Are over, Auth., Gkx.; 
ben bifore to^ WiOL.; have the oversigid 
o/, Tynd., Cov. (both), Cban., Bish.; 
goueme, Bhem. 

13. Very exceedingly] Very highly, 
Auth.: see notes on eh. iii. \o{Trand.), 
Be at peace] So Gen.; and sim. WiCL., 
Cov. Test., Rhem., omit and (follow- 
ing the Vulg., And giving hatte p.) : 
and be at p., Auth. and remaining Vv. 

14. Moreover] Now, Auth.; and, 
Cov. Test, Bheh. ; forsothe, WiOL, ; 
the five remaining Vv. omit. 
AdmomsK] So Gen., Bhem.: reprow 
yee {or choitise), WiCL.; rebuke, Cov. 
Test.; warn, Auth., Ttnd., Cov., 
Cban., Bish. The disorderly] Vn- 
quyete men, WiCL.; thevnquiet, Bhem.; 
them that are unruly, Auth. and 6 

• remainiog Vv. (Auth. Marg., disor- 
derly). Encourage] Com- 
fort, Auth. and all Vv. : see notes on 
ch. ii. It. Be longsuffering] 

, Have continuall paeience^ Ttnd. ; be 
paHenlf Auth. and remaining Vv. 



( WiCL., be yee p,), 

15. None] So AUTH. and the other 
Vv. except WiOL., Cov. Test., no man. 
It may be remarked that Auth. and 
the older Vv. appy. always adopt the 
form *none,' not *no one.* 
A luKiy] So Cov. Test., Bhem. {alwaies): 
euermore, WiOL.; ever, Auth. and re- 
maining Vv. Follow after] So 
Auth. in i T^. vi. 11 : ««€, Wicl. ; 
pursue, Bhek. ; foUow, Auth. and 6 
remaining Vv. Towards one an- 
other] Sim., towarde your sdues, Gen. ; 
towards eche other, Bheh. : *both 
amxmg yourselves, Auth., Ttnd., Cov., 
Cov. Test. (om. both), Cban., Bish. 
WiOL. gives simply to gedir. See ch. 
iii. II. Towards {2)] So Cov. 
Test., Gen., Beeem.: to, Auth. and re- 

. maining Vv. (WiOL., into), 

16. Altoay] So Cov. (both), Bhem. 
(alwaies): evermore, Auth., Gen., 
Wicl.; ever, Ttnd., Cban., Bish. 
18. Toward] So Ttnd., Cov. (both), 

. Cban., Gen., Bish. : concerning, 
Auth. ; in, Wicl., Bhex. (so Vulg.), 

21. But prove] * Prove, AvTB, 

22. Every form. of evil] All appear- 
ance of evil, Auth., ,Gm,, BiSHt, 



Chap. V. 12 — 28. 



157 



God of peace Himself sanctify you wholly; and may your 
spirit and soul and body be kept whole without blame in 
the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ. Faithful w He 24 
that calleth you, who also will do it 2 - 

Brethren, pray for us. Salute all the brethren with 26 
an holy kiss. I adjure you by the Lord that the epistle zy 
be read to all the [holy] brethren. 

The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you. a 8 



Rhbbc.; euyl Bpice {or licJeenesse), 
Wi€L. ; all suspicious thinges, Ttnd., 
Gov. (both); all euiU appearaunce, 
Oban. 

13. But] Forsothe, WiOL.; now, 
Gen.; and, Auth., Bibh., Bhem.; 
omitted by Tynd., Coy. (both), Cran. 
May the Qod of peace Himself] So 
Bhbh. but omitting may: ike same 
god of pees, Wiol. ; the very Ood of 
peace, Auth. and remaining Yy. 
And may] That, Wiol., Coy. Test., 
Rhem. ; and I pray God, Auth. and 
remaining Yy. (all but Auth. adding 
that). Tour spirit... whole] 

So Wiol.: your whole spirit, Auth. 
and remaining Yv. : see especially 
notes in loc Kept] So Wiol., 

Tjjsd., Cov. (both), Gkn. : preserved, 



Auth., Gran., Bibh., Rhem. 
Without blame] So Uhem. : blameless, 
Auth., Cov. (both), Gen., Bibh.; 
with outen pleynte, Wiol.; fautlesse, 
Ttnd. ; so that in nothyng ye maye he 
blamed, Cba^. Jn] So Wiol., 

Cov. Test., Cran., Bibh., Bhem.: 
unto, Auth., Ttnd., Cov., Gen. 

26. Salute] So Bhem. : greet, Auth. 
and remaining Yv. (Wiol., grete yte 
wel), 

27. Adjure] So Auth. Marg., 
Bhem., and sim. coniure, Wiol.: 
enlarge, Auth. and 6 remaining Yv. 
The epistle] This Ep., Auth. and lUl 
Yv. : see notes on a Thess. iii. 14 
(Transl). 

38. Wiihyou] Auth. adds ^AvMn, 



THE 



SECOND EPISTLE TO THE THESSALONTANS. 



I. I3ATJL and Silvanus and Timothy to the church of the 
-T Thessalonians in God our Father and the Lord Jesus 

2 Christ. Grace be to you and peace, from God our Father 
and the Lord Jesus Christ. 

3 We are bound to give thanks to God always for you, 
brethren, as it is meet, because that your faith increaseth 
exceedingly, and the love of every one of you all towards 

4 each other aboundeth.; so that we ourselves make our 
' boast in you in the churches of God, for your patience and 

faith in all your persecutions and the afflictions that ye 

5 endure;— wAicA is a token of the righteous judgment of 



1. Timothy] So WiCL., Rhem.: 
i'imoiheuSf Auth. and remaining Yv. : 
see notes on Col. i. i {TransL), 

2. Cfracebe] SoTtnd., Gov. (both), 
Cran., Gen.: grace, Auth., Wicl., 
BisH., Ehem. For iffih Ttnd., Gov., 
Gev., give wUh you ; the six remain- 
ing Vv. giving to (or unto) you, 

3. Give thanks to] So Gov. Test. 
{vnto), Bheh., and Auth. in i Thess. 
i. 2: do thanhyngis ...to, WiOL. ; 
thank, Auth. and 5 remaining Vv. 
Increaseth] So Gov. Test., Bhem.: 
waxith, WiCL.; groweth, Auth. and re- 
maining Vv. However Gov. Test, omits 
exceedingly, and Wicl. gives eaer (tread- 
ing semper cr.) before wcmth. Love] 
So Tynd., Gov. (both), Gran., Gen , 
BiSH.: charity y Auth., Wicl., Bhem.; 
comp. notes on i Tim, l 5 (TransL), 



4. Make our boast in] Similarly, 
make oure boast of, Gov. ; make boast 
of. Gov. Test ; boast of. Gran. : glory 
in, Auth., Wicl., Rhem. ; reioyce of 
Tynd., Gen.; reioyce in, BiSH. 

The afflictions] Tribulations, Auth. 
and the other Vv. except Gov. (both), 
trovhles. No Version inserts the 
articla 

5. Token] So Tynd., Gov., Gran., 
Gen., Bish. : manifest token, Auth.; 
ensaumple, Wicl., Gov. Test., Rhem. 
Ye are also suffering] <fc yee suffren, 
Wicl.; also you svffir, Rhem.; ye 
also suffer, Auth. and remaining Vv. 
The change appears to have two ad- 
vantages, first, that it more distinctly 
preserves the association of Kal and 
vdurx^Tc, and secondly, that it conveys 
more fully the present and continuing 



Chap. I. i — lo. 



159 



God, that ye may be counted worthy of the kingdom of 
God, for which ye are also sufifering. If so be that it is a 6 
righteous thing with God to recompense to them that afflict 
you affliction; and to you who are afflicted rest with us, 7 
at the revelation of the Lord Jesus from heaven with the 
angels of His power in flame of fire, rendering vengeance 8 
to those who know not God, and those who obey not the 
Gospel of our Lord Jesus. Who shall suffer punishment, 9 
euen eternal destruction away from the face of the Lord . 
and from the glory of His might, when He shall come to 10 



nature of the trials of the Thessalo* 



6. If 80 he tJiat] So Auth. in Rom. 
viii. 9, 17, I Cor. xv. 15, a Cor. v. 3, 
I Pet. ii. 3: smng^ Auth.; yif ne- 
tJieleSf WiOL. ; verely, Tynd., Cran. ; 
for, Cov. (both), Gen., Bish. ; if yet, 
Bhbm. To them that afflict 
you affllctuml Tildynge to hem that 
turblen you, WiCL. ; tribulation, to 
them that vexe you, Rhem. ; tribulation 
to them that trouble you, Auth. and 
remaining Vv. [Cov. (both), vnto]. 
The change seems to preserve more 
clearly the antithesis, and also to 
bring more into prominence the ' lex 
talionis' that is tacitly referred to. 

7. Afflicted] Troubled, Auth. and 
t}ie other Vv. except Bhem., vexed: 
see previous note. At the 
revelation of] So Bish., Khem. (both 
giving in) ; in the schewynge of, WiOL.; 
in the appearyng of, Cov. Test.: 
when... shall be revealed, Auth. ; when 
,»,8haU ahewe him silfe, Tynd., Cov., 
Cran., Gen. The angels of 
His powerl So Auth. Marg., Cov. 
(both), Cran., Bish., Rhem., and 
sim. WiOL. (a. of his vertue) : his 

(Angels, Auth., Tynd., Gen. 



8. In flame of fire] So Rhem., 
and sim. Wicl. and Cov. Test, (thefl.):. 
in flaming flre, Auth., Tynd., Gen., 
Bish. ; with fl, /., Cov., Cran. 
Rendering vengeance to] So Tynd., 



Gen., Bish. (all giving vnto) : taking 
vengeance on, Auth. Cran. gives the 
transl. of the text, but has a different 
construction, whyeh shall ridre v. 
vnto. Those who (bis)] Them 

that, ..that, Auth. Lord 

Jesus] Lord Jesus ^Christ, Auth. 

9. Shall suffer punishment, even] 
ShaU be punished with, AuTH. and 
the other Vv. except WiCL., Cov. 
Test., Rhem., which follow the Vulg. 
poenas dabunt in interitu aetemas. 
Eternal] So Rhem. : everlasting, Auth. 
and remaining Vv. Though here the 
change is really unimportant, it is still 
perhaps best to translate this word 
uniformly, except where the context 
seems specially and exclusively to 
imply simple duration. In the present 
case the al(jl)vioi is equally qualitative 
and quantitative. 

Away from] From, Auth. and all 
Vv. Face] So Wicl., Cov. 

Test., Rhem.: presence, Auth. and 
remaining Vv. Might] So 

Auth. in Eph. vi. 10: vertue, WiOL. ; 
power, Auth. and remaining Vv. 

10. Shall come] So Auth. and all 
Vv. There is some little difficulty in 
the translation of Sray with the aor* 
subj. Perhaps, as a general rule, it 
may be said that when the exact ren- 
dering 'shall have' is inapplicable 
(see notes on Tit. iii. iz, Transl.), we 
may conveniently adopt in iransla-^ 



160 



2 THESSALONIANS. 



be glorified in His saints, and to be admired in all them 
that believed (because our testimony to you- ward was be- 

1 1 lieved) in that day. Whereunto we also pray always for 
you, that our God may count you worthy of your calling, 
and fulfil every good pleasure of goodness and the work of 

12 faith with power; that the name of our Lord Jesus may 
be glorified in you, and ye in Him, according to the grace 
of our God and the Lord Jesus Christ. 

IL Now we beseech you, brethren, touching the coming 
of our Lord Jesus Christ, and our gathering together unto 

2 Him, that ye be not quickly shaken from your sober 
mind, nor yet be troubled, neither by spirit, nor by word 
nor by letter as coming through us, to the eflfect that the 

3 day of the Lord is now come. Let no man deceive you 
in any way; because the day shall not come except there 



tion ihepreaent (indie, or CODJ.) when 
the reference to the actual futurity of 
the subsequent event is less specially 
contemplated (comp. Matth. zzi. 40, 
Mark iv. 99 [ReeJ], aL), and future 
when, as here, such a reference is 
more distinct and prominent. 
That heUeved] That *believe, AuTH. 
To yoU'Ward] Sim., toward ffou, BiSH.; 
that toe had vnto you, Ttkd., Cbak. (to); 
mtoyou, Cov.: among you, Auth. 

II. Whereunto] Wherefore, AxjTB, 
We o&o] So Gen. : we, Ttnd., Cov. ; 
oho we, Auth. and remaining Yv. 
May] So Gen.: would, Auth., Biah.; 
wyU, Cov. Test., Cban.; the four 
remiuning Yv. omit the auxiliary. 
Your] ThU, Auth., Cban.; hie, 
WiOL., Cov. Test., Gen., Khem.; 
the, Ttnd., Cov., Bish. Every 

good pleaeure of g.] So BiflH. (alDj : 
ail the good pleaeure of hk g., 
Auth., Gen., Rhem. 

II. LordJeeus] Lord Jeeue* Christ, 
Auth. 

Chxpteb it, I. Touching] By, 
Acts, and all Yv. : s^ notes in loc, 



And our] So WiCL.: and by our, 
Auth., Gen., Bish. 

a. Quickly] Soon, Auth., Wiol. ; 
sodenly, Ttnd., Cov., Cban., Gen., 
Bish.; hattely, Cov. Test.; easily, 
Bhem. Fi*om your sober 

mind] Similarly, /ro youre tn'tte, Wiol. ; 
from youre mynde, Tynd., Cov. (both), 
Cban., Gen., Bish. ; from your sense, 
Bhek. : Auth. alone gives the in* 
cbrrect in mind. Nor yet be] 

Nor be, Cov. Test., Cban., Bish., 
Bhem. : nor, Gen. ; or be, Auth. ; 
nether be yee, Wicl. ; and be not, Ttnd., 
Cov. Coming through] 

From, Auth. Although dtd occurs 
four times in this verse, it is not 
worth while to overweight the sen-, 
tence by translating it uniformly 
through. To the t^ect thaJt] 

As that, Auth. This slight change 
seems to make the meaning a little 
more perspicuous. The Lord] 

^Christ, Auth. Now come] 

At hand, Auth. and the other Yv. 
except Wiol., nyg, 

3. Jn any way] In any maner, 
Wicl.; by any meatu, Auyn. and. 



CuAP. I. II— II. 8. 



161 



come the falling away first, and the Man of Sin be re- 
vealed, the son of perdition; he that opposeth, and ex- 4 
alteth himself against every one called God or an object 
of worship; insomuch that he sitteth in the temple of 
God, displaying himself that he is God. Remember ye 5 
not that when I was yet with you I used to tell you 
these things? And now ye know what restraineth, that 6 
he may be revealed in his own time. For the mystery 7 
of lawlessness is already working, yet only imtil he who 
now restraineth be taken out of the way. And then 8 



remaining Vv. Because] For, 

AuTH. and all Vv. The day shall 

not come] So Auth., Gen. (both 
giving that d.): the lorde commeth not, 
Tynd., Gov. (both); the Lorde shaU 
not come, Gban., Bibh. ; no clause is 
supplied by WiCL. or Bhbm. 
The falling away] A falling away, 
Auth., Bish.; departynge aweye {or 
discencon), WiOL.; a reuolt, Rhem.; 
a departynge f Tynd,, Cran., Gen.; 
the dep.y Gov. (both), which alone of 
all the Vv. rightly give the article. 
The Man of Sin] So WiOL., Ehek. : 
tha;t man of sin, AUTH., Gov., Gen., 
Bish. ; that synfull man, Ttnd., 
Gran. ; the ». m^m. Gov. Test. 

4. He that opposeth] Who opposeth, 
Auth. ; thoA is adttersaricy Wiol. ; 
whych is the adu.. Gov. Test.; which 
is an adv., Ttnd. and five remaining 
Vv. It will thus be seen that the Vv. 
rightly recognise the substantival cha- 
racter of 6 &uTiKelfM€voi, and unite iirl 
irdtn-a k.t.X. solely with the following 
participle. Against] So Gen. : 

vpon, Wiol.; ahove, Auth. and remain- 
ing Vv. Every one called] All 
that is called, Auth. and all Vv. except 
WiCL. (alle thing that is seyde), A n 
object of worship] That is worshipped, 
Auth. and the other Vv. except Gov., 
Oods seruyce. Insomuch] So Gov, 
Test. : so, Auth. and remaining Vv. 
He sitteth] He *as God s^ Auth. 



Displaying himself ] Shewing himself, 
Auth., Wiol,, Gen., Bish., Rhbm. ; 
avid shew him silfe, Tynd. (giving shall 
svtt above) ; and boaslethhim>selfe, Gov. ; 
boastynge hym self, Gov. Test., Gran. 

5. Used to teU] Told, Auth. : no 
Version attempts to give the force of 
the imperfect. 

6. Hestraitieth] Wiikholdetk, Auth. 
and the other Vv. except Gov. Test., 
doth withholde; and Ehev., letteth. 
There does not seem any reason for 
supplying the pronoun 'him,' with 
Scholef. (Hints, p. 116, ed. 4) : we 
seem bound to preserve the mysterious 
indefinitenesfl of the original: Gov. 
(both) supply it. May be] So 
Gov. Test., Rhem. : be, Wiol. ; might 
be, Auth. and remaining Vv. 

His own] His, Auth. and all Vv. 

7. Lawlessness] Iniquity, AUTH. 
and all Vv. except WiCL., wichidnesse. 
But Tynd. gives that in,, and Gov., 
Gran., give the in. It seems desirable 
here to retain this more rigidly literal 
translation as serving more clearly to 
indicate the essential character of rb 
Kar^or. Is already toorhing] 
Doth already work, Auth., Gran., 
Gen., Bish. Yet only until, kc] 
Similarly, tyll he which now onely let- 
teth, Gov., Gran., Bish.; only he who 
now letteth, will let, until he, Auth. ; 
on^y that he that holdUh nowe, hcUde, 
HI it, Wiol. ; which onlie loketh, vntill 

M 



162 



2 THESSALONIANS. 



shall the Lawless One be revealed, whom the Lord Je- 
sus shall consume with the breath of His mouth, and 
9 shall destroy with the appearance of His coming; whose 
coming is after the working of Satan in all power and 

10 signs and wonders of lying, and in all deceit of un- 
righteousness to them that are perishing; because they 
embraced not the love of the truth, that they might be 

1 1 saved. And for this cause doth God send them a work- 

12 ing of error that they should believe the lie; that they 
may all of them be judged who believed not the truth, 
but had pleasure in unrighteousness. 



U, Tynd.; only he that holdetk, let 
hym holde nmo, tyll he. Gov. Test. ; 
ornly he which now withholdeth, shal 
let til he. Gen.; only that he which 
now holdethy doe hold, vntil he, Rhem. 
The insertion of 'yet' may perhaps 
be admitted as slightly clearing up 
the elliptical expression. 

8. The Lawless One] That wicJcedj 
AuTH., Tynd., Gov. (both), Gran., 
BiSH. : the Uhe wickide (man), WiCL. ; 
the wicked man, Gen.; th^ wicked 
one, Rhem. The Lord Jesus] The 
Lord, AuTH. omitting * Jesus. 
Breath] Spirit, Auth. and all Vv. 
Appearance] So Tynd., Gov. (both), 
Gran.; brightness, Auth., Gen., 
BiSH.; illumynynge {or schynynge), 
WiCL. ; mcmifestation, Rhem. The 
regular translation of this word in 
Auth. is * appearing' (i Tim. vi. 14, 
1 Tim. i. 10, iv. i, 8, Tit. ii. 13), 
which is here slightly changed to 
avoid the juxtaposition of two parti- 
cipial substantives. 

9. Whose] Hym whos, WiOL., 
Rhem. : even him whose, Auth. and 
remainiDg Vv. In] So WiCL., 
Gov. Test., BiSH., Rhem. : with, Auth. 
and remaining Vv. Wonders of 
Vying] SoBish.: lying wonders, Avth., 
Gov. Test., Gen. 

10. And in] So WicL., Tynd., 
Gov. Test., Gen., Bish., Rhem. : and 



with, Auth., Gov., Gran. 

Deceit] So WiCL., Gov. Test.: sedtiC' 

ing, Rhem. ; deceivableness, Auth. 

and remaining Vv. To them] So 

WiCL., Gov. Test, (vnto), Rhem. : in 

them, Auth., Bish. ; amonge them, 

Tynd., Gov., Gran., Gen. 

Are perishing] Perish, Auth. and all 

Vv. Embraced] Received, Auth. 

11. Doth God send] God *shaU 
send, Auth. A wm'hing of error] 
So WiOL.: the operacion of erroure. 
Gov. Test., Rhem. ; strong delusion, 
Auth. and remaining Vv, : see ver. 9. 
Though in both cases the introduction 
of the adjective 'effectual' before 
'working' might be rendered suitable 
by the context, it is still, lexically 
considered, somewhat too strong as a 
purely literal rendering. It would 
thus seem perhaps better to strike out 
'effectual' inEph. iii. 7, iv. 16, or to 
retain it only in italics. These are 
however points which it is very difficult 
to adjust, for if the one translation 
is too strong, the other certainly seems 
somewhat too weak: 'energy,' which 
is adopted by some translators, is 
appy. too modem. The lie] A lie, 
Auth. 

12. That they may all of them] 
That they* all might, Auth.; that alle, 
WicL.; that all they myght, Tynd., 
Gov., Gran., Gen., Bish.; that all 



Chap. II. 9 — 17. 



163 



But we are bound to give thanks to God alway for 13 
you, brethren beloved of the Lord, that God chose you 
from the beginning unto salvation in sanctification of the 
Spirit and faith in the truth: whereunto He called you 14 
by our Gospel, unto the obtaining of the glory of our 
Lord Jesus Christ. Accordingly then, brethren, stand 15 
fast, and hold the traditions which ye were taught whether 
by word or by our epistle. But may our Lord Jesus 16 
Christ Himself, and God our Father, which loved us, and 
gave U8 eternal comfort and good hope in grace, comfort 17 
your hearts, and stablish you in every good work and word. 



they may€f Gov. Test.; that al may, 
Rhem. The two slight changes are 
made to preserve the reading diravTei^ 
and the correct sequence of tenses; 
comp. Latham, Engl. Lang. § 539 
(ed. 4). Judged] So Rhem.: 

demyde (or dampnyde), WiOL.; damn- 
edf AuTH. and remaining Vv. 
Had pleasure in] On the transl. of 
€i)boK€iVf see note on i Thess. ii. 8 
{Transl). 

13. To God alwaij] Alway to God^ 
Adth.: there is here no necessity for 
deserting the order of the original. 
That] So WiCL., Gov. Test., Rhem.: 
hecaus€y AuTH. ; for because thaty Ttnd., 
Gran.; bee. tliat, Gov., Gen., Bish. 
Chose you from the beginning] JIath 
from the beginning chosen you, AuTH. 
All Vv. except WiCL. (cAeca) give hath 
chosen. in(^)] So WiCL., Gov. 
(both), Bish., Rhem. : through, Auth., 
Tynd., Gran., Gen. Faith in 
tlie truth] Feith of treuthCy WiCL., 
Gen. {the /.), Bish. {the tr.), Rhem. 
{the tr.) : belief of the truth, Adth. 

14. Our Lord] The Lord, Adth. 

15. Accordingly then] Therefore, 
Adth. and the other V v. except WiOL., 
aiui so. Traditions] So Adth., 
WiCL. [tr. {or techijngis)], Rhem. The 
other Vv. vary; ordinaunces, Tynd., 
Gov. (both), Cban., Bish. ; instructiam, 



Gen.: see note on ch. iii. 6 {Transl.), 
Were taught] Hare been taught, Adth.: 
no Version preserves the correct force 
of the Aorist. By our] So 

WicL., Gov. Test., Gen., Bish., 
Rhem.: our, Adth.; by, Tynd., Gov., 
Cran., all expressing ^fiCbv with \6yov, 

16. But may] Now, Adth. 

God our Father] God *even our Father, 
Adth.: see especially notes in loc; 
and on the transl. of 6 9e6s Kal irar^p 
ilfiQv, notes on Gal. i. 4 {Tisinsl.).. 
Loved] So WiCL. : hath loved, Adth. 
and remaining Vv. Gave] So 

WiCL. : hath given, Adth. and remain- 
ing Vv. [Gov. (both) however omit 
the second hath, see previous note], 
Eteimal] So Rhevt. : everlasting, Adth. 
and remaining Vv. ; see notes on ch. 
i. 9 {Transl.). Comfort] Conso' 

lation, Adth. The change is only 
made to preserve the same rendering 
for TapdK\rfaiif...TapaKa\4<Tai, and in- 
deed is given by Adth. in 2 Gor. i. 
3, 4. In grace] So WicL., Gov. 

Test., Bish., Rhem.: through gr., 
Adth. and the four remaining Vv. 

17. Stablish you] Adth. retains 
you in ordinary type, but contrary to 
the best authorities ; see notes. 
Work and vjord] *Word and work, 
Adth. 



164 



2 THESSALONIANS. 



III. Finally pray ye for us, brethren, that the word of the 
Lord may have free course and be glorified, even as it is 

2 also with you: and that we may be delivered from perverse 

3 and wicked men ; for it is not all iJiat have Faith. But 
faithful is the Lord, who shall stablish you and keep you 

4 from the Wicked One. Yea we have confidence in the 
Lord touching you, that ye both do and will do the things 

5 which we command. But may the Lord direct your 
hearts into the love of God and into the patience of 
Christ. 

6 Now we command you, brethren, in the name of the 
Lord Jesus Christ, that ye withdraw yourselves from every 
brother walking disorderly, and not after the tradition 



Chapter III. i. Pray ye for us, 
brethren] Brethren, pray for us, Auth. 
Perhaps this changed order better re- 
presents the prominent position of 
irpoff€^€(T$e, Free course] In the 

earliest copies of Auth. 'free' is marked 
as an insertion, but it may fairly be 
considered as involved in Tp4xv* 
Even as it is also] Even as it is, Auth. 
The change gives a jnster equivalent 
to KadCn Kol. See however notes on 
I Thess, i. 5 (TransL). 

2. Perverse] Vncouenable (or noyons), 
WiCL. ; importune, Gov. Test.; im- 
poHunate, Rhem.;— representing Vulg. 
importtmis; disordered, BiSH.; unrea- 
sonable, Auth. and 4 remaining Vv. 

It is not all, kc] All men have not 
faith, Auth. and the other Vv. except 
WiOL., feith is not of alle m,en; and 
CJov., faith is not euery mas, 

3. Faithful is the Lord] The 
Lord is faithful, Auth. and the other 
Vv. {(mr L., Rhem.) except Wicl. 
{jhjt I. is trewe). Independently of the 
change of order agreeing better with 
that of the original, the paronomasia 
caused by the juxtaposition of irlans 
and ti0t6s is more distinctly pre- 
served. The Wicked One] Evil, 
Auth. and all Vv. ; see notes in loc. 



It is of no moment whether voprjpoO 
be translated * evil ' or * wicked * but 
the rendering should be kept that id 
given in ver. 2. 

4. Yea] And, Auth., Gen., Bish., 
Rhem. ; sothely, Wicl. ; the rest, 
Ttnd., Coy. (both), Cran., omit 5^ in 
translation. Comm>and] Com- 
mand *you, Auth. 

5. But may] Forsothe, Wicl. ; 
and, Auth. and the other Vv. except 
Gov., which omits di in translation. 
Patience of Christ] So Auth. Marg., 
Wicl., Ttnd., Gov. (both), Rhem.: 
patient waiting for Christ, Auth., 
Gran., Bish.; weaUng for of Christ, 
Gen. 

6. The Lord] *Our Lord, Auth. 
Walking] So Rhem. ; sim. Wicl. 
(wandrynge): Auth. (that walketh) 
and remaining Vv. insert the relative. 
Though the meaning is practically the 
same, it still seems desirable in trans- 
lation, when consistent with our idiom, 
to mark the anarthrous participle. 
Tradition] So Auth., Wicl., Rhem. : 
institucion, Tynd., Gov., Gran., Bish.; 
ordinaun4x, Gov. Test.; instruction, 
Gen. If any change be thought ne- 
cessary, the last of these translations 
is perhaps to be preferred. 



Chap. III. i — 13. 



165 



which they received of us. For yourselves know how ye 7 
ought to follow us; in that we behaved not disorderly 
among you, neither ate we bread from any man for 8 
naught, but with toil and travail, working night and day 
that we might not be burdensome to any of you: not that 9 
we have not power, but to make ourselves an ensample 
to you that ye should follow us. For also when we were 10 
with you, this we commanded you, that if any will not 
work, neither let him eat. For we hear that there are n 
some walking among you disorderly, working at no busi- 
ness, but being busy-bodies. Now them that are such we 12 
command and exhort in the Lord Jesus Christ that with 
quietness they work, and eat their own bread. But ye, 13 



They received] *JIe received, Auth. 

7. In that] For, Auth. and all Vv.; 
■ee notes in loc. Behaved not] 
Behaved not ounelvea, Auth., Tynd., 
Gov., Cban., Gbn., Bish. 

8. Ate we bread from any man] Did 
we eat any mans bread, Auth. It 
Reems desirable here, with all Vv. ex- 
cept WiOL., to invert the order of the 
Greek, that dupediv which occupies the 
emphatic place in Greek may occupy 
the same place in the English, — that 
place being not uooommonly in our 
language the last. Bat with toil 
...workiwj] But wrought with labour , 
Auth.: the present transl. preserves 
the true connection, and avoids the 
incorrect rendering of ifrya^dfievoi by 
the finite verb. That we... any] 
Similarly, lest rve should burden any, 
Rhbm. : tJiat we miyht not be charge" 
able to any, Auth.; lest we shulde be 
c. to eny. Gov. (both) ; because we 
wolde not be c. to eny. Gran., Gen., 
Bish.; that we greueden none, WiOL. ; 
ftecause we wolde not be grevous to eny, 

TiND. 

9. Not that] Not because, Auth.; 
not as, WiCL. ; not as though^ Gov. 
Test., Rhem. That ye should] 



For to, WiCL., Bheh.; to, Auth. and 
remaining Vv. 

10. For also] So Gov. Test, Rhem.: 
ybr even, Auth., Gen.; and. Gov.; for, 
Ttnd., Gran., Bish., omitting Kaliu. 
translation. Will not] So WiOL. 
(wole not), Rhem. : would not, Auth. 
and remaining Vv. Neither 
let him] So Rhem. ; and sim. (nether ete 
he) WiCL.: neither should he eai, Auth.; 
that the same shuld not eate, Ttnd., 
and Gov. (both), Cran., Bish.,— these 
four omitting that; that he shulde not 
eat, Gen. 

11. Walking] Which walk, Auth. 
No Version gives a participial ren- 
dering: see notes on ver. 6. 
Working at no business] Working not 
at ail, Auth. This is perhaps the 
only way in which the paronomasia 
ipya^ofJL4vovi...T€pief)ya^o/jL4vovs can be 
maintained. The word ' business * is 
supplied by Auth. in i Thess. iv. 1 1. 
Being busybodies] So Gran. : are busy- 
bodies, Auth., Ttnd., Gov. (both), 
Gen., Bish. {be 6.); doinge curiously, 
WiOL.; curiously meddling, Rhem. 

12. Jn the Lord] *By our Lord, 
Auth. 



166 



THESSALONIANS. 



14 brethren, lose not heart in well doing. But if any man 
obey not our word by the epistle, mark this man, and 
keep no company with him, that he may be shamed. 

15 And count him not as an enemy, but admonish him as 

16 a brother. But may the Lord of peace Himself give 
you peace continually, in every way. The Lord he with 
you all. 

17 The salutation by the hand of me Paul, which is a 



13. Lose not heart"] Be not* weary, 

AUTH. 

14. But if] So Gov.: and if, 
AuTH., Ehbm. If ' but ' be objected 
to in consequence of the ' but ' in ver. 
13, it would then seem better with 
Ttnd., Gov. Test., Cban., Gen., Bish., 
to omit 5^ in translation. 

Obey not] So Auth. and the other Vv. 
except WiCL., ickal not oheye; and 
Gov. Test., doth not obey. At first 
sight the latter translation might seem 
preferable, but considered strictly, it 
would seem to imply that such would 
probably be the case (see Latham, Eng. 
Lang. § 537, ed. 4), whereas the Greek 
cl with the indie. * per se nihil signifi- 
cat praeter conditionem' (EUotz, Deva/r, 
Vol. II. p. 455). It may thus be best 
as a general rule, only to adopt the 
indicative in English where either (a) 
the context or circumstances of the 
case corroborate the likelihood of the 
assumed case, or (6) where the speaker 
appears to regard it as a matter of 
fact. The possibility of inserting after 
* if ' the words * as is matter of fact,' 
or ^as seems to be matter of fact,* 
will commonly facilitate decision. 
The epistle] This Epistle^ Auth. All 
the other Vv. except WiCL. {oure 
worde hi ep^Ue) join Zih, t^s iinffToK^t 
with ffTjfA€Lov<T$€f and translate riji by 
the English indefinite article. This 
perhaps, with i Thess. v. 27, might be 
considered as one of the few cases in 



which idiom and euphony may justify 
us in retaining the pronominal trans- 
lation: as however tovtov occurs di- 
rectly after, it would involve the 
necessity of translating it tTiat man, 
as Auth., or hym, as WicL. and all 
other Vv. Scholefield {Hints, p. 118, 
ed. 4) proposes 'our epistle,' but this 
is scarcely suitable after the preceding 
* our word* where the *our ' is a trans- 
lation of i)iJLC!)v, as it would seem to 
imply that it was repeated with Std 
Tfjs iiri<rro\rji, MarJc] So WiCL.: 

note, Auth., Gen., Rhem.; sende vs 
worde of, Tynd., Gov., Gran. ; shewe vs 
of, Gov. Test ; signijie, Bish. 
This man] That man, Auth.: hym, 
WiCL. and remaining Vv. 
Keep no company] So Auth. in i Gor. 
V. II : comyne yee not, WiCL. ; do not 
companie, Rhem.; Jiaue noihinge to do, 
Gov. (both) ; Tiave no company, Auth. 
and four remaining Vv. 
Shamed] Ashamed, Auth. : the slight 
change brings to notice the passive 
sense. 

15. And] So WicL., Ttnd., Gov. 
Test., Gran., Bhem.: yet, Auth., Gov., 
Gen., Bish. 

J 6. Btit may] Now, Auth., Gen., 
Bish.; forsothe, WicL.; and, Rhem.; 
Ttnd., Gov. (both), Gban., omit dk 
in translation. Peace continvxdly, 

in every way] Euerlastynge pees in aZ 
place, WiOL., and Gov. Test., Rhem., 
giving ewry place; always, by all 



Chap. III. 14—18. 167 

sign in every epistle: so I write. The grace of our Lord 18 
Jesus Christ be with you alL [Amen.] 

meanSf Auth. and Temaioing Yv, with myne avme hondty Ttnt)., Gov. 

17. By the hand of 7ne Paul] So (both), Cran., Gen., Bihh. A sign] 

Auth. in Col. iv. i8: of Paul, toith So WiOL. (om. a), Rhem.: the token, 

mine own hand, Auth. ; of me Paul Auth. and remaining Vv. 



THE END. 



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